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First Edition, 1903. 
Second Edition, 1904. 
faprinted 1907, 1909 








K<\1 N 

Ovdev V0-TIV apcivov flprjvrjs, ev fi Tras TroXe/xoff /carapyeirai 

eVovpavtcov *at eVtvetwv. 


^ eCTIN H 


AN English commentator on the Epistle to the Ephesians 
-^- finds a portion of the detail of his work already done 
by the master-hand of Bishop Lightfoot in his edition of the 
companion Epistle to the Colossians. For the discussion of 
particular words I have accordingly referred again and again 
to Lightfoot s notes. Where I have felt obliged to differ from 
some of his interpretations, it has seemed due to him that 
I should state the ground of the difference with considerable 
fulness, as for example in more than one of the detached notes : 
for we may not lightly set aside a judgment which he has 

Lightfoot had himself made preparations for an edition of 
Ephesians ; but only an introductory Essay and notes on the 
first fourteen verses have seen the light (Biblical Essays, 
pp. 375396 ; Notes on Epistles of St Paul, pp. 307324). 
A more solid contribution to the study of the epistle is to be 
found in Hort s Introductory Lectures (Prolegomena to Romans 
and Ephesians, pp. 63 184). I have nothing to add to the 
discussion of the authorship of this epistle which these lectures 

My object has been to expound the epistle, which is the 
crown of St Paul s writings. I have separated the exposition 
from the philological commentary, in order to give myself 
greater freedom in my attempt to draw out St Paul s meaning : 
and I have prefixed to each section of the exposition a trans 
lation of the Greek text. In this translation I have only 

viii PREFACE. 

departed from the Authorised Version where that version 
appeared to me to fail to bring out correctly and intelligibly 
the meaning of the original. The justification of the renderings 
which I retain, as well as of those which I modify or reject, 
must be sought in the notes to the Greek text. 

In order to retain some measure of independence I have 
refrained from consulting the English expositors of the epistle, 
but I have constantly availed myself of Dr T. K. Abbott s work 
in the International Critical Commentary, since it is as he 
says primarily philological 

I offer the fruit of a study which has extended over the 
past ten years as a small contribution to the interpretation of 
St Paul The truth of the corporate life which was revealed 
to him was never more needed than it is to-day. Our failure 
to understand his life and message has been largely due to our 
acquiescence in disunion. As we rouse ourselves to enquire 
after the meaning of unity, we may hope that he will speak 
to us afresh. 

Several friends have helped me in seeing this book through 
the press: I wish to thank in particular the Reverend 
J. 0. F. Murray and the Reverend R. B. Rackham. 

Feast of the Transfiguration, 1903. 







On the meanings of x<*P l * ana x a P lT0 ^ v 221 

The Beloved* as a Messianic title 229 

On the meaning of p.v<rrr)piov in the New Testament 234 

On evepyeiv and its cognates 241 

On tJie meaning of eTri-yvcoans 248 

On the meaning of irKr) papa 255 

On the word o-wappoXoyelv 260 

On Trwpoxris and Trijpaxris 264 

On some current epistolary phrases 275 

Note on various readings 285 





T PAUL was in Rome : not, as he had once hoped, on a St Paul in 

Home : 
friendly visit of encouragement to the Roman Christians, 

resting with them for a few weeks before he passed on to 
preach to new cities of the further West; not in the midst 
of his missionary career, but at its close. His active work was 
practically done : a brief interval of release might permit him 
to turn eastwards once again ; but to all intents and purposes 
his career was ended. He was a prisoner in Rome. 

To know what had brought him there, and to comprehend *^. e 
his special mission, of which this was in truth no unfitting his mis- 
climax, we must pass in brief review the beginnings of the 
Christian story. 

I. Our Lord s earthly life began and ended among a people i. Our 
the most exclusive and the most hated of all the races under ministry 
the universal Roman rule. But it was a people who had an un- 6 
paralleled past to look back upon, and who through centuries of 
oppression had cherished an undying hope of sovereignty over 
all other races in the world. Our Lord s life was essentially a 
Jewish life in its outward conditions. In every vital point He 
conformed to the traditions of Judaism. Scarcely ever did 
He set foot outside the narrow limits of the Holy Land, the 
area of which was not much larger than that of the county of 
Yorkshire or the principality of Wales. With hardly an excep 
tion He confined His teaching and His miracles to Jews. He 
was not sent, He said, but unto the lost sheep of the house of 

EPHES. 2 i 


Israel. It is true that He gave hints of a larger mission, of 
founding a universal kingdom, of becoming in His own person 
the centre of the human race. But the exclusive character of 
His personal ministry stood in sharp contrast to those wider 
hopes and prophecies. He incessantly claimed for His teaching 
that it was the filling out and perfecting of the sacred lessons 
of the lawgivers and prophets of the past. He seemed content 
to identify Himself with Hebrew interests and Hebrew aspira 
tions. So it was from first to last. He was born into a Jewish 
family, of royal lineage, though in humble circumstances ; and 
it was as a Jewish pretender that the Romans nailed Him to 
a cross. 

2. The 2. The little brotherhood which was formed in Jerusalem 

Church to carry on His work after His Ascension was as strictly limited 

witlTthe i* 1 ^ ne s P nere of its efforts as He Himself had been. It was 

same limi- composed entirely of Jews, who in no way cut themselves off 

from the national unity, and who were zealous worshippers in 

the national temple. It was a kind of Reformation movement 

j within the Jewish Church. It sought for converts only among 

Jews, and it probably retained its members for the most part 

at the national centre in the expectation of the speedy return 

of Jesus as the recognized national Messiah, who should break 

the Roman power and rule a conquered world from the throne 

of David in Jerusalem. 

A popular We cannot say how long this lasted: perhaps about five 
merit, years. But we know that during this period a long one in 
the childhood of a new society the Apostles and the other 
brethren enjoyed the esteem and good will of all except the 
governing class in Jerusalem, and that their numbers grew 
with astonishing rapidity. The movement was characteristi 
cally a popular one. While the Sadducaic high-priestly party 
dreaded it, and opposed it when they dared, the leader of the 
Pharisees openly befriended it, and l a great multitude of the 
priests (who must be distinguished from their aristocratic 
rulers) became obedient to the faith (Acts vi. 7). This 
statement indicates the high- water mark of the movement in 


its earliest stage. It shews too that there was as yet no breach loyal to 
at all with Judaism, and that the specifically Christian gather 
ings for exhortation, prayers and eucharists were not regarded 
as displacing or discrediting the divinely sanctioned sacrificial 
worship of the temple. 

3. But the Apostles had received a wider commission, 3. A crisis 
although hitherto they had strictly adhered to the order of the on 
Lord s command by beginning at Jerusalem. A crisis came 
at last. A storm suddenly broke upon their prosperous calm : 
a storm which seemed in a moment to wreck the whole structure 
which they had been building, and to dash their fair hope of 
the national conversion in irretrievable ruin. 

The Jews of Alexandria had been widened by contact with by St 
Greek philosophy and culture. They had striven to present wider 6U 
their faith in a dress which would make it less deterrent to teachmg 
the Gentile mind. If we cannot say for certain that St Stephen 
was an Alexandrian, we know at any rate that he was a repre 
sentative of the Hellenistic element in the Church at Jerusalem. 
A large study of the Old Testament scriptures had prepared 
him to see in the teaching of Christ a wider purpose than others 
saw. He felt that the Christian Church could not always 
remain shut up within the walls of Jerusalem, or even limited 
to Jewish believers. What he said to suggest innovation and 
to arouse opposition we do not know. We only know that the What he 
points on which he was condemned were false charges, not to have 
unlike some which had been brought against the Lord Himself. said 
He was accused of disloyalty to Moses and the temple the 
sacred law and the divine sanctuary. His defence was drawn 
from the very writings which he was charged with discrediting. The politi- 
But it was not heard to the end. He was pleading a cause imitate 
already condemned; and the two great political parties were 
at one in stamping out the heresy of the universality of 
the Gospel. For it is important to note the change in the 
Pharisaic party. Convinced that after all the new movement 
was fatal to their narrow traditionalism, they and the common 
people, whose accepted leaders they had always been, swung 

i 2 


tion scat 
ters the 

which is 
thus in 
volved in 
the conse 
quences of 
the wider 
asked to 

4. ^e 
nings of 
to the 


but Saul, 
is to be 
the suc 
cessor of 

round into deadly opposition. The witnesses, who by the law 
must needs cast the first stones at the condemned, threw off their 
upper garments at the feet of a young disciple of Gamaliel. 

The murder of St Stephen was followed by a general perse 
cution, and in a few days the Apostles were the only Christians 
left in Jerusalem. We may fairly doubt whether the Church 
as a whole would have been prepared to sanction St Stephen s 
line of teaching. Had they been called to pronounce upon it, 
they might perhaps have censured it as rash and premature, if 
not indeed essentially unsound. But they were never asked 
the question. They were at once involved in the consequences 
of what he had taught, with no opportunity of disclaiming it. 
Providence had pushed them forward a step, and there was 
no possibility of a return. 

4. The scattered believers carried their message with them ; 
and they soon found themselves proclaiming it to a widening 
circle of hearers. St Philip preaches to the unorthodox and 
half-heathen Samaritans; later he baptises an Ethiopian, no 
Jew, though a God-fearing man. St Peter himself formally 
declares to a Roman centurion at Caesarea that now at length 
he is learning the meaning of the old saying of his Jewish Bible, 
that God is no respecter of persons . At Antioch a Church 
springs up, which consists largely of Gentile converts. 

But we must go back to Jerusalem to get a sight of the 
man on whom St Stephen s prophetic mantle has fallen. He 
was with him when he was taken up, and a double portion 
of his spirit is to rest upon him. The fiery enthusiasm of the 
persecuting Saul, the most conspicuous disciple of the greatest 
Pharisee of the age, was a terrible proof that Christianity 
had forfeited the esteem and favour of her earliest years in 
Jerusalem. The tide of persecution was stemmed indeed by 
his conversion to the persecuted side: but for some time his 
own life was in constant danger, and he retired into obscurity. 
He came out of his retirement as the Apostle, not of a 
Christianized Judaism, but of St Stephen s wider Gospel for 
the world. 


Alike by birth and training he was peculiarly fitted to be His three- 
the champion of such a cause. A Jew, born in a Greek city, potion 

and possessed of the Roman franchise, he was in his own person f F h . 18 
1 mission. 

the meeting-point of three civilisations. In a unique sense 
he was the heir of all the world s past. The intense devotion 
of the Hebrew, with his convictions of sin and righteousness 
and judgment to come ; the flexible Greek language, ready 
now to interpret the East to the West; the strong Roman 
force of centralisation, which had made wars to cease and had 
bidden the world to be at one : in each of these great world- 
factors he had, and realised that he had, his portion: each of 
them indeed was a factor in the making of his personality 
and his career. With all that the proudest Jew could boast, 
he had the entry into the larger world of Greek culture, and 
withal a Roman s interest in the universal empire. He was 
a man to be claimed by a great purpose, if such a purpose 
there were to claim him. His Judaism could never have 
enabled him to enter on the fulness of his inheritance. Chris 
tianity found him a chosen vessel , and developed his capacity 
to the utmost. 

The freer atmosphere of the semi-Gentile Church in Antioch Antioch 
marked out that great commercial centre as a fitting sphere ing-point. 
for his earliest work. From it he was sent on a mission to 
Cyprus and Asia Minor, in the course of which, whilst always 
starting in the Jewish synagogue, he found himself perpetually 
drawn on to preach his larger Gospel to the Gentiles. Thus Gentile 


along the line of his route new centres of Gentile Christianity founded. 
were founded, Churches in which baptism practically took the 
place of circumcision, and Jews and Gentiles were associated 
on equal terms. At Antioch, on his return, the news of this 
was gladly welcomed : a door of faith had been opened to the 
Gentiles, and they were pressing into the kingdom of God. 

5. We could hardly have expected that the Christians of 5- The 

Jerusalem, now again returned to their home, would view the of the 

matter with the same complacency. The sacred city with its believer, 
memories of the past, the solemn ritual of the temple, the holy 


His dis 
may was 

The ren 

from us 
the Jewish 
Messiah . 

language of the scriptures and the prayers of the synagogue 
all spoke to them of the peculiar privileges and the exceptional 
destiny of the Hebrew people. Was all this to go for nothing ? 
Were outside Gentiles, strangers to the covenant with Moses, 
to rise at a bound to equal heights of privilege with the 
circumcised people of God? 

We are apt to pass too harsh a judgment on the main body 
of the Jewish believers, because we do not readily understand 
the dismay which filled their minds at the proposed inclusion of 
Gentiles in the Christian society, the nucleus of the Messianic 
kingdom, with no stipulation whatever of conformity to Jewish 
institutions. Day by day, as the Jewish believer went to his 
temple-prayers, it was his proud right to pass the barrier 
which separated Jew from Gentile in the house of God. What 
was this intolerable confusion which was breaking down the 
divinely constituted middle-wall of partition between them? 
His dearest hope, which the words of Christ had only seemed 
for a moment to defer, was the restoration of the kingdom 
to Israel. What had become of that, if the new society was to 
include the Gentile on the same footing as the Jew ? Was not 
Christ emphatically and by His very name the Messiah of the 
Jewish nation ? Could any be a good Christian, unless he 
were first a good Jew? 

It is essential to an understanding of St Paul s special 
mission, and of the whole view of Christianity which he was 
led to take during the progress of that mission, that we should 
appreciate this problem as it presented itself to the mind of 
the Jew who had believed in Christ. The very fact that 
throughout the Apostolic writings the Greek translation Xpi<rro9 
takes the place of the Hebrew Messiah disguises from us the 
deep significance which every mention of the name must have 
had for the Palestinian Christian. The Syriac versions of the 
New Testament, in which the old word naturally comes back 
again, help us to recover this special point of view. How 
strangely to take a few passages at random 1 do these words 

1 i Cor. viii n, ix 12, xii 27. 


sound to us : him who is weak, for whom the Messiah died ; 
the Gospel of the Messiah ; ye are the body of the Messiah . 
Yet nothing less than this could St Paul s words have meant 
to every Jew that heard them. 

Again, St Paul s own championship of Gentile liberty is St Paul s 

f _ own sense 
so prominent in his writings, that we are tempted to overlook O f the 

those passages which shew how keenly he himself realised S1 
the pathos of the situation. A Hebrew of purest Hebrew 
blood, a Pharisee as his father was before him, he saw to his 
bitter sorrow, what every Jewish Christian must have seen, that 
his doctrine of Gentile freedom was erecting a fresh barrier 
against the conversion of the Jewish nation: that the very 
universality of the Gospel was issuing in the self-exclusion of 
the Jew. The mental anguish which he suffered is witnessed 
to by the three great chapters of the Epistle to the Romans 
(ix xi), in which he struggles towards a solution of the 
problem. A disobedient and gainsaying people it is, as the 
prophet had foretold. And yet the gifts and the calling of 
God are never revoked ; * God hath not cast off His people, 
whom He foreknew . The future must contain somewhere the 
justification of the present : then, though it cannot be now, 
1 all Israel shall be saved . It is the largeness of his hope The 
that steadies him. His work is not for the souls of men so 
much as for the Purpose of God in Christ. The individual 
counts but little in comparison. The wider issues are always him - 
before him. Not Jews and Gentiles merely, but Jew and 
Gentile, are the objects of his solicitude. Not the rescue of 
some out of the ruin of all is the hope with which the Gospel 
has inspired him, but the summing up of all persons and all 
things in Christ. 

6. The feeling, then, which rose in the minds of the Chris- 6. The 
tian portion of the Jewish people on hearing of the proposed an a its 
indiscriminate admission of Gentiles into the Church of Christ lssue * 
might have found its expression in the cry, The Jewish Messiah The 
for the Jews ! Gentiles might indeed be allowed a place in 
the kingdom of God. The old prophets had foretold as much 


as this. Nor was it contrary to the established practice of 
later Judaism, after it had been forced into contact with the 
Greek world. The Gentile who submitted to circumcision and 
other recognised conditions might share the privileges of the 
chosen people. But admission on any lower terms amounted 
to a revolution; the very proposition was a revolt against 
divinely sanctioned institutions. 

not taken We are not to suppose that the Apostles themselves, or 

Apostles. even tne majority of the Jewish believers, took so extreme 

a view : the conference at Jerusalem is a proof that they did 

not. But even they may well have been perplexed at the 

swiftness with which a change was coming over the whole face 

of the movement in consequence of St Paul s missionary action: 

and they must have perceived that this change would be 

deeply obnoxious in particular to those earnest Pharisees whom 

they had led to believe in Jesus as the nation s Messiah. 

The con- Some of the more ardent of these found their way to 

Antioch. Antioch, where they proclaimed to the Gentile believers : 

Except ye be circumcised after the custom of Moses, ye cannot 

be saved . Happily St Paul was there to champion the Gentile 

cause. We need but sketch the main features of the struggle 

that ensued. 

The con- A conference with the Apostles and Elders in Jerusalem 

Jerusa- was ^ ne nrs ^ s ^ep. Here after much discussion St Peter rises 

lem - and recalls the occasion on which he himself had been divinely 

guided to action like St Paul s. Then comes the narrative of 

facts from the missionaries themselves. Finally St James 

formulates the decision which is reached, to lay on them 

no other burden than certain simple precepts, which must of 

necessity be observed if there were to be any fellowship at all 

between Jewish and Gentile believers. 

The So the first battle was fought and won. The Divine 

averted attestation given to St Paul s work among the Gentiles was a 
moment P ro ^ tna ^ ^ 0( ^ ^ ac ^ opened to them also the door of faith, 
only. They were pressing in : who could withstand God by trying to 
shut the door? But when the novelty of the wonder wore 


away, the old questionings revived, and it seemed as though 
the Church must be split into two divisions Jewish and 
Gentile Christians. 

To St Paul s view such a partition was fatal to the very Two con- 
mission of Christianity, which was to be the healer of the epistles. 
world s divisions. The best years of his life were accordingly 
devoted to reconciliation. Two great epistles witness to this 
endeavour : the Epistle to the Galatians, in which he mightily 
defends Gentile liberty ; and the Epistle to the Romans, in 
which, writing to the central city of the world, the seat of its 
empire and the symbol of its outward unity, he holds an even 
balance between Jew and Gentile, and claims them both as 
necessary to the Purpose of God. 

One practical method of reconciliation was much in his Gentile 
thoughts. Poverty had oppressed the believers in Judaea. Here 

was a rare chance for Gentile liberality to shew that St Paul 


was right in saying that Jew and Gentile were one man in 
Christ. Hence the stress which he laid on the collection of 
alms, the ministry unto the saints (2 Cor. ix i). The alms 
collected, he himself must journey to Jerusalem to present 
them in person. He knows that he does so at the risk of his 
life : but if he dies, he dies in the cause for which he has lived. 
His one anxiety is lest by any means his mission to Jerusalem 
should fail of its end; and he bids the Roman Christians 
wrestle in prayer, not only that his life may be spared, but also 
that the ministry which he has for Jerusalem , or, to use an 
earlier phrase, the offering of the Gentiles , may be acceptable 
to the saints (Rom. xv 1 6, 31). 

His journey was successful from this point of view; but it St Paul s 
led to an attack upon him by the unbelieving Jews, and a long imprison- 
imprisonment in Caesarea followed. Yet even this, disastrous ment 
as it seemed, furthered the cause of peace and unity within 
the Christian Church. St Paul was removed from the scene of 
conflict. Bitter feelings against his person naturally subsided 
when he was in prison for his Master s sake. His teachings 
and his letters gained in importance and authority. Before he 


was taken to his trial at Rome the controversy was practically 

dead. Gentile liberty had cost him his freedom, but it was an 

accomplished fact. He was the prisoner of Jesus Christ on 

close the behalf of the Gentiles : but his cause had triumphed, and the 


versy. equal position of privilege of the Gentile converts was never 

again to be seriously challenged. 

7. The 7. Thus St Paul had been strangely brought to the place 

of the where he had so often longed to find himself. At last he was 
"- 1 R me: a prisoner indeed, but free to teach and free to write. 

Ephe- Ajid f rom hi s seclusion came three epistles to the Philippians, 

to the Colossians, and to the Ephesians . 

A non- The circumcision question was dead. Other questions were 

sialexpo- being raised; and to these the Epistle to the Colossians in 

8 ositive f particular is controversially addressed. This done, his mind is 

truth: f ree f or one supreme exposition, non-controversial, positive, 

fundamental, of the great doctrine of his life that doctrine 

into which he had been advancing year by year under the 

discipline of his unique circumstances the doctrine of the 

unity of mankind in Christ and of the purpose of God for the 

world through the Church. 

the issue The foregoing sketch has enabled us in some measure to 

to^ and see h w St Paul was specially trained by the providence that 

mediate 1 " ru ^ e( ^ n ^ ^^ e * ^ e ^ ne exponent of a teaching which transcends 

circum- a n other declarations of the purpose of God for man. The best 

years of his Apostolic labour had been expended in the effort to 

preserve in unity the two conflicting elements of the Christian 

Church. And now, when signal success has crowned his 

labours, we find him in confinement at the great centre of the 

world s activity writing to expound to the Gentile Christians of 

Asia Minor what is his final conception of the meaning and 

aim of the Christian revelation. He is a prisoner indeed, but 

not in a dungeon : he is in his own hired lodging. He is not 

crushed by bodily suffering. He can think and teach and 

write. Only he cannot go away. At Rome he is on a kind of 

watch-tower, like a lonely sentinel with a wide field of view 


but forced to abide at his post. His mind is free, and ranges 
over the world past, present and future. With a large liberty 
of thought he commences his great argument before the 
foundation of the world , and carries it on to the fulness of the 
times , embracing in its compass all things in heaven and on 
the earth . 

8. If the writer s history arid circumstances help us to 8- The 

\ . readers 

understand the meaning of his epistle, so too will a considera- O f the 

tion of the readers for whom it was intended. But here we ei 
meet with a difficulty at the very outset. The words in Omission 
Ephesus (i l) are absent from some of our oldest and best wor a s <i n 
MSS., and several of the Greek Fathers make it clear that they Ephesus . 
did not find them in all copies. Indeed it is almost certain 
that they do not come from St Paul himself 1 . 

There are good reasons for believing that the epistle was A circular 

. , c letter. 

intended as a circular letter, an encyclical, to go the round ot 

many Churches in Asia Minor. We have parallels to this in 
I St Peter and the Apocalypse, in both of which however the 
Churches in question are mentioned by their names. 

The capital of the Roman province of Asia was Ephesus. Naturally 
To Ephesus such a letter would naturally go first of all : and |rst to 
when in later times a title was sought for it, to correspond E Pk esus - 
with the titles of other epistles, no name would offer itself so 
readily and so reasonably as the name of Ephesus. Accordingly Hence its 
the title TO THE EPHESIANS was prefixed to it. And if, as 
seems not improbable, the opening sentence contained a space 
into which the name of each Church in turn might be read 
to the saints which are * * * and the faithful in Christ 
Jesus it was certain that in many copies the words in 
Ephesus would come to be filled in. 

The internal evidence of the epistle itself is in harmony The 
with the view that it was not specially intended for the Ephe- i n large 
sian Church. For in more than one place the Apostle appears tnowTto 
to be writing to Christians whom he has never seen, of whose st Paul - 
faith he knew only by report, and who in turn knew of his 
1 See the detached note on iv 



Yet this 
has no 
tions of 

pears, if 

teachings only through the medium of his disciples (i 15, iii 2, 
iv 21). 

Moreover the encyclical nature of the epistle removes what 
would otherwise be a most serious objection to its authenticity. 
If we read the notices of St Paul s relations with Ephesus, as 
they are given by St Luke in the Acts, we observe that for a 
long while he appears to have been specially checked in his 
efforts to reach and to settle in that important centre. At one 
time he was forbidden by the Holy Ghost to preach the word 
in Asia (xvi 6). Other work must take precedence. Not 
only were the Galatian Churches founded first, but also the 
European Churches Philippi, Thessalonica, Corinth. Then 
on his way back from Corinth he touches at the city of his 
desire, but only to hurry away, though with a promise to 
return, if God so will (xviii 21). At last he comes to remain, 
and he makes it a centre, so that all they which dwelt in 
Asia heard the word of the Lord (xix 10). As he tells the 
Ephesian elders at Miletus, when he believes that he is saying 
his last words to them, For three years night and day I ceased 
not to warn every one of you with tears (xx 31). 

To judge by the other letters of St Paul, we should expect 
to find a letter to the Ephesians unusually full of personal 
details, reminiscences of his long labours, warnings as to special 
dangers, kindly greetings to individuals by name. We are 
struck by the very opposite of all this. No epistle is so general, 
so little addressed to the peculiar needs of one Church more 
than another. As for personal references and greetings, there 
are none. Even Timothy s name is not joined with St Paul s 
at the outset, as it is in the Epistle to the Colossians, written 
at the same time and carried by the same messenger : not one 
proper name is found in the rest of the epistle, except that of 
Tychicus its bearer. Peace to the brethren , is its close; 
grace be with all that love our Lord . 

The apparent inconsistency disappears the moment we strike 
out the words in Ephesus . No one Church is addressed : the 
letter will go the round of the Churches with the broad lessons 


which all alike need : Tychicus will read in the name from this is a 
place to place, will explain St Paul s own circumstances, and letter. 
will convey by word of mouth his messages to individuals. 

Thus the local and occasional element is eliminated : and The elimi- 
in this we seem to have a further explanation of that wider theTocal 

view of the Church and the world, which we have in part element 

results in 

accounted for already by the consideration of the stage in a wider 
the Apostle s career to which this epistle belongs, and by 
the special significance of his central position in Rome. 

The following is an analysis of the epistle: Analysis. 

i i, 2. Opening salutation. 

i 3 14. A Doxology, expanded into 

(a) a description of the Mystery of God s will : elec 

tion (4), adoption (5), redemption (7), wisdom (8), 
consummation (10); 

(b) a statement that Jew and Gentile alike are the 

portion of God (n 14). 

i 15 ii 10. A Prayer for Wisdom, expanded into a descrip 
tion of God s power, as shewn 

(a) in raising and exalting Christ (19 23), 

(b) in raising and exalting us in Christ, whether 

Gentiles or Jews (ii i 10). 

ii 10 22. The Gentile was an alien (ii, 12); but is now 
one man with the Jew (13 18); a fellow-citizen (19), 
and part of God s house (20 22). 

iii i 13. Return to the Prayer for Wisdom but first 
(a) a fresh description of the Mystery (2 6), 

(6) and of St Paul s relation to its proclamation (7 13). 

iii 14 21. The Prayer in full (14 19), with a Doxology 

(20, 2l). 

iv i 1 6. God s calling involves a unity of life (i 6), 

to which diversity of gifts is intended to lead (7 14) 

the unity in diversity of the Body (15, 16). 

iv 17 24. The old life contrasted with the new. 

iv 25 v 5. Precepts of the new life. 

v6 21. The old darkness and folly: the new light and 


v 22 vi 9. Duties interpreted by relation to Christ : 
wives and husbands (22 33); 
children and parents (vi i 4); 
slaves and masters (5 9). 

vi 10 20. The spiritual warrior clad in God s armour. 

vi 21 24. Closing words. 

The The topic of the Epistle to the Ephesians is of pre-eminent 

Everest interest in the present day. At no former period has there 

I? istle been so widespread a recognition in all departments of human 

to the life of the need of combination and cooperation : and never, 

sians. perhaps, has more anxious thought been expended on the 

problem of the ultimate destiny of mankind. Whilst it is 

true that everywhere and always questions have been asked 

about the future, yet it is not too much to say that we, who 

have begun to feel after the truth of a corporate life as higher 

than an individual life, are more eager than any past generation 

has been to learn, and perhaps are more capable of learning, 

what is the goal for which Man as a whole is making, or, in 

other words, what is God s Purpose for the Human Race. 

The Among the perpetual marvels of the Apostolic writings is 

message 1 the ^ ac ^ that they contain answers to enquiries which have 

is for all } on ~ wa ited to be made : that, while the form of the written 


record remains the same for all ages, its interpretation 
grows in clearness as each age asks its own questions in 
its own way. 


OF THfi 






One God, one law, one element, 
And one far-off divine event, 
To which the whole creation moves. 


TJAUL, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, to the i 
-*- saints which are [at Ephesus] and the faithful in Christ 
Jesus : 2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

The two points which distinguish this salutation have been 
noticed already in the Introduction. No other name is joined with 
St Paul s, although the salutation of the Epistle to the Colossians, 
written at the same time, links with him Timothy the brother . 
No one Church is addressed, but a blank is left, that each Church 
in turn may find its own name inserted by the Apostle s messenger. 
Paul the Apostle, and no other with him, addresses himself not to 
the requirements of a single community of Christians, but to a 
universal need the need of a larger knowledge of the purposes 
of God. 

3 BLESSED be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, i 
who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessing in the heavenly 
places in Christ : 4 according as He hath chosen us in Him before 
the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and 
blameless before Him in love ; 5 having foreordained us to the 
adoption of sons through Jesus Christ unto Himself, according 
to the good pleasure of His will, 6 to the praise of the glory 
of His grace, which He hath freely bestowed on us in the 
Beloved; 7 in whom we have redemption through His blood, the 
forgiveness of trespasses, according to the riches of His grace, 
8 which He hath made to abound toward us in all wisdom and 
prudence, 9 having made known unto us the mystery of His will, 
according to His good pleasure which He hath purposed in 
Him, 10 for dispensation in the fulness of the times, to gather 

EPHES. 8 2 


up in one all things in Christ, both which are in the heavens 
and which are on earth ; in Him, " in whom also we have been 
chosen as God s portion, having been foreordained according to 
the purpose of Him who worketh all things according to the 
counsel of His will, "that we should be to the praise of His 
glory, who have been the first to hope in Christ ; 13 in whom ye 
also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your 
salvation, in whom also having believed, ye have been sealed 
with the holy Spirit of promise, 14 which is the earnest of our 
inheritance, unto the redemption of God s own possession, to 
the praise of His glory. 

From the outset the elimination of the personal element seems 
to affect the composition. Compare the introductory words of some 
of the epistles : 

1 Thess. We thank God always concerning you all... 

2 Thess. We are bound to thank God always for you... 
Gal. I marvel that ye are so soon changing... 

Col. We thank God always concerning you... 

Here, however, no personal consideration enters. His great 

i3 theme possesses him at once: Blessed be God... who hath blessed 

us\ The customary note of thanksgiving and prayer is indeed 

sounded (vv. 15 f.), but not until the great doxology has run its full 


There is one parallel to this opening. The Second Epistle to 
the Corinthians was written in a moment of relief from intense 
strain. The Apostle had been anxiously waiting to learn the effect 
2 Cor. vii of his former letter. At length good news reaches him: God , 
as he says later on, which comforteth them that are low, com 
forted us by the coming of Titus . In the full joy of his heart he 
begins his epistle with a burst of thanksgiving to the Divine 
-2 Cor. i 3, Consoler : Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort, who com 
forteth us in all our trouble, that we may be able to comfort them 
that are in any trouble, by means of the comfort with which 
we ourselves are comforted of God . 

The blessing there ascribed to God is for a particular mercy: 
Blessed be God... who comforteth us . But here no special boon is 
in his mind. The supreme mercy of God to man fills his thoughts : 
1 Blessed be God... who hath blessed us\ 


The twelve verses which follow baffle our analysis. They are a w. 3 14 
kaleidoscope of dazzling lights and shifting colours : at first we fail 
to find a trace of order or method. They are like the preliminary 
flight of the eagle, rising and wheeling round, as though for a 
while uncertain what direction in his boundless freedom he shall 
take. So the Apostle s thought lifts itself beyond the limits of 
time and above the material conceptions that confine ordinary men, 
and ranges this way and that in a region of spirit, a heavenly 
sphere, with no course as yet marked out, merely exulting in the 
attributes and purposes of God. 

At first we marvel at the wealth of his language : but soon we 
discover, by the very repetition of the phrases which have arrested 
us, the poverty of all language when it comes to deal with such 
topics as he has chosen. He seems to be swept along by his theme, 
hardly knowing whither it is taking him. He begins with God, 
the blessing which comes from God to men, the eternity of His 
purpose of good, the glory of its consummation. But he cannot 
order his conceptions, or close his sentences. One thought presses 
hard upon another, and will not be refused. And so this great 
doxology runs on and on: in whom... in Him... in Him, in whom... 
in whom. . .in whom. . . . 

But as we read it again and again we begin to perceive certain 
great words recurring and revolving round a central point : 

The will of God: vv. 5, 9, n. 

To the praise of His glory : vv. 6, 12, 14. 

In Christ : vv. 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10 bis, n, 12, 13 bis. 

The will of God working itself out to some glorious issue in 
Christ that is his theme. A single phrase of the ninth verse sums 
it up : it is the mystery of His will . 

In proceeding to examine the passage clause by clause we shall 
not here dwell on individual expressions, except in so far as their 
discussion is indispensable for the understanding of the main 
drift of the epistle. But at the outset there are certain words and 
phrases which challenge attention; and our hope of grasping the 
Apostle s meaning depends upon our gaining a true conception 
of the standpoint which they imply. They must accordingly be 
treated with what might otherwise seem a disproportionate fulness. 

The third verse contains three such phrases. The first is : l ivith i 3 
all spiritual blessing . It has been suggested that the Apostle 
inserts the epithet spiritual because the mention of two Persons 
of the Blessed Trinity naturally leads him to introduce a reference 


to the third. Accordingly we are asked to render the words : 
every blessing of the Spirit 7 . 

But a little consideration will shew that the epithet marks an 
important contrast. The blessing of God promised in the Old 
Testament was primarily a material prosperity. Hence in some of 
its noblest literature the Hebrew mind struggled so ineffectually 
with the problem presented by the affliction of the righteous and 
the prosperity of the wicked. In the Book of Genesis the words 
Gen. xxii < j n blessing I will bless thee are interpreted by in multiplying I 
will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven . In Deuteronomy 
the blessing of God is expressed by the familiar words : Blessed 
shalt thou be in the city, and blessed shalt thou be in the field . . . 
Blessed shall be thy basket and thy store . 

The blessing of the New Covenant is in another region: the 

region not of the body, but of the spirit. It is spiritual blessing , 

not carnal, temporal blessing. The reference then is not primarily 

to the Holy Spirit, though spiritual blessing cannot be thought 

of apart from Him. The adjective occurs again in the phrase 

v 19 spiritual songs : and also in the remarkable passage : our wrest- 

vi 12 ling is ... against the spiritual (things) of wickedness in the heavenly 

(places) . It is confirmatory of this view that in the latter passage 

it occurs in close connexion with the difficult phrase which we must 

next discuss. 

The expression l in the heavenly (places) occurs five times in this 
epistle (13, 20; ii 6 ; iii 10 ; vi 12), and is found nowhere else. 
The adjective (eTrovpai/to?) is not new : we find it in Homer and 
Plato, as well as in the New Testament, including other epistles of 
St Paul. The nearest parallel is in an earlier letter of the same 
Phil, ii 10 Roman captivity : every knee shall bow of things in heaven and 
things on earth and things under the earth . 

It might be rendered among the heavenly things , or in the 
heavenly places : or, to use a more modern term, in the heavenly 
sphere . It is a region of ideas, rather than a locality, which is 
suggested by the vagueness of the expression. To understand what 
it meant to St Paul s mind we must look at the contexts in which 
he uses it. 

Leaving the present passage to the last, we begin with i 20: after 
the Resurrection God seated Christ at His right hand in the heavenly 
sphere, above every principality and authority and power and 
dominion, and every name that is named not only in this world but 
also in that which is to come . Thus the heavenly sphere is 
regarded as the sphere of all the ruling forces of the universe. The 


highest place therein is described in Old Testament language as Ps. ex i 
* God s right hand . There Christ is seated above all conceivable rivals. 
We are not told whether the powers here spoken of are powers of 
good or powers of evil. The Psalm might suggest that the latter 
are at least included : Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make 
Thine enemies Thy footstool . But St Paul s point is, as in 
Phil, ii 10, simply the supremacy of Christ over all other powers. 

In ii 6 we have the surprising statement that the position of 
Christ in this respect is also ours in Him. * He raised us together 
and seated us together in the heavenly sphere in Christ Jesus ; that 
He might display in the ages that are coming the surpassing riches 
of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus . 

In iii 10 we read : that there might now be made known to the 
principalities and powers in the heavenly sphere by means of the 
Church the very- varied wisdom of God . St Paul is here speaking 
of his special mission to the Gentiles as belonging to the great 
mystery or secret of God s dealings throughout the ages : there are 
powers in the heavenly sphere who are learning the purpose of God 
through the history of the Church. 

The last passage is perhaps the most remarkable : * We have not vi ia 
to wrestle against blood and flesh, but against the principalities, 
against the powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this 
world, against the spiritual (hosts) of wickedness in the heavenly 
sphere*. Our foe, to meet whom we need the very armour of 
God , is no material foe : it is a spiritual foe, a foe who 
attacks and must be fought in the heavenly sphere . We are 
reminded of Satan standing among the sons of God and accusing Job i 6 
Job. We are reminded again of the scene in the Apocalypse : 
there was war in heaven, Michael and his angels, to fight against Apoc. xii 7 
the dragon : and the dragon fought, and his angels . 

We now return to our passage: Blessed be God... who hath 13 
blessed us with all spiritual blessing in the heavenly sphere . 

The heavenly sphere, then, is the sphere of spiritual activities : 
that immaterial region, the unseen universe , which lies behind the 
world of sense. In it great forces are at work : forces which are con 
ceived of as having an order and constitution of their own ; as having 
in part transgressed against that order, and so having become dis 
ordered : forces which in part are opposed to us and wrestle against 
us : forces, again, which take an intelligent interest in the purpose 
of God with His world, and for which the story of man is an 
object-lesson in the many-sided wisdom of God : forces, over all of 
which, be they evil or be they good, Christ is enthroned, and we in 


We may call to our aid one other passage to illustrate all this. 
The things in the heavens , as well as the things on earth , are 
to be summed up to be gathered up in one in the Christ 
(i 10). Or, as the parallel passage, Col. i 20, puts it : It pleased 
God to reconcile all things through Christ unto^ Himself, setting 
them at peace by the blood of the cross, whether they be the things 
on earth or the things in the heavens . That is as much as to say, 
* The things in the heavens were out of gear, as well as the things 
on earth . And so St Paul s Gospel widens out into a Gospel of the 
Universe : the heavens as well as the earth are in some mysterious 
manner brought within its scope. 

It is important that we should understand this point of view. 
Heaven to us has come to mean a future state of perfect bliss. 
But, to St Paul s mind, l in the heavenly sphere the very same 
struggle is going on which vexes us on earth. Only with this 
difference : there Christ is already enthroned, and we by representa 
tion are enthroned with Him. 

In other words, St Paul warns us from the beginning that he 

takes a supra-sensual view of human life. He cannot rest in the 

things seen : they are not the eternal, the real things : they are 

but things as they seem, not things as they are : they are things 

2 Cor. ivi8 for a time (Tr/aocr/caipa), not things for ever (aia>via). 

The third important phrase which meets us on the threshold of 
the epistle is the phrase in Christ . It is characteristically Pauline. 
It is not, of course, confined to this epistle, but it is specially 
frequent here. 

A word must first of all be said as to the two forms in which 
St Paul uses the name Christ . It is found sometimes with and 
sometimes without the definite article. The distinction which is 
thus introduced cannot always be pressed : but, speaking generally, 
we may say that in the first case we have a title, in the second a 
proper name : in other words, the first form lays emphasis on the 
Office held, the second on the Person who holds it. 

In the present passage, in speaking of the blessing wherewith 
God has blessed us, St Paul points to Christ as the Person in whom 
we have that blessing in Christ . Below, in speaking more 
broadly of the purpose of God for the universe, he lays the stress 
i 10 upon the Office of the Messiah to gather up in one all things in 

the Christ . But it is possible that in many cases the choice be 
tween the two forms was determined simply by the consideration of 

The Messiah was the hope of the Jewish nation. Their expecta- 


tion for the future was summed up in Him. He was the Chosen, 
the Beloved, the Anointed of God; the ideal King in whom the 
nation s destiny was to be fulfilled. 

The Life and Death of Jesus were in strange contrast to the 
general Messianic expectation. The Resurrection and Ascension 
restored the failing hope of His immediate followers, and at the 
same time helped to translate it to a more spiritual region. They 
revealed the earthly Jesus as the heavenly Christ. 

To St Paul Jesus was preeminently the Christ . Yery rarely 
does he use the name Jesus without linking it with the name or 
the title l Christ : perhaps, indeed, only where some special reference 
is intended to the earthly Life. So, for example, he speaks of the sCor.ivio 
dying of Jesus : and, in contrasting the earthly humiliation with 
the heavenly exaltation which followed it, he says: that in the Phil. iii of. 
name of Jesus every knee should bow,... and every tongue confess 
that Jesus Christ is LORD . 

If the primary thought of the Messiah is a hope for the Jewish 
people, St Paul s Gospel further proclaims Him to be the hope of 
the world of men, the hope even of the entire universe. That the 
Christ was the Christ of the Gentile, as well as of the Jew, was the 
special message which he had been called to announce to bring as iii 8 
a gospel to the Gentiles the unexplorable wealth of the Christ . 
This was the mystery, or secret of God, long hidden, now revealed : 
as he says to the Colossians : * God willed to make known what is Col. i 27 
the wealth of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles ; which 
is Christ in you you Gentiles the hope of glory . 

That the Christ to so large an extent takes the place of Jesus 
in St Paul s thought is highly significant, and explains much that 
seems to call for explanation. It explains the fact that St Paul 
dwells so little on the earthly Life and the spoken Words of the 
Lord. He cannot have been ignorant of or indifferent to the great 
story which for us is recorded in the Gospels. Yet he scarcely 
touches any part of it, save the facts that Jesus was crucified, that 
He died and was buried, that He rose and ascended. Of the 
miracles which He wrought we hear nothing ; of the miracle which 
attended His birth into the world we hear nothing. Of the struggles 
with the Pharisees, of the training of the Twelve, of the discourses 
to them and to the multitudes, he tells us nothing. It is a solitary 
exception when, as it were incidentally, he is led by a particular 
necessity to relate the institution of the Eucharist. 

It cannot have been that these things were of small moment in 
his eyes. He must have known at least most of them, and have 
valued them. But he had a message peculiarly his own : and that 


message dealt not with the earthly Jesus, so much as with the 
heavenly Christ. In the heavenly sphere his message lies. Hence- 

sCor. v 1 6 forth , he says, know we no man after the flesh: yea, if we have 
known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know we Him (so) 
no more . The Death, the Resurrection, the Ascension these are 
to him the important moments of the life of Christ ; they are the 
ladder that leads upwards from Christ after the flesh to Christ 
in the heavenly sphere the exalted, the glorified, the reigning 
Christ ; the Christ yet to be manifested as the consummation of the 
purpose of God. And if St Paul looked beyond the earthly life of 
the Lord in one direction, he looked beyond it also in another. To 
his thought the Christ does not begin with the historical Jesus . 
The Christ is eternal in the past as well as in the future. The 
earthly life of Jesus is a kind of middle point, a stage of humiliation 
for a time. Being rich, He became poor ; being in the form of 

Phil. ii6f. God... He humbled Himself, taking the form of a servant, coming 
to be in the likeness of men . That stage of humiliation is past : 
1 God hath highly exalted Him : we fix our gaze now on * Jesus 
Christ ascended and enthroned. 

We may not, indeed, think that Jesus and the Christ ; can 
ever in any way be separated : St Paul s frequent combination of 
the two names is a witness against such a separation. Yet there 
are two aspects : and it is the heavenly aspect that predominates 
in the thought of St Paul. 

It is instructive in this connexion to compare the narrative of 
St Paul s conversion with the account that immediately follows of 
his first preaching. It was Jesus who appeared to him in the 

Acts ix 5 way : Who art thou, Lord ?. . .1 am Jesus . He had always looked 
for the Messiah : he was to be taught that in Jesus the Messiah 

Acts ix 2 2 had come. The lesson was learned; and we read: Saul waxed 
strong the more, and confounded the Jews that dwelt in Damascus, 
proving that this was the Christ . He had seen Jesus, risen and 
exalted : he knew Him henceforth as the Christ. 

We observe, then, that the conception which the phrase in 
Christ implies belongs to the same supra-sensual region of ideas to 
which the two preceding phrases testify. The mystical union or 
identification which it asserts is asserted as a relation, not to 
Jesus the name more distinctive of the earthly Life but to * the 
Christ as risen and exalted. 

The significance of the relation to Christ, as indicated by the 
preposition in , and the issues of that relation, are matters on 
which light will be thrown as we proceed with the study of the 
epistle. But it is important to note at the outset how much is 


summed up in this brief phrase, and how prominent a position it 
holds in St Paul s thought. 

In Christ, the eternal Christ, who suffered, rose, ascended, who 
is seated now at God s right hand supreme over all the forces of the 
universe : in Christ, in the heavenly sphere wherein He now abides, 
in the region of spiritual activities, all spiritual blessing is ours : in 
Christ God has blessed us ; blessed be God. 

In the verses which follow (4 14) we have an amplification of vv. 4-14 
the thoughts of v. 3, and especially of the phrase l in Christ . This 
amplification is introduced by the words according as . 

And first St Paul declares that the blessing wherewith God hath 
blessed us is no new departure in the Divine counsels. It is in 
harmony with an eternal design which has marked us out as the 
recipients of this blessing : ( according as He hath chosen us in Him i 4 
before the foundation of the world . 

1 He hath chosen us or elected us . Election is a term which 
suggests at once so much of controversy, that it may be well to lay 
emphasis on its primary sense by substituting, for the moment, a 
word of the same meaning, but less trammelled by associations 
the word selection . 

The thought that God in His dealings with men proceeds by the 
method of selection was not new to St Paul. The whole of the 
Old Testament was an affirmation of this principle. He himself 
from his earliest days had learned to cherish as his proudest posses 
sion the fact that he was included in the Divine Selection. He 
was a member of the People whom God had in Abraham selected 
for peculiar blessing. 

The Divine Selection of the Hebrew People to hold a privileged 
position, their ready recognition of that position and their selfish 
abuse of it, the persistent assertion of it by the Prophets as the 
ground of national amendment this is the very theme of the Old 
Testament scriptures. It is on account of this, above all, that the 
Christian Church can never afford to part with them. Only as we 
hold the Old Testament in our hands can we hope to interpret the 
New Testament, and especially the writings of St Paul. Only the 
history of the ancient Israel can teach us the meaning of the new Gal. vi 16 
1 Israel of God . 

No new departure in principle was made by Christianity. Its 
very name of the New Covenant declares that God s method is still 
the same. Only the application of it has been extended : the area 
of selection has been enlarged. A new People has been founded, a 
People not limited by geographical or by racial boundaries : but 



still a People, a Selected People even as to-day we teach the 
Christian child to say : * The Holy Ghost, which sanctifieth me and 
all the Elect People of God . 

God, then, says St Paul, selected us to be the recipients of the 
distinctive spiritual blessing of the New Covenant. It is in accord 
ance with this Selection that He has blessed us. 

i 4 The Selection was made * in Christ before the foundation of 

the world . That is to say, in eternity it is not new; though in 
time it appears as new. In time it appears as later than the 
Selection of the Hebrew People, and as an extension and develop 
ment of that Selection. But it is an eternal Selection, indepen 
dent of time ; or, as St Paul puts it, before the foundation of the 
world . 

Here we must ask : Whom does St Paul regard as the objects 
of the Divine Selection 1 ? He says: Blessed be God... who hath 
blessed us... according as He hath selected us... before the foundation 
of the world . What does he mean by the word us "? 

The natural and obvious interpretation is that he means to 
include at least himself and those to whom he writes. He has 
spoken so far of no others. Later on he will distinguish two great 
classes, both included in the Selection, of whom he has certain 
special things to say. But at present he has no division or dis 
tinction. He may mean to include more : he can scarcely mean to 
include less than himself and the readers whom he addresses. 

It has been said that in the word us we have the language 
of charity \ which includes certain individuals whom a stricter use 
of terms would have excluded. That is to say, not all the members 
of all the Churches to whom the letter was to go were in fact 
included in the Divine Selection. 

To this we may reply : (i) Nowhere in the epistle does St Paul 
suggest that any individual among those whom he addresses either 
is or may be excluded from this Selection. 

(2) Unworthy individuals there undoubtedly were: but his 
appeal to them is based on the very fact of their Selection by God : 
iv i < I beseech you, that ye walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye 

have been called . 

The Old Testament helps us again here. Among the Selected 
People were many unworthy individuals. This unworthiness did 
not exclude them from the Divine Selection. On the contrary, the 
Prophets made their privileged position the ground of an appeal to 

Moreover, just as the Prophets looked more to the whole than 
to the parts, so St Paul is dominated by the thought of the whole, 


and of God s purpose with the whole. It is a new Israel that 
Christ has founded a People of privilege. We are apt so far to 
forget this, as to regard St Paul mainly as the Apostle of individu 
ality. But in the destiny of the individual as an individual he shews 
strangely little interest strangely, I say, in comparison with the 
prevailing thought of later times; though not strangely, in the 
light of his own past history as a member of a Selected People. 

We take it, then, that by the word us* St Paul means to 
include all those Christians to whom he intended his letter to come. 
It is reasonable to suppose further that he would have allowed his 
language to cover all members of the Christian Church every 

The one doubt which may fairly be raised is whether the later 
phrase of v. 12, we who have been the first to hope in Christ , 
should be taken as limiting the meaning of us in the earlier 
verses. This phrase we must discuss presently: but meanwhile it is 
enough to point out that the parallel passage in the Epistle to the 
Colossians, where some of the same statements are made (compare 
especially Eph. i 6, 7 with Col. i 13, 14), has no such limitation, 
and quite clearly includes the Gentiles to whom he was writing. 
We may therefore believe that here too the Gentile Christians are 
included, up to the point at which the Apostle definitely makes 
statements specially belonging to the Christian Jew. 

The aim of the Divine Selection is plainly stated in the words, 
1 that we should be holy and blameless before Him in love . The i 4 
phrase in love must be joined with the preceding words, not with 
those that follow ; although the latter collocation has some ancient 
interpreters in its favour. For (i) the same phrase occurs five 
times more in the epistle (iii 17, iv 2, 15, 16, v 2), and always in 
the sense of the Christian virtue of love not of the Divine love 
towards man: and (2) here it stands as the climax of the Divine 
intention. Love is the response for which the Divine grace looks ; 
and the proof that it is not bestowed in vain. On our side the 
result aimed at is love : just as on God s side it is the praise of 
the glory of His grace . 

Having fore-ordained us unto the adoption of sons through i 5 
Jesus Christ unto Himself. The sonship of Man to God is implied, 
but not expressed, in the Old Testament. In the light of the later 
revelation it is seen to be involved in the creation of Man in the Gen. 126 f. 
Divine image, by which a relationship is established to which appeal Gen. ix 6 
can be made even after the Fall. In a more special sense God is a Jer. xxxi 9 
Father to Israel, and Israel is the son of God. But sonship in the Ex. iv 11 


completest sense could not be proclaimed before the manifestation 
of the Divine Son in the flesh. He is at once the ideal Man and 
the Image of God. In Him the sonship of Man to God finds its 
realisation. Those who have been selected in Him are possessed 
of this sonship, not as of natural right, but as by adoption. Hence 
the adoption of sons is the distinctive privilege of the New 
Covenant in Christ. 

The doctrine of Adoption is not antagonistic to the doctrine of 
the universal sonship of Man to God. It is on the contrary in the 
closest relation to it. It is the Divine method of its actualisation. 
The sonship of creation is through Christ, no less truly than the 
sonship of adoption. Man is created in Christ : but the Selected 
People are brought more immediately than others into relation with 
Christ, and through Christ with the Father. 

15 l A ccording to the good pleasure of His will . Ultimately, the 

power that rules the universe is the will of God. It pleased His 
will : we cannot, and we need not, get behind that. 

i 6 To the praise of the glory of His grace . This is the ordained 

issue : God s free favour to Man is to be gloriously manifested, that 
it may be eternally praised. 

c Grace is too great a word with St Paul to be mentioned and 
allowed to pass. It will, as we shall see, carry his thought further. 
But first he will emphasise the channel by which it reaches us : 
* His grace, which He hath freely bestowed on us in the Beloved . 
If * the Beloved is a Messianic title, yet it is not used here without 
a reference to its literal meaning. In the parallel passage in 
Col. 113 we have the Son of His love . Just as in the Son, who 
is Son in a peculiar sense, we have the adoption of sons : so in the 
Beloved, who is loved with a peculiar love, the grace of God is 
graciously bestowed on us. 

vv. 3-6 To sum up vv. 3 6 : The blessing, for which we bless God, is 

of a spiritual nature, in the heavenly sphere, in the exalted Christ. 
It is in accordance with an eternal choice, whereby God has 
selected us in Christ. Its goal, so far as we are concerned, is the 
fulness of all virtues, love. It includes an adoption through Jesus 
Christ to a Divine sonship. Its motive lies far back in the will of 
God. Its contemplated issue in the Divine counsel is that God s 
grace, freely bestowed on us in His Well-beloved, should be gloriously 
manifested and eternally praised. 

It is noteworthy that up to this point there has been no 
reference of any kind to sin : nor, with the exception of a passing 
notice of the fact that it has been put out of the way, is there any 


allusion to it in the whole of the remainder of this chapter. We 
are taken in these verses into the eternal counsels of God. Sin, 
here as elsewhere in St Paul s teaching, appears as an interloper. 
It comes in to hinder the progress of the Divine Purpose; to check 
it, but not to change it. There is nothing to lead us to suppose 
that the grace of God comes to Man in Christ simply on account of a 
necessity introduced by sin. Sin indeed has served to magnify the 
grace of God : where sin hath abounded, grace hath yet more Eom. v 20 
abounded . But the free favour which God has bestowed on the 
Selected People in Christ is a part of the eternal Purpose, prior to 
the entrance of sin. There is good reason to believe that the Incar 
nation is not a mere consequence of the Fall, though the painful 
conditions of the Incarnation were the direct result of the Fall. 
And we may perhaps no less justly hold that the education of the 
human race by the method of Selection must likewise have been 
necessary, even if Man had not sinned at all. 

But the mention of grace 7 leads St Paul on to speak of the 
peculiar glory of grace, on which he has so often dwelt. Grace is 
above all grace in baffling sin. 

c In whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness i 7 
of trespasses . "We must again bear in mind St Paul s Jewish 
training, if we are to understand his thought. This is especially 
necessary, where, as here, the terms which he employs have become 
very familiar to us. 

Redemption . God is often spoken of in the Old Testament as 
the Redeemer of His People Israel. The first great Redemption, 
typical of all the rest and frequently referred to as such by the 
Prophets, was the emancipation of Israel from the Egyptian bondage. 
"With this the history of Israel, as a People, and not now a family 
merely, began. A new Redemption, or Emancipation, initiates the 
history of the New People. 

Through His blood . These words would be scarcely intel 
ligible if we had not the Old Testament. To the Jewish mind 
blood was not merely nor even chiefly the life-current flowing Gen. iv 10 
in the veins of the living : it was especially the life poured out in 
death; and yet more particularly in its religious aspect it was 
the symbol of sacrificial death. The passover lamb whose blood 
was sprinkled on the lintel and doorposts was the most striking 
feature of the Redemption from Egypt. The sacrificial blood of the 
Mosaic ritual was the condition of the remission of sins: without Heb. ix 22 
blood-shedding no forgiveness takes place . 

The New Covenant is the consummation of the Old. The 


Redemption is through the blood of Christ, and it includes the 
forgiveness of trespasses . 

17 According to the riches of His grace . The mention of * grace 

had led to the thought of its triumph over sin : and this in turn 
leads back to a further and fuller mention of * grace . 

i 8 * His grace which He hath made to abound towards us in all 

wisdom and prudence . The last words help to define the grace 
in another way : among its consequences for us are wisdom and 
prudence . Wisdom is the knowledge which sees into the heart 
of things, which knows them as they really are. Prudence is 
the understanding which leads to right action. Wisdom, as it is 
set before us in the Sapiential books of the Old Testament, includes 
both these ideas : but with St Paul "Wisdom belongs specially to 
the region of the Mystery and its Revelation. 

The great stress laid by St Paul on Wisdom in his later letters 
calls for some notice. In writing to the Corinthians at an earlier 
period he had found it necessary to check their enthusiasm about 
what they called Wisdom an intellectual subtlety which bred 
conceit in individuals and, as a consequence, divisions in the 
Christian Society. He had refused to minister to their appetite for 
this kind of mental entertainment. He contrasted their anxiety for 
Wisdom with the plainness of his preaching. He was forced into 
an extreme position : he would not communicate to them in their 
carnal state of division and strife his own knowledge of the deeper 
things of God. But at the same time he declared that he had 
a Wisdom which belonged not to babes, but to grown men 1 . 
And it is this Wisdom which we have in the present Epistle. It 

i Cor. ii 7 deals as St Paul had said with a mystery ; : it is a Wisdom long 
hidden but now revealed. 

i * Having made known to us the mystery of His will . This 

together with what follows, to the end of v. 10, is explanatory of 
the preceding statement. God hath made grace to abound toward 
us in all wisdom and prudence, in that He hath made known to us 
the mystery of His will . 

The mystery or c secret . It is tempting to regard St Paul s 
employment of the word mystery as one of the instances in which 
he has borrowed a term from popular Greek phraseology and has 
lifted it into the highest region of thought. The word was every 
where current in the Greek religious world. When the old national 

1 Contrast i Cor. ii i, 7 with ib. this subject (Prolegg. to Romans and 
ii 6, 7: and see Dr Hort s words on Ephesians, iSoff.). 


spirit died out in Greece, the national religious life died with it, and 
the ancient national cults lost their hold on the people. About the 
same time there came into prominence all over the Greek world 
another form of religious worship, not so much public and national 
as private and individualistic. It had many shapes, and borrowed 
much from Eastern sources. Its aim was the purification of indi 
vidual lives ; and its methods were (i) the promise of a future life, 
and (2) the institution of rites of purification followed by initiation 
into a secret religious lore. With some of the mysteries much that 
was abominable was connected : but the ideals which some at least 
of them proclaimed were lofty. The true secret of divine things 
could only be revealed to those who passed through long stages of 
purification, and who pledged themselves never to disclose the 
mysteries which they had been taught. 

The mystery , of which St Paul speaks, is the secret of God s 
dealing with the world : and it is a secret which is revealed to such 
as have been specially prepared to receive it. But here so far at 
any rate as St Paul s writings are concerned 1 the parallel with 
the Greek mysteries ends. For the Secret of God has been pub 
lished in Christ. There is now no bar to its declaration. St Paul 
has been appointed a steward of it, to expound it as containing the 
interpretation of all human life. 

As a matter of fact the word has come to St Paul from a wholly 
different source. We now know that it was used of secrets which 
belong to God and are revealed by Him to men, not only in the 
Book of Daniel, but also in a book which presents many parallels to 
the Book of Daniel, and which just failed, when that book just 
succeeded, in obtaining a place within the Jewish canon. Portions 
of the long lost Greek of the Book of Enoch have recently been 
restored to us, and we find that the word mystery is used in 
it again and again of divine secrets which have rightly or wrongly 
come to the knowledge of men. And even apart from this particu 
lar book, we have ample evidence for this usage in the Greek-speak 
ing circles of Judaism. The word, with its correlative c revelation , 
was at hand in the region of the Apostle s own Jewish training, 
and we need not seek a heathen origin for his use of it 2 . 

c According to His good pleasure which He hath purposed in Sim, 
for dispensation in the fulness of the times, to gather up in one all 

1 With later parallels to the Greek z See the detached note on the 

mysteries in the rites of the Christian meaning of fAvcr^piov. 
Church we are not here concerned. 


things in Christ This is a description, in the broadest terras of 
the scope and contents of the Divine Secret. 

i 10 For dispensation in the fulness of the times . The similar 

language of iii 9 is the best comment on this passage. The Apostle 

declares there that it is his mission to shew what is the dispensation 

of the mystery which hath been hidden from eternity in God who 

created all things . The Creator of the universe has a Purpose in 

iii ii regard to it an eternal purpose which He hath purposed in Christ 

Jesus our Lord . The secret of it has been hidden in God until 

now. The dispensation or working out of that secret Purpose 

iii 3 is a matter on which St Paul claims to speak by revelation. 

Dispensation is here used in its wider sense, not of household 
management, which is its primary meaning, but of carrying into 
effect a design. The word must be taken with the foregoing phrase 
the mystery of His will ; and we may paraphrase, to carry it out 
in the fulness of the times . The thought is not of a Dispensation , 
as though one of several Dispensations : but simply of the carrying 
out of the secret Purpose of God. 

That secret Purpose is summarised in the words, to gather up 
in one all tilings in Christ . 

To gather up in one . As the total is the result of the 
addition of all the separate factors, as the summary presents in 
one view the details of a complicated argument these are the 
metaphors suggested by the Apostle s word so in the Divine 
counsels Christ is the Sum of all things. 

All things . The definite article of the Greek cannot be 
represented in English : but it helps to give the idea that * all 
things are regarded as a whole, as when we speak of the 
universe : compare Col. i 1 7 and Heb. i 3. 

In Christ . The Greek has the definite article here also : for 
the stress is laid not on the individual personality, but rather on the 
Messianic office. The Messiah summed up the Ancient People : 
St Paul proclaims that He sums up the Universe. 

The contrast between the one and the many was the 
foundation of most of the early Greek philosophical systems. 
The many the variety of objects of sense was the result of 
a breaking up of the primal one . The many constituted im 
perfection : the one was the ideal perfection. The philosopher 
could look beyond the many to the one the absolute and alone 
existent one . 

There is something akin to this here. The variety of the 
universe, with its discordances and confusions, has a principle 
of unity. In Christ , says St Paul in Col. 117, all things consist ; 


in Him, that is, they have their principle of cohesion and unity : 
even as through Him and unto Him they have been created . Col. i 16 
If confusion has entered, it is not of the nature of things, and it is 
not to be eternal. In the issue the true unity will be asserted and 
manifested. The mystery of the will of God is the Divine 
determination to gather up in one all things in Christ . 

St Paul has thus been led on past the method of God s working 
to the issue of God s working. He has told us the purpose of the 
Divine Selection. It is not simply, or mainly, the blessing of the 
Selected People. It is the blessing of the Universe. 

It is worth while to note how entirely this is in harmony with 
the lesson of the Old Testament, though it far transcends that 
earlier teaching. Abraham was chosen for peculiar blessing : but 
at the moment of his call it was said to him : in thee shall all Gen. xii 3 
families of the earth be blessed . And to take but two of the later 
utterances, we may recall the warning of Ezekiel : I do not this Ezek. 
for your sakes, O house of Israel, but for Mine holy name s sake... xxxvl 22 f - 
and the heathen shall know that I am the Lord ; and the familiar 
words of the Psalm : O let the nations rejoice and be glad : for Ps. Ixvii 
Thou shalt judge the folk [the chosen people] righteously, and 4 7 
govern the nations upon earth... God shall bless us: and all the 
ends of the earth shall fear Him . 

It was the failure to recognise this mission to bless the whole 
world that was the great refusal of Judaism. A like failure to 
grasp the truth that it is the mission of Christianity to sanctify the 
whole of human experience has blighted the Church of Christ again 
and again. Out of that failure it is the purpose of St Paul s greatest 
epistle to lift us to-day. 

For the Christian hope is an unbounded hope of universal good. 
It has two stages of its realisation, an intermediate and a final 
stage : the intermediate stage is the hope of blessing for the Selected 
People; the final stage is the hope of blessing for the Universe 
the gathering up in one of all things in Christ, things in heaven 
and things upon the earth . 

"Without attempting to analyse this burst of living praise, we vv. 3 10 
yet may notice that there is a certain orderliness in the Apostle s 
enthusiasm. The fulness of spiritual blessing of v. 3 is expounded 
under five great heads : Election, v. 4 ; Adoption, v. 5 ; Redemp 
tion, v. 7 ; Wisdom, v. 8; Consummation, v. 10. 

"We might have expected him at last to stay his pen. He has 
reached forward and upward to the sublimest exposition ever framed 

EPHES. 2 -y 


of the ultimate Purpose of God. His doxology might seem to have 
gained its fitting close. But St Paul is always intensely practical, 
and at once he is back with his readers in the actual world. Jew 
and Gentile are among the obstinate facts of his day. May it not 
be thought by some that he has been painting all along the glowing 
picture of the Jew s hope in his Jewish Messiah ? 

It is plain, at any rate, that he desires at once to recognise the 
place of Jew and Gentile alike in the new economy. So without a 
in 13 break he proceeds: in Him, in wham also we have been chosen as 
God s portion, having been foreordained... thai we should be to the 
praise of His glory, who have been the first to hope in Christ; in 
whom ye also... . 

We have been chosen as God s portion ; that is, assigned by God 
to Himself as His own lot and portion. Underneath the phrase 
lies the thought of Israel s peculiar position among the nations. 
Compare the words of the great song in Deut. xxxii 8 ff. : 

When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, 

When He separated the children of men, 

He set the bounds of the peoples 

According to the number of the children of Israel 

For the Lord s portion is His people; 

Jacob is the lot of His inheritance. 

He found him in a desert land, 

And in the waste howling wilderness; 

He compassed him about, He cared for him, 

He kept him as the apple of His eye. 

The prophet Zechariah foresaw the realisation of this once more in 
Zech. iii2the future: The Lord shall inherit Judah as His portion in the 
holy land, and shall yet choose Jerusalem . 

To St Paul the fulfilment has come. In the dispensation of 

the mystery of God s will, he says, this peculiar position is ours: 

in we have been chosen as God s portion, having been foreordained 

according to the purpose of Him who worketh all things according 

to the counsel of His will . 

Thus far no word of limitation has occurred: but now at once 
i 12 the first of two classes is marked out: that we should be to the 

praise of His glory we, who have been the first to hope in 
Christ . 

The limiting phrase is capable of two explanations. It seems 
most natural to interpret it of the Christian Jews, those members 
of the Jewish people who have recognised Jesus as their Messiah. 
Elsewhere the Apostle lays stress on the fact that Christ was first 


preached to and accepted by Jews. The Jewish Christian had a 
distinct priority in time : indeed the first stage of the Christian 
Church was a strictly Jewish stage. St Paul recognises this, 
though he hastens at once to emphasise the inclusion of the Gentile 
Christians. It is to the Jew first but only first : to the Jew Eom. ii 10 
first, and to the Greek; for there is no respect of persons with God . 

But it is also possible to render, who aforetime hoped in the 
Christ , and to refer the words to the Jewish people as such. This 
would be in harmony with such an expression as For the hope of Acts xxviii 
Israel I am bound with this chain . 

In either case, if for a moment he points to the Jewish priority, 
it is only as a priority in time; and his very object in mentioning it 
is to place beyond all question the fact that the Gentiles are no 
less certainly chosen of God. 

l ln whom ye also . The main verb of this sentence is not easy i 13 
to find. It can hardly be ye have been chosen as (God s) portion , 
supplied out of the former sentence: for the assignment to God is 
a part of the eternal purpose in Christ, and not a consequence of 
hearing and believing . It might be f ye hope , supplied out of 
the preceding participle. But it is simpler to regard the sentence 
as broken, and taken up again with the words in whom also . 

In whom ye also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel 
of your salvation, in whom also having believed, ye have been 
sealed with the holy Spirit of promise . To the Jew came the 
message first: but to you it came as well. You too heard the 
word of the truth , the good news of a salvation which was yours 
as well as theirs. You heard, you believed; and, as if to remove all 
question and uncertainty, God set His seal on you. The order of 
the words in the original is striking : * Ye were sealed with the 
Spirit of the promise, the Holy (Spirit) . Here again we have the 
expansion of an Old Testament thought. To Abraham and his Gal. iii 16 
seed were the promises made : but the ultimate purpose of God 
was that upon the Gentiles should come the blessing of Abraham Gal. iii 14 
in Jesus Christ, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit 
through faith . To you is the promise (of the Holy Spirit) , says Acts ii 39 
St Peter on the Day of Pentecost, and to your children, and to all 
that are afar off, as many as the Lord our God shall call . And 
when the Holy Spirit fell on the Gentiles at Caesarea he cried: 
Can any forbid the water, that these should not be baptized, Acts x 47 
seeing that they have received the Holy Spirit, even as we? 

The gift of the Spirit of the Promise was not only God s 
authentication of the Gentile converts at the time, but their foretaste 
and their security of the fulness of blessing in the future. This is 


expressed in two ways. First, by a metaphor from mercantile life. 
i 14 The Holy Spirit thus given is the earnest of our inheritance 1 . The 

word arrhabon means, not a pledge deposited for a time and ulti 
mately to be claimed back, but an earnest , an instalment paid at 
once as a proof of the bona fides of the bargain. It is an actual 
portion of the whole which is hereafter to be paid in full. Secondly, 
ye have been sealed , says the Apostle, unto the redemption of 
God s own possession . So later on, speaking of the Holy Spirit, 

iv 30 he says: in whom ye have been sealed unto the day of redemption . 

The full emancipation of the People of God is still in the future. 

The redemption of God s own possession is that ultimate 
emancipation by which God shall claim us finally as His peculiar 
treasure. So the Septuagint rendered Mai. iii 17 They shall be 
to me for a possession, saith the Lord of Hosts, in that day which 
I make ; comp. i Pet. ii 9, a people for Gods own possession . 

It is noteworthy that St Paul is careful to employ in regard to 
the Gentiles the very terms promise , inheritance , emancipa 
tion , possession which were the familiar descriptions of the 
peculiar privilege of Israel. Moreover in the phrase our inherit 
ance he has suddenly changed back again from the second person 
to the first ; thereby intimating that Jews and Gentiles are, to 

iii 6 use a phrase which occurs later on, co-heirs and concorporate and 

co-partakers of the promise . 

At last the great doxology comes to its close with the repetition 
for the thinj. time of the refrain, to the praise of His glory words 

Jer. xiii 1 1 which recall to us the unfulfilled destiny of Israel, that they might 
be unto Me for a people, and for a name, and for a praise, and for 
a glory : but they would not hear . 

i 1523 1S WHEREFORE I also, having heard of your faith in the 

Lord Jesus, and love unto all the saints, l6 cease not to 
give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers ; 
17 that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, 
may give unto you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation 
in the knowledge of Him ; l8 the eyes of your heart being 
enlightened, that ye may know what is the hope of His calling, 
what the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints, 
19 and what the exceeding greatness of His power to us-ward 
who believe, according to the working of the might of His 
strength, ^ which He hath wrought in Christ, in that He 
hath raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right 


hand in the heavenly places, * above every principality and 
authority and power and dominion, and every name that is 
named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to 
come ; M and He hath put all things under His feet ; and Him 
hath He given to be head over all things to the church, ^ which 
is His body, the fulness of Him who all in all is being fulfilled. 

From doxology the Apostle passes to prayer. His prayer is 
introduced by expressions of thanksgiving, and it presently passes 
into a description of the supreme exaltation of the heavenly Christ, 
and of us in Him for, though it is convenient to make a pause at 
the end of c. i, there is in fact no break at all until we reach ii n. 

* Having heard of y OUT faith in the Lord Jesus and love unto alii 15 
the saints . It is St Paul s habit to open his epistles with words of 
thanksgiving and prayer; and as a rule his thanksgiving makes 
special reference to the faith of those to whom he writes : some 
times with faith he couples love ; and sometimes he completes 
the trinity of Christian graces by a mention of hope . Thus : 

(1) Rom. i 8 : that your faith is spoken of throughout the 
whole world. 

(2) 2 Thess. i 3: because that your faith groweth exceedingly, 
and the charity of every one of you all toward each other aboundeth. 

Philem. 5 : hearing of thy love and faith which thou hast 
toward the Lord Jesus and toward all the saints. 

(3) i Thess. i 3 : remembering without ceasing your work of 
faith and labour of love and patience of hope, etc. 

Col. i 4, 5 : having heard of jour faith in Christ Jesus, and 
the love which ye have toward all the saints, because of the 
hope, etc. 

* / cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my i 16 
prayers . This making mention is a frequent term in St Paul s 
epistles (i Thess. i 2, Bom. i 9, Philem. 4). "We might suppose it to 

be a peculiarly Christian expression. But, like some other phrases 
in St Paul, it is an old expression of the religious life of the people, 
lifted up to its highest use. Thus in a papyrus letter in the British 
Museum, written in Egypt by a sister to her brother and dated 
July 24, 172 B.C., we read: I continue praying to the gods for 
your welfare. I am well myself, and so is the child, and all in the 
house, continually making mention of you [i.e., no doubt, in 
prayer ]. When I got your letter, immediately I thanked the gods 
for your welfare... . Here are the very terms : * making mention 


and I thanked the gods . And the language of many other letters 
bears this out 1 . A frequently occurring phrase is, for example, 
this: I make thy reverence to our lord Serapis . St Paul, then, 
instead of praying to our lord Serapis , makes his request to the 
God of our Lord Jesus Christ : instead of a conventional prayer 
for their health and welfare, he prays for their spiritual enlighten 
ment: and so what to others might have been a mere formula of 
correspondence becomes with him a vehicle of the highest thought 
of his epistle. 

1 17, 1 8 His prayer is this: that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the 

Father of glory, may give unto you the Spirit of wisdom... that ye 
may know...\ 

It is to be noted that for the sake of emphasis the Apostle has 
resolved the combined title of v. 3, the God and Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ . His prayer is directed to Him who is not only 
the Father of our Lord, but also our Father in the heavenly glory. 

With the title the Father of glory we may compare on the one 

2 Cor. i 3 ; hand the Father of mercies ; and on the other, the God of 
i CorTiiS- gl rv ^6 Lord of glory , and the remarkable expression of 
Jas. ii i St James our Lord Jesus Christ of glory . Moreover, when after 

a long break the Apostle takes up his prayer again in iii 14, 
we find another emphatic expression : I bow my knees to the 
Father, of whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named 
an expression which may help to interpret the Father of glory in 
this place. 

The prayer takes the form of a single definite request for a 

definite end: that the Father .. .may give unto you the Spirit of 

wisdom... that ye may know . The words are closely parallel to 

Luke xi 13 our Lord s promise as given by St Luke: The Father... will give 

the Holy Spirit to them that ask Him . 

For note that it is a Spirit, that St Paul prays for. It is not 
an attitude of mind, as when we speak of a teachable spirit . In 
the New Testament the word spirit is used in its strictest sense. 
All true wisdom comes from a Spirit, who dwells in us and teaches 
us. It is a teaching Spirit, rather than a teachable spirit, which 
the Apostle asks that they may have. 

In St John s Gospel the personality of the Divine Teacher is 

John xiv strongly emphasised : The Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send 

26, xvi 13 j n ^jy nam6j jj e w jn teach you all things ; When He, the Spirit 

of truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth . There in the 

Greek we have the definite article (TO Trvcv/xa Trjs aA/^euxs) : here it 

is absent (irv^vfjax, cro<i as). To attempt to make a distinction by 

1 See the detached note on current epistolary phrases. 


inserting the indefinite article in English would perhaps be to go 
further than is warranted. There is, after all, but one Spirit of 
wisdom that can teach us. 

But a distinction may often be rightly drawn in the New 
Testament between the usage of the word with the definite article 
and its usage without it. With the article, very generally, the 
word indicates the personal Holy Spirit; while without it some 
special manifestation or bestowal of the Holy Spirit is signified 
And this latter is clearly meant here. A special gift of the Spirit 
for a special purpose is the subject of St Paul s request. 

The Spirit thus specially given will make them wise: He will 
come as the Spirit of wisdom . Yet more, as the Spirit of 
revelation He will lift the veil, and shew them the secret of God. 

Revelation apocalypse , or unveiling is a word which is 
naturally used where any mystery or secret is in question. 
The Divine Secret needs a Divine Unveiling. So St Paul declares 
of himself : by apocalypse was the mystery by revelation was iii 3 
the secret made known unto me . He prays that it may be so 
for those to whom he writes. In one sense it is true that a secret 
once published is thereafter but an open secret . But it is no less 
true that the Christian mystery demands for its unveiling the 
perpetual intervention of the Spirit of apocalypse . 

In the knowledge of Him : i.e. of the God of our Lord Jesus i 17 
Christ, the Father of glory : as such must He be recognised and 
known. And to this end the eyes of their heart must be opened i 18 
and filled with light. The Divine illumination is no mere intellec 
tual process: it begins with the heart, the seat of the affections 
and the will 1 . 

1 A striking illustration of the Ian- the fulness of the times 9 compare 2 (4) 
guage of St Paul in this passage is to Esdr. iv. 37, By measure hath He 
be found in 2 (4) Esdras xiv 22, 25 : measured the times, and by number 
* If I have found grace before thee, hath He numbered the times ; and He 
send the Holy Ghost (or, a holy doth not move nor stir them, until 
spirit ) into me, and I shall write all the said measure be fulfilled : with 
that hath been done in the world the mystery compare xii 36, * Thou 
since the beginning... And he answered only hast been made meet to know 
me,... I shall light a candle of under- this secret of the Highest (comp. 
standing in thine heart, which shall v. 38, x 38, xiv 5 the secrets of the 
not be put out, till the things be per- times ) : with ye were sealed corn- 
formed which thou shalt begin to pare perhaps vi 5, Before they were 
write . sealed that have gathered faith for 

In this book, which is perhaps al- a treasure, and x 23, And, which 

most contemporary with St Paul, there is the greatest [sorrow] of all, the seal 

are two or three other verbal parallels of Sion hath now lost her honour . 

which are worth noticing here : with See also below, p. 48. 


6 That ye may know . A threefold knowledge, embracing all 
eternity the past, the future, and not least the present. 

(1) What is the hope of His calling . Note that St Paul does 
not say the hope of your calling , i.e. His calling of you : though 
that is included. The expression is wider : it is universal. "We are 
taken back, as in the earlier verses of the chapter, to the great past 
of eternity, before the foundations of the world were laid. It is 
. His calling , in the fullest sense, that we need to understand. 
That calling involves a hope , and we must learn to know 
what that hope is. It is a certain hope : for it rests on the very 
fact that the calling is God s calling, and no weak wish of ours 

iThes.v24 for better things. Faithful is He that calleth you, who also will 
do it . 

(2) What the riches of the glory of If is inheritance in the 
saints . This too they must know : the glory of the eternal future. 
Again, it is not 4 of your inheritance but something grander far. 
It is His inheritance ; of which they are but a tiny, though a 

Deut. necessary, part. The Lord s portion is His people : Jacob is the 

xxxii 9 i ot O f His inheritance*. 

119 (3) And what the exceeding greatness of His power to us-ward 

who believe . Not merely God s calling in the past, and God s 
inheritance in the future ; but also God s power in the present. Of 
the first two he has said much already : on the third he will now 
enlarge. And so he is led on, as it were by a word, to a vast 
expansion of his thought. 

This power is an extraordinary, a supernatural power. It is the 
very power that has raised Christ from the dead and seated Him at 
God s right hand, and that makes Him now supreme over the uni 
verse. This is the power that goes forth to us-ward who believe . 

i 19, 20 * According to the working of the might of His strength, which 

He hath wrought in Christ . We have no words that fully represent 
the original of the phrase, the working... which He hath wrought . 
Both the noun and the verb are emphatic in themselves, and 
St Paul seldom employs them, except where he is speaking of some 
Divine activity 1 . Might , again, is an emphatic word, never used 
of mere human power in the New Testament. St Paul heaps word 
upon word (Swa/us, evepyeia, /cparos, term s) in his determination to 
emphasise the power of God that is at work in the lives of them 
that believe . 

1 In that He hath raised Him from the dead . Compare Horn, 
viii ii, If the Spirit of Him that raised Jesus from the dead 
d welleth in you . . . 

1 See the detached note on tvepyelv and its cognates. 


And set Him at His right hand in the heavenly places . The 
resurrection is a step in the path of exaltation. 

Above every principality and authority and power and dominion 1 , 121 
These titles St Paul uses as denoting familiar distinctions of spiritual 
forces. We have another list in Col. i 16: * Whether thrones or 
dominions or principalities or authorities . Originally terms of 
Jewish speculation, they came in after times to play a large part in 
Christian thought. The Apostle s purpose in mentioning them, 
both here and in the Epistle to the Colossians, is to emphasise the 
exaltation of Christ above them all. He closes the list with every 
name that is named , i.e. every title or dignity that has been or can 
be given as a designation of majesty. Compare Phil, ii 9, the 
Name which is above every name . 

That spiritual potencies are in the Apostle s mind is clear from 
the phrase in the heavenly sphere , as we have already seen (above, 
on v. 3); and also from the added words not only in this world 
(or age\ but also in that which is to come\ 

Above all that anywhere is, anywhere can be above all 
grades of dignity, real or imagined, good or evil, present or to 
come the mighty power of God has exalted and enthroned the 

And He hath put all things under His feet . Thus Christ has i 22 
fulfilled in His own person the destiny of man : Let them have Gen. i 26 
dominion... . The actual words are derived from the eighth Psalm : 
What is man that Thou art mindful of him, and the son of man Ps.viii4, 6 
that Thou visitest him?... Thou hast put all things under his feet . 
The best comment is Heb. ii 6 9. 

And Him hath He given to be head over all things to the church, i 22, 23 
which is His body\ When St Paul combats the spirit of jealousy 
and division in the Corinthian Church, he works out in detail the 
metaphor of the Body and its several parts. But he does not there 
speak of Christ as the Head. For not only does he point out the 
absurdity of the head s saying to the feet, I have no need of you ; 
but he also refers to the seeing, the hearing and the smelling, to 
which he could not well have alluded as separate functions, had he 
been thinking of Christ as the head. Indeed in that great passage 
Christ has, if possible, a more impressive position still : He is no 
part, but rather the whole of which the various members are parts : 
c for as the body is one and hath many members, and all the mem- i Cor. xii 
bers of the body being many are one body ; so also is the Christ . I2 
This is in exact correspondence with the image employed by our 
Lord Himself : I am the Yine, ye are the branches . That is to John xv 5 
say, not I am the trunk of the vine, and ye the branches growing 


out of the trunk ; but rather, I am the living whole, ye are the 
parts whose life is a life dependent on the whole . 

Here however the Apostle approaches the consideration of 
Christ s relation to the Church from a different side, and his lan 
guage differs accordingly. He has begun with the exalted Christ ; 
and he has been led on to declare that the relation of the exalted 
Christ to His Church is that of the head to the body. 

It is interesting to observe that later on, when he comes to ex 
pound the details of human relationship as based on eternal truths, 
V22 ff. he says in the first place, Let wives be subject to their own hus 
bands as to the Lord ; because the husband is head of the wife, as 
also Christ is head of the Church, Himself being saviour of the 
body : but then, turning to the husbands, he drops the metaphor 
of headship, and bids them love their wives as their own bodies, 
following again the example of Christ in relation to His Church; 
and he cites the ideal of marriage as proclaimed at the creation of 
Gen. ii 24; man, the twain shall become one flesh . Not headship here, but 
E & h v^ 5 ^entity, is the relation in view. This mystery , he adds, is a 
mighty one: but I speak (it) with reference to Christ and to the 
Church . 

Thus the two conceptions involve to St Paul s mind no inherent 
contradiction. He passes easily from one to the other. Each in 
turn serves to bring out some side of the truth. 

Nor may we say that the headship of Christ is a new concep 
tion, belonging only to the Epistles to the Ephesians and to the 
Colossians 1 . For in the same Epistle to the Corinthians in which 
he regards Christ as the whole Body of which Christians are the 
i Cor. xi 3 parts, he also says, I would have you know that the head of every 
man is Christ, and the head of the woman is the man (i.e. her 
husband), and the head of Christ is God . This is not quite the. 
same thought as we have here; but it is closely parallel. 

We now come to what is perhaps the most remarkable expres 
sion in the whole epistle. It is the phrase in which St Paul 
further describes the Church, which he has just declared to be 
i 23 Christ s Body, as ike fulness of Him who all in all is being 

fulfilled . 

When the Apostle thus speaks of the Church as the pleroma 
or fulness 2 of the Christ, and in the same breath speaks of the 
Christ as being fulfilled , he would appear to mean that in some 
mysterious sense the Church is that without which the Christ is 

1 Eph. i 22, iv 15, v 23 ; Col. i 18, ii 10, 19. 

2 See the detached note on 


not complete, but with which He is or will be complete. That 
is to say, he looks upon the Christ as in a sense waiting for 
completeness, and destined in the purpose of God to find com 
pleteness in the Church. 

This is a somewhat startling thought. Are we justified in 
thus giving to St Paul s language what appears to be its obvious 
meaning ? 

1. First, let us pay attention to the metaphor which has just 
been employed, and which leads directly up to this statement. 
Christ is the Head of the Church, which is His Body. Now, is 
it not true that in a certain sense the body is the pleroma or 
fulness of the head 1 ? Is the head complete without the body? 
Can we even think of a head as performing its functions without 
a body? In the sense then in which the body is the fulness 
or completion of the head, it is clear that St Paul can speak 
of the Church as the fulness or completion of the Christ. 

Even now, in the imperfect stage of the Church, we can see 
that this is true. The Church is that through which Christ lives 
on and works on here below on earth. Jesus, the Christ incar 
nate, is no longer on earth as He was. His feet and hands no 
longer move and work in our midst, as once they moved and 
wrought in Palestine. But St Paul affirms that He is not without 
feet and hands on earth: the Church is His Body. Through the 
Church, which St Paul refuses to think of as something separate 
from Him, He still lives and moves among men 1 . 

2. But, further, although he may make havoc of his meta 
phors, St Paul will never let us forget that the relation of the 
Church to Christ is something even closer than that of a body 
to its head. In the present passage he has been describing the 
exalted Christ; and he asks, How does He in His supreme posi 
tion of authority stand to the Church 1 ? He stands as Head to 
the Body. But this is never all the truth; and if we bear in 
mind St Paul s further conception, in accordance with which the 
whole Head and Body together is the Christ, we get yet further 

help in our interpretation of the statement that the Church is the i Cor. xii 
pleroma of the Christ. For it is plainer than ever that without I3 
the Church the Christ is incomplete: and as the Church grows 
towards completion, the Christ grows towards completion; the 
Christ, who in the Divine purpose must be all in all , the Christ Col. iii u 
if we may so use the language of our own great poet that 
is to be . 

3. Again, this conception illuminates and in turn receives 

1 See the quotation from Clement of Alexandria on p. 140. 


light from a remarkable passage in the Epistle to the Colossians. 
St Paul is there speaking of his own sufferings : he can even re 
joice in them, he tells us. If the Church and the Christ are 
one, the suffering of the Church and the suffering of the Christ 
are also one. The Christ, then, has not suffered all that He is 
destined to suffer; for He goes on suffering in the sufferings of 
the Church. These sufferings of the Church have fallen with 
special heaviness on St Paul. He is filling up something of what 
is still to be filled up, if the sufferings are to be complete. So 
CoL i 24 he says : Now I rejoice in my sufferings on your behalf, and fill 
up in your stead the remainder (literally, the deficits ) of the 
sufferings of the Christ in my flesh, on behalf of His Body, 
which is the Church . Thus then the Church, the completion of 
the Christ, is destined to complete His sufferings; and St Paul 
rejoices that as a member of the Church he is allowed by God 
to do a large share of this in his own person on the Church s 
behalf. The thought is astonishing; it could never have occurred 
to a less generous spirit than St Paul s. It is of value to us 
here, as helping to show in one special direction how to St Paul s 
mind the Christ in a true sense still waited for completion, and 
would find that completion only in the Church. 

St Paul, then, thinks of the Christ as in some sense still in 
complete, and as moving towards completeness. The conception is 
difficult and mysterious no doubt; but the Apostle has given us 
abundant warning earlier in the epistle that he is dealing with 
no ordinary themes. He has already told us that the purpose 
i 10 of God is to gather up in one all things in the Christ . Until 

that great purpose is fully achieved, the Christ is not yet all 
that the Divine wisdom has determined that He shall be. He 
still waits for His completeness, His fulfilment. As that is 
being gradually worked out, the Christ is being completed, being 

By way of enhancing this ultimate completeness St Paul in 
serts the adverbial phrase all in all , or, more literally, all 
(things) in all (things) . We feel its force the more when we 
read the whole context, and observe that it comes as a climax 
after two previous declarations of supremacy over all things : 
He hath put all things under His feet; and Him hath He 
given to be head over all things to the Church, which is His 
Body, the fulness of Him who all in all is being fulfilled . And 
indeed immediately before this we read, above every principality 
...and every name . All conceivable fulness, a completeness which 

1 23] 



sums up the universe, is predicated of the Christ as the issue of 
the Divine purpose. 

Through the Church , as the Apostle will declare yet more Hi 10 
explicitly further on, this Divine purpose is being worked out The 
Head finds completeness in the Body : the Church is the completion 
of the Christ : for the Christ is being all in all fulfilled , is moving 
towards a completeness absolute and all-inclusive 1 . 

1 It may be well here to note that revolt from their king. So nothing 

the three great Versions of antiquity 
support the rendering of the pas 
sage which is here given. The Latin 
Church, the early Syrian Church, and 
the Egyptian Church so understood 
the words : see the commentary ad 

Of the Greek commentators two 
may be here quoted. 

Origen says (Cramer, Catena in 
Ephes. pp. 133 ff. ; comp. Jerome 
ad loc.) : 

"Now, we desire to know in what 
way the Church, being the Body of 
Christ, is the fulness of Him who all 
in all is being fulfilled ; and why it is 
not said of Him who filleth (TrXij- 
povvros) all in all, but who is Himself 
filled (or fulfilled, 7r\7,povf^i>ov) : 
for it will seem as though it would 
have been more naturally said that 
Christ was He who filleth, and not He 
who is filled. For He Himself not 
only is the fulness of the Law, but 
also is of all fulnesses ever the fulness, 
since nothing comes to be full apart 
from Him. See, then, if this be not 
the answer ; that inasmuch as, for the 
close relation and fellowship of the 
Son with reasonable beings, the Son 
of God is the fulness of all reasonable 
beings, so too He Himself takes as it 
were a fulness into Himself, being 
shown to be most full in regard to 
each of the blessed. And that what 
is said may be the plainer, conceive 
of a king as being filled with kingdom 
in respect of each of those who aug 
ment his kingdom ; and being emptied 
thereof in the case of those who 

is more in harmony with the merciful 
kingdom of Christ, than each of those 
reasonable beings aided and perfected 
by Him, who help to fulfil that king 
dom; in that fleeing unto Him they 
help to fulfil His Body, which is in a 
manner empty, while it lacks those 
that are thus aided by Him. Where 
fore Christ is fulfilled in all that come 
unto Him, whereas He is still lacking 
in respect of them before they have 

The words of the great master are 
not always clear, but his illustration 
is a good one up to a certain point : 
and at least there is no doubt of what 
he thought the passage meant. 

Chrysostom, in his Commentary 
on the passage (Savile, iii 776), after 
expounding the Headship of Christ to 
His Body, says : 

"But, as though this were not 
enough to show the relation and close 
connexion, what says he ? The ful 
ness , he says, of Christ is the Church. 
For the fulness of the head is the 
body, and the fulness of the body is 
the head. ... * The fulness , he says : that 
is, just as the head is filled (or ful 
filled) by the body. For the body is 
constituted of all its parts, and has 
need of each one.... For if we be not 
many, and one a hand, another a foot, 
and another some other part, then 
the whole Body is not fulfilled. By 
means of all, then, His Body is ful 
filled. Then the Head is fulfilled, 
then there comes to be a perfect Body, 
when we all together are knit and 
joined in one. Do you see the riches 


i 23 and The beginning of c. ii cannot be separated from the close of 

c. i. The Apostle has been led away to expound the mystery 
of the exalted Christ : but he comes quickly back to the actual 
persons to whom he is writing, and deals at some length with 
their relation to the exalted Christ. The transition is exactly 
parallel to that in v. ii, where from the gathering up in one of 
the universe in the Christ he turns at once to speak of the relation 
of himself and of his readers to Christ in whom also we... in whom 
ye also . . . . 

i 3 iii 21 It will be useful at this point to note the general construction of 
the first part of the epistle : 

(1) A Doxology leading to ever-expanding thoughts of the 
purpose of God in Christ, and describing the relation of Jew and 
Gentile to that purpose (i 3 14). 

(2) A Prayer leading to a preliminary exposition of the 
mystery of the exalted Christ (i 15 23), and then to a fuller 
discussion of the relation of Jew and Gentile to Him (ii i 22). 

(3) In iii i the Apostle recurs to the thought of his Prayer; 
but at once breaks off to say more of the mystery, and of his own 
work in proclaiming it; and then (iii 14) returns to his Prayer, and 
closes it at last with a brief Doxology (iii 20, 21). 

i 1523 We may now gather up the leading thoughts of i 15 23, in 

order to grasp the connexion of this passage with what follows : 

I have heard of your faith (15) : I thank God, and I pray (16) 
that you may have the true knowledge (17), the light which falls 
on the opened eye of the heart; that you may know the hope 
of God s calling, the glory of God s inheritance (18), the great 
ness of God s power: above all, the last of these as it bears 
upon ourselves (19). Judge what it is by looking at the exalted 
Christ : there you see it at work (20). God has raised Him, and 
exalted Him above every conceivable dignity of this world or 
the next (21). Thus supreme, He has further made Him Head 
of a Body (22), which in turn fulfils and completes Him; for to 
an absolute completeness He is still moving on (23) . 

The grammatical construction was broken in v. 22 : from 
that point independent sentences follow one another, no longer 
subsidiary to the words according to the working... which... of 

W. 19, 20. 

The verb of our next sentence, which is simply added by a 
conjunction to those which precede, is long in coming; for once 

of the glory of the inheritance? Do power towards them that believe? Do 
you see the exceeding greatness of the you see the hope of the calling ? " 


more the construction is broken, to be picked up again in v. 5. 
We find the verb at last in He hath quickened us together with 
Christ . 

So that the line of thought is this: The power which the Apostle 
specially prays that they may know is the very power by which 
God has raised Christ from the dead and seated Him in the 
heavenly region (i 20), and also has quickened them (both Gentiles 
and Jews, as he breaks off to explain), and raised them, and 
seated them in the heavenly region in Christ (ii 5, 6). In the 
original the sequence is brought out clearly by the repetition of 
the verbs of i 20 in a compound form in ii 6. 

AND you, who were dead in your trespasses and sins, ii i 10 
2 wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this 
world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the 
spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience ; 3 wherein 
we also all had our conversation in time past in the lusts of our 
flesh, doing the desires of our flesh and of our minds, and were 
by nature children of wrath, even as the rest : but God, being 
rich in mercy, for His great love wherewith He hath loved us, 
seven though we were dead in trespasses hath quickened us 
together with Christ, by grace ye are saved, 6 and hath 
raised us together and seated us together in the heavenly 
places in Christ Jesus: Hhat in the ages to come He might 
shew forth the exceeding riches of His grace in His kindness 
toward us in Christ Jesus. 8 For by grace are ye saved through 
faith ; and that not of yourselves : it is the gift of God : 9 not of 
works, lest any man should boast. IO For we are His workman 
ship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath 
afore prepared that we should walk in them. 

The grammatical construction is often broken in St Paul s 
writings from a desire to clear up obscurities at once and to fore 
stall possible misconceptions. His style reminds us of the freedom 
and rapidity of conversation : it hurries eagerly on, regardless of 
formal rules, inserting full explanations in a parenthesis, trusting 
to repetitions to restore the original connexion, and above all 
depending on emphasis to drive the meaning home. We have the 
less cause to be surprised at this freedom of composition, when we 


remember that several of his epistles contain the clearest indi 
cations that the Apostle s practice was to dictate his letters to an 
amanuensis l . Accordingly in many cases the force of a passage 
will most readily be felt when we read it rapidly or read it aloud. 

In the present instance the Apostle desires to work out a simple 
parallel. The mighty power of God, he would say, which raised 
Christ from the dead and seated Him in the heavenly region, has 
been at work in you as well. For you too were dead, and you too 
it has raised from the dead and seated with Christ in the heavenly 
places. But he breaks off in the middle to explain (i) in what 
sense he could speak of them as dead, and (2) that not only they, 
the Gentiles, were dead, but the Jews likewise. Quite similarly in 
i 1 3 he had broken off to say that not the Jews only had been taken 
as God s portion, but they, the Gentiles, likewise. 

ii ! Dead in your trespasses and sins / that is to say, you were 

dead, not with a physical death as Christ was, but with the death of 
sin ; dead while you lived, because you lived in sin. This state of 
death was the inevitable condition of those who had no life beyond 
the life of this world, which is dominated by death and the lords of 
death \ 

ii 2 According to the course of this world . The expression of the 

original is pleonastic. The Apostle might have said either this 

age , or this world . But for the sake of emphasis he says, in a 

phrase which we cannot use in English without ambiguity, the 

age of this world . This age and this world represent a single 

Hebrew phrase, which is often found in the Rabbinic writings, 

where it stands in contrast to the age (or world ) to come , that 

is to say, the age introduced by the advent of the Messiah. The 

contrast is not found in the canonical books of the Old Testament ; 

2 (4) Esdr. but it occurs frequently in 2 (4) Esdras. Thus we read : The 

l Most High hath made this world for many, but the world to come 

Matt.xii 3 2 for a few . The same contrast is found in St Matthew s Gospel, 

and we have had it already in this epistle 3 . 

St Paul is in agreement with contemporary Jewish thought in 

regarding this age as evil and as transitory (see Gal. i 4, i Cor. 

Eom. xii 2 vii 31). Instead of being conformed to it, Christians are to be 

transfigured even now by the renewing of their mind . For them 

1 Compare e.g. Horn, xvi 22, i Cor. 3 See Eph. i 21, and the com- 
xvi 21, Col. iv 1 8, 2 Thess. iii 17. mentary on that verse. Compare also 

2 On life and death in a spiritual 2 (4) Esdr. vi 9, For Esau is the end 
sense see the striking words of Dr Hort of this world, and Jacob is the begin- 
(Hulsean Lectures, App. pp. iSpff.). ning of it that followeth . 


this * world is already dead, having been itself crucified in the Gal. vi 14 
crucifixion of Christ. 

According to the prince of the power of the air . Here again 
the Apostle adopts the language of his contemporaries. It was the 
general belief of his time that through the Fall the whole world had 
become subject to evil spirits, who had their dwelling in the air, 
and were under the control of Satan as their prince. So in the 
New Testament itself we read of * the power of darkness , in Col. 
contrast with the kingdom of Christ ; of * the power of Satan , and 
even the kingdom of Satan ; and Beelzebub is named as the xii. 26 ; 
prince of the devils . Later on in this epistle we have a further Markm22 
description of the spiritual hosts of wickedness , who are called vi 12 
in a strange phrase the world-rulers of this darkness . 

This power (or authority ) of the air is further described by 
a collective term as the spirit that now worketh in the sons of\\i 
disobedience . The phrase is carefully chosen so as to suggest that 
the world-power as a whole stands in sharp contrast to God. It is 
a spirit , and it worketh the same forcible word which has been i n, 20 
used twice already of the Divine working. 

The sons of disobedience is a Hebraism. It recurs in v 6. 
Compare also Luke xvi 8, xx 34, the sons of this world (or age ) : 
and contrast i Thess. v 5, sons of light and sons of day . In 
rendering it into Greek the word children 7 is sometimes used 
instead of sons ; as in ii 3 children of wrath , and v 8 children 
of the light : but the meaning is precisely the same. 

Lest the Gentiles should seem for a moment to be placed in a 
worse position than the Jews, St Paul breaks off to insert a guard 
ing clause. We were all alike, he says, in this evil case. Wherein ii 3 
we also all had our conversation in time past in the lusts of our flesh, 
doing the desires of our flesh and of our minds . 

Whether in Gentile or in Jew this lower life was hateful to 
God : it was a life of disobedience, and as such it incurred the 
Divine wrath. We were by nature children of wrath, even as the 
rest . 

Children of wrath is, as we have seen, an expression parallel 
to sons of disobedience . That the wrath here spoken of must 
be the Divine wrath, and not human passion , is made clear by a 
later passage, in which similar phraseology recurs : on account v 6 
of these things the wrath of God cometh upon the sons of dis 
obedience . Moreover, to interpret wrath in this place as 
passion would destroy the contrast which immediately follows 
between wrath and mercy } . The phrase plainly signifies objects 



of the Divine wrath : compare Rom. i 18, ii 5, 8, where the wrath 
of God is shewn to attend Gentiles and Jews alike who do amiss. 

Thus far the expression involves no difficulty. This is what 
St Paul has always taught : Jew and Gentile are in the same case : 
they have alike lived in sin : they are alike sons of disobedience 
and * children of wrath . 

But into the latter phrase he inserts the words by nature 9 : 
children by nature of wrath is the order of the original. In 
interpreting these words it is important to remember that we are 
accustomed to use the word nature much more freely than it was 
used in St Paul s day. We speak, for instance, of an evil nature : 
but there is no such term to be found in the New Testament 1 . So 
too we often use the word natural in a depreciatory sense, as 
when we render i Cor. ii 14, The natural man receive th not the 
things of the Spirit of God . But in the Greek the word is i^v^t/cos, 
1 the man of soul , as opposed to Tn/eu/xariKo s, c the man of spirit . 
The Greek word for nature is a neutral word. It simply means 
the natural constitution of a thing, or the thing in itself apart from 
anything that may come to it from outside. As a rule it has a 
good meaning rather than a bad : thus according to nature is 
good, contrary to nature is bad ; compare Rom. xi 2 1 ff., and 
Rom. i 26. 

An important example of St Paul s use of the phrase by 

Eom. ii 14 nature is found in the words, When the Gentiles, which have 
not Law, by nature do the things of the Law : i.e. without the 

Gal. ii 15 intervention of a direct revelation. Other examples are, We are 
by nature Jews : i.e. we have not become such ; we are such : and, 

Gal. iv 8 those which by nature are not gods , though they may be thought 
such and called such. 

The sense of the present passage is : We were in ourselves chil 
dren of wrath, even as the rest : but God in His mercy did not 
leave us to ourselves as the Apostle hurries on to say, breaking his 
sentence again in order to point the contrast. We must be careful, 
then, while retaining the rendering by nature , not to introduce 
later meanings and associations of the word nature ; nor to 
make St Paul throw the blame upon a defect of constitution which 
necessarily led to sin and wrath. That is not the teaching of this 
passage. By nature , as St Paul used the words, men were not 
necessarily led to do wrong : they could not shift the blame on to 
their nature . 

1 In i Pet. i 4 we read of a Divine in contrast to a nature of beasts 
nature (6da 0i5<rts); and in Jas. iii 7 (0&ris 6i}pL(av). 
of a human nature (avepwrlv-r) <tf<ns) 


Much of the confusion which has shrouded the meaning of 
the passage is probably due to the word * children . This sug 
gests to many minds the idea of infancy : so that St Paul is 
taken to mean that by our birth as children we came under the 
Divine wrath. But this is quite foreign to his meaning here. He 
is not thinking, as in Rom. v, of the sin and death in which we are 
involved through Adam s disobedience. He is speaking of actual 
transgressions, of a conversation in the lusts of the flesh. Atten 
tion to the two parts of the phrase has shewn us (i) that children 
of uirath is a Hebraism for objects of wrath , and (2) that * by 
nature means simply in ourselves , as apart from the Divine 
purpose of mercy. So that the common misinterpretation which 
makes the phrase mean deserving of wrath from the moment of 
birth is due to a neglect first of a Hebrew, and then of a Greek 

St Paul hastens on, as so often, from sin to grace, only mention 
ing sin in order to shew how grace more than meets it : compare 
Rom. iii 23 f., v 12 21. Here sin and wrath lead on to a wealth ii 4 
of mercy , as in the previous chapter sin led on to * a wealth of i 7 
grace . 

Even though we were dead in trespasses . With these words he ii 5 
takes up the broken sentence of v. i : only now the Jew has been 
linked with the Gentile in the * disobedience and the wrath , and 
therefore must be kept with the Gentile in the mercy . Hence 
not you/ but we . 

He hath quickened us together with Christ, by grace ye are 
saved . St Paul s affection for the word grace , the word which to 
him sums up his own special proclamation 1 , the word which is his 
sign-manual in every epistle , leads him to break off again to insert 2 Thess. iii 
it ; and the insertion itself will presently be repeated and expanded, I ? 
causing a yet further digression (v. 8). 

Ye are saved ; not ye are being saved (present) salvation 
regarded as in process 2 : nor ye were saved (aorist) salvation as 
a single Divine act 3 : but ye are saved , or ye have been saved 
(perfect) salvation as a Divine act completed indeed, but regarded 
as continuous and permanent in its issues. 

And hath raised us together (with Him) and seated us together ii 6 
(with Him) in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus \ The compound 

1 See the detached note on the that were being saved . 

meanings of xapts. 3 As in Eom. viii 24, * for by hope 

2 As in i Cor. i 18, xv 2; 2 Cor. ii were we saved . 
15; and especially Acts ii 47, them 



verbs (a-uvrjyeipev and crvvfKaOicrcv^ are intended to recall the simple 
verbs (eyei pa? and Ka$ib-as) of i 20. Christ was dead, and was raised 
from the dead. We too, in a true sense, were dead, and as truly 
were raised from the dead in His Resurrection : aye, and were 
seated, even as He was seated, in the heavenly sphere 1 . 

All this is spoken of as a Divine act contemporaneous with the 

Resurrection and Ascension of Christ. It is wholly independent of 

any human action. It is the free grace of God, which has lifted us 

into a new world in Christ. As its motive the Apostle can but 

suggest the glorification of grace. As he had said before that the 

i 6 Election and the Adoption were f to the praise of the glory of His 

ii 7 grace : so here he says, that in the ages to come He might shew 

forth the exceeding riches of His grace in His kindness toward us in 

Christ Jesus . 

ii 8, 9 For by grace , he repeats, are ye saved through faith : and 

lest by any means the possibility of merit should seem to creep in 
with the mention of the faith which realises this great salvation, 
he adds at once : and that not oj yourselves : it is the gift of God : 
not of works, lest any man should boast : or, if we may slightly 
paraphrase the words to force out the meaning of the original : 
aye, and not of yourselves : the gift, for such it is, is God s gift : 
not of works, that none may have ground to boast J . 

ii 10 For we are His workmanship : more closely, for His making 

we are words which recall Ps. 03: * it is He that hath made us, 
and not we ourselves . But the words which here follow shew that 
it is not of the first Creation that St Paul is speaking. There has 
been a new Making of Man in Christ. We have been * created in 
Christ Jesus . 

This is that New Creation of which St Paul speaks in Gal. 
vi 15, as having done away with the distinction between those who 
were within the Jewish covenant and those who were outside it : 
* for neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision ; but 
(there is) a new creation . Similarly in 2 Cor. v 1 6 f . he declares 
that distinctions of the flesh are done away : We from henceforth 
know no man after the flesh... so that if any man be in Christ, 
(there is) a new creation : the old things have passed away : lo, 
they have become new . 

Mankind had started as One in the original Creation. But in 

the course of the world s history, through sin on the one hand, and 

on the other hand through the revelation of God to a selected 

People, a division had come in. Mankind was now Two and not 

1 See above pp. so ff. 


One. There was the privileged Jew, and there was the unprivileged 
Gentile. It was the glory of grace to bring the Two once more 
together as One in Christ. A new start was thus made in the 
world s history. St Paul called it a New Creation. 

We shall see presently the importance which he attaches to this 
view. He is our peace 7 , he says, who hath made both One... iii4f. 
that He might create the Two in Himself into One New Man, 
making peace . And so again, later on, he speaks of the New iv 24 
Man, which according to God is created in righteousness . 

The New Creation, then, in St Paul s language is that fresh 
beginning in the history of the human race by which the old division 
is done away, and the unity of mankind is restored. It was for the 
realisation of this unity that St Paul laboured and suffered. His 
supreme mission was to proclaim Christ as the centre of a united 
humanity. And this is the drift of our present passage. The 
Apostle has been speaking of the relation of both Gentile and Jew 
to Christ. Both alike were in themselves the objects of Divine 
wrath by reason of their disobedience : but both alike, though dead, 
were quickened, raised, exalted, with and in Christ Jesus. Man was 
made anew by God. Free grace had done it all : works, or merit , 
as we should say, had no part in the matter. It was a New 
Creation : { God s making are we, created in Christ Jesus . 

1 Created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath afore ii 10 
prepared that we should walk in them . Not of works , but unto 
works . The Divine purpose is not achieved apart from the good 
works of men : only it does not begin from them, but leads to 
them. They are included in the Divine will for man : they are 
ready for our doing ; and we are created to do them. This reference 
to works is an echo of the earlier controversial teaching. It is 
directly suggested by the mention of faith , which is the human 
response to the Divine grace . 

We must not allow our attention to be distracted by the details 
of interpretation from the very remarkable thought which is 
enshrined in the verses which we have been considering. The 
Apostle has been praying that God would grant to those to whom 117 
he is writing the Spirit of wisdom and revelation, with a view to 
their knowing in particular the mighty energy that is at work in i 20 
themselves and in all Christian people. It is that miraculous power 
which raised and exalted Christ. It has in like manner raised and 
exalted them in Christ : for they cannot be separated from Him, 
even as the Body cannot be separated from its Head. The result i 22 
of this action on God s part is manifold. It lifts them out of the ii i 10 


present * age , or world , and sets them * in the heavenly sphere . 
It lifts them above the control of the world-forces which rule here 
below, and seats them where Christ is seated above all the powers 
that are or can be. It lifts them out of death the death of sin 
and makes them truly alive. It annihilates the old distinction 
between Gentile and Jew, and inaugurates a New Creation of man 
kind : for Gentile and Jew alike were dead, and alike have been 
quickened and exalted in Christ Jesus. And all this is the free 
gift of God, His sovereign grace. 

The same teaching, couched to some extent in the same words, 
may be gathered out of various parts of the Epistle to the Colossians 
(see especially i 21, ii 12, 13, 20); and there it is pressed to the 
logical conclusion, which is only hinted at in the good works of 
Col. iii i ff. our passage. For there the Apostle urges : If therefore ye 
have been raised together with Christ, seek the things that are 
above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God : set your 
thought on the things that are above, not on the things that are on 
the earth. For ye have died, and your life is hidden with Christ 
in God . 

Nor is the teaching by any means confined to these two epistles. 

We need but recall the sixth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, 

Horn, vi 1 1 where again the logical conclusion is vigorously pressed : In like 

manner do ye also reckon yourselves dead to sin, but living to God 

in Christ Jesus . 

In our present passage the practical issue is not insisted on, but 
merely hinted at in passing. The Apostle s main thought is the 
unity which has thus been brought about, and the new hope which 
accordingly is opened up for mankind as a whole. Hence he passes 
on at once to expound the wealth of privilege to which, as the result 
of this new unity, his Gentile readers have been introduced. 

ii 1122 "WHEREFORE remember that in time past ye, the Gentiles 

in the flesh, who are called the Uncircumcision by that which 
is called the Circumcision, in the flesh, made by hands, " that 
at that time without Christ ye were aliens from the common 
wealth of Israel and strangers from the covenants of promise, 
having no hope and without God in the world. I3 But now in 
Christ Jesus ye who in time past were far off have been made 
nigh by the blood of Christ. I4 For He is our peace, who hath 
made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of the 
partition, I5 having abolished in His flesh the enmity, the law 


of commandments contained in ordinances; that He might 
create in Himself of the twain one new man, so making peace ; 
16 and that He might reconcile both unto God in one body by 
the cross, having slain the enmity thereby : I7 and He came and 
preached peace to you which were afar off, and peace to them 
that were nigh ; I8 for through Him we both have our access in 
one Spirit unto the Father. I9 So then ye are no more strangers 
and sojourners, but ye are fellow-citizens with the saints, and 
of the household of God, * being built upon the foundation 
of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the 
corner-stone ; M in whom all the building fitly framed together 
groweth into an holy temple in the Lord; 22 in whom ye also 
are being builded together for an habitation of God in the 

f Wherefore remember*. It is hard for us to realise the vital ii u 
interest of this teaching to St Paul s readers. To us the distinction 
of Jew and Gentile is not the most important fact in human life. 
The battle for our privilege as Gentile Christians for our part 
and place in Christ was fought and won eighteen hundred years 
ago. We have forgotten the struggle and the victory altogether. 
We do not recognise that this was a decisive battle of the world s 

But for the Gentiles to whom St Paul wrote the abolition of this 
great distinction was everything. For five and twenty years the 
conflict had been raging. At one moment the issue had depended 
on a single man. A little place the Christian Jew was prepared to 
allow to the Christian Gentile. He might be like the stranger in 
the gates : but he could not be as the true born child of privilege, 
unless indeed he were prepared to abandon his Gentile position, and 
by circumcision identify himself with the Jew. 

At one critical moment even St Peter withdrew himself, and Gal. iii iff. 
would not sit at the same table with the Gentile Christians. St 
Barnabas at that moment was likewise carried away. St Paul stood 
alone. He saw that everything depended on absolute equality 
within the Church of Christ. He withstood St Peter to the face, 
and brought him to his true self again. That scene and a score of 
others, when in different ways the same struggle was being waged, 
left a deep mark on St Paul s mind. Two Churches or one that to 
his mind was the question at issue. One Church, in the providence 
of God, and through the work of St Paul, it was destined to be. 


The struggle was over but only just over when he wrote this 
letter. It was the morrow of the victory. Can we marvel that 
while it was vivid in his memory, and in the memories of all, he 
should delight again and again to remind the Gentiles of what had 
been gained 1 Wherefore remember . 

ii 1 1 Remember that in time past ye, the Gentiles in the flesh . The 

connexion appears to be this. We both Gentiles and Jews, with 
no distinction now are God s New Creation in Christ; created 
with an end to fulfil, a path marked out to tread. Wherefore 
remember what you were, and what you are. You were the 
despised, outside, alien Gentiles, while these fleshly distinctions 

2 Cor. v 1 6 lasted. But now that we know no man after the flesh , now that 
the New Creation has made the Two no longer Two, but One, all is 
yours : you have equal rights of citizenship, an equal place in the 
family of God ; you go to make up the Temple in which it pleases 
God to dwell. 

Remember that in time past ye, the Gentiles in the flesh , while 
the flesh was the ground of distinction, as it was while the sign 
of God s covenant was a mark made by a man s hand on a man s 
flesh who are called the Uncircumcision by that which is called 
the Circumcision, in the flesh, made with hands . There is no 
necessary trace of contempt, as has been sometimes thought, in the 
expressions, who are called the Uncircumcision , and which is 
called the Circumcision . These were familiar names on Jewish 
lips, even if St Paul himself will not lend them his sanction. There 
is no ground for the interpretation, the so-called , as if the Apostle 
meant that the distinctions were absurd or unreal. They were very 
real and very tremendous; but they were done away in the New 
Creation. So far as there is any depreciation of circumcision in the 
passage, it is found in the last words, which are intended to suggest 
that it belongs to an order that is material and transient. 

The emphasis which the Apostle wishes to lay on the words the 
Gentiles has led him again to expand, and so the sentence is broken. 
This is the third time in the epistle that he has broken his sentence 
to emphasise the position of the Jew and the Gentile : compare 113 
and ii 3. Nothing could more clearly shew the place this question 
held in his thought. 

ii 12 That at that time without Christ ye were aliens from the common 

wealth of Israel and strangers from the covenants of promise . A 
contrast is here drawn between their old position, at that time 
without Christ , and their new position, now in Christ Jesus 
(v. 13). This contrast is somewhat obscured if we render, as in the 


Authorised Version, that at that time ye were without Christ, 
being aliens <fcc. They are called upon to remember not simply 
that they were without Christ, but what they were without Christ. 

It is interesting to compare with this statement of disabilities 
the Apostle s catalogue in an earlier epistle of the privileges of those 
whom he terms his brethren, his kinsfolk after the flesh : they Rom. ix 
* are Israelites ; theirs are the adoption, and the glory, and the 3 ~ 5 
covenants, and the giving of the law, and the worship, and the 
promises ; theirs are the fathers , that is, the patriarchs and 
prophets, the heroes of the past ; and of them is the Christ accord 
ing to the flesh . These were their distinctive privileges, which 
marked them as the Elect People. It was these things that the 
Gentiles had lacked. 

In Christ , indeed, as they now were, all was theirs ; but * with 
out Christ , as they had been, they were unenfranchised outlanders , 
aliens and foreigners, with no rights of citizenship in the sacred Gen. xvii 7 

x - 

commonwealth, with no share in the covenants which guaranteed j x - X * 1V 
the promise made to Abraham and his seed for ever . 72 f. 

1 Having no hope . The Jew had a hope : the Gentile had none. 
The golden age of the Gentile was in the past : his poets told him 
of it, and how it was gone. The Jew s golden age was in the 
future : his prophets told him to look forward to its coming. 

And without God . Though there were gods many and lords i Cor. viii 
many , yet in the true sense they had no God. It had not yet ^ 
been revealed, as it was revealed through Christ, that the God of R om. iii 
the Jews was the God of the Gentiles also . 

This is the only place in the New Testament where the word 
<x0eos occurs. It is in no contemptuous sense that the Apostle 
speaks of them as having been atheists , or godless . It was the 
simple and sad description of their actual state, not indeed from 
their own, but from the only true point of view. 

The charge of atheism was hurled again and again by the 
heathen at the Christians of the early days. Justin Martyr com 
plains that Christians were persecuted as aOeoi, and reminds the 
persecutors that Socrates had been put to death as a#eos. On a 
memorable occasion the phrase was turned back on those who used 
it. The Martyrdom of Poly carp tells (c. 9) how the proconsul bade 
the aged bishop, in words which it was customary to employ, 
Swear by the genius of the emperor ; repent ; say, Away with 
the atheists (Atpe TOVS dOeovs meaning the Christians). Then 
Polycarp, looking towards the people and waving with his hand, 
groaned and looked up to heaven and said, Aipe TOVS a0e ovs . It 
was they and not the Christians, who had no God. 



* In the world . These words are the positive description of the 
state which the Apostle has hitherto been describing entirely by 
negatives. Coming at the close, they stand in sharp contrast to 
what immediately follows : but now in Christ Jesus... 

They are not however to be taken by themselves, but in close 
connexion with the two preceding phrases. The world, to St Paul, 
is the present outward order of things ; not of necessity to be 
characterised as evil ; but evil, when considered as apart from God, 
or as in opposition to God. Without a hope, and without a God 
this was to be in the world and limited to the world, with nothing 
to lift them above the material and the transient. It was to be, in 
St John s language, not only in the world , but of the world . 

i I3 But now in Christ Jesus ye who in time past were far off have 

been made nigh by the blood of Christ . In the remainder of this 
section the Apostle reverses the picture. They were c without 
Christ... in the world : they are in Christ Jesus . The distance 
between the unprivileged and the privileged is annihilated : the 

Isa. Ivii 19 far has become near . These are Old Testament terms: the 
allusion is more explicitly made below in v. 17. 

By the blood of Christ , or (more literally) in the blood of the 
Christ . So in i 7 we had through His blood , when the Apostle 
was speaking of the Emancipation, before he had distinguished the 
two classes of Jew and Gentile, and when he was describing the 
blessings of the new Election in the imagery of the old covenant. 
We may reserve to a later point the consideration of his present 
use of the words. 

ii 14 For He is our peace . The pronoun is emphatic in the original. 

We might render : For He Himself is our peace , or For it is He 
who is our peace . 

Note that the Apostle, having taken two words from the passage 
in Isaiah, now takes a third. In fact it is thus that the word 

Isa. Ivii 19 c peace is suggested to him : for the old promise ran : Peace, peace 
to him that is far off, and to him that is nigh . It is He , says 
St Paul, who is our peace . Note also the change in the pronouns 
from ye to our . To you and to us the peace has come. We 
were strangers to one another ; nay, we were enemies : it is He 
who is our peace . 

He, who hath made both one both the parts one whole. The 
neuter of the original cannot well be expressed by an English 
translation. Lower down, instead of the neuter he will use the 

ii 15 masculine : that He might create the two (men) into one new man, 

(so) making peace . 


This is the most perfect peace : not the armed peace of rival 
powers, not even the peace of the most friendly alliance ; but the 
peace which comes from absolute unity. There can be no more a 
quarrel, when there are no more two, but only one. 

8 And hath broken down the middle watt of the partition* ; that is, ii 14 
the intervening wall which formed the barrier. 

To understand the metaphor we must know something of the 
construction of the Temple in St Paul s day. The area which had 
been enclosed by Herod the Great was very large. It consisted of 
court within court, and innermost of all the Holy Place and the Holy 
of Holies. There were varying degrees of sanctity in these sacred 
places. Into the Holy of Holies only the High Priest could enter, 
and that once in the year. The Holy Place was entered daily and 
incense was burned by a priest on the golden altar at the moment 
of the sacrifice of the morning and evening lamb. This sacrifice took 
place outside in the Court of the Priests, where was the great Altar 
of Burnt-offerings. Outside this again were two further courts the 
Court of the Sons of Israel immediately adjacent, and beyond this 
on the east the Court of the Women. The whole of the localities 
thus far mentioned formed a raised plateau : from it you descended 
at various points down five steps and through gates in a lofty wall, to 
find yourself not yet outside the temple-precincts, but on a narrow 
platform overlooking another large court the outer court to which 
Gentiles who desired to see something of the glories of the Temple, 
or to offer gifts and sacrifices to the God of the Jews, were freely 
admitted. Further in than this court they were forbidden on pain 
of death to go. The actual boundary line which the Gentile might 
not cross was not the high wall with its gates, but a low stone 
barrier about five feet in height which ran round at the bottom of 
fourteen more steps 1 . 

In the year 1871, during the excavations which were being 
made on the site of the Temple on behalf of the Committee of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund, M. Clermont Ganneau found one of 
the very pillars which Josephus describes as having been set up on 
the barrier to which St Paul here refers. It is now preserved in 

1 This account is derived from most beautifully worked; on it there 

Josephus Antiqq. xv n, B. J. v 5. In were set up at equal distances pillars 

the latter passage he says : As you setting forth the law of sanctity, some 

went ou through this first court to the in Greek and some in Eoman charac- 

second there was a stone fence run- ters, how that no man of another race 

ning all round, three cubits high and might pass within the sanctuary . 


tlie Museum at Constantinople, and it bears the following inscrip 
tion in Greek letters 1 : 


That barrier, with its series of inscribed stones threatening 
death to the intruder, was still standing in the Temple courts at the 
moment when St Paul boldly proclaimed that Christ had broken it 
down. It still stood : but it was already antiquated, obsolete, out 
of date, so far as its spiritual meaning went. The sign still stood : 
but the thing signified was broken down. The thing signified was 
the separation between Gentile and Jew. That was done away in 
the person of Jesus Christ. A few years later the sign itself was 
dashed down in a literal ruin. Out of that ruin a fragment of it 
has been dug, after exactly eighteen hundred years, to enforce 
St Paul s words, and by a striking object lesson to bid us, the 
Gentiles, remember 7 that in Christ Jesus we who were far off 
have been made nigh . 

ii ii 14 At this point we may pause to draw out in greater fulness the 

teaching of the Apostle in this passage. He has called on the 
Gentiles, who have newly been admitted into a position of absolute 
equality of privilege with the Jew, to remember what they were 
and what they now are. They were the Gentiles, according to a 
distinction which he describes by the words * in the flesh : that is 
to say, they were the Uncircumcision, as they were called by those 
who on their part were called the Circumcision. The distinction 
was an external one : it was made c in the flesh ; it was made by a 
man s hand. The very terms suggest and are chosen to suggest 
that it was temporary, not eternal. But it was not therefore un 
real ; nor was it wrong : it was part of the Divine method for the 
education of the world. It is done away now ; but it was divinely 
ordained, and tremendous in its reality while it lasted. 

This is what they were. There was a dividing line, and they 
were on the wrong side of it. And consequently, as he goes on to 
say, they were not only without the sign of privilege, but without 
the privilege itself. For they were not members of the Chosen 
People : they were aliens, they were strangers : they knew nothing 
of a Divine fellowship, a sacred polity, in which men were linked 
to one another and to God, in which God had entered into covenant 
1 For the Greek text see the commentary ad loc. 


with men and had blessed them with a promise which brightened 
their outlook into the future. Nothing of all this was for them : 
they had no hope, no God : they were in the world without a hope 
and without a God the world, which might be so full of hope and 
so full of God, to those who knew the Divine purpose and their 
own share in it ; but which was as a fact to them, in their isolated, 
unprivileged condition, a hopeless and a godless world. That is 
what they were : it would do them good to think upon it. 

If we bear in mind how closely St Paul links together member 
ship in a Divine polity and fellowship with God Himself, we shall 
be saved from some difficulties of interpretation later on. He did 
not deny that God was working in the hearts of the Gentiles all 
the while : something of God could be known to them, was known 
to them : He left not Himself without witness , He was always Acts xiv 1 7 
doing them good : their sin consisted in their rebellion against Him 
who made Himself felt among them, at least in some degree, as the 
Lord of their spirits. But they were not like the favoured Jews, 
who knew God and had been brought into an actual fellowship 
with Him, who had God * so nigh unto them , who were claimed Deut. iv 7 
every moment of their lives as God s own ; so that in a peculiar 
sense God was * the God of Israel , and Israel was * the Israel of 
God . 

The Jew, and the Jew alone, was nigh to God. And hence it 
followed that to be nigh to the Jew was to be nigh to God, and to 
be far from the Jew was to be far from God. 

This then is what St Paul says : You were far off, but now you 
have been made nigh. In the first instance he means, You were 
far off from the Jewish commonwealth and the covenants that con 
tained the promise : but he cannot separate this thought from that 
other which gave it all its meaning and importance far from the 
sacred commonwealth is far from God. 

We must go back upon his life-long training, if we would under 
stand his position. From a child he had been taught that he was 
a member of a Selected People, that he was brought into a Divine 
fellowship. This membership, this citizenship in the sacred polity, 
was the fact on which his whole life rested. This was what made 
life worth living to him : this was his one only and sufficient 
hope for the great future. When he became a Christian this was 
not taken from him. Only he now saw that his People s hope had 
come : he saw in Jesus the Messiah of his People s longings. All, 
and more than all, that his prophets had foretold had actually come 
to pass. The Divine fellowship, the sacred commonwealth, was 
more than ever to him now. To be within it, as he knew he was, 


was infinitely more precious a privilege, to be outside was far more 
grievous a disability, than ever it could have seemed before. 

Hence the deep pathos of his language as he describes the hopeless 
misery of the Gentile world. Hence too his supreme delight in pro 
claiming, not that the Divine fellowship was suddenly at an end, but 
that the old limits by which it had been confined to a single race were 
done away ; that the world was no longer two parts one privileged, 
the other unprivileged but one whole, all privileged alike ; that the 
partition wall which had kept the Gentile at a distance was simply 
broken down, and that Jew and Gentile might enter hand in hand 
Mark xi into the One Father s house, ( the house of prayer for all nations . 
1 ? It was the fulfilment of the Jewish hope not its disappointment 

which had brought about this glorious issue. It was the Messiah 
who had done it. The Jew lost nothing : he gained everything 
gained new brothers, gained the whole Gentile world. In Christ 
Ps. ii 8 God had given him the heathen for his inheritance, and the utter 
most parts of the earth for his possession . 

The Gentile too had gained all. He indeed had nothing to lose, 
and could only gain. He had gained brotherhood with the Jew, a 
place in the Divine family, the franchise of the sacred polity, his 
passage across the partition which had divided him from the Jew 
and thereby had divided him from God. He was brought nigh 
nigh to the Jew, and nigh to God. 

All this is in St Paul s thought when he says : c Ye were far off, 
but ye have been made nigh . 

We have not yet considered the important words which he adds 

1113 to this statement: in or by the blood of the Christ 7 . The 

reconciliation by which the far off and the near are brought 

together by which Gentile is made nigh to Jew and thereby nigh 

Eeb. ix 1 8 to God is not without blood . For neither was the Jew s own 

covenant without blood . 

We need to remind ourselves that from the earliest days every 
treaty between man and man, as well as every covenant between 
man and God, was ratified and made sure by the blood of a sacrifice. 
All that is done away now, and we find it hard to do full justice to 
a conception so foreign to our ways of thinking. But we must bear 
this fact in mind if we would understand St Paul. The covenant 
between a nation and its deity was a covenant of blood : the peace 
between a nation and a nation was ratified by a victim s blood 1 . 

1 The history of this idea, which by the late Professor W. Eobertson 

played so large a part in human life Smith (part I. Fundamental Institu- 

before the Christian era, is elaborately tions ). 
treated in The Religion of the Semites 


That the Messiah had been killed was at first sight the defeat 
and failure of all the expectation of which He had been the centre. 
His resurrection dispelled the gloom, and shewed that He had 
triumphed in spite of death even through death, for He had shewn 
Himself the conqueror of death. His death was presently seen to 
have been a necessary stage of His work. It partook of the nature 
of a sacrifice. It was the blood of a covenant : so He Himself had 
solemnly described it on the eve of His crucifixion * This is My Mark xiv 
Blood of the Covenant . St Paul gives us here an interpretation of 
His words. The blood of the Christ had made a new treaty of 
peace between the two opposing sections of humanity : it had made 
the two into one. * The blood of the Christ had made the far off 
to be near : it had widened out the old Covenant, so as to embrace 
those who had been outside : it had become the fulfilment of all the 
sacrificial blood-shedding of the old Covenant, which it superseded 
only by including it in a new Covenant, in which Jew and Gentile 
alike had access to the one and only God. His life-blood poured out 
as the ratification of the new Covenant, says St Paul, has made * the 
far off near ; for He Himself is our peace ; He Himself has made 
the two parts one whole ; He Himself has broken down the partition- 
wall that shut off the one from the privileges of the other. 

Up to this point the Apostle s meaning is clear, when once we 
have grasped the conceptions which lie behind his thought. But he 
is conscious that he has been using the language of metaphor, and 
he proceeds to elaborate and to interpret what he has been saying. 
The participial clause which follows is a re-statement in other terms 
of what has immediately preceded. 

* Having abolished in His flesh the enmity, the law of command- ii 15 
ments contained in ordinances 7 . This recasts and presents afresh 
the statements He Himself is our peace and He hath broken 
down the middle wall of the partition . In His flesh corresponds 
to the emphatic pronoun * He Himself ; the abolition of the 
enmity is a new description of our peace . As the division was 
symbolised and expressed in the barrier of the Temple, so the 
enmity was expressed in the law of commandments contained in 
ordinances . Accordingly the breaking down of the Temple barrier 
is one and the same thing with the abolition of the enmity as it had 
taken outward shape in the enactments of the ritual law. 

But these phrases deserve to be considered one by one. In 
His flesh . His flesh is the scriptural term for what we speak of 
as His humanity, His human nature. He took upon Him flesh 
was an early Christian mode of speaking of the mystery of the 


Incarnation. It is the same in meaning with the great phrase of 
the Te Deum, Tu ad liberandum suscepisti hominem, Thou tookest 
upon Thee man, to deliver him . The flesh of Christ is our common 
humanity, which He deigned to make His own. So that in Him 
all flesh , that is, all humanity, finds its meeting point. And thus 
He is Himself our peace : in His own person He has abolished our 

The law of commandments contained in ordinances was abolished 
by Christ. The fulness of this expression is no doubt intentional. 
Matt, v 17 Christ came not to destroy the law, but to fulfil it: not to 
break it down, but to fill it with its full meaning. Yet this was to 
do away with it in so far as it was a limited code of commands. 
All its commandments were swallowed up in the new commandment 
of love. In so far as it was petrified in enactments, and especially 
in those external ordinances which guided all the details of the 
Jew s daily life and were meant above all things to keep him 
distinct from the outside Gentile, -just in that sense and in that 
measure it was annulled in Christ. This is made clearer by the 
guarding phrase in ordinances . The law, so far as it was a law 
of commandments and was identified with external l ordinances 7 , 
was abolished by Christ. 

The Apostle uses parallel language in the Epistle to the Colos- 
Col. ii 14 sians. * He hath cancelled the bond that stood against us, (that 
consisted) in ordinances : He hath taken it out of the way, having 
nailed it to His cross . And he asks, lower down, of those who 
seemed to wish to return to a modified system of external prohibi- 
Col. ii. 20, tions : Why are ye still ordinance-ridden ? And at the same time 
he explains his meaning by examples of such ordinances : Touch 
not, taste not, handle not . To re-enact these was to abandon the 
Gospel and to return to the commandments and doctrines of men . 
The law of commandments in ordinances had an important 
use while the distinction in the flesh between Jew and Gentile 
had to be clearly marked. The touch of certain things defiled, the 
taste of certain meats made a man unclean. To touch even in the 
commerce of the market what a Gentile had touched, to eat at the 
same table at which a Gentile ate these things were defiling then. 
The ordinances were framed to prevent such pollution, such sins 
against the Divine covenant which marked off the Jews as a 
peculiar people. It was just these distinctions that were done away 
now ; and with them the ordinances which enforced them were 

The law of commandments in ordinances was abolished, and 
abolished by the Messiah Himself. In His flesh He had united 


those whom these distinctions had held apart : in His blood ? He 
had made a new Covenant which included them both. 

That He might create in Himself of the twain one new man, so ii 15 
making peace . This is the New Creation, the New Man, of which 
we have spoken already. Henceforth God deals with man as a 
whole, as a single individual, in Christ. Not as Two Men, the 
privileged and the unprivileged Two, parted one from the other by 
a barrier in the most sacred of all the relations of life : but as One 
Man, united in a peace, which is no mere alliance of elements 
naturally distinct, but a concorporation, the common life of a single 

And that He might reconcile both unto God in one body by the ii 16 
cross, having slain the enmity thereby . Here the Apostle expresses 
what has all along been implied in his thought, namely, that the 
peace by which the Gentile was reconciled to the Jew was at the 
same time a peace with God. In the new Covenant which was 
made in the blood of the Christ not only were the two sections of 
humanity brought nigh to one another, but both of them in the 
same moment were brought nigh to God. 

In one body . This is the one body which has resulted from 
the union of the two sections. It is the one body to which the 
one Spirit of v. 1 8 corresponds. It is not the human body of the 
Lord Jesus ; that was referred to above in v. 15 by the expression 
1 in His flesh . Here St Paul is speaking of that larger Body of 
the exalted Christ, of which he has already declared that it is His i 23 
fulness or completion, and of which he will presently declare that iv 4 
there is one body and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope 
of your calling . 

Having slain the enmity thereby , that is, by the Cross. An 
alternative rendering is having slain the enmity in Himself. The 
meaning is the same in either case : and the expression is a bold 
one. Christ in His death was slain : but the slain was a slayer 

And He came and preached (or published good tidings of) " 17 
peace to you which were afar off, and peace to them that were nigh . 
In these words St Paul combines with the passage of Isaiah which 
he has already used in w. 13, 14 another passage of the same book. 
Peace, peace to him that is far off and to him that is near, saith Isa. Ivii 19 
the Lord , is combined with How beautiful upon the mountains Isa. lii 7 
are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth 
peace . The verb to publish good tidings is drawn by the Apostle 
from the Septuagint version of the latter passage. 

EPHES." e 


In the words He came and preached we have a reference not 
to the work of the Lord Jesus on earth before the Crucifixion, but 
to the work of the exalted Christ in announcing the peace which 
His death had made. 

ii 1 8 c For through Him, we both have our access in one Spirit unto the 

Father . The new Covenant was henceforward the ground of the 
Jew s approach to God, as well as of the Gentile s. For the old 
Covenant was swallowed up in the new. Jew and Gentile now 
rested alike on the new Covenant, and so all distinction between 
them was at an end. 

It is noteworthy that, as the Apostle proceeds, the hostility 
between Jew and Gentile has been gradually falling into the back 
ground. The reconciliation of which he speaks is the reconciliation 
of both to God, even more than of each to the other ; and the 
climax of all is found in the access of both to the common Father. 
For the supreme blessing which the new Covenant has secured is 
freedom of approach to Him who is to be known henceforth by His 
new Name, not as Jehovah the God of Israel, but as the Father. 

* In one Spirit . This phrase is the counterpart of the phrase 

in one body of v. 16. In one body we both were reconciled to 

God : c in one Spirit we both have our access to the Father. The 

* one body is animated by one Spirit . So, later on, the Apostle 

iv 4 declares : { There is one body and one Spirit, even as ye have been 

called in one hope of your calling . Even if the reference is not 

primarily to the Holy Spirit, yet the thought of Him as the Spirit 

Comp. ^ fellowship is necessarily present where the one Spirit of the 

i Cor. xii < one body is spoken of. The Body of the Christ has a Spirit that 

T 3 dwells in it. That Spirit is the Spirit of the Christ, the Holy Spirit. 

When we grasp this correlation of the Body of Christ and the Spirit 

of Christ, we can understand why in the Apostolic Creed the clause 

The Holy Catholic Church forms the first subdivision of the 

section which begins, I believe in the Holy Ghost . 

ji jg So then ye are no more strangers and sojourners, but ye are 

fellow-citizens with the saints . The Apostle returns to his political 
metaphor, and uses a term which was well understood in the Greek 
cities. The sojourners were a class of residents who were recog 
nised by law and were allowed certain definite privileges : but 
their very name suggested that their position was not a permanent 
one : they resided on sufferance only, and had no rights of citizen 
ship. The Gentiles, says St Paul, are no longer in this position of 
exclusion from the franchise of the sacred commonwealth. They 
are fellow-citizens with the saints . The saints was a designation 


proper to the members of the ancient People of God. They were 
a holy nation : they were saints by virtue of their national 
consecration to Jehovah. The designation was naturally retained 
by St Paul, when the Chosen People was widened into the Catholic 
Church. To quote Bishop Lightfoot s words 1 : "The Christian 
Church, having taken the place of the Jewish race, has inherited 
all its titles and privileges ; it is * a chosen generation, a royal 
priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people (i Pet. ii 9). All who 
have entered into the Christian covenant by baptism are saints in 
the language of the Apostles. Even the irregularities and profli 
gacies of the Corinthian Church do not forfeit it this title ". 

The Gentiles, then, had been admitted to full rights in the 
polity of the saints : they were now no less truly a part of the 
consecrated people than were the Jews. But the Apostle adds a 
further metaphor. He has just spoken of God as the Father , to 
whom they had been given access. In harmony with this he now 
declares that the Gentiles are members of God s family, or house 
hold : they have all the privileges of the sons of the house : they are 
* of the household of God \ In this phrase he uses an adjective ii 19 
(otKctos) which implies the word house in the non-material sense in 
which we often use it ourselves : comp. i Tim. iii. 4 and 1 5. But 
we can scarcely doubt that it is the feeling of the radical meaning 
of the word that leads him on to the new metaphor which he at 
once developes, and which would seem excessively abrupt if it were 
not for this half-hidden connexion. They are not merely members 
of the household, but actually a part of the house of God. 

Being built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, ii 20 
Christ Jesus Himself being the corner-stone . They are not the first 
stones laid in the building : they are built up on others which were 
there before them. The foundation stones are the apostles and 
prophets, the chief stone of all being Christ Jesus Himself, who is the Isa. xxviii 
Corner-stone , as the Old Testament writers had called the Messiah. I " ..? s * 

CXVlll 22 

In an earlier epistle St Paul had emphatically declared : * Other 
foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ . 
But there he is employing his metaphor in a different way. He is 
not speaking of persons who are builded in, but of persons who 
build. He himself, for example, is not a stone of the building, but 
a wise master-builder : those of whom he speaks are builders also, 
and their work will come to the testing. The foundation he has 
himself laid in the proclamation of Christ Jesus : it is not possible 
that any of them should lay any other foundation : but it is only 
too possible that the superstructure which they raise should be 
1 Note on Philippians i i. 



worthless, and that instead of wages for good work done they 
should come in for the fine which attached to careless or fraudulent 
workmanship. Here the application of the metaphor is different. 
The stones are persons : the foundation stones are the apostles 
and prophets, the most important stone of all being Christ Jesus 

This last phrase is emphatic. Christ, the Messiah who had 
been spoken of beforehand as the corner-stone; Jesus, the human 
manifestation of the Christ in time : Christ Jesus Himself . He 
is part of the Body which He brings into being, for He is its Head : 
He is part of the House which He founds, for He is its Corner 
stone. The passage in St Paul s mind at this point is Isa. xxviii 16, 
as it was rendered by the Septuagint : Behold, I lay for the 
foundations of Sion a stone costly and chosen, a precious corner 
stone for the foundations thereof . And just because he will speak 
of Christ in the old prophet s terms as a corner-stone, he cannot 
here speak of Him as the whole foundation. 

Matt, xvi We are naturally reminded by this passage of the saying of our 

Lord to St Peter : I say unto thee, Thou art Peter (IleYpos), and 
upon this rock (TreVpa) I will build My Church, and the gates of hell 
shall not prevail against it : I will give to thee the keys of the 
kingdom of heaven . Here we have the same metaphor, and again 
its application is slightly varied. In English the play upon words 
is wholly lost : in the Greek it is somewhat obscured by the change 
from Ilerpos to Trerpa. The feminine word (Trerpa) could not well be 
the name of a man, and accordingly the Greek name of Cepha was 
Herpes, which signifies a stone rather than a rock. But in the 
Aramaic, in which our Lord almost certainly spoke, there was no 
such difficulty. Cepha was equally a stone or a rock. So that the 
words must have run, just as we now read them in the Syriac 
versions : * Thou art Cepha, and upon this cepha I will build My 
Church . 

It is worth our while to notice how the metaphor of a house is 

there applied to the Church. It is the Divine House which Christ 

will build (He is neither the foundation nor the corner-stone, but 

the Builder), and the keys of it He will place in the Apostle s 

hands. Thus by a rapid transition the Apostle s own relation to 

the house is expressed by a new metaphor ; he is now the steward 

Isa.xxii-22 of the house: compare the prophet s words: I will give the 

(Heb.) key of the houge of D avid > Thug the Church the Ecclesia 

corresponds to the kingdom of heaven , which the Messiah has 
come to establish : each of the designations being drawn from the 
past history of the sacred commonwealth, which was at once * the 


Ecclesia of the sons of Israel and the kingdom of Israel . My 
Ecclesia , Christ says, (i.e. My new Israel) I will build : compare 
Amos ix ii ., cited in Acts xv 16 f., I will build again the taber 
nacle of David which is fallen down . 

In our present passage the foundation is not Peter (Cepha, the 
rock) ; he is only a part with others of the foundation : not Christ, 
for even He is but a part, though the chief part, the corner-stone : 
but f the apostles and prophets . The scope of these designations I 
have discussed elsewhere 1 . Here it is enough to say with regard 
to the former that though the Twelve and St Paul himself are no 
doubt primarily intended, we need not seek to narrow it to them to 
the exclusion of others who may have been founders or joint-founders 
of Churches. With regard to the latter the whole context makes 
it abundantly plain that St Paul is not taking us back from the 
New Covenant to the Old not speaking of Old Testament prophets 
in the past when he says that the apostles and prophets are the 
foundation of the new House of God. 

When St Paul speaks of Christ as the corner-stone, he uses a 
metaphor which appears to be wholly Oriental. The Greeks laid 
no stress on corner-stones. We must go to the East if we would 
understand at all what they mean. The corner-stones in the 
Temple substructures, which have been excavated by the agency 
of the Palestine Exploration Fund, are not, as we might perhaps 
have supposed, stones so shaped as to contain a right-angle, and 
thus by their projecting arms to bind two walls together; though 
it would appear from an incidental remark of Sir Henry Layard 
(Nineveh ii 254) that he had seen some such at Nineveh. They are 
straight blocks which run up to a corner, where they are met in the 
angle by similar stones, the ends of which come immediately above 
or below them. These straight blocks are of great length, frequently 
measuring fifteen feet. The longest that has been found is described 
by Sir Charles Warren (Jerusalem Recovered, p. 121) in his account 
of the excavation of the southern wall of the sanctuary area. It 
measures 38 feet and 9 inches, and belongs to a very ancient period 
of building. It was such a stone as this that furnished the ancient 
prophet with his image of the Messiah. 

1 In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an ii 21 
holy temple in the Lord . The uncertainty which has attended the 
translation of these words may best be illustrated by bringing 
together the various forms of the English Version in this place 2 . 

1 See Encyclopedia Biblica, arts. 2 I cite the older renderings from 

Apostle and Prophet (N. T.) : see The English Hexapla (Bagster, 
also below, pp. 97 f. 1841). 


WICLIF. 1380. In whom eche bildynge made: wexeth in to 

an holi temple in the lord. 
TYNDALE. 1534. In whom everj bildynge coupled togedder, 

groweth vnto an holy temple in the lorde. 
CRANMER. 1539. In whom what buyldyng soever is coupled 

together, it groweth vnto an holy temple in the Lorde. 
GENEVA. 1557. In whom all the buyldying coupled together, 

groweth vnto an holy temple in the Lord. 
RHEIMS. 1582. In whom al building framed together, groweth 

into an holy temple in our Lord. 
AUTHORISED. 1611. In whom all the building fitly framed 

together, groweth vnto an holy temple in the Lord. 
REVISED. 1881. In whom ^ach several building, fitly framed 

together, groweth into a holy 2 temple in the Lord. 
1 Gr. every building. 2 Or, sanctuary. 

We need not at this point enter into the causes of so great 
variety of rendering. This would be to discuss the influence of the 
Latin Vulgate, and of the variants in the Greek text. Our study 
of the context should by this time have made it perfectly clear that 
St Paul contemplates a single structure and no more. Such a 
rendering then as every building 7 (that is to say, all the build 
ings ) is out of harmony with the general thought of the passage. 
If the Apostle has in any way referred to parts which go to make 
up a whole, it has always been to two parts, and only two, viz. the 
Jew and the Gentile. To introduce the idea of many churches 
going to make up one Church is to do violence to the spirit of this 
whole section. The rendering each several building, fitly framed 
together, groweth into a holy temple offends the most conspicuously 
against the Apostle s thought. For it must logically imply that 
the several buildings grow into several temples : and this is at 
once inconsistent with the single habitation or dwelling-place of 
God, which the Apostle mentions in the next verse. 

In English the word building has various shades of meaning, 
each of which is found equally in its counterpart in the Greek. It 
may mean the process of building : it may mean the building 
itself when complete . Or it may have a sense intermediate between 
these two, and mean the building regarded as in process . The 
Apostle s meaning is saved by the rendering of the Rheims Bible 
* al building ; but this is somewhat harsh, and limits us too strictly 
to the process, as contrasted with the work in process. All that 
is builded , or all building that is done might express the sense 
with sufficient accuracy : but this hardly differs from * all the build- 


ing , when we keep before our minds the thought of the building 
in process, as opposed to the completed edifice. We may accord 
ingly retain the familiar rendering, although it is not free from 
ambiguity if the context be neglected, and although it was origi 
nally intended as the translation of a reading in the Greek which 
the textual evidence precludes us from accepting. 

All work done on this House of God, all fitting of stone to 
stone, as the building rises coupled and morticed by clamp and 
dowel, all this work is a growth, as though the building were a 
living organism. St Paul has no hesitation in mixing his meta 
phors, if thereby he can the more forcibly express his meaning. 
We have the exact converse of this transition in the fourth chapter : 
if here the building grows like a body, there the body is builded . iv 12, 16 

An holy temple . The word temple in our English Bible is 
used to render two Greek words, naos and hieron. The first of 
these which is used in this place denotes the shrine, the actual 
House of God, which in the Jewish temple consisted of the Holy 
Place and the Holy of Holies. The second, on the other hand, has 
the wider meaning of the temple-precincts the courts and colon 
nades, in which the people gathered for worship. This distinction 
is observed alike by Josephus and by the writers of the New Testa 
ment. Thus the hieron was the temple into which the Pharisee Luke xviii 
and the publican went up to pray : it was there that our Lord used I0 .5 Mark 
to teach: it was thence that He drove out the traders. But it Mark ii 15 
was in the naos that the angel appeared to Zacharias the priest : Luke i 9 
it was between the naos and the altar that Zacharias, * the son of Matt, xxiii 

Barachias , was slain : it was the veil of the naos that was rent at 35 

,, ~ . ! Markxv 3 8 

the Crucifixion . 

A passage which is sometimes cited to justify a false interpreta 
tion of our present verse is Matt, xxiv i, the buildings of the 
temple . But note the word there used : And Jesus went out and 
was departing from the hieron, and His disciples drew near to point 
out to Him the buildings of the hieron . The plural could be used 
of the temple-precinct through which they were passing, adorned as 
it was with the splendid structures of Herod. It could not be 
used of the naos, which was a single building, divided only by the 
partition of a veil. Accordingly it seems impossible to assign 
any meaning to the phrase every building groweth into a holy 
naos , except it be such a meaning as is directly opposed, as we 

1 The only passage where there xxvii 5 : Judas cast the price of the 
could be a reason for wishing to give Lord s betrayal into the naos. 
to the naos & wider meaning is Matt. 


have seen, to the whole teaching on which St Paul is laying such 
evident stress. 

In the Lord . This is the first time in the epistle that this 
title has stood by itself. It may not be wise always to insist on a 
conscious motive for the choice of the phrase in the Lord , in 
preference to the phrase in Christ ; . Yet it can hardly be a mere 
coincidence that where the Apostle describes the transcendental 
relation of believers to Christ as the ground of their acceptance 
with God he uses the expression in Christ , or one of the fuller 
expressions into which this title enters; whereas, when he is 
speaking of the issues of that relation as manifested in life and 
conduct here below, he uses the phrase in the Lord . Contrast, 
ii 10 for example, the words created in Christ Jesus with the words 

vi 10 Be strong in the Lord . The Christ of the privileged position is 

the Lord of the holy life : if in Christ we are in heaven, in the Lord 
we must live on earth. Christ is the corner-stone of the foundation ; 
the building grows to an holy temple in the Lord. 

ii 22 In whom ye also . These words have by this time a familiar 

sound. The Apostle insists afresh upon the inclusion of the Gen 
tiles : and he is thus led into what might seem a mere repetition of 
what he has already said, but that the two fresh expressions which 
he adds produce the effect of a climax. 

Are builded together for an habitation of God in the Spirit . 

Once more he takes his word from the Old Testament. The 

Exod. xv habitation or dwelling-place of God was a consecrated phrase. 

i75. It was the proudest boast of the Jew that the Lord his God, who 

viii^o etc dwelt i* 1 heaven, dwelt also in Sion. To the new People the same 

2Cor.vii6 high privilege is granted in a yet more intimate manner. For we 

Lev. xxvi are the temple of the living God : as God hath said, I will dwell in 

them, and walk in them ; and I will be their God, and they shall be 

My people . 

In the Spirit . Here, as so often, the Apostle does not make 
it plain whether he is speaking directly of the Divine Spirit or not. 
But it is to be observed that this section, which began with the 
words in the flesh (twice repeated), ends with the words in 
the spirit . No doubt the thought that the habitation of God is 
spiritual, in contrast to the material temple, is present to the 
Apostle s mind, even if it does not exhaust the meaning of his 
words. And we may perhaps regard the expression of i Pet. ii 5, 
a spiritual house , as the earliest commentary on this passage. 

Thus St Paul closes this great section by declaring that the 
Gentiles had full rights of citizenship in the sacred commonwealth, 


that they were true sons of the household of God, nay that they were 
a part of His Holy House, builded upon its foundation, secured by 
its corner-stone, that corner-stone which gave unity to all building 
that was reared upon it ; so that all such building, duly welded into 
one, was growing into a holy shrine, to be the spiritual dwelling- 
place of God. 

Such was c the mystery of the will of God . It was that they i 9 
might grasp this mystery that he had begun to pray for the Spirit 
of wisdom and apocalypse on their behalf. And now that he has i 17 
so far expounded it, in brief language compared with its mighty 
magnitude, it becomes again the basis of his prayer. Or rather, the 
prayer which he had essayed to utter, and the first words of which 
had carried him so far that the prayer had lost itself in the wonder 
of the blessing prayed for, that prayer he once more desires to 
take up and at length to utter in its fulness. 

This he attempts to do in the words : For this cause I Paul, the iii i 
prisoner of Christ Jesus for you, the Gentiles : but, as we shall see, 
new thoughts again press in, and in v. 14 he makes another and at 
last a successful attempt to declare the fulness of his petition : 
4 For this cause I bow my knees . 

FOR this cause I Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus for you, iii r 13 
the Gentiles, 2 if so be that ye have heard of the dispensation 
of the grace of God which was given unto me to you-ward : 
3 how that by revelation was made known unto me the mystery, 
as I have written afore in few words, 4 whereby, when ye read, 
ye can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ ; 
5 which in other generations was not made known unto the sons 
of men, as it hath now been revealed unto His holy apostles 
and prophets in the Spirit ; 6 to wit, that the Gentiles are fellow- 
heirs, and fellow-members of the body, and fellow-partakers of 
the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel, 7 whereof I was 
made a minister according to the gift of the grace of God which 
was given unto me according to the working of His power, 
8 unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, was this 
grace given, to preach unto the Gentiles the unsearchable 
riches of Christ, 9 and to bring to light what is the dispensation 
of the mystery which from the ages hath been hid in God who 
created all things ; I0 to the intent that now unto the princi- 


palities and powers in the heavenly places might be made 
known through the church the manifold wisdom of God, 
"according to the purpose of the ages which He purposed in 
Christ Jesus our Lord, I2 in whom we have our boldness and 
access with confidence by the faith of Him. 13 Wherefore I ask 
you that ye faint not at my tribulations for you, which are 
your glory. 

The construction is at once broken at the end of v. i. There is 
something even in those few words which has suggested a new train 
of thought, and the Apostle cannot check himself until he has 
expressed what is in his soul. What is the starting-point of this 
new departure ? 

Hitherto St Paul has been strangely unlike himself in one 
particular. He has been marvellously impersonal. His only 
reference to himself since the salutation has been in the words, 

i 15 f. { I cease not to give thanks and to pray . He has said nothing 
of his own peculiar office as the chosen herald of these new revela 
tions of the will and way of God ; and of all that he had personally 
endured, whether in long journeyings and constant labours to bring 
this message to the Gentiles, or in persecutions and imprisonment 
directly due to his insistence on the wideness of the Gospel. The 
reason for this unwonted reserve is, as we have partly seen already, 
that he is not writing to the members of a single Church of his own 

Acts xx 3 1 foundation, whom he had * admonished night and day with tears , 
who knew him well and to whom he could write as he would have 
spoken face to face. He is writing to many who had never seen 
him, though they must have heard much of him and probably had 
learned the Gospel from his fellow-workers. He is writing not a 
personal word of encouragement, but an exposition of the Divine 
Purpose as he had come to know it a word of large import for 
multitudes who needed what he knew it was his to give them. He 

i 15 f. has heard how the great work has been going forward far beyond 
the limits of his own personal evangelisation. He thanks God for 
it. It is part of the fulfilment of the Purpose. He is fully taken 
up with declaring what the Purpose has brought to the Gentiles as 
a whole. It is only as he reaches a resting-place in his thought, 
that he hears as it were the clink of his chain, and remembers 

iii i where he is and why he is there : / Paul, the prisoner of Christ 

Jesus for you, the Gentiles . 

But the words are too full to be left without a comment or a 
justification. You may never have seen my face, he seems to say, 


but surely you have heard how God has been using me to help you : 
you may even have been discouraged by learning to what my efforts 
on your behalf have brought me. 

The fresh points which are to be emphasised in the remainder of iii 213 
this section, which is one long parenthesis, are these: (i) St Paul s 
peculiar mission as the exponent of the mystery of the inclusion of 
the Gentiles, as the publisher of the great secret, as the herald of 
the Gospel of grace (2) the newness of the revelation, hid in God 
till now, but made known at last to the apostles and prophets of 
the Christian Church ; (3) the sufferings which his mission has 
entailed upon him, and which yet must not dishearten those for 
whom he suffers. 

The section is full of echoes of the earlier part of the epistle. 
Almost every great phrase has its counterpart in the first two 
chapters : the mystery made known by revelation ; revealed by 
the Spirit to the apostles and prophets ; the inheritance, the body, 
the promise, in which the Gentiles have their share in Christ ; the 
grace of God, and the working of His power ; the dispensation of 
the grace, and of the mystery ; the heavenly region ; the purpose 
of eternity ; the free access to God. 

* If so be that ye have heard of the dispensation of the grace q/"iii 2 
God which was given unto me to you-ward . The form of the sentence 
is conditional, just as in iv 21 ; but it can scarcely mean anything 
less than For surely you have heard . The expression as a whole, 
however, confirms the conclusion that among those to whom the 
epistle was addressed a considerable number, if not the majority, 
had never come into personal contact with the writer : had he been 
writing solely or even primarily to his own Ephesian converts, he 
could never have expressed himself so. 

The grace of God which was given unto me is a favourite phrase 
of St Paul. The context usually makes it quite clear that the 
grace given him was not a spiritual endowment for his own personal 
life, but the Gospel of God s mercy to the Gentile world. Thus, in 
describing his visit to the Apostles at Jerusalem, St Paul says, 
When they saw that I had been entrusted with the Gospel of the Gal. ii 7, 9 
Uncircumcision,...and when they knew the grace which was given 
unto me, . . .they gave right hands of fellowship to me and to Barnabas, 
that we should go unto the Gentiles, and they unto the Circum 
cision . An equally striking example is found where St Paul 
justifies his action in addressing a letter to the Roman Christians : Horn. xv. 
I have written the more boldly , he says, * by reason of the grace I 5 f * 


which was given unto me from God, that I should be a minister 
of Christ Jesus unto the Gentiles . As we have seen in part already, 
* grace was the significant word which summed up for St Paul his 
own special message the merciful inclusion of the Gentile in the 
purpose of God 1 

In a parallel passage of the Epistle to the Colossians we find the 
Col. i 25 words, according to the dispensation of God which was given unto 
me to you- ward ; and an English reader might be led to suppose 
that in our present passage the construction likewise must be, the 
dispensation... which was given . The ambiguity, which does not 
exist in the Greek, might be avoided by the rendering * that grace 
of God which was given unto me (so the Revised Version renders) ; 
but this expedient has the disadvantage of partially obscuring the 
identity of a phrase which recurs again and again in St Paul s 
epistles 2 . 

Both here and in Col. i 25 the dispensation spoken of is a 
dispensation in which God is the Dispenser, and not the adminis 
tration, or stewardship, of any human agent. This is made clear 
by the parallel use of the word in i 10, and again below in iii 9. 

iii 3 How tJiat by revelation was made known unto me the mystery . 

"We have already noted 3 the signification of the word * mystery or 
4 secret , and of its natural correlative apocalypse or revelation . 
By Divine disclosure, St Paul declares, the Divine secret had been 
made known to him. The recognition of the wideness of God s 
purpose was neither a conclusion of his own mind nor a tradition 
passed on to him by the earlier Apostles. A special providence had 
prepared him, and a special call had claimed him, to be the depositary 

Gal. i 15 f. of a special revelation. It was the good pleasure of God , he says 
elsewhere, in words that remind us of an ancient prophet 4 , who 
separated me, even from my mother s womb, and called me through 
His grace, to reveal His Son in me, that I might preach Him among 
the Gentiles . And of his visit to the Apostles in Jerusalem he 

Gal. ii 2 says emphatically, I went up by revelation, and I laid before 
them the Gospel which I preach among the Gentiles . The message 

1 See above p. 51 ; and, for the 3 PP-3of-39- 

detailed examination, see the detached 4 Comp. Jer. i 5, Before I formed 

note on XC/HS. The use of the word in thee in the belly I knew thee, and 

the Acts is in striking harmony with before thou earnest forth out of the 

the usage of StPaul: see esp. xi. 23, womb I sanctified thee; I have ap- 

xv ii. pointed thee a prophet unto the 

2 The same ambiguity meets us nations 1 . 
below in v. 7. 


itself, and the method of its proclamation and of its justification, 
were alike given to him by Divine revelation. 

As I have written afore in few words, whereby, when ye read, ye iii 3 f. 
can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ . In the 
earlier chapters the Apostle has stated already in brief his concep 
tion of the Divine purpose as it has been made known to him. He 
has not indeed declared it in the set terms of a formal treatise. 
But he has given them enough to judge by : if they attend to it 
they cannot but recognise as they read that he writes of that which 
he knows, and that a special knowledge gives him a special claim to 
speak of the mystery of Christ. 

Which in other generations was not made known unto the sons iii 5 
of men \ Here St Paul takes up a fresh point. He has not had 
occasion hitherto in this epistle to dwell on the newness of the great 
revelation. It is his reference to his own part as the receiver and 
proclaimer of the illuminating truth, that leads him on to explain, 
not indeed that the Divine purpose is a new thing, but that its 
manifestation to men is new. The Purpose was there in the treasury 
of the heavenly secrets from eternity : but it was a secret kept in Eom. xvi 
silence . The sons of men , whom it so deeply concerned, knew it 2 5 
not as yet : it was hidden away from Jew and from Gentile alike. 

As it hath now been revealed unto His holy apostles and prophets 
in the /Spirit . This clause, without revoking the last, seems to 
leave room for those glimpses of the Divine purpose, which the 
Apostle would never have wished to deny to the holy and wise of 
the past. Yet their half-lights were but darkness, when compared 
with the day of the new revelation. 

In contrast to the sons of men of the past, to whom the secret 
had not been disclosed, St Paul sets the holy apostles and prophets 
of the present, to whom a spiritual revelation of it had come. This 
word holy or saints , as we render it when it stands by itself 
has played an important part in the epistle already. It is to f the i i 
saints that the epistle is formally addressed ; that is, as we have 
seen, to those who in Christ are now the hallowed People of God. 
The Apostle thanks God that they are recognising their position in 
practice by a love which goes out l to all the saints . God s heritage, i I5 
he declares in passing, is in the saints , that is, in His hallowed i 18 
People. And, later on, he explicitly contrasts the alien state of the 
Gentiles apart from Christ with their new position of privilege in 
Christ as * fellow-citizens with the saints . When the same word is ii 19 
used, as an adjective, to characterise the apostles and prophets to 
whom the new revelation has been made, it cannot be a mere otiose 
epithet or conventional term of respect, nor can it be properly taken 


in any other sense than hitherto. It is no personal holiness to which 
the Apostle refers ; it is the hallowing which was theirs in common 
with the whole of the hallowed People. Here is the answer to 
the suggested difficulty, that while St Paul must certainly have 
included himself among the * apostles to whom the revelation came, 
he would hardly have called himself holy , even in this indirect 
fashion. There is no real incongruity. Not his holiness, but God s 
hallowing is in question the hallowing which extended to all the 
members of the hallowed People, even, as he would tell us, to 

iii s himself, though he was less than the least of them all. 

The mention of the apostles and prophets, as those to whom the 
new revelation was made, recalls and helps to explain the position of 

ii 20 f. the apostles and prophets as the foundation of the holy temple 
of God s building. With the reference to the Spirit as the medium 

i 17 of the revelation we may compare the prayer for the Spirit of 

revelation to be the guide of his readers into the knowledge of 
God s purpose. Here, as in some other places, the Apostle s language 
is so vague that we cannot tell with entire certainty whether he 
refers directly to the personal Divine Spirit, or rather desires to 
suggest that the reception of the revelation is a spiritual process. 
The actual phrase in (the) Spirit does not preclude either view. 

What, then, is the substance of this secret old as eternity, yet 
new in its disclosure to mankind ? The Apostle has told us already, 
as he says, in brief : but now to remove all possible misconception 
he will tell us once again, repeating in fresh words the images 
iii 6 which he has already so fruitfully employed. It is that the Gentiles 

we fellow-heirs, and fellow-members of the body, and fellow-partakers 
of the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel \ 

The middle term of this threefold description (orWoyAos) cannot 
be rendered by any current English word. Concorporate , a loan 
from the Latin, and analogous to incorporate , is the word we 
want ; but, though it has been used in this connexion, it is not 
sufficiently familiar to take its place in a rendering of the passage. 
In relation to the Body the members are incorporate : in relation 
to one another they are concorporate , that is, sharers in the one 
Body. The unusual English word might indeed express the fact 
that St Paul himself, in order to emphasize his meaning, has had 
recourse to the formation of a new Greek compound 1 . 

1 The rendering of the Latin Vul- fends the unusual Latin on the ground 

gate is cohaeredes et concorporales et that it was important to represent the 

comparticipes (Ambrosiaster actually force of the repeated compounds. I 

has * concorporatos ). St Jerome de- know , he says, that in Latin it 


i Through the gospel, whereof I was made a minister according iii 6 ff. 
to the gift of the grace of God which was given unto me... to preach 
unto the Gentiles... . There is a close parallel in the Epistle to Col. 124^. 
the Colossians : the Church, whereof I was made a minister ac 
cording to the dispensation of God which was given unto me to 
you-ward, to fulfil the word of God, (even) the mystery that hath 
been hid , &c. In both passages the Apostle emphasises the great 
ness of his peculiar mission, which corresponded to the wide mercy of 
God to the Gentiles. Here he adds according to the might (or * work 
ing ) of His power : words which remind us of Gal. ii 8, He that 
wrought (or worked mightily ) for Peter unto the apostleship of 
the Circumcision, wrought for me also unto the Gentiles . 

Once more he breaks his sentence, lest, while as Apostle of the Bom. xi 
Gentiles he glorified his ministry, he should for one moment seem J 3 
to be glorifying himself. Never did a man more stoutly press his 
claims : never was a man more conscious of personal unworthiness. 
He was not a whit behind the very chiefest of the apostles : yet 2 Cor. si 5 
he felt that he was the least of the apostles and { not worthy to be i Cor. xv 9 
called an apostle . He was less than the least of all saints , that is, iii 8 
of all the holy People of God : but yet the fact remained that to 
him this marvellous grace of God had been given. 

To preach unto the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ . 
His mission was to * bring as the gospel ; the verb of the original 
takes up again the gospel of v. 6 to the Gentiles the inexplorable 
wealth of the Christ. He can never sufficiently admire the marvel 
of the Divine inclusion of the Gentiles, or be sufficiently thankful 
that it is his privilege to make it known to them. 

1 And to bring to light what is the dispensation of the mystery iii 9 
which from the ages hath been hid in God who created all things . So 
in the parallel already quoted he continues : the mystery that hath Col. i 26 
been hid from the ages and from the generations, but now it hath 
been manifested to His saints . The purpose of God is an eternal 
purpose a purpose of the ages , as he says below in v. 10. It has 
remained concealed since the beginning of things; but it was the 
very purpose of Creation itself. 

As the Creation includes other intelligences beside Man, so the 

makes an ugly sentence. But because Version, fellow-heirs, and of the same 

it so stands in the Greek, and because body, and partakers &c., fails to re- 

every word and syllable and stroke produce the reiterated compound (aw-) 

and point in the Divine Scriptures is of the original ; and I have therefore 

full of meaning, I prefer the risks of adopted the necessarily paraphrastic 

verbal malformation to the risk of rendering of the Bevised Version, 
missing the sense . The English 


secret of the Divine purpose in Creation is published now to the 

iii 10 whole universe, as the justification of the Divine dealing : i to the 
intent that now unto the principalities and powers in the heavenly 
places might be made known through the church the manifold wisdom 
of God . The Apostle has found a perfectly satisfying philosophy 
of history : he believes that it is able to justify the ways of God to 
men ; and not to men only, but also to those enquiring spiritual 
powers of the heavenly sphere, who have vainly sought to explore 
the design and the methods of the Creator and Ruler of the world. 
Through the church . This is only the second time that the 

Comp. 122 word Church has been used in the epistle. We shall have it 

iii 21 again at the end of the chapter in an equally emphatic position : 

to Him be glory in the Church and in Christ Jesus . It recurs 

v 23 32 six times in the important passage which closes chap. v. St Paul 
never uses the word in this epistle in the sense of a local Christian 
society, though he does in two out of the four times in which it 
occurs in the Epistle to the Colossians. 

Through the Church the very- varied wisdom of God ; is made 
known to the universe. The metaphor is taken from the intricate 
beauty of an embroidered pattern. We have an echo of it in i Pet. 
iv 10, the manifold (or varied ) grace of God 7 . 

iii 1 1 According to the purpose of the ages which He purposed in Christ 

Jesus our Lord \ The purpose of the ages is a Hebraistic phrase 
for the eternal purpose : just as we say the rock of ages for 
the everlasting rock , from the Hebrew of Isaiah xxvi 4. 

iii 1 2 In whom we have our boldness and access with confidence by the 

faith of Him . These words are an echo of ii 1 8, and form a similar 
climax. The issue of all is that we are brought near to God Him 
self through faith in Christ. 

iii 13 Wherefore I ask you that ye faint not at my tribulations for you, 

which are your glory . The meaning is : I ask you not to lose 
heart, when you hear of my suffering as the prisoner of Christ on 
your behalf . It might seem to some as though the Apostle s 
sufferings and imprisonment augured ill for the cause which he 
represented. This was not the view that he himself took of 
Col. i. 24 them. I rejoice in my sufferings on your behalf , he says to the 
Colossians, in a remarkable passage to which we have already had 
occasion to refer at some length 1 . Never for a moment did he 
himself lose heart. He saw a deep meaning in his sufferings : they 
were the glory of those for whom he suffered. He commends this 
reason to his readers with a logic which we can hardly analyse. 

1 See p. 44. 


Perhaps he could scarcely have explained it to them. It is the 
language of the heart. 

The section which we have been considering forms, strictly "i i 13 
speaking, a mere parenthesis. It is a personal explanation 
occasioned by the words, I Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus 
on behalf of you, the Gentiles . But, though in form it is a 
digression, which still further postpones the utterance of the 
Apostle s Prayer, yet in the general movement of the thought of 
the epistle it plays an essential part. Though he speaks from 
his own personal standpoint, the Apostle s thought ranges before 
and after, and he is led to give us such a complete philosophy 
of history as had never been attempted before. He is confident 
that he is in possession of the secret of the Creator Himself: by 
apocalypse the mystery has been known to me . 

Hitherto he had been considering mainly the effect of the work 
of Christ, in the reconciliation of the two opposed sections of 
humanity, in the reception of the Gentiles into the sacred common 
wealth, and in the nearer approach of Jew and Gentile alike to the 
one Father. But now he is bold to trace the whole course of the 
Divine dealing with man ; to declare that c through the ages one 
increasing Purpose runs ; and even to suggest that human history 
is intended to read a lesson to the universe. 

The Purpose which is now made clear to him was included in 
the design of Creation itself. But it was a hidden purpose, a Divine 
secret, a mystery of which the apocalypse could not be as yet. The iii 5 
sons of men had lived and died in ignorance of the secret of their 
own lives and of the universe. Generation followed generation until 
the time was ripe for the disclosure of the mystery of the Christ . 
At last to the apostles and prophets of a new age the revelation was 
given. Indeed to the less than the least of them all the message 
had been primarily entrusted. His part it had been to flash the 
torch of light across the darkness ; to illuminate past, present and 
future at once, by shewing what is the dispensation of the mystery iii. 9 
that hath been hidden from eternity in God who created all things . 

It was a glorious task : through incessant toil and suffering he 
had accomplished it : his imprisonment at Rome could only remind 
him that for his part the work was done. Yet in a wider sense it 
was only begun. The process which had been revealed to him was 
to move steadily on, in presence of all the spiritual forces of the 
universe, who keenly watch the drama of this earthly theatre. For 
they too through the Church are to learn the very- varied wisdom iii 10 
of God, according to the purpose of the ages which He formed in 

EPHES. 2 6 


the Christ, even Jesus our Lord . And it is because the process 
must go forward, and not slacken for anything that may occur to 
him, that the prisoner in Christ Jesus bows his knees and lifts his 
heart in prayer to God. 

iii 1421 J 4For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father, 

whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named, l6 that 
He would grant you according to the riches of His glory to 
be strengthened with power by His Spirit in the inner man, 
^that Christ may dwell through faith in your hearts in love; ye 
being rooted and founded, l8 that ye may be able to comprehend 
with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height 
and depth, ^and to know the love of Christ which passeth 
knowledge, that ye may be filled unto all the fulness of God. 
20 Now unto Him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above 
all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh 
in us, 2I to Him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus, 
throughout all ages, world without end. Amen. 

iii 14 After many digressions, into which he has been led by his desire 

to make plain not only what he prays for, but on whose behalf he 

prays, and what is his relation to them which leads him so to pray, 

the Apostle succeeds at last in uttering the fulness of his Prayer. 

The Prayer is in its final expression, as it was at the outset, a 

prayer for knowledge. That knowledge is indeed declared to pass 

iii ig man s comprehension ; but the brief doxology with which the 

iii 20 petition closes recognises a Divine power to which nothing is 


iii 14 l For this cause 1 . These words are resumptive of the opening 

iii i words of the chapter, For this cause I Paul, the prisoner of Christ 

Jesus for you, the Gentiles . Accordingly they carry us back to 
the great mercy of God to the Gentiles (expounded in c. ii) as the 
ground of the Apostle s Prayer. But the Prayer needed as its 
further preface a reference to his own peculiar mission as the 
publisher of the new declaration of that mercy, and to the sufferings 
by which he rejoiced to seal his mission. After this reference has 
been made and fully explained, he knits up the connexion by 
repeating the words For this cause . 

/ bow my knees to the Father \ We shall miss the solemnity of 
this introduction unless we observe how seldom the attitude of 
kneeling in prayer is mentioned in the New Testament. Standing 


to pray was the rule : comp. Matt, vi 5, Luke xviii 1 1, 13. Kneeling 
was expressive of unusual emotion : comp. Luke xxii 41, Acts xxi 5. 
Indeed when we compare Luke xxii 41 * kneeling down with Mark 
xiv 35 He fell upon the ground and Matt, xxvi 39 He fell upon 
His face , the parallels point us to the fact that what there is 
meant is not our kneeling in an upright position, but kneeling 
with the head touching the ground the Eastern prostration. This 
was and is the sign of the deepest reverence and humiliation : and, 
as is well known, the posture was forbidden in the early Church on 
the Lord s day. 

But the significance of St Paul s phrase becomes still clearer, 
when we note that it is, in its particular wording, derived from a 
passage of Isaiah (which he quotes in Rom. xiv 1 1 and alludes to in 
Phil, ii 10) : I have sworn by Myself , ... that unto Me every knee Isa. xiv 
shall bow . In that reverence, which is due only to the Supreme, 2 3 
to whom it must needs one day be rendered by all, he bends low 
before the Father. 

The Father, of whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is iii 14, 15 
named . At the first commencement of his prayer the Apostle had 
spoken of God as the Father of glory . In this we have one of i 17 
several notable parallels between the prayer as essayed in the first 
chapter and the prayer as completed in the third chapter. 

It will be instructive to bring together here the various refer 
ences which St Paul makes in this epistle to the fatherhood of God. 
In his opening salutation we find the words from God our Father i 2 
and the Lord Jesus Christ ; and similar words occur at the close vi 23 
of the epistle. His great doxology opens with the words, * Blessed i 3 
be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ ; and this title is 
resolved and emphasised, as we have seen, in the form the God of i 1 7 
our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory . Presently he uses the 
name absolutely, in speaking of our access to the Father ; and ii 18 f. 
he follows it by the significant phrase, of the household of God . 
Then we have our present description, which expands and interprets 
the title the Father of glory ; and shortly afterwards we find the 
absoluteness and universality of the fatherhood yet further de 
clared in the words, one God and Father of all, who is over all iv 6 
and through all and in all . Then, lastly, Christian duty is summed 
up in the obligation to give thanks always for all things in the v 20 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ to Him who is God and Father . 

This survey may help to shew us with what fulness of appreciation 
the Apostle recognises the various aspects of the new truth of the 
Divine fatherhood as revealed to man in Jesus Christ. 

The Father, of whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is iii 14, 15 



named . The literal translation of the words rendered all father 
hood is every family . But this translation entirely obscures to 
an English reader the point of the Apostle s phrase. In Greek the 
word for * family (Trar/ata) is derived from the word for father 
(Trartjp). But in English the family is not named from the 
father . So that to reproduce the play upon words, which lends 
all its force to the original, we must necessarily resort to a para 
phrase, and say the Father, of whom all fatherhood is named 1 . 

The addition of the words in heaven and on earth reminds us 
of the large inclusiveness of the Divine purpose as declared to us by 
St Paul. We have had this collocation already, where the Apostle 

i 10 spoke of the summing up of all things in Christ, both which are in 

the heavens and which are on earth . Similarly he tells us elsewhere 

Col. i 20 that the reconciliation in Christ includes all things, whether things 
on the earth or things in the heavens . And if in one place he adds 

Phil, ii 10 things which are under the earth as well, it is to declare that 
there is nothing anywhere which shall not ultimately be subject to 
Christ. In the present passage it would be irrelevant to enquire 
what families in heaven the Apostle had in his mind. His whole 

Eph. i 17 point is that the Father whom he has before called the Father 
of glory is the source of all conceivable fatherhood, whether earthly 
or heavenly. 

According to this notable utterance of St Paul, God is not only 
the universal Father, but the archetypal Father, the Father of 
whom all other fathers are derivatives and types. So far from 
regarding the Divine fatherhood as a mode of speech in reference 
to the Godhead, derived by analogy from our conception of human 
fatherhood, the Apostle maintains that the very idea of fatherhood 
exists primarily in the Divine nature, and only by derivation in 
every other form of fatherhood, whether earthly or heavenly. The 
All-Father is the source of fatherhood wherever it is found. This 
may help us to understand something further of the meaning which 
is wrapped up in the title the Father of glory . 

iii 1 6 That He would grant you according to the riches of His glory to 

be strengthened with power by His Spirit in the inner man . We 
have already pointed to the close parallel between the language of the 
prayer as it is at first enunciated in chap, i and that of its fuller 
expression which we have now reached. In each case the prayer is 
directed to the Father the Father of glory (i 17), the Father, 
of whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named (iii 14 f.). 
In each case petition is made for a gift of the Holy Spirit that 

1 The Latin and Syriac versions, as in the same difficulty and escaped it 
will be seen in the commentary, were by a like paraphrase. 


the Father of glory may give you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation 

(i 17), that He would grant (or give ) you according to the riches 

of His glory to be strengthened with power by His Spirit (iii 16). 

We noted before how closely this corresponds with the promise of 

our Lord, as recorded by St Luke, The Father from heaven will Luke xi 13 

give the Holy Spirit to them that ask Him . Again, the sphere of 

action of the Spirit is in each case described in a striking phrase 

the eyes of your heart being enlightened (i 18), to be strengthened 

in the inner (or inward ) man (iii 16). Finally, the ultimate aim 

of all is knowledge of the fulness of the Divine purpose that ye 

may know what is the hope of His calling , &c. (i i8f.), that ye 

may be able to comprehend what is the breadth and length and 

height and depth, and to know , &c. (iii 18 f.). Knowledge and 

power are inextricably linked together : the prayer to know the 

mighty power (i 19) becomes the prayer to have the mighty power, 

in order to be strong enough to know (iii 19). 

That Christ may dwell through faith in your hearts in love , iii 17 
Here we must bear in mind that it is for Gentiles that the Apostle 
prays. He has already declared to them that they are in Christ : he i 13, ii 13 
now prays that they may find the converse also to be a realised truth, 
that Christ may dwell in your hearts . In writing to the Colossians 
he speaks of this indwelling of Christ in the Gentiles as the climax 
of marvel in the Divine purpose : God hath willed to make known Col. ii 27 
what is the riches of the glory of this mystery in the Gentiles, which 
is Christ in you\ Thus we come to see the force of the phrases 
through faith and in love . It is only through faith (or through 
the faith , if we prefer so to render it) that the Gentiles are par 
takers of Christ: and it is in love , which binds all the saints 
together, whether they be Jews or Gentiles (comp. v. 1 8 to com 
prehend with all the saints ), that the indwelling of the Christ, who 
is now the Christ of both alike, finds its manifestation and consum 
mation. We may compare with this the words with which the 
Apostle prefaced his prayer at the outset : Wherefore I, having i 1 5 f . 
heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and your love toward all the 
saints, cease not to give thanks on your behalf, making mention of 
you in my prayers . 

Ye being rooted and founded . We have parallels to these 
expressions in the Epistle to the Colossians, which help us to inter 
pret them here : If ye are abiding in the faith, founded and firm, Col. i 23 
and not being shifted ; and Rooted and built up in Him, and Col. ii 7 
confirmed in the faith, as ye have been taught . These parallels are 
a further justification of the separation of the participles from the 
words in love , and their connexion in thought with the faith 


which has previously been mentioned. It is only as they have their 
roots struck deep and their foundation firmly laid in the faith as 
St Paul proclaims it to them, that they can hope to advance to the 
full knowledge for which he prays. 

iii 1 8 That ye may be able to comprehend with all the saints what is 

the breadth and length and height and depth . In the original the 
expression is yet more forcible : that ye may have the strength to 
comprehend . The clause depends on the participles rooted and 
founded ; but it has a further reference to the words to be 
strengthened with power by His Spirit in the inner man . 

The object of the knowledge for which the Apostle prays was 
stated with some fulness in i 18 f. : that ye may know what is the 
hope of His calling, what the riches of the glory of His inheritance 
in the saints, and what the exceeding might of His power to us-ward 
who believe . Here it is indicated under vague terms, chosen to 
express its immensity. For the Divine measures exceed human 

Isa. Iv 8 comprehension : as it is written, * My thoughts are not your thoughts . 
And yet in this boldest of prayers the Apostle asks that they may 
be comprehended. The uttermost extent of the Divine purpose is 
the goal, however unattainable, of the knowledge for which the 
Apostle prays. 

To comprehend with all the saints . The knowledge of the 
Divine purpose is the privilege of the saints . So the Apostle 

Col. i.26f. speaks to the Colossians of the mystery which was hidden... but 
now it hath been made manifest to His saints, to whom God hath 
willed to make known , &c. As ye, says the Apostle in effect, are 
now fellow-citizens of the saints , and as your love goes out towards 
all the saints , in verification of your oneness with them ; so you may 
share with all the saints that knowledge which is God s will for them. 
We need not exclude a further thought, which, if it is not 
expressed in these words, at least is in full harmony with St Paul s 
conception of the unity of the saints in God s One Man. The 
measures of the Divine purpose are indeed beyond the comprehension 
of any individual intelligence : but in union with all the saints we 
may be able to comprehend them. Each saint may grasp some 

iv 13 portion : the whole of the saints when we all come to the perfect 
man may know, as a whole, what must for ever transcend the 
knowledge of the isolated individual. 

iii jp And to know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge . These 

words are a re-statement of the aim, with a recognition that it is 
indeed beyond attainment. The Father s purpose is coincident with 
the Son s love : both alike are inconceivable, unknowable and yet 
the ultimate goal of knowledge. 


That ye may be filled unto all the fulness of God . The climax iii 19 
of the Apostle s prayer points to an issue even beyond knowledge. 
He has prayed for a superhuman strength, in order to the attain 
ment of an inconceivable knowledge, which is to result in what he 
can only call fulness * all the fulness of God . What is this 
fulness for which St Paul prays, as the crowning blessing of the 
Gentiles for whom he has laboured and suffered 1 

Fulness, or fulfilment, is a conception which plays a prominent 
part in St Paul s thought both in this epistle and in that which he 
sent at the same time to the Colossian Church. It is predicated 
sometimes of Christ and sometimes of the Church. It is spoken of 
now as though already attained, and now as the ultimate goal of a 
long process. 

Again and again, in these two epistles, we find the thought of 
the complete restoration of the universe to its true order, of the 
ultimate correspondence of all things, earthly and heavenly, to the 
Divine ideal. This issue is to be attained in Christ , and at the 
same time in and through the Church . 

Thus, to recall some of the main passages, it is the purpose of 
God to gather up in one all things in Christ, both that are in the i 10 
heavens and that are on earth : and again, It hath pleased God... Col. i 19 f. 
through Him to reconcile all things unto Himself... whether they 
be things on earth or things in the heavens . Under the figure of 
the universal headship of Christ we have the same thought : "Who Col. ii 10 
is the head of every principality and authority ; He set Him at Eph.isoff. 
His right hand in the heavenly places above every principality and 
authority... and gave Him to be head over all things to the 
Church... . And the Church s part in the great process by which 
the result is to be attained is further indicated in the words : that iii 10 
there might now be made known to the principalities and authorities 
in the heavenly places, through the Church, the manifold wisdom of 
God : to whom , as the Apostle says later on, be the glory in the iii 21 
Church and in Christ Jesus, throughout all ages, world without 
end . 

To express this complete attainment of the end of all things in 
Christ and through the Church, the word fulness or fulfilment , 
with its verb Ho be filled or fulfilled , is used in very various 
ways. Christ Himself is spoken of not only as filling or ful- iv 10 
filling all things , but also as being all in all filled or fulfilled .123 
In close connexion both with Christ s headship of the Church, and 
also with the reconciliation of all things, the Apostle speaks of all Col. i 19 
the fulness as residing in Christ : for it hath pleased God that 
in Him should all the fulness dwell, and through Him to reconcile 


i 23 all things unto Himself. The Church is expressly said to be * the 

fulness of Christ, fulfilling Him as the body fulfils the head. All 
the members of the Church are to meet at last in a perfect Man, 

iv 13 and so to attain to the measure of the stature of the fulness of the 

iii 19 Christ . And for the saints the Apostle here prays that they may 
be filled unto all the fulness of God . 

One remarkable passage remains, in which fulness is predicated 

Col. ii 9 at once of Christ and of the saints : for in Him dwelleth all the 
fulness of the Deity in a bodily way, and ye are filled (or, fulfilled ) 
in Him . It is usual to limit the reference of this passage to the 
incarnation of Christ in His individual human body, and to take it 
as meaning that in that body resides the Godhead in all its com 
pleteness. But this is to neglect St Paul s special use of the terms 
fulness and * body , as they recur again and again in these 
epistles. For we have already had in the previous chapter the 

Col. i 19 expression that in Him should all the fulness dwell ; and we have 

Eph. iii 19 also to reckon with the phrase * that ye may be filled unto all the 
fulness of God . Moreover, when St Paul refers to the individual 
human body of Christ in these epistles, he does so in unmistakeable 

ii 1 4 terms, speaking either of His flesh or of the body of His flesh . 

Col. i 22 But the body of the Christ to St Paul is the Church. 

When we bear this in mind, we at once understand the appro 
priateness of the second clause of this passage : and ye are filled 
(or fulfilled ) in Him . The relation of Christ to the Church is 
such that His fulness is of necessity also its fulness. And, 
further, the whole passage thus interpreted harmonizes with its 

Col. ii 8 ff . context. c Take heed , says the Apostle, if we may paraphrase 
his words, lest there be any who in his dealings with you is a 
despoiler through his philosophy (so-called) or empty deceit (as it 
is in truth). Emptiness is all that he has to offer you : for he 
exchanges the tradition of the Christ, which you have received 
(v. 6), for the tradition of men : he gives you the world-elements 
in place of the heavenly Christ. For in Christ dwells all the 
fulness (as I have already said), yea, all the fulness of the Deity, 
expressing itself through a body : a body, in which you are incor 
porated, so that in Him the fulness is yours : for He who is your 
head is indeed universal head of all that stands for rule and 
authority in the universe . 

Thus St Paul looks forward to the ultimate issue of the Divine 
purpose for the universe. The present stage is a stage of imperfec 
tion : the final stage will be perfection. All is now incomplete : in 
the issue all will be complete. And this completeness, this fulfil 
ment, this attainment of purpose and realisation of ideal, is found 


and is to be found (for to St Paul the present contains implicitly 
the future) in Christ in Christ by way of a body ; that is to 
say, in Christ as the whole, in which the head and the body are 
inseparably one. 

Even beyond this the Apostle dares to look. This fulfilled and 
completed universe is in truth the return of all things to their 
creative source, through Christ to God, of whom and through Eom. 2136 
whom and unto whom are all things , that God may be all in i Cor. xv 
all . Thus the fulness , which resides in Christ and unto which 28 
the saints are to be fulfilled, is all the fulness of the Deity , or, as 
he says in our present passage, all the fulness of God . 

No prayer that has ever been framed has uttered a bolder 
request. It is a noble example of Trappier ia, of freedom of speech, of 
that boldness and access in confidence of which he has spoken iii 12 
above. Unabashed by the greatness of his petition, he triumphantly 
invokes a power which can do far more than he asks, far more than 
even his lofty imagination conceives. His prayer has risen into 
praise. l Now unto Him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above iii 20 f. 
all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh in us, to 
Him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus, throughout all ages, 
world without end. Amen\ 

According to the power that worketh in us . Once more we are 
reminded of his first attempt to utter his prayer. It was at a 
closely similar phrase that he began to digress : that ye may i 18 ff. 
know... what is the exceeding greatness of His power to us- ward 
who believe, according to the working of the might of His strength, 
which He wrought in Christ, in that He raised Him , etc. It is 
the certainty of the present working of this Divine power that 
fills him with exultant confidence. 

To Him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus in the 
Body and in the Head. This is only the third time that the 
Apostle has named the Church in this epistle. He has spoken of it 
as that which fulfils the Christ, as the body fulfils the head. He i 23 
has spoken of it again as the medium through which lessons of the iii 10 
very-varied wisdom of God are being learned by spiritual intelli 
gences in the heavenly region. He now speaks of it, in terms not 
less remarkable, as the sphere in which, even as in Christ Jesus 
Himself, the glory of God is exhibited and consummated. 

I THEREFORE, the prisoner in the Lord, beseech you that ye iv i 6 
walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye are called, 2 with all 
lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing one 


another in love; sgiving diligence to keep the unity of the 
Spirit in the bond of peace. * There is one body and one Spirit, 
even as also ye are called in one hope of your calling : 5 one 
Lord, one faith, one baptism : 6 one God and Father of all, who 
is above all and through all and in all. 

iv i / therefore, the prisoner in the Lord, beseech you . He repeats the 

title prisoner by which he has already described himself; and 

iii i 13 thereby he links this section to the long parenthesis in which he has 
interpreted his use of it. He seems to say : I am a prisoner now, 
and no longer an active messenger of Jesus Christ. I can indeed 
write to you, and I can pray for you. But with yourselves hence 
forward rests the practical realisation of the ideal which it has been 
my mission to proclaim to you. 

We have already had occasion to draw attention to the special 
usage of St Paul in regard to the names Christ and the Lord 1 . 
It is in full harmony with this usage that he has previously called 
himself the prisoner of Christ Jesus , emphasising his special mission 
to declare the new position of the Gentiles in Christ ; whereas now 
he says, the prisoner in the Lord , as he begins to speak of the 
outcome of the new position, the corporate life ruled by the Lord . 
That ye walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye are called . The 
great human unity, which the Apostle regards as the goal of the 

ii 15 Divine purpose, has been created and already exists in Christ. It 

is being progressively realised as a fact in the world of men by the 

123 Church, which is the body of the Christ and His fulfilment . 

iii 10 Through the Church , as fulfilling the Christ, the very-varied 

wisdom of the Divine purpose is being taught to the intelligences of 

iii 21 the spiritual sphere. In the Church and in Christ Jesus the 
Divine purpose is to find its consummation to the eternal glory 
of God. 

It is the responsibility of the members of the Church for the 
preservation and manifestation of this unity, which the Apostle 
now seeks to enforce. You, he says, have been called into the 
unity, which God has created in Christ : you have been chosen into 
this commonwealth of privilege, this household of God : you are 
stones in this Temple, members of this Body. This is your high 
vocation ; and, if you would be true to it, you must ever be mindful 
of the whole of which you are parts, making your conduct worthy of 
your incorporation into God s New Man. 

iv 2 With all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing 

1 See above, p. 72. 


one another in love . It is the mental dispositions which promote 
the right relation of the parts to the whole and to each other in the 
whole, that the Apostle first demands of them. His experience had 
taught him that these dispositions were indispensably necessary for 
the maintenance of unity. 

This emphatic appeal for l lowliness of mind , as the first of 
virtues to which their new position pledged them, must have been 
peculiarly impressive to converts from heathenism. To the Greek 
mind humility was little else than a vice of nature. It was weak 
and mean-spirited ; it was the temper of the slave ; it was incon 
sistent with that self-respect which every true man owed to himself. 
The fulness of life, as it was then conceived, left no room for 
humility. It was reserved for Christianity to unfold a different 
conception of the fulness of life, in which service and self-sacrifice 
were shewn to be the highest manifestations of power, whether 
human or Divine. The largest life was seen to claim for itself the 
right of humblest service. The Jew had indeed been taught 
humility in the Old Testament, on the ground of the relation of 
man to God. The high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity Isa. Ivii 15 
would only dwell with him that is of a contrite and humble spirit . 
But the Gospel went far further and proclaimed that humility was 
not the virtue of weakness only. The highest life, in the fullest 
consciousness of its power, expresses itself in acts of the deepest 
humility. * Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things John xiii 
into His hands, and that He was come from God, and went to God ; 4 f 
He riseth from supper, and laid aside His garments, and took a 
towel and girded Himself. After that he poureth water into a 
bason, and began to wash the disciples feet, and to wipe them with 
the towel wherewith He was girded . It is in harmony with this 
that St Paul, in a great theological passage, treats humility as the 
characteristic lesson of the Incarnation itself. In lowliness of Phil, ii 3 
mind , he pleads, let each esteem other better than themselves... 
Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus... who 
humbled Himself. 

In our present passage the Apostle enforces humility on the 
ground of the relation of man to man in the great human unity. A 
larger life than that of the individual has been revealed to him. Its 
law is that of mutual service : and its first requisite is the spirit of 
subordination, lowliness of mind and meekness . 

With long-suffering, forbearing one another . The patient spirit 
by which each makes allowance for the failures of the other, is 
closely related to the lowliness of mind , by which each esteems the 
other better than himself. 


l ln love . Here, as- so often in this epistle, love is introduced as 
the climax, the comprehensive virtue of the new life which includes 
all the rest 1 . In the Epistle to the Colossians the same thought is 

Col. iii even more emphatically expressed : Put ye on... lowliness of mind, 

12 * meekness, long-suffering; forbearing one another... and, over and 

above all these, love, which is the bond of perfectness . 

iv 3 l Giving diligence to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of 

peace \ The word endeavouring , which the Authorised Version 
employs in this place, has come to suggest in our modern usage too 
much of the possibility of failure to be strong enough to give the 
Apostle s meaning. The word which he uses has an eagerness about 
it, which is difficult to represent in English 2 . The Church to him 
was the embodiment of the Divine purpose for the world : it was 
the witness to men of the unity of mankind. What would become 
of this witness, how should the purpose itself be realised, if the 
unity of the Church were not preserved 1 Well might he urge upon 
his readers eagerly and earnestly to maintain their oneness. They 
must make a point of preserving it : they must take care to keep it. 
To keep the unity . The unity is spoken of as a thing which 
already exists. It is a reality of the spiritual world. It is a gift of 
God which is committed to men to keep intact. At the same time, 
as St Paul will presently shew, it is a unity which is ever enlarging 

iv 13 its range and contents : until we all come to the unity . The unity 

must be maintained in the process, if it is to be attained in the 

* The unity of the Spirit . Hitherto St Paul has avoided the 
abstract word, and has used concrete terms to express the thought 

ii 15 ff. of unity: one man... in one body... in one Spirit . Indeed the 
characteristically Christian word to express the idea is not unity 
or oneness (li/o-n;?), but the more living and fruitful term com 
munion or fellowship (KOIVOWO,) : a term implying not a meta 
physical conception but an active relationship : see, for example, 
Acts ii 42, 2 Cor. xiii 14, Phil, ii i. Yet the more abstract term 
has its value : the oneness of the Spirit underlies the fellowship 
of the Holy Spirit , which manifests and interprets it. 

By a mischievous carelessness of expression, unity of spirit is 
commonly spoken of in contrast to corporate unity , and as though 

1 Compare for the emphatic posi- which are used to render the corre- 
tion of the phrase in love , i 4, iii 1 7, spending substantive (a-irovd^) in 2 Cor. 
iv 15, 16. vii i if., viii 7 f., 16 : carefulness , 

2 The range of the word and the care , diligence , forwardness , 
difficulty of adequately translating it earnest care 

maybe illustrated by the five synonyms 


it might be accepted as a substitute for it. Such language would 

have been unintelligible to St Paul. He never employs the word 

spirit in a loose way to signify a disposition, as we do when we 

speak of a kindly spirit . To him spirit means spirit , and 

nothing less. It is often hard to decide whether he is referring 

to the Spirit of God or to the human spirit. In the present passage, 

for example, we cannot be sure whether he wishes to express the 

unity which the Holy Spirit produces in the Christian Body, as in 

the parallel phrase the fellowship of the Holy Spirit ; or rather the 2 Cor. xiii 

unity of the one spirit of the one body , regarded as distinguishable I4 

from the personal Holy Spirit. But at any rate no separation of 

body and spirit is contemplated: and the notion that there 

could be several bodies with a unity of spirit is entirely alien to 

the thought of St Paul. It is especially out of place here, as the 

next words shew. 

There is one body and one Spirit, even as also ye are called in iv 4 ff. 
one hope of your calling ; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, ; one God 
and Father of all, who is above all and through all and in all . The 
seven unities here enumerated fall into three groups : one body, one 
Spirit, one hope : one Lord, one faith, one baptism : one God and 
Father of all. 

The Apostle begins from what is most immediately present to 
view the one Body, vitalised by one Spirit, and progressing towards 
the goal of one Hope. This Body depends for its existence upon 
one Lord, its Divine Head, to whom it is united by one Faith and 
one Baptism. Its ultimate source of being is to be found in one 
God, the All-Father, supreme over all, operative through all, 
immanent in all. 

More succinctly we may express the thought of the three groups 

One Body and all that this involves of inward life and ultimate 
perfection ; 

One Head and that which unites us to Him ; 

One God to whom all else is designed to lead us. 

Elsewhere St Paul has said, in words which express a similar 
progress of thought : Ye are Christ s, and Christ is God s . i Cor. iii 

Who is above all and through all and in all . A timid gloss, 73 
which changed the last clause into in you all , has found its way 
into our Authorised Version ; but it is destitute of authority. The 
Greek in the true text is as vague as the English rendering given 
above : so that we cannot at once decide whether St Paul is speaking 
of all persons or all things . The words Father of all , which 
immediately precede, may seem to make the former the more natural 


interpretation ; but they cannot in themselves compel us to abandon 
the wider meaning. 

The Apostle is indeed primarily thinking of the Body of Christ 
and all its members. The unity of that Body is the truth which he 
seeks to enforce. But when he has risen at length to find the source 
of human unity in the unity of the Divine fatherhood, his thought 
widens its scope. The words Father of all cannot be less inclusive 
iii 14 f- than the earlier words, c The Father of whom all fatherhood in 
heaven and on earth is named . And the final clause, Who is 
above all and through all and in all , is true not only of all intelli 
gent beings which can claim the Divine fatherhood, but of the total 
range of things, over which God is supreme, through which He 
moves and acts, and in which He dwells. 

It was a startling experiment in human life which the Apostle 
was striving to realise. Looked at from without, his new unity was 

Col. iii 1 1 a somewhat bizarre combination. Greek and Jew, circumcision 
and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondman, freeman all 

Col. iii 9, these are no more, he boldly proclaims to the Colossians, but all in 
all is Christ . The * putting on of the New Man , he goes on to tell 
them, involved the welding into one of all these heterogeneous 
elements ; or rather the persistent disregard of these distinctions, in 
presence of the true human element, which should so far dominate 
as practically to efface them. In every-day life this made a heavy de 
mand upon the new virtues of self-effacement and mutual forbearance. 
Accordingly he declares, in language closely parallel to that which 

Col. iii 12 he uses in this epistle, that to put on the New Man is to put on 
the heart of compassion, kindness, lowliness of mind, meekness, long- 
suffering j bearing one with another, and forgiving each other, if 
any have a complaint against any . Over and above all these 
things they must put on love, which is the bond of perfectness . 
And the paramount consideration which must decide all issues is 
( the peace of the Christ , unto which they have been called in one 
Body . 

iv 716 7 BUT unto every one of us is given grace, according to the 

measure of the gift of Christ. 8 Wherefore it saith : 

When He ascended up on high, He led a captivity captive, 

And gave gifts unto men. 

9 Now that, He ascended, what is it but that He also 
descended into the lower parts of the earth ? I0 He that 
descended, He it is that also ascended above all heavens, that 


He might fill all things. "And He gave some, apostles; and 
some, prophets ; and some, evangelists ; and some, pastors and 
teachers; I2 for the perfecting of the saints for the work of 
ministry, for the building of the body of Christ, J 3 till we all 
come to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son 
of God, to a perfect man, to the measure of the stature of the 
fulness of Christ : x * that we be no longer children, tossed to 
and fro and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the 
sleight of men, by craftiness according to the wiles of error; 
j sbut maintaining the truth in love, may grow up into Him in 
all things ; which is the head, even Christ, l6 from whom the 
whole body, fitly framed together and compacted by every joint 
of its supply, according to the effectual working in the measure 
of each several part, maketh the increase of the body, unto 
the building thereof, in love. 

But unto every one of us is given grace, according to the measure iv 7 
of the gift of Christ . The recognition of the whole is to St Paul 
the starting-point for the consideration of the position of the indi 
vidual parts. For the unity of which he speaks is no barren 
uniformity : it is a unity in diversity. It secures to the individual 
his true place of responsibility and of honour. 

In order to appreciate the language of this passage we must 
recall the phraseology which the Apostle has used again and again 
in the earlier part of chap. iii. He has there spoken of the grace iii a 
of God which was given to him on behalf of the Gentiles. He was 
made minister of the Gospel which included the Gentiles according iii 7 
to the gift of that grace of God which was given to him : to him 
for lie will repeat it the third time though less than the least of 
the holy people this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles iii 8 
the unexplorable wealth of the Christ . This reiterated identifica 
tion of his special mission with the gift of grace illustrates the 
passage before us. To each individual, if not to all in like measure, 
the same grace has been given. The Divine mercy in its world- wide 
inclusiveness is committed to each member of the holy people, not 
as a privilege only, but also as a responsibility \ 

According to the measure of the gift of Christ . The grace is 

1 Compare Phil, i 7, where St Paul nexion with the defence and con- 
speaks of the Philippians as * fellow- firmation of the Gospel , 
partakers with him of grace , in con- 


the same ; but Christ gives it in different measures, as the Apostle 
proceeds to explain. 

At this point we may usefully compare with the present context 
as a whole a parallel passage in the Epistle to the Romans, in 
which, after the Apostle has closed his discussion of the wide inclu- 
siveness of the Divine mercy, he calls for a fitting response in the 
conduct of those to whom it has come. The language of the two 
passages offers several similarities. The opening phrase, with which 
he passes from doxology to exhortation, is in each case the same : 

Horn, xii < I beseech you therefore . There, as here, the grace which is given 
to me leads the way to * the grace which is given to us . There 
too we find an appeal for humility on the ground of the one Body 
and the distribution of functions among its members, as God hath 
dealt to every man the measure of faith . Having gifts , the 
Apostle continues, which are diverse according to the grace which 
is given to us : and he adds a catalogue of these gifts, which we 
shall presently have to compare with that which follows in this 
epistle. These various functions, diverse according to the distribu 
tion of the grace such is the Apostle s teaching in both places 
are indispensable elements of a vital unity. 

iv 8 Wherefore it saith : When He ascended up on high, He led a 

captivity captive, and gave gifts to men . The Apostle has already 
connected the exaltation of Christ with the power that is at work 
in the members of His Church. The varied gifts bestowed by the 

Ps. Ixviii exalted Christ now recall to his mind the ancient picture of the 
victorious king, who mounts the heights of the sacred citadel of 
Zion, with his captives in his train, and distributes his largess from 
the spoils of war. It is the connexion between the ascension and 
the gifts, which the Apostle desires to emphasise ; and the only 
words of the quotation on which he comments are He ascended 
and He gave . 

iv 9 Now that, He ascended, what is it but that He also descended 

into the lower parts of the earth ? Desiring to shew that the power 
of Christ ranges throughout the universe, St Paul first notes that 
His ascent implies a previous descent. This descent was below the 
earth, as the ascent is above the heavens. 

iv 10 He that descended, He it is that also ascended above all heavens, 

that He might fill all things . From its depths to its heights He has 
compassed the universe. He has left nothing unvisited by His 
presence. For He is the Divine Fulfiller, to whom it appertains in 
the purpose of God to fill all things with their appropriate fulness : 
to bring the universe to its destined goal, its final correspondence 
with the Divine ideal. Compare what has been said above on iii 1 9. 



And He gave some, apostles ; and some, prophets . The nomina- iv n 
tive is emphatic in the original : He it is that gave some as 
apostles , etc. Having commented on He ascended 7 , St Paul goes on 
to comment on He gave . It is Christ who in each case fulfils the 
ancient hymn. He it is that ascended , and He it is that gave . 
The Ascended One is the giver of gifts. His gifts are enumerated 
in a concrete form : they are apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors 
and teachers. All these in their diversity of functions are given by 
the Ascended Lord for the varied and harmonious development of 
His Church. 

In the passage of the Epistle to the Romans to which we have 
already alluded, the gifts are catalogued in the abstract : prophecy, Rom. xii 
ministry, teaching, and the like. Here the Apostle prefers to speak " 
of the members who fulfil these functions as being themselves gifts 
given by Christ to His Church. In another catalogue, in the First 
Epistle to the Corinthians, he passes from the concrete method of 
description to the abstract : God hath set some in the Church, i Cor. xii 
first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that 2 
miracles, then gifts of healing, helps, governments, diversities of 
tongues . There too he has been speaking of the Body and its 
members ; and the general thought is the same as here : the 
diversity of gifts and functions is not only consistent with but 
necessary to corporate unity. 

Some, apostles ; and some, prophets ; and some, evangelists ; and 
some, pastors and teachers . We shall be disappointed if we come to 
this passage, or either of the parallels referred to above, in the 
expectation of finding the official orders of the Church s ministry. 
The three familiar designations, bishops, presbyters and deacons, 
are all wanting. The evidence of the Acts of the Apostles, which 
employs the first two of these designations in reference to the 
leaders of the Ephesian Church, together with the evidence of the 
First Epistle to Timothy which employs all three in dealing with 
the organisation and discipline of the same Church, forbids the 
suggestion that such officers are not mentioned here because they 
did not exist in the Asian communities to which St Paul s letter 
was to go, or because the Apostle attached but little importance to 
their position. A reason for his silence must be sought in another 
direction. The most intelligible explanation is that bishops, pres 
byters and deacons were primarily local officers, and St Paul is here 
concerned with the Church as a whole. Apostles, prophets and 
evangelists are divinely-gifted men who serve the Church at large ; 
and if a local ministry is alluded to at all it is only under the vaguer 
designation of pastors and teachers . 

EPHES. 2 7 


This is not the place to discuss the development of the official 
ministry: but it may be pointed out that it rises in importance as 
the first generation of apostolic and prophetic teachers passes away, 
as the very designations of apostle and prophet gradually dis 
appear, and as all that is permanently essential to the Church of the 
apostolic and prophetic functions is gathered up and secured in the 
official ministry itself. 

The recovery of the Didache, or Teaching of the Apostles, has 
thrown fresh light on the history of the first two terms of St Paul s 
list 1 . It shews us a later generation of apostles , who are what we 
should rather term missionaries . They pass from place to place, 
asking only for a night s lodging and a day s rations. They would 
seem to correspond to the evangelists of St Paul s catalogue, who 
carried the Gospel to regions hitherto unevangelised. This mention 
of them establishes beyond further question that wider use of the 
name apostle , for the recognition of which Bishop Lightfoot had 
already vigorously pleaded 2 . 

Yet more interesting is the picture which the Didache draws for 
us of the Christian prophets. It shews us the prophets as pre 
eminent in the community which they may visit, or in which they 
may choose to settle. They appear to celebrate the Eucharist, and 
that with a special liturgical freedom. They are to be regarded as 
beyond criticism, if their genuineness as prophets has once been 
established. They are the proper recipients of the tithes and first- 
fruits of the community, and this for a noteworthy reason : for 
they are your high-priests . And when at the close of the book 
bishops and deacons are for the first time mentioned, honour is 
claimed for them in these significant terms : For they also minister 
unto you the ministration of the prophets and teachers : therefore 
despise them not ; for they are your honourable ones together with 
the prophets and teachers . In this primitive picture it is instruc 
tive to observe that the ministry of office is in the background, 
overshadowed at present by a ministry of enthusiasm, but destined 
to absorb its functions and to survive its fall, 
iv 12 l For the perfecting of the saints for the work of ministry . The 

1 The Didache was published by regard it as representative of the 
Archbp Bryennius in 1883. In its general condition of the Church at so 
present form it is a composite work, late a period : it would appear rather 
which has embodied a very early (pos- to belong to some isolated community ? 
sibly Jewish) manual of conduct. Its in which there lingered a condition of 
locality is uncertain, and it cannot life and organisation which had else- 
be dated with prudence earlier than where passed away, 
about 130 A.D. It is impossible to 2 Lightfoot, Galatians, p. 95. 


second of these clauses must be taken as dependent on the first, and 

not (as in the Authorised Version) as coordinate with it. The 

equipment of the members of the Body for their function of service 

to the whole is the end for which Christ has given these gifts to 

His Church. If the life and growth of the Body is to be secured, 

every member of it, and not only those who are technically called 

ministers , must be taught to serve. More eminent service indeed 

is rendered by those members to whom the Apostle has explicitly 

referred; but their service is specially designed to promote the 

service in due measure of the rest : for, as he tells us elsewhere, 

those members of the body which seem to be feebler are necessary , i Cor. xii 

Thus the work of ministry here spoken of corresponds to the 22 

grace given to every one of us , which is the subject of this iv 7 


An illustrative example of this ministry of saints to saints is to 
be found in St Paul s reference to an interesting group of Corinthian 
Christians : * I beseech you, brethren, ye know the house of Ste- i Cor. xvi 
phanas, that it is the firstfruits of Achaia, and that they have l $ 
addicted themselves to the ministry of the saints \ that ye submit 
yourselves unto such, and to every one that helpeth with us and 
laboureth. I am glad of the coming of Stephanas and Fortunatus 
and Achaicus : for that which was lacking on your part they have 
supplied : for they have refreshed my spirit and yours : therefore 
acknowledge ye them that are such . From words like these we 
may see that every kind of mutual service is included in the early 
and unofficial sense of this word ministry . 

If ministry such as this is characteristic of each member of the 
Body, it was preeminently characteristic of the Head Himself: 
The Son of Man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister : Mark x 45 
I am among you as he that ministereth . Luke xxii 

For the building of the body of Christ . This is the process to j v 
the forwarding of which all that has been spoken of is directed. 
In describing it St Paul combines, as he has done before, his two 
favourite metaphors of the temple and the body. He has previously ii 21 
said that the building of the Temple grows : here, conversely, he 
speaks of the Body as being builded. 

Till we all come to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of 
the Son of God . Unity has been spoken of, first of all, as a gift to 
be kept ; it is now regarded as a goal to be attained. Unity, as it 
exists already and is to be eagerly guarded, is a spiritual rather 
than an intellectual oneness ; the vital unity of the one Spirit in 

1 Literally, they have appointed themselves unto ministry to the saints . 



the one body. Unity, as it is ultimately to be reached by all the 
saints together, will be a consciously realised oneness, produced by 
faith in and knowledge of the Son of God. "We are one now : in 
the end we all shall know ourselves to be one. 

The Son of God . St Paul is so careful in his use of the various 
designations of our Lord, that we may be confident that he has 
some reason here for inserting between two mentions of the Christ 
this title, the Son of God , which does not occur elsewhere in the 
epistle. It is instructive to compare a passage in the Epistle to the 

Gal. ii 20 Galatians, where a similar change of titles is made. I have been 
crucified with Christ , says the Apostle, and I no longer live, but 
in me Christ lives : and the life which now I live in the flesh, I live 
by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me and delivered Himself 
up for me . He with whom he has been crucified, He who now 
lives in him, is Christ : He whose love brought Him down to 
suffer is the Son of God . The title is changed to one which 

John xvii 5 recalls the glory which Christ had with the Father before the world 
was, in order to heighten the thought of His condescending love. 
And so in our present passage, when he is treating of the relation of 
our Lord to His Church, he speaks of Him as the Christ (for the 
article is used in both places in the original) : but when he would 
describe Him as the object of that faith and knowledge, in which our 
unity will ultimately be realised, he uses the words the faith and the 
knowledge of the Son of God ; thereby suggesting, as it would seem, 
the thought of His eternal existence in relation to the Divine Father. 
Till we all come... to a perfect man 1 : that is, all of us together 
(for this is implied by the Greek) to God s New Man, grown at 
length to full manhood. Not to perfect men : for the Apostle 

iv 14 uses the plural of the lower stage only : that we be no longer 

children* is his own contrast. We are to grow out of our indi 
vidualism into the corporate oneness of the full-grown Man. 

1 To the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ (or, of the 
Christ) : that is, to the full measure of the complete stature, or 
maturity, of the fulfilled Christ. We cannot forget that St Paul 

i 23 has already called the Church the fulness of Him who all in all is 

being fulfilled . But in using the expression the fulness of the 
Christ in this place, he is thinking of more than the Church, 
which is His Body . For here we get once more to the background 
of St Paul s thought, in which the Body and the Head together are 
ultimately the one Christ the Christ that is to be . 

In the New Man, grown to perfect manhood, St Paul finds the 
consummation of human life. He thus takes us on to the issue of 
the new creation which he spoke of in chap. ii. There the one new 


man is created in the Christ : but he has a long growth before him. 
More and more are to claim their position as members of him. 
Christ is fulfilled to quote Origen s words again 1 in all that 
come unto Him, whereas He is still lacking in respect of them 
before they have come . When they shall all have come to the 
unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, when 
they shall all have come to a full-grown Man; then in the ripe 
maturity of the New Man, the fulness of the Christ will itself 
have been attained. 

The poet, who has spoken to us of the Christ that is to be , has 
also most clearly expressed for us a part at least of the truth of the 
Making of Man 2 : 

Man as yet is being made, and ere the crowning Age of ages, 
Shall not aeon after aeon pass and touch him into shape? 

All about him shadow still, but, while the races flower and fade, 
Prophet-eyes may catch a glory slowly gaining on the shade, 

Till the peoples all are one, and all their voices blend in choric 
Hallelujah to the Maker It is finish d. Man is made . 

That we be no longer children*. This expression, viewed from iv 14 
the mere standpoint of style, spoils the previous metaphor : but it is 
obviously intended to form a sharp contrast. The plural is to be 
noted. Maturity belongs to the unity alone. Individualism and 
self-assertion are the foes of this maturity. We are not to be 
babes , isolated individuals, stunted and imperfect. Out of indi 
vidualism we must grow, if we would attain to our perfection in the 
membership of the perfect Man. 

l No longer children, tossed to and fro and carried about with 
every wind of doctrine . St Paul does not linger on the distant 
ideal. He is quickly back to the present stage of childhood, which 
has still to pass the waves of this troublesome world in which 
ideals are too apt to suffer shipwreck. The new metaphor is drawn 
from the sea which the Apostle knew so well, the symbol of insta 
bility and insecurity. It suggests the jeopardy of the little boats, 
storm-tossed and swung round by each fresh blast, so that they 
cannot keep their head to the waves and are in danger of being 

l By the sleight of men, by craftiness according to the wiles of 
error . The dexterous handling of the dice and the smart cleverness 
of the schemer are the figures which underlie the words here used. 
They suggest the very opposite of the Apostle s straightforwardness 

1 The full quotation is given in the * The Making of Man in The Death of 
note on p. 45. Oenone and other Poems (1892). 

2 Tennyson, In Memoriam cvi: and 


2 Cor. iv 2 of teaching. Ours is not, he had once said to the Corinthians, the 
versatility of the adept, which plays tricks with the Divine message. 
So here he warns us that subtleties and over-refinements end in 
error. "VVe must keep to the simple way of truth and love. 

iv 15 But maintaining the truth in love . In this epistle St Paul is 

not controversial. He attacks no form of false doctrine, but only 
gives a general warning against the mischievous refinements of over- 
subtle teachers. With the * error to which these things lead he 
briefly contrasts the duty of maintaining the truth in love ; and 
then at once he returns to the central truth of the harmony and 
growth of God s one Man. 

1 May grow up into Him in all things 7 . The next words, which 
is the head , seem at first sight to suggest that the Apostle s meaning 
is may grow up into Him as the head . But although the limbs of 
the body are presently spoken of as deriving their growth from the 
head the head being regarded as the source of that harmony of the 
various parts which is essential to healthy development it would 
be difficult to give a meaning to the expression * to grow up into 
the head . Accordingly it is better to regard the words may grow 
up into Him in all things as complete in themselves. What 
St Paul desires to say is that the children are to grow up, not 
each into a separate man, but all into One, the perfect man , who 
is none other than the Christ. 

The law of growth for the individual is this : that he should 
learn more and more to live as a part of a great whole ; that he 
should consciously realise the life of membership, and contribute his 
appropriate share towards the completeness of the corporate unity ; 
and that thus his expanding faculties should find their full play in 
the large and ever enlarging life of the One Man. It is to this that 
St Paul points when he says, that we be no longer children, but 
grow up into Him every whit . 

In one of the most remarkable poems of the In Memoriam 
Tennyson suggests that the attainment of a definite self-conscious 
ness may be a primary purpose of the individual s earthly life 1 : 

This use may lie in blood and breath, 
Which else were fruitless of their due, 
Had man to learn himself anew 

Beyond the second birth of Death. 

We gather from St Paul that there is a further lesson which we are 
called to learn the consciousness of a larger life, in which in a 
sense we lose ourselves, to find ourselves again, no longer isolated, 

1 In J\Iemoriam y xlv. 


but related and coordinated in the Body of the Christ. That the 
poet, too, knew something of the mystery of this surrender of the 
individual life may be seen from his Prologue : 

Thou seemest human and divine, 

The highest, holiest manhood, thou : 

Our wills are ours, we know not how; 
Our wills are ours, to make them thine. 

* Which is the head, even Christ . Backwards and forwards the 
Apostle moves, with no concern for logical consistency, between the 
conception of Christ as the Whole and the conception of Christ as 
the Head of the Body. The newness of the thought which he is 
endeavouring to develope the thought of human unity realised 
through and in the Christ is doubtless responsible for these 
oscillations. We feel that the conception is being worked out 
for the first time, and we watch the struggle of language in face of 
the difficulties which present themselves. The initial difficulty is 
to conceive of a number of persons as forming in a real sense one 
body . In common parlance this difficulty is not recognised, 
because the word body is used merely to signify an aggregation 
of persons more or less loosely held in relation to one another, and 
its proper meaning of a structural unity is not seriously pressed. 
But just in proportion as a body is felt to mean a living organism, 
the difficulty remains. And St Paul makes it abundantly clear that 
it is a living organism a human frame with all its manifold struc 
ture inspired by a single life which offers to him the true concep 
tion of humanity as God will have it to be. 

A further difficulty enters when the relation of Christ to this 
Body comes to be denned. It is natural at once to think of Him as 
its Head : for that is the seat of the brain which controls and unifies 
the organism. But this conception does not always suffice. For 
Christ is more than the Head. The whole Body, in St Paul s Eom. xii 5 
language, is in Him ; the several parts grow up into Him . 
Even more than this, the whole is identified with Him : for as i Cor. xii 
the body is one and hath many members, and all the members of I2 
the body being many are one body ; so also is the Christ . In the 
New Man Christ is all and in all . Identified with the whole Col. iii n 
Body, He grows with its growth and will find His own fulfilment 
only in its complete maturity. 

We are not therefore to be surprised at the rapidity of the tran 
sition by which the Apostle here passes from the thought of Christ 
as the Whole, into which we are growing up, to the thought of Him 
as the Head, upon which the Body s harmony and growth depends. 


iv 16 * From whom the whole body, fitly framed together and compacted 

by every joint of its supply . The expression fitly framed together * 

ii 21 is repeated from the description of the building process which has 

already furnished a figure of structural, though not organic, unity. 
The remainder of the passage is found again, with slight verbal 

Col. ii 19 variations, in the Epistle to the Colossians : * from whom the whole 
body, furnished out and compacted by the joints and bands, 
increaseth with the increase of God . The Apostle is using the 
physiological terms of the Greek medical writers. We can almost 

Col. iv 14 see him turn to * the beloved physician , of whose presence he tells 
us in the companion epistle, before venturing to speak in technical 
language of every ligament of the whole apparatus of the human 
frame. There is no reference either here or in the Epistle to the 
Colossians to a supply of nourishment, but rather to the complete 
system of nerves and muscles by which the limbs are knit together 
and are connected with the head. 

According to the effectual working in the measure of each several 
part : that is, as each several part in its due measure performs its 
appropriate function. Unity in variety is the Apostle s theme : 
unity of structure in the whole, and variety of function in the 
several component parts : these are the conditions of growth upon 
which he insists. 

1 Maketh the increase of the body, unto the building thereof, in 
love . This recurrence to the companion metaphor of building 
reminds us that the reality which St Paul is endeavouring to 
illustrate is more than a physiological structure. The language 
derived from the body s growth needs to be supplemented by the 
language derived from the building of the sacred shrine of God. 
The mingling of the metaphors helps us to rise above them, and 
thus prepares us for the phrase, with which the Apostle at once 
interprets his meaning and reaches hia climax, in love . 

We have thus concluded a further stage in St Paul s exposition. 

i 10 To begin with we had the eternal purpose of God, to make Christ 

iii5,iii4ff. the summing into one of all things that are. Then we had the 
mystery of Christ, consummated on the cross, by which Jew and 

iv 3 ff. Gentile passed into one new Man. Lastly we have had the unity 
of the Spirit, a unity in variety, containing a principle of growth, 
by which the Body of the Christ is moving towards maturity. 

iv 17-24 ^Tnis I say therefore and testify in the Lord, that ye no 
longer walk as do the Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their 
mind, l8 darkened in their understanding, being alienated from 


the life of God, through the ignorance that is in them because 
of the blindness of their heart ; ^who being past feeling have 
given themselves over unto lasciviousness, to work all unclean- 
ness with greediness. ^But ye have not so learned Christ; 
21 if so be that ye have heard Him, and have been taught in 
Him, as the truth is in Jesus ; 22 that ye put off as concerning 
your former manner of life the old man, which is corrupt 
according to the lusts of deceit; 23 and be renewed in the spirit 
of your mind, 2 and put on the new man, which after God is 
created in righteousness and holiness of the truth. 

This I say therefore and testify in the Lord, that ye no longer iv 17 
walk as do the Gentiles walk . The double use of the verb to 
walk points us back to the beginning of the chapter. There he 
had commenced his solemn injunction as to their walk ; but the 
first elements on which he had felt bound to lay stress, humble 
ness of mind and mutual forbearance, the prerequisites of the life 
of unity, led him on to describe the unity itself, and to shew that 
it was the harmony of a manifold variety. Now he returns to 
his topic again with a renewed vigour : This I say therefore and 
testify in the Lord 7 in whom I am who speak, and you are 
who hear 1 . 

His injunction now takes a negative form : they are not to 
walk as do the Gentiles walk . This leads him to describe the 
characteristics of the heathen life which they have been called 
to leave. 

1 In the vanity of their mind, darkened in their understanding, iv 17 
being alienated from the life of God, through the ignorance that is 
in them because of the blindness of their heart . They have no 
ruling purpose to guide them, no light by which to see their way, 
no Divine life to inspire them : they cannot know, because their 
heart is blind. The last phrase may recall to us by way of contrast 
the Apostle s prayer for the Gentile converts, that the eyes of their i 18 
heart might be enlightened. And the whole description may be 
compared with his account of their former state as in the world ii \i 
without hope and without God . 

1 Who being past feeling have given themselves over unto lascivi- iv 19 
)usness, to work all uncleanness with greediness 3 . They have not 
only the passive vice of ignorance, but the active vices which are 

1 See above on iv. i. 



Eom. i. 21 bred of recklessness. In the opening chapter of the Epistle to the 
Romans the same sequence is found : { they became vain, in their 
imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened... wherefore God 
also gave them up to uncleanness...for this cause God gave them 
up unto vile affections... even as they did not like to retain God 
in their knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate mind, to 
do those things which are not convenient . There it is thrice 
said that God gave them up : here it is said that, having 
become reckless, they gave themselves up . The emphasis which 
in either case St Paul lays on want of knowledge corresponds 
with the stress which, as we have already seen, he lays upon 
true wisdom 1 . 

iv 20 * But ye have not so learned Christ , or, as it is in the original, 

l the Christ*. That is to say, You are no longer in this darkness and 
ignorance : you have learned the Christ : and the lesson involves a 
wholly different life. 

iv 1 1 If so be that ye have /ward Him, and have been taught in Him, 

as the truth is in Jesus . The conditional form of the sentence is 
used for the sake of emphasis, and does not imply a doubt. We 
may paraphrase it thus : if indeed it be He whom ye have heard 
and in whom ye have been taught . The phrases to learn Christ, 
to hear Him, and to be taught in Him, are explanatory of each 
other. The Apostle s readers had not indeed heard Christ, in the 
sense of hearing Him speak. But Christ was the message which 
had been brought to them, He was the school in which they had 
been taught, He was the lesson which they had learnt. 

The expression c to learn Christ has become familiar to our 
ears, and we do not at once realise how strangely it must have 
sounded when it was used for the first time. But the Apostle 
was well aware that his language was new, and he adds a clause 
which helps to interpret it : even as the truth is in Jesus , or 
more literally, even as truth is in Jesus . He lays much stress 

iv 15 on truth throughout the whole context. He has already called 

for the maintenance of the truth in opposition to the subtleties 

iv 24 f. of error : he will presently speak of the new man as created 
according to God in righteousness and holiness of the truth ; 
and, led on by the word, he will require his readers as the first 
practical duty of the new life to put away falsehood and speak 
truth each to his neighbour. But truth is embodied in Jesus, who 
is the Christ. Hence, instead of saying ye have learned the truth," 
ye have heard the truth, ye have been taught in the truth , he says 

1 See above, p. 30. 


with a far more impressive emphasis, It is Christ whom ye have 
learned, Him ye have heard, in Him ye have been taught, even as 
the truth is in Jesus . 

Nowhere else in this epistle does St Paul use the name * Jesus ; 
by itself. Nor does he so use it again in any of the epistles of 
his Roman captivity, if we except the one passage in which he 
specially refers to the new honour which has accrued to the name Phil, ii 10 
of Jesus . Even in his earlier epistles it rarely occurs alone ; and, 
when it does, there is generally an express reference to the death 
or resurrection of our Lord 1 . We have already said something 
of the significance of St Paul s usage in this respect 2 . He uses 
the name * Jesus by itself when he wishes emphatically to point 
to the historic personality of the Christ. And this is plainly his 
intention in the present passage. The message which he pro 
claimed was this : The Christ has come : in the person of Jesus 
the crucified, risen and ascended Jesus He has come, not only 
as the Messiah of the Jew, but as the hope of all mankind. In 
this Jesus is embodied the truth : and so the truth has come to 
you. You have learned the Christ ; Him you have heard, in Him 
you have been taught, even as the truth is in Jesus. 

* That ye put off as concerning your former manner of life iv 22 ff. 
the old man, which is corrupt according to the lusts of deceit; 
and be renewed in the spirit of your mind, and put on the new 
man, which after God is created in righteousness and holiness of 
the truth . The injunctions which St Paul has hitherto laid upon 
his readers have been gentle admonitions, arising directly out of 
the great thoughts which he has been expounding to them. His 
first injunction was : Remember what you were and what you are. ii n f. 
The next was : Cultivate that humble and forbearing temper, which iv i ff. 
naturally belongs to what you are, which tends to keep the unity. 
But now his demand takes a severer tone : I protest in the Lord, he 
says, that you be not what you were. 

The knife goes deep. As regards your former life, he declares, 
you must strip off * the old man , a miserable decaying thing, rotted 
with the passions of the old life of error. You must be made new 
in your spirits. You must array yourselves in the new man , who 
has been created as God would have him to be, in that righteousness 
and holiness to which the truth leads. 

1 So in i Thess. i 10, iv 14, Rom. Jude. But in Hebrews it occurs alone 

viii ii, 2 Cor. iv 10, ii, 14. The re- eight times; and this is, of course, the 

maining passages are Gal. vi 17, Eom. regular use in the Gospels, 

iii 26, 2 Cor. iv 5. The name is not 2 See above, pp. 23 f. 
used alone in James, i and 2 Peter, or 


What is the old man who is here spoken of 1 St Paul has 

Rom. vi 6 used the term in an earlier epistle. Our old man , he had written 
to the Romans, was crucified with Christ . From the context of 
that passage we may interpret his meaning as follows : I said that 
by your baptism you were united with Christ in His death, you 
were buried with Him. "What was it that then died 1 I answer : 
The former you. A certain man was living a life of sin : he was 
the slave of sin, living in a body dominated by sin. That man, 
who lived that life, died. He was crucified with Christ. That is 
what I call your old man . 

To the Romans, then, he has declared that their old man is 
dead. This, he says, is the true view of your life. It is God s 

Kom. vi 7 view of it, in virtue of which you are justified in His sight. And 
this view, the only true view, you are bound yourselves to take, and 
make it the ruling principle of all your conduct. 

Gal. ii 20 Elsewhere he says : This is my own case. I have been crucified 
with Christ : I no longer live. Yet you see me living. What does 
it mean 1 ? Christ is living in me. So great was the revolution 
which St Paul recognised as having taken place in his own moral 
experience, that he does not hesitate to speak of it as a change 
of personality. I am dead, he says, crucified on Christ s cross. 
Another has come to live in me : and He has displaced me in 

What was true for him was true for his readers likewise. 
Christ, he says, has come and claimed you. You have admitted 
His claim by your baptism. You are no longer yourselves. The 
old you then died : Another came to live in you. 

In our present passage, and in the closely parallel passage of the 
Epistle to the Colossians, St Paul urges his readers to bring their 
lives into correspondence with their true position, by putting off 
the old man and putting on the new man . That they had done 
this already in their baptism was not, to his mind, inconsistent with 

Col. ii 12, such an admonition. Indeed he expressly reminds the Colossians 
that they had thus died and been buried with Christ, and had been 
raised with Him to a new life. None the less he urges them to 
a fresh act of will, which shall realise their baptismal position : 

Col.iiiQff. putting off the old man with his deeds, and putting on the new, 
who is ever being renewed unto knowledge according to the image 
of Him that created him ; where there is no Greek and Jew, 
circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondman, 
freeman ; but Christ is all and in all . 

The metaphor here employed is a favourite one with St Paul. 
They are to strip off the old self : they are to clothe themselves with 


Another. This Other is sometimes said to be Christ Himself. Thus 

St Paul writes to the Galatians : As many of you as were baptised Gal. iii 27 

into Christ did put on Christ ; and to the Romans he says : Put Bom. xiii 

ye on the Lord Jesus Christ . Yet we could not substitute Christ I4 

for the new man either here or in the Epistle to the Colossians. 

For in both places the Apostle speaks of * the new man as having 

been created , a term which he could not apply directly to Christ. 

An earlier passage in this epistle, which likewise combines the 
term new man with the idea of creation , may perhaps throw 
some light on this difficulty, even if it introduces us to a further 
complication. In speaking of the union of the Jew and the Gentile 
in Christ, St Paul uses the words : that He might create the two ii 15 
in Himself into one new man . As the new man , who is to be 
put on , is the same for all who are thus renewed, they all become 
inseparably one one new Man. But the one new Man is ulti 
mately the Christ who is all and in all . We cannot perhaps 
bring these various expressions into perfect harmony : but we must 
not neglect any one of them. Here, as often elsewhere with 
St Paul, the thought is too large and too many-sided for a complete 
logical consistency in its exposition. 

The condition of the old man, which is corrupt according to the iv 22 
lusts of deceit , is contrasted first with a renewal of youth, and 
secondly with a fresh act of creation. These two distinct con 
ceptions correspond to two meanings which are combined in the 
phrase is corrupt . For this may mean simply is being destroyed , 
is on the way to perish ; as St Paul says elsewhere, our outward 2 Cor. ivi6 
man perisheth , using the same verb in a compound form. But 
again it may refer to moral pollution, as when the Apostle says to 
the Corinthians, I have espoused you to one husband, to present 2 Cor. xi 
you as a pure virgin to Christ ; but I fear lest, as Satan deceived 2 f " 
Eve, so your minds may be corrupted from the simplicity and purity 
which is towards Christ . If in our present passage the words 
which is corrupt stood alone, we might take the first meaning 
only and render which waxeth corrupt or, better, which is 
perishing : and this would correspond to the contrasted words, be 
renewed in the spirit of your mind . But the second meaning is 
also in the Apostle s mind : for he adds the words according to the 
lusts of deceit , and he offers a second contrast in the new man 
which is created after God , or more literally according to God , 
that is as he says more plainly to the Colossians according to the Col. iii 10 
image of Him that created him . The original purity of newly- 
created man was corrupted by means of a deceit which worked 
through the lusts . The familiar story has perpetually repeated 


itself in human experience : the old man is corrupt according to 
the lusts of deceit , and a fresh creation after the original pattern 
has been necessitated : it is found in the new man which after God 
is created in righteousness and holiness which are (in contrast with 
deceit ) of the truth . 

ivas V2 25 WHEREFORE putting away lying, speak every man truth 
with his neighbour : for we are members one of another. 26 Be 
ye angry, and sin not : let not the sun go down upon your 
wrath ; 2 ? neither give place to the devil. 28 Let him that stole 
steal no more : but rather let him labour, working with his 
hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to 
him that needeth. 2 ^Let no corrupt communication proceed 
out of your mouth, but that which is good, for building up as 
need may be, that it may give grace unto the hearers : 3and 
grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto 
the day of redemption. ^ Let all bitterness and wrath and 
anger and clamour and evil-speaking be put away from you, 
with all malice : 32 and be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, 
forgiving one another, even as God in Christ hath forgiven you. 
V. * Be ye therefore followers of God, as His beloved children ; 
2 and walk in love, as Christ also hath loved you, and hath 
given Himself for you, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a 
sweetsmelling savour. 

The Apostle proceeds to interpret in a series of practical precepts 
his general injunction to put off the old man and put on the new, to 
turn from the life of error to the life which belongs to the truth. 
He appeals throughout to the large interests of their common life : 
it is the Spirit of fellowship which supplies the motive for this moral 
revolution. Six sins are struck at : lying, resentment, stealing, bad 
language, bad temper, lust. 

iv 25 Lying is to be exchanged for truthfulness, for the Body s sake. 

iv 26 .Resentment is to give way to reconciliation, lest Satan get a footing 

iv 28 in their midst. Stealing must make place for honest work, to help 

iv 29 others : bad language for gracious speech, unto building up , and lest 

iv 31 the one holy Spirit be grieved. Bad temper must yield to kindliness 

and forgivingness, for God has forgiven them all ; yea, to love, the 

v 3 love of self -giving, shewn in Christ s sacrifice. Lastly lust, and all 

the unfruitful works of the dark, must be banished by the light. 


Thus the Apostle bids them displace the old man by the new, 
the false life by the righteousness and holiness of the truth : 

Eing out the old, ring in the new; 
Eing out the false, ring in the true; 
Eing in the Christ that is to be. 

* Wherefore putting away lying, speak every man truth with his iv 25 
neighbour : for we are members one of another . In the original the 
connexion with what has immediately preceded is very clearly 
marked. For the word rendered putting away is the same as that 
which has been used for putting off the old man, though the 
metaphor of the garment is now dropped: and lying 3 , or false 
hood as it could be more generally rendered, is directly suggested 
by the word truth with which the last sentence closes. Truthful 
ness of speech is an obvious necessity, if they are to live the life of 
the truth . 

The Apostle enforces his command by a quotation from the 
prophet Zechariah : These are the things that ye shall do : Speak Zech. viii 
ye every man the truth with his neighbour : truth and the judge- I 
ment of peace judge ye in your gates . But he gives a character of 
his own to the precept in the reason which he adds : for we are 
members one of another 5 . These words remind us how practical he 
is in all his mysticism. The mystical conception that individual 
men are but limbs of the body of a greater Man is at once made the 
basis of an appeal for truthfulness in our dealings one with another. 
Falsehood, a modern moralist would say, is a sin against the mutual 
trust on which all civilised society rests. St Paul said it long ago, 
and still more forcibly. It is absurd, he says, that you should 
deceive one another : just as it would be absurd for the limbs of a 
body to play each other false. The habit of lying was congenial to 
the Greek, as it was to his Oriental neighbours. St Paul strikes at 
the root of the sin by shewing its inconsistency with the realisation 
of the corporate life. 

Be ye angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon yourivi6L 
wrath; neither give place to the devil 1 . The first words of this 
passage are another quotation from the Old Testament. They are 
taken from the Greek version of the fourth Psalm, and are perhaps Ps. iv 4 
a nearer representation of the original than is given by our English 
rendering, Stand in awe, and sin not . That there is a righteous 
anger is thus allowed by the Apostle : but he warns us that, if 
cherished, it quickly passes into sin. According to the Mosaic law 
the sun was not to set on a cloke held as a surety, or the unpaid wage Deut. xxiv 
of the needy : and again, the sun was not to set on a malefactor put r 3 *5 


Deut. xxi. to death and left unburied. This phraseology furnishes the Apostle 
*j* ... with the form of his injunction. Its meaning is, as an old com- 
29, x 27) mentator observes, Let the day of your anger he the day of your 
reconciliation 1 . 

The phrase to give place to the devil means to give him room 
or scope for action. Anger, which suspends as it were the har 
monious relation between one member and another in the Body, 
gives an immediate opportunity for the entry of the evil spirit 2 
iv 2 8 Let him that stole steal no more : but rather let him labour, work 

ing with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give 
to him that needeth . This is indeed to put off the old, and to put 
on the new. It is a complete reversal of the moral attitude. Instead 
of taking what is another s, seek with the sweat of your brow to be 
in a position to give to another what you have honestly made your 

iv 29 Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your raoutli . The 

word here rendered * corrupt is used in the Gospels of the worthless 
Matt, vii tree, and of the worthless fish : it is opposed to good , in the sense 
I 7.? > ^ ii 33> O f being good-for-nothing . But the corrupt speech here con 
demned is foul talk, and not merely idle talk. It is probable that 
St Paul in his choice of the word had in mind its original meaning 
of rotten or corrupted : for in a parallel passage of the com- 
Col. iv 6 panion epistle he says : Let your speech be alway with grace, 
seasoned with salt ; the use of salt being not only to flavour, but to 

But that which is good, for building up as need may be . The 
words edify and edification have become so hackneyed, that it 
is almost necessary to avoid them in translation, if the Apostle s 
language is to retain its original force. How vividly he realised the 
metaphor which he employed may be seen from a passage in the 
Epistle to the Romans, where he says, if we render his words 
Bom. xiv literally : Let us follow after the things that belong to peace and to 

1 It is worth while to repeat Fuller s 2 The Didache, in a list of warnings 

comment quoted from Eadie by Dr directed against certain sins on the 

Abbott (ad loc. p. 141): Let us take ground of what they lead to , says 

the Apostle s meaning rather than his (c. iii): Be not angry; for auger leads 

words with all possible speed to depose to murder: nor jealous, nor quarrel- 

our passion ; not understanding him some, nor passionate ; for of all these 

so literally that we may take leave to things murders are bred . In the same 

be angry till sunset, then might our chapter comes another precept which 

wrath lengthen with the days; and men it is interesting to compare with the 

in Greenland, where days last above a sequence of St Paul s injunctions in 

quarter of a year, have plentiful scope this place: My child, be not a liar; 

of revenge . since lying leads to thieving . 


the building up of one another : do not for the sake of food pull down 
God s work . Moreover in the present chapter he has twice spoken iy 12, 16 
of c the building up of the body ; while in an earlier chapter he has u 
elaborated the metaphor of the building in relation to the Christian 
society. In the present passage he recurs to this metaphor, as 
in v. 25 he recurred to the figure of the body. Speech, like 
everything else, he would have us use for the help of others who 
are linked with us in the corporate life for building up as occasion 
may offer . 

That it may give grace unto the hearers . The phrase to give 
grace may also be rendered to give gratification : and this is 
certainly the idea which would at once be suggested to the ordinary 
Greek reader. But to St Paul s mind the deeper meaning of grace 
predominates. This is not the only place where he seems to play 
upon the various meanings of the Greek word for * grace . Thus, 
for example, in the passage which we have quoted above from the 
Epistle to the Colossians, the obvious sense of his words to a Greek 
mind would be : Let your speech be always with graciousness or Col. iv 6 
graceful charm : and another instance will come before us later on 
in the present epistle 1 . 

1 And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto iv 30 
the day of redemption . Each of St Paul s injunctions is enforced 
by a grave consideration. Falsehood is inconsistent with member 
ship in a Body. Cherished irritation makes room for the evil spirit. 
Stealing is the direct contrary of the labour that toils to help others. 
Speech that is corrupt not only pulls down instead of building up, 
but actually pains the Holy Spirit of God. 

The Spirit specially claims to find expression in the utterances 
of Christians, as St Paul tells us later on in this epistle, where he 
says : Be filled with the Spirit ; speaking to one another in psalms v 1 8 f . 
and hymns and spiritual songs . The misuse of the organ of speech 
is accordingly a wrong done to, and felt by, the Spirit who claims to 
control it. The addition of the words, whereby (or in whom ) ye 
are sealed unto the day of redemption , carries us back to the 
mention of the sealing of the Gentiles with l the holy Spirit of the i 1 3 
promise , that is, the Spirit promised of old to the chosen people. 
This is the one Spirit , of which the Apostle says in an earlier 
epistle that in one Spirit we have all been baptized into one body, i Cor. xii 
whether Jews or Greeks . Thus the Holy Spirit stands in the J 3 
closest relation to the new corporate life, and is specially wronged 

1 See below, p. 116. For the various New Testaments see the detached note 
meanings of grace in the Old and on 



when the opportunity of building it up becomes an occasion for its 
defilement and ruin. 

iv 31 f. Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamour and evil 

speaking be put away from you, with all malice : and be ye kind one 
to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God in Christ 
hath forgiven you . The fifth injunction, to put away bitter feelings, 
and the quarrelling and evil-speaking to which they give rise, is 
enforced by an appeal to the character and action of God Himself. 
You must forgive each other, says the Apostle, because God in 
Christ has forgiven you all. 

vi Be ye therefore followers (or c imitators ) of God, as His beloved 

children . These words must be taken closely with what precedes, 
as well as with what follows. The imitation of God in His merciful- 
Luke vi ness is the characteristic of sonship. * Love your enemies, and do 
35 ff> them good, and lend hoping for nothing again ; and your reward 
shall be great, and ye shall be sons of the Most High ; for He is 
kind to the unthankful and evil. Be merciful, even as your Father 
is merciful . 

v 2 And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved you, and hath given 

Himself for you, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet- 
smelling savour 1 . The Apostle has invoked the Divine example 
first of all in regard to forgiveness. He now extends its reference 
by making it the basis of the wider command to * walk in love . 
Take, he says, God as your pattern : copy Him ; for you are His 
children whom He loves. Walk therefore in love such love as 
Christ has shewn to you. 

For us, the love of God is supremely manifested in the love of 
Christ, who gave Himself up on our behalf, an offering and a 
sacrifice to God for an odour of a sweet smell . We then are to love 
even as Christ loved us ; that is, with the love that gives itself for 
others, the love of sacrifice. St Paul thus points to Christ s sacrifice 
as an example of the love which Christians are to shew to one 
another. Your acts of love to one another, he implies, will be 
truly a sacrifice acceptable to God; even as the supreme act of 
Christ s love to you is the supremely acceptable Sacrifice. 

Two passages may help to illustrate this teaching and the 
phraseology in which it is conveyed. One of these is found later 
on in this chapter, where the Apostle charges husbands to love 
725 their wives even as Christ loved the church and gave Himself 

up for it . The other offers us another example of the application 
of the sacrificial phraseology of the Old Testament to actions 
which manifest love. The language in which St Paul dignifies 
the kindness shewn to himself by the Philippian Church is strikingly 


similar to that of our present passage: Having received of Phil, iv 18 
Epaphroditus the things which were sent from you, an odour of 
a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, well pleasing to God . 

3 BUT fornication and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it v 3 14 
not even be named among you, as becometh saints; 4 neither 
filthiness nor foolish talking nor jesting, which are not befitting; 
but rather giving of thanks. 5 For this ye know of a surety, 
that no fornicator nor unclean person, nor covetous man, which 
is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ 
and of God. 6 Let no man deceive you with vain words; for 
because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the 
children of disobedience. 7 Be not ye therefore partakers with 
them. 8 For ye were in time past darkness, but now are ye 
light in the Lord : walk as children of light : 9 for the fruit of 
light is in all goodness and righteousness and truth ; I0 proving 
what is acceptable unto the Lord. "And have no fellowship 
with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather expose them : 
12 for of the things which are done of them in secret it is a 
shame even to speak ; ^but all things when they are exposed 
by the light are made manifest ; for whatsoever is made manifest 
is light. J 4 Wherefore it saith : 

Awake, thou that sleepest, 

And arise from the dead, 

And Christ shall shine upon thee. 

* But fornication and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not v 3 
even be named among you, as becometh saints . The five prohibitions 
which have preceded stand side by side with no connecting particles 
to link them to each other. This, as a point of style, is far more 
unusual in Greek than it is in English. Accordingly the adversative 
particle with which the final prohibition is introduced deserves the 
more attention. The Apostle has called upon his readers to put 
away falsehood, irritation, theft, corrupt speech, bitter feelings. 
But, he seems to say, there is another class of sins which I do not 
even bid you put away : I say that you may not so much as name 
them one to another. 

1 As becometh saints . He appeals to a new Christian decorum, ii 19 
* Ye are fellow-citizens with the saints : noblesse oblige. 



v 4 * Neither flthiness nor foolish talking nor jesting, which are not 

befitting ; but rather giving of thanks . The first of these nomina 
tives might be taken with the preceding verb, let it not even be 
named ; but not the other two. The meaning however is plain: 
neither let there be among you these things which degrade 
conversation, or at least relax its tone. Having summarily dismissed 
the grosser forms of sin, the Apostle forbids the approaches to them 
in unseemly talk, in foolishness of speech, even in mere frivolous 
jesting. The seemingly abrupt introduction of thanksgiving in 
contrast to jesting is due to a play upon the two words in the 
Greek which cannot be reproduced in translation. Instead of the 
lightness of witty talk, which played too often on the border-line of 
impropriety, theirs should be the true grace of speech, the utter 
ance of a grace or thanksgiving to God 1 . He developes the 

v 1 8 ff. thought at greater length below, when he contrasts the merriment 
of wine with the sober gladness of sacred psalmody. 

Y 5 For this ye know of a surety, that no fornicator nor unclean 

person, nor covetous man, which is an idolater, hath any inheritance 
in the kingdom of Christ and of God . St Paul has spoken of the 

i 14 Gentile Christians as having received the earnest of the inherit- 

"* 6 ance , and as being fellow-heirs with the Jews. Here however he 

declares that those who commit the sins of which he has been 
speaking are thereby excluded from such inheritance. They have 
indeed practically returned to idolatry, and renounced Christ and 
God. They have disinherited themselves. 

This extension of the metaphor of inheritance is a Hebrew 
form of speech which has passed over into the Greek of the New 
Testament. Thus we have in the Gospel the phrase to inherit 
eternal life 2 . The connexion of inheritance with the kingdom 
is found in Matt, xxv 34, inherit the kingdom prepared for you , 
and in James ii 5, Hath not God chosen the poor of this world, 
rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom , etc. In St Paul we find 
only the negative form of the phrase, as in i Cor. xv 50, flesh 
and blood shall not inherit the kingdom of God . The two other 

i Cor. vi passages in which it occurs present close parallels to our present 

9 * passage. Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit 

the kingdom of God 1 Be not deceived : neither f ornicators, nor 
idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves 
with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, 

1 For a similar play on the word x 25: comp. Tit. iii 7. The phrase 
* grace , see above p. 113. to inherit life is found in Psalms 

* Mark x 1 7 and parallels, Luke of Solomon xiv 6. 


nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God . And in closing 
his list of * the works of the flesh the Apostle says : Of the which Gal. v 2 r 
I foretell you, as I have also foretold you, that they which do such 
things shall not inherit the kingdom of God . This repetition 
might almost suggest that he was employing a formula of teaching 
which had become fixed and could be referred to as familiar : Know 
ye not ? , I foretell you, as I have also foretold you , * This ye 
know assuredly . 

The kingdom of Christ and of God . The epithet of God 
points to the nature of the kingdom, as opposed to a temporal 
kingdom : hence it is that in St Matthew s Gospel the epithet 
* of heaven can be so often substituted for it. The epithet of 
Christ is more rare 1 : it points to the Messiah as the king set upon Ps. ii 6 
the holy hill of Sion , the Divine Son, the Anointed of Jehovah 
who reigns in His name. So St Paul says that the Father... hath Col. i 13 
transplanted us into the kingdom of the Son of His love . The 
two thoughts are brought into final harmony in i Cor. xv 24 f : 
Then cometh the end, when He shall deliver up the kingdom to 
God, even the Father... that God may be all in all . 

Let no man deceive you with vain words : for because of these v 6 
things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience \ 
The Apostle recurs to language which he has used already : he has 
spoken of the children (or sons ) of disobedience , and has called ii 2 f. 
them children of (the Divine) wrath . The wrath of God falls Comp. 
upon the heathen world especially on account of the sins of the 8 J^ l 
flesh which are closely connected with idolatry. 

Be not ye therefore partakers with them : for ye were in time past v 7 f . 
darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord . Having completed his 
list of special prohibitions, the Apostle returns to his general 
principle : Be not like the Gentiles. Once more he reminds his iv 1 7 
readers of what in time past they were, and of what they now are. Comp. ii 
They have been taken into a new fellowship, and cannot retain the I x f - 
old. The Gentiles whom they have left are still darkened in their iv 18 
understanding : but they themselves have been rescued out of the Col. i 1 2 f. 
power of darkness , and made meet to be partakers of the inherit 
ance of the saints in light . Here the Apostle does not say merely 
that they were in time past in the darkness and now are in the 
light : but, heightening his figure to the utmost, he speaks of them 
as once * darkness , but now light . 

1 For the kingdom of Christ in we have "Thy glory ), Luke i 33, xxii 
the Gospel compare Matt, xiii 41, 29 f., xxiii 42, John xviii 36. See also 
xvi 28, xx 21 (where in Mark x 37 2 Pet. in, Apoc. xi 15. 


v 8 Walk as children of light . "We may compare St Paul s words 

i Thess. to the Thessalonians : But ye, brethren, are not in darkness... for 

v 4 f ye are all children of light and children of the day . While speaking 
of their position and privilege the Apostle has called them light 
itself : now that he comes to speak of their conduct, he returns to 
his metaphor of walking , and bids them walk as children of 
light . 

v 9 c For the fruit of light is in all goodness and righteousness and 

truth . With the fruit of light in this passage we may compare 

Gal. v 22 * the fruit of the Spirit in the Epistle to the Galatians. Indeed 
some manuscripts have transferred the latter phrase to this place, 
where it is found in our Authorised Version. 

v. TO Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord\ These words belong 

in construction to the command Walk as children of light , the 
intervening verse being a parenthesis. The light will enable them 

v 17 to test and discern the Lord s will 1 . So below he bids them under 

stand what the will of the Lord is . 

vii * And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness . 

GaL v 19, Just as in the Epistle to the Galatians the Apostle contrasted the 
fruit of the Spirit with the works of the flesh so here, while he 
speaks of the fruit of light , he will not speak of the fruit of 
darkness , but of its fruitless works . 

v 1 1 f. But rather expose them ; for of the things which are done of them 

in secret it is a shame even to speak; but all things when they are 
exposed by the light are made manifest ; for whatsoever is made 
manifest is light 1 . The Apostle is not content with the negative 
precept which bids his readers abstain from association with the 
works of darkness. Being themselves of the nature of light, they 
must remember that it is the property of light to dispel darkness, to 
expose what is hidden and secret. Nay more, in the moral and 
spiritual world, the Apostle seems to say, light has a further power : 
it can actually transform the darkness. The hidden is darkness; 
the manifested is light ; by the action of light darkness itself can be 
turned into light. 

Ye were darkness , he has said, but now ye are light : and 
this is only the beginning of a great series of recurring transforma 
tions. You, the new light, have your part to play in the conversion 
of darkness into light. Right produces right : it rights wrong. 
Or, as St Paul prefers to say, light produces light: it lightens 

1 On the use of the title the Lord 1 in these places, see what has been 
said above pp. 72, 90. 

V i 4 , 15] 



Wherefore it saith, Awake, thou that sleepest, and arise from the v 1 4 
dead, and Christ shall shine upon thee . This quotation is not to 
be found in any book that we know. It is probably a fragment of 
an early Christian hymn : possibly a baptismal hymn ; or possibly 
again a hymn commemorating the descent of Christ into the under 
world 1 . We may compare with it another fragment of early 
hymnology in i Tim. iii 16. 

15 TAKE therefore careful heed how ye walk, not as unwise v J 5 33 
but as wise, l6 redeeming the time, because the days are evil. 
^Wherefore be ye not fools, but understand what the will of 
the Lord is. l8 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess ; 
but be filled with the Spirit, T 9 speaking to yourselves in psalms 
and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody 
with your heart to the Lord ; 20 giving thanks always for all 
things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ unto our God and 
Father; 2I submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of 
Christ. 22 Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, 

1 Two early suggestions are of suffi 
cient interest to be noted here. One 
is found as a note on the passage in 
John Damasc. (quoted by Tischendorf): 
We have received by tradition that 
this is the voice to be sounded by the 
archangel s trump to those who have 
fallen asleep since the world began , 
The other is a story told by St Jerome 
(ad Zoc.) : I remember once hearing a 
preacher discourse on this passage in 
church. He wished to please the 
people by a startling novelty; so he 
said: This quotation is an utterance 
addressed to Adam, who was buried on 
Calvary (the place of a skull), where 
the Lord was crucified. It was called 
the place of a skull, because there the 
head of the first man was buried. 
Accordingly at the time when the 
Lord was hanging on the cross over 
Adam s sepulchre this prophecy was 
fulfilled which says : Awake, thou 
Adam that sleepest, and arise from the 
dead, and, not as we read it Christ 

shall shine upon thee [^7rt0a^cret], but 
Christ shall touch thee [eTrtif/aixret] : 
because forsooth by the touch of His 
blood and His body that hung there 
he should be brought to life and 
should arise ; and so that type also 
should be fulfilled of the dead Elisha 
raising the dead. Whether all this 
is true or not, I leave to the 
reader s judgment. There is no doubt 
that the saying of it delighted the 
congregation; they applauded and 
stamped with their feet. All that I 
know is that such a meaning does 
not harmonise with the context of the 
passage . There are other traces of 
the legend that Adam was buried on 
Calvary, which was regarded as the 
centre of the world. The skull often 
depicted at the foot of the crucifix is 
Adam s skull. It is not impossible 
that the strange preacher was going 
on tradition in connecting the words 
with the release of Adam from Hades 
at the time of the Lord s Descent. 

120 EXPOSITION OF THE [V 15, 16 

as unto the Lord : 2 3for the husband is the head of the wife, 
even as Christ is the head of the church, being Himself the 
saviour of the body. 2 But as the church is subject unto 
Christ, so let the wives be to their husbands in every thing. 
25 Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the 
church, and gave Himself for it; 26 that He might sanctify 
it, cleansing it by the washing of water with the word; 2 7that 
He might present the church to Himself all-glorious, not 
having spot or wrinkle or any such thing ; but that it should 
be holy and without blemish. 28 So ought the husbands also to 
love their wives as their own bodies : he that loveth his wife 
loveth himself; 2 9for no man ever yet hated his own flesh, but 
nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as Christ the church ; 3for 
we are members of His body. 31 For this cause shall a man 
leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, 
and they two shall be one flesh. 32 This mystery is great ; but 
I speak it concerning Christ and the church. 33 Nevertheless let 
every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; 
and the wife see that she reverence her husband. 

v 1 5 f . c Take therefore careful heed how ye walk, not as unwise but as 

wise, redeeming the time, because the days are evil . In his desire to 

pursue his metaphor of the conflict between light and darkness the 

Apostle has been led away from his practical precepts of conduct. 

To these he now returns, and he marks his return by once more 

using the verb to walk . Four times already he has used it with a 

iv i special emphasis in this and the preceding chapter : * I beseech you 

iv 1 7 that ye walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye are called : 1 1 

v i f. protest that ye no longer walk as do the Gentiles walk : Be 

followers of God, as His beloved children, and walk in love, as 

v 8 Christ also hath loved you : * Once ye were darkness, now ye are 

light ; walk as children of light . And now he sums up what he 

has just been saying, and prepares the way for further injunctions, 

in the emphatic words, Take therefore careful heed how ye walk *. 

The contrast between the darkness and the light finds practical 
expression in the phrase not as unwise, but as wise . The power 
of the light to transform the darkness suggests that the wise have a 

1 The rendering of the Authorised spectly , is based on a slightly dif- 
Version, See that ye walk circum- ferent reading of the original. 


mission to redeem the time in which they live. The days are evil 
indeed, and the unwise are borne along in the drift of wickedness. 
The wise may stand their ground in the evil day : nay more, they 
may ransom the time from loss or misuse, release it from the bondage 
of evil and claim it for the highest good. Thus the redemptive 
power of the new faith finds a fresh illustration. There is a Divine 
purpose making for good in the midst of evil : the children of light 
can perceive it and follow its guidance, proving what is well- 
pleasing to the Lord . Only heedless folly can miss it : * Wherefore , v 1 7 
he adds, be ye not fools, but understand what the will of the 
Lord is\ 

* And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess . Elsewhere v 18 
this last word is translated riot . The Apostle s meaning is that Tit. i 6; 
drunkenness leads to excess in a more general sense, to dissolute- r 1V 4 
ness and ruin. The actual words Be not drunk with wine are 
borrowed, as other precepts have been borrowed in the former 
chapter, from the Old Testament 1 . They are found in the Greek 
translation of Proverbs xxiii 31, where they are followed by the 
contrast, but converse with righteous men 2 . 

But be filled with the Spirit ; more literally in or through 
the Spirit . There is a fulness, which is above all carnal satis 
faction ; a spiritual fulness wrought by the Holy Spirit. It issues 
not, as fulness of wine, in disorder and moral wreck, but in a 
gladness of cheerful intercourse, psalm and hymn and spiritual 
song, a melody of hearts chanting to the Lord. 

The first age of the Christian Church was characterised by a 
vivid enthusiasm which found expression in ways which recall the 
simplicity of childhood. It was a period of wonder and delight. 
The floodgates of emotion were opened : a supernatural dread 
alternated with an unspeakable joy. Thus we read at one moment Acts ii 43, 
that fear came upon every soul , and at the next that they did eat ^ 
their meat with exultation and simplicity of heart . Great fear v 5, n 
results from a Divine manifestation of judgment : great joy from a viii 8 
Divine manifestation of healing power. Thus the Church went in ix 31 
the fear of the Lord and in the consolation of the Holy Spirit . The 
Apostles openly rejoiced as they left the council that they had been v 41 
allowed to suffer for the Name : Paul and Silas in the prison at xvi 25 
Philippi prayed and sang hymns to God, so that the prisoners heard 
them. Nowhere in literature is the transition from passionate grief 
to enthusiastic delight more glowingly pourtrayed than in St Paul s 

1 See above on iv 25 f. is quite different: Look not thou 

2 The Hebrew text of the passage upon the wine when it is red , etc. 


second epistle to the Corinthian Church. Prom such a writer in 
such an age we can understand the combination of the precepts to 
set free the emotion of a perpetual thankfulness in outbursts of 
hearty song, and at the same time to preserve the orderliness of 

v 19 ff. social relations under the influence of an overmastering awe : speak 
ing to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing 
and making melody with your heart to the Lord; giving thanks 
always for all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ unto 
our God and Father ; submitting yourselves one to aiwther in the fear 
of Christ . 

The implied contrast with the revelry of drunkenness makes it 
plain that in speaking of Christian psalmody the Apostle is not 
primarily referring to public worship, but to social gatherings in 
which a common meal was accompanied by sacred song. For the 
early Christians these gatherings took the place of the many 
public feasts in the Greek cities from which they found themselves 
necessarily excluded, by reason of the idolatrous rites with which 
such banquets were associated. The agapae, or charity-suppers, 
afforded an opportunity by which the richer members of the com 
munity could gather their poorer brethren in hospitable fellowship. 
In the earliest times these suppers were hallowed by the solemn 
breaking of the bread , followed by singing, exhortations and 
prayers. And even when the Eucharist of the Church had ceased 
to be connected with a common supper, these banquets retained a 
semi-eucharistic character, and the element of praise and thanks 
giving still held an important place in them. 

v 20 Giving thanks always for all things in the name of our Lord 

Jesus Christ unto our God and Father \ The parallel passage in 
the companion epistle enforces the duty of thanksgiving no less 
forcibly. After urging upon the Colossians gentleness, forgiveness 

Col. iii 15 and peace, he proceeds: And be ye thankful. Let the word of 
Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom : teaching and admonishing 

one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs with grace, 
singing in your hearts to God : and whatsoever ye do in word or in 
deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks unto God 
the Father through Him . 

The expression, which occurs in both these passages, *in the 
name of\ corresponds to the reiterated expressions in Christ and 
in the Lord . Believers are in Him : they must speak and act in 
His name. 

Unto our God and Father . The rendering in the Authorised 
Version, unto God and the Father , does not satisfactorily represent 
the original, which means to Him who is at once God and the 


Father . We are to give thanks to God, who in Christ has now 
been revealed to us as { the Father . 

Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ . The v 21 
enthusiasm of which the Apostle has spoken is far removed from 
fanaticism. The glad life of the Christian community is a life of 
duly constituted order. The Apostle of liberty is the Apostle of 
order and subordination. This is strikingly illustrated by the fact 
that the verb to submit oneself (often rendered to be subject ) is 
used twenty-three times by St Paul. If we except i St Peter, which 
is not independent of St Paul s epistles, it occurs but nine times in 
the rest of the New Testament. "We may recall a few passages : 
Let every soul be subject to the higher powers ; The spirits of Eom.xiiii 
the prophets are subject to the prophets ; Then shall even the * . 
Son Himself be subject to Him that hath subjected all things 
unto Him . 

Recognise, says the Apostle, that in the Divine ordering of 
human life one is subject to another. We must not press this to 
mean that even the highest is in some sense subject to those who 
are beneath him. St Jerome indeed takes this view, and proceeds 
to commend the passage to bishops, with whom he sometimes found 
himself in collision. But the Apostle is careful in what follows to 
make his meaning abundantly clear, and does not stultify his precept 
by telling husbands to be subject to their wives, but to love them ; 
nor parents to be subject to their children, but to nurture them in 
the discipline of the Lord. 

The motive of due subordination is given in the remarkable 
phrase the fear of Christ . In the Old Testament the guiding 
principle of human life is again and again declared to be the fear 
of the Lord , or the fear of God . This is the beginning of 
wisdom , and the whole duty of man . St Paul boldly recasts 
the principle for the Christian society in the unique expression the 
fear of Christ . He will interpret his meaning as he shews by 
repeated illustrations that the authority which corresponds to 
natural relationships finds its pattern and its sanction in the 
authority of Christ over His Church. 

Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the v 22 
Lord . Having struck the key-note of subordination the recogni 
tion of the sacred principles of authority and obedience the Apostle 
proceeds to give a series of positive precepts for the regulation of 
social life, which is divinely founded on the unchanging institution 
of the family. He deals in turn with the duties of wives and 
husbands, of children and parents, of servants and masters; 
beginning in each case with the responsibility of obedience, and 


passing from that to the responsibility which rests on those to 
whom obedience is due. Those who obey must obey as though 
they were obeying Christ: those who are obeyed must find the 
pattern of their conduct in the love and care of Christ, and must 
remember that they themselves owe obedience in their turn to 

The thought of the parallel between earthly and heavenly 
relationships has already found expression at an early point in 

iii 14 f. the epistle, where the Apostle speaks of the Father from whom 
all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named . In the present 
passage it leads him back to his special topic of the relation of 
Christ to the Church as a whole. It enables him to link the 
simplest precepts of social morality with the most transcendent 
doctrines of the Christian faith. The common life of the home is 
discovered to be fraught with a far-reaching mystery. The natural 
relationships are hallowed by their heavenly patterns. 

v 23 f. F r the husband is the headoftJie wife, even as Christ is the head 

of the church, being Himself the saviour of the body\ This last 
clause is added to interpret the special sense in which Christ is here 
called l the head of the church . We have already had occasion to 
observe that this metaphor of headship does not to St Paul s mind 
exhaustively express the relation of Christ to His Body 1 . For, in 
fact, Christ is more than the Head : He is the Whole of which 

i Cor. xii His members are parts. * For as the body is one and hath many 

12 members, and all the members including the head are one 

body : so also is the Christ . To this more intimate relation, not 
of headship, but of identification, the Apostle will point us a little 
later on in this passage. For the moment he contents himself with 
explaining the special thought which he has here in view. Christ 
is the head of the church, as being Himself the saviour of the body . 
It is the function of the head to plan the safety of the body, to 
secure it from danger and to provide for its welfare. In the highest 
sense this function is fulfilled by Christ for the Church : in a lower 
sense it is fulfilled by the husband for the wife. In either case the 
responsibility to protect is inseparably linked with the right to rule : 
the head is obeyed by the body. This is the Apostle s point ; and 
accordingly he checks himself, as it were, from a fuller exposition of 

v 24 the thoughts towards which he is being led : but for this is the 

matter in hand as the church is subject unto Christy so let the 
wives be to their husbands in every thing . 

v 25 Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, 

and gave Himself for it . Subordination must be met by love. The 
1 See above pp. 41 f., 103. 


relation of Christ to the Church still supplies the heavenly pattern. 
Hast thou seen , says St Chrysostom, the measure of obedience 1 
hear also the measure of love . 

Just as the Apostle interpreted the headship of Christ by the 
insertion of the clause being Himself the saviour of the body ; so 
here he interprets the love of Christ by a group of sentences which 
lift him for the moment high above his immediate theme. 

Christ loved the church, and gave Himself for it . This is a 
repetition of words which he has used already in urging the general 
duty of love : Christ loved us, and gave Himself for us . Here, as v i 
there, the love is denned as the love of self -surrender : but the 
sequel is different : there it was that He might Himself be a sweet- 
smelling offering to God; here it is that He might hallow and 
cleanse His Bride the Church. 

1 That He might sanctify it, cleansing it by the washing of water v 26 
with the word . We are reminded of St Paul s appeal to the 
Corinthians: Such were some of you fornicators, idolaters, and 
the like : { but ye were washed, but ye were sanctified, but ye were 
justified, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of 
our God . 

The word that is here spoken of as accompanying the 
washing of water is plainly some solemn mention of the name 
of the Lord Jesus , in which they were washed from their former 
sins. The candidate for baptism confessed his faith in the Name : 
the rite of baptism was administered in the Name. The actual 
phrase which is here used is vague : literally translated it is in a 
word : that is to say, accompanied by a solemn word or formula, 
which expressed the intention of baptiser and baptised, and thus 
gave its spiritual meaning to the washing of water . The purpose 
of Christ was accordingly that He might hallow His Bride by the 
cleansing waters of a sacrament in which, in response to her confes 
sion, His Name was laid upon her. 

That He might present the church to Himself all-glorious, not v 27 
having spot or wrinkle or any such thing, but that it should be holy 
and without blemish*. More literally, that He might Himself 
present the church to Himself, glorious , etc. We may contrast 
the language which the Apostle uses to the Corinthian Church : 
I am jealous over you with the jealousy of God ; for I betrothed 2 Cor. xi 2 
you to one husband, to present you as a chaste virgin to Christ . 
Here no human agency is allowed to intervene. The heavenly 
Bridegroom cleanses and sanctifies the Church His Bride, and then 
Himself presents her to Himself in the glory of immaculate beauty 
and unfading youth. 


Such is the love of the Divine Husband to His Bride, of Christ 

v 28 the Head to His own Body the Church. /So ought the husbands also 

to love their wives as their own bodies . The conclusion follows at 
once, if indeed it be true that the husband is the head, and the wife 
the body. Nay, the relation is if possible more intimate still : the 

v 29 f. man is in fact loving himself. He that loveth his wife loveth himself. 
For no man ever yet hated his own flesh, but nourisheth and cherisheth 
it, even as Christ the church ; for we are members of His body . The 
Apostle is gradually passing away from the thought of headship to 
the more mysterious thought of complete oneness, This thought he 
will not expand : he will only point to it as the spiritual significance 
of the fundamental principle enunciated from the beginning in the 

Gen. ii 24 words they two shall be one flesh . Some manuscripts anticipate 
his reference to the book of Genesis by inserting at this place of 
His flesh and of His bones . But the words appear to be a gloss, 
and the passage is complete without them. 

v 31 For this cause shall a man leave his father arid mother, and shall 

be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh . To these 
words our Lord appeals in the Gospel, when He is confronted by the 

Mark x 7 comparative laxity of the Mosaic legislation in regard to divorce. 
They are no more twain , is the conclusion He draws, but one 
flesh : what therefore God hath joined together let not man put 
asunder . St Paul makes his appeal to the same words with a 
different purpose. He is justifying his statement that he that 
loveth his wife loveth himself . This must be so, he declares, for it 
is written, they two shall be one flesh . But if it be true in the 
natural sphere, it is true also of the heavenly pattern. Hence he 

v 32 adds : * This mystery is great,- but I speak it concerning Christ and 

the church . The Apostle does not mean that the complete union 
of husband and wife as one flesh , which is declared in the words 
which he has cited, is a very mysterious thing, hard to be understood. 
In English we can speak of * a great mystery in this sense, using the 
epithet great simply to emphasise or heighten the word to which 
it is attached; as in the familiar phrases a great inconvenience , 
a great pity . But the corresponding word in Greek is not so 
used : it retains its proper meaning of magnitude or importance : so 
that * a great mystery means an important or far-reaching mystery . 
Here the word mystery probably signifies either something which 
contains a secret meaning not obvious to all, or the secret meaning 
itself. Accordingly the Apostle s words mean either that the state 
ment which he has quoted is a symbolical statement of wide import, 
or that the secret meaning therein contained is of wide import. In 
either case he is practically saying : There is more here than appears 


on the surface ; there is an inner meaning of high importance : 
I speak it or, I use the words of Christ and the Church. 

In conclusion he returns to the practical lesson which it is the 
duty of his readers to draw for themselves in daily life. Neverthe- v 33 
less let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; 
and the wife see that she reverence her husband . The word translated 
reverence would be more literally rendered fear . At the close 
of the section the Apostle strikes again the key-note with which he 
began. The fear of Christ the fear of the Church for Christ v 21 
which is the pattern of the fear of the wife for her husband is no 
slavish fear, but a fear of reverence. Just as the word is often 
applied in the Old Testament to the reverence due to God, so it is 
used of the reverence due to parents : Ye shall fear every man his Lev. xix 3 
mother, and his father . Moreover, of Joshua it is said, * they Josh, iv 14 
feared him, as they feared Moses, all the days of his life : and in 
Proverbs we read, My son, fear thou the Lord and the king . Prov. 


CHILDREN, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is vi i 9 
right. 2 Honour thy father and mother; which is the first 
commandment with promise ; 3 that it may be well with thee, 
and thou mayest live long on the earth. 4 And, ye fathers, 
provoke not your children to wrath : but bring them up in 
the discipline and admonition of the Lord. 

5 Servants, be obedient to your masters according to the 
flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, 
as to Christ; 6 not with eyeservice as menpleasers, but as 
servants of Christ, 7 doing the will of God ; doing service 
heartily with good-will, as to the Lord, and not to men: 
8 knowing that whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the 
same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or 
free. 9 And, ye masters, do the same things unto them, for 
bearing threatening ; knowing that both their Master and 
yours is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons with 

Children, obey your parents in the Lord : for this is right , or vi i 
righteous . The precept accords at once with natural right, and 
with the righteousness enforced by the Divine law. That the latter 
point of view is not excluded is shewn by the citation from the 


vi 2 f. Honour thy father and mother ; which is the first command 

ment with promise ; that it may be well with thee, and thou mayest 
live long on the earth . The importance of this obligation, in the 
Mosaic legislation may be seen by the prominent place which it 

Lev. xix holds in the following passage of the Book of Leviticus : Speak 

1 unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto 
them : Ye shall be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy. Ye 
shall fear every man his mother, and his father, and keep My 
sabbaths : I am the Lord your God . 

In characterising the Gentiles of whom he thrice says that 

c God gave them up , the Apostle notes among other signs of their 

Kom. i 30 depravity that they were disobedient to parents . Similarly the 

2 Tim. iii 2 evil men of the last days* are described as disobedient to parents 

and without natural affection . 

Obedience is to be rendered l in the Lord\ Although the 
Apostle does not expand the thought, he returns in this expression 

v 2 1 to the key-note which was first struck in the phrase in the fear 

of Christ . 

vi 4 And, ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath ; but bring 

them up in the discipline and admonition of the Lord 1 . After 
insisting on obedience, the Apostle enforces the right exercise of 
authority. His demand is not only negative the avoidance of 
a capricious exercise of authority, which irritates and disheartens 
the child (compare Col. iii 21, lest they be discouraged ): but it 
is also positive. For parents are as much bound to insist on 
obedience as children are to render it. There is a discipline of 
the Lord which is the responsibility of the parent, just as obedience 
in the Lord is the duty of the child. 

vi 5 Servants (slaves), be obedient to your masters (lords) according 

to the flesh\ This passage gains in force when we observe that 
in several instances the same Greek word is repeated where in 
English a variety of renderings is almost unavoidable. Thus the 
word which in v. i has been rendered obey must here be rendered 
be obedient to , in order to bring out the parallel (obedient) to 
your masters... as to Christ*. Again, the Greek has throughout the 
same word for master and for Lord ; and in like manner the 
same word for servant and for bond . This latter word might 
equally well be rendered slave : for it is bondservice that is 
primarily intended. 

With fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as to 
Christ . The relation of slaves to their masters offered a problem 
which could not be overlooked in the new Christian society. The 

Gal. iii 28 spiritual liberty and equality proclaimed by St Paul there can 


be no bond nor free... for all of you are one man in Christ Jesus - 
might easily be misinterpreted with disastrous results. The Apostle 
of liberty, however, was, as we have already seen, the Apostle of 
order. Spiritual freedom was to him not inconsistent with subjec 
tion in the fear of Christ . Accordingly he rules out at once in v -21 
the plainest terms the notion that the Gospel affords any pretext 
to the slave for insubordination or for a careless attitude towards 
his earthly master. On the contrary he declares that the Gospel 
heightens obligations, by regarding the service rendered to the 
earthly lord as service rendered to the heavenly Lord. It thus 
brought a new meaning into the life of the Christian slave. He 
was Christ s slave, doing God s will in his daily tasks. This con 
sideration would affect the thoroughness of his work : not with vi 6 f . 
eye-service as menpleasers, but as servants of Christ, doing the will 
of God : and also its temper : doing service heartily with good 
will^ as to the Lord, and not to men . A further thought of 
encouragement is added. Work has its value and its reward, 
whether the condition of the worker be bond or free : whatever 
good has been done, whether by slave or by master, will be repaid 
by the Master of both alike : knowing that whatsoever good thing vi 8 
any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be 
bond or free . 

If the burden of hopelessness is thus lifted from the slave, 
a new burden of responsibility is fastened on the shoulders of 
the master. Willing and thorough service must be met by 
a kindly and considerate rule: And, ye masters, do the same vi 9 
things unto them, forbearing threatening ; knowing that both their 
Master and yours is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons 
with Him\ 

If we are to judge aright the message which the Gospel brought 
to the slave in apostolic days, we must needs make an effort of 
the historical imagination. For we of the present time think of 
the institution of slavery in the lurid light of the African slave- 
traffic and its attendant horrors. It is not solely the ownership 
of one man by another man which revolts us. It is still more 
the crushing of a savage by a civilised race, and the treating of 
a black man as less than human by a white. But the Greek 
slave at Corinth was not separated by so wide and deep a gulf 
from his master ; nor was his lot so intolerable as the term slavery 
suggests to modern ears. If it had been, then surely we should 
have found St Paul proclaiming to Christian masters the immediate 
duty of emancipating their slaves. He does not, however, speak 
of slavery as a social evil crying for a remedy. Philemon indeed 



Philem. 16 is to treat Onesiraus as more than a slave, a brother beloved : 
but Onesimus must go back to Philemon. Apostolic Christianity 
did not present itself to the world with a social programme of 
reform. It undertook to create a new human unity under present 
conditions, teaching master and slave that they were members of 
the same body, sharers in a common life, both alike related to 
one Lord. It strove to make this human unity the one new 
Man a visible reality in the Christian Church. It dealt with 
the conditions which it found, and shewed how they might be 
turned by master and slave alike into opportunities for doing 
good which would be rewarded by the common Master of them 
both. At the same time it planted a seed which was to grow in 
secret to a distant and glorious harvest. 

vi 1020 I0 FIN ALLY, be strong in the Lord, and in the might of 
His strength. "Put on the armour of God, that ye may be 
able to stand against the wiles of the devil. I2 For we wrestle 
not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, 
against the powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this 
world, against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly 
places. ^Wherefore take unto you the armour of God, that 
ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done 
all to stand. ^ Stand therefore, having your loins girt about 
with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness, 
J 5and your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of 
peace; l6 withal taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall 
be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one. 
J ?And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the 
Spirit, which is the word of God, l8 with all prayer and sup 
plication praying always in the Spirit, and watching thereunto 
with all perseverance and supplication for all the saints ; X 9 and 
for me, that utterance may be given unto me, in the opening 
of my mouth to make known with boldness the mystery of the 
gospel, 20 for which I am an ambassador in bonds ; that therein 
I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak. 

As we approach the close of the epistle it is well that we 
should look back and try to realise its main drift. The Apostle 
began with a disclosure of the great purpose of God for the world 


the gathering into one of all things in the Christ. He prayed that i 10 
his readers might have the eyes of their hearts opened to see and i 18 
understand this purpose and their own share in the realisation of 
it. He shewed that while hitherto they, as Gentiles, had stood ii 1 1 ff. 
outside the sphere of the special development of the purpose, they 
were now no longer outside it, but within. For a new beginning 
had been made: Jew and Gentile had been welded together in 
Christ to form God s New Man. The proclamation of this oneness iii i f. 
of mankind in Christ was the mission which was specially entrusted 
to St Paul, and for which he was in bonds. That they should 
know and understand all this was his earnest prayer, as their 
knowledge of it was an essential preliminary of its realisation. 
Having been given this unity, they must keep it. They had been iv 3 
called to be parts of the One Man, to be limbs of the Body through 
which Christ was fulfilling Himself; and this consideration must 
rule their life in every detail. Here was the ground of the distinc 
tion of functions in the various members of the Body : some were iv 1 1 ff. 
given by Christ to be apostles, others to be prophets, and so forth, 
to fit the saints as a whole for the service which they were called 
to render, and to forward the building of the Body of the Christ ; 
till all should meet in one grown Man, who should at length have 
reached the complete stature of the fulness of the Christ. Here 
too was the ground of the commonest of obligations : the reason, 
for example, why they should not lie to one another was that they iv 25 
were members one of another. The positive duties of social life 
found their sanction in the same doctrine of unity in the Christ : 
the reason why wives should be subject to their husbands, and why v 22 
husbands should love their wives, was that husband and wife stand 
to each other even as Christ and the Church ; in a relation of 
authority and obedience, and yet in a relation of perfect oneness 
not twain, but one. Children and parents, slaves and masters, were vi i ft. 
in like manner to exemplify the ordered harmony of the new life 
in Christ. 

At last he draws to a close. He comes back from these special 
injunctions which deal with particular relationships to a general 
exhortation which concerns the whole. For there is one thing 
more to be said. It is not enough to remember that harmony 
and mutual helpfulness are the conditions of the Body s growth 
and health. If all be well within, there is yet an outside foe to 
be continually faced. A struggle is to be maintained with no 
visible human enemy, but with superhuman and invisible forces 
of evil. And for this conflict a divine strength is needed. God s 
New Man must be clad in the very armour of God. 



vi iof. Finally, be strong in the Lord, and in the might of His strength. 

Put on the armour of God . This note of strength was sounded 

i ip f. at the outset. The Apostle prayed that they might know the ex 
ceeding greatness of His power to us-ward who believe, according to 
the working of the might of His strength, which He hath wrought 
in Christ , as the Resurrection and Ascension have testified. There 
the triumph of Christ occupied the Apostle s mind : Christ s exalta 
tion in the heavenly sphere above all forces, good or evil, of the 
spiritual world. Here he has in view the need of the same mighty 
strength, in order that the Church may realise and consummate 
that triumph. A comparison of the two passages will shew how 
much of the earlier language is repeated in this final charge. 

vi n Put on the armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against 

the wiles of the devil . The word whole which is inserted in the 
Authorised Version is redundant, and tends to obscure the Apostle s 
meaning. It is God s panoply, or armour, which must be put on. 
The divineness, rather than the completeness, of the outfit is em- 

vi 13 phasised : and this becomes clear when the phrase is repeated and 

explained later on. The contrast here is between the armour of 
God and the wiles of the devil : and the Apostle is led by this 
latter phrase to define more expressly the nature of the conflict 1 . 

yi 12 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood : literally, for to 

us the wrestling is not against blood and flesh . The emphasis falls 
on the personal pronoun: we have not to wrestle with a human 
foe : not on the metaphor of wrestling, which is only introduced 
by the way, and is not further alluded to. 

But against the principalities, against the powers, against the 
rulers of the darkness of this world, against the spiritual hosts of 
wickedness in the heavenly places . We have seen already that 
St Paul speaks in the language of his time when he describes the 
world as subject to spiritual powers who have fallen from their 

iii first estate and are in rebellion against God. In his first mention 

of them he left it open to us to regard them as not necessarily evil 
powers : his one point was that whatever they might be Christ 
was exalted above them all in the heavenly sphere. In a later 

iii 10 passage he spoke of them again in neutral language, as watching 
the development of God s eternal purpose for man, and learning 
through the Church the very-varied wisdom of God . Similarly 

Col. i 1 6 in the companion epistle he declares that they have all been 
created in Christ; and some of them at least appear to be not 

1 So Wiclif renders rightly, Clothe you with the armure of God ; and 
Tyndale, Put on the armour of God*. 


irretrievably lost, but to be included in the reconciliation of c things 

in earth and things in heaven . In a later passage indeed they Col. ii 1 5 

appear as enemies over whom Christ has triumphed : and this is 

in harmony with the words which we are now considering. For 

here they are declared to be the dangerous foe which meets the 

Church in that heavenly sphere, the invisible world, in which the 

spiritual life is lived l . 

* Wherefore take unto you the armour of God, that ye may be vi 13 
able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all to stand . 
The Apostle returns to his original metaphor of warfare, which he 
will now proceed to expand. The struggle is with a superhuman 
foe, and necessitates a superhuman armour. Terrible as is the 
foe, the Apostle never doubts for a moment of the issue of the 
conflict. The battle has been already won by Christ Himself, 
who on His cross stripped off and flung aside the principalities Col. ii 15 
and the powers and put them to open shame. His triumph has 
to be realised in His Body the Church. He was pictured by the 
prophets as the Divine warrior who came forth clad in Divine 
armour to battle with iniquity. In the same armour He goes 
forth again in the person of His Church, conquering and to con- Apoc. vi t 
quer . Hence the Apostle never contemplates the possibility of 
defeat : he is but pointing the way to a victory which needs to 
be consummated. 

Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and vi 14 
having on the breastplate of righteousness . The panoply, or suit 
of armour, of the Roman heavy infantry is fully described for us 
by Polybius, who enters into its minutest details 2 . St Paul in 
this passage, as we have said, lays no stress on the completeness 
of the outfit : indeed he omits two of its essential portions, the 
greaves and the spear ; while on the other hand he emphasises 
the need of being girded and shod, requirements of all active 
service, and by no means peculiar to the soldier. The fact is 
that, as his language proves, he is thinking far less of the Roman 
soldiers, who from time to time had guarded him, than of the 
Divine warrior who was depicted more than once by the Old 
Testament prophets. 

Two passages of the Book of Isaiah were specially in his 
mind. In one the prophet has described what was indeed an 
evil day : 

1 See above, pp. 20 ff., 49,80. On St Paul to contemporary thought , 

the whole subject the reader may especially the chapter on * The world 

consult with advantage Mr H. St J. of spirits . 

Thackeray s essay on The relation of 2 Polybius vi 23. 


Isa. lix Judgment is turned away backward, 

14 * And righteousness standeth afar off: 

For truth is fallen in the street, 

And uprightness cannot enter. 

Yea, truth is lacking; 

And he that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey : 

And the Lord saw it, and it displeased Him that there was 
no judgment. 

Then the Divine warrior steps forth to do battle with iniquity : 

He saw that there was no man, 

And wondered that there was none to interpose : 

Therefore His own arm brought salvation to Him; 

And His righteousness, it upheld Him. 

And He put on righteousness as a breastplate, 

And an helmet of salvation upon His head ; 

And He put on garments of vengeance for clothing, 

And was clad with zeal as a cloke. 

An earlier prophecy had pictured the Divine King of the future 
as anointed with the sevenfold Spirit, and going forth to make first 
war, and then peace, in the earth : 

Isa. xi4f. He shall smite the earth with the word of His mouth 1 ; 

And with the Spirit through His lips shall He slay the 

wicked : 

And He shall have His loins girt about with righteousness, 
And His reins girdled with truth. 

Wisd. v A notable passage in the Book of Wisdom shews how these 

I 7 fi - descriptions of the armour of God had impressed themselves on 

the mind of another Jew besides St Paul : 

He shall take His jealousy as a panoply, 

And shall make the whole creation His weapons for vengeance 

on His enemies : 

He shall put on righteousness as a breastplate, 
And shall array Himself with judgment unfeigned as with 

a helmet; 

He shall take holiness as an invincible shield, 
And He shall sharpen stern wrath as a sword. 

The Apostle does not hesitate, then, to take the words of 
ancient prophecy and transfer them from God and the Divine 
representative King to the New Man in Christ, whom he arms 

1 So the Greek Bible renders it. 


for the same conflict with the very armour of God . In so doing 
he was in harmony with the spirit of the prophet of old. For the 
voice which cried, Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the laa. li 9 ; 
Lord , cried also, Awake, awake, put on thy strength, O Sion . u 

And your feet shod with the preparation (or, readiness ) of the vi 15 
gospel of peace : prepared, as it were, from the outset to announce 
peace as the outcome of victory. The readiness of the messenger 
of peace is a thought derived from another passage of the Book 
of Isaiah : * How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him Isa. lii 7 
that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace ; that bringeth 
good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation; that saith unto 
Zion, Thy God reigneth ! 

* Withal taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to vi i6f. 
quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one : and take the helmet 
of salvation and the sword of the Spirit . Girded, guarded, and 
shod, with truth, with righteousness, and with readiness to publish 
the good tidings of peace : while all that the foe can see 13 the 
great oblong shield, the crested helm, and the pointed two-edged 
blade the shield of faith, the helmet of salvation, and the sword 
of the Spirit. 

The sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God . The 
comparison of speech to a sword is frequent in the Old Testament : 
whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp p s . Ivii 4 ; 
sword : * who have whet their tongue like a sword, and shoot out lxiv 3 
their arrows, even bitter words : He hath made my mouth like Isa. xlix 2 
a sharp sword . And in the Apocalypse Christ is represented as Apoc. 116; 
having a sword proceeding out of His mouth. The passage which xix J 5 
is immediately in the Apostle s mind is one which we have already 
quoted : He shall smite the earth with the word of His mouth, Isa. xi 4 
and with the Spirit (or, breath) through His lips shall He slay 
the wicked . St Paul gathers up these words into a new combina 
tion, * the sword of the Spirit, which is the word (or, utterance) 
of God . 

The word of God, as uttered through His prophets, is spoken 
of as an instrument of vengeance : Therefore have I hewed them Hos. vi 5 
by the prophets : I have slain them by the words of My mouth . 
But from such a thought as this the Apostle rapidly passed to the 
mention of prayer as the natural utterance of Christian lips, and 
the effective instrument of success in the conflict with evil. We 
may note the repetition : the sword of the Spirit... pray ing in the 
Spirit . It is almost as though the Apostle had said, For the 
Divine warrior the sword of the Spirit is His own utterance which 
puts His enemies to flight : for you it is the utterance of prayer 


in the Spirit. If this is not clearly expressed, yet it seems to be 
implied by the close connexion which binds the whole passage to 
gether : Take.,. the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, with 
all prayer and supplication praying always in the Spirit . Prayer is 

Eom. viii indeed the utterance of the Spirit in us, crying Abba, Father, and 

J 5 2 making intercession for us according to the will of God. 

And watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication 
for all the saints . If the military metaphor is not distinctly 
carried on by the word * watching , the injunction is at any rate 
peculiarly appropriate at this point. God s warrior, fully armed, 
must be wakeful and alert, or all his preparation will be vain. 

vi 19 f. c And for me, that utterance may be given unto me, in the 

opening of my mouth to make known with boldness the mystery 
of the gospel, for which I am an ambassador in bonds ; that therein 
I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak \ At this point the 
Apostle s language again runs parallel with that which he uses 
in the Epistle to the Colossians. For there the exhortation to 

Col. iv i ff. slaves and their masters is followed at once by the words : Perse 
vere in prayer, watching therein with thanksgiving, praying withal 
for us also, that God would open unto us a door of utterance, to 
speak the mystery of the Christ, for which also I am in bonds, 
that I may make it manifest, as I ought to speak . This parallel 
determines the meaning of the phrase the opening of my mouth . 
It is not, as our Authorised Version renders it, that I may open 
my mouth ; but rather that God may open my mouth . He is 
the giver of the utterance. The Apostle is His spokesman, His 
ambassador, though, by a strange paradox, he wears a chain. 

vi2i 24 2I Bux that ye also may know my affairs, and how I do, 
Tychicus, the beloved brother and faithful minister in the 
Lord, shall make known unto you all things: 22 whom I have 
sent unto you for the same purpose, that ye might know our 
affairs, and that he might comfort your hearts. 

2 3 Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God 
the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

2 < Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ 
in incorruptibility. 

The words which concern the mission of Tychicus are found also 

Col. iv 7 in the Epistle to the Colossians, with hardly a difference, except 

that there Onesimus is joined with him. Tychicus is mentioned 

Acts xx 4 in the Acts together with Trophimus as a native of proconsular 


Asia, who met St Paul at Troas on his return from Greece through 
Macedonia in the year 58 A.D. This was the memorable journey 
which issued in the Apostle s arrest in the temple at Jerusalem 
and his imprisonment at Caesarea. It is probable that as a dele 
gate of the Colossian Church he went, as Trophimus did on behalf Acts xxi 29 
of the Ephesians, the whole of the way to Jerusalem. But at least 
we may think of him as present when the Apostle preached and 
broke bread at Troas, and when he addressed the Ephesian Elders 
at Miletus. This was five years before the date of the present 
epistle, which he carried from Rome to the several Asian Churches. 
Five years later we find him again with St Paul, who speaks of Tit. iii 12 
sending him or Artemas to visit Titus in Crete, and who actually 2 Tim - iv 
sent him not long afterwards to Ephesus. So by acts of service 
extending over a period of ten years he justified his title of the 
beloved brother and the Apostles faithful minister . 

Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the vi 23 
Father and the Lord Jesus Christ . In sharp contrast with the 
full list of salutations addressed to individuals in the Colossian 
Church stands this general greeting, which will serve alike for 
each of the Churches to which the letter is brought. 

Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in in- vi 24 
corruptibility . St Paul invariably closes his epistles by invoking 
upon his readers the gift of that grace which holds so prominent 
a place in all his thought. In one of his earliest epistles we read : 
The salutation of me Paul with mine own hand, which is the 2 Thess. 
token in every epistle : thus I write : The grace of our Lord Jesus m I ? 
Christ be with you all . We may suppose then that after he had 
dictated the general salutation which took the place of individual 
greetings, he himself wrote with his own hand what he regarded 
as his sign-manual. This final salutation is still general in its 
terms, being couched in the third person contrary to his custom. 
The words have in part a familiar ring. Again and again in the 
Old Testament and the later Jewish writings mercy is promised Exod. xx 
to or invoked upon them that love God. It comes naturally " etc * 
therefore to the Apostle to invoke grace upon all them that 
love our Lord Jesus Christ . But to this he adds a new phrase, 
to which we have no parallel in incorruptibility . 

There is nothing in the immediate context which leads up to 
or helps to explain this phrase. The word incorruptibility* has 
not occurred in the epistle : but the Apostle uses it elsewhere 
in the following passages : To them who by patient continuance Kom. ii 7 
in well doing seek for glory and honour and immortality - It * 2 ^ x 
is sown in corruption: it is raised in incorruption...or this cor- 5 3 f. 


i Tim. i 10 ruptible must put on incorruption , &c. ; Our Saviour Jesus Christ, 
who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality 
to light through the Gospel . It signifies that imperishableness 

Eom. i23; which is an attribute of God Himself, and which belongs to the 

im 1 *? unchanging order of the eternal world, Imperishableness is the 

characteristic of our new life in Christ and of our love to Him. 

That life and that love are in truth immortal; they belong to a 

region which is beyond the touch of decay and death. 

So the epistle which opened with a bold glance into the eternal 
past closes with the outlook of an immortal hope. 


"Qo-irfp dia TOV croo^aros 6 o~(&TT)p eXaXei /ecu iciro, OVTCOS /ecu irporepov 
(j.V Sia ra>i/ TrpcxpTjrooi , vvv Se 5ia rcoi/ aTrooToAtoi/ KOL ra>v $i$a.(TKd\a>v. r\ 
KK\r](ria yap virrjpeTel ry TOV Kvpiov evepyfia. evBfv KOL Tore av6po>7rov 
dveXaftev tva Si* avrov vrrrjpcTTjoy ra> 6f\^fjLan TOV Trarpos, KOI irdvroTe 
avBpwirov 6 (pi\dv6pa)Tros vo~vTai deos fls TTJV dv0p<oTrcov o~o>TT)piav 1 Trporepoi/ 
fj,v TOVS 7rpo(pj/ras, vvv de TTJV tiuc\r)(rtav. 

Even as through the body the Saviour used to speak and heal, so afore 
time through the prophets and now through the apostles and teachers. 
For the Church subserves the mighty working of the Lord. Whence both 
at that time He took upon Him man, that through him He might sub 
serve the Father s will; and at all times in His love to man God clothes 
Himself with man for the salvation of men, aforetime with the prophets, 
now with the Church. 



TAYAO2 ctTTOO-ToAos XpLCTTOv Irja ov 
* -* 6eov Tols dyiois TO?? OVCTIV [ei/ 
TricrTols eV \pio"Tco lri(rov ^^dpis VJMV 
6eov TraTOO? /uitov Kai KVpiov Irjcrov \picrTOv. 


i, 2. PAUL, an apostle of Christ 
Jesus by the will of God, to the 
members of God s consecrated Peo 
ple who are [in EPHESUS, ] faithful 
believers in Christ Jesus. I give 
you the new watchword with the old 
Grace and peace be with you, from 
God our Father and from the Lord 
Jesus Christ . 

i. Tolsayiois] For the transference 
of the technical description of the 
ancient People to the members of the 
Christian Church, see Lightfoot on 
Col. i 2 and Phil, i i. 

fv E$e o-6>] See the note on the 
various readings. The omission of 
the words leaves us with two possible 
interpretations: (i) l to the saints 

which are and the faithful in 

Christ Jesus , a space being left, to 
be filled in each case by the name of the 
particular Church to which the letter 
was brought by Tychicus its bearer ; or 
(2} to the saints which are also faith 
ful in Christ Jesus . The former 
interpretation is supported by the 
parallels in Rom. i 7 rot? ovo-tv eV PeoVfl? 
and Phil, i I rots ovo-tv Iv &i\t7nrots. A 
strong objection to the latter is the 
unusual stress which is thrown upon 
Kal TTto-rot? by the intervention of rots 
ov<riv unaccompanied by the mention 
of a locality. 

KOI TTto-rots] The saints are further 
defined as faithful in Christ Jesus , 

an epithet in which the two senses of 
Trto-ris, belief and fidelity , appear 
to be blended : see Lightfoot Gala- 
tians p. 157. 

2. x**P ts v^w Kal flprjvri] The Greek 
salutation was ^at peti/, which occurs 
in the letter of the Apostles and 
Elders to the Gentiles, Acts xv 23, in 
that of Claudias Lysias, Acts xxiii 26, 
and in the Epistle of St James. The 
oriental salutation was Peace : see 
Ezra iv 17 ( Peace, and at such a 
time ), v 7, [vii 12], Ban. iv i, vi 25; 
and contrast the Greek recensions 

1 Esdr. vi 7, viii 9, Esther xvi i, where 
we have ^atpetv. 

The present combination occurs in 
all the Pauline epistles (except i and 

2 Tim. and Titus [?], where eXeos 
intervenes: comp. 2 John 3). It is 
also found in Apoc. i 4, and with 
irXrjOvvQeirj in i and 2 Peter. In Jude 
we have eXeos, fipr/vrj and aydirq. 

Whether x^P ls was m anv way 
suggested by x a L P* LV must remain 
doubtful : a parallel may possibly be 
found in the emphatic introduction 
of x a P a m I J nn i 4- What is plain is 
that St Paul prefixes to the character 
istic blessing of the Old Dispensation 
(comp. Numb, vi 26) the characteristic 
blessing of the New. The combination 
is typical of his position as the Hebrew 
Apostle to the Gentiles. See further 
the detached note on 


* < /3 x \ \ /-> / < ~ 

O (76OS KCU TTaTrjp TOV KVplOV f]jUL(jOV 

XpKTTOv, 6 evXoyricras t^/mas ev Trdcrrj evXoyia 
~ , - , / , ,. 

ev TOLS eTrovpaviois ev 

3 10. I begin by blessing God 
who has blessed us, not with an 
earthly blessing of the basket and the 
store, but with all spiritual blessing 
in the heavenly region in Christ. 
Such was the design of His eternal 
selection of us to walk before Him 
in holiness and love. From the first 
He marked us out to be made His 
sons by adoption through Jesus Christ. 
The good-pleasure of His will was the 
sole ground of this selection ; as the 
praise of the glory of His grace was its 
contemplated end. His grace, I say; 
for He has showered grace on us in Him 
who is the Beloved, the Bringer of the 
great Emancipation, which is wrought 
by His death and which delivers us 
from sin : such is the wealth of His 
grace. The abundance of grace too 
brings wisdom and practical under 
standing: for He has allowed us to 
know His secret, the hidden purpose 
which underlies all and interprets all. 
Long ago His good-pleasure was deter 
mined : now, as the times are ripening, 
He is working out His plan. And the 
issue of all is this the summing up, 
the focussing, the gathering into one, 
of the whole Universe, heavenly things 
and earthly things alike, in Christ . 

3. EvXoyrjros ] This word is used 
only of God in the New Testament. 
It recurs in the present phrase, 2 Cor. 
i 3, i Pet. i 3; and in the phrase 

evXoyrjTos els TOVS cuooi/as 1 , Rom. i 25, 

ix 5, 2 Cor. xi 31. The only other 
instances are Mark xiv 61, Luke i 68. 
Of men, on the other hand, evXoyrj- 
fj.vos is used, e.g. Matt, xxv 34, Luke 
i 42. EvXoyrjros implies that blessing 
is due ; ev\oyr][j.fvos, that blessing has 
been received. The blessing of man 
by God confers material or spiritual 
benefits : the blessing of God by man 
is a return of gratitude and praise. 

Here St Paul combines the two signifi 
cations: JLv\oyr)Tbs...6 ev\oyijo~as Jy/xay. 
6 dcos KO.I 7rar7/p] The first, as well 
as the second of these titles, is to be 
taken with the following genitive. A 
sufficient warrant for this is found in 

V. 17, o Qeos TOV Kvpiov yptov *\r)(rov 

XptoTov, o irarrip rf)s dogrjs (comp. also 
John xx 17). Some early interpreters 
however take the genitive with Trcmyp 
alone. Thus Theodore allows this 
latter construction, and Theodoret 
insists upon it. Moreover the Peshito 
renders: Blessed be God, the Father 
of our Lord Jesus Christ ; and the 
earlier Syriac version, as witnessed to 
by Ephraim s commentary (extant only 
in an Armenian translation), seems to 
have had: Blessed be our Father, 
the Father of our Lord , etc. On 
the other hand B stands alone (for 
Hilary, in Ps. Ixvi, quotes only 
Benedictus deus, qui benedixit nos, 
etc.) in omitting KOI Tranjp. 

ev 7rdo"rj evXoyia TrvevpaTticf)] l with 
all spiritual blessing . It might be 
rendered * with every spiritual bless 
ing ; but it is better to regard 
evXoyia as abstract: compare v. 8 ev 

7rdo~T] O~O(f)iq. 

ev rols eTTovpaviois] The interpre 
tation of this phrase, which occurs 
again in i 20, ii 6, iii 10, vi 12, and 
not elsewhere, is discussed at length 
in the exposition. The Latin rendering 
is in caelestibus . The Peshito has 
>i<__jnr=3 ( = ev TOIS ovpavois) in all 
instances except the last. It is inte 
resting to note that in i 20 B and a 
few other authorities read ev rols 

4. eeAe aro] We may render this 
either l He hath chosen or He chose ; 
and so with the aorists throughout 
the passage. In Greek the aorist is 
the natural tense to use ; but it does 

I 5, 6] 


ev avTto Trpo KaTa/3o\fjs icocr/mov, eivai tji 

d<yiovs Kai d/mcojULOV^ KaTevwTTiov CIVTOV ev yaTrr], 7rpo- 
opi(ras rjfjids ek vlodecriav Sid Irjcrov \picrTOV eis CCVTOV, 
Tov 6e\v[JiaTOs avTov, 6 eis eTraivov 


not of necessity confine our attention 
to the moment of action. 

Trpo Kara(3o\fjs /eooyioti] Here only 
in St Paul: but see John xvii 24, 
I Pet. i 20. The phrase oVo nara- 
po\rjs Koo-fj-ov is several times used in 
the New Testament, but not by St 

ayiovs KOI d/ico/zovs] These adjec 
tives are again combined in v 27 ; and, 
with the addition of dvfyK\r)Tos, in 
Col. i 22. In the LXX a/Luo/ios is 
almost exclusively found as a ren 
dering of D^DD, which occurs very 
frequently of sacrificial animals, in 
the sense of without blemish . But 
D^n is also freely used of moral 
rectitude, and has other renderings, 
such as reXeios, apfpirros, KaOapos, 
OKOKOS, oo-ios. Accordingly a sacri 
ficial metaphor is not necessarily 
implied in the use of the word in 
this place. 

ev dyairrj] This has been interpreted 
(i) of God s love, (2) of our love, 
whether (a) to God or (5) to each 
other. Origen adopts the first view ; 

he connects ev dyanr] with irpoopio-as 

( in love having foreordained us ) : 
but he allows as a possible alternative 
the connexion with e^eXe^aro. This 
alternative (He hath chosen us... in 
love) is the view taken by Ephraim and 
by Pelagius. The connexion with 
npoopio-as, however, is more usual: 
it is accepted by Theodore and 
Chrysostom : the Peshito precludes 
any other view by rendering and in 
love He &c. ; but Ephraim s comment 
shews that the conjunction cannot 
have been present in the Old Syriac 

In Latin the rendering in caritate 
praedestinans (d 2 g s ) left the question 
open. Victorinus has this rendering, 

but offers no interpretation of in 
caritate : Ambrosiaster has it, and 
explains the words of our love to God 
which produces holiness : Jerome also 
has it, and gives as alternatives the 
connexion with what immediately 
precedes, and Origen s view which 
connects the words with Trpoopio-as. 
The Vulgate rendering (found also in 
/) in caritate qui praedestinauit* 
precludes the connexion with Trpo- 

The simplest interpretation is that 
which is indicated by the punctuation 
given in the text. It is supported by 
the rhythm of the sentence, and also 
by the frequent recurrence in this 
epistle (iii 17, iv 2, 15, 16, v 2) of the 
phrase ev 0707717 in reference to the 
love which Christians should have one 
to another. 

5. els viodecriav] St Paul uses the 
word vioGea-ia five times; Rom. viii 
1 5, 23, ix 4, Gal. iv 5, and here. It is 
found in no other Biblical writer. 
Although the word does not seem to 
occur in the earlier literary Greek, it 
is frequent in inscriptions. In addi 
tion to the ordinary references, see 
Deissmann Neue Bibelstudien (1897) 
p. 66. He cites from pre-Christian 
inscriptions the formulae Kaff vlodeo-iav 
8c and Kara Ovyarpoiroiiav 8e, occurring 
in contrast to Kara yevecriv. 

In Rom. ix 4 St Paul uses the term 
in enumerating the privileges of the 
ancient Israel, <0>v 77 vioQco-ia KOL T) Soa 
KOI ai SiatffjKai K.r.X. Here therefore 
it falls into line with the other expres 
sions which he transfers to the New 
People : such as ayioi, aVoXvrpajo-ts, 
, eVayyeXia, 7repuroirj(ris. 
v Oe\rjfj.aTos] Comp. V. 9 ; 

and for the emphatic reiteration comp. 

V. II Kara TTJV ftov\T)V TOV 



[I 7-10 

e^apiTcocrev rjjuias ev 
aTroXvTpworiv Sta 


%piTOS avTOV, 
ev a) e^o/zei/ 
avToi), TY\V d<pe(Tiv 
TO 7r\ovTos Trjs %dpLTOs avTov, *r]s eTrepicrcrevcrev eis 
77/zas ev Trdcrri (ro<pia Kai (ppovricrei 9r yvwpicras r}/uuv TO 
jULV(TTr]pLOV TOV 6e\.r\fJiaTO^ avTOv, /caret Trjv 
avTOv fjv 7Tpoe6eTO ev avTio I0 ek oiKovo/uiav TOV 

avrov. Fritzsche (on Rom. x i) dis 
cusses evSoicelv and evSo/aa. He shews 
that the verb is freely used by the 
later Greek writers, and especially 
Polybius, where earlier writers would 
have said eSo|ei> and the like. The 
noun appears to be Alexandrian. The 
translators of the Greek Psalter, who 
uniformly employ ev&oKflv for H"l, 
render J1") by ei o/ua (7 times) and 
by QeXypa (6 times). Apart from this 
evdoKia is found twice only, except in 
Ecclesiasticus where it occurs 16 
times. In Enoch i 8 we have KO\ rrjv 
evdoKiav <a<ret avrois KOL irdvra? fv\o- 
yrjo-ei. Like )1^"l, it is used largely 
of the Divine good-pleasure (comp. 
Ps. cxlix 4 on cvftoKei Kvpios ev 
Xaoi avroO), but also of the good- 
pleasure , satisfaction or happiness of 

6. risxapi<] The Apostle 
is emphasising his own word x"P ls It 
is instructive to compare certain other 
phrases in which a substantive is 
followed by its cognate verb: as in 

V. 19 Kara TTJV fvepyiav...r)v cvrjpyrjKcv, 
ii 4 dia TTJV iro\\r)v dydtrrjv avrov t)v 
jydirrjo-ev TJ/zay, IV I Trjs K\r)trfa)S rjs 

K\ij6rjTf. The meaning is * His grace 
wherewith He hath endued us with 
grace ; which is a more emphatic way 
of saying His grace which He hath 
shewn toward us or * hath bestowed 
upon us . So that the phrase does 
not greatly differ from that of v. 8 
His grace which He hath made to 
abound toward us . For other uses 
of xapirovi/, and for the early inter 

pretations of the word in this place, 
see the detached note on x^P LS - 

The relative $s has been attracted 
into the case of its antecedent. It is 
simplest to regard it as standing for 
rj. N C D 2 G 3 KL, with the Latin version 
(in qua\ read ev rj : but this is probably 
the grammatical change of a scribe. 

ev T<J) qyatnipvy>] The reasons for 
regarding o ijyairripevos as a current 
Messianic designation are given in a 
detached note. In the parallel passage, 
Col. i 13 f., St Paul writes : KOI pere- 
<rr7](rV fls TTJV ftacriXeiav rov viov TTJS 
aydirrjs avroi), ev w e^o/zev /c.r.X. In 
that passage the desire to emphasise 
the Divine Sonship of Christ may 
account for his paraphrase of the 

7. ev o> exofjiev TTJV a^roXvrpaxTtv] 
So in Col. i 14. For the meaning of 
diro\vTpco<ris see note on v. 14. 

8. rjs eTrepia-a-cva-cv] Probably by 
attraction for f)v errfpia-a-fva-ev : comp. 
2 Cor. ix 8 dvvarel de 6 6*0? Tracrav 

9. TO fjLvarrjpiov] Comp. iii 3, 4, 9, 
V 32, vi 19: and see the detached 
note on ^v(Trr)piov. 

TTpoedcro] He hath purposed 1 . 
The preposition in this word has the 
signification not of time, but of place : 
He set before Himself. So we have 
irp60<ns, purpose , in v. 11. 

10. els olKovofjilav] The word OIKO- 
vopia means primarily either the office 
of a steward or household manage 
ment . The latter meaning however 
received a large extension, so that 

I 10] 


TWV Kcupwv, dvaKe<pa\cua)craa 6ai TO. TravTa ev TW 







elv and oiKovofj.ia were used in 
the most general sense of provision 
or arrangement. This wider use of 
the words may be illustrated from 
Polybius. The verb occurs in Polyb. 
iv 26 6 virep TCOV o\a>v obtovoftsiv (the 
Aetolians refuse to make arrange 
ments with Philip previous to a 
general assembly); and in iv 67 9 
Tavra Se olKovoprjaas (of appointing a 
rendezvous], when he had made these 
dispositions (comp. 2 Mace, iii 14,3 
Mace, iii 2). The noun is exceedingly 
common : e.g. Polyb. 143 rrjv Se Ka66\ov 

KOI (rv\\rj^8r]v oiKovopiav ra>v ycyovorajv, 

where he is pleading for a broad 
historical view of the general course 
of events ; ii 47 IO TavTT]v cirticpv- 
^rc(r6ai rrjv oixoi/o/iiai/, to conceal this 

his actual policy or line of action ; 
V 40 3 "ra^fiav eXa/n/3az/e TO Trpay/na 
TTJV oiKovopiav, the project quickly 
began to work itself out ; vi 9 10 
(in closing a discussion of the way 
in which one form of polity succeeds 
to another) avrrj TroXirf i&v araKUKXoxm, 
avrrj (frvo-eats olKovopia, K.r.X., i.e., SO 

forms of government recur in a cycle, 
so things naturally work themselves 
out . 

Both here and in iii 9, n s 77 OIKO- 
vo/j,ia TOV ftwmjplou K.T.X., the word is 
used of the manner in which the 
purpose of God is being worked out 
in human history. At a later time 
otKovopia acquired a more concrete 
meaning; so that, for example, the 
Christian dispensation came to be 
contrasted with the Mosaic dispen 
sation . As the rendering for the 
(or a) dispensation of the fulness of 
the times is not free from ambiguity, 
it is preferable to render /or dispen 
sation in the fulness of the times . 
In any case 7rXr;pa>/iaros is a genitive 
of further definition. Compare with 
the whole phrase Mark i 15 7rrXjj- 
peorai o Kaipo?, and i Tim. ii 6 TO 

dvaK(pa\ai(&(ra(T0ai ] The Verb is 
derived not directly from Ke^aXr), a 
head , but from Kc<pa\aiov, a sum 
mary or sum total (comp. Heb. viii 
i). Accordingly it means to sum 
up or present as a whole ; as in 
Rom. xiii 9, where after naming 
various precepts St Paul declares that 
they are summed up in this word, 
Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy 
self (eVrovTwro) Xoyo) dvaKfCpaXaiovrai). 
The Peshito has SD 

ut cuncta denuo 
nouarentur ; and Ephraim s Commen 
tary shews that this was the Old 
Syriac rendering. Similarly the Latin 
version has l instaurare or restau- 
rare , though Tertullian and the 
translator of Irenaeus seek to re 
produce the Greek word more closely 
by recapitulare\ In both Syriac 
and Latin versions the preposition 
ova. has been interpreted of repetition. 
But its meaning here is rather that 
which we find in such compounds as 
dvaanoneiv : 


so that in usage the word does not 
seriously differ from <rvyKc<pa\aiovv, 
the slight shade of distinction being 
that between to gather up (with the 
stress on the elements to be united) 
and to gather together (with the 
stress on their ultimate union). See 
Lightfoot ad loc. (Notes on Epistles 
ofSt Paul) and on Col. i 16. 

ii 14. In Christ, I repeat, in 
whom we have been chosen as the 
Portion of God : for long ago He set 
His choice upon us, in accordance 
with a purpose linked with almighty 
power and issuing in the fulfilment of 
His sovereign will. We have thus 
been chosen to be to the praise of the 
glory of God we Jews ; for we have 
been the first to hope in Christ. But 
yet not we alone. You too, you Gen 
tiles, have heard the message of truth, 
the good news of a salvation which is 



avTw 9 "ei/ ft) Kai K\ripco6rj/uiev 7rpoopio~6evTS KaTa. Trpd- 
decrLV TOV TO. TrdvTa evepyovvTos KaTa Tr\v fiov\r\v TOV 
6e\rjiuiaTOS avTOv 7 13 et9 TO eivai rj^iias et? eirctivov 


aKOvcravTes TOV \oyov Trjs dXtideias, TO evay- 

* 3 .V W KCtl 

yours as much as ours. You too have 
believed in Christ, and have been 
sealed with the Spirit, the Holy 
Spirit promised to the holy People, 
who is at once the pledge and the 
first instalment of our common heri 
tage; sealed, I say, for the full and 
final emancipation, that you, no less 
than we, may contribute to the praise 
of the glory of God . 

II. V <0 KOI K\r)p(a0T)fj.V TTpoopio-- 
GfVTcs] This is practically a restate 
ment in the passive voice of eeXe aro 
r^iaS - irpoopidas (w. 4, 5). So 
Chrysostom comments : tiebs yap 6 
eK\fdp,fvos KOI K\r)pQMrdfji.fvos. K\rj- 
povv is to choose by lot or Ho 
appoint by lot . In the passive it is 
to be chosen (or appointed ) by 
lot . But the image of the lot tends 
to disappear ; so that the word means 
to assign , or (mid.) to assign to 
oneself, to choose ; and in the 
passive to be assigned or chosen . 
The passive, however, could be used 
with a following accusative in the 
sense of to be assigned a thing , and 
so to acquire as a portion . Thus in 
the Berlin Papyri (n 405) we read, 
in a contract of the year 348 A.D. : 

eVlSr) \LBoV (TlTOKOTTTrjV Ka\ (TlTaXfTlKrjV 

qv, irarp^a ypav ovra, K\T]p<- 
, K.r.X. This is the meaning 
given in the present passage by the 
A.V. ( in whom also we have obtained 
an inheritance ) : but there appears to 
be no justification for it, except when 
the accusative of the object assigned 
is expressed. 

Accordingly the meaning must be 
l we have been chosen as God s por 
tion : and the word is perhaps se 
lected because Israel was called the 

lot or the portion of God : as, e.g v 
in Deut. IX 29 ovroi \aos a-ov Kai 
K\fjp6s a-ov (comp. Esth. iv 17, an 
addition in the LXX). The rendering 
of the R.V., we were made a heri 
tage , is more correct than that of the 
A.V., but it introduces the idea of 
inheritance (K\r)povofj.ia), which is not 
necessarily implied by the word. "We 
might perhaps be content to render 

eeXearo (v. 5) and K\T)p^6r]p.V by 

chose and chosen , as was done in 
the Geneva Bible of 1557 : an ancient 
precedent for this is found in the 
Peshito, which employs the same 
verb in both verses 

ra irdvra fvepyovvTos] who worketh 
all things : see the detached note on 

12. rovs TrpoqXTTtKoras] who have 
been the first to hope . For this use 
of Trpo in composition ( before an 
other ) compare I Cor. xi 21 exaoT-os 
yap TO l&iov dfiTTVov irpo\afj,(3dvi cv r<5 
(payelv. So far as the word in itself 
is concerned it might be rendered 
who aforetime hoped : but the 
meaning thus given is questionable: 
see the exposition. 

13. cv o> Kai vp.f is] It is simplest 
to take vpeis as the nominative to 
eo-(ppayi(T0T)T, regarding the second 
cv o> as picking up the sentence, which 
has been broken to insert the em 
phatic phrase the good tidings of a 
salvation which was yours as well as 
ours . A somewhat similar repetition 
is found in ii II, 12 on TTOTC v/ieis... 
on Tyre K.r.X. 

TOV \6yov TTJS d\T)0fias] The teach 
ing which told you the truth of things 

I 14] 




(rcoTrjpas VJJLWV, ev 

6<r(f>pa r yicr6riTe TCO TrvevfJiaTi Trjs 67ra<yye\ias Tip 
14 o e<TTLV dppa(3cov Trjs K\t]povofJiias fj/zo)i/, ek diroXv- 

y eJs eiraivov Trjs So^rjs avTOv. 

14. os Icrnv 

(comp. iv 21), to wit, that you were 
included in the Divine purpose the 
good tidings of your salvation. In 
Col. i 5 we have the same thought : 
the hope laid up for you in the 
heavens, whereof ye heard aforetime 
in the word of the truth of the gospel 
which came unto you , &c. Compare 
also 2 Cor. vi 7 ev \6ya> d\rj6eias and 

James 1 l8 \6ya> aXrjdeias. 

o~<ppayio-0r)T K.T.\.] Compare iv 30 
TO nvevfjLa TO ayiov TOV $eoC, ev co 
O~(ppayio~6T]Te els rjp.epav oVoAvrpcoo eeos, 
and 2 Cor. i 21 f. (quoted below). 

14. dppafiuv] Lightfoot has treated 
this word fully in the last of his notes 
on this epistle (Notes on Epp. p. 323). 
It is the Hebrew word |11iy (from 
2")17, to entwine , and so to pledge ). 
It is found in classical Greek writers ; 
so that it was probably brought to 
Greece by the Phoenician traders, 
and not by the Hebrews, who knew 
little of the Greeks in early days. It 
came also into Latin, and is found in 
a clipped form in the law books as 
arra. In usage it means strictly not 
a pledge (eW^vpoi/), but an earnest 
(though in the only place in the LXX 
where it occurs, Gen. xxxviii I7ff., it 
has the former sense). That is to say, 
it is a part given in advance as a 
security that the whole will be paid 
hereafter a first instalment. 

Jerome ad loc. points out that the 
Latin version had pignus in this 
place instead of arrdbo. Yet in his 
Vulgate he left pignus here and in 
2 Cor. i 22, v 5. The explanation 
probably is that in his Commentary 
he was practically translating from 
Origen, and found a careful note on 
, which would have been 

meaningless as a note on pignus: 
thus his attention was drawn to the 
inadequacy of the Latin version : but 
nevertheless in revising that version 
(if indeed to any serious extent he did 
revise it in the Epistles) he forgot, or 
did not care, to insist on the proper 

With the whole context compare 
2 Cor. i 21 f. o de /3r/3a5i> was vvv 
vfuv fls Xpioroi> KOI xpio~as Ty/xas 6eos, 
o KOI o~(ppayto~aiJ,vos Tjfjias KOL 8ovs TOV 
appaftaiva. TOV irve^paros ev rats Kap- 
diais ijfjuuv (for the technical term 
ficfiaiovv, see Deissmann ibelstudien 
pp. 100 ff. and Gradenwitz Einfuhr- 
ung in die Papyruskunde, 1900, p. 59). 

Gradenwitz (ibid. pp. 81 ff.) shews 
that the appajSwi/, as it appears in the 
papyri, was a large proportion of the 
payment : if the transaction was not 
completed the defaulter, if the seller, 
repaid the dppapcov twofold with in 
terest; if the buyer, he lost the 

T^&jj/] Note the return to the first 
person. It is l our inheritance : we 
and you are o~uvi<Xr)pov6p.oi, comp. 
iii 6. 

els aTroAuVpcoo-ii ] The verb AvrpoO- 
<r6ai is used of the redemption of Israel 
from Egypt in Exod. vi 6, xv 13 (7K3), 
and six times in Deuteronomy (HID). 
In the Psalms it represents both 
Hebrew words; in Isaiah generally 
the first of them : and it is frequently 
found in other parts of the Old Tes 
tament. The Redemption from Egypt 
is the ground of the conception 
throughout; and emancipation* is 
perhaps the word which expresses the 
meaning most clearly. In English 
the word redemption almost inevit- 



[I. 14 

ably suggests a price paid : but there 
is no such necessary suggestion where 
\vTpova-6at is used of the People, 
even if occasionally the primary sense 
is felt and played upon. In cwroAv- 
Tpwis (and even \vTpa>o-is in the 
New Testament) the idea of emanci 
pation is dominant, and that of pay 
ment seems wholly to have disap 
peared. In the Old Testament the 
form diroXvTpcoa-ts is only found in 
Dan. iv 30 (LXX), of Nebuchadnezzar s 
recovery (o XP VOS T ^ s airoXvrpua-eas 
/zov). See further Westcott Hebrews 
pp. 295 ff., and T. K. Abbott Ephe- 
sians pp. 1 1 ff. 

rrjs TrepiTroijJcrecoff] The verb TrepiTroi- 
elo-Bai is found in two senses in the 
Old Testament: (i) to preserve alive 
(nearly always for flin), (2) to ac 
quire . Corresponding to the former 
sense we have the noun Trepnroirjo-iS) 
preservation of life (HTID), in 2 
Chron. xiv 13 (12) ; corresponding to 
the latter we have MaL iii 17 ea-ovrai 
fj.oi, ij/iepav rjv eya> rroiw, els irepi- 

^ 1TTI 

), they shall be to Me,.. .in the 
day that I do make, a peculiar trea 
sure : these are the only places (exc. 
Hag. ii 9, LXX only) where the noun is 

In the New Testament the verb is 
found, probably in the sense of pre 
serving alive , in Luke xvii 33 (irtpi- 
BL ; but X A etc. have 
and D a>oyovrjo-ai\ where in 
the second member of the verse we 
have faoyovjo-ei. In the sense of 
4 acquiring it is found in Acts xx 28 
(r)V TTfptfTToifJcraTO dta rot) at/xaroy TOV 
and in i Tim. iii 13 (Patipbv 
The noun is found in Heb. 
X 39 els Trepnroirja-iv ^rvxn$, I Thess. 
V 9 els irepmoirja-iv arcoTrjpias, and 
2 Thess. ii 14 els irepnroirjo-iv 86r]s I in 
each of these places the meaning is 
debated; see Lightfoot on the two 
last (Notes on Epp. pp. 76, 121). 

The passage in Malachi is specially 
important for the determination of 

the meaning in this place. With the 
Hebrew we may compare Exod. xix 5 

rtao ^ DJV ni, which the LXX ren 
dered eveo-Be /iot Aaoff Trepiovo-tos, in 
serting Xaos from a recollection of 
Deut. vii 6, xiv 2, xxvi 18. The peri 
phrasis eo-oi/reu /zoi els Trepnroirjo-iv is 
Hebraistic ; comp. Jer. xxxviii (xxxi) 
33 ea-ovrai p.oi els \aov : although ill 

Malachi we have n?)!D, not n?JD? (as 
in Ps. cxxxv 4 ; els Trepiova-iao-fj-ov 
LXX). In i Pet. ii 9 we have Aaos els 
TTfpnroiTjo-iv, where the passage in 
Exodus is chiefly in mind : and where 
it would seem that \a6s is a reminis 
cence of the LXX of Exodus, and els 
TTfpuroiTjo-iv of the LXX of Malachi: 
both passages were doubtless very 
familiar. The view that Trepnroirjats 
had a recognised meaning in con 
nexion with Israel seems to be con 
firmed by Isa. xliii 21 This people 
have I formed for Myself, which the 
LXX rendered AaoV pov bv TrepieiroiTjcra- 
fj,r)v : comp. Acts xx 28 (quoted above). 

Accordingly we may render the 
whole phrase unto the redemption 
of God s own possession , understand 
ing by this the emancipation of God s 
peculiar people . The metaphor from 
a mercantile transaction has by this 
time been wholly dropped, and the 
Apostle has returned to the phrase 
ology of the Old Testament. 

The Old Latin rendering is in 
redemptionem adoptionit ; that of 
the Vulgate in redemptionem ac- 
quisitionis . In I Pet. ii 9 both 
forms of the version have l populus 
acquisitionis , though Augustine and 
Ambrose have in adoptionem , and 
Hilary l ad possidendum . The Pe- 
shito renders unto the redemption 
of the saved (lit. of them that live ); 
but Ephraim s commentary makes it 
doubtful whether the redemption of 
your possession was not the render 
ing of the Old Syriac. Origen and 
Theodore seem to have understood 
irepnroirjo-ts in the sense of God s 
claiming us as His own. The former 

1 15-18] 



I<5 AicJ TOVTO KaycOj dicovcras TY\V Ka6 V/ULO.^ TTLCTTLV 
ev TO* Kvpico lrj(TOV Kai Tr\v dyaTrrjv ets TTCLVTCL^ TOI/S 
dyiovs, 1<5 oi/ Travo/mai. ev^apLO"T(jov VTrep vmcov, jjiveiav TTOL- 
\TTL Tcov Trpocrev^cov /MOV, *l\va 6 deos TOV Kupiov 
Irjcrov XjOfCTToi/, 6 TraTrip 
crcHpias Kai d 



15. om 

(Cramer Catena p. 121) paraphrases, 
Iva a7roAurpco$o3<ri KOI irfpiiroiTjdwcri r< 
^eo> : the latter (ibid. p. 122), TTJV Trpbs 
avTov oiKeidxriv Xafifidveiv. This is no 
doubt a possible alternative, and it is 
probably the meaning of the Old Latin 

1 519. With all this in mind, the 
tidings of your faith which believes 
in the Lord Jesus, and your charity 
which loves all who share with you 
the privilege of God s consecrating 
choice, cannot but stir me to per 
petual thanksgiving on your behalf. 
And in my prayers I ask that the 
God of our Lord Jesus Christ, His 
Father and ours in the heavenly glory, 
may give you His promised gift, the 
Spirit of wisdom, who is also the 
Spirit of revelation, the Unveiler of 
the Mystery. I pray that your heart s 
eyes may be filled with His light, 
that you may know God with a three 
fold knowledge that you may know 
what a hope His calling brings ; that 
you may know what a wealth of 
glory is laid up in His inheritance 
iii His consecrated People; that you 
may know what an immensity charac 
terises His power, which goes forth 
to us who believe . 

15. TTJV K.a.6* vfj-ds 7r/crT4z>] A peri 
phrasis for the more ordinary phrase 
TTJV Tricmv v/L5i/ : see in the note on 
various readings, where the reading 

dycnrrjv is discussed. 

ev r<5 ncvpt o) ITJO-OV] A stricter con 
struction would require the repetition 
of TTJV before this phrase. But comp. 

Col. 1 4 T7)V TTI&TIV VfJ,(UV V 

L/o-oC. The same loose construction 
occurs immediately afterwards with 
TTJV dydirriv. Other examples in this 
epistle are ii 1 1 TO. edvrj ev a-apri, iv i 
o deo-pios fv Kvpia) : comp. also Phil, i 
5 r! rfj Koivavia vfj.cov els TO fvayye- 
\iov, Col. i 8 TTJV vfJLoiiv dydirrjv ev irvev- 

1 6. fjiveiav jroiovfuvos] The omis 
sion of v/zc5j/ after this phrase, when 
irepl i5/z<3i> has immediately preceded, 
has an exact parallel in i Thess. i 2 J- 
Xapi<rrovfj.ev...7repl irdvrcov v/ncoi/, fiveiav 
Trot.ovp.fvoi K.r.X. The meaning is not 
remembering (which would be p.vrj- 
/j.ovvovTSf comp. i Thess. i 3), but 
making remembrance or mention , 
and so interceding . See the de 
tached note on current epistolary 

17. 6 06os K.T.A.] These titles are a 
variation upon the titles of the dox- 

ology in V. 3 6 6fbs KOL 7raTr)p TOV Kvpiov 
r}/j.Q)v Irjcrov Xpiorov. The fatherhood 
is widened and emphasised, as it is 
again when the prayer is recurred to 
and expanded in iii 14. 

aTTOKaXv^fcos] ATroKoAv^ts is the 
correlative of HVO-TTJPIOV: compare iii 

3,5- } 

ev eTTiyvuxret avTov"] l in the know 
ledge of Him ; not *full or advanced 
knowledge : see the detached note on 
the meaning of eTriyvucris. 

TTJS <ap8ias v/xcoi/] literally being en 
lightened as to the eyes of your heart . 
The construction is irregular; for after 



[I 1921 

TO eioevai i)juas TLS e&Ttv r\ e\7Tis 
6 TT\OVTOS Tt]S So^5 TfJ? 
, * 9 TL TO i>7rep/3d\Xov 


avTOv ev TOs 

KCITCC TY\V evep<yeiav 
ia"xyos avTOv, *rjv evtip^rjKev ev 



Xpi<rT(j) eyeipas avTov e/c veKpcov, Kai Ka 

avTov ev TO?S ejrovpaviois 2I v7repdva) TracT^s dp%fjs 


we should have expected irc<pa>- 
but the sense is plain. 

There is an allusion to this passage 
in Clem. Rom. 36, did TOVTOV (sc. fyo-oC 
XpioToC) TJveaxdrjcrav rjfjiwv of d<pda\p,o\ 
Trjs Kapdiay did TOVTOV 77 do-vveTos Kal 
didvoia ypaiv dva6d\\et els 
the former of these sentences 
confirms the reading Kapdias in this 
place ; the latter recalls at once Rom. i 
21 and Eph. iv 18. 

19 23. * The measure of the might 
of His strength you may see first of 
all in what He has wrought in Christ 
Himself. He has raised Him from 
the dead ; He has seated Him at His 
own right hand in the heavenly region ; 
He has made Him supreme above 
all conceivable rivals, principalities, 
authorities, powers, lordships, be they 
what they may, in this world or the 
next. And, thus supreme, He has 
made Him the Head of a Body the 
Church, which thus supplements and 
completes Him; that so the Christ 
may have no part lacking, but may 
be wholly completed and fulfilled . 

19. TO virfpftdXXov peyeQos] The 
participle comes again in ii 7 TO 
/SoXXoi/ TrXoOroy, and in iii 19 TTJV 

wise it is only found in 2 Cor. iii 10 
(with 5o|a), ix 14 (with 
have the adverb 
2 Cor. xi 23. The noun 
curs seven times in St Paul s epistles, 
but not elsewhere in the New Testa 

fvepyetav. ..fjv (vjpyrjKcv] l the work- 





ing... which He hath wrought : see 
detached note on evcpyelv and its cog 

ToO Kpdrovs TTJS LO~XVOS avToOj The 
same combination is found in vi 10 
vdvvafjLovo-6e ev Kvpia KOL ev TO> /eparet 
TTJS iV^vos avroO. Comp. also Col. in 
Iv TrdcTT) dvvd/jiei dvva.fjLovfji.evoi Kara TO 
KpaTos Tr)s dogrjs CLVTOV. With perhaps 
but one exception (Heb. ii 14) the 
word KpaTos in the New Testament is 
only used of the Divine might. 

20. eV TOIS eTTovpaviois] On this ex 
pression see the note on v. 3. 

21. vnepdvo)} above . The only 
other places in the New Testament 
in which the word occurs are iv 10 o 

dvafias V7repdva> iravrcnv Ttov ovpavu>v y 
and Heb. ix 5 vrrepdva de avTfjs (sc. TTJS 
Kt/3a>roC) Xepov/3eti/ do^rjs. The latter 
passage shews that the duplicated 
form is not intensive; as neither is 
its counterpart v7roKara> (compare 
Heb. ii 8 = Ps. viii 7 ^TTOKOTO) T&V TTO- 
da>v avTov with v. 22 of this chapter). 
We have a striking parallel to the 
language of this passage in Philo de 
somn. i 25 (M. p. 644) : E^i/ue 8e TO 
6vap (Gen. xxviii 13) ctm/piypt&o? nrl 
TTJS /cXi/iaKOff TOV dp%dyye\ov Kuptoj/. 
vnepavQ) yap (as apfjiaros rjvlo^ov rj a>y 
V(a>s Kv(3epvrjTT]V VTroXrjrrTfov to~Tao-6at 
TO ov enl o-a>p.a,Ta>v, eVi ^yxfly,..fc > 
depoSj fn ovpavov, eV ala OrjT^v bvvd- 
fj.a>v, fir dopaTdiv (pvo-tcov, oo-anep 
Qeara KCU dQeara. TOV yap /eooyiov 
airavTa. f^d^as eavrov Kal dvapTijo~as 

TT)V TOO~a.VTT)V yviO%cl (f)VO~lV. 


/c.T.X.] every princi- 

I 22] 


e^ovcrias Kai SiWjuews Kai KvpioTtjTOs Kai TTCLVTOS ovo- 
jULctTOS ovojJLa^ofJLevov ov IJLOVOV ev Tto aiwvi TOVTW d\\a 
Kai ev TW jUL\\ovTr ^Kai TTANTA Yne~r&leu yno royc TTO AAC 

polity 1 , &c. The corresponding Kst 
in Col. i 1 6, where the words are in 
the plural (ctre Bpovoi cire KvpiorrjTes 
tT dpxal ire eovo-u), shews that 
these are concrete terms. Otherwise 
we might render all rule 1 &c. We 
have the plurals dpxai and eov<riai 
below in iii 10 and vi 12. On these 
terms see Lightfoot ColossianSj loc. 
dt. Although the Apostle in writing 
to the Colossians treats them with 
something like scorn, yet his refer 
ences to them in this epistle shew 
that he regarded them as actually 
existent and intelligent forces, if in 
part at any rate opposed to the Divine 
will. In the present passage, how 
ever, they are mentioned only to em 
phasise the exaltation of Christ. 

Travros ovoparos oVo/iab/ieVov] For 
wo/xa in the sense of a * title of rank 
or * dignity , see Lightfoot on Phil, ii 
9 : and compare i Clem. 43, r<5 eVow (sc. rfjs ifpQ)o~vvr)s) KeKoo~fj.r]- 
p.fvr), and 44, ol diro&ToXoi TUJL^V eyvco- 
o~av...oTL epis earai errl TOV dv6p.aros 
TTJS eTTio-KOTrfjs. Among the Oxyrhyn- 
chus Papyri (Grenfell and Hunt, 
pt i no. 58) is a complaint (A.D. 288) 
of the needless multiplication of of 
ficials : TroXXot j3ov\6p,voi ras rafiiaKas 
ovcrias KOTfcrQifiv oi/o/xara eavrols e^ev- 
povres, ol fj,fv ^etpiorcoi;, ot fie ypa/ 
Tea>, 01 Se (frpovTurrav, K.T.X., closing 
with the order: ra de \onra ovo^ara 

cv TO> aiaJi/t K.r.X.] The same con 
trast is found in Matt, xii 32 ovre ev 
rouTQ) TO) aZcoi/t ovrc cv ra> pe\\ovri. 
It is the familiar Rabbinic contrast 
between PITH D?iy, the present age, 
and Kin D71U, the age to come. Dai- 
man, who fully discusses these terms 
(Die Worte Jesu i 120 if.), declares 
that there is no trace of them in pre- 
Christian Jewish literature. 

In the New Testament HTH DV is 
represented by o almv OVTOS again in 
Luke xvi 8, xx 34, Rom. xii 2, i Cor. 
i 20, ii 6, 8, iii 18, 2 Cor. iv 4 ; by o 
ala>v o fV<TT(os in Gal. i 4 ; by 6 vvv 
alvv in the Pastoral Epistles, i Tim. 
vi 17, 2 Tim. iv 10, Tit. ii 12: and 
also by 6 /cooyzos OVTOS in I Cor. iii 19, 
v 10, vii 31, and in the Johannine 
writings, in which alwv only occurs in 
the phrases ets rbv cucSj/a, e/c TOV aloovos 
(or in the plural, as in Apoc.). In 
the same sense we often have o alt&v 

or o Acdcr/ioy, just as D71JJ is used for 

Htn D?iy. We may compare also o 
Kaipos OVTOS, Mark x 30 (=Luke xviii 
30), Luke xii 56; o vvv <aip6s, Rom. 
iii 26, viii 18, xi 5 ; and 6 Kaipos 6 vt- 
cm)K(0s, Heb. ix 9. 

On the other hand the words KO- 
o-pos and Kaipos cannot enter into the 

representation of N2H D?W. Por this 
we have 6 atwz/ o /M AXa/ again in Heb. 
vi 5 (fivvafieis T fjieXXovros al&vos); 6 
alav 6 epxoufvos in Mark x 30 and the 
parallel Luke xviii 30 ; o aubv CKCIVOS in 
Luke xx 35. We may note however 
TTJV oiKov/J-evr^v Trjv /ieXXovcraj/ in Heb. 


We have below in this epistle the 
remarkable phrases o auttv TOV Koo-p.ov 
TOVTOV in ii 2, and ot alatves ol eVep^o- 
pcvoi in ii 7. 

22. KOI irdvra /crA.] An allusion 
to Ps. viii 7 irdvra vneTaas viroKaTn 
T&V TTod&v avTov, which is quoted so 
from the T.YX in Heb. ii 8. A similar 
allusion is made in i Cor. xv 27 irdvra 
yap vireTa^ev VTTO TOVS irodas avTov. 
With the whole context compare 
I Pet. iii 22 os fo~riv ev 8cia 0eov 
Tropevdels els ovpavov vnoraytvTtov avrw 
ayyeXeov *cai ^ovo~ia>v Kai dvvdfj,co)v, 

which is plainly dependent on this 




[I 23-H i 


K<f>a\rjv VTrep Trdvra T 

earTiv TO era pa avTOV, TO TrXripcofjia TOV TO. 
ev Traariv TrXripovfjievov. II. x Kca vfuas 

VTrep Trdvrdl repeats the Trdvra of 
the quotation, which itself points back 
to Troops... Trairos in V. 21. 

23. ro TrXrypco/ia K.r.X.] * the ful- 
ness (or fulfilment) of Him who 
all in all is being filled (or fid- 
filled] . On the meaning of TrX^pco/xa, 
see the detached note. 

TO. Trdvra ev rracriv] The phrase is 
used adverbially. It is more emphatic 
than the classical adverb iram-anao-iv, 
which does not occur in the New 
Testament. It is found, though not 
adverbially, in i Cor. xii 6 o avrbs 
6e6s, 6 evepyav TO. irdvra ev TTCKTIV 
(where however ev ndo-iv may mean 
* in all men ) ; and as a predicate in 
I Cor. XV 28 Iva r) o 6eos irdvra ev 
jrdcriv, and with a slight variation in 
CoL iii II aXXa TrdvTa KCU ev ndo-iv 
Xpiaroy. In each of the last two 
cases there is some evidence for 
reading ra Trdvra : but the absence of 
the article is natural in the predicate. 
This use of the phrase as applied to 
God and to Christ makes it the more 
appropriate here. St Paul uses 
iravra adverbially in i Cor. ix 25, x 33 
(rrdvra irdariv dpecrKon), xi 2, Phil, iv 
13; and likewise ra irdvra in this 
epistle iv 15 iva. . .av^crto^ev els avrov 
ra 7rai/ra, an important parallel. 

TrXrjpovfjLcvov] There is no justifica 
tion for the rendering that filleth all 
in all ( A. V.). The only ancient version 
which gives this interpretation is the 
Syriac Vulgate. In English it ap 
pears first in Tyndale s translation 
(1534). The chief instances cited for 
irXrjpovo-dai as middle are those in 
which a captain is said to man his 
ship (vavv TT\r]pov(T6ai\ i.e. to get it 
filled . But this idiomatic use of the 
middle (comp. Tralfia diddo-Keo-tiai) 
affords no justification for taking it 
here in what is really the active 

sense. St Paul does indeed speak of 
Christ as ascending that He might 
fill all things ; but then he uses the 
active Voice, Iva ir\rjpa>a-rj ra irdvra. 
(iv 10). Had his meaning been the 
same here, we can hardly doubt that 
he would have said TrXrjpovvros. 

The passive sense is supported by 
the early versions, (i) The Latin. 
Cod. Claromont. has supplementum 
qui omnia et in omnibus impletur. 
The usual Latin is plenitudo eius qui 
omnia in omnibus adimpletur: so 
Victorinus, Ambrosiaster and the 
Vulgate. (2) The Syriac. The 
Peshito indeed gives an active mean 
ing : but we have evidence that the 
earlier Syriac version, of which the 
Peshito was a revision, took the word 
as passive; for it is so taken in 
Ephraim s commentary, which is pre 
served in an Armenian translation. 
(3) The Egyptian. Both the Bohairic 
and the Sahidic take the verb in the 
passive sense. 

Origen and Chrysostom gave a pas 
sive sense to the participle (see the 
citations in the footnote to the expo 
sition). So did Theodore, though his 
interpretation is involved: he says 
(Cramer Catena, p. 129) ov< etirev OTI 
TO. irdvTO. ir\ijpo1 t dXX* OTI avTos ev Trdcri 
TrXrjpovTai Tovre(TTiv, ev irdo-i 7T\ijpr)s 
ecrriv K.r.X. The Latin commentators 
had adimpletur, and could not give 
any other than a passive meaning. 

II. i, 2. Next, you may see that 
power as it has been at work in your 
selves. You also it has raised from 
the dead. For you were dead not 
with a physical death such as was the 
death of Christ, but dead in your sins. 
Your former life was a death rather 
than a life. You shaped your con 
duct after the fashion of the present 
world, after the will of the power 

II 2] 



veKpovs TO?? 7rapa7rTa)]ULa<nv Kat rats afjiapTiais 

*ev OLS 7TOT6 7repi7raT^a"aT KCLTO, TOV aicova TOV KOCT/ULOV 

that dominates it Satan and his un 
seen satellites the inspiring force of 
those who refuse obedience to God . 

1. vfKpovs Tols iv] You 
were dead not indeed with a physi 
cal death; but yet really dead in 
virtue of your trespasses and sins . 
The dative is not properly instru 
mental (if the meaning had been 
put to death by , we should have 
had v(VKpwfj.vovs], but is attached to 
the adjective by way of definition. 
The dative in Col. ii 14, TO naff THJL&V 
Xfipoypa(pov ro s oy/*ao-ij>,is somewhat 
similar. In the parallel passage 
CoL ii 13, veKpovf ovTas rois TrapaTTTCo- KOI. TTJ d/tpo/3iOT/a TTJS o~ap<bs 
vp&v, it is clear that the uncircum- 
cision is not the instrument of death. 
We cannot render the dative better 
than by the preposition in . 

2. TrfptfTranjcraTf] HepnraTelv is 
used to express a manner of life only 
once in the Synoptic Gospels, viz. in 
Mark vii 5 ov i rrpi7rarova-iv...KaTa TTJV 
Trapdo ocriv T&V 7rpe(7/3tiTepa>i>. It IS 
similarly used once in the Acts (xxi 

21, Toty edecriv TrepiTrareu ), and once in 

the Epistle to the Hebrews (xiii 9, 

/3pco/za(rii>, cv ols OVK co<peXj7$77crai> ol 

TrepnrarovvTes). These three instances 
refer to the regulation of life in 
accordance with certain external 
ordinances. They do not refer to 
general moral conduct. This latter 
sense is found in the New Testament 
only in the writings of St Paul and 
St John. Thus it occurs twice in 
St John s Gospel (the metaphor of 
walking being strongly felt), and 
ten times in his Epistles. It is 
specially frequent in St Paul s 
writings, being found in every epistle, 
if we except the Pastoral Epistles. 
It occurs seven times in this epistle. 

It is not found in I Peter, 2 Peter, 
Jude or the Apocalypse : in these 

writings another word takes its place, 
namely 7ropeveo~0at a word also 
used four times in this sense by St 
Luke (Luke i 6 ; viii 14, a noteworthy 
place; Acts ix 31, xiv 16) : but 
neither St Paul nor St John em 
ploys this word so. 

This metaphor of walking or 
going * is not Greek, but Hebrew in 
its origin. It is in harmony with the 
fact that from the first Christianity 
was proclaimed as a Way (Acts ix 2, 
xviii 25, 26, &c.). 

There are two words which express 
the same idea from the Greek point 
of view: (l) 7roXireuecr$ai, a 
characteristically Greek expression : 
for conduct to a Greek was mainly a 
question of relation to the State : so 

Acts xxiii I eya> iraarj (rvvftdijo-ei 
ayadrj 7re7roXireu/iat ra> $e<a, and 
Phil, i 27 IJLOVOV ai o>ff TOV euayyeX/ov 
TOV Xptoroi) 7ToXirevecr$e. (2) dva&Tpt- 
cpea-dat (once in 2 Cor., Eph., i Tim. ; 
twice in Heb. ; once in i Pet., 2 Pet), 
with its noun di/aorpo^ (once in Gal, 
Eph., i Tim., Heb., Jas. ; six times in 
i Pet., twice in 2 Pet.). 

While we recognise the picturesque 
metaphor involved in the use of 
TrepurciTflv for moral conduct, we must 
not suppose that it was consciously 
present to the Apostle s mind when 
ever he used the word. Here, for 
example, it is clearly synonymous 
with dvao-TpfCpeo-dat, which he employs 
in the parallel phrase of v. 3. 

This is a unique combination of two 
phrases, each of which is frequently 
found in St Paul s writings o alwv 
OVTOS and o Koo-fj.os OVTOS i see the note 
on i 21. The combination of syn 
onyms for the sake of emphasis 
may be illustrated by several phrases 

of this epistle : i 5 Kara TTJV cvSoiciav 
aurov, II KOTO. rr)v 



[II 2 

TOVTOV, KCLTO. TOV ap^ovTa Trjs ej~ovo"ias TOV ae^oos, TOV 
TTvevjuLctTOs TOV vvv evep^ovvTos ev TO?S viols 

fiov\rjv TOV 6e\rjp.aTos avrov, 19 Kara 
TTJV evepyeiav TOV KpaTovs TTJS Zcr^vos 
avrov, iv 23 r<5 Trvevfj-aTi, TOV vobsvpav. 

Kara TOV apxovra.] The Apostle 
takes term after term from the 
current phraseology, and adds them 
together to bring out his meaning. 
Compare with the whole of this 
passage, both for style and for 
subject matter, vi 12 Trpbs Tas dpxds, 
TTpos Tas eovo ias ) Trpbs TOVS Koo~fio- 
irvevfjiaTiKa TTJS Trovrjpias ev Tols eirov- 
paviois. There he represents his 
readers as struggling against the 
world-forces, in accordance with which 
their former life, as here described, 
had been lived. 

With the term 6 apx<*>v /c.r.X. com 
pare Mark iii 22 (Matt, ix 34) ev r<5 
apxovn T&V 8aijj.(ivL(0v, and Matt, xii 24 
(Luke xi 15) ev ro Bee^e/3ovX apxovri 
T>V 8cufiovio>v: also John xii 31 o 
apx<ov TOV Koo~p.ov TOVTOV) xiv 30? 
xvi ii. The plural 01 apxovTes TOV 
alaivos TOVTOV is found in i Cor. ii 6, 8, 
apparently in a similar sense. In 
2 Cor. iv 4 we read of 6 Bebs TOV ale 

TTJS fovtrias TOV depos] Compare 
Col. i 13 os cpvaaTO fK TTJS egovo-ias 
TOV (TKOTOVS, and Acts xxvi 18 TOV 
eViOTpe^at OTTO O~KOTOVS els (pas KOI 
TTJS egovo-ias TOV 2arai/a eVt TOV 6e6v : 
also our Lord s words to those who 
arrested Him, Luke xxii 53 aXX 

CLVTT) fO~T\V V/LKDV Tj (OpO. K.OI ij fovO~ia 

In the Testaments of the Twelve 
Patriarchs (Benj. 3) we have vnb TOV 
dcpiov TTvevpaTos TOV BcXtop : but we 
cannot be sure that this language is 
independent of the present passage. 
The same must be said of the con 
ception of the firmament in the 
Ascension of Isaiah, as a region 
between the earth and the first 
heaven, filled with contending spirits 

of evil : c. 7, We ascended into the 
firmament... and there I beheld Sam- 
mael [who elsewhere (c. i) is identified 
with Malkira, the prince of evil ] 
and his powers , &c. There can be 
no doubt, however, that the air was 
regarded by the Jews, as well as by 
others, as peopled by spirits, and 
more especially by evil spirits. Com 
pare Philo de gigant. 2, (Mangey, 
p. 263), ovs aXXot <^uXo<ro<poi daip.ovas t 
dyye\ovs M.a>vo~fjs e iatOev 6vop,dfiv 
^^al df clo-i Kara TOV depa TTCTopevai : 
and more especially in his exposition 
of Jacob s Dream (de somn. i 22, 
p. 641) : KXZ/xa TOLVVV ev p.ev TO> 
/eo(r/Li<0 (rufi/3oXiKo5s Xeyerat o a^p, ov 
/Sao-ty O~Ti y?}, Kopv(pf) de ovpavos* 
dirb yap TTJS creX^i/taK^s o~(paipas . . . a^pi 
yfjs ccrxarrjs 6 drjp irdvrrj Tadels (pdaKV 
OVTOS de ffOTi tyvxtov acrcD/Ltaro)!/ olicos, 
K.T.\. For the Palestinian doctrine 
of evil spirits reference may be made 
to the instructive chapter Die Sunde 
und die Damonen in Weber Altsyn. 
Theol. pp. 242 ff. ; see also Thackeray, 
as referred to in the note on p. 133 
above. In a curious passage in 
Athanasius, de incarn. 25, our Lord s 
crucifixion is regarded as purifying 
the air : povos yap ev r<5 oYpt TIS b crravpco TeXeiov/j-evos 
dib Kal eiKOTQ)s TOVTOV vTrepfivev 6 
Kvpios ovTO) yap v-^aOels TOV p.ev depa 
fKaOdpifcv airo T TTJS dta(3o\iKr)s Kal 
7rdo~r)s rcav daip.6va>v eTrifiovXrjs, K.T.\. 

TOV TrvevpaTos] We should have 
expected rather ro irvevfjia, in apposi 
tion with TOV apxovra. It may be 
that this was the Apostle s meaning, 
and that the genitive is due to an un 
conscious assimilation to the genitives 
which immediately precede. If this 
explanation be not accepted, we must 
regard TOV irvev^aros as in apposition 
with Trjs eovo~ias and governed by 
TOV apxovra. In i Cor. ii 12 we find 
ro irvfii^a TOV KOCT/LIOU opposed to TO 


diets* z iv ols KCLL q^eis TraWes at/ecrTjOa^^eV Trore ev 
TCUS eTTiBvjuLicus Tf?s crapKos r^av, Troiovvres TO. QeXri^aTa 
(rapKOs KCLI TCOV Siavoicov, Kai rj/uLeda Tewa <f>v(76L 

vened the neuter is more natural; 
and that the word TrapaTrrco/xao-tv was 
principally present to the Apostle s 
mind is shown by the omission of Kal 
rats d/jLapriais when the phrase is 
repeated. The change from Trepiira- 
Tciv to dvao-rpe<po~6ai (on these syno 
nyms see the note on v. 2) does not 
help to justify the supposed change 
in the meaning of the preposition : for 
dvao-rp<peo-6at and dvao~rpo(pr) are 
frequently followed by ev to denote 
condition or circumstances. 

For the working out of the parallel, 
compare i 1 1 , 1 3 ev <p Kal eK\rip^e^fv. . . 
ev o> Kal vfjLfis, and ii 21, 22 ev G> fraa-a 

OlKodofL1J...V G> Kttl VUels (TVVOlKOO OfJi- 

eto-&. In the present instance the 
parallel is yet further developed by 
the correspondence of ev TO"LS viols TTJS 
anemias (v. 2) and tfpeQa re<va (pvcrei 
opyrjs (v. 3). 

ev rat? eiridvfjLtais ] The preposition 
here has the same sense as in the 
phrase ev ols K.T.\. ; so that the latter 
of the two phrases is to be regarded 
as an expansion of the former. 

TO 6e\rip,ara} The plural is found 
in Acts xiii 22, and as a variant in 
Mark iii 35. 

T&V diavoi&v] our minds 1 . With 
this and with TTJS o-apKoswe must supply 
?;/i(5v, which was used with Tfjs o-apKot 
at its first mention and therefore is 
not repeated. For the rendering 
thoughts no parallel is to be found 
in the New Testament. In Luke i 51 
didvoia Kapdias avT&v means strictly 
the mind of their heart ; comp. 
i Chron. xxix 18. In the T,XT we 
usually find Kapdta as the rendering 
of ^ p:&) ; but 38 times we have 
Sim/oia, which is only very exceptionally 
used to represent any other word. 
That the plural is used only in the 
case of diavoiwv is due to the impos- 

TO K rov Qeov. But we have 
no parallel to the expression rov 
apX ovra " T v 7rvevp.aTos K.r.\. 

rov vvv evfpyovvros] So this world 
is spoken of as 6 vvv ald>v in i Tim. vi 
17, 2 Tim. iv 10, Tit. ii 12. The word 
evepyelv, like the word 7n>ev/za, seems 
purposely chosen in order to suggest 
a rivalry with the Divine Spirit: see 
the detached note on evepyelv. 

3 7. * Not that we Jews were in 
any better case. We also lived in 
sin, following the dictates of our 
lower desires. We, no less than the 
Gentiles, were objects in ourselves of 
the Divine wrath. In ourselves, I 
say: but the merciful God has not 
left us to ourselves. Dead as we 
were, Gentiles and Jews alike, He 
has quickened us with Christ, Grace, 
free grace, has saved you ! and raised 
us with Him, and seated us with Him 
in the heavenly sphere : and all this, 
in Christ Jesus. For His purpose has 
been to display to the ages that are 
yet to come the surpassing wealth of 
His grace, in the goodness shewn 
toward us in Christ Jesus . 

3. ev ols Kal rj/teis] wherein we 
also : so the Latin in quibus as in 
0. 2, not inter quos . At first sight 
it seems as though ev ols must be 
rendered as among whom , i.e. 
* among the sons of disobedience . 
But the parallel which the Apostle is 
drawing is brought out more forcibly 
by the rendering wherein . Thus 
We have (v. l) -upas ovras veKpovs rols 
TrapaTTTGOjtiao ii KOI rats dfj.apriais v[j.<ov t 
ev ais Trore 7repif7ranjo~aTe...(v. 3) ev ols 
Kai rjv-fis Trdvres dveo~rpd(pr]fjiev Trore... 
(v. 5) KCU ovras vetcpovs rols irapa- 
7TTK>fjiao~iv. That the relative is in the 
first instance in the feminine is merely 
due to the proximity of d^apriais. 
After the sentence which has inter 


(JO S KCtl OL \OL7TOL 4 6 $ 060S 7T\oJcTfO9 COV !/ \el 9 

TY\V 7roAAf}j/ d<yd7rrjv avTOV rjv 

veKpovs TO? TrapaTTTcojULacnv <rvve(coo7roiri(rV 
p, xdpiTi ecrre crecraxrfjievoi 6 Kai 
crvveKadicrev ev TO!? eTrovpaviois ev XjOi(TTO) 
ev TO? aiajcriv TO?S eTrepxojULev 

V7Tp(3d\\OV 7T\OVTOS Tfjs %dplTOS aVTOV 

e<p* rj/xa? ey \pi(TTcp Irjcrov. 8 T*/ ya^o ^dpiTL ecrre 




sibility of saying TW^ o-apKw in such a 

re /<i/a...opy^] InHebraistic phrases 
of this kind re /ci/a and viol are used 
indifferently as representatives of *02 : 
compare ii 2, v 8. 

<pva-ei] l by nature , in the sense of 
in ourselves . Other examples of 
this adverbial use are Rom. ii 14 
orai/ yap 0vr)...<pvo-i ra TOV vofiov 
Gal. ii 15 ^eis <f>vo-i lov- 
iv 8 rois (frvarei /ii) ov(riv deois. 
(rvi/e^&)07roij;o-ev] The word OC- 
only here and in Col. ii 13, 
oTroirjo fv a~vv avrcp. The 
thought there expressed makes it 
plain that r<5 xpior<3 is the right 
reading here, and not Iv TO> xP L<TT & 
as is found in B and some other 
authorities. The mistake has arisen 
from a dittography of GN. 

xapm] In pointed or proverbial 
expressions the article is by preference 
omitted. When the phrase, which is 
here suddenly interjected, is taken up 
again and dwelt upon in v. 8, we have 
T7J yap xapiri ic.r.X. 

6. crvvyyeipfv Kat (TWKa6icrtv] i.e., 
together with Christ , as in the case 
of o-vvefaoTToirjo-fv just before. So in 
Col. ii 12, arvvTa(f)vTS avroi...(rvi^yep- 
0Tjre. The compound verbs echo the 
fyeipas and KaQicras of i 2O. 

fv rols enovpaviois] Compare i 3, 
20. This completes the parallel with 
the exaltation of Christ. Ev Xpiorw 
u is added, as ev Xpt<rr<5 in i 3, 

although <rvv Xpto-ro) is implied by the 
preceding verbs : for ev XpioroJ I^o-ov 
states the relation in the completest 
form, and accordingly the Apostle 
repeats it again and again (w. 7, id). 

7. vdcigrjTcu] shew forth . The 
word is similarly used in Rom. ix 22 
el de 6e\cov 6 6eo$ V&eiao 6ai, TTJV 
opyriv, where it is suggested by a 
citation in v. 17 of Ex. ix 16 OTTCOS 
evo"eia>p,ai ev croi 717^ dvvap.iv pov. 

XP^O-TOTTJTL] l kindness \ or good 
ness . The word is used of the Divine 
kindness in Rom. ii 4 TOV irXovrov rfjs 
^p^oroT^ros auroC, and in Rom. xi 22, 
where it is contrasted with aVoro/xia : 
also in Tit. iii 4, where it is linked 
with <pi\av6p(t>7ria : compare also Luke 
vi 35 on avrbs ^pT/oToff COTIV K.T.\. 

8 10. * Grace, I say, free grace has 
saved you, grace responded to by 
faith. It is not from yourselves that 
this salvation comes : it is a gift, and 
the gift is God s. Merit has no part 
in it : boasting is excluded. It is He 
that hath made us, and not we ourselves: 
He has created us afresh in Christ 
Jesus, that we may do good works 
which He has made ready for our 
doing. Not of works, but unto works, 
is the Divine order of our salvation . 

8. KOI TOVTO] and that\ as in 
Rom. xiii II *at TOVTO fiSoYe? TOV 
Kaipov. It is a resumptive expression, 
independent of the construction. It 
may be pleaded that, as dia Trio-Teas 
is an important element, added to the 

II 9 n] 



ovK e epywv, va /urj TIS Kaw%ii<rr]Tai. avTOV 
yap ecr/uev Troirifta, KTicrOevTes ev Xpia-Tco Irjaov ITTC 
dyaBols ots TrporiToijuLao ev 6 6eos iva ev 

o lULvri/uioveveTe OTL TTOTC 

TO, edvn ev crapKi, 

phrase of v. 5 when that phrase is re 
peated, Koi TOVTO should be interpreted 
as specially referring to irio-ns. The 
difference of gender is not fatal to 
such a view : but the context demands 
the wider reference ; more especially 
the phrase OVK eg epya>v shews that 
the subject of the clause is not faith , 
but salvation by grace . 

6fov TO Scopoi/] Literally God s is 
the gift\ 6cov being the predicate. 
But this is somewhat harsh as a 
rendering; and the sense is sufficiently 
given in our English version: it is 
the gift of God . 

10. 7roi77/ia] The word occurs 
again in the New Testament only in 
Rom. i 2O TOIS iroujp-aa-LV voovpfva 
Kadoparai. We have no single word 
which quite suitably renders it : 
workmanship is a little unfortunate, 
as suggesting a play upon works , 
which does not exist in the Greek. 

7Tt epyois ayadols] l with d view to 

good works . Compare i Thess. iv 7 

ov yap Ka\(rV TJ^JLCLS 6 6eos ejrl aKaOap- 
<riq, and Gal. V 13 v/zeis yap eV 

cK\rj0r)T. See also Wisd. ii 23 o 

fKTicrev rov avdpwrrov eV d 

Ep. ad Diognet. 7 TOVTOV irpos avTovs 

dTT<TTt\v apa yc, co? dvOpwirav av TIS 
XoyicraiTO, eiri rvpavvidi /cat 0o$o> /cai 
KaraTrX^fi; The interval between this 
usage and the idiom by which eV! with 
a dative gives the condition of a 
transaction is bridged by such a phrase 
as we find, for example, in Xenoph. 
Memordb. i 4 4 irpeTrci ptv ra eif 

eia yiyvofieva yvwp.r)s evai epya. 
ols TrpoTjroi fiao ei ] by attraction for 
a TrpoTjToinaa-fv. The verb is found in 
Rom. ix 23, eVt a-Kfvr} eXfovs, a rrpo- 
TjToifjLa(Tv Is 

ii 1 8. Remember what you 
were: you, the Gentiles since we 
must speak of distinctions in the 
flesh the Uncircumcision as opposed 
to the Circumcision. Then, when 
you were without Christ, you were 
aliens and foreigners; you had no 
share in the privileges of Israel ; you 
were in the world with no hope, no 
God. Now all is changed : for you 
are in Christ Jesus : and accordingly, 
though you were far off, you are made 
near by the covenant-blood of Christ. 
For it is He who is our peace. He 
has made the two parts one whole. 
He has broken down the balustrade 
that was erected to keep us asunder : 
He has ended in His own person the 
hostility that it symbolised : He has 
abrogated the legal code of separating 
ordinances. For His purpose was by 
a new creation to make the two men 
one man in Himself; and so not only 
to make peace between the two, but 
to reconcile both in one body to God 
through the cross, by which He killed 
the old hostility. And He came with 
the Gospel of peace peace to far and 
near alike: not only making the two 
near to each other, but giving them 
both in one Spirit access to the 
Father . 

1 1. v/LteTs ra edvrj] The term Gen 
tiles , which has been implied in vpcls 
so often before, is now for the first 
tune expressly used. In an instructive 
article On some political terms em 
ployed in the New Testament (Class. 
Rev. vol. i pp. 4ff, 42 ff.) Canon E. L. 
Hicks says (p. 42) : *E8vos, the corre 
lative of Xaoff in the mouth of Hellen 
istic Jews, was a word that never had 
any importance as a political term 


ol Xeyo/uLevoi aKpofiva-ria VTTO i 

[II 12 


XpicrTOV dTrrjhXoTpiwfJLevoi TT/S 7ro\iTetas TOV 

until after Alexander. It was when 
Hellenism pushed on eastward, and 
the policy of Alexander and his suc 
cessors founded cities as outposts of 
trade and civilization, that the con 
trast was felt and expressed between 
7roXr and edvrj. Hellenic life found 
its normal type in the iroXis, and 
barbarians who lived Kara KGJ/ZOS or in 
some less organised form were lOvy . 
He refers to Droysen Hellenismus 
iii i, pp. 31 f. for illustrations, and 
mentions among others Polybius vii 9, 
where iro\eis and Wvr) are repeatedly 
contrasted. The word Wvr\ was thus 
ready to hand when the LXX came to 
express the invidious sense of D^J, 
which is found so commonly in Deu 
teronomy, the Psalms and the Pro 
phets. It is curious that, while St 
Paul freely employs eOvrj, he never 
uses the contrasted term Xadr, except 
where he is directly referring to a 
passage of the Old Testament. 

ev o-apKi] The addition of these 
words suggests the external and tem 
porary nature of the distinction. For 
their position after TO. e6vrj see the 
note on i 15. Here it was perhaps 
unavoidable : for ra ev o-a/m eOvrj or 
TO. e Qvr) ra ev a-ap/a Would suggest the 
existence of another class of edvr) : 
whereas the meaning is those who 
are the Gentiles according to a dis 
tinction which is in the flesh . Simi 
larly we have rrjs \eyop,evrjs 7TpiTopr)s 
ev o-apKi. 

ol Xeyo/iei/oi] which are called 1 . 
The phrase is not depreciatory, as 
the so-called would be in English. 
The Jews called themselves 77 irepi- 
To/ir;, and called the Gentiles j a*po- 
jSuoTt a. St Paul does not here use 
the latter name, which was one of 
contempt; but he cites it as used 
by others. 

TTJS \eyopevr) s] This is directly 
suggested by of Xe-yo/xei/ot. The Apostle 
may have intended to suggest that 
he himself repudiated both terms 
alike. In Rom. ii 28 f. he refuses to 
recognise the mere outward sign of 
circumcision: ovde 77 ev ro> <jf>ai>epo> ev 
o~a.pKi TrepLTopr/ dXXa. . .rrepiro/ir) Kapdias 
cv Trvevfjiart, ov ypa/x/nart. He thus 
claims the word, as it were, for higher 
uses ; as he says of the Gentiles them 
selves in Col. ii II, irepier^OrjTf jrepi- 
TOfj.7] a^eip07ro?V&>...eV TT} Treptro/ir} TOV 

] This is the only place 
where this word occurs in St Paul s 
epistles. But we have a^etpoTro/^roff in 
2 Cor. V I oiKiav dxeipoTroirjTov alaviov 
ev rolff ovpavols, and in Col. ii 1 1 
(quoted above). It serves to empha 
sise the transience of the distinction, 
though it casts no doubt on the validity 
of it while it lasted. 

12. x<opis] l without \ or apart 
from, . St Paul does not use avev, 
which is found only in Matt, x 29 
avev TOV Trarpos v/xaj^, in an inter 
polation into Mark xiii 2 avev x fl P** v > 
and twice in i Peter, where ^oopls is 
not used. It is usual to take ^oopls 
Xpio-Tov as a predicate and to place a 
comma after it. This is perfectly 
permissible : but the parallel between 
T<5 Kcupo) eKfLvco xeopts XpioroG and vvvl 
8e tv Xpto-ro) Ir/o-oO makes it preferable 
to regard the words as the condition 
which leads up to the predicates which 

aTTT/XXorptco/^ i/ot] The Apostle seems 
to have in mind Ps. Ixviii (Ixix) 

dde\(pois pov, Kal evos Tols viols rr^9 

fjirjTpos fiov. This will account for his 
choice of a word which does not appear 
to be a term of Greek civic life. Its 
ordinary use is either of the alienation 



Kal aQeoi ev TO> KOCTJULCO. * 3 vvvt Se ev 

of property, or of alienation of feeling : 
the latter sense prevails in CoL i 2 1 , KOL 
vpas Trore OVTUS aTnjXXorpteo/Liei Ovff Kal 

ex^povs TTJ diavoia diroKanj\\afV, 

where estrangement from God is in 
question. The participial sense is 
not to be pressed: strictly speaking 
the Gentiles could not have been alien 
ated from the sacred commonwealth 
of which they had never been members. 
The word is used almost as a noun, 
as may be seen from its construction 
with ovrfs in iv 18 and in Col. i 21. 
So too here we have ori jfr e... 07717 A- 
XoTptw/zeVoi. . .Kal gevoi. It thus scarcely 
differs from dXXorpto? : comp. Clem. 
Rom. 7, of the Ninevites, ZXaftov o-amj- 
pi ai/, KctiTrep dXAorptoi TOV 0ov ovres. 

TToXireias] commonwealth , or 
polity . In the only other place 
where the word occurs in the New 
Testament, Acts xxii 28, it is used of 
the Roman citizenship. In later 
Greek it was commonly used for 
manner of life : compare TroXirev- 
fo-Qai, and see the note on Trepmarelv 
in ii 2. In this sense it is taken here 
by the Latin version, which renders 
it by conuersatio . But the contrast 
in v. 19 (o-wTToAirot) is decisive against 
this view. 

gcvoi] The use of 4vos with a 
genitive is not common : Soph. Oed. 
Rex 2i9f. and Plato Apol. i (gcvas 
ex***) are cited. Here the construc 
tion is no doubt suggested by the 
genitive after aTn/XXoTpico/Ltei ot. In 
Clem. Rom. i we have a dative, rrjs 

re dXXorpi a? Kal cvr)S TOIS ocXf/crots 
rot) Geovj jjuapas Kai avocricrv crao eco? : 

on which Lightfoot cites Clem. Horn. 

VI 14 <us dXrjdfias dXXorpiav ovo~av Kal 

gfvrjv. In the papyrus of 348 A.D., 
cited above on i n, the sister who 
has taken the \iQos a-iTOKOTrrrjs as her 
share of the inheritance declares that 
she has no claim whatever on the 
* hereby I admit 

that I have no share in the aforesaid 
grinding-machine, but am a stranger 
and alien therefrom (dXXa lvov pe 
eivai Kal d\\6rpiov aur^y) . 

TCOI/ diadrjK&v] The plural is found 
also in Rom. ix 4 o5j/ dta^xac. 
For the covenant with Abraham, see 
Gen. xvii 7; for the covenant with 
the People under Moses, see Exod. 
xxiv 8. 

TT)S irayyc\ias] Comp. i 13 and 
iii 6, where the Gentiles are declared 
to share in the Promise through 

fXniSa p.} cxovrts] The same phrase, 
in a more restricted sense, occurs in 
I Thess. iv. 13 Ka6a>s Kal ol \onrol ol pr) 
exovTfs eXn-tda. Christ as the hope 
of the Gentiles was foretold by the 
prophets (Isa. xi 10, xlii 4; comp. 
Rom. xv 12 and Matt, xii 21), and was 
the * secret or * mystery entrusted 
to St Paul (Col. i 27). 

adeoi] The word does not occur 
elsewhere in the whole of the Greek 
Bible. It is used here not as a term 
of reproach, but as marking the 
mournful climax of Gentile disability. 

ev TO> Koo>iQ>] These words are not 
to be taken as a separate item in the 
description: but yet they are not 
otiose. They belong to the two pre 
ceding terms. The Gentiles were in 
the world without a hope and with no 
God: in the world, that is, with no 
thing to lift them above its material 
ising influences. 

St Paul uses the word Koo-pos with 
various shades of meaning. The fun 
damental conception is that of the 
outward order of things, considered 
more especially in relation to man. 
It is rarely found without any moral 
reference, as in phrases of time, Rom. 
i 20, Eph. i 4, or of place, Rom. i 8, 
Col. i 6. But the moral reference is 
often quite a general one, with no 
suggestion of evil : as in i Cor. vii 31 



[II 14 

oi TTOTC oWes MA K PAN eje^6r]T6 errYc ev 
TO* al/uLaTi TOV xpicrTOV. 14 co/T<k yap ecTTiv r\ eipHism 
, 6 Trouicras TCL d/uKpoTepa ev Kal TO /mecroToi^ov TOV 

TOV /COO /AOV, 2 Cor. i 12 dve- 
o-Tpd(pr]iJiev ev r<5 /coV/xo), Trepio-o-orepo)? 
de Trpbs vpas. In the phrase 6 KOO-/AO? 
ovroy there is however a suggestion 
of opposition to the true order : see 
the note on i 21. Again, noo-pos is 
used of the whole world of men in 
contrast with the elect people of 
Israel, Rom. iv 13, xi 12, 15. The 
world, as in opposition to God, falls 
under the Divine judgment, Rom. iii 
6, 19, i Cor. xi 32 : the saints shall 
judge the world , i Cor. vi 2. Yet 
the world finds reconciliation with 
God in Christ, 2 Cor. v 19. In three 
passages St Paul uses the remarkable 
expression TO. o-roi^eia TOV KOOTAOU, of 
world-forces which held men in bond 
age until they were delivered by 
Christ, Gal. iv 3, Col. ii 8, 20. In 
the last of these passages the expres 
sion is followed by a phrase which is 
parallel to that of our text, rt cos 
a)vres ev KGcr/iO) doyp,aTi^o-6e; Limi 
tation to the world was the hopeless 
and godless lot of the Gentiles apart 
from Christ. 

13. fjMKpav...yyvs] These words, 
and elpTJvr) in the next verse, are from 
Isa. Ivii 19 : see below, v. 17. 

ev TO) at/urn] Compare Col. i 20 
elpr]voTroirj(Tas Sia TOV at/xaros TOV orav- 
pov avTov. 

14. avror] He, in His own person ; 
compare ev avVco, v. 1 5. 

TO. dfjicpoTepa ev\ Below we have 
TOVS 8vo...els eva av6p(O7rov (v. 15), and 
TOVS dp.(poTepovs (v. 1 6). Comp. i Cor. 

lil 8 6 (pVTeVQiV KOI O TTOTlfalt V fl(TlV . 

and, on the other hand, Gal. iii 28 
TrdvTes yap vp.fls fls eVrc ev Xpttrrw 
ITJO-OV. At first the Apostle is con 
tent to speak of Jew and Gentile as 
the two parts which are combined 
into one whole : in the sequel he 
prefers to regard them as two men, 

made by a fresh act of creation into 
one new man. 

TO /Lieo-oTot^oi/] The only parallel to 
this word appears to be o /*eo-oToi^oy 
in a passage of Eratosthenes (apud 
Athen. vii 14, p. 281 D), in which he 
says of Aristo the Stoic, ^ 8e TTOTC 

Kal TOVTOV 7re(pcopaK.a TOV TTJS ^dovrjs 
Kal dpfTTJs p,eo~OTOi^ov StopuTToj^ra, KOI 
dva<f)aiv6[j.vov Trapa Trj ydovfj. 

TOV (ppayiJiov] * the fence , or the 
partition*. The allusion is to the 
8pv(paKTos or balustrade in the Temple, 
which marked the limit to which a 
Gentile might advance. Compare 
Joseph. B. J. V 5 2 8ia TOVTOV ?rpoi- 
OVTUV eirl TO SevTepov lepbv 8pv(paKTOs 
TrepiftefSXrjTO Xiflivos, Tpirrrj^vs fiev vyjfos, 
rravv de %apievT(i)s dieipyao~fievos ev 
avTto de eio-Trjieeo-av e io~ov diao-TrjpaTos 
o~rij\ai TOV TTJS dyveias 7rpoo r)iJ.aivovo~ai 
) at pev lEXXijviKols al Se Peo/zaiKOts 
/, nrjdeva d\\6(pv\ov CVTOS TOV 
dyiov irapievaf TO yap devTepov lepbv 
ayiov eKaXeiTo. One of these inscrip 
tions was discovered by M. Clermont 
Ganneau in May 1871. Owing to the 
troubles in Paris lie announced his 
discovery in a letter to the Athe 
naeum, and afterwards published a 
full discussion, accompanied by a fac 
simile, in the Revue ArcJitologique 
1872, vol. xxiii pp. 214 ff., 290 f 
The inscription, which is now at Con 
stantinople, runs as follows : 








Further references to this barrier 
are found in Joseph. Antt. xv n 5 
(epKiov \i6ivov dpvfpaKTov ypa<j>fj KO>- 

II i 5 , i6] 



(ppajjuiov Ai/cras, I5 rr}v 


crapKi avTOv, TOV 



duo KTicrri ev avTw e2s eva KCLIVOV dvOpcoTrov TTOLCOV eiprj- 

y TOVS djUi<poTepovs ev evi 

l6 Kai 

Xvov elo~ivai TOV d\\oe6vr) 
direi\ovp.fvr)s TTJS r)[j,ias), B. J. vi 2 4 : 
comp. Philo Leg. ad Caium 3 1 (M. ir 
577). Past this barrier it was sup 
posed that St Paul had brought 
Trophimus the Ephesian (ov evo 
OTI ets ro lepbv eio-qyayev 6 
Acts xxi 29. 

Xucray] In the literal sense 
is more common : but we have the 
simple verb in John ii 19 Xvo-are TOV 
vaov TOUTOV. 

15. rrjv e%6pav\ If these words be 
taken with \vo-as, a metaphorical sense 
must be attributed to the participle, as 
well as the literal. This in itself is 
an objection, though not a fatal one, 
to such a construction. It is in any 
case simpler to take TTJV e%6pav with 
KOTapyijo-as, although that verb is 
chosen by an afterthought as speci 
ally applicable to TOV vopov K.T.\. The 
sense remains the same whichever 
construction is adopted. The barrier 
in the Temple court, the hostility 
between Jew and Gentile, and the 
law of commandments (limited as 
the term is by the defining phrase ei> 
doy/jiao-iv) are parallel descriptions of 
the separation which was done away 
in Christ. 

It has been suggested that TT/V 
fxQp av *v TJy (rapid OVTOV is closely 
parallel to airoKTfivas TT/V e^dpav ev 
at (sic} in v. 16; and that the 
Apostle had intended to write 
dnoKreivas in the former place, but 
was led away into an explanatory 
digression, and took up his phrase 
later on by a repetition. This may 
be a true explanation, so far as the 
intention of the writer is concerned : 
but as a matter of fact he has left TJ)I/ 
^ its earlier mention to be 


governed by one of the other parti 
ciples, presumably by /carapy^Vay. 

fv TTJ trap/a avrou] Compare Col. 
1 21, 22 vuvl de dTTOKaTT)\\dyr]T ev r<3 
CTtf/iori TTJS (rapKOS avrov 8ta TOV Bava- 

TOV v6fj.ov] In Rom. iii 31 the 
Apostle refuses to use KaTapyeiv of 
TOV i/ofioj/, although he is willing to say 

KaTJjpyijdrjfjiev drro TOV VOJJLOV in Rom. 
vii 6. Here however he twice limits 
TOV vopov, and then employs the word 
Ka.Tapyrjo~as. It is as a code of mani 
fold precepts, expressed in definite 
ordinances, that he declares it to have 
been annulled. 

ev 86y/] The word is used of 
imperial decrees, Luke ii i, Acts xvii 
7 ; and of the ordinances decreed by 
the Apostles and Elders in Jerusalem, 
Acts xvi 4. Its use here is parallel 

to that in Col. ii 14, e aAen//-ay ro Kati* 
f\\iwv ^eipoypcKpov roTs . See 

Lightfoot s note on the meaning of 
the word, and on the strange mis 
interpretation of the Greek commen 
tators, who took it in both passages 
of the * doctrines or precepts of the 
Gospel by which the law was abro 
gated. Comp. also Col. ii 20 (8oy- 

imtrp] Compare v. 10 KTicrOevTes ev 
XptoroS iT/crou, and IV 24 TOV KOIVOV 
avdp&irov TOV KOTO. 6eov K-TiuBivra. 

ev avT<u\ l in Himself . The earlier 
MSS have AYTCO, the later for the 
most part <\YTCO. Whether we write 
avro) or avr<u, the sense is undoubtedly 
reflexive. See Lightfoot s note on 
Col. i 20. 

1 6. aTroKaraXXa^j;] On the double 
compound see Lightfoot s note on 
CoL i 20. 

1 1 



[II 1719 

Qeat %ia TOV (TTavpov, ctTTOKTeivas Trjv e^Gpav ev 
17 /cca e\6d)V eyHrreAic 

M A K p A N K A I eipH NHN TO?C f T Y C * 8 OTL 

juev Trjv Trpocraywyriv ol djuKpoTepoi ev evl Trvev/maTL Trpos 
TOV TraTepa. * 9 apa ovv OVKCTL ecrre evoL Kai TrapoiKOi, 

e i p H N H N VJMV T o ? c 

* 8 aVTOV 

ev avTa] This may be rendered 
either thereby , i.e. by the cross, or 
in Himself. The latter is the inter 
pretation of the Latin, * in semetipso . 
Jerome, who is probably following an 
interpretation of Origen s, says (Val- 
lars. vii 581): In ea\ non ut in 
Latinis codicibus habetur in semet 
ipso, propter Graeci pronominis am- 
biguitatem : ev aural enim et in 
semetipso et in ea, id est cruce, 
intelligi potest, quia crux, id est 
trravpos, iuxta Graecos generis mas- 
culini est . 

The interpretation thereby would 
be impossible if, as some suppose, 8ia 
TOV o-Tavpov is to be taken with airo- 
KTeivas : but that this is not the 
natural construction is shewn by the 
parallel in Col. i 22 wvl de diroKaTaX- 

\dyr)T e...dia TOV 6avdrov [avrov], COmp. 

Col. i 20. Either interpretation is 
accordingly admissible. In favour of 
the second may be urged the avros of 
v. 14 and the ev avroi of v. 15. On 
the suggested parallel with ev rfj 
o-opjct avroC see the note on v. 15. 

17. evrjyyeXla-aTO K.r.X.] TheApOStle 

illustrates and enforces his argument 
by selecting words from two prophetic 
passages, to one of which he has 
already alluded in passing : Isa. lii 7, 
cos o>pa eVi rcoi/ 6pO>v t <as nodes evay- 
ye\i^0fj.vov anorjv elptfvrjs, cos evayyeXi- 
6p.vos ayaQa: Ivii 19, elprjvr)V eir 
etprjvrjv roty /za/cpai/ Kal rols eyyvs 

OIXTLV. The first of these is quoted 
(somewhat differently) in Rom. x 15, 
and alluded to again in this epistle, 
vi 15. The second is alluded to by 
St Peter on the day of Pentecost, 
Acts ii 39. 

1 8. rr)v irpoo-ayvyrjv] our access : 

SO in Rom. V 2, & ov <al rrjv npoa-a- 
yo>yf]v ccrxipeapey [r^ Trio-ret] els rr)V 
Xaptv ravrrjv : and, absolutely, in Eph. 

ill 12 ev o) e^ofiev rrjv Trapprjcriav KOL 
Trpo<raya>yr)v ev iriroi6r)(ri. The last 

passage is decisive against the alter 
native rendering introduction , not 
withstanding the parallel in i Pet. iii 

1 8 iva v/zas IT poo-ay dyrj rto 6ea>. 

ev evl irvevfiaTi] The close paral 
lelism between TOVS dutyorepovs ev ev\ 
0-cofj.aTi ro) 6eco (v. 1 6) and 01 a/ 
ev evl TTvevfiaTi rrpos TOV Trarepa 
that the ev irvevpa is that which cor 
responds to the ev o-cG/ia, as in iv 4. 
That the one spirit is ultimately 
indistinguishable from the personal 
Holy Spirit is true, just in the same 
way that the one body is indistin 
guishable from the Body of Christ : 
but we could not in either case sub 
stitute one term for the other with 
out obscuring the Apostle s meaning. 

19 22. You are, then, no longer 
foreigners resident on sufferance only. 
You are full citizens of the sacred 
commonwealth : you are God s own, 
the sons of His house. Nay, you are 
constituent parts of the house that is 
in building, of which Christ s apostles 
and prophets are the foundation, and 
Himself the predicted corner-stone. 
In Him all that is builded is fitted 
and morticed into unity, and is grow 
ing into a holy temple in the Lord. 
In Him you too are being builded in 
with us, to form a dwellingplace of 
God in the Spirit . 

19. irdpoiKoi] The technical distinc 
tion between the gevos and the ndpoi- 
KOS is that the latter has acquired by 
the payment of a tax certain limited 
rights. But both alike are non-citi- 



II 20] 

aAAa a*T orvv7ro\iTai Ttav dyiwv Kai oiKeioi TOV ueov, 
^67roLKoSo]ULrj6evTe^ ejrc TW OejULeXio) TU>V aTrocrroAft)!/ Kai 
7rpo<pr]Tcov, oVros aKpoytoviaiov avTOV XpiarTOv Irjcrov, 

zens, which is St Paul s point here. 
So the Christians themselves, in 
relation to the world, are spoken of in 
i Pet ii n, from Ps. xxxviii (xxxix) 

13, as TrdpoiKOt Kai 7rape7ridrjp.oi . and 

this language was widely adopted, 
see Lightfoot on Clem. Rom. pref. For 
irdpoiKos and its equivalent P.CTOIKOS 
see E. L. Hicks in Class. Rev. i $, 
Deissmann Neue Bibelst. pp. 54 f. 

o-vvTroXlrai] The word was objected 
to by the Atticists : comp. Pollux iii 
Jlo yap o~v[j.Tro\iTT)s ov SoKi/iov, ei Kai 
Evpnridrjs aura> Ke^prjrai eV Hpa/cXet- 

8ais Tf Kai e^o-ei (Heracleid. 826, in 
the speech of the fapcnruv). It is 
found in Josephus (Antt. xix 2 2), 
and in inscriptions and papyri (Berl. 
Pap. ii 632, 9, 2nd cent. A.D.). 

TCBI/ ayiW] See the note on i i. 
The thought here is specially, if not 
exclusively, of the holy People whose 
privileges they have come to share. 

oiKeloi] OIKC IOS is the formal oppo 
site of dXXorpios : one s own in con 
trast to another s : comp. Arist. Rhet. 

157 TOV o~e oiKfia flvai rj fir) (opos 
<TTIV), orav e<p aur<5 77 aTraXXorptcocrai. 

The word has various meanings, all 
derived from olicos in the sense of 
household or family . When used 
of persons it means of one s family , 
strictly of kinsmen, sometimes loose 
ly of familiar friends : then more 
generally devoted to , or even * ac 
quainted with , e.g. (ptXoo-ocpi a?. In 
St Paul the word has a strong sense : 
see Gal. vi 10 /xaXio-ra Se irpos TOVS 
oiKiovs rfjs 7ri <rrea>s, and I Tim. V 8 
rutv Iditov Kai /noXiora oiKfiwv (comp. 
V. 4 TOV tdiov OLKOV evcreftflv}. 

2O. eTrotKodop.rjdevTfs l The word ot- 
KOS underlying oiVetoi at once suggests 
to the Apostle one of his favourite 
metaphors. From the oucos, playing 
on its double meaning, he passes to 

the oixoftopif. Apart from this sug 
gestion the abruptness of the intro 
duction of the metaphor, which is 
considerably elaborated, would be 
very strange. 

eVi r< $e/zeX/<] This corresponds 
with the 677i of the verb, which itself 
signifies to build upon : compare 

I Cor. iii 10 ok <ro(pos a 
6ep.\iov edrjKttj aXXoy de er 
In that passage Jesus Christ is said 
to be the 6ep,e\ios. Here the meta 
phor is differently handled; and the 
Christian teachers are not the build 
ers, but themselves the foundation of 
the building. 

irpocpTjTvv ] that is, prophets of the 
Christian Church. There can be no 
doubt that this is the Apostle s mean 
ing. Not only does the order apostles 
and prophets point in this direction ; 
but a few verses lower down (iii 5) the 
phrase is repeated, and in iv n we 
have TOVS fiev aVooroXovs, TOVS Se 
7rpo(pr;ray, TOVS dc evayyeXioraff, K.r.X., 

where Old Testament prophets are 
obviously out of the question. That 
Origen and Chrysostom suppose that 
the latter are here intended is a proof 
of the oblivion into which the activity 
of the prophets in the early Church 
had already fallen. 

aKpoytoviaiov] The word is taken 
from the LXX of Isa. xxviii 16, where 
it comes in connexion with $e/zeXio. 
The Hebrew of this passage is "ID* 

"IDID mp> ruQ jra px p tvvi 

IDID. I lay as a foundation in Sion 
a stone, a stone of proof, a precious 
corner stone of a founded foundation . 
The LXX rendering is Ifiov e yco ep.- 

/SaXXto els TO. fleplXia Scicov \i6ov 


els TO. $e/ie Xta avTrjs. It is plain that 
a/cpoy&watoi/ corresponds to H3E5, 
whether we regard it as masculine 

II 2 



[II 21 



j <ruvapfjLO\oyovfjLevri av^ei et? vaov 

(sc. \i6ov), or as a neuter substantive ; 
see Hort s note on I Pet. ii 6, where 
the passage is quoted. In Job 
xxxviii 6 \l6os yuvialos stands for 
nJB pfct : in Jer. xxviii (li) 26 \i6os 
fls yuviav for HJD? ptf : and in Ps. 
cxvii (cxviii) 22 els Ke(pa\r)v ycovias for 
ilJB Wb. In the last of these places 
Symmachus had aKpoywiaios, as he 
had also for mnD, * chapiter , in 
2 Kings xxv 17. In Ps. cxliii (cxliv) 
12 Aquila had cos eiriywvia for JVITD, 
as corners or corner-stones . 

A/cpoyomaZof is not found again 
apart from allusions . to the biblical 
passages. The Attic word is yuviaios, 
which is found in a series of inscrip 
tions containing contracts for stones 
for the temple buildings at Eleusis 

(CIA iv 1054 b ff.) : e.g. <al eVe pous 
(Xt#ovy) ywviaiovs e 7roS[c5i/] 7r[ai/ra- 
XeZ] &vo (10540, 1. 83): also, in an 
Order for TO. entKpava TWV AUDI/COP TU>V 
els TO irpoo-Tcoov TO EXevcrm, it is 
stipulated that 1 2 are to be of certain 
dimensions, TO. 8e ycoviaia dvo are to 
be of the same height, but of greater 
length and breadth (comp. Herm. 
Sim. ix 2 3 KV*Acp de TTJS nvXrjs ecrri;- 
Kfio-av irapQfvoi ScoSefca* at ovv ft at fls 
ras ytovlas eo-TrjKvlai evdooTfpai /not 
cdoKovv flvai : they are spoken of in 
15. I as Icrxvporepai). In Dion. Hal. 
iii 22 the Pila Horatio, in the Forum 
is spoken of as ?) yaviaia orvXis- 
But, of course, in none of these in 
stances have we the corner-stone 
proper, which is an Eastern concep 
tion. That even for a late Christian 
writer yuviaios was the more natural 
word may be gathered from a com 
ment of Theodore of Heraclea (Cor- 
derius in Psalm, cxvii 22, p. 345), 
Kara TOP yutvialov \i6ov TO eKarepov 

The earlier Latin rendering was 
1 angularis lapis (d^g z Ambrst., and 
so Jerome in some places) : the later, 
s-ummus angularis lapis\ which 
has been followed in the A.V. ( chief 

corner-stone ) both here and in 
i Pet. ii 6; though in Isa. xxviii 16 we 
liave corner stone\ Neither the 
Hebrew nor the Greek affords any 
justification for the rendering chief 
corner-stone . A/tpoycoi/talos stands to 

ya)vialos as eV aicpas ycovias stands to 

eVl ya>vias i the first part of the com 
pound merely heightens the second. 

21. iracra oiKodop.^] all (the] build- 
ing\not each several building . The 
difficulty which is presented by the 
absence of the article (see the note 
on various readings) is removed when 
we bear in mind that St Paul is 
speaking not of the building as com 
pleted, i.e. the edifice , but of the 
building as still growing towards 
completion. The whole edifice could 
not be said to grow : but such an 
expression is legitimate enough if 
used of the work in process. This is 
the proper sense of oiKodo/x^ , which is 
in its earlier usage an abstract noun, 
but like other abstract nouns has a 
tendency to become concrete, and is 
sometimes found, as here, in a kind 
of transitional sense. Our own word 
building has just the same range of 
meaning : and we might almost 
render iracra olKodo/j,^ as all building 
that is carried on . 

The word is condemned by Phry- 
nichus (Lobeck, p. 421 ; comp. pp. 
487 ff.) as non- Attic : 
Ae yerar avr avTov e 
The second part of this judgment 
proves that by the middle of the 
second century A.D. OIKOO/AJ/ was 
familiar in a concrete sense. The 
earliest instances of its use are how 
ever abstract In the Tabulae Heracl. 
(CIS I 645, i 146) we have Se TO. 

fTTOlKld Xpl]O OVTai l>\OlS S TOV OLKO- 

dop.av. A Laconian proverb quoted 
by Suidas (s. v. "imros) ran : Ot/coSo/xa 
ae AajSoc, K.r.A., May you take to 
building as one of the wasteful 
luxuries. In Aristot. Eth. Nic. v 14 
(p. 1137 b, 30) we have : ucnrep Kai TTJS 

II 21] 

Aetr/Sias olKo8ofj.fjS 6 p.oh.ifio ivos 
where the variant ofcodo/ita? gives 
the sense, and witnesses to the rarity 
of, which is not elsewhere 
found in Aristotle. The concrete 
sense seems to appear first in passages 
where the plural is used, though even 
in some of these the meaning is 
rather * building-operations than 
edifices 7 (e.g. Plut. Lucull. 39 

otKodo/uu TToXuTeXeiy). In the LXX the 

word occurs 17 times. With one or 
two possible exceptions, where the 
text is uncertain or the sense obscure, 
it never means an edifice , but 
always the operation of building. 

In St Paul s epistles oiVodo/*^ occurs 
eleven times (apart from the present 
epistle). Nine times it is used in the 
abstract sense of edification , a 
meaning which Lightfoot thinks owes 
its origin to the Apostle s metaphor 
of the building of the Church (Notes 
on Epp. p. 191). The two remaining 
passages give a sense which is either 
abstract or transitional, but not 
strictly concrete. In i Cor. iii 9 the 

words 6eov yeapyiov, 6eov ot/codo/x?/ 
eVre form the point of passage from 
the metaphor from agriculture to the 
metaphor from architecture. It can 
hardly be questioned that y^pyiov 
here means husbandry , and not a 
field (comp. Ecclus. xxvii 6 yfvpytov 
t Aov K(paivi 6 KapTTov avrov} . 
similarly olKo8o/j.r/ is not the house as 
built, but the building regarded as in 
process : we might almost say God s 
architecture or God s structure . 
The Latin rendering is clearly right : 
del agricultura^ del aedificatio estis. 
The language of the other passage, 
2 Cor. v i, is remarkable: 



not an edifice coming from God , 
but a building proceeding from God 
as builder . The sense of operation 
is strongly felt in the word : the 
result of the operation is afterwards 

expressed by oliciav d^fipoTroir/rov, 
In the present epistle the word comes 
again three times (iv 12, 16, 29), each 

time in the abstract sense. Apart 
from St Paul it is found in the New 
Testament only in Mark xiii i, 2 
(Matt, xxiv i), where we have the 
plural, of the buildings of the temple 
(icpov). This is the only certain 
instance of the concrete sense (of 
finished buildings) to be found in 
biblical Greek. 

In the elaborate metaphor of 
Ignatius, Ephes. 9, we have the 
abstract use in 7rporjToifjLa.o~p.evot els 
olKo8oiJ.Tjv 6eov Trarposj prepared 
aforetime for God to build with . So 
too in Hennas, again and again, of 
the building of the Tower ( Vis. iii 2, 
etc.) ; but the plural is concrete in 
Sim. i i. In Barn. Ep, xvi I the 
word is perhaps concrete, of the 
fabric of the temple as contrasted 
with God the builder of a spiritual 

temple {els TTJV oiKoo~op,T)v r)\7rio~av}. 

The Latin rendering is - omnis 
aedificatio 1 (or omnis structura* 
Ambrst.), not * omne aedificium . 
The Greek commentators, who for 
the most part read rrao-a olKodopij, have 
no conception that a plurality of 
edifices was intended. They do in 
deed suggest that Jew and Gentile 
are portions of the building which are 
linked together (els piav oi/toSo/^i/) by 
Christ the corner-stone. If, however, 
the Apostle had meant to convey this 
idea, he would certainly not have 
said Tracra oiKo8op.Tj in the sense of 

Tracrai at otKoSojiuu, but possibly dp.<p6- 

repat ai otKodo/uu , or something of the 

The nearest representation in Eng 
lish would perhaps be all that is 
builded , i.e. whatever building is 
being done. But this is practically 
the same as -all the building , which 
may accordingly be retained, though 
the words have the disadvantage of 
being ambiguous if they are severed 
from their context. If we allow our 
selves a like freedom with St Paul in 
the interweaving of his two metaphors, 
we may construct an analogous 
sentence thus : Iv o> 7rao~a avrjo~is 


ayiov ev 




TOV 6eov ev 

KO.L v fuels crwot/coSo//e?<T0 


0-vvapnoXoyovp.evr] oiKoSo/xerrat els trcS/na 
TfXfiov (v Kvpito : this would be 
fairly rendered as in whom all the 
growth is builded , etc. ; nor should 
we expect in such a case naa-a r} 


<rvvapij,o\oyovfjivr)] This compound 
is not found again apart from St Paul. 
In iv 1 6 he applies it to the structure 
of the body. There is some authority 
in other writers for ap/zoXoy/. For 
the meaning see the detached note. 

au] Compare Col. ii 19 avgfi 
TT/V avr)o-iv rov 6eov. Both avo> and 
avgavu are Attic forms of the present. 
The intransitive use of the active is 
not found before Aristotle. It pre 
vails in the New Testament, though 
we have the transitive use in I Cor. 
iii 6 f., 2 Cor. ix 10. 

22. KaroiKTjTripiov] In the New 

Testament this word comes again 
only in Apoc. xviii 2 
baqtovunt (comp. Jer. ix 1 1 els 
Trjpiov SpaKovruv). It is found in the 
LXX, together with Karoi/a a, KaToiKrjo-is 
and KaroiKecri a, for a habitation of any 
sort : but in a considerable group of 
passages it is used of the Divine 
dwelling-place, whether that is con 
ceived of as on earth or in heaven. 

Thus the phrase eroi/nof KaroiKrjT^ptov 

a-ov comes in Exod. xv 17, and three 
times in Solomon s prayer (i Kings 
viii, 2 Chron. vi) : comp Ps. xxxii 
(xxxiii) 14. These Old Testament 
associations fitted it to stand as the 
climax of the present passage. 

ev TrvevfjMTi\ The Gentiles are builded 
along with the Jews to form a dwell 
ing-place for God l in (the) Spirit*. 
This stands in contrast with their 
separation one from the other l in 
(the) flesh , on which stress is laid at 
the outset of this passage, v. n ra 
e&VT) ev trapK.L..Tris Xeyo/jLtvrjs 
ev (rap/a. 

TIavXos 6 


III. i 7. * All this impels me 
afresh to pray for you. And who am I, 
that I should so pray? Paul, the 
prisoner of the Christ, His prisoner 
for you you Gentiles. You must 
have heard of my peculiar task, of the 
dispensation of that grace of God 
which has been given me to bring to 
you. The Secret has been disclosed 
to me by the great Revealer. I have 
already said something of it enough 
to let you see that I have knowledge 
of the Secret of the Christ. Of old 
men knew it not : now it has been 
unveiled to the apostles and prophets 
of the holy people. The Spirit has 
revealed to their spirit the new ex 
tension of privilege. The Gentiles are 
co-heirs, concorporate, co-partakers of 
the Promise. This new position has 
become theirs in Christ Jesus through 
the Gospel which I was appointed to 
serve, in accordance with the gift of 
that grace, of which I have spoken, 
which has been given to me in all the 
fulness of God s power. 

i. TOVTOV xapw] The actual phrase 
occurs again only in v. 14, where it 
marks the resumption of this sentence, 
and in Tit. i 5. We have ov x^P lv m 
Luke vii 47, and x^P lv T LVOS m I John 
iii 12. In the Old Testament we 
find TOVTOV (yap) x^P iV ^ n Prov. 
xvii 17, i Mace, xii 45, xiii 4. 

eya> IlaCXos] For the emphatic 
introduction of the personal name 
compare i Thess. ii 18, 2 Cor. x i, 
Col. 123; and especially Gal. v 2. In 
the first three instances other names 
have been joined with St Paul s in 
the opening salutation of the epistle : 
but this is not the case in the Epistle 
to the Galatians or in the present 

6 deo-pios TOV Xpto-Tov iTjcroC] In 

Philem. i and 9 we have Seo-pios 
XpirrroC l^oroG, and in 2 Tim. i 8 TOV 

Ill 24] 



v Irjcrov vTrep v 

TY\V oiKOVofJiLav 

avrov (sc. TOV Kvpiov 
Below, in iv i, the expression is 
different, e y< o 3eo*/uo$ eV Kvpia. 
VTrep> T<BI> e6va>v\ So ill ii II, 

vpeis TO. c0vT). The expression is 
intentionally emphatic. His cham 
pionship of the equal position of the 
Gentiles was the true cause of his 
imprisonment. Compare v. 13 eV 
rais ffXtyecriv /AOV vircp v/i<5i>, fjris O~T\V 

TWV ei/wi/, ei ye 

TOV 6eov Trjs Sodetcrris JJLOL 

^uas, oTi Ka-ra aTTOKcXv^Lv eyvap urOr} JULOL TO 
Vi KaBcos TTpoeypa^a ev oXiyw, 4 7Tpos o Si 

Gal. ii 2, and the more striking 
parallel in Rom. xvi 25 Kara 

Xv^iv /^voTTjpiov K.r.X. 

is the natural correlative of /uvo-rr/ptov, 
on which see the detached note. 

fyvo>pio-0r]~\ Compare vv. 5, 10. The 
word comes, in connexion with TO 
pvo-TJpiov, in Rom. xvi 26, Eph. i 9, 
vi 19, CoL i 27. 

Trpoe ypa^a] This is the epistolary 
aorist , which in English is repre 
sented by the perfect. For the 
temporal force of the preposition in 
this verb, compare Rom. xv 4 6Va 
yap 7rpoeypa07/. Here, however, the 
meaning is scarcely more than that of 
eypa^a : I have written already 
(not aforetime ). The technical 
sense of 7rpoypa0eti/ found in Gal. iii i 
does not seem suitable to this context. 

fv oXiyoj] in a few words : more 
exactly, in brief compass , or, as we 
say, in brief. The only other New 
Testament passage in which the 
phrase occurs is Acts xxvi 28 f. The 
phrase is perhaps most frequently 
used of time ; as in Wisd. iv 13 

TeXeio>$et? ev oX/yo) eVX^pcoo e xpovovs 

paKpovs. Aristotle, however, Rhet. 
iii ii (p. 14126, 20), in discussing 
pithy sayings, says that their virtue 
consists in brevity and antithesis, and 
adds 77 padija-is 8ia p.v TO dvTiKflcrdai 
fj.aX\ov, 8ia df TO ev oXi yo) darrov 
ylvfTai. A useful illustration is cited 
by "Wetstein from Eustathius in II. 

ii, p. 339, 1 8, OVTOO p-CV 77 OfJLTJplKT) fV 

oXiyo) 8iao~co~d<pr)Tai tOTopta TO, & 
/cara /te pos avTijs roiavTa. 

4. TTpo? o] that is, looking to 
which , having regard whereunto ; 
and so judging whereby : but the 
expression is unu sual. The force of the 
preposition receives some illustration 
from 2 Cor. V IO Iva KOfucnjTat eKacrrosr 

2. e i ye rjKovo-are] The practical 
effect of this clause is to throw new 
emphasis on the words immediately 
preceding. It is on your behalf 
(vTrep VIJLWV) that I am a prisoner as 
you must know, if indeed you have 
heard of my special mission to you 
(ets- vfiasY. We have a close parallel 
in iv 21 ei ye avrov iJKov<raTe K.r.X. 
The Apostle s language does not 
imply a doubt as to whether they had 
heard of his mission : it does imply 
that some at least among them had 
only heard, and had no personal 
acquaintance with himself. 

oiKovopiav] See the note on i 10 ; 
and compare rjolKovo/j-iaTov /xvcrr^piov, 
below in v. 9. In Col. i 25 we have 

/caret rrjv oiKoi/ofuai/ TOV $eov T^V 8o#ei- 
aav p.oi fls vfias, TrXr/pcoa-at TOV \6yov 

TOV 0(OV, TO fJ.V<TTTIplOV AC.T.A. In all 

these passages God is o ol<ovopa)v : so 
that they are not parallel to i Cor. 

IX 17 olK.ovofj.iav TreTTicrrev/xat, where 

the Apostle himself is the ol<ovop.os 
(comp. i Cor. iv i, 2). 

XapiTos] For the use of this word 
in connexion with St Paul s mission 
to the Gentiles, and in particular for 
the combination ) x^P ls *7 Sodelo-d p.oi 
(i Cor. iii 10, Gal. ii 9, Rom. xii 3, 
xv 1 5, Eph. iii 7), see the detached note 
on x^P iS - 

3. Kara a7ro/<aXv\^ii/] Compare 


dvayivcocTKovTes vofjcrai TY\V crvvecriv JJLOV ev TW 


wots T(JOV 




vvv d7T6Ka\u(p6r] TO?S dyiois 

S 6V TTVeVfJiaTl, 6 6lVCCl 

TO. 8ia TOV 0-CO/iOTOff TTpOS O. C 

Ac.r.A. The participle dvayivao-KovTfs 
seems to be thrown in epexegetically. 
Judging by what he has already 
written, they can, as they read, per 
ceive that he has a true grasp of 
the Divine purpose, and accordingly, 
as he hints, a true claim to inter 
pret it. 

The Latin rendering prout potestis 
legentes intelligere , i.e. so far as ye 
are able... to understand , has much 
in its favour. This is also the inter 
pretation of most, if not all, of the 
Greek commentators: o-vvefj-erp^o-aro 

TTJV $i8a(TKaXiav TTpbs OTTfp \<opovv 

(Severian, eaten, ad loc.}. But it 
makes avayivaxTKovres somewhat more 
difficult, unless we press it to mean 
by reading only . 

The suggestion that dvayivnaa-Kovres 
may refer to the reading of the pro 
phetic parts of the Old Testament in 
the light of (Trpos o) what the Apostle 
has written (Hort, Romans and 
Ephesians, pp. isof.) is beset with 
difficulties : for (i) where dvayivu- 
o~<iv is used of the Old Testament 
scriptures, the reference is made clear 
by the context, and not left to be 
gathered from the word itself ; i Tim. 

iv. 1 3 Trpoo-e^e rrj dvayvojo-ei cannot be 

proved to refer solely to the public 
reading of the Old Testament : (2) 
the same verb is quite naturally used 
of the reading of Apostolic writings, 
Acts xv 31, i Thess. v 27, Col. iv 16, 
Apoc. i 3 : (3) the close proximity of 
Trpotypa^a suggests that what they 
are spoken of as reading is what he 
has written : (4) in the whole context 
Old Testament revelation falls for the 
moment out of sight (see especially 
v. 5), and the newness of the message 
is insisted on. 


parallel is found in i (3) Esdr. i 3 1 rfjs 
trvvcffeo): avrov fv ra> j/o/j,&> Kvpiou. 
In the LXX a-vvUvai Iv is a frequent 
construction: but it is a mere repro 
duction of a Hebrew idiom, and we 
need not look to it for the explana 
tion of our present phrase. For the 
omission of the article before ev TO> 
/ivo-r^pto), see the note on i 15. 

5. cTfpais yevfals] in other gene 
rations , the dative of time; compare 
Rom. xvi 25 xpovots alwviois. Fei/ea 
is used as a subdivision of attoV, and 
the two words are sometimes brought 
into combination for the sake of 
emphasis, as in iii 21 and CoL i 26. 
The rendering * to other generations 
is excluded by the 
is followed by roTy viols TG>V d 

rots viols ru>v dvdpaiT(Dv] It is 
remarkable that this well-known He 
braism, frequent in the LXX, occurs 
again but once in the New Testament, 
viz. in Mark iii 28 (in Matt, xii 31 
this becomes simply rols di>dpa>7rois ). 
The special and restricted use of the 
phrase o vios TOV dv6pu>7rov may 
account for the general avoidance of 
the idiom, which however is regularly 
recalled by the Syriac versions in 
their rendering of avdponroi (Matt, 
v. ig, et passim}. 

Tols dyiois dirocrroXois K.r.A.] In 

the parallel passage, Col. i 26, we 

have vvv de (f)avp(i)0r) Tols dyiois 
avTOV, ois i]6e\r)o-(V o 0eos yzxopurat, 

K.r.X. The difference is in part at 
least accounted for by the prominent 
mention of apostles and prophets in 
the immediately preceding section 
(ii 20). 

(v 7rvvfj.aTi] See ii 22, v 18 and vi 
1 8, and the notes in these places. 

Ill 7-9] 



TO. eBvrj crvvK\ripovofJLa Kai crvvcrw/uLa KO.I 

a? ev XpLCTTco Irjcrov $id TOV evayyeXiov, 7 ov 
SictKOVos KCLTCL TV\V Stopedv Trjs %dpiTO$ TOV 
6eov Trjs Sodeicrtis (JLOI, Kcrra Trjv evep^eiav Trjs 
avTOv ^ejJLol TW e\a^i(TTOTepto TTOLVT^V 
r\ xdpis avTri TO?S edvecriv evay f y6\i<raa 6ai TO 



9. 0arricrat] + Trayras. 

6. o~vvK\r)pov6fjLa K.T.X.] Of tho 
three compounds two are rare (awKXr]- 
povopos, Rom. viii 17, Heb. xi. 9, i 
Pet. iii 7, Philo : o-wneroxos, v. 7, 
Aristotle and Josephus). The third 
(o-iWw/ios) was perhaps formed by 
St Paul for this occasion. Aristotle s 
(rvfo-co/iaroTroteli/, if it implied an adjec 
tive at all, would imply o-vixroo/zaro? 
(but it is probably a compound of 
o-vv and cre0/iaro7rote>). In later Greek 
a<Toofj.os, evcra>fjLos are found side by side 

with ao co/zaros, eVcrayiaros. 

7. cyevijdrjv Sia/toi/oy] Compare 

Col. i 23, 25, where however we have 
eyevo^Tjv, which is read by some MSS 
here. The two forms of the aorist 
are interchangeable in the LXX and 
in the New Testament, as in the later 
Greek writers generally. 

As the ministration spoken of in 
each of these passages is that special 
ministration to the Gentiles which 
was committed to St Paul, and as the 
article is naturally omitted with the 
predicate, we may fairly render : 
whereof I was made minister (or 
even the minister }. But it is not 
necessary to depart from the familiar 
rendering a minister . 

xapiTos...cvepyiav] See the notes 
on v. 2 and i 19 respectively. 

8 13. Yes, to me this grace has 
been given to me, the meanest 
member of the holy people that I 
should be the one to bring to the 
Gentiles the tidings of the inexplor- 
able wealth of the Christ : that I 
should publish the plan of God s 

eternal working, the Secret of the 
Creator of the universe : that not 
man only, but all the potencies of the 
unseen world might learn through the 
Church new lessons of the very varied 
wisdom of God learn that one pur 
pose runs through the ages of eter 
nity, a purpose which God has 
formed in the Christ, even in Jesus 
our Lord, in whom we have our bold 
access to God. So lose not heart, I 
pray you, because I suffer in so great 
a cause. My pain is your glory . 

8. eXa^toTore poj] Wetstein ad loc. 
has collected examples of heightened 
forms of the comparative and super 
lative. The most recent list is that 
of Jannaris, Historical Greek Gram 
mar, 506. For the most part they 
are doubled comparatives or doubled 
superlatives : but Jannaris cites 
fjLfyio-TOTepos from Gr. Pap. Br. Mus. 
134, 49 (cent, i n A.D.). 

rots Wvcviv evayycKiaavOai] The 

order of the words throws the 
emphasis on rols eQveo-iv. St Paul s 
Gospel (TO fvayyeKiov /iou, see especially 
Rom. xvi 25) is the Gospel of God s 
grace to the Gentiles. 

dvf^ixviao-Tov] Compare Rom. xi 33 

*Q fiados ir\ovTov...di>egixviacrToi al 

oSot OVTOV. The only parallels seem 
to be Job v 9, ix 10, xxxiv 24, where 
"ipn ftf is so rendered by the LXX, 
who in that book employ fyi/os for 


TrXovTos] Apart from i Tim. vi 17, 
no instance of TT\OVTOS in the sense of 
material wealth is to be found in St 




[Ill 10 


aitovcov ev TW veto TCO TO. TTCLVTCL KTicravTi, I0 u/a ryva)- 
picrOij vvv Ta?5 appals Kai TCUS e^ovcricus ev TO!? eVoi;- 
paviois $ia Trjs eKK\rjo~ias r\ 7ro\v7ro iKi\os <ro<pia TOV 

Paul s writings. On the other hand, TOV alovov KOI drro TOV yeveov : Rom. 
his figurative use of the word has no xvi 25 pvo-rripiov xP OVOLS aloviois 
parallel in the rest of the Greek Bible. o-eo-iyrjpevov : i Cor. ii 7 Beov o~o<piav 
Of fourteen instances of it, five occur ev /zvo-r^p/a), TTJV * 
in this epistle. In the uses of the 
derivates 7r\ovo~ios, 7r\ovo~i(o$, ?rXov- 
Tflv, n\ovTifiv, the same rule will be 
found to hold, though there are some 
interesting exceptions. 

9. (pa>Tio-ai TIS r) K.r.X.] * to bring 
to light what is the dispensation 1 . 
Compare Col. i 27 yva>pio-ai rl TO 
TT\OVTOS K.T.X., where the whole con 
text is parallel to the present passage. 
&a>Tieiv is a natural word for the 
public disclosure of what has been 
kept secret: see Polyb. xxx 8 i 
erreiTa 8e TOV ypafji/jiaTov eaXaxoTov KOI 
7re(pa)Tio~p.ev(0v . also SuidaS <fra)TLfiv 
atTiaTiKT]- els (pos ayeiv, eayyc\\eiv, 
followed by a quotation in which 
occur the words (pa>Tieiv TO KCITO. TTJV 
y vTo\r)v aTTopprjTov. Compare I Cor. 


and 2 Tim. i 10 (patTio-avTos d* farjv 
KOI d<p6apo-iav (with the context). 

There is considerable authority (see 
the note on various readings) for the 
addition of irdvra? after (poTta-ai. 
The construction thus gained is like 
that in Judg. xiii 8 (A text), <oma-ara> TL 7roiTJo-a> TOJ Traidapia (B has 
o-ui>/3i/3ao-areo). But the sense given to 
(poTio-ai to instruct instead of * to 
publish is less appropriate to the 
present context ; moreover the inser 
tion of Trdvras lessens the force of the 
emphatic rots eSvea-iv. The change was 
probably a grammatical one, due to 
the desire for an expressed accusative : 
John 1 9> TO (f)oo...o (DoTifei jravro, av~ 
dpoirov, is no true parallel, but it may 
have influenced the reading here. 

OTTO TOV alovov] Compare Col. i 26 

irpO(opio~fv o 6fo? Trpb TO>V alatvotv. The 

phrase OTTO r>v alavuv is the converse 
of the more frequent els TOVS almvas : 
comp. dif al&vos, Luke i 70, Acts 
iii 21, XV 1 8 ; CITTO TOV alo&vos KOL els 
TOV auova, Ps. xl (xli) 14, etc. The 
meaning is that from eternity until 
now the mystery has been hidden. 

KTio-avri] The addition in the later 
MSS of 8ia "Irjo-ov XpurTov points to a 
failure to understand the propriety of 
the simple mention of creation in this 
context. The true text hints that the 
purpose of God was involved in cre 
ation itself. 

10. iva yva>pio-6fj] Compare i 9 
yv(opio-as yfuv TO pwrrqptav, iii 3 
yv(0pio~drj /iot, 5 fTepats yfveals OVK 
yvo)piar6r], vi 19 ev irapprjo-tq yva>pio-fu 
TO HVO-TTJPIOV. The rejection of the 
gloss Trdvras (see on v. 9) leaves us the 
more free to take this clause closely 
with tjxoTio-ai : * to publish what from 
eternity has been hidden, in order 
that now what has hitherto been 
impossible of comprehension may be 
made known throughout the widest 

dpx<ut...tiravpaviois] See the notes 
on i 21, and the exposition pp. 20 f. 

dia TTJS eKK\r)o-ias] Compare ev 777 
KK\rjO~iq below, V. 21. 

TToXv-rroiKiXos] The word is found 
in Greek poetry in the literal sense of 
very- varied ; Eur. Jph. in Taur. 
1149, of robes; Eubulus ap. A then. 

XV 24, p. 679^? O~T(f)aVOV TToXvTToiKlXoV 

dvdfvv: also, figuratively, in the 
Orphic hymns vi II (reXerr? ), Ixi 4 
(Xoyos). In Iren. i iv i (Mass. p. 19) 
we have nddovs ... 7ro\vp.fpovs KU\ 

Ill 11] 


TUJV awvcov r\v 

ev TU> 

TToXvrroiKiXov vnapxovTos. An echo of 
the word is heard in i Pet. iv 10 
iroiKiXrjs \apcros deov. 

1 1. Kara irp60c<rtv] This expression 
occurs adverbially in Rom. viii 28 
rot? Kara irp66f(nv K\r)Tois ovcriv. It 
there signifies in accordance with 
deliberate purpose , on the part, that 
is, of Him who has called : the mean 
ing is made clear by the words which 
follow (on ovs Trpoeyvo) /c.r.X.) and 
by the subsequent phrase of ix n 

77 K.OT K\oyr]v 7rp60o-is TOV 6eov, the 

purpose of God which works by elec 
tion . 

In Aristotle npodco-is is a technical 
term for the setting out of the topic 
of a treatise or speech : thus we have 
the four divisions (RJiet. iii 13, p. 
14145, 8) Trpooipiov, irpodfo-is, Trurru, 
eViXoyor, * prelude, proposition, proof, 
peroration . In Polybius irpoQtvis is 
of frequent occurrence in the sense of 
a deliberate plan or scheme ; and this 
sense is found in 2 and 3 Maccabees; 
comp. Symm., Ps. ix 38 (x 17), in- 
terpr. al., Ps. cxlv (cxlvi) 4. In Polyb. 
xii ii 6 we have the actual adverbial 
phrase, of lying deliberately , Kara 
7rp6deo~iv rv/feuoyieVo). In no writer 
previous to St Paul does it appear to 
be used of the Divine purpose or plan. 

ra>v atooj/coi>] The addition of the 
defining genitive destroys only to a 
certain extent the adverbial character 
of the expression. The result is diffi 
cult to express in English : neither 
according to the purpose of the ages 
(which would strictly presuppose Kara 
TTJV irp66f<rtv T<0>v auoixai/), nor accord 
ing to a purpose of the ages , gives 
the exact shade of meaning, which is 
rather in accordance with deliberate 
purpose, and that purpose not new, 
but running through the whole of 
eternity . This construction is frequent 
in St Paul s writings. Thus we have 

KO.T fvepyeiav (iv 1 6) and nar evepyfiav 

TOV Sarai/a (2 Thess. ii 9), on which see 
below in the detached note on e 

Again, we have /car cirirayyv (l Cor. 
vii 6, 2 Cor. viii 8) and KO.T cirirayriv 
TOV alwviov 6fov (Rom. xvi 26) : also 
KO.T K\oyrjv (Rom. ix ii) and ar 
fK\oyr)i> xdptTos (Rom. xi 5). Compare 
further Rom. ii 7, xvi 5, 25, Phil, iii 
6 : also in this epistle, i 1 1 irpoopi- 
KOTO, irpofleo-iv TOV TO. Trdvra 


rjv cTroirjo-ev] These words involve a 
serious difficulty. If they are taken 
as equivalent to r\v IT poetic (comp. i 
10), we suppose a breach of the rule 
by which the resolution of such verbs 
is made with Troieurtfcu, not with 
iroifiv. No other instance of this can 
be found in St Paul, while we have 
on the contrary in this epistle, for 
example, iwelav Troielo-dat (i 1 6) and 
avfro-iv noielvQai (iv 1 6). A phrase 
like feXrjpa TToieti/, which is sometimes 
cited, is obviously not parallel, as it is 
not a resolution of deXeiv. 

It was probably this difficulty, rather 
than the omission of the article before 
Trpotfecrti/, that led early interpreters 
to regard Kara irpodfa-iv TOOV aicuvcoj/ as 
a semi-adverbial phrase parentheti 
cally introduced, and to take r/v eiroi- 
rjo-cv as referring to o-o0t a. Jerome 
so interprets, though he mentions the 
possibility of a reference either to 
cKK\r)o-ias or to TTpo&om It is pro 
bable that here, as so often, he is 
reproducing the view of Origen. But 
the Old Latin version, which he 
follows in the text, also interpreted 
so : secundum proposit um seculorum, 
quam fecit : a rendering which rules 
out the connexion irpo6fcriv...^v. So 
too the translator of Theodore (MSS, 
non ed.\ but of Theodore s own view 
we have no evidence. Theophylact 
and Euthymius Zigabenus expressly 
refer f}v to <ro<piav. Chrysostom s text 
at this point is in some confusion : 
but he suggests, if he did not actually 
read, aloavcov &v eTroirjo~ev (comp. Heb. 
i 2 5i ou Atai firoirjo~ev TOVS ataii/ar). 
The Vulgate (so too Victorinus) sub- 


l^CTOV TO) KVplCt) 



pricriav KCCI 7rpo(raya)yt]v ev TreTroidr^creL Sia TTJS 

[Ill 12 

TY\V Trap- 

stitutes praefinilionem for proposi- 
tum, and thus restores the ambiguity 
of the original, which the simpler 
change of quod for quam would have 
avoided. It is noticeable that Jerome 
had suggested propositio as an alter 
native rendering of irpodea-is. The 
absence of quam fecit from Ambrosi- 
aster s text points to another attempt 
to get rid of the difficulty. 

This construction, however, is ex 
ceedingly harsh, and it presents us with 
the phrase <ro<piav iroiflv, which seems 
to have no parallel Another way 
out of the difficulty has met with more 
favour in recent times; namely, to 
take cnoirjo-ev in the sense of wrought 
out . But it may be doubted whether 
irp66f(TLv Troielv could bear such a 
meaning : we should certainly have 
expected a stronger verb such as 
eiriT\elv or KTT\ripovv. This view, 
indeed, seems at first sight to be 
favoured by the full title given to 
Christ, and the relative clause which 
follows it. But a closer examination 
shews that the title itself is an almost 
unique combination. In Rom. vi 23, 
viii 39, i Cor. xv 31, (PhiL iii 8) we 
have Xpio-ros irjo-ovs 6 Kvpios ynwv 
(pov), in itself an uncommon order: 
but no article is prefixed to Xpia-Tos. 
Only in Col. ii 6 have we an exact 
parallel, cos ovv 7rap6Aa/3ere TOV ^ptorov 
irjcrovv TOV Kvptov, K.r.A.; where Light- 
foot punctuates after xP l(rrov an ^ 
renders the Christ, even Jesus the 
Lord . Accordingly, in the present 
passage, even if we are unwilling to 
press the distinction in an English 
rendering, we may feel that an exact 
observation of the Greek weakens the 
force of the argument derived from 
the fulness of the title, and leaves us 
free to accept an interpretation which 
regards fTroirja-ev as referring to the 
formation of the eternal purpose in 
the Christ. 

On the whole it is preferable to 
suppose that the Apostle is referring 
to the original formation of the pur 
pose, and not to its subsequent working 
out in history. We may even doubt 
whether here he would have used the 
past tense, if he had been speaking of 
its realisation. 

Instances may be found in the 
LXX and in New Testament writers 
other than St Paul, in which iroiflv is 
used where we should expect 
<r0ai : comp. Isa. xxix 1 5, xxx i, 
TroteTf, and see Blass JV. T. Gram. 53, 
3 and Jannaris Hist. Gr. Gram. 
1484. Further, we may remember 
that TToielv in biblical literature often 
has a strong sense, derived from the 
Hebrew, in reference to creative acts 
of God (comp. ii 10). The framing 
of the Purpose in the Christ may be 
regarded as the initial act of creation, 
and the word hroir)<rtv may be not in 
appropriately applied to it. In other 
words Trpofieo-iv ciroiijmv is a stronger 
form of expression than irpoQeo-iv 
cVoij/Varo, which is the mere equivalent 
of Trpoe0To: and it suggests that the 
purpose of the ages, like the ages 
themselves (Heb. i 2), has been called 
into existence by a Divine creative 

With this passage, and indeed with 
the whole of this section, should be 
compared 2 Tim. i 8 12, where there 
are striking parallels of language and 
of thought, which are the more notice 
able in the absence of any explicit 
reference to the Gentiles. 

12. TT}V irapprjcriav K.r.A.] Compare 
ii 1 8. For the meanings of napprja-ia 
see Lightfoot on Col. ii 1 5. Ordinarily 
it is used of boldness in relation to 
men : here it is of the attitude of man 
to God: there seems to be no other 
example of this use in St Paul; but 
see Heb. iii 6, iv 16, x 19, 35, i John 
ii 28, iii 21, iv 17, v 14. 

Ill 13, 14] 



avTOV. io aLTOVjJLai <v/uias> / 

\jse(TLV juov vTrep VJULWV, //Vis ecrTiv 

I4 Toi7TOf 


iv ev Taw 6\i- 




The word is used six 
times by St Paul, but is found nowhere 
else in the New Testament, and but 
once in the LXX. 

Compare Mark xi 22 e^ere 
#eoC, Rom. iii 22, 26, Gal. ii 16, 
iii 22, Phil, iii 9, in all of which cases 
however TTIO-TIS is without the article. 
In James ii i, Apoc. ii 13, xiv 12 the 
article is prefixed, but the meaning is 
different. Here TT/S may be regarded 
as parallel to 7-171* before 7rappr)<riav : so 
that the meaning would be our faith 
in Him . 

13. aiTovp-at /LIT) eWaKe>] Does 

this mean (i) I pray that I may not 
lose heart , or (2) I pray that you 
may not lose heart , or (3) I ask you 
not to lose heart ? Whichever inter 
pretation is adopted, the omission of 
the subject of fvnax-eiv is a serious 
difficulty. Theodore gives the first 
interpretation, which may plead in 
its favour that the subject of the 
second verb is most naturally supplied 
from the first, and that, as the suffer 
ings are St Paul s, it is he who needs 
to guard against discouragement. But 
the absolute use of alrov^ai, as ( I ask 
of God/ where prayer has not been 
already spoken of, seems unjustifiable : 
and that the Apostle should here 
interpose such a prayer for himself 
is exceedingly improbable, especially 
when his language elsewhere with 
regard to sufferings is considered, e.g. 
in Col. i 24. Origen at first offers 
this interpretation, but passes on to 
plead for the second as more agree 
able to the context. Jerome, who 
read in his Latin peto ne deficiatis/ 
points out that the Greek may mean 
peto ne deficiam/ and then repro 
duces the comments of Origen. 

The third interpretation is by far 
the most satisfactory : but we sadly 
miss the accusative v^as. It is pro- 

bable that it has been lost by homoeo- 
teleuton, Y MAC having fallen out 
after the -y/v\Ai of AITOYMAI : compare 
Gal. iv 1 1, where in several MSS YMAC 
has been dropped after <OBOYM<M. I 
have accordingly inserted vpas pro 
visionally in the text. 

fVKdKelv] i lose heart : from KCKOS 
in the sense of cowardly . On the 
form of this word, eyKaKelv (eW-) or 
KKaKflv, see Lightfoot on 2 Thess. iii 
13 (Notes on Epp. p. 132). It occurs 
five times in St Paul s epistles : else 
where in the New Testament it is 
found only in Luke xviii i. In 2 Cor. 
iv 1 6 it is, as here, followed by a 
reference to o eVco av6pa>7ros in the 
immediate context. This connexion 
of thought confirms the view that the 
subject of evKaKflv here is the readers 
of the epistle, for whom the Apostle 
goes on to pray that they may be 
strengthened in the inward man . 

1419. All this, I repeat, im 
pels me afresh to prayer. In the 
lowliest attitude of reverence I pros 
trate myself before Him, to whom 
every knee shall bow before the 
Father from whom all fatherhood 
everywhere derives its name. I ask 
the Father to give you, through the 
Spirit s working on your spiritual 
nature, an inward might the very 
indwelling of the Christ in your hearts, 
realised through faith, consummated 
in love. I pray that your roots may 
be struck deep, your foundations laid 
secure, that so you may have strength 
enough to claim your share in the 
knowledge which belongs to the holy 
people : to comprehend the full mea 
sures of the Divine purpose ; to know 

though it is beyond all knowledge 

the love of Christ ; and so to attain 
to the Divine completeness, to be 
filled unto all the fulness of God . 

14. TOVTOV x<*P iV ] The repetition 

Trare/oa, 1S 

of this phrase marks the close con 
nexion of vv. i and 14, and shews that 
what has intervened is a digression. 

Kap.Trr<B K.r.X.] The usual phrase for 
kneeling in the New Testament is 
6els TO. yovaTa. The present phrase is 
found again only in a quotation from 
i Kings xix 18 in Rom. xi 4; in a 
quotation from Isa. xlv 23, on e/ioi 
Kop^ci TTO.V yow, in Rom. xiv 1 1 ; and 
in Phil, ii 10, Iva Iv ro> oVo/xari IT/O-OV 
TTCLV yow Ka/z>J/77, an allusion to the 
same passage of Isaiah. 

Trare pa] The insertion after this 
word of roO Kvpiov ijamv irjo-ov Xpiorov 
is a mischievous gloss, which obscures 
the intimate connexion between the 
absolute Trarr/p and Trao-a Trarpia. It 
is absent from K*ABCP. 

15- Tracra Trarpia] Ilarpia denotes 
a group of persons united by descent 
from a common father or, more gene 
rally, a common ancestor. It has thus 
the narrower meaning of family or 
the wider meaning of tribe . It is 
exceedingly common in the genea 
logical passages of the LXX, where it 
often stands in connexion with OIKOS 
and <pv\rj. St Paul plays on the deri 
vation of the word : Trarpia is derived 
from Trarqp : every Trarpia, in the visible 
or the invisible world, is ultimately 
named from the one true Father (o 
Trar?7p), the source of all fatherhood. 

The literal rendering is every 
family ; but the point of the passage 
cannot be given in English without 
a paraphrase. The Latin rendering 
omnis paternitas seems to be a bold 
effort in this direction ; for paterni 
tas, like fatherhood in English, is 
an abstract term and does not appear 
to be used in the sense of a family . 
It is true that Jerome (ad loc. and 
adv. Helvid. 14), in order to bring 
out a parallel, renders Trarpia/ of the 
LXX by paternitates : but in his own 
version (Numb, i 2, etc.) he does not 
introduce the word, nor does it occur 
as a rendering of Trarpia in the Latin 


[Ill 15 

ov Tracra TraTpia iv ovpavois Kal ITTC 

version of the LXX. Patria is occa 
sionally so used, and is found also in 
a quotation of our present passage 
in the metrical treatise [Tert.] adv. 
Marcionem iv 35. 

Similarly the rendering of the 

Peshito ^i\ooi=^ A^ must 
mean all fatherhood : comp. *^=nx- 
^Jrtooa=3n<n the name of father 
hood in Aphrahat ( Wright 472 f .). 
The Latin and Syriac versions there 
fore warrant us in rendering the pas 
sage in English as the Father of 
whom all fatherhood... is named . 

On the teaching of the passage it 
is worth while to compare Athanasius 
Oral, contra Arian. i 23 ov yap 6 6eos 

av6p(i)7rov /zi/uelrai" aXXa jzaXXoi/ 01 
av6pu)Troi dia TOV 0eov 9 Kvpicos Kal v.ovov 
d\T)6<us ovra Trare pa TOV eaurou viov, *ai 
avTol Trarcpe? wvondo-drja av ra>i> 
TfKvojv ( avTov yap irao-a 
ovpavols Kal erri yrjs oi>o/iaerai : and 
Severian ad loc. (Cramer Oaten, vi 159) 

TO ovopa TOV Trarpos OVK d(p 

drjXovoTL a>s (pvo~ei ov Kal ov< 


The difficulty supposed to exist in 
St Paul s speaking of families in 
heaven may have led to the mistrans 
lation, of the A.Y. the whole family/ 
The same difficulty led Theodore to 
adopt (perhaps to invent) the reading 
(paTpia (so the Paris codex : the form 
is found both in Inscrr. and MSS for 
(ppaTpia, see DieterichHyzant.Archiv. 
i 123), on the curious ground that this 
word denoted not a o-vyycveia but 
merely a o-vor^a. The insertion of 
the gloss referred to above had pro 
bably blinded him to the connexion, 
Trarpos. . .Trarpid, upon which the whole 
sense depends. 

The difficulty is not a serious one: 
for the addition eV ovpavols KOI errl 
yrjs, like the similar phrase in i 21, 

ovofjui^op,vov ov fiovov ev r<5 atcoi/t 
rovra) aXXa Kal ev r<5 yueXXovri, is 


ovofJLdFeTCLi) l6 *iva So) VJULLV K.OLTOL TO TT\OVTOS Trjs oo^rjs 
CCVTOV dvvdjULei KpaTaicodfjvai Sid TOV TrvevjUiaTOS avTOV 
ek TOV e<ra) dvdpcoTrov, I? KaToiKrja~ai TOV 

TT/crrews ev Ta?s Kapoiais V/ULCOV ev dyaTrri 

perhaps only made for the sake of 
emphasis. We may, however, note the 
Rabbinic use of N^IDB (familia) the 
family above and the family below : 
see Taylor Sayings of Jewish Fathers 
ed. 2, p. 125, and Thackeray St Paul 
and Contemp. Jewish Thought p. 

6vop,deTai\ l is named , i.e. derives 
its name: for the construction with 
fK compare Soph. O. T. 1036 oW 

f0vop,do~6r)s eK TV%T)S Tavrrjs os ei (sc. 

Qidiirovs}, and Xenoph. Memorab. iv 

5 12 e(prj 5e Kal TO 8ia\eyea~6ai oi/o/na- 

<rdf)Vai K TOV K.T.X. 

1 6. TOV eo-Q) avOp&TTov] This phrase 
finds its full explanation in 2 Cor. 

IV 1 6 810 OVK evKa.Kovfj.ev, aXX el Kal 


dXX* o eo-co rnLa>v dvaKaivovTai ij/J-fpa 

KOI T//iepa. * Our outward man is in 
the Apostle s subsequent phrase 77 
ciriyeios T^/UCOJ/ olttia TOV CTK^OVS, which 
is subject to dissolution : our inward 
man is that part of our nature which 
has fellowship with the eternal, which 
looks not at the things which are 
seen, but at the things which are not 
seen. There is no reason to seek for 
a philosophical precedent for the 
phrase : at any rate Plato Rep. 5 89 A, 
which is persistently quoted, offers no 
parallel ; for there 6 eVro? avOpu-rros, 
1 the man who is within him , is only 
one of three contending constituents 
(the others being a multiform beast 
and a lion) which the Platonic parable 
supposes to be united under what is 
outwardly a human form. 

In St Paul the phrase occurs again 
in Rom. vii 22. And in i Pet. iii 3 f. we 
have a contrast between o Zfadev... 

iftariW Kooyzos and o KpvrrTos TTJS 
Kapbias avdpa>iros ev TO) d<t>6dpTa> TOV 
Kal irpaeos 

17. KaToiK^a-ai] KaToiKelv is rare 
in St Paul, who more frequently uses 
oiKelv or evoiKelv. It occurs again only 
in Col. i 19, ii 9, and we have KUTOIKT]- 
Tijpiov in Eph. ii 22. When used in 
contrast to rrapoiKflv the word implies 
a permanent as opposed to a tem 
porary residence (see Lightfoot s note 
on Clem. Rom.pref.); where it occurs 
by itself it suggests as much of 
permanence as OIKCIV necessarily does, 
but no more. 

ev ayaTT?;] Reasons for joining 
these words with what precedes have 
been given in the exposition. In 
favour of this collocation it may also 
be observed (i) that ev dydirri forms 
the emphatic close of a sentence 
several times in this epistle ; see i 4 
and note, iv 2, 16 : and (2) that the 
anacoluthon which follows appears to 
be more natural if the fresh start is 
made by the participles and not by an 
adverbial phrase ; compare, e.g., iv 2 

dve^6p,evoi aXX^Xo> ev dydnr) and CoL 
ii 2 o-vvfttl3ao-6evTes ev dydirrj. 

eppifaiJLevot] St Paul is fond of 
passing suddenly to the nominative 
of a participle, as in the two passages 
last quoted, to which may be added 

Col. iii l6 6 \6yoS . -evoiKeiTOJ ev 

dtSdo-Kovres : see Lightfoot s note on 
that passage. There is therefore no 
reason for supposing that tva is be 
lated, as was suggested by Origen, 
and as is implied in the rendering of 
the A.Y., that ye, being rooted , &c. 
On the contrary, Iva depends directly 
on the participles which precede it. 

For the metaphors compare (i) 
Col. ii 7 ipptfapbM Kal eTroiKodopov- 
fievot ev avVoi Kal /3e/3atov/i/oi 777 
7ri 0T, and (2) Col. i 23 et ye eirifj-eveTe 
Trj irio-Tet re^f/xtXico/iei/ot Kal edpaloi, 

and i Pet. v 10, where 6cpe\iwcret is 



[Ill 1820 

crw TTCLCTLV Tols dyiots TL TO TrAaros Kal /uifJKOS Kal 
u\lsos Kal /3a6os, I9f yvti)vai T6 Tr\v V7rep/3d\\ovorav Trjs 
yvcocrecos d^airr\v TOV xpicrTOv, u/a 7T\rjpct)6fJTe ets irav 
TO 7r\^pa)]ULa TOV Beov . a TO) $6 ^vva/uLevco vTrep TrdvTa 
Troifjcrai vTrepeKTrepicra ov cov aLTOVjueda rj voov/uev /cara 

found in KKLP, though not in AB. 
For the combination of the metaphors 
Wetstein cites Lucian de Salt at. 34 


ducrirep Tives piai KOI 
6pxrjo~e(i>s rjo~av. 

1 8. egio-xvo-rjTe] A late word, found 
but once elsewhere in the Greek 
Bible, Ecclus. vii 6 (B : but NAC 
have the simple verb). It suggests 
the difficulty of the task, which calls 
for all their strength. 

KaraXa/3eo-&u] The middle is found 
thrice (Acts iv 13, x 34, xxv 25), and, 
as here, in the sense of to perceive . 

TrXaros *.r.X.] Theodore s comment 
is admirable and sufficient : Iva e lirrj 
rfjs ^apiTos TO [leyetios OTTO r<5i> Trap* 
r/jutSi/ oi/o/mra>i>. St Paul is not think 
ing of the measures of the f holy 
temple , as some of the moderns 
suggest ; nor of the shape of the cross, 
as many of the ancients prettily 
fancied. He is speaking in vague 
terms of the magnitude of that which 
it will take them all their strength 
to apprehend the Divine mercy, 
especially as now manifested in the 
inclusion of the Gentiles, the Divine 
secret, the Divine purpose for man 
kind in Christ. To supply Trjs ayanrjs 
TOV xP lcrT v ou ^ f tn e following 
sentence is at once needless and 
unjustifiable. With the intentional 
vagueness of the phrase we may com 
pare Didache C. 12 o~vveo~iv yap eere 
dft-iav KOI dpiCTTepdv. 

IQ. WTrep/SaXXouo-av] YirfpjBdXXfiv IS 

used with either an accusative or a 
genitive (Aesch. Plat. Arist.) of the 
object surpassed. So too vrrepe ^eu/ : 
COmp. Phil, ii 3 VTrepe^ovray eavrcov 
with PhiL iv 7 y VTrepc^ovcra iravra vovv. 

els K.T.X.] up to the measure of: 

IV 13 fiS p>TpOV T^XtKt a? TOV 

ir\T)pa>lJia.Tos TOV xpio-Tov. The Apostle s 
prayer finds its climax in the request 
that they may attain to the complete 
ness towards which God is working 
and in which God will be all in all. 
Ideally this position is theirs already 
in Christ, as he says to the Colossians 
(ii 9) : ev aur<5 Karoifcei irav TO TrXr/ - 
patfia TTJS 6eoTT)Tos (rco^tariKeos, Kal care 
ev avra) TreTrX^pw/iei/ot, K.r.X. Its reali 
sation is the Divine purpose and, 
accordingly, the Apostle s highest 
prayer. On the sense of TO TrX^peo/za 
TOV 6eov see the exposition. We may 
usefully compare with the whole 
phrase CoL ii 19, where St Paul 
describes the intermediate stage of 
the process, saying of the Body: 

The reading of B and a few cur 
sives, Iva ir\rjpo)6rj TTCLV TO TrX^ pco/ia TOV 
6eov, offers an easier construction, but 
an inferior sense. 

20, 21. Have I asked a hard 
thing? I have asked it of Him who 
can do far more than this ; who can 
vastly transcend our petition, even 
our imagining : of Him whose mighty 
working is actually at work in us. 
Glory be to Him! Glory in the 
Church and in Christ Jesus glory in 
the Body alike and in the Head 
through all the ages of eternity . 

20. ra> de dwap.eva>] Compare the 
doxology in Rom. xvi 25, r<5 Be 8wa- 
p.V(o vp,as tmjpi&U, K.r.X. 

v7rpeK7repio~o~ov] This word occurs 
twice in St Paul s earliest epistle, but 
not elsewhere : i Thess. iii 10 WKTOS 
Kal rjfiepas virepeKTrepio-o-ov deopevoi, V 

III. 21 IV 2] 




\> t < -> 21 > " < ^\r\C-rt / 

eKK\rj(ria Kal ev KpiCTTcp Irjcrov eis Tracras ras yeveas 

~ y ~ ^ if if 

TOV aicovos TCOV aicovcov a/mrjv. 

IV. *TlapaKa\a) ovv i5//as ejco 6 SeV^o? ev Kvpicp 
dfcicos TrepiTTctTticrai T^S K\rj crews j^s /c\77 1/17x6, [jLeTct 

r t 

Tracrrjs Ta7reivo<ppoarvvris 

13 Tjyeicr&u awrovs 1 vxrepeKTrepKrcrot) V 

dydirr). Here it is employed as a 
preposition to govern eov alrov^Oa . 
so that the construction is, to Him 
that is able to do more than all, far 
beyond what we ask . The phrase 
vircp irdvra, which was to have been 
followed by a alrovpedaj has thus 
become isolated through the exuber 
ance with which the Apostle empha 
sises his meaning. 

voov/j-ev] Compare Phil, iv 7 77 
eipr/vT) TOV Oeov 77 uTrepe ^ouo-a iravra 

TTJV evpyovp,evr]v^ thdt worketh* : a 
sufficient rendering, though the force 
of the passive can only be given if we 
say that is made to work : see the 
detached note on eVepyeti/. Compare 

CoL i 29 Kara rrjv evepyciav avrov TTJV 
Vpyovp.VT]v ev fj,ol v 

21. ev rfi K.T.X.] i in the church 
and in Christ Jesus \ The variants 
help to shew how striking is the true 
text. For (i) the order is reversed 
in D 2 G 3 ; and (2) <a\ is dropped in 
KLP etc., whence the rendering of 
the Authorised Version, in the 
church by Christ Jesus . With this 
timidity we may contrast Jerome s 
comment ad loc. : Ipsi itaque deo sit 
gloria : primum in ecclesia, quae est 
pura, non habens maculam neque 
rugam, et quae propterea gloriani 
dei recipere potest, quia corpus est 
Christi : deinde in Christo Jesu, quia 
in corpore assumpti hominis, cuius 
sunt uniuersa membra credentium, 
omnis diuinitas inhabitet corpora- 
liter . 

yeveds] Compare CoL i 26 d-rro rv 

Kal drro TWV yeveuv : and see 
the note on v. 5 above. 

IV. 16. I have declared to you 
the Divine purpose, and the calling 
whereby you have been called to take 
your place in it. I have prayed that 
you may know its uttermost meaning 
for yourselves. Prisoner as I am, I 
can do no more. But I plead with 
you that you will respond to your 
calling. Make your conduct worthy 
of your position. First and foremost, 
cultivate the meek and lowly mind, 
the patient forbearance, the charity,, 
without which a common life is im 
possible. For you must eagerly pre 
serve your spiritual oneness. Oneness 
is characteristic of the Gospel Con 
sider its present working and its pre 
destined issue : there is one Body, 
animated by one Spirit, cherishing 
one Hope. Look back to its imme 
diate origin : there is one Lord, to 
whom we are united by one Faith in 
Him, by one Baptism in His name. 
Rise to its ultimate source : there is 
one God, the Father of all, who is 
over all, through all and in all . 

I. IIapaKaXa> ovv vp,ds] The same 

words occur in Rom. xii i, after a 
doxology which, as here, closes the 
preceding chapter. 

Comp. Col. i 

roO Kvpiov, I Thess. ii 12 els TO 
fias aiW TOU 6cov TOV 

KaXoVVTOS VfJLllS, Phil. 1 27 fJLOVOV dlO)S 

TOV evayyf\iov TOV xpia-TovTroAtreiWtfe. 
For TTfpuraTflv and its synonyms see 
the note on ii 2. 

2. Taneivo^poo-vvrjs] For the low 

sense of this word in other writers, 


I 7 8 


[IV 3-6 

, dve^ofJievoi d\\rj\a)v ev dyaTrri, 
Tripelv Trjv evoTrjTa TOV TrvevjmaTOs ev TO) erf] 

, KaOws Kal eK\tidriTe ev 

4 eV (rcojua Kal ev 

/3a7TTLO"iuLa eis 6eos KO.I 

and for the place of l humility in the 
moral code of Christianity, see Light- 
foot s note on PhiL ii 3 : and for 
TrpavTTjs and paKpodvpia, see his note 
on Col. iii 12. 

dvex6fj.evoi] For the transition to 
the nominative participle see the note 
on iii 17. 

3. (nrovdd^ovTes] giving dili 
gence : i satis agentes* Cypr., solli- 
citi Vulg. For the eagerness which 
the word implies, see the exposition. 

evoTTjTa] Considering that St Paul 
lays so much stress on unity, it is 
remarkable that he uses the abstract 
word oneness only here and in v. 
13. In each case he quickly passes 
to its concrete embodiment here ev 
o-topa, in V. 13 els avdpa reXeiov. In 
both places it is followed by denning 
genitives TOV rrvevpaTos and (v. 13) 
TTJS Trio-Teas Kal TTJS emyvwo-ecos TOV 
vlov TOV 6eov. It is possible to take 
TOV irvevpaTos here of the Holy Spirit, 
as the producer and maintainer of 
unity : comp. rj Kotvwvia TOV dyiov 
TTvevpaTos, 2 Cor. xiii 13 ; and so 
perhaps KOIVGOVIO. 7ri>ev/zaro, Phil, ii I. 
But it is equally possible to regard 
the spirit as the one spirit of the 
one body : see the next verse. 

o-vj/SeV/Lia)] Peace is here the bond 
of oneness. In Col. iii 14 f. Move 
is the bond of perfectness , while 
peace is the ruling consideration 
which decides all such controversies 
as might threaten the unity of the 
Body : see Lightfoot s notes on that 

4. ev o-cG/xa] Having already broken 
his construction by the introduction 
of the nominative participles, St Paul 
adds a series of nominatives, of which 

TravTwv 6 



the first two may be regarded as in 
apposition to the participles being, 
as ye are, one body and one spirit . 
The others are then loosely attached 
with no definite construction. In 
translation, however, it is convenient 
to prefix the words there is to the 
whole series. 

ev nvevfjia] For the one spirit , 
which corresponds to the one body , 
see the note on ii 18 ev evl irvevpaTi. 

e\7ridi K.T.\.] Comp. i 1 8 77 eXiris 
TTJS K\ijo-eo)s avTov. God s calling is 
the general ground of hope: your 
calling , i.e. His calling of you, makes 
you sharers in the one common hope. 

5. els Kvpios] Comp. i Cor. viii 6 
yfilv els 6ebs 6 Ttar^p, e ov TO, Trdvra 
KO.I impels els avTOVj /cat els Kvpios Irja-ovs 
Xptoros, dt ov TO, irdvra KOL rjfj,els di 
avTov : also i Tim. ii 5 els yap 6e6s, 
els Kal fj.eo~irr)s K.r.A. 

/zta irlo-Tis] One faith in the one 
Lord united all believers : comp. 
Rom. iii 30 els 6 6e6s, os dwcaiooo-et 
TrepiTOfjLTjv eK iri&rettis Kai d.Kpoj3vo~riav 
dia TTJS TriWetos. 

ev /3a7rrto-/ia] Baptism in the name 
of the Lord Jesus was the act which 
gave defiuiteness to faith in Him. It 
was at the same time, for all alike, 
the instrument of embodiment in the 
one body : I Cor. xii 1 3 Kal yap ev 
evl irvev^aTi 77/1615 Trdvres els ev o-ea/za 
ejBaTrTio-drjfj.ev, elre lou&aioi elre ^EXX?/- 
ves, e ire 8ov\oi. elre eXevBepoi. 

6. 7rlirdvT<0vK.T.\.] Comp. Rom. ix 5 
6 &v eTrl TrdvTwv Beos evXoyrjTos els TOVS 
altovas. Supreme over all, He moves 
through all, and rests in all. With ev 
iraa-iv we may compare i Cor. xv 28 
iva f) 6 6ebs irdvra ev Trao-tv, though 
there the emphasis falls on 

IV 7, 8] 



Kat Sia TrdvTwv Kai ev iraoriv. 7 ew Se 

KaT( * T jueTpov Trjs Swpeds TOV 

A N A B A c eic fyoc H 

KCCl A 00 K 6 N A 6 M <\ T <\ TO?C AN6pcbnOIC. 

The text of NABCP (ev jraa-tv) is 
undoubtedly right. D 2 G 3 KL, with the 
Syriac and Latin, add T)/UI>: and a 
few cursives have vfuv, which is repre 
sented in the A.V. When we have 
restored the reading, we have to ask 
what is the gender of iravTwv and 
rrao-iv. The Latin translators were 
compelled to face this question when 
rendering eVi rrdvrcov and dia irdvrcw. 
All possible variations are found, but 
the most usual rendering seems to be 
that of the Vulgate, * super omnes et 
per omnia , which also has good early 
authority. The fact that Trarrjp irdvrwv 
precedes might suggest that the mas 
culine is intended throughout : but 
eVi irdvToiv at once admits of the 
wider reference, see Rom. ix 5 quoted 
above ; and we shall probably be 
right in refusing to limit the Apostle s 

7 13. Not indeed that this one 
ness implies uniformity of endowment 
or of function. On the contrary, to 
each individual in varying measures 
by the gift of Christ has been en 
trusted the grace which I have already 
spoken of as entrusted to me. The 
distribution of gifts is involved in the 
very fact of the Ascension. When 
He ascended, we read, He gave 
gifts. He, the All-fulfiller, descended 
to ascend : and He it is that gave 
apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors 
and teachers a rich variety, but all 
for unity : to fit the members of the 
holy people to fulfil their appropriate 
service, for the building of the body 
of the Christ, until we all reach the 
goal of the consciously realised unity, 
which cannot be reached while any 
are left behind the full-grown Man, 

the complete maturity of the fulfilled 
Christ . 

7. 77 x^P ls l BD 2 with some others 
omit the article : but it has probably 
fallen out after edodr). 

/LteVpoi/] Comp. Rom. xii 3 CKOOTW 
o>y 6 deos efjiepurev fj.fTpov7ri(TTfaiS. The 
word, which is found in only one other 
passage of St Paul, 2 Cor. x 13, 
occurs thrice in this context; see vv. 
13, 1 6. This repetition of an un 
accustomed word, when it has been 
once used, is illustrated by the re 
currence of fvorrjs, vv. 3, 13. 

8. dib Ae y] The exact phrase 
recurs in v 14. "We find /ecu iraXiv 
Aeyet, following yfypcnrrai, in Rom. 
xv 10 ; corn p. also 2 Cor. vi 2, Gal. iii 
1 6. We may supply 77 ypa^, as in 
Rom. xii and elsewhere, if a nomi 
native is required. 

dvapds] In the LXX of Ps. Ixvii 
(Ixviii) 19 the words are: Am/Sas els 
v\lsos T^/iaXcorevfras atx/zaAaxri aj>, c\a- 
ftes So/xara fv dvdpcoTrots (dvOpamat B* b ). 

* The Psalmist pictures to himself a 
triumphal procession, winding up the 
newly-conquered hill of Zion, the 
figure being that of a victor, taking 
possession of the enemy s citadel, and 
with his train of captives and spoil 
following him in the triumph.... In the 
words following, Hast received gifts 
among men, the Psalmist alludes to 
the tribute offered either by the van 
quished foes themselves, or by others 
who come forward spontaneously to 
own the victor, and secure his favour 
(Driver, /Sermons on the O. T., 1892, 
pp. 194 f.). 

St Paul makes two alterations in 
the text of the LXX : (i) he changes 
the verbs from the second person to 

12 2 


9 TO 


[IV 9, 10 

6 dvapas vTrepavu) 

oe ANCBH TL e&Tiv el fuiri OTL KCCI KaT/3rj ek TO. 
7775 ; I0 d KaTa/3ds CCVTOS <TTLV Kal 
Ttov ovpavwv, iva 

T^r[\ + irp&rov 

earth or the parts below the earth 
is a matter of indifference, as in 
either case the underworld is the 
region in question. The descent is to 
the lowest, as the ascent is to the 
highest, that nothing may remain un- 

10. aVTOS (TTIV K.T.X.] He it IS 

that also ascended* : so in v . n Kal 

the third, (2) he reads e 

rols dvQpaTTOis for eXa/Sej Sofiara eV 

dvOpto-rrois. Accordingly of the two 
words which he selects to comment 
on, dvaftas and edoxef, the second is 
entirely absent from the original of 
the text. The explanation is thus 
given by Dr Driver (ibid. pp. 197 f.) : 
St Paul is not here following the 
genuine text of the Psalm, but is in 
all probability guided by an old 
Jewish interpretation with which he 
was familiar, and which, instead of 
received gifts among men, para 
phrased gave gifts to men.... The 
Targum on the Psalms renders : 
"Thou ascendedst up to the firma 
ment, prophet Moses, thou tookest 
captives captive, thou didst teach the 
words of the law, thou gavest them as 
gifts to the children of men" . The 
Peshito Syriac likewise has: Thou 
didst ascend on high and lead capti 
vity captive, and didst give gifts to 
the sons of men . For other ex 
amples of the influence of traditional 
Jewish interpretations in St Paul s 
writings, see Dr Driver s art. in the 
Expositor, 1889, vol. ix, pp. 20 ff. 

9. KaTefirj ] For the addition of 
irp<0rov, see the note on various read 

/carcortpa] So far as the Greek 
alone is concerned, it might be allow 
able to explain this as meaning this 
lower earth . But the contrast vTrep- 
ava> T&V ovpav&v is against such an 
interpretation. And the phrase is 
Hebraistic, and closely parallel to 
that of Ps. Ixii (Ixiii) 10 etVeXevo-owcu 
is TO. Karomzra rfjs yfjs, i.e. Sheol, or 
Hades; and of Ps. cxxxviii (cxxxix) 


fit. Whether we interpret the phrase 
as signifying * the lower parts of the 

above , not far above : 
see the note on i 21. 

TrdvTOiv TO>V ovpava>v\ all heavens , 
or l all the heavens 1 . The plural ov- 
pavoi, which, though not classical, is 
frequent in the New Testament, is 
generally to be accounted for by the 
fact that the Hebrew word for heaven 
is only used in the plural. But certain 
passages, such as the present and 

2 Cor. xii 2 eicos rplrov ovpavov (comp. 

also Heb. iv 14), imply the Jewish 
doctrine of a seven-fold series of 
heavens, rising one above the other. 
For this doctrine, and for its history 
in the Christian Church, see art. 
Heaven by Dr S. D. F. Salmond in 
Hastings Bible Dictionary. The 
descent and ascent of the Beloved 
through the Seven Heavens are de 
picted at length in the Ascension of 
Isaiah (on which see my art. in the 
same dictionary). 

ir\T)pvo-Tj] The context, which de 
scribes the descent to the lowest and 
the ascent to the highest regions, 
suggests the literal meaning of filling 
the universe with His presence: 
comp. Jer. xxiii 24 ^ ou^t TOV ovpa 
vov KOI rrjv yfjv eya> TrX^pco ; \4yei 
Kvpios. But in view of the use of the 
verb and its substantive in this epistle 
in the sense of fulfilment , it would 
be unwise to limit the meaning here. 
He who is Himself all in all fulfilled * 

IV ii, 12] 



TO, Trvra. 

11 Kal CCI/TOS e A co K N TOI)S fjiev dTrocrTO/Vous, 

TO us Se TTpcHptiTas, TOVS 


TO 19 




7T|Oos TOV KaTapTLcrjJLOV 

(i 23) is at the same time the fulfiller 
of all things that are, whether in 
heaven or on earth. We may not lose 
sight of the Apostle s earlier words in 

TO. Travra ev T< 

ra e rot? ovpavols /cat ra eVi 
TTJS yrjs. The local terminology of 
descent, ascent, and omnipresence 
thus gains its spiritual interpretation. 
II. avTos edvKfv K.T.\.] He it is 
that gave some for apostles 1 etc. 
Compare i Cor. xii 28 Kal ovs pev 

0TO 6 6fOS V T7J KK\rj(ria TTpatTOV 

, devTfpov TrpotpT/ray, K.T.\. 
is here used, because the 
Apostle is commenting on the eS<o/c 
dofiara of his quotation. The So/zara 
of the ascended Christ are some of 
them apostles, some prophets, and so 
forth. With avrbs eduKev compare 
avTos (TTiv KCU 6 dvaftds in the pre 
ceding verse. 

aTrooToXovs. . .TrpocpTjras] * Apostles 
and prophets have already been 
spoken of as the foundation of the 
Divine house (ii 20), and as those 
members of the holy people to whom 
the mystery of the Christ is primarily 
revealed (iii 5). 

Under the term apostles no 
doubt the Twelve and St Paul are 
chiefly referred to: but that the 
designation was not confined to them 
was shewn by Lightfoot (Gal. pp. 95 f.), 
and has since been illustrated by the 
mention of apostles in the Didache. 
Prophets are referred to in Acts xi 
27 f. (Agabus and others), xiii i, xv 
32 (Judas and Silas), xxi 9 (prophet 
esses), 10 ; i Cor. xii 28, xiv 296*". 
For the prominent place which they 
hold in the Didache, see the exposi 
tion. For a discussion of both terms 
I must refer to my articles Apostle , 
Prophet , in the Encyclopaedia 

The term evange 
lists denotes those who are specially 
engaged in the extension of the 
Gospel to new regions. It is found 
again only in Acts xxi 8, 2 Tim. iv 5. 

iroiaevas] Used only here of Christ 
ian teachers, though it is applied to 
our Lord in Heb. xiii 20, i Pet. ii 25 
and v 4 (dpxiiroiprjv); comp. John x 
1 1, 14. Comp. also the use of iroiuai- 
veiv in John xxi 16, Acts xx 28, 
i Pet. v 2, Jude 12. It suggests the 
feeding, protection and rule of the 

Mao-KaXovs] Teachers are joined 
with prophets in Acts xiii i, and 
they follow them in the list in i Cor. 
xii 28 ; but we have no other refer 
ence to them as a class, except in 
Rom. xii 7 (o diddcrKoWj V TTJ StSaovca- 
X/a). Prophets and teachers are 
also mentioned in the Didache c. 1 5 
(quoted in the exposition). The 
pastors and teachers are here sepa 
rated from the foregoing and linked 
together by the bond of a common 
article. It is probable that their 
sphere of activity was the settled 
congregation, whereas the apostles, 
prophets and evangelists had a wider 

12. Karaprioytoi/] The verb Karap- 
T L&IV is discussed by Lightfoot on 
i Thess. iii 10 (Notes on Epp. p. 47). 
He illustrates its prominent idea of 
fitting together by its classical use 
for reconciling political factions, 
and its use in surgery for setting 
bones. In the New Testament it is 
used of bringing a thing into its 
proper condition, whether for the 
first time or, as more commonly, after 
lapse. Thus we have (i) Heb. xi 3 

KaTT)pri(r0ai TOVS alatvas pijp.aTi 0fov, 
xiii 21 KarapTia-ai -upas ev Travrl dya6(c 
et? ro irotfjcrat. TO tfe Xi/jua auroiJ, I Pet. 

1 82 


[IV 13 

dyitov ek epyov Sta/ccmas, ek OLKO^OJJLYIV TOV 
TOV YOKTTOV, I3 yU6V/oi K.aTavTri(ru>u.ev ol 

V IO KaTapTicret, o-nypit-ei, o-6eva>o~i: 
(2) literally, Mark i 19, of putting 
nets in order ; metaphorically, of 
restoration of an offender, Gal. vi I 
KarapTi^eTe TOIOVTOV, and of the rectifi 
cation of short-comings, i Thess. iii 10 
Ka.TapTL<rai TO. TJcrrepT^iara rfjs TTIOTCWS 
vpaiv. The sense of restoration prevails 
in 2 Cor. xiii 9 rovro KOI evxopeQa, TTJV 
, which is followed by 
in v. ii: in i Cor. i 10 
Karr]pTi(rp.evoi ev ra> aura> VOL follows 
the mention of a^iV/iara. 

For the form see Clem. Strom, iv 
26 (P. 638) ra> TOV o-wTrjpos Karapnoyzw 
TfXfiovpevov : and comp. Aristeas, 
Swete Introd. to LXX 544, irpbs 
dyvfjv eirio~Ke i ^fiv KOI rpo7ro>i> ^apTio~[J.6v. 

In this passage KarapTio-^os sug 
gests the bringing of the saints to a 
condition of fitness for the discharge 
of their functions in the Body, without 
implying restoration from a disor 
dered state. 

els epyov dtaKovias] The nearest 
parallel is 2 Tim. iv 5 epyov TTOITJO-OV 
fvayyf\io~Tov (for epyov TriVreeoy in 
2 Thess. i ii is activity inspired by 
faith , comp. i Thess. i 3): but the 
sense here is much more general than 
if we had els epyov SiciKovfov. 

/a is the action of a servant 
who waits at table, etc.: 
comp. Luke x 40, xvii 8, xxii 26 f., 
Acts vi i f. But it has the same 
extension as our word * service*, and 
it was at once applied to all forms of 
Christian ministration. Thus 77 8ia- 
Kovia TOV \6yov is contrasted with 77 

Ka0r)fj.epivt) $L(iKovia in Acts VI I, 4. 

And it is used with a wide range 
extending from the work of the aposto- 
late (Acts i 17, 25, Rom. xi 13) to the 
informal service to the saints to 
which the household of Stephanas 
had appointed themselves (els fitaxo- 
viav Tols dytois erat-av eavTovs I Cor. 
xvi 15). Here we may interpret it 


of any service which the saints render 
to one another, or to the Body of 
which they are members, or (which is 
the same thing) to the Lord who is 
their Head. 

The phrase els epyov diaKOvias is 

most naturally taken as dependent on 
Ka.TapTicrp.6v. The change of preposi 
tions (irpos...els) points in this direc 
tion, but is not in itself conclusive: 
the absence of the definite articles 
however, with the consequent com 
pactness of the phrase, is strongly 
confirmatory of this view. The mean 
ing accordingly is : for the complete 
equipment of the saints for the work 
of service . 

olKodon^v] building rather than 
edification : for the picturesque- 
ness of the metaphor must be pre 
served. Comp. ii 21 Trao-a oiKobonrj 
...avt-ei, and the note there. The 
phrase els otKo5o/ii)</ *c.r.X. gives the 
general result of all that has hitherto 
been spoken of; as in v. 16, where it 
is repeated. 

13. KaTavr^cro)fj,v] This verb is used 
nine times in the Acts, of travellers 
reaching a place of destination. Other 
wise it is confined in the New Testa 
ment to St Paul. In i Cor. xiv 36 it 
is contrasted with f^e\6elv: rj d(p y 
vpMV 6 \6yos TOV 6eov ^f)\6ev y f) els 
vfias povovs KamjvTTja-ev ; ( were you 
its starting-point, or were you its only 
destination? ): see also i Cor. x n 
>, els ovs ra T\rj ra>v ala>va>v Kcmjv- 
PhiL iii 1 1 e i iras KdTavnjcra) els 
TTJV eavao~racriv K.T.\. Unity is our 
journey s end, our destination. 

ol frdvres] i.e. all of us together . 
As often in the phrase ra navra, 
when it means the universe of things , 
the definite article gathers all the 
particulars under one view: comp. 

RonL xi 32 <rvvcKketo~ev yap 6 6ebs 
TOVS ircanas fls direifliav Iva TOVS irdvras 
Af 77077, I Cor. X 17 OTt els &PTOS, ev 

IV 14] 

6eov, ek av$pa TeXeiov, el 



Trjs TritrTews Kal Ttjs 


TOV vtov TOV 
ri\iK.ias TOV 

jU.rjK6Tl tdfJL6V 

cp<3/ia 01 rroXXoi eV/zei/, ol yap iravTes CK 
TOV evos apTov pfTexopev. 

els... eh... els] The three clauses are 
co-ordinate. In accordance with the 
general rule KCLTCLVTCLV is followed by els 
to indicate destination. 

See above, on v. 3. 
Comp. /iia TTiWiy, V. 5. 
Both TTtoTetos and eiriyvao fas are to 
be taken with the following genitive 
TOV vlov TOV Beov : comp. Gal. ii 20 cv 

THO-ret o> TTJ TOV VlOV TOV 0OV. The 

unity springs from a common faith in, 
and a common knowledge of, Christ 
as the Son of God. 

eViyj/coo-etos] knowledge , not full 
or * further knowledge : see the de 
tached note on fafyv&cns. 

TOV vlov TOV 6eov] St Paul s first 
preaching at Damascus is thus de 
scribed in Acts ix 20, eK^pva-a-tv TOV 

t Ir)O*OVV oYl OVTOS O~TIV 6 vloS TOV @OV. 

In his earliest epistle we have the 
Divine sonship mentioned in con 
nexion with the resurrection : i 
Thess. i IO dvafifvctv TOV vlov avTov K 
TUV ovpavwv, ov rjyeipcv e< TWV j/e/cpwj/, 
Ijyo-oOi/, K.T.X.: and this connexion is 
emphasised in Rom. i 3 TOV 6pto~0ev- 
TOS vlov 6eov ev dvvd[ Kara TTVvp.a 
e dvacrrao-f&s vcKpnv. On 

the special point of the title in the 
present context see the exposition. 

av&pa] The new human unity is in 
St Paul s language efs KCUVOS avQpn- 
TTOS (ii 15). Here, however, he uses 
dvfjp Tf\ toy, because his point is the 
maturity of the full-grown organism. 
Man as distinguished from angels or 
the lower animals is avtipviros. He is 
dvrip as distinguished either (a) from 
woman, or (b) from boy. It is in view 
of this last distinction that dvrip is 
here used, to signify a human being 
grown to manhood . Comp. i Cor. 
xiii II ore \pr\v VTJ7rios...oTf yeyova 

dvrfp : so here, in the next verse, we 
have by way of contrast Iva ^KCTI 
co/u,ei/ v^moi. 

It is specially to be observed that 
St Paul does not say els avdpas r\ei- 
ovs, though even Origen incidentally 
so interprets him (Cramer Catena, 
ad loc. y p. 171). Out of the imma 
turity of individualism (I^TTIOI), we 
are to reach the predestined unity of 
the one full-grown Man (els av8pa 


/le rpoi/] * the measure in the sense 
of the full measure ; as in the 
phrases p.Tpov fifths Horn. II. xi 225, 
cro<pir]s p.Tpov, Solon iv 52. To peTpov 
TTJS ijXiKi as is quoted by Wetstein 
from Lucian Imag. 6 and Philostra- 
tus, Vit. Soph, i 25, 26, p. 543. 

iJXt/c/as] A stage of growth, whether 
measured by age or stature. It is 
used for maturity in the phrase 
i7\cKtoy fyfiv (John ix 21, as also in 
classical Greek). 

ir\T)pctfj.aTos ] We cannot separate 
the fulness of the Christ in this 
passage from the statement in i 23 
that the Christ is being fulfilled 
and finds His fulness in the Church. 
When all the saints have come to the 
unity which is their destined goal, or, 
in other words, to the full-grown 
Man, the Christ will have been ful 
filled. Thus they will have together 
reached the full measure of the ma 
turity of the fulness of the Christ . 

1416. So shall we be babes no 
longer, like little boats tossed and 
swung round by shifting winds, the 
sport of clever and unscrupulous in 
structors ; but we shall hold the truth 
in love, and so grow up into the 
Christ. He is the Head : from Him 
the whole Body, an organic unity 
articulated and compacted by all the 
joints of its system, active in all the 

1 84 


[IV 14 

Kat TrepifyepojuLevoi TTCLVTI dvefjitp Trjs 
ev Trj Kvfiia TWV dvOpcoTrcov ev Travovpyia irpos TY\V juedo- 

functions of its several parts, grows 
with its proper growth and builds 
itself in love . 

14. VIJTTIOI] In addition to i Cor. 
xiii n, quoted above, compare I Cor. 
iii I f. OVK qdvvrjdrjv \a\f)<rai vplv coy 
Trvfvfj.aTiKo is dXX* cos crapKivois, co? 
jTjiriois ev Xpicrrco yd\a Vfias eTroricra, 
ov /3p<5/ia, OVTTCO -yap fbvvavOc. 

K\vda>vi6p.cvoi] Comp. Luke viii 

24 TU> dvCfJiO) KCU TCO K\v8(i)Vl TOV 

James i 6 6 yap 8iaKptv6p,fvos 
K\vdcavL 6a\dcrcrr]s di/eju.ib/neyco KOI 
puriopfv<a. "When used metaphori 
cally K\vda)v is * storm rather than 
*wave : comp. Demosth. de feds. leg. 
p. 442 K\vd<ova KOI paviav TO. <a6e- 
crrrjKOTa TT pay para qyovp-evoov, Philo de 
congr. erud. grat. 12 (M. 528) crdXov 
KOI K\vd(ova rroXvv dub TOV 
evdfanfvr), Plut. Coriol. 32 

V ^Ct/iCOVt TToXXcS KO.I K\vd(0Vl TTJS 

TroXccos. So we find the verb used in 
Josephus Ant. ix 1 1 3, o dfjfjios rapao-- 
<r6p.vos KCU K\v$a>vi6iJ.vos. 

7Tfpi<pep6pfvoi\ i.e. swung round. It 
occurs, but only as an ill-attested 
variant for 7rapa<pe peer#ai to be carried 
aside, out of course , both in Heb. xiii 
9 (diba^als TroiKtXais KCU evais pr) irapa- 
(pfpfcrOe), and in Jude 12 (i/e<peXcu 
avvbpoi. VTTO dveficov irapafpfpofievai). 

iravrl dvefjLQ)} This is to be taken 
with both participles : the K\VCJOV is 
due to the avepos, as in Luke viii 23 f. 

rfjs dicjaa-KoXias] t of doctrine : the 
article marks the abstract use of the 

Kvfiia] playing with dice (/cv/3oi), 

* gaming 7 , and so, metaphorically, 

* trickery . Ev is instrumental: by 
the sleight of men . Kvficveiv is used 
in the sense of to cheat 3 in Arrian 
Epictet. ii 19 28. Epiphanius Haer. 
xxxiv i describes Marcus as pa-yiKrjs 
vTrapx<*>v Kvfieias fpTreiporaTos, and ibid. 
21 says that no KvfievrtKr) eirlvoia can 
stand against the light of truth. 

Origen ad loc. uses the expression 
KvftevTLKws 8i8da-Kiv, for the meaning 
of which we may compare c. Gels, iii 


TrXacrfjifvov Kai Travovpyov e^ovrtov (of 
the Evangelists). 

rcov dvQpayjra>v\ A similar depre 
ciatory use of 01 av6pa>Troi is found in 
Col. ii 8, 22, the latter of which 
passages is based on Isa. xxix 13. 

iravovpyia] In classical Greek irav- 
ovpyos, which originally means * ready 
to do anything , has a better and a 
worse meaning, like our word cun 
ning in biblical English. The better 
meaning is found e.g. in Plato Rep. 
409 C TTctvovpyos re KCU crocpos. It 
prevails in the LXX, where the word is 
used to render Dl"iy, of which (ppovi- 
pos is another equivalent : comp. 
Prov. xiii I vibs iravovpyos vtr^Koos 
TrarpL The only place where the ad 
jective occurs in the New Testament 
is 2 Cor. xii 16, where St Paul play 
fully uses it of himself, virapx^v irav- 
ovpyos 86\q> vpas eXa/3oi>. St Luke 
uses Travovpyia of the craftiness of 
our Lord s questioners in reference to 
the tribute-money, thus hinting at the 
cleverness with which the trap was 
laid, whereas St Mark and St Matthew 
employ harsher words (viroKpicris, 
TTovripia). In his quotation from Job 
v 13 in i Cor. iii 19 St Paul renders 
DlO^n by fv T7J iravovpyiq avrcov, 
where the LXX has *v rfj (ppovrjcrci 
CLVT&V. In 2 Cor. xi 3 he says o ocpts 
ct-Tjndrrjcrev ~Evav ev rfi Travovpyia avrov, 
referring to Gen. iii i, where Dliy is 
represented in the LXX by <poi>i/icoVa- 
ros. Lastly, we find the word in 2 
Cor. iv 2, prj TrepiTrarovvTCs ev Travovp 
yia p.r)de )0\ovvTfS TOV \6yov TOV 6eov. 
There it is the context which deter 
mines that a bad cleverness is meant. 
In our present passage Origen links 
the word with eWpe^eta, another 
word for cleverness . But the clever- 


r\dvrjs, * 5 d\rj6evovTes I 

\ / *f < 

TO, TravTa, os e(TTiv rj 

ov Trdv TO (rcojULa (rvvapfjioXoyoviJLevov Kai crvvfiipa^o- 

ev yaTrrj 

ness is condemned by its reference, 
Trpbs TT)v p.eOoo ia.v rrjs ir\dvr)s. 

p.ffloo iav] Comp. vi 1 1 ras 
rov 6\a/3oXov. MetfoS/a and 
come from pedodos, which is originally 
a way of search after something, and 
so an inquiry (used e.g. by Plato 
of a scientific investigation), and so 
ultimately * method . The verb p<-6o- 
favfiv, however, came to have a bad 
sense, to scheme , * to employ craft , 
Polyb. xxxviii 4 10. In the T/ET it is 
so used in 2 Sam. xix 27 fiedatdevcrfv 
6 dov\6s 0-ov. No other instance of 
ftedodia is cited ; but for p.edodos in the 
bad sense see Plut. Moral. 176 A, Arte- 
mid. Oneir. iii 25, Cone. Ancyr. I. 

TrXavrjs] In all the passages where 
it occurs in the New Testament rrXdvij 
will bear the passive meaning, error/, 
though the active meaning, * deceit , 
would sometimes be equally appro 
priate. There is no reason therefore 
for departing from the first meaning 
of the word, wandering from the 
way , and so, metaphorically, error , 
as opposed to truth . Here it stands 
in sharp contrast with aXrjfavovres. 

It seems best to take irpbs rrjv 
p,fdodiav rfjs 7r\dvr]s in close connexion 
with fv Travovpyia, which otherwise 
would be strangely isolated. The pre 
position Trpos will then introduce the 
standard of reference, somewhat as in 

Gal. 11 14 OVK 6p6o7To8ovoriV TTpOS TTJV 

a\rj6eiav rov evayyeXiov. We may 
render, * by craftiness in accordance 
with the wiles of error . 

1 5. dXriOcvovrcs] maintaining the 
truth . The Latin version renders, 
t ueritatem autem facientes . The 
verb need not be restricted to truth 
fulness in speech, though that is its 
obvious meaning in Gal. iv 16 coo-re 

exdpbs vfiav ycyova aXrjdcvow vplv ; 

the only other place where it is 

found in the New Testament. The 
large meaning of d\^6fia in the Christ 
ian vocabulary, and especially the 
immediate contrast with TrAaw? in this 
passage, may justify us in the render 
ing given above. The clause must 
not be limited to mean being true in 
your love , or dealing truly in love . 

fv d-yaTT?/] For the frequent repeti 
tion of this phrase in the epistle, see 
the notes on i 4, iii 17. Truth and 
love are here put forward as the twin 
conditions of growth. 

TO. TrdvTa.] ( in all things , in all 
respects, wholly and entirely : com 
pare the adverbial use of TO. iravra tV 
Tracnv in i 23. 

os foriv] This introduces a new 
thought, by way of supplement : the 
position of els avrbv before ra travra 
shews that the former sentence is 
in a sense complete. We feel the 
difference, if for the moment we 
transpose the phrases and read avgij- 
ra iravra els avrov, os eariv r) 

K*<l>a\r) : such an arrangement would 
practically give us the phrase av^- 

(ro>fjLV fls rrjv KffpaXyv, which Would 

almost defy explanation. Similarly 
in Col. ii 10 eV avry is separated by 
TrfTrXrjptofjievoi from os (rTiv f which 
again introduces a new thought after 
the sentence has been practically 

1 6. e ov] Compare the parallel 
passage, Col. ii 19 ov Kparwv rrjv 

Kf(f>a\r)V t e ov TTCLV rb crco/ia dta ra>v 
d(pwv KOI <rvvdf(rp,(i)i> eT 

vfi rrjv avrjcriv 
rov 6cov. Here, however, the inser 
tion of Xpioros in apposition to /ce- 
(fraXj gives us a smoother construc 

<Tvvapfj.o\oyov[jLfvov\ This word does 
not occur in the parallel passage. 
Its presence here is doubtless due 

1 86 


pevov Sia Trdcrrjs d(prj$ Trjs 

[IV 16 

K.OLT evepyeiav ev 

to its having been used in the meta 
phor of the building in ii 21. See 
the detached note on o-wapnoXoyelv. 

crvv{:ii(3a6p,j>ov] In CoL il 2 crvv- 
fitpao-Gevres probably means instruct 
ed , as it does in the LXX. But here 
and in Col. ii 19 it means * united . 
In classical Greek it is commonly used 
of bringing together or reconciling 
persons. It is possible that in its 
present context it is a term borrowed 
from the medical writers. 

a<f)rjs] The word mpjf has very 
various meanings. Besides its com 
mon use (i) for touching , touch 
and a point of contact , from aVrojuai, 
it also signifies (2) kindling , from 
OTTTO) in a special sense, (3) sand , as 
a technical term of the arena (see my 
note on Passio Perpet. 10), (4) a 
plague , often in the LXX. None of 
these senses suits the present context 
or the parallel in Col. ii 19 nav TO 
dta TO>V dfpwv KOI 


For in both places the function 
assigned to the afyai is that of hold 
ing the body together in the unity 
which is necessary to growth. 

But the word has another sense 
which connects it with aWeo, I fasten 
or tie . The wrestler fastens on his 
opponent with a a<p^ a<v*ror : comp. 

Plut. Anton. 27 a<f>r)V $ ft^ev 77 (TW- 
a(pvKTov, moral. 86 P eZ /3Xa- 
a>i> raXXa KCU dvo~pcTax(ipio~ro? 
dcprjv evdidaxriv ai/rov, Dion. 
H. deDem. 18 rois dSXrjTals rfjs d\T)6i- 
vfjs Xe ea>s frrgvp&f Tas d(f>as irpocrflvai 
8fl KOI dcpvKTovs ras Xa/3ay. The word, 
together with some kindred wrest 
ling terms, was used of the union of 
the Democritean atoms : Plut. Moral. 
769 F TOLS /car ETTtKovpov d<pais Kal 
TreptTrXofcaTs, comp. Damoxenus op. 
A then. IO2E Kal a~vfjL7r\KOfj.evTjs ov^t 
crvfj.(p(0vovs d(f>ds. We find C/Z/LUZ used 
in the same sense of the wrestler s 
grip, Plut. Fab. 23 a^ara *a\ Xa/3a?, 

and even of his gripping arms, Id. 
Alcib. 2. 

That dtprj in the sense of a band or 
ligament may have been a term of 
ancient physiology is suggested by an 
entry in Galen s lexicon of words used 
by Hippocrates (Gal. xix p. 87) : dcpds 
Trapa TO ax/mi, i.e. bands, 

from the verb to bind . At any rate 
it seems clear that the word could be 
used in the general sense of a band 
or fastening (from aTrrco), and that 
we need not in our explanation of 
St Paul s language start from dcpij in 
the sense of touch . 

Lightfoot indeed, in his note on 
Col. ii 19, adopts the latter course, 
and seeks to bridge the gulf by means 
of certain passages of Aristotle. But 
Aristotle again and again contrasts 
a$jf contact* with o~i>fj.<j>vo-is cohe 
sion ; and in the most important of 
the passages cited he is not speaking 
of living bodies, but of certain dia 
phanous substances, which some 
suppose to be diaphanous by reason 
of certain pores ; de gen. et corr. i 8 
(p. 326) OVTC yap Kara Tas d(pas (i.e. 
at the points of contact ) e 

In fact in Aristotle d(pij 
appears to mean touching without 
joining , hence e.g. in de caelo i 12 
(p. 280) he argues that contact can 
cease to be contact without <0opo. 

C A<PT; then may be interpreted as a 
general term for a band or fastening, 
which possibly may have been used 
in the technical sense of a ligament, 
and which in Col. ii 19 is elucidated 
through being linked by the vinculum 
of a common definite article with 
ovv&etrpas, a recognised physiological 

mxoprjyias] The word occurs again 
in PhiL i 19 8ui TTJS vpatv o~fijcra>s KOI 
f7rt^op?; < yiaff TOV TTvevpaTos ITJ&OV Xpwr- 
TO, through your prayer and the 
supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ . 




Commentators are wont to explain it 
as meaning an abundant supply , thus 
differentiating it from ^oprjyia, a 
supply . But this interpretation of 
the preposition in this word, as in 
ciriyvtocris, does not appear to be sub 
stantiated by usage. 

The xoprjyos supplied the means of 
putting a play on the Athenian stage. 
The verb xPW" t soon came to mean 
to furnish or supply in the widest 
sense. A little later the compound 
verb fmxoprjye iv was similarly used. 
There is a tendency in later Greek to 
prefer compound to simple verbs, 
probably for no other cause than the 
greater fulness of sound. The force 
of the preposition, before it ceased to 
be felt, was probably that of direction, 
to supply to : compare the Latin 
compounds with sub, such as sup- 
plere, subministrare : and see 2 Cor. 
ix IO o 8e eirtxoprjy^v <rirfp[i.a r<5 
(Tirfipovri, Gal. iii 5 o ovv 
vfjiiv TO irvcvpa. Even 

means additional allowances in 
Athen. Deipnosoph. iv 8 (p. 1400), this 
does not prove a corresponding use 
for the other compounds : and in any 
case an * additional supply is some 
thing quite different from an abun 
dant supply . 

The present passage must be read 
in close connexion with Col. ii 19, 
where <re5/Aa...e7rt^op7you/tfj/oJ/ offers a 
use of the passive (for the person 
supplied ) which is also commonly 
found with ^opj/yeio-^at. But in what 
sense is the body supplied by means 
of its bands and ligaments? It is 
usual to suppose that a supply of 
nutriment is intended, and the men 
tion of growth in the context appears 
to bear this out. But we cannot 
imagine that the Greek physicians 
held that nutriment was conveyed by 
the bands and ligaments, whose func 
tion is to keep the limbs in position 
and check the play of the muscles 
(Galen iv pp. 2 f.). Nor is there any 
reference to nutriment in the context 
of either passage: order and unity 

are the conditions of growth on which 
the Apostle is insisting. 

Aristotle, who does not employ the 
compound forms, frequently uses 
xoprjyflv and xP r iy ia i Q contrast with 
7Tf<j)vKevai and (pvo-Lf. In Pol. iv I 
(p. 1288) he says that education has 
two pre-requisites, natural gifts and 
fortunate circumstances, cpucri? and 
Xoprjyia Tv\r)pa (a provision or equip 
ment which depends on fortune). 
The best physical training will be 
that which is adapted to the body 
best framed by nature and best pro 
vided or equipped (KoAAiora TTC^VKOTI 
KOI KtxP r ry r ll JL * V( ?) comp. iv ii (p. 
1295). So again, vii 4 (p. 1325) ou 
yap olov TC TroXiTfiav yevecrBaL TTJV 
dpio-TT)V avev o~vp.fJ.fTpov xoprj-ytay, 13 
(p. 1331) detrai yap nal ^opr/yt a? TWOS 
TO rjv KaXeor, Eth. NlC. X 8 (p. 1178) 
Soeie av [17 TOV vov apcTrj] ical TTJS 
CKTOS xoprj-yiW ewi fiiKpov rj eV eXarrov 
8fio-0ai TTJS jdiKrjs, 1 1 1 (p. I I0l) TI ovv 
KaXvfi Ae-yeti/ fv8ai(j.ova TOV Kar dpfTrjv 
T\fiav evepyovvra <a\ Tols CKTOS dyadois 
iKavws KfxP r ]y r ]p * vov ) K*T.\.; and many 
more instances might be quoted. The 
limitation to a supply of food, where 
it occurs, comes from the context, and 
does not belong to the word itself, 
which is almost synonymous with 
KaTao-Kfvj, and differs from it mainly 
by suggesting that the provision or 
equipment is afforded from outside 
and not self-originated. 

This general meaning of provision 
or equipment is in place here. The 
body may properly be said to be 
equipped or furnished, as well as held 
together, by means of its bands and 
ligaments; and accordingly we may 
speak of every band or ligament of 
its equipment or furniture . The 
rendering of the Geneva Bible (1560), 
if a little clumsy, gives the true 
sense : by euerie ioynt, for the furni 
ture thereof. But as the word 
equip does not belong to biblical 
English, we must perhaps be content 
with the rendering, l by every joint of 
its supply \ The Latin renders, per 



eves eKacTTOv /uepovs TYIV av^rjcriv TOV 
oiKo^ofJiriv avTOv ev dyaTrrj. 
ovv Xeyw Kai /mapTvpojuai ev Kvpiw, 
TrepLTraTetv Kadcos Kai TO. e6vr] TrepiTraTel ev 

[IV 17 

omnem iuncturam [some O.L. autho 
rities have tactum\suhministrationis\ 
which adequately represents the ori 

KOT cvepyeiav] These words are to 
be taken closely with eV /*erpo> evos 
Kao~Tov pepovs. For the further de 
finition of an anarthrous substantive 
by a prepositional clause, comp. v. 14 
fv Travovpyia Trpos TTJV fjifdodiav rrjs 
7T\dvr)s. It is just possible that we 
are here again in presence of a tech 
nical term of Greek physiology. 
Galen (de facult. natural, i. 2, 4, 5) 
distinguishes between epyov, work 
done , result , and eWpyeta, the 
working process , function : the 
impulse that produces the evcpyeia 
being Swapis. The meaning would 
accordingly be in accordance with 
function in the full measure of each 
several part , as each part duly fulfils 
its proper function . At the same 
time we must not lose sight of the 
strong meaning of eVpyeia in St Paul : 
see the detached note on evfpyelv and 
its cognates. 

rrjv avgrjo-iv K.r.A.] maketh the 
increase of the l>ody\ The distance 
of the nominative, irav TO o-<5/ia, is the 
cause of the redundant TOV a-apa.?. 
All that was required was avgfi, but 
the resolved phrase lends a further 
impressiveness : comp. CoL ii 19 aei 

els ol<o8oij.r)v O.VTOV] i unto the build 
ing thereof. He recurs to the meta 
phor which he has already so used in 

V. 12 (ets otKodofjLTjv TOV (rco/xaros), and 

has again touched upon in o-vi/ap/xo- 

fv dyanrf] Once again this phrase 
closes a sentence : see the notes on 
i 4, Hi i?. 

1724. This then is my meaning 
and my solemn protestation. Your 
conduct must no longer be that of 
the Gentile world. They drift without 
a purpose in the darkness, strangers 
to the Divine life ; for they are igno 
rant, because their heart is blind and 
dead: they have ceased to care what 
they do, and so have surrendered 
themselves to outrageous living, de 
filing their own bodies and wronging 
others withal. How different is the 
lesson you have learned: I mean, the 
Christ : for is not He the message you 
have listened to, the school of your 
instruction ? In the person of Jesus 
you have truth embodied. And the 
purport of your lesson is that you must 
abandon the old life once and for all ; 
you must strip off the old man, that 
outworn and perishing garment fouled 
by the passions of deceit : you must 
renew your youth in the spiritual 
centre of your being ; you must clothe 
yourselves with the new man, God s 
fresh creation in His own image, 
fashioned in righteousness and holi 
ness which spring from truth . 

17. pap pofjiai] / testify or* pro 
test . See Lightfoot on Gal. v 3 and 
i Thess. ii 1 1 (Notes on Epp. p. 29). 
v to bear witness and pap- 
to be borne witness to are 
to be distinguished in the New Testa 
ment, as in classical Greek, from pap- 
Tvpco-6ai, which means first * to call to 
witness and then absolutely to pro 
test or * asseverate . 

fv Kvpi(t>] See the exposition on v. i.] emphatic, as vp-fls in v. 20. 
See the note on ii 2. 
The alternative reading, 

TO. XotTra edvr), has but a weak attesta 
tion : see the note on various readings. 



OTYJTL TOV j/oos avTwv, 




Tr\v ayvoiav 

Trjv ovcrav ev avTols 

TY\V Trwpaxriv 
avTcov, **dlTtves aTrrjXyrjKOTes eavTOVs 7rap6$a)Kav 
dcre\yeia ek epycuriav ctKadapcrias Tracnjs ev 

St Paul s usage varies: (i) they had 
not ceased to be edvrj as contrasted 

with loudaiot, Rom. xi 13 vplv Se Xeya> 

Tols 0veo-iv, also xv 1 6 and Eph. ii 
1 1 ; yet (2) in a sense they were no 
longer etivrj, I Cor. xii 2 oiSare on ore 
e Ovrj rfre K.T.X. Here at any rate the 
meaning is plain : there is a conduct 
which characterises the Gentile world: 
that you have done with . 

/xaratorjjrt] St Paul uses the word 
again only in Rom. viii 20, rfj yap 

fjMTaiOTrjTi rj KTifris VTTfrayr). It suggests 

either absence of purpose or failure 
to attain any true purpose: comp. 

Eccl. i 2, etc. paTatoTTjs itaTaioTiJTcav. 

We have similar language used of the 
Gentile world in Rom. i 21, e/zarata>- 
0rjcrav lv Tols SiaXoyicrjuois 
ffTKoritrOri T) acrvveros avratv 

1 8. ovres] to be taken with dr 
XoTpitB/iefoi, as in Col. i 21 KOI -upas 
Trore ovras aTTiyXXorpiwfiei ov? K.r.X. To 
join it with eV/corto/iei/ot would give us 
a very unusual construction ; whereas 
a.7rr)\\oTpia>fj.voi is used almost as a 
noun, see the note on ii 12. Accord 
ingly being alienated from the life of 
God does not imply that they had at 
one time enjoyed that life : it means 
simply being aliens from it. 

rfjs farjs TOV 0eoi>] the Divine life 
communicated to man: to this the 
Gentiles were strangers, for they were 
afaoi, ii 12. For the proclamation of 
the Gospel as life see Acts v 20 
iravra TO. prj/iara rfjs Q>TJS TCLVTTJS. 

TTJV ova-av] This is not to be taken 
as emphatic, as it would have to be if 
we punctuated after / avrols. It 
introduces the cause of the ignorance. 
They have no life, because they have 
no knowledge: and, again, no know 

ledge because their heart is incapable 
of perception, 

TTtOpCOO tl/J HtOpOXTt? TTJS Kap($UZ? is tO 

be distinguished from a-K\r]poKap8ia, 
as obtuseness from obstinacy . JSee 
the additional note on irwpuo-is. 

19. a7ri]\yr] KoYes] They are past 
feeling ; i.e. they have ceased to care. 
A.Tra\yelv ( to cease to feel pain for , 
Thuc. ii 61) comes to have two mean 
ings: (i) despair, as in Polyb. i 35 5 
TO 7rpo<j>avas TreTrrtoKop apdrjv iroXi- 
TfVfj.0. Kal rets a.7rrj\yrjKvias ^v^as ratv 
(sc. militum) CTTI TO Kpelrrov 
Vj and so elsewhere; (2) reck 
lessness, Polyb. XVi 12 J TO yap (frao-Kftv 
evia TO>V cra>/zfircoi/ ev (ptort Tidf^eva fj.rj 
iroiflv cFKiav a7TT]\yr] fo~rl tyvxrjs, 

i.e. such a statement shews a perfectly 
reckless mind. Desperation and 
recklessness of most unclean living 
(misspelt wretchlessness in Article 
xvii) are moods which stand not far 
apart. The Latin rendering despe- 
rantes does not necessarily imply the 
variant AHHAniKorec (for <MTHA|-H- 
KOTGC) which is found in D 2 (G 3 ). 

ao-eXyeia] The meaning of ao-e Xyeta 
is, first, outrageous conduct of any 
kind ; then it comes to mean specially 
a wanton violence; and then, in the 
later writers, wantonness in the sense 
of lewdness. See Lightfoot on Gal. 
v 19: a man may be aKaQapTos and 
hide his sin ; he does not become 
do-\yr}s until he shocks public de 
cency . 

cpyatriav] From the early meaning 
of ep-yoj/, work in the fields (comp. 
Hesiod s "Epya Kal TJp,epcu) comes fpyd- 
TTJS a field- labourer , as in Matt, ix 37, 
etc., and Ipyafccr&u, which is properly 
Ho till the ground . The verb is then 


[IV 2022 


Ka ev avTw 
ev Tea Ir]<rov, aa a7ro6ecr6aL i) 



/caret TY]V 

widened to mean the producing of 
any result by means of labour. Epya- 
o-ia is used in Acts xvi 16, 19, xix 24 f. 
in the sense of business or the gains 
of business ; and still more generally 
in Luke xii 58 6s epyao-iav ( = da 
operawi) aTr^AXd^^ai OTT aurou. 

In the New Testament cpydeo-0ai, 
like epyov, is transferred to moral 
action (as cpydeo-6ai TO dyadov Rom. 
ii 10, KaKov xiii 10). Here els ipyanrfav 
Trdo-rjs aKadapffias is a resolved expres 
sion used for convenience of construc 
tion instead of epydeo-dai iravav dua- 
6apo-iav. It means no more than 
performance or practice : in opera- 
tionem omnis immunditiae\ 

ev ir\eoveia\ with greediness^ or 
rapacity ; i.e. with entire disregard 
of the rights of others , as Lightfoot 
explains it in his note on Col. iii 5. 
UXfovej-ia often means more than 
covetousness : irXeoveKTelv is used 
in the sense of to defraud in the 
special matter of adultery (cv r<5 
irpdypaTi) in i Thess. iv 6. Com 
menting on ev ir\eove%ia Origen (Cra 
mer, ad loc.} says p-cra TOV ir\ov*KTfiv 
fKeivovs Se (fors. 17) a>v TOVS ydpovs 
vo0vofjifv, and below aKadapaiav df fv 
ir\ovciq TTJV fioi^eiav oiojuai ftvat. See 
further the notes on v 3, 5 below. 

20. f/za&re] The expression pav- 
6dviv TOV xpi<J"r6v has no exact paral 
lel ; for p.avddvciv is not used with an 
accusative of the person who is the 
object of knowledge. But it may be 
compared with other Pauline expres 
sions, such as TOV xpicrrov TrapaXa- 
/3eii/ (Col.ii 6), cvftvo-ao-dai (Gal. iii 27), 
yv&vai (Phil, iii 10), and indeed dxoveiv 
in the next verse, which does not 
refer to hearing with the bodily ear. 

The aorists at this point are not to 
be pressed to point to the moment of 
conversion: they indicate the past 

without further definition; and, as the 
context does not fix a particular mo 
ment, they may be rendered in Eng 
lish either by the simple past tense 
or, perhaps more naturally, by the 

21. el ye QVTOV qKovo-are] See the 

note on iii 2. Ei ye does not imply 
a doubt, but gives emphasis. It is 
closely connected with aurov, which 
itself is in an emphatic position: if 
indeed it is He whom ye have heard . 

cv auro)] in Him J as the sphere of 
instruction; not by Him (A. V.)as 
the instructor. 

KaOas K.r.A.] This clause is ex 
planatory of the unfamiliar phrase 
ology which has been used. For T^V 

d\ij0eiav pavOdveiv, aKOveiv, ev TTJ d\T]- 

6ela dtodo-Kco-0ai, would present no 
difficulty. Truth is found in the per 
son of Jesus, who is the Christ : He 
is Himself the truth (John xiv 6) : 
hence we can be said to learn Him . 
d\^6eia] In the older MSS no dis 
tinction was made between d\^6eia 
and d\rj6eia : so that it is possible to 
read K.a&w$ CO~TLV dXrjdetq, ev T<U Ir/troi), 
as He is in truth, in Jesus . Or re 
taining the nominative d\ij6eia, and 
still making o xpicrros the subject, we 
may render as He is truth in Jesus . 
Of these two constructions the former 
is preferable; but neither suits the 
context so well as that which has been 
given above. 

22. diroQea-QaC] The clause intro 
duced by the infinitive is epexegetical 
of the general thought of the preced 
ing sentence: this is the lesson that 
ye have been taught that ye put off"* 
etc. ATTO&V&U, standing in contrast 
with cv8vorao-0ai, is equivalent to the 
direKovo-ao-Oai of the parallel passage, 
Col. iii 9 > direKOvardfjievoi TOV 7ra\atov 
avdpatirov o~vv rats irpdeo~iv avroi), /cat 


dvacrTpo<priv TOV TraXaiov av6po)7rov TOV <f>deipo]uevov 
eTTiBv/uiias Trjs ctTraT^s, a3 dvaveovcrBat, Se TW 
TOV voos VJULCOV) ^ Kal ev$v(ra(r6ai TOV KCLIVOV 
TOV KaTa 6eov KTi<r6evTa ev $ucaLO<rvvii 

KCCTO. ras 

TOV veov. The metaphor 
is that of stripping off one garment 
to put on another. Compare also 
Rom. xiii 12 drro&a/ie^a ovv ra pya 

TOV O-KOTOVS, fvdvO~C0p6a df TO. 6V\a TOV 

dvao~rpo(pTjv\ Comp. 
Trore in ii 35 &nd for dvao~rpe(pfo~6ai 
as a synonym of irfpnraTelv see the 
note on ii 2. 

iraXaiov av0pa>7rov] Comp. Rom. 
vi 6 o TraXaioy T^/XCOV avdpuTros avve- 
a-Tavpatirj. IlaXau s stands in contrast 
alike to <aiv6s (v. 24), new in the sense 
of fresh, and to veos (Col. iii 10), new 
in the sense of young. The old man 
is here spoken of as <p6fip6p,evos, in 
process of decay, as well as morally 
corrupt ; we need in exchange a per 
petual renewal of youth (dvaveovo-Qai), 
as well as a fresh moral personality 
(/can/or avdpoiiros). The interchange 
of tenses deserves attention: diroQt- 
crdai...(p6ipbiJ.(vov. . .dvavfovadai.. .evdv- 
a-ao-dat. Viewed as a change of gar 
ments the process is momentary; 
viewed as an altered life it is con 

23. 7rvvp.aTi TOV voos] The mind 
had been devoid of true purpose (ev 

/xaraioTTjn TOV voos t V. 17), for the 

heart had been dull and dead (Sta TTJV 
7T(op(t>o~iv TTJS Kapdias, v. 1 8). The spi 
ritual principle of the mind must 
acquire a new youth, susceptible of 
spiritual impressions. The addition 
of rov voos vp.<uv indicates that the 
Apostle is speaking of the spirit in 
the individual : in itself dvave ovo~6ai 
TOJ TTvcvpaTi would have been am 
biguous in meaning. We may com 
pare his use of TO o-<5/Aa TTJS o-apubs 
in speaking of the earthly 

body of our Lord, Col. i 22, ii ii. 

24. KOTO 6eov] after God : God 
Himself is the TWOS after which the 
new man is created. The allusion is to 
Gen. i 27 KCIT eluova 6eov fTToiycrcv 
avTov, the language of which is more 
closely followed in CoL iii 10 TOV veov 
TOV dva.Kaivovp,vov els eTriyvwo iv Kar 
KTiaavros avTov. 

For the usual distinction 
between OO-IOTTJS and ftuuuoov)*}, as 
representing respectively duty to.wards 
God and duty towards men (Plato, 
Philo), see Lightfoot s note on i Thess. 
ii 10 oo-iW KCU dizains (Notes on Epp. 
p. 27 f.). The combination was a 
familiar one ; comp. Wisd. ix 3, Luke 

i 75- 

d\r]6fias] to be taken with both the 
preceding substantives, l in righteous 
ness and holiness which are of the 
truth ; not as A. V. in righteousness 
and true holiness . There is an im 
mediate contrast with the lusts of 

deceit , KOTO. Tas eTTidv/J-ias TTJS dnarris 
v. 22 ; just as in v. 15 d\T)6cvovTes 
stands in contrast with TTJS ir\dvr]s. 
Truth as applied to conduct (see also 
v. 21) is a leading thought of this 
section, and gives the starting-point 
for the next. 

25 V. 2. I have said that you 
must strip off the old and put on the 
new, renounce the passions of deceit 
and live the life of truth. Begin 
then by putting away lying : it is con 
trary to the truth of the Body that 
one limb should play another false. 
See that anger lead not to sin ; if 
you harbour it, the devil will find a 
place among you. Instead of steal 
ing, let a man do honest work, that 
he may have the means of giving to 


a<5 Aid CLTToGefJievoi TO ->Jsev$os A A A e ? T e A A H 6 e i A N 

6 K A C T O C M e T A TOY TT A H C I N AYTOY, OTt eCT/ULei/ 

a Opri z C0 KAI MH AMApTA NeTe 6 

vfjiwv, ^imrj^e S/SoT6 TOTTOV 

others. Corrupt talk must give way 
to good words, which may build up 
your corporate life, words of grace in 
the truest sense: otherwise you will 
pain the Holy Spirit, the seal of your 
present unity and your future re 
demption. The bitter temper must 
be exchanged for the sweet for kind 
ness and tenderheartedness and for- 
givingness. God in Christ has for 
given you all, and you must copy 
Him, for you are His children whom 
He loves. In* love you too must live, 
such love as Christ s, which is the 
love of sacrifice . 

25. dn-ode/iei/ot] repeated from oV- 
oOeo-Oai, v. 22; but the metaphor 
of the garment is dropped, and the 
sense is now more general, not put 
ting off but putting away\ So in 
Col. iii 8 wvl 8e dirodeo-fle /cat vpsis TO. 
iravrct, opyijv, K.r.A., before the meta 
phor has been introduced by direit&v- 
o-dpevoi (v. 9). We cannot with pro 
priety give the same rendering here 
and in v. 22, as putting away a gar 
ment does not in English signify put 
ting it off. 

TO ^evSos] The word is suggested 
by rrjs dXrjdeia? in the preceding verse ; 
but it is used not in its more general 
sense of falsehood , but in the nar 
rower sense of lying , as is shewn 
by the next words. Comp. John viii 
44 orav XaXf) TO -ty-evdos, K.r.A. 

AaAetre *e.r.X.] An exact quotation 
from Zech. viii 16, except that there 
we have irpbs rbv for p,era TOV. In 
Col. iii 9 the precept /XT) ^evdca-de els 
d\\r)\ovs occurs, but without the 
reason here given, which is specially 
suggested by the thought of this 

26. opyi&o-Qe K.T.A.] Ps. iv 4, LXX. ; 
where we render Stand in awe and 

sin not (but R. V. marg. has Be ye 
angry ). The Hebrew means literally 
* tremble : so Aquila (KAoz>ei<r0e) : but 
it is also used of anger. 

o tfXtos K.T.A.] Grotius and others 
cite the remarkable parallel from 
Plut. de amore fratr. 488 B clra 
pifjielo-Qai rovs HvdayopiKovs, oi yevet 
\ur\6tv Trpoar/Kovres aAAa KOIVOV Ao-yov 
Here^ovreSf ( more Trpoa^delev els AoiSo- 
pias vrf opyfjs, irpiv 17 TOV rj\iov dvvai 
TO.S deias e/ji/SaAAoiTes 1 dAArjAot? Ka! 
aa Trao d/xe^oi die\vovro. For the form 
of the precept compare Deut. xxiv 

15 av6rjfj.pov aTToSwo-eip TOV p.t(r6bv 
avTOv (sc. TOV TrevrjTos}, OVK. 7ri8vo~fTai, 
o ffXios eV aurw : and Evang. Petri 
2, 5, and the passages quoted by 
Dr Swete ad loc. 

Trapopyia-p.^] The word does not 
appear to be found outside biblical 
Greek, although 7rapopyi Co/i<u (pass.) 
sometimes occurs. In the LXX. it 
always (with the exception of a 
variant in A) has an active meaning, 
4 provocation , whereas napo^o-pos 
is used in the passive sense, indigna 
tion : Trapopyifriv and irapogvveiv are 
of common occurrence and often ren 
der the same Hebrew words. Here 
irapopyio-fjibs is the state of feeling 
provocation, l wrath 1 . Hapopyi&iv oc 
curs below, vi 4. 

27. Si Sore TOTTOV] In Rom. xii 19 Sore 
TOITOV rfj opyrj the context ( Vengeance 
is Mine ) shews that the meaning is 
make way for the Divine wrath . 
The phrase occurs in Ecclus. iv 5 /*r) 
Scoff TOTTOV dv0p(0TT(0 Ka.Tapd(Ta.cr6al ae, 
XIX 17 8bs TOTTOV po/ico Y^tVrou (give 
room for it to work), xxxviii 12 /cat 
tarpai o*bs TOTTOV (allow him scope). It 
is found in the later Greek writers, 
as in Plutarch, Moral. 462 B Set de 
p.f)T iraifrvTas avrfj (sc. TTJ opyrj] St- 

IV 28, 29 ] 




* \ \ 



, iua\\oi 

e/c TOV 



SoVai TOTTOV : but it is perhaps almost a 
Latinism : comp. locum dare (Cic. al.). 

&a/3oX<u] There is no ground for 
interpreting this with some of the 
older commentators as meaning here 
a slanderer : for although the word 
is not used by St Paul outside this 
epistle and the Pastoral Epistles, its 
sense is unmistakeable in vi. 1 1. 

28. 6 /cXeVrtai/] The man who has 
been given to stealing, as distinguished 
from o K\TTT7js, a common thief, and 
also from o xXe^ay, one who has stolen 
on a particular occasion. 

KOTTidrca K.r.X.] Compare i Cor. iv 
12 KOTrioj/Mei/ cpya^o/zei/ot rats Idiais 
Xfpo-iv, and I Thess. iv. 1 1 epydeo-0ai 
Tals xepcrii> V^IMV. On the other hand 
we have in Rom. ii 10 and Gal. vi 10 

the phrase cpydc(r0ai TO dyaBov (which 

is to be compared with ipy&*<r6tu ryv 
dvopiav, frequent in the Psalms and 
found in Matt, vii 23). Here the 
combination of the two phrases gives 
an effective contrast with K\e7rriv. 
For the addition of Idiots see the note 
on various readings. 

29* Xoyos (raTrpos ] SaTrpos 1 pri 
marily means * rotten or corrupt : 
but in a derived sense it signifies 
effete, and so ( worthless. It is 
often joined with TraXaios, which it 
approaches so nearly in meaning that 
it can even be used in a good sense of 
old and mellow wines. Ordinarily, 
however, it signifies old and worn 
out : see the passages collected by 
Wetstein on Matt vii 18. In the 
Gospels it stands as the antithesis of 
dya66s and KaX6s: Matt, vii 17 f., xii 
33, Luke vi 43, of the bad 5 as con 
trasted with the good tree and 
fruit; Matt, xiii 48 of the bad as 


, d\\d ei 


contrasted with the good fish (ra 
*aXa). In these places the word is 
used in the sense of worthless ; : and 
the original meaning of corruptness 
has entirely disappeared. It does not 
follow that the word as used by St 
Paul means only idle* or worthless , 
like the pfjfut dpyov of Matt, xii 36. 
The context requires a stronger sense; 
the sin rebuked is on a level with 
lying and stealing. If it does not go 
so far as the alcrxpoXoyia of Col. iii 8, 
it certainly includes the papoXoyia 
and evrpcnreXia which are appended 
in Eph. v 4. 

s] For ns, whatever , 
comp. Phil. iv. 8. Ayatfc p is morally 
good, in contrast to o-aTrpos, and not 
merely good for a purpose, which 
would be expressed by evdeTo?. Com 
pare Hom. XV 2 eKacTTos f)\i>v ro> 
7r\r)crioi> dpeaxe ro) els TO dyaOov TTpos 

rrjs xpei ay] Xpei a is (l) need, (2) 
an occasion of need, (3) the matter in 
hand. For the last sense compare 
Acts vi 3 ovs KaTCKTrrjo-o/JLev e-rrl TTJS 

Xpeias Tavrrjs, and Tit. iii 14. Wetstein 
quotes Plut. Pericl. 8 6 Ilept/cX^ Trepi 
TOV \6yov fvXaftrjs $v, o>W del trpbs TO 



The meaning here is, for building 
up as the matter may require , or 
l as need may be . 

The Old Latin had ad aedifica- 
tionemjfidei, and the bilingual MSS 
D 2 *G 3 read TriVreeos for xpftas. Jerome 
substituted opportunitatis forfidei*. 
Further evidence is given in the note 
on various readings. 

For x<*P ls m respect of 





[IV 30 32 

3 icca jULrj \V7relT TO Trvevjuia TO d<yiov TOV 
6eov, ev ft) (T<l)pa<yi(r6riT6 eis rjfjtepav aTroXvTpwcrews. 
3I 7racra TTiKpia Kai Bu^os Kal opyr] Kai Kpavyrj Kai fi\a- 
d(f> VJULOOV (Tvv Trdcrri KaKia. 

speech compare Col. iv 6 d \6yos 
vp.a>v irdvroTe ev ^apiri, aXan r)pTvp.evos 
(seasoned with the true salt of 
speech), and Col. iii 16 wdals irvcvpa- 
TiKats cv xapm K.r.A. Compare also 
the contrast between cvTpaire\ia and 
evxapio-ria below in v 4 ; and see the 
detached note on x a P iS - We cannot 
reproduce in English the play upon 
the two meanings of x a P ls * n ^ s 

30. M AvTreZre] Compare Isa. Ixiii. 
IO 7rapa>vvav TO Trvevpa TO dyiov avTov. 
On our present passage is founded 
the remarkable injunction of the 
Shepherd of Hernias in regard to 
\virrj (Mand. x). The interpretation 
there given is capricious and purely 
individualistic : apov ovv drro travro 
rrjv \V7TT]V KCU (MTJ $At/3e TO Trvevpa TO 
ayiov TO ev (roi KaToiKovv...To yap 
irvfvpa TOV 6eov TO doBev els TTJV aapKa 

TOVTTjV XvTTTjV OV^ V7TO(j)fpl Ovd (TTfVO- 

Xcvpiav. evdvo-ai ovv TTJV i\ap6rr)Ta t 
K.T.X. To St Paul on the contrary the 
Spirit is the bond of the corporate 
life, and that grieves Him which 
does not tend to the building-up of 
the Christian society. We may com 
pare Rom. xiv 15 et yap dia jSpeo/id 
o dde\(p6s (rov XvTretrai, ovxert jcara 
dycnrrjv ircpiiraTels : and Jerome On 
Ezek. xviii 7 ( ValL v 207) : in euan- 
gelio quod iuxta Hebraeos Nazaraei 
legere consueuerunt inter maxima 
ponitur crimina, qui fratris sui spi- 
ritum contristawrit 1 . That which 
tends not to build but to cast down, 
that which grieves the brother, grieves 
the Spirit which is alike iu him and 
in you. 

ecr(ppayi<r6r)T] The whole clause is 
an echo of i 13 f. o~<f>pay[o-6r)T r<5 
TTJS CTTayyeXias T< oyio>...etff 

TTJS Trepnrot^crecos. The 
Spirit was the seal of the complete 
incorporation of the Gentiles. Com 
pare further i Cor. xii 13 Kal yap ev 
evl TTvevpaTt ^pels irdvres els ev o-apa 
ej3airTi<r6r)fj.ev, eire louSatot eire^EXA^- 

VS, K.T.A. 

31. TriKpia] The three other pas 
sages in which this word occurs 
borrow their phraseology directly or 
indirectly from the Old Testament 
(Acts viii 23, Rom. iii 14, Heb. xii 1 5). 
Here the usage is genuinely Greek, 
and may be compared with Col. iii 19 
/*>} TTiKpaiveo-tie irpbs avTas. Aristotle 
in discussing various forms of anger 
says (Eth. Nic. iv n): ol p.ev ovv 
opylXoi Taxeas pev dpyiovTai, KOL OLS 
ov Set, Kal e<p* ois ov 8ei, Kal p.aX\ov tj 
del" Travovrai de ra^eo>s...oi de iriKpol 
dvo~8idXvToi } Kal iro\vv XP VOV opyiov- 
Tai KaTcxovtri yap TOV 6vp.6v. It 
appears, then, that inKpla is an em 
bittered and resentful spirit which 
refuses reconciliation. 

tivpos K.T.A.] Compare Col. iii 8 
opyrjv, 6v}ioVj KaKiav, /SAao-cpTj/xiW, ai- 
o-xpoAoyiai/, and see Lightfoot s notes 
on these words. The Stoics distin 
guished between 0vp.6s, the outburst 
of passion, and opyr/, the settled feel 
ing of anger. 

Kpavyij] outcry : but, here only, in 
the bad sense of clamouring against 
another. Its meaning is defined by 
its position after dpyj, and before 
/3Aacr</>?7/z/a ( evil speaking or slander- 

ing 1 )- 

dp^Vco] Compare i Cor. v. 2 Iva 
ap6rf ett. pea-ov vp.a>v 6 TO epyov TOVTO 
irpdgas. St Paul uses the word again 
only in i Cor. vi 15 and Col. ii 

malice , not wickedness 7 : 

IV 3 2] 



ls Kadats Kcti 6 6eos ev Xpi<TTcp e^apicraTO VJULIV. 

it is so on account of the clause which 
follows : they among themselves must 
do for themselves what God has done 
for them. 

Origen, who noted the variation, 
was led by it to interpret x a P l CP- V0i 
in the sense of giving as God has 
* given to us, as in Horn, viii 32 TTW? 

comp. Tit. iii 3 tv KaKta Kal 

32. xprjo-roi K.T.X.] The parallel 
passage, Col. iii 12, has: eVSi5crao-0e... 

7Tivo<ppo(TvvT)v 7 
dvxdfj.evot d\\ij\<ov, KOI 
eavTots, fdv rts irpos nva 
Ka6<os KO.I 6 Kvpios e^apiVaro vfiiv, ovro> 
KCU vfjiels. In our epistle the demand 
for humility and forbearance has been 
made before (iv 2); kindness, tender 
ness, forgivingness are now enforced. 

evcnr\ayxvot] The word occurs 
again only in i Pet. iii 8. It is not 
found in the LXX, but occurs in the 
Prayer of Manasses (. 7) which is one 
of the Canticles appended to the 
Greek Psalter. It is also found, with 
its substantive eva-nXayxvia, in the 
Testam. xii patriarch. Hippocrates 
uses it in a literal sense of a healthy 
condition of the <rir\dyxva, as he also 
uses peyaXocrirXayxvos of their enlarge 
ment by disease. Euripides, Rhes. 
192, has eva-TrXayxvia metaphorically 
for a stout heart . The use of the 
word for tenderness of heart would 
thus seem to be not classical, but 
Jewish in origin, as Lightfoot suggests 
in regard to <nr\ayxvi&<r6ai in his 
note on Phil, i 8. Tio\\><rrr\ayxvos 
occurs in Jas. v n, with a variant 
iro\vcv(nr\ayxvos : see Harnack s note 
on Herm. Vis. i 3 2. 

favrois] For the variation of the 
pronoun after the preceding els dXXif- 
\ovs see Lightfoot s note on Col. iii 13 

i o~vv avro) TO, iravTCL r^i 
<rercu; The kindness and tender 

TOIS. To the instances there cited 
should be added Luke xxiii 12 cyc- 
vovro de $&M...fMr aXX;Xo>i/ Trpoij- 
Trfjpxov yap ev ex^pq ovres irpbs avTovs, 
where the change is made for variety s 
sake (Blass Gram. N. T. 48, 9). 
The same reason suffices to explain 
the variation here. If eavroly is the 
more appropriate in the second place, 

heartedness which we shew els d 
Xovs, he says, is in fact shewn rather 
to ourselves, Sta TO o-va-craJ/^ov? facts 
aval. . .TOVTCL $e eavrols ^apto/ne$a, o<ra 
Kal o flebs ijfjuv ev Xptcrrw e^apiVaro. 
But the parallel in CoL iii 13, where 
edv TLS irpos nva exu f*op.(pijv is added, 
is in itself decisive against this view. 
The Latin rendering donantes... 
donauit lends it no support, as may 
be seen at once from Col. ii 13 l do- 
nantes uobis omnia delicta\ a use of 
donare which is Ciceronian. 

eV Xpt<rrw] in Christ , not for 
Christ s sake as in A.V. The expres 
sion is intentionally brief and preg 
nant. Compare 2 Cor. v 19 0ebs r\v 
ev Xpio-ro) Koa-fiov KaraXXdo-o-coi/ eaurw, 
where the omission of the definite 
articles, frequent in pointed or pro 
verbial sayings, has the effect of pre 
senting this as a concise summary of 
the truth (o \6yos rfjs KaraXXayrjs). 
In Col. iii 13 we have simply o Kvpios 
(or 6 XpioT-os). Here however the 
mention of o 6e6s enables the Apostle 
to expand his precept and to say yi- 
V<r6e ovv]Tal TOV 6fov K.T.\. 

fxapia-aro] hath forgiven . Tor- 
gave (Col. iii 13 A.V.) is an equally 
permissible rendering. It is an error 
to suppose that either is more faithful 
than the other to the sense of the 
aorist, which, unless the context 
decides otherwise, represents an in 
definite past.\ On the variants here and in 
v 2 see the note on various readings. 



V. l yiVcr& ovv jJUfjiriTal TOV 6eov, ois TeKva 
a fccu TrepiTraTeire ev ay CLTTT^ , /cafttk Kal 6 %pi(rTOS riyd- 
irr]crev i)/zas teal TrapedcoKev eavTov vmp V/ULMV n p o c- 
6 Y c i A N TOO ueco eic OCMHN EY^AIAC. 

(p p AN K Al 

V. i. p,i/ir?ra(] Again and again 
we find in St Paul s epistles such 
expressions as /up^ral rj^cSi/ (i Thess. 
i 6), /u/iTjrai /zov (i Cor. iv 16, xi i). 
[uij.elo~6ai TjfjLas (2 Thess. iii 7* 9)* 
Here he boldly bids his readers 
follow God s example , copy God . 
Comp. Ign. Eph. I /up^rai 6Wes c^eoO, 
Trail. I evpav vp,as cos eyvow p-t^Tas 
oi/ras 6eov. 

Tewa ayaTrr/ra] l as His beloved chil 
dren . The epithet leads the way to 
the further precept KOL irepiirarelTe ev 

2. 7rapeda>Kev\ The closest parallels 
are in v. 25 Ka0a>s KOI 6 xptarbs yya- 
TTT)<T(V rrjv KK\r)criav KOI eavrbv Trape Sco- 
Kfv irrrep avTrjS) and Gal. ii 20 TOV vlov 
TOV 6eov TOV ayairrjcravTos fie Kal Trapa- 
dovros cavTov VTrep e /xoO. But we may 
also compare Gal. i 4 TOV 86vros eavTov 
VTrep T>V a/napricof qfjunv, and in the 
Pastoral Epistles o Sous eavrbv dvri- 
XvTpov VTrep TTCIVTUV (i Tim. ii 6), 6s 
fdo>Kev eavTov v-rrep THJLUV (Tit. ii 14). 
In Rom. viii 32 the action is ascribed 
to the Father, vnep T^COI/ irdvTtov irape- 
8(0Kv avTov, and in Rom. iv 25 we 
have the verb in the passive, 6s Trape- 
d66r) Sta TO 7rapa7rrtk)/u.ara rnjiatv. Ill 
the last two passages, as in the fre 
quent occurrences of the word in the 
Gospels, there is probably a reference 
to Isa. liii 9, 12. It is to be noted 
that in none of these passages is any 
allusion to the idea of sacrifice added, 
as there is in the present case. 

v/xcoj/] For the variant f)n&v see the 
note on various readings. 

irpo<T(popav teal Qvcriav] These Words 
are found in combination in Ps. xxxix 
(xl) 7 0vo~iav Kal TT poo~(popav ov< T^eA?)- 
tras (quoted in Heb. x 5, 8). npo<r- 
<popa is very rare in the LXX (apart 
from Ecclus.), whereas 6vo-ia is ex 

ceedingly common. St Paul uses 7rpo<r- 
<popd again only in speaking of the 
offering of the Gentiles , Rom. xv. 16: 
Ova-La he employs again four times 
only (once of heathen sacrifices). It is 
therefore probable that here he bor 
rows the words, half-consciously at 
least, from the Psalm. 

els oo~iJ.r)v 6vco8t as] Oa/i^ is found 
in the literal sense in John xii 3. 
Otherwise it occurs only in St Paul 
and in every case in connexion with 
uco5ia, which again is confined to his 
epistles. The passages are 2 Cor. ii 
14 16 TTJV oo-fj,r)v TTJS yi/cocrecos avTov 
(pavepovvri bi 7)/zc3i> ev TTOVTI TOTTCO* ort 
Xpicrrov evcoSta eo~fj,ev rw 6e(& ev rots 
(Tto^ofievois /cat ev rois aTroXXv/Mei/ots 
ois p.ev 007x77 CK. 6avd.Tov K.T.X., and 
Phil. iv. 1 8 TreTrXrJpoo/Aai df^d/jievos Trapa 
E7ra(ppo8/Tov ra Trap vpatv, 6o-prjv eva)- 
ftias, Gvaiav Se^rr;!/, evdpearov rco ^ea>, 
where the wording is closely parallel 
to that of the present passage. The 
Apostle is still employing Old Testa 
ment language: oo-p-r) 5co& as, or els 
oo-prjv evoodi as, occurs about forty times 
in the Pentateuch and four times in 
Ezekiel. The fact that he uses the 
metaphor with equal freedom of the 
preaching of the Gospel and of the 
gifts of the Philippians to himself 
should warn us against pressing it too 
strongly to a doctrinal use in the 

Jerome, doubtless reproducing Ori- 
gen, comments as follows: Qui pro 
aliorum salute usque ad sanguinem 
contra peccatum dimicat, ita ut et 
animam suam tradat pro eis, iste 
ambulat in caritate, imitans Christum 
qui DOS in tantum dilexit ut crucem 
pro salute omnium sustineret. quo- 
modo enim ille se tradidit pro nobis, 
sic et iste pro quibus potest libenter 

, 4] 




z Tlopveia Se KCLL dKa6apa~ia Trdcra fj 

ev v/uuv, Kadcos Trpejrei dyiois, 4 Kat aicr^po- 
rj evTpa7re\ia, a OVK. dvfJKev, d\\a 

occumbens imitabitur eum qui obla- 
tionem et hostiam in odorem suaui- 
tatis se patri tradidit, et fiet etiam 
ipse oblatio et hostia deo in odorem 
suauitatis . So too Chrysostom : Opas 
TO virep e\Qpa>v 7ra6elv on OO~/ZT) evco- 
8ias e ort, 6v<rla fvirpotrdeKTos ; K.O.V 
cnroOdvrjs, rore earj 6v(ria- TOVTO p-tp-T]- 
vacrQai eo-ri rov Qeov. 

3 14. The gross sins of lust and 
rapacity must not even be mentioned 
for are you not numbered with 
saints? Nothing foul, nothing even 
foolish must pass your lips: let the 
grace of wit be superseded by the 
truer grace of thanksgiving. You 
know for certain that these black sins 
exclude from the kingdom. Let no 
false subtilty impose upon you: it is 
these things which bring down God s 
wrath on the heathen world. With 
that world you can have no fellowship 
now : you are light, and not darkness 
as you were. As children of light 
you must walk, and find the fruit of 
light in all that is good and true. 
Darkness has no fruit : with its fruit 
less works you must have no partner 
ship: nay, you must let in the light 
and expose them those secrets of 
unspeakable shame. Exposure by the 
light is manifestation : darkness made 
manifest is turned to light. So we 
sing: Sleeper awake, rise from the 
dead: the Christ shall dawn upon 
thee . 

3. rj TrXeovegla] Comp. IV 19 els 
epyaa-iav a.Ka6apa-ias Trda-rjs ev ir\eo- 
ve^ia. It is clear that rr\eoveia has in 
the Apostle s mind some connexion 
with the class of sins which he twice 
sums up under the term oKadapa-la 
iraa-a : yet it is not included, as some 
have supposed, in this class: other 
wise we should have expected the 
order tropveLa de Kai irXeovet-ia KOI 

Neither is it a sy- 
nonym for anaQapa-ia irao-a : for in 
Col. iii 5 (quoted below on v. 5) it 
stands even more clearly apart at the 
close of the list, being introduced by 
/cat TTJV, as here by the disjunctive rj. 

4. alo-xporrjs] occurs here only in 
the Greek bible ; but in Col. iii 8 we 
have wvl de aTtoOe&Qe KOL vpels TO. 
TravrOj opyjjv, $v/xoi>, Kaxiai/, /SXatr^)?;- 
piav, aicrxpoXayiav e< rov oro/^aros 


papoXoyia] Comp. Plut. Mor. 504 B 
OVTO>S ov "\lseyeTai TO iriveiv, el 
ro> irivfiv TO (ncoTrav- aXX 


rj] The disjunctive particle sepa 
rates evTpaTreXia from ala-xpoTTjs and 
poopoXoyia, which are in themselves 
obviously reprehensible. Moreover 
the isolation of eiVpcm-eAm prepares 
the way for the play upon words in 
its contrast with ev^apia-rio. 

eurpaTreXta] versatility nearly al 
ways of speech and so facetiousness 
and witty repartee. Aristotle regards 
it as the virtuous mean between 
scurrility and boorishness: Eth. Nic. 
ii 7 13 irepl Se TO TJOV TO fj,ev ev TraiSta, 

pev [j.eo-os evTpcnreXos Kai T) 8ia6c(ris 
eurpanreXi a, ) 5e VTrepftoXr) /Sco/zoXo^/a 
KCU o e^coi/ avTTjv /3co/LioXo^os, 6 8 eXXei- 
Trwv aypolKos TIS Kai r\ eis aypotKia. 
In certain circumstances, however, Kai 

01 j3co/MoXo^ot evTpdrre\oi Trpocrayopevov- 
Tai CBS x a pt VTS (ibid, iv 14 4); this 
does not mean that evTpairc\ia be 
comes a bad thing, but that the bad 
thing (j3co/iioXo^t a) puts itself forward 
under the good name. Comp. Rhet. 
ii 12 ad Jin. T) yap evrpaire\ia ireirat- 
devpevT] vftpts eVmV: this is not given 
as a definition of the word : the point 
is that as youth affects v/3pis, so evTpa- 
TreXi a, which is a kind of insolence 
within bounds , is also a characteristic 



i/ ev^apLCTTia. ^TOVTO yap icrre yivcoarKovTes OTL 

of youth. Although this quick-witted 
raillery might easily be associated 
with impropriety of conversation 
and this danger is doubtless in the 
Apostle s mind yet the word itself 
appears to remain free from taint. 
This may be seen, for example, by its 
frequent association with x^P LS an( ^ 
its derivatives : comp. Josephus Antiq. 
xii 4 3 j)(r$eis de eVi rrj xdpin KOI 
evrpaTreXta rov vavi(TKov I Plutarch 
Mor. 52 D (of Alcibiades) /iera evrpa- 

dvrJKev] Comp. Col. iii l8 <as avrjuev 
fv Kvpim, and see Lightfoot s note, in 
which he illustrates the use of the 
imperfect in this word and in Trpoo-rjiecv 
and K.adri<v (Acts xxii 22) by our own 
past tense ought ( = owed ). 

eu^apiorta] St Jerome s exposition 
deserves to be given in full, as it 
throws light not only on the interpre 
tation of the passage but also on the 
history of biblical commentary. Up 
to this point, he says, the Apostle 
seems to have introduced nothing 
foreign to his purpose or alien to 
the context. But in regard to what 
follows, some one may raise the ques 
tion, What has "giving of thanks" to 
do immediately after the prohibition 
of fornication and uncleanness and 
lasciviousness and shamefulness and 
foolish speaking and jesting ? If he 
was at liberty to name some one 
virtue, he might have mentioned 
"justice", or "truth",or "love" : though 
these also would have been somewhat 
inconsequent at this point. Perhaps 
then by "giving of thanks (gratiarum 
actioY is meant in this place not that 
by which we give thanks to God, but 
that on account of which we are called 
grateful or ingratiating (grati sine 
gratiosi] and witty (salsi) among men. 
For a Christian must not be a foolish- 
speaker and a jester : but his speech 
must be seasoned with salt, that it 
may have grace with them that hear 
it. And since it is not usual, except 

with certain learned persons among 
the Greeks, to use the word ^aptrta 
[the editions give ev^apioT/a] as dis 
tinguished from eucharistia, i.a to 
distinguish between gratiosum esse 
and agere gratias, I suppose that the 
Apostle, a Hebrew of the Hebrews, 
used the current word and intended 
to hint at his own meaning in the 
signification of the other word : and 
this the rather, because with the 
Hebrews gratiosus and gratias agens 
are expressed, as they tell us, by one 
and the same word. Hence in Pro 
verbs (xi 1 6): yvvrj fvxdpioros eye/pfi 
dvdpl S6az/, mulier grata suscitat 
uiro gloriam, where it stands for 
gratiosa. We should appear to be 
doing violence to the Scripture in 
thus daring to interpret mulier 
gratias agens as mulier gratiosa, 
were it not that the other editions 
agree with us: for Aquila and Theo- 
dotion and Symmachus have so ren 
dered it, viz. yvvrj xapiros, mulier 
gratiosa, and not eu^aprros, which 
refers to the "giving of thanks". 

Thus far St Jerome. But whence 
this subtle feeling for Greek, this apt 
quotation from the Greek bible, this 
appeal to various translators instead 
of to the Hebrew verity ? We have 
the answer in an extract from Origen s 
Commentary, happily preserved in 
Cramer s Catena: OVK dvfjKe 8e rot? 
dyiois ovde avrrj [sc. evrpaTreXiaj, aXXa 
fj.d\\ov 77 fv TTCKTI Trpbs 6fov v^aprr/a* 
riyovv fvxapia-ria Ka6* rjv ev^apiWovff 
KOI ^ap/eiTa? nvds <f>ap.ev p.<apo\6yov 
pert ovv Kal cvrpdrreXov ov Set eiWu, 
v\dpi,<rTOV 5e KOI ^apt eira. Kal cirel 
dcrvvrfBls e crrt TO elirelv l aXXa /naXXow 
ei5^apiria (sic legendum : ed. 5^api- 
ori a), ra^a dvri TOVTOV ^xpwaro rrj eV 
aXXov Kifj.vrj Xe ei KOL f urcv aXXa 



r TO) ovofjLan rs eu^apioTta? Ka 
TOV fv^aptoTov TOVS OTTO E^patcoi/ 
^pjjo-^at dvrl Trjs evxaptrias (ed. eu^a- 
ptcrrias) Kal vxapirov, K.r.X. He then 



?ras Tropvos fj dicddapTos fj 7T\eovKTrjs , o ecrTiv ei 

KXrjpovofUiiai/ ev Ttj /ScxriXeia TOV XP L ~ 


proceeds to cite the LXX and other 
versions of Prov. xi 16. St Jerome s 
comment is thus fully accounted for, 
and we are able to see how closely he 
followed Origen, his indebtedness to 
whom he expresses in his preface. 
Since this note was written my friend 
Mr J. A. F. Gregg has examined the 
Paris MS of the Catena, and found 
that in both places it gives the word 
fv^aptTia. This word indeed appears 
to have no substantial existence and 
to be a mere conjecture on the part 
of Origen. 

We cannot suppose that St Paul 
meant anything but thanksgiving by 
fvxapHrria. But he was led to his 
choice of the word by the double 
meaning which certainly belongs to 
the adjective ev^a pio-ros (comp., for 
example, Xenoph. Cyrop. ii 2 i J- 
XapurroTaroi Xdyoi). See the note on 
IV 29 iva o> x^P lv r * aKovowiv. 

5. tore yivaxTKOvres] This appears 
to be a Hebraism for ye know of a 
surety . The reduplication with the 
infinitive absolute (18*119 VT and the 
like) occurs 14 times in the Old 
Testament. The LXX generally render 
it by yvovTfs yvaxTfa&e, etc. Some 
times the reduplication is simply 
neglected. In i Sam. xx 3, however, 
we find yiv(&o~K(&v otftfV) and in Jer. 
xlix (xlii) 22 the actual phrase la-re 
yivaxTKovres on occurs in several MSS 
sub asterisco, being a Hexaplaric 
reading which in the margin of Codex 
Marchalianus is assigned to Symma- 

irXfoveKTrjs] See the notes on ?. 3 
and iv 19; and compare CoL iii 5 
TTopvfiav, dica.dapo iav, irados^ eiriOvpiav 
KdKijv, Kai Tf)V 7r\fov^iav rjTis fo-rlv 
eiScoXoXarpto. In the New Testament 
the verb ir\eov<r iv is confined to 
two of St Paul s epistles: it regularly 
means to defraud , 2 Cor. ii. 11 (tva 
p.r) Tr\covfKTr)6a>nfv VTTO TOV 

vii 2, xii 17 f. In i Thess. iv 6 it is 
used in connexion with the sin of 
impurity, TO ^ vrrfpfBaivetv KOI TrAeo- 
veKTclv ev TO> Trpay/xari TOV d8e\(pbv 
avTov. Certain forms of impurity 
involve an offence against the rights 
of others ( thou shalt not covet thy 
neighbour s wife ). Accordingly TrXeo- 
vfia occurs in close proximity to sins 
of impurity in several passages. The 
context in such cases gives a colour 
to the word ; but it does not appear 
that TrXeovfgia can be independently 
used in the sense of fleshly concu 
piscence. The chief passages, besides 
those which have been cited above, 
are I Cor. V 9 ff. eypa-^a vfjuv ev TTJ 
7rifTTo\fj p.T) o-vvavafj-iyvvo-daL nopvois, 
ov jravTfos rots iropvots TOV Koo~fiov 
TOVTOV rj TOIS TrXeoveKTais KCU ap7raiv 
fj idd)\o\a.Tpais, eVei <B<eiXere apa CK 
TOV Kocrfjiov et -\Belv. vvv 8e eypa^a 
Vfuv /AT) o~vvavapiywo~8ai edv TCS dde\(pbs 
ovona^ofjifvos rj Tropi/o? rj 7i\eovKTrjs rj 
etScoXoXarpT/s rf \oidopos rj peOvo-os fj 
ap7ra|, ra> TOIOVTCO fjLrjde crvvca-Qieiv: 
vi 9 f. rj OVK ot Sare on adiKoi 6eov 
/Sao-tXeiai/ ov KKrjpovo/jLTjo-ovcriv ; fj.r) TrXa- 
vatrOe oure nopvoi ovTe eiScoXoXarpat 


(ie6vo~oi, ov Xot Sopot, ov; apirayes (3acri- 
\eiav 6eov K^povo^crovo iv. In the 
former passage 7r\covKTats comes in 
somewhat suddenly when Tropvois alone 
has been the starting-point of the 
discussion ; but the addition KCU ap- 
iragiv shews that the ground of the 
discussion is being extended. The 
latter passage recurs largely to the 
language of the former. For a further 
investigation of TrXeo^/a, and for its 
connexion with etStoXoXarpm, see 
Lightfoot s notes on Col. iii 5. 

TOV xpio-roC KOI 6eov} The article 
is sometimes prefixed to the first only 
of a series of nearly related terms: 
compare ii 20 eVl r<a 6ep.e\i(o r&v 



[V 6i i 

(TTOv Kai 6eov. /uirjSeis v/uias OLTTCLTCLTW /cej/o?? \6yois, 
Sid TavTa yap ep^eTai *] opyri TOV 6eov eiri TOVS viovs 


f ^A 




7repi7raTlT 9 6 yap 

T6Kl/a <pa)TOS 

9 6V KVplCO* 

TOV (pwTOS ev Trdcrrj dyaOco- 
crvvrj Kai SiKaio(rvvr] Kai d\rj6eia *$OKifjid^ovTs TI icTTiv 
6vdp6(TTov TCL Kvplcp Kai fjirf crvvKoivwveiTe Tols epyOK 



K.a Trpo^iyrcoi , 12 r)v 

irapprja iav Kai Trpcxraywyiyv, iii 1 8 ri TO 
TrXaroy Kai /JLTJICOS Kai v\lros Kai fidBos. 

6. Kevols \6yois] The only parallel 
is a close one; CoL ii 8 dta... Kerfs 
d-rraTrjs. Kevos when used of speech 
is practically equivalent to -^evdrjs : 
comp. Didacht 2 OVK carat 6 \oyos 
crov tyevdryS) ov KCVOS^ dXXa ^ie/iecrrco- 
fievos TTpdget : also Arist. Eth. Nic. ii 
7 i Kfvwrepoi (Xoyoi) as opposed to 
d\r)diva>Tfpoi : Galen de diff. puls. iii 6 
(Kiihn viii 672) OVTMS ovv Kai TOVS 
Xoyovs fvioTe tyevdeis 6voudov(ri Kfvovs. 

7. O-VVUCTOXOI] This compound and 
o-vvKoiv<aviTc in v. ii may be con 
trasted with the three compounds 

(TVVKkrjpovofJia^ crvvcraua, (rvt /iero^a, by 

wliich the Apostle emphasised their 
entry into the new fellowship (iii 6). 

g. dyadaxrvvrj] Comp. Rom. XV. 14, 

Gal. v 22, 2 Thess. in. It repre 
sents the kindlier, as diKaioo-vvrj repre 
sents the sterner element in the ideal 
character: comp. Rom. v 7. 

10. doKiudovTcs K.T.X.] Comp. Rom. 

xii 2 els TO 8oKi/j,d^iv vuas TL TO 0\T)fj.a 
TOV 6eovj TO ayaBov Kai vdpfo~Tov Kai 
re Xetoi/: and Col. iii 20 TOTO yap 
fvdpe<TTov ICTTIV ev Kvpia). For the use of 
evdpeo-Tos and its adverb in inscriptions 
see Deissmann Neue Bibelst. p. 42. 

11. cXeyxfTe] The ordinary mean 
ing of e Xe yx"" in the New Testament 
is to reprove , in the sense of to 
rebuke . But in the only other pas 
sage in which the word occurs in 
St Paul s writings (apart from the 
Pastoral Epistles) reproof in words is 

clearly out of place: i Cor. xiv 24 
cav de irdvTs 7rpo(pr)Teva)o-iv, fl<rf\6rj de 
TIS amcrros "rj tSieorTys 1 , eXey^erat vno 
dvaKpiveTai VTTO 7rai/ra>z>, Ta 
a Trjs Kapdias avTov (pavfpd yivc- 
Taij where the verb eXey^eiv seems to 
suggest the explanatory sentence ra 

KpvTTTa...<pavpa yiVereu. So in our 

present passage e Xey^ere is immedi 
ately followed by TO. yap Kpv(pfj yivo- 
ufva, and subsequently we have ra 
de ndvTa e\yxop.cva VTTO TOV (pcoTos 
(pavepovTat. Accordingly it is best to 
interpret the word in the sense of to 
expose ; a meaning which it likewise 
has in John iii 20 pio-ei TO <pa>s Kai 
OVK epxeTai jrpos TO <jf)coy, iva /z?) t Xey^^ 
TO. epya avTov (contrast Iva (pavepa>6fj 
in the next verse). This signification 
is illustrated by "Wetstein from Arte- 

lllidorUS ii 36 tfXios OTTO dva-ecos ft-ava- 
i T<>V \\rj6evat 

, and also from the lexico 

With this interpretation we give 
unity to the whole passage. The 
contrast throughout is between light 
and darkness. First we have, as the 
result of the light, that testing which 
issues in the approval of the good 
(doKiudgfiv} ; secondly, as the result 
of the meeting of the light with the 
darkness, that testing which issues in 
the exposure of the evil (f Xey^eiv). 
And then, since eXeyxfo Oai and (pave- 
povo-6ai are appropriate respectively 
to the evil and the good (as in John 
iii 20, quoted above), the transforma 
tion of the one into the other is 

V 12-14] 

yap Kpv<pn 
v I3 ra Se TTCLVTCL e 
povTai, 7rav yap TO 

VTT* avTcov 





k <f>ave- 
14 &o 

Kal dvdcTTa e /c TCOV 

l 67Tl<f)aVO ei (TOl 6 

marked by the change of the verbs : 

eXfy^ojAfva. ..(pavpovTai...TO (pavepov- 
pevov (pa>s eariv. 

12. alcr^pov ecTTiv Kal Xeyeiv] The 

order of the sentence deserves atten 
tion : TO. yap Kpvcpfj yivopeva stands 
closely connected with cXeyxere, and 
forms a special interpretation of TO. 
fpya TOV <TKOTOVS: whereas alo-xpw 
fcrnv Kal \4yeiv means simply that 
they are unspeakably shameful . 

13. ra de iravra.] This might be 
taken to mean but all these things , 
namely TO. Kpvcpfj yivopcva VTT avT&v. 
It seems however more in St Paul s 
manner to interpret ra iravra as * all 
things , and to regard the article as 
linking together the individual ele 
ments (iravra} and presenting them as 
a whole. The statement accordingly is 
universal in its reference. All things 
when they come to be tested by the 
light cease to be obscure and become 

(pavepovpevov] Omne enim quod 
manifestatur lumen est\ Vulg. To 
render with the Authorised Version 
for whatsoever doth make manifest is 
light is to do violence to the Greek 
(for there is no example in the New 
Testament of the middle voice of 
(pavepovv), and to offer a truism which 
adds nothing to the meaning of the 
passage. In St Paul s mind to be 
come manifest J means to cease to be 
darkness, and to be a partaker of the 
very nature of light : * for everything 
that becomes manifest is light . Thus 
the Apostle has described a process 
by which darkness itself is transformed 
into light. The process had been 

realised in those to whom he wrote: 

ffre yap irore CTKQTOS, vvv 8e <pa>s (v. 8). 

14. St6 Xeyct] Comp. iv. 8. Seve- 
rian (Cramer s Catena ad loc.\ after 
saying that the passage is not to be 
found in the canonical writings, adds : 
r\v rore Kal 

Kada>s Aeyet ev TTJ irpos K.opiv6iovs 


^aA/icoi TJTOI irpoo~v\w 

KITO TOVTO O JLir,6vfV(TeV. The at 

tempts to assign the quotation to an 
apocryphal writing are probably mere 

eTTKpavo-et] For the variants em- 
"^saixTfi and em ^ava fis see the note 
on various readings. 

1 5 33. Be very careful, then, of 
your conduct. By a true wisdom you 
may ransom the time from its evil 
bondage. Cast away folly : under 
stand the Lord s will. Let drunken 
ness, and the moral ruin that it brings, 
be exchanged for that true fulness 
which is the Spirit s work, and which 
finds glad expression in the spiritual 
songs of a perpetual thanksgiving ; in 
a life of enthusiastic gratitude to the 
common Father, and yet a life of 
solemn order, where each knows and 
keeps his place under the restraining 
awe of Christ. The wife, for example, 
has her husband for her head, as the 
Church has Christ, the Saviour of His 
Body : she must accordingly obey her 
protector. So too the husband s pat 
tern of love is Christ s love for the 
Church, for which He gave up Him 
self : and wherefore ? To hallow His 



[V 15, 16 

I5 BAe7rT ovv ctKpi/Sws TTWS TrepnraTeiTe, 
aaro(f>OL dXM o)s o"o<poi, * 6 e 

Bride by a sacramental cleansing, to 
present her to Himself in the glory 
of a perfect beauty, with no spot of 
disfigurement, no wrinkle of age. But 
Christ s Bride is also Christ s Body : 
and the husband must love his wife 
as being his own body. Who hates 
his own flesh? Who does not feed 
and tend it ? So is it with Christ and 
the Church : for we are the limbs of 
His Body. Is it not written of 
marriage, that the two shall be one 
flesh ? Great is the hidden meaning 
of those words. I declare them to be 
true of Christ and the Church : your 
part is to realise their truth in your 
respective spheres : as the fear of 
Christ is met by Christ s love, so let 
the wife fear, and the husband love . 

15. BAeWe] St Paul frequently 
uses P\eTTiv in the sense of to take 
heed : (i) with the accusative, as in 

Col. IV. 17 /SXeVe TIJV dianoviav (look to, 

consider), Phil, iii 2 TOVS Kvvas K.T.\. 
(beware of); (2) with iva or w, fre 
quently; (3) with 7nSs, here and in 
I Cor. iii 10 CKOO-TOS 8e /3Xe7re r<o Treoy 
eVoiKo8o/zeZ. Here only we have the 
addition of a<pt/3o>s, take careful 
heed . On the variant TTW? aKpiftas 
see the note on various readings. 

TreptTrareZre] The repetition of this 
word takes us back to v. 8 cos re/era 
<pa>Tos irepiiraTciTe. The particle ovv 
is resumptive. The metaphor of dark 
ness and light is dropped, and the 
contrast is now between acro<pot and 

1 6. egayopatfpevoi] Comp. Col. iv 
5 ev crofpiq Trepwraretre Trpbs TOVS ea>, 
TOV Kaipov ayopa6pvoi. Ayopdfciv 
is used of persons by St Paul only in 
the phrase ^yopao-tfj/re rt/A^y, I Cor. vi 
20, vii 23, in each case the metaphor 
being of purchase into servitude. So 
we have in 2 Pet. ii I TOV ayopdxravra 
avTovs deoTroTTjv. It is used of the 
redeemed in the Apocalypse, v 9, 


xiv 3 f. Egayopdfciv is only used by 
St Paul, and in the two other places 
in which it occurs it has the meaning 
of buying out or away from : GaL 
iii 13 Xpio-Tos f^Tjyopaa-ev e /e TTJS 
Karapas, iv. 5 iva TOVS VTTO vopov eayo- 
pda-Tj. This meaning of ransoming, 
redeeming is found in other writers. 

There seems to be no authority for 
interpreting the word, like a-wayopd- 
civ and mnxMturftu, as 4 to buy up 
(coemere). Polyb. iii 42 2 is cited as 
an example, e^yopao-e Trap avTav TO. 
re juoi/ouXa TrXota irdvTa (Hannibal 
bought all the boats of the natives in 
order to cross the Rhone) ; but the 
sense of buying up is given by the 
addition of TroWa, and the verb itself 
both there and in Plut. Grass. 2 need 
mean no more than to buy . In 
Mart. Polyc. 2 we have the middle 
voice as here, but in the sense of 
buying off (comp. the use of e^covet- 
o~0ai and eWpi ao-^ai), did fjnas topas 
TTJV aiwviov KoXa(riv ^ayopa^6/j.voi. 

A close verbal parallel is Dan. ii 8 
olda OTI Kaipov vpels fayopdfT, I 
know of a certainty that ye would gain 
the time (Aram. PJ3J j-IJ^K ^^ *"!), 
but this meaning is not applicable to 
our passage. The Apostle appears to 
be urging his readers to claim the 
present for the best uses. It has got, 
so to speak, into wrong hands the 
days are evil days they must pur 
chase it out of them for themselves. 
Accordingly the most literal transla 
tion would seem to be the best, re 
deeming the time -, but not in the 
sense of making up for lost time, as 
in the words Redeem thy misspent 
time that s past . 

TOV Kaipov] A distinction is often 
to be clearly marked between XP OVOS 
as time* generally, and Kaipos the 
fitting period or moment for a par 
ticular action . But /ccupos is by no 
means limited to this latter sense. 


OTI al q/uepcu 7TOvr]pai eicriv. I? S*a TOVTO JJLYI yivearSe 
axbpoves) d\\d crvvieTe TL TO 6e\rjjULa TOV Kvpiov l8 /ccu 
MH MeGycKecee ofN^eVw earTiv cwrama, d\\d 7T\rj- 

Thus in St Paul we have 6 vvv Katpo?, 
Rom. iii 26, viii 18 (ra iraQrj^ara TOV 
vvv KatpoC), xi 5 : and o Kaipos alone, 
for the time that now is, or that still 
is left, Rom. xiii 1 1 etSore? TOV Kaipov, 
OTI (Spa rjdr] e vnvov eyepBfjvai, 
I Cor. vii 29 o Kaipbs (TvveoToXpevos 
forty. See also Gal. vi 10 <$ Kaipbv 
f xopfv, which Lightfoot takes to mean 
as we have opportunity ; but he 
allows that * there is no objection to 
rendering it "while we have time"/ 
and compares Ignat. Smyrn. 9 as en 
Kaipov e^o/if y, and [2 Clem.] 8, 9. 

TTOi/r/pat] Compare vi 13 dvTiarrjvai 
V Tfl rffJiepa TT) irovrjpa, and Gal. i 4 

K TOV altoVOS TOV V0~Ta)TOS 7TOVr)po. 

Though the days are evil , they are 
capable in some degree at least of 
transformation : the time may be 
rescued. So Origen interprets the 
whole passage: olovfl eavTols TOV KOI- 
pov avovpevot, e^ovra o5s Trpos TOV 
av6pu>iTivov /3iof Trovrjpas ypepas. OTC 
ovv e is TI deov TOV Kaipbv Ka.Tava\io-KO- 

ireirpafjievov TT TWV v- 
.egayopa6iJivoi de TOV 
Kaipbv ovra ev ypepais rrovrjpals, oiovfl 
fAfTaTToiovfjiev Tas Trovrjpas i)/iepaff els 

dyaflds, /c.r.X. Severian s comment 
(also in Cramer s Catena) is similar : o 

et-ayopa6/jievos TOV d\\6rpiov 8ov\ov 
e|ayopa^erat Kal KTOTOI UVTOV. eVet ovv 
6 Kaipbs b irapaiv 8ov\evei Tols irovrjpo is, 
fayopd<rao~d avTov, coore /eara^p^o-a- 
(rdai auro) Trpbs evo-eftfiav. 

17. o-vvicTe /c.r.X.] Comp. V. IO 

doKi/jid^ovres AC.T.X. For the variant 
o~vvievTs see the note on various 

1 8. firj Hf6vo-K.a6e o ivwi] So Prov. 

xxiii 31 (LXX only), according to the 
reading of A. B has ev oivois, X o Lvois . 
We might hesitate to accept the 
reading of A, regarding it as an 

assimilation to the text of our passage, 
but that Origen confirms it (Tisch. 
Not. Cod. Sin. p. 107). As the words 
ev oivois occur in the preceding verse, 
the change in B is probably due to a 
desire for uniformity. 

atrom a] Comp. Tit. i 6 Texva e^coz/ 
a, ev KaTrjyopiq. do~a>Tias rf dv- 
, I Pet. IV 4 A 17 ) o~vvTpc\bvr(j)v 
vp&v els TTJV avTrjv TTJS do~(OTias dvd%vo~iv. 

The adverb is used in Luke xv 13 
dieo Kopirio ev TTJV ovo~iav avTov ^coj/ 
aVcorcoy (comp. v. 30 o KaTaCpayav o~ov 
TOV fiiov peTa iropvwv). 

irXrjpovcrde ev irvevfjiaTi] The sequence 
of thought appears to be this: Be 
not drunk with wine, but find your 
fulness through a higher instrumen 
tality, or in a higher sphere. If the 
preposition marks the instrumentality, 
then Trvevpa signifies the Holy Spirit : 
if it marks the sphere, irvevpa might 
still mean the Holy Spirit, but it 
would be more natural to explain it 
of spirit generally (as opposed to 
flesh) or of the human spirit. In the 
three other places in which we find ev 
irvevpaTi in this epistle there is a like 
ambiguity : ii 22 o-woiKodopelo-de els 
KaToiKTjTijpiov TOV Seov ev 7rvevfj.aTi 9 iii 5 
dtreKaXixpdrj Tols dyiois aTrooroXois av- 
TOV Kal Trpofp^Tais ev irvev/j-aTi, vi 1 8 
ev iravrl Kaipw ev irvev- 
In every case it appears on the 
whole best to interpret the phrase as 
referring to the Holy Spirit : and the 
interpretation is confirmed when we 
observe the freedom with which the 
Apostle uses the preposition in in 
stances which are free from ambi 
guity ; as I Cor. xii 3 ev TrvevpaTi deov 
XaXcoi/, 13 ev evlTTvev/JiaTi J3airTio-0r), 
Rom. XV l6 7rpoo~(popa. . .Tjyiao-fJ.evT) ev 

TrvevfjiaTi dyio) : compare also Rom. xiv 
17, where there is a contrast some 
what resembling that of our text, ov 

s KO.I 



povcrde ev 7rvevfjLaTi 9 * 9 \a\ovvTes eavTots 

VJULVOIS Kai wSais TrvevjuiaTiKaisy aSovTes 

Trj KapSia VJULCOV TW Kvpiw, ^ev^apKTTOvvTe^ TrdvTOTe 

vTrep TTCLVTWV ev ovofJLaTL TOV Kvpiov r^/ma/v Irjcrov XpicrTOv 

" A ~ \ 2I< A^ X A ^k /O 

TO) t/eo) Kai TraTpi, vTroTacrcrofULevoi aAA^Aois ev (popco 
XpKTTOV. 33 A2 ryvvaLKes^ TO?S iciois dv^pacriv 0)5 

yap eo~nv rj j3ao~i\eia TOV deov /3po><ris 
Kai TTCXTIS, aXXa BiKaioo-vvr} Kai elprjvrj 
Kai X a P a * v TTvevfian a-yiw. 

If then we adopt the interpretation, 
Let your fulness be that which comes 
through the Holy Spirit , how are we 
to render the words in English 1 The 
familiar rendering Be filled with the 
Spirit suggests at first sight that the 
injunction means Become full of the 
Holy Spirit . Such an injunction 
however has no parallel : had this 
been the Apostle s meaning he would 
almost certainly have used the geni 
tive (comp. e.g. Acts ii 13 y\ei>Kovs 
fjLejjL(TTcofjLvoi elviv) : and he would 
probably have cast his precept into 
the form of an exhortation to pray 
that such fulness might be granted. 
Nevertheless this rendering, though 
not strictly accurate, suffices to bring 
out the general sense of the passage, 
inasmuch as it is difficult to distin 
guish between the fulness which 
comes through the Spirit, and the 
fulness which consists in being full of 
the Spirit : the Holy Spirit being at 
once the Inspirer and the Inspiration. 
We may therefore retain it in view 
of the harshness of such substitutes 
as Be filled in the Spirit or c by the 
Spirit . 

19. \a\ovvres K.r.X.] Comp. Col. iii 
1 6 dibdcTKOvTes Kai vovderovvres tavrovs 
ij, vfJLisois, (odals TrvevfJ-aTiKals ev 
a&ovTfs cv rats Kapftiais vp.a>v r<3 
See Lightfoot s notes on that 
passage : while the leading idea of 
^aX/ios is a musical accompaniment, 
and that of vp.vos praise to God, cpdj 
is the general word for a song . 

Accordingly the defining epithet TTVCV- 
fiarLKals is reserved for this last word 
in both places. On the variants in 
this verse see the note on various 

2O. evxapHTTovvTfs K.r.X.] So in 
Col. iii 17 Kai Trav o TI eav irotiJTe ev 
Xoyw r) ev epyo), -navra Iv ovopaTi 
Kvpiov fycrov, ev^aprroi)i/res T<5 6ea> 
Trarpl di avTov. Compare i Thess. v 
1 6 TravTOTf xaipcTe, aSiaXeiTTTcay irpoo-ev- 
X f o~0e> ev Travrl ev^apio-retre. 

22. At yvvaiKts K.r.X.] As a matter 
of construction this clause depends on 
the preceding participle : submitting 
yourselves one to another in the fear 
of Christ : wives, unto your own hus 
bands, as unto the Lord . At yvvauces 
accordingly stands for the vocative, 

as in Col. iii l8, at yvva?Kes, VTTOTCKT- 
(recrOe rdls ai/Spacm/, cos avrjKfv ev Kvpito I 
compare the vocatives ol avdpes, TO. 
TeKva, etc. lower down in the present 
passage, vi i, 4 f., 9. When this 
section was read independently of the 
preceding verses, it became necessary 
to introduce a verb; and this is 
probably the cause of the insertion 
of VTroTcuTcrearQe or v7roTacro~o~6(i>o av in 
most of the texts : see the note on 
various readings. 

Idiots] The parallel in Col. iii 18 
shews that this word may be inserted 
or omitted with indifference where 
the context makes the meaning clear. 
So we find Idicus with x^po-iv in i Cor. 
iv 12; but not according to the 
best text, in Eph. iv 28, i Thess. 
iv ii. It was often added by scribes, 
in accordance with the later prefer 
ence for fulness of expression. 

V 23-26] 



dvrip <TTIV KecfiaXrj Ttjs <yvvaiKO<s ak Kal 6 
K<pa\t] Ttjs eKK\rjcrias, O.VTOS crwrrjp TOV 

<5 OJ 


* 6 

23. dwjp] The definite article (o) is 
absent in the best text : a husband 
is head of his wife , or, more idiom 
atically in English, the husband is 
the head of the wife . The article 
with yvvaiKos defines its relation to 

So in I Cor. xi 3 KefpaXrj Be 

6 dvyp, a woman s head is 
er husband , it defines the relation 
of avrfp to the preceding ywaiKos. 

avTos CTCOTTJP] On the variant nal 
avros ecrnv o-wnfp see the note on 
various readings. The true text in 
dicates the special reason why the 
Apostle here speaks of Christ as the 
Head. He will not however enlarge 
on the subject, but returns, with aXXa, 
to the matter in hand. 

24. oXXa cos-] In order to retain 
for aXXd its full adversative force 
many commentators interpret the 
preceding words, avros o-cor^p TOV 
o-co/xaros, as intended to enhance the 
headship of Christ, as being vastly 
superior to that of the husband : so 
that the connexion would be, *but 
notwithstanding this difference , etc. 
The interpretation adopted in the 
exposition saves us from the neces 
sity of putting this strain upon the 
Apostle s language. As in several 
other places, aXXa is used to fix the 
attention on the special point of 
immediate interest : comp. i Cor. xii 
24, 2 Cor. iii 14, viii 7, Gal. iv 23, 29 : 
if this is not strictly the resumptive 
use of aXXd, it is akin to it The use 
of rr\rjv at the end of this section 
(v. 33) is closely parallel 

25. Ot avdpes K.T.X.] So in Col. iii 

TOS. **d\Xa ok t] eKK\rj(ria vTroTdcrveTai TCO 
OVTCOS Kal al yvvcuKes TOIS dv^pcuriv iv TTCCVTI. 

dyajrccTe Ts yvvalKas, KaOcbs Kal 6 

eKKXriviav Kal eavTov TrapeScoKev 

iva avTrjis dyida ri KaOapicras TO) \ovTpw TOV 

19 oi avdpes, dyanare ras yvvaiKas Kal 
fir) iriKpatvfffQe irpos auras. 

26. dyidcr?) Kadapio-as] Cleanse and 
sanctify is the order of thought, as 
in I Cor. vi II a XXa aTn-Xouaao-tfe, 
aXXa riyicKrdrjTe : cleanse from the old, 
and consecrate to the new. But in 
time the two are coincident. It was 
no doubt the desire to keep KaQaplvas 
closely with rc5 Xourpw K.T.\. that led 
to the rendering of the Authorised 
Version, sanctify and cleanse . To 
render KaQapiaas having cleansed 
would be to introduce a distinction 
in point of time : we must therefore 
say cleansing (or by cleansing ). 

For the ritual sense of Kadapifa, 
see Deissmann (Neue Bibelst. pp. 
43 ), who cites CIA in 74 KaQapt- 
ecrra) (Sic) de drro cr(K)6p8a)v Ka[t X ot ~ 
petoz/] /ca[t yvKUKOf], Xovcraptvovs 5e 

rep Xovrpw] Three allied words must 
be distinguished: (i) \ovrpov the 
water for washing , or the washing 
itself; (2) Xovrpaw, the place of wash- 
* n g 5 (3) Xovr^p, the vessel for wash 
ing , the laver . Each of these may 
in English be designated as the bath . 
We may take as illustrations of (i) 
and (2) Plutarch, vita Alexandri 23 
/caraXvo-as- Se /cat rpfTro^evos Trpos Xou- 
rpov rj a Xei/M/Lia, and Sympos. p. 734 B, 
where after speaking of 7) Trepl ra 
Xourpa TToXwrdfieia he relates that 
> AXc ai 8pos > [lev 6 (QatrtXevy ev rco 
Xourpcow TTvpeTTcov cKadfvdev. In the 
LXX (i) and (3) are found: Xoimjp is 
used for a laver 16 times: \ovrp6v 
represents nyi[n in Cant, iv 2, vi 6 



[V2 7 



i TrapacrTcrr] ai/TOS eavTto 

(of sheep coming up from the wash 
ing ), and occurs in Sir. xxxi (xxxiv) 


, TI n<j)c\r)o~V T<3 Xovrpa) 
In Ps. lix (Ix) 10, cvii (cviii) 
10 ^Vrn "Vp my washpot 7 is rendered 
by Aquila \ej3ijs \ovrpov pov (the LXX 
has \efirjs TTJS fKirLbos pov). The Latin 
versions maintain the distinction by 
the use of labrum for laver (in the 
Pentateuch : olla, etc. elsewhere), and 
oflauacrum for washing in Canticles. 
In Ps. lix (Ix) 10 Jerome s version has 
olla lauacri: in Sirach Cyprian and 
the Vulgate have lauatio, but Au 
gustine thrice gives lauacrum. 

For patristic references confirming 
the meaning of washing for Aovrpoi/, 
see Clem. Alex. Paed. iii 9 46, Dion. 
Alex. ep. xiii ad fin., Epiph. expos, 
fid. 21, Bind, in 583 ; and contrast 
Hippol. [?] ed. Bonwetsch-Achelis i 
pt 2, p. 262 /zero rr)v rfjs Ko\vfjifii]6pas 

The only other passage in the New 
Testament where \ovrp6v occurs is 
Tit. iii 5 fim0w rjfjias 8ta XovrpoO 
7ra\ivyeveo-ias Kal dvaKaivwaeoas TTVCV- 
HCLTOS dyiov. Both there and here the 
Authorised Version correctly renders 
it the washing : the bath would not 
be incorrect, though somewhat am 
biguous: the laver 7 is incorrect, 
and has probably been suggested by 
the Latin lauacro\ which has been 

ev pT]p.aTt] In the New Testament 
prjua represents the various uses of 
the Hebrew "O" 7 !. (i) A spoken word 
of any kind, as in Matt xii 36 prjfia 
dpyov. (2) A matter, as in Luke i 37 

OVK d8vvaTijo~fi irapa TOV $eo{) TTO.V prjfJ-a, 

nothing shall be too hard for God* 
(where irapa TOV reproduces a Hebrew 
idiom, the passage being based on 
Gen. xviii 14 ^ dBvvanja-fi irapa TOV 
Qfov [the true reading, supported by 
the old Latin, not irapa TW fata] 
prjfjia;\ and Luke ii 15 TO pfj^a TOVTO 
TO ytyovos. (3) In a solemn sense, as 

when the word of God comes to a 

prophet, Luke iii 2 eyevfTO prjfjia 6eov 
eirl ladvTjv: comp. prjfjia 6eov ill this 

epistle, vi 17. It is also used more 
specially (4) of the Christian teaching, 
as in i Pet. i 25 (from Isa. xl 8) TO 8e 

prjpa Kvpiov pc vci els TOV aia>va TOVTO 
fie fOTiv TO piy/za TO fvayyeXia-Qev ets 
vp,as, and Heb. vi 5 xaXov yevo-apwovs 
6eov p^/u-a. The most remarkable 
passage is Rom. x 8 ff., where, after 
quoting Deut. xxx 14 cyyvs a-ov TO 
prjfj.a foTiv, fv TO) vrfyart o~ov KO\ ev 
Trj Kapftiq vov, the Apostle continues 
TOVT O~TIV TO prjfia TTJS iriarcats o 
KT)pvo-a-o/j.ev. OTI eav 6p,o\oy^o-r]s TO 
p^/ua tv T<B crro/iaTi o-ov OTI KYPIO2 
IH2OY2, Kal Trio-Tcvo-ys /c.T.X. Here 
TO pfj^a stands on the one hand for 
the Christian teaching (comp. v. 17 
dia pijfj,aTo$ Xpio-ToG), and on the other 
for the Christian confession which 
leads to salvation. With this must 
be compared i Cor. xii. 3, where the 
same confession appears as a kind of 
formula, and is sharply contrasted 
with a counter-formula ANA0EMA 
IH2OY2. Compare, too, Phil, ii 11 

7rao~a yXa>o-0-a ^op.o\oyrjarrjTat, OTL KY- 
PI02 IH20Y2 XP12T02. 

In the present passage it is clear 
that the phrase ev pijpaTi indicates 
some solemn utterance by the accom 
paniment of which the washing of 
water is made to be no ordinary 
bath, but the sacrament of baptism. 
Comp. Aug. tract. So in Joan. 3 De- 
trahe uerbum, et quid est aqua nisi 
aqua? accedit uerbum ad elementum, 
et fit sacramentum ; etiam ipsuin tain- 
quam uisibile uerbum . 

What then was this pj^a? Chry- 
sostom asks and answers the question 

thUS: *El> pqpOTl, <pT)0-l TTOIO)/ CV 01/0- 

p.aTi TraTpos Kal vlov Kal ayiov TTVfV- 

paTos: that is to say, the triple 
formula of baptism. In the earliest 
time, however, baptism appears to 
have been administered in the name 
of Jesus Christ 7 (Acts ii 38, x 48, 


Trjv KK\rjariav, JJLYI e^ovcrav (nriXov fj pvTiSa rj TI T(V 
TOIOVTCOV, d\\ iva y dyia. Kal a/uLM/uLOs. ** OVTOJS 6<pei- 

comp. viii 12) or the Lord Jesus 
(Acts viii 1 6, xix 5); and on the use 
of the single formula St Paul s argu 
ment in i Cor. i 1 3 seems to be based 
(jirj IlaOXos 1 <TTavp<>6r) vrrep VJLKBI/, 17 ets 
TO GVO/J.O. IlauXov e/SaTrrio-tfjjre ;). The 
special pfjpa above referred to points 
the same way. The confession on 
KYPI02 IH20Y2 was the shortest and 
simplest statement of Christian faith 
(comp. Acts xvi 31 ff. iria-revarov cirl 
TOV Kvpiov Irjcrovv KOI o-afljcrT] o*v KOI 6 
oucos O-OV...KCU cj3a7rTicr0T) avrbs /cat ol 
OVTOV diravTfs Trapaxpfjpa). That some 
confession was required before bap 
tism is seen from the early glosses 
upon the baptism of the eunuch, Acts 
viii 37, and that this soon took the 
form of question and answer (eVepo)- 
rrjfjia) is suggested by i Pet iii 21, 
where the context contains phrases 
which correspond with the second 
division of the baptismal creed of 
the second century. Indeed the origin 
of the creed is probably to be traced, 
not in the first instance to the triple 
formula, but to the statement of the 
main facts about the Lord Jesus as 
a prelude to baptism in His name . 
"When under the influence of Matt, 
xx viii 19 the triple formula soon 
came to be universally employed, the 
structure of the baptismal creed 
would receive a corresponding ela 

It is probable, then, that the pfj^a 
here referred to is the solemn mention 
of the name of the Lord Jesus Christ 
in connexion with the rite of baptism, 
either as the confession made by the 
candidate or as the formula employed 
by the ministrant. We may therefore 
render the passage: that He might 
sanctify it, cleansing it by the washing 
of water with the word\ 

For the use of the preposition 
we may compare vi 2 eV eVayyeXm. 
The absence of the definite article 

presents no difficulty ; the meaning is 
with a word which is appropriate 
to this washing , the pf/pa being 
sufficiently defined by the context. 

There appears to be no ground for 
supposing that the Apostle here makes 
any allusion to a ceremonial bath 
taken by the bride before marriage. 
There is no evidence for such a rite 
in the Old Testament, the passages 
sometimes cited being quite irrelevant 
(Ruth iii 3, Ezek. xxiii 40). In the 
legend of Joseph and Asenath there 
is no such ceremony, though it is true 
that after her long fast Asenath 
washes her face and hands before she 
puts on her bridal costume. Nor 
does it appear as a Christian cere 
mony, though it probably would have 
been retained if St Paul had been 
regarded as alluding to it here. St 
Paul s thought is of the hallowing of 
the Church, and thus he is at once 
led to speak of the sacrament of 

27. napao-Trivr}] Comp. 2 Cor. XI 2 
^pp.o(rdfJLT]v yap vp,as evl dvSpl irapQevov 
dyv^v irapa(TTr)o-ai TG> ^piorw. Here 
Christ Himself (avrds, not avnjv, see 
the note on various readings) presents 
the Church all-glorious to Himself. 
"Evdogov is the predicate: the word 
occurs again in i Cor. iv 10 vpfls 
evdogot, Tjfifls 8e art/not, and twice in 
St Luke s Gospel, vii 25 (of glorious 
apparel), xiii 17 (of glorious works). 

o-TTtXoi/ jj pvTida] * spot of disfigure 
ment or wrinkle of age . Neither 
word is found in the LXX. Comp. 
2 Pet. ii 13 orriXoi KOI pupal : Plut. 
Mor. 789 D ols 77 y\a)fj.fvrj rroXia Kal 
pVTis ffjureipias fj-dprvs eirKpaiverai : 
Diosc. i 39 (de oleo amygdalino) alpe i 
6e /cat o-TT/Xovs < TrpotreoTrow Kal <prf- 
\eis (freckles) KOI pwiSas. 

dyia Kal a/ueo/nos] Comp. i 4 eti/at 
r/pas dyiovs Kal dfJLwp.ovs KOTCVCMTIOV 

avrov ev dyaTrrj, and see the note there. 




[V 2^-3- 

\OVCTLV Kai ol oVSjOes dyajrav Tas eavTcov 
Ta eavTcov crco/maTa* 6 dyaTrwv TY\V eavTOv 

d<ya7ra, Z9 ov$eis yap TTOTC Trjv eavTOv crdpKa 
, d\\a KTpe<pi Kai 6d\7rei ai/T^V, KO 
k TY\V KK\rj(riav, 3 OTi jjieXr] ecryuei/ TOV 
avTOV. 31 ANTi TOYTOY KATAAei yei ANGpconoc TON 
npdc THN rYN<JUKA AyToy, KAI ecoNTAi oi Ay o eic 



28. ourtos] This is not to be taken 
as the antecedent to o>y ra eavrcov 
o-cojaara, which means as being their 
own bodies . It refers to the general 
drift of what has gone before : * thus , 
in this same manner . This is the 
meaning of OVTQ>S in Matt, v 16 ovreos 
Aa/MA/mro) TO <^)c5s vfjL&v, K.r.A. ; that is 
to say, as the lamp shineth (v. 15); 
not in such a way... that they may 
see etc. 

29. a-apKa] The change from crto/Aa 
to orap gives a fresh emphasis to the 
thought, and at the same time pre 
pares the way for the quotation in 
v. 31. 

eVcrpe Kai 0d\7Ti] Each of these 
words is once used by the Apostle 
elsewhere, but in reference to the 
nurture of children : below, vi 4 oc- 
rpe<f)T avra eV TraiSem Kai vovBfa-lq 
Kvpiov : I Thess. ii 7 >s * av rpocpbs 
6d\Try TO. eavrfjs TCKVO. 

30. fi\rj] The relation of the 
parts to the whole is here empha 
sised, as is the relation of the parts 
of the whole to one another in iv 25 

With the 

latter compare Rom. xii 5 ol TroAAoi 
ev a-wfjLO. (Tfj.fv ev Xptcrrw, TO de Kaff els 
d\\ij\cov p.f\r) : with the former I Cor. 
vi 1 5 TO crco/xara vp-wv fj,e\rj XptcrroO 
eorii/, xii 27 vp.f1s Se care trco/za XpicrroD 
ical ue\r) < pepovs. 

For the addition oc T^ s o~apKos avrov 
Kai fK TU>V oVrecoi/ avrov SCO the note 
on various readings. 

31. dvrl TOVTOV] Comp. avff coi/, 
2 Thess. ii 10, and four times in St 
Luke s wri tings. 1 1 has been suggested 
that avrL here means instead of, the 
contrast being with the idea of a 
man s hating his own flesh (v. 29) ; 
and the mention of <rdp in both 
verses is pleaded in favour of this 
interpretation. In the few passages 
in which St Paul uses dvri, however, 
it does not suggest opposition^ but 
coTTespondence : KUKOV awl KaKov, 
Rom. xii 17, i Thess. v 15 ; K.OW avrl 
7rept/3oAai ou, I Cor. xi 15. This of 
course is in no way decisive of his use 
of the word in the present passage : 
but it seems on the whole more 
natural to suppose that dwl TOVTOV 
is intended as equivalent to 

TOVTOV by which p"y is represented 

in the LXX of Gen. ii 24. Comp. 
Jerome ad loc. : apostolus pro eo 
quod ibi habetur eveKfv TOUTOU, id est 
propter hoc, posuit dwl rourov, quod 
latine aliis uerbis dici non potest . 
The only other variant from the LXX 
in our text is the omission of UVTOV 
after irarepa and p.rjTpa: see, how 
ever, the note on various readings. 

32. TO p,VOTr)plOV K.T.A.] The 1116311- 

ing of pvo-njpiov is discussed in a 
separate note. In St Paul s use of 
the word we must distinguish (i) its 
employment to designate the eternal 
secret of God s purpose for mankind, 
hidden from the past but revealed in 





eKK\r](riav. 33 

ol x.aff eva e/cacrros TY\V eavTov yvvaiKa OVTCOS 
ok eavTov, n Se <yiwj} n/a (o^Tca TOV 

Christ; comp. iu this epistle, i 9, iii 4, 
9, vi 19; CoL i 26 f., ii 2, iv 3; Rom. 
xvi 25; i Cor. ii i, 7 : (2) a more 
general use of the word in the plural, 

1 Cor. iv i, xiii 2, xiv 2 : (3) the use 
of the singular for some particular 
secret of the Divine economy or of 
the future; as in Rom. xi 25 TO 
jj.v<rnjpiov TOVTO (of the partial blind 
ness of Israel, which has been figured 
by the olive-tree), i Cor. xv 51 Idov 

fjLVO-rriptov Xeyta (of the last 

trump). The remarkable phrase in 

2 Thess. ii 7 TO pva-r^piov rrjs dvofUaff, 
connected as it is with a thrice 
repeated use of d7roKa\v(p0fjvai, ap 
pears to form part of an intentional 
parallel between the man of sin and 
our Lord. The remaining examples 
are in the Pastoral Epistles, i Tim. 

iii 9 TO p-vo-rripiov rfjs Trio-Teas, iii l6 
6fJi.o\oyovp.ev(DS peya carlv TO rfjs evcre- 

The use of the word in our text is 
not quite parallel to any of the above 
uses. The union of husband and wife 
as one flesh is a /j.v(mjpiov, or con 
tains a pvaTijpiov (according as we 
interpret TO fiwrrrfptov TOTO as refer 
ring to the actual statement of Gen. 
ii 24, or to the spiritual meaning of 
that statement: the word fiva-r^ptov 
hovers between the symbol and the 
thing symbolised in Apoc. i 20, xvii 
5, 7). This [Mvo-Tr/piov is of far-reaching 
importance (/ue ya): but all that the 
Apostle will now add is that he is 
speaking (or that he speaks it) con 
cerning Christ and the Church. 

The Latin rendering sacramentum 
hoc magnum est well represents the 
Greek; for sacramentum combines 
the ideas of the symbol and its mean 
ing. It is hardly necessary to point 
out that it does not imply that St 


Paul is here speaking of marriage as 
a sacrament in the later sense. 

y<a de Xc yo)] The insertion of the 
pronoun emphasises this teaching as 
specially belonging to the Apostle. It 
was his function in a peculiar sense 
to declare the mystical relation of 
Christ to the Church. 

els] with reference to : comp. Acts 
11 25 AaveiS yap Aeyei els avTov. 

33. irXrjv Kal vpeis] that is, Do you 
at least grasp this, the practical lesson 
of love on the one part and of rever 
ence on the other. 

iva <po@fjT<u] This carries us back 
to v. 21 ev <o/3<0 Xpto-Tov. There 
appears to be a double reference to 
this in i Pet. iii i 6, which clearly 
is not independent of our epistle : 
O/io/co? yvvaiKes inroTaara Ofj.fvai, TOIS 
Idiots dv8pd(riv...TT)v ev (o/3o> dyvrjv 

dva(TTpo<f)r)v v^atv : and then as if to 
guard against a false conception of 

fear, p.^ <o/3ou/iej/ai fufafjUav TTTOTJO-IV 

(where the actual phrase comes from 
Prov. iii 25 KCU oi5 

For the ellipse before Iva the near 
est parallel seems to be i Cor. vii 29 
TO AotTroi/ iva <ai ot e^ovrcs yvvcuKas cos 
IJ.T) cxovTfs (Sa-iv. For a change from 
another construction to one with /a, 
see above v. 27 ^ exowav. . .aXA Iva 
$..., and a nearer parallel in i Cor. 
xiv 5 de Xo) e irdvras \aXelv 

VI. i 9. These principles of rever 
ence and love extend through the 
whole sphere of family life. Children 
must obey: it is righteous: and the 
old precept still carries its special 
promise. Fathers must insist on 
obedience, and must not make dis 
cipline more difficult by a lack of 
loving patience. Again, slaves must 



[VI i_4 

VI. *Ta T/ci/a, v7raKovT6 TO?? yovevcrw v/uwv ev 


Kvpiw, TOVTO ydp ecrTiv SIKCUOV 

coy K <\ i THN M H T e p <\, rjTis GCTTtv 6VTO\rj TTpwTrj ev 

eTrayyeXia, 3 fNA ef coi reNHTAi KAI CCH 

NIOC en i THC THC. 4 Ka^ ol TraTepes, 

obey: with a trembling fear and a 
whole-hearted devotion, looking to 
their masters as to Christ Himself. 
They are Christ s slaves, doing God s 
will in their daily tasks ; not rendering 
a superficial service to please an 
earthly lord; but with their soul in 
their work, serving the Lord in heaven, 
not men on earth : for the Lord 
accepts and rewards all good work, 
whether of the slave or of the free. 
And the masters must catch the 
same spirit : the threatening tone 
must be heard no more: they and 
their slaves have the same heavenly 
Lord, before whom these earthly dis 
tinctions disappear . 

I. Ta TfKva] Comp. Col. iii 2O ra 
TKva } virciKovfTe Tols yovfvo~iv Kara 
Traira, TOVTO yap fvapecrrov ecrriv fv 

2. rTts fcrr\v K.T.X.] l which is the 
first commandment with promise*. 
The obvious interpretation of these 
words appears to be the best It 
has been objected (i) that a kind of 
promise is attached to the second 
commandment of the Decalogue, and 
(2) that no other commandment has 
a promise attached to it after the 
fifth. It may be replied (i) that the 
appeal to the character of God in the 
second commandment is not properly 
speaking a promise at all, and (2) 
that many commandments, not of the 
Decalogue, have promises attached to 
them, so that the Apostle may be 
thought of as regarding these as the 
subsequent commandments which his 
expression implies. EtroXiy is not of 
necessity to be confined to one of the 
Ten Words . When our Lord was 

asked Ilot a C<TT\V vro\r) Trpayrrf TTCLVTW ; 

He did not in His reply go to the 
Decalogue either for the first or for 
the second, like unto it (Mark xii 
28 fc). 

It is possible to understand TrpaTrj 
here, as in the Gospel, in the sense 
of the first in rank ; or, again, as the 
first to be enforced on a child: but 
neither interpretation gives a satis 
factory meaning to the clause <V e iray- 
yeX/a, unless these words be separated 
from TrpoiTT} and connected closely with 
what follows with a promise that it 
shall be well with thee , etc. This 
however is exceedingly harsh, and it 
breaks up the original construction 
of the quoted passage, where iva 
depends on Ti/Lta K.T.A. 

3. tva ev K.r.A.] The quotation 
does not correspond to the Hebrew 
text either of Ex. xx 12, that thy 
days may be long upon the land 
which the Lord thy God giveth thee , 
or of Deut v 16, that thy days may 
be long, and that it may go well with 
thee, upon the land which the Lord 
thy God giveth thee . St Paul quotes 
with freedom from one of the LXX 
texts, which have themselves under 
gone some change, due in part to 
assimilation : Ex. xx 12 Iva fv o-oi 
yevrjTcu (these four words are omitted 
in A and obelised in the Syro- 

hexaplar) KOI Iva paKpo^ovios yevrj eiil 
TTJS yfjs TTJS dyaBfjs qs Kvpios o 6e6s 
o-ov 5/SoxrtV trot : Deut. V 1 6 Iva ev 

(rot yevTjTat KOI va paKpoxpovios 
(A ; cay F ; -01 T^re B ab Sup. ras.) eVl 
rfjs yfjs ys Kvpios 6 6f6s o~ov didaxriv 

rl TTJS yrjs] The omission of the 
words which follow in the LXX gives 
a different turn to this phrase: so 

VI 5-9] 






TO. TKVa V/ULtoV, d\\d 6KTp6<pT6 aVTOL 6V TTAlAeiA Kai 
N Y 9 C I A K Y P I Y- 5 O* $OV\Ol, V7TaKOVT T0?9 

crdpKa Kvpiois /ueTa <po/3ov Kai Tpojmov ev d7r\OTn 
Kapcias V/ULWV o)9 TO) ^pLCTTW^ 6 fmrj K.CLT 6(f>6a\/uLoSov\iav 

ft)? dv6p(*)7rdp6<TKOl GtAA 0)9 $OV\Ol XjOtCTToi/ 7TOLOVVT6S TO 

6e\rj/uia TOV deov, IK ip-v%fj$ jueT* evvoias oov\evovT6s, oJs 
TO) /ctyNo) ica oJ/c dvdpwTTOis, 8 eJoVe9 ort /ca(TTO9, eai/ 
T Troiiicrr] dyaQov, TOVTO KOjULicreTai Trapd Kvpiov, 6LT6 
SovXos eiTC e\ev6epos. 9 Kai ol Kvpioi, TO. avTa 

that it may be rendered on the 
earth instead of in the land . 

4. oi Trarepey] Comp. Col. iii 
ot Trare pey, p.rj pedifT ra TfKva 


Trapopyi^ere] See the note 
7rapopyio-^,w, iv 26. 

TratSeta] Comp. 2 Tim. iii 
cJcpeXt/ios 7rpo9 StSao~KaXtai/, Trpo? 
/ioi/, Trpoff firavopQaxriv, Trpos 
TTJV ev diKaioo-vvT]. The word is not 
used elsewhere by St Paul, though he 
used the verb TratSeuco, to discipline , 
or in a severer sense to chastise . 
Although the substantive may signify 
simply education or training, yet 
nurture (A.V.) is too weak a word 
for it in this place. It is better to 
render it discipline . Comp. Heb. 
xii II 7rao~a fj.V Traideia npos p.ev TO 
irapov ov SOKCI ^apas eivai aXXa XVTTT;?. 

vovQfo-ta] Comp. i Cor. x n, Tit. 
iii 10. It is less wide in meaning 
than TratSf ta, and suggests a warning 
admonition. With this injunction 
compare Didache 4 OVK dpels TTJV 


Bvyarpos o~ov, aXXa OTTO veorrjTos didd- 

flS TOV (f)6(BoV TOV dfOV. 

5. Oi 5oi)Xot] Comp. Col. iii 22 


Kara aapKa Kvptot?, /nr) ev d<f)da\- 
/^toSovXtais, cos aV^peoTrapeovcoi, clXX* 
ev drr\oTr]TL KapSia?, (poftov/Jicvoi TOV 


(pdfiov KOI rpojxov] Comp. i Cor. ii 9. ol Kvpioi] Comp. CoL iv. i oi 
3 (of St Paul s preaching), 2 Cor. vii Kuptot, TO diuov KOI TT)V lo-o-rrjTa TOIS 


15 (of the reception of Titus), Phil, ii 
12; and, for the corresponding verbs, 
Mark V 33 (poftrjQflo-a Kai rpe/iovo-a. 
The combination occurs several times 
in the LXX. 

In I Chron. xxix 17 ev 
ias renders U^ "1^*3. 
For this word and 6(pBa\fj.o8ov\ia see 
Lightfoot s notes on Col. iii 22. 

6. dvGpaTrdpeo-Koi] Comp. Ps. Hi 
[liii] 6 o 6fos difCTKopirio-ev OO-TO. dv6pco- 
Ps. Sol. iv 8 f. dvOpayrrtoV dv~ 

Ta fjiovov /Aera SoXou. See also GaL i 
10, i Thess. ii 4. 

K ^vx^s] Comp. Col. iii 23 6 
eav TroiT/re, e< ^vx^js epydfco-de, <as r<u 
Kupio) Kai OVK dv6pa>iroLs. The parallel 
suggests that the phrase should here 
also be taken with what follows, and 
not, as in A.V., with what precedes. 
Moreover the preceding sentence is 
more forcible if doing the will of God 
stands by itself as the interpretation 
of as servants of Christ . 

7. pfT evvoias] EK^U^S is opposed 
to listlessness : pcT evvoias suggests 
the ready good-will, which does not 
wait to be compelled. 

8. et Sorey K.r.X.] Comp. Col. iii 24 
eldoTfs OTI OTTO Kvpiov aTToXjJ/u^eo ^e 
TTfV dvra7r68oo~tv TTJS K\r)povo/j.ias T< 
Kupi o> Xptcrroi SouXevcre* 6 yap dbiKcav 



TTpos avTOvs, dvievTes Tt}v a7rei\riv, eiSores OTL teal 
teal vfjiwv 6 Kvpios ecTTiv ev ovpavols, teal 

, OVK etTTiv Trap avTco. 

IO Toiy \OLTTOV ev$vvajuiovo 6e ev Kvpito teal ev TCO 
ia"%vos avTOv. XI e z/B v<racr6e Trjv 7ravo7r\iav TOV 6eov 

arid blood, but spirit ; and they wage 
their conflict in the heavenly sphere. 
You must be armed therefore with 
God s armour. Truth and righteous 
ness, as you know, are His girdle and 
breastplate ; and in these His repre 
sentative must be clad. In the confi 
dence of victory you must be shod 
with the readiness of the messenger 
of peace. With faith for your shield, 
the flaming arrows of Satan will not 
discomfit you. Salvation is God s hel 
met, and He smites with the sword 
of His lips. Your lips must breathe 
perpetual prayer. Prayer, too, is your 
watch, and it will test your endur 
ance. Pray for the whole body of 
the saints : and pray for me, that my 
mouth may be opened to give my 
own message boldly, prisoner though 
I be . 

10. Toi) XoiTToCj This is equivalent 
to TO XotTToV, with which St Paul 
frequently introduces his concluding 
injunctions : see Lightfoot s note on 
Phil, iii i. For the variant TO \our6v 
in this passage see the note on various 

ev8vvap,ovo-0f] This verb is confined 
in the New Testament ,to the Pauline 
epistles and one passage in the Acts, 

SavXos de /zaXXov fve^vva/jiOVTO (ix 22) : 

it appears in the LXX rarely, and never 
without a variant. EvSwapovv (from 
fvdvvapos) is scarcely distinguishable 
from dwafwvv (Col. in, Heb. xi 34), 
which is found as a variant in this 

11. iravoTr\iav] Armour , as con 
trasted with the several pieces of the 
armour (oVXa). So it is rightly ren 
dered in Luke xi 22 T^V iravoir\iav 

alpft f({> $ fTTfirolQfi. Comp. 

7rape xeo-$e, eldores ort /cat vpels 
xvpiov fv oupai/oi. 

TO. avrd] i.e. deal in like manner 
with them . The phrase is not to be 
pressed too literally: it signifies in 
general, act by them, as they are 
bound to act by you . 

oWVres] There is no parallel to 
this use of the verb in the Greek 
bible : but in classical Greek it is used 
either with the genitive or with the 
accusative in the sense of giving up , 
desisting from . 

With this passage Wetstein com 
pares Seneca Thyest. 607 Vos, quibus 
rector maris atque terrae lus dedit 
magnum necis atque uitae, Ponite in 
flates tumidosque uoltus. Quicquid a 
uobis minor extimescit, Maior hoc 
uobis dominus minatur. Omne sub 
regno grauiore regnum est . 

Kai avT(ov KOI vfjLcov] See the note 
on various readings. 

7rpocr(oiro\T]fj.^/ia] Comp. Acts x 34. 
See also Lightfoot s note on Col. iii 
25. With the whole passage compare 
Diddchc 4 V K fTTird^fis 5ouXa> (TOV 
rj TraiSitrKT), rols eVt TOV avrbv 0eov 
\iriov<riv ) fv TTiKpia a~ov iLrjrroTc ov 
fir) (f)ojBr]6r)O OVTa.i TOV eV dfi(j)OTpois 
Btov ov yap ep^erat Kara TrpotrcoTro* 
i, aXX* e(p our TO irvev^a TJTOL- 
vp-fls Se ot SovXoi V7rorayijo~o~d 


vvT) KOL <po(3(p. 
10 20. My final injunction con 
cerns you all. You need power, and 
you must find it in the Lord. You 
need God s armour, if you are to 
stand against the devil. We have to 
wrestle with no human foe, but with 
the powers which have the mastery of 
this dark world : they are not flesh 

VI 12] 



s TO fivvacrOai i)/xas crTfjvcu TT^OS Tas /x0oS/as TOV 


<rdpKa, d\\d 


7ravorr\iav \pvcri]v armour of gold , 
2 Mace, xi 8 ; fncyvaxrav TrpoTreTrro)- 
Kora Ni/eai/opa o~vv TTJ TravoirXiq they 
knew that Nicanor lay dead in his har 
ness , ibid. xv. 28. It corresponds to 
the Latin armatura( = omnia arma). 
The rendering whole armour (comp. 
complete harness 2 Mace. iii. 25) is 
redundant, and in the present pas 
sage it distracts attention from the 
important epithet TOV 0eoC. Put on 
God s armour is the Apostle s injunc 
tion. His meaning is presently made 
clear by his quotations from the de 
scription of the Divine warrior in Old 
Testament prophecy. For further 
illustrations of iravcm\la see the notes 
on vv. 13 f. 

fjicdodias] See the note on iv 14. 

12. TraXij] This word is not used 
by prose writers in the general sense 
of struggle or conflict. It always re 
tains, except in a few poetical phrases, 
its proper meaning of wrestling . 
Theodore ad loc. says : inconsequens 
esse uidetur ut is qui de armis om 
nibus sumendis et bello disputauit 
conluctationem memoretur: sed nihil 
differre existimat, eo quod neque uera 
ratione de conluctatione aut de militia 
illi erat ratio , etc. 

af/za KOI a-dpKo] Comp. Heb. ii 14 
ra TratSta KfKoivwvrjKfv atfiaroy KOL o-ap- 
KOS. The more usual order, o-apg KOI 
alpa, is found in Matt, xvi 17, i Cor. 
xv 50, Gal. i. 1 6. The expression occurs 
in Ecclus. xiv 18 ovrats yevfa <rapKos KOI 
at/xaros , ) fjifv reAevra, erepa 8e yevvd- 
rat, and xvii 31 (where it is paralleled 
by yfj KOI o-TroSos). J. Lightfoot, on 
Matt, xvi 17, says : The Jewish writers 
use this form of speech infinite times, 
and by it oppose men to God . He 
cites especially the phrase a king of 

flesh and blood . In the Book of 
Enoch (xx 4) the offspring of the 
angels who sinned with the daughters 
of man is described as flesh andblood 
in contrast with * living spirits . 
dpxas K.r.X.] Comp. i 21, iii 10. 

Kocr/zo/cparopas ] The word Koayio/cpd- 
rwp has two significations, (i) Ruler 
of the whole world : as in the Orphic 
Hymns in Sol. n, in Pan. u, and 
in a scholion on Aristoph. Nub. 397, 
2etroy^(i)(rts o /SacriAevs raw AlyvTrricov 
KofTfjioKparatp yeyovas. In the Rab 
binical writings the word is trans 
literated and used in the same sense : 
as in Schir R. y three kings, cosmo- 
cratores, ruling from one end of the 
world to the other : Nebuchadnezzar, 
Evilmerodach, Belshazzar ; and of the 
angel of death in Vajikra R., where 
however Israel is excepted from his 
otherwise universal rule. (2) Ruler 
of this world : thus standing in con 
trast to Traj/ro/cpoTfop, ruler of the 
whole universe. It corresponds to 

ap%<v TOV Koo-pov (TOVTOV), John 
xii 31, xiv 30, xvi n, and to the 
Jewish title of Satan D^iyn 1B>. Ac 
cordingly we find the Valentinians 
applying it to the devil, Iren. (Mass.) 

1 5 4> o" * a * KooytoAcparopa KaAo{5<rt. 

In 2 Mace. God is spoken of as o TOV 
KO(TfJLov /SacriXevs, vii 9 &nd o Kvpios TOV 
Koo-fjiov, xiii 14 ; and corresponding titles 
occur in the late Jewish literatura 
But no such expressions are used in 
the New Testament, where the world 
is commonly regarded as falsely as 
serting its independence of God. All 
the kingdoms of the world and the 
glory of them are in the power of 
Satan (Matt, iv 8, Luke iv 6) : only in 
the apocalyptic vision do we find that 
T) /ScuriXeta TOV KOO-/MOV TOV KV- 


jiiaTiKa TTJS Trovripias ev TO?S eirovpaviois. I3 Sict TOVTO 
dva\d/3eT TYIV 7ravoir\iav TOV 6eov, iva SvvrjdfJTe GLVTI- 
ev Trj rj/mepa Trj Trovrjpa Kal airavTa KaTepyacra- 

* 4 a"TrjT OVV neplZ(OCAMNOI THN 6 C <J> Y N 


xi 15). God, on the other hand, is 
addressed as Kvpte TOV ovpavov Kal TTJS 
ytjs (Matt xi 25, Luke x 21). 

The second of the two meanings is 
alone appropriate here. It is not of 
world- wide rule, but of the rule of this 
world, that the Apostle speaks; and 
this is made clear by the addition of 
TOV Q-KOTOVS TOVTOV. The expression 
as a whole is not easy to render into 
another language. We find mundi- 
tenens in Tert. adv. Marc, v 18, adv. 
Valent. 22, de fug a 12; and mundi- 
potens in de anima 23, and in Hilary 
in ps. cxviii. But the ordinary Latin 
rendering is aduersus (huius) mundi 
rectores tenebrarum harum. The 
Peshito boldly paraphrases : l the 
rulers of this dark world . This 
fairly represents the Apostle s mean 
ing : it is with the powers which rule 
this world, their realm of darkness, 
that we have to contend. In English 
the world-rulers of this darkness is 
hardly intelligible. The familiar ren 
dering (though suggested by a faulty 
text, which added TOV al&vos) suffi 
ciently gives the sense : the rulers 
of the darkness of this world . 

TO. TrvevnaTiKo] the spiritual hosts 
or forces . The phrase TO. irvevpaTiKa 
TTJS TTOvrjpias differs from TO. irvevp.aTa 
TO. novTjpd in laying more stress upon 
the nature of the foe. The rendering 
hosts is preferable to elements 7 , 
because it suggests personal adver 
saries: forces , in the biblical sense, 
would be equally suitable, but to 
modern ears it has the same imper 
sonal meaning as elements . 

ev rocs enovpaviois] Comp. i 20, ii 6, 
in 10. The Peshito has and with the 
evil spirits which are beneath the hea 

vens , implying a variant vTrovpaviots. 
The same rendering is found in the 
Armenian version, so that it goes 
back to the Old Syriac, as is further 
shewn by its occurrence in Ephraim s 
commentary. Theodore knew of this 
interpretation (prob. from the Peshito), 
but condemned it. 

13. apaXa/3erf] Comp. Judith xiv 3 
awjXa/3oT6s OVTOL TO.S iravorrXias aura>z>: 
Joseph. A.nt. iv 5 2 ray TravoirXias ava- 
\af36vTfs ev Beats e^povv els TO fpyov, 

XX 5 3 K\fVl TO O~TpaTVfJia 7TCLV TO.S 

iravon\ias avdXaftbv fjKfiv els TTJV 

TTOvrjpa] Comp. V. 1 6 on ai yp-e 
rrovrjpai eiVii/ : also Ps. xl (xli) I ev 
ijfj.epa novrjpq ( " V 5 ^^?) pvo~eTai avTov 


KdTepyao-dpevoi] This verb is very 
frequently used by St Paul, and 
always in the sense of producing or 
accomplishing . It occurs 18 times 
in the Epistles to the Romans and the 
Corinthians ; but in the later epistles 
only in Phil, ii 12 TTJV eavT&v murypita* 
Ka.Tfpya.e<r6e. Here therefore it is 
most naturally interpreted as having 
accomplished all that your duty re- 
quires . There is no reason to desert 
the ordinary usage of the New Testa 
ment for the rarer sense of over 
coming , which occasionally occurs in 
the classical writers. The Latin ren 
dering in omnibus perfecti (om. in 
amiat.), if not a corruption of omni 
bus perfectis\ must be regarded as 
a loose paraphrase : Jerome in his 
commentary has uniuersa operati 1 . 

14. Trepifao-dfjLevoi K.r.X.] With 
the description which follows com 
pare I Thess. V 8 eVSvcra/iei/oi $a>paxa 
Trio-Teens Kal dydnrjs Kal irepiKeCpaXaiav 

c\7ri8a o~a>TT)pias. Both passages are 

VI isI?] 



V e N A A H e i A, Kat NAYCAMNOI TON 9 co p <\ K <\ THC 

NHC, I<5 K.a.1 vTroSticrdimevoi T o y c n d A <\ c ev ITOL- 
fjiacria TOY eyArreAior THC e i p H N H c, l6 ev TTOLCTIV dva- 

\a/36vTes TOV Ovpeov Trjs 7rt<rTft)s ? ev u* Svvrjo ea Oe 

TOV Trovrjpov Ta TreTrvpco/meva <r/3e<rar l 


based on Isa. lix 17 evedvo-a 
oo~uvr}v cos 0copaKa, Kai 7repie #ero Trept- 
K<pa\atav <ra>TT)piov eVt rr/s KC<f>a\fjs. 

In our present passage the Apostle 
has also drawn upon Isa. xi 4 7rardei 
yfjv rep Aoyco rou oro/na-ros UVTOV, KOI ev 
7TVVp.aTi dia. xci\ea>v di/eXet dcrejSri Kat 
eoTat SiKaioorvvT) e ^cotr/iei/os TT)^ 6<r(f)vv 
avrov, Koi dXrjOeiq fiXrjpevos ras TrAeu- 

pas. On these passages is also founded 
the description of the Divine warrior 
in Wisd. v 18 : Ajy^erai Trai/oTrAico/ TOI/ 
^Aov avroi), Kat OTrAoTrotTJcret r^i/ KTIO-IV 
els ap-vvav f \6patV fvSvo-crai 0a>paKa 
) Kat irepidrjo fTat, KOpvda 
avvTTOKpirov \T)fj.\lfTai 

15. eVoifiaa-ta] The word is used 
in the LXX for a stand or base: but 
it is also found in the following pas 
sages, Ps. ix 38 (x 17) TTJV Toi}j.a<Tiav 
rrjs KapSias avTtoi/ Trpoo-etr^ei/ TO ovs 
a-ov (Heb. Thou wilt prepare (or 
establish) their heart, Thou wilt cause 
Thine ear to hear ), Ixiv 10 (Ixv 9) 
T^rot/xacras 1 rrjv rpo<pj)i> avTtoi/, on OVTO>S 
77 erotftao-ta croi; (comp. Wisd. xiii 12 
fts eroipacriav rpo<pf)s\ Na. ii 4 ev 
rjp.epa erotp-acrias avrov. The Apostle 

means to express the readiness which 
belongs to the bearer of good tidings. 
He has in his mind Isa. lii 7 rrapfi/u 
o>s a>pa eTTi T&V opetoVj cop Trades fvay- 
yf\iofj.evov aKorfv elpijvrjs, which in 
Rom. x 1 5 he quotes in a form nearer 

to the Hebrew, cos copaiot ot Trades ra>v 
vayye\i^o^eva>v dyaQa. 

1 6. ev rrao-iv] For the variant eVt 
iraa-iv see the note on various readings. 
ETT! Trao-t occurs in the description of 
the Roman armour by Polybius (vi 23), 


(rrefpdvcp K.r.A. The meaning 

is, in any case, in addition to all : 
comp. Luke xvi 26 KOI ei> Trdo-t TOVTOIS 
/xera^u rjpwv K.r.A., where there is the 
same variant eVt. 

0vpe6v] Comp. Polyb. vi 23 eort 
8 j) Pw/zatK^ Trai/OTrAta Trpwroi/ pcv 
Qvpeos, ov TO p,ev TrAdros ecrrl r^s *vp- 
TTJS fTTKpaveias Trevff Ty/MiTroStwi , TO de 

fJLTJKOS TToSwi/ TTrdp<i)V 6 ftf /Ifl^COI/, Tt 

Kat TraAawrriatos. The scutum con 
sisted, as he tells us, of two layers 
of wood glued together and covered 
first with linen and then with hide: 
it was bound with iron above and 
below, and had an iron boss affixed 
to it The oWi s, or clypeus, was a 
round shield, smaller and lighter. 

7rerrvpa>iJ.cva tr/SeVai] "Wetstein gives 
many examples of the use of flaming 
missiles: they were often employed 
to destroy siege-works, as well as to 
wound or discomfit individual soldiers. 
Thuc. ii 75 7rpoKaAv/u/j,ara fi\ f ^eppets 
KOI St<p$epas, wore rovs pyao[j.cvovs 
Kai ra vAa /iJj re irvp(popois oto-rots 
/3aAAeo-#ai ev do~(pa\eia re eti/at. Liv. 
xxi 8 Phalarica erat Saguntinis mis 
sile telum hastili abiegno et caetero 
tereti praeterquam ad extremum 
unde ferrum exstabat: id, sicut in 
pilo, quadratum stuppa circumliga- 
bant linebantque pice... id maxime, 
etiamsi haesisset in scuto nee pene- 
trasset in corpus, pauorem faciebat, 
quod cum medium accensum mit- 
teretur conceptumque ipso motu 
multo maiorem ignem ferret, arma 
omitti cogebat nudumque militem 
ad insequentes ictus praebebat . The 
exact expression occurs in Apollodor. 
Bibl ii 5 de Hercule: TTJV vSpav... 
/SoAcov /3eAeo~i TreTrvpeo/neVots yvdyKacrev 
For the absence from some 



[VI 1820 

THN TTepiKe4>AA<\i<\N TO? cooTHpioy Se^acrOe, Kai THN 

AN TOY TTN6YMATOC, O (TTIV p H M <\ 6 O Y, * 8 Si 

Trpocrev^rj^ Kai Se/Vews, Trpoa-ev^oimevoL ev TravTi 
ev TTvevjJiaTi, Kai ek ai/ro dypvTrvovvTes ev 7rda"n 
Kai Seqcrei Trept TTCCVTCOV TWV dyiwv, 
19 Kai VTrep ejULov, iva JJLOL $o6rj \6yos ev dvoi^ei TOV <TTO- 
/zaTOS //of, ev Trapprjcria yvcopicrai TO /avcrT^piov TOV 
eva<y<yeXiov *v7rep ov Trpecrfievca ev dXva-ei, iva ev avTco 
cos Se? jme \a\ij(rai. 

texts of the article before 

see the note on various readings. 

17. 7TpiKc(f)a\aiavK.T.\. ] SeeiThess. 
v 8 and Isa. lix 17, quoted above. To 
o-anjpiov is found in Luke ii 30, iii 6, 
and in St Paul s speech in Acts xxviii 
28 : in each case it comes directly or 
indirectly from the LXX, 

degao-Qe] is here equivalent to Xa- 
/3ere: comp. Luke ii 28, xvi 6 f., xxii 17 

(de^dfJiCVOS TTOTTJplOv). 

ri]v pdxaipav TOV Trvevfjuiros] The 
phrase is accounted for by Isa. xi 4 
(quoted above), though the actual 
words do not there occur. 

pr)na 6fov\ For pfjua see the note 
on v 26. Comp. Isa. xi 4 r<3 Aoyo> 
TOV aTonaTos avTovj and Heb. iv 12 
o5i/ yap 6 \6yos TOV 6fov Kai evepyrjs 
vrrep Tratrav jjui%aipav 

1 8. irpoo-evx^s ] For the connexion 
of this with the prj^a Qeov compare 
I Tim. iv. 5 ayidfTai yap dta \6yov 
6eov Ka\ firev^fcos. 

This word is joined with 
for the sake of fulness of 
expression: see Phil. iv. 6, i Tim. ii i, 


ev irvfvu.aTi\ l in the Spirit : seethe 
note on v 18. 

fls avro] Comp. Rom. xiii 6 els 
avTo TOVTO Trpoo-Kaprepovvres. 

dypvTrvovvres ] Aypvirvetv Rini yprj- 
yopelv are both used in the LXX to 
render "Jj?^, to keep awake , to 

watch . Comp. Mark xiii 33 /SAe 
dypvirvfiTe, 35 ypTjyopelTf ovVj xiv 38 
yprjyopelre /cat 7rpoo-ev^eo-^e : Luke 
XXI 36 dypvnvf iTe ev Travrl Kaipqt deo- 
pevoi: and the parallel passage Col. 
iv 2 TJI Trpoa-evxfj rrpocrKapTepetTe, yprj- 
yopovvres ev avTrj ev eu^aptortct. 

Trpoo-KapTepijo-ei] The verb is com 
mon, but no independent reference 
for the noun is given. 

19. KOI vnep e/ioC] The change 
from Trept to VTrep helps to mark the 
introduction of the special request: 
but there is no real difference of 
meaning, as may be seen from the 
parallel, Col. iv 3> 7rpo(revxopevoi ap.a 
Kai Trepl 7}p,c3i/, Iva K.T.\. 

\oyos K.r.A. Comp. Col. iv 3 iva 
6 6ebs dvoir] Tjfilv Ovpav TOV \6yov, 
and Ps. 1 (Ii) 17 ra x 61 ^ 7 ? P ov av i- 
gets, Kai TO 0-rofj.a nov dvayycXei TT]V 
aivo~iv (Tov. 

fjLvo-njpiov] Comp. Col. iv 3 f. AaA^- 
o~ai TO pvarTrfpiov TOV ^ptorov, 81 o Kai } Iva (pavepwo-Q) avTo coy del p.e 
AaA^crat. For pvo-T^piov see i 9, and 
the references there given. For the 
absence from some texts of TOV evay- 
ye\iov see the note on various readings. 

20. Trpeo-Peva)] Comp. 2 Cor. V 2O 
VTrep XptGrrov ovv iTpeo~ftevop.(v. 

fv dXva-ei] Comp. Acts xxviii 20 
elveKev yap TTJS eXjrio os TOV lo-pai^A TTJV 
a\vo~iv TavTrjv TrepiKeipai, 2 Tim. i. 16 
rrjv aAvo-tV p,ov OVK e7raio-xvv0r). 

21 24. Tychicus will tell you 


31 I i/a Se eiSrjre KOL i)//els ra /car que, ri Trpdorcrw, 
yvct)pi(rei vfjuv TV^LKOS 6 dyaTrrjTOS d$e\(f>os Kat 


^ / 



TOVTO va <yva)Te ra 


23 Eiprivrj TO?S aSeA^oIs /ecu dyaTrr] /zeTa 


^dpis ^ueTce TrdvTcov TCOV dyaTTtovTcov TOV Kvpiov rjfjiwv 
ev d(p6apcrla. 

TL Trpdoxro)] 1 7ww I fare : as in 
the common phrase ev 7rpdrri/. But 
there is no parallel to this usage in 
the New Testament; for in Actsxv 29 
ev TrpdeT appears to be used in the 

sense Of Ka\aJs Trotr/o-ere. 

23. Tols d8e\(pols] The term ddeX- 
(pos was taken over by Christianity 
from Judaism. See Acts ii 29, 37, 
iii 17, vii 2, etc., where it is addressed 
by a Jew to Jews. Similarly before his 
baptism Saul is addressed by Ananias 
as dde\(p6s, Acts ix 17. Here the 
general term takes the place of the 
special names which occur in most of 
the epistles addressed to particular 

dyaTTTj /iera TriWecoff] Love accom 
panied by faith. Faith and love the 
Apostle looked for and found among 
those to whom he writes : see i 1 5, 
and comp. Col. i 4. He prays that 
they may together abide with them. 

24. xP ty ] The familiar ao-Trao-^os, 
with which St Paul closes every 
epistle (see 2 Thess. iii 17 ), takes 
here a more general form and is 
couched in the third person. This 
is in harmony with the circular na 
ture of this epistle. 

ev d(p6apcria] A$$ap<rt a signifies 
indestructibility, incorruptibility, and 
so immortality. *A.<f>6apTos and d- 
<p0apo-ia are used of the Deity ; e.g. 
by Epicurus ap. Diog. Laert. x 123, 

how I fare. I am sending him to 
bring you information and encourage 
ment I greet all the brethren with 
one greeting : peace be theirs, and 
love joined with faith. Grace be 
with all who love our Lord in the 
immortal life in which He and they 
are one*. 

21. "Iva 8e K.T.\.] Almost the same 
words occur in Col. iv 7 f. : ra tar e/ne 
irdvra yi/copiVei vfuv TV\IKOS 6 dyairrjTos 


\os ev Kvpia, ov 7rep,\^a TTpos els 
avro roCro, iva yvwre TO. Trepl rjfjuuv KOL 
TrapaKoXeo-r) ras Kapdias vfieov- On the 
phrases common to both passages it is 
sufficient to refer to Lightfoot s notes. 
Kat vpcls] This may be taken in 
two senses: (i) ye also , i.e. as well 
as others to whom the Apostle is 
sending a letter at the same time 
and by the same messenger : for 
although this meaning would not be 
at once obvious to the recipients of 
this letter, the words might naturally 
be used by the Apostle if he were 
addressing a like statement to the 
Colossians : (2) ye on your part , with 
an implied reference to the knowledge 
which the Apostle had gained of their 
Condition (i 1 5 aKoixras rrjv <a& vpas 
TTLO-TIV K.T.X.). The latter interpreta 
tion, however, is somewhat forced, 
and the former is rendered the more 
probable by the close similarity be 
tween the parallel passages in the 
two epistles. 

Kal pciKapiov vo/jufav (as y KOIVTJ TOV 



[VI 24 

fov vorjaris 
d(f)dapo-ias d\\oTpiov /x;re rfjs p,aicapi6- 
TTJTOS dvoiKeiov avT<5 irpoarairTf trav 
de TO (pvXaTTfiv avToC 8vvdp,fvov rrjv 
p.fTd d<p6ap<rias paicapioTrjTa. irfpl avTov 
dogafc : and Plutarch, Aristides 6, TO 
Qfiov rpicrl doKfl 8ia(pepfiv, d(pdapo~iq 
KOI KOI dpcrf}. They are like 
wise used by the Stoics of the Koa-p-os ; 
Chrysippus ap. Plut. Moral. 425 D, 

OV% TjKlO-Td TOVTOV (SC. the p.fO~OS TOTTOff 

in which the Kooyzos- is situated) trvv- 
(ipyf&Sai npbs TTJV diafj.ovr)v KOI olovel 
d(f)0apo-iav : and by the Epicureans of 
their atoms. [Comp. the title of Philo s 
treatise, Ilepi d<j)0apo ias KO(TfJLov.~\ 

In the Greek Old Testament a- 
<p0apTos occurs twice : Wisd. xii i TO 
yap acpdaprdv o~ov 7rvfvp,d fcrnv fv 
7ra.(riV) xviii 4 TO acpOaprov v6p,ov <pa>s* 
The same writer in two notable pass 
ages connects the d<p6ap<ria granted 
to men with the d(p8ap<ria of God s 
own nature: ii 23 f. OTI 6 Qeos eKTio-cv 
TOV avOparrov eV dfpdapviq, KOL fl<ova 
TTJS Idias Idiorrjros (v. I. didioTTjros) 
fTToirjo-ev avrov (pdovto de diaj36\ov 
Odvaros flcrf}\6fv els TOV Kooyioi/, K.T.X., 
vi 1 8 f. dydjrrj e Trjprja-is vop,<av avTrjs 
(sc. TTJS (ro<pias\ npocroxr) 8e vopav 
iaHTis d(p6apa-iaSjd(f)6ap(Tia de eyyvs 

iroi.fl 6fov. The only other ex 
amples are found in 4 Mace, (of men 
who pass to an immortal life), ix 22 
d>o-7rep ev irvpl /ieTao-^/naTi^o/iei/os els 
d(p6ap(ria.v, xvii 12 qSKoBcTti yap Tore 
dpfTr) di vTrofJLOvijs doKipd^ovo~a TO vlicos 
fv d(p6ap(riq fv 0077 TroXv^povia). Sym- 
machus used the word in the title of 

PS. 1XXIV (1XXV), fTTlVlKlOS TTfpl d(f)0ap- 

<rias ^a\p,6s (LXX p.f) dta<pdeipr]s). 

So far then the meaning ofatpdapTos 
(dQQapo-ia) is clear, and there is no 
tendency to confuse it with a$0opos 
(dcpQopia). The latter adjective occurs 
once in the LXX : Esther ii 2 ^r^^Vw 

TO) ao-iA K0pd<ria a(j)6opa KaXa TO> 
8ei (comp v. 3 Kopdcria irap6fvi<a KaXa 

TO) flftfl). 

In the New Testament we find 
a(p6apTos used of God, Rom. i 23 
T^V dogav TOV d(p0aprov 6eov 

fv ofjiOKop-aTt eiKovos (pQapTov dvSpwirov, 
I Tim. i 17 d<p0dpT(o aopaTa) p,6vto ^e<: 
and of the dead after resurrection, 
I Cor. XV 52 fyfpdf}o~ovrai afpOaproi. 
It is also used as an epithet of 
o-Tecpavos (i Cor. ix 25), K\rjpovop.ia 
(i Pet. i 4), and o-n-opd (ib. 23 ; comp. 
iii 4). The substantive occurs in 
I Cor. XV 42 cnrfipfTai V 0$opa, 
fyfipfTdi fv d(p6apo-iq, 50 ovdf T) (pdopa 
TTJV d(p6apo~iav K\r}povop,fl, 53 ^ e * y**P 
TO (pflapTov TOVTO vo vo~ao~&ai d(p0ap- 
o-iav, KCU TO BVTJTOV TOVTO eVSucraa-^ai 
dQavao-iav. It occurs again in Rom. 

ii 7 Tols p.fv Kaff inro[jLovr)V fpyov dyadov 
doav KOI Tip.r)V KOI dfpdapcriav r)Tov(ri.v, 
<or)V alcoviov, 2 Tim. i IO KaTapyrjo-avros 
p,fv TOV QdvciTOV, (pa>Ticrai>TOS df farjv 
icai d<p6apo~iav did TOV fvayyf\iov. (In 
Tit. ii 7 it has been interpolated after 
dcpQopiav, o-e/iyoTT/To, having come 
in probably as a marginal gloss on 

In all these passages there can be no 
doubt as to the meaning of dcpOapaia. 
If 0)77 aiatvios is the life-principle 
which is already at work, d(pdapo-ia is 
the condition of immortality which 
will crown it in the future. 

The use of the word in the epistles 
of Ignatius deserves a special con 
sideration, if only because we find in 
Rom. 7 the expression dydirr) tydapTos. 
In Eph. 1 5 f. Ignatius is speaking of 
false teaching and false living as de 
structive of the temples of God, with 
an allusion to i Cor. iii 17 ei TIS TOV 
vaov TOV 6fov <p6fipfi, K.T.\. He de 
clares that of oiKocpdopoi, those who 
violate God s house, forfeit the king 
dom of God. If this be so for the 
bodily temple, still more does it hold 
of those who violate ((pfaipfiv) the 
faith of God by evil teaching . They 
and their hearers are defiled and shall 
go into the unquenchable fire. He 
proceeds : Aid TOVTO pvpov f\aj3fv eirl 
TT)S Kf<paXrjs avTov 6 Kvpios, Iva. irverj 
TTJ KK\Tjo-iq d(p6apo-iav. He is playing 
upon the two senses of (pQfipeiv, 
physical destruction and moral cor 
ruption: but that the sense of in- 

VI 2 4 ] 



corruptibility or immortality predomi 
nates when the word dcpOapo-ia is 
introduced is shewn by the contrasted 
dvcradia TTJS di8acrKa\ias of the devil, 
who would carry us away from the 
life which is the goal set before us 
(EK TOV irpoKeipcvov tfiv}. The phrase 
has a noteworthy parallel in Ireu. iii 
1 1 8 iravra-jfoQev irveovras Tr)v d<p6apcriav 
KOI dvafairvpovvras TOVS dvdpatirovs (of 
the four Gospels) : comp. i 4 i and i 6 i ; 
the metaphor being perhaps derived 
from the XpHTTov ev(o8ia and the 007*9 
e /e farjs els fayv of 2 Cor. ii 15 f. 

In Magn. 6 we have els TVTTOV KOI 
dida^v d(pdapo~ias, but the context 
does not throw fresh light on the 
meaning of the word. Philad. 9 TO 
de evayye\iov aTraprioyMZ ecrTiv d<p6ap- 
a-las recalls 2 Tim. i 10. In Trail, n 
?)v av 6 KapTTos OVTWV a<pdapTos stands 
in contrast with Kapirbv davarrjcpopov. 
In Rom. 7 w have ov^ rjdop.a.1 rpofpfj 

<p&opas followed by 7rop,a 6e\a> TO alp.a 
avTov, o ecmv dyairrf a(pdapros. In 

this passage we have a combination 
of the ideas which appear separately 

in Troll. 8 ev dydnrj^ o ecmv at/u,a Irjcrov 
Xpto-roO, and Eph. 20 eva apTov AcXoin-es, 
o ecmv (pdp/jLdKov ddavao-ias, avriSoros 
TOV fj.f) aTToBaveiv oXXa rjv ev irjo-ov 
Xpio-ro) dta iravros. [Comp. Clem. 
Alex. Paed. i 47 o apTos...els d<p0ap- 
criav Tp<po>v.~\ Both the ddavacria and 
the d(p&aporia of Ignatius are lifted 
out of the merely physical region by 
the new meaning given to life by the 
Gospel: but the words retain their 
proper signification in the higher 
sphere, and still mean freedom from 
death and from dissolution. A<p6ap<ria 
is not confused with d(p6opia or 
dduxpdopia, so as to denote freedom 
from moral corruptness. 

I cannot point to any passage in 
the writers of the second century in 
which atpdapTos and d(pdapo~ia are used 
of moral in corruptness, though the 
words are common enough in the 
usual sense of immortality (see Athe- 
nag. de Res. passim). On the other 
hand a(pdopoi occurs in a well-known 

passage of Justin (Ap. i 15, comp. 
dbvd^dopoi. ibid. 1 8). 

Since, however, <$>6eipeiv and cpBopd 
express the physical and moral ideas 
which are negatived in d<p0apo-ia and 
d(pdopia respectively, it was quite 
possible that dcpdapcria should come 
to be regarded as denoting not only 
the indissolubility of eternal life, but 
also the purity which Christian thought 
necessarily connected with eternal life. 
And this may explain the uncertainty 
which attends Origen s use of the 
word in some passages. Thus in his 
treatise on Prayer, 21, we read ra 

die(p6apfiva epya rj \6yovs r} vorjpaTa, 
Taireiva Tvyxdvovra KCU eVi X^Trra, TTJS 
d<pdapo~ias aXXorpia TOV Kvpiov. He 
seems again to play on two possible 
senses of dcpOapo-ia in c. Gels, iii 60, 
where our present passage is referred 
to : eirel de KOI rj x^P ts Tov @ OV e>trrt 
/nera irdvroiv TO>V ev dfyOapcriq dyair^v- 
TOJV TOV dto~do-K.a\ov TWVTTJS ddavao-ias 
paBrjiJidTcov, l OCTTLS dyvos ov povov diro 
TravTos fj-va-ovs } (the words of Celsus), 
aXXa *cal rcoi/ eXarroi/coj/ elvai vop,io- 

K.T.X. In his Commentary (on this 
verse) Origen combats an extreme 
view which interpreted dcptiapo-ia as 
implying strict virginity. He does 
not reply, as he might have replied, 
that in Scripture dfp6apa-ia is always 
used of immortality ; but he suggests 
that <pdopd is predicable of any sin, 
so that d(p0apaia might be implying 
absolute freedom from sin of any 

kind: wore TOVS dyarrc^vTas TOV Kvpiov 
rjfj.a)v irjcrovv Xpioroi> ev d<p@apo~ia elvat 
TOVS jrdcrrjs dfiaprmy direxo/jtevovs. The 

later Greek commentators also in 
terpret d<pdapo-ia in this place of 
incorruptness of life. The Latin 
commentators, who had in incorrup- 
tione to interpret, sometimes preferred 
to explain it of soundness of doctrine, 
but with equally little justification 
from the earlier literature. 

How then are the words to be 
understood? It has been proposed 
to connect them with 77 xP> so that 


the Apostle s final prayer should be fatal to this interpretation. It is 

an invocation of x*P ls * v a^dapcria, i.e. better to keep the words eV a<f>6ap<rla 

of grace together with that blessed closely with rS>v dycnrtovTa>v rov xvpiov 

immortality which is the crowning rjp&v Ii/o-oGi/ Xpio-rov, to render them 

gift of grace. But this cannot be in incorruptibility , and to explain 

regarded as a natural expansion, of them as meaning in that endless 

his accustomed formula, even if the and unbroken life in which love has 

disposition of the sentence be not triumphed over death and dissolution . 


On the meanings of %a/3t? and 

I. The word ^apts- has a remarkable variety of meaning even in the Meanings 
earliest Greek literature. It is used ianfterl"- 

(1) objectively, of that which causes a favorable regard, attractive- ture: 

ness : especially (a) grace of form, gracefulness ; and (6) grace 
of speech, gracioumess : 

(2) subjectively, of the favorable regard felt towards a person, 

acceptance or favour: 

(3) of a definite expression of such favorable regard, a favour (xdpiv 

dovvai) l 

(4) of the reciprocal feeling produced by a favour ; the sense of 

favour bestowed, gratitude (x^P tv dnooovvai, c&cveu, e\ 6tl/ ) * 

(5) adverbially, as in the phrases x"P lv TWOS, for the sake of a 

person, or a thing ; rrpbs x < *P tv riv>l Tt ^pdrreiv, to do some 
thing to please another . 

Greek writers of all periods delight to play upon the various meanings Play on 
of the word ; as in such sayings as 77 \apis x^P lv (pfpfi- meanings. 

The Greek translators of the Old Testament used x^P iS almost exclus- The Greek 
ively as a rendering of the Hebrew jn ? a word connected with pn * to O. T. 
incline towards , and so to favour . 

Thus in the Pentateuch we find the phrase evpelv x^P LV ( 20 times, Penta- 
besides t^eti/ xap>, for the same Hebrew, once) and the phrase dovvai teuch. 
X<*pw (five times); each being regularly followed by a term expressive 
of relation to the favouring person, evavriov TWOS, ev<&iri6v TWOS or napa nvi. 

In Ruth and the books of Samuel we have fvpelv x^P tv * v o cptfaA/zoiy Ruth and 
TWOS (12 times), where the same Hebrew phrase of relation is more Samuel. 
literally translated 1 . 

Up to this point we have no other use of the word at all. In Kings Kings and 
and Chronicles however, besides evpelv x<*P LV evavTiov (once), we twice find Chroni- 
X<*pw used as an adverb. cles> 

In Esther, besides evpfiv x<*P lv ( s ^ x times : once for Ipr^ and once for Esther. 
this and |n together), we have x^P ls use( i ^ or ^? <I " T .^ i Q v ^ 3? rtva doav rj 
xdpw firoirjaapfv K.r.X., What honour and dignity hath been done to 
Mordecai for this ? (A.V.). In a Greek addition xv 14 ( = y 2) we read TO 

1 This rendering is found once in the Pentateuch, Gen. xxxiii 8. 



able esti 
by a 

Psalms : 

Proverbs : 

bility with 
God and 



In the 




literature : 
mercy . 

Enoch : 

light and 
peace . 

The N. T. 
and He 
uses : 
esp. the 

The distinctive meaning then of x"p as representing JPJ in the historical 
books of the Old Testament is the favour which an inferior finds in the eyes 
of his superior. It is to be noted that Sovvat x<*P tv i 8 nere correlative to 
tvpdv x<*P lv - It does n t mean to favour , but to cause to be favoured 
by another. It thus differs altogether from the true Greek phrase Sovvu 
^apii/, to grant a favour . 

In the Psalms the word occurs twice only : xliv (xlv) 2 fgfx.v6r} [77] 
X<*pis fv xeiXeorii/ a-ov, Ixxxiii (Ixxxiv) ii x^P lv * a * 8oav da>cr. In each case 
it renders |H } which has acquired a certain extension of meaning. 

In Proverbs we find it 21 times, the plural being occasionally used. 
Thrice it renders fitf}, which is commonly represented by ei)6Wa. The 
general meaning is favour or acceptance in a wide sense, as the condition 
of a happy and successful life. Such x<*P ts * s as a ru l e the accompaniment 
of wealth and high station : but God gives it as a reward of humility, iii 34 
raireivols Se 8i8<o<riv xaptv 1 . 

In Ecclesiastes x^P LS ^ s used twice for fHj and again the sense is wide. 

It is remarkable that in Isaiah, Jeremiah and (with few exceptions) 
the Prophets generally x^P LS * B n t found at all. The exceptions are 
three passages in Zechariah (always for \r\) t iv 7, vi 14 and xii 10 (e ^^ew... 

TTVeVfJLO. ^apt-Toy KOI OlKrtp/LAOt)) ; Dan. i 9 d(OK...Tl[J.TJV KOI X < *P IV (^^) * vav ~ 

riov...(Theodot....ets eXeoi/ KOI oiKTcippov evtamov...} and Ezek. xii 24, the 
adverbial phrase irpos x<*P lv 

In the Wisdom books we find, as we might expect, a more extended 
use of the word: and the sense which corresponds with }H appears side 
by side with various Greek usages. It is specially noteworthy that twice 
we have the combination x<*P ls Kc " f^fos [eV] rots CK\KTOIS avrov (Wisd. 
iii9,iv 15). 

With this last expression we may compare Enoch v 7, 8 KOI rols r /cXe/c- 
Toly eo-rcu (pcos /cat ^aptff KCU elp^vrj^.Tore So^o-erat rois K\fKTois (pas 

quent on 
favour . 

It appears from the foregoing investigation that the New Testament 
writers inherited a wealth of meanings for the word x^P ls 

(a) the purely Greek significations, which were familiar to all who used 
the Greek language, but which to some extent fell into the background, in 
consequence of the appropriation of the word to a specially Christian use ; 

(&) the significations which the word had acquired through its use by 
the Greek translators of the Old Testament to represent |H. 

Of the latter significations the most important was that which we find 
in the latest books, namely, the favour of God, or rather the blessed condi 
tion of human life which resulted from the Divine favour a sense in which 
the word came, as we have seen, to range with such spiritual blessings as 

eAeor, (pas and flpyvrj. 

1 This phrase needs to be considered allowance must be made for the more 

in the light of what has been said of independent use of xa/xs without a term 

Sovvcu x<*<P LV ^vavriov rivfc (see Gataker of relation in the later Old Testament 

Cinnus, ed. Lond. 1651, p. pof.); but literature. 


Turning now to the New Testament, we observe that the word is not Distribu- 
found in the Gospels of St Matthew and St Mark ; but that it occurs in * on the 
every other book, with the exception of the First and Third Epistles of 
St John 1 . We may consider first those writers whose phraseology is in 
general most remote from that of St Paul 

In St John s Gospel x*P ls * s found only in the Prologue : i 14 TrXrjprjs St John s 
l d\r)dfias...l6 fK TOV irXypta paras avVov ijpels Trdvres eXa/So/iev KOI Gospel: 
xapiTOS...I7 T; \apis Kal rj aXijOeta dui ITJO-OV Xptorov eye i/eTo. vm 

These verses are closely connected and offer a single emphatic presenta 
tion of x<*P ls M a blessing brought to man by Jesus Christ. Grace and 
truth together stand in contrast to the law as given through Moses. 
A fulness of grace and truth pertains to the Word made flesh . Out 
of that fulness we all have received : we have received grace for grace 
that the gift in us may correspond with the source of the gift in Him. 

The only other occurrences of the word in the Johannine writings do Other 
not help us to interpret the words of the Prologue. In 2 John 3 we have Johannine 
merely the greeting ^apis, eAeos, elp^vrj (comp. the Pastoral Epistles). In books * 
the Apocalypse we have the salutation x^P ts Ka * "P 7 ?*"? UTTO o 3>v, K.T.X., and 
the closing benediction, rj x^P ls T0 ^ wpiov Irjcrov Xpiorov pera T>V dyioiv, 
in each case Pauline phrases with a peculiar modification. 

The Epistle of St James contains the word only (iv 6) in an allusion to St James. 
and a quotation from Prov. iii 34 (see above). 

In Jude 4 we read rrjv TOV 0eov ^aptra pfTariflcvres els aVeXyetai/. This St Jude. 
form of the accusative is not found elsewhere in the New Testament, 
except in Acts xxiv 27. Xdpis does not occur in the opening salutation 
of the epistle (f\cos KOI elp^vrj Kal dyaTrr) irkrjOvvBfLr]}. It is observable 
that the whole of the phrase above quoted, with the exception of the word 
acreXye ta, is absent from the parallel passage, 2 Pet. ii i fit In 2 Peter, 2 St Peter. 
however, we have the salutation x^P ls 1 V" / *"" "P 7 ? 1 "? TrXi^w&ti;, and in 

iii 1 8 the injunction av^avert de ev X^P tTl * a * yvafXTfi TOV Kvpiov rjp.a>v. 

We now come to the Lucan books, in the latter of which at any rate St Luke s 
we shall be prepared to find tokens of the direct influence of St Paul. In Gospel : 
Luke i 30 the angelic salutation Xcupe, Kf^apirco^ w; is followed by evpes opening 
yap xaptv Trapa rw 0e<, a purely Hebraistic expression. In ii 40 we read 
of the Child Jesus, x^P iS @ v *i v ^ avro : and in ii 52 I^o-ous Trpoe/coTrrei/ uge 
rfi cro(piq /cat T^XtKi a Kal ^aptn Trapa ^ea> Kal avdpconois (comp. I Sam. ii 26 
TO Trai&dpiov 2ap,ovj)X eTropevero pfya\vv6p.vov Kal dyaOov, Kal ficra Kupiou 

Kal p.Ta dvdptoTwv). The phraseology of the first two chapters of St Luke s 
Gospel is largely derived from the historical books of the Old Testament : 
and these uses of xdpis are characteristically Old Testament uses. In iv 22, 
c6av[uiov 7rl rois \6yots TTJS ^aptTos, /C.T.X., we have another obvious Later on, 

Hebraism. But the remaining examples of the word give us purely Greek 


1 No account is here taken of ex- the Vulgate and the Bohairic. For a 

amples of x&P LV used adverbially with confusion between the same words see 

a genitive. In 3 John 4 pe^oT^pav Tobit vii 17 

rotiriav OVK ^x w X a pd- v i it seems im- rai/rrys [^apdf ^], Ecclus. xxx 

possible to accept the reading x&P LV i ^ x > X a P < *- y 
which is found in B, a few cursives, 

22 4 


The Acts : 


The new 
meaning : 

in con 
with the 
of the 

St Paul 
the term 

to express 
the free- 
and uni 
of the 


tion of the 
word in 
with his 

Greek usages : iroia v^lv X apis coriV; (vi 32, 33, 34): ^ ( X " X apiv r<5 

OTI frroirjo~V TO. 8tarax$ei>ra ; (xvii 9)- 

In the Acts we find in the earlier chapters clear instances of the Old 
Testament use of x<*P is: ** 47 *X OVTS X<*P IV npos 5\ov TOV \aov, vii 10 

da)KV avTto X^P IV * a * o~o(piav cvavriov 4>apaa>, vii 46 fvpev 

rov 6fov. Perhaps we should add to these iv 33 xP ls T 
TTOVTOS avTOvs, and vi 8 2T(pavos 8e nXrjpTjs ^aptrof /cat fiuva/iecoy 
re para, ie.r.A. ; but it is possible that we have here a distinctively Christian 
use of the word. Of purely Greek usages we have ^apira jeara&o-dat in 
xxiv 27, and X^P IV <ora6ea-6ai. in XXV 9; also airov/z,ewt X^P lv Kar> avrov in 
xxv 3 (comp. the use of xapi e<r&u in xxv u, 16). 

But there is another class of passages in the Acts in which ^apts- * s 
found in a new and Christian sense. The first of these is xi 23, where 
we read of St Barnabas at Antioch, Idmv TTJV x<*P tv T *l v T v & f v xP 7 
The emphatic form of the expression helps to mark the introduction of the 
new phrase : and it may be observed that, wherever throughout the book 
the word occurs in this sense, it is (with the single exception of xviii 27) 
followed by a defining genitive. The passages are the following : 

xiii 43 Trpocrpevciv TTJ ^aptrt TOV $eoC, 

XIV 3 ra> Kvpifp rep p.apTVpovvTi TG> Xo-ycp TTJS \apvros avTov, 
26 o6ev fjo-av irapa^edofjifvoi Trj ^apirt TOV ^eov, 

XV 1 1 5ta TTJS ^aptros TOV Kvptov l^trov TTtOTeuo/xei/ (ra&fjvai <a$ J ov 

TpOTTOV KaKflvOl, 

40 Trapadodels Trj ^a pirt TOV Kvpiov, 

xviii 27 (TwefiaXeTO TTO\V Tols TTfTTio-TCVKocriv dta TTJS ^apiros, 

XX 24 dta/zaprvpao-$ai TO evayyeXiov TTJS ^apiros TOV 6fov, 

32 Trapart^e/Aat rw Kvpta) Kal T< Aoyco Trjs ^aptros avTov. 

It is noteworthy that this use of x^P ls belongs to the narratives which 
deal with the extension of the Gospel to the Gentiles : see especially xv 1 1. 
The surprising mercy of God, by which those who had been wholly outside 
the privileged circle were now the recipients of the Divine favour, seems 
to have called for a new and impressive name which might be the watch 
word of the larger dispensation. 

Although it is not probable that the introduction of xapt? into the 
Christian vocabulary was due to St Paul, yet there can be little doubt 
that the new and special use of it which we have just noted was closely 
connected with his missionary efforts, and that he did more than any one 
to develope the meaning of x^P ls as a theological term. To him, for 
example, we owe the emphasis on the freeness of the Divine favour 

which is marked by the contrast of x<*P ls w * tn *><X7/*, debt , and 
with cpyov in the sense of meritorious work ; and the emphasis on 
the universality of the Divine favour, which included Gentiles as well as 
Jews, in contrast to * the law which was the discipline of Israel 

Moreover he seems in some sense to have appropriated the word, as 
though he had a peculiar claim and title to its use. The first of his epistles 
opens and closes with an invocation of x^P ts upon his readers : and every 
subsequent epistle follows the precedent thus set. In 2 Thess. iii 17 f. he 
declares that this may be regarded as his sign-manual, authenticating as it 


were his epistle : O do-Trao-pbs rfj ep,fj x et P* HatJXot;, o e<rriv o-rjp.e iov ev irdoy special 
OVTO>S ypacpor f) x^P ts To ^ K vpiov Tjfj.ioi ITJO-OU XptoTov fifra iravratv mi 

The following series of passages will serve to shew how closely he 
connected the word with his own special mission to the Gentiles. 

(a) In regard to himself as proclaimer of the universal Gospel () in re- 

I Cor. iii IO Kara TTJV x^P lv TO ^ @ e v T*) V o odelo dv p,oi t <os o~o(pbs 

TCKTCOV 6ep.e\iov edrjKO. 

1 Cor. XV IO ^apin de 6eov elp.1 o ei/zt, Kat ij %dpts avrov ff els ep.e 
ov Kevr) eyevrjQr), aXXa irepio-o-orepov avratv irdvrav ocoTTtWa, OUK cya> 5e 
aXXa TI x<*P ls T v & f v [^] O"^" f^oi. 

2 Cor. 1 12 OVK cv (T0(piq a-apKiKrj aXX eV ^apirt ^eoO dveffrpdcprjufv eV 
TG) Kooyza, irepuro-OTepus de irpbs vpas. 

2 Cor. iv 15 Ta yap Travra 5t v/naf, ii/a 77 ^apiff TrXeovacrao-a Sta TOI/ 
TT\i6v<av TTJV vxapi(rriav rrepKrcrfvcrT} els rrfV 86av TOV 6eov. 

GaL i 15 f. 6 mpoptVas /^ie...Kai KaXeo-a? dia TTJS ^apiros avrou...ii/a 
evayyeXifccofiai OVTOV fv rois fdvecriv. 

Gal. ii 7 f. tSoires on TreTr/o-reu/icu TO evayyeXiov r^r aVcpo/3voTtas.../cat 

Gal. ii 21 OVK d6eTa> TTJV X^P IV rov Geov el yap 8ia vop,ov 

Tois Wveo-iv. 

Rom. xii 3 Xeyo> yap dia TTJS ^apiroy TT)S 8o0eio~r]S p.oi travrl ra> OVTI tv that is, with all the force of my special commission and authority, 
to you to whom it gives me a right to speak. The phrase is taken up 
again in v. 6. 

Rom. XV 15 &>s 7ravap.ip.vr)o-K(0v vpas, 8th Trjv X^P IV T *l v 8o0el<rdv /not 
OTTO rov 6eov els TO elvai p.e \eiTovpybv Xpiorov l^o-oG els TO. edvr). 

Phil, i 7 ev Te Toif 8eo~p.ols p.ov Kal ev TTJ dnoKoy ia Kal /3e/3aio)o-et rov 
fvayyeXiov CTVVKOIVUVOVS p-ov TTJS ^aptros itdvras vp,as ovras. It Was for 
the wider Gospel that St Paul was bound. 

See also Eph. iii i 13, and the exposition, 

(b) In regard to the Gentile recipients of the universal Gospel. ( & ) in re- 

2 Thess. i 12. The persecution which the Thessalonians suffer is a Gentile 

proof that the kingdom of God , for which they suffer, is truly for them, converts. 

They as believers are equated with the saints : in them, no less than 

in Israel (Isa. xlix 3), the Name is to be glorified the Name of the 

Lord Jesus in you, and ye in Him , Kara r^v 

KVpioV *Ir)(TOV XptOTOV. 

2 Thess. ii l6 o dyaTT^o-as 77/10? Kal 8ovs irapaK\r)(Tiv alaviav Kal 
dyadrjv ev ^aptri, TrapaKaXcorat vp,av Tas Kap8ias. By grace the consola 
tion of Israel is widened to the consoling of the Gentiles. The thought 
is : For us too it is through grace, which has extended it (and may 
you realise it!) to you as well. 

1 Cor. i 4 7rt rr} ^aptri roO $eov rr; 8o6eiaTj cv Xprra> irja-oC. 
You have been called into fellowship, v. 9. 

2 Cor. vi I 7rapaKa\ovp,ev p.rj els Kevbv TTJV X^P iV T v $fov 8eao"6ai vuas. 

2 Cor. viii I yi>a>ptb/xef 8e v/, d8e\<poi t TTJV X**P iV ro ^ @eov TT>V 8e8o- 
fievrjv ev rats eKK\ij(riais TT]S MaKedovias. The contribution to the Jewish 


Christians was a signal witness to the fellowship into which the Gentiles 
had been brought by grace. It was a proof that grace was being con 
tinually given to those who made this return of grace. St Paul plays 
on the senses of the word with great delight in this connexion : v. 4 TT\V 

X<*P IV KC " tyy KOivaviav rrjs dia<ovias TTJS fls TOVS ayiovs : V. 6 eVireXeo-fl els 
vpas Kal Tt]V X a P lv Tavrr l v V* 7 tva Ka * 6>J/ TavTT) TTJ x a P tTl Trepttrcreu^re : 
V. 9 yivafTKCTC yap rr)v x a P lv T v xvpiov yp.a>v l^troO [Xptoroi;] : v. 19 ev 
ravrrj rfj diaKOVOvpevy v(p rjfjL&v: ix. 8 Surarei 8e 6 6eos irao-av 
irfpi<r<TV<rai fls vpas: v. 14 7ri7ro6ovvro)v vfj,as Sia TTJV UTrep/SaA- 
\ovtrav x^P lv T v @ v e $ vfjuv. The play on words was a tmly Greek 
one: conap. Soph. Aj&x 522 x^P ls X^-P IV y**P e>(rrtj/ ^ TIKTOVO^ aet. 

Gal. i 6 (jLfTa.Tideo de O.TTO TOV KakecravTos v/j,as fv ^apirt Xptcrroi) els 
erepov evayyeXiov. 

Gal. V 4 Ka.TT)pyij6r}T diro XpioroO otrives ev vopcp St/caiovcr^e, TTJS ^aptro? 
e^eTreVare. You have separated yourselves from that which was your 
one ground of hope. 

Col. i 6 a0* r/s jy/iepa? i^/toucrare KOI fireyvo&Te rrjv x^P lv T v ^ e0 ^ * v 
aXrjQeia. This is again in connexion with the declaration of the uni 
versal scope and fruitfulness of the Gospel 

See also Eph. ii 5 9, and the exposition. 

The ad- A review of these passages makes it impossible to doubt that St Paul s 

mission llse o f ^apis is dominated by the thought of the admission of the Gentiles 

Gentiles * *^ e P 1 ^ 68 which had been peculiar to Israel. Grace was given to 

dominates the Gentiles through his ministry : grace was given to him for his ministry 

his use of to them. The flexibility of the word enables him to use it in this twofold 

the word, manner. The Divine favour had included the Gentiles in the circle of 

privilege: the Divine favour had commissioned him to be its herald for 

the proclamation of that inclusion. 

This is in This being so, we recognise the fitness with which St Luke, the corn- 
harmony panion of St Paul and the historian of his mission, uses the new name 
Ster^art with P eculiar reference to the proclamation and the reception of the 
oftheActs. universal Gospel among the Gentiles. 

Later ^ * s unnecessary to follow the history of the word into the Pastoral 

history of Epistles, where it is somewhat more widely used (comp. 2 Tim. ii i, Tit. iii 7), 

the word, though its specially Pauline usage may be illustrated by Tit. ii ii; or 

into the Epistle to the Hebrews, wtiere the reference is quite general; 

or into i Peter, which adopts so much of the phraseology of St Paul s 

epistles. As the first great controversy of Christianity passed out of 

sight, terminology which had been framed with peculiar reference to it 

became widened and generalised ; and the word grace in particular lost 

Grace its early association, while it remained in the new Christian vocabulary 

wrsus an( j wag destined, more especially in its Latin equivalent gratia, to be the 

1 * watchword of a very different and scarcely less tremendous struggle. 

Variously 2. Closely connected with St Paul s use of x"P ts is ms incidental use 
explained. O n one occasion only of the word ^aptrovv (Eph. i 6). Its meaning both 

there and in Luke i 28, the only other occurrence of the word in the New 

Testament, has been variously explained. 


The verb x a P lT0 ^ v properly signifies to endue with x^P tff : an< ^ its Its mean- 

meaning accordingly varies with the meaning of x^P ls - Thus from x"P ls i* 
in the sense of * gracefulness of form 3 (compare Horn. Od. ii 12 0fo-7r<rlr)v of ^ pL ^ 
5* apa ro) ye x a P lv KOTCXCVCV A0Tjvr)\ we have the meaning to endue @ ree k 
with beauty 5 : Niceph. Progymn. ii 2 (ed. Walz. I 429) Mvppai/ cpvais usages: 
xapiTo>crv els nopfpr/v. comp. Ecclus. ix 8, in the form in which it is to endue 
quoted by Clem. Alex. Paed. iii II 83 aTroorpe^oi/ Se rov o(p8a\ oVo with 
ywatKos KfxapiTfouevrjs (LXX. evuopcpov). Again, from the sense of gra- 
ciousness of manner we have the meaning to endue with graciousness : 
Ecclus. xviii 17, Lo, is not a word better than a gift? And both are 
with a gracious man (?rapa dvdpl icexapira>/xej>6>) : a fool will upbraid 
ungraciously (a^apio-rcoj) . 

The above are Greek usages. A Hebraistic use, of being caused to Hebraistic 
find favour 5 in the eyes of men, is seen in Ps.-Aristeas Ep. ad Philocr. use< 
(ed. Hody, Oxf. 1705, p. xxv; Swete s Introd. to LXX p. 558 L 4ff.): in 
answer to the question, How one may despise enemies HOXIJKOOS irpos 
irdvras av6pa>Trov$ evvoiav KOI Karfpycurdpevos (ptAia?, \6yov ovflevos av e^oiy 
TO Se Ace^apiroJo-^ai Trpbs irdvras dvOpcoirovs, Kal Ka\bv 6\3poi/ ftKrjfpevai Trapa 
6fov TOVT ea-Ti /cpartoTov 1 . 

In Luke i 28 the salutation Xaipe, Kc^apirco/zei ^, 6 Kvpios /zera o-ov St Luke : 
gives rise to the unuttered inquiry TroraTros eirj 6 czo-7rao-/i6? ovros ; and the 
angel proceeds : Mi) (po/3oi5, Mapta/z, evpes yap xapw Trapa rw ^ea> (comp. 
Gen. vi 8). Thus /ce^apiTw/ie ^ is explained in an Old Testament sense as an O. T. 
T) fvpovcra x^-P lv >jra pf l r <p @ e $ and the meaning of x a P lT0 ^ v accordingly is , * . -, 
to endue with grace in the sense of the Divine favour 2 . This was favoured . 
doubtless the meaning intended to be conveyed by the Latin rendering 
gratid plena, though it has proved as a matter of history to be somewhat 
ambiguous 3 . Similarly the Peshito has ^^ct=u\ i\A=n. Unfortunately 
the Old Syriac (sin and cu) fails us at this point. Aphrahat (Wright 180, 2) 
and Ephraim Comm. in Diatess. (Moes. 49) both omit the word in question, 
and read Peace to thee, blessed among women 4 . 

1 A few further examples of xapiToiV The Latin Version (practically the 

may here be noted : same in both its forms) has: dedit 

In Test, xii Patriarch. Joseph i, we eis in omni opere gratiam . 

have tv curdevetg. y[Mjv Kal 6 {f^icrros Epiphanius (Haer. Ixix 11) : 6 5 

^TreffK^aro /ie Iv <J)v\ai<rj ri^.i]v Kal 6 Mowcr^s avv^o ei K 6eov /ce^aptr&;- 

CTUTTJP xaplTa}(r fj,. This is of course /JL^VOS ypdra, ov raura, aXXd Kal T& <-Tt 

an allusion to Matt, xxv 36, and ^x<z/>/- dvibrepov, K.T.\. 

rwo-e is probably borrowed directly 2 In the Apocalypse of the Virgin 

from Eph. i 6; the word being used (James Apocr. Anecd. i, 1151!.) the 

simply in the sense of bestowed grace Blessed Virgin is constantly spoken of 

upon me : it is paralleled in the con- and even addressed as TJ icexapiTwutvij. 

text by rjydTnjffe, e<pt\a&, dvifoaye, 3 Ambiguity almost necessarily arose 

^Xev^pwo-e, ^/3oTj07?cre, 5i6p\//e, irape- when gratia came to have as its pre- 

/cdXetre, IXucre, <rvvr)y6pr)<re, eppuffaro, dominant meaning a spiritual power 

fywe, as well as by eVecr/ce^aro. of help towards right living. 

Hermas Sim. ix -24 3 6 oSv tctptos 4 Not unconnected with this may 

Id&v TT]v (XTrXoT^ro airrutv Kal iravav be the confused reading of the Latin 

vi]Tri6Tr)Ta, eTr\-r)6wv avrovs tv rots of Codex Bezae : habe benedicta dms 

x6?roi5 r&v x^tpcDj/ avruH/, Kal exapiru}- tecum | benedicta tu inter mulieres. 
ffev avrovs tv irda-ri irpd&t avrCov. 



St Paul 
is empha 
sising his 
own word 

us with 
grace . 




A various 

stom s in 

on the 
senses of 
xdpis and 
its deri 

but misses 
St Paul s 

In interpreting St Paul s meaning in Eph. i 6, els Ziraivov do^Tjs TTJS 
OVTOV fa (xapiToxrev r}pas ev ro> TjyarrTjpevu, it is important to bear 
in mind that he is emphasising his own word x<*P ls - And we must compare 
certain other places in which a substantive is followed by its cognate verb : 
Eph. i 19 KOTO. TTjv evpyiav...t}v fvTjpyTjKev (where he is thus led to a some 
what unusual use of cvcpyeiv : see the detached note on that word) : ii 4 

dta TTJV TTO\\T}V dycnrTjV avTOv fjv T^yaTrr/a-ev r}pas : iv I TTJS KXqo-ecos fa 
fKXij^Tjre: 2 Cor. i 4 Sta TTJS Trapa/cXrJcrecos fa irapaKaXovpeda avToL The 

sense appears to be, His grace whereby He hath endued us with grace . 
This is a more emphatic way of saying, His grace which He hath bestowed 
on us : it does not differ materially from the subsequent phrase of v. 8, 
His grace which He hath made to abound toward us . 

The Peshito version seems to recognise this meaning of the passage in 
its rendering ^^ ^^JE-^^ QOJ, which He poured on us . The Latin 
version, however, renders: l gratiae suae in qua gratificauit nos . The 
verb gratifico appears to have been coined for this occasion. The com 
ment of Pelagius on the verse gives the meaning which was probably 
present to the translator s mind: In qua gratia gratos fecit nos sibi 
in Christo . The interpretation was perhaps the natural issue of the 
corruption of fa into ev 77, which is found in D 2 G 3 and later authorities 
and is probably a scribe s grammatical emendation. The relative fa is to 
be explained by attraction to the case of its antecedent, as in 2 Cor. i 4, 
quoted above. It is simplest to suppose that it stands for jj : there appears 
to be no warrant for a cognate accusative, T)V exapiTtoa-ev. 

Chrysostom s interpretation of fx a p LTa>(TV W" s * s marked by a deter 
mination to compass every meaning of the word. In the first instance 
he notes quite briefly (Field p. 1 10 p) : OVKOVV el els TOVTO 
firaivov do^TjS TTJS ^apiroff avTov^ /mi ti/a 8eirj TT)V 
avrjj. Here it would seem as though he took ex 
meaning endued us with grace ; in that grace, he urges, we 
to abide. But presently it occurs to him (in B) to contrast 
with e^apuraro. Thus he says : OVK eiiTfV fjs > ^apto - aro , aXX* 
rornrccrrti , ou povov apapTTjpaTcov dirr^XXa^v dXXa /cat 

He gives as an illustration the restoration of an aged and 
diseased beggar to youth, strength and beauty (the old Greek idea of 
Xapis) OVTQJS f^rja K.ria fV TJp&v TTJV ij/vx^^ Kal KaXyv Kal irodfivrjv Kal errc- 
pacTTOv iroLT)a V...ovT(i3S Tjpas eirixdptTas ciroiTja f Kal cuma irofleivovs. 
He then quotes The king shall desire thy beauty (Ps. xlv 12). He is 
then led off by the phrase KexapiTfopcva pjpaTa to speak of the gracious- 
ness of speech which marks the Christian: ou^i x a p LV e*ewo T irai&iov 
elvai (papcv, oTrcp av pcTa TTJS TOV vapaTos <apas Kal noXX^v exn Tr i v * v 
TOIOVTOL clo-iv oi 7rt<rroi...rt ^apte crrepoj/ r<ui/ pTjpd- 
a>v d7TOTao~o~ofji6a rai 

as simply 


rrjs op,o\oyias eitcivTjs rfjs irpo TOV Xourpov, TTJS pcra TO \ovTpov; But 
in all this he is wilfully going back from St Paul s use of ^apir, and 
introducing the sense of charm of form or of speech which belonged to 
vv in non-biblical writers. 


The Beloved as a Messianic title. 

1. In the LXX 6 ^ya^pfvos occurs several times as a name of the chosen i. Use in 
people, as personified in a single representative. In the Blessing of Moses J* 16 Gr< ^k 
it is used three times to translate Jeshurun (f-1"lB^) : Deut. xxxii 1 5 airfKa- ^ , _ 
KTicrev 6 T^yanrjfj.evos, xxxiii 5 KOI ccrrai cv ro> ^yaTr^/xevo) ap^cci/, 26 OVK <rriv /X^POS. 
cSWfp 6 6fos TOV jyaTTTjfjievov. It again represents Jeshurun in Isa. xliv 2 

fj.T] </>o/3ou, TTOLS fjiov ictKw/S, Koi o yyaiTrjfjievos icrpaTyX ov e^eXe^ap^y : here 

lo-paT/X is an addition of the LXX (in the Targum it also occurs in this place, 
but as a substitute for Jeshurun}. 

It is also used to render T"P : in the address to Benjamin (without the 
article) Deut. xxxiii 12 yyairT)p.fvos VTTO Kvpiov (Hin* T 1 !!) Karaa-K?7i>eoo-ei 
7T7roi6(0s : and in Isa. V I ao-co drj r<u rlyairrjuevo) 007x0 TOV dyaTrrjTOv [p-ou] 
("H^) TO> dpTreXam p,ov. d/iTreXcoy cycvyBr] rw ^-yaTT^/MeVa) K.r.X. 

We may note also its occurrence in Bar. iii 37 laiD/3 rc5 TratSl avroO 
/cat la-pa^X T< tfyairT)p.v<p [VTT ] avrou : and in Dan. iii (35) &a A/3paa/i 
TOJ/ rjya.7rr)[j.vov vrro (rov (comp. 2 Chron. XX 7 o-irepfian AjSpaa/t TO> 
TjyaTTTjfieva trou). 

2. In the LXX we find two distinct meanings of 6 aycnrrjTos. 2. Of 6 

(1) Like 6 jyairrjuevos, it is sometimes used for TT beloved. Thus 

We find it in Ps. xliv (xlv) tit. o)5^ v-rrep TOV dyaTrrjTov: in Ps. lix (Ix) 5 
and Ps. cvii (cviii) 6 OTTCOS av pvo~8a)o~iv ol dycnrijToi a~ov. 

In Isa. v i, as we have already seen, where o rtya-rr^vos represents TT, 
o dyaTTrjTos is used for Tl 15 !, in order to make a distinction 1 . 

(2) But we also find d dycnrrjTos used, according to a Greek idiom, for Only . 
an only son. In the story of the sacrifice of Isaac it occurs three times 
where the Hebrew has TIT only : Gen. xxii 2 TOV viov <rov TOV dyairrj- 

TOV: comp. 7???. 12, 16. Of Jephthah s daughter we read in Judg. xi 34 
n Tfl? *V$ P^l: for tnis tne ^- text nas K Q i a^ 7 / novoyfvrjs aiJr 
(to which many cursives add nepi^vKTos avrw): B has al if? aurr; 
yet/T/y (e^ haec unica ei Aug locut ). In Amos viii 10 and Jer. vi 26 
dycnrT]Tov is used as the equivalent of a mourning for an only child 2 : 

1 It also represents Tj5 in Jer. solitarium quam unigenitum sonat: si 
xxxviii 20 (xxxi 20) uios 070^77x65 enim esse * dilectus siue amabilis, ut 
and in in Zech. xiii 6 as LXX transtulerunt, IDID poneretur. 

. - ,," T - , p A - Even Greeks at a late period seem to 

ev ry OIKOJ ry ayairyTU) [A. TOV . . , -,.>,. A , 

] ^ have found a dlffi culty in the use of 

Jerome, writing on Jer. vi 26, *W* the LXX. Gregory of 

shews that he failed to recognise the ^ ssa ^ e ^^ F - et S P S m 5^ 

idiom at this place: ubi nos diximus Ml 8 ne ) ha8 as a Cltatlon of Ge , n xxu 

luct urn unlgeniti foe tibi, pro unigenito 2 Aa ^ * OL > ^ rbv v "> v v rov d ^ a 

inHebraicoscribiturIAID,quodmagis ^ r6j/ r6l/ /*o"7^ T Hort points 

2 3 


3. Use in 
irr)T6s in 
the Gos 

Its mean 

Not an 

Eph. i 6, the passage 

comp. Zech. xii IO Ko^ovrai fir avrov Koirerov as cif a-ycwr^ro) 


3. In the New Testament we find 6 
which has given occasion for this investigation. 

C O dyarrrjTos is used, both directly and indirectly, of our Lord in the 

(1) At the Baptism: 

Mark ill 2u et 6 vlos /zou 6 dyctTrqroy, ev o~ol evdoKrjo-a. 

Matt. HI 17 OVTOS fCTTlV 6 VlOS fJLOV 6 dyaTTTJTOS, V CO vdoKT]O~a, 

Luke iii 22 as in St Mark, but with a notable Western 
variant 2 . 

(2) At the Transfiguration : 

Mark IX 7 OVTOS co-rtv 6 vlos pov 6 dya-rrqros- 
Matt. xvii 5 OVTOS O~TIV 6 vlos pov 6 dyainjTos, fv o> evdoKrjcra. 
Luke IX 35 OVTOS eo-riv 6 vlos fiov 6 eK\\fyiJ.Vos z . 
Comp. 2 Pet. i 17 O vlos juov o dyaTrrjTos OVTOS fo~Tiv. 

(3) Indirectly, in the Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen. 

Mark xii 6 ert Zva flx ev -> vlbv dycurrjTov. 

Luke XX 13 irep^w TOV vlov pov TOV dyair^Tov. 

St Matthew has no parallel to this clause. 

If the third of these examples stood alone, it would be natural to 
interpret it in accordance with the Greek idiom referred to above: and 
a close parallel might be found in Tobit iii 10 (X text), pia o~oi vwnpx^v 
Ovydrrjp dyaTnjTij. But it is difficult to separate its interpretation from 
that of o vlos fj.ov 6 dyairrjTos, which is twice applied directly to our Lord. 
Of this three renderings are possible: 

(1) Thou art My only Son , 

(2) * Thou art My beloved Son , 

(3) * Thou art My Son, the beloved . 

The first of these renderings is vigorously championed by Daniel Heinsius, 
Exercitt. ad N. T. p. 94 (ed. Cantabr. 1640) on Mark i n. The second is 
familiar to us in our English Bible, and in St Mark at least it suggests 

ont (Two Dissert, p. 49 n.) that from 
his comment we can see that he found 
the word povoyevri in his text. 

The usage belongs to classical Greek 
from the time of Homer: see Od. ii 
365, iv 727, 817, and comp. II. vi 
400 f. From prose writers we may 
cite Demosth. Midias p. 567 ov j^rjv 
NiK^par6s 7 oCrws o TOV NIK/OU & dya- 
Trijrbs TTCUS, and Xenoph. Cyrop. iv 
6 1 26a\f/a...&pTi yeveidffKovTa. rbv apurTov 
Traida TOV bya-miTov. Aristotle shews 
an interesting extension of the usage, 
when in referring to the lex talionis 
he points out (Rhet. i 7) that the 
penalty of an eye for an eye be 
comes unfair when a man has lost 

one eye already; for then he is de 
prived of his only organ of vision 
(dyairijTOV y&p dfirjprjTai). 

1 We may note that in Prov. iv 3 
"PIT is represented by dya-n-wfJievos. 
This word is used of Christ in Just. 
Dial. 93 cfyyeXoi tKeivov . . .TOV dyaird)- 
[Mfvov t>ir avTov TOV KvpLov ical 6eov: 
but there it stands for the more usual 

<re (Da be...) : from Ps. ii 7. 

3 This is the reading of KBLJ syr 8 * 11 
arm sah boh a. It is undoubtedly to 
be preferred to that of ACD syi*"? 6811 
b c vg, which have 6 dyairi]T6s with St 


itself as the most obvious translation. Yet there is some reason for sup 
posing that the third interpretation was that which presented itself to the 
minds both of St Matthew and of St Luke. 

St Matthew assimilates the utterances at the Baptism and the Trans- but a dis 
figuration, writing in each case Ovros CO-TIV o vlos pov 6 dyairrjTos, ev <j> J m 
cvdoKTjo-a. It is possible that the right punctuation of this sentence is 
that which is suggested in the margin of the text of Westcott and Hort 
at Matt, iii I/: OVTOS <mv 6 vlos pov } o dyairrjTos ev o> cvdoKrjo-a. For in 
Matt, xii 1 8 we find a remarkable change introduced in a quotation from 
Isa. xlii i. The Hebrew and the LXX of this passage are as follows: 


laKco/3 o irais /*ou, airiXT^o/iai avrov* 
itrpa^X o K\e KTOS /AOU, TrpocreSf^aTO avrov n 

But St Matthew has: 

l8ou O 7TCUS /10V 0V T)pCTtO~O. 

6 dycnrTjTos pov ov v8oKi]<rtv rj ^vx^ pov. 

There is no justification for rendering *Tn? otherwise than as My 
Elect 1 . It would seem therefore that St Matthew, in substituting My 
Beloved, has been influenced by the twice repeated phrase of his Gospel 
o dyaTTTjTos ev $ ev8oKrj(ra: and it follows that he regarded o dyainjTos as 
a distinct title and not as an epithet of o vlos pov. 

St Luke, by his substitution of 6 eVXeAry/zeVos for o dyairrjros (ix 35), and to 
appears likewise to indicate that the latter was regarded as a title by itself, St Luke : 
for which the former was practically an equivalent. 

It is worthy of note that the Old Syriac version, in every instance and in the 
(except one) in which its testimony is preserved to us, renders o vlos pov Old Syriac 

dyaTTTjros by ^=xx=axo ^Tc= My Son and My Beloved : the conjunction version - 
being inserted to make it clear that the titles are distinct 2 . 

It is further to be urged on behalf of this interpretation that the words The two 

2u cl 6 vlos P.OV of the Voice at the Baptism according to St Mark directly allusions 

in Mark i 

1 This passage, Isa. xlii i, is ex- mentators. Thus in Harnack s note n 

plicitly referred to the Messiah in the on ry -qyaTnjfj^vif in Ep. Barn, iii 6 

Targum, which renders it thus: KH we read: Nomen erat Messiae apud 

SnnKn ^m n^mpN NIW HnV ludaeos ex les. 42, i repetitum , with 

nonD no Behold My servant Messiah ; references to Liicke, Einl. in die Apok. 

1 will uphold him: Mine elect, in whom edlt - n P- 2gl n - *> and ^angen, Da 
MyWordisweU-pleased . Judenthum in Palast. z. Z. Christi 

Curiously enough the Latin trans- P- 162,427. Hilgenfeld in his edition 

lation of this which is given in the rf * B . a carri f. s on / the tradition. 
Polyglots of Le Jay and Walton has .* So in Matt - U1 V (* cu )> Luke 

dilectusmeus as the rendering of nTQ. f 22 .< 8m : cu v a V> Matt xvu 5 

The mistake is perhaps due to a re- (J : sm vacat )> Luke lx 35 (cu: sin 

membrance of the Vulgate in Matt. **=^ to -* ^Xe\e7/*^os). For 

xii 1 8. However it may have origin- Mark i n we have no evidence. The 

ated, it is time that it was corrected : one exception is Mark ix 7 (sin 

for it has misled a series of com- -=a*=u>^ "Tra : cu vacat). 


reproduce the language of Ps. ii 7, The Lord hath said unto me, Thou art 
My Son . If therefore we may suppose that the Beloved and the Elect 
were interchangeable titles in the religious phraseology of the time, we 
have in the Voice a combination of Ps. ii 7 with Isa. xlii i, and the Son 
who is set as King upon the holy hill of Sion is identified with the Servant 
of Jehovah ; so that in the Divine intimation of the Messiahship the ideas 
of triumph and suffering are from the outset linked together. 

4. Early 4. In the early Christian literature outside the New Testament we 

writers*" 1 fre( l uentl y find jyairr)iicvos used absolutely of Christ ; and also 6 TJyairr)- 
TjyaTrr)- ^ vos w> a combination which recalls Isa. xliv 2. The former occurs 
lUvos ab- thrice in the Epistle of Barnabas : iii 6 6 \aos ov ijToipao-fv ev rcS qycnrT)- 
solutely : ^e*>o> avrov, iv 3 o dea-Tronjs tnafttrfUjKOf TOVS Kaipovs KOI TO.? ijfMepas, iva 
Ta%vvT] 6 TJyairrjfjLfvos CIVTOV KOI eirl TTJV KXr^povofjiiav TJT), IV 8 crvverpij3r] avTav 
77 8ia6ijKT]) Iva 77 TOV ijyairrjfjLevov y lrjo~ov VKa.Tao~(ppayio~()fj els TTJV ttapbiav>. See also Ignat. Smyrn. inscr. eKK\r)o-iq 6eov narpos KCU TOV TJycnrr)- 
fievov irjcrov XpicrroC: Ada TtiGclaG I rravra TO. \6yia TOV Kvpiov...Ka\ TTJS 
Kai TTJS dvao~Tao~ea>s TOV ijyaTj"rjfjLvov eyXvKaivev avTovs, KOI TO. 
TOV xpto~Tov K.r.X. 1 : Clem. Paedag. i 6 25 avriKa yovv Paimop,evcp 
TW Kvpta) air* ovpav&v err^^o ev (frcovT) fj.dpTvs ijyaTnjfievov "Yios p.ov fi (ru 
aya.7rr)ToS) eyco crrjp.fpov yeyevvrjKa ere. 

similarly O ayairrjTos is used throughout the apocryphal Ascension of Isaiah, as 
60,70x77x65. though it were a recognised appellation of the Messiah : and although it 
is there due to a Christian hand, it not improbably represents a traditional 
Jewish usage. 

Combina- We find the combination o rlyairq^vos TTOLS in Clem. Rom. lix 2, 3 : and 

tions with ^y a7rT j TOS ^ai^ i n Ep. ad Diogn. 8, and, as a liturgical formula, in Mart. 

Polyc. 14, Acta Theclae 24. In Herm. Sim. ix 12 5 we have TOV vlov 

avTov TOV jjyaTnyfievov vir* avTov . comp. Sim. V 2 6 TOV vlov avTov TOV 


The Apos- A number of references to qyatrr^^vos and dyaTnjTos in the Apostolic 

tolic Con- Constitutions are brought together by Harnack in his note on Ep. Barn. 

ms. ..j ^ Specially to be observed are v 19 (Lag. p. 152, L 14) Tore o^ovrai 

TOV dyaTrrjTov TOV 0eov } ov ^eKevrr}o~av, which shews that the dycarrjTos of 

Zech. xii 10 was interpreted of Christ: and v 20 (Lag. p. 153, L 24), where 

the title of Ps. xliv (xlv) <pdrj virep TOV dyaTrrjTov is similarly explained 

(comp. Jerome Commentarioli in Pss., Anecd. Mareds. iii pt. i, and 

Corderius Catena in Pss. ad foe.). 

Summary. The case then for regarding the Beloved as a Messianic title in use 
among the Jews in New Testament times may be stated thus. 

i. The Beloved (o rjyaTrrjpevos LXX) is used in the Old Testament 
as a title of Israel It is easy to suppose that, just as the titles the 
Servant and the Elect were transferred from Israel to the Messiah as 
Israel s representative, so also the title the Beloved would become a title 
of the Messiah. 

1 In Iren. i 10 i (Mass.) we read : KO! contain a reference to Eph. i 10 

TJJV ZvffapKOV eis rovs ovpavobs dvd\i}\f/w aVa/ce0aXcuaxra0-0ai ra TroWa, it is pro- 

TOV -fiyairrjfj^vov XpurroO iTycrou TOV bable that 6 fjyatrwtvos was directly 

Kvplov rtV-w but as the next words suggested by Eph. i 6. 


2. When the first and the third of our Gospels were written, the 
Beloved and Hhe Elect were practically interchangeable terms. For in 
St Matthew we find 6 dyairrjTos pov in a citation of Isa. xlii i, where the 
Hebrew has ""TriS and the LXX renders literally o cxXeKros pov. And, 
conversely, St Luke substitutes o K\e\eypevos for 6 dyaTrrjros in the words 
spoken at the Transfiguration. 

3. Each of these substitutions in a different way favours the view that 
in St Mark s twice repeated phrase o vlos pov o dyairqros a separate title is 
given by 6 dyarrijTos, and not a mere epithet of vios. 

4. The Old Syriac Version emphasises the distinctness of the title by 
its rendering * My Son and My Beloved . 

5. In Eph. i 9 St Paul uses / r<5 ^yamjfjLevy as the equivalent of ev 
r<5 xpio-TO), in a context in which he is designedly making use of terms 
which had a special significance in Jewish phraseology. 

6. In early Christian literature o ^ya-mj^vos is undoubtedly used as 
a title of our Lord ; and it is difficult to suppose that its only source is this 
one passage in St Paul 

7. If the Messianic portions of the Ascension of Isaiah cannot be 
regarded as pre-Christian, yet the persistent use in them of o ayairrjTos as 
the designation of Messiah suggests that the writer must have thought it 
consistent with verisimilitude in a work which affected to be a Jewish 
prophecy of Christ. 


On the meaning of pvcmjpiov in the New Testament. 

History of The history of the word fjiva-Tijpiov is curious and instructive. Starting- 
the word, with a technical signification in pagan religion, the word passes through 
a neutral phase in which the original metaphor has ceased to be felt, and 
in the end is adopted as a technical term of the Christian religion. The 
fact that it ends as it began in signifying a religious rite readily suggests 
that it was borrowed by Christianity directly from paganism. With certain 
limitations this may be true. That the Christian Sacraments of Baptism 
and the Eucharist were called p-va-T^pia is probably due, in part at least, 
to the fact that the word was in common use for rites to which these 
Sacraments seemed to present some parallels. But, if so, it is certain 
that the borrowing process was considerably facilitated by the use of 
/-tvo-TT/ptov which is found in the New Testament; and that use, as we 
shall see, has no direct connexion with the original technical sense of 
the word. 

i. Itsderi- I. We find in the classical Greek writers a group of words /W<o, 
vation and ^(rrrjs, pvamjpiov all of which are technical terms: to initiate , one 
c a^ssica w j 1Q j g i n jti a ted , that into which he is initiated . Of the derivation of 
fjLveoj nothing certain can be said. It has often been stated that the root 
is to be found in /zveo. But pva-as means with the eyes shut ; and though 
the word is sometimes used by transference also of shutting the mouth, 
it is always necessary that the word mouth should be expressly added 
in order to give this meaning. We cannot be certain therefore though 
in itself it is not improbable that the first meaning of the word is one 
of secrecy. We must be content to say that in usage pvaTrjpiov signifies 
a religious rite which it is profanity to reveal. 

Later use. In later Greek the word was used metaphorically of that which may 
not be revealed, a secret of any kind 1 . Thus we have a line of Menander 
(incert. 168), nvcrrrjpiov <rov M KaTeirrrjs r< <tAo>: tell not thy secret to 
a friend . 

i. Usage of 2. The word is not used by the LXX in translating any Hebrew word of 

the Greek the canonical books of the Old Testament But in the Greek of Dan. ii, 

where the original is Aramaic, it is used eight times 2 to render tf H, a word 

Daniel borrowed from Persian and found in Syriac as ^\^ i \. It is here used 

in reference to Nebuchadnezzar s dream and its interpretation by Daniel: 

1 In Plato Theaet. 156 A the word has (9), a passage which has fallen out of 
not lost its original meaning at all, as the LXX by homoeoteleuton, but is pre- 
is shewn by aftfajros in the context. served in Theodotion s version. 

2 We may add to these Dan. iv 6 


the mystery was revealed to Daniel by the God who alone reveals 
mysteries . The word secret seems fully to represent the meaning. 

In the remaining books of the Greek Old Testament we have the O. T. 
following examples of the use of the word 1 : 

Tobit xii 7 nvaTqpiov /SatriXecos KaXbv Kpv\f/ai, TO. 8e epya rov 6fov 

dvaKoXvirrfiv cv86as (repeated in v. u). 
Judith ii 2 edero per OVTWV TO fj.v(mjpiov rfjs /SovXijs avrov (when 

Nebuchadnezzar summons his servants and chief men). 
2 Mace, xiii 21 irpoo-ijyyi\cv 8c TO, pv<mjpia (of Rhodocus, who dis 

closed the secrets to the enemy). 

Wisd. ii 22 KOL OVK eyvwcrav fjLvanjpia 8fov, ovde p.ia6ov rfarKrav 
OO-IOTTJTOS (of those who put the righteous to torture and death: 
their malice blinded them ). 
Wisd. vi 22 rt 6V eo~Tiv o~o(pia KOI trots tyevero aVayyeXoj, 

/cat OVK. a7roKpu>/fa> vplv pvorypia. 
Wisd. xiv 15 nvo-TTjpia KOI re\Tdt (of heathen mysteries: comp. 

fivcrras 6ido~ov in xii 5)- 
Wisd. xiv 23 77 yap TCKvo(f)6vovs T\eras rj Kpv(j)ia p.vo-rrjpia (again of 

heathen mysteries). 
Ecclus. iii 1 8 irpafo-iv aTTOKoXvTTTet ra /ivor)pta avrou [i^ ca : not in 

Ecclus. xxii 22 p.vo~rrjpiov diroKaXvfoas KOI 7T\r)yfjs 8o\tas (of the 

things which break friendship). 
Ecclus. xxvii 16 o dTroKdhvirrav pvaTTjpia dirtaXea-ev TrioTiv (and 

similarly with the same verb in vv. 17, 21). 

In the other Greek translators of the Old Testament we have occa- Other 
sional examples of the use of the word. Greek 

Job xv 8 Hast thou heard the secret of God? So A.V.: Heb. 

R. V. Hast thou heard the secret counsel of God ? ; marg. Or, 

Dost thou hearken in the council ? 

LXX 77 o"uvrayp.a Kvpiou durjieoas ; Symm. Theod. pvo~Tijpiov. 
Ps. xxiv (xxv) 14 LXX Kpareu co/za Rvpios TO>V (pofiovpfvuv avrov. 

Theod. Quint. /xuoTT/ptoi/. 
Prov. xi 13 a talebearer revealeth secrets ; LXX avyp diyXtao-a-os 

d.7roKa\vrrTi ftovXas fv crvvfdpia. Symm. p.vcmjpiov. 
Prov. xx 19 (not in LXX): the same words. Theod. nvcmjpiov. 
Isa. xxiv 16 bis (not in LXX): TO fMvorijpiov p.ov f^oL bis. A.V. My 
leanness ! my leanness ! 

We see from these examples (i) that the word p.v<rr^piov was the natural The word 
word to use in speaking of any secret, whether of the secret plan of a cam- 18 use( * of 
paign or of a secret between a man and his friend. It is but sparingly any 8< 
used of a Divine secret : it may be that the earlier translators of the Old 
Testament purposely avoided the word on account of its heathen associa- 
tious. We see moreover (2) that its natural counterpart is found in words 

1 Of cognate words we may note : /ii5<rns yap eanv TT}S TOV 6eov ^Trto-r^/iTjs, 
= l secretly, 3 Mace, iii 10: she is privy to the mysteries of the 
s, of Wisdom, in Wisd. viii 4 knowledge of God . 

2 3 6 


3. Later 

4. The 
and the 

The mys 
tery of 
iniquity , 

like dnoKaXvTTTeiv and airoKaXv\lris, words which are equally applicable to all 
senses of pvcrrypiov. 

3. An important link between the usage of the Greek Old Testament 
and the usage of the New Testament is found in the later Jewish Apo 
cryphal literature. Thus, we may note the following examples from the 
Book of Enoch : 

viii 3 (apud Syncell.} of Azazel and his companions : -n-avres OVTOL 
rjp^avro dva.Ka\v7TTiv TO. nvorijpta Tais yvvai^lv avrtov. 

IX 6 (Gizeh fragm.) eS^Xcocrei TO. p.vo"rr)pia TOV alcoves TO. ev ra) 
ovpavA : so in x 7, xvi 3 ter, of the same matters 1 . 

4. In the New Testament, apart from the Pauline Epistles, the word is 
only found in one passage of the Synoptic Gospels (with its parallels) and 
four times in the Apocalypse. 

Mark IV 1 1 vjjuv TO /j,v<rrrjptov oVSorai rfjs /Sao-tAei as rov 6eov (Matt. Luke 
vfMV dedoTai yvavai ra p,vo~Typia TTJS fiacriXeias TOV 6eov [Matt. T<3i> ovpavwvty. 

The secret of the kingdom was revealed to the disciples, while the 
multitudes heard only the parables which contained but at the same time 
concealed it. 

ApOC. i 2O ro nvcrrripiov TOOI> eirra darcpcov ovs fides... 

In this place the word p.voT^piov follows immediately after the words 
a /ie XXei yivetrQcu /xera ravra. These words and p.vamr)pLov itself are printed 
in small uncials in the text of Westcott and Hort, with a reference to 
Dan. ii 29. Whether a direct allusion to the Book of Daniel was intended 
by the writer may be doubted. The sense of pva-rripiov in Dan. ii appears 
to be quite general; whereas here we seem to have an instance of the 
use of the word in a somewhat special sense, as either the meaning 
underlying an external symbol, or even the symbol itself. See below on 
Apoc. xvii 5, 7. 

ApOC. X 7 KOI T\c<r6r] 76 MyCT^plON TOY Geoy, evT)yye\iarV TO^C 


With this we must compare Amos iii 7 (LXX) eav M aTroKaXv^Tj iraidelav 
npbs rovy dov\ovs avrov TOVS -n-po^ras (HID n?i D^ *3). Here we find that 
fjLvtmjpiov, which apparently had been avoided by the LXX, has now become 
the natural word for the Divine * secret . 

ApOC. xvii 5? 7 Ka * >7r * T /^cTeoTroi/ avr^s ovo[j.a yeypapfjievov, nvanjpiov, 
BABYAflN-.-ey^ e p^ trot TO nvar^ptov rijs yvvaiKoy KOI TOV drjpiov. The 
name Babylon is itself a p.vorqpiovj that is, a symbol containing a secret 
meaning. In the second place the p.vo~rr)pLov is rather the meaning of the 
symbol, as in i 20. 

5. We now come to the Pauline Epistles. The earliest example we 
meet with is an isolated one. The word is used in describing the opera 
tions of the Antichrist in 2 Thess. ii 7. The Man of Iniquity is to be 
revealed (aTroKaXv^^, v. 3). At present however there is TO 

TO dTTOKa\v(p6fjvcu avTov Iv TO) avTov Kaipor TO yap pvo~Tripiov rj 

1 The Greek fragments of the Book Aethiopic text, see Anrich Mysterien- 
of Enoch are reprinted in the last wesen, p. 144, notes : it occurs several 
volume of Dr Swete s manual edition times in connexion with the Tablets 
of the Septuagint (ed. 2, 1899). For of Heaven . 
references to the word mystery in the 


TTJS dvopias povov 6 /care^coi/ apri ca>s e peo-ov yevrjTat. KOI rare 
rai 6 ai/o/*os, K.r.X. 

Here there can be little doubt that the word nvo-njpiov has been a secret to 
suggested as being the natural counterpart to the drroKa^v^is already be Te ~ 
spoken of. The Man of Iniquity is the embodiment of the principle of V 
iniquity in a personality. The restraint which at present hinders him 
from being revealed is spoken of first as a principle of restraint (TO 
fcare^oj/), and then as a personal embodiment of that principle (o Kare^v). 
While the restraint is effectual, the dvopia cannot be revealed as o avo- 
HQS. But already it is at work, and it will be revealed later on : till it 
is * revealed it is a secret TO p.vo-TJpiov rrjs dvo^ilas. There is perhaps 
an intentional parallel with the secret of the Gospel, which waited to be 
revealed in its proper time 1 . 

In i Cor. ii i St Paul is reminding the Corinthians of the extreme The mys- 
simplicity of his first preaching to them : /cayco e X&oi/ npbs vpas, a6VX(poi, *? rv . , of 

Kad* vTTfpo-^rjv \6yov rj ao(plas K.arayyf\\a>v vfuv TO p.vo-Tr}piov z TOV 
j ov yap <pivd TI fidfvai tv Vfiiv el p.r/ irjcrovv Xpt<rroi> Kal TOVTOV ecrTav- 
pa>Hfi>ov. Not with any superiority of wisdom had he come to them ; not 
as a publisher of the Divine secret: nay rather as knowing nothing save 
Jesus Christ, and Him as crucified (the message of the Cross being, as 
he had already said in i 18, folly to the Greeks). But, although for the 
moment he seems to disparage wisdom and mysteries , he presently 
adds (ii 6) : oxxpmi/ Se XaXoC/Aci/ ev rots reXetots ( the full-grown , as opposed 
to vrjiriois of iii i): and he continues in v. 7: aXXa \a\ovpcv 6eov <ro(piav 
ev /ii;<rT77pi &>, TTJV aTTOKfKpvfJinevrjv, r)v Trpoapurtv 6 deos npo TWV ala>va>v tls 
86gav jfj.ti>v. This use of the word is the characteristically Pauline use. 
It denotes the secret Purpose of God in His dealings with man. This 
is par excellence the Mystery. 

In i Cor. iv i the Apostle describes himself and his fellow-workers as The plural 
V7rr)pras XpitrroO /cat oiKovopovs fjLvo-rrjpiwv 6eov, entrusted for the sake of / AU < rT7 ?/ )ia 
others with a knowledge of the Divine secrets . The word is twice again 
used in the plural : in I Cor. xiii 2 K.O.V %a> 7rpo<pr)Tfiav KOL flda ra /iuorr/pta 
irdvra KOI iraa-av rrjv yva>o-iv, where its connexion with prophecy is note 
worthy : and in i Cor. xiv 2 Trvcvp.aTi 5e XaXe I /xvanfpca, where it is connected 
with speaking in a tongue which no one understands, in contrast with 
such prophecy as is intelligible to the Church. 

1 There is a merely verbal parallel Syriac Peshito and the Bohairic. It 
to TO fjivffT-rjpiov Tijs dvo/jdas in the de- has also some Latin support. On the 
scription which Josephus (J3. J. i 24 i) other hand fj.apTtipt.ov is the reading of 
gives of Antipater. In contrast with fcs c BD 2 G 3 LP, most cursives, the Latin 
others who uttered their thoughts Vulgate, the Sahidic, Armenian and 
freely, and were accused by him for Aethiopic; and it has the support of 
their unguarded utterances, the taci- Chrysostom and some other patristic 
turnity and secrecy of Antipater are writers. It may have come in from a 
emphasised : TOV AvTiiraTpov fiiov O$K recollection of TO napTijpiov TOV x/woroO 
av rifJLapTtv TIS eliruv /ca/c/aj ftvffTrjpiov. in i 6. The substitution destroys the 
His life was a villainous secret. completeness of the contrast between 

2 It is to be noted that here there is v. i and v. 7, and gives altogether a 
a variation of reading : fivcrr/piov is weaker sense. 

read by K*AC, some cursives, the 


Amys- One more example is found in the same epistle (i Cor. xv 51), of the 

ter y - change at the Second Coming: Idov fjLvo-njpiov \cya>. This may 
be compared with the use of the word in the latter part of the Book 
of Enoch. 

This In Rom. xi 25 the problem of the unbelief of Israel, which accords 

mystery , ^th ancient prophecy and in some strange way is bound up with mercy 

to the Gentiles, is spoken of as a Divine secret: ov yap 

dyvoelvj d8e\(poi, TO p-vaT^piov rovro,...ort Trojpoocm OTTO pepovs reo 

yeyoveVy Ac.r.X. 

The mys- In Rom. xvi 25, 26 we have again the characteristically Pauline use 
tery par of the word : Kara drroKaXv^iv /zva-r^piou xpovois alcavtois o-eo~iyr)p.evov t 
(paveptodevros e vvv, did re ypa<f>a)v 7rpo(prjTiKu>v fear* eiriTayrjv TOV altoviov 
6eov els vTraKorjv 7rio~Teo)s els Trdvra TO. e@vr) yva>pio~6evros. This is tho 
secret of secrets, the eternal secret now at last revealed in the Christian 

Epistle to This last passage shews that the use of the word which we find in the 
Colos- Epistles to the Colossians and the Ephesians is no new one. The Mystery 
par excellence has a special reference to the Gentiles. In fact it is nothing 
less than the inclusion of the Gentiles as well as the Jews in a common 
human hope in Christ. So in Col. i 26, 27 we read: TO pv<rn)piov TO 
aTTOKfKpv^evov drrb reoi/ alav&v Kal OTTO TO>V yeveaiv, vvv be 
Tols dyiois avrov, ois ijOe\r]O ev 6 0ebs yvwpio ai TI TO TT\OVTOS TTJS 


86gr)s. Christ in you Gentiles that is the great surprise. None could 
have foreseen or imagined it. It was God s secret. He has disclosed 
it to us. 

In Col. ii 2 the same thought is carried on iu the words, els cirlyvuHTiv 
TOV p,vo-Tr)piov TOV Bcovj Xpiorou, tv ej> doriv iravres ol Grja-aupol TTJS o~o(f)ias 
Koi yvcoo-ftos a7roKpv<poi. Here the mystery of God is Christ as the 
treasury of the hidden wisdom which it is granted them to know. 

In Col. iv 3 the Apostle bids them pray that he may have opportunity 
XaX^o-ai ro fivorrjpiov TOV ^ptOToO, 6V o KCU 6eSe/iat, iva (pavep(oo~<o avTO tos 
del fji XaX^o-at. 

Epistle to I n the Epistle to the Ephesians the word occurs five times in this same 
Ephe- sense. We need but cite the passages here. 

Sians. j Q^ IO y va) pi(j- as -fully T0 HVO-TT/PIOV TOV 6f\^fj.aTos CIVTOV, KCITO. TTJV cvdoKiav 

avTov rjv TrpofBfTo v avTto els olKovopiav TOV ir\r)p(i)fj.aTos TO>V /catpcoi/, dvaKe(pa- 
\ai(do~ao~6ai ra iravra ev ra> ^pto~rc5. 

iii 3 6 Kara diroK.aXv<\nv eyva>pio~6r) fioi TO fj.vo"Tr}piov } KaQas Trpoeypa^a 
ev oXtyo), Trpos o dvvacrOe dvayivwo-ftovrfs vorjcrai TTJV o-vvecriv /u,ov cv TW 
fj,vo~rrjpi(f TOV xpiorov, o fTepats yevfais OVK eyvapicrfir] rots viols T&V dv- 
tipwirw coy vvv aTreKaXiXpOrj rots dyiois aVooToXois aiJrou KOI jrpo(prJTais ev 
7rvVfj.aTi, elvai ra edvrj o~vvK\Tjpov6fJ.a Kal (rvv<ra>\i.a Kal oruffiero^a TTJS eirayyf- 
\ias ev XptoTrco l^o-oO did TOV evayye\iov. 

iii 9 Kal (fxoTio-ai TIS ij oiKovopia TOV fj.vo-Tr)piov TOV dnoKeKpvpfJievov OTTO 
TQ>V ala>voiv ev ro> 6e& ra) ra Trai^-a KTi<ravri. 

VI 19 ev Trapprjo-iq yvapio-at TO pvo-rijpiov TOV evayye\iov vnep ov rrpe- 
(T/3cVb) ev iiXvcrei. 

The Mystery, then, on which St Paul delights to dwell is the unification 


of humanity in the Christ, the new human hope, a hope for all men of all 
conditions, a hope not for men only but even for the universe, 

The word nvo-rrjpiov occurs once more in the Epistle to the Ephesians, This 
and in a sense somewhat different from any which we have hitherto mystery . 
considered. In Eph. v 32 we read : TO p-vo-T^piov TOVTO p.eya e ortv, e yto 
de Aeyo> els Xpurrbv /cat fls TTJV cKK\r)o~iav. St Paul has cited the primaeval 
ordinance of Marriage, which closes with the enigmatic words /cat eo-ovrai 
01 dvo cis o-dpKct /u ai/. This saying is true, he seems to say, of earthly 
marriage; but it has a yet higher signification. The ancient ordinance 
is not merely a divinely constituted law of human life ; it has a secret 
meaning. It is a p.vo-nipiov, and the nvo-rqpiov is a mighty one. I declare 
it in reference to Christ and to the Church. I say no more of it now: 
but I bid you see to it that in common life each one of you is true to its 
first and plainest meaning, for the sake of the deeper meaning that lies 
hid in Christ. 

The sense in which the word here occurs may be illustrated from later A symbol, 
writers. Justin Martyr, for example, uses it somewhat in the same way or its , 
when he speaks for instance (Trypho 44) of certain commands of the meanm S- 
Mosaic law as being given els p.v<mjpiov TOV XptoroC : or, again, when he 
says of the Paschal lamb (Trypho 40) TO ^vo-T^piov ovv TOV irpofiarov... 
TVTTOS rjv TOV XpicTTov. The Paschal rite contained a secret, not to be 
revealed till Christ came. Thus TO fivo-TJpiov is practically a symbol or 
a type, with stress laid upon the secrecy of its meaning until it comes to 
be fulfilled. 

We have still to consider two passages in the Pastoral Epistles. In The mys- 
i Tim. iii 9 we read that a deacon is to hold TO pvo-Trjpiov TTJS Trio-Teats te f v f tiie * 
fv Kadapa o-vveidrja-ei. It is not required of him, as of the bishop, that he * 

should be didaKTtKos. Hence no secret lore can be meant : he is not the 
depositary of a secret tradition, as the words might have seemed to imply 
had they been spoken of the bishop. The phrase in its context can only 
refer to such elementary and fundamental knowledge as any servant of the ** 
Church must necessarily have. 

In the same chapter (v. 16) we read: KCU 6fjLo\oyovp.eva>s pcya. eo-Tiv TO Themys- 
TTJS fvo-efteias p.vcrTT]piov: and the words are followed by what appears to * er y f 
be a quotation from a Christian hymn. The epithet great , which is here S odliness 
applied to the mystery of godliness , is the same as in Eph. v 32. It 
refers to the importance, not to the obscurity, of the mystery (see the note 
on that passage). But the use of this epithet is the only point of contact 
in the expression with the phraseology of St Paul : for the word evo-efieia 
belongs to the peculiar vocabulary of these as compared with the other 
Pauline epistles. 

In both these instances the word pvo-rripiov appears to have a more A more 
general meaning than it has elsewhere in St Paul s writings. The sum of general 
the Christian faith seems to be referred to under this term. It is perhaps meamn g- 
a natural expansion of what we have seen to be the characteristically \ 
Pauline use of the word, when the special thought of the inclusion of the 
Gentile world in the Purpose of God has ceased to be a novel and en 
grossing truth. But whether such an expansion can be thought of as 


directly due to the Apostle himself is a part of the difficult problem of 
the literary history of these epistles. 

Conclu- We have found, then, no connexion between the New Testament use 

sion. o f th e wor d < mystery and its popular religious signification as a sacred 

rite, which the initiated are pledged to preserve inviolably secret. Not y 
until the word has passed into common parlance as a secret of any kind 
does it find a place in biblical phraseology. The New Testament writers 
find the word in ordinary use in this colourless sense, and they start it 
upon a new career by appropriating it to the great truths of the Christian 
religion, which could not have become known to men except by Divine 
disclosure or revelation. A mystery in this sense is not a thing which 
must be kept secret On the contrary, it is a secret which God wills to 
make known and has charged His Apostles to declare to those who have 
ears to hear it. 


On evepiyeiv and its cognates. 

The meaning of Ivepyelv and the cognate words in St Paul s epistles has Limita- 
been so variously understood that it is desirable to attempt a somewhat t 
more complete investigation of them than has hitherto been made. That 
the sense which they bear in the New Testament is in some respects 
peculiar is in part due to a fact which it may be well to note at the 
outset : namely, that, wherever its ultimate source is directly expressed, 
the evepyeia is always attributed either to Divine or to Satanic agency. 
The prevailing thought is that of a Divine eWpyem. In the two passages 
in which the evil spirit is spoken of as exerting eWpyeia, there is evidence 
in the context of an intentional parallel with, or parody of, the methods of 
Divine action : see above in the note on Eph. ii 2, and Lightfoot s notes 
on 2 Thess. ii 3 n (Notes on Epp. pp. in ff.). This limitation lends 
a certain impressiveness to this whole series of words. Even where evep- 
yelv is used of human action (Phil, ii 13) we are reminded that God 
Himself is o evepyav TO eve py civ. And it is further in harmony with 
this conception that wherever in St Paul s writings evepycta is attri 
buted to things, as opposed to persons, the form of the verb used is 

not evepyelv but fvepyel(r6ai. 

i. At the base of all these words lies the adjective eWpyor, which i. The 
signifies at work : compare cvapxos, in office , used in documents pre- adjectives 
served in inscriptions and papyri. It is found in Herod, viii 26, of certain &L % 
deserters who came into the Persian camp /3/ou re Seo/iei/o* *ai wepyol classical 
j3ov\6fj.evoi elvai. The word has various shades of meaning, as active , writers. 
busy , effective (of troops), under cultivation (of land), productive 
(of capital) ; and in most cases the opposite condition is described by dpyos. 
The later form is evepyijs (Aristotle has eVepyf o-raros). In Polybius both 
forms occur, and they are frequently interchanged in the manuscripts. 
The LXX has evepyos once, Ezek. xlvi i, of the six working days ; but Biblical 
never cvfpyrjs. In the New Testament, on the contrary, evepyjs is the writers, 
only form 1 . We have it in I Cor. xvi 9, 6vpa yap /zot avetoyev /neyaXr; 

>cat Vpyrjs : that is, an effective opportunity of preaching : for the nieta- 

1 This form of the word lent itself Jerome, when he quotes the passage 

readily to confusion with vapyf]s. In in commenting on Isa. Ixvi 18, 19, 

the two passages of St Paul in which has evidens, though elsewhere he has 

it occurs the Latin rendering is evidens efficax. For further examples of the 

(or manifesto) which implies tvap- confusion see the apparatus to my 

yjjs in Greek MSS. In Heb. iv 2 edition of the Philocalia of Origen, 

is actually found in B; and pp. 140, 141, 144. 

EPHES. 2 j6 



i. The 






St Paul. 

i Thess. ii 
9, ii. 

phor of the open door compare 2 Cor. ii 12, Col. iv 3. In Philem. 6, 6V coy 

77 Koivatvia TTJS 7ri<rrea>9 (rov evepyrjs yei^rai, it means productive of due 

result , effective : and in Heb. iv 12, >v yap o \6yos TOV 0cov /cat evepyrjs 
Kai ropwTfpos virep Kavav pdxcupav SiWo/nov, it again seems to mean effec 
tive ; but perhaps the word was chosen with a special reference to u>v : 
for evfpyos and evepyelv are used of activity as the characteristic sign of 
life 1 alive and active . 

2. The substantive eWpyeia is employed by Aristotle in a technical 
sense in his famous contrast between potentially (8wdpci) and actually 
(Ivfpyfla). We have it too in the Nicomachean Ethics in the definition of 
TO dvOpvirivov dyaflov, which is declared to be ^rvx^s evcpyeta <aT apeTT/i/ 
iv /3ia> reXe/o) (i 6 15, p. 1098, i6 a ); and in this connexion a contrast is 
drawn between eVp-yeta and egis. 

It is interesting to compare with this the definition of the term in 
physiology as given by Galen, de natural, facultt. i 2, 4, 5. He distin 
guishes carefully tpyov result , eWpyeia action productive of epyov, and 
dvvapis, force productive of eWp-yeia . 

In the Greek Old Testament the word occurs only in Wisdom and 
in 2 and 3 Maccabees. It is used twice of the operations of nature, 
Wisd. vii 17, xiii 4; once in the phrase ovx orrXwi/ cWpycla, not by force 
of arms (xviii 22) ; and again in the notable description of Wisdom as the 

O~OTTTpOV aKT]\io (dTOV TTJS TOV 0OV VpyeiaS (vii 26). It is USed in 2 MilCC. 1ft 

29, 3 Mace, iv 21, v 12, 28, of a miraculous interposition of Divine power. 

The instances last quoted suggest that already the way was being 
prepared for that limitation of the word to a superhuman activity which 
we noted at the outset as characterising its use in the New Testament. 
St Paul, who alone uses the word, has it five times expressly of the 
exercise of Divine power (Eph. i 19, iii 7; Phil, iii 21; Col. i 29, ii 12). 
In Eph. iv 1 6 it is used in the phrase KUT evepyeiav, without an express 
reference indeed to God, but of the building of the Body of the Christ; 
so that this can hardly be regarded as an exception. 

On the other hand it occurs twice of an evil activity. In the descrip 
tion of the incarnation of iniquity, which is to parody the work of Christ 
and to claim Divine honours, we have the expression, ov earlv T) -rrapovo-ia 
/car cvepyeiav TOV Sarava. Already the Apostle has said, TO yap pvo-rqpiov 
77877 fiffpyelrai TT/S dvopias : and lower down he adds, of those who are to 
be deceived by the signs and wonders of this false Christ (o-ypeiois Kal 
Tfpao~itf i/feuSouff), Tre p-Trei avTols 6 6eos evcpyftav 7r\dvrjs is TO Trio~Tvo~ai 
avTovs TO) ifsevdei. This working of error , which makes men believe the 

1 In Xenophon Memorab. i 4 4 we 
have fcDa t/juppova re Kal tvepyd, in 
contrast with the e?5wXa a<ppovd. re Kal 
o.Klvt]To. of sculptors or painters. Com 
pare also Athan. de incarn. 30 el yap 
8^] veKp6s Tis yev6fji,vo5 ovdev 
SvvaTai K.T.\. $ TrtDs, etirep o 

[sc. b X/H<rr6s], venpov yap 
TOVTO, aiJros ro^s evepyovvras Kal 
TTJS tvepyelas Tratfei, K.r.X. In 

Wisd. xv 1 1 we read 

6 rt "hyvbTiffev T&V TrXdcravra 


The passage which underlies 
of course, Gen. ii 7 tveQva-rjfff 
irp6ff(i)Trov avrov irvorjv ^"w^y, Kal 
6 avQpwrros els 

this is, 
v e/s TO 


false pretender (who is the lie , as Christ is the truth ), is itself a 
judgment of God. We may compare the lying spirit sent forth from 
God to deceive Ahab, i Kings xxii 2123. 

3. The verb tvepydv, after the general analogy of denominatives in -eo>, 3. The 
means primarily to be at work , to work (intrans.), and is accordingly ve ^ 
the opposite of dpyclv. So Aristotle freely employs the word in connexion intr 
with his special sense of eVpyeia. Polybius, whose use of the word is for tive. 
the most part somewhat peculiar, has this first and most natural meaning 
in a passage in which he prophesies the filling up of inland seas : iv 40 4, 
fjLvova~rjs yc df) rfjs UVTTJS raeo>? irepl TOVS TOTTOVS, KOI T>V atnW rrjs fyx 6 *- 
<rea>s evepyovvrw Kara TO (rwexes. We may compare also Philo, de leg. 

dlleg. iii 28 (Mangey, p. 104) orav irapovcra [sc. ij xapa\ dpacrrrjpicos evcpyfj. 

But indeed the usage is too common to need illustration. 

A further stage of meaning is used when the verb is followed by an Transi- 
accusative which defines the result of the activity. Then from the in- 
transitive use of * to work we get a transitive use. There appears to be 
no example of this in Aristotle: but instances are cited from Diodorus 
Siculus and Plutarch, and it is common in later Greek. In Philo, de 
uit. contempL (M. p. 478), the meaning is scarcely different from that of 

TrpaTTfiV. a yap vr/(povTe$ ev OTadiois Klvoi...vvKTO>p ev ovcoro) p.fdvovTfS... 

Vpyovo-iv: and this is often the case in other writers. So far as I am 
aware, the accusative always expresses that which is worked , and never 
c that which is made to work . That is to say, eWpye> does not seem ever 
to mean to render evcpyov , in the sense of to bring into activity . 
Thus, though Polybius uses again and again such expressions as evepyr} Polybius. 

7Toiov/xVoi TTJV c<podov (xi 23 2), and Vpy(TTpav diTcXpaivovo-i TTJV vav- 

jj.axiav (xvi 14 5), he does not use evepyelv as equivalent to* evepybv 
7roito-0cu. In the one place where this might seem at first sight to be 
his meaning (xxvii I 12 tvtpytiv lirlra^av rois apxovo-i TTJV crv/i/tc^uzv) 
this interpretation cannot be accepted in view of the strong meaning 
( assiduous , energetic , vigorous ) which tvepyos (-ijs) invariably has in 
this writer. We must therefore render the words, to effect the alliance . 

We come now to the Greek Old Testament. In the intransitive sense Greek 
Vpyflv is found in Num. viii 24 in B, as the substitute for a somewhat ^- 
troublesome phrase of the original, which AF attempt to represent by 
XeiTovpydv \ftTovpyiav cv cpyois. It occurs again in Wisd. xv n (quoted 
already) and xvi 17 ev r<5 iravra o-ftevvvvri vdaTi TrXeioi/ evypyei TO irvp. 
The transitive sense is found in Isa. xli 4, TLS fvrjpyrja-e KCU ciroirjo-c ravra ; 
in PrOV. xxi 6 o eVepyeoj/ 0T](ravpicrp.aTa yXccxrarj -v^euSet, and XXXI 12 evepyel 
yap TO) dv8p\ dyadd. 

In the New Testament evepyelv comes, apart from St Paul s epistles, Gospels. 
Only in Mark vi 14 (Matt, xiv 2) 6\a roOro cvepyovo-iv al dwdpcis fv avro), Intransi- 
where the connexion of the word with miraculous powers is to be noted. tive * 

In St Paul we find the intransitive use in three passages. The first St Paul, 
is Gal. ii 8, 6 -yap evepyrjo-as Ilerpa) els dirofrroXfjv Trjs TrepiTo^r/s cvijpyr](rfv Iptr 

Kal ep-oi els TCL cdvr], He that wrought for Peter , etc. The connexion of lve * 
eVepyeti/ with miraculous interpositions, which we have already observed, 
and which will be further illustrated below, may justify us in interpreting 

1 6 2 




this passage, in which St Paul is defending his apostolic position, in the 
light of 2 Cor. xii II f., ovdev yap vo~TpT)o-a r<5i/ virepXiav dnoo-To\a>v, el 
/cat ovdev et/u- ra p.ev o-rjuela TOV aVoo-roXov /caretp-yacrtfj/ ev vplv ev 770077 
VTTOpovfj, o-rjfjieiois [re] /cat repaaiv /cat dvvdpeo-iv. Compare also [Mark] 
xvi 2O TOV Kvpiov o-vvepyovvros /cat TOV \6yov (SejBaiovvTos did T&V ena<o- 

\ov6ovvro)v o-Tjpelwv, Acts xiv 3, xv 12, Heb. ii 4. In any case we must 
avoid the mistake of the Authorised Version, which renders He that 
wrought effectually in Peter... the same was mighty in me . We cannot 
attribute to St Paul the construction evepyelv TIVI in the sense of evep 
yelv ev TIVI, though it may have come in at a later period through a 
confusion, with evepydeo-0at, which is a compound verb 1 . In Eph. ii 2 
we have the intransitive use again in TOV rrvevpaTos TOV vvv cvepyovvros 
ev Tols viols TTJS dirciQias. In Phil, ii 13 we have TO 6e\eiv /cat ro eVep- 
yelv, where the word is exceptionally used of human activity, as we have 
already noted, and is introduced as a kind of echo of the preceding 6 

The transitive sense occurs in the passage just cited, Phil, ii 13 o 
evepy>v...To 6e\eiv /c.r.X. ; also in Gal. iii 5 o evepyvv dvvd/j.eis ev vplv, and 
in a specially instructive passage, i Cor. xii 6 n, diaipea-eis eWp-yq/zaroov 
elo-iv, Kal 6 avTos 6eos, 6 evepymv ra irdvra ev 7rdo~iv...a\\a> 8e evepyijpaTa 
$vvdfj,eo>v...7rdvTa Se ravra evepyel TO ev /cat ro auro nvevpa. Here again 
the reference is to miraculous powers. In Eph. i n we have /cara Trpo- 
Beviv rov ra irdvra evepyovvTOs /cara TTJV /SovX^i/ rov 6e\rjfj.aTos avTov, where 
we must render who worketh all things : for we are not justified in 
supposing that it can mean who setteth all things in operation : the 
thought of moving the universe , expressed in Heb. i 3 by (pepav TO. 
irdvra r<5 prj/jLaTi TTJS dwdpeats avTov, must not be introduced here. Simi 
larly in Eph. i 19, /cara TTJV evepyeiav TOV Kpdrovs TTJS Icrxvos avTov TJV 
evqpyrjKev ev ra> ^pto-rai eye [pas avTov K.r.X., we must render according to 
the working... which He hath wrought . If the original is more emphatic 
than such a rendering may seem to imply, this is due chiefly to St Paul s 
general attribution of evepyelv and evepyeia to Divine operation. 

4. We now come to the point of chief difficulty, the use and meaning 
of evepyelo~6ai. 

Passive, From the meaning of evepyelv c. accus., to work, effect, do , we 

to be ^ readily get a passive use, evepyelo-6ai, to be wrought, effected, done . 

wrought , Tlmg p iyki U8 uses jt of a war being waged : in i 13 5 he says that, 

y lus. C0n t em p 0raneous iy with certain wars between the Romans and the 

Carthaginians, Trapa rots ""EXXgo-iv o KXeopeviKos Ka\ov/j.evos evrjpyelTo 

TToXe/xos : comp. Joseph. Antt. xv 5 3. Again, in ix 12 3 he uses T>V 

ev /catpo) evepyovp.eva>v as a variant upon his previous phrase rcSi/ /zera 

SoXov KOI o-vv /catpw 7rparro/ii/a)i/ ; and in ix 13 9 he lays stress on a 

1 In Athenag. Supplic. 10 we have is adequately explained as dativus 

an apparent, but perhaps only ap- commodi. A more doubtful looking 

parent, instance of such a construction: instance is Clement. Horn, vii n Kal 

KO.ITOI Kal avTo rb evepyovv rois K- did TOVTO d/j-aprdvovo i v6o~ovs 
tpuvoucri irpcxjyrjTiKws dyiov Trvevfia dirop- 
potay elval <pa/j.ev TOV 0eov The dative 


general s choice of those 6V tov KO.\ ^e$ coV evfpyijdrjo-eTai TO Kpidtv, his 
decision shall be executed , his plan shall be carried out . This is the 
sense which the form bears in the only passage of the Greek Old Testament 
in which it occurs, I Esdr. ii 2O eWpyelrai TO, Kara TOV vaov. 

Although Aristotle does not use cvepyelv in a transitive sense, yet we Aristotle. 
find a few instances of the passive evepyelo-Qai in his works. 

Uepl <PVTV ii 7 (827, 33 a ). The sun TT^IV (826, 37 b ) : but the 

moisture may be SO great, coo-re P.T} Trrrraivfo-Gai : rare TJ vypoTTjs avTT), els 

rjv OVK evrjpyriQr) Treats, /c.r.X., i.e. in which Treats has not been wrought 
or effected by the sun. 

&VO-IK. aKpoacr. ii 3 (195, 28 b ). He has been classifying causes and 
effects (curia Kal coz/ curia). Causes are either Kara dvvap.iv or evepyovvra : 
they are Swdp-fts in respect of cWard, and evepyovvra in respect of eWp- : of the last an instance is oSe 6 oiKodop.(ov rcoSe rco oiKodop,ovp.fV(o. 
Potential causes and possible results are contrasted with effective causes 
and effected results. 

ILfpl-^vx^s iii 2 (427, 7 a ). The text is uncertain; but there is a con 
trast between and rc5 emu, followed by a further distinction: 
TCO 6 ewai ou, dXXa rco eWpyeurc^ai diatperov, l in the being carried into 
effect or realised . 

Ilepi Koo-p.. 6 (400, 23 b ). God is to the universe what law is to the 

state: 6 r^y TroXecos vop,os a.K.ivrjTos cov fv rais TU>V xpajjievow v^v^als 1 navra TO. Kara rr)v TroXireiai/. In accordance with law one man goes to 
the Prytaneum to be feasted, another to the court to be tried, another to 
the prison to be put to death : yivovrai Sf KOL drj/jLoBoiviai v6p,Lp.oL...dfS>v 

Tf dvcriai KOI ijpa&v c9epa7reiai...aXXa df aXXois fVpyovp,fva Kara p.iav trpoo~- 

ra^iv YI v6p.ip.ov et-ovo-iav. Here the word is used in no philosophic sense, 
but simply means carried out or done 1 . 

It is interesting to note that in Xenophon we have two examples ? A/>7eicr0cu 
of the passive of dpyflv. Cyrop. ii 3 2 ovdev yap avrols dpyeirai TV i Q Xeno- 
Trpdrrfo-Gai 8fop.eva>v, they leave nothing undone , let nothing lie dpyov . P hon< 
Hiero 9 9, if it be made clear that any one who finds a new way of 
enriching the state will be rewarded, ov8e avrrj av 77 o~Kf^is dpyolro : 
a few lines below we have this repeated in the form, noXXovs av Kal roCro 

fopp,r)o-fifv fpyov 7roifio-0ai TO o-Koirfiv ri dyadov. The US6 of dp-yet^ to be 

idle (of persons) and dpyflo-dai to be left idle (of powers) may prepare 
us for a corresponding use of Ivfpyflv to be at work (of persons) and 
fvfpyflo-dai to be set at work (of powers). 

In the New Testament all the examples of fvfpyflo-6ai, with the Evepyel- 
notable exception of James v 16, belong to St Paul. The passages are ffBaL in 
the following : St PauL 

(1) I Thess. ii 13 f. \6yov 6fov, os *ai eWpyeirai fv vp.1v TOIS Trio-Tevovcriv. 

vp.fls yap p,tp,TjTai fyfvrfdrjTf ...... on ra avTa firddfTf Kal vp-els K.rA. 

(2) 2 Thess. ii 7 ro yap /ivcrrr;piov 77877 eVepyeirat TTJS dvop.ias p.6vov 

6 Kare^cov apri, K.r.X. 

(3) 2 Cor. 1 6 ei re irapaKa\ovp.f0a, vrrfp TTJS v/zcjjv 7rapaKX77creo)ff TTJS 

fVfpyovp,fVT)s fv v7rop.ovTj T<UV aurcoi 

1 This instance is not given in Bonitz s index. 


(4) 2 Cor. iv 12 <acTT 6 ev qplv evepye?Tai, 17 5e a>^ ev vplv. 

(5) Gal. V 6 aXXa Trio-Tis 81 aycnrrjs evepyovfj-evrj. 

(6) Rom. vii 5 f- TO. Tra^/Ltara rail/ a/xapTtcoj/ ra Sta TOV vopov evrjpyelTO 

COI/ ets TO Kap7ro<popf)o~ai r<5 

(7) Col. i 29 eiy o *ai KOTTICO d-yaw^ojicvoff Kara T^ evepyeiav CIVTOV TTJV 

evepyovp-evrjv ev epol ev dwdpci. 

(8) Eph. iii 2O Kara rfjv dvvap.iv rfjv evepyovpevrjv ev r^iiv. 

Not the In approaching the consideration of these passages we are met by the 

middle dictum, which has received the sanction of Lightfoot 1 , that evepyelo-Qai is 
voice. always middle, never passive in St Paul . It is difficult to reconcile this 
judgment with the observed fact that evepyclo-Qai is never used by St Paul 
of persons, while evepyelv is always so used. If the words be respectively 
passive and active, this distinction is perfectly natural: but there seems 
no reason why the middle should be specially applicable to things in 
contrast to persons 2 . Moreover, so far as I am aware, there is no trace 
of a middle in any other writer. The aorist where we find it is always 
evr)pyrj8r)v. The one passage of Polybius which appeared to offer an 
example to the contrary, ii 6 7 Karon-X^ii/ KCU cp6/3ov evpyrjcrdp.voi rots 
ras irapa\ias oiKovtrt, is now emended with certainty by the substitution 
of evcpyao-dfjLcvoi, which at once restores the proper construction of the 
dative and gives back a well recognised idiom. 

The sense If then we decide that in St Paul as elsewhere evcpyfio-tiai is passive, we 
of the h ave t as k whether that sense of the passive of which we have already 
passive: f oun( j exam pi es> <to be carried out, effected, done , will give a satisfactory 

things to sense in tlie P assa es before us. 

be done, T ne very first of them refuses this interpretation. The Divine message 

but of f ^ ne Gospel (6 Xo-yoy roO $eov) evepyelrai ev rots irio-revovo-iv. St Paul s 

powers to meaning here appears to be is made operative , is made to produce its 

be set in appropriate result : another writer would probably have given us evcpyel:, 

operation. < ig O p era ^ ve > . b ut g t p au j p re f ers the passive, the agent implied being 

God o cvepyav. The Gospel is not allowed to lie idle and unproductive : 

it is transmuted into action : the Thessalonians share the sufferings which 

are everywhere its characteristic accompaniment. 

Similarly in (3), the irapdKXrjo-is is made effective only by fellowship in 
the sufferings of the Gospel : and the thought in (4) is closely allied. 

In (2), whereas the evil spirit may be said evepyelv (Eph. ii 2), the 
fivoTripLov TTJS dvo/jiias, the counterpart of the nvtrr^piov TOV ^pio-roC, is said 
fvepyelo-Ocu, * to be set in operation . 

In (5) the sense appears to be : faith is made operative through love , 
without which it fails of its action (apyel) 3 . With a like interpretation (6) 
presents no special difficulty. 

In (7) and (8), especially when compared with Eph. i 19 Kara T 

1 See his note on Gal. v 6. yov/j-fr-rj here as passive, though unlike 

2 Compare Greg. Naz. Or. 313 (i St Paul he thinks of a human agency : 
559 D) ical el evtpyeia, ^epyrje-fja-erai Strom, i 4 (p. 318) TTWS oik a^w diro- 
drj\ov6Ti, OVK eveprffjaei,, Kal bnov T$ deKT^oi, evepybv TTJV irlffTiv 5iA Trjs 
lvepryr)driva.i travaerai. dyaTrrjs 

3 Clement of Alexandria took evep- 


yfiav...r)v evrfpyrjuev K.r.X., we again find the passive appropriately used. 
St Paul says 77 evepyeia fvepyelrai, not evcpyet, because he regards God 
as 6 evepyant. 

It is to be observed that in actual meaning fvcpyclv and wpycurffat 
come nearly to the same thing. Only the passive serves to remind us that 
the operation is not self-originated. The powers work indeed; but they 
are made to work . 

The passage in St James s Epistle (v 16 iro\v ICTX^L fcrjo-cs BiKaiov James v 
lvfpyovp.vrf} is notoriously difficult. We must not hastily transfer to this l6 - 
writer a usage which so far as we know is peculiar to St Paul. Yet it 
is at least possible that here too tvepyov^vrj means set in operation by 
Divine agency. 

In later times tvcpyetv was used in the sense of to inspire , whether the Later use 
inspiration was Divine or Satanic. But this usage has no direct bearing * or . - , 
on the meaning of the word in the New Testament Bpii& ion . 


On the meaning of e 

i. "Eiriyi- i. The word fjriyvvo-is is not found ia Greek writers before the time 
classical 11 ^ Alexander ^ ne Great. E7riy>a>cr/c<:ii/, however, is used occasionally by 
authors. almos t all writers. Thus in Homer, Od. xxiv 216 ff., when Odysseus 
proposes to reveal himself to his father, he says : 

avrap ya> Trarpos TTfiprjaropcu rjp.erpoio } 

al K p fmyvtoT) Koi (ppdo-o-frai ofpdaXfjLOia-iv, 

TJ Kev dyvoifja-i TTO\VV xpovov dp(pls fovra. 

If he discern me and read me with his eyes, 
Or know me not, so long I am away. 

Again, in Od. xviii 30 f., the beggar Irus challenges Odysseus to fight 
him in the presence of the suitors : 

a><rai j>vv, Iva Travres C7riyi>a>a><ri, KOI oide 
fiapvapevovs iru>s 5 av <ri> i/ecorepcp dvdpl fia%oio; 

i that these may know us, how we fight : that they may discern which is 
the better man of the two. 

In Aesch. Ag. 1 596 ff. it is used of Thyestes at the banquet : 

avTiK dyvoia \a(3a>v 
ccrBci foopav a/Spooro^, as opas t yevei. 
KaireiT cTriyvovs epyov ov Karaio-iov 
ep/za>et/, /c.rA. 

Here, as in Od. xxiv 216 ff., it is used in contrast with ayvoia, not recog 
nising , not discerning . 

In Soph. Aj. 1 8 f. we have : 

K.CLL PVV TTyva>$ fv (& eV dvdpl 8va~fJievfl 
ftdo ti KVK^OVVT J Auzj/ri roi craKecrfpopco. 

And now thou hast discerned aright that I am hunting to and fro on 
the trail of a foeman : so Jebb, who says in a note : " tircyv&s with partic. 
(KVAcAoCi/r ) of the act observed, as Xen. Cyr. 8. i. 33 eWyixas av, .. 

OVT Opyi6fJ.fJ>OV...OVT X a L P OVTa " 

Soph. EL 1296 f. : 

ouro> 5 OTTCOS fj.r/TT]p ere p. 

And look that our mother read not thy secret in thy radiant face : Jebb, 
with a note: " Vtyyeocrerat, detect : the dative is instrumental". 

In Thucydides there are two distinct usages of the word. The first 
is the same as that which we have already noticed: e.g. i 132 : irapairoirj- <r0pcrytSa, 1va...p.rj cVrfyya), \vei ray eViaroAas : i.6. that the receiver 


of the letter might not detect what he had done. The second corresponds 
with a special meaning of ywBovcco, to determine 7 or decide (i 70, ii 65, 
iii 57) : it does not directly concern us here. It is nearly synonymous with 


If now we inquire what is the force of the preposition, or in other The force 
words how does eViyii/eoovceii/ differ from ytvvo-Kciv, we may note first of all of J P re 
that the simple verb would have given the meaning, intelligibly if less pos 
precisely, in all the cases which we have cited. There is no indication 
that cTriyivuo-Kfiv conveys the idea of a fuller, more perfect, more advanced 

We find a large number of compounds in eVi, in which the preposition It signifies 
does not in the least signify addition, but rather perhaps direction. It n p* ad - 
seems to fix the verb upon a definite object. Thus we have eTraivclv, Direction 1 

a/, eTTtKaXeii/, eTriKrjpvcro-eiv, eTTiKparelv, eTTiKpinrrfiv, eiri- 
i,, eirivoeiv (excogitare), eTTixoprjyelv. So also firiKoivos 

means common to and is followed by a genitive or dative of the object. 
In these cases we cannot say that the compound verb is stronger than the 
simple verb. The preposition is not intensive, but directive (if the word 
may be allowed). It prepares us to expect the limitation of the verb to 
a particular object. 

Thus yivaxTKetv means to know in the fullest sense that can be given A limita- 
to the word knowledge : cmyivwa-Keiv directs attention to some particular tion su g- 
point in regard to which knowledge is affirmed. So that to perceive S ested - 
a particular thing, or to perceive who a particular person is, may fitly be 
expressed by err tyivco oxen/. There is no such limitation about the word 
, though of course it may be so limited by its context. 

2. We may now consider the usage of the LXX. In Hebrew the 2. The 
ordinary word for to know is JH*. But in the earlier books of the O.T. verb in 
T SH is used in the sense of discerning or recognising. Thus it is the word 
employed when Jacob s sons say to him : Know now whether it be thy son s 
coat or no. And he knew it, and said, It is my son s coat (Gen. xxxvii 32 f.). 
So again in Gen. xlii 8, And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew 
not him . Here, as we might expect, the word is rendered by eTrtyiva- 
Throughout the historical books eTriyivwo-Kfiv generally represents 

n, though occasionally it is a rendering of JHJ. In the Prophets, how 
ever, *V3n is very rare, and 7rtyiv&crKiv is used forty-five times to render 
jn?. To shew to what an extent the two words were regarded as identical 
in meaning, we may note that in Ezekiel the phrase they (ye) shall know 
that I am the Lord is rendered about thirty-five times by yvua-ovrai (yvu>- 

<reo-0e), and about twenty-five times by fTriyvdxrovTai (cVtyvtao-f a-de) l . 

In the later books of the LXX we come across the word fniyvao-is, of The noun. 
which hitherto we have said nothing. It occurs four times in books of 

1 For the distribution of the render- the simple verb alone occurs (save as 

ings between the two translators of a var. lect. of A) in chapters xxviii to 

Ezekiel see Mr Thackeray s article in xxxix. 
Journ. of Theol. Studies, Apr. 1903 : 


which we have Hebrew originals. Three times firLyvaxris 6eov represents 
D^rpK nyi (Prov. ii 5, Hos. iv i, vi 6, the only places where this expres 
sion seems to occur). The fourth occurrence of the noun is again in Hosea 
(iv 6), where in the same verse njn is rendered first by yvaxris and then 
by ciriyvGxris 1 . 

Besides these passages we have only 2 Mace, ix n, els eTTLyvaxriv 
eXQe iv 6fLa pdo-Tiyi, to come to knowledge under the scourge of God . 
Symmachus used the word in Ps. Ixxii (Ixxiii) 1 1, * Is there knowledge in the 
Most High? , where the Hebrew is H1H, and the LXX have yv&a-ts. 

It may be worth while to add that in "Wisdom we have yv^a-is 6*ov 
twice, but fTTiyvao-is does not occur at all In Ecclesiasticus also we have 
yvco<ns Kvpiov, but tiriyvwrts is not found. 

Thus we learn from the Greek 0. T. nothing more than that the 
word was coming into use, and that it was employed in a familiar passage 
of Hosea, the first part of which is cited in the N. T. ; I desired mercy, and 
not sacrifice ; and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings (Hos. 

3. Verb 3. In Schweighauser s index to Polybius eTriytvao-Keiv appears as 
and noun occurring eight times. It regularly means to discover or discern : 

once it is coupled with na&elv (iii 32 8, cVtyyawcu KOI paOeiv}; three times 
it is strengthened by <ra<a>s. The noun eTriyvocris occurs twice (iii 7 6, 
31 4). In each case the historian is defending the study of general history 
as contrasted with mere narratives of particular wars. In the latter place 
he speaks of the knowledge of past events , rrjv TV 7rape\Tj\v0oTQ>v eVi- 
using in the context two parallel phrases, rrjv ra>v trpoyeyovor^v 
and TTJS TU>V TT poyeyovorcov vTj-o/zi^Veeoj. In iii 7 6 he says that 
a statesman cannot dispense with knowledge of this kind, TTJS T&V trpofiprj- 
fj,va)v 7riyva>o-ea>s. There is no indication whatever that any strong meaning, 
such as full or advanced knowledge, was attached to the word. 

4 . The 4. We now come to the New Testament. In the Gospels and Acts 
verb in the Viyi<rici/ is found in the sense of perceiving , discerning , recognising , 

just as in classical authors. It is interesting to compare Matt, xi 27, ovdci? 
7riyivc0<TKi TOV vlov, K.r.X., with the parallel in Luke x. 22, ovo els yivwo-Kei rls 

fCTTiv o vioSj K.T.X. In Luke i 4> tva CTTiyvtoS Trepl a>v KdTrjxydrjs \6ywv TTJV 

d<r(pd\eiav, we have the word used with good effect to indicate the discern 
ment of a particular point in regard to things already known. 

and in St In St Paul s Epistles we find both the verb and the noun. In Rom. i 32 

" aui. we nave . 1 TiVS r b 8iKaia>iJLa TOV 6fov cmyvovTes, which is to be compared 

with v. 21, SIOTI yvovres TOV 6f6v. The difference, if there be one, is that 

fTriyvovTfs is more naturally used of knowledge of a particular point. In 

1 Cor. xiv 37> fTTiyiva)o~KtT<o a ypdcpo) vfriv OTI Kvpiov earlv vro\rf t and 

2 Cor. xiii 5> ^ v< CTriyivtoarKere cavrovs on *Ir]o~ovs Xptoros 1 fv; it IS 

again used of discerning or recognising a special quality. It is used of 
the recognition of persons in i Cor. xvi 18, eVtyti/too-Kfre ovv rovs TOIOVTOVS, 
and in 2 Cor. vi 9? * s a.yvoovfj,fvoi KOL frrtyivoia KOfj.fvoi (comp. the passages 

1 In i Kings viii 4 tiri-yvwcris stands in Esther [xvi 6] it is a variant of 
for HIT} in AB, but B has yvu<ris, and 

cited above, Horn. Od. xxiv 2 16 ff., Aesch. Ag. 1 596 ff.). In Col. i 6 f., a<p fjs 

r/fjLfpas 77/couo-are Kal e-rreyvwre TTJV X^P LV T v ^ O ^ * v dX^dcia. Kadats 6/j.d- 
dcre K.T.X., there may be a suggestion of discriminating and recognising 
as true: we have yivwcnceiz/ ryv x**P lv m 2 ^ or - v ^i 9> Gal. ^ 9* ^ ^ m 

I Tim. iv 3, CTTfyvoxocri rfjv aX^deiav. 

There remain two remarkable passages in which St Paul plays on Plays on 

ytvtaaricfiv and its compounds. 2 Cor. 1 13, ov yap oXXa ypd(pofjLfv v/ui/ tlie wor< ^ 
dXX ;) a ai/ayii/coaTcere 17 /cat eTTiytz/cocrKcre, ATTI^CO 5e on ea>? re Xouy eVi- 
yvoiO~O~6c, Kaflws Kal eVeyvtore ijpas ano pepovs, on Kavxrjfjia. v/zcoj/ eayzei 

Kadd-n-fp ical t5/Ats T7/z&)i/. The last part of this is plain enough: ye have 
recognised us, in part at any rate, as being a glory to you, as you are 
to us . With the former part we may compare iii 2 ye are our epistle, 
yiv(O(TKOfj.vij KOI dvayivaxTKOfjievr) , the full-sounding word being placed 
second. So here the sound of the words has no doubt influenced the 
selection: ye read and recognise . But we cannot say that fntyivao-Kfiv 
refers to a full knowledge of any kind, especially as it is subsequently 
joined with a:ro /xepovf. 

In i Cor. xiii the Apostle compares yv&o-is, as a spiritual gift, with In com- 

dydirri. Tvtotris is after all in our present condition but partial ; c< aepovs 

; , xi L - i j j j .i - 

yap yivmarKOfj.v : the partial is transient, and disappears on the arrival of 

the perfect So the child gives way to the man. We now see mirrored 
images which suggest the truth of things: we shall then see face to 
face . The words recall the promise of God that He would speak 
to Moses mouth to mouth and not 81 alviy^ar^v (Num. xii 8): also 
Deut. XXxiv IO, Moxrfjs, ov eyj/w Kvpios avrov irpoo-toirov Kara TrpocrcoTroi/ : 
and Ex. xxxiii n, The Lord spake unto Moses face to face, as a man 
speaketh unto his friend . St Paul continues : aprt yivwo-Ko> e< /zepovs, rare 

df ciriyvao-ofjiai Ka6<as Kal eTrcyvaxrOriv. The thought of fuller knowledge 

which is here given is expressed, not by the change from yivao-Ka> to its 
compound, but by the contrast with e< pepovs and by the denning clause 
introduced by Ka6a>s\ We see this at once if we try to cut the sentence 
short, and read only: aprt yti>G>(rKa> e* /zepovs, Tore 8e eTrtyj/too-o/Liai : this 
would be unmeaning ; for there is no ground for supposing that it could 
mean by itself, * then shall I fully know . It is probable that eTriyvcoVo/tai 
is introduced because e-rreyvwo-drjv (of knowledge of a person) is to follow. 
At the same time we may admit that the full-sounding word is purposely 
chosen to heighten the effect at the close. That no higher kind of know 
ledge is implied in the compound word is seen when we compare Gal iv 9, 

v, fia\\ov de yvaxrQevrcs inro 6eov. 

The only remaining instance of the verb iii the N. T. is in 2 Pet. ii 21, In 2 Peter. 
yap r\v avrols fJ^r/ eircyvwKevai TT/V odov rrjs $iKaioo~vvr)s rj f-myvoixriv 

The noun firiywo-is is freely used by St Paul. It is generally followed, "ETrfyvwo-ts 
as we might expect, by a genitive of the object : thus, apzprmp, Rom. iii 20; in .St paul: 
of God or Christ, Eph. i 17, iv 13, CoL i 10 (cf. 2 Pet. i 2, 3, 8, ii 20); roO itiveof the 
6e\rifj.aTos aOroG, CoL i 9; roC /uxm/piov rou $>{}, CoL ii 2; dXrjdfias, object; 

1 So quite correctly Euthymius Ziga- avrbv (sc. rbv 0e6v) ir\tov T& ybp 
benus ad loc.: *r6re d tiriyvi!}<rofj,ai Kal tireyv&ffdriv rb ir\tov Stj\oi. 



without a 

5. The 
view that 



or fuller 





I Tim. ii 4, 2 Tim. ii 25, iii 7, Tit i i (cf. Heb. x 26); navrbs 
Philem. 6. We do indeed find yv&a-is similarly used of God and of Christ 
(2 Cor. x 5, Phil, iii 8) ; but eiriyvoxris had the advantage of avoiding the 
ambiguity as to whether the following genitive was objective or subjective 
(as in Rom. xi 33, < (3d0os...yvo!>(rfQ>s 6cov). Accordingly as a rule yvaxris is 
used where knowledge in the abstract is spoken of, but firiyvao-ts where the 
special object of the knowledge is to be expressed. 

Rom. i 28, OVK edoKifiao-av rov 6ebv e^fiv ev 7riyvwo-fi, IS no exception 
to this rule. In Rom. X 2, rj\ov 6cov 6%ovcriv, aXX ov /car 7riyv(oo~iVj the 

word may perhaps suggest the idea of discernment: as also in Phil, i 9, that 
your love may abound more and more v eiriyvva-ct Kal irdo-rj mV^Vet, 
els TO doKindeiv *.r.X. : and in Col. iii 10 f., putting on the new man, 
which is renewed els eTriyvaxriv Kar CIKOVO. roO KTicravros O.VTOV, OTTOV OVK 
evi v E\\r)v K.r.X. , where there is no contrast with any imperfect knowledge, 
but the knowledge referred to may perhaps be specially the discernment 
and recognition of the abolition of the old distinctions of race and condi 
tion. But perhaps it is unnecessary to search for any particular subtilty 
of meaning in the word. 

5. This long investigation has been necessitated by the determination 
of commentators to interpret cniyiHoa-is as a fuller and more perfect kind 
of yva>o-is. Thus Grotius on Eph. i 17 says : eniyvwo-is proprie est maior 
exactiorque cognitio , a remark which he repeats on Col. i 9. In dealing 
however with cTriyvaxris dpaprias in Rom. iii 20 he is more cautious, 
and says: 7riyva>cris idem quod yi/wcris, aut paulo amplius . Among the 
moderns Fritzsche (on Rom. i 28), Alford, Ellicott and Lightfoot take the 
same view. Lightfoot comments on the word twice (Phil, i 9 and Col. i 9). 
At the latter place he says : The compound ciriyv<o<ns is an advance upon 
yva>o-is, denoting a larger and more thorough knowledge . He cites in 
favour of this view Justin Martyr Try ph. 3 (p. 221 A): iieurnnu\ ris e<mv 
77 nape^ovo-a avratv r<av dvOpatTrivcov KOI rav Qci&v yi/cSo-ti/ 1 , eirfira rfjs TOVTGW 
6eioTr]Tos KOI SKO.IOO-VVTJS erriyvaxriv ; The context of this passage requires to 
be carefully considered. In the preceding sentences Justin has been dis 
cussing the nature of philosophy : it is, he says, the science of the existent 
and the knowledge of the true (eTrior^/iT; eWl rov ovros KOI TOV d\r)0ovs 
cirlyvoHris). His interlocutor objects that 7rio~Tijp,r) has different meanings : 
it means one kind of thing when applied to generalship, seamanship or 
medicine ; another in regard to things human and divine. And then he 
asks (in the words already cited): Is there an eVtorrT//^ which affords 
a knowledge (yi>c3o-i?) of the actual things human and divine, and after 
that a knowledge (cviyvtHrts) of the divineness and righteousness of 
these same things 1 Here the distinction (if we are to press for one) 
is between a knowledge which reveals to us the things themselves, and 
a knowledge which discerns certain qualities of those things. 

1 Justin is here employing a current 
definition of ffo<f>la. See Philo de con- 
gressu (Mangey i 530) <ro0ta 5 
fiyv Qdwv Kal avdpuirlvuv Kal 

and the references given in 

Wendland s edition iii 88. Comp. 
also 4 Mace, i 16, <ro<f>la dij rolvvv 
is dcluv Kal dvffptairlvuv Trpay- 


Lightfoot also cites St Chrysostom on Col. i 9 : fyi/wre, dXXa Set n KOI Chryso- 
ciriyv>vai. To do this passage justice we must look first at St Chrysostom s stom, 

comment on the preceding words (v. 6), d(p 77? jpepas Tj/couo-are KOL eVe yi/care 
TTJV \dptv TOV 6fov ev dXrjdeiq, Kadws e/Jiddere OTTO E7ra(ppa K.T.\. He says: 
a/za edcgao-Of, a/za eyixore TTJV x^P lv TOV feov. From this it does not appear 
that he can have laid much stress on the preposition. So when he comes 

to the phrase iva TrXjjpco^re TTJV C7riyva>o-iv TOV $eXj7/zaroy aurou, it IS On 

TT\r)pa>0f)T that the stress of his comment falls : * Iva 7r\Tjp&0rjT , 0^o-iV, 

ovx iva \dj3r]T- eXa/Sof yap* dXXa TO \et7rov tva TrXrjpadrjre. Then below 
he says: Tt Se eorw I 1va TrX^pco^re rrjv fTrlyvao-iv TOV tfeXt^aro? aurou ; 
dia TOV vlov irpoo-dyearflai Ty/zas aura), OVKCTI 81 dyyeXtoi/. ort pev ovv del 
7rpo(rdyo~dai) eyva>T" XetVet de vfj.1v TO TOVTO /za^eti/, KOI 8ta TI TOV vlov 
eTre^ev. Again no stress falls on fniyvaxnv. There is indeed something 
more to be learned, viz. TTJV eiriyvuo-iv TOV ^eX^/zaro? auroO : but it is not 
a fuller knowledge of the will of God which is in question. So he 
continues: KCU aiTovp.evot j <prjo~i (JLCTO. rro\\f)s TTJS crTrouS^y rouro yap 
8fiKvvo~iVj ort eyvo)Tfj dXXa del n <ai eTriyvcovai. Here eyvcore corresponds 
to St Paul s eWyi/core TTJV x<*P lv TOV ^ OV - You have learned something , 
he says, but you must needs learn something more . The something 
more is conveyed by n KOI, not by the change of verb. If we are to 
make a distinction it must be between general knowledge (eyi/core) and 
particular knowledge (eiriyvavai). We cannot on the strength of this 
sentence alone insist on a new sense of e 7rty/a)o-Keu>, viz. to learn 
further . It is of course conceivable that a late writer might be led 
by the analogy of some compounds with eVi to play upon the words in 
this particular way : but we have no proof of it at present ; and even if 
it were true for the fourth century, it would be hazardous to carry such 
a meaning back to St Paul. 

Another passage cited by Lightfoot, Clem. Alex. Strom, i 17, p. 369, and 
need not detain us. It is itself borrowed from Tatian ad Graecos 40 ; and Clement 
the ov /car eirlyvuo-iv which both passages contain is a mere reproduction andria*" 
of St Paul s words in Rom. x. 2. 

Dr Hatch in his Essays on Biblical Greek (p. 8) refers to Const. Hatch 
Apost. vii 39, with the remark that it makes eTriyvato-is the second of the C1 * es 
three stages of perfect knowledge : yi/eScris, eVi y* a>o-i, 7r\T)po(popia . Unfor- QQ^itu- 
tunately for his readers he does not quote the passage. The writer, who tions. 
has been expanding precepts of the Didache, says : 6 /AeXXwi/ KaTrjxelo-Sat 
TUV \6yov TTJS d\r)0eias 7rai8evO-0a> Trpo rov /SaTm o-fiaro? (cf. Did. 7) rr\v 
Trept rov ayevvijTov yv(&o~iv, TT/V Trept vlov fjiovoyevovs f7riyva>o~Lv t TTJV irepl TOV 

dyiov TTvevpaTos n\r]po(popiav. That is to say, a catechumen before Baptism 
must be instructed in a knowledge of the Holy Trinity. The writer is in 
want of synonyms : he may even fancy that he is working up to a climax, 
and may have chosen eiriyvao-is as a word of fuller sound than yvwo-ts. But 
nothing is to be gained from verbiage of this kind for the strict definition 
of words. 

Two interesting examples of eViyti/ooo-Keii/ and eTriyvwo-i? may here be Further 
added. Clem. Alex. Q.D./S. 7 f. : OVKOVV TO p.eyio-rov <al icoptxpaioraroi/ illustra- 
TWV irpos Trfv (0T)v p.a0r)(j.a.T(i)v. ..yv vai TOV 6fov...6fov eo-rt KTijo-ao-dat dta tlons * 
KOI icaraX^ca)?...?/ p.ev yap TOVTOV ayvoia ddvaTos e<mv, r) dt 


fTTiyvaxris OVTOV KOI oiKfiacris /cat 77 Trpbs avrbv ayaTTT) /cat e 

TOVTOV ovv TrpwTov (TTiyv&vai r<5 ^rjoropfva) TTJV ovrtos 
, ov ovftfis fl /IT/ 6 vlbs /cat cp av 6 vios a 
fTTftra TO pcyeflos rov a-wrfjpos per eKfivnv /cat TTJV KaivoTTjra TTJS 

. It is noticeable that fTriyvaxj-ts comes in for the first 
time in contrast to ayvoia. The first requirement for the true life is 
entyvavai. It is quite clear therefore that emyinoa-is here is not a fuller 
or more advanced knowledge. 

Eus. If. E. vi 1 1 6, a passage in a letter of Alexander of Jerusalem to 
the Antiochenes, which was brought to them by Clement of Alexandria. 
Alexander speaks of Clement as dvdpbs evapfrov /cat So/a^ov, ov tore *al 
-i/peis KOI fmyvoHreo-Qc. This is rendered by Rufinus uirum in omnibus 
uirtutibus probatissimum, quern nostis etiam uos et eo amplius cognos- 
cetis 1 . This no doubt gives the general sense well enough. But the 
contrast in the Greek is between clSfvai and emyivaxTKeiv, and not, be it 
noted, between yivao-iceiv and iireyivwrMur. The meaning appears to be 
ye know him by name, and ye shall now get to know him in person : ye 
have heard of him, and ye shall now make his acquaintance . There is no 
reason for supposing that the Antiochenes had ever seen Clement up to 
this time: otherwise we might seek to explain eirtyvwo-fo-df as ye shall 
recognise him as such as I have described him . 

Con- So far then as we are to distinguish between yvaxris and eviywyp&f 

elusion. we ma y ga y that yvcoo-is is the wider word and expresses knowledge 5 in 
the fullest sense: eTriyvaxris is knowledge directed towards a particular 
object, perceiving, discerning, recognising 2 : but it is not knowledge in the 
abstract : that is yvaio-is. It follows that the genitive after yvaxris may be 
either subjective or objective : but the genitive after firtywo-is denotes the 
object of the knowledge. 

1 So Jerome (de uiris ill. 38) uirum did not suggest a fuller or further 
illustrem et probatum, quern uos quoque knowledge : Et y&p w ra^r6v ian 
scitis et nunc plenius recognoscetis. yvuxris 6eov ical TrLyvw<ris 0eov dXX 6 

2 Origen s comment on Eph. 17 &rt7i* u>cr/caw olovel avayvupifri 3 Trd\ai 
(Cramer, p. 130) presses the sense of eldws eTreX^X^a-ro, 6Vot l ev iriyi>u<re<. 
recognition , in accordance with a yivovrai 6eov irdXat ySeaav avrbv 5t- 
favourite view of his. It is worth re- faep * /jLvrjffd^ffovraL ical ^iriffTpa 
cording, if only as shewing that to 7r/>ds Ktptov iravra. ri irepara TTjs 

him at any rate the word 


On the meaning of 

The precise meaning of the word TrXrjpayia has been a matter of much The 
controversy among biblical critics. It was discussed at great length by *J 1( :? ry f 
C. F. A. Fritzsche in his commentary on Romans (1839), vol. ii pp. 469 ff., r] 
and to him subsequent writers are in the main indebted for their illustra 
tions from Greek literature. Fritzsche s long note was drawn from him 
by the statement of Storr and writers who followed him, that TrX^ peo/za 
always has an active sense in the New Testament. He, on the contrary, nouns in 
starts with the assertion that substantives in -/xa have a passive sense. ~ 
He admits a few cases in which TrX^pco/ia has an active sense: such as 
Eurip. Troad. 823: 



KaXXiorai/ \arpeiav 

and Philo de Abr. 46 (Mangey, ii 39), where faith toward God is called 
irapTjyoprjfjLa /3iov, TrX^po^a xprjo-ra>v cXir/dw. But he insists that in such 
cases 7r\^p(opa means the filling or fulfilling , and not that which fills 
(complendi actionem, non id quod complet}. He then proceeds to show 
that the fundamental sense of TrX^pco^a is a passive sense. 

But we must note carefully what he means when he thus speaks of id quo 
a passive sense . In ordinary parlance we understand by the passive re3 co 
sense of TrXT/pco/Lta, that which is filled (id quod completum est); but of pe 
this Fritzsche has only one plausible example to offer, viz. TrXi/pco /zara, 
as used in naval warfare as an equivalent of ships (to this we shall return 
presently). He himself, however, uses the expression passive sense to 
cover instances in which nXr/papa means that with which a thing is filled 
(id quo res completur s. completa est}. This extension of phraseology 
enables him, with a little straining, to find an underlying passive significa 
tion in all instances of the use of TrX^pto/xa, apart from those which he has 
already noted as exceptions. 

Lightfoot, in his commentary on Colossians (pp. 257 273), discusses Light- 
the word TrXijpoo/ia afresh, and deals (i) with its fundamental significa- fo ? t . s . 
tion ; (2) with its use in the New Testament ; (3) with its employment crlticism 
as a technical term by heretical sects. At the outset he recognises 
the confusion which Fritzsche produced by his unjustifiable use of the 
expression passive sense . Thus he says : He apparently considers that 
he has surmounted the difficulties involved in Stores view, for he speaks 
of this last [id quo res impletur] as a passive sense, though in fact it is 
nothing more than id quod implet expressed in other words . 



and modi 
fication : 

the result 
of the 
of the 

yet strictly 

of this 
theory il 

sense not 
to be in 
sisted on. 

Lightfoot, accordingly, starting with the same postulate of the passive 
signification of all verbal substantives in -pa, undertakes to find a genuine 
passive sense underlying those instances in which Fritzsche had interpreted 
n-A^peojua as id quo res impletur. Substantives in -/xa , he says, formed, 
from the perfect passive, appear always to have a passive sense. They 
may denote an abstract notion or a concrete thing ; they may signify the 
action itself regarded as complete, or the product of the action ; but in 
any case they give the result of the agency involved in the corresponding 
verb . 

Lightfoot appears to have correctly diagnosed the formations in -p,a, 
when he says, they give the result of the agency involved in the corre 
sponding verb . It is, however, unfortunate that, in his desire to be loyal 
to what he speaks of as a lexical rule , he insists that in all cases 
the word is strictly passive . For the maintenance of this position 
involves again an extension of the term passive , not indeed so violent 
as Fritzsche s, but yet unfamiliar and easily leading to misconceptions. 
Thus, to take one instance, we may allow that KcoXv^a is in the first place 
the result of hindering , i.e. hindrance . But when the hindrance is 
thought of not merely as an abstract idea, but as a concrete thing, it has 
come to mean that which hinders ; that is to say, it has acquired in 
usage what we should naturally call an active signification. And yet the 
theory in question demands that muXvpi, the result of the agency of the 
verb KtoAuco, shall be strictly passive . 

The straits to which Lightfoot is put by this theory may be illustrated 
from his interpretation of the word Tr\ripa>pa in Mark ii 21, the saying 
about the new patch on the old garment. The true text of St Mark at 
this point is somewhat rough, but not really obscure : No man seweth 
a piece of new (or undressed) cloth on an old garment ; el de ^7, a ipei 
TO TrAr/pco/ia aTr avrov, TO K.O.LVOV rov TraAatoO. Our old translators rendered 
TrAqpoo/^a, the piece that filled it up ; taking TrA^ pco/za in the sense of 
the supplement . It cannot be denied that this gives an admirable 
meaning in this place. Perhaps a stricter writer would have said ai/turXif- 
po>/ia, for dvaTrXrjpovv seems to differ from 7r\T]povv in the same way as to 
fill up differs from to fill : it suggests the supply of a deficiency, rather 
than the filling of what is quite empty to start with. Apart from this, 
which is perhaps somewhat of a refinement, we might render the words 
literally : the supplement taketh therefrom, to wit, the new from the old . 
But Lightfoot boldly refuses the obvious explanation, and, insisting on his 
theory, interprets TO Tr\^po>fj,a as the completeness which results from the 
patch : the completeness takes away from the garment, the new com 
pleteness of the old garment . We must hesitate long before we dissent 
from the interpretations of so great an expositor : but we are sorely tempted 
to ask if there is not a nearer way to the truth than this. 

To return: if we are to have a theory to cover all these formations 
in -pa, it seems wisest to abandon altogether the traditional rule that 
substantives in -pa have a passive sense , and adopt in its place the wider 
rule that they give the result of the agency of the corresponding verb . 
This result may be thought of as primarily an abstract idea. But it is 
a common phenomenon in language that words denoting abstract ideas have 


a tendency to fall into the concrete. The result of mixing is mixture 
(abstract); but, again, the result is a mixture (concrete) 1 . 

But before we discard a venerable tradition, let us try to do it some False 
measure of justice. There must have been some reason for a rule which 
has dominated us so long: and the reason appears to be this. There are 
two familiar sets of substantives in Greek which are derived from verbs : passive . 
they are commonly spoken of as those ending in -ens and those ending 
in -/id. When we compare them for such verbs as TTOKFOO, Trpao-o-co, &da>/u, 
p.iywp.1, we find that the one class (Troirjais, Trpais, Socri?, /i/ty) expresses 
the action of the verb making , doing , giving , mixing ; while the 
other class (n-oi if/Lia, irpay^a, do/ict, /uy/za) represents the result of that 
action a thing made , a deed , a gift , a mixture . A vast number 
of similar examples can be cited, and at once it appears that we have 
a simple distinction between the two classes : substantives in -a-ts have 
an active sense, substantives in -aa have a passive sense. Moreover we 
observe an obvious similarity between the formations in -/xa and the perfect 
passive of the verbs from which they are derived : 

7T67TO177 fittlj TTfTTOlTJUfVOS, TTOirj/JUl 

IT fir pay pai, TTCTrpayuevos, irpaypa 
, Sofia 

It is probable that this false analogy has had something to do with Forms in 
propagating and maintaining the idea that these formations are specially ;A*T-> not 
connected with the passive. It would certainly conduce to clearness and m " /xa * 
accuracy if these formations were spoken of as formations in -/zar-, as their 
oblique cases show them to be. The formative suffix is added directly 
to the root or to the strengthened verbal stem: as /uy-, /ity-/mr-; TTOH;-, 
7roi;7-/iar- ; whereas for the perfect passive the root is first reduplicated, 
ne-uiy-pai, Tre-TreuV/uai. The original meaning of the formative suffix -par- 
is now altogether lost to our knowledge. It appears in Latin in a stronger 
form as -mento-, and in a weaker form as -min--, cf. ornanientum (from 
* ornare ), and fragmen, -minis (from frangere ). Side by side with these 
Latin forms we have others in -tion-, as ornatio, -onis , and fractio, -onis , 
which are parallel to the Greek derivatives in -o-i-. 

The help that we gain from comparative grammar is thus of a negative Usage 
kind ; but we may be grateful for it, as releasing us from bondage to the alo . ne can 
old rule which connected these formations with the passive of the verb, fhei/sig- 
We are now thrown back upon usage as our only guide to the discovery nification. 
of a general signification which may serve as the starting-point of their 
classification. It may be questioned whether we ought to demand such 
a general signification ; but if we do, then the result of the agency of 
the corresponding verb may serve us well enough. Thus irpay^a is the 
result of doing , i.e. a deed ; So/za, the result of giving , a gift ; 
ornamentuin, the result of adorning , an ornament ; fragmen, the 

1 It happens that a mixture , when and is passive ; but a legislature is 
it ceases to be an abstract, is passive ; active and legislates . 
so, too, a fixture is a thing fixed , 


result of * breaking , a fragment . But it is quite possible that this 
result should be followed by a substantive in the genitive case, so as to 
express the same relation as would be expressed if the corresponding 
verb were followed by that substantive in the accusative case. Thus 
ornamentum domus would express the same relation as ornare domum : 

and Ku>\vfj.a TTJS eVi;(eipT;o-ea>s, as NttXvciy rrjv fTTixciprja-iv. When this is 

the case, the word may fairly be said to have an active sense. In Latin 
we have such instances as solamen, lettamen, nutrimen, momen (=moui- 
men\ and many others; most of them having fuller forms, perhaps as a 
rule later, in -mentum. 

Classi- We may conveniently classify the Greek words of this formation in -/mr- 

fication : under three heads : 

neutral, (i) Where the verb is intransitive, and accordingly there is nothing 

transitive about the corresponding substantive: as dyomcr/xa, aiViy/xa, 

dXa^oveu/xa, oX/ua, a/zaprr^a, /3ioretp.a, yeXaayza, Kau^/xa. 

passive, (2) Where the verb is transitive, and the substantive corresponds to 

the object of the verb, and thus may rightly be said to have a passive 
sense : as ayyeX/za, dyopaayxa, ayup/xa, atrjy/za, aKouoyxa, d/cpoa/xa, 

and active. (3) Where the verb is transitive, and the substantive is no longer the 
object of the verb, but the object can be expressed as a genitive following 

the substantive : as dyXdiV/xo, ayi/toyxa, aypev/xa, atfpoioyxa, ateopq/xa, dXXoiw/za, 
a/u/xa, a/xuy/ia, dj/dcretoyxa, IVSetytia, ^f8vcr/ta, /xt/zr;p.a, ar^icrfjia. Why should 
not these be called active ? 

Usage It is important to notice that in distinguishing between classes (2) and 

sometimes ^) usage is our only guide : there is nothing whatever in the nature of the 

wavers. formation which points us in one direction rather than in another. As 

a matter of fact many words oscillate between the two meanings. AyaX/^a, 

for example, may be the object honoured (as dyoXixara #eeSy), or that 

* which gives honour to the object (as ayoX/xa So/xa>j>): /3p<5/xa may be the 
food eaten or the canker that eats : /Soo-Aoj/xa, the cattle that are fed, or 
the food that feeds them: but it is seldom that both meanings are thus 
retained together. 

Forms in If the forms in -par- perplex us by their apparent inconsistency, the 

-<ri- also forms in -o-i- are scarcely less unsteady. They ought properly to remain 

meaning in tlie abstracfc region to which they certainly belong; but they are very 

unwilling in many cases to be so limited. They choose to descend into the 

concrete, and in doing so they often coincide with the corresponding forms 

in -/xar-. Thus in practice we find that rd|ts and rdy/xa can both mean 

* a rank ; Trpa&s and Trpay/xa, a deed ; evdeigis and >dety/xa, a proof ; 
fp<oTT]<ris and e pomj/za, a question . The starting-points of the two sets 
of words are different : the forms in -o-t- denote the action in process ; the 
forms in -/xar-, the action in result. In the first instance always, in the 
second sometimes, the primary meaning is an abstract one ; and so long as 
the abstract meaning is retained the distinction between the two sets of 
words is clear enough. When however the abstract gives way to the 
concrete, the distinction often disappears. 

The use of We have said enough on these two formations in general to clear 
the way for a consideration of the word rrXifpco/xa, which has suffered 
hitherto from the loyalty of its expositors to a grammatical canon against 


which it was determined to rebel. We may first examine some of the as a nau- 
examples ordinarily cited. We begin with two nautical usages of the ticalterm; 
word. Nai)j> TrXrjpovv, or TrX^poCo-tfai, is to man a ship , or to get it 
manned ; and the result of such action in either case is TrX^pw/Lia, which 
has the concrete meaning of a crew . That TrX^poi/za sometimes means 
the ship , as being the thing filled with men, is not a strictly accurate 
statement. For in the passages cited (Lucian, Ver. Hist, ii 37, 38, and 
Polyb. i 49) the literal meaning is * crews ; though to fight with two 
crews (airo Svo 7rX7pa>/iara>i/ /xa^eo-^at) is only another way of saying, to 
fight with two ships . The other nautical use of TrXjjpeo/ia for a ship s 
lading or cargo is again a perfectly natural use of the word when it 
is concrete. To say that in these two instances TrX^ptojua does not mean 
that with which the ship is filled is to make a statement difficult to 
maintain : and it is not easy to see what is gained by maintaining it 

There is a whole class of instances in which the word TrXr/peo/ia has as a full 
a somewhat stronger sense, viz. that of the full complement . Thus in comple- 
Aristid. Or. xiv p. 353 (Bind.) we have pyre avrapKfis c<reo-dai irXyptopa evos m 
OIKLOV arrpaTfvfj.aTos Trapacr^fa-dat, i.e. enough to put it at full strength. So 
7rXj7po>/ia 8pa*6s (Eccles. iv 6) means a handful ; ir\rjpa>p,a o-jrvpidos, a 
basketful 1 . In these cases the fulness spoken of is a complement in 
the sense of entirety: it is strictly a fulness in exchange for emptiness . 

Another shade of meaning may be illustrated by the well-known passage as that 
of Aristotle, in which he is criticising Plato s Republic (Arist. Polit. iv 4). without 
The simplest conceivable form of a city, Socrates had said, must contain six t bing is 
kinds of artisans or labourers weaver, husbandman, shoemaker, builder, incom- 
smith, herdsman ; and in addition to these, to make up a city, you must plete . 
have a merchant and a retail dealer. These together to use Aristotle s 
words form the pleroma of a city in its simplest stage : raOra rravra 
yivfrai Tr\r)pa>na rf)s Trptorrjs 7r6\ea>s. If you have all these elements present, 
then your extremely simple city is complete. They are its pleroma. With 
them you can have a city, without them you cannot. Nothing less than 
these can make a city, qud city, complete. 

This last example is of special interest in view of St Paul s use of Eph. i 23. 
ir\ijp(ona in Eph. i 23, where the Church is spoken of as that without 
which in a certain sense the Christ Himself is incomplete. For the 
theological import of the word, however, reference must be made to the 
exposition, pp. 42 ff., 87 ff., 100 f. The present note is confined to its 
philological signification. 

1 Comp. Mark viii 20 : irbcrwv <r<f>vpi- we can but say that on no theory of 

8<i)vir\T]pd)naTaK\a<rfj.d.TW7ipa.Te; How the meaning of TrX^pw/iara could it 

many basketfuls of fragments took ye ever have been tolerable to a Greek 

up? Basketfuls is a harsh plural; ear. If St Mark wrote it so, the 

but St Mark s Greek is certainly not other Evangelists were fully justified 

less harsh. As to Mark vi 43, KO! ypav in altering it, even though the later 

K\dff/j.a.Ta 3w5e/ea Kotplvuv TrX^/Jw/iara, copyists were not. 



On the word 

A meta- The history of this word is of sufficient interest to deserve a special 

building" 1 note and its investi g ation wil1 incidentally throw some fresh light on 

one of St Paul s favourite metaphors. 

Details of The materials for our knowledge of the methods of construction of 
t ^f" l ar e public buildings in Greece have been greatly increased of late by 
of ancient * ne publication of a series of inscriptions. The most important of these 
buildings, are the contracts for the quarrying and preparing of stones for sacred 
Eleusis. buildings at Eleusis in the fourth century B.C. (CIA iv 1054 b ff.), and the 
Lebadeia. contracts for the construction of an immense temple of Zeus at Lebadeia 

in Boeotia, a work which was never brought to completion 1 . The latter 

are printed in GIG, G/S i 3073, and also with a most instructive commentary 

in E. Fabricius de architect. Graeca (1881): they appear to belong to the 

second century B.C. 

Specifi- The Lebadean inscription opens with a direction to the contractor to 

cations of nave the whole of the contract carved on tablets which were to be set up 

rac in the sacred enclosure 2 . It proceeds to state that, if the contractor be 

fines; guilty of fraudulently putting in bad work (<a/<ore^j/o5i/), or of any breach 

of the regulations, he shall be fined (fq/uudqo-crai); and later on we find 
payment ; a similar penalty attached to negligence on the part of the workmen. The 
testing payment is to be made by instalments, a portion being reserved until the 
of work, work has been finally passed after careful examination by the vaoirotoi and 

the dp)(iTKTa)v: Kal o~vvT\lo-as o\ov TO epyov, orav SoKt/^iao-^, KOfjuarda-Boa 

TO fTTldeKCLTOV TO V7ToXei($ei/. 

St Paul s We cannot fail to be reminded of St Paul s words in i Cor. iii 10 ff. : as 
language o-ocpbs apx lT ^ KTU>v $*/* e Xioi> eGrjita, aXXos Sc eiroiKodo/jLel. Kao~Tos de /3Xe- 
he eb T-a> TTCOJ eVotKoSo/zet 6fp.e\iov yap a\\ov ovdels dvvaTai Qiivai irapa TOV 

KClp-fVOV, OS O~Tll> l^troOs XptOTOS 1 8 TtS CTTOlKO^OfJifl eVt TOV 0fJi\lOV 

Xpvo-iov, dpyvpiov, \idovs rtfu ovy, ^v Xa, ^oproi , KaXajn?;i/, e<acrrov TO epyov 
(fravepov yevyo CTai, T) yap ij/jiepa o~r)\o3o~ei OTI fv irvpl aTTOKaXvTrrerat, Kal 
e/caarov TO fpyov oirolov CCTTIV TO nvp avTo $ ei TWOS TO epyov 
o eVot/coSd/LiT/o-ei/, fiio-Qov X^/xi/rerat et TWOS TO cpyo 

1 Compare Pausan. ix 39 4 TOVTOV small fraction of the whole building. 
fttv 67] 5iA, TO jjitycBos r} Kal r&v iroX^fjiv The payment was reckoned at the rate 
Tb d\\Trd\\rj\of dfaiKaffiv wifpyov. of a stater ( = 3 drachmas) and three 

2 Fabricius estimates that there obols for the cutting of a thousand 
must have been at least 16 of these letters. This preliminary work was 
tablets, and that they must have con- to be done within ten days from the 
tained altogether not less than 130,000 first advance of money to the con- 
letters; and these dealt only with a tractor. 


The inscription has a further interest in connexion with this passage, Further 
in that it records a contract for the continuation of work which has already illustra- 
advanced to a certain stage. Stones already in position are spoken of as "Tj^ e 

Keififvoi KOI rAo9 CXOVTCS: COmp. (7/6r, IMA ii II 6 vvv Ktfj.fvos fap,c\ios. Kfl/jifvov. 

The Apostle has combined with his metaphor the conception of the Day 
of the Lord that tests by fire (Mai. iii I f), and this accounts for the 
remainder of the remarkable phraseology of the passage. With the words 

which follow (v. 17), fi res TOP vaov TOV 6fov (pdeipei, (pQcpcl TOVTOV 6 dfoSj <f>deipeiv. 

it may not be altogether irrelevant to compare (Leb. 32 ff.) KOI cav TWO. 
vyifj \L6ov Sia<p6ipT)...Tpov aTro/tarao-TTJo-et boK.ip.ov Tols Idiois avaXaJ/xao-w , 

OvQtV eVlKtoXvOl/Ta TO epyov TOV dldCpdapCVTO. \i6ov eaei K TOV iepOV 

CVTOS jncpuv TTevrfj K.r.X. 

We may pass now to the passage which has suggested this note, Eph. ii Eph. ii 21. 
21 Trcura oiKodoprj (rvvapp,o\oyoviJLvr), and endeavour to find the exact sense 
of the verb app.o\oyfiv. We must begin by considering certain analogous 
forms which occur in the phraseology of building. 

AttfoXo-yov is a word frequently found in company with TCKTO>V. The Builder s 
one is a fitter of stones, as the other is a joiner of wood. For XitfoXoyoi terms. 
Kal TKToves see Thuc. vi. 44, vii 43, and other references given by Bliimner Ai0oX<$705 : 
Technologic iii 5. The original meaning appears to have been * a chooser at first a 
of stones ; and that this was still felt is seen from Plato Legg. ix 858 B, 
KaBarrfp r) \i6o\6yois 77 KCLI TWOS eTepas a.p%op,evois (rt(rracrcos, 7rapa(popij- 
craa da.i ^vdrjv e cov eKXe6/ze$a ra irpocrcpopa. TTJ jj,\\ova~r} yevij(rccrdai 
(Tvo-Tcio-fi : and X 902 E, ouSe yap avev oyiiKp<5j> TOVS fieyaXovs <pa<rlv ol \t6o- afterwards 
Xoyoi \idovs cv Kela-dai. But the word obtained a technical meaning in the a fitter 
fitting of stone-work where every stone was cut to measure. Julius Pollux ^, ne " 
gives XifloXo-yos and \i6o\oyelv as synonyms of \i6ovpy6s and Xidovpyew 1 : 
moreover, as an equivalent of Xt^ooTpcorov, he gives Xi^oX6y;/ia, which is 
found in Xenoph. Cyrop. vi 3 25. 

In the earlier building, and probably always in certain classes of work, The pro- 
stones were selected to fit, rather than cut according to prescribed mea- cess of 
sures. But in the temple-building with which our inscriptions deal the 
exact measures were defined in the contracts, and the stones had to be 
hewn accordingly. No mortar was used, and the whole process of fitting 
and laying the stones was a very elaborate one. It is fully described in the 
contract for the paving of the stylobates in the Lebadean inscription. 

There were two parts of the blocks (/<ara(rrpa>r77p) which had to be Preparing 
worked : the lower surface (/3ao-is) and the sides (dp/W). In each case not the stones. 
the whole of the surface was smoothed, but only a margin, the interior 
part being cut in, so that there might be no projections to produce uneven- 
ness when the stones were brought together. The margins were carefully 
smoothed, first with a fine tool, and then by a rubbing process. The 
smoothness was tested by the /cai/toi/, a straight bar of stone (\idivos 
KCUXOI/) or, for the larger surfaces, of wood (uXii/os Kavuv). The Kavav The KW&V. 
was covered with ruddle (/ziXros), and then passed over the surface : 
wherever the surface did not take the ruddle, it was shewn to be still 
uneven; and the work was continued, until the surface, when rubbed 

1 Pollux vii 118 ff.: \idovpyt>v, not tine MS, which at this point seems 
\i6ov\ic6v, is the reading of the Pala- to present a better text. 



The ter 
-\oyetit : 
used wide 
ly by false 

So in apfj.o- 

senses of 

yew de 
notes the 

Used by 

and in an 

with the KOVVV, was uniformly red. With this compare Eurip. H. F. 945 
fiddpa | (pniviKi KUVOVI KOI TVKOIS qpfj.oo-p.eva. The names given in the in 
scriptions to the processes of polishing and of testing respectively were 
rpipparoXoycti/ and p-iXroXoyeii/. These terms are not found in literature: 
no doubt they were simply masons words ; and it is possible that the 
termination (-Xoyeu ) was due to a false analogy with the familiar Xi<9o- 
\oyclv. It is clear at any rate that the original meaning of the termination 
has completely disappeared in these compounds. Another word of the 
same order is ^rjcpoXoyclv, of working in mosaic : see Tobit xiii 1 7 at 

TrXareuu icpova-aXr/p ftrjpvXXto Kal avQpaKi Kal Xi$a> e< 2ov<peip ^rrj(po\o- 

yrjdija-ovrat. If this were shewn to be an early word, we should incline 
to give the termination its full meaning in the first instance, and then to 
suppose the whole word transferred from the selecting of the pieces of 
mosaic to their setting: but it may quite well be regarded as formed 
merely by analogy, like Tpipp,aroXoyet/ and p.i\ro\oyelv. 

It is reasonable to believe that in dpp.oXoyf iv we have yet another of 
these formations due to analogy: for the termination cannot in this case 
have ever had its proper force. If this be so, the exact technical 
meaning of dpp,6s ceases to be of moment for the understanding of the 
verb. Probably appos meant first a fitting , then the joint or juncture 
where one stone was fitted to another, and then, in the sense in which 
we have already had it, the side of the stone which is worked so as to 
fit with the corresponding side of another stone. In CIA iv 1054 f it 
appears to be the juncture of two drums of a column : for there each 
appos is to have two e/xTroXia (dowel-holes) and one bronze TTO\OS (dowel) : 
so that it seems that the e^iroXia must be one in the lower drum and 
one in the upper. Compare Ecclus. xxvii 2 dvd p.o-ov dpfinv \L6wv 
TrayijcrfTai TracrcraXoy. 

c Ap/zoXoye>, then, represents the whole of the elaborate process by 
which stones are fitted together: the preparation of the surfaces, in 
cluding the cutting, rubbing and testing; the preparation of the dowels 
and dowel-holes, and finally the fixing of the dowels with molten lead. 
The word is a rare one ; but the two examples of it which are cited are 
both of interest 1 . Sextus Empiricus, speaking of the weakness of divina 
tion from the signs of the Zodiac, says (M. v 78): TO Se irdvru>v /cupiayraroi/, 

CKOOTOV T&V o>di(OV OV (TWC^fS CO~Tl CT5p.a, OvS CDOTTep T) p floXoyr) fJLVOV 

ra> irpo eavrov KOI /xe$ avro crvz^Trrat, fjujSfptas p,erat> irnrTovcnjs Statrra- 
cTfus, K.r.X. The other example is a beautiful epigram of Philip of 
Thessalonica in the Anthology (Anth. Pal. vii 554), on a monument raised 
to a stonemason s boy by his own father s hands. 

Ap^tTe Xiys Ayaddvopi TratSl Qavovri 
o ivpais jJpfioXoyTjtre ra<poi>. 
cuat TTcrpov enelvoV) ov OVK f/coXa^e tri S^pos, 


<ptv O-TT/XJJ (f)0ip,cv(> KOVipT] p-cV, Kelvos Iv 
"Ovrcos Trarpatr) ^etp firfQrjKf \L6ov. 

1 The word occurs, but perhaps not 
independently of St Paul, in Andreas 

Comm. in Apocal. c. 65 avrij Be TJ 7r6Xtj 


In dear remembrance of a son 
A father cut and set this stone: 
No chisel-mark the marble bears, 
Its surface yielded to his tears. 
Lie on him lightly, stone, and he 
Will know his father s masonry. 

The compound crvvappoXoyelv is not found apart from St Paul He The corn- 
uses it both in this passage and in iv 16, where he applies it to the pound 
structure of the body. Such an application was easy, as dppos was also j^g t Paul 
used of the joints of the body (4 Mace, x 5, Hebr. iv 12): but the word 
was probably only chosen because it had been previously used in its 
proper sense, and because the Apostle delighted in combining the archi 
tectural and physiological metaphors, as when in the context he twice 
speaks of the building of the body (w. 13, 16). In the parallel passage 
in Colossians (ii 19) his language is different, as there has been no 
employment of the metaphor of building. 


On Trcopcooris and 

In Eph. iv 1 8 the word rrcopeoo-t? has been uniformly interpreted as 
rendered blindness in the Latin, Syriac and Armenian versions, and, with perhaps 
blind- i m f. one exc eption (Geneva 1557, hardenes ), in the English versions, until 
Eph iv 1 8. ^ ne rev i s i n of 1 88 1, in which it is rendered * hardening . The word and its 
cognate verb irupovv deserve a fuller investigation than they have hitherto 
received. We shall consider (i) their derivation and history, (2) their use 
in the New Testament, (3) their interpretation in early versions and com 
mentaries, (4) the confusion of 7ro>pouj>, irnpoxris with Trrjpovv, Trripcao-is, (5) the 
use of Tripos- and its derivates to denote blindness*. 

i. Deriva- i. n&pos (in MSS frequently iropos} or \i6os nvpivos (nopivos) is a kind 
tion and Q f mar bi e) tophus. Theophrastus Lap. 7 thus describes it : iropos o \idos, 
ofJLOiOf r<5 ^pco/zart K.a.1 rfj TTVKVOTTJTI r<5 Ilapiep, rrjv 8e KovfponjTa p.6vov e^wv 
TOV Tropov. Aristotle speaks of stalactites as ol iropot ol ev rols a-injXaiois 
IIcDpos (Meteor. 4, 10). In the medical writers TT&POS is used for (a) a node or bony 
in medical formation on the joints, (>) a callus, or ossification which serves as a mortar 
writers. ^ un ^ e ^ ne p 0r tions of a fractured bone. But it is not used, apparently, 
in the wider sense of the Latin ccdlum or callus, for a callosity or hardening 
of the flesh : that in Greek is rv\r). IIcopoOv accordingly signifies (a) to 
petrify; as in a quotation from Pisis in Suidas, ras iKpddas irupovvra jcal 
o-fpiyyovra \t6adei rpo7ra> : (6) to cover with a callus; Diosc. i 112 

in jfapo^ ib^ 86 T a airapaiTa jrcopol : in this technical sense TrcopoOv and e 
seiise. ni E P v and tneir derivatives are common in the medical writers : otherwise 

is exceedingly rare. 
There is a further development of meaning (c), to deaden or dull, of 
which I have only been able to find one independent example outside 
biblical Greek. Athenaeus (xii 549) cites a passage of Nymphis of Heraclea, 
in which 7ra>poC<r&u is used to express the insensibility of the flesh by 
reason of excessive fat. Dionysius the tyrant of Heraclea VTTO rpv^s KOI 

rfjs K.a.6* jjfjifpav ddrj^ayias \a6cv v7Tfpo~apKij<ras. He would fall into a coma- 

tose condition, and his physicians could only rouse him by pricking him 
with long needles : ^XP L P* v ^ v Ttvos virb TTJS irfiro)pa>^VT]s CK TOV a-reaTos 
crapKos OVK evfTroiet rrfv cucr6r)o~iv el df irpos rov K.a6apov TOTTOV rj fteXovrj 
8t\6ovo-a c Giyc, TOTS dirjydpfTo. Aelian, V. H. ix 13, tells the same story, 
paraphrasing as follows: %v d apa TOVTO ciripeXes erepots dpav, <rr av o\rj 8ia 


aXX fKflvos yc eieetro Xi ^ov duxpepav ovdcv. It is clear that the likeness to a 
stone, which Aelian introduces to explain what was probably an unfamiliar 
use of TrwpoGor&u, refers not in the least to the hardness of the flesh for 
the needle could pass through it but to its deadness or insensibility. 

ON nnpncic AND TTHPHCIC. 265 

The word has thus travelled some distance from its original meaning, and of 
and it was destined to go still further. The idea of insensibility could be obscura- 
transferred from organs of feeling to the organ of sight : and accordingly in 
the one place in which it occurs in the Greek Old Testament it is used of 
the eyes : Job xvii 7 irfiraptiJVTai yap dirb opyfjs of o<p$aX/ioi /JLOV. We render 
the Hebrew at this point, Mine eye is dim by reason of sorrow 1 . The 
verb nro is used of the eyes in Gen. xxvii i (of Jacob), where the LXX has 
ijp.ft\vvdT]rrav: Deut. xxxiv 7 (of Moses), LXX ijnavpudrjo-av: Zech. xi 17, 
LXX <f/crv(pXoo#77(rerai. The other Greek translators of Job used q/iaupoj- 
drja-av instead of 7r7r<cpa>vrai. The word had thus come to be practically 
equivalent to TTfir^pojvrai, are blinded , which is found as a variant 
in K c - a A. 

Thus we see that Trcopoxriy, losing its first sense of petrifaction or hard- Change of 
ness, comes to denote the result of petrifaction as metaphorically applied to meanm g 
the organs of feeling, that is, insensibility, and more especially in reference 
to the organs of sight, obscuration or blindness. 

2. Uvpovv and TreopGxrtj occur eight times in the New Testament : four 2. In the 
times in St Paul, three times in St Mark, and once in St John. lament ^ 

(l) 2 Cor. iii 14 aXX eVcopco^ TO. vor^iara avra>v. p *, 

1 Moses put a vail on his face, that the children of Israel might not gaze 3 c or> ^ 

on (or unto) the end of that which was being done away . But in 14. 
the spiritual sense there was more than the vail on Moses face that pre 
vented their seeing eirtopwflr] TO. voT/para O.VT&V. For unto this day the 
same vail at the reading of the Old Testament remains, not being lifted (or 
unvailed) for in Christ it is done away but to this day whenever Moses 
is read a vail lieth upon their heart . . . But all of us with unvailed face 
etc. . . . But if our gospel is vailed, it is in them that are lost that it is 
vailed, in whom the god of this world eTvfpXaxrev TO. vorj^ara TO>V airiaTtov^ 
els TO prj avydcrai TOV (p(aricrp,ov rov evayyf\iov . 

The context has to do with seeing and not seeing. Not seeing is not 
really due to the vailing of the object: it is the fault of the minds which 
should be able to see : if vailing there still be, it is a vail upon the heart. 
The minds of the Israelites eVoopoo^ : the minds of unbelievers the god of 
this world erixpXaxrfv. Accordingly intellectual obtuseness or blindness is 
the sense which is most appropriate to this context. Indeed to speak of a 
mind or understanding as being hardened appears to be an unparalleled 
use of words. 

(2, 3) Rom. xi 7, 25 6 cmfryrti lo-pcw/X, roOro OVK eVe ri^ey* 17 5e exXoyrj Rom. xt 
oi fie XOITTOI eVtopoo ^crai/ . . . TrapoMTis aVo pepovs ra> lo-parjX 7> 2 5- 

The context speaks of the failure of a portion of Israel. Some, the 
election , attained what they sought: the rest cVapoi^o-av : as it is 
written, God gave them a spirit of deep sleep (Karavygfus) ; eyes that 
they should not see, and ears that they should not hear . This is 
followed by a quotation from Ps. Ixviii [Ixix], iu which occur the words, 

1 Jerome s translation of the Hexa- Hebrew he gives caligauit ab indigna- 
plar text has here obscurati sunt ab tione oculus meus. 
ira oculi mei : in rendering from the 


Let their eyes be darkened that they may not see . It is here to be noted 
that the one thought which is common to the two passages used to illustrate 
the Treo poxris is the * eyes that see not . Thus again the meaning is, they 
were rendered obtuse or intellectually blind : and they were blinded 7 is 
a more appropriate translation than they were hardened . In v. 25 the 
context throws no light on the meaning. The Trcopoxris CK pepovs reproduces 
the thought of v. j : part of Israel suffers from it : the election is again 
referred to in v. 28. 

Eph. iv 1 8. (4) Eph. iv 18 bia TTJV ncopoxriv rfjs Kapbias avrnv. 

The Gentiles are described as darkened in their understanding (nco- 
roj/ieVoi TV Stavoia), being aliens from the life of God because of the 
ignorance that is in them by reason of the Trnpuxris of their heart , oinves 
aTTijXyrjKOTfs eavrovs irapeftcoKav rrj atrcX-yeta K.T.X. The whole thought of 
the passage is parallel with that of Rom. i 21 ff., and there are several 
coincidences of language. The darkening of the understanding and the 
Trwpwo-ts of the heart may be compared with the words eV/con o-tfj; 77 
do-vveros avrav KapSio. Here the deadness or insensibility of the heart 
stands between the darkening of the understanding and the loss of feeling 
or moral sense which produces despair or recklessness. Moral blindness, 
not contumacy, is meant. Hardness might perhaps be allowed as a 
rendering, if we could secure that it should not be misunderstood in the 
sense of o-K\rjpoKap8ia, stubbornness . Hardening is a specially mis 
leading translation : it is not the process, but the result, which is in 
question intellectual obtuseness, not the steeling of the will. 

St Mark. (5) Mark iii 5 crvv\v7rovp,evos eVi rfj Trwpaxret rfjs Kapdias avroiv. 

Mark iii 5. Before healing the man with the withered hand, our Lord asks, Is it 
lawful on the sabbath day to do good, or to do evil? When the Pharisees 
were silent, He looked round on them with anger, being grieved at the 
Trcopoxrtff of their heart . The context is not decisive as between the mean 
ings moral obtuseness or blindness and wilful hardness. Nor do the 
synoptic parallels help us: Luke (vi 10) simply drops the clause; Matt, 
(xii 10) drops rather more, and inserts new matter. 

Mark vi (6) Mark vi 52 dXX TJV T) Kapbia avrvv TreTrcopoo/zeVrj. 

5 2> When our Lord had come to the disciples walking on the water, they 

were exceedingly amazed in themselves ; for they understood not concern 
ing (or in the matter of) the loaves; but their heart was 7rro>p<o/i>i/ . 
Here the interpretation hardened seems needlessly severe : the point is 
that they could not understand. Luke omits the incident : Matt, (xiv 33) 
substitutes And they that were in the boat worshipped him saying, Truly 
thou art the Son of God . 

Mark viii (7) Mark viii 17 7re7ro>pa>/ie i;i> fX fT T *i v <^P^ av vp&vs 

J 7- When the disciples had forgotten to take bread and misunderstood our 

Lord s reference to the leaven, Jesus said, Why reason ye because ye have 
no bread ? Do ye not yet perceive nor understand ? Have ye your heart 
7rc7ra>pa>fjLevriv 1 Having eyes see ye not, and having ears hear ye not ? and 
do ye not remember . . .? Here the close connexion with the unseeing 
eye favours the interpretation moral blindness . Indeed hardness 
suggests a wilful obstinacy, which could scarcely be in place either here or 
in vi 52. Luke has not the incident : Matt (xvi 9) drops the clause. 

ON nnpncic AND TTHPHCIC. 267 

(8) John xii 40 reTv(p\a>Kcv avrtHv rovs 6(pda\fjiovs KOI eVojpeoo-*)/ avrnv St John. 

John xii 

For this cause they could not believe, because that Esaias saith again : 4 
He hath blinded their eyes, and cVcopaxrcy their heart, that they may not 
see with their eyes and perceive (vorjo-axriv) with their heart , etc. This is 
a loose citation of Isa. vi 10, according neither with the LXX nor with the 

Hebrew. LXX firaxuvdrj yap 77 Kapdia rov \aov TOVTOV, KOL rots O\9 avrcvv 
{3(ipea>s rfKowav, /cat TOVS o(pda\p.ovs fKa.fJipvo a.Vj \t,r\ TTOTC tdaxriv rols o<j)6a\fj.o is 
/cat rots toorif aKova-axriv /cat rfj /capita (rvvaxriv K.r.X. Heb. Make the heart 
of this people fat , etc. (jplpn). 
"We must note the parallels : 

. . . IJ/O fJLT) 

. . iva IJ.T) 

here denotes the obscuration of the intellect as rv<p\ovv denotes 
the obscuration of the sight. Jf fTroapoxrev is intended in any way to repro 
duce the verb to make fat , then dulness or deadness rather than 
hardness is the idea which would be suggested, and we have a close 
parallel with the passage quoted above from Nymphis ap. Athenaeum. 

The above examination of the contexts in which Trtopoxrt? is spoken of Contexts 
appears to shew that obtuseness, or a dulling of the faculty of perception suggest 
equivalent to moral blindness, always gives an appropriate sense. On the ^gg" 8 ^ 
other hand the context never decisively favours the meaning hardness , mora i 
and this meaning seems sometimes quite out of place. blindness. 

3. We pass on to consider the meaning assigned by early translators 3. Versions 

and commentators. and com - 

. . _ ... mentators. 

(1) 2 Cor. 111. 14. 

Latin, sed obtusi sunt sensus eorum. sions 

Syriac (pesh.), ^^on^Hisara oncc^^ they were blinded in their 
minds 1 (the same verb renders crv^Xaxrev in iv 4). 

Armenian 2 , but their minds were blinded (cf. iv 4). 

So too Ephr., adding and they were not able to look upon the mysteries 
which were in their law . 

(2) Rom. xi 7. 
Latin, excaecati sunt. 

Syriac (pesh.), cno^i^ were blinded . 

Armenian, were blinded . So Ephr. with blindness they were blinded 
for a time , etc. 

(3) Rom. xi 25. 

Latin, obtusio Ambrst Hilar. 

caecitas clar vg Ambr. Aug. 

Syriac (pesh.), t A C^OT^O^ blindness of heart 7 . 
Armenian, blindness . 

1 According to another reading Syriac (see Euthaliana, Texts and 
(ed. Lee) their m nds were blinded Studies, iii 3 72 98). For the same 
( ocn*>^H^f>y reason I refer to Ephraim s Commen- 

2 I quote the Armenian version be- tary, written in Syriac, but preserved 
cause it often afford evidence of Old to us only in Armenian. 


(4) Eph. iv 1 8. 
Latin, caecitas. 

Syriac (pesh.), .^003 A AXOT^CC^. blindness of their heart . 
Armenian, blindness ( of their heart ). 
Ephr., blindness 7 ( of their minds ). 

(5) Mark iii 5. 
Latin, caecitas a b e f q vg. 

emortua . . . cor da c (d) ff i r. 
Syriac (sin.), ^qoa A i\oi\in deadness of their heart . 

(pesh. hier.), _qm=x\ ttcuxn hardness of their heart . 
Armenian, blindness . 

(6) Mark vi 52. 
Latin, obcaecatum f vg. 

obtusum a b c d i r (ff contusum). 
Syriac (sin.), V.c^ blind . 

(pesh.), ,-TS.^-P (used for ciraxyvBri Matt, xiii 1 5, Acts xxviii 27) 

fattened , and so stupid . 
Armenian, stupefied as with deep sleep. 

(7) Mark viii 17. 
Latin, caecatum f vg. 

obtusum (-a] a b c d ff i. 
Syriac (sin.), noN."-n blinded . 

(pesh.), **acn hard . 
Armenian, stupefied as with amazement. 

(8) John xii 40. 

Latin, indurauit a b e f ff q vg. 

D TTv(f)\(i)Kfv avrav TTjv Kap8iav \ omitting the inter- 
d excaecauit eorum cor j vening words. 

hebetauit Vig. Taps. 
Syriac (pesh.), ci^xu*^ they have darkened ( = O-KOTIQ> elsewhere). 

(sin cu defective.) 

Armenian, stupefied as with amazement. 

The mean- In the great majority of cases the Latin interpretation is either caecitas 
^ of , or obtusio. On the second of these words something needs to be said. 
Obtundere means to beat and so to blunt (e.g. the edge of a sword). Then 
it is applied metaphorically: aciem oculorum obtundit Plin.; obtundit 
auditum Plin.; multa quae acuant mentem, multa quae obtundant Cic.; 
obtundat eneruetque aegritudinem Cic. Obtusus is similarly used : 
mihi autem non modo ad sapientiam caeci uidemur, sed ad ea ipsa, quae 
aliqua ex parte cerni uideantur, hebetes et obtusi Cic. ; so often of sight : 
and also of hearing, obtusae aures : and of the mind, sensus oculorum 
atque aurium hebetes, uigor animi obtusus . So again the adverb : croco- 
dili in aqua obtusius uident, in terra acutissime Solin. Ambrosiaster s 
comment on 2 Cor. iii 14 well illustrates the force of obtusi : quae obtusio 
infidelitatis causa obuenit : ideo conuersis ad fidem acuitur acies mentis, ut 
uideant diuini luminis splendorem . Obtusus is the opposite of acutus. 
There is no idea of * hardness in the word. Obtusio therefore was admir- 

ON nnpncic AND nHpncic. 269 

ably adapted to express the sense of moral obtuseness or blindness con 
veyed by TT&POHTIS. 

The remarkable rendering emortua corda in some Old Latin MSS of Excep- 
Mark iii 5 corresponds to the variant v(Kpwo-t which appears only in Codex ti na l ren- 
Bezae 1 . This variant has received unexpected support through the dis- ^e^ 8: 
co very of the Sinaitic Syriac. ness ; 

In one passage only (John xii 40) does the Latin render by indurauit. hardness . 
Here it is to be noted that excaecauit could not be used, as it had occurred 
just before to render TfTv<p\a>Kev. There appears to be no manuscript 
authority for the rendering of Vigilius, hebetauit (de trin. xii p. 3i8) 2 . 

The Peshito Syriac always interprets in the sense of blindness in Syriac 
St Paul: in St Mark it has hardness twice, and fatness once: in ? end er- 
St John it has darkness . The Sinaitic Syriac has blindness twice in mgs 
St Mark, and deadness once, where however it is rendering vKpc*o-is. In 
St John its reading is not preserved. The Curetonian Syriac fails us at all 
these points, as also does the Armenian version of Ephraim s Commentary 
on the Biatessaron 3 . 

Origen. In Matth. t. xi. c. 14 (Ru. iii 498), after having twice used (&) Com- 
eYu<pX(Bo-ei> in reference to 2 Cor. iv 4, he speaks of those who are * not the me . ntator8 
planting of God, aXXa TOV ntopccxravros avTatv TTJV Kapdiav KCU 

In Matth. t. Xvi C. 3 (Ru. iii 7Il), 7ra>pa>0eWes rrjv oidvoiav /eat Tv<p\co- 
Oevres TOV \ OVK e(3\C7rov TO fiovXrjua TG>V dyicav ypa/i/Ltarcoi/. 

In Joann. fragm. (Brooke ii 297 f.), avafycpeo-Bai cirl TOV irovrjpov . . . 

TV<p\(0o~avra TIVWV TOVS o(pda\p,ovs KOI 7rr)p(&o~avTa \lcge 7ra>pei><rai>ra] avTO>v rrfv 
KapBiav . . . aXXos ovv 6 Tv(p\a>v TOVS o<p^aX/iois KOI iru>pu>v ras KapSiay, KCU 
aXXos o l(0fj.evos K.r.X. Ibid. p. 301, TTJS deo-TTOTiKrjs KO.I truTTjpiov didao-KaXias 
TI do-Tpmrr] Tv(p\ovs KCU TreTrcopco/ieVous- ecrrTyXircva-e TOVS loi/Sai ous. 

These are the only relevant passages which I have been able to find in 
the Greek of Origen. They all suggest that he took Trvpovv in the sense of 
the destruction of moral or intellectual sight. 

In Ep. ad Rom. L viii c. 8 (Ru. iv 631), sed excaecati sunt spiritu 

COmpunctionis ( = aXX 7ra>pa>dr]a-av irvevpaTi Karai>vea>s). 

Ibid, et hie enim oculos et aures cordis, non corporis, dicit, quibus 
excaecati sunt et non audiunt . 

Ibid.c. 12 (Ru. iv 639), pro his qui caecitate decepti, id est, cordis 
obtusione [ = 7ra>po)o-ei] prolapsi sunt . . . cum uero . . . coepisset Israel 

1 It is to be noted that in Tischen- cf. Matt, xxii 12, where b 

dorfs note D is omitted per incuriam is rendered, but he, his mouth was 

after j/e/cpuxrei . It would seem to be shut . It is found also in Eph. ii 14 

due to this that in Wordsworth and for <f>pay/j.6s. It renders ru^XoOv in 

White s Vulgate ye/cpcio-ei is said to be 2 Cor. iv 4, i John ii 1 1 , and in John xii 

found in no Greek MS. 40 He hath shut (-e-wju) their eyes 

2 On this Book see below pp. 291 , 303. and He hath shut (-^COM) their heart . 

3 In regard to the Coptic I owe to my A longer form, derived from the same 
brother Forbes Robinson the following root, is used in both dialects of shutting 
information. The root used in all a door: but the simple form is not so 
cases is -e-tojw. (Sah. TIOJW.), to shut : used in the New Testament 


discutere a semetipso caecitatem cordis, et eleuatis oculis suis Christum 
uerum lumen aspicere , etc. 

In Gen. horn, vii 6 (Ru. ii 80), commenting on OCR. xxi 19, God 
opened her eyes , he quotes Rom. xi 25 and says, ista est ergo caecitas 
[ = TTtopoxris] in Agar, quae secundum carnem genuit : quae tamdiu in ea 
permanet, donee uelamen literae auferatur per euangelium dei et uideat 
aquam uiuam. nunc enim iacent ludaei circa ipsum puteum, sed oculi 
eorum clausi sunt . . . aperti ergo sunt oculi nostri, et de litera legis 
uelamen ablatum est . 

In Lexit. horn, i i (Ru. ii 185), after quoting 2 Cor. iii 16, he says, 
ipse igitur nobis dominus, ipse sanctus spiritus deprecandus est, ut omnem 
nebulam omnemque caliginem, quae peccatorum sordibus concreta uisum 
nostri cordis obscurat, auferre dignetur , etc. 

In all these passages it would seem that not only the translator, but 
also Origen himself, interpreted Trmpoxris in the sense of blindness . I can 
find but one passage that looks in another direction; but it does not 
disprove our view of his ordinary use of the word. 

In Exod. horn, vi 9 (Ru. ii 149 f.), commenting on Ex. xv. 16 oVoXt&o- 
0riTa>(rav, cms av napeXdrj 6 \a6s o-ou, he says (quoting Rom. xi 25) : caecitas 
[=7rtopo>o-is] enim ex parte contigit in Israel secundum carnem, donee 
plenitudo gentium suhintroiret : cum enim plenitudo gentium subintra- 
uerit, tune etiam omnis Israel, qui per incredulitatis duritiam factus fuerat 
sicut lapis, saluabitur . 

This comment shows that Origen recognised the derivation of irapaxris 
from TreSpos, a kind of stone, and that upon occasion he was prepared to 
play upon it ; but it does not prove that he would ordinarily have taken it 
to mean hardness J . 

Chryso- Chrysostom. Cramer catena in Jo. xii 40 ov\ o 6ebs eVeopwo-ei/ 

stom. ^ v Kdpftiav . . . TOVS e Svorpcnrovs rtx^XtotfeWay virb TOV ia/3oXov. 

Horn, vii in 2 Cor. (ed. Ben. x 483 f.) 17 -yap 7ra>pa>o- yvtofjajs <rr\v 
dvaio~0qTov KCU dyvcop,ovos . tVei KOI tv rfj o^fi Mtovtrea)? ov ta Ma>tJ(rea 


Horn, xiii in Ephes. (xi 96) aTro rovrov ; Tf<opa>aris t OTTO TOVTOV 77 
TTJS diavoias. eori yap <pa>rbs Xdn^avros fCTKOTia-dat, orav ol 6<p6a\p.ol a<r6fvfis 
{^(riv da dfve is & yivovrai r) ^v^iatv CTTippofj Trovrjpwv fj pevpaTos TrX^/z/tiiJpa. 
oura) 5;) KOI evravQa, orav r\ TroXXj; pvp.r) T>V PIOJTKWV 7rpayp,a.To>v TO diopartKOV 
THJL&V fTriK\v<rr) TTJS diavoias, cv (TKOTtocrci yivfrat. KOI KaOdirfp cv v8an Kara 
fiddovs Kfip-evoi TOV fj\iov OVK av dwijOeirj^fv opav, axrircp TWOS dia(ppdynaTos 
TOV TroXXot) avtodfv 7TiKfip.fvov vftaTos ovTa> 5) *cai fv Tols o(p0a\p.o is TTJS 
diavoias yiverat Trcopcotrts Kapoias, TOVTCOTIV dvaio-drjaia^ orav p.r)8els TTJV ^vxnv 
Karao-flr) (frofios . . . TTtopoxrts Se ovSa/io^ev yivcTat aXX fj dirb dvaio~6r)crias 
TOVTO diafppaTTfi TOVS iropovs orai/ yap p eC/za TTfrrrjybs fls era arvvdyrjTai TOTTOV, 
vfKpbv ylvtTai TO p,eXo? /cal dvaio~6r)TOV. 

Here he is trying to get at the meaning of a word which puzzles him. 
He fancies that it is derived from Tropos, and denotes an obstruction of 
the pores, producing insensibility. We shall see in a moment that the 
word was often written 7ropo>o-is : indeed in Cramer s Catena, which quotes 
an earlier part of Chrysostom s comment at this place, it is so spelt. 

ON nnpncic AND TTHPHCIC. 271 

On the other hand it is to be noted that in commenting on Heb. iii 12 

he Says (xii 63 C) : O.TTO yap (TKXrjpoTrjTos 17 aTTioTta yivfrai KOI Kadairep TO. 
7riro>pu)p.fva TWV <ra)fj.ccrQ)v /cat ovcA^pa OVK rals rwv larpcov ^eparivj OVT& 
KOI at -^v^al al o-KXrjpvvdeio-ai OVK fiKov TO> Xoy<0 rov Qeov. 

Among later Greek commentators we find occasional references to Later 
a-K\T)poKap8ia in connexion with the passages in which ir<0p<a<ris is men- commen- 
tioned: but the interpretation insensibility or moral blindness is gene- a ors " 
rally maintained. 

4. Instead of 7ro>povv and TroSpoxris we have the variants nypovv and 4- 
axns- in the followin 
Mark iii 5. 17.20. 

in the following Mss 1 : 

v 17. 

John xii 40. X n p*** (DioL de trin. i 19) [n had 

63.122.259 (these three have irerrr/p^Kev). 

Rom. xi 7. 66**. 

This confusion may be taken as corroborative evidence of the fact which 
we have already learned from the versions, that Troopcoo-ts was very com 
monly regarded as equivalent to blindness , a meaning at which injp<o<nf 
also had arrived from a very different starting-point 3 . 

5. Urjpos and ireirr]pa>nevos signify maimed* or defective in some 5- 
member of the body, eye or ear, hand or foot. Frequently the member 
is defined, as in the epigram, Anthol. Palat. ix n i Trrjpos 6 fieV yviW, o 5 
ap o/z/zao-t. 

But rrrjpos and its derivatives, when used absolutely in the later Greek but used 
literature, very frequently denote blindness . This was fully recognised ^ ls ? *?? 
by the old lexicographers (e.g. Suidas Tn/pos o Travrairao-i w 6pv), but it * 

1 Forms in vop- or iropp- are also may be some connexion between this 
found : Mark iii 5 in T h 1 "* 1 "*; vi 52 in variant and the more widespread one 
X T al; viii 17 in T; Bom. xi 25 in L tireipavev , tentauit : (2) at John xvi 6 
al pauc; Eph. iv 18 in P 17 Cramer 2 * 1 . (^ X^ TreTrX^w/cev vfj&v TT\V KapdLav) 
So too in Job xvii 7 (referred to above), Tischendorf notes : go Treirupuicev 
while i< c - a A have ireTr/ipuvTai, some (obduravit, ut xii 40) . I owe to Dr 
cursives have 7re7r6po;j/rai. Skeat the following information : the 

2 In connexion with cod. K it should Gothic in both places has gadaubida, 
be noted that the Shepherd of Hermas hath deafened (Goth. <2aw6-s = Eng. 
has two allusions to these Gospel *deaf); in Mark iii 5, viii 17 (vi 52 
passages, Mand. iv 2 i, xii 4 4; in the vacat) the same root is used : the 
former of these N reads TreTT^pwrat for root-sense of "deaf" seems to be 
TreirwpojTeu, at the latter it is not ex- " ( stopped up " well expressed in Eng. 
tant. [Of the Latin versions of the by dumb or dummy, and in Gk by 
Shepherd the Yulgata or Old Latin ru0X6s, which is radically the same 
has obturatum est, the Palatine excae- word as deaf and dumb . 

catum est, in Mand. iv 2 i ; in Mand. 3 The two words are brought to- 

xii 4 4 the Vulgata has obtusum est, gether in the comment of Euthymius 

while the Palatine is defective.] Zigabenus on Eph. iv 18 

I insert at this point two curiosities: ical dvaia-0T]ff[a KapSias T) 

(i) in Acts v 3 K* reads diarl lirripwatv diopartKov TT?S t/ vx^, o tnjpot 

6 ffaravas TT\V KapSiav (rov; and there iraffuv Kal T\fytftvpa 


appears to have somewhat fallen out of sight in recent times. It may be 
well therefore to give some passages by way of establishing this usage. 

Plutarch Timol. 37 rjdrj irpeo~@VTpos &v aTrrj^Xvvdrj rfjv fyiv, clra TeXeW 
eirTjpadr) per 6\iyov (and, lower down, Tnjpcocrts and TreTrT/poofiej/os-). 

Id. Isis 55 Xeyovtrtv OTI TOV *Q,pov vvv \itv eVarae vvv 8 ce\a>v KaTeiricv 
o TixpaW TOV o<p$aXp,oi/, eira TO> 77X10) TraXti/ aVedoxce, irXrjyrjv fiev alviTTOfj,fvoi 
TTJV Kara fiijva peitao tv TT/P o~\rjVT]s, irrjpoxriv 8t rrjv e/cXef^ai/, K.T.X. 

Philo de somniis i 5 u iravrdrrao-tv a/n/SXely /cat Tn/pot yeyovapfv, aXX* 
exopcv iniv ort K.r.X. 

Lucian 6?^ 6?owio 28, 29 *HXtoy . . . tarat TTJV rrrjpaxriv of Orion who is 

Justin Martyr Try ph. 12 en yap TO. wra vp&v TrtypaKTai, of o<p0aX/H 
TreTTT^pwi/rai, xai TreTra^vrai jy /capita. 

33 ra 8e <ura i5/za)i/ ?re(ppaKrat KOI at KapStai Trerr^peoirat [in inarg. 
Codicis TreTraSptoirai]. 

Id. A.pol. 1 22 ^coXovy /cat irapaXvTiKovs Kal CK yeveTrjs i lrovrjpovs ^ vyifls 

7T7roLT]Kvai avTov Kal vcKpovs dveyetpai. Here we must obviously read Trrjpovs 
with the older editors. Compare Tryph. 69 rovs e< yever^s Kal Kara rrjv 
crap/ca tnjpovs, where the context requires the meaning blind . So too we 
have in the Clementine Homilies xix 22 irepl TOV e< yevfTrjs irrjpov Kal 
v, and in Apost. Const v 7, 17 (Lagarde 137, n) roi e< 
irrjpw. The expression comes ultimately from John ix i Tv(p\ov CK 

The ancient homily, called the Second Epistle of Clement, c. i, offers 
an example of the same confusion between Tripos and Trovrjpos. n^pot ovres 
Ty diavoia is the reading of cod. A, and is supported by the Syriac rendering 
* blind : but cod. C has irovrjpoi. Lightfoot renders, maimed in our 
understanding , and cites Arist. Eth. Nic. i 10 rots M Tren^pw/Liei/ois Trposr 
apt rf]v (where, however, TrcTn/pw/ieVoy may quite well mean blinded ), and 
Ptolemaeus ad Flor. (in Epiphan. Haer. xxxiii 3, p. 217) ^ povov TO TTJS 
tyvxijs o^pa aXXa fcai TO TOV oratpaTos TreTT^paj/ieWv. The context, however, 
in the Homily appears decisive in favour of blinded : for the next 
sentence proceeds : dp.avpa>criv ovv TrcptK(ip,fvoi Kal TotavTTjs a^Xvoy yefjwvres 
fv TTJ opao-et, dvfft\tyaij.v K.T.\. Compare Acts of SS. Nereus and 
Achilles (Wirth, Leipsic, 1890) c. 21 TT^POS &v dia irpoa-evx^s TTJS Aopc- 
TtXXay dveftXe^l/fv. 

Clem. Alex. Protrept. C. 10 124 o/Li/xaTcov per ovv T) 7ri;pcoorts Kal Tys OKOTJS 
r) K(o<pa>o~is. 

Celsus ap. Orig. C. Gels, iii 77 alTiao~0ai TOVS ov jSXeirovras cos TreTnjpco- 

Id. ibid. VI 66 Ko\deo-dai TTJV o^nv Kal fi\airre<r6ai /cat vopitiv irrjpova-Oai. 

Euseb. H. E. ix 8 I KOTO TOIV 6(pda\pa>v diafapovrtos eirl TrXeTo-rov yivopevov 
(TO voa-rjpa) pvpiovs oaovs av&pas dp.a yvvatgi Kal natal irrjpovs aTretpyafeTO : 
ibid. IX IO 15 irrjpov avTov dfpiijcriv. 

Chrys. Horn, vi in Eph. (on Eph. iii 2 : of St Paul s conversion) Kal TO 

7T77pCOO-ai TCp <pO)Tl fKflVCp TO) OTTOppr/TO). 

This Certain words or special usages of words are sometimes found in the 

meaning early literature of a language, and more particularly in its poetry, and are 

ON nnpncic AND rmpncic. 273 

then lost sight of only to reappear in its latest literature : meanwhile they as old as 
have lived on in the talk of the people. Urjpos would seem to have a history Homer. 
of this kind. For in Homer II. ii 599 we read of Thamyris, the minstrel 
who challenged the Muses: 

at 8e ;^oXa>crap,i/ai Tnjpov $e (rai>, avrap 

The simplest interpretation is that they made him blind, and further 
punished him by taking away the blind man s supreme solace. Aristarchus 
says that -tripos does not mean blind here; but his reason is not con 
vincing: because , he says, Demodocus was blind and yet sang very 
well . This shows at any rate that Aristarchus knew that irrjpos could 
mean blind : and indeed Euripides (quoted by Dr Leaf in loc.) so 
took it. 

We find then the following significations of nxopcoo-is 1 : Summary. 

(1) turning into TreSpos : 

(2) more generally, the process of petrifaction: 

(3) a concomitant of petrifaction, insensibility : 

(4) with no reference to hardness at all, insensibility of flesh (due to 
excessive fat) : 

(5) again with no reference to hardness, insensibility of the organs of 
sight, and so obscuration of the eyes. 

At this point the word has practically reached the same meaning as had 
been reached from quite another starting-point by Tn/poxrts. The two words 
are confounded in MSS, and perhaps were not always distinguished by 
authors at a still earlier period. 

In the New Testament obtuseness or intellectual blindness is the 
meaning indicated by the context ; and this meaning is as a rule assigned 
by the ancient translators and commentators. 

There seems to be no word in biblical English which quite corresponds Difficulty 
to TTtupoocris. The A.V. gives hardness in the Gospels, and * blindness in pf render- 
the Epistles. * Hardness has the advantage of recalling the primary ln & 
signification of the word. But this advantage is outweighed by the intro- English : 
duction of a confusion with a wholly different series of words, viz. <j-K\rjpv- 
vew, o-icXrjpoTTjs, ovcX^poxapSia. These words convey the idea of stiffness, 
stubbornness, unyieldingness, obduracy; whereas Trcopcoo-ty is numbness, 
dullness or deadness of faculty. In a-<\T]poKap8ia the heart is regarded 
as the seat of the will : in Trwpaxris rfjs Kapdias it is regarded as the seat 
of the intellect. We feel the difference at once if we contrast the passages 
in which the heart of the disciples is said to be TreTrcopa/xei^ (Mark vi 
52, viii 17) with the words in [Mark] xvi 14, coveidto-cv T^V airurriav avrmv 
Kal (TK\r)poKapdiav, OTL rots Qfacrapevois avrov e< vficp&v OVK 

fTria-revo-av a stubborn refusal to accept the evidence of eye-witnesses^. 
So in Rom. ii 5 obstinacy is denoted by o-KX^por^y : Kara de TT\V a-K\rjp6- 

1 I omit from this summary the irtopw/x^T;, on the other hand, is nearer 
technical usages of the medical writers to that of dvfrrjTot Kal ppaSeis TTJ 
referred to above. roO irirr^tv K.T.\. in Luke xxiv 25. 

2 The idea conveyed by Kapdia Tre- 




is mis 
leading : 

ness gives 
the sense, 

but varies 
the meta 

must not 
be lightly 

, (rov Kai dfJ,rav6r)Tov napblav 6rj(ravpi^is o~eavr<p opyrjV I compare Acts 

XiX 9 COS Se TIVS (TK\T)pVVOVTO KOI qTTfiflow 1 . 

If hardness does not always suggest to an English ear unbendingness 
or obstinacy, its other meaning of unfeelingness or cruelty (for we com 
monly regard the heart as the seat of the emotions 2 ) is equally removed 
from the sense of Trcopcoo-ts. 

For these reasons * hardness cannot, I think, be regarded as other than 
a misleading rendering of irwpa>(ns : and hardening (R.V.) is open to the 
further objection that it lays a quite unnecessary stress on the process, 
whereas the result is really in question. 

Blindness of heart comes nearer to the meaning than hardness of 
heart ; and their minds were blinded is far more intelligible in its 
context than their minds were hardened . The objection to it is that 
it introduces an alien metaphor. Deadness , however, is open to a like 
objection; and dullness is too weak. Numbness and benumbed are 
not for us biblical words, nor would they quite suit some of the contexts, 
but they might be useful marginal alternatives. On the whole, therefore, 
it would seem best to adopt blindness and blinded as being the least 
misleading renderings : and in John xii 40 to say, He hath blinded their 
eyes and darkened their hearts . 

The length of this discussion may perhaps be justified by a reference 
to the unproved statements which are found in Grimm s Lexicon (ed. 
Thayer), such as 7ro>poo> . . . (vrcopos, hard skin, a hardening, induration) 
to cover with a thick skin, to harden by covering with a callus , irn- 
paxris rffs KapSias [hardening of heart], of stubbornness, obduracy . The 
note in Sanday and Headlam, Romans, p. 314, is more careful, but yet 
contains the explanation that a covering has grown over the heart , and 
throws doubt on the usage of irrjpos to which I have called attention 
( perhaps occasionally used of blindness ). My object has been to in 
vestigate a very rare word, the ancient interpretation of which appears to 
me to have been too lightly thrown aside. 

1 It is interesting to note in our to irupwais rrjs Kapdias. 

Litany the petitions for deliverance 

(1) from all blindness of heart , 

(2) from hardness of heart, and con 
tempt of thy word and command 
ment : the latter is shewn by the 
context to represent <rK\-r)poicap8[a, 
while the former doubtless corresponds 

2 Compare Burns s lines in his 
Epistle to a Young Friend : 
I waive the quantum of the sin, 

The hazard of concealin : 
But och, it hardens a within, 

And petrifies the feelin . 


On some current epistolary phrases. 

During the last ten years immense accessions have been made to our Recent 
knowledge of the life and language of the Greek-speaking inhabitants of 
Egypt in the centuries immediately preceding and following the Christian 
era. The publication of the Berlin series of papyri began in 1895 and has 
been steadily continued ever since 1 . Simultaneously scholars in our own 
country and elsewhere have been busy in discovery and transcription. No Private 
part of this rich material has a greater human interest than the private correspon- 
letters which passed between master and servant, parent and child, friend 
and friend, in those far off days. The dry soil of Egypt has preserved them 
from the fate which everywhere else overtakes correspondence intended to 
serve but a momentary purpose and wholly destitute of literary merit. To important 
the historian who desires to give a picture of the life of a people these *. tlie . 
simple documents are of unparalleled interest. To the palaeographer they 
offer specimens of handwriting, often precisely dated and generally assign- 
able with certainty to a limited period, which bid fair to effect a revolution 
in his study. To the student of the New Testament they open a new store- and the 
house of illustrative material : they shew him to what an extent the writers 
of the Epistles stood half-way between the literary and non-literary styles 
of their day; and, together with the mass of similar documents leases, 
receipts, wills, petitions, and so forth which the great papyrus-finds have 
placed at our disposal, they form an unexpected and most welcome source 
from which he may draw illustrations of the biblical vocabulary 2 . 

I have called attention in the exposition (pp. 37 f.) to a phrase which The illus- 
frequently occurs in St Paul s letters and which receives illustration from trati o n of 
this epistolary correspondence; and, although the Epistle to the Ephesians p ^ r a se s 
from its exceptionally impersonal character offers few points of contact f r0 m 
with the documents in question, I take this opportunity to draw together papyrus 
some interesting phrases which they offer to us, in the hope that other letters - 
workers may be induced to labour more systematically in a new and 
fruitful field. 

1 Aegyptische Urkunden aus den Grenfell and A. S. Hunt (1898-9); 

Icdniglichen Museen zu Berlin, Grie- Fayum towns and their Papyri, edited 

chische Urkunden (three volumes) : by Grenfell, Hunt and D. G. Hogarth 

transcribed by Wilcken, Krebs, Viereck, (1900). 

etc. These are cited below as B.P. (= 2 Professor G. Adolf Deissmann led 

Berlin Papyri). The other collections the way in his Bibelstudien (1895) and 

principally drawn upon are: Greek Neue Bibehtudien (1897): but new 

Papyri chiefly Ptolemaic, edited by material is being rapidly added to the 

B. P. Grenfell (1896) ; The Oxyrhynchus stores upon which he drew. 
Papyri (two volumes), edited by B. P. 

1 8 2 



i. Apion 
to Epi- 

I shall begin by giving one or two specimens of letters, more or less 
complete; and I shall then confine my attention to particular phrases. 

A well 



2. Antoni- 
us Maxi- 
mus to 

The same 

3. Tasu- 
charion to 

<5 TTttTpl KO.L KVpl(p 

lipo p.ev TrdvTwv fv^opai ere vyiaiveiv KOI Sia iravros epvpevov 
a TTJS ddeXcprjs fJ.ov Kal rfjs Qvyarpos avTfjs /cat roG ddeXcpov pov. ev^apttrrco 
TO) Kvpico SepaTTtSi on pov KivdvvcvaavTos els 6d\acr<rav eVaxre. fvfleas ore 
(lo~rjX6ov fls Mrjar^vovs, e Xa/3a fiidriKov Trapa Kaicrapos xpvo-oGs rpeis 1 , Kal KaXu>s 
Hoi ecTTLV. epcorai o-e ovv, Kvpif pov rrar^p, ypd^rov p.oi eTrtoroXtoi/, irpatrov p.fv 
Trepl TTJS craTTjptas crov, devTepov Trept rrjs ra>v adfXcptoi/ pov, rpirov Iva (rov 
TrpoaKvvijo-o) TTJV X*P av ) rt M 6 eVa/Sfucras KaXtSy, Kal e/c TOVTOV \Tria> Ta%v 
TTpoKo\l/ai rwv 6eu>v 0\6vT(t)V. acnraa ai KaTTtVcofa TroXXa Kal TOVS d8e\(povs pov 
Kal SepT/z/tXXav Kal TOVS (piXovs pov. eVe/z^a o-oi ro oSoviv p.ov 
ecrrt Se /zou oi/o/ia Airooj/is Ma^i/xoy. eppaxrBaL o~ ev^o/xai. 

Kfirvpia Affrpovuaj. 

There is a postscript written sideways to the left : Ao-Trdgerai at 
6 TOV Ayaflov Aaifj.ovos...Kal Tovp/3coi/ o rov FaXXcovtou Kal.... 

This is a letter to his father from a young soldier who has had a rough 
passage 1 . It was written in the second century A.D., and is exceptionally 
free from mistakes of grammar and spelling. The boy has had a good 
education and is duly grateful to his father. He seems to have taken a 
new name on entering upon military service. Avr&vis is an abbreviation 
for Ai/romos, as oBovw is for 666viov. I have read 7rpoKo\/mi 2 in place of 
Viereck s 7rpoKo(/ui)o-at : the papyrus has TrpoKoa-ai (probably intended for 
7rpoKO7ro"ai). Compare Gal. i 14 TrpoeKoirrov ev Tw lovdaio~pa> inrep TroXXous 
o-vi^XtKicoraff eV ra) yevei p,ov: Luke ii 5 2 l^o-oCs 7rpoeKO7rrei> rfj o~o<pia Kal 
7/XiKi a. "ETrep-^a is the epistolary aorist; I am sending . 

AVTCOVIOS M.difj.os Saftivr) rrj aSeXcp^ TrXeiOTa ^aipeiv. 

Hpb [lev TrdvTtoV v\ o~ vyiaivetv, Kal y y<a yap avTos vyiaiva, p,viav 
(rov Troiov/j-evos irapa rois eV$ae fools 3 . K.op.icrd[j,r)v ev 7rio~ro\iov Trapa 
Avravfivov TOV o-vv7ro\LTOv qptov Kal eniyvovs o~ fppfopevijv \iav 



TroXXa Kal Konprjv TOV Kvpiv pov. dcr7raerai <re rj 

o~vfj,^ios /xov Av(pidta 

This is written by the same hand as the preceding 4 . The soldier boy 
writes his new name. He has apparently married and settled down. 

Tao-ou^apt to Nei Xw ra> a8eX0< TroXXa ^a/peii/. 

IIpo p,V TrdvTcov o~ai vyiaiveiv, Kal ro 7rpoo~Kvi^rjp.a o~ov TTOHO Trapa 
ra> KVpito 2apa7Ti6i. yivaxTK* on Se SeoKa ETroXe/uaiov KaXa/xeo-ira do-7raXtcr^ara 
TTJS oiKtas fls TO ArjurjTp iov. fv ovv 7701770-77? ypafyov poi Trcpl TTJS otKtas ori 
TI errpa^ay. KOI roi dpa^Scova rou ^aparritovos r 7rapaK\os o"e &a>Ka airo>. KOI 
ypd\l/ov fzot Trepl TTJS a7raypa(pr)S. fl Trotet? TTJV diroypafprjv e /no ...... KaXoJff Troteis 

1 B. P. 423. I have omitted the 
brackets by which the Berlin editors 
indicate letters supplied where the 
papyrus is illegible, and I have slightly 
varied the punctuation. 

2 I have since found that Deissmann 
has also suggested this reading. 

3 Krebs begins the new sentence with 
fju>la.v and puts no stop after 0eo?s. 

* jB. P. 632. 


/iot evbaxiov, elva atrot/idcro> KOI dva.Tr\v<T(o npos <re. Kai irepi 
ra>v eriraptW, fir) 7ra>Xet aura. a<T7rab/ucu TTJV ddf\<p^v pov Taovvco<f>piv /cat TTJV 
OvyaTcpa BeXXaiou. dcr7rderat trot AiSv/zoy KOI HXto&opo?. dcnra^Tai vpas 
IlroXe/j.alos /cat Ti/Sepivos 1 KOI ^apanlwv. d(nraofjLai 2apa7ria)i> l/x,ov$ov /ecu ra 
avrov, KOI 2oo/za /cat ra reuva OVTOV /cat 77 yvvrj, /cat </ Hpa>i /cat Ta/Sovff /cat 
d<77rderat i5/nas Saropi/etXoy. e ppcotr^at <re ev^o/zat. d(T77derai /cat ra rexi/a avr^s. EXei^y ao Tra^erai 717^ prjTepav p.ov rroXXa 
/cat rou? aSeXcpous. acrTra^erat t5/nas Xaipijfia>v...vos. 

This is a second century letter from the Fayftm 1 . Tasucharion makes A less 
mistakes in spelling and accidence. She has a large circle of friends, correct 
I cannot explain /caXa/zeo-tra. ao-TraXiV/Mara : darcpaXurpa is a pledge or * 
security; comp. Trapao-^aXiV/AaTa in B.P. 246, 14. EEapa/cXoy would appear 
to Stand for TrapaKaXcS tre. 

s A.pp.<0vovs TO) yXvKvraro) ?rarpt ^aipetv. 4. Arnmo- 

Kouio-a/xei/os trov ro cVto-ToXtoi/ /cat emyvovo-a on Qe&v fleXovrw Sieo-coQiis, P ou ? ? 
TTj v > - JL % ( * , / - N / her father. 

cx^prjv TroXXa- KOI avrrjs (opas a(popfj,rjv evpa>v eypaya trot ravoura ra -ypa/x/zara 

(TTrovSa^ovcra Trpo&Kvvfjcre (rat. raxvrepov ra fTriyovra epya (frpovrigeTe. eav ij 
fiiKpa TI 17717, eorre. eai/ (rot cW/ci; /caXa^ti/ o Aco^t^d/zevos trot ro eVto-roXetoi/, 
7re /i776). amra^ovre ere 01 erot 77ai/raff /car OI/O/AO. a(T77a^ere tre Ke Xep Kal 01 
aurov iravras. eppuxrdf. (roi ev^o/wii. 

Another second century papyrus from the Fayum 2 . The false concords An un- 
are surprising : Ko/zio-a/nei/os, eVtyvoCo-a, eupwi/, cnrouSd^ovo-a. EiriyovTa and educated 
eW/cj; stand for eireiyovra and cvcyKg : irdvras in each case is for Trai^res. wrlter> 
The phrase aim?? wpas- (conip. aur^y copa in another letter on the same 
papyrus) is found in Clem. Horn, xx 16 : comp. Evang. Petri 5, where it 
must be read for euro? topay. Eai/ 77 /u-t/cpd rt etV^, ecrrat, whatever she asks 
shall be done/ 

Qea>v TvpaWcp roi rip.ta)rdra> 7rXet(rra ^aipeti/. 5. Theon 

HpaK\fi8rjs 6 dirodtdovs voi TTJV eTncnroXrjv eVrtV p,ov d5eX0d 

tre /iera Trdo-^y Sum/xetos e^etv avroi/ crw*<mft*vov. rjpaTrjo-a de KOL "Epfjuav 

TOV dbe\<pbv Sta ypairrov dvr)yfl<r6al aot ?7epi rovrou. ^aptetrat Se /tot ra 
e dj/ trov r^y itrurrnuurias *VXD* ^P^ ^^ Trdi^reov vyiaivciv <re eu^o/tzat 
ra apicrra TrpaTrcav. eppaxro. 

This is a brief letter of introduction, written in the year 25 A.D. 3 A letter 
Among the many interesting expressions contained in these few lines we <? f intro- 
may particularly note the phrase ex fLV wrov (ruvea-Tapcvov, Uterally have l 
him recommended to you, which finds a parallel in the e^e /ue Traprjrrjfjievov 
of Luke xiv 18, 19. 

I. Coming now to details, we begin with the opening formulae. I. Opening 

i. Xat pe>, TroXXa ^aipeti/ and 7rXeI(rra \aipcu> are all common. In the 
New Testament we find x ai P flv in James i i : also in two letters in the 1 c 
Acts (xv 23 and xxiii 26). In the Old Testament it occurs in letters 
inserted by the Greek translators in i Esdr. vi 7, viii 9, and Esther via 13 
(xvi i). It is found many times in the Books of Maccabees, where also we 
have 77oXXa X ai P flv y 2 Macc - " *9- The Igaatian Epistles give us as a rule 

1 B. P. 601. a B. P. 615. 3 Ox. P. 292. 



various additions. St Paul has a modification of the 
usual Hebrew formula : see the note on Eph. i i . 

Another introductory form occasionally occurs, in which the imperative 
is used. Thus in B.P. 435 we have: Xatpe, OvaXepiave, Trapa rou cl8eA(po: 
and in B.P. 821 : Xaipe, Kvpie pov irdrep Hpduricos ere da-Tra^o/zai 1 . Compare 
with these Origen s letter to Gregory, preserved in the Philocalia (c. xiii), 
Xaipe ev $ea>, Kvpie (JLOV (nrovdaiOTOTe KOL aidecrtp,a>rare vie Fp^-yopte, Trapa 
Qptyevovs : and Ep. Barn. I Xaipere, viol KOL dVyarepes, ev ovofiari Kvpiov rov 

The typi 
cal form. 

2. Opening 2. Three of the letters which we have given above begin after the 
sentence, address with the words Trpo pev iravrav evxopai (re vyiaiveiv. With this we 
may compare 3 John 2 dyarrrjTe, Trepi irdvTcw euxopu ere euoe>oi)cr$ai /cat 
vyiaiveiv, Ka0a>s evobovTaL o~ov 17 ^x 7 ?- Although no variant is recorded, it is 
difficult at first to resist the suspicion that Trpo Trdvrav was what the writer 
intended to say 3 : but on further examination of the passage it would seem 
that Trepi Trdvruv is required to give the proper balance to the clause 
introduced by Ka6a>s. We have here at any rate an example of the 
appropriation of a well-known formula, with a particular modification of 
it in a spiritual direction. 

The commonest formula of this kind in the second and third centuries A.D. 
runs as follows : 

IIpo (fiev) irdvrcov ev^op^ai ere vyiaiveiv^ (KOI) TO irpoa K. vvrj^d crov TTOICO (/ca$ 
e/cdcrr?7z> i^ie pai/) Trapa TO) Kvpia Sapcwri&i: B.P. 333, 384, 6oi, 625, 714, 775, 
843 ; and, with the addition of p,era ra>i> <ra>v iravrow after vyiouviy, 276 ; 
with the addition of /cat TOLS crvvvaois Beots\ 385, 845. The first clause 
stands alone in 602, 815 ; and, with p,era TVV a-vv Travro)i/, in 814. 

Other variations are: Trpo TTUVTOS e^xo/iai ere vyiaiveiv, /c.r.X. in 3^; /cat 
dia Trai^ro)[i ] ev^o/Adl crat vyeiaiveiv, /c.r.X. 5 in 846: Trpo T>V o\cov e ppcocrc^at ere 
ev^ofiai p,era T>V crav TrdvTatv /cat dia travros o~e evTv^e iv in 164. 

A different formula occurs in 811 (between 98 and I03A.D.), npo> /zeV 
Trdvrav dvayKalov di e7Tio~To\fjs ere dcnracrecrc^at /cat ra a/Sacr/cacra c>oGvai : and 
in 824 (dated 55/56 A.D. by Zeretele), Trpo pev irdvT<av di/ay/caiW ^yrjo-dp.^ 
uict eTricrToA^s ere acr7rao"acraat. 

have letters from Theoctistus to the 
same Apollonius (apparently) : but in 
each the instructions begin imme 
diately after the word ^a/pew. This is 
the case also in B. P. 48 written to 
Apollonius by Cylindrus and addressed 
on the verso ATroXXomy Geo/cnVrou : 
comp. letters written to him by 
Chaeremon B. P. 248, 249, 531. It is 
probable therefore that Schubart is not 
justified in offering the supplement 

tive forms. 

1 Add to these Fayum Pap. 129, 
Xcupe, utipie rt/ut6rare : Ox. P. na, 
Xa^poiS, KvpLa ftov ^eprjvia [ . . ] irapa 

2 Probably not independent of this 
is the opening of the so-called Apos 
tolic Church Order (the ETriro/t^ 
opuv) : Xa^pere, viol Kal Bvyar^pes, iv 
6v6fia.Ti Kvptov I-rjffov Xptorou. 

3 It is however to be noted that 
in B. P. 885 Schubart restores the 
text thus : GeWrto-rfos 

rf ^tXrctry xa/petj/.] Ilepi 
flxf j - a t <re vyudveiv.] 
This is a papyrus of cent, n from the 
Fayum. Now in nos. 884, 886 we 

4 In B. P. 82 7 we have T 

ffov TrapA T$ Al T$ Kacrfy : comp. 38 
irapa iraffi TOIS 6eoi$. 

5 Perhaps cui 7rai/r6s was intended. 


It is curious to find the phrase -n-po pev iravrw at the end of a letter 1 , 
as we do in Ox. P. 294: Trpo pep TTCLVTCW <ravrov eiripeXov *v vyiaivys. 
eTricrKcoTroi} 2 ArjfjirjTpovv /cat Au>pi.u>va TOV Trarepa. eppaxro. This letter is 
dated 22 A.D. Similarly in Ox. P. 292 (A.D. 25) quoted above, npb Se 
irdvrutv vyiaiveiv (re d/SaovcoWcos TO. aprra irpaTTcov. eppoxro. 

As we go back to an earlier period we find a difference in formula. An earlier 
Thus Grenfell gives us a letter of the second century B.C. from the Thebaid tv P e - 
which opens thus : [ei] eppcocrat e ppa>p>e$a 6"e KOI avroi Kai /cat A<ppo5t<ria /cat 
T) dvydrrjp KOI rj TraifiiV/c^ Kai rj Bvydrrjp avTr/s (Greek Papyri 43)- -^- Papyrus 

of the Ptolemaic period published by Mahaffy has, x<*P ls Tots & ~ ts voXXri el 
vyiaiveis- vyiaivft de Kai AOVIKOS: and another, KaXws TTOICIS fl vyiaiveis 
vyiaiw KOI avros. I assume that another which he cites as deciphered by 
Mr Sayce is of the same date : here we read, xaXcas n-otels el eppwo-ai KOI TO. 
XotTrd a-oi Kara yv(op.r]v ea-riv eppapeGa de KOI facts (Flinders Petrie Papyri, 
Cunningham Memoirs of Roy. Irish Acad. viii pp. 7880). So in a letter 
cited by Deissmann (Bibelstudien pp. 209, 210) from Land. Pap. 42, dated 
July 24, 1 72 B.C. : fl epptofjLevfp raXXa Kara \6yov anavrq, eirjv av a>s roly 6eol$ 
evxop-fvr] SiareXcS. /cat avrr) d* vyiaivov KOI TO Traidiov Kai oi ev OIKG* Trdvrcs, 
crov dunravros pveiav 

3. This last formula, pvfiav Troielo-Qcu, is of special interest, inasmuch as 3- Making 
it occurs several times in St Paul s epistles. I have already cited an mentlon 
example of its use in a letter of the second century A.D., written by an 
educated hand (B. P. 632). The passages in St Paul are as follows : 

I Thess. i 2 Ev^apio-roO/xej/ ra> Bern mnTore Trepl Trdvrcov vp&v pveiav I Thess. 
Troiovpevoi eVi T&v TTpofffv^av T)p.o)i> aSiaXeiTrrcoy p,vr)p.ovfi>ovTs w/icoi/ TOV epyov 1 2 * 
TTJS Tr/oTeco? Kat TOV KOTTOV Trjs a.ya.7T7)s KOL TTJS V7rofj.ovrjs TTJS eXnidos TOV Kvpiov 
ij/ioii/ IT/O-OV XptaroG efjurpoo-Qev TOV 6eov KOI Trarpos qpuv, eidorey, K.T.X. 

Lightfoot in commenting on this passage 3 (Notes on Epistles of St 
Paul, pp. gf.) decides to punctuate after aSiaXewmos: Westcott and Hort 
punctuate before it. Another uncertainty is the construction of e/owrpoo-tfei/ 
TOV faov K.r.X., which Lightfoot joins with the words immediately preceding 
and not with p.vrj[j.ovvovTs. It would seem that St Paul first used a phrase 
which was familiar in epistolary correspondence, and that then out of 
fiveiav Troiovpevoi, in its ordinary sense of making mention in prayer, grew 
the fuller clause pvr]fj.ovevovTes...ep.7rpoa-dev TOV 6eov, whether this means 
remembering your work, etc., or remembering before God your work/ etc., 
in the sense of making it the subject of direct intercession or thanksgiving. 

Rom. i 9f. Mdprus yap poi eo-Ttv 6 aStaXewmos pveiav vp.wv Rom. i 9 f. 
TTOioO/zat iravroTC eVi Te3i> irpo(TfV)(u>v p,ov dfopevos c i iro>s ydr) Trore vo8<o6r]o-ofji,at, 
fv rai 6e\rma.Ti TOV 6eov eXdew irpbs v^as. 

Here again the punctuation is uncertain. Lightfoot places the stop 
after Troiovpai, Westcott and Hort after /zov. We may note the addition of 
v/xcSi/ after pvciav (comp. pveiav <rov in Philem. 4) : it is added in the inferior 
texts of i Thess. i 2 and Eph. i 16. 

1 Comp. James v 12 irpb TTO.VTWV oe, 3 To the few illustrations of etfxa/H- 
dde\<t>ol pov, /ij) 6/j.vijeTe. ffTeiv collected by Lightfoot may now 

2 Comp. Ox. P. 293 (A.D. 27), tin- be added many others from the papyri: 
CKOITOV St vfias Kai travras roi>s iv o?/cy. e.g. B.P. 423 (cited above). 


Philem.4f. Philem. 4f. Ei ^apio-ro) r<5 $e<? pov iravrore pveiav crov Troiovnevos ejrl TcoV 
ir poa-fvx&v povj aKoiKov o~ov rr)v dyd7rr)v...oir(as r} Koivwia TTJS Tnorecoff <rov 
evepyrjs yfvrjTai, K.r.X. 

As Lightfoot points out, the mention here involves the idea of 
intercession on behalf of Philemon, and so introduces the onus K.rA. 

Eph. i 1 6. Eph. i 1 6 Ov Travo/nat fvxapi<rr<ov virep vfj.a>v fjiveiav Troiovpevos firl TV 

Trpo(Tfv\a>v p.ov, iva o 6cds K.T.X. 

Phil, i 3. In Phil, i 3 the same phrase is in the Apostle s mind, but he varies his 
expression : Ev^apioTto TCO 0eco p.ov eiri 770077 rfj /zz/eta vpiov TTCIVTOTC ev irdcrrj 
Severe i pov inrep Travrav vpav /zera ^apas rr)v derja-iv iroiovpevos /c.r.X. 

2 Tim. 13. In 2 Tim. i 3 the variation of phraseology is very noteworthy : Xapiv 
e^o> TO) ^ew, a) \arpeva> diro irpoyovow eV KaBapa o^veiS^cret, cos dSiaXeiVrcoff 
e^a> rfjv TTfpl <rov pveiav ev rais 8er)(rea-iv /u,ou, VVKTOS KOI ^pepas eirnroQav erf 
iSetv, fiefjivrj/jievos aov TWV da<pv(ov t K.T.\. The word /zi/eta meets US but Once 
more in the New Testament 1 : i Thess. iii 6 cm e^ere pveiav rjfj,a>v dya6^v 
TravroTf eirnrodovvTfs ijfj-as I8elv, KaOdirep KOI qp.els vp-as. 

Prayer of As no clear example appears to have been cited hitherto for the use of 

Tantalus. ^ ve Lav iroifio-flai in reference to prayer, it may be interesting to quote the 
account of the prayer of Tantalus preserved in Athenaeus vii 14 (p. 281 6) : 
C Q yovv TTJV TO>V Arpei&coV iroiijcras Kddodov d<piKOfj,evov avrov \eyci irpos TOVS 
deovs Kal a-vvSiaTpifiovra cov(rias rv^eTv irapa rov Aios alTr/craa-flai OTOV 
eVt^v/ueT TOV 5e, Trpbs rds drroXavfreis dirXrjo-Tcos SiaKeifjLevov, virep avrtoV re 
TOVTCOV fj,vfiav 7roirj(ra<r6<u Kal TOV gqv TOV avTov Tpoirov TOIS Qeols e ols 
dyavaKT^cravra TOV Aia TOV pev ev^r/v aTroreXecrat dia TTJV V7r6o~%eo-iv, K.r.X. 

II. Closing II. We pass now from the opening of the letter to its close. 

Saluta- I * ^^ e mos ^ striking parallel with the Pauline epistles is found in the 
tions. exchange of salutations. There are three formulae: (i) ao-Tra^o^at, I greet 
A. ; (2) ao-Trao-ai, I ask you to greet A. on my behalf ; (3) aWaVrcu, *B. 
sends a greeting to A. through me . 

Of the first we have but a single example in the New Testament, and 
this does not proceed from the author of the epistle, but from his 
amanuensis. In Rom. xvi 21 in the midst of a series of salutations, of 
which sixteen are introduced by amdo-ao-tie and four by ao-7raerai 
(-owai), we read: AoTra^b/zat eyco Teprto? 6 ypd-^ras Trjv irio-To\f)v eV 
Kvpi co. 

After the Epistle to the Romans the richest in salutations is the Epistle 
to the Colossians : CoL iv. IO ff. AoTrd^Vrai vpas AptWap^oy 6 crwcux/iaXcoros 
/zou, KOI Mapicos 6 dve^ios Bapvd/3a, (irepl ov e Xa/Sere eWoXds, edv e\6r) Trpos 
v/nas Se ^acr^e OVTOJ/,) /cat liytroDy 6 \fyofjLfvos > IoOoros...dcr7rd^ erai vp.ds 
o ^ vpav. . .dcrTrd^erat vfMS AOVKCIS 6 larpos 6 dycnrrjTos /cat Arjud 
TOVS ev AaoSt/cta d&\<povs KOI Nvpfpav KOI TTJV KOT olnov avTrjs 

Many parallels to this list might be offered from the papyri, but sufficient 
have been already given in the letters above cited. 

1 ~M.vrnj.rj is found only in 2 Pet. 115 variant rats /we&us for rats %peais in 

(TTrovScurw 5e Kal KQ.<TTOT ^x iv fy*a* Bom. xii 13, see Sanday and Headlam 

/iT<i Tr]v ^fj,r}v ^odov TTJV TOVTUV fwrt/uriv Romans, ad loc. 
7roiet<r0cu. For the curious Western 


2. The name of an individual is often followed by a phrase which i. The 
includes his household. Thus, B. P. 385 K al do-TmCopu rr)v p^pa fwv Kal 

TOVS do~\<povs poVj Kal Se/zTrptoj/ii Kal TOVS Trap* OVTOV . 5 2 3 &o~Trao~ai TT\V 
a-vvfiiov <rov Kal TOVS evoiKovs Trdvres 1 . The nearest parallel to this in the 
New Testament is the greeting sent to the household of Onesiphorus, 
apparently soon after his death, 2 Tim. iv 19: "Aa-iraa-ai UpLa-Kav KOI AicvXav 
Kal TOV y OvT)o-i<p6pov OIKOV (comp. i 16 ff.). It is possible that a further 
parallel is to be traced in the Pauline phrase, 77 /car* OIKOV avTrjs (avT&v, o-ov) 
KK\r)o-ia, which may be an expansion of the current phraseology, in the 
sense of those of their household who are believers : it has been perhaps 
too readily assumed that the meaning is the church that assembles in their 
house . 

3. Where several persons are included in a greeting, the phrase KO.T 3. By 
ovop.a frequently occurs. B. P. 261 do-Tra^erat o-e Hpols Kal ol iv OIKO> irdvres name - 
/car OVO/JLO. . 276 darra^b/Mai vpas Trdvres K.O.T ovo/za, <al Qpiyewys dcnra^erai 
Trdvres: 615 acnrdgovre <re ol o-ol iravras KOT ovo/j,a: 714 do-Trdovrcu. vpas TO, 
Tratdta iravras KO.T ovo/za, IlroXe/zaTo?, Tt/3epii/os, SapaTTicui I COmp. 449> ^^5> 

845, 923. 

An exact parallel is found in 3 John 1 5 da-irdovTal <rc ol (p/Aoi dcnra^oi; 
<pi\ovs <ar ovopa. But the phrase is not used by St Paul 

4. At the close of the Epistle to Titus we read : Ao-7rabi/r<u ere ol /zer 4. Friends. 
Trdvrcs ao-rrcurai TOVS (friXovvTas fj/zas eV Triarei. To this several 

interesting parallels may be offered : B.P. 625 do-Tra^o/zai rr\v dSeX<p??i/ /zov 
TroXXd, KOI TO. TCKVCI avTTJv /cat [....] Kal TOVS (piXovvras ijp-as TTOVTCS: 814 do~7rd- 

^ofjiai y A. jrodXXivdpiov Kal OvaXepiov Kal Tepivov [ ...... Kal TOJU? (f)i\ovvros 

ijpas Trdvrcs : comp. 332. Still more noteworthy are the following, from the 
letters of Gemellus (A.D. 100 no): Fay. Pap. 118 do-irdfrv TOVS (pt\ovvres 
o~e rravres Trpos d\r]6Lav . 119 do~7rdov ETraya^oi/ Kal TOVS (friXovvres jj/zay Trpos 

5. These letters almost always close with eppcocro (eppo>o-0e), or eppwo-tiat 5. Fare- 
o~e (upas) evxopai. This formula occurs but once in the New Testament, well. 
namely at the close of the apostolic letter in Acts xv 29, *Eppcocr0e. In 
Acts xxiii 30 "Eppoxro is a later addition. 

In the Pauline epistles the place of this formula is taken by his 
characteristic invocation of grace. Jude and 2 Peter end with a doxology : 
2 and 3 John break off after the salutations: i Peter closes with an 
invocation of peace : James and i John with final admonitions, introduced 
by ASeXcpoi p.ov and Tcwia respectively. 

III. We may go on to observe certain phrases which constantly occur TTT. Con- 
in the course of a letter, and which belong to the common stock of ordinary ventional 
letter-writers. phrases. 

i. Foremost among these is KaXtSy iroirjo-eis introducing a command or i. Of in- 

a request. Thus, B. P. 93 KoXeoy noi^o-fis diaire^as avTrj TTJV df\fj.aTiKrjv rjv ^ rec ^> re " 
335 (Byzantine) KaXc5? ovv noi^o-is irep^re ( = Tre /Ln^ai) /zot aura: 814 " ues 
, KOfU0-d/ze>os /xov TO eVioroXioj/, cl Treats /zot Sta/coona? fipa^/zd? 

ird.vTas are often interchanged. 



(the same phrase is repeated at the end of the letter). It occurs also in 
B. P. 348, 596 (A.D. 84), 829 (A.D. 100), 830, 844 Us (A.D. 83), 848. The 
construction with the participle is by far the most common. 

In a similar sense ev TTOIIJO-CLS is used: B. P. 248, 597 (A.D. 75), Ox. P. 
113, 294 (A.D. 22); but this is less common. 

We have an example of this formula in 3 John 6, ovs /caXwy 7701170-61? 
TrpoTrep^as aiW TOV c9eoC. The past tense occurs to express gratitude in 
Phil, iv I4> TrX^v AcaXco? eVotTjcrare o~vvKoiva>vrjo~avTes pov TTJ $Xi\^eU comp. Acts 
X 33 arv re KaXcos 7roir)(ras irapayevopevos. 

i. Of di- 2. A similar formula is Trapa/mXcS ere, of which it may suffice to quote 
rect re- ^ wo examples in which dio precedes : B. P. 164 810 irapaKa\S> ovv ere , (piXrare : 
Ox. P. 292 (c. A.D. 25) Sio Trapa/eaXeo ere /zero Trdoys &wei;xecos e^etv avrov 
o~uveo~TapVOV. In B. P. 814 we have similarly OVTOS e peoreo ere ow, 
/ LtJ 7 T7 7P) Treats Trpos e /^e K.r.X. : and in Ox. P. 294 (A.D. 22) e pcorco de ere Kal 

In 2 Cor. ii 8 we have: &o Trapa/taXcS v/xaj Kvpuxrai els avTov ayairriv*. 
comp. Acts xxvii 34 bib 7rapa/caXc5 v/iay /xeraXa/3etv rpocp^s. A glance at the 
concordance will shew how common is the phrase 7rapaaXa> ovv (Se) v^as in 
the epistles of the New Testament. Epwrai/ is also used, though less fre 
quently, in similar cases : e.g. 2 John 5 <al wv fpa>Ta> ere, Kvpia. Both verbs 
occur in Phil, iv 2 f. Evoftiav Trapa/coXeS /cat ^vvrv^rjv TrapaxaXco ro ai)ro 
(ppovelv cv Kvpicp. vat e pwra) Kal ere, yv^crte crvj/^vye, crvvXa/x/Sai/ov avrais, 
K.r.X. As in the papyri, we find sometimes the interjectional use of the 
phrase, and sometimes the construction with the infinitive. 

3. Intro- 3. Just as KaX&s Troirjo-fis and TrapaKaXcS ere are circumlocutions which 
ducing in- so ften the introduction of an order or help to urge a request 1 , so the way 
ma ion. . g p re p are( j f or a pj ece o f news by the prefixes yivuo-Kfiv tre 6eX<o or 
yivaio-Ke. The former is by far the more frequent. Its regular use is to open 
a letter, after the introductory greeting: B. P. 261 Teivtoa-Keiv ere #e Xo>, eyw 
Kal OuaXepia, e en/ Hpois TKTJ, ev^o/xec^a e\6elv Trpos ere (here it stands 
outside the construction) : 385 Tfivwo-Keiv ere $e Xa> on p,6vrj I pi eyd> : 602 
Tiv(oo~Kiv ere c^eXeo on. e Xi^Xvc^e irpos epe Sov^ay, Xeycoi/ on AyopacroV pov TO 
pepos TOV e Xecoi/os: 815 Tftvoo-Kiv ere c9e Xco, rr\v eViOToX^i/ erou e Xa/3a (again 
outside the construction). In 822 it is curiously disconnected : TIVMO-KIV ere 
tfe Xco, prj pe\r)o-aTCi> eroi Trept TCOV erirt/ccoi/ evpoi/ yeop-yoi/, K.r.X. For further 
examples see B. P. 815, 816, 824, 827, 843, 844, 845, 846. 

On the other hand, yiva>o~K generally occurs in the body of the letter, 
though sometimes it comes at the beginning, as in B. P. 625 Tdvcoa-KCj 
aeX<pe , K\r)p<a6r)v fls TO. /SovKoXia : and in Ox. P. 295 (A.D. 35) TLVGMTKC on 
Se Xev/co? eXt^coi/ JSe Tre cpeu-ye. We find it in the Ptolemaic period in the two 
papyri published by Mahaffy (Cunningham Memoirs viii pp. 78, 80): 
yiWcnce 8e Kal on K.T.X., and (with a participle) ylvaa-Kf 8e pf ex oVTa 
K.T.\. For further examples see B. P. 164, 814 bis, 845, Fay. P. 117 bis 
(A.D. 108). 

To the former phrase we have a parallel in Phil. 112, which practically 
begins the letter, though a long thanksgiving precedes it: rWeneew/ 5e vpas 

1 In Modern Greek <ras Trapa/caXw corresponds to our word please . 


ddeX</>o/, on ra /car cpl /c.r.X. We may also compare Rom. i 13 
ov 6f\<o 8e vpas dyvoelvj deX(poi, on 7roXXa/ct? irpofQefjiTjv e\6elv irpos upas, 
K.T.X.: this expression is a favourite with St Paul, and it opens, after a 
doxology, his second letter to the Corinthians (i 8); comp. also 0eXo> Se 

(yap) vpas eidevai in I Cor. xi 3, Col. 11 I. 

The latter phrase is well represented in Heb. xiii 23 TIVCOO-KCTC TOV 
d8e\<f)ov r^jiatv Ti/zo#eoi> diro\\vfMvov. Other examples might be given, 
but they are of a didactic character and not statements of ordinary 

4. Satisfaction finds expression in the terms cx ( *P r ) v an( i ^ av ^Pf" : 4- Ex- 
as in B. P. 332 e xapT;!/ Kopto-a[j.evr] ypdp,/j.ara on Ka\u>s Sieo-oo^Te : 632 (given pressing 
above) <al e-myvovs (re cppcofjLevrjv \iav fx^v. We may also compare a ^ o ^ 8 a 
fragment of a letter (2nd cent. B.C.) quoted by Deissmann (Eibelstudien 
p. 212), Lond. P. 43 : Trvvdavop.VT) fjuivdaveiv (re Alyvima ypd/njuara 
croi KOI ep-avrfj on K.T.X. 

In Phil iv 10 we read: E^ap^i/ de lv Kupi w /AcyaXco? on 
ave^aXere TO wep epov cppovelv. And we have the strengthened phrase in 
2 John 4 E^apr/v \iav on evprjica e< r>v Teicvav aov irepiTraTovvTav Iv aX^eta, 
and in 3 John 3 E^opi/p "yap Xtai/ ep^o/xei/toi/ d$\(pav Kal iiaprvpovvrcw a~ov 

5. Another form of expressing satisfaction is the use of the phrase 5. Ex- 

rols Qeols or the like. Thus in B.P. 843 we have, rti/oWeti/ o-e ^eXco pressing 
on X^P LS T0 * s faoi* iKaprjv els AXe^ai/Spiav : Fay. P. 1 24 dXXa rols Oeois f<rrlv En 
^apiff on ovdcpia earlv npoXrj^is fjiiciv yeyevTjpevr). A letter of the 
Ptolemaic period (Cunningham Mem. viii p. 78) begins : x^P ls ro ~ is & ~ iS 
TroXX?) et vytaivcis. In Ox. P. 113 we have: x^P lv fX w faots iracriv yiv<a<rKa>v 
on ic.r.X. 

Xdpt? TW ^e<5 is frequent in St Paul s letters : xdpiv e^to TW 0ee3 is found 
only in 2 Tim. i 3 ; comp. i Tim. 112 \apw e^o> Tfp Mhtrnfj^ravrt /ze Xpto-ro) 

IY. In conclusion, a few phrases may be noted, which, though not IV. Va- 
specially connected with the epistolary style of writing, are of interest as rious N - 
illustrating the language of the New Testament. 

1. Ta KO.T e>. Ox. P. 120 (4th century) a^pts av yv& ira>s TO. KO.T i. Ta KOLT 
at/zai dTTOTiOaiTai, et infra TO. Kara o-e &tolKij<rov as rrpeirov eWiV, fj.f) reXeov ^* 
dvarpair^nev : Grenf. P. (Ptolemaic) 15 TO. *aff faZs Siet-atyayflv]. 

Comp. Acts xxiv 22 dtayvaa-opai TO. xaff, Eph. VI 1 1 iva de eldr/Tf 

KOi Vp.els TO. KCLT* /i, Phil. 1 12 TO ICOT* t/LlC fW\\OV IS 7T pOK.OTTT)V TOV fVCtyyeXlOV 

eXi]\v6ev, Col. iv 7 TO KOT e/*e TTOVTO yi/copiVet vpZv Tu^t/cos. 

2. "Hdrj TTOTf. B. P. 164 dib 7rapaaX<5 ovv ere, (p/XTare, f)8r] trore jrelcrai 2. "HSy 
avrov TOV e\6elv : 417 aTraXXa^oi/ ovv (TtavTov dno iravros /zeTeaJpou, Iva rfdrj 

7TOT dfjiepipvos yevrj, KOI TO. e/ia p>eTea>pifita rjdrj TTOTC TVX^V o~xfl Ox. P. 237 
vii II (a petition) eVto-^ew/ Te avTov fjdr) iroT eireiovrd p.oi, irpoTepov fj.ev cos 
dvopov Karoxrjs XP tl/ ) vvv $e 7Tpo<pdo- vop.ov ovdev O.VT& 

1 On the technical terms /ter&jpos Grenfell and Hunt, Ox. P. iipp. iSoff., 
and KOTOX^ in these extracts see 142 . 


Comp. Rom. i IO fteofievos et Tra>s rfftr) iroTe voSo>^7yo"o/iai ev TO> 
TOV Beov e\6elv Trpbs vpas, Phil, iv IO exdpyv 8e ei/ Kupiw /ieydXws OTI ^$77 TTOTC 
aW$aXeTe TO virep ep.ov (ppovelv, e(f) a> KOI <ppovelTe jjKaipel(r6e fie. 

3. Zwa- 3. "Svvaipciv \6yov. B. P. 775 axprjs av ycvopc eid KO.I (ruvdpnfjifv \6yov : 

pew \6yov. Q Xt P. n^ on e Sco/ca? aurw fijjXoxroi ftot, iva {Twapto/ avrai Xoyoi/ : Fay. P. 

109 on (rvvfjpnat \6yov rw irarpi KOI \e\oaroy pa(prjK pe KOI 


Comp. Matt, xviii 23 dv6pu7ra> jSacriXei os rjdekrjcrev crvvapai \oyov /zera rav 
$ov\o)v avrov dpafj.evov be avrov crvvaipftv Trpoayxflr) els avr<5 o(pi\njs 
ToXavroiv, XXV 19 truvaipei \6yov /zer avr&v. 

4. Ko/z^cos e^etv. JPar. ^a^?. 1 8 KOfM^as e^co /cat TO fT;7rtov ftov Kal 
MeXay 1 . The same phrase is cited from Arrian Epict. diss. iii 10 13, orai/ 
o larpos ciirrj KO/A^COS e^ets (comp. ii 1 8 14). 

Comp. John iv 5 2 Arv^ero ovj/ T^J> capav Trap auTwv eV rj 

3STi;/cT6s 5. NVKTOS *cal rj^epas. B. P. 246 (2/3 cent. A.D.) OTI VVKTOS Kai 
ijfdpas. fjrrvyxavo) TW 6eq> vnep vp.a>v z . 

Comp. I Thess. iii IO WKTOS Kal ypepas VTrepeKTrepKrcrov fteopcvoi els TO 

Idelv vfjitov TO TrpocrtoTTov, I Tim. V 5 Trpotrfjievei TCUS 8er)(r(rw KOL 

WKTOS KOI Tjpepas, and many other passages. 

1 The letter is given by Deissmann, iji> oti diifaiov yap afrrriv \vTria-dat irepl 
Bibelst. p. 215, who has noted the otidevds TJKOVO-CL yap 8rt Xu?reirat. Comp. 
parallel. He however cites it thus: i Cor. xvi 10 ^d? 5 2X077 Tt/*60eos, 
Kal TOV LTTTTOV (sic) fj.ov. The emendation /3X^7rere iVa ci06/3cos yfrijTai Trpbs v/ms... 
is fairly obvious. pri rts ovv avrbv Qovdevfia-Q. In PhiL 

2 In the same letter we read : Kal ii 28 we have the word dXu7r6re/3os. 
irepl Ep/ut6 7;s ^teXT/adrw V/MV TTWS a\inros 


Note on Various Readings. 

The Greek text printed in this edition may be briefly described as in 
general representing the text of KB. Accordingly it is hardly to be dis- The pur- 
tinguished, except at a few points, from the texts printed by Tischendorf pose of 
(ed. viii) and by Westcott and Hort. The purpose of this note is to discuss this note> 
certain variants of special interest: but first it may be instructive to give 
the divergences of our text from B and K respectively, to observe the 
main peculiarities of the Graeco-Latin codices D 2 and G 3 , and to indicate 
the relation to one another of the various recensions of the Latin Version. 

i. The divergences from B, apart from matters of orthography, are as 
follows: i. Diver- 

i i [eV 5 E(peo-a>] ] om. B* : see the special note which follows. 
3 mi Tj-arTjp] om. B alone : see the commentary ad loc. 
5 y lr)<rov XptoToO] xv TV B : this deserves to be noted in connexion 

with the similar variant in i 1. 

13 ia^payLa-drfrt] eo-(ppayicr0r) B: but note that this word ends a line. 
1 5 dycnrrjv] om. B : see the special note. 

17 fop??] 5w B. 

1 8 v[jv] om. B. 

20 cirovpaviois] ovpavois B: supported by 71 213, some codices of the 

Sahidic, Hil 1100 Victorin. 

21 dpx^js Kal e^ov(rias~\ eovo~ias KO.I apx^s B alone. 

ii I rots 7rapa7TTa>iJiao-iv KOI rats] rots irapaTrT^p^unv icai Tacs em- 

$u/iiats B alone. 

5 rots iv] fv TOIS TrapaTrrco/iacrtz/ /cat rats 7Tt6vp,iats B alone: 
the substitution of eVrtdv/aW in v. i followed by its insertion in 
this verse is remarkable. 
o-we^cooTToij/o-ez/] + fv B : probably by dittography, but there is some 

considerable support for the insertion. 
13 TOV ^ptaroC] om. rov B alone. 

22 6eov] xv B alone, 
iii 3 ort] om. B. 

5 aTTotrroXoty] om. B Ambrst only. 

9 <pamo-ai] 4- navTas B : see the special note. 

19 7r\r]p(i>6r)T els irav\ TrXrjpwdrj irav B IJ 73 Il6. [17 adds eis vpas 

after TOV 6eov teste Tregelll\ 

iv 4 icatfcas /cat] Om. KO.I B. 

6 KO\ ev 7rao~iv] om. KOI B 32 Victorin. 

7 7fia>i/] VJJ.MV B. 

17 x<W] om - *1 ^5 with D 2 and other authorities; but it may have 

fallen out after tdodrj. 
9 KaTeftr)] + irpvTov B : see the special note. 


iv 1 6 OVTOV] eavrov, with considerable support. 

23 TO) 7ri>ev/uaTt] pr. ev B alone (except for the uncertain testimony of 

a version). 

24 v8v<ra<r6ai] fvdvcratrdf B*, with X and some others; but probably 

it is an itacism, 
32 yivea-Qe Se] om. 8c B, with considerable support : moreover D 2 *G 3 

read ow.] rjfj.iv B : see the special note, 
v 17 TOV Kvpiov] + r;/ia>i> B alone. 

19 ^a\p.ols~\ pr. ev B. 

7rvcvfj.aTiKals\ om. B. On this and the preceding variant see the 
special note. 

20 1770-01) Xpio-Tov] %y TV B alone. 

23 fCTTiv Kf(pa\.r)] Ke(pa\T] eoriv B. 

24 aXXa coy] om. cos B. 

31 TOV Trare pa /cat TT)I/ ^177 epa] Trarepa /ecu /nr;Tepa B, with D 2 *G 3 . 

32 if TT?!/ eKKXi/o iai ] Om. eiy B. 

vi i fv Kup/o)] om. B, with D 2 *G 3 . 

2 t<rnv\ om. B, with 46. 

7 ai/^po)7Tots] av6pa>7r<0 B, with slight support. 

10 tVSwa/ioGo-tfe] dvvafjLovartif B, with 17 and Origen, cat. in com 

12 rjfuv] vfj.iv B, with D 2 *G 3 etc. 
l6 ra 7r67rvpa)/ze j/a] om. ra B, with D 2 *G 3 . 

19 TOU fvayy\iov] om. B, with G 3 Victorin. 

20 eV ayroo] avro B alone. 

2. Diver- 2. The divergences from X are as follows : 

i i XpioroC l^o-ou*) iv ^v K : see the special note. 
[ev E<e o-&>] ] om. N*: see special note. 

3 rod Kvpiov jfj.av] TOV KV KCU o-arrjpos Tjfj.(ov N* alone, 
o euXo-yr/o-as jp-as] Om. T^/ia? N alone. 

7 ex /* 6 "] frx }**" x *> w ^ n G"3* and some support from versions, 

14 o forrii ] os <TTIV N, with D 2 etc. 
rrjs dogr)?] om. rr;s X, with 17 35. 

1 5 ayairr)v] om. X : see the special note. 

1 8 r^s Sogrfs rrjs K\r]povofj.Las] TTJS K\T]povofj.ias TTJS Sogrjg K alone. 
20 tvrjpyrjKfv] fvrjpyrjo-ev X, with most authorities against AB. 
ii 4 tv eXeet] om. ei/ N* alone. 

7 K* (alone) omits this verse through homoeoteleuton. 
10 auroG] &; N* alone. 

1 8 St* auroO] +ot apcporcpoi ev evi N* alone, per errorem, 8S avrov 
having ended the column and page. It would seem therefore 
that the length of the line in the archetype is represented by 
exoMeNTHNTTpoc&r<A>rnN, which was at first missed. 
2O avrov Xptorov l^o^ov] TOV ^v N*. 
iii i TOV XpioTov ITJO-OV] om. IT/O-OV N*, with D 2 *G 3 etc. 

9 fv TOO $e<] ra) ^oo N*. This was Marcion s reading (Tert. c. Marc. 
v is). 


iii 1 1 ev r<5 Xptoro) IT/O-OU] om. TG> K*, with D z etc. 
1 8 vif/os Kal ftados] ftaQos Kai v\^os K, with A etc. 
iv i cv Kvpicp] fv x^ tf, with aeth. 

8 teal edoxev] om. KOI K*, with many authorities. 

24 ev8v(ra<r6ai] evdvarao-Qe K, with B* and others. 

diKaicxrvvT] Kal oo-toTT/rt] oo-ioTT/rt KOI SiKaioa-vvr] fc<* alone : but 
Ambrst has in ueritate et iustitia. 

25 a\rj6fiav CKaa-ros] tuacrros a\rj0iav N* alone. 

/zero roO ir\r)<riov\ irpos rov ir\r)(riov N* alone : Lucifer has adproxi- 

28 xtp<r\v\ pr ibtais N*, with AD 2 G 3 etc. : see the special note. 

exn] exn Tai x * alone: comp. Clem 371 Iva fxn T - 
v 2 v/xwv] Ty^io)!/ N : see the special note. 

irpoafyopav Kal dvcriav] Ovcriav Kai irpoo-tyopav N alone. 

4 Kal p,a>po\oyia] rj fjinpoKoyia N*, with AD 2 *G 3 etc. 
6 dia ravTa yap] om. yap X* alone. 

17 0eA?7/ia] <ppovrjp.a N* alone. 

20 TO Kvpiov faun ] om. ijfj.a)v X alone. 

22 cu yui/aifces] + VTrorao-o-eo-^coo-af t< : see the special note. 

23 avros artarrip] avros o croTrjp N*, with A I/ etc. 

27 avros eaura>] auro? aura) X* alone. 

TI n TWV TotovTO)v\ om. r\ n X* alone. 

28 6<pftXovcriv Kal ol avdpfs] om. /cat K etc. 
0-ayiara] re/ci/a K* alone. 

29 rrjv eavTOi) o-apAca] rrjv aapKa avrov N* alone. 

31 Trpof rrjv ywalKa avroO] 717 ywaiKi N*: see the special note. 
vi 3 tm y5s] bis scriptum N* alone. 

5 aTrXor^n TTJS Kapftias] om. T^y N etc. 

8 ort eKacrros edv n TTOI^O-T;] ort eai/ TTOITJO-T] fKaorros X alone. 

9 /col aurajj/] xat eavrwi/ N* alone : see the special note. 
ovpavois] ovpava) K, with some others. 

IO fv Kvpito] fv TOO KW X*, with 91. 

19 Iva poi dodfj] iva 8o0r) /not N* alone. 

20 ev auro> Trapptjcrida] 7rapp7yo~iao~a))uai ei/ aura) X alone. 

21 fldfJTf Kal up,els] /cat u/xetff iS/jre N, with many others. 

7TICTTOS dlOKOVOs] OD1. SlOKOl/OS N* aloiie. 

3. If the combination KB represents a line of textual tradition which 3. The 
is of great importance here as elsewhere in the New Testament, on the ^raeco- 
ground that its readings are usually justified by internal considerations, co ai ces 
scarcely less interest attaches to another line of tradition commonly spoken 
of as the Western text, because it is mainly attested for us by two Graeco- 
Latin codices D 2 and G 3 . D 2 is Codex Claromontanus (cent, vi), and is 
thus indicated to distinguish it from D, Codex Bezae of the Gospels and 
Acts. G 3 is Codex Boernerianus (cent, ix), and was once part of the same 
codex as A (Sang aliens is) of the Gospels 1 . 

1 E 2 is a copy of D 2 , and F 2 is pro- text is concerned. Accordingly I have 
bably a copy of G 3 so far as its Greek not cited the evidence of EJE^ 









At the beginning of the history of each of these codices a Greek text 
and an Old Latin text have been brought together in the same volume, and 
a process of assimilation has begun, partly of the Greek to the Latin and 
partly also of the Latin to the Greek. If we had the immediate parent of 
either of these codices we should probably find corrections of this nature 
introduced in the margin or in the text itself. Thus it may have been in 
the immediate ancestor of G 3 that in Eph. iv 15 aXrjdevovres de was changed 
into dXijOeiav de TTOIOVVTCS, because the corresponding Latin was ueritatem 
autem facientes, The like process had already been taking place in the 
codex from which D 2 and G 3 are ultimately descended. For most of the 
obvious Latinisations are common to them both. Thus in ii n viro rfjs 
\eyo/j,vr)s TrepiTopfjs ev (rapKi ^etpoTroi^rov was rightly rendered cib ea quac 
dicitur circumcisio in came manufacta: but an ignorant scribe took 
manufacta as the ablative agreeing with came, and accordingly we find in 
D 2 G 3 the strange reading ev o-apml xeipoTrotTjrw. Another example is ii 20, 

where the true reading is aKpoywiaiov. The Latin rendering for corner 
stone was angularis lapis (summits angularis lapis, Jerome): hence we 
find in D 2 G 3 that \idov is added after aKpoycovtaiov. 

Besides this process, by which the Greek texts of these codices have 
been considerably affected in detail, we may distinguish another element of 
modification which may be called the interpretative element. Thus in ii 5, 

of interest 

in the parenthetical sentence ^apm eWe ereo-ajoyieVoi, we find prefixed to 
Xapiri the relative pronoun ov, which brings it into the construction of the 
main sentence : ov rrj ^apm D 2 , ov ^apirt G 3 . As cuius is found at this 
point in the Old Latin, it is possible that the inserted pronoun is due to 
the Latin translator, and has subsequently passed over to the Greek text. 
The similar clause in ii 8, rfj yap ^apm eVre o-eo-axr/zei/ot, is changed in D 2 
into rfj yap avrov %dpiTi a~eo~o)o~fjievoi eo pev. The change to the first person 
is due to the e<p was of the previous verse, and to the eo-pev ofv. 10: the 
e I/pay of v. 8 had also passed into ?)/Lie5z/, probably at an earlier stage, 
for it has a wider attestation. Another interesting example is the comple 
tion of the broken sentence in iii i by the addition in D 2 of n-peo-^evw after 
ra>v etivav : a small group of cursives add KfKavxn^ai from a similar motive. 
More serious is the change in iii 21, where in the true text glory is ascribed 
to God ev rfj KK\rjo-ia Kal Iv Xpio-ro) irjo-ov. The words in this order appeared 
so startling that in one group of MSS (KLP) KCU was dropped, so as to give 
the sense in the Church by Christ Jesus (A.V.). In D 2 *G 3 the order is 
boldly reversed (ev %y *v 177 eKKA^o-ia); and they are supported by Am- 
brosiaster and Victorinus. It is probable that to this class we should assign 
the addition of vf<5 avrov after ev ro> rjyamjpeva) in i 6 : but it is to be noted 
that this reading has a wide attestation and is undoubtedly very early 
(D 2 *G 3 S 56 vg 00 ^ Victorin Ambrst Pelag etc.: also Ephraim in his com 
mentary, preserved in Armenian, has in His Son ). 

Other interesting readings belonging to one or both of these codices are : 
ii 15 KaTapyrj(ras] KaTapruras D 3 * alone. 
iii 12 ev ireiroi6r)a-ei\ ev ro> e\cv6ep<o6T)vai D 2 * alone (not unconnected with 

the rendering of -rrapprja-iav by libertatem Victorin Ambrst). 
2O vircp irdvra Troi^crat] om. vTrep D 3 G 8 , with Vg Ambrst etc. 


iv 1 6 <ar fvepyciav] om. G 3 , with d 2 Iren int (Mass. p. 270) Lucifer 

(Hartel p. 200) Victorin Ambrst (cod). 
19 atnjXyTjKores] aTn^XiriKores D 2 ,a<p7yX7rt/coreff G s , with Vg (d&sperantes) 

goth arm aeth etc. 

29 r^s XP 6t as J T n s 7rio-rf(os D 2 *G 3 : see the special note. 
V 14 7ri<f)avo-i aroi 6 xpio-roy] fnuf/avo-eis rov xy D 2 * : see the special note. 

In conclusion certain readings may be noted in which one or other of Variants 
these codices has somewhat unexpected support from one of the great uncials, with unex- 
i i Xpn-ou Irjo-ov] D 2 , with B and a few other authorities. support. 

7 xo/jiv] co-xopev D 2 *, with X* (comp. B in Col. i 14). 
ii cK.\r)p(00T)fjiv ] eK\rj0T)iJLv D 2 G 3 , with A: not unconnected perhaps is 

the rendering sorte uocati sumus of vg. 
v 31 om. rov et rrjv D 2 *G 3 , with B only, 
vi i om. fv Kupto) D 2 *G 3 , with B Clem Alex (P. 308) Tert (c. Marc, v 18) 

Cyprian (Testim. iii 70) Ambrst (cod). 
1 6 ra 7re7rvpo>/Liera] om. ra D 2 *G 3 , with B. 
19 om. rov evayye\iov G 3 , with B Tert (c. Marc, v 1 8) Victorin. 
It is clear from this list that B at any rate has admitted a "Western 
element in this epistle as in others. 

4. Parallel with the Latinisation of the Greek texts of D 2 and G 3 has 4. The 
been the process of correcting the Latin texts (d 2 and g 3 ) to conform them ^ Latin: 
to the Greek. In consequence of this correction we cannot entirely rely on * 
these texts as representing a definite stage of the Old Latin Version, unless 3 
we can support their testimony from other quarters. Yet the remarkable 
agreement between d 2 and the text of Lucifer in the passage examined 
below is somewhat reassuring. 

The history of the Old Latin of St Paul s Epistles needs a fuller investi- History of 
gation than it has yet received. To what extent it was revised by St Jerome * ne P^ 
is still obscure. Some useful remarks upon it will be found in the article Latln< 
in Hastings s Bible Dictionary (Latin Versions, the Old) by Dr H. A. A. 
Kennedy; and also in Sanday and Headlam, Romans, Introd. 7 (2) and 
notes on v 3 5, viii 36. 

The relation of the chief Latin recensions may be judged to some extent Latin 
by a concrete example. For Eph, vi 12 ff. we are fortunate in having a con- texts of . 
tinuous quotation in Cyprian Testim. iii 117 (comp. Ep. Iviii 8) and also in p i ^ 
Lucifer of Cagliari (Hartel p. 296). 


non est nobis conluc- non est uobis conluc- non est nobis conluc- 

tatio aduersus carnem et tatio aduersus carnem et tatio aduersus carnem et 

sanguinem, sed aduersus sanguinem, sed contra sanguinem, sed aduersus 

potestates et principes potestates, contra huius principes et potestates, 

huius mundi et harum mundi rectores tenebra- aduersus mundi rectores 

tenebrarum, aduersus rum harum, contra spin- tenebrarum harum, con- 

spiritalia nequitiae in talia nequitiae in cae- tra spiritalia nequitiae 

caelestibus 1 . lestibus. in caelestibus. 

1 I have followed the true text of * uobis , but nobis is found in the 
Cyprian, which is to be found in Har- better uss and in Ep. Iviii 8. 
tel s apparatus. Hartel s text gives 

EPHES. 2 Tn 


"We may note at the outset that Lucifer s text at this point is found 
word for word in Codex Claromontanus (d 2 ), the only difference being that 
there we have the order sanguinem et carnem , which is probably the 
result of correction by the Greek of the codex. 

nobis. Cyprian and the Vulgate give the true reading. But uobis is 
read by g 3 m (the Speculum, a Spanish text), Priscillian and Ambrosiaster. 
Tertullian, however, Hilary and Ambrose have * nobis . The Greek evi 
dence is remarkable from the fact that B deserts its usual company. ( H/uu> 
is found in KAD 2 C KLP 17 etc., supported by Clement and Origen and the 
Greek writers generally : also by boh arm syr(hkl). c Y/A(i/ is found in BD 2 * 
G B and some cursives : besides the Latin support already cited, it is sup 
ported by the Gothic and the Aethiopic versions, and by the Syriac Peshito, 
which doubtless gives us here the Old Syriac reading, as we gather from 
Ephraim s Commentary. 

It is quite possible that the variation has arisen independently in 
different quarters, for in Greek it is among the commonest confusions. It 
serves however admirably as an illustration of the grouping of our Latin 

Sed aduersus (or contra] potestates. A single clause seems in the oldest 
Latin to have represented Trpbs ras dp%as, Trpbs ras fovo-ias (or KOI fov<ria$) 
of the Greek text. It may be that principes was being consciously reserved 
to be used in the following clause (irpos roi/s Koo-^oKparopas} : for there is no 
Greek evidence for the omission of irpbs ras dp x ds. Yet d 2 m Lucif Hil 
(ed. Vienn. p. 489) have the single clause although they use rectores (Hil 
mundi potentes] in the later clause. It is noteworthy that d 2 is not in this 
case brought into conformity with the Greek (irpos ras dpxas /cat fgovo-ias) 
ofD 2 . 

On the renderings of Koa-fioKparopas see further in the commentary ad 


propter hoc induite propterea accipite ar- propterea accipite ar- 

tota arma, ut possitis ma dei, ut possitis resis- ma dei, ut possitis resis- 

resistere in die nequis- tere in die malo, in tere in die malo et omni- 

simo, ut cum omnia per- omnibus perfecti stare, bus perfecti stare, state 

feceritis stetis adcincti praecincti lumbos ues- ergo succincti lumbos 

lumbos uestros in ueri- tros in ueritate. uestros in ueritate. 


Lucifer agrees with d 2 , except that the latter has omnibus operis in 
place of in omnibus perfecti , and stetis for * stare . 

induite. So m induite uos . 

tota arma. The omission of dei by the best MSS of the Testimonia 
is confirmed by Ep. Iviii 8. It is interesting to note in connexion with 
tota arma that Jerome ad loc. says omnia arma... : hoc enim sonat 
Trai/oTrXm, non ut in Latino simpliciter arma translata sunt . Yet Cod. 
Amiat. gives us arma , and the Clementine Vulgate armaturarn . 

nequissimo. In v. 16 nequissimi retains its place in the later recen 

cum omnia perfeceritis. It is strange that this excellent rendering was 
not maintained : see the commentary ad loc. 


ut...stetis accincti. This corresponds to the reading of D 2 *G 3 arr^re 
for <rrrjvai~ <rrr)Tc ovv. In m we find estote , or according to some MSS 
* stare, estote . The Yulgate shews correction by a better Greek text. 


induentes loricam ius- induentes loricam ius- et induti lorica ius- 

titiae et calciati pedes in titiae et calciati pedes in titiae et calciati pedes in 

praeparatione euangelii praeparatione euangelii praeparatione euangelii 

pacis, in omnibus adsu- pacis, in omnibus adsu- pacis, in omnibus sumen- 

mentes scutum fidei, in mentes scutum fidei, in tes scutum fidei, in quo 

quo possitis omnia ignita quo possitis omnia iacula possitis omnia tela ne- 

iacula nequissimi extin- nequissimi candentia ez- quissimi ignea extin- 

guere, et galeam salutis stinguere, et galeam sa- guere; et galeam salutis 

et gladium spiritus, qui lutis et gladium spiritus, adsumite et gladium spi- 

est sermo dei. quod est uerbum dei. ritus, quod est uerbum 


Lucifer agrees with d 2 , except that the latter has salutaris for salutis 
(comp. Tert. c. Marc, iii 14). 

ignita. Tertullian in an allusion (ut supra) has omnia diaboli ignita 
tela : candentia is found in m. 

adsumite : supplied in the Vulgate, to correspond with 6Vao-#e which 
is omitted by D 2 *G 3 . 

sermo : characteristic of the Cyprianic text : comp. Tert. ut supra. 

The text of Vigilius Tapsensis (Africa, c. 484) is of sufficient interest to 
be given in full (de trin. xii, Chifflet, 1664, p. 313) : 

Propterea suscipite tota arma dei, ut possitis resistere in die maligno; 
et cum omnia perfeceritis state cincti lumbos in ueritate, et calciate (? cal 
ciati) pedes in praeparatione euangelii pacis : super haec omnia accipientes 
scutum fidei, et galeam salutaris accipite, et gladium spiritus, quod est 
uerbum dei . 

Comp. c. Varimadum iii 24, p. 457 : In omnibus adsumentes scutum 
fidei, in quo possitis omnia iacula nequissimi candentia exstinguere, et 
galeam salutis et gladium spiritus, quod est uerbum dei . This agrees with 
Lucifer. The variety of text is worth noting in connexion with the ques 
tion of the authorship of these treatises 1 . 

The following readings deserve attention either for their own importance Special 
or as throwing light on the history of the text. The authorities cited are readings 
selected as a rule from the apparatus of Tischendorf or Tregelles, and the of mterest - 
citations have been to a large extent verified, and sometimes corrected and 

i i xpicroy 

Xpto-roO 1770-00 BD 2 P 17 syr (hkl) boh vg (am) Or ^ Ambrst Pel 00 * : i 
Xpio-roC NAG 3 KL etc. syr (pesh) arm vg (firal) Eph (arm) Victoria. 

1 On the authorship of the de trini- Athanasius extant only in this Latin 

tate see Journ. of Th. St. i 126 ff., version . See also the note on the 

592 ff.: it is suggested that Book xii text of vi 16, below, p. 303. 
is probably a genuine work of St 



It is not easy to decide between these readings. The full title our 
Lord Jesus Christ would help to stereotype the order Jesus Christ . This 
order in itself is perhaps the more natural, especially in Syriac, Jesus the 
Messiah : the Peshito has it even in the last words of this verse. A copyist 
would be more likely to change Xptoros l^troC? into *Ir)(rovs Xpicrro? than 
vice versd. 

The testi- B persistently has Xpierrov IT/O-OU in the openings of the Epistles : it is 
monyofB. often deserted by N, and once by all uncials. This fact may suggest the 
possibility of a revision on principle. In this particular place it appears as 
if the scribe of B began to write Ty XY, but corrected himself in time. Yet 
the support which B here has makes it hazardous to depart from it. It 
is otherwise in v. 5, where B stands alone in giving the same reversal 
of order. 

i i ToTc 

ToTc O^CIN [GN G<t>ec(t>]. 


The case for the omission of eV E(peVo> has been so clearly stated by 
recent critics 1 , that it will suffice to present the main evidence in the 
briefest form, to call attention to a recent addition to it, and to set aside 
some supposed evidence which breaks down upon examination. 

i. Not in i. The words were not in the text used by Origen [f A.D. 253]. This is 
Origen s conclusively shewn by his endeavour to explain rot? ovviv as an independent 
phrase. In Cramer s Catena ad loc. we read : 

Qpiyevrjs de <pr)o-f ETTI p.6va>v *E(pecrtW evpopev tceipfvov TO TOTc <\pOIC 
TOTc oyci- Kal rjTovp,fv, fl pTj Trape X/cet irpo<TKfifj.vov re TOTc AffoiC TOTc 
oyCI 2 ) rt SvvaTai err] naive iv. opa ovv el pi], eoerTrep fv rop E^oSco ovop.a (prjaiv 
eaurov o xpr)p.aTia>v Mcoo~eT ro *QN, ovrcoj oi /iere^oj/res rou ovros yivovrat 
owes, KaXovpevoi olovel CK TOV JU.T) flvai fls TO elvai- /c.r.X. 3 

This comment is no doubt referred to by St Basil [f A.D. 379] in the 
following extract, at the close of which he declares that the words cv 
EtpcVco were wanting in the older copies in his own day: 

*AXXa /cat rots > E<peo~t ots eVtoWXAcoi/, cos yvrjaicos ^vcafjievois ro5 OVTI fti 
e7riyvcoo"ecoSj ovras OVTOVS ldia^6vr<i)s ( fV) elira>v TOTc ApOlC TOTc 
oyci KA) niCTOTc EN XplCTC?) iHCOy- ovrco yap KCU ot ?rpo ?;/zc5j/ Trapa- 
oVficoKacri, Ka\ ^/xets ev rots TraXatots rcov diTiypd<pa)V evprjKapev (Basil. Contra 

Eunom. ii 19). 

of Basil. 

i. Evi 
dence of 
MSB KB 67. 

from Mt 

2. The words eV J E(po-a) were originally absent from K and B ; and 
they are marked for omission by the corrector of the cursive 67 in the 
Imperial Library at Vienna (cod. gr. theoL 302). 

An interesting addition to the documentary evidence for the omission 
has been made by E. von der Goltz, who has published an account of 

1 See Lightfoot Biblical Essays 
pp. 377!!., Westcott and Hort Intro 
duction to N.T., * Notes on select read 
ings ad loc., Hort Prolegg. to Romans 
and Ephesians pp. 86 ff., T. K. Abbott 
Ephesians pp. i ff. 

2 Perhaps we should read r< ToTc 

Affoic r6 rote oyci. 

8 Origen s comment is reproduced 
in an obscure way by St Jerome, who 
probably was unaware of any omission 
in the text, and therefore failed to 
understand the drift of the explana 


a remarkable cursive of the tenth or eleventh, century in the Laura on 

Mt Athos 1 . This MS (cod. 184) contains the Acts and Catholic Epistles, Cod. Laur. 

as well as the Pauline Epistles, and once contained also the Apocalypse. 184. 

The scribe declares that he copied it from a very old codex, the text of 

which agreed so closely with that found in the commentaries or homilies 

of Origen that he concluded that it was compiled out of those books. The 

margin contains many quotations from works of Origen, which appear to 

have stood in the margin of the ancient copy. At the end of the Epistle 

to the Ephesians is the following note 2 : $ dirb T>V elf rrjv irpbs 

<f>fpofjiVG)V e^rjyrjriKc^v TO/ZCOJ/ avravfyvcotrov (leg. dvravey voter 6rj) ) 

The scribe s error shews that this note was copied from an uncial original, 
-ON having been read for -0H. This MS omits cv E<<-Va>, and makes no 
comment on the- omission. Thus we have positive evidence to confirm the 
conclusion that the words were absent from the text of Origen. 

3. The only other trace of the omission of the words is found in the 3. Mar- 
fact that Marcion included our epistle in his edition of the Pauline Epistles cion. 
under the title TO THE LAODICEANS . This he could hardly have done if 

the words eV 5 E0e o-o> had stood in the salutation. 

4. None of the versions gives any support to the omission. The only 4. Yer- 
two about which a doubt could be raised are the Old Syriac and the Latin. sions - 

(1) The Old Syriac can often be conjecturally restored from the com- Old 
mentary of Ephraim, which is preserved in an Armenian translation. It is Syriac : 
true that Ephraim does not mention the words * in Ephesus . His brief 
comment is : To the saints and the faithful ; that is, to the baptized 

and the catechumens . But that no conclusion can be drawn from this no evi- 
is at once seen when we compare with it the corresponding comment on dencefrom 
Col. i i : To the saints, he says, and the faithful : the baptized he calls E P hraim - 
saints, and the catechumens he names faithful : yet no one would argue 
from this that the words at Colossae were absent from his text 

(2) Lightfoot holds that there are indications in early Latin commen- Latin : 
taries that the texts used by their writers either did not contain the word supposed 
Ephesi, or contained it in an unusual position which suggests that it was evidence 
a later interpolation. Hort makes no reference to evidence to be derived 

from this source, and it may perhaps be assumed that he was not satisfied 
that a valid argument could be constructed. But as Dr Abbott has recently 
repeated Lightfoot s suggestions, it is necessary that the passages in question 
should be examined in detail. 

i. VICTORINUS, as printed in Mai Scriptorum veterum nova collectio from 
iii 87, has the following comment : Sed haec cum dicit sanctis qui sunt yictor- 
fidelibus Ephesi, quid adiungitur ? in Christo Iesu\ I confess that I do lnus 
not understand how Lightfoot could render this, But when he says these 
words " To the saints who are the faithful of Ephesus," what does he add ? 
" In Christ Jesus ". For such a rendering would require fideles, not fide- 
libus 3 . If the text be sound, qui sunt can only be taken in Origen s 

1 Eine textkritische Arbeit u. s. w. 2 I.e. p. 78. 

Texte u. Untersuch. neue Folge ii 4 8 We are warned that this essay is 

(1899). printed from Lecture-Notes (p. 376). 







sense the saints who ARE, and fidelibus must stand in apposition to 
sanctis. But there is no trace of such an interpretation in Victorinus: 
and as he himself explicitly cites the passage in the usual manner lower 
down, we may well conclude that the words in this place have suffered in 
the process of transcription. Even if we conjecturally substitute fideles 
ior fidelibus, and render, to the saints who are faithful in Ephesus , we 
cannot say that Victorinus is giving us a direct citation as contrasted with 
a mere allusion. For haec in the sentence before us does not refer to the 
words sanctis, etc., but to the preceding phrase Paulus apostolic lesu 
Christi per voluntatem dei, which Victorinus has just told us were also 
used in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians. So that the passage runs : 
But when he says these (same) words to the saints who are faithful at 
Ephesus, what is added 1 In Christ Jesus . The position of Ephesi is thus 
accounted for by the emphasis thrown upon it for the purpose of contrast 
with the Corinthian Church. It seems clear then that no evidence of a 
variation of reading can be drawn from Victorinus. 

ii. Lightfoot suggests that AMBROSIASTER may not have had Ephesi in 
his text: (i) because the commentary ignores the word Ephesi altogether : 
(2) because his note suggests that he, or an earlier writer whose note he 
adopts, had in his mind rols ay Lois rois ova-iv icai nia-rols, which he regarded 
as meaning the saints who are also faithful . 

But, in regard to (i), a similar omission of the locality occurs in the 
corresponding notes on the Epistles to the Galatians and to the Colossians : 
and generally the author s comments on corresponding phrases are directed 
to bringing out the meaning of the word c saints and its connexion with 
Christ Jesus . Moreover the text, as given in the Vetus Editio of Ambrose, 
after citing v. i runs thus : 

Solito more scribit : Apostolum enim se ease Christi Jesu dei uoluntate 
testatur: Sanctis et fidelibus in Christo Jesu qui sunt Ephesi. Non solum 
fidelibus scribit : sed et sanctis : ut tune uere fideles sint si fuerint sancti in 
Christo Jesu. Bona enim uita tune prodest ac creditur sancta si sub nomine 
Christi habeatur : alioquin contaminatio erit : quia ad iniuriam proficit crea- 

The Benedictine edition (and hence Migne, from which Lightfoot 
quotes) omits the words Sanctis et fidelibus in Christo Jesu qui sunt 
Ephesi. In the quoted text of v. i as given in both editions the 
corresponding words are as follows: Sanctis omnibus qui sunt Ephesi, 
et fidelibus in Christo Jesu. The variation is noteworthy. On internal 
grounds it would seem to belong to the commentator ; but in that case he 
does not ignore the word Ephesi. 

With regard to (2), we should be more ready to admit the cogency 
of the argument if the comment ran : non solum sanctis scribit, sed 
et fidelibus. 

iii SEDULIUS SCOTUS, a compiler of the eighth or ninth century, writes 
(Migne, P. L. ciii 795) : 

Sanctis. Non omnibus Ephesiis, sed his qui credunt in Christo. Et fidelibus. 

Omnes sancti fideles sunt, non omnes fideles sancti Qui sunt in Christo 

lesu. Plures fideles sunt, sed non in Christo, etc. 


Lightfoot lays no stress on the omission of Ephesi. But , he says, * the 
position of qui sunt is striking. It would seem as though some transcriber, 
finding the reading sanctis qui sunt et fidelibus in Christo Jesu in his 
copy and stumbling at the order, had transposed the words so as to read 
sanctis et fidelibus qui sunt in Christo Jesu. This altered reading may 
have been before Sedulius, or some earlier writer whom he copies . 

Fortunately we have some information as to the source which Sedulius A parallel 
was drawing from at this point. The Commentary on the Pauline Epistles, 
which is falsely attributed to Primasius, may or may not be earlier than S 
the work of Sedulius. At any rate the following passage from it is worth 
quoting as a parallel 1 : 

Sanctis omnibus qui sunt Ephesi. Omnis sanctus fidelis, non omnis fidelis 
sanctus. Baptizatis fidelibus sine fideliter eeruantibus sanctitatem : catechu- 
menis qui habent fidem, quia credunt, sed non habent sanctitatem. Et Jidelibus 
in Christo lesu. Qui licitis utuntur. Gratia etc. 

The Commentary of Pelagius, printed in Vallarsi s edition of St Jerome The 
(xi, pars iii), seems to lie behind both the preceding extracts. It runs source 

Omnibus sanctis. Omnes sancti fideles, non omnea fideles sancti. Quia gius, 
possunt etiam catechumeni ex eo quod Christo credunt fideles dici : non tamen 
sancti sunt, quia non per baptismum sanctificati. Siue sic intelligendum, quod 
scribat fideliter seruantibus gratiam sanctitatis. Qui sunt Ephesi, et Jidelibus \7ho read 
in Christo lesu. Non omnibus Ephesiis, sed his qui credunt in Christo. Ephesi . 
Gratia etc. 

115 K<\| THN [A|-ATTHN] eic TTANTAC royc 

We must consider this passage in connexion with the parallels to i 1 5 
be found in the two other epistles which were carried by the same [aydTrrjv]. 

i. Eph. i 15 aKoixras TT)V Ka6* vfj-as Trioriv ev ro> Kvpia l^crou /eal TTJV 
[dydTTTjv] els rrdvras TOVS ayiovs. 

ii. Col. i 4 aKOva-avres TT)V irio~Tiv vfjunv fv Xpt(rro> ir/croC /cat TTJV dyarrvv 
\J) V *X fT ~\ e * ? Travras TOVS ayiovs. 

iii. Philem. 5 o.Kova>v crov rr/v ayani]v ical TTJV TTIOTIV r)v fX eis e ^ f [* ^ 
irpos~\ TOV Kvpiov l^croOi/ xai els Trdvras TOVS ayiovs. 

In (i) we have the following readings : Eph. i 15 

(1) *al Tr)v els TTOVTOS TOVS ayiovs K*ABP 17 Or 6 ** 129 Cyr^ 603 Aug 
(de praed. ss. xix 39). 

(2) /ecu TT/V dydirriv els TT. T. d. D 2 *G 3 . 

(3) fcai TTJV dyaTTTjv TTJV els TT. T. a. K C D 2 C KL al pier Chrys Thdrt 
Dam al. 

The Latin, Syriac, Bohairic and Gothic Versions may be claimed 

1 In theeditioprinceps^stf)!?. 333. ascribe it to a Gallic writer: it is 

On this Commentary see Haussleiter closely related to the Commentary of 

in Zahn s Forschungen zur Geschichte Bemigius. 
d. NTlichen Kanons iv 34 ff. He would 


either for (2) or for (3) ; and so also Victorin bi8 Ambrst Aug (Ep. 
ccxvii 28) aL 

(4) KCLI TT)V els Travras TOVS dylovs dyoTrrjv 6 cursives, the Catena text 
and Cyr ioh838 . 

Col. i 4. In (ii) B stands alone in omitting f)v e^ere without giving any substitute. 

It thus presents a reading difficult at first sight from the grammarian s 
point of view, but quite in accord with Pauline usage. The position of eV 
Xptorw 1770-01) after TTIO-TIV in the same verse is a parallel ; and other 
examples are given in the note on Eph. i 15. As the article was likely 
to be inserted by scribes, we may claim the reading of D 2 C KL (TT/V dyairrjv 
TTJV) as indirectly supporting B ; and the insertion of ty ex T mav ^ 
regarded as another way of meeting the difficulty, and as perhaps suggested 
by Tjv excis in iii. 

Philem. 5. In (iii) scribes who took rjv t^ets as exclusively referring to rrjv Tri<mv 
found a difficulty in the phrase TT LO-TLV CX LV ^ s irdvras TOVS dyiovs, and 
accordingly D 2 with many cursives, the Syriac, Armenian and Aethiopic 
Versions, invert the order and read TTJV iricmv K.OL TTJV dyajrrjv. But the 
difficulty is really non-existent; for TTJV dyaTrrjv Kal TTJV KIO-TIV are alike 
included in T)V e^eis, and the order offers an example of the grammatical 
figure called chiasmus : see Lightfoot ad loc. 

Internal We now return to consider the readings of (i). If external authority be 

evidence alone considered, we cannot refuse to accept (i). But internal evidence is 
strongly adverse to it. We cannot give iri<ms the meaning of loyalty J or 
trustworthiness , in view of the parallels in the other epistles : and we 
have no example of such an expression as faith towards all the saints ; 
for, as we have seen, Philem. 5 cannot be regarded as sich. Moreover 
we expect from the two parallels that we should find a mention of l love at 
this point in the Epistle to the Ephesians. 

The argu- It has been urged that the fact that St Paul writes TTJV Ka6 vpas TTIO-TLV 
ment from instead of TTJV TTIO-TIV vp,a>v prepares us for an unusual collocation ; and that 
Kct0 vitas. |. ne con trast involved is between rfjv <aff v^as and rrjv els irdvras TOVS 
dyiovs (Hort). But Dr T. K. Abbott has shewn (ad loc.) that Kad V/JMS 
in such a connexion is by no means unusual in later Greek. He cites 
Aelian, V. H. ii 12 77 KOT O.VTOV aper?;, Diod. Sic. i 65 T) Kara TTJV dpfflv 
diroQfo-is (laying down the government); and, in the New Testament, 
Acts xvii 28 TUV Ka& vpas TTOI^TCOJ/, XVlii 15 vopov TOV Kaff vfiasj xxvi 3 
TG>V Kara lo^Sa/ovs I6o>v. Accordingly TT)V Kad* VJJ.CLS irifmv ev r<5 Kvpito 
ITJO-OV is not appreciably different from TT)V TTICTTIV vpwv cv TOJ Kvpiw IT/O-OU, 
which would closely correspond with GoL i 4. 

The con- If in spite of the authorities which support it we reject (i), there can 

struction be no doubt that (2) must be the reading of our choice. For we then have 

Ttyay&irriv & c j ose p ara iiel to Col. i 4, when that passage has been purged of accre- 

changes. tions. Moreover the same phrase has in each epistle given occasion for 

the alterations of scribes; and (3) and (4) are seen to be alternative 

methods of escaping from the construction rr)v dydrrrjv els rrdin-as TOVS 

dyiovs. This construction is, however, as we have seen, frequent in 

St Paul s writings. Accordingly we may claim the evidence of (3) and 

(4) as practically supporting (2), of which they are obvious modifications : 


so that we have the evidence of all the Versions, as well as N C D 2 C KL etc., 
to support D 3 *G 3 against K*ABP (C unfortunately is missing from i I to 
ii 1 8, and again from iv 17 to the end). 

It is possible that the loss of the word in the chief MSS is due to Possible 
homoeoteleuton. The resemblance between AITHN and ATTHN is so close, homaeo- 
that dyarrTjv may have been passed over in teleuton. 


Uaa-a 17 01*080^ is read by K a ACP, with many cursives and some ii i \ ira<ra 
patristic evidence. olKodo/uf}. 

Origen (cat. 151) has been cited for this reading, but the article is Origen s 
absent from the only codex we possess. On the other hand the Athos MS reading, 
described by von der Goltz (Texte u. Unters. neue Folge ii 4, p. 75) has -n-aa-a 
77 otKoSo/iT? written above as an alternative to iraa-a olKoBo^ : and the margin 
contains the following note: TO pev prjrov rov VTrofjnnj/jLaros ev p ira<Ta OIK.O- 

T) avtv TOV apflpov. T; Se e^yrjo-is fJ.iav \tyova-a rr]v oiKo8ofj,r)v rl6r]<Ti KCU TO 

. The reference may perhaps be to the words rfj navy oiKodopfj, which 
occur later in Origen s comment. It is interesting however to note that in 
the supplement which Mr Turner (Journ. of Theol. /Studies, April 1902, 
pp. 407 f.) has conjecturally added to correspond with Jerome s Latin, the 
words iraa-a 77 oiKodop.ij are introduced. The change has apparently been 
made on the ground that Jerome here writes universa aedificatio, and not 
omnis aedificatio as before : for I understand that Mr Turner had not seen 
the evidence of von der Goltz s MS. 

We cannot do otherwise than accept the reading of the principal author- The article 
ities. The insertion of the article was probably a grammatical correction, inserted 
intended to secure the sense at a time when okoSo/iTJ had come to be ^^j 1 " 
regarded almost exclusively as concrete in meaning. See the note in the grounds, 
commentary ad loc. 

iii 9 <J>ornc<M TIC H 

I have discussed the internal evidence for this reading in the conimen- iii 9 
tary. The external evidence is conflicting. 0wr/<rcu rls 

3>a>Ti<rcu (without Tmiras) is read by N*A 67** Cyril (de recta fide ad ** K T X 
reg. ed. Aubert 1638, p. 123). To this Greek evidence we may add that of 
Origen as gathered from Jerome s commentary. For though in the text 
Vallarsi prints illuminare omnes, the word omnes is not found in some 
codices, and the subsequent comment indicates at two points that omnes 
was not present to the commentator s mind. 

$a>rto-at Trdvras has the authority of N C BCD 2 G 3 KLP etc., of various 
Greek writers, and of all the versions, with the partial exceptions in Latin 
of Hilary (in Ps. ix 3, ed. Vienna p. 76), Aug (de gen. ad lit. v. 38, ed. 
Vienna p. 162). 

It may be that the absence of B from its usual company is due here and 
elsewhere in the epistle to Western contamination. 


iii 18 YYOC K<\! BA0oc. 
iii 1 8 d^os The main evidence is as follows : 

fyos KOI $d6os BCD 2 G 3 P 17 and other cursives, together with all 
versions (exc. syr 1 ^). 

patios KOI vijsos NAKL and many cursives, Orig Eus Chrys etc. 

Old The exception of the Harklean Syriac is due to the correction by 

Synac. Greek MSS of the earlier Syriac reading. The Peshito had the curious 
order ttyos *ai fidQos KOI pfjKos KOI TrXaros, and Ephraim s commentary 
attests this for the Old Syriac. 

Origen s Origen in his commentary undoubtedly accepted the reading ftdtios 

KOI v-^os, although incidentally he speaks of the Cross as having both 
ttyoy and fiddos. We find also $a0os KOL fyos in Horn, in Jerem. xviii 2 
(Ru. iii 243). The text of von der Goltz s Athos MS has $d6os *a\ ttyoy. 
But a note in the margin says that ityos <a\ ftados was read in the text of 
the copy of Origen s commentary, though he himself in his comment had 
ftddos KOI v\lros. 

The result The interpretation of such evidence is uncertain. If, as in the reading 

uncertain, fc^ discussed, we suppose that B has admitted a Western element, the 

claim of the reading of KA Orig (fiddos KOI fyos) is very strong. I have 

however printed v^os KOI fidQos in deference to the judgment of Westcott 

and Hort. 

iv 9 K<vreBH. 

iv 9 This is the reading of K*AC*D 2 G 3 17 67**. 

Kartpr]. j} u t npa-rov is added in K C BC C KLP and most cursives. The versions 

are divided : d 2 g 3 agree with their Greek, and there is no addition in sah 
boh aeth. On the other hand irp&Tov is attested by f vg (though not, appa 
rently, by the original scribe of Codex Amiatinus) : also by syr goth arm. 
Ephraim s comment is a strange one, and it leaves us uncertain whether 
the Old Syriac had the addition or not : Now that which ascended what 
is it (saith he) but the body, which descended by means of death into 
Hades ? for that is the lower region of the earth . 

The Latin translator of Irenaeus has no addition (M. p. 331); but it 
must be remembered that this is the case with the Latins generally with 
the exception of Ambrosiaster. 

Clement (exc. Theod., P. 979) has no addition. It is noteworthy that he 
ends the sentence with Karf /fy, and continues thus : o Karaftas WTOS <TTLV 
els TCI KorcoTara rrjs yrjs KCU dvafBas virepdva* T<0>v ovpavav. 

Origen, though he does not make this transposition, recognises the 
same connexion of thought: in Joann. xix 21 *al TO- Els ra /careo rara rrjs 
yfjs o *ara/3as, ovros eVri /ecu dvafids: comp. xix 2O /ecu yap els ra Kara>repa 
(sic) pepr) rrfs yrjs 6 Kara/3as, *c.r.X. These passages throw no light on Origen s 
reading in regard to irp&rov : nor does the passage cited from the Latin of 
his commentary on Ezekiel (Ru. iii 358): nor again the incidental citation in 
Catena p. 162. Jerome s commentary however in its text has no addition, 
and this may perhaps be an indication of Origen s text at this point. 

The strangest point about this reading is the company in which B 
finds itself. 


iv 17 KA0&C K<\t TA 60NH. 

A small group of uncials with many cursives read KO&OS KOI ra Xowra iv 17 ret 
j (j<cj) 2 corrg;LP) : so also syr goth arm; but not the Old Syriac 
attested by Ephraim s commentary. 

The addition is of an interpretative character. 

iv 28 TAfc xepclN y6 
This is the reading of K C B. Other readings are: iv 2 8 rats 

TO dyadov rats ^fpcriV L, many cursives, and the text of the Catena &y a gfo 

rats Idlais \ P^ V dyaBov K*AD 2 G 3 and some cursives. 
ro ayaBov rats Idiots x e P^ v K. and some cursives. 
ro dyaQov P 17 67** cod Laur 184 (v. der Goltz, p. 78). This is sup 
ported by m and by Clem. Alex. (P. 308, 371). The comment of Origen 
would not require any other reading than this. 
The versions do not give us much help in a reading of this kind. 

iv 29 npoc oiKoAoM&N THC 

"We find the remarkable substitution of TnWeoos for xpetas in D 2 *G 3 46. iv 29 rijs 
Ad aedificationem fidei is the almost universal reading in Latin codices Xpe/aj. 
and fathers. Jerome ad loc. says, Pro eo autem quod nos posuimus ad 
aedificationem opportunitatis, hoc est quod dicitur Graece TTJS xpet af, in 
Latinis codicibus propter enphoniani mutauit interpres et posuit ad aedifi 
cationem, fidei . Jerome s rendering is found in Codd. Amiatinus and 
Fuldensis (the latter having opportunitatis fidei), but it has not succeeded 
in displacing the older Latin rendering in the ordinary Vulgate MSS. 

The only Greek patristic evidence cited for Trtcrretos is Greg. Nyss. in Clement s 
Ecclesiast. vii 6 (Migne p. 727), Basil Regg. pp. 432, 485, alibi. It is how- reading- 
ever to be noted that, although in Clem. Alex. Strom, i 18 90 (P. 371) 
we have irpos oiVoSo/^i/ TTJS xP as > J^ * n ^ ne opening sentence of the 
Paedagogus we have the expression et s otKoSo/z^i/ Trto-reco?. 

It has been suggested to me that the reading of D 2 * and Iren. Haer. Comp. 
(praef. ad init.) in i Tim. i 4 should be borne in mind in the consideration * Tim. i. 4. 

of this variant: fia\\ov rj oiKo8op.f)V deov TT/V ev TTiffret (1)2 has oiKodo/j,iav . 

the true reading being ol<ovo^Lav}. 

iv 32, v 2 Y MTN 

The reading of B is e^apiVaro yfuv...TJydirr)(TV V[JMS KOI 7rape8a>Kcv eavrbv 3 2 
vrrep vpnv. K has v v pas (JIMS R c )...i|/i<i5v. ^ 

The reading in iv 32 may be considered by itself. B has the support of " 
D 2 (but not d 2 ) KL : but the same combination reads ^lv also in the parallel 
passage, Col. iii. 13, where B goes with the other uncials in reading 
The context would admit of rj/zlf, but v/u> is the more natural : and it is 
supported by KAG 3 P (the cursives and the versions are divided). 



The pro- 

The readings in v 2 must be considered together. We can hardly allow 
a change of the pronoun in the two clauses coupled by KOI. The evidence 
of the uncials is as follows : 

as N*ABP, faas KD 2 G 3 KL : 
B, ww KAD 2 G 3 KLP. 

In Modern Greek v/ieT? and faels are indistinguishable in sound, and 
this was probably the case when our MSB were written, for the scribes 
perpetually confuse them. The context usually settles the question : but 
where either will make good sense, it is difficult to come to a decision. On 
the whole we may be satisfied to read the pronoun of the second person 
throughout this passage. 

v 14 

coi 6 xpicroc. 

v 14 ^TTI- 

o/a letter* 


T urroC 

By the change of a single letter we get the reading ciri^uvcrei. croi o 
I have already given (p. 119) a passage from Jerome ad loc., in 
which he tells of a P reacher who <l u ted the text as follows: l Surge Adam 
3 dormis, et exsurge a mortuis, et non ut legimus eVt^auo-et aoi Xpio-ros, 
id est orietur tibi Christus, sed eVi^avo-ei, id est continget te Christies . 

There seems to be no Greek evidence to corroborate this. For though 
Cramer s Catena ad loc., p. 196, L 31, has eVn/x-auo-ei <roi o Xpiaro?, this 
appears to be but a copyist s error : the extract is from Chrysostom ad loc., 
and Field s apparatus (p. 279) shews that several scribes have written 
eTTt-^ava-ei for eVtcpauo-ei. In Latin however we find continget te Christus in 
the old Roman edition of Ambrosiaster ad loc., and in Augustine on Ps. iii 
6 (ed. Ben. iv ii b). 

^ this reading is due to a mere mistake, there is another which involves 
conscious alteration, viz. eVn^avtms TOV xptcrroC. It is found in Cod. Claro- 
montanus (D 2 ), the Latin side of which has continges Christum. It was 
known to Chrysostom : indeed it probably stood in the MS which he was 
using for his commentary. For though, according to Field s text and 
apparatus, in the first place in which he quotes the verse he gives us 
firi<f>av(ri o~oi o xpiards, yet a few lines lower down his comment runs thus : 
Kcu fm^avcreis, 0^o"t> TOV ^ptorou* ol de (focuTiv > E7rt<pau(T<t crot o ^ptcrros" 
fzaXXov Se TOVTO e crn. This comment is far more natural if the text of the 
Catena be right, which gives in the first place eTri^ava-eis TOV xP tcrTOV 
Continges Christum is found in Victorinus ad loc., and in some MSS of 
Ambrosiaster : also in the Latin translator of Origen (Ru, ii 400, iii 78). 
Ruricius, epp. lib. ii n, gives alternative readings: f et continges Christum 
siue inluminabit te Christus . Moreover Paulinus of Nola, ep. xxxii 20, 
has : * Surge inquit qui dormis, et erigere a mortuis, et adtinges Christum : 
comp. ep. ix 2, quamuis iamdudum ei dixeritis: Erige te a mortuis, ut 
adtingas Christum*. 

v 15 BAenere O?N <\KpiBu>c n&c nepin<vreTTe. 

v 15 d/c/x- This is the reading of K*B, 17 and other cursives, Or 08 *: and the order 
/3ws TTWS. is supported by the Bohairic version, which however reads afieX(pot after 


&$A have BXeTrer* oui/, a$eX<pot, TTWS a/cpt/3o>s TreptTraretrf, and this is 
supported by the Vulgate and Pelagius ad loc. (as edited). D 2 G 3 KLP have 
the same reading without the insertion of ddeXcpoi : this is supported by 
the Syriac and Armenian versions, and by Chrysostom, Lucifer, Victorinus 
and Ambrosiaster. In*d 2 aKpiftvs is not represented. 

v 17 

This is read by KABP 17 67**...syr arm. v 17 

D 2 *G 3 have o-wiovres, and D 2 c KL...have o-wtevrcs which is supported ffwlcre. 

by Chrysostom and others. 

The Latin rendering was Propterea nolite effici (fieri) imprudentes, 

sed intellegentes, etc. It is quite possible that tB"e participle came in by the 

process of Latinisation. 


The readings of this verse are compared with those of Col. iii 16 by v 19 
Lightfoot, Colossians, pp. 247 f. Here it may suffice to note that B (i ) inserts <A a V0 ? 
tv before ^-aX/ioTr, with P 17 67**: (2) omits TrvevfjLariKals, with d 2 and some K T ^ 
MSS of Ambrosiaster: (3) reads rfj *apdia, with K*0r cat , against tv rfj KapMq 
or tv rals KapSiais. Of these variants (i) and (2) are probably errors, but 
(3) may be accepted. 

V 22 Ai TYN&TKeC, TOTC iAfoiC 

The only MS which at present offers this reading is B. Clement 
Alexandria however cites the passage thus (P. 592) where he quotes vv. 21 y 
25, but where he begins his citation with v. 22 he inserts vTrorao-a-eo-daxrav 
(P. 308). Jerome says that the subditae sint of the Latin in Graecis 
codicibus non habetur ; and he was probably guided by Origen here. 

The other readings are : 

(a) At yvvatKfS, roTy Idiois dvdpcuriv vTroracrcreo-tff KL...syr utr Chr 
(5) At yvvaiKfs, vTTOTacro-co-dc rots 1 Idiots avftpcuriv D 2 ^3 
(c) At yvvaiKes rols Idiots dvdpdcriv vTroTacra-fvOoxrav COparm 
Clem 308 

(a) and (&) preserve the vocative construction, which is found below in 
v. 25, vi i, 4, 5, 9, and in the parallel passages in Col iii 18 ff. 
(&) gives vTroTao-o-to-df in the same position as in CoL iii 18. 
(c) departs from the true construction, and perhaps is not independent 

of I Cor. xiv 34 aXXa inroTa(ra-fo~6o)0~av. 

It is to be noted that in the chapter numberings of Euthalius a new 
capitulum begins with this verse. 

v 23 &YTOC cormp Toy CCOM&TOC. 
This is the reading of K*ABD 2 *G 3 latt., except that K*A prefix 6 to v 23 atfrd 

X c D 2 b KLP read KCU avros c<m o-coi-iyp rod o-to /iaros. The change was 
doubtless intended to make the language more smooth, but it weakens the 



27 avrbs 


For avros we find avrrjv in D 2 C K and many cursives : also in Chrysostom. 
^ GTQ a g am fa Q sense i s obviously weakened by the change. 


So the words stand without addition in N*AB 17 67** and in von der 
Goltz s Athos MS. This last piece of evidence confirms the view that 
Origen knew of no addition (Ru. iii 61). We have further evidence from 
the Bohairic and Aethiopic versions, and from Methodius (Sympos. 54, 
Jahn p. 17). 

But the great mass of authorities add the words e< rfjs o-apKos avrov KOI 
CK T&V 6(rrcQ>v avTov. Irenaeus read them and commented on them (Mass. 
v. 2 3, p. 294). They are derived from Gen. ii 23, Tovro vvv oo-rovv T&V 
6o-Tca>v p.ov Kal vapg K rfjs arapitos /zov, the verse which immediately precedes 
that which St Paul goes on to quote, * For this cause shall a man leave, etc. 
It is not impossible that St Paul should himself have made this adaptation 
as a preliminary to his quotation : but the strength of the evidence against 
the words justifies us in regarding them as an early gloss. 

v 31 vpos 



of the 

v 31 npoc 

In Gen. ii 24 the evidence for the LXX is as follows : 

trpos TTJV ywaiKa avrov, Z>E and most cursives, supported by Origen in 
his comment on Eph. v 31. 

T 77 ywaiKi O.VTOV, A and some cursives. 
Unfortunately the evidence of KB is wanting. 

The passage is thrice quoted in the New Testament. 

In Matth. xix 5 the reading is 777 ywaiKi avrov in almost all authorities. 
In Mark X 7 the whole clause Kal irpoo-Ko\\r)drjo-Tai Trpos r^v yvvaiKa avrov 
is wanting in KB. For the MSS which have this clause the evidence is : 
Trpos rrjv ywaiKa avrov, DXm... 
TT) yvvaiKi avrov, ACLNA... 

In Eph. v 31 the main evidence is : 

TTpos rrjv yvvaiKa avrov, N C BD 2 C KL 

rfi yvvaiicl avrov N* (om. avrov) AD 2 *G 3 17 

Origen (Cat. ad loc.) expressly states that St Paul omitted the clause of 
the LXX 7rpoo~KO\\T)dijo~fTai rrpos TTJV yvvaiKa avrov. In C. Cels. IV 49 h 
quotes, as from St Paul, yeyparrrai yap on fvfuev rovrov /caraXft^ei 
av6pa>7ros rov Trarepa Kal rrjv prjrepa Kal 7rpo<TKo\\T}0qo-Tai npbs TTJV yvvaiKa 
arJrov, /eat eaovrat ol Svo els o~a/cpa piav. TO p,vo~rijptov rovro pfya f crrtV, /c.r.X. 
Here however he is quoting loosely from memory, as is shewn by his giving 
evcKfv rovrov for St Paul s oVt rovrov. Again in Comm. in Matth. t. xvii 
c. 34 he first quotes, as it seems, from the LXX, and then adds St Paul s 
words : but he does not give a continuous quotation from St Paul. These 
two passages therefore are not really inconsistent with his statement as to 
the omission of the clause by St Paul. 


It appears that from Marcion s text of the epistle the clause was also 
absent. For Tertullian c. Marc, v 18 cites the passage thus: Propter hanc 
(v.l. hoc) relinquet homo patrem et matrem, et erunt duo in carne una. 
sacramentum hoc magnum est ( hanc would seem to refer to ecclesiam ) : 
comp. c. Marc, iii 5 Suggerens Ephesiis quod in primordio de homine 
praedicatum est relicturo patrem et matrem, et futuris duobus in unam 
camem, id se in Christum et ecclesiam agnoscere . Epiphanius in a con 
fused note (c. haer. xlii, schol. 3 in Ephes., p. 373) corroborates this 

It is remarkable that the only evidence of Greek MSS for omission of 
the clause is that which we have already noticed in Mark x 7. 

VI 9 K&l &YTCON KA? 

This is the best reading in itself, and it has the strongest authority, being vi 9 
supported by K* (eW.) ABD 2 *P 17 vg. ** v Kal 

The Latin of Clarom. (d 2 ) has et uestrum ipsorum, and in consequence 
of this the second Kal of the Greek is dropped by the corrector : so that we 
get the reading Kal avr&v i5/x<Si> D 2 C , which is also found in G 3 . 

Cyprian, Testim. iii 73, has et uestrum et ipsorum (om. et 2 cod. Monac.): 
this corresponds to Kal vpav Kal avrav N (eai/T.) L. 

The reading of the Textus Receptus /cat vp&v avrvv has but very slight 


This is read by N*AB 17, and is supported by the true text of Cramer s vi 10 T O O 
Catena ad loc., which at this point almost certainly represents Origen (see Xonrou. 
Journ. of Th. St. iii 569). 

As TO XoiTroV, or XoiTroV alone, is frequent in St Paul s epistles, we are 
not surprised to find the variant TO \omov in N C D 2 G 3 and many other 

vi 16 6N TT&CIN. 

The preposition lv is given by XBP 17... Cramer s Catena ad loc. supports vi 16 
this reading in its text, although Chrysostom from whom it is quoting at 
this point has eVi. The Latin rendering is in omnibus, with the rarest 

On the other hand eV! irao-iv is found in AD 2 G 3 KL and many other 
authorities. Ambrosiaster has super his omnibus. In Book xii of the 
de trinitate, ascribed to Vigilius of Thapsus, we find the rendering super 
haec omnia (Chifflet p. 313). This Book, however, according to a recent 
theory is a Latin translation of a Greek treatise (see references in the note 
on p. 291 above, see also p. 269 n.). In c. Varimad. iii 24 Vigilius has the 
usual rendering in omnibus. 


vt 16 TA nenypo)MN<\. 

vi 1 6 rd The definite article is omitted in BD 2 *G 3 . The combination is inter 

esting, but it may be merely accidental Origen has the article in his 
comment in the Catena, and in his comrn. in Exod., Ru. ii 126. In his 
comm. in Joann. xxxii 2 (Ru. iv 406) the article is present, but a little 
lower down (p. 407), though Delarue has it, Huet and Brooke omit it In 
the passages cited by Tregelles (Ru. i 266 and in Prvo. Mai 12) we have 
only allusions from which no argument can be drawn. 

vi 19 TO" MycTHpiON TO? ey<\rr 6 Afoy. 

vi 19 Tb The omission of TOV cvayyeXiov by BG 3 is supported by Victorinus. In 

f^varrripioy Tert. c. Marc, v 18 we have the phrase constantiam manifestandi sacra- 
Tovevay- ment ^ i n apertione orisy which points to the same omission. 


Aya06s, ii 10, iv 28 f., vi 8 

ayadwativr], v 9 

dyatrav, ii 4, v 2, 25, 28, 33, vi 24; 

6 rjyaTT-r) os, i 6 
07077-77, i 15, ii 4, iii 19, vi 23 ; & 

0707777, i 4, iii 17, iv 2, 15, 16 
070x77^5, V I, VI 21 
a7tdeij , v 16 

07405- oi 07:01, i i, 15, 18, ii 19, iii 18, 
iv 12, vi 18; 07101, iii 8, v 3; 07105 
teal a/icoytio$, i 4, v 27 ; TO irvevfj-a rb 
aycov, i 13, iv 30; vaos 0710$, ii 21; 
oi 07401 cwrocrToXoi, iii 5 
cryvota, iv 18 
aypvirveiv, vi 1 8 
qdeiv, v 19 
d5eX06s, vi 21, 23 
a0eos, ii 11 
al/j.a (TOV xpicTToC) i 7, ii 13; afyta Kai 

o-dp, vi 12 
af/Mir, iv 31 
a/crx/>6s, v 12 
v 4 
iii 13, 20 

y^/iaXwreuo ev, iv 8 
6 a^wj oCros, i 21; TOU /c6cr//.ou 
, ii 2 ; oi a/wves, iii 9, 1 1 ; oi 
Trepx6fj.evoi, ii 7; 6 a/wv TWV 
iii 21 
a/ca^opcria, iv 19, V 3 

V 5 
j, v II 

, v 21 

V 15 
, ii ii 
s, ii 20 
d\7]deia, iv 21, 24 f., v 9, vi 14; 6 \67os 


v 15 

dXucrts, vi 20 
a/j.a.pTdveiv, iv 26 
d/iapria, ii I 
, iii 21 

i 4, v 27 
u , iv 8 ff. 
iii 4 

d a/ce0aXatoOo ^ai, i 10 
dva\afj,pdviv t vi 13, 16 
dvaveovo-Bai, iv 23 
di do Ta, V 14 
di>affTp^<f><rdai, ii 3 
dvaa-rpo<p^, iv 22 

(T^S didaaKaXias), iv 14 

s, iii 8 
i, v 2 
v, v 4 
etj a^Spa WXeio^, iv 13 

s, vi 6 

avdpuiros ets ^a naivbv, ii 15; 
iii 16; 6 7raXat6s, iv 22 ; 6 
iv 24 ; oi vioi TtDi dvdpuiruv, iii 5 
a.vLtva.1, vi 9 
vi 19 

TOl^TOU, V 31 

i., vi 13 
d^iws TrepiTTOTelj , iv I 
0^77X777 /coTes, iv 19 
d7nj\\oTpt(i)[dvoi, ii 12, IV 1 8 
OJ , v 6 
iv 22 

direidia oi uioi T^S, ii 2, V 6 
dVeiXTj, vi 9 
a7rX6Ti;s, vi 5 




, iii 5 

ts, i 17, iii 3 
, ii 1 6 
iii 9 
&TroKTiven>, ii 16 
&TTo\ijTp(t}<ns, i 7, 14, iv 30 
d7r6<rroXos, i i, ii 20, iii 5, iv ii 
&iroTlde<T0ai, iv 22, 25 
appafiwv, i 14 

i, iii 10, vi 12 


iv 19 
dVo0os, v 15 
dcrtt>T/a, V 18 
af>%avu>, ii 21, iv 15 
atf?7<ris, iv 16 

ai)r6s (emph.), ii 14, iv 10 f., v 23, 27 
&<pe(Tis, i 7 
d^rj, iv 1 6 
&<p6ap(rla, vi 24 
a<ppwv, v 17 

/3a0os, iii 18 
/3ci7rTi<r/ia, iv 5 

rov xpiffTov Kal #eoO, V 5 
s, vi 1 6 

iv 31 

iv TTWS, V 15 
(TOV deXtffjiaTos auroD), in 

f, iii 5, 21 
yvuplfctv, i 9, iii 3, 5, 10, vi 19, 21 
7j>u)(ris, iii 19 
y6vara Acd/ATrretf, iii 14 
7ovet$, vi i 

s, vi 1 8 
s, iii i, iv i 

(TTpiKe<pa\a[a,i>), vi 17 
5idj3oXos, iv 27, vi ii 


8ia.Kovla, iv 12 
5td/co^os, iii 7, vi 21 
Stdma, ii 3, iv 18 
5i5acr/caXfa, iv 14 
5t5da-/caXoi, iv n 
5t5d(r/cc<r^at (^v atfry), iv 21 
Skoios, vi i 

SiKaiofffoT), iv 24, v 9, vi 14 
5i6, ii n, iii 13, iv 8, 25, v 14 
ii 1 5 

v 10 
56/mra, iv 8 
56a, iii 13, 2i; ei s Ziraivov (r^s) 56^5, 

16, 12, 14; 6 Trarij/9 7-975 56^s, i 17; 

TrXoOros T^S d6rjs, i 18, iii 16 
6ov\e6etv, vi 7 
SoGXos, vi 5 f., 8 
SiVctyiis, i 19, 21, iii 7, 16, 20 
duped, iii 7, iv 7 
dupov, ii 8 

tyelpew, i 20, V 14 
^TJ, rd, ii ii, iii i, 6, 8, iv 17 
ef 76, iii 2, iv 21 
dd(i)\o\drp7]S, V 5 

7, i 2, ii 17, iv 3, vi 15, 23; TJ 
>, ii 14 ; iroieiv dp-f]VTjv 9 
ii 15 
tKK\Tj<rla, i 22, iii 10, 21, v 23 ff., 27, 

29, 32 

K\tye<T0cu, i 4 
iciropeijeff6ai, iv 29 

v 29, vi 4 

s, iii 8 
v ii, 13 
Xeos, ii 4 

s, vi 8 
S, i 1 8, ii 12, iv 4 

ii 7 
&>5oos, v 27 
vdvva[j,ov<r0ai i vi 10 
i>d6<raa6cu, iv 24, vi ii, 14 

/card (r^v), i 19, iii 7, IV 1 6 
, i ii, 20, ii 2, iii 20 

iii 13 
iv 3, 13 
ii 15, vi 2 
tayopdeiv, v 16 

21, 2, 10, v 12 
tTrayye\la, i 13, ii 12, iii 6, vi 2 
S, v. 56a 

(aluves), ii 7 
, 17, iv 13 
iri86eu , iv 26 
tTri0v/j,ia, ii 3, iv 22 

V 14 
, iv 16 
eiroiKoSo/J.eio Oai, ii 20 
eTTovpavlots, iv rotj, i 3, 20, ii 6, iii 10, 
vi 12 



tpydfe<T0ai, iv 28 

tpyaffla, iv 19 

Zpyov (StaKovlas), iv 1 1 ; tpya ii 9 f., v 1 1 

^roifiaffia, vi 15 

c3 yLveadai, vi 3 

etfayyeXi feo-tfcu, ii 17, iii 8 

evayyt\iov, i 13, iii 6, vi 15, 19 

iv n 
V 10 
5, 9 
ev\oyeiv, i 3 
ei)Xo-y^T6$, i 3 
v\oyia, i 3 
eft/ ota, vi 7 

j, iv 32 
v 4 
, i 1 6, V 20 

V 4 
, v 2 
15 f - 

fa^ (roO 0eoD), iv 18 

ij\iKla, iv 13 
TJXtos, iv 26 

i)/ aTroXurp^o ews, iv 30 ; irovrjpd, 
v 16, vi 13 

V 29 

0t\ijfjia (deov, Kvptov), i I, 5, 9, ii, 
v 17, vi 6; rd ^eX^ara, ii 3 
ii 20 

iii 1 7 

6\tyeis, iii 13 
0vfA6s, iv 31 
Qvpefa, vi 1 6 
v 2 
vi 14 

?5tos, [iv 28], v 22 

dX^eta ^i ry I?;(rou, iv 21 

ii 12 
^s, i 19, vi 10 

, v 26 
Kadtfav, i 20 

Kd>6s dvOpuiros, ii 15, iv 24 
Kaip6s, i 10, ii 12, V 16, vi 18 
iv 31 

iv I, 4 
Kdfj.iTTu> TO. y6vara, iii 14 

icapSLa, i 18, iii 17, iv 18, v 19, vi 5, 22 

Kapirbs rov 0wr6s, v 9 

Kara ^/ ifa^ v/j-as irlcrTis, i 15; ri /car 

ipt, vi 21 ; oi /ca^ ^a, v 33 
Karafialvfiv, iv 9 f. 
jrara/SoX); /c6o-/*ou, i 4 
KaTa\a/j,pdvecrdai, iii 18 
/caraXe/Treii , V 31 
Karavray, iv 1 3 
Karapyeiv, ii 15 

-os, iv 12 
, i 4 

vi 13 
eiv , iii 17 


Kan!}Tpa fttpi), iv 9 

, ii 9 
X67ot, v 6 
K(pa\ri, i 22, iv 15, v 23 
/cX6rretJ>, iv 28 
K\r]povo/j.ia, i 14, 18, v 5 

K\T]pOVffda.L) i II 

icX^crts, i 1 8, iv i, 4 
K\v8wvlte<Tda.i, iv 14 
K0fj.tfeiv , vi 8 
, iv 28 

s, vi 12 
s, i 4, ii 2, 12 
Kparaiouffdai, iii 1 6 
Kpdros (TTJS ftrx^os auroO), i 19, vi 10 
Afpairx^, iv 31 

KpV<p-fl, V 12 

Krlfrtv, ii 10, 15, iii 9, iv 24 
/cv/3/a, iv 14 

KILOS ^ w/>fy, ii 21, iv i, 17, v 8, 
vi i, 10, 21 ; ^y ry /cup(y Iija-ov, i 15 
/cupt6r?;s, i 21 

X6705, vi 19; T^S a\t}6da.s, 113; <rairp6s, 

iv 29 ; Acevotj X67ois, v 6 
XOITTOS oi Xot7ro^, ii 3; [ra XoiTra #^, 

iv 17]; TOU XotTroO, vi 10 
\ovrp6v, v 26 
, ii 14 
iv 30 

fjt,aKpodvfj.ia, iv 2 
ios, vi 3 

v 17 
iv 17 



v 17 

(/j.vffT^piov), v 32 

i ig 

ficdoSta, iv 14, vi n 
nedvffKfffdai, v 1 8 
/tAos, iv 25, v 30 
fttpos, iv 16; TO, Karwrepa ^^17, iv 9 
fieffdroixov, ii 14 
fjLeradi86vai, iv 28 

iv 7, 13, 16 
s, iii 1 8 

V I 

v 29 

fivelav iroi.eiffda.Ly i 16 
fj.vr}iJ.oveveiv, ii n 

HvffT-fjpiov, i 9, iii 3 f., 9, v 32, vi 19 
fj.b)po\oyla, V 4 

pa6s, ii a i 

ye*/)6j, i 20, ii i, 5, v 14 

s, iv 14 

, iii 4, 20 
p6^ios (TUJJ> tvro\C)v v 86y/j,ao-iv), ii 15 
vovdeffla, vi 4 
?ous, iv 17, 23 

&os, ii 12, 19 

ofce?o? (rou 6eov), ii 19 

, ii 21, iv 12, 1 6, 29 

i 10, iii 2, 9 
r, v 1 8 

ev <5\/7y, iii 3 
ovopa, i 21, v 20 

e<r0at, i 21, iii 15, v 3 
J, ii 3, iv 31, v 6 
ai, iv 26 
iv 24 

v 2 
vi 14 

otpavot, i 10, iii 15, iv 10, vi 9 
6<}>cl\eiv, v 28 
6<f>0a\fju)dov\ia, vi 6 
6<J>0a\iJLol r^j Kapdtas, i 18 

v 4 

Avdpwiros, iv 22 
;, vi 12 

vi n, 13 
iravovpyla, iv 14 
7ropo8t56vat, iv 19, v 2, 25 

/, v i, v 22 
7rapa7rrc6/xara, i 7, ii i, 5 
7rapiffTav<u y V 27 
ii 19 
iv, vi 4 
irapopyi.fffj.6s, iv 26 
irapprjfflay iii 12, vi 19 
irapp-r]ffia^ff6ai t vi 20 
Tras Trao-a okoSo/*^, ii 2 1 ; Tracra Trarpia, 
iii 15; o! Trdvres, iv 13; rd Trajra, 
i 10 f., 23, iii 9, iv 10, 15, v 13; 
& 7ra<rii , i 23, iv 6, vi 16 
Trar^/5 (fleos), i 2 f., 17, ii 18, iii 14, 

iv 6, v 20, vi 23 
irarpia, iii 15 
IlaOXoj, i i, iii i 
i, i 16 

iii 12 
Treptftl)vj>vff0ai t vi 14 
7re/3t/ce0aXa/a, vi 17 
7re/3i7raretJ/, ii 2, 10, iv I, 17, v 2, 

8, 15 

Treptirol rjffis, i 14 
y i 8 
ii ii 

iv 14 
iv 31 

, i 13, 19 

j, i 15, ii 8, iii 12, 17, iv 5, 13, 
vi 16, 23 

TTlffTOS, i I, VI 21 

TrXa^Tj, iv 14 
TrXaros, iii 18 
TrXeovtKTTjs, V 5 
7r\eovet;la, iv 19, V 3 
Tr\t]povv y i 23, iii 19, iv 10, V 18 
, i 10, 23, iii 19, iv 13 
>, o t iv 25 
s, ii 4 
s, i 7, 1 8, ii 7, iii 8, 1 6 

a7yeXas TO ayiov, 113; 
TO ayiov TOV deov, iv 30 ; ai^ToG (*c. 
flcou), iii 16; ff 
i 17; TOU ^o6s u/wD^, iv 23; 
ii 1 8, iv 4; evoTijs TOV 
iv 3 ; iv irve6fj,aTi, ii 22, iii 5, v 18, 
vi 18; fjuix ai P a T0 " irvetp>aTos, vi 17; 


TO?S viots rrjs aTretOLas, ii 2 

TTVCVfJUtTtKOS, i 3, V 19 J Tct TTVCVfiaTiKO., 

vi 12 



iroieiv (jrpoOeo-iv), iii n ; Troteiffdat fj.velav, 
i 1 6 ; Troieicrdat aij^aiv, iv 16 
, ii 10 
iv ii 
ii 12 

li IO 

irovTjpta, vi 12 

Troves, o, vi 16; fy^pa, v 16, vi 13 

Tropvela, V 3 


TTOUJ, i 22, vi 15 

t vi 21 
s, iv 2 
v 3 

vi 20 
iii 3 
Trpoe\Trt^U t i 1 2 
irpoeToi/j.a^iv, ii 10 
irpodeffu , Kara, i n, iii ii 
irpooplfrtv, i 5, ii 

i, ii 18, iii 12 

i t vi 18 
i, i 16, vi 1 8 
, vi 18 
, v 31 
v 2 
Trpo<r j)iro\-rj[j.\l>la t vi 9 

i 9 

ii 20, iii 5, iv i-i 
irvpovcrdai, vi 16 
7rc6/)W(rts T^J KapSlas, iv 18 

, v 26 

eo, v 17; 
piov<r6ai, iii 17 
/Juris, V 27 

ffairpos, iv 29 

<rdp$, ii 3, v 29, 31; & o-a/)^, ii u; 
^ 1-3 (ra/)/ci auroO, ii 15 ; /card <rdpKa, 
vi 5; Trpds a?yua /cal cra/j/ca, vi 12 

fffievvijvai, vi 16 

o-icoros, V 8, n, vi 12 

, iv 1 8 
, i 8, 17, iii 10 

<ro0o/, V 15 

(TTT/Xos, v 27 

<77roi>5af , iv 3 

o-Taupoj, ii 1 6 

0-Tofj.a, iv 29, vi 19 

(nivapfjio\oyicr6ai, ii 21, iv 16 
i, iv 1 6 

v 3 

<rweyftpeiv t ii 6 
s, iii 4 

, ii 5 
<rvvivai t V 17 
<rvt>Ka6lfciv, ii 6 

s, iii 6 
V ii 

ffvviJ.tTo-x.os, iii 6, v 7 
i., ii 22 
ii 19 
s, iii 6 
<r<ppayle(r6ai, i 13, iv 30 
cr6fe<r0ai, ii 5, 8 
crw/xa, iv 16, V 23, 28; (rou 
i 23, iv 12, v 30; & crwyua, ii 
roO (Tw^uaros, V 23 
i 13 
r6, vi 17 

, V 26 

i 5 

it6s TOU ^eou, iv 13; TV}$ a7ret^/ 
v 6 ; TWJ oLvdpuirtov, iii 5 
v 19 

, vi I, 5 

virepavo), i 21, iv 10 
vTrep(3d\\u>, i 19, ii 7, iii 19 
ffov, iii 20 
vi 15 

, i 22, V 21, 24 
ff^os, iii 1 8, iv 8 

(pavepovvdai, V 13 
<pdetpe<rdai, iv 22 
</>o/3et<r0at, V 33 
06^Sos, v 21, vi 5 
<t>pay(j.6t, ii 14 
<ppovr)<ris, i 8 
i, ii 3 

s, v 8 f., 13 

rLfetv, i 18, iii 9 

16, iv 

v 2 

, v i, vi i, 4; <5p7?7S, ii 3; 

rAetos (d^/>), iv 13 
TTjpetV, iv 3 
TOTTOV 8id6j>ai, iv 27 

vi 5 
s, vi 21 


Xaplfraeat, iv 32 

X<ipiv t rovroVy iii I, 14 iv r<p xpio"r$ 

Xdpis, i 2, 6f M ii 5, 7f., vi 24; (5o0era, iii ii ; iv XptcrT<, i 3, iv 32 ; iv 

ibbdrf), iii 2, 7 f., iv 7; ?va 5$ xdpti Xptcrry I^iroO, i i, ii 6 f., 10, 13, 

rots &Ko6ov<rtv t iv 29 iii 6, 21; x w P* s XpiaroO, ii 12 
X&PITOVV, i 6 

28 ^dXXeus V 19 

r, ii ii ^aX/*6j, v 19 

aefa, iv 28 ; 7rp6s ot/co5o/i7jv T^S xp e ^ a ^ ^e05o$, iv 25 

iv 29 ^u/C# ^f 
iv 32 

ii 7 yd^, v 19 


Adoption, 27 f., 143 

agapae, 122 

Ambrosiaster, 143, 172, 268, 301 ; 
Roman edition of, 294, 300 

Anthology, epigram of Philip of Thes- 
salonica, 262 f. 

Antioch, Church in, 5, 55 

aorist, meaning and rendering of, 142, 
190, 195, 205 ; epistolary, 167, 217, 

apostles and prophets, 69, 77 f., 97 f., 
163, 181 

Aristotle, on a<f>^, 186 ; ^0/37776?^, 187 ; 
, 197 ; dvtpyeia, 242 ff . ; 

Armenian version, evidence for Old 
Syriac, 214, 267 n. 

article : qualifying phrase added with 
out art., i 15 n., ii n, iii 4 n., iv i ; 
anarthrous subst. with further defi 
nition, iii ii n., iv 14, 16 n. ; art. 
with first only of related terms, 
v 5 n. ; art. with the second of two 
nouns, v 23 n. 

Ascension of Isaiah, on evil spirits, 
154; seven heavens, 180; the Be 
loved, 232 

Ascension of our Lord, 24, 96, 1 79 f . 

atonement : redemption through blood, 
29 ; blood of a covenant, 62 f. ; 
reconciliation, 65 f. 

Baptism, 178, 206 f. ; confession at, 
125, 206 f. ; origin of baptismal 
creed, 207 ; Voice at the Baptism, 
230 f. 

Beloved, the, 28 ; detached note on, 
229 ff. 

Body, of Christ, the Church, 41 ff. ; 
fulfilling Him, 43 f., 87 ff., 100 f . ; 
quotations from Clement, 140 ; Origen 
and Chrysostom, 45 ; one body, 65 f., 
93 f . ; fellow-members of ( concor- 
porate ), 78 ; growth of, 102 ff., 131, 
183, 188 ; building of, 99, 182, 188 ; 
Christ the Head of , 41 ff., 103, i24ff.; 
the Saviour of, 124 f. ; lying is a sin 
against, no f. ; in a bodily way , 
88 ; the body of His flesh , 88, 161 

building, metaphor derived from, 67 ff., 
112 f. ; building and growth, 71, 99, 
113, 182, 1 88 ; rooted and founded, 
85 f. ; of Greek temples, 260 ff. 

Calvary, legend of, 119 n. 

Christ : the rendering of Messiah ,6; 
with and without the article, 22, 32 ; 
the titles Christ and Jesus , 23 f., 
107; Christ and the Lord , 72, 
90 ; * Christ and the Son of God , 
100 ; in Christ , 22 ff., 32 f., 57 f.; 
without Christ , 56 f., 158 ; Christ 
in us, 85; to learn Christ , 106, 
190 ; the kingdom of, 117 ; the fear 
of, 123, 127, 209; see also Body, 
Fulness, Mystery 

Church, the, 80, 89, 124^. ; its relation 
to Christ, see Body, Fulness : the 
household of God, 67 ; God s house, 
68 f. ; God s temple, 71 f.; Christ s 
ecclesia, 68 f. 

Clement of Alexandria, on the Church, 

Colossians, Epistle to, 136 f. ; passages 
discussed, (i 24) 44, (i 26 f.) 238, 
(ii 9) 88, (ii 13 f.) 153 



Corinthians, First Epistle to : passages 
discussed, (ii i ff.) 237, (ii 6, 8) 154, 
(iii 9) 165, (iii loff.) 360 f., (xii6) 
152, (xiii) 251. Second Epistle to, 
122; its opening, 18 ; passages dis 
cussed, (i 13) 251, (i 21) 147, (iii 14) 
265, (v i) 165, (v 19) 195, (viii i) 
225 f. 

corner-stone, 68 f., 163 f. 

Dative, of definition, ii in.; of time, 

iii 5 n. 
Didache", date and value of, 98 n. ; on 

apostles and prophets, 98; list of 

warnings, 112 n. ; parallels quoted 

from, 176, 200, 211 f. 
dispensation, 32, 144 f. 

Elect, the : see detached note on The 
Beloved , 229 ff. 

election : the principle of selection, 
25 ff. ; the ultimate purpose of, 33 ff. 

English versions: early, in, 23, iv 
16570,132^,264. A.V., in, 23, 
ii 9, 20, iii 15, 21, iv 21, 24, 32, 
v 13, 26, vi 4, 6; 57, 92, 99, 118, 
120 n., 132, 136. E. V., i ii ; 76, 

Ephesians, Epistle to : a circular 
letter, 1 1 ; omission of * in Ephesus , 
n f. and note on variants, 292 ff.; 
absence of salutations, 1 2 ; analysis 
of, 13 f . ; summary of, 130 f. 

Ephraim Syrus, commentary preserved 
in Armenian, 142 f., 145, 148, 152, 
214, 267 n., 288, 290, 293, 298 f. 

epistolary phrases, 37 f. ; opening salu 
tations, 141 ; detached note on, 

275 ff- 

Esdras, Second (Fourth) : parallels 
quoted from, 39 n., 48 

Fatherhood of God, 27 f., 38, 83 ff., 

93 *, 174 
flesh : of Christ, 63 f. ; the body of 

His flesh , 88, 161 ; in the flesh , 

56, 72; one flesh , 126; blood 

and flesh , 213 
Fritzsche : notes on etdoKia, 144 ; tirl- 

71/uxris, 252; irX^pia/j-a, 255 
fulness, 87 ff.; of the times, 32, 39 n.; 

of Christ, 42 ff., too f. ; of God, of 
the Deity, 88 f. ; detached note on 

, 255 ff. 

Galatians, Epistle to : passages dis 
cussed, (ii 7, 9) 75, (ii 20) 108, 183, 
(ii 8) 243 f., (v 6) 246 

Galen : see Medical writers 

Gentiles: use of the term, 157 f., 189; 
problem of their inclusion, 5 f., 35 f., 
55 f. ; former condition of, 56 ff., 
60 f., 105 f.; new position of, 58, 62, 
67, 78 f. _ 

grace : opening salutation, 141 ; closing 
formula, 137, 217 ; St Paul s use of 
the term, 28, 51 f., 75 f., 95 ; to 
give grace , 113, 193 f.; grace of 
speech, 116, 198 f. j detached note 
on %<pts, 221 f. 

Hebraistic phrases : sons of, 49, 156, 

1 68 ; purpose of the ages , 80 ; 

inheritance , 116 ; walking , 153 ; 

heavens , 1 80 ; know of a surety , 


Hippocrates : see Medical writers 
humility, a new virtue, 91 

Inscriptions: temple-barrier, 60, 160; 
on building, 164, 260 ff. 

James, Epistle of : passages discussed, 
(iv 6) 223, (v 12) 279 n., (v 16) 247 

Jerome: his commentary on Ephesians 
mainly from Origen, 143, 147, 162, 

I7 1 f -> r 73> i9 6 J 9 8 f - 2 97 f - 5 his 
revision of the Vulgate, 147, 289; 
various readings or renderings, 78 
(concorporales), 147 (pignus), 164 
and 288 (summus angularis lapis), 
171 f. (propositum), 174 (paterni- 
tates), 177 (in ecclesia), 193 and 299 
(opportunitatis), 208 (propter hoc), 
290 (tota arma) ; on a legend of 
Calvary, 119 n. ; on bishops, 123; 
on the Gospel ace. to the Hebrews, 
194; on Clement, 254 n. ; on Jer. 
vi 26 (d/yaTTTj-nSs), 229 n. ; on Job 
xvii 7 (ireTT^puvTai), 265 n. 
Jerusalem, conference at, 8 ; see 



Jesus : see Christ 

Jewish thought, contemporary, 41, 49, 
133 n - !54, 175, 180, 213 

Kneeling, in N.T., 82 f., 174 

Latin versions, 289 f . : see Jerome 
Lord, the : see Christ : in the Lord , 
72, 90, 118, 128 

Man, Divine purpose for, 14, 130; not 
changed by sin, 29 ; worked out by 
election, 29, 33 ; through the Church, 
44 f.; * nature of man, 50; new 
making of man in Christ, 52 f., 101; 
one new man , 65, 94; a perfect 
man , 100 f. ; the individual and the 
whole of humanity, 102 f. ; the old 
man and the new man , 107 ff. : 
see also Unity 

Medical writers, illustrations from : 
Hippocrates, 186, 195 ; Galen, 187 f., 
200, 242 ; Dioscorides, 207, 264 

Messiah, the hope of the Jew, 6 f., 
22 f . : see Christ 

ministry, the Christian, 97 ff. 

mystery: source of the word to St 
Paul, 30 f. ; his use of it, 208 f . ; 
the Divine secret , 39, 76 ff., 81 ; 
the epithet great , 126; the mys 
tery of the gospel , 136, 216; de 
tached note on ftwrfipiov, 234 ff. 

Origen: his commentary on Ephesians, 
quoted, 45, 143, 148 f., 152, 163, 

!73 l8 3 f - i9f *95, i9 8 f - (xa- 
picrrLa), 203 (tayopatffJi.evoi), 219 
(&<f>6apffia), 254 (tirtyvwis), 269 f. 
(irupuffts), 292 (om. & E06ry), 298, 
302 ; text of Greek fragments, 199 ; 
newly edited, 297, 303; notes in 
von der Goltz s MS, 292 f., 297 ff. : 
see Jerome 

Papyri, illustrations from, 275 ff . : 
further citations, 37, 146, 151, 159, 

Pastoral Epistles, phraseology of, 209 
and 239 f. (, 141 (opening 
salutation), 151 and 155 (6 vvv aluv), 
J 53 (absence of Trepiirareiv), 193 


(SidjSoXos), 196 (dovvat eavrov), 200 
(e\tyxw), 226 (XC/HS), 251 f. (tiri- 
yvwis d\r)0elas), 283 (x^ptv fyw) ; 
further passages noted in i Timothy, 
(i 17) 218, (ii i) 216, (ii 5) 178, 
(iii 13) 148, (iv 5 ) 216, (iv 13) 168, 
(v 5) 284, (v 8) 163, (vi 17) 169; 
in 2 Timothy, (i 3) 280, (i 8) i66f., 
(i 10) 170 and 218, (i 8 12) 172, 
(i 16) 216, (iii 16) 211, (iv 5) 181 f., 
(iv 19) 281; in Titus, (i 5) 166, 
(ii 7) 218, (iii 3) 195, (iii 4 ) 156, 
(iii 5) 206, (iii 10) 211, (iii 14) 193, 
(iii 15) 281 

Paul, St : preparation for his mission, 
5, 25, 6 1 ; his sense of the problem 
which faced him, 7, 75 f. ; his en 
deavours for reconciliation, 8 f., 55 ; 
cause and effect of his imprisonment, 
9 f., 74 ; his relations with Ephesus, 
12 ; his style, 19, 47 f.; his relation 
to the life and words of the Lord, 

Pelagius, commentary of, 295 

Peter, First Epistle of : dependent on 
Ephesians, 151, 171, 175, 209; pas 
sages discussed, (ii 9) 148, (iii 21) 

Primasius, commentary attributed to, 

prophets, Christian: see Apostles 

Babbinic literature, 48, 151, 175, 213, 

231 n. : see Jewish contemporary 

readings, various : see notes on i 6, 

iii 9, 13 f., 21, iv 6, 19, 29, v 22; 

and the detached note, 285 ff. 
redemption, 29, 36, 147 f. 
revelation, 39, 76 f. ; see Mystery 
Eomans, Epistle to, passages discussed, 

(i 9 f.) 279, (vi 6 ff.) 108, (viii 28) 

171, (x 8 ff.) 2-06, (xi 7, 25) 265, 

(xii 3) 225 
Eome, St Paul at, i ; its influence on 

his thought, 5, 10 

Salutations, opening, 17 f., 141, 277 f.; 

closing, 137, 217 ff., 280 f. 
slavery, 128 ff. 
Spirit, the : the earnest of the in- 



heritance , 35 f. ; meaning of, 38 f. , 
49, 66, 72, 78, 92 f. ; * unity of the 
Spirit , 92 f. ; the Spirit and the 
corporate life, 113; filled with the 
Spirit , 121 f. ; the sword of the 
Spirit , 135 f. ; see irvevjM 

spiritual powers, 41, 49, 132 f. 

Stephen, teaching of St, 3 f. 

Temple, description of the, 59; in 
scribed barrier in the, 60, 160; 
substructures of the, 69 ; naos and 
hieron, 71 ; building of Greek 
temples, 260 f. 

Testaments of the xii Patriarchs, 
quoted, 154, 195, 227 n. 

Thessalonians, First Epistle to : pas 
sages discussed, (i 2 f.) 279, (ii 13 f.) 

246, Second Epistle to: passages 
discussed, (i u) 182, (i 12, ii 16) 225, 
(ii 7) 209, (ii 7ff.) 236!., 242, 246, 
(iii 17) 137 
Tychicus, it f., 136 f. 

Unity, St Paul s efforts on behalf of, 
7 ff., 55 ; the one* and * the many 
of Greek philosophy, 32 ; unity of 
mankind in Christ, 52 f., 65, 91, 
94 ; abolition of distinction between 
Gentile and Jew, 55 f., 59 ff., 64; 
the unity of the Spirit , 92 f. ; unity 
in diversity, 95 f. ; the unity of the 
faith , 99 : see also Body, Man 

Vigilius of Thapsus : authorship of de 
trin. xii, 269, 291, 303 


BS 2695 .R62 1909 


Robinson, J, Armitage 

(Joseph Armitage) , 
St. Paul s Epistle to 

the Ephesians : a 
AMZ-0046 (mcih)