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npoz p n M A i o Y z; 

E n I 2 T O A H. 



E n I 2 T O A H. 







Hcmfcon : 


[The Riyht of Translation is reserved.] 




~OY dedicating tins work to my elder Pupils at 
-^ Harrow 1 , I hope that I sufficiently indicate 
what is and what is not to be looked for in it. 

A glance at the following pages will show that I 
enter into no competition with those who have 
sought to provide the students of Scripture with 
laro^e materials of theological information, or to <mide 

o o o 

them through a labyrinth of conflicting interpreta 
tions. These are important objects, and learned and 
able men in our own country are pursuing them. 
But mine has been a different and a humbler aim. 
I have set before myself the case of readers who re 
quire rather results than processes of investigation, 
and have sought not so much to argue and to discuss 
as to interpret and to teach. 

1 Dedication (1859) : 





I have long felt that there was a work still to be 
done in connection with the study of Scripture, in 
which it would be an unspeakable happiness to bear 
even the humblest part. The interpretation of the 
Word of God is too apt to degenerate into a censor 
ship of its human interpreters. Men are satisfied to 
drink of a very turbid stream, who might slake their 
thirst at the living spring. The 7rpo(f)r)Tr]s, instead 
of being the very mouthpiece of the /xdWis, becomes 
the mere echo of surrounding Trpo^rjrai. Gifts are 
exercised in the collation and comparison of previous 
commentaries, which Avould be invaluable if brought 
to bear immediately on the living oracles them 

I believe that, to a mind educated in the study 
of ancient writers, and a heart disciplined for the 
pursuit of Divine knowledge, the Scriptures will 
gradually unfold their own meaning as the reward of 
a patient and a trustful study. On the other hand, 
if this process be interfered with by the premature 
presentation of the opinion of a human commentator, 
the clearness of the vision will inevitably be dis 
turbed, now by a prepossession, and now by an an 
tipathy, alike inconsistent with the spirit of calm 
and candid enquiry, and uncongenial to the very cli 
mate in which such processes should be carried on. 

It will not be supposed that I undervalue the 
work of those who, in the study and explanation of 


Scripture, have availed themselves of every help fur 
nished by the labours of those who have gone before 
them. Such a tone would indeed give little promise 
of success in a toil of which the first condition is hu 
mility. Still less can I hope that the present com 
mentary on the Epistle to the Romans will afford a 
specimen of that method of interpretation which I 
have spoken of as desirable. Its deficiencies are 
many and obvious. My very anxiety that it should 
be an independent testimony has necessarily render 
ed it most incomplete. I have abstained, throughout 
the w r hole of its preparation, from all use of the notes 
or commentaries of others. I have desired to catch 
and to represent the meaning of each passage and of 
the whole, without deriving it from any secondary 
source. For almost eighteen years, at intervals, I 
have been occupied in this study. Each single note 
is the result of some honest labour. Every reference, 
whether in illustration of language or of doctrine, 
has been minutely examined and deliberately chosen. 
In some cases, the interpretation given has been se 
lected from amongst several which occurred to me ; 
selected perhaps after long hesitation, frequent re 
consideration, and some changes of mind. When 
finally chosen, I have nevertheless stated it alone, as 
the conviction of my own judgment, and in the hope 
that the judgment of others may ratify it. In al 
most every instance I have added proof to assertion, 


deriving that proof invariably from Scripture itself, 
and generally from some parallel expression in the 
writings of the same Apostle. 

How often I have seemed to myself to arrive at 
positive certainty as to the intended sense of some 
difficult passage, by the help of light thrown upon it 
from another, it is not for me to say. If I express a 
thankful hope that it often has been so, let it be for 
the sake of adding a reverent testimony to the har 
mony of the Divine Revelation, arid to the power 
and dignity of its enunciation by St Paul. 

That that enunciation is made in language de 
serving to be carefully examined, because, like the 
language of all intelligent men, it expresses thought, 
and means what it says, ought not to require to be 
stated. The idiom of St Paul may differ in some 
important respects from that of the Attic writers, 
and yet not be on that account loose or accidental. 
Hellenistic Greek, if in one aspect a corruption, is in 
another rather an over-refinement, of the Classical 
original. Its departures from the purer model are 
not all provincialisms or vulgarisms. It has laws of 
its own, and those laws can in some measure be 
traced and should be studied. And with reference 
to language generally, it is surely the right of every 
author to have his words regarded as intentional 
and not casual, if they will bear an intelligible sense 
in their legitimate construction. One of my principal 


endeavours has been, to trace through the New Tes 
tament the uses of the more remarkable words or 
phrases which occur in this Epistle, arranging them, 
where the case required it, under their various mo 
difications of sense, so as to render (if it might be 
so) some service to the study of other parts of 
Scripture. In no instance have I allowed myself to 
travel, except by actual necessity, from the Scrip 
tural into the Classical field. 

On the other hand, St Paul s exposition of Di 
vine truth is ever of what may be called an occa 
sional as opposed to a systematic character. Not 
accidental, with reference to the inspiration which 
dictated, or to the Providence which guided and 
preserved the writing ; yet incidental, as regarded 
its human author, the circumstances which elicited 
it, and the wants to which it ministered. A man 
full of faith and of the Holy Ghost addresses him 
self, in an epistolary form, to a congregation known 
to him personally or unknown. In the former case, 
it is natural that his letter should abound in remi 
niscences of past intercourse, expressions of grati 
tude for kindnesses received, and of anxiety for the 
permanence of that work of which he had witnessed 
the commencement. In the latter case, it is equally 
natural that he should carry his readers at once into 
that region in which his own best and highest life 
is exercised, assume their communion with him in 


things felt to be all-important, and expatiate with 
them, as their guide at once and their companion, 
among the mysteries, the revealed secrets, of the 
very world to come. The Epistle to the Romans is 
of the latter order. This congregation was one 
which St Paul had not yet visited. In an Epistle 
therefore addressed to it we should expect general 
topics to predominate over personal. But an Epistle, 
whatever be its subject, and to whomsoever it may 
be oxldressed, is an Epistle, a letter, still. It differs 
essentially from every other kind of writing ; from 
a speech, from a discourse, from a treatise, from a 
meditation. We must scarcely attempt to divide it 
into sections. We must scarcely imagine it to have 
been written upon a preconceived plan. We expect 
in it sequence, not system ; coherence, not compo 
sition. It is enough if each sentence, each topic, 
flows easily out of the preceding ; if every thought 
suggests the next which follows, by a train not of 
elaborate reasoning, but of natural association. Tak 
ing it as it is, we may show its connection, we may 
trace its argument ; but we mar its beauty, and we 
miss its meaning, if we reduce it to a framework of 
premeditated heads and formal subdivisions. 

While therefore I have laboured, even at the risk 
of some repetition, to follow from step to step both 
the substance and the language of this Epistle, I 
have abstained from any attempt to give, whether 


beforehand or afterwards, a detailed analysis of its 

A life of almost incessant practical labour affords 
little room for studies which, to be worth anything, 
ought to be prolonged and continuous. Neverthe 
less I cherish the hope that I may yet add some 
thing to this work ; something, at all events, to 
correct its errors ; something, it may be, to carry a 
similar process into another Epistle of St Paul. 

For the present, I would commend this portion 
of my undertaking to the use of those for whom it 
is specially designed. 

I desire to record my impression, derived from 
the experience of many years, that the Epistles of 
the New Testament, no less than the Gospels, are 
capable of furnishing useful and solid instruction to 
the highest classes of our Public Schools. If they 
are taught accurately, not controversially; positively, 
not negatively ; authoritatively, yet not dogmati 
cally ; taught with close and constant reference to 
their literal meaning, to the connection of their parts, 
to the sequence of their argument, as well as to their 
moral and spiritual instruction ; they will interest, 
they will inform, they will elevate ; they will inspire 
a reverence for Scripture never to be discarded, they 
will awaken a desire to drink more deeply of the 
Word of God, certain hereafter to be gratified and 


There are also Christian laymen who would 
gladly study the New Testament in its original 
Greek, if they could find a guide neither verbose 
nor disputatious ; contented to give the true, with 
out expressly negativing every erroneous interpret 
ation ; avoiding theological technicalities, and yet 
telling them, distinctly and accurately, what St Paul 
himself wrote upon topics of paramount and un 
changeable interest. To minister in any manner to 
the wants of such students of Scripture would be 
its own reward. 

I will not disguise my hope that this publication 
may possibly, in some few instances, be of use even 
to a different class of readers. My own special study 
of the Epistle to the Romans began in preparation 
for expository Sermons, delivered weekly, during 
1842 and the two following years, in St Martin s 
Church at Leicester. If I could indulge the expecta 
tion that these Notes might aid a similar plan in 
some other Parish, furnishing a brother Clergyman, 
whose strength and time may be too heavily tasked 
to leave much room for independent research, with 
the bare elements of exposition, to be clothed by 
his own experience and zeal with the better part of 
all preaching, its sympathy and its exhortation ; I 
should indeed feel that I had reaped an abundant 
harvest, for which no words of mine could adequately 
express my thankfulness. 


For the text of this Edition of the Epistle to 
the Romans I am indebted to my friend the Rev. 
B. F. Westcott, M. A., late Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge; whose name will be a sufficient guarantee 
for the learning, accuracy, and ability with which 
that most important part of the work has been per 
formed. Mr Westcott has thus allowed me to anti 
cipate (with regard to this Epistle) the publication of 
that complete recension of the text of the New Tes 
tament, on which he has been for some time engaged. 
For everything connected with the text, except in 
deed the punctuation, Mr Westcott has kindly per 
mitted me to make him responsible. The principles 
on which his revision has been made will be found 
clearly stated in his own words which follow. 


August 6, 1859. 


"It has been our 1 object to give a text which contains 
what appear to be the exact words of the Apostle, even in 
points of orthography, simply from the consideration of the 

1 In the revision of the text I have been throughout in constant com 
munication with the Rev. Fenton J. A. Hort, M.A., without whose help I 
should not have undertaken the task. Though Mr Hort is not answerable for 
every reading which is adopted, I believe that our points of difference are not 
more than two or three. I owe to Mr Hort particularly a sense of the im 
portance of the various readings in iv. i (om. evptjK^ai), and xiii. 5 
), and of a change of accent in icpivei for Kpivei in ii. 16. 


evidence, without paying any regard to the textus receptus 
or to any other standard. With this object we have made 
use of every kind of evidence, external and internal, not 
confining ourselves to authorities of a particular date, nor 
disregarding considerations of style and language. Without 
attempting to fix very rigidly the limits of the different 
groups or families into which the external evidence 
MSS, Versions, Quotations may be divided, any one who 
has analysed the various readings in a few chapters of the New 
Testament, will see that, as a general rule, certain authorities 
Lave a kindred character. This being so, it is necessary to 
estimate the relative value of the different groups of authori 
ties as well as of the individual authorities themselves ; and 
the group which represents the most ancient text must, with 
out doubt, have the greatest weight, the most ancient text 
being determined, in the first instance, purely historically. 
If all the authorities which this class includes manuscripts 
of various dates from the 4th to the I4th or I5th century, 
the oldest versions, the earliest quotations are unanimous, 
then the text may be considered certain, and the variations 
which exist can (in point of fact) be traced to some well- 
known cause of corruption. When, however, the members 
of the highest class differ among themselves, then problems 
of various difficulty arise which do not admit of any uniform 
mechanical solution. It frequently happens that a various 
reading is confined to one of the subsidiary groups which 
are formed within the main group to Western authorities, 
for instance, in conflict with all others or that it is an 

obvious gloss, or an interpolation, or a transitional reading 

and when this is so, there can be little doubt as to the 
decision. But sometimes the authorities are so divided that 
an absolute judgment is at present impossible. Either 
a most important Greek MS stands nearly alone, and yet 


is supported by strong internal evidence ; or internal evi 
dence is against the best attested reading ; or the variations 
are such that they point to a corruption anterior to existing 
authorities. In such cases, and they are comparatively very 
rare, the alternative readings are always given in the 
margin, so that every reading is noticed which seems to 
have a bond fide claim to be considered as part of the true 
text. Other readings have an interest from peculiar causes, 
as illustrating, for instance, either the source or the progress 
or the limits of a corruption. To notice these particularly 
would render it necessary to enter into details foreign to the 
present work ; but the student will find (on reference to any 
critical apparatus) examples worthy of attentive considera 
tion in the following passages of the Epistle: i. 32; ii. 17 
(t 8e) ; iii. 5 (^ara dvOpooTrcov), 9> i y - -S (&iicaiocrvvr)v} , v. 16 
(rt//,aprr;/mTO?) ; vii. 6 (T. v. rov davarov), 25 (ev^apiarw) ; 
viii. I, 24; xii. II (rw Kaipcv), 13 (rat? /^e/a?); xiii. 12 
(rd epya r. (/>.); xiv. 6; xv. 24, 32 ; xvi. 17, 18. 

"The only passage in the Epistle which presents any 
critical difficulties of a peculiar character is the great 
doxology which is found in the mass of later MSS at the 
end of Chap, xiv., and in the most ancient at the end of 
Chap. xvi. This difference of position is evidently the 
result of some earlier variation, of which traces remain 
in intermediate readings, for the doxology is inserted by 
some MSS in both places ; and in two (or three) it is omitted 
entirely. And yet further the variations which exist in xvi. 
20, 24 point to successive attempts to harmonize it with 
the form of the context. In several respects the passage 
offers an analogy to the famous pericope, John vii. 53 
viii. 12, but with this difference, that internal evidence 
is decisive as to its Pauline origin. Whether it may be 
possible that the Epistle proceeded in two forms from the 


Apostle s bands, the one closing with Chap. xiv. and the 
doxology, the other extended by the addition of the two 
last chapters after the omission of the doxology, or whether 
any other more satisfactory explanation can be offered of 
the phenomena of omission, repetition, transposition, au 
thenticity, must be left for further investigation. 

" Many points of orthography, such as the spelling of 
compounds of avv and eV, must be regarded as still unsettled. 
The best MSS do not in all cases observe a uniform rule, 
and some of those which most constantly preserve the v 
contain such singular mistakes from sound in other cases, 
that it would be rash to trust to their authority alone. 
For similar reasons I have not gone so far in admitting other 
orthographical peculiarities (as Xi/^ta, * </> e\7riSi, epavvdw) 
as the evidence of MSS in particular passages would jus 
tify, though it is possible that the orthography of the same 
writer might vary in some words in the course of a long 


~jl /TORE than ten years ago I expressed the hope 
-*-*-*- that I mip ht live to add something to the 

o O 

work which had already occupied much time and 
labour 1 . It was not, however, until a first and second 
Edition had been exhausted, that I seriously set 
myself to the task of thorough revision. For the 
last three years, I can say with truth, this object has 
been steadily kept in view; and amidst a thousand 
interruptions arising from daily calls of practical 
duty I have at last succeeded in accomplishing 
what I proposed to myself; accomplishing, and not 
accomplishing for no one can feel more strongly 
than myself the inadequacy of the result achieved. 

The present Edition is as nearly as possible twice 
the length and bulk of the former. Not one page 

1 See Preface to the First Edition, page xiii. 
V. R. B 


remains unaltered : for the most part it has been 
entirely re- written. 

The main features of the work are, however, 
unchanged. Not only is the general line of inter 
pretation what it was in the first Edition, but in all 
passages of primary importance the idea, and often 
the language, is the same. Each paragraph, each 
sentence, each clause, has been carefully, painfully, 
repeatedly pondered ; the rendering has been made 
more exact, the expression of the thought terser and 
more pointed, the connection or transition more dis 
tinctly defined ; but I do not recall an instance in 
which it has been found necessary to reverse an 
earlier judgment upon any important topic of 

It is rather in the matter of illustration than of 
exposition that this third Edition differs from the 
two preceding it. I have sought more and more to 
render the work serviceable to students of the Greek 
Testament generally, and of St Paul s Epistles in 
particular. As my hope diminishes of living to com 
plete a series of like publications, there has grown a 
desire to contribute something which may be helpful 
in this direction, so far at least as the vocabulary of 
the Epistle to the Romans comprehends (as to a 
great extent it does) the words and phrases of St 
Paul s other writings. The Index to this work will 


be found, in some considerable degree, an Index to 
the Epistles as a whole. 

The same process which the first Edition carried 
through the New Testament has now been applied 
also to the Septuagint. With diligent toil each 
important word has been traced out through the 
Greek Bible and Apocrypha, by the help of the 
invaluable, but most inaccurately printed, Concord 
ance of Troimnius, and a thoughtful selection and 
classification made of its distinctive and illustrative 
uses. The amount of time and toil thus bestowed, 
in the endeavour to take nothing for granted or 
at second hand, can only be estimated by one who 
has made the attempt. 

As in the first Edition, so in this, I have ab 
stained from any reference to the notes or com 
mentaries of others. It is impossible, indeed, for 
any man to assert, with regard to any department of 
study, that he is absolutely independent of suggestion 
or influence from others. No doubt, if I were able 
to trace my idea of any particular passage to its 
source, I might find it largely indebted to things 
heard and read, from the days of lessons in the Sixth 
Form at Rugby under Dr Arnold thirty-five years 
ago, down to the present moment. It is only in a 
modified sense that any truthful writer can lay claim 
to absolute independence. 



I remember a passage in Archdeacon Evans s 
Bishopric of Souls, in which he recommends a young 
Clergyman to study his Greek Testament for himself, 
without note or comment, by the help (I think) of 
Wahl s Clavis alone, promising him a result of true 
understanding out of all proportion to the second 
hand opinion of doctrine which might be drawn 
from note- writers and expositors. Such a suggestion 
received in the first days of a man s Ministry, and 
steadily adhered to throughout it, can scarcely fail 
to influence strongly and it has been the moving- 
spring of this Book. 

In one chief respect this third Edition is but the 
reprint of the former. I have preserved intact the 
remarkable (in many senses the unique) text fur 
nished to me by the kindness of my dear and 
honoured friend Canon Westcott. It was made too 
precious to me by the evidence it gives of his friend 
ship, and it is in itself too valuable as the work of 
such a man, to allow of my departing from it. I feel 
that it gives an interest to my work, at least until 
his own recension is published, which it could not 
possess without it. 

I must frankly say that longer experience does 
not tend to raise my estimation of the importance 
of questions of literal orthography, in the case of 
an Author who wrote habitually by dictation, and 


often (it must be supposed) by the help of an im 
perfectly educated amanuensis. The utmost which 
any investigation of such matters can do for us is 
to approximate to an idea of the prevalent spelling 
among copyists of the third, fourth, or fifth century. 
I should myself hesitate as to the substitution, for 
example, of the v for the ^ in compounds of eV or 
CTVV, and I should repudiate such barbarisms as the 
aspirate in the phrase Ifi eX-ruSt. It is hard to make 
St Paul responsible for vulgarisms or provincialisms, 
which certainly his pen never wrote, and which there 
can be no proof that his lips ever uttered. 

This remark must by no means be extended to 
larger and graver questions affecting the condition 
of the sacred text. It is deeply interesting to take 
note of the process of thought and feeling which 
attends in one s own mind the presentation of some 
unfamiliar reading. At first sight the suggestion is 
repelled as unintelligible, startling, almost shocking. 
By degrees, light dawns upon it it finds its plea 
and its palliation. At last, in many instances, it is 
accepted as adding force and beauty to the context, 
and a conviction gradually forms itself that thus and 
not otherwise was it written. Examples will not be 
wanting in the pages which follow. 

I have felt, in the progress of my work, that 
scarcely sufficient stress has been laid by the stu- 


dents of St Paul upon a point just adverted to 
liis habit of writing by dictation. How sufficient a 
reason is here for broken constructions, for participles 
without verbs, for suspended nominatives, for sudden 
digressions, for fresh starts ! How strong an argu 
ment, on the other hand, against that favourite 
expedient of his commentators, the supposition of a 
prolonged parenthesis, which should leave at its 
close some two or three words to be read with 
a sentence five or six verses behind 1 ! We must 
picture to ourselves, in reading this profound Epistle 
to the Romans, a man full of thought, his hands 
perhaps occupied at the moment in stitching at the 
tent-cloth, dictating one clause at a time to the 
obscure Tertius beside him, stopping only to give 
time for the writing, never looking it over, never 
perhaps hearing it read over, at last taking the style 
into his hand to add the last few words of af 
fectionate benediction and when we keep all this in 
view, we shall cease to wonder if in one place we find 
Kavx^fJievoi where we should expect Kavx^fJieOa 2 , and 
in another stumble upon a superfluous o> which 
brings ruin into the flow of a magnificent closing 
doxology 3 . 

In the first Edition I abstained altogether from 

1 See, for example, ii. 13 16. v. 12 18. 
2 v. 3, ii. 3 xvi. 27. 


the attempt to systematize the Epistle into a pro 
gramme of contents. Any such synopsis should 
certainly be read as a retrospect. A careful reader 
will find what is necessary in the notes. I will 
gather it, however, into a brief summary here. 

St Paul is in Greece for the second time 
probably at Corinth (Acts xx. 2, 3. Rom. xv. 25. 
xvi. i, 23). 

This is his sixth (preserved) Epistle. Before it 
stand the two to the Thessalonians, written from 
Corinth (Acts xviii. 1 1 ) ; that to the Galatians, pro 
bably from Ephesus (Acts xix. i o) ; the first to the 
Corinthians, from Ephesus (Acts xix. 22); the second 
to the Corinthians, from Macedonia (Acts xx. i, 2). 
When he resumes his writing, it will be from his 
imprisonment at Rome (Acts xxviii. 30). 

He addresses here for the first time a Church 
which he has not visited. The result is, a more 
detailed exposition of doctrine than is his wont in 
other Epistles. Yet the letter is peculiarly full of 
salutations (chap, xvi.), to persons known to him, 
we must suppose, in other residences, and from 
those who are about him where he is. 

The Church of Rome does not appear to have 
been yet visited by an Apostle (compare chap. i. TO, 
n, with xv. 20 24). Its formation may easily be 


accounted for by remembering ot e 

jucuoi present at Jerusalem on the great day of 

Pentecost (Acts ii. 10). 

After a somewhat ample inscription, in which he 
introduces the great Person of the Gospel, and his 
own responsibility as the Apostle to the Gentiles 
(i. i 7), he speaks of his long desire to visit them, 
and hastens into the absorbing topic of the Epistle 
The Gospel as a Power of God for Salvation 
(i. 8-16). ^ 

How so ? How is the Gospel a power ? 

It contains the revelation of a SiKcuocruVT? (i. 1 7). 

But why is this needed ? 

Because God s wrath is upon sin (i. 18), and all 

have sinned. 

The Gentiles (i. 19 -23). A terrible picture of 
the decline and ruin of the world without 

The Jews no less fatally (ii. i iii. 20). 
Thus needed, what is the offer ? A condensed, 
elaborate, magnificent definition of it follows 
(iii. 2131). 

The gratuitous character of the offer is vindicated 
and illustrated from the Old Testament (iv. 

The power of the instrument its immediate, pro 
gressive, and ultimate effect is drawn out 


(v. to viii.); with some digressions redemp 
tion as a reversal of the fall (v. 12 21); 
redemption as a lifting of the life above sin 
(vi. throughout); redemption in contrast with 
the life under law (vii. throughout). 
The bearing of the Gospel upon the Jewish 
nation ; a sorrowful experience, but involving 
no injustice on the part of God, and hereafter 
to be gloriously compensated (ix. to xi.). 
Practical consequences of the Gospel : entire 
self-dedication as a thank-offering of the life, 
and a cheerful devotion to duty in each par 
ticular gift and relation, in all patience and 
charity (xii. throughout), in subordination to 
human authority, in a pervading principle of 
love (xiii. throughout), in toleration of scruples, 
in strict conscientiousness (xiv. throughout), 
and on the whole in the imitation of Christ 
(xv. 113). 

The conclusion reverts to his purpose of visiting 
them, and to plans connected with it (xv. 14 33). 

The 1 6th chapter is filled with greetings and 
salutations, closing with a splendid doxology, as to 
the exact place of which there is, however, con 
siderable question. 


The Epistle to the Romans occupies thus a 
central place, chronologically as well as doctrinally, 
amongst all the writings of St Paul. We see him 
in the fulness of his Christian strength ; every part 
of his education still tenaciously grasped, and con 
secrated for all time to the Church s and to his 
Master s service. No peculiar circumstance of his 
readers, no exceptional experience of his own, here 
narrows his scope or colours his style. It is the 
Gospel, pure and simple the Fall and the Redemp 
tion the weakness of Law and the might of Grace 
which he sets forth in this letter in words strong and 
pregnant, at once characteristic of the writer and 
worthy of the august theme. 

To be permitted to minister in the outer court of 
so divine a sanctuary to hew the wood and draw the 
water which shall subserve in the humblest degree 
its spiritual, its everlasting offices is honour enough, 
reward enough, for any man. More especially if he 
might be permitted to draw towards this sacred 
study any of those educated minds, those powerful 
intellects, to which it is his responsible task to present 
week by week, in the most venerable of Churches, 
the living life-giving Word. To these now, as 
formerly to a younger and equally beloved charge- 
some, indeed, are included alike in the one de- 


scription and in the other I take pleasure in dedi 
cating, with all thankfulness, this first fruit of my 
residence in the tranquil courts of the illustrious 


January 10, 1870. 


present Edition is little more than a careful 
reprint of the last preceding it. The chief 
difference will be found in the improved text of 
passages quoted from the New Testament in the 
Notes. These passages were formerly printed, al 
most without alteration, from the second edition of 
Tischendorf. They have been now carefully revised, 
by the help of rny friend Mr A. A. VanSittart, for 
merly Fellow of Trinity College, who has further 
permitted me to make use of his well-known skill 
and experience in the correction of the Proof sheets 
of the whole Volume. 

March 3, 1873. 


The following pages are printed from a Discourse de 
livered in the Temple Church, January 23, 1870, suggested 
~by some recent publications on St Pauls theological standing. 

2 CORINTHIANS ii. 14. 

Now thanks be unto God, which always causeth us to triumph 
in Christ. 

THERE is a depth in the expression, not quite 
sounded by the Received Translation. 

The idea conveyed by the English Version is 
that of a victorious general, who owes indeed his 
triumph to God, and celebrates indeed his triumph 
in Christ, but who yet stands with robe and crown 
in his car of victory, and receives the acclamations of 
an applauding populace. 

St Paul is free in his use of metaphors. Now he 
is a runner, straining every nerve for the prize sus 
pended before him. Now he is an athlete, training 
for the encounter, and the antagonist against whom 
he is matched is his own body. Now he is a hus 
bandman, tilling God s field a master-builder, rais 
ing, tier by tier, God s temple a soldier, disen 
tangled from earth s occupations, that he may fight, 
by land and sea, God s battles. 

Amidst all this and a far greater variety of illus 
tration and simile, I do not recall one example in 
which St Paul represents himself as occupying on 

xxxii ON ST PAUL S 

earth a position of gratulation or glory. We accept 
the text as it stands, because we suppose it to be 
St Paul s writing ; but, if we examine it, it scarcely 
satisfies us as characteristic of his habitual feeling. 

How different, when we read the saying as a 
Greek would read it ! when we find that St Paul in 
the text is not the general reposing upon his laurels; 
not the magnificent recipient of a more than, human 
ovation ; not the admired of all beholders, who, at 
one turn in the road, or at one point in the ascent to 
the Capitol, is to order his conquered rival to execu 
tion, and then to plant among his heirlooms the 
record of his triumphal deification on the contrary, 
that St Paul is here not the leader, but the led ; not 
the commander, but the captive ; not the arbiter of 
life, but the holder of life itself at Another s pleasure 
inasmuch as the words, correctly rendered, are not, 
Thanks be to God, who causeth us to triumph but, 
Thanks be to God, who leadeth us in triumph who 
exhibits us as the trophy of His triumph who Him 
self, therefore, triumphs over us in Christ ! 

Such, I believe, is the uniform sense of the verb 
here used with its case. Such is certainly its sense 
in the only other place in which it occurs in Scrip 
ture, where, in the Epistle to the Colossians, Christ 
is said to have made a public show of the principali 
ties and powers of darkness, after triumphing over 
them in his Cross 1 . 

If at first sight there be something almost of 
1 Col. ii. 15. 


harshness in this saying, as applied to himself by the 
Apostle, a nearer view will dispel it. 

We all know how St Paul glories everywhere in 
the title of servant (or bondman rather) of Jesus 
Christ. That relation in which man can scarcely 
stand to man without degradation is the most glori 
ous of all relations when it is borne towards Christ. 
To belong to Christ, in such sense that we are His 
property that we cannot part with Him, scarcely 
He with us, inasmuch as we are to Him like the 
acres which are entailed upon a proprietor, or the 
regalia which are the crown-jewels of a king this is 
a grand position for the creature, for the fallen ; and 
this is that which St Paul claimed when he called 
himself, again and again, Christ s slave. 

In like manner here, when he speaks of God as 
always triumphing over him, always leading him in 
triumphal procession, in Christ what says he but 
this ? God has thought it worth while to campaign 
against me, that He might make me His own : once 
I was an enemy, a rebel, trying that impossible 
thing, to strive with my Maker ; endeavouring to 
hold out against Him in a warfare in which victory 
is death : but He came after me into my far land 
with the Sabaoth of His Almighty love ; He bent my 
proud will, He bowed my haughty self-esteem, He 
laid me low beneath the arm of truth and grace : now 
He has taken me with Him to His Capital, He ex 
hibits me as one of His conquered, He carries me 
everywhere in that display of subjection which is as 
v. R. c 

xxxiv ON ST PAUL S 

much the highest happiness as it is the one duty 
of the thing made : thanks be to Him, who has 
so reclaimed, and condescends thus to employ who 
triumphs over me Himself in Christ, and thus mani 
fests through me in every place the sweet scent, the 
sacrificial odour, of His own world- wide victory ! 

There are those in our days who imagine that 
God s triumph is ended ; that no procession of re 
deeming grace is passing now across the earth ; that 
the Gospel itself is effete and obsolete ; that its func 
tion, if it ever had one, is of the past. A dashing 
French writer brilliant but insolent announces, I 
understand, that St Paul has had his day is now 
coming, as he expresses it, to the end of his reic/n. 
The thing has been threatened before, from ancient 
days to modern : but it is the scoffer, again and again, 
whose reign ends with his life : the Gospel reign is 
not ended, nor St Paul s with it. The Church will 
bid you, two days hence, to thank God for St Paul s 
Conversion, as for an event true, significant, and still 
important. We ourselves, in this Temple, are study 
ing St PauTs writings, morning by morning, as if 
they still had in them words of eternal life. Let us 
ask whether all this is delusion and a dream. Let 
us, in a few plain words this morning, set before your 
eyes this more than Roman, this indeed oecumenical 
triumph God Himself passing before us as the 
Lord victorious Paul, once an enemy, now con 
quered, subject, submissive, and therefore conquer 
ing : let us bid you ponder with us, as the Collect 


directs us 1 , these two particulars the Conversion, 
and the Doctrine and try to draw from your hearts 
the echo of his own thanksgiving 

Glory to God, who still leads Paul everywhere in 
triumph, and makes manifest Ijij liim in every place 
the sweet odour of the name of Christ ! 

I. There is scarce one other person of history so 
familiarly known to us as St Paul. Cicero perhaps 
perhaps Napoleon I could scarcely name a third. 
Would any man exchange the fame of either for the 
fame of Paul ? Where in him is the vanity of the 
one, the selfishness of the other ? Who ever charged 
him with boasting of the impression made by his 
words upon Felix or upon Agrippa, or with having 
one side-view, throughout his life, to the celebration 
of his exploits not among prostrate nationalities but 
in convinced minds, converted souls, and transformed 
lives ? 

The biography of this person is cleft in twain by 
a great convulsion. He speaks of it himself in many 
places as the sight of Christ. Conscientious always, 
always religious highly educated, well-principled, 
moral, earnest, vehement (to a fault) in acting upon 
a sense of duty- these very qualities had led him to 

1 O God, who, through the preaching of the blessed Apostle 
Saint Paul, hast caused the light of the Gospel to shine throughout 
the w T orld; Grant, we beseech thee, that we, having his wonderful 
Conversion in remembrance, may shew forth our thankfulness unto 
thee for the same, by following the holy doctrine which he taught; 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

xxxvi ON ST PAUL S 

be a persecutor of Christians. He had taken a pub 
lic part in the brutal martyrdom of one of them. He 
was the commissioned agent of the Sanhedrim in the 
endeavour to stamp out this troublesome new super 
stition. It was impossible to conceive of a man less 
disposed to Christianity. Every prejudice, every 
opinion, every habit, was in antagonism to it. It 
was not the case of a sinner suddenly stopped in a 
career of vice by the awakening of conscience. It was 
not the case of a man haunted by the ghost .of a 
victim. It was not Stephen s image which presented 
itself at the moment of Conversion. Conscience was 
on the side of the old. The letters of the High 
Priest were the characters of duty. And yet at 
this point there is a chasm, there is a gulf fixed, 
between two halves of the one life, which must be 
accounted for and how ? 

We have all read and heard of strong impres 
sions. A man has a dream that he shall die on a 
certain day and he does die. A man has been a 
drunkard and he says to himself and perhaps one 
in a million keeps the vow From this day I will 
drink water. A man who has been irreligious and 
reckless loses a friend : he was drowned by his side 
he was struck by lightning as they walked : from 
that day he begins to pray, to attend Church he is 
an altered man. None of these experiences at all 
suits the case of St Paul. He was always sober, 
always conscientious. Are we not driven to ask, 
how does he account for it ? We have two narra- 


tives of his own, ono by a friend, several allusions, 
all agreeing in tlds and if, in any smaller circum 
stances, there seem to be discrepancies, you must 
remember that at least one writer records them all, 
might by a stroke of the pen have harmonized them, 
and never thought it necessary that he did actually 
see Jesus Christ hear Him speak a few words 
and answer them and then hear a few more words 
then, after three clays, receive a message from Him 
began to communicate with Him as a man talketh 
with his friend when he was in difficulty, applied to 
Him asked Him for special help, received help- 
could do all things by virtue of strength commu 
nicated from Him was enabled to lead an entirely 
new life not (for that was unnecessary) a life vir 
tuous instead of vicious but a life of new aims, 
new objects, new motives, new powers spent and 
was spent from that day forth as Christ s minister 
and Christ s witness compassed sea and land, not 
(like the Pharisee) to make one proselyte, but in the 
honest endeavour to carry new light into dark hearts, 
and new strength into weak, sickly, paralysed lives. 

On the supposition that he spoke the truth that 
the sight of Christ was real all is intelligible. With 
out this, with anything short of this, it is difficult of 
belief, it is incapable of explanation. We know that 
the freaks of fancy are many, that the aberrations of 
the human intellect are wonderful, that the incon 
sistencies and contradictions of conduct are in some 
cases inscrutable. Still, with the largest possible 

xxxviii ON ST PAUL S 

allowance for all these, we say, that there is no 
excuse for having recourse to other interpretations, 
till we have considered his own ; and that then only 
can we set aside his own, when we have settled one 
question which we have no right to settle until we 
have taken this case in. 

Peculiar, marvellous, unique, this case is. Per 
haps the world has never seen quite such another. 
It is not one thing it is everything. Mature 
age, settled habits of mind and conduct great 
resolution, freedom of conscience from known sin a 
religious career already entered upon, already made 
the interest of the life then a sudden pause a re 
vulsion and reversal followed not by vacillation, not 
by any sign of altered character or unsettled mind, 
but by a course equally determined,, more self-deny 
ing, because entered upon by the loss of all things 
persevered in through difficulties and discourage 
ments, through obloquy and aspersion, through sick 
ness and suffering, unto death not without reason 

O 7 

does the Church keep not St Paul s birth-day, not his 
death-day, but his Conversion that was the hinge, 
that the turning-point, that the pivot, of his life it 
is in that that we are interested it is for that that 
we glorify God in him 1 . 

Need I stay for one moment to distinguish this 

Conversion from many a profane parody of it ? Was 

this a Conversion, like some now dreamed of, leading 

to nothing, stopping short with a feeling, ending with 

1 Gal. i. 24. 


itself? Was this a conversion with no change 
leaving a man after it just where he was before or 
only a little more narrow, more bitter, more unami- 
able ? Instead of denying the possibility of con 
version instead of ridiculing conversion as a fancy 
instead of denying that we miserably, terribly, need 
conversion- instead of heaping up instances in which 
a supposed conversion was but the starting-point of 
a tenfold damnation let us ask this and St Paul s 
life shall give it us that conversion shall be solemn 
enough to make a man three days blind, three clays 
fasting that conversion shall be humiliating enough 
to drive a man into Arabia, to Sinai, say, for secret 
converse with Deity that conversion shall be power 
ful enough to enable one who came to Damascus to 


persecute stay there to preach that conversion shall 
be durable enough to outlast scourgings and stonings, 
dungeons and shipwrecks, crosses and swords and 
then we will admit that of all realities this is the 
most real, just because it shows a man the Pteal One, 
and admits him into that invisible presence the very 
air of which is truth. 

2. It is but one step, if one, from the Conversion 
to the Doctrine : and if (as our Collect says) we have 
the one in remembrance, we shall certainly have the 
other for our guide and our goal. 

The Church calls it a holy doctrine. Has 
it always been made so ? Does not the ultra- 
Calvinist, does not the Antinomian, surname his 
doctrine with the name of Paul ? How can it be 


accounted for ? Like the Virgin Mother whose name 
has been made an idolatry, Paul himself might be 
disquieted in his Paradise by the use made of his 
doctrine. It was the thirst for holiness which en 
deared grace to St Paul. It was because he found 
in the Cross of Christ a motive, and in the Spirit of 
Christ a power, to make him holy, that he loved 
each with a love so tender, so passionate. Men now 
talk as if it were a comfort to have a Gospel which 
made sin less penal as if the height of human feli 
city were to be excused hell as if the soul, filled 
with evil thoughts, a very cage of unclean birds, and 
so continuing, might find rest and salvation in tho 
thought that Another had borne for it the requi 
site number of expiatory millenniums. Was this 
Paul s doctrine ? Was this the trust which made 
Christ to him so reposeful ? Was it for this that he 
exchanged the passion, true though violent, which 
burned in his young heart for Judaic orthodoxy ? 
Head his Epistle to the Homans, and answer. It 
was because he found that what law could not do, 
nor conscience, nor duty, Cod did in giving Jesus 
condemned sin 1 ; made it not less sinful but more 
sinful ; set the mark of death upon it, and left it in 
its condemned cell waiting, like the French murderer 
yesterday, the moment, unknown but certain, of its 
dragging forth to execution it was for this that 
Paul embraced, and died for, the Gospel ! Because 
at last, after long waiting, he had found a charm 
1 Rom. viii. 3. 


and a spell potent enough to enthrall and to kill 
the inbred, the indwelling sin ; because, after crying 
for years, in the agony of a hope long deferred, 
ivretched man! who shall deliver me? he was able to 
answer his own question, and say, / thank God 
through Jesus Christ our Lord; because now, amidst 
(we must suppose) many clinging infirmities, he did 
find prayer availing, and strength at hand, and 
Christ strong to save this was why he was jealous 
for the simplicity, the purity, of the Gospel of grace ; 
would allow no human improvements of it ; would 
suffer no helping, no eking out, no supplementing, of 
the work of Christ ; would know nothing, anywhere, 
ever, amongst his converts, save Jesus Christ and 
Him crucijicd Christ delivered for our offences, 
Christ raised again for our justification. 

And we may be well assured of this that not 
alone in past ages and crises of the Church s history, 
not only when liberty alike of mind and of soul was 

strucwlincr back into existence at the Reformation, 

&& & 

but whenever and wherever any individual man is 
awakening out of the bondage of corruption into 
newness of life, there and then it will be St Paul s 
doctrine which regenerates, there and then God will 
be leading Paul in triumph before the soul, and 
making manifest through him the savour of His 

The work of St Paul is not ended. The tame, 
lifeless, monotonous phrase, into which theology has 
frozen his Gospel, may pass and be discarded let all 

xlii ON ST PAUL S 

perish which lias not life in it ! More and more 
shall Sermons which mean anything forbear the vain 
repetition of the Articulas stantis et cadentis Ecele- 
sice : we live not by bread alone, certainly we live 
not by formulas alone : let the Spirit breathe upon 
us, and we shall want it then we shall want the 
thing which the phrase symbolized God grant that 
it be forthcoming ! For in the hour of death and in 


the day of judgment, nothing, nothing will avail us 

J J O O O 

but Christ the Propitiation for sin, Christ the Inter 
cessor for the sinner ! 

But although this Justification by Faith may be 
to a superficial reader, or in certain agonies of the 
Church s history, the salient point in St Paul s doc 
trine it is not more so, in reality, than one other. 
Equally (at least equally) characteristic of St Paul 
is that ideal of the Christian life, which some call 
mysticism, enthusiasm, fanaticism which most men 
pass over as not meant for them but which he 
evidently found omnipotent to lift a man above 
sin the present living union with Christ the 
Crucified and the Risen. Instead of saying to the 
earth-bound, sensual, selfish being, Sin must be 
encountered, in a sense of duty, that you may be 
accepted, that you may win heaven he says, Christ 
died, and you with Him Christ lives, and you in 
Him. Reckon yourself dead and risen. Put on 
Christ. Let Him live in you. Commune with Him, 
love, Him, abide in Him and sin will fall off from 
you. The vessel filed with good has no room for evil 


the soul which has Christ in it is emancipated, is 

There never was the man for whom the change 
from living to dying was so slight, so easy, as for St 
Paul. The life which he lived below had its home in 
heaven. To depart and to he with Christ was not 
only far better it was the natural thing. Men ask, 
sometimes seriously, sometimes scoffingly, What is 
the life after death? Where is St Paid now? We 
may answer, St Paul is at home, as he never was 
here : he has found his rest : he is busy amidst 
realities of which he here saw the reflection in his 
mirror dimly 1 ; of which, taught by the Spirit, he 
sketched for us the image ; but which now, in 
Christ s presence, he sees and touches and handles 
knowing as he is known ! 

But let no humble, self-mistrusting, self-abasing 
man so read St Paul, either in his life or in his doc 
trine, as to imagine him here below to have attained 
or to have been perfected 2 . We think that we read 
the very contrary, not only in his expressions of 
humility, but in the written records of his character. 
We see him indeed brave and intrepid and inde 
fatigable in working ; we see him humble and devout 
and devoted and spiritual ; we see him intent upon 
one thing, and that the highest which can engage 
man s activities. Yet we see him also maintaining a 
constant, a life-long struggle ; we hear him com 
plaining of his infirmities, bewailing his shortcomings, 
1 i Cor. xiii. 12. 2 Phil. iii. 12. 


calling himself less than the least, chief of sinners; 
declaring that he has to be always buffeting his own 
body, lest Jte himself should be a castaway 1 ; crying 
out (surely not only for others) for deliverance from 
tJte body of this cleat li 2 . Here and there we seem to 
detect an over-eagerness in his self-assertions, an 
excessive vehemence in his imputations, an almost 
imcharitableness in his denunciations. We call not 
these things by new or specious names because Paul 
betrays them : rather we take encouragement from 
them as tokens of his imperfection. He counted not 
himself to have apprehended : we will not contradict 
him ! One, One only, was ever perfect : the rest bear 
His likeness but in copy. There is a feature which 
all possess who follow Him an earnestness to be 
like Him, a determination to be with Him. This 
one thing I do I press toward the mark. 

1 i Cor. ix. 27. 2 Rom. vii. 24. 



, dtpcopio-jULevo? ek evayyeXiov 0eoi;, 02 


i. i. iT/crou 1 

T. i. AoCAos Xpicrrot) !.] 
i Cor. vii. 22, o eAet^epos KA^- 
Otls Soi;Ao5 ecrTti Xpto*Toti. Gal. 
i. IO, et eTt dvOpiairoLS 7ypco~Kor, 
XptcrToi; SoCAos OI;K ar ry/r^i/. Phil. 

XpicrroO 1770-01). Col. iv. 12, 

XptcrroS 1770-01;. Tit. i. i, Ilat - 
Aos SovXos eov. James i. i, 

Xpioroi) SoCXog. 2 Pet. i. i, 
2v/xcojv Ilerpo? SoCXos Kat aVo- 
trroXos I^CTOT) Xpicrroi). Jude I, 
Ioi;Sa? iTyo-oi; Xpto-roi; SovXo?. 

K-X^ros aTToVroXos] So I Cor. 
i. i . yl commissioned Apostle : 
one appointed by regular sum 
mons ; opposed to self-consti 
tuted. Heb. v. 4, OT!>X eaurw rts 
ai/et rr/i/ TI/^I/, aXXa KaXoi;- 
T;TTO TOT; eov. 

a</>copto-/x,eVos ts] Actsxiii. 2, 
etTrei/ TO Ili eu/xa TO aytor, A<^>o- 
pt craTe 817 /xot TOV Bapva/3av Kat 

auoi/ et? TO epyov 
/ airrous. Gal. i. 15, ore Se 
evSoKT^crer o a^opt cra? /^e CK KOI- 
Xias /jiTyrpo? i^ov...a.TroKaXv^/aLTOv 
viov aurou ei/ e/xot . Compare Le- 
% 7 it. xx. 26, LXX. Kvptos o 0eos 
o a<oio-as VJLO.^ atro TTO.V- 


wv e^vcoi/ ct^at e/xot. 
2. o TrpoeTT^yyet XaTo] Tit. i. 
2, eV eX-i St ^a)r/5 aiwftov, ^r 
o ai/evSry? eos Trpo 

2 Cor. ix. C, 
T7/ TrpoeTTT/yyeX/xei Tyi evAoytav 

t/XGOI . 

8/,a TOJI/ Trpo^^Toji ] iii. 21, St- 
vvr eou Tre^avepwrat, //.ap- 
VTTO TOU voyotou Kat TWK 

writings. The absence of the 
article calls attention to the 
quality or characteristic of the 
thing spoken of, not to its s6- 
stance. In certain document* 


3 ypa(pal^ dy iais, Trepi TOV vlov aurou TOV yevo- 

I A ^ ^ 

4 fjievov e/c (TTrep/maTOs t\avei.o KctTa (rapKa, TOV 

vlov Oeov ev 


having this characteristic, that 
they are holij (sacred) writings. 
Thus xvi. 26, (fxivepuOtvTOS 6e 
vvv Sitt re. ypa^iMv Trpoc^r/riKcoi . .. 
yi/<upto-$eVros (by the help, or cor- 
roboration of certain prophetic 

3. vepl TOV] This depends 
upon euayye Aioi/. 

TOV yei/o/xei/ou] Matt. i. I, 
y8t/8Xos yei/ecreco? I^croT; Xptcrrov 
vtou AauetS. Gal. iv. 4, t^a-rri- 
o-retXcv d eo9 TOV rtoi/ 

on ovros eo~Ttv o ojpto~/xei/o5 T^TTO 
K/JITT)? ^wvrwi/ Kat vK- 
cts xvii. 31, V avSpt u> 
TrtcTTtv Tra 

L TTO VO /XOT/. Phil. ii. 7, eV djt 
co/xart cxi/^pojTrcov yet o/xero?. 

K o-Trep^taros Aavet 8] John 
\di. 42, OTJX ry ypacfrr) elirtv art /< 
TOV CTTrep/xaro? AauelS. ..ep^erat o 
Xpto-To s ; Acts xiii. 23, 
o eos aTTo TOU crTTep^taTos 
tTrayyeXtav r/yayei/ TO) 
awrrjpa ITJCTOVV. 

Karcx crap/ca] Thus ix. 5, e^ 
ojv o Xptoros TO Kara crapKa. 
Col. i. 22, cv TO) crto/xart TI^S o~ap- 
KO? avroi;. I John iv. 2, iryo-ow 
Xpio~roV ev crapKi (.XfjXvOoTa. 2 
John 7. &c. 

4. opio"^ei/TO5. ..e aracTTa- 
o-eco] Defined, definitely marked 
out, as Son of God... by resur 
rection, &c. Acts x. 40, 42, 
rotiroi/ o eo5 ^yetpev TTy rptr^ 
vy/xepa. . .Kat Traptjyye.iXev rjfjiiv Krj- 
T(3> K 

aj/ao"T//cras avroi/ CK veKptoK. 

ey Suva j aet]//i(rt??^ idst,throi(gh, 
by the exercise of] power. It is 
to be taken with 
2 Cor. xiii. 4, r) IK 
Oeou. Eph. i. 19, 2O, Kara TryV 
e^epyetaj/ rou KpaTOV? T>/5 to"^uos 
aurou, 7)^ eFrypy^crei/ er TOJ Xpto"ra) 
eyeipas aurov K ye/cpa!i/. 

Kara Tri eutta aytcoo-uvT/?] There 
is an evident contrast between 
Kara o-apKa and /cara Tri/eutta here, 
5 regards Jlesh and as regards 
spirit, as in i Tim. iii. 16, e</>a- 
vepto^Ty ev (rap/a, eSi/catw^^ ei/ 
Trveu/xaTt* i Pet. iii. 18, 
Oels /xei> o-apKt, ,(i)07roir)6el<; Se 
Trveu/xaTt. But the nature of 
the contrast must be defined by 
the context. Here the sense 
seems to be, ^4s regards flesh, 
Christ was born of the seed of 
David; but as regards spirit, 
that which was in Him a spirit 
of holiness, even a soul perfectly 
pervaded and animated by the 
Holy Spirit ivlio was given to 
Him not by measure (John iii. 
34), in whom all His works were 
done (Acts x. 38), and by whose 
quickening lie was at last raised 
again from death (compare viii. 

I. 3-5- 
e^ dvacrTao etos veKpwv, l^crov 

(TTOV TOV KVpLOV tJjULWV, Si OV e\d/3()fJl6V 

II, o eyetpas Xpio-ToV i/ ve cpwi/ 
^a)O7rot^ o~et /cat TO, 6vr}ra aayxaTa 
fyitojj/ ota TOT} evot/cowTos auTou 
jrvev/jLaros [or Sta TO evot/cow a. 
Tri/eu/xa] ei/ V/JLLV}, lie ivas conclu 
sively proved to be the Son of 
God by the one decisive sign of 
resurrection from the dead. The 
humiliation of Christ consisted 
in this, that He laid aside the 
inherent powers of the God 
head (Phil. ii. 6, 7), and con 
sented to act within the limits 
of a human soul perfectly pos 
sessed and actuated by the in 
dwelling Spirit of God. That 
soul, indwelt by the Holy Ghost, 
is the spirit of holiness here 
spoken of. 

e oYacTTacrea>s veKpwv] Out of 
(as the issue and outgrowth of] 
a resurrection of dead persons. 
A general expression (occasioned 
possibly by the wish to avoid a 
repetition of the preposition e/c), 
but restricted by the context to 
the one point, of the resurrec 
tion of Christ Himself. So in 
Acts xxvi. 23, et Tra^Tos o Xpt- 
OTO?, 6t TrpouTo? ayao"Tao~eo)S 
veKpcov <c3s /xe AAet /caTayyeAAeiv 
T(5 TC Xaa) /cat rots Wvf.(jw. Else 
where the more exact form is 
found : i Pet. i. 3, St aVaoTa- 
crew? Irjcrov Xpto"To{! c/c venp^v. 

5. 8Yov] Through whom ; as 

though to recognise the ultimate 
derivation of his Apostleship 
from God the father. Compare 
I Tim. i. 1, Ilo/DA-os CXTTOCTTO/XOS 
Xptcrrov I^croG KO.T eTriTay^t/ 
0eou o"a)Tr/po? TypioV, where how 
ever, lest any disparagement of 
Christ should be dreamed of, 
he expressly adds, /cat X/HOTOU 
J7yo-ou rrys e A.TTi Sos rj/xcoi/. And 
as there union of origination 
is ascribed to God and to 
Christ, so elsewhere union of 
instrumentality : Gal. i. i, Ilai;- 
Xos a7roo-ToAo9...8ia I^rrou Xpt- 
(TTOV /cat eou Trarpo?. No Scrip 
ture proof of the Deity of 
Christ is more satisfactory than 
this sort of indirect testimony 
borne to it by the interchange 
of prepositions (whether of cau 
sation or of action) between 
Him and God. 

\a-pw /cat aVoo-TO/Xr/i ] XV. 15, 
TV]V X a P l v r tf v $o0etcra.v /xot...ets 
TO etrat JJLZ \fLTovp-ycv XptcrTou 
Irjaov ets Ta Wvy. Eph. iii. 8, 
e/xot. . .tSoOrj TJ XP ts a{!r^, fv TOIS 

ets vTraKorji . . .e^i/ecrii/] XV. 1 8, 
ets iJTra/co^j/ e$i/ojj/. xvi. 26, /xuer- 
TT,piov. ..ets vrraKorjv TrtcrTeo)? cis 
7rai/Ta Ta e^v^ yi/coptcr^eWos. 

vTraKOTyv 7rio"Te<wi] Obedience 
to a faith; to a system of faith ; 
to a Gospel of which the one 


6 TO?S eOvecriv vwep TOV ovo/mctros avTOV ev 0^9 

7 e crre Ki ly/xels KXtjTOi Iqcrov XpicrTOv Tracriv 

Q\)<JIV iv PwjULrj dyaTrrjToI^ Qeov, 

demand is faith. The genitive 
is like that ill 2 Cor. x. 5, eis 
TT/I vTraKoyv TOV Xpi<TTo{>, and 
I Pet. i. 22, CK T]7 vTra.Korj TV/S 
aA?7#eitts. For Tricrrews, compare 
Gal. iii. 2, 5, e CIKOT/S TnVreto?, 
OM o/ (s i^Ae result oj~ ) ct hewing 
(tidings, announcement} of a faith. 
TjTrej r J"he connexion is with 

oFa/xaros] The name of a 
person is /A which brings luui 
before the mind as all tliat Ite is ; 
and is often used in Scripture as 
a, summary of the character or 
qualities. See Exod. xxxiii. 19, 
xxxiv. 5 7, LXX. /cat cKaAeo-e 

TOJ oVo/XttTi Kupt ov. . .Kl ptOS O 60S 

OlKTtp/xoov KateA-evy/xwi/, /laKpo^f/xos 
Kat TroXue/Veos Kat a/X^^tj/os K.r.A. 
John xii. 28, no rep, So^acrov o~ov 
TO oVo/ia, Manifest Thyself as 
that which Thou art : &c. Thus 
^e name of Christ is Christ such 
as He is. John xx. 31, ^aj?]i/ 
e>0Te ei/ TW oi^o/xart atiroO. 

6. iv ols] That is, ei/ rot? 
ZOvtviv, and therefore amongst 
those to ichom my commission 

K\r)Tol I-^croi)] See note on 
verse i. That which was a 
literal call, with the living voice, 
in the case of the first disciples 
(as Matt. iv. 21, elSev aAAovs 8vo 
ci$\<j)Ovs...Ka.l eKttAecrcv a^rovs), 

that which in the Parables is a 
figurative summons to a feast or 
a reckoning (as Matt. xx. 8, KO - 
Aecrov rovs epyara?. XXll. 3, /cat 
aTreo-ret/Xev TOUS 8ovA.oi>5 aurov Ka- 
Aetrat TOI)? KCK/X^xeVoT;? ets ro^s 
ydfJiovs), is now /te announce 
ment of the Gospel, howsoever 
made audible in men s hearts 
and consciences. They who by 
God s Providence receive that 
knowledge and profits obedience 
to it are the called of Jesus 
Christ. The genitive is unusual. 
Compare dya-n-rjToi^ eo{; in the 
following verse. 

7. K\r]TOis dyiois] Persons 
consecrated (set apart for God) 
by his oivn special summons. So 
I Cor. i. 2, 717 KK\r)oria TOV eov, 
ei/ XptcrroiJ IT^CTOI)... 
aytoi?. "Ayios (from a^o- 
/xat, to stand in awe of, through 
cxyo?, the object of such awe) is 
oue sacred or consecrated, the op 
posite of KOIJ/OS, which is (like /3e- 
^Ao) o^e?i to ttv/ o>/<?. Thus 
i Pet. ii. 9, in two parallel clauses, 
Wvos U.JLOV, Aaos t? 7repnroir](TLV, 
a sacred race, a people unto 
acquisition (that is, whom God 
wills to jnake His owii) : compare 
Levit. xx. 26, LXX. /cat re<r0 
/,tot aytot, on eyco aytos ei/xt Kuptos 
o eos vfJiwv, 6 a^optcras 7;/>ias a?rd 
TOJI/ i&vv clrat e/xoi. For 

I. 69. 

/ecu elptjvrj ctTro Qeou Trarpos 



Karajje\\TaL eV O\M TCO Kocr/ULM. fj.ap-C) 

the combination of K/XT/TO? and 
uyios, see Heb. iii. i, dSeAc^ot 
dyiot, K\rycro>s tirovpavLOV /xero^oi. 
And for the sense, 2 Thess. ii. 
13, 14, et/Xaro {j/xas o eos a?r 
apx r /5 [or aTrap^V] ets crajTr/piav 
ep aytao"/xa) Tri/eu^aTOS /cat Trtcrret 
dX /y^etas, et? o CKotXecrei/ /x,as Sta 
roi) t 

Free favour: opposed 
alike to opy?/ (Eph. ii. 3, 5, 7, 

core <re(7co(r//-eot.. .a 

rots aia!<Tti> rots 

TO f 7rep/3aAA.ov 

ros aiuTOi) e 

tv Xpto-ru) Ir/a-oG), and to o< 

(iv. 4, TO) Se cpya^Ojtx,eVa) o 
ou Xoyi^erat Kara X^P 11 
aAAa Kara o^etA-^jLta. xi. 6 ? et oe 
oiVert e^ epywv). 

Peace, in the consci 
ousness of xpt?. Grace releasetJi 
sin, and peace maketh the con 
science quiet (Luther on Gal. 
i. 3). Peace (i) with God (v. i, 
elpijvyv exotyici/ [or exo/xej/] Trpo? 
rof eor), peace (2) with man 
(Heb. xii. 14, eip^v^i/ Stco/cere 
/xera TraYraii ), peace (3) with one 
self (iii. 17, d8oj/ ctp^^s OUK e- 

tice the incidental testimony 
borne again and again in this 
phrase to the Deity of Christ. 
Could it be said, Grace and peace 
from God and a man ? 

8. TrpuJroi/ /zeV] So natural 
is the introduction of the great 
subject of the Epistle. / thank 
God for what / hear everywhere 
of your faith. / long to see you. 
Why? Because 7 have a mes 
sage for you. What is it? 

TO) eu) /xov] J\ly God. The 
same appropriation is found in. 
but a few other passages of St 
Paul s Epistles. i Cor. i. 4, eu- 


u/xaJv. 2 Cor. xii. 21, pr) . . .Ta.7Tf.i- 
vojcret /xe o eos juou Trpo? u/xas. 
Phil. i. 3, e^xttpt^Tw TO) ea5 ttou. 

iv. I^, O Se OS tlOD 7rA77pCO(7t 

Trdcrav ~^pe.iav vfjiwv. Philem. 4, 

TTICTTI? u/xd!^] i Thess. i. 8, 


CITTO OU...Kat K. 

V. R. 

oAa) TO) Kocr/xa)] St Paul 
himself had already preached 
dVo lepovcraA^/x Kai. KuxAo) /^e xP 1 
rov lAAvptKov (xv. 19). And a 
very few years later he speaks 
of the Gospel as 




7rvevfj.aTL fjiov eV rw evayyeXiq) TOL/ woy aurov, 
low s a cUaAe/TTTtos JJLVLCLV VJJLWV 7roiov l aai 9 TraVrore 
TOJZ/ TroorevMV fJLOv ^eo/xei/o? ei TTWS 77^ 

Tracrr/ KTicret TT) I>TTO TOV ovpa- 
vw (Col. i. 23). Tims early was 
the charge approximately ful 
filled, Trope^eVres cts TOV KOCT/XOV 
ttTrai TO. Krjpvkare TO ct^a-yyeAiov 
TracTT; T^ KTto-et (Mark xvi. 15). 

9. (j-aprvs yap /JLOV (.vriv o 
eos] 2 Cor. i. 23, eyto 8e ju.ap- 
rupa rof eoi/ cTriKoAot /xat 7rt 
Tryi/ e/xr}i/ \\ivyj]v. Phil. i. 8, /J,ap- 
rvs yap ^aov o 09, ais eTriTro^to 
Trai/ras ^/xa?. i Tliess. ii. 5, 10, 
eos //.aprf?. ..vfj-tls /^aprvpes Kttt 
o eo?. 

a) Aarpevco] The words Aa- 
rpevew and Xarpeta, denoting 
originally the service of a tcor/t 1 - 
5y?a?^ (Aarpis) for /are (Aarpoi/) 
and soinExod. xii. 16, LXX. TTO.V 
Zpyov Aarpe^ToV, and often else 
where are employed through 
out the Septuagint and New 
Testament in reference to the 
service of God: whether (i) ge 
nerally by the worshippers; as 
first Exod. iii. 12, KCU Aarpevo-ere 
TO) @(3ei/ TO! opet TOVTO). xii. 25, 
(frvXd^aaOe TT)I/ Aarpet av Tavr^r. 
Arc. Matt. iv. 10. Luke i. 74. 
ii. 37. iv. 8. John xvi. 2. Acts 
xxiv. 14. xxvi. 7. xxvii. 23, ov 
cfyu, w Kat Aarpevw. 2 Tim. i. 3, 
oj Aarpevoa arro Trpoyoi/coi/ cv Ka- 
^apa awetS^cret. Heb. ix. 9. x. 2. 
or (2) specially by the priests; 

as x. 4, /cat r/ 
Aarpeta. Heb. viii. 5. ix. I, 6, 
SiKatco/xara Aa,Tpeta<;. . .ot tepets ra? 
Aarpetas eTTtTcAovi/res. xiii. 10. 
ol rry o~Kr)vrj Aarpeuo^Te?. And 
it may be that Sb Paul in the 
passage before us thus claims 
for himself the exercise of a 
Christian priesthood ; saying, 
To whom I offer perpetually a 
sacrificial service; not carnal and 
formal, like the Jewish offerings ; 
not exercised in the courts or 
buildings of a material temple, 
like the rites of the, Levitical sys 
tem; but in the shrine of my own 
spirit, and in the devotion of life 
itself to the proclamation of the 
Gospel of His Son. Compare 
xii. I, Trapacrnyorai TO, cruyxaTa 
v/jt.<j)V Over iav to(rav...Tryv Aoyi/o}]/ 
Xarpeiav vfJuZv. Phil. iii. 3, 7;/xt9 
yap eV/xei/ 77 TreptTo/x?; (the cir 
cumcised nation) ol Trveu/xctTi 
eo) [or eoi)] AaTpcvovTe?. Heb. 
ix. 14. xii. 28. 

aStaAetTTTW? /xvct av] I Thess. 

i. 3? aSiaAetTTTtOS /XV7y/XO^VOI/T5. 

ii. 13. v. 17. 2 Tim. i. 3, 005 
aoiaAeiTiTov e^o) Trjv Trept crov 
fjivtiav ev TaTs fterja ecriv JJLOV. 

IO. CTTt T(ioV TTpO(TV)(<j)V /XOv] 

u4^ i/ie ft wie (on the occasion) of my 
prayers : whenever 1 pray. The 
same expression occurs in Eph. 


. 4, imroOwv o~e 

I. 10, ii. 7 

e vo^co6r](roiuiaL eV TW OeX^/maTL TOU Qeov 
e\6eiv TTpos i)/xa?. eTrnroOaJ yap ide iv i/^a?, tva 1 1 

TL jULTa^O) xdplO~IUia VfJiiV TTVCVfJiaTLKOV 6i9 TO 

1. 1 6, /XVeiW TTOtOU/Xei OS 67TI TCOl> 

Trpocrev^toi/ JJLOV. I Tliess. i. 2. 
Pliilem. 4. 

77877 TroTc ] JVoitf at last. 
Phil. iv. IO, art 77877 TTOTC aVe0a- 
Xere TO i>7rep e/xou <$>povf.iv. 

cvoStu&ftrojum] A verb of fre 
quent occurrence in the Septua- 
gint from Gen. xxiv. 1 2 onwards, 
both in a literal and metaphori 
cal sense. In the New Testa 
ment the latter predominates. 
I Cor. xvi. 2, Orjcravpi^tav o TI eaV 
uoSu>Tai. 3 John 2, euoSo>or$ai 


word ^apto-/xa has various appli 
cations in Scripture, (i) To ?/<e 
o^e ^7? e^ gift of eternal life in 
Christ; as in v. 15, 16, and vi. 
23. (2) To the gifts of God 
generally ; as in xi. 29, a/xeTa/xe- 
yap rd 

KX^o-ts TOU eor. (3) T 

o/ ^Ae /Spirit for office and minis 

tration ; as in xii. 6, 

ei/ TO) ^eX^ /xart] / (within, 
not without, the limits o/) the 
will of God. Elsewhere the will 
of God is spoken of rather as 
the (i) instrument, (2) rule, or 
(3) aim, than the merely con 
taining or limiting measure : 
(i) 8ict 6fXijiJiaTO<; eov, as ill 
XV. 32, Iva. iv X a P$ *^0 to Trpos 
v/xas 8ta ^eA-T/ /xaros 0eo9. I Cor. 
i. i. 2 Cor. i. i. viii. 5. Eph. i. 
i. Col. i. i. 2 Tim. i. i. (2) 
Kara TO 0\.r)fji,a rov eov, or the 
like, Gal. i. 4. Eph. i. 5, n. 
(3) ?rpos TO @\.r)fj.a CLVTOV, Luke 
xii. 47 ; and (perhaps) ts TO 
IkcCvav ^eA7i/x,a, 2 Tim. ii. 26 
(tmlo, so as to effect, His, God s 


1 1 . 67Ti7T00cu yap iSca/] I 
Thess. iii. 6, 

"TJ/JLLV 8(,a^opa. I Cor. 
i.^7. xii. 4, 9, 28, 30^, 31, Siat- 
pecrets Se ^aptcr/xaTO)v etcrtV, TO Se 
auro 7rvc /xa K.T./\. I Tim. iv. 14, 
ToO er o~ol ^apiVj/xaro?. 2 Tim. 
i. 6. i Pet. iv. 10. (4) To spe 
cial personal gifts, whether of 
constitution or Providence; as 
in i Cor. vii. 7, cWo-Tos t Stov c^ct 
XapUT/m e/c @eov. 2 Cor. i. u, 
TO cis 77/xas ^apto /xa Sia TroXXcuv. 
So wide is the scope of the pos 
sible meaning of the word in the 
passage before us. It may in 
clude the miraculous gifts, for 
the communication of which the 
presence of an Apostle seems or 
dinarily to have been necessary 
(see Acts viii. 14 17). But it 
has also a wider import, compre 
hending any kind of spiritual 
blessing; increased knowledge, 
hope, strength, &c. See the next 



I2pt%6rjvat vjuds TOVTO Se e&Tiv, Grvv7rapaK\r]6n~ 

vai ev vfJiiv Sia Ttjs ev d\\t]\ois TrLO TCco Sy vp.wv 

1 3 re Kai efjiov. ov 6e\a) Se v/uias djvoelv, d$e\(f)oi, 

OTl TTOAAa/a? TTpOeBejULfJV e\6ell> TTpOS V/ULa<$, 

words ev aXXr/Xots imply that it 
is not e/xe only. The sense 
therefore is, That both you, and I 
may be encouraged together, in 
you (in the matter, on the sub 
ject, of you, of your spiritual 
condition and growth in grace], 
by means of the faith which is in 
each other, the faith, I mean, both 
of yon and me. The double 
compound o-WTrapa/caXeu is found 
only here in Scripture. 

13. ov $eXa> Se v/xas ayvoeu/j 
A phrase by which St Paul fre 
quently introduces a new and 
important topic. Here the sub 
ject is his anxiety to visit them, 
with all the solemn and weighty 
reasons which follow in expla 
nation of it. In xi. 25, it is that 
of the future conversion of Israel. 
In i Cor. x. i, that of national 
privilege and individual respon 
sibility. In i Cor. xii. i, that of 
spiritual gifts, their meaning and 
purpose. In 2 Cor. i. 8, that of 
his recent danger and its moral. 
In i Thess. iv. 13, that of the 
condition and prospects of the 
Christian dead. 

7roXXa/as] Compare T<X TroX- 
Xa (and the note) in xv. 22. 

TTpoefle /x??!/] See note on iii. 
25, Trpoe^eTo. The substantive 
is is found in Acts xxvii. 

O fjva.L also 
xv. 32. 

o-Tr/ptY^vai] A verb derived 
from the same root with tcrrai/ai. 
It denotes (i) to set firmly, as 
Luke ix. 51, TO TrpoVcoTrov av- 
TOV ca-Tijpicrev TOV Tropeveo-Oai ets 
xvi. 26, /xera^i; 
i V/JLWV ^acr/xa jiteya ecrrrj- 
(2) Then to establish, in 
a spiritual sense ; whether by 
human agency (as Luke xxii. 

32, KH (TV 7TOT6 C7Tl(7Tpl^aS <7T^- 

picrov TOUS aSeX^ovs crou. I TheSS. 
iii. 2. James v. 8. "Rev. iii. 2); 
or by the act of God (as xvi. 
25, TO) Se Swa/xevo) v/xas o-ny- 
pt^at Kara TO evayyeAioV jaov. I 
Thess. iii. 13. 2 Thess. ii. 17. 
ill. 3- i Pet. v. 10, oXtyov ?ra- 
^oi/Tas avTos KarapTiVei, <TTr]piei, 
cr^evwo-ci). Here, and in 2 Pet. 
i. 12, the passive is used, with 
out further definition. 

12. TOVTO Se CO-TIV] That is 
to say. In other tvords. Else 
where TOT JTIV is the form 
used: see, for instance, vii. 18. 
ix. 8. x. 6, 7, 8. Philem. 12. 

avv7rapaK\r]OrjvaL^ The words 
ei/ v/juv show that the accusative 
to be understood before this in 
finitive is not (as above) v/xa? 
only. On the other hand, the 

I. 1215. 


Kat ev 

va TIVOL Kaprrov (r^w 
Ka6cos KCII eV TO!? \onrols eQv(nv 
Kat (3ap@apois, crcxpols Te Kdl dvor\-~L^. 

TOJ9, 6<pei\Tt1S eljULL OVTCOS TO KCLT e/ULC TTpO- 1 5 

Kat. vfuv TO?? eV Pco/mri evayye\icra(rdai. 

. ..Kat eyeKOtei 
o aravas. The Kat com 

13, in the simple sense of pur 
pose : So^avre? TI^S Trpo^ecrecos KC- 
KpaTrjKevai. Elsewhere in a more 
sacred and solemn connexion ; 
sis Acts xi. 23, -rfj irpoBtarei T?;? 
KapSta? Trpocr/xeVeti/ rw /cvptco. 2 
Tim. iii. 10. And of the Divine 
purpose, in viii. 28. ix. n. Eph. 
i. ii. iii. n. 2 Tim. i. 9. 

Kat KM\vOr)-^ Exactly as 
in i Thess. ii. 18, 
f-XBtiv Trpos 


bines the purpose, and the 
disappointment of the purpose, 
as together making up the re 
sult. He ivisked it, and he had 
failed. For the fact see also 
xv. 22. And with regard to 
the agency to which St Paul 
ascribes the disappointment, ob 
serve that, whereas here, and 
in xv. 22, he leaves it unde 
fined (eKU>Xv@r]V, ei/eKOTTTo^i ), 
suggesting the idea of God s con 
trolling Providence ; in i Thess. 
ii. 1 8, on the contrary, he ex 
pressly assigns it to Satan ; re 
garding the hindrance of what 
he feels to have been a salu- 
, tary design as indicating, in one 
aspect at least, the opposition 
of the enemy of good. 

tva rtra] Depending upon 

jTrof cr^di] John iv. 36, o 
Jov Aa/x/3aVei Kat <rvv- 
ayet Kaprrov eis 00771 o.l(oviov. 

Pllil. i. 22, TOVTO /XOt KapTTOS 


14. *Ei\\rj<JLV TC. . .ai/or/T<H<?J 
Civilised and uncivilised, intel 
lectual and unintellectual : men 
(i) of all races, and (2) of all 
capacities. The parallelism of 
"E\Xr]o-iv and cro^ots here recalls 

i. 22. 

/?ap/5a pot?] Acts xxviii. 2, 
4. i Cor. xiv. ii. Col. iii. ii, 
Kat louSatos. ../^appapo?, 

I Cor. ix. 1 6, ear 
yap et>ayye/\tatytat, OVK eartv p,ot 
Kav^rj/jia avayKfj yap /xot eTrtKCt- 
rat. For the word see viii. 12. 
xv. 27. 

15. owroos] On this principle : 
namely, that all alike have a 
claim upon me. 

TO KO.T e/xe TrpoOvfJiov^ That 
which regards me (my part} is 
ready. If there be still a hin 
drance, it is not on my part. 
Compare ra Kar e/x-e, Eph. vi. 21. 
Phil. i. 12. Col. iv. 7. 



yap eVcacr^ui O/zat TO evayyeXiov 
yap Qeov ecrTLV ek (TWTripiav vravri TW 
T6 TrpcoTOV KO.L EXXrjvi. 

1 6. ov yap K.T.X.] This Terse 
is the starting-point to the whole 
of the doctrinal part of the Epi 
stle. The Gospel is a power of 
God, His powerful and effectual 
instrument, for bringing to sal 
vation every one who believes it. 
How does it effect this ? It re 
veals God s offer of Si/caioo-w^ 
(verse 17). But why is this 
needed ? Because God s wrath is 
upon sin (verse 18) ; and all 
have sinned : the Gentiles uni 
versally (verses 19 32); the 
Jews no less fatally (ii. i iii. 
20). Thus needed, what is the 
offer ? This question is answer 
ed in the remainder of the 3rd 
chapter. The gratuitous cha 
racter of the offer is vindicated 
and illustrated, by the language 
even of the Old Testament 
Scriptures, in the 4th chapter. 
The power of this instrument of 
salvation is enlarged upon, with 
some digressions, in chapters v. 
to viii. The bearing of the 
Gospel upon the Jewish nation 
is the general subject of the 
three following chapters. And 
the 1 2th enters upon the prac 
tical consequences of the doc 
trine already opened. 

Mark viii. 38, 

05 y a p *& v tiraia xyv Y //, KCH 

TOUS e/xors Xoyovs. Luke ix. 26. 

2 Tim. i. 8; ^rj ovv 

TO p.apTvpLov rov 

And for the sense compare Gal. 

vi. 14, c/xot 8e fj.r) yivono K.O.V- 

^ULdBo.i f.1 fjirj iv TU> <TTai;p(3 rov 

KVpiOV T^/XCOl iTyo-Ol) XptO-TOiD. 

8wa/xis eoi)] A power of 
God. The absence of the article 
marks it as a part, exercise, 
manifestation, instance, of God s 
power, not as synonymous or 
strictly coextensive with it. So 
i Cor. i. 1 8, o Xoyos yap o rov 
crravpov rots /xei/ a 

eoriV, rots oe o~ 

VafJLiS 0l) CCTTtV. 

loi;Satu) re Trpwrov] Luke 
xxiv. 47, eis Travra ra Wvf], dpd- 
/xei/ot OLTTO lepo^craX^/x. Acts 
xiii. 46, vfjuv 7/v dva.yK.alov TrpaJroi/ 
X.a\r)@rjvai, rov Xoyov rov eov 


1 7. SIKCHOO-WT; yap eou] See 
the fuller statement in iii. 21, 
<kc. The form of the word, OL- 
Katocrvvrj, not Si/cauocris (which 
occurs only in iv. 25 and v. 18), 
shows that its strict meaning is 
the state or character of one who 
is Si/cato? in God s sight ; the 
addition of eou showing that 
this state is the gift of God, 

I. 16, 17. 

crvvrj yap Geot/ eV CCVTCO aTTOKaXvTTTeTai e /c 
ek TTIO-TIV, KctBtos yejpaTrrat, O $e 
e /c 


and not earned by man. That 
it is not God s personal right 
eousness which is here said to 
be revealed in the Gospel, is 
shown both by the context and 
by the absence of the article. 
It is a righteousness of God ; 
that is, a Divine gift of right 
eousness ; a plan devised by God 
for man to be righteous before 
Him : thus answering the ques 
tion of the book of Job, xxv. 4, 
eVai/rt K-uptov; r) rts aV a 
ptcrai xi>Toj> yevv^ros 

aYo/ca/VvTrreTai] Is in process 
of unveiling. The tense ex 
presses (as in verse 18) a con 
tinuous and gradual operation ; 
not in the further developement 
of the doctrine, but in its pro 
gressive reception and operation 
amongst men. The figure of 
revelation or unveiling, the re 
moval of that which obstructs 
the view of something already 
existing, is frequent in Scrip 
ture, with reference both (i) to 
truths and (2) to persons. Thus 
(i) Psalm xcviii. 2, LXX. eyi/oj- 
picre Kvpios TO (rtoT^ptoy avrov, 
cvavTiov TUV IBvuv a7reKa/Vw//e TTTJV 
StKatoaw^v at rou. Isai. Ivi. I, 
KOL TO eA.eo5 pov a.7roi<a\v(j>9r]vaL. 
Dan. ii. 28, &c. aA.A. CCTTIV d 
eos ei/ ovpava) aT 

Matt. xi. 25, 
raura aTro o^o^cov Kat 
/cat ttTre/caAui/ as aura 
xvi. 17. i Cor. ii. 10. Gal. iii. 
23. Eph. iii. 5. Phil. iii. 15. 
i Pet. i. 12, &c. (2) i Sam. ii. 
27, LXX. raSe Xeyet Kijpios aTro- 
KaA.v($is u.TreKa.XvcfrO rjv Trpos ol- 
KOI/ Trarpo? (rov /c.r.A. Matt. xi. 
27> Kat cu eai fiov\r]Tan. o TJIO? 
aTTOKaXvif/at.. Luke x. 22. Gal. 
i. 1 6, o.TTOKa\v\l/a.i rov vlov avTov 
iv ffj-oi 2 Thess. ii. 3, 6, 8. 

e/< Trurrews et? TTICTTIV] 0^^ o/ 
faith unto faith : a state origi 
nating and resulting in faith ; 
beginning and ending with faith ; 
depending on faith from first to 
last. The form of expression 
resembles 2 Cor. iii. 18, UTTO 
5o?7s ets S6av. 

yeypaTrrat] Hab. ii. 4, LXX. 


^crerai, or, o 8e ScVatos e/c TTI- 
crrcoj? /U.OTJ ^r/crerat. The words 
were originally written of the 
safety of the righteous man 
under God s protection, in that 
desolation by the Chaldeans 
which was the subject of the 
prophecy. But the same thing 
is true for all times : the se 
cret of the life of the righteous 
is faith. And thus the clause 
is three times quoted in an 
Evangelical sense in the New 



1 8 A7TOKa\v7rTeraL yap op^rj Qeov CLTT ovpavou 
7Ti 7rci(rav do efieiav KCCI a Sf/aai/ dvBpcoTTtov 

Testament. See Gal. iii. n. 
Heb. x. 38. 

^0-Tai] Shall have life ; in 
that fuller and higher sense in 
which life expresses not mere 
existence, but conscious, satis 
fying, eternal being, by virtue of 
union with Him who is the Life. 
So, for example, viii. 13. Luke 
x. 28, TOVTO Trotet Kat ^o~r] (in 
answer to the question, rt 
cra? oor}j/ cCutiVio 
in verse 25). John v. 25. vi. 

5 1 * 57, 5 8 ,> &c - 

1 8. aTTOKaAuTrTerai yap] Ob 
serve the steps here marked : i. 
neglect and abuse of knowledge ; 
issuing in ignorance, folly, and 
idolatry (verses 18 23); 2. a 
judicial abandonment by God 
Himself to gross and foul cor 
ruption (2432). 

yap] See note on verse 16. 
He lias spoken of o-cor^pta : but 
what need of it 1 what danger 
impends ? The answer is, God 
is revealing His purpose of 
punishing sin, all sin. 

opyr) 0eo{!] A wrath of God. 
The absence of the article ex 
presses a particular instance or 
exercise of the Divine displea 
sure. See note on Swa/us 0eoG 
in verse 1 6, and SiKatouw^ eov 
in verse 17. Luke xxi. 23, carat 
yap aVay/cr; /aeyaA.^ eVt 7775 y^s 
xat opyr) ru> Aaui rovria. Else 
where the other form of expres 

sion is used ; as in Eph. v. 6, 
Sia Tatrra yap ep^erat TJ opyr} TOI> 
(*)eo{5 or! T<JUS viovs TT)S a 
Col. iii. 6. Kev. xi. 18, 
For the combination, oVoK 
opy>/, compare ii. 5, 
ets creavroj opyrjv iv 

cri a? TOV 0eo{;. 

CXTT ovpai/ou] If these words 
are to be connected closely with 
aTTOKaX^TTTerat, we may compare 
Heb. xii. 25, TW oV ovpa^wv 
[xP 7 ?/ /aTt ^ ovra ] explained fur 
ther by i Pet. i. 12, TOJV ewyye- 
Xtcra/xei/coi/ r/xus Tri/eu/xart aytoj 
a^ocrraXeVrt aV ovpavov. But 
it may be better to combine a- 
ovpavov with opy^ as expressing 
the region from whence the 
manifestation of wrath is to be 
looked for. -^Vtere is m process 
of disclosure, wherever the Gospel 
is carried, a definite and deter 
mined indignation of the Holy 
One against all sin, to be mani 
fested in due time from the hea 
ven in which He dwells, ev rfj 

a7TOKa\V{j/l TOV KVplOV I^CTOV oV 

ovpavov /ACT ayyeAcov 

avrov V 


(2 Thess. i. 7, 8). Rev. xx. 9, 
Kat Kar/3rj Trvp IK TOV ovpavov 
Kat KaT(f>ayv avTovs. 

Tracrav] Wherever found, in 
Jew or Gentile. So in ii. i, 9, 
10, &c. 

I. 18, 19, 13 

dXriOeiav ev dSiKia /care^oVra)^ SLOTL TO 19 
r yvtti(TTOV TOV Qeou (>avepov e&Tiv eV avTols 6 

aWySetav /cat aSt/aav] Sin a- 
gainst God and sin against men. 
Psalm Ixxiii. 6, LXX. Trepte^a- 
AOI/TO aStKtav /cat acre/^etav au- 
TWI/. Prov. xi. 5, aVe/3eta Se 

iTTiTrrei aSt/au. 

rcov TT)I/ aA.y;0eiai/] The verb 
has two chief applica 
tions, both easily explained by 
its derivation : (i) to hold firmly ; 
as in Gen. xxii. 13, LXX. /cat 
IBov /cpio? eis /caTeY/}/XVO<; iv (f>v- 
TO>. Exod. xxxii. 13, /cat /ca#e- 
^OVOTLV avTrjv eis TOV aicova. Luke 
viii. 1 2, aKot crai/res TOV Adyoi/ 
Kare^otxriv. Horn. vii. 6, ci/ (S 
Karei^o/xe^a. I Cor. vii. 30, /cat 
ot ayopa^ovres <ws /tr) /care ^orre?. 
xi. 2, ras TrapaSdcrets Kare^ere. 
xv. 2. 2 Cor. vi. 10, ws /xr;8ei/ 
tXOi TCS KOL Trai/ra /care^ovTe?. I 
Thess. v. 21. Philem. 13. Heb. 
iii. 6, 14. x. 23. &c. (2) to hold 
down, restrain, hinder; as in 
Gen. xxiv. 56, LXX. /AT/ /caTe^ere 
/xe. Huth i. 13, r/ avror? /cara- 
cr^Oijo-ea-de TOV /XT} yei/eV^at aV 
8pt; Luke iv. 42, /caret^ov avTov 
ro9 /XT; TTopeveo-^at aV avrw^. 
2 Thess. ii. 6, 7, /cat vw TO /caTe - 
^ov otoaT6.../xdi oi/ o KaTe^cov apTt 
e os t/c fjLecrov ylvrjTai. The latter 
appears to be the sense here. 
Who hinder (hold down, over 
bear) the truth in (amidst, by 
living in) unrighteousness. The 
former usage, that of holding 
.firmly, however suitable to the 

case of the good hearers in the 
parable of the Sower (see the 
above quotation from St Luke), 
would give too strong a sense 
for that sort of inconsistent and 
involuntary knowledge which is 
here described. 

19. SIOTI] I say that they 
hinder and overbear the truth: 
it is not that they are left in 
helpless and hopeless ignorance 
of it : because, &c. 

ToyvcooroV TOV 0ov] Literally, 
that of God which is matter of 
knowledge. The expression is 
wide, and must be interpreted 
by the context; more especially 
by the words of ver. 20, 17 Te 
u/Stos avTov Swa/xts /cat ^etoTT^?. 
That yvooo-To s means matter of 
knowledge, known, rather than 
capable of being known, cogniz 
able, is proved by its use in 
Scripture. See, for example, 
Ezra iv. 12, 13. v. 8, LXX. yi/w- 
O"TOV eCTTto TW /SacrtXtl OTL K.T.\. 
Psalm Ixxvi. I, yi/cooTos ei/ TT; 
louSato, o cds, cv TO) Io~par)A. 
ju,6ya TO oVo/xa avTov. Ezek. 
xxxvi. 32. Dan. iii. 18. John 
xviii. 15, 1 6. Acts i. 19, /cat 
yvtocrToV eycVeTO Trourtr. ii. 14. 
iv. 10, 1 6. ix. 42. xiii. 38. xv. 
1 8. xix. 17. xxviii. 22, 28, yya>- 

OToV rffJUV COTl!/ OTt /C. T. X. 

<ai/epoV eo-Ttv] See, for 
instance, Job xxxviii. xli. 
throughout. Psalm xix. i 4, 



2O0eos yap auroTs efyavepcocrev. 

d.7r6 /CT/CTCWS K.6(rp.Qv TOIS 

TO, yap dopaTa 



LXX. ot ovpavo 

@eot>...ets Tracrav TTJV yvjv 

o <$oyyos avrwv K. r. X. Jer. v. 

21, 22. Acts XIV, ly, KaiTOt OUK 

d/Jiaprvpov avrov d<f)TJKV dyaOovp- 


Sous Kai /coupons 

K. r. A. For the word <ai/epos see 

Luke viii. 17, ou yap ecrrtv Kpu- 

TTTOJ/ 6 ou <pavpov 


eis (f>avepov 


kv a^roi?] 7n tJiem. So 2 Cor. 
iv. 6, ey Tat? KapStats 7//xa)f. Gal. 
i. 1 6, ei/ efJLOL, 

if>a.vtpu(rev] Manifested it, 
once for all, by the single act 
of Creation, and by the constitu 
tion of man s nature in reason 
and conscience. See the follow 
ing verse. The verb <j>avtpovv is 
found in Jer. xxxiii. 6, LXX. and 
fifty times in the New Testa 

20. aopara] Gen. i. 2, LXX. 
r) Se yrj rjv aoparo? /cat aVara- 
(TKeuaoTOs, Kat CTKGTOS eTravw T^S 
dfivcro-ov. Isai. xlv. 3, Kat Saxroo 

(TOt OfJO-aVpOVS 0-KOT61VOU9, a.7TO- 

Kp^ous aoparoTj? ai/ot^a> oroi. Col. 
i. 15, 1 6. i Tim. i. 17. Heb. 
xi. 27, TOV yap doparov 005 opooi/ 

CITTO KriVecos] 

The absence of the articles 
calls attention to the quality of 
the act spoken of. From so 
elementary an act, from so early 

a moment, as that of creation it 
self, God never hft Himself with 
out witness. For d?ro in this 
sense,/7 0i, as the starting-point 
of calculation, ever since, com 
pare Matt. xxiv. 2 1 , aV apv^s 
KOO-/XOU. xxv. 34, aVo Ka.Ta/3o\r]<; 
Koa-fj-ov. Mark x. 6. xiii. 19, aV 
apx^s KTicreco?. Luke xi. 50. 2 
Pet. iii. 4. Hev. xiii. 8. xvii. 8. 
Krto-eoosJ The word KTICTIS 
seems to be used here (in its 
proper sense) for the act of crea 
ting : and so perhaps also in 
Mark x. 6. xiii. 19. 2 Pet. iii. 
4. 2 Cor. v. 17. Gal. vi. 15, 
Kawrj /m<rts. Elsewhere, by the 
same extension of meaning 
which belongs to the English 
word creation, it denotes crea 
ted being ; whether (i) univer 
sally, as in Judith ix. 12, /?a<ri- 
Aev Tracnys KrtVeojs crov. xvi. 14, 
<rot SovXevcraTO) Tratra T; KTI CTI? 
O-QU. Wisdom v. 18. xvi. 24, 
^ yap KTtcrts crot TW TroirjcravTi 
inrypeTovcra. xix. 6. Ecclus. xvi. 
17. &c. Mark xvi. 15. Rom. 
viii. 19, 20, 21, 22. Col. i. 15, 
23, TrpcoToroKos Tra trr/? KTt crecus... 
ei/ Trao-T; KriVet. Heb. ix. u, 
ou ra^TTy? T^S KTtVcws (^o< belong 
ing to this visible creation). Rev. 
iii. 14, &c. or (2) particularly; 
as viii. 39, oure TIS KTICTIS erepa. 
Heb. iv. 13, OI;K ecrriv KTICTI? 
d(f>a.vr)<; CVU>TTIOV avrov. I Pet. ii. 
13, V7roTay>7Te 



KctBopaTai, r\ re dtSios avrou iW/>us KCCL 

as TO 



(every human institution 
or ordinance). 

KO CT/XOU] Properly, (i) order, 
arrangement, apparatus, and in 
the LXX. the word scarcely ad 
vances beyond this its strict 
sense : it still requires a genitive 
of explanation. Gen. ii. i, o ov- 
pai/os KCU T) yrj Koi Tras o Kocryxos 
aurajr. Dent. iv. 19, roi/ yXiov 
Kol r-rjv o-cXtjvrjv Kat TOV? aorepas 
Kat Travra TO> Kooyxov TOU ovpavov. 
xvii. 3, TravTt TO> KOCT/XO) TW CK 
(belonging to} TOV ovpavov. Isai. 
xxiv. 21. (2) In the Apocrypha 
the sense of universe is fully 
established. Wisdom vii. 17, 
etSeVat crvo-Tao-iJ> KOCT/XOU KCU ei/ep- 
yeiav o-rot^eiW. xi. 17, Kricrao-a 
TO]/ Kocrp:oi/ e^- a/xopc^oi; vA.^s. 2 
Mace. iii. 12, Tert/x^/xeVoi) Kara 
rot a~vfJL7ravTa KOCT/JLOV. vii. 9, 23, 
o TOU Koa/jiov (3ao~LXevs. . .6 TOV 
Koa-fjiov KTIO-TTJS. xiii. 14. And 
so throughout the New Testa 
ment; as in John i. 10, Iv T<3 
Kocr/xo) ^i/, Kat d KOO~fJio<; 8t avrov 
eyeVero. Acts xvii. 24, o 0eos 
o TTOiT^cras roi/ KOCT/XOV Kat Trai/ra 
ra ev avrw. (3) Side by side 
with this sense we find a special 
appropriation of the word to the 
world of men; as in John i. 10, 
29, o KOCT/XOS avTov OVK eyi/o) . . .rrjv 
apapTioiV TOV Koa/Aov. iii. 16, 17. 
iv. 42. vi. 33, 51. vii. 4, 7, &c. 
(4) At length the term sinks 
into one of disparagement and 

reproach, denoting either (a) the 
world of sense and matter, in 
contrast with spirit and heaven ; 
as in the phrases ra crroi^etaTou 
KOO-^OV (Gal. iv. 3. Col. ii. 8, 

2O), /JLtpL/JLVaV TO. TOV KO&fJiOV (op- 

posed to /w,epi/xj/av ra TOV Kvpiov, 
i Cor. vii. 33, 34), &c. or (ft) 
the world as affected by sin, 
and lying under God s displea 
sure, i Cor. xi. 32, Iva. /JLTJ avv 
TCO KOO~/XO) KaraKpt^dj/xei/. Eph. 
ii. 2, 12, uBeoi ev TO) Kocrfjiu). Heb. 
xi. 7, 38. James i. 27. 2 Pet. 
i. 4, T/ys i/ TO) Kocrp:a) ev CTrt^u/xi a, 
(/)^opas. ii. 5? 2O > TC ^ P.LOLO- P.O.TO, 
TOV KoV/xov. I John ii. 15, 16, 
17. iv. 4, 5. v. 4, 19, d KoV/xos 


rot? Tronyyuaa ii ] Eph. ii. 10, 
auroi) yap eayxei/ Troirj/Jia. Psal. 
Ixiv. 10, LXX. a^yyetAai/ ra 
epya TOV eou, Kat ra Trotryyuara 
auro crui/^Kav. cxliii. 5, e/xc- 
AeV?/cra ei/ Tracrt rots epyots <rot>, 

!/ TTOtV/ /XaO-t TOJV ^CtptOV <TOU C/XC- 

XeVcoi/. In the Book of Eccle- 
siastes it occurs almost twenty 
times; as in iii. ii, TO TTOLTHJ-O. 
o f.Troif)crev o eo g. vii. 13, tSe 
Ta TTOirj^aTO. TOV eoi). viii. 17. 
xi. 5. The usage of this word 
points at least as much to deeds 
as to works; to things done as 
to things made. And thus the 
reference here will be not only 
to what are called the works of 
Nature, but also to the acts of 





God s Providence and of His 
moral government of the world. 

voov/jieva KaOopa.Ta.L\ The for 
mer word expresses the exercise 
of mind and thought upon the 
subject, the latter (in strong 
metaphor) the result. The in 
visible things of God, perceived 
by the help of His acts, are made 
visible to the eye of the mind : rd 
aopara voou/xei/a KaOoparai. 

7 oovyuei/a] Matt. xxiv. 15, o 
ttVayu ajo~Ku>i/ voeiVto. 2 Tim. ii. 7, 
voeL 6 Aeyoo, &C. 

Ka^opaVai] Num. xxiv. 2. 
LXX. Ba.Aau/x...Ka$opa TOV I(T- 
patj\ (rrpaTO7reSeuKOTa Kara ci>- 
AaV Job x. 4, 77 cucrrrep j3poTo$ 
opa KaOopas , 

at 8to?] Jude 6,Secr/xots ai SibiS. 
Wisdom ii. 23, d eos eWio-e TOI/ 
av0p(DTTov CTT a<$apcri a, Kat ei- 
^? tSias a iS torero? 7 

auroi . Til. 26, aTra/uyacr/xa yap 
ecrrt ^>a)ros dTiSiou. 

8vj/ajats Kat ^etor^s] 2 Pet. i. 
3, r^s ^eia? Swa/xeoos aurov. 

^etoT-^?] Divinity, Godlike 
character, possession of Divine 
attributes; not Deity, Godhead, 
which is ^eoTTy?. Of ^edr^s also 
we have one example in Scrip 
ture ; Col. ii. g, ei/ aujw KarotKet 
Trai/ TO 7rA.7^pa)/jia T^S ^eoT^ros crco- 
/xartKu;?. Neither form is found 
in the LXX. In Wisdom xviii. 
9, we have TOV rrj^ 


et? TO cu-at avTOus] Unto their 
being (to the end they may be) 
without excuse ; that is, if they 
believe not. The manifestation 
of God in Nature and Provi 
dence is designed to deprive un 
belief of its excuse. Acts xiv. 

17, OVK appTvpov avToi-- a 
For the phrase ets TO eti/a/. see 
also iii. 26. iv. ii, 16. viii. 
29. xv. 1 6. Eph. i. 12. 

avrov^ Refers to dvOpuTrow 
in verse 18. 

ai/a7roA,oyr/Tovs] Destitute of 
apology or self -defence. So ii. i. 

21. i/d^T5 Toy 0edvl See 

verse 19. 

eSdttto-ai/] The word express 
es to make glorious ; that is, to 
show forth the perfections of a 
Person. Sometimes it is applied 
to the act of God Himself ; as 
in John xii. 28, ndVep, Sd^aaoV 
o-ou TO ovo/xa. xvi. 14. xvii. i, 
4, 5. Acts iii. 13. Heb. v. 5. 
Sometimes to the reflexion of 
God s self-manifestation, in the 
adoration or devotion of man; 
as in Matt. v. 16, OVTOOS Aa/t- 

\j/OLT(O TO ^)C05 VfJiWV 

TOJI/ ai/^pco/rcor, OTTCOS . . . 

TOV TTttTepa VfJLUV TOV Iv T015 0V- 

pavots. ix. 8. xv. 31. i Cor. 
vi. 20. Gal. i. 24. Rev. xv. 4. 
&c. They did not, either in wor 
ship or obedience, recognise the 
perfection of God s character, as 
manifested in His works and 

I. 21 23. 


ctvTwv Kal eo-KOTLO-Orj q dcrvveTOs 
Kapfiia. <pd(7KOVTs elvai (ro(poi ejULWpdv-22 

TOV d(p6aOTOV2j 
I 8ta- 

ways. So Isai. xliii. 23, LXX. 
ovSe V rats Overtax aov eSo^acras 
/xe. Dan. v. 23, Kal TOV coV, 

Ol> rf 7TV07J (TOV (.V TV) X t p^ O.VTOV 

Kal Traaat at o Soi (7OV, auroV OIJK 

KO.KOL. James ii. 4, 

Psalm 1. 23, LXX. Ovcrta atve 

A verb not 
found in the LXX., though it 
occurs forty times in the New 
Testament. Judith viii. 25. 
Wisdom xviii. 2. 2 Mace. i. n, 
fK /xeyaXcoi/ /ai/SiWv VTTO TOV 0eo9 

2 Kings xvii. 1 5, 
1 6, LXX. Kal Tropv9r)o~av OTTicra) 
rcoi /xarat cov, Kal e/mratoj^crav... 
Kal 7rotry<jav eaurois ^(avVfj.a, ovo 

7rpoa eKvvr]o~av Tray TT 
TOT) ovpavoi), Kal eA-arpeucrai/ TOJ 
BaaX K.r.X. i Bam. xxvi. 21. 
i Chron. xxi. 8. Eph. iv. 17, 
ra c flj T? Tre/jiTrarct ev /xaratoT^rt 
TOU voos avTcov. 

ei/ rots] /n, as the j^eM or 
region in which the infatuation 
was incurred. 

8taXoyio-/xots] Psalm xciv. 
n, LXX. (i Cor. iii. 20) Kvpios 
VS SiaXoyio")U.oi;s TWV aV- 
, ort etcrl juaratoi. Matt. 
xv. 19, StaAoytoyi-ol TrovrjpoL. 
Mark vii. 21, 01 StaXoyicr/xol ot 

] The three forms, 

a^CO, O-KOTt^O), CTKOTo a), ai (^ 

found in the LXX.; the first 
usually as an intransitive verb, 
as in Eccles. xii. 3, Kal a-Koracrot!- 
(Tiv at (3\7rov(TaL f.v rat? oTrats. 
The metaphorical use is first 
seen in Psalrn Ixix. 24 (quoted 
ill Rom. xi. 10), 

OL 0<f>0aXp.ol O.VTWV TOV 

Tretv. Eph. iv. 1 8, e 
Trj otavoia cWe?. 

do-vvtTos] See verse 31, a 
erous, dcrvvOeTovs. Matt. xv. 16. 
Mark vii. 18. 

acruVcros KapSta] Psalm Ixxvi. 
6, LXX. rapax#r;crai> Travres ot 
acrwerot TT} KapSta. 

22. ^ao-Kovres] Gen. xxvi. 
20, LXX. Acts xxiv. 9. xxv. 19. 
In Rev. ii. 2, TOVS Ae yoi/ras 
eavroi)? aTroo-ToAoi;?, the received 
text has ^aa-Koi/rag. 

o-o<ol e/u.wpav^/ycrav] Isai. xix. 
Ii, LXX. ot (rocfiol <rvfji.(3ovXoi TOV 
ews, ^ fiovXrj avTiov fjuapav- 
L. xliv. 25, TT;I/ j3ov\r)V 
/xcopatVwv. Jer. x. 14, 

?. Ii. 17. I Cor. i. 20, TTOU 
cro^)os;...07; / >(l c/juopavev o eos 
rr;i/ C70(/>t av TOI) KOOT/XOU; Compare 
Matt. v. 13, eoV 8e TO aAas 

23. ^AAa^av] Psalm cvi. 20, 




LXX. /cat 7)\\davTO Tryf So^av av- 
TWV iv d/xoiw/xaTt fjiocr^ov K.T.\. 

So|ai/] 67o?-?/ is ?Ae effulgence 
of light. A candle se under a 
bushel would have no glory. 
Luke xi. 33, ouSets Atn^ov ai^a? 
ets Kpvrrrrjv TiO rjo iv ovSe UTTO TOC 
/xdSiov, a/V/V CTTI Tryv Xv^l/iav, iva 
oi eio Tropeud/xei ot TO ^>to5 j3\liru>- 
tnv. Applied to a Person, it 
is the manifestation of excellence. 
The Shechinah was the glory 
of the, Lord in outward dis 
play, i Kings viii. n, LXX. 
eVA-T^cre Soa Kvptov TOV oTKov 
Kvptov. Whatever manifests 
the character of God, whether 
in power, wisdom, or love, is 
called in Scripture His glory. 
John xi, 40, OVK eirrov <TOL on 
ear TrtcrTevcr^s oi^ry rryv So^av rou 

roi) a^Odprov eoii] I Tim. i. 
1 7, TO) Se /? TCOK atajj/o)i^, 
dffrOapTtp dopdrta /xdi/a) @eo3. The 
word a^^apros is equivalent (in 
this connexion) to d /xdvos e^o)!/ 
d9ava<TLav in i Tim. vi. 16. 
Compare Wisdom xii. i, TO yap 
acfauapTov crov 7rvv/Jid eo~Tiv Iv 

ei/ dftotw/iaTt] The construc 
tion of aAXttcro-eii/ iii Classical 
Greek is with Tiro ?, dvri TIJ/OS, 
or (rarely) TLVL. The Hellenis 
tic usage is either (i) the last 
of these; the dative expressing 
that by the instrumentality (that 

is, l)y the substitution] of which 
the exchange is made; as, for 
example, in Levit. xxvii. 10, 
edi/ Se 

K.T.A. or (2) eV TLVL, as 
here. They changed the glory of 
God in (so as to consist in] like 
ness of, &c. In other words, 
Tliey exchanged it for. See also 
Averse 25, /xer^AAa^ai/ rrjv dX.ij- 
TOV oii Iv TO) i//i;6et. 

A likeness of (consisting of) a 
similitude of a man : et/coVos is 
an explanatory genitive, answer 
ing the purpose of cos eTSos in 
Ezek. i. 26, LXX. d/xoico/xa ok 
cT8os dvOpwTTov. Elsewhere we 
have, in the same sense, d/Wco/xa 
dvOpuTTov alone ; as in Ezek. i. 
5. The words d/xotw/xa and cl- 
KWV are found in apposition in 
Deut. iv. 1 6, LXX. Trao-av iKova, 
o/xot oo/xa dpcreviKov KOLL 6r]\.VKOv 


CIKOVOS (f)6. af^pcoTTOfj Man 
is himself called in i Cor. xi. 7, 
etKooV /cat Soa. eov, in allusion 
to Gen. i. 26, 27, LXX. KOT 
ei/cova eov tTroLijtrev avrov. V. I. 
ix. 6. Compare Gen. v. 3, ASaxt 
...eyei/r^ae KaTa TT^V tSeav auroi) 
/cat KaTa r>yv etKoi a avroi) (pj 
himself), KOL cTrcoi/dttao e TO 

7TTtVcl/ Kttt TeTpdTTowV Kttt 

Acts X. 12, ev a VTTTJP- 

TTO.VTO. Ttt TCTpttTToSa Kttt p- 

I 24. 

avrous 6 Geos eV rals e 
avTcov eis ctKaOapcrlav TOV a 


Trera T^S yrjs Kat Trereira TOU 
oupai/oi). xi. 6. James iii. 7, 
TrdVa yap Averts OirjpLWV re /cat 
Treretvajv epTrercoi/ re Kat ct/aXt cuv 
K.T.A.. Compare Deut. iv. 16 
1 8, LXX. /jtr/TTore oVo/xT/cr^TC, Kat 
V/JLLV aurots 

TOS opreou 7rreptorou...7ravTos ep- 
TreTou K.T.A.. 

24. TrapeSooKer] Surrendered, 
handed them over, gave them vp 
to : that is, ceased to restrain 
tli em by the strivings of con 
science ; left them to themselves : 
see verse 28. In Eph. iv. 19, 
the preceding step, their sur 
render of themselves to evil, is 
similarly expressed : otrtves dir- 
rj\yr]KOT<; ecumrug TraptbuiKav rfj 
aoreA/yet a t? tpyaaiav a 

w/cei/ a-uroi;? o eos] This 
thrice -repeated phrase, Trape- 
avrovs o eo5...cts aKa- 
OapcrLav (verse 24), TrapeSwKtv 
vroiJS o eos ets Tra^?; artp:ta5 
(verse 26), Trape Sto/cei/ avrovs o 
cos c?s dftoKi/jiov vovv (verse 28), 
shows that the whole passage 
from verse 24 to verse 32 is 
descriptive of one stage, not of 
two stages, in the deterioration 
of the Gentile world; that, 
namely, in which the Divine 
influence is withdrawn (Hosea 
iv. 17, Ephraim is joined to 
idols: let him alone], and the 

sinner has the sin which he 
has chosen sealed upon him 
(Psalm Ixxxi. n, 12, Israel 
would none of me: so I gave 
them up unto their own hearts 

iv rats] In the lusts of their 
hearts ; as the field or region in 
ivkich the abandonment acted. 
It might even be understood of 
the yoke under ivhich the sinner 
passes, who is abandoned to his 
own lusts; as in the phrase 
perpetually recurring, in the 
Book of Judges especially, ?rapa- 
StSomi iv x et P l/ Tti os. Ezra ix. 7, 
LXX. iv rat? az/o/xtats yp.<2v Trape- 

iOviuv iv pOyOK^ai a Kat iv at^/xa- 
A.u)<ria Kat iv StapTrayr^ Kat iv 
alcrxyvfl TrpocrojTrou T^/XOJV. And 
thus the words iv rats eTri^v/xt ats 
ets a.KaOapcriav here would be 
come still more exactly parallel 
to the TT) ao eXyet a ets epyaatav 
aKa^apo-tas of Eph. iv. 19, as 
quoted in a preceding note. 
Surrendered them so as to be in 
(the hand or power of) the lusts 
of their hearts unto (to work) 

TOV aVi/xaeo-$ai] For the sake 
or purpose of, &c. as in Matt. 
ii. 13, TOV cx7roA.eo-ai. iii. 13, TOU 
ftaTTTLO-OrjvaL. xiii. 3, igrjXOev o 
o-Tretptov TOV o-7retpeiv. &c. The 
peculiarity here is the combina 
tion with the passive infinitive 



crwfJiaTa avriov ev ai/rots, omves 
^av TYIV ci\ri6eiav TOV Qeou eV TCO -v^e^S 
60e/3d<rdti(rai> Kat eXarpevo-av Trj KTi(rei 



(aVi/xaeo-0at) and its preceding 
accusative (ra aco/mra). Compare 
Luke xxi. 22, 6Vt ?;/xepat IK&LKTJ- 
o~a>s aural eicrtj/ TOU TrXrjcrOfjvcLi 
TrdWa ra yeypa/x/xeVa. Compare 
art/u a? in verse 26. 

ari//.aeo-0at] See I Thess. 
iv. 4, etSeVat eKaorov v/xcoi/ TO 

25. omves] Whosoever, any 
who, as being persons who, for 
that they ; thus approaching the 
Latin usages of gzu with the 

/xe-ny AAaav] As in verse 2 6. 
This compound is not found 
elsewhere in the New Testa 
ment or Septuagint; but it 
occurs nine times in. the 2nd 
Book of Maccabees. 

aA.^etav.-.i/ evSet] Truth is 
reality, that which is : a lie is 
a nonentity, that which is not. 
Hence i/^eSSos is often in Scrip 
ture the name for an idol. An 
idol, as an object of worship, is 
a nonentity: it is a block of 
wood or stone, and nothing 
more. So i Cor. viii. 4, ot 8a/xei> 
on ouSev et ScoXov Iv KOCT/XO). Com 
pare Isai. xliv. 19, 20, LXX. TO 
AoiTroV ouToO ts 

T^cre, Kat Trpoo Kvi/ovo tv ai/no... 
OVK epetTC OTI i//ei)8os iv rfj Se^ia 
IJLGV. Jer. iii. 10, OVK f.7reo~Tpa.<f)r] 

. x. 1 4, i//eu87? [ 
ov/< ecrrt 7rvev(J.a ev 

eV TU>] TAe?/ exchanged the 
reality of God in (so as to consist 
in] that which is a lie. See 
note on verse 23, iv o/zouu/xan. 

eVe/^ao-^ryo-av] The verb o-e- 
/3aeo-$at is not elsewhere found 
in the LXX. or New Testament. 
The common form is o-e/Jeo^at 
(as, for example, Isai. xxix. 13, 
LXX. quoted in Matt. xv. 9, and 
Mark vii. 7, fJLarrjv Se o-e ^oi/rat 
/xe). But the substantive o-e - 
flaa-fjia, an object of worship, 
occurs in Wisdom xiv. 20. xv. 
17. Bel 27, tSou 8?} Ta o-/3ao-- 
(jLara vfjitov. Acts xvii. 23, ava- 
6e.d)pwv ra o-e^ao-juara v/xtioi/. 
2 Thess. ii. 4, eTrt Travra Xeyo/xe- 
w r/ cre /Sacr/xa. 

See note on 

verse 9, a> 

TT] KTto-et] The creation ; the 
universe of created being. A 
general expression, justified by 
the strange variety of the ob 
jects of idolatrous worship in 
different ages and nations. 
Compare Deut. iv. 16 19. For 
the word, see note on verse 20, 

Literally, beside, pa 
rallel to; and so, in compa 
rison with, and by implication 
(usually, but not necessarily) in 
favourable comparison with, be- 

I. 2=;, 26. 

TOV KTio-avra, os ecmv ev\oytiros ek T0i)s 
yas* dfjLtfv. did TOUTO Trctpe^wKev avTOus 6 0eos26 
e9 7ra6r] aTi/uias al TE yap 6/]\Lat 

yond, more titan; as here, and 
iv. 1 8, Trap e/\7Tt5a. xi. 24, Trapd 
(j)V(nv. xii. 3, Trap o bet c^povetF. 
XIV. 5? Kptvei ij/jiepav Trap ry/xe pav. 
Luke xiii. 2, 4, a/xaprcoXol Trapd 
. . .oc/>eiA.Tai eyevovTO Trapa 
TOTJ? dvOpuTrov*?. Heb. i. 
9, e^piorev ere o eo?. . .e/\atoi/ 
ayaAAtacrecos Trapd ro^s /xero^ou? 
o-ou. In other passages a com 
parative precedes Trapd, defining 
its sense : as irXeov (Luke iii. 
13), TrXeiovo? (Heb. iii. 3), Kpetr- 
roi/ (Pleb. xii. 24), KpeiTTocrtv 
(Heb. ix. 23), 8ia<opojTepoi 
(Heb. i. 4), ^Aarrcocra?, ^XarTa)- 
{ji.ivov (Heb. ii. 7, 9). 

roy KTio-avra] Eccles. xii. i, 
LXX. fAwjaOyTL TOV KTLcravTos ere. 
Isai. xlv. 8, eyoj elfjn Ki;pios o 
KTtcras ere. Eph. iii. 9, iv TCU 
0eco TOJ Ttt Travra. KTtcravTi. Co]. 
ill. IO, /car etKOva rot) KTtcravro? 
auToi^. Kev. iv. u, art cri; CKTI- 
cra? ra Travra, Kat 8td TO 
aov rjcrav KCU eKrurOrjcrav. (fee. 

evXoy^ros] See ix. 5, and 
note. Mark xiv. 61, o XPTTOS 
d ftos TOU etiXoy^ToO. Luke i. 
68, evXoyryTos Kijptos o eds TOV 
I(TpaTJ\. 2 Cor. i. 3. xi. 31, d 

Eph.^i. 3; i Pet. i. 3. 

ets TOV? aioovas] The same 
precise form is found in ix. 5. 

V. E. 

xi. 36. xvi. 27. Luke i. 33. 
2 Coi . xi. 31. Heb. xiii. 8. 
Other combinations found (like 
this) in the LXX. are, 6Y atcovos, 
eis TOV atcova, ecos TOV atcovos, etos 
atcovos, ea>s ets TOV atcova, ecus ets 
TOUS atcovas, ets TOV atcoVa Kat 
eVeKetva, eis TOUS atcovas Kai ert, 
etos TOU atcovos Tt, eis TOV atcova 
^povov, ets TOV atcuva TOU attovos, 
eis o.iajva atajvos, TOV atcova Kat 
e:r atwva Kat eTt, ews atcovos T(iui/ 
a cL)7/a)V, ets TOV atcova Kat ets TOV 
atcova TOV atcuvo?. Amidst this 
great variety of phrases, the 
double plural form, ets TOUS atto- 
vas TCUV atcovcov, appears to bo 
used only in the New Testa 
ment (Gal. i. 5. Phil. iv. 20. 
i Tim. i. 17. 2 Tim. iv. 18. 
i Pet. iv. ii. Rev. i. 18. iv. 9, 
10. v. 13. vii. 12. x. 6. xi. 15. 
xv. 7. xix. 3. xx. 10. xxii. 5). 

26. Std Touro] That is, be 
cause of their wilful and obsti 
nate idolatry. So Std in verse 
24. Both are explained by the 
words, /cameos OVK eSoKt]u.acrav TOV 
0eov ^eiv ev eTrtyvtocrei, in verse 

TrdOrf aTtjittas] Passions of in 
famy. Col. iii. 5, Ta fjieXr) TO. 
errt TTys y7?5 Tropvetav, aKat^apcrtav, 
Tra ^os, eVt^u/xtav KUKT^V. I 
iv. 5, fJirj ev Trd^et 




Ttjs 6ti\eias e^eKavO^arav cv TIJ 
6peei. avTwv eis dXXriXovs, ap<T6ves eV ap&ea iv 

i]V ecei T?/S 7rAj/^;s CWTCOV eV iavTols 
Kctl Kadtos OUK eSoKijULacrav TOV 

Or omit oe. Or read re. 

cm/uas, compare 
verse 24. 



Rev. xvi. 

] 2 Cor. vi. 13, 
TT^V Se avrrjv avn^icrBia.v. 

TrXavrjs] Literally, wandering, 
error. But the word expresses 
in Scripture that sort of delu 
sion which is at once wilful, 
immoral, and corrupting. See, 
for example, i Thess. ii. 3, OUK 
eK TrA-ar^s oijSe e ctKa^aptrtas ovSe 
eV 8oA.a). 2 Pet. ii. 18. iii. 17. 
Jude II, TT} TrXdvr) TOV BaA.aa/x 

a7roXa/x./3ttvoi/res] The word 
has two chief senses, (i) To re 
ceive back; either (a) simply, as 
in Luke vi. 34, Scu/et ^owu/ Iva 
arroXa/3wortv rd tcra. XV. 27, ort 
vyiaivovra avrov tt7re Aa/2ej/. tfec., 
or (/3) as a thing earned, merited, 
or promised ; as here, and in 
Luke xxiii. 41, a ia yap iLv 
e7rpaaju.ev drroXa/JifSa.i o^v. Gal. 
iv. 5, ti/a T?/V i;io^eo-iav aTroXcx/^oo- 
/xef. Col. iii. 24. 2 John 8. &c. 
And (2) to take apartfrom others; 
as in Mark vii. 

vos O.VTOV o.7ro TOV o^Xov. 

28. e8o/a /xuo-cu ] From the 
root Se^o/xat comes SO>KL I ULO<;, ac 
ceptable, approvable, worthy (xiv. 
1 8. xvi. 10. i Cor. xi. 19. 
2 Cor. x. 1 8. xiii. 7. 2 Tirn. ii. 
15. James i. 12); and SOKI/X^, 
which is (i) a trial of worth, 
a proof ly testing (2 Cor. ii. 9. 
viii. 2. ix. 13. xiii. 3. Phil, 
ii. 22); and (2) sometimes (as in 
v. 4) the result of such a test, 
tried ivorth, experienced good 
ness. Also OOKL/JUOV, a test or 

criterion, James i. 

i Pet. 

i. 7. Hence the verb SOKL- 
/xaeii/, connected with SOKI/JLOS 
as probare with probus, and 
haviog, like probare, the two 
senses, of proving and approv 
ing ; trying, and accepting after 
trial. Thus (i) to discriminate; 
as in xii. 2, ets TO OOKL/JLO.^^ 


Luke xii. 56, TO Trpocrwirov Tij<; 
yfjs Kai TOV ovpavov otSore ooKifJid- 
^eiv, TOI/ 8e Kaipov TOVTOV TTOJ? OVK 
ot SaT^ SoKifjid^tiv ] xiv. I9,7ropeuo- 
/xat 8oKi/x,ao-at avra. i Cor. iii. 
13^ TO tpyov OTTOIOV eo"Ttv TO jrvp 

I. 27, 28. 


X eil> eV eTTiyvcoo ei 
0eo? ek d^oKifJLOv vovv, TTOIZLV TO, /urj 


a{ To SoKt/xacrei. xi. 28, SoKt//.aeYa> 
8e aV$pa>7ros eairroV. 2 Cor. viii. 
8, TO T?ys { /xerepas aya 775 yi/v^ crtoi/ 
xiii. 5, eauTOi;s SOKI- 
Gal. vi. 4, TO Se 4 pyov 

v. 10. i Thess. ii. 4, @ew TU> 
SoKi/xu^oyTt Tag KapSias rj^djv. 
v. 2 ijTrdVra 8e SoKt/xtt^ere. I Tim. 
iii. 10, Kal ovTOt 8e SoKi//ae- 
o-0ao-aj/ Trpuj-or. I Pet. i. 7, 
o-tof TOW aTToA-A-V/xeVou 8ta 
3e So/a/xao/xeVou. I Jolin iv. I, 
8o/ajU,a eT TO, Trve^/xaTa. See 
also Job xxxiv. 3, LXX. ous 80- 
Kt/xa^ei /\dyot>9, Xdpvyt; 8e yeveTcu 
taarLV. Psalm xxvi. 2, 8o/a/xa- 
/xe, Ki;pte, Kat Treipaa ov /u-e 


rrjv KapStai/ p.ov. Prov. xvii. 3, 
o) ap- 
xiii. 9, 

7rupu)o~(D auroi 5 a TrvpovraL TO 
dpyvpiov, Kal SOKI/XO) aijrous cus 

OOKLjJ.d^TaL TO yjpV(TiOV. ttc. And 

(2) approve ; as here, and 
xiv. 22, ei/ <S SoKt/xu^ei. i Cor. 
xvi. 3, ovs eav SoKi/xtto-?yre. 2 Cor. 
viii. 22, 6V a[jiV Iv TTO\- 
Xois TToAXcx/cts cTTrovSatoc 6Wa. 
I Thess. ii. 4, 8eSoKt/xao"//e^a i;7ro N 
TOU eoi) 7Tio-Tv6 fji aL TO euayye- 
A.IOV. Here, as in the last quo 
tation (i Thess. ii. 4), the usual 
accusative after the verb is re 
placed by the infinitive. Even 
as they did not approve to have 
God, <fec. In two passages, ii. 1 8, 

and Phil. i. 10, the sense of 
SoKLfjid&iv is doubtful, because it 
is combined with a word equally 
ambiguous, Ta oiauptpovTa. To 
discriminate things that differ : 
or, to approve things that excel. 
See note oil ii. 18, 8o/a/>taas Ta 

TOV 0eov t ^eu/ iv 
Ail unusual phrase, which may 
be compared with Phil. i. 7, 
Sict TO cx eu/ /^ * v 

11. 29, TOUS TOlOiTTOfS 

e^CTe. I Tim. iii. 4, Te /cva 

ej/ uTTOTay^. Philem. 17, t ouv 

fJL ^69 KOtVOO^oV. Foi tllO SCnSG, 

see i Cor. xv. 34, dyvw(ji.o.v yap 
eou Tii/es e^ovcriv. 

cTrtyi/ojo-et] Onrknowledge; fur 
ther, deeper, fuller knowledge. 
Compare, for example, i Cor. 
xiii. 12, tt pTt ytvojo-Kco e/c /aepovs, 
TO TC 8e eV(.yj/(ocro/x,ai Ka^cos /cat 
eTreyvwo-Orjv. Phil. i. 9, tm ?/ 
dyaTrr) V/JLUV eVt jadA/Xov Kat /taX- 
Aov TTpLO-o-evr) Iv eVtycuo-et Kat 
cr^o-et. &c. 

ct/x-ov] The opposite of 
SO KI/XOS (see note on 
above). Unacceptable, ^lnap- 
provable, unworthy ; rejected on 
trial, refuse, reprobate. Prov. 
xxv. 4, LXX. Jsai. i. 22, TO ap 
yuptoi/ u/xojv dooKifjiov. (Compare 
Jer. vi. 30, dpyvptov a7roSe8oKt- 
fjLao~fJi-.vov KaXeVare avTOf?, OTt 
aTreSoKt/xacrev avTOW? Kvptos.) 
i Cor. ix. 27, pf TTWS aXXots K^- 



7ra(T/7 d^iKia KaKia Trovripia vrAe- 

2Q. Or irovrjpia irXeove^ia /ca/a ci. Or 


pucras auros aboKifjio*; 
2 Cor. xiii. 5, 6, 7, et /X^TI aSo- 
Kt/xot care K.r.X. 2 Tim. iii. 8, 
avOpwiroL Kare(f)OapiJLvoL TOV vovv, 

ttSoKl/XOl TTfpl Tf)V TTLCTTLV. Tit. 1. 

1 6, 0eov o^aoXoyoTJcrtv 
rots Se epyois api/owrat, j3 
Tot o^reg /cat aTret^ei? Kat 
Trdj/ tpyov dyaOov aSoKt/xot. Heb. 
vi. 8, [y^] a8oKt/xos Kat Karapas 
eyyus, ^s TO re Aos etg Ka-o-tv. 
There is possibly an intended 
contrast liere between e 
(rai/ and aSoKt/^oi/. ^-l 
fused to have God in knowledge, 
God surrendered them to a refuse 
nr uid. Or, a^ they approved not 
the having God in knowledge^ 
God surrendered them to a repro 
bate mind. 

vovv] Not only the life, not 
only the heart, but the very 
mind is spoilt and ruined. Tit. 
i. 15, rots Se /ue/xia/z/xeVots KCU 
ctTrtWots ovdlv K0.6a.pov, a\Xd /xe- 
Kat o vo s Kat 77 

7TOttl J Tlie dSo 

shows itself in the habitual com 
mission, without restraint or 
remorse, of wicked acts. Psalm 
Ixxxi. 13, LXX. TropetKTWTat eV 
Tots eTTtr^Seuyaacrtv auroji/. 

Ka^KOvra] Exod. v. 13, LXX. 
ra epya r/xa>i/ ra KaOtJKovra KO.(? 
rj /xepav. 2 Mace. vi. 4, en Se ra 
/XT) KaOtjKovTa eVSoi/ etc 

Acts xxii. 22, ou yctp KaOrfntv 
OLVTOV Cfyi 7 . Elsewhere u O^K 
avrfK^v (Eph. v. 4). 

29 31. Four of the terms 
here applied to the heathen 
world (and in substance several 
others) are found in 2 Tim. iii. 2, 
3, in the description of a pre 
dicted corruption of the Church 
itself : dAa^ofe?, v-rrepr/ffravoi, yo- 
vtvcrtv aTret^eT?, acrropyot. Ot 
so little avail is nominal Christi 
anity even in checking the worst 

29. TreTrX^pw/xei/ovs] The con 
struction of this passive varies 
between (i) the genitive, as 
ill XV. 14, TreTT/Y^pw/xeVoi 
yvojo-ecos. Acts xiii. 52, 
povvro xapds KOL Trvtvp-aros dyiov. 
2 Tim. i. 4, tVa ^apas 7r/v>7pa)$u> 
K.r.X. (2) the dative, as here, and 
2 Cor. vii. 4, TreTr/X^ pco/xat TT; 
7rapaK/\.r;o-a K.r.A.. (3) the 
sative, as Phil. i. II, 
/xeVot KapTrov SiKCUocrvvr)?. Col. i. 
9, iVa 7r\r]p(i}6r]T rrfv eTTtyi/cocrtv 
roG ^eXr/-/xaTos auroi) K.T.X. 

aStKta KaKia Trovrjpiq. TrXeove- 
tt a] The catalogue, however 
apparently miscellaneous in its 
later items, begins with four 
comprehensive heads of evil : 
(i) unrighteousness, a general 
disregard of relations Divine 
and human; (2) viciousness, a 
general depravity of character ; 

I. 29, 30. 

jULecTTOvs (pOovov (povov e 

$6\ov KCC- 

(3) villany, an unprincipled 
worthlessness of life: (4) grasp 
ing, a selfish greediness of get 
ting, whether in the form (jf 
covetonsness or sensuality (see 
i Thess. iv. 6, TO /X.T} V7rp/3aw&.v 
/cat TrXeoreKreiV ei/ TW Trpay/xari 
roV a8eX<oi/ airoO). 

piecprovs] Matt, xxiii. 28,ecrw- 
$er Se ecrre p,e<Trol vTTOKpLvews 
KOL dvofjiias. James iii. 8, /ifcrTrj 
lov 6avaTr)(j)6pov, 2 Pet. ii. 14, 
e^ovres /ACO-TOUS /^ot- 

<f>6vov K.r.X.] In the 
dark list which follows we ob 
serve (i) a preponderance of 
that class of sins which we cha 
racterize as works of -the devil 
over those of the tuorld or cf tlie 
Jlesh, which last have been ex 
hausted in the description of 
the foregoing stage of depravity 
(verses 24 to 27) : (2) an occa 
sional regard to alliteration, by 
way of giving point and em 
phasis ; as in the case of (j>@6vov 
<^>oi/ou, dcrvverovs da-vvOcTovs (3) 
M disregard of rhetorical art ; 
as, for example, in descending 
from (jiovov to c ptSos, from #eo- 
oruyas to vfipio-rds, &c. but (4) 
a real and inartificial sequence 
and connexion of thought, each 
word having some natural rela 
tion to that which precedes and 
follows it : as, for instance, <jf>o- 
vov standing between d>66vov 

and e ptSos, the former its fre 
quent motive, the latter its 
common accompaniment ; virep- 
tlfidvovs between vfipicrrds and 
a Aa^oVa?, as forming the root 
alike of arrogant acts and arro 
gant words } e^eupera? KO.KCOK 
between a/\aoi/as and yovevcriv 
a7rei$et9, the boaster being gene 
rally an inventor, and disobe 
dience to parents one of those 
unnatural evil things which 
need as it were ingenuity to in 
vent them. 

/ca/vovy^eta?] Malignity, spite- 
fulness ; especially as shown in 
suspicion and misconstruction 
of others. 

30. i^i^upicrTas] Wltisperers, 
secret detractors. Ecclus. v. 14, 
/x>7 K\.r)9fj<; \[/iBvpo<;. KOL rfj yA.ojcr- 
crr) (Tov fjurj ei^eSpeue. xxviii. 13, 
ij/i@vpov Kol St yA-wcrcroi/ KO.TO.- 
pdcrao Oe TroXXous yap elprji .v- 
ovra? aTrcoXecref. 2 Cor. xii. 
20, epiOfiai, KaraXaXia/, if/iOvpm-- 


KaraXaAous] Defamers. James 
iv. ii, fmj KaTttXaXetre 
K.T.X. i Pet. ii. i, d- 
ovv Trdcrav Ka.Ki.av KOI TTO.VTO. So Xor 
.../cai (f)96vovs /cat Wcras Kara- 

^eocrruyeti;] Probably, haters 
of God : the opposite of <tXo0eot 
in 2 Tim. iii. 4, e^iX^ Sovoi /xaX- 
Xov rj <f>i\60eoi.. Some (render 
ing the word hateful to God} have 



imagined here a special reference 
to informers (see Wetstein) ; 
thus forming a climax with the 
two preceding ; detractors, de- 
famers, informers. But such an 
appropriation of the term seems 
to want authority : and the in 
terpretation betokens too great 
an anxiety to make the passage 
rhetorically artistic. See note 
on f^Oovov <}>ovov K.r.A. above. 
Indeed a comparison of Mark 
vii. 22 and 2 Tim. iii. 2 (quoted 
in note on v-n-eprjcfrdvovs below), 
ill which /iJAao-^/xot, /:?Aacr(77/ua, 
is placed next after or next be- 
iore vTrepijcfravoL, vTreprjcfravia, will 
justify the arrangement of words 
here without having recourse to 
any far-fetched meaning. De 
famation of men runs on into 
hatred (expressing itself in blas 
phemy) against God; and this 
again has its close connexion 
with that arrogance which vents 
itself on the one side in boast 
ing, on the other in outrage. 

v(3pta-Td<i\ Outragers ; perpe 
trators of outrage, i Tim. i. 13, 

p\a(T(f)rj[JLOV KOL 8lO)KTr)V KOi V/3pL- 

O-TT/I/. Job xl. n, LXX. Prov. 
vi. 17. xv. 25. xvi. 19. xxvii. 
13. Isai. ii. 12. xvi. 6. Jer. 
li. 2. The word (like v/?pis in 
Athenian law) expresses any 
kind or degree of insolent out 
rage. See Matt. xxii. 6, vjSpi- 
crav Kal dirtKTtwav. Acts xiv. 
5, vj3pi<rai Kal Xi8o/3oX.-rj a at av- 
TOVS. It is combined in the 

, effievperds 

LXX. with vireprf<j)avo<s, as in 
Isai. ii. T 2, 7^/xepa yap Kvptou 
vj3pL(rTr)V Kat 

Overweeners ; 
arrogant, self-conceited. Luke 
i. 51. 2 Tim. iii. 2, aXao vc?, 
VTrepfjffoavoi, /3Xdar<f>7]/jiOL. James 
iv. 6. i Pet. v. 5 (Prov. iii. 34, 
LXX. ). The substantive is found 
in Mark vii. 22, /SAao-^/ua, 
t>7repi7</>ana, dcfrpoavvr]. Out of 
many examples in the LXX. com 
pare Ezek. xvi. 49, 50. TOVTO TO 


K.r.A. (showing the connexion 
between vTreprjtfrdvovs and aAa- 
. Ecclus. xxvii. 28, e/x- 
os Kat oi/etSt(T/xos VTreprjffad- 
(connecting v/Jpiara s with 

aAa^oi/a?] 2 Tim. iii. 2. James 
iv. 1 6, /catn^a<7$e ei/ rat? cxAa^o- 
i/etats v/xcioj/. I John ii. 16, r; 
aA.a^ovet a TOV /?tov. The word 
a/Yawi> occurs in Job xxviii. 8, 
LXX. Prov. xxi. 24, Opao-vs Kat 
avOdSrjs Kat a/\aujv Aotjitos KaAet- 
rat. Hab. ii. 5. The verb 
dXa^ovtveaGai is found in Prov. 
xxv. 6, LXX. 

e^evpera? KaKcov] 2 Mace. 
vii. 31, <TV Se Tracr^s KaKta^ evpe- 
TTy? yero/x-evo? ets TOVS E/3patoi;<; 

eo{). In Prov. xvi. 20, LXX. 
we have the opposite phrase, 
y Trpay/xao-tv 

I. 31, 32. 


ryovs, d 
TOV Qeou i 



OTL o TO. TOiavra 

3?. 0) e7Tl~yiVib(TKOl>TS. 

dyaOtoV. Ingenuity in the in 
vention of sins is one of the 
latest characteristics of an utter 
depravity. The later Homaii 
history is full of it. 

yovevcrw a7rei$ets] 2 Tim. iii. 
2. See Deut. xxi. 18, LXX. cav 
Se TLVL rj vlos aVet^s Kat, epe$i- 

<JT?7S K.T./Y. 

3 1 . ao-werous] Senseless, void 
of intelligence. See verse 21, 
Kttt fLfTKOTicrOr] 77 d&vvfTos OLVTOJV 
KapSta. Compare Psalm Ixxvi. 
6, LXX. erapa^^crav Traj/res ot 
do~i;veTot TT 

erfidious, bound 
by no compact, faithless to engage 
ments. Jer. iii. 7. LXX. KCU etSe 
T7/V davvOeo-iav OLVTTJS tj dcrvvOc- 
TOS lovSa 77 d8e\4>rj avr^s /c.r.X. 

aoropyo-u?] Unnatural, void 
of natural affection. 2 Tim. iii. 2, 
3, a^aptcrroi, aroatoi, acrropyoi, a- 
The insertion of ao-7roV 
after acrropyous (in the 
received text) is probably due 
to that passage. 

aveA.?7/xoj/as] Unmerciful. 
Job xxx. 21, LXX. 7re/?r/5 8e /not 
ai/eXeTy/xoi/cos. Prov. y. 9. xi. 17. 
xii. 10, Ta 8e (TTrXay^i/a TOJV 
d&e/Swv dv\fTJfjioi a. xvii. 1 1. 
xxvii, 4. 

32. oirtycs] TF7iosoeuer, any 
who, a class of persons who, &c. 

See note on verse 25, omve?. 

SiKcuco/Aa] The verb Si/cato oj, 
in its application to a thing. 
denotes to make or declare just, 
to claim as a right, to require. 
(For its application to persons, 
see note onii. 13, SiKaiaj^T/o-orrou.) 
Hence SiKcuw/xa is (i) a thing 
made or declared just. It may 
be (a) a decision or sentence : 
and that, of condemnation, as 
here; or of acquittal, as in v. 
1 6, TO Se ^dpicrfjia K TroXXwv 
TrapaTTTW/xaTO)!/ cts StKat w/xa. (/5) 
yt requirement; as in ii. 26, ra 
StKatco/xara TOT) VO//.QU. viii. 4, TO 
StKatw/xa TOU ^d/xov. (y) -4/1 or- 
dinance; as in Luke i. 6, Tropevo- 
fj^evoi ev Tracrats Tat? evroAatg Kat 
8tKatw/xao"tv TOT) Kuptou a/xe/xTTTOt. 
Heb. ix. I, IO, StKataj/xaTa Aa- 
Tpet as...8t/catco/x.aTa aapKoij. Or 
(2) ^/iin(7 c?one so as o be just, 
a righteous act; as in v. 18, 8t 
evos 8tKatojp:aTO5. Ilev. xv. 4, 
Ta SiKatoj/xaTa trou e^avepoJ^CTai , 
xix. 8, TO yap fivcrcrivov rd 8t- 
Katoj/xaTa T(3i^ aytcov O*TIV. 

eTTtvj/oi/Tesl TFeW knowing. 

T 1 V V r 

.Luke 1. 3, ii/a eTriyyws ?rept a>v 
KaT~rj^yj9r}<; A,dycov T>}y acr<^aAeiai/. 
i Cor. xiii. 12. 2 Cor. vi. 9, 

oj ayi/ooTj/xevot Kat 

See note on verse 28, 




OIHJIV a/\\a Kcci crvvevooK.ovG LV TO!? Trpacra ovariv. 
II. i Aio dvawoXoyriTOS e/, w avQpwTre TTCZS d /cp/- 

u ttoi 0avaTOT/j The same 
phrase occurs in Luke xxiii. 15. 
Acts xxiii. 29. xxv. n, 25. 
xxvi. 31. But in all these places 
it is applied to deeds, not (as 
here) to persons. Matt. xxvi. 66, 
eVo^o? Oavdrov ecrnV. Mark xiv. 

64, KClTZKplVCLV avrOV VO~^OV tll UL] As the special pen 
alty of special transgression. 
Gen. ii. 17, LXX. 77 8 av ?;//.epa 

e. Exod. xix. I2,7ras - 
o ai^a/xero? TOU opous Barario 
-rfXtvrrio-ei. xxi. 15, 16, 17, 05 
TTJTrret TTttrepa avroC. . .os av KXeil/rj 
rts nra...o AcaKoXoyojr Trarepa 
avrov i/ fjirjrtpa avrov Oavdrij) 
ftavarova-Od). &.C. James i. ic;, 
77 tiriOvfJiia, (Tv\\a.f3ov(Ta rixrai 
(i/jLaprtav, ij Se - a/xaprta ctTrore- 
Aecr^ercra aTTOKvet Odvarov. 

ov JJLOVOV] To do wrong im 
plies less depravity than to take 
pleasure in the wrong-doing of 
others. And thus it is made 
one characteristic of that Chris 
tian love which is in all points 
the opposite of the fallen nature, 
that it ov ^cupei CTTI rfj a8i/aa, 
<Tl; yX ttt/ P et <^ T ^ oXrjQ^ia. (i Cor. 
xiii. 6). 

avToi TTotovcrtv] The some 
what emphatic position of avrd 
seems to show that the sense is, 

the t/dnys themselves, the very 

TTOiovcnv . . . rrpa.(T(TOvo~iv] The 
former (iroitlv) is to do, the latter 
(Trpacrereti/) to practise. The one 
expresses single actions, how 
ever often repeated; the other 
a course and habit of conduct. 

crwevSoKoCcrii ] See note on 
x. i, tvooKM. Also on xv. 26, 
tvooKrjo-av. The compound aw- 
evSo/ceu/ is literally, to think it 
well along icith, to be pleased 
together with, to join with (ano 
ther) in his satisfaction. Luke 
xi. 48, (rui evSoKetre TOLS epyois 
TWV Trarepojv -U/J.OJK. Acts viii. I, 
SavXos 8e rjv crDi euSoKaiv rfj 
txi/aipecrei avrov. xxii. 20, a^ro<? 
rj^irjv c^>eo"Tcos Kai. (TWCVOOKWV. 

I Cor. Vli. 12, 13, <TVVV$OKf.l /xer a^roi) (joins with him 
in thinking fit to dwell with him). 
II. I. Aio cu/aTroXoy^TOs el] 
The argument turns to the 
Jews. See note on i. 16, ov 
ydp K.r.X. But the transition 
is gradual, not abrupt. The 
foregoing description is general; 
in its main features universal. 
The enormities of crime may be 
exceptional ; but the root of all 
evil, alienation from God, en- 
mitij against God, is in all the 
fallen. Where then is self-com 
placency, boasting, censorious- 

II. I. 

vu>v. ev a* jap Kpiveis TOV trepov, creavrov Kara- 

Kpivare (decide, determine} p.a\- 
Aoi/. (2) To persons; whether 
generally, with 110 intimation 
of the result, as in Matt. xix. 28, 
Kpt roi Tes TCI? ScocSeKo. <tvYas rov 
Icrpa^A. or with the clear i n - 
timation (from the context) of 
condemnation, as in verses 3, 
12, 27. iii. 7. xiv. 3, 10, 22. 
In the middle voice, the word 
expresses to get judgment, to y<> 
to law, to contend with, as in 
iii. 4, where see the note. 

eV to] In the thing in which. 
So in 2 Cor. xi. 12, Iva. iv to 
Kau^coi/rat e^pe^cocru/ KCX^GJ? KCU 
T^eis. I Pet. ii. 12, ev co KO.TU- 
XaXovcnv vfJiwv cos KaKOTTOtcov. iii. 
1.6, tVa iv <j) KaToAaAeur^e KOTai- 

LV K.T.A.. 

OV eVepoi/] The other person, 
in any relation in which a man 
can stand towards a fellow-man. 
Thy fellow or neighbour. Thus 
in xiii. 8, o -yap ayaTTtoV rov e re- 
pov K.T.X. I Cor. vi. I, 7rpay//,a 
e ^ooi/ ?rpos TOV ercpov. x. 24, TO 
tavTov...To rov irepov. Gal. vi. 
4, ci ? eavrov /xoVoi/...Kat OVK et? 
rov krepov. 

Kara.KpLvei<i\ This strengthen 
ed form of KpiVeti/ is found but 
once in the iSeptuagint Version : 
Esth. ii. i. In the New Testa 
ment it occurs (with its sub 
stantives KaTctKpicrt? and Kard- 
KpL/jia) more than 20 times. In 
i Cor. xi. 32, the difference 
between Kptvetv and KaTaKpiVeiv 
is strongly marked : Kptvo//ei/ot. . . 

? It is excluded. How 
can one judge another, when all 
are guilty, and when all alike 
must be judged of God ? God"s 
judgment will have respect, not 
to names or forms, not to profes 
sion or privilege, but to realities 
of motive and conduct, of heart 
and life (ii. I 16). Thus the 
way is prepared for the convic 
tion of the Jew. That self-satis 
faction, that disdain of others, 
which is characteristic of the 
Pharisee, is utter vanity and 
self -deception, unless there be in 
him such a thoroughness and 
consistency of obedience as can 
abide the heart-searching judg 
ment. To boast of God s Lato 
without obeying it must be im- 
a vailing (ii. 17 29). Then 
floes the Jew obey ? Let his 
own Scriptures describe him 
(iii. 9 20). 

OLO\ Because the above de 
scription of the wickedness of 
mankind is true (in its main 
points] universally. 

<3 aV0p(j)7T TTttS O Kpl fCOv] TllO 

thought of the Apostle is al 
ready turning to the Jew: but 
his language is still studiously 
general. % 

Kptvtoi/] From the original 
sense of KpiVeiv, to sift, sever, 
separate, comes that of judicial 
discrimination. It is applied 
(i) to things; as in verse 16, 
ore KpiVet 6 eo<j TCI KPVTTTO. rtov 
xiv. 13, aAAa rouro 



TOL yap avTa 7rp(rorei.s Kpvtov 
OTL TO KpijULa TOV 0eof ecrTiv KaTa d\r ]0eiav 
TOI)S TO, TOiavTa Trpdcrcrovra^. XoyiZri Se 
TOUTO, w civOpwTre 6 Kpiv f jov TOI)S TO. 

LVO. IJ.TI CT.T.K. KaraKpiOajfifv. Here 
the distinction, is merely one of 
emphasis. To judge another is 
to condemn thyself. 

2. ot Sa/xei/] (i) By reason 
and conscience: Shall not the 
Judge of all tlie earth do right ? 
(2) By revelation: the whole 
tenor of Avhich is, that God 
looks on the heart, and judges, 
as it is added, Kara a/b^etai/. 

TO Kpifta TOV eo] The 
word Kpi/j-a, or xpifjia (as it is 
often accentuated on the strength 
of a single passage, ./Esch. Suppl. 
397, where the first syllable is 
long, contrary to all analogy), 
is properly a judgment or de 
cision ; whether in the sense of 
(i) a principle or ride of right, 
as in Deut. vi. 20, LXX. ra 
fiaprvpia KO.I ra, StKatco/x.ara /cat 
ra Kpi/jiara ocm ei/eretAaro Kuptos 
o 0eog T^COJ/ Tjfjuv or (2) a par 
ticular sentence, as in Exod. 
xxiii. 6, LXX. ov 8iacrrpi//ts pi- 
//a rrivrjros ei/ /cptVet awroi}. Like 
(see note on verse i, 
, it often derives from 
the context the idea of condem 
nation, as in Mark xii. 40, OVTOL 

Its application to the Divine 
judgment is perhaps first seen 
in Deut. xxxii. 41, LXX. ai/0e e- 

rat Kpt/^,aro? r/ ^eip /xou. 

ToS eoi;] In opposition to 
the judgment of men (verse i, 
a> ai/^pcoTre Trd? o Kpw<av). 

ecrrtV] The position of the 
word (before, not after, Kara 
d\.TJQeiai>) implies a slight em 
phasis. Is, has existence, ope 

Kara. a X^etai/] According 
to (on a principle o/) reality: 
not influenced, like human judg 
ments, by the appearance of the 
case, or by the profession or 
position of the person. So in 
verse 1 1, ov yap ecrriv Trpocr- 
aj7roA?7/x,i/aa ?rapa TO) eoj. John 
vn. 24, jU?7 Kptrere /car oi^tv, 
a AXa T?;I/ StKttiW Kpt crtr Kpit/ere. 
i Sam. xvi. 7, LXX. ai/^ptoTros 
oi/^erat ets 7rpoo-(07rov, eos 8e oi/^e- 
rat ets KapStai . 

ra roiavra] See i. 21 32. 

3. XoyL^rj oe TOT/TO] Dost 
thou calculate upon impunity ? 
The verb Xoyi^arOai, expressing 
the formation of an opinion by 
calculation or reasoning, is of 
frequent use in St Paul s Epi 
stles; asiniii. 28. vi. n. viii. 18, 
XoyL^ofJidL yap ort OVK a^-ta ra 
TTQ.6rjiJia.ra rov vvv Kaipov Trpos 

i? i^/xa?. 2 Cor. X. II. 
xi. 5, &c. 

II. 2-5. 

KCU TTOLWV din a OTL crv 6K 



KpL/ULCt TOV 0Ol7 ; // TOV 7T\OVTOV Tt]<i ^prjCTTO- 4 
T77TOS aVTOV KCLL T^S dvO^l^ KCtt T7/9 

povels, dyvowv OTL TO ^p^(TT 
[jiTavoiav ere dyei ; KCITCC oe T\\V 

TOV Qeou 

7rpao-croi/Tas...7roic3i/] See note 
on i. 32, 7roto>o- ...7rpacro-ouo-ti . 
eK(>ei>> Heb. ii. TTOJS 

kj vi. 3^, 6Vt avrds 

4. r; ro>] Or is 

thinkest scorn of God s mer 
cy, regardless of its gracious 
purpose ? 

TOV TrXovrov rrjs xpTycrToT^TOs] 
This metaphorical use of TrAoOros, 
in connexion with the attri 
butes and spiritual gifts of God, 
is peculiar to St Paul. Thus 
ix. 23, Iva. yvoopia^ TOV TT\OVTOV 
r^s So?7<; avrov CTTI (TKevirj eXeoi)?. 
xi. 33, o> /SdOos TrXovTOV Kal cro- 
(/)i as Kat yp ajoreoj? cov. Eph. i. 7, 
1 8, TO TrAoCros T^? ^(aptros 
...d TrAoCros TT^S SO^T/S TT^? 
povo/xtas auroi). ii. y, TO 

rov. iii. 8, 1 6, TO a 


Ti7s 80^175 auToC. Phil. iv. 19, 
KttTa TO TrAovTOS OLVTOV Iv $orj. 
Col. i. 27, TO TrAoirros TTJS Sd^s 
TO) /.tvo-T^ptoi; TOVTOV. ii. 2, ets 
Trai/ TO 7rAo{JTO<; T 

xi. 22. Psalm 
XXXIV. 9, LXX. yeixrao-#e /cat iSeTC 
OS d Kvptos (i Pet. ii. 3). 

Trovrjpovs. Eph. ii. 7. Tit. iii. 4, 

iii. 26, ev 
TOI) eo9. (i jNIacc. xii. 25, ov 
yap e SoDKev auTOig dvoyyjv TOV e/x- 
/3<LTevcraL et? Tryi/ x w p ai/ aurov.) 
Compare Matt. xvii. 17, eco? 
TTOTC aWcO/xat L /xtoi^ 

juaKpo^u/xtas] ix. 22, d <>s 
...TyVeyKev ev iroXXyj /xaKpo6 i. - 
/xia (jKcvrj opyfjs. i Tim. i. 1 6. 
I Pet. iii. 20, a7reeSe xeTo ^ T o9 
eou /xaKpo#u/xt a. 2 Pet. iii. 15, 


e. The epithet 
r slowofwratl; } 
is first found in Exod. xxxix. 6, 
LXX. oum p/xan/ /cat eAe^/xcoj/, /u.a- 

KaTa<^poi/cts] Hos. vi. 7, 
LXX. Ktt KaTecfrpovrjcre p.ov. Hab. 

1. 5, t SfTe 01 Ka.TCL<^pOVf]Tol...KO.l 

dyvowv] Acts xvii. 30, 

S dyvoias. Eph. iv. 18, 
OLO. Tr)v dyvoLav Trjv ovo~av ev 

ets fJitTavoidv ere ayet] Is 
leading (is designed and calcu 
lated to lead) thee to repentance. 




Kap<)iav 6rjcravpi(eis 

opyqv e tffJLepa opyrs 


Thus 2 Pet. iii. 9, [jLa.Kpo@v[j.& 

t? -u/xtt?, /r^ /3ov\6/.ivo<; TLVO.S 
a7roA.ecr$ai a/Y/\a TrdVras ets /xe- 

5 . Kara] ./I ccording to, follow 
ing tke rule and law of. Eph. ii. 2, 
Kara, TOV atcoi/a ro) Koa/mov TOVTOV, 
Kara. TOV ap^ovra T?/S eovcrias 
TO? aepos. Phil. ii. 3, fj.rjotv 
/car epiOcLdv /.tT/rte Kara. /cevoSo- 
c-t av. 2 Tim. iv. 3, /cara, ras 
t6ias CTrt^v/xtas eavrot? eTnorwptv- 

VOVfTLV StOa(JKaA.Ol ?. 

o-K/Xr/poTT/ra] From tlie lite 
ral sense of o-KX^po?, t/ry or rovnh 
(Prov T . xxvii. 16, LXX. Bopeas 
(r/c/\?ypo5 ai/euo?. James iii. 4, 

comes the idea (i) of hardness 
or harshness (Gen. xlii. 7, LXX. 
\.d\.-rjcrV avrots cr/o\?7pa. Matt. 
xxv. 24, eyveov ere on o^A-v^po? cT 
uV$pa>7Tos), and so (2) of obsti 
nacy and obduracy, as here, and 
Deilt. ix. 27, LXX. [Ji-r] i-n-ifiXi- 
i//|7S 7ri T>yi/ o~K\t]poTr}Ta TOV Xaov 
TOVTOV. Compare also the com 
pound forms cr/<A.?7poKapSios and 
crK\r]poKapBia (Prov. xvii. 20. 
Matt. xix. 8. &c.J, o~K\7)po7rpoo-u>- 
TTOS (Ezek. ii. 4, o"KA.7ypo7rpocrcL)7rot 
Kal o-repeoKctpStot), aKXrjpoTpdx^- 
Ao? (Exod. xxxiii. 3. Acts vii. 

The word oc 
curs only here. Elsewhere (xi. 
29. 2 Cor. vii. lo) a^tera/xeA-ryro? 
is used; but in a passive sense, 

not to be repented of. 

6r)<ravpieLS (rea-uro) o pyryi/] 
This terrible figure, treasurest 
up for thyself tvrath, may have 
been suggested by Prov. i. 18, 
LXX. avTOi yap ot (frovov 

Compare Amos iii. 10, LXX. ot 
al ra/\ai- 

v rats v^opais 
The treasuring of wrath is the 
direct opposite of the charge in 
Matt. vi. 10, Orjo-avpL^erc. Bev/juv 
Orjcravpovs iv ovpavta K.T.\. and 
in i Tim. vi. 19, dTrofirjcravpi- 
^oi/ra? eavTOts OtjJitXiQV KaXov et? 
TO yae/VXor, tVa 7ri\dj3<jL>VTa.L r^s 
oVrcos ^cjTy?. 

ei/ ^/xe pa opy^ 1 ?] These words 
may be connected closely with 
o pyryV. Wrath in a day of wrath ; 
that is, wrath to be manifested 
in a day of wrath. The con 
struction will thus resemble 
that of i Thess. v. 23, O.H.^TTT^ 
iv TIJ Trapovcria (blamelessly in 
tlie, coming ; that is, in a man 
ner not to be reproached at the 
co7)iing) TOV Kvpiov T^COI/ Irjcrov 
Xptcrroi} TrjpyOcLrj. 

irjfAfpa. opy^?] A day of 
(belonging to, characterized by) 
wrath, righteous anger against 
sin. Zeph. ii. 2, 3, LXX. -rrpo TOV 
e7reA.$etv e<^> tyxas opyrjv Kvptov, 
?rpo TOV iireXOtiV iff) v/xas tj/JLepav 
BV/JLOV Kvptov...o7rcos o-KeTrao-^^re 
iv ^/xe pa opyrys Kupcov. Rev. vi. 

II. 6, 7 . 

Kpiffias TOU Qeov, 6s 




17, "^A.^ev 77 Ty/xepa fJLeydXrj T^S 
See note 011 i. 18, opy?/ 

aVoKa/Vm^ecois] See note on 
i. 1 7, oVoKaAuTrreTai. The SIKCUO- 
Kpiata is already in existence : 
but there is a veil over it. 

SiKcuoK-picri as] 2 Thess. i. 5, 
rrjs StKaia? Kptcrecos roG eoi). 
The word StKaioKpm?? occurs in 
2 Mace. xii. 41, ev/Voy^o-arre? ra 


KKpv/ji/jiva (fravepa TTOIOWTO?. 

6. os ttTroSajorei] Prov. xxiv. 
12, LXX. os aTroStotocrtr exacrrco 
Kara ra epya avroi). jViatt. xvi. 
27, /cat ToVe aTToSoua-et eKacrra) 
Kara TT^I/ irpa^iv avrov. 2 Tim. 
iv. 14. Rev. xxii. 12, aVoSowai 
e/cacrra) tog TO epyov CCTTLV avrov. 

U7ro8ojo-et] The verb a?ro8t- 
SoVai has two chief senses, (i) 
To give back; whether (a) lite 
rally, as, for example, a sum 
owed (Matt, xviii. 25, /XT) e^ovros 
Se aurou aVo8owat. Luke vii. 
42. x. 35. xix. 8. &c.) or a 
thing or person put into one s 
hands (Luke iv. 20, irrv^a.^ TO 
aTroSovs TO) fjTrrjperrj e/<a- 
. x. 42, idVaTO TO i/ TratSa 
/cat aTreSwKev avrov TO) irarpl 
auToG); or (/3) as a thing earned, 
-merited, promised, threatened, 
or morally or judicially due; 
as here, and xiii. 7. Matt. v. 
26, ecos oV aVoSws TOV 


$ vTro/uovrjv epyov? 

Kat d<p6apcriav 

\i. 4, aT 
o-ot. xii. 36, aTroScJo-orcrtv vrept 
a^ToC Aoyoi . xvi. 27, a7ro8ouo~t 
CKUCTTOJ Kara Tryi/ Trpd^LV avrov. 
xx. 8, aTroSos auroi? TOV [JLLCT- 
Oov. xxi. 41, otVti/es 


aDToji/. xxii. 21, aTTobore ovi Ta 
Kttto~apos Kttto*apt. Acts iv. 33, 
ttTreSiSow (rendered, as the dis 
charge of an obligation] TO /mp- 

TVplOV Oi aTTOCTTO/Xot. I Coi . vll. 

3. i Tim. v. 4. 2 Tim. iv. 8, o 
T/ys diK.a.iOO vvrjs crTec^ai O?, ot UTTO- 
Swcret /xoi o Kvptos K.T.A.. Heb. 
xii. ii. Kev. xviii. 6. &c. And 
(2) in the middle voice, to give 
away for oneself (for one s own 
yam), to sell ; as in Acts A". 8, 


vii. 9, TO^ Mo>o">7</> a/reboi/TO ets 
Aiy^TTTor. Heb. xii. 16, aVe 8e- 
TO Ta TrpcoTOTo/aa eauToS. Com 
pare a corresponding note on 
i. 27, a > 7roA.a j a/3uVoi Tes. 

7. Ka$ UTTO/XOVT^F] Accord 
ing to (by the rule of) patience, 
of (in) a good work. Luke viii. 
15, K.ap7ro(f)Opov(Tiv 
See note on verse 5, KaTa. 

e pyou] For this use of 
as the sum of a life s work, 
compare, for example, Mark 
xiii. 34, e/<ao"Ta> TO e pyov O.VTOV. 
John xvii. 4, TO epyov TtXeiajVas 
o SeSwKas JJLOL tva TroiTycro). I Cor. 
iii. 13, 14, 15. i Thess. v. 13. 


awviov Tos e e epieas KCII 
Oovcriv Trj a\r]6eia TreiOo/uevois Se Tr t dSiKia 

ii. 8. Or air. /j-ev r. a. 

viii. 18, rrjv /xe XXou- 

v/p-a?. 2 Cor. iv. 17, atuinoi 
y3a pos Soc^s Karepyuerat Ty plv. 
Col. iii. 4, (j}avf)wOi]<To~6 iv 
8067. 2 Tliess. ii. 14. Heb. ii. 
10. i Pet. v. i, 4, 10. 

ijv] 2 Tim. ii. 21, cWat 
ts Ti[j,r]v. i Pet. i. 7, 
eis eTratvo]/ KCH So^ttv Kttt 
rjv tv aTTOKoAui^ei Ir^croi; Xpt- 

a^)^apcrtav] i Cor. ix. 25, 
^/xets Se a^Oaprov. xv. 42, 52, 
eyetperat ei atpOapa-ia. . .eyepOrj- 
(TOVTO.L a^Oaproi. 2 Tim. i. 10, 
c^wrtVavTOS 8e ?wf]v KOL dtfoOapo Lav 
Old TOT) ^ayy/\(, oi. I Pet. i. 4, 

pr)fjivr)v (.v ovpavos ets v 

Matt. vi. 33, 77- 
TOV, xiii. 
45, ??TowTt KaXovs /xapyaptras. 
Col. iii. i, Ta ai/w ^retre. 

4oj>7V atcoFtoi/] Tlie combi 
nation is first found in Dan. 
xii. 2, lytpOijcrovTai OVTOL ets 

8. rots 8e e] Literally, 
^/io are q/J spring from, 
and so belong to, have for their 
designation. For the literal 
sense compare xvi. 10, n, TOTJS 
IK T<JJV ApLo-TO/3ovX.ov...Tov<; e/c 
Twf NapKi o-crov. Por the de 
rived meaning, iii. 26, TOV /< 
I-^o-oO. iv. 12, 14, 1 6, 

rots OVK CK Treptro/xrys 

OL CK Vti/JLOV. . .TO) K VOfJiOV. . .TO) CK 

Trt crretus. Acts x. 45, ot e/c Trept- 
ro/xrys TTto-rot. xi. 2. Gal. ii. 12. 
iii. 7, 9. Col. iv. n. Tit. i. 10. 
ept^etas] The word is form 
ed from e pt$cs, a hireling (Isai. 
xxxviii. 12, LXX. 0)5 tcrros ept - 
6ov eyy t^ouo-Tys cKre/xeti/) : and like 
ept^evecr^at (to ^/o^/ ^/^e hireling, 
partisan, intriguer, canvasser}, 
has the derived sense of parlij- 
spir it, faction, &c. So in 2 Cor. 
xii. 20, and Gal. v. 20, ept?, 
77X09, OVJJ.OL, epiOelai. Phil. i. 
17? ot oe e^ ept^etas TOJ/ Xptcrroi 
KarayyeAAoi;o-tv. ii. 3, /XTySei/ /car 
ept^et ai/ jLt ^Se Kara Kej/oSo^tar. 
James iii. 14, 16, t 8e ^ryAov 

TTLKOV T Kttt fiOtiav.. .O7TOV 

yap ^ryAos Kat tpt^eta. 

r?} a/\77^eta...r^ aStKta] i. 18, 
roCv rv^j/ aXry^etav ev aStKta Kare- 
XoVroov. John iii. 20, 21, Tras 
yap o <j>av\a 7rpao"o~a)i/. . .o 5 Se Trotwv 
rryi/ a A/y ^etaj/. vii. 1 8, oirros cxATy- 
arys t crrtv Kat aStKia ev aTJrw OVK 
ecrrtv i Cor. xiii. 6, ov ^atpet 
eTrt rTy aStKta, cruy^aipet 8e rry 
aXTy^eta. 2 Thess. ii. 12, ot /AT; 
Trtcrrevo-avres TT; aXry^et o., a XXa 

The one is 

", the other the expres- 
1, oT indignation. The appli 
cation of the word ^v/xo s to the 
wrath of od is found (so far 

II. 812. 



Iovc)aiou T TrwTOV Kai EAAfi/os* $oa (He Kaio 

Kat epr\vri ira-wr TW pryao/mevw TO ya- 
0ov, lovSaia) T6 TTpwTOV Kai * E\\rjvi. ov rydpll 
e<TTLV 7rpO(T(x)7ro\riiuL\lsLa Trapa TC/J 0eo). bcrot yap 1 2 

as the New Testament is con 
cerned) only here, and in llev. 
xiv. 10, 19. xv. i, ;. xvi. 1,19. 
xix. 15. In the Septuagiut it 
is of common use : for example, 
Exod. xxxii. n, 12, IVO.TL, Kt pte, 
Bv/jiov opyrj ets TOV Xdvv vov... 
Travcrai rrys opyfjs TOV OV/JLOV crou, 
Kat t/Xecos -yevov K.r.A,. 

9. ^Ati^ ts Kat 

viii. 35, #Au//ts ^ 
The idea of painful pressure 
($Aa/as) rises (in crrevo^ojpta) into 
that of agonizing compression. 
See 2 Cor. iv. 8, iv Travrl 0\i- 
(36p.voi (pressed^ aAA ov crrevo^a)- 
pou/xevot (crushed). Deut. xxviii. 
53^ 55 57 LXX. eV ry trrevox^ 
pta aov Kat iv TTJ OXtij/fi aov. 
Isai. viii. 22, loov &\l\j/i<s KOL 
Kat CTKOTOS, aTropta 

Kat (TKOTOS. XXX. 6. 

aaf j^v^v av^pcoTroi;] Isai. 
xiii. 7 5 LxX. /<at vracra i/^w^ dv- 
$p(U7rou SetAtacret. 

Trpcorov] /n <Ae jfo - s place; 
so far from his being excepted. 

II. Trpoo-wTroA^/xi^ta] ^lc- 
ceptance of tlie countenance, 
look, or outward appearance, 
the form, profession, or religi 

ous position and privilege, with 
out regard to the inward 
reality. Acts x. 34, OVK eWti/ 
7rpo(roj7roAr//x,7rT^? d eos. Eph. 
vi. 9, 7rpoo-w7ro\r)/jujjia OVK ecrrti/ 
Trap avra). Col. iii. 25. James 
ii. I, 9, /XT} ev 7rpoo-(D7roXrjiJu}/LaLs 
r>/v 7rto-Ttj/ Se Trpotro)- 

Thus 7rpoo-oj7roj/ \afjLJ3dviv (Luke 
xx. 21. Gal. ii. 6), ets Trpoo-ooTrci 
/^AeTTcti/ (Matt. xxii. 16. Mark 
xii. 14), rd Kara TrpocrooTra /JAe- 
Treti/ (2 Cor. x. 7), TrpocroJTra $av- 
P.O.&IV (Job xxxii. 22, LXX. ou 
yap eTrtcrrapiat OavfjidcraL Trpocroj- 
TTOI/. Jude 1 6,^ovTts TrpoV- 

Trapa ] Literally 6mWe : but 
especially apj)lied to judicial 
cognizance (before, in the judg 
ment of); whether (i) human; 
as xii. 1 6, <poyt/xoi Trap caurots. 
Acts xxvi. 8, rt aTrtcTTov KptVerat 
Trap u/ui> et o cos j/CKpou? eyetpet ; 
or (2) Divine; as here, and verse 
13, StKatot Trapa TO) ew. I Cor. 
iii. 19, jittopta Trapa ec3. Gal. 
iii. 1 1, StKaiovrat Trapa TO) ew. 
James i. 27. i Pet. ii. 4, 20, 
Trapa Se ea> e 


ai/o/xws ijimapTOV, dvojULCOS KO.I aTroXovvrai KCLL 

OCTOL ev i/o/xw iifjiaprov, $ia VOJJLOV 
1301? yap ol ccKpoarai i/ouov SiKaiot, Trapa TW 
I4 AX ol TroirjTcti 



Or omit 

pts ?rapa ea>. 2 Pet. iii. 8. 

12. aVo/x.a>s] Apart from a 
law; not being under any spe 
cial law, as, for instance, that of 
Moses. The word aVo/xos, which 
usually means lawless, trans 
gressing law, is sometimes with 
out law, not under law, and so 
Gentile. Acts ii. 23, Sia x L P$ 
ai/d/xoov (&// Ae hand of Gen 
tiles). I Cor. ix. 21, rots avo- 
cos aVo/xos . . . !W 

Against the light 
of nature (i. 19, 20) and con 
science (verse 15). 

aVo/xcos /cat] As their sin 
ivas not the breach of any special 
law, but, only of that which is 
common to man; so their ruin 
will be independent of tJie sanc 
tions of any special law : it will 
be only the natural and neces 
sary consequence of the rebellion 
of a creature against the Crea 

eV vo jaw] Under a law, that 
is, a direct revelation of duty. 

Sta vo/xov] By means of a 
law ; that is, by the application 
to their case of the rule laid 
down for them in any particular 
revelation under which they 

live. See John xii. 48, d Ao yos 
ov eAaA/^cra, e/cetvos Kpu/et O.VTOV 
iv rrj etr^ar?7 7^/xepa. 

13. a/cpoarat. . .TrotTyrat] The 
word a/cpoar^s occurs in Isai. 
iii. 3, LXX. Kai o-weroi aVpoar^V. 
And Troir/TT/s in I Mace. ii. 67, 
TraVras rovs Tror^ra? rov VO/JLOV. 
The two are contrasted (as here) 
in James i. 22, 23, 25, -ytVeo-^c 
oe Trouyrai A.oyou Kat p,ry aKpoarat 
p.ovov...d Tt? a/cpoar^s \6yov 
/cat ov 7rot7^T7ys...oi;/c aKpoa- 
7rtA.7ycrp,ovi^s yevo/xej/os a A/Xa" 

vojjiov . . . vOjU.oi ] Not TOT; vo- 
yaov. The omission of the arti 
cle (especially where, after ot 
aKpoarat, ot TTOtT^rat, the idiom 
almost demanded it) shows that 
the principle is intended to be 
applied not to the Law of Moses 
only, but to all cases. The 
hearers, the doers, of any law ; 
that is, of any Divine revelation 
of duty. Obedience, not privi 
lege, must in every case be the 
criterion of judgment. 

StKaiot Trapa] See note on 
verse ii, Trapa . 

Si/caiw#ryo-ovrai] The literal 
meaning of St/catow is to make 
righteous. But both in the Sep- 

II. 13, 14- 37 

vop.ov 6%ovTa (pucrei TU TOU 

tuagint and New Testament it 
frequently means to acquit, ab 
solve, or clear from guilt. Thus, 
for example, Gen. xliv. 16, ri 
avrepovfjiev . . .rj ri St/catco^oj^ei/ ; 
Exod. xxiii. 7, ov SiKaioucreis rov 
acre/Sr/ eVe/cei/ Scopooj/. Deut. xxv. 

1, lav Be. yei/Tyrai ui/r<Aoy to. . . . KCU 
OiKaiuxruKTi roi> ^[KOLLOV KOLL i<ara- 
yvwcri rov acre/3o{Ss. Psalm cxliii. 

2, /ji?7 eur\6ys ets fcportv //.era TOU 

crew, ort ou StKatw^ creTat 
crov Tras ojy. Acts xiii. 

39, aTro TrvTwv u>i/ OVK -rvvr- 
lv vo/xw Mojucrecos SIKCUOJ^A)- 
ei/ rovro) Trds o Trtcrreuan/ 
And so throughout 
this Epistle and that to the 

14. OTO.V yap] I say that 
there may be hearers of a law 
who are not doers of it : I go 
further, and say that there may 
be doers of a law who are not 
hearers of it : for whenever Gen 
tiles who do not possess a law, 
that is, an express revelation of 
duty, do by nature, without 
revelation, the things of such 
(rov) law, the things which 
God s law, if they possessed it, 
would prescribe to them, these 
though they do not possess a law, 
are a law to themselves: to them 
belongs, so far as their know 
ledge extends, both the advan 
tage and the responsibility of 
persons living under a Divine 
law : because they show the work, 
the purport or requirement, of 

V. R. 

the law to be written on their 
hearts, though not on material 
tablets like those of the Ten 
Commandments (2 Cor. iii. 3, 
OVK V TrXa^lv Ai$iVai<j aAA. iv TrXa- 
iv KapSi a? crap/aVais) : their own, 
conscience testifying ivith it, and 
their reasonings upon their own 
conduct, between each other, 
without extraneous help, accus 
ing or even exculpating them in 
a day ichen God judges. See 
the following notes. 

Wvrf^ Gentiles, whether na 
tionally or individually. The 
word tOviKos is rarely used : 
only in Matt. v. 47. vi. 7. xviii. 
17. 3 John 7. But Wvri is 
found, in the sense of Gentiles 
individually, for example, in 
I Cor. xii. 2, oi8aT..,.l0n7 rjrc. 
Gal. ii. 12, piera rwv iQvwv <rvv- 

(^ucretj The opposite of vo/xa>. 
Not Itij a revealed ride of duty, 
but by the rule of nature ; that 
is, of maris moral constitution 
as God made and endowed it. 
The word <u crt,s does not occur 
in the Septuagint. (Wisdom 
vii. 20, <ixreis oW.) In, the 
Epistles it occurs (with <UCUKO S 
and </>ucriKa)?) about sixteen times. 
By its derivation it expresses 
(i) the act of bringing or spring 
ing into being; production or birth. 
Hence (2) the mode, condition, 
or circumstances, of such coming 
into being : as Gal. ii. 15, jy 
<vcm louScuoi. Eph. ii. 3, 




TC.KVO. (frvcreL opyrjs. And so (3) 
the essential character or consti 
tution of a person or tiling ; 
whether (a) of vegetables, as in 
xi. 21, 24, Ta>v Kara (frvorLV /<AaStoi/ 
. . . e/c Tr? Kara 

aypieAaiou Kai Trapd 
K6i Tpi<T0r]<; eis KaAAieAaiov K.T.A. 
(/S) of animals, as in James iii. 7, 
Trdcra yap cta cris O rjpiwv re xal 
Treretrco^ epTreTtoi re /cat ej/aAi a>v 
K.T.A. (y) of waw, as here, and 
verse 27. Also i. 26. i Cor. xi. 
14, oiSe 77 </>u(m avT>} (o/* herself, 
apart from revelation^ 8iSa o-Kei 
i5/xas art K.T.A. James iii. 7, r^ 
^utret TT} avOpwrrivy. The same 
usage is extended in one pas 
sage (8) even to God Himself: 
2 Pet. i. 4, $eias Kotvtovol ^JVCTCOJS 
and by implication also in Gal. 
iv. 8, rots <vcrei f-ry OVCTLV Bzols. 

ra TOT) vofJiov 7rotco<TivJ ^l) In 
certain cases, though rare and 
exceptional (such as those of 
MelcMsedec, Job, (fee.), 5y Ao/y 
^Ves, under the guidance of con 
science enlightened by primi 
tive tradition or in other ways 
apart from direct revelation to 
their nation or themselves. (2) 
In a far lower sense, by the in 
stinctive reverence felt in all 
ages and countries for good and 
right, however little adhered to 
in personal conduct; and, spring 
ing out of this, just laws and 
institutions of all kinds, testify 
ing for good. 

/JLTJ e^ovres] Though they have 

not. The Hellenistic use of JJLTJ 
with the participle includes tlu 
various subjective ideas of as not, 
such as not, because not, though 
not, Arc. as well as the classical 
if not. Thus, for example, (i) 
If not : Gen. xliv. 34, LXX. TTWS 
yap ai/a/3ry<jo/xai vrpos rov Trarepa, 
TOU TrouSi ou fj.r) oVro? p.e6* ?7/xioi> ; 
Rom. v. 13, ct/xaprta 8e OVK eA- 
XoyeZrat fji ij OVTOS vo/xow. I Cor. 
vii. 37, 09 8e ecrr^Kev eV rf/ Kap- 
ota. ../mrj e^wv aray/<7yr. Gal. vi. 
9, OepicrojJiev pr) cnXvofJievoi. (2) 
--1,9 not; such as not: Gen, xliv. 
31, iv rc5 tSetj/ auroi/ ^.7} o^ TO 
TratScxptoj/ yae$ Ty/xcoi . Judges 
xviii. 7, KCU /XT) Swa/x-eVovs XaX.-fj- 
crat p/y/ia ei/ TT^ yf;. Matt. i. 19, 
SIKCUOS OJK Kat /XT} 6e.\.wv avrrjv 
rtVat. ix. 36, Trpo /^ara /x.ry 
TTOt/xei/a. Luke i. 20, 0-77 

o~ai. IX. 33> / x? ) etScos o Aeyet. 
Xiii. ii, crvyKVTTTOvcra KO.I fJLrj bv- 
i^at. xviii. 2, Kpmfs 

?)]/ eV TtVt TToAet TOV (^OV /XTy 

s KOL dvOpwTrov (j^-ij iv- 
. John xv. 2, Tray 
KXrjua ev e/xot ^,77 ^>epov Kapirov. 
Acts V. 7, ry yui/?) avroi) /XT) etSvta 
TO yeyovos etcr^A^ev. xiii. n, 
eo"ri Tu</>Aos /xry f3\7TO)v rov r]\iov. 
XX. 29, AUKOI ySapetf .../x>) ^>et8o - 
TOT; TTOI/XVIOV. Eph. ii. 12, 
TOJ Kaipw eKiVa)...A7Ti8a /XT; 
. I Tim. i. 7, /AT} VOOWTCS 
7/T6 a Ae yovo-ii/ jU-Ty re Trept TiVcov 
8La(3e(3aiowTai. Heb. iv. 15, ou 
yap e^o/xev ap^tepea /XT} 



eicriv i/o/xo9, olrives evSeLKvuvrai TO epyov TOU 15 

acr^eretats Tj/xtoi . 
7rpoo~(epoi Tat /XT) Su- 
a crvveibrjo iV TeAetojcrat 
ToV AarpeuovTa. Jude 19, OVTOL 
etcrti/. . . i^in^tKot, Trvetyxa /XT) c^oire?. 
(3) Because not: Psalm vii. 2, /XT) 

Matt, xviii. 25, /xr) e^oi/ros ^ 
avrou aVoSowat. xxii. 29, 7r/\a- 
vu-crOe /XT) etSores ras ypac^us /XTI- 
Se TT)V Swa/xtv rov eoO. Mark 
ii. 4, Kat ^ Sum/xevot Trpocrey- 
yurai a^rc3. Luke ii. 45, Kat /XT) 
e^poi/res 7J7i-e(7rpei//ar. xi. 24, Kat 
;u/9 eupt cTKoi/ rdre Aeyei. Acts ix. 
26, (f>o/3ovvTO aitrov j^r) Trtcrreuov- 
res ort ecrrty (JLaOrjT qs. xvii. 6, JU.T) 
ei^pcWes 8e aurou?. xxi. 14, 34. 
xxvii. 7, 15. Rom. iv. 19, Kat 
/XT; acr^e^cras TT^ Trtaret. 2 Cor. 
v. 19, //,?; Aoyt^o/xer/os a{>rots ra 
TrapaTTTco/xara. Heb. iv. 2, /zr/ 
cn;yKeKepacr/x,eVos rr} Trto-ret rots a- 
Kovo-acrti/. xi. 27, /XT; ffrofifjOels 
rov Ov/jiov TOV /5ao-tAea)?. 2 Pet. 
iii. 9, //,?} (3ov\o/jiv6s rtvas aTro- 
Aeo-^at. (4) Though not: Prov. 
VI. 7> eKCti/w yap yetopyuw /XT) 
^Trap^ovro?, yarySe TOV ai ayKa^oi/ra 


Acts xx. 22, Tropeuo/xat ets le- 
pov(ra\TJn, ra ei/ avr^ (rv^avrr/- 
crovra jtxot /XT} etSws. I Cor. ix. 20, 
21, /XT) oSv auros VTTO vo/xov... 
/XT) o>j/ aVo/xos eo9. i Pet. i. 8, 
ets oi aprt /XT) opoavres TTtcrTeuovre? 
8e ayaAAtao-^e. (5) In some 
passages there is yet another 
shade of idiom; guarding a- 
gainst, avoiding ; as in i Cor. x. 

33? A 17 / fyTWV TO e/JLCLVTOV O"l fJL<>O- 

pov. 2 Cor. iv. 2, /xr) TreptTra- 
er iravovpyia. /x^Se 80- 
TOI/ Aoyoi/ rou eoi;. vi. 
3, /xT/Se/xtai/ i/ /x,T;Sevt StSovres 

carrots ctcrti/ vo/xos] See the 
paraphrase of these words in the 
note on orai/ yap. 

15. omves] See notes on 
i. 25, 32, OITIVCS. 

eVSetWwrat] The active and 
passive forms of cVSetKvwat (to 
indicate, or point, out) occur 
throughout the history of Achan, 
Josh. vii. 14 1 8. The middle 
voice expresses to shoiv as one s 
oivn, to manifest as a quality or 
attribute; whether (i) of God, 
as in ix. 17, 22, oVcos eVSetcco/xat 
iv (rot TT)J/ 8wa/xtV /xou (from 
Exod. ix. 1 6, LXX.)...evSet^acr(9at 
TT)I/ opy^i/. Eph. ii. 7. i Tim. 

1. 1 6: or (2) of man; as here, 
and 2 Cor. viii. 24, rr]v ovv ev- 
Set^ti/ TT^S ayctTTTi? I /xwi/.. .evSet- 
Kvu/xei/ot. Tit. ii. 10, Tracrav irt- 
O-TLV ei/SetKi/TJ/xeVovs dyaOtjv. iii. 

2. Heb. vi. 10, ii. By a 
slight extension of the latter 
usage, we have the phrase KaKa 
(or Trovrjpa) evSaWucr$at Tii/t, as 
in Gen. 1. 15, 17, LXX. 2 Tim. 
iv. 14. 

TO epyov ToO vo/xov] 3 7 o^ ^/i6 
letter (ypa/x/xa, verses 27, 29. vii. 
6. 2 Cor. iii. 6), the form or 
ivords, of the law ; but its work ; 
that which it bids man to do. 
The genitive is like that in 




/ULapTVpovo-t]s auTtov T;]? 



John vi. 29, TO epyov rov 0eou 
(that which God would have you 
to do] ; or in I Thess. i. 3, rou 
epyov T>/S Trtcrreojg (VAe work be 
longing to, prompted by, your 

ypa~ToV] 57tey possess not the 
ypa/jL/maofthe law in their hands: 
but its epyov is ypaTrrov in their 
hearts. The form ypaTrros is 
found in 2 Chroii. xxxvi. 22. 
Ezra i. i, LXX. eV ypaTrro). 

ypaTTToV ev TCU? KapStatsl 
Jer. xxxi. 33, LXX. SiSovs vo- 
oi; et<; r>)v Stavotav auroir, 
t eTTt Ttt? Kapotas avroor eTTtypa- 

The word KapSta, 
is not restricted in Scripture 
to the sense of heart, as de 
noting the affections only ; but 
includes the ideas of will, judg 
ment, mind, imder standing, tkc. 
In this passage the word /car^- 
yopowrcov below shows that un 
derstanding rather than affection 
is the predominant thought ; 
knowledge of duty rather than 
love of it. Thus, for example, 
i Sam. xiv. 7, LXX. -n-oUi TTO.V 
o eav 77 KapSta crou (.KK\ivri tSov 
eyco [j.Ta. crov, GJS rj KapSta crov 
KapSta fjiov. Job xii. 2, 3, -TJ 

/xot juev KapSta Ka iaas eart, 
Mark ii. 6, SmA.oyio/x,eyot ei/ Tats 

Stav aV$paj7roi> OVK dvtfir/. vii. 
37, tcTTrjKGV (.v rfj KapSta... Kat 
roCro KKpiKV f.v rfj tSta KapSta. 

crvi /jtapTvpoTJcr^sJ That is, TOJ 
epyw rou vojjiov. Thus ix. i, 
crvv/jiapTVfjovorTjs [JioL TI^S cn/ vetSr^- 
freo^s /xov. The word occurs also 
in viii. 16. 

auroji ] The position of auran/ 
gives it emphasis. O/* the men 
themselves. Their own conscience. 
See note on i. 32, airra TTOL- 



V. 22. I Cor. ii. 9, Kat eVt Kap- 

o-vi/etSrJcretos] From the sense 
of fellow-knowledge (as in Levit. 
V. I, LXX. /xaprrs ?} ecopaKO/ ?} 
o"uvotSej/. A.cts v. 2, crvvetOvi ijs 
Kttt TT^S y^vatKos) comes that of 
(i\ fellow-knowledge with oneself, 
self -privity, consciousness: as in 
Job xxvii. 6, LXX. ov yap cnji/- 

O , --, V t f. 

otoa e/jLavTw UTOTTOI/ 

Eccles. X. 20, Katye ev 

crot) /3acriA.e a 

Cor. iv. 4, ovSej/ yap e/xavra) <rw- 

otSa. Heb. x. 2, Sta TO 

e^etv eVt aw 

I Pet. ii. 1 9, Sta awctS^cnv (*l)eov. 

(2) ^ZV^e faculty of this self -pri 

vity ; conscience: Wisdom xvii. 

IO, TrorTypta. ..cTwe^o/Awr] rrj crvv- 

eiS^ cret. Acts xxiii. i. xxiv. 

1 6, dirpocTKOTrov 

Trpo? TOV @eoi Kat 

Sta TravTos. Rom. ix. i. xiii. 5. 

i Cor. viii. 7, 10, 12, KatTy 

S^o~ts ai;T(Jijv acr^ev^s ot!o-a 

x. 25, 27, 28, 29, 

II. i 5 . 



...Trjv eavTOv . . . Try v TOU erepou 
...VTTO uAAi^s (Tw^tST/creo)?. 2 Cor. 
i. 12, TO fjiaprvpLov T^S orui eiS?;- 
crecos rjfJiuv. iv. 2, irpos Tracrav 
(rvvi8r](riv dvOpwTrwv. V. 1 1, ey 
rat? cru^eiSr/o-eo-iv v/xoji . I Tim. 
i. 5, 19. iii. 9. iv. 2, 
ptacr/AeVajj/ T^f iSiuv 
2 Tim. i. 3. Tit. i. 15. Heb. 
ix. 9, 14. x. 22. xiii. 18. i Pet. 
iii. 16, 21. 

Kat /jteratu aXXryXwv] ./Is CO??- 
science is witness to the claim of 
duty, so the thoughts of the heart 
are prosecutors (or, if it be so, 
advocates ) in the great assize. 
The Aoyto-fioi wait not for 
strangers to conduct the case : 
they themselves, meeting one ano 
ther in discussion and conference 
(/u,Tai> ttAAr/Aooi ), accuse or else 
defend. Thus ttAX/f/W refers to 
rwv AoyKr/ioji/, and is placed be 
fore it for the sake of emphasis. 
For p-era^v in the sense rather 
of amongst than between, see 
Wisdom iv. 10, GOI/ //,erau d^ap- 
TcoAtoi/ pereTtOr]. For the figure 
involved in [JLCTCL^V aAAr/ /Wj/, 
compare Matt, xviii. i$,e\eji;ov 
O.VTOV jJLtra^v crov xal OLVTOV JJLOVOV. 
The use of aXX?;Xo)i/ implies a 
sort of personification of the 
Aoyicr/W. But it is used of 
things in Gen. xv. 10, LXX. cXa- 
y8e 8e avra) Travra ra{)ra . . . Kat 
ZOrjKev aura avTiTrpo crajTra aAX^- 

man s mind upon his own ac 
tions, habits, and motives. In 
the New Testament Aoyio-^o? 
occurs only here and in 2 Cor. 
X. 5, Aoyto-/xoiJS KaBaipovvres. 
The form 8mAoytcr/xos commonly 
takes its place ; as in Luke ii. 
35 oVtos ai/ u.TTOKaXvffiOa xrLi IK 
TToAAwv KapStwr 8taAoyi(Tyaot. Ill 
the Septuagint the two words 
are used almost equally. Prov. 
xix. 21, TroAAot Aoyio-juot ev Kap- 
St a aj. 8/jo?. Isai. Ixvi. 18, ra 
epya awraJi Kat roV AoytcrjU-ov ay- 

ie reason 
ings, reckonings, reflexions of a 

John v. 45, 
/A?) SoKetre ort cyco Kar^yopTycra) 
L jU,toi/ Trpo? TOI/ Trarepa ecrrtv o 
Kari^yopalv vyawv K.r.A. As there 
the written Word, so here the 
heart itself, is made the accuser 
in God s judgment. Compare 
I John iii. 20, e oV KaTayivojo-Kr/ 
y/jiwv t] KapSta. 

/} Kat] 0?- eym. As if the 
accusing action of the thoughts 
of the heart (in the case sup 
posed) were far more common 
than the exculpatory. The sup 
position of an acceptable obe 
dience apart from revelation is 
made rather for the sake of the 
completeness of the argument 
than from an idea of its fre 
quent realization. Compare, 
however, Acts x. 35, iv -n-avri 
edvei. o (frof3ovfjievo<; avrov KOL ep- 
yao/xvos StKatocriV^v SCKTOS av- 

v Wisdom vi 



1 6 aTroXoyov/uLevtioi eV i]/u.6pa bVe KpiveL 6 0eo? Ta 


17 (ltd I^crou XpicTTOv. el $e crv lof S 

16. Or ij/Ji. y. Or X/ucrroO 

11, ot yap <t!AatavTes oo-tws Ta 
ocrta oai(aOt](TOVTO.i Kat ot 8tSa- 
X^eWes avra. evp^arovcrLV aVoXo- 

1 6. Zv ^p-epa 6Ve] Connect 
with verse 15. TAi s accusation 
or this exculpation by the thoughts 
of the heart is to Jind its place 
and its scope in a day ii hen God 
judges the secrets of mankind. 
Acts xvii. 31, eo-T^acv r//xepai/ iv 
77 /zeXXet Kptveu/ Trjv OLKovfJilvwv 
tV oiKaLoavvy. 

KptVet] This reading (in place 
of Kptj/et) gives a more vivid 
picture of the scene of judgment. 
In a day tvhen God is judging ; 
is actually engaged in that last 
act of discrimination and deci 
sion to which the eye of man is 
already directed as not only cer 
tain but imminent. Hev. xxii. 

12, tSoi) ep^opat Ta^v, Kat d fja~ 
aOos JJLOV [Jier Z/JLOV. The iise of 
oVe with the present tense is, 
however, most rare. In Mark 
xi. I, Kat oVe eyyi ^oixriv ets lepo- 
croXv/jia, it is the historic present. 
In Heb. ix. 17, 6Ve grj 6 Sta^e- 
yitevos, it is a general statement. 
The nearest parallel to the usage 
in the text seems to be John ix. 

t e OT O^SetS SwttTttt 

ra Kpv- ra] Deut. xxix. 29, 

LXX. TOO KpVTTTtt K^ plO) TCO 0tO 

tj/jiMV. Jer. xlix. 10, oVeKa- 
Xfi/^a Ta /cpuTTTa auroov. Ecclus. 
i. 30, Kat aTTOKaXr i^et Ki pto? Ta 
crov. Luke xii. 2, ouSez/ 
o ov yt cocr^vycrerat. I 
Cor. iv. 5, ecus a^ e X^ d Kv pios, 
os Kat <^(jOTtcret Ta KpVTtra. ToO 
O~KOTODS Kat <avept<jo~ei TCI? pov- 
Xas TOJI/ KapStdSv. xiv. 2 T<^ 

rjs Kapotas auToi) 

2 Cor. iv. 2, 
Ta KpVTTTCL rrjs atcr^i;^7y9. 

Kara TO euayye XtoV pioi;] The 
revelation of the judgment is a 
part of the Gospel; being essen 
tial to the introduction of that 
wei0 heaven and new earth which 
is its great promise (compare 
Hev. xx. ii with xxi. i). Thus 
the general resurrection is 
spoken, of as a hope (Acts xxiv. 
15), though it includes both the 
just and unjust. For the phrase 
Kara TO evayyeXtov jj.ov, see xvi. 
25. 2 Tim. ii. 8. 

Std I^croi; XptcrToS] John V. 
22, rrjv KpLcriv vracrav oe oWej/ TW 
vlw. Acts X. 42, d o ptcr/ os 

VTTO TOV OV KptTT^S ^(jOl TO)!/ KOt 

veKpwi/. xvii. 31, iv aYSpt w 

17. ct Se OT;] ^T/at.? there may 

II. 1 6 19. 


67rava7ravrj vo/mw Kai Kav%a(rai tv ew Kcti lo 
TO 6e\t]fjia KO.L ^oKL/uLa^et^ ra $ia<pe- 

K TOU VOfJLOV, 7T67rOl6ds T6 K) 


be doers of a law, who are not 
liearers. Now view the opposite 
case : hearers, icJio are not doers. 
How inconsistent and how peril 
ous a position ! The apodosis 
is in verse 21, where the sen 
tence is resumed with ow. 

louSaios 7roi 0/xar;] Gal. ii. 

*5> r //^CtS <^>VCrei loL StttOt KCU OVK 

e4 : e6v<jjv tt/zaprtoXot. Her. ii. 9, 
TOJV Aeyonrwi/ lovSai ous eli/cu eau- 
TOT;?. iii. 9, ttc. 

e7rava7rau>7 i/o/xw] JRepOSest up 
on a law; upon the dignity and 
privilege of possessing a special 
revelation of duty. Mic. iii. 1 1 , 
LXX. Kat eVl TOV Kvptov 67ravt- 
Travovro, Xeyoi/re?, O^>(t o Kupto 1 ? 
tv 7)^1^ ecrrt v ; oi /AT) .7reX.8r) (.({> 
-rj/jias KaKtt. The word occurs 
also in Luke x. 6. 

Kca xacrrH tv ew] For an op 
posite application of this phrase 
see v. ii, Kav^iofjievoL Iv TCO ecu 
8ta TOI; Kvpioi; T^UUJJ/ l-^croS Xpt- 
crroi;. For the form Kav^dcrat 
compare verse 23. Also xi. 18, 
et Se KaraKav^acrai. I Cor. iv. 7? 
TI Kau^ttcrat o5s /XT} Xaj3wv ; Luke 
xvi. 25, (Ti> oe dSui/acrai. 

1 8. TO 0e X??/Aa] T/ie W7iW: 
<7^(3 supreme will; that will which 
guides all things. The expres 
sion is peculiar, having perhaps 
no exact parallel in Scripture. 
But the sense is clear, if it were 
only from the preceding @eo>. 

eis ra Sta^epovra] 
Either (i) discernest things that 
differ; art able to discriminate, 
as by an infallible test, tilings 
true and false, right and wrong, 
etc. or (2) approvest things that 
excel. The same phrase occurs 
with a like ambiguity in Phil. 
i. IO, ets TO SoKLfjia^civ v/jul-s TO. 
Sia^epovTa. For the two senses 
of 8o/a/zaav see note on i. 28, 
eSo/a/xacraj/. For Sta^epeit ill 
the simple sense, to differ, 
compare Dan. vii. 3, TeVcrapa 

Gal. ii. 6, OTTO IOC 7TOT6 
ovSeV /xot Sia^epet. The 
other meaning, to differ in 
the way of superiority, to excel, 
is seen doubtfully in i Cor. xv. 
41, arm}/) yap acrrepos Sia.c/>epei 
ey So?7. Gal. iv. I, ouSei/ 8ta- 
<^epet So^Xou K.T.X. and is clear 
ly established in 2 Mace. xv. 
13, TTL<f>avrjvai ai/Spo, TroXia /cat 
804-77 Siac^e povTa. Matt. vi. 26. 
X. 31, TToXXcoi/ (npovOiwv Sta- 
<^e peT v/xei?. xii. 12. Luke xii. 
7, 24. 

KaT^ov/xevo?] The word KaT- 
o sound or cZm t?i o?ze s 

, is used by St Luke and St 
Paul (as by Lucian also) in the 
sense of repeated oral instruction 
(Kartell/ Ttvct TI or Trept TIVOS), 
and is the origin of the forms 
catechumen, catechetical, tfcc. 



o^nyov elvai TV<p\cov, <pws TWV ev cr/co- 


20 TEL, 

e-^ovTa TIJV iuLop(pa)(nv Ttjs 

21 dXrjBcias ev TW vofuia) 6 ovv Si^aarKcov 6T6pov 
creavTov ov StSa cncets ; 6 Krjpvcrcrwv /mt] K\67TTeiv 

r * ~\ ^ ? 

22 /C/\67TT6(S \ O \^(V ^} JULOI^VIV jULOl^evei^ ^ O 

23 /3^e/\L crcro//6j/05 ra elScoXa iepocrvXels ; os eV 

Luke i. 4, Trept (o 

Acts xviii. 2^, 

Tr}! o6ov TOT) 

Kv/otov. xxi. 21, 24, Karr)xij- 
OY^TOLV 8e Trept croi; ort K.T. A. 
I Cor. xiv. 19, tva Kal aXAoug 
Kar^r/cra). Gal. vi. 6, KOIT/OO- 
retTco Se o Kar^ov/xei/os rov Aoyov 
TO) KaT7]^ovrrt. 

19. TreTrot^as re trecwrovl 
Literally, micZ ar^ confident with 
respect to thyself that thou art, 
etc. The accusative atavTov is 
to be connected with TreVot^a?, 
rather than with eu/cu. 

Ti (^)Ac3i/"] Matt, xv, 


Tvc^Aos 8e Tv<p\ov edv oS^y^ K.T.A. 
xxiii. 1 6, 24. Compare Job 
xxix. 1 1-XX. 


ei/ crKoret] Deut. xxviii. 


29, LXX. W9 et 
rv(f)Xos ev TO) o~Korei. 

20. 7rai8euT7}i ac^po 
xvi. 22, LXX. TraiSeta 
vwv KaKij. The word 
occurs in Heb. xii. 9, irarepa? 

Aoyou SiKato<Tvv?79, 
ecrrti/ reAet cov Se ecrrtv 
rpo(pT/ K.r.A. 

/zop^>co<Tiv] The word oc 
curs only here, and in 2 Tim. 
iii. 5, e^ovre? 


V. 13, 

We have the verb /^op^oo) in 
Gal. iv. 19, //e^pis ov /xopc^o)^ 
Xpfcrro? eV v/u 1 - Compare Isai. 
xliv. 13, LXX. eKAecj-tt/xcro*? re- 
KTCOV ^Aoj/...e//o p^)co(rev arroi ev 
7rapaypa<^)t6t. . .Kat eTroi^crei/ auro 
a>S fJiOp^trjv avSpo?. ^ T 
fry ^Ae pencil results in the 
of a man: showing how the same 
word may in one passage (2 Tim. 
iii. 5) express a mere delineation, 
form ivithout substance ; and in 
another denote rather embodi 
ment, substantial shaping, as 

r^? . . . TT/S] A II knowledge 
and all truth. The article adds 
the idea of the whole of, uni 

r^s yvwo-ecos] Compare Luke 

Xi. 52, OVttl VfJUV TOIS VO/UKOt5, 

on r/pare T>}V KAeTSa TI^S yi/co- 


IT. 20 25. 

rrapafiao ews TOV VOJULOV 
TOV 0eoi/ ctTLfj.a(^eis ; TO yoLp ovojua TOV Oeou 24 
.e lTaL e.v TO?? tdveffiv, 
TrepiTOfJit] jULev yap w<pe\el 25 

22. d /3SeXi>cro"o/Aei os K.T.X.] 
Thou ivho a righteous 
abhorrence of idols, dost thou 
make a wicked gain of those 
idols by robbing their temples ? 

/3SeXi>o~crd/xi os ra ei ScoXa] 
Deut. vii. 26, LXX. OVK er- 
ourets /^oVXiiy/xa. eis TOV OLKOV 
crov.../3SeXiry/AaTt /3ocXvy auro, 
on CLvdOz/Jid eVrn. 

ra el Soo/Xa] yl/? 7o^. See 
note on verse 20, 7-179... rr/s. 

lepoo-uA-ets] 2 Mace. iv. 39, 
42, yevo/xeVooj/ Se TroXXtov tepocrv- 
X^/zarcDV Kara TV/I/ 7roXii/...^pi;cra)- 
/MaTcov 7)877 ToXXaJv Tov Se TOV lepocrvXov 
TO yao(puXa/aoi/ 
xiii. 6, vrav9a TOV tepocruXi as 
6 j/Ta K.T.X. Acts xix. 37, 
yap TOVS 

23. os K VO/ZW...TOT 
Thou that gloriest in a law, by 
the transgression of that law 
dost thou dishonour God? Com 
pare verse 14, OTO.V yap eOvrj TO. 
yu.7? vo/xov e^ovra (frva-fL TO. TOV 
vo/xou 7roiwo"tv. Gal. iv. 21, ot 
VTTO rofjiov 6eXovT9 cti/at TOJ> 

Tlie substan 
tive 7rapa /3acris appears once 
only in the Old Testament : 
Psalm ci. 3, TroiowTas 7rapa/3a- 

o-as e[ua"r]ora. The verb is found 
frequently. Isai. xxiv. 5, > / 8e 
y?7 rjvoyU,?7o~e 8ia TOI;? KaTOtKorrTa? 
K.T.X. Dan. ix. i i, Tras Icrpar}X 
jrapejSrjo-av TOV TO/JLOV (rov. So 
Trapa/JaiWw TO p /y//.a, TOJ/ Xoyoj/, 
e/c T r/S dSoD, JTTO 
a?ro TOJI/ Xoywv, ei 

t (Kvpt w), &C. 

ToV eov art/xa^eis] Mai. i. 
6, LXX. et Trarryp ei/xt eyoj, 7roC 
ecrTtv ?/ So^a fjiov ; Kal et /cvpios 
et/zt eyw, TTOV eo~Tiv o <f)of3o$ [JLOV ; 
Aeyet Kt ptog Trai/TOKparop v/jLtls ot 
lepers ot c^auXi^oFTes TO ovofJiu. /JLOV. 

24. Ka0cus yeypaTTTat] lyai. 
Hi. 5, LXX. St VyUas 8iaaj/Tos 
TO oVo/xa /xou /3Xao~^)77/xetTat ei/ 
TOIS ZOveo-i. Compare Ezek. 
xxxvi. 20 23. 

2 5 . TrepiTOfjLt f . . . TO /MOV . 
The absence of the article di 
rects attention to the quality, 
nature, character, &.c. of the 
thing spoken of, not to its mere 
substance. Such a thing as 
circumcision... Such a thing as a 
law... A law like that of Moses, 
&.c. Such a thing as circumci 
sion, in itself a mere outward 
rite of incorporation into the 
chosen nation, projiteth if thou 
be a doer, in its moral enact 
ments, of a law prescribing such 
a rite of initiation. The presence 


eav vojdov Trpctcrcnis iav oe 7rapa(3aTr]s vojuov 

26 7)9, T] TrepiTOiui ] crou aKpofivcTTia < ye r yoi v. idv 

ouv {] aKpofivorTta TO. ^LKatM/ULaTa TOV vofjiov 

<pv\ct(TO"ri , ov%i 1} aKpopvaTLa avTOu cis Trept- 

26. Or oi %. 
of the article would have re- rravrl IBvei. K.r.X. 

striated to the Jewish Law in 
particular, that which without 
the article is general in its ap 
plication, however deeply tinged 
with Jewish thought and ex 
perience. It is almost as if vo- 
fiov rcpducrziv and VO/JLOV rrapa- 
fidrris were severally, like 
$ereiV, vofiocfrvXaKGiV, tfcc. 

vopov 7rpao-o-^s] The precise 
expression, vo^ov n pdo-a iv, does 
not seein to occur elsewhere. 
But besides the corresponding 
phrases, vo/xoi/ </>vA.acro-eu/, rr], 
re\.iv, ttc., we have the more 
exact parallel, VO/JLOV Trotetv, in. 
Josh. xxii. 5. 2 Kings xvii. 37. 
i Cliroii. xxii. 12. 2 Chron. xiv. 

vo/xoStSaWaAo?, tkc. one 4. JS"eh. ix. 34, Kal oi Trarepes 
compound word : if thou be a 
law-doer. . .if thou be a law-trans 
gressor, &c. indicating the charac 
ter of the person, rather than 
calling attention to the particu 
lar form or designation of the 
law which claims obedience. 
So in Gal. vi. 13, ovSe yap ol 
avrol vo /xov cf>u- 

OVK tTTOirjo-av TOV VO/JLOV crov. 
John vii. 19, Kal ovSets e^ V/JLWV 


7rapa/3aTr)<i\ This form is 
not found in the Old Testament. 
It occurs again in verse 27. 
Also Gal. ii. 18. James ii. 9, 
II, yeyoras Trapaf^drrjg VO/JLOV. 

yiyovev\ Has become, ipso 

\do-o-ovcnv (it is not that they facto. i Cor. xin. I, f.av... 
are anxious about keeping a law: dydirrjv Se fj.rj ex w > yeyova (by the 
it is only that they are eager to 
swell the ranks of a party}. 

very fact of that absence of love} 

So iii. i, 2, TIS 77 


Kara rcavra. rporcov. Compare 
Deut. iv. 7, 8, LXX. eos ey- 

Kpt/xara oY/caia K.r.X. xxxiii. 29, 
/xa/capto? av, lo-parjA rt s 6 yaotos 
(TOV, Xaos o~(o^dyaevo? VTTO Krptou } 
2 Sam. vii. 24, /cat o-v, Ki;pte, 
eyeVov avrois ts eoV. Psalin 
cxlvii. 20, OVK e-oiWev OVTCO 

26. eav ovv\ See verses 
14, 15, and notes. 

77 a/<po/?i;o-Tta] Equivalent 
to the phrase of Acts xi. 3, av- 
opas di<po/3vo~riav e^ovra?. So ill 
iii. 30, et o eos os SiKawocret,.. 
aKpoftvo-riav (Gentiles} Siar^STTt- 
crreo)?. iv. 9. Gal. ii. 7? T o evay^- 
ye Atov TT/S aKpojSv&rias. Eph. ii. 
1 1, ot Aeyo/xevot aKjOO^Qvcrtitt, 

II. 26, 27. 


XajLcrB/jo-erai, Kat KpiveT ;) e /c (pv crews 2 
TOV voi\ov T\ovcra ae TOV Sid 

TOV vo/xou] ^77^6 
requirements of the lav). Num. 
xxxi. 21, LXX. TOUTO TO StKat- 
uy/.a roi) vofJiov. See note oil i. 

32, SlKaitofJLa. 

<vXao-o-7/] Exod. XV. 26, 
LXX. /cat (j^vXa^yq TrdvTa. ra 
arroi). Dent. vii. 12, 
av aKOvcrrjTe Trai/ra ra OIKCH- 
rarra Kat (favXagiyre Kat 
avrd. Psalm cv. 45, 
OTTOJS ai/ ^D/XttcOXTt TU. StKattOyaara 
a-urov Kat TOJ/ VOJAOV CLVTOV c/c- 
^rrycraj(jtv. cxix. 8, ra StKaiw- 
/xara o~ou (frvXd^u). Acts vii. 53, 
otrtve? eXaySere rov 
OVK (f>v\d^aTe. xxi. 24, 
Kat avros ^vXacrcraJV TOV vofJiov. 
Gal. vi. 13. 

atTo>] That is, o/ ???/ ,s?^rA 
Gentile ; of any person included 
in the class described above, 
eoV ow 7y a.K.pofiva Tia K.r.X. 

et? TreptTo/A^V A.oyio-$>fo-Tai] 
Shall be reckoned unto (put 
down in the account for, to 
count as] circumcision. So Gen. 
XV. 6, LXX. Kat \oyicr6r) avr<a 
et? StKatoaw^v. I Sam. i. 13, 
Kat eAoyicraTO avTrjV H/\et 15 
a a.v. Job xli. 24, eXoyt- 
o~aTO a/Bvcrcrov cts TreptTrarov. 
Psalm cvi. 31. Isai. xxix. 17, 
TO opo? TO XepyaeX ets Spu/xov 
Xoyio-$r;o-eTai. xxxii. 15. Lam. 

IV. 2, YtOt 2l(OV Ot Tt /XtOt . . . 7TOJS 

cXoytcr^^rrav cts ayyela o orpaKtva. 
Hos. viii. 12, TCI vofufjia avrov 

ci<? aXXorpta eXoyicrO^crav. Acts 
xix. 27, et? ouOtv \oyicr6rjva.i, 
Compare iv. 3, 5, 9. ix. 8, 
Xoyt^eTat e/ ? cnrep/Jia. Gal. iii. 
6. James ii. 23. 

27. K/wet] Shall judge, 
bring into judgment, by a con 
demning contrast of practical 
obedience. Compare Matt. xii. 
41, 42, dvSpes Ntvemrat uVacmy- 
o~ovTat ei/ TT^ Kptcret /mera T-rjs ye- 
veds To.vrrj<; Kat 
o.vri ]V.. ./5acrtXicro-a VO 
o~erat ]/ TT^ Kpto~et jL.T.y.r. Kat 
KaTaKptvet avrtjv. Luke xi. 31, 
32. Heb. xi. 7, ev\a(3^0f.l<s Kare- 
o~Kt acrev KI/^WTOJ/.. .8t r)? KaTe- 
Kpti/ev TO i/ KO(Tfjiov. See note on 
verse i, Kptrcov. 

?/ K ^ucreo)?] Gal. ii. 15, 
T^jMCts <i o~et lov Sarot. See note 
on verse 14, <ucm. 

TO i/ vofJiov TeXorrra] James 
ii. 8, et fievTOi VCJJLOV 

8ta ypa/*,//,aTos] The original 
sense of 8ta is through, i. Thus 
first, with the genitive, (i) In 
reference to space: xv. 28, aVe- 
Xei;o"o/xat Si {yxouv 6 !? ^Trai/tai . 
I Cor. X. I, TravTe? Sia TT^S OaXdcr- 
o"f)<z $LrjX6ov. 2 Cor. i. 16, KOI 
8t v^(^>v ets MaKcSovtav. 
xi. 33, Sta 6vpi8o<; iv crap-ydvrj 
e^aXacr^v Stct TOO) TCt^ov?. (2) 
Iii reference to instrumentality: 
i. 2, o TrpoeTr^yyet XaTO 8ia T<OI> 
7rpo<j>r]T<jJV avrov iv ypa<^at? ayi ais. 



2 ypfjijULaTOs KO.L 

iii. 20, Sia yap vofJtov eTu 
a/aapTi a?. Y. 2, oY ov Kat TT^I/ 
Trpocrayooyr/i/ ecryrjKafjiev cts T>yV 
X^P LV TavTijv. i Cor. xi. 12, 
ouT(05 Kat o dvrjp Sia T /ys ywai/cos. 
2 Thess. ii. 2, //,7ySe OpociaOcu ^re 
Sia Trvev/xaro? /x-ryre Sta Aoyov 
fJLTjTf. Si e7n,(rToA.?yg to? oY ry^uojv. 
(3) In reference to time: and 
that in the sense of (a) during ; 
as in Luke v. 5? Y oA^? VUKTOS 
KOTriacrai/res ovSev eAcx/So/tev. Acts 
i. 3, Si ry/xepeoi reo-crepa/covra o - 
TTTuvo/xei/os avTols. Heb. ii. 15, 
Sta Trai/ro? rou ^v eVo^ot ^o-av 
SovAeta? or (/3) ? M ^7/e course of; 
as Matt. XX vi. 61, KaraAucrat 
TOV yaov TOV 0eou /cat Sia rptcuj/ 
Ty jiiepco^ otKoSo^crat. Mark xiv. 
58. Acts v. if), Sia 
yvoi^tv ra? Ovpas rij^ < 
xvi. C), o po/xa St [T^S] J/VKTO? 
TW HttvAw (jj<>9r). xvii. 10, 8/.a 

WKTOS ^7TflJnf/aV K.T.X. XXlll. 

31, roi^ ITaCAov ryyayov Sta T-V- 
KTO? et? T>yv Pi.VTnra.rp LOO. or (y) 
a rt?^ interval oj (passing through 
and so reaching the end o/ ); as 
Mark ii. i, ti(r\8a>v 7raX.iv c 
Kd<papvao i ^L BL ijjuiepojv. Acts 
XXIV. 17, ot eroji/ 8e TrAeto^oov. .. 
Trapeyet o /J-Tyi/. Gal. ii. I, eVeira 
8ta St/carecro-apon erooi/ TraAtv ave- 
/5ryF et? lepoo-o Av/xa. (4) In 
reference to condition and cV- 
cumstances : passing through, 
and so amidst, in a state of ; as 


Las. viii. 25, 8t -UTTO- 
xiv. 20 

7rapa/3aTtjv i/o/uof ; ov 

rto Sta TrpocTKo/x/xaro? ecrOiovrt. 
2 Cor. ii. 4, Zypauf/a v/uuv Sta 
TroAAoji/ SaKpvW. iii. II, et yap 
TO KarapyovfJievov Sta 80^? K.r.A. 
2 Tim. ii. 2, a ^Kovo-as Trap e/xov 
8ta TroAAaiv fAapTvpwv. And this 
last is the sense of Sia here. 
Amidst (m a condition of, in pos 
session of, witli) a written law and 
an ordinance of incorporation. 
2. The other use of the prepo 
sition, with the accusative, is 
more uniform still. Through. 
owing to, because of, for the 
sake of. See i. 26. ii. 24. iii. 
25. iv. 23, 24, 25, OVK eypa^ 
Se oV avrov\Xa KOL oY 
ryyjta?. . .TrapeSo^^ Stu ra TrapaTrra)- 
/xara ?y^o3v Kat yyepOrj Sia T>yv 
8iKaiooo"iv Ty/xcoK. vi. 19. viii. 10, 
2O. xi. 28, ex$pot St v/jia<;...d- 
yaTrryrot Sta TOVS Trarepai?. xiii. 
5, ov fjiovov Sta -nyV opyrjv a AAa 
Kat Sta TTyV o~vi/t 87ycrtv. xiv. i^, 
et yP Sia /?pcu/xa o a SeA^os <rov 
AvTretrat. XV. 15. 

ypa/x/aaros] Compare verse 
29, cv ypa/x^tart. vii. 6. 2 Cor. 
iii. 6, 7, ev ypa/x/xart frrervTrco- 
/j,eV>y- XiOois. The context in 
some passages gives the word a 
disparaging sense, in contrast 
with the Aoyos or Trvev/m of the 
Gospel : but in itself, and in 
its use here, it is a term rather 
of honour; the writing, the writ 
ten letter or text, of God s own 
law. See Exod. xxxi. 18, LXX. 

TOV /xaprvptov, TrAaKas 

II. 28, 29. 


yap G ev TCO (pavepw 
TU> (pavepto ev crapKt TrepLTOjmrj d\\a 
lofSalo?, Kai TrepiTO/ULt] 

ovce t] ev 
6 ev TCO 29 
ev Trvev- 


For the absence of 
the article, see note on verse 25, 
7reptTo/x?y. . .VO/JLOV, . .VOJAOV. 

28. ov yap d ev TO) c/>avepuT] 
Thus ix. 6, ou yap TTavre^ ol f.^ l- 
crpary A., ourot Io-pa?yA.. John 1.48, 
t Se aAry^ais icrpaTyXtT^?. Gal. A i. 
1 6, Kttt 7Tt roi/ Icrpa^/V TOU eoi). 
Phil. iii. 3, ry//t? yap e cr/uei ?j 
, ot TrvevfJiCLTL @eou Xa- 


eV rep (^ai/epw] Matt. vi. 6, 
/cat d vrarr/p aov o /^AeVwi/ ei^ 
T(3 KvTTTo) aTroScJcret <roi [eV TW 

oi;aos .. . 7reptTo//.7y] Each 
of these words is understood a 
second time, as in verse 29 also. 
Not he who is [a Jeiu\ outward 
ly is a Jew ; nor is that, [cir 
cumcision] which is outward, in 
flesh, circumcision : but he who 
is [a Jew] in secret is a Jew ; 
and circumcision is [circum 
cision] of heart, &c. 

ov&e. T/J v TO) (fxivepu] That 
is, rj 2tu)$ei/, explained by lv 
<rapKL. The same distinction is 
applied also to Baptism in I Pet. 
iii. 2 1 , vvv ertoei /3a7TTioyxa, ov 
crap/cos aTrd^ecrts pvTrov, aA.A.a <rvv- 
eiSv7O"eaJS aya^^s CT 
Qedi . 35eb. x. 22, p 
rets KapStas a?rd (rui/eiS^crews TTO- 
Kat Xe\ovp.VOL TO 


29. d eV TW KpviTTM lovSaio?] 
For the phrase eV TOJ /cpuTrro), see 
Matt. vi. 4, 6, 1 8, oVcos 17 crot 77 

e/YeTy/xocrvi/^ ei/ TO) KpvTTTio /cat o 


aTToStocret crot K.T./\.. And for the 
sense, i Pet. iii. 4, all/ OTO> OUK 
o e^co^ei/. ..Kocr//o9, d/V/V d /cpuTrrds 
KapSt a? av^pa)7ros eV TOJ a- 
TOI) Trpaecos Kat T^cru^tou 
, o ecrriv CI/COTTIOI roi) 
eoS TTo/VureAe?. 

/xr} KapSta?] Col. ii. II, 
i] a^etpoTrotryro), et/ TI^ aTr- 
TOV (raj^aro? ri^s crapKo?. 
Compare Levit. xxvi. 41, LXX. 
Tore ci/TpaTrrycreTat 7) KapSta auTtoi/ 
?y aVepir/x^Tos. Deut. x. 16. /cat 
TrepiTe/xeur^e Try^ cn<Xr}poKap&iav 
v/jt(.ov. Jer. iv. 4. ix. 26, Trd 
TO. e^j/7y aTreptT/xT^Ta crap/ct, 
Tra^ olKos IcrparyX aT 

. Acts vii. 51, 

KapStats Kat Tols wcrtV, 

aet TW TrvfvJiaTL TOJ ayta> a^Tt?rt- 

ei/ TTveu/xaTt ou ypa /x/jtaTt] 
Consisting in spirit, not in let 
ter : spiritual, not literal. The 
same contrast is found also in vii. 
6, axrTe SouAevetv Ty /ms eV Kati/OTTy- 
Tt Tri/cv/xaros Kat ov TraXatoTTyrt 
ypa/x/xarog. 2 Cor. iii. 6, Sia- 
KatvTys Sta^TyKry?, oi ypa /x- 



ou eTraivos OUK 




III. I Ti ovv TO 7rcpicrcroi> TOV TouSaiou, r] T/S n 

JU.O.TOS uAAd 7rvev/ji.aTOS (a new 
dispensation., not of letter but of 
spirit; not consisting of a code 
of written enactments, but con 
veying a new spirit, a spirit 
made new by the Holy Spirit}. 
Compare Jer. xxxi. 33, LXX. 
(quoted in Heb. viii. 10), CLVTT) 
t] OLaO^jKfj JJLOV. . . S(.So^s Scocrco vo- 
/JLOV ets Trjv SiaVoiar acrtoi , 
t CTTI, KapSias avrcov ypui^w au~ 

of t/te 

ou] O/* ivhom; referring to 
o ei/ TO) KpuTrra), and (in sense) to 
^Ae possessor 

ou o eTrati/osj i Cor. iv. 5, 
Kat rore o e7rati/os yevrycrerat tKa- 
erru) avro TOU eoi;. 2 Cor. viii. 
1 8, OTJ o 7raivo? ev TO) evayyeXtcu. 

III. I 8. Ti ovv TO Treptcrcroi/] 
7/ i^i God s sigJit the Israelite is 
lie who is so in heart, what is the 
peculiar privilege of the national 
Israel ? A. fuller answer to 
this question is given elsewhere 
(see ix. 4, 5). Here only one 
privilege is expressly named. 
They have God s revelations in 
their keeping. This is the chief, 
yet but one, of their privileges. 
And no unfaithfulness on the 
part of that nation can make 
God forget or prove unfaithful 
to His promises to their fathers. 
Man may be false, but God is 

trite. Nay, man s faithlessness 
does but illustrate and establish 
G od s justice. Thus David s sin 
against God is declared (Psalm 
li.) to have resulted in the justi 
fication of God s word and judg 
ment. Will you say, Then, if 
man s sin only displays more 
conspicuously God s justice, and 
so issues in His glory, God can 
not justlg punish it ? /Such an 
objection would gainsay that first 
axiom of eternal truth, that God 
luill judge the world in righte 
ousness. And if any one is 
wicked enough to urge it, wicked 
enough seriously to repeat the 
blasphemous saying, Let us do 
evil that good may come; on 
such a man argument is thrown 
away : they who fear God can 
only answer that that condemna 
tion which assuredly awaits him 
is proved out of his own mouth 
to be just. 

I. TOTrepicro-oi ] This adjective 
of Trept (in its sense of over and 
above, exceedingly] is sometimes 
used with the genitive, in the 
sense of more than; as in Matfc. 
V. 37, TO 8e Treptcnro-i/ rourcov e/c 
TOV 7rovr)pov eo"TiV. Eph. iii. 20, 
L7repeK7repto-o-ou tov airov/jieOa r/ 
VOOV/JLZV. But more often abso 
lutely, in the sense of (i) Re 
maining over- as in Exod. x. 5, 

III. 1-3- M 

k \ " " \ ^ ^ 

(x)u)/\6lCt. T^/9 7T601TO](U1S , TTOAl/ KCLTCt TTCiVTOt 2 


CQ * O 

fc => 5 O 

Aoyia TO Geoi/. r/ 7p ei qTrt<TTri(rdv 

in. i. Or omit y<ip. 

LXX. /cat KareSerat TTU.V TO 7repio~- 
croV TO KaTttAet<$eV, o KaTeAtTrei/ 
v/jilv ?/ xu Aaa. (2) Abundant/ 
Luke xx. 47, Trepio-o-o repoi/ icpi- 
/xa. Jolin X. IO, tVa ^COT)I/ e^coo-iv 
Kat 7repto-o-oi/ e^wo-6V. Heb. vi. 
17. vii. 15, TrepLO-o-orepov eVi 
KaTaS^/XoV eo-Tii . (3) /Superior, 
preeminent; as liere, and Eccles. 
vi. II, TI Trepicrcrov T(p 
Dan. v. 12, 14, O TI 
picraov Iv aurw...Kat cro^)ta TTC- 
picro~v) tvpeOv] tv <roi. Matt. v. 
47, Tt TreptcrcroK TroietTe j xi. 9, 
KCU Treptacrorfpov Trpoff^iJTOV. (4) 
JSxcessive, superfluous; Eccles. 
vii. 16, fo) <ro^)t^ov 7repio"0"a. 2 
Mace. xii. 44, Treptcrcrov KOL XTJ- 
pwSes ijTrep veKpwi/ cu^ecr^ai. 2 
Cor. ix. I, TrepLcrcrov /xot O~TII> TO 
ypaffrfiv V/JLLV. 

ri<s rj co^eAeta] See note on 
ii. 25, <a(f>\eL. 

2. Kara Trdvra TpOTrov] Num. 
xviii. 7, LXX. Phil. i. 18, 
Tpo /ra>. 2 Thess. iii. 16, iv 


TrpwTov juev* yap] The form of 
expression implies that other 
points of advantage would be 
mentioned afterwards: but the 
suggestion of objections inter 
venes, and the enumeration is 
not resumed. 

.7ri<T-ev9r]a av rd Xoyta] 
were entrusted with the orades. 
The same construction occurs in 
I Cor. ix. 17, oiKovop^iav TTCTTL- Gal. ii. 7? 7rc7ri(rreiyx,ai 
TO cuayye/Viov TT/ .; o.Kpoj3vcrTia<;. 
I Thess. ii. 4, o eSo/a/a.acr/xe^a VTTO 
TOV 0eou Tno~Tv6 rjvai TO euayye- 
Ator. i Tim. i. ii, TO evayye- 
Atoj/...o e7rL(TT6v9r)v eyw. Tit. i. 
3, ej/ /oipuy/xaTi o f.TTia T^vOfjv eyw. 

TCI Ao yta TOU eouj Num. 
XXIV. 4, 1 6, LXX. ^>rf(Tlv O.KOVMV 
Aoyta iaynupov . ..<$>y](T\v aKovwv Ao- 
yta eou, eTrtorTa^aei/os e/r t<TTrj[Jt7)v 
vif/Lo-Tov. Psalm xii. 7, T<X Aoyta 
Kiynou Aoyia ayi a. cxix. 103, 
a>5 yAvKea TW Aapuyyt /xou Ta Ao 
yta crou. Acts vii. 38, 05 eSe ^a- 
TO Aoyta ojj/Ta Soui^ai J]\)A,V. Heb. 
V. 12, TtVa Ta o"TOt^era TT/? ap^?y5 
TCO^ Aoytcov TOU eou. I Pet. iv. 
II, t Tts AaAeT, ws Aoyta eou. 
Although appropriated by usage 
to the utterances of God, orades, 
the term is used also of human 
words: Psalm xix. 15, Kat e crov- 
Tat ets tvSoKLav rd Adyta TOV O~TO- 

TOS, Kvpte. 

3. Tt yap et] 7 say, Much 
every way ; muck still : for God 
will not suffer His faithfulness 
to be interfered with or His pro- 


jmr] Tf] aTTLO-ria avrdov Tt]V TTLCTTLV TOV Qeou 

mises defeated by the unfaithful 
ness of man. Compare ix. 6, 
ov% olov Se ore eKTreVrcoKei/ o A.O- 
yos TOU eou. 2 Tim. ii. 13, ct 
aTrtoToCyaev, e^eu/os TTKTTOS /zeVet * 
apvijaaaOaL yap eavroV ou SuVaTat. 
rjTria TrjO a.v . . . aTrtcrrm] That 
the idea of unfaithfulness pre 
dominates here over that of ?m- 
belief is clear from the contrast 
with TTLO-TI.V (see next note). But 
indeed the Scriptural use of the 
term faith combines the two 
notions of believing said faithful. 
James ii. 18, Kuyoo Set^w crot CK 
Ttuy cpyojj/ pvou T>?V TrtWtj/. The 
forms aTrtcrTetv and ttTrtcrrta do 
not occur in the Septuagiiit (see 
however Wisdom i. 2. x. 7. 
xii. 17. xiv. 25. xviii. 13. 
2 Mace. viii. 13) : and aTrtrrro? 
only in one passage, Isai. xvii. 

. ainarTov. 

Fidelity. Matt, xxiii. 
23, TU fiapvTepa TOV vo/J,ot>, rr}i/ 
Kptcriv Kat TO /\.eos Kat TT^V Trt- 
o-rir. Gal. V. 22, dya$a)o-WT7, 

TTt cTTl?, TTpa ciT ^? K.T.A.. Tit. ii. 

IO, jar) voo-^L^opevovs, dX\d TTO.- 
crav TTifrnv evSetKW^aeVoi;? aya- 
^r;V. See also 2 Tim. ii. 13 
(quoted in a former note, rt yap 


Karapy^cret] The meaning of 
Karapyctv is (i) to make idle, to 
reduce to inactivity; as, for ex 
ample, Luke xiii. 7, ZKKOIJ/OV av~ 
rrjv Lva TL Kat TTJV yrjv Karapyet 
(by a fruitless occupation of it); 

Hence, (2) to render inoperative, 
to abolish, to destroy. It occurs 
25 times in St Paul s Epistles, 
and is peculiar to him in Scrip 
ture, with the exceptions of (a) 
Ezra iv. 21, 23. v. 5. vi. 8; 
(/S) the above passage in St 
Luke; and (y) Heb. ii. 14 (if 
that be not St Paul s also), iVa 
Sia TOV OO.VO.TOV KaTapyrjcrr) TOV TO 
Kparos e ^oyra TOV Bavdrov. The 
English Version gives it no less 
than 17 various renderings in 
the 27 places of its occurrence. 
Compare verse 31, vo/xoi/ ovv ov i^.v ot-d T //s TTtorecosj iv. 
14? KaTT^pyT^rat t] eTrayye/Vta. vi. 
6, tVa Karapy^^ TO aoj/xa T^? 
a/xapTt as. vii. 2, 6, 
O.TTO TOV vofJiov TOV avopo?. . . 
yi)0 f]p.f.v OLTTO TOV v6fj.ov. i Cor. 
i. 28, LVO. TO, OVTO. Ka.Tapyr ]O"fl. ii. 
6, TUJI/ ap^oi/Tcov TOU atwi/05 TOV- 

TOV T<J)V KO.TO.pyOVjJi.(.V(aV. VI. 13, 

d Se eos Kat TavTijv Kat 

xiii. 8, 10, ii, 


26, oVav KOLTapyijo-r) Traaav dpxyv 
...Icr^aTO? e^^po? KaTapyetTat o 2 Cor. iii. 7, n, 13, 
14, Sta TT^V So^av TOU 7rpoo~oj7rou 
afTOU T>/^ Ka.TapyovfJievr)v....L yap 
TO KaTapyovfJ.vov Sta 60^5... ets 

TO Te A.05 TOU KaTOLpyoVfJieVOV...OTL 

iv Xpto-To3 KaTapyetTat. Gal. iii. 
17, ets TO KaTapyrjcraL TTTJV liray 
V. 4, 1 1 , K 

III. 4- 

6 0eo? d\r}dtjs y 4 


4 . Or 

CXTTO TOV Xptorrov.. .KdTrjpyrjTai TO 
o*K(xVSaAot/ roG o~Tavpov. Eph. ii. 
1 5, T?}I> e\6pa.v. . . Karapy?7o*ag. 2 
Thess. ii. 8, 6V d Kt pios...Karap- 
yryo~et TT^ eTrtc^aveta r^s 
COTOU. 2 Tim. i. 10, /cai 
o~ai/Tos /xei/ ToV BO.VO.TOV K.T.- 

4. /ex?) yeVotro] Literally, 
3 fay it not become or prove to be 
so. Away with the thought ! 
God forbid. An exclamation 
of abhorrence, found also in 
verses 6, 31. vi. 2, 15. vii. 7, 
13. ix. 14. xi. i, ii. i Cor. 
vi. 15. Gal. ii. 17. iii. 21. In 
its absolute form it is peculiar 
to St Luke and St Paul. In the 
few places where it occurs in 
the Septuagint it is incorporated 
into the sentence; as Gen. xliv. 
7, 17, /ji-ij yeVotTo rots Trato-i 0-ou 
Troiiycrai Kara TO prj^a TOVTO...^ 
juoi yeVoiTo Troi^aat TO p^/xa TOV- 
TO. Josh. xxii. 29, /x?) yeVoiTo 
ovv yjjids aTTOcrTrjvau O.TTO Kupiou. 
xxiv. 1 6, fJitj yeVotro T/jfjuv KOLTO.- 
Xnreiv Kuptov. i Kings xxi. 3, 
/x?y ycvotTo fJiOL ?rapa ov p.ov 
Sovvai KXrjpovofjLLav TraTepcov fjiov 
croi. And so in Gal. vi. 14, 
ettot Se /A7y yei/oiTO Kav^aadoa et 

/X^ K.T.X. 

ywecrOa) 8e d eds] 6^0(/ must 
be true yea, let God be seen to 
be true though it be at the cost 
of proving every human being 
false. The very faithlessness of 
man does but justify Gods dedl- 

V. R. 


ings with him ; for they all pro 
ceed on the assumption of liuincin 
corruption. Thus David says 
Against Thee, Thee only have I 
sinned... that Thou mightest be 

yivea-Ouj] The original sense 
of ytVeo-$ai, to come into being, 
become (as that which before 
was not), passes readily into that 
of resulting in being, being ax 
the result, and so being seen or 
proved to be. Thus, for example, 
the repeated exhortations, ytVc- 
o-$e crot/toi (Luke xii. 40), cSpcuoi 
(i Cor. xv. 58), ej s a/ 
XP^o-rot (Eph. iv. 32), 
TOV eo(; (Eph. V. i), fv^df 
(Col. iii. 15), &c. do not neces 
sarily imply the reproach of 
being, other wise now, but rather 
say, Be found such ; be such in 
the result, such when Christ 

d eds aA.?7$?ys] John iii. 33, 

9 i / </ c /-\ v * \ /\ 

ecmv, viii. 26, d 

Trds Se avOpunros i 
Psalm cxvi. n, LXX. eyco el-i 
tv Ty fKcrrdaet /xov, Tras av^ptoTros 
i^euo-r^g. The word i[/evcrT-r)<; oc 
curs also in Prov. xix. 22. John 
viii. 44, 55. i Tim. i. 10. Tit. 
i. 12. i John i. 10. ii. 4, 22. 
iv. 20. V. IO, d fj,rj TTio-reiW TO> 

w if/evo-T-rjv 

ajs yeypaTTTat] Psalm li. 



ev Tots XOJOLS arov 
iv rep K.pivea daL ere. el Se t] 


4, LXX. aoi juoi/u) 




For the sense, see 

notes 011 verses i 8, Tt ovv TO 
Trepicro-oV, and on tliis sense, yt- 

Se o 0eos. 
StKttto)^;] See note on ii. 
13, 8iKaLw6rjcrovTai. For the 
application here, compare Luke 

vii. 29, 35, eStKaaoo-av Tc 
. . .(.OiKaiw&r] 7] crania. 

ei/ ToZs Xoyots o~ct l 7^>l (f/^j 
matter of) Tliy words ; that is, 
according to the forensic figure 
employed, in Tit?/ arguments, or 
pleadings, in the trial in ivhich 
man arraigns Tkce. See note 

Equivalent to StKcu- 
<j)6f]s above. This seems to be 
the only clear example in Scrip 
ture of the classical use of VLKU.V 
as a forensic expression, to gain 
a cause. 

eV To3 KpivecrOai o-e] When 
Thou contendest ; wlien Thon en 
ter est into trial as a litigant. 
For this classical use of KpiVe- 
compare I Cor. vi. 6, d\\d 

Kat TOVTO eVt aTrujTwi/. The fi 
gure itself is in frequent use in 
the Prophets when expostulat 
ing for God with men. God is 
represented as having a contro 
versy with them ; appealing 

sometimes to heaven and earth, 
sometimes to man himself, to 
decide the question, as to the 
reasonableness and justice of 
His dealings with him. See, 
for example, Isai. i. 2, 18, LXX 
ttKoue, orpuve, Kat evamou, yrj . . . 
Sevre Sry Kat SteXey^^co/xei , Aeyet 
Ki pios K.T.A. xliii. 26, av 8f 
Kal Kpt^ol/xei/. . .tVa Si- 
7j9. Jer. xxv. 31, KptVt? 

TO) KvptO) Cl/ T0t9 f.9vf.(Ti Kptl/CTttt 

auTOS Trpas Trao ai tra pKa. llos. 
iv. i, aKowaTe A,oyov Kvptov, i;tol 
icrpar/A, StOTt Kpurts TO) Kvpf w 
Trpos TOV? KaTotKoui/Ta? T>yi^ yi^i . 
xii. 2, Mic. vi. 2, aKoiio-aTe, op>/, 

TTjV KptVtV TOii KvptOV...OTl KptCTl? 

Kat /xeTa TOV Io-pa7)A 
crcTat. Aao? /xov, TL tTrot^cra crot 
...aVoKpt^Tt /xot. It is thus 
that David, in the passage quoted 
in the text, declares that this 
one sin of his will be enough to 
decide the great controversy 
between God and man, in favour 
of God s justice, mercy, and 

5. d 8e] A difficulty na 
turally arising out of the words 
quoted from Psalm li. If David 
sinned in order that God might 
be justified ; if, in other words, 
our unrighteousness in some 
sense establishes God s righteous 
ness; what are we to say as to 

III. 5- 

V/ULCOV Qeou SiKcti.oa vvriv (rui/io Tiicrii>, TL 
6 0eos d 67ri<pepwv TI}V 

/<e consistency of God in punish 
ing sin ? 

eov Si.Kcaoo WT/i ] Not rr/V 
TOV 0. 8. A shade of difference 
is involved in the absence of the 
article. Much a thing (so great 
a tldng] as righteousness on the 
part of such a Person, (so great 
a Person) as God. See notes on 
i. 2, ev ypu,</>ats ayiais. 1. 20 } 

ttTTO KTKJCC05. &C. 

a-wicr-nyo-iv] The first mean 
ing of (TvvicrTavaL is to set (place 
or bring} together. Hence (i) 
of persons, to combine one with 
another ; to introduce, commend, 
recommend, one to another : xvi. 
I, owum/jut 8e VIJLLV oi{3r]v T?/V 
tt8e/\<}yV ry^uir. Gen. xl. 4, LXX. 

a/urous (gave them i,n 
charge to Joseph]: and converse 
ly, Num. xxxii. 28, (nWarrycrej/ 
aurois Mawcriys EXea^ap ror tepea 
(charged EletirMr with them}. 

1 Mace. xii. 43, o-weWrycrev a{>- 
TOV Tracrt rot? c^tAots avroi). 2 
Cor. V. 12, cw yap irdXiv eavro^s 
o-vi/taravo/xev v/xtv. And so with 
only the accusative expressed: 

2 Cor. iii. i, ap^o/xe^a TraAiv 
eaurovs crwicrTaveiv ; vi. 4. X. 
12, 1 8. Or with Trpos* 2 Cor. 
IV. 2, (rwicrravoyTes eavrous vrpos 
TTttcrav crui/etS^crtp av^pajTrwv. (2) 
Of things, to combine into cer 
tainty, to prove or establish : as 

here, and v. 8, O-VVLCTT^O-IV Se rr)r 
eawTou ayaTrryi/ o eos ets 7y/a,as. 
And so even of persons (with 
eu/ai, oVra?, or the like) in the 
sense of proving ; as Susan. 61, 
crvi ecrTT/o ev avrovs Aai/t7/A K TOI 
(rro/xaros aurcoi/ i^ewSo/xaprt pTy- 
crai/ras. 2 Cor. vii. 1 1 , i/ Travrt 
crvvfCTTija aTf. eavrovs ayvovs 
Gal. ii. 1 8, Trapa/Sdrvv e/ 

rt epoti/xei/] A phrase pecu 
liar to St Paul, and to this 
Epistle. Sometimes it intro 
duces an objection ; as here. 
and vi. I, rt ovv epot /xev , e-m/ju- 
vco/xev T7y a/x,apTia K.T.A.. vii. 7, rt 
ovv epov/Jiev ; o vo/xos a/xapria ; 
ix. 14, rt ow epovfiev ; /xry aot/cta 
Trapa rw e(3 ; Sometimes it con 
cludes an argument; as in ix. 
30, TI ow epoiyxev ; on e^i/ry K.r.A. 

o eTrKfrtpwv rrjv opy^/V] ^?7ie 
injlicter of the anger ; of that 
Divine displeasure against sin, 
which is the prospect of the 
wicked. Compare (i) for TYJV 
opyr/V, v. 9, cr(ju6 l 770-d/x.e$a oY av- 
TOV otTro T/ys opyrj^. Matt. iii. 7, 
<$)vyLv CLTTO rrys /xeAAovcrvys opy^?. 
Luke iii. 7. i Thess. i. 10, ror 
pvo/JLVOV Ty/xas e/c T^ 1 ? opyrj<s Try? 
ep^o/xeV?/?. See note on i. 18, 
opyy eoi;. (2) For the phrase 
o py^yV cTTt^e petv (so opposite to 
the classical dpyas cTri^epetv), 
Zech. ii. 9, LXX. 1801) cya) 7rt</>- 




6 opyqv ; Kara av6pu>7rov Xeyw. /u>/ yevoiro ewet 

7 TTWS KpiveT 6 eo9 TOV /co cr/uoi/ ; el jap r} dXrjdeia 
TOV Qeov iv TW e/xw \js6v <r /man 67rept(rcrcvcrev ek 


poo rryj/ X ct P a 7^^ t7r 
Psalm vii. 12, 6 eos KptTrys 
Katos Kai tcrx^pos Kat 
/jir) .opyryr eTraytoj/ Ka$ 
-q/mepav. Isai. xlii. 25, Kat CTTT;- 
yayev CTT a^roi?? opyryj/ Ov/Jiov av- 
TOV. (3) And for the sense of 
the text, Gen. xviii. 25, d /cpt 1 
vcov Trao-ai/ TT}V yiyi/, ov 
Kpicrtv ; Job viii. 3, ( u?y d 

Kara av$pa>7roi/ Xeya>] Even 
to state such a doubt, though it 
be but to repel it, requires apo 
logy. / speak as men speak; not 
in my own name, still less as an 
Apostle. The exact combination, 
Kara ttv$pto7rov Xeyav, occurs only 
here and in Gal. iii. 15. Compare 
I Cor. ix. 8, /ji-fj Kara avOpwrrov 
ravra AaXoj, r/ Kat d vd/xo? ravra 
ov Aeyet ; 2 Cor. xi. 17, o XaXco, 
ov Kara Kt ptov A.aAo3, aAX cos ev 

6. eVet] Since, if so, if there 
be any force in such an objec 
tion, how shall God judge? For 
this use of cVct, carrying with it 
the suppressed clause, if so, or if 
otherwise, according to the con 
text, compare xi. 6, 22, ct Se 
ovKtri e cpyoov, evret r/ 

Aere apa CK TOT) KOO-/JLOV 
Vll. 14, TyytacrTat yap o avrjp o 
aTrtcTTO? ei/ T]7 ywatKt . . . eTret apa 
Ta T/ci/a V/J.WV aKaOaprd icniv. 
Ileb. ix. 26, 7Tt e Set avTW TTO/\- 
AaKts aTrd KaTa^SoX /yg KO- 
vvvi Se oiTra^ K.T.A. x. 2, 
t OUK av eTraucravTO 

TTCUS Kptj/et d eds] Thus in 
tellectual diiliculties in religion 
are best met by moral axioms. 
/ mav/ sound plausible to say, Jf 
f man!s sin contributes ultimately 
to God s justification, God can 
not justly punish it : but con 
science, ever a safer guide than 
intellect,, echoes the language oj 
revelation, which declares thv 
coming judgment ; and that judg 
ment presupposes that sin can be 
justly punished, and ivill. Let 
this suffice us. 

TOV KOCT/XOV] See note 011 i. 



V. IO 

7. et yu p] A repetition (in 
the form of a more direct ob 
jection) of the difficulty raised 
in verse 5, and already partially 

77 dktjOeia TOV eou] Here, 
the veracity of God; as in verse 
4, ytvecr^co Se d eds d\r)6yj<s. XV. 
8, VTrtp a Ary^etas eov, ets TO /3e- 
/5ata)o-at Tas CTrayyeXtas. Else 
where the same phrase denotes 

III. 68. 



av avrovy TL eri Kayco o 

; Kal juLrj KaOcos ft\aa (prifJiOi)fJLe6a 

8. Or omit tlic ind Kai. 

rather the reality of God: see 
notes on i. 25, aXtjOtiav . . .if/ev$ei, 
and (.v T<3. 

i/ TO) c/xu> i^euoyxaTt] /^ (as 
the field of its operation) m/y &e : 
that is, m.y unfaithfulness : so 
expressed by way of direct con 
trast to aX>7$eia, as in verse 4 
i//eucrT77? to aX?^?/?. The whole 
life of unfaithfulness is gathered 
up into a single ij/eva-fjia, just as, 
in v. 1 8, the whole of our Lord s 
life of obedience is summed up 
into one St/catto/ia. 

eTrepto-creuorei ] The tense ex 
presses a single past act. The 
sum of a life, regarded in the re 
trospect as one act, gives this 
result: the veracity of God was 
enhanced by the lie of the man. 
The verb Trepto-o-evetv (see note 
on verse i, Trepto-crov) occurs al 
most forty times in the New 
Testament, and has two con 
structions. (i) To be over and 
above, to remain over, to abound 
or redound, to exceed, or excel ; 
as here, and v. 15. xv. 13. Matt. 
xiv. 20, TO Trepio-o-etiov riav K\a- 
O-/JLO.TUV. Luke xii. 15, OVK iv 
TU> Trepio-o-cvciv rivl rj 0)77 avrov 
ccmV. 2 Cor. viii. 7, oWep cv 

liVa KOL V 

Travrt Kat ei/ /racrtv //.e/iv^/xat. . ./cat 
Kat -uo-repetcr^aj. (2) 

make to abound; as 2 Cor. iv. 
15, T^I/ ev^apto-rtaj/ 7reptcra-ev(Tr) 
cts TT/I/ 8o|av ro9 0eoi). ix. 8, 
Swarct 8e o 0eo? iraorav X-P iV 
Treptcrcreva-at et? v/xa?. I Thess. 
iii. 12, -u/xas Se o K^ ptos 7rA.eoi/a- 
crat Kat 7rept(rcrei;crat TT} aya~rj ets 
Kat ets TraVras. 

See note 

on . 23, 

rt In] So ix. 19, cpets /^ot 
OUK, Tt ovi/ ert /xe/xc^erat 

Kayw] / ^o; I as well as 
those from whose sins no such 
advantage may have accrued. 

cos atiaprwAo s] The cus ex 
presses the nature of the accu 
sation. See i Pet. iv. 15, 16, 
/j.r) yap Tts v/uof Tracr^ero) as Co 
ver s r) KXeTTTr/s 17 KaKOTTOto? r/ a;? 

aXXoTptOeTTtCTKOTTOS Ct 8e OJ5 Xpt- 

KptVo/xat] See note on ii. 
1 6, Kptvet. The present tense 
here, as there, seems to express, 
in a more vivid manner than 
the future, the certainty and 
imminence of the coming judg 

8. Kat iur[\ That is, Kat TL 

rr ^aptrt 

Phil. iv. 12, oTSa Kat 
aOai, otSa /cat Trepio-o-eveti/ * ev 

fi\aa-<j>7)fji.ov[jieOa.] The gene 
ral sense of /SXao-^^/xetf (rtva, 



T KO.KO. iva e\6rj TO, ay add ; wv TO KpifJia ev- 

9 Tl ovi^ ; Trpoe^dfjieOa ; ov Travrcos 

et? TLva, TL, or absolutely) is to 
calumniate. It is applied some 
times to men ; as here, and i 
Cor. x. 30. Tit. iii. 2. etc. Some 
times to things, especially sacred 
tilings; as in ii. 24. xiv. 16, 
{Jit} j3Xacr<f)r)[JiLcr6<j) ovv VJJLWV TO 
dyaOov. I Tim. vi. I, Iva, /JLTJ TO 
oVo^na TOV eov Kal rj 8t8ao"KaXia 
(3Xao-(j)r)fji.r]Ta.i. Tit. ii. 5, tVa /U.T} 
o" A.oyo<? TOV @eo{) j3\acr(f>rj/jirjrai. 
James ii. 7, pXao-ffrrj/jtova-Lv TO 
KaAov oVo/xa K.T.A. 2 Pet. ii. 2, 
rj 0805 T/}S aA.7^^etas /3\a.<T(j)r)/jLr]- 
^ o-eTat. Sometimes to ^oc? 
Himself, the Father, the Son, or 
the Spirit: and that, either (i) 
in the direct sense, of uttering 
profane or impious words con 
cerning Him; as in Mark iii. 
28, 29, TO. dfJiapTr//JiaTa KOLL at 
PXacrcfrrjfJiLa.i, oaa edv fiXao-ffrrj/jiij- 

(TUKTLV OS 8 UV |SAaO"<^)T7jU,7^O~^ 15 

TO Trvev/xa TO dytov K.T.A. Acts 
xxvi. ii, wvdyKa^ov /3\a(T(>r)/Jieiv. 
etc. or (2) in the indirect sense, 
of giving His honour to another, 
by ascribing His attributes to a 
created being; as Matt. ix. 3, 
/3\.acr<f>r]fjiei. xxvi. 65, e- 

^>^/x^o-i/ 7/KovcraTe T^V 

^r?/xtav. John x. 36, {i/ 
ort p\ao-(j)r]/jLL<;, GTI CIT 
HOS rou eov ei/xt ; 

The com 

mon perversion then (as in all 
times) of the doctrine of a freo 
forgiveness. The greater the sin, 
forgiven, the greater the grace 
shown in pardoning it. Let t<s 
continue then in sin, that grac i 
may abound. 

OTL TrotTycraj/zei ] The usual 
Greek pleonasm, of OTI before an 
exact quotation. 

TU Ka/ca] See vi. I, 
r afJiapna, tva TJ ^a- 
pts TrAeoio^o-^; 

Ttt...Ta] All manner of. See 
note on ii. 20, Tr;s...Try<?. 

OOF] That is, of those who 
wilfully draw such a conclusion 
from the Gospel of God s grace. 
There needs no further answer 
to such blasphemies. Their 
fr amers have already the mark 
of perdiiion upon them. 

9 20. Tt ovv K.T.A.] Though 
the Jew has an advantage over 
other men in his religious posi 
tion, especially in the possession 
of Divine oracles of truth, yet, in 
point of character, and therefore 
of ultimate acceptance, he has no 
real superiority. His own Scrip 
tures declare his actual condi 
tion; his condition, I say ; for 
(verse 19) that which they say, 
they say not of others, but of him 
and to him. 

III. 9, 10. 59 

Iov$a.LOVs T6 f/ E\Af]i/5 TTCLVTCLS 
v(f) fJiapTiav dvac KaOtos <yeypa7rrai on OVK 10 

9. TL ow] What follows from 
the TroXv Kara. TTO.VTO. rpOTrov of 
verse 2 ? 

7rpo9(o//e$a] Are we, the 
Jews, preferred (literally, held 
before or in preference to others)? 
Are we placed in a position of 
real superiority to the Gentile 
world, as to our actual condition 
in the sight and judgment of 
God? letter otj , are we better? 
The use of rrpo^aOaL as a strict 
passive is most unusual, perhaps 
unique. We should have ex 
pected TrpocxofjiW are we supe 
rior ? have ive an advantage ? 
though in fact no part of the 
verb is found elsewhere in the 
Septuagint or Greek Testament. 
The sense can scarcely be 

ov Trai Toos] Xot by any 
means ; by no means (as if it 
were, No by all means}. The 
exact phrase is found (in Scrip 
ture) only here, and in i Cor. v. 
IO, ov Trai/rcos TOIS Tropvois rov 
KOCT/J-OV TOVTOV K.T.A., where the 
sense is not altogether, not abso 
lutely, qualifying the clause be 
fore, JJLYJ (Tvvavap,Lyvvcr6aL Troproi?. 
For an approximation to its 
sense in the text we may com 
pare the usage of ou ?ra? (not 
any) as in verse 20, ov Stccatw- 
^r/crerat Tracra o~ap C^OJTTIOV av- 
TOU. Mark xiii. 20, OVK av lo~u>0rj 

7rtto-a cra p. Luke i. 37, OVK 
d&vvaTr/o-ci irapd rw eo3 [or row 
Oeov] TTO.V pf)u.a. Acts X. 14, ov Se- 
KOTC (.dtayov TTU.V KOLVOV. Rev. 
vii. 1 6, ovSe TTOLV Kav/j.a. ix. 4, 

OVO TTO.V ~X\WpOV OvSf. TTttJ/ Otl 8pOV. 

Trpo^rtacra/xe^a] ]Ve before 
charged both Jews and Gentiles 
with being all under sin,. See, 
for the latter, i. 18 32; and, 
for the former, ii. i, 24. The 
compound verb occurs only 
here. For amao-^cu, see Prov. 
xix. 3, LXX. roi/ oe. eor atridrat 
TT) KapoLa avTov. Ecclus. xxix. 
5, /cat TOV Kaipov aiTttttrerai. In 
classical Greek we have the vari 
ous constructions, CUTKJUJ-^OU nva. 
rti/05, Trept Tti/os, with an infini 
tive (as here), ws or on, and 
rt Kara TWOS. 

vfi a/xapruxi/] Thus vii. 1 4, 
TreTrpa/xeVo? VTTO Tt]v ajj.apTiav. 
Gal. iii. 22, (nW/cXeicrei/ 17 ypa^ 
T(i Trai/ra VTTO d/JLapriav. In Hel 
lenistic Greek VTTO is not found 
with the dative : the idea of 
rest under is transferred entirely 
to the accusative. Compare 
Deut. XXV. 19, LXX. e^aAeti^ets 
TO oi/o/za A/xaA.^K c/c TT^S viro TOV 
ovpavov. xxxiii. 3, Travres ot 
ijyiao-fj ivoi VTTO ra? ^etpas o~ov, /cat 
OVTOL VTTO are flat. Prov. xxix. 
12, Travres ot VTT O.VTOV Trapavo- 
juot. &c. Matt. viii. 9, ai/$pw.7ro s 
fl/j-i VTTO lovo-Lav, c^wv VTT e/xav- 




ir. Or omit 6 iicicc. 

TOV orpariiiJTas. Luke vii. 8. 
xvii. 24, CK 7-175 VTTO TOV ovpavov 
tis rryv VTT oupuvov. John i. 48, 
ovra VTTO rrjv O-VKYJV tl&ov ere. 
Acts ii. 5. iv. 12. Rom. vi. 14, 
15? ou yap tore UTTO VO/JLOV dXXa, 
vTTo ^apti . i Cor. ix. 20, rots 


x. I, Trai/res VTTO TT^I/ ve^e Ar/y 
vyrray. Gal. iii. 10, 23, 25, VTTO 
Karapcu/ eicrtV. ..VTTO vo/xov e <pou- 
v/X^a. . .OVKCTL VTTO TTaiSaycoyoi/ 
. iv. 2 2I ^ 7! " 

VTTO VO/XOV ^\OVTS eTi at. V. I 8. 

Col. i. 23. i Tim. vi. 1,6 crot ctcm/ 
r:ro ^vyoi/ SovAot. Jllde 6, Se- 
(r/j-otg atStots I;TTO ^o c^ov TerTypr/- 


IO. Ka&o? yeypaTrrai] Thn 
passages which follow (verses 
10 1 8) are gathered from va 
rious parts of the Old Testa 
ment; chiefly from the Psalms. 
In some manuscripts of the Sep- 
tuagint, and in the Latin and 
some other Versions, they are 
all appended, in the order in 
which they stand here, and evi 
dently (after eoo? ei/ds) by direct 
transfer from this passage, to 
the 3rd verse of Psalm xiv., 
and are so read in our Prayer- 
Book Version, which is that of 
Cranmer s Bible ( A. D. MDXXXIX.), 
itself a revision of Matthew s, 
and that, so far as the Psalms 

are concerned, a mere copy of 
Coverdale s (A.TX MDXXXV.), 
which was made mainly from 
the Latin and German. 

IO - 18. OTt OVK l(TTiV /OT.A.J 

Something of sequence may per 
haps be traced here. There is 
the condition (i) of the character 
(verses 10 12); a state of igno 
rance, indifference, crookedness, 
unprofitableness : (2)ofthefo??pwe 
(verses 13, 14); destructive, de 
ceitful, malignant : (3) of the 
conduct (verses 15 17); oppres 
sive, injurious, implacable: all 
being traced up ^4) to this one 
source in the heart, an absence of 
the fear of God (verse 18). 

I O - 1 2. OVK O~TLV. . . COS VO5J 

Psalm xiv. i 3, LXX. OVK eo-rt 
^p^crroTryrtt, OVK eortv eto? 
Kupios e/c TOV ovpavov Ste- 

Kuiev 7rt rou; movs T<JJV 

7TWI/, TOT; LOelv 1 (TTi VVViUlV 1} 

, a/x,a ^pecco^^crav, OVK eart 
toji/ -)(jpTf](noTf]Ta^ OVK eo-Tiv eoj? 
ei o?. Compare Psalm liii. i 3. 
II. crwiW] Forms of crwi eii/ 
(as well as o-wteVcu) occur fre 
quently in the Septuagint and 
New Testament. The prevail 
ing accentuation in these cases 
is as if the verb were 

&c.), not (TW4co (crwUiv, crvvUi, 
crwiovcriv, o-vnW, &c.). But 

III. ii, 12. 




TOV 06o 

av OVK 



Or 6 TTOLUV. Or omit the 2nd OVK lanv. 

the latter is the form adopted 
in the text. In the following 
references to the Septuagint the 
common reading (in so doubtful 
a matter) is retained. See 
i Sam. xviii. 14, 15, Kalrjv AaiuS 
f.v Tracrat? TCUS dSoZs avrov crvi/tcoi/ 
.../cat etSe SaovX tos airrds CTWiet 
o-(/>opa. i Chron. xxv. 7, Trds 
crvvi(uv. [N"cli. viii. 2. x. 28, ?ras 

O eiS(OS KO.I (TVVLWV. Psallll xli. I, 

/xa/capto? o crvviuiv CTTI TTTW^OV Kal 
. Prov. viii. 9, WI/TO. 
TO^S o"uvtot O". xxi. ii, 12, 
20), crwtcov 8e cro^os Several yvcu- 
trtf crwtet Si Katos KapSt a? acre/?(oi/ 
...o Se eu^s CWTOS crwtet ras 
oSov? avTou Jer. ix. 24, o-wieti/ 
Kat yivworKfLV ort eyco et/xi Kt pto?. 
Dan. viii. 5, 23, 27, Kat e yai T^V 
crvvtcov.. ./cat crv^tojv Trpo/^A^ara 
. . . Kai OVK yv o crvvtojv. Hos. iv. 
14? o Xaos ov crwitov. Matt. xiii. 
13, OVK a.KOvova iv ovSe (TWLOVCTLV. 
2 Cor. x. 12, cruyKpt i/oi/res eauro^s 
eavror<; ou crwtoucrtv. 

CK^TOJV TOJ/ eov] Deut. iv. 
29, LXX. Kat eK^-nfo-ere eKet Kv- 
piov TOV eov tyxcov Kat fvptjcreTe 
avrov, OTCLV eK^rrya^re avrov ^ 
6/\T^9 TT^S KapSi as o"ov. Acts xv. 
1 7 (from Amos ix. 1 2), OTTWS av 


TOV Ki ptov. Heb. xi. 

6, Kai TO?? e/c^Torcriv avrov //.t- 
cr^aTroSoT^? ytVerat. 

12. e ^e tfAivav] From 
literal sense of tKKAtVetv, ^o 
o?^ of the luay, to turn aside (as 
in Gen. xix. 2, 3, LXX. e 
Trpos TOV O?KOV TOU TTatSos v/ 
Kat ^K\Lvav Trpos avrov), comes 
the metaphorical use, to swerve 
from right, from the will of God, 
&c. Deut. v. 32, OVK cKKXtvet? 
e< <? Seta, ovSe et<; apto-Tepa, Kara 
Trdcrav rr)v dSoV r/i/ everetAaro Ki - 
ptos d eo s o-ou o-ot TroptvecrOai. 

T/Xpeioj^r/o-av] The original 
meaning of a^petow, to render use - 
/ess, to mar or spoi (as in 2 Kings 
111. 19, LXX. Kat TraVav /xeptoa aya- 
$>}v a^petoja"T6 ev Xt^ot?), passes 
into the moral sense of corrupt 
ing or depraving : The transition 
is well illustrated by the figura 
tive language of Jer. xi. 16, 
cXatav copatav CTXTKIOV TW etSet 
Kvpios TO ovofjia o~ov... 
ot KXaSot avrr/?. 
Compare Matt. xxv. 30, Kat TOK 
a^petov SovXov eK/3aXeTe K.T.X. 

TTOIOJV ^p^o~rdrryra] Psalm 
xxxvii. 3, LXX. eXTTto-ov CTTI Kv- 

ptOV Kttt 7TOICI ^p^CTTOTrjTa K.T.X. 

13. Ta <^os ...... eSoXiouo-ar] 

Quoted exactly from Psalm v. 9, 




6 \apwy 
CLVTWV i^oXiovcrav. ios 

15 /ecu TriKpas 

cov TO (TTOfJ.0. pas 
o^els oi TroSes O.VTWV 

1 1- 

Or <JT. 

ra c^os oWcoy/xeVos] The same 
combination is found in Jer. v. 
1 6, LXX. y (fraptrpa avrov tos 
TOU/>OS aVea>y j uei/o<?. The figure is 
that of a grave yawning for its 
dead. And thus the idea will 
be that of a mouth opened only 
to engulf and ruin. For like 
though distinct figures, compare 
Matt, xxiii. 27, Trapo/xoto^ere 
Ke/covm/xeVoi.5 K.r.A.. Luke 

^ at VfMV t OTl <TT CO? Ta 

ra a8rj\a /c.r.A. The 
forms cu/e coy/x,ai and ctrewya are 
used indiscriminately in the New 
Testament. Compare i Cor. xvi. 
9, Ovpa yap /JLOL cti/ewyei/. 2 Cor. ii. 
12, Kat Ovpas fjioi ai/ewy/viei ^g ei/ 
Kvpta). In the Septuagint areoj- 
ya seems not to occur. 

tSoA.ttnicrai ] The Alexandrian 
form of eSoAiow. Compare the 
forms et^oo-av, John xv. 22, 24. 
(H 8ocraj/, John xix. 3. 7ra/oeA.a- 
/Soa-av, 2 Thess. iii. 6. 

ios...aurtuV] From Psalm cxl. 
3, LXX. 

105] James iii. 8, /xecrr?} lov 

Deut. xxxii. 33, 

/\?; acT7rt8o?. Psalm Iviii. 4, 
Kara Tf]v o//otoocrti/ TOIJ o^eo)?, tocret 
cto-TriSos Koj</)i7?. Isai. xi. 8, ert 

tbaJV. . .CTTt KOLTt]V K- 

a<T7ua>i/. xiv. 29, CK yap 
o ^ecov e^eA-evcrerat CK- 
acr7n 8u>v. lix. ^, a>a acrTrt- 


14. <] Psalm, x. 7, 

LXX. ou apa? TO crro/xa a^TOi; 
KCH Trt^pta?. 

apa?] Hos. iv. 2, LXX. apa 
Kat i^euSo? Kat <oVos Kat KXcTrr) 
Kat fj.oi)(ia Ke^vrat CTTI T^5 y^?- 

TriKptas] Deut. xxix. 18, LXX. 

//, ,c^ c /or r-i 

/xry Tt? ecTTti/ er I /xtr pt(,a ^TTtKpta?] 
a rto (favovcra iv X^V KaL 3riK / Ktt 
(compare Heb. xii. 15). Acts 
viii. 23, ts yap ^oX?/^ TrtKptas 

Kal cri;^cSecrp:ov aStKta? opal 
Eph. iv. 31, TraVa TTtKpta Kat ^v- 
/<o? Kat opyrj Kat Kpauyv/ Kat 
/5Aaa-<^77 J TracrT; KaKta. 

ye/^et] Luke xi. 39, TO 8e 
ecrtoOfV v/Jiwv yeyitei txprray^s Kat 


cx^iaros. Job xx. 14, 

15 17. o^e ts . . . ey vtoo-av] Isai . 
lix. 7, 8, LXX. ot 8e 7ro8e? ai;Tajv 
. . .Ta^tvoi K^eat atpa. . . 
Kai TaAatTTcopt a i/ Tats o 
Kat oSoi/ etrvTs OVK otSacri. 

III. 1319. 63 

aifJia crvisTpiUJLjuia KCCI TaXctLTrwpia 16 
\v Tals o ^oT? avTutv Kal 6%>ov 
jvwvav. OVK e&Tiv <po{3os Qeov 
rwv 6<p6a\/uwv avrcov. offia//ei/ $e on ocra 19 

15. det? ot TroSes] Amos 
i. 15, LXX. Kat d o^vs rots TTOCTIJ/ 
IVTOV ov j 

t/xtt] First in Gen. ix. 
i, LXX. d eK^eW al/jia. 
ivrl TOV atjuaros avrov 
ai. Rev. xvi. 6, ort aifJia 

1 6. a-vV-r/H/x/Aa] This word 
with its cognate forms, aw- 
pt)8eiVj cryvrpii^i?, crvvrpi/Stj, 
rwrpt/AjUos) is of frequent use 
n. the Septaagint. Thus (i) 
iterally, fracture ; as in 
jev. xxi. 19, 

7ro8os. xxv. 20, o-w- 
aWi o-vvTpt/JLfjiaTos K.r.A. 
.sai. xxx. 14, Kat TO Trrco/xa 
LVTT^S ecrrat ojs awTpifji/Jia ay- 
etou ccrrpaKu/oi>. (2) Distress 
>r misery ; as in Psalm cxlvii. 
,, o KD/xei/os TOI;? o r WTerpt//,w,ei / ors 
rjv KapSiav, Kat Secrjotc^coi/ ra crw- 
pi/zp:aTa auraJv. Jer. xiv. 17, 
TI crvvrptfJifJiaTL crvveTpi/Sr) Ovya- 
rjp Xaov fjiov, KOL Tr\.7]yrj oSwr^pa 
xlviii. 3, oAc^pos Kat 

raXaiTrcopta] James v. i, CTTI 
TaXatTTcoptats VJJLWV raZs 

17. oSov etp^v^s] Luke i. 

TOVS 77oas 

1 8. OI K ecrra ] Psalm xxxvi. 
I, LXX. OVK C OTI ^>o/3os eo{! aTre- 
vavn TO>I/ offiOaX/juZv avrov. 

19. ot Sa/^ej/ Se art] Nor cnu 
these descriptions of human de- 
praviti/ be tJirown off by the 
Israelite upon the despised Gen 
tile. It is obvious that the Jew 
ish Scriptures must address 
themselves to the Jew. If they 
represent a certain character an 
prevalent amow/st men, it must 
be the Jewish character, not the 
Gentile only. And this is the 
very aim of such delineations, to 
silence all self-justification on the 
part even of the more favoured 
race, and bring the whole world, 
whether Jewish or Gentile, in the 
prostration of conscious guilt to 
the bar of God s judgment. 

oiSa/xev] The very notion of a 
ypa^rj OeoTrvevo-Tos requires that 
it be oj^eAi/^os Trpo? SiSao-KaXtW 
(2 Tim. iii. 16). How could it 
be this, if it merely held up to one 
race the sins of another ? 

6 vo /xos] Sometimes used for 
the Law Scriptures, the Volume 
of the Old Testament; as in 
John x. 34, OVK eWiv ycypa/x- 
fjLtvov CK TCO vo/xa) v/jiujv (Psalm 
Ixxxii. 6) ort cyoj el?, cot 
rre; xii. 34, ^/xets ^KovVa/xcv C K 



6 vdfJios Aeyet TO!? iv TCO I/O/ULO) \a\el, \va TTCLI 
<ppa<yri Kai VTTO$IKOS yevrjTai Tras 6 KOCT- 

TOV v6p.ov (for example, Psalm 
Ixxxix. 2ty. ex. 4) on o XP/.O-TO? 
/aeVei 15 TOV alwva. XV. 2$, o 
Aoyos o ev T(3 vo/xco aurw yeypa/x- 
/xeVos (Psalm xxxv. 19) on e /^t- 
crrycrai/ ^ae Sojpeai/. I Cor. xiv. 
21, ev TW vo/xu) ye ypaTrrat (Isai. 
xxviii. Il) ort ev erepoyXoocrcrots 
K.r.X. But lierc the necessity 
of giving the same sense to the 
law in its two occurrences in 
the same clause (o ro /xo?...eV 7o3 
T 0/j.a)) requires us to understand 
l>y o vo/xos the Dispensation itself 
personified as speaking in its 

Xeyei . . . XoAet] Speaks ...i(t- 
fcrs. The former denotes the 
language or statement of the 
Scriptures ; the latter the ut 
terance of that language or state 
ment to the particular genera 
tion, congregation, or individual 
hearer or reader. For the dif 
ference of the words, see John 
viii. 43, Sia rt TTJV AaAtav TT)V 
c/ji-rjv (my utterance, or discourse, 
on the particular occasion) ov 
yivajcTKere; on ov BvvaaOe a- 
Koueiv TOV \oyov TOV e/xov (mi/ 
language, or doctrine, in its 
general scope and sum). 

TOIS fV TOJ VO/AO)] ^O <7i056 

y/iO are in the Law ; contained 
in it as their enclosure, their as 
signed and native dwelling-place. 
Compare ii. 12, iv vo /xw. The 
commoner phrase is ot VTTO vo/xor, 

<is in i Cor. ix. 20. Gal. iv. 5 


Aa/Vet, u/a] Says to the Jewi 
and what it does say ii 
order that, d c. The though 
is condensed. First, whatever 
the Law says it says to the Jews . 
secondly, what it does say is (a^ 
we have seen) condemnatory. 
and this, in order that neithei 
Je\v nor Gentile may be able tc 
justify himself before God. 

o-ro/xa tfrpayy] Job V. 1 6, LXX 
/cat aOLKOV CTTo/Jia 
Psalm Ixii. II, on e 
0-To/x.a AaAowTcoi/ aSiKa. cvii 
42, Kat 7rdo~ 

For the wore 
see 2 Cor. xi. 10, r 

Heb. xi. 33, e<pa4W crro/xarc 

viroStKos] Liable to judgment 
The word does not occur else 
where in the Septuagint 01 
New Testament. Its full con 
struction in classical Greek ii 
with a genitive of the 2/wra 
(either the crime, or the penalty 
and a dative of the person in 
jured. Thus rw ecu here ex 
presses not the Judge befor< 
whom the cause is tried, bu 
the Person against whom th< 
sin has been committed. 

The tense (as ii 
<f>payrj above) expresses the ob 
ject (of the language of th< 

III. 20. 


jap vofJiov e7riyvco<Tis 


Law) as a single act to be done 
decisively and once for all. The 
Law thus speaks, in order that 
every mouth may have been 
stopped, and in order that all 
the world may leave become lia 
ble to judgment. 

KOO-/XOS] See note on i. 20, 

20. SIOTI] Because. A fur 
ther confirmation of the preced 
ing conclusion, tW TCO.V crro/m 
(frpayrj K.T.A.. The ivhole ivorld, 
not Gentile only, but Jewish also, 
is guilty ; because (according to 
the express words of Scripture] 
in God s sight no living man can 
be justified by his oivn works. 
Psalm cxliii. 2, LXX. on ov 6V 

crov Trs GJI/. 
e epycoi vo/x,ot>] Out of (as 
the source and origin of the jus 
tification) works of a law ; any 
works done in obedience to any 
law. A more general phrase 
than obedience to tlie law of Mo 
ses. The passage referred to in 
Psalm cxliii. is of universal ap 
plication. In God s sight no 
human merit can justify. For 
the phrase epywv vopov compare 
verse 28, and Gral. iii. 2, 5, 10, 
e epyiov vo/xov r) e a/<o^s Trtcrreajs 
...ocrot yap e epyctn/ VO/MOV fltnv 
VTTO /carapav ettrtV. And for the 
argument drawn from Psalni 
cxliii. 2, compare Gal. ii. 16, 



epycov v6fj.ov.. .KCU 

iVa 8tKaiaj^aj/xej/ e/c Trtcrreajs Xpi- 
crroi) Kai OUK t^- epycov VO/JLOV, OTL 
f epyo)j/ i/o/xov ou StKaiw^rycrerat 
Tracra crap^. See also note on 

11. 13, VOfJiOV. ..VO/JLOV. 

StKaKu^o-erai] See note on 
11. 13, oiKa.LwBtjo ovTai. 

Trdcra (rap^] Substituted here, 
and in Gal. ii. 16, for ?ras dV 
in the quotation from Psalm 
cxliii. 2. The phrase first oc 
curs in Gen. vi. 12, 17, 19, LXX. 
OTL Kare c^etpe Trdcra crap r?}y 
oooi aurou CTTI r^5 yrj<;...Ka.Ta.- 
Trdcrai/ crapKa, cj/ ^ ecrriv 
rvevyxa ^00^5... Kat aVo 


TWV 0rjptiov } KOL d-TTo Tracr^s crap/cos 
K.r.A. And so vii. 15, 16, 21. 
viii. 17. ix. n, 15, 1 6, 17, /cat 

a ya/xe croj/ TracrTys ^vxfjs ^OJCT^S ev 
Tra cn? crapKt K.r.X. Lev. xvii. ii, 
14. Num. xvi. 22, eos TOJJ/ 
Trveu/xartov Kat TraV^s crapKo s. 
xviii. 15. Job xxxiv. 15, re- 
\VTrjcrL Trdcra crop!; ofJ.o@vfjLa.Sov. 
Psalm Ixv. 2, Trpos ere Trdcra crape; 
7/a. cxxxvi. 25, d StSous rpo- 
^>i)i/ Tracn; crapKt. cxlv. 21, ev- 
AoyeiYa) Trdcra o~dp^ TO ovoyota TO 
aytov av-Tou Isai. xl. 5, 6 (Luke 
iii. 6. I Pet. i. 24), o^erai Trdcra 
crap TO croDTT/ptov ToO eov... 


Se M ^ vofJ-ov SiKctioarvvri Qeov TTE- 

without it; and thus a prepara 
tion for the introduction of a re 
velation which says not, Do this, 
and thou shalt live ; but, Believe 
on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou 
shalt be saved. &ee the deve 
lopment of this pregnant maxim 
in chap. vii. 7 25. 

eTuyvoxjis] See notes on i. 
28 and 32, eTTtyvcocret, eTr 


~uo~a (rap; ^opro?, KU.I Tracra 

dl OpUJTTOV (!)? ttV$O? ^OpTOL . 

26. Ixvi. 1 6, 23, 24. Jer. xii. 
12. xxv. 31. xxxii. 27. xlv. 
5. Ezek. xx. 48. xxi. 4, 5, 
CTTI Tracrav crap/co. UTTO aTrvyXiairou 
ecus Poppa, Kal eViyi/uxreTai Tracra 
rrap OTI K.T./X. Dan. ii. n. iv. 
12. Joel ii. 28 (Acts ii. 17), 
aTro rov TrveiJ/xaros /xov errt 

Tracrav crpKa. .Zech. ii. 13, e - 
Xa/3eLcr9u> Trdcra <jup a?ro Trpocroj- 
TTOU Kvpi ov. Matt. xxiv. 22. 
Mark xiii. 20. John xvii. 2, 
eScoKas avra) e^oucriav Tracr^s crap- 
KO?. I Cor. i. 29, OTTCOS /x i} Kav^ij- 
(Tinrai TTttcra o-up^" ej/coTrioi/ row eou. 
ei/oj7rtov ttirou] Exod. xxxiii. 
1 7, LXX. (.vpr]Kas "yap ^apir cva>- 

e/xou. tvc. Luke xvi. 15, ot 
eavroi;? ivumov TOJJ/ 
ai/^pooTTd)!/ . . .TO ei/ at ^pojTrot? V\^TI~ 
X.OV ySSe/Vuyyaa ei OJTrtoi/ TOV eo{). 
Acts iv. 19, et 8t/<aio^ ecrrtv ei o> 
?rto7^ TOT; eou K.r.A.. I Tim. ii. 
3, aTroSeKTOv evojTrtov rou awr^pos 
^/xcoi/ eou. v. 4. Heb. xiii. 21, 
TO euapecrTOV evwTrtoi/ carrot. I 
Pet. iii. 4. i John iii. 22. &c. 

Sta yap vo/xov] ^ 7 Ae practical 
result of a law (that is, a revela 
tion of duty), /toivever encourag 
ing its language of promise, is 
not justification, not the accept 
ance of man on the footing of a 
meritorious obedience, but, on the 
contrary, a deepened self-know 
ledge ; a discovery of sin, in its 
strength and in its malignity, 
such as could not have been made 

21 26. vufi 
This was all that law could do; 
the Law of Moses, or any law. 
It could point out sin, but it 
could not clear from sin. But 
now, apart from any law, a 
righteousness of God, a right 
eousness not of man s making 
but of God s giving, has been 
manifested, being attested by the 
Law and the Prophets. There 
is no conflict between the Gospel 
and the Old Testament: on the 
contrary, the Old Testament, 
when read aright, as it can now 
be read, is a witness to the 
Gospel. And a righteousness of 
God, communicated, in each in 
dividual instance, by means of 
faith of (in) Jesus Christ. A 
righteousness, I say, unto, reach 
ing or extending to, all who so 
believe. All, indiscriminately : 
for there is no difference. All 
alike, Jews and Gentiles, need 
this new gift : for all alike sin 
ned in their old state, and are 
missing the glory of God, that 
state of tinal perfection which 

III. 21. 



God has from the beginning de 
signed for man. All alike need, 
and all alike may have: being 
made righteous, absolved from 
guilt, not by any merit of theirs, 
but gratuitously, by His free 
favour, through tJie redemption 
which is in Christ Jesus : whom 
God proposed to Himself in His 
eternal counsels as a propitia 
tion to be made available lj 
means of faith resting in 11 ix 
blood. Proposed to Himself, I 
say, unto manifestation of that 
righteousness of His ; with a 
view to manifesting that gift of 
righteousness to man which has 
been spoken of in. the words 
above (see verses 21 and 22). 
Proposed to Himself, I say, as a 
propitiation, because of the pre 
termission of the sins which hai-e 
taken place before a propitia 
tion owing its efficacy to the pass 
ing by (on God s part) of all past 
sins in the exercise of the for 
bearance of God. Proposed to 
Himself, I s&y,witha view to that 
manifestation of that righteous 
ness of His in the season which 
now is; unto His being (to the 
end that God may be) both 
righteous Himself and righteous- 
tnaking (the giver of righteous 
ness to) him who is of faith of 
(in) Jesus. See the separate 
notes which follow. 

21. vvvi] In these days of 
Christ and the Gospel. The 
same contrast is implied in xvi. 


25, 26, pvuo-TTyptou xpoVois cuconois 
o-etriy^yaeVou, ^avepco^eVros Se vvv. 
Acts xvii. 30, TOVS i^lv ovv xpo- 
vows T tjs ayvotas uTrepiScoi/ o 
Ttt vvv Trapayye AAei rot? a 
TTOLS K.T.A. Gal. iii. 23, 25, trpa 
TOV Se eA$eu/ rrjv TTLCTTLV VTTO i/o- 
jjiov ttfrpovpov/Jittia. ..tXOovcnqs 8e 
rrjs TTL<TTiDS K.T.A. iv. 3, 4, ore 
VI JTTLOL.. .ore Se ?j\6ev TO 
TOV p^povou K.T.A. ilph. 
i. 10, et? oiKOVOfuav TOV TrAr/paj- 
/xaros ToV Kcupwr. ii. I 2, 1 3, oTt TJTC 

TO) Katpa) CK6i/(p...VWl Of. (.V Xpt- 

a-TO) lr/o-ou K.T.A. Col. i. 21, 26, 
Kat vfjias TTOTC oVra? aTrr/AAoTptoo- 
/xej/ous.. wrt Se ctTTOKaTTyAAatcv. .. 


...T^i;v oe IffraveptoOr] K.T.A. I 
Tim. ii. 6, TO yaapruptoi/ 
tStot?. 2 Tim. i. 10, 

CTO.V 0. VVV 8td TT^S .TTL(foa.Via<S TOV 

o-coTT^pos rj/xtov. Tit. i. 3, e(/>ai/e- 
po)o-ei/ 8e Katpots tStots TOV Aoyoi^ 
auTou. Heb. i. I, TraAat d 0eo9 
AaAryo"as Tots TraTpacrtv. . . e?r eo^o.- 
TOU TCOV rj/xepajT/ Tovrtoi/ IXaAr/- 
ev i^iw. I Pet. i. 2C, 

The emphatic form 
vwt is found also (in this Epi 
stle) in vi. 22. vii. 6, 17. xv. 
23, 25. In the New Testament 
it appears to be peculiar to St 
Paul, with the addition of Acts 
xxii. i (where St Paul is the 
speaker) and probably Heb. 
viii. 6. 

Xwpts vofjLov] Apart from a 
law : independently of the con- 


22 Twy 7rpo(pr]T(jov SiKaioo vi/rj Se Qeou cia TTLCT- 

ditions and requirements of any 
law, whether that of Moses or 
any other. Compare verse 28, 
epycoi/ vofJiov. iv. 6, StKato- 
epywj/. vii. 8, 9, 

VOfJtOV . . . e^WV ^0>p IS VO- 

wTy eo{5] See note on 
i. 17, StKatoo-wr; yap ecu. 

Tre^ai/epcoTat] 111 i. 17, the 
unveiling of God s righteousness 
is spoken of as a gradual pro 
cess : see the note there on oVo- 
KaXv7TTTai. Here the manifes 
tation is described as complete 
and final; made once for all in 
Christ. So John xvii. 6, e<ave - 
pwo-a aov TO oVo/ia rots aV$poo- 
TTOIS K.T.X. i John i. 2, 77 0077 
ecfravcpuOr] K.T.X. iii. 5, 8, CKCI- 
vos (f>avepu@Y]...(f)a.vpa)6r) o vtos 
TOT) 0eoi) K.T.X. See note on i. 
19, ^>avepo)0-^. 

fj.a.pTvpov/Jitv r] VTTO] Compare 
i. 2, ets c^ayyeAioi/ eov, o TrpoeTr- 
T^yyetA-aTO Stot TaJv TrpcxfirjTiov nv- 
TOV fv ypa^ats aytais. xvi. 26, 

f.K VKp<j)V K.T.X. Jollll V. 

39, 46, fpevvare Tas ypa^a?... 
etcrtv at /JLaprvpovcraL Trept 
t yctp 7rtcrTei;eTe Mcoi- crer, 
weTe ai/ e /xot Trept yap e/xou 
e/cetvos e ypai//ej/. Acts ii. 25, 31, 
AavetS yap Xeyet ets a^roj^.. .Trpot- 
oav eXaXrycrei/ Trept T^S ayao Tao ea)? 
TOU XptaTov. iii. 22, 24, MOJV- 
0-775 /xei/ elTrev ort Trpo^iJTrjv VJMV 
ai^acTT7y(Tet Kuptos o eos v/xwi/... 
Kat Trai^res 8e ot Trpo^^rat aTro 
Kat TCOI/ Ka^ec^s ocrot 
Kat KaTiyyyeiXai/ Tas 
Tauras. xvii. 2, 3, SteXe - 
ToTs a?ro Tojy ypa^coj/. . .ort 
TOV Xpt(TTOF e Set Tra^etf Kat ai^a- 
crrrjvai IK veKpcoi/. xxvi. 22, 23, 
oi;Sei/ CKTOS Xeycov wv T ot 
Tat e XaXr/crai/ /xeXXoi/TWV yt 
Kat Mwucnys, et TraOrjTos o Xpto~Tos, 
et Trpcoros e^ avao"Tacrea)s veKpcov 
K.T.X. i Pet. i. 10, n, Trept ?/s 

vrycrav 7TpO(f>fJTaL ot Trept T^s et? 

. . .TO 

ota TOJI 

Luke xviii. 3i,TeXe- 
irai/rct. ra yeypa/x/xeva 
o^>^T(Jop TO> ma) TOU ai- - 
xxiv. 27, 44, 46, Kat 
aVo Mtui;(recos Kai a?ro 

aurots cv Tracrais TaTs ypa^ais TCX 
Trept auro{;...oTt Set TrA^pco^vat 
Ta yeypa/Xyuei/a ei/ TO) vo//co 

t 7rpo<ryTai9 Kat if/a\- 
yaots Trept e/xoi;...oTt ourcos yeypa- 
TtaOtiv rov Xptorov Kai at a- 

Trvet!/a,a Xpto"Tou 
rvpofJitvov ra ets Xpto-Tov TraOt]- 
fjiara Kat Tas jaeTa TaiJra So^as. 
These strong assertions point 
not only to separate passages of 
direct prediction, but still more 
to the Evangelical character of 
the Old Testament as a whole. 
There is a thread of Christian 
prophecy running through the 
Law and the Prophets. The 
tfmse of /xapTvpou/aeVr/ expresses a 
repeated or habitual attestation. 
TOT} vofJiov Kai TWV 

III. 22. 

T6OJ9 Itiarov \PLCTTOV els TrdvTas TOI)? 

22. Or omit I-rjaou. Or TTO.VT. /cat em 


A comprehensive title of the 
Scriptures of the Old Testament. 
Thus, for example, Matt. vii. 12, 


Trpo(f>rJTai. xxii. 40, ev Tai/rats 
rats Suo ti e^roXaTs 6 A.o? d vd/xos 
Kpefjiarat Kat ol Trpoffr tjraL Luke 
xvi. 29, e^ovcrii/ Mtoucrea Kat 

John i. 45, oV eypai^ev 
cy TW vo/xu) /cat ot 
pr/Ka/xej/ l-rjcrovv. Acts xiii. 15, 
ytxeTa 6e r^y ai/ayrojcrti/ TOU vo/J.ov 
at TWV 7rpo(f)r)T(ji>v. xxiv. 14, Trt- 
crreiJOi)^ Tracrtv rot? Kara Toy vdp:ov 
Kat roi^s ei/ rots Trpoc^ryrats yeypap.- 
xxviii. 23, azrd re ro- 

rwi/. Sometimes d vd/xo? is made 
to embrace the whole (see refer 
ences in note on verse 19, d 
vd/^o?) : sometimes a threefold 
division is adopted, as in Luke 
xxiv. 44. 

22. 8tKatoo"w>7 Se] And ct 
righteousness of God by means 
of faith. The 8e introduces a 
further characteristic of that 
righteousness of God which is 
spoken of; namely, that it is 
communicated Sta Trio-rea)?. For 
this use of 8V, compare ix. 30, 
KareXa/?ei/ SiKatoo v^i , StKatorru- 
vj]v Se rrjv CK 7rto~TC(os. I Cor. ii. 
6, o"oct ai/ Se A.aXoi)/xev j/ rots 
reAet ots, cro<f>Lav Se ov ro9 aicovos 
rovrov. Phil. ii. 8, /xe^t 6a.vd- 
rov, ^avarov 8e aravpov. 

V. R. 

;^...8ta TrtVrecos] So 
in i. 1 7, SLKaiocrvvrj yap eoO ei 
aVoKaAvTrrerat e/< 

Heb. xi. i, 


(.(TTIV e 7Tto"TtS 


/3X.7ro/jievW confidence in tldnyx 
/toped for, a proof (that which 
convinces or assures us) of things 
unseen. Faith in a person, then, 
is, the assurance of the existence, 
character, and relation to us, of 
one whom we do not see. Chris- 
tain faith is, the persuasion that 
Christ is, and is that He is; in 
person, mind, work (past, pre 
sent and future), demands upon 
us, relation towards us, ttc. 
This is the essence of faith : trust 
and obedience, like hope and 
love, are fruits of it. 

ets TraWas] For the use of 
the preposition, StK-atoo-ui/^ as 
TraVras, compare i Cor. xv. 10, 
rj x^P 15 OLVTOV t] ets e/xe- 2 Cor. 
i. II, TO ets Ty/xas xapto-/xa. Gal. 
iii. 14, if a ets TO, etivrj f] (.v 
ToG A/?paa/x yeV^rat ef 
iTyo-ov. Eph. i. 7, 8, 19, Trys ^a- 
ptro? avTov ?}s 7repto"o~evo~ev et 1 ? 
r//xa?. . .TO U7rcp/3aAAov /xeye^os T//S 

If Kai, CTTI TravTa? l)e 
added, the sense is, extending to 
and resting upon. It reaches, 
and it is efficacious for, all who 




23 oi/Tas* ov yap 6CTTIV OLaorToXt] Trawres yap 
il/maprov KCCI vcrrepovvTai TIJS oo^rjs TOV Qeov 

Whether Jews or 
Gentiles. See iv. n, 16, eis TO 
eh/at avrov irartpa Travrcov TOJV 
TTto Tevoi Tcoi . . .Travrt TO) o~7rep//aTt, 

Kttl TO) CK 7TtO~TeoJS K-T.A.. 

ov yap eVrtv StaoToA.r;] So in 
x. 12, ov yap eo-Tiv StaaroA.?; 
lovSaiou Te Kat "EAA^vos. For 
StaoToA?/, compare also i Cor. 
xiv. 7) euv StacrroAvyi/ TOIS <$>66y- 
yot? //?/ ool Exod. viii. 23, 
LXX. Kat Sojo-a) Stao-ToX^y avajU- 
crov TOV e/xov Xaov /<at dvafJitcrov 
TOV crov Aaov. 

23. r/paproF] Sinned; not 
7iave sinned. The aorist gathers 
up, as it were, the sins of the 
world into one act, which is re 
garded as prior to the manifes 
tation of the StKaiocrvi/Ty, and of 
which the result is expressed in 

vo~TepoviTai] The verb VCTTC- 
petv (or vo-Tepeto-$ai) denotes pro 
perly to le later, after, behind. 
i. When the subject is a person, 
it is found (i) with a genitive; 
(a) to be beldnd, inferior to, a 
person; as in 2 Cor. xi. 5, Aoyt- 

Xiav aVoo-ToAooi/. xii. 1 1 . (/?) to 
be too late for, to fall short or 
fail of, to miss or lack, a thing; 
as here, and in Num. ix. 13, LXX. 
aV#poo7ros os aV . . . vo-Teprycn? TOV 
TO Traa^a. Song vii. 3, 
TOpevTOs, /x 

?. Luke xxii. 35, /^ 
Ttvos vcrTep>;o-aTe ; TIeb. iv. i, 
T) Tt? e v/xcoi/ vcrrep^KeVai [T^S 
. (2) Absolutely; to 
be late, deficient, in leant, desti 
tute ; as (a) Noli. ix. 21, LXX. 
f/a<$ avrovs e / TT/ Ipij/jut), ov^ 
aav. Dan. v. 27, eVra^ 
ei/ ^vya) Kat tvpeOr) vorepovcra. 
llab. ii. 3, eoV v 
T oi/ avrov. Luke xv. 14, 
v<TTf.pti(T0aL. i Cor. viii. 8, ovVe 
eaV /xr) <^>ayo 
xii. 24, 

pav 8ovs Tifjwjv, 2 Cor. xi. 8, 
Trapcoi/ Trpos Kat vo-reprjOeLS. 
Phil. iv. 12, Kat 7repto"o"vetv Kat 
ur^ai. lieb. xi. 37, vo~T- 

Ol, 6\l./3o/ULl Oi K.T.X. ((3) 

with J)O"Te, Tt, Kara, Iv, O.TTO, &C. 
as Num. ix. 7, LXX. p.r} ovv VO-TC- 
pryo-w/xei ojaTe Trpoo-eveyKat TO 
8a>pov ; Psalm xxxix. 5, ua yva> 
Tt varepa! eyoj. ]\Iatt. xix. 20, 
Tt en vo"repu) ; Dent. xv. 8, Ka$ 
ocrov vcrrepetTat. I Cor. i. 7, [JLTJ 
va-repeio-Oai iv /xr^Sei/t ^apt cr/xaTt. 
Eccles. vi. 2, Kat OVK ecrrti/ vo*T- 
po3i^ Tr; i/^v^ avrov aVo TravTO? ov 
7rt^vjU,7/o-et. Heb. xii. 15, yaiy TIS 
vorepaJi/ aTro T^S ^aptTos TOV eov. 
2. When the subject is a thing, 
vo-Tepetv stands either (i) a5so- 
lutely ; as in Tsai. li. 14, LXX. ov 
/x>} vcrTeprjo-r) o a pTOS avTov. John 
ii. 3, vo~Tep^o~ai To? otVov or (2) 
with an accusative (or possibly 
a dative) of the person ; as Psalin 

III. 23, 24. 


(jOpev TY\ 


xxiii. i, LXX. /col ovoV //e ucrre- 
p^cret- Mark x. 21, eV (re (or 
trot) ucrTepei. 

TT^s Sdi^s] For Soa see notes 
on i. 23, and ii. 7, Sdav. lle- 
tainiiig here its general sense of 
effulgence of light, manifestation 
of excellence, it is applied to that 
future state of manifested per 
fection^ bolh in character and 
condition, which God designs for 
and offers to man. Compare 
ii. 7, 10. v. 2, Kav^w^^Oa 7r 
/\7u8t TT/S SO^TIS TOV eo9. viii. 
1 8, 21, T7?V jLte/VAovcrav Sd^av... 

o-ev eis oai>. i Cor. ii. 7, r/i/ 
Trpoojptcrev o eo? Trpo TOJJ^ atoovcov 
ets So^v vjp-tov. 2 Cor. iv. 17. 

Epll. 1. 1 8, Tt ^ O TT/XoDrOS T7^5 

So^vys T17? KA-Typoi/o/xt as avrov cV 
rots aytots. Col. i. 27, Xptoros 
cv v/itVj T) eXTTt? TT)? 80^5. iii. 4. 
2 Thess. ii. 14, cfcaXeaci/ V^OLS... 
eis TreptTrot ricrtv Sdi-Ty?. 2 Tim. 
ii. 10, awn/peas Tv^a)crtv.../xcTa 
80^75 atcoFi ov. Heb. ii. 10, TroX- 
Xous i^iov? cts Soiav ayayoj/ra. 
I Pet. i. 7> tvpeOrj eis cTratvov Kat 
K.r.X. V. I, 4, IO, rrys 

TIVOV T S o%>75 (TTtfaVOV. . . KCL- 

Xecras v/xas ets TT^V atcovtov avrov 
So tav. 

24. SiKaiov/xevoi] The nomi 
native is suggested by TTCIVTCS in 
verse 23; but in sese it refers 

rather to TOUS Trtii reuovras in 
verse 22, and is irregular in 

Stopear] Literally, as (by icay 
of } a gift ; gratuitously. Thus 
Gen. xxix. 15, LXX. ov SouXe^ - 
cre(5 /xot Swpeav ttTrayyetXoi/ /xot 
ri9 o fJuaOos crou ecrrt. Exod. 
xxi. 2, 1 1, e^eXeuVerat Swpedv 
areu dpyvpuw. Num. xi. 5. 
2 Sam. xxiv. 24, KT^cro/xai Trapa 
o~oS ev aXXay/xan, Kat OVK ai ot tra) 
.,.8a>peai/. i Chron. xxi. 24, 
ayopacrto ev apyvpuo atw, ort 01 
piry Xo /?a>. . .Scopear. Job i. C), /xvy 
Swpeai/ I(0y8 cre/^erat ro 
Isai. Iii. 3, 5, Scopetti^...oi; 
dpyvpLov. Jer. xxii. 13. Mai. i. 
IO, ovK ttj/ai^ere TO vvo-Lao Trjpiov 
IJLOV Saipecxr. Matt. x. 8, Owpeai/ 
eXaySere, Swpeai/ Sore. 2 Cor. xi. 
7, Scopeai/. . .f.\3Yiyy^\i(T<Jii^Y]v V/JLLV. 
2 Thess. iii. 8, owSe Soopeai/ dprov 
effrdyofjiev Trapa rti^o?. Hev. xxi. 
6, Sojcro) eK T?/S Trrjyrjs TOV 
iSSaros TT7? oj7ys Scjped^. xxii. 
17, d 6f.\tv Xa/^era) vScop ^0)7^5 
Scopeai/. In other places the 
context gives to ScopedV the very 
different sense of /o? nothing, 
idly, in vain. See Gal. ii. 2 1, 
apa Xpiord? 8copeaV aTreOavev. 

rrj avTov] The place of ai roi) 
(before x a/ P m ) gives emphasis to 
it, By His own grace. See note 
on ii. 15, O.VTUV. 

See note on i. 7, 



25 d7ro\VTp(jo(rews T//S eV Xpicrrw Itjcrov ov Trpo 
6 0eo5 iXacTTtiptov 


25. Or omit oia TT U 

This impor 
tant word (not found in the 
Septuagint, but occurring ten 
times in the New Testament) 
includes the three ideas of (i) 
a previous state of bondage (vi. 
17, rjT 8o Aoi rry? a/xaprtas): (2) 
Ae interposition of a \vrpov 
(Matt. xx. 28, Sowcu T?yV if/v^rji/ 
O.VTOV XvTpov dvri TroAAooi/. Mark 
x. 45) or avTiAvrpov (i Tim. ii. 
6, d Sous tavTov avTiXyrpov virtp 
Traj/Tojv) : (3) a consequent deli 
verance (i Thess. i. 10, "liycrow 
TOJ/ puo/xei/ov 7//xas K T^S opy?;s 
T ^ s fpxf^rj<;}. Sometimes, as 
liere, the dTroA/uTpaxris is spoken 
of as accomplished : i Cor. i. 30, 
os tyevr jOr) <ro<j>La rj/jilv diro eo9 
...Kai aTToAvrpcocris. Eph. i. 7, 
ev a) e^pfjxv rrjv aTroX^rpojcrtv 8ia 
TOU at^taros curroi;, rr/v a^ecrii/ 
TOJI/ TrapaTrrco/xarwv. Col. i. 14, 

a<j}<rw TWV a/xapricov. Heb. ix. 
15, OTTWS yevo/xevov ets 
u7roXi;rpu)crii/ TO>I/ CTTI r^ Trpojr^ 
$ia@r)Krj Trapu./^acretoi K.r.A. Some 
times as future^ waiting its ful 
filment in the Advent and the 
Resurrection : as in viii. 23, 

t? aTToAvrpwartv 

trecos. iv. 30, or<^payL(rOrfT et? 

ry/xepai/ aTroAurptoo-eto?. In Heb. 

xi. 35, the word is used with 

out metaphor : er 

ov Trpocr&e^ayxei/oi 


25. Trpoe ^ero] Proposed to 
Himself, set before Himself as, 
purposed to make. See note on 
TrpofOefJLirjv in i. 13. Compare 
Eph. i. f), Kara TTyj/ evSoKiav avroiS 
r/i/ Trpoe^ero cj/ avrw (m Christ) 
et? Oifcovo/Mtav roG TrA^pco/xaTOs 
TOOK Katpaiv. A.nd SO 7rpo$ecrts 
is used of the Divine purpose 
in viii. 28, rots Kara TrpoBecriv 
ovatv. ix. II, ry Kar 

TyV 7Tp66t(Ti<S TOV o . Eph. 

i. 1 1, Trpoopio-^eWes Kara TrpoOecriv 
TOV TO, iravra ei/epyoSi^ros Kara 
rryi/ j3ov\-rjv TOV $eA?y/zaTos a^rov. 
iii. II, Kara TrpoBto-Lv 
^f eTronycrev ev TW Xpi<TTO) 
2 Tim. i. o,, Kara t^i av Trpo 
i<al \dpiv Trjv So$eurai/ 7y e /x,ti/ e^ 
Xpicrrw Iryfrot) ?rp6 ^poi/wv atcui/tW. 
The reference is to that eternal 
counsel of redemption spoken 
of in i Pet. i. 1820, t Au- 
Tpaj^Tyre. . .Ti/u,o at ^ari. . .XptcrTor, 

Luke xxi. 28, eyyt^et ry 
rpcocris VfJiwv. Eph. i. 14, ap- 


tAao-TTypiov] i. The root is 
tAaos (or tAews, the Attic form, 
and the one always used in the 

ctvTOv aifjLaTt, e 

Septuagint), propitious, gracious, 
merciful. Thus, for example, 
Gen. xliii. 23, LXX. I Aecos v/juv, ^ 
<f>oj3elo-0e. Exocl. xxxii. 12, tAews 
yeyou 7ri Try KttKt a TO> Aaou crou. 
Jer. xxxi. 34 (Heb. viii. 12), 
tAeoos ecro/xcu rat? aSiKtais avrwK. 
And in a derived application, 
2 Sam. xx. 20, t Aeo>s, tAfoj? yu,ot, 
ei KaTavroj/Tico Kat et Sia</>$epaj 
( t /ar 5e -/, jfar ie ^ from me, 
that I should swallow up or de 
stroy"). Matt. xvi. 22, t Aeajs <TOL, 
ov JLY ecrrat <JOL TOVTO. 

III. 25. 




TO> oio.) <rov...Kttt 
rc5 SouAw 

2. Hence the verb tAa 

( i ) to propitiate, ; and (in the 
Septuagint always) in a middle 
sense (with ircpl or a dative}, to 
l>e made (or become] propitious 
or favourable : asinExod. xxxii. 
14? xal IXatrOrj Ki ptos Trept rr/s 
Ktt/aas ry? etTre Trot^trai rov Xaov 
avrov. 2 Kings v. 18, KOI l\d- 
crerat Kvpio 

o-ou. Psalm xxv. n, lAa 
a/xaprta /xov. Ixxix. 9, tAa 
rats a/^apTt cus T//XCOI/. Lam. iii. 
42, T^apr^aa/Aei/, y/o-e^^ o-ajaei/, 
Kat ou^ lAacr^?. Dan. ix. 19, 
aKoucroi/, KiJpte, iAa<r&/ri, Ki pte, 
Trpoo-^e?, Krpte, Trotr/crov K.T.A. 
Luke xviii. 13, o 05, lAao-tfr/ri 
plot TO) a/xaprcoAaJ. And (2) to 
render propitious as to a thing, 
to expiate; Heb. ii. 17, ets TO 
tAacr/cecr$at ras a/xaprtas rot; Aao9. 

3. From this follows tAacr/xd?, 
(i) a rendering propitious, a 
propitiation or expiation : Ezek. 

xliv. 27, TrpocrourovfTti/ l 
Aeyet Kvpto? o eo?. 2 Mace. 
iii. 33, Troiovfjitvov Se TOU ap^ie- 
pe tos rov tAao-p,or. I John ii. 2, 
Kal auros lAacr/xos eamv Trept TOJI/ 
a/xaprtcoi/ TUJL^V. IV. 10, Kat aTre- 
CTTetAev TOV vtov awrov tAa<r/xo^ 
Trept TCOV ajuaprtojv T^/xtoi/. And 
(2) /<e 6ei//r/ (or becoming] pro 
pitious, mercy: Psalm cxxx. 4, 
on ?rapa crot o iAacrp,os ICTTLV. 
Dan. ix. 9, ro3 Krpto) eo) T^/xtoi/ 
ot oiKrtp/xot Kat ot lAacr/Aot. 4. 
The form tAaar?/ptoi> (properly 
the neuter of tAafrr^ pto ?, ^;ro- 
pitiatory or expiatory) is appro 
priated in the Septuagint to Me 
mercy-seat, the lid or covering 
of the ark in the Holy of Ho 
lies; probably (i) because the 
root of the Hebrew term for 
that covering has the sense also 
of making atonement for, ex 
piating ; as in Ezek. xlv. 17, 20, 
To make reconciliation for (lite 
rally, to cover) the house of Israel 
. ..S o shall ye reconcile (cover] 
the house: (2) because it was in 
the sprinkling of the blood upon 
the covering of the ark, that 
the ceremonies of the annual 
expiation culminated (Levit. 
xvi. 14, 15, Kat pai/et TO at/xa 

O.VTOV 7Tt TO tAaCTT^plOV K.T.A.); 

so that it became the symbolic 
centre of the personal hope of 
mercy, as well as of the Divine 
presence in Israel. See Exod. 
xxv. 17, 21, 22, Kat 



POV...KOL eVi^o-eis TO tXaorr/piov 

eVl TTfjV Kl{3(j)TOV U.V(0V. . . KOL X(X- 

X^cra) CTOL avwOev TOV iXaaTypiov TaJV Svo XcpouySeitt 
K.r.X. Hel). ix. 5, vvrepaVco 8e 
avT?ys Xepov/jelv 80^? KarttcrKta- 
oi/ra TO tXacrTT/pioi/. The appli 
cation of the term tXao-r^pioi/ to 
Christ Himself constitutes Him 
as it were the mercy -seat of the 
new temple in which God dwells 
with redeemed man. 5. The 
Septuagint uses also largely the 
compound forms eiXa crKo/xai and 
e^iXacr/xo s, occasionally too IL- 
Xacns and ei Xao-/za. 

Sia Ttcrreo)?] These words 
depend upon tXao-rifptov, denning 
the instrumentality by which the 
expiatory work of Christ is ap 
plied to the individual man; and 
are closely connected with the fol 
lowing words, el/TO) O.VTOV a ijJtaTl. 

Propitiatory by means of faith 
resting in the blood of Christ 
Himself as its home and sphere. 
For the combination of TUO-TIS 
(or 7n.o-Teu eiv) with 4V rtn, com 
pare Psalm Ixxviii. 22, 32, LXX. 
ort oi>/c eTrurrevcraj/ ei/ TOJ ew... 
KO.t OVK CTrtVrevcrav ei TO^S Oav/Jia.- 
aiots avrou. Eph. i. 15, aKoiJ 


lycrov KOL rrjv dyaTryv Tr]v et? 

Trai/ra? TOVS aytou?. Col. i. 4, 

ttKovVavTes T>}V Trtcrrii/ -J/xcuv ev 
Xptcrrw IT^CTOI) Kat, TT^V ayaTrryv r^j/ 

^er ei? Travras TOVS ayi ous. r 

Tim. iii. 13, eV Trtcrrei TT? ei/ 

w Iiyo-oi). 2 Tim. iii. 15, 



Sta Trurreojs T?ys tv XpicrTo) !?/- 

i/ TOJ a^roi)] See note on verse 
24, avrov. The blood of Christ 

ai/xuTi] Gen. ix. 4, LXX. tV 
al/jLan if/v^rj^. Deut. xii, 23, TO 
yap al/xa O.-UTOV ^X 7 ?- ^ ne ^^ e " 
blood of Christ, shed upon the 
cross, stands for the whole work 
of redemption. The death Avas 
the crowning and completive 
act of the life-long self-sacrifice. 
Phil. ii. 8, yej/o/xevos t TrryKoos 
/x-e ^pi, Se arav- 
pov. The death presupposes the 
incarnation, the life, the minis 
try, the obedience; and antici 
pates the resurrection, the as 
cension, the priesthood, the 
advent. Thus t/te blood of Christ 
is the summary term for the 
whole of the cxvKSr/^yr/Tos Scopea 
(2 Cor. ix. 15). Matt. xxvi. 28, 

TOVTO ytxp CCTTtP TO CU/m /JiOV T77? 

r]<; TO Trept TroXXcoi^ IK^WVO- 
et? ac^eo U apiapTicor. JMark 
xiv. 24. Acts XX. 28, T-rjv IKK\-YJ- 
aiav TOV eoi), ijv TrepieTroivyaaTO 
Sia TOT; ai//aTos TOU LOLOV. Eph. 

8ia TOV ai/xaTos avYou. ii. 13, 
eyevijOrjTe eyyv? eV TOJ at/xaTt TO! 
Xpio-Tou. Col. i. 20, etp^voTrouf- 
o~a 6\a TOV at/xaTos TOV o~Tavpov 
avYov. Pleb. ix. 14, TO al/xa TOV 
Xpio"Tov. . .KaOapiti TTJV a~vv(.L8rj- 
aiv. x. 19, ZxovTe<s...7rappr)(riav 

tS TT^V 61O~OOOV TCOf ayitoj/ !/ T<3 

at/xaTt I^o~ov. xiii. 12, 20, iva 

III. 26. 

e Tt 



TT^O? T\\V 


Sta TOV ioiov at/zaTos TOV 
Xa.6v...V aifj-ari Sta^Kiys aluiViov. 
I Pet. i. 2, 19, pavTiorfjiov atjaaro? 
I^croi) Xptcrrov.. .rt/xiu) ai /xart co? 


O~TO{>. I John i. 7, TO at^aa I^cro9 
TOU mou OTjrov Ka$aptet Ty/xds aVo 
7rao-?7<? d/xapTias. Kev. i. 5, TU> 
ttyaTrooiTi r//xa? /ecu, Avcraj/n ^as 
CK TOJJ/ a/JLapTiijjv r)jji<jL>v iv rai at^aart 
at rou. V. f), e(j(/>ay^ Kat Tjyopa- 
cra? TO) ew T/^aa? ey TW at^aart 
rrof K.T.A.. vii. 14, 7rXi>j a^ ras 
(JToXa? auran/ Kat eAeu/cat/ai/ auras 
ei T(S at/xart TOU apviov. xii. 1 1, 
avTov 8ta TO al/xa TOIJ 

eis eVSei/] This clause de 
pends upon vrpoe^eTo, and is 
equivalent to Iva ei/8ei^Tat (Eph. 
ii. 7) T7 ? 1/ 8(.Kaioo~VF77V avrou. 
Compare the paraphrase in note 
on verses 21 26. The noun 
eVSetis occurs also in 2 Cor. viii. 
24, T^y ovv erSet^tj/ T?7? 

8e crwTr/ptas. See note on 
ii. 1 5, vSeiKi/t>i/Tai. 

T^5 8t/catocrwi75 avroi;] That 
righteousness of His ; the Stxato- 
o-w?; eoi; spoken of in verse 
21. Compare the note on i. 17, 
SiKatoo~w^ yap eou. 

Sia TT^V Trapeo iv] This clause 
seems to depend immediately 
upon 7rpoe$eTo IXacrrrfpiov. Pro 
posed Him as a propitiation be 
cause of, owing to, the Wpe- 

o-ts of sins. The form 7rapeo-t<? 
occurs in Scripture here only. 
But vraptc i/at is found (in a like 
combination) in Ecclus. xxiii. 
2, TI S C7Tto-T7fcret...e7rl T^S /capStas 
/AOU TratSeiW (roc^tas ; . . . Kat ow ^77 
Trapfj TO. a//,aprr//xaTa aurcui/. The 
commoner terms, dc^teVai, a^e- 
0-19, express this pretermission 
of sin in the stronger form of 
dismissal. The idea of 7rapeo-ts 
is not unlike that of passing by 
transgression in Micah vii. 18, 
where it is made equivalent to 
pardoning iniquity : TIS 
CTU, e^atwi/ aStKt as 

TOJV 7rpoyfyoi/OTO)v 
TCOT/] Compare Heb. ix. 15, (9a- 

T<ji/ 7Ti TT TrpcoTT; LariKr) Trapa- 
/3ao-ecov. Ill both places the 
subject of discourse is Christ s 
act of redemption m ite bearing 
upon sins committed up to that 
time, and not in its aspect to 
wards sins committed subse 
quently. The latter is a dif 
ferent question, and has its 
answer in its own place; as, for 
example, in i John ii. i, 2. 

a/xapT?7 J uaTu>i ] The form a- 
fjLapT7]p,a, expressing a particular 
act of sin, is found (for certain) 
in the New Testament only in 
three other places; namely, Mark 
iii. 28, 29. i Cor. vi. 18. 

See note on ii. 4, 


T/S LKaiocrvvr]^ avTOv e TCO vvv Kaipw, e TO 
eivai avTov SIKCIIOV KCII ^iKaiovvTa TOV e/c TTLOT- 

Iloiy ovv n Kav^ncns ; e^K\ei(r6rj . SLU TTOLOV 

26. Or omit ] 

26. Trpos rr/v eVoeiirij/] The 
article expresses the eVSeiis 
mentioned above (verse 25). The 
chief stress of the clause lies 
upon the words iv TO) vvv /<aipa>, 
which seem to press home the 
practiced character of the truth 
stated, like iBov vvv /caipos tv- 
TrpoVSeKTos in 2 Cor. vi. 2. The 
exact phrase o vvi/ Kaipos appears 
to be used (in the New Testa 
ment) only l>y St Paul; viii. 18. 
xi. 5. 2 Cor. viii. 13. Also Gen. 
xxix. 34. xxx. 20. Exod. ix. 

ets TO eli/ac aurw] 7 Ae object 
of tins manifestation of His 
rir/kteousness is that He may be 
not only righteous Himself, but 
t/te communicator of righteous 
ness to every one ivho believes in 
Jesus. There seems to be no 
thing here of the idea, just and 
yet a justifier, which is so often 
found in the words. It is not 
and yet, but rather and also. 
God has the glorious attribute 
of not only possessing but also 
communicating righteousness. 
For the phrase ets TO etvat see 
note on i. 20, ets TO etvcu avro^s. 
And for the sense of 

see aan 

the note on ii. 1 

TOV IK Trurretos I^crov] Him 
ic/(0 is of (sprung from, belong 
ing to, and so designated by} 
faith of or in Jesus. See note 
on ii. 8, Tots 8e e. 

27. TTOV ovv r/ K 
The form of the question resem 
bles that of verse i, verse 9, iv. 
i, etc. What becomes then of 
Jewish (or other) boasting? The 
introduction of a new lay}, of 
which the, language is, not, Do 
this, and thou si i alt live, but, 
Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, 
and tltou shalt be saved, excludes 
it utterly. 

f] Kav^o-t?] Either (i) that 
boasting, on the part of the 
Jew, the thought of which has 
tinged the whole passage : see 
ii. 17, tfcc. ei Se av JouSatos eVo- 

Kat Travcnravr) vo/xo) KCU 
eV eco K.T./\. Or (2) 
all boasting ; the article being 
used as in ii. 20, 22, T^S yva>- 

<T(O?, Kttt T^S a/\7^^tas. . .TCt tS(O- 

A.a, &c. 

eK\Lo-@r]\ The tense ex 
presses excluded by one decisive 
act. For IKK\ILV, to shut (lock 

III. 11 29. 

VOJJLOV ; TWV epywv ; ov%i 9 d\\d Sid VOJULOV 
Tews 1 . Xoryii^ofJLeBa yap SiKatovo OaL 7ri<TT6i av- 28 
wpts epywv VOJJLQV. // lovSattov 6 Geos 29 

28. Or Xoy. ovv. 

or bar) out, see Gal. iv. 1 7, a A- 
Aa KK\ti(ra.L V/JLO.^ O\.OVCTLV. 

TTOCOV] St Paul uses TTCHOS 
only twice : see i Cor. xv. 35, 
TTOto) Se crco/xart ep^ovrai; I 11 the 
Gospels it is more common. 

TOJI/ epya>j/] By a law of (be 
longing to, consisting of, pre 
scribing (is its condition) TO. 
epya: either (i) those loorks of 
which we hear so much from 
the Jew; or (2) all manner of 
works. See note above, on rj 

OV^L, ttAAa] Luke i. 60, ov\t, 
aAAa K\r)6TJ(TTa.L Itoavvrys. xiii. 
3, 5? v\^ Ae ya) vfjuv, a/\A. cav 
fir) /JieravorjcrrjTe /c.r.A.. xvi. 30. 
John ix. 9. i Cor. x. 29. 

vo/xov Trtcrretos] The form of 
expression is like that in ix. 31, 
v6fj,ov $iKaioa vi rj<;. James ii. 12, 
Sea vofjiov eXcv^epia?. The word 
VO /AOS is used in its most general 
sense, as an assigned rule, a 
regulating principle, a Divine 
direction, a revelation of duty. 
See viii. 2, 6 yap vo/xos TOV 

i; K.r.X. And with 
it means Divine rule of (be 
longing to, consisting of, and so 
having for its one requirement) 
faith. See note above, 

28. XoyL^ofjLcOa jap] / Sff//, 
a law of faith ; of faith, not of 
works : for we consider, &c. Foi- 
A-oyt ^tcr^cu see note on ii. 3, 
Aoyir/ Se TOVTO. If ovv, not yo.p, 
be the reading, then this verse 
contains not a confirmation of, 
but an inference from, the pre 
ceding statement; and if so, it 
refers not to verse 27 only, but 
to the whole foregoing argu 

avOpwrrov] A Junnan being ; 
amj human being, whether Jew 
or Gentile. So in ii. i, 3, 9, 
-rrao-av i/or^i dvOpuirov . .. [ov- 
OO.LOV re Trpwrov /cut EAA^i/os. 

Xwpls epywv vo/Jiov] Apart 
from (as the ground of accept 
ance) any works of (belonging 
to, prescribed by] any law. See 
verse 20, <? e pycoi/ VO/AOU ov Si- 
/catto^rycrerat Tracra (rapt;. Also 
verse 21, vvvl 8e X^P^ vopov 


29. rj lovSatW] Or is it in 
deed the case, as sortie seem to 
imagine, that God is exclusively 
the God of Jews ? No : hence 
forth Jew and Gentile are on 

one level. God is the God of both, 
and the terms of acceptance are 
the same for both. The word 
eos is understood a second 



; ov%i KCU edvwv ; val KOL eOvwv eijrep ei<s 

6 005 6? $LKaL(jOG~6L 7TpLTOfJil]V K TTLCTTeO)^ KCtl 

31 aKpofivcTTiav Sia T/7? Trarreo)?. vo^ov ovv KCIT- 

29. Or IJ.OVQV. 

time: compare the construction 
of ii. 29, Kttt TrepiTOfjiT} KapSta?. 

ov^l KO.L] Matt. v. 46, 47, 
OVL Kat ol TeAcoi/at. ..ot ^t Kat ot 

See note on ii. 14, 

vat Kat] Phil. iv. 3, rat epo)- 
TCO /<at <re. Pliilem. 20, vat, 
aoe/V^e , eyoo <roi; ovat /x^v ei K.V- 

30. e tVep eiV] 7/*rt^ /erts? (r/s 
surely as) the Cod who shall (jive 
rigJiteousness on the same terms 
to Jew and Gentile (verses 21 
24) is one God and not more 
than one. 

7TpLTO/.ir)l>. . . K 

Jews and Gentiles, (i) For this 
use of the words (the thing for 
the person] see note on ii. 26, -^ 
CLKpojSvcrTia. Also iv. f), o /j.a- 
Kapifr^o? ovv oiJTO? ITTL TTJV Trepi- 

T0/X7yi/, i} Kttt CTTt T^V CXKpO^fTTtaV , 

Gal. ii. 7, 8, 9. Eph. ii. ii, ot 
Aeyo/xevoi dt<poj3v(rTia VTTO TTJS 
Aeyo/xe^Tys Treptro/x^s. Phil. iii. 
3, Ty/xets yap eo-/xev T; TreptTO/XTy. 
(2) The absence of the article 
here shows that the meaning is, 
not the whole class of Jews and 
Gentiles severally, but persons 
belonging to (having the charac 
teristic of) the one class or the 

other. For this modification 
compare iv. 12, Kat Trarepa Trept- 

TO/X7/S K.T.A.. XV. 8, StCtKOfOV y- 

i/e o-$at TrepiTOfa^. Col. iii. II, 

OTTOV O1JK Vt r E/\A.7V Kttt 

r) Kat 

po?, SKTJ^T;?, So Ao?, eXev 
K Trtcrreo)?. . .ota rv/s 
Of (as the outgrowth of] faith... 
through (by means of) the faith. 
The two terms are equivalent 
and convertible, but they differ 
in form. The one is (i) faith, 
the act of believing: the other 
is (2) the faith, the object of be 
lief, that is, the Gospel. For 
an illustration of the distinc 
tion, see Gal. iii. 22 26, Iva. t] 

u BoOfj...7rpo TOV 
TT/V TTtarti/ 2 . . .ets TT)I> /xe XXovcrav 
7rto-rtv ( 2) diroKaXvtpOrjvaL . . . tVa CK 
Trtcrrecos 1 * SiKatto^ojitev . . . \.6ovcrr)<; 


31. VO/XOK ovv KaTapyo /xev] 
/5 ^ ^7i6M /ie abolition of a law, 
that we seek to effect by the faith 
(the Gospel)? Is it the object 
of our Gospel to set men free 
from a rule of duty 1 Rather is 
it the establishment of a law ; 
not indeed of a law of works 
(verse 27), which must ever fail 


III. 30-IV. i. 79 

; jULt] <yevoiro d\\a 

vo \JiOV <TTavofj.ev. 

TL ovv epovjuev evprjKevcu A(3paa/uL TOV Trpo- IV. I 

iv. r. Or omit eupr]Kfa.L. 


r. -rrarepa. 

through human infirmity ; but 
of a law which brings with it 
the will and the power to obey 
from the heart. In form, the 
sentence resembles Matt. v. 17, 
fjirj vop,ivr]Tt OTL r/\6ov KaraXvaai 

TOV VOfLOV If TOL S 7TpO(f> ijTas OVK 

rjXuov KaraXvaaL u/\Aa TrA/^paScrat. 
Eut the absence of the article 
here makes the parallel far 
from exact (see note on ii. 13, 
vofJiov..,v6[j,ov). Compare i Cor. 
IX. 21, [At] toy a,vop.O5 eo{) oA/Y 
eWo//.os X/HO-TOU. This is one of 
the numerous allusions to the 
supposed Antinomian tendency 
of the Gospel, more fully dis 
cussed in vi. i, etc. 

See note on iii. 

Y) yeVoiro] See note on iii. 

The simple form 
seems to occur here only 
in Scripture. But /ze# Lcrrdvoj is 
read by many in i Cor. xiii. 2, 
oprj ^if.6icrra.vf.iv. A.lso Trap- 
is found in Horn. vi. 13, 
1 6, yu/^Se TrapujTai/ere rd [AtXr] 
Vyuc3v...a) eaurovs Sou- 
Xot)s et-j viraKorfv. And (rwicrrava) 
(for example) in 2 Cor. v. 12. 
x. 12, 1 8. Gal. ii. 18, 
rrjv Ifjiavrov o~vvicrrdv(a. 

I"V". I, etc. Tt oi; 
K.r.X.] How do the above state 
ments bear upon the case of 
Abraham one so deeply iiifer- 
estii Kj to ever}] Israelite? What 
teas it that he obtained when he 
was. taken into that relation to 
wards God upon which the whole 
position and privilege of his race 
depends? Was it a righteous 
ness of ivorks, an acceptance of 
merit, a favour earned? The 
lan/juage of the Scriptures is 
express upon this point, lie 
believed God, and that was count 
ed to him for righteousness. A 
form of language, excluding all 
idea of merit, and in the same 
degree consistent and harmonious 
with the language of Scripture 
in other passages. Or was his 
acceptance connected with any 
outward ordinance, as that of 
circumcision ? On the contrary, 
the record of his acceptance is 
prior to the very institution of 
that rite ; and circumcision it 
self was a mere ratification of the 
Divine favour already bestoived. 
Thus and thus only could Abra 
ham become the father of the 
faithful universally, whether 
Jews or Gentiles. 

I. eouxef evaKeVat The 


2 Trdropa SJJULWI/ Kara crdpKa; el yap A/3pad]UL e 

rendering of tlie whole clause 
depends upon the word eu 
and its position, (i) If 
KeVat is retained and placed next 
after fpovpev, as in the text 
above, Kara o-dpKa must be taken 
with roV TrpoTraropa (or Trarepa) 
77/^0)1 , and not with evpiy/cevcu. 
The stress is on rt. What is it 
fhat Abraham has gained by las 
call and blessing? Is it a justi 
fication by works ? Is it a 
righteousness of human merit ? 
To connect cv/oiyKeVal with Kara 
tra/OKa, whether in construction, 
or (according to the common 
reading) by position also, is open 
to great objection. It would be 
unlike St Paul to admit that 
Abraham had gained anything 
Kara (rdpKa. (2) If evp^KeVat be 
omitted, according to the mar 
ginal alternative, the sense will 
be, What shall toe then say of 
(as to) Abraham, our forefather 
after the flesh? 

evp^KeVat] Has gained or 
won. (i) The tense expresses 
the permanence of the result. 
What Abraham gained, he 
gained in perpetuity for his seed, 
whatever that seed be. (2) For 
the sense of evptcrKeiv, compare 
(out of many examples) Gen. vi. 
8, LXX. Noje Se evpe ^dpiv (.vav- 
TIQV Kupt ou TOT) eou. xix. 19, 
eTretS?} tupei/ d Trats crou 4 A.eos 
ivavTiov <rou. Huth i. 9, owrj 
vfjuv Kat evpoire avairava-iv 
eV otKw ai/Spos 

Prov. xix. 8, 09 8e (j>v\d<T(rei 
(frpovricnv evp-qcrei dyaOd. xxi. 
21, 0805 

Matt. x. 39, o evpwv TT/JV 

avrov a7roA.eo~et avrr]v, Kat o a?ro- 

if/v\7]v CLVTOV 
vptjcrL avrrjv. xi. 29, 

avaTravcnv ra^? 

^/xajj/. Luke i. 30, e?pes yap 
^apiv Trapa T(3 fc)eoj. ix. 12, Ka- 
raA.u cra)O"ii/ Kat e^pcoo ip e7rto~trt- 
oyxoV. John X. 9, eto-e/VeuVerat 
Kat tceAetJcrerat Kat vo^rjv evptjcrei, 
Acts vii. ii, 46, Kat o^x 7/upt- 
CTKOV ~^opracraara ot Trarepe? rj/jtoiv 
...o? eupe^ ^aptv tVooTrtov TOT) 
eoG. 2 Tim. i. 18, SWT; aijroj 
o Kvptos eupetv c A.eo? Trapa Ki;- 

ptou. Heb. iv. 1 6, tVa Xdj3u)uv 
eAeos Kat ^aptv cvpco/xev ets euKat- 
pov fioTJfleiav. 

TrpoTTc^ropaJ The word Trpo- 
Tra rw/j, though classical, occurs 
here only (if here) in the Greek 

Kara crapKa] Compare ix. 3, 
vrrep rcov aSeA.(toi/ /xou, ro3v avy- 
yevcov ^tov Kara crapKa. I Cor. 
x. 1 8, /JAeVere roV lo-pa7;A Kara 
o*a pKa. The words Kara aapKa 
are in these cases as it were 
bracketed to the Io~pa?^A., o~vy- 
yei/dV /x,ov, &c. cohering with it 
so closely that they do not re 
quire the repetition of the ar 

2, 3. et yap...rt ya p] What is 
it which lie has gained? Not 
surely a justification by works ? 

IV 2, 3 . 


epywv e$iKaia)6ri 9 e%ei Kau^ti/ma a AA. ov TTOO? 
Qeov. TL yap tj ypcKpi] \eyei ; E7TiO"Ti;cre^ 3 

/or, ?y Ae ?0s justified by works, 
he has something to boast of: 
but no one can have this to 
wards God : nor had A brahani 
this; for what saith the /Scrip 
ture ? 

2. ^ epycov eSi/catw^] See 

iii. 2O, e epytoi/ VO/J.OV ov 

Tracra crp ei/toTrtov avroi. 
yi boast, a thing 
gloried in; as KCU^O-IS is boast 
ing, an act of glorying. The 
forms, Kav^aaBai, Kav^cris, KO/U- 
^?//xa, occur about forty times in 
the Septuagint, and sixty in the 
New Testament ; but, in the 
latter, only in St Paul s Epistles, 
with the exception of Heb. iii. 
6, and James i. 9. iv. 16. 

aAA ov Trpos eoi/] This is 
first stated as a general and self- 
evident principle, known from 
reason and conscience, as well 
as from revelation. This cannot 
be no one can have this in 
relation to God. And it includes 
in it the special case of Abra 
ham. Nor had Abraham this. 
This last is proved from Scrip 
ture : TI yap T) ypa^rf Aeyet ; 

3. 77 ypa^T^] Probably the 
Scripture generally; the Volume 
of Scripture; of which the fol 
lowing passage is the particular 
utterance. What is the lan 
guage of the Scripture? For 
this use of the singular, -^ yp- 
<?/, compare ix. 17. x. n. xi. 

2. John ii. 22, cirio-Ttvaav 77; 
ypac^r] (no particular passage 
having been cited, and the re 
ference being as general as in 
I Cor. XV. 4, ey^y eprat . . . Kara TUS 
ypac^as). vii. 42, ov^ r/ ypa^r/y 
etTrei/ on eK TOV o"7re p/xaro? AaL ew) 
Kal GOTO 13y/^Aee / u,...ep^erat o Xpt- 
o-ro s; (two predictions which are 
not combined in any one pas 
sage of the Old Testament.) 
x. 35* Ka -L ^ SwaTCU \v0rjvai tj 
ypacfrrj (evidently a general prin 
ciple). XX. o,, oiiSeVoj yap r|8et- 
o~av TTJV ypa(J3 f]V } OTL 8et avrov IK 
Vf.Kf)<j)V avao~Tfjt at. Acts viii. 32, 
TI 8e Trepio^ (the particular para 
graph^) r^5 ypa(>y5 (the Volume 
of Scripture) * t v dveyivaicrKev r)v 
avrtj. Gal. iii. 22, aAAa a-vvt- 
ra iravra VTTO 

duapTLav (where the reference is 
to the general tone and doctrine 
of Scripture, not to one passage). 
iv. 30. i Tim. v. 1 8. James 
IV. 5. 2 Pet. i. 2O, TTttO-a Trpo- 
^r/reta ypac/>^s (each several pro 
phecy of Scripture). A personi 
fication of the Volume of Scrip 
ture, as speaking &c., is less 
harsh than that of a particular 

7rto-Tvo-ev 6V] Gen. xv. 6, 
LXX. (quoted also, and in the 
same form, in Gal. iii. 6, and 
James ii. 23). In the Hebrew 
the active is used : And He 
(God) counted it to him for 



adfji TW ew, Kal eXoytcrdti avTw 

6 [di(r6os 

Se Afip 
4 els ?>LKaioo-vviiv. TW 




^ d\\a Kara 6 

righteousness. It is remarkable 
that this record is appended not 
to any act of obedience, such as 
the leaving of his country or 
the offering of Isaac, but to a 
process of faith in the mind and 
heart alone. Compare the con 
text: d()L0[jtr](Tov TOUS atrrepa?... 
ouro)? e trrcH TO CTTrep/xa. aov KO.L 
tTritTTevcrei/ A/Spa/x, rw eoj, Kal 
eXoyicrOr) avro3 cts SiKaioat i/?^. 
God sees faith at a point higher 
and deeper than any act; the 
simply taking Him at His word, 
and being fully persuaded that, 
what He has promised, lie is 
able also to perform (verse 21). 

eXoytaOr) UVTOJ ets] See note 
Oil ii. 26, ets 7rep(.TO/rr)i/ 

4. TW 8e cpya^Oyaera)] The 
expression, IXoyio-Orj avrw ei? 
tiLKaLoavvTjv, implies something 
gratuitous, something sponta 
neous. It is not the way in 
ivhich wages for ivork would be 
spoken of. Wages are a matter 
not of favour and bounty, but 
of right and debt. 

epyao/xeVa>] Used absolutely, 
as, for example, in Exod. v. 18, 
LXX. vvv ovv a,7T6\.66vTS epya- 
^eo-^e. Prov. xxxi. 18, eyeraaro 
ort KO.\OV eon ro fpyd^uOai. 
Jerem. xxvii. 14, OVK epytxo-ea-^e 
TO) ySacriAet Ba/3vA.d)i/os. Matt. 

xxi. 28, i^Traye a^ /xepoi/ Ipya^ov 
er rw a/xTreAcC^t. Luke xiii. 14, 
e^ 7/yU.epat eicrti/ ei/ ats Set epya^e- 
aOai. John ix. 4, cp^erat we; 
ore otibels Swarat tpya^ecr^at. 
Acts xviii. 3, l^v^v Trap avrots 
Kal rypya^ero. I Cor. iv. 12. ix. 
6. i Thess. ii. 9. iv^. n. 2 
Thess. iii. 8, 10, 12. 

o /xicr^o?] The article ex 
presses the pay v:luch is his due, 
his pay. So in Matt. xx. 8, 
TOI, S epyaras Kal aVo Sos 
TOJ/ (Jno-Our. Luke x. 7, 
yap o pya.T7]<i TOV jucrOov 
O.VTOV. I Cor. iv. cj, Kal rare o 
?rati/os ye^ycrerat eKacrra) a?ro TOT) 
ecu. ix. 1 8, TIS ow /xot [or 
)U.or] ICTTIV o {JUcrOos , 

Aoyt^erat] The present is 
thus used in a passive sense in 
verses 5 and 24, Aoy^erai r; 
Trurrts. ..ois jU.eA.Aet Aoyiecr$ai. 
ix. 8, rd TCKva rrjs eTrayyeAtas 
Aoyt ^erat ets cr7rep/xa. Elsewhere 
the passive forms are only eAo- 
yivOrpt (\oyi(r9nva.i, 
and (ii. 26) 

Kara . . . Kara] ^1 ccording to, 
by the rule of, on a principle or 
-m ^Ae i ay o/. So in verse 16, 
Sid Tovro IK. TrtCTTew?, iVa Kara 
Xa pti . Compare ii. 2, Kara dAiy- 

See note on i. 7, 

Deut. xxiv. 10, 

IV. 4 > 5- 83 

Tto Se fJLt] epyai^OfJLeva), TriarTCvovri Se ITTL TOV 5 

LXX. lav oceiA?7|U,a y eV TOJ 7rA>y- 
O~LOV crou, o<jbtAiy/xa OTLOVV TL K.T./\. 
Matt. vi. 12. 

5. TOJ Se p.ry epya^o/xeVoj] 
^?%e language used faith reck 
oned to man /or righteousness 
is appropriate only to the case 
of one wlto is not working for 
acceptance, but simply relying 
^lpOll a God tcho si tews mercy. 

IJLI) epya^o/xeVoj, TTtcrret oFTt Se J 
Jollll vi. 28, 29, Tt Trotoj/xei/ ti/a 
tpya^oj/xe^a TCI e pyu. TO) 0eo9 ; . . . 
TOUTO t crrtJ/ TO epyov TOU 0eoi , tea 
e eis oy aTrecrretXei eKet- 

Se CTTt TOI ] Til (3 

verb TriorTeueu , in its Christian 
sense (to believe, to have faith), 
is found in various constructions. 
(i) Absolutely: as, for example, 
in xiii. II, -/y OTC eTrurreutrayaey. 

Jollll ]V. 41, Kttt TTO/VAo) TrXe/OUS 

tTri crTei crav Sta TOI/ Aoyov airroi;. 
ix. 38, o 8e e <?y, TricrTevw, K^ pte 

Kttt TTf)0(Tf.K. VV r]<T.V ttTJTW. XX. 8, 

29, /cat eloev KOL TTt.o Tevo V...OTL 

ecopttKa? /xe TreTrtcrrevKas 

ot /x?y iSovTes KCU 

Acts ii. 44, TraWes 8e ot 

OVTCS [or TUO-Tevo-avres] -^ 

TO auTo. xviii. 8, eVtcrTeuov KUI 

/3u7TTt / oi To. i Cor. xv. 2, ii, ct 

/A?7 IK17 C7TtO-Te7;0-aTe...Kat Ot TOJS 

e. Heb. ix. 3, ciaep- 
yap [or ovv] ets T IJV 
Ka.Ta.ira.vcnv ot 7rto~T6uo"avTe5. (2) 
With the dative: as in verse 3 
(from Gen. xv. 6). John v. 24, 



TC/XlaFTt JU.6. VI. 30, 

/<at 7rio"Teu(ju)/ieV croi. 

Vlll. 31, 4^, 46, TpO9 TOL 5 TTCTTt- 

Acts XVI. 34,7yyaAAtao~aTO7rai/otKet 
cos TOJ 0eo3. xviii. 8, 
TOJ ICvptaj CTL ^ oAw TOJ 
OI KOJ OLVTOV. Gal. iii. 6. 2 Tim. 
l. 12, oiba yup cp TreTrtcrrefKa. 
James ii. 23. i John v. 10, o 
/(.r; 7Tto-Tei;a)i/ TOJ Qeoj K.T.A. (3) 
With 7Tt and the datire: as in 
ix. 33 and x. ii (from Isai. 
xxviii. 1 6), 6 Trurreuooi/ cV uuroj 
ov Ka.Taio xyi Oi /o CTai. I Tim. i. 
1 6, TOJI/ pieAAoi Ttoi/ TTlCTTGvew e~ 
auTo3 C(^ oj?yV atojrtov. I Pet. ii. 
6. (4) liarely (and doubtfully) 
with iv Mark i. 15, 
Kat 7ricrTL eTe ei^ TOJ 
Kpll. i. 13, lv oj /cat 
a(})payLaOi]T K.T.A. (where the 
connexion of Iv a> with Trto-Tcu- 
o-ai/Tes is by no means certain). 
But see note on iii. 2 5 , Sta TrurTeojs. 
(5) With el? (most commonly) : 

aS ill X. 14, tS 01 OL>K TTUTT.V- 

aav. John i. 12 (and so forty 
times in his Gospel and ist Epi 

stle). Acts X. 43, TTOLVTa TOV TTl- 

(TTevovTa eis a^ToV. xiv. 23, TOJ 
Kuptoj ets oV TTfTTLo-revKeto-av. xix. 
4, eis TOV ep^op.vov /XCT O.VTOV Iva 

7ri(TTVO-U>0-lV, TOVT* CCTTII/ Ct5 TOI/ 

iTyo-oi;^. Gal. ii. 16, Kat Ty/xets 
ets Xpio-Tov Irjo-ovv 7rto-Tvorafjiev. 
Phil. i. 29, ov /ji^vov TO i? avroi/ 
7rto-Tu eii> K.T.A. i Pet. i. 8, t<j 

c\V \e^> f 

OV apTi fJ.f] OpOJJ/TeS 7TlO"Tet O^T5 O 

K.T.A. (6) With tVt and the 



TOV dcrefifj, 

tj TTLO TL^ av- 

6 TOV 61? %iKaiocrvv)}V. KaOaTTCp Ko.1 ActveiS 

TOV /ULCtKaplO-jULOV TOV dvdpWTTOV 6t) 6 06O5 

accusative: as here, and inverse 
24, rots 7ri(TT.vov(TLV eVi TOV eyet- 
pavTa I^croLT. Acts ix. 42, KO.I 
7rTTVcrai TroAAot eVt ToV Kvpiov. 
xi. 17, Tncrreucrao-tv eVt TOV Kupiov 
Jiycrotv Xpio-Tov. XVI. 31, Trt- 

0-TL (rOI/ C7TI TOV KVpLOV I^Q-Ol l/ 
Kttt (Td)0 tj(Tl) K.T./X. Xxil. If), TOl-S 

TrtCTTevoi/Ta ; CTTI ere. 

TO-I/ StKatotTTa ToV acre/^/y] 
Such is St Paul s bold state 
ment of the doctrine of absolu 
tion. It is his own comment 
upon the StKatov/xei/oi Soopeav of 
iii. 24. See v. 6, Xpurros...-^^ 
ao-e/^coF a7re 6Wev. Compare also 
Luke vii. 42, a/>((^oTepot5 e^apt- 
o*aro. I John i. y, TO al/xa l?^- 
(row TOU i;toC 

6. Ka9a~6p Kat] According 
as David also speaks the felicita 
tion of tJte person to whom God 
reckons a righteousness apart 
from ivorks. In other words, 
TAe above account of Abraham s 
acceptance, on a footing not of 
merit but of free grace, agrees 
with the language of other places 
of Scripture : as wJiere David 
records the blessing pronounced 
upon the man whose sin shall 
not be charged to his account in 
Gods reckoning ; or (which is 
the same thing) to whose account 
righteousness shall be charged 

without his desert. The non- 
imputation of sin is equivalent 
to the imputation of righteous 
ness. Those whom God accepts, 
those whom God regards as 
righteous, are not self-justified 
saints, but sinners freely for 
given. Luke xviii. 14, Aeyco 
V/LUV, KOLTtfir] OUTOS SeSiKcuoo/xeVos 
ets TOV otKov avrov Trap e/ceu/ov. 

/ca$a7rep] Lev. xxvii. 8, LXX. 
Elsewhere only used by St Paul 
(xii. 4. i Cor. xii. 12. 2 Cor. 
iii. 13, 18. viii. n. i Thess. 
ii. ii. iii. 6, 12. iv. 5), and 
in the Epistle to the Hebrews 
(iv. 2). The common form is 

/xaKapto-jOtov] Xot blessedness, 
l)\it felicitation; declaring happy 
or blessed. The noun is found 
(in Scripture) only here, and in 
verse 9, and Gal. iv. 15, TTOV ouv 
o yu,aKapto~yuos TJ/XOJI/; 33 lit /x,a/<a- 
pt^eiv occurs more frequently : 
for example, Gen. xxx. 13, LXX. 
fJiOLKapia eyoj, on /Aa/captovo"t pie 
TTttcrat at yuvauces. Job xxix. 
IO, II, ot 8e a/covcravTes ep:aKa- 
ptcrdv p.e...o?s r/KOfo-e Kat e/xa- 
/ccxptcre /x,e. Mai. iii. i 5, /cat vvv 
T/yttets //. a K apt Copier a 
K.T.A.. Luke i. 48, aVo TOU 

JJL*. Traat at yevcai. 
James v. ii, tSov 

IV. 69. 

MaKapioi. cov? 

d(pe6r]orai/ al dvojUiiai Kat wv e7rKa\ixp6jj~ 
crav al d/uLapTiar /uaKapios dvnp ov ov fj.ri 8 
\oyio"nTai Kvpios dfjLapTtav. 6 /uaKapicriuLos 9 

8. Or av. w. 

l<s Ip-yon/] iii. 28, 
rr6ai Tnt orei dvOpwirov ^topis 

7, 8. /xaKaptot] Psalm xxxii. 

I, 2, LXX. 

crav] The tense expresses the com 
pleteness and finality of the ab 
solution: were dismissed... were 
covered, as by a single act of 
Divine mercy. 

a<jf0T7(rav] This figure, the 
remission or dismissal of sin (re 
garded as a debt, Matt, vi. 12. 
Luke vii. 41, 42) occurs first in 
Gen. iv. 13, LXX. //,eta>v T; ama 
/xov TOV dfaOrjvai /xe. And so, 
for example, xviii. 26, a^nyo-w 
rov TOTTOV Sc airors. 1. 

rrjv dfJiapTLav avTwv. Exod. xxxii. 
32, Kat vw ct /Ltei/ a^eZs auroi? 
r^i/ dfjiaprcav a^rojv, a^>es. Psalm 
XXV. 1 8, /cat ac^es Tracras ras a- 
/aaprias /xov. Ixxxv. 2, d(f>fJKa<; 
ras ai/o/xtas TW Aaco aov. Matt. 
ix. 2. xii. 31, 32 TroVa a/xaprta 
/cat /3Xacrc/>i7/xttt ac/>c^^creTat rots 
dv0pu>TTOi<;...ovK d<f>eOijo-Ta.i avrco, 
ovre ev TOVTO) T<5 atwi/i K.T.X. 
Luke xi. 4, Kat a<es T^/xti/ ra? 
a/xaprias l^twr. xvii. 3, Kat eai/ 
r/cr^, a<jf>s aurw. John xx. 

V. R. 

23. Acts viii. 22. James A-. 
15. i John i. 9. ii. 12. St. 
Paul uses the verb (in this sense) 
here only: a </>ecris twice; Eph. 
i. 7, and Col. i. 14. 

7reKaAi)<$?7crav] The hiding 
of sin, not by the sinner himself 
(Psalm xxxii. 5, LXX. T?}I/ oVo- 
fj.tav IJLOV OVK. KaA.i;i//a. Prov. 
XXVlll. 13, o f.7riKaXv7TTWV ao~e- 
/?aai> ea^roi) ou/c e^oSoD^Tycrerai) 
but by the act of God, is a 
second figure for absolution, 
found also in Neh. iv. 5, LXX. 
Kat jjif} K(t\.vi]/r)s 7rt avo/xtav. 
Psalm Ixxxv. 2, e/caA.ui^as Trao-as 
ras a/xaprt a? airoV. 

8. /xa/<apto9 oVv^p] Psalm i. i. 
xxxiv. 8. xl. 4. Ixxxiv. 5. cxii. i. 

ov] A genitive after a /zap- 
Tiav. Observe the alternative 
(and commoner) reading, <S. 

ov pri] This phrase is fre 
quent in the Septuagint, Gospels, 
and Revelation. In St. Paul s 
Epistles it occurs only in i Cor. 
viii. 13. Gal. iv. 30 (in a quota 
tion, as here, from the Septua 
gint). v. 1 6. i Thess. iv. 15. v. 3. 

9, IO. d piKaptoyxos ovv eu 
ros] Such being the description 
of those whom the Word of God 
declares to be blessed, what is the 



ofTos eiri Tt]V TrepLTO/uL^Vy t] /ecu eiri 
aKpofivcrTiav ; \<yofj.ev yap OTL e\o < yia 6ri TW 

10 A/Spad/m 1] 7T/CTT5 6i9 ^LKaLO(TVVr]V. 7TW9 OVV 6 Ao- 

ytarflr] ; eV TrepiTO/uLrj OVTL, fj ev aKpoflvcrTia ; oiy/c 

11 eV TrepLTOjurj, d\\ ev d.Kpo(3vcrTia. Kal 

Or omit OTL. 

compass of its application t does 
it extend to Jews only, or to all? 
Take the case of Abraham him 
self. We say, on the authority of 
the Scripture, that he teas accepted 
for his faith. Now at ivhat 
point in his history is that testi 
mony borne ? before or after his 
circumcision ? Several years be 
fore the institution of that ordi- 

9. ?rt TT)v~\ The accusative 
with ?rt might suggest ep^erat 
(or the like) as the verb under 
stood. But the example of ii. 
2 (TO Kpt/x,a rov tov ccrTtv...7ri 
r. T. Trpaa-o-ovras) shows that 
will suffice. 

rrjv 7rpiTo/JiV]v...Tr/v 

See notes 011 ii. 26, y 
aKpo(3va-TLa. iii. 30, 

Aeyo/x,ev yap] We must ask 
the question; for we say, &c. 
In other words, Such a question 
is naturally suggested by the 
quotation before us (verse 3) and 
the statement we have drawn 
from it. 

tj TUCTTIS] The article refers 
to eTrtVrevorei/ Se in the quotation 

from Gen. xv. 6. That faith ; 
the faith which that passage 
declares him to have exercised. 

10. TTOJS] II o w ? in what 
manner ? that is, amidst what 
circumstances? i Cor. xv. 35, 
TToo? eyetpovrat ot j/e/cpoi; ex 
plained by TTOtw Se aaj/^art K.T./\. 

t) lv aKpo^8u<TTta] I Cor. vii. 
1 8, TreptreT/x^/xe^os ns fK\-rjOr]... 
iv a/cpo/^ucrrui KK\rjTa.i rt? K.T./\. 

1 1 . Kat crrj/jielov e Aa/^ei ] /So 
far from being the cause of his 
acceptance, circumcision was but 
the seal of an acceptance already 
secured. Literally, And as (or 
for) a sign he received circumci 
sion. If Treptro/x^?, the sense is 
the same : a sign (consisting] of 
circumcision. The reference is 
to the words of Gen. xvii. 1 1, LXX. 
/cat 7reprr/A?7$^<Tcr$e Trjv orap/ca 
TT/S ctKpo/ifuoTt as vfJLuv, Kal la-rat 
ei/ (r^jaeta) Sta^T^KTys ava/xeVov c/xoG 
/cat vfjLiov. For this use of 0-77- 
/Ltetoi/, a signal or token, see, for 
example, Gen. ix. 12, 13, TOVTO 
TO cnqfjieiov Tjys BiaOrjKirs ... TO 
TOOV /xou riQif]^i Iv rfj 

Kal IVTO.I ets arjfJiCLo 
K.r.A. i Cor. xvi. 22, at 

IV. io, ii. 
e\a/3ev 7rpLTO]ULt]v, cr(ppa<yl.^a Trjs 

T1JS 6V Trj CtKpO/SvO-Tia, 9 TO 

i r. Or 7reotrou77s. 


VO.L ets o-rj/jLelov tltnv. 2 Tliess. 
111. 17, o afrTruoyxo-s TirJ e/x-^ 
, o etrrtv (njfieiov tv 

For its special appli 
cation to the Christian miracles, 
see note on xv. 19. 

cr</>payt8a] A sea is ?/<w 
which authenticates. i Kings 
Xxi. 8, LXX. /cat lypai/re /3ifi\iov 
7Tt TO) oi/o/xari A^aa/3, /cat ecrc^pa- 
ytcraro rrj acfrpayl&t avrov. I Cor. 
ix. 2, 77 yap ox^payi s /xov rrys 
ttTToo-ToXiy? w/xets eerre. 2 Tim. 
ii. 19, 0e/xeAios TOI) (H)eoG...e^wj/ 
rr/i/ crc^paytba ra^r^r. l\ev. vii. 
2, 3, e^o^ra tr^payiSa eoG ^wi/- 
Tos...a^pi <T0payto-w/xei/ TO{)S 8ov- 
Xovs roi) 0eoO K.r.A. ix. 4, om- 


eo9 7rt TOJI/ /xerojTrooi/. Com 

pare John vi. 27, Tcwroi/ yap 

o ITar^p ecr^paytcrer, o 

2 Cor. i. 22, o /cat cr 

?^uas. Eph. i. 13. iv. 30. 

T^s...Ti7s...T^s...TT7] Lite 
rally, O/ ^7i^ righteousness of 
(Belonging to) that faith which 
existed in that uncircumcision. 
Each article refers to previous 
statements. The first and se 

cond, TT/S St/CaiO(TW?7S, TV?? TTt- 

crra><;, to the quotation in verse 
3, .e7rtVreuo-ei/...ts Succuocrvi^ 1 
and the following comments. 
The third r/ys probably belongs 
not to StKatoo-wTys, but to TTC- 

(compare verse 12, T^S eV 
ttKpo/?ucrrta Trtcrrews). And T^ 
a.Kpo(3v<TTLa is ^a< s^^e o/ uncir 
cumcision which was spoken of 
(without the article there) in 
verse io, aAA ei/ aKpo/Swo-rta. 

ets TO cTi/at avroV] To if/ie enf/ 
^/Aa Ae mi7/ii 6e father of all 
who believe amidst uncircumci 
sion to the end, I say, that the 
righteousness (which was reckon 
ed to hini) might be reckoned to 
them and a father of circum 
cision for (in relation to] those 
who, &c. Two objects are se 
cured by that particular mode 
in which circumcision was insti 
tuted ; namely, as the sign and 
seal of an already existing ac 
ceptance with God. First, be 
lieving Gentiles are included in 
Abraham 1 s seed. Secondly, un 
believing Jews are excluded from 
Abraham s seed. The former is 
the subject of this verse: the 
latter of the verse following (see 
note oil verse 12, /cat Trarcpa 
TTcpiro/xiys). If the acceptance of 
Abraham had in any way been 
tied to circumcision, the Gentile 
world must have been excluded 
from that family of which he 
was the ancestor and head. The 
Gentile must have become a 
Jew in order to inherit the 
blessing. But since circumci- 




OLVTOV TraTepa TrvTwv TWV TricrTevovrtuv 
as TO XoicrBrivai, ai/rcns 


Kat TraTepa TrepiTO/uLs rots- OVK e/c 

ii. Or \oy. A-CU. 

sion was only given to Abraham 
as a token and symbol of an ac 
ceptance possessed before and 
without it, there is nothing to 
debar Gentiles who share his 
faith, from sharing also every 
promise made to him and to his 
seed. For et? TO dvai compare 
verse 16, ets TO eu/cu /Sefialav rrjv 
eTrayyeAtai/. i. 11,20, 
.et$ TO 

The expression is 
used in Gen. xvii. 4, 5, LXX. 

77 (iayK-r] /xou 

TTOLT7JP 7rX.~l]Oov 

pa TToXXcov e^i/ 
verse 17. 

aov, Kat eo-?; 

V . . . OTt 7TaT- 

ere. See 

See note on 
ii. 27, Sta ypa /x/xaT05. 

Xoyto-^i/at] The tense ex 
presses owe decisive act of reckon 

Or Kat avrot?, 
as well as to him and 
those more obviously contem 

rrjv StKatoo-w /yv] The (that) 
righteousness., the same righte 
ousness which was reckoned to 

12. Kat TraTepa 
A second result of the mode of 
the introduction of circumcision : 
that it marked not only the 

equal acceptance of believing 
Gentiles, but also the non-ac 
ceptance of unbelieving Jews. 
And a father of circumcision, 
of a circumcised (Jewish) fa 
mily, in relation to those who 
are not of (characterized by] 
circumcision only, but also 
who walk by (the rule of) the 
ste2)s of that faith of our fa 
ther Abraham which existed (be 
longed to hini) in uncircumcision. 
If circumcision had been at all 
connected with the acceptance 
of Abraham, this would not 
only have excluded Gentiles, 
but might have seemed to in 
clude Jews who had no other 
claim but that of this outward 
ordinance. The particular time 
and mode of its institution an 
swered both purposes; that of 
including and excluding aright. 

TreptTo^s] See note oil iii. 
30, TrepLTo/JirjV. . .Kat aKpofivcrTLav, 

rots] The dative after TraTe 
pa, a father in relation to, is like 
Jer. xxxi. g, LXX. 6Vt e yeyo /x^v 
T(3 laparjX. ets TraTepa. 2 Cor. vi. 
1 8, Kat e o-o/mi ts TraTe pa, 
Kat i;/xet ecreo~$e /xot ets vtovs 


CK TrcpiTo^s] See note on ii. 
8, rots Se e . The phrase ot C K 
was not in itself a 

IV. 12, 1 3 . 


ev aKpofivcTTia TricrTews TOV 

ov yccp $ia I/O/ULOV tj e7ra<y<ye\ia 13 
jj TCO o-Trepp-ari avrou, TO K\ripovo- 

term of reproach: nor is it so 
used here, as the addition of 
IJLOVOV shows. See Col. iv. n, 
01 orres IK 7reptTO/x.?y9. ..crui/epyot 
ets rfjv /3acrtXetav TOV eoO K.T.X. 

aXXa Kal rots] The repeti 
tion of the article somewhat con 
fuses the construction. Strictly 
the alternative lay between rots 
OVK CK TT. fjiovov dAAa Kat 
trti K.r.X. and ov rots e/c TT. 
aXA.a roZs orot^OTJcrti/ K.T./\. 


verb oTotxeu/ means to be (or 
walk) in line, roiv, file, &c. and 
metaphorically, to be orderly, to 
go riykt, &c. Thus Eccles. xi. 6, 
LXX. ov yivw(r/<eis TTOIOV orrot^cret 
(will succeed or prosper) -rj TOVTO 
i] rot TO, /cat eai^ ra 8vo CTTI TO 
avro ay a.9 a. Acts xxi. 24, a A.Xa 
Kat auros <frv\.a.crcru>v TOV 
"With a dative, it means 
6y a person or thing as 
the instrument, ride, or princi 
ple of the walking. Thus it is 
applied in classical Greek to 
walking in file with, keeping 
step with (as one soldier with 
another) : and so here, to regu 
lating the walk by the print of an 
other s footsteps. Compare Gal. 

v. 25, t (/xe 

JJ.O.TL KOL (TTOt^dj/XV. VL 1 6, Kttt 

crti/, tlpijvr] CTT avrovs K.r.X. Phil, 
iii. 1 6, TrX.r)V et? o e^^acra^tei/, TW 
avrw o-roi^etr. ElseAvhere Trept- is used in the same con 
struction and sense: 2 Cor. xii. 
1 8, ou T(5 airro) 7rve.vfJia.TL 
r^cra^ev; ou rot? aurots 
For an equivalent phrase see 
I Pet. ii. 21, u/xu/ v 
vTToypa/Ji/Jtov Iva e7ra.K 
rots t^i/eo-tv avTov. Ill a like ex 
pression in Job xxxviii. 16, LXX. 
the idea is rather that of tracing 
out, tracking to its source; 
i]\0^ Se 7rt Trriyrjv OaX.acro r] 1 ;, Iv 
8e i^yea LV a/^ucrcrov TrepteTra rT/o a?; 

13. ou yap] / scty, OI K CK 
7reptTo/rty5 JJLOVOV, for, &c. 

Sta VO /AOU] j5v/ means of a 
law, obedience to which should 
be the condition of the fulfil 
ment of the promise. 

ry eVayyeXta] Heb. vi. 13, 
15, 17, rw yap A/?paa/x tTrayyet- 
A.a/xevos o eo s.. .CTrerv^ei/ Try? 
CTrayyeXta^.-.TOts KXr;poi/o /xots Trys 
7rayyeXtas K.T.X. vii. 6, TOI/ e xovTa. 
Tas tTrayyeXt a?. xi. 9, 17, ets yr/r 
T^S e7rayyeXtas...o Tas e?rayye- 
Xt as dvaSe^ayu-evos. 

TW A(3paafJi rj TO> onrep/maTL 
auTou] Gal. iii. 16, 29, TW Se 
AfSpad/J. tpptOrjcrav at eVayye- 
Xt at Kat T<5 (TTrep/xan auTov...os 

XptO-TOS...l Se U 


/ULOV avTOV eivai /cocr^Of, d\\d Sid 

14 TT/CTTeWS* 6i T^i ^ ^ VO^OU 


7r(TTis Kat. 

r] 67rayye\ia. 

arov, apa rov A/3paaju, 
O~T,, Kar 7rayyeAtav 

TO K\rjpOVO/JiOV K.T.A.J TllG 

nubstance, though not the words, 
of Gen. xii. 2, 3, LXX. 
ere ct? $vos ju,eya...Kat 
aovrai ev (rot Ttacrai at <frv\ai T^S 
7779. xxii. 17, 18, Kat K\fjpovo- 
/j-rycret TO o-Trepaa o-ov TO? 7roA.ets 
TOJV 7;7revai/Ttcov, Kat 
trovTat ev T 

Ta l^i/r; T^S 7175. St Paul doubt 
less has Christ in view, when 
he says KOO-^OV. See last note, 
and compare Heb. i. 2, oV #77- 

KOO-/XOU] J. world, a tvkole 
world. The absence of the ar 
ticle gives, the sense of such a 
thing as a world, so vast, so 
magnificent. See notes on i. 
20, aVo KTtVeoos and Koayxov. 
And for KOO-/XOS without the 
article, compare also xi. 12, 15, 
KOCT/XOV. . .KaraAAa-y?} KO- 
2 Cor. v. 19, eos ^v ev 


means of a righteousness of (be 
longing to) faith. See verse 1 1 , 


14. tt yap] / say, ou Sta 
VOJJLOV, for, <fec. 

of a law ; who spring or sta/- 
from, belong to, depend upon, a 
law. It is the opposite of rov 
K Trurreojs, iii. 26. 

KX-^povo/xot] Quoted from 
verse 13, TO K\rjpov6/jiov avToi^ 
eTi/at Koa/jiov, and placed abso 
lutely, as in Gal. iii. 29, KCXT 
eTrayyeXtav KAr^poFo/xot. 

KKei/a)Tat...KaTr/py>]Tat] The 
&mse expresses the completeness 
and finality of the effect : as if 
it were, ipso facto. See note on 
ii. 2.5, ye yovei . 

KCKeVcoTat] Properly, emptied, 
drained of its contents, and so 
left void, useless, worthless. Jer. 
XIV. 2, LXX. Kat at TTfXat aur^s 
Kei/co^7ycrav. XV. 9, eKi/aj^ ?/ 
TiKTOvcra 7TTa . . .KdTrj&xvvOr] Kat 
. i Cor. i. 17, tVa /XT; 
fj 6 crravpos rov Xpto~To{). 
ix. 15. 2 Cor. ix. 3, tVa ftr} TO 
Kav^rj/JiOi TI/JLOW TO VTrep v/xcov Kevw- 
^7 K.T.A. Jn the only other place 
of its occurrence in Scripture, 
it is consecrated to the mystery 
of our Lord s self-humiliation : 
Phil. ii. 7) ctAAa eauToV 



77 TTto-Tts] The article refers 
to Trurreoos in verse 13: that 

KaTT/pyr/Tat] 3/ac7e nugatory, 
brought to nought. Both be 
cause vo/xos and cVayyeAta are 

IV. i 4 1 6. 

opyfiv KaTepya(^eTai ov c)e of/c 15 
oi/ e 7rapd/3a(ris. Sid TOVTO e/ci6 

i/a Kara 

k TO e/i/a* {3e{3aiav 

Oi ov yap OVK. 

two essentially opposite terms 
(Gal. iii. 18, ct yap eK VO/XOD ?/ 

and more particularly for the 
reason which follows, o yap 
i/oju,os K.T.A.. Compare Gal. iii. 
6 22 throughout. For Karap- 
yav see note on iii. 3, Karapyij- 


15. o yap T/O/XOS] The arti 
cle refers to the word vo/x-ou in 
verse 14. :?% vo/ao?. That 
thing which is so designated, be 
it what it may, take what in 
stance of it you will. The 
thought is worked out with 
reference to the great instance, 
the law of Moses, in vii. 7 25. 
See also Gal. iii. 10 12, ocrot 
yap e epycov vofJiov etcru/, T;TTO 
Kardpav etcriV, yeypaTrrat yap ort 
ETTiKaraparos Tras os OUK e/z/Ae vei 
Tracriv TOIS yeypa///xeVois. ..ort 8e 
V vo//.a) ovSets StKatovrat ?rapa 
TO) f<3 S^Xov K.r.X. 

Karcpya^crat] Effects, ac 
complishes, operates. This com 
pound and strengthened form of 
epyao/xai occurs no less than 
20 times in St Paul s Epistles : 
elsewhere only in James i. 3, 
20 (possibly), and i Pet. iv. 3. 
Compare 2 Cor. vii. 10, Odvarov 

And where there 


ov e OVK 

is not, tkc. There can be no 
breach of a law which exists not. 
The absence of law is the absence 
of transgression. The entrance 
of laio (in the case of a fallen 
being} is the entrance of trans 

1 6. Sid roirro] Since this /x 
50 since law brings with it not 
merit and reward, but only 
transgression and wrath since, 
any footing of work and desert 
ivould have made the promise a 
nullity and a mockery there 
fore, &c. 

K Trtorrews] Understand 
co-riV. It (the thing in question] 
is out of (springs from, de 
pends upon] faith. Gal. iii. 
22, wo. rj errayycXta IK 
l^crou Xptcrrou SoOrj rots 

u/a] Understand 77. That it 
(the thing in question] may be 
according to (on a principle of] 
grace ; not of right, or of merit, 
but of spontaneous favour. 

et? TO cti/at] Compare verse 
II, ets TO *vai auroV TraTepa 
Trai/Twr /c.T.A. The promise is 
altogether independent of the 
conditions of any particular law. 
It is made to depend entirely 
upon faith and grace. Thus it 
is secured not to one race only, 


d\\d KO.I TW e /c Tr/crrews 3 A/3padfjL 9 
17 OS eGTiv TrctTtjp TrdvTtoV ti/uLcov, Kcidtos ye ypaTrTat 
OTL TrciTepa TTO/\/\WZ/ zOvwv TeOeiKct ere, /ccrreV- 


but to all who show themselves 
to be of the family of Abraham 
by resembling Abraham in Ids 

/?e/:?aiW] The adjective /?e- 
/3cuos (from the root ^Saco, /3atVco, 
and so firm to the tread, /Senates 
tocrr tTreA^etr, Time. iii. 23), 
stedfast, is used by St Paul 
only here and in 2 Cor. i. 6, 

v *\^ e^> r* r\ / c\ 

Kttt 7^ A7TtS 

Travrt rc3 (77repyU,art] Jewish 
and Gentile alike. There is 
the same emphasis in the words 
at the end of the verse, TTO.VTUV 

TW IK TOV VO/XOT;] Compare 
verse I 2, OVK e/< Trepiro/jt^s JJLQVOV. 
In Loth places the addition of 
fj.6vov shows that no reproach is 
involved. It is not those ivho 
depend upon the Law for salva 
tion, but those who belong to 
the Laiv as their Dispensation. 

17. Karoos ere] These words 
are parenthetical; added in con 
firmation of the expression ira.- 

Gen. xvii. 5, 

Exod. xxxii. u, 
Mwvorrys Kar- 

LXX. Kat 

eVavrt Kvptov TOU tov 
Psalm v. 6, LXX. KareVavn TUV 
crov. Lam. iii. 3^, KCCT- 
Trpoo-uirov vi^iorrov. This 
is the only place in the New 
Testament, where KareVavrt is 
used in the solemn figurative 
sense, with the name of God 
following it. See Mark xi. 2. 
xiii. 3. Luke xix. 30. 

Karivavn ov\ Abraham is 
the father of all the faithful 
however far removed from him 
in time in the regard of that 
God who includes all generations 
in one view, (i) the dead as still 
living, and (2) the unborn as 
already existing. In God s 
sight Abraham still lives : in 
God s sight we were already in 
existence when He spake to Abra 
ham. Compare 2 Pet. iii. 8, Trapd 
Kvpiw...xj[\ia err) ws 

Ot>] for KLVOV 

This is the first point: Abraham 
still is, for he shall rise again. 
Compare Matt. xxii. 31, 32, 
OVK ai/eyvwre TO prjOtv vfuv VTTO 
TOV eou Xeyovros, Eycu ei^-t o 
eos A/3paci{ji...ovK. mv d eos 
i//<pojv a\\d ^OJVTCOV. Luke xx. 
38, Traj/res yotp avrw ^(3o"iv. The 

IV. i 7 , 1 8. 


K(Xl KoXoilVTOS TO. JUL}] OVTO. W9 OVTCf OS 1 8 

Trap e\7ri$a eV e\7ri$i eTricrTevcrev, ets TO *yei/c- 
<r$ca ai/TOf TraTepa TroXXcov eOvtov, KCLTO. TO elpt]- 

present participle (TOV coo- 
TTOIOWTO?) expresses that it is an 
attribute of God to raise the 
dead. See 2 Kings v. 7, LXX. 
o o? eyco TOI) ^aj/arwcrai Kat 
4coo7rot?;a-ai ; Neh. ix. 6, /cat cru 
ra Travra. John v. 21, 
eyei pet rous Fe/cpov? Kat 
wo7rotet. In i Tim. vi. 13, the 
right reading is ^woyoi/owros, 
which by a comparison of pas 
sages in the Septuagint appears 
to have the somewhat unex 
pected sense of preserving alive, 
rather than that of quickening. 

KOL KaAowTos] The second 
point: We tvere already in ex 
istence, in God s sight, when lie 
gave the promise to Abraham. 
For KaXtLv, in the sense of desig 
nating, describing, speaking of, 
compare i Pet. iii. 6, Kuptov 
O.VTOV KaXovcra. 

rd JJ.TJ ovra] Those things 
which are not in being : here, 
future generations (the children 
tvhich were yet unboi n, Psalm 
Ixxviii. 6). A different appli 
cation of the phrase is made 
ill I Cor. i. 28, ra ayevrj . . .ra 
eou$ej/?7/xeVa...Ta /XT} ovra, tVa ra 

OVTCL KO.TOip~yr]O"Y). 

1 8 22. os Trap eA-Trt Sa] An 
illustration, in detail, of the 
nature and working of true 

1 8. Trap 9 eXTrtSa] Beyond 

hope. See note on i. 25, Trapa . 

e;r eA-TnSt] From the literal 
sense of upon (as in Matt. xiv. 
8, n, Sos pal, <J>r}(rw, oSe CTTI 

TTLVOLKl TtjV K(t>a\ nV Io)aWO U TOU 
fiaTTTKTTOV. . . KOL T]V}(6r) IT) Kf.<^>aXrj 
CLVTOV 7Tt TTtVa/Ct. X\d. 1 8, 7Tt 

TO.VTT) rfj Trerpa ot/coSo/xr^cra) fjiov 
ri]v KK\r)(TLav. Mark vi. 39, 55, Trdi/ras cr. o~. eVt TW 
. . eTrt rol? 
ex I/Ta ? vepuftepttv. 
Acts xxvii. 44, oi;s /^ei/ CTTI 
icrtK Rev. xxi. 5, o KaOrj- 
eTTt TO) ^povw) comes that 
of on the ground (or strength) 
of; as here, and v. 2, Kat 
/jitOa e?r e/\7rt 8t rr/s Soc^ 
eoS. Acts ii. 26 (from Psalm 
xvi. 9, LXX.) 77 crapt ywou Kara- 
o Kvyi ajcrei err /\7rt St. I Cor. 
ix. 10, oc/>t evr e/WtSt o apo- 
Tpttoi/ uporptai/, Kat o a Aowv K.r.X. 

lit. i. 2, 7T eATTtSt ^CO^S atOJ- 
J tOU. 

ets TO yeveo-^at] C/nto his hav 
ing become (to the end that he 
might become, by one decisive 
act) &c. For the construction 
see i. n, 20. iii. 26. iv. n, 16. 
vii. 4, 5. viii. 29. xi. n. 

TO etp?7,ueVoi/] That which 
has been said. So Imke ii. 24. 
Acts ii. 1 6. xiii. 40. The perfect 
tense expresses the permanence 
of the Scripture record. So, for 
example, Heb. i. 13, Trpos TIVO. 


19 /uievov, Oi/rws ecTTai TO (TTrep/uia crov. Kal jULt] 
d(r6evqcras Trj TT KTT^I /carei/o^crez/ TO eavTOv 
veveKpco/uevoVy eKaTOVTaert}? TTOV vTrdp- 



Or rjdrj 

O TOW ayyeAwv cip^Kei/ TTOTC K.T.A. 
iv. 3, Ka$cos eiprjKev, (os (j}p.oo~a. 
/c.T.A. vii. 6, 9, Se8eKaTa>Kev...ei> 
Aoy^Key. . . SeSeKarcorai K.T. A. viii. 
5, Ka$cos Ke^p^/xarta-rat Manxn/s. 
x. 9, rore ip>7Kei/, iSou T/KOO. xi. 
5, 17, 28, fJLf/JiapTvprjTai evrjpe- 



TO Trdcr^a. xii. 26, 
Aeycov. xiii. 5? ctvros 

Of /X7^ O~ a^d) K.T.A. 

OVTWS eo-Tat] Gen. x.v. 5, 
LXX. dpudfJirja-ov TOVS ao-Tepa?, t 

, OWTOOS O~Tat TO o-7rep/xa o~ov. 
19. Kat /XT) ao-$v?7 o-as] ^wc/ 
because he was not weak. For 
this sense of /ULIJ with the par 
ticiple see note on ii. 14, //,?} 

^ TrtVret] The 

dative expresses m point of, in 
the matter of: as, for example, 
in xii. 10 12, T- 

p.aTL...rrj 6\i\/ti K.r.X. Phil. iii. 
5, TTfpLTOp-rj OKTaij/jLepos. The 7*- 
^ c^e refers to 7rto-Tuo-ei/ in verse 
1 8 : in the matter of that faith 
of his. For the phrase compare 
xiv. i, ToV Se dtrOevovvTa rfj 



reading is ov Karevo^crev. He 
regarded not, took no account 
of as any impediment to the 
fulfilment of the promise. On 
the other hand, the omission of 
ov is strongly supported, and oil 
closer examination has much to 
recommend it. He took notice 
of, marked, gave full weight 
to, the natural impossibility ; 
yet he staggered not at God s 
promise. A classical writer 
would have added /xeV after 
KaTvor)(Tv. He observed indeed 
...yet doubted not: or though he 
observed... yet he doubted not. 
And so in vi. 17, 
eu> ort rjre So9Aot 
TuTrrjKovo-are Se e/c KapSta? K.T.A. 
(see note there). For KciTavoeu/ 
compare Matt. vii. 3. Luke vi. 
41. xii. 24, 27. xx. 23. Acts 
vii. 31, 32. xi. 6. xxvii. 39. Heb. 
iii. i. x. 24. James i. 23, 24. 

veveKpoo/xeVoi ] Heb. xi. 12, 
a( ei/os I ytvvrjOrjcra.v, KO.L TOLvra 
veve/cpw/xevov K.T.A. 

cKaTOVTaeTrys TTOU] Gen. xvii. 
17, LXX. Kal enrev iv rrj oiavoia 
avrov, Aeywv, Et T<3 CKaTOi/TaeTet 
yci^7yo-Tat i;tos; The addition of 
TTOV qualifies the exactness of 
the preceding numeral: about. 
Being already. 

IV. 19, 20. 

Kat Trjv veKpcocriv Trjs fd^Tpas kappas, 
Y}V eirayyeXiav TOV Oeou ov SiKpi6rj T 
d\\a evcSwauwdrj Tr Trio Tei, c)oi)s %6av TW 

The verb vTrap^Lv is distin 
guished alike from to/at and 
yiyi/cr0ai, as the notion of sub 
sistence from that of existence 
and of becoming. Sometimes 
the distinction is of doctrinal 
importance; as in Phil. ii. 6, 7, 
os eV (JLOp(f)-fj eov VTrap^utv ov% 
dpTray/jiov rjyrjcraTO TO elVat to~a 
(5, dXXa eairroV eKeywcrey. ..eV 
o/xotoj/xaTt dv6p<a7ni)V yevo/xevos. 

veKpo)o-ij/] 2 Cor. iv. 10. 

20. SieKpi tf??] In the active 
voice SidKpLvew means to discrimi 
nate, distinguish, discern, decide, 
judge. Thus Job xxiii. 10, LXX. 
8iKpti/ /xe wo-Trep ^pvo~Lov. Psalm 
1. 4, TOV 8iaKpti/at TOV A-aoi/ avTou. 
Ezek. xxxiv. 17, iSov tyw Sia- 
Kpwto dvd fj,(rov Trpofidrov Kal 
Trpo/Sdrov. Matt. xvi. 3, TO {Jilv 
TOV ovpavov yivojo~KTe 
Acts xv. 9, ou$ev 
pi^^ wo difference) /xe- 
Ta^v tjp,<Zv T Kat aurojv. I Cor. 
iv. 7, Tts yap ere StaKptVei ; (io7to 
distinguishes thee, makes thee to 
differ ?) vi. 5, os Sw^ o"eTat 8ta- 
Kpivai ai/a /xeo-ov Tot) aSeX^oO au- 
TOU. xi. 29, 31, /XT) 8ia.Kpiv(Dv (dis 
cerning) TO o-(o/ Se eavrovs 
Ste/cptvo/xcv (judged) K.T.\. xiv. 29, 
Kat ot aAAoi StaKptverwo-av. Hence 
StaKptVco-^at (absolutely, or with 
TIVI or Trpo s riva) is (i) to ^ (or 
seek) a decision, to enter into 
judgment, to go to law, to dis 



pute ; Jer. xv. 10, LXX. uVSpa 
8iKad/x ei/ov Kat StaKpu/d/xeyov ird- 
o-rj Trj yfj. Ezek. xx.^ 35, 36, Kat 
$iaKpiBr]o~o{j(,ai vrpds u/xas eKet . . . 
ov Tporrov SieKpiOrjV ?rpos TOVS 
TraTepas tyxajv eV TT] ep^/xw. Acts 
xi. 2, SieKptVoj/To Trpds aurdi/ ot 
James ii. 4, ou 
(became litigants or 
partisans) eV eavTots K.T.X. Jude 
9, 22, TW 8ta/3dXo) 8taKptvd/xej/os 
. . . Kat ous /xei/ eXe y^ere 8taKptvo/xe - 
7^ous (m i/ieir contentious disput- 
ings) : (2) to dispute with oneself, 
to doubt ; as here, and xiv. 23, 
d 8e StaKptrd/xevos eat/ <^ay^ Kara- 

KtKpLTdl. Matt. XXI. 21, t ttl/ 
C^Te TTtCTTlV Kttt /X?} StaKpt^^TC. 

Mark xi. 23, Kat /xr) OLaKpiOfj eV 
TT} KapSta ai;To9. Acts X. 2O, 
aw auToTs /Jirjoev Sta^pt- 
James i. 6, atTemo Se ef 
,7^Sei/ 8iaKpti/d/xevos d yap 
s K.T.X. Here et<? is 
added : 7<e doubted not as to, 
with regard to. 

Trj aTrto-Tta] By (reason of) 
that unbelief which the circum 
stances might naturally have 
suggested. For the dative, see 
xi. 2O, 30, 31, Trj aTTto-Tta ee- 
K\.da-0rjo-av, av Se Trj TrtVrei COTT;- 
Ka<;...rJ\rjOeTeTrj TOVTW aTret^et a 
. . .T(5 r/xeTe pa) eXeet ti/a Kat auTot 

The verb eV- 
Wj to endue (invest, en- 


21 fcai 7r\rjpo<pop*i6eis OTL o 

21. Or om/ /ie former /ecu. 

velope} with strength (like the 
English to enable, empower, 
embolden, &c.), occurs also in 
Psalm lii. 9, LXX. KCU eVeSwa/xw- 


Acts ix. 22, 2a)/\os Se /xaAAov 
eceSum/xouTO. Eph. vi. 10, er- 
Swa/xovo-$e iv Kvptw. Phil. iv. 
13, TraVra IO-^TJCO iv T<5 evSwa- 
/XOWTI /xe. i Tim. i. 12, \a. 
c^a> T(5 eySwa^itoo-avTi /xe 
l^crou. 2 Tim. ii. i, e 
eV T^ xapm T V * v Xptcrro) 
iv. 17, o 8e Kvptos /xot 
/cat ei/eSwa/xcocreV /xe. Heb. xi. 
34, eyeSwa^atu^crai/ To? eSui/ajato- 
^-^crav] aTTo acr^cveta s. The sim 
ple form Swa/AoGv is found in 
Psalm Ixviii. 29, LXX. 
<rov, o eo5, roi;ro o 
e^ ry/xti/. Eccles. x. 10. Dan. ix. 
27. Col. i. ii, Iv Tracrrj Swa/xa 


T^ TTicrretJ In direct contrast 
with TTT] aTTto-Tia above. Instead 
of doubting by (reason q/) /ia 
unbelief which might have 
seemed reasonable, he was en 
dued ivitk strength by (virtue of) 
that faith which was actually 
his. The dative, in either in 
stance, is that of agency or in 

Sous So av] For So a see 
notes on i. 21, 23, eSo^acrav, 
&6av. The glory of God is the 
manifested perfection, the re 
vealed character, the sum of ths 

true attributes or characteristics 
of God. See, for example, 
John i. 14, e$ea<ja ti$a, TT-JV 
So^av avrov. ii. II, l^avepdxrtv 
TJJV 8oav avrov. Hence Bo^av 
StSoVat -no eaj is to give (assign, 
ascribe) to God His true charac 
ter, in whatever point, whether 
power, holiness, mercy, truth, 
etc. Thus, for example, Josh, 
vii. 19, LXX. vie /JLOV, Sos Sr} 
/Jifpov TO> Krpta) ea> 
, Kat Sos aura) rrjv e^o/xo- 
X6yr](TLv. I Chron. xvi. 29, Sore 
T(3 Kvpta) SO^OLV oi/o/xaros avrov. 
Isai. xlii. 8, eyco Kvpios 6 eds, 


$6av fJiov erepo.) ou SOJCTOJ K.r.A. 
Luke xvii. 18, ot x evptOrjo-av 
VTrocrrpei^avTes SOVVO.L So^av rw 
ecu. John ix. 24, Sos So ai/ TCO 
eo). Acts xii. 23, ai/^ wj/ OUK 
e S(OKCV TT)V So^av TUJ ea). Rev. 
iv. 9. xi. 13. xiv. 7. xvi. 9. xix. 
7. The aorist (So^s) here seems 
to express that, at the moment 
of hearing the promise, Abra 
ham by a single act of the mind 
ascribed to God His true cha 
racter as a God of power and a 
God of truth, and believed His 
word accordingly. 

21. 7rA/>7po</>opr?0is] The 
original meaning of TrA/^po^opeu 
is to bring full, to Jill the mea 
sure of: hence, in various uses, 
to fulfil, complete, or satisfy. 
For example ( i ) of things : Luke 

IV. 21 23- 


icai 7roiij(rai. $10 eXoyicrdri avrw ets 22 
. OVK eypd<pri e St avrov JJLOVOV OTI 23 

22. Or oto /ecu eX. 

. i, Trep riuv 
(fully assured, satisfactorily 
proved") ev ry/xtt/ Trpay/xarwv. 2 
Tim. iv. 5> iy> TT }" SUIKOVMXV o~oi> 
TrXrjpcHpoprjcrov. ..tVa Si e/xou TO 
Ktjpwy/Jia 7r\r)po<f>opir]6r}. (2} Of 
persons : as here, and xiv. 5, 
e/cacrros cv TW ioict> vot TrArypo- 
<opeto-$ax Col. iv. 12, Te Aetoi 
/<ai TT7r\r]po(})opr]fjLvot (satisfied, 
assured, fully convinced) tv 
Travrt 6e\7jp.arL rov eou Thus 
too in Eccles. viii. u, LXX. 8ia 

TOVTO 7T\V]pO(l>Opr]07] KapSttt ^tOJJ/ 

ro9 dv6pw7rov Iv aiirots TOT) Troiry- 
crat TO Trovr/pov. The substantive 
7r\.r)po<j>opia, satisfaction, fulness 
of assurance, occurs in Col. ii. 2, 

Trdv TO 7T\OVTO<5 TVJS 7r\.1f]pO<f)O- 

ptas TT;S crweo-ecos. I Thess. i. 5, 
7rXr]po<j>opLa TroXXfj. Heb. vi. 
II, Trpos Try^ TrXypcxfropiav Try 5 
eX-TriSos a^pi TeA.ou5. X. 22, ey 

The active voice 
of eTrayye AAeii is not used either 
in the Septuagint or New Testa 
ment. But the middle voice is 
found in two of its chief classi 
cal uses. Thus (i) to pro 
mise: Esth. iv. 7, {7reSctei/ airrc3 
TO yeyovos Kat Tryi/ CTrayycXtav ryV 
7rryyyetA.aro A/xav TO> 
Ecclus. xx. 23, to-rt 
cr^w^S 7rayyeA.A.oyj,vos <tw. 2 
Mace. iv. 27, TWJ/ 8e 

vwr TO> /3acrtXet 

Mark xiv. n. Acts vii. 5. 
Gal. iii. 19, a^pts ov ZXOr) TO 
o-TTtp/xa w 7rryyyeA.Tat (probably 
passive, in sense as well as form, 
as in the passage quoted above 
from 2 Mace. iv. 27). Tit. i. 2, 
0)7/5 aicoi/tou ?yv eTrryyyet AaTO o 
ai/AevSTys cos. Heb. vi. 13, TOJ 
yap A/3paa//- 7rayytAcx|U.ei/os o 
0eo5. x. 23, TTICTTOS yop o e?ray- 
yetAa/xero?. xi. n. xii. 26, vvv 
Se eTriyyyeATat Ae ycov K.T.A. James 
i. 12. ii. 5. 2 Pet. ii. 19. i John 
ii. 25, aiJTry taTty ry CTrayyeAux ryV 
a^ros eTrryyyetAaro Tyutv, TryV w7yi/ 
TryV aiojFtoK. (2) To prof 688 ; 
I Tim. ii. 10, o TrpeVet 


21, Try? if/f.v8wv>Jiov yj/ojcreo)? ryi> 

Tires cTrayyeAAo/xerot K.T.A. 

Svi/aTos eo-Tii/] Num. xxii. 
38, LXX. Dan. iii. 17, e o-Ti yap 
d eos ry/xajv. . .Svp ttTos i^fXiaOai 
?y//as e/c Trys Ka/xtVou. xi. 23, Swa- 
TOS yap O"Tiv o eo? TraAiv 
eyKei/TptVat awTOi;?. 2 Tim. i. 
12, SwaTos CTTtv Tryy 7rapa6>JKr)v 
fjiov (f)vXdai. Heb. xi. 19, /cat 
e/c ve/cpcGj/ e yei pea/ SwaTos d @eo s. 

22. Std] Because he thus 
believed. Because his faith was 
thus genuine and thus prevailing. 

23. ov/c eypa<ry 8e 8t ai;rdi/ 
/xoVoi/] Thus XV. 4, ocra yap 
7rpoeypa<ry, ets Tr}^ tj^repav Si- 


2^.e\oyi(r6Y] avTWy d\\a Kai St 

\o f yit^eo 6ai, TO?? 7rio~Teuov(rii> erri TOV eyeipavTa 

25 l^CTOVV TOV KVplOV Tf]fJLO)V 6K VKpU>V, O5 TTapeSodt] 

Sid Ta TrapaTTTcojuaTa vfjiwv Kai fjyepdn Sid 

tav lypd^rj K.r.A.. I Cor. 
x. IO, ?/ Si 7y/xas TTttj/rcos Aeyei ; 

Si T^ias yap eypa<?7. x. 1 1 , eypa- 
</7 Se Trpos vou^eo-tar ^cor. 

24. A-oyt^ecr^ai] Passive, as 
in verses 4 and 5, and ix. 8. 

7rt TOV cyetpai/ra] The cen 
tral object of faith is the resur 
rection of Christ. See x. 9, 
Kai Trttrrevor^s iv rf} KapBia aov 
on o eos O.VTOV T^yeipev e/c i/e- 
KP<JJV. i Pet. i. 21, TOI/S 8t airoi) 
TTICTTOVS ets 0eoV roi/ cyetpavra 
avrov K veKpcup Kat Sd^ai/ aura) 
ScWa, ajcrre TT;I/ TTLCTTLV v^wv Kai 
eATTiSa ti/at ets eov. 

25. Tra/oeSoflry] Isai. liii. 12, 
LXX. Kat avros a/xaprtas TroX/Xaii/ 
avr/rey/ce, Kat Sta ras aVo/xtas 
aurojv TrapeSo ^7;. The word ex 
presses that abandonment of 
self-will and self-management 
which is involved in submission 
to suffering and death at the 
hands of another. Was surren 
dered or given over. Sometimes 
it is used of the human agents 
in the death of Christ : whether 
generally (as here, and in Matt. 
xvii. 22, /xe AAet, o vtos TOV dv- 

TrapaBiSoaOaL et<; ^etpa? 
) : or specially, as (i) 
of Judas (Matt. x. 4, 

IcTKapiajrr;? o Kat TrapaScws ai/rov), 
or (2) of the chief priests (Mark 
XV. i, ot ap^iepets...S^o-avre TOV 
irjcrovv dmjveyKav KOL Trape SwKai/ 
IItA.ciTa)), or (3) of the Jewish 
nation (Acts iii. 13, 6V v/ms piv 
TrapeSojKare), or (4) of Pilate 
(Matt, xxvii. 26, TOV Se * 

Sometimes it is 
made the Divine act : whether 
(i) of the Father (viii. 32, o s 
ye TOV lotov vtou OVK e^etcraro, 
aAA.a vrrep TJJJUJJV 7rdvTU>v Trapeocu- 
Kei/ avroi/), or (2) of the Son 
Himself (Gal. ii. 20, TOV dyairtj- 
O~OLVTO<S (Jit Kat Trapaooi/Tos tavrov 

VTTtp fJLOV. Epll. V. 2, 25, Ktt^OJ? 

Kat o Xptcrros T^yaTT^crev v/xas /cat 
7rape8(OKi/ eavrov ... Karoos Kat o 
Xptcrros T^yaTrrycrev TT^V cicjcAijcrtay 
Kat eavrdv TrapeScoKei/ {irrep au- 

a ra...Sta 

q/*, in either case. The 
suggests the necessary 
modifications : ybr /ie sa/ce o/j 
(#o toA;3 away) our offences ; for 
the sake of (to secure) our jus 
tification. Compare xiii. 5, ou 
fjiovov Sta (for the sake of, to 
avoid) rfjv opyyv, aA.A.a Kat Sta 
(for the sake of, to clear) Trjv 

IV. 2 4 V. i. 


ovv e /c 



v. i. Or 

e^co/meis V. i 

o~vvtt8r)o~w. See note on ii. 27, 

Sta Tr\v\ I Cor. XV. 
17, ei Se Xptaros OVK ey^yeprai.. . 
ITI ecrre ei/ rat? a/xapTiais vfjiujv. 
The resurrection of Clirist was 
essential (i) to the vindication 
of His veracity ; Matt. xx. 1 9, 
KCU Trj Tpiry 7^/xepo, eyep^creTai 
[or aVao-TT/o-eTai] (2) to the Di 
vine attestation of His Messiah- 
ship; Acts xiii. 30, d 8e (e)eos 
r/yeipei aurov eK veKpojv (3) to 
His power to save; John xiv. 19, 
OTI cyoo ^c5, /cat v/xets ^rytrere. 
J. c?eac? /Saviour is none. Rev. 
i. 18, /cat o o5f, Kat kyf.vop.rjv ve/c- 
pos, Kat t8ou ^Cili et//t ets TOVS 
aioGvas TOJV atcDVcor, Kat t^oj ras 
/ TOU Oavdrov KOL TOV aSov. 

Si/cat wo-ty] This verbal sub 
stantive, justification, the act of 
absolving, acquitting, or clearing 
from guilt, occurs only here and 
in v. 1 8, cts SiKcuwo-u/ ^oo^s. See 
notes on i. 17, SIKCUOO-WT; yap 
0eov, and ii. 13, StKauo^o-ovrai. 

V. I, &C. AtKatco^eVres ow] 
Consequences of Christ s re 
demption to those who believe. 
Faith, the realizing apprehen 
sion of Christ s work for us, 
introduces us into a state of ac 
ceptance, of ivhich the immediate 
result should be peace with God, 
and a joyful hope; hope even 

amidst afflictions, knowing their 
salutary effects; hope founded ox. 
the knowledge of God s love a*- 
shown in Christ s death for sin 

I. IK Trurretos eip^V^i/J Murk 

V. 34, rj 7TICTTIS (TOV (Tf.(JU>K.iv CTf. 

vrraye ets (IpTJvwv. John xiv. 27, 
a<pir]/jLi V/JLLV, eipr jvrjv Trjv 
SLOW/JLL v/juv. xvi. 33, raCra 
tVa ev c/xot eip>^j/^r 
e consciousness of 
uu forgiven sins causes a feeling 
of estrangement from God, and 
even of enmity towards Him 
whom they have injured (Col. i. 
21, /cat v/xa? TTOTC oi/ras 
Tpioo/^ei/ous /cat ^9pov<; rrj 
zv TOLS epyots rots Troi/Typots K.r.X.), 
so the conviction of their free 
forgiveness removes that enmity 
(Col. i. 20, (IprjvoTroLijcra.s Sia rov 
at/xaros TOV o~Tavpov avrov). See 
note on i. 7, ctp^i/T?. 

e^w/xcv] Heb. xii. 28, 
^aptv, St iys XarpeiJco^t 
TO) e(3 (where there is the same 
variety of reading). If e^oyaev, it 
is, God has given us peace : if 
, Let us keep and use it. 
os TOV eof] The converse 
and correlative of that etp^Vr; 
aVo o9 (or ?rapa eoi), 2 John 
3) which is St Paul s salutation 
in every Epistle. See i. 7. i Cor. 
i. 3. 2 Cor. i. 2. Gal. i. 3. Eph. 



2 CTTOV, cu ov Kctt T)\V TTpocra^coyrjv 

eis TY\V Oii/ TctvTrjv eV i\ 

1. Or Omit TTf 

i. 2. Phil. i. 2. Col. i. 2. i Thess. 
i. i. 2 Thess. i. 2. i Tim. i. 2. 
2 Tim. i. 2. Tit. i. 4. Philem. 3. 
2. TT^V TT/oofraycoy^r] The 
article expresses our introduc 
tion ; that introduction which is 
of course ours as Christians. 

The word Trpocraycoy?; occurs in 
the same sense in Eph. ii. 18, 
oY avrov c^oyuei T>}V 7rpocraytoy>}v 
ot a/j.<j>oTpoi ev ej/t Tn/eu/xaTi Trpos 
TOV Ilarepa. iii. 12, ev a> e^o^ei/ 
T^V TrapprjCTLav KO.L T^V 7rpoo"aya)- 
y))i/ ei/ Tre7TOiOrj(Ti Sia T^S TrttrTcajs 
avro{J. It is especially applied 
to the introduction of a subject 
into the presence of a sovereign, 
or a worshipper into the pre 
sence of the object of worship. 
The verb Trpocrayetv has the same 
solemn use in many passages of 
the Septnagint : for example, 
Gen. xlviii. 9, Trpocrayaye //ot 
avrovs, LVCL eijXoyr/o-co avrovs. 
Exod. xix. 4, KOL 7rpo<T7^ya 
v/jias Trpos e/xavrov. xxi. 6, 
a^-et aiJToi/ d KvpLos O.VTOV Trpos 
TO KptTT/ptov rou eoi; K.T.\. 
xxix. 4, Aapaji/ Kat TOT;? 
Trpoo-a^ei? CTTI ras 

K.T.\. Num. xvi. 9, 
jaa? Trpds eatiroV 
t? TO XetTorpyetv Tas A.eiTO-upyt as 
T?79 CTK^V^? Kvptou K.T.X. Com- 
pare Luke ix. 41, Trpoo-ctyaye 
wSe TOI uidv crov. i Pet. iii. 18, 

a/xapTtaji/ (.Tratv or aTre- 
^ai/ei^] . . . tva 7^/ Trpoo-ayd-yy TO) 

ecrx^Ka/xev] The perfect marks 
the 2 )ermanence f the benefit. 
)Fs 7^ye 7iaJ. The form CO^KO. 
occurs also in 2 Cor. i. a. ii. 13. 
vii. 5 (probably). 

rfi TrtVrei] -Z>// (virtue of} 
that faith : referring to 7uo-Tea>s 
in verse i. 

(state of ) free favour, gratuitous 
acceptance, in which, &c. The 
same representation of x a / t? 
under the figure of a place of 
safety, into which a Christian 
man enters, in which he abides, 
and out of which he must take 
heed lest he fall, is found, for 
example, in Gal. v. 4, T^S X"P l ~ 
TOS ee7re o-aTe. I Pet. v. 12, 
ravrrjv eli^ai aX.yjO rj ^aptv TO 9 
eoi;, ets ^V O-TT/TC. 

ev ^ ecTTy/Ka/xei/] John viii. 
44, ei> T^ aA^^eta ov^ tcrTrjKev. 
I Cor. XV. I, TO evayyeXtov. . .v 
w Kat eo-TTf/care. For ecrrr/Ka, in 
the sense of stedfast standing, 
compare also xi. 20, o-v 8e rrj 
i Cor. vii. 37, 
eV TT^ KapSta. X. 1 2, 
d So/ccai/ eo-Tctvat /^/VeTreTco /x^ 
2 Tim. ii. 19, d 
^e/xeAtos TOV eov 


fj.ev, Kai 

Geou. oi/ fjiovov Se, a XAot 

V. 2, 3 . 
a eV e\7riSi T/V? 



Kav%a)/uievoi e rals 3 


>i (if/ie ground 
or strength of) a hope. See 
note oil iv. 18, CTT eATri Si. 

TT/S So^rys TO{) eov] 3T/< 
future state of manifested per 
fection which God has promised. 
See note on iii. 23, r^s 80^17?. 

3. ou {Jiovov 8e, aA.A.a KatJ 
j4?ic^ no^ ori/v/ so, not only do 
we exult in hope of the future 
glory, but also, &c. This ellip 
tical phrase seems to be peculiar 
to St Paul. See verse n. Also 
viii. 23. ix. 10. 2 Cor. viii. 19. 
If this, and not 
be the true reading, 
the explanation must be (as so 
often) that the sentence, which 
begins as if a principal verb 
were to follow, is broken by a 
succession of confirmatory or 
interpretative clauses, and not 
resumed. Compare verse n, 
and ix. 10. There is a singular 
multiplication of like examples 
in 2 Cor. viii. 19 24. The 
habit of writing by an amanu 
ensis sufficiently accounts for all 
such breaches of construction. 
When St Paul has dictated the 
words, glorying in our tribula 
tions, he feels thai the paradox 
wants illustration : he adds rea 
sons : knowing that that tribula- 

V. R. 



Kav-^acrai. I Cor. i. 31. 

tion worts patience, and that, 
patience experience, etc. <fcc. Tim 
thread of the original sentence 
is broken, and when he resumes, 
it is in an altered form. 

eY] Compare ii. 
iv 0eoj...eV 

2 Cor. v. 12. xi. 12. xii. 9, 
ovv /XttAAov Kav^ijcrofJiaL 
iv TOLLS afT0ei ei ai9. Gal. vi. 13, 
14. Phil. iii. 3. James i. 9. 
iv. 1 6. Sometimes we find KO.V- 
\ao~OaL followed by inrep, et?, a 
simple accusative, or ws with a 

rats 6\tyt(TLv~\ Those tribu 
lations which of course ive meet 
with; our tribulations. 

1} 6 Ati/^ts] That(or s.ucK) tribu 
lation. And so throughout the. 
clauses which follow. The new 
word is introduced without the 
article, and then taken up again 
with it. Thus VTro^ovr /v... >j Se 

77 Se cA-Tris K.r.A. Com 
pare James i. 3, 4, TO ooKifjitov 
vfjiwv. . . /carepya^erat VTTO/JLOVIJV TJ 

vTrofjLQVY]v\ From the literal 
sense of abiding under, patient 
endurance of (as in 2 Cor. i. 6, 
iv VTTOfJLOvfj roV avruv 




4 y 

5 e\7ri$a 


r\ Se VTrojmovri SOKIJUL/IV, r/ 
-Se e /VvnV oiy /caratcriWf, or* ;} 

Ttovy comes that of submissive 
waiting, patience, as a disposi 
tion or temper of the soul : first 
(perhaps) in. Psalm ix. 18, LXX. 
f] V7ro/xoj/yy TOJI/ Trei^rcov OI>K 0,770- 
Aetrat 19 TO\O?. Luke viii. 15, 
Kap7ro<j>opovo-LV Iv VTrofJiovrj. xxi. 
1 9, er TTJ VTrofJiOvfj v/Jiiov KTij&taOe 
ra? ij/v^d<s v/JLwv. i Tim. vi. n, 
TTIOTIV, ayuTrr/F, UTTO/XOV??! , Trpav- 
7ra0iai\ 2 Tim. iii. 10. Tit. ii. 
2. Heb. x. 36. xii. i. James i. 3. 
2 Pet. i. 6. Sometimes VTTO/JLOVT] 
is ?/? o/yec^ of patience ; as in 
Psalm xxxix. 7, LXX. KCU vvv TI<? 
?/ vTTOj.iov 1) IJLOV , ov^l 6 Ki ptos ; 
Sometimes it has a genitive of 
the thing persisted in (as in ii. 7, 
K.o.(f vTTOfJLOvrjv epyov dyaOov], the 
animating motive (as in i Thess. 
i. 3, T^S VTro/JLovrjs rrjs eA-Trt Sog 
TOV Kvpiov Ty/xcop), or tJi& inspiviiicj 
Person (as in 2 Thess. iii. 5, eis 
TTJJ,- vTTO/Jiovrjv rov Xptcrrou. Jrlev. 
iii. 10, TOV Aoyov r^s VTTO/XOV^S 

4. 8oKt/x?Ji/] See note on i. 
28, eSoKi/xao-aj/. The usual sense 
of SoKi/xr/, a m or proof, is 
here modified into that of the 
result of such a process; a riet 
an^ proved character, tested 
worth, the state or disposition of 
the So/a/xos, that is, of one who 

has stood trial. Compare James 

/ \ t\ t / 
1. 12, fjiaKapios avfjp os f/rOjU,ei/et 

ort SOKI/XO? yei/o /xevos 
Thus SOKI/XT^ like SOK/XOI- 

^ctv, may be said to include the 
two ideas, proof and approval. 
It is used (in Scripture) only bv 
St Paul. Thus 2 Cor. ii. 9, tVa 
yvoo r>)v SoKijjirjv V/JMV. viii. 2, ei/ 

being the test applied), ix. 13, 
Sia r^g SOKI//>/S rr;? StaKovta? 
ravr^? (the oia/cona, or ministra 
tion to the poor, being the test 
or proof), xiii. 3, So/a/XTJj/ ^retre 
roi; ei/ e/xot A.a/\o{)i/Tos Xptcrrou 
(genitive of the Person whose 
presence is to be proved). Phil. 
ii. 22, TT}I/ Se So/a/z?^ avrov ytvco- 
o-/cre K.r.X. 

7; 8e SOKL/JL-TJ e/WiSa] An un 
expected but profoundly true 
combination. ^ 7 Ae Divine dis 
cipline of suffering produces in 
the end a temper not of despond 
ency but of hopefidness in those 
who are exercised thereby. The 
valley of Achor for a door of 
hope (Hos. ii. 15). He putteth 
his mouth in the dust ; if so be 
there may be hope (Lam. iii. 29). 

5. ov Karatcr^vi/ei] Puts not 
to shame; disappoints not. Com 
pare ix. 33, o TTtorevcov evr co>ra> 
ov KaraKryyvOrtveTai, Thus Psalm 
xxii. 5, LXX. 7rt crot rjXmo-av, KO! 

ere. Jer. ii. 36, ctTro AiyvTrrov 


CTTI rots 

V. 4, 5- 
TOV Qeou eKKe^vrctL iv TCUS KctpSt 



avrov. 2 Cor. vii. 14, 
6t TI avT<3 u?rep vfJUjijv KeKavp^/xai, 
ov KaTrjcrxvvOijv. ix. 4, /x,^ 7 TTCOS... 

For the present tense 
see note 011 ii. 16, K/nW. 

OTI rj ayaTTTy] :Z%e outpouring 
of the love of God in our hearts 
ly the Holy Spirit is the proof 
that our liopQ will not disap 
point us. 

-q dyoiTrr] TOV ecu] God s love 
(l John iv. 1 6, rrjv dyd-n-rjv >}V 
e xet d eos eV rjp2v). Compare 
Viil. 39, ^coptcrat a?ro rvys ayaTTTy? 
roi; eou. 2 Cor. xiii. 13, 97 X"/ 31 ? 
rov Kvpiov \YI<JOV Xptcrrot! Kat rj 
aycuTT? TOU eou. The outpour 
ing spoken of is the communi 
cation of a full and deep sense 
of that Divine love, so as to 
a \vaken a response of love in us 
(i John iv. 10,, Te 
ort airros Trparros 

eKKe^vrai] The exact form 
is found (in Scripture) only here 
and in Acts x. 45, ort Kat lirl 
TO. Wvf] rj Scopea TOV dyiov Trvf.ii- 
/^aros eKKe^vrai. But the verb 
is of frequent use; both literally, 
with vScDp, at/xa, oTvov, &c. and 
figuratively^ with o py/yi/, ^v/xoV, 
j/^f^v, KapStav, Slrjcnv, &c. and 
especially in connexion (as here) 
with the gift of the Holy Spirit. 
Joel ii. 28, 29, LXX. e/9(ew euro 
TOV 7rvev//.aros /AOU CTTI iracrav 
trapKa K.T.X. Zech. xii. 10, Kat 
eK^e<3 CTU TOV O*KOV AavtS. . .TTfety/a, 
Kat otKTip/x-ou. Acts ii. 

17, 18,^33. Tit. iii. 5, 6 ; Kat 

ai a/cat^ajcrecos Trreu/xaTO? aytou, 
ou e^-e^eei/ e^> rypa? Tr/Xovcrtajs 


6KK^VTat ei ] The commoner 
combination is witli errt , et?, or 
Trpos. But the object here is 
to mark the internal character 
of the act. Has been outpoured 
within (inside] our hearts. 

Sta TTvevfjiaros ayiou] A care 
ful comparison of passages seems 
to show that the absence of the 
article with Trvtv^a. (as here, 
Tri/eu/xa a ytoi/) marks the sense 
of communication ; its presence 
that of personality. The one is 
a communication (gift, agency, 
operation, &c.) of the Holy Spirit: 
the other is the Holy Spirit 
Himself, the Divine Person so 
designated. Compare Acts xix. 
2 and 6. The question put to 
the disciples is, d trvev/jia aiyiov 
eAa/^ere Trto-Tevo-arres; They an 
swer, aAA ovS" ct Trvtvpa. dytov 
ecrrti ^KOvcra^jLev (compare John 
vii. 39, ovTTOi yap ?)v Trveu/xa). 
Did ye receive a Holy Spirit on 
becoming believers ? Nay, vie did 
not hear at that time even wlie- 
ther there is a Holy Spirit 
(whether, that is, the great pro 
mise of the outpouring of the 
Holy Spirit upon the Church of 
the Messiah is yet fulfilled}. 
And then, eTrt^eVros auTots TOV 

TO aytov err avTovs. The coming 
of TO Tr^eu/xa TO aytov is briefly 





yov TOV 



wv tri KCLTO. KO.I- 

6. Or ei 76 X/9. 0? et yap Xp. 

expressed by the existence of a 
Tn/ev/xa uyioi/. The Litter is the 
phrase for the communication, 
as the former is for the Person. 
The difference might be illus 
trated from Bev. i. 4. iii. i. 

IV. 5- V. 6, Ttt e/TTO. TTVCVfJiCliTa 

TOV &ov aVecrr. ets 7rao-av rr/i/ 
yf/v. Each one of the seven 
Spirits (symbolizing the diffu 
sion of the Holy Spirit) is, so 
to sny, a TTvev/jia ayiov. Viewed 
in Himself, and in His personal 
Deity, He is TO rrvtvfjia TO dytov. 

TOV 8o^eVro? rjfuv\ Who was 
given to us when we became 
Christians. See Acts xix. 2 
(quoted in the last note) : also 
viii. 15. 2 Cor. i. 22, d KCU o-^pa- 
7y/xa<? /cat Sous ToV 
^a TOU Tri/ev/xaro? ev Tai? 
T^/XCOV. v. 5. Gal. iv. 6. 
Eph. i. 13. iv. 30. 

6. trt yap XpicrTos] A far 
ther proof that the Christian 
hope will not fail us. Not only 
is the love of God poured forth 
in our hearts: there is this as 
surance also, as the ground of 
all else, that Christ, while we 
were yet sinners, died for us. 
The reading is doubtful, (i) If 
it stand as in the text, the 
former eVt (unless we suppose a 
misplacement first, and then an 

inadvertent repetition, of en) 
must be taken as moreover : 
compare Luke xiv. 26, en TC ;<at 
Tryi/ eafTov {j/v^rjv. Acts ii. 26 
(fi-om Psalm xvi. 9, LXX.), eVt Se 
Kat if] cru.p fjiov KU.Tao K ^j/ajo ei tV 
eA.7Tt8t. xxi. 28, 4 rt Te Kat "A.- 
Xrjvas eto~/yyayei/ e; s TO iepov. 
Heb. xi. 32, /cat. rt ert Xe yto; 
(2) If ct ye be the reading, the 
sense is, If at least, so surely as: 
a phrase used of things not 
doubtful, as in Eph. iii. 2, et ye 


TOS TOV eou. iv. 21, et ye O.VTOV 
r]Kov(Ta.T K.T.X. (3) If et yo.p, the 
sentence is interrupted by verses 
7 and 8, and resumed (with ow) 
in verse 9. 

cxo-^ei/wi ] Powerless to obey 
or to please God. Matt. xxvi. 
41, 77 oe o-ap ao-$ei/?7?. Mark 
xiv. 38. Compare viii. 3, TO 
yap dSvvaTOV TOV vo/mov, eV <S 

es TOI/ 
eauTov vov Tre/xi^as K.T.X. 

Kara Katpdj/] Gal. iv. 4, oVe 
oe rjXOfv TO TrA^pco^a TOU ^povov. 
Eph. i. 10, et? otKoi/o/xtav TOV 
TrXrjpujfjiaTos TOJI/ Kaip<jjv. I Tim. 
ii. 6, TO /xaprvpiov Katpot? tStots. 
vi. 15, r)V Kaipots tStots Set^et. 
In the works of God there is 
no precipitancy : all is done in 
order and with preparation. 

V. 68. 



pov v?rep d(re[3(jov djriOavev. JULO\I<S yap 
$iKaiov TLS aTroBavelTar VTrep yap TOV ctya- 
6ou Ta^a TLS Kai TO/\ua aTTodaveiv arvviorTtjCTLV 8 

VTrep Jo-e/3uji ] So ill iv. 5, 
tTTt TOV SixaiowTtt TOV dcre(3fj. 

7. /xdAis ydp] I S(( !/ do~/3<j)V. 

Mark the word. An amazing 
proof of love: for, &c. 

ttTTo^avetrat] The future here 
expresses (as in. English) a pro 
bable occurrence. Compare Job 
ii. 4, LXX. TravTa oo~a vTr 

avrov. Prov. XX. 14, Troi^poi/, 
Trovrjpov, lpe.1 6 Krco/xei/o 1 ?. Luke 
xi. 5, ris e v/xaJj/ e^et <j>L\ov KOL 
Tropeucrerat Trpos aurov p.ecrovv- 


VTrep yap] / 5ffly /^oAi?, /or, 

roG aya^ou] The article ex 
presses the man who is good; t/te 
man ivJio embodies the character 
of the good. Thus, for example, 
Isai. Ivii. i, LXX. I Sere cos d 8t- 

KCUOS Ct7TOJ/\TO . . . KO. 1 ttl/SpCS StKOlOt 

aipovrat. ..ctTro yap TrpocrajTrou aSt- 
Kt a rjpTat 6 StKatog. Matt. xii. 
35, d aya$os avdpo)7ros IK TOV 
dyaOov 6r)o-avpov eK^SaXXet dyaOd, 
KOL 6 Trorqpos ai/^pa)7T05 K. T. X. 
Luke vi. 45. The term ayatfo s 
just thus far differs from oYxatos 
above, that it expresses a more 
attractive side of the character ; 
good, benevolent and beneficent, 
not righteous only. 

rax a ] This form occurs also 
(and, as here, with the indica 

tive) in Wisdom xiii. 6, KO.I yap 
avroi ru^a TrXavwvTOii @eoi/ 77- 
rowres. xiv. 19, o /xei/ yap ra^a 
KpaTOvvTi /3ovX6/Jievos apecrat efe- 
/3ido-a.TO K.r.X Pliilem. 15, ra^a 
yap Sid roSro f^wpLo~6r] Trpds topai/ 
tp a K.r./X. 

To/\//a] From the primary 
idea of ro/X/xa, hardihood, the 
verb ToA/zaf branches into two 
senses : (i) to dare, venture, pre 
sume, with an infinitive ; or, 
absolutely, to be bold or confi 
dent; (2) to bear, submit, endure, 
deign, &c. For examples of the 
former, see Esth. vii. 5, rts OUTOS 
OOTIS eroA^cre Trotvjcraf. TO Trpdy- 
IJLO. TOVTO ; Judith xiv. 13. 2 
Mace. iv. 2. Matt. xxii. 46, 
of 8e ToXfJL^crV TIS a?r exetvT^? Try? 
r/iaepa? cTreptoTV^crai auroi/ ouKert. 
Mark xii. 34. xv. 43. Luke 
xx. 40. John xxi. 12. Acts v. 
13. vii. 32. 2 Cor. x. 2. xi. 21. 
Phil. i. 14. Jude 9. In the 
text the latter is the sense; 
bears, submits, &c. In some pas 
sages either sense would be admis 
sible; as in xv. 18, ov yap ToX/Jiij- 
o"u> [or ToA./x,o>] TL AaAetv K.T.A. i 
Cor. vi. i, ToXfjia Tts f/x,wv...Kpt- 

VO~0ai 7Tt TC01/ dStKCOV K.T.A. 2 

Cor. x. T2, ov yap To\{JLu>p(iv ey- 
Kplva.1 r} (TvyKpivaL eavrovs TICTLV 

Proves, es- 



nroi: PHMAIOYZ. 


Se TI}V eavrov a^aiTY\v 6 Geos el? 


<) direQavev. TroAAw ovv fJ.a.XXoi (iiKaLcoBei Tes vvv 

ev TO) aljuaTi avrov (ju>6ria-ofJie6a Si avrov aVo 

10 Trjs opyfjs. el jap e^Bpol bvres KaT}i\\d f yri{JLei> 

8. Or cry. els fyxas 6 Qeos. Of omit 6 0eos. 

tallishes, &c. See note on iii. 5, 

T>y tavTov ayairryr] I Jolni 


ov)( art Ty/zet^ ryyaTTT^o-a/Aei/ roi/ 
eor, d/\A. on avTOS T^yaTTT^crei/ 
^./xas Kat ttTrecrreiAei TW viov au- 
rou iXao-/xoi/ Trept rtoi/ a/ 

9, IO. TToXXa) ow 
He wlio has done the greater 
will certainly do the less. The 
greater was the sacrifice of the 
Son of God for sinners : the less 
is the completion of that work 
by the salvation of those whom 
that sacrifice has reconciled. 
Compare viii. 32, os ye rov ISiov 
viov OVK cetcraro. ..TTOJS VL Kat 

avv avrw ra 

9. ev TO)] The preposition 
expresses the idea of our justifi 
cation or absolution having been 
as it were contained in the 
blood, the outpoured life-blood, 
of Christ. 

See note on iii. 25, 

Salvation is 
spoken of in Scripture as either 
(i) past, (2) present, or (3) fu- 
ture, according as redemption, 

grace, or glory is the point in 
view. Thus (i) viii. 24, TYJ yap 
IXviSi co-<o6i]pv. Eph. ii. 5, 8, 
^apiTL ecrre crecrcocr/xei/ot /c.r.X. 2 
Tim. i. 9, TOU crojo-ai/ros -^/xas Kat 
KaXecravros KX^ cret ayta. Tit. iii. 
5, Kara TO avrov eAeos ecrcocrev 
7y/x.tt5. (2) Acts ii. 47, o Se Kv- 
pto? Trpoo f.riOe.L TO^S a"a)ojU.i/ous 
Ka^ T/jfiepav rfj KK\r)(TLa. i Cor. 
i. 18, rots Se crai^o/xei/ois T^/xT^ 8v- 
eov eo-rtV. XV. 2, 3t ou 

Kat o-oj^ecr^e. 2 Cor. ii. 15, ei/ 
rots o-co^o/xeVots Kat ei/ rot? aVoX- 
(3) Matt. x. 22, o Se 
ets re Xo9, ovro? croo^/y- 
Rom. xiii. ii, viV yap 
cyyvrepov lyticov 77 crarr^pta ?y ore 
eTTto-revo-ajLtei/. Phil. ii. 12, /xera 
(frofiov Kat rpo/Jtov TYJV eaurcoi/ crw- 
rrjpiav Karepyaeo-$e. Heb. ix. 
28, o(^)^?y crerat rols aurov 

aVo v rry? opyrys] See I Thess. 
i. IO, I7yo-oi)j/ TW pvo/aevov ?y/xas 
CK T^S opyry? Trys ep^o/xeVTy?. 
See notes on i. 18, o pyry eo{). 
ii. 5, tj/^fpa opy^s. iii. 5, o tTrt- 
v Tryv o pyryV. 

10. eOol ovTesl See note 

on verse i, CK Trio-reco? etpryi/Tyy. 

From aXXaV- 

V. 9 ii. 107 


Xw jUaAXoi/ KccTaXXayevTes crcodijcroiuLeda eV TY\ 
fyfj avTOV. ov HQVOV ^e, a XAci Kai KawwuevoL II 

, to change (see note on i. 23, 
i7/\Aaa.v), come the compound 
forms (i) aVaXXacro-eti , to remove 
(Job ix. 34, LXX. aVaXXa^aTO) UTT 
cfjiov rrjv pdj38ov aurov) or deliver 
(Heb. ii. 15, KOL aVaXXa?7 TOV- 
TOU? oo-ot K. T.X.), and, in the 
middle voice, to depart (Acts 
xix. 12, Koi a7ro.AAd<jtrecr(9ai aV 
avTwv Ttt<> vocroi;?) : (2) ^teraX- 
XacrcretF, io exchange (i. 25, 26), 
and, with roi/ /3tov, or in the 
same sense absolutely, to depart 
this life (i Esdr. i. 29. 2 Mace, 
iv. 7, 37. &c.) : (3) TrapaXXacr- 
<reu , with TrapaXXa^t? (Dan. xii. 
ii) and rrapaXXayij (James i. 17), 
to alter or vary (Dan. vi. 15), 
opio-fjiov KCU o-Tacrtv...ov Set Tra- 
paXXa^at), and absolutely, to 
diverge or depart (Prov. iv. 15, 
f.KK\ivov air avrwv Kai TrapaX- 
Xa^ov) : (4) /caraXXaao-etv, pro 
perly (with rt) to change away, 
give in exchange; and so (with 
Tivd) to change down, reconcile: 
thus 2 Mace. i. 5, xat KaraXXa- 
yet?; v/xtv (0 eoV). vii. 33. viii. 
29, TOV eXo^oiOT a Ki;ptov ij^iovv 
etg re Xos KaraXXayrjvaL rot? au- 
ToJ) So^ Xoi?. In the text, the 
reconciliation is that q/* man to 
God. We were reconciled to 
God, changed from l^Opot, into 
friends, through the death of His 
Son, by means of that atone 

ment for sin which was effected 
in the death of Christ. See the 
fuller statement in 2 Cor. v. 18 
20, TOV eov TOV KaraXXtt^av- 
ros ?//xa? eaurcp Sta Xpitrrou KCU 
/caraXXay/y?, GJ? ore Qeos v^/i/ eV 
Xptcrra) Kocrp,oi> KaTaXXatTO at eav- 
TU), /jt?} Xoyt^o/xe^os aurots TU TTO,- 
paTrrco/xara ai;rajv, Kat. ^e/xei os i/ 
7/^ati/ TOJ/ Xoyov rr/5 KaraXXayTy?.. . 
Se6fJi(.6a uTrep Xptcrroi} ; KaraXXa- 
yv/re TO) 0eu5. Compare xi. 15, 
KaraXXay^ KOCT/XOU. Ill Col. i. 
22, we have the double com 
pound aTTOKaraXXacrcreiv in the 
same connexion : v/zas TTOTE ov- 
Tas. ..^^poi;s...i / i i / t Se aTTOKar^X- 
Xa^ef K.r.X. 

ef] As our place of safety. 

rf) cof} auroG] That is, His 
life after death: that life in 
which He carries on His inter 
cession, communication of the 
Holy Spirit, individual protec 
tion and guidance, and final re 
demption of the body by resur 
rection. John xiv. 19, on eyoi 
(3, Kai vfjiCLs ^ crere. 2 Cor. iv. 
IO, II, iW Kai rj a>r^ rov 
tv TO) o"oj^xart T^/XU;V 4>a 
K.r.X. Phil. iii. 10, TOU yvwvai 
avTov Kat rrjv Swa/xti/ TI^S ai/a- 
rrTacreo)? O.VTOV (the power belong 
ing to His resurrection; to which 
resurrection admitted Hini) K.r.X. 



eV TM Gew $id TOV icvpiov iifdwv \r]orov Xpi- 
(TTOV, $L ou vvv Tr\v KaTaXXayfiv eXafio/uLev. 
12 Aia n OVTOy (jocrTrep Si eVos dv6pw7rou rf djuap- 
Tia eh TOV KOCTJULOV eicrfjXOev, KO.L Sid TTJS d/ULapTia^ 


13. Or omit the 2nd 6 $<xraTor. 

II. ou fjiovov Se] And not 
only have we this hope, but even 
now, &c. See verse 3. 

See note on 

verse 3, Kca>^<oyuej of. TJ>,o sen 
tence begins ay if the course of 
it were to be this : A-nd not 
only so, but also, exulting in 
God through our Lord Jesus 
Christ... we are able to rejoice 
even in sufferings. But the in 
tervening clause, Si o vvv TTJV 
KaTaAAay^v eAa/3o/xV, suggests 
the new train of thought in 
verse 12, &c. and the construc 
tion is broken. 

vvv] Under the Gospel. See 
note 611 iii. 21, vvvi. 

rrjv KaraAAay^i/} The article 
refers to Kar^XXa-y^/xev, Kara/V- 
Aayerres, in verse 10. That re 

eAajQo/xei/] The tense (ex 
pressing a single past act) refers 
either to the moment of the 
great Redemption, or (more 
probably) to the individual ap 
propriation of it in conversion. 

12 - 21. Ala TOVTO K.T. X.] 

Thus Christ, like Adam, has be 
come the head and ancestor of a 
whole race, who are involved in 

the consequences of His ast. Most 
unlike, indeed, most opposite, are 
the tu O cases: the one, an act of 
transgression, involving judgment 
and death; the other, of obedience, 
leading to acceptance and life. 

12. Sia rovro] /Such being 
the effects of Christ s redemption. 

JWep] The sentence is in 
terrupted by verses 13 17, and 
resumed in verse 18, with a re 
petition of the protasis in an 
altered form; apa ovv cos oC eyes 


oY ei/o s} For the lead 
ing idea of the whole passage, 
compare I Cor. xv. 2J, 22, e7re6- 
&r) yap Si dvOpUTrov 6 ^uVaros, 
KCU Si dvOpwTTOV ca aLrracris ve- 
KpaV. uxJTrep yap zv TW AStt^/, 
TTcxvres dTToOyrjarKovo-iv, evrto? Kai 

Iv TU> XplOTO) TTttVTCS ^tOOTTOl^^T^- 


^ dfjiapna.,.6 OO.VQ.TO<S\ The 
article expresses, sin universal 
...death universal. 

cis TOV Ko oyxov] See note on 
1. 2O, K<xr/xou. 

Sid r^s a/x.OjOTas o ^ai/aro?] 
Gen. ii. 17, LXX. ^ & &v ^V / P?- 
air OLVTOV OavcxTco a7ro0a- 

V. 12, is- 


o $oYaros] Natural death, 
primarily, and as the punish 
ment specially denounced: spi 
ritual and eternal death, inci 
dentally and secondarily, as the 
necessary consequence of the 
severance of a creature from the 
service and love of the Creator. 

SirjXOev] Passed throughout, 
went about, came everywhere, 
spread abroad. Thus I Chron. 
Xxi. 4, LXX. /cat StJyX^ej/ cv Traj/rt 
lo-par;X. 2 Chron. xvii. 9, /cat 
Birj\.0ov v rats TroXecrti/ louSa. 
Psalm Ixxiii. 9, /cat y yXwao-a 
ai^rcoi/ Si7/X$ev CTTI TV/S y^s. cv. 
13, /cat SirjXdov e edvovs ets e$- 
vo?. Luke v. 15, Sr/y pxrro Se 
/xaXXov 6 Xoyos Trept a^rou. ix. 
6. Acts viii. 4, at /^ev ow Sta- 
a"7rapei/Tes Si^X^ov 
voi TO^ Xoyor. X. 38, os 
etiepyertoj/. xvii. 23, 
yap /cat avaOewpwv K. r. X. XX. 
25, {yxets Travres V ols Str/X^ov 

ec^) a>] That is, TT! TOVTOJ o, 
<m ^e ground of this as to which, 
for that, because. So 2 Cor. v. 4, 
Si;cra<r$ai K.T.X. 

^/ia^ a?/ sinned. The argument 
is this. Through Adam sin en 
tered. Through sin death. Death 
spread to all men. On what 
ground? Evidently because all 
men sinned. Yes, there was sin, 
sin everywhere, before there was 
a law ; in the -whole period be 

tween Adam and Moses. That 
sin could not be sin against a 
law not yet given. Yet sin there 
ivas,for there was death. Then 
li Jtence came that sin ? Was it 
not a sin derived, inherited, 
transmitted from Adam 1 } Com 
pare verses 1 5 and 19: TOJ rov 
fvo<5 TrapaTTTw/JtaTL ol TroXXot uVe - 
6avov...8td Trjs TrapaKorjs TOV eyos 
avOpwirov a/zapro)Xot /carecrTu^- 
<rai/ ot TroXXot. The tcilSG ( > i/Jiap- 
roi ) implies that the sin of all 
men was (as it were) wrapped 
up in the one act of Adam s sin, 
and only developed afterwards 
in the individual cases. It is 
not that Adam s descendants 
are made accountable for Adam s 
sin ; but that that one sin of 
his was the germ and nucleus 
of all theirs. 

J 3- axpi yap vop-ov] I say, 
All men sinned; for up to the 
time of a law being given 
through all that long interval 
there certainly was sin, somehow 
or other, everywhere about. 

a^pt vop.oi ] The word a.\pi 
points to the length of the period 
between Adam and Moses. All 
that time, during all those cen 
turies, up to the very moment 
when a Divine Law (strictly so 
called) was first promtdgated. 
The absence of the article be 
fore vo/xoo; makes the statement 
general, as expressed in the 
above paraphrase. 



yap VOJULOV ajUictpTia j\v ev KO(T/ULM ) a/mapTLa oe OVK 

14 e AAoyerrat jut] OVTOS VOJJLOW a AAa 6/3acri\vcrev 6 aVo ASa/>t fjie^pi Mcofcreto? KCU ITTL TOVS 

juir] d{j.apTt]cravTas ETTL TCO oiuLOLCojmaTL TT/S Trapa- 

14. Or omit /J.TI. 

Iv Kooyxco] In a world, in a 
whole world. The absence of 
the article emphasizes the vast- 
ness of the field. See note on 

IV. 13, KOOr/JtOV. 

ct/xaprta Se] There can be no 
transgression of a non existing 
law. The sin of those ivho lived 
between Adam and Moses could 
not be sin against that Law of 
Moses which was not promul 
gated. It must have some other 
explanation. For the axiom 
here stated, see iv. 15, ov Se OVK 
CCTTIV vo^co?, oijSe Trapa/Jacrts, and 
note there. 

eA/Voyetrai] The verb eXXo- 
yeTv (or eAAoyai/) ill its literal 
sense, to charge in a reckoning, 
occurs in Philem. 18, TOVTO e/xot 
eXXoya (or eXXoyet). 

jj^rj ovros vo/xouj If a law 
does not exist. And no Divine 
Law, in the sense of an express 
revelation of duty, did exist be 
fore the time of Moses. 

14. aXXa e /foo-i Xeuo-eT/] Ne 
vertheless death reigned ; and 
therefore there must have been 
sin. Whence derived, but from 

Mwuo-e oos] See note on 

Even ^lpon those who sinned 
not upon (on the model of] the 
likeness of the transgression 
of Adam. That death, which 
marked the presence of sin, was 
inflicted even where there had 
been no following of Adam 
(Art. ix.). The special law a- 
gainst which Adam sinned could 
not be transgressed by his off 
spring: it ceased with the for 
feiture of Paradise. But even 
those who had committed no 
personal sin, who lived not to 
years of reason, died like the 
rest. Whence was that death 
derived 1 ? 

TOV? /XT/] If /AT] be omitted 
(see various reading), the sense 
must be, upon those also who 
sinned after the likeness, &c., ex 
pressing the extension and pro 
pagation of the ruin. But the 
force of the argument is thus 
seriously impaired. 

a/xapr7fcravras] This first 
aorist of ayuaprai/w occurs also in 
verse 16 and vi. 15. Also Matt. 
xviii. 15. Heb. iii. 17. 2 Pet. 
ii. 4 ; 

d/xotco/xart] See note on i. 23, 
tv d/xotoj/xart. 

Trapa^acreoos] See note on ii. 

V. 14, i5- 


/3a creo)? *ASa/r os ecrTiv TVTTOS TOV 

a\\ ov^ cos TO TrapaTTTMfjLa, OVTCOS KCCL TO %d- 15 

picr/ma ei yap TOO TOV eVo? TrapaTTTcofJiaTL ol 

ytvo/xej/ot TOU TTOLJJLVLOV. 

TOV /xe AAovTos] The title o 
/xe AAa)!/, ^7ie Future one, is pecu 
liar to this place. Elsewhere 
an infinitive follows; as in Matt. 
xi. 14, HAwxs o /xe AAwv 
Luke xxiv. 21, d /xe AAwi/ 
o-#ai TOV Io-pa7;A. 2 Tim. iv. I, 
TOU /xe AAoi Tos KpiVetv ^aWa? Kat 
7/eKpous. The commoner phrase 
is o ep^o/xei/os. Matt. xi. 3, cru 
et o* cp^o/xevo? ; Luke vii. 19, 20. 
Heb. x. 37 (from Hab. ii. 3, 
LXX.), d ep^o/xei os >}et Kat ov 


fore in this respect Adam is a 
type of Christ ; that he involved 
his descendants in the conse 
quences of his act. See i Cor. 
XV. 45) TrpwTO? ttv$pa>7ros A8a/x, 
...o ecr^ttTO? Aoa/x. 

TUTTO?] The original meaning 
of TUTTOS is a stroke or Wow. 
Hence the result of striking or 
beating: as (i) a mark or im 
pression; John xx. 25, eoV /XT; 

ta) ev rats ^epcrv a>To 
TCOV r} Aw K.T. A. (2) A form, 
figure or image; Amos v. 26, 
LXX. (quoted in Acts vii. 43), 
T?}V o-Kfjvrjv TOV MoXo^, /cat TO 
aarpov TOV tov V/JLWV 
TOIJS TATTOO;? ovs iTroi fjcraTt 
K.T.X. and (in a different appli 
cation) Acts xxiii. 25, 7rio-To- 
(3) A model, pattern, or likeness; 
as here, and vi. 17, ets 6V Trape- 
SoOrjTe TIITTOV StSa^s. Exod. 
xxv. 40 (quoted in Heb. viii. 
5), opa 7rot7yo-t /caTa TOV TVTTOV 
ToV SeSety/xevov o~ot ev TO) opet. 
Acts vii. 44. i Cor. x. 6, 
K.T.X. Phil. iii. 17, 
TI/TTOV 7^/xas. i Thess. i. 7, axrre 
yevtcrOaL v/xas TVTTOV K. T. A. 2 
Thess. iii. 9. i Tim. iv. 12, 
TUTTOS -yivov TOJV TricTTcGv. Tit. ii. 
7, creavTov Trape^o/xevos TI/TTOV 
epyojv. I Pet. V. 3, TVTTOI 

15. aAA ovx ws] - 
this one point of resemblance, all 
else is most opposite. On the one 
side, TrapdVToyxa, on tlie 
otlier, ^apts, Stopea. 

TO ^upta"/xa] See note on i. 
II, ^apto~(xa Trveu/xaTtKOV. 

ot TroAAot . . .TOVS TroAAovsj The 
many; mankind generally, the 
world of men. The Redemption 
is co-extensive with the Fall. 
It embraces all, though all may 
not embrace it. See John i. 29, 
o alpcov Tf]V a/xapTtav TOV KOCT/XOV. 
iii. 17, iva o-a)$r7 d KOO-/XOS oY av- 

O 0-0)TT7p TOV KOO-fJiOV. vi. 51 

TTJS TOV KOO~(J.OV ^a>^s. I John ii. 
2, iAao-/xds o-Ttv...7Tpt oAou TOV 
KOO-/XOV. For the phrase ot TTO\- 
Aoi (obviously equivalent here to 
in verse 18) 



TTO\\OI ctTreQavov, TTO\\W fjiaXXov r\ % ^oi5 TOU 
Qeou Kai ;/ (Hwpea tv j^apiTL Ttj TOU eVos dvdpcd- 
TTOV Iticrou \pi<TTOv ek TOi)s 7roAAoi)s eTrepLcrcrev- 
16 crev. KO.L ov^ cos Si evos djULapTrjcravTOs, TO ScJ- 
. TO fJtev yap Kpi^a e evos e 

compare xii. 5, ot TroAXot ei> crt^aa 

S< ? AI/ \ , z Coi \ x y7> 33* ^ fo- 

TOJI/ TO IfMivTOv av/Acfropov dXXoi 
TO rcuv TToX/Xwi/. 2 Cor. ii. 17. 

direOavov] The aorist implies 
that the death of all Adam s 
offspring lay (as it were) included 
in his death, and may be spoken 
of as a single past event; just 
as their sins (see the conclusion 
of the note on verse 12, e\ <S 
TTttVres TJfJiapTov) may be described 
as all summed up in his sin, and 
just as the death of Christ is 
said to contain in it the death 
of all the redeemed : 2 Cor. v. 
15, ets vTrtp Travrcov a7re$aj/ei/ 
a pa ot Traces aTreOavov (that is, 
in the Person of Christ). 

7roXA.a) fjia\\ov] An argument 
a fortiori. Much more surely 
can we assert the good than the 
evil. See verse 17. 

v; Sojpea] Explained in verse 
17, Trjs Scopea? T^S 8iKatocrw?7<j. 
The same word is elsewhere ap 
propriated to the gift of the 
Spirit, whether generally, or in 
reference to particular opera 
tions of grace. See John iv. i o, 
t ^Seis rrjv Scopeav rov ov. 
Acts ii. 38, Kai A.?;/x^eo-$ rrjv 
Scopeav TOV ayiou Trvef/xaros. viii. 
20, rrjv Swpeay TOV eov. X. 45, 

on Kat CTTI Ttt eOvY) rj So>pea TOJ 
TTFCt /xaro? eKKe^vrat. xi. 

17. Eph. iii. 7. iv. 7, Kara TO 
jj.erpov TTJS ocopea? TOU XptcrTov. 
In the two remaining passages 
(2 Cor. ix. 15. Heb. vi. 4) the 
word may be understood as in 
cluding all that God gives in 

et/ xu ptTi T^] These words 
should be taken closely with 
Scopea, as forming part of that 
term, and therefore not requir 
ing the repetition of the article. 
See note on iv. i, Kara crapKa. 

tTreptVo-e-ucrev] See note on 
iii. 7, eTrepiVo-euo-ey. 

1 6. Kat ov% to?] Another 
point of contrast. The sin ivhich 
wrought the ruin was but one; 
the sins which caused the redemp 
tion were many. 

OL CFOS a/xapTr/o-avTos] By 
means of one man having sinned; 
that is, by one sin. Supply ot 
TroA/Xot oVe^avoi/, or the like. 

TO oojprjfjLo^ That is, OU TCO Kat 
TO S(op>7/Aa eo-Tti . For ScopTy/xa, 
see James i. 17, TTO.V Swpvy/xa TC- 
A.CIOV avwBiv I&TIV. 

TO fjiv yap] One man s sin 
caused judgment to fall, unto 
condemnation : a multitude of 
offences drew forth (from God s 

V. 1 6 18. 




itojULa. el yap eV eW TrapaiTTcofJiaTL 6 GdvaTOS IJ 
e(3acri\evcrev ^LCC TOV eVos, TroAAw juia\\ov ol TI\V 
7repicr<T6Lav T;?? X ( *P LTOg Ka ^ T ^ s ^wpea? TT/S cU- 
Kaiocrvvns XafjLfidvovTes eV wj/ /3aa"i\v<rovartv 
$La TOV ei/os l7/<roi/ \pia~TOV. apa ovv ok c)i 18 

17. Or 

7. TO; rou 
Or oi 

Or eZ 7. 


compassion} the free gift, unto 

Kpt/xa . . . KaraKpt/xa] Judgment 
...condemnation. For the dis 
tinction see, for example, i Cor. 
XI. 32, Kpwofjievoi. . . "va fJirj . . . Kara- 
See also note on ii. 

Sprang out of, 
originated in: as though the 
very multitude of sins caused the 
interposition for man s rescue. 

StKattoyaa] Here, sentence of 
acquittal: the opposite of Kara- 
KpLfj.a. See note on i. 32. 

17. ev eyt TrapaTTTOj/xart] In 
one transgression death reigned; 
that is, established his reign 
(tfBaaiXtvo-ev, not ej3a<jL\vev). 
One single sin had in it the 
establishment of death s domi 
nion. Compare James i. 15, ^ 

Odvarov. The reading TW ro9 
ei os (for ei> Ft) rests, however, 
on equal or even higher authori 
ty, unless taken from verse 15, 
where it is undisputed. 

Sta TOV ei/os] By means of 
the one transgressor. 

Xov] //* 07Z-C s? w q/* 
could thus establish for 
all men the reign of death, much 
more easy is it to believe that the 
divine grace of one Man shall 
establish for all men the reign 
of life. The Fall is a greater 
mystery than the redemption. 
He who has had experience of 
the one may well accept the re 
velation of the other. See 
Terse 16. 

rrjv TT. rrjs %. KCU rrjs 8.] The 
articles refer to the words of 

verse 1 5 : x a P ts 
o-ev(jv. That abundance of that 
grace and of that gift which 
have been already spoken of. 

ei/ 00^] Antithesis to o Odva- 

Rev. v. 10, /cat 

tepets, /cat ^SacrtA.ercrp ucriv eTrt rrjs 
yfjs. XX. 6. xxii. 5, Kat j3ao-i\v- 
<rovo iv cts TOL S at to^as Ttor atcuva^v. 
1 8. ets Trai/Tas] Supply in the 
former clause TO /cptyua ey e vero 
or the like; and in the latter TO 



7rapa7rTtoiu.aTOs eis iravra^ dvBpwTrovs 


vaj7rovs es 





TOV e^os dv6pa)7TOV dp.ap- 
KaTeo"Td6rio av ol 7ro\\oi, OUTWS Kai Sia 
VTraKOtjs TOV ei/os StKaioi 

righteous act: regarding the 
whole work of Christ as one 
single act of obedience, con 
trasted with the one 

pa/?acrts Kat TrapaKor) eAa^Sev 

of Adam. See again note on i. 

A form which oc 
curs only here and in iv, 25 : see 
note 011 i. 17, o lKaiocrvvr] yap 
0eo. The act of making a per 
son Sucatov by acquittal or abso 

SiKat coouv 00^9] A 8iKatwo~is 
of (belonging to, inseparably con 
nected loitlb] life, eternal life. John 
xvii. 2,3, tVa TraV o Se ScoKas a^rw, 

Se eo~Ttv 7y atojytos 0077 K.r.X. See 
note on vi. 4, ev Kati/or^rt ^00179. 

one is properly mishearing, the 
other submissive hearing. For 
the contrast, see Isai. Ixv. 1 2, LXX. 
v/xa9 Kat ot>x yn"f]i<ovo~ar, 
Kat TraprjKovo~a.T. 2 Cor. 

X. ^, 6, atYi(XaX(jl)Tt4OVT5 TTttV VOY]- 

Kat ev erot/xa) e^orre? tKOiKrjo-ai 
7rao"av TrapaKoyv orav 7r\r]pu>6fj 
Vfj.wv r/ VTraKor]. For 
see a] so Heb. ii. 2, Kat 7rao-a 

Kar^crrdOrjcrav ol 
TroXXot] Mankind, men collect 
ively and universally, were con 
stituted (established as) sinners. 
See Art. ix. Original Sin... is 
the fault and corruption of the 
nature of every man that natu 
rally is Engendered of the off 
spring of Adam ; ivhereby man 
is very far gone from original 
righteousness, and is of his own 
nature inclined to evil. See 
note on verse 12, ec/> a> iravres 
rj^aprov. Compare also verse 
15, TU> TOV ei/os TrapaTTTco/xart ot 
TroAAot aTriOavov and the note 
on ot TroXXot . . . TOUS TroXXovs. For 
the forms KarecrTa^o-av, Kara- 
crra^o-ovrat, see Psalm ii. 6, LXX. 
eytu Se KaTeo-Ta6r]v /3acrL\vs VTT* 
avrov e?rt Stwj/ opo?. Prov. xxix. 
14, o 6povos CLVTOV cts fjiaprvptov 

VTraKorjs TOV e^os] Phil. 
ii. 8, yei/o /zevos VTTT/KOOS p-c^pi Oa- 
vdrov, Oavdrov 8e oraupou. Heb. 
v. 8, KatTrep (Sv vto?, ffJiaOtv a^> 
tov eTra^ei/ rr/v VTraKO^i . Com 
pare Matt. iii. 15, ovrws yap 

V. ip, 2o. 


ol TTO\\OL. 

TO TrapctTTTcojUia ov 



ojcrai Tra- 

TroAAoi] Mankind, the world of 
men, sJiall be constituted (esta 
blished as) righteous. Such is the 
amplitude of the Redemption. 
All are redeemed (i John ii. 2, 
ou Trept To5i/ ^/xerepcov 8e /xovov 
ttAAa Kat Trept, oAof TCW /coayxoi;) : 
if men perish now, it is not for 
want of room (Luke xiv. 22), 
but for want of faith. 

2O. vogues 8e TrapetcrTy/X^ej/] 
The train of thought is like that 
in Gal. iii. 10,, TI ovf o vo/x,os ; 
If we pass thus by one step from 
Adam to Christ, from the uni 
versal Fall to the universal Re 
demption, what becomes of the 
Law 2 ivhat place is left for it ? 
This. It was a sort of paren 
thesis in God s procedure: it 
was not the original, and it was 
not the final dispensation : it 
came in as if by the way, and 
for a particular purpose (Iva. 


VO/AOS] As in verse 13, a.\pi 
yap vo/Jiov. Not the law, but a 
law ; a dispensation having this 
characteristic, that it was a sys 
tem of law; of command and 
prohibition, of promised reward 
and threatened punishment. 

Trapeto-^A^ci/] Came in by the 
way; parenthetically, and there 
fore temporarily. Gal. iii. 19, 

rwv Trapafidcrewv \apiv 

K.r.X. For 7rapeio-?//\$ei/ see Gal. 

ii. 4, omyes Trapeio-r/A.tfoj/ Kara- 

rrjv eA.U0eptW t/jfiiav. 
And for like double compounds 
with ?rapa and efc, compare -rrap- 
et<rayeiv (2 Pet. ii. l), TrapetV- 
OKTOS (Gal. ii. 4), Trapttuo veiv 
(Jude 4), Trapeto-Tropeueo-^at (2 
Mace. viii. i). 

Lva 7rAeovtto-ry] St Paul is not 
afraid to ascribe to God s pur 
pose that which results from 
God s procedure. The whole of 
the yth chapter is the comment 
ary upon this verse. 

TrXeovacr^J Like Treptacreuetv, 
the verb TrXeoi/a^eu/ has a trans 
itive as well as intransitive 
use. See Num. xxvi. 54, LXX. 
TCHS TrAeiocrt TrXeo^ttcrets Trjv i<\7)- 
povofjiiav. Psalm 1. if), TO frro//.a 
crou eTrA.eorao e KO.KIO.V. Ixxi. 21, 
CTrAeovacras TTJV /xeyaA.couut ^r crov. 
I Thess. iii. 12, v/ias Se o Ku- 
pto? TrXeovacrat Kat Treptcrireucrai 
T^ ayaTr^ K.r.A. In this place, 
it might be so taken (that it 
might multiply the transgres 
sion} but for its evidently in 
transitive use in the following 
clause, ov Se eTrXeoi/acrev ry cxyitap- 

TO TrapaTTToo/xa] ^7^0 offence. 
That TrapaTTroo/m of Adam, which 
had in it (in germ) the sum of 
human sin. See verses 12, 



21 vTrepeTrepicra-evcrev i] %apis, iva wo-Trep e(3a(ri\ev- 
crev t] a/mapria eV TCO 6civa.Tcp, OVTCOS KCLL 1} 
fiacriXevorri cua $iKCUO<rvvti$ els fatjv alwviov 

Irj(TOU XplCTTOV TOU KVp lOV 1r}fJiU)V. 

VI. i T/ ovv epov/mev ; 7ri]u.6V(x)]UL6v TJ} djmapTia, 

ov 8e] 3 r e over sin thus 
multiplied gratuitous mercy has 
but had a more signal victory. 

eTr/XeoVaa-ev 77 a/xaprta] I Esdr. 
viii. 72, at yap a/xaprtat vy/xcov 
eTT/Xeovacrtty virtp ras /ce(/)aAas 
yi^wv. Ecclus. xxiii. 3, OTTOOS /XT; cx/xaprtat p.ou Tr/Xeovacrcocrt. 

U7repe7reptcro-ei;o-v] 2 Cor. vii. 
4, U7rep7reptcrorevo/xat TTJ X a P?" 
I Tim. i. 14, uTrepeTrXeot acrei/ 6e 

21. F TW ^ai/arto] 7n death, 
as its domain and sphere of 
sovereignty. In verse 14, death 
was the sovereign (e/Sacri Aevcrei/ 
d 0avaros): here, sin is the 
sovereign, and death its realm. 

/JacnAevcny] The tense ex 
presses the establishment of the 
dominion of grace by one deci 
sive act. Might erect its throne; 
might set up its kingdom. 

SLO. StKaiocnV^s] It is Tjy 
means of righteousness, by the 
grant of God s gift of righteous 
ness to man (see i. 17. iii. 21, 
&c.), that this reign of grace is 

VI. I, &C. Tt ow e po^/xev] 
The assertion of the gratuitous 
acceptance of man, and more 
especially an expression used in 

v. 20 (ov Se e Xeovavev TI ct/xap- 
Tia, uTrepeTrepurcreuo ev rj ^apts), 
might appear to sanction the 
fatal error of regarding sin as a 
matter of indifference, or even 
as a tribute to the greatness of 
God s grace in pardoning. The 
utter incompatibility of a life of 
sin with a life of faith, is the 
subject of this chapter. 

i. rt ow] What inference 
shall we draw from what lias 
been said ? Shall we say, The 
more we sin, the more will 
grace be magnified ? 

7rt/xeVco/x,ev] The subjunctive 
(must we, are we to) as in verse 
15, Tt ow; a/xapr^ croj/xe^ K.r.X. 
I Cor. iv. 21, Tt ^e Aere; ei/ pa- 
j3Su) !A$<o Trpos v/Jias K.r.A.. For 
e7ri/xej/av with a dative, to remain 
upon, to persist in, see xi. 22, 
23, eav 7Ti/xetV77<; rrj ^prjcrTOT^TL. . . 
eav /XT; cVtp;etVaJO-ti/ TT} cxTrtcrrttt. 
Col. i. 23, et ye tTrtytxei/ere TT; 
Trtcrret. i Tim. iv. 16, iirC^vf. 
a\)Toi<s. Elsewhere absolutely, 
^o stoy on, to abide further ; as 
in Acts x. 48, ypwr-rjcrav O.VTOV 
eTTt/mvat ijfjipa<; rtj/a?. xii. 1 6, 
o , Se Herpes eTre txei/ev Kpovwv. 
xxi. 4, 10. xxviii. 12,14. i Cor. 
xvi. 7, 8, eiu/xetvai Trpos u/xa?... 

V. ax VI. 3 . 117 

r\ XjOf? TrXeovacrri ; (jit] yevoiro. oiTives ctTreSd- 2 
vop.ev TJ d^apTia, TTW? en fyjarojULev iv avTrj ; r] 3 

oj Se Iv Ec^e cro) ews 717? 
. Gal. i. 18. Phil. i. 
24, TO Se 7rt/zei/eu/ ei/ TT^ crap/a 

omyes] See note on i. 
25, omves. JFe whosoever: we 
being persons tvho: seeing that 
we, &c. 

otnves direOavofJiev K.r.A.] Ob 
serve St Paul s method of deal 
ing with the Antinomian. In 
stead of fettering the Gospel 
with antecedent conditions or 
timid qualifications, he makes 
the very freedom of the grace a 
barrier against that sin which 
would spoil and ruin it. When 
Christ died, you died. A dead 
-man cannot sin. And you are 
dead ; dead as to that life over 
which alone sin has power, the 
life of flesh and sense and time: 
how then can you sin ? To sin is 
to forfeit just that which is your 
glory just that which makes 
your Christianity a present 
union with Christ in His life 
after death in heaven. 

ct7r$di/o/Aev] Died; not have 
died. A particular time and 
event is referred to : and that is 
the death of Christ. A Christian 
is one who is united to Christ ; 
united by the possession of the 
Holy Spirit; so united that 
it is as though he had already 
passed through that death, and 
entered upon that life after 

V. R. 

death, which Christ has actually 
passed through and actually 
entered upon. See 2 Cor. v. 
15, ets VTrep TraVrcoj/ a7re $ai/ei/ 
apa o! 7raj/T<j aTTf.6a.vov. Ga,l. ii. 
2O, Xptcrro) <Tweo-Tca pwpu o1 
8e OVKZTL eyco K. r. \. Col. iii. 3, 
tt7re$ai/Te yap, /cat 77 a7 u/xtoi 

KKpV7TTO.L (TVV T(5 XptfTTW !/ TO) 

ew. I Pet. iv. i, XptaroG ovv 
Tra^ovros crapKt Kat v/xets Tt]v 
CLVTYJV (.vvoiav (the same idea or 
conception; namely, that you, 
too died with Him and in Him] 

rfj d[j.apTLa] A dative of re 
lation. Compare verse 7, d yap 
SeStKatcorat CLTTO rrs 


3. ^ ayi/oetre K. r. A.] All 
Christians died when Christ 
died. That is the date, for all, 
of that death which is their life. 
But the personal appropriation 
of this death with Christ is 
later in time. It comes only 
with faith. Baptism (in the case 
of a penitent and believing con 
vert) was the moment of the in 
dividual incorporation. We were 
baptized into Christ. Acts ii. 
38, /xeTavo^crare Kat fBaTrricrOyTU) 
Ifcaoros UjLtcov. ..ets a^ecrtv TOJV 
a/xaprtojv v^ioV, KUI XijfJuf/^o Oc TTJV 
Swpeav rov aytov Trvev/xaro?. Now 
into what state and condition of 
Christ were we thus incorpo 
rated 1 Not into Christ as a 





<yvoeT6 OTL OCTOL eaTTTicrn/uiev es 
\r](rovv e:s TOV QCLVCLTOV avTOv 
4 crvveTa<ptifjiv ovv auTco Sid TOV /3a7rTi(riu.aTO<s ek 
TOV OdvoLTOv, *iva wcnrep tj^yepdt] XpicrTos e /c 1/6- 
Sid Trjs So^s TOL/ IIaT|OOs, oirrws /ecu 
TrepiTrctTijcrwiutev. el yap 

. Or 

5 e KaivoTriTi 

Man living on the earth before 
death; but into Christ as One 
who has died; nay, into His very 
death itself. Compare John xii. 


7T6CTOJV ets TT^V y^v a.7ro6avr), avros 
/xoi/os ftei/ef eav 8e aTroOavr], TTO- 
AUJ/ Kaprrov <$>epL. 

?} ayvoe^re] vii. T, ry ayi/oeTre, 
a 8eX^)ot K. T. X. 

ey8a.7rTtcr$T7/i.ev et? Xpicrrov] 
The exact expression occurs 
also in Gal. iii. 27, ocrot yap ets 
Xptcrrov J3aTTTLcrOTf]T t Xptcrrov 
eveSuo-acr^e. Compare I Cor. xii. 
13^ ev tvi Trvev/JiaTi ryjU-eTs Travres 
ei? ev crw/JLa eySaTrrtcr^Ty/xev. 

4. CTwera^Ty/xev ow] TFc 
w^re buried then with Him, by 
means of that baptism, into that 
death. In other words, Our 
baptism ivas a sort of funeral ; 
a solemn act of consigning us 
to that death of Christ in which 
we are made one with Him. 
And with this object: not that 
we might remain dead, but that 
we might rise with Him from 
death, experience (even in this 
world) the power of His resur 
rection, and live the life which 

ice now live in the flesh as men 
who have already died and risen 
again. Col. ii. 12, 13, o-vvra- 
<ei/TS avru) ev TO) pairriO p.aTL, iv 
a> Kat crvvTrfyep6if)T,..Kal i5/xas ve- 
Kpo us ovras. . .crwc^woTrotTycrev v/xas 
avv avrco K.T.A.. iii. I, et ow crw- 
TrjyepOrjre TCO Xptcrrw, ra ava> ^ret- 

T K. T. /\. 

ets roV ^avarov] These words 
probably depend upon crwera- 
(frrjfjiev, not upon /SaTrrt cr/.taro?. 

Sta rry? 80^77?] .Z)^ means of 
the glory of the Father : by the 
manifestation, of the Divine per 
fections, especially of Almighty 
power. See notes on i. 23, 
oo^av. iv. 20, 801)5 So tai . 

T^5 So^s] So in John xi. 40, 
01/07 r> 7 v So^ai/ TOI) eoi) is given 
as an equivalent expression for 
aj/ao-rryo-erai o a Se/\(/>os crov in 
verse 23. Compare 2 Cor. xiii. 
4, 77 e/c Swa/xecos eo9. Eph. i. 
19, 20, Kara TTJV ei/epyetav TOV 
/cparous r^s icr^vo? avrov 
yr}(Tv Iv T(3- Xptcrra) eyeipas 


ev Kaii/or^rt w7<; i new 
ness of (belonging to) life. That 
is, i? a new state originating in 

VI. 4, 5- 119 

yeyovajuiei TM ofJLOtwfJiaTt TOU Oavdrov av- 

tliQ communication of Ufa to the 
soul, that true life which con 
sists in. union with God through 
Christ. Compare vii. 6, too-re 

OOvXfVCLV Ty/xa? iv KttlVOTTjTt TTVV- 

/AttTO? Kat ov TraAatoTTyTt ypd/JiUia- 
TOS. For KawoTTtjs, see Ezek. 
xlvii. 12, LXX. d KapTrds auroS 
rrj<s KaivoTTjTos avrov 7rp<aTo(3o\tj- 
<ret K. r. A. For aj7y iri this em 
phatic sense, John i. 4, eV avrcp 
a>7y ryv, Kat 7y a>7y ryi/ TO (/>a;s TU!I> 
ai/#paj7rooy. iii. 36, d 7no"Teua>v ei? 
TO i/ vlov %X. Gi ^ a)7 7 I/ atcovioi/ d 8e 

aTTCwdjV TO) VtW OVK O\f/TO.l 

v. Ka ^ 

/xe ia COTI/ e^re. v. 33, Kara- 
pCLWdiv IK TOV ovpavov KCU ^wryi/ 
oiSot)? TO) Koar/Jia). x. 10, eyco 
rjX.Oov Iva, u>rjv e^cocrtv. xvii. 3, 
Se eorti/ ry atcoi^tos 0077, U a 
rii/ ere TOJ/ /AOVOV d\.rjOivov 
ov Kttt 6V a7recrretA.a<j Ijycrow 
dr. And for the genitive 
<?, v. 1 8, ets SiKaLWcriv ^coryij. 
John v. 29, Kat eK7ropei;croi/Tai ot 
ra aya$a TrotT^cravres ets a^acrra- 

The meta 
phorical use of this word begins 
to appear in John viii. 12, d 
ciKoAmi^oji /xoi 01; /jfry TreptTraTTycr^ 
ev TT} crKOTta, dAA e et TO ^>ojs Trys 
4^5. xii. 35> TreptTraTciTe co? TO 
<^c3 e^eTe, ti/a /a,7y (TicoTta v/xas 
KctTaXdfir}. In Acts xxi. 21, the 
derived sense is complete : /u,7y8e 
TOS Weviv TrfpnraTelv. In the 
Epistles of St Paul and St John 
it is frequent in this sense. 

With eV, it indicates the field 
or area in which the motion, or 
conduct is exercised : as, for 
instance, Eph. ii. 10, aurou yap 
l(r/j.ev TTOirjfjia., KTtcr^eVres eV Xpt- 
O~TO) I7yo"oi) 7rt epyot? dyaOois 
ots Trpo^TOL/Jiao ev o @eds u/a ev 
awTOts TreptTraTryVwyxev (in allll- 
sion, perhaps, to the place pre 
pared for the home of the jlrst 
creation: Gen. ii. 15, LXX. e /Va- 
/3e Kijptos d eo5 TOV dvOpwirov 
ov e A.acre, /cat e (9eTo O.VT(]V iv TCU 
TrapaSewro) T/y? Tpuc^/y?, epya^ecr^at 
ai rdj/ /cat <^vXacro-eti/). For the 
distinction between 
and ^771^ (as here 
and 0077?) see Col. iii. 7, eV ols 
Kat v/^ets 7repte7raT77<Tare TTOTC OTC 
e^re ev Toirrot<?. The tense, ex 
pressing a single act, sums up 
the whole of life into one com 
prehensive action. 

5. et yap cruyx^urot] As surely 
as we are united ivith Christ in 
His death, so surely shall ^ue be 
united with Him in His resur 
rection. See Phil. iii. 10, ii, 
o~w/x / aop<^)to y/,ei/os TO) Oavdrw au- 
TOT), et TTOJS KO.ravTYj(j(a ets Tryi/ 
e^avao-Tao-tv Tryv C K veKpcoV. 2 Tim. 
ii. II, TTIO-TOS d Xdyos ct yap 
o-wa7re^avoyxer, Kat o-w^cro/xe^. 
But when? hereafter only, or in 
this life? Sometimes the one 
thought predominates, some 
times the other. The comple 
tion of the promise is future : 
but there is an approximation 
to it now. A Christian ought 


6 TOM, d\\a Kcti 




to live now as if lie were al 
ready risen ; and thus lie does, 
in some measure, by virtue of a 
spiritual union with Him who 
is risen : but what he is only 
approximately now, he shall be 
after resurrection perfectly. And 
the process being gradual be 
ginning as soon as he receives 
any portion of Christ s Spirit, 
advancing as he receives more, 
and perfected at death the 
language used to describe his 
state is applicable, more or less 
fully, to different stages of his 

o~v/JL<f>VToi yeyovoLfJiev] As e/x- 
<I;TOS is innate, born in, im 
planted by birth (Wisdom xii. 
10, /X,</>UTOS 77 KO.KIO. avTuv. James 
i. 21, Se^acrOe TOV l^vrov Xoyov 
K.r.X. the word which is implant 
ed in us at the new birth; see 
1 8, aTreKwyo-ei/ Tracts /Voya> dXr]- 
0eias), so (Tv/x^vros is (i) connate, 
born with, combined with by 
birth or process of nature ; and 
by an easy step (2) cognate or 
akin to. Amos ix. 13, LXX. KOL 
Travre? ot j3ovvoi av/Ji^vTOi f.o~ov- 
TO.L (shall be cognate, akin in 
productiveness). Zech. xi. 2, 
6XoXva.T Spues... OTI Ka,Teo~7rdo~Or) 
o Spv/xos d crvjjif^vTo<; (your kin 
dred oak-forest}. Wisdom xiii. 


<^TJKOS (connate with knots, grown 
into knots). Here therefore the 
literal rendering is, If we have 
become connate with (have ac 

quired a union of nature with, 
have been born into union witli) 
the likeness of His death. In 
other words, If we have become 
so united with His death (with 
Him in His death) as to be like 
it (like Him in it}. And the 
practical proof of this resem 
blance is, a deadness to the in 
fluences of sense and sin, like 
that which a dead man shows : 
see verse 7. 

d\\a Kat] Supply avfJi^vroL 
T<J) o/xotco/xart. 

s o-o/xe0a] In this life approxi 
mately; after death perfectly. 

6. rovro yti/oxTKovres] 2 Pet. 


OTI K.T.A.. iii. 3. 

o TraXaios rjfjiwv ai/$pa)7ros] 
Our old self. So in Eph. iv. 22, 
24, a7ro6 l cr0at...TOV TraAaiov av- 
Op(i)7rov TOV <$etpo/xevov Kara, ras 
T^S a7rar?;s . . . KCU evSv- 
TOV KCLIVOV dv6pu>7rov K.r./X. 
Col. iii. 9, 10, aTreKSuo-a/xevot TOV 
7ra\a.Lov uvOpwTrov crvv rats irpa.- 
ecrLv O.VTOV, KO! iv^vcrd^voi TOV 
viov TOV dva.Ka.Lvov[jievov K.r.X. 
And in other phrases; as vii. 
22, Kara TOV e trco aV$pco7rov. 2 Cor. 
iv. 1 6, et Kat o e^co TJjaoov dvOpio- 
TTO? Sia<$eipeTcu, cxAX o ecrco >]/x(3i/ 
ava/caii ovrai K.r.A.. Eph. iii. 16, 
ei? TOV eo-co avOpwirov. I Pet. 
iii. 4> KP^TTTOS TT^S KapSt as ai/- 
^PCOTTO?. The word TraXaios is 
not necessarily a term of re 
proach ; but only in certain 
applications. Thus (i) in a good 

VI. 6, 7 . 


, OTL 6 7ra\aios IJ/ULCOV avOpwiros crvve- 
iva KctTapyijOri TO era /ma TT/S d/uLap- 

TOU /ULfJKeTl ^OV\6VLl> rj/ULaS TTj djULapTia* 6 7 

sense, Luke v. 39, o 
YP^O-TO? \or Yprco-Toreposl earir. 

-r i j, v v 

i Jonn 11. 7i OVK evToXrjv Ka.Lvt]v 
ypa^co vfjuv, a AX ei/ToA?)i/ TraXatdV, 
7/j/ tt^cTe UTT a p^g. Dan. vii. 9, 
13, 22, LXX.. eo)5 ov rjWtv o Tra- 
Xatos TOJI/ TJuepiav /c.T.X. Ecclus. 
IX. 10, otvos veo?, <t Xos veos* eai 
7raXaia)c/7^, tteT V(hpoo"vvn<; Tri eo-at 
auToV. (2) In a disparaging 
sense, as here, i Cor. v. 7, 8, 

iva ryre vov 

/Ar; ei/ CW/XT; 7raA.ata K.r.A. 
Vlli. 13, TreTraAat wKev TT^V 
TO Se 7raXaiov / ae^ov Kat y- 


verses 2 


T;] See notes on 
and 3. The verb crv- 
is found ( i ) literally, in 
xxvii. 44, ot A^O-TCU ot 
pwOevTes vvv auToJ. Mark 
xv. 32. John xix. 32: (2) figu 
ratively, here, and in Gal. ii. 20, 
Xptoroi o-weoravpco/xat. It is as 
though 7, my old self, my ori 
ginal being, my jleshly body and 
natural mind, had hung beside 
Christ upon the cross, like the 
malefactors between whom He 
was crucified. 

Karapyr)0fj] See note on iii. 
3, KaTapytja-cL. 

TO o-cu/xa r^s ajuapTias] The 
body of (belonging to] sin. Not 
a mere periphrasis for sin, as if 
it were the substance or sum of 

sin ; but rather to be understood 
(as the context shows) of the ma 
terial body in its present unre- 
ne wed state, as the inlet of tempta 
tion and the agent of sin. It was 
the object of the crucifixion ivitJi 
Christ of the old man, to reduce 
to a state of inaction and impo 
tence (Ko.Tapyeu ) this natural 
body, of matter and sense, so 
far as it is the slave of self-will 
and sin; and to enable the 
Christian man to live already as 
though he had actually died with 
Christ and risen again. The 
exact parallel is Col. ii. n, 12, 
iv a) KOL TrepLZTp. rjOrjTe TrepiTO/Jirj 
a^etpoTroiTyTco, ei/ rfj aTrtKOvcrei TOV 
cra>//a.TOS TT/S crapKO?, tv rrj Trept- 
Top.ri TOV XptoToi), (ju^Ta^ei/Tes 
auTO) iv TO) /^aTTTicr/zaTi, iv a> /cat 
o-vvr]ytp6r}T K.T.\. The o-cG/xa 
TT^S a/xapTt as here is the o-w/xa 
rrjs crapKos there j and the Karap- 
yyOrj of this passage is precisely 
the oVe/cS^cris of that. 

7. o yap aTTo^ai/aji/] A. rea 
son for the emancipation from 
sin of him who has been cruci 
fied with Christ. A dead man 
cannot sin: the power of sinning 
is lost at death: and we are 
dead. Compare i Pet. iv. i, 
OTI o TraO(jjv crapKi TreVauTat 
a/xapTia?. He cannot sin, if he 



8 yap aTToOavtav ce^iKaicoTai CLTTO Trjs dp.apTias. el 
Se a.7re6avofJiV ffvv X^crTo), TriorTevofjiev OTL Kai 

9 crvvfya-ojuiev avrw eiSores OTL X^CTTOS e<yep6eis 


lo ovKTi Kvpievei. b <ydp aTreQavev, Trj ajmapTia 

SeStKatWat CXTTO] Equivalent 
to TreVavrat in the List quota 
tion. Has been judicially re 
leased, not (here) from the charge 
or penalty, but from the power 
and capacity of sin. Compare 
Ecclus. xxvi. 29, poAtg ete/Xetrat 
e/xTropog aVo Tr/Xr/jix/xe/Xetas, Kat ov 
8tKatco$r/creTat KctTT^Xos (XTTO a/xap- 
rias (d merchant shall hardly 
keep himself from doing wrong ; 
and an huckster shall not be 
freed from siii). 

8. /<at 0-vi ^crop.ev a-urw] We 
shall also share His life : not 
only, as now, in soul ; but here 
after in body also. The future 
tense seems to show that this 
latter is here the predominant 
thought. Compare 2 Tim. ii. 
II, et yap avva.7re0dvop,ev, Kat 
crw^crojtxei/. See also John xiv. 
19, OTL eyoj co, Kat ii/xe 
2 Cor. xiii. 4, Kat yap 
iv at>ra) aAAa 

eoi) ets v/xag. i Thess. v. 10, 
TOO) aTTO^avoi/TO? Trept T//XOJI/ tVa 

etre yp?7yopu>/x,ei/ etre 

a/xa ai;i/ ai>ra> ^(rw/xev. The 

form (rwfcfjv occurs also in 2 

Cor. vii. 3, ct? TO 

Kat trwfcqv, 

9. etSores ort] A reason for 
this anticipation. The risen life 
of Christ is an immortal life. 
Death once passed is passed for 
ever. Heb. ix. 27, oVo/carat roig 
ar^pcoTTOis oVae; aTroOave^v. l^or 
the phrase etSores ort, compare 
v. 3. 2 Cor, i. 7. iv. 14. Eph. 
vi. 8, 9. Col. iii. 24. 

OVKCTL a.7roOvfjcriLi\ No longer 
dies. Is no longer liable to death. 
Eor OUKCTJ, see Acts xx. 38, OVK- 
ert /jieXXovcriv TO TrpocrtoTrov OLVTOV 

Dan. iii. 27, ort OVK 
Kuptei;o-e TO Trrp TOV Q-cu/xaTos 
a^Tcoi/. There is the same per 
sonification of a/xapTta in verse 
14, of o vo/xos in vii. i. Compare 
the use of /focrtAeu efv in v. 14, 


10. o] Literally, as to that 
as to tuhich; in that, whereas. 
See Gal. ii. 20, o Se vvv ^c3 ei/ 
o-ap/a, iv Trto-Tet ^oj K.T.X. 

o ycxp aVe(9avv] A further 
reason for the immortality of 
the risen life of Christ. His 
death had reference to sin. Sin 
effectually cancelled, the death 
needed not repetition. On the 
other hand, His life after death 
is a life unto God. It has re- 

VI. 8 ii. 


o. $e 

tj TW Qew. 
Kai vp.els XojL^ecrOe eavrovs veKpovs 
dpapria, ou Tas <= TW Gew ev Xpicrrw 

II. Or &VT. elvai. 

ference to Him who changes not ; 
it is itself immutable as its Object. 

rfj a/xapTia] Literally, in 
relation to sin. The nature of 
the relation must be defined 
by the context. Christ s death 
unto sin differs essentially from 
man s. It is a death not of re 
nunciation or avoidance or for 
saking, but of atonement and 

(/>a7ra] Once for all ; be 
cause decisively and effectually. 
Who made there (by His one, ob 
lation of Himself once offered} a 
full, perfect, and sufficient sacri 
fice, oblation, and satisfaction, for 
the sins of the whole tuorld. Heb. 
vii. 2j, TOVTO yap tTTOiTjcrtv e(a7ra 
tavrov aVerey/cas [or TrpcKrei/ey/cas]. 
ix. 12, 26, 28, 8ta TOV IOLOV 
ar/xaros elcrrjXOev <a7ra ets ra 
ayta, aiajj/tav Xvrpwuiv eupa/xei/os 
K.r.A.. X. IO, Sta TrfS 7rpocr<j6opa5 
TOV (jw/xaros Irjtrov Xptcrroi; ecjba- 
Tra.. i Pet, iii. 18, Xptcrros 
aira^ Trept ayaapriajv K.r.X. 

^rj TO) e<5] .4 we/ therefore for 
ever. He whose life is related 
to God, partakes of God s im 
mortality. Luke xx. 38, eos 


yap avrw 
ii. OVTCOS] Thus; on this 

principle, in like manner. 

/cat v/xet?] Ye a^o 
Christ only. 

Aoyt^ecr^e] There is an em 
phasis on IO.VTOVS. Reckon (not 
Christ only, but] yourselves to b> , 
dead men in relation to sin, 
and living men in relation to 
God in Christ Jesus. In other 
words, Regard yourselves as in 
cluded in Christ in His death 
and in His life. Be in relation 
to all sin as impassive, as insen 
sible, as immovable, as is He 
10/10 has already died. Be in 
relation to God as fall of vigour 
and vitality as is He ivho has 
already risen. 

v Xpto-rw Ir/croi}] As persons 
included in Christ Jesus : united 
to Him, inserted into Him, in 
vested with Him, incorporated 
in Him, built into Him, abiding 
in Him, hereafter to be found 
in Him. See, for example, viii. 
I, rot? V Xpicrru) I^trou. xii. 5, 
ot TroAAot ei/ croo^a ecr/xev ei/ Xpi- 
<TTO). John XV. 2 7, TraV K\rj- 
//,a V e/xot. ../xei i/are ei/ e/xot...o 
jnei/toi/ ev [Moi Kayo) ei/ aura), OUTOS 
<^>epet KapTrov 7roX.vv on ^wpts 
e/xou ov &vvao~@ Troitiv ouSev /c.r.A.. 
Gal. iii. 27, 28, ocrot yap ei? 
Xptcrrov cyS 



12 juir} ovv /SaviXeveTdo ?/ d/mapTia eV TCO 

V[Ui(jOV (TtO/ULaTl 6i9 TO VTTaKOUeiV TCUS 7n6v/UiiaLS 

13 auTOV 

e TrapicrTaveTe TO, jjie\n 


12. Or inraK. avrfi fj,Tj Trap. Or inra.K. /u?;c) trap. 

. . .v^tis ets co-re Iv Xpicr- 
TU> ITJ&OV. Eph. ii. 6, o"w?yyeipV 
KCU avvKa.0i(rV c.v TOLS tTrovpa- 
vt ots e^ Xpto"TOJ l^crov. Pllil. 
iii. 9, /ecu evpeOw fv aura). Col. 

ill. 3, 7^ ^0)7^ V/JUjJV KtKpVTTTaL (TVV 

TW Xptara) iv TOJ ew. i Pet. ii. 
4, 5, ?rpo^ ov Trpocrepxo^uo oi, XiOov 
avrot (Js XiOoL ^tui^rcs 

12. yar) ow] If tlds be your 
condition men in Christ, dead 
ivith Him, and with Him risen 
see that you live accordingly. 
Suffer not that sin to which you 
have (in Christ) died, to exercise 
dominion in that body whicli (lite 
rally speaking] has still to die. 

/5ao-i/\.everco rj a/xaprta] See 

V. 21. 

iv T(5 6vf]T^\ As its domain. 
See note on v. 21, Iv ru>*. 

1 3 . TrapivTO.Vf.Te . . . Trapao-r^ - 
o-are] The tense of the former 
expresses continuance, habit, re 
peated acts ; of the latter, a sin 
gle irrevocable act of surrender. 
The active verb Trapto-rai/at (or is properly to set (or 
place) beside, to present, (i) Of 
persons, to make present, to show 
or produce; Acts i. 3, ots /ecu 
TrapcoTTycrev eavTov a>j/Ta. /xera TO 
7ra#eti/ aurw. ix. 41, 

curr^V ^cocrav. xxiii. 33. (2) Of 
facts, to showoi 2jrove; Acts xxiv. 
13, ouSe TrapaorT-rjo-ai 8uVavrat (TOL 
Trept ai/ v^vt Kar^yopovcrtv ^aou. 
(3) Of things or persons, to offer 
(or supply) for iise or service ; 
Matt. xxvi. ^3, TrapacrTijaet /JLOI 
apTL 7r\iU) SojSe/ca AeyeaJva? ayye- 
Awr. Acts xxiii. 24, KTI JVTJ re 
Trapacmycrcu /c.r.X. (4) Especially 
in a sacred sense, to present, (as 
to a Deity] for acceptance or min 
istration; as xii. i, TrapcujT^o-cu 
ra (Toj/xara vp^iZv Overlay ^wcrav 
K.r.X. Luke ii. 22, dvijya-yov 
avrov ets Icpoo oA UjUa TrapacrTrycrat 
TO) Kvpia). i Cor. viii. 8, /?pw/xa 
Se T^nas ou Trapaarrycret rco @ea). 
2 Cor. iv. 14, o eyetpas TOV [KU- 
ptoyj lyycrow /cat 7y/xtts...7ropacrT7y- 
(ret aui/ -u/xti/. xi. 2, v/x,a...7rap^- 
vov dyi/7yf Trapacrn/crai rto Xptfrrw. 
Eph. v. 27, iVa Trapacrrrycr^ auros 

Col. i. 22, 28, Trapacrr^crat v^ 
aytovs KCU a//w/xous Kat avey- 

ra /Ae A^ TJ/XOJJ/] Matt. v. 29, 
30, o o^^aAjUo s aov d Sextos... 
ev To5v jneAcoj/ croi;...7y Beid crov 
X*ip K.r.A. i Cor. xii. 12, TO 
crcoy^a eV ecmv Kat /^eAyy TroAAa 

VI. i2i. 


dSiKias Trj d/ULctpTicc, d\\d Trapao Tt jO aTe eav- 

TOf5 TCO Qew CO(Tl 6/C VEKpCOV M^^TOf?, KCtl TCt 

fJL\r] vfJiwv O7T\a SiKctLOcrvviis TCO Qew. d/mapTia 14 
yap vfjiwv ov Kvpievcrei ov yap ecrTe VTTO vojuiov, 
d\\a VTTO *%apiv. 

Tt ovv ; djULctpT^crcio/nei OTL OVK eV/^ey VITO 15 

James iii. 5, r; yXwo-cra /XIK/C 

o?rXa] Weapons. Jolin xviii. 
3, /u,era (^ai/wv Kat Aa/XTraSajv Kal 
oTrAwv. The figure is that of 
furnishing arms for military 
service. Compare xiii. 12. 2 Cor. 
vi. 7, Sta Tooy oVAcoj/ T^S StKato- 
TOJV Se^icoi/ Kat 

4, ra yap OTrXa r>]s crrpaTetas 
K.r.A. Eph. vi. II, 13. 

TT^ a/xaprta] Sin is personi 
fied, as a sort of rival sovereign 
or deity, claiming that devotion 
which is due to God only. The 
dative depends upon Trapiara - 

oxrei e/c] As if you were al 
ready risen. The form wcrct is 
not elsewhere used in St Paul s 

veKpoov] The classical idiom 
(rvc^Aos CK 8eSopKOTos, &C.) might 
suggest the rendering, after 
being dead (literally, living men 
out of dead men\ But the fre 
quent recurrence in Scripture 
of the phrase IK vei<pu>v in con 
nexion with resurrection may 
make the commoner sense (from 
the dead; literally, from among 
dead men] preferable here. See 

xi. 15, et /XT/ <my e/c veKpwr. 

TW 0fw] The second TOJ Ocw, 
like the former, depends upon 

14. a/zaprta yap] The ab 
sence of the article (compared 
with verses 12 and 13, -r] a/xapria, 
rfj a/xaprt a) .seems to emphasize 
the quality of the thing spoken 
of. Suck a thing as sin. 

ov yap eVre] With a deep 
insight into the heart, the sub 
stitution of a system of f/rftce 
(free, gratuitous, acceptance) for 
one of law is spoken of as a 
motive not for greater licence 
but for greater holiness. Com 
pare I Cor. XV. 56, T/ Se Bvi a/JLi<s 
TT/S a/xapTias o i/oyaos. 

VITTO v6jJLOV. ..VTTO ^apti ] For 
VTTO, see note on iii. 9, v<j> a/xap- 


15. TC ovv] What is the 
inference ? Not under a law, 
biit under a system of grace, 
what use shall we make of this 

freedom ? See vi. i. 

a/Aaprr/ crw/xev] For the mood, 
see note on vi. i, tTri/AeVw/xev. 
For the form ?//>iapTr/(ra, on v. 



1 6 vofjiov d\\a VTTO ^dpiv ; JUT] yevoiTO. OVK 
OTL w Trapio-Tavere eavTOvs oJ/\ofs ek i/ 


o*T oe 

ias els ov Trapecodrjre TVTTOV 

16. Or omit et s 

1 6. OVK ot Sare art] A phrase 
used in appealing to some well- 
known and almost self-evident 
truth. "With the exception of 
this passage, and xi. 2 (where it 
is slightly varied), its use by St 
Paul is confined to the ist 
Epistle to the Corinthians, where 
it occurs very frequently. See 
i Cor. iii. 16. v. 6. vi. 2, 3, 9, 
15, 1 6, 19. ix. 13, 24. Also 
James iv. 4. 

<S Tra/Ho-rdveTC eaurovs K.T.A..] 
The stress is on SouAoi. Yo?* 
7iave T/OMT choice of masters; but 
a master you must have, and 
^o1ien you- have chosen your 
master, you cannot help obeying. 
Compare, for the general idea, 
Matt. vi. 24, ouSets Swa/rat Su<ri 
Kvptots 8oi;A.ei;eiv ... ov Bvvaa Oe. 
0(5 SoiAevav Kat jaa/xcoi/a. 

ets -uTraKoy/^] Unto; with a 
view to, for the purpose of. 

^TCH... 17] The strengthened 
form 77701 (in such statements) 
usually expresses the greater 
probability of that alternative 
to which it is prefixed. As if 
St Paul would say, The service 

of sin is the more common choice 
of the two for a fallen being. 

a/xa/OT/ a<j ... vvraKOTy?] The 
choice offered is that between 
the service of sin and the ser 
vice of obedience; that is, of 
obedience to the rigid master. 
We might express it as between 
sin and duty. For v-n-aKorf in 
this sense, compare i Pet. i. 14, 

eis avarov. 
Unto, as the tendency and re 
sult of the respective services. 

17. x^P 19 ^ T( ? e ] y ii- 
25. i Cor. xv. 57. 2 Cor. ii. 14. 
viii. 1 6. ix. 15. 

on ryre.. .uTT ^/coufrare Se l See 
note on iv. 19, Karevorjcrev. In 
classical Greek the sense would 
have been made clear by the 
addition of /xeV after ^re. Ye 
were indeed bondmen of sin, but 
ye obeyed, &c. Though (whereas) 
ye were once slaves of sin, yet 
now, &c. 

VTTTy/coTxrare] A single act, 
at the time of conversion. 

e/c KapStas] Deut. iv. 29, LXX. 
79 KaSt a? <rov. xvi. 

VI. 1 6 19. 


e\ev6epa)6evT6s e duo TT/S dfjiaprias 18 
eoov\cjo0r]T6 TV] ciKaiocruvr]. dvOowTTivov Aeyw 19 
did Tt]V dcrdeveiav T^ (rapKos vfjiwv. cocnrep ydp 

1 8. Or omit 84. 

5, &c. Compare IK J/^xifc, Eph. 
vi. 6. Col. iii. 23. 

eis oi/ TrapcSo^re TUTTOI/] For 
ruTTO) SiSa^iJs cis ov 7rape8o0r/re. 
The phrase is peculiar. We 
might have expected rw TrapaSo- 
OevTt v/xu / TU7rGj8iSax/7s(as2 Pet. ii. 
21, 717? 7rapa8o$etcr?7<; a^rois uyt as 
. Jude 3, T7? aVa Trapa- 

icrr) TCHS ayiocs Triorei). But 
the form here is, pattern of 
doctrine unto ichich you were 
handed over (as your law and 
ride of life). The common 
phrase TrapaStSovat eis ^eTpas rti/os 
as Prov. XXX. io, LXX. /xr/ Trapa- 
OLKerrjv et? ^etpas SecrTroroa;) 
is here applied to the surrender 
of the Christian man to that 
system of instruction which is 
to order and govern his being. 
For TUTTOS see note on v. 14. 

SiSa^s] xvi. 17, TT/I/ StSa^i/ 
^y i;/xets e/xa^ere. Tit. i. 9, TOU 
Kara TT}V Si,Sa^r}v TTicrroS Xoyov. 
2 John f), ev TT) St8a^7^ TOU Xpt- 


1 8. eA.6v0epQ)0eWes Se] The 
same alternative as in verses 
13, 16, 19, 20, 22. In verses 
ii and 22, dfiapTia is opposed 
to eo?. In verse 16, to vTra- 
KOT/. Here, and in verse 20, to 
Sucouxrvn;, In verse 1 9, dfutprut 

is replaced by aKaOapcria KOL dvo- 
fjiia. For the figure eAu0cpa)0i/- 
T5, compare viii. 2. John viii. 3 2 
36, T^ a/Xry^eia eAei, $epco<7ei Vyaa? 
. . .Trds o Trotajv TT^I/ d/jiapTiav SovAos 
(~TIV Try? a//a/>rt a? . . . eav ot!i/ o 
IXcvOepiiHTrj, o^rtos eAa;- 

Gal. v. I. 
19. dvOpwu ov Xeyco] / say 
^ human thing because of the 
infirmity of your flesh. In other 
words, / employ a human com 
parison (that of slavery and 
emancipation^ in consideration 
of that weakness of spiritual ap 
prehension ivhich belongs to your 
condition as men in the body. 
See Gal. iii. 15, aSeX^ot, /cara 
av6p<j)7rov Aeyco" caucus d 

KKVptj)fJiVr]V SiaOljKWV K.T.X. 

T-TJV (l(T@f.v(Liav rrjs 
viii. 3, rivQivti Bid rrjs 
Heb. vii. 28, ai/0paj7rovs ... 

The term crap^ may 
be taken literally here, not as 
involving any reproach. Com 
pare, for example, 2 Cor. iv. n, 
where eV rrj Ovwry cmp/a r^vv 
is used as synonymous with ev 
TO) crcoyaart YJ^V in verse io. 
See 2 Cor. vii. 5, ovSe//tW ecr^- 
KCV dveo iv r) crap^ T^/XOJK. X. 3, ev 
aapKL yap TrepiTraroS^re?. Gal. 


7rape(TTri(raT6 TO. fJieXr] VJULCOV Sov\a rj/ 

Kai Ttj dvo/ULLa ek Ttjv dvofj.iav^ oi/Vw9 vvv 

Or omit els r}]v aL 

ii. 20, o Se vvv o> lv crapKL. Phil, 
i. 22, 24, et Se TO ,rjv lv (rapKt. .. 
TO oe eTrt/xeVeij/ ei/ TT/ aapKL K.T.\. 
Col. i. 22, 24, ei/ TO) o-ojyuart T//S 
wapKo? auTOt) . . . ai/Tai/a/Tr/Y^piS 7a 
vo-Ttpij rwv OXtyewv TOV Xpi- 
c7Toi) ei/ T^ (rapKi fjiov. It is only 
when the crap/ai/os (eV o-ap/<t, 
cameus) becomes a-ap/a/cos (/<aTa 
crapKa, camalis), that the crap^ 
becomes a term of reproach, in 
cluding all that thwarts and 
opposes the Tri/e^a, as in Gal. 
v. 19 21, where amongst ra 
epya r-/y? (rapKos are enumerated 
not only aKaOapcria, peOai, KCO/XOI, 
but also epts, ^r}/\os, OvfAOL, fyOovoi. 

(jjorirep yap] A reason for 
the words dvOpwTnvov Aeyco. / 
srt//, Itumaii comparison : for 
such it is. As you were once 
slaves to sin, so noiv enslave 
//ourselves to righteousness. 

7rapeo-T7;o-aTe] The tense ex 
presses the old life under the 
figure of a single act of self- 
surrender to the service of sin, 
in contrast with that opposite 
act of decisive self-devotion to 
which he here summons them. 

aKaOapa-ia] The substantive 
occurs nine times in St Paul s 
Epistles, and but once besides 
(Matt, xxiii. 27). The adjec 
tive aKcxtfapros is used (i) of 

ceremonial defilement, in Acts 
x. 14, and xi. 8, Kat 
aKaOapTov. Ilev. xviii. 2, 
opve ou aKaOapTov KOL 
vov. (2) Of the absence of 
Christian consecration, in i Cor. 
vii. 14, ore! apa TO. rexva v/xwi/ 
aKaOaprd eo~Ttv, vvv $ ayid icmv. 
(3) Of moral defilement, in 2 
Cor. vi. 17, aKaOdprov fj.rj aTrre- 
(r&e. Eph. V. 5, aKa^apTOS 77 
TrAeovocT^s. liev. xvii. 4. (4) 
As a characteristic epithet of 
evil spirits, in 23 passages of 
the Gospels, Acts, and Kevela- 

avo/ua] For at Oyuos, see note 
on ii. 12, avo /Aro?. The distinc 
tive sense of aYo/ua is disregard 
of law; sin viewed as insubordi 
nation to rule. It is used (i) 
as the opposite of SiKaLocrvvr], in 
2 Cor. vi. 14, rt s yap /xeTo^r) 
SiKaiocrvvr) Kat aVo^aia; (2) As 
the companion of tJTroKpicris, in 
Matt, xxiii. 28. (3) As equiva 
lent to a/xapria, in i John iii. 
4) Tras o TTOIGJI/ TTJV afJ-apTtav Kat 
TT^I/ avofuav Trote?, Kat T; a/xap- 
Tta eo-Tti 77 aro/xta. And thus 
in Matt. vii. 23. xiii. 41, TroVra 
TTTJV avatar, xxiv. 12. Rom. iv. 
7. 2 Thess. ii. 7. Tit. ii. 14. 
Heb. x. 17. 

VI. 2O 22. 


TrapacTTrjcraTe TO. fj.i\r] vfjitov $ov\a Tr 

dyiacrjULOV. ore yap $ov\oi IJTC TT/S 20 
, e\ev6epoi t )T6 T?] ^iKaiocrvvri. Tiva ovv 21 
et^ere TOTC e(p ois vvv tTraLor-^yvecrde ; 
TO yap TeAos eKeivwv Qavaros. vvvi e e\ev6e- 22 

21. Or 

ets TT}V oVo/xiai/] Unto (so as 
to practise] iniquity. 

eis aytao-jaov] 6^0 consecra 
tion or sanctlfication. The ter 
mination strictly indicates the 
ac (as distinguished from the 
effect] of consecrating . Compare 

(Matt. vi. 13), pavTLo-fjios (Heb. 
xii. 24), o Svp/xos (2 Cor. vii. 7), 
&c. The self-presentation to 
righteousness is spoken of as 
leading to sanctification, that is, 
to an entire consecration of the 
man by God Himself to be His 
only. For ayiao-,uo s see also i Cor. 
i. 30, ey Xptcrru) Irjcrov, os eyevtjOi ] 
. . . ay tao~/x.6s Kat aVoA/urpcocrts. I 
Thess. iv. 3, 4, 7, TOVTO yap 
ecrrtv 6t\r)[Jia. TOV ov, o ayta- 
(t/xos vfJLtov. ..ev aytacr/xw Kat TI//,^ 
...ov yap eKaXccrev T^jaas o eos 
eTTt aKa^apo~ta aA.Xa ei 
2 Thess. ii. 13, ei/ aytao-^aa) 
/xaros. i Tim. ii. 15. Heb. xii. 14, 
oiwcere. . .TOV aytao"/xov, ou vcopts 
ov8ets oi/^Tat TOV Kvptov. I Pet. 
i. 2. 

20. ore yap] A reason for 
the above exhortation. This act 
of self -subjugation to righteous 
ness is necessary; for there was 

a time when, being bondmen of 
t<in, you were free men in rela 
tion to righteousness. 

21. TWO. ovv KapTroV] Have 
you any cause to regret the 
change? While you served sin, 
you were free from the restraints 
of righteousness : well then, was it 
a happy life? Did it repay you? 

ovv ..."roVe] The English 
Version omits one of these : 
What fruit had ye then, &c. 
should be, What fruit then had 
ye then, &,c. 

KapTroi/] Prod ace; and so 
profit. See i. 13, Iva ra-a /cap- 


(/> ots] That is, eKaVtov 
(compare Phil. i. 22, Kap:ros 
epyov) efi ols. 

e(/) ots vvv f.7raia"x\)Vf.(T9t\ 
Eph. v. 12, Ta yap Kpv^rj ytvd- 
/xeva VTT auraJv ato-^poV Icrrw /cat 
Aeyeiv. Phil. iii. 19, Kai rj oo^a 
iv rr) al(rxyvr) avTwv. 

tirai(T\vveo-Oi\ Here with 
CTTI, as in Isai. i. 29, LXX. Kat 
(.TraKr^yvOi /crovTaL ?rt rots K^ TTOIS 
O.VTWV. Elsewhere (i) with an 
accusative, as in i. 16. Mark viii. 
38, os yap caV i-rraLo-^yvBy /xe 
K.T.X. (2) with an infinitive, Heb. 



pcoOevres OLTTO Trj? djULapTias, SovXwBevTes Se TM 
Qew, e^ere TOV Kapirov VJJLWV ek dyiacrfjiov, TO 3e 
iwviov. Ta n /|0 6^\su>via 1-779 d/ULap- 
- TO oe ^dpicr/ma TOV Oeou fat] ai- 


VII. I H dyvoelTe, d$e\<poi, yivcocrKOVcriv jap VOJJLOV 

it is fairly earned; but the 
Christian s reward is, after all, 
a yift. See Luke xvii. 10, OTO.V 
7ron]<jr)T TroVra Ta 
Vfjuv, AeyT OTI SoG/Xot 
eo-/xei/ K.T. A. 

11. II, ou 

avrovs Ka/Xetv K.T. A.. (3) with 
accusative and infinitive, Heb. 
xi. 1 6, ot /c eTrata^Verat avrovs 
6 eo? 0eog eTTtKdAetcr^at aurtoj/ 

K-.r.A. (4) absolutely, us 2 Tim. i. 

12, aXA. OVK. 7raicr^wo/xai. 

TO yap re Ao?] Keason for the 
negative implied in tlie preced 
ing question. What f rait? None: 
^^jorse than none: for, etc. Com 
pare 2 Cor. xi. 15, (Si/ TO re Aos 
ecrrai KO.TO. Ta epya aLiTcoK Pllil. 
iii. 19, cSv TO Te /Xos a oj/\eta. 
Heb. vi. 8, ?}s TO Te/\os et? Kau- 
o-ti/. I Pet. iv. 17, TC TO TeAos 
T(JOV aTrei^OTJVTOJi^ TW TOI) eo{> ev- 
ayyeXi w; If the reading is, TO 
/xev yap, it implies a (sup 
pressed) contrast following, as 
to the present consequences of 

6avaro<i\ In every sense : 
natural death, spiritual death, 
eternal death. 

22. vwt] See note on iii. 

21, VWl. 

KOLpTTOV . . -TO 6 TeXo? 

John iv. 36, /cat crwayei 



(Num. xi. 22, LXX. 7} Traj/ TO 
6i//os T>y5 ^aAo trcr^? crvva^OrjcreTaL 
or w^e<( (Tobit vii. 9, 
t tOvcrav xpiov Trpofiarwv, KCU 
oi//a TrAetoi a), comes 
the compound di//aVioi , provi 
sions (supplies) given in remu 
neration for service, whether (i) 
generally, as i Esdr. iv. 56, /cat 
Tracrt ToTs (fopovpovcn rtjV TTO\LV 
^TOts K\rjpov$ KOL 
2 Cor. xi, 8, 
OIJ/WVLOV Trpos TTyi/ -iip:ajt/ 
K.T. A. or (2) specially, as 
tor?/ pay : i Mace. iii. 28, /cat 
eoo>/cei/ oi^(Di/ta Tats Svt ap.ecrty au- 
TOU ets ei/tavrw. xiv. 32. Luke 
iii. 14, apKeto-^e Tots ot^aWais 
u/xcoi/. I Cor. ix. 7, Tts o"TpaTeve- 
Tat tStot? o i/^covtots TroTe; 

^apto-/xa] See note on i. n, 

23. Ta yap] Sin gives 
wages; the ruin which follows 

] atouvtos ei/ Xpto-Tw] i John 
v. II, 12, a; v atoji/tov e Sco/cei/ 
o eo9, Kat avn; t] ^0077 ev 

VI. 2 3 VII. 2. 


\CC\W, OTL 6 

ocrov xpovov 

KVplV6L TOV v 

yap vTravSpos fyvvri TW 

GLV $6 a.7To6dvt1 6 


viov e^et rrjv nnyi/ K.T.\. 

"VII. I 6. V H dyvoeire, aSeX- 
<j>o(] The statement in vi. 14, 
ov yap ecrre VTTO vop.ov (wllicll has 
been cleared, in verses 15 23, 
from its apparently antinomian 
consequences) requires further 
explanation and proof. There 
is also, as usual, a nearer link 
of connection between the two 
chapters. The words of vi. 23,70 
^apto-p-a TOV eoC, and iv Xpt- 
o-ro) !T;O-O , imply of themselves 
that the Law is not the ground 
of man s acceptance. This then 
is the train of thought. It docs 
not follow, because a person has 
once been under a certain obli 
gation, that therefore that obliga 
tion should be perpetual. A wife, 
for example, is bound to her hus 
band while he lives : but his death 
releases her. Death breaks all 
such bonds : whether it be the 
death of the person bound, or of 
the person to whom the other is 
bound. Thus, while the more 
precise application of the com 
parison would have introduced 
the idea of the death of the Law 
(the vitality of which consisted 
only in its being God s ordi 
nance for man), it better suits 
the language of the previous 
chapter to speak of our death, 
as anticipated and foreshown 

in Christian Baptism. Over us, 
as dead and risen, men, the Law 
has lost its hold. 

1. r) ayvoeire] There is no 
thing shocking in the assertion 
that we are no longer under the 
Law. You all know that the 
power of the Law of an// law 
over man, ceases at death. And 
ice are dead. See vi. 3 n. 

vo//,ov. . .o e ro /xos] To persons 
acquainted with a law... that 
that law, etc. 

2. rj yap {jTravSpos] I Cor. 
vii. 39;, yvvfj Se Serat ec/> ocrov 

L,rj o dvrjp CUJTA/S lav Se 
6 o.i"f eXeu6 ea ecrra* 

Num. v. 29, LXX. 
a) av 7rapa/3fj rj yvvt] VTtavopos 
ova-a. Prov. vi. 24, 29. Ecclus. 
ix. 9. xli. 21. 

r<3 aWi aVSpt] To the (still) 
living husband. 

SeSerai vo p:a>] Has been bound 
by a law. The dative indicates 
the fetter, or instrument of the 
binding. Thus Mark v. 3, 4, ovSe 


ftfjcrai, Sia TO O.VTOV TroAAaKiq TTC- 
Sais Kai ttXvo~ecrtv SeSecr^ai K. T. A. 
John xi. 44, SeSe/xeVos TOVS TroSas 
Kat Tas ^eipas Keipta69. Acts xii. 
6, SeSe/xeVos d\.vo~e(Ti.v SucrtV. XX. 
22, SeSe/xefOs eya) T(3 
xxi. 33. 




3 KaTtjpytjrai UTTO TOV vofjiov TOV dvopos. apa 


TOU dvSpos 


<yevriTai vopi 6T6pw eav 



. . .from that law of (belonging 
to, binding her to) the husband. 

KaTtjpyrjTai otTro] The perfect 
expresses, she is at once (by the 
very fact of his death) discharged 
from the law of the husband. 
For Kctrapyeu/ see note on iii. 3, 
Kurapy^cret. From the sense of 
abolishing, destroying, comes that 
of cutting ojf or severing from : 
as here, and verse 6. Compare 
Gal. v. 4, Karvypyr/^re O.TTO Xpt- 


3. apa ovv] This combina 
tion is peculiar to St Paul. 
See verse 25. v. 18. viii. 12. 
ix. 1 6, 1 8. xiv. 19. Gal. vi. 10. 
Epli. ii. 19. i Thcss. v. 6. 2 
Thess. ii. 15. 

Xp^/xartcm] The verb ^p?y/xa- 
rieiv, to transact business, is 
sometimes (i) absolute, as in 
I Kings xviii. 27, LXX. fjitjirorc 
Xpr7/AaTiei auro?, r) ^rjirore. Ka.6- 
e^Set auros x.r.X. and by a 
peculiar and post- classical idiom 
comes to mean, to transact busi 
ness as (under the name of), and 
so to pass for, to be called, cfec. 
as here, and Acts xi. 26, e ye- 
vero Se. . .^pyjaaTtcrai re irp. iv 
to. rous fj.aOr)Ta<; Xpto-rt- 
Sometimes (2) it is fol 
lowed by TIVL or Trpo s nva (the 
person dealt with), with or with 
out an accusative of the business 

transacted. Sometimes (3) it 
has an accusative of the person 
dealt with, or (in the passive) 
has the person dealt with for its 
nominative. In Scripture it is 
specially used (in all construc 
tions) in a sacred sense, of the 
communications of God with 
men in the form of revelation, 
admonition, or direction. Thus 
(i) Jerem. xxv. 30, LXX. Ku- 
pios d(f> vij/rjXov xp^jaartei. Heb. 
xii. 25, et yap e/ceu/oi OVK ee<uyov 
7Tt y?;? TrapaiTrjo-dutvoi TOV XP 1 ?" 
/xari ^ofTa K. r.\. (2) Job xl. 8, 
otet O /xe aAXoos croi Ke^pr]/ji.a- 
Ti/cej/ai; Jerem. xxvi. 2 Kat 
XP^/xartets Trdcrt rots 
aVai Ta? TOVS Xoyow? ous 
a 01 avrois ^p^juaTicrat K.r.X. xxx. 
2, Travras TOUS Aoyows ou? ^XP 7 ?" 
jj-aTtcra Trpos ere. Luke ii. 26, 
KO.I r)i/ aura) Ke^prjaaTtcr/Jievov VTTO 
TOV Trveuyaaro? roi aytou. (3) 
Matt. ii. 12, 22, /cat 
/car oyap /XT) 

Kar ovap avf^wprjo-ev ts rot 

r^s raA.i/\aias. Acts X. 22, 

fJL,a.T iO~Bf] vrro ayyeAov yiov /xera- 
irejLM/ra<r^at o-e. Heb. viii. 5, /ca^- 
ws KexP^Tto-rat Mco^o-^s /xeA- 
Aan/ eTrtreAetv rT^j/ o~Krjvtjv. xi. 7? 
pfj/jiaTLo-0L<; N(Se Trepl rwv 
^8Ae7ro/xeV(ov. From this 

VII. 3, 4- 





i^a <yevojJievnv dvSpi erepM. worre, 4 
e6ai/aTco6r]T6 TW v6[Jito 

usage is derived xpr;/>iaT 107x09, a 
Divine communication, xi. 4. 
2 Mace. ii. 4. 

yevYjTai aySpt] Until i. 12, 
13, LXX. ytyTjpaKO. TOV /Jirj eti/at 
avopt. . . . ecm /xot {jTrocrraai? TOU 
-fjva.i /JLC ai/Spi. ..r; carets /ca- 

TOU JU.T) u/cu] T^o 
Aer 7io^ ^eiw^r (to prevent her 
from being), &c. It is given as 
the humane and merciful object 
of the freedom spoken of. See 
note on i. 24, TOU aTt//.aeo-$ou. 


rj/^as rfj u/jLapria. viii. 12, TOU 

KCITO, (TapKO. fcfiv. 

4. (oo-Te] >6 Y o ^7^a^. Apply the 
same rule to the subject now be 
fore us, and what is the result ? 
This. For this use of aWe 
with the indicative, compare 
vii. 12. xiii. 2. Matt. xii. 
12, aWe eeo-rti/ Tots ad 
/caAws TToteti/. xix. 6, 
eto iv Suo a\Xa (rap!; yiit a. xxiii. 
31. Mark ii. 28, wore KU- 
pto? co~Ttv d utog TOU dvOpwTrov 
Kat TOU o-a(3(3aTov. x. 8. i Cor. 

11L 7? ^O~T OUTC O <f)VTV(i)V fCTTLV 

TI K.T.A.. vii. 38. xi. 27. xir. 
22. 2 Cor. iv. 12. v. 1 6, 17, 
wore ^/xets aTro TOU vui/ ouSeVa 
ot8a/xei/...(oo-Te et rts ev Xpto-TO), 
Ty KTiats. Gal. iii. 9, 24, wore 

V. R. 

o ro^otos TrcuSaywyos ^//coi yeyoi/ev. 
iv. 7) *6, COCTTC e^^pos u/^toi/ ye- 
yova d\f]9ev(ji)v u/xtj/; 

Kai u/xets] } r e feo / as well 
as those whose conjugal obliga 
tion has been broken by death. 
The precise comparison would 
have been, As the death of the 
husband releases the wife, so the 
death (abolition) of the Law has 
released you. But the latter 
clause is reversed (to suit the 
view of chap, vi.), and becomes, 
not, The Law is dead to yon, 
but, You are dead to the Law. 
See note on verses i 6.*>6 r]T ru) vd^ioj] Were 
put to death in relation to the 
Law. See note on vi. 2, d-n-tOd- 
vo/xei/. United as you are to 
Christ, you died lohen He died. 
And death breaks the fetters of 
law. Law is not made for the 
dead man, but for the living : 
and not for the risen man, bat 
for the man in flesh. For Oava- 
rovv, see viii. 13, 36. Matt. x. 
21. xxvi. 59, OTTOS auroV Oava- 
TOKTOUO-U . xxvii. I, oKrre 6ava- 
Tcocrat auroV. Mark xiii. 12. 
xiv. 55. Luke xxi. 16. 2 Cor. 
vi. 9. I Pet. iii. 18, 


It occurs about 140 times in 
the Septnagint. 






TOU Xpio~TOu, is TO <yeve(r()ai 
TW e /c veKptov eyepOevri, f i 


5 (popr\crwfjiev TW 0ew. ore yap tijULev eV TY\ (rapid, 
TO. Tradi i/mccTa TCOV djULapTiwv TO. Sid. TOU VOJJLOV 

ta TOV o-aj/j.aTOS TOV pi 
Through (by means of) the, body 
of Christ. You were put to 
death by means of the putting to 
death of Christ s bud//. See 
Eph. ii. 1 6. Col. i. 22, eV TW 
trco^ttart T /ys crup/<os auroO ota TOV 
OavaTOv. Heb. x. 10, Sia rr7? 
Trpocrt^opas TOU frco/xttro? 
Xptcrrou. I Pet. ii. 24, a^T/j 
ev T(3 aoj/xari avrov 7rt TO 
yeveorOoiL Irepa) . . . KapT 
(T(j)fjLv^ The figure of marriage 
is still continued. For KapTro s, 
in the sense of offspring, see 
Gen. xxx. 2, LXX. Psal. cxxvii. 
3. cxxxii. ii. Jerem. xii. 2, 
eTf.KVOTroirjO a.v Kttt eTroti^crav Kap- 
TToV. Lam. ii. 20. Mic. vi. 7, 
TrpcoroTOKa /JLOV . . . KapTrov KOtA-tas 
/x,ov. Luke i. 42. Acts ii. 30. 
Union with Christ in His death 
involves union with Christ in 
His life after death : and that 
union is a productive union to 
the glory and praise, of God. 
For the sense of Kap7ro(f>opyjo-u>/jii 
compare Gal. v. 22, o Se /cap-Tro? 
TOD TTvevfJiaTOs ecrTiv aytt7r>7, ^apa, 
elpyvrj K.T.A. For the word, 
Hab. iii. 17, LXX. Sm O-UK^ ou 
KapTro^optjo-L K.T.A. Matt. xiii. 
23. Mark iv. 20, 28. Luke 
viii. 15. Col. i. 6, 10, eV 
aya&o Kap7ro<f>opovvT<>. 

5. ore yap ^/xev] jPor when 
we were in the jlcsJi. When our 
existence was contained within 
the Jlesh. When we had no other 
life than that wldcli is lived 
within the confines of the flesh. 
St Paul elsewhere speaks of 
himself as still iv crapK\ &v 
(Gal. ii. 20), ei o~apKL TrepiTraTwv 
(2 Cor. x. 3), &c. but always in 
contrast with the higher life, of 
grace and of the Spirit, which 
made the eu iu iv TTJ o"ap/a, the 
flesh-contained being, no longer 
descriptive of his condition as 
a whole. See, for example, 2 
Cor. iv. ii, ii a KOL rj oo?y TOV 


See Gal. v. 24, ot 8e TOV XptcrTov 
I^o~o(5 Ti)v o~ap/x <jTavpwo~a.v crvv 
Tots TraOtj/Jiao-LV KOL Tat? ifnOv- 
/xtat?. Iii these two instances, 
7ra.0f]fjia, which is elsewhere (viii. 
1 8. 2 Cor. i. 6. Col. i. 24. 2 
Tim. iii. ii. Heb. x. 32. i Pet. 
v. 9) suffering, whether bodily, 
mental, or spiritual, receives 
from the context the idea rather 
of passion (like irdOos, i. 26. 
Col. iii. 5. i Thess. iv. 5). 

TO, 8ta TOU vo/xov] Compare 
V. 2O, vo/xo? Se Trapetxn^A^ev LVO. 
TrAeovaar; TO TrapaTTTwpx. I Cor. 

VII. 5, 6. 


iv TO?? fji\eo-iv IJJULWV els TO KapTro- 
(>opfjorai TW davaTw- vvvi Se Karri pytjBriiuiev djro 6 

xv. 56, t] Se Swajixts r^s dp.ct.p- 
Tta? o i/d/xog. For the develope- 
ment of the paradox, see verses 

7 25- 

ei/?7pyeiTo] From ei/epyd?, 
work (Ezek. xlvi. i, LXX. e 
77/xepas ra? ei/epyow?, ^Ae six work 
ing days, opposed to ev Se TT) 
^/xe pa TCOJ/ cra/^SuYoov), comes the 
verb ei/epyeiv, to work or ope 
rate, (i) Transitively, as Prov. 
xxi. 6, o ei epycov 0r]<TavpL(T/JiaTa. 
yA-ojcrcTT] il/evBf.1. xxxi. I2,ei/epyet 
yap TO) cxi/Spt dyaOov. Isai. xli. 

4, Tts W)pyv)O KOI 7rot^cre raura ; 
I Cor. xii. 6, n, Kat o auros 
@eos o ei/epywi/ ra Travra iv 
Trdcnv . . . Travra 8e ra{)ra evepyet TO 
ef Kat TO auTo Trvfv/Jia. Gal. iii. 

5, o ow.. .erepycoy 8ui/ajU,eis ej/ 
v/juv. -Eph. i. II, 20, rou Ta 
TrdVra erepyouvTO?. ..?)v ev^py^o ev 
ei/ TO) XpujTu). Phil. ii. 13, d 
Ivepywv iv V/JLLV KOL TO 6f.Xf.iv 
K.r.X. (2) Intransitively, as 
Wisdom xv. n, TOV e/xTrvevcravTa 
avTw \J/v\r/v zvepyovcrav. xvi. 1 7, 
ey Tc5 TTtivra. crfi(.vv\)VTL {SSaTi 
TrAetov ^rypyet TO Trijp. Matt. 
xiv. 2, 6W TOUTO at Swva^aets 
ei/epyovo-tv ei/ a{iT<3. Mark vi. 
14. Gral. ii. 8, o yap vepyr)cra<s 
HeVpa) . . . e^py^o-ev Kat e/W. Epll. 
ii. 2, TOU Trveu/aaTos TOV vw e^ep- 
yoCi/TOs ei/ Tots 7;tots T^S aTret^eta?. 
Phil. ii. 13, /cat TO 0o\.eii/ Kat TO 

. And so evepyetaflai al 

ways : as here, and i Esdr. ii. 1 8, 
Kat CTret ei/epyetrat Ta /caTa TOV 
vaoj^. 2 Cor. i. 6, TT/S e^epyou- 

jJLtVYlS 6V VTTOfJiOVrj K.T.A.. iv. 12, 

o Odvaros Iv vfjuv Ivepyelrai. Gal. 
v. 6, TTt cTTts 8t dyaTrrjs Ivcpyov- 
/JLevr). Eph. iii. 20, xaTa TT;I/ 
ovva/jiLV Trjv evepyov/JievYjv eV T^yati/. 
Col. i. 29, Kara TT)I/ eWpyeiai/ 
a^Tou TT^I/ ei epyov/xeVryv ei e /xo! ei 
Swdfj-ei. i Thess. ii. 13, Adyoi/ 
. 05 Kai erepyeiTat ei^ v/xr/ TOJ^? 
TTLcrTevovaiv. 2 TJiess. ii. 7, TO 
yap /JivcrrrjpLov tfirj evepyetTat T^S 
James v. 16, Sevens 
lvfpyovfjiVfj. St Paul 
generally (but note an exception 
in the second e^epyeu/ of Phil. 
ii. 1 3) uses cVepyetv of the work 
ing of God (and the evil spirit, 
Eph. ii. 2), fvepyelaOai of human 
or mental agencies. 

eV Tots] As the field in which 
they acted. James iv. i, TWI/ 

iv TOt? /JL\(TLV TJ/XOJV. 

TO) ^avaTw] As the fruits of 
union with Christ are said 
(verse 4) to redound to the 
glory of God, so those of our 
evil nature are said to augment 
the triumph, as it were, of 
Death ; of misery and ruin here 
and hereafter. 

6. KaT-rjpyrjOrjfJicv] See note 
on verse 2. The aorist indicates 
that the release spoken of took 





ev co KaTeiojiea wcrre 
ti]ULas ev KaivoTtjTi Trvevfjiaros KCII ov 

7 Ti ovv fpovfjiev ; d VO/ULOS d/uLapria ; /ur] 

6. Or omit -hads. 

place at the moment of union 
with Christ in conversion and 

aTroOavovTts iv a>] That is, 
CKCIVO) ev to. ./>// having died in 
relation to that thing wherein 
we ivere held fast ; that is, the 
Law. For ei/, see note on iii. 
19, rots eV TO) vofjua. Compare 
Gal. ii. 19, oid VOJJLOV vo/juo 

aTTtOaVOV K.T.X. Tll6 English 

Version (that being dead wherein 
we were held) is made from the 
unsupported reading aTroOavov- 
TOS. That law in which we 
were held having itself died. 
But see notes on verses i 6, 
and on verse 4. 

KaTet^o/xe^a] See note on i. 
1 8, Tci>v TT}V aA.ry$etai/. For the 
sense, compare Gal. iii. 23, VTTO 
vo/xov typovpov/JieOa avyKXeio^e- 
voi. iv. 3, I>TTO ra crToi^ta TOV 

cuare] The result and object 
of this death to the Law is, not 
our freedom from God s service, 
but a change in its nature. 

kv KaivoTr)Ti\ Literally, in 
newness of (belonging to) spirit, 
and not in oldness of (belonging 
to) letter. In a neiu state, of 
which the essence is spirit, a new 

spirit, a soul quickened and ani 
mated by the presence of the 
Holy Spirit, instead of that old 
state, of which the characteristic 
ivas obedience to a written enact 
ment. See note (with references) 
on 11. 29, iv TrvtvfJiaTi ov ypa/x- 
/xart. For KCLIVOTTIS, and the con 
struction, see note on vi. 4, iv 


(only found here) compare 2 
Cor. iii. 14, r-rjs TraXaias 
Heb. viii. 13, Iv TOJ Aey 
7re7raA.cuWev rrjv TrpwTrjv TO Be. 
KOL yjjpdo~Kov 

7 25. rt ovv K.r.X.] The 
expression in verse 5, ra TraOrj- 
fjiara TOJV d/jiapriiov ra Sia TOV 
vofjiov, might seem to impugn 
the holiness of the Law of God. 
But it is not so. The fault 
lies, not in the Law, but in the 
condition of the human will. 
The nature of the struggle be 
tween law and inclination is 
described; how it is that r] 
IvToXr} rj et? a)>;V becomes event 
ually cts 

7. Ti ovv] When I speak of 
sinful passions working through 
the Law, I do not mean that the 
Law is sin, or can reasonably be 

VII. 7, 8. 137 

VOLTO d\\d Tr]v d/mapTiav OVK eyvwv el /mi] Sia 
vdjjLOV Tt]V T6 yap emOvfjiiav OVK rjfieiv, el /at] 6 
VOJULO^ e\eyev, OVK eTrLBvfj.tjo eL^. d<popfjLt]v $e 8 
\a(3ovo-a i] ajjiapTia Sid TT/S evro\rjs 

charged with causing sin : but 
this I say, that by the Law is 
the knowledge of sin. See iii. 20, 
and note on otd yap VO/JLOV. 

aAAtt] After /jirj yeVotro, as in 
verse 13 and xi. IT. Neverthe 
less this we shall sat/. The 
Law does not create sin. Sin, 
the radical evil, self-will and 
estrangement from God, is there, 
in the heart, all along. But 
the Law reveals, and (in a cer 
tain sense) provokes it. 

OVK eyvwv t ^,77] I^know not 
sin except by means of a law. 
I only came to the knowledge, of 
sin by the instrumentality of a 
revelation of duty. 

ri]v TG yap] One example of 
the operation of a Divine Law, 
drawn from the tenth command 
ment. The re (both) is put as 
if another example were to fol 
low with KCU. 

OVK yoeiv, .1 //,>; ] / knew not 
unless the Law was saying. I 
only knew by the Law saying. 
My knowledge (consciousness) of 
desire, as a restless unruly force 
within, was due to its prohibi 
tion by the Law. 

e/Veyev] Exod. xx. 17, LXX. 
The imperfect seems to express 
the reiteration of the prohibi 
tion, in every hearing and read 

ing of the Decalogue. The Law 
was saying ; kept saying. 

8. ac^op/ATyv oe Xafiovcra] Sin, 
having got a starting-point by 
means of the commandment, &c. 
Sin, the essence of which is the 
self-will existing and acting in 
independence of the will of God, 
avails itself of the Divine pro 
hibition as an opportunity of 
open rebellion. It was so in 
the first transgression : Gen. iii. 
I, tfec. rt on ctTrei/ d eos, ou ^y] 
K. r. X. 

p/jL-r jv] Properly, (i) a 
start or setting out : (2) a start 
ing-point ; and, especially in 
military matters, a base of opera 
tions : (3) an occasion or oppor 
tunity, pretext or excuse. It is 
once used in the Septuagint ; 
Ezek. v. 7, o.vtf toj/ -TJ a</>op/x?7 

VfJiWV K TOJf 9v<JJV K.T.X. (&p- 

parently in the sense, You made 
the surrounding nations your 
excuse for breaking my statutes). 
2 Cor. V. 12, d(f)opfjnrjv SiSoi/res 
vfjuv KaD^T^/xaros vTrep T^/XOJV. XI. 
1 2, Lva eKKoi/fa) Tf\v a<op/ATyv rcuf 
$eAoi/Tan> aeouryj/. Gal. v. 13? 


crap/a. I Tim. v. 14? 
d<f>op/Jir)V oioovat, rai 
a/xaprta] The article ex- 



ev ejULOi Traarav iriv \Jiiav. y 
9 p.ov dfjLapria veKpa. eyco Se e^cov 


presses sin as a ivliolc ; sin in 
its combined and collective form 

Sia TT]S ei/roA^s] To be taken 
with XajSovaa, not with Kar/ip- 
See verse 1 1 . 

See note on 

v. 15, 

^topis yap VO/AOU] Sill requires 
a law, a revelation of duty, a 
system of commands and prohi 
bitions, to give it vitality. In 
essence and principle (see note 
on a<op/x?yV Se \a[3ovcra.} sin is 
prior to, and lies deeper than, 
the act of disobedience : where- 
ever there is alienation from 
God, there is sin : but it lies 
as a dormant, dead thing with 
in, waiting for the touch of 
law to animate it into resist 

9. eyco Se] Taken literally, 
the description would be some 
what ideal; true of the race 
rather than of the individual. 
It would represent the case of a 
man, already fallen in Adam (for 
sin, though inanimate, is there), 
but not yet placed under an ex 
press rule of duty like the Law of 
Moses, and therefore not charge 
able with definite transgression : 
then comes a system of com 
mands and prohibitions, and he 
learns for the first time his real 
subjection to sin. To St Paul 
himself such language could only 

apply with something of accom 
modation ; with reference to a 
time when he was unconscious 
of the spiritual claim of the 
Law, and might imagine himself 
blameless in obedience to it: a 
deeper insight into its require 
ments might be described, some 
what figuratively, as the com 
mandment coming to 1dm as a 
stranger, though in form and 
sound long known. For the 
personal form given to the 
experience described, compare 
I Cor. iv. 6, ravra 8e, d8cX- 
<oi, /zerecr^juaTicra ets 

c yco Se e(m/] Observe in this 
passage the alternations of the 
tyto and the ctyuapTta. (i) Sin 
(had, I alive : (2) sin alive, I 
dead: (3) sin condemned, I 
emancipated (viii. 2, 3). The 
first is the condition of nature ; 
the second is the condition of 
law ; the third is the condition 
of grace. 

e^ow] Was alive. Not in the 
full sense of ^Verat in i. 17, 
?;creo-$e ill viii. 13, ^cro/xei/ in 
2 Cor. xiii. 4, or 770-77 in Luke x. 
28. Still it expresses a condi 
tion (i) of uprightness, as op 
posed to one of conscious trans 
gression, and (2) of security, as 
opposed to one of conscious 

VII. i2. 


\6ovcrri$ $6 TT/S evToXijs r] dujLapria dve- 
, eyco c)e aTrtdavov Kal evpeOti /ULOL r\ iv- 10 
1} 6i9 fyoriv, avTii ei? QdvaTOv. i] yap H 
opuriv \af3oucra Sid Trjs evToXtjs 
jue Kal Si avTrjs aTreKTeivev. too~T 12 

\0ovo"r)<; Se T^? ei 
Compare the opposite expres 
sion in Gal. iii. 25, eXOovo-rjs Se 
rrjs Trt crrecos. The singular eiro- 
Xtj seems to refer to the particu 
lar commandment (OVK iinOvp.-^- 
crets) selected as the specimen. 
In reference to the whole Law, 
the plural is always used. Matt. 
xix. 1 7, TY]f)f](rov [or T7/pei] ras 
ei/roXtts. Mark x. 1 9, ras eVroXas 
otSa?. Luke xviii. 20, &c, 

ai/e^orei/] Luke xv. 24, i/e- 
/cpo? -iyv Kat ai/e^crev. ^Z T A^ si7?, 
which was ve/<pa, revived. It 
was not the &*>/& of sin, but 
only its revival; the beginning 
of its action in the form of posi 
tive transgression. 

d-n-eOavov] Died; incurred 
the penalty of transgression, 
which is death. Ezek. xviii. 4, 
LXX. rj IJ/VXT) ">] a/xaprai/oucra, au- 

10. vp^] i Pet. i. 7, 
iva TO SoKifjiLov...Vpf.0rj ets CTrat- 


r; et5 ^an^] Which was unto 
life. This particular command 
ment, like the Law generally, 
pointed to life (acceptance and 
happiness) as the condition of 
obedience. See Lev. xviii. 5, 

LXX. Kal c^u/Ya^ecr^e Trarra TU 
Trpocrray/xartt /mov...a Trot^cras au 
ra avOpwTros ^crerat tv avrots. 
Ezek. xx. TI, etc. Gal. iii. 12. 
] IX. 8, ov TO. TCKVCL r^9 
ratiTtt rcKva rov eov; 
Matt. x. 22, o Se vTro/xet ra? cis 
TeA.os, ouro? croj^r^crerai. xiii. 20, 
22, 23, o Se eTrt ra TrerpcoS^ o~7ra- 
pei?, ouros ecrrtj/ o TOI/ Aoyoi/ d/cou- 
cov K-.T.X. xxiv. 13. xxvi. 23, o 
fJL/3di]/a<; I^ZT IfJiov . . . oyro s yae 
TrapaSwcret. Luke ix. 48, o yap 
/xt/cpoTepo? . . . ovros ecrriv /aeya?. 
John vi. 46, t /XT^ o coi/ Trapa rov 
eoi), CWTOS ecopa/<ev TOV Trarepa. 
vii. 1 8, o 8e ^Vfrwv rrjv So^av... 
OVTOS aX-^^T/s eo-riv. XV. 5, o /ze - 


iroXvv. James i. 25, o Se Trapa- 
Kvif/as...ovTO<5 yuaKaptos et TT^ TTOI- 
j^cret OLVTOV ecrrai. 2 John 9, o 

/AtVQ)V V TV) StSa^, Ot!TOS Kttt TO! 

Trarepa Kat TOI/ moi/ ex tt 

1 1 . Sta Ti7? ^ToA7y] To be 
taken with Xafiovcra. See note 
on the same words in verse 8. 

Gen. iii. 13, LXX. 
O O</KS T^TraTTycre /xe, 
Susan. 56, TO Ka X- 
Xos e^TraT^cre o~, Kat 77 e7ri$v//.i a 
Steo~Tpi^e T^ KapStai/ o~ov. 2 
Cor. xi. 3, 




d fjitv vofj.os dyios, KO.L tj evTO\rj dyia KCII 
13 Kat dya6ti. TO ovv dyadov efjioi eyevero 6dva- 

^ \ A x < c 

<yevoiTO a\\a q a/uapTia, iva 
, Sid rov d<ya6ov JULOL Karepya, iva yevriTai Ka6 V7rpf3o\rjv d/mapTco- 

cos o oc^ts ^rj7ra.T-rj(TV Euav eV 
rrj Travovpyia avrov, (pOaprj ra 
vorjfjLaTa VJJLWV K. T./\. I Tim. ii. 
14, xal ASd/A OVK TjTraTijOrj, TJ 8e 
yvvTfj <;a.7ra.Tr]Oei(ra e v Trapa/SaVei 
yiyovcv. Heb. iii. 13, tVa /X.T; 
(TK.Xr}pvv0fj rt? e vfJUjiv aTTarr) TTJ^ 
a//aprtas. All sin is committed 
under a deception, momentary 
at least, as to ( i ) the satisfaction 
to be found in it, (2) the excuse 
to be made for it, (3) the pro 
bability of its punishment. The 
strengthened form i^a-rrarav oc 
curs also in xvi. 18. i Cor. iii. 
1 8. 2 Thess. ii. 3. 

Si a^r^s] By means of it 
(the en-oAry). Using the pro 
hibition as its instrument; in 
the sense explained in notes on 
verses 8 and 9. 

aVeVmvei ] See note on verse 
9, a.TT.6a.vov. Compare 2 Cor. iii. 
6, TO yap ypafji/jia diroKTevvei. 
Here sin is said to do by the 
commandment that which there 
the Law itself is said to do. 

12. wore] See note on verse 
4, wore. 

d /xi> vo/xos] The insertion of 
/xei^, though not followed by an 
expressed antithesis, shows that 
the sense is, The Law indeed is 

holy, but sin ivorks death by it. 
Or, in English idiom, Although 
the Law is holt/, yet sin works 
death b// it. The question in 
verse 13 interrupts the intend 
ed order, and gives a different 
form to the remainder of the 

d rd/xog...r; evroXry] The Law 
as a whole, and the command 
ment (OVK eTTt^v/xT/crets) in parti 

13. TO ovv aya$df] Is then 
the Laio of God chargeable with 
my condemnation ? Not so. That 
would be a conclusion as unjust 
as irreverent. It is not the Law, 
it is sin, ivhich wrought the ruin. 
Sin, that it might be displayed 
(</>avf)) in its true light, as sin, 
as a thing so malignant that it 
can even use that which is good 
as an instrument of destruction. 

fjirj yeVoiTo aAAa] See note 
on verse 7, aAAa. 

7y cx^aprt a] Understand, e/xoi 
eyeVeTO Odvaros. 

<t>a.vrj\ Matt. vi. 5, 16, 18, 
OTTOJS (fravioa LV TOS dvOpwTrois vrj- 

CTTfVOVTZS. . .O7TCOS /A?) <an^<J K.T.X.. 

2 Cor. xiii. 7, ov% Iva ^//.ets SOKI- 
/xot <>av<jj[Jicv. 

Lva yeV^Tcu] That thus the 

VII- I3-I5- 


Aos rj d/uLapTia SLCC TIJS VTO\fj$, o l^a/mev yap 14 
OTL 6 vofjios Trvev/ULaTiKos ecTTLV tyw (He ardpKivd s 

TrtTrpafjLevos VTTO TI]V d/ULapTiav 6 jap KCCT- 15 

Or oio. 82 OTL. 

commandment (that, particular 
specimenofthe Divine Law which 
has been the topic throughout) 
might be the means of exposing 
the exceeding sinfulness of sin, 
as a thing capable of perverting 
even good into evil. 

/ca# v-n-epfioXifv] From the 
literal sense, of overshooting the 
mark, comes that of excess gene 
rally. Beyond measure, exceed 
ingly. The phrase occurs also 
in i Cor. xii. 31. 2 Cor. i. 8. 

IV. iy, KO.6 1 VTTCpfioX fJV CIS V7Tp- 

poXyv. Gal. i. 13. 

14. oLoapev yap] viii. 22. 2 
Cor. v. i. 

OTL 6 vofjios] The Law is spi 
ritual; belongs to spirit; requires 
for the satisfaction of its de 
mands a spiritual mind (see viii. 
4) : whereas I, to whom the Law 
comes, am a man ofjtesh, a crea 
ture of sense and earth. The 
eyto here is not the Christian 
man, of whom a very different 
account is given in viii. 2, ifec. 
but the / of nature, to whom 
the Law addresses itself from 
without, saying, Do this, and 
thou shalt live. 

See note on vi. 1 9, 
The distinction between 
crap/avos (carneus) and 

(carnalis} is always observable, 
even where the two words are 
applied to the same person, as in 
I Cor. iii. i, 3, OVK ^vvrjB-qv 
XaXfjcrai V/JLLV cos Trvct /xartKor? aA/X 
cos crap /aV 015. . .e n yap vapKLKOL 
(TT...ov^l aapxiKOL ecrre /cat Ka 
ra avOpwTTov TreptTraretre; Else 
where the difference is clearly 
marked (1)2 Cor. iii. 3, OVK eV 

S. o~apKtVai?. Heb. vii. 16, 
o? ov Kara VO/JLOV e^roA^s crapKt- 
M7? yeyoi tr, a/\Aa Kara 8wa/xiv 
^oo^S CiKaTaXvTOV. (2) 2 Cor. i. 
12, OVK kv (Totfcia aapKLKrj, aXX 

V ^apLTL &(.OV. X. 3, 4, V CTapKi 

yap TreptTrarowres ov Kara crap/<a 
o-Tpcntvo/JieOa ra yap o~Xa. T^S 
crrpaTet as ^/xaSi/ ov crapKiKu, aXAa 
Sward TO) eu5 K.r.X. I Pet. ii. 
II, raV (Tap/ciKwi/ .7n6vfJiL<jjr, 
airtvcs crrparcTJOVTai K.T./\. 

7T7rpa/xeVos VTTO] iS oM SO S 
to 5e ^?zc/er i?t ; enslaved to sin 
as by regular sale and purchase. 
Compare i Kings xxi. 25, LXX. 
os Trpd6rj Troirjaai TO Trovypov 

KvplOV. For V7TO TTjV 

see note on iii. 9, ^< 

15. o yap 
That thing which I perform 
that which I work out ever so 



ov ywdooncw ov yap o BeXco TOVTO 

1 6 TTpdcro cOy d\\ o HJLKTCO TOVTO TTOLO). el Se o ov 

6e\0) TOVTO TTOIO), (TV/UUprifJLL TM VOjillp OTL KCtXoS 

17 vvvl Se OVKETL eyco KaTepyd^o/mai. avTO d\\a r\ 

1 8 oiKOvcra ev e/uoi d/uLapTta. oloa yap OTL OVK oiKel 
iv e/moi, TOUT e&Tiv iv TJJ crapKi /ULOV, dya66v. 

15. Or omit the former TOVTO. 17. Or e^ououcra. 

thoroughly- / know not: I have 
no knowledge of it, as if it were 
of my own willing and doing : 
1 do it in Hind obedience to the 
dictation of another, whose slave 
and tool I am. See John xv. 
15, o SotJXos OVK oloev TL Troiet 
avTov 6 Kt ptog. For Karepya^o- 
yaai see note on iv. 15, Karepya- 

ov yap o $e /\oo] / may well 
say, I am made to act without 
my own knowledge ; for I am 
even made to act against my own 
will. For Trpacrcra) and TTOIW see 
note on i. 32, 7roiovcrtv...7rpao-- 

1 6. et Se o] This inward 
disapproval of my own act is an 
unconscious tribute to the holiness 
of the Law which I transgress. 

17. vvvl Se] It is as if I 
were two persons, not one ; my 
true, my better self, desiring what 
is right, but overmastered by an 
evil power which, though an 
alien, has taken up its abode 
(ot/covcra) in me, and manages 
me against my will. 

97 otKovcra ei/ e/W] This idea 

of domestication within a man 
is applied in Scripture to two 
opposite inmates, (i) the evil 
spirit, or (as here) sin personi 
fied, and (2) the Spirit of God. 
Thus (i) Matt. xii. 43 45, TO 
CLKaOapToi TTvevfJM . . . Aeyet, Ei? roi/ 

OLKOV fJLQV 7TlO"Tpe l 1 //a>. . . KCU 7eA.- 

OOVTOL KarotKet e/vet /c.r.A.. Luke 
xi. 24 26. (2) viii. 9, elVep 
Trvev/jia eov ot/cet ei/ vp2v. I Cor. 
iii. 1 6, T/ads eov eo"re Kal TO 
Trvev/Jia. TOV eov OLKCL iv Vfjuv, 2 
Cor. vi. 1 6, evoiKr;o-oj o avroTs 
Kal e/XTreptTraTT^cra). Eph. iii. 17, 
TOV Xpiard^ Sia rrjs 
iv rat? KapSt at? vyacov. 
James iv. 5, TO Trvtvfjia o KO.TW- 
Kiaev iv YJJJUV. 

1 8. oTSa yap] Keason for 
describing Sin as his inhabitant. 
For I know that there dwells not 
in me, that is, in my flesh, any 
thing good. And I know it 
thus; because I find even the will 
to do good powerless to make the 
good done. 

a-apKi] See note on verse 5, 
ore yap T^aey. Also on vi. 19, 

VII. 1622. 


TO yap 6e\eiv TrapaKEiTai JULOL, TO Se 

^*/J > -y^ it > ^ ^ /) -V " J 

^ecrc/Gti TO KCL\OV ov ov yap o t>/\w TTOLLO ay a- 19 

oo^, d\\a b ov 6e\a) KaKov TOVTO Trpdcrcra). el $e 20 
AJ/J/^ ^ , / , \ f 


avTO d\\a 1} oiKOvcra ev e/moi d/mapTLa. 
dpa TOV VOJJLOV TM 6e\ovTL e/moL Troielv 21 

TO KaXov OTL e/uLot TO KaKov TrapaKeiTaL o~vvrj- 22 
^ \ ~ / ~ j~ ~ \ \ ./ ,/ 

cojjiai yap TW VO/JLO) TOV Ueof KaTa TOV eorco av- 

Law, that to me who would Juin 
do that tvhich is good, to me (/ 
say) that which is evil is pre 
sent. The construction is twice 
broken : ( i ) TOV VO\JMV is put as if 
the intention had been to com 
plete the sentence thus: I find 
then the Law powerless to effec 
tuate in me that well-doing wldcli 
my will approves: (2) e /zot is re 
peated, for the sake of clearness, 
in consequence of the late place 
of 6Vt. 

22. crwrySo/zai] Like avvev- 
OOKC LV (i Mace. i. 57, et TIS o~vv- 
evooKei TOJ vd/zw), and o^uy^at- 
peiv (i Cor. xiii. 6, o-uyy/u pei Se 
T-rj a\r]9f.ia), awtjoea-OaL means 
to be pleased together with, to re 
joice with ; and thus the eyo> of 
this passage, the true self, is 
said to sympathize with the Laio 
of God in its satisfaction in that 
which is good. 

/caTa] According to, as re 
gards. See note on i. 4, 

TO yap OeX.w] The same dis 
tinction between the ivill and 
the act is seen in Phil. ii. 13, o 
evepyooi/ iv vfuv KCU TO OeXeiv Koi 
TO ei/epyeu/ vrrep rrjs euSoKt tt?. 

TrapaKetrat] As Traptcrrai/ai 
(see note on vi. 1 3) is ^o set beside, 
to present for use ; so Trapa/cei- 
o-^at is to lie beside, to be present 
for use ; as, for example, food on 
the table (Ecclus. xxxi. 16, <f>d- 
ye cos a.v6pu)7Tos ra Trapa/cei /Ao/a 
a-ot), or (as here, and in verse 21) 
faculties and capacities of will 
and action. 

20. d Se 6] This double per 
sonality (see note on verse 17) 
is a dethronement of the eyco in 
favour of the c^aapria. / am 
not my own master. I am over 
borne by the violence of a usurper 
within. I am like the demon 
iacs in the Gospels, whose organs 
of speech were constrained by an 
alien inmate to cry out against 
the Deliverer, What have I to do 
with Thee ? 

21. ei ptcrKO) apa TOV vo/xov] 
/ find then with regard to the 


TOV o-o) av0poo7rov] See note 


23 BptoTTov, f3\67ra) Se eTepov vofjiov ev roZs fUL\6(riv 
fjiov avTicrTparevofjievov TW vojuiw TOV 1/009 fj.ov 
Kcti aix/uLa\coTi(^ovTa /me iv TW VOJULW TT/S djmap- 

23. Or omit the 2nd ev. 

on vi. 6, o TraAouos 


23. eVepov vo/xov] Another 
law, a different rule of conduct; 
explained afterwards as /V/e /w; 
of sin. For eYepos (different") as 
distinguished from aAAos (addi 
tional), see Gal. i. 6, 7, et? erepov 
eva.yyeA.tov, 6 OVK ecrrti/ a/\A.o. 
For vo/xos in this general sense, 
as 9 z^e or principle of life, 
compare iii. 27, Sici i/o/xou TTI- 
crTtoj?, and note there. 

tV rot? yaeActnV /xov] As the 
place of its abode, and region of 
its warfare. For yaoWii/ see 
note on vi. 13, ru, yaeAiy 1^00 v. 

James iv. 

ev rois /xe Aecrti/ 
i Pet. ii. II, atrtves o-rpare^ovrat 
Kara TT^S ^ X^S- The compound 
form occurs only here. The 
construction with the dative re 
sembles that of dv 

/aio of (belonging to, accepted by) 
my mind. In other words, the 
Law of God ; see verse 22. The 
i/ovs is tlie natural mind, the 
understanding and reason; able 
to pass an approving judgment 
upon, the beauty and holiness of 

the Divine Law, but itself re 
quiring renewal by the Holy 
Spirit in order to turn approval 
into obedience. See xii. 2, pve- 

rr) ava/caiyajcrei TOT; 
i/oo? K.T.A.. Iii Eph. iv. 17, the 
heathen are said to walk ei/ /*a- 


ets dfioKi/jiov vovv (Rom. i. 28). 
Elsewhere corruptersof the faith 
are described as men 6\e(/>$ap/Ae - 
VOL rov vow (i Tim. vi. 5)5 KO.T- 
(j)6apfAcvoL TOV vow (2 Tim. iii. 
8), having the mind and con 
science defiled (Tit. i. 15). In 
Col. ii. 1 8, we read of the vo^s 
T>ys o-apKo s, the mind belonging 
to the flesh, debased by the in 
fluence of sense, and running 
into a self-confident and unau 
thorized speculation. On the 
other hand, in Eph. iv. 23, 
Christians are charged dvaveov- 
a@ai TO) Trvev/JiaTL TOV voos, to be 
gradually renewed in the spirit 
of their mind ; that is, in the 
spiritual part of their rational 
nature; the part lost in Adam, 
and recovered in Christ. Still, 
even in Christian people, the 
vovs is distinguishable from the 
Trvev/xa, as in i Cor. xiv. 14, TO 
Trvev/xa ju,ov 7rpo(Tev\CTai, d Sc vovs 

VII. 23, 24. 


TO) bvTi iv TO?? fjieXeffiv /ULOV. Ta\at.7ru)pos 24 
eyco avOpcoTTOS T/S /me pvcrerai e/c TOV 

Luke xxi. 
24. 2 Cor. x. 5. 2 Tim. iii. 6, 
/cat. at^juaXtort ^ovres yvva.LKa.pia 

K.T.X. Iii tlie Septuagint, at^/xa- 
XooTevetv is the commoner form : 
see Epli. iv. 8 (from Psalm Ixviii. 


ei/ TU> vo /xu>] Leading me cap 
tive in (as if encircled by the 
chain of) the law of sin, <fec. 
See Eph. vi. 20, >7rep OP Trpecr- 
3ei>co ei/ aAixrei. Philem. 10 

o eyei/v^cra ey ros 

TU> vd/xco TT/S a/xapri as] Tlie 
same with erepov vo^ov above. 

24. TaXatTroopos] Ps. cxxxvii. 
8, LXX. Jer. iv. 30. Rev. iii. 17, 
d TaXatVoopo? KCU, e/Xeetvo? K.r.A. 

raXat Trcopos cyco av$pa)7ros] 
The words in their full bitter 
ness are those of the man not 
yet emancipated by Christ. But 
the line cannot be drawn abso 
lutely; (i) because of the infec 
tion of nature remaining in the 
regenerate (Art. ix.) and caus 
ing a continual experience of 
conflict and imperfection; (2) 
because of the unredeemed con 
dition of the body in this life. 
Thus viii. 23, ^/xets /ecu avrol iv 


, ... 2 Cor. v. 2,^4, Kai 

yap V TOWTO) (TTVa.^O/J.fV, TO OLKrj- 

Ttjpiov T^/XOJV TO e ovpavoi) CTrei Sw- 
(raaOai f.TrnroQovvT *.$.... KOL yap 

/3a.pOVfJLVOL K.T.X. 

Tt s yae pwreTai] The question 
is adapted to the condition of 
the man who as yet knows not 
the answer. 

pvcrerat] From the primary 
idea of puo/xai (epvu)), ^o r//Yz/; ^> 
oneself, comes that of rescuing, 
in all senses. Gen. xlviii. 16, 
LXX. o ayyeXos d puo/xevos /^e e: 

TTUJ/TOJl/ TCOl/ KaKCoJ/. Exod. 11. I J , 

ai ao-ras 8e Maii;cr^s eppucraro ai;- 
Tas. xiv. 30, /cat eppt o-aro Krptos 
TOI/ Icrpa-^X eV TT; ijftepa eKeiVr; e/c 
^eipo? AtyvTTTtaJi . Isai. lix. 20, 
Kai ^et evcKei/ ^tcov d pfo/xevo?. 
Micah iv. 10, tKtWtv pva-erai, at 
KOL eKet^ev Xvrp^creTaL ere Ki ptos 
d ed; crov CK x ei P"5 \0p<jjv aov. 
Matt. vi. 13, p9o-ai T7/xd? aVd rou 
TTovypov. xxvii. 43. Luke i. 74. 
Rom. xi. 26. xv. 31. 2 Cor. 
i. IO, os K T^XIKOL TOU 
ippvaaro 7^/xa5 Kat pvcrtTat K. T. X. 
Col. i. 13. i Thess. i. i o, 
TOV pvo/J-cvov T^/xas CK TT^S 
T?]? ep^oyaev^s. 2 Thess. iii. 2. 
2 Tim. iii. II, Kat e/c TTOLVTWV p.e 
eppuo-aTO d Kvptos. iv. 17, 18. 
2 Pet. ii. 7, 9. 

TOU croj/xa7os TOV Oavarov TOV- 
TOV\ The body of (belonging to) 
this death ; this death which we 
see and feel everywhere : com 
pare Eph. vi. 12, TOV O-KOTOVS 
TOVTOV. Or, This body of (be 
longing to) death; this body 
which is such as had been de- 


25 TOV QavaTOV TOVTOV } X^P 1 -^ T( P &<*> ^i<x Iriorov 
XpHTTOv TOV Kvpiov tf/ULtov. apa ovv avTos 670) 
Tto /mew vol SovXevct) vojuw Qeov, Tr\ Se crapKi 

scribed above. Either construc 
tion of TOVTOV is allowable; the 
former is somewhat the simpler. 
Both o-ou/xa and tfai/arosare literal. 
The cry is for deliverance from 
that body of flesh and sense, 
which is both the abode and 
domain of sin (verse 23, TOJ i/o/xu> 
TTys tt/xapTtas TOJ OVTI lv TO^S fj.eX.e- 
(TLv fjiov), and itself doomed to 
die (Heb. ii. 15,00-01 <o/3o> Oava- 
TOV 8ia TravTos TOV t,i]v eVo^ot tjcrav 
SovXet us). For the phrase TO 
crco/jta roi) OOLVOLTOV, compare vi. 
6, 12, TO o~dyxa TT^S dfJLapTLas...ev 
TW Ovr]T(a V/JLUV craj/xaTt. viii. n, 
^cooTrotrycret KCU T<X OvrjTa o~oj/xaTa 
r/xwi/. Phil. iii. 21, TO croo/,(,a T?ys 
Ta7retvajo"e(jos rji^wv. Col. i. 22, 
ev TO) crw/xaTt r/y? crapKos a^To9. 
11. II, ev T7y a7reKOfO"et To9 o"oj/^ta- 
TOS TTys o-apKo?. 

25. x"P ts T( ? ( ] The ques 
tion, rts /xe puVeTat ; cannot be 
left for a moment unanswered, 
although (as the folio wing clause, 
apa ow avros eyw K.T.A., shows) 
St Paul has not yet closed the 
subject of the unrenewed state. 
Reserving his fuller reply for 
chapter viii., he answers sum 
marily and parenthetically here, 
/ thank God through Jesus Christ 
our Lord, for mastery over the 
body now, and for the promised 

redemption of the body here 
after. For the form of expres 
sion, \<ipi<s TCO ew, see note on 
vi. 17. Compare especially i Cor. 
xv. 55 57 ^f>v o~ov, B<iva.T, TO 

li7]O~OV XptCTTOV. 

apa ovv] See note on verse 3. 
The inference here is drawn 
from the foregoing paragraph as 
a whole, disregarding the paren 
thetical clause x c *-p<<s T<5 e<S K.T. X. 

avTos eyw] / myself- ^the eyw 
of the whole passage, distin 
guished throughout from the in 
habitant sin am in a divided 
state, serving one law ivith the 
voO<?, and another law with the 
(rap!;. It is thus that St Paul 
sums up the whole description 
of the man under law. He is 
distracted between two services; 
the mind serving a law of right, 
the flesh serving a law of wrong. 
Greatly does he need a redemp 
tion, which can be found only 
in Christ. For a secondary 
application of the passage, to 
Christian men, see note on verse 
24, raXatVcopos eyco 

j/o/xa) eou. ..vo/xa) a/ 
The a.bsence of the article gives 
the idea of one law, and another 
law: a law belonging to (pre- 

VII. 25 VIII. 2. 147 

OvSev apa vvv KaraKpijULa TO?? eV XpLCTTco VIII. 



OU Trvev/uiaTOs T/? 

ev 2 

scribed by) God, and a law be 
longing to (prescribed by} sin. 

VIII. I, &C. OvSei/ apa vvv] 
The apa marks an inference. 
And a near point of support for 
it might be found in the first 
clause of vii. 25. But it is in 
fact a far larger and more gene 
ral deduction from the whole 
preceding portion of the Epistle. 
The 8th chapter may be said to 
join on to v. ii ; continuing the 
grand subject of the conse 
quences of Christ s redemption 
to all who believe. Several di 
gressions have intervened. The 
parallel between Christ and 
Adam (v. 12 21). The answer 
to the possible charge of Anti- 
nomianism (vi. i 23). The il 
lustration of the assertion, Ye 
are not under the Law (vii. i 
6). The description of the prac 
tical working of the Law in the 
individual heart and life (vii. 7 
25). Now the Apostle is free 
to expatiate unchecked on a 
wider field, which takes in both 
time and eternity, both grace 
and glory. 

Ko,TttKpi//,a] See v. 1 6, 18, TO 
[jiev yap KpifJM (. ei/os eis /cara- 
Kpipa K.T.A.. In 2 Cor. iii. 9, the 
ministry of the Law is said to 
be Trjs KaraKptcreto?. 

rots tv Xptcrrw] See note on. 
vi. II) cv XpioTai Iryaov. 

2. oyapvo/xos] No condemn- 

ation-for, etc. Observe (i) the 
same contrast as in vii. 9, n, 
17, 20, 25, between the eyw and 
the a/xaprta. There is 110 im 
pending KaraKpL/jia for the man, 
because there is an accomplished 
KaraKptaa for the sin (verse 3). 
(2) The introduction, for the 
first time, of a third i/o/xo?, that 
of the tSjnrit of life. In vii. 
22, 23, 25, we had the vo /xos of 
God, with the vov<$ consenting 
to it, on the one hand ; and on 
the other, the vo/xos of sin, 
acting in the members of the 
body, prevailing over the i/ou?, 
leading captive the cyw, practi 
cally victorious therefore in the 
conflict of the life. Here first 
enters the third combatant, the 
vo/xos of the Divine TrreC/xa, and 
turns the scale in favour of 
good. For i 0/xos in this ex 
tended sense, see note on iii. 
2 7, vofAov Tncrreu)?. 

TOV 7ri/v/xaTos T^S C 00 ??] The 
/Spirit of (belonging, essential to} 
the life : that Holy Spirit, whose 
coming is the communication of 
eternal life to the soul. Com 
pare John vi. 63, TO Trvetyxa e o-Ttv 
TO ^OJOTTOIOW. Rev. xi. n, 
TrvtvfJia u)r;s K TOU eoC. And 
for the form of expression, 
(i) John xiv. 17, TO Tn/ev/xa T^S 
aA.7/(9etas. xv. 26. xvi. 13. 2 Cor. 
iv. 13, TO avro Trveiyza T^S TTI- 
Eph. i. 13, TO) 


npoz PQMAIOY: 

Irnrov t]\ev6epa)(rei /me UTTO TOV VOJULOV 
3 Ttjs djULapTias Kcti TOU 8a.vo.TOv. TO yap a&vva- 
TOV TOV VO/ULOV, eV a) tjcrOevei Sia Trjs crap/cos, 6 

rrjs 7rayyeA.i a<? TW aytu). Heb. 

X. 29, TO TTi/eu/xa 

(2) John vi. 35, 48, o apros 

01779. Vlii. 12, TO (/>cu<; 

Acts iii. 15, TOV ap 

0077? /c. T. A. Phil, ii. 1 6, Aoyoi/ 

0)175. iv. 3, iv p[fj\o} ^ajy/5. 

James i. 12, TOI/ o~Te (^ai/oF T>/S 

&i)ry?. I Jollll i. I, TO{> Ao you 
T7/s ^17?. Rev. ii. 7, CK TOT) 
tvAov T?;S ^oor}?. iii. 5. xiii. 8. 
xvii. 8. xx. 15. xxi. 6, C K T^S 
Trvjyrjs TOV {SoaTos Tr/s ^00^5. xxii. 
14, 17, 19. 

ei/ XptcrTa) l^o-oG] It might 
be possible to connect these 
words closely with oorys (2 Tim. 
i. I, ays Trys i/ Xpto-Toi Irjaov) 
on the principle stated in the 
note on iv. i, Kara crdpKa. But 
there is no such necessity : they 
may be taken with -ijXevOtpwo-ev. 

^A.eutfe pooo-eV ^ae] The tense 
expresses a single past act, and 
refers to the one marked be 
stowal of the Holy Spirit upon 
him at the great change and 
turning-point of his life. Com 
pare Acts ii. 38, /xeTavo^VaTe, 
Ki pa7TTtcr$>7Too e/cacTTOS v/awv. . . 
/cat Ar/^i^eo-^e Trjv . SoopeaV TOU 
ayiou Tri/eu/xaros. Eph. i. 13, 
TTLCTTtvcravTts eo-(/>payto-^r;T TO) 
Trvev/xaTt K.T.A. For e 
see note on vi. 18 e 
res Se. 

TOU vo /xov T^S a/x,apTias] See 
vii. 23. 

Kat TOU 6ava.Tov] See vii. 24. 

3. TO yap aStVttTo^] I sen/, 
liberated me; for, Arc. The 
of the afjiapria is the 
of the eyco. (i) The 
construction undergoes a change 
in the course of the sentence. 
For the impossible thing of the 
Laio, that in which it was iveak 
through the flesh, God by sending 
His own Son. . . [effected ; that is, 
He] condemned sin in the flesh. 
If the clause TO aSwarov TOV vo- 
/jiov had been an accusative in 
apposition with the sentence (like 
TTJV AoytKT/V XaTptiav v/xcoi/ in xii. 
I, or TO fJiapTvpiov Kaipo^ iSt ots 
in i Tim. ii. 6) it would more 
probably have stood (as there) 
at the end, not at the beginning. 
The seeming exception in 2 Cor. 
vi. 13, TTJV & avTr/v avTi^LaOiav 
K.T.A.., may rather illustrate the 
above interpretation : the same 
recompense, a recompense in like 
kind, [give ye ; that is,] be en 
larged also yourselves. (2) For 
the phrase TO dovvaTov TOV vo- 
fj.ov, compare ix. 22, /cat yvcopt- 
crat TO owaToV OLVTOV. 

ev <S] Not in that (inasmuch 
as, because), but simply in 
which, referring to TO aSwaTov 
above. Thus i Pet. i. 6, eV o> 

VIII. 3 . 149 

0eos TOV ectVTOV vlov Tre/u^as ev d/moLcojULaTL crap- 
/cos dfjiapTias Kai Trepl d/uapTias KareKpivev Tt}v 

ayaAAido~$e K.T.A. iv. 4, ev o> 

evtoVTai K.T.A. 

rja-Oevei] See note on v. 6, 

Sta T?/? o-apKos] Through (by 
means of) the jftesh. The flesh 
is the instrument of the iveak- 
ness of the Law to secure obedi 
ence. Compare Matt. xxvi. 4 1 , 
17 Se crap acr$ev?7s. Also vi. 19, 
Stu T?}V ao-$e ve<,uv rrys crapKos 
-lyxcuv. And see note there on 

TOJ/ eauTov wo v] The same 
emphasis is seen in verse 32, 

os ye TOV iSt ou wou OUK c ^eu 


Tre fii^as] Luke xx. 13, rt 
Troirycraj; 7re/x,i^a) roi^ vtoV /xoi) TOI/ 
dyairrjTov. John iv. 34, TO ^- 
Xrjfjia TOV TrtfJUJ/avTOS [AC. V. 23, 

24, 30, 37 f 17 / Tl/XOJJ/ TOl/ ftOl/ 

ov Tt/xa TOV Trarepa TOV Tre/xi^avTa 
avToV K.T.A. vi. 38, 39, 44. vii. 
16, 18, 28, 33. viii. 16, 1 8, 26, 
2 9- e ix - x 4- ^xii. 44, 45, 49. xiii. 
20, o 8e e/xe XafjifidviDV Aa/x/?aj/et 
TOV Tre/xi/ avra yae. xiv. 24. XV. 21. 
xvi. 5, vw Se VTrdyo) ?rpos ToV 

ev o/xotco/xaTi 
/w likeness of flesh of sin ; that 
is, iw 6oc^ K^e </4< o/ sinful 
men. See Phil. ii. 7, eauToV CKC- 
Sovhov Aa/?(ov, ev 
pwTTOJv yevo/tevos * 
Kat o"^?//xaTt eupe^ei? ok av^pa)- 
TTOS /c.T.A. (i) For o /xo6co/xa see 

V. R. 

/. 14. vi. 5. Hev. ix. 7. 

(2) For the reality of the Incar 
nation see i. 3. ix. 5. John i. 
14, o Acryos crap^ tyeVero Kat 
ecrKryvaxrev ev vi. 51, 53, 
54> 55> S^, 17 o-ap^" pov...Tiqv 
crdpKa TOV vlov TOV dvOpWTrov 
K.T.A. Acts ii. 31. Eph. ii. 15. 
Col. i. 22, ev TO! crco/xaTt T/y<? crap- 
KOS avTov. i Tim. iii. 16, e^ave- 
pcu^r/ ev o-apxL. Heb. ii. 14, 17, 
eTrel ouv Ta TratSt a KCKOtvcov^Kev 
at/xaros Kat o~apKO?, Kat at>Tos 
7rapa7r/\7ycrtaJ5 /xeTecr^ev TOJI awrcov 
. . . ux^eiAev KaTa TCO.VTO. Tots ctSeA- 
<oi<j 6fAoi(i)6rjvai K.T.A. A". 7? ^ 
Tals ^/xepai? T^S O"ap/cos auror. 
X. 2O, TOI)T eo~Ttv, TV/S crapKos 
aiVoO. i Pet. iii. 18. iv. i. 
I John iv. 2, I^omv XpiaToi/ 
ev aapKi IXyXvOoTo.. 2 John 7. 

(3) For o-apKos dpapTias, jftesh of 
(belonging to, characterized Ly) 
sin, see note on vi. 6, TO aw/xa 
T^s a/xapriag. 

Kat Trepl ayaapTias] Literally, 
^?it/ concerning sin. But the 
idea is defined by the constant 
recurrence of the phrase in the 
Septuagint (more than 50 times 
in the Book of Leviticus alone) 
for a sin-offering. See, for ex 
ample, Lev. xvi. 5, A-^eTtu ovo 
^t/xapot s e atycov Trepl a 
Kat Kptov eVa ets o 
Psalm xl. 7 (quoted in Heb. 
X. 6), o AoKauTtu/xaTa Kat Trept 
a/xapTtas OUK rfrr)(ra<i. Heb. x. 1 8, 



npoz PHMAIOYI;. 

Kaco/ULa TOV 

4 d/ULctpTiav ev Trj crapKi, \va TO ^L 

7r\ripa)6rj ev rifdiv TO?? pr] KCITO, crdpKa 

26, OTTOV Se tt^ecris TOVTWV, OVKCTL a/xapT iwv aTToXetTrerat OVCTLOL. 
xiii. ii, TO al/Jia Trepl a/zapTtas 
K.T.X. I Pet. iii. 1 8, Xpia-ros aVa^ 

Trepi d/JLOipTLiOV K.T.X. I Jollll 11. 2, 

/cat auros iXao /xo i ; ecrrtj/ Trepi TOJV 
ajmapruov r//xo3v, ov Trept TCOI/ rj/JtzTe- 
piov Se p^ovov dXXd /cat Trept 6 Aov 
TO{) Kotjfjiov. iv. 10, Kat ttTrecrTetXev 
TOJ/ D6OJ/ avroi; tAacryao^ Trept TCUI/ 

KO.TKpLVV rr] 

crap/<tj Condemned that sin in 
that flesli. The articles, T?;I/, 
rr^, refer to the two words 
combined above, o-apKos a/xaprias. 
(rot^ m ^e incarnation and con 
sequent sacrifice of His own Son 
passed sentence of death upon 
sin in that very flesh which- was 
its domain, (i) The idea of 
Kare/cptvcv is not that of censur 
ing, marking and branding as 
sinful, but that of sentencing to 
death, and leaving as a con 
demned criminal aiuaiting execu 
tion. Matt, xxvii. 3, iScov... 
on KaTKpL6rj. The obedience 
of Christ /xe xpt Oavdrov (Phil. ii. 
8) in human flesh was sin s 
death- warrant. Henceforth sin 
might linger out a few days or 
a few centuries, but it is as a 
condemned thing, doomed to 
die. Compare John xii. 31 
33, vvv /cpiVis (.tnlv TOV KOO-/X-OV 


TOVTOV eKr]ia-eTaL eu>* /caytu 
tdv vif/(ji)0w K.T.X. The same 
result is figuratively described 
in liev. xii. 5 12, in connexion 
with the completion of Christ s 
work by Ascension. (2) For tv 
T-fj crap/ (the human body of 
Christ as the place and scene of 
the discomfiture of sin) compare 
Epli. ii. 15, iTfV ^X^pav K Trj 
crap/a auro{!...KaTap7^cras. Col. 
1. 20, eip^voTror^cras ota TOV ai/jia- 
ros TOV o-Tavpov avTov. ii. 15, 
ev Trapprjcria OpLafJi- 
OLVTOVS iv avrw. 
4. Iva. TO 8tKaia)/xa] The con 
demnation of sin in the flesh, 
the sentence of death passed 
upon it in the human body of 
Christ, had this object; that the 
requirement of the Law might 
be fulfilled in us luho walk not 
according to flesh but according 
to spirit. That we, who could 
not obey the Law in the strength 
of a fallen nature, might have 
grace to obey it in the strength 
of redemption and of the Spirit. 
Gal. V. 1 6, Ae y<o 8e, 7n/ci>/x,aTt. 
TTfpnrcneiTe Kat eTri^ujutav crapKos 
ov fji-ij TcXecrr/re. 

See notes on i. 32, 
ii. 26, ra StKaiw/xaTa 
TOV vo/xou. 

xiii. 8, vc/mov TTC- 
. Gal. v. 14, o yap Tras 
ro /xos ev evi Xoya> 


VIII. 4, 5- 151 

/\/\ot Kara TrvevfJLa. ol yap KCtTa 5 

(TCCpKO. OI/T69 TO, 



Kara] According to, by the 
rule and law of, <fcc. See notes 
on. ii. 5 > 1 1 Ka.Ta...Ka$ VTTO/JLOVIJI . 

Kara au p/<a....KaTa Trveu^ia] 
Here first comes into view that 
contrast between; and 
TTvev/jia, which forms the subject 
both of the following verses, and 
of a corresponding passage in 
the (earlier) Epistle to the Gala- 
tians (v. 1 6, &c.). As crdp here, so 
elsewhere 1/^77 (j/ry^iKos) is made 
the opposite of Tri/eu/xa (Tryeu/xa- 
TIKOS). See i Cor. ii. 14, <kc. 
lia x<./<os 8e aV0pa>7ros ou Several... 
d Se Tri/eu/xaTiKo? K.T.A.. The full 
division is threefold : as in i 
Thess. v. 23, TO Trvev^a nal TJ 
*}/v)(r) Kat TO o"uijaa. But here 
crup, as elsewhere i/nr^ , may be 
said to include both o-(3/xa and 
V^X 7 ^ ^ ne D dy with its appe 
tites, and the natural soul with 
its capacities of all kinds for 
the life of this world; while 
Trvev/xa, in St Paul s usage, seems 
to have place only in the Chris 
tian, and to denote the renewed 
soul, the immaterial part of 
man as quickened and elevated 
by receiving into it the Holy 
Spirit of God. Thus although 
(rdp and Trvevfta, when set in 
contrast with each other, retain 
their proper meaning as ex 
pressive of man s twofold con 
stitution in matter and spirit, 
yet in every place the presence 

and work of the Divine Spirit 
is implied in St Paul s use of 
the word Tri/c^a, even where it 
is not directly expressed. 

TrepiTTUToiSo-tv] See note on 
VI. 4? TrepiTraTrycrco/xer. 

5. ot yap Kara o"ap/<aj I say, 
not Kara. crapKa but Kara Trv^v^a. 
For, &c. There is a broad line 
of distinction between the two ; 
proved by tJiis by the evidence 
of their habitual thought and 

01 y. K. cr. oWes] Tltcji who 
exist according to Jlesh have the 
things of that fie sit, for their sen 
timent. They icho have oidij 
the carnal existence can Itave 
only the carnal mind. Compare 
John iii. 6, TO yeyevn^eVoi/ /< 
T^S crap/cos crap CCTTIV, /cat TO 
yf.yf.vvrjfjLf.vov e/c TOU TrveiyzctTOS 

TTl/eU/Att IcTTLV. 

<>povov<nv] The verb <po- 
vv, to exercise mind (</>p^V), is 
used (i) absolutely: as (a) to 
think or care, 2 Mace. xiv. 8, v-n-tp 

Phil. iv. 10, a 

TO VTTfp IfJiOV <pOV6U/ (i) Kttt 

l(f>povflre K.T.X. (/3) to be in one s 
mind, of sound mind, sensible, 
wise (compare (frpovyo-Ls, </>povi- 
/xos); Deut. xxxii. 29, i.xx. 
OVK typovrja-av crvvuvai. Psalm 

XC1V. 8, KOi /XO)pOt, 7TOT (frpOVJ- 

<raTt [qu. TTOTC fftpovijo-tTe] ; Isai. 
xllV. 1 8, 28, OVK Zyvuo-av 





CTCU...O Xeywi/ Kvpu) <poi/av K.T.A.. 
(y) to have thoughts of oneself, 
to be proud ; Zecli. ix. 2, Start 
l^povrjcrav crc^oSpa. (2) With ail 
accusative : (a) to have for ones 
mind, to be minded thus or 
thus, to think and feel this or 
that, &c. as here and xii. 16, 
TO avTO ets aA.A-ryA.ovs 
/XT; ra i;t//r/Xa ^povor 
I Mace. x. 20, KCU 


6 KaTa TrvevfJia Ta TOV Trz/ef/uaTOS. TO yap (f)po- 
vrijULa Trjs crapxos OdvaTOS, TO Se 

7 TrvevfJiaTOS (W; Kal eiprjvr}. SLOTI TO 

8 Oeou ov% VTroTcicrcreTaL oi/Se yap SuvctTai. ol 

for one s mind. The state of 
those who Ta Trys o-ap/cos (or Ta 
TOV Trvev/xaTos) <povovo~iv. Else 
where (poV?y/xa means ( I ) thouglit, 
purpose, intention ; see verse 
27, Tt TO <povry/xa TOV Tri/ev/xaro?. 
2 Mace. xiii. 9, TOIS Se <^povry- 
jjiacnv o /^ao"tXevs /SeySapySapcayxe- 
vos rypx eT K.T.A. (2) disposition, 
spirit: 2 Mace. vii. 21, yen/cow 
TrevrXrypwyxeVry </>povry/xaTt. 

7. StoTt] .4 worldly mind 
must be death; because it is a 
state of enmity towards God. 
They who hate God, the Lord of 
their life, must perish. 

X$pa ets eoV] Compare v. 

IO, t ydp ^0pol OVTfS KttTTyXXa- 

yry/xV TO> eu> K.T.X. Isai. Ixiii. 
IO, LXX. Kal eo-Tpd</7 avTots ft? 
/, Kat avros 7roX/xryo~V av- 
Eph. ii. 1 6, aVoKTtVas TrjV 
v avT(5. James iv. 4, 
OVK ot SaT OTI 7y ^>tXta TOV KOCT/XOV 
X$pa TOV eov o-TtV; See note 
on v. i, K 7rio~Toos elprjvrjv. 

ovSfi ydp Svi/aTat] See once 
again the argument of vii. 

7 2 5- 

8. ot Se ev trapKt oi/Ts] See 
note on vii. 5, OTE ydp rf^v. 
They who are in flesh; contained 
within flesh as the limit and 
horizon of their 

2 Mace. ix. 12, KCU /x>; 
ovra iaoOca <^>poveti/. xiv. 
26. Matt. xvi. 23, ov <povets rd 
TO! eov, dA.A.a rd rciov dj/^pojTrcov. 
Mark viii. 33. Acts xxviii. 22, 
d^iovfAGV Se Trapd crov aKOuo-at 
a </>povts. 2 Cor. xiii. 1 1 . Gal. 
v. 10. Phil. i. 7, TOT/TO </>poveTj/ 
VTrep Travrwv f/x.av. 11. 2, 5* tj/a 
TO auro 0po^ryr...To eV <f>povovv- 
Tes...TOuro <^>povtre ev 
iii. 15, 19, 01 rd eTrtyeta 
voi^Tes. iv. 2. Col. iii. 2, rd avoo 
</>povtre K.r.X. (/3) to mind or 
regard: Horn. xiv. 6, d 
n^v vy/xepav Kupt a) c^povel K. 

6. TO ydp] J. wzWe 
serious difference: for, &c. 

TO (frpovrjfJict, Trys crttpKos...TOv 
Tri/eu/xaros] TAe mindedness of 
the flesh... of the spirit. The 
having the flesh (or ^Ae spirit} 

VIII. 6io. 


eV (rapKi oVre? Qew dpecrai ou 

e OVK e <rre eV (rapKi, d\\a ev TrvevjuaTi, 9 

L7Tp TTVeVjULa 06OL/ Of/C6? eV 1/yUfV. i Se T9 
7TVeUfJ.a XpiCTTOL/ OI//C ^6f, OTTOS OVK tCTTLV av- 

TOV. el $e XpKTTos ev vjjiiv, TO fj-ev crwjuia vexpov 10 

eo> apeVat] Num. xxiii. 27, 
LXX. el apecret TGJ ew. Psalm 
Ixix. 31, KOU apecret TW eoj VTrep 
ve or. Mai. iii. 4, KU! 
TW KI^HO) Ovaria. Jov8a Kat 
i Thess. ii. 15, Kat 
6(3 /x>^ apecr/coFTtor. iv. I, TO TTCOS 
Set vfj.ui<s TreptTraretF Kat u.pia K.ziv 

9. ou/c ecrre ei/ crapKt] See 
again vil. 5? 6, ore yap r)/xef tv 
TT^ crapKt. . .I ui t 8e. ..aTT 

t;rep 7n/e/xa 0eor] 7^ 15 ^e 
possession of the Holy Spirit 
wJiich transfers a man from 
being iv crapKt to 5eiw$r Iv irvtv- 

Tri/evyita^eoi}. . .Tn/etyxaXpicrror] 
The absence of the article lays 
the stress on the quality: such 
a thing as, suck a Person as, 
God s Holy Spirit, (i) For the 
absence of the article, see note 
on V. 5, Sia Tn/etyzaros aytov. 
(2) Observe the variety of ex 
pression : Spirit of God, Spirit 
of Christ, Christ in you (verse 
10). The key is found in John 
xiv. 1 6, &C. Kayoj epwrr/croo roV 
Uare pa, Kat uAAov 7rapaK\rjrov 

...on eyw ei/ r<3 Ilarpt /x,ov ; Kat 
v/.iet? eV e/zot, Kayw ei/ r yu.ti . xv. 
26, o 7rapa.K\r]TO<; oV eyoj 7re//^a) 
vjLtti/ 77apa TOT) Harp 05. xvi. 7, c( r c. 

ot/<et v vfjuv] See note on vii. 
IJ, V) oLKorcra iv ijJLOi. 

10. XptfTTo? ej {i/x?i/] Gal. 
ii. 20, 77 8e ei e^tot Xptcrro?. iv. 

1 9, fJ-XP 1 ^ v 

VJM.V. Col. i. 27, Xpio-rs v 

rj eXTrt? T^s So ^5. iii. 4, orav o 

Xpifrro? (fravepwO-fj, rj ^OJT; Ty/xdjv 

[o?" u/ia)^]. 

TO jU.ep o"w/xa reKpoV] See vi. 1 1^ 
etc. Xoyi^ccrOe carrots veKpov<; fjikv 
rrj d/JiapTLa, ^oji/Ta? 8e TO> ew ei/ 
Xpto-Tco I^o-ou. Gal. v. 24, ot Se 
TOT) Xpiorou I^crot) nyv crapKtt 
ccTTa^pwcrav <rw TO^S 7ra.0TJp.acnv 
Kat Tats e7n$ufu at9. Col. iii. 3, 
aVe^aVere ya p, Kat 7y ^w?} r/Awv 

KeKpUTTTOt C7i;j/ TW XptCTTO) 6V TO) 

ew. ^ /ie &of/y, with its pas 
sions and lusts, is e/ee/ thing, 
treated by the Christian as 
though it were already lifeless, 
because of sin ; because death is 
the doom of sin, and because 
the Christian, united to Christ 
crucified and risen, anticipates 
that sentence, and regards him 
self as having already died and 
risen again. On the other hand, 



Sid dfjiapTiav, TO Se TrvevfJLa (W/ Sid 

II el $e TO TrvevjJia TOV eyeipavTOs TOV \narovv e/c 

veKpwv OLKel eV vjULlv, 6 eyetpas XpicrTov e /c ve- 

KptOV ^0)O7TOir](TL KCtl TO. 6vi)TO. (TCJO/ULaTa VfJLWV 

Sid TO ivoiKOvv avTOv TrvevjJia eV 

Or omit TOV. 


the spirit, the renewed soul, is 
life, all vigour and energy, be 
cause of righteousness ; because 
of that forgiveness and accept 
ance through Christ, which brings 
it into union with God the 
source of life. 

ii. t Se TO] And although 
in this life the body is unrenewed, 
and therefore to be treated by the 
Christian as if it were already 
laid aside in death (see verse 10), 
yet its turn also shall come : He 
who raised Christ from the grave 
shall in due time raise us. And 
thus that Redemption u-hich began 
here with the regeneration of the 
soul, shall have its consumma 
tion hereafter in the resurrection 
of the body. For coo7roieu/ see 
note 011 iv. 17, TOV o>o7roioiWos 
TOVS veKpov?. And for the con 
nexion here implied between the 
Resurrection of Christ and that 
of His people, see i Cor. vi. 1 4, 
d 8e eos Kat TOV Kvptov 
KO.I 7^/xas e^eyepet Sta TT^S 
avTOV. XV. 20, 23, drrap^rj Xpt- 
o~TO5, e:reiTa ot rov XpioTou K.T.X. 
2 Cor. iv. 14, o eyeipas rov [kvptov] 
Ir](TOvv Kai -^jitas G-VV Irjcrov eye- 

peT K.T.X. Phil. iii. 21. i Thess. 
iv. 14, ft yap Trio-revo/Jitv on 
IT^CTOI;? aTre^avei/ Kat ai/ecrTTy, OUTOJ? 
Kat o eo? TOV? KOf^^eVTa? 8ta 
TOI; \rj(TO\) a^et avv aura). 

Sta TO] Because of, owing 
to: whether the principal refer 
ence be (i) to the ennobling and 
consecrating effect of the indwell 
ing of the Holy Spirit in the 
human body (as in i Cor. vi. 1 9, 
TO, o~ioju.o.Ta i;/xd!i/ vaos rov iv vfJiLV 
dylov Trveu/iaros lanv, ov e^eTC 
a?ro eov), from which the future 
redemption and immortality of 
the body might reasonably be 
inferred : or (2) to the omni 
potence of the Holy Spirit in 
actually working the miracle 
of the Resurrection itself: see 
Ezek. xxxvii. 9, LXX. e A$e, TO 
Trvtv/Jia, Kal f/JL<f>vo-rjo-ov eis rov<; 
VGKpovs TOUTOf?, Kat ^o~aTcocrav. 
Rev. xi. 11, Kat //.CTa rd<s Tpe? 
^yaepas Kat ^ /xtcrv rrvf-V^a. ^co^s 6K 
TOT) ov LO"fj\Oev avrois, Kat 

(TT7)0-aV CTTt TOt>S TToSa? aVTCOI/ 

K.T.A. If the alternative reading, 

T05, be adopted, this agency of 
the Holy Spirit (through, by 




"Apa ovv, d$e\<poi 9 6<f)i\6Tai 


ov rij 12 

6L /"| KCCTCl (TapKCt 1 

el c)e 

eis TOU croJ/xaro? Oavarovre, tycrecrBe. OCTOL 14 
TTvevfJiciTi Qeou ayovTai, OVTOL viol Qeou 
eicriv. ov jap e\d(3ere TrvevfJia (HovXeias TraXiv 15 

means of) is expressly asserted. 

I 2. o^eiAerai ecr/xei/] We are 
under an obligation to ; it has 
a claim upoji us. See i. 14, 
"EAA?7<TU/ re Kat /?ap/3apot?...oc^et- 
Aerr;? et/xi . Here the position of 
ov suggests the suppressed clause, 
aAAa TO) Trvf-vfJifun. Something 
has a claim upon us but wJiat ? 
Not theflesk, but the spirit. 

TOV K. cr. %fiv~\ For the purpose 
of living ; that we should live. 
See note on i. 24, rov ari^a^e- 
o~9ai. Compare also vi. 6, TOV 

Luke i. 70,, TOV KOLTtvOvvai rovs 

TToSas T^/XOJK. ii. 24, KOi TOV OOVVCLl 

Ovcrtav Kara TO eiprj/jtevov. xxii. 
31, e^T^o-aro v/xas rot) cririao-at. 
13. ct yap K. <r. ^re] Gal. 
vi. 8, on o (TTretpcov cts TT}I/ cra p- 
/ca eauToG e TT^S (rapKos ^ept cret 
(f>6opav o Se 0-Tretpan/ eig TO 7ri/e{)- 
/xa e/c TOU Trveu/xaTos ^eptcret 

^y (^e instrumen 
tality of] spirit. The 7ri/t)/xa is 
^e sow^ s quickened and inha 
bited by the Holy Spirit (see note 
on verse 4, Kara crapKa...KaTa 
Tz-yeu/xa). What is done there 
fore by the Trveu/za is done by 

the agency of the Holy Spirit: 
the difference is but one of ex 

cr.] Col. iii. 9, 
TOV TraAaioV avOpM- 
TTOV avv Tat? Trpa^ecriv O.LTOV. 
Compare Acts xix. 18, e o/xo/\o- 

See note on vii. 4, 
rw T/O^W. 

14. ocrot yap] In confirma 
tion of frjo-fcrOc. /Sons of God 
must be immortal. 

irvcv/jtaTi eo(!] For the ab 
sence of the article, see note on 
V. 5, OLO, TTi/ei /xaTOS ayiov. 

TTVtv/jiaTi 0. ayovTai] For the 
construction, compare Gal. v. 1 8, 
ct Se Trveu /xaTi ayeo~8e. 2 Tim. 
iii. 6, ayo/xei/a eTrt^f^xt ats TTOlKi- 

wot eou] See verse 19. ix. 
26 (from Hos. i. 10, LXX.), e/<ct 
K\-r]0yo-ovTai viol eov ^aJVTog. 
2 Cor. vi. 1 8. Gal. iii. 26, Tray- 
TCS yap utot eo{5 eo-Te K.T.X. 

15. ou yap] / say, sons; 
for, (fee. 

eXa^eTc] The spirit which you 
received (on becoming Christians) 
was one not of slaves, but of 



ek <f)d/3ov 9 d\\a e\a/3erc 7rvev/ma voecras, ev 

1 6 a) Kpd^ojULev, A/3/3a, 6 Trarrip. avTo TO Trvevfjia 
vvvfJictpTVpel TO) TrvevfJictTi rifjiwv OTL ecr/mev T6Ki>a 

17 Qeou. el 3e Te/ci/a, Kat K\r]f>ov6fJioi K\^pov6jULOi 
fjiev Oeouy crvvK\ripov6fJioi Se XpLO-TOu* eiTrep crvv- 

*iva Kcti 

adopted sons. See Gal. iv. 6, 7, 
OTI 8e ecrre inoi, e^aTrcaTeiXer o 
eos TO 7TTv/xa rou vlou aijrou ei? 

, a/V/\a itd?. 

vraXtv] Gal. iv. 24, 

Aetav ycvycoo-a. v. I 

TraXiv ^uy^ SofXet as 

Heb. ii. 15, O <TOI ^o/?a) Oavarov 

Sta Travros TGI) ^/yv 4Vo^ot rjcrav 

From the classical 
phrase wov rtOeo-Oai (^CTOS ^to?) 
comes the compound form i>!o- 
flecrm, adoption, here, and in 
verse 23, and ix. 4 (where see 
note). Also Gal. iv. 5, ira rov<s 
VTTO vofJLOV t^ayopdo-rj, Iva. Trjv 
vioOtcriav a.7roXd/3iafjiv. Eph. i. 5? 
Trpooptcra? T^/xas eis vto^ecriav 8ta 
l^crov XptcrTou eis arro^. Com 
pare John i. 12, ocroi 8e cXa/3oi/ 

iv a>] /?i whicJij (Spirit of 
adoption}^ as the containing or 
enveloping presence. Compare 
ix. I, ev TrvtvfjLdTL ay tiw. xiv. 17. 
xv. 1 6. i Cor. vi. n. xii. 3, 
9, 13, ci> Tr^ev/xaTt eov 

TO> avTco TTVcu/xaTt . . . ev e 
K .r.X. 

Gal. iv. 6, 
TOU vou a^rou... 
ov, A/3/3tt, o Trarrjp. 
pa ^Oyaer] ix. 27, Hcrat as 8e 
et -uTrep TOU Io-pa^ X. John 
37, etcm/Kei o I77(ro{!? Kat 
^ey Xeycov. xii. 44. Gal. iv. 6. 
A/3/3dJ Mark xiv. 36, Kat eXe- 
ye] , A/j/3d, o TraTijp, Trdvra SwaTa 
(rot. Gal. iv. 6. 

1 6. avro TO Trvev/jid^ The very 
eou (verse 14), the very 
rto^ecrta? (verse 15)? re ~ 
ceived by us as Christians, bears 
thus a concurrent testimony with 
that of our own Trvev/xa to the 
fact of our sonship. 

<7w//,apTi>pet] See note on ii. 

17. et Se TeKva] And sonship 
implies heirsliip. God has an 
inheritance for us, in which we 
partake luith Christ. Share His 
sufferings, and you shall share 
His glory. Gal. iv. 7, OVKCTI t 
SouAo? a XXa uto s* et 8e vios, Kat 


K\r]povo/jLOi /xe 
where the genitive after 

VIII. 1 6 19. 157 

yap OTL OVK a^ia TCC 7ra6q[JLaTa 1 8 


Ka\v(p6tivcu i? r]fJLa<5. r\ yap aTroKapaSoKia TIJS 10 
TTi]v d7roKaAv\j/iv TMV vlwv TOU Oeov 

vo/x,o5 is that of the thing : see 
iv. 13, Kocrfiov. Hob. i. 2, TTO.VTWV. 
vi. 17, rrys e7rayyeXux<?. xi. 7, rr/<; 
Kara TTLCTTLV Si/caiocrijrrj?. Jainea 
ii. 5, T7/s /3acnXfLa<; K.T.\. Here 
of the person; Cod s heirs, 
Christ s coheirs. 

crfF/<X>/poi ()^toi] The word oc 
curs also in Epli. iii. 6, clmi ra 
6iJia. Heb. xi. r>, 

TT^S aur^g. i Pet. iii. 7, GJS Kat 
o-vvKXrjpovofJiois ^aptro? ^^9. 

crw/cA.. Xnwrroi}] Rev. iii. 21. 

O> J^ /) >> <> 

ow(7<o aura> Kac/tcrai /J.CT e/Aou ev* 

T(O Of>Ol (^ fJLOV K.T.X. 

eiTrep o-rvTrao-^Oyaci/] 2 Tim. 
ii. II, 12, et yap avvcnrf.6dvo^f.v^ 
Kat <rwrycro/Aej/ et VTTOfJievo/JifVj 
Kat aw^a 

I Cor. xii. 26, 
Travra ra /JL\.rj. 

1 8. Aoyi o/x,ai yap] And luell 
may we ii is worth our while to 
submit to this condition : /br, itc. 

OVK aia...7rpoY] ^0^ U OrtJtlJ 
(of thought or mention) in re 
gard to, in comparison with. 

Tra^/xara] See note on vii. 5, 
ra 7ra$>//xara TOJI/ a/xapTtojv. 

TO{) vw Katpou] Mark x. 30, 
vvv ev TO? KaipoJ TOVTO), opposed 
to ei/ Ttu atooyi TO) ep^o/zej/co. Luke 
xviii. 30. 

nyi/ fj-eXXovcrav 8. a.] I Pet. 

V. I, o Kat TT/S jueXXot (r77? a 

Xv7TT(rOaL SJcT^S KOll OJl O?. TllO 

order here is as in Gal. iii. 23, 
as r?/i/ //eXXovcrai/ TTLO-TIV aVoKa- 
XL ^^r/i at. 

aTroKaXv^^v/Tat] See note on 
i. 17, avroKaXi TTTeTuc. 

et? r/ /ms] nob ^/xtv, as though 
we should only .see the glory 
spoken of, but 50 as to reach, 
(tjf ect, come upon us. 

19. >] yap] The whole crea 
tion, even in its irrational (if 
not inanimate) portion, gives 
signs as of expectation, of long 
ing, of a sense of want and im 
perfection, to be satisfied only 
in those times of refreshing 
^Kaipot aVai^a c:to<?, Acts ]ii. 19) 
which shall accompany the pub 
lic recognition of the true sons 
of God. The whole earth, in 
its present state; the world of 
nature, so full of imperfection, 
suffering, and decay and yet 
under the government of a per 
fect God; seems to indicate, not 
the need only, but the certainty, 
of a future restitution of all 
things (aVoKaTao-TaVfo)? Travrwi/, 
Acts iii. 21) when (above all 
else) the veil which at present 
hides the true character and des 
tiny of God s servants shall be re 
moved (r>}i/ diroKaXvif/iv TOJV vi 



20 aTre/cSe^ercu. Trj rydp 

r\ KTtcris VTTC- 

21 7r e\7ri$t, OTL 

d\\a SLCC TOV 

r\ KTIVI^ 6\evdep(jo6ji<T6- 

TOV ecu), and He will own and 
bless them as His. See verse 23. 

oVo/capaSo/aa] From the clas 
sical /capaSo/ceti> (to watch as 
with outstretched head) conies 
the strengthened compound (see 
note on x. 20, aVoroX/xa) aVo- 
KapaSo/ceiv, and the noun aVo- 
KapaSo/aa. Phil. i. 20, Kara rrjv 
GtTro/capaSo/aav /cat eXt8a fjiov. 

rr}<? Kricrews] See note on 
i. 20, KTureco?. 

aTTOKaAui/av] See note on i. 
17? aTTOKaX^TrreTat. ii. 5 

Another exam 

ple (see note on aVo/capaSoKi a 
above) of the strengthening use 
of uVo in composition. See verses 
23, 25. i Cor. i. 7, aTreKSe^o/xeVous 
T>;I> diroKaXvif/iv TOV Kvpiov ^p.<Zv 
Irjcrov Xpiorou. Phil. iii. 20, 
crwrrjpa. ctTre/cSe^o/xe^a Kvpiov Iiy- 
crow Xpicrrov. Heb. ix. 28, 
ocfrOrjcreTai rot? avroi/ a7reK8e^o/xe- 
vot? eis o-cor^ptav. i Pet. iii. 20, 
ore aTre^-eSe^ero T^ TOI) eov jtxa/cpo- 
6vp,ia. ev T^yaepais Nwe. 

20. paTatoT^Tt] Disappoint- 
ment, frailty, emptiness, not/ling- 
ness. Eccles. i. 2, &c. LXX, 


, ra Travra /xaratorrys. The 
whole book of Ecclesiastes is a 

<p6opas el s T*]V e\ev- 

commentary upon this verse. 
Thus Psalm xxxix. 5, TrX^V 
TO, crv/JLTravTa. piaratoTTy?, Tras av- 
cxliv. 4, av6pu>7TO<; 
wfj.ono6r) at r^ut pcu 
avrou (ocret GTKICX, Trapayovcrtv. Tit. 
iii. 9, avco^eXeTs /cat /xaratot. 

ot>x e:ovo-a] ^Vo^ 6?/ a?iy choice 
or ac< of its own, but owing to 
the appointment of Him who for 
man s sin inflicted that subjuga 
tion to the power of corruption 
and of decay ; a subjugation, Jiow- 
ever, not destined to be final, but 
brightened by the hope of a future 
restoration. The Fall of ma"n 
involved the inferior creation 
also in its consequences : the 
new heavens and new earth will 
bring with them the reversal 
of that derived doom. 2 Pet. 
iii. 13, /caivcws Se ovpavovs KCU 
yrjv naivyjv Kara TO eTrayyeXyota 
avrov TTpocrSoKco/xev, Iv ots StKaio- 
o-vvrj KarotKt. Rev. xxi. u. 

21. avTrj tj KTtcrts] The con 
trast which follows in verse 23, 
aXAa Kat avrot, K.T.X., seems to 
show that the term KTtVts (here 
and in verses 19, 20, 22) predo 
minantly denotes the inferior, 
the irrational, creation, so wide 
ly affected by man s conduct and 
condition. See note on verse 1 9. 

T^s SovXetas T^S <0opas] TliQ 

VIII. 202 3 . 


Gepiav T/7? Sofffs TWV TtKvwv TOV Qeov. 
yap OTI Tracra t] KTIVIS crvvcrTeva^ei Kat 

xpi TOV vvv ov JJLOVOV e, d\\d KCCI CIVTOL, 23 

> ~ r ,/ f ~ \ 

ajrap^v TOV TrvevjJiaTOS e^oyre?, ijjuieis KO.I 
ev eavTols <TTevd(^Ofjiev, viodecriav a7re/coe- 

23. Or omit J]fj.eis. 



slavery of (belonging to, arising 
from) the corruption, that is, 
that state of general decay and 
ruin which was brought in by 
man s sin, and which lays a yoke 
of servitude upon man s whole 
world. For SouXeias see Heb. 
ii. 15, f.vo\oi Tjcrav SouAeta?. 

Tr}v ZXevOepiOLV TJys 80^9] The 
liberty of (belonging to, connected 
with) the glory (the manifested 
perfection) of the children of God. 
That aTTOKa/Vui^is TOOV mooi/ TOV 
eou (verse 19) shall bring with 
it a condition of liberty to the 
toiling and suffering world. 

22. o-wtoSiVei] The figure im 
plies not only suffering (JRev. 
xii. 2, Kpd^zi (oStvoucra Kat /5a- 
o-avL^o/jifi f] TCKeii/), but suffering 
in hope of a joy to come. See 
John xvi. 21, ri yvvrj orav TLKTY) 
et...6 rai/ 8e swrcrr TO 

Traitoi/ ovKtTL fJLvr)fJ.oveveL 
ecos K.T.X. 

a^pi TOV vvv] Phil. i. 5. 

23. ov H.OVQV Se] That is, y 


Trjv a-Trap-^v TOV TTV.] The first 
fruits consisting of the Spvrit. 
The possession of the Holy Spirit 
is itself the first-fruits of our 

future inheritance. It is of the 
nature of the glory that shall 
be revealed. Thus 2 Cor. i. 22. 
V. 5? Sovs rj/JA-v TOV dppafitei a TOV 
7rvev//,aT05 explained by Eph. i. 
13? 14, eox^paywr&TTe T<3 TTFev^art 
Trjs CTrayyeAias TW ayt a), os [or o] 
ecrni/ dppa/3wv TT^? KX^povo/xtus 
rj^MV eis aTro/Vurpaxjiv TT^S irf.pi- 
TTotr/crea)?. For d-n-ap^rj see (for 
example) Lev. xxiii. 10, LXX. 
Kat otcrere Spay/xara d-n-ap^v TOV 
@epio-/JLOv tyxwi/ Trpos TOV tepea. 
Eom. xi. 1 6. xvi. 5. i Cor. xv. 
20, 23. xvi. 15. James i. 18. 
Rev. xiv. 4. 

(TTfvd^o/Jifv.. .TOV o~. 77.] 2 Cor. 
V. 2, 4, cy TOVTO) crTercx^o/xet , TO 

OtKfjTTJplOV t jfJLlOV TO 6^ OVpai/Ol! 

7rev8i;cracr0ai eTrtTro^ori Tes . . . Kat 

yap ot OVTCS lv TO) o~K7]vei cneva- 
tpl^ev (3apovp.voi.. .Iva KaTCLTroOrj 
TO OVYJTOV VTTO T^S ^w^?. Compare 
I Cor. XV. 53, Set yap TO <j>0apTov 
TOVTO tvovo-ao-Oai d<f>6apo~ia.v Kat 
TO OvrjTov TOVTO ej/Sw7a<j$ai a^a- 

That is, the mani 
festation of our adoption (see 
verse 19) by resurrection. It 
was so with Christ Himself: 
see i. 4, TOU opio-0eVTOs vlov eoO 





24 TTI yap 

OVK. e&Tiv e\7ris o yap /SXeVet TJS, TL Kai e\ 

25 Tri^ei ; el Se o 01) /3/\67ro/xei/ e\7r/b/xei/, 




TO TrvevfJia <rvvavTi\afJi/3d- 

24. Or j8\., rt s e\?r. 


ill Acts xiii. 32, 

aracrracreo)? veKpajv. Hence 


Kat. . .yeypaTrrat, 
/xov el CTIJ, eyoj <T?//xepoi/ 
ere. The adoption itself is ?io 
future : Gal. iv. 5, 6, IVa rr/i/ vio- 
@e<Tia.v aTro/Xa/jco/xev ort 8e ecrre 

UtOl K.T.X. 

TJ/V a?r. TOU crtdjUaros] Called 
in Eph. i. 14 the aTro/Yvrpujo-is 
r^s TreptTrotiyo-eo)?, ^e redemption 
of the acquisition; that is, /*e 
final recovery (by resurrection of 
the body) of that which God has 
already made His own by the 
gift of His Son, The spiritual 
redemption is already ours. Eph. 
i. 7, iv (S 

ta TOV at/xaro? arou, TK aecriv 
ran/ TrapaTTTCo/xaTooi/. See note Oil 
iii. 24, aTroAurpaxrew?. 

24. rrj yap eX-Trick] A rea 
son for <rremo/y(,ei> a7rK8e^o/^evot 
above, /i^ was by that hope (of 
a glory to be revealed) that ive 
were saved. Our salvation, re 
garded as a single past act (orto- 
^/xei/), was apprehended, not by 
an exercise of sight, but of that 

faith in things future, which is 
the very essence of hope. Eph. 
ii. 8, r/7 yap ^aptrt e crre cre- 
Sta T?y<j Trtfrreco?. For 
see note on v. 9, orw- 

Se] An object of hope : 
as in Gal. v. 5? CK TriicrTews !A,7rt8a 
StKatocrt i/T;? aTreKSe^o/xe^a. Col. 
i. 27, Xpio"ros ev VJJUT, ty eATrtq 
TT7? 8^775. i Thess. ii. 19, rts 
yap rji^iZv \7TLs...rj ov^l KOL v{JLti$ 
K.r.A. i Tim. i. i. Tit. ii. 13, 
TrpocrSe^OyCiei/ot T^V /xa/<aptav eA- 

TTtSa K.T.A. 

ySAeTTo/xer^] 2 Cor. iv. 18, 
/x>} cTKOTrovvrcoi/ ^/xaJv Ta ^SAeTro- 
yaei/a K.r.A. 

25. Si ^Troftoi/^s] See note 
on ii. 27, Sta ypa^ctaro?. 

26. (JcraTjrcos 8e] -4 we?, 5 
hope, so also the Spirit helps us. 

o-wai/riAa/x/^dVeTai] As Aa^u,- 
/?avecr$ai is to lay hold of, so ai/- 
rL\a/ji/3dvo-9aL (rtvo?) is to /ay 
7io^c? q/* over against (on the op 
posite side, or in one s turn}; 
whether literally (as in Isai. Ii. 
1 8, LXX. Kai OVK ^i/o dvTi\afJL/3a- 

VIII. 2 4 2 7 . 


verai rrj dcrBeveia 
fj.e6a KaOo del OVK 

16. Or 

vo/xevos Ts x a P" s (TOV K.r..; or 
in the sense of claiming (as, per 
haps, I Tim. vi. 2, ot rrys euepye- 
cri tts avTiXa/jifiavofJifvoL) ., applying 
to (as i Kings ix. 9, LXX. /cat aV- 
TeXa/3oi/To 6f.wv Ttpu)V Kat Trpocre- 
Kvvrjcrav aurots K.r.X. Micah vi. 

6, eV TLVL...dvTL\.rj\f/O/JLaL f.OV fJLOV 

K.T.X.); or helping (as Lev. xxv. 
35> LXX. cat/ Se TreV^rat o aSeA.- 
0os (rou. TtX^i^^ auroS K.r.X. 
Psalm iii. 5, ort Krptos oVriA.^- 
i/^erat /aov. Luke i. 54, di/reXa- 
/3ero icrpar/A. TratSos awroi). A.cts 
XX. 35 Set dvTiXafj.fidveo Oa.L TOJI/ 
And awai/rtXa^i- 
(TLVL) is to /a?/ 7iO^? q/ ( 
burden or the like) together with 
(a person)^ and so to assist ; as 
here (rr) ao^eveia T^COF), and 
Exod. xviii. 22, LXX. Kat crwav- 
TiXtjil/ovrai crot. Psalm Ixxxviii. 
21, 77 yap X 61 / 3 / xou O"uvavTiXr]i}/eTai 
avTco. liuke x. 40, etTrov oui/ avr^ 
Lva [Jiot (rvi/avTL\.d/3r)Tai. In Num. 
xi. 17. LXX. the construction is 
that of the active Aa/x/3oVetv (Kat 
a-vvavTiXrul/ovTai //.era aou TTJV 
opfJLirjv TOV{5). 

Tt 7rpocret><jo/xe0al For the 
mood (expressing must, are to, 
<fec.) compare x. 14, TTWS ovf 


TO yap TL 
d\\d avTO TO Trvev- 


/ca0o] This form is found 
only here, and in 2 Cor. viii. 12 
(twice), and i Pet. iv. 13. 

xaVei] The verb eV- 
rtvt) is(i) to light upon, 
to fall in with (us in 2 Mace. vi. 
12, 7rapaKaA.w ow TOTJS e^rfy^a- 
vovras T^Se r^ ficfiX^ K.r.X, x\ . 
39); and (2) to converse with, 
apply to, entreat; whether abso 
lutely, or with Trepi, virip, or Kara. 
Thus verse 34, os Kat 
UTrep T^/xwi/. xi. 2, ok 
TOJ eo) Kara TOV Icrpa^A. "Wisdom 
viii. 21, eVerir^oi/ T(5 Kvpt co, /cat 
avrov. xvi. 28, Kat Trpos 
^v c/xoros e^Tfy^a^etv trot. 
I Mace. viii. 32, eai/ ovv ert eV- 
Tv^wcrt Kara crou K.T.A.. x. 6 1, 
63, 64, eVruxeti/ <<ar auro9. . .TOV 
Kar auroi) 

Trept /xTySevos Trpa y/xaro? K. T. X. 
2 Mace. ii. 25. iv. 36. Acts xxv. 
24, TOIITOV ou d~av TO TrXrjOos 
ot. Heb. 

also note on vi. i, 

vi. 25, Travrore wi ct? TO 
^aVetv vTrep aurcov. Hence 
^t? (entreaty) in i Tim. ii. i. iv. 
5. The full compound vircpev- 
TtryxdVai/ is found only here. 
The Holy /Spirit makes entreaty 
to God for us in those unuttered 
yearnings which the Searcher of 
hearts recognizes as the breath 
ing of His own fyirit, and 


npoz PHMAIOYI:. 

\ ^r T^ f \ 

TS Kapoias OLoev TL TO 


on Kara Geoy evrvy^avei 

28 dyicov. oiSajmei/ Se OTL TO?S dyaTrwcrLv TOV Qeov 
Trdvra (rvvep^ei 6 Geos eis dya6ov TO?S /caret 

28. Or omit 6 Geos. 

therefore the expression of His 
own ivill. 

crrevay/Aots] Acts vii. 34. 

27. d epewdui ra? K.] liev. ii. 
23, ore eyco ^at o epeui/coi/ v(.(f)pov$ 
Kttt KapSi as. 

Tt TO (ppovrjpia rov TH/.] That 
is, rt ^povet TO TrveS/xa. Ill verse 
6, TO (^pw7y/xa TOT) 7T^ev/xaTO5 has 
a different sense: see note there. 

O TI KaTa eoV] because it is 
according to God (in accordance 
ivitli the mind and will of God) 
that the /Spirit makes entreaty. 
For Kara eoV, compare 2 Cor. 
vii. o, 11, iXv7Tij6 r]T yo-p Kara 
(.OV...TI yap KO.TCI eoi/ XvTrrj... 
TO KaTa eoi XvTrrjOrjvau. It is 
nearly equivalent to Kara TO 
OeX^f.ia TOV eov in Gal. i. 4. 
i Pet. iv. 19. i John v. 14. 

28. olBafjiv 8e] Another 
ground of comfort. All things 
must issue in good to true Chris 
tians : for they are the subjects of 
a definite and connected series of 
Divine acts of favour, commenc 
ing in a past eternity, and to be 
consummated in a future. 

crwe/ayet] If o os be the 
reading, the sense is, God works 
all things with those who love 
Him (cooperates with them in all 

things ), unto good to (for the 
good of) those who are called, &c. 
Mark xvi. 20, TOU Kvptov a-vvep- 
youi/Tos KCU TOV \6yov /3e/3aiovvTos. 
If d eo s be omitted, All things 
cooperate with (aid, help) those 
who love God, &c. The verb 
avvepytiv occurs also in i Esdr. 
vii. 2, crvvepyovvTes Tot< 7rpeo-(3v- 
Te pots TcCv lovSaioor. I JVtacc. 
xii. I, d Kcupos cu r<3 crvvcpyei. 
I Cor. xvi. 1 6, TravTt TO) crvvep- 
yovvri Kat KOTTLUVTL. 2 Cor. vi. I, 
awepyovvTes 8e Kat TrapaKaXovyaei/ 
K.T.X. James ii. 22, /3/\eVeis ort 
rj TTto-Tts crvvrfpyL Tots 4pyots au- 
TOV. It may be doubted whether 
the words Tots Kara Trpo^eatv 
/carols OVO-LV should be regarded 
as depending upon ets dyaBov, or 
taken in apposition with TOIS 
dya-trwo-tv TOV eoj/ above. The 
former is perhaps the simpler 

Kara 7rpo$eo-iv] In accordance 
with a purpose, or deliberate re 
solution, on the part of God 
Himself. For 7rpo $eo-is see notes 
on i. 13, TrpoeOefJi-rjv, and iii. 25, 
TTpoe^eTo. Add also 2 Mace. iii. 
8, rrjv TOV /? 

See notes on i. i, 

VIII. 28, 2Q. 1(33 

7rpd6e(riv K\rirols ovcriv. OTL ovs Trpoeyvw, KCCI 29 

6, 7, K\7]TOS aTTOOToAoS, K/X^TOl 

I^crou, K/\.T7Tor<j aytois. 

29, 30. art] I say, Kara irpo- 
Oeoriv K/V^TOIS because, &c. Every 
one who is eventually saved can 
only ascribe his salvation, from 
the first step to the last, to 
God s favour and act. Human 
merit must be excluded : and 
this can only be, by tracing 
back the work far beyond the 
obedience which evidences, or 
even the faith which appro 
priates, salvation ; even to an 
act of spontaneous favour on the 
part of that God who foresees 
and foreordains from eternity 
all His works. Although there 
fore no one has a right to say 
in this life, / am one of those 
^uhonl God has absolutely ordain 
ed to eternal life ; yet with re 
gard to himself in the retrospect 
when he reaches heaven and 
even now generally, with respect 
to those, whosoever they be, who 
may eventually reach heaven 
a Christian will thankfully ac 
cept the language here employ 
ed. The retrospective character 
.of the whole passage is strong- 
Jy marked by the tense used 
throughout, even in the last 
(altogether future) link of the 
chain, TOVTOVS KOL eS6acrev. For 
a parallel passage, somewhat ex 
panded, see Eph. i. 3 14; in 
which the evSoKia TOW OfXrj- 
avrov (verse 5), or the 

7rpo #eo-is (verse n), maybe said 
to correspond to 7rpoeyi/a> here : 
Trpoopuras (verse 5) is the ?rpo- 
ojpurei/ of this passage \ yvwpi- 
o-as TO fjiva-T-rjpLov (verse 9) an 
swers to Ka\ortv here; the a<e- 
<7ts Tt3i/ TrapaTTTto/xaTaji/ (verse 7) 
to eSi/caaoo-ei here ; and the OLTTO- 
Xvrpuyo-is Trjs Tre/xTroiv/crecos (verse 
14) to e&o^ao-fv here. Com 
pare also 2 Thess. ii. 13, 14; 
where e"/Varo includes the -n-po- 
eyyco and Trpowpttrev of this pas 
sage, and the aytacr^io? 7rvf.vp.a.- 
TOS takes the place of e 
here. In i Pet. i. i, e 
Kara. Trpoyvuxrw, the Trpoeyvu* of 
this passage is expressed in its 
cognate noun, and Trjoowpto-cr is 
replaced by tK/VeKTot?. There is 
in Scripture no one stereotyped 
form of statement on this great 
subject, but an entire harmony 
in the result, even where terms 
are varied or interchanged. 

29. Trpocyrco] Foreknew. It 
may be well to retain this simple 
rendering of the word. And yet 
the bare idea of knowing before 
hand^ in Wisdom viii. 8, o-^eta 
Kal repara irpoyivaxr/ca. xviii. 6, 
CKCti/7/ rj vvt; TrpoeyvwcrOr) TraTpcwnv 
Ty/xcov. Acts xxvi. 5, TrpoyivaxTKOi - 
TC S fjif avcoBev. 2 Pet. iii. 17, 
TrpoytvtocTKOVTes rfrvXa.a O ecrfle) is 
evidently inadequate to the mys 
terious thought here expressed. 
Mere prescience (on God s part) 
of human volition leaves man the 




Tt]S ei/coVos TOU vlov av- 

originator of his own salvation, Kara 

in utter contradiction to Scrip 
ture here and everywhere. That 
ir/ooyvoKTis which is made the 
first step in the spiritual history- 
seems to express, not indeed so 
much ^predetermination (which 
would confuse Trpoeyvo) with Trpo- 
tapurev), but yet a resting of the 
mind of God beforehand upon a 
person with approval (compare 
Exod. xxxiii. 12, LXX. olSa. ere 
Trapa TrdvTas KCU \o.piv *X ts ^ a p" 
e/xoi. Psalm i. 6, ytvoxrKei Kupios 
dSoV StKatW) which can only be 
mentally and doctrinally severed 
from the second step, Trpoojptcrev. 
For this use of the word, see 
xi. 2, Toy XaoV auTou ov 7rpoeyva>. 
I Pet. i. 2, e/<A.eKTOts...KaTa Trpd- 
yviaa-w eou Trarpds. The further 
and yet stronger sense (fore 
ordained) appears in the two re 
maining passages; i Pet. i. 20, 

yu,ev Trpo 
Xr/s KOO-/AOV, 

Xfj KOL TrpoyviLcrti TOU 

Trpoojptcrei/] Predetermined, 
foreordained, marked out before 
hand. The second step. The 
immediate consequence of the 
Trpoyvcocrtg. For the word, see 
Acts iv. 28, Trot^crat oVa t] ^elp 
crov Kal rj (3ov\tj [croi/j Trpoojpt- 
o-ev yei/eo-^at. i Cor. ii. 7, eov 
(rocfjiav. . .iyV 7rpoojpto"v 6 eos 
Trpo TOJV aiojvcov. Eph. i. 5, II, 


. . .Trpoopto-^ei/Tes KaTa vrpo ^e- 
o~iy TOV Ta TTavTO. ei/epyoui/TOS K.T.X. 
o-v/x,/>top(/)0t;s TTys CIKO I/OS] That 
is, as (so as 6e) sharers of the 
form (ij.op<f>r}) of the similitude 
(eiKOJv) q/" //is AS y o?^. It may be 
doubted whether the idea of spi 
ritual resemblance is here pre 
dominant, as in 2 Cor. iii. 18, 


8ta I^orov Xpio-rov ets 

So^ai/ Kvptov KaTOTTTpt^o/xei/ot TTJV 
avTrjv eiKova iJiTa./Jiop(f>ovfJ.Oa O.TTO 

Soifs t9 Sd^a^ K.T.X. Phil. iii. 
IO, TOV yi aJi/at avrov.. ,(rv/Ji/Jiop(f)L- 
^d/xei/o? TOJ OavoLTW O.VTOV K. T. X. ; 
or rather that of corporeal like 
ness after resurrection, as in 
Phil. iii. 21, os 
TO o to/xa T/ys Ta7reivujo~ea>s 
TO) o-(o/xaTt T^S 
K.T.X. (In i Cor. xv. 49, 
the uncertainty of the reading, 
between <ope o-o/>iej> and </>opeo-w- 
/Aev, leaves the sense also uncer 
tain, between corporeal and spi 
ritual likeness.) Both thoughts 
may be included: but it is the 
latter which completes and fulfils 
the design spoken of. See the 
next note. For /xopc^v; in this 
sacred application, see Mark xvi. 
12, e<avepco$77 iv erepa /u,op^. 
Phil. ii. 6, 7, iv f^op^fj eou vrrdp- 
X<jov.../xop</yV SovXov Xa/Sajv. And 
for etKwi/, 2 Cor. iv. 4, TOV Xpt- 
O-TOU os ecrriv eiKtui/ TOU eou. Col. 

1. 15? OS O"TtV 61KOJV TOU" OU TOU 

aopotTou. iii. 10, KUT etKoVa TOU 

VIII. so. 


TOV) ek TO eivcu O.VTOV TrpwTOTOKOv ev 7ro\\ols 

OL/5 ^e Trpoajpiffev, TOVTOVS Kai eKa- 30 


Aecrej^* Kai 



ets TO elvai avToV] The effect 
of this predestined conformity of 
Christians to Christ, now in soul, 
hereafter in body also, will be, to 
make Him, in His resurrection 
glory, as it were the firstborn 
Son among many brethren, all 
sharing His likeness and (as it 
is written] glorified ivith Him. 
See Col. i. 18, TrpwroroKos e/c rwv 
ve/cpcoj/, Iva yevrjTaL Iv iracnv avros 
TrpooTeiW. Rev. i. 5, d Trpoord- 
TOKOS TO>I/ vtKpwv. For TrpooToro- 
KOS in its application to Christ 
as the Eternal Son, see Col. i. 15, 


the construction, compare John 

I. I5j OTl 7T/3WTOS JJLOV Tjv). 

iv 7ToXA.ots aSeX^ois] Heb. ii. 

II, 12, 17, OVK lTra.ia"xyv(.TaiL aSeX- 

Kara Trvra rots eo 
Orjvai K.T.X. 

30. eKaXecrei/] Summoned, in 
vited. The third step. The ac 
tual conveyance of the Gospel in 
vitation to those who have been 
already marked out in God s 
purpose as heirs of salvation. 
Compare ix. 23, 24, O-KCT;^ eXeows 
a TTjOo^Tot/xao-ev eis 8oav, ovs KO.I 
KaXe<rev ^/xas K.r.X. I Cor. i. 9, 
TTIO-TOS d eds St ou eKXT/ ^TeetsKOt- 
vwvtW rou utov avToO K.T.X. Gal. i. 

V. R. 

15, 1 6, ore Se 

[d eds] d 

ei/ e/xot K.r.X. I Thess. ii. 12. 
2 Thess. ii. 13, 14, etXaro ty/,as d 
eds a,7r o-p^rj<s [or aTrap^r] ets 
r)piav...(.is o e/caXecrei/ v/xas Sta 
evayyeXtou T^jacov eis TreptTrot^- 
K.r.X. i Pet. ii. 9, TOT) 

TO Oavfjiacrrov avrov ^>oj?. v. 10. 
2 Pet. i. 3. See note on i. 6, 

K\f]TOi IfjCTOV. 

eSiKcuWev] The fourth step. 
The immediate acceptance and 
forgiveness of those who believe 
and embrace the Gospel. See 

note O11 ii. 13, Si/ccuco^rycroi Tat. 

eSoao-ei/] The fifth and last 
step. The future recognition of 
the sons of God, and their ad 
mission into glory. For 8oueii/ 
in its application to God, see 
note on i. 21, eSd^acrai/. For its 
sense here, see note on iii. 23, 
rrjs 80^775. Compare also John 
vii. 39, OTI Ir)o~ovs OUTTOJ e 
crOt]. xii. 1 6, oTe eSoao~$77 
xiii. 31. xvii. i, 5, KCH vvv So ^a- 
o~dv /xe (TV, IlaTep, Trapa o~ea/UTa> 
rf) 86rj r) el^ov vrpd TOV TOV KO- 
crfJiov flvai ?rapa crot. Acts ill. 
13. For the tense (e So ^ao-ei/), see 
note above on verses 29, 30, OTI. 




31 Ti ovv epov/ULev Trpos Ta\)Ta\ el 6 Geek vrrep 

32 rtfjiwv, T/9 Ka6 rfjULtov ; os 76 TOI/ fS/of mot/ oi//c 
e<peicraTO y d\\d VTrep rfjuitov TrdvTWV Trape 
avTOVy 7TW5 cw%* /ca* (rvv avTto TO. Travra 

33 ^api(rTaL ; T/S 6 f yKa\e<rei Kara K\KTWV Qeou ; 

31. Tt oui/] ^Vaese things being 
so ; God being thus manifestly 
engaged, by a wliole chain of 
consecutive interpositions, on the 
side of us who believe ; what 
have we to fear ? Nothing in 
this life nothing hereafter. See 
note on iii. 5, TI epou^uei/; 

32. os ye...77w o^X 6 ] -For 
the argument, see v. 10, et yap 

ovres Kar?yXXay7^^aev TO> 
Sta TO{) Oavdrov TOV viov av- 

TOVj TToXAa) /XCtAAoi/ K.T.X. 

vtov OI;K ec/)etcraTo] Gen. xxii. 
1 6, LXX. Kat OVK e^etcrw TOW 

Exod. ii. 6, /cat e^eicraTO auTov T; 
Ovydrrjp ^>apaco. Psalm Ixxviii. 
50, OVK e<ei craTO a?ro TWV 
if/v^Lov avrtav. See xi. 21. 2 Pet. 

ii- 4, 5- 

TTapeSw/cev] See note on iv. 
25, 7rapeSo # /7. 

7T(3 ov^t Ka t] The Kat be 
longs to the whole phrase crvv 
avrio T. TT. 77. xapio-eTat. 

^aptcreTat] 2 Mace. iii. 31, 
33 , Sia yap avTW o~oi Ke^apia TaL 
TO ^i/ o Kvptos. vii. 22, ovoe 
tyu> TO 7rvVfjL(L Kat T>)V ^wryv VfMV 
d^v. Luke vii. 21, Kat 

TTCIV. Acts iii. 14. xxv. ii, 16. 

xxvii. 24, Kat tSov 
o~ot o eos TravTas TOVS TrXeoi/Tas 
yaeTa aou. I Cor. ii. 12, tVa et- 
Sw/xev Ta VTTO TO{! eou -^apicrO^VTa 
r jfjuv. Gal. iii. 18. Phil. i. 29, 
tyztv iyapivOf] TO VTrep Xpto-Tov... 
7rao"xetv. 11. 9, Kat l^apLaaro av- 
TOJ TO ovo/jia K.T.X. Philem. 22, 
^apto Otjo ofJiaLL V/JLIV. In an equal 
remaining number of passages 
in the New Testament, the sense 
of freely giving falls naturally 
into that of forgiving. 

33. e y/caXe o-et] Of the re 
gular and full construction, ly- 
KaXetv Tt Tti/t, we find several 
variations, some of them clas 
sical. Thus we have e y/caXetv 
(i) absolutely, as in Prov. xix. 5, 
LXX. o Se ey/caXo )! aStKcos ov 
Sia^eL ^eTai. (2) With Tt only, 
as Exod. xxii. 9, Trept TC ^00-^0^ 
...Kat Trace s aTrwXetas T^S eyKa- 
Xov/xeVrys K.T.X. (3) With Ttvt 
only, as Zech. i. 4, ot TraTepe? 
v^ao>v, ots evKaXeo"av auTor? ot ?rpo- 
^>^Tat K.T.X. Ecclus. xlvi. 19, 
Kat OVK eveKaXeo~v avT<5 av^pwTros. 
Acts xix. 38, eyKaXemoo-av a X- 
X^Xots. xxiii. 28, r^v atTtav 8t 
i^i/ ei/KaXow avT(3. (4) With Ttvt 
KaTa (Trept) Ttvos, as Wisdom xii. 
1 2, Tts 8e eyKaXecret o~ot KaTa (con- 

VIII. 31-34- 


0eo? 6 OiKaioSv Tts 6 



oV, /u.a\\ov S< 

LO. TOV QeoVy 

34. Or X. iT/croGs. Or omit e/c 

C&rning) iOvuv aTroXcoXoVcoi/ K.T.A.. 
(5) With Kara TWO?, here. (6) 
With TWO, TU/OS or Trept TO/OS (im 
plied in the use of the passive), 
as in Acts xix. 40, Kti/Swevo/xev 
eyKaAeur$at o~Tao"etos Trept TT^S cnj- 
/xepov. xxiii. 29, bv evpov eyKa- 


/xou atrroov. xxvl. 2, 7? Trept TTO.V- 
TCOV (uv eyKaAov/xat VTTO louSatwv 
...Trept 7)5 e/\Trt6os eyKaAou/xat UTTO 


OS KCll 

os K.CLI 

veKpGiv. Or omit the former /cat. 

(i) selection, in ix. u. xi. 5, 28. 
i Thess. i. 4: (2) rfAe selected, in 
xi. 7. The verb e /cA.eyeo-(9ai, in 
i Cor. i. 27, 28. Eph. i. 4, /cameos 
eV avTa) Trpo 

COT}] The absence 
of the article lays stress upon 
the quality: such persons as, <fec. 
See note i. 20, diro KTIO-COJ?. The 
exact phrase occurs in Tit. i. i, 
Kara Trtcrriv eKA.e/oraw eou. In 

Col. iii. 12, CO? K\KTol TOV 6OV. 

In xvi. 13, TOV e/cAeKToV eV Kvpta). 
2 Tim. ii. 10, warra uwro/Aevw Sta 
TOWS e*cXeKTovs. In i Tim. v. 21, 
KCU TCOV e/cXeKToji/ ayyeXcoi/. Ill 
the Gospels and General Epi 
stles the word is more frequent, 
and far more so in the Septua- 
gint: see, for example, 2 Sam. 
xxi. 6, LXX. SaovX, cKA-eKTOu Ku- 
piov. i Chron. xvi. 13, viol Ia/cco/3 
uTou. Psalm Ixxxix. 4, 
StaOrJKrjv Tots e/<AeKTOts 

CVl. 5j Cl/ TTrJ ^prjCTTOTr^Ti T(3i/ 

o-ou. Isai. Ixv. 9, /cat 
iv ol e/<XeKTot jaou. 
The word eKXoyr; (in St Paul s 
Epistles) occurs in the sense of 

os d SIKCUCOI/] IF7io s/irt^ (fare 
to accuse, when it is God Himself 
who acquits ? Who is there to 
condemn, when He who died for 
us and rose again is no less a 
Person than Christ the Son of 
God? Compare Isai. 1. 7 9, 
LXX. e yvaji on ov /XT) alcr^yvO<j} 
6Vt eyyi^et o 8iKatcoo"as /xe TIS o 

Kat- TIS o Kpivo/xevos /xot; eyyto~a- 
TCO /not. iSot; Kvpios Kvptos ^OT^- 
6r)<Ti /xot Tts /caKOJcret /xe; W^ith 
a note of interrogation after 
SiKauoi/ and rj/xdji/, the sense be 
comes: Who shall accuse? God, 
who already acquits ? Who is 
there to condemn ? Christ, who 
died, &c. ? With an interroga 
tion at Ty/xcov only: Who shall 
accuse ? God is our absolver 
who is our condemner ? can it be 
Christ ? Christ, who died for us, 
&c.? But the passage in Isaiah, 
which is evidently in the mind 
of the Apostle, seems to favour 
the punctuation adopted in the 
text above. 

34. /xSAAov Se] Or rather. 
Gal. iv. 9, vvv 8e yvovTes 







ya7rr]$ rov 



36 A^uos fj 


KivSvvos r] {JLa^aipa ; 

cor, fjio.XXov St yvoxr^evres VTTO 

evrvyxavet] See note on verse 
26, u7repevTi;y>(dVei. 

35. TIS >7/xas] If not in dan 
ger of condemnation while we 
remain Christians, yet may not 
some one or something sever us 
from Christ ? 

Xa>pto-et aVo ] See verse 39. 
Wisdom i. 3, o-KoXtot yap Xoyt- 
07x01 xoopi^oixjiv oVo eov. Matt. 
xix. 6. Mark x. 9. Elsewhere 
used only in the passive ; as 
Acts i. 4. xviii. i, 2. i Cor. 
vii. 10, II, 15, yvvaika oVo eu/Spos 
/mrj -^(DpLcrOrjvaL K.T.A.. Philem. 15. 
Heb. vii. 26, Ke^coptcr/xej/os aTro 

o-revo^wpta] See 
note on ii. 9, $A.u/as Kal crrevo- 
The opposite of orevo- 
is evpv^oopt a (evpf^copos), 
which is also used metaphori 
cally; as in Psalm xxxi. 8, LXX. 
ou o-weKXetcrag /xe ets X e ^P as ^X" 
ecrrrycras ev 

Straitness of 
space, difficulty, painful pres 
sure: ii. 9. 2 Cor. vi. 4. xii. 10. 
A stronger word than even 
0Xu/as- see 2 Cor. iv. 8, OXifio- 
/xevot aXX ov crrevo^wpov/xevoi. 
The opposite of evpv^pia. see 
Psalm xxxi. 8, LXX. (quoted in 
the note above). 

Prov. xi. 19, LXX. 
Lam. iii. 19, e^av^cr^^v oVo TTT<O- 
^eta? /x-ov Kat e/c SiwyfJiov /JLOV /c.r.X. 
2 Mace. xii. 23. Matt. xiii. 21. 

yevo/xeV^s Se ^Xti//ews ^ 8io>y/^ou 
Sia rov Xoyov. Mark iv. 17. x. 30, 
/Aera Stcay/xcov. Acts viii. I, eye- 

K\rjcria.v rrjv iv Iepoo-oXi;//.ot9. xiii. 
50, /cat eTT^ yctpav Siojy/xov e?rt rov 
IlauXoi/ /cat Bapva/?ai/. 2 Cor. 
xii. 10, Sto et SoKco . . . iv 8tcoy/>tots, 
ei/ CTTevo^wpiat?, v?rep Xptarov. 
2 Thess. i. 4, ei/ Trao-tv rots Stcuy/xot? 
vfjiwv Kal raTs OXi^fa iv als cxFe^e- 
o-^e. 2 Tim. iii. ii, rot? 8twy^ots, 
rot? ?ra$>7yu,acriv, ota yaot eyevero 
...otovs Stwy/xov 1 ; V7r>fvy/ca /c.r.X. 
Xtjitos ^ yv/xi/or^s] Deut. 
xxviii. 48, LXX. ei/ Xi/xa3 Kat ej/ 
8ti^t Kat ev yvyotvor^rt /cat ev CK- 
Xeti^et Travrtoj/. i Cor. iv. 1 1 , 
Kat Treti/co/xej/ Kat Sti^c3/xv Kat yu- 
/xvtrevo/xev K.r.X. 2 Cor. xi. 27, 
ev XL/JLW Kat Bi\j/L...ev 

.rj yLta^atpal Isai. Ii. 
19, LXX. Trrw/jta Kat o-vj/rpt/x,/x,a, 
Xt/xos Kat jacx^atpa* rts o~e Trapa- 
KaXeo-et; Jer. v. 12, o^ ^et e</> 
7^/x,as KaKa, Kat yaa^atpai/ Kat Xt/xov 
OVK oij/ofJieOa. xiv. 12, 13, 15, 1 6, 
ort ev /xa^atpa Kat ev Xtp;u) Kat ev> eyw o-WTeXeo-co avrovs 
K.T.X. xv. 2, Kat oo-ot ets /xa 
pai/, et? /xa^atpav* Kat oo-ot 
Xt/>tov, et? Xt/xov. 

VIII. 3538- 169 

on kvexev crov Baj/aToujULeOa 
b\r]v Tt}v tj/ULepav, e\oyicr6r] fjiev w? 7rpoj3aTa 

e AA eV TOVTOLS TTCHTLV vTrepi/LKw/mev 37 
TOU dyaTrt icravTOS tjjULas. TreTreicr/uLai yap on 38 

/ctvSwos] Psalm cxvi. 3, LXX. 
Kivovvoi aSov eupocraV jite, OXlif/Lv 
/cat oovvrjv vpov. Ecclus. xxxiv. 
12, TrXeoi aKts ecos Oavdrov SKlvSv- 
vf.vo-a.. i Cor. xv. 30, rt /cat valets 
Kti/SwevojU.ei Tracrav Jjpav; 2 Cor. 
xi. 26, KtvSvFOts TTora/xcov, KtvSu- 
vots XT^CTTCOV K.r.X. 

/*a X atpa] Heb. xi. 34, 37, 

<f>vyov orroyaara /xa^aip^s er 

</>oVa) (Ma^aip^ aTTf.6a.vov. 

36. /cameos] A quotation (from 
Psalm xliv. 22, LXX.) to justify 
the strong expression r) /x,a^atpa 
as a possible contingency. 

Oavarov/JieOa. 6\r]v T. >/.] I Cor. 
xv. 3i ; Ktt^ tjfj.pav aTT 
2 Cor. iv. 1 1, aet yap 
^wrres t? Odvarov TrapaStSo/xe^a 
ota Iiyo ovv. xi. 23, ev ^ai/arots 
TroXXa/cts. For Oavarovv, see 
note on vii. 4, lOavaruOrjTe ra> 


eA.oyt o-077/Aei/ o5s] Gen. xxxi. 
15, LXX. ov% cos at aXXorptai Ae- 
Aoy ia-^Oa avrw ; Job xli. 21 (29), 
tos KaXdfjitr] l\oyL(rOr) avTw crc^upa. 
Isai. V. 28, at oTrAat TWV ITTTTUIV 
O.VTWV cos crrepeci Trerpa eAoytcr^T;- 
crav K.r.X. xxix. 1 6, ou x w? o 
TnyXos TO{! xepa/xecos Xoywrftytre- 
o-t^e; xl. 15. i Cor. iv. i. 2 Cor. 
x. 2, TOI>S Aoyio/u.ei/ovs >;/xas cos 
Kara crapxa TreptTraro^i/Tas. For 
a different construction of Xoyt- 

i, see note on ii. 26, eis 

irjv \oyia~ Or] crtr 0.1. 
tr^ay^s] Of (belonging to ) de 
stined for) slaughter. So Psalm 
xliv. 1 1, LXX. e SoJKas 7;/xa? <ws 
Trpo/Sara ySpcocrecos. Zech. xi. 4, 
5, Trot/xatVere ra Trp6f3ara rrjs 
o-cfrayrjs, a ol /cr^cra/xei/ot /care- 
<r<f>aov K.T.X. Compare Jer. xii. 
3, dOpoicrov avrows cos vpajSara 
ets <r<f>ayijv K.r.X. Ezek. xxxiv. 
8, /cat yevecr^at ret Trpofiard /xou 
ets Kara/5pa)/xa Tracrt rots #r;ptots 


37. v7TpvtK(3/Aj/] This com 
pound with tiTre p is like others 
formed by St Paul ; as vrrepeKTre- 
picro-ov (Eph. iii. 20. i Thess. iii. 
I o), vTrepXlav ( 2 Cor. xi. 5 . xii. 1 1 ), 
UTrepTreptcrcreiJeti/ (v. 20. 2 Cor. vii. 
4), TJ7rep7rXecWeu (i Tim. i. 14), 

TOV ctyaTr^travTOS ^p:as] John 
xiii. i, ayaTT^cras TOVS tStovs TOVS 
ei/ TCO Kocr/xcp, ts reXos ^yaT 
aurovs. XV. 9, /cameos ^ 
/& o Ilar^p, Kayco 
Eph. v. 2, 25, Ka$cos Kat o Xpt- 
CTTOS ^yctTr^trev v/xczs...Ka^co? Kat 
o Xptcrros r^yaTT^crev T/^v f.KK\rjcnav 

K.r.X. 2 Thess. ii. 16, a^ros 3e 

o /cuptos ^jLtcov Irycrovs Xptcrros, 
/cat [o] eos...o cxyaTTT/tras ^/xcis 
/c.T.X. i John iv. 10, ii, 19, 
cxXX ort avros 




OVT6 far} OVT6 d<yy6\Ol OUT6 dp- 

yal ovre eVecrrwra OVTC /UL6\\ovTa ovre Svvd- 
39 //e*s ovTe v\}/co/uLa ovre (3d6os ovre T*S KTLCTIS 


ovre Swa/xets] The position of 
these words is peculiar. If they 
stood (as in the received text) 
next after oure ayyeAot oirre dp^at, 
they would form another item 
in the catalogue (so to speak) of 
spiritual beings, as in Eph. i. 2 1 , 

ayaTroyxev, on CUJTOS Trpu>- 
TOS yydirrjo-ev ^/xas. Rev. i. 5, 
T<5 aya-TruWi ??/xas Kat Arcravrt 

T^/X-aS K TOOV ajUapriOOV fj/JLWV CV TO) 

atyaan airrou. iii. 9, Kat yvoocrtv 
ort eyco ij-yajtrjcra ere. 

38. TreVetcr/xat yap on] xiv. 
T4> oTSa Kat TreVetcr/xat ev Kvpta) 
I^o-ov ort K.r.X. XV. 14, 7re7ret(T/x,at 
Se, dSfXtfroi /Jiov, KOL airo5 eyoo 
?rept v/xwv ort K.r.A. 2 Tim. i. 
5, 12, 7re7Tio-/x,at 8e ort Kat ei/ crot 
. . . Kat on Swaros ecrrtv 


OI;T ^avaro? K.r.A.] An ex 
haustive enumeration of all the 
influences which might be sup 
posed capable of effecting such, a 

ovre apx at/ ] ^^ s ma y include 
both human authorities (as ras 
ap^a? Kat ras e^oucrtas in Luke xii. 
1 1), and still more (in connexion 
with ayye/Xot) spiritual powers 
of evil; as in Eph. vi. 12, O-UK 
eo~Ttv yj/juv rj rrdXyj ?rpo? at/x-a Kat 
crapKa, aAAa Trpos ras ap^as, Trpos 
ras e^oi;o"ta5, Trpos TOVS Kocrfjio- 
Kparopas TO{> Q-KOTOVS TOVTOV, Trpos 
ra Trvev/jLCLTiKa T^S Troi/r^ptas ev 
rots eTrovpaviots. Col. ii. 15. 
I Pet. iii. 22, uTTOTayevrwv aura) 
ayyeAwv Kat eouo-i<oj/ Kat 

ei/eo-rwra ovre /aeAAovr 
Cor. iii. 21, 22, Travra yap 
OT/...etT eveo-TWTa etre 

T/a/xewsKat KuptoTT^ros K.r.A. i Pet. 
iii. 2 2 (quoted in a former note). 
As it is, they must be still more 
generalized, and read rather with 
ovre vif/wjjLa OVT /3a$os, as if ex 
pressing any opposing powers, 
whether towering aloft in proud 
antagonism, or working under 
ground in secret subtlety. 

39. OVTC. vij/w/jia OVT /3a$os] 
The form -u^w/xa means some 
times elevation, exaltation (as in 
Job xxiv. 24, LXX. TroAAoiJs yap 
eKctKwo-e TO vif/w/Jia avrov. Judith 
x. 8, ets yauptapia utcov lapa^A 
Kat vi^w/xa lepovo-aXtj/Ji. xiii. 4); 
sometimes an exalted UiigK) 
thing (as in 2 Cor. x. 5, irav 
vif/oi/ma 7raipofJifvov Kara r^s yvo>- 
o-ecos TOV eov). Compare Job 
xl. 10, LXX. dvd\a(3e 8^ vi^os Kal 
. Isai. ii. II, 17, Kat ra- 
rat TO vij/os T&V dv@pu>- 
TTOJV. . . Kat TrecretTai vif/os dvO poiTrwv. 
x. 12, Kat eVt TO v^os T^S So ^s 
TWV o<$>OaX^u>v avrov. In like 
manner fldOos means either deep 
ness, depth (as in Matt. xiii. 5, 

VIII. 39 IX. 3 . 171 

erepa SvvticreTaL 7//zas x a) P /i(7aL UTTO Trjs 
TOU Qeov 7-779 ev Xpio-Tw Itjcrov Kvpiw 

A\ri6eiav \ejco ev XpLcrrw, ou yseuSojULai, IX. I 
o-vv^apTvpovo-ris JULOL TJ?S trvveiSqareios /mou ev 
7rvevfj.aTL dyiw, on \v7rr] JJ.OL ecrTiv /meydXr] KCII 2 
a&a\67rros oSiivri Ttj KapSia JULOV. tjuxo/uuiv yap 3 

Sta TO fjirj e^etv /3d6os y^s. Mark 
iv. 5. Eph. iii. 18, TL TO 
/cat fJL-fjKos /cat vi^os /cat 
or ct dfeep ^m^ (i Cor. ii. 10, Ta 
(3aOrj TOV eo{i). Compare Isai. 
xxix. 15, LXX. ouat ot /?a^eo)5 
f3ov\f)v Trotowres. ..ot ev Kpv(f>rj 
J3ov\irjv TTOLOVVTZS, /cat carat ev O~KO- 
Tt Ta epya aurali/ K.T.A. xxxi. 6. 
Hev. ii. 24, otVtve? ov/c eyi/aurai/ 
Ta J3a6ea rov^aTava /c.T.A. Tlius 
the sense here is, Nothing high 
and nothing low. Nothing lofty, 
presenting a visible opposition, 
an open defiance; and nothing 
profound, working by insidious 

See note on i. 20, 

IX. I, &c. AXrfOeicw Xeyco 
K.T.X.] If this be the glorious state 
of those whom God regards as 
His true people, how sad is it to 
a Christian Israelite to reflect 
upon the state, of his nation 
unbelieving, and therefore out 
cast ! Yet in God s dealing with 
that nation there has been no in 
consistency and no injustice. 

i. aXtfifUW Xeyco] i Tim. 
ii. 7) dXtjOeiav Xeyoo, ov i 

eV XptcrTw] See note on vi. 
II, eV Xpto-T(3 I^croC. That 
which I am about to say I say 
in Christ, as one included in 
Him who is the Truth. Com 
pare 2 Cor. xi. 10, eWtv dXyOeia 
XptcrToO ev e/xot K.T.X. 

crvrp.apTvpova"r]<i^ See note 
on ii. 15, (jvvp.a.pTvpovo rjs. 

TYJS crui/etS^creajs /^ov] See 
note on ii. 15, o uveioV/o eciK. 

eV TTveu/xart aytco] See note 
on v. 5, Sta Trveu/xaTos aytov. 
Also on viii. 9, TrveO/xa QeoS... 
Trvev/x-a XptcrToG. J/y conscience 
witnessing with me, bearing a 
concurrent testimony with that 
which I bear in the strong words 
which follow; and that, not only 
in a human sense, as men speak 
who know not God, but in the 
element and atmosphere (so to 
speak] of that Holy Spirit ivho 
is the life of them that be 

2. aStaXetTTTo?] 2 Tim. i. 3, ok 
aSiaXetTTTOi/ e^co rrjv Trept o~ov 

TT? /capSi a pov] The dative 
expresses, in point of, in the 
matter of, &c. At my heart. 



eivai avros eyw ctTro TOV Xpicrrov VTrep 

3. rjvxpfjirjv ya p] Literally, 
1 was going (or beginning) to 
wish or pray. I should have 
wished, had it been lawful. I could 
have wished. Compare Mark xv. 
23, Kat eSi Sow COITO) ecr/JLvpvLcriJiz- 
vov olvov o [or os] 8e OVK e Xa/Jev. 
Luke i. 59> Ka ^ IxaXovv avro... 
Za^aptav (Ae?/ were going to call 
him... they would have called 
Mm, <fcc.). Acts xxv. 22, l/3ov- 


aKoikrat. For ^v^ecrOaL in this 
sense, see Acts xxvi. 29, eu^at- 
x>i/ av TO) @eu) . . . 

a/covoi/ra? /JLOV cnfJipov 


txi/a^e/xa] Like the Latin sa- 
cer, the one verb dvariOevan in 
cludes the ideas of consecration 
and execration. The original 
identity of the two is seen in Lev. 
xxvii. 28, 29, LXX. TTO.V Se cu/a- 
$tyia o eaV dvaOfj avOpwiros TW 

K/Uptto CtTTO TTCtl/TCOl/ O(Ta tt^TO) O~TlV 

...Trai/ avdOejJLa aycov aytcoi/ e crrat 
T(3 Kvpta) Kat Trav ava$e/x,a o eai/ 

vcxro) @avaTa)6rjcrTai (where the 
former verse seems to express a 
vow of dedication, and the latter 
a vow of destruction). By usage, 
however, dvdOrj/jia has the good 
sense, and ai/a(9e/m the bad. 
Compare (i) Judith xvi. 19, Kat 

OAo<epvou...t<; dvdOrjfJia TO) Kv- 
pta) eSwfce. 2 Mace. ii. 13, vrept 
dvaOrj/jLaTdiv. ix. 16, ayiov 

Luke xxi. 5, Kat rtvwv Xeyoi/roov 
Trept TOV tepov, OTL Xt^ots KaXot? 
Kat dvaOrjfjiao-LV KeKoa-ft^rat. (2) 
Dent. vi. 26, LXX. Kat aVa$e/xa 
e cr^ <juo"7rep roi)TO...OTt ava^e^ta 
eo-rtv. xiii. 17. xx. 17. Josh. vi. 
17, 1 8, Kat e crrat 7y TroXts ai/cx- 
^ep,a, avr^ Kat TrdVra ocra ecrrtv 
ev avrfj, rw Kvpta) TWV Suva/xecov 
K.r.X. Vii.^1, ii, 12, 13 15, eye- 
vr)6j](rav dvdOe/Jia ...... TO aVa^e/xa 

eo-Ttv ei^ {i/xtv K.T.X. i Chron. ii. 
7. Zech. xiv. ii, Kat OVK eWat 
dvdOefjia eVt. Acts xxiii. 14, ava- 

K.T.X. i Cor. xii. 3, Xeyet Ava- 
^e/xa liyo-ovs. xvi. 22, et TIS ov 
<^tXet TOV K^jptov, ^TCO dvdOc/jia. 
Gal. i. 8, 9, dvdOe/jLa CO-TCO. With 
aTro TOV Xpto-Tov, it is a thing (or 
person) severed from Christ as 
a KaOapfjia or purgamentum for 
others. Strictly taken, perhaps 
no Christian could wish this, for 
any object : but the impossibility 
of the wish prevents its being 
strictly taken. It is precisely the 
prayer of Moses in Exod. xxxii. 
32, LXX. Kat vvv et 
a^To^s Tt]v ayxapTtav 
et Se fJLtj, e^aXeti^ov /x,e CK T^S 
/3t,SXov crov ^? lypai/fas. And the 
answer to that prayer (verse 33) 
corrects any mistake as to its 
meaning : et TI? 7;/xapT7;Kev eVwTrioV 
/xov, e^aXeti^a) arVovs eK T^S y8t/?Xoi; 
/xov. The sense here is, / w&s o^ 
the point of wishing (if it were pos 
sible) to forfeit my own happiness 
as a Christian, to save my nation. 



d$e\(p(jov jULOv^ TWV (rwyyevwv JULOV KCITCL 
crapKa* cfiTives eicriv Io-pari\eTTcu, u>v 1} vioOecria 4 
Kal r\ So^a Kal al (HiaOiiKai Kal r\ vojuoOeo ia KCII 

. Or r\ 5iadr]Kr). 

Kara em p/ca] See note on iv. 
I, Kara era p/ca. 

4. oirtves K.T.A.] How great 
have been their privileges I and 
now hotv thrown away ! 

lo-pa^Xetrat] Matt. ii. 6, TOV 
AaoV pov TOV lo-payX. Luke ii. 
32, /cat &6<;av Xaov o~ov IcrparjX. 
John i. 48, tSe dXrjOws Icrpa^Xct- 
777?. Kom. xi. i, KOU yap eyw 
Icrpa^/\etT>7? el/jii. 2 Cor. xi. 22, 
c E/3paIoi etfrti/; /cdyoo. Icrpa^Aer- 
rat eto-iv ; Kayo;. <77rep/xa A/?paa/x 
etcrti/; Kayco. 

9 vio^ecrta] See Exod. iv. 
22, LXX. raSe Aeyei Kt ptos Ytos 
TrpcoTOTo/co s fj.ov Lo-payX. Dent. 
xxxii. 6, OVK O.VTOS OUTO? (TOV 
7rar>7p e/cr^o-aro ere Kal eTrot^cre ere 
/cat eVXacre ere; Jer. xxxi. 9, ort 
eyevo/x-^v rw IcrpaTyA ets Trare pa, 
/cat Ec/>pat /* TrpcoroTOKO? ^iov ecrrtv. 

T; e>o a] ^Ae /Shechinah. Exod. 
xvi. 10, LXX. /cat 77 So^a Kvptov 
<j )<f>0r) ev v<>\y. xxiv. 16. xl. 34, 
35, /cat Ka\v\f/v TI i/ec/>eA?7 TT}V 
aKrjvrjv TOV /xaprvptou, /cat So ^9 
Kvptou l7rXijo-6r) 77 cr/CT/vrf K.r.A. 
I Sam. iv. 22, aTrw/ctcnrai So^a 
aVo Icrpa7/A, ort \TJ<}>@r) 77 /ct/?w- 
TOS TOV eoS. i Kings viii. n, 
oTi eVATicre So^-a Kvptou rov ol/cor 
Kvptou. &c. <fec. 

at 8ta$7;/cai] The word 8ta- 

^77x77 means a disposition or d/s- 
posal, an arrangement in the way 
of distribution, whether by deed, 
will, &c. In classical usage it 
is generally a will; and the ar 
gument of Heb. ix. 15 22 turns 
upon this its common applica 
tion. In the Septuagint it is 
the translation of the Hebrew 
word for compact; whether be 
tween individuals (as in i Sam. 
xxiii. 1 8, /cat Ste^evro a/xc/>OTepot 
SiaOtJKrjv eVajTTtov Kvptou. Mai. ii. 
14, /cat avT77 KOU/GJI/CXJ o~ov, /cat 
yvvTt) BiaOijK rjs o~ov] , between 
nations (Josh. ix. 6, /cat vvv Sta- 
OecrOt rfpAV ^ia.9r]Kr]v) ; or between 
God and man, not in the sense 
of mutual stipulation, but of a 
bestowal of blessing. The Divine 
oia.OrjKf] is a promise. See Gen. 
ix. 9 17. xv. 18, Ste ^ero Kv- 
ptos TU> A/3paa/A BiaOiJKrjV, Ae - 
ycov, Ta> CTTrep/xart erov Scocro;- T77V 
y?7v ravT77F. Exod. xxxivi l io, 
IBov eyoj TiOrj/Jii BiaOiJK-rjv CVWTTLOV 


eVSoa, K.r.A. Isai. lix. 21, /cat 
avT77 avrots 77 Trap e/xou $i.a6iJKr), 
etTre Kvptos TO TrveS/xa TO e/xov... 


/c.T.A. And so in the New Tes 
tament uniformly. Luke i. 72, 
eAeos era TWV 



5 n \otTpeia Kai ai e7ra<yye\iai, wv ol TrctTepes, 

, Kai p.vrjo-B rfvat Sta^K?;? a- 
ytas avrov K.T.\. Here, and in 
Eph. ii. 12 (evot TOOV Sta^Koov 
r^s e-TrayyeAtas), the plural seems 
to express the various grants of 
blessing, the several repetitions 
(with additions) to Abraham and 
his immediate descendants of 
the great original promise made 
to him when he was called out 
of his own country. See, for 
example, Gen. xii. 1-3, 7. xiii. 

1417. XV. I 21. Xvii. 1 22. 

xxii. 15-18. xxvi. 2-5, 34. 
xxviii. 13-15. xxxv. 9-12. 
xlvi. 3, 4. Of these patriarchal 
blessings the Jews were the li 
neal heirs. Acts iii. 25, v/xets ecrre 
01 viol Ttuv Trpo^TOJV KOI rf/s Sta- 
OrjKrfs -f]<z Ste(9ero o eos Trpos rovs 
, Aeyu>v Trpos A/3pa- 
Kat ev TU> crirep/xart crou eveu- 
Tracrai at Trarptat 

77 i/o/x,o^e<Tta] ^6 legislation: 
the dignity and glory of having 
a law communicated by express 
revelation, and amidst circum 
stances so full of awe and splen 
dour Deut. iv. 7-14, 32-36, 
LXX/ s/c TOV ovpavov O.KOVO TTJV crot 
eTTOtryo-e rrjv <j>wrjv OLVTOV TratSev- 
o~at ere, Kat 7rt riys yfjs e Set^e crot 
TO TrGp avrov TO /x,eya, Kat Ta p^- 

ai;To{) YjKovcras e/c ( aecrov TOV 
o s. Acts vii. 53, otTti/cs eXa- 

TOV vo/xoi/ ets StaTayas ay- 

77 XaTpeta] T7ie service : the 
ceremonial system of the Law of 

Moses, i Chron. xxviii. 1 3, LXX. 

Kttt T(OJ/ GLTToO rjKlOl/ TCOV \LTOVpyr)- 
O"tyU,O)I/ CTKeiKOV T7^S XaTpCta? OtKOV 

Kvptou. Heb. ix. i , 6, et^ei/ /ACT/ ovi/ 
Kat 7y TrptoTry otKatajyaaTa AaTpetas 
. . . ets /xer r//v TrpcoTTyi/ crKrjvrjv Sta 
TravTos eto-t ao-ti/ ot tepets Tas Aa- 
Tpetas e7rtTeAoTTs. See note on 
i. 9> <*> AaTpevco. 

at cTrayyeAtat] The promises: 
all the various announcements 
of God s purposes of good, made 
in all times to Abraham and his 
descendants. See xv. 8, Tas i-rray- 
yeAt as TCOI/ TraTepcov. Gal. iii. 16, 
21, T(3 8e A^paa/A IppeO fja a.v at 
7rayyeAtat Kat TO> o-Tre p/xaTt av- 
TO{) K.T.A. Heb. vi. 12. vii. 6, Kat 
TOV e^ovTa TO,? cTrayyeAta? vAd- 
xi. 13, 17, 33, TOV /xoi/o- 
7rpoo"e^)epev o Tas evrayyeAtas 
evos . . . eTreVv^ov eTrayye- 
AIOJV. See note on iv. 13, 77 
CTrayyeAta. Thus at eTrayyeAtat 
and at SiaOfJKai (above) are nearly 
identical : but the aspect of the 
two words is slightly different, 
the SiaOiJKr) dwelling rather upon 
the Benefactor, and the eTrayye- 
Ata upon the benefit. It is pos 
sible too that the eTrayyeAtat may 
be intended to include later pro 
mises also, such as those of Isaiah 
and the prophets, though the 
parallel passages scarcely con 
firm this extension. 

5. ot TraTepes] The fathers: 
the patriarchs of Israel. See xi. 
28, dyaTTT^TOt Sia TOI>S TraTepag. 
xv. 8. Acts iii. 13, 25, o eo v ? 

IX. 5, 6. 


t*3V 6 


0eos evXoytiTOs eis TOI/S cuwi/as* d/uLt]v. 
olov c)e OTI eKTreTTTWKev 6 \oyos TOV Qeov. 6 

Aj3paa[Ji Kol Icraa/c Kat IaKw/3, 
6 eds TGJV Trarepwi/ ijfjLwv K.T.A. 
v. 30. vii. n, 12, 15, 32. xiii. 
17, 32. xxii. 14. xxvi. 6, rr;<? 
ets Tot>s TraTepas eTrayyeAias yevo- 
pevys VTTO TOV eou. Compare 
also the frequent expression of 
the Old Testament, TTJV -yfjv ryi/ 
TOIS Trarpacrtv vwv TO) 

Koi T(3 IcraaK Kai 
j/? ; Sowcu avrots al TW 
/xart avTwv /xer avrovs (Dent. i. 
8. &c. &c.). 

e^ wv o Xpt<TTos] Heb. vii. 14, 
7rp68r]\ov yap OTL e lovSa avare- 
raA/<ev d K^ptos tj/Jiwv. 

6 &V 7Tt 7raT/TO)V K.T.X.] Else- 

where these titles belong to the 
Father. Eph. iv. 6, ets eos KOL 

TTOLTyp TraVTtoV) O (.TTi TTttVTWV K.T.X. 

Luke i. 68, evAoy^To<; K.vpio<s o 
eos rod lo-pco/A. Rom. i. 25, 
rov KTtcraj/Ta, os ecrriv evXoyvyros 
ets rot>s atcovas djji ijv. 2 Cor. i. 3, 
evAoy^ros o eos Kat Trar^p roi) 

KVpLOV tjfJLOyV K.T.X.. XI. 31, O COS 
Kal TTttTT^p TOV KVpLOV irjCTOV otSeV, 

d wi ewA.oy^TO s ci TOV<S atwvas. 
Eph. i. 3. i Pet. i. 3. And 
Christ is o DIGS TOV fvXoyrjrov 
(Mark xiv. 61). Here, however, 
the words are evidently applied 
to Christ. To place a full stop 
at o-ap/ca, and regard the follow 
ing clause as a sudden ascription 
of praise to God for the gift of 

Christ, is to introduce a harsh 
and abrupt transition, for which 
there is no cause and no paral 
lel. Besides in such an ascrip 
tion evAoy^Tos would stand first, 
as in 30 passages of the Septua- 
giiit. (The single seeming ex 
ception in Psalm Ixviii. 19, 20, 
LXX. is evidently due to a mis 
apprehension of the Hebrew.) 
For a full justification of the ap 
plication of the words to Christ, 
compare (for example) John i. i, 
Kat eds rjv o Adyos. x. 30, eyo) 
Kat d IlaTT^p v eoyxej/. xx. 28, d 
K/uptos /xou Kat d eos yuou. Col. 
i. 1 6 19, Ta TravTa oY avTov Kat 
ets avrov CKTiUTat, Kat auras eOTii/ 
Trpd Trai/Tcov K.T.A. ii. 9, OTI ei/ 
auTcp KaTOtKet TraV TO TrAr/pajyaa 
rfjs $eoT?7Tos cra>/xaTtKajs. For evrt 
in this sense, see Matt. xxiv. 45, 
6V KaTeW^crev d Kvptos CTT! TT^S 
oiKCTttas avTOV. XXV. 21, 23, ITTL 
vroAAoji/ o~e Karaa-Ttjcro}. Acts viii. 
27, os yv 7Tt 7700-17$ TT^S ya//>j 
auT7/s. In Heb. iii. 6, 7rt (in the 
same sense) has the accusative : 



6. ov^ otov 8e OTI] ^M^ ^e 
case is not such as that, &c. As 
if it were, TO 8e Trpay/xa ou TOI- 
the bulk of that nation which pos 
sessed all these privileges is now 



ov yap TrdvTes ol ej^ l(rpati\, OVTOL I(rpat]\. 

7 ov$ OTL ei<rlv (TTrep/ULa A(3paa/ui TraWes 
d\\ iv IcractK K\t]6ri(reTai croi 

8 TOUT eCTTLV, OV TO. T6KVCL TTJS O"ap /COS TCLVTO. TOV Oeov, d\\a TO, Texva T//S 67ray<ye\ias 

9 Xoji^ETaL ek crTrep/ULa. 67rayy6\ias <yap 6 Aoyos 

outcast for its unbelief, there has 
been no failure of God s promise. 
F^r from the first God showed 
that it was His purpose to make 
distinctions amongst the descend 
ants of A braham. 

eKTreVrooKev] Job xiv. 2, LXX. 
tocrTrep avOos dvOrja-av 
Ecclus. xxxiv. 7, KOL 
e/XTrt^oi/rcs CTT aOrots. James i. 
II, Kat TO avOos avrov e^erre- 

ol e lo-pa^ A] The offspring 
of Jacob. 

OVTOL] See note on vii. 10, 

OVTOL Icrpa^ X] That is, the 
true Israel. See Gal. vi. 16, roV 
loyxx^A. TOV eov. 

7. ov8 on] Nor because 
persons are descendants of Abra- 
fiam, are they all children of 
Abraham in the sense of the 
promise and the blessing. Even 
of the two sons of Abraham him 
self one was excluded; excluded 
in spite of the earnest remon 
strance of Abraham. See Gen. 
xvii. 1 8, LXX. eiTre Se A/3pact/A 
Trpos TOV eoV, Io-fjiar]\ OUTOS 
IvavTLov crov. xxi. 10 12, 

TavTrjv Kat TOT/ rtov 
o-K\rjpov 8e effrdvY) TO p^ya 

,.. .etvre 8e o eos 
>) crK\r]pov eo- 
iv laaaK K\rjOtjo~TaL O~OL crTrep/xa. 
ei/ Icraa/c K.T.\.] Quoted from 
Gen. xxi. 1 2, LXX. (see last note). 
TYi (tf/ie person of) Isaac shall 
there be called (designated, de 
scribed, spoken of) for thee a 
seed. That is, Not in Ishmael, 
but in Isaac, shalt thou have one 
to be denominated thine offspring 
(in the sense of Gen. xii. 7. xv. 
5. xvii. 7. &c.). For KaXetv in 
this sense, see note on iv. 17, 

8. ov TO, TeWa] Natural de 
scent was not enough to constitute 
an heir of God s special blessings : 
that is a matter of special pro 
mise, and consequently of Divine 
will and choice. 

TO. TCKVa TT7S 0-...TTJS CTT.] Gal. 

iv. 23, aAA 6 /aev CK TT^S watufr- 
cr/079 KaTa o-dpKa yeyevvrjTaL, 6 Se 
e/c T^S eXev^epa? Si CTrayyeAi as. 
See note on vii. 10 

See note on iv. 4, 

IX. 7-1 1. 177 


Kai earTai Ttj ILdppa vios. ov fj.6vov ^e, d\\d 10 
/car Pef3eKKa e eVo? KOLTYIV e-^oucra, I<raa/c TOL/ 

TTCtTpOS TlfJiWV /ULtjTTCO r y<^p r yVV1]6VT(jOV /ULt^e I I 

TL dyaOov rj <pav\ov, *iva tj KCIT 

g. e-TrayyeXtas yap] Not, For 
this is the word of promise; but, 
For this saying, Kara TOV /caipoV 
TOVTOV K.T.A., is a matter of pro 
mise ; is the language of pro 
mise; implies a supernatural in 
terposition, not a natural event. 
Gen. xviii. 10, 24, LXX. etTre Se, 

rov /catpoi/ TOUTOV eis copas...Kat 
O"Tat rrj ^appa vto?. 

/caTa TOV Kaipov TOVTOV] Ac 
cording to (at a period corre 
sponding with) this season. 

IO - 12. OV fJLOVOV Se /C.T.X.] 

Another instance of Divine se 
lection amongst the descendants 
of Abraham. Of the two chil 
dren of one father of the twin 
sons of Isaac himself, the very 
child of promise and before 
those children were yet born, or 
could influence such choice by 
their conduct the one is pre 
ferred, and the other is subject 
ed. Nothing is here said of the 
Jinal destiny of either brother : 
that was shaped by the spirit 
and conduct of each: what is 
spoken of here is the position 
of the one, and not of the other, 
as the depository of the promise 
to Abraham. 

10. aAAa Kat Pe/JeV/ca] The 
sentence begins as if e^p^a- 
Tia-0-r) (was told of God), or the 
like, were to follow. But verse 
ii interrupts it, and when re 
sumed, it is in the inverted 
form, epptOr) avT-fj K.T.\. 

TOV Trarpos ry/xwv] Added to 
show that there was nothing in 
the parentage of Esau to cause 
his rejection. Isaac his father 
was o TraTTJp yjjiwv, the ancestor 
and progenitor of all Israel. 

11. / a^ / 7rw... ) u,^8e] For this 
use of fjirj with the participle 
(though not), see note on ii. 14, 

Isai. vii. 
1 6, LXX. Trplv rj yi tomi TO TratSiW 
aya$oV rj KO.KOV. 

dyaOov rj <avA.ov] John v. 
29, ot Ta aya$a 7roi^o-ai^Tes...oi 
Ta (f>av\a Trpa^avTes. 2 Cor. v. 
IO, Trpos a 7rpa^V, etTe aya^ov 
etT <pav\ov. 

rj KO.T IK\. Trpo ^ecrts] The 
choice-wise purpose. The purpose 
which is according to (which fol 
lows the rule of) selection. For 
f, see note on viii. 33, C K- 
eov. For 7rpo #eo-ts, on 
viii. 28, KaTa 7rp66<.(nv. 



6K\oyr]v TTpodecris TOV Qeou fjievri, OVK e epywv 

12 d\\* 6K TOV Ka\ovvTOS eeOt] avTrj OTL 6 


TW e\dcr(rovi 

TOV 06 

, Toy 
Herat/ e/micr^cra. 

14 Ti ovv epovfjiev , /mrj dSiKLa Trapd TCO Qew ; 

1 5 pri yevoiTO. TW Mowcre? yap Ae yet, EXefycra) oi/ 

yaeV^] I Cor. iii. 14, et Tiros 
TO epyov ^tei/et K.T. X. 2 Cor. iii. 
II, et yap TO KaTapyov/Jievov Sta 
, 7roXA.a) /xaXXov TO 

OVK e epycoi/] J. purpose, not 
springing from the observation 
or the foresight of human con 
duct, but having its origin in 
the free grace of Him who calls 
ivhom He will to be the recipient 
of His blessing. For KaXeti/, see 
note on viii. 30, e/ca/Yeo-ev. 

12. e/ope ^r;] 2 Sam. v. 6, 
LXX. /cat eppeOr) T(3 AaviS, Ou 

toSe. Gal. iii. 16, ep- 
at CTrayyeXtat. Rev. vi. 
II, Kat ippiOt] auTots tVa K. T. X. 
ix. 4, /cat IppeOir] avTats ti/a K.T.X. 
oTt o /xet^wv] Gen. xxv. 23, 

d fji^(Dv] Gen. xxix. 1 6, LXX. 
T>} /xet^ovt. ..T7y vearrepa. I Sam. 
xvii. 4, o veojTepo9...ot /xet^oi/e?. 

13. TOV laKoo/3 K.T.X. ] Mai. 
i. 2, 3, LXX. A reference to the 
passage will show that the sub 
ject is not the spiritual accept 
ance or rejection of the two 
brothers : TOV Se Ho-av 

Kat eraa Ta opta avrov ets ac/>a- 


14. Tt ovv] What inference 
shall we draw from these things? 
Is there any injustice in this ex 
ercise of choice in the bestowal of 
Divine blessings ? God forbid ! 
The thought must be repelled as 
a blasphemy : for unquestion 
ably such a method of procedure 
is expressly asserted by God in 

/jay aStKta] Deut. xxxii. 4, 


aSiKta* StKatos Kat 6 crtos Kvptos. 
2 Chron. xix. 7, OTC OVK tcrri 
fteTa Kvptou eov -^/xcov aStKta. 
Psalm xcii. 15, 6Vt evOrjs KJupios 
o" eos fj,ov, Kat OIUK ecrTtv aStKta 
ev avrto. 

15. eXe^o-co] Exod. xxxiii. 


eXe770-w...Kat otKTetp^crco] 2 
Kings xiii. 23, LXX. Kat 
Kvptos avTovs, Kat WKT 
CLVTOVS. Prov. xxi. 26, o 8e oY- 
Katos eXeet Kat otKTetpet ac^etSci)?. 
The word olKreiptiv occurs only 
here in the New Testament. In 
the Septuagint it is found almost 

IX. i2i 7 . 


ov av 

av e\ew, KCCL 
apa ovv ov TOV 6e\ovTOs ovfie TOV Tpe^ovTOs, 16 
d\\a TOV e\ewvTOS Qeov. Xeyei jap rj ypa(prj 17 
TW <&apaw OTL ei s avTO TOVTO efyiyeipa ere 
OTTO)? evSei^a) /mat iv o~oi Tt}v (Hvva/uii/ JULOV, 
O7TW5 SiayyeXij TO ovofj.d /ULOV ev 

30 times, often (as here) in tlie 
late forms oi/cretp^a-co, wKret- 

1 6. apa GUI/] So then the be 
stowal of God s blessings depends 
not upon human will or human 
effort, but on the mercy of God 

ov rov ^eXovros] John i. 12, 
13, !SwKv atiTots e^ovcriav re/ci/a 
(s)eoS yevecr$ai...ot OVK t^ at/xarcov, 
oiSe K ^eX^/xaros (TapKos, ovBe. 
K OfXrj^a.TO^ avSpo?, aAA IK 
cov l-ys.vvt)Qi}<ra.v. The genitive 
rov $/WTOS depends upon TO 
Trpay/jid tarw (or the like) under 

rpex ovTOS ] The origin of the 
metaphor is seen in i Cor. ix. 24, 
26, OVK ot Sare on ot ev o~TaSio) 
rpe^ovres Travres /xev rpe^o^crtv, 
ets Se A.a/x/3ai/et TO /^pa^eTov ; 
OUTOJS Tpe^eTC tva KaTa\af3if]7 e . . . 
eya> TOLVVV OVTWS Tpep((o K.T.X. Ill 
Phil. ii. 1 6, e Spa/xov i^placed in 
parallelism with eKOTri cura (which 
is the sense of rpe^oi Tos here) : 
OUK cts Kei/ov topauov ovoe ts 
Kevoi/ e/coTrtacra. Gal. ii. 2, /rf 
TTWS cis KEVOV rpe^o) ij ISpa/xov. 
V. 7, erpe xcTe KaXais* Tt s v//.as 

eve/<oi//ei/ K.T.X. Heb. xii. i, Tpe- 

^a)/XV TOI/ 7TpOKL{JL6VOV "TjfJUV tt- 


eXewTos] For the late form 
eXeav, see also Jude 23, eXeuTe. 

17. Xeyet yctp] ^iyit/ I fear 
not to assert the sovereignty 
of God in judgment as well as 
mercy ; for what saith the Scrip 
ture ? 

eis curro TOWTO] Exod. ix. 16, 
LXX. Kttt tvexev TOVTOV SierTyp^- 
@f]S, iva eVSetcco/xat ei/ o~ot rrjv 
Icr^yv fjiov, KOL OTTOJ? K.T.X. 

e^T/yetpa o-e] Substituted (as 
nearer to the Hebrew) for the 
gentler expression of the ISep- 
tuagint, oLCTYjpr /Orjs. The sense 
(excitavi te ad vitam et regmmi) 
is illustrated by such passages as 
Isai. xli. 2, LXX. Tts e^yetpev d-nro 
avaroXwi/ StKatocrw^v K.T.X. Hab. 
i. 6, iBov eyco e^eyeipo) e<^ u/xas 
TOIJS XaXSatous K.T.X The word 
eeyetpeiv (frequent in the Sep- 
tuagint) occurs in the New Tes 
tament only here and in i Cor. 
vi. 14. 

8tayyeX^...ei/ TT. TT^ yrj] Lev. 
XXV. 9, LXX. SiayyeXetTe craXTriyyi 
ei> Trdcrr] rrj yrj v/Ji<j)v. This rarest 



i. apa ovv ov 6e\L e\ea, ov Se 6e\ei 
19 (TK\r]pvvei. epeis /ULOL ovv, Ti ovv en /ue/uL(f>eTcu ; 

1 8 Trj 

19. Or omit the 2nd ovv. 

of the compounds of ayye AAetv 
occurs (in the New Testament) 
only here, and in Luke ix. 60. 
Acts xxi. 26. 

TO ovo/xa /xov] See note on 
i. 5, oVo/xaros. 

1 8. apa GUI/] The argument, 
which began with the question 
of the assignment of privileges, 
of special religious advantages 
and blessings, has run on into 
that of individual acceptance 
and rejection. And here too hu 
man merit and claim can only 
be excluded by a bold and broad 
statement of the sovereignty of 
God : ov $eAei eAea, ov Se 6*eXet 
crK/V>7pwei. Such is ever the 
method of Scripture : to state 
each of two apparently conflict 
ing principles (such, for exam 
ple, as those of God s grace and 
man s responsibility) singly and 
separately, and leave conscience 
rather than intellect to recon 
cile and adjust them. 

<TK\-r)pvvei] This word is sug 
gested by the quotation (in verse 
1 7) from the history of Pharaoh. 
Exod. iv. 21, LXX. e yw Se (TK\rj- 
pvvdo O.VTOV TT/V KapSi av. vii. 3. 
ix. 12, i(TK\ripvv. 8e Kvpios TTJV 
KapStav ^>apao> ; KCU ov./c etcr^KOv- 
crcv avTuv. X. 20, 27. xi. IO. 
xiv. 4, 8, 17. In such passages 

that result is ascribed to a ju 
dicial process, which is elsewhere 
spoken of as the act of the sin 
ner. Thus Exod. viii. 32, /cat 
e/5apwe <3>apaaj Trjv Kapotav avrov. 
ix. 34. xiii. 15, iJj/tKa 8e 

K.T.A. It is by the operation of 
a law of man s nature as God 
created it, that he who will not 
turn, at last cannot (see i. 28). 
And God, who established that 
law of man s nature, is said in 
Scripture to do that which oc 
curs under it or results from it. 
Thus oV OeXti o-K\r)pvvi becomes 
equivalent to, He has framed at 
His pleasure the moral constitu 
tion of man, according to which 
the rebellious sinner is at last ob 
durate. For cr/c/\?7pweii/, see Acts 
xix. 9, ws Se rives to-K\r)pvvovTO 
/cat yTTtiBovv. Heb. iii. 8, 13, 15. 
/XT) a-K\-r)pvvr)Te rots /capSias {i/xcai/ 
...tVa fjitj o~K\ifjpvvOrl Tts e v/xcov 
TT^S a/xaprcas /c.r.A. iv. 7. 

19. epets /x,ot ovv] The ob 
vious cavil. Compare iii. 5, /XT/ 
aSiKOS o eos o eTTi^epwv TT}V op- 
yr/V ; For epcts /xot ovv, see xi. 
19, epets ovv /c.r.A. i Cor. xv. 35, 
aAAa epet rts /c.r.A. James ii. 18. 

!rt] See note on iii. 7, rt en. 

/xe/x</)rat] Ecclus. xi. 7, Trpiv 
r/ egerdays, /XTJ 

IX. iS 21. 


TO) yap /3ov\wjULaTi aurou TIS dv6ecTTi]Kev ; w 20 
avdpwTre, fjievovvye en) T/? el 6 dvTairoKpLvojJievo^ 
TO) Oew ; JLC/ e ^oeT TO TrXacrjULa TCO 7r\dcrai>Ti, 
Ti fj.e eTToirjcras O[)TWS ; // owe e^e* e^ova-iav 621 

Kpa[JLUS TOU 7Tr)\OV 9 CK TOU O.UTOU (pUpaf 

20. Or omit 

j3ov\7 l ][j.aTL\ A rare word i 
Scripture. See Acts xxvii. 43. 
i Pet. iv. 3. In application to 
God, it is found here only. The 
caviller seems to select it as a 
stronger word than OeXrjfjLa. If 
it is God s wish that I should 
perish, how can I withstand 
Him ? 

xiii. 2, rfj TOV 
ot 8e 


20. /Aei/owye] Such cavillers 
are not to be argued with. It is 
enough to remind them of the 
distance between man and God, 
and leave them to learn humi 
lity before they enter upon such 
questionings. For p.evovvye (a 
Hellenistic application of the 
classical ovv) see x. 18, 
owye ei<j Trdcrav rrjv 
6 tj>66yyos avTwv. 

a.VTa.iroi<pu 6p.(.vo<;~^ Luke xiv. 
6, o.VTO.TTOKpiO-rjva.i. 

fji-f) epet] Such sovereignty is 
inherent in the commonest arti 
ficer : hoio much more in the 
Creator! Isai. xxix. 16, LXX. 
prj epet TO TrAacr^ta r<3 

V. R. 

auro, Qv cry fat eTT/Xacra; ; *j TO 

7TOt^//,a TO) TTOLI/CraVTl, Ov O"Vl T<J)S 

[j. eTrot^cras; xlv. r>, /x>) epet o 
7r7yA.os TW Kepa/xeZ, Tt Trotet?, OTI 
OVK epydfy) ot^Se e^et? ^elpas; 

7r/\ucr/xa . . . TT/Xacrai Ti] Gen. ii. 
7, 8, 19, LXX. /cat CTrXacrev o 0eos 

K.T.X. Job x. 8, r), at xetpcs " 01; 
ivoirjcrav /J.e, KOLL eTr/Xacrai/ /^.e... 
fnvTJo O rjTi OTI 7r7^A.oi/ /xe C7rXao"a?. 
xl. 19, TOVTO ctTTii/ upx*} 7rA-acr//a- 
TOS Kwptov. Psalm ciii. 14, oVt 
auTO? e yra) TO TT/Xarr/xa ?y/iojr, e- 
[AVijarOrj OTL xvs eo"/xv. cxix. 73. 
cxxxix. 5. Ilab. ii. 18, ireiroiOev 

Tr.Xacras errt TO TrXacrfJia aurou. 

1 Tim. ii. 13, ASa/x, yap TrpojTOS 
~\d(r@r], etTa Eua. 

2 1 . eouertav ...... TOU Tr^Xou] 

Psalm cxxxvi. 9, LXX. TT}I/ o-eXr/ - 

i/vyi Kat Ta ao~Tpa ets f^ovcrtav rrjs 

VUKTO?. Matt. X. I, e 

e^oucrt av Tn/eu/xaToov a 

John xvii. 2, ISaiKas aurw e^ou- 


o Kcpa/xeu?] Isai. Ixiv. 8, LXX. 
7rar?}p 7y//.(3v cru, T^eTs 8e TnyXo?, 
cpya TWV ^etpwv croi; Trai/Te?. Jer. 
xviii. 6, et KU^COS o Kepa/xeus OVTOS 


Troifjcrai b juei> els TLJUL^V cr/cet 09, 6 Se ei? aTi/mii 

<yvc*)picrai TO SvvctTOV avTOv ^Ve^fcei/ ev 7ro\\rj 

ov SwTycro/xat TOV Troi^crat 
otKOi ItrparyX j iSov, oa? o 
TOV Kepa.ju.eios, Vjaets core ev 

</>L>pa/xa.TOs] xi. 16. I Cor. v. 
6, 7. Gal. v. 9. 

o fjif.v eis TI/AT/V] 2 Tim. ii. 20, 
ev /ieyaA.7] 8e oixia OVK ecrrtv JJLOVOV 
<TKevr] xpvcrd Ka ^ ctpyvpa, a/VAa Ktxt Kat ocrrpaKiva, Kat a /xev 
etg TL/ji-rjv a. 8e ets ari/xtav. Rev. 

ii. 27, (OS TO. CTKVr) TO. KCpa/JLtKO.. 

22. ei e tfe Atov] The sentence 
begins as if the completion of it 
were to be ; ^t Act^ s/^aZ^ ioe so^ ^ 
u Ao sA^ complain ? or, u 7ict^ MV 
justice is there ? But it is broken 
in its course, and may best be 
repaired, as in the Authorized 
Version, by the insertion of 
what at the beginning. And 
what if God, &c. 

evSet tacr^ai] See note on ii. 
15, eVSeucvwrai. 

rrjv opy^v] See note on iii. 
5, o e7ri<eptov rrjv opyq v. 

yva>ptcratl The word yvcopt- 
,tiv occurs 1 8 times in St Paul s 
Epistles (elsewhere, in the New 
Testament, only in Luke ii. 15, 
17. John xv. 15. xvii. 26. Acts 
ii. 28. 2 Pet. i. 1 6): usually, as 
here, in the strict sense of mak 
ing known or disclosing (xvi. 
26. 2 Cor. viii. i. Eph. i. 9. 
iii. 3, 5, 10. vi. 19, 21. Phil. 

iv. 6. Col. i. 27. iv. 7, 9); some 
times in that of certifying or 
declaring (as in i Cor. xii. 3. xv. 
i. Gal. i. ii). In Phil. i. 22, 
rt alp ija-ofj.aL ov yvtopt^co, it seems 
to mean, / do not (or, as we say, 

I cannot] tell. 

/ \ ^ ^ - ~~i 

yj/a>pitrai TO ovvarov OLVTOV^ 

Psalm Ixxvii. 14, LXX. eyvwptcras 
iv rots Aaots T rjv ovva/jiii> crov. 
cvi. 8 r TOV yvcoptcrat TTJV Svi/aaretav 
avrov. Jer. xvi. 21, KOU yva>ptc3 
auroTs T>]V ovvctfjiiv /xov, Kal yva>- 
crovrat OTL ovo/md /xoi Kvpto:. 

TO Swarov a^rou] 7/25 poten 
cy. Usually, when applied to 
things, <WaTos means possible ; 
here potent. Compare 2 Cor. x. 
4, TU yp OTtXa Trjs crrpaTeias* 
T)/X,(OF ov aapKiKa aXXa ouvaTa TO) 
0ec3 K.T./X. See note on viii. 3, 
TO yap aovmrov. 

TjveyKfv ev TT. /x.^j A necessary 
and beautiful modification of the 
comparison. God does noifor?n 
for destruction these vessels of 
wrath : that is their own work. 
Rather, He endures them, and 
that ivith much long -suffering. 
His sovereignty is shown, not in 
causing but in punishing (and 
still more in deferring the pun 
ishment of) evil. For </>epeiv in 
the sense of enduring, compare 
Deut. i. 12, LXX. TTOOS 8vi/7fcro/xai 
/xovos TOV KOTTOV vfjiiov K.T.X. 

IX. 22, 23. 183 

p.aKpo6i>fj.ia o-Kemj opyijs KarvpTur/uLeva eis aVw- 

\ \ *f / \ 

\ei.aV) Kai iva yvcopKrtj TGV TT\OVTOV T//9 oo^/s 23 
eAeoi/s a TrpotjTot/uLacrei/ ek 


23. Or omit K.a.1. 

Jer. xlix. 22, /cat OUK rySiWro 

Kl ptO? Tl <epeiV O.7TO TrpOCrOJTTOU 

7roi/77ptas Trpay/jiaTfav vp-wv K.r.X. 
Heb. xii. 20, OVK ec^epoi/ yap TO 

In> Jer. ii. 25, 
LXX. the phrase e?yi/eyK rot a~Kvrj 
opyrys aurou has a different sense; 
brought out the implements (ivea- 
pons) of His indignation. Com 
pare Psalm vii. 13, O-KCVTJ Oava.- 
TOV. Ezek. ix. l, ra (TKfvy r?ys 
etoAo^pcuareo)?. Here the sense 
of o-KeOo? is determined by its 
use in verse 2 1 ; and aKevrj op- 
yr/s ai e utensils (or vessels} of 
(belonging to) wrath; that is, 
receptacles (objects") of the Divine 
displeasure. Thus (TKevrj e/Veous 
in verse 23. See Acts ix. 15, 
trKewos e/cA-oy?;?, ?i implement, of 
(belonging to, characterized by] 
selection ; a chosen instrument. 

Ka.Tf]pTi(T^..vci^ Ezra iv. 1 2, 
LXX. Kat ra TfL^rj avTrjs Karrjp- 
TLa-peva e.laL Psalm Ixxiv. 16, 
cri) KaTT/prtcroj <f>avcrLV Kat 7/A.toi/. 
Ixxxix. 38, Kat cos ?7 0-0X17 f>/ Kar- 
rjpTio-fJstvr] ets TOI/ atcova. Heb. 
xi. 3, Karr/pTtcr^at TOWS atwi/as p^- 

/jtttTt OV. 

23. Kat ti/a] The clause be 
gins as if tVa yv<i)pLO"r) K.T.\. 
were to form a parallel to ^e Acov 
in verse 22; in which 

case eTTt and a should have been 
omitted, and Trpor/Tot/xao-ej/ made 
a principal verb, corresponding 
to 7/i/eyKei/ above ; or else ous Kat 
omitted, and eKa Aecrei/ made the 
principal verb. As it is, the con 
struction is hopelessly broken. 
See note on v. 3, Kavx^^voi. The 
omission of Kat before tVa (see 
the alternative reading) mends 
the sentence, but at the cost of 
the sense. 

tVa yvoop terry] An exact paral 
lel to Eph. ii. 7, tVa e 
fv rois alwfTiv TOIS 
TO V7rp(3dX\ov 
TOS avTOv f.v 

iv Xpjcrrw Irjcrov. 

TO v TrAoijTOF T?7? 0^77?] jT/ie 
riches of His glory. The inex 
haustible, the unsearchable trea 
sure of His own perfections. 
Eph. iii. 1 6, Kara TO TrAouTOS TT/S 
Sofjys avrov. See note on iv. 20, 
Sous Sotj-av. 

Trpo^Tot/xao-ev] The position 
of TrporyTot/zacrei (before cKaAeo-ey) 
seems to show that the refer 
ence is rather to the purpose 
and choice of God, than to 
the moral and spiritual prepara 
tion of the man. Thus trpor)- 
Toipao-ev will correspond to the 
Trpoeyi/w and Trpoojptcrev of viii. 29, 
30 (see notes there). The Kct- 




Xaos P.OV 
7 (o I/TO 9. Hcra /a? 3e 

(pa^ei V7T6p TOU 
Xija-as roTs Trarpdo-LV ej/ rot? 

24 So^ay, ovs Kal tKaXecrev */juas ou JJLOVOV e^ lov- 

25 (Saiutiv aAAa Kal e^ eBvwv \ ws Kal ev TCO Ocr^e 
Ae^ye*? KaAecra) TOZ/ oi> Aaoi /uou \aov JJLOV 

16 Kal ~ri]v OVK iiyaTrt] lULeviiv tfyctTrrjimevriv* Kai 

V TM TOTTW OV ppC0^ aVTOls, Ol) 

?, e /cel K\rj6rj(rovTai viol Qeov 

occurs in both places : the 
is taken for granted 
here: and the eSd^curcv is ex 
pressed here in eis Sd^av. For 
TrpocTot/xa^etv, compare Isai. 
xx viii. 24, LXX. 7} a-iropov 
TOi/xcurei, Trptv epyacraa^at 
yr^i/; AVisdoni ix. 8, /x/ /x^/Aa 
v>7S ayta? 77^ Trpo^rot/xacras 

apvr}?. Eph. ii. 10, eVt " 
5 /j ^ *?" -^ * 


ei? Sdtai/] See note on iii. 
23, XT]? 80^779. 

24. ov?. . ^^.a?] Vessels of 
mercy, even persons whom lie 
also (in due time") catted, even us, 

eKaXeo-ey] See note on viii. 
30, e KaXeo-ev.^ 

ov /JLOVOV e^] -4nc/ these o~/cev77 
eXeovs are indiscriminately taken 
from Jews and Gentiles: accord 
ing to the Scriptures; which pre 
dict, on the one hand, the exten 
sion of the name of God s true 
people to those who had not before 
borne it, and, on the other, the 
eventiial salvation of a mere rem- 
iiant of the natural Israel. 

25. eV] Heb. i. i, 6 0eos Xa- 

fcaXeVw] IIos. ii. 23, LXX. /cat 
ayaTTtycroo rrjv OVK tjyair fjfji^i rj i^ /cat 
epa) TO) ov Xaw /xov, Aad 1 ; /xov el o"v. 
Compare i Pet. ii. 10, ot TTOTC ov 
Xad?, vvv oe Xao? eov ot OVK r)\.er)- 
/jteVot, vvV Se (.XerjOevres. Those 
predictions which in their first 
meaning spoke of the recovery 
and reconciliation of the national 
Israel, had a further and yet 
more literal fulfilment (St Paul 
says) in the first introduction into 
God s Church of those Gentiles 
who were once aliens and out 
casts altogether. Compare Gal. 
iv. 27, where the same remark 
is appropriate. For KaXetv in 
this sense, see note on iv. 17, 
Kat KaXovVro?. 

26. Kat ecrrat] Hos. i. TO, LXX. 
Kat eWat j/ ru> TOTTW ov cppeOr] 
avToIs, Ov Xaos /xov vxiet?, ^77- 
0t]o-ovT(u Kat avrot mot eov 

27. Kpa^et] See note on 
viii. 15, Kpa^o/jtev. 

vTrep] As, for example, in 
2 Cor. viii. 23, etre vVe/> Ttrov 

K. T. X, 

IX. 24 2Q. 


Eav 1] 6 dpiOfJLGS TWV vitov l<rpai}\ ok t] a 
fj.os TT/S BaXdwris, TO VTT 6 \eifji /ma 
creTai Xoyov yup a-vvreXwv KUL 
vwv TTO-ii] ere i Kvpios GTTL TT/S n^. Kcti Kct 

TTpoelprjKev Ho-a / as, EL JULI] Kv 

Ocos 29 


euV 77] Isai. x. 22, 23, LXX. 
Kat eoV yivrfran. o Aaos lo-pa^A ws 
T^S 6aXa.(TO"f]s TO KO.TO.- 
wi/ o-a>$7; <jeTai. Aoyov 
Kat crvvTfJi.vwv ei/ St- 
on Xoyov 
vov Kvptos Troir/ oret 
/xeV^ o/V^. For the first words 
of the quotation, compare Hos. 
i. IO, LXX. Kat ryy o apt^juos ran/ 
t toji Icrpar^X GJS vy a/x/xos r^S ^- 
AaVo-779. The first use of the 
figure is in Gen. xxii. 17, LXX. 

TO VTroAet/x/xa] ./ *s not the 
mass, it is tlie remnant, of Israel, 
which shall be saved. For VTTO- 
Aei/A/xa, see i Sam. ix. 24, LXX. 
i&ov uTTo A.ei/u.ju.a (explained by 
verse 23, T^V /xeptSa T/I/ IScoKa 
croi, i^i/ etTra crot ^etFat Trapa crot), 
CUJTO ivwinov crov K. T. A. 
14. Mic. iv. 7, 
Kat ryo"o/xai TTJI/ 

2 Kings xxi. 

K.T. A. v. 7, 8, 

Kttt eOTttl TO VTToX.LfJLfJLa TOV IaKGU/3 

V TOIS e^FO"tv...ojs Spocros Trapa, 


28. Ao yoi/yap] Literally, For 
a word, accomplishing and a- 
bridying it that is, a sentence 
conclusive and concise will the 
Lord do (execute) upon the earth. 
The clause is added to give em- 

phasis to the foregoing words. 
The full passage of the Scptua- 
gint is given in note on verse 
27, e oV rj. 

Xoyov] A word, whether of 
promise or threatening. Here 
the latter idea predominates. A 
seiiti iLce; a denunciation of judg 
ment. Compare Isai. xi. 4, LXX. 
Kat rraTa^et yijv TM Aoyu) TOU 
o-To/xaTo? auroD. Heb. i\ . 12. 
Kov. xix. 13, 15. 

o-v^TeAwi/J Isai. x. 12, LXX. 
OTav o"ui reAecT7y Kt pios Travra 
TToidv .v TW opei 2ttJr K.T.A. Lam. 
ii. 17, eTTonyo-e Ki pto? a tve6v- 
prjOrj, o~uveTe Aecre pry/xaTtt OLVTOV 
K.T.A. Mark xiii. 4, oVav yae AAr; 
rairra cru^TeAetcr^at TTO.VTO.. 

crwTe/xvcoF] Isai. xxviii. 22, 
LXX. StoTt crvi/TeTeAea/xeVa Kat o~w- 
T6TfJi7]/Jiva Trpay/xara ^Kot)o~a Trapa 
Kupt ou Sa^Saw^, a 7rotryo"t CTTI 
Tracrav T>}I/ yryi/. Thus avvTO/JLOs, 
"Wisdom xiv. 14, Kat Sta TOWTO 
crvvTO/j.ov avTwv TO Te Aos eTTtvorjOr]. 
And orwTo/xto?, Acts ixiv. 4. 

29. 7rpoetpr;Kev] 7/5 SffiW 
before, in an earlier part of his 
Book. Isai. i. 9, LXX. For the 
perfect tense, see note on iv. 18, 
TO ctpTy/xerov. 

2a/i?a(o$] James v. 4, ets TO* 
<Sra Kvpuw ^apa^d. Compare 






Kai ws To/moppa 


30 Ti ovv epovjULev ; OTL e6vi] TO. pr] SLWKOVTO. 

31 Se Tr\v etc Trio-Tews. lcrpct)}\ Se SLCOKWV VOJJLOV 

32 $iK.cuoorvvr}$ as vo^ov OVK (p6acrev. Sia 


I Kings xxii. 19, LXX. tSoveoV 
icrpar^A. Ka^ry^evov evrt Opovov av- 
rov, Kat, Tracra ry crrparttt TOT) ou- 
pavov (CTT>/Ket ?repi aurov K Septan/ 
avrov Kat e^- e^coi/u/xoov auroi). The 
form 2,a/3a.(oO occurs 50 times in 
the Septuagint Version of Isaiah, 
and in but five other places. 

eyKoreA-iTrev . . . cr7rep/xa] The 
opposite of total and absolute 
extinction. Compare Deut. iii. 
3, LXX. Kat eTrara^a/xef avrov ecus 
TOV /XT) KaraXtTreTv aurou cnrepfjia. 

30. rt oil/ epo^/xev] Wltcit 
shall ice state as the result of these 
facts and principles ? This. 

on Wwj\ That Gentiles, icho 
were not in pursuit of righteous 
ness, overtook it. For tdvrj y see 
note on ii. 14, Wvr). 

StcoKoi/ra. . . KareAa/?v] Exod. 
XV. 9, LXX. etTj-ev o e^^pos, Stoj- 
^as KaraXij^/o/jiaL. Deut. xxviii. 
45? Ka -i KaraStco^oi/Tat ere, Kat 
KaTa.\ttyovTai o~. Josh. ii. 5, 
Karaoiui^aTe ra^ea)? OTTUTO) avrdir, 
ei KOLTaXijij/eoOe avrovs. Psalm 
Ixxi. ii. Ecclus. xi. 10, Kat caV 
8to>K7y9, ou /XT} KaraAa/?^?. xxvii. 
8, eav SttoKTys TO 8tKatov, Kara- 

XiJi/T/. Phil. iii. 12, CHOJKW 8e et 
Kat Ka.Ta.Xd/3u). For StojKeti/ in 
the sense of striving after, seek 
ing to attaity (as a difficult or 
remote object), see xii. 13, TTJV 
<piXoevLav StcoKovres. xiv. 19, ra 
TTys etpryi/7y? StajKco/xev. I Cor. 
xiv. i, StajKere rrjv ayaTTTyi/. I 

TlieSS. V. 15, TO dyaOSv OHOKT. 

I Tim. vi. II, Ta^ra ^>ei;ye, OLWKC 
Se OtKaiocr^^Tyj/ K.T.A.. 2 Tim. ii. 
22. Heb. xii. 14. i Pet. iii. n 
(from Psalm xxxiv. 14, LXX.), 
,r)Tr)o-a.T<j) elpyjvrjv Kat 

KaTeAa/5ei/] Isai. lix. 9, LXX. 
Kat ov jU,->y KaTaAa/:??; a^rovs SiKat- 
oo~vvr). I Cor. ix. 24, OUTCOS Tpe- 
XCTC tVa KaraXa/^Tyre. 

StKatocruvTyi/ Se] For this use 
of Se, see note on iii. 22, StKato- 
avvrj oe. 

3 1 . VO/JLOV StKatoo-7;^?] A law 
of (characterized by, having as its 
attribute) righteousness. A laiv 
which should give righteousness. 

eis vo /xoi/] That is, unto such 
a law ; a vo/xo? StKatoo*in / ?7<5. 

c6^ao-v] From the sense of 
anticipating , with Tiva (as in 

IX. 3033- 

OVK e /c 7H (Trews a /\/V ok e*" 
TO; \ida) TOU 

Wisdom vi. 14, <f>0dvei. TOUS eVt- 
0up,o{Wa? 7rpoyvwo~6rjvai. xvi. 28, 
OTI Set (frGdveiv rov ijXiov CTT eu- 
p^apicrriav o~ou. i Thess. iv. 15, 

OU yll?7 ($aO-(O/AeV TOL S KOLflYjO^V- 

ra?), or an infinitive (E Kings 
xii. 1 8, tyOacrcv dva(3rjvaL eVt ro 
ap//,a TOU (favyiiv K. r. A.), conies 
that of reacJiing by anticipation 
of others, reaching unmolested, 
arriving; whether absolutely (as 
in Ezra iii. i, KGU e (/>6 t acrei> o /^?/V 

e/^Soyaog. Dan. vii. 22, Kal o 
/caipos e (/>$acre, /cat rryv /JacrtXctW 
Kareo-^ov K.r.A..), or, as here, with 
ets (Dan. iv. 20, 22, ou TO i;i^os 
Z<p9ao-V 15 roV ovpavoV K. r. X. 
vi. 24, Kat OUK ^Ocuuav et? TO 
e Sa^os TOU XOIKKOU K. T. A. Phil. 
iii. 1 6, TrAv^v ets o e^^acrayacv), or 
with 7rt (Dan. iv. 24, 28, o e- 

<j)Va<TeV CTTt TOf KVptOV p.OU TOV /5a- 

o-tAea K.T.A. Matt. xii. 28, e^>(9a- 
crev e<^> V/JLO.^ 17 ySacrtAeta TOU eo?. 

1 Thess. ii. 16, tyOaa-ev oe eV 

>/ opyjy), or with ew^ or 
(2 Chron. xxviii. 9, at cws 
TWI/ oupai/wi/ e^^a/ce. Dan. iv. 
II, TO v\j/os avrov ([ 

TOU ovpavov. v. 13, ews TOU 

TTCtAatOU T(5 

Cor. x. 14, <J^pt yap /cat U/AOJI/ 
(^)^ao"ap:ev K.T.A.). 

32. OTI OUK] Because, not 
of faith, but as if of works, they 
stumbled at the stone of the of 
fence. The sentence is con 
densed thus from the fuller equi 




Ot- 33 

valcnt form, Because, doing so 
(seeking righteousness] not on a 
principle of faith but of icorks, 
they stumbled, Arc. The com 
mon reading has vo/mov after ep- 
ycui/, and yap after 

ee xv. 13, 20, 21, TO /xr; ni- 
va.i TroiTKOJiJia, TW aSeASw / cnu - 

.Tw ta TrpocTKo/j./x.aTos e- 
crOiovTi ...... <:/ w o". dSeA(^>o ? o-ot; 

7rpoo-Ko ~ret. The origin of the 
expression is seen in Psalm xci. 
12, LXX. p.7j7roTe 7rpoo-Ko i//^9 Trpos 
At ^ov ToV Tro Sa o-ou. Matt. iv. 6. 
Luke iv. ir. Compare Exod. 
xxiii. 33, ourot ecroi/Tttt crot Trpoo-- 
KO/x/xa. xxxiv. 12, p,r/7roTe yeV^- 
Tat Trpoo-KOfjifJLa. tv VIM.V. Judges 
xx. 32. Prov. iii. 3, o Se TTOU? 
o-ou ou /Ji-rj Trpoa-Ko^Y). iv. 1 9. Isai, 
iii. 5, Trpoo-Ko iji-et TO TratStW Trpds 
TOV irpecrfivTrii . xxix. 21. Jer. 
xiii. 1 6, Kat -rrpo TOV TrpocrKo i/ ac 
TroSas uacoi/ e?r opr; o-Koreivd. 
Ecclus. xxxi. 7, ^u Aoj/ 7rpoo-Ko /a- 

aurco. John xi. 9, 10. i Cor. viii. 

9. I Pet. ii. 8, Ot TTpOO-KOTTTOUO-U 

TOJ Aoya) aTret^ou^Te?. Ill 2 Cor. 
vi. 3, we have the form Trpoa-KOTnj. 
3 3 . Ka^cos yeypaTTTat] A. com 
bination of two passages. Isai. 
xxviii. 1 6, LXX. tSou, eyco ep. 

^ C/<AKTOI/ 
cts TO. ^e/xe Ata 
o TriOTTeuwi/ ou /XT; Karaia- 



TTTai, *l$OV TL0r]/ULL V ILlWV \l6ov TTpOCTKOjUL- 
fJLCLTOS KCtl 7T6TpaV (TKaV()a\OV, KUl 6 

eV avTw ov KaTaia"^vi 6t](TTaL. 

X. I 

ASe/V<o/, ;} juiev evSoKia 


Vlll. 14. KUV 7T 

$oos 7)9, ecTTat crot 
Kat 01;^ cos XiOov 7rpocrKo ; up.aTt 
o-wai/rr/o-eo-$e, ovSe cos TreVpas 
Trrco/xart K.T.X. In i Pet. ii. 6, 7, 
the same two passages are re 
ferred to, but kept distinct. It 
is remarkable, however, that St 
Peter has precisely the same 
variations from the Septuagint: 
(i) the substitution of rtOf]pi 
tv 2tcoV for lfjL/3aX\o) eis ra #e- 
/xe Xta lEtcoV* (2) the addition 
of CTT o.i;rio after Trttrrevfov (3) 
the change of \i0ov Trpoo-Ko/x- 
/xart into /Xt^os 7rpocrKo / u,/xaT09 > 
and of TTcYpas Trrcoytxart into Tre rpa 

Xov] The later form 
is equivalent to the 
classical o-KavSaA^^pov, a <ra/?- 
sprincj, a trap or snare. It is 
used of impediments of all kinds ; 
whether (i) literal, as in Judith 
v. I, KCU eOrjKav iv rots TreStots 
cTKai/SaAa or (2) partly literal and 
partly figurative, as in Lev. xix. 
14, /cat UTrei/ai Ti TVcfrXov ov Trpocr- 
Orjo-ei.<; crKai/SaXov or, more often, 
(3) moral and spiritual, as in 
Josh.xxiii. 13, Kat ecrovrat iJ/xu/ ets 
TraytSas Kat ets crKcti SaXa. Psalm 
xlix. 13, avrrj rj oSos awrcov cr/ccti/- 
oaA.oi avroTs. 1. 20, Kara rov viov 
T^S /xT/rpos troi) ert^ets crKai/Sa/\oi/. 

2. Cxll. 9, <f>vXa<;6v fJL... 

CLTTO cTKavotx/Vcoi/ TOOK epyao/xeVcoi/ 
r>}v avo^ttav. Wisdom xiv. n, 
Kut ets <TKai/SaXa if/v^als aV$pco- 
TTCOK. Matt. xiii. 41, irtivra. rd 
(TKavoaXa Kat rovs Trotovi/ras T^v 
dvo/J,Lav. xvi. 23, crKai/SaXoi/ /xoi; 
et. xvin. 7, ovat rco Kocr^aci) a?ro 
TCOI/ cr/cavSaAan/ avdyKfj yap eA- 
^etv ret cr/ccxv8aAa, TrA^v ouat TW 
avOpwiTW [eKeti coj 8t ou TO CTKafSa- 
Xov ep^erat. Luke xvii. I. Horn, 
xi. 9. xiv. 13. xvi. 17. i Cor. 
i. 23, louSatots ju.ev CTKoVSaAoi . 

Gal. V. II, TO CTKttl SaAoj/ TOV 

o-ravpov. i John ii. 10. Kev. ii. 14. 
X. r. t] jiteV] The yaeV pre 
pares us to expect a following 
but. My desire and prayer is 
this but there is an impediment 
in the way of its fulfilment. 
The impediment is that ignor 
ance and self-righteousness which 
verses 2 and 3 describe. But the 
form of the sentence is altered 
in its course. For instances of 
p.iv with no answering Se, see 
iii. 3, TrpcoVoj/ fjilv yap on K.T.X. 

Vll. 12, COCTTe O fJif.V VO/JiOS K.T.X. 
XI. 13, OtTOV /X,V OVV K.T.X. 

euSoKta] (i) The common 
meaning of e^SoKia is wellpleas- 
edness, good pleasure, satisfac 
tion. It is used sometimes of 
man : as in Psalm cxlv. 1 6, LXX.. 


77 ceticris Trpos TOV &eov vrrc-p ctvTwv eis CTWT;/- 
pictv. [AapTvpco yap avTols on (^//W Qeou 2 
/\\ ov KCCT eTri viofriv dyvoovvTes 3 


yap Tt]v TOV Qeou SiKaioc uvrjv, Kal 

iTrXa? TTOLV coov 

IX. T5, fJLTJ uSo 

vSoKiq, do-e/Bwv. xviii. 
TT/ ^^77 o-ou 

K.T.A. XXJX. 23, 77t 

!j,LKp<Z Kal jaeyaAw et SoKt ai/ e^e 
K. T. X. More often of 6W: 
Psalm, xlx. 14, Kat ecrovrat et? 
ciiSo/ct av ra Xoyta rou (jro/xaro? 
/.tov. li. 1 8, d-ydOvvov, Ki pte, ej/ 717 
et>So/aa crou rryi/ ^icoi/. EcclllS. i. 
27, Kat T^ evQoKLa CLVTOV Trtcrrt? /cat 
7rpai5r779. ii. 1 6, ot (f>o{3ov/JtvoL 
Kvpiov ^Trjcrovcriv euSo/aav airoi;. 
XXXV. 3, cvSoKta KtyKOU aTrocrTry- 
j/at tt/ro 7rovr]pia<;. Matt. xi. 26. 
Luke ii. 14, ev dvOpw-n-ois evSojcia 
[or et So/aa.?, ?7ie?i o/*His good plea 
sure; He is well pleased]. 
x. 21. Eph. i. 5, 9. Phil. ii. 13, 
{>7rep T^S euSo/a ag, m behalf of (so 
as to fulfil) His good pleasure. 
2 Thess. i. II, Kal TrXrjpuxry TTO.- 
crav evSoKiav aya^axjTji ry?, every 
good pleasure of goodness ; all 
that goodness which is well plea 
sing to Him. (2) Here the 
ev&oKLa rrjs KapStas is a satisfac 
tion unfulfilled; the desire of 
my heart. (3) In Phil. i. 15, 
rives Se Kat Si euSo/aav TOV Xpi- 
OTOV nrjpvo-crovcnv, it means satis 
faction in a person; good will, 
friendliness. For evSoKeiv, see 
note on xv. 26, euSo/oicrav. 

] Is for them unto 
salvation, (i) I pray for them; 
and (2) Ae object of that prayer 
is their salvation. 

2. /JiapTvpw yap] And they 
deserve tit at prayer; for, &c. 
Compare Gal. iv. I ^, ^aprrpo) yap OTL K.T.A. Col. iv. 13, p;ap- 
rvpo) yap avrw on K.T.A. And 
for the description of Jewish 
zeal, see Acts xxvi. 7, TO SwSeKa- 
</>uAov ry/xcoi/ ev iK.Ttve.ui VVKTCL Kal 
r/yxepav AaTpevov. 

^?}Aov eov] Psalm Ixix. 9, 
LXX. o OyAos TOT) OIKOV o"ou Kare- 
^>aye jUie. I Mace. ii. 58, ei/ To3 

^T/Aojo-ai ^Aoi/ i o/xoi. Compare 
Acts xxi. 20, Trai Tes j?Aa)Ta.i TOU 
vrcdp-^ovcnv. xxii. 3, ^YJ- 
V TOV eoi) Ka^a]< 

7riyvcoo-iv] See note on i. 28, 

3. TTyV TOU OeOl) StKa/.OO"UV7yi ] 

See note on i. 1 7, SiKaioo-wr; yap 
ov. That the meaning is, God s 
gift of righteousness, God s way 
for man to be righteous, and not 
the personal righteousness of 
God Himself, seems to be im 
plied in the words cts SiKaioo-v- 

V ^V TTdVTL TO) TTlCTTevOl Tl 111 VCl Se 4. 

Compare v. 17, TT]S Swpeas 717-; 
SiKaiocruvT/s. Phil. iii. 9, rrjv CK 
eoi) SiKaioaw^f CTTI TTJ TTKJTCI, 



o-Tt<rai, T 


TOU Qeov 




5. Or 


r. K TOU v. on TT. caa 

. cv aJrotj. 

TT)V tStav] Phil. iii. 4, 6, 9, 
KatVep eyoj e^wv TreTrot^crtv Kat 
ey crapKL. . ./J.t] e^o>v lp.rjV StKaio- 


o-T?ycraL] See iii. 31, aXXa 
vofiov lcTTo.rofJiV. xiv. 4, Swaret 
yap o Ki pios CTT^O-CU avroV. 

uTreray^o-ai ] The sense ex 
presses one act of decisive self- 
subjection in the reception of 
the Gospel. For the word, see 
Heb. xii. f), ou TroXu //aAAov VTTO- 
a rcu Trarpt Ttuv TTVVfj.d- 
Kol ^joro/jiev. James iv. 7, 

4. reAos yap] Ignorant, I 
say, of God s righteousness re 
fusing submission, I say, to God s 
righteousness for that is to be 
found only in Christ. 

Te Aos y. vofJiov Xpto-ros] The 
absence of articles seems to ex 
press, As for any re Xos whatever 
of any vo/xos whatever, Christ is 
that, and Christ only. The state 
ment includes other laws as well 
as that of Moses, although doubt 
less this last was to St Paul the 
specimen and sum of all laws. 
The idea of reXos is that of end t 
in all senses; fulfilment, termi 
nus, object, &c., that to which 
it (VO /AOS) points, and in which it 

finds its rest. Matt. v. 17, OVK 
ri\9ov KaraXvcrai oXka. TrA^ 
John V. 46, Trcpl yap I/JLOV 
eypcuf/ev. So re Aos in i Tirn. i. 5, 
TO Se re Ao? rrjs TrapayyeAtas ecrrt^ 
dyaTrrj K.r.A. 

SiKaLoo-vvrjv . . . TTIO-TCVOVTL] So 
iii. 22, StKatoo-u^ 8e eo9 Sta TTI- 
(rTews I fjcrov Xp6<jTo9 ets Traira? 
TOT;? Trio-reiWra?. 

5. ]McoL cr^5 yap] / say, TTL- 
crrevovTi for, whereas tJie right 
eousness of the Law is a doing 
of acts, the righteousness of the 
Gospel is the reception of a Sa 
viour. In classical Greek the 
sense would have been made 
clearer by the insertion of /xeV 
after Mwvo-^g. See note on vi. 
17, OTL rjT...v7rr]Kova-aT Se. 

ypa<ei] Lev. xviii. 5, LXX. 
/cat <fiv\a<~eor6e Wvra ret Trpoa-ray- fjiov, KCLL Travra ra /cpt/x-ara 
fjiov, Kat Trouycrere ai;ra" a Trotvycra? 
aura aV$pa>7ros ^crerat ev avrot?. 
Gal. iii. 12, o 8e VG//.OS OUK C CTTII/ 
, aAA o 7rot?/(ras aura 

ort r7;i/ StKatocrui/T/i ] With 
on thus placed, r^v StKatocrw^v 
depends upon o Trot^ o-a?. Com 
pare I John ii. 29, Tras o TTOLWV 
Trjv SiKaiocrvvrjv. Rev. xxii. 1 1, 

X. 4-7- 


VO[JLOV 7rou;cras avwTros ](reTai e 
r\ e e/c Tro Tew? IKCLIOO VVII 

etTTj/5 eV Tj; Kapdia <rov, T/s 
\ > / - , ,/ xr \ 



OUTCOS \eyei M>) 6 

Kara(3/]o-6raL eis 


o ot/catos oiKaiocrunji/ TTot 
eVi. The alternative reading 
puts ort in its more natural 
place, and gives the quotation 
in its exactness. 

>7creTat ei/J Shall have life in 
it, in that righteousness, without 
further or other seekin. See 

note oil i. 17, 

6. ty Se CK Trtcrrecos] .Z??t ^e 
Gospel may adopt, and ivith far 
greater significance, language 
originally applied by Moses to 
the simplicity and accessibility of 
his own Law: Say not in thine 
heart, Who shall ascend for me 
into heaven ? (as though to bring 
down a /Saviour from above:) 
or, Who shall descend for me 
into the abyss ? (as though to 
bring back from the grave a 
Saviour tuhose work is incom 
plete). In other words, Be not 
perplexed about the difficulty and 
vastness of the work of salvation, 
as if some great thing must be 
done to effect or to complete it. 
On the contrary, the word is nigh 
thee, &c. The passage in the Sep- 
tuagiiit stands thus (Deut. xxx. 
II 14): ort 77 ivroXr) avTtj r/i/ 
cyco ei/re XXoyuat crot o-Ty/xepoi/, ov^ 


crov ecrrtr. OVK ei/ TOJ ot para) aria 
ecrrt , XeytoV, Tt s tti a/3/;o"erat 
ets rov ovpavor, KOL Xv/i^erat T]J 
, KOL aKot rravres avrrji 
; ov&e Trepav TT/S 6aXd<T(rr)<s 
ecrri , Xeytov, Tt? SiaTrepacrei TJ/J.LV ets 
TO Trepav T^S ^a/\a<TO"^?, xal \df3r) 


tjo y avTJJv, KCU Troirycro/^ei^ ; eyyv? 
crou ecrrt TO pfjfJia cr^oSpa, Iv TOJ 
(TTo/xaTt o~ou, Kat Iv rfj KapSt a crou, 
KCU iv Tats Deport crou, Troteti/ CO>TO. 
XptCTTOi^ KttTayayeti/] That is, 
for our salvation. So Kar 
in John iii. 13, o e/c TOU 
Karats, vi. 33, 38, 41, 42, 50, 
51, 58, o Kara/3aa O)i/ e/c TOU ou- 
pavou /cat ^corjv SiSous T<3 /cocr/xa) 


7. a/2ucrcroj/] In the Septua- 
gint the afivcra-os is ^/<e sea: as 
in Job xli. 23 (31), oVaet rrjv 
(LVrTTep ^aXKetov i]yr]ra.i 
/ OuXacrtrav ujcrTrep e^a/\et7r- 
TOV Se Taprapov TT^ a/3vcr~ 
o~ov wcTTrep at^jU-aXcoTOV eXoyt- 
o-aTO afiva-a-ov cts TreptVaTov. 
Jonah ii. 5, Trepte^u^T; /xot v8wp 
X 1 ? 9 oj8v(70ros eVuKXoxre /^e 
This use of afBvo-aros 
may have suggested its intro 
duction here, where ct s TT/I/ a- 
stands in the place of 



8 TOUT ecrTiv, \picrTov e/c veKpwv dvayaryeiv. d\- 
\d TL Xeyei ; Eyyi/s crov TO prjiud ecTTiv, ev 
TW crTOfmaTt crov Kcti v Ttj KapSia crov 

<->, \ < - - / A / 

TOUT ecrTii>, TO pr]/uia Ttjs TricTTecos o KripvacrojULe^ 

9 OTL eav 6fJLO\oy/]cnis iv TW crTO/maTi crov Kvpiov 

9. Or oft. TO pTJjua ev r. err. cr. 6 rt Ki/ptos 17/croOs. 

et? TO irepav T /ys OaXdcrcrrj^ in the 
passage quoted. But its sense 
here is that of aS?;? in Psalm 
xvi. I o (OVK eyKaraA-et i^et? rvyV i//u- 
^(7/V ftov ets aSou K.r.A.); of <$>v\a.Kri 
(probably) in i Pet. iii. 19; of ra 
Karcorcpa /j-^pt] r/y yvy? (probably) 
in Eph. iv. 9. It is the place 
of departed spirits in the inter 
val between death and resur 
rection. Elsewhere in the New 
Testament the afivvo-os is the 
place of torment : see Luke viii. 
31, K.O.L TrapeKoAow avrov iva fit) 
cTrtra^ auroT? ets Trjv afivcrcrov 
a-n-eXdelv. Rev. ix. I, n, rj K/\ets 
rov </>/)earo9 r?;s df3va-(TOv...ay- 
yt\ov r^s d/3vo crov, OVO/JLO. av- 
Tco-./ATroXXvcov. xi. 7. xvii. 8. 
XX. i, 2, KCU eKpar^crey TOV 8pa- 
KOJ/TO....OS ecrrti/ Sta/3oXos Kat o 
^aravas. ..Kat J3a\V O.VTQV ets 
TT}J/ dj3vcro-oi . 

XptaroK. . .avayayetf] As if 
His resurrection had still to be 
effected, and with it 77 Si/ccuWis 
7y/x,cov (iv. 25). Compare Heb. 
xiii. 20, d Se @eos T^S etp^V^?, o 
cxvayaycoj/ e/< veKpo3i/. . .roi Kvpiov 

form of expression above had 
been, ov Aeyet, Tts ai a/^^crerai 


p7y/xa] ^1 thing said, a single 
utterance. Sometimes, as here, 
it is applied to the Gospel, in its 
aspect of simplicity, brevity, 
comprehensiveness, authority. 
Eph. v. 26, Iv pr^uaTt. Heb. vi. 
5, KCU KoAoi/ yevcra/xeVoirs eoG 
prj/j.a. I Pet. i. 25, TOLTO Se ecrrty 
TO pry/xa TO euayyeAto-^ev ets t /ia?. 

ti/ TW K.T.A.] // z"Ai/ mouth 
and in thy heart. Ready for 
utterance, and easy of compre 
hension. For KapSta in its ap 
plication to the understanding, 
see note on ii. 15, KapSuus. 

T>y? TTto-Tccos] J Ae faith. See 
note on iii. 30, CK 7rtaTcos,..8ta 

8. aAAa rt Xeyei] As if the 

9. OTI eaV] The two words 
cTTo^tart and KapSta are taken 
from the passage quoted above, 
and applied to the Christian 
doctrine. The Gospel condi 
tions, faith and confession, are 
here inverted, to suit the order of 
the two words in the quotation. 

eav OyaoAoyiycTTyq] Perhaps 
there is a special reference to 

Iqcrovv, Kat 

X. 8, 9 . 



crou OTL 

the first great and marked con 
fession of faith made in. Bap 
tism; that crweiSrycreco? dyaOrjs 
eTrepouTry/xa eis 0eoV in Baptism, 
which is said o-coeti (i Pet. iii. 
21). Compare Acts xxii. 16, 
cxvacrra? fiaTTTicrai Kat aVoXouo at 
Ttts a/xapTi a? trov, eTriKaXeo-a/xevos 
TO ovo^a avrov. And thus this 
verse in its two parts will ex 
actly harmonize with Mark xvi. 
1 6, o TTicrrevcras /cat ( 

d/xoXoy77<T?y-$] Formed from 
o/xoXoyos, o/ o^e language with 
(rivi, or rtvt Trept TIVOS), the verb 
6[j.o\ means to agree with; 
and hence to grant, allow, con 
cede (TL TLVL), as in Acts xxiv. 14, 
o/xoXoyoj Se TOVTO o"ot, OTL K.r.A..; 
and so (i) to confess (TI), as in 
I John i. 9, ear d/xoXoyco/xev ras 
a/xaprt a? tj/jiiav K.r.X. ; o make 
confession concerning (eVt rtvi), 
as in Ecclus. iv. 26, /XT; ato-^i/- 
^5 6[jLO\oyfjo~ai, (.(ft dfJiapT LOLLS o~ov 
K.r.X; (2) to acknowledge (TLVO), 
as here and in John ix. 22, eoV 
Tts avrov o/JioXoyrjo-rj Xptcrroi/. 
i John ii. 23, o o/xoXoyoiv TOJ/ 
vto v. iv. 2, 3. 2 John 7; o 
make open acknowledgment to 
(TIVI), Heb. xiii. 1^, Kaprrov ^et- 
Xe<i)V o/JioXoyovvT(jL>v TO) ovo/xart au- 
TOW* ^o r/za/ce public profession on 
the subject of (cV rtn), Matt. x. 
32, ocrrts ofJioXoyrjcret Iv tfJLol... 
ofJioXoyyo-u) Kayco iv avraJ. Luke 
xii. 8. Hence the remaining 

senses of o/xoXoyetv (3) to pro 
fess, Tit. i. 1 6, 0eov o/xoXoyocrti/ 
etSeVat K.r.X.; (4) ^o promise, 
Matt. xiv. 7, /xe^ O/OKOU w/xoXo- 
yr/crei/ aurry Sorat K.r.X. ; (5) ^o 
V6io, Jer. xliv\ 25, LXX. Trotoucrat 
ras o/xoXoytas ?J/x,u)i/ as 


er rw crro/xart o"ou] Compare 
XV. 6, ti/a o/xo^L /xaSor eV ert crro- 
/xart So^a ^re ror 0cor . Ps;ilm 
lix. 7> LXX. tSou aoc^^cyi-oi rat 
ci/ TW OTTo/xart avrcoi/. Ixxviii. 36, 
Kat tjyaTrrjo-av avrov iv TW (rro/xart 
aurcof /v.T.X. 

uF] Jesus as Lord. 
Compare the alternative read 
ing, TO /r/y/xa . . . 6 rt Ki pto? I^croi;?. 
2 Cor. iv. ^, ou yap laurovs KJ]- 
pvcro Ofjif.v aXXa XpicTToi/ r^aoui/ 
Ki ptoi/ (5 Lord). Phil. ii. n, 
Kat Trdaa yXwcjcra e^OjiioXoyy/cr^Tat 
OTt Kvptos I^aous Xptcrros ets 
So^av 0eou TraTpo ?. The two op 
posite forms, of confession and 
repudiation, are combined in 
I Cor. xii. 3, ovSels ei/ TriW/xaTt 
eou XaXcoi/ Xeyet Ai/a^e/xa Iry- 
O"OU9, Kat oijSets Swarat etTre?^ Kv- 
pto? I^aovs, et /jt?y ei Tr^eu/xaTt 

ort o eo s] Faith in the re 
surrection implies faith in the 
incarnation, life, death, &c. of 
Christ. Compare i Pet. i. 21, 


TOI^ iyf.ipa.vra avrov IK vtKpwv Kat 
ooav auT(3 SoVTa, WO-TC TYJV TTLO~TIV 
VJLWV Kat eXTrtSa flvai ets 0eoV. 


10 Geos avTov ijyetpev e/c vK.pwv. 

yap TTicTTeveTai eis CLKaLOcrvvrjv, (TTOjmaTi oe 

1 1 OfJioXoyelTai eis crcoTtipiav. Xeyei yap r] <ypa<ptj, 
Has 6 TTKTTevtuv ITT avTuo ov KaTaia"%vv6r]- 

12 crGTai. ov yap ecmv SiacrToXr] lovfiaiov T Kal 
f EAA?;^os* o yap avTOS Kvpios TravTcov, TT\OVT(JOV 

13 LS iravTas TOOS eTriKaXov/uevovs CLVTOV. was 

is understood a second 
time: compare ii. 29, Kal Tnrpi- 
ro/Jirj KapStas and see note oil 
ii. 28, loi;atos...7rep,TO/A7y. For 
the sense compare iii. 29, rj 
lovSatW o eos p.onoj/; ov^t Kat 
e^^ojv ; vat xat e$fa!j/ etVep els 

os os SiKatcocrei K.r.X. 

TrXovrcoi/] Eph. ii. 4, o Se eos 
TrXovcrtos coi ev eXeei K.r.X. 

TO us 7rtKaXoi;/x^oi;s] TFAo w- 
vo/ce Him, call Him to their aid, 
and that habitually. Gen. iv. 
25, LXX. o^ros 7J\.7TLcrev 7rtKaXet- 
cr^at TO 6Vo/xa Kvpt ou TOU eoi;. 
xii. 8, Kat c7TKaXeo"aTO CTT! TO> 
oVo/AaTt Kvptov (made invocations 
on the ground of the name of the 
Lord), xxxiii. 20, Kat eTreKaXe- 
craTO TOV eoV IcrparyX. I Kings 
xviii. 24, Kat eyo) cTrtKaXeo-o/xat 
ev oVo/zaTt Kvptov (ioi/^ make my 
invocations in the name of the 
Lord). And so throughout the 
Psalms. In the New Testa 
ment, see Acts vii. 59. ix. 14, 
21. xxii. 1 6. i Cor. i. 2. 2 Tim. 

ii. 22, /XCTCl Tc3l> f.7rLKO.\OV(JieV<OV 

TOV Kvpiov K KaOapas KapSi ae. 

1 Pet. i. 17, ;<at et TraTepa ITTL- 

See note on v. 

10. KapSt a yap] In the pas 
sage of Deut. xxx. which is still 
in St Paul s thought, the pre 
dominant idea of KapSta is that 
of understanding. In the pre 
sent application of it, it is used 
in its common, sense oi feeling 
and affection. See note on verse 

8, iv TO) K.T.X 

Trio-reverou. . .o/xoXoyetrat] Im 
personal passives. Men believe 
.. .men confess. The compound 
c^o/xoAoyeu/ is always found in 
the middle voice : o/xoAoyetV (in 
Scripture) never. 

11. Xeyet yap] Isai. xxviii. 

1 6, LXX. Kttt O TTlCTTeiXOJ/ OV fJi TJ 

See note on ix. 33, 

12. 01; yap] I say, Tra^ for, 
&C. See iii. 22, ts 7raj/ra>j roi)s 
7Tt<Trei;ovTa ou yap ecrriv Stacrro- 
Xr). Gal. iii. 28, OVK eVt lovSatos 
o^Se c/ EA.X?;j/. Col. iii. n. 

Stao-roXT;] See note on iii. 22, 
ov "yap ecrnv Stao-roX^. 

o yap avros] For the same 
Lord is Lord of all. The word 

X. io 1 6. 


jap 09 dv 67TLKa\eo-^Tai TO ovo/ma Kvpiov 
o-wOrjcreTai. TTWS ovv 7riKa\ecriovTai ek ov OVK 14 
eTTLarrevcrav^ TTWS 3e TncrTevcrtocrLv ov OVK 

~^\\ /.. ,^ x , ^ 

7TW9 oe KT]pv-(ocriv eav an a7ro(TTa\a)criv : 

1 *T> 7 

^9 WpaTOL Oi 7T0069 TWJ/ 6Va<y- 

)V d<ya6d. 
A/\/\ OL/ Trai/re? V7T/]KOVcrav TM eva<y<ye\tw. 16 

Ka/XeTcr^e TOK a7rpocrto7roX)y/.i7rTa>s 
Kpwovra K.r./X. 

13. ?ras yap] Joel ii. 32, LXX. 
?ras os V K.r.A. Acts ii. 21, 
TTtts os eav K.T.A.. 

ovo/xa] See note on i. 5, 

14. TTWS ow] ^ZViis general 
promise (?ras os aV K.r.X.) iwi- 
p&es a general proclamation and 
a general commission, not one 
confined to a particular nation. 

tTTiKaAeVcovTat] For the sub 
junctive mood here and in Tno-rei;- 
O"wcrti/, ctKoiJcroxrtr, KTjpv^uxj-iv, be 
low, see note on vi. i, cT 
^Tow? m?ts^ tf/iey, re 

ts OV...QV] That is, t 

tS OV...6Kll/to) OU. 

ov OVK ^Koverai/j Him whom 
they heard not. God Himself is 
represented as speaking. 

quotation is made rather from 
the Hebrew than from the Sep- 
tuagint. The latter reads, cyoj 
et/xt OI/TO? o AaAwi/, TrdptijJ.1 ws 
topa eTTt TOJI/ opeo)i/, ws Trdoes ev- 

Ka^cus yeypawrai] The words 
quoted, especially cvayyeAi^o/xe- 
vwv, imply not only a proclama 
tion (K^pv^ojo-tv), out a commis 
sion to proclaim (aVoo-TaAcoo-tv). 

tos topaioi] Isai. lii. 7. The 


Gen. ii. 9, LXX. ?raK 
copator ci? opacriv. iii. 6. 
Psalm xlv. 2, wpatos KaAAet Trapa 
Toys vtovsT(3v av6p<-j)7rwv. Ecclus. 
xxvi. 1 8, Kal Tro Ses wpatoi CTTI 
Trre prats evo-ra^oDv. Matt, xxiii. 
27. Acts iii. 2, io. In the Sep- 
tuagint, it is o!pa, apparently iu 
the sense of dawn or dayspring ; 
the sweet hour of prime. Com 
pare Joel ii. 2, LXX. o>s opOpos 
^yOfjcreTaL CTTI TO. op?). 

1 6. cxAA ov Trai/res] The 
Gospel is sent to all: but (it may 
be objected) not all obey. It is 
true. That complaint is as old 
as Isaiah s time: rts riorev<rej j 
This failure did not stop Isaiah 1 a 
utterance, nor is the same expe 
rience any argument against the 
universal proclamation of Gods 
message now. 






Kf|0ie, TLS 
77 TTICTTLS e^ a/cojys, f] Se 
a AAa 

. . . eTrtcTref crev] The 
aorist expresses in each case a 
result regarded as a single past 
fact. When ice went forth into 
all the world to preach, not all 
listened. When Isaiah carried 
back his report into God s pre 
sence, he had to say, Lord, when 
I spoke, ivho (almost} believed ? 

Hcraias yap] It is so it was 
always so -for, &c. 

Aeyet] Isai. liii. I, LXX. 

TT) duof! rj/zcoj/] For this sense 
of O.KOIJ, a thing for hearing, ti 
dings, a message or announce 
ment, see i Sain. ii. 23, LXX. 
OVK dyaOtj ij aKorj i/v eyto O.KOVU). 
I Kings ii. 28, TJ JKO?) ?/X6ev etos 
Io)ct/5. Psalm cxii. 7, aVo ctKor/s 
TTovT^pas ou <o/3>7$r/0-erai. Isai. 
lii. 7, a.Kor)v ip>yF/y5. Matt. iv. 
24, r; aKOiy auroi). xiv. I. Mark 
i. 28. John xii. 38. Gal. iii. 2, 
e cxKOvys Trtcrreoos. I Thess. ii. 13, 
TrapaXafiovres Xoyoi/ aKo^s Trap 
ry^-oji/ TOV COL . Heb. iv. 2 7 o 
Aoyos TTys aKOTy?. 

17. apa ?y Trt crTi?] An in 
ference from the above quota 
tion. So then the TTICTTIS springs 
out of an aKo-tj, and the O.KOTJ is 
conveyed by means of a p^/xa. 
In other words, tlie faith of which 
Isaiah speaks (eVto-revcrei ) has its 
origin in a Divine message, and 

Or omit X/HtrroO. 

that message is sent abroad by 
means of a Divine commission. 
SucJi, is the order, always and 
everywliere: p^//,a, aKorj, Trtoris. 

t] 7r...r/ 8e ex.] 1 or the force 
of the articles, see the last note. 

pvy /xaros] Here, a loord of 
command; an express commis 
sion: the aVoo-TaAojcm/ of verse 
14. Compare Psalm. Ixviii. 12, 

LXX. Jvupios SoJcret prjfld rots euay- 
. See note on verse 8, 

Xpto-roC] In Scripture, what 
ever God does, Christ does. John 
V. 19, a yap av tKeiv o? Troifj iav- 
ra. Kat o vlo<; oyxotoj? Trotet. Even 
the Prophets received their pr/^aa 
from Christ, i Pet. i. n, TO eV 
avrois Trvev/^a Xptoroi) Trpo/^aprt;- 
po/xevov ra ets Xpio-rov TraO tj para 
K.T.X. (See, however, the alter 
native reading tov.) 

1 8. aXA.a Aeyto] 7?i/^ m?/ 
statement is, not that all VTTIJ- 
Kovcrav, but that all rJKovo a.v. Is 
not that true ? Has not the hear 
ing of the Gospel (whether obeyed 
or not) been already vouchsafed 
to all nations indiscriminately ? 

/xe^owye] Nay, so general has 
that, hearing already been, that 
to it may be applied the words 
in which the Psalmist describes- 
the universality of the testimony 

X. i/ 


OVK r]KOV(rav ; /uLevoui/ye 

e^rjXOev 6 



Mw vcrfjs 

iracrav TIJV yiiv 



of the works of nature to the 
glory of God. See note on i. 8, 
iv oAw TCO Kooyxw. 

ets Trao-ai/] Psalm xix. 4, LXX. 
i Thess. i. 8, eV 

Trai/Tt TOTTCO 7? Trtcrns VJJLWV rj 
TOV eoi/ 

Wisdom xix. 17, 
ev i^aXr^pi a) <$>&oyyoi TOV 
TO oi/o/xa 8taXA.acrcroi;crt 
i Cor. xiv. 7, eav Stao-ro- 
s <f>86yyoL<s /JL-T) 8(3. 

That is, o/ ^e 7i(?7-- 
. See the former verses of 
the Psalm. 

Trepara] Psalm ii. 8, LXX. 
OOJITOO crot eOvrj Trjv K\~r)povo[JiLav 
crou, Kai rrjv KaTo.o"^e.crLv o~ov rd 
Trepara T^S 717?. xxii. 27, eTrt- 
(TTpa^ijcrovTaL Trpds Kvptoi/ Travra 
ra Trepara T^S yTy?. lix. 13. Ixvii. 
7. Ixxii. 8, txTTo Trora/jiov ecus Tre- 
partoi/ 7175 otKov/xeV^?. xcv. 4. 
xcviii. 3, et Soo-av Travra ra Trepa- 

Ttt T^S y>}5 TO CTCOTT^ptOV TOU 0C07; 

^aJi/. Matt. xii. 42, TjXOsv IK rwv 
TTcpaTcuv TT/S 717?. Luke xi. 31. 

TT;<; oiKov/xev^?] Psalm xxiv. 
I, LXX. rj oiKovp-evr) KOL TTCIVTC? ot 
KaToiKoCi/res ei/ auTTy. 1. 12, ep.7; 
yap eo-Ttv ?; oiKoufteV?/ /cat TO 77X77- 
po>/xa avT?]s. Isai. xxxiv. i, ctKoi;- 
77 777 Kat ot evoiKOiWes ci/ 

r, r; otKOV/xeV^ /<at d Aaos d ej/ 
V. B. 

Ta p//xi 
OVK eyvca ; TrpwTos 19 
vfjias etr 

Matt. xxiv. 14, /cat /c?7pu- 
xt TOUTO TO ci. ayyeAtoi TT^S 
pao"tAeta? ei/ oAyj TTJ ot/cot /xeVr/ 
K.T.A. Lukeiv. 5. xxi. 26. Acts 
xi. 28. Kev. iii. 10. xvi. 14. 

19. a AAa Aeyto] But my as 
sertion is, not only that the pro 
clamation is universal, but that 
Israel ivas duly warned that it 
ivoidd be so. 

//.r) lo-par/A] Does Israel not 
know was Israel not made 
aware that God designed thus 
to throw open their privileges in 
due time to the whole world? 

Trpcoros Mtouo-^s] Jtfoses is the 
first to say. The very lawgiver 
of Israel is foremost in the pre 
diction of Gentile evangeliza 

eyco 7rapaviAajcr(o] Deut.XXxii. 
21, LXX. avTOt Trape^T/Aooo-uV fj.. 
ITT ov 0ea), Trapwpyto-av /J.e tV Tot? 

avrovs CTT OVK ZOvcL, cVt Wv(.i 
a(TW6TO) 7rapopyt(3 O.VTOVS. This, 
which is at first sight a threaten 
ing of judgment upon the Is 
raelites in the form of conquest 
or captivit} 7 , is used by St Paul 
as a prediction of an indirect 
punishment in the form of mercy 
shown by God to the despised 
races around them. 



OVK edvei, 67ri edvei dcrvveTW Trapopyito 

20 vjuLas. Hcraias ce aTrOToXjua K.CLL Xeyei, l&vpe- 
6t]v TO?? eu.6 m) ri]TOV(TLv, e/uKpavrjs eye- 

i O * I * 

21 vofJinv TO?? e/me jut] eTrepwTwcriv. Trpos Se 

20. Or 

cucrcoj xi. ii, 14, cis 
TO Trapa^Adicrai avTCvs. . . et TTOJS 

I Kings xiv. 22, LXX. Kat Trape- 
av ai Toy ev Tracrtv ots ITTOL- 

OL TTttTCpCS ttbTOJl/ K. T. A. 

Psalm xxxvii. I, 7, 8, /xr; rrapa- 

vois K.T.A. Ixxviii. ^8, Kat eV ToZs 
yAuTTToTs O.VTWV 7rape^?yAcocrav av- 
ToV. I Cor. x. 22. 

CTT OVK Wvei\ At a no-nation. 
At a nation wldch you regard 
as none, i Pet. ii. 10, ot TTOTC 
ov Aao?. 

Wvti acrvi/eru)] Like a(/or/TOts 
(as a parallel expression to (3ap- 
/3a pois) in i. 14 ; all other nations 
being to the Jews in religious 
knowledge, as all other nations 
were to the Greeks in human 

Trapopytw] The verb Trapop- 
yt / eii (7rapopyicr/xa, Trapopytcrtios) 
occurs more than 50 times in 
the Septuagint; generally in re 
ference to man s provocations of 
God. In the New Testament it 
occurs only in its literal sense ; 
Eph. vi. 4. 

20. avroToA/xa] The preposi 
tion aVo strengthens the simple 
verb. Is very bold, and says. 

Or eyei>. ev T. 

Hazards a very bold expression. 
(Compare the phrase of ^Eschi- 
iies, oVoToA/xa Aeyetr.) The same 
use of CITTO is seen in 
Matt. vi. 2, &c.; oVo^ 
Luke viii. 45; aVe 
Horn. viii. 19, <fcc. ; a?ro( 
Rom. xii. 9; oVo vp^o-i?, Col. ii. 
2 2 ; aTTOTeActi/, James i. 1 5 ; and 
many other instances. See notes 
on viii. 1 9, aVoKapaooKta, 

Isai. Ixv. i, LXX. 

7repcoTcocr/, evpe ^j/ Tots e/xe fjirj 
C,rjTOV(TLV ei?ra, tSoi; ei/xt, tSou ei/xt, 
TO) eOvci, otVtves OVK eKuAeo-ai/ TO 

Tots e/xe /XT; 4.] IX. 30, ivvf) TO. 
TI SiajKOVTa 8iKaiocrvvr)v KttTeAa- 


_ Isai. xxx. 2, LXX. 
etie 6e OVK eTrTypcoT^crar. 

21. Trpos Se ToV] Whereas 
with regard to Israel He saith. 

oXrjv TTJV\ Isai. Ixv. 2, LXX. 
e^eTreVao-a Tas ^ipd<s fjiov 
Tf\v 7^/xepav Trpo? Aaov a: 
Kat aWiAe yovTa, ot OVK eTropev^r/- 
crai dS(5 dXr)6i.vfj, txAA OTrtVa) TUJV 

God is represent 
ed as condescending to entreat 

X. 20 XI. I. 


ra? %elps JULOV 


Aeyco GUI , jULr] d7rcoo~aTO o 0eos TOV \aov XI. I 
a\)TOv\ /mi] ryevoLTO KCII yap e<yto Icrpat]\LTtis 
e/c (TTrepjULaro^ A(3padu., <pv\fjs }$eviaueiv. 

TOV Aaoi/ avrov oVa TO ovo/ma 
avroii TO //e ya K.r.A. Psalm Ix. 
I, o 0eog, a7rojo"O) Ty/xd^ K.r.A. 
Ixxxix. 38, cru 8e aTTto crw Kat 
eouSeVa>cra<; K.r.A. xciA". I/), art 
oi>K aTTODQ-erat Kiyno? TOK Aaor 
avrov, Kat TTJV K\.Yjpovojii(i\ avrcv 
OVK eyKaraAet i^et. The verb aVa)- 
^eti/ occurs more than 60 times 
in the Septuagiiit : in the Xe\v 
Testament only hero and in 
Acts vii. 27, 39. xiii. 46. i Tim. 
i. 19. ^ 

Kat yap eyw] 2 Cor. xi. 22, 
E^patot eto~ti/; Kayw. IcrpaiyAetrat 
tlcTLv; Kayco. o~7re p ; aa A^8paa /x 

; Kfxyto. Phil. iii. 5, C K ye- 

His people. For this phrase, 
see Exod. ix. 29, 33, LXX. eK-e- 
Ta<rco ras ^elpa? /xou 7rpo<j TOI/ 
Ka ptov ets TCF ovpavov xat e^-e- 
Treracre rot? x ^P a caro^ K. r. A. 
Ezra ix. ^, KCU K\LV<a errt r<x yo- 
vara yuou, Kat eKTreru^co ra? ^elpas 
/XOD Trpos KVpiov TOI/ eoV. Ec- 
clus. xlviii. 20. li. 19. 

a7rei$ovi Ta Kat aj/riAeyovra] 
Isai. 1. 5, LXX. y; TratSeta Kvptov 
Kvpiov dvoiyei ra wra /xov. eyw 
oe ou/c aTret^d) ovSe avriXeyw. 
For direiOeiv used absolutely, see 
also Dent. xxi. 20, o rid? ^//wj/ 
ouro? aTret^ei K.r.A. Nell. ix. 29, 
KOU eSco/cav nSrov aTraOovi Ta. Isai. 
lix. 13, eA-a/Ymra/xei/ a8t/<a, /cat 
TjTreiOr /o-aiJiev. Acts xiv. 2, ot 8e 
aTretb ry cravTe? lovSaiot K.r.A. Heb. 
iii. 1 8. i Pet. iii. 20, aVet^ - 
o-ao-tV TTore K.r.A. For dV-nAe yeu , 
Acts xiii. 45, avreAeyoi/ rot? {*TTO 
IlavAoT; AaAov/xeVot? (3\a.<r(j>r][Jioi!V- 
T5. Tit. i. 9. ii. 9. 

XI. i. Aeya) oSv] The lan 
guage above used might seem to 
imply the rejection, not only of 
Israel as a nation, but of all 
Israelites. Is this intended? God 
forbid: for by so saying I should 
exclude myself also. 

fjurj ttTrojo-aro] i Sam. xii. 22, 
LXX. o ri ov/c a7rajo-Tcu 

See note on ix. 
4, Icrpa^Aetrai. 

CTTrep/xaro? A^8paa/x] See ix. 
7. Matt. iii. 9, Trarepa e^o/aev 
roV A/?paa /x. Luke iii. 8. John 
viii. 33, 37, 39, o-Tre p/m A^paa/A 
K.r.A. Acts xiii. 26, uVSpes 
ftot yivovs *A/3padfj.. 
Gal. iii. 1 6, &c. Heb. ii. 16. 

<^vA?7s Bei/ta/aetV] The tribe 
of the first judge and cf the 
first king ; not only one of the 
twelve tribes, but one of the 
two. Acts xiii. 21. Phil. iii. 5. 
Eev. vii. 8. 



2 OVK aTTCocraTO 6 Geos TOV \aov CLVTOV ov 
// OVK o lcctTe eV H/\e/a 77 Ae^/a 1} 

3 I<7jOa?/A, 


pie, TGI;? 7rpo(f)t]Tcts crov djre- 

OvcrLao T/jpid (TOV Ka r reo~K.a- 

V7re\el.(pdnv /ioVo9, Kat ^rjTOV- 

\V fJLOV. d\\d TL \6y6L aVTCO 6 

s ; KotTeXfTroi/ ejULavrto eTTTctKi- 
av Spa 5, oiTives OVK. eKajJi^av <yovv T?} 

2. ou/c aTTOJcraToJ Sec note 
on verse i, ^.77 aTraicrttTo. 

6V Trpoeyi oo] See note on viii. 
29, Trpoeyi/co. 

^ OVK ol Sare] TAe cse is ?^o^/J 
just as it was in tlie time of 
Elijah; an apparently universal 
defection, but in reality a con 
siderable faitltfid remnant, even 
among the Jews. 

Iv H/Wa] In the case of 
Elijah. Elsewhere the same 
phrase means, in the person (by . 
the moutli] of: as in Heb. i. i, 
o 0eos XaX^ cras rots Trarpdcnv ev 
rots Trpoc^ryrais K. r. A., iv. 7, ev 
AavctS AeycoT/. But here the stress 
of the reference lies not upon 
Elijah s words (verse 3), but 
upon the ^p^/x-artcr/xos in answer 
to them (verse 4). 

A.eyet 77 ypa^r^j See note on 
iv. 3, 77 ypa^if. 

evrvy^avei] See note on viii. 
26, UTrepevTuyxavet. 

3. K^ pte] i Kings xix. 10, 
LXX. ra Ova-Laa-TtjpLO. vov 

Kat rot;? Trporyraq crou 
ey po/x<aia, Kat VTroXe- 
eyco p,ovojTaTO5, Kat ^??- 

munication ; the, Divine admo 
nition. For xp77p,aTio-p.o9, com 
pare 2 Mace. ii. 4, ?yv oe eV rrj 
ypa(^>7y, to? TT^J/ aKrjvrjv Kat r>7J/ 
Ktj3(ji>TOV eKeAeucrei/ o 

crwaKoAoi>#eu/. xi. 17. See note 

on. vn. 


i Kings xix. 18, 

LXX. Kat KaraA-ei i^/eis ep iCTpar^A 
CTTTCt x i ^- tc ^^ as avSpcov, Travra yo- 
vara a OV K toKXacrav yoi/t) T(3 BaaA, 
Kat Trav arofjia. o ov 7rpocrKvv7)crev 

KareAtTroj/ ep^avrw] The quo 
tation is adapted to the Hebrew : 
the Septuagint reads KaraAeti^ei?, 
thou shalt leave (spare from the 
threatened destruction}. 

Kap,i//av yoVv] A phrase for 
(i) submission, (2) worship gene- 

XL 27. 201 

Baa/\. OVTWS GUI Kac eV TM vvv Kaipw XeljUL/ma 5 
KCLT eK\oyiiv %apiros <ye<yovev el $e xapiTi, OVK- 6 

Tt 6^ pyWV, 67T61 T\ %^i9 OVK6TL y lV6TC(l % fK9. 

TL ovv ; 6 GTrifyiTeT IcrpaqX, TOVTO OVK eW- 7 

6. yiv.xdpLS. ei 5 e Zpywv, ouKeri ecrlv %a/3ij, eVei ro Zpyov OVKCTI earlv 

rally, ($) pray&r. Thus (i) Isai. 
xlv. 23, LXX. (quoted in xiv. u), 
ort e/xot Ka/j,\f/L Trav yovv K.T.\. 

(2) i Chron. xxix. 20, /cat KU //,- 
i//avres ra yoVara Trpoa-eKiJ^crai/ 
rw Kvptu) K.T.X. Dan. vi. 10, 
Kat /coupons rpets TI^S ^epas r;i/ 

errl ra -yoi ara ai rou /cat 
Kat ^ofjio\oyov- 
tvavTLOv TOV 0eoO K. T. A. 
Pliil. ii. 10, tVa ei/ TW oFo/xart 
iTyaou TTttV yaw Ka/J-ij/rj K. r. X. 

(3) Eph. iii. 14, TOVTOD xapiv 
Ka/XTTTto ra yovara /xou Trpos TOV 
Trarepa.. .Tra 8a> vp.^ /c.r.A. 

T7j Ba aX] The gender as 
in the Septuagint Version of 
2 Kings xxi. 3. Jer. ii. 8. vii. 9. 
xi. 13, 17. xii. 1 6. xix. 5. xxiii. 
13, 27. xxxii. 29, 35. Hos. ii. 8. 
xiii. i. Zeph. i. 4. 

5. oimo?] Thus; in the same 
way. See i. 15. vi. ii. 

ei/ TO) vvv atpo3] See note 
on iii. 26, Trpos rrjv eVSa^tv. 

Josh. xiii. 12, LXX. 
Karf.\f.L<^6ri aVo roO Aei p-- 
(JLCLTOS TCOI/ ytyavTwv. 2 Kings 

XIX. 4, TrpO(TVyT f )V TTCpt TOTJ \CLfJi- 

/xaros TOI) eupta/co/xei/ov. 

Kar cK\oyr)v xdpLTos] Accord 
ing to a selection of free favour : 

that is, o?i />e principle of a se 
lection made by gratuitous spon 
taneous love. See notes oil viii. 
33, eKAcKrwi eo9. ix. II, 17 /car 

yeyoi/ev] 7/as resulted in 
being ; is as the result. 

6. et 8e ^uptri] Human sal 
vation must be ascribed either to 
man or to God: it cannot be a 
mixed result of two different, in 
commensurable, and incongruous 

en-ei] Since, if otherwise (that 
is, if it be by works also}. For 
this use of eTret with a suppress 
ed clause, see note on iii. 6, 


77 X^P ts ] Tliat (or such} ^a- 
pi9. Referring back to ^aptrt 
above. See note on v. 3, ^ 


ytVerat] Results in being. 

7. rt ow] ir/ia^ is ^Ae re 
sult? See iii. 9. vi. 15. 

o eTTi^ret lo-paryA] Compare 
ix. 30, 31, rt ovv epovfjiw, on 
. . . la parjX. oe SKOKOOV j/o/xor 
ets vo/xoi/ ow/c (f>0a- 

further, and so earnestly) 


rj oe eKXoyrj e7reTV%ev ol ot \OITTOI 


see Matt. vi. 32. xii. 39. 1 liil. 
i\ r . 17. .1 feb. xi. 14. xiii. 14. 

eTrcrv^ev] Elsewhere used 
with a yenitive : Jleb. vi. 15. 

Xi> 33- ,* 

-/y 8e e/cAoyvy] 77^ selection 

(tic, sclwt, portion) of Israel; 
called above (verso 5^ Aeiyx/xa 
KO.T K\oyr/v p^apiTo?. 

i~u)j)())(j q<jo.v Tho verb TTO>- 
potv (jccui .s also in ..Mark vj. 
vyi/ avroji/ ry Kapota TTCTTW- 
vy. viii. 17, TreTrwpw/xcv^i/ 
rryi/ KapStav v/j.tjjv ; John 

Xll. 40, TTO)p(l)(TV (IVTIOV TijV 

Kapfjiav. 2 Cor. iii. 14, 

(.17<j)ptjJU f] TO. V() rJIJ.(J.T(L (J.VT(J)V. 

find Trojpaxrt? in vc-rso 2 
pa)(ri5 a?ro /xe povs rw Jr 
yoi/^. ]\Iark iii. 

7Tt TYy 7T(JJf)<J)(Tei T 

Jh]ph. iv. I 8, Ota T//I/ 7r<j >f)<j)<rLV rr/? 
KapSi a? avrali/. Thcro is soi no- 
times an apparent confusion Ije- 
t ween Trwpovv (proper! y ^o petrify, 
to Juirden into stone, from TTOJ/KJS) 
and TTvypovi/ (<o maini,, to blind, 
from 71-77/305). Compare Job xvii. 
7, LXX. TreTTojp jj^rat yap avro opyyy? 
ol oc^^ttX/y.ot //ou (where, Low- 
ever, Field reads TrcTrr/pwi/rat). 

8. Ka#ok yeypttTrrai] A 
combined quotation from two 
passages of the Septuagint. (i) 

TTFCV/XttTt KttTttVU^COOg, Kttl 

ovs o<jd0aA./jiovs avraJv 
.r.A. (2) Deut. xxix. 4, Kai OVK 
OojKe Kiynos o ( )eo<j i;/;./.i/ Kapotai/ 





f.o<j)K.v ai roTs Cod is said 
to do that which is U , mutt of 
ill/ , 1n;n:n of y/c/m .s Tnoral dn,d 
spiritual beiny <i.x constituted oij 
J/iin. See note on ix. j 8, fj/<Ary- 

Karai/v^cws] r l lje rendering 
in this passage of the Soptua- 
gint (Isai. xxix. joj of a He 
brew word expressing dwp (or 
duad) xl< < i>: Ccn. ii. 21. xv. 
12. i Sam. xxvi. j 2. Jt might 
almost see-in to be j>ut for 
KaTavv<7Ta^o)5, towards the for 
mation of which we have the 
simple noun vwcrra^i? and the 
compound verb KaTai/wTa ^eij/. 
Yet the form itself can be 
derived only from Ko.ra.v\)fT(Tf.iv 
(Gen. xxxiv. 7, LXX. oj? ok 
rjKovcrv.Vj Ka.TCvvyijo av ol avdpes. 
Lev. x. 3, /cat. KaTvv^Orj Aa- 
pn >v. I Kings xxi. 29, eajpaKa? 
oJs wi.Tf.vvyq A^aa/3 tt?ro Trpocrto- 
TTOU fj.ov, Psalm iv. 4, tVi rat? 
Koirat? vyxaii/ KaTavvy>yre. Ibai. 
xlvii. 5, naOurov Karavcwyficvrj 
K.T.A. Acts ii. 37, aKovrra^TCs 
8e Karcj/vyryrrai/ T /yi KapOtaj/), arid 
must express (i) compunction, 

XI. 8 ii. :203 

TOV fJl)} (3\e7TlV K(ii ICiTCt TOV fLJLt] aKOVtl 9 

T//9 or^fjLepoi vujLepas. Kat AcweiS Xeyet, () 

KCU es 


i/VoiV (TKOTLcrB^raxrav ol 10 

VTtol TOV JUL )} /3\e7TlV, K(tt 
aVTlOl SlO, TTCtl TOS 

(2) that bewilderment or stupe 
faction which is the ivsiilt of 
conscience awakened too loft . 
Compare Psalm lix. 3, LXX. 
eoetas rep Xau) crou aK\-i]pa, eVu- 
rtcrus ij/Jia<; OLVOV xaTaw^caJS. 

roD /x?} ySAeVetr] Litcrally, t /t>r 
</ie purpose of their not seeing : 
equivalent to /jLyirore iSoxn in 
Isili. vi. IO, LXX. Kat TOVS u<f>0a\- 
fAOv<s eKa/XjU-VcraK, ^TTOTC tStocrt 
TOIS o^f)^a/\/iots K. T. A. l\)r the 
genitive TOV, and for the sense, 
compare Ezek. xii. 2, LXX. ot 

Kat toTa 

9. Kat AaveJS Aeyei] Psalm 
IxiX. 22, 23, LXX. ycvijOlJTta l] 
Tpaire^a avrd)l/ 
ts TraytSa Kat 
Kat cis o-KaVSaAoV 


yev^^TO)] A description of 
the last state of a hardened 
man, when his very blessings 
are cursed (Mai. ii. a), and f/< 


1 1 

which should Junv been for Jits 
welfare becomes it snare. 

TruyuSa . . . Gijpav . . . CTKoYSaAov] 
The general notion is tempta 
tion ; as that ot arTaTroSo/xa is 
retribution, the rcpai/nient in 
kind o^ a long fibuso of blessings. 

Trayt Sa] Ijiike xxi. 35. i Tim. 
iii. ~. vi. 9. 2 Tim. ii. 26. 

CTKH I (Sd/\or] See note on i\. 
33, (TKavoaAov. 

aiTttTroSo/jta] l^uke xiv. 12. 
avTa7rocSoo~t? CV)1. iii. 24. a rra- 
7ro8iSoV(u xii. 19. Luke xiv. 14. 
ileb. x. 30. 

10. o~KOTtcr07ynocrai ] See note 
on i. 21, tcrKOTitfOi). 

trvvKafJuf/ov] As "with the 
decrepitude ot premature age. 
Compare Luke xiii. ii, Kai ijv 
avi KVTTTova a. Kat /jt-tj Swa/iCKty 
ai aKvi//at ct? TO TravTcAc s. It is 
the exact opposite of TO" Trapa- 
AeAv/xcVa yorara a^OjO^ojaaTe in 
Ileb. xii. 12. 

11. p.ij eTTTato-av] Did they 
thus stumble in order that they 



d\\a TM CWTCOV TrapaTTTtojUiaTi i] crco- 
Tt]pia TO?? eBvecriv, eis TO 7rapa(^ri\a}(rai 
12 ei Se TO TrapaTTTWjuia avT<Zv TT\OVTOS KOCTJULOV 
TO r]TTt]fj.a aiiTtiov TrXovTOs edvwVy TTOCTM 

might fall ? Was it the design 
of God, in suffering them thus 
to be offended in Christ (Matt. 
xi. 6) and to be rejected in con 
sequence j that tJicij should be 
utterly and finally lost? Far 
otherwise. Rather has their 
transgression made room, as it 
were, for the salvation of the 
Gentiles, that they in turn may 
be roused to emulation and so 
to the resumption of their for 
feited standing. 

Deut. vii. 25, LXX. 
TrratV^s oY avro, OTL ySSe- 
Avy/xa Kvpico rep euJ crov CO~TL. 
James ii. 10. iii. 2. 2 Pet. i. 
10, ravroi yap Trotowres ov fjirj 

Heb. iv. 11, IVct, fjirj 
v TO) avTii) ris i;7roSety/xaTt TTCCTT 


(Heb. vi. 6, 7rapa7To-oi/Ta?) is ^0 
fall aside, out of the ivay, so 
TrapctTTToo/xa is a fall of that na 
ture, and so a transgression. See 
v. 15 20. Ezek. xiv. 13, LXX. 
y?7 eav a/xapji^ /xot ro{) TrapaTrecreu/ 
TrapaTTTw/xart. xv. 8. xviii. 24. 
xx. 27, &c. 

Trapa^Xcoo-ai] See note on 
X, 19, 7rapa?7/\axra). 

avrovs] That is, ^e Jews. 

12. TrXovros KOO-/XOV] 

q/ (to) a world; that is, a rich 
mine of blessing to a whole world, 
by occasioning the admission of 
all nations into the birthright of 
Israel. For TrAovros in this sense, 
compare TrXovri^iv in i Cor. i. 5, 
ev Travrt iTrXovTicrOrjTG iv avTia. 
2 Cor. vi. 10, TroAAoi- s Se TT\OV- 


Ti^ofjievoi. See also note on ii. 4, 


For Kocrfjiov without the article 
(such a thing as a ivorld, a whole 
world), see note 011 iv. 13, KO- 


Kooy J tou...e(9ycuv] Isai. viii. 9, 
LXX. yi/dtre, Wvrj.. .eTraKovcrare eoos 
ecr^arov r^s y^s. Matt. xxvi. 13, 
OTTOV eav Kr]pv)(0fj TO ewyye A.ioi/ 
TOVTO cv 6 A.a) TW KOCTyxw. Mark 
xiv. 9. xvi. 15, TroptvOevTes ets 
roi/ Kocrfjiov aTravra. Kypv^are TO 
euayyeAiov Wa-Ty TT) Krtcret. Luke 
xii. 30, ra^ra yap Trai/ra, ra e^v^ 


TO TJTTrj/Jia avrcai/] Their de 
feat, discomfiture, disparagement, 
humiliation, reduction to a con 
dition of inferiority. Isai. xxxi. 
8, LXX. ot Se veavicTKOi ec 
ets -rjTTrjfJia. I Cor. vi. 7, 

)U,V OUV oXo)S rJTTrjfJiUi VfJilV 

OTL K.T.X. Compare Isai. liv. 
17, Trcu/Tas O.VTOVS T^TTyo-eis. 
2 Cor. xii. 13, Tt yap cVrtv o 

XL 12, i 


TO 7r\yipwfjia avTwv. VJJLLV $6 Xeyco TO?S edvO"iv. i 
e<p ocrov juev ouv el/ml eyco edi Lov aVoo-roAo?, T;)J/ 

13. Or i). yap X. 

^(T<Tu>Of]T6 vrrep Tas XOITTUS KK\rj- 
o~ias, ei /x>7 OTI ai;Tos eyw K.T.X. 
2 Pet. ii. 19, 20. 

TO irXtjpwfJta auTciijj/] The senses 
of TrXT/ paj/xa may be ranged under 
two heads, (i) completeness, and 
(2) complement. This chapter 
exemplifies each. Here TO TrX^- 
pw/m OLTOJI/ is i(/ieir completeness, 
their state of fulfilment, their 
consummation. In verse 25, TO 

plementj the plenitude, the total 
sum, the full number, of the Gen 
tiles. The former sense may be 
seen in Gal. iv. 4, ore Se ?y/\.6W 
TO 7rXr/pu)//a rov xpoVou K.T.X. and 
Eph. i. 10, C6S OLKovo/JLiav TOV 77X77- 
pcoyaaTO? Twi/ Katpcoi/ (ft dispensa 
tion belonging to the fulfilment, 
or consummation, of the eras, or 
periods, of God s previous go 
vernment}. But the latter is the 
commoner and more classical 
use : that by which a thing is 
filled, the contents of a thing. 
Thus i Ghroii. xvi. 32, LXX. 

77 $aXao"o*a o~vv TW 77X77- 

Psalm xxiv. i, TOU Kv- 
piov TJ yrj KCU TO irXyptofia avrrjs, 
explained by the parallel clause, 
77 oiKOv^ivri KOI rrai/Tes ot KO.TOL- 
KOVI/TCS ev avrrj. Eccles. iv. 6, 
aya$ov TrXijpwfJia SpaKOS avaTrav- 
A.77pojjU.aTCt ovo opaKOJV 

In Matt. ix. 16, TO 
ia avrou is the piece by 

which the old garment is filled 
up. In Mark vi. 43, and viii. 
20, the KXao-jjiaTa are called the 
77X77^00 jjiara. of the baskets. In 
Rom. xiii. 10, r) ayd-n-r] is made 
7rXrypto/xa i/o /xou ^/te sw?/i ^o^a^ o/ 
ifAe contents of any and evert/ 
law). In xv. 29, St Paul wiV/ 
come tv TrXT/pco/xaTt euXoyta? Xpt- 
o-roi) (i plenitude of blessing ; 
amidst every thing that makes up 
and fills the measure of Christ s 
blessing}. Even the more sacred 
uses of TrX^/pw/xa fall under this 
latter head. In. Eph. i. 23, 
Christ (not, I think, the Church} 
is called TO TrXT/ pco/m (the pleni 
tude} of God himself; as in Gol. 
i. 19, explained by ii. 9, TTO.V TO 
TrX^pw/m (TTJS ^eoTT^TO?) is said 
KaToiKvyo ai, KarotKety crco/xaTtKajs, ill 
Christ. Add Eph. iii. 19. iv. 13. 

13. VJJA.V Se Xeyoj] And here 
in I address myself to you the 
Gentiles. This thought of Israel s 
future has a special lesson for 

e< oVov jiieV] Inasmuch then 
as I am an Apostle of Gentiles, 
I magnify my ministry in that 
capacity; claim for it all honour, 
and amplify it to the utmost by 
unwearied labours. But I do 
not disguise from you that in all 
this I have an ulterior motive 
namely, the hope that I may 
possibly, through you, rouse my 

206 npoz P^MAIOYI;. 

14 <)iaKOVLav fjiov So^a^w, e l TTM? TrapafyXtoo co JULOV 

15 T7/J/ (TapKCt KCiL (TLCCTW TLVCLS 6^ CtUTCOV. el r /dp t] 

?ro/3o/\?/ av^wv KctTaXXaytj KOCT/ULOU, TLS j] 

1 6 Trpocr/Vf/yU^? el jut] ^CDJ] e/c veKpwv 5 ei Se ?/ 

own countrymen (rryV cra.pKap.ov} 
to emulation, and save some of 
them. The omission of ovv (see 
the alternative, but not so well 
supported, reading) would make 
the connection with vfuv Se Aeyco 
still more clear. 

(/> ocror] Inasmuch as. Matt. 
xxv. 40, 45, < ocrov eTrotrjcrare 
. . . c.(f) ouov OVK eTTOtrycrare. Ill 2 
Pet. i. 13, e c ocroi/ is as long 

/aei/] The /xeV raises the 
expectation of an antithesis 
(rorro Se TTOICO, or the like, be 
fore et TTW>, as indicated in the 
above paraphrase), which is how 
ever, as often, suppressed. 

eOvuv aTTooroAos] See Acts 
xxii. 2 1 , eyto ets e^i/vy /JLaKpdv 
e^aTToareXw ere. Gal. ii. 7 9. I 
Tim. ii. 7. 2 Tim. i. n, Kijpv 
KCH a/roo-ToA-o? Kal StSacTKa/Vos e^- 
ra>^. For the genitive, see aTro- 
<rro\rjv r^s vreptro/XT^s in Gal. ii. 8. 
The omission of the article (10- 
vuv) lays stress, as usual, upon 
the quality ; Gentiles, not Jews. 

rrjv SICLKOVLO.V] Acts XX. 24, 
Co* TeAetcocrat. TOJ/ Spo/xov ^aov Kat 
rr} i/ StaKO^tW ryV e Aa/5ov vrapa roi) 
Kvpwv Irycrov, BiafAapTvpoicrOai TO 
evayye Atov r^s ^aptro? roG eov. 
2 Cor. iv. i, e^oires rvyi 
V. 1 8. &C. 

So^a^co] 2 Thess, iii. i, tVa o 
A.o yos rov Kvpiov rpe^ry KOL So^d- 
,r)rai. See paraphrase above. 

14. TT. yaou T/yj/ crupKa] Ex 
plained bv IX. 3, TO! i/ cruyyei/coi/ 
/xov Kara adpKa. Compare 2 Sam. 
xix. 12, 13, LXX. aSeA.c/jot /.tou 
ocrrd /xou /cat crupKe? ^uou 
t5...07;^t ocrTOV^ /xou Kat crap^ 
crv ; 

crajcrco rii dY] I Cor. ix. 2 2, <W 
rws rtvas 

15. et yap] A glorious object 
-for, if the rejection of Israel 
has proved the reconciliation of 
a world to God, may we not ejc- 
pectfrom the, future reception of 
Israel a state of universal bless 
edness only to Is described as 
life out of deatJi? 

OLTTopoXlj] Acts XXVli. 22, 

aVo/2 oA.>y yap ipv^rj^ ovSejiua ecrrat. 
KaraXAay/y] See note ouv. 10, 


See note on verse 


The substantive 
occurs only here. But 7rpocrAa/x- 
fidvecrOai (to receive to oneself) is 
found in many applications. In 
the sense of Trpoo-ATy/xi/^ts here, 
it occurs, for instance, in xiv. 3, 
o eo? yap avro^ TrpocreAa/^eTO. 
xv. 7, Ka$cos Kal o Xptcrros Trpocr- 

So^av TOV eou. 

XL 1417. 

] dyta, KCU TO (pvpa/ma Kat el t] 


$6 d<ypie\aios wv 

Compare also i Sam. xii. 22, 
LXX. OTI eTTtetKtos Kvptos 7rpoo~- 

Psalm xviii. 16, TrpocreXaySeTo /xe 
e^- vSarwv TroXAcoK. xxvii. 10. 
Ixv. 4, /^aKapios oV c ^ eAe^co Kat 
TrpooreXdfiov. Ixxiii. 24. 

^COT^ CK veKptoi^] See Luke xv. 
24, 32, OL>TOS o vtos ^ou...o aoeA- 

^)o s (TOU O^TOS FCKpOS ?}l/ Kttt 6^- 

tre^, Kat aVoAooAtos Kat evpeOr). 

1 6. ct Se 77 aTrap^^j ^^ 
portion of Israel vldch already 
believes and is saved (the Aet/x/xa 
Ka/ K\oy-rjv ^aptTo? of verse 5) 
is a sort of first fruits of the lultole 
lump, the entire nation. As the 
d-n-ap-^ij is, such must be the <$>v- 
pa//,a, Holiness to the Lord. This 
consecration rests upon that of 
the fathers (aya-TnyTot Sta TOUS 
TraTepag, verse 28), ivho are the 
root (pt a) of which their descend 
ants are the branches (KAaSot). 

a7rap^7;...<p^pa^,a] Num. xv. 
19? 21, LXX. Kat eo"Tat OTav eo~- 

ttTTO TO) 

ta), dirap^v <f)VpdfJta.TO<s 

ras yei/eas u/xo>f. There may be 
an allusion also to the law of 
the meat-offering in Lev. ii. 2,3, 
LXX. If so, d-n-apxij is the 7iaw5- 
ful taken out by the priest 
aV aur^s TrXyprj rrjv 


8/ouK-a) to be burnt upon the 
altar : the c/u pa/xa is the remain 
der of the offering (TO AotTrm- 

U.7TO TV/5 vfTLO.^ apOJf KOL 

mots O.VTOV, ayiov TWV ayttoi/ CITTO 
TU>V OvfTLWv Kuptof). 

?/ pta] Compare Isai. xi. i, 
LXX. e/c T?/S pt^s Jecrcrat. 

ay i a] The word expresses 
here a sort of derived sanctity; 
as in i Cor. vii. 14, ^ytaorat 
yap o ai ?/p o ttrrtcrTO? eV TI^ 
Kat ^yiacrTai ry yvrry rj 
e^ T(p tt^e/V^a) 7ret a/m 
v/xwv aKaOapra ecrru , v(;i/ 
Se ayia ecrTtr. 

17. K/\aScov...e/\at a5] Jer. xi. 
1 6, LXX. eAat ai ojpat ai/ VCTKLOV 
TO) etSet eKaXecre Kvpto? TO ovofid 
aov. ..dvTJ<f)0r) Trvp CTT avr//i/, //e- 
ya\f] rj OXii^iis CTTI ere, Tj-^penuOrjcrav 
ol K\d8oL avTrjs. For similar 
comparisons, see Psalm Ixxx. 8, 

&C. LXX. d/JiTTtXoV ^ AlyVTTTOV 

. . ./<:aTe(pi;Teucras ras pt^a? 
K.r.X. Isai. v. 7 5 o 7"P 
d/ATreXwv Kvpt oi; (ra/3awO ol/cos 
TO{? Icrpa^A, Kat ai ^pwTros TOU 
Io7;Sa veo(J)VTOv T^yaTn^eVoi . Hos. 
xiv. 7, 8, TTOpcuo-oi/Tat ot KXa Sot 
aurou, Kat earai ws tXat a Kard- 
KapTTO?. . . Kat e^ai/^rjo-ct GJS a/.tTreAos 
K.T.A. Luke xiii. 6, <rvKr)v t)<eV 
ri5 Tre^vrf.vp.ivr]V Iv ra> a ft7reXdji/t 
awrou K.T.X. 

] Lev. i. 17, 



1 8 e\aias eyez/of, fjirj KaTaKav^co TWV 
oe KaTaKuv^acrai, ov crv Ti]V pi-fai 

19 ci\\a 1} p i-^ct ore. epeTs ovv, 

17. Or omit the 2nd KCU. 
LXX. /cat e/c/cXuVei avro e/c rcov 


19. Or E^. oi 

ov Se] ^ZVie Gentile CJiristian. 

aypteAaios] Used by Theo 
critus and Aristotle. Compare 
d"ypio(3d\avo<s, Issii. xliv. 14, LXX. 
dypuofjivpiKr), Jer. xvii. 6. 

cvcKevrpcor^s] The word is 
used in this sense by Aristotle. 
Sometimes it is to goad or s^mr 
o^: Wisdom xvi. n, ct? yap 
TIOV Xoytcor crof e 

I Cor. ix. 23. 
Phil. i. 7. 

/cat r^s] If the /cat is omitted 
(see alternative reading), the 
sense will be, either, the root of 
(belonging to, essential to) the 
richness of the olive tree; or, per 
haps, the root s partner (fellow- 
partaker with the root) in the 
richness of the olive tree ; as in 
Phil. i. 7, crvvKOivwvovs JJLOV r~fj<s 
Xaptros (my partners in the 

nys 7rioT^T05 Trjs eXatas] Jud. 
ix. 9, LXX. /cat etTrei/ awrots 77 
eAata a^etcra TTJV Trtor^ra //.of tjv 
iv e/xol eSo^acrev d eos Kat ai/- 
OpwTroi K.r.X. Zech. iv. 12, 14, . 
TI ot Svo KXaSot ran/ c 

ovrot ot oi;o t tot TTJ? 


1 8. /cara/cair^a)] Jer. 1. 11, 
LXX. ore r]v<}>paiV<j-06 Kal /cart- 

VO/JLLCLV fjiov. James ii. 13. iii. 14. 

et 6V] yl^c/ ?y ^0^6 art in 

clined to triumph over the fallen 

branches, remember, it is not that 

tJtou bearest the root, <fcc. The 

ancestors of Israel are the root ; 

tJiOu art but a branch, dependent 

for thy safety upon being sup 

ported by that root : in other 

words, upon being admitted into 

that Church of God which was 

founded in Abraham. 

For the form, 

see note on ii. 17, 

19. epets ovv\ Last refuge 
of the Gentile boaster. At 
least it was for my sake, to 
admit me, that the Jews were 

/cXd Sot] Certain branches. 

20. KaXws] The context gives 
the word something of the limit 
ing and correcting force of our 
Well. Compare 2 Sam. iii. 13, 
LXX. /cat elTre AavtS /caXcos* cyo> 
Sta$rycro/x,ai Trpos ere 

XI. 1823. 


(TV ce rrj TTLCTTei ecrrijKas 
v\l*t1\o<ppdvet, d\\d (j)o/3ov el jap 6 0eo? 

\ i f / r\ . / 

Kara (pvcriv K\aowv OVK ecbeicrarO) ovce o~ou 
(peicrerat. ice ovv %pr]O"rorr]ra Kai direr o/u.iav 22 

Oeov- e7ri [Jtev roi)s TrecroWas dTrorojuLta, eVt 

^ \ \ / /\ ^ x - 

ce ere %prjcrrorr]s Ueov, eav eTrifjieivtis ri] xptjv- 

rorrjrt, eTrei Kai o~v e/c/coTn/crj/. KctKelvoi Oe, eav 23 
fJU] eTrtfjteLvuiarLV rrj aTrtcrria, evKevrpurdtjcrovTat 

20. Or v\l/rj\a <f>povei. 21. Or fj.1) TTWJ ovoe a. 22. Or cTrt.uc j ^s. 
Xo yoj/ eVa tyco airov/xai ?rapa /xt av] The absence of the article 

crov K.r.X. i Kings ii. 18. 
ttTriOTia. . . . TT^ Trtcrret] 

ives the sense of a manifesta 
tion, an instance, of goodness and 

The dative is that of the instrti- severity on the part of God. 

ment. Compare 2 Cor. i. 24, 777 
yap Tricrret ecrrr/Kare. 

s] See note on v. 2, 

i Tim. vi. 1 7, 

Compare xii. 16, /XT; ra v\j/r)\ai 
(f>povovvTts. Psalm cxxxi. i, 2, 
LXX. ov^ v\l/(aB f] rj /capSta fjt,ov... 
ei ya>7 eravre tv of^povow aXXa ui//a>cra 
r?yi/ \j/v)(T(jv fjiov. For a like com 
pound see Prov. xvi. 5, LXX. 
a/ca^apros Trapa TO) ecu Tra? T;I^^- 

21. OVK e^eto-aro] Lam. iii. 
43> LXX. aTre 
vas Kai OUK 

aVoTo/uav] The substantive 
is found here only in Scripture. 
"W isdom v. 2 1, otvvel 8e oVoTo/Aoy 
opyrjv et? pofj.<f>a.iav. 2 Cor. xiii. 
IO, ti/a vrapcov ///ty aTroro/xw? 
crw/xat K.T. X. Tit. i. 13, 

. 4, 

eoC] See note on 


See note on vi. i, 

eVet] tiince, if otherwise, thou 
also, &c. See note on iii. 6, 

] Job xiv. 7, LXX. 
yap SeVSpco eXTrt s eav 8e Kat 
TTT^, TraXiv dvOrjcrei. Jer. vi. 6, 
If the reading be raSe Xeyet Kvptos CKKOI//OV ra 

>7 TTCOS ovSe crov <ei<TTCUj it is, 

<7ige either: the future being used 
to express greater certainty. 

22. -O-TOTTfTa Kai aTTOTO- 

a auTT7?. Dan. iv. 14, CKKO- 


KXaSovs avrou. Matt. iii. 10. 
v. 30. vii. 19. xviii. 8. Luke 
iii. 9. xiii. 7, 9. 2 Cor. xi. 12. 




24 avTOv ?. i yap o~u e /c TT/S KaTa (pvcriv 
dypieXaLOU Kat Trapa (pixTiv ev6K6VTpio~6iis ek 
KaXXieXaiov, TTOCTO) juaXXov OVTOL ol KaTa <pvcrii> 
GVKevTpLcr6}](Toi>TaL T}} i$ia e\aia. 

25 OJ yap 6eXa) ii/mas dyvoelv, dceX<poi, TO 
[.JivcTT/jpiov TOUTOy iva /a}} 7]Te eauTols 

25. Or 77. h e. 

See note 

on 1. 25, Trapd. 

KaXXie Xatov] Used by Ail- 
static (aypteXaios ets KaXXte- 

01 Kara ^>ijcrtv] So TCOJ/ KaTa 
<jt>ro""iv KXaocov (vei se 21). 

25. ov ydp ^e Xoj] See note 
on i. 13, ou ^eXco Se v/xas a- 

Oil IV. 21, OUI ttTOS O~TIV. 

24. Trapcx (/>r 



^1 secret; but, as 
the context generally implies, 
a secret already (or capable of 
being) told: see Rev. xvii. 7, eyto 
epco o-ot TO iJL,v<TTr)piovTr}syvvaiKo<;. 
Thus it is applied (i) to the 
Gospel itself; as in Mark iv. 1 1, 
vp2v TO iJLvarrrjpiov 8eSoTat T>y? 
/^ao-tXeta? TOT} eov. Rom. xvi. 

25, {JiV(TT r]pLOV...(f>O.Vpw6VTO<S. I 

Cor. ii. 7, 10, XaXov/xev eou 
oro^)iav eV ^(rrjypta) ...... ^/xtv Se 

o 0eo ?. Eph. i. 9, 
TO p-vorTTjpiov TOV 
oi;. vi. 19, ey 
7rappr]o~La yvtopto~at TO fJLV&Tijpiov 
TOV e^ayyeXtov. Col. i. 26, 27, 

...i/uj/ 8e 
TL TO TrXovros rrjs 
(rrrjpiov rovrov. 11. 2, eis 7rtyi/a)- 
rrtv TOV fJLvcTTrjpiov rov eou. iv. 3, 
/\a/\vyo"ui TO fivo T rjplov TOV Xpt- 
I Tim. iii. 9, 16, 

T7y? 7TtO"Ta)?. . . 

TO Tr/s euarcySetas [J.VCTTTJ- 
llftV. X. 7? Ka tTeXecrOr) 


K.T./\. (2) To the va 
rious parts and truths of the 
Gospel ; as in Matt. xiii. 1 1 , 
v/xtr SeSoTat yvwvai Ta /jiVo-T^pLa 
Trjs /5acriAeia? TOJJ/ ot pavdjj/. T^uke 
viii. 10. i Cor. iv. i, OIKOVO/JLOVS 
[ T rjpiwv eov. xiii. 2, tdv... 
etSco Ta fJivo-Tt ipta TTU.VTO.. (3) In 
particular., to (a) the admission 
of the Gentiles ; as in Eph. iii. 3, 
&C. eyvcopt cr^ /xot TO p\,v<JTripiov 
...cos vvv aTrGKaXvc^Brj.. .elvat TO. 

Tts 77 otKovo/xta TOf p.vo~Tr]- 
piov K.T.X. (j8) the connection be 
tween Christ and His Church; 

Eph. V. 32, TO lAVO-TTJplOV TOVTO 

larriv eyto 8e Aeyco ets Xpi- 

XL 24 26. 


on Trcopwcris CCTTO fjiepovs TM Icrpat}\ yeyovev 

ou TO TrXiipwfjia TUOV tdvcov eiare\6r] Kat 26 
lcrpat}\ a-doOjcreTai, KaOcos 

error Kat ets Tr/V eKK/XTyaiai/ (y) 
the change (without death) of 
the living at the time of the 
resurrection; i Cor. xv. 51, tSou, 

V/JUV Ae yO) TTttWes OU 

a K.T.A. (8) as here, 
the future conversion of Israel : 
(e) the predicted embodiment 
and revelation of evil ; 2 Thess. 

11. 7, TO yap fJ.VCTTtJpl.OV rjdrj eV 

epyetTat rr/5 ai/o/xta?. . .Kai ro re 
dTroKaXv^Orja-erai o ai/o/xo? K. r./\. 
(") certain symbols in the Apo 
calypse; aS 1. 2O, TO [JLVCrTljplOV 

(explained in the words which 

follow) TCOl/ CTTTtt ao-Tpa)J/. XVli. 

5, 7, oFO/xa yzypa/jL/jLtvov Mucrr?^- 

ptOV K.T.A. 

iVa //.?; 7/re] J o prevent self- 
conceit : ea^Tois (with or without 
Trapa or eV) means in the judg 
ment of yourselves, in your own 
conceit. In xii. 1 6, we have cpo - 
i/i/xot Trap eauroi?. Prov. iii. 7, 
LXX. /XT) i o-#t <f>povip,o<s Trapa 
creauTw. xxviii. n. Isai. v. 21, 
o-uat ot crwtTol iv eauTots Kat 
ei/coTTiov O.VTWV eTTtcrT^yUOve?. 

TTwptocrts] See note on verse 
7, CTTcopco^crav. 

CITTO /&epov] Partially ; with 
many exceptions already. See 
xv. 15, 24. 2 Cor. i. 14. ii. 5. 
TO ] Luke xxi. 24, 
at Trarov/jievr] VTTO 
wVj a^pt ov TrXrjpwOwcriv Kaipot 

TO Tr\tjp(i)fjLCL\ Tlte full com 
plement, the total sum, the u-//ol>>, 
body. See note on verse 12, TO 

etcreA^T/] y/ct come in; with 
out expressing into u-lud. The 
notion is that of safety, of ad 
mission into a place of shelter 
and comfort. Sometimes with 
ets rrjv fia(Ti\iav TOV 0eor, et? Tryj/ 
fciorjv, et? TT^F ^apoV TOU Ki ptor, 
ets T?;^ Ka.Ta.Tra.vo iv, ttc. Some 
times, as here, absolutely : for 
example, Luke xiii. 24, a ywvi- 
^errl^e etcre/X^etl 8ta Try^j orei/r/s 
uvpa<$ art Tro/X/Xo; , A.eyoj r/juv, 
,rjTy](TOvo iv eto e/X^eu Kat OUK to~^i;- 

26. Kat OIJ TWS] ^l/?^ ^//x, 
under these circumstances, when 
this is so, A&tt s/irt//, etc. 

TTfx? IcrpaTy/X] The whole Jewish 
nation. Tiie context seems to 
require this sense. 

Ka$oj? yeypaTTTat] Two pas 
sages are here combined: (i) 
Isai. lix. 20, 21, LXX. Kat r/"et 
i/eKev 2twi o puo/>tVO5, Kat aVo- 
(Trp{j/L acreySeta? UTTO Iawy8 Kat 
avTvy avTOt? 77 Trap e/xou Sta^v/K??, 
etTre Kvptos* TO Trrer/xa TO c/xov 
K. T. X. (2) xxvii. 9, 8ta ToGro 
ac^aipe^creTai avotita laKco/?, K-at 
TOLTO OTti/ ry eu/Xoyta aL>To9, orai/ 
a^e /W/xat T?yV a/xapTtav avroG 




, d7ro<TTpe\jsei 

K iwv 

27 acre/3e/as diro Ia/cco/3* K.O.L 

Trap efjiov Sia6r]Kri, OTCLV d<pe\u*fJLai 

28 djuapTias avrwv. Kara /meis TO eva<y<ye\iov 
%6poi Si vjma^y KaTo. e Ti]v eKXoytjv djaTrrjTOt 

29 Si 

d pvo /xeyos) See note on vii. 


aTToo-rpei// 61 ] ^ e s7iW remove 
ungodlinesses from Jacob. The 
same idea is put conversely in 
.Acts iii. 26, aTrecrreiA-ev <rurov eu- 
Aoyoi;i/Ta r/^as iv rw 
CKacTTOV aTTO roof Trovripiwv 

27. aur?;] This ^ttl dch fol 
lows. But the quotation is not 

Sia^K^] See note on ix. 4, 

OTOLV a (/>eXa)/xat] When I shall 
have taken away. The act of 
pardon is made preliminary to 
the SiaOyKr], which is the gift of 
the Spirit. Compare Jer. xxxi. 
33, 34, LXX. avr-rj ?; SiaOTJKrj rjv 
r<3 otKO) Icrpavy A... 8t- 
ov et? rryv Stavoiav 
K.r.X. Ezek. xxxvi. 25 

28. Kara] As regards: mewed 
with reference to. Compare i. 3, 
4, 15, Kara. (rapKO.... Kara 7rvv/Jt.a 
dyi<ji)(rvvr)<;...To K.O.T e/xe. vii. 22, 
Kara TOV ecrco avOpwjrov. 

exOpoi] See v. 10, e^^pot 
ovres KaTr]X\dyfjfJLfv ra> ea;. Eph. 
ii. 1 6, aVoKTeii/a? r^v ^6pav Iv 
avrto. Col. i. 21, aT 

u ex^povs rfj StavotiT. et Tot 


make room, as it were, for you 
Gentiles. See note on verse n, 
/XT; eWatcrav. Compare Acts xiii. 
46, erret Se OLTrwOeicrOe avrov... 
loov o Tpec^o/xe^a ets Ta WVTJ. 
xxviii. 28. 

T-TJV ^K\oyrjv\ The selection. 
God s original selection of the 
seed and race of Abraham. Ex 
plained by Sta TCWS Trarepa?. See 
note on verse 16, ei Se rj d-n-ap-^rj. 
Compare Deut. iv. 37, LXX. 6ta 
TO aya.TT fjcra.i avrov TOVS Trarepa? 
croi; KOL e^eXe^aro TO crTrep/xa avTcoi/ 
/ACT avTovs -u/xa?. vii. 7, 8. X. 15. 
Isai. xli. 8, 9, IaKoo/3 oV 
/xTyr, o"7rep/xa A/?paa/x oV ^ 
o-e Kal OVK 

29. a/xeTa/xe /VryTa] Incapable 
of being regretted,- revoked, or 
changed. Used also in 2 Cor. vii. 
IO, /xerai/otav ets o-amyptW cx/xera- 
/xe A^Tov. For the sense, see, for 
example, Num. xxiii. 19, LXX. 
o^x ^ av^pojTTo? o eo?. . . AaX /^o*ei, 
Kat oi;^t e/x/xei/ei; I Sam. xv. 29, 
ov/c exTTOo-Tpe i^et oijSe ttCTaj/OTyVet, 

OTt OV^ (OS aV$p(07TOS Q-Tt TOO 

XI. 2732. 213 

Kai r\ K\fj(ris TOU Qeov. wcnrep yap 30 

7TOT6 i]7Tldt]0-aT TM Qeoj, VVV e t ]\6>]- 

rtj TOVTWV aTreiOeia, OUTWS Kai OVTOL vvv 31 

TCO v^eTepto e\i \va Kai avToi e Ae?/- 
<rvveK\ei(rev yap 6 0eo? roik Wi/ras 32 

31. Or 

avro s. Psalm ex. 4, 
K/upio?, Kai oy fjifra/jieX-r]- 
Mal. iii. 6, Stort eyw 
o eos vfjiwv, KOL OVK 


l. II, 

See note on i. 1 1, 

Jer. xxxi. 6, LXX. 
K\fj(T(i)<; ...... aj/acrrTyre Kat 

2(-wv ?rpos Kvpioi/ TOV 
i Cor. i. 26. Eph. 
i. 1 8. iv. i, 4. Phil. iii. 14,^7? 
avw KX^Vecos roO eov. 2 Thess. 
7J/xas d^uocry T^S /cX?^- 
o eos T^/XOJI/. 2 Tim. i. 9, 
/cat KaAecravros K/\7/o"et a"yt(X. Heb. 
111. I. 2 Pet. i. IO, CT7rov8dcraT 
pepatav z^yacoi TTJV KXfjcriv KCU e/c- 
Aoy^i/ 7roito-#ai. See notes on 
i. 6, K\r)Tol 1-^croS. viii. 30, t ? Ka- 

30. T/Tret^ craTe] See note 
on x. 21, a.7ret.OovvTa. KOL aVn- 

e] i Cor. vii. 25, ws 
VTTO Kvptov 7rt(TTO5 
etvat. 2 Cor. iv. i, Ka^ws 7/Ae?;- 
6r]fj.ev, OVK tyKCLKovfJitv. I Tim. i. 
13, 1 6. i Pet. ii. 10, ot OVK 
^Ae^eVoi, vvv Se eAeTy^eVres. 

rry rourcov] .5y the instrumen 
tality of their disobedience, open- 

V. R. 

v. vvv e\. 

ing the way to the admission of 
the Gentiles; as explained above, 
verse n, <fcc. 

31. TO) vfjiertpo) tAeei] To be 
taken with Iva. K.r.A. ^77irt^ />>/ ^Ae 
instrumentality of the merci/ 
shown to you (rousing them to 
emulation, verse n) they them 
selves also might receive mercy. 
For TW vfj.Tpio eAeet, mere// 
shown (not 6?/, but) o ^/o?, com 
pare I Cor. xv. 31, ryv v^repa.v 

32. cnW/<Aei0-ev ya p] The ar 
rangement of God has been this : 
that the whole world in its two 
great divisions (the Jewish and 
the Gentile] should successively 
be locked up as it were in a pri 
son of unbelief and disobedience, 
that so all alike might become in 
due time objects of mercy ; of 
which the very definition, is, 
kindness to the undeserving. 
Compare Gal. iii. 22, aAAa cnW- 
K\Lorfv f] ypa<^>77 TO. TTtti/ra VTTO 
dfJiapTLav cva rj eVayyeAt a . . . 80^77 
rots iricTTevovo-Lv. There the 
Scripture is said to do, by its 
sentence of condemnation, that 
which is here ascribed directly 
to the will and act of God. It 


214 nPOZ PI2MAIOY2;. 

33 cis aTre.iQe.iav *iva TOVS TrdvTas 
TT\OVTOV KO.L cro<pias Kai. 
dve^epevvrjTa Ta Kpi/mara avTOv Kai 

34 TOt ML o^oi avTOu. T/S 

w {3d6os 
0eoi/* ok 



is His purpose to preclude self- 
righteous boasting, by showing 
what man is without Him. 
Compare I Cor. i. 2 1 , e7retS>} yap 
lv rfj cro<j>ui TOV eov OVK eyva> 

O KO(J/X,OS...ToV COy, V>OK7]0-V 6 

eos K.T.A.. For o-vyK/Weiv see, 
for example, Exod. xiv. 3, LXX. 

CTVyKeK/VeiKei O.VTOVS t] tprj/AOS. 

Josh. vi. i, Kat lepi^o) crvy/ce- 
K\e.Lcr fjievr) KOL u>^ypM/jivr] OLTTO 
7rpo<TOJ7Tot! mo5v icrpay/X. Psalm 
xxxi. 8, ov o-vveK\.io-ds /xe ets 
^etpas e^Opov. Ixxviii. 50, Kat 
ra KTijvr) avrwv et5 crwe- 

33. a> /3a^os] A reflection 
applicable to the whole of the 
foregoing doctrine ; but suggest 
ed primarily by verse 32, which 
describes not only the gradual 
and intricate processes by which 
the purposes of God are accom 
plished, but also how evil itself 
is overmastered and made even 
tually subservient to good. 

TrXovrov K. cr. K. y.l Exactly 
as in Col. ii. 3, ot Orja-avpol rrjs 
<ro<uxs Kai yvojcreca?. In both 
passages yi/o)o-t? is the faculty of 
knowing, intelligence. 

dve^eptvvrjTa] The verb ee- 
pewoV occurs in i Pet. i. 
r/5 (rconypi as 


re? et5 TLVO. 97 TTOIOV Kaipov K.r.X. 
See also for example Prov. ii. 
4, LXX. eoV ,r)TTJcrr)s avTrjv cu? 
apyvpcov, Kal tos Orjcravpovs ecjepeu- 
vr/cr^/s avryjv. Amos ix. 3, e/m$ej/ 
e^-epew^crto Kat, Xij^f/ofjiat avrovs. 
Zeph. i. 1 2, eepew^o-a> TT^V lepoi;- 

Kpt/xara] Decisions, determi 
nations. Psalm xxxvi. 6, LXX. 
Ta Kpt/x-ara crou tocret afivcraos 


Incapable of 
being traced or tracked out. Eph. 
iii. 8, TO avettx l/t/a(rTOI/ TrA-ovros 
TOV XptcrTov. Job ix. 10, LXX. 
d Trotojv /xeyaAa Kai. a 
xi. 7, 17 t ^^os K^pt ou 
r^ ets Ta ecr^aTa acfiLKOv a. 
o Trai/TOKpaVcop ; Psalm Ixxvii. 
19, Ta LX vr ) (TOV v yvaxrOrjCrovrai. 

at 6Sol auToi;] His proceed 
ings; methods of acting. Isai. Iv. 
8, LXX. ov yap eto-u> at ySovXat 
/xov cocTTrep at /3ov\al v/x(3i/, ovS 
coo-7rep at o Sot v/xwv at dSot /xov, 
Xeyet Kvptos. llev. xv. 3, Sucatat 
Kat dXrjOtval at dSot crov, d fiacrL- 
Aevs TCUV iOvwv. 

34. ^ TI? yap] Isai. ^xl. 13, 
LXX. rts 4 yvw vow Kvptov; Kat 
Tts avTov o-vp:y8ovXos eyeveTO, os 
arvfjif3i(3a avrov ; I Cor. ii. 1 6, 
Tt? yap eyj/w vow Kvptov, 6s av/x- 

XL 33 XII. i. 


piov , 

r; rts 

*/ Tts 7rp06()WKei> avTtp, Kai 


avTOv 676^6x0535 
TaTToSoSticreTai av- 

O.VTOU KCll 6i9 OLVTOV 36 


TO. TravTa ai/Tw r\ So^a eis TOt cuwi/ay /ULt]i/. 

ovv it/mas, d^e\(poi } (Hid TU>V otK-XII. I, 
TOV Oeov, TrapacTTrjo-ai TCL 

35. ^ Tts] Or w/to ca?i 

^o 7iave been beforehand in giving 
to Him so that a recompense 
shall be due to him in return ? 
Job xxxv. 7, LXX. rt SwVets 
auTo>; yj rt tx ^etpos crou X.r)\j/Ta.L ; 

36. e...8ta...eis] 6- ot/ is ^Ae 
Origin, the Agent, and the Object 
of all things. Compare i Cor. 
viii. 6, aAA. TJ^ttv eis eo? d ?ra- 
TT^p, e ou ra Travra /cat ^jaeis ets 
aurov, Kat ets K^pios Iiycroiis Xpt- 
CTTOS 8c 01; ra TTO.VTCL Kat 7^/xets 
St aurou. Compare Col. i. 16, 

17- e 

7^ So^a] The article expresses 
universality : all glory. For 
Soa, see note on i. 23, oai/. 

t TOT)? atwra?] Seo note on 
i. 2^, 15 rovs attoFas. 

XII. i XV. 13. Practical 
inferences from the statement of 
Christian redemption. First, the 
principle self-dedication to God . 
Then details humility, fidelity 
and diligence, patience, cheerful 
ness, charity, obedience to autho 
rity, consideration of the diffi 
culties and scruples of others, 

i. Sta] By means of ; as the 
instrument of exhortation. For 

this use of Sta (for which ?rpos 
would be the classical equiva 
lent) see XV. 30, TrapctKaAco Se 

Sttt TOV KVplOV 7J/JLWV lr)(TOV 

Kat Sta r?ys ayaTr^s TQV 
vva-y<j)VL(rao-9aL //,ot 
K.r.A. I Cor. i. IO, 7rapaKaA.u> 
8e vp,as, aSeA^ot , Sta TOV ov6/J.aTos 


tVa TO avTO XeyYjTe K.T.X. 2 Cor. 
x. I, TrapaKaAu) v^uas Sta TT^S 
Kat eTrtetKctas rou Xpt- 

u. For Sta generally, see note 
on ii. 27, Stct ypa /x/xaro?. 

otKTtp/xcoi/] 2 Sam. xxiv. 14, 

LXX. OTt TToXA-Ot Ot OtKTlpyU.Ot tttlTOV 

cr(/>o3pa. Neh. ix. 19, 31, eV ot- 
KTip^o?? CTOD rots /u-cyaAot?. ..ef 
oiKTip/xor? crov TO?? TroAAors. Dan. 

IX. 9, TO) KvptO) 06(5 7//XCOI/ Ot 

otKTtp/xot Kttt ot IXao-p-oL 2 Cor. 
i. 3, o Traryjp TU>V otKTtp/xojv Kat 
0eos Tracrr/s TrapaKX^crcaj?. Phil, 
ii. i. Col. iii. 12. Heb. x. 28. 
Trapao-T^a-ai] See note on vi. 
13, Traptcrravere. ..7rapao"T^o"aT. 

The offering of ^e 
body implies that of the 
soul also. Indeed we may say 
that the soul is the offerer of 
the sacrifice : the soul brings the 
body to the altar, for the one 




6v(riav ^cocrav djiav evapecTTOv TW 
2 Tr]v XoytKtiv XaTpeictv v^wv. Kai fj.r] 

2. Or 

High Priest to offer it acceptably 
to God. The choice of the word 
(O-W/JLO.) reminds us of the im 
portance attached in the Gospel 
to the body; and precludes the 
notion of a merely imaginative 
or sentimental religion, as dis 
tinguished from one of self-deny 
ing and vigorous obedience. It 
is (as we might expect) in the 
Epistles to the Corinthians that 
this point is most strongly in 
sisted upon : for instance, i Cor. 

Vi. I^, 19, 2O, Ttt O~CO V/JLWV 

XpioTov eVrtV...To (TOO/AO. 
vaos rov iv V/JLLV aytou irvev- 
/xaros ivriv . . . So^ao-are 817 ToV eov 
eV T(5 (rcu/xart v^wv. Vll. 34, tva 
"fl ayia KO.I TOJ crw/jtart Kat TOJ irvev- 
/xart. 2 Cor. v. 10, tVa Ko/xi cn;- 
rat e/cacrros ra Sia TOU aco/xaro? 
o? tt eTrpa^ev, etre aya^oi etre 

, avevey/cai 

Not (here) a sacri 
fice of expiation, in which sense 
the term is applicable only to 
Christ himself (Eph. v. 2. Heb. 
ix. 26. x. 12); but the thank- 
offering of a dedicated life. 
Sometimes the Ovo-ta is a special 
act, as of almsgiving (Phil. iv. 
1 8. Heb. xiii. 16), or thanks 
giving (Heb. xiii. 15). Some 
times a i/e; as here, and in 
i Pet. ii. 5> Ka ^ o-vrol cos 
oiKoSo/ACtcr^e CHKOS 

@ea) Sta I^croi) Xptarov. 

^(iucrai/] In contrast with the 
dead victims offered under the 

evapecrroi/] xiv. 18, e^apeo-ros 
TO) ceo. Wisdom iv. 10, cwape- 
crros ew yevo/xevos yyaTTtjOrj. ix. 
10, Kat yvto rt evapeo-Tov eo-rt 
Trapa crot. 2 Cor. v. c), evapecrrot 
aa;TW. Eph. V. IO, evapecrrov TOJ 
Kvpta). Phil. iv. 1 8, Bvcrcav 8e/<- 
TT/V e^apecrrov Tto ea). Col. iii. 
20, evapecrrov ev Kvptto. Tit. ii. 
9, eV 7To.cnv evapeWovs. Heb. 
xii. 28, A.a.TpeTXo/xej evapecrroos TW 
0ew. xiii. 21, TO euapecrrov ci co- 
Trtov a^Tov. The verb euapeo-Tctv 
occurs in Heb. xi. 5, 6, //.e/xap- 
tvrjpzo T rjKeva.i, TO) ec3 
8e TrtcTTecos aSui/aTov eva- 
xiii. 1 6, ToiavTats yap 
cuapeo-TetTat d eos. 

T>JV AoytK7/V] The accusative 
stands in apposition with the 
sentence, not with TO, aw/JiaTa. 
Which self-dedication is your 
reasonable service. Compare i 
Tim. ii. 6, TO yaapTvptov /catpots 
tSiois. See also note on viii. 3, 
TO yap dSvvctTov. 

\oyLKrjv] There are two senses 
of AoytKos, corresponding to the 
two senses of its opposite aAoyos. 
As aAoyos is (i) irrational, un- 

XII. 2. 



, d\\a 

i. Or /j.era/u.op(f>ovff6aL. 

reasoning, without reason (Wis- 
dom xi. 1 6, uAoyo. epTreTtt... 77X77- 
6os aAdyoov ^ajcor. 2 Pet. ii. 12. 
Jude 10); and (2) unreasonable, 
against reason (Acts xxv. 27, 
aXoyoi/ yap /xoc SOKCI K.r./V.) : so 
Xoyi/co s is (i) rational, mental, 
almost spiritual (i Pet. ii. 2, TO 
Xoyi/cdi/ aSoXov yaXa nutriment, 
not carnal and material, but of 
the understanding, tJte reason, 
the soul) , and (2) reasonable, 
according to, consistent with, rea 
son ; like Kara Xoyof in Acts 
xviii. 14. The latter seems the 
more appropriate here. Which 
presentation of the bodg as a 
living sacrifice is your reason 
able service. 

AarpciW] See notes on i. 9, 
a) Xarpevo). ix. 4, rj Aarpeta. 
Your sacrificial worship is not 
the offering of Irrational animals 
slain on a principle of ceremo 
nial substitution or representa 
tion, but the offering of a ivhole 
life, spirit and soul and body, 
dedicated and devoted to God. 

2 . /A?) crwcrx?7//,aTieo-$e] Fash 
ion not yourselves in accordance 
with. Wear not the same O^T^O, 
(shape or figure) with. Thus 
I Pet. i. 14, fjirj a~vvo-xrj/jiaTL^6- 
//.evoi rats Trporepov ei> rfj ayvoia 
V/JLWV 7rtOvfjiLaL<s. Compare I Cor. 
vii. 31 , TO o~^>//x.a TOV KOO-/XOU 


TO) atajvt Tovro)] There are 

two words for world, cuuiV and 
KO O-/XOS. The former regards 
time, the latter space. Once 
they are combined: Epli. ii. 2, 
Kara TOV atw^a TOV Koa/jiov TOVTOV, 
in accordance with the time-state 
of this matter-world. The idea 
of. period or aira is perhaps never 
entirely lost in the use of aiw, 
although in such a passage as 
Heb. i. 2 (oY ov KO.I eTTotTycrei/ TOV? 
atdiva?) it almost disappears. 
The various but equivalent ex 
pressions, o v\iv aiwV (i Tim. vi. 
17. 2 Tim. iv. 10. Tit. ii. 12), 
d aiwv OUTOS (Matt. xii. 32. Luke 
xvi. 8. xx. 34. i Cor. i. 20. 
ii. 6, 8. iii. 18. 2 Cor. iv. 4. 
Eph. i. 21), d Feo"TOj? ai(jjv (Gal. 
i. 4), denote the present age, 
period, or state of things, in con 
trast with that which is to be 
introduced by the second Ad 
vent ; the latter being d cuwi/ d 
/Ae AAtof (Matt. xii. 32. Eph. i. 
21. Heb. vi. 5), d o.iu>v d tpx - 
/xevos (Mark x. 30. Luke xviii. 
30), d al(jjv e/cetvos (Luke xx. 35). 
The direction therefore is, Be 
not like the men of this world, 
whose all is the present. Wear 
not the garb of time, live for 

fj.Ta[jiop(fiovo-6e\ Be changed 
inform, transformed. The word 
is used of the Transfiguration; 

KCU |U,eT/AOp<ou$77 C/MT/>OCT0V ttVTUJl/ 

(Matt. xvii. 2 and Mark ix. 2). 



See notes on i. 
28, eSoKt /xao"ar. ii. 18, 

Tfj avctKaivwcrei TOV vods, ek TO 

TL TO OeX^/ma TOV Geov TO d<ya66v Kai evdpecr- 
3 TOV Kai T\eiov. Xejco yap Sid 

See 2 Cor. iii. 18, TT}V avT-rjv et- 
KoVa jU,eTa/xop</>otyx$a aVo 8o^S 
ets Soai/* are undergoing a gra 
dual transformation, &c. Else- that you may discriminate ha- 
where /xcTacr^/xaTt^eo-^ai is used: bitually, progressively, approv- 
i Cor. iv. 6. 2 Cor. xi. 13, 14, ingly what is, &c. 
15. Phil. iii. 21, os /xTao"^/xa- TO ^eA^/xa TOT) eo)l Matt. 

Tio~L TO o"a)/xa T^S TaTretvcoo eoL) 1 :; vi. 10, yei r^^TO) TO ^eA^/xa o~or. 

vii. 21, o Ae ycov /xoi, K^pie, Kt - 
pte . . . o TTOIWV TO Oe\rj/Jia TOV Trarpos 
/xov. xii. 50. John vii. 17, e aV 
TIS 8e\r) TO ^eAr^/xa avTOi) Troieri/ 
K.T.A. Acts xxii. 14, Trpoexetpt- 
o"aTo ere yi/tovat TO ^e Aiy/xa O.VTOV. 
Eph. v. 17, crui/teTC Tt TO $e A?7- 

tta TOV KVpiOV. Eph. VI. 6, TTOt- 

TO OeXrjfjia TOV eo9 e/c 
T^S. i Thess. iv. 3, TOVTO yap 
.a TOV eou, o ayiacr/xos 
/. See note 011 i. 10, Iv TW 

8o^s CUJTOT). For the distinction 
between /xop^r; and o-^r//xa, see 
Phil. ii. 6, 7, e 

ls GJS dv^pcoTros" 
where /xop^v; is coupled both 
with eoi) and Sot Aov, o-^//a 
(shape or figure) only with aV- 

Tit. iii. 5, ecrw- 

Kat ai/aKati/coo-ews 


FOOS] Eph. iv. 23, ava- 
8e TO) Trvevfj.aTi TOV 

KOI Te Aeiov] Matt. v. 48, 
ovv v/xet? TeAetot cos o 
ov o ovpavios TeAetos 

.A. The understand 
ing, no less than the heart, re 
quires God s teaching. Luke 
xxiv. 45, ToVe SLTJVOL&V avTcov 
TOV vovv TOV awieVat TO,? ypa(^as. 
I Cor. ii. 14, \f/v^LKo<s Se avOpu>- 

TOT) eov /xcopta yap cnVoi 
Kai ov SwaTat yvwi/ai, OTI TTVCU- 
avaKpu/eTai. Tts ycxp eyi/co 
Kvptov; 77/xet5 8e vovi/ Xpi- 

3. Aeyo) yap] 

my meaning. I will apply 
in detail the general precept. 
For, &c. 

Sia T^5 ^aptTos] -S^ m ^ an ^ 
of the Divine favour granted me, 
especially in my appointment to 
be an Apostle of Christ. In 
virtue (by the authority) of my 
Apostolical office. Thus i. 5, oY 


ets VTraKorjv TTIO-TCCOS K.T.A. XV. 15, 

XII. 3 , 4- 


V7rcp(ppoi/elv Trap o (He! (ppoveiv, d\\a (ppoveiv 
fs TO cruxppovelv, e/cacrrw cJ? 6 0eo? efdzpurev 
p.eTpov Trio Tews. KaOaTrep yap ev ivl a cujman 4 
7TO\\a e\} eoev TO. Se ^e\}] TCOLVTOL ou TV/I/ 

Sict rrjv X-P LV T7 7 l/ 3o$eto-oV /xoi 

U7TO TOU OU CIS TO etj/ttt /X Xet- 

Toupyoi/ XptoroO IT/O-OU K. r.A. 
i Cor. iii. 10. Gal. i. 15. ii. 9, 
KUI yi/oi/res TT)J/ \dpiv rrjv SoOtladv 
IJLOL. Eph. iii. 2, 7, 8, ou eye- 
vrj6f]v StaKovos Kara r/yi 
r ^s ^apiro? TOU eou T?ys 
/xoi. ..eSo$?7 T^ X^P 15 ct^TT^ TOIS e $- 
veo-tv euayyeA-tcrao-^at K. T. A. For 
Sta, see note on ii. 27, Sta ypa/x- 

Literally, ??o^ 
^o &e highminded beyond what he 
ought to be minded, but to be 
minded unto the being sober- 
minded. See note on viii. 5, 

^Ve/^(po^ e^l ] I Cor. iv. 6, 
iva V v/xtv fJLaOrjTe TO /XT^ 7;7rep 
a yeypaTTTai, tVa /xr) ets uVep 
TOU ej/05 (frvcriovcrOe Kara TOU ere- 
pou. 2 Cor. xii. 6, /XT; Tts ets 
e/xe Xoyta^Tat UTrep o ^SXeVet /xe 


o-to^povetv] Tb 5e q/* sound 
mind: whether (i) literally, as 
in Mark v. 1, Oewpovcriv TOV 

KOL o"oo^)povoui/Ta. Luke 
viii. 35. 2 Cor. v. 13, erre yap 

ii. 6. I Pet. iv. 7> cruK/>poi ?/craTe 
oui/ Kat vr/i^are ets Trpocreu^a ?. 

tKacTTto co?] A transposition 
like that in i Cor. iii. 5, /cat 
Kao~TGJ 035 o Ki ptos eSo3/<ei . vii. 
17, et p- // eKacrrco CDS e/xeptrre^ o 
Kvpios, (.Kdcrrov ojs KK\,rjKtv o 
eo s, OUTW? 

K.T.A.. or (2) morally, as in Tit. 

oj? o eo s] Zt^ ec/i o;? 3 7^r;,- 
mre himself by Ids faith : but let 
him remember that that faith it 
self is of God s apportioning. 

e/xepicrei/ yae rpoi/] Eph. iv. 7, 
iv\ Se KttO"Ta> ijfjiwv f^odrf rj X"P ts 
KaTa TO /xerpov TT^S Scopeas TOU 
Xpto-Tou. For the combination 
of p,ept av and /xeVpoi/, compare 
2 Cor. x. 13, KaTa TO /xeVpov TOU 
/ccu/oVo? ou e/xe ptcret/ ryp.ti/ o eos 

4. KaOuTrep yap] There is suck 
a variety in God s distribution 
of gifts; for, &c. 

Iv e^t o"co/taTi TroXXa /xeXry] 
The (earlier) first Epistle to the 
Corinthians contains the fuller 
working out of this now familiar 
illustration. See i Cor. xii. 12, 
KaOaTTfp yap TO awtta (.v to-riv 
Kat /x,eX->; TroXXa l^ct, TravTa 8e Ta 
/aeX?; TOU crco/xaTOS TroXXa ovTa ei 
eo-Tiv crwtta, OUTCOS Kat o" Xpto-Tos. 
Eph. iv. 1 6. (fee. 



5 CLVTYIV e%ei Trpd^iv, OVTWS ol TTO\\OI tV crto/md 
e cr//e// eV Xpio-Tw, TO Se /ca$ el? d\\t]\a)v 

6 %ovTes e ^aplcr/maTa /caret TJ)J/ X. L P 
Geicrav fifjlv Sid(f)opa 9 e lre 7rpo<priT6iav, 

5. otTToXXot] Collectively, we 
form one body : individually, tee 
are related to each other as the 
members of one body. See i Cor. 
xii. 27, v(jiLS Se eo-re orco/xa Xpicr- 
TOU, Kat /xeX?7 e/c /Mepovs. 

ei Xpiaru;] Gral. iii. 28, Trav- 
res yap 7;/xets els core ei/ Xpi<rr(3 

TO Se Ka^ ts] That is, ets 8e 
e/caoros. Mark xiv. 19, -rjp^avTo 
KOL \eyztv avro) ets 

a ets, M^rt ey<o ; John viii. 9, 
ts Ka^ ets ttp^a/xevot 
avrd TWI/ Trpeo-^urepcov. Kev. xxi. 
21, ava ets eKacrros TOOI> 

6. ^apt crp,ara] See note on 
1. II, ^aparyAa TrvevfjiaTiKov. 

So^eta-av] The tense (i^s 
given) either means, when we 
became Christians; or more pro 
bably refers to the one great 
outpouring of the Spirit on the 
day of Pentecost, which had in 
it potentially the individual ap 
portionment, as well as the uni 
versal gift, for all time. See 
Eph. iv. 7, &c. ei/t Se CKOIOTU) 
^/Aoor eSo$77 7y X"P ts Kara TO /xeVpov 
TT75 8a)pea? ToG XptyTou K. T. A. 
Compare Matt. xxv. 14, &c. 
. wo-Trep yap cxj/^pwvros aTroS^/xajv 
eKaA.eo~j/ Tors iSt ous So^Xovs Kat 
ai>TOts ra VTra 

O.VTOV, KOL a p,ej/ 
TaXai/ra K.T.A. 

8ta</)opa] Heb. ix. 10. 

Trpo^ryreiav] One of the spiri 
tual gifts of the early Church : 
of which we learn from the first 
Epistle to the Corinthians (i) 
that it was the most desirable 
of all those gifts, because, un 
like the gift of tongues, it con 
veyed oiKo8oyn>}i/ /cat 7rapa.K\r)arLV 
Kat 7rapa/Av0iai/, xiv. i -5; (2) 
that it was et? crrj/Jieiov ov Tots oVt- 
(like at yXwcrcrai) aXXa Tot? 
, verse 22 ; (3) that 
it was the means of disclosing to 
a hearer TO* Kftvirra T^S KapStas 
aLiTou, and thus of bringing him 
to worship God, verses 24, 25; 
(4) that it was exercised under 
direct and special revelation (lav 
Se aXXo) aTTOKaXv^Ofj K.T.X.), verse 
30; but (5) that it was capable of 
control by the possessor for the 
avoidance of confusion and dis 
order, verses 31, 32. It was a 
gift therefore (according to the 
proper meaning of the term Trpo- 
<f>tjTf]<;) not of prediction, but of 
inspired preaching ; of forth- 
telling, not of foretelling ; prce- 
dicandi, not prc/edicendi. Com 
pare Acts xiii. i ?7o-ai/ Se Iv 

v\^> >\ 

Kara TTJV ovcrav eKKATy- 
Kat 8t8a<TKaXot. 

XII. 5-7- 


dvaXoyiav rrjs Trio-Tew e lre<oviav, eV Trj 7 

xv. 32, lot Sas re /cat ^SiAa*?, /cat 
avrol 7rpo(f>-?JTai (We?, Sta Ao you 
TroAAoS Trape/caAeo-ai/ TOLS aSeA- 
<pous. xix. 6, /cat 7ri$eVros au- 
rots row riau Aou x^-P - 1 * fa@V TO 
Tri/ev/m TO ayioi/ CTT ui;rous, eAa- 
Aow re yAoocro"ats /cat e7rpoc/>r/ reuoy. 
I Cor. xi. 4, TTUS dvrjp Trpoorfv^o- 
fj,vo<s i} Trpo^reuajr. i Cor. xii. 
28, /cat ous pvey o eos ey 

Trpo^r/ra?, rpiTov StSa- 

0-KO.X.OVS K.T.A. Epll. IV. II, /Cat 

avros eScoKei/ TOVS />t^ aTroo-roXoi;?, 
rovs Se Trpo^^ras, TOI;? Se evayye- 
Ato-ras, TOIJ? Se 7rot/x,eVas /cat StSa- 
o-/caAov?. i Tliess. v. 20, ?rpo- 

K. r. ai/aAoytav rr/s TT.] That 
is, 7rpo<f>r)Ttvu>iJiev. On the princi- 
ple that TrvfvfjiaTa TrpocfrrjTwv Trpo- 
<^r;rats vTrordcrcrtTai. (i Cor. xiv. 
32), /e^ ^s exercise the gift of 
prophecy with due regard to the 
proportion of the faith ; let our 
instructions be so shaped, timed, 
and ordered, as that each part 
and side of the truth have its 
turn in our hands; let us rightly 
divide the word of truth; let us 
have no favourite doctrines, to 
the neglect of others, but let the 
whole counsel of God, not a few 
fragments of it, be our study 
and our subject. It is from the 
disregard of this rale that all 
error and all heresy has sprung. 
Compare Acts xx. 26, 27, /ca$a- 
pos et/xt a.7ro TOV at/xaros 7rai/Ta>j/ 
ou yap i>7reorTtAa/X7yi/ TOU pr) avay- 

yet.Xat Tracrav TTJV (3ov\y/v TOV &eov 
v/juv. The rule itself is exactly 
expressed in 2 Tim. ii. 15, o-rrov- 

oacrov creauroi/ 8oKLfj.ov TrapacrnJ- 
o~at rtp Qeo3, epyarryi/ uVe 
TOV, opOoTOfJiovvra TOV Xoyov 
aAvy^etas. Neither aVaAoyta (con 
formity to a Aoyos or reckoning), 
nor the phrase aVa Aoyor, occurs 
elsewhere in the New Testa 
ment. l>ut araAoyoj? occurs in 
Wisdom xiii. 5, e/< yap /xeye^ou? 
Kat /caAAov^s KTto-//arwv ai/aAoyco? 
o yeyeo iovpyos CLVTIMV OeoypflTai. 
For rj TTurrt?, the faith or Gos 
pel, see note on iii. 30, e/c 
Trt crreo)?. ..Sta TTy? TrtVreoJ?. To 
understand Kara rryi/ aVaAoyt av 
rrys TTto-reajs as equivalent to 
e/vao~TO) cus o 0eos e/xe pto~ei/ p:e- 
rpoi/ Trio-reto? (verse 3), seems 
scarcely suitable to the subject 
of Trpo^vyreta, and gives no pro 
per sense to the peculiar word 

7. StaKOviav] Especially ap 
plied to ministration to the poor ; 
as in Acts vi. i, ei/ Trj Sta/covt a 
TT] KaOrjfJiepLvrj. xii. 25, TrAvypu) - 
crai Tes TT^I/ Sta/coi/tav. Horn. xv. 
31, r/ Sta/covta /xou ?y ets lepou- 
craA?//>t. 2 Cor. viii. 4, rr}i/ /cot- 
vtjJVLav T^S StaKoi tas T^s ets TOUS 
aytovs. ix. i, 12, 13, <fec. Here 
perhaps with especial reference 
to the office so denominated : see 
Acts vi. 3 6. Phil. i. i, avv 
eTrtcr/co Trois /cat Sta/co vot?. I Tim. 
iii. 8, 10, 13, Sta/cdVot>s ojaau- 




6 TrapciKaXcov, zv 
SouSy ev avrAoTf/Tr 6 
6 eXetoir, ev L\CCOOT^TL 

e Tr 
Trj TrapaKX^crei" 6 
Trpo Lcrrd/uievos, ev 

orre<j...ot yap 


eV rrj 8.] Understand ay 
Let us exist in (be absorbed and 
engrossed by] our ministry. Thus 
Luke ii. 49, OVK rjSeiTe ort eV 
Tot? rov Trarpos pov Set etrat p,e ; 
I Tim. iv. 15, eV Tourots tcr$i. 

o 8i8aovcan>] i Cor. xii. 28, 
TptVov StSacrKaXov?. Eph. iv. u. 
Trot/xeVas /cat 8t8ao-KaXovs. I Tim. 
V. 17, ^la/YtcTTa ot KOTTttoi/Teg eV 
Xo yw Kat Si8ao-KaXta. 

eV TT; 8.] Understand ecrrco. 

The two (supposed) senses of 
TrapaKaXetf, exJiortation and con 
solation, meet in the one word 
encouragement. It expresses that 
cheering on to Christian action 
and suffering, which is a special 
gift and power. See Acts iv. 36, 
o eTriKA/^ets Bapva/?as. ,.o ecrrti/ 
^f.Oe.p^rjVf.vofJi.f.vov vto? TrapaKXry- 
creco?. xv. 32. 2 Cor. i. 3, 4, 
o TTcurrfp TOJV otKTtp/xooi/ Kat 0eos 
TrapaKX^o etos, o 

7Tt TTCtCTT; T^ $X 

ets TO 8wacr^at ?y/.ta 
TOI;? ei/ Tra.crr) ^Xti^et otd T^S Trapa- 
KXryo ecos ^s avroi 
viro TOU eoi). i Tim. iv. 13, 
Trpoo-e^e TT} afayj/aicret, T^ Trapa- 
KXij<Ti, Trj SiSao"KaXta. The two 
functions of StSao-KaXi a a.ndTrapa- 
i<Xr)orL<s may be said to make up 

the whole office of the ordinary 
Christian preacher. 

/xeraStSous] Luke iii. 1 1, /xera- 
SOTCO rwytiry e^oi/ri. Kph. iv. 28, tVa 
at TO) 

The word a-Xorr/?, 
from singleness or sincerity (as 
in 2 Cor. xi. 3. Eph. vi. 5. 
Col. iii. 22), becomes, in refer 
ence to almsgiving, singleness of 
view to the object, as distinguish 
ed from all selfish regards or 
double motives; and so is nearly 
equivalent to liberality. See 2 
Cor. viii. 2,77 KaTa fidOovs TTTW^eta 
avroiv eVeptcro~ei;o-ei> et? TO TrXovros 
Trys aTrXoT^TO? avrwv. ix. 1 1, 13, 
7rXot Tio/Aet/ot ets Tracrav 
T^ra...Kat a7rXdT7yTt Tr;^ 


o Trpoto-Tajttei/o?] -Z/e 
?i?/ o^ce o/" riife or authority 
over others. The word is ap 
plied (i) to presbyters, i Thess. 
V. 12, Kat Trpot o-TajaeVous vfJLwv Iv 
I Tim. v. 1 7, ot KaAcos 
7rpeo-/3irrepoi. (2) To 
masters of families, i Tim. iii. 

4, 5, 12, TKV(J)V KttXwS TrpOt o-Ttt- 

tv o-TTo^Sr}] 2 Pet. i. 5, o-7rov8^i/ 
7rao~av TrapetcreveyKavTe^. Jude 3, 
Tracrav cnrovS ijv 7roLov^Lvo<;. 

tXapoTT^Tij 2 Cor. ix. 7? iXa- 
pov yap SOT^V ayaTra o cos. For 

XII. 8 

i i 


H dyairri dvvTTOKpiTOS. aTrocrTvyovvTes TO 9 
Trovripov, K0\\aj[j.evoi TW dyaOw. Ttj <pi\a$e\- 10 

(pl\6(TTOpJOl, Trj TlfJLtJ d\\)j- 

<pia i? 

Aof? 7rpoti r yovjui6i>oi, Trj 

the word, see Prov. xviii. LXX. 
eXa/Se Se rrapd Kvpiov tXapoT^ra. 

9 19. rj dyd-n-r] K.T.X.] The 
broken constructions which fol 
low resemble Heb. xiii. 4, 5, 
Ti/aiog o ya/Aos. . .a(f)i\dpyvpo<s 6 
TpoTro?, apKovfjievoi TOtg rrapovcnv. 

9. aVu-oKpiTos] "Wisdom v. 
19, KpicrLv awTToxpiTov. xviii. 1 6, 

pcoi/. 2 Cor. vi. 6, eV dyd-Trrj dvvTro- 
KpiTia. I Tim. i. 5, Tri o-Tews ai/i;- 
TroKpiTov. 2 Tim. i. 5. James iii. 
IJ, o~o<J3ia. . .ctoiaKpiTOs 
TO?, i Pet. i. 22, <b 

.rA.l i Thess. 
v. 21, 22, TO KaXov Kare^ere a?ro 
TravTos ei Sovs Trovrjpov aTre^ecr^e. 

KoXXto/xei/ot] Jer. xiii. n, 
LXX. KaBdrrep KoXXarat TO Trepi- 
4o>/x,a Trepi Tryi/ oaffrvv TOV dvBpiii- 
TTOU, OUTWS e/coAXryo a Trpos e/xauTOi^ 
TOV OIKOV TOU Io~pa^ A. Matt. 
xix. ^, /cat. KoX\.rjOf]crTai Trj yv- 
vaiKi avrov. Luke x. n, TOV 


d-n-ofjiaao-o/jLtOa v/juv. Acts viii. 

29, KoXXtjOrjTi TO) dp/JiOLTL TOUTO). 

I Cor. vi. 1 6, 17. 

10. T-fj (j>. . .Trj T.] In point 
of, in the matter of, &c. By 
degrees the datives change their 
character, as in TO> Kv/nu>, Trj 
Trpocrfvxrj, &c. but are continued 
for the sake of rhythm and uni- 


TU) I 1 

fortuity. Compare in this i c- 
spect 2 Cor. vi. 4 10, where 
the three sets of clauses, with eV, 
Sid, and oj?, keej) the form of 
continuity amidst great varieties 
of sense. The articles (ry... 
Trj... Trj) express either (i) that, 
low, that honour, d c., which o/ 
course (<is Christians) yon, <l<> 
Jwl or do exercise; or (2) ail 
manner of; giving universality 
to each particular. 

oi] The idea of 
o~Topyj], is that of na 
tural affection, the love of near 
relations. Christians are spoken 
of as acquiring (so to say) 
new family ties: their dydirr] is 
a (TTopyrj. The word is used 
only here in Scripture. But 
see 2 Mace. vi. 20, Sid TT/V IT/JOS 
TO fiv (friXocTTopyiav. ix. 20, 


Regarding b// 
preference. Esteeming each other 
as superior to yourselves. Ex 
plained by Phil. ii. 3, Trj TO.- 

WTUV. See i Thess. 
v. 13, KOI r)yti.o-0ai aurovs VTrep- 
K7repto-o-ws (to esteem them very 
highly) tv dydirrj Sid TO cpyov 

II. Tfl a-TTovSrj ] In point of 


npon PDMAIOYS:. 



12 TrvevfJiaTL 



oKvrjpoi] Matt, xx v. 26, Trovrjpe. 
SouXe Kal oKvrjpt. 

TO) 7n/UyU.aTi] In point of the 
spirit ; that part of you which 
is spirit: as distinguished alike 
from crapt and if/vxy. See note on 
vni. 4, Kara crap/ca . . . Kara Trvevfjia. 

TO) TTvevfj-aTi eovTes] Acts 
xviii. 25, KCU ea>v T(3 7n/e{yxaTi 
e XaXet KUI eStSacr/cei^ K.r.X. 

1 2. T7y IXiriSi] In the mat 
ter of the (great) hope. The 
usage of Scripture seems to be 
against rendering it rejoicing on 
the ground of. 

Trj $Xu//ei] In the matter 
of affliction, patient : virofJieveLv 
used absolutely, as often ; for 
example, 2 Tim. ii. 12, el VTTO- 

(JLVOfJ.V, Kttl 

James v. ii, 



Sov Ae 


JTrom xap- 

/, to be staunch, or stedfast 
(Job ii. (), LXX. /jie^pt rtVos Kap- 
rep^o-ets; Isai. xlii. 14. Ecclus. 
ii. 2, eij^woj/ T^V KapStav o~ov KCU 
Kaprep^croi/. xii. 15. 2 Mace, 
vii. 17. Heb. xi. 27, TOI/ yap 
aoparoi/ GJS opwi eKaprep^crev), the 
compound Trpoo-Kaprepeti/ is to 6e 
staunch or stedfast at or ow/ to 
adhere stedfastly to, attend con 
stantly upon, persevere in, &c., 
with a dative of the ^m<7 or 
person, or with ets or ey, or 6- 

solutely. Thus Num. xiii. 20, 
LXX. Kat 7rpocrKa.pTep /jcravTs(after 
giving diligent attention to the 
topics of enquiry) Xrjif/ecrOe oVo 
rtoi/ KapTrcov 7775 y>ys. Mark iii. 
9, elTrev rots p,a#?7Tats awroi) u/a 
TrXotapiov rrpocTKapTeprj avro) (wait 
constantly upon Him) 8ta TOI/ 
oxXov. Acts i. 14, TrpoorKapre- 


ii. 42, 46, TTpoo-KcupTtpowTes Ty 
SiSaxfj ri^v (XTTOo-roXcov (attending 
constantly upon the teaching of 
the, Apostles) . . . Trpoo-Kaprepo^i/res 
6/j.oOv/jia^ov ei/ TO) tepa) (continuing 
stedfastly with one accord in 
the temple], vi. 4, ry/x,ets Se TTJ 
Trpocrev^rj KCU Trj ^icaKovia TOV 
Xoyoi; TrpocTKapTtprjcrofJitv. viii. 
13, Kai jSaTTTtcr^eis r^v 7rpo<TKapre- 
pc3i/ TO) J>tXt7T7ra) (attending con 
stantly upon Philip as his teach 
er). X. 7, (TTpaTUOTTjV V(T/3r) TO)V 

TrpocrKaprepovp Tcov aira) (o/ those 
ivJto constantly attend him). 
Horn. xiii. 6, ct? CLVTO TOVTO 
;. Col. iv. 2, TV/ 

eV ai)r^. And so here. 
13. rats xP t/at ?] The plural 
as in Acts xx. 34, 6Vt rats xP et/at ^ 

Tit. iii. 14, ets ras aVayKaias 

ayiwv] See note on i. 

XII. 12 1 6. 


roik (W/coyras, ei//\O7erre /cca /u>) 14 
a %aip6vT(x)V 9 K\aieiv 15 
el<s d\\tj\ovs <ppo- 16 

vovvres. /ULr] TO. v\^r]\a (ppovovvres, d\\a TO?S 
(rvvaTrcfyofJievoL. /mi] ytvea Oe (ppovijULOi 


With the da 
tive, Koii/ooVeti is (i) to partake in, 
to have fellowship with ; as xv. 

27, TO^S 7TVf.VfJiaTLKo2<S ttUTCOf CKOt- 

vwvf](ya.v TO. Wvr]. Wisdom vi. 
25, ort OUTOS ov KOivwvei crania. 
Ecclus. xiii. i, 2, 17, o Koit co^w^ 

Tt KOlVWVTJCTft. X.VKOS dfJiVW , I Tllll. 

V. 22, fJtrjBe KOWWVCL a/xapTi ats 
aXXorpt at?. i Pet. iv. 13, KOIJ/OJ- 
vetre rot? roO Xpiorov TraOrj/macnv. 
2 John 11, KoiFtovet rot? epyot? 
aurou rots Trov^pot?. In Heb. ii. 
14, the dative is replaced by the 
genitive in the same sense : ra 
7rcu8ia Ke/cou utvrjKev tti /xaros Kat 
orapKo ?. See also Prov. i. n, 
LXX. KOLVMvrjcrov aijitaTO?. 2 Mace. 
xiv. 25. Also with Trpos (2 
Chron. xx. 35. Eccles. ix. 4). 
Sometimes (2) ^o impart to; as 
here. Also Gal. vi. 6, KoivwvetTto 
8e d /car^ou/xei/o? roV Adyov TOJ 
KctT77xowTi cv jracTLV dyaOois. 
Phil. iv. 15, ove/ua /xot f.KK\-rj- 
aia eKotvcov^crej/ cis Xdyov Sdcreco? 

Kat A.7^LU^O)<J K.T.A. 

Heb. xiii. 2, r^s 

Stoj/covre?] See note on ix. 30, 
oico/covTa . . . KareXajSev. 
14. evAoyetre ... 

Matt. v. 44, TrpocrV)(<rOat 
TWV Stoj/covrtov v[ji.u.s. Luke vi. 28, 
evAoyetre TOVS Karapw/xeVous 
i Pet. iii. c), TOVVO.VTIOV Se 

Karapacr^e] James iii. 9, 


15. xatpetv] An infinitive 
for an imperative. See Phil. iii. 
1 6, TO) avTia CTToi^iiv. 

1 6. TO avTO et?] xv. ^ 5 Swr/ 
v^iv TO a^TO (frpovtiv Iv aAA^Aot? 
K.T.A. 2 Cor. xiii. n. Phil. ii. 
2, tVa TO auTO (>povr}Te...TO fv 

^pOVOVVTfS. IV. 2. 

Ta v(f/7j\d </>p.] See note on 
xi. 20, vij/r)Xo<l>p6vi. 

o u^aTrayo/xev ot] From the 
literal meaning or o-vvaTrdyeo-Oat. 
TLVI, to be carried away alon<j 
with another, as by obeying the 
motion of the crowd, etc., comes 
the sense of letting oneself be 
thus carried away with ; falling 
in with the motion and impulse 
of; accommodating oneself or 
condescending to. Gal. ii. 13, 
eotrre Kat Bapi/a^3as (rvvo.7nrj\0rj 
rrj vTTOKpicrti. 2 Pet. iii. 

Here TOIS 
probably denotes things, not per- 


17 Trap eavTos. jmrjoevi KCLKOV avri KO.KOV CCTTO- 


18 TWV dvOfujoTTcov. el SvvaTOV) TO e^ v/utov, /uera 

19 TrdvTwv dvdpcoTTcov elpi]vevovTes. jmij eai/TOi/s e/c- 

<S(m$ / us UTTOKpttret and TrXdvy in 
the two passages quoted, and ra 
v\l/-f]Xd in this verse. 

</>povt/xot Trap eauTOts] Pl OV. 
iii. 7, LXX. See note on xi. 25, 
ti/a ya>y 7/re. 

17. Trpovoov/Jif.voi KaXa] JNIore 
fully expressed in 2 Cor. viii. 21, 
7rpovoo /x.ei/ yap [o/ Trpovoou/xevot] 
KaAa OTJ juovoi/ evco?rtov Krptou 
a/\A.a Kat evcoTTtov ai/^pcoTroov (as a 
reason for desiring to have others 
associated with him in the charge 
of a pecuniary collection). Not 
satisfied with abstinence from 
evil, with maintaining a clear 
conscience in the sight of God, but 
anxious also to avoid the very 
appearance or suspicion of evil, 
lest ice should disparage the 
Christian character in the eyes 
of others. Prov. iii. 4, LXX. KOL 

pOVOOV KaXd CVW7TLOV Kvpt oV Kttl 

XV. 17, Ttt TTpOS TOV 060V. 

i Kings xxii. 

1 8. t Bvvarov] If it be pos 
sible on your part at any rate 
live peaceably with all man 
kind. You may not be able to 
secure peace on the other side : 
at all events see that there be 
peace on yours. 

TO e i;/xd)v] Compare i. 15, 

TO KoV /JL. ix. 5, TO KOTOl 

45, LXX. Kat fpnvtvcrev 

(jura ySacrtXews" "IcrpatjX. 2 Chron. 

xiv. 5. xx. 30. Job iii. 26, 

oure rjcrv^acra ovre 
V. 23, 24, Kat Ta 
6 rjpia. TOV dypov elprjvevaei O~OL 
K.T.X. xv. 21. xvi. 12. Murk 
ix. 50. 2 Cor. xiii. n. i Thess. 
v. 13. 

19. eKtKowTes] The verb 
K8tKti/ has the two senses of 
( i ) avenging ; as here, and Judges 
vi. 31, LXX. et TTt ^eos, avrds 
eKStKrycret avrov K.T.\. (sometimes 
with e or aTro, as i Sam. xxiv. 
13, Kat K(!)iKirj(rai ju,e Kvptos CK 
crov. 2 Kings ix. 7, Kat IK^LKYJ- 
o"i<5 Ta at/xaTa TWV SovAcov fJLov... 
CK xetpoy Ie^a /?eA. Rev. vi. 10. 
xix. 2. Luke xviii. 3, ^SiK^o-oV 
yae aVo TOU ai/TtStKon /xou); and 
(2) punishing, taking vengeance 
upon; as Isai. Ivii. 16, OVK ets 
TOV attova eK8tK^o-w v/xa?. 2 Cor. 
x. 6 (sometimes with ets, CTTI, 
or ev, as i Kings xviii. 25, eKSt- 
Kiycrai ts l^Opov^ TOV /3a(TiXe(05. 
Jer. ix. 9, ^ lv Aaw TOIOUTW OVK 
cK&iKiqo-ei rj \!/V^TI fj,ov ; xxiii. 2, 
eyoj KStK7^o-co e^> v/xas KaTa Ta 

XII. 1720. 


, dya7rt]TOi, d\\a Sore TOTTOV T?] opyij* 
yeypctTTTai. yap, E/mot efcSiKtycrjs, eyca avrairo- 
$a)(Tto, \eyei Kvpios. eav Treiva 6 e^0oos 20 
(TGI/, A^w/xi^e avTov iav $L\jsa, TroTt^e av- 

20. Or d\\a edv. 

So in 2 Cor. vii. 
i. xii. 19. Phil. iv. i. With 
/u.ou, in i Cor. x. 14. Phil. ii. 
1 2. With d8fX.<pai pay, in i Cor. 
xv. 58. Phil. iv. i (/cat eTTt- 
TToOrjroi added). In St Peter s, 
St John s, and St Jude s Epi 
stles a yaTrr/TOt (or cxyaTrr/re) is 
the common address. St James 
uses it three times with aSeA- 
<oi /jiov, but the latter (or a8e/\- 
<^>ot) more commonly without 
dja-TrrjTOL. St Paul usually em 
ploys aSeX^ot alone ; not infre 
quently aSeX^ot fjiov. 

aXXa Sore] The construction 
changes from the participle to 
the imperative, perhaps for the 
sake of stronger emphasis. The 
aorist expresses decision and 
finality ; once for all. 

B6T TOTTOv] GlV6 fAaCQ to, 

make room for. Luke xiv. 9, /cat 
\9ijjv o ere Kat avrov KaXecras 
epet croi, Ao? TOVTW TOTTOV. ph. 
iv. 27) yu/^Se 8t5ore TOTTOV TO> Sta- 
/3o Xa) (^o %o^ 6y cherishing an 
ger afford an opening to the 

rrj opYfj] That is, of your 
adversary or oppressor. Let his 
anger have free space ; let it work 
freely, and spend itself: do not 

thwart, do not punish it. It 
may remind us of the line, Be 
angru -when you will, it shall 
have scope. The work of punish 
ment is not yours, but God s. 
Compare Matt. v. 39, eyw 8e 
Xe yoo vfjuv fJirj ai/noTy/vat ro3 Trovrj- 

pa) K.T.X. 

yeypaTrrai yap] Dent, xxxii. 
35, LXX. eV tj^epa CKSifo/o-eoos 
aVraTroScocra). Heb. x. 30, cn6a- 
/j-v yap TOV ctTrot Ta, E/xot e/c- 
8t /<7ycrt5, eyco airaTroScocrw. 

20. edV] See the alterna 
tive reading, that of the three 
chief manuscripts (see Tauch- 
nitz New Testament, 1869), 
aXXa eaV. 

ttV TTCtm] Pj OV. XXV. 21, 

22, LXX. eav 7reim...7ri TT/K Ke<^)a- 
X^ a^roC, o Se Kuptos avra/roSa)- 
cret croi dyaOd. 

i/^co/At^e] From i/^oo/xos (a mor 
sel). See i Sam. xxviii. 22, LXX. 
/cat TrapaOtjao) eVajTrtov crov {f/u>/.iov 
aprou, /cat </>aye. Job xxxi. 17, 
et 8e Kat TOV if/u>[Ji6v JJLOV l^ayov 
yu.oi/05, Kat ov^l yLtereScoKa op^a^a) 
e^ aurou. The full construction 
of if/u)/jiitt.v is with a double ac 
cusative. Compare Num. xi. 1 8, 
Tts T^/m? i^co/ztet Kpea; Deut. viii. 
1 6, TOU i/fOD/xicravTos ere TO 



TOV TOUTO yap TTOLWV (ivQpaKas Trvpos 
21 crwpevcreis ETTI Tt]V Ke(pa\r]v avTOV. /mri 

VLKto V7TO TOV KCtKOV, d\\Ct VLKCt iv TO) 

Kill. I Udo-a 




ev ry Iptjfjui). xxxii. 13. Psalm 
Ixxx. 5, i//<jo/zieis ?7/xds dpTOV Sa- 
Kpvwv. Isai. Iviii. 14. Jer. ix. 
15, eyoj i//(o/xtaj OLVTOVS oVayKas. 
xxiii. 15. Lam. iii. 16. Ezek. 
iii. 2, KCU i//co/.tt(re //e T>}^ K^>a- 
Xt8a ravTijv. xvi. 19. Dan. iv. 
25. v. 21. Here the accusa 
tive of the thing is omitted, 
as is that of the person in i Cor. 
Xiil. 3, Kat ttv i^aj/xirjo) Trai/ra TO, 
virdp^ovrd /mov (though I feed the 
poor with all my substance], 

7rcme] Like i^oj/u^eii , TTOTI- 
^etv has (in its full construction) 
a double accusative; as, for ex 
ample, in Judges iv. 19, LXX. 
TTOTICTOV /^e Srj fAiKpov vScop, ort 
Job xxii. 7, ovSe -uSwp 
eTTOTtcras. Psalm Ixix. 
21, KCU et T^V 8ti//ai/ 
TLcrdv yu,e o^o?. ]Vlatt. x. 42, 



oi/ofta /jiaOrjTov K. r. A. Mark ix. 
41, os yap av TTOTicrrj r/xas TTOTTJ- 
piov {;Saros K.r.X. i Cor. iii. 2, 
yaAa v/Aas eTrortcra, ov /?pw/xa. 
It is found with only an accusa 
tive of the person expressed, as 
here, in Matt. xxv. 35, 37, 42, 
eSu^cra Kat CTroTt crare jtxe K. r. A. 
xxvii. 48, TrA^cras re oovs...7ro - 

riei a^rov. Mark xv. 36. Luke 
xiii. 15, ov Xvei TOV /3ovv avrov... 
Kal ctTrayaycov Tror/^et; Rev. xiv. 
8, i] IK TOV OLVOV. . .TreTroTiKei Travra 
ra ^1/17. In i Cor. iii. 6, 7, 8, 
no case is expressed. Trvpo s] Let this be 
your revenge ; to repay evil with 
good. Make your oppressor sorry 
and ashamed, not by requiting 
his evil, but by showing him un 
expected and undeserved kind 
ness. Lev. xvi. 12, LXX. A^i//erai 
TO Trvpeiov TrAvypes dvOpaKWV irvpos 
CITTO TOV Ovo-iao-Trjpiov. Psalm 
xviii. 12, xaAaa Kat aV$paKes 
Trvpos. Prov. vi. 28, r; Trepnra- 
TT]o-i Tts CTT dvOpaKwv Trvpos K.T. A. 
Ezek. i. 13, opao~ts ojs dvOpdmav 

o~copei;o~eis] The verb 
occurs also in 2 Tim. iii. 6, ywat- 
Kapta o-ecrcopev/xeVa a/xaprtats. 

2 1. /XT; VIKCO] Ze^ no<5 another s 
ill-doing conquer your Christian 
constancy by inducing you to 
imitate it ; but rather let your 
persevering kindness overbear 
and subdue his malice. 

kv TO) aya$<i)] -A.S the jield 
of the victory. See note on 

V. 21, V TO) 

XIII. "i. 7rao-a^vx>7] 

XII. 2i XIII. 4- 229 

ou jap e&Tiv e^ovcria el /mrj VTTO 
Qeov, al 5e ovorai VTTO Qeou TeTayjuevat ei(riv. 
a)(TT6 6 di/TiTaa-crd^evos Trj e^owia T*J TOV 2 
Qeou SiaTayrj dvOecrTrjKeif ol fie dvdecrTtjKOTes 
eavrols Kpip.a XrifJi-^sovTai. ol yap ap-^ovres 3 
OVK elcrlv (pdfios TM dyada epycp d\\d TW KaKw. 
6e\ei,s $e fj.r] (pofielcrOaL Ty}v e^ovcrlav ; TO dya- 
vov Troieij Kai e^ei? eTrcuvov e^ avrijs Qeou 4 

i. Or O.TTO 0. 

Or v. TOV 0. 

person. Gen. xlvi. 15, 1 8, 22, 26, 
27, LXX. Tracrat at ipv^ai, vioi KO! 
Ov-ya.Tpe<;, rptaKovra Tpets. . .Tracrat 
Se if/v^al at el<T\0ov<rai /xera 
IaKoj/3 eis AtyuTTTor, ot c ^ 
K.r.A. Exod. xii. 4, Kara 
\tyvyuiv. Acts ii. 41, 43, 
ajo"t rptcr^t/Xtat. ..eytVero 8e Tracr^ 
iii. 23, Tracra ^v^rj 
crerat e/< TOT) A.aou. 
Vll. 14, /cat Tracrav T^r cruyyeVetav 
ev i^v^a?? CySSo/XTyKovra Trey-re. 
xxvii. 37, yfJieOa 8e at Tracrat i^u- 
8ta/<ocriat J3So- 
i Pet. iii. 20, dXtyot, 
OKTCO ivaL. Rev. 

xvi. 3, Kat Tracra ^v^rj ^co^5 aTre- 

e^ovcrtats] Authorities. Used 
thus for human magistrates in 
Luke xii. n, 6Vav Se et<r<^>epcocrtv 
e?rt Tas crwaycoyas Kat Tas 
Kat Tas e^-ovcriag. Tit. iii. 
I, VTTOjJiifjt.vrja Ke avrovs dp^ai<; 
c^ovcrtats j uTTOTacrcrecr$ai. In !Eph. 

V. E. 

iii. 10. vi. 12. Col. i. 16. ii. 15. 
i Pet. iii. 22, eoucrttu denotes 
rather angelic powers, whether 
good or evil. 

uTrepe^ovcrats] ^rVisdom vi. 5 
Kptcrts aTToro/xos eV 
ytVerat. i Pet. ii. 13, VT 
y?yre Ttaarr] dvOpwiTLvr) Krtcret Std 
TOJ/ Kr pto^ etre /SacrtAet cos virep- 
etre ryye/^ocrtr K.T./\. 
Starayry] Acts vii. 53, 
e roi VO/AOV et? Starayas 
ayye /W (explained by Gal. iii. 
19, d ro / u,o?...Starayei5 St ayye - 
. Heb. xi. 23, Staray/xa. 

ix. 19, TCU yap 

Both human and 
Divine. See note on ii. 2, TO 
KpifJM TOV 0eou. 

3. ^>o )8os] ^1 terror to, <fec. : 
as i Pet. iii. 14, TOV Se <o/?ov 
aurcuv ^ j^ojSr^TC (fear not 
their intimidation). 



yap Sia/coi/os iorriv aroi ek TO dyaQov. eav Se 

TO KO.KOV TTOiriS, (j)o(3oV OV ydp LKt] T*]V JJid^aL- 

pav (popet Qeou yap ^ICLKOVOS ecrTiv, e/cS^/co? ek 

5 opyrjv TW TO KCLK.OV TrpacrcrovTi. cUo dvayKrj 
vTrordo-creo-dai, ov fj.6vov Sid Trji> opyrjv d\\a 

6 Kai Sid Tt]v (rvveiSticriv. ()ici TOVTO yap Kal 
(popovs TeXelTe* \eiTOVpyoL yap Qeov e.ia"lv eh 

5. Or dvdyKy v 

4. o-ot] To tltee, the well 

CIKT}] Prov. xxviii. 5, LXX. 
i Cor. xv. 2. Gal. iii. 4. iv. u. 
Col. ii. 1 8. 

^>opet] Ecclus. xi. 5. xl. 4. 
Matt. xi. 8. John xix. 5. i Cor. 
xv. 49. James ii. 3. 

e/<8iK09] Wisdom xii. 12. 
Ecclus. xxx. 6. i Tliess. iv. 6. 

5. avdyKt] v7TOTa<7cr(r$ai] 
Notice the alternative reading, 
dvdyKy vTroraa-o-eaOe (submit 
yourselves to, or perhaps, bt/, 
necessity). Dan. vi. 13, ov% T;TT- 

TW Soy/^tart crou. 
Sta TT}V opy-^V] On account 
of that ivrath, to avoid it. 

8ia T?}I^ o u^et Srycriv] On ac 
count of the conscience, to keep 
it KaOapdv (i Tim. iii. 9) and 
(Acts xxiv. 1 6). For 
see note on ii. 15, 
For Sta, ill its two 
applications here, see note on 
iv. 2^, Bid ra...cHa rtjv. 

6. </>opoi;g] 
&C. LXX. Kat 

Judes i. 

va ,os er /^ecrco avrov, Kat eyevcro 
eis <j>opov K.r.A.. 2 Sam. xx. 24. 
I Kings iv. 6, Kat ASouvtpa^ vtos 
AySSco eTTt TOW ^>opwv. Ezra iv. 
13, <opot OVK etrovrat ao/,, oi;Se 
Saj crouo-i. Nehem. v. 4, eSai/et- 
cra/xe$a dpyvpiov et? (f>upov$ TOV 
/?ao-tAau9. Lam. i. 2. i Mace, 
iii. 3*5 Xaptiv rovs <f>opoi / s TOJV 
^copojj/, Kat cri/ j/ayayetv apyvpiov 
TroXv. X. 29? 33 ? d(f)Lr]p,t TrdVras 
TOVS lofSatovs aTTo TOJ^ <opa)v 
Kut rr]s Tt/xr;s TO{> a /Vo s K.r.A. XV. 

3O, 31, Kttt TCWS (fropOVS TOJV TO- 

7rtL>]/ tuv KaTKvptf.vcrar.. .KO.L TCOV 
<J>6pwv TOJV TToAewj/ a AAa raAavra 
K.T.A. Luke XX. 22, 
77/^015 KatVapt <$>opov Sov 
ov, xxni. 2, Kat KajA^ovTa 
KatVapt SiSoi/ai. Hence 
<,6opoAoyti/, (fropo- 
Aoyta, ^opoAo y^ro?. Job iii. 
1 8, cvOr jVTjO av, OVK ~rji<ovo~av <j!>aj- 
T/7/V (J3opo\6yov. i Esdr. ii. 23 
(27)5 ev lpovo~aXrj 
Kat (fwpoXoyovvTes KOtA^v 

Xava- c^opoAoyta 

XIII. 5-7- 


avro TOVTO TTpoo-Kaprepovvres. aVo Sore 7ra(riv 7 

6(f)l\aS TO) TQV (popOV TOV (popOV, TCO TO 

K.T.A. Deut. xx. n, ecrovTat croi 

<f>OpO\6yr)TOl Kat VTTlJKOOi (JOL. 

TeAetTe] Matt. xvii. 24, d 
StSacrKttAos r^LtcGv ou TtAet ra 
StSpa^/xa ; 

AetToupyot] This word (with 
its kindred forms AetToupyetr, 
AetToupyta, AetTovpyry/za, AetToup- 
ytKos) occurs about 140 times 
in the Septuagint and 15 in the 
New Testament. It is applied 
most frequently ( i ) to men : in 
relation (a) to God; as, for ex 
ample, in Exod. xxviii. 35, LXX. 
Kat ecrrat, Aapcoi/ ei/ ra> AetTovpyetV 
a.Kovo Trj rj <pu>vrj avrov. Deut. 
X. 8, 7rapeo~TaVat eVavrt Kvptov 
Aeirovpyeu/ ai;ra) /cat eTrev^ecr^at 
eTTt TOJ oi/o//art aurov. I Sam. 
ii. II, TO TratSaptoi/ ^i/ AeiTOVpyooi/ 
T(5 TrpocrojTra) Kvptov e^coTrtov HAet 
TO{! iCjoeco?. Nehem. x. 39, e/cet 
(TKevTfj ra ayta /cat ot tepets ot 
Actrovpyot /c.T.A. Jer. xxxiii. 21, 
Trpo? Tovg tepets Kat rou? AeutVas 
rot)? AetrovpyoiWas /xot. Dan. 
vii. 10, xt Atai ^tAtaSes eAetrovp- 
yovi/ avro). Luke i. 23, at 7;/xepat 
TI^S AetTOvpyt as ai;rou. Acts xiii. 
2, AarovpyowTcov Se avrwi/ rw 
Kupta). Heb. ix. 21, ra O-KCVTJ 
T^S Aetrovpytas. X. II, Tras 
/ACI/ tepevs <TT ^/cev Ka^ rffjiipav 
AetToupycot . And so here, and 
in xv. 1 6, Aeirovpyoi/ Xpiorou 
I^o-ov. (^8) To one another ; as 
Jos. i. I, T(5 Irycrou . . .TO) Aetrovpyw 
T?. i Kings i. 4. xix. 21, 

liropevOrj oTrtVco HAtoi? Kat eAet- 
roupyet avrw. 2 Kings iv. 43. 
vi. 15, o Aetrovpyos EAtcrcraie. 
Eom. XV. 27, o (j>e<. Aowti> /cat eV 
rot? trap/ctKots AetTovpy^crat aurot?. 
2 Cor. ix. 12, ?/ StaKort a TT^S Aet- 
Tovpyta? ravr>7?. Phil. ii. 17, 
25, 30, Aei-rovpyt a 7175 7rt o-T6a>s 

...TT/S Trpos pie Aetroupyta?. (2) 
To Angels: as in Psalm ciii. 21, 
Aetrorpyot aurou, Trotouires TO $e - 
\r]/jia avrov. civ. 4, o TTOIOJI TOVS 
ayyeAovs auToi) 7ri/eu//aTa, Kat TOI;? 

Heb. i. 7? ! 
AetTOVpytKa Trveu/xaTa K.T.A. (3) 
To C Arisi Himself: Heb. viii. 2, 
6, TWI/ aytwv ActTOUpyo? Kat TT^S 

Te pas TeVe^ei/ AetToupytas. 

eis auro TOWTO] Persevering 
unto (stedfastly engaged upon) 
this very thing ; namely, /te ser 
vice (ActTovpyt a) o/ (j oc/. A re 
markable application of the idea 
of the Divine origin of human 
government to its unconscious 
exercise by heathen hands. For 
7rpoo~KapTepeti/, see note oil xn. 
12, Trpoo-KapTepoiWes. 

7. aVo SoTe] The tenso ex 
presses, by one decisive act of 
resolution. For aVoSiSoVai, see 
note on ii. 6, aVoSaj o-a. 

TO) ToV ^o pov] A difficult 
ellipsis. Understand o c/>etAovTt 
Aa/3etv, or the like. 





TO) TOV (j)6/3ov TOV 

<^o /3oj/, Tft) 

8 TI\V Ti/uLrjv TT\V TLJUL^V. fj.rjSei l /uLri^ev 6<bei\T 
el fju] TO d\\r\\ovs dyaTrdv 6 yap dyajriav TOV 

9 erepov VOJJLOV TreTrXripcoKev. TO yap ov 
Gels, ov (povevcreis, ov /cAe^ets, OVK 
OvjUiria eis, Kal e l rts eTepa eVroA*/, ev TW 

<o pov] See note on verse 6, 

TeAos] Impost ; including 
toll, tax, custom, duty, &c. 
Num. xxxi. 28, 37 41, LXX. 
Kat a<eAeu-e TO TeAos Kvpt a) . . . Kat 
IOCOKC MowcT /Js TO TeAos, TO d^at- 
pe/xa TOV 0eo{5, EAea^ap T(3 tepet 
K.T.A. i Mace. x. 31, at 
Kat Ta riX-r]. xi. 35, TOOV 
Kat TOJV TeAcov TOJV dv 
THM.V. Matt. xvii. 25, ot fiavi- 
Aets TTys y^s oVo Tt vtov 
vovcrt TeXf] rj Krjvcrov; 

unpaid debt be love ; that debt 
which can never be fully dis 
charged, but the discharge of 
which (so far as it is possible) 
contains in itself the discharge 
of every other ; for he who loves 
his neighbour has already in 
substance satisfied his whole re 
lation towards him. Like Mil 
ton s, By owing owes not, but 
still pays, at once Indebted and 

TOV erepov] The other person 
in any relation in which one 
man can stand towards another. 
Equivalent to TOV TrA-^o-tov in ver. 
9. See note on ii, i, TOV " 

vo /xov] A very difficult in 
stance of the omission of the 
article. But even here vo /uo? 
must not be confounded with o 
voVo?. Has fulfilled any and 
every law under which he may 
live. The object of the omission 
is to generalize the statement. 
/ care not what law he may be 
under: love fulfils any laiu. See 
note on ii. 25? 7rcptTo/xry...vo/xov 

9. TO yap ov . . . e v TW ay. ] The 
article answers the purpose of 
the inverted commas of quota 
tion. See Matt. xix. 18, TTOUXS; 

...TO OV <oVVO~lS, OV 

K.T.A. Gal. v. 14, iv TW 
o"et<; K.T.A. Eph. iv. 9, TO Se 
dvej3r] TI eo-Tiv K.T.A. Heb. xii. 
27? TO Se eri oVa^ S^Aot K.T.A. 

ou jaoi^evo-eis K.T.A.] Exod. 
xx. 13 17, LXX. In the quota 
tion here the 6th and 7th com 
mandments are transposed; and 
the 9th is omitted, as is the loth 
in Matt. xix. 1 8. 

KOL et TIS eTepa] And any other 
commandment that there may be. 
See I Tim. i. 10, j//-evoTai9, CTTI- 
Kat t Tt eVepov TT? 

StSao KaAia avrucetraCt 

XIII. 8 ii. 


TOVTM dvaKe<pa\cuovTai, eV TM dya7ri i(reis 


TrXqcriov KOLKOV OVK epyd^erai- TrXrjpcofjLa ovv 
vo^ov r\ djaTrt], KCII TOVTO eJSores TOV Kaipov, n 

q. Or omit the ind iv TU>. 

ava/ce<aAaiovYat] From /cec/>a- 
Aaiov (capital) whether in the 
sense of a crowning point, a 
summary, or a sum (Heb. viii. i, 
/cec^aAaiov Se CTTI rots Aeyo/xei/oi? 
/c.T.A. Lev. vi. 5, LXX. CWTOTIO-CI 
avTo TO KC^xxXatoi/ arrou, /cat TO 

avro. Num. iv. 2, Aa/3e TO 
Ke^a Aatov TCOI/ rtdii/ Kaa^ K.T.A.. 
v. 7. xxxi. 26, 49, Aa/3e TO 
Kec^aAatov TOJI/ CTKvAcuv T^5 ai^/xa- 
Awcrtas /c.T.A. Acts xxii. 28, cyco 
TroAAoi; Kec^aAcuVu TT^V TroAtTet ai/ 
TauT^v eKrqardfjajv}, comes the 
verb K(aAaiow, ^o make sum 
mary, to abbreviate (Ecclus. 
xxxii. 8, Ke</>aAauoo~oi/ Aoyoj/, ev 
dAtyots TroAAa), and dvaKetfia.- 
XO.LOVV, to sum up, to gather into 
one sum or total, as here, and 
.Eph. i. 10, 

Ttt TTOtVTa V TO) 

ayaTT^crets] Lev. xix. 1 8, LXX. 
Matt. xxii. 39. Mark xii. 31. 
Luke x. 27. Gal. v. 14. James 
ii. 8. 

TOV TrX-rjo-Lov] First in Gen. 
xi. 3, 7, LXX. Kai etTrev ai/$/30)7ros 
T<3 TrXycriov ai>TOv...iva pr} O.KOV- 
crcao tv e/<acrTos rrjv <f>a)vr)V TOV 
TrA^atov. Mai. iv. 6, /cat /capSt av 
a.vQ PWTTOV Trpos TOV TrA^o tov awTou. 
Compare Luke x. 29, 36, KCU 

TI<? e<rrti/ /xo 

TOH/ TCO^ TptoV 7T\r]<JLOV SoKtl (TOi 

TOU e/^7reo-o^Tos ei? 

10. O^K epya^eTaiJ JRef rains 
from working, refuses to work, &c. 

TrXtjpwfjia ovv I/O/AOU] Comple 
ment of i 6/jLos. That lj ichich 
vo /xos (a?i?/ and ever// law] is 
fitted or satisfied. See note on 
xi. 12, TO TrAv/pw/xa aLrw^. And 
for vo/xo? without the article, 
see note on verse 8, vopov. T!K^ 
law of Moses is no doubt in the 
Apostle s mind as the Divine 
exemplar of all law; but the 
phrase is more comprehensive, 
and the statement applicable to 
any law. 

11. /cat TOUTO] And this 
(let us do) as knowing the sea 
son, &c. For the phrase /cat 
TOWTO (and its equivalent /cat 
TaSTa) introducing a further 
and stronger consideration, see 
I Cor. vi. 6, 8, aAAa a8eA<os /MCTCX 

jc/Hvercu, /cat TOVTO CTTI 
. ...a AAa v/xets a 
/cut aVoo-TCpetTe, Kat TOVTO 
(f>ov<;. Epll. ii. 8, Trj yap 



owpov. Phil. i. 28, v/xcCv Se O-OJTT;- 
ta? /cat TOVTO aVo 0cov. Heb. 






v/uLas e^ VTTVOV eyepBijvar vvv yap 
r\ crcoTiipia rj ore 


Or omit v/j.ds, 

xi. 1 2, Sid Kat a</> evds 
^crttv, Kai raura veveKpoo/xeyou. 

TOV Kaipov] The season. The 
force of Kaipo? (as distinguished 
from xpoVos) lies in the idea of 
dejiniteness both in extent and 
purpose. As YJOOJ/OS is duration 
(lapse) of time, so Kcupo s is defi 
nition (limit) of time. It is a 
portion cut out of time: a season 
or opportunity. See, for instance, 
Gen. i. 14, LXX. ! o-rioo-uv...eis 
Kcupous. Eccles. iii. I 8, /ccupos 


K.T.X. Song ii. 12, m (11/6*77 OJ 
ev rr) yr], Kcupos TT^? Top,rys 
K.T.X. Acts i. 7, yvtoi/at 
^ /coupons. Xiv. 17, Katpou5 Kap- 
. xvii. 26, dpt cras Trpocr- 
s Kaipov?. Hom. v. 6, 
Kara Katpw vrrep ao-e/Scov aTreOa- 
vzv. ix. 9, Kara rov Kaipoi/ TOVTOI/ 
K.T.X. I Cor. iv. 5, ju/>) Trpd Kaipov 
TL KpiVere. vii. 29, d Kaipds crwe- 
(TTaX/xevos ICTTLV. 2 Cor. vi. 2, 
iSoi) vw Katpds euTrpdcrSeKTos. Gal. 
iv. IO, "^/xepas TrapaTTjpetcr^e Kat 
/xr^ras Kal Katpov? Kat eviauroi;?. 
vi. 9, Katpw yap tStco ^ept crojixev. 
Eph. V. 1 6, t^ayopa^ofJievoL rov 
Kaipov (buying tip the oppor 
tunity ; making the ^dmost ad 
vantage of the season granted 
you). Col. iv. 5. i Thess. ii. 
17, Trpds Kaipov topas (,/W* ^e 

season of an hour ; for a very 
brief season), v. i, Trepl Se rwr 
^pdvcov Kat TOJV Kaipwi/ K.r.X. 2 
Thess. ii. 6, er TCO eavrou Katpol 
(r^ ^Ae season ichich is his own, 
ivhich is appointed for liis mani 
festation). i Tim. ii. 6, TO /^ap- 
TL PIOV /<aipots totot?. iv. I, eV 
vcrrepot? Kafpot?. VI. 15, >}^ Kat- 
pot? iSiots Select d /xaKa ptos K.T.A. 
2 Tim. iii. I, Katpot ^aXe/rot. 
iv. 3, 6, e trrat yap Katpds dre...d 
Kaipos TYJS o!vaAi;creaJ9 /xov. Tit. 
i. 3. Heb. ix. 9, 10, ets TOK Kat- 
pov TOV ercrT77KOTa.../xe^pt Katpou 
Stop$u)trea>s. xi. 1 1, i^, et^ov (iv 

topa ry Sr; v/xas] Gen. xxix. 7, 
LXX. eVt eo-Ttf ry/xepa TroXXij, OVTTOJ 
wpa crui/a^^r]i/at Ta KTfjvri. Rev. 
xiv. 15, ort rjXOtv r) copa OfpicraL. 
Elsewhere with a genitive, as 
Until ii. 14, 17877 topa TOV <ayeu/. 
2 Sam. xxiv. 15, ews copas api- 
CTTOV. Rev. xiv. 7, rjXOtv -q topa 
TTy? KpiVetos avToi!. Or with tVa, 
as John xii. 23, IXtjXvOtv ry topa 
tVa So^acrOfj o vios TOV avOpuirov. 
xiii. i. xvi. 2, 32. 

eyywTepoy] Not elsewhere 
found in the Septuagint or New 
Testament. The form eyyvTaTos 
occurs in Job vi. 15, and eyyiW 
in Ruth iii. 12. 

Belongs to lyyvrcpov. 

XIII. 12. 
tj vii 7rpoeKO\l/ev, n c)e i}jj.epa ii 


- 12 

Nearer us. For eyyus with a 
genitive of the person, see x. 8, 
o*ou TO prj/Jid icrriv. 

Otherwise called 
TOJV utun/ TOU 0eou 
(viii. 19), 77 aVoArrrpcoo-ts TOU o-co- 
/naros (viii. 23), aVoAurpoocm r^s 
TreptTTotT/o-ecos (Eph. i. 14), /coupot 
aVai//ueoo<? and ^poVot aVoKaTa- 
o-racrcws (Acts iii. 19, 21). For 
salvation as a thing future, see 
note on v. 9, o-uOrjo-ofjieOa. 

eTTicrreuo-a^ei/] IFe became 
believers. The reference is to 
a single past act. Compare John 
iv. 41, 153, /cat 7roAA(3 TrAetous 
e7ricrrei;o"av Sia TOP Aoyoi/ avrou... 
/cai CTrtcrreucrev auro? /cat ?) OLKLO. 
avrov oX.7], viii. 30. x. 42. xi. 
45. Acts IV. 4, 32, TOU 8e 77X7;- 
$ous TOJI/ 7rio~Tei;cravTa>i/ K.T.X. viii. 
13. ix. 42. xiii. 12, 48. xiv. i. 
xvii. 12, 34. xviii. 8. xix. 2, et 
TrvevfJ-a ayiov ZXdfieTe TricrTtv- 
crai/Tes ; I Cor. iii. 5, StaKoi/ot 
oY coi/ c7rt(TTevora.T. XV. 2, II, 
et /XT; eiK^ 7rio-Tet;o-aTe K. T. \. 
Gal. ii. 1 6. Eph. i. 13, T 

12. v; ru...?; ^ /xepa] Com 
pare Gen. i. 5, LXX. Kat e/caAeo-ey 

eo? TO ^>o)s 7^/xepav, Kat TO 
O-KO TOS KaAeo-e vv/CTa. Job xvii. 

1 2, VUKTO. eis 7^/zepav eOrjKav. John. 
XI. 9, 10, eav Tts TrepiTrarrj iv TTJ 
TjfJitpa, ov 7rpoo"KO7TTet...eav Se TIS 
7Tpnra.Tr) iv rrj VVKTI, TrpocrKOTTTet 
K.T.A. i Thess. v. 4, 5, OVK CCTTC ei/ 

tva 7 Txea v.a$ ws /<Ae- 

y Trai/TCS yap 
eo~Te /cat T; 


llev. xxi. 25. xxii. 5, /cat vuov/c 
eo~Tai ert, Kat ou/c e^oucrtv ^petav 

Kttt <a>TOS TAt oU OTt 

o 0eos <jf)(OTiet CTT 
The contrast is between niyht 
and daytime : the article is ^ewe- 
? ic rather than (as in i Cor. iii. 
13. Hub. x. 25) specific; day, 
not #/^e c/rty. Compare Song ii. 
17, LXX. e cos ou StaTrreuo"^ J] 7^/xepa 
/cat Kivi]BQxriv at o~/cta<. . In John 
ix. 4, the application of this 
figure is just inverted : 7^/zepa 
ecrTtV, ep^erat vu^. That passage 
speaks of life as the opportunity 
of work, this as the season of 

TrpoeKoi^ei/] The literal mean 
ing of Trpo/coTTTetj/ may be sup 
posed to be, to cut forward, to 
forward by cutting (as by felling 
trees, tkc. before an advancing 
army), to forward. But in the 
New Testament always, and in 
classical Greek most commonly, 
it is used intransitively, to ad 
vance or make progress. Luke 
ii. 52, KOI I^ous Trpoe/coTTTev [T^] 
(TO(f)ia /cat T^AiKt a. K.T.A. Gal. i. 14, 

Kttl TTpOCKOTTTOV J/ TO) lou8aiCT/X(5 

vTrep TToAAou?. 2 Tim. ii. 16, 
eV t TrAetov yap irpoKoi^ovcnv aVc- 
iii. 9, 13, a AA ou 

l . . . 7rpOKOlf/OV(TI.V 7Tt TO 

Thus TrpoKo-rmj, progress, 


ime6a ovv Ta epya TOV (TKOTOVS, e^vcrcojueda Se 

fju] KCJOJULOLS Kat /medais, /uj) KOL- 

advance : Ecclus. li. 17, rr /JLOL eV CUUTY}. 2 JVIaCC. 
viii. 8, erwopdn/ Se o <>tXt7r7ros 
Kara /xiKpov eis TrpoKOTcrjv ep^o- 
W-evov TOV aVSpa. Phil. i. 12, 
25, ets TrpoKoirrjv TOV cvayyeXiov 
. ..eis T^yV v/xaJv TrpoKOTrrjv Kat 

ai/ 7^9 Trtorrews. I Tim. iv. 
(roi; 7^ TTpoKOTTTj (fravepa y 
See note on evcKOTTTo- 
/x-^v, xv. 22. 

ryyytKev] Isai. Ivi. I, LXX. 
?yyytK yap TO o-o>T>fptoi/ /xov ?ra- 
paytWcr^ai. Ezek. vii. 7, i^Ket o 
/coupes, ^yyiKev 77 T/ /xepa. James 
v. 8, oTl ry Trapoucrt a TOV Kvptov 
r/yyt/cev. I Pet. iv. 7, 7raW(oi/ 
8e TO TeXos 

Eph. iv. 22, 25, 
...Tov TraAcuoV aj/- 
. . . ctTro^e/xevot TO i//e 8os 
K.T.X. Col. iii. 8, aTro ^eo-^e Kat 
T^ueTs TCX Travra K.T.A.. Heb. xii. I, 
6 yKOV diroOtfJievoL iravTa. James 
i. 21, a7ro$/xevo6 vracrav pUTrapt av 
K.T.X. i Pet. ii. I, aVofle/xevoi 
ow Tracrav /caKt av K.T.X. 

Ta epya TOU CTKOTO^S] Job 
XXIV. 15, LXX. o^<5 fJiOLXov 
e<f>v\OLi;e OTKOTO?, Xeyoaj/ K. T. X. 
Prov. ii. 13, TOT) 7ropev ecr$ai eV 
oSots 0-KOTOV9. Isai. xxix. 15, 
KCU. ecTTat ev CTKOTCI Ta epya a^Tcov. 
John iii. 19, yyaTrrjo-av ol aY$pco- 

TTOt itaXXoV TO O~KOTO? ^ TO <^>(O5, 

^v ycxp avToV Trovfjpa Ta epya. 

Eph. V. ii, TOIS epyots Tots O.KO.O- 

7T015 TOU 0-KOTOV5. 

e^Suo-oj/xe^a Se] Isai. lix. 17, 
LXX. eVeSucraTO ^iKaioau^v ws 
8<vpaKa. K.T.X. Eph. vi. ii 17, 

K.T.X. i Thess. v. 8, Ty/xet? 8e 
OVTCS vr^o)/xev, ei 


Kal TrepiKec^aXatav eXTrt^a 

13. cos ev 7y/xepa] Asindciy. 
A s persons walking in day-light. 
See again John xi. 9, e dV Tt? 
7Tf.pnra.Tri iv Trj y/Jicpa., ov rrpoo-- 



tuo"^77/xovcos] 7 ; ?^ goodfasliion; 
decorously, becomingly. See i 
Cor. xiv. 40, rravTa 8e 
/xovcos Kat Kara Ta^ 
I Thess. iv. 12, tVa 
evo-^^/xovws Trpos TOVS e w. For 
the opposite, of euo"^/xoFa)s Trept- 
, compare Kev. xvL 15, 
o ypT/yopcov Kat 


Kat ^SXeVcoo-tv TT^I/ a 

TreptTraTT/croj/x.ei ] Ze^ ^ 
walked; when it comes to the 
great retrospect in which the 
whole past life shall be seen as 
one single act. . See note on 
vi. 4, TreptTraTTyo-oj/xti . 

to) KCO/XOIS] The dative is that 

XIII, i 3 XIV. i. 


Kai dcreXyeiais, /mrj epiSi Kal V/\w* d\\d 14 

TOV Kvptov \r]aro\jv XjOicrroV, Kal Trjs 
s irpovoiav TroieiarOe ek eTriB unices. 

d&OevovvTa Trj 7ri(TT6i Trpocr/Va/x/Sa- XIV. I 

Or eTridvfj.iav. 

of the instrument; here, tlie 
rule, or regulating principle. 

KOJ/XOIS Kal |U,e$ais] In Gal. v. 
21, amongst ra epya T^S crapKos 
occur together /xe^at, KGO/XOI, as 
also (in verse 20) epi?, ^/Vo?, 
and (in verse 19) as an equi 
valent for Kotrais KOL acreXyetats 
here, a/ca^apcrt a, acre Ayeia. 

Wisdom xiv. 23, 7} 
e^a/VXaiv ^ecr/aajv KOJ/XOUS 
ayorres. 2 Mace. vi. 4, TO /xei/ 
yap icpoi/ acroorta? Kal KOJ/X.COV VTTO 
TWI/ eOvwv 7re7r\tjpwTO. I Pet. 
iv. 3, omxjbAuytcu?, KW/XOIS, TTO- 

/xe^at?] The plural as in 
Judith xiii. 15, ei/ <2 Kare/cetro 
ei/ rat? /xe^ats avroS. 

KOtrats Kai acreXyetais] Wis 
dom xiv. 26, ya/xwv ara^ta, /xoi- 
p^et a Kat acreA.yeta. 

ao-eXyetats] The plural as in 
I Pet. iv. 3, TreTTOpev/xei/oi;? ev 
acreXyetai?, eTTi^v/xtats K.rA. 2 
Pet. ii. 2. 

eptSt Kat ^ A-o)] 2 Cor. xii. 20, 
/x,?; TTCOS epts, ^09, Ovpoi K.r.X. 

14. eySuo-ao-^e] The tense 
expresses one decisive act of 
godly resolution. Pw ow (ift- 
res^ yourselves with] Christ, in 
the exercise of that iimon with 

Him luJiich is already yours in 
possession. Gal. iii. 27, 60-06 yap 
15 Xpicrrov ej3a.TTTi(j6r]Te, Xptaroi/ 
ei eSuo-ao-^e. Compare Eph. iv. 
24, Kat eVSvcracr^ai TOI/ Kaivov 

K.r.X. Col. iii. IO. 
rys crapKos] For the genitive, 
depending on TrpoVoiav (thought 
for), compare 2 Mace. xiv. 9, 
TOT} TrepucTTa/xei oi; yerous TjfJiwv 
TrpovotjOwri. i Tim. v. 8, ct Se 
rts Tooy tStcuv Kal /xa/Xttrra ot- 
Kto)V OTLI Trpovoti [or TrpovoetratJ. 

ets eVt^u/xt a?] Explained 
by vi. 12, ctb TO Tj7raKot)eiv 
Tat? eTrt^v/xtais auroG (TOU O~CD- 

XIV. I. Tot/ Sc] The Se is 
transitional. To turn to another 
topic. The last subject was sub 
ordination : The Christian a 
citizen. The present is tolera 
tion: The Christian a fellow- 

da-Oevovvra] This use of 
aV0ej/ti/ as expressive of over- 
scrupulosity of conscience, is 
peculiar to St Paul. See the 
parallel passage in i Cor. viii. 

Trj TTt o-Tet] In point of (in the 
matter of) his faith; that is, 
here, his Christian confidence; 



2 i/ecr$e, JJLY] el? SiaKpicreis ^ 
7TLCTT6V6L (payelv TravTa, 6 Se dcrdevwv 


his apprehension of the extent 
of Christian liberty in matters 
of conduct. See note 011 iv. 19, 
rrj Trtcrret. 

dveaOe] Take, to 
yourselves for the exercise to 
wards him of all offices of love 
and charity. See note on xi. 15, 
7rpoGrX?7/xi//is. And add to the 
passages there quoted, Acts 
xviii. 26, Trpoo-eXa/jovro avrov 
Kat aKpt/^ecrrepoi avT(3 ete ^evTO 
rrjv 686v. Philern. 17, ei ovv /xe 
e^et? KoirooroV, TrpoaXafiov avrov 
a>s exe. 

prj efc] JTotf 
cernments (discriminations) of 
doubts. That is, ^o^ so as ^o sit 
in judgment upon his scruples 
even with a view to settling 
or removing them, but rather 
in a spirit of toleration and 
sympathy towards them. For 
SiaVpuri?, see Job xxxvii. 16, 
LXX. CTrtWacrai S SiaKpicru/ ve- 
<><jjv (hoio to part and dissipate 
them), i Cor. xii. 10, aAAa> 8e 
Sta.Kpureis Tr^evyttarcov. Heb. V. 
14, vrpo? S/.a/cptcrtv KaXov re Kat, 
KaKor. Compare Job xii. n, cws 
/xev yap prjfJiaTCL Sta/cptVet, \dpvy 
Se o-ira K.r.A. In each case the 
word expresses a process of dis 
cernment or discrimination be 
tween things of opposite natures. 
See note on iv. 20, BicKpiQvj. 
For SiaXoyioyW, reasonings (whe 
ther in the form of doubts, 

as in Luke xxiv. 38, rt Sta- 
Xoytcr/xot aVa^atVofcrtj/ ev rf) 
KapSta Vju,wi> ; or of disputes, 
as in Phil. ii. 14, vcopts yoy- 

^ V O \ 

yvcr/xoji Kat otaAoytcr/xcov. I 
Tim. ii. 8, x^P^ 5 opy>/s Kat 8ta- 
see note on i. 21, 

Sta/Voy/.cr/xot ?. 

2. os /ia ...o Se] Matt. xiii. 
4, 5 5 a /xey eTrecrei/.. .a/\Xa beK.r.X. 
Mark iv. 4, 5, o /xei/ cTrecrev... 
Kat aXXo K.r.X. Luke viii. 5, 6, 

/xev e7recrei ...Kat erepov K. T. X. 

1 Cor. xi. 21, Kat os /^-ev Treti/a, 
os Se fJL0vL. xii. 8, 9, <S /xei/ yap 
8ia TOV -jrvtv/JLaros StSorat Xoyos 
cro(^)tas, aXXa) 8e...repcu...ttXXa) 
8e K.T.X. 

TTtore^et ^>. TT.] //as confi 
dence to eat. Is satisfied in 
Ids conscience as to the, essen 
tial indifference of all kinds of 
food. Two chief questions would 
arise in scrupulous minds in 
the early days of the Church; 
(i) as to the duty of observing 
distinctions of clean and unclean 
food, as laid down in the Jewish 
ceremonial law; (2) as to the 
lawfulness of eating meat which 
might have been offered in sa 
crifice to an idol; upon which 
see i Cor. viii. throughout. 

Xot^ava eV#t et] As the only 
certain method of avoiding the 
above risk of pollution from idols. 
For Xd^ava, see Gen. ix. 3, LXX. 
ws Xd^ava \6prov SeScoKa VJMV ra 

XI Y. 24. 


6 dcrdiwv TOV p.r] eorQiovra jmr] e^ovBe- 3 
6 $e /nil e(r6itov TOV ecrdiovTa jut} Kpi- 
verw 6 0609 yap avrov Trpoo-eXaflero. crv 4 
T*9 ei 6 Kpivwv dXXorpLOv oiKeTtj 

KVplW (TT^KCL j] TTLTTTeC <TTa6t]CTTai (), 


Travra. i Kings xxi. 2, /cat carat decisive act of acceptance at 
/xot ets KrjTTov Xa^dvMv. Psalm conversion and baptism. 


xxxv. 2, cocret 

Prov. xv. 17, ^evtfr//,o? Xa^a^wv. 

Matt. xiii. 32. Mark iv. 32. 

Luke xi. 42, oVoSe/v-aTcwTe 

Ka TO Tr 

crv TIS et] Zoo/j at thy- 
is tJn .re in tJiee to 
give thee this right of judging? 

ot/ce r^v] Not Sov/Voi/ only, 

yjyavov /cat TraV but otKer?;v (domestic ). The 
choice of the word adds tlie 

3. e^o^^vetro)...KptveTOj] The thought of an impertinent mis 
appropriate words : despise, as trusion into another s liousehold 
absurdly scrupulous; judge, as to criticize and censure. For 
presumptuously indifferent. For otKer^, sec, for example, Deut. 

xv. 17, LXX. Kat eWat OLK^T^ 
aov et<? TOV atojva. Luke xvi. 13. 


, see, for example, I 
Sam. i. 6, LXX. Sta TO ^ovOevelv 

ii. 30, o eoi>$ei/a)i/ //e Acts x. 7? </>ion^ras Suo 

Luke xviii. 9, 
TreTTOt^oVas e^> eavTots ort 

i Pet. ii. 18. 

ot/catot, /cat i 
AOITTOVS. i Cor. i. 28, 

Gal. iv. 1 4, 

/cat TOV 7reipa.crp.ov 

I Cor. xvi. 13, yprjyopurf, CTTTJ- 


T(O iStu) /cvpt oj] / ?s m relation 
to his own Master that he either 
stands or falls. His own Master 
is the Judge, not you, of his 
error or rectitude. For crnjKew, 
...OVK ^ovOv>j(TaT ou Se ee7TTu- to remain standing, to retain 
cro.T. For KpivtiV) see note on uprightness, to be stedfast, see 

11. I, KpWWV. 

6 eos yap] God, in either KCTC ev r^ irtart 

case, that of the scrupulous and /c.r.A. Gal. v. i. Phil. i. 27. 

that of the free, accepted him, iv. i. i Thess. iii. 8. 2 Thess. 

took him to Himself in Christ, ii. 15. 

and thus (i) showed that he o-Try/cei 7} Trwrrei] Compare 

was not to be despised, not to i Cor. x. 12, COO-TC o So/ccov ec 

be condemned; (2) took him out vat pXcircru /xr) Wo 
of the jurisdiction of any tribu- o-Ta^crerat 8c] 

nal but His own. The tense of iriTrrei as though the result of 

expresses the one Gods judgment were doubtful in 

W, 17 



5 ^ap O KVplOS (TTtjffCU CLVTOV. O5 fJiZV KplVl 

pav Trap" ii/uepav, os Se Kpii/ei Tracrav 

6 eKacrTOs ev TW L^LM vol 7r\r]po(popLcr6(jo . o <ppo- 
vt*)v T)\V q/uiepav Kvpicc (bpovei* KOL 6 ecrOitov 

5. Or p. yap K. 

the case supposed. But I say 
more: lie shall not fall; he shall 
be pronounced to have preserved 
Ids integrity, if this be the only 
point at issue. 

ora^o-erai] /Shall be esta 
blished. /Shall be kept standing. 
Matt. xii. 25, 26, TTOJS ow <JTU- 
$?7(reTat, t] (3a<TL\6ia avrov; Mark 
iii. 24. Luke xi. 18. Kcv. vi. 
17? ^Of.v rj rjp.ipa rj /xeyaXv; r^s 
avrov [07* atrcuv], Kat Tt s 

yap] T/ie power of 
Christ to secure His servants in 
the judgment is not affected by 
these differences of opinion on 
ceremonial points. For 
see 2 Cor. xiii. 3, 6s eis 
OUK acr^ever, aXAa SvvarcT iv vp.1v 
(the only passage in which it 
occurs without variety of read 

o /cvpios] That Master. From 
TO) tSi o) Kvpio) above. 

5. os yuey] Another illustra 
tion. The observance of the ce 
remonial Law in its prescription 
of holy days and seasons. See 
Gal. iv. 10 

Kat Kdipovs Kat 
Col. ii. 1 6, /XT) ow rts 
K/otFCTO) cv /Spwcret ry ei/ TTO- 

cret - ei/ /xepet coprs vovp.r]Via$ 
?y craft j3a.Tu>v. 

KpiVet] Judyes, accounts, reck 
ons. So in Acts xiii. 46, Kat 
OTJK atovs KptVere eatiro^s T^S 
atcoi/t ou ^o>^s. xxvi. 8, rt uVtOTOi 
Kpti/erat Trap v/xti K.r.A. 

Trap rj/xe par] /StWe % S1 c ^ 
with, in comparison u ith, and 
so beyond, more than, in pre 
ference to. See note on i. 25, 

iracrav ^juepav] Understand 
tCTTyf, as implied in the contrast 
with the clause above. 

Kaoros] Though essentially 
indifferent, these matters require 
that a Christian judgment be 
exercised %ipon them- by the indi 

7rA.?7po<opei(r$(o] Be satisfied; 
fully assured. See note on iv. 
21, TrX^po^op^^ets. 

6. o </>poyd>v] He ivho minds 
the day; makes a sentiment of 
it; has a thought and feeling 
about it. See note on viii. 
5, (f>povovcrw. All these things 
must be viewed in their religious 
bearing, in their aspect towards 
Christ (Kupiw <povet, ecrdtet, 
&c.): then we shall be safe in 
either decision regarding them. 

XIV. 5io. 



ito eordiei, eu^apio-rel yap TW 0eor Kat 6 
fif) ecrQiwv KupiM OVK ecrOiei Kat ev^apia-Tel TCO 
Gew. ovdets yap *}fjiu>v eavTw 37, Kai ovdeis J 
eavrw dTToBvtjorKei. edv re yap ^aJ/uLev, TW KVptw 8 
(^uei/, edv T6 
6vt?O"KOfJi.ev. edv re 
p.ev, TOU Kvpiov evjuiev. ek TOVTO yap XpKrros 9 
djreQavev Kat e^rja ev *iva KCU veitpcov Kat fyvruov 
Kvpieva-tj. cru $e TL Kptvets TOV d$e\<pov orov ; // 10 

8. Or iav re dirodi r](rKo/j.v (twice). 

ev re 

Kvpp...fcvpta)] In relation to 

a Master. 

^apt(TTt yap] .Po?" he gives 
thanks. As lie, shows by giving 

Kat o fjtrj e<j$iW] Even the scru- 
pulous man, ivho refrains from 
this or that kind of food, or who 
eats only herbs, still thanks God 
over his scantier meal, and by so 
doing acknowledges his relation 
to Another. 

Kvpiia OVK ecr^tet] In relation 
to a Master (with distinct refer 
ence to Christ) he refrains from 
eating, and none the less gives 
thanks to God. 

7j 8. ouSet? yap.. .aTroOvrjcrKO- 
p.ev] This reference, of everything, 
not to himself, but to another 
this relation to another, even 
Christ is the characteristic of a 
Christian both in his life and in 
his death. 

8. lav re ow UUV And the 

necessary inference from this re 
ference and relation to another, 
is, that we belong to thai other. 
Death itself does not break the 
tie. In life and in death we 
are His. 

(). cts TOUTO yap] A result 
wJdch was the direct object of the 
death and resurrection of Christ, 
and ivhich consequently lie will 
not noiv frustrate. 

aTredavev Kat eT^crei/] Rev. i. 
1 8, tyfvofJirjv Ft/epos Kai I8ov dn> 
ei/x,t ets TOWS atwyas TCOV aiooi/an/. 
The tense of e^o-ev points to the 
moment of resurrection. 

Kvpifva-y] Gen. iii. 16, LXX. 
Kat avros orov Kvpievuei. 2 Chron. 
xx. 6, Kat av Ki pte^eis TracrcGv rwi/ 
/3acriXaun/ TOJI/ i6v>v. Dan. ii. 
39, Kai (3acn\La, rpirrj... )) Kvpteu- 
o-ci TTCXCT^S riys 7^5. See note on 
vi. 9, Kvpievei. 

10. av Se TI] This relation 
to Christ is inconsistent with any 



Kai (TV TL e^ovUeveis TOV d$\(p6v crov ; 
II yap 7rapa(TTr]or6/uie6a TW /Sri/maTi TOV Qeou. <ye- 
ydp, Zw eyto, \ejL Kvptos, OTL G/ULOL 

stand it to mean, Hive, because, 
&c., that is, My life depends upon, 
I stake my existence upon, the 
truth of the following statement. 
But an examination of paral 
lel passages gives us variations 
which could not thus be ex 
plained. For instance, Num. 
xiv. 28, LXX. d> eyco, Xe yet Kvpios, 
et fj^tj . . . ovTto TrotTycrco V/MV. I Sam. 
xix. 6, $ Ka pto?, et oVo^avetrai. 
Ezek. v. 1 1, co eyco, Xe yet "AStorat 
Kt pto?, et /JLI] . . . KO.I eyco aTrcocro- 
/xat ere K.T.X. xiv. 1 6, 1 8, 20, 
co eyco, eyco, ov fj,rj pvcriov- 
Tat VLOVS. ,.co eyco, eai/ vtot ?/ UV- 
yaTepes u7roXet^>$co<rii avTois K.T.X. 
xvii. 1 6, co eyco...etxi/ JJL^ K.T.X. 
xxxiii. ii, to eyco... ot /5ouXo/xat 
K.T.X. xxxv. ii, co eyco, Xe yet 
Kuptos Kvpto?, Kat TTOir/crco eV crot 
K.T.X. We must therefore re 
gard the co eyco as a detached 
clause, meaning, By my life, As 
I live. The et or e oV in the 
above quotations implies (as in 
the Hebrew) a suppressed clause, 
ov co, or ov TrtaTos et/xt, to ex 
plain the negative sense which 
they convey. The oYt in this 
place is that, not because, de 
pending on O/JLVVM in the passage 
quoted from Isaiah. Compare, 
for like phrases of asseveration 
(with OTI), 2 Cor. i. 18, Trto-Tos 
Se d eo?, 6Vt d Xdyos ?7/xcoV o 
Trpds v^nas OVK ecTTtv vat Kat ov. 

similar relation to man. We can 
not belong, ice cannot be account 
able in the highest sense, to more 
than one Person. 

crv 8e] That is, o p.rj ecr^twv, o 
(frpovwv TTfv >//xepai/, &c. The man 
not yet emancipated in conscience 
from the ceremonial yoke. 

rj Kat o"u] That is, o ecr^ttoi/, o 
fjiifj <poi/ouj/, tkc. The more enlight 
ened Christian. 

7rapa(TTr]cr6[jicOa] We shall pre 
sent ourselves beside, at, before 
(see note on ii. n, Trapa). Com 
pare 2 Cor. v. 10, (fravtpwOrjvaL 
oet f./JiTrpouOev TOV /^/xaTo? TOV 
XptcTTov. See note 011 vi. 13, 
Traptaravere. . .TrapacrrrycraTe. 

(3r]fjiaTi] Tound in the t\vo 
senses, of (i) a step, as in Dent. 
ii. 5, LXX. o^Se firjfJia. 7ro8o9. Ec- 
clus. xix. 30, /3>7ju,aTa dvOpwirov 
cxvayyeXet TO. Trept CLVTOV. xlv. cj. 
Acts vii. 5; (2) a stage, as in 
Nehem. viii. 4, eVt /3r/p,aro? V\L- 
vov K.T.X. or tribunal; in Matt. 
xxvii. 19. John xix. 13. Acts 
xii. 21. xviii. 12, 16, 17, /x- 
Trpoo-Oev TOV /Srf/xaros. xxv. 6, 
10, 17, CTTI rou /^///xaros Katcrapos 

II. yeypaTrrat yap] Tsai. xlv. 
23, 24, LXX. /car e/xcurroi) O/A- 


Kat oyaelrat Tracra yXcucrcra TOf eor. 

Zo3 eyca...oTt] If this phrase 

stood alone, we might under 

XIV. ii 


KctjUi\l/eL TTav lyovv Kcti 7rd(ra r y 
fJLO\oyr]<reTaL TW 0ew. apa e/cacrro? IJUJLWV 12 
Trepi eavTOv \6yov aVo^cJcret TW Qew. 

MriKCTi ovv aAA^ Acws Kpivwimev, a/\,\a TOVTOI^ 
KpivaTe }Jia\\oV) TO yU^ TtOevai TrpocrKOfjifJLa TW 

f] <TKava\ov. oiSa Kat TrtTreio-fJiai eV 14 

Ji. Or e. TT. y\. 12. Or a. ovv e. Or \. 5w<m. 
xi. IO, ecrTtv uAry $eta 1 

t 77 

i Ka//i//et Trav yoVv] 111 
token of submission. The verb 
is used intransitively here and 
in Phil. ii. 10; transitively in 
xi. 4, and Eph. in, 1 4. See note 
on xi. 4, CKa/ui^av yovv. 

eo/xoA.oy?;creTai] Shall tell out 
its acknowledgments; whether 
in the form of confession, as in 
Matt. iii. 6. Marki. 5. Acts xix. 
1 8. James v. 16 ; or of praise, as in 
xv. 9. Matt. xi. 25. Lukex. 21. 
Verse 1 2 makes the former tlio 
predominant sense here, as in 
Phil. ii. ii the same word is 
used (in allusion to the same 
passage of Isaiah xlv.) rather in 
the other sense : e^o/aoAoyryo-^rat 

OTL KVptOS l^crOVS X/3tCTTO?. 

12. a/>a] x. 17, apa rj TTICTTIS 
c aKo^s. Luke xi. 48, apa 
//.aprvpe s ecrre K.r.X. I Cor. xv. 
1 8, apa Kat ot KOt/XTy^eVrcs i/ 
Xpio-Tw aTTcoXoi/ro, 2 Cor. vii. 
12. Heb. iv. 9, apa aVoAetVeTac 

l<TyU.OS K.T.X. 

Trept earroi)] About himself, 
not about his neighbours. There 

Or omit ru Gecp. 

fore (i) let him take heed to his 
own conduct: (2) let him refrain 
from censuring another s. 

Aoyov oVoSojcrei] Matt. xii. 
36, aVoScocroucriv Trept avrov X6- 
yov iv T^/ae pa Kptcraos. Acts xix. 
40, ajroSowai Aoyov Trept rrjs av- 
o~Tpo^>ry? rauTTy"?. Heb. xiii. 17,0 ? 
Aoyov a7roSaJO"ovre9. I Pet. iv. 5, 
o c t aoowcrovcrtv Aoyov T(3 erotjuto? 
e^ovrt KpTvat ^tuvra? Kat ve/cpovs. 
The converse of atretv Aoyov in 
i Pet. iii. 15. 

13. aAAa TOIJTO] But if you 
must be judges, let this be your 
judgment not to place a stum- 
blingblock in your brother s way. 
The tense of Kptrare expresses 
once for all; as that of Kptvo)/%ev 
(above) denotes habitually. 

7rpo o~Ko/xju.a] See note on ix. 

TOJ aSeAc^w] Him tcho is a 
brother. Your brother. 

o-K-a rSaAov] See note on ix. 
33, o-Kav2a Aov.^ 

14. Kat 7reVeio-p:ai] See note 
on viii. 38, 7re7reto-/xat yap OTI. 

iv Kvptw] As one included in 
Christ, and exercising that union 
in the particular judgment here 




15 XojL^o/ULevw TL KOivov eivai, eKzivw KOLvov. el yap 
Sid (3 papa 6 d$e\<p6s (rov \v7relTcu, OVK<=TI Kara 
TrepLTrctTels. fjir] TW ftpM/mari <rov 

expressed. See notes on vi. n, 
ev Xpio-TGJ I^croL . ix. i, eV 

KOLVOV] Open to all, as ayios 
is set apart for God. Hence un 
holy, defiled, i Mace. i. 47, 62, 
KOLL M^ypioOrjcrav ev avrois rov (Jf,r) 
^aye^v Kotva. Mark vii. 2, KOL- 
vats -xtpviv. Acts x. 14, 28, 
KOIVOV /cat aKa.0a.pTOV. xi. 8. Heb. 
x. 29, TO at/xa T^S BLaOi]Kr]<; KOL 
VOV ryy^aa/xei/og, iv a> tjyLa.o O r]. 
Kev. xxi. 27, ov /XT) flo-e\6r) ets 

KOL i^e{;So?. TllUS the 
verb KOIVOW, to defile. Matt. xv. 
n. Mark vii. 15, &c. Acts xxi. 
28. Heb. ix. 13. 

ovSev K. OL aurov] Noticing 
is unclean l>y means of itself. 
Nothing has any intrinsic or 
essential pollution. Explained 
and limited by Mark vii. 15, ov- 
Se v eo-Tiv e cco^ev rov dvOpwTrov 
eto"7roperd/xevo^ cts avrov o $vva- 
rai aurov Koivdlcrat. In matters 
of ceremonial observance, defile 
ment is not essential (Si* O.VTOV) 
but relative (eKetvw). 

et py] Except. Only. But 
toith this exception. But you 
must add this exception. Com 
pare I Cor. vii. 17, et pr) eKa- 
o Kvptos...ovro>s 

Gal. i. 7, et p.-^ 
LO~LV OL Tapao"crovre? V/JLO.S. 

15. et yap] ^4?ic/ i?7ia^ re^a- 
fo ue defilement must be respect 
ed in your conduct; for, &c. 
Though you may not share the 
scruple, you must regard it ; for, 
if you, for the sake of your own 
gratification, hurt or wound an 
other, you break the law of 

o id /3po3/xa] For the sake of 
a piece of food. The absence of 
the article expresses such a thing 
as food ; so trifling and con 
temptible a thing. It has almost 
the effect of avrt /^paxrews /xias 
in Heb. xii. 16. 

d aSeA^os o-oi/j One who is 
thy own brother. Added (in 
sharp contrast with Sia /2p<J3/xa) 
to aggravate the heinousiiess of 
the sin. 

AuTretrat] Is distressed, hurt, 
wounded. But the clause which 
follows (jUT/ r. (3. <r. eKeivov ctTro/X- 
A/ue K.r.A.) gives to AfTretrat a 
more serious aspect, as though 
hurt in the sense of grieved 
might pass on into hurt in the 
sense of injured; injured by 
being induced to follow the ex 
ample of indifference to scruples 
before the conscience has ac 
cepted the principle. 

XIV. 1- 


a7ro\\ve VTrep ov XjOiO TO? a.7re6avev. /ULI] fi\acr- 16 
<pn fJLcia &M ovv VfJLwv TO dyadov. ov yap (TTLV 7/17 
pacriXeia TOV Qeou fipwarLS KCLI TTOO^S, d\\cc 
%iKaio<rvvri Kai eiprjvri Kai 

aVo AAue] Become the Apol- 
li/on of. Rev. ix. n, lv rfj 
JEAA^vi/oJ ovo/Jia. e^et A.TTO\,\VMV. 
Ail awful warning as to the 
effect of wounding a conscience 
even in small matters. See i 
Cor. viii. 10, n, ov-^L tj crwei- 
O rjo~is avTov dcrGevovs oVro? ot/coSo- 

/ as TO ra etSooXo^uTa 

; aTroAA/urai yap d ao-^ei o)i/ 
eV Trj orfj -yvcocret, d aSeX^os Si ov 
Xptcrrd? diredaiV. 

1 6. jar) /5Aaa-^7/xeitr^oj] The 

place of V/ACOV makes it emphatic : 

Ae blessing which you, who are 
enlightened as to the true breadth 
and compass of the Christian 
liberty, enjoy in all such matters. 
Let not this which is in itself so 
good and comfortable a tiling be 
exposed to reproach and censure, 
by being obtruded upon the no 
tice of others who are not yet 
ripe for it. See i Cor. x. 29, 
iVtt TI yap $ eAei^ept a JJLOV Kpi- 
vcrat VTTO aAA^q {jweiSr/creoos ; 

l9a) See i Cor. 

X. 30, ei eyw xapin /xere^a), TI 
/3Aacr^7//,oyzat, inrep ov eyw ev- 
Xapio-Tw; If by Gods favour 
to me (in enlightening my con 
science) I am able to partake 
without scruple of any kind of 
food, why am I to expose myself 
to blame and reproach in my 

V. K. 

use of that for which I yice 
thanks ? There is a sort of jar 
and discord between my thanks 
giving and tJte bystander s rc- 
p roaches, which I ought by ail 
means to avoid. For /3/\ao-(/7- 
//eicr$ui in this sense, see iii. 8, 
Ka$ajs /3Xa.<T<f)r]iJiov/j.@fi K.T.A.. I 
Tim. vi. I, ira /x^...ry Si8ao"KaA(. a 
/^Aacr^ry/rfyrai. Tit. ii. 5, iVa /x?/ 
d Aoyos rou 0eoG /^Aacr^Ty/x^Tat. 
2 Pet. ii. 2, Si ots i] dSds T//S 

r/jLo>v TO aya^di/] Equivalent 
to r/ e^ouata u/xwi/ in i Cor. viii. 
9, to 77 0-7} yvuxris in i Cor. viii. 
ii, and to 7j eXevOepia. jjiov in 

1 Cor. x. 29. 

17. 01! ya/) earn ] It is 
not necessary it is not worth 
icliile for, &c. This is not the 
essence of the Gospel, this free 
dom to eat and to drink : the 
kingdom of God is something 
higher than this. 

rj /?ao-iAcia /c.r.A.] Luke xvii. 

2 1 , iSou ycxp >J /3ao~iAeia TOV Qeou 


^pdjo"is Kai Trdcris] Col. ii. 1 6, 
/xr) ovv ris v/xas /cpiveVo) Iv ^Spaj(ret 
rj ev Trdcrci /c.r.A. 

tlprjvri K. ^. i/ 7ri/6v//.aTi] Gal. 
v. 22, d Se KapTrds TOU Trvev/xaros 
ecrriv aydirj], a e/r K.r.A. 



6 yap eV TOVTCO oov\vcov TCO 
IQ cipa ovv TCI Ttjs eipt)vr]$ dicoKcojUiev Kat TO. TJ;S OLKO- 
20 SojULtjs Ttjs els ct\\ij\ov$. /uir] eveitev fipoafJiaTOs 
TO epyov TOU Qeou. TTCLVTCL (Jiev KCI- 

house or temple to Christians 
collectively (as i Cor. iii. 17) 
and individually (as i Cor. vi. 
19), the figure of building is 
naturally used to express their 
improvement and advancement 
in the Christian life. For ex 
ample, Eph. ii. 22, iv M Kai v/JLeis 
o"woiKoSop,icr$e (are in process 
of building up together} cis KO.TOI- 

KtjT tjplOV TOU COU iv TTVf.13jJia.Ti. 

See XV. 2, et; TO dyaOov Trpos OLKO- 
I Cor. xiv. 3, 5, 12, 26, 
Act/Vet OLKoOof.u]v. . . iva. 
LKO^o/Jirjv Xd{3r)... 
Trai/ra Trpo? otKoSo/xy}i/ yti/ecr^u). 
2 Cor. x. 8, et<? oiKoSo/x,r}v Kat OVK 
et? Ka^atpetrti/ v//.d>j/. xii. 19. 
xiii. 10. Eph. iv. 12, 16, 29, 
et? otKoSo/x>}j/ TOU o"co/xaTOs TOV 


T ^ cts aA-A-T^XoTJ?] Compare 
i. 12, Sta TT^S eV aXA.^Aots Trto-Ttcos. 

20. eVeKev /^pcj/xaTO?] See 
note on verse 15, oid ySpojtia. 

KaTa/Vue] Perhaps suggested 
by otKoSoya^s above, Xv etv or KO.TO.- 
Xvciv being the exact opposite 
of otKoSo/xttv. See John ii. 19, 


Kat ereoriv WKO- 

iS. Or omit the former TW. 

iv TrvevfjWLTi ct-ytw] Inside (as 
their home or atmosphere or con 
taining element} a Tri/ev/za aytoj/. 
See notes on v. 5, Sia Tri/ev/ic.ros 
ayiov. ix. T, e.v Tr^euyttart ayiw. 

1 8. cy rovra)] Herein. In 
this way. In the pursuit and 
exercise of these spiritual graces, 
Acts xxiv, 1 6, Iv TOVTU Kai 
ao"/<aj aTrpotTKOvrov 
7T505 TOV 0eoi/ /cat 

cmpecrro?] See note oil xii. i, 

So/a/xos rots av^pcoTTOts] By 
the gentleness and beauty of 
his character. See Luke ii. 52, 

Trapcx ew /cat ai/^pojTroi?. I Pet. 
iii. 13, Kat rts o Ka/ccoo-cov r/xas 
eav TOV ayaOov 77X0)70.1, yei/Tycr^e ; 
For 8oKt/xo?, see xvi. 10, rov 80- 
KL/JLOV f.v Xpiorro). Also note on 
i. 28, eooKt/juwrav. 

19. apa ow] See note on 
vn. 3? apa ovi/. 

StcoKooyLtev] See note on ix. 

30, SlC JKOl/Ta . . . Ka.T\OL/3V. 

otKoSo/^s rrys /C.T.X.] J/w- 
iifa^ improvement. From the 
frequent application of the term 

XIV. 18 2 



Bapd, d\\d KO.K.OV TW dvdptoTrw TW Sid 
fJictTOs (r6iovTi. Ka\ov TO jULt] (paryelv Kpea jULqSe 21 
oivov jULtj^e eV M 6 a $e/\c/)o9 crou TTQOITKO- 

\ f ,\ ,f \ \ >f 

(TV 7TL(TTIV t]V C^i5 KCtTCt (TCl\JTOV V6 22 

22. Or TT. e ^etr (o?* TT. ^xets;) K. 

fj.ov, ov f^rj <j>ayoj /cpea ei<j TO^ 
aicuFa, iz/a jj^yj TOV a8eX^)oi/ yaov 
cTKavSaXtcroj. The form Kpe a (or 
Kpe ara), common in the Septua- 
girit, occurs only in these two 
places of the New Testament. 

o vaos ouro<?. Gal. ii. 18, 
i yap a Kare.Vucra. raura TraXii/ 


TO Ipyoi/ TOU ou] Explained 
by Phil. i. 6, o ivap^d^evos eV 
vfjuv Zp-yov dyaOov CTrtreXecret K.T./\. 
See also I Cor. iii. 9, eou yap 
CCT//CJ/ crvvepyoL. . .eo{5 otKoSo^ar/ 
tore. J o wound tlie, weak con 
science in the manner spoken of 
is to thwart and eventually to 
destroy the good work ivhich God 
had begun in that soul. 

TrdvTa jJikv /ca0apa] Limited as 
above : see note on verse 14, 
KOLVOV SC avrov. 

aKoj/] But tuoe to the 
man whose disregard of ceremo 
nial rides puts a snare in ano 
ther s way. 

Bid TrpocrKOjU/xaros] Through, 
amidst, in a state of, offence. 
Who so eats as to cause an 
impediment or snare to another. 
See note on ii. 27, Sid ypdp- 

21. KaXov TO /JLIJ] It is well 
to forego anything the most in 
nocent enjoyments, the very ne 
cessaries, of life, if the use of 
them can by possibility wound 
the conscience or injure the soul 
of another, i Cor. viii. 13, ct 

thing wherein thy brother stum 
bles. (The words added in the 
received text, r} o-KarSaXi^erat r) 
dcrOevel, though not without 
strong support, are probably a 
gloss.) The force of eV is best 
seen by an inversion of the ren 
dering : anything tchich involves 
(contains in itself) thy brother s 
fall. In i Cor. x. 31, the Troteti/ 
(here understood) is expressed: 
etre ovv ecr^t ere eire TriVere etre Tt 
Troietre K.r.X. For the sense of 
Trpoo-Ko/rm, compare i Cor. viii. 
9, /^XeVere Se /XT; TTWS 77 e fouo-ta 
f auTT; Trpocr/co/z/xa yeV^rat rot? 
See also note on ix. 


7?i?i of Chris 

tian freedom : the ry /cai crv of 
verse 10. 

av TTtoriv] ybwr faith is 
strong. You have none of these 
weak scruples. Enjoy then the 
blessing ivhich God has thus 
given you. But enjoy it Kara 
creauroV, not obtruding it upon 


248 nPOE PftMAIOYS. 

V(ti7TlOV TOU QOV. lUiaKaplOS 6 Mr} KQLVMV 6< 

/ J I 

23 eV w SoKijUid^eL. 6 $e ?)iaKf}iv6fJivos idv (fidytj 


XV. I Q<p6L\oiuL6i> $e >;/xe?s ol ^vvctTOi TU 

others ; and enjoy it IVMTTLOV TOU 
eov, as one vi ho must give 

TmjTtv] Confidence. See TTLV- 
Tevti in verse 2, and Triorecos in. 
verse 23. 

r/v ^?] Observe the alter 
native reading, which omits r/v, 
and reads either e^ets" or e ^e/,9 ; 

Kara o-eavroi/] ^ls regards 
thyself. On thine own account. 
My thyself and to thyself. See 
Acts xxviii. 16, eVerpaTTTy TOJ 
/j.VLV Koff eavrov K.r.X. 

o /XT/] -4 no? happy is 
he toho has no misgivings, no 
self-accusing and self-condemn 
ing thoughts, in the matter of 
that which he approves; of that 
which he professes to think law 
ful and to do without scruple. 
Happy lie whose practice, in the 
discarding of observances, does 
not outrun his convictions. For 
Kpwf.iv in the sense (given it by 
the context) of condemning, 
compare, for example, John vii. 
51. Acts xiii. 27. See note on 
ii. i, Kpivtav. For 
see note on i. 28, e 

23. o Se SiaKptvo/x.ei os] He 
who doubts : see note on iv. 20, 

Is already (by 
the very act of eating] condemn 
ed. Compare John iii. 18, o 
/-try TricrTeuoov rySiy KCKptrat. See 
note on vii. 2, Kariypy^Tat O.TTO. 

CK Tricrrecos] 6Ht q/" (as ^Ae 
resw^ of] confidence : that is, 
with the full conviction that he 
is doing right. 

TTuV Se J And (not only this 
particular act, but) everything 
which is not done out of a con 
viction that it is right is sin. 

XV. I. Ofa&ofjiev Se] 
Closely connected with the fore 
going chapter. See xiv. i, roV 
Se acr^evowra rfj Trio-ret TrpocrAa/x- 

ot Sui/arot. ..TCOV 
Persons of strong and weak 
faith; enlightened or unenlight 
ened as to the extent of our 
Christian freedom. For appli 
cations of the words Swaros and 
cxSwi/aros to persons, as here, see, 
for example, 2 Cor. xii. 10, 6Vav 
yap dcrOevw, Tore Suyaro s et/xt. 
xiii. g, -^aipo/jiev yap orav T/ /xets 
acr^evaJ/xev i;/xets 8e Swaroi ^re. 
Acts xiv. 8, xat rts aVTJp iv 
Aucrrpots aSvvaros 

XIV. 2 XV. 


para TWV dSuvdrwv fiaa-rd^eiv Kat /uu] 
dpecrKLv. e/cao-TO? 7/yuwi/ TM 7T\tj(riov d 
i? TO dyadov Trpos OLKO$O/UU]V. Kat yap 6 Xpi- 3 
CTT09 ov% eavTtt) ijpecrev, d\\d KaOcos yeypa- 
Trrai, Ol 6vei$io-/uioi TWV 6veLi(^6vTwv ere 
eireTrecrav eV e/ze. ocra yap 7rpoeypd(f>r] 9 e*s 4 

j/ eypd(f>rj 9 *lva Sid 

/?ao-Taetr] Matt. viii. 17, 
ai;ros TO,? acr^cveias r/fJLwv tXafiev 
Kat ras voaovs t/3acrracrei/. Gill. 
vi. 2, a/XA^Xoov ra /Sa/OTy ySacrra- 

2. rep irXtjCTiOV 

Cor. x. 33, Ka^oj? Kayo) travra. 
Trao-tv apecrKCO, /XT} ^roV TO e/xau- 
roi; o-v/Jiffropov aAAtt TO TCOI/ TTO/\- 
Ao"i iva o-co^ajo-tv. Ill any o^/^er 
sense than this (et s TO ayafloV.. 
7rpos ot/coSo/x>/V...tVa o-co^ojo-iv) he 
disclaims and forbids pleasing 
men: Gal. i. 10, et eVt dv8pu>- 
/, Xpto~TOii oo{5/\os OIJK 
Epll. vi. 6, fir) /caT* 
6<f>6a\p.o$ov\.Lav GJ? on OpujTrdpe- 
(TKOL. i Thess. ii. 4, OI!TOJS Aa- 
AoC/xev, ov^ oj? a.v0pioirois dpe- 
VKOvres aAAa @ea>. 

cts...7rpo s] The same dis 
tinction of the immediate and 
ultimate object by the help of 
tis and Trpos, is seen in Eph. iv. 
12, Trpo? TOV Ka.rapTicrp.ov rwv 
aytW, et? (.pyov Staxortas K. T.A. 
For oucoSo/A77, see note on xiv. 

IQ, OtKoSo/OyS Tr]s K.T.A. 

3. Kat yap o Xpto^To ?] 7^07* 
even Christ how much less we! 

aAAa Kayo s] T>ut, on f/te con 
trary, so entirely foryot Him 
self that He, lore the veri/ re 
proaches which icere designed for 
another even for God. 

Ka$oj? yeypaTTTai] 1 sal in Ixix. 
9, LXX. oVt o 


ye /ie, /cat ot 
TWV OVL$L,OVTO)V ere. eTreeo ot 

4. oVa yap] / thus o 
the above ivords from the Old 
Testament for, etc. 

Trpoeypd^ tT^ The verb Trpo- 
ypa ^eti has two uses : (i) to write, 
before, aforetime; as here and 
Eph. iii. 3, Ka^oj5 Trpoe ypai^a CK 
oAiyw K.T.A. ; (2) to write forth, 
publicly (as a notice or procla 
mation); as Gal. iii. i, ol? KaT 
o </>$aAp,oi>9 I^aoi;? Xptcrro? Trpoe- 
ypd^r] K.T.A. and (probably, con 
sidering the addition of TraAat) 
Jude 4, ot TraAat Trpoytypa/x^teVot 
ets ToCro TO Kpt/xa. 

StSao-KaAtW] 2 Tim. iii. 16, 
7rao-a ypa^r} ^eoTrreuoros Kat 
co^)eAi/xos Trpos StSacrKaAt av K.T.A. 
The word StSao-KaAta is used, in. 
the New Testament, only by St 



Kai Cia TYIS 7rapaK\ti crews TWV 

5 Tt]v e\7riSa e^co/mei;. 6 Se 0eo? 

Kal TJ/S 7rapaK\t]0-(jt)s Scar] vfjfiv TO avro (ppoveiv 

6 eV a AAf/Acu? /caret XpicrTov Iricrovv, iva 6/uLodu- 

eV ei/ (TTO/maTL So^dfyre TOI/ 0eoi/ /ca^ 

xv. 4. #? 

Paul (except in quotation, Matt, 
xv. 9. Mark vii. 7); 15 times 
in the Epistles to Timothy and 
Titus, and four times elsewhere. 
See xii. 7? etT d StSao^Kcov, et TrJ 
SiSao-KaAia. Also Prov. ii. 17, 
LXX. ?? a7roAt7roi}o"a ( 

Isai. xxix. 13. Jer. 
X. 8, TratScttt yaaTatorryrcoi/ ev a{>- 


jf/iac ice may 
have the hope (which is ours as 
Christians) by means of, &,c. 
That our hope may be maintained 
by, &c. 

8ta T^S v. Kat Sta TT^S] If the 
second Sta is retained, it may 
be better to take TOJI/ ypa^v 
as belonging to T^S TrapaKA^Veous 
only. By means of (i) that 
patience (ivhich is so essential a 
Christian grace) and by means 
of (2) that encouragement which 
belongs to (is contained in) the 

TTJV eATriSa] See note on xii. 
12, rrj e ATT tot. 

5. And may the God of (to 
whom belongs ; the Author and 
Giver of) that patience and that 
encouragement, &,c. Compare 
verses 13, 33, d Se eds TT}S eA- 

tlie ind 5ici. 

TrtSos . . . d 8e 

xvi. 20. 2 Cor. i. 3, c 
KCU eo9 
Phil. iv. 9. i 

Thess. v. 23. For vrro/Jiovij, see 

note on v. 3, virofMtvTijv. For 
rt?, note on xii. 8, Trapa- 

Later form of Sou/. 
Epli. i. 17. 2 Thess. iii. 16, d 
Kvptos Tvy? etp^i/7/s SCOT/ vp:ti/ rr)i/ 
dpujvrjv K.T. A. 2 Tim. i. 1 6, 1 8, So)^ 
tttrw o Kuptos evpeu/ eAeos /c.r.A. 

TO avrd <poi/eu/] See note on 
xii. 1 6, TO aiurd et?. 

Kara] According to (the 
teaching, example, and /Spirit 
of) Christ Jesus. See Col. ii. 8, 
Kat ov Kara Xpto Toi , 

6. c/aoftu/xaSoV] The word 
occurs ii times in the Acts; 
and there only (in the New 
Testament) with this exception. 

ei/ eVt crTOuaTi See note on 

X. 9, eV T(3 (TTOfJiOLTL CTOV. 

See note on i. 21, 

TOI/ edv /cat TraTtpaJ Either, 
the God and Father of our Lord 
(compare John xx. 17, oVa/jatVco 
TOV Trarepa fjiov KOL 
Kat eo^ /iou Kat eov 

XV. 5-8. 



>ecr6e aA\^Aoi/s, KaBws KCCL 6 Xpi- 
<TTO9 7rpo<T6\a(3eTO vjuias ef? (So^av TOV Oeou. 
\6<ya) jap XpicrTov ^ictKovov <yevt<r6aL TTCOLTOULVS 8 

f \ i -y /} r >"v -^ > \ r\ r\ 

VTrep a/\tiueias Weof ti? TO 

8. Or 

Eph. i. 17, o 0eo? TOV Kvpiov 
tjfjMV J^o-ou ~Xpio-Tov] ; or 7/i?^ 
w/to i 6 (i) God, and (2) Father 
of our Lord. The latter seems 
more in accordance with the 
common Scripture usage. 

7. 7rpo(rAa/x/3cu ecr$e] See 
notes on xi. i ^ 7rpoo-Ar//x J/t?. 

XIV. I, 

Ka^oj? Kat] We may well 
show consideration for others, 
without regard to differences of 
opinion or attainment, when we 
think how Christ took to Him 
self Jew and Gentile, men of all 
races and histories, that so lie 
mif/ht show forth the eternal 
praise of Gods holy name. 

7rpoo-e/\a/?ero] The tense ex 
presses Christ s work of re 
demption as a single act of 
receiving to Himself the whole 
Church, of Jews and Gentiles 

t? 8oai/] Unto glory; mani 
festation of God as that ivhich 
He is; especially (here) as a 
God of truth (\nrtp aX^^etas 0eov, 
verse 8). See note on iv. 20, 

.Tews awtZ Gentiles alike ; of 
Jews, in vindication of Gods 
veracity, tht He might make 
good the promises made to the 
fathers; of Gentiles, to draw 
forth a world-wide acknowledg 
ment of thai mercy which (ac 
cording to many express predic 
tions of the Old Testament Scrip 
tures) was to unite in one chore. s 
of prcdse the most diverse a ad 
opposite conditions of mankind. 
8iai<ovov~\ Matt. xx. 28, o vios 

TOV dv6p(JJTTOV OVK i]\Be.V StaKOVT?- 

O fjvai, a/XAa StttKoi^crat KCU Oovvai 
r rjv \f/v^rjv avTOV Xrnpov dvrl 
vroAAoH . Mark x. 45. Luke xxii. 
27, eyoj 8e ev /xecrw vfjujjv et/xt oj? 

8. Aeyo> yap] For I say 
my statement is that Christ 
became a minister (servant) of 

The absence of 
the article lays stress on tlm 
quality. Persons having the 
characteristic of circumcision. 
See note on iii. 30, Trepiro^rjv 
. . . Kat di<po(3v(TTiav. 

\nrtp aXr/6^eta? eoC] In behalf 
(vindication} of truthfulness on, 
the part of God. The absence of 
the article emphasizes the parti- 
cidar attribute in question. 

eis TO /3/3aiakrai T. e.] See 
iv. 1 6, ei* TO etvat ySeySatai/ T/jv 



9 eTrayyeXias TWV TraTepcov, TO, Se edvr} VTrep 
x TOV TO e^OjULoXoyrjcro/mai CTOL ev e6- 

~LV Kat TO) OVO^-dTl (TOV ^a\M. Kal 7TCI- 

\iv \eyei, Ev<ppdv6t]Te edvn /xera TOV \aov 

II avTOv. Kal 7rd\iv, Ati/eTre nravTa TO. tdvtj 

TOV Kvpiov, Kal eTraLvecrdTcocrav avTOv 

1 1. Or K. TT. \eyei. 

rot? 7rayyeXta?] See note on 
ix. 4, at eTrayyeXtai. 

TOOK Trare pcoi ] Belonging to 
(that is, given to) the ancestors 
of the nation. Gal. iii. 16, TW Se 
A/3pad[ji tpptOrivav at CTrayye/Vtat 
Kat TOJ OTripiJiari OLVTOV. See 
note on ix. 5, ot Trarepes. The 
genitive as, for example, in Gal. 
iii. 14, 77 eu/Xoyta roG A/3paa^u., 
explained by Heb. vii. 6, roV 

9. ra e ny ywt 50 
the Gentiles should, &c. An in 
complete construction, appended 
to StotKovoi/ yei/ecr^at Trepiro/x,^ 1 ?, 
and expressing the second half 
of the work of Christ. 

L Trep] / W. On the subject of. 
As in I Cor. x. 30, virep ov e yoa 
Eph. i. 1 6. v. 20. 
The tense expresses 
one comprehensive act of thanks 
giving on their admission once 
for all into the Church of God. 
For So^a^etv, see note on i. 21, 

tament in which ra WVY] (ot 
Aaot) are spoken of as partakers 
of God s blessings in common. 
with o Aaos avrov. 

yeypa-Trrat] Psalm xviii. 49 
(2 Sam. xxii. 50), LXX. Sta 
TO>TO e^. crot Iv, K/upie, Kat- 

TW K.T.A. 

e^oyaoAoy^cro/xat] See note on 
xiv. 1 1 , e^o/xoAoy?ycrrat. 

Kat TOJ] Dative of relation. 
In honour of. 

See note on i. 5, 

/ca$ok yeypaTrrat] A combina 
tion of passages of the Old Tes 

i Cor. xiv. 15, i//aAa) 
TO) 7rvf.vfJia.rLj i^ttAa! [Se] Kat TO) VOL. 
Eph. v. 19. James v. 13. 

10. Ae yet] Deut. xxxii. 43, 

Luke xv. 32, ei> 
Se Kat ^ap^vat 4 Set. 
Acts ii. 26 (from Psalm xvi. 9, 
LXX.), r)V(j)pdvOr] /JLOV rj KapSta Kat 
vyyaAAtacraro rj yAcocrcra /xou. 

11. Kat WAtv] Psalm cxvii. 
I, LXX. atvetre TOV Ki;ptov rrdvra. 
rd Wvf], tTcawicrarf. avrov 

ot Aaot. 

XV. 914- 253 

ol \aot. Kai 7rd\iv Hcrct Las Xeyet, 12 
t] pi^a TOV le&aai, Kai 6 dvKTTa- 
pxeiv eQvwv eV O.VTW eOvij e\7riou- 
. 6 ce Geo? T;/9 e/\7r/c)o9 TrXtjpcocrai v/u.ds 13 

^ Kal dpijvtis eV TW Tricrreveiv, eis 
TO Trepicro-eveiv VJJLO.^ eV Ttj e\7ri$i ev Suvdjuet 

TIe7rei(T[j.aL ce, d$e\<poi JULOV, icat ai/ros e yw 14 

OTL Kal CtVTOl }Uie(TTOL 6O~T dya 

v See note on iii. 
7, eTreptcro-evcrcv. 

eV Sui/o /xet] /^ (<7s ? /5 region 
or atmosphere] a power belong 
ing to a TTvefyia cxyioi/. See note; 
on v. 5? S"^ TTi/ei /Aaros aytov. 

14. /cat avro? eyoj] 7iVc /i / 
myself: though I thus write as 
if you needed these gifts. Heb. 
vi. (), TreTret cr/xe^a 8e Trept VJJLWV, 
TO. Kpeticrcrova ai e^o- 
crwTTypias, ei Kat oirtos XaXoO- 

12. Xeyei] Isai. xi. 10, LXX. 
ecrrai e^ TT} ry/xepa fKeivrj tj 

T; pii^a roO "lecrorat] Eov. v. 
5, T) pitp. AavctS. xxii. 16, eyco 
ei/tt T; pi^a /cat TO yeVo? AavctS. 
It seems doubtful whether pi a 
is here used for the produce of 
the root (compare Isai. xi. i with 
IO, e^eAeixrerai pa/38o? CK TTy? 
lecrcrat , KCU a^^o? CK T?/? 
ava/5/ycrerai. . ./cat ecrrat eV 

K.r.A); or whether in its proper 
sense of soc& or origin, marking 
Christ as no less the Creator 
than the Offspring, the Zordf as 
well as the &m of David (Matt. 
xxii. 42 -46). 

ai/tcrra/ieT/os] Heb. vii. n, 
15, erepov dvicnavOai 
tbraTai tepevs erepos. 

13. T^S eA7rtSos...T^ eXTTtSt] 
The choice of the particular 
grace may be suggested by eA.7rt- 
oGo-iv in verse 12. Of that hope. 
In that Jiope. 

/cat av-ot rf>i yourselves; 
before the utterance of these 
prayers for you. 

/xeoTot ecrre] See note on i. 29, 
/^CO-TOW S. Add James iii. 17, ?; 
Se avwOev cro^)ta.../xecrT7} eXcovs 
/cat /capTTtov aya^alv. 

aya^axrvn;?] Psalm xxxviii. 
20, LXX. ot avraTrootoovres /ca/<a 
aVrt aya^aJv IvBtefBaXXov /xe, CTTCI 
dyaOwrivT/jv. Hi. 3* 
KO.KLO.V VTrep ayauwcrv- 
VTJV. Gal. v. 22, o Se 
ecrnv . . . 




1 5 A/\/\oi/s vovOereiv. TO\juripOTepws Se 

vjjiiv CCTTO jULepovs, ws 7ravafjufJLvn<TKU)v vjULas Sia 

16 T/;F ^apiv Ttji; ^oBeltrav JULOL VTTO TOU Qeou et? TO 
e///cJ /me XeiTOvp^ov XpLCTTOu \^crov ek TO. e6vr], 
icpovpyouvTct TO evayyeXiov TOU Qeou, \va <ye- 

15. Or ro\i-ir]pOTepov. 

vj/r;. Eph. v. 9, o yap 
roG (^coros tv TTatTTy aya- 
vvr). 2 Tliess. i. II, Trdcrai/ 
uyaOu>crvvr]<; (till good 
pleasure of (joodness ; that is, <7/^ 
^/A< goodness which is pleasiivj 
to Hini). 

TreTrATypoo/zei oi] See note on 
1. 29, TreTT/V^poyxevo us. 

Kat aAX^ Aoi;?] Not onlij your 
selves, but one another also. 
vou^eretv] Acts xx. 31, 

era Kao"TOV. 

Cor. iv. 14, ojs rcKva p.ov aya- 
Tn/ra Fov^erco. Col. i. 28. iii. 16. 
i Thess. v. 12, 14. 2 Tliess. iii. 

XL 25, a?ro / 

to? e.Trava/jii/jiv rja KMv] As fur 
ther reminding you. By way of 
an additional reminder to you. 
J am not teaching, I am remind 
ing you; nor even reminding 
you as of a tiling forgotten, but 
as of a thing already in your 
mind. This (classical) double 
compound occurs only here in 
Scripture. For the sense, com 
pare 2 Pet. i. 12, Sto /xeAA^croj act 
r/xas UTro/xt/xi/^o-Ketv Trept TOVTWV, 
KatVep eiSoras Kat ecrrTypiyp-ei/ovs 
ev rrj Trapoixrr/ dXyOeui. iii. I, 
TO.VTWV 7/877, ayaTTT^rot, 

15. ToA/x?7poTeptos] Tl 
boldly on this very account; 
namely, because of your large 
endowment with the grace of 

eypai^a] In the present letter; 
as in i Cor. v. n. ix. 15. Gal. 
vi. ii. Pliilem. 19, 21. i Pet. 
v. 12. i John ii. 14, 21, 26. v. 

oVo /zepous] In some degree. 
Connect with ToA/xr/porepto?. 
Compare verse 24. See note on 

Kat ao- 

yetpco -u/^dlv f VTrofJLVijo-tL T-rjv eiA.i- 
KpLvf} Stavotav. 

Sta TT}V x^P tl/ l Because of the 
grace, &c. />i virtue of my spe 
cial commission to the Gentiles. 
See notes on i. 5, 
0-ToX.ijv. xii. 3, Sia 

1 6. Aeiroupyov] See note on 
xiii. 6, Aetroupyot. 

tepoupyowra] Properly, j^er- 
forming sacred rites. Here TO 
euayye Atov (by a very common 
application of the cognate accu- 

XV. 1 5-1 


VtlTCtL 7] 7TpO(T(popa 

ev TrvevfJictTi dyiw. e^w ovv TI]V KCW-I-J 
ev Xpio-Tw Itia-ov TO. TT^O? TOV Qeov. ov 18 
yap TO\jULt]O~a) TI \a\elv civ ov 

1 8. Or 

sative) defines the nature of 

those rites: offering up the Gos 
pel as my sacrifice. Compare i. 

9, o> Aarpeuo) iv TU> Trvf.vjj.ari pov 

iv TO) euayyeAioj TOV vlov avrov. 
Ivo. yeV^rat] The Apostle s 

thought now turns to the result 

and issue of his life-iong sacri 
fice; namely, the presentation 

to God, at the last day, of the 

Gentile body converted and 

saved. The tense of yeV^rat 

shows that the 7rpoo-c/>opa is not 

a continuous process, but a sin 
gle act. 

rj 7rpoo-c/>opa] Equivalent here 

to rrapicTTdVeti/ ill 2 Cor. iv. 14, 

/cat ?7/ms crvv IYJCTOV eyepet /cat 

Trapacrrrycret crvv Vfjuv. XI. 2, ?ra- 

pacrTTyVai rw Xptcrra). Col. i. 22, 

28, Trapacrrvyo at u/xas aytovs /cat 

Kat di/eyKATyrov? Karevoj- 1 8. ou yap roAjarycro)] / or / 

avTov. . . iva 7rapao"n7crw/xei/ will not presume to mention any 
thing which Christ wrought not 
through me. / will say nothing 
of the labours of others : / speak 
only of my own. The stress is 
on ifjiov. Which sense of roA- 
IJLTJO-U (dare, or deign] is here to 
be preferred, seems doubtful : 
see note on v. 7, roA/xa. 

KaTTipyao-aro] See notes on 
iv. 15, Karepya ^erat. vii. 8, Kar- 

>t. John xvii. 17, 19, ayi aow 
avrovs iv Trj d\rjOf.ia. vov.. .TJyta- 
o~jJif.voL iv d\Y)6eia, i Cor. i. 2, 
Tyytaa/xei ots ei/ Xptcrroj I?yo"OL . 
vii. 14, r/yi tto-rat...^!/ 777 yvvaiKi 
K.r.A. Epli. v. 26, tVa avrr/j/ 
ayta o-7? . . . eV pr/^art. Hob. x. 29, 

TO aljao. ei/ a> ??ytao~6 ?7. See 

notes on i. 7, KAvirots ayt ots. ^^ 
5, 6ta 7r^eu/x,aros ayt ou. ix. r, eV 
7rve.viJia.TL ayta). 

(T^F) glorying H exultation of 
my own (Phil. ii. 17, et Kut o-7reV- 

CTTt TT? OvCTid Kttt AeiTOVO- 

yta TT/S TTtoreaJS V/JMV, ^aipw /cat 
crvy^atpa) Trdcriv v/juvj 6?^ ^ /* 
z/i Christ Jesus, not in myself. 
Ta Trpos TOJ/ eoV] Hob. ii. 

17, TTt 

Trdvra dvOpunrov re Xetov ev Xptcrra). 
Tos] See verse 31, 
rots ay tots. 2 Cor. 
vi. 2. viii. 12. i Pet. ii. 5, aVe- 
ve y/cat Tri/evftartKas Ova-iat tvirpoa-- 
Se /crous to). 

^yiaa-p.eVr; ei/] Consecrated in, 
(as the containing, embracing, 
comprehending element}. So 
Matt. iii. n, /SaTrrt^o) ev uSart... 
ev Trvevyaart ayi a) Kat 


npoz PDMAIOYS:. 

OL e/JLOU 6i9 V7TCtK.Ol]V vVCOV) AO VW K&l 

K) epryco, ev Svvajuei err] /me i wv Kai TepaTcov, ev vvd- 
/ULEL Trvev^aTOS) ajcrTe /me 7TO lepovcTaXrj/ui Kat 

KVK\O) /Uexpl TOV [\\VplKOU 7Te7T\r]p(jOK6VaL TO 

i(). Or irv. aytov. 

eis vrraKorjv iOvow^ Unto obe 
dience of (on the part of) Gen 
tiles. See i. 5, airoo-ToXrjv et? 
VTTO.KOYJV Trtcrreoj i ei/ Tratriv rots 
Wveaiv. xvi. 26. 

A.oyoj Kat cpyw] For Xoyw, 
compare the enumeration in i 
Cor. xii. 8, 10, Aoyo? cro^tas... 
A.oyos yvaHretos . . .7rpo^)7yreta. ..yivrf 

yAcocrcro)! lpp.rjveia. y/Xcocrcra)!/. 

xiv. 6, y/Vojcrcrai? A.aA.aj j/ . . . 77 ev 
ij Iv yrcocret 7} ei/ Trpo- 

ia r} ei/ StSa^ry. 2 Cor. x. n, 
TO) Aoya) Si eTTKJToAcov aTToyre^. 
JFor epya), see Acts xiii. n. xiv. 

10. xvi. 1 8. xix. 6, ii. i Cor. 

11. 4, eV ttTToSet^et Trre^/xaros /cat 
Sfva/xea)?. i Thess. i. 5, TO euay- 
yeAtoi/ Ty/xwr ov/c eyevyOr) ets -u/xa? 
ei/ /Xoyw P.OVOV aXAa Kat eV Sui/a- 
/u,et Kat ei/ Trr ei /xart aytw K.r.X. 

19. ei/ Svvd/JieL...ev Sui/a^et] 
//^ a power of (belonging to, 
proved by) signs... in a power of 
(belonging to, given by) the 

cr^/xetcov Kat reparcov] Both 
applied to the Christian mira 
cles : repara, with especial refer 
ence to their supernatural cha 
racter; and a"r]/jLia, to their 06- 
ject as signals of Christ. 

7n/ei;//,aTos] For the absence 

of the article, see note on v. 5, 
Sta TTj/eu/xaros aytou. 

aVo lepovcraXrj/Ji^ As the 
common centre of all apostoli 
cal operations. Isai. ii. 3, LXX. 
IK yap 2tcov eeAei>creTai vo /xo?, 
Kat Aoyos Ktptou e^ lepovcraA^p:. 
The actual starting-point of St 
Paul s own ministry would 
rather have been given as Da 
mascus, Tarsus, or Antioch. 
See Acts ix. 20, 30. xi. 25, 26. 
xiii. i, 2. xiv. 26, 27. Gal. i. 
17. Yet St Paul too made 
Jerusalem his ac^op/r)/. See 
Acts xviii. 22. xx. 1 6. 

lepovo-a/X^/x,] Of the two 
forms, lepovo-aXtj/ji and c lepoo-o- 
Au/xa, St Matthew, St Mark, 
and St John prefer the latter; 
St Luke and St Paul the former. 
St John indeed (and probably St 
Mark) never uses lepovcraA?; /*, 
and St Paul uses lepocroAu/xa 
only in Gal. i. 17, 18. ii. i. 

KUKAo)] Mark vi. 6, 


Both a^pt and 
are used alike of place and time: 
axpi is used far more frequently 
than /xeyjoi in Scripture. See 
i. 13, a^pt TOV Scvpo. v. 13, 14, 
a xpi yap VOJJLOV . . . oVo ASct/x, /xe- 


XV. ig 21. 


evayyeXiov TOV XpL(TTOv OUTCOS $t <pi\ort/uLOv- 20 
fj.evov vay<ye\ie(r6ai 9 ou^ OTTOV 
O-TO S, *z/a ^o) eV dXXorpiov 6ejuie\iov 
d\\d KaOcos reaTTTai Ois OUK 



XP<- Mcou<TeW. Acts xiii. 6, a 
lla^ov. xxviii, 15, a^pt ATTTTLOV 
$>6pov /cat Tpiwj/ TaySeprdoi/. 

jne^pt TCW IAA.t;ptKoG] A some 
what vague expression, with re 
spect to (i) the particular dis 
trict indicated, and (2) the ex 
tent of St Paul s connection with 
it. It is mentioned here as the 
extreme point which he had till 
now reached in the direction of 
Home; but whether he had tra 
versed it, or only reached its 
boundary, does not appear. In 
his only former visit to Europe 
(Acts xvi. xvii.) the history 
traces him from point to point, 
and excludes the idea of his 
having reached Illyricum in that 
journey. In. Acts xx. i, 2, 
which gives the brief record of 
his second tour in Europe, there 
is room left for a visit to Illy 
ricum or its confines : for the 
words are as vague as possible, 
er)\0V TropevecrOat, eis MaKeSo- 
v ia.v SieA.$aii/ Se ra f^py] fKelva 
...r)\6f.v ets T-TJV EAAaSa, where 
he wrote this epistle. 

TreTrAT/pcoKeWt] Col. i. 25, 
7rA.?7pajcrai TOV Xoyov TOV ov (to 
complete, fulfil, satisfy ; that is, 
pub lish fully) . 

20. ourws 8e] And that I 

have done this (namely, TreTrXypw- 
KeVui TO euayye Aioi/) being ambi 
tious to proclaim the Gospel thus 
namely, not where Christ icas 
named, A:c. 

o^ rw?] In this way. By tJtis 
ride. On this principle. Ex 
plained by cn x o-uv toi/o/xao-^^ 
Xpicrro? K.r.A. 

c/><AoTi/xot j uej oj/] Agreeing 
with (j.e above. The word <i- 
Aori/xear^at, as the expression 
of a Christian ambition, occurs 
also in two other places : 2 Cor. 
V. f), OLO Kal (fuXoTijJioi /JieOa... 
vdpecrTOi avria tlvai. I Thess. 
iv. II, KOL ^)iAoTiyaetcr^at ijav^a.- 
,LV KOL Trpacrcretv ra tdta K. T. A. 
The alternative reading (<tAoTt- 
}jLovp.a.i) looks like a correction 
from the more difficult construc 

Lva /MJ ezr aAAorptoi/] Com 
pare 2 Cor. X. 15, 1 6, OVK eis rd 
aL ^w/xei ot Iv aAAorptots 
. ..OVK e.v aAAorptu) KO.VOVL 
ets ra eroiyua Kav^aacrOai. 

0eyu.e Aioi/] Applied to the first 
teaching of the Gospel in any 
place, i Cor. iii. 10, ws cro^os 


Aos oe ITT o 

21. K0.0WS ycypttTrrat 
Iii. 15, LXX. 



22 Aio Kai 

23 Trpos i//xar vvvl Se 
K\ifj.a<Tiv TOVTOLS, C 

Kat o ov K 

TCC 7ro\\a TOV e\6ew 
TOTTOV e%wi/ eV 

II. Or y., Q fiovTai ens OVK d. TT. ai)., K. 

ey. 7roXAa/as 


22. 810] That is, owing to 
my exertions in preaching the 
Gospel where Christ was not 

Gal. v. 7, n s 
TT; d\r)6eta /xr) 
; i Thess. ii. 18, rj^e- 
eA-^erv Trpo? v/Jias. . .KCU 
o ^arava?. As 
(see note on xiii. 12, 

is (T) ifo cut forward, 

(2) o forward by cutting, (3) to 
advance or ma&e progress; so 
ey/coVrco is (l) to cit -i^, (2) to 
enclose or intercept by cutting, 

(3) to impede. If TrpoKOTrreti is 
derived from the practice of 
clearing the way for an army by 
cutting down trees or other ob 
stacles in its way, ey/coVreiv may 
suggest the idea of an enemy 
impeding the progress of an 
army by trenches or barricades. 

TO. TroXAa] In those many re 
spects which I have told you of 
(i. 13). So often. 

rov] The genitive after a verb 
of hindering. Acts xxvii. 43, 
cKw\.v(Tv avTovs TOV /JouX^/xaro?. 

23. VVVL] See note on iii. 

21, VVVL. 

r. ex wi/ nce I have 
no longer, &c. For this Hellen 
istic use of fj.7], see note on ii. 
14, fj.r) e^ovT<;. 

TOTTOV] Place, space, room. 
Dan. ii. 35, KOL TOTTOS o^ evpedt 1 } 

aiTOl?. ActS XXV. 1 6, T07TOV T 

ctTTo/Voytas Xd/SoL. Heb. xii. 17, 
/xerai/otas y tt p TOTTOV o^ eupev. 
See also note on xii. 19, Sore 


The word /c/\.i/xa 
is properly a slope, and must be 
traced (in its sense of clime or 
region) to the apparent inclina 
tion of the sky to the horizon. 
It occurs, in Scripture, only 
(for the reading in Judges xx. 
2, LXX. seems to be an. error) in 
three of St Paul s Epistles be 
longing to this period of his 
life : 2 Cor. xi. 10, eV TO?? /cA.i)aa- 
aiv TT/S A^a ta?. Gal. i. 21, TjXOov 
ets rot KAt/xara T??S Svpta? Kat TT/S 

Se ex^f] See i. II, 
yap iSetv v/xas. The 
form 7ri7ro#i a occurs here only. 
We have eTriTro^o-is in 2 Cor. 
vii. 7, ii ; and eViTro^ros in 
Phil. iv. i. 

XV. 22 24- 


Trpos v[Aas ctTTO iKavcov 6TWV, ws civ TTOpeuwjULai 24 
els Ttiv ^L-iraviav e\7ria) jap 
BedcracrOai vas KO.L dq> 

Trpwrov djro 

e/cti av 

For many 
years past. Luke viii. 27, XP J/( i> 
i/ccci/<3. xxiii. 8, T/V yap e iKaj/toi/ 
Xpoi wi 6e\<av t^ety auroV. 

24. to? aV] Whenever, i Cor. 
xi. 34) T( * ^ Aot~a ojs ai/ e /Y$co 
Stttra^Oyaai. Pliil. ii. 23, ro{)roi> 
/xev GUI/ eXTTt ^co 7re/xi//ai cos UP 
tt(/)tS(ji) ja Trept e^e e^afT^s. The 
sentence is interrupted by the 
words eATTt^co yap K.r.A., and not 
resumed. The sense may be 
gathered from verse 28, aTreAev- 
cro/xat 8t vfJLwv eis STravt ai/. 

ets rr)i/ ^Traj/t av] This inten 
tion was not carried out before 
St Paul s first imprisonment at 
Rome, up to which we trace 
him step by step in the Acts. 
There is room for its execution 
in the interval between the first 
and the second imprisonment, 
through which our only certain 
guide is found in the Pastoral 

StaTTopevo/xefos] In f>nssing. 
See verse 28, ciTreAe^o-o/xat SL 

Oedo-acrOat] To have beheld 
you. To have a sight of you. 
The tense expresses a summary 
act. The verb OedaOaL is used 
by Sb Paul here only. 

From (not by) 

you. On leaving you. Judith 

ere K.T.A. Notice however the 
alternative reading, </> . 

TrpoTre/xc^^i ai] To be sent 
forth. To be started on mi/ 
-way. The word implies both 
a friendly farewell, and escort 
on the opening of a jotirnev. 
The most graphic description 
of it is found in Acts xxi. 
5, e^eA^ovTes eVopeuoyae^a Trpo- 
Tre/jiTrovTwv ??^<,as TTU-VTiiw crvv yv- 
vait^iv Kat TCKi/ots eto<j e^ca Trys 
TroAews, Kat ^e i/Tts Ta yovara err! 
TOI/ aiytaAov Trpocrev^d/jitvoL aTrry- 
<T7ra<ja/A0a aAA yAous, Kat iviftri- 
/xei/ cts TO TrAotor, eKea-ot 8e VTT- 
crrpet//ai/ ets TCI t Sta. Compare 
xv. 3. xx. 38. i Cor. xvi. 6, 
1 1 (written in prospect of his 
present stay at Corinth), Iva. 
lyxets /xe TrpoTrt/Jiif/ rjTC ov euV TTO- 

ei/ elpyjvrj K.T.A. 2 Cor. i. 1 6. 
Sometimes provision for the 
journey is plainly implied : Tit. 
ili. 13, a~ ovSai ws TrpuTTf/Juj/ov 
Iva pt]^f.v O.VTOLS AetVi/. 3 John 
6 >7 . 

cKi] There, for thither. Matt, 
ii. 22, Kt aVeA^etv. xvii. 20, 
/xeTa /?a i/^ei/ Kt. John xviii. 
3, ep^Tai exet. 



25 vvvl Se Tropevofjiai eis lepovcraX^fjL 

26 dyiois. evSoKf](rav yap 

eaV Ujudii ] If (when] first I 
have been in some degree satis- 
Jied tvith your company. Compare 
i. 12, TOVTO 8e ICTTLV, (rvvTrapa- 
K.\ fi$"fjvo.l iv vfJiLV Sta TT^S ey aXX>y- 
Xoi9 Trio-Tews. 

aTTo //epot?] One of St Paul s 
delicate touches of tenderness, 
implying that liis stay with 
them, so far from wearying him, 
would but partially satisfy his 
longing after them. For the 
phrase, see note on xi. 25 ? tt?ro 
. xv. 15. 

u\ Luke i. 53, ^et- 
aya$a>i . vi. 25. 

John vi. 12. Acts xiv. 17, I/JLTTL- 
Kai ev(^pocrvvr]<; ra? 
. The peculiarity 
here is the genitive of the per- 
son. But the sense is clear. 

25. TTOpevo/xat ets lepovcra- 
X^ /x] This is the journey referred 
to in Acts xx. 3, 1 6, /xe XXoi/ri 
eis rryv ^upiai/. ..ecrTreu- 
^pj e ^ Surardv etTy aura), ri)v 


t5 lepoo-dXr/xa. xxi. 15, /xera Se 
ravrag 7rtcrKe^acra- 
atVo/xev eis lepocrd- 

rots ctyiois] The 
special purpose of the journey 
is accidentally mentioned in 
Acts xxiv. 17, eXe^/xocrwas 
7roi7yo-cov ets TO e 6^vo5 /x-ov Trapeye- 
vo/jiyv Kai 7rpocr^)opas. For a yto?, 
see note on i. 7, K\T)TOL<; aytot?. 
26. evSoKTycrav] A post-classi- 


cal verb, meaning (i) to think it, 
well, to think jit, to be pleased, 
to desire, with. an infinitive; as 
here, and Luke xii. 32, et>8d/<?7crev 

Trarrjp tyxa>j/ Sowat v/xt^ r^f 
(3acri\.Lo.v. I Cor. i. 21, euSoK??- 
crev d @eos 8ta T/ys jttcoptas rov 
K^piry/zaros o-wo-at TOIJ? Trtcrrei;- 
oi/ra?. 2 Cor. v. 8, euSoKot /xev 
/xa/XXoi/ eKS^^o-at CK ro{) o-co- 
/xaros K.r.X. Gal. i. 15, ore Se eu- 

[d eos] o a^opto-ag /xe . . . 

^/at TOV vio^ aurou ev e/x,ot. 
Col. i. 19. i Tliess. ii. 8. iii. i. (2) 
^Z 7 o ^e ire^ pleased with, to take 
delitjht in, with et , or et?, or a 
simple accusative; as Matt. iii. 
17, d Vios ^aou d ayaTT^ro?, ei/ w 
euSoK^cra. xii. 18, d ayaTT^rd? 
/JLOV 6V ewSoK^crev >; A^X 7 / I JLOV 
xvii. 5. Mark i. n. Luke iii. 22. 

1 Cor. x. 5, aXX OVK iv TOLS 
TrXetocrtv O.VTWV yvSoKyo-ev 6 ed?. 

2 Cor. xii. 10, Sid cvSoKoo cv 
aa-^e^etaf?. 2 Thess. ii. 12. Heb. 
X. 6, 8, 38, oXoKauToo/xara /cat Trept 
a/xaprtas ou/c ^vSoK^cra? /c.r.X. 
2 Pet. i. 17, et? oi cyoo evSoK?yaa. 
See note Oil X. I, euSo/cta. 

MaKeSovia Kat A^aial (i) 
The same combination occurs in 
Acts xix. 21, SieX^ojv rrjv MaKe- 
SoviW Kat A^aiav. i Thess. i. 
7, 8, ev rfj MaKeSov/a Kat ev r^ 
A^ata...ov /xdvoj/ ei/ T^ MOKC- 
Sovt a Kat A^aia K.T.X. (2) For 
the fact of the collection re- 
ferred to, compare i Cor. xvi. 
i 4. 2 Cor. viii. ix. 

XV. 2528. 261 

KOivwviav Tiva TroiticracrOai ek TOI)S TTTWVOI)? TWV 



6<pei\6Tai eLonv avTttiV el yctp TO!S Trvev/mciTt- 
/cols CUJTWV eicoivwvricrav TO. edvri, 6<peL\ov<TLv Kal 
ev Tols (TccpKtKols XeiTOvpyfjcrai avTols. TOUTO 28 
ovv eTrireXecras Kal (T(ppayi(ra/UL6vos aural? TOV 

28. Or omit O.VTOLS. 


tai/j Like Koivtoveu/ (see 
note on xii. 13, /coivtovowTes), 
Kotj/oWa has the two senses of 
(i) participation or communion; 
either absolutely, or with rti/os 
or el s rt of the tliiity in which, 
and Trpos rtva or yu.era rtvos of 
the person (or thing personified) 
with whom, that participation 
exists: see Acts ii. 42, TrpocrKap- 
TepovvTs...Trj Koivoma. I Cor. i. 
9, ets KOiVO)VLav TOV vlov avrov. 
x. 1 6, KOIVWVLO. ecrrlv TOV at/xaros 
. . . KOivwvia. TOV (Taj/x,a.Tos TOT) Xpto~- 
ToCS ea-rtV; 2 Cor. vi. 14, rts KOI- 
vwvta 0wTt Trpo? CTKOTOS; viii. 4, 
T /V Kotvcoviar TS StaKoj/t a?. xiii. 

13, 77 Kotvcavta TOV yov 
/Ltaros /x,era TTOLVTUIV v/xwv. Gral. ii. 
9, Seias e ScoKav e/xot Kai Bap- 
vd/3a Koivtovtas. Phil. i. 5, eVt 
T^ KOLVoivla v/xo5v ets TO eijayye- 
A.IOV. ii. i, et TI? KOiva)i/ta TTVCU- 
/xaros. iii. I o, [TTJV] /coivcoviav [TCOV] 
avTov. Philem. 6, TJ 
ia TT^S Tricrrecos crov. I John 

oe iy y/JieTepa jLtera TOT) IlaTpos... 
OTt KOivwviav e^o/xei/ /xer 

V. K. 

(2) Imparting or communica 
tion : as here, Koii/owai/ 7rot>;- 
0-0.0-60.1 ets TOUS TrTco^ov? K. T. A. 
2 Cor. ix. 13, Soaoj/Tes TOI/ 

vias ets avTovs KOL ct? 

Heb. xiii. 16, T^? 8e e^Troa as Kal 

K06va>i/tas p-r) eTTLXavOdveo-Qe. 

27. cuSoKr/o-ai/ yap] /"Aey 
thought jit, I say. Strictly, / 
assert it -for they did think Jit. 

o(/>eiA.era(] See i. 14, o<et- 

et yap TOIS] See i Cor. ix. i r, 
et ^//,ets v[juv TO. Trvev/JiaTiKa eo~7ret- 
et 7^/xcts V/XGJI/ Ta o~ap- 

^rcoi^] Those 
spiritual blessings which once 
were theirs (the Jews } only. See 
xi. 17, kc. 

eKotj/oji T/o-av] Shared in. See 
note on xii. 13, /cou/wroiVres. 

A.eiToupy7;o-ai] See note on 
xiii. 6, XeiToupyot. 

28. 7rtTeA.e o-as] For eTrtre- 
Xer^, to accomplish or complete, 
see 2 Cor. vii. i. viii. 6, ii, iva 

tos Trpoei/ryp^aTO, oiVws /cat 7Ti- 





20 viav. oiSa Se OTL epYouevos TTOOS i///as eV 7r\ti- 

I /V I 

30 pco/maTi evXoryias \piCTTOv eXevcro/ULai. Trapa- 

KCt\tO $6 VjULO.^ Sid TOV KVp lOV tJlUCOV IrjCTOl 

CTTOU Kat $ia Tr]S dyaTrri S TOV TrvevfJiaTOS 
ytovio-acrOai /ULOL ev TCUS 7rpocrev^al<s vTrep efJLOv 

30. Or V., &8e\<f>ol, 5. 

TeAe o-?! ets v^as KCU Trjv -^apiv TO.V- the praise of God, as in James 
Tr)v...vvvl Se Kat TO TrotrjcraL ITTI- iii. 10, evAoyta Kat KttTapa. Rev. 
TeAecraTe...TO eVtTeAe o-at IK TOV vii. 12, 77 evAoyta Kat ?; So ^a... 

Gal. iii. 3. Phil. i. 6. 
Heb. viii. 5. ix. 6. i Pet. v. 9. 
cr</oayio-a/xei os] Having se 

TW ea) Ty^ao)!/) passes into that 
of a benediction which fulfils 
itself in benefaction; whether 

cured (as by the affixing of a on the part of man (2 Cor. ix. 
seal to an instrument or pos- 5, T-rjv TrpoeTr^yyeA/xei/Tyi/ euAoytav 
session). See note on iv. n, vfjuZv), or of God (as here, and 

Gal. iii. 14. Eph. i. 3, 
o eos Kat Trarrjp TOV Kvptov TJ/ 

\Tj(TOV XptO"To9, O 

ev Tra.o~y ei^Aoyta 

Tots eTTovpai/tots eV XptoTco. Heb. 

vi. 7. i Pet. iii. 9). The word 

blessing comprehends all these 


30. Sta...Sta ] See note on 
xii. i, Sta. 

The love of (belonging to) the 
Spirit. Embracing perhaps the 
two ideas, (i) felt by, and (2) 
inspired by, the Holy Spirit. 

i /x,ot] To join 

Here KapTros is used 
in the general sense of receipt 
or benefit. Not perhaps with 
out some deeper thought of the 
future reward of true Christian 
bounty; as in Phil. iv. 17, ov^ 
OTt eTTit^rco TO Sd/xa, aAAa eVt- 
^TO) TOV KapTrov TOV 7rAeovaovTa 
ets Aoyov TJ/XUJV. 

aVeAevo-o/xat] / shall go forth. 
I shall start on another journey. 

6Y v/xwv] 2 Cor. i. 16, Kat 8t 
lyxoov oteA^elv ets MaKeSovtav. 

29. ev] As if enveloped in, 
compassed with, &c. 

TrATipw/xaTi] Fulness, pleni- your efforts with mine. See Col. 
tude. See note on xi. 12, TO ii. i, 2, yjAtKov aywva e^w vTrep 

evAoyta?] The primary idea oYat K.T.A. iv. 12, rravTOTe ayw- 
of evAoyta, speaking good of vt^d/aevos VTrep v/xwv 
another (especially applied to ev^ats tva K.T.A. 

Tats Trpoo-- 

XV. 2 9 XVI. 2. 



iv Ty lovSaia Kal rj iaKOvia JULOU 1} ek lepou- 
cra\r]/m, V7rpO(r()6KTOS TO?S dyiois yevriTai, u a 
ev X a P ^ M v Trpos v/uid^ Sice. 6e\/i/maTOS Qeov 
Kat (TwavaTravo cojjiai vfjiiv. 6 e 0eo? T//? Lpr]-> 
1/779 /ULCTa TravTcov vfJLwv d/urii/. 

>, ovo~av Kal ^IOLKOVOV TIJS eKKXricrias 
Keyxpeals, \va TrpoorSe^ricrSe avTr]v ev Kupiw 

31. Or 77 5upo<popia /m,. Or 77 ev I. 

3?. Or eA#u>. Or 6. Kvpiov iT/croO. Or omit Kal avvav. vfj.1v. 

xvi. i. Or omit 5e. Or omit Kal. 

31. pt>cr$co] See note on 
vii. 24, pvo-erat. For the tense, 
compare Luke i. 74, e/< x L Ps 
l^6p(jjv pucr^ei/ras. 2 Thess. iii. 
2, KCU tva pv(j^(5//.ei/ CXTTO Ttov 
aroTTcoi/ Kat Trovr/pcov dvOpwirwv. 
2 Tim. iv. 17, /cat eppvo-Oyv IK. 
orro/xaros Xeovros. 

32. tVa V X a P^] 1^ e\.0wv 
(not e A.00)) be the reading, and 
Kat crwavaTravcrco/xat v/x,ti/ be re 
tained, the Kat must be rendered 

tfcAry/mros] When OeX-rj/ma 
stands without the article, it 
expresses an act of the will, a 
volition. See i Cor. i. i. 2 Cor. 
i. i. Eph. i. i. Col. i. i. iv. 12. 

(TwavaTra^crco/xat u/uv] I may 
refresh myself with you. This 
double compound is found only 
here, and in Isai. xi. 6, LXX. Kat 
TrapSaAts crwavaTratxrerat ipi<$na. 
For the sense, compare i Cor. 

xvi. 1 8, aVeVaDcrai/ yap TO e/xoi/ 
Trvev/jLo. Kat TO v/j.(j)V. 2 Cor. vii. 
13. Philern. 7, 20. 

XVI. i. o-Wo-TTy^at 8e] See 
note on iii. 5, o-wicmycrtv. For 
8e, see note on xiv. i, TOV 8e. 

Kat] Jfeo. Besides her gene 
ral claim as a Christian sister. 

StaKoi/oi/] Not necessarily im 
plying an office, but the devo 
tion of a Christian woman to 
the service of the poor and sick. 
Compare i Tim. v. 10, et eeyo- 
i/, et ayuov TroSa? eVu^ev, et 


Acts xviii 18, 

Ketpa/xevos e Keyxpeats TT^V K^>a- 
XT^V *x ei/ y^/ 3 ^X 7 ? 1 * The men 
tion of Cenchrese (one of the two 
ports of Corinth) is one indica 
tion of the date of this Epistle ; 
viz. during St Paul s second 
visit to Greece, Acts xx. 2, 3. 
2. Trpoo-Se ^o-fo] Phil. ii. 29, 




TWV <yi(t)v Kcti 7rapao~TrT6 avTr ev to av 
v/ULtov XP^fy TTpa^jmaTi Kai yap avTt] TrpocrTa- 
TJS: 7TO\\tQV eyevrjBrj Kai efjiov avrov. 

3 Ao-Trdcrao-de Tlpicntav Kai AwXav TOI/S crvv- 

4 epyovs fj.ov ev X^CTTW Itjcrov, o /T*J/6s virep T^S 
Y^jy^s fjiov TOV eavro)v Tpd^riXov VTreBrjKav, ols 
OVK ejco //oVo? eu^apLCTTto d\\d Kai Trdarai at 

5 KK\rj(riai TWV e6vwv y Kai Ti]v /car OLKOV 

e ovv O.VTOV v 
^apas, /cat TOUS TOIOU- 
rovs evrt/xovs e^ere. 

ei/ Kvpiu)] This plirase, or an 
equivalent, occurs more than ton 
times in this chapter. See note 
on vi. n, iv Xptcrro) Irjaov. 

d^iicos TOOV txytW] Compare 
Eph. iv. i, a^t cos. ..TT/S KX^creoo?. 
Phil. i. 27, atW ro9 ei;ayyeA.toi;. 
Col. i. lo, a^t tos roO Kvpiov. I 
Thess. ii. 12. 3 John 6, auos 
Toi; eoi). 

Trapacrrvyrej 2 Tim. iv. 17, 
o 8e KtJpto? fjioL Trapeo-Tr) Kai ei/e- 
j/ /xe. 


diravTwv. Luke xi. 8, 
OCTOJV et. 2 Cor. iii. I, ^ /AT; 

to? riJ^es crucrraTiKwi/ 
K.r.X. The peculiar 
ity here is the genitive of the 
person (v/xwi/). 

KCU yap currr/] For she herself 

TrpoaraTis] Protectress, cham- 
pion. A remarkable word for 
a Christian woman s service to 
wards an Apostle. 

3. TipLcrKav KOL A/cu/Vai ] 
Notice their frequent changes 
of abode: (i) at Corinth, lately 
come from Italy, Acts xviii. 2 
(ITpto-Kt/XXav) : (2) at Ephesus. 
Acts xviii. 1 8, 19, 26. i Cor. 
xvi. 19 : (3) at ilome, as here : 
(4) at Ephesus (probably), 2 
Tim. iv. 19. 

4. omves] As in verse 7. 
Persons who. See notes 011 i. 
25, 32, omves. 

rpa^r/Xov ^Tre ^/cav] Pledged 
(hazarded) life. Possibly in the 
tumult at Ephesus (Acts xix.); 
though it must be confessed 
that that danger (as there de 
scribed) scarcely seems to justify 
the language of i Cor. xv. 32, 
or of 2 Cor. i. 8, and rather 
refers us, for explanation of all 
these expressions, to some un 
recorded peril. 

5. 777 v KO.T OIKOV] They 
seem to have opened their house 
for the Christian worship at 
Rome, as before at Ephesus 
(i Cor. xvi. 19, AKU AUS Kai 

(TVV rfj KO.T OiKOV ttU- 

XVI. 3-7- 


KK\fi(riav. dcnrdo-acrOe ETraiverov TOV d 

TOV yUOLS 05 eVTLV aTTCtpxn T 

d(T7rdo-acr6e Mapiav, #T*S TroAAa e /co- 6 
ek t5/x5. do-Trdo-ao-Be AvSpoviKOv Kat 7 
\ovviav rot;? 0-^7761/6?? ^oiy K 

oiTives eicriv eTricrruuLOi ev TO?? 

TcGi/ KK\rj(ria) ; as Nymphas at 
Laodicea (Col. iv. 15, 

crtW); as Philemon at Colossre 
(Pliilem. i, 2, ^iXri^ovi TO> aya- 
7r^T(3...Kat r^ Kar OLKOV <rov CK- 

fjs Aatas] So Ste 
phanas is called dirapx^ rrjs A- 
^aias, I Cor. xvi. 15. 

r-rjs Aortas] For this most 
limited of the three senses of 
Asia, compare, for example, Acts 

11. 9, IIol/TOV KCU TT]V "AcTtttV. VI. 

9 ? T(5v aTro KiXiKtas Kat Acrta?. 
xvi. 6 ; SirjXOov Se T^P $pvytav 
/cat raXartK^v ^copav, KcoAv^evTes 
t TTo ro9 aytou TTveu/xaros XaXrjcraL 
TOV Aoyov ev T^ Acrta, eX^oi/re? Se 
Kara TTJV Mu<rtav eTretpa^oi/ eis T^ 
Bt^wi av TropevOrjvat K.T.A. I Pet. 
i. I, eAcXeKTOts TrapeTTiS^/xots Sta- 
IIovTOV, PaXaTt as, Ka?r- 
s, Acrta? Kat 
Rev. i. 4, ii, rats eTrra e 
crtats rats ei/ Try Acri a . . . ets v E(/>e- 
croi/ Kat ets 2/xtJ/ovaj/ Kat ets Ilep- 
ya/xov Kat ets varetpa Kat ets 
2ap8ets Kat ets ^tXaSeAc^etav Kat 
ets AaoStKetav. 

6. ets /] A singular 
reading, implying some (un 

known) services rendered by 
this woman to Christians at 

7. lowtav] Probably (from 
the words which follow) Junias, 
for Junianus. But verse 3, 
where Prisca (Priscilla) and 
Aquila are described as rovs 
crwepycws of the Apostle, warns 
us against too great confidence 
as to the sex here. 

cruyyevets /J-ov] As verses 11, 
21. Probably, my countrymen; 
Jews like myself. Compare ix. 
3, rtov cruyyei/wi/ /xou Kara crap/<a. 

crvyat^yaaAojTovs /AOV] If taken 
literally, this seems to refer to 
some imprisonment not men 
tioned in the Acts : reminding 
us of 2 Cur. xi. 23, iv </>t>Aa/<ats 

eVany/Aoi eV] Persons of mark 
in the judgment of the Apostles. 
Matt, xxvii. 16, SeV/xto^ eW- 
o-r)/jiov. For St Paul s use of ot 
aVooToAoi, see i Cor. xv. 7, 
etra rots aTrocrToAots Tracrtv. 
Gal. i. 17, 19, rows Trpo e/tov 
(XTrocrToAovs . . . erepov Se riov aVo- 
o-To Atov K.r.A. For ei/, compare 
i Cor. ii. 6, o-cxjUav Se AaAou/xev 
ev rots reAetots. 

266 nPOE PQMAIOY2;. 

8 oi Kai Trpo e/uLOv yeyovav ev XpicrTa). 
<racr6e A/uL7r\idv TOV dyaTTtiTov JJLOV ev 

9 dcr7rd(rao 6e Qvpfiavov TOV crvvepyov VJULOJV ev 

10 XpicTTtp Kai ^Ta^vv TOV dyarrriTOV /ULOU. donrd- 
cracrOe A7re\\rjv TOV SOKLJULOV ev X^CTTW. dcrTrd- 

11 cracrde TOVS eK TCOV ApicrTofiov\ov. da TrdcracrBe 
HpcoSicova TOV Grwyyevii /mov. do-Trdcracrde TOVS 

12 IK TCOV NapKLcrcrov TOUS OVTCIS ev Kvpiw. d<nrd- 
cracrde Tpv<pcuvav Kai Tpv<pco(rav Tas KOTritocras 
ev Kvpiw. dcnrdcracrOe Ylepcri^a TY\V dyajr^Triv., 

i^rjTi^ 7TO\\d eKOTTiacrev ev Kvpiw. dfTTrdcracrSe 
c Pov(pov TOV eK\eKTOV ev Kvpiw Kai TIJV /urjTepa 

14 avTOV Kai e/mou. dcrTrdoracrde AvvyKpLTOv, 3>\e- 
yovTa, Epjutjv, TIaTpo/3av, E^oyuaz/, Kai TOVS crvv 

1 5 avTois d$e\<povs. dorTrdcrao-de QiXoXoyov Kai 

8. Or A.^Tr\ia.roi>. Or omit ^ov. 9. Or ev 

Trpo efjiov] John v. 7. x. 8. ii. Nap/aWou] Possibly 

Gal. i. 17, Trpos TOVS Trpo IfAov the freedman of Claudius. If 

aTToo-To/Xous. so, his household (of slaves) was 

yeyoi/av] A later form of kept (or transferred) together 

yeyoi/ao-ii/. Rev. xxi. 6, /<at after his execution two or three 

eiTrev fjiOL, Ttyovav. years before the date of this 

yeyovav ev X.] Have become Epistle. The expression is 

in (have come into, have been vague: TO^S IK TWV Nap/a cnrou. 

incorporated or included in) 13. e Poi)<oi/] The same pro- 

Christ. .For ywcr6ai ev, see per name occurs in Mark xv. 

I Tim. ii. 14, eV 7rapa(3do-L ye- 21. 

yovev. 2 Tim. i. 17, yevo/xei/os /cat e/xo9] His mother and 

eV Pup.-*). mine. His mother, who has also 

10. SOKI/AOJ/] See note on been a mother to me. 
xiv. 1 8, So/a/nos Tots 

XVI. 8 IQ. 267 

Iov\iav, Nripea Kai rrjv d$e\(priv avrov, Kai 
O\v/ui7rav, Kai TOI)S crvv auTols Trdvras dyiovs. 
dcTTrd&acrBe d\\r]\ovs iv (piXti/maTi dyiw. dcnrd- 76 

al KK\r]criaL Trdcrai TOV XpKTTOv. 
YlapaKa\co c)e vjudsy d(He\<poL, crKOTrelv TOI)? 17 

i TO, <TKava\a Trapd T/I/ 
v/mels e^dOeTe TTOLOvvTas, Kai KK\L- 
vare dnr avTwv ol yap TOLOVTOL TM Kvpiw 1 8 
ov Sov\vovcriv d\\d T?I eavToov 
Kai ev\oyias 




t yap 19 



1 6. cv (j)L\ijjj.aTL ay to)] In 
the form of, &c. See i Cor. xvi. 
20. 2 Cor. xiii. 12. i Thess. 
v. 26. i Pet. v. 14. 

17. ras...Ta] Those which 
you know of. For Six 00 " rao t/(U 
see Gal. v. 20, epi#etai, St^o- 
oracri cu, atpeo-ets. 

Trapa] Beside, and therefore 
(since only one can be right) at 
variance with. See i. 26, Trapa 
<uVu . Also Gal. i. 8, 9. 

e/c/cXtVare] I Pet. iii. 1 1 
(Psalm xxxiv. 14, LXX.), IKK\L- 
varu) 8e CXTTO Ka/coi). The tense 
(if correct, but the evidence for 
eKK\iv6T is very strong) ex 
presses once for all, by one de 
cisive repudiation. 

1 8. rfj eavT<3i/ /coiAi a] Their 
own appetite. An allusion to the 
interested motives, love of gain, 

1 8. Or omit /cat evXoyias. 

&c. of the false teachers. Phil. 
iii. 19, coi/ o $eo<? 77 KotXia /cat ?j 
Soa cv rrj alcr^yvy avrwv, ol TO. 
eViyeia ^povowres. I Tim. vi. 5? 


(T6/3ei.av. Tit. i. II, 

a /XT; Set ato-^pov Kc pSovs 

el-rriv TI<S e% ai;T(j3j/...yacrTe pes ap- 


^piycrro/Xoyta? Kat cvXoytas] 
The distinction is that between 
good-speaking and well-speaking; 
between plausibility andjlattery. 
Guileless. Heb. vii. 

26, oorios, aKaKOS, a/x,tavTOS. 
1 9. 17 yap] / am ^ec? to 
^Aws 6y ^/ie universal report of 
your Christian obedience; which, 
while it causes me joy, makes me 
also anxious that it should not 
be abused by designing men to 
your injury. 



VTraKorj i Trd-VTas d(piKTO ed> VJJLLV ovv 
ipco, 6e\co $e i/^ttas cro<povs eivai eis TO d r ya6oi f ) 

20 aKepaious 3e ek TO KCCKOV. 6 Se 0eo9 Ttjs eiprjvtjs 
crvi>Tpi\lsei TOV ^JLaTavciV VTTO TOI) TroSas VJULMV 
ev TCL^EL. 

H x a P L< * TO ^ Kvpiov f^uwi/ Irjcrou Xpio~TOv 
yuefl* VJULCOV. 

21 A<T7T^eTai v/uid s Ti/xo^eos d owe^ yos /uof, 

c lacrcoi/ fca^ ^,wcrL7raTpos ol cruy- 

-2O. (yT* (T I) VT pi"d/CH, 

et< Travra? a<^tKro] Sec i. 8, 
>7 TTtcrrt? v/xcor Ka7O.yyeAA.eTai eV 
oAco TW KoV/xa). i Thess. i. 8, ev 


TOI/ eov c^tXijXvOtv. 

o-o^)07;s...aKepatoi;s Se ] Matt, 
x. 1 6, yivecrOf. ovv (^povt/JLOL cos ot 
o^>ei<; /cat aKe patot GJS at TrepttTre- 
pat. I Cor. xiv. 20, /XT} TratSta 
rats ^pecrtV, aAAa r^ /ca- 
,, rats Se ^pecrtv 
re Aetot ytVecr^e. Phil. ii. 15, a/xe/x- 
Trrot Kat a/cepaioi. 

20. TT^S elpTJvrjs o-wrpti^et] 
The Author of peace is the 
Giver of victory. 

trwTpa//ei] A term selected 
probably with special regard to 
Gen. iii. 15. 

TOV ^aTai/oV] This name 
(meaning enemy) occurs on three 
occasions in the Old Testament, 
in each case rendered in the 
LXX. by 8ta/?oAos. i Chron. xxi. 
i. Jobi. 6, &c.: ii. i, &c. Zech.iii. 

i, &c. Frequently in the New, 
beginning with Matt. iv. 10. 

21. Ti/xo $eos] Timotheus 
was sent on into Macedonia and 
Greece from Ephesus (Acts xix. 
22; compare i Cor. iv. 17. xvi. 
10); rejoined St Paul in Mace 
donia (2 Cor. i. i); was with 
him in Greece (as here) ; and 
accompanied him on his return 
to Asia (Acts xx. 4). 

Aou /aos] The name occurs 
also in Acts xiii. i, with the 
addition d Kup^vatos. But iden 
tity cannot be inferred from a 
name so common. 

latTwj/] Of Thessalonica. 
Acts xvii. 5 9. 

StocriVaTpos] Called StoVaTpos 
IIvppoi; Bepotatos, in Acts xx. 4, 
where he is said to have accom 
panied St Paul into Asia, im 
mediately after this visit to 

XVI. 202 5 . 


yevels ^JLOV. do-Tra^oimaL v/uds ejco Tepnos 6 22 
ypa\]sas Tr]v e7ri<TTO\t}v ev Kvpiw. da-Trd^erai 23 

d(T7rd(^6Tai v/ma^ HLpaa~TOs 6 OLKOVO/UIOS Ttjs TTO- 
KCLL KoJapTOs 6 d()6\<p6s. 

ai KCITCC TO 25 

Tup <$e Svva/ULevct) ujuias 

fJLOV KCU TO K^pvy/uia Itjcrov XpicrTov, 

24. H 

TOU Kvpiov rjfj.iSi> Itjcrov X 

v/j.u)i> /j.riv. 

22. d ypat/^a?] As the ama 
nuensis. For St Paul s usual 
method of authenticating his 
Epistles, see 2 Thess. iii. 17, d 
ao-TTacr/xds Trj e/Jifj 


OUTWS ypa<^aj. i Cor. xvi. 21. 
Col. iv. 1 8. For a departure 
(at least for some considerable 
portion of his letter) from his 
practice of employing an ama 
nuensis, see Gal. vi. n, tSere 
V/JLLV ypa/x/mcriv eypai//a 

TT^V 7rtcrToA.7^i/] The present 
letter. So in Col. iv. 16. i 
Thess. v. 27. 

23. Fat os] See i Cor. i. 14, 
where he is said to be a Corinth 
ian. We read also of Gaius a 
Macedonian (Acts xix. 29), and 
of Gaius of Derbe (Acts xx. 4), 
not to mention the Gaius to 
whom the 3rd Epistle of St 
John is addressed. The name 
(which is the Latin Caius) is, 
like Lucius in verse 2 1, too com 
mon either to prove an identity 
or to create a difficulty. Gaius 

of Derbe accompanied St Paul 
into Asia (Acts xx. 4) after this 
sojourn in Greece; but it may 
seem most natural to under 
stand the Corinthian Gains to 
be here meant. 

The Christian congregation at 
Corinth seems to have met at 
his house for worship. See 
references in notes on verse 5, 


"Epacrros] Erastus, like Ti- 
motheus, had been sent 011 from 
Ephesus into Macedonia (Acts 
xix. 22). At a much later 
period he is said on one occa 
sion to have remained in Corinth 
(2 Tim. iv. 20). 

d ot/coi^d/xos TT7? Tro Xeco?] The 
treastirer of the city. The city 
is not named, but Corinth may 
be probably inferred (see last 

25. cmypi^ai] See note on 
i. n, 0-TrjpLxO^va.L. 

KYjpvy^a\ Proclamation. 

Matt. xii. 41, /xerei/dr/o-ai/ eis TO 
lova. Luke xi. 32. i Cor. 



Kara ctTrOKaXv^jstv /uLvo-rripiou %pdvoi$ aiwviois 
26 crecriyri/uLevov (pavepwBevTOs Se vvv Sid re ypa- 

(p(*)V 7TpO(f>r]TlK(jOV KCtT eTTLTay^V TOV CtitoVLOV 

i. 21, Sta TTJS /xooptas rov KY)- 
pvy^tiaTos o~coo~ai TOVS 7rto~Tevov- 
ras. ii. 4, o Xoyos /zov Kat TO 
K.TI pvy p,a fjiov OVK eV 7ret$ots cro- 
<tas Xoyots. XV. 14, et Se XptoTos 
OVK ey^yeprat, Keroi/ apa [Kat] TO 
Krjpvyfjia. yfjioyv K.r.X. 2 Tim. iv. 
17, tva oY e/x,ov TO KT/pvy/xa TrXry- 
y). Tit. i. 3, ev Krawy- 

l\ 5 //) 1 

O 7Tl(TT.VU7]V eyoj. 

KaTa] /?& accord 
ance with an unveiling of a se 
cret buried in silence through 
eternal times. This clause may 
be regarded either as in appo 
sition with Kara TO euayye Aiov 
K.T.X. above, or (rather) as ex 
planatory of the Kijpvyua. The 
proclamation of Jesus Christ 
is in accordance with a Divine 
unveiling of an eternally hidden 

/jiV(TT7)piov] See note on xi. 


XpoVots cuooviois] Through 
eternal times. Throughout the 
whole period of past eternity. 
A dative of duration, like John 
ii. 20, Tecro-epcxKOVTa Kat e ere- 
o~tv KoSo^a?7$?7 o vaos OI;TOS. 
Acts viii. ii, Sta TO iKavw 
Tats /Aayetats e^eaTaKevat 
Eph. iii. 5, o eTepais 
OVK eyvo)/>tcr^ TOIS vtots TCOV dv- 
$pco7rwv. Compare the yet 
stronger expression (2 Tim. i. 

9. Tit. i. 2), Trpo 
(before eternal times; before eter 
nity itself began). 

26. <ai/epco$eVros Se vvj/] 
The same contrast is found in 
Eph. iii. 5, cos vvv 

K.T.A. Col. i. 26, TO 

TO a7roKKpvafJLevov aTro TOJJ/ atoj- 
vcov Kat aVo TCOJ/ yev(or, vvv Se 
(f)avpojOr] K.T.X. 2 Tim. i. 9, 10, 
<^avepco^eto"ai/ Se vvt K.T.A. Tit. 
i. 2, 3, ec^aj/epGOcref Se Katpots 
tStots K.T.X. I Pet. i. 20, <ai/e- 
poo^erTos Se CTT eo^aTOV TCOI/ XP- 
vcov K.T.X. The aor^ expresses 
one decisive act of disclosure Sta 
T77? eTTt^avetas (2 Tim. i. 10) of 
Jesus Christ. 

Sta Te ypa^coi/] ^nc? 5?/ means 
of prophetic writings, &c. -S?/ 
^Ae aic/ of the corroborative testi 
mony of Old Testament Scrip 
tures. See note on i. 2, eY 
ypa^ats ayiats. Compare iii. 
21, oiKaiocrvvr] Qeov Tre^arepcoTat 
/jLaprvpov/Jt,vr] VTTO TOV vd/xoi; Kat 
T(OI/ 7rpo<J>7]T(j)v. Compare 2 Pet. 
i. 19, e^o/xei/ /8e/3aioTepov TOI/ 
Trpo^rtKov Aoyoi/ (i^e Aave Aere 
a confirmation of the prophetic 
word) : showing the mutual con 
firmation of the Gospels and the 
Old Testament. 

KttT* e-mTaytjv] See x. 17, 77 
Se aKor} Sta ptjfj.aros Xpto-Tov. 
Compare i Tim. i. i, oVoo-To- 

XVI. 26, 2 7 . 


a) 77 

27- Or omit 

Aos Xptorrov Ir)(Tov Kar e? 
yrjv eou o-corr^pos -rjfjLwv. Tit. 

1. 3j O fTTLCTTevOfjV CyOJ KttT* eTTlTtt- 

T^V TOU crwrr/pos r/yucoi/ eou. 

TOU aiwviov eou] Job xxxiii. 
1 2, LXX. cuomos yap eo~Tiv o 
eTrai/co fipoTwv. Isai. xxvi. 4, 
d eos d /xeyas, d atwvios. xl. 28, 
eos atcoi/ios, eds o KaTao"Kevao"as 
Ta axpa TT^S yirjs K.T.A. i Tim. 
i. 17, TO) Se jSaonAet T(5v attoi/tov 


ets V7raKor)v Trt crTews] Com 
pare i. 5, eis VTraKorjv TrtWews eV 
Tots e^i/eo-tv. xv. 1 8, ets 

7Ti<TTW5 i? TTaVTCL TO. in] 

/ULOVW crofya) 0ew, Sid Itjaov 27 
ek TOI)? aiwvas 

ei s Travra rex e^vr;] These 
words depend upon yvupivOiv- 
ros. Z7^to (as _/ar as, so as to 
reach) all the nations of the 
world. See note on viii. 18, 
cts rjfias. 

27. /xoVw] i Tim. i. 17, 

0? at. TWJ (LiUlVWV. 

(KpuapTto) aopctTto yttovd) eoj 

Kai So ^a ets TOUS atwi/as. vi. 15, 

1 6, d yoiaKapios Kat jU.oVos Svva- 

K.T.A. Jude 215, aoVoj 0ec3 o-oj- 

t V <> \ 5, ^ -,,- l -> 

Tr^pt y]jjnav oia l^crou Apto*Toi; TOU 
KvpLOv Tjfjiwv Sdtj-a K.T.A. The 
absence of the article lays stress 
on the attribute : One who has 
tJie characteristic of soleness, of 
aloneness, in His glory. 

u>] The construction is un 
accountably broken. Even the 
long-suspended sentence scarce 
ly explains it. Possibly the 
familiar run of the doxology 
(GJ rj 86^0. K.T.A. Gal. i. 5- 2 
Tim. iv. 1 8. Heb. xiii. 21) 
may be some apology for it, 
either in the author, the ama 
nuensis, or the copyist. 

ets TOUS atolvas] See note oil 
i. 25, ets rows 



v. 19. 
a/ca/co? xvi. 18. 
a/<epatos xvi. 19. 
x. 1 6. 

A/?0a viii. 15. 

a/?VO-CrOS X. 7. 

dya$os v. 7. 
dyaOwcrvvr) xv. 14. 
dyctTraj/ viii. 37. 
ayaTTTy v. 5. 
ayaTT^ros xii. 19. 
a yetv viii. 14. 
dyiaeiv xv. 16. 
dyiacr/zos vi. 19. 
ayios i. 7. 

dyvoctv i. 13. 
dypieAcuos xi. 17. 
dSeA^o s viii. 29. xii. 19. 
ix. 2. 
i. 9. 

dSi/a a i. 18. 
dSoKi/xos i. 28. 
aSwaros xv. I . 
at Sios i. 20. 
at/xa iii. 25. 

vii. 23. 
i. 25. xii. 2. 
cuoji/ios ii. 7. xvi. 25, 26. 

1 The numerals refer to chapter and verse. Where a word occurs more 
than, once in the Epistle, the reference is made to the first or fullest note upon 
it. When two or more references are given upon the same word, it will be 
understood that there is some distinctive use in each. 

x. 14. 

ii. 13. 

d/cpoySvcrrta ii. 26. iii. 30. 
i. 30. 

i. 25. ii. 8. iii. 7 
iii. 4. 
vii. 7. 

i. 23. 
ii. 15. 
ttAAorpto? xv. 20. ii. 12. 
a/jidpTTj/Jia iii. 25. 
d/jiapTia iii. 9. &c. 
a//,aprtoAds v. 19. 

xi. 29. 

11. 5- 

avayetv X. 7- 
dva^fjv vii. 9. 
dvd#e/m ix. 3. 
d^a/catV<ocrts xii. 2. 

xiii. 9. 



ai aXoyia xii. 6* 
uVa7roAoy7?Tos i. 20. 
aracrracrt? i. 4. 
i. 31. 
xi. 33. 
xi. 33. 
dvOicrrdvai ix. 19. 
xii. 20. 

vi. 19. 
vi. 6. 
ai/o^ros i. 14. 
avoiyeiv ni. 13. 
avo/xcos ii. 12. 
11. 4. 

xi. 9. 

ai>Ta7ro/cpiW(T$ai ix. 20. 
ai/TiXeyeii/ X. 21. 
avTi/xi<r$ia i. 27. 

vii. 23. 
xii. 9. 

i. 32. viii. 18. 
a t<Ds xvi. 2. 
aoparos 1. 20. 

j viii. 23. xi. 16. 
X. 21. 
i. 30. 
crOa.L viii. 1 9- 

XV. 28. 
iii. 3. 
cL7ncrTLa iii. 3. 
a7rAor^5 xii. 8. 

ttTTO i. 2O. 

a.Tro/3oXr) xi. 15. 
a7ro8t8oi/at ii. 6. 

OLTToOvrjCTKCLV Vli. 9. 

xi. 13. xvi. 7, 
tt7rocrTpe<eu xi. 26. 


xvi. 25. 

ctTTO/capaSoKta viii. 19. 
aTTo/creti/etv Vll. II. 
a7roXa/x/3avtv i. 27. 
a.7roAA.i;eiy XIV. 15. 
ii. i^ 
iii. 24. viii. 23. 

xii. 9. 

a7roTi$eVat xiii. 12. 
cx7TOToXp:ai/ x. 20. 
ctTToro/xta xi. 22. 
dirwOeiv xi. I. 
apa xiv. 12. 
apa ovv vii. 3. 

viii. 8. xv. 2. 
?? viii. 38. 
i. 18. 
v. 6. 

cxcre Xyeta xiii. 13. 
vi. 19. 
iv. 19. 
v. 6. 

Acri a xvi. 5. 
acrropyos i. 31. 
curvi/eros i. 31. X. 19. 
i. 31. 

i. 27. 
ii. 23. 

art/xta i. 26. 
ct(^atpetv xi. 27. 
d<pOapcria ii. 7- 
dcf)9apTos i. 23. 
a<f)iva.L iv. 7- 
d<f>LKVLO-9ai xvi. 19. 

i. I. 
? vii. 8. 

iii. 12. 
xv. 19. 

Ba aA. xi. 4. 
^a ^os viii. 39. 
/3a7rri av vi. 3. 
/3a p/3apos i. 14. 
xiv. 17. 
v. 17. 
ySacrra^civ xv. I. 
/?SeXvo-ore<70ai ii. 22. 



fiefiaios iv. r6. 

SiKcuw/m i. 32. 

fiffldLOVV XV. 8. 

SiKat ajcrt? iv. 2C. 

firjfjia. xiv. 10. 

bi^oa Tao La xvi. i 7 . 

ftXaa- <fr-r] iii. 8. xiv. 16. 

otu>yyU.os viii. 35. 

/?pco/x,a xiv. 15. 

StcoKet^ ix. 30. 

/3paxris xiv. 17. 

SoKtyua^cii/ i. 28. 

SoKL/JLTJ \. 4. 

Faios xvi. 23. 

So /a/xos xiv. 1 8. 

yf/jifiv iii. 1 4. 

Soa i. 23. iii. 23. 

yLvecrOai i. 3. 

OOCCL^iV 1. 21. 

yij/wV/ceiv vii. 15. 

SovAet a viii. 15. 

yvwpifcew ix. 2 2 . 

SoSAo? i. i. 

yyaJcris ii. 20. 

Bvva/jLis i. 1 6. viii. 38. 

yvaicrros i. 19. 

Swareu/ xiv. 4. 

yon; xi A. 

owa.TO5 ix 2 xv i 

/ ^ 
ypa/x/m ii. 27. 

Sajpca v. 15. 

ypaTTTos ii. 15. 

Scopeaj/ iii. 24. 

ypd<>fiv xvi. 22. 

Sojp7y/xa v. 1 6. 

ypa^tj i. 2. iv. 3. 

yv(j.v6rY)s viii. 35. 

eyyi^eo xiii. 12. 

eyyvrepov xiii. 1 1 . 

3e xiv. i. 

ey/caAeti viii. 33. 

Sta ii. 27. 

eyKaraAeiVetf ix. 29. 

SiayyeAAeti/ ix. 17. 

cyKei/rpi^eiv xi. 17. 

^LaBrjKTi ix. 4. 

iyKOTTTf.IV XV. 22. 

StaKovia xi. 13. xii. 7* 

e^i/o? ii. 14. 

SIOKOJ/OS xv. 8. xvi. i . 

et/<^ xiii. 4. 

oi<x/cpu iv iv. 20. 

ei/ctov i. 23. viii. 29- 

Sia/<pio-i<j xiv. i. 

ct /AT; xiv. 14. 

SiaAoytcr/xos i. 21. 

eiTrep iii. 30. 

StaTropeuecr^at XV. 24. 

elprjvfvfiv xii. 1 8. 

StacrroA^ iii. 22. 

flprjvrj i. 7. v. I. 

Staray>; xiii. 2. 

ets ii. 26. iii. 22. xi. 36. xv. 2. 

8ia<epeiv ii. 18. 

cts iii. 30. 

Sia^>opos xii. 6. 

flcrfp^fO OaL xi. 25. 

StSacTKaAia xv. 4. 

ei TIJ xiii. 9. 

StSacr/cetv xii. 7. 

eK, e^ ii. 8. v. 1 6. xi. 36. xii. 18. 

StSa^T; vi. 17. 

eKCKTTOS Xii. 3- 

Siepxecr$ai v. 12. 

f.Ka.TOVTafrr)<; iv. 19. 

BiKaioKpiCTLa ii. ^. 

fK8iKftv xii. 19. 

3tVatos v. 7. 

eWStKos xiii. 4- 

Si/catocrw7^ i. 17. 

K6t XV. 24. 

5tKcuow ii. 13. 

eK^T^retv iii. 1 1 



IKK\O.V xi. 17. 

ill. 2 

xv. 5 

KK\LVLV ill. 12. 

v. 33. 

e/<Aoyr; ix. II. 
exTrerai/j/wai x. 2 I . ix. 6. 

ii. 3. 

iii. 15. v. 5. 
viii. 20. 
eAcu a xi. 17. 
eAeai/ ix, 16. 
e Aeo? xi. 31. 
\vOep[a viii. 2 i . 
cXcvOepovv vi. 1 8. 
"EAA^v i. 14. 
eAAoyeiv v. 13. 
viii. 24. 

xv. 24. 
ev i. 10, 23. iii. 19. vi. n. ix. i 

ii. 15. 
iii, 25. 
xiii. 12. 
eVowa/xow IV. 20. 
tvtpyelv vii. 5. 

viii. 38. 
viii. ii. 
vii. 9. 

viii. 26. 
eV w viii. 3. 

XIV. 22. 

vii. 1 1 . 
ix. 1 7. 
i x. 1 8. 
Tcr^ai xiv. ii. 

xiv. 3. 

ix. 21. xiii. i. 
tVayycAta iv. 13. ix. 4. 
eVuyyeAAeo-^ai iv. 21. 
ii. 29. 

i. 16. 

XV. 15. 
ii. 17. 
eVa iii. 6. 
eVt i. 10. iv. 5, 9, 1 8. 

i. 32. 
i. 28. 
7rir>Teti/ xi. 7. 
vii. 7. 
x. 12. 
iv. 7. 

. 1 1 . 
7mro9(.a xv. 23. 
eWcr^/xos xvi. 7. 

7TLCTToXtj Xvi. 22. 

xvi. 26. 
xv. 28. 

xi. 7., 
iii. 5. 
u ii. 17. 
t iv, 4. 

e pyov ii. 15. iii. 20. xiv. 20. 
ix. 19. 

viii. 27. 
ia ii. 8. 
xiii. 13. 
i. 23. 
t vii. 9. 
xiv. 2. 
erepo? ii. i. vii. 23. 
ert iii. 7. v. 6. 
empecrros xii. i, 

L>8oKtI/ XV. 26. 
v8oKLCL X. I. 

euAoyetv xii, 14. 
euAoyTyro? ix. 5- 
euAoyta xv. 29. 
euoSoCcr^ai i. 10. 
euTrpocrSeKTO? xv. 16. 

Vpl<TKLV IV. I. 

xiii. 13. 

XV. IO. 

i. 21. 



evxecrPai ix. 3. 

lovoaios 11. 17. 

e(j>a7ra vi. IO. 

lapa^A ix. 6. 

e<jf>et)peT7ys i. 30. 

la-oarjXfLTrjs IX. 4. 

Ix^tv i. 28. 

tcrravat iii. 31. v. 2. xiv. 4. 

ec/> ocroi/ xi. 13. 

9(vos i x - 12- 

C/> O> V. 12. 

e^Opa viii. 7. 

KO.Ua.7TCp IV. 6. 

expo s xi. 28. 

Ka.0a.pos xiv. 20. 

/ca6^ cis xii. 5. 

eai> xii. 1 1 . 

KaOr/K6Lv i. 28. 

/yAos x. 2. 

/ca^icrrdVai V. i 9. 

771- i. 17. vii. 9. 

KaOopav i. 20. 

,if)Tiv ii. 7. 

/catvoTTys vi. 4. 

uy v. 10. vi. 4. 

/caipos xiii. 1 1 . 

/cat roCro xiii. 1 1. 

178/7 i. 10. 

KO.KLO. i. 29. 

>;/xepa xiii. 12. 

KO-KorjOfia. i. 29. 

r;rot vi. 1 6. 

KaAeti/ iv. 17. viii. 30. 

rjTTTf](jio. xi. 12. 

/caAAte Aatos xi. 24. 

/caAos xii. 17. 

$avaros i. 32. v. 12. vi. 3. 

/caAtGg xi. 20. vii. 4. 

Ka/xTrretv xi. 4. 

OeacrOai xv. 24. 

/capita ii. 15. 

$eioT?7s i. 20. 

KapTros i. 13. xv. 28. 

#e Aaj/ ix. 1 6. 

/cap7To<opett/ vii. 4. 

@X.r)fjLa i. 10. xv. 32. 

/cara ii. 5. viii. 27. xi. 28. 

#e//,eAtos xv. 20. 

/carayeti/ x. 6. 

OfcxTTvyTJi i. 30. 

/caratcr^wetv v. 5. 

0/fpa xi. 9. 

Kara/cav^acr^at xi. 1 8. 

OrjcravpL^fiv ii. 5. 

/cara/cpt/xa V. 1 6. 

OXtyis ii. 9. 

KO.TO.Kpl.VtlV li. I. 

OvrjTos vi. 12. 

/caraAaAos i. 30. 

Ovfj-os ii. 8. 

/caraAattjSaVeti/ ix. 30. 

Ova-La, xii. i. 

/caraAetVeti/ xi. 4. 

KaraAAayif v. II. 

lepocruAeu/ ii. 22. 

/caraAAa cro-eti/ v. JO. 

icpovpyeiv xv. 16. 

/caraAveti/ xiv. 20. 

lepova-aA^/x XV. 19. 

Karai^oetv iv. 1 9* 

i/cai/os xv. 23. 

Karai/v^ts xi. 8. 

lAapdr^s xii. 8. 

/carapacr#ai xii. 14. 

tAao"r7piov iii. 25. 

/carapyetv iii. 3. 

lAAvptKov xv. 19. 

Karaprt^etv ix. 22. 

105 iii. 13. 

/cara^povctf ii. 4. 

V. B. 



KG.rva.vr i v. 17. 
K(XTepyae(T$ai iv. 15. 

i. 18. 
ii. 15. 

ii. 1 8. 

t v. 3. 

iv. 2. 

iii. 27. 

xvi. I. 
KCJ/OW v. 14. 
/cepa/zvs ix. 21. 
Ktjpvy/jia xvi. 25. 
KII/OWOS vin. 35. 
xAaSog xi. 17. 
K\ir]povo[jios iv. 13. viii. 17 
K\.-r]crL<; xi. 29. 

KX.7JTOS i. 6. 

K\ifjia xv. 23. 
KoiAia xvi. 1 8. 

xiv. 14. 
xii. 13. 

a xv. 26. 
Ko\\aa6ai xii. 9. 
KCCT/XOS i. 20. 
Kpaai/ viii. 15. 
Kpea? xiv. 21. 

KpL/Jid 11. 2. 

ii. i. 

o? ii. 1 6, 29. 
i. 20. 

UKa) XV. 19. 

vi. 9. xiv. 9. 
xiv. 4. 
i. 13. 
xiii. 13. 

. 19. 

viii. 15 
Aaog ix. 25. 
Aarpeta ix. 4. 
Aarpe^etv i. 9. 
Aa^ai/ov xiv. 2. 
Aeyetv iii. 10. 

xa xi. 5. 

AeiToupyctv xv. 27. 
Aetrovpyos xiii. 6. 
At/xo? viii. 35. 
Aoyt^eo-^at ii. 3, 26. 
Aoyt/cos xii. i. 
Aoytov iii. 2. 
Aoyicrpios ii. 15. 
Aoyos iii. 4. ix. 28. xiv. i 
xiv. 15. 

oq iv. 8. 

o? iv. 6. 
Sofia xv. 26. 

ii. 4. 

/xaprupeu/ iii. 21. x. 2. 
/xapru? i. 9. 
/xaraior^s viii. 20. 
/uaratow i. 21. 
viii. 35. 

xiii. 13. 
v ix. 12. 

/ae AAetv v. 14. 
/x,e Aos vi. 13. 

ix. 19. 
vii. 12. 

ix. 20. 
i/ xii. 3. 
//epos xi. 25. xv. 24. 
yu,eo"TO5 1. 29. 
/xeraSiSovat xii. 8. 
//.eraAAao-crav i. 25. 
/xera/xop^ow xii. 2. 

fJLTOLVOia. 11. 4- 

fjicrav ii. 15. 
/xerpoi/ xii. 3- 

ii. 14- 
yzvoiTO ill. 4- 

xv. 23. 
ix. 1 1. 
/utcretv ix. 13. 
iv. 4. 

INDEX. < 2J 

/A ma i. 9. 

P7 r / ii. ^. 

/xoVos xvi. 27. 

e / ^ 

opi^eiv i. 4. 

/x.op<^>u)cri5 ii. 20. 

t\ / . 

OS /xej/ XIV. 2. 

fAVCTTyplOV XI. 2s. 

OO-Tt? i. 25. 

[AUtpaiVfLV i. 22. 

ot> iv. 1 5. 

vai iii. 29. 

OVK6TI Vi. 9. 

Nap/acro-os xvi. TI. 

01; TTai/Tcos iii. 9. 

ve/cpo? vi. TI. vii. 8. viii. 10. 
vcKpovv iv. 19. 

owpai/os i. 1 8. 
OI^TOS vii. 10, 24. 

fCKpajcris iv. 19. 

ot>rtos i ic xi ?(\ 

A J -A-A. *lU. 

VTJTTLOS ii. 20. 

. / . 

vi/ca^ iii. 4. 
voeii/ i. 20. 

o ^etAerrys i. 14. 
o(j>u\r)/j.a iv. 4. [a. ix. 4. 

o l^wia vi. 23. 

vo/xos ii. 12, 14. iii. 19, 27. vii. 


Trayt s xi. 9. 

VOvOf.Tf. iV XV. IzJ. 

Trac T^p.a vii. c. 

TTCt^OS i. 26. 

vovs vii. 23, 25. xii. 2. 

TratSetiTT^s ii. 20. 

vwi iii. 2 1. 

TraAatos vi. 6. 

vii xiii. 12. 

TraAatoTT^? vii. 6. 

ei/os xvi. 23. 

TraAu/ viii. ic. 

<s / 

Trapa i. 2C. 11. ij. 

oo^yos ii. 19. 

Trapapacrts ii. 2 7. 

dSos xi. 33. 

7rapa(3a.Tr)s ii. 25. 

olKf.1v vii. 17. 

TrapaStSoyac i. 24. iv. 25. 

01*6x779 xiv. 4. 

7rapar/Aow x. 19. 

oiKoSofjiij xiv. 19. 

TrapaKaAeti/ xii. 8. 

otoi/o/xos xvi. 23. 

Trapa.Kf.L(f0ai vii. 18. 

oT/cos xvi. 5. 

Trapa/cA^o-is xii. 8. 

oiKov/nev-r) x. 18, 

TrapaK otj v. 19. 


TrapaTTTco/xa xi. II. 

oiKTip/u.6<; xii. i. 

7rapeto"pYO"^ctt V. 2O. 

olov ix. 6. 

Ol TToAAot V. JC. 

7rapCTTava, TraptcrTavetv vi. 13. 
xiv. 10. 

oKV7)po<s xii. ii. 

Trapopyi^f.iv X. 19. 

oAos i. 8. 

Trarr/p i v. 1 1 . 

o^JLoOv/jiaoov xv. 6. 

Trf.iQf.iv ii. 19. viii. 38. 

OfAoiw/jia i. 23. 

TmvdV xii. 20. 

o/JLo\oyiv X. 9. 

Ttf.lLTtf.iv viii. 3. 

ovofj.a i. 5. 

Trepas x. 1 8. 

o^s iii. 15. 

?rept a/xaprtas viii. 3. 

oTrAa vi. 13. 

TrepLTraTtiv vi. 4. 



Trepicrcma v. 17. 

TrpoaiTLaaOaL iii. 9. 

TTf.pi(T<jf.\!f.iv ill. 7* 

Trpofiarov viii. 36. 

Trepicrcros iii. I. 

TrpoyiWfT^ai iii. 25. 

TrepLTOfjiT) ill. 30. 

Trpoyit/eoo-Keo/ viii. 29. 

Treretvcx i. 23. 

7rpoyptt<^)ti/ xv. 4. 

Trerpa ix. 33. 

7rpoSiS6i/cH xi. 35. 

TTTyAos ix. 21. 

TrpoeTrayye AAecr^at i. 2. 

TriKpta ill. 14. 

7rpoeip?7/ceVai ix. 29. 

TrioTrjs xi. 17. 

7rpoToi/xa^ti/ ix. 23. 

TriTrpaa K.f.iv vii, 1 4. 

Trpoe^etv iii. 9. 

TTL7TTf.iv xi. ii. xiv. 4. 

Trpo r/yelo Oat xii. IO. 

Tri(TTf-vf.iv iv. 5. xiv. 2. 

Trpo^ecrts viii. 28. 

7ricrTts i. 5. iii. 22, 25. xiv. 23. 

7rpo6v/jios i. i^. 

TrAai/Ty i. 27. 

TrpoicTTavai xii. 8. 

TrAacr^a ix. 20. 

TTpoKOTrretv xiii. 12. 

TrAacra-eti/ ix. 20. 

7rpovoelv xii. 17. 

TrAeoKX^eti/ V. 2O. 

TTpovoia. xiii. 14. 

TrAeore^ia i. 29. 

7rpoopL^iv viii. 29. 

TrX.r)povv i. 29. xv. 19. 

TrpOTTarcop iv. i . 

7rA?7pQ0ope(V iv. 21. 

7rpOTTfJL7rLV XV. 24. 

TrXijpw/jia xi. i 2. 

Trpos viii. 18. x. 21. xv. 2. 

rrX.rjfTLOv xiii. 9. 

7rpocraya>y?7 v. 2. 

/rAcwretV X. 12. 

7rpocr6eY^<j$ai xvi. 2. 

/rAouTOs ii. 4. 

Trpocreir^ry i. 10. 

rrvev/jia i. 4. ii. 29. v. 5. viii. 9. 

TrpoaKaprepeti/ xii. 12. 

jryeu/xariKos vii. 14. xv. 27. 

7rp6o-Ko/*fMa ix. 32. i. 32. 

TrpOOrKOTTTfLV ix. 32. 

rroirj/Jia. 1. 2O. 

TrpocrAa/XySa^eo-^at xiv. I. 

TrotrjTijs ii. 13. 

7rp6a-\r)/juf/is xi. 15. 

Trotos iii. 27. 

Trpocrraris xvi. 2. 

TrdAts xvi. 23. 

7rpocr<opa xv. 16. 

TroAActKi? i. 13. 

7rpoo-i07ro\r)/jul/ia ii. 1 1 . 

7roj/r;pta i. 29. i. 13. iii. 25. 

TrovTjpos xii. 9. 

Trpo^T^reia xii. 6. 

TropetW^ai xv. 25. 

7TpO(f)t]T r]S 1. 2. 111. 21. 

Troo-t? xiv. 17. 

7rpo^)7^TiKos xvi. 26. 

TTOTitf.iv xii. 20. 

TrpaJroi/ i. 1 6. 

7TOU IV. 19. 

Trptoros x. 19. 

Trews iii. 15. 

TrpeororoKo? viii. 29. 

Trpa^is viii. 13. 

TTTO.if.iV XI. II. 

Trpacro-etv i. 32. 

TrOp xii. 20. 

Hpt crKa xvi. 3. 

TTCOpOW Xi. 7. 

Trpo xvi. 7. 

7T(JL>pW(JtS XI. 25. 




7TOJS OV^L Vlll. 32. 

pfjfjta x. 8. 
pia xi. 1 6. XV. 1 
Pov<f>o<s xvi. 13. 
pvecrOaL vii. 24. 

x. 29. 

crap/aKO?, crap/ai/os v r ii. 14. 
<rup i. 3. vi. 19. 
2araj/as xvi. 20. 
creaim){J ii. 19. 
(Te/2ueo-$ai i. 25. 
<j-r)/ji.lov iv. ii. xv. 19. 
criyai/ xvi. 25. 
<TKa.v8a.Xov ix. 33. 
cr/cevos ix. 22. 
cn<Xr)poTr)s ii. 5. 

(TK\-Jf]p\)Vf.iV ix. I 8. 

. 2 1 . 
O-KOTOS xiii. 12. 
(Tofyia. xi. 33. 
croc^os i. 14. 
27ravia xv. 24. 
cnrfp/Jia. ix. 29. 
o-7roi>8?7 xii. 8, ii. 
orevay/xos viii. 26. viii. 23. 

ii. 9. 
xiv. 4. 
v i. ii. 

IV. 12. 

ii. 19. 
cru xiv. 10. 

XVI. 7. 
xi. 34. 
viii. 29. 
O-V/U,</>I;TOS vi. 5. 

xv. 30. 
xvi. 7. 
o"wava.7rave(r$(U XV. 32. 
(rvvavTi\a[ji/3avcr6a.i viii. 26. 

^at xii. 16. 
viii. 17. 
ii. 15. 

awepyetv viii. 28. 
crui eDSoKetj/ i. 32. 
a-vv^rv vi. 8. 

v. 22. 

(TVvOa.7TTLV VI. 4. 

iii. ii. 
iii. 5. 
v xi. 10. 
(ri;]//<Xetetj/ xi. 32. 
avvK\r]pov6fj.o<; viii. 17. 
0-vv/j.apTvp^Lv ii. 15. 
i. 12. 
vi. 17. 
ix. 28. 

IX. 28. 

xvi. 20. 

iii. 1 6. 

viii. 22. 

vi. 6. 

xii. 2. 
r/ viii. 36. 
o-</>payteu/ xv. 28. 
(T^payts iv. II. 
crajeu/ V. 9. 

craj/m vi. 6. vii. 24. xii. 4. 
o"a>pei;civ xii. 20. 
2tocri7ra.Tpos xvi. 21. 
crwr^pia xiii. 1 1. 

raXaiTrwpta iii. 1 6. 
raAtttVcopos vii. 24. 
TCU/>OS iii. 13. 
re vii. 7. 
Tfxvov ix. 8. 
TcAeu/ ii. 27. xiii. 6. 
re Aos vi. 21. x. 4. xiii. 7. 
re pas xv. 19. 

i. 23. 



Tt tpOV/JiCV 111. 5. 

TL/jitj ii. 7. 
Tt/x.o$eos xvi. 21. 
ToA/zai/ v. 7. 
TOTTOS xii. 19. xv. 23. 
TOUT ecrriv i. 12. 
s xvi. 4. 
v ix. 16. 
V. 14. 
rv(f>\o<; ii. 19. 

. 30. 
viii. 15. 
vios viii. 14. 
{yx-eVepos xi. 31. 
vTraKorf i. 5. vi. 1 6. 
vi. 17. 
vii. 2. 
iv. 1 9. 
uTre p ix. 27. xv. 8, 9. 
vii. 13. 

viii. 26. 
x. i. 
1. 30. 
i viii. 37. 

v. 2O. 
V7rep(j>povciv xii. 3. 
IUTTO iii. 9. vii. 14. 
iii. 19. 

ix. 27. 
xii. 12. 
v. 3. 
VTrordcrcrtiv viii. 20. 

xvi. 4. 
iii. 23. 
o s xii. 1 6. 

xi. 2O. 

v. 39. 

<ayetv Xiv. 2. 

<JE>atWv vii. 13. 

t^avepo? i. 19. 

(}>avpovv i. 19. iii. 21. xvi. 26. 

. 22. 
ix. ii. 

viii. 32. 

ix. 22. 
v ix. 31. 
x. 1 8. 

d>0opd viii. 21. 
^)t A>;/xa xvi. 1 6. 
<pc\o!;evLUL xii. 13. 
<iA.ocrTo/)yo< xii. 10. 
xv. 20. 

x. 3. 

xiii. 4. 

xiii. 6. 

(/)parretv iii. 19. 
(/>poi/ii/ viii. 5. 
e/>poi/77/x,a viii. 6. 
^)poi/i/Aos xi. 25. 
(f>v\dcra eLv ii. 26. 
<uA.?7 xi. i. 
(f>vpafj,a xi. 1 6. 
</>ucri5 ii. 14. 
<^tos xiii. 12. 

x. 12. 
xv. I 7. 

viii. 32. 
i. 5, 7. 

i. II. 
x. 21. 
xii. 13. 
tvxvi. 2. 

vii. 3. 
XI. 4. 

ta xvi. 1 8. 
ii. 4. 
xv. 25. 
v viii. 35. 
iii. 21, 28. 

xv. 9. 
i. 25. 
iii. 7. 

INDEX. 283 

\f/evaTr)<; iii. 4. o s iii. 7. viii. 

i. 30. oj? ai/ xv. 24. 

ii. 9. xiii. T. cJo-et vi. 13. 

iew xii. 20. Jjo-Trep v. 12. 

ajcrre vii. 4. 

xiii. ii. u]<e /Vetu iii. i. 

x. 15. cJ(/)Aetv ii. 25. 



junn vv. or a 1 1 a m 

Trinity College 


Check One: 

D Searchjf Stack Retrieval 

D Carrel Retrieval &$1 Retrieval 

Call No. 

r> v . A