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Full text of "Strategy and tactics of world communism"

STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

RECRUITING FOR ESPIONAGE 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE OAV'A .K ..' 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 

S. Res. 58 



JUNE 28 AND 29, 1955 



PART 14 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
59886 WASHINGTON : 1955 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

JAN 1 8 1956 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

HARLEY M. KILGORE, West Virginia, Chairman 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, Soutli Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas HERMAN WELKBR, Idaho 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Securitt" 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

J. G. SouRwiNE, Chief Counsel 

Richard Ahens and Alva C. Carpenter, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



P&ga 

Bessie, Alvah 1370 

Burdett, Winston Mansfield 1324 

Dowling, Lyle 1382 

Kaufman, Milton 1374 

Stern, Monroe William 1363 

Weingarten, Violet 1378 

Young, Murraj' 1379 

m 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Recruiting for Espionage 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 29, 1955 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 
OF the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 

Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 05 a. m., in room 318, 
Senate Office Building, Senator James O. Eastland (chairman of the 
subcommittee) presiding. 

Present: Senators Eastland, Johnston, Daniel, Jenner, and 
Hennings. 

Also present: J. G. Sourwine, chief counsel; Alva C. Carpenter, 
associate counsel; Benjamin Mandel, director of research, and Robert 
McManus, investigations analyst. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

On November 1, 1953, J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, declared : 

The ex-Communist holds in his hands weapons which can strike a mighty blow 
against a terrible evil. "When the ex-Communist withdraws, and at the same 
time makes a full disclosure to the proper authorities, he does irreparable dam- 
age to the cause. 

Today we shall have an opportunity^ to hear an ex-Communist dis- 
close a phase of the Communist conspiracy which has not been told 
before. The subcommittee is fully appreciative of the agonizing inner 
struggle experienced by one who has once become entangled in the toils 
of the Red octopus and who finally decides to free himself from its 
grasp. It is fully aware of the mud guns of vilification which will be 
directed against him by the Communists and their allies. Therefore, 
we are deeply grateful to this witness, and welcome his courageous 
effort to roll up the Iron Curtain protecting the Communist conspir- 
acy in the highly important area of his competence. 

Call your witness. Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Winston Burdett. 

The Chairman. Will you hold up your hand, please, sir? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the In- 
ternal Security Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of 
the United States Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. Burdett. I do, sir. 

The Chairman. Sit down, sir. 

Proceed. 

1323 



1324 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Burdett, will you give your full name, please, 
for the record, and your home address and your business or professional 
connection, if any ? 

TESTIMONY OF WINSTON MANSFIELD BURDETT, NEW YOEK CITY 

Mr. Burdett. Winston Mansfield Burdett. I live at 430 East 63d 
Street, New York City, and I am employed as a staff news corre- 
spondent by the Columbia Broadcasting System, at 485 Madison 
Avenue in New York City. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Burdett, were you ever a member of the Com- 
munist Party, USA ? 

Mr. Burdett. I was, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Burdett, will you tell us something of jour 
background and experience in the broadcasting field, how you got into 
it, and what you have done in that field ? 

Mr. Burdett. In the broadcasting field, sir, I have worked for 13 
years as a regular staff correspondent for the Columbia Broadcasting 
System. 

Before then I worked in New York City as a newspaperman, em- 
ployed by the Brooklyn Eagle, for which I worked for 5 years, or 
51/^ years, from 1934 to early in 1940. 

I became regularly employed by the Columbia Broadcasting System 
in the spring of 1942, and have worked for that company ever since 
then. 

A good deal of that experience has been abroad, sir, in the Middle 
East, in North Africa, and in Europe. For the past 4 years I have 
worked here in this country on the New York staff of CBS. 

The Chairman. Now proceed. 

Mr. Sourwine. Will you tell the committee, please, when and where 
you joined the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burdett. I joined the Communist Party, sir, in August of 1937 
when I was employed by the Brooklyn Daily Eagle in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. The unit of the Communist Party which I joined was the 
Brooklyn Daily Eagle unit of the partj^. 

Mr. Sourwine. Who recruited you into the Communist Party, Mr. 
Burdett? 

Mr. Burdett. No particular person, sir. That is to say, I can't 
attribute my recruitment to any one individual. There were various 
persons in the unit of the party at the Brooklyn Eagle whom I knew, 
whom I knew to be Communists, and whom I knew well as friends 
and as colleagues. 

The person whom I knew most intimately and most well and who, 
I think, probably had the greatest influence upon me was a man and 
colleague named Alvah Bessie. He was my close colleague at the 
Eagle. He was a man whom I knew and liked well and warmly. 

When I actually joined the Eagle unit, he was not a member of it, 
because he had left the newspaper, so that I cannot say that I ever 
saw him at a meeting of the Communist Party. Nevertheless, I knew 
him to be a Communist. 

There were others in the unit at the time. That is to say, in the unit 
at the time I joined it. I cannot say that anyone exerted great in- 
fluence on me to join. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1325 

The Chairman". Was Mr. Bessie later known as one of the Holly- 
wood Ten ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Excuse me, sir ? 

The Chairman. Was Mr. Bessie later known as one of the Holly- 
wood Ten ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. That is the man, sir. It is he. Of the other members 
of the party unit at the Eagle whom I knew and whose friendship 
counted in my decision to join the party, there were, I should say, 
several. 

One was Nat Einhorn, another was Victor Weingarten, whom I 
knew^ at that time, who was a colleague on the paper, Violet Brown, 
I knew well on the paper, and it was the friendship of these persons 
and my intimacy with them not only as persons and as colleagues, but 
also in our common work in the Eagle unit of the Newspaper Guild 
which was personally influential in bringing me to join the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Now you have named several persons. Will you 
identify them a little further, please ? 

\^'lio is Nat Einhorn ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Nat Einliorn, sir, was, if I am not mistaken — all of 
the persons I mentioned worked in the editorial department of the 
Brooklyn Eagle, that is to say, as reporters or rewrite men. Nat 
Einhorn was a reporter, and if I am not mistaken, he covered the 
Brooklyn courts and city news in Brooklyn. 

Nat Einhorn was, I should say, the leading spirit of the Communist 
Party unit at the Brooklyn Eagle. I believe, without knowing, that 
he was the oldest member of that unit. He was certainly the organiz- 
ing spirit of the unit. He was also extremely active in Newspaper 
Guild affairs. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you know where Mr. Einhorn is now ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Excuse me, sir ? 

Mr. SoTTRwiNE. Do you know where Mr. Einhorn is now ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not, sir. I have not seen him or heard from him. 
I have not seen him since 1940 when I left the Eagle, and I don't know 
where he is. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now you mentioned Victor Weingarten. "\Mio is 
he? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Victor Weingarten was an editorial employee. He 
was a reporter, a general-assignment reporter, I believe, for the Eagle 
at that time. 

Mr. Sour\\t:ne. Do you know where he is now ? 

Mr. Burdett. I do not, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You mentioned a Violet Brown. Can you identify 
her any further ? 

Mr. Burdett. She was exactly the same, sir. She was, as I recall, 
a general-assignment reporter working on the city desk of the Brook- 
lyn Eagle. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did she marry Mr. Weingarten ? 

Mr. Burdett. She did, sir. 

Mr. Sourwtne. Do you know where she is now ? 

Mr. Burdett. I do not, sir ; no. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you active in the Communist unit at the 
Brooklyn Eagle ? 

Mr. Burdett. I was. 



1326 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was there a unit of the Newspaper Guild at tlie 
Brooklyn Eagle ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. There was. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was this Communist unit a unit of that Guild unit, 
or was it just a unit of employees of the Eagle ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. It was a unit in no way directly connected with the 
Newspaper Guild, but a unit of the Communist Party, to w^hich I 
should say all employees of the Brooklyn Eagle would have been 
eligible. 

Mr. SouKWiNE. How many members belonged to this Communist 
unit of which you were a member at the Brooklyn Eagle ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. At the time that I joined in August of 1937, there 
were, I think, 10. I am not sure, I have not made a count, but about 
10, including myself. 

The unit acquired 1 or 2 new members during the years that I was 
there, and its highest membership, as I recall, was a dozen or so. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, of those 10 you have named 4, Alvah Bessie, 
Nat Einhorn, Victor Weingarten, and Violet Weingarten, formerly 
Violet Brown. Can you name others ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes, sir ; I can. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Will you do so, please ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Charles Lewis. He was, if I am not mistaken, he was 
a rewrite man and a copyreader on the city desk at the Brooklyn 
Eagle. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know where Charles Lewis is now ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead. 

Mr. BuRDETT. There was Hy Charniak, who similarly was, as I 
recall, a general-assignment reporter working in the city room of the 
newspaper. 

Mr. SouR"\viNE. Did the "Hy" stand for Hyman ; do you know ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I believe it does, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know where Charniak is now ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not know where he is now. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Go ahead. 

Mr. BuRDETT. Herbert Colin, I believe without the "e." He was 
again an editorial employee, and for a good stretch of time he was 
the movie reviewer at the Brooklyn Eagle. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know where Herbert Colin is now ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you remember others ? 

Mr. BuKDETT. Yes, sir, I do. There was Melvin Barnett. Melvin 
Barnett again was a general-assignment reporter. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know where he is now ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not know where he is now, sir. There was David 
Gordon, who again was a city desk reporter. Charles Grutzner, who 
again was a reporter. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know where Melvin Barnett is ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not know. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know anything about Mr. Barnett's activ- 
ities after you left the Brooklyn Eagle ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I have never heard of him, and I know nothing of 
his activities ; no, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know the whereabouts of David Gordon? 



STRATEGY AXD TACTICS OF WORLD COIMJVIUNISM 1327 

]Mr. BuRDETT. I do not. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you know anything of his activities after you 
left the Eagle ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know the whereabouts of Charles Grutzner ? 

Mr. BrRDETT. I believe that I do, that is to say, I believe that the 
Charles Grutzner whom I knew on the Brooklyn Eagle, and who was 
my colleague there, is presently employed by the New York Times. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you remember any more names of those who 
were in the Communist unit at the Brooklyn Eagle with you ? 

Mr, BuRDETT. Yes, sir ; I do. 

Mr. SouRAViNE. Name them. 

]\Ir. BuRDETT. There was Gladys Bentley. She was not an editorial 
employee but was employed in one of the commercial departments of 
the newspaper. I believe that she was in the advertising department. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Do you know where she is now i 

^Ir. BuRDETT. I do not. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Any others ? 

]Mr. BrRDEiT. Larry Adler ^ was, as I recall, the youngest member — 
he was very young indeed ; he was in his late teens or early twenties — 
of the party unit at the Brooklyn Eagle. He was emplo3'ed in one of 
the commercial departments. I am not certain of his exact job. 

Mr. SouRWix'^E. Do you know where he is now ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Any others? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I am trying to think, sir, whether I have recollected 
every one. I think that I have recollected — oh, no, I have not. Lyle 
Dowling. Lyle Dowling came to the newspaper as an executive in a 
very high executive position. 

In September of 1937 the Newspaper Guild went out on strike at 
the Brooklyn Eagle, and there was a 3 months' strike. Lyle Dowling 
went out on strike with us, with the Newspaper Guild, although I am 
quite certain that he is not a member, that he went out in sympathy 
with the Guild, and it was during that period that Lyle Dowling joined 
the Eagle unit of the Communist Party and remained so as long as 
I remained at the Eagle. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you remember any other names ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I think that I have recollected every one, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did vou know Murrav Young? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Murray Young ? 

Mr. SouRwixE. Yes. 

Mr. BrRDETT. Yes, I did, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who was Murray Young ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I will have to explain the circumstances, sir. 

Mr. SoFRwixE. By all means. 

Mr. BiRDETT. As I told you, I joined the jjarty unit in August of 
1937, and early the following year, or in the spring of the following 
year, Nut Einhorn, whose name I have mentioned, suggested that I and 
another member of tlie party unit at the Eagle attend what was 
called a section school : the section, as I understand it, being the next 
larger organizational, geographical organizational unit of the party, 

^ In executive testimony Mr. Burdett referred to a Leonard (not Larry) Adler as a fellow 
member of the Communist cell on the Brooklyn Eagle. 

59886 — 55— pt. 14 2 



1328 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

and this sectional school was a school conducted for purposes of train- 
ing party members in Communist Party theory, in short, for purposes 
of general indoctrination. 

I attended that school, as I recall, for 2 or 3 months. There were 
2 classes which I attended, 2 courses, that is to say, as I recall, and 
this meant going to this school twice, on 2 evenings each week for 
a period of 2 or 3 months, as I remember. 

Murray Young, sir, was a teacher at that school and conducted one 
of the courses I mentioned. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who attended that school with you ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. The member of the Eagle unit who attended that 
school with me was Violet Brown. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who later became Violet Weingarten? 

Mr. BuRDETT. That is so, yes. 

The Chairman. Wait just a minute. I want to ask you a question 
right there. Did you ever engage in espionage ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I did, sir. 

The Chairman. When was that ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. This was after I went abroad in February of 1940, 
and it was while I was abroad, off and on, sir, from the time that I 
initially went abroad in that month until the time that I broke with 
the movement. 

The Chairman. Now, you went abroad in 1940 ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. That is correct, sir. 

The Chairman. When did you break with the movement ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. In March of 1942. That was 2 years, roughly 2 years 
thereafter. 

The Chairman. Were you contacted by the Communist under- 
ground abroad ? 

Mr. Btjrdett. Was I contacted by them ? 

The Chairman. The Communist underground abroad. 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Now, what information did you give them, and 
how did you secure it ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Sir, would you wish that I begin with the circum- 
stances of my going abroad ? 

The Chairman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. BuRDETT. Very well. 

In January of 1940, when I was still working at the Brooklyn 
Eagle, I was contacted by a member of the party miit with respect to 
this trip which then developed. It was in the latter half of January 
1940 that I received a telephone call from Nat Einhorn, the Eagle 
party unit member whom I have mentioned, and Einhorn asked me 
to get in touch with a man named Joe North. 

Joe North, the name, was well known to me. Joe North, the name, 
was well known to all Communist Party members as a correspondent 
for the Communist Daily Worker. 

Einhorn indicated to me in his phone call that this was a matter 
of some importance, and I was to visit Joe North at his apartment, 
as I remember, on the following Sunday of that week, in order to 
find out what the matter was. 

Einhorn gave me his address and I went to his apartment, which I 
remember was in the Greenwich Village section of New York City 
somewhere west of Seventh Avenue. 



STRATEGY AXD TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1329 

I saw Joe Xortli as Einhorn had instructed me, and North told me 
that "we," as he said — and by "we" I understood that he was speak- 
ing of the Communist Party, there was no question in my mind — 

We want you to go to Finland. We have an assignment for you there, In 
which you can be useful to the party. 

And he told me that he would put me in touch with the man who 
would give me the specific instructions concerning this trip. 

Should I relate now these entire circumstances, sir ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. BuRDETT. Joe Xorth told me that he and this third man, as I 
shall now call him, would rendezvous on a street corner in New York 
City 2 or 3 nights following my meeting with Joe North on that par- 
ticular Sunday in his apartment. 

I was to rendezvous with Joe North and meet this third man on a 
street corner, which was just south of Union Square in New York 
City — I have forgotten whether it was on Broadway or on Fourth 
Avenue, but it was a specified 13th Street corner. 

This was done, and I met Joe North on the street, and this third 
man was nearby and we rendezvoused together, and we all proceeded 
to a restaurant or cafeteria-style restaurant on the south side of 14th 
Street. 

I believe it was on Union Square itself, although I can't recall 
exactly. 

This man, this third man, told me shnply this : that they, or "we" 
have a mission for you in Finland : 

We want you to go abroad. We want you abroad as a correspondent for the 
Brooklyn Eagle. 

It was known to him that the Brooklyn Eagle had no foreign cor- 
respondents, did not maintain a foreign staff, and therefore I was to 
propose that I go abroad as a roving reporter for the Brooklyn Eagle, 
but paying my own expenses since, in fact, I did have my own means. 

The CiiAiRMAX. Who was that man ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. This man, sir ? 

The Chairman. The third one. 

Mr. BuRDETT. He was never identified to me by name at the time 
by Joe North. I had never seen him before, and I did not know who 
he was ever until I went to the FBI, and from photos shown to me by 
the FBI, I was able to identify him to my own complete satisfaction, 
and his name was Jacob Golos. 

jNIr. SouRwiXE. Mr. Burdett, I send you a photostat of a passport 
application containing a picture of a man, and I will ask you if that 
is the man that you are now talking about. 

Mr. Burdett. That is the man, sir, and there is no question in my 
mind that it is he. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Mr. Chairman, this is a passport application made 
by Jacob Golos under one of his aliases, Jacob Eaisin. I ask that 
this may be put in the record at this point as an exhibit. 

The Chairman. It will be admitted. 

(The passport application was marked as an exhibit and is found 
in the files of the committee. A reproduction of the photograph on 
that document appears below:) 



1330 



STRATEGY AXD TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 



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The Chairman. Now, proceed. 

]Mr. SouRWixE. This is the same Jacob Golos, Mr. Chairman, whom 
E]izai)eth Bentley testitied was her contact in Soviet espiona<re. 

Mr. BuKDETT. This man Avhom I will refer to now as Golos, although 
I didn't know him by that identity at the time, instructed me, as I 
have said, to persuade the Brooklyn Eagle to send me abroad as a 
roving correspondent on my own, financially. 

Secondly, he instructed me at this first meeting to bring to him, in 
order to surrender it to him at my next meeting with him, my Commu- 
nist Party card. 

He asked me to write out a short autobiography of myself — this I 
presume for purposes of identification — and this short autobiography 
of myself I did write out in my own hand, a short 1 or 2 pages of 
paper or so, putting down the vital statistics, and he asked me also 
at our next meeting to bring to him 4 or 5 passport-size photos of my- 
self for his use. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1331 

Mr. BuRDETT. He told me nothino; of the actual purpose or the spe- 
cific nature of my mission to Finland, but he indicated that it was Fin- 
land and it was to Finland that he wanted me to go. I made this pro- 
posal to the Brooklyn Eagle and to the managing editor of the Brook- 
lyn Eagle at that time, and he quite readily accepted it. 

Mr. SouRwixE. ^Yhen you say you made this proposal, your pro- 
posal to him was only that you go as a foreign correspondent in behalf 
of the Eagle, but paying your own expenses, is that right ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. That is exactly it, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. You said nothing to him about doing any work for 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I want to stress that tlie Eagle and the managing edi- 
tor had no knowledge whatever of the Communist Party aspects of 
the trip. He agreed readily, however, that this be done because it was 
obviousl}' to the Eagle's interest that it have a correspondent associated 
with the writing as its representative from abroad. 

Mr. SouRwixE. You had then been with the Eagle how long ? 

]\lr. BuRDETT. Four and a half 3'ears. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. And you had been a reporter all that time ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I had not been, no. For only a very short spell had 
I actually been a general-assignment reporter. Most of my jobs and 
tasks were editorial, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead. 

Mr. BuRDETT. That is all that took place at my first meeting with 
Golos and North, and I should say that, at all the meetings with Golos, 
Xorth was present, and the meetings took place in the same way that 
I have described, that is to say, there was a rendezvous in the early 
evening on the street between the three of us, I usually, as I recall, 
meeting North first, and then Golos appeared from around the corner, 
and all of us on each occasion proceeding to this cafeteria and sitting 
down there for half an hour or so, and that is where our business was 
transacted. 

The Chairmax. Go ahead. 

What information were you to get in Finland ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. The next meeting with Golos was a very few evenings 
thereafter. 

At this time I gave to Golos the photos of myself, the short auto- 
biography, the party card, and I told him, I must have told him, that 
I had made the proposal to the Eagle, the proposal which he had 
requested. 

I had applied for a passport naturally, and the Eagle naturally had 
written to the Passport Division of the' State Department explaining 
the nature of the assignment for the Eagle, as an Eagle assignment. 

The passport did not come immediately, and the Passport Division 
raised objections to the granting of the passport because it did not. as 
I recall, it did not aj^iiear to them, to the Passport Division, that I was 
a bona fide correspondent, that is to say, I was not going abroad as a 
staff corresjjondent of the Brooklyn Eagle in the regular sense of the 
word, with a Brooklyn Eagle salary and at their expense. 

The Eagle replied to the State Department at that time, saying that 
they indeed considered me their bona fide correspondent, although I 
was going abroad on the financial conditions that I have described; 
and after these representations, after this second representation l)y the 
Eagle, the passport was granted. 



1332 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMJVIUNISM 

It was only after my ])assport was granted, and therefore it was, as 
I remember, at my third meeting with (xolos — all of these meetings 
taking place within a very few days of each other — that Golos actually 
told me what physical arrangements to make for this trip. 

He instructed me on what ship to go. It was to be the steamship 
Bergens-fiord of the Norwegian Line. The sailing was on or about 
February 7, 1940. 

He gave me money to buy the ticket, which was, as I recall, a second- 
class ship's passage from New York to Bergen, Norway. 

The money which he gave me — I cannot recall the exact sum — but as 
I recall it was enough for the ship's passage and also it was enough 
to get me to Stockholm, which was my first place of rendezvous over- 
seas; my first place of rendezvous, that is to say, with Communist 
contacts. It was enough for that. It was not much above such a sum. 

Well then, I went and purchased my ship's ticket, and had the last 
meeting with Golos. He kept to the very end the final disclosure, the 
final arrangements, kept to the very last meeting, and this last meet- 
ing — all took place in the same restaurant — occurred, as I recall, two 
evenings before my actual sailing. 

And his instructions to me, his final instructions at that last meeting 
were these, were two. He said that first, when I arrived in Stockholm, 
which was the place to which I was to go, I was to send a cabled mes- 
sage to a person whose name and address he gave me. This cabled 
message was simply to be a message of greetings. It was to say, "Have 
arrived safely Stockholm. Love Winston." 

I am not sure those are the exact words, but that was the tenor of 
the message as it was to be. 

The address — the name to which I ultimately sent that cable, the 
name which Golos gave me, I cannot recall. I do recall that it was 
the name of a w^oman, and I do recall that it was a simple name, a 
familiar name in the sense that both the first name and the family name 
were names of Anglo-Saxon origin, and very plain names, such as 
Helen Johnson, or Betsy Thompson, something of that kind. It was 
that kind of a name. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Could that name have been Elizabeth Bentley ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not recall that it was Elizabeth Bentley, sir, and 
I do not believe that it was Elizabeth Bentley, and I can tell you why 
I don't think it was actually that name, although it might have been 
that person. 

The reason that I don't think it was that name is simply that there 
w\as a woman named Bentley in the Communist Party unit at the 
Brooklyn Eagle whom I knew well, and it seems to me, looking back on 
it, that if the name Bentley had occurred, if that was the name passed 
to me by Golos, that the coincidence would have been something that 
stuck in my mind. 

The address of this woman I recognized immediately to be an 
address in the Greenwich Village section of New York City. I don't 
recall the address today. 

Secondly, Golos instructed me to rendevous on the following night 
with a person, a man who would give me my final instructions with 
respect to this trip, and that was all, and this I did. 

Tlie instructions were to meet a gentleman who would be unknown 
to me, but presumably he would recognize me from a photo, on a north- 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1333 

west street corner on upper Broadway. I don't remember the exact 
street corner, but I remember the district. It is the district below 
Cohimbia University in New York City, on Broadway. 

I went there the following night. This, then, would be the night, 
as I recall, the very night before my projected sailing. I went there 
the following night to the indicated street corner. 

It was a little later in the evening, as I remember, than my usual 
meetings with Golos. It was not late at night. I should say it was 
about 9 :30 or 10 in the evening. 

I went to the street corner, and this man came up to me immediately 
and said, "Mr. Burdett." And I said, "Yes," and then we went to- 
gether into what I think was a Child's restaurant on the west side of 
Broadway there in that neighborhood. In any case, it was a restaurant 
of that character and type. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Can you identify that man ? 

Mr. Burdett. Excuse me ? 

Mr. Sour WINE. Can you identify that man ? 

Mr. Burdett. I cannot identify that man. That is to say, I have 
never been able to. I did not, of course, know then who he was. He 
was a man unknown to me. I had never seen him before. I have 
never seen him since. And from photographs that have been shown to 
me by the FBI, I have never, sir, been able to identify him. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead. 

Mr. Burdett. We went then into the restaurant, and we were there, 
I should say, for about half an hour or so. There were very few other 
people in the restaurant. It was just past the dinner hour, as I recall. 

And so it was a quiet conversation, lasting for, as I say, some 30 
minutes. What I recollect of that conversation was this. I will tell 
3'^ou the details, the important ones and the unimportant. 

He told me that on arriving in Stockholm, I should go to such and 
such a hotel to stay, and that hotel was the Hotel Patricia, which is a 
hotel in downtown Stockholm, and I would go there and, after having 
sent the message to the woman in New York, I would in 1 or 2 or 3 
da5^s be contacted by a man who would come to my room in the hotel, 
and this man would identify himself as Mr. Miller, and Mr. Miller 
would further identify himself by saying, "How's our good friend Mr. 
Einhorn?" And I was to reply some such natural thing as, "He is 
very well. I saw him just recently." 

And Mr. Miller would give me whatever further instructions were 
necessary. 

This man, like Golos, gave me no further indication of what the pur- 
pose of the assignment was to be in Finland, or what type of informa- 
tion I was to seek there. I remember only that he told me that — 

You, 

and he said with a certain sourness : 

Yon will not be asked to risk your life. You will not be asked to risk any- 
thing. Plenty of other people are. 

And that stuck in my mind, that little remark of his, as rather indica- 
tive of his temperament and of his attitude and of the cynicism of his 
approach. That is all I recall of that meeting, and those were cer- 
tainly his entire instructions. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you follow those instructions ? 



1334 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

I^fr. BuRDETT. I followed those instnictions. I sailed the following 
day on the Berc] em-fiord, and I went to Bergen and went by train from 
there to Stockholm. I went to the Patricia Hotel. 

I sent the message, as indicated, to the woman in New York, and 2 
or 3 days after I had sent that message, a man came to my hotel room 
and identified himself as Mr. Miller. He did not ask me how is Mr. 
Einhorn, our good friend, Mr. Einhorn, and I noticed that was a first 
lapse. 

Despite the punctiliousness in these arrangements, one link in the 
chain was left out. 

I had several meetings with Mr. Miller, that is to say, as I remember, 
I had 4, during this period that I speak of, these 4 meetings taking 
place in the second half of February 1940 in Stockholm. 

Each of these meetings, except the first one, which took place in 
my hotel room, took place on the street, and Miller and I roamed the 
streets of Stockholm, for the most part in silence. 

I remember once we sat down at a little cafe and had some cofi^'ee 
together, and under those convivial circumstances I tried to start a 
conversation with him, thinking that that would be the natural thing 
to do, and he immediately asked me to desist from any conversation 
whatever so as not to attract attention. 

But I realized in these walks with Miller, these tactiturn walks with 
Miller, that he was unsure as to who I was, that he wanted to make 
absolutely certain that I was indeed the man that I purported to be, 
and that I was the man that he was supposed to contact, because from 
time to time in these walks he would ask me some pointed question, 
such as "Mr. Burdett, are you a member of the Communist Party i 
When did you join ?" A fact which he presumably knew from the auto- 
biographical sketch which I had provided of myself. 
"Do you have any brothers and sisters ?" and so on. 
And then he became convinced that I was indeed the right man. 
And so it was at the fourth meeting that he told me what my job was 
to be upon proceeding to Finland. 

He told me — I do not recall his exact words, but the gist of it was — 
that he wished me to make note of all my observations having to do 
with the state of morale of the Finnish people. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The Finnish-Russian War was then underway, is 
that right? 

Mr. Burdett. The Finnish war had started in the second week of 
December, as I remember, and it had now therefore gone on for two 
and a half months nearly. 

How had the Finnish people taken the Russian attack? How had 
they stood up under the Russian bombings? In short, what could I 
tell him of the whole psychological aspect of the war efiort in Finland I 
He did not put it as precisely as I am putting it to you now, but I 
gathered that what concerned him and them was 1o know the degree 
of resistance, the will to resist — rather, the degree of the will to resist — 
vrhich the Finnish people still had at that juncture of the war. 

He told me — this is a streetside meeting again ; this is all done walk- 
ing about the streets of Stockholm, sometimes in the day, sometimes, 
more often, as I remember, in the evening — he told me then that I was 
to proceed to Finland and I Avas to come back to Stockholm on such- 
and-such a day to the same hotel, the Patricia Hotel, and he would get 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1335 

ill touch with me on such-and-such a day, which, as I remember, was 
early in the second half of March, that is to say, I would say roughly 
March 18, March 20, something like that. It was a specific day. 

And he gave me money to cover the expenses of this trip. I can't 
tell you how much money this was. I remember it was adequate to go 
to Finland and return, and to cover such living expenses as I might 
have while I was there. I think it was in the neighborhood of $200. 

I went to Finland. I spent there 2 or 3 weeks, as I remember. I 
visited various sections of the front in newspapermen parties, groups 
of 2 or 3, with a Finnish Army officer in charge. 

And it was during one of these trips to the front, it was March 13, 
during one of these trips to the front, that all newspapermen were 
suddenly ordered back for unexplained reasons to Helsinki, the capital 
of Finland, and we were rushed back to Helsinki, not knowing exactly 
why, but discovering on our way back that the reason was that the war 
was over. 

The Finnish war ended suddenly, and the Finns had to make various 
serious capitulations as part of the peace terms. This, as I say, was 
March 13, and as I remember, I lingered a few days longer in Helsinki 
and then went back to Stockholm for this rendezvous with Miller. 

That rendezvous took place, and I had two meetings with Miller 
on this occasion in Stockholm in the latter part of March. 

I don't remember what happened at the first meeting particularly. 
As I remember, the only business that was transacted was to make an 
appointment for a further meeting in the next 2 or 3 days. 

And this further meeting was held, and it was in the evening, and 
we met on the street and we walked about the streets of Stockholm 
again, and he took me to a Swedish movie. I remember that. 

We went to a Swedish movie, and after the Swedish movie he asked 
me, casually really, as if to make conversation, "Well, how did the 
Finns take the end of the war?" And I told him. 

This was the only question he asked me, and my answer to that was 
that the country at large, Finland at large, had been shocked and 
stunned by this abrupt end to a war which, as far as they knew, they 
had been fighting very well, very effectively and very valiantly; and 
because of the various concessions that had to be made to the Russians, 
this was a great shock to the Finns. 

In other words, they had indeed been prepared to go on and fight a 
longer war even in the summertime when the snows might melt and 
when fighting the war might have been much more difficult against the 
overwhelming odds of the Russian army. 

So I told him, "Well, they were shocked. They weren't prepared 
for the end of the war ; I mean the people, not the Government. The 
people were not prepared for the end of the war, and the common foot 
soldier was not prepared for the end of the war, and psychologically 
he was quite prepared to go on fighting." 

Well, I told that to Miller in much fewer words than I have told it 
to you, and he said, "Well, Mr. Burdett," he said, "thank you very 
much. That's everything." And he said, "Here is your money to go 
back to the United States," and he gave me a sum of money which I 
imagine must have been in the neighborhood of $400. In any case, 
it was money sufficient for the entire return trip to New York City. 

59886— 55— pt. 14 3 



1336 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SoTjRWiNE. When you received money in this way from these 
representatives of the Communist Party, did you get it in United 
States currency ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. On each occasion it was in United States currency, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead. 

Mr. BuRDETT. A wad of bills. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you then go back to the United States ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. No, sir ; I did not. I was surprised when Miller dis- 
missed me thus summarily as he did on that occasion. 

I was surprised that it was all over, that this was all there was to it, 
but then I realized that their interest in this business had been Finland, 
and the Finnish war was over, and whatever I had been able to tell 
them was, for the purpose of that trip, too late. So it was over and he 
was doing his part of the business, his part of what he understood to 
be the bargain, by giving me the money to return to this country. 

Well, sir, I did not return, and for this reason : Before these events 
took place, before this trip abroad had been proposed to me by Einhorn 
and North and Golos, I had thought myself of going abroad on the 
very basis on which I did for the Brooklyn Eagle, that is to say, I did 
have my independent means. 

I was in a financial position to go abroad and to seek my fortunes as 
a foreign correspondent beginning with this single connection, roving 
reporter for the Brooklyn Eagle. 

In going abroad one needs at least a connection. One has to be rec- 
ognized as a newspaperman working for a definite, a recognized, news- 
paper organization, and from then on, one has the chance of seeking a 
Letter berth and of finding better employment once he is in the field 
where events are happening. 

This, as I say, had been an idea of mine before all the events that I 
have described to you ever took place. The trip which I did make 
abroad in this instance, as I have told you, was made not on my ini- 
tiative but on the initiative of the Communist Party. 

Well, then, when Miller dismissed me in the second half of March 
1940, I thought over the situation in which I found myself and I 
found it to be the very situation which I had thought and dreamt of, 
namely, here I was abroad in a very good spot, ina very good berth 
abroad, on the scene of events, and with what I thought would be a 
very fine likelihood of getting a good berth with some newspaper or 
some news organization which would employ me on a regular and 
salaried basis which the Brooklyn Eagle was not doing, or which 
might employ me even on what we call a stringer basis, that is to say, 
according to assignment. 

It was with all this in mind that I decided, therefore, to do exactly 
that, to remain abroad, to seek my fortunes as a correspondent and 
to try to get what jobs I could. 

Mr. SoTjRwiNE. Up to this time had the Brooklyn Eagle paid you 
anything at all ? 

Mr. Btjrdett. I am sorry, sir, I missed the question. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Up to this time had the Brooklyn Eagle paid you 
anything at all ? 

Mr. Btjrdett. They had paid me nothing at all that I know of, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Had you filed any stories to the Brooklyn Eagle ? 

Mr. Burdett. Yes, I had. 

Mr. Sourwine. Had they used the stories ? 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1337 

Mr. BuRDETT. To my knowledge, they used some of them, yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did they ever pay you for them ? 

Mr. BuEDETT. That I do not know, sir, because the arrangement 
which I made with the Eagle was that the payment, what payment 
there was before these stories, was to be purely a token and nominal 
payment. It was more or less a dollar-a-year basis, as far as these 
stories went. 

Therefore, whether the}^ made payment to my account in New York 
I do not know, but if they did, it would not have amounted to more 
than $5. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Then when you had made your original arrange- 
ment with the Brooklyn Eagle, you didn't go as sort of an interna- 
tional stringer, so to speak. You made a deal with them that they 
would give you credentials and the stories that you filed they would 
get for nothing, or for a nominal sum ? 

ISIr. BuRDETT. That is exactly it. 

Mr. SotTRwiNE, All right. Go ahead. 

Mr. BuRDETT. So for those reasons that I have described, I decided 
that I was in a good position and should remain abroad and seek to 
make the most of it from the point of view of my career. This I did. 

I made a short trip back to Finland at that time late in March, but 
early in April the scene of events shifted very sharply to Norway, 
because early in April, of course, the Germans invaded Norway, and 
so, along with all the other correspondents who were then assembled 
in Finland, I returned to Stockholm in order to follow and to cover 
the German invasion of Norway, and at that time I did find a job. 

I was offered a job on a stringer basis for an outfit which was then 
in existence and which called itself the Transradio Press. Transradio 
Press went in for eyewitness accounts, eyewitness action accounts of 
events by its own correspondents. 

And so working for them I made several trips into Norway during 
the course of the German invasion, actually three trips, as I recall, 
and it was early in May, and reporting on this German invasion of 
Norway that I made my first connection with CBS, in a sense that I 
made one broadcast for CBS from Stockholm in May of that year. 

The Chairman. Now when was the next time ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. The next time ? 

The Chairman. The Communist underground contacted you. 

Mr. Btjrdett. The next time that I broadcast for CBS ? 

The Chairman. When was the next time that the Communist under- 
ground contacted you ? 

Mr. Btjrdett. The next time that the Communist underground con- 
tacted me was late in May or early in June of 1940. 

The Chairman. You were then employed by CBS ? 

Mr. Btjrdett. No, I was not, sir. I was not employed by CBS. I 
was working for Transradio Press. I had made one broadcast for 
CBS. 

I was contacted, as I say, again late in May. The circumstances 
were these : The invasion of Norway was over. There was little more 
news to be covered in Scandinavia, and so most correspondents, those 
who had a free choice in the matter, those who were able to make their 
own decisions to to where they should roam, decided that the best 
next place to go to would be the Balkans. 



1338 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Several correspondents who were my friends so decided, and there- 
fore I decided to follow along and to go to the Balkans. I made 
application at the Russian consulate in Stockholm for a transit visa 
through Russia to Rumania, This, as I say, was late in May. 

A few days after I made this application for this visa I was visited 
in my hotel room by Mr. Miller again. It was apparent on this occa- 
sion that he had looked for me, was eager to find me and he was very 
happy. 

He was usually a very taciturn man, but on this occasion he was 
almost expansive because he had succeeding in finding me, w^hicli he 
had been told to do. 

I gathered from this circumstance, since he indicated that he was 
aware that I had made application for the visa to go to Rumania, I 
gathered that he was Russian and was either working for or in imme- 
diate contact with the Russian consulate in Stockholm. And Miller 
told me this : He said, 

When you go to Moscow, go to such and such a hotel, and while you are in 
Moscow you will be visited by someone who will give you instructions for what 
they will expect of you when you go to Rumania — 

which was my destination. 

And so I left for Moscow by plane. It was, as I remember, the 
end of the first week of June 1940. I tried to get into the designated 
hotel, the one that he had instructed me to, but was unable to because 
Intourist, wdiich is the Soviet organization which takes care of trav- 
elers, routed me into another hotel, but of course, that made no 
difference. 

On the day after my arrival the persons who wanted to find me 
found me and visited me in my hotel room, which was the Hotel 
Metropole in Moscow. 

I stayed in Moscow for 2 or 3 days on a transit visa. The two per- 
sons who visited me were, I should say, very obviously Russian, as one 
would expect. One, the unimportant one, was a woman. She was 
an elderly woman, I should say around, I should say, definitely past 
GO. She was tall. She was slender, she was simply but well dressed. 

And I gathered that her function at this meeting with me in my 
hotel room was rather that of an observer merely, and to make pleasant 
conversation. She asked me whether I had seen the Moscow subway 
and been to the agricultural exposition, which was then being held 
there, and questions of that kind, whereas it was the man who was 
conducting the serious business of the occasion. 

The man, I should say, was about 40. He was very much a man of 
the world. Both of these persons spoke English very competently. 
The man's instruction were these : He said. 

When you go to Bucharest, where you can be of use to us ; you will do this : You 
will write a letter to the Russian consulate in Bucharest, and in this letter you 
will say that you wish to inquire as to how you should go about getting a transit 
visa across the Soviet Union to return to the United States, and then you will 
sign your name and you will put the name of your hotel and you will put your 
hotel room number. 

and this letter, of course, was to be merely a signal and a preliminary 
to a rendezvous in Bucharest. 

So after the 2- or 3-day stay in Moscow — that was my only contact 
in Moscow — after this 2- or 3-day stay in Moscow, I went to Bucharest, 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1339 

arrived there, as I remember it was Jime 10, the day that Italy went 
into the war, attacking France. 

I had been there a few days and, after I was settled in my hotel and 
so on, I wrote the letter according to instructions. My instructions 
were, of course — As I recall my instructions were to wait in my hotel 
room for a certain period of the day, because I remember waiting in 
the late afternoon in my hotel room for a man to come. 

I sent this letter, and then for 3 or 4 days, for a stretch of 3 or 4 days 
I waited in my hotel room expecting him to come. He never came. 
So perhaps it was after 10 days or 2 weeks, I have really forgotten, I 
sent a second letter, identical letter, to the same effect to the Russian 
consulate, thinking that perhaps the first had got mislaid or something 
of that kind, and then again waited and hoped for this contact to show 
up. He never did. He never did. Something had obviously gone 
wrong. 

What did go wrong I never learned. I remained in Bucharest for 
several months. I was married while I was there to my first wife, who 
was an Italian journalist, and we remained in Bucharest, I working 
for Transradio Press for part of the time, broadcasting on a stringer 
basis for CBS for the latter part of this stay until, as I remember, late 
October or — no, no ; it was rather mid-November. It was November 
of 1940. 

In other words, we were there for 4 or 5 months. And in Novem- 
ber, mid-November or late November, we went on to Belgrade in Yugo- 
slavia. In Belgrade we lived, that is to say, my wife and I lived at 
a hotel, a very famous historical hotel in Belgrade called the Serpski 
Kralj. which was bombed and utterly destroyed during the German 
invasion of Yugoslavia and attack on Belgrade. 1 mention the hotel 
because it was the place of my next rendezvous and next contact with 
the Communists. 

I had been in Belgrade for about 10 days, or fwt the most I should 
say 2 weeks, when I was visited in my hotel room — ni}- v.ife was pres- 
ent at the time — by a young man, and I cannot tell you how or why, 
but I recognized innnediatel}- who he was and on whose behalf he had 
come, and he said — He looked Russian. He was a tall lanky youth. 
He was not i^olished. He was a simple young fellow. I have for- 
gotten, as I say, what it was that he said exactly, but nevertheless I 
recognized him immediately to be a Russian and to have come on their 
behalf, and I said to him, 1 remember laughingly I said, "Well, what- 
ever went wrong in Bucharest I What was it that went wrong that we 
were out of contact r 

And he shrugged and he obviously knew nothing of that matter, 
and then I realized that he was, after all. merely an errand boy and 
had come to arrange a rendezvous. 

He said, "There is a man we wish you to meet, and let's make the 
arrangements for this appointment with this man whom you will 
meet." 

I said, "Very well." 

The appointment was set for the early evening a very few days there- 
after, within the week, and it was to be at a certain street corner on 
one of the main avenues of Belgrade, but at the further end of this 
avenue, in an outlying district of the city, not a suburb exactly, be- 
cause Belgrade, as I recall, does not have suburbs. The city stops 
and the country begins. 



1340 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

But this was an outlying section of the city toward the end of the 
boulevard, and one reached it by either tram or bus — I have forgotten 
exactly which it was— running along this long boulevard which was 
then called the Alexandra Boulevard, I believe. And I was to get out 
at a certain stop at a certain street intersection — I have forgotten now 
the name of that street — and when I got out, I would see a tall gentle- 
man who would approach me and who would recognize me, although 
I would not recognize him. But I would be able to identify him by the 
fact that he would carry one glove, either the right or left glove, in 
the other hand a gray glove he would be carrying. 

Well, that may not seem sufficient to identify a person, of course, 
but it was. I got out and immediately saw this man, who was tall and 
was a striking figure, very obviously making show of the fact that he 
was carrying one glove in his hand. It was winter. It was early 
December now, as I remember. There was snow on the ground. It 
was cold. 

So I proceeded along the street. I turned up a side street. He 
turned up after me, and he overtook me and said, "Mr. Burdett?" 

I said, "Yes." And for the next 20 minutes or so we wandered about 
this section of Belgrade, which was a residential section of the city. 

What he told me briefly was this: He asked me first whether I 
knew any of half a dozen persons whose names he gave me. All of 
these six names or so were the names of officials in the Yugoslav Gov- 
ernment. They were not ministers ; they were not of the cabinet rank, 
but they were department executives. 

None of these names was known to me. I had never heard of any 
of these persons nor did I ever later meet any of them. But they were 
persons, as I said, on a departmental executive level, and he told me : 

You do not know these persons well? During the course of your work in 
Belgrade get to know and to cultivate these persons. 

And that was his entire instructions : 

See what you can do about getting to know these people. 

I said, "Very well," and that was the understanding, and he made 
a rendezvous with me for the following week, as I recall, not more 
than 1 week following this first meeting, which was also a street-side 
rendezvous in another part of Belgrade. 

So I went. I returned to this second rendezvous in this second part 
of Belgrade to meet him again in the early evening, and I had mis- 
understood his directions and I went to the wrong place and I did 
not find him. I went to a wrong square, and I did not find him. I 
suppose we both waited looking for each other without avail. 

So 2 or 3 nights thereafter at my hotel, the original young man 
whom I described came to visit me again and said, "What went wrong ?" 
And it immediately became apparent that I had gone to the wrong 
place, and so another rendezvous was fixed and this other rendezvous 
was made in the same section of town in which I originally met this 
tall man with one glove. 

So I went back to this further rendezvous and saw him. The meet- 
ing was consummated without an}^ difficulty. And we walked about 
this same section of the city that I described to you for 20 minutes or 
so, and he asked me, "Well, have you met any of these people whose 
names I have given you ?" 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1341 

I said, "No, no, I haven't. And furthermore, it isn't easy to go and 
meet these people. They are in various departments of the Govern- 
ment." And I was, of course, new to Belgrade, and it takes some time ; 
it takes some doing to meet officials in various departments. And I 
so indicated to him that it would take time before I know them. They 
are not persons whom I would normally meet quickly in the course of 
my work as a journalist. 

He understood that and he took it quite well, and as I recall, he 
said, "Well, I will get in touch with you again, then, in due time." 

At this meeting with him then, no further rendezvous was set, and 
the understanding, as I remember, was that after a certain lapse of 
time he would get in touch with me again to see what progress I had 
made in getting to know and cultivating these particular Yugoslav 
officials. 

I should say that he did not indicate to me at all the kind of informa- 
tion he wanted from those officials, but he was interested in estab- 
lishing some contact with them. 

This was in December of 1940. I remained in Belgrade until mid- 
March, as I recall, of 1941, in other words, for 3 months or' more all 
in all, and throughout the rest of my stay in Belgrade neither this 
man, the tall man. nor the young man who had come as his messenger 
ever got in touch with me again. Why, I don't know and never knew. 
It just went up in the air. And it was my second experience of things 
going up in the air, or arrangements, mysteriously and for unex- 
plained reasons. 

I would like, if I may, Mr. Chairman, before I come to the next 
chapter, to go back over some of the ground and to explain my own 
personal attitudes during the years. 

The Chairmax. That is all right. Proceed. 

Mr. BuRDETT. I should like to say first at the outset that I have 
wished to come before this committee because I felt it my duty to do 
so in order to discharge what I feel to be a very definite obligation. 
I have wislied to do what is right as I see it. And all these things that 
I have told you of, my association with communism, my activities in 
the party in behalf of the party, and my break with the Communist 
movement, these are obviously not private matters alone, and one's 
status and one's quality as a citizen are involved, and for that reason 
also I am grateful for the opportunity to place on the record the facts 
of my experience, and I wish to thank the committee for the oppor- 
tunity to do it. 

I wish to make perfectly clear, first of all, that when I was a member 
of the Communist Party at the Brooklyn Eagle, I was not, as cer- 
tainly the story has already made clear — I was not a casual member. 
I was a very devoted member. I was young; I was enthusiastic; and 
I was very earnest about it. And for 214 years, from the time I joined 
the Communist Party until the time that I went abroad, I should say 
that my whole life was in the party. It had a very great appeal to 
me. I did not join because of any profound conviction of the truth 
of Marxist theories; I did not join because of any advance indoctrina- 
tion. The indoctrination, such as it was, came afterward. But I 
joined, I think, primarily because I was emotionally impelled to iden- 
tify myself with a larger movement outside myself, a larger cause 
which I then believed to be a good one. 



1342 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

I think man}' persons sometimes tend, if they are of tliat political 
leaning, to think that anything that is progressive is necessarily good. 
Well, to me in those years, anything that was progressive was good, 
and the Communist Party was simply the most progressive party of 
all. 

It had the appeal that the Communist Party has of demanding and 
of getting from those who work hard in it and at it, dedication, and 
during those years I dedicated myself, after my fashion, to the work 
of the party. It offers the satisfaction not only of believing in a 
cause but of working in it and the opportunity for working hard. 

Senator Johnston. What was your attitude toward Hitler at that 
time? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Toward Hitler ? 

Senator Johnston. Yes. 

Mr. BuRDETT. My attitude toward Hitler, sir, is what you would 
imagine. I was passionately anti-Nazi and anti-Hitler, and, of course, 
I should say that the Communist Party in this respect at that time 
had the appeal for me of appearing to be the strongest and most active 
anti-Nazi force operating on the political scene. That was one of its 
appeals to a person of my type at that time. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the period of the Hitler-Stalin pact ? 

Mr. BuEDETT. I was, sir. 

Senator Hennings. Please proceed, Mr. Counsel. I want to ask a 
question when you are through. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you opposed to Hitler during all of that pe- 
riod, or did you follow the party line at that time ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. No. I followed the party line. I followed the party 
line. I should say, sir, that as a member of the Communist Party at 
the Brooklyn Eagle during the years that I have described, I became 
not only an earnest but a fanatical and hotly dogmatic member of the 
party, and I found very quickly that I was caught up in this spirit of 
self-righteous intolerance which party work inculcates. 

I found myself dividing everything into black and white, and by 
that I mean not only political events into black and white or politicians 
into black and white, or books; but everything, books, literature, per- 
sons, worst of all persons, because then I realized that this business 
of Communist Party devotion and fanaticism involves a kind of human 
cruelty when you begin to reject persons because they don't agree with 
you politically, because they do not suit the books, because they do not 
fit the type, or the standards, that you are taught to establish for your- 
self and for everything when you are an active member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Therefore, I wish to say, sir, that I was an emotionally fanatic per- 
son, and I remember arguments ; I remember arguments in our party 
unit at the Brooklyn Eagle. I remember when one member of that 
party left the unit and left the Communist Party after the Soviet- 
Nazi pact of August of 1939, and I remember how cruel I was to 
him 

Mr. Sourwine. Who was that ? 

Mr. Burdett. In my approaches to him at that time because he was 
letting the side down and because he was defecting. 

The man Avho left the party, sir, at that time was Hyman Char- 
niak — Hy Charniak, as I have identified him. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1343 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Senator Hennings ? 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Chairman, I first wanted, as just one mem- 
ber of the committee, to commend Mr. Burdett for his moral courage 
in volunteering to come here to tell this committee some things from 
the point of view of a onetime dedicated and devoted member of the 
Communist Party. 

I know that you have done so, Mr. Burdett, at considerable cost 
to yourself in terms of probably emotional uncertainty and pain and 
difficulty. I assume that to be true. Was it ? 

Mr. Burdett. Yes. 

Senator Kexnings. And you made a decision involving, as you see 
it to be, the difference between right and wrong, the difference between 
duty and failing to measure up to what you considered to be your 
duty and your full duty i 

Mr. Burdett. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hennings. And you decided, in other words, to take an 
affirmative step rather than to take the negative course, the easier 
course, which would involve your doing nothing except acquiescing to 
the fact that you had at one time been a member of the party, and 
that you felt it your duty therefore to do nothing further except per- 
haps to cease to be a member and to passively reject the discipline and 
the tenets of tlie so-called Communist Party. Is that substantially 
what your attitude may have been ? 

Mr. Burdett. That is true, sir. 

Senator Hennings. Now, I wanted to ask you one question, because 
I think it has been a matter of interest to most of us who do not know 
much about the workings of the Communist idealogy, the party itself. 

Did you find most of the members in your organization at the 
Brooklyn Eagle to be as you have described yourself to have been, 
idealists, so to speak, looking for something larger than themselves, 
and looking for an opportunity for self -identification with a larger 
movement ? 

Mr. Burdett. That is a point which I wanted to make, sir, and I 
thank you for raising it. 

Very frankly, sir, I should say that when I was at tlie Brooklyn 
Eagle, I was one of the more fanatical members of that unit. I am 
speaking now in an emotional sense. Of all of them, of my colleagues 
at the Brooklyn Eagle, I should say, if you asked me today — and I 
have not seen them since 1940 except on most casual occasions — but 
I would say that all of them were like myself, amateurs of the cause, 
rather than indoctrinated, except the professionals of the party. I 
know that you are not interested in surmise, but this is a question of 
judgment of character. And if I were to be asked about those friends 
and colleagues of that time today, I would say that I think that prob- 
ably most of tliem, certainly, are in very much the same boat as I, 
that they would liave left the part}^ long ago. I do not know whether 
this is so, but that would be my judgment from my past association 
with them. 

Now, in specific answer to your question, I should say yes, sir, that 
these are persons who went into the party, utter, honest idealists, and 
that there was no other and there could be no other compelling motive. 

Once you get into the party, sir, and believe that you have a stake 
in it, emotional or otherwise, a stake in it simply by force of the fact 

59886— 55— pt. 14 4 



1344 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

that 3^ou have put, perhaps, so much into it over the years, then it 
becomes a very difficult decision to get out ; it would be very hard to 
divest of feelings and beliefs into which you may have put so much; 
then it becomes a more difficult and a more complex thing. 

But of all these persons, I should say that they went into the party 
very much in the fashion that I did, and as a matter of fact in a cer- 
tain sense it was an extension of their union activity by which I do not 
mean that joining the party is an extension of union activity, but on 
the scene then, the enthusiasm that went into union organization at 
this time, of great union activity and pioneering, growth among the 
unions in the newspaper business, this enthusiasm helped, certainly to 
push them to this step of an entirely different nature. 

Senator Hennings. I would assume from your answer, then, that it 
required on your part and does require on the part of many spiritually, 
and we may say intellectually, convinced Communists a sort of trans- 
mutation or a complete regeneration, emotionally, spiritually and in- 
tellectually, finally to make the break and completely divorce yourself 
from the ideologies, the spiritual concept as well as the intellectual con- 
victions which you have therefore held ; is that true ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. 

Senator Hennings. If I express myself at all intelligibly to you. 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes ; I think that expresses it very well. 

Senator Hennings. Would you elaborate somewhat on that? I 
think it is of great interest to us all to know something, perhaps. 
Many of us have read the Whittaker Chambers book, The Witness, in 
which he sets forth what his emotional and mental processes were 
in coming to a parting of the ways with something that had been liis 
dedication and in fact his life — now, could you give us something of 
that so that we may perhaps understand better what is entailed in the 
separation from a previously held concept, which is in a sense almost 
religious, is it not, or perhaps we might say religious in the very broad 
semantics of that term, as well as emotional? It would require a 
considerable extent of doing, would it not? 

Mr. BuRDETT. It does, sir. 

Senator Hennings. I am sure it does. 

Mr. BuRDETT. It does. 

Senator Hennings. A great moral courage and a great deal of soul- 
searching ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes ; it does. And as a matter of fact, sir, it was that 
point that I wanted to come to in making the whole digression that I 
had asked to make. 

Senator Johnston. Did you at any time have any fear of your hav- 
ing bodily harm done to you because you would withdraw from the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. BuRDETT. In leaving the Communist Party ? 

Senator Johnston. In leaving the Communist Party. 

Mr. BuRDETT. Sir, frankly that never occurred to me. That fear 
never occurred to me. 

I would like to say this in answer to the Senator's question, and 
that is, if I may speak now from my own immediate experience, that 
when I went abroad in 1940, it was in a sense the beginning of my 
reeducation. I am answering your question, sir, in terms of my own 
immediate experience. 

Senator Hennings. Thank you. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1345 

Mr. BuRDETT. When I went abroad in 1940, it was in a sense the 
be^^inning of my own reeducation, because until then, for two and a 
half years, I liad lived intensively in this closed, doctrinaire, hothouse 
atmosphere of a Communist Party unit in New York City. This kind 
of routine which exists in party life has a great compulsive force. 
There are meetings. There are meetings eyerj week. Every Tues- 
day there were meetings. Many of them were held in my apartment 
in Brooklyn Heights in New York City. 

One of the things that is inculcated is a kind of competition in virtue, 
that is to say, that I would feel the compulsion to show myself a bet- 
ter, a more earnest, a more dedicated, a more orthodox Communist 
Party member than the next one. 

There is inculcated the feeling that you, as a Communist, have turned 
your back on the past; you have turned your back on all that Marxism 
identifies with the past, which includes all bourgeois phenomenons and 
bourgeois traits in 3'our own character. 

Senator Hennixgs. Could you nam.e some of those bourgeois traits 
as conceived by the adherents to the party ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Sir, I should say friendship 

Senator Hennixgs. Friendship is one. 

Mr. BuRDETT. As you know it, friendship would be 

Senator Hennings. Loyalty to a government ? 

Mr. BiTRDETT. The loyalties of friendship would be bourgeois sir, 
by that standard. 

Senator Hennings. The loyaltj^ to government would be one ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. And the only stalwart loyalty would be toward your 
comrades, in other words, toward individuals regarded as members 
of the Communist Party. In other words, your only loyalty is to the 
collective thing, the party. 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Burdett, would that loyalty extend to the 
Soviet Union as transmitted through the party and your dedication 
to the party and the party doctrine ? 

Mr. BuKDETT. Sir, I would say, in answer to that, that that is a moot 
jioint, a point which the party tries to avoid and evade, to avoid an- 
swering, because it is on that point that the central dishonesty of the 
party position rests. 

In other words, the party presents itself as a party interested in 
democratic and progressive causes, and it is only upon both getting into 
it and having experiences in it and getting the feel of it that one 
realizes that it is not a national party in the sense that the Communist 
Party of the United States of America is an American party. The 
same could be said for the French or the Italian. 

But it is an instrument for the furtherance of the interests, the na- 
tional interests, of a single power and a totalitarian power. 

The Communist Party presents itself to its own members — and I 
remember how we were told and how we tried as loyal Communists 
to digest this idea that the Communist Party is a democratic party; 
that it is much more democratic, really, than any other party, and it 
is only after a certain amount of experience and I should say maturing 
on the part of the individual that one sees that it is not that kind of 
party, but it is a party of monolithic discipline or the next thing to it, 
because the discipline is imposed and dictated from without. 

I have gone a bit far afield here, but the point that I wanted to make 
was that for me personally it was a great good fortune that I went 



1346 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

abroad wlien I did <i;o abroad, even under the circumstances that I 
have described to you, because for the first time after these two and 
a half years of dedicated work in the party in this country, I went 
out into the world; I was free from the comi^ulsions of this routine. 

I was not under this daily moral necessity of seeing everything from 
a certain point of view, and in terms of the indoctrinated approach; 
and I changed in going abroad, I changed intellectual society. My 
colleagues were journalists, for the most part, newspapermen, all of 
them, or most of them, certainly, much older than I, and men who saw 
the world not through blinders, but through free and sophisticated 
eyes, and who were knowledgeable men and men of great experience. 

So, in short, I changed society and I began traveling about the world, 
and I think that was, as I said before, the beginning of a reeducation 
for me. And I began to see, when I went abroad, that things did not 
happen all according to the book which I had learned by rote, back in 
New York City, and that the Communist Party did not function as an 
independent Communist Party, and that tlie Communist Party did 
function as a tool of a cynical power which used it cynically and which 
told the French Communists not to defend their country in 1940, which 
was willing make any sacrifices in order to preserve the appearance of 
friendship which was necessary for the preservation of the Russian- 
German Pact, which was willing to throw anyone overboard, including 
not only its sympathizers and partisans, but also its own members, for 
example, the French Communists, so that Maurice Thorez, the head of 
the French party, deserted and turned up in Moscow, as we know. 

But it was abroad, then, that I began to develop many reservations 
about the cause which I was actively engaged in serving. 

I might add that the various contacts that I have described to you 
with individuals were not reassuring either. These persons whom I 
met, Miller and the gentleman in Moscow, and the gentleman in Bel- 
grade, seemed to me to belong to an entirely different world and seemed 
furthermore to be treating me with considerable contempt, and I had 
the very physical sensation of being used as a tool by people whom I 
did not trust on behalf of a cause of which I was no longer sure. 

Senator Hennings. I gather, then, Mr. Burdett, that when you saw 
some of the active members of the working crew of the party at close 
range, you did not believe that you were quite one of the inside group ? 

Mr. Burdett. Sir, it is not that I did not feel that I was one of them ; 
I definitely felt that they did not feel that I was one of them, or in 
fact that we had anything really in common. 

To be sure, they were agents; they were agents with a particular 
task. But from these personal contacts with them, from the suspicion 
and contempt with which they obviously regarded all the outside 
world and myself as a part in it, from all of that I had the uncom- 
fortable personal sense of doing a most distasteful chore for a totali- 
tarian power, and that we were all being used as tools of it. 

I have told you all this in order to explain something of what I was 
feeling during this period of experiences which I have already told you 
about up until early 1941. 

Senator Johnston. Summing up what you have said, I believe you 
stated a few moments ago that most of the members went into it with 
a zeal and an enthusiasm — I believe tliose were the words you used; 
is that right ? 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1347 

Mr. BuRDETT. That most of the members whom I have mentioned? 

Senator Johnston. Yes. 

Mr. BuRDETT. At the Brooklyn Eagle ? 

Senator Johnston. At the Brooklyn Eagle. 

Mr. BuKDETT. Were zealous, like myself (' 

Senator Johnston. Zealous. 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. They were zealous persons like myself. Per- 
haps most of them were not as zealous as I, sir. 

Senator Johnston. Since you have gone ahead and explained what 
A'ou found out overseas, it seems as if they only got part of the picture ; 
is that true ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I think that is very true, sir, and 1 should say this. 
that I do not know for how long I might have remained a member of 
the Connnunist Partv if I had never gone abroad but if I had con- 
tinned in the party in this country in that particular unit. 

Senator Johnston. That being so, the way to fight communism to- 
day is to let them know our American way of life, and the Communists 
are only trying to pick out some of the progressive movements, and 
they stop with that and do not tell where we will end if we follow the 
Communist all the way ; is that not true ? 

Mr. Burdett. It is, sir. 

Senator Johnston. So we are failing, then, in a way, to spread to 
the American people what communism will eventually do with this 
IS'ation and with us as a people if we follow them all the way ? 

Mr. BrRDETT. I agree with you, sir. Certainly I believe also that 
most persons — certainly it is a fact that most persons who join the 
Communist Party in this country do not know what they are getting 
into. 

The Chairman. Xow proceed, sir. When was your next contact 
with the Communist underground ? 

Mr. Burdett. Yes. My next contact with the Communists, sir, 
was — I have told you, now, then, of my last contact in Belgrade, in 
Yugoslavia. 

]Mr. SouRWiNE. You were up to the point, I think, where you were 
just leaving Bucharest; were you not? 

Mr. Burdett. No, sir. I was in Belgrade, I am quite sure. 

Mr. Sour WINE. All right. 

Mr. Burdett. It was Belgrade. It was these two meetings with this 
man on the street in Belgrade, whereas in Bucharest no meeting was 
ever consummated. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you not say that you had gone to Bucharest and 
you had married there ? 

Mr. Burdett. I did, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You had lived there a certain period of time? 

Mr. Burdett. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. I thought you were just up to the point of leaving 
Bucharest. 

Mr. Burdett. No, sir. Then I continued on to Belgrade 

The Chairman. You told about Belgrade. Now, you said that there 
were other matters you wanted to discuss before you told of your nexr 
contact. 

Mr. Burdett. Exactly, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. Now, when was that next contact and 
what circumstances surrounded it ? 



1348 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. The next contact was in Ankara, Turkey, and 
I went from Belgrade to Ankara in mid-Marcli of 1941. At this 
time, as I said before, I was beginning to have some doubts and reser- 
vations about what I was doing, but I did not feel ready to break 
with it, because I felt too much of a commitment, too much of an 
obligation to my own past, and to this cause with which I was identi- 
fied, to break yet. I felt it was a decision that I would have to make 
and which would be coming up, but I was not prepared to make it 
then. 

When I went to Ankara in March of 1941 it was not they who 
looked me up, but it was I who renewed the contact with them, and 
I shall now describe the circumstances of that. 

In Ankara, shortly after I arrived there, as I recall, there was a 
diplomatic banquet of some kind or ball one evening under the auspices 
of the Turkish Government in which many members of the diplomatic 
corps were there, many officials of the Turkish Government, and most 
of the international press as well. 

During the course of that evening I met various persons, diplomats, 
Government officials, and amongst the others that I was presented to 
was a woman who was a high official in the Russian Embassy in 
Ankara, and I will describe her in some detail because she was my 
next contact and last contact, and I got to know her very well. 

This woman, sir — I have forgotten her name — I have been unable 
completely to recall it, although her name was familiar to me for the 
better part of a year, and as we shall see, I had well over a dozen meet- 
ings with her during the course of a year. During that year I knew 
her name perfectly well. I cannot recall it today. But I do recall 
her position. She was the highest official at the Russian Embassy 
under the Ambassador, and I believe she was consular of the Embassy, 
although if that post clid not exist then, she was the first secretary of 
the Embassy. 

In any case when the Ambassador was out of town she was Charge 
d' Affaires, and outwardly, in the public eye, she was next in the hier- 
archy after the Ambassador. She spoke French, only French, as 
far as I know, outside of her native language, and so we always ad- 
dressed her as Madame So-and-So, and so therefore hereafter in my 
testimony I will refer to Madame. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know her name ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Sir ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know her name? I mean, did you know 
what her Christian name was, not necessarily her full name, or any 
name that she used ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I don't recall either her first or last name, sir, and 
I don't believe that I ever made note of her Christian name. It was 
a fairly simple name, I remember. It was fairly easy on the tongue, 
as Russian names go, but I was first presented to her socially at this 
banquet at the hotel where I was staying, which was the Ankara 
Palace Hotel in Ankara, shortly after my arrival in Ankara. 

Journalists in Ankara during the course of their duties and their 
work, their professional work, made the rounds of all the various 
embassies, including the Russian. One seldom got very much news 
out of the Russians, but still one passed by the Russians to see what 
they were thinking or saying at any particular time. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1349 

So I visited the Russian Embassy as a correspondent in the com- 
pany of some other correspondent— I have forgotten who — a friend — 
as everyone did, to ask, to drop in and see the press attache, and it 
so happened that at the Russian Embassy very often, at least when 
one went in to speak to the press attache, one was ushered in, instead, 
to Madame. She handled the press. And so I went around to the 
Russian Embassj' on such occasions twice, and then on the third oc- 
casion I went alone and I presented myself to Madame. Of course, 
she already knew me. But I told her who I was, identified myself, 
and told her what I had done, in other words, that I had been work- 
ing for the Russians and told her that if she wished to check on this, 
she would be able to do so. In other words, I renewed contact through 
her. 

She was perfectly noncommittal in her acceptance of this informa- 
tion. She said, "Very well. Thank you." 

That was all. However, the implication of the meeting was that 
she would follow through on this and see if I was who I said I was, 
if I was indeed an American correspondent who had been in contact 
with the Russians and had worked for them as a correspondent, and 
presumably if the answer were affirmative, she would get in touch 
with me. 

It was not much later that she did get in touch with me, that is to 
say, in this fashion. 

In my hotel room a man visited me. He was obviously Russian. 
He had obviously come on their behalf. He was a man of, I would 
say, 35. He was well-groomed, well-spoken. He looked to me as 
though he were probably a member of the Russian diplomatic service 
somewhere or other, and he simply dropped in at my room one morn- 
ing and said, "I would like to have a talk with you this afternoon. 
Will you drop into my room?" And he gave me the number. It 
was down the hall at the Ankara Palace Hotel where he was presum- 
ably staying for the weekend, or 2 or 3 days, anyway. 

So at the appointed hour I went in that afternoon and knocked on 
his door that afternoon, went to see him, and was received by him. 
There was one other person in the room on the occasion of this meet- 
ing. It was a young woman. All I remember of her was that she 
was young, in her twenties. She was blonde, she was good-looking. 
She took no part in the conversation. She was presumably the man's 
wife. But she busied herself about the room. 

And what this man told me merely was, "Very well. Everything 
is good. You can be of use to us, and your contact will be Madame," 
the woman I had met at the Embassy. 

"That is to say, you will report to her and you will go to her now," 
and he fixed an appointment. "You will go to her on such and such 
a day of this coming week and she will tell you all about everything, 
what you are expected to do, and make the arrangements for your 
communicating with her hereafter." 

I kept that appointment. Madame told me 2 or 3 things. She 
said — first of all she said, "You know, you have to make contacts," and 
the idea was to make friends and influence people and, "To do that you 
must go around and entertain them, you know. You must be very 
sociable." And all this was said in kind of a doctrinaire, naive fashion, 
which made me think, "Well, this is the kind of instructions that Tass 



1350 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

correspondents probably get aronnd the world when they are told how 
to behave in foreign capitals." 

She said, "If you need any money for entertainment expenses of that 
kind, you tell me." I never did. I never saw any money from her. 
I did not want it. And I never received any money or accepted any 
money from her for any purpose. 

She said also that we would have meetings; I would come to the 
Embassy, presumably every 2 weeks or 3 weeks at 2- to 3-week in- 
tervals and tell her, give her the results of my work as a correspondent 
in Ankara. And then she indicated to me that what she was interested 
in was the Turkish position in the war. She was interested in Turkish 
affairs. 

Oh, I should say she also asked me to write her my brief reports 
which I would deliver to her periodically at the Embassy. 

Now, as I said, she was interested in the Turkish position, which may 
seem very vague, but actually at that time was a very precise issue. 
This is the year 1941. At this moment Russia had not yet been forced 
into the war. Xevertheless, the question in Turkey in everyone's mind, 
in all the belligerents' minds, one M^hich the Germans wanted to know 
the answer to as much as the 13ritish, and which the Russians wanted to 
know the answer to, even though they weren't in the war at that 
moment, was: What is the precise nature and meaning of Turkish 
neutrality ? 

Turkey had declared herself neutral. She was officially neutral. The 
point was : Did this facade of neutrality conceal sympathies for this 
side or that side, or was it a front for favors to this side or that side, 
or was it indeed to restrict serious, real, honest-to-goodness genuine 
neutrality for the rest of the war ? 

Well, how could one find out the answer to this question ? This was 
something which journalists and diplomats and everyone speculated 
about, and it was a natural and universal topic of inquiry and of con- 
versation. And during my stay in Ankara, I got to know, not Turkish 
Government officials, but several Turkish newspapermen and news- 
paper editors, including, for example, the director of the Turkish 
official news agency, which was called Anadolu News Agency, and in- 
cluding other reporters and correspondents from Turkish papers, both 
in Ankara and in Istanbul. 

The Turkish press is different than ours in the sense that — or was 
at that time — in the sense that a gi-eat deal of the Turkish press was 
either, if not official, it was semiofficial. And newspaper editors were 
very close to the Government and knew what the Govermnent's atti- 
tudes were, and made themselves to a greater or less degi'ee the 
mouthpiece for the Government's official positions. 

Naturally, the editor and editors of the official news agency were in 
very close touch with the Government, not in the sense that they knew 
secrets, knew state secrets or anything of that kind. They did not, but 
they knew the direction of Turkish Government thinking and of the 
genuineness, and they could estimate the genuineness of Turkish 
official positions on such an issue in the war as that of Turkish 
neutrality. 

So it was mostly in talks and conversations with these Turkish 
friends and contacts of mine in the journalistic world that I was able 
to get some definite impressions about Turkey's position and her 
avowed determination to remain neutral in the war. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1351 

It soon became apparent to anyone working there in Turkey that 
Turkey's official position of neutrality was indeed genuine. The Turks 
meant it. They were not going to get into the war, and they did not. 
But there were various stories that came up at that time which 
naturally caused excitement on one side or the other. 

For example, in June, I believe it was June of the year, of 1941, 
the Turks signed a friendship and nonaggression treaty with the Ger- 
mans. 

So this naturally caused some dismay amongst the British, because 
the question was : "Well now, what does this mean ? Is it a prelude to 
playing along with the Axis, or isn't it, or is Turkey genuinely neutral 
about it?" 

There were other events which fitted into this general pattern and 
this general line of thought, such as, during that year, I remember a 
German negotiator named Clodius, who was then — at least we de- 
scribed him at that time as being the Nazi economic czar, who came 
to Turkey at that time for economic negotiations, and the question 
hanging over those talks was whether or not he would be able to pry 
loose from the Turks some shipments of chrome, which was a very 
strategic metal during the war, and so on and so forth. 

Well, anyway, the substance of my reports to Madame was primarily 
directed to this question of what did the Turks mean ; what was the 
meaning of various happenings between the Turks and the other 
belligerent countries, or the countries that were belligerent in the war ? 

Over a period of months, I went regularly to the Russian Embassy in 
Ankara with my little report of conversations. She wanted me to 
set them down very literally without comment, but identifying the 
persons with whom I had spoken and what they had said on this and 
on that. 

As I say, there were no state secrets involved. It was more or less 
the kind of picture that I have indicated to you. 

These meetings with Madame, as I remember it, began around the 
beginning of the month of May 1941, and they continued. Every 2 or 
3 weeks I would visit the Russian Embassy until I left Ankara, which 
was in October or November of the following fall. I am not sure which 
month. 

But anyway, our contacts were regular, and I must have seen her 
a dozen times for the purpose of delivering these little reports to her. 

The reports I typed out. They ranged in length, I should say, from 
2 to 5 pages. Two would have been rather brief and five would have 
been an uncommonly long report to her. 

On two occasions I remember, she, apparently wanting to change 
the routine of these meetings and in the interests of what she thought 
was security, decided that we should meet outside the Russian Em- 
bassy. 

Nothing actually was more natural from the point of view of security 
than for me to go to the Russian Embassy. I was a correspondent. I 
had reason to drop in there once every 2 or 3 weeks. 

But she thought otherwise, and she thought it would be safer, or 
smarter to vary the pace and to meet outside the Embassy, which I 
remember we did on two occasions. 

59886— 55— pt. 14 5 



1352 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

And on both occasions she rode np in her black Embassy limousine 
and got out of her car and walked down the street in the center of this 
small diplomatic capital and greeted me on the street and we would 
walk around the block as I passed her my typewritten report. 

This seemed to me very bad tactics at the time, from the point of view 
of security. After all, this was in the residential center of Ankara, 
only a step off the main boulevard, which is really the artery of the 
entire town. Anyone might well have recognized her. She was well 
known, a diplomat, a well-known diplomat in the city. But neverthe- 
less, she thought it was better that way, and so I did not protest. 

As I say, twice we met on the street just 2 or 3 minutes, to be sure, 
while I passed her these reports. 

In the fall of 1941 1 left Ankara for Teheran, the reason being that 
the Allied Powers, Britain and Russia, had just occupied Iran in order 
to clear the way and to secure the route for American lend-lease ship- 
ments up through Iran to southern Russia, and so there was a story 
there in Iran. 

And I went to Iran for a period of about 4 months, 31/^ or 4 months, 
and spent, in other words, most of that winter there, in 1941, early 1942. 

It was while I was there in Iran that I decided that the time had 
come to make my decision, and I was certain that this was the decision 
that I wanted to make. I didn't want to work for them or with them 
any more. And it was while I was in Teheran that this decision ma- 
tured and became set in my mind. 

I did not have any contacts with the Russians while I was in 
Teheran. 

I went there with my wife, and as I say, we stayed there for most 
of the winter, and then the story more or less died out in Teheran, and 
I was asked to return to Ankara for a spell, I have forgotten what 
story there was going on in Ankara at that time that occasioned the 
return, but apparently Ankara looked like a better Middle Eastern 
spot for the moment than Iran. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. By whom were you employed ? 

Mr. BuEDETT. So this was not a definite — pardon ? 

Mr. SouRWiNE. By whom were you employed ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I was employed — ^by this time, sir, I was employed by 
the Columbia Broadcasting System as a staff correspondent. 

In other words, I was going back to Ankara only for a temporary 
stay pending future assignment to some other place, depending on 
news developments. 

For that reason, I went back to Ankara alone, and my wife remained 
in Teheran. When I went back to Ankara on this occasion, I went 
back early in February of 1942, and I remained in Ankara on this 
particular occasion for about 7 weeks and left at the end of March 
for the last time. 

Well, I had decided that inasmuch as I was going back to Ankara, 
inasmuch as I wished to make the break, and inasmuch as Madame 
was the person and the only person whom I knew, whom I had worked 
with and had to do with over a considerable period of time during the 
previous year, she was the person whom I would tell, which is what 
I did. 

I didn't tell her the first time and I didn't tell her the second time 
that I went to visit her in Ankara during this period that I speak 
of in February and March of 1942. I made a point at that time, on 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1353 

these two first occasions, I remember, of giving her what were obvi- 
ously very unsatisfactory reports on such information as I might 
have picked up. 

They were skimpy and insubstantial, and she said as much, and she 
complained rather bitterly that what I was able to tell her now was 
by no means as useful as what I had been able to tell her in these 
various reports the previous year. 

This, by the way, was the only indication that she had ever given 
me that the reports that I had provided her had been of some interest 
and value to her. 

She had never commented on the material, on the content or in any 
other way on these reports that I had given her. She had merely ac- 
cepted them, taken them, and fixed the date for a subsequent ap- 
pointment. 

On this occasion, as I say, in February or March — I think it was in 

Ankara 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question there ? 
Mr. Burdett, if you will bear with me, I want to ask one question 
that might clarify something, at least in my mind. 

Now, when did you determine to make the break with the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Burdett. I determined finally and definitely after I left An- 
kara in the fall of 1941. 
Senator Hennings. 1941. 

Mr. Burdett. I did not actually do it, sir, until March of 1942. 
Senator Hennings. What impact did the attack of Nazi Germany 
apon the Soviet Union have upon your thinking, in terms of leading 
up to your decision to break with the party ? 
Mr. Burdett. I should say none whatever, sir. 
Senator Hennings. None whatever ? 
Mr. Burdett. No. 

Senator Hennings. That was what I thought I understood you 
to say. 

But then in 1942, after the United States had entered the war on 

December 7, 1941, and we were allied with Soviet Kussia 

Mr. Burdett. Yes. 

Senator Hennings. You concluded then to sever your connection 
with the party. 

Mr. Burdett. That event, again, really 

Senator Hennings. I am not undertaking to cross-examine you. 
Mr. Burdett. No. I understand. 

Senator Hennings. Please forgive me if it sounds like it. I was 
just trying to clarify your own process of reasoning or rationalization 
for such conclusions as you may have reached in the light of the inter- 
national circumstances and alliances at that time during the war. 

Mr. Burdett. Yes. Well, I would say that those two international 
events had no impact whatever on my decision, which was a decision 
maturing out of my own personal experience. It was, as it were, a 
completely different equation than the military or, if you will, the 
military equation of wartime alliances. 

This was one thing — my experience was one thing, involving not so 
much what side the Kussians were fighting on, as involving the Com- 
munist Party itself, its relationship with the Russians, and the quality 
of the Soviet state as a totalitarian state. 



1354 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

The fact that the Russians themselves came into the war, into a war 
which they did everything in their power, sir, to stay out of, and the 
fact that circumstances forced them to be the allies first of the British 
and later of ourselves, did not mean a thing politically in terms of 
my own personal equation, nor, I think, sir, in terms of the ultimate 
political equation in the world. 

Senator Hennings. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. BuRDETT. In any case, I simply wanted to point out that on this 
one occasion when Madame retrospectively spoke of how useful my 
reports had been previously, on this occasion, then, she did indicate, 
and for the first time, that they had been of some value, because she 
complained of how poor my reports were on this particular occasion. 

It was the third time that I went back to see Madame during this 
stay in Ankara that I decided what it was that I wanted to tell her, 
and I told her. And this was sometime in March, and probably rather 
late in March, because I remember it was a very short time before I left 
Ankara for the last time. 

I went to see Madame and told her simply that I did not wish and 
I did not intend to work for her any longer. 

Now, I wanted to anticipate on her part any idea that I might have 
made this decision for circumstantial reasons. So I told her : 

This is a i)ersonal decision wliich I have taken for my own personal reasons. 
I have changed my mind — 

because I did not want her to think that I had made this decision either 
because I found it inconvenient, or that I was afraid, or that I found 
it unprofitable to continue working for her. 
So I told Madame: 

This is my own decision. I have taken it for personal reasons of my own, 
which I do not have to explain to you. You can surmise what they are. It is 
purely that. It is purely that I have changed my mind. I don't want to do it 
any more. 

This obviously came as a shock to her. She was surprised and she 
was chagrined. She was very obviously disappointed. It was as 
though she had had a good thing, of which she was being suddenly 
deprived, and she acted a bit like a child that is suddenly deprived of 
something which it is enjoying. She did not remonstrate, and I got 
very much the impression that she not only did not expect me to do this 
at this particular time, but that this was the kind of occasion and of 
problem for which she was unprepared; that she had never been 
called upon to handle such a problem in her experience. 

And I should say of Madame that my general impre^ssion of her was, 
for what it may be worth, that she struck me as being more on the 
diplomatic than on the commissar side of things. So she asked me to 
reconsider. She said : 

I hope you will reconsider. 

I said : 

No. That is my point. I want you to understand that I have done all my 
reconsidering, and that this is final. So I am not going to reconsider. 

She was disappointed and expressed again the hope that I would 
reconsider, and we parted. 

That was the last I ever saw of her or of them. 

The Chairman. Now, what happened to your first wife ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes, sir. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1355 

My first wife was, as I told you, an Italian journalist. Her name 
was Lea Schiavi. Lea Schiavi was an outspoken anti-Fascist jour- 
nalist. Despite the fact that she was anti-Fascist, she was able to keep 
her jobs, or to continue writing — I should put it that way — for the 
two Italian journals, literary and political journals, for which she 
wrote at the time that I met her, which was early in June of 1940. 

After our marriage, which was late in July of 1940, she did not, that 
I recall, continue sending any stories to her papers. It is doubtful 
whether, as a matter of fact, they would have published them by that 
time. 

Lea was a person of almost bold courage. She was extremely out- 
spoken, and for this reason she was a constant source of embarrass- 
ment to the Italian authorities in whatever countries we happened to 
be traveling. They deprived her of the use of her passport. I have 
forgotten how. I have forgotten whether they withdrew the docu- 
ment itself, or whether they invalidated it, or failed to extend it in some 
way, but I remember while we were in Bucharest still, I procured for 
her an aiSdavit from our own Embassy, from my Embassy, the Ameri- 
can Embassy, with the seal of the United States, stating that Lea 
Schiavi was an Italian national, but the wife of an American citizen, 
and would she be allowed freely to pass, and so on, and it was with 
this document that she traveled with me until her death. 

I should express, sir, that wherever we went, she was cordially hated 
by the Italians, by the authorities of the Italian Fascist Government. 

The Chairman. Was she killed ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Was she killed ? 

The Chairman". Yes, 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes, sir ; she was killed. 

The Chairman. Who killed her ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. 

The Chairman. Who killed her ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. May I explain the circumstances of her death, sir ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. BuRDETT. I should go back to say that after leaving Ankara for 
the last time late in March of 1942, I proceeded on instructions from 
my company to India to cover a special political story there, a brief 
one, and Lea I had left, as I told you, in Teheran, and we decided that 
she would remain in Teheran, rather than try to come on and join me 
in British India, since it would be very difficult for, her as an Italian 
national to get a visa into British India at that time during the war, 
<^ven if she were the wife of an American citizen. 

Lea then remained in Iran, in Teheran, while I was in India. She 
was a person of great journalistic and great intellectual curiosity and 
verve, and while I was away — she loved to travel — and while I was 
away, she traveled over all parts of Iran, and when I was in India she 
decided to go up and visit Soviet-occupied Iran, the northern part of 
Iran, in order to see what the Russians were like and what they were 
up to, and in order to visit other territories in that part of Iran where 
there were interesting and colorful native tribes. 

This trip she made. She was by no means the first journalist to make 
this trip into northern Iran. Others had done the same. She went in 
the company of a young Iranian friend of hers, a young woman. They 
went together. They hired a car, so that they had their chauffeur, 
their Iranian chauffeur, and they traveled up to Tabriz. 



1356 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Tabriz is the most important city in northern Iran, and it was the 
seat of the Red Army headquarters of the Soviet occupation forces 
in northern Iran, that part of Iran which the Russians were then 
occupying. 

Lea decided when they got to Tabriz — this, by the way, w^as late in 
April of 1942 — she decided that she wished to visit the Kurds, the 
Kurdish tribes in northwestern Iran. And the Kurds were a tribe — 
one could not call them a savage tribe — they have a highly developed 
culture of their own — but they are a warlike tribe, which at that time^ 
at least, maintained pretty complete police autonomy from the cen- 
tral government, whether it was the central government of Iran or 
whether it was the central government of Iraq, because some of the 
Kurdish tribes were on the Iraqian side of the border. 

In this particular corner of the world, the Kurds live in three coun- 
tries. But Lea decided that she wanted to see the Kurds, with their 
colorful dress and customs, and so on; how did they live? So she 
and her young friend and the driver, and an Iranian Army oflficer and 
a young Kurdish boy who was to act as an interpreter, set out in this 
hired car from Tabriz to a town the name of which I now forget, but 
which was the seat of this particular Kurdish tribe. 

They set out for this town and reached it in a morning and were 
entertained there by the leading personality. I don't know whether 
he was the big boss of that part of the world for the Kurds. I don't 
know whether he was called the chieftain or not. His name was Amir 
Assad. They were very royally entertained by him at luncheon, and 
then they set out in the afternoon to return to Tabriz, and they were 
driving along this lonely road in this desolate countryside when at a 
certain point they were stopped by two Amnieh, they were called, and 
officially that means a road guard. These were Kurdish road guards. 
And they were road guards after a fashion, but they were also gun- 
men. They were perhaps closer to gunmen than they were to road 
guards or to police. But they stopped the car, they stopped the car 
and they asked many questions which were translated by the Kurdish 
interpreter, and as soon as they identified Lea Schiavi as the Italian 
woman journalist who was traveling in these parts, they opened fire, 
and the muzzle — my wife and the driver, too, realized that something 
was wrong and that it was indeed an altercation, and the first shot was 
fired from the side of the car point blank, the muzzle of the gun point- 
blank against the side of the car where my wife was sitting, and the 
bullet penetrated her breast. 

The car started up immediately, of course, and my wife's last words 
to the driver were, she said, "Assatour, docteur" : "We must get to a 
doctor." 

Then they started up, and as the car started up, the guards fired 
twice again at the car, but whether they hit the car again I don't 
know, but they did not hit any person. No one else was hit or 
wounded. And Lea died before the car arrived back in Tabriz that 
night. 

The shooting occurred 4 miles outside of the city. 

To answer your question, sir, who killed her, the immediate question, 
of course, was at whose instigation was she killed, because the physical 
circumstances of the crime indicated that it was a deliberate political 
assassination. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1357 

At that time I went back from India to Iran to try to investigate 
as best I could, and I had the cooperation of the American Embassy 
officials, or legation officials, in Teheran and consular officials in 
Tabriz, and I visited the scene of the crime and I talked to Amir 
Assad, and I talked with others. 

We did not have the cooperation of the Iranian police, for a com- 
plex of reasons, chiefly, I think, because the Iranians felt that this 
crime, which was an instigated crime, was almost unquestionably 
instigated by some large foreign power, and whoever it was, the 
Iranians did not, therefore, wish to pursue it to its end. 

The road guard who fired the shot was arrested, tried, and sentenced 
to hard labor. Lea could have been killed by the Russians ; she could 
have been killed by the Italians — by the Russians, because the Russians 
had complete access to this whole area. They occupied it, and al- 
thougli they occupied it lightly from a military sense, nevertheless 
their agents had free play, free run of the whole area. It could have 
been conceivably by Italians, on the instigation of the Italian, or even, 
if you will German agents, because in this wild and unpoliced part 
of the world, German and Italian agents were known to have slipped 
across the borders from Turkey and to have operated in this area. 

The Chairman. Who do you think killed her? What comitry do 
you think instigated your wife's murder ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. I thouglit at first, sir, at the time, I felt that 
it must be the Italian Fascists, but I have far from finished this story, 
sir. 

I felt at the time that it must be the Italian Fascists, because, 
among other things. Lea had started in Teheran a little group which 
she called the Anti-Fascist Committee of Italians in Teheran. In 
other words, she had started an anti-Fascist club. There were many 
Italians living and working in Iran, and there have been. There 
was quite a little Italian colony in Iran, engineers and skilled work- 
ers, and so on, and had been for many years. And so she started a 
club amongst them which was called, as I recall, the Anti-Fascist 
Club of Teheran. 

I felt very strongly that this was an act of revenge on the part of 
the Italians. 

However, I later learned that this was not so. Later, to tell the 
story briefly, sir, later I asked an officer — at a later period during the 
war I asked an officer, to whom I was introduced, of the American 
CIC, the Counterintelligence Corps, could he tell me for my personal 
knowledge what were the results of the information which the CIC 
had gathered, what those results indicated with regard to the assas- 
sination of Lea Schiavi, in otlier words, had the CIC been able to 
find out anything, and if so, what had it been ? I said : "If you ever 
find out, could you let me know ?" 

And a long time passed before I saw him. The war ended and I 
eventually met this officer again, or rather he came to look me up to 
tell me what he had been able to learn. And he told me that the in- 
telligence which the CIC had received over a period of time indicated 
beyond doubt in their minds that Lea had been assassinated at the 
instigation of the Russians. They had determined that, during her 
trip to^ northern Iran, she had discovered certain information, in- 
formation to the effect that at this time — this is the spring of 1942 — 
the Russians were engaged in training, in northern Iran, parties of 



1358 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Yugoslav partisan organizers, military organizers, who were to be, 
in due time, as they were, sent back into Yugoslavia to fight on the 
side of the Communist partisans in Yugoslavia under Tito. 

Now, this is 1942, and that story of the civil war in Yugoslavia 
is an old story now, but at this juncture in the war this was something 
which the Kussians did not want anyone to know, that this was going 
to be their military and political approach to the Yugoslav problem. 
They did not want anyone to know it ; least of all did they want any 
of their allies to know it. And they knew full well, of course, that 
Lea Schiavi had wide access to Western embassies, and Western jour- 
nalists, and so, sir, the conclusion of the CIC insofar as I have been 
able to gather it, was that Lea Schiavi was assassinated because she 
knew too much. 

The Chairman. We will recess now until 1 : 30. 

Is Alvah Bessie present ? 

(No response.) 

(Whereupon, at 12:25 p. m., the committee recessed, to reconvene 
at 1 : 30 p. m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 
Mr. BuRDETr. Proceed, Mr. Sourwine. 

TESTIMONY OF WINSTON MANSFIELD BURDETT— Kesumed 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Burdett, you told us this morning how you had 
broken with your Communist connections, and you told us of the 
death of your wife. You thereafter returned to the United States. 

Mr. Burdett. Not immediately, sir, not for several years. 

Mr. Sourwine. During the remainder of the time that you were 
overseas, did you have any further contact with any Communists to 
your knowledge. 

Mr. Burdett. I did not, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you at any time, after you told Madame in 
Teheran of your intentions to stop serving the Eussians, did you 
thereafter take any action of your own to break your relations with 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burdett. I took no further actions, sir, either abroad or in this 
country. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you feel that you left the Communist Party at 
any particular time? Did you think what you said to Madame in 
Teheran was a complete break with the party ? 

Mr. Burdett. That represented a complete break with the Kussians, 
and with all Communist agents and with that type of work and in 
my own mind, sir, it marked a severance of my relations with the 
Communist movement and with the Communist Party. 

Mr. Sourwine. This morning you mentioned the names of a number 
of persons whom you knew as Communists in the Brooklyn Eagle 
Communist unit of which you were a member. 

Mr. Burdett. I did, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were dues collected from the members of that unit ? 

Mr. Burdett. They were regularly collected, sir, as I recall, once 
a month. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1359 

Mr. SouRwiNE. During unit meetings ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. During unit meetings. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I want to run tlirough this list to be sure that each 
name is that of a person whom you identify as a member of the Com- 
munist Party at the time that you were a member of the Brooklyn 
Eagle unit. 

Then I will ask you if you remember any other names of persons 
who were members of that unit. 

Alvah Bessie. 

Mr. BuRDETT. I should state, sir, that Alvah Bessie left the Brook- 
lyn Eagle before I joined the Communist Party. I never saw Alvah 
Bessie at any meeting of the Communist Party, therefore, or any 
meeting of the Eagle party unit, and as I said earlier, I knew him as 
a Communist before I actually became one. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You knew him as a Communist how ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. In his own declaration of belief and his own declara- 
tion of political adherence. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. To you ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. To me, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, separating political adherence from member- 
ship in the Communist Party, if you can do so, did Alvah Bessie tell 
you that he was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I cannot out of my memory definitely tell you, sir, 
that he told me that in so many words. However, Alvah Bessie did 
urge me to join the Communist Party. The presumption of that sit- 
uation was that he was himself a member. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. When did he do that ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. In the months immediately preceding my actual act 
•of joining the party, that is to say, it would have been during the 
months of the first half of the year 1937. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Nathan Einhorn ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. He was a member of the Communist Party of the 
Brooklyn Eagle, yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Victor Weingarten ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. He was also. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Violet Brown, subsequently Violet Weingarten? 

Mr. BuRDETT. She was also, sir. 

Mr. SouRAViNE. Charles Lewis? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Hyman Charniak ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Herbert Cohn ? 

]\Ir. BuRDETT. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Melvin Barnett ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, David Gordon ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. 

INIr. SouRwixE. Charles Grutzner? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Gladys Bentley ? 

]\Ir. BuRDETT. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Larry Adler ? ^ 

* See footnote, p. 1327. 



1360 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Lyle Dowling ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes, 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Now, had you completed telling us what you know 
about Murray Young ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes, I think I have completed telling you what I 
know of him. He was a teacher at the party section school which I 
attended in the year 1938, and which I described to you. 

He conducted 1 of the 2 classes which I attended at that school for 
a period of weeks, indeed months. It was 2 or 3 months in the spring 
of the year 1938. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did his being a teacher at that school mean that he 
necessarily was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I should say, in reply to that, most definitely ; yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you or did you know Amos Landman ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Amos Landman ? Yes, I knew Amos Landman as a 
newspaperman who worked at that time — by "that time" I mean the 
period from 1937 to 1940 — for a New York newspaper, a Manhattan 
newspaper, that is, which in my recollection was either the New York 
Daily Mirror or the New York Daily News. 

I knew Amos Landman as an active member of the New York News- 
paper Guild. I recollect his also having been a member of the Com- 
munist Party, but the basis of my recollection I cannot tell you. I do 
not recall any particular meeting at which I saw him, any particular 
Communist Party meeting at which I saw him. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do I take it, from the distinction, that you mean 
to say that, in the case of these others whom you have identified, 
you do have positive memories of having been with them in Communist 
meetings ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I cannot definitel}'^ recollect ever having seen Amos 
Landman at a Communist Party meeting. I assume, sir, that the 
reason that I remember him as having been a Communist Party mem- 
ber is that I may indeed have seen him at such a meeting and therefore 
the conclusion stuck in my mind. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I say, in the case of these others whom you have 
identified as members of the party, do you have definite recollection of 
having been with them in Communist Party meetings ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Oh, yes, sir ; I am sorry, I misunderstood the question. 
Of all of them, yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You made a careful distinction with regard to Mr. 
Landman ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I did. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I wanted to be sure I understood you. 

Mr. BuRDETT. Exactly, yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Now, did you or do you know Monroe Stern ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who was Monroe Stern, or who is he ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Monroe Stern was very active. He was an employee 
of a New York, that is to say a Manhattan newspaper. I do not recall 
which one. I am speaking of the same period of time from 1937 to 
1940. 

He was a prominently active member of the New York Newspaper 
Guild, and it is as such that I have remembered him through the years^ 
rather than as a Communist Party member. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1361 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know him as a Communist Party member? 

Mr. BuRDETT. At that time ? 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. At any time. 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. I came to the definite conchision that he was 
a Communist Party member at the time of which I am speaking, be- 
cause of later circumstances. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Tell us about that. 

Mr. BuRDETP. The circumstances were these, sir. In the year 1946 
when I was working in this city, in Washington, D. C. Monroe Stern 
was press attache, or press relations officer of some description or title, 
at the Yugoslav Embassy here in Washington. It was at the Embassy 
on the occasion of a press conference that I met him again in that year. 

I remembered him as a former newspaperman and colleague in New 
York, and since he was an information officer there, I invited him out 
to a luncheon, and we lunched together, I remember, at the National 
Press Club here in the city. 

During the course of that luncheon Stern — we were speaking of 
various political subjects, and I recall that we were speaking particu- 
larly of the situation in Greece, about the civil war there. I have for- 
gotten the exact content of my remarks and his remarks, but he made 
a statement concerning the Greek Civil War which could only have 
been made by a Communist, which was strictly according to the Com- 
munist line and interpretation of the events in Greece. 

But the point of the incident to me was that at that time not only 
was he then speaking as a Communist, but that he was speaking to 
me as a man whom he remembered as a Communist and as a party 
member. Thus, I can only assume at the time that Monroe Stern knew 
very well that I had been a Communist Party member and that he had 
seen me, and I, no doubt, had seen him, I forgetting the incident, at 
some Communist Party gathering of New York newspapermen. 

Mr. SouRwixE. As you well recognize, I am calling the names of 
persons whose names you gave us in executive session, so as to get the 
testimony on this public record. 

Do you or did you know Milton Kaufman ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes, sir ; I did know him. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Wlio is or was Milton Kaufman ? 

Mr. BuRDETp. Milton Kaufman was, during this period of which I 
speak, a high officer of the New York Newspaper Guild with its head- 
quarters in Manhattan. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know Milton Kaufman as a Communist? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I did, sir. 

Mr. SoTjRwiNE. Did you attend Communist meetings with him? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I did, sir ; yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you or did you know John Francis Ryan ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not recognize that name, sir. I do know a Jack 
Ryan who was also a high officer in the New York Newspaper Guild 
during this period. 

Mr. SoTjRWiNE. Did you know that Jack Rj'an as a Communist? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I did. sir, yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you attend meetings of the Communist Party 
with him ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes. In speaking of meetings, I should like to say 
with regard to these two persons, Mr. Kaufman and Mr. Ryan, the 



1362 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

meetings in question were meetings actually of the party unit of the 
Brooklyn Eagle, meetings which each of these gentlemen sometimes 
attended. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you or did you know Gladys Kopf ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I did, sir, yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who is or was Gladys Kopf ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Gladys Kopf was an employee of the central office in 
New York, in Manhattan, New York, of the New York Newspaper 
Guild. She was an executive assistant to Mr. Kaufman. I do not 
recall her exact title. 

Mr. SouKwiNE. Did you know Gladys Kopf as a Communist ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes, I did, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you attend Communist Party meetings with 
her? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I cannot recall to my certain knowledge a Commu- 
nist Party meeting at which I saw Gladys Kopf. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. How did you know her as a Communist ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I knew it through conversation with her, that is to 
say, at the New York Newspaper Guild, at that office I knew Jack 
Ryan, I knew Mr. Kaufman, and they knew me as a Communist. 
Gladys Kopf was one of those persons in the group, and it was from 
conversation and from acquaintance with her that I knew her to be a 
Communist. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you or did you know Ira Henry Freeman ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I think that I have known such a man as a newspaper- 
man in New York City, and that I knew him during that period. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. Not that I recall, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you or did you know Sam Weissman ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I did, yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Identify Sam Weissman. 

Mr. BuRDETT. Sam Weissman was at the time of which I speak an 
employee of the New York Times. To the best of my recollection he 
was not an editorial employee, but he was in some noneditorial depart- 
ment of the newspaper. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know him as a Communist ? _ 

Mr. BuRDETT. I cannot say definitely that I knew him to be a Com- 
munist in the sense that I ever met him at a Communist Party meet- 
ing, but because of various circumstances my definite assumption was 
that he was indeed a party member. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Wliat circumstances do you refer to ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I refer to the circumstance that I did know his wife 
definitely to be a Communist Party member. His wife was Helen 
Weissman, and she w^as active. I knew her as a Communist at the 
section headquarters which I have earlier mentioned, the section head- 
quarters in Brooklyn at which I attended this school. She was active 
there, and I knew her as a Communist there. 

I came also to know her husband, although I never saw her husband 
at any party meeting ; the inference of all these circumstances was that 
he was indeed a party member or a very close party sympathizer. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you or do you know Mrs. Doretta Tarmon ? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I did, yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Tell us about her. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1363 

Mr. BuRDETT. Doretta Tarmon I knew as a Communist under tlie 
same circumstances under which I knew Mrs. Weissman to be a Com- 
munist, that is to say she was active at this section headquarters in 
downtown Brooklyn. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. 'Do you or did you know Peter Christopher Rhodes? 

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not recognize that name as given, sir. I did know 
a Peter Rhodes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Tell us about him. 

Mr. BuRDETT. Peter Rhodes was, at the time that I met him in 
Stockholm in the spring of 1940, under the circumstances that I have 
told you, he was a staff correspondent for the United Press. I met 
IPeter Rhodes, I should say, in March or April of 1940 in Stockholm. 

I did not know Peter Rhodes to be a member of the Communist 
Party. 

However, from acquaintance with Peter Rhodes, and from what I 
gathered about his past experiences and past activities, I surmised that 
he was a very active sympathizer and partisan of Communist causes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Now, Mr. Burdett, do you know any other persons 
concerning whom you can give the committee information who, to 
your knowledge, were or are members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burdett. Sir, I can think of no others. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. I would like to ask that he be kept under subpena and asked 
to remain here. 

The Chairman. Mr. Burdett, I will hold you under subpena tem- 
porarily. I want to thank you for your testimony and the very fine 
service that you have rendered your country, sir. 

Call your next witness. 

]\Ir. SouRwiNE. Mr. Monroe Stern. 

The Chairman. Hold up your hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the In- 
ternal Security Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of 
the Senate of the United States is the truth, the whole truth and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. Stern. I do, sir. 

The Chairman. Sit down, Mr. Stern. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Would you give the reporter your full name, please, 
and your address ? 

TESTIMONY OF MONROE WILLIAM STERN, SARASOTA, FLA. 

Mr. Stern. Monroe William Stern, 1215 Gulf stream Avenue, Sara- 
sota, Fla. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Stern, where are you employed ? 

Mr. Stern. I am self-employed in Sarasota. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are you now or have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party of the United States of America ? 

Mr. Stern. I have not, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are you the same Monroe Stern who at one time held 
high office in the Newspaper Guild ? 

Mr. Stern. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Tell us about that. 



1364 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr, Stern. I was for 2 or 3 years a vice president of the New York 
Guild, and for 1 year, I believe it was 1941, I was president of the 
New York Guild. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you employed by the Yugoslav Legation ? ^ 

Mr. Stern. I was, sir, first by the Yugoslav delegation to the first 
United Nations session in San Francisco, and later, several months 
after that, by the Yugoslav Embassy here in Washington. 

Mr. Sourwine. How did you come to be employed by the Yugoslav 
delegation ? 

Mr. Stern. This group of delegates, it was a new adminstration, a 
new govermnent. The majority of them were fresh out of the woods 
and the mountains. They knew nothing, so to speak, of this country. 

They felt unfamiliar, ill at east, uncertain of their English. They 
got in touch, I believe, with one of the Yugoslav relief organiza- 
tions in New York, and said that they would like somebody, a news- 
paperman or public relations man, who might be able to go with them 
to San Francisco for 5 or 6 weeks to help them. They were even un- 
certain as to just what the nature of the help might be. They just felt 

== The following letter and enclosure was received by Chairman Eastland from Mr. Stern 
after his return to Sarasota : , ^ ,„^_ 

July 1, 1955. 

Hon. James O. Eastland, 

Senate Offlce Building, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Senator Eastland : Immediately on my return here from Washington I was under 
pressure by the Florida West Coast Press — in Tampa, St. Petersburg, and Sarasota— for 
comment, so I prepared and issued a press release, which was published I should think 
only locally. , , ^ .- .^ ,. 

J enclose a notarized copy of this press release, with the respectful request — if it be a 
proper request — that my statement be made a part of the record of the Burdett hearings 
before your subcommittee. 
Very truly yours, 

Monroe Stern. 

JUNB 30, 1955. 
For immediate release. 

Sarasota, June 30. — The following statement was Issued here today by Monroe Stern : 

Mr. Winston Burdett testified yesterday in Washington that never once had he seen me 
at any of the many Communist meetings he attended in the 1930's but that he came to 
the conclusion I was a Communist after learning in 1946 that I was working for the Yugo- 
slav Embassy in Washington. His conclusion is unwarranted to the point of fantasy. 
The Yugoslavs, like most of the other small and many of the large embassies in Wash- 
ington, employ from time to time, many Americans in many capacities — including, in the 
case of the Yugoslavs, a highly regarded Washington law firm. Similarly American 
embassies abroad commonly engage foreign nationals from time to time. 

I had known Mr. Burdett only slightly In New York — he was an obscure reporter on 
a Brooklyn paper. In 1946 he was a well-known radio correspondent — he is very good 
on the radio — and when I learned he was in Washington I called him up and invited him 
to lunch. To the best of my recollection our luncheon conversation was casual and 
general, but I am in no position to dispute hie account of what we said over the luncheon 
table 9 years ago. I can only compliment him on his memory. 

My first connection with the Yugoslavs was with their delegation to the founding 
United Nations Conference in San Francisco In 1945. Their delegation was composed 
about half of partisans who had been fighting a bitter and highly successful war against 
the Germans and Italians under Tito, and about half of representatives of their Govern- 
ment-in-exile which sat out the war in London. The chief of the delegation was Dr. Ivan 
Subasic, leader of that Government-in-exile, and the man who actually employed me was 
Dr. Stoyan Gavrilovitch, another official of that Government. 

Later, when I was with their Embassy in Washington, in a public relations capacity, 
no Yugoslav at any time asked about my political convictions or affiliations — they had 
the highest respect for my rights and privileges as an American citizen, perhaps partly 
because they had but recently, as a result of the war, won the secret ballot for them- 
selves. But I am reasonably sure they knew that I was not a Communist, and indeed a 
large part of such small help as I was able to give them was based on the fact that I was 
not, and that I could help them get a broader and truer picture of American life than 
the extreme leftist one. The Yugoslav Ambassador with whom I worked most closely 
and most eflfectively during the major part of my employment by them was himself not a 
Communist. I might add that I remained with them until 1952, 4 years after their break 
with the Russians, when I resigned for purely personal reasons. 

Monroe Stern. 

State of Florida, 

County of Sarasota, ss: 

Signed before me this 1st day of July 1955. 

Dorothy g. Boyeston, Notory Puohc. 
My commission expires February 16, 1957. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1365 

that they would like to have an American there with them to assist 
them in such dealings as they might have with the American people. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. How did they approach you ? 

Mr. Stern. The call, the actual approach came to me, as I said, 
through the guild. The executive officer of the New York Guild at 
that time was Nat Einhorn, who telephoned me and asked me if I 
would be willing and able to accept this temporary job as it was then 
supposed to be. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know whether the Embassy representative 
or the Yugoslav representatives had called someone other than Mr. 
Einhorn first, or did they call him ? 

Mr. Stern. I believe they had got in touch with him through one 
of the Yugoslav relief organizations. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Nat Einhorn as a Communist? 

Mr. Stern. Not to my positive knowledge, sir. 

The Chairman. What do you mean by your positive knowledge ? 

Mr. Stern. I never heard him say that he was. I never saw any 
documentary proof that he was. I never saw him at any meeting which 
I recognized as a purely Communist meeting. 

The Chairman. Do you mean there is some question in your mind 
as to whether he was or was not a Communist ? 

Mr. Stern. It will be solely a presumption, sir, 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Didn't you testify, sir, in executive session, that you 
iissumed Mr. Einhorn was a Communist ? 

Mr. Stern. I believe I did, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you? 

Mr. Stern. He held a full-time paid job with the New York Guild, 
which required long, hard work for a salary that was far from com- 
mensurate with that. It was the kind of job that called for the sort 
of zeal and devotion that a previous witness has spoken of, and that 
one found at that time or thought of as being an attribute of Com- 
munists, 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know other persons in the guild who were 
Commimists, to your knowledge ? 

Ml". Stern. I knew several by the same sort of presumption. I did 
not know, despite the previous witness' testimony, if I may say so, I 
did not ever know tliat Winston Burdett had been a member of the 
Communist Party, There were two or three individuals on the paper 
on whicli I was then employed who were disclosed to me as being mem- 
bers of the party, 

>Mr. Sourwine, Who were they ? 

]\[r. Stern. One was a reporter wliose name, as I recall, was Ray 
Thor, 

]Mr. Sourwine, How do you spell it ? 

Mr. Stern, It was either T-h-a-w or T-h-o-r, I do not recall that I 
ever saw it written. The others were two copy boys whose names I 
do not recall clearly. One was — these boys were known chiefly around 
the office by first names. One was Johnnie, and his last name was 
either Greenberg or Greenbaum, to the best of my recollection. The 
other was known as Brownie. 

There was also a printer whose name, if it was ever given to me, I 
have completely forgotten. I rather doubt that I ever knew his name. 

Mr. Sourwine. How did you know that Mr. Thaw or Thor was a 
Communist ? How was that disclosed to you ? 



1366 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. Stern. It was known to me because he asked me to join the 
party. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did anyone else ask you to join the party? 

Mr. Stern. In an indirect way Milton Kaufman, whose name has 
been mentioned here, I can recall said to me on one or two occasions 
that he thought I ought to work more closely with them, which I took 
to mean that it was 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I want to read you, sir, briefly from your executive 
testimony before this committee and ask you if you have any changes 
or modifications to make in the testimony as then given. I asked you : 

Did you or do you know Milton Kaufman ? 

And you answered : 

Yes, sir. 

Question. Did you know him as a Communist? 

Answer. Yes, sir. 

How do you know he was a Communist? 

Because he had tried to get me to join the party. 

Mr. Stern. I came here yesterday, sir, not knowing in the least 
what I was to be questioned about. These were matters that occurred 
quite some years ago which I have not thought of for many years. As 
you can imagine, it has been much on my mind since yesterday, and 
searching my memory, the testimony I have given you today is as 
accurate as my recollection goes. 

The Chairman. Did you so testify yesterday as he read you ? 

Mr. Stern. That is my memory of my testimony yesterday. 

Mr. Sourwine. Didn't you testify yesterday that — well, I will use 
your words : 

I listened to what he had to say — 
that is referring to Kaufman — 

I seem to recall at his suggestion going to some meetings, but I never did join 
the party. 

Mr. Stern. I believe that is correct, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You did go to Communist Party meetings at Mr. 
Kaufman's suggestion ? 

Mr. Stern. Well, sir, it was not my impression that they were 
solely Communist meetings. I believe, as I recall them, that: they 
were groups of people who were either working most actively in the 
guild or who were thought to have more progressive ideas and who 
were called together for, as near as I can recall it, discussion of guild 
organizing problems. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you call them Communist meetings yesterday 
in executive session, Mr. Stern ? 

Mr. Stern. I cannot recall that I did, sir. If I did, I did not know 
that they were such, exclusively. 

The Chairman. Wlio did you talk to since yesterday ? 

ISfr. Stern. I have met in this room a few of my former colleagues 
with whom I have exchanged the briefest kind of words. 

The Chairman. AVlio, now ? 

Mr. Stern. Most of them I had not seen in many years. They were 
Nat Einhorn, Jack Ryan, Milton Kaufman, Amos Landman. 

The Chairman. Have they influenced you to change your testi- 
mony ? 

Mr. Stern. No, sir; no, sir. I do not feel that I have made any 
substantial change. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1367 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Of those persons you named, do you recognize any 
of them as former members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Stern. Which persons, sir ? 

Mr. SotTRWiNE. The ones you have just named. 

Mr. Stern. I know of them onl^' as I have so described in my tes- 
timony. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Yesterday or today. 

Mr. Stern. My testimony yesterday or today ? 

Mr. Sourwine. Yes. 

Mr. Stern. So far as I can recall, the testimony is substantially 
the same on both days. 

Mr. Sourwine. I asked you yesterday, referring to Mr. Kaufman : 

Did you consistently refuse in response to his invitations to join the imrty? 
You replied : 

I never did join. I listened to what he had to say, I seem to recall at his 
suggestion going to some meetings, but I never did join the party. 

I asked you : 

Do you remember any of the persons who were at any of those Communist 
meetings that you went to at Mr. Kaufman's suggestion? 

You said : 

It is a long time ago, sir. I will try. One of them was a meeting at which 
there were perhaps 20 or 25 people. Whether Einhorn and a chap named Jack 
Ryan and I were there, I cannot recall. Many of them were people that I 
did not know. 

And we then went into the question of the discussion of who else 
might have been at the meeting. Do you recall that ? 

Mr. Stern. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Is it your testimony now that you did not intend 
to convey to the committee yesterday the impression that these were 
Communist meetings that you were talking about ? 

Mr. Stern. Yes, sir. I did not have the impression that I have 
given that, and I did not understand from the testimony as you just 
read it that I had given that impression. 

IVIr. Sourwine. Mr. Stern, were you supported for your elective 
positions in the guild by the Communist Party group in the guild ? 

Mr. Stern. I felt that I was supported by all of the progressive 
elements among others. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you knowingly accept the support of the Com- 
munist Party group in the guild for your candidacy ? 

Mr. Stern. So far as I presumed that these people were Com- 
munists, I did knowingly accept their support. 

Mr. SouR-sviNE. Now yesterday, sir, I asked you that question. 

I said : 

Did you knowingly accept the support of the Communist Party group in the 
guild for candidacy? 

and you replied : 

Well, I knew that Kaufman was supporting me, and accepted his support. 
It seems to me that they were people who worked very hard for the objectives 
of the guild. 

You were then speaking of Kaufman in the connotation of a Com- 
munist ; were you not ? 

Mr. Stern. Of a presumed Communist ; yes. 



1368 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was Nat Einhorn one of the presumed Commu- 
nists who was supporting you ? 

Mr. Stern. To the best of my recollection ; yes, sir. 
Mr. SouRWiNE. Was John Francis Ryan or Jack Eyan one of the 
presumed Communists who was supporting you ? 

Mr. Stern. That I cannot recall. I cannot recall exactly his status 
in the guild at that time, whether he had become an employee of the 
guild or was just a member of another newspaper unit whom I knew 
but did not know closely. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. When asked yesterday was John Francis Ryan sup- 
porting you, you answered, "I assume so." 
Was that right? 

Did you assume that he had been supporting you ? 
Mr. Stern. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Why did you assume that ? 

Mr. Stern. He was one of the leading members of his unit which 
was some newspaper on Long Island, the name of which I have for- 
gotten, and I generally considered him one of the hard workers in 
the guild and a person of progressive ideas. 

Mr. Sourwine. Now, sir, you said yesterday that you would at- 
tempt to remember any other meetings that you had gone to. Com- 
munist meetings, and I understand that you have this morning re- 
membered another one ; is that right ? 
Mr. Stern. That is correct, sir. 
Mr. Sourwine. Will you tell us about that, please ? 
Mr, Stern. The one that I spoke of yesterday was a group of, as 
I can recall it, perhaps 20 or 30 people. It was held in a hotel some- 
where in the Times Square area. At some point — I have no memory 
of what years these were, sir, but I do recall attending another such 
meeting wholly similar so far as I understood it, again at a hotel, this 
time in the Grand Central area. 

Mr. Sourwine. Can you recall anyone who was at that meeting? 
Mr. Stern. I cannot, sir, other than I'm sure that Mr, Kaufman 
was there, I cannot recall by name anyone else who was there, or by 
face. I have no recollection, no picture of these things left in my mind. 
Mr, Sourwine, You were asked yesterday about whether you were 
a member of the Citizens Committee for Harry Bridges, Have you 
recalled anything in that connection ? 
Mr, Stern, I have not recalled it, sir, 

I believe you said that there is a letterhead which had my name on 
it, I presume if my name is on it that someone must have asked for 
permission and I must have given it, I have absolutely no recollection 
of the incident. 

Mr, Sourwine. Now when was it that you were employed by the 
Yugoslavs ? 

Mr, Stern, The employment started — they were in New York as 
near as I can recall only 48 hours or so, so that it happened very fast. 
Wliile they were en route to San Francisco, that would have been 
some time in April 1945, 

Mr, Sourwine, That was some years before Tito's break with the 
Cominf orm ; was it not ? 
Mr, Stern, It was 3 years prior to it, 

Mr, Sourwine, Now I want to read you from your testimony of 
yesterday with regard to Nat Einhorn. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1369 

Why did you assume he was a Communist ? 

Mr. Stern. Well, I don't wish to say this in any necessarily derogatory sense, 
but Communists have a certain manner of speaking ex cathedra, patronizing, as 
though they had to reveal the truth, and such was his manner. 

I said : 

That is all you had to go on? 

And you replied : 

Well, I knew he was a full-time employee in the guild, and so far as I can 
recall, his general sympathies seemed to be pretty far to the left. 

And I said : 

His being a full-time employee of the guild ; did that indicate to you that he 
might be a Communist? 

And you replied : 

Not necessarily. 

Now with that background I'll ask you now the question which I 
then asked you next: Was the guild Communist-dominated at that 
time to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Stern. I would not say dominated, sir. I had a feeling that 
there was Communist influence, but so far as I recall the activities 
of these individuals you have named, it was all, so far as appeared 
on the surface, it was all toward a strengthening of democratic proce- 
dures in the guild, getting more and more people in, of getting more 
and more people to meetings to participate in discussions. 

The Chairman. Wait just a minute, please, sir. Will the photogra- 
phers not get in front of the witness ? 

Proceed. 

Mr. Stern. I believe I had concluded my answer. 

Mr. SouEwiNE. Did you, sir, make any arrangement, agreement or 
arrive at any understanding with the Communist faction in the guild 
with respect to their support of your candidacy for office in the guild ? 

Mr. Stern. No, sir, none that I can recall. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now you were asked about a number of persons yes- 
terday. The Milton Kaufman that we have been talking about now is 
the same Milton Kaufman who was vice president of the American 
Newspaper Guild? 

Mr. Stern. I believe the exact title was executive vice president. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You say you have seen him in the room ? 

Mr. Stern. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. On this Thaw or Thor that you mention; are you 
sure that name wasn't Ray Torr? 

Mr. Stern. No, sir, I am not. That sounds more correct. 

Mr. Sourwine. Then you think it was Ray Torr ? 

Mr. Stern. I had thought it was Tor, but as I say, I'm not sure that 
I ever saw it written down. 

Mr. Sourwine. You mentioned yesterday a Morgan Hall who also 
tried to recruit you into the party. 

Mr. Stern. Sir, I think the name was Morgan Hull. 

Mr. Sourwine. H-u-1-1? 

Mr. Stern. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You identified him as having worked for the Ameri- 
can Newspaper Guild? 

Mr. Stern. That is correct, sir. 



1370 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRAviNE. And you said your present impression is that he 
is dead? 

Mr. Stern. That is my impression, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now of the other persons that you were asked about 
yesterday, have you remembered any of them as Communists or as 
persons who attended these Communist meetings? 

Mr. Stern. No, sir, I have not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Can you give the committee the names of any other 
persons who were known to you to be Communists? 

Mr. Stern. I cannot, sir. 1 ou mean known to me personally ? 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Yes. 

Mr. Stern. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, I have no more questions to ask of 
this witness. 

Mr. Stern. Is it proper for me to make a statement on something 
that was said by a previous witness? 

The Chairman. Yes, sir, you can do that. 

Mr. Stern. Mr. Burdett spoke of a luncheon he had with me. I 
don't recall the date. The circumstances as I recall them were some- 
Avhat different. It seems to me that I learned through hearing him on 
the radio that he was in Washington and that I called him up and that 
we did have lunch together. I cannot remember the subjects discussed. 
It seems to me that it was chiefly small talk, and concerning his assump- 
tion that I was a Communist because I worked for the Yugoslavs, it is 
understandable to me that that impression might arise in some people's 
minds. 

But the nature of my work was such that not only did the Yugo- 
slavs, I think, know that I was not a Communist, but I think a large 
part of my value to them arose from the fact that I was not, that I 
was a less-specialized sort of person politically. 

The Chairman. No further questions. 

Mr. Stern. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. You are discharged. 

Mr. Alvah Bessie : Hold your hand up. Do you solemnly swear the 
testimony you are about to give the Internal Security Subcommittee 
of the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate of the United States 
is the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Bessie. I do. 

The Chairman. Sit down, Mr. Bessie. 

Proceed. Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Sourwine. Would you give the reporter your full name, Mr. 
Bessie, your address and your present business or profession? 

TESTIMONY OF ALVAH BESSIE, ACCOMPANIED BY DAVID REIN, 

HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Bessie. My name is Alvah Bessie. I live at 1210 Stanyan 
Street, San Francisco 17. 

I am employed on the staff of the Despatcher, a newspaper pub- 
lished by the International Longshoreman's and Warehousemen's 
Union. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Bessie. I am accompanied by Mr. David Eein, attorney. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1371 

Mr. SoTJRwixE. He is here as your counsel ? 

Mr. Bessie. He is. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Bessie, are you now a member of the Com- 
mun i St Party, United States of America ? 

Mr. Bessie. I will have to invoke my privilege under the fifth 
amendment to the Constitution on that question, Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you in 1930 or at any time between 1930 and 
1940 a member of a Communist Party unit in the Brooklyn Eagle 
newspaper in New York ? 

Mr. Bessie. I will invoke the privilege on that question also, the 
same privilege, the same amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you, Mr. Bessie, hear the testimony of the wit- 
ness who preceded you ? 

Mr. Bessie. You mean Mr. Stern ? 

Mr. Sourwine. Yes. 

Mr. Bessie. I am somewhat hard of hearing, Mr. Sourwine. I did 
not hear very much of it. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Monroe Stern ? 

Mr. Bessie. I recognize his face but I don't remember whether I 
knew him personallj' or not. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you. Mr. Bessie, or did you know Amos Land- 
man t 

Mr. Bessie. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you or did you know Hyman Charniak ? 

Mr. Bessie. The name is familiar to me. How do you spell it? 

Mr. Sourwine. C-h-a-r-n-i-a-k. 

Mr. Bessie. The name is familiar to me. 

Mr. Sourwine. What is your memory with respect to that name? 

Mr. Bessie. I believe he was employed on the Brooklyn Daily 
Eagle at the time that I was employed on the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Hyman Charniak as a Communist? 

Mr. Bessie. I will invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment on 
that question. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you or did you know Nat Einhorn ? 

Mr. Bessie. The same amendment, the same privilege, Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Sourwine. You are declining to answer the question as to 
whether you even know Einhorn ? 

Mr. Bessie. Who ? 

Mr. Sourwine. Nat Einhorn ? 

Mr. Bessie. Oh, I'm sorry. I did know Mr. Einhorn as a police 
reporter on the Brooklyn Eagle at the time that I was there. 

Mr. SouRAviNE. Do you know him now ? 

Mr. Bessie. I have seen him in the hearing room here. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know him now? Have you maintained a 
friendly relation with him ? 

Mr. Bessie. I have had some correspondence with him perhaps 2 or 
3 times in the last 10 years. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Mr. Einhorn as a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Bessie. On that one I will invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you or did you know Victor Weingarten ? 

Mr. Bessie. I recall him as a worker on the Brooklyn Eagle at the 
time that I was employed there. 



1372 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know him as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Bessie. I will invoke the fifth amendment on that one. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you or did you know Violet Brown ? 

Mr. Bessie. I recall her as a reporter, I believe, on the Brooklyn 
Eagle at the time that I was employed there. 

Mr. SouBWiNE. Did you know Violet Brown as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bessie. I will invoke my privilege on that, Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you or did you know Charles Lewis ? 

Mr. Bessie. Charles Lewis ? 

The name doesn't ring any bell. 

Mr, Sourwine. Do you or did you know Herbert Cohn ? 

Mr. Bessie. I remember his byline but I am not certain whether I 
knew him personally on the Brooklyn Eagle. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you or did you know Melvin Barnett ? 

Mr. Bessie. I remember that name but I am not certain that I knew 
him personally. 

It's about 18 years ago. 

Mr. Sourwine. You have not seen Mr. Barnett since ? 

Mr. Bessie. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you or did you know David Gordon ? 

Mr. Bessie. I believe I knew him but I don't recall his face. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Commimist ? 

Mr. Bessie. Well, I will have to invoke the privilege on that one. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you or did you know Charles Grutzner ? 

Mr. Bessie. I recall him as a reporter on the Brooklyn Eagle at 
the time that I was employed. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Bessie. I will take the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you belong to any organization that Mr. Grutz- 
ner belonged to ? 

Mr. Bessie. I will have to invoke the privilege on that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you or did you know Gladys Bentley ? 

Mr. Bessie. I believe that Miss Bentley was in the circulation de- 
partment of the Brooklyn Eagle at the time that I was there. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know her as a member of the Commimist 
Party? 

Mr. Bessie. I will invoke the privilege, Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Larry Adler, sir ? 

Mr. Bessie. AVlio ? 

Mr, Sourwine. Larry Adler, A-d-1-e-r, 

Mr. Bessie. Is that the man who plays the harmonica? I know 
there is a man who plays a harmonica by the name of Larry Adler 
whom I once met many years ago, but if you are referring to someone 
on the Brooklyn Eagle, I do not recall the name. 

Mr. Sourwine. I just asked you if you did know a Larry Adler. 

Mr. Bessie. I believe I met' Mr. Larry Adler in New York over 
14 years ago. 

Mr. Sourwine, Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Bessie. I will invoke the privilege. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you or did you know Leonard Adler ? 

Mr. Bessie, The name does not mean anything to me, 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you or did you know Lyle Dowling ? 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD CORIIVIUNISM 1373 

Mr. Bessie. I believe Mr. Dowling occupied some sort of an execu- 
tive position for a short time on the Brooklyn Eagle while I was there. 
Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know him as a Communist ? 
Mr. Bessie. I will invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment on 

that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you or did you know Murray Young? 

Mr. Bessie. I did not get the name. I'm sorry. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Murray Young. 

Mr. Bessie. Murray Young? The name is vaguely familiar but I 
could not say that I definitely ever knew him. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know whether Mr. Young was a Commu- 
nist? 

Mr. Bessie. I will have to invoke the privilege on that. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you or did you know Amos Landman ? 

Mr. Bessie. I believe you asked me that name but the name means 
nothing to me. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The name means nothing ? 

Br. Bessie. No. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You have not seen him in the room here ? 

Mr. Bessie. I wouldn't know him if I saw him. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you or did you know Milton Kaufman ? 

Mr. Bessie. I knew Milton Kaufman as an executive, I believe, of 
the New York Newspaper Guild. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know him as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Bessie. I will have to take the privilege on that. 

Mr. SouEWiNE. Do you or did you know John Francis Eyan ? 

Mr. Bessie. I knew a man named Ryan who was, I believe, an 
official of the New York Newspaper Guild, but I think he was called 
Jack. 

Mr. SoiTRWiNE. Did you know him as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Bessie. I will invoke the privilege on that. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you or did you know Gladys Kopf ? 

Mr. Bessie. The name is vaguely familiar. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know whether she was a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bessie. I will have to take the privilege on that. 

Mr. SotJRWiNE. Do you or did you know Ira Henry Freeman ? 

Mr. Bessie. That name means nothing to me. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you or did you know Sam Weissman ? 

Mr. Bessie. The name is very vaguely familiar, but I could not 
place it. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know whether Sam "Weissman was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bessie. I will have to take the privilege on that. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you or did you know Helen Weissman, his wife? 

Mr. Bessie. Well, I will have to give you the same answer, Mr. Sour- 
wine. The name is vaguely familiar but I can't place the person. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether she was a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Bessie. The fifth amendment on that. 

Mr, Souewine. Do you or did you know Mrs. Doretta Tarmon ? 



1374 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. Bessie. I believe I did. I am not certain whether she was 
employed on the Brooklyn Eagle or not. 

Mr. SotJRWiNE. Did you know her as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Bessie. I will have to invoke the privilege on that. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Are you the same Alvali Bessie who has testified 
before the House Un-American Activities Committee ? 

Mr. Bessie. The very same. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You are a writer by profession or avocation? 

Mr. Bessie. I have been a writer on and off most of my life. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you seen anyone here in the room, Mr. Bessie, 
whom you know to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bessie. I will have to invoke the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Sourwine. After you were subpenaed to appear before this 
committee, Mr. Bessie, with whom did you communicate ? 

Mr. Bessie. I consulted an attorney, Mr. George Anderson in San 
Francisco. 

Mr. Sourwine. Is he to your knowledge a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Bessie. I will have to invoke the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment on that. 

Mr. Sourwine. With whom else did you consult or confer after 
receiving your summons to appear here ? 

Mr. Bessie. I consulted with my employer and asked them whether 
they would purchase a plane ticket for me. 

Mr. SouRw^iNE. Anyone else ? 

Mr. Bessie. No, sir. My wife. Since I've been in San Francisco ^ 
I had about 15 minutes consultation with Mr. Rein. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you, Mr. Bessie, in 1944 hold a card in the 
Communist Party, USA? 

Mr. Bessie. I will have to invoke the privilege on that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. Who is your next witness? You may stand aside, 
Mr. Bessie. 

Mr. Sourwine. I'd like to call IMilton Kaufman. 

The Chairman. Hold up your hand, please. Do you solemnly 
swear the testimony you are about to give is the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Kaufman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MILTON KAUFMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY MILTON H. 

FRIEDMAN, COUNSEL 

Mr. Sourwine. Would you please give the reporter your full name ? 
Mr. Kaufman. Milton Kaufman. 
Mr. Sourwine. And your address, Mr. Kaufman ? 
Mr. Kaufman. 54 Willow Street, Brooklyn, New York. 
Mr. Sourwine. And your business or profession, Mr. Kaufman? 
Mr. Kaufman. I am an outside salesman now. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Kaufman, were you ever a member of the News- 
paper Guild in New York ? 

2 Mr. Rein is a Washington attorney. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMTJNISM 1375 

Mr. Kaufmax. I was. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you have any knowledge of Communist activity 
in the Newspaper (xuikl in Xew York ? 

(He consulted with counseL) 

Mr. Kaufmax. I must avail myself of the privilege mider the Con- 
stitution to decline to testify against myself. 

Mr. SouRwixE. You were executive secretarj- of the Xew York 
Newspaper Guild in 1937 and 1938 ; were you not ( 

Mr. Kaufmax. Yes ; 1 was. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Did you ever preside at meetings of the Communist 
Party fraction of the New York Newspaper Guild ( 

Mr. Kaufmax'. I will avail myself of the privilege of not testifying 
against myself, although I cannot accept the premise of your question. 

Mr, SouRwixE. Mr. Kaufman, isn't it true that this morning in 
executive session you testified that you knew nothing about Communist 
activity in the newspaper guild t 

(He consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kaufmax'. I decline to answer on the same grounds of my priv- 
ilege under the Constitution. 

Mr. SouRwixE. I will read from the record with the chairman's per- 
mission, of this morning's session. 

The Chairmax. Proceed. 

Mr. SouRwix'E (reading) : 

Mr. Kaufman. I do not accept the premise, which is an investigation of com- 
munism, which I don't know anything about, and therefore I avail myself of the 
privilege under the Constitution, and decline to give testimony against myself, 
sir. 

Question. You have just stated you don't know anything about communism. 
That is a statement under oath. I believe that statement waives — 

and then you broke in, Mr. Kaufman and said : 

In the Newspaper Guild, I said. 
Question. All right, I will accept the amendment. 
Senator Daniel. You are now adding "in the Newspaper Guild." 
Mr. Kaufman. Yes. 

Question. You state you don't know anything about communism in the Guild. 
Senator Daniel. Speak out. 

Question. I want to give you a chance to avoid testimony that you might not 
wish to give. 

And then 3^ou were asked : 

Do you want to stand by your statement that you don't know anything about 
communism in the Newspaper Guild? 

And you then availed yourself, claiming the privilege of the fifth 
amendment. Now that is the testimony you gave this morning. This 
morning you were advised that the committee did not grant your right 
to refuse to answer after you had yourself opened the subject by stat- 
ing that you did not know anything about communism. 

You made that statement yourself and you are subject to cross- 
examination on it. I'll give j^ou one more chance to change your 
testimony in that regard if you desire to do so. Is it true that you 
don't know anything about communism in the Newspaper Guild?" 

(He consulted his comisel.) 

Mr. Kaufmax. Mr. Sourwine, I must respectfully avail myself 
again in respect to your statement, availing myself of the privilege 
under the Constitution of not testifying against myself. 



1376 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mv. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed 
and instructed to answer that (j[uestion. 

The Chairman. Yes ; you are directed and ordered to answer that 
question under penalty of contempt of the United States Senate. You 
waived your rig) its. 

(He consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Kaufman. ]Mr. Chairman, I respectfully reiterate my declina- 
tion to testify against myself under the Constitution. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. i\Ir. Kaufman, did you ever try to recruit anybody 
into the Communist Party ^ 

Mr. Kaufman. I shall decline on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you seek to recruit Mr. Monroe Stern into the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kaufman. The same grounds, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know Monroe Stern ? 

Mr. Kaufman. Mr, Stern was an officer of the Newspaper Guild in 
New York. I served with him. I did know him and do know him. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever attend a meeting of the Communist 
Party with him ? 

Mr. Kaufman. I decline on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Alvah Bessie ? 

Mr. Kaufman. Mr. Chairman, as an officer of the Guild I knew 
hundreds of newspapermen and women. I knew many more hun- 
dreds by sight. I knew all the publishers and the editors. 

The Chairman. Answer the question, please, sir. 

He asked you if you knew Alvah Bessie. 

Mr. Kaufman. In view of the danger of knowing people and nam- 
ing names, I must decline to respond to the question under my con- 
stitutional privilege. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know Nat Einhorn ? 

Mr. Kaufman. I did know Nat Einhorn. He was an officer of the 
Newspaper Guild with whom I worked. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Nat Einhorn as a Communist? 

Mr. Kaufman. I decline to answer on the grounds stated, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Victor Weingarten ? 

Mr. Kaufman. I will decline to name rank and file members of this 
union or any union that I have worked for on the grounds it has noth- 
ing to do witli this investigation. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Nobody said anything about a union. The ques- 
tion was did you know Victor Weingarten ? 

INIr. Kaufman. Decline on the same grounds, sir. 

The Chairman. What grounds now ? 

Mr. Kaufman. My constitutional privilege of not testifying against 
myself. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, Did you know Violet Brown ? 

Mr. Kaufman. I decline on the same grounds, Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Charles Lewis? 

Mr. Kaufman. Again on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Hyman Charniak ? 

Mr. Kaufman. On the same grounds, sir, I decline. 

The Chairman. Do you know Winston Burdett ? 

Mr. Kaufman. On the same grounds, I decline. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Herbert Cohn ? 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 



1377 



On the same grounds, I decline, sir. 

Did you know Melvin Barnett? 

On the same grounds, I decline, sir. 

Did you know David Gordon ? 

On the same grounds, I decline. 

Did you know Charles Grutzner ? 

On the same grounds, I decline. 

Did you know Gladys Bentley ? 

Again on the same grounds, I decline. 

Did you know Leonard Adler ? 

Again on the same grounds, I decline. 

Did you know Lyle Dowling ? 

Again on the same grounds, I decline. 

Did you know Murray Young ? 

Again on the same grounds, I decline. 

Did you know Amos Landman ? 

Again I decline on the same grounds. 

Did you known John Francis Ryan ? 

I knew Jack, ]Mr. Ryan, as a fellow officer of the 
Newspaper Guild of New York. 
Mr. SouRAviXE. Did you know him as a fellow Communist? 
Mr. IvAUFMAX. I decline to answer on the grounds I have stated. 
Mr. SoumviNE. Did you know Gladys Kopf ? 
Mr. IvAUFMAN. I knew Gladys Kopf. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know her as a Communist ? 

I only knew her as one of my secretaries. 

Do you mean by that you did not know her as a 



Mr. Kaufman. 
Mr. SouRwixE. 
Mr. Kaufman. 
Mr. Sour WINE. 
Mr. Kaufman. 
Mr. Sour WINE. 
Mr. Ivaufman. 
Mr. SouR^^^NE. 
Mr. Kaufman. 

]Mr. SOURWINE. 

Mr. Ivaufman. 
Mr. Sour\\t:ne. 
Mr. Kaufman. 
Mr. Sourwine. 

Kaufman. 

Sourwine. 
Mr. Ivaufman. 
Mr. Sourwine. 
Mr. Ivaufman. 



Mr. 
Mr. 



Mr. Kaufman, 
Mr, Sourwine 
Communist ? 
Mr. Ivaufman. 
Mr. Sourwine. 



I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

"When you said "I only knew her as one of my secre- 
taries" did you intend the committee to understand that you were 
denying that you knew her as a Communist ? 
(He consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Kaufman. I did not intend that, sir. I intended to say that I 
knew Gladys Kopf as my secretary. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Ira Henry Freeman ? 

I decline on the same grounds. 

Did you know Sam Weissman ? 

Again on the same grounds. 

Did you know Helen Weissman ? 

Again on the same grounds. 

Did you know Mrs. Doretta Tarmon ? 

On the same grounds, sir, I decline to answer. 

Did you, sir, ever engage in espionage ? 

Repeat the question, please. 

Did you, sir, ever engage in espionage ? 

I dicl not, sir. 

Were you ever a member of a conspiracy to over- 
throw the Government of the United States by force and violence? 
(He consulted with counsel) 

Mr. Kaufman. Would you explain what you mean by that question ? 
Mr. Sourwine. Don't you know what I mean ? 
Mr. Kaufman. I do not. I do not understand. 



Mr. Kaufman. 
Mr. Sourwine. 
Mr. Kaufman. 
Mr. Sourwine. 
Mr. Kaufman. 
Mr. Sourwine. 
Mr. Kaufman. 
Mr. Sourwine. 
Mr. Kaufman. 
Mr. Sourwine. 
Mr. Kaufman. 
Mr. Sourwine. 



1378 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRwiNE. "Will you now state to the committee that to the best 
of your knowledge and belief you were never a member of a conspiracy 
to overthrow the Government of the United States by force and vio- 
lence. 

(He consulted with counsel) 

Mr, Kaufman. No. I never was, sir. 

Mr. SouRW^iNE. Isn't the Communist Party a conspiracy to over- 
throw the Government of the United States by force and violence ? 

Mr. Kaufman. Is that a question of me ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Yes, sir, it is a question of you. 

(He consulted with counsel) 

Mr. Kaufman. Since it is a matter of opinion, and opinions are 
dangerous, I decline to answer on the grounds of my privilege against 
testifying against myself, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I have no more questions of this "fitness, sir. 

The Chairman. You may stand aside. 

Mr. SouRAviNE, Victor "Weingarten. 

Mr. PoLLiTT. If the chairman please I represent Mr. Weingarten 
and he was excused until tomorrow. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. We have had some shuffling of witnesses and we 
were endeavoring to find out if Mr. Weingarten is here. 

Mrs. Violet Weingarten. 

The Chairman. Will you stand please ? Do you solemnly swear the 
testimony you are about to give is the truth, the whole truth and noth- 
ing but the truth so help you God ? 

Mrs. Weingarten. I so swear. 

TESTIMONY OF VIOLET WEINGARTEN, ACCOMPANIED BY DANIEL 

POLLITT, COUNSEL 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Would you give your full name, please, to the re- 
porter ? 

Mrs. Weingarten. Mrs. Violet Weingarten. 

Mr. Sourwine. You are the wife of Victor Weingarten; is that cor- 
rect ? 

Mrs. Weingarten. That's right. 

Mr. Sourwine. What is your address ? 

Mrs. Weingarten. Munson Eoad, Pleasantville. X. Y. 

Mr. Sourwine. You are — your maiden name was Violet Brown ^ 

Mrs. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you at one time employed bv the Brooklyn 
Eagle? 

Mrs. Weingarten. Yes. sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. While you v.ere there, were you a member of the 
Newspaper Guild? 

Mrs. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRW'iNE. Were you also a member of a unit of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Weingarten. I am not a Communist. I have not been a Com- 
munist, was not a Communist last year or 10 years ago but I shall re- 
fuse to answer any questions, further questions, about communism on 
the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you take any part in efforts to recruit any per- 
son into the Communist Partv? 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1379 

Mrs. Weixgartex. I must decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Did j'ou hear the testimony here today of Mr. Win- 
ston Burdett I 

Mrs. Weixgartex*. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you work with him on the Brooklyn Eagle? 

Mrs. Weixgarten. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did vou know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Weixgartex. I must decline to answer that on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Will you similarly decline, claiming your privilege 
against self-incrimination, with respect to similar questions concern- 
ing these persons whom Mr. Burdett has named as members of the 
Brooklyn Eagle unit of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Weix^gartex'. I shall, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Mr. Chairman, may it be considered that, with the 
consent of the witness, the questions have been asked with regard to 
those persons and answered with the privilege. 

The Chairmax'. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Did you, Mrs. Weingarten, attend a Communist 
school at any time? 

Mrs. Weix^gartex'. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRw^ix'E. I have no further questions of this witness. 

The Chairmax. You may stand aside. 

Mr. SouRWix-^E. David Gordon. 

(iSTo response.) 

]\Ir. Sourwixe. Murray Young. 

The Chairman. Hold up your hand please, Mr. Young. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give is the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Young. I do. 

Mr. Sourwine. Will you give the reporter your full name, sir, 
your address, and your business or profession, if any ? 

TESTIMONY OF MUREAY YOUNG, ACCOMPANIED BY DAVID EEIN, 

COUNSEL 

Mr. Young. My name is Murray Young. My address is 27 Grace 
Court, Brooklyn, and I am unemployed. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are yon, Mr. Young, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Young. I must decline and invoke my privileges under the fifth 
amendment to answer that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
thel930's? 

Mr. Young. Again I must invoke my jDrivileges under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a teacher in the section school of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Young. I must invoke the fifth amendment again, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you ever a member of the faculty of Brook- 
lyn College ? 



1380 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. Young. I was. , 

Mr. SouRwiNE. When was that ? 

Mr. Young. From 1931 to 1953. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. What did you teach ? 

Mr. Young. I taught English. 

Mr, SouRwiNE. Did you have any outside teaching jobs during 
that time ? 

Mr. Young. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you teach during that time anywhere else 
except at Brooklyn College ? 

Mr. Young. I will decline to answer that under the privilege of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Have you heard the testimony of previous witnesses 
here today ? 

Mr. Young. I have. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is there any portion of the testimony of any of 
those witnesses that you desire to contradict, amend, or modify? 

Mr. Young. I have no comment to make on it at all. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Alvah Bessie ? 

Mr. Young. I will invoke my privileges under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. As to whether you know him ? 

Mr. Young. As to whether I know him or not. 

Mr. SouRAviNE. You have seen him here in this room, haven't you ? 

Mr. Young. I would still like to invoke my privileges under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Nat Einhorn ? 

Mr. Young. Again I would like to invoke my privileges. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know Victor Weingarten ? 

Mr. Young. Again I will invoke the privilege. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Violet Weingarten ? 

Mr. Young. Again I will invoke the privilege. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know Charles Lewis ? 

Mr. Young. Again I will invoke the same privilege. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know Hyman Charniak ? 

Mr. Young. Again I will invoke the same privilege. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know Herbert Cohn ? 

Mr. Young. Again the same privilege. 

Mr. SouRw^iNE. Do you know Melvin Barnett ? 

Mr. Young. The same privilege. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know David Gordon ? 

Mr. Young. Same privilege. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Charles Grutzner ? 

ISIr. Young. Again I invoke the same privilege. 

The Chairman. We will have to recess for rollcall. 

(Short recess.) 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you identify your attorney, sir ? 

Mr. Young. I did not. Did you want me to ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Yes, would you do that ? 

Mr. Young. Mr. David Rein. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Not that we don't recognize him but the record has 
no way of recognizing him if you don't. 



STRATEGY AXD TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1381 

Were you ever a member of the Communist Party, United States 
of America ? 

Mr. Young. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment not 
to answer the question. 

]\Ir. SouRwixE. Mr. Youno;, do you know an Amos Landman ? 

INlr. Young. Again I invoke my privileges under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Did I ask you about Lyle Dowling ? 

Mr. Young. I am not sure that you did. I can't remember. 

"Sir. SouRwiNE. Do you know Lyle Dowling ? 

ISlr. Young. Again I invoke my privileges under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

]Mr. SoiTtwiNE. Have you seen him here ? 

Mr. Young. Again I invoke my privileges under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Sour"s\t:ne. Do you know ]\lonroe Stern ? 

Mr. Young. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRW^NE. Do you know Milton Kaufman ? 

Mr. Young. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sour^\t:ne. Do you know a man named John Francis Ryan ? 

Mr. Young. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know a man named Julius Rollindorfin- 
dorfer? 

Mr. Young. Again I invoke my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. To the best of the knowledge and belief of counsel 
there is no such person. You cannot invoke your privilege against 
a man who is nonexistent. Did you ever hear the name Julius Rollin- 
dorfijidorf er before today ? 

Mr. Young. I don't think I've ever heard that name as far as I can 
remember. In fact indeed I don't even recall what it is now. I don't 
even recall the name that you said, it seemed too curious. I'm sure 
I've never heard of it. 

Mr, SouRWTNE. I think that is true. It is a curious name. It was 
intentionally so. It seemed to counsel that the witness was mechan- 
ically claiming the fifth amendment without any exercise of judgment 
and I think we demonstrated that. That is not the privilege of any 
witness. "When you decline to answer, claiming your privilege against 
self-incrimination, you may do so on the ground that it is your honest 
belief that a truthful answer to the question would formulate at least 
a link in a chain that may tend to incriminate you or to connect j^ou 
with a criminal proceeding or criminal prosecution. 

Unless you have that valid fear in your own mind, you do not have 
the right to make the claim of the privilege. 

Mr. Young. I understand that, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I don't want you to answer mechanically with regard 
to all the questions we ask you. You must be selective. 

Mr. Young. I quite understand that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know John Francis Ryan ? 

Mr. Young. I must invoke my privileges, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. As to whether you know him ? 

Mr. Young. To answer that, yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Gladys Kopf ? 

Mr. Young. Gladys Kopf? 



1382 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Kopf ? 

Mr. Young. The name means nothing to me. 

Mr. SouRWiNE, Did you know Ira Henry Freeman ? 

Mr. Young. The name means nothing to me. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know Sam Weissman ? 

Mr. Young. I must invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, Did you know Helen Weissman ? 

Mr. Young. Again I must invoke my privileges. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Do you know Mrs. Doretta Tarmon ? 

Mr. Young. I must invoke my privileges again. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know a man named Branlich ? 

Mr. Young. The name does not mean anything to me at this point. 

Mr. SouRAViNE. Do you know a man named Schappes ? 

Mr. Young. Schappes ? What is the first name ? 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Either Maurice or Morris. 

Mr. Young. Yes, I know^ Morris Schappes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know him as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Young. I must invoke.my privileges on that, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Morris Schappes. 

Mr. Young. Well, I knew him many years ago. We were both 
members of the Teachers' Union. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know a man named Weisman, different from 
the Sam Weissman with two esses, that you have been asked about 
already ? 

Mr. Young. What is the first name ? 

I'd like to give a considered answer to that. 

I don't know. I don't know what the first name is. Just the last 
name doesn't mean anything to me. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know a Merriweather Stewart ? 

Mr. Young. No, I don't think I do. 

I know him by name. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Youncj, did I give you an opportunity to deny 
or amend or comment upon, if you desired to do so, the testimony of 
witnesses here today before you ? 

Mr. Young. You did previously ask me that and I said that I had no 
comment to make. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Chairman, I have no other questions of this 
witness. 

The Chairman. Stand aside. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Lyle Dowling. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Dowling. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LYLE DOWLING 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Would you give the reporter your full name please ? 

Mr. Dowling. Lyle Dowling. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And your address, Mr. Dowling? 

Mr. Dowling. 55 East 93d, New York City. 

Mr. Sourwine. And your business or profession, sir ? 

Mr. Dowling. I work in the music department of a publisher. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1383 

Mr. SouRwixE. Mr. DoAvling, ^yere you ever a member of the staff 
of the Brooklyn Eagle? 

Mr. DowLixG. Yes, I was. 

i\Ir. SouRwixE. AVere you a member of a Communist unit at the 
Brooklyn Eagle? 

Mr. DowLixG. I decline to answer, constitutional grounds. 

Mr. SouRWiXE. Were you ever an editor of the United Electrical, 
Radio and Machine "Workers" official organ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Xo. 

]\Ir. SouRWiXE. You were not ? 

Mr. DowLixG. Xo. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Were you ever connected with that ? 

IVIr. DowLixG. Yes, I worked for them. 

Mr. SouRwiXE, In what capacity? 

Mr. DowLixG. Well, my title was executive assistant. 

Mr. SouRWixE. And when was that ( 

Mr. DowLixG. About the middle of 1939 to about the middle of 1943. 

Mr. SouRWiXE. Xow, where did you work after that ? 

Mr. DowLixG. I was drafted and I did all sorts of odd jobs between 
leaving the United Electrical Workers and going into the Army. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. After you got out of the Army ( 

Mr. DowLixG. For 2 summers I taught music theory at Juilliard 
School of Music and I got my present job. 

Mr. SouRWiXE. And you are now employed by the Oxford Press? 

Mr. DowLixG. That is right. 

Mr. SouRwixE. At 114 Fifth Avenue, Xew York City? 

Mr. DowLixG. That is right. 

]\Ir. SouRWixE. Were you, sir, ever a member of tlie Communist 
Party, U. S. A.( 

Mr. DowLixG. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

The Chairmax. Are vou now a member of the Communist Party, 
U. S. A. ? 

Mr. DowLiXG. Xo; I am not. 

Mr. Sotjrwixe. You were, as a matter of fact, expelled from the 
party ; were you not ? 

Mr. DoAVLixG. I think not. I don't know. I have no way of know- 

Mr. Sourwixe. How can you say you have no way of knowing 
whether you were expelled from the Communist Partv ? 

Mr. DowLTXG. Well, I just didn't follow^ the field after I left the 
union, and so I don't know whether — I don't know what they did. I 
w^as denounced in the Daily Worker, if that is of any use to you, but 
it is not equivalent to an expulsion. 

Mr. Sourwixe. What did the Daily Worker say about you when 
they denounced you? 

Mr. DowLixG. Well, they used some terms such as "Xeo-Trotskyite" 
or something of that kind. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Did they say anything to you about being expelled 
from the party? 

Mr. DowLixG. As far as I know, they did not: no. 

Mr. Sourwixe. You realize that this discussion imi)lies that you 
\vere a member of the party, necessarily? 

Mr. DowLixG. X^ot necessarily, no. 



1384 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE. If you did not know that you had been a member 
of the party, you would certainly know that you could not have been 
expelled; would you not? 

Mr. DowLiNG. That is what I got through telling you. I did not 
know, and I do not know that I have ever been expelled from the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You are saying that you never were expelled; is 
that right? 

Mr. DowLiNG. I was saying that as far as I know, I was never 
expelled. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Well, were you ever a member of the Communist 
Party in the first place? 

Mr. Downing. You asked that, and I answered it. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Yes. How did you answer it? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Well, I responded to the question. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Well, try it again. Were you ever a member of the 
Communist Party in the first place ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. Did you ever use an alias, a name other than your 
own, Mr. Dowling? 

Mr. DowLiNG. I think not; no. 

Mr. SouR^\^NE. Did you ever have a party name in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Mr. SouEwiNE. Were you an instructor at the School for Democracy 
in January 1942 ? 

Mr. Dowling. Probably somewhere around in there. I don't re- 
member about the date. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Was that a Communist school ? 

Mr. Dowling. I really don't know. I think it was sort of a united 
front school ; some Communist, some not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever write for the New Masses ? 

Mr. Dowling. Yes ; several times. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know Alvah Bessie ? 

Mr. Dowling. I used to, years ago. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Identify Mr. Bessie. 

Mr. Dowling. How do you mean ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who was Mr. Bessie ? 

Mr. Dowling. Oh, he worked for the Eagle. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Mr. Bessie as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Dowling. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Nat Einhorn ? 

Mr. Dowling. Yes ; used to. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. He was 

Mr. Dowling. Used to, at least. These are not very close acquaint- 
ances of mine at the moment, but I used to know them. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did Mr. Einhorn work on the Eagle ? 

Mr. Dowling. He did. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Was he active in the Guild unit there ? 

Mr. Dowling. Rather. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was he active in the Communist Party at the Eagle ? 

Mr. Dowling. I don't know. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know whether he was a Communist ? 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1385 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Victor "Weingarten ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know whether he was a Communist ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Mr. SouRw^ixE. Did you know Violet Brown ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did you know whether she was a Communist ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Charles Lewis ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know whether he was a Communist ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Hyman Charniak ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Yes. 

Mr. SotjRw^ine. Did you know whether he was a Communist ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Did you know Herbert Cohn ? 

Mr. Doweling. Yes. 

Mr. SouRw^iNE. Did you know whether he was a Communist? 

Mr. Dowlixg. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Melvin Barnett ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know whether he was a Communist ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Mr. SouRW^NE. Do you know where Mr. Barnett is now ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know David Gordon ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Yes. 

Mr. SoFRw^NE. Did you know whether he was a Communist ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did j^ou know Charles Grutzner ? 

Mr. Doweling. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know whether he was a Communist ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Gladys Bentley ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know whether she was a Communist? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Would you like to give the whole list so that we can 

Mr. SouRWtNE. "Well, we have gone this far, now. Did you know 
Leonard Adler ? 
Mr. DowLixG. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know whether he was a Communist ? 
Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever attend Communist meetings with any 
of these persons ? 

Mr. DowLixG. I decline to answer. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Now, you realize, sir, that you have stated that you 
did not know whether any of these persons were Communists. If you 
had attended Communist meetings with them, you would necessarily 
know, would you not ? 



1386 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. DowLixo. Wei], I ansAvered the question. You asked me tlie 
question and 1 will answer it my way. If you want to *^ive both the 
question and the answer, you do not need me. 

]Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you not realize, Mr. Dowling, that if you had 
attended a Communist meeting- with a i)erson you would necessarily 
know" them as a Communist ? That is a question. You answer it your 
way. 

Mr. DowLiNG. It is more or less of a monolofjue at the moment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Don't you realize that if you attended a Connnunist 
Party meeting with a i:>erson you would know that person to be a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Dow^LixG. On the contrary. The Communist Party of the 
United States is full of police agents and also riffraff, and so forth. 
How would I know ? 

]\Ir. SouRWiNE. How do you know tliat to be so ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. By looking at it. 

Mr. SouRWixE. By looking at what? At the Communist Party? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Policies ; what have you. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. From the outside or from the inside ? 

Mr. Doweling. From the outside. 

Mr. SouRW^iNE. Are you stating here of your own personal knowl- 
edge that the Communist Party of the United States is full of police 
agents and riffraff' ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. I am stating my opinion, that it is full of spies of the 
Second Duma.* 

Mr. SouRw^iNE. Is it your opinion, sir, that a person could attend 
Communist Party meetings antl not be a Communist ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Of course. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you feel tliat you could have attended Com- 
munist Party meetings and not been a Communist at the time ? 

Mr. DowLixG. It would have been a possibility, although it didn't 
take place. 

Mr. SouRAViNE. You say it did not take place ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

]Mr. SoFRwixE. Then you never attended any Communist Party 
meetings ; is that right ? 

Mr. DowLixG. I decline to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. SouRW^iNE. Mr. Chairman, the witness cannot have it both ways. 
He has just stated tliat it did not take place, meaning that he did not 
attend Communist Party meetings. 

Do you want to change that answer, or do you want to let it stand? 

Mr. DowLix'G. I would like to see the question and the answer to 
make sure what I am saying, "yes*" or •"no." 

Mr. SorRwiXE. The question is, Mr. Dowling, Did you ever attend 
Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. DowLixG. And 1 said I decline to answer. 

Mr. SorRwiXE. Mr. Chaii-man, T ask that the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer that question. 

The Chairmax. Yes. You are ordered and directed under penalty 
of contempt of the United States Senate to answer that question. 

Mr. DowETXG. "Well, I must decline, somewhat reluctantly, to answer 
on the constitutional grounds. 



* The Russian Parliament. 



STRATEGY AXD TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1387 

Ml'. SouKwixE. jMr. Dowliiig, did you know Murray Young? 

Mr. DowLixG. I think not, 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Amos Landman ? 

Mr. DowLixG. Yes, I used to. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did you know whether he was a Communist? 

]Mr. DowLixG. No. 

Mr. SouRWiXE. Did you eA'er attend a Communist meetino- with 
him ? 

Mr. DowLixG. I must decline to answer. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did you know Monroe Stern ? 

]\Ir. DowLixG. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did you ever attend a Communist uieetino; with 
him ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. I must decline to answer. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Milton Kaufman ? 

ISIr. DowLixG. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever attend a Communist meeting with 
him ? 

Mr. DowLix'G. I will decline to answer. 

Mr. SouRwix^E. Did you knoAv John Francis R^'an ? 

Mr. DowLiXG. Jack Ryan ? Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever attend a Communist meeting with 
him? 

Mr. DowLixG. I must decline to answer. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did 3- ou know Gladys Kopf ? 

Mr. DowLix^G. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwix'E. Did you ever attend a Communist meeting with her? 

Mr. DowLix'G. I decline to answer. 

]Mr. SouRwixE. Did you Ivuow Ira Henry Freeman ? 

Mr. DowLiXG. I do know him, yes. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. Do you know whether Mr. Freeman is a Commu- 
nist? 

Mr. DowLixG. No, I don't. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you ever attend a Communist meeting with 
him? 

Mr. DowLix^G. I decline to answer. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Do you know Sam Weissman ? 

Mr. DowLiXG. I used to. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Did you ever attend a Communist meeting with 
him? 

Mr. DowLix'G. I decline to answer. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Who is the Sam Weissman that you are referring 
to when you sa}^ that ? 

Mr. DowLixG. At the time when I knew him he worked for the New 
York Times, I think. 

Mr. SouRwixE. And who is the Ira Henry Freeman that we just 
spoke about ? 

Mr. DowLix'G. At present I would think he worked with the New 
York Times. I am not certain, but I rather think he was the same 
fellow. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did you know Helen Weissman ? 

Mr. DoA\TLixG. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever attend Communist meetings with her ? 

Mr. DowLix'G. I decline to answer. 



1388 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Mrs. Doretta Tarmon ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. I don't think so. I might have, but I don't know, 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you ever know her ? 

(No response.) 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Are you the same Lyle Dowling who wrote a treatise 
on hot jazz that was published by Witmark & Sons? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. I translated that. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Pardon? 

Mr. DowLiNG. I translated it, but that is not mine. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You are the same Lyle Dowling who is listed as 
author of the Schillinger System of Musical Composition? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. You have very bad information. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I am asking you 

Mr. Dowling. In the first place, I was not the writer of Le Jazz Hot. 
1 translated it into English. In the first place, the Schillinger system,. 
I didn't write it. It was written by Schillinger. I edited it. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Did you ever contribute articles to the Eagle Eye? 

Mr. Dowling. I decline to answer that. 

Mr, Sour WINE. Do you know what the Eagle Eye is ? 

Mr. Dowling. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. What is it ? 

Mr. Dowling. It was a publication ostensibly by a Communist Party 
unit on the Eagle ; put out peripatetically, not for long. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was it in fact put out by the Communist unit on 
the Eagle ? 

Mr. Dowling. I would have no way of knowing. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you join the Communist Party in the latter part 
of 1937? 

Mr. Dowling. I must decline to answer. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And did you leave it in 1939 ? 

Mr. Dowling. I must decline to answer. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time prior to 1937? 

Mr. Dowling. I must decline to answer. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You are not a Communist now, are you ? 

Mr. Dowling. No, I am not. 

Mr. SoURWiNE. Have you been a Communist at any time since 1939 ? 

Mr. Dowling. I must decline to answer. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Have you been a Communist at any time since 1945 ? 

Mr. Dowling. No. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Have you been a Communist at any time between 
1940 and 1945? 

Mr. Dowling. I must decline to answer. It is a very technical ques- 
tion. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What is technical about it ? 

Mr. Dowling. Well, there is just an organization now called the 
Communist Party of the United States. It was preceded by an organ- 
ization called the Communist Political Association, and it in turn was 
preceded by an organization called the Communist Party of the United 
States. From a technical viewpoint there are three successive stages, 
so to speak. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You mean three successive stages of being a Com- 
munist ? 

Mr. Dowling. No ; three definitely separate organizations^ 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1389 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, were you ever a member of the Communist 
Political Association ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And when did it come into existence ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. I have forgotten. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You just testified that there were the three 

Mr. DowLixG. I know roughly when it was. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Yes. Well, give us approximately. 

Mr. DowLiNG. Your record is certainly better than mine on that. 

The Chairman. Answer his question. 

Mr. DowLiNG. I really do not know. 

Mr. Sourwine. We want to know approximately. 

Mr. DowLiNG. It was in the early forties, but your committee rec- 
ords surely know more about that than I do. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And before that, you say it was the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Of the United States. 

Mr. Sourwine. Yes. Were you ever a member of the Commmiist 
Party of the United States ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. I must decline to answer. 

Mr, SomwiNE. Were you ever a member of the Communist Party, 
United States of America ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Which is which ? 

Mr. Sourwine. I do not know. You used the words, and I was 
wondering. 

Mr. DowLiNG. Well, it is fairly well known that there were three 
separate organizations. 

Mr. Sourwine. Yes. Eef erring to the third, how did you name it ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. They both used identical names, I think, but they 
were hardly the same organization. 

Mr. Sourwine. You say they were not the same organization ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. Apparently not. 

Mr. Sourwine, Do you know whether there was any continuity of 
control or direction in the three organizations you have referred to ? 

]Mr. DowLiNG. I have the impression that there was a good deal of 
just the reverse — discontinuity. 

Mr. Sourwine. Weren't they all controlled from Moscow ? 

Mr. DowLiNG. I haven't the slightest idea. I very much doubt it. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are you the same Lyle Dowling who was a guest 
speaker at the fourth convention of the American Student Union? 

Mr, Dowling, I don't think so. 

Mr, SouRw^NE. 1938. 

ISIr. Dowling. I made any number of speeches, but I don't remem- 
ber appearing before that organization. It is possible, 

Mr, SouR^\^NE. Are you the same Lyle Dowling that conducted 
craft stations at the fourth American Writers Congress, 1941 ? 

Mr, Dowling. That did what ? 

Mr, Sourwine, Craft stations. 

Mr. Dowling, IMiat are they ? Craft stations ? 

Mr, Sourwine, Yes, Well, you taught arts or crafts. 

Mr. Dowling. No, I didn't know there was such a thing. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you attend the fourth American Writers Con- 
gress in 1941 ? 

Mr. Dowling, No. 



1390 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Were you a sponsor of Veterans Against Discrim- 
ination? 

Mr. DowLiNG. "When Avoiild that have been? Eight after the war? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. At any time, 

Mr. DowLiNG. Well, I am trying to place the organization and 
what being a sponsor means. Shortly after the Second World War 
there Avas a committee of some sort that sounds as if it might have 
been that, and I went to a couple of the meetings. I don't think I was 
exactly a sponsor. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Dowling, have you heard the testimony of the 
witnesses who testified here today? 

Mr. Dowling. Not all of it, no. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you hear the testimony of Mr. Winston Burdett ? 

Mr. Dowling. Almost all of it. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Is that any portion of Mr. Burdett's testimony that 
you would like to contradict or comment upon ? 

Mr. Dowling. Well, I wouldn't want to make a definite answer un- 
til I have seen the transcript. I would like to get exactly what was 
said. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. During your Army service, did you have a job on 
Stars and Stripes ? 

Mr. Dowling. As a soldier, I worked on Stars and Stripes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Yes. What was your assignment on Stars and 
Stripes ? 

Mr. Dowling. Well, I began as a sort of a deskman on the Naples 
edition. I became the news editor of the Naples edition, and I went 
to the Rome edition as sort of a general writer. Then I came back to 
this country for the last few months as the correspondent in the United 
States of the Mediterranean edition. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Chairman, I have no more questions to ask of 
this witness. 

The Chairman. We Avill recess now until 10 o'clock tomorrow morn- 
ing. 

(Whereupon, at 3:30 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned, to recon- 
vene at 10 a. m. Thursday, June 30, 1955.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A Page 

Adler, Larry 1327, 1359, 1372 

Adler, Leonard 1372, 1377, 1385 

Alexandra Boulevard. Belgrade 1340 

Allied Powers (Britain and Russia) 1352 

American Embas.sy 1355, 1357 

American Newspaper Guild 1369 

American Student Union 1389 

American Writers Congress, 1941 1389 

Amnieh 1356 

Anadolu News Agency 1350 

Anderson, George 1374 

Ankara, Turkey 1348, 1350-1355 

Anti-Fascist Club of Teheran 1357 

Anti-Fascist Committee of Italians in Teheran 1357 

Army 1383, 1390 

Assad, Amir 1356, 1357 

B 
Balkans 1337, 1338 

Barnett. Melvin 1326, 1359, 1372, 1377, 1380, 1385 

Belgrade. Yugoslavia 1339-1341, 1346, 1347 

Bentlev, Elizabeth 1330, 1332 

Bentlev, Gladys 1327, 1359, 1372, 1377, 1385 

Bergen, Norway 1332, 1334 

Bessie, Alvah 1324-1326, 1358, 1359, 1370-1374, 1376, 1380, 1384 

Boyeston, Dorothy G 1364 

Branlich 1382 

British 1350, 1351, 1354 

Brooklvn College 1379, 1380 

Brooklyn Eagle 1323-1331, 1336, 1337, 

1343, 1347, 1359, 1371-1374, 1378, 1379, 1383, 1384, 1388 

Brooklyn, N. Y 1324, 1362, 1363, 1374, 1379 

Brooklyn Heights, New York City 1345 

Brown, Violet (Mrs. Weingarten) 1325, 

1326, 1328, 1359, 1372, 1376, 1378, 1379, 1380, 1385 

Brownie 1365 

Bucharest 1338, 1339, 1347, 1348, 1355 

Burdett. Winston 1323-1365, 1370, 1376, 1379, 1390 

1934-40— Employed by Brooklyn Eagle 1324 

1937, August— Joined Communist Party 1324, 1325, 1327 

1940, February— Went abroad 1328 

1940, February 7 — Sailed steamship Bergensfiord to Finland 1334 

1940, March 13— W^ent to Helsinki 1335 

1940, second half — Miller dismissed him 1336 

1940. Jime— Met Lea Schiavi 1355 

1940, July— Married Lea Schiavi 1355 

1941, March— Belgrade to Ankara 1348 

1941, November— Left Ankara for Teheran 1352 

1942. Februar.v— Went back to Ankara 1352 

1942, March— Broke with Communist Party 1353, 1355 

1942, spring— Employed by CBS 1324 



II INDEX 

Q Page 

Chambers, Whittaker 1344 

Charniak, Hy (Hyman) 1326, 1342, 1359, 1371, 1374, 1380, 18S5 

Childs Restaurant 1338 

Citizens Committee for Harry Bridges 13(58 

Clodius 1351 

Cohn, Herbert 1326, 1359, 1372, 1376, 1380, 1385 

Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) 1324, 1337, 1339, 1352 

Columbia University 1333 

Comiuform 1368 

Communist Party 1324, 1335, 

1328-1331, 1334, 1336, 1341, 1343-1347, 1353, 1358-1379, 1382-1389 

Communist Party, Brooklyn Eagle unit 1324r-1327, 

1332, 1341, 1342, 1358, 1359, 1362, 1371, 1383, 1384 

Communist Party of the United States 1388, 1389 

Communist Party, USA 1324, 1345, 1363, 1371, 1374, 1381, 1383, 1386, 1388, 1389 

■Communist Political Association 1388, 1389 

Counterintelligence Corps, CIC 1357, 1358 

D 

Daily Worker 1328, 1383 

December 7, 1941 1353 

Despatcher 1370 

Dowling, Lyle 1327, 1360, 1372, 1373, 1377, 1381, 1382-1390 

E 
Eagle Eye 1388 

Eastland, Hon. James O 1364 

Einhorn, Nat__ 1325-1329, 1333, 1334, 1336, 1359, 1365-1368, 1371, 1376, 1380, 1384 
Europe 1324 

F 

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 1323,1329,1333 

Fifth amendment 1371, 1372-1389 

Finland 1331,1334-1337 

Finnish-Russian War 1334 

Florida West Coast Press 1364 

France 1339 

Freeman. Ira Henry 1362, 1373, 1377, 1382, 1387 

French Communists 1346 

Friedman, Milton H 1374 

G 

Gavrilovitch, Dr. Stoyan 1364 

German invasion of Yugoslavia 1339 

Germans 1350, 1351, 1357, 1364 

Gordon, David 1326, 1359, 1372, 1377, 1379, 1380, 1385 

Greece 1361 

Greek Civil War 1361 

Greenbaum, Johnnie 1365 

Greenberg, Johnnie (See Greenbaum, Johnnie.) 

Greenwich Village, New York City 1328, 1332 

Grutzner, Charles 1326, 1327, 1359, 1372, 1377, 1380, 1385 

H 
Hall, Morgan. (See Hull, Morgan.) 

Helsinki 1335 

Hitler 1342 

Hitler-Stalin Pact 1342 

Hollywood Ten 1325 

Hoover. J. Edgar 1323 

Hotel Ankara Palace 1348, 1349 

Hotel Metropole, Moscow 1338 

Hotel Patricia, Stockholm 1333, 1334 

House TTn-American Activities Committee 1374 

Hull, Morgan 1369 



INDEX ni 

I Page 

India 1355, 1357 

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union 1370 

Intourist 1338 

Iran 1352, 1355, 1356 

Iraq 1356, 1357 

Iron Curtain 1323 

Istanbul . 1350 

Italian Fascist government 1355 

Italian Fascists 1357 

Italians 1357, 1364 

Italy 1339 

J 

Johnson, Helen 1332 

Juilliard School of Music 1383 

K 

Kaufman, Milton 1361, 1362, 1366-1369, 1373-1378, 1381, 13S7 

Kopf. Gladys 1362, 1373, 1377, 1381, 1382, 1387 

Kurds 1356 

L 

Landman, Amos 1360, 1366, 1371, 1373, 1377, 1381, 1387 

Le Jazz Hot 1388 

Lewis, Charles 1326, 1359, 1372, 1376, 1380, 1385 

London 1364 

Long Island 1368 

M 

Madame (Soviet official, Ankara Russian Embassy) 1348, 

1349, 1351, 1352, 1354, 1358 

Manhattan 1361, 1362 

Marxism 1345 

Midlle East 1324 

Miller. Mr 1333-1336, 1338, 1346 

Moscow 1338, 1346, 1389 

N 

National Press Club 1361 

"Neo-Trotskyite" 1383 

New Masses 1384 

Newspaper Guild 1325-1327, 1363, 1369, 1375, 1376, 1378 

1937, September— Went on strike 1327 

New York City 1329, 

1332-1335, 1337, 1346, 1361, 1362, 1364, 1368, 1371, 1372, 1382, 1383 

New York Daily Mirror 1360 

New York Daily News 1360 

New York Newspaper Guild 1360-1362, 1364-1365, 1373-1377 

New York Times 1326, 1362, 1387 

North, Joe 1328. 1329, 1331. 1336 

North Africa 1324 

Norway 1337 

Norwegian Line 1332 

O 
Oxford Press 1383 

P 

Pleasantville, N. Y 1378 

Pollitt. Daniel 1378 



IV INDEX 

R Page 

Raisin, Jacoi) (alias Jacob Golos) 1329-1333,1336 

Kein. David 1370, 1379, 1380 

Khodes, Peter Christopher 13G3 

Rhodes, I'eter 13G3 

Rolliiidortindorfer, JuIjus 1381 

Rumania 1338 

Russia 1338,1350 

Russian Embassy, Anlvara 1348-1352 

Russian-German Pact 1346 

Russians 1357, 1358, 1364 

Ryan, Jaclv {see also John Francis Ryan) 1361, 

1362, 1360-1368. 1373. 1377, 1387 
Ryan, John Francis 1361, 1368, 1373, 1377, 1381. 1387 

S 

St. Petersburg 1364 

San Francisco 1368, 1370, 1374 

Sarasota, Fla 1363, 1364 

Scandinavia 1337 

Schappes, Maurice 1382 

Schappes, Morris 1382 

Schiavi, Lea (Mrs. Winston Burdett) 1355-1358 

Sehillinger 1388 

Schillinger System of Musical Composition 1388 

School for Democracy 1384 

Second Duma 1386 

Second World War 1390 

Serpski Kralj (Hotel) 1339 

Soviet-Nazi Pact, August 1939 1342 

Soviet Union 1338, 1345, 1353 

Stars and Stripes 1390 

Steamship Bergensfiord 1332, 1334 

State Department 1331 

Stern, Monroe 1360, 1361, 1363-1371, 1376, 1381, 1387 

Stewart, Merriweather 1382 

Stockholm 1332-1335, 1337, 1338. 1363 

Subasic, Dr. Ivan 1364 

T 

Tabriz 1355-1357 

Tampa, Fla 1364 

Tarmon, Mrs. Doretta 1362, 1363, 1373, 1377, 1382, 1388 

Tass 1349 

Teacher.s' Union 1382 

Teheran 1352, 1355, 1357, 1358 

Thavi', Ray. (See Torr, Ray.) 

Thirteenth Street corner. New York City 1329 

Thompson, Betsy 1332 

Thor, Ray. (See Torr, Ray.) 

Thorez, Maurice 1346 

Tito 1358. 1364, 1368 

Torr, Rav 1365. 1369 

Transradio Press 1337, 1339 

Turkey 13-50, 1351, 1.357 

Turkish Government 1348, 13.50 

U 

United Electrical. Radio, and Machine Workers 1383 

United Nations Conference, San Francisco, 1945 1364 

United Press 1363 

United States 1335, 1336. 1338, 1353, 1355, 13.58, 1377, 1378 

United States Senate 1376, 1386 



INDEX V 

V Page 

A''eterans Against Discrimination 1390 

W 

Washington. D. C 1361. 1364. 1370 

Weingarten, Victor 1325, 1326, 1359, 1361, 1376, 1378, 1380, 1385 

Weingarteu. Violet. (Sec Brown, Violet.) 

Wei.ssman, Helen____ 1362, 1363, 1373, 1377, 1382. 1387 

Weissman. Sam 1362. 1373, 1377. 13N2, 13S7 

Witmark & Sons 1388 

Witness, The 1344 

Y 

Young, Murray 1327, 1328, 1360. 1373, 1377, 1379-1382, 1387 

Yugoslav Embassy 1361. 1364. 1365 

Yugoslav Government 1340, 13r)S. 1370 

Yugoslav Legation 13(>4 

Yugoslavia 1358 

o 



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