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Full text of "Strategy and tactics of world communism"

DEPOSITORY /-^^ 5 ; y-A ^^^ 

STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

RECRUITING FOR ESPIONAGE 



..HEARINQ 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOUKTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 



S. Res. 58 



JUNE 30, 1955 



PART 15 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
CrOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
59886 WASHINGTON : 1955 



Boston Public Library 
Cuperintendent of Documents 

JAN 1 8 1956 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

HARLEY M. KILGORE, West Virginia, Chairman 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JR., Missouri ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOHN L. McCLBLLAN, Arkansas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN. Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

J. G. SOURWiNE, Chief Counsel 

Richard Arexs and Alva C. Carpenter, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin N. Mandel, Director of Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



Pag© 

Appel, Charles Andrew, Jr 1472 

Bentley, Gladys 143S 

Einhorn, Nathan 145i> 

Grutzner, Charles 1402, 1453 

Landman, Amos 1467, 1474 

Ryan, John Francis 1454 

Weingarten, Victor 1391 

ni 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Recruiting for Espionage 



THUESDAY, JUNE 30, 1955 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 
OF the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 10 a. m., in room 318, 
Senate Office Building, Senator James O. Eastland (chairman of the 
subcommittee) presiding. 

Present : Senators Eastland, Johnston, and Hennings. 

Also present: J. G. Sourwine, chief counsel; Alva C. Carpenter, 
associate counsel; Benjamin Mandel, director of research; Robert 
McManus, investigations analyst. 

Senator Johnston (presiding) . We will come to order. The hear- 
ing will resume. 

I think the first witness today is David Gordon. 

Mr. Sourwine. Is David Gordon here ? 

Senator Johnston. Is David Gordon present ? 

Mr. Sourwine. David Gordon. 

Senator Johnston. David Gordon. 

(Xo response.) 

Mr. Sourwine. Victor Weingarten. 

Senator Johnston. Hold up your right hand. 

Do you swear the testimony you give in this hearing will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I do. 

Senator Johnston. So help you, God ? 

Mr. Weingarten. So help me, God. 

TESTIMONY OF VICTOR WEINGARTEN, PLEASANTVILIE, N. Y., 
ACCOMPANIED BY DANIEL POLLITT, HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Weingarten, will you give the reporter your 
full name, please ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Victor Weingarten. 

Mr. Sourwine. And your address, sir ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Munsen Building, Pleasantville, N, Y. 

Mr. Sourwine. And what is your business or profession, Mr. Wein- 
garten ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I am a publicity man. 

1391 



1392 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Are you self-employed ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes ; I am. 

Senator Johnston. Before we proceed any further, I notice that 
you have a counsel with you. Let him identify himself for the record. 

Mr. PoLLiTT. My name is Daniel Pollitt. I am with the firm of 
Rauh & Levy, with offices at 1631 K Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Senator Johnston. Proceed. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you, Mr. Weingarten, employed by the 
Brooklyn Eagle in 1935 ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. And how long did you work for the Eagle? 

Mr. Weingarten. Until 1942. 

Mr. Sourwine. And when you left there, where did you go? 

Mr. Weingarten. I went with the National Maritime Union. 

Mr. Sourwine. And you were with them for about a year? 

Mr. Weingarten. About 8 or 9 months. 

Mr. Sourwine. And then you went into the United States Navy? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You came out of the Navy about Christmas, 1945 ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. "Wliere were you then employed ? 

Mr. Weingarten. In Fact. 

Mr. Sourwine. Is "In Fact" the name of an organization or pub- 
lication ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes. It was a weekly newsletter, now defunct. 

Mr. Sourwine. Wlio owned or managed the newsletter ? 

Mr. Weingarten. It was owned and published by George Seldes. 

Mr. Sourwine. S-e-1-d-e-s? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. And you were employed by him ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Sourwine. In what capacity, sir ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Associate Editor. 

Mr. Sourwine. And that newsletter was on a part-time basis ini- 
tially, was it ? 

Mr. Weingarten. No. It was full time initially, and part time from 
1948 on. 

Mr. Sourwine. And then, when did you leave them entirely to 
enter your own business ? 

Mr. Weingarten. 1950. 

Mr. Sourwine. And you have been self-employed since that time? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. IVIr. Weingarten, have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Weingarten. May I consult with counsel ? 

Senator Johnston. You may. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weingarten. I am not a Communist and I was not a Com- 
munist 5, 10, or close to 15 years ago, sir. Other than that, I think, 
sir, I would invoke my privilege for all other questions concerning 
communism. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1393 

Mr. SouRwiXE. In your executive session, Mr. Weingarten, you 
stated : 

I would like to say that I elect to make full and frank disclosure of any of 
my activities up to the time I was eligible to vote in my first presidential elec- 
tion, which would be in 1940. 

Is that right ? 

Mr. Weixgarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. "Will you tell us, then, were you a member of the 
Communist Party prior to 1940 ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I should like to invoke my privilege to that ques- 
tion, sir. 

Mr. Sotjrwine. But you stated, did you not, that you wanted to make 
full and frank disclosure of any of your activities up to the time you 
were eligible to vote ? 

Mr. Weingarten. May I consult with counsel, sir ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Surely. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weingarten. It was my impression, sir, that I said I would be 
willing to discuss my o^vn activities since 1940. I think the record — 
and you can bear me out — showed a correction at that point, because 
you caught me on that. I thought I said, "since," when I meant 
"prior to." 

Isn't that correct, sir ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Are you saying now that you are willing to make a 
full and frank disclosure of all your activities after you became an 
eligible voter ? 

Mr. Weingarit:n. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is, from 1940 on ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Since 1940. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Have you since 1940 been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Not since I cast my first vote for President, sir, 
in the 1940 Presidential election. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you a member of the Communist Party be- 
tween January 1, 1940, and the Presidential election in 1940 ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I should like to invoke my privilege for that 
question, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. I think that pins it down fairly well. 

Were you a member of a Communist unit of the Brooklyn Eagle 
employees' organization ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I should like to invoke my privilege to that, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Weingarten, are you invoking your privilege 
against self-incrimination on the grounds that you fear that if you 
answered that question truthfully, it might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Weingarten. May I consult with counsel, sir ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weingarten. In large part, sir, yes. 

Mr. Sourw^ine. Do you, Mr. Weingarten, know Alvah Bessie ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I knew who he was, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Alvah Bessie as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I should like to invoke my privilege to that, sir. 



1394 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know Nat Einhorn ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I know who he is, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know him now ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know what he does now ? 

Mr. Weingarten. My impression is, he works for the Polish Infor- 
mation Service. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Nat Einhorn as a Communist? 

Mr. Weingarten. I should like to invoke my privilege to that 
answer — to that, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. I am talking now about the period since 1940, sir, and 
not before. Have you since 1940 known Nat Einhorn as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I am advised by counsel, sir, that I can still say — 
I am willing to testify all about myself, but not about others since 
1940. 

Mr. Sourwine. You are declining to answer questions about other 
persons, on what grounds ? 

Mr. Weingarten. On the grounds of the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. On the grounds of your privilege against self- 
incrimination ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Weingarten, you are admonished that you have 
testified under oath that you have not since 1940 been a member of the 
Communist Party. When you were then asked if you knew another 
person as a Communist since 1940, and you contend that it would in- 
criminate you to answer that question truthfully, you must see that the 
implication is that you answered the previous question untruthfully. 

Can you explain the circumstance, so that the record will be clear in 
justice to yourself, Mr. Weingarten ? 
. Mr. Weingarten. I would like to try, sir, if I may. 

Mr. Sourwine. Please do. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weingarten. Well, sir, I must respectfully decline to answer 
the question on the grounds of the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You just stated you would like to try to explain. 
Have you changed your mind about that ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Sir, all I can say is that I am not a constitutional 
lawyer. I don't know all of the ramifications of the fifth amendment. 
All I can do, sir, is be guided by advice of counsel. 

Mr. Sourwine. Your counsel, sir, cannot make for you the decision 
as to whether a particular question, in your opinion, will tend to in- 
criminate you. You have to make that decision yourself. 

Now, I am not asking you questions of constitutional law. I am 
trying to find out for this record why you are refusing to answer ques- 
tions about other individuals. You made it quite clear in the executive 
session that you had elected to talk about yourself, but not to talk about 
others ; is that not true ? 

Mr. Weingarten. My recollection of my testimony in the executive 
session, sir, is that I was willing to talk about myself in the period since 
1940. 

Mr. Sourwine. That is right. 

Mr. Weingarten. And that I said I would not testify against others. 

Mr. Sourwine. That is right. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1395 

Now then, sir, that is not a reason for claiming the fifth amendment. 
That is not a reason for asserting your privilege under the fifth 
amendment, your desire not to testify about others. You have no 
right not to testify about others. You have no right to protect others. 
The only basis on which you can claim that you have a privilege against 
testifying is the claim that to truthfully answer the question might 
tend to incriminate you — not others, but you. 

Now, I will rephrase this question. Have you, since 1940, and dur- 
ing the period when you yourself were not a Communist, had reason 
to know that Nat Einhorn is or was a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Sir, I must on advice of counsel state that I 
would like to invoke the fifth amendment on any questions concerning 
communism. 

(Senator Eastland entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You have already waived your privilege in that 
respect 

The Chairman (presiding) . Counsel, wait just a minute, now. 

You waived it. You stated that you did not want to involve others. 
You had no right to do that. Now, I am ordering you and directing 
you to answer that question, and I am going to tell you that if you do 
not, if you do not answer that question, I am going to recommend to 
the subcommittee that you be cited for contempt of the Senate. 

Mr. Weingarten. Well, sir, I again must respectfully decline to 
answer that on the grounds of the self-incrimination clause. 

The Chairman. You can make your bed. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. The fifth amendment, Mr. Weingarten, is not a 
blanket under which a witness may refuse to answer for reasons which 
suit him. It is a privilege against self-incrimination, and that is all. 
It does not go any further. 

Have you, sir, "since 1940, attended any Communist meetings ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Not to my knowledge, sir ; not that I recall. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you, sir, since 1940, met with any persons 
known to you to be Communists ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I should like to invoke the fifth amendment, sir, 
on that. 

Mr. Sourwine. I ask that the witness be ordered and directed to 
answer the question. 

The Chairman. You are ordered and directed to answer that ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Weingarten. I must respectfully decline, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Why are you protecting Nat Einhorn, Mr. Wein- 
garten ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I am not protecting any person other than myself, 
sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Weingarten, have you, since 1940, engaged in 
any Communist activity ? 

Mr. Weingarten, No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you, since 1940, participated in any way in a 
conspiracy to overthrow the Government of the United States by force 
and violence? 

Mr. Weingarten. To the best of my knowledge, sir, I have never 
done anything illegal, but on advice of counsel, sir, I would like to 
invoke the fifth on that, too. 



1396 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouR\viNE. Mr. Weingarten, you have claimed the privilege of 
the fifth amendment on the question of whether since 1940 you have 
engaged in a conspiracy to overthrow the Government of the United 
States by force and violence ; is that right ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Well, sir, I think what I said was that 1 would 
like to give you an unequivocal answer to it. So far as I know, I have 
never committed any illegal act of that sort. On advice of counsel, 
however, because I just do not understand the ramifications of this 
entire proceeding, I am advised to invoke the fifth amendment, and 
I do it with reluctance, but nevertheless I must invoke it, sir. 

Mr, SouEwiNE. I will reduce the question to simpler form. Have 
you, since 1940, knowingly aided and abetted communism^ 

Mr. Weingari^en. I am advised to make the same answer, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, your counsel cannot decide for you. Do you 
honestly fear that if you truthfully answer the question as to whether 
since 1940 you have knowingly aided and abetted Communists, that 
would tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Weingarten. I think, sir, I must repeat this, and tell you that 
in part I recall reading in the paper last week of a woman who told 
this committee that she had never committed espionage and had no 
intention of ever doing so in the future, and the story said that she 
had been indicted for contempt. 

Now, I could make a very unequivocal kind of answer to that ques- 
tion, but I frankly do not know what the legal implications are here, 
and so, on advice of counsel, sir, 1 must invoke the amendment. 

Senator Johnston. Do you mean to say that if you would answer 
that question, that probably they would find that it was not true and 
they could take you into court ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I am sorry, sir. I 

Senator Johnston, I say, do you mean to say that if you would an- 
swer that question, then they might dig up the true facts and prove 
that you were not telling the truth? 

Mr. Weingarton. Sir, I believe that I, in the light of my knowledge, 
and in good conscience, could answer that question without • 

The Chairman, Then why don't you answer it ? 

Mr, Weingarten, Because I do not understand the ramifications of 
this, and I am informed, or at least I am advised that if I answer this 
kind of question, I hold myself open to some kind of prosecution. 

Now, if I can be assured by the committee that this is not so, I should 
be happy to answer it. 

The Chairman, You say that if you answer the question, you can 
be prosecuted ; is that what you say ? 

Mr, Weingarten. No, sir. I am saying this, that I recall reading 
that a woman who answered that question has been indicted for con- 
tempt. 

Now, I would love to give you a very unequivocal answer, insofar 
as I can, in all candor and in all honesty testify. 

I would have nothing to fear. But I do not know what this com- 
mittee has in mind, sir, and 



The Chairman. This committee has in mind getting the truth and 
nothing but the truth, 

Mr, Weingarten, Well, sir, I would like to testify only to the truth, 
and all I can 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMIMUNISM 1397 

The Chairman. Then why don't you testify only to the truth ? 

(The "witness conferred with his counsel.) 

The Chairman. AVhat are you afraid of ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Well, sir, I am afraid of a contempt citation, 
because I am advised that the legal maze involved in all of this area 
is a very complicated one, that you answer some questions, and you 
have got to answer all questions. 

May I just consult with counsel for one moment, sir ? 

The CHAiRMAisr. Certainly. 

Now, we know you have broken with the Communist Party, but we 
also think that people who are close to them are influencing you, sir. 

Senator Johnston. We do have some information that you probably 
know some things that would be helpful to this Government of ours 
in this fight against communism at this time. 

Mr. Weingarten. Well, sir, I think that what Senator Eastland 
said is correct. I am not a Communist. I would like to do everything 
I possibly can to help this Government. 

The Chairman. Then why don't you come on? "Wlio has been 
indicted for attempting to help their Government in the fight against 
communism ? 

Mv. Weingarten. I think, sir, Mr. Sourwine knows my position. 
I would have no objection to making full disclosure about myself, but 
as Mr. Sourwine knows, because we have talked about this — and I 
don't know if I am on risky ground here or not 

The Chairman. Risky ground ? "What do you mean ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weingarten. I am on risky ground, sir, because I am told that 
a witness cannot be selective. In other words, you cannot answer 
some questions and then not others. 

And so I would like to be content, sir, with the statement that I am 
not a Communist 

Mr. SoTJR^\^;NE. Mr. Weingarten- 



Mr. Weingarten. Excuse me, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Go ahead. 

Mr. Weingarten. That I am a loyal and patriotic citizen. To the 
best of my knowledge, I have never done anything detrimental to the 
welfare of this country; to the best of my knowledge, I never have. 
I am proud of this country and I am proud of my role as a citizen in 
this country. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Weingarten 

Mr. Weingarten. But on the questions of communism, sir, I would 
feel happier and certainly safer if I invoke my privilege on questions 
relating to communism in the 1930's. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Weingarten, I sympathize with you, believe me. 
But in your zeal to put yourself in a position where you would not 
have to testify against other people, you have done what you did not 
want to do. You have opened up the field. You may now be cross- 
examined on your statement that you have never done anything detri- 
mental to the country. 

With regard to your privilege under the fifth amendment, after you 
have stated that you were not a Communist since 1940 and that you 
had done nothing since 1940 to aid and abet communism, you cannot 



1398 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

thereafter refuse to answer questions in the nature of cross-examina- 
tion on those statements. 

To that extent, you have waived your privilege, and you never had 
the privilege to refuse to testify against somebody else, because you 
did not want to reveal him. 

Now, it is not my place to argue with you about the fifth amend- 
ment. I have gone into this at such length because I have been trying 
to keep you from putting yourself in an invidious position. You have 
your counsel by you and you are entitled to take your counsel's advice. 
I will not here quarrel with counsel. 

But I am going to ask these questions, and you are admonished, sir, 
that your refusal to answer on a contention that you have a privilege 
not to do so may well leave you in contempt of the Senate. 

Do you know Violet Brown ? 

Mr. Weingartex. Yes, I do, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Was Violet Brown the woman you married ? 

Mr. Weingartex. I am still married to her, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is she a Communist ? 

Mr. WEiNGARTEisr. No, my wife is not. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Was she a Communist? 

Mr. Weingarten. I don't think I should be asked to testify about 
my wife, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You have been asked, sir. 

Mr. Weingarten. I refuse to answer whether my wife was ever a 
Communist, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. On what grounds ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Well, I can't say "guilt by association," because 
I am married to her. So I must invoke the fifth amendment to that 
answer, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I ask that the witness be ordered and directed to 
answer the question. 

The Chairman. You are ordered and directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Weingartex. The question of whether my wife was ever a 
Communist ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Weingarten. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir, and I think 
at this point 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weingarten. And at this point, sir, I would also like to invoke 
the first amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did counsel tell you to do that ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I don't think I should tell you what my counsel 
told me, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is your privilege. But it is the privilege of 
you, sir, as a witness, and not the privilege of your counsel. 

Mr. Weingarten. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Charles Lewis ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I knew Charles Lewis, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I should like to invoke my privilege, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. I ask that the witness be ordered to answer. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1399 

The Chairman. You are ordered and directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Weixgarten". I should like to give the same answer, sir. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Let us go back to Xat Einhorn. Did you attend 
Communist meetings with Nat Einhorn ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I should like to invoke my privilege on that, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. I ask that the witness be ordered to answer. 

The Chairmax', You are ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Weixgartex. I must respectfully give the same answer, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Did you know Hyman Charniak ? 

]Mr. Weixgartex. I knew him, sir. 

Mr. SouRw^ixE. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weixgartex. I should like to invoke the privilege, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. I ask that the witness be ordered and directed to 
answer. 

The Chairmax. You are ordered and directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Weixgartex. And I must respectfully make the same reply. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Don't you realize that you are doing Hyman Char- 
niak a great injustice, because you know that he left the Communist 
Party, and you know that he left the Communist Party at the time 
of the Hitler-Stalin Pact in 1939, because he could not stomach that, 
and yet you are giving an answer here which gives the impression 
that you knew him to be a ])art of the Communist Party. 

Don't you know that Hyman Charniak left the Communist Party 
in 1939 ? 

Mr. Weixgartex. I must make the same answer, sir, with regret. 

Mr. SouRw^ixE. Do you know Herbert Cohn ? 

Mr. Weixgartex. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Did you know him to be a Communist? 

JNIr. Weixgartex. I must invoke the privilege on that, sir. 

The Chairmax. I order and direct you to answer that question. 

JNIr. Weixgartex. I am sorry, sir, I must still make the same answer. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Do you know Melvin Barnett ? 

Mr. Weixgartex. I knew him, sir. 

Mr. Sour\vixe. Do you know him to be a Communist ? That is in 
the present tense, now. Do you know him to be a Communist ? 

Mr. Weixgartex. I have no knowledge on this subject at the pres- 
ent time, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Did you know Melvin Barnett as a Communist? 

Mr. Weixgartex. I should like to invoke the privilege, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. I ask that the witness be ordered to answer it. 

The Chairmax. You are ordered and directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Weixgartex. I must respectfully make the same answer, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Did you know David Gordon ? 

Mr. Weixgartex. I did, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Wein"gartex. I must invoke the privilege, sir. 

The Chairmax. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Weixgartex. I must respectfully make the same reply, sir. 

Mr. Sourwixe. Did you know Charles Grutzner ? 

Mr. Weixgartex. I did, sir. 



1400 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COIVEVIUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I must invoke the privilege, sir. 

The Chairman. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Weingarten. I must respectfully make the same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Gladys Bentley ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I did, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know her as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I invoke the privilege, sir. 

The Chairman. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Weingarten. The same reply, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Leonard Adler ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I did, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I must invoke the privilege, sir. 

The Chairman. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Weingarten. I make the same reply, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Lyle Dowling ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I did, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I must invoke the privilege, sir. 

The Chairman. You are ordered and directed to answer that ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Weingarten, And the same answer, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Murray Young ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I know who he was, but I wouldn't say that I 
knew him. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I had better invoke the privilege on that, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Certainly. He was a teacher in a school, a Com- 
munist school to which you were directed by the Communist Party, 
was he not ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Sourwine. Was he not a teacher in a Communist school to which 
you were directed by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Weingarten. In which I was directed by 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Weingarten. I must plead the privilege to that, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Amos Landman ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes ; I did, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I must invoke the privilege, sir. 

The Chairman. I order and direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Weingarten. I must respectfully make the same answer, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Milton Kaufman ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I did, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. AVeingarten. I must invoke the privilege, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know John Francis Ryan ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I make the same answer, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Gladys Kopf ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1401 

Mr. SouRwiNE. She is dead now. You cannot harm her. Did you 
know her as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I must make the same answer, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Ira Henry Freeman ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I know who he is. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten". I must invoke the privilege, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Sam Weissman ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes ; I did, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. The same reply, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Helen Weissman ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know her as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. The same reply, sir. 

JMr. Sourwine. Did you know Mrs. Doretta Tarmon ? 

Mr. Weingarten. No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know her as a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I didn't know her, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You did not know her at all, or know whether she 
was a Communist ? 

Mr. Weingarten. I don't know her. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever have anything to do with the National 
Maritime Union ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Was there any degree of Communist domination in 
that union at the time you were connected with it ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Not to my knowledge, sir; not to my personal 
knowledge. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you have any dealings with Communists in 
that union? 

Mr. Weingarten. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. Sourwine. You knew nothing of any communism in that union ? 

Mr. Weingarten. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Sourwine. Was the publication. In Fact, in any way connected 
with the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Weingarten. No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Was it a Communist front ? 

Mr. Weingarten. No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did it cooperate with Communist objectives? 

Mr. Weingarten. Not during the term of my employment there. 

Mr. Sourwine. I have no further questions of this witness, Mr. 
Chairman. 

The Chairman. Senator Johnston ? 

Senator Johnston. No questions. 

The Chairman. Senator Hennings? 

Senator Hennings. No questions. Thank you, Mr, Chairman. 

Mr. Sourwine. Charles Grutzner. 

The Chairman. Will you hold Up your hand, please, Mr. Grutzner ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give is 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but tlie truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I do. 



1402 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES GRUTZNER, ACCOMPANIED BY JOHN 
McKIM MINTON, HIS COUNSEL 

j\Ir. SouRwiNE. Would you give the reporter your full name, Mr. 
Grutzner ? 

Mr. Grutzner, Charles Grutzner. 

The Chairman. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I am, Senator. 

The Chairman. Please identify your counsel for the record. 

Mr. Grutzner. My counsel is John Minton. 

Tlie Chairman. What is his address ? 

Mr. Grutzner. 295 Madison Avenue, New York. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Grutzner, what is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I am a reporter employed by the New York Times. 

Mr, SouRWiNE. And how long have you been employed there? 

Mr. Grutzner, Since September of 1941. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What did you do before that, Mr. Grutzner? 

Mr. Grutzner, Immediately before that I was a reporter for the 
New York City News Association, and before that — sir ? 

Mr, Sourwine. Go ahead, 

Mr. Grutzner. And before that, I worked for- the Brooklyn Eagle 
from 1934 until the spring of 1941. 

Mr. Soltrwine, Were you, Mr. Grutzner, while you were employed 
by the Brooklyn Eagle, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I was. 

Mr. Sourwine, Were you 

Mr. Grutzner. Pardon me. You said, while I was employed. 
During part of my employment. I didn't become a member until 1937, 
and I got out in 1940. 

Mr. Sourwine. And during all of that time you were employed by 
the Brooklyn Eagle ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Souravine, Now, were you a member of the Communist Party 
unit in the Brooklyn Eagle ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I was. 

Mr. Sourwine. During all of this time ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Between those dates I mentioned, yes. 

JNIr. Sourwine. Now, who recruited you into that unit? 

Mr. Grutzner, I am wondering how far back you want me to go. 
I wasn't recruited all at once. Someone invited me to join the party 
in 1936, and I did not join. Then in 1937, after I was moved from 
Queens, into the Brooklyn office of the Eagle, I was again invited, 
and then I joined, 

Mr, Sourwine, Well, take it chronologically. Wlio first invited 
you? 

Mr. Grutzner, In 1937 — I was then working in Queens County for 
the Eagle — in the course of my work I came in contact with a number 
of committees, civic committees, committees on housing, committees 
against discrimination and, committees like that, and I approved of the 
work they were doing. One day one of the members — -I think it was the 
chairman of one of the committees — I am not too certain — it was 18 or 
19 years ago — came to me after a meeting and said, "Well," he said, 
"you may not know it, or you may have suspected it," he said, "a num- 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1403 

ber of the people working for these things in which you seem to believe 
are members of the Commmiist Party. We would like you to join." 

Mr. SoURWiNE. Now, who was this, Mr. Grutzner, who came to you 
with this statement ? 

Mr. Grutzner. It was a man whose last name was Martel, and I 
am not certain of his first name. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Was it Harry Martel ? 

Mr. Grutzner. It may have been. I don't know. 

The Chairman. That was in 1937 ? 

Mr. Grutzner. No. That was in 1936, Senator. 

The Chairman. That is all right. 

Mr. Grutzner. That is when I did not join. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Grutzner. And he then suggested that I think it over, and he 
said to me, "You know," he said, "you wouldn't have to belong out 
here in Queens." He said, "The people you work with," he said, 
"many of the people you respect are members of the Communist Party." 

I did not know at that time who he was talking about. It was not 
until 1937 — I was sent into the Brooklyn office of the Eagle for the 
Presidential campaign of 1936, and I remained in Li'ooklyn. I think 
it was in the spring of 1937 that Nat Einhorn asked me to have a cup 
of coffee with him. I knew him well. In fact, I had worked with 
him on a weekly newspaper before either of us ever came to the Brook- 
lyn Eagle. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What was that weekly ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Home Talk. It was published in the Bay Ridge 
section of Brooklyn. As I said, he invited me to come out for coffee, 
and he said to me, "We would like you to join the Communist Party." 

Well, I can't say I was surprised. I didn't know it would be he who 
would ask me, but I expressed a moderate surprise, I suppose, and he 
said, "Look. We know you are ripe for it." He said, "The people in 
Queens told us about you, and we think that you believe in the same 
things we believe in, and let's work together." 

Thereupon I became a member. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And when you say you became a member, how did 
you do that ? Did you go to a meeting and take a pledge of some sort, 
or just how did it happen ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I don't believe I ever was asked to take a pledge. 
My best recollection was that I was — I wouldn't say reluctant — I was 
hesitant. I mean, I am not a joiner. I had never joined anything ex- 
cept my union, and here a proposal like this was made to me, and I 
said I wanted time to think it over, or something, and I was invited to 
a meeting at which I was told other Communists would be. 

It was a large meeting. My recollection is that it was held in a 
hotel in Manhattan. It may have been the Claridge, but I am not sure, 
because many union meetings were held there, and I met a number of 
people. And after that, I tliink I started paying dues. I didn't take 
a pledge or anything. 

Then I went to meetings of the local on the Eagle. 

Mr. Sourwine. How often did they meet ? Was it once a week ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I would like to make the distinction. They met 
once a week. I didn't meet once a week. 

59886 — 55 — pt. 15—2 



1404 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE. The meetings were held Tuesday evenings, were 
they not ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I believe they were. 

Mr, Sour WINE. How often did you attend? Every other meeting? 

Mr. Grutzner. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Or three times a month ? 

Mr. Grutzner. No ; I did not. And I would explain that. At that 
time I was covering politics. Most of my work was at night. I was 
attending dinners ; I was attending meetings. I might go to a meeting 
and I might be away for 3 meetings or 4 meetings, and then I would 
go to a meeting, and perhaps I would go the very next week and then 
I might be away for a number of weeks. 

Tlien again, in 1939, I Avas assigned to cover the World's Fair. 

I was detached from the Brooklyn office. We had our own office at 
the World's Fair, and for a period of, oh, 6 months, perhaps, I attended 
maybe 2 meetings during the entire 6 months' period. 

Senator Johnston. How much dues did you pay, and for how long? 

Mr. Grutzner. I paid dues during the entire period, except that 
once, perhaps twice, I fell way behind in dues. I don't recall the exact 
amount. Senator. I think it was 

Senator Johnston. Approximately. 

Mr. Grutzner. I think it was something like a dollar a week. I am 
not too sure. 

Senator Johnston. A dollar a week ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes. 
• Mr. SouRWiNE. The comrades understood that your assignments 
kept you away from meetings, and so they made no trouble for you 
about that ; is that right ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Oh, I wouldn't say they made no trouble. They 
nagged me considerably. They told me I Hvasn't a very good Com- 
munist, and I was making excuses to stay away from their meetings, 
and they sort of put up with me, I would say. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you carry a Communist Party card ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I can't recall a card as such. My best recollection 
is that once a year there was something which they called a control, 
and they then checked on your dues to see that you had paid your 
dues during the year, and that you had paid for whatever literature 
they had given you, and then they issued you, it may have been a 
card or it may have been a slip of paper, a sort of receipt showing 
that you were in control. 

Mr. Sourwine. When did you leave the Communist Party? 

Mr. Grutzner. In the fall of 1940. 

Mr. Sourwine. It was the year after the Hitler-Stalin pact; is 
that right? 

Mr. Grutzner. It was, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. "Wliy did you leave ? 

Mr. Grutzner. It was a cumulative sort of thing. One of the 
reasons I left, and perhaps I should explain why I got in before I tell 
you why I left — one of the factors that determined me or influenced 
me into joining was that I was told I was working for civic causes 
and for other causes for which the party was working, and that I 
could be more effective in the things I w^as doing if I helped make the 
decisions, rather than stand on the sidelines and take part in the things 
later on. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COIVIMUNISM 1405 

They said, "Wlien you are on the inside, you help make the de- 
cisions. This is a democratically run party." I think a Kansas farm- 
boy, Browder, was the national chairman then, and they called it 
20th century JefFersonian democracy, or some such thing, and I felt, 
"Well, this is all right." 

And then after a while, I found out the meetings were not as demo- 
cratic as they had been, and that was one of the things that induced 
me to get out. 

This didn't come suddenly. This came over a period of time. I 
would stay away from many meetings, and then they would say to 
me, "Well, it is about time you showed up for the meeting." 

And I said, "Well, look, I have reached a point where we don't 
see eye to eye." 

They said, "Well, come around to a meeting and talk about it." 

This went on over many months, and finally I just stayed away 
for good. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever do anything to signify your decision 
to break with the party ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I spoke to the party organizer about it. I did not 
put it in writing, for obvious reasons. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. "Wlio w^as he ? 

Mr. Grutzner. At that time it was a she. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. ^Yho was she ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Gladys Bentley. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Go ahead. ^Vliat did you tell her ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Well, I didn't have to tell her much by that time. 
We had had many differences of opinion. We had had sharp dis- 
agreements about the conduct of the meetings, and she was the one who 
would get after me and say, "Come on back to the meetings." 

Finally I said, "I am not coming back. I am through." 

For obvious reasons, *you don't put things like that in writing. You 
don't want records lying aroimd that you ever were in, when you de- 
cide you are going to get out. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. In your own mind, you made a clean break at that 
time? 

Mr. Grutzner. I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. In the fall of 1940 ? 

Mr. Grutzner, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Now, since that time, have you been in any way at 
any time under Communist discipline ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I have not. 

Mr. Sourwine. Since that time, that is, the fall of 1940, when you 
left the Communist Party, have you ever accepted instructions or di- 
rectives or information from a representative of tlie Communist 
Party, U.S. A.? 

Mr. Grutzner, They didn't offer me any directions. They wouldn't. 

Mr. Sourwine. The answer is "No" ? 

Mr. Grutzner. The answer is "No." 

Mr. Sourwine. Since you left the Communist Party, have you ever 
accepted invitations or directives or information from a representa- 
tive of the Communist Party of China ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Of China ? 

Mr. Sourwine. Yes. 

Mr. Grutzner. No. 



1406 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Since you left the Communist Party, have you ever 
accepted instructions, directives, or information from a representa- 
tive of the Communist Party of Korea ? 
Mr. Grutzner. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Since you left the Communist Party, have you ever 
had any part in a conspiracy to overthrow the Government of the 
United States by force and violence ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I certainly have not. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Since you left the Communist Party in the fall of 
1940, have you ever knowingly aided and abetted communism? 

Mr. Grutzner. No ; I have not. 

Mr. Sourwine. I ask those questions in part because the previous 
witness had some trouble with them. You do not find any trouble 
answering those questions, do you ? 

Mr. Grutzner. No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Grutzner, you attended a number of meetings 
of the Communist Party unit in the Brooklyn Eagle ; is that right ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I did, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you attend Communist meetings with Nat 
Einhorn ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you attend Communist meetings with Gladys 
Bentley ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. When you paid your dues, to whom did you pay 
them? 

Mr. Grutzner. I have an idea that at various times I paid them to 
different people. I couldn't say specifically. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever pay dues to Gladys Bentley ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I may have, but it is unlikely. I don't think her 
function was dues collecting, although it may have been before she 
became organizer. I just don't recall. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Alvah Bessie ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Alvah Bessie as a Communist ? 

Mr. Grutzner. No, I did not, and I would like to say something 
there in explanation. 

I sat here yesterday and listened to Winston Burdett. Winston 
Burdett said he joined the party in 1937, which would be about the 
time I joined. He said he knew Alvah Bessie, and Alvah Bessie had 
left the Eagle at the time he joined the party, which indicates to me 
that if Alvah Bessie ever were a member — and I don't know that he 
was — he would have been out of it by the time I got in. So I say that 
to tell you why I have no recollection of ever having attended a meet- 
ing with Alvah Bessie. 

Mr. Sourwine. You have no knowledge, then, as to whether Mr. 
Bessie was or was not a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Grutzner. I do not. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Victor Weingarten ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. Was he a member of the Communist Party unit of 
the Brooklyn Eagle ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I have no specific recollection that he was. He may 
have been. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1407 

Mr. SouRwiKE. Did you know Violet Brown, who later became 
V^iolet Weingarten ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I did. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know her as a member of the Communist 
unit at the Eagle ? 

Mr. Grutzxer, Not that I recall. 

Mr. SouRwixE. Did you Icnow Charles Lewis ? 

Mr. Grutzxer. I knew Charles Lewis. 

Mr. SouRWixE. Did you know him as a member of the Communist 
unit at the Eagle? 

Mr. Grutzxer. The answer is "Xo." The only reason I am hesitat- 
ing, I am trying to think when Lewis left the Eagle, whether he may 
have left it before I met him at a meeting. I am not certain about 
Lewis. But I know I never — or I have no recollection of ever attend- 
ing a meeting with him. 

Mr. SouRwixE. You were a member of that unit, were 3'ou not? 

Mr. Grutzx^er. I was, sir. 

Mr. SouEwixE. And you attended a number of meetings over a 
period of years ? 

Mr. Grutzxer. Over a period of 3 years. 

Mr. SouRWiXE. You must remember more than two persons. Now, 
tell us some of the other persons whom you remember as members of 
that Communist unit. 

Mr. Grutzxer. Let me tell you this first, if I may. I hope you will 
understand that my membership in the party was not the dedicated, 
emotional sort of thing that Mr. Burclett testified about yesterday. I 
could take my communism and I could leave it, and I left it when I was 
fed up with it. 

To me it was a thing I did for what I thought were good reasons, and 
it was a practical thing. There was nothing emotional about it. I 
didn't regard myself as a zealot. I missed many meetings, and at the 
same time I was attending occasional Communist meetings, I was at- 
tending all sorts of other meetings, many of them with the same people 
whose names were mentioned here, and it is difficult for me, if I 
attended eight different types of meetings — I am talking about city- 
wide union meetings ; I am talking about meetings of the representa- 
tive assembly of the union of which I was a member during much of 
that time; I am talking about meetings of the unit of the union — not 
of the Communist Party, of which I was a member, of course ; I am 
talking about meetings of the executive committee of the union unit of 
which I was a member ; I am talking about parties for Sf)ain, which all 
sorts of peojDle who were not Communists were attending, and I am 
talking about a whole series of all different kinds of meetings. 

Now, I have a recollection of names and faces, people with whom I 
attended some meetings. ^ For me, after 15 to 18 years, to sort of make 

and say, 
meeting," 



a jigsaw puzzle out of this and try to match up the pieces 
"This is the name I saw at this meeting rather than at that i 
I find it extremely difficult to do, sir, not reluctant, but difficult. 

Senator Hexnixgs. If counsel will indulge me for a question or 
two, Mr. Grutzner, did you take anything that might be considere^^ 
in the nature of an oath or affirmation when you became a member of 
this Communist organization ? 

Mr. Grutzxer. As I said, I have no 



1408 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Senator Hennings. I assume an oath to be an anathema to a Com- 
munist group. That is, an oath using the Bible, or anything related 
to the Deity. 

Mr. Grutzner. I don't know anything about that, but my recollec- 
tion is, I went to a meeting and I started paying dues. 

Senator Hennings. You just 

Mr. Grutzner. Now, I may have signed a card or an application or 
something. I have no clear — but I never took an oath or a pledge or 
anything. 

Senator Hennings. I assume that your pledge would not be similar 
to that of some other organization, but anything which you considered 
tantamount to a pledge, except the signing of what you have indicated 
might have been a card or an invitation, 

Mr. Grutzner. I am almost certain. Senator, that I did not. 

Senator Hennings. I wonder, too, if any admonitions of secrecy 
were imposed upon you at the time you became a member of the 
organization. 

li^or example, you felt no emotional involvement, and you have indi- 
cated that you could take your communism, as you put it, or leave it 
alone 

Mr. Grutzner. Which I did. 

Senator Hennings. Were you instructed as to secrecy, not to tell 
anybody that you were a member or to indicate that any others were 
members of this ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I would not say I was instructed. It was assumed 
all around, because in those days, even though the Communist Party 
was a legal political party — ^I don't think there was any such thing as 
the Attorney General's subversive list, at least, I have no recollection — 
but it was an unpopular minority party, and it was dangerous in 
certain jobs. 

In certain jobs, if you were known as a Communist, you might lose 
your job. And it was assumed that you were not going to go around 
advertising the fact. 

In fact, when I was asked to join, that was one of the questions I 
raised. I said, "Well, how would it affect me in my job ?" 

"Oh, well," they said, "Everybody uses a fake name for the records, 
anyway." And I used one. But there was no pledge of secrecy. 
It was just assumed that you weren't going to go around blabbing 
about it. 

Senator Hennings. But you felt no sense of shame in terms of feel- 
ing that you should keep your affiliation secret, did you ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Oh, no ; I did not. 

Senator Hennings. You were not ashamed of it, because the objec- 
tives of the party as you understood them at that time were consonant 
with your own beliefs as to housing, civic betterment, and various other 
things ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Senator, may I say something which may explain 
my attitude on that? When I was a child, my father would come 
home from time to time — and my mother has reminded me of this in 
very recent years — and he would come home and he would say, "I lost 
my job today." 

My mother would say, "Why ? " 

And he said, "Because I joined the union." 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COIMJSIUNISM 1409 

^Yell, in those days it was worth your job to belong to the union. 

In 1937, maybe it wasn't worth everybody's job to belong to the 
Communist Party, but people were losing their jobs because they 
were Communists, and for that reason you did not go around adver- 
tising the fact. 

Senator Hexxixgs. I understand that, Mr. Grutzner, very well. 
I can understand how, in terms of not losing your job, you might want 
to keep the matter secret. I was wondering what your own feelings 
about your identification with the party might have been with respect 
to either being proud of your, what you then conceived to be, idealistic 
affiliation, working for the general human betterment, or whether you 
felt it was something of which you were not quite so proud. 

Mr. Grutzner. It was not a matter of not being proud, and it was 
not a matter of great pride. I did something that I thought vras the 
correct thing to do and the practical thing to do at the time. 

Senator Hennings. You thought it was right; so that your own 
feeling was one of satisfaction with your having made the decision? 

Mr. Grutzxer. Yes. 

Senator Hexnings. Y^es. I think that is very understandable, Mr. 
Grutzner, and I am not undertaking to cross-examine you. 

Mr. Grutzxer. I understand that. 

Senator Hex^xin^gs. I am just trying to find out what may have 
been your mental processes at that time. 

Now, did you hear any discussion back in the thirties about any 
identification of the American Communist Party with the Soviet 
Union ? 

Mr. Grutzner. No. In fact, I raised the question when I was asked 
to join the Communist Party. I said : 

You know. What's all this about Russia? 

And, as I recall — and, of course, I can't quote exact words after 
these years — but my recollection or my impression is that I was told, 
"Well, this is the American Communist Party, or the Communist Party 
of the United States," whichever it happened to be at the time, "And 
it is just as much an American party as if you joined either your 
district Democratic or Republican Club." 

Then it was pointed out to me what were the things in which I had 
come in contact with communism with. It was housing; it was anti- 
discrimination. It was things like that. 

Senator Hexxings. Now, did you ever hear any discussion about 
overthrowing the Government of the United States by force and 
violence during those years ? 

Mr. Grutzxer. Nothing like that. 

Senator Hexxixgs. At any time. 

Mr. Grutzxer. We talked about local issues and things concerning 
the shop in which we worked. 

Senator Hexxix^gs. Was it in the nature generally of a debating 
society, would you say, or a discussion group ? 

Mr, Grutzxer. I would say a discussion group rather than a de- 
bating society. 

A debating society implies two sides getting equal presentation. 

Senator Hexxixgs, Exactly, 

Mr, Grutzxer, And that is one of the things I didn't like about it. 
Two sides didn't get it. 



1410 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Senator Hennings. And only one side was presented, really? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes, 

Senator Hennings. And you felt that the organization to which 
you belonged, that unit of the Communist Party, was not being run 
in what we are pleased to think of as being a democratic manner ? 

Mr, Grutzner, I suspected it early, but it took me a long time, really, 
to convince myself. 

Senator Hennings, T imagine then that you realized that there was 
a so-called party line, and that you had to subscribe to it if you were to 
be what you have indicated they termed you, a good Communist ? 

Mr, Grutzner. That was about it. 

Senator Hennings. As indicating to you that you were not a very 
good Communist, because you did not completely subscribe to the entire 
party line, and did not come to meetings regularly, and seemed to be 
interested in many other things which were working along the same 
general lines that you have indicated you were interested in, better 
housing and racial discrimination and those other professions or ideal- 
ism or human betterment ? 

Mr. Grutzner. You have put it as well as I could. 

Senator Hennings. I thank you. That about smiis up your point 
of view ? 

Mr. Grutzner. That about sums it up ; yes, sir. 

Senator Hennings. Thank you very much, Mr. Grutzner. 

Thank you, counsel. 

Mr, SouRwiNE. Mr. Grutzner, did you know Hyman Charniak ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes ; I knew Hyman Charniak. He was a reporter 
or a rewrite man — I forget which- — on the Eagle at the time I worked 
there, 

Mr, SouRwiNE, Did you know that Hyman Charniak left the Com- 
munist Party in 1939 ? 

Mr. Grutzner, I do not know that. It may have been during one 
of the periods when I was not at meetings, if his case was discussed at 
all, but I was rather surprised when I heard about that, because that 
would indicate : ( 1 ) That he was a Communist, and I had no recol- 
lection of seeing him at meetings; and (2) that there was quite a fuss 
about his getting out, and I can see where I might not remember him 
at these specific meetings, but if there had been a fuss about his getting 
out, I believe I would have remembered it. So that must have been 
during a period I was not attending meetings. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Herbert Cohn ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a member of the Communist 
unit at the Eagle ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I have no specific recollection. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Not that I recall. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Melvin Barnett ? 

Mr. Grutzner, Yes ; I did, 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know where Mr. Barnett is now ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes, 

Mr. Sourwine. Wliere is he ? 

Mr. Grutzner. At the moment he probably is at home waiting to go 
into his job on the Times. He starts at 4 or 5 in the afternoon. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1411 

Mr. SoTjRWixE. On the New York Times ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes, sir. ~ -, r^ 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know Mr. Barnett as a member of the Com- 
munist Party? . 1 ,r -n 2. -U T 

Mr. Grutzner. I went to many meetings with Mr. Barnett, but 1 
have no specific recollection that they were Communist meetings which 
I attended with him. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Haven't you warned Mr. Barnett to get himself 
square with his employers ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I have warned Mr. Barnett to this extent : When I 
was called down here to executive session, I had no idea that Mr. 
Barnett's name or any other name in particular would be presented 
to me. I didn't know"^ what I would be asked ; I didn't know whether 
any names would be presented to me. 

Among the names I was questioned about was the name of Mr. 
Barnett. That was the first I knew that Mr. Barnett had come to 
your committee's attention. 

When I went back to New York— and I may say that before I ever 
was subpenaed by this committee, I discussed my case with my editors 
and with the publisher of my paper, and I told them all about my- 
self—then having Barnett's name mentioned to me here at the meeting, 
1 felt I owed it to Mr. Barnett, not for any political reasons or any- 
thing like that — he was a fellow employee on the Times with me ; he 
had worked with me on the Eagle — then I went to him and I said : 

Barney, I was down in Washington. I was given the names of a number of 
people who presumably have been identified as Communists. 

I said : 

I am not asking you whether you ever were. 

After all, I don't want to usurp this committee's function. But I said : 

Your name is before the committee. I don't know whether you ever will be 
called. Let me tell you what happened to me. 

And I then told him how I had gone to the people on the Times and 
told them everything about myself. 
I said : 

Whatever your position may be, whether you were or weren't — and I am not 
asking you whether you were — I think you should have the benefit of knowing 
what my experience was with the people on the paper. 

And Barnett didn't say yes or no as to whether he had been. He 
said: 

Thank you for telling me. I will be guided accordingly. 

And I have not discussed it with him since then. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. All you can say about Mr. Barnett, then, is that he 
was with you on the Eagle and you attended many meetings with liim, 
but you don't know whether they were Communist meetings ; is that 
your testimony ? 

Mr. Grutzner. That is right. And after I was off the Eagle for a 
number of years, and before he came to the Times, through mutual 
friends we met, at a party or something, and we went to the theater 
with Barnett and his wife and we had dinner at their home a few 
times, and they came to our home, and this was some years after my 
severance from the party, and I had drawn the curtain on that whole 



1412 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

unpleasant episode, and I wasn't trying to think back with everyone 
I met and say, "Now, let's see. Was he ever a member of the Com- 
munist Party?" 

Mr. SouRWiNE. All right, sir. 

Did you know David Gordon ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I did. He was a reporter on the Eagle when I 
worked there. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I have no specific recollection that I ever attended 
a Communist meeting with him. 

Mr. SouinviNE. That is a statement. But the question was, Did you 
know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I don't believe I did. 

Mr, SouRwiNE. Did you know Charles Grutzner ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I should. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know him under any other name ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. "Wliat other name ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I know him under a couple of other names, and I 
would like to explain that. When I worked on Home Talk, this weekly 
paper I mentioned, we were rather understaffed, and I was news edi- 
tor, and I was a general-assignment reporter, and my sports editor 
left one day and they said, "You are sports editor in addition to being 
other things." 

And my news stories were signed with my name, Charles Grutzner, 
and it couldn't appear that one man was running the whole paper. 

So they said, "Take a name for your sports column." 

So I took the name Chick Garrett, and I covered fights and basket- 
ball games and things under that name. 

Then when I joined the party and they said : 

Well, of course, for purposes of the record you use a phony name so that they 
can't track this down to your job. What name will you use ? 

Well, "Chick" seemed a little flippant. So I said, "Call me Ken- 
neth Garrett," and that was my party name. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Kenneth Gar r a ghy? 

Mr. Grutzner. Kenneth Garrett, G-a-r-r-e — one "t" or two "t's." 
I don't know. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you ever used that name since ? 

Mr. Grutzner. No ; I have not. 

JSIr. Sourwine. You used it only as a byline on this Garrett part, 
and that "Kenneth Garrett" was only your party name ? 

Mr. Grutzner. That is right. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you ever used any other name ? 

Mr. Grutzner. No. 

Mr. SouRAViNE. Did you know Gladys Bentley as the organizer of 
the party unit at the Eagle throughout your membership there ? _ 

Mr. Grutzner. No. My best recollection is that at the time I joined 
the party, Nat Einhorn was the organizer, and then somehow in the 
intervening years, it wound up with Gladys Bentley being the or- 
ganizer. 

Now, just when the switch took place, I don't recall. 

Mr. Sourwine. She was not succeeded by anyone while you were 
there ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I don't believe so. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1413 

Mr. SouRwiNE, Did you know Leonard Adler ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes ; I did. 

INIr. SoTJRWixE. Did you know him as a member of the unit at the 
Eagle? 

]Mr. Grutzner. The Communist unit or the union unit ? 

Mr. SouRWiNE. The Communist unit. 

Mr. (trutzxer. No. I have no specific recollection of him as that. 

Mr. SouRwaNE. Did you know Lyle Dowling ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I did. He had been the executive editor of the 
paper. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I don't believe I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. It made quite a furor when he joined the unit, did 
it not? 

Mr. Grutzner. No. It made quite a furor when he walked out as 
executive editor of the newspaper because he felt his employees were 
getting such a bad deal and had been forced out on strike, that even 
though he was one of the management's top executives, he went out 
on strike. That made a big stir, and I remember that. But I don't 
remember that he joined the Communist Party. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Murray Young ? 

Mr. Grutzner. No. You asked me that name in executive session, 
and I said the name meant nothing to me. I saw the man here yester- 
day. The face meant nothing to me, either. When he identified him- 
self as a former professor or teacher at Brooklyn College, and when 
the name of Morris Schappes was brought up, I remember that some 
years ago, in the course of my assignment — I was then with the City 
News — I covered some of the teacher hearings. I remember the 
Schappes case, because it was rather a notorious case. I think 
Schappes was indicted for perjury and went to jail. 

Now, it may be that in connection with those hearings. Young's 
name came up, but that would be the only recollection I would have 
of him, and I say that is not a recollection. It is a possibility which 
I merely point out. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Amos Landman ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I think there is some confusion in my mind about 
the name. I remember when you asked me in executive session, I said 
there was, or I seem to remember a man who was an officer or a mem- 
ber of the assembly of the guild, and I said I thought he worked for 
one of the Jewish-language newspapers in New York. 

I heard Mr. Burdett iclentify him yesterday as a reporter for either 
the News or the Mirror, which makes me doubt that I was correct 
when I said that. It may have been someone with a similar name I 
was thinking of. But I did not know him as a Communist. 

Mr. Sourwine. You did not ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I am certain that I did not. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Monroe Stern ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Monroe Stern as a Communist? 

Mr. Grutzner. No. And I am certain about that. The reason I 
say in the case of some people I am certain and in the case of others 
that I have no clear recollection is because after having seen people 
come up here and testify, and after having heard people mentioned 



1414 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

by Burdett, I must assume that some of them were Communists, and 
if they were, they were Communists at the time I was. 

But people like this Landman you mentioned, and Monroe Stern, 
they never worked for the Eagle and they could not have been mem- 
bers of my unit or at meetings that I attended. That is why I say 
I am sure I have no recollection of that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Didn't you ever attend a Communist meeting other 
than a meeting of your little unit at the Eagle ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I attended — you see, there was a funny situation 
there. There was something called the Progressive Conference within 
the union. This was a citywide meeting, and there was a city wide frac- 
tion of the Communist Party. Now, I think I attended perhaps one 
meeting, and I think that was the first meeting I attended of the Com- 
munists of the citywide fraction. 

I attended many meetings of the Progressive Conference, which 
had — I am sure the Communists were in it, because it was always 
called the Communist leadership, and it had people who were not Com- 
munists. 

Now, it is difficult after all these years to distinguish between people 
you met at one meeting and people you met at another meeting when 
many of the people probably were the same people, but some of them 
were not. 

Mr, SouRwiNE. For that very reason, and in view of the fact that 
you did attend at least one meeting of the Communist fraction on a 
citywide scale, your previous feeling that you could not have known 
as a Communist anyone who did not work for the Brooklyn Eagle was 
a little bit out of line ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Technically it might be, but it was like this. When 
I attended, I believe it was this 1 fraction meeting, there may have 
been 2, but when I attended that I — people whom I didn't know, people 
who worked on the papers, a lot of people were there. It made no 
particular impression on me. There were people I met at the union 
meeting, too, I am sure. 

Mr. Sourwine. I am not at this time arguing with you over your 
failure to recollect. It only seemed to me that what you said sounded 
as though you were saying a man could not have been a Communist 
unless he worked for the Brooklyn Eagle, and I knew you didn't 
mean that. 

Mr. Grutzner. Oh, no, I certainly did not. They had no monopoly 
on it. 

Mr. Sourwine. As a matter of fact, you have heard testimony here, 
have you not, that Communists who didn't work for the Eagle attended 
meetings of the Eagle unit ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I believe there was such testimony. 

Mr. Sourwine. So that it would have been possible for some of 
these people to have attended meetings at the Eagle unit and you 
might have been there ? 

Mr. Grutzner. You are right on that. 

Mr. Sourwine. I can only find out by asking. 

Mr. Grutzner. I was making a conclusion. 

Mr. Sourwine. And I would rather have your memory, your best 
memory, than your conclusion. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1415 

Did you know Milton Kaufman ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes ; I knew Milton Kaufman. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know him as a Communist? 

Mr. Grutzner. Let "me put it this way: I attended Communist 
meetings with Milton Kaufman. I assumed from that he was a Com- 
munist. I never saw his membership card, I never heard him called 
comrade or anything like that. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did j-ou know him as an officer of the Newspaper 
Guild? 

Mr. Grutzner. I did. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know John Francis Ryan or Jack Ryan? 

Mr. Grutzner. Jack Ryan, yes, I knew Jack Ryan. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Grutzner. No ; I did not. I had heard him called a Communist 
in debate at a union meeting, but I had no way of knowing whether he 
was or wasn't. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Gladys Kopf ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know her as a Communist? 

Mr. Grutzner. No ; I did not. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Ira Henry Freeman ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Ira Freeman occupies a desk alongside of me in the 
Times office. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether he is or was a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I do not know, and I am positive I never attended a 
Communist meeting with him. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Sam Weissman? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes ; I do, 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Weissman as a Communist ? 

Mr. Grutzner. No, and it is extremely unlikely that if he were a 
Communist he would have been at meetings with me. 

I remember Sam Weissman particularly because he and his wife, 
whose name I have forgotten, but whom I heard referred to yesterday 
as Helen Weissman, were very active volunteers during the Eagle 
strike. His wife spent much time at Guild headquarters and ran the 
coffee canteen, and I have a very clear recollection of him during the 
strike, and I am about as certain as I can be that I never was to any 
Communist meeting with him. 

Senator Johnston. Did the Communists have anything to do with 
the strike ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Oh, yes, yes. They sent volunteers down to strike 
headquarters, but so did other organizations, so did other unions and 
things, and they printed leaflets in support of the strike and they sent 
some of their people out to hand out the leaflets in front of department 
stores. I wouldn't have you get the impression from that. Senator, 
that they were running the strike or anything like that. They and 
other groups were in active support of it. 

Senator Johnston. Did they help initiate the strike in the begin- 
ning? 

Mr. Grutzner. I don't — no, no. Certainly they didn't initiate the 
strike. I think the publisher of the Eagle initiated the strike. 

Mr, Sourwine. Did you know Mrs. Doretta Tarmon ? 



1416 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. Grutzner. No. That was a name you asked me that just didn't 
register with me. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Just so the record may be complete, did you ever 
have any knowledge as to whether Mrs. Helen Weissman was a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Grutzner. No ; I had no such knowledge. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Grutzner, have you to your knowledge had 
any conferences in the last 10 years with persons known to you to be 
Communists ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Oh, yes. I mean if you call attendance at a meet- 
ing a conference, I met with Nat Einhorn, I met with Gladys Bentley, 
I met with Milton Kaufman. I assume you are excluding such things 
as interviews. 

Mr. Sourwine. Yes. 

Mr. Gkutzxer. I interviewed Cacchione when he was a councilman, 
but I interviewed him as a reporter, not as an individual. 

Mr. Sourwine. I exclude anything that happened in the line of your 
business duty as a reporter. Tell us about your interviews with Ein- 
horn and Bentley and Kaufman. 

Mr. Grutzner. Well, my interview with Einhorn, the first one was 
something like this : That was that afternoon when he invited me first 
to join the party, and he gave me the reasons I have gone into. I then 
expressed some doubt as to whether I ought to join anything. 

The word "Communist," it was a bizarre sort of word then, too, 
and I said, "What's all this about Russia and things ?" and he said to me 
in effect, "Look," he says, "we are not asking you to go into a monastery. 
We are not asking you to join any bloodrite sect or anything like that. 
We are not asking you to go over your ea rs into anything. People who 
work for some things in common should discuss these things." 

There was a word for it at the time, I don't remember whether it 
was the "popular front" or the "democratic front," but he expounded 
along those lines, and he said to me, "If you go into, if you join the 
Democratic Party," he says, "it doesn't mean you identify yourself 
with everything every Democrat all over the country does, and sim- 
ilarly with the Republican Party." 

He said, "Now you go along with us on common ground, and when 
the time comes that we no longer have common ground," he said, "you 
get out. It is as simple as all that." 

Well, it made it sound pretty much like joining the district club of 
any party except that the Communist Party at that time appealed to 
the more active on local issues. That was my conference with Nat 
Einhorn. 

Now, when I talk of conferences with Miss Bentley 

Mr. Sourwine. Was that the only conference you ever had with Nat 
Einhorn ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Outside of meetings I believe it was; yes. Now, 
wait a minute. I believe after that first time there was a period of 
some weeks, and he came with me and discussed the matter again, and 
we went over substantially the same ground, and I think it was after 
two discussions with him that I joined the party. 

Mr. Sourwine. You see that is all very interesting, but my question 
was with regard to conferences during the past 10 years, and that is 
more than 10 years ago. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1417 

Mr. Grutzner. Oh, I didn't hear you say 10 years. I am sorry. 
No ; I had social meetings with him. I had no conferences with him. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. When did you hist meet with Nat Einhorn ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Nat Einhorn brought his wife and two children up 
to my place in the country, I guess about 2 months ago. It was before 
I liad been subpenaed by this committee. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Nat Einhorn as a Communist ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Not now. I knew him as a Communist — in fact, 
I don't think too much credence should be put on gossip, but I relate 
this for what it is worth. 

Some years after I was out of the party, someone said to me — I and 
many other people have been called Communists on and off during the 
years in the union. They said, "Well, you are part of the Communist 
leadership," and that sort of thing. And someone said to me, as people 
do at a bar, I don't recall specifically who, in a sort of a mocking way, 
"I hear your friend Einhorn got kicked out of the Communist party as 
a Browderite." 

Now whether that is true or is not true, I don't know, but having 
heard that, there is no way I can say or not say a this time that he is 
or was a Communist. 

Mr. Sourwine. You heard it said he worked for the Polish Govern- 
ment ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes, yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you think that has any bearing on whether he 
v/as a Communist ? 

Mr. Grutzner. A superficial judgment would be that he must be, 
and then you must consider that the Polish Government might want to 
employ a non-Communist as a face-saving thing or as a front or some- 
thing like that. I feel that I am not qualified to say whether that 
makes him a Communist or not. 

]Mr. Sourwine. Have you ever visited Nat Einhorn's home ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes; I did, about I guess a year and a half ago I was 
invited to dinner, with my wife. 

Mr. Sourwine. Is that the only occasion ? 

Mr. Grutzner. The only occasion in the last 10 years. You are 
limiting this to 10 years ? 

Mr. Sourwine. That's right. And has he visited your home only 
once in 10 years ? 

Mr. Grutzner. That's right, sir, and I may say that the recentness 
of his visit to my home was a coincidence because that was an out- 
growth of the visit we made to him a year and a half ago, and we said, 
''You must bring the kids up to the country," and they said, "Sure," 
and we kept calling up and putting it off and putting it off, and finally 
it came about a few months ago. But again I say it was before I was 
subpenaed by this committee. 

Mr. Sourwine. What brought about the renewal of your contact 
with Mr. Einhorn after you had nothing to do with him for 8 or 10 
years ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I think it was 2 years ago I got in the mail, as I do 
from all sorts of sources, you get invitations to this and you get an- 
nouncements to that, and this was an invitation to a Polish film festival 
that was being held at Rockefeller Center, and it was supposed to be a 
showing of, oh, half a dozen or so of the latest Polish motion pictures, 
and it was quite a big thing. 



1418 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

I thought maybe I would go and maybe I would not go. It would 
depend on what my wife was doing that day. And a day or two atter 
I o-ot the invitation, I got a phone call from Nat Emhorn, and Nat 
safd, you know, "How have you been? I haven't seen you m a long 
time." He said, "I sent you an invitation to this Polish film festival. 
He says, "There is some wonderful new photography m it." He said, 

"I hope you can come." • i a-ncr n 

And it was on a Saturday and I was not working, and I said. Well, 
if I can make it, I will." And that was the renewal of our friendship. 

And I say that friendship went back before the days I was a Com- 
munist. It went back before the days I came to the Brooklyn Eagle. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You had known Einhorn as a Communist and as a 
Communist organizer of the unit at the Eagle, and you made no in- 
quiry, made no effort to determine whether he still was a Communist? 

Mr. Grutzner. Mr. Sourwine, I didn't want to know whether any- 
body was a Communist. What has happened since I got out 15 years 
ago has frightened me. I have seen people go to jail, I have seen 
people harassed, and the whole thing sort of set up a psychologic block 
to my memory, and I certainly didn't want to break the block. I was 
perfectly willing to ignore the past and say this is something I was 
well shed of 15 years ago, and I didn't want to be reminded of it in 
any way. 

Mr. Sourwine. It never occurred to you that if Mr. Einhorn was 
still a Communist, you might not be so shed of it ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Well, I don't see how I could be — after what I had 
been through, I was immune to communism. It is like after you have 
polio. No Communist can infect me any more. 

Mr. Sourwine, Now, sir, tell us about any contact you had with 
Gladys Bentley in the last 10 years, the other organizer of the Brook- 
lyn Eagle unit of the party. 

Mr. Grutzner. In the last 10 years the only times I have seen Gladys 
Bentley was at citywide union meetings, and once or twice after a 
meeting we would meet at the bar and she would say to me, "Are you 
still retired?" and I would say, "What do you mean by 'retired?' " and 
she says, "Well, you know," she says, "you are acting as if you had done 
your work and you are going to sit back and let a younger generation 
do it," she says, "and I am not talking about any one thing." She said, 
"I am talking about everything." She says, "You are not active in the 
union any more. You are not doing things that you know you ought to 
do," and I say, "I know what I am doing." 

And that was the full extent of my meetings or conversations with 
Gladys Bentley. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether she is still a Communist ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. When was your most recent meeting with her? 

Mr. Grutzner. My guess is that it was — well, my last meeting with 
her was an accidental meeting on the street about 4 years ago. I was 
walking up Broadway on my way to an assignment. Previous to that, 
I think it has been 6 years since I met her at a union meeting or any- 
where else, for that matter. 

Mr. Sourwine. And when was your last meeting with Mr. 
Kaufman ? 

Mr. Grutzner. My only meetings with Mr. Kaufman were at Com- 
munist Party meetings. I mean, when you said did I confer with 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1419 

these people, I was taking it in the all-inclusive sense, "Did you ever 
talk with them," and that was before I got out of the party, which 
was in 1940. 

I may have seen him at a few union meetings since them. I don't 
recall just when he left the union. But it is at least a dozen years 
since I have even seen Mr. Kaufman. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Grutzner, were you ever in Korea ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I was in Korea as a war correspondent for the New 
York Times. 

Mr. SotJRWiNE. During what period ? 

Mr. Grutznter. From September through December of 1950. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you during that time have any contact with 
members of the Communist Party of China ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I most certainly did not. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you have any trouble with the Army during 
the time you were in Korea ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I never had any throuble, but somebody has tried 
to make trouble about something, an incident that I related to you, and 
I am glad of the opportunity to spread it out on the record now. 

It was in December of 1950, and I was in Seoul. I had been up 
in North Korea with the Army and I came back to Seoul, and we had 
daily briefings. 

Aiid this morning one of tliB reporters suggested to me and to two 
of the wire service correspondents that there was a bigger story cook- 
ing out at Kimpo Airfield than at the briefing, and we took a jeep 
and we went out to Kimpo Airfield. And the story was to be this: 
Our sabrejets, which had been in Korea for some time, had been in 
training flights, had been on reconnaissance, but they had not engaged 
the enemy and they were supposed to fly up to the Yalu River that 
day, and if they scored, if they were in contact with the enemy, the 
story then would be ready for publishing. 

We spent the whole day at the airfield alternately burning ourselves 
in the tent against the hot stove and then going out and freezing. 
And late in the afternoon we saw the MIG's streaking in — not th© 
MIG's, they had downed the MIG's, the sabrejets streaking in, and 
one of them made a maneuver. 

I wasn't particularly familiar with Air Force matters, but one of 
the Air Force men said, "They bagged a MIG. This is the signal." 

So, of course, when the plane landed, there were a few of them, I 
don't recall how many, everybody rushed into the briefing tent and 
the airmen told how they had engaged in combat. 

This was a pretty good story. And later we discussed it with the 
public-information officer of the Air Force at the airfield and he filled 
us in on all the details. 

And then as a routine thing he said, "Well," he says, "let's call 
Tokyo and get clearance." At that time there was only voluntary 
censorship. There was no enforced censorship yet. 

So we called Tokyo and we got a PIO colonel in Tokyo who said : 

We are not going to let you use that story yet. 

And one of the men got on the phone and argued with him, and he 
got off the phone and he said : 

Why that so-and-so — 

59886— 55— pt. 15 3 



1420 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

he says — 

The reason he doesn't want us to use the story, I will bet, is because it is now 
early Sunday morning in New York City and the Sunday morning papers are 
out already and there will be no other papers until Monday morning, and they 
want to hold it up to hit all the papers on Monday. That's the way General 
Stratemeyer operates. 

I am quoting the other man. I had no opinion. And we were all 

pretty burned up about it. 

We said : 

Well, God, this is voluntary censorship. We were told that when the MIGs 
are in combat there is no more secret about it. The enemy got hit by them and 
we knocked down one of the enemy. 

So we rode back to Seoul — 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who is it that said this, Mr. Grutzner ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I told you in executive session. This has nothing 
to do with communism. As it developed later, the man who told me 
had erred in judgment and missed a story. He was one of my col- 
leagues. He was a war correspondent with me. If you force me, I 
will tell his name, but I really don't see where it is apropos here. 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Chairman, if I may venture an opinion, 
I hope that it does not conflict with our learned counsel's opinion. 
I don't think this has any application here. It relates to conversa- 
tions. Unless something later develops that might afl'ect this other 
man's professional standing 

Mr. Grutzner. It might very well, because I don't know that the 
story has ever been made public, this part of it. 

Senator Hennings. It might operate as a derogation to his earning 
a living. 

The Chairman. I agree with you. Senator Hennings. 

Mr. Grutzner. It very well might have that effect, Senator Hen- 
nings. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Grutzner. All right. We rode back to Seoul in a ]eep. Al- 
though the temperature Avas below zero, we were burning all the way 
back and we discussed this. And one of the correspondents then said 
that the PIO colonel in Tokyo, when he had been argued with on the 
phone said : 

Well, the Pentagon said we shouldn't let the story go until they approved of it. 

And then this correspondent said : 

Well, inasmuch as Stratemeyer or Stratemeyer's PIO has put the responsibility 
on the Pentagon, why can't we get clearance from the Pentagon. If the Pentagon 
releases the story, well, it certainly is in the clear. There is no higher authority 
on military matters than the Pentagon. 

And we agreed then that we would go back and we would file our 
story to our headquarters with a long precede explaining all the cir- 
cumstances and saying : 

Do not use this story unless you get prior clearance from the Pentagon. 

And I went back. The other correspondents at that time were stay- 
ing at a press billet. I was fortunate because the other Times corre- 
spondent had been in Tokyo before the war and had made himself good 
connections and he had a room at the Chosen Hotel. He then was in 
Tokyo and I was using his room at the hotel. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1421 

T went up there and I wrote mv story, and it was a long story, and 
I think it was a fjood storv. And I was ready to go down and call the 
jeep and drop it off at RCA, where we filed our copy, when mj col- 
league, Dick Jolmston, came up to the room and I said, "Gosh, Dick, 
are you back from Tokyo, and he said, "Yes. I just got in around din- 
nertime," and I told him about this story and mentioned who we four 
reporters were who had got the story and what we were going to do. 

And he then mentioned the name of one of the reporters I had men- 
tioned and said : 

Well, gosh, I don't see how he can file. He's been down in the hotel lounge 
with me all evening. 

So, of course, I was astounded by this, and I went down and called 
this other correspondent out of the lounge and said to him, "Look, are 
you passing this story up ?" 

Mr. SouRwiNE. This is the correspondent who had in the first place 
said, "Let's file?" 

Mr. Griti'zner. No, it was one of the other correspondents who had 
said, "Let's file," and this man had agreed. We all agreed to file. He 
was in on the agreement to file. 

I said to him, "Gosh, I am filing more than a column and a half on 
this," which is a lot to cable, but I thought the story was worth it. 

And he said then, he said, "Look, it is 10 o'clock in the morning in 
Washington." He said, "Nobody is going to be at the Pentagon." He 
says, "One chance out of a hundred that that story will get through 
before tonight, and by that time we will have clearance from Tokyo." 
So I said to him — it was a wire service man who suggested that we 
all file — I said, "I feel I must file to protect myself if nothing else. If 
this thing goes out, comes into my office over the wires, they'll say, 
'Where was Grutzner when this happened ?' " 

So I offered him my carbon copies of the story and I said to him, 
"Look, take this, change it around a little if you want to, but, to pro- 
tect yourself, file." 

And I rode with him in the jeep over to RCA and I was practically 
thrusting my copy at him all the way, and it was purely an error of 
judgment on his part. He just thought it wasn't worth filing. 

Well, I filed my copy. I left a set of duplicates with the jeep driver 
to drop into the PIO box, which was procedure then. You didn't have 
to have your copy censored before you filed, but you dropped a copy 
into the PIO box so they would have it for the record. 

I observed all normal procedure, and I filed my story with a long 
preceding explanation saying this must be cleared by the Pentagon. 
I went back and I went to sleep. 

The next morning my phone rang. It was the PIO colonel in Seoul ^ 
not the Air Force man, the Eighth Army PIO, and he said to me, 
"Did you file a copy of your story with us last night ?" I said, "Sure. 
If you will look in box so-and-so where I told the jeep driver to leave 
it, you will find it." 

So he said, "Wait a minute," and he looked and he came back and 
he said, "That's all right. We got it." 

Well, I said, "What's it all about?" Well, he says, "Every corre- 
spondent is getting rockets from their home office. The Times came 
out witli a front-page story about the sabrejets and no one else has 
got it." 



1422 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

So, well, I thought it strange that the wire copy hadn't gotten 
through. I learned later why it hadn't. But to proceed chronologi- 
cally : A few minutes later this correspondent, who had not filed, called 
me and he said, "Gosh, I got hell from my office." 

So I said, "Well, you know I practically thrust this on you last 
night." He says, "I know. I am not blaming you for it." He says, 
"I just wish you hadn't filed it. I got to square myself somehow." 

It so happened that I was due to return to the States. My replace- 
ment already was on his way to Tokyo. It was about 4 days later, 
according to arrangements that had already been made, that I returned 
home. 

I got home on Christmas eve from Korea. I spent the Christmas 
holiday with my family, and it was several days before I went to the 
Times office. I then riffled through the papers on the file to see how 
the stories had been handled, and I noticed in one of the other papers 
there was a story out of Tokyo in which General Stratemeyer, who had 
been rather unhappy over this thing, had said voluntary censorship 
had been broken; lives of American airmen might have been en- 
dangered. 

I was surprised, that if such a story were published in this country, 
that my office hadn't called me to find out about it. I then went to 
my foreign desk and discussed it with them, and they said : 

Well, it was so silly on the face of it, there was no point in us querying you. 
We got your story in New York — 

I believe it was early Sunday morning, there is a 13-hour time differ- 
ence — 

and we put the whole story on the telet3T)e machine to our Washington bureau 
and somebody in the Washington bureau took your whole story over to the 
Pentagon, got clearance from the Pentagon. We then published the story, and 
after we had done that we knew we were in the clear. There was no reason for 
us to get excited over anything Stratemeyer or anyone else might say. Our 
clearance came from the top, from the Pentagon. 

But the same time there was an article in Newsweek, the magazine, 
and they ran my picture and they ran an account of the story, and 
they made no mention of the censorship having been broken. It 
wasn't. I mean, I didn't like the way they slanted it. They indi- 
cated that the Times had shown unusual enterprise in getting the 
story. 

I didn't show any unusual enterprise. I was just lucky because, as 
I learned later, it wasn't until a month later, when one of the other 
correspondents passed through New York on his way home, and I 
said, "Whatever happened to" — and it was AP or UP — "copy on this 
thing ?" And he said, ^'Well, the UP man in Korea" or "the AP man," 
■whoever it was, "filed his copy to his Tokyo office." 

I mean, that was standard procedure for wire services. We would 
file direct to New York or wherever our paper was. The wire-serv- 
ice men would file to their bureau chief in Tokyo, who would edit the 
copy and forward it to New York. 

Well, apparently when this story got to Tokyo, the Tokyo bureau 
chief went to the Air Force PIO, or MacArthur's PIO, in Tokyo, and 
said, "How about this story?" And they said, "Don't send it." So 
their story never got through, whereas mine, which went on to the 
Pentagon, did get through. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1423 

Now, the reason I want an opportunity to make this clear is because 
some PIO colonel, his name may be Voorhees, somebody I never came 
in contact with, wrote a book shortly thereafter, in which he dis- 
cussed voluntary censorship and he mentioned this incident, without 
mentioning me by name. I think he mentioned the Times, in a dis- 
paraging sort of way, which I felt was totally untruthful. 

Then again, before I was called before this committee, when I dis- 
cussed this matter with my employers at the Times — I mean the matter 
of my having been a former Communist — ^they said : 

We accept your explanation. We accept your statement. We believe you are 
and have always been a loyal American and are loyal to the paper we all work 
for. 

They said : 

But among the rumors that have come to us has been something that you 
were in trouble or there was some incident at one time in Korea, and military 
intelligence was checking up on you. 

Well, I mean, that is a horrible thing to hear anybody say, but- 



Senator Johnston. Did this incident have anything to do with 
you leaving Korea as a correspondent ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Absolutely not, and the records at the Times will 
show I had been sent over to Korea on an emergency basis. They felt 
that at a certain time, when we were way down in the Pusan perimeter, 
that we needed more men over there, and I had been covering street- 
gang wars in New York. 

One night the city editor came over to me and said : 

Look, we got a bigger war. We don't know for sure whether we will send 
you over, but can you think of any reason why you can't or wouldn't want to 
go over? 

And I said, "No, I'm not asking for it, but it's another assignment." 
And that is how I came to go over. 

There was no understanding I would be there for any particular 
period of time. And I was ready to come home. In fact, it appeared 
that the war was over shortly before Thanksgiving. 

I had been brought back to Tokyo for a 2 weeks' vacation before 
returning to New York. And then the Chinese hit, and they said to 
me, "Will you go back to Korea until we can send you a replacement 
out there ?" All the arrangements were made for my coming home at 
that time, so it had no connection whatever with my return from 
Korea. 

Senator Johnston. Did this article that you gave have any military 
secrets that might be detrimental to our soldiers in the field ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I don't believe it had anything. Whatever infor- 
mation was in it had been supplied by the Air Force itself, and had 
been cleared by the Pentagon before the Times ever published it, so 
I don't conceive how it possibly could have done injury to anyone. 

Mr. SouEWiNE. Were the correspondents in Korea, Mr. Grutzner, 
yourself included, briefed on the security precautions that Headquar- 
ters of United States Air Forces in Korea had taken with respect to 
the activities of the F-86, the Sabrejet ? 

Mr. Grutzner. No, no, not about the F-86. The time we were 
briefed was when I first landed in Tokyo on way to Korea. 



1424 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You are saying you had no briefing, the correspond- 
ents had no briefing with respect to the security precautions taken with 
respect to the activities of the F-86 ? 

Mr. Grui'zner. Mr. Sourwine, I didn't know that the F-86's were 
going to be in action until that very morning. From the time I first 
learned of it, I was in transit from Seoul to Kimpo Airfield. I was 
sweating it out and freezing it out at the airfield, and I was in transit 
back. There was an interval of maybe 10 hours during which there 
was no briefing on the F-86's. 

]Mr. Sourwine. Did you know there was an F-86 ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Oh, I am almost certain I knew there was an F-86 ; 
sure, I knew there was an F-86. 

Mr. Sourwine. Had you learned that as a result of any briefing? 

Mr. Grutzner. No, no. 

Mr. Sourwine. How had you learned that ? 

Mr. Grutzner. It is difficult to say how you learn a specific thing. 
I mean, you are over there for months ; you are with the army ; you 
are traveling back and forth from the front to headquarters ; you are 
attending daily briefings on maneuvers and things. 

You pick up hundreds, perhaps thousands, of pieces of information. 
Xow — where specifically I first heard — I do know^ that that morning 
before we went out to the airport, one of the correspondents told me, 
and he said he had been told in Tokyo. He had just arrived from 
Tokyo. He had been told in Tokyo that the F-86's were going up, 
and that as soon as they made contact with the enemy, the story would 
be public property. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know of your own knowledge that this story 
was filed by anyone besides you ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I didn't see anyone file it, no ; but I do know of my 
own knowledge there was an agreement among four men who rode 
back in the jeep that everyone was to file. 

The agreement was that it would be given to the Pentagon for re- 
lease beforehand, I mean, for clearance beforehand. 

Senator Johnston. But you were the only one that filed ? 

Mr. Grutzner, No, Senator. 

Senator Johnston. Who filed with you on it ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I say 

Senator Johnston. You were the only one that filed this report? 

Mr. Grutzner. No. As I said. Senator, I left so shortly after that 
that I w^asn't able to check on all the mechanics of it. 

About a month lat^r one of the correspondents on his way home 
stopped in New York, and I said to him, "How is it that the wire copy 
didn't hit the paper at the same time my story did?" 

And he said that one of the wiremen — I think it was the UP man ; 
it may have been the AP man — also had filed. He had filed from 
Seoul, Korea, to his Tokyo bureau, and apparently the story never got 
further than his Tokyo bureau. 

The Chairman. Mr. Grutzner 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes, Senator. 

The Chairman (continuing). Did you know that General Craigie 
recommended that you be removed from the Korean theater for giving 
classified information to the enemy 

Mr. Grutzner. Senator, this is the first 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1425 

The Chairman (continuing) . By virtue of that story ? 

Mr. Grittzner. This is the first I have ever lieard of that. I wonder 
to whom did he make the recommendation. I am sure if it had been 
made to the Times, I would have heard about it. 

The Chairman. Did you know that he stated that that story would 
cost American lives ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Of course I didn't know that. 

The Chairman. As a fact, were you removed from the theater on 
orders? 

Mr. Grutzner. I was not, and I was not requested to leave, either ; 
and I am verv definite about that. Senator, 

The Chairman. When did you leave ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I left — I must fijjure back. I got home in New 
York on Christmas Eve, which would be the 24th of December. I 
think I left Tokyo on the 2od or the 22d. There is a day you gain or 
lose. I think it was the 22d or the 23d that I started home from 
Tokyo. 

The Chairman. Did you know it was said, "This public disclosure 
has lost to the United States Air Force a tactical advantage which 
may result in the loss of American lives," and that you were removed 
from the theater on the recommendation of Major General Craigie? 

Mr. Grutzner. Senator, I challenge that fact because I know that 
I was not removed. I challenge the statement. It is not a fact, and 
I state that as emphatically as I can. 

The Chairman. You don't deny that the recommendation of the 
Air Force here was that you be removed ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Senator, I know nothing whatever of the recom- 
mendation of the Air Force, but I know that I was not removed. 

The Chairman. Well, now, there is one error in what I stated. 
General Craigie was in Korea, and that recommendation was made to 
the commander in chief. Far East. 

Mr. Grutzner. Isn't it strange, Senator, that if anyone felt that 
way about it and if anyone wanted to remove me or, as you say, did 
in fact remove me 

The Chairman. I did not say that. 

Mr. Grutzner (continuing). That no one should ever have asked 
me about this ? 

The Chairman. I asked you a question. I didn't state it as a fact 
that they actually removed you. I asked you if you knew that they 
recommended or that they requested your removal, that the Far East- 
ern Air Force had requested your removal on the 19th of December 
1950; and that ties in with when you stated you came back to this 
country. 

Mr. Grutzner, Senator, I believe there must be in the files of the 
Times, somewhere, copies of communications between me and the 
Times about my return from Korea which predated this. 

Tlie Chairman. I simply asked you the question, sir, 

Mr. Grutzner, I have answered it as emphatically as I can, Sena- 
tor. 

(The following material relative to Mr. Grutzner's cable on the 
sabre jets together with a copy of the cable, furnished by Mr, Grutzner, 
was later ordered into the record at this point :) 



1426 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

For immediate release 

Statement bt Senatoh James O. Eastland (Democeat of Mississippi) 

The Internal Security Subcommittee has been informed by the Department 
of Defense that a recommendation for disaccreditation of Charles Grutzner, New 
York Times correspondent, made December 19, 1950, by General Craigie, en- 
dorsed by General Bush, and forwarded through General Parks, was returned 
through channels 3 weeks later with a memorandum from Clayton Fritchey, then 
head of all public information activities for the Department, stating that the De- 
partment of Defense did not concur in the recommendation for disaccreditation. 

The subcommittee has further been informed that the Department is unable 
as yet to state from its own records whether the article written by Mr. Grutzner 
concerning the first combat use of American F-86 aircraft (sabrejets) was cleared 
for publication at the Pentagon. However, the New York Times has publicly 
stated that its record indicates that such clearance was obtained from Jack Shea 
at the Pentagon by Austin Stevens of the Times staff. I have no reason to doubt 
the truth of this statement by the New York Times, and on this basis it would 
appear that the Times did nothing to violate security. Of course, the subcom- 
mittee never has made any such charge, but I am glad to make this statement in 
the interest of complete fairness. 

[From the New York Times, July 1, 1955] 

Times Editor Says Grutzner Story Did Not Endanger United States 
Security — Asserts Dispatch Relating to Sabrejets Had Been Cleared by 
Pentagon — Defense Agency's Record Cited 

Turner Catledge, managing editor of the New York Times, issued the folloio- 
img statement last night : 

The Times rejects any implication that national security was jeopardized 
by its publication of Charles Grutzner's dispatch regarding the F-86 Sabre-jet. 

The dispatch concerning the use for the first time of this plane in the Ko- 
rean war theater was received by the Times on December 17, 1950. 

The dispatch, filed from an "advanced air base, Korea," was preceded by 
the following memorandum addressed to the foreign editor : 

"Suggest Washington bureau expedite release following stoi-y which I spent 
entire day at frozen air base getting. Fifth Air Force says regarded as se- 
curity by 'high Washington level' despite fact our new plane made confirmed 
kill of MIG 15." 

The story was sent by teletype to the Times Washington bureau. Clear- 
ance for publication was obtained by Austin Stevens. Mr. Stevens at that time 
was the bureau's Pentagon reporter. 

Mr. Stevens recalled yesterday that the story was sent from New York with 
a request that it be checked by Pentagon oflBcials. He said that he telephoned 
a responsible civilian member of the press section of the Air Force, to whom 
he read the story. 

"This official," Mr. Stevens said, "then applied what he said was the stand- 
ard rule at that time — that if a plane had been engaged with the enemy it was 
presumed to have been identified. The oflScial said to go ahead and publish the 
story." 

The story was published the next day, December 18. 

In connection with the F-86 jet story, G. Herschel Schooley, Director of In- 
formation for the Defense Department, issued this statement last night : 

"Our records show that the Department of Defense, Office of Public Infor- 
mation, received on January 10, 1951, recommendations urging the disaccredi- 
tation of Charles Grutzner of the New York Times because of the F-86 inci- 
dent from Maj. Gen. L. C. Craigie, vice commander of the Far East Air Force, 
and Brig. Gen. K. B. Bush, then Adjutant General of the Far East Command. 

"The recommendations were forwarded by Maj. Gen. Floyd L. Parks, then 
Army Chief of Information, to the Defense Department, Office of Information. 
On January 15 Clayton Fritchey, then Director of Information, advised Gen- 
eral Parks by return letter that the Department of Defense 'does not concur' in 
the recommendations to revoke Mr. Grutzner's accreditation." 

The Department of Defense was requested by General Craigie to revoke 
Mr. Grutzner's accreditation on January 10, 1951. By that time Mr. Grutz- 
ner had returned to this country and had been working on the city staff for a 
full week. The Times was not informed that General Craigie had requested 
Mr. Grutzner's recall. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1427 

The steps leading toward Mr. Grutzner's return began as early as November 
20, 1950, almost a month before the F-86 dispatch was sent. On that date Lind- 
say Parrott, then chief of the Times Tokyo bureau, sent a message to the late 
Edwin L. James, then managing editor. The message informed Mr. James that 
Mr. Grutzner had asked to return to the local staff. 

Mr. Parrott said in the message that it was his understanding that Mr. Grutz- 
ner had come to Korea only on a temporary basis and wishes to return to his 
regular assignment by Christmas if possible." 

On December 16, 1950, Mr. James informed Mr. Parrott that Greg MacGregor 
had been assigned to replace Mr. Grutzner, and that Mr. Grutzner could return 
as soon as Mr. MacGregor reached Korea. Mr. Grutzner left Korea on Decem- 
ber 21, 1950. 

RCA PRESS NYKTIMES SANFRANCISCO 

Profreedman suggest Washington bureau expedite release following story 
which eye spent entire day at frozen airbase getting stop fifth airforce says 
regarded as security by quote high Washington level unquote despite fact our 
new plane made confirmed kill of mmmiiiggg fifteen stop story follows colon 
172045 grutzner sabre dateline at advanced airbase korea december seventeen 
para unistates newest jet plane comma the worlds fastest comma engaged com- 
bat today for first time and sent russianmade jet plummeting in flames into 
wasteland near manchurian border para four american fff dash eightysix sabres 
comma throttling down their power until they lured aye quartet of enemy 
mmmiiiggg dash fifteens into battle comma suddenly quote threw on the coals 
unquote and went at the mmmiiigggs with the speed of sound para while three 
of the russianmade jets scooted to safety in manchuria across the yalu river 
comma the fourth was downed on northkorean soil near border city of sinuiju 
stop distinction of making first kill with blazing fifty calibre machineguns of 
latest jetplane went to lieutenant colonel briice hhh hinton of Stockton Cali- 
fornia thirtyone year old flight leader para the glistening silver sabres offtook 
from this base safternoon as escorts flight of ppp dash fiftyones and ground 
support mission stop after fighter bombers had bombed bridge over which 
Chinese moved reinforcements into korea fifty miles northeast sinuiju comma the 
american jets flew slowly in wide arc for return home base para colonel hinton 
flying number one position stop his cover was captain morris bbb pitts of 
birmingham alabama stop captain raymond janeczek of sixtythree parker avenue 
passaic new jersey flew three spot and first lieutenant paul www bryce junior 
of lawrenceburg tennessee number four stop in the border area near where 
mmmiiigggs often lie in wait across the yalu comma the new american planes 
cruised at reduced speed paraquote we had it planned to suck in those guys 
unquote said hinton stop after fifteen minutes of that the sabres were beginning 
to uppick speed when pitts called over the radiophone quote four bogeys crossing 
in front of us unquote more 

first add 172045 grutzner sabre paraquote theyve got sweptback wings unquote 
incame voice of janeczek stop then began maneuvering of two quartets of swept- 
back winged jets comma the sabre being similar to mmmiiiggg in that respect 
para our jets were twentyfive thousand feet above the snowy plain stop the enemy 
craft were seven to tenthousand feet below the sabres and climbing slightly stop 
as the american jets dived to attack comma retaining their defensive formation 
comma the russianmade jets started aye hard right turn stop our planes made 
an inside turn and began inclosing on them paraquote the mmmiiiggs broke for- 
mation and started going all over the sky unquote hinton reported after our 
planes backgot to base unscathed requote eye outpicked aye guy and janeczek 
outpicked aye guy and we went after them stop our wingmen covered us in per- 
fect teamwork unquote para the mmmiiigggs comma apparently realizing they 
had uprun against something faster than expected comma jettisoned their wing- 
tip tanks and dumped fuel to increase speed stop hinton offcast his tanks too 
stop as he gained on mmmiiiggg he gave him aye burst with machinegims para 
mmmiiiggg was hit and showed in trouble stop it wiggled stop its pilot output 
brakes comma put back in again stop hinton inclosed on him again and gave him 
long burst stop saw pieces fall off enemy plane stop kept shooting stop mmmiiiggg 
started burning then smoking badly stop hinton was within eighthundred feet 
when mmmiiiggg plummeted paraquote last eye saw of him he was on his back 
and going straight down unquote said hinton para janeczek comma whose target 
had escaped across border comma rejoined group in time to see hintons victim 
fall stop he said mmmiiiggg was smoking and quote definitely out of control 



1428 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

unquote para while this dogfight dash which lasted no moren than five minutes 
dash was ongoing another mmmiiiggg was getting on tail hintons jet stop pitts 
let go three bursts at mmmiiiggg who fled stop the sabres low on fuel turned 
for homebase more 

SECOND ADD 172045 grutzner sabre para there air expectancy at airbase as 
fff dash eightysixes spied homestreaking and cheer went up from groundwaiters 
as hintons plane did victory roll approaching field stop safternoons mission was 
third time up for new supersets since arrival korea and first time any has drawn 
blood stop made first sweep over northkorea friday and had escorted bombers to 
kanggye area smorning without encountering enemy aircraft para other pilots 
pounded hintons back when outstepped plane stop before debriefing in intelligence 
shack comma briefing officer handed him cigar in congratulation stop sixfoot 
hinton told correspondents he had quote told aye guy to get aye red star ready 
bracket symbol of mmmiiiggg kill unbracket before we left field unquote said 
he regarded fff dash eightysix quote best plane ever built unquote para the sabre 
has set world speed record of 670.981 miles per hour and able do considerably 
better stop other information deemed by airforce releasable is service ceiling 
moren fortyfivethousand feet comma carries six guns of fifty calibre and can be 
modified to bear sixteen five dash inch rockets stop wing and tail sweptback 
comma tricycle gear comma steerable nose and wheel stop span thirtyseven feet 
comma length thirty feet six inches comma height fourteen feet eight inches 
comma maximum takeoff gross weight about sixteenthousand pounds stop 
livefivefour sabres ordered by government para sabres here in fifth airforces 
fourth fighter group under command colonel John ccc meyer of forest hills new 
york city stop planes so new their pilots not yet had individual names onpainted 
them stop hinton said his plane nicknamed quote squanee unquote repeat squanee 
Svop asked what means he grinned and replied quote eyed rather not say unquote 
finis 

(The following material was subsequently received by the subcom- 
mittee and is included in the record together with the exchange of 
correspondence relative thereto:) 

July 8, 1955. 
Mr. Charles Grutzner, 
The New York Times, 

Times Square, New York 36, N. Y. 

Dear Mr. Grutzner: The material furnished with your letter of July 2 will 
be included in the printed record.^ The items which were not formally offered 
and accepted for the record will be printed as footnotes. 

You state in your letter that "the Craigie recommendation * * * was not made 
until after I was back in New York * * *." When did you get back to New 
York? Your story about the Sabei-jets was filed on December 17. General 
Craigie's recommendation was dated December 19. You will remember I ques- 
tioned you about this chronology. 

Your blacksheets on the Sabrejet story will be returned to you under separate 
cover. 

Sincerely, 

J. G. SOURWINE. 



The New York Times, 
New York 36, N. Y., July 11, 1955. 
Mr. J. G. SouRwiNE, 

Chief Counsel, Senate Internal Security Subcatnmittee, 
Senate Office Buildinii, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Sourwine : Thank you for your letter of July 8, regarding disposition 
of the material I forwarded to you on July 2. 

Answering your question as to when I got back to New York, I landed at Idle- 
wild on Christmas Eve, December 24, 1950. You point out that General Craigie's 
recommendation was "dated December 19." When I wrote you on July 2, I had 
not seen (and have not yet, for that Juatter) the full transcript of the June 30 
public hearing. I did not know at that writing, and do not know now, just how 
the December 19 date may have been mentioned then. 



1 This material appears above. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1429 

Without Qiiibbliujr, I say merely that when I wrote you on July 2, I referred to 
the published story on the Turner Catledge statement (Times, July 1) of which 
I sent you a copy and which said "The Department of Defense was requested by 
General Craigie to revoke Mr. Grutzner's accreditation on January 10, 1951." If 
the Department of Defense, which turned down General Craigie's request, did not 
get it until January 10. 1951, it would seem I was correct in stating that I was 
back in New York by that time. It would be obvious, then, that I could not have 
been "removed from the theater on the recommendation of Major General 
Craigie." 

I hope this has answered whatever question may have been raised on the matter 
of dates in my July 2 letter. Since I (and the Times, too, for that matter) had 
been given no information imtil June 30, 1955, that General Craigie had made 
such a request for my disaccreditation and it had been turned down by the De- 
partment of Defense, I could have no personal knowledge of the dates, whether 
December 19, January 10. or January 15, which seems to be the date the Depart- 
ment of Defense informed General Craigie by letter that it "does not concur'' in 
his reconmiendatinn. 

It seems to me that the date (January 10), when the Defense Department got 
the request, is a more realistic date, for the purpose of showing whether I was 
kicked out of Korea or was reassigned by my office per long-previous arrange- 
ment, than December 19, some 22 days before the Defense Department seems to 
have been informed. 

Sincerely yours, 

Chables Grutznek. 



Orangebtjrg, N. Y., J^^ly 19, 1955. 
Hon. James O. Eastland, 

Chairman Internal Security Subcommittee 
United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Senator Eastland : Please find enclosed three-page account, dated 
December 17, 1950. I respectfully request that this be entered in the record of 
that part of your current inquiry dealing with the Sabrejet story I filed from 
Korea to the New York Times on that date. 

I venture this request for two reasons. I believe this account, which I found 
in a search instituted after my appearance before your subcommittee on June 
30, contains information imixtrtant to your inquiry. I believe also that the 
record should, in fairness, carry my refutation of some of the testimony given 
by the witness Ansel Talbert 2 weeks subsequent to my public examination. 

You may recall that at the June 30 hearing I told you I believed I had carbon 
copies at home of Korea dispatches, including the Sabrejet story with my 
hold-for-release memo to the Times. You gave me permission to mail to Mr. 
Sourwine the Sabrejet carbon if I could find it. In searching through my 
dispatch file, I came upon the three-page personal account, written shortly after 
the occurrences noted. You will see that this contains details which otherwise 
could not have been remembered so exactly after a lapse of nearly 5 years. 

I found also carbons of 14 other stories I had filed via RCA wireless from 
Seoul direct to the United States from December 2 to 20, 1950, without having 
been once requested not to use RCA. This would indicate that my use of 
RCA on December 17 was no stratagem or unusual device. A copy of every 
one of these stories had been filed, at time of sending, with the Eighth Army 
PIO. 

I mailed to Mr. Sourwine the Sabrejet carbon copy, as your committee had 
authorized me to do. I consulted with my editor on the advisability of offering 
also the three-page account now enclosed. This was several days before Mr. 
Talbert testified. My editor advised me to make no additional requests of your 
committee unless Mr. Talbert's subsequent testimony should prove unfactual 
and unfair to me. 

Scmie of the testimony recited by Mr. Talbert " has been so far from the facts 
that I feel compelled now to offer the December 17, 1950, account. I was 
happy to note that your committee has already accepted, for the record, state- 
ments by Glenn Stackhouse, William Barnard, and Sankey Trimble on their: 
recollection of events. 

Where some variation appears among the Stackhouse, Barnard, and Trimble 
statements, it is readily understandable as the individual aspects of undocu- 
mented memory after nearly 5 years. I have, in fact, a letter from Mr. Trimble, 
dated July 13, 1955, in which he writes: "Frankly, vague recollections are about' 

2 Mr. Talbert's testimony appears at p. 1487, pt. 16. 



1430 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

all I have. Those were hectic times and I found that when the issue came up 
recently, I didn't remember too much about the affair." 

With Mr. Talbert, however, it was not just a case of disremembering or 
remembering vaguely what happened. Mr. Talbert apx)ears to have "remem- 
bered" things that never happened. For instance : 

Mr. Talbert "remembered" going to my room and awakening me after the 
December 17 expedition to Kimpo had been organized at the press billet (Naija). 

Whereas, my account describes my walk from the Chosun Hotel (where I was 
living) to the press billet, where I arrived while the regular operational briefing 
(10 a. m. ) was in progress, and how we gathered there for the Kimpo expedition 
after the briefing. 

Again Mr. Talbert "remembered" meeting me quite by chance in a commercial 
wireless (RCA) office that night and being "astonished" to find me filing the 
story. 

Whereas, my account tells of riding with him in the same jeep to RCA from 
the Chosun Hotel, where he had been in the bar with Dick Johnston. Mr. 
Johnston, now in the Chicago bureau of the New York Times, told me recently 
he remembered well having been at the Chosun bar with Talbert that night, 
which was fixed in his mind as the date he returned from Tokyo to Korea and 
found me writing the Sabrejet story when he came up to the room we shared. 

I cite the above two items merely as example of the discrepancies which might 
have some bearing on the credibility of Mr. Talbert's testimony and my own. 

May I call to your attention one more item in my memorandum. I told of 
leaving the jeep at the Chang No and going to the Chosun Hotel on returning 
to Seoul from the airfield, while the other correspondents went on to the Naija 
biUet, where they were quartered. If there was any notification or request made 
at the press billet later that evening by the Air Force — and Mr. Stackhouse and 
Mr. Trimble seem to have varying recollections on that — it could not have in- 
volved me because I was not at the press billet any time that evening nor night, 
and I received no such notification in the Chosun Hotel. 

I hope. Senator Eastland, that you will understand my desire to have the 
record contain my enclosed memorandum. I am reluctant to encumber the 
record more than is necessary, but I regard this as necessary to remove some 
of the misunderstanding, to put it mildly, that has been built around what I 
regarded as a legitimate exercise of my judgment and individual responsibility 
during the period when there was voluntary censorship as contrasted to the 
enforced military censorship that was instituted later after other correspondents 
had sent out stories on the death of General Walker, also described at the time 
as a security violation. 
Sincerely yours, 

Chakles Grutzneb. 



July 22, 1955. 

Mr. Charles Grutzner, 

R. F. D. No. 1, Orangeburg, N. Y. 
Dear Mr. Grutzner: This will acknowledge your letter of July 19, with 
enclosure. 

If you will send me the contemporary memorandum respecting the Sabrejet 
incident, which you reported having found in your files, together with your 
notarized certificate that this is, in fact, a memorandum typed in December 
1950 (or whatever the actual date was) and which has been in your possession 
ever since, I shall be glad to take up with the committee the matter of having 
this inserted in the record. The memorandum will, of course, be returned to 
you thereafter. 
Sincerely, 

James O. Eastland, 
Chairman, Internal Security Suhcommittee. 



Orangeburg, N. Y., August 4, 1955. 
Hon. James O. Eastland, 

Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee, 
United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Senator Eastland : Thank you for your letter and suggestion of July 22, 
which I received today upon my return from a vacation trip. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1431 

I am enclosing, in line with your instructions, my notarized certificate along 
with my original memorandum (prepared in January 1951) on the events of 
December 17, 1950. . ^ . 

Since this was written at the time as a very personal account it contains 
a few references, as you will notice, which have no connection whatever with 
the matter that came later to the attention of your committee. I believe you 
will not want to clutter your record with these irrelevant matters and I would 
be thankful if my privacy were respected on these two irrelevant subjects. 

I have indicated the two items which I respectfully request be withheld by 
drawing a light ink line through them, without, however, obliterating them. 

My reasons for requesting that the pertinent parts of this memorandum be 
put into the record were explained in my letter to you of July 19. I assume 
that you did not want me to detail them again. 
Yours sincerely, 

Chables Gbutznee, 

Orangebubo, N. Y., August 4> 1955. 

I, Charles Grutzner, do certify upon my oath that the attached three tyi)e- 
written pages have been in my continuous possession since January 1951. They 
constitute my personal account of happenings in which 1 participated on Decem- 
ber 17, 1950. Within a few weeks after the events described therein I wrote the 
attached account while the happenings were still fresh in my memory and I 
had some jottings made on the spot. 

The attached sheets, each of which I have initialed (eg) for identification, 
are the original typewritten account set on those sheets of paper in January 
1951, exact day of the month unknown. 

ChAkleS GETTTZNBai. 

State of New Yoek, 

County of New York, us: 

Sworn to before me this 4th day of August 1955. 

[SEAL] E. Leroy Finch, 

Notary Puhlic, State of New York, No. 41-1212400. 

Qualified in Queens County. Term expires March 30, 1957. 

Sunday, December 17, 1950 : 

******* 

Walking to the Naija, I paused to take a few snapshots along the side street 
leading to the billet. Pooksan and the western mountains were white and 
snow lay on the roofs of houses although the street was swept clean. The 
briefing session was under way in the big downstairs room, with Captain Tate 
reporting movements here and contact there for a rather muddled situation in 
which the enemy seemed to be getting the better of things. 

The phones to Tokyo were tied up by the wire services, and the news didn't 
amount to much, so I was willing when Ed Talbert suggested we go out to 
Kimpo where the Air Force's newest plane, the F-86 Sabrejet, was to go up 
hunting MIG-15's today. An Air Force PIO, Lt. Franklin Talley, drove four 
of us over the snowscape in a jeep — Talbert, Glenn Stackhouse of UP, Bill 
Bernard of AP, and myself. It was biting cold, especially on the Han River 
flats where the wind pushed through the sides of the canvas-topped jeep. 
Sitting in front between Talley and Talbert, I was crowded but had some 
protection against the cold. We reached Kimpo shortly after 12. 

Just before we got to the airbase we heard a roar and saw a few silver 
streaks jetting by. They were part of the flight of seven Sabres that had 
gone up in the morning. We met Capt. Sankey Trimble at the PIO tent. 
The morning flight had gone far north but encountered no enemy planes, so 
there was no story yet. Talbert, who had come over last week from Tokyo, 
said the Air Force there had told him nothing could be written to disclose that 
we had F-86's in Korea until they had engaged in combat. 

There was to be an afternoon sortie, so we were in for a wait. We went 
for chow in two groups because there wasn't enough messkits in the PIO tent. 
After the tent fellows came back, we correspondents dunked the kits in the 
cans of boiling water in front of the messhall and then lined up and ate. Then 



1432 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

we went back to the tent, to lie on cots or read Stars and Stripes near the stove. 
One of the PIO photo£?raphers drove me out on the field and showed me the 
F-SO's and F-84's, also a pair of the black nightfighter jets. It was frigid, but 
clear. I made a few pictures, and he took one of me beside the ruins of some 
Yak figliters that had been shot down in September, 

We had just got back to the tent when we heard the four Sabres were coming 
back. One of them did a victory roll and we knew we'd have a story. It was 
a good feeling, jerking me out of the tiredness that came from waiting and 
the contrast between the cold of the field and the warmth of that part of the 
tent near the stove. 

Crowding into the debriefing tent we heard one of the pilots report how he had 
taken otT at 1405 and returned to the field at 1.535. He described the encounter 
near the Yalu River with four MIG's and was telling about hitting the mep (mop?) 
when the briefing officer decided we shouldn't be listening in on the debriefing. 
It had surprised me earlier that we had been pei'mitted in that tent. Sankey 
Trimble then said we'd all go back to PIO and would get an interview with the 
pilots after the debriefing. Meanwhile Lt. Col. Bruce Hinton of Stockton, Calif., 
who had shot down tlie MIG had come into the tent and all the officers slapped 
his back and congratulated him. 

Later we all went into a larger tent — the 4th Fighter Group's operations tent, 
I think it was — where we got good interviews. "Well, there's your story," said 
Trimble. "I guess it was worth the trip out here." We were all happy about it. 
Trimble said he'd call the 5th Air Force to let them know. He spoke to Colonel 
Scott, the PIO there, and frowned. "You can't use the story," Trimble told us. 
AVe were indignant, especially Talbert. He got on the phone and argued with 
Scotty, reminding him that it was a "deal" with the Air Foi'ce top command in 
Tokyo that the Sabre story would be made public as soon as a MIG had been shot 
down. Scotty quibbled at first whether it was a "sure kill." One of the pilots 
Who saw the MIG go down blazing tlien got on and assured him that it was a 
"kill." 

Trimble got back on the phone and tried gently to get Scotty's O. K., but how 
tough can a captain get with a colonel? Scotty said "No" again. Trimble relayed 
some of our arguments to him, and finally he sajd — and no one believed him — that 
the decision wasn't his or even General Stratemeyer's but that a "top level in 
Washington" had decided the time wasn't ripe to disclose the presence in Korea 
of Sabres. 

We Avere disgusted. We chatted with Col. Johnny Meyer of Forest Hills, 
commanding officer of the fighter group (who had made the morning flight but 
not the afternoon) and with Trimble while Talbert. who was doing some work on 
the side for NBC, and a PIO went to another tent to make tai)e recordings of an 
interview with Hinton. 

Stackhouse had it figured that Stratemeyer wanted to hold the story because 
it was now past deadline time for the Sunday a. m. papers in the States and there 
are no Sunday afternoon papers — hoping to get a bigger play on a weekday. We 
agreed Scotty's excuse was phony. If the Air Force released the story in a day 
or two, maybe after another MIG had been downshot, it would be based on the 
latest development and our whole day out here and the Hinton interview would be 
second rate or worthless altogether. Stackhouse announced he was going to file 
his story "hold for release" and suggest that I^P try to get <-learani e from the 
Air Force in Washington, to whom Scotty had ascribed the holdup of the sto y. 
It seemed a good idea. I said I'd do likewise. Then, whenever the story was 
cleared, oi;r copy would already be in New York, ready to go. 

It was dark by the time we left Kimpo, this time in a jeep without even a to]). 
We sat like turtles, our heads inside our coat collars and our hands curled inside 
our sleeves. We had gone maybe 2 miles when the radiator began steaming. We 
pulled up at a settlement. The long street was deserted. AVe could find no 
water nor anyone to direct us to some. 

AA'e returned to Kimpo to fill up the radiator and again rolled toward S°oui. 
A wind was blowing and waves lapped against the flatboats supporting the river 
bridge. I got out of the jeep where it turned off the Chang Xo toward th(> 
capitol and walked to the Chosun. I had arranged with Soffee that we would 
meet about 5 and have dinner at the Chinese restaurant. It was now almost 7. 
I was concerned about having mis.sed her. The phone rang. SofTee was down- 
stairs and was coming up. AA^e decided to put off the Chinese dinner until to- 
morrow. AA^'e were both tired and Soffee was going home to spend tonight with 
Han-ho. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1433 

I went downstairs. They were still serving dinner in the U. N. mess. I told 
the officer I had a snest, and could I buy an extra ticket. He asked "a Korean"? 
and I said "Yes, my interpreter." He said yes. Soffee at first did not want to 
go down to eat. then consented. She was beautiful, walking through the lobby 
in her sweater and trousers. A couple of GI's stared as if their eyes would pop 
out of their heads. We had dinner, but Soffee ate very little. 

I walked her home, looked in for a minute to say hello to the mamasan and 
see Han-ho and Jinju playing on the floor, and returned to the Chosun. I went 
upstairs and began writing the Sabre story. Dick Johnston came up later. He 
had returned today from Tokyo * * *. He had been down at the bar. 

At 10 : 45 I bundled myself up and went down to take most of my story to 
RCA, with a precede message to the Times to seek through its Washington 
bureau clearance. I met Ed Talbert in the lobby. He had been at the bar with 
Dick Johnston. I let him read my story and told him I thought it a good idea 
to send, hold for release, as protection if for no other reason. I said that if we 
did not file we would be at a disadvantage if UP got clearance because its story 
would then go over the teletype from Washington or New York at once. I sug- 
gested he do likewise, but Talbert said it was now Sunday morning in the States 
and he didn't think the Pentagon would clear any story today. Besides, it was 
late to start working now, he said. 

We went with George Herman in his jeep. I dropped my copy at RCA and 
walked back to the Chosim, they going on to the Xai.ja. I went upstairs. Dick 
was asleep. I called the PIO for a jeep and wrote my last add. When the jeep 
arrived I gave the driver the add to deliver to RCA and my carbdns on the whole 
story for the PIO file, and went to sleep. 

Mr. SouR-vviNE. Mr. Grutzner, did you ever iiiteTitionally slant any 
stories that you sent back ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I certainly did not. 

Mr, SouRwiNE. Did you ever write any stories tint were picked up 
by the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I never saw any of my stories in tlio Daily Worker. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you remember writing a story a])ort the Army 
acknowledging 3 homicides in the last 10 days, involving Ignited States 
soldiers as defendants? 

Mr. Grutzner. Yes, I believe I did file such a story. 

Mr. Sourw^ine. Did you write a story with a head in the Times about 
GI's abusing Koreans in Seoul ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Wasn't that the same story ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was that the same story ? 

Mr. Grutzner. It was. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. The Daily Worker put a different head on it. 

Mr. Grutzner. I am interested to see what they did with it. What 
did they say ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Pardon ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I say I am interested to learn what they did with it. 
What did they say ? 

Mr. Sourwtne. I thought you were the one who is telling me it was 
the same story. 

Mr. Grutzner. I thought you asked me whether the Times published 
a story in which I spoke about 3 homicides in 10 days, and then you 
say to me, "Did you file a story on which a head was put, stating so- 
and-so?" I assumed, Mr. Sourwine, that you were talking about the 
New York Times both times, because I filed only one such story. 

I dicln't know whether you were referring once to the head on it. 
I certainly have no recollection of what the head said. 



1434 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, I will make the record clear. I will read the 
first paragraph of the Times story : 

By Charles Grutzner, special to the New York Times. Seoul, Korea, Wednes- 
day, December 20 : 

The American soldier who won a warm spot in the hearts of the populace when 
he entered this capital as a liberator nearly 3 months ago, now is regarded with 
suspicion by many Koreans because of the looting and violence of a small group 
of the United States forces. The recent outbreak of lawlessness has caused the 
provost marshal to take several restrictive measures, including the closing of 
dance halls and changing the curfew for military personnel — 

and so forth. 

Mr. Grutzner. That's right. And you will note that I limited this 
to a small group. There was no complaint about the GI in general, 
and I felt I was performing a public service by calling this to the atten- 
tion of the American people. That is why newspapers send special 
correspondents over there. 

The Chairman. Now, before this incident, had the F-86 been 
operated in Korea ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Oh, yes. 

The Chairman. Had you been briefed about the operation of 
the F-86? 

Mr. Grutzner. No, no, I don't believe I was briefed. 

The Chairman. What security precautions had you been given con^ 
cerning the activities of the F-86 ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I was given no security precautions concerning the 
F-86. As I said a moment ago, the first I heard that the F-86's were 
going to fly that day was about 10 o'clock in the morning when an- 
other correspondent told us about it, and four of us decided to go out. 

The Chairman. You had not been told that the Air Force did not 
want the enemy to know that the F-86's were operating in Korea ? 

Mr. Grutzner. I was told no such thing. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. To get back to this story, Mr. Grutzner, did you 
write in this story — 

Seoul's seven dance halls, after operating in an orderly way, became arenas 
for nightly brawls, much gunbrandishing and some shooting. Merchants com- 
plained that the GI's inspected their wares and then walked off with the desired 
items, for which they refused to pay. Korean women were molested in the 
streets by American soldiers, and several shootings of Koreans were reported, 
to the authorities. 

Mr. Grutzner. That's right. And I would like to tell you why 
I wrote that story. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is what I want. I would like to know if there 
is any connection between the incident which took place on the I7th 
and the censure which the General made by written communication on 
the 19th and the story you filed on the 20th, which was very critical 
of the Army. 

Mr. Grutzner. It was not critical of the Army. It was critical of 
a small group of GI's, as my lead says. I wish you would not mis- 
interpret what I write, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I will offer the entire article for the record, Mr^ 
Chairman. 

The Chairman. It will be admitted. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1435 

(The article referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 2" and appears 

below:) 

Exhibit No. 2 

[From the New York Times, December 20, 1950] 

A Few GI's Abuse Koreans in Seoul — Looting and Violence by Small Gboup 
Afteb Bitteb Retreat Lower United States Prestige 

(By Charles Grutzner, special to the New York Times) 

Seoul, Korea, Wednesday, Dec. 20 — The American soldier, who won a warm 
spot in the hearts of the populace when he entered this capital as a liberator 
nearly 3 months ago, now is regarded with suspicion by many Koreans because 
of the looting and violence of a small group of the United States forces. 

The recent outbreak of lawlessness has caused the provost marshal to take 
several restrictive measures including the closing of dance halls and changing 
the curfew for military personnel from 9 to 7 p. m. 

Most breaches of discipline took place since the return here from the north 
in the last 2 weeks of soldiers and officers of units that had been buffeted by 
the Chinese Communists in the breakthrough that brought the loss of Pyongyang 
and most of North Korea. 

The men who had endured hardships and harrowing experiences plus the heart- 
break of retreat behaved for the most part like true soldiers. Some, however, 
reacted badly. 

Seoul's seven dance halls, after operating in an orderly way, became arenas 
for nightly brawls, much gun brandishing and some shooting. Merchants com- 
plained that the GI's inspected their wares and then walked off with the de- 
sired items for which they refused to pay. Korean women were molested in 
the streets by American soldiers and several shootings of Koreans were reported 
to the authorities. 

The Army acknowledges three homicides in the last 10 days involving United 
States soldiers as defendants. A spokesman for the Eighth Army said there 
had been a numerical increase in crimes by soldiers in recent weeks but doubted 
any increase in the crime rate. He attributed the increase in the number of 
crimes to the sudden growth of Seoul's uniformed and temporary population. 

The Army has not made crime figures public and the Korean metropolitan 
police suddenly decided, on the advice of an American liaison group, that local 
crime statistics were "confidential." 

Not all the culprits are enlisted men. Following a recent collision between 
jeeps a United States captain in one jeep shot the Korean driver of the other 
vehicle and escaped. 

Most of the military police were taken out of Seoul for the tactical mission 
of keeping traffic rolling during the recent withdrawals but that situation now 
has eased and more military police are on local patrol. An Army spokesman said 
the lawlessness was believe to be subsiding and that the military police and crim- 
inal investigation division personnel in the city now were adequate to prevent 
recurrence. 

Mr. Grutzner. I was about to tell 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Just a moment. 

I will also offer for the record at this point an article from the Daily 
Worker, New York, Thursday, December 21. The heading is : 

Sat Violence in Seoul Stirs Anti-United States Feeling 

"The Army acknowledges 3 homicides in the last 10 days involving United 
States soldiers as defendants," a New York Times dispatch from Seoul, Korea, 
said yesterday. The story, by Charles Grutzner, declared that American sol- 
diers are now "regarded with suspicion by many Koreans because of the looting 
and violence of a small group of the United States forces." 

Grutzner said that not all of the culprits are enlisted men. He reported that 
following a recent collision between jeeps, a United States captain in one 
jeep shot the Korean driver of the other, and escaped. 

Most "breaches of discipline," he wrote, "took place since the return here from 

59886— 55— pt. 15 1 



1436 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

the North in the last 2 weeks of soldiers and oflScers that had been buffeted by 
the Chinese Communists." 

Examples of the violence against the Korean people were reported as follows — 

and so forth. 

I offer the entire article for the record. 

The Chairman. It will be admitted. 

(The article referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 3" and appears 
below:) 

Exhibit No. 3 

[From the Daily Worker, New York, December 21, 1950] 

Say Violence in Seoul Stirs Anti-United States Feeling 

"The Army acknowledges homicides in the last 10 days involving United 
States soldiers as defendants," a New York Times dispatch from Seoul, Korea, 
said yesterday. The story, by Charles Grutzner, declared that American soldiers 
are now regarded with suspicion by many Koreans because of the looting and 
violence of a small group of the United States forces. 

Grutzner said "not all the culprits are enlisted men." He reported that follow- 
ing a recent collision between jeeps a United States captain in one jeep shot the 
Korean driver of the other and escaped. 

Most "breaches of discipline," he wrote, "took place since the return here from 
the North in the last 2 weeks of soldiers and officers that had been buffeted by 
the Chinese Communists." 

Most of the returning men, he said, "behaved for the most part like true, 
soldiers." 

But "some, however, reacted badly." 

Examples of the violence against the Korean people were reported as follows 
by Grutzner : 

"Seoul's seven dance halls, after operating in an orderly way, became arenas 
for nightly brawls, much gun brandishing and some shooting. Merchants com- 
plained that the GI's inspected their wares and then walked off with the desired 
items for which they refused to pay. Korean women were molested in the streets 
by American soldiers and several shootings of Koreans were reported to the 
authorities." 

Grutzner added : 

"The Army has not made crime figures public and the Korean Metropolitan 
Police suddenly decided, on the advice of an American liaison group, that local 
crime statistics were 'confidential.' " 

Grutzner's dispatch was among the last tiled from Korea before General Mac- 
Arthur imposed his censorship. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Now, go ahead, Mr. Grutzner. 

Mr. Grutzner. I believe I was to tell you how I came on the track of 
that story. I went to a Chinese restaurant in Seoul one evening and 
a young woman who had acted as my interpreter on occasion accom- 
panied me, and we came out of the restaurant and a crowd of people, 
Koreans, was milling about the street, and when they saw me in uni- 
form, they dashed up to us and they were muttering and they were 
threatening me, and I asked my interpreter, "What is this all about?" 
She said : 

GI's in a jeep just stole from a store. They pushed an old lady. She fell 
down. The old lady was hurt. They hit her husband. They are angry at you ; 
they are angry at GI's. 

And I said to her : 

Will you explain to these people that there nre 'ad people everywhere. There 
are thieves in any group of people, that they should not hold this against the GI's 
in general. 

And being a Korean, she spoke to them and the mob subsided. And 
I then went to — I think it was the provost marshal and I asked him, 
I said : "This is a serious situation. Is there much of it ?" 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1437 

And I don't recall the details of the conversation, but I then went 
to the chief of police in Seoul and I had conversations with him. 

And from what I learned I wrote that story, and I felt it was a mat- 
ter of a small group of GI's, and the percentage may have been no larg- 
er — it may have been smaller — than in the civilian population. But 
a small percentage of GI's was giving us a bad name over there, to the 
extent where Koreans would mill around you in the street. I felt the 
people back here should know about it. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is that all, sir i 

Mr. Grutzner. That is all, except for one thing. Now, you are 
quoting from the Daily Worker. I know you are not implying any 
responsibility on my part, })ut I want to point out to you that the 
Daily Worker — and I think you should make this clear, Mr. Sour- 
wine. You know how these Communist outfits operate. 

The Daily Worker quotes regularly not only from the New York 
Times, from other newspapers, and it picks things which its own 
interpretation might strike the fancy of the people who read it, or it 
may appear to serve its own purposes. 

Mr. SouRwiXE. That's right. That is why they printed your story. 
It appeared to serve their purposes. 

Mr. Grutzxer. That is why it printed my story ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That's right. 

Mr. Grutzner. And it quotes from time to time many writers on 
papers, and this was not a case of ni}^ story being an execption, but 
it suited the purposes of the Worker to the extent that they did some- 
thing unusual. They do that almost every day, I daresay. 

Mr. Sourwixe. All right, sir. 

Mr. Grutzner, did you ever have any contact with the Communist 
leaders or officials of any union ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Mr. Einhorn was some official in the Newspaper 
Guild. Milton Kaufman was a paid official. I had no contacts with 
any Communists in any other union. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you ever have any contact with any of the 
officials of the Teachers Union in New York ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Not except where I was on assignment covering 
hearings and trials. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know anything about any Communist lead- 
ership in the Teachers Union in New York ? 

Mr. Grutzner. Except what I read in the papers, or what I heard 
at hearings. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever meet with any of the leaders of the 
Teachers Union as Communists? 

Mr. Grutzner. I never did. 

Mr. Sourwine. I have no other questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Senator Johnston? 

Senator Johnston. Your Communist meetings — where did you 
meet ? 

Mr. Grutzner. We met generally, I would say, at the home of the 
organizer. Meetings were held at homes of other people. 

At the time preceding and during the Eagle strike, many emergency 
meetings were held. They would be held in a cafeteria in the after- 
noon, when the cafeteria was almost empty. I think those are the 
places where they were held. 



1438 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

The Chairman. Senator Hennings ? 

Senator Hennings. I have no questions. Thank you, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

The Chairman. You may stand aside. 

We will recess now until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 10 p. m., the subcommittee recessed, to recon- 
vene at 2 p. m. of the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

Senator Johnston (presiding). The committee will resume its 
business. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Gladys Bentley. 

Senator Johnston. Gladys Bentley. 

Raise your right hand. Do you swear that the evidence you give in 
this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you, God ? 

Miss Bentley. I do. 

Senator Johnston. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF GLADYS BENTLEY, ACCOMPANIED BY GLORIA 

AGRIN, HER COUNSEL 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Miss Bentley, would you give your name, your full 
name, and your address for the record, please ? 

Miss Bentley. Gladys Bentley, 93 Remsen Street, Brooklyn. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Is it Miss or Mrs. Bentley ? 

Miss Bentley. Miss. 

Mr. Sourwine. Miss Bentley, would you tell the committee your 
employment for the past 20 years ? 

Miss Bentley. Excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Sourwine. I see you have counsel with you. Would you iden- 
tify counsel, Miss Bentley ? 

Miss Agrin. Yes ; Gloria Agrin, of the firm of Freedman & Agrin. 

Mr. Sourwine. Is that Milton Freeman ? 

Miss Agrin. No, it is not. It is Blanch Freedman. 

Mr. Sourwine. I thought I would make that clear, since Mr. Milton 
Freeman has appeared as counsel for witnesses earlier in this hearing. 

Miss Agrin. That is a "e-e-d" Freedman that we have here. 

Mr. Sourwine. Yes. Where is your office ? 

Miss Agrin. 220 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. Sourwine. You are practicing in New York ? 

Miss Agrin. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you practiced in any other State ? 

Miss Agrin. No. I am admitted in New York, and only there. 

Mr. Sourwine. Now, Miss Bentley, the question is, would you tell 
the committee your employment for the past 20 years ? 

Miss Bentley. I decline to answer on the grounds of my privilege 
against self-incrimination under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Where are you now employed ? 

Miss Bentley. I am in advertising. I am a space salesman. 

Mr. Sourwine. The question was not what do you do, but where are . 
you now employed ? 






'STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1439 

Miss BmsTTLEY. At Chelsea Advertising. 

Mr. SouKwiNE. In New York City ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. How long have you been with that company ? 

Miss Bentley, Two and a half years. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Where were you employed before that? 

Miss Bentley. I decline to answer on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Have you ever been employed by the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Bentley. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth, 
claiming the privilege. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are you presently a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Bentley. The same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you ever a member of the Brooklyn Eagle unit 
of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Bentley. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. That is, you are refusing to answer on the grounds 
of your privilege against self-incrimination ? 

Miss Bentley. That is correct. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you ever a member of the American News- 
paper Guild ? 

Miss Bentley. Excuse me, sir. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Bentley. I will give you the same answer, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you honestly feel that to answer the question as 
to whether you were a member of the Newspaper Guild might tend to 
incriminate you ? 

Miss Bentley. I give you the same answer, sir, which I think, in 
•effect, answers your question. 

Mr. Sourwine. No ; it does not, in effect ; and on that question you 
are not permitted to give the same answer. You have to answer that 
question "yes" or "no," because that is a question that goes to the bona 
fides of your claim of privilege. I am only determining the state of 
your own mind. In order to claim privilege, you must in your own 
mind honestly feel that a truthful answer to the question would tend 
to form at least a link in the chain that would incriminate you. 

Miss Bentley. Tliat is 

Mr. Sourwine. I am asking you if you truthfully feel that a truth- 
ful answer to the question as to whether you were ever a member of the 
American Newspaper Guild would tend to form at least a link in the 
chain to incriminate you. 

Miss Bentley. I thought it was implicit in my giving you that an- 
swer, sir. If it is not clear enough, I would like to talk to my lawyer. 

Mr. Sourwine. The question is what you feel, not what your lawyer 
thinks. But you always may consult counsel. 

Miss Bentley. My answer is "Yes." 

Mr. Sourwine. All right. Will you refuse on the same grounds to 
answer all questions about your membership in the Communist fac- 
tion at the Brooklyn Eagle, or would you like to have the questions 
asked individually and be given an opportunity to consider each one? 

Miss Bentley. I would like to talk to my lawyer about that. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



1440 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Miss Bentley. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I ask you if it is your intention to refuse to answer 
all questions about your connection with and activity in connection 
with the Brooklyn Eap^le Communist unit, or whether you would pre- 
fer to have the individual questions asked and consider each question 
as it is asked. 

Miss Bentley. I think I would prefer to have each question asked 
separately. I don't know how you would ask them. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I will tell you it has been testified here that you 
were the Communist organizer of the Communist unit at the Brooklyn 
Eagle, and I ask you, is that true ? 

Miss Bentley. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You do not deny it ? 

Miss Bentley. I answer with the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. All right. 

Senator Johnston. So if people come here and testify that you were 
the organizer, you do not come here and deny that fact ? 

Miss Bentley. I use my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you ever employed at the Brooklyn Eagle, 
Miss Bentley? 

Miss Bentley. I answer with the same answer, sir, the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you honestly feel that an answer to the question, 
a true answer to the question as to whether you were employed at 
the Brooklyn Eagle, might tend to incriminate you? 

Miss Bentley. I honestly feel that it might tend to ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you ever backed a Communist candidate for 
office in the American Newspaper Guild ? 

Miss Bentley. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever back the candidacy of John McManus 
for vice president of the American Newspaper Guild ? 

Miss Bentley. I give you the same answer, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever sign a Communist petition in an elec- 
tion campaign ? 

Miss Bentley. The same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. By "same answer," you mean you claim- 



Miss Bentley. The fifth amendment. Would you like me to say 
it each time? I will, if you would. 

Mr. Sourwine. There can be some confusion in the record when 
you say "same answer," and I do not think a stipulation is in order, but 
it would be fairly simple if you would say that you decline, and when 
you say you decline, then I think we can have a stipulation, with the 
chairman's permission, that you decline on the grounds of your privi- 
lege against self-incrimination. 

Would that be satisfactory ? 

Miss Bentley. Well, it is a long 

Mr. Sourwine. All you have to do is say, "I decline," instead of 
saying "The same answer." 

You see, "same answer" requires a reference, and there is some con- 
fusion as to what you are referring to. When you say, "I decline," 
we know that you are refusing to answer. 

Miss Bentley. Yes. sir. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1441 

Senator Johnston. I think it would be much clearer for the record^ 
when you are asked a question, if you state that you decline to answer, 
reserving your rights under the tifth amendment, if you do so. Do 
you understand? 

Miss Bentley. The full sentence ? 

Senator Johnston. I think that would be clearer. 

Miss Agrin. If the Chair prefers it, I think it is wise. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you, Miss Bentley, at any time employed in the 
ad department of the Brooklyn Eagle ? 

Miss Bentley. I will try to give the answer as you outlined it. 

I decline to answer, reserving my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Is that the way you want it ? Okay. 

Mr. Sotjrwine. Miss Bentley, it is not the way I want it. It is the 
question of how you want it. 

^Miss Bentley. It is this gentleman who outlined the answer. 

Senator Johnston. Understand that I am not telling you how to 
answer any question. You are to answer the questions. But if you 
are using the fifth amendment to keep from answering the question, we 
want to know it, so that when you say, "The fifth amendment," too, 
remember this, that it is the same as saying that you are refusing 
to answer under the fifth amendment, because if you would answer, 
vou would tend to incriminate yourself. 

Miss Bentley. I understand that, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Miss Bentley, you do not have the privilege of 
refusing to answer the question as to whether you were employed 
in the ad department of the Brooklyn Eagle. I will remind you 
that you have already testified under oath that you were so employed. 

Now, you can only claim your privilege under the fifth amendment 
when there is involved a disclosure which you feel would tend to in- 
criminate you. If the question involves only a fact with respect to 
which you have already testified, or a fact which is alread}' of public 
record, you may not refuse to answer. 

Under the circumstances, I ask that the witness be ordered and di- 
rected to answer the question as to whether she was at one time 
employed in the ad department of the Brooklyn Eagle. 

Senator Johnston. I will direct the witness to answer the question. 

Miss Agrin. If the Chairman please, with all due respect 

Senator Hennings. Counsel wants to make a statement. 

Senator Johnston. Excuse me. 

Miss Agrin. "With all due respect to IMr. Sourwine's interpretation 
of the law relating to the fifth amendment, I do not believe that is 
correct. Each proceeding and each portion of a proceeding stands on 
its own, so that if Miss Bentley a month ago may not have thought that 
that fact would form a link in a chain of evidence which might tend 
to incriminate her, a month has passed, and as this committee is well 
aware, the newspapers have reported enough to make her presently 
have a fear. 

I think it is a perfectly legitimate assertion of the fifth, and I be- 
lieve that there is no ground to direct her to answer this question. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, I do not wish to enter into an argu- 
ment with counsel. I stated the position of this counsel for the com- 
mittee so that the witness might be apprised. Under the decisions, it 
is important that the witness be apprised of the possibility of contempt 



1442 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

for refusal to answer. I think the witness should also be apprised that 
she is entirely free to take the advice of counsel, her own counsel, but 
that it is her decision, and if her counsel is wrong and she is in con- 
tempt because of it, the penalty for contempt will be no less. 

I ask that the witness be again ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Chairman, I hope that learned counsel for 
the committee will also agree with this observation, that it is my 
understanding of the law and always has been with relation to avail- 
ing one's self of the fifth amendment to the Constitution relating to 
possible incrimination or exposure to a criminal charge, that one has 
the right to invoke the fifth amendment to any question. The ques- 
tion of contempt would then be one to be referred in due course, within 
the determination or decision of the lower court or in this case of the 
committee, to the proper tribunal. 

Am I right ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The Senator is entirely correct. Contempt would 
lie in invoking it in an improper case. 

Senator Hennings. Precisely. One does so always at hazard and 
risk, depending upon the soundness of the witness' view of the inter- 
pretation of the fifth amendment or depending upon counsel's view of 
that interpretation, and counsel and courts frequently will disagree. 

But I just hope it will be made perfectly clear both to the witness 
and counsel that it is within the purview of the witness to answer or 
decline answering, availing herself, if she so desires, of that amend- 
ment, with relation to any question. 

Miss Agrin. I am well aware of that. I am well aware of that, 
Senator. 

Senator Johnston. What the Senator from Missouri says is en- 
tirely correct. But in order for us to lay the proper foundation here 
in this case, we must require that you answer the questions. 

Senator Hennings. Thank you. 

Miss Bentley. Excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Bentley. I reassert the fifth. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Miss Bentley, reading from your testimony in exec- 
utive session, you were asked : 

Where have you been employed for the last 20 years, Miss Bentley? 

You replied : 

Twenty years. Brooklyn Eagle for about 14 years. 

Did you not so testify ? 

Miss Bentley. I give the same answer, sir. I am sorry. I have lost 
the words again. 

Mr. Sourwine. You are claiming the fifth amendment as 

Miss Bentley. I am claiming the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. As to whether you testified to that before this com- 
mittee ? 

Miss Bentley. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the testimony of this 
witness in executive session be made a part of this record, in toto. 

Senator Johnston. It shall be made a part of the record.^ 



* Miss Bentley's executive testimony follows her public testimony at p. 1447. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1443 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, reading from that testimony, Miss Bentley, 
you further testified — you were asked, "In what capacity?"^ After 
you had said "Brooklyn Eagle for about 14 years," the question was 
asked, "In what capacity?" 

And you said, "Advertising solicitor and later sales supervisor in 
one of the advertising departments, after which I went to several other 
jobs," and so forth. 

Do you not remember testifying to that effect ? 

Miss Bentley. Excuse me, please. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Agrin. Will you excuse us? 

Miss Bentley. No. 

Miss Agrin. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Let the witness answer, Miss Agrin. 

Miss Agrin. No. I want to make one observation. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Let the witness answer. 

Miss Agrin. No. Miss Bentley has bad eyes. The light is very 
disturbing. She has a piece of glass in her eye. Is it possible to have 
the lights turned off ? 

(The television lights were turned off.) 

Miss Agrin. Thank you. 

Miss Bentley. Would you ask your question a^ain, please? 

Mr. Sourwine. I asked you if you remember testifying before this 
committee that you were employed by the Brooklyn Eagle for about 
14 years in the capacity of advertising solicitor and later sales super- 
visor in one of the advertising departments. 

Miss Bentley. If the record shows that I said it, then it is so. 

Mr, Sourwine. The question is whether you remember so testifying, 
Miss Bentley. Do you remember so testifying ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes, 

Mr, Sourwine. Having so testified, I now ask you, is that testimony 
true? 

Miss Bentley. I gave only true testimony. 

Mr, Sourwine, Is it true that you were employed by the Brooklyn 
Eagle for about 14 years as advertising solicitor and later sales super- 
visor in one of the advertising departments ? 

Miss Bentley, Excuse me, please. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Bentlet. For your last question : It is my opinion that cir- 
cumstances today are different than they were when I testified last, 
and therefore I do have a fear today that I possibly didn't have last 
time, and I assert the fifth amendment, sir, 

Mr. Sourwine, Miss Bentley, this is a merry-go-round, I am unable 
to understand you. You admitted here that you testified to this under 
oath. You have admitted here that your testimony was true. Now 
you are refusing to testify to the same thing. You have no right to 
such a refusal, and just to prevent the possible recurrence of such a 
tactic by other witnesses similarly coached, I ask that the witness be 
ordered to answer this question. 

Senator Johnston. You are ordered to answer the question. 

Miss Bentley. May I speak with my counsel, please ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



1444 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Miss BENTI.EY. I am sorry, sir. I again invoke the fifth amendment 
in answer to the question. 

Mr. SouKwiNE. Were you ever employed by Boni & Gaer, publishers ? 

Miss Bentley. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you remember testifying before this committee 
in executive session that you had been so employed? 

Miss Bentley, I said before that anything that I testified to 
was 

Mr. Sourwine. The question is : Do you remember testifying before 
this subcommittee that you were at one time so employed? 

Miss Bentley. Yes ; I do remember, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Was that testimony true? 

Miss Bentley. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir. Circumstances, 
I think, have changed, and I therefore am using the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. I ask that the witness be ordered and directed to 
answ^er the question as to whether the testimony that she gave before 
this committee in executive session with respect to her employment by 
Boni & Gaer was true. 

Senator Johnston. You are ordered and directed to answer the 
][uestion. 

Miss Bentley. I answered by invoking the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you ever employed by the new^spaper Israel 
Speaks ? 

Miss Benti.ey. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Soltrwine. By that you mean you decline to answ^er, claiming 
that if you answered truthfully the question of whether you were 
at one time employed by the newspaper, Israel Speaks, that miglit 
tend to incriminate you? 

Miss Bentley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you remember testifying before this committee 
under oath and in executive session that you had been employed by 
the newspaper Israel Speaks ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Was that true te^stimony ? 

Miss Bentley. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer that question. 

Senator Johnston. You are ordered and directed to answer this 
•question. 

Miss Bentley. I give you the same answer, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know David Wahl? 

Miss Bentley. I invoke the fifth amendment. I am sorry. I can't 
/emember the phrase, as you gave it to me. 

Mr. Sourwine. There is no particular phrase. 

Senator Johnston. There is no particidar phrase. 

Miss Bentley. Very good. I just wanted to be clear. 

Senator Johnston. You answer the question. 

Mr. Sourwine. All you have to is make clear your intention. 

Miss Agrin. I think it is clear enough in this formulation. 

Mr. Sourwine. Wasn't Mr. Wahl connected with Israel Speaks at 
the time you were employed there ? 

Miss Bentley. The fifth amendment. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1445 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Were you ever employed by the Daily Compass? 

Miss Bentley. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you honestly feel that if you answered truth- 
fully the question of whether you were employed by the Daily Com- 
pass, it would tend to incriminate you ? 

Miss Bentley. I answer by the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. No. That question you have to answer "Yes" or 

"No." 

Miss Bentley. I was invoking the fifth amendment because it was 
my understanding that by using the fifth amendment I was doing it 
because I do fear self-incrimination. 

Mr. Sourwine. That is what this committee wanted to know. But 
there have been witnesses in the past, without casting any reflection 
on the present witness, who have claimed the fifth amendment at 
times when they had no right to do so and without any actual fear 
in their minds. 

And the committee always has the right to inquire into the bona 
fides of the witness and whether the witness really feels that there 
is danger to the witness. 

Don't you remember testifying before this committee that you 
had been employed by the Daily Compass? 

Miss Bentley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. "Was that true testimony ? 

Miss Bentley. I give you the same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. You mean you are refusing now to answer as to 
whether it was true testimony ? 

Miss Bentley. Correct. I am sorry, I should have written it 
down. 

Senator Hennings. But you did so testify, madam? 

Miss Bentley. Yes. 

Senator Hennings. You testified that you were employed by the 
Daily Compass ; did you not ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. I ask that the witness be ordered and directed to 
answer the question as to whether that was true testimony. 

Senator Johnston. You are ordered and directed to say whether 
or not that is correct testimony. 

Miss Bentley. And I give you the same answer, the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Miss Bentley, do you know Alvah Bessie? 

Miss Bentley. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Nat Einhorn ? 

Miss Bentley. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Victor Weingarten ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Violet Brown, who later became 
Violet "Weingarten ? 

Miss Bentley. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Charles Lewis ? 

Miss Bentley. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Hyman Charniak ? 

Miss Bentley. The fifth amendment. 



1446 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Herbert Cohn ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know David Gordon ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Jerry Rutendollendorf er ? 

Miss Bentley. I do not recognize the name. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Charles Grutzner? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Gladys Bentley ? 

Miss Bentley. I guess better than anybody else does. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know her under any other name than 
Gladys Bentley? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Leonard Adler? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Lyle Dowling ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Murray Young ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Amos Landman ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Monroe Stem ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Milton Kaufman? ' 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know John Francis Ryan ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Gladys Kopf ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Ira Henry Freeman ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Sam Weissman? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Helen Weissman? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Mrs. Doretta Tarmon? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Peter Christopher Rhodes ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. How could you possibly know Peter Christopher 
Rhodes? 

Miss Bentley. If he is the Rhodes I think he is, I could possibly 
know him. 

Mr. Sourwine. What Rhodes did you think he is, Miss Bentley ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

Senator Johnston. Do you have any questions ? 

Senator Henntngs. I have no questions. 

Senator Johnston. Do you want to keep her under the subpena? 

Mr. Sourwine. No. I think she can be excused, sir. 

Miss Bentley. Thank you. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1447 

TESTIMONY OF GLADYS BENTLEY (IN EXECUTIVE SESSION, OR- 
DEEED INTO THE RECORD BY SENATOR JOHNSTON, PRESIDING) 

Senator Welker. Will you state your name for the record; and 
counsel, identify yourself. 

Miss Bentley. Yes. My name is Gladys Bentley. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Miss Bentley, may we have your attorney's name 
for the record. 

Miss Bentley. Gloria Agrin. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Wliat firm ? 

Miss Agrin. The firm of Blanch Freedman & Gloria Agrin. Our 
address is 220 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Wliat is your address, Miss Bentley ? 

Miss Bentley. 93 Remsen Street, Brooklyn. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And where have you been employed for the last 20 
years, Miss Bentley ? 

Miss Bentley. Twenty years. Brooklyn Eagle for about 14 years. 

Mr. Sourwine. In what capacity ? 

Miss Bentley. Advertising solicitor and later sales supervisor in 
one of the advertising departments, after which I went to several other 
jobs, including Israel Speaks, which is a newspaper; Boni & Gear, 
a publisher ; the Daily Compass. 

The Chatrman. Miss Attorney, are you taking notes on the testi- 
mony? 

Miss Agrin. If I am not supposed to, I won't. 

The Chairman. You certainly are not supposed to. It is a secret 
session. 

Miss Agrin. I am sorry. 

Senator Welker. May I make the observation, Mr. Chairman ; this 
is a secret session, as the chairman has indicated. That is why we are 
so careful that no information leave this hearing room. 

If there is any information received about this hearing, it will come 
from your client or you, because we have yet in this committee to ever 
have one leak of an executive session, and I am sure you appreciate 
that. 

Miss Agrin. I certainly do, and I have no intention of doing any- 
thing that is against your rules. 

Mr. Sourwine. Continue, Miss Bentley. 

Miss Bentley. The Daily Compass was the last newspaper job 
I had. 

Mr. Sourwine. And where are you now employed ? 

Miss Bentley. At an advertising agency. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you ever been employed by the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Bentley. I am going to have to take a minute, if you don't 
mind. 

Senator Welker. I can't hear you. 

Miss Agrin. She asked to take a minute. 

Miss Bentley. Just a minute, until I compose myself. 

The Chairman. Miss Attorney ? 

Miss Agrin. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. The rule is that when your client desires to confer 
with you, she is permitted to do so. That is a right that she has. You 
do not have the right to volunteer information. 



1448 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Miss Agrin. I will abide by that rule, too, Senator. 

Miss Bentley. In answer to that, I just forgot the phraseology. 
I decline to answer on the ground of self-privilege against incrimina- 
tion under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you honestly fear that a truthful answer to the 
question of whether you were ever employed by the Communist Party 
would tend to incriminate you, or form at least a link in a chain to 
connect you with something? 

Miss Bentley. I give you the same answer, Senator. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Are you now or have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Bentley. I give you the same answer, and I regard it as a 
privilege to just say that instead of remembering the phrase. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you a member of the Brooklyn Eagle unit of 
the Communist Party? 

Miss Bentley. I give you the same answer, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you ever attend a Communist faction meeting 
of newspaper employees ? 

Miss Bentley. The same answer; fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you back the election of John T. McManus 
for vice president of the American Newspaper Guild ? 

Miss Bentley. I would like to confer, if I may. 

(Witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Benti.ey. I voted for John T. McManus. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you work for his election? I didn't ask how 
you voted. 

Miss Bentley. Yes ; I worked for his election. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know at that time that Mr. McManus was 
the Communist candidate for that office ? 

Miss Bentley. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever sign a Communist petition in an elec- 
tion campaign? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever live at 3088 Brighton Sixth Street, 
Brooklyn ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you in 1939-40 election campaign sign a Com- 
munist petition, giving that as j'^our address? 

Miss Bentley. The same answer. 

Senator Welker. Would you mind raising your voice, so we can 
hear ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes. I am a little nervous. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Alvah Bessie ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Nathan Einhorn? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. SouRwaNE. That is, you are claiming your privilege against 
self-incrimination ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. And on that basis, refusing to answer? 

Miss Bentley. That is correct. 

Mr. Sourwine. That is what you mean when you say "same an- 
swer?" 

Miss Bentley. That is correct. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1449 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Victor Weingarten ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Violet Brown ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Mrs. Victor Weingarten ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. She and Violet Brown are the same person, aren't 
they ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Sam Weissman ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Mrs, Doretta Tarmon ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Doretta Leibowitz ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Al Schacht? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Senator Welker. What is that last name ? 

Mr. Sourwine. Al Schacht. 

Senator Welker. The baseball player? 

Mr. Sourwine. That is the name. 

Senator Welker. I know him. I don't think I would hesitate to 
answer that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are you honestly claiming the privilege of the fifth 
amendment when we ask you if you know Al Schacht ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourw^ine. Now, if I identify the Al Schacht I am talking about 
as a former big league baseball player, do you still claim the privilege 
on the question of whether you know him? 

Miss Bentley. Yes, sir; because the name doesn't mean anything 
to me. 

Mr. Sourwine. If the name doesn't mean anything to you, you can't 
claim the fifth amendment privilege of refusing to answer. Miss 
Bentley. 

The Chairman. Yes. I instruct and order you to answer that 
([uestion vmder penalty of contempt of the Senate. 

Miss Bentley. May I talk with my attorney? 

Mr. Sourwine. Surely. 

(Witness confers with her attorney.) 

Miss Bentley. I didn't recognize the name, but if you say that he 
is a baseball player, I didn't recognize the name, and therefore I can 
say that I didn't know who he was, and I didn't, and that I do not 
claim the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know an Al Schacht who is or was a 
Communist? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. I don't. 

Senator Welker. If you don't know. Madam Witness, you could 
certainly say "No," couldn't you ? 

Miss Bentley. I would use the fifth amendment, Senator. 

Senator Welker. Do you know Frank V. Kennedy ? 

Miss Bentley. Maybe I ought to explain to you gentlemen that I 
am very bad with names. I think a couple of names here were 
mentioned, if my life depended on it I could not remember any. I 



1450 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

do know, I think, that this is Senator Eastland. I think so, because 
I saw him on TV last night, and I am not even sure. 

Nobody said yes or no, but I really am very bad with names, and 
rather than say the wrong thing I would prefer to — unless you can 
identify these people as baseball players 

Mr. SouRWiNE. We are asking you to identify people whom you 
know ; if you do not know them, all you have to do is say "No." If 
you do not remember whether you know them or not, you are entitled 
to say that. 

If you do know them and if you have no reason to fear that admit- 
ting that fact could possibly form a link in a chain which would 
incriminate you, then you don't have any right to claim the fifth 
amendment. 

If, on the other hand, you recognize the name and you have any 
reason to fear that admitting you know this person might form at 
least a link in a chain to incriminate you, then you have a perfect 
right to claim the fifth amendment and refuse to answer. 

The Chairman. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Bentuey. Fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. I would like her to answer the question : Do you 
know Frank V. Kennedy. 

Miss Bentley. I don't know him personally. 

Senator Welker. You don't know him personally ? 

Miss Bentley. No, sir. 

Senator Welker. Have you ever met him at any meeting? 

Miss Bentley. I don't think so. I don't know the name. 

Senator Welkjer. All right. Mr. Chairman, I submit by that an- 
swer she has opened the gate. You can direct her to answer every 
question heretofore propounded to her or hereafter propounded to 
her, and if she doesn t, she is certainly in contempt of the Senate of 
the United States, as I am sure her able counsel will tell her. 

Miss Agrin. I am afraid, sir, I don't want to interrupt your pro- 
ceedings. I don't quite know why you say that. You aslced her 
whether she knew Frank V. Kennedy, and she said she had no knowl- 
edge of who this man was. 

Senator Welker. Very well. But, counselor, doesn't that open the 
gate as to whether she knew all these other people? 

Miss Agrin. I don't see how, sir, because it may very well be that 
her association with the names against which she asserted the fifth 
would tend to incriminate her. 

Senator Welker. Then she should have taken the fifth amendment, 
madam. That is what it is there for, and that is what it is usually 
taken for. 

Miss Agrin. She did, sir, except she had no knowledge to whom you 
were referring. 

Senator Welker. Very well. But she opened the gate right there. 
If you studied the law any more on this matter than we have, I would 
like to have a little brief on that subject. 

Miss Agrin. I would be glad to submit it to you. 

Senator Welker. You can't submit a brief on it. 

Miss Agrin. lean. 

Senator Welker. We know the law, as well as a couple of others. 



STRATEGY AXD TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1451 

Miss Agrin". I am very well aware of the fact that, for instance, 
her association with Senator Eastland today across the table would 
obviously not tend to incriminate her, but her association with, say, 
William Z. Foster of the Communist Party, might well tend to in- 
criminate her, so that the incriminating element depends on the name. 

Senator Welker. In a series of questions propounded to her, she 
was taking the fifth religiously. 

Miss Agrin. In relation to people who, she might believe, would 
tend to incriminate her. 

Senator Welker. How do we know ? 

Miss Agrix. She says she believes it would tend to incriminate her 
when she asserts the fifth, but she also stated to this committee she was 
asserting it honestly and in good faith. 

Senator Welker. But she didn't assert it with respect to Frank V. 
Kennedy. 

Miss Agrix. Because it might be very possible that an association 
with Mr. Kennedy might not tend to incriminate her, and it would 
certainly make sense 

Senator Welker. There is no need arguing the law on it. I ask 
that you direct the witness to answer the question. 

The Chairman. Yes ; you are ordered and directed, under penalty 
of contempt of the United States Senate, to answer that question. 

]\Iiss Bentlet. May I speak with my attorney ? 

The Chairman. You may. 

(Witness confers with her attorney.) 

Miss Agrin. May I, before I speak to her 

Senator Welker. I don't want to argue the law with you because 
I have been in this business a little longer than you have. 

Miss Agrin. I assume so. I just want to know what question she 
has been directed to answer. Wliether or not she knew Frank V. 
Kennedj^ ? 

Senator Welker. Yes, ma'am ; I think that is the one I asked. 

Miss_ Agrin. Am I correct in believing that the answer on the 
record is "No" ? 

Senator Welker. She has no recollection of it ; didn't you say that? 

The Chairman. Read the question and answer. 

(Record read.) 

Miss Agrin. We believe the answer is on the record, sir. 

Senator Welker. All riglit. 

Then, Counsel, I would like you to generally order the witness to 
answer all the questions heretofore propounded to her by counsel, 
the questions upon which she took the fifth amendment. 

(Senator Eastland left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Sourwine. Do jou know ]\Iurray Young ? 

Senator Welker. Just a moment. The chairman hereby ordei'S 
and directs that you answer every question heretofore propounded 
to you by counsel upon which you claim the fifth amendment. 

Miss Bentley. Are you going to restate the question? 

Senator Welker. I am not going to take the time. You remember 
the names propounded to you by counsel for which you took the 
fifth amendment? 

Miss Bentley. I would still take the fifth amendment on those 
questions. 

59886 — 55 — pt. 15 5 



1452 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Senator Welker. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Murray Young ? 

Miss Bentley. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Milton Kaufman ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Jack Eyan ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Gladys Kopf ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know David Gordon ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Meh^in Barnett ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Winston Burdett ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Charles Grutzner ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Charles Lewis ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Leonard Adler? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

]Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Hyman Charniak ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Herbert Cohn ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwtne. Do you know Lyle Dowling? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Amos Landman? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Monroe Stern? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Peter Christopher Khodes? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, I have no more questions of this 
witness. 

Senator Welker. Very well, madam ; you can step down from the 
witness stand. 

Mr. Sourwine. I will ask one more question. Do you know David 
Wahl? 

Miss Bentley. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know David Wahl ? 

Miss Bentley. Same answer. 

Mr. Sourwine. No more questions. 

May the witness be held under subpena, Mr. Chairman, for a later 
appearance ? 

Senator Welker. Yes ; you may step down. Your appearance here 
is temporarily suspended, but you are held under the subpena until 
you receive further notice from the staff. Do you understand ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes, sir. 

Miss Agrin. Is it necessary to have the subpena endorsed, sir ? 

Senator Welker. Ask Mr. Hasser up there. He handles those 
matters. 

Miss Agrin. To show she appeared. I have no question of this 
record. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1453 

Mr. SouRwiNE, The record shows she appeared. She is entitled to 
traii3portation. 

Miss Agrin. That has been taken care of. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. "Wlien we want you again, will it be sufficient if we 
give notice to your attorney, or would you like to have us call you 
through her? 

Miss Bentlet. It doesn't matter, sir, as long as I get enough notice. 

Senator Welker. How long would you require, madam ? 

Miss Bentley. It would be very helpful to have about a week. 

Mr. Sourwine. We can try to do that. We can guarantee you at 
least 48 hours. 

Miss Agrin. As far as myself, I would certainly not like to come on 
an overnight business. 

Senator Welker. Call the next witness. 

Mr. SouRWiKE. Mr. Chairman, I have a request from Mr. Grutzner, 
who was the witness this morning. He wants to come back to the 
stand for a moment. He was dismissed. Would you allow him to 
return ? 

Senator Johnston. Come arovmd.' 

Senator Hennings. Charles Grutzner. 

Senator Johnston. You have already been sworn. 

Mr. Grutzner. I have been sworn. 

Senator Johnston. This is a continuation of the other testimony? 

Mr. Grutzner. Sir ? 

Senator Johnston. You will not have to be sworn. We have 
already sworn you before. Proceed. 

Mr. Grutzner. Very good. 

FURTHER TESTIMONY OF CHARLES GRUTZNER 

Mr. Grutzner. It has occurred to me that I have at home a file 
containing the carbon copies of practically every story I filed from 
Korea. I am certain that among them is not only the Sabrejet story, 
but the "precede" I sent on, which made it clear that it was not to 
be used unless cleared by the Pentagon, which in my opinion is a 
higher authority than General Craig, or Craigie, or whatever his 
name is. 

I would like to ask permission to have that put into the record 
of this hearing. I do not have it with me. I had not anticipated 
this. But I shall mail it to your committee, if I may, as soon as I 
get home. 

Senator Johnston. I want you to understand that this committee 
wanted to be fair in every way, and if you have anything like that 
that you want to put in the record, we will be glad to have it. 

Mr. Grutzner. Thank you. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, may that be inserted in the record 
immediately following Mr. Grutzner's testimony previously ? 

Senator Johnston. I think it should be inserted right after your 
statement, right after your other testimony, and also, when you get 
the otlier record, it will come together."* 

Mr. Sourwine. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Grutzner. Thank you, sir. 

*The copy of Mr. Grutzner's story appears at p. 1427. 



1454 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE. John Francis Ryan. 

Senator Johnston. Raise your right hand. 

Do you swear that the evidence j^ou give at this hearing will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Ryan. I do. 

Senator Johnston. Have a seat. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN FRANCIS RYAN; ACCOMPANIED BY DAVID 

REIN, HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Would you give your full name, Mr. Ryan? 

Mr. Ryan. John Francis Ryan. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And your address ? 

Mr. Ryan. 108 Franklin Avenue, Glen Cove, Long Island. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Are you more commonly known as Jack Ryan ? 

Mr. Ryan. Well, you might be loiown as Jim or Bill. It is just a 
nickname. 

Mr. SoTJRwiNE. Yes. It is only a nickname. I did not mean to 
imply anything else. 

Are you the same Jack Ryan who was active in the Newspaper 
Guild? 

Mr. Ryan. I am. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Wliat is your present occupation, Mr. Ryan? 

Mr. Ryan. I am self-employed. I do horticultural research. 

Mr. SoiTRWiNE. Now you are employed by yourself, you say ? 

Mr. Ryan. That is right. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And you have been for how long? 

Mr. Ryan. Four or five years. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now you are represented by counsel, I see. For the 
Tecord, would you name your counsel ? 

Mr. Ryan, David Rein, Washington. 

Senator Hennings. AVliere is Mr. Rein's oflEice, counsel's office ? 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Rein has appeared before us several times. 

Senator Hennings. Oh, yes. lie was in the executive session, was 
he not? 

Mr. Sourwine. I think you have been here, Mr. Rein? 

Mr. Rein. Yes. 

Mr. Ryan. I don't know his office. 

Mr. Sourwine. Give your office, please. 

Mr. Rein. 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Sourwine. Now, Mr. Ryan, have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ryan. I am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time within the past 10 years? 

Mr. Ryan. I would invoke the fifth amendment to that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time since 1950 ? 

Mr. Ryan. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time during the year 1954? 
Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1455 

Mr, SouRWiNE. Have you been a member of the Commmiist Party 
at any time since the 1st of May of this year ? 

Mr. Eyan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Were you a member of the Conununist Party yester- 
day? 

Mr. Eyax. Of course not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time hist week? 

Mr. Eyan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouR^VINE. Were you at one time treasurer of the New York 
Newspaper Guild? 

Mr. Eyan. Sir ? I did not get the question. 

Mr. SouR^^^xE. Were you at one time treasurer of the New York 
Newspaper Guild? 

Mr. Eyan. I was not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever hold any office in the New York News- 
paper Guild? 

Mr. Eyan. I did. 

Mr. SouRwaNE. '\^niat office or offices did you hold ? 

Mr. Eyan. I was general organizer of the Newspaper Guild of 
New York. 

Mr. SotiRwiNE. General organizer ? That is, you were an employee 
of the Guild? 

ISIr. Eyan. Well, I worked for the Guild; yes. I was an elected 
officer of the Guild for a time, and I was also executive vice president 
of the Newspaper Guild of New York. 

Mr. SouKwiNE. Yes, sir. Did you ever preside at a Conununist 
Party fraction meeting, Mr. Eyan ? 

Mr. Eyan. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Have you heard the testimony of the witnesses who 
have preceded you yesterday and today, Mr. Eyan ? 

Mr. Eyan. Some part of it, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you hear the testimony of Mr. Burdett? 

Mr. Eyan. I did. 

Mr. SoTjRwiNE. Is there any of Mr. Burdett's testimony that you 
wish to deny or correct ? 

Mr. Eyan. No. But I wish the press would make clear that Mr. 
Burdett said he did not know me as a Communist. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Mr. Burdett as a Communist? 

Mr. Eyan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouR^viNE. Do you have knowledge respecting any of the other 
matters that Mr. Burdett testified to? 

Mr. Eyan. I hadn't seen Winston Burdett in 16 years, sir. I 
don't know anything about his testimony. I heard that story of his 
for the first time yesterday. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know anything about the matters that he 
testified to with respect to his membership in a Communist unit of the 
Brooklyn Eagle ? 

Mr. Eyan. I do not, sir. 

]Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know of the existence of a Communist 
unit at the Brooklyn Eagle? 

Mr. Eyan. The fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. Mr. Chairman, I think the witness in stating that 
he knew nothing about the matters testified to by Mr. Burdett opened 



1456 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

himself up to cross-examination on that answer, and I think my ques- 
tion as to whether he knew of the existence of a Communist unit at the 
Brooklyn Eagle is fair cross-examination. I ask that the witness 
be ordered to answer the question. 

Senator Johnston. You are ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Eyan. "Would you repeat the question, please ? 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. Did you know of the existence of a Communist unit 
at the Brooklyn Eagle? 

Mr, Ryan. Fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. SoTJRwiNE. Do you know Alvah Bessie ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Nat Einhorn ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether Mr. Einhorn is at present a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do not. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether he ever was? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Victor Weingarten ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever know him as a Communist? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Violet Brown? 

Mr. Ryan. I do, 

Mr, Sourwine. Presently Violet Weingarten? 

Mr. Ryan. I do. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever know her as a Communist? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Charles Lewis? 

Mr. Ryan. The name isn't familiar to me, I may know him. I 
knew hundreds of newspaper people. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Hyman Charniak ? 

Mr. Ryan. That name is also familiar, sir, but I don't recall that 
I ever met him. 

Mr. Sourwine. If the name Charles Lewis does not mean anything 
to you, how does it come you connect it with newspaper work ? 

Mr. Ryan, Well, most of the people I know over the years have 
been new^spaper people, and his name has appeared in the press in 
the last couple of days. 

Mr. Sourwine. You say you did not know Hyman Charniak, or 
you do not know him ? 

Mr. Ryan. I wouldn't recognize him, sir, if he walked in the room. 
The name has been around for a long time. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know the name as the name of a man who 
left the Communist Party? 

Mr. Ryan. I would know Hyman Charniak's name only as a report- 
er's name, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Herbert Colin ? 

Mr. Ryan. I believe I do. I think in executive session I told you 
that I didn't recall him, but since the stories have appeared, I do 
recall him. He was a reporter on the Eagle. 

]S^ Sourwine. Do you know if Herbert Cohn was a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1457 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Melvin Barnett? 

Mr. Ryan. I do. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know if Mr. Barnett is a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

]VIr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know if he was a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouR^VINE. Do you know David Gordon? 

Mr. Ryan. Yes, I know Dave. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know if David Gordon is a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know if he was a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Ryan. I am a little — I was just consulting with my attorney. 
There is an "is" and a "was" business in here, and I want to be clear 
on it. I am not in a position, or was not in a position, to get it. At 
least I wasn't here in the beginning. I wonder if that "is" and 
*'was" could be separated, and ask one question at a time. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is the way they are being asked. 

Mr. Ryan. Could you repeat the question, then ? 

Mr. Sourwt:ne. Do you know if Mr. David Gordon is a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ryan. No ; I do not know. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know if Mr. David Gordon was a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know where Mr. David Gordon works? 

Mr. Ryan. I read today that he is employed on the New York 
Daily News. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know where he lives ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Wlien did you last see him ? 

Mr. Ryan. It must be 14 years. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know Charles Grutzner ? 

Mr. Ryan. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know if Charles Grutzner was ever a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ryan. Charles Grutzner said in his testimony here that he 
was a member of the Communist Party. That is — I tliink — a matter 
of record. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. Do you have any other knowledge concerning IVIr. 
Gmtzner's membership in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know him as a Communist? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you hear his testimony here ? 

Mr. Ryan, I did. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you have knowledge of any facts which would 
contradict anything to which he testified ? 

Mr. Ryan. Contradict? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Yes. 



1458 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. Ryan. I don't think so. I didn't hear anything in his testi- 
mony that I would personally want to contradict. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, Do you have knowledge of any facts that would 
confirm anything he testified to ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ryan. I think I would have to take the fifth amendment on 
that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Gladys Bentley ? 

Mr. Ryan. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you hear her testimony ? 

Mr. Ryan. Yes; I just heard it. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know Gladys Bentley as a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Sotjrwine. Did you know" Gladys Bentley as the organizer of 
the Brooklyn Eagle unit of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Ryan. Fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Leonard Adler ? 

Mr. Ryan. I believe so. I am not quite sure. 

Mr. Sotjrwine. Did you know Leonard Adler as a member of the 
Brooklyn Eagle unit of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Lyle Dowling? 

Mr. Ryan. I do. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether Mr. Dowling is a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do not. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know w^hether Mr. Dowling was a member 
of the Brooklyn Eagle unit of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Murray Young ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do not. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Amos Landman ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether Mr. Landman is a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do not. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Monroe Stern ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether Mr. Stern was a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Milton Kaufman ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you Imow whether Mr. Kaufman was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether Mr. Kaufman now is a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do not. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COIVIMUNISM 1459 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Gladys Kopf ? 

Mr. Ryan. I did. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. She is dead ; is she not ? 

Mr. Ryan. She is. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know her as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Ira Henry Freeman ? 

Mr. Ryan. There are several Freemans, sir, in the industry, and I 
don't know which one is Ira Henry. But I think I know them all. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know any Freeman who is a Communist ? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know a Freeman who works for the New 
York Times? 

Mr. Ryan. There are two Freemans on the New York Times. 

]Mr. SouRwiNE. Is either one of those Freemans, to your knowledge, 
a Communist? 

Mr. Ryan. As far as I know, they are not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Sam Weissman ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know him as a Communist? 

Mr. Ryan. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Helen Weissman? 

Mr. Ryan. Her name came up in this testimony, but I don't recall 
her. 

Mr. SoTjRwiNE. Do you know Mrs. Doretta Tarmon ? 

Mr. Ryan. I do not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Peter Christopher Rhodes? 

Mr. Ryan. I do not. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

Senator Johnston. Do you have any questions ? 

(No response.) 

Senator Johnston. The witness is excused. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. Nathan Einhorn. 

Before Mr. Einhorn takes the stand, Senator, may I make a call 
for David Gordon, to see if he is here ? 

David Gordon. Is he in the room ? 

(No response.) 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Thanlv you, sir. Excuse me. 

Senator Johnston. Raise your right hand. Do you swear the tes- 
timony you give at this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. Einhorn. I do. 

Senator Johnston. Please be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF NATHAN EINHOEN; ACCOMPANIED BY DAVID 

COBB, HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. SoTiRWiNE. Would you give the reporter your full name, please? 
Mr. Einhorn. Nathan Einhorn. The address is 1900 F NW., 
Washington. My counsel is Bruce Cobb, of Cobb & Weissbrodt. 
Mr. Cobb. David Cobb. 



1460 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. EiNiioRN. I am sorry. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Where are you employed, Mr. Einhorn? 

Mr. Einhorn. I am employed at the JEmbassy of the People's Ke- 
public of Poland. 

Mv. SouRwiNE. Mr. Einhorn, are you a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Einhorn. During the period of my employment with the Em- 
bassy and with any agency of the government, I have not been a mem- 
ber of any political party, and I have engaged in no political activity 
of any kind. 

]Mr. SouRWiNE. That is an affirmative statement which j^ou make. 
But I submit it is not wholly responsive to my question. I would 
like to have youi answer "Yes" or "No," as to whether you are a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Einhorn. I think I made the answer that I am a member of 
no political party. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. The point is that this committee does not regard 
the Communist Party as a political party. It regards it as a con- 
spiracy. 

Mr. Einhorn. Very well. I am not a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Yes. I thought we had only a semantic difficulty. 

Mr. Einhorn, were you ever a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Einhorn. As to the previous period, I would like to invoke my 
privilege under the fifth amendment on the ground that I fear that 
an answer would tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. SouRT\nNE. That is, the previous period, you mean the period 
prior to your employment by the Government of Poland ? 

Mr. Einhorn. Correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you employed by the Kocky Mountain News 
in Denver in 1928 ? 

Mr. Einhorn. I think I was employed in 1927 and 1928 by the 
Rocky Mountain News. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. And in 1929 to 1933, by various newspapers in 
Brooklyn. 

Mr. Einhorn. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. 1933 to 1939, by the Brooklyn Daily Eagle? 

Mr. Einhorn. That is correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. 1939 to 1946, you were executive secretary of the 
Newspaper Guild of New York ? 

Mr. Einhorn. I was. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was this a paid position? 

Mr. Einhorn. It was. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you elected to that position ? 

Mr. Einhorn. I was. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you elected to that position with Communist 
support ? 

Mr. Einhorn. I think I had support on occasion from everyone, 
since some of the elections were unanimous. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you knowingly accept and solicit Communist 
suppport for your election to that position ? 

Mr. Einhorn. I didn't reject it. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1461 

Mr. SouRwiNE. As a matter of fact, Mr. Einhorn, yon were for 
a period of time the Communist organizer of the Communist unit 
at the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, were you not? 

Mr. Einhorn. Fifth amendment, if I may. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You were campaign director and executive direc- 
tor of the American Committee for Yugoslav Relief? 

Mr. Einhorn. I was. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know that organization had been cited as 
subversive by the Attorney General ? 

Mr. Einhorn. It was cited as subversive long after I had left, 
and secondly, it was cited, I believe, after it had laecome defunct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was that organization during the time that you 
were connected with it under the control or domination of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Einhorn. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You were employed by the Hotel and Restaurant 
Employees Union in 1947 ? 

Mr. Einhorn. In 1948, 1— No. I think it was 1948 and early 1949. 

Mr. SouEwiNE. And then in 1949 you went with the Polish Research 
and Information Service ? 

Mr. Einhorn. That is right. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And in 1951, with the Polish Embassy? 

Mr. Einhorn. Correct, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, I have been guilty of an oversight. 
I have neglected to ask that counsel be identified. 

Mr. Einhorn. I did identify him. 

Mr. Sourwt:ne. You did identify him, anyway? Thank you for 
taking care of that for us. 

Senator Hennings. ]Mr. Sourwine, is the date of the witness' ein- 
ployment by the Polish Embassy in the record, the precise date of his 
employment ? 

Mr. Sourwine. I doubt that it is, sir. 

Senator Hennings. I wonder if we could get that. 

Mr. Einhorn. I became employed by the Polish Research and In- 
formation Service in New York in June 1949. I came to work for 
the Polish Embassy in August, I believe, 1951. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are you registered under the Foreign Agents Regis- 
tration Act ? 

Mr. Einhorn. I have been, since 1949. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are you a member of the Polish United Workers 
Party? 

Mr. Einhorn. I am a member of no party. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you regularly report your earnings as an em- 
ployee of the Polish Government to the Internal Revenue Bureau ? 

Mr. Einhorn. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Steve Nelson ? 

Mr. Einhorn. I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Steve Nelson as a Communist ? 

Mr. Einhorn. I understood that he was a Communist. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Rhoda Miller as a Communist? 

Mr. Einhorn. I plead the fifth amendment to that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever assist in recruiting any person for 
membership in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Einhorn. Fifth amendment. 



1462 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you ever assist in recruiting anyone for Soviet 
espionage work ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I never did. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Well, that gives us a field to work on now. 

]Mr. EiNHORN. May I — if you would like, I would like to volunteer 
some facts on that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. We will be glad to have you. 

Mr. EiNHORN. May I ? 

Senator Johnston. Go right ahead. 

Mr. EiNHORN. The only connection that I have had with the story 
•which Burdett told yesterday was as follows, that as an officer of the 
Newspaper Guild of New York I frequently had people, or from time 
to time, rather, people came and suggested that I recommend people 
for jobs. In this connection, Joseph North, of the New Masses — I be- 
lieve he was then managing editor — ^liad suggested that I might sug- 
gest someone who might go abroad to cover the Finnish War. I sug- 
gested Burdett. I don't remember whether or not I talked to Burdett 
or talked to North, bvit I suggested Burdett, as Burdett has told you. 

The next thing I knew, he had received accreditation from the Eagle 
and then a group of people from the Eagle, whom I do not remember, 
but a group of his friends and colleagues, saw him off on the boat. 
We have not seen him since, at least I didn't, until yesterday. We 
said goodby to him. At the pier were the Eagle people and his mother 
and father. And that is the extent of the connection that I have had 
with this story which he has told. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I take it by that that you mean to deny that you 
knowingly took part in recruiting Burdett for espionage work ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. As I have said, I have never had anything to do with 
espionage work of any kind. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know whether Joe North did ? 

Mr- EiNHORN. He was editor of the New Masses, and I assume he 
might be 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The question was, Did you know ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I did not know ; not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE, Did you deal with him as an espionage- 



Mr. EiNHORN. No. I dealt with him as a member of the union. 
The New Masses had a unit of the Guild and so did the Daily Worker. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. No; what did he tell you about the job that he had 
for which you recommended Burdett ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I do not recall very many of the details. All I recall 
was that it was suggested that, if it were possible to get a fairer re- 
porting of the situation there, it would be good. That is all I recall. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. A fairer reporting of what situation ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Of the war which was going on at that time. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Fairer to whom ? Russia ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Let us say more objective. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. North, as editor of the New Masses, was con- 
cerned with the objectivity and the reporting of the Brooklyn Eagle ; 
is that right? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I did not talk to him in connection with Burdett's 
going as a Brooklyn Eagle reporter. That, I think, took place subse- 
quently, an arrangement which Burdett himself made with the Eagle. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What did you talk with Mr. North about? How 
did you contemplate that Mr. Burdett was going to go 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COAIMTJNISM 1463 

Mr. EiNHORN. He might go to cover for the New Masses or for 
the Worker. I did not know. I did not ask him, and I did not dis- 
cuss details. . . , , • , 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You understood, did you, that it miglit be a job 
on the New Masses or the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. It might have been. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you tell Mr. Burdett that? 

Mr. EiNHORx. I don't remember. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. ^Yhiit did you tell Mr. Burdett? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I just told Mr. Burdett that there was a possibility 
of going abroad. ^Ye knew him to be one who wanted to go, who 
ha(fsome ability, and I thought he might be a good possibility for that, 
and suggested he go see North. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Whom do you mean by "we" ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I meant "I." 

Mr. SouRAViNE. You suggested that he go see North ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. That is my recollection. It might have been that 
North came to see him. I don't recall. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you hear Mr. Burdett's testimony about this ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Some of it. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You did not stay for all of it? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No. I heard it. I heard it from the back, though^ 
but quite indistinctly on occasion. • i nr 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you hear testimony about his contact with ^Ir, 

North? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you have any reason to believe that was un- 
truthful testimony? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I wouldn't know. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You do not know any facts which would lead you 
to believe that that testimony was either truthful or untruthful; is 
that your testimony ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I don't know. If you ask me, do I believe it, I don t 

believe it. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you ever discuss with Joe North the question 
of whether Winston Burdett had taken the job? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No. I saw Burdett oif. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know Jacob Golos ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No. 

]\Ir. SouRw^iNE. Have you been a friend of Doxie Wilkerson? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I know him. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know him as a leading Communist? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I know him as an official at the Jefferson School. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know that the Jefferson School is a Com- 
munist school? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I don't know that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Have you ever met with representatives of the 
Soviet Government? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Oh, sure, at embassy parties. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Other than at embassy parties ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Have you ever met with Jean Montgomery of the 
Tass News Service? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Yes. 



1464 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouKWiNE. Is she a friend of yours? 
Mr. EiNHORN. She is a friend of mine. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know whether she is a Communist? 
Mr. EiNHORN. I don't know. 
Mr. SouRWiNE. Is she a correspondent for Tass ? 
Mr. EiNHORN. She is. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you think Tass has any correspondents that 
are not Communists ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Do you want my opinion? 
Mr. SouRwiNE. Yes, sir. 
Mr. EiNHORN. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you think Jean Montgomery is one? 
Mr. EiNHORN. I don't know. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Craig Vincent ? 
Mr. EiNHORN. I did. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. State in what connection you knew Craig Vincent. 
Mr. EiNHORN. Actually, I met him through his wife, who had 
been executive director of the American Committee for Yugoslav 
Kelief prior to my taking that post, when I was campaign director. 
Mr. SouRWiNE. Did she ever work for you? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Who ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mrs. Craig Vincent. 

Mr. EiNHORN. Work for me? 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Yes. 

Mr. EiNHORN. No. I worked for her. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Now, you say you met Craig Vincent through her? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Tell us what you know of Craig Vincent. 

Mr. EiNHORN. Very little, except that he and his second wife run, 
or ran, a ranch in Colorado which was in the news a good deal. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know of that ranch as being under Com- 
munist domination? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No ; not of my own knowledge. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you ever at that ranch ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Craig Vincent as a Communist ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No, 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know whether he was or is ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I don't know. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know Mrs. Craig Vincent as a Communist ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Mr. Einhorn, were you an adviser to Winston 
Burdett in any way ? Did you ever give Winston Burdett any advice ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I gave a lot of people advice. I know I never gave 
him instructions, if that is what you mean. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever suggest that he attend the section 
school of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you write a letter to Mr. Burdett in December 
^fl947? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I wrote a letter to him. I don't recall the date. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you hear the testimony here of Mr. Grutznerf 

Mr. EiNHORN. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Mr. Grutzner ? 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1465 

Mr. EiNHORN. I do. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know whether Mr. Grutzner was ever a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Fifth amendment ; fifth amendment. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I am sorry. You said it so fast I didn't hear you. 

Mr. EiNHORN. I am sorry. I will state it, as a matter of fact, for 
the entire list of people that you mentioned, except that fellow whose 
name I can't pronounce, and Rhodes. I don't know them. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you, sir, sign a statement as executive secretary 
of the Newspaper Guild in behalf of the furriers' leaders, which was 
printed in the Daily Worker in November 1940 ? 

Mr, EiNHORN. I don't recall. I may have. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Were you a member of the Committee for the 
Election of John T. McManus as vice president of the American 
Newspaper Guild in the fifth region ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I think so. I don't recall it very directly, but I think 
so. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you remember signing a statement against the 
Dies committee in January of r943 ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I don't recall, but I may very well have. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you a member of the Trade Union Committee 
for Henry Epstein in 1942"? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Who is Henry Epstein ? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You do not remember anything about such an 
instance ? Mr. Epstein was a political candidate in New York. 

Mr. EiNHORN. A committee for him ? I don't recall. I am sorry. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you ever receive instructions to sever your rela- 
tions with the Communist Party, USA ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. I did not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, when you say you are going to take the fifth 
amendment with respect to all of those names, do you mean that you 
are going to refuse to say wliether you knew those people ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No. I said that I would say that 1 knew them all 
with the exception of that Jerry somebody that you mentioned, and 
this man Rhodes. I did not know them. I knew the others. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You mean you recognize that there was one name 
in there that was the name of a person that you did not know anything 
about ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Yes. 

Mr. SouRA^^NE. Was that name Rutendollendorfer ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Yes. I have stated yesterday that that was a ficti- 
tious name. 

Mr. EiNHORN. You used it again today, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is correct. The use was for the purpose, as I 
am sure you recognize, of attempting to determine and to demonstrate 
whether the witness was being selective in claiming the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Well, now, I will name them all in a group. That will save time. 
You say you now know or knew Alvah Bessie, Victor Weingarten, Vio- 
let Brown, now Violet Weingarten, Charles Lewis, Hyman Charniak, 
Herbert Cohn, Melvin Barnett, David Gordon, Charles Grutzner, 
Gladys Bentley, Leonard Adler, Lyle Dowling, Murra}^ Young, Amos 



1466 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Landman, Monroe Stern, Milton Kaufman, John Francis Ryan, also 
known as Jack Ryan, Gladys Kopf, Ira Henry Freeman, Sam Weiss- 
man, Helen Weissman, and Mrs. Doretta Tarmon ; is that right ? 

Mr, EiNiiORN. Yes. I knew all but the last two. I am sorry. I 
knew all but the last two as union members. The last two were not 
union members but I knew them. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is, Helen Weissman and Mrs. Tarmon you 
knew, but not as union members ? 

Mr. EiNiioRN. That's right. 

Mr. SouRAViNE. Now, do I understand that you are planning to in- 
voke the fifth amendment with respect to questions as to whether you 
knew these persons as Communists? 

Mr. EiNHORN. You are correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You will do so with respect to all of these persons? 

Mr. EiNiioRN. I will do so with respect to all of these persons. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Each and every one of them ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Each and every one of them. 

Mr. SouRw^isrE. Did you, sir, with your family, pay a visit to the 
home of Charles Grutzner within the past few months? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Yes, I did. 

Mr. SouRWENE. Was that purely a social visit? 

Mr. EiNHORN. It was. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. While there, was there any discussion of commu- 
nism or Communist activity ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No. The nearest to it was Grutzner telling me that 
he had voted for 'Mv. Stevenson, and we had a discussion on that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Einhorn 

Senator Hennings. Why do you suggest, Mr. Einhorn, that that 
is an approach to any discussion of communism, having voted for Mr. 
Stevenson ? 

Mr. Einhorn. No. I said the nearest to it. 

Senator Hennings. "V^-liy do you suggest that that is any approach 
to it? 

Mr. Einhorn. No. I meant it was the nearest to any discussion of 
politics. 

Senator Hennings. Of politics, but not of communism ? 

Mr. Einhorn, Right. You will forgive me, Senator. I am sorry. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Einhorn, did ]\Ir. Grutzner visit you with his 
family some 3^ear and a half ago ? 

Mr. Einhorn. His wife and he visited in my house. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. On that occasion was there any discussion of com- 
munism or Communist activity ? 

Mr. Einhorn. No. 

Mr. SouEwiNE. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

Senator Johnston. Do you have any questions ? 

Senator Hennings. I was curious to know — if it has not already 
been developed — jMr. Einhorn, what do you do at the Polish Embassy"? 
^\'liat are your duties ? 

Mr. Einhorn. I do public-relations work, Senator. 

Senator PIennings. That is, you get up press releases ? 

Mr. Einhorn. I get up press releases, prepare exhibits on people 
like Copernicus, photography exhibits by the Association of Polish 
Photographers, and so on. Mostly it is cultural material. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1467 

Senator Hennings, And where is that disseminated or circulated? 

Mr. EiNHORx. Museums; libraries. 

Senator Hennings. And not for the general distribution to the 
press or magazines ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Oh, the press releases go to the press. 

Senator Hennings. You do that, too ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. Well, I do it with someone Avho works with me ; yes. 

Senator Hennixgs. And you have charge, do you, of the press 
releases ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No. One of the men who works with me does most 
of the work on press releases. I do most of the cultural 

Senator Henxings. You are his associate and collaborator on some 
of them, are you ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. That is correct. 

Senator Hennixgs. Have you any other duties, Mr. Einhorn ? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No. 

Senator Hennings. Do you perform any other work then? 

Mr. EiNHORN. No. I do only public relations work. 

Senator Hjennings. I have no further questions. 

Senator Johnston. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Sourwine. Amos Landman is the next witness. 

Mr, Cobb. Mr. Chairman 

Senator Johnston. Do you swear that the evidence you give at this 
hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you, God ? 

Mr. Landman. I do. 

Mr. Cobb. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt for a minute? 

Is Mr. Einhorn discharged from liis subpena ? 

Senator Johnston. What is that? 

Mr. Cobb. Is Mr. Einhorn discharged from his subpena ? 

Mr. Sourwine. Yes. 

Senator Johnston. Yes ; he is discharged. 

Mr. Cobb. Thank you. 

TESTIMONY OF AMOS LANDMAN; ACCOMPANIED BY DAVID EEIN, 

HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. Sourwine. Now would you give your full name, please ? 

Mr. Landman. Amos Landman. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Landman. Your address? 

Mr. Landman. 145 West 86th Street, New York City. 

Mr. Sourwine, And you ?.re accompanied by counsel. I see Mr. 
Rein is back. 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Rein. That is correct. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Landman, you were employed during 1935 to 
about 1940 by the New York Daily Mirror? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Where had you been employed prior to that time? 

Mr. Landman. That was my first regular job. I had had odd jobs 
as a youngster before that, l3ut that was the first regular one. 

Mr. SouRw^iNE. You were a reporter, rewrite man, and worked in 
other editorial capacities ? 

jNIr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

598S6 — 55— pt. 15 6 



1468 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRwiNE. From 1940 to 1942 you were a reporter and feature 
writer on the newspaper PM in New York ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir; and also worked in other editorial 
capacities. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. On that same newspaper? 

Mr. Landman. Correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. From 1942 to 1946 you were in the military service? 

Mr. Landman. Correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Landman. I was an enlisted man in the Army Air Force, as 
it was known then, and most of the time I worked in public relations. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. After you were discharged, did you return to PM ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. For how long? 

Mr. Landman. Approximately 2 years. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. That would make it about 1948 ? 

Mr. Landman. Correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And where did you go then ? 

Mr. Landman. I then went to the Far East as a free-lance corre- 
spondent. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you employed by anyone during that period ? 

Mr. Landman. Not regularly employed. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. To whom did you sell your material ? 

Mr. Landman. I sold my material to Overseas News Agency, the 
National Broadcasting Co., the New York Herald Tribune, and sev- 
eral other newspapers. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you paid on a space basis? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. After you returned from the Far East in 1950, what 
did you do ? 

Mr. Landman. I wrote a book and then I received a fellowship from 
the Council on Foreign Relations in New York, and by the terms of 
that fellowship I was able to go to Columbia University, where I 
studied and received a degree. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Wliat is that organization, the Council on Foreign 
Relations ? 

Mr. Landman. It is an organization of businessmen — many of them 
quite prominent — of political scientists, people generally interested in 
foreign affairs, who gather for purposes of study and to hear addresses 
on matters of foreign affairs. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You did go to Columbia University in 1950 ? 

Mr. Landman. No ; it was not 1950. It was the academic year of 
1951-52. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you receive a degree? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sour WINE. What degree? 

Mr. Landman. Master of arts. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Where had you received your B. A. ? 

Mr. Landman. Brown University. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, after you left Columbia University with your 
M. A., what did you do? 

Mr. Landman. I worked in commercial public relations briefly. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. For whom ? 

Mr. Landman. For Sidney J. Wayne, Inc. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1469 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And then ? 

Mr. Laiojman. And then I received a grant from the Ford Founda- 
tion which enabled me to go to India, also for study purposes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. From the Ford Foundation ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Senator Johnston. In going back to school, did you use the GI Bill 
of Eights? 

Mr. Landman. No, sir. 

Mr. SoTJR^viNE. ^Yhen did you return from India ? 

Mr. Landman. January 1954. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. And what have you been doing since then? 

Mr. Landman. Commercial public relations for the same firm that 
I worked for prior to going to India, and publicity. I am presently 
doing publicity. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, what was the amount of the grant or scholar- 
ship that you received from the Foreign Kelations Council ? 

Mr. Landman. As I recall, it was between $6,000 and $7,000. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And what was the amount of the grant that you 
received from the Ford Foundation? 

Mr. Landman. $4,500. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Are you, Mr. Landman, a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Landman. I am not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Have you ever been ? 

Mr. Landman. I decline to answer on the grounds that my answer 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Landman, I show you a photostat of what 
purports to be an affidavit signed by one Amos Landman in which 
the signer states that he was at a time named in the affidavit a member 
of the Communist Party. And I will ask you if that is a photostat 
of an affidavit that you signed and a photostat of your signature. 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Chairman, at this point would counsel be 
good enough to identify the date of the affidavit and the date upon 
which the affiant suggests or states that he was a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. I had intended to offer it for the record, if I got any 
identification. It has not been identified yet. 

Senator Hennings. I see. I was concerned, counsel, with your sug- 
gestion that the affidavit stated that the affiant was a member of the 
Communist Party. I thought it might be helpful if we knew at what 
time he may have stated it. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Yes, sir. 

Tl>p affidavit was subscribed and sworn to before a notary public 
on the 15th day of September 1953. I beg your pardon; it was sworn 
to before a consular officer on that date. And it states that the affiant 
was a member of the Communist Party in the 1930's. I will read this 
paragraph : 

I became a member of the Communist Party in 1937 or 1938. I am not sure 
which. It will be recalled that this was the time of the great depression, a time 
when many of us were looking desperately for solutions to the problems then 
confronting the United States and the world. 

Senator Hexnings. Thank you. 

Mr. Landman. May I ask you to repeat your question? 



1470 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COIMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The question is whether that is a photostat of an 
affidavit you made and a photostat of your signature on that affidavits 

Mr. Landman. I decline to answer on the grounds of possible self- 
incrimination. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. ]Mr. Chairman, I offer this affidavit for the record. 
May this go in the record, sir ? 

Senator Johnston. That shall become a part of the record. 

(The document was marked "Exhibit No. 4" and appears below:) 

Exhibit No. 4 

[Handwritten : ] 

From : Bombay, India 
Enclosure No. 2 
Desp. No. 297 

My name is Amos Landman. I am presently living at 6 Pemino, Altamont 
Koad, Bombay 26, India. My address in the United States is care of David 
Landman (my brother), 436 East 71st Street, New York City. I am an American 
citizen by birth, and hold United States Passport No. 566 (FS 203, 742), issued 
in Shanghai, China, October 20, 1949, renewed in Washington, D. C., August 14, 
1952, and which expires October 19, 1958. 

I arrived in India, after a direct flight from the United States, on January 
31, 1953, to make a study of media of communications in this country, that is, 
the press, radio, cinema, etc., and the use made of these media by leaders of 
Indian society. This research is made possible by a grant from the Ford 
Foundation. The grant is for a period of 1 year. It is believed that this 
survey will be useful to the American Government and to others doing informa- 
tional work in Oriental and/or underdeveloped countries and to those interested 
in selling American goods and services to such countries. 

t>n September 14, 1953, I applied to the United States consulate general in 
Bombay for a new passport, inasmuch as the present one expires in less than 
5 weeks. I was informed that I would have to execute an affidavit on my political 
affiliations, past and present, and that this document and my application would 
be forwarded to Washington for consideration. I now willingly make such an 
affidavit. 

I became a member of the Communist Party in 1937 or 1938, I am not sure 
which. It will be recalled that this was the time of the great depression, a 
time when many of us were looking desperately for solutions to the problems 
then confronting the United States and the world. I was in my early twenties. 
Like thousands of others in America and elsewhere, I thought that the Com- 
munist Party offered answers to the various domestic and international prob- 
lems of the 1930's. I did not engage in espionage or any other conspiratorial 
or underground activities, nor had I any knowledge that anything of the kind 
was going on. 

The Russo-German Pact of 1939 brought me to a realization of the bankruptcy 
of communism. My recollection is that I withdrew from the party soon there- 
after. As I v>rite this affidavit, I particularly recall how revolted I was by the 
callous attitude of the American Communists toward the bombing of Britain 
some months after the pact. 

I have not been a member of the Communist Party since ; I am not a member 
today ; I am not a member of any so-called "front" organizations ; I do not sub- 
scribe to or support the views of the party. My only present political connec- 
tion is that I am enrolled in the Democratic Party in accordance with the election 
laws of the State of New York. Aside from this, I am not a member of, nor 
am I associated with in any manner whatsoever, any political, social, labor, 
cultural, professional, or other organization. 

Since I haven't the faintest idea what accusation has been lodged against me 
today — 14 years after I left the party — it is difficult, if not impossible, to set 
forth relevant answers. 

I can, however, say that I am a loyal citizen, and that I vigorously deny any 
statement or implication to the contrary. I served my country honorably during 
the last war. At that time, certain Intelligence officers believed my loyalty 
to be of such an order that they entrusted me with the security checking of 
certain members of the Armed Forces. I am not at liberty to divulge details. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMAIUNISM 1471 

I have been a newspaperman for most of my working career. Nothing can be 
more public than the work of a newspaperman. I submit that the record of my 
work, being public, can be checked and that such a check will reveal no taint 
of disloyalty. More specifically, I call attention to the fact that I covered the 
fall of China to the Communists, and events there and elsewhere in the East for 
the following year, that my reports were widely used, that I was congratulated 
on them, ancl that no one, to my knowledge, has criticized them on the grounds 
of loyalty or bias in favor of any country other than the United States of America. 
My present plan is to complete my work in India in January, and then return 
home. I expect to take a 6-week vacation en route home, stopping in Italy, 
Switzerland, France, Spain, and Portugal for sightseeing and a rest. 
I herewith submit the usual passport application. 

/s/ Amos Landman, 

Amos Landman [hand printed] 
Republic of India, 
State op Bombay, 
City of Bombay, 
Consulate General of the 

United States of America, ss: 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this loth day of September 1953. 
Service No. 1030 [number handwritten] 
NO FEE. 

Tar. 38 [handwritten] 
[seal] /s/ Paul H. Kreisberg, 

Paul H. Kreisberg, 
Vice Consul of the United States of America. 

Mr. SouKwiNE. Now, Mr. Landman, I will state to you and to the 
committee that I do not want to take unfair advantage of you. We 
have been through this at the executive session, but I want to go 
through it once more. It is possible to demonstrate that this is your 
signature. It is possible to demonstrate that this is your affidavit. 
Since you have made affidavit to this fact and disclosed at that 
time that you were a member of the Communist Party, you can- 
not now refuse to testify with respect to that same matter, because 
your stating now that you were a member of the Communist Party 
as indicated in this affidavit would not be a disclosure of anythmg 
which would tend to incriminate you. 

I, therefore, repeat the question, and if you do not answer, I shall 
ask the Chair to order that you answer. 

I repeat the question : Were you at any time a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Laxdman. I decline to answer on the grounds of possible self- 
incrimination. 

Mr. SouRwiisrE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer that question. 

Senator Johnston. You are ordered and directed to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Landman. I respectfully decline to answer on the gromids pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, I will state that we have available 
a handwriting expert to prove the witness' signature. Is it the desire 
of the Chair that we interrupt this testimony for 10 minutes and do 
that, or that we put the expert on after the end of Mr. Landman's 
testimony ? 

Senator Johnston. I think it would be best to excuse this witness. 
There might be something coming up at that time that he might want 
to answer. 

You bring on the other witness. 



1472 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. Landman will be excused. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Appel. 

Senator Johnston. Will you raise your right hand ? Do you swear 
that the testimony you give in this hearing w^ll be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Appel. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CHAELES ANDREW APPEL, JR., WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Appel, your full name, please. 

Mr. Appel. Charles Andrew Appel, Jr. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And your address, sir ? 

Mr. Appel. 3383 Stephenson Place NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Appel. I am an examiner of questioned documents, by which I 
mean the analysis of handwriting, typewriting, paper, ink, any mat- 
ter which has to do with the authenticity of a writing or document. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Wliere and how did you start this work, Mr. Appel ? 

Mr. Appel. I attended lectures of J. Fordyce Wood, of Chicago; 
Albert S. Osborn, of New York ; and Dr. Wilmer Souder, of the Na- 
tional Bureau of Standards, while employed as a special agent at the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation. I was instructed by Mr. Hoover to 
study the use of science in crime work and to organize the laboratory 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Thereafter, I specialized in 
the analysis of questioned documents. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Were you connected with the FBI Laboratory? 

Mr. Appel. Yes. I was a senior docmnent examiner with the FBI 
Laboratory until I retired in 1948, since which time I have been ex- 
amining documents in civil cases in my own laboratory. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You have an LL. B. from Georgetown University ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You are a member of the bars of the District of 
Columbia and the United States Supreme Court ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You have continued your studies in the science of 
handwriting, typewriting, and other means of mechanical impressions, 
for identification? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Where have you qualified as a witness or given testi- 
mony as a document examiner ? 

Mr. Appel. I have testified in Federal, State, and military courts 
throughout the United States and its possessions, committees of Con- 
gress, and special courts of the United States, and other bodies. 

Mr. Sourwine. Will you name some of the well-known cases in 
which you have testified ? 

Mr. Appel. Well, I testified in the O'Connell kidnaping case in 
Binghamton, N. Y. I made the examination and testified before the 
grand jury in the Hauptmann case. 

Mr. Sourwine. That is the Lindbergh case ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, we could go further. I think that 
we have enough to qualify him. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1473 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Chairman, I happen to have been the 
chairman of another subcommittee which availed itself of the services 
of this witness, and we found that his technical qualifications were 
of the highest. 

The witness may recall that we used him on another occasion about 
3 year ago. 

Mr. AprEii. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouKwiNE. Mr. Appel, I send you two documents. One is an 
expense voucher for this committee and the other is a photostat of 
an affidavit. I will ask you first if you have examined the original 
of the affidavit of which this is a photostat. 

Mr. Appel. Yes, I did. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Where did you examine it ? 

Mr. Appel. At the State Department. 

Mr. SouRA\T[NE. The archives of the State Department? 

Mr. Appel. I don't know just what room it was. But the 

Mr. SouRWiNE. The document was produced from State Depart- 
ment files? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir ; by Mr. Nicholas. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you have with you at that time the other 
document, the signed voucher ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you compare the signatures on the two docu- 
ments? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sodr^vine. Wliat was your conclusion with respect to them? 

Mr. Appel. That both signatures, "Amos Landman," were written 
by one and the same person. 

Mr. Sourwine. I have no more questions of this witness. Senators. 
Do 3^ou want to question him ? 

Senator Hennings. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask this. 

TMiat did you do in the course of your comparing signatures? You 
certainly did more than just look at them, did you not? 

Mr. Appel. Oh, yes, sir. I examined the 

Senator Hennings. I think it might be helpful if you would tell us 
briefly just what you did in the pursuit of your specialty, for which 
you have been qualified as an expert witness before this subcommittee, 
in order that we may understand fully that you did more than simply 
make a cursory or superficial examination of them ; but in the pursuit,, 
that was in fact the pursuit of your profession for which you are 
technically qualified, that you did certain things. 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir. 

Well, these signatures are practically illegible, by which I mean 
that you cannot recognize many of the letters in them, and yet it is 
obvious that the general design of the questioned and the known 
signature are very similar, that is, the lines have the same shape, the 
same form. So clear is this that it places the examination under a 
special class or analysis because it is possible for one person to imitate 
the form of the signature of another person with some exact resem- 
blance. 

However, in order to do that, it is necessary to use drawing motions 
and not writing motions, so that the examination of this case particu- 
larly requires the application of a miscroscope to enlarge the lines 
sufficiently to find out whether the lines were written rapidly, as they 



1474 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

must be, in order to execute these illegible forms, which are illegible 
solely on account of the speed of motion employed. 

In other words, it is a question of how were the lines executed, and 

1 found that they were executed in this affidavit exactly the same 
way that they were in this exemplar, by which I mean that a true 
writing motion was employed in the execution with a pen and the 
deformations of the forms of the individual letters are habitual. 

Now, when you examine the lines in that way, not only can you tell 
whether there are any line irregularities which are due to manipula- 
tion, but you must necessarily discover the presence or absence of 
minute motion habits which are so minute that they cannot be arti- 
fically reproduced. 

In the first place, magnification would be required to do that, and 
if you use magnification, the area examined is so small within the 
lens, that you cannot see the big shapes, and the big shapes would 
come out all out of proportion, and there would be no resemblance 
in the general design. 

And it is for that reason, the absence of any irregularity of execu- 
tion and the presence of these minute evidences of genuineness, those 
two things on which my conclusion is based, that they were written by 
one and the same person with the same automatic writing habits. 

Senator Hennings. Thank you, sir. 

I just wanted one more question, possibly, Mr. Sourwine. That was. 
How long a time was consumed in your examination of these signa- 
tures ? 

How much time did you take in this examination in arriving at the 
conclusion that you liave, sir ? 

Mr. Appel. About an hour or two. 

Senator Hennings. You spent no less than an hour and possibly 

2 hours in making your detailed professional examination of these 
signatures ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir ; at the State Department. Of course, I made 
notes and examined those after I arrived at my laboratory. I also 
had this exemplar with me in the laboratory. But as far as the analy- 
sis at the State Department was concerned, I was there an hour and a 
half, perhaps, and that is all. 

It is not a difficult case, because of the automatic writing ability of 
this writer, which would be exceedingly difficult to imitate. 

Mr. SouEWiNE. May we have the documents back ? 

Senator Johnston. Are there any further questions? 

(No response.) 

Senator Johnston. Hearing none, you are excused. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. I think Mr. Landman can resume the stand. 

Senator Johnson. Mr. Landman will come back and take the stand. 
You have already been sworn, so just take your seat. 

TESTIMONY OF AMOS LANDMAN, NEW YORK, N. Y. ; ACCOMPANIED 
BY DAVID REIN, HIS COUNSEL— Resumed 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Landman, you have heard the testimony of 
the preceding witness? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. You know it has been established that the signa- 
ture on the affidavit, of which we have shown you a photostat, is the 



STEATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1475 

same as the signature you placed on the voucher for your expenses in 
your appearance before this committee. 

Now, in view of that fact, sir, do you still refuse to tell us whether 
\'ou were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Landman. I do. 

Mr. SouRwixE. I ask, Mr. Chairman, that the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer that question. 

Senator Johnston. You are ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Landman. I still take the same position, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I\Ir. Landman, were you ever in India? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. "V^Hien? 

Mr. Landman. During most of the calendar year 1953. 

Mr. SoTJRwaNE. Did you, while you were in India, meet Paul H. 
Kreisberg, Vice Consul of the United States of America ? 

(Witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir, I did. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Is that the same Paul H. Kreisberg who attested to 
the affidavit we have shown you and which has been identified here? 

Mr. Landjian. I decline to answer, sir, on the previously stated 
grounds. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was Mr. Kreisberg Vice Consul at the Consulate 
General of the United States of America. Eepublic of India, State of 
Bombay, city of Bombay, in September 1953 ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir, he was. 

Mr. SotiRwiNE. i\Ir. Landman, did you live at 6 Pemino, Altamont 
Eoad, Bombay 26, India ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir ; part of the time I was in India. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was your address in the United States, care of 
David Landman, your brother, at 436 East 71st Street, New York City ? 

Mr. Landman. My home address where I might receive mail was 
the address that you have given ; yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Are you an American citizen by birth ? 

Mr. Landman. I am. 

Mr. SoTJRwiNE. Do you hold United States Passport No. 566- 
(FS203.742), issued in Shanghai October 20, 1949, renewed in Wash- 
ington, D. C, August 14, 1952, and expiring October 19, 1953 ? 

(Witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Landman. I do not now hold the passport with the numbers 
which you read. That passport, as the sentence you read says, ex- 
pired some time ago. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you surrender it? 

Mr. Landman. Yes. 

Mr. SoTTRwiNE. To whom did you surrender it? 

Mr. Landman. !Mr. Kreisberg. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you asked by him to do so ? 

Mr. Landman. I may have been. It had expired. I don't recall 
the exact details, but since it was expired, it wasn't a valid passport. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you surrender it to him after the execution of 
this affidavit? 

Mr. Landman. I don't recall when I surrendered it. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you go to India by direct flight from the United 
States, arriving there January 31, 1953 ? 



1476 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir, I did. 

Mr. SouKwiNE. Did you go there to make a study of media of com- 
munications in the country of India, tliat is, the press, radio, cinema, 
and so forth, and tlie use made of these me'^lia by leaders o* Indian 
society ? 

Mr. Landman. That is correct. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you making that study for the Ford Founda- 
tion 'i 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you report the results of that study to the Ford 
Foundation ? 

Mr. Landman. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, Why not? 

Mr. Landman. I am still working on a report on the research I 
did m India and have not yet completed it. 

Mr. ISouRvviNE. When did you return to the United States? 

Mr. Landman, In January 1954. 

Mr. Sourwine. Has the Ford Foundation asked you for any report 
since that time ? 

Mr. Landman. No, sir. It is not the policy of the Ford Foundation 
to demand reports of persons to whom it gives grants. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you become a member of the Communist Party 
in 1937 or 1938 ? 

Mr. Landman. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds of pos- 
sible self-incrimination. 

Mr. Sourwine. I ask that the witness be ordered and directed to 
answer the question. 

Senator Johnston. You are ordered and directed to answer that 
■question. 

Mr. Landman. I respectfully decline. Senator, for the reason I 
have given. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Brooklyn Eagle unit of 
the Communist Party in the late 1930's ? 

(Witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Landman. No, sir ; I never was ; I never worked for the Eagle. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you at any time in attendance at meetings of 
the Communist faction of the Brooklyn Eagle? 

(Witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Landman. No, sir. 

M. Sourwine. When you returned from India, did you return 
by way of Italy, Switzerland, France, Spain, and Portugal ? 

Mr. Landman. Not quite all of those. By way of the Suez Canal, 
Italy, Spain, Portugal, Nova Scotia, and New York. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you confer with any Communist official or 
leaders of any of those countries? 

Mr. Landman. Certainly not. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you had any recent relationship or contact 
"with officials of the Communist Party, United States of America ? 

Mr. Landman. No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. With officials of the Communist Party of India? 

Mr. Landman. No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. With officials of the Communist Party of China ? ^ 

Mr. Landman. I was in Communist China for a period of approxi- 
mately 11 months, and for much of that period involuntarily. In 



STRATEGY AXD TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1477 

other words, I couldn't get out. Other people, as you know, have had 
that problem, and still do. 

During the period of 6 or 7, or perhaps 8 months when I 
was trying to get out, I made a regular round of official agencies of 
the Communist government, in an effort to try to get out of the coun- 
try, and during these interviews with the personnel of these agencies, 
I would not in the least be surprised if I met and had contact with 
Communist Party officials. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. During what period of time was this ? 

Mr. Landman. Well, I was in Communist China from May 1949 
until April 1950. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. How did you get in ? 

Mr. Landman. I got in by virtue of the Communists coming to me. 
I was in Shanghai when the city was taken. I had been in National- 
ist China for approximately a year prior to that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And you finally got out of Communist China when? 

Mr. Landman. April 1950. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. Did you get out with a passport or permission of 
the government, or did you sneak out? 

Mr. Landman. I got an exit visa 

Mr. ScuRwiNE. Good. 

Mr. Landman (continuing). In due course. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, where did you go from there? 

Mr. Landman. Well, I had been in Shanghai, which was where I 
lived in China, and after much negotiations I got permission to take a 
train to Tientsin, and I left Tientsin by ship for Japan. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And you went to Japan ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And where did you go from there? 

Mr. Landman. From there I went to Hong Kong. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And from Hong Kong? 

Mr. Landman. To Formosa. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And what time did you arrive in Formosa? 

Mr. Landman. It was the early summer of 1950, possibly May, 
possibly June, sometime about then. I don't recall precisely. 

Mr. SoTjRwiNE. And how did you enter Formosa ? 

Mr. Landman. I took a plane from Hong Kong. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. Did you have a passport ? 

Mr. Landman. Sure. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you have a visa ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Were you cleared by security authorities of Taipei, 
or Formosa ? 

Mr. Landman. I assume everybody who goes to Formosa is. I 
have no independent knowledge of that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The question was : "Were you" ? 

Mr. Landman. Was I what? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Were you cleared by security when you went to 
Formosa ? Do you remember any clearance procedure, anything you 
went through to get security clearance to go to Formosa ? 

Mr. Landman. I was questioned by several officials upon arrival at 
the airport outside of Taipei. This may have been a security busi- 
ness, although, if it was, it was a very routine one. I have no knowl- 
edge of any further clearance that I may have gone through. 



1478 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE, Do you know Bob Sheeks — S-li-e-e-k-s? 

(Witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir, I remember Bob Sheeks. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who was Bob Sheeks ? 

Mr. Landman. He was an officer in the United States Information 
Service in Formosa. In fact, he may have been the head of the 
office there. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was he a friend of yours ? 

Mr. Landman. I knew him. I don't know that I would describe 
him as a personal friend. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was that name Sheeks, with an "s," or Sheek — 
S-h-e-e-k? 

Mr. Landman. I think the way you spelled it the first time is the 
proper spelling. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. S-h-e-e-k-s? 

Mr. Landman. I believe so. That is my recollection. 

Mr, SouRwiNE. That is your recollection ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did he have anything to do with helping you get 
papers to get to Formosa ? 

Mr. Landman. It is possible that he did. The problem was this. 

Since I was in Hong Kong and the British no longer recognized 
the Chinese Nationalist Government, there was no consular officer to 
whom to go, so, as I recall, the airline which provides service between 
Hong Kong and Taipei sent a wire to its people in Taipei, and they 
arranged the visa by which I entered. Now, if Slieeks was in on this 
operation, I don't really know. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you pay Mr. Sheeks any money in connection 
with his efforts to help you get papers to get to Taipei ? 

Mr. Landman. Of course not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you engage in any business ventures with Mr. 
Sheeks? 

Mr. Landman. No. I used to talk to him on the matter of gather- 
ing news while I was in Formosa, but I don't think I would call that 
a business venture. 

Mr. SouRwiNE, Did you, Mr. Landman, attend any meetings of 
Communist Party units in New York in the late 1930's? 

Mr. Landman. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the previ- 
ously stated grounds. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Alvah Bessie ? 

Mr. Landman. No ; I never saw him until yesterday. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Nat Einhorn ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Nat Einhorn as a Communist? 

Mr. Landman. I decline to answer, sir, for the reason I have given. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as the Communist organizer of 
the Communist unit at the Brooklyn Eagle ? 

Mr. Landman. I decline to answer, sir, for the reason I have stated. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Victor Weingarten ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Landman. I decline to answer, sir, for the same reason. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Violet Brown ; who became Mrs. Vic- 
tor Weingarten ? 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 



1479 



Yes ; I do. 

Did you know lier as a Communist ? 

I decline to answer, sir, for the same reason. 

Do you know Charles Lewis ? 

I don't recall ever meeting anyone named Charles 

Did you know Hyman Chamiak? 

I don't recall ever meeting anyone by that name 



Mr. Landman. 

Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Landman. 

Mr. Sourwine, 

Mr. Landman. 
Lewis. 

Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Landman 
either. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know the name Hyman Charniak as the 
name of the man who left the Communist Party in 1939 ? 

Mr. Landman. I told you I don't think I ever met the man or know 
anything about him. 

Mr. Sourwine. This question hasn't to do with your meeting the 
man. It has to do with your knowledge of a name. Do you know 
the name Hyman Charniak as the name of a man who left the Com- 
munist Party in 1939 ? _ 

Mr. Landman. No, sir. 

Do you know Herbert Colin ? 

Yes, I do, sir. 

Did you know him as a Communist ? 

I decline to answer, sir, for the same reason. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Melvin Barnett ? 

Mr. Landman. No ; I don't recall ever meeting him. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know David Gordon ? 

Mr. Landman. I have a distant recollection of David Gordon. 

Mr. Sourwine. What is your recollection ? 

Mr. Landman. That he was a reporter on the Eagle whom I used 
to run into on assigrnments. 



Mr. SouR^viNE. 
Mr. Landman. 
Mr. Sourwine. 
Mr. Landman. 

Sourwine. 

Landman. 



Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Landman. 

Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Landman. 

Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Landman. 

Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Landman. 

Mr. Sourwine. 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Landman. 
not. 

Mr, 

Mr, 

Mr, 

Mr, 

Mr 

Mr 



Did you know him as a Communist ? 

I beg your pardon ? 

Did you know him as a Communist ? 

I decline to answer, sir, for the same reason. 

Do you know Charles Grutzner ? 

No ; I do not. 

Do you know Gladys Bentley ? 

Yes; I do. 

Do you know her as a present member of the Com- 

I have no idea whether she is a present member or 



Sourwine. 
Landman. 
Sourwine. 
Landman. 
Sourwine. 
Landman. 



Do you know that she was a Communist ? 
I decline to answer, sir, for the same reason. 
Did you deal with her as a Communist ? 
I decline to answer, sir, for the same reason. 
Do you know Leonard Adler ? 

"\Ylien you asked me about him in the executive ses- 
sion, I didn't place him, but having heard the testimony here for the 
last couple of days, I believe I do recall him and I did know him many 
years ago. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Lyle Dowling ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know him as a Communist ? 



1480 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 



Mr. SoURWINE. 

Mr. Landman. 

Mr. SoURWINE. 

Mr. Landman. 



Mr. Landman. I decline to answer for the same reason. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Muriay Young i 
Mr. Landman. No, sir; never met him — don't recall him at all. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Monroe Stern ? 

Mr. Landman. Monroe Stern 1 know as a former rewrite man on 
the New York Journal or the New York American; as one with a 
reputation as a very fast and accurate newspaperman. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know Monroe Stern as a former official of 
the New York Newspaper Guild ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes ; I know him in that capacity, too. 

Did you know Monroe Stern as a Communist ? 

I decline to answer, sir, for the same reason. 

Do you know Milton Kaufman ? 

I do. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know whether he is a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

I do not know. 

Have you ever dealt with him as a Communist? 

I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Did you know him as a member of the Communist 
unit at the Brooklyn Eagle ? 

(Witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Landman. The answer is, that I did not. 

Did you know John Francis Ryan ? 

Yes, sir. 

Did you know him as a Communist ? 

I decline to answer for the same reason. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Gladys Kopf ? 
Mr. Landman. Yes; I did. 

Did you know her as a Communist ? 

I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Do you know Ira Henry Freeman ? 



Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 



Landman. 

SoURWINE. 

Landman. 

SoURWINE. 



Mr. SoURWINE. 

Mr. Landman. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. 
Mr. Landman. 



Mr. SouRWiNE. 
Mr. Landman. 
Mr. SouRwiNE. 
Mr. Landman. 
the war. 

Mr. SouRWINE. 

Landman. 

SoURWINE. 

Landman. 

SouRWINE. 

Landman. 

SoURWINE. 

Landman. 



I have a vacrue recollection that I knew him before 



Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 



Did you know Mr. Freeman as a Communist? 
I decline to answer for the same reason. 
Do you know Sam Weissman ? 
Yes. 

Did you know him as a Communist ? 
I decline to answer for the same reason. 
Do you know Helen Weissman ? 
I don't think that I recall her. I am not sure 
whether I knew her or not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Are you the same Amos Landman who, with one 
Lynn Landman, wrote a book. Profile of Red China, published by 
Simon & Schuster in 1951 ? 
Mr. Landman. Yes ; I am. 
Mr. SouRWiNE. Is Lynn Landman your wife ? 
Mr. Landman. She is. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Are you the same Amos Landman who wrote The 
First Year is the Toughest, an article which appeared in the New 
Republic January 13, 1947 ? 
Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COM]VIUNISM 1481 

Mr, SouRWiNE, Are you the same Amos Landman who, with Lynn 
Landman, wrote an article, "Will MacArthiir Removal Change 
Chinese Attitude?" appearing in the Foreign Policy Bulletin of May 
4,1951? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Are you employed as public relations representa- 
tive for the National Municipal League, New York City ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Were you ever ordered to leave Formosa? 

Mr. Landman. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. How did it come that you left Formosa? 

Mr. Landman. I had been overseas quite a while. The problem 
of making broadcasts from Formosa became rather difficult after the 
Chinese Nationalist Government refused to permit me to use the 
broadcasting facilities there. My wife had already left for home 
and I though it was time to go, so I went. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. '\^^iy did the Chinese authorities deny you the use 
of the broadcasting f aciilties on Formosa, if you know. 

Mr. Landman. I do know. I did a broadcast on the attitude of 
the people of Formosa twoard the Chinese Nationalist Government 
in that period, which was the summer of 1950, and in that broadcast 
I said that it was my impression, after considerable investigation, 
that the people of Formosa were not especially happy with the Chi- 
nese Nationalist rule, and I thought that was a quite important 
story, because, as you will recall, this was shortly after the Korean 
invasion. Our troops were in very bad shape there in Korea. 

The Seventh Fleet had just been dispatched to Formosa, the waters 
off Formosa, and at that time the Seventh Fleet consisted of one or two 
destroyers, and the Communists had been threatening for some time 
to invade Formosa. 

I knew from my own observations on the mainland that separations 
were underway, and I thought this was an important story and one 
that the American people should know about. 

Mr, Sour\\t:ne, Mr. Landman, did you know that it had at one 
time been charged that you were in the pay of \^adimir Rogoff, then 
director of Tass ? 

Mr, Landman. I have heard that allegation, and I most emphati- 
cally deny it. There is not a word of truth to it. I would like to know 
where it came from. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. By whom, sir, were you employed at the time you 
made the broadcast which you say led to denial of broadcasting facili- 
ties to you in Formosa, 

Mr. LAXD:NtAx. I was not regularly employed by anyone. I was 
still working on a free-lance basis. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. Did you have credentials from any newspaper or 
radio station or radio chain? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, I had credentials from the National Broadcast- 
ing Co. 

^Ir. SoTTRwiNE. And you made the broadcast for NBC ? 

Mr. Landman, I made the broadcast, which was recorded in San 
Francisco. 

I have no kowledge whether it was actually put on the air, but 
the Nationalists knew about it because I gave them a carbon copy. 



1482 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 

Mr, SouRwiNE. Did you have any credentials from any newspaper 
at any time while you were in Formosa ? 

Mr. Landman. No, sir. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Now, who arranged for publication of your book 
Profile? 

Mr. Landman. Charlotte Zeiblein was the editor with whom I 
worked. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did Joe Barnes have anything to do with it ? 

Mr. Landman. He may have. I think he perhaps read the manu- 
script. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know Joe Barnes ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, I met him. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know him as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Landman. No, I do not so know him. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether he ever was a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Landman. I have no idea. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you ever an applicant for employment by the 
OSS ? 

Mr. Landman. No, I never was. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you ever an applicant for employment by 

Mr. Landman. No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever work for either one of those organi- 
zations or agencies? 

Mr. Landman. No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever state that an intelligence agency of 
the United States Government thought so much of you that they used 
you to screen certain persons ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Landman. I may have. 

Mr. Sourwine. What was the agency that thought so much of you 
that they asked you to screen certain persons for security ? 

Mr. Landman. This incident happened while I was in the Army. 

Mr. Sourwine. You were talking about the United States Army; 
were you ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you in Intelligence in the Army ? 

Mr. Landman. Not regularly, but I was asked on several occa- 
sions to do some intelligence work. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever cover labor news for the New York 
Mirror ? 

Mr. Landman. I covered labor news intermittently, not as a regu- 
lar permanent assignment. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you work on the labor page of PM with Leon 
Huberman ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Leo Huberman as a Communist? 

Mr. Landman. I decline to answer that question for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you ever hear of a complaint made against you 
to Ralph Ingersoll by Dave Dubinsky ? 

Mr. Landman. No, I did not. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1483 

Mr. SouR\viisnE. Did you know that Ingersoll had fired Huberman ? 

Mr, Landman. Yes, sure I knew that. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Why? 

Mr. Landman. I don't recall the details, Mr. Sourwine. There was 
quite a big dispute, but what it was all about, I really don't recollect. 

Mr. Sourwine. How long were you employed by PM ? 

Mr. Landman. A total of almost 4 years. 

Mr. Sourwine. During that time, was there quite a struggle between 
the Communist and anti-Communist forces on the staff of PM? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Landman. I don't think I recall anything that could be de- 
scribed as a great struggle such as you have suggested, Mr. Sourwine. 

Mr. Sourwine. Are you aware that there were Communists and 
anti-Communist forces or factions on PM during that period that 
3'ou worked there? 

Mr. Landman. I decline to answer that, sir, for the reason I have 
given. 

Mr. Sourwine, Do you Imow James Wechsler, W-e-c-h-s-l-e-r ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know whether Mr. Wechsler was a member 
of the Communist Party at the time you were on PM? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Landman, I decline to answer, sir, for the same reason. 

Mr. Sourwine. Don't you realize you are doing Mr. Wechsler a 
great injustice by declining that? Don't you know as a matter of 
fact that Mr. Wechsler headed the anti-Communist group on PM at 
that time ? 

Mr. Landman. I decline to answer, sir, for the same reason. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions to ask 
of this witness. 

If I may have just a moment, my colleague has suggested it might 
be productive to ask Mr. Landman about a few persons who have come 
to the notice of the committee in connection with other investigations. 

May I have 3 minutes more ? 

Senator Johnston. Go ahead. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know John W. Powell ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, I know John W. Powell. 

Mr. Sourwine. Where did you meet him ? 

Mr. Landman. In China, Shanghai. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know him as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Landman. I declined to answer that question when you asked 
it the other day, Mr. Sourwine. On further consideration, and after 
consultation with my attorney, I am now prepared to answer it, if I 
may change my answer. 

Mr Sourwine. Go ahead. 

Mr. Landman. I have no knowledge as to whether he was or was 
7iot a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you work with him in connection with the 
furtherance of any Communist objectives? 

Mr. Landman. No, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you associate with him socially while you were 
in Shanghai? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, I did. 



59886 — 55 — pt. 15- 



1484 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COIVIMUNISM 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Wlien yon were in Shanghai and after the Com- 
munists took over, did yon continue to know John W. Powell. 

Mr. Landman, I saw him, but quite infrequently, after the Com- 
munists took over. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know he was working for the Communists? 

Mr. Landman. I had no knowledge as to whether he was or was 
not. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Sylvia Powell ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, I did. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know William Burges, B-U-R-G-E-S? 

Mr. Landman. I recall him vaguely. Yes, I think I did know him 
casually. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know Julian Schuman ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did you know Mary Barrett ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, I did. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know any of those persons as members of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Landman. I have no information on any of them as to whether 
they were or were not. 

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. Did you know Gerald Tannebaum ? 

Mr. Landman. I had met him. I didn't know him well. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know he was connected with Madam Sun 
Yat-sen ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, I had heard that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know him as a member of the Conamunist 
Party? 

Mr. Landman. I had no information on that point whatever. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Rose Yardumian ? 

Mr. Landman. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know William Hinton ? 

Mr. Landman. No, I don't think I ever met him. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Joan Hinton ? 

Mr. Landman. I don't recall Joan Hinton. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you know Rose Yardumian as a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Landman. I have no information on that question. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you or did you know Solomon Adler ? 

Mr. Landman. No, I don't think I know anyone by that name. 

Mr. Sourwine. I have no more questions. 

Senator Johnston. Yon have a statement you wanted to make ? 

Mr. Landman. Very briefly, if I may, Mr. Chairman. 

Senator Johnston. Make it brief. 

Mr. Landman. When I was in China, Mr. Chairman — as a matter 
of fact until yesterday I never thought I engaged in anything that 
could be described as espionage, and I still feel the same way. But 
after hearing Mr. Burdett's testimony, I think it pertinent to mention 
that I gathered information and I turned it over to officials of our 
Government. 

The information which I picked up, as far as I could tell from Mr. 
Burdett's rather limited testimony on the point, was more or less 
similar to the information which he picked up. Now I gather that 
this is considered espionage because it was done under false pretenses. 



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1485 

I don't think there is anything especially sinister about it, but I 
do want you to know that I did gather information and turned it 
over to various consular and embassy officials of our Government while 
I was in China. That is what I wanted to tell you, sir. 

Senator Johnston. You are excused. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, I have no more witnesses except I 
would like to make another call, with no hope, for David Gordon. 

Senator Johnston. David Gordon. 

(No response.) 

Mr. SouRwiNE. I want to say for the record, Mr. Chairman, that 
there are certain witnesses whose attendance we have been unable to 
get. Hyman Charniak — we have an address in Chicago, but Chicago 
reports that he is not there. They think the address may be the 
correct one. 

We have endeavored to get Mrs. Doretta Tarmon, whose last known 
address was in New York City, and the report at that address was 
that she was out of town, whereabouts unknown, and don't know when 
she could return. 

We have endeavored to secure an address for Sam Weissman, and 
were unable to do so. 

Miss Gladys Kopf is dead. 

We had a subpena out for Mr. Gordon, and I was hopeful that it 
might have been served in time to get him here, but apparently that 
was not so. 

We were unable to get an address for Mr. Melvin Barnett until the 
testimony of the witness here today. I think we may be able to reach 
him for testimony at a later date at another series of hearings. 

We have no information on the present addresses of Charles Lewis 
and Leonard Adler. I think that completes the statement. 

If I have missed any person who has been named here, I want to say 
that the staff is making every effort to reach all of these people to serve 
them with a subpena. 

Senator Johnston. The committee is dismissed until call of the 
Chair. 

( Wliereupon, at 3 : 55 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned, to recon- 
vene at the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Page 

Adler, Leonard 1400, 1413, 1446, 1452, 1458, 1465, 1479, 1485 

Adler, Solomon 1484 

Agrin, Gloria 1438 

Air Force 1419, 1421, 1423, 1425, 1426, 1428, 1430-1432, 1434, 1468 

Air Force PIO 1422 

Altamont Road, Bombay 1470, 1475 

American 1423, 1434, 1435, 1470, 1475, 1481 

American Committee for Yugoslav Relief 1461, 1464 

American Communists 1470 

American Newspaper Guild 1439, 1440, 1448, 1465 

Appel, Charles Andrew, Jr 1472-1474 

Armed Forces 1470 

Army 1419, 1433, 1434, 1435, 1436, 1482 

AP 1422, 1424, 1431 

Association of Polish Photographers 1466 

Attorney General's list 1408, 1461 

B 

Barnard, William 1429 

Barnes, Joe 1482 

Barnett, Melvin 1399, 1410-1411, 1452, 1457, 1465, 1479, 1485 

Barrett, Mary 1484 

Bentley, Gladys 1400, 1405-1406, 1412, 1416, 1418, 1438-1453, 1458, 1465, 1479 

Bernard, Bill 1431 

Bessie, Alvah 1393, 1406, 1445, 1448, 1456, 1465, 1478 

Bible 1408 

Binghamton, N. Y 1472 

Birmingham, Ala 1427 

Bombay 1470, 1471, 1475 

Boni & Gaer 1444, 1447 

Britain 1470 

British 1478 

Broadway 1418 

Brooklyn College 1413 

Brooklyn Eagle 1392. 1402, 1403, 1406, 1407. 1410-1412, 1414, 

1415, 1417, 1437, 1430-1443, 1447, 1456, 1460, 1462, 1476, 1479 

Brooklyn, N. Y 1438, 1447, 1448, 1460 

Browder 1405 

Browderite 1417 

Brown University 1468 

Brown, Violet (Mrs. Victor Weingarten)___ 1398, 1407, 1445, 1448, 1456, 1465,1478 

Bryee, 1st Lt. Paul W 1427 

Burdett, Winston 1406, 1413, 1414, 1452, 1455, 1462-1464, 1484 

Burges, William 1484 

Bush, Brig. Gen. K. B 1426 

C 

Cacchione 1416 

Catledge, Turner 1426, 1429 

Chang No 1430, 1432 



ii INDEX 

Page. 

Cbarniak, Hy (Hyman) 1399,1410,1445,1452,1456,1465,1479,1485 

Chelsea Advertising 1439 

Chicago 1472,1485 

China 1471, 1477, 1484, 1485 

Chinese Communists 1435, 1436 

Chinese Nationalist Government 1478, 1481 

Chosen Hotel (Chosun) 1420,1430,1432,1433 

Christmas Eve 1422, 1425, 1428 

Christmas, 1945 1392 

CIA 1482 

City News 1413 

Claridge (Hotel), Manhattan 1403 

Cobb, David 1459 

Cobb & Weissbrodt 1459 

Cohn, Herbert 1399, 1410, 1446, 1452, 1456, 1465, 1479 

Colorado 1464 

Columbia University 1468 

Committee for the Election of John T. McManus 1465 

Communist 1392-1401, 1401^1418, 1423, 1437, 1440, 

1448, 1449, 1455-1459, 1460-1461, 1463-1464, 1466, 1471, 1476-1484 
Communists, Chinese. {See Chinese Communists.) 

Communist Party, American 1409 

Communist Party, Brooklyn Eagle Unit__ 1393, 1402, 1406-1407, 1410, 1412-1414, 

1417, 1439, 1440, 1448, 1455-1456, 1458, 1461, 1476, 1478, 1480 

Communist Party of China 1405, 1419, 1476 

Communist Party of India 1476 

Communist Party of Korea 1406 

Communist Party of the United States 1409 

Communist Party, U. S. A 1405, 1465, 1476 

Congress 1472 

Constitution 1442 

Copernicus 1466 

Council on Foreign Relations, New York 1468, 1469 

Craigie, Maj. Gen. L. C 1424-1426, 1428-1429, 1453 

D 

Daily Compass 1445, 1447 

Daily Worker 1433, 1435-1437, 1462, 1463, 1465 

Defense, Department of 1426, 1429 

Democratic Club 1409 

Democratic Party 1416, 1470 

Dies committee 1465 

Diety 1408 

District of Columbia 1472 

Dowling, Yale 1400, 1413, 1446, 1452, 1458, 1465, 1479 

Dubinsky, Dave 1482 

E 

Eastland, Senator James O 1397, 1426, 1429, 1430, 1450, 1451 

Eighth Army PIO 1421,1429,1435 

Einhorn, Nat 1394, 1395, 1399, 1403, 

1406, 1412, 1416-1418, 1437, 1445, 1448, 1456, 1459, 1459-1467, 1478 

Embassy of the People's Republic of Poland 1460, 1461, 1466 

Epstein, Henry 1465 

F 

F-80 1432 

F-84 1432 

F-86. (SeeSabrejet.) 

Far East 1425, 1468 

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 1472 

Fifth Air Force 1426, 1427, 1432 

Fifth amendment 1393-1401, 

1438-1452, 1454-1461, 1464-1466, 1469-1471, 1475-1480, 1482, 1483 
Finch, E. Leroy 1431 



INDEX m^ 

Page 

Finnish War 1462 

First Year Is the Toughest, The .___ 1480 

Ford Foundation 1469, 1470, 1476 

Foreign Agents Registration Act 1461 

Foreign Policy Bulletin, May 4, 1951 1481 

Forest Hills 1432 

Formosa 1477, 1478, 1481, 1482 

Foster, William Z 1451 

Fourth Fighter Group 1432 

France 1471,1476 

Freedman & Agrin 1438, 1447 

Freedman, Blanch 1438, 1447 

Freeman, Ira Henry 1401, 1415, 1446, 1459, 1466, 1480 

Freeman, Milton 1438 

Fritchey, Clayton 1426 

G 

Garraghy, Kenenth 1412 

Garrett, Chick 1412 

Garrett, Kenneth 1412 

Georgetown University 1472 

GIs 1433, 1434, 1436. 1437 

GI bill of rights 1469 

Glen Cove, Long Island 1454 

Golos, Jacob 1463 

Gt)rdon, David 1399. 1412. 1446, 1452. 1457, 1459', 1465, 1479,1485 

Grutzner, Charles 1399, 1401-1438, 1446, 1452, 1453, 1457, 1464-1466, 1479 

H 

Han-ho 1432,1433 

Han River 1431 

Hauptmann Case 1472 

Herman, George 1433 

Hinton, Lt. Col. Bruce H 1427, 1428, 1432 

Hinton, Joan 1484 

Hinton, William 1484 

Hitler-Stalin Pact 1399, 1404 

Home Talk 1403, 1412 

Hong Kong 1477, 1478 

Hoover, Mr 1472 

Hotel and Restaurant Employees Union 1461 

Huberman, Leo 1482, 1483 

I 

Idlewild 1428 

India 1468-1471,1475-1476 

In Fact 1392, 1401 

Ingersoll, Ralph 1482, 1483 

Intelligence 1482 

Internal Revenue Bureau 1461 

Internal Security Subcommittee 1426, 1429, 1430 

Israel Speaks 1444, 1447 

Italy 1471, 1476 

J 

Japan 1477 

James, Edwin L 1427 

Jeneczek, Capt. Raymond 1427 

Jefferson School 1463 

Jinju 1433 

Johnston, Dick 1421, 1430, 1433 

K 

Kaufman, Mr 1418, 1419 

Kaufman, Milton 1400, 1415, 1416, 1437, 1446, 1452, 1458, 1466, 1480 



IV INDEX 

Page 

Kennedy, Frank V 1449-1451 

Kimpo 1430-1432 

Kimpo Airfield 1419, 1424 

Kopf, Gladys 1400, 1415, 1446, 1452, 1459, 1466, 1480, 1485 

Korea 1419, 1422-1425, 1427-1436, 1453, 1481 

Korean Metropolitan Police 1436 

Kreisberg, Paul H 1471, 1475 

L 

Landman, Amos 1400, 1418, 

1414, 1446, 1452, 1458, 1466, 1467-1472, 1473, 147^1485 

Landman, David 1475 

Landman, Lynn (Mrs. Amos Landman) 1480, 1481 

Lawrenceburg, Tenn 1427 

Leibowitz, Doretta 1449 

Lewis, Charles 1398, 1407, 1445, 1452, 1456, 1465, 1479, 1485 

Lindbergh case 1472 

M 

MacArthur's PIO 1422 

MacGregor, Greg 1427 

Manchuria 1427 

Martel 1403 

Martel, Harry 1403 

McManus, John T 1440, 1448, 1465 

Meyer, Col. Johnny 1432 

MIG's 1419, 1420, 1426, 1431, 1432 

MIG 15 1426 

MiUer. Rhoda 1461 

Minton, John McKim 1402 

Mirror 1413 

Montgomery, O'ean 1463 

N 

Naija 1430, 1431, 1433 

NBC (National Broadcasting Co.) 1432, 1468, 1481 

National Bureau of Standards 1472 

Nationalist China 1477 

National Maritime Union 1392, 1401 

National Municipal League, New York City 1481 

Nelson, Steve 1461 

New Masses 1462, 1463 

New Republic, January 13, 1947 1480 

Newis 1413 

Newspaper Guild 1415, 1437, 1439, 1454, 1465 

Newsweek 1422 

New York American 1480 

New York City 1402, 1411, 1413, 

1420, 1422, 1423, 1425, 1428, 1432, 1433, 1436-1439, 1447, 1461, 1465, 

1467, 1468, 1471, 1472, 1475, 1476, 1478, 1485 

New York City News Association 1402 

New York Daily Mirror 1467, 1482 

New York Daily News 1457 

New York Journal 14S0 

New York Times 1402, 1410, 1411, 1419, 1426-1430, 1433-1435, 1437, 1459 

Nicholas, Mr 1473 

North, Joseph 1462, 1463 

North Korea 1419, 1435 

Nova Scotia 1476 

O 

O'Connell kidnaping case 1472 

Office of Public Infonnation 1426 

OSS 1482 



EST 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05445 2444 



Page 

Orangeburg, N. Y "^^^Ifi 

Osborn, Albert J472 

Overseas News Ageucy i"*"^ 

P 
PM 1468, 1482, 1483 

Parks, Maj. Gen. Floyd L 1^6 

Parratt, Lindsay lj27 

Passaic N J- _ _ - 1427 

Pentagon- ' _~_r__~_'__~__"__-~" 1420-1424, 1426, 1433, 1453 

PIO_„ I " 1419-1423, 1431-1433 

Pitts, Capt. Morris B 1427 

Pleasantville, N. Y 1391 

Poland, Government of 1417, 1460. 1461 

Polish Film Festival 1417-1418 

Polish Information Service 1394 

Polish Research and Information Service 1461 

Polish United Workers Party 1461 

Pollitt, Daniel 1391 

Pooksan 1431 

Portugal 1471, 1476 

Powell, John W 1483-1484 

Powell, Sylvia 1484 

Profile of Red China 1480, 1482 

Progressive Conference 1414 

Pusan 1423 

Pyongyang 1435 

B 

RCA 1421, 1427, 1429, 1430, 1433 

Rein, David 1454, 1467 

Republican Club 1409 

Republican Party 1416 

Rhodes. Peter Christopher 1446, 1452, 1459, 1465 

Rockefeller Center 1417 

Rocky Mountain News, Denver 1460 

Rogoff, Vladimir 1481 

Russia 1409, 1416, 1462 

Russo-German Pact 1470 

Rutendollendorfer, Jerry 1446, 1465 

Ryan, John Francis (Jack) 1400,1415,1446,1452,14.54-1459,1466,1480 

S 

Sabrejet, F-86 1423-1424, 1426-1431, 1433-1434, 1453 

San Francisco 1427, 1481 

Schacht, Al 1449 

Schappes, Morris 1413 

Schooley, G. Herschel 1426 

Schuman, Julian 1484 

Scott, Colonel 1432 

Seldes, George 1392 

Seoul 1419-1421, 1424, 1429-1430, 1432-1437 

Seventh Fleet, The 1481 

Shanghai, China 1470, 1475, 1477, 1483-1484 

Shea, Jack 1426 

Sheeks, Bob 1478 

Simon & Schuster 1480 

Sinuiju 1427 

Soffee 1432-1433 

Souder, Dr. Wilmer 1472 

Sourwine, J. G 1397, 1428 

Soviet Government 1463 

Soviet Union 1409 

Spain 1407, 1471, 1476 

Squanee 1428 

Stackhouse, Glenn 1429-1432 



Wi INDEX 

Page 

Stars aiul Stripes 1432 

State Department 1473, 1474 

Stern, Monroe 1413, 1414, 1446, 1452, 1458, 1466, 1480 

Stevens, Austin 142G 

Stevenson, Mr 1466 

Stoclvton, Calif 1427, 1432 

Stratemeyer, General 1420, 1422, 1432 

Suez Canal 1476 

Sun Yat-sen, Madam 1484 

Switzerland 1471. 1476 

T 
Taipei 1477, 1478 

Talbert, Ansel (Ed) 1429-1433 

Talley, Lt. Franklin 1431 

Tannebauni, Gerald 1484 

Tarmon, Mrs. Doretta 1401, 1415, 1446, 1449, 14.59, 1466, 1485 

Tass News Service 1463, 1464, 1481 

Tate, Captain 1431 

Teachers' Union 1437 

Thanksgiving 1423 

Tientsin 1477 

Times 1415, 1420-1423, 142.5, 1429, 1433, 1434 

Tokyo 1419-1425, 1430-1433 

Trade Union Committee for Henry Epstein 1465 

Trimble, Sankey 1429-1432 

U 
U. N 1433 

UP -J-i. 1422, 1424, 1431-1433 

United States ^___ 1429, 1432-1436, 1469-1472, 1475-1476, 1482, 1484r-1485 

United States, Government of, overthrow 1395-1397, 1406, 1409 

United States Information Service 1478 

United States Navy 1392 

United States passport 1470 

United States Senate 1395, 1398, 1449, 1450, 1451 

United States Supreme Court 1472, 1475 

V 

"Vincent, Craig 1464 

Vincent, Mrs. Craig 1464 

Voorhees 1423 

W 

Wahl, David 1444, 1452 

Walker, General 1430 

Washington, D. C— 1392, 1411, 1421, 1426, 1427, 1432, 1433, 1454, 1459, 1472, 1475 

Wayne, Sidney J., Inc 1468 

Wechsler, James 1483 

Weingarten, Victor 1391-1401, 1406, 1445, 1449, 1456, 1465, 1478 

Weingarten, Violet. {See Brown, Violet.) 

Weissman, Helen 1401, 1415, 1416, 1446, 1459, 1466, 1480 

Weissman, Sam 1401, 1415, 1446, 1449, 1459, 1466, 1480, 1485 

Wilkerson, Doxie 1463 

Will MacArthur Removal Change Chinese Attitude 1481 

Wood, J. Fordyce 1472 

World's Fair 1404 

Y 

Yalu River 1419, 1427, 1432 

Yardnmian, Rose 1484 

Young, Murray 1400, 1413, 1446, 14.31, 1452, 1458, 1465, 1480 

Z 
Zeiblein, Charlotte 1482 

X