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Full text of "A stratigraphical list of British fossils; arranged under the principal division of the British strata, with a few elementary remarks on their character and localities"


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STRATIGEAPHICAL LIST 



BRITISH FOSSILS; 



AK&AirOED UNBEE THE 



PRINCIPAL DBISIONS OF THE BRITISH STRATA, 



WITH A FEW 



ELEMENTARY REMARKS 



CHARACTER AND LOCALITIES. 



JAMES TENNANT, F.G.S. 

Lecturer on Mxnerdlogy in King's College, London. Member of the 
Geol. Soc. of France, etc. 



LONDON: 

TBIXTSD TOB THE 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE; 

SOLD AT TBE DEFOSITOBT, 

GREAT QUEEN STREET, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS : 

AND 4, ROYAL EXCHANGE. 

1847. 






" Geology tells us of the successive i-evolutions and changes in the 
crust of the eai-th. Organic changes are our surest guides in making 
out this history, but they form only a part of our evidence, and the 
great physical groups of deposits, however rude and mechanical, are 
historical monuments of perhaps equal importance in obtaining any 
true and intelligible history of the past ages of the earth ; and after 
we have descended through a certain nmnber of stages, they become, 
indeed, our only monuments and indexes of past events." — Sedgwick. 




Printed by BEEVE, BROTHERS, King WiUiam Street, Strand. 



PREFACE. 



This little work is merely intended to assist the Geological 
Student, by affording him a general view of the Fauna 
and Flora of some of the principal formations as they are 
developed in the British Isles, so as to enable him more 
readily to comprehend the numerical proportion of these 
fossil organisms, as well as the objects to which his atten- 
tion shoidd be directed in his various examinations of the 
different strata. Appended to each division adopted in 
this volume, is a very slight sketch of the subordinate 
beds belonging to them, as compiled from the principal 
authors who have written on the subject. A few of the 
chief localities are given where the deposits may be best 
examined, and lists are also inserted of the more impor- 
tant works, memoirs, or papers which have especial refer- 
ence to each of the formations, so that the Student may be 
directed to those sources where more detailed information 
is to be obtained of any particidar deposits, which may, at 
any time, engage his attention. 



IV, PREFACE. 

By these aids, as well as by the careful study of a well 
selected series of minerals and fossils, illustrative of the 
different periods, it is hoped that the beginner may be- 
come somewhat acquainted with this interesting branch of 
Natural Science. 

The List of Minerals, given at page vi., is chiefly taken 
from the work of the late William Phillips, and may appear 
too extensive ; it only includes those minerals which are 
either the components of Eocks, or frequently found im- 
bedded in them, as well as a few others not hitherto dis- 
covered in Great Britain. 

I have to acknowledge my obligation toMr.Morris,I'.G.S. 
for assistance and suggestions in preparing this work, and 
beg to announce that an elementary work on Mineralogy 
is in preparation as an accompaniment to it. 

149, Strand, August, 1847. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The superficial crust of the Globe, as far as it has hitherto 
been exposed to observation, in the various sections afforded 
by deep mines, sea clilfs, or by valleys and mountainous 
regions, is foimd to consist of certain layers or strata, 
differently composed, and arranged in a certain order as 
regards each other. The composition of these mineral 
masses, the position which they occupy, the changes they 
have imdergone, and the organic remains contained in 
them, form the chief objects of Geological inquiry. 

An acquaintance with the collateral branches of Science, 
Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Palaeontology, will mate- 
rially facilitate any researches connected with the early 
history of our globe, as by the two former we acquire a 
knowledge of the composition, form, structure, &c., of the 
various simple or compoimd mineral bodies, which are 
either found, combined with or constituting the chief por- 
tion of different rocks or strata; and Palaeontology 
teaches us the character and relations, to existing beings, 
of the numerous genera of Plants, Shells, and Animals, 
which are more or less abundantly entombed in aU the 
stratified rocks. 

The Rocks or Strata have been generally divided by 
Geologists into two great groups ; ^iz.. Stratified, and 
Unstratified, and these are again subdivided as 
follows : — 



Stratified Rocks J resulting from f 

{ Aqueous agencies. [ 

Unstratified RocksJ "^"Iting from f V, 

l^ Igneous agencies. [ ^^ 



Fossiliferous. 
Xon-fossiliferons. 

olcanic. 
Plutonic. 



VI. INTRODUCTION. 

The composition of the Stratified fossiliferous rocks may 
be stated generally, as consisting of Argillaceous, Cal- 
careous, or Siliceous masses, as Clay, Lime or Silex, form 
their chief proportions. The Unstratified rocks are far 
more variable in their composition, as numerous other 
mineral bodies constitute their component parts, or fre- 
quently occiu" in them, of which the minerals in the sub- 
joined list are among the principal, and as some vary in 
their external characters, the Student should be provided 
with several varieties, to illustrate the crystalline form, 
fracture, and colour, or other physical characters. 

Siliceous Minerals. Zeolitic Minerals, 

Chiefly found in Amygdaloid Rocks in tlie 
Rock Crystal, hexagonal prism. western parts of Scotland, Giant's Causeway 

Rock Crystal, with conchoidal ApophyUite. 

fracture. Analcime. 

Quartz crystallized. Brewsterite. 

Violet Quartz, or Amethyst. Chabasie. 

Yellow Quartz Cairngorum. Gmelinite. 

Brown Quartz. Harmotome. 

Rose Quartz. Heulandite. 

Ferruginous Quartz. Laumonite. 

Arenaceous Quartz, Sand. Mesole. 

Arenaceous Quartz, coloured by Mesotype. 

oxides of Iron. Natrolite. 

Opal. Phillipsite. 

Semi-Opal. Prehnite. 

Wood Opal. Stilbite. 

Calcedony. Thomsonite. 
Agate, from Amygdaloid rocks. Clays. 

Agate, enclosing fossil sponge, &c. Slate Clay, Shale. 

Flint. Bituminous Shale. 

Hornstone. Rotten-stone. 

Jasper. Adhesive slate. 

Porcelain Jasper. Fuller's Earth. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The following consist of Silica, Aiuscm a, Ldce, &c. 



Gfamet, in rhombic dodecahedrons. 

Garnet, in trapezoidal crj'stals. 

Precions Garnet. 

Pyrope Garnet. 

Cinnamon stone. 

Idocrase. 

Ajrinite. 

Epidote. 

Augite. 

Diopside. 

Sahlite. 

Hornblende, massive. 

Hornblende, crystallized. 

TremoHte. 

Actynolite. 

Asbestns. 

Fibrous Asbestus. Amianthns. 

Hypersthene. 

Bronzite. 

Schiller Spar. 

Corundum. 

Emery. 

Kyanite. 

Topaz. 

Spinel. 

Chrysolite. 

Olivine. 

Zircon. 

Hyacinth. 

Beryl. 

Tourmaline. 

Schorl. 

Talc, foliated. 

Talc, compact. 

ilica. 

Leucite. 



Audalnsite. 

Chiastolite. 

Finite. 

Chlorite. 

Steatite. 

Soapstone. 

Felspar, crystallized. 

Felspar, with lamellar fracture. 

Glassy Felspar. 

Decomposed Felspar. 

Compact Felspar. 

Labradorite. 

Albite. 

Boracic Acid. 

Subsulphate of Alumina. 

Subphosphate of Alumina. 

Calcareous Spar, rhomb, obtained 

by cleavage. 
Calcareous Spar, crystallized. 
Stalactitic Carbonate of lime. 
Calcareous Tufa. 
Arragonite. 
Pearl Spar. 
Apatite. 
Phosphorite. 
Fluor Spar, in cubes. 
Fluor Spar, nodular. 
Anhydrite. 
Selenite. 

Fibrous Gypsum. 
Granular Gypsum. 
Carbonate of Barytes. 
Sulphate of Barjies. 
Carbonate of Strontian. 
Sulphate of Strontian. 
Chloride of Sodium, Rock Salt. 



vm. ] 


[NTRODUCTION. 


Native Metals 


AND Metalliferous Minerals. 




(Chiefly found in veins.) 


Iron Pyrites, in cubes. 


Purple Copper. 


Nodular Iron Pyrites. 


Grey Copper. 


Magnetic oxide of Iron. 


Copper Pyrites. 


Specular Iron. 


Red oxide of Copper. 


Micaceous oxide of Iron. 


Green carb. of Copper, Malachite. 


Iron Hsematite. 


Arseniate of Copper. 


Hydrous oxide of Iron. 


Native Gold. 


Carbonate of Iron. 


Native Platina. 


Argillaceous Carbonate of Iron. Sulphuret of Antimony. 


Phosphate of Iron. 


Sulphuret of Lead. Galena. 


Sulphate of Iron. 


Carbonate of Lead. 


Tungstate of Iron. 


Phosphate of Lead. 


Chi'omate of Iron. 


Arseniate of Lead. 


Oxide of Manganese. 


Sulphuret of Zinc. 


Sulphtiret of Molybdcna. 


Carbonate of Zinc. 


Oxide of Tin. 


Sulphuret of Merciuy. 


Stream Tin. 




Sulphuret of Tin. 


Combustible Minerals. 


Rutile. 


Sulphur. 


Menaccanite. 


Plumbago. 


Uranite. 


Anthracite. 


Native Bismuth. 


Elastic Bitumen. 


Sulphuret of Arsenic. 


Coal. 


Native Arsenic. 


Cannel Coal. 


Arsenical Cobalt. 


Jet. 


Native Silver. 


Lignite. 


Sulphuret of Silver. 


Amber. 


Native Copper. 


Retin asphalt. 


Sulphuret of Copper. 


Mellite. 



The study of Fossil Organic Remains, or Palaeontology,* 
is an important branch of Geological Science, as, by its 
assistance, the Student may generally ascertain the position 
of a deposit in the series. Each of the Groups of Strata 

* TraXntotr ancient, ovroa being, Xoyorr discourse. 



INTEODUCTION. IX. 

are characterized by a distinct set of organic forms, and in 
many instances, the subordinate beds have peculiar species. 
The Tertiary period contains many species of Testacea, the 
forms of which are analogous, and sometimes identical 
with, existing types ; as weU as the remains of the large 
Mammalia and Fishes belonging to the Cycloid and Ctenoid 
orders — orders which comprise nearly all the known living 
species, whereas the fossil fishes that are found in the 
Secondary and Palaeozoic periods, belong to the Ganoid 
and Placoid orders, of which there are but very few exist- 
ing forms. The Secondary period is characterized by two 
genera, which are peculiar to it. Ammonites and BeUmnites, 
belonging to the Cephalopoda. The Saurian family also 
abound at this period. 

The Palaeozoic period is marked by other forms of Cepha- 
lopoda, Goniatites, OrtJioceras, Cyrtoceraa, &c.,as also by the 
great abimdance of the Brachiopoda, as Prodtictm,Lept^ia, 
Spirifer, Orthis, &c., and some singular forms of Crustacea, 
the Trilobites ; as weU as many species of Crinoidea. 

Limited as is the extent of the British Islands, yet they 
contain (with one exception, the Muschelkalk) a fuU deve- 
lopment of the Geologic series, and thus afford an index 
by which the formations in distant parts of the globe may 
be compared or studied. 

By consulting a geological map of England, the Student 
wiU readily perceive that the physical features of the 
country are chiefly dependent on the geological structure, 
and that the formations succeed each other in chronological 
order as we proceed from the western to the eastern coast, 
thus, the oldest slate system and the associated unstratified 



X. INTRODUCTION. 

rocks, constitute, with the overlying Silurian group, the 
mountainous region of North Wales, Cumberland, and West- 
moreland ; to these progressively foUow the beds belonging 
to the Carboniferous, Oolitic, and Cretaceous groups, occu- 
pying the central parts of England, and reposing on the 
latter are the Tertiary series, the newest members of which 
are found in Norfolk and Suffolk, on the eastern coast of 
the island. 

For the convenience of arrangement, the Stratified 
Fossiliferous Eocks have been divided into certain groups ; 
each group being composed of many subordinate beds, 
and characterized by a peculiarity or distinctness in their 
Fauna or Flora from that which precedes or follows them. 
The following scheme is a chronological arrangement of the 
different members of this division in a descending order ; 
as occurring in England. 



STKATIFIED FOSSILIFEROUS ROCKS. 
Tertiaky Period. (Cainozoic Series, Fhillips.) 

Recent Group. J 



Superior Order. 
(flonyleare^ 



Travertine, Peat. 

SheU, Marl, &c. 
Pleistocene Group, j Marine beds. 
(Erratic block period.) "[ Fresb-water beds. 



Pleiocene Group. 
Miocene Group. 

Eocene Group. 



Mammaliferous Crag 

J Red Crag. 

[^ Coralline Crag. 

fFluvio-marine beds. 
Bagsbot Sands. 
London Clay. 
Plastic Clay. 



INTKODUCTION. 



Xl. 



Secondary Peeiod. (Mesozoic Series, Phillips.) 



Cretaceous Group. 



Wealden Group. 



Snpermedial Order. 
(Conyheare.) 



Oolitic Group. 



Triassic Group, 



Upper Chalt. 
Lower Chalk. 
Upper Green Sand. 
Ganlt. 

Lower Green Sand. 
_ (?) Speeton Clay. 

{ Weald aay. 
Hastings Sands. 
Purbeck beds. 

Tipper. 
J Portland beds. 
\ Kimmeridge Clav. 

Middle. 
^ Upper Calcareous 
Grit. Coral Eag. 
Lower Calcareous 
Grit. Oxford Clay. 
Kelloway Rock. 
Lower. 
' Combrash. 
Forest Marble. 
Bradford Clay. 
Bath Oolite. 
Fullers' Earth. 
_ Inferior Oolite. 

Lias. 
r Upper Lias Shale. 
I Marlstone. 
Lower Lias Lime- 
stones and Shales, 
r Variegated Marls. 
! Muschelkalk. {Want- 
j ing in England.) 
^ VariegatedSandstone. 



u 



INTEODUCTION. 

Primaey Period. (Paleozoic Series, Phillips.) 

(Permian or Magne- f MagnesianLimestone. 
sian Limestone S Lower Red Sand- 
Group. ^ stone. 



Medial Order. 
{Cotiybeare.) 



{r Coal Measures. 
Carboniferous Group. < Millstone Grit. 
I Mountain Limestone 



Submedial Order. 
(^Conybeare.) 



(Conglomerate and 
Sandstone. Comstone 
and Marl. Tilestone. 



lurian Group. 



Upper Ludlow Rock. 
Aymestry Limestone. 
Lower Ludlow Rock. 
Wenlock Limestone. 
Wenlock Shale. 

Lower. 
Caradoc Sandstone. 
Llandeilo Flags. 



Cambrian Group. 

Under this head are now arranged the older slate rocks of North 
Wales, Cumberland, Westmoreland, &c. {See Professor Sedgwick's 
Memoirs.) 



Stratified Non-fossili- 

ferons. Metamorphic 

Rocks. {LyelL) 



Inferior Order. 
{Conybeare) 



r Clay Slate. 

Talcose Slate. 
■t Mica Slate. 
. Hornblende Slate. 
L Gneiss. 



Unstratified Rocks. . 



INTKODDCTION. 






Basalt. 




Greenstone. 




Claystone. 


Volcanic. 


Trachyte. 




Porphyry. 




Amygdaloid. 




Lava, &c. 




f- Granite. 


Plutonic. 


Syenite. 
Enrite. 


. 


Pegmatite, &c 



The following arrangement, by M. Brongniart, is a useful 
summary of the series of Unstratified Eocks, and is abridged 
from Professor Phillips's ' Geology,' ia ' Cabinet Encyclo- 
paedia,' vol. ii. p. 59. 



:mixed eocks. 



I. Cetstallized IsoiCEEOus Rocks, in which the cotutituent parts 

are equally Mended. 

A. Pelspathic Rocks, the characteristic mineral being Felspar 

Granite, Protogine, Pegmatic or Graphic Granite, Mimose. 

B. Homblendic Rocks, the characteristic mineral being Hornblende. 

Sienite, Diabase or Greenstone. 

II. Cetstallized Anisomeeocs Rocks, in which the conttituent 

parts are not equally mixed. 

A. Basis of Serpentine, with imbedded minerals. — OphioHte. 

B. Basis of Comean, with imbedded minerals. — Variolite, Yaldte. 

C. Basis of Hornblende or Basalt, with imbedded minerals. — Amphi- 

bolite, Basanite, Trappite, Melaphyre or Trap Porphyry. 

D. Basis of Petrosilex coloured by Hornblende. — Porphyry, Ophite, 

Amygdaloid, Euphotide. 
B. Basis of Petrosilex or compact Felspar. — Emrite, Leptenite, 
Trachyte. 



XIV. INTRODUCTION. 

F. Basis of Claystone (an earthy or granular Felspar). Clay Porphyry, 

Domite Porphyry. 

G. Basis of Pitchstone, or Obsidian. — Stigmite. 



A LIST OF SOME OE THE PRINCIPAL WOEKS 

ON GENERAL GEOLOGY AND 

PALEONTOLOGY. 



GEOLOGY. 



Ansted, D. T., ' Geology ' — Introductory, Descriptive, and Practical. 

2 vols. 

' The Ancient World ', 1 vol. 

Beudant, F. S., 'Mineralogie et Geologie.' 

Conybeare, Rev. W., ' Eeport on Geology,' in the 1st vol. of ' Reports 

of British Association.' 
Conybeare and Phillips, ' Outlines of Geology of England and Wales.' 
De la Beche, Sir H. T., ' Geological Manual.' 
' Geological Report on Cornwall, Devon, and 

West Somerset.' 
Leonhard, ' Agenda Geognostica.' 
Lyell, C, ' Elements of Geology,' 2 vols. 

' Principles of Geology,' 1 vol. 1847. 

ManteU, G. A., ' Wonders of Geology.' 

' Geological Excursion round the Isle of Wight,' &c. 

A valuable and interesting Hand-Book for the Geological Student 

visiting the Island, and the adjacent coasts. 
' The Geology of the South East of England,' 1 vol. 



Morris, J.,* ' A Catalogue of British Fossils,' 8vo, 1843 ; containing 

* I must here mention that an Illustrated Edition of this work has been prepared under 
the auspices of Mr. Horner, late President of the Geological Society, in which the original 
figures, cited in Mr. Morris's Catalogue, have been cut from the respective works, and 
placed on the page with the references, so that any species can be compared at one view 
without referring to numerous works. These volumes are placed in the Library of the 
Geological Society for the use of its members. 



INTBODUCTION. XV. 

references to the works in wMch they are fignred, as well as the 

Strata and Localities. 
Mnichison, Sir R. I., ' The Silurian System/ 2 vols. 4to. 
Phillips, J., ' A Treatise on Geology,' 2 vols. (Cabinet Cyclopaedia.) 

' Geology in the Penny Cyclopaedia.' 

' Encyclopaedia Metropolitana.' 

PAUtONTOLOCY. 

Agassiz, L., ' Poissons FossUes,' &c. 

Austin, T., ' Monographs on Recent and Fossil Crinoidca,' No. 1 — 6. 

Bronn, H. G., ' Lethsea Geognostica. 

Buckland, Rev. W.. ' ilineralogy and Geology,' 2 vols., ' Bridgewater 

Treatise.' 

' Reliquse DiluvianEe.' 

Burmeister, H., ' On Trilobites,' &c., translated and published by the 

Ray Society, 1847. 
Deshayes, G. P., ' CoquUles Fossiles des Environs de Paris,' 2 vols. 
Dunter, Dr. WUh., und Herm. von Meyer, ' Palseontographica,' &c. 
Goldfuss, A., Petrefacta Germanise,' 182&-1844. 
Konincke, L. de, ' Description des Animaux Fossiles qui se tronvent 

dans le Terrain Carbonifere de Belgique. 
Luid, Lithophylacii Britannica Ichnographia,' 8vo, 1699. 
Mantell, G. A., ' Medals of Creation,' 2 vols. 
Miller, ' Natural History of the Crinoidea,' 1 vol. 
Nyst, P. H., ' Description des Coqnilles et des Polypiers Fossiles des 

Terrains Tertiares de Belgique. 
D'Orbigny A., ' Palseontologie Francaise, Terrains Cretaces.' Ter- 
rains Jurassiques. 
Owen, R., ' British Fossil ^Mammals and Birds.' 
Portlock, J. E., ' Geological Report on Londonderry-,' &c. 
Roemer, F. A., ' Die Versteinerungen des Norddeutschen Oolithen- 

Gebirges. 
'Die Versteinerungen des Nordeutschen Kreide- 

Gebirges. 
Sowerby, J. D. C. ' ^lineral Conchology of Great Britain.' 



XVI. INTRODUCTION. 

FOSSIL BOTANY. 

Bowerbank, J. S., ' A History of the Fossil Fruits and Seeds of the 

Londou Clay.' 
Brongniart, Ad., ' Histoire des Vegetaux Fossiles/ 2 vols. 
Goppert, H. R., ' Systema Filicum Fossilium,' 1 vol. 
Lindley and Hutton, • The Fossil Flora of Great Britain.' 
Sternberg, ' Flora der Vorwelt.' 

GEOLOGICAL MAPS. 

Gardner, ' Map of England and Wales.' 

Greenough, G. B., Map of England and Wales.' Published by the 

Geological Society. 
Griffith, R., ' Map of Ireland.' 
Knipe, ' Map of England and Wales.' 
MacuUoch, J., ' Map of Scotland.' 
Phillips, J., ' Map of the Bristish Isles.' 
' Geological Map of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.' 

The Maps and Sections of the Ordnance Survey, geologically sur- 
veyed and coloured, under the superintendence of Sir H. T. De la 
Beche, for accuracy and minuteness of detail are invaluable. Those 
Maps relating to the western parts of England are the only ones at 
present coloured geologically. 



Those Works or Memoirs, which treat more particularly of certain 
formations or series of strata, will be found under the respective divi- 
sions. 



The Palseontographical Society is established for the purpose of 
publishing figures and descriptions of all the British Fossils ; this 
Society, and the Ordnance Geological Survey, will materially increase 
our knowledge of the Fossil Fauna of this country. 



STRATIGRAPHICAL LIST 



BRITISH FOSSILS 



THE TERTIARY OR SUPRACRETACEOUS 
PERIOD. 

PLEISTOCENE JMakixe. 

[ Freshwater. 

PLEIOCENE ;MAiDiALiFER0cs Crag. 

,„^,^^._ f Red Crag. 

SnOCENE ^ 



\ Coralline Crag. 

FLUnO-MABDfE . 



Bagshot Sand. 

EOCENE i London Clay. 

bognor beds. 
Plastic clay. 



PLEISTOCENE IVLVRINE FOR^LiTION. 

AlthougtH it appears slightly difficult to classify with satis- 
faction some of the superficial deposits of England, as regards 
their relative ages, it may be found convenient to include 
under this division, 1st. certain strata of sand or loam. 



3 PLEISTOCENE MARINE 

containing marine testacea some species of which are extinct 
or not indigenous to the British Coasts ; 2ndly, the drift 
or the Boulder formation consisting chiefly of loam, clay 
and sand, with pebbles and boulders of older rocks, more 
or less stratified, or sometimes entirely devoid of stratifi- 
cation. The unstratified portion, to which the term "till" 
has been commonly applied in Scotland, has abundantly 
interspersed in it, transported blocks of various degrees of 
magnitude and from nearly every older formation, such as 
granite, poryhyry, trap, mica schist, mountain limestone 
the oolites, green sand, chalk &c. The drift in the north- 
eastern part of Norfolk overlies the chalk, the crag (at 
Sherringham) the fluviatile deposits (at Runton Gap) the 
latter being sometimes intercalated with it (at Mundesley), 
these freshwater beds being apparently of similar age to 
those in the valley of the Thames. The drift of Siluria, 
a loam or clay with fragments of granite and Cambrian 
rocks, is frequently accompanied with marine shells most 
of which are identical with species now inhabiting our seas 
(Kempsey, near Worcester). In Scotland the cb-ift or till 
reposing on the older rocks appears to be overlied by stra- 
tified sand and clay, which is sometimes fossiliferous, as at 
certain points in the estuaries of the Tay, the Forth and 
Clyde. On the other hand Sir E. I. Murchison has shown 
that the boulder formation of Russia between St. Peters- 
burgh and Ai'changel, is superior to strata, containing 
many species of shells now living in the Arctic sea, and 
Mr. Lyell mentions that the stratified sand and gravel, 
near Upsala, with Baltic species of testacea, is overlied by 
large erratic blocks. From the Arctic character of several 
shells occuring in the Scottish deposits, it has been inferred 
that the climate of those latitudes was colder at the period 
of their deposition than at the present time. Sir R. I. 
Murchison somewhat dissents fom this opinion as far as 



FORMATION. 6 

the pbaenomena in the British Islands are concerned, " for 
we can easily imagine, that when very different physical 
featiires prevailed, and when lands now above the sea 
were beneath it, cold currents may have extended very far 
southwards of the Arctic circle, and have been inhabited 
by species now restricted (through geographical changes) 
to a less horizontal range " (Russia and the Ural moun- 
tains, p. 551. note). Prof. E. Forbes considers the mam- 
maliferous crag as belonging to this group. 



LOCALITIES FOR FOSSILS, kc. 

Clifls between Hasborongh and Weyboume, Mundeslev, Ronton, 
Trimmingham, Cliff End, Wevboume, Norfolk ; Ballingdon HiU, Essex ; 
JIuswell hiU, iliddlesex ; Kempsey, Worcester ; Powick and Bromwich 
on the Severn. Marrington Green, seven miles north of Shrewsbury ; 
Steventon and Largs, Ayrshire ; the Kyles of Bute ; Paisley, Glasgow, 
Helensburg, Dahnuir, &c., Scotland. 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS, &c. 

Brown, J., ' On the Gravel at Stanwav, Esses,' Jlay. Nat. Hut. 

1835, p. 349. 
Craig, Mr., ' On the Boulder deposits near Glasgow,' Geol. Proc. 

vol. iii. p. 415. 
Clarke, Rev. W. B., ' On the geological structure of Suffolk, &c.,' 

Geol. Trans, vol. v. 
Gumming, Rev. J. G., ' On the Isle of Man, &c.,' Geol. Jour. vol. ii. 

p. 317. 
Forbes, Professor E., ' On the geological relations of the existing 

Fauna and Rora, &c.' Memoirs Geol. Surrey, vol. i. p. 336. 
Landsborough, Rev. D., ' On tertiary beds at Stevenston, Geol. Proe. 

vol. iii. p. 444. 
LyeU, C, 'Elements of Geology,' vol. i. p. 222. 
' On the boulder formation,' &c., Phil. Mag. May, 1840. 

Geol. Proc. vol. iii. p. 171. 
Mitchell, J., ' On drift in Norfolk,' Geol. Proc. vol. iii. p. 3. 
Murchison, R. I., ' Silurian System,' (Northern drift, p. 523). 
b2 



4 PLEISTOCENE MARINE 

Rose, C. B., ' Geology of West Norfolk,' Phil. Mag. 1836. 

Smith, J., ' On the deposits of the Clyde,' Geol. Trans, vol. vi. p.l53. 

Geol. Proc. vol. ii. p. 427. vol. iii. p. 118. Werner, Memoirs, 

vol. viii. 
Taylor, R. C, 'Geology of East Norfolk,' 1827. 
Trimmer, J., ' On Sand-Galls, in Norfolk, &c.' Geol, Proc. vol. iv. 

p. 482. 
Woodward, S., 'Geology of Norfolk, 1833. 



LIST OF FOSSILS. 

Amoephozoa. 
Halichondria panicea. Grant, sp. 

ZOOPHYTA. 

CeUepora pumicosa. Johnst. Millepora polymorphs, Flem. 

Sertularia polyzonias, Linn. Tubulipora venucaria, M. Edw. 

Annelida. 

Serpula vennicularis, Linn. Spirorbis nautiloides. Lam. 

SpLrorbis corrugatus, 3Iont. Vermilia triquetra. Lam. 

CiRRHIPEDA. 

Balanus balanoides, Linn. Balanus Uddevallensis, Linn. 

communis, Pult. Clitia verruca^ Sow. 

CONCHIPERA DiMYAKIA. 

Amphidesma {Ligula, !Mont.) Astarte compressa, Plem. 
album, Flem. elliptica. Brown. 

intermedium, Thomp. {A. Gairensis, Nicol.). 

prismaticum, Mont. J)aximomens\s>,Mont.sp. 

Area laetea, Linn. sulcata, Flem. 

papillosa, Brown. Cardium aculeatum, lAnn. 
Artemis exoleta, LAnn. sp. echinatum, Linn. 

lincta, Pult. sp, edule, Linn. 

Astarte borcalis, Chemn. la;vigatum, Lam. 



FOHMATIOX. 



Corbola nodens. Lam. 
Cyprina Tulgaris, Sow. 
Donax tmncnius, lAnn. 
Bosina fasciata, Mont, sp. 
Goodallia striata. Brown. 

triangularis, Turl. 
Kellia suborbicularis, Titrt. 
Lacina flexuosa, Flem. 

nndata. Lam. 
Lntraria elliptica. Lam. 

compressa. Lam. 
Mactia solida, Linn. 

tmncata, Flem. 

snbtruncata, Jfouf. 
Modiola vulgaris, Flem. 
Mya arenaria, Linn. 
tnmcata, Linn. 
Mytilus edulis, Linn. 
Nncnla minuta, Flem. 

(Leda, ScAnm.) 

nndeus, Linn.sp. 

oblongoides, S. Wood. 

proxima, Gould. 

prgmsca, Goldf. 

rostrata. Lam. 
(Leda, Schxm.) 

tennis, ifonf. 



Panopsea Bironae, Phil. 
Pectnncalus pilosus, lAtin. tp. 
Pholas crispata, Ii»n. 
Psammobia Ferroensis, Gmel. sp. 
Pnllastra anrea, Linn. tp. 

decossata, JAnn.tp. 
virginea, lAnn. tp. 
vulgaris. Sow. 
Saxicava mgosa, lAnn. tp. 

sulcata. Smith. 
Solen ensis, lAnn. 
legumen, Linn. 
siliqua, lAnn. 
Sphenia Swainsoni, Turt. 
Tellina Balthica, lAnn. 
calcarea, Gmel. 
crassa, Gviel. 
GrtEulandica, Beck. 
tenuis, Penn. 
Thracia dedivis, (Mya), Penn. 
Venus casina, Ltnn. 
dysera, Linn. 
gallina, Linn. 
ovata, Penn. 
rugosa, ^em. 
verrucosa, Linn. tp. 



CoXCHrFEKA MONOMTAKIA. 



Anomia ephippinm, Linn. 



Pecten maximns, Linn. jrp. 



squamnla, Linn, 
{aculeafa, Gmel.) 

undulata, Fletn. 
Ostrea edulis, lAnn. 
Pecten Islandicus, Mull. tp. 

Bbachiopoda. 



Tcrebratrda psittacea, La» 



b3 



opercnlaris, lAnn. tp. 
sinnosus, Linn. tp. 
triradiatus, Mnll. 
varins, Linu. tp. 



PLEISTOCENE MARINE 



Gasteropoda. 



Aporrhais pes-pelicani, Linn. sp. 
Buccinum ciliatum, Fahr. 
striatum, Smith. 
undatum, Linn. 
Cemoria Noachina, Chemn. sp. 
Cingula cingilla, Flem. 

ventricosa, Fiem. 
ConovTilus pyramidalis, Sow. sp. 
Dentalium entale, La7n. 
rissurella Grseca, Linn. sp. 
Fusus antiquus, 3Iull. 

Barvicensis, Johnst. 
Bamffius, Flem. 
despectus, Linn. sp. 
Forbesii, Strickl. 
Islandictis, 3Iartin. 
muricatus, Mont.sp. 
scalariformis, Gould. 
Sabini, Gray. 
Globulus Smithii, Brown, sp. 
Lacuna viucta, Turt. 

Montacuti, Turt. 
Littorina littorea, Linn. sp. 
palliata, Say. 
rudis, Maton. 
Lottia virginea, Mull, sp. 
Margarita inflata, Smith. 
Murex erinaceus, Linn. 
Nassa granulata, Sow. 

incrassata, Mull. sp. 
Monensis, Forbes. 



Nassa pliocena, Strickl. 
reticulata, Linn. 
semistriata, Brocchi. 
Natica Alderi, Forbes. 

catenoides, S. Wood. 
clausa. Gray. 
Patella pellucida, Linn. 
Isevis, Penn. 
vidgata, Linn. 
PhasianeUa subulata, Fle7n. 
Pleurotoma discrepans, Brown. 
rufa, Mont. 
septangnlaris, Mont. 
turricula, Mont.sp. 
Purpura lapiUus, Linn. 
Rissoa cimex, Linn. sp. 
costata, Mont. sp. 
striatula, Mont. sp. 
subumbilicata, Mont. sp. 
Scalaria Groeulaudica, Chemn. sp. 
Trichotropis borealis. Sow. 
Trochus cinerarius, Flem. 
exasperatus, Penn. 
magus, Flem. 
tumidus, 3Iont. 
ziziphinus, auct. 
Turritella incrassata, Sow. 

terebra, Linn. sp. 
Velutina laevigata, Fletn. 
(Helix, Linn.) 
undata. Smith. 



Phocffina crassidens. 
Monodon monoceros. 
Physeter macrocephalus. 



Mammalia. 
Cetacea. 

lialccnoptera boops. 
Balsena mvsticetus. 



FORMATION. 



PLEISTOCENE EEESH-WATER F0E:\L\TI0X. 

The deposits which are arranged under this head are 
chiefly found along the valleys of our existing river courses, 
and generally more or less elevated above the level of the 
present streams. They contain numerous remains of herbi- 
■\irous and carnivorous mammalia ; the Elephant, Ehino- 
ceros, and Hippopotamus, as well as the Ox, Deer, and 
Horse, are particularly abundant ; the Bear and Hyaena 
have also been foimd, but more rarely. Associated with 
these mammals, are many species (nearly forty) of terres- 
tial and fresh-water shells, the majority of which are 
identical vrith. those now liAing in England. Of the four 
or five that are not British species, two {Paludina margi- 
nata and Vnio littoralis) are living in France, one {Cyrena 
trigonula) is said to be the same as a Nile species, and 
one {Valtata antiqua) has not yet been identified, as also 
a species of Faludina or Littorina. These deposits consist 
of layers of Clay, Sand, Loam, and Gravel, varjing very 
much according to the different localities ; that some of 
the layers have been quietly deposited is e\"inced from the 
fact, that fifteen or twenty laminae may be counted in the 
space of an inch, whilst the gravel beds prove a more 
irregular movement. 

The excavations in these deposits are chiefly for ex- 
tracting the valuable brick-earth they contain, and the tine 
sand which accompanies it. 

The remains found in the Bone Caves of England, &c., 
probably belong to this period ; the animal remains, more 
or less entire, are generally mixed with mud, rolled pebbles, 
and broken fragments, a deposition of Stalagmite covering 
and forming a compact crust over the whole. Among the 



8 PLEISTOCENE FRESH-WATER 

most interesting, are those of Kirkdale, in Yorkshire ; the 
caves of Bamvell and liutton, Somerset ; those of Kent's 
hole near Torquay, and Oreston near Plymouth. At the 
following localities fluviatile shells may be obtained : — 
Ilford, Grays and Clacton, Essex; Erith and Crayford, 
Kent ; on the Stour at Stutton ; Cropthorn in Worcester- 
shire ; Market Weighton, Yorkshire. 



LIST OF PTJBLICATIONS. 

Brown, J., ' On a deposit containing Mammalian Remains at Clacton, 

Essex,' Mag. Nat. Hist. 1840, p. 197. 
Charlesworth, E., Marj. Nat. Hist. 1838, p. 41. 
BucWand, Rev. W., ' Reliquia Diltwiance' 1824. 
LyeU, C, 'Elements of Geology,' vol.i. p. 287. 
]\Iurchison, R. I., ' Silurian Si/stem' p. 555. 
Morris, J., ' On the deposits containing Mammalia in the valley of 

the Thames,' Mag. Nat. Hist. 1838, p. 539. 
' On deposits containing Mammalia at Maidstone, Kent,' 

3Iag. Nat. Hist. 1836, p. 593. 
Owen, Professor R., ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds', 1846. 



LIST OF FOSSILS. 
Plant.e. 

Cei-atophyllum demersum, avct. Chai-a vulgaris. Smith. 
Chara hispida. Smith. Strobilitcs Woodwardi, Li veil. 

Insecta. 
Copris lunaris, Linn. 

CONCHIFERA DlMYAKIA. 

Anodon cygneus, Linn. Cyclas cornea, Lam. 

Cyclas amnica, Turt. Hcnslowiana, Jevyns. 



FOKMATION. 



Cydas pnsilla, Turt. 
rivicola. Lam. 
Cjrena trigonula. Wood. 
Unio littoralis, Drap. 



Unio ovalis, Turt. 
pictomm. Lam. 
txunidus, Retz. 



Gasteropoda. 



Achatina acicula, Hull. 
Acme fusca, Turt. 
Ancylus fluviatilis. Mull. 
lacustris, Mull. 
Axeca tridens, Leach. 
Balsea perversa, Turt. 
Bithynia tentaculata, Linn. 
ventricosa, Turt. 
Bulimus Lackhamensis, Mont. 
lubricus, Bnig. 
obscurus, Brap. 
Caryehium TninimnTn , Mull. 
Clausilia bidens, Drap. 
biplicata, Turt. 
nigricans, Turt. 
Eolphii, Leach. 
Cyclostoma elegans, Ih-ap. 
Helix aculeata. Mull. 
alliaria. Mill. 
arbustorum, Linn. 
celiaria, 3Iull. 
crvstallina, Drap. 
excavata. Bean. 
frnticum, Drap. 
fulva, Midi. 
hispida. Mull. 
hortensis. Lister. 
lamellata. Turf. 
lapicida, Linn. 
lucida, Drap. 
nemoralis. Mull. 



Helix nitidula, Drap. 
plebeia, Drap. 
pulchella, 3Ltll. 
pura. Alder. 
radiatnla. Alder. 
rotnndata, Mull. 
ruderata, Studer. 
mfescens, Penn. 
virgata, Mont. 
Limax agrestris, Linn. 
Limnaens aurieularis, Drap. 
palustris, Drap. 
pereger, Drap. 
stagnalis, Mont. 
tmncatulns. Mull. 
Paludina marginata, Mich. 
Physa fontinalis, Drap. 
hypnormn, Drap. 
Planorbis albns. Mull. 

carinatus. Mull. 
contortns, Drap. 
comeus, Drap. 
imbricatns. Mull. 
Isevis, Alder. 
marginatus, Drap. 
nitidus. Mull. 
spirorbis. Mull. 
vortex. Mull. 
Pupa anglica, 3rich. 
cvlindrica, Fer. 
edentula, Drap, 



10 



PLEISTOCENE FRESH-WATER 



Pupa marginata, Drwp. 
palustris, Leach. 
pusilla, Mull. 
pygmsea, Drwp. 
substriata, Alder. 
umbilicata, Drwp. 



Succinea oblonga, Drwp. 

Pfeifferi, Rossm. 

putris, Linn. 
Valvata antiqua, Morris. 

ciistata, 3Itill. 

piscinalis, Lam. 



Esox lucius. auct. 



Pisces. 



Mammalia. 

(Belonging to the Freshwater deposits and caves.) 



Asinus fossilis, Owen. 
Arvicola agrestis, Owen. 
amphibia, Owen. 
pratensis, Owen. 
Bison minor, Owen. 
priscus, Owen. 
Bos primigenius, Meyer. 

longifrons, Owen. 
Canis lupus, Itinn. 
Castor Europseus, Owen. 
Cervus elepbas, Linn. 

euryceros, Aldrov. 
Tarandus, Ov)en. 
Elephas primigenius, Blum. 
Equus fossilis. Guv. 
Eelis Catus, Owen. 
spelsea, Goldf. 
Hippopotamus major, Cuv. 
Hya;na speltea, Goldf. 
Lagomys spelseus, Owen. 
Lepus cuniculus, Linn. 

timidus, Linn. 
Lutra vulgaris, Owen. 
Macacus pliocsenus, Owen. 



Machairodus latideus, Owen. 
Megaceros Hibernicus, Owen. 
Meles taxus, Oweti. 
Mus decumanus, Fallas. 

musculus, Linn. 
Palseospalax magnus, Owett. 
Putorius ermineus, Owen. 
vulgaiis, Owen. 
Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, 

Owe7i. 
Rhinoceros leptorhinus, Oweti. 
tichorinus, Cuvier. 
Sorex fodiens, Owen. 

remifer, Owen. 

vulgaris, Owen. 
Sus scrofa, Owen. 
Strongyloceros spelseus, Owen. 
Talpa Europsea, Owen. 
Trogontherium Cuvieri, Fischer. 
Ursus arctos, Linn. 

priscus, Goldf. 

spelajus, Blum. 
Vespertilio noctula, Penn. 
Vulpes vulgaris, Owen. 



FORMATION. 11 



THE CKAG FOBiLiTION. 

1. Mammaliferous or Nortcich Crag. 2, Red Crag. 
3. Coralline Crag. 

The deposits to which the term Crag has been applied iu 
Norfolk and Suffolk, were formerly considered as belonging 
to one period. ^Ir. Charlesworth, however, after a careful 
examination of the localities and organic remains, su^ested 
the triple division as given above. Mr. Lvell places the 
Upper or MammaUferous Crag in the Older Pleiocene, 
and the Eed and Coralline Crag in the ^Miocene strata. 
The Mammaliferous Crag consists of sheUv beds of sand, 
laminated clay, and loam, with layers of flinty shingle, 
reposing on the chalk, and generally covered with a thick 
bed of gravel. This stratum contains above one hundred 
species of testacea, about twenty of which are land and 
fresh-water shells, and associated with these are numerous 
remains of Fish {Platax, Myliobates), and Mammalia 
(Mastodon, Elephant, Horse, Pig, &c.), and also bones of 
Birds. The Eed Crag is a deep ferruginous sheUv sand, 
and loam, with an abundance of marine shells, many of 
which are rolled and frequently comminuted, and the 
layers are sometimes obliquely arranged, proving an irre- 
gular movement during their deposition. Between two 
and three hundred species of testacea are known from 
this bed {Fusm contrarius, Mnrex akeolatm, are abun- 
dant), and bones and teeth of fishes {Carcharim, Mylio- 
bates, &c.). The Coralline Crag is a mass of shells 
and corals in calcareous sand, or compact and formino- 
flaggy beds of limestone with bands of greenish marl; 
some of the harder portions are used as a building stone. 
Corals, Zoophvtes, Echinoderms, and about foiu* hundred 
species of shells constitute the fauna of this bed, which 



12 



THE CEAG 



appears to have been partially consolidated anterior to 
the deposition of the Eed Crag, as in some cases it has 
evidently been denuded, and frequently perforated by the 
Pholades. Mr. Lyell (1841) gives the following table as 
illustrative of the numerical proportion of recent and fossU 
species in the English tertiary formations. 



Periods. 

Post Pleiocene. 



J yresh-w 
1_ Valley of 



Localities, Sec. 

-water of the 



Newer Pleiocene. 



Older Pleiocene 



Miocene 



Eocene 



' the Thames 
Marine strata near 

Glasgow, 
^lammaliferous or 

Norwich Crag. 

lied and Coralline 

Crag, Suffolk. 

London and 
Hampshire. 



Number 

Per centage of/ossiU 

of recent. compared. 

99 to 100 . . 40 
85 to 90 . . 160 
60 to 70 . . Ill 
20 to 30 . . 450 
1 or 2 ... 400 



LOCALITIES EOR FOSSILS, &c. 

Mammaliferous Crag. — Easton-Bavant, Southwold, Henham, Bra- 
merton, Thoqie, Postwick, Whitlingham near Norwich; Brid- 
lington, Yorkshire. 

Red Crag. — Felixstow, Sutton, Tattingstone, Ipswich, Woodbridge, 
Suffolk ; Walton, Essex. 

Coralline Crag. — Ramsholt, Orford, Sutton. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS, &c. 

Bean, W., ' On a deposit at Burlington Quay,' 3Iag. Nat. Hist. 

vol. viii. p. 355. 
Charlesworth, E., ' Mag. Nat. Hist: 1836, p. 537 ; Md. 1838, p.40. 

Phil.3Iag. August, 1835. Report British Association, 1837. 



FORMATION. 



13 



Clarke, Rev. W. B., ' Geology of Suffolk,' &c., Geol. Tratus.yol. 5. 
Lyell, C, ' Elements of Geology' vol. i. p. 299 and p. 317. 
' On the Crag of Norfolk,' &c., Mag. Nat. Hist. 1839, 

p. 313, and Geol. Proc. vol iii. p. 126. 
Nyst, P. H., 'Description des Coquilles,' &c., 1846. 
Wood, S. v., Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. vi. p. 243. ibid. vol. ix. p. 455, 

527 : ibid. vol. jdii. p. 10. {Zoophytes) Mag. Nat. Hist, 1839. 

p. 233. [Lima) p. 460. {Bulla). 
\Voodward, S., ' Geology of Norfolk' 1833. 



LIST OF FOSSILS. 
Amokphozo.4. 
Grantia compressa, Johnsi. 

ZOOPHYTA. 



Alcyonidium circumvestiens, Wood. 
Alecto gracilis, M. Edw. 
c-cr. Alveolites clavatus, Blainv. 
Balanopliyllia calycidus, Wood. 
Catenaria dentata. Wood. 
ft CeUaria fistulosa, auct. sp. 

crassa. Wood. c 

c.c. Cellepora cellulosa, Goldf. 

coronopus. Wood. c 

pumicosa, Johnst. 
ramulosa ? Johmt. 
Cladocora cariosa, Lons. r 

Crista eburnea, Lanuc. c 

luiata? Elem. 
Diastopora meandrina. Wood. 
Discopora hispida, Elem. 
Eschara foliaeea, Johnst. 
incisa, M. Edw. 
monilifera, M. Edw. 
pertnsa, 31. Edw. 
porosa, M. Edw. c.< 

Sedg\rickii, M. Edw. » 
Fascicularia aurantium, M. Edw. • 
Filicella anguLnea, Wood. 



Flustra coriacea, Esper. c.c. 
distans, Johnst. 
holostoma. Wood. • 
membranacea, Johnst. 
trifoUum, Wood. «■•'•- 
Fungia semilunata, Befr. • 
- Heteropora dichotoma, Blainv. 

septosa. Wood. • 
;.-IIoniera reteporacea, M. Edw. 
striata, 31. Edw. 
Idmonea disticha, Blainv. 
• Lepralia abstersa. Wood. 
'■" catena. Wood. 

ciliata, Johnst. 
genicnlata. Wood. 
manuniUata, Blainv. sp. 
puncturata. Wood. 
» umbonella. Wood. 

unicornis, Johnst. 
variolosa, Johnst. 
. Lunulites alveolatus. Wood. 

Owenii, Gray. 
Melieertina Charlesworthii, 
(LTidium, S. Wood.). 



14 THE 


CRAG 




Mcmbranipora membranacea. 


Tubulipora obelia, /o^«j^. c.c. 


Joh/ist. sp. 




patina, Johnst. " 


pilosa? Johnst. 




serpens, Johnst. » 


Orbitulites coscinodiscus, Wood. 




palmata. Wood. R-C' 


Retepora cellulosa, Johnst. 




repens, Wood. c.o 


Theonoa ? globosa, IFood. 


Turbinolia Milletiana, Befr. « 



(Blumenbachium, Konig). 



ECHINODEKMATA. 



c.c Echiuocyamus Suffolciensis, Ac/. 

Echinus, ? 

c.fc. Amphidctus, ? 



Spatangus, 

Temnopleurus, — 
Asterias, ? 



EoUAMlNIFERA. 



*.c.Biloculiuabu]lata, Wood. 
t umbonata. Wood. 

.. Cristellai'ia producta, Wood. 
K , subarculata. Wood. 

Dentalina communis, Wood. 
« clava. Wood. 

jugosa. Wood. 
R . Glandulina laevigata. Wood. 
Lagena acuticosta. Wood. 
striata. Walker. 
B . c.c Nodosai'ia radicula. Wood. 
» Nonioniana globulata. Wood. 
-r Planorbuliua MediteiTaneusis, 
B'Orb. 



R.c. PolymorpMua frondiformis. Wood. 
ct gibba, B'Orb. 

.1 Polystomella crispa, B'Orb. 
/- Uuinqueloculina subrotunda, 

B'Orb. 
" Eobulina cultrata, B'Orb. 
> Rosalina rugosa, Wood. 
R t. Beccarii, B'Orb. 

oc Spirolooulina depressa, B'Orb. 
Textularia aciculata, Ehr. cVi 
media, Wood. 
sagittula, B'Orb. 
tumida. Wood. 
Triloculina oblonga, B'Orb. 



Polymorphina communis, B'Orb. 



tricarinata, B'Orb. 



Annelida. 
c-c- Cyclogyra multiplex, Wood, c t- SpirorbiS semistrorsus. J/o«<. 



Spirorbis grauulatus, Mont. 

heterostrophus, Mont. 



Vennilia tricuspidata. Sow. 
vurmicularis, Linn. 



Acasta JMoutagui, Lina. 



(JlRKlUI'EDA. 

. Adna sulcata, Wood. 



FORMATION. 



15 



cc. 



Balanos balanoides, Linti. 
crassQs, Sok. 
rogosns, Mont. 



n B Clitia verruca. Sow. 
c c Coronula diadema, auet. sp. 
' Scalpellum magnnm. Wood. 
Crustacea. 
Ebalia Bryerii, Leach. c c Cancer pagums, Linn. 
Pagnrus Bemliardns, Fabr. • Atelecyclus, ? 

CONCHIFERA DrMTAEIA. 



cc Agina pnrpurea, Turf. 
MO. Amphidesma album, Flem. 

intermedia, Thomp. 
to- prismaticum, Fletn. 

(Lignla, Mont.) 
cc Area Nose, lAnri. 
' raridentata. Wood. 

R-c- lactanea. Wood. 

• Artemis lentiformis, Soic. sp. 
cc sinuata, T^irt. sp. 

cc . Astarte bipartita. Sow. 



Cytherea cMone, Turt. cc 
Donas truncnlus, Linn. m o- 
Dosina fasciata, Bon. sp. •< "■' 

imbricata, Soic. sp. 

turgida, Soic. sp. cc - 
Ensis complanatns. Sow. 

(Solen sUiqua ?) 
ensiformis. Sow. 
Gastrochaena pholadia, Turt. c c 
Glycimeris vagina. Wood. R c 
Hippagus cardiiformis. Wood. 



M-C- 


compressa, Flem. 


Isocardia cor. Lam. sp. 


BC.CC 


CC 


gracilis, Goldf. 


Kellia cycladea. Wood. 




• 


mntabilis, Wood. 


dubia, Wood. 


•. 


• 


nitida. Sow. 


flexuosa. Wood. 




IVC- 


obliqnata. Sow. 


orbicularis. Wood. 






pisiformis. Wood. 


pumila. Wood. 




cc. 


pvgmsea, Munsf. 


suborbicularis, Turt. co 


He. Cardium angnstatum, Sotc. 


Lucina astartea, A'yst. 




M&.RC. 


edule, Linn. 


digitaria. Lam. 


c c 


* 


edulinnm, Sow. 


dUatata, Fhilippi, 


sp.  


CC 


elongatimi, Turt. 


divaricata, L^m. 


MC 


. 


GrEenlandicum, Chemn. 


radukjZam. 


RC ~ 


» 


Parkinsoni, Sow. 


rotundata, Turt. 


- CC 


Chama 


grrphina. Lam. 


Lutraria compressa, L/im 


MC-RC- 


»« Corbula complanata. Sow. 


elliptica. Lam. 


CC '. 


cc 


granulata, l^yst. 


Mactra arcuata. Sow. 


MC.KC. CC 


MC «C. 


nucleus. Lam. 


deaurata, Turt. 


" 


Cnltellns cultellatus. Wood. 


glauca, Gmel. 


- 


c.cc. Cvprina rustica, Sow. sp. 


solida, Linn. 


.. « 


*o t 


vulgaris, G. Sow. 


stultorum. Lam. 


„ . 



c2 



16 



THE CRAG 



I. »- jMactra subtruncata, Mont. 
4 INfodiola discors, Turt. 
I vulgaris, Flem. 

Montacuta bidentata, Mont. sp. 
i ovata, Brown, sp. 

3 substriata, Turt. 

I Mya arenaria, Linn. 
t.» - truncata, Li7m. 

{3L ova/is, Turt.) 
I lata. Sow. 

I M} tilus antiquorum. Sow. 
I . j_ . edulis, Linn. 

3 Netcra sulcata, Wood. 
I Nucula Cobboldise, Sow. 
i-i- laevigata, iSow. 

2. minuta, Flem. 

i. a- nucleus, Xzw«. «/?. 

I oblongoides. Wood. 

3 pygmsea. Gold/. 

I tenuis, ifo«^. 5p. 

b trigonula, Jfbo</. 

I. .3- Pandora margai'itacea. Lam. 
i. Panopsea gentilis. Sow, 
A Ipsvicencis, Valenc. 

2. Norwegica, Sow. 

(P. arctica. Lam.) 
i.i Pectunculus pilosus, i7««. 
i pygma^us, P/a'^. 

A sublsevigatus, iV^jA 

J.- 3 Petricola laminosa, Soiv. 
Pholadomya Hcstema, Sow. 



7. Pholas Candida, Linn. 
crispata, Linn. 
2- cylindrica. Sow. 

5 papyracea, Turt. 

Pinna ingens. Lam. 
3 Pleurodon ovalis. Wood. 
3 Psammobia Ferroensis, Turt. 
i Florida, Turt. 

^ scopula, Turt. 

~ vespertina, Turt. 

2. Pullastra virginea, Linn. sp. 
I  2- Saxicava rugosa, Litm. 
t Solen siliqua, Linn. 
3 Solecurtus quadratus, Sok. 
i Sphenia Binghami, Turt. 
2. Tellina Benedenii, Nyst. 
'  ^ Balthica, Linn. 

I  «- ciilcarea, Gmel. 

I - 2L crassa, Gmel. 

3 donacina, Linn. 

I fabula, Mont. 

solidula, Turt. 
Thracia inflata, Sow. 
J-- i pubescens. Lam. 

3 Teredo navalis, Linn. 
I .J- Venericardia corbis, Phillipi. 
4. orbicularis, Sovj. 

- scalaris. Sow. 

. 2-3 senilis. Sow. 

i- Venus ovata, Penn. 



CONCHIFEKA MOXOMYARIA. 



Hiunites Dubuissoni, Sow. 
Lima esilis, Wood. 

fragilis, auct. 

oblouga, Wood. 

plicatula, Wood. 



Limatula ovata. Wood. 

subam'iculata, MoJit.sp. 
Ostrea edulis, Linn. 
Pcctcn gi'acilis. Sow. 
grandis. Sow. 



FORMATION. 



17 



Pecten obsoletus, Sotc. 

(P. triradiatui. Mull.), 
opercularis, Linn. 



Pecten striatns, Saw. 

(P. sinitostu, Linn.?), 
tnmidns, Turt. 



Brachiopoda. 



TerebratxJa psittacea, Lam. 
variabilis, Sow. 



Lingula fttsca. Wood. 
Orbicula Norwegica, Sow. 



Gasteropoda. 



Actseon Nose, Sow. 

tomatilis, Slant, sp. 
Adeorbis striatns, Wood. 

subcarinatns, Mont. sp. 
Alvania snpranitida. Wood. 
Aporrhais pes-pelicani, auct. 
Buccinum Dalai, Sow. 

nndatum, Linn. 
Bnlla acuminata, Bnig. 
eatenata. Wood. 
concinna, Wood. 
connlus. Desk. 
cylindracea, Penn. 
Lajonkaireana, Bast. 
lignaria, Linn. 
nana. Wood. 
obtnsa, Mont. 
quadrata. Wood. 
sculpta. Wood. 
tmncata, Mont. 
ventrosa. Wood. 
CanceUaria costellifera, Sow. sp. 

Mitraeformis, Broc. sp. 
Capulns ungarieus, Linn. sp. 
Cassidaria bicatcnata. Sow. 
Cerithium adversum, Mont. sp. 
pnnctatmn, Woodw. 
trilineatnm, PAH. 
Cerithium tubercnlare, Mont. sp. 
c 



Chiton fascicularis, Sow. 
Colnmbella snlcata, Sow.sp. 
Conovnlus myosotis, Drap. sp. 

pyramidalis. Sow. sp. 
Dentalium costatnm, Soto. 

entalis, Linn. 
Emarginula erassa. Sow. 

fissura, Linn. jp. 
Erato Isevis, Gray. 

Maugeriae, Gray. 
Eulima polita, Risso. 

subulata, Risso. 
Fissurella cancellata. List, sp. 

{Patella Graca,IAaa.?). 
Fusus alveolatus. Sow. 

antiquus, Mull. sp. 

cancellatus. Sow. 

eostatus. Sow. 

despectns, Linn. sp. 

ecMnatns, Sow. 

elegans, Wood. 

Islandicns, Martin. 

nebula, Mont. 

scalariformis, Gould, 

Sabini, Gray. 

turriculus, Flem. 
Infundibulum Sinense, Mont. 
Litiopa papillosa. Wood. 



18 



THE CRAG 



Littorina littorea, Linn. sp. 

subopcrta, Sow. 
Lottia parvula, Grai/. 
virginea, Gray. 
Macromphalus reticulatus, Wood. 
Marsenia depressa. Wood. 
Murex alveolatus, Sow. 
erinaceus, Mont. 
tortuosus, Sovj. 
Nassa conglobata, BroccJii, sp. 
elegans, Sow. 
granulata, Soio. 
incrassata, Flem. 
labiosa, Sow. sp. 
propinqua, Sow. 
reticosa, Sow. 
rugosa, Sow. 
Katica catena, Wood. 

cateuoides, Wood. 
cirrifonnis, Sow. 
clausa, Gray. 
helicoides, Johnst. 
hemiclausa. Sow. 
patula, Sow. 
Odostomia plicata, Fletn. 

pupa, Dubois, sp. 
Ovula Leathesii, Sow. 
Patella vidgata, Linn. 
Pliasianema sulcata. Wood. 
Pleurotoma intorta, Brocch. 
linearis, 3Iont. sp. 
mitrula. Sow. 
Purpura incrassata, Soto. 
lapillus. Lam. 
tetragona, Sow. 

Ptekopoda. 
Csecum glabrum, Mont. sp. Cajcura trachea, Flem. 

mammUIum, Wood. Cleodora infundibulum, Wood. 



Pyrula reticulata, Lam. 
Riugicula buccinea, Desk. 
ventricosa. Sow. 
Rissoa reticulata, Mont. 
semicostata, Mont. 
striata, Mont. 
subumbilicata, Mont. 
Zetlandica, Mont. 
Scalaria clathratula, Flem. 
foliacea, Sow. 
frondosa. Sow. 
similis. Sow. 
Scissurella crispata, Flem. sp. 
Solariella maculata. Wood. 
Tornatella tomatilis, ii^w. sp. 
Trichotropis borealis, Brod. 
Trivia avellana. Sow. 
Europsea, Gray. 
retusa. Sow. 
Trochus laevigatus, Sow. 
littoralis. Brown. 
Montacuti. auct. 
pseudo-zizipMnus, Schl. 
tumidus, Mont. 
Tiu-bo sphseroidea. Wood, 
Tui-bonilla acicula, Phil. 

elegantissima, Mont. 
rufa, Phil. 
Turritella bicincta. Wood. 
incrassata. Sow. 
terebra. Lam. 
Velutina elongata, Forles. 

laevigata, Flem. 
Voluta Lamberti, Sow. 



FORMATION. 19 



Pisces. 



Zygobates Woodwardii, Ag. Flatax Woodwaidii, Ag. 

Raia antiqna, Ag. 

Mahmalia 

(bdangmg to the Mammalifooiu Crag). 

Ceims Elaphus, Linn. Felis pardoides, Owen. 

Mastodon angustidens, Owen. Sns scro£a, Owen, 

Lutra vulgaris, Owen. 

Cetacea. 

j, Balsenodon affmis, Owen. Balaenodon gibbosa, Owen. 

definita, Owen. pbysaloides, Owen. 

I emarginata, Owen. 



20 FLUVIO-MARINE GUOUP 



FLUVIO-MAEINE GEOUP OF THE ISLE 
OE WIGHT, &c. 

Upper and lower fresh-water formation {Webster). 
Headon-hill Marls and Limestones {Prestwich). 

The fresh-water formations of the Hampshire basin, 
extend over the northern part of the Isle of Wight, and 
the adjoining coast of Hampshire, reposing in both dis- 
tricts on the London clay. This group consists of nume- 
rous layers of calcareous and argillaceous marls of various 
colours, sometimes indurated, alternating with beds of 
sand, sandy clays, &c. ; and associated with them, are bands 
of earthy limestone, sometimes siliceous and compact. 
These beds contain numerous fluviatile and terrestial shells 
(Bulimus, Helix, Planorhis, Lymnea, ^c), and intercalated 
with them, towards the middle of the series, are some 
layers of gi'een sandy marls, sometimes indurated, con- 
taining marine or estuaiy testacea {Ostrea, Natica, Potam- 
ides, Melania, ^c). 

The relations of these strata with those in the Paris 
basin, have long been a subject of great interest ; and it 
has usually been considered that in the Isle of Wight, we 
possess a similar sequence of aU the beds above the Cal- 
caire gi'ossier. 

Mr. Prestwich, however, after a careful examination of 
this district, and whose memou- contains fall details of 
the whole subject, has an-ived at a different conclusion. 
He considers the upper portion of the Parisian series to be 
wanting in the Isle of Wight, and that the whole of the 
fresh-water and estuary series of the island are synchro- 
nous, or nearly so, with the upper calcaire grossier. The 



OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 21 

following view is abstracted from Mr. Prestwich's paper, 
shewing the probable foreign equivalents : — * 



f Upper and Lower Headon Hill 
Upper Group. | Marls and Limestones. 

[^ Headon Hill Sands. 
Middle Group. ^ London Clay (upper division). 
[ London Clay (lower division). 

f Bognor Beds J^^ '^ — "=• 

Lower Group. -I t Sables infeneurs. 

[. Mottled clays and sand. . . Argile plastique. 

* In a nibseqaent commonication to the Geological Society, (Proceeding*, Feb. 3, l&J",) 
Mr. Prestwich considers that the term " London Clay," which, faOowing the nxoaUy re- 
ceired nomenclature, he has applied in the abore table to the equivalents in the Isle of 
Wight basin, of the Barton and Bracklesham beds of Hampshire and Snsaex, most be 
abandoned; for in his paper it is clearly shown that the " London Clay" of the I/mdon 
basin ia not vynchronoos with the Barton and Brackleabam depoata. 



Upper calcaire 
grossier. 

Lower calcaire 

grossier, and 

Glauconie grossiere 

uilliers. 



LOCALITIES FOR FOSSILS, &c. 

Headon Hill and Colwell Bay; Hampstead Cliff; Shalcombe, near 
Cowes ; Binstead near Ryde, 'Wliite Cliff Bay, Isle of "Wight. 
HordweU Cliff, Hampshire. 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS, &c. 

Lyell, C. 'On thefresh-water strata of Hordwell Cliff, Geol. Traiu.Yolu. 

Ljd\,C.' Elements of Geology,^ (Eocene Formations), v. L p. 336. 

Owen, Prof. R. ' British Fossil Mammals and Birds' 

Prestwich, J. ' On the Tertiary Formations of the Isle of Wight,' &c. 
Quart. Geol. Joum. vol. ii. p. 223. [This paper contains a 
list of all the previous publications on these deposits,] 

Sedgwick, Rev. Prof. 'Annals of Philosophy,' 1822, p. 339. 

Webster, T. ' On a Freshwater Formation in Hordwell Cliff, Hamp- 
shire, and on the subjacent Beds from Hordwell to Muddiford.' 
Geol. Trans, vol. i. 

Wood, S.V. ' On the Discovery of an Alligator,' &c. Geol. Joum. No. 1. 



33 



FLUVIO-MARINE GROUP 



LIST OF FOSSILS. 
Plants. 
Cai-polithes ovulum, Brong. Chara medicaginula, Brong. 

thalictroides, Brong. tuberculata, Lyell. 

Annelida 
Serpula corrugata, Sow. Serpula tenuis, Sow. 



Balanus reflexus, Sow. 



CiRRHIPEDA. 

Balanus unguiformis. Sow. 



CONCHIFEKA 

Area elegans, Wood. 
CorLula cuspidata, Sov\ 

nitida, Soio. 
Cyrena Cycladiformis, Desh. 

obovata, Soio. 

pulclu'a. Sow. 
Cytherea incrassata, Sow. 
obliqua, Desh. 
Dreissena Brardii, Tanj. sp. 
Lucina divaricata, Lam. 



DIMYAUIA. 

Lucina pulvinata, Wood. 
Mya augustata, Soio. 
Mytilus affinis, Sow. 
Nucula deltoidea. Lam. 
Potamomya grcgarea. Sow. 

plana. Sow. 
Psammobia compressa. Sow. 

solida, Sow. 
Unio Solandri, Sow. 
Ostrea ? 



Gasteropoda. 



Ancillai'ia subulata, Lam. 
Ancylus elegans, Soio. 
Bulinius costeUatus, Sow. 

eUipticus, Sow. 
Fusus labiatus, Sow. 
Globidus depressus, Sow. 
Limnseus columeUaris, Sow. 

fusiformis, Sow. 

longiscatus, Brong. 

maximus, Sow. 

minimus. Sow. 

pyramidalis. Sow. 
Mclania angulata. Wood, ? MSS. 

costata, Sow. 



Melania fasciata. Sow. 
minima, Soio. 
muricata. Wood. 
truncata. Sow. 
Melanopsis ancillaroides, Besh. 
brevis, Sow. 
carinata, Soio. 
fusiformis. Sow. 
minuta. Wood. 
subulata. Sow. 
Murex sexdentatus. Sow. 
Natica similis, Sow. 

glaucinoides. Lam. 
Nerita aperta. Sow. 



OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 



23 



Nematura ? 

Neritina concava, Soic. 
Odostomia subulata. Wood. 
Faludina angnlosa. Sow. 

lenta. Sow. 
(P. concinna. Sow.) 

minuta. Sow. 
Planorbis cylindricus, Sow. 

euomphalus. Sow. 

lens. Sow. 

obtosus. Sow. 



Planorbis rotnndatns, Brong. 
Potamides acutns. Sow. 

cinctus. Sow. 

concavus. Sow. 

duplex, Sow. 

mai^aritaceus, Sova. 

plicatns. Sow. 

terebralis. Wood. 

ventricosus. Sow. 
Voluta spinosa, Lam. 



Reptilia. 
Crocodilus Hantoniensis, Wood. 



MAMMALIA. 



Anoplotheriom commune, Cuv. 

secundianim, Cuv. 
Chseropotamus Cuvieri, Owen. 
Dichobune cervinum, Owen. 
Palaeotherium crassum, Cuv. 
curtum, Cuv. 



Palaeotherium medium. Cue. 
minum, Cue. 
Microchserus erinaceus, 

Charhw. 
Spalacodon ? Charlsw. 



24 LONDON CLAY. 

LONDON CLAY. 
Calcaire Grossier, &c., of Paris. 

1. Bagshot Sands, 2. London Clay, Bognor Beds. 
3. Plastic Clay and Sands. 

The fluvio-marine deposits of the last section miglit have 
been included under this division, as they evidently form 
a continuation of the same series, and also belong to the 
Eocene period. For the convenience of reference how- 
ever, the list of fossils has been kept separate ; and under 
this division, those beds belonging to the Bagshot Sand, 
London and Plastic Clays, are associated. The Bagshot 
Sands are extensively developed over Purbright, Primley, 
and Woking Commons, and the adjacent country, con- 
sisting of a series of loose sands, sandstone, greenish sandy 
clay, and fissile marls, shales, &c., some of ihe beds, espe- 
cially those composed of green sand and clays being more 
fossUiferous, containing a few species of marine testacea, and 
some interesting forms of fishes related to the Saw-fish, 
Sharks, Eays, &c. : — Goldsworth hill, near Woking, aff"ords 
a good section of these beds. The London Clay is a brown or 
dark-blue, or blackish tenaceous clay, with layers at irregu- 
lar depths of argillo-calcareous nodides, used for preparing 
Roman Cement. Veins of gi*een sand, and masses of 
sulphate of lime and ii"on pyrites also occur. The Bognor 
beds, which are found towards the base of the London 
Clay, consist of calcareous and siliceous nodules, or of 
coarse green sand, or friable sand-rock with numerous 
marine shells. In the Isle of Wight, the Bognor Beds 
are a massive brown clay and clayey green sand, with 
layers of iron sand and septaria. The beds usually termed 



FORMATION. 25 

Plastic Clay separate the London Clay from the chalk, and 
are composed of sand, shingle, mottled clays and loam ; 
marine shells sometimes occur in them, and along a portion 
of the southern side of the London basin, a fluvio-marine 
deposit (Woolwich, &c.), is intercalated in the beds imme- 
diately overlying the chalk, proving the existence of streams 
charged with their peculiar testacea, and emptying them- 
selves into the ancient estuary. The London Clay forma- 
tion is separated into two distinct basins, those of London 
and Hampshire, which are bounded by the rising grounds 
of the chalk, except on the seaward side ; the intervening 
tract between the clay and chalk being usually occupied 
by the sands, &c. of the Plastic Clay.* 

The Fauna and Flora of this period have decidedly a 
tropical aspect. Among the testacea are many species of 
Conus, Cancellaria, F'oluta, Nautilus ; besides numerous 
species of fish and a great abundance of the fruit and 
seeds belonging to tribes and genera indicative of the 
warmer regions of the globe. 

* The deposits in the London and HampshiTC districts have hitherto generally been con- 
sidered to be synchronous ; that is, the Clays of the London basin being equivalent to the 
Barton and BracUesham beds, and the variegated sands of Alum Bay representing the 
Plastic Clays, &c. 

Mr. Preatwich, hovrever, snggests that this view of their arrangement is somewhat erro- 
neoos, and in a recent memoir commonicated to the Geological Society, (Geol. Proceedings 
Feb. 3, 1S47,) he has explained by the aid of numerous and extensive sections over both dis- 
tricts, by which the superposition of the beds is clearly exhibited, that the formation com- 
prised within them, may be conveniently subdivided into certain groups, in the fidkmiikg 
descending order, and to which their foreign equivalents are added. 

Engtuh Serin. Fmek Srria. 

Barton Clays. . . . . ^ Calcaire Grossier (in part.). 

BracUesham Sands. . . . / Glauconie Groasiere. 

London Clay and . . . . \ Lits Coquilliers et . . . 

Bognor Beds J Sables Inferieurs. . 

Mottled or Plastic Clays and Sands. Argile Plastique et Lignites. 

This view is also corroborated by the distribution of the organic remains, for, although 
many species are common to all the divisions, still a large number of species are peculiar to 
each of them, thus forming a somewhat distinctive and cliaracteristic Fauna. 



LOCALITIES FOE FOSSILS. 
Of the London Clay. — Isle of Sheppy, Wliitstable,»Keiit ; Harwich, 
Southend, Essex ; Highgate, Finchley, Middlesex ; Newnham, 
s 



26 LONDON CLAY. 

and near Basingstoke, Hants ; Bracklesham Bay, Sussex ; Bar- 
ton Cliffs, Hants ; Alum and White Cliff Bays, Isle of "Wight ; 
Hedgerley, Bucks. 

Of the Bognor Beds. — Reading, Berks ; Hungerford, Wilts ; near 
Basingstoke, Hants ; Bognor, Sussex ; Alum and White Cliff 
Bays, Isle of Wight ; Heme and PegweU Bay, Kent. 

Of the Woolmch Beds. — Woolwich, Lewisham, Plnmstead, Upnor, 
Erith, Kent ; Newhaven, Sussex ; Railway between Guildford 
and Woking. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS, &c. 

Agassiz, L., ' Report on the Fossil Fishes of the London Clay,' Brit. 

Assoc. Report. 1844. Ihid. (in part) 1843. 
Bowerbank, J. S., ' The Fossil Fruits and Seeds of the London Clay.' 
' On the London and Plastic Clay of the Isle of 

Wight,' Geol. Trans, vol. vi. 

' On the London Clay at Bracklesham Bay, Mag. 



Nat. Hist. 1840, p. 23. 

' On procuring London Clay Fossils at the Isle of 



Sheppy, Mag. Nat. Hist. 1840. p. 205, 
Brander, ' Fossilia Rantoniensia,' 1766. 
Brodie, Rev. P. B. ' On Plants in the Plastic Clay,' Geol. Proc. vol. 

iii. p. 592. 
Buckland, Rev. W. ' On the formation of the Valley of Kingsdere,' 

&c., Geol. Trans, vol. ii. 
Conybeare and Phillips, ' Geology of England and Wales' 
Edwards, F., ' Description of the Fossil Tellens from the Barton and 

Bracklesham Beds,' Lond. Geol. Journ. No. 2. 
Lyell, C. ' On the strata of Plastic Clay, &c, Geol. Trans, vol. ii. 
Morris, J. ' On the Plastic Clay formation,' &c., Geol. See. Proc. 

vol. ii. p. 450. 
Owen, Prof. R. ' Description of some Ophidiolites,' Sec., Geol. Trant. 

vol. vi. 
Pilkington, Linn. Trans, vol. vii. 
Prestwich, J. ' On the Tertiary formations,' &c., Quart. Geol. Journ. 

vol. ii. p. 224. [Containing a complete list of the Works, 

Memoirs, &c.] 
' On the Probable Age of the London Clay and its rela- 
tions to the Hampshire and Paris Tertiary Systems. {Proc. Geol. 

Soc. Feb. 3, 1847. 



FOKMATION. 



27 



Richardson, W. • On the locality of the Hyracotherinm,' GeoL 

Tratu. vol. vi. 
Warbnrton, H. ' On the Bagshot Sand,' Geol. Tratu. voL L 
Webster, T. ' On a freshwater formation in Hordwell Cli^' &c., 

Geol. Tratu. vol. i. 
Wetherell, N. T. ' On a well at Hampstead Heath,' &c., Geol. Tratu. 

vol. V. 



LIST OF FOSSILS. 



Cucmnites variabilis. Bow. 
Cnpanoides corrugatus. Bow. 
depressns. Bow. 
grandis, Bow. 
inflatus. Bow, 
lobatus. Bow. 
pygmseus, Bow. 
snbangulatns. Bow. 
tmnidus. Bow. 
Cupreasinites Comptoni, Bow. 
corrugatus. Bow. 
crassus. Bow. 
cnrtus, Bow. 
dongatus. Bow. 
globatus, Bow. 
recurvatus. Bow. 
semiplotus. Bow. 
subangulatus. Bow. 
subfosiformis. Bow. 
snlcatus. Bow. 
tessellatus. Bow. 
Thuoides, Bow. 
Faboidea acuta. Bow. 

bifalcis. Bow. 
complanata. Bow. 
crassa, Bow. 
crassicatis. Bow. 
doliformis, Bow. 



PLAXT.E. 

Faboidea larga. Bow. 

marginata. Bow. 

oblonga. Bow. 

ovata. Bow. 

pingnis. Bow. 

plana. Bow. 

planimeta. Bow. 

planodorsa. Bow. 

quadmpes. Bow. 

robusta. Bow. 

rostrata. Bow. 

subdisca. Bow. 

subtenuis. Bow. 

symmetrica. Bow. 

tenuis, Bow. 

ventricosa, Bow. 
Hightea attenuata. Bow. 

elegans. Bow. 

elliptica. Bow. 

fusifonnis. Bow. 

inflata. Bow. 

minima^ Bow. 

orbicularis. Bow. 
ovifonnis, Bow. 
turbiuata. Bow. 
Leguminosites sequilateralis,^ow. 
cordatus, Bow. 
crassus, Bow. 
d2 



38 



LONDON CLAY. 



Leguminosites curtus, Bow. 

dimidiatus, Bow. 

elegans, Bow. 

enormia, Bow. 

gracilis. Bow. 

inconstans, Bow. 

lentiformis, Bow. 

lobatus, Bow. 

planus, Bow. 

reniformis, Bow. 

rotundatus,-ffoe^. 

subovatus, Bow. 
Mimosites Browniana, Bow 
Nipadites acutus, Bow, 

clavatus. Bow. 
cordifonnis. Bow. 
crassus, Bow. 
ellipticus. Bow. 



laDceolatus, Bow. 



Nipadites ParMnsonis, Bow. 
pruniformis. Bow. 
pyramidalis, Bow. 
Petrophiloides cellularis, Bow. 
conoideus, Bow. 
cylindricus. Bow. 
ellipticus, Bow. 
imbricatus, Bow. 
oviformis. Bow. 
Ricliardsonii.^ow. 
TricarpeUites aciculatus, Bow. 
communis, Bow. 
crassus, Bow. 
curtus, Bow. 
gracilis. Bow. 
patens. Bow. 
rugosus. Bow. 
Wetherellia variabilis. Bow. 
Xulionosprionites latus, Bow. 
Zingiberiformis, Bow. 



Astrea Websteri, Bow. 
Desmophyllum, ? 



ZOOPHYTA. 

Turbinolia elliptica, Brong. 
sulcata, Lam. 

ECHINODKRMATA. 

Glypticus, ? Pentacrinus Sowerbii Sow. 

Ophiura WetliereLlii, Morr. MSS. Spatangus, ? 

Remains of this famUy belonging to two or three genera have been found at Sheppy, but 
are not yet descriibed. 



Cristellaria, ? 

Dentalina, ? 

Prondicularia, ? 

Marginulina, ? 

Serpula crassa. Sow. 
exigua. Sow. 
extensa, Brander. 
flagelliformis, Sow. 



FOEAMINIFERA. 

Nummularia elegans. Bow. 
laevigata. Lam. 
variolaria, Lam. 

Rotalina, ? 

Annelida. 

Serpula heptagona. Sow. 
prismatica. Sow. 
trilineata, Sow. 
Vermicularia Bognoriensis, Sow. 



FOBMATION. 



29 



Balanos erisma, Sok. 

Cancer Leacliii, Konig. 

tuberculatus, Konig. 



CntBHIPEDA. 

XipUdioa qnadratmn, Dixon. 
Ckcstacea. 

Cytherina barbata. Sow. 
Inaclias Lamarkii, Brong. 



CONCHIFERA DlMTARIA. 

Amphidesma splendeos, Ed. Corbnla costata, Ed. 

{Tellina, Sow. 
Area Branded, Sow. 

{A. appendiculata, Sow.) 
barbatnla. Lam. 



impolita. Sow. 
intemipta. Lam. 
depressa. Sow. 
nitens, Sow. 
Astarte donacina. Sow. 
rugata. Sow. 
tenera. Sow. 
Aiinos angnlatns. Sow. 
Cardilia radiata, Ed. 
Cardium altematom, IHxon. 
discors. Lam. 
hippopoeum, Beth. 
nitens. Sow. 
ordinatmn, Dixon. 
Flomsteadiense, Sow. 
porulosum. Brand. 
semigranulatum. Sow. 
semistriatum, Desk. 
tuipdum. Brand. 
Chama gigas. Desk. 

calcarata. Desk. 
squamosa. Brand. 
Clavagella coronata. Desk. 
Corbis tenera, Ed. 
Corbnla Bartonensis, Ed. 
Cardiiformis, Sow. 



(C. recoluta. Sow.) 
cnspidata. Sow. 
seqnalis, Ed. 
ficus. Brand. 
gallica. Lam. 
globosa. Sow. 
longirostmm, Deth. 
pisxun. Sow. 
plicata, Ji^. 
rugosa. Lam. 
striata. Lam. 
Crassatella compressa. Lam. 
costata, Ed. 
cnneata, Ed. 
orbicularis, Ed. 
plicata. Sow. 
rostrata. Desk. 
sulcata. Brand. 
tenuisulcata, Ed. 
troncata, Ed. 
Cucullfea cra-ssatina. Lam. 
Cultellus affinis. Sow. 
Cypricardia carinata. Desk. 
oblonga. Desk. 
pectinifera. Sow. 
Cyprina Morrisii, Sow. 

planata. Sow. 
Cyrena cuneiformis. Sow. 
cycladiformis. Desk. 
deperdita, Sow. 
s3 



30 



LONDON CLAY. 



Cyrena tellinella, Ter. 
Cythersea Branderi, Hd. 
convexa, Brong. 
elegans. Lam. 
incurvata, Ed. 
laevigata, Lam. 
lucida, Hd. 
nitidula, Lam. 
obliqua, Desk. 

{C.tenuistriata, Sow.) 
orbicularis, Ed. 
planulata, Ed. 
pusilla. Desk. 
suberycinoides, Desh. 
sulcataria, Besh. 
transversa, Sow. 
trigonula, Desk. 
tellinaria, Lam. 
Diplodonta dilatata ? 
Fistulana ampullaria. Lam. 
Gastrochsena contorta. Sow. 
Glycimeris angustata, Ed. 
GoodaUia granulosa, Ed. 
Isocardia sulcata, Sow. 
Kellia compressa, Ed. 

Tellinajformis, Ed. 
Lepton sequalis, Ed. 
Limopsis granulatus, Besh. 

scalaris. Sow. 
Lucina ambigua, Bef. 
concava, Ed. 
concentrica, Lam. 
divaricata, Lam. 
gigantea, Besh. 
Goodallii, Sow. 
inflata, Ed. 
immersa, Bixon. 
Menardi, Besh. 
mitis, Sow. 
radiata, Ed. 



Lucina aerrata. Sow. 
spinulosa, Ed. 
Mactra depressa, Besh. 
fastigiata, Ed. 
filosa, Ed. 
semisulcata. Lam. 
Mesodesma tenera, Ed. 
Modiola depressa. Sow. 
elegans. Sow. 
seminuda, Besh. 
subcarinata, Sow. 
sulcata, Lam. 
tenuistriata, Mellemlle. 
Mytilus aflSnis, Sow. 
Mya angustata. Sow, 
Nesera dispar, Besh. 
inflata, Sow. 

{Nucula. sp. Sow.) 
lameUosa, Ed. 
trUineata, Ed. 
Nucula amygdaloides. Sow. 
Bowerbankii, Sow. 
compressa. Sow. 
deltoidea. Lam. 
minima. Sow. 
ovata, Besh. 
serrata, Ed. 
simUis, Sow. 
striata, Lam. 
trigona. Sow. 
"WethereUii, Sow. 
bisulcata, Ed. 
Panopsea intermedia, Sow. 

corrugata, Ed. 
Pectunculus brevirostrum. Sow. 
decussatus, Sow. 
deletus, Brand. 
Plumsteadiensis, Sow. 
pulvinatus. Lam. 
Fetricola compressa, Besh. 



FOBMATION. 



31 



PholadomTS cnneata. Sow. 
Dixoni, Soto. 
margaritacea. Sow. 
Tirgulosa, Sow. 
Pholas conoidea. Desk. 
Pechellii, Dixon. 
Pinna afiSnis, Sow. 

arcnata. Sow. 
margaritacea, Liron. 
Psammobia compressa. Sow. 

radis. Lam. 
Sangoinolaria Hollowarsii, Sow. 

lamellata, Ed. 
Saxicara vaginoides, Leih. 
Solen Dixoni, Sow. 
gracilis. Sow. 
obliquns. Sow. 
Solenocnrtns Farisiensis, Lam. 
Tellina ambigna. Sow. 
Branderi, Sow. 
canaliculata, Ed. 
condnna, Ed. 
dis-stria, Ed. 
donacialis. Lam. 
filosa. Sow. 
granulosa, Ed. 



Tellina Hantoniensis, Ed. 
inflata,^. 
lameUolata, Ed. 
kevis, Ed, 
Innnlata, Deth. 
oborata, Ed. 
plagia, Ed. 
rhomboidalis, Ed. 
scalaroides, Xom. 
speciosa, Ed. 
sqnamola, Ed. 
textilis, Ed. 
tennistria. Desk. 
Teredo antenantse. Sow. 
personata, Deth. 
Thracia oblata. Sow. 
snlcata. Sow. 
Yenericardia acaticostata. Lam. 
Brogniartii, MatU. 
deltoidea. Sow. 
elegans, Ed. 
globosa. Sow. 
oblonga. Sow. 
mitis. Lam. 
planicosta. Lam. 



COXCHIFERA MONOSCTAWA. 



Anomia lineata,5«9i0. 
ATicnla arcnata. Sow. 
media. Sow. 
papyracea. Sow. 
Lima dilatata, Ed. 
Ostrea BeUoracina, Lean. 

dorsata. Desk. 

ednlina. Sow. 

elegans. Desk. 

flabellala. Lam, 

gigantea. Sow. 

pulcbra. Sow. 



Ostrea radiosa, Deth. 

tenera. Sow. 
Pecten carinatns, Sow. 

comens. Sow. 

dupUc^os, Sow. 

Tsmtiicaivsalaa, Dak, 

multistriatoit, Deak. 

plebeius, Deth. 

reconditns. Brand. 

sqnamula, Deth. 

tripartitns, Deth. 
Vulsella deperdita. Lam. 



32 



LONDON CLAY. 



Beachiopoda. 
Hipponyx comucopise, Def. Lingula tenuis, Sow. 

squamsefonnis. Lam. Terebratula striatula, Mant. 



Gasteropoda. 



Actseon crenatus. Sow. 
elongatus, Sow. 
simulatus. Brand. 
Ancillaria subulata, Lam. 
olivnla, Lam. ? 
Aporrhais Sowerbii, Mant. sp, 
Bifrontia Laudinensis, Besh. 
Buccinum junceum. Brand. 
Stromboides, Lam. 
Bulimus tenuistriatus, Weth. 
Bulla acuminata. Sow. 
attenuata. Sow. 
constricta, Sow. 
elliptica, Sow. 
Edwardsii, Bixon. 
filosa. Sow. 
striatella, Besh. 
Cancellaria evulsa. Brand, 
Iseviuscula, Sow. 
quadrata, Sow. 
costulata. Lam. 
Cassidaria carinata, Sow. 
coronata, Besh. 
striata. Sow. 
Cerithium cornucopise, Sow. 
geminatum. Sow. 
giganteum, Lam. 
hexagonum. Lam. 
rigidum. Sow. 
turris, Besh. 
Conus concinnus. Sow. 
corculum. Sow. 
deperditus, Brug. 
diversiformis, Besh. 
dormitor, Brand. 



Conus lineatus, Brand. 

scabriculus. Brand. 

velatus. Sow. 
Cyprsea inflata. Lam. 

oviformis. Sow. 
tuberculosa, G. Sow. 
Delphinula Wamii, Besh. 
Dentalium acuminatum, Sow. 
anceps. Sow. 
eburneum, Besh. 
nitens. Sow. 
striatum. Sow. 
Fasciolaria funiculosa Besh. 
Fusus acuminatus, Sow. 

asper. Sow. 

bulbiformis. Lam. 

canaliculatus. Sow. 

carinella, Sow. 

complanatus. Sow. 

coniferus. Sow. 

curtus. Sow. 

desertus. Brand. 

errans. Brand. 

(F. hifaciatus. Sow.) 

gradatus. Sow. 

interruptus. Bilk. 

intortus, Besh. 

latus. Sow. 

lavatus, Brand. 

lima, Sow. 

longaevus. Lam. 

Nose, Lam, 

porrectus. Brand. 

regularis, Sow. 

trilineatus. Sow. 



FORMATION. 



33 



FusTis tuberosus, Sotc. 

onicarinatos, Besh. 
Globulas ambnlacram. Sow. 

acutus. Sow. 

depressus, Sow. 

hybridus, DesA. 

patoltis. Sow. 

pachicbeilns. Sow. 

ponderosus, DesA. 

scalariformis, DesA. 

sigaretinus. Sow. 

Willemettii, DesA. 

labellatns, Zcz/n. 
Infiindibalam obliqunm. Sow. 

trochiforme. Lam. 
Littorina sulcata, Pilk. 
Marginella dentifera, DesA. 
ovulata, Zam. 
ebnmea ? Zam. 
^lelania costata. Sow. 

costellata. Lam. 

inquinata, Def. 
Melanopsis fosiformis. Sow. 

carinata. Sow. 
Mitra monodonta, DesA. 
parva. Sow. 
pninila. Sow. 
scabra. Sow. 
Murex asper. Brand. 

bispinosos. Sow. 

coronatns. Sow. 

cristatns. Sow. 

defossus. Sow. 

frondosus. Sow. 

minai. Brand. 

crispus ? Lam. 

tripteroides ? Lam. 

spinuloeus, DesA, 
Xatica glaucinoides. Lam. 

Hantoniensis, Pift. 



Natica siinilis. Sow. 

lineolata, DesA. 
oboTata, Diion. 
tui^da, Dixon, 
Nerita globosa. Sow. 
Neritina globulus, Def. 
Oliva aTenifonnis, Sow. 
Branderi, Sow. 
canalifera. Lam. 
Salisburiana, Sow. 
Ovnlum retusum. Sow. 
Parmophoros angnstns, DesA. 
Patella striata. Sow. 
Pleurotoma acnininata. Sow. 
amphicoans. Sow. 
attenoata. Sow. 
brevirostrum. Sow. 
cataphracta, BroccAi. 
colon, Soto, 
conuna. Sow. 
conoides. Brand. 
dentata. Lam. 
exerta. Brand. 
fosifonnis. Sow. 
granolata. Lam. 
innexa. Brand. 
Isevigata, Sow. 
macileuta. Brand. 
prisca. Sow. 
rostrata. Brand. 
semicolon. Sow. 
turbida. Brand. 
Potamides variabilis, DesA. 
Pseudoliva obtusa, DesA. 
patula, DesA. 
semicostata, DesA. 
PjTula Greenwoodii, Sow. 
Isevigata, Lam. 
nexilis. Brand. 
Smithii, Sow. 



34 



LONDON CLAY. 



Pyrula tricostata, Besh. 
Ringicula turgida, Sow. 
Rostellaria lucida. Sow. 

macroptera. Lam. 
rimosa, Brand. 
Scalaria acuta. Sow. 

interrupta, Sow. 
reticulata. Brand. 
semicostata. Sow. 
undosa. Sow. 
Seraphs convolutus, Montf. 
Sigaretus canaliculatus, Sow. 
Solarium canaliculatum, Lam. 
discoideum, Sow. 
patulum, Sow. 
plicatum. Sow. 
trochiforme, Desk. 
Strepsidura ficulnea. Lam. sp. 
Strombus Bartonensis, Sow. 
Terebellum fusiforme. Sow, 
Triton argutus. Sow. 
expansus. Sow. 
viperinus, Lam. 
Troclius agglutinans. Lam. 
extensus, Sow. 
monilifer. Sow. 
Turbo plicatus, Besh. 
Turritella abbreviata, Besh. 
brevis, Sow. 
fasciata, Lam. 
imbricataria, Lam. 
sulcata. Lam. 



Turritella sulcifera, Besh. 

multisulcata, Besh. 
terebellata. Lam. 
Typhis fistulosus. Sow. 

muticus, Sow. 

pungens, Brand. 
Voluta ambigua, Sow. 

angusta, Besh. 

athleta, Sow. 

bicorona. Lam. 

bulbula. Lam. 

cithara. Lam. 

costata. Sow. 

denudata, Sow. 

depauperata, Sow. 

elevata, Sow. 

geminata. Sow. 

harpula. Lam. 

labrella, Lam. 

lima. Sow. 

luctatrix. Sow. 

magorum. Sow. 

muricina. Lam. 

nodosa, Sow. 

protensa, Sow. 

scalaris. Sow. 

spinosa. Sow. 

suspensa, Sow. 

tricorona. Sow. 

"Wetherellii, Sow. 
Volvaria acutiuscula, Sow. 



Ditmpa plana, Sow. 

Beloptera anomala, Sow. 

Sepia, ? 

Nautilus centralis, Sow. 
regalis, Sow. 



Pteeopoda. 

Ditrupa incrassata, Sow. 
Cephalopoda. 

Nautilus imperialis. Sow. 
Sowerbii, Weth. 
urbanus. Sow. 
ziczac. Sow. 



FORMATION. 




Pisces. 


Plaeoidei. 


MyEobates toliapicns, Ag. 


Glyphis hastalis, Ag. 


Dixoni, Ag. 


Carcharodon subserratus, Ag. 


Owenii, Ag. 


toliapicns, Ag. 


acutus, Ag. 


Otodns obHqnns, Ag. 


goniopleurus, Ag. 


macrotns, Ag. 


canalicolatos, Ag. 


Lamna d^ans, Ag. 


striatns, Ag. 


compressa, Ag, 


lateralis, Ag. 


Hopei, Ag. 


jngalis, Ag. 


verticalis, Ag. 


mai^inalis, Ag. 


contortidens, Ag. 


punctatus, Ag. 


Pristis bisnlcatns, Ag. 


Colei, Ag. 


Hastingsiae, Ag. 


gj^ratns, Ag. 


Elasmodus Hunterii, Egert. 


nitidns, Ag. 


Edapbodon Bncklandii, Ag. 


heteropleurns, Ag 


enrygnatbns, Ag. 


.£tobatis irregalaris, Ag. 


leptognatbus, Ag. 


snbarcuatns, Ag. 


Passalodon rostratns, Ag. 


Notidanos serratissimus Ag. 


Fsaliodos compressus, Egert. 




Ganoidet. 


GftoAxa Isevior, Ag. 


Phyllodus toliapicns, Ag. 


Phyllodus irregtilaris, Ag. 


Pycnodns toliapicns, Ag. 


medius, Ag. 


Periodus Konigii, Ag. 


ina]*ginalis, Ag. 


Pisodus Owenii, Ag. 


planus, Ag. 


Acipenser toliapicns, Ag. 


polyodus, Ag. 


Glyptocepbalus radiatns, Ag. 




Ctenoidet. 


Sciaenurns Bowerbankii, Ag. 


Euiygnatbns carifrons, Ag. 


crassior, Ag. 


Podocephalns nitidus, Ag. 


Ptychocephalus radiatus, Ag. 


Synophrys Hopei, Ag. 


Pomaphractns Egertoni, Ag. 


Brachygnathns teniiiceps, Ag 


Myripristis toliapicns, Ag. 


Percostoma angnstnm, Ag. 


Cseloperca latifrons, Ag. 


Calopomos porosus, Ag. 



35 



36 



LONDON CLAY. 



Cycloides. 



Cybimn macropomum, Ag. 
Sphyrsenodus priscus, Ag. 

crassidens, Ag. 
Hypsodon oblongus, Ag. 
toliapicus, Ag. 
Tetrapterus priscus, Ag. 
Goniognathus maxillaris, Ag. 

coryphsenoides, Ag. 
Coelorhynclius rectus, Ag. 

sinuatus, Ag. 
Phasganus declivis, Ag. 
Auchenilabrus frontalis, Ag. 
Acestrus ornatus, Ag. 
Megalops priscus, Ag. 
Halecopsis laevis, Ag. 
CEelocephalus salmoneus, Ag. 
Naupygus Bucklandii, Ag. 
Caelopoma Colei, Ag. 



Cselopoma Iseve, Ag. 
Bothrosteus latus, Ag. 

brevifrons, Ag. 

minor, Sow. 
Phalacrus cybioides, Sow. 
Rhoncus carangoides. Sow. 
Echenus politus, Sow. 
Scombrinus nuchalis, Sow. 
Laparus alticeps, Sow. 
Brychetus Mulleri, Sow. 
Rhinocephalus planiceps, Sow. 
Merlinus cristatus. Sow. 
Ampheristus toliapicus, Sow. 
RhyncorMnus branchialis. Sow. 
Pacbycephalus cristatus. Sow. 
Rhipidolepis elegans. Sow. 
Gadopsis breviceps. Sow. 
Loxostomus maiicus, &)w. 



Chelonia antiqua Konig. 

breviceps, Owen. 
convexa, Owen. 
Harvicensis, Woodi^. 
latiscutata, Owen. 
longiceps, Owen. 
planimentum, Owefi. 



Reptilia. 

Chelonia subcristata, Owen. 
Crocodilus Spenceri, Buckl. 
Emys testudiniformis, Owen. 
Palffiophis toliapicus, Owen. 
Platemys Bowerbankii, Owen. 
Bullockii, Owen. 



AVES. 



Lithomis vulturinus, Owen. 



Mammalia. 



Corypbodon Eocsenus, Owen. 
Didelphis Colchesteri, Owen. 
Hyracotherium cuniculus, Owen. 



Hyracotheriumleporinuin, Owen. 
Lophiodon minimus, Owen. 
Macacus Eocsenus, Owen. 



CKETACEOUS GROUP. 



37 



SECONDARY SERIES. 



CRETACEOUS GROUP. 
YTEALDEN GROUP. 
OOLITIC GROUP. 



NEW RED SANDSTONE OR 
TRIASSIC GROUP. 



CRETACEOUS GROUP. 

K»gtiA jMtim. Fremtk Jntkon. Roemer. I/OrUfr. 

(Chalk with flint* . . Ct«ie ObereKreide . . L'etage Senonim. 

Chalk without flints . Cntere Kteide 

Chalk marl .... CiaieTufan . . . Planer ... -i 

rUpper Green Sand . Glaaconie Crajeoae Gronaand . . i 

gj Ganlt Gait 

* i r Quader . . . -i f A; 

J Lower Green Sand . Glauconie sablenae J \ \ 

<-> \ I HiUconglomerat > >• Ji 



TmonieD. 

Albien. 
AptiCD. 
irofoniifii. 



ALTHOUGH the subordinate beds of this group present 
many distinctive characters, still they form but portions 
of one continuous series, as evinced by their organic con- 
tents ; and for the sake of convenience, we have classed 
the fossils together, from the Chalk to the Lower Green 
Sand, inclusive. This group is composed chiefly of 
cretaceous, argillaceous and arenaceous beds, the former 
predominating in the upper and the two latter in the 
lower division. 

The White Chalk, a nearly pure carbonate of lune with, 
minute fi*agments of Shells and Foraminifera, has usually 
been divided into two parts, the Upper Chalk being cha- 
racterized by the presence of flint nodules, more or less^ 
horizontally arranged; and the Lower Chalk, which is» 



S8 CRETACEOUS GROUP. 

comparatively free from them. This character, however 
con-ect for the south of England, is not constant over a 
wide area ; for the lower chalk of Yorkshire contains an 
abundance of flint nodules, and the same fact is remarked 
in the neighbourhood of Havre, and elsewhere. The Lower 
Chalk and Chalk Marl consist of greyish earthy or yellowish 
marly chalk, sometimes indurated. In Dorset and Devon- 
shire, a bed with numerous fossUs occurs towards the base 
of the Chalk, which is composed of chalk with green par- 
ticles and minute grains of quartz, and we find, also, 
towards the base of the chalk in Norfolk and Yorkshire, a 
stratum of red chalk which may be considered to repre- 
sent the gault of the southern counties. 

The Upper Green Sand consists of a sUicious sand, or 
of a marly calcareous sand with green grains and mica ; 
the celebrated firestone of Merstham belongs to this divi- 
sion. The Gault next succeeds in a descending order and 
is a blueish tenacious clay, sometimes marly and with 
indurated argillaceous concretions. The Lower Green 
Sand is chiefly an arenaceous deposit, formed of sands, and 
indurated and ferruginous sandstones, with beds of clay 
and clayey sand, and containing, in some localities, bands 
of limestone (Kentish Eag), and regular seams of chert, 
and sometimes a coarse and highly ferruginous conglome- 
rate, as near CaLne, &c. The Kentish Kag is largely 
quaiTied near Maidstone, and is used extensively as a 
building stone in Kent and the adjoining counties ; it was 
in one of these quarries that the fine specimen of the 
Iguanodon, now in the British Museum, was discovered 
by ]\Ir. Bensted. The calcareous matter appears to have 
been developed towards the eastern part of this formation, 
(Kent, &c.), for in the Isle of Wight there is scarcely any 
trace of it, and certainly no masses of thick-bedded lime- 
stone ; the best Fuller's earth is obtained from this divi- 
sion, as at Nutfield, Surrey ; Woburn, Bedford. Dr. 



CRETACEOUS GROUP. 39 

Fitton considers the Lower Green Sand capable of a triple 
division. (Geol. Trans, vol. iv. p. 115.) The Neoco- 
mian beds of foreign authors, are the equivalent of this 
portion of the Cretaceous Group. The ChaUc formation 
is an interesting feature in the geology of England, extend- 
ing from Yorkshire and Norfolk to Dorsetshire, into Wilt- 
shire, and diverging eastward through Hampshire, Kent, 
Surrey, and Sussex, as seen on the geological map. 



LOCALITIES FOR FOSSILS, &c. 

Upper Chalk. - — Lewisham, Bromley, Northfleet, Kent ; Purfleet, 

Grays, Essex ; Basingstoke, Hants.; Norwich; Horstead, Brighton, 

Arundel, "Worthing, Sussex; Dane's Dyke, Yorkshire; Isle of 

"Wight. 
Lower Chalk. — Burham and Dover, "Wrotham, Charing, Kent ; 

Southeram, Lewes, and many pits in that neighbourhood, Sussex ; 

Guildford, Dorking, &c., Surrey ; Swaffham, Norfolk ; Cherry 

Hinton, near Cambridge. 
Chalk Marl. — Dover, Kent ; near Devizes and Calne, Wilts. ; Clayton, 

near Hurst, Sussex. 
Bed Chalk. — Hunstanston, Norfolk ; Speeton Clifis, Yorkshire. 
Upper Green Sand. — Alton, Petersfield, Hants. ; Godstone, Merstham, 

Surrey ; Earlstoke, Devizes, Warminster, WUts. ; Isle of Wight ; 

Blackdown. 
Gault. — Folkstone, Charing, near Maidstone, Kent ; Hamsey, Ring- 

mer, Sussex ; near Devizes, Wilts ; near Cambridge. 
Lower Green Sand. — Folkstone, Hythe, Pluckley; Boughton and 

Loose, near ^Maidstone, Kent ; Parham Park, Sussex ; near 

Devizes and Calne, WUts. ; Sandown, Shanklin, Atherfield, &c., 

Isle of Wight. 

The organic remains of the Cretaceous Group, with one 
or two exceptions, are all marine, comprising Fucoidal 
Plants, Sponges, Star-fishes, Mollusks, Crustacea, Fishes 
and Eeptiles. The Echinoderms are abundant in the Upper 
Chalk, and the Cephalopods in the Lower, and which also 
e2 . 



40 CRETACEOUS GUOUP. 

contains fine remains of Eishes. The Gault is extremely 
rich, in fossils of great beauty, Ammonites, Hamites, &c. 
The Lower Green Sand is very fossiliferous, containing 
many species of Shells, univalve and bivalve, and large 
specimens of Ammonites, Crioceras, &c., &c. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS, &c. 

Austen, R. C, 'On the Geology of Surrey, &c.,' Geol. Proc. 

voL iv. p. 167. 
De la Beche, Sir H. T., ' On the Chalk and Green Sand of Lyme, &c.,' 

Geol. Trans, vol. ii. 
Benett, Miss E., ' Catalogue of the Fossils of Wiltshire,' 1831. 
Bowerbant, J. S., ' On a New Species of Pterodactyl, &c.,' Quart. 

Geol. Journ. vol. ii. p. 7. 
Clarke, Rev. W. B., * Illustrations of the Geology of the South-East 

of Dorsetshire,' Mag. Nat. Hist.; 1837, p. 414-464; 1838> 

p. 79-128 ; 1889, pp. 390, 432, 483. 
Conybeare and Phillips, ' Geology of England and Wales.' 
Pitton, W. H., M.D., 'On the Strata between the Chalk, &c.,' Geol 

Trans, vol. iv. p. 103. 
' Comparative Remarks, &c.,' Geol. Proc. vol. iv. 

pp. 396 and 198. 
Forbes, Prof. E., ' Catalogue of Lower Green Sand Fossils,' Quart. 

Geol. Journ. vol. i. pp. 237 and 345. 
Ibbetson, Capt. L. L. B., and Prof. E. Forbes, ' On the Section be- 
tween Atherfield, &e.' Geol. Proc. vol. iv. p. 407. 
Lonsdale, W., ' On the Oolite District of Bath, &c.,' Geol. Trans. 

vol. iii. 
Mantell, G. A., ' Geology of Sussex,' 4to. 1822. 

' Geology of South-Hast of England^ 8vo. 1833. 

' Medals of Creation ,' (for Chalk Fossils,) 1844. 

' On the Fossil Remains of Turtles, &c.,' Phil. Trans. 

1841, p. 153. 
D'Orbigny, A., ' Memoire sur les Foraminiferes de la craie blanche,* 

Mem. Soc. Geol. de France, vol. iv. 
Phillips, J., ' Geology of Yorkshire,' part I, 1835. 



CBETACEOUS GROUP. 



41 



Rose, C. B., ' Geology of West Norfolk/ Phil. Jfaff. 1836. 

Weaver, T., • Oa the Composition of Chalk Rocks and Chalk Marl by 

invisible oi^anic bodies,' Phil. Mag. 1841, p. 375. 
Woodward, S., ' Geology of Norfolk; 1833. 



LIST OF rOSSILS. 
Found in the Chalk, Upper Green Sand, Gault, Lover Green Sand. 



Plantje. 



Abies Benstedi, Mant. 
oblonga, Lindl. 
Carpolithes Smithise, Mant. 
Chondrites Targionii, Brong. 
Confervites fiasdcnlata, Brong. 



Dracaena Benstedi, Mant. 
Strobilites Bucklandi, Lindl. 
Zamiostrobnsmacrocephalns, ZiW/. 

ovatns Lindl. 

Susseiiensis, Mant. 



Amoephozoa. 



Achillenm fangiforme, Goldf. 
Chenendopora fongiformis, Lamx. 
Choanites flemosns, Mant. 
Konigii, Mant. 
sobrotondus, Mant. 
Hallirhoa costata, Lamx. 
Hippalimus fungoides, Lamx, 
Jerea pyriformis, Lamx. 
Manon peziza, Goldf. 
Polypothecia clavellata, Ben. 

complexa, Ben. 

dichotoma, Ben. 

eipansa, Ben. 

fissa, Ben. 

gregaria, Ben. 

obliqua, Ben. 

palmata, Ben. 
Scyphia farcata, Goldf. 

infondibnliformis, Goldf. 
Siphonia anguilla, Lee. 



Siphonia cervicomis, Goldf. 
clava, Lee. 
fusiformis, Lee. 
pyriformis, Goldf. 
Spongia capitata, PhU. 
convoluta, Phil. 
cribrosa, PhU. 
labyrinthica, MatU. 
Iffivis, PhU. 
marginata, Phil. 
oscnlifera, PhU. 
plana, Phil. 
porosa, PMl. 
terebrata, PhU. 
Ventriculites Alcyonoides, Mant. 
Benettia, Mant. 
infundibulifonnis, 

Mant. 
qnadrangnlaris, Mant. 
radiatns, Mant. 
3 



42 



CKETACEOUS GKOUP. 



ZOOPHYTA. 



Alecto gracilis, Edw. 

ramosa, Blainv. 
Alveolites miUeporaceus, Blainv. 

tubiporaceus, Blainv. 
Astrea elegans, Goldf. 

escharoides, Goldf. 
Ceriopora polymorpha, Goldf. 
Cricopora gracilis, 
Diastopora gracilis, Edw. 
Eschara disticha, Goldf 

Lonsdalii, Edw. 

sexangularis, Goldf 
Hustra tessellata, Besm. 



Plustra retifonnis, Woodw. 

utricularis, Besm. 
Fungia coronula, Goldf. 
Idmonea cretacea, Edw. 

disticha, Blainv. 

truncata, Blainv. 
LunuUtes radiatus. Lam. 

urceolatus. Lam. 
Millepora globularis, Phil. 
Orbitolites lenticulatus. Lam. 
Eetepora clathrata, Goldf. 
Turbinolia Konigii, Mant. 
Verticillipora anastomosans. 



ECHINODERMATA. 



Ananchytes conoideus, Goldf. 

hemisphsericus, Brong 
ovatus, Lam. 
striatus. Lam. 
Apiocrinus ellipticus, Mill. 
Arbacia granulosa, Goldf. 
Caratomus hemisphsericus, Bes. 

rostratus, Ag. 
Cidaris claviger, Konig. 
cretosa, Park. 
marginata, Goldf. 
Cassidulus lapis-cancri, Lam. 
Catopygus carinatus, Jg. 
Cidaris saxatilis, Park. 

vesiculosa, Goldf. 
Comptonia elegans, Gray. 
Diadema granulosum, Ag. 

variolare, Ag. 
Discoidea cylindrica, Ag. 

hemisphserica, Ag. 

subuculus, Bronn. 

Galerites abbreviatus, Goldf. 



Galerites albogalems. Lam. 
couicus, Ag. 
vulgaris. Lam. 
subrotundus, Ag. 
Goniopborus lunulatus, Ag. 
Glenotremites paradoxus, Goldf. 
Holaster complanatus, Ag. 
granulosus, Goldf 
nodulosus, Goldf. 
subglobosus, Goldf. 
Marsupites Milleri, Mant. 
Micraster Bufo, Ag. 

cor-anguinum, Brong. 
cor-testudinarium, Goldf. 
 lacunosus. Park. 

Murchisonii, Konig. 
• prunella, Lam. 
rostratus, Mant. 
Nucleolites lacunosus, Goldf. 
Ophiura serrata, Boemer. 
Pyrina depressa, Besm. 
Salenia petalifera, Ag. 



CEETACEOUS GROUP. 



43 



Salenia geometrica, Ag. 
scutigera. Gray. 
stdlnlata, Ag. 



Spatangns omatus, Befr. 
Tosia lunata, Woodw. 
regnlaris. Pari. 



FOKAStDflFEEA. 



Bulimina Mnchisoniana, If Orb. 

obliqua. If Orb. 

obtusa. If Orb. 

variabilis. If Orb. 
Cristelkria rotulata. If Orb. 
Dcntalina aculeata. If Orb. 

gracilis, i^Ori. 

sulcata. If Orb. 
Gaudryina pupoides. If Orb. 
Globigerina cretacea. If Orb. 
elevata, If Orb. 
Marginulina trilobata. If Orb. 
Eosalina Clementiana, If Orb. 
globularis, Ehr. 
Loraeiana, If Orb. 



Rotalia Cordieriana, If Orb. 
crassa. If Orb. 
globulosa, Ehr. 
Micheliniana, If Orb. 
turgida, Ehr. 
umbilicata. If Orb. 
Voltziana, If Orb. 
Spirolina Comptoni, Mant. 
Teitularia aspera, Ehr. 

globulosa, Ehr. 
perforata, Ehr. 
striata, Ehr. 
turns. If Orb. 
Truncatulina BeaumontiaiiajiyOri. 
Turbinulina Italica, Ehr. 



Annelida. 



Cyclogjra granulata. Sow. 
Entobia cretacea, Portl. 
Serpula antiquata. Sow. 

avita, Soxc. 

articnlata, Sow. 

carinata, Woodw. 

carineUa, Sow. 

contracta, Woodw. 

filiformis. Sow. 

fluctuata. Sow. 

Dium, Gold/. 

plana, Woodw. 

plexus, Soto. 

Proteus, Sow, 

pusilla, Sow. 



Serpula rustica. Sow. 
tuba, Sow. 
TurbineUa, Sow. 
variabilis. Sow. 
vermes. Sow. 
vortex, Woodw. 
Vermilia ampullacea. Sow. 
macropus. Sow. 
pentaugulata, Woodw. 
striata, Woodw. 
Vennicularia concava. Sow. 

polvgonalis. Sow. 
radiatus. Sow. 
Sowerbii, Mant. 
umbonatus. Sow. 



44 



CRETACEOUS GROUP. 



ClERHIPEDA. 



Loricula pulchella, G. Sow. 
PoUicipes Isevis, Sow. 

maximus, Sow. 

radiatus. Sow. 



Pollicipes rigidus. Sow. 
sulcatus. Sow. 
unguis, Sow. 



Crustacea. 



Astacus Leachii, Mant. 

longimanus, Sow. 
Sussexiensis, Mant. 



Orithya Bechei, Desl. 
Pagurus Faujasii, Brong. 
Scyllarus Mantellii, Brong, 



CONCHIFERA DlMYARIA. 



AmpMdesma tenuistriatum, Sow. 
Area carinata, Sow. 
Carteroni, B'Orh. 
Comuelliana, T^Orl. 
Dupiniana, B'Orh. 
Gabrielis, Leym. 
rotundata, Sow. 
Eaulini, Leym. 
securis, Leym. 
Astarte coiicinna, Sow. 
formosa, Sow. 
impolita, Sow. 
multistriata, Sow. 
obovata, Sow. 
striata, Sow. 
Cardium Austeni, Forbes. 

concentricum, Forbes. 
Cornuellianuin, B'Orb. 
Gentianum, Sow. 
HiUanuin, Sow. 
Ibbetsoni, Forbes. 
imbricatorium, B'Orb. 
peregrinorsum, B'Orb, 
proboscideum, Sow. 
sphajroideum, Forbes, 



Cardium subhillanum, Leym. 
Corbula elegans. Sow. 
gigantea. Sow. 
striatula, Sow. 
truncata, Sow, 
Crassatella Robinaldiua, B'Orb. 
Cucullsea carinata. Sow. 
costellata, Sow. 
glabra. Sow. 
formosa. Sow. 
Cypricardia undulata, Forbes. 
Cyprina angulata, Sow. 
cuneata. Sow. 
rostrata. Sow. 
Cytherea caperata, Sow. 
lineolata, Sow. 
parva. Sow. 
plana. Sow. 
subrotunda. Sow. 
truncata, Sow. 
Pistulana pyriformis, Mant. 
Isocardia omata, Forbes. 
Lucina globifonnis, Leym. 
orbicularis. Sow. 
pisum. Sow. 



CRETACEOUS GBODP. 



45 



Lncina solidula, Forhes. 
Lutraria carinifera. Sow. 

striata, Soto. 
Mactra angulata, Soto. 
Modiola Archiaci, Leym. 

aspera. Sow. 

bdia. Sow. 

depressa. Sow. 

lineata. Sow. 

reversa. Sow. 
Mya laeviuscula. Sow. 
mandibnla. Sow. 
Mytilus Carteroni, If Orb. 

edentnlus. Sow. 

insequivalvis, Sow. 

prselongus, Sow. 

simplex, Leym. 

tridens. Sow. 
Nucnla angulata. Sow. 

antiqnata. Sow. 

apicolata. Sow. 

bivirgata. Sow. 

impressa. Sow. 

lineata. Sow. 

obtusa. Sow. 

ovata, Mant. 

pectinata. Sow. 

scapha. If Orb. 

spathulata, Forbes. 
Pachymya gigas, Sow. 
Panopsea gurgitis, Sow. 

Neocomiensis, Desk. sp. 
oralis. Sow. 
plicata. Sow. 
rotimdata. Sow. 
Pectunculus sublsevis. Sow. 

nmbonatus, Sow. 
Petricola canalicolata. Sow. 
nucifonnis, Sow. 



Pholadomya Agassizii, If Orb. 
dccnssata, Mant. sp. 
gigantea. Sow. sp. 
Martini, Forbes. 
Pholas prisca. Sow. 
Pinna crassa. Sow. 

Robinaldina, If Orb. 
Psanunobia gracilis. Sow. 
Solen Warburtoni, Forbes. 
Sphaera corrngata. Sow. 
Tellina Carteroni, If Orb. 
{T. angulata, Desh.) 
insequalis. Sow. 
striatula. Sow. 
Vectiana, Forbes. 
Thetis major. Sow. 
minor. Sow. 
Trigonia aflSnis, Sow. 

alaeformis, Farh. 
Archiacana, If Orb. 
carinata, Ag. 
candata, Ag. 
dsedalea. Pari. 
elongata. Sow. 
excentrica. Sow. 
nodosa. Sow. 
pennata. Sow. 
spectabilis. Sow. 
spinosa. Sow. 
Venericardia Neocomiensis, If Orb, 
qnadrata. If Orb. 
tenuicosta. Sow. 
Venus Brongniartiana, Leym. 
faba. Sow. 
fenestrata, Forbes. 
immersa. Sow. 
Orbigniana, Forbes. 
ovalis. Sow. 
Bicordiana, If Orb. 



46 



CRETACEOUS GROUP. 



Venus striato-costata, Tories. 
sublffivis, Sow. 



Venus submersa. Sow. 
Vecteusis, Tories. 



MONOMYARIA. 



Anomia convexa, Sow. 
laevigata, Sow. 
radiata, Sow. 
Avicula anomala, Sow. 

depressa, Forbes. 
ephemera, Tories. 
gryphEcoides, Sow. 
lanceolata, Tories. 
pectinata. Sow. 
Dianchora lata. Sow. 

obliqua, Mant. 
striata. Sow. 
truncata. Lam. 
Gervillia anceps. Desk. 

alajformis, Sow. sp. 

Forbesiana, D'Orb. 

linguloides, Tories. 

Gryphsea auricularis, Brong. 

canaliculata, Sow. sp. 
columba, Lam. 
conica, Sow. sp. 
digitata, Sow. sp. 
globosa. Sow. 
haliotoidea, Lam. 
harpa, Goldf, 
laevigata, Sow. 
sinuata. Sow. 
undata, Sow. 
vesiculosa, Sow. 
Inoceramus annulatus, Goldf. 
Brongniartii, Sow. 
concentricus, Park. 
cordifonnis, Sow. 
Crispii, Mant. 



Inoceramus Cuvierii, Sow. 

grypbiBoides, Sovi. 
involutus. Sow. 
Lamarckii, Brong. 
Isevigatus, Leym. 
latus. Sow. 
Mytiloides, Sow. 
pictus, Soio. 
striatus. Sow. 
sulcatus. Park. 
undulatus, Mant. 
"Websterii, Mant. 
Lima expansa, Tories. 
globosa, Sow. sp. 
lingua, Tories. 
semisulcata. Sow. 
subovalis. Sow. 
undata, Desh. 
Ostrea alseformis Woodw. 
canalicidata, Sow. 
carinata. Lam. 
iuffiquicostata, Woodw. 
macroptera. Sow. 
retusa. Sow. 
semiplana, Mant. 
triangularis, Woodw. 
Pecten asper, Lam. 
Beaveri, Sow. 
Boissyi, JD'ArcJi. 
compositus, Sow. 
concentricus, Woodw. 
circularis, Goldf. 
Milleri, Sow. 
nitidus, Mant. 



CKETACEOUS GROUP. 



47 



Pectea obliqnos, Sow. 

orbicnlaris. Sow. 
quadricostatns, Soto. 
qoinqnecostatus, Sow. 
sexcostatns, Wbodw. 
Shrtchburianus, Sok. 
Penia Mnlleti, Besh. 

Kicordiana, If Orb. 
rostrata. Sow. 



Plagiostoma asperam, Mant. 

Brightoniense, MJamt. 
dongatnm, Mxatt. 
Hoperi, Sow. 
ManteQii, Brong. 
?spinosmn. Sow. 
Plicatula infiata. Sow. 

pectinoides. Sow. 
placonsea, Lctm. 



RUDISTES. 

Dicetas iasequirostratns, Woodw. Hippurites Mortoni, Mant. 
Lonsdalii, Sow. 



Brachiopoda. 



Crania ovalis, Woodw. 
Parisiensis, Befr. 
spmnlosa, 2Hlh. 
striata. Lam. 
Lingula ovalis. Sow. 

tnmcata. Sow. 
Magas ptunila. Sow. 

trancata, Woodw. 
Orbicula Isevigata, Bah. 
Terebratnla biplicata. Sow. 

brevirostris Boemer. 
camea, Sow. 
chrysalis, ScUotk. 
conveia. Sow. 
decemcostata, Boemer 
depressa. Sow. 
dilatata. Sow. 
dimidiata. Sow. 
elegans. Sow. 
elongata. Sow. 
faba, iSo/o. 
Gibbsiana, Sow. 
latissima. Sow. 



Terebratula Mantelliana, Sow. 
Martini, Mant. 
m^atrema. Sow. 
Menardi, Lam. 

{truneata. Sow.) 
nndformis. Sow. 
obesa, Sow. 
obliqoa. Sow. 
obtusa. Sow. 
octoplicata. Sow. 
ovata. Sow. 
parrirostiis. Sow. 
pectita, Sow. 
pentagonalis, FAil. 
plicatiUs, Sow. 
prsdonga. Sow. 
qnadrata. Sow. 
rigida. Sow. 
rostrata. Sow. 
sella. Sow. 
semiglobosa. Sow. 
striatula, Mant. 
sabplicata. Moat. 



48 



CRETACEOUS GROUP. 



Terebratula subrotunda, Sow. 
subundata, Sow. 



Terebratula sulcata, Park. 

tamarindus Sow. 



Gasteeopoda. 



Actaeon Albensis, D'Orb. 
elongatus, Sow. 
marginatus, D'Orb. 
Avellana cassis, D'Orb. 

incrassata, Mant. sp. 
Cerithium attenuatum, Forbes. 
Clementinum, D'Orb. 
Lallieriaiium, D'Orb. 
Neocomiense, D'Orb. 
Phillipsii, Leym. 
turriculatum, Forbes. 
Cirrus plicatus. Sow. 
Dentalinm cylindricum, Sow. 
decussatum. Sow. 
ellipticum, Sow. 
medium. Sow. 
septangulare, 
Dolium nodosum, Sow. 
Emarginula Neocomiensis, D'Orb. 
Eulima Melanoides, Desk. 
Fusus clathratus. Sow. 
quadratus, Sow. 
rigidus, Sow. 
rusticus. Sow. 
Littorina carinata. Sow. 
couica. Sow. 
extensa. Sow. 
gracilis. Sow. 
monilifera, Sow. 
Murex calcar. Sow. 
Nassa costellata. Sow. 

lineata. Sow. 
Natica carinata. Sow. 

Cornuelliana, D'Orb. 



Natica Craultina, D'Orb. 
granosa. Sow. 
rotundata. Sow. sp. 
Nerinsea unicarinata, JFoodw. 
Pbasianella formosa, Sow. 
' pusiUa, Sow. 
striata, Sow. 
Pleurotomaria Anstedi, Forbes. 
gigantea. Sow. 
perspectiva, If Orb. 
Rhodani, If Orb. 
Pterocera Pittoni, Forbes. 
bicarinata. Desk. 
retusa, Sow. sp. 
Pyrula Brightii, Sow. 
depressa. Sow. 
Smithii, Sow. 
Ringinella incrassata. Sow. sp. 

inflata. Sow. sp. 
Eostellaria Buccinoides, Sow. 
calcarata, Soic. 
carinata, Sow. 
glabra, Forbes. 
macrostoma. Sore. 
marginata, Sow. 
Parkinsonii, Mant. 
Robinaldina, D'Orb. 
Scalaria Dupiniana, D'Orb. 

pulchra, Sow. 
Solarium conoideum. Sow. 
granulatum, Mant. 
minimum, Forbes. 
omatum. Sow. 
Trochus Albensis, D'Orb. 



CRETACEOUS GKOUP. 



49 



Trochus decnssatus, Leym. sp. 
Turbo munitus, Forbes. 
Yonninus, If Orb. 



Turritella eostata, Soto. 

Dupiniana, If Orb. 
granulata. Sow. 



Cephalopoda. 



Ammonites anritus. Sow. 
Benettise, Sow. 
Beudanti, Brong. 
Catillus, Sow. 
Catinus, JIant. 
complanatus, Mani. 
Comnellianus, If Orb. 
Coupei, Brong. 
cristatos, He Luc. 
curvatus, 3Iant. 
decipiens, Sow. 
denarius, Sow. 
dentatus. Sow. 
Desliayesii, Leym. 
falcatus, Mant. 
furcatus, Sow. 
Goodhallij Soic. 
Hambrovii, Forbes. 
hippocastanum, Sow. 
inflatns. Sow. 
lautus, Sow. 
mammillaris, Schloth. 
Mantelli, Sotc. 
Martini, Forbes. 
Mayorianus, If Orb. 
multiplicatus, Roemer. 
uavicularis, MaTit. 
omatus. Park. 
pansus, Park. 
peramplns, Mant. 
planulatus. Sow. 
planus, Mant. 
proboscideus. Sow. 



Ammonites Rhotomagensis, Brong. 
rostratus. Sow. 
rusticus. Sow. 
Selliguinus, Brong. 
splendeas. Sow. 
tetrammatus. Sow. 
triserialis, Sow. 
tuberculatus. Sow. 
varians, Sow. 
varicosus, Smc. 
Woolgari, Mant. 
Ancyloceras grandis. If Orb. 
Baculites anceps. Lam. 

baculoides, If Orb. 
Faujasii, Sow. 
Belemnites granulatus, Befr. 
lanceolatus. Sow. 
minimus. Lister. 
mucronatns, Schloth. 
Crioceras Bowerbankii, Sow. 
Hamites armatus. Sow. 
atteiiuatus. Sow. 
compressus. Sow. 
elegans, Park. 
intermedius, Sow. 
nodosus, Sow. 
rotundus. Sow. 
simplex. If Orb. 
spiniger, Sow. 
spinulosnsi Sow. 
tuberculatus, Sow. 
turgidus. Sow. 
Nautilus elegans. Sow. 



50 



CKETACEOUS GROUP. 



Nautilus inaequalis, Sow. 

expansus, Sow. 

plicatus, Fitton. 

radiatus, Sow. 

simplex. Sow. 

undulatiis. Sow. 
Ptychoceras adpressum, D'Orb. 
Scaphites sequalis. Sow. 



Scaphites constrictus, D'0r3. 

gigas. Sow. 

HOlsii, Sovj. 
Turrilites Bergeri, Brong. 

costatus. Lam. 

tuberculatus, Bosc. 

undulatus, Sow. 



Pteropoda. 
Bellerophina minuta, D'Orb. {NmUUus, Sow.) 





Pisces. 




Placoides. 


The following list of Fossil Fishes haying been described by Agassiz, (Poissons 


it is unnecessary to repeat his name after each species. 


Ptychodus acutus, Egert. 


Strophodus sulcatus. 


spcctabilis. 


ScyUiodus antiquus. 


gibberulus. 


Notidanus microdon. 


arcuatus. 


pectinatus. 


articulatus. 


Corax falcatus. 


ilybodus sulcatus. 


Otodus appendiculatus. 


Chimsera MantelU. 


Oxyrrhina Mantelli. 


Spinax major. 


Lamna acuminata. 


Ptychodus mammiUaris. 


raphiodon. 


decurrens. 


subulata. 


altior. 


Chimaera Agassizii, Buckl. 


polygyrus. 


brevirostris. 


latissimus. 


gigas. 


Acrodus transversus. 


Mantelli. 


Strophodus asper. 


Sedgwicki. 




Ganoides. 


Lepidotus punctulatus. 


Acrotemnus Faba. 


(raturus similis. 


Gyrodus angustus. 


>facropoiria Mantelli. 


cretaceus. 


Egertoni. 


mammiUaris. 



CEETACEOUS GROUP. 



51 



Gyrodns minor. 
Fycuodas angostus. 

cretaceus. 

elongatns. 



Beryx oniatus. 
radians. 



Hjpsodon Lewesiensis. 
Enchodus Halocyon. 
Saarocephalns lancifornus. 

striatus. 
Saurodon Leanus, 



Chelonia pulehriceps, Owen, 

Benstedi Owen. 
Iguanodon Mantelli, Meyer. 
Leiodon anceps, Owen. 
Mososaurus Hofimanni, Mant. 



Pycnodus minor. 

snbclavatns. 
Dercetis doneatns. 



Ctenoidei. 

Beryx microcephalus. 

Ct/cloides. 

Tetraptems minor. 
Acrognathus boops. 
Aulolq)i3 Trpns. 
Osmeroides Lewesiensis. 
granulatus. 

Repttlia. 

Plesiosaums pachyomus, Owen. 

Polyptychodon ? 

Raphiosanrus subnlidens, Owen. 
Pterodactylus gigantetis, Bow. 



Ayes. 



Cimoliomis Diomedeus, Owen. 



f2 



52 



WEALD ON GROUP. 



WEALDEN GROUP. — Walderthongebilde, Germ. 



English Authors 
Weald Clay. . 
Hastings Sands. 
Ashburnliam Beds 
Pnrbeck Beds . 



French Authors. 
Argile Veldienne . 
Sable ferragineux . 
Calcaire Lumachelle 
Purbeckien, Brong. 



German Authors. 
Walderthou . . . 
Hastingssandsteine 
Ashburnham Scliicte 



The Wealrlen Group comprises a series of layers of clay, 
sand, and shale, with subordinate beds of limestone, grit, 
and sandstone, containing, more or less regularly distri- 
buted, fluviatile shells, Cyrena, Unio, Paludina, &c. ; re- 
mains of land-plants, Ter7is, Cycas, Palms. &c. ; bones and 
teeth of Saurians, Iguanodon, &c. ; and fishes, Pycnodus, 
Lepidotus, &c. : occasionally, however, a few marine tes- 
tacea, Bulla, Ostrea, &c., may be observed, which appear 
to mark the estuary character of the Wealden. The fol- 
lowing subdivisions are adopted from Dr. Mantell, (Geol- 
S. E. of England, p. 182.) 



1. Weald Clay. — Average tliickness 140 to 200 feet. 



Stiff clay of various 
shades of blue and 
brown ; with subor- , 
dinate beds of lime 
stone and sand ; Sep 
taria. 



Paludina, Cypris Val- 
densis, Cijrena, &c., 
bones of reptiles, rare- 
ly ; scales and bones of 
fishes. 



The Wealds of Sus- 
sex, Surrey, and Kent : 
forming the vale be- 
tween the Downs and 
Forest Ridge. 



WBALDEN GKOCP. 



53 



2, Hastings Sands. — Average thickness 400 to 500 feet. 



Grey, white, fenrn- 
ginons, and fawn- 
coloured sand and 
finable sandstone, • 
with abundance of 
small portions of lig- 
nite. 



Horded Sand. 



Traces of carbonized 
vegetables. 



Little Horsted,Uck- 

field, Framfield, Bei- 

• hill, Chailey, Fletch- 

ing. Bridge Park, 

Tunbridge Wells, &c. 



Strata of Tilgate Forest. 

Sand, and Griable 
sandstone, of various 
shades of green, yel- 
low, and ferruginous, 
surface oftentimes 
deeply furrowed. 

TUgate stone, very 
fine, compact bluish 
or greenish grey grit, - 
in lenticular masses, 
surface oftentimes 
covered with mamil- 
lary concretions : 
the lower beds fre- 
quently conglomeri- 
tic, and containing 
large quartz pebbles. 

Clay or marl ; of a ^ Bones, and shells but 
bluish grey colour; I rarely, 
altematingwith sand, 1 Ferns ; and stems of 
sandstone, and shale. >- vegetables. J 



Ferns, and stems of 
v^etables, bones of 
Saurian animals, Birds, 
Turtles, Fishes, &c. 
SheUs of the genera 
Vnio, Cyclas, Cyrena, 
Faludina, &c. 

Lisnite wood. 



Loxwood, Horsham^ 
Tilgate, and St. Leo- 
nard's Forests ; Chai- 
ley, Ore near Battle, 
Hastings, &c., Rye, 
Winchelsea. 



Worth Sandstone. 
■VVTiite and yeUow , Ferus and Amndi- 
friable sandstone and J naceous plants. Lig- 
sand. [ nite, &c. 

r3 



idi- .. 

k- 1 



Tunbridge Wells. 



Worth, near Craw- 
ley, St. Clement's 
Caves, Hastings, &c. 



54 



WEALDEN GROUP. 



3. ASHBURNHAM BeDS. 



A seiies of highly 
ferruginous sands, al- 
ternating with clay, 
and shale, containing 
ironstone and lignite. 

Shelly limestone, al- 
ternating with sand- 
stone, shale, and 
marl; and concreti- 
onal masses of grit. 



Ferns, Lignite, &c. 



Cyptis. 

Shells of the genera 
Cyclas and Cyrena ; 
lignite carbonized vege- 
tables. 



Lower part of Hast- 
ings Cliffs ; near 
' Buxted; West Hoth- 
ly, Crawley, &c. 

Archer's Wood, near 
Battle ; Brightling, 
Pounceford, Bur- 
wash, Hurst Green, 
Eason's Green. 



The greatest superficial extent of the Wealden is com- 
prised within the Chalk escarpment of Kent, Surrey, 
Sussex, and Hampshire, and forms an area of a somewhat 
irregular triangular form, the base extending along the 
sea-coast from Pevensey to Hythe. The Wealden is very 
clearly exposed at the southern side of the Isle of Wight, 
and forms the CliiFs between Atherfield Point and Compton 
Bay ; it also occurs in Sandown Bay. The Purbeck beds 
and overlying sands are well exhibited in Swanage Bay, 
Worbarrow Bay, and Durdle Cove, Dorsetshire ; and the 
existence of similar strata in the Vale of Wardour, has 
long been known. A slaty limestone with Cypris, &c., 
considered by Dr. Fitton to be similar to that which occurs 
in the upper part of the Isle of Portland, is found at Brill, 
and Whitchurch, near Aylesbury, Bucks. The Wealden 
also occurs at Linksfield, near Elgin, according to Mr. 
Malcomson, (Geol. Soc. Pro. vol. ii. p. 667.) 



LOCALITIES FOR FOSSILS. 

Quarries near Bethersden, Kent; and around Tunbridge Wells. 
{Cyprides, Cyrena, &c.) ; Heathfield, Pounceford, {Eqmsefum 
Lyellii), Burwash, &c. 



WEALDEN GROUP. 

Qnarries on Tilgate Forest, and near Horsham ; St. Leonard's and 

Hastings Clifis, {Endogenites erosa) ; Atherfield Point, and 

Compton Bay, {TJnio Valdensis), Isle of Wight; Valeof^^'a^- 

dour. 

The Dover Eailway traverses the Wealden between Eed 

HiU and Ashford, and the branch line leading to Timbridge 

Wells affords a good section of the Weald Clay, and Upper 

Hasting Sands ; in the spod banks near the tunnel, good 

specimens of the cypriferous shales, and other fossils, were 

obtained. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS, &c. 

Brodie, Rev. P. B., ' A History of the Fossil Insects of the Secondary 
Rocks of England,' 1845. Geol. Proc. vol. iii. p. 134. 

Buckland, Rev. W., ' On the Cycadeoidese, found in the Oolite of the 
Isle of Portland.' Geol. Trans, vol. ii. 

Dnnker, Dr. Wilhebn, ' Monographie der Norddeutschen Wealden- 
bildung,' &c. 4to. 1846. 

' TJeber den Norddeutschen Fogenannten 

Walderthon,' kc. 8vo. 

Fitton, W. H., M.D., 'A Geological Sketch of the rtcinity of Hast- 
ings.' 

' Obsenations on some of the Strata between the 

Chalk and Oxford Oolite.' Geol. Trans, vol.iv. 

Hopkins, W., ' On the Geological Structure of the Wealden District.' 
Geol. Trans, vol. vii. 

Mantell, G. A., ' The Geology of the Smith-east of England' 1833. 

' Illustrations of the Geology of Sussex.' 1827. 

' On the Bones of Birds discovered in Tilgate Forest." 

Geol. Trans, vol. v. 

' Notes on the Wealden of the Isle of Wight.' Quart. 

Geol. Joum. vol. ii. p. 91. 

Owen, R., ' On the supposed Fossil Bones of Birds, &e.' Quart. 
Geol. Jdum. vol ii. p. 97. 

Webster, Thomas, ' Observatious on the Strata of Hastings.' Geol. 
■Joum. 



56 



WEALDEN GKOUP. 



FOSSILS OF THE WEALDEN GROUP. 



Plants. 



Carpolithes Mantelli. 
Clathraria Lyellii, Mant. 
Endogenites erosa, Mant. 
Equisetites Lyelli, Mant. 
Lonchopteris Huttoni, Presl. 



Carabus elongatus, Brod. 
Cerylon striatum, Brod. 
Acheta Sedgwickii, Brod. 
Blatta Stricklandi, Brod. 
Cixius maculatus, Brod. 
Ricania fulgens, Brod. 
Asiraca Egertoni, Brod. 
Aphis Valdensis, Brod. 
Cicada punctata, Brod. 
Delphax pulclier, Brod. 



Lonchopteris Mantelli, Brong. 
Pterophyllum Brongniarti, Mant. 
Sphenopteris Mantelli, Brong. 

Phillipsii, Mant. 

Sillimani, Mant. 



Insects. 



Termes grandsevus, Brod. 
iEshna perampla, Brod. 
Simulium humidum, Brod. 
Platyura Fittoni, Brod. 
Tanypus dubius, Brod. 
Sciophila defossa, Brod. 
Macrocerca rustica, Brod. 
Culex ? fossOis, Brod. 
Chironomus extinctus, Brod. 
Khipbus priscus, Brod. 



Crustacea. 



Cypris Fittoni, Mant. 
granulosa, Sow. 
spinigera. Sow. 



Cypris tuberculata, Sow. 
Valdensis, Sow. 



CONCHIFERA DiMYAKIA. 



Corbula alata. Sow. 
Cyclas angulata, Sow. 

elongata. Sow. 

major. Sow. 

media, Sow. 

membranacea. Sow. 

parva. Sow. 

subquadrata. Sow. 
Mytilus Lyelli, Sow. 
Psammobia Tellinoides, Sow. 



Unio aduncus. Sow. 
antiquus. Sow. 
compressus. Sow. 
cordiformis, Sow. 
Gaulterii, Sow. 
Mantelli, Sow. 
Martini, Sow. 
porrectus. Sow. 
subtruncatus, Sow. 
Valdensis, Mant. 



WEALDEN GROCP. 



57 



Gryphsea bulla, Sow. 



MONOMYAKIA. 

Ostrea distorta. Sow. 
Gasteeopoda. 



Actaeon Popii, Sow. 
Bulla Mantelliana, Sow. 
Melanopsis attenuata, Sok. 
tricarinata. Sow. 
Neritina Fittoni, Smc. 



Paludiua carmifera. Sow. 

elongata. Sow. 

fluviorum, Sow. 

Sussexiensis, Mant. 
Potamidom carbonarium. 



Acrodus Hirudo, Ag. 
Hybodus striatulus, Ag. 

strictus, Ag. 

subcarinatus, Ag. 

grossiconus, Ag. 



Pisces. 
Placoides. 

Hybodus dubius, Ag. 

undulatus, Ag. 
Sphenouchus elongatus, Ag. 
Martini, Ag. 



Ganoides. 



Tetragonolepis mastodontus, Ag. 
Lepidotus Fittoni, Ag. 

Mantdli, Ag. 

subdenticulatus, Ag. 
Pholidophorus omatus, Ag. 



Ophiopsis penicillatus, Ag. 
Gyrodus ManteUi, Ag. 
radiatus, Ag. 
Pycnodus Manlelli, Ag. 



Reptilia. 



Cetiosaurus brachyurus, Owen. 

brevis, Owen. 
Chelonia obovata, Owen. 

Bellii, Mant. 
Goniopholis crassidens, Owen. 
Hylseosaums armatus, Mant. 
Iguanodon Mantelli, Meyer. 



Megalosaums Bucklandi, Mant. 
Platemys Mantelli, Owen. 
PoiJdlopleurou Bucklandi, Bed. 
Streptospondvlus major, Owen. 
Suchosaums cultridens, Owen. 
Trionyx Bakewelli, Mant. 
{Trestosternon punctatum, Owen.) 



58 SPEETON CLAY. 



SPEETON CLAY. 



The Speeton Clay, of Yorksliire, is a dark blue or black 
clay, generally laminated, and containing distinct layers of 
large and small nodules of argillaceous ironstone; the 
fissures of tlie larger nodiiles are more or less partially 
filled with calcareous spar, selenite and iron pyrites, and 
occasionally contain fragments of fossd shells, as A.mmo- 
nites, Crioceras, &c. In the smaller nodules, remains of 
Crustacea and other fossils are frequently enclosed. This 
deposit has hitherto only been observed in Yorkshire, and 
is well exposed for about a mile in the Speeton Cliffs 
adjoining Filey Bay. At one part of the Cliff, the Clay 
attains an elevation of about 300 feet, but decreases in 
thickness towards the north, and becomes lost beneath the 
level of the sea. Southwards of the spot where it is most 
elevated, and dipping with the superincumbent beds in the 
same du-ection, it may be traced immediately underlying 
the Eed and White Chalk of the Speeton Cliffs. 

The real position of the Speeton Clay* has not yet, we 
believe, been satisfactorily detennined, as some of the 
fossils have a great analogy to those occm'ring in the 
Gault of Kent and Sussex, whilst others bear a great 
resemblance to some from the Kimmeridge Clay. 

Of the seventy-one species mentioned in the ' Geology 
of Yorkshire,' p. 96, five appear to be found in the Kim- 



* The Lower Green Sand, Wealden Formation, and Portland Strata, are all wanting iu 
this district. M. Roemer considers the Hilsthon of Germany as the equivalent of the 
Speeton Clay. 



SPEETON CLAY. 59 

meridge Clay, one in the Lower Green Sand, thirteen in 
the Gault, and one in the Chalk ; from which statement 
Professor Phillips observes, " That the Blue Clay of Speeton, 
in Yorkshire, is especially to be referred to the Gault, or 
Blue and Grey Marls of Cambridgeshire, Kent, and Sussex ; 
but that it also contains some characteristic indications of 
the Kimmeridge Clay, and therefore we should expect that 
in Yorkshire these two strata are not separated as in the 
South of England." 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

Phillips, J., ' Geology of Yorkshire,' part 1. p. 47 and 93, plate of 
sections, No 3. 

FOSSILS OF THE SPEETON CLAY. 

POLYPARIA. 

CaryophyUia conulus, Phil. 

Radiata. 
Spatangns argillaceus, Phil. 

Aknelida. 
Vermicularia Sowerbii, Mant. 

Crustacea. 
Astacus omatns, Phil. 

CoNCHrFEKA. 

Thracia depressa, Sow. Astarte Ijevis, Phil. 

Mya phaseolina, Phil. Nucula ovata, Manl. 
Pholas constricta, Phil. subrecurva, Phil. 

Pholadomya decussata. Maul. Lucina seulpta, Phil. 

Corbula punctum, Phil. Pinna gracilis, Phil. 

Isocardia angulata, Phil. Gryphsea sinuata, Sow. 



60 SPEETON CLAif. 

Brachiopoda. 
Terebratula inconstans, Sow. Terebratula subundata, Sow. 

tetraedra? Sow. lineolata, Fhil. 

striatula, Mant. 

Gastekopoua. 
Littorina pulcherrima, Bean, sp. Auricula obsoleta, Phil. 
Solarium tabulatum, Fhil. Rostellaria composita, Sow. 

Cephalopoda. 

Ammonites venustus, Fhil. Belemnites lateralis, Fhil. 

concinnus, Fhil. minimus, Sow. 

rotula. Sow. Ancyloceras Beanii, Phil. sp. 

trisulcosus, Fhil. intermedins, Phil. sp. 

marginatus, Phil. Phillipsii, Bean, sp. 

hystrix, Fhil. Crioceras Duvalii, Lev. 

fissicostatus, Fhil. plicatilis, Fhil. sp. 

curvinodus, Fhil. Hamites alternatus, Mant. 

planus ? Mant. attenuatus, Mant. 

Belemnites jaculumj Fhil. varicostatus, Phil. 



Pisces. 



Gyrodus minor, Ag. 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



61 



OOLITIC GKOUP. 
Calcaire Jurassique. Jurakalk. 



Conyheare. Roemer. IfOrbigny. 
g f Portland Stone and Sand. Portland Kalk. L'etage Portlandien. 
i! 1 Kimmeridge Clay . . . Kimmeridgien. 



f Coral Rag. 
1 Oxford Clay 



f Combrash and Forest 



Marble . , . 
Great Oolite and 
Stonesfield Slate 

Fnller's Earth and 
Inferior Oolite . 

Lias . . . 



Korallen Kalk. 
Oxford Thon . 



Walier-Erde | 
Dogger, 
UnterOolith. J 
Lias-Ealk . — 



Corallien. 
Oifordien. 



Bathonien. 



Liasique. 



The OoUtic Group which forms so conspicuous a portion 
of the physical structure of England, traversing the island 
as a wide central but oblique band, from Yorkshire on the 
north-east, to the Dorsetshire coast, may be stated, in a 
general manner, (although it is not uniform throughout,) 
as composed of two groups of strata, the one consisting 
chiefly of coarse, somewhat crj'staUine, shelly, oolitic lime- 
stone, Tisith alternations of sandstones, marls, &c., which 
form the Upper, Middle, and Lower ridges of the Oolites, 
separated by distinct bands of dark coloured clays, known 



62 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



as the Kimmeridge, Oxford, and Lias Clays ; these clays 
generally forming vales throughout their extent, and modi- 
fying both the agricultui'al character and physical aspect of 
the different districts. 

The subdivisions, however, of the Oolitic Group, have 
been subjected to considerable modifications, when traced 
over the area occupied by them, both as regards their 
mineral composition and thickness, some beds thinning 
out and becoming entirely wanting. The labours of Mr. 
W. Smith, Mr. Lonsdale, Professor J. Phillips, Mr. Cony- 
beare, and Sir H.T. de la Beche, have contributed materially 
towards the elucidation of the Oolitic districts, and their 
works (quoted at the end of this article,) should be 
consulted for fuU and valuable details of this highly in- 
teresting portion of English Geology. It has been 
emphatically called, " The Age of EeptUes," but numerous 
species of Pish, Corals, Cmstacea, Conchifera, Gas- 
teropoda, Cephalopoda, especially Ammonites and Belem- 
nites abounded at this period. The most interesting 
feature, however, in the organic lustory of this system, is 
the appearance, for the first time, of warm-blooded animals ; 
viz., the Amphitherium and Phascolotherium, found in the 
Stonesfield Slate, and considered, by analogy of structure, 
to belong to the MarsupiaHa, a family noAv inhabiting the 
Australian continent. 

The following is a slight account of the mineral cha- 
racter of the various members of the Oolitic Series, and 
some of the localities where they are best developed. 



Portland Stone, 
and Sand. 



Coarse oolitic shelly 
limestone ; sometimes 
fine-grainedor compact, 
thick-bedded, and with 
layers of chert, and 
with subordinate beds 
of sand. 



Isle of Portland. 
Brill, &c. Aylesbury, 
Bucks. Thame, Oxon. 
Tisbury, WUts. 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



63 



I Dark bine and greyish 



Kimmeridge, Dor- 
. set. Near Oxford. 

Kimmmeridge Cky. i ^animated clay, with ! g^^^^ ^^^ Hartwell, 
gypsum and bitnnu- y, v. 
nous shale. J , 



Near Swin- 



Upper Calcareous 
Grit. 
Coral Rag. 
Lower Calcareous 



Coarse, shelly lime- 
stones ; more or less 
thick - bedded : coarse 
oolitic limestone, sandy 
limestones, abounding 
in corals. Calcareo- 
siliceons axits. 



Headington, Oxon. 
Westbrook, Calne 
and Steeple Ashton, 
^ilts. Malton and 
Scarboro', Yorkshire. 



Oxford Clay. 
Kelloway Rock. 



Dark blue clay, with 
Sepfaria ; sometimes 
slaty and bituminous ; 
with a subordinate band 
of ferruginous sandy 
limestone, (Kel. Rock.) 



Chippenham 
and TVootton Basset, 
"Wilts; Oxford; York- 
shire, &c. 



Combrash. 



(Coarse rubbly lime- "j 
stone, thinly laminated, > 
with layers of clay. J 



Stanton, Malms- 
bury, Ashford, "Wilts. 



Forest Marble. 



f Thinly laminated -i Corsham, Box, &c., 
I shelly limestone, sand I "Wilts. Sapperton. 
I and gritstone, with j Bradford. Cirences- 
layers of clav. ter. 



{Layers of Clay ; some- -j Bradford Bur- 
times alternating with > field. PickwicL Tet- 
bands of limestone. J buiy. 



Great Oolite. 



Oolitic, shelly lime- Bath. Bradford. 
j stone,moreorlesscom- ilinehinhampton, 
"j pact, and sandy, some- [common, (very fossil- 
L times thick-bedded. J iferous.) 
e2 



64 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



On the Yorlcsliire coast the Great or Bath 
Oolite (b) (a hard blue limestone ; fine-grained 
oolite ; hard bluish clay ;) is contained between 
two thick beds {a, c,) of gritty laminated sand- 
stones and shales, containing an abundance of 
terrestrial plants. 



{a) Cayton and 
Gristhorpe Bays. 

{b) Cloughtonand 
White Nab. 
(c) Between Clough- 
ton Wyke and Blue 
1-Wick. 



Stonesfield Slate. 






Fuller's Earth Clay. 



Inferior Oolite. 



Lias. 



Oolite, shelly and 



Stonesfield, Oxon. 

\ Seveuhampton Com- 
[ gritty limestone. Slaty. J ^^^^ ^ 

■^ Bath ; Box ; near 
, I Stroud ; and Hamp- 
J ton Common. 



Two layers of coarse 
sheUy ragstone, with 
intervening bands of 
marl, and soft free- 
stone. Fine-grained 
sandstone and iron- 
stone. 

Alum shale ; rubbly -> 
and sandy shales, &c. I 

Lower Lias lime- | 
 stones, and shales. -^ 



Dundry. Painswick. 
Brinscombe. The 
Cotteswolds. Blue 
Wick, Yorkshire. 

Whitby, Redcar, 
Yorksh. Gloucester- 
shire. Somerset. 
Lyme-Regis, &c. 



LOCALITIES FOR FOSSILS, &c. 



Fine sections of the Oolitic Group are to be seen along the coast of 
Yorkshire, and that of Dorsetshire. In the 'hills and country 
around Cheltenham, and Bath, and Bristol ; around Svrindon, 
and in the vicinity of Oxford, and Aylesbury. Consult the table 
given above, and the works referred to, for other localities where 
the subordinate beds may be observed. Also the sections of the 
Great and North Western Railways, constructed by Captain 
L. L. B. Ibbetson, for the Geological Survey of Great Britain. 



OOLITIC GBOUP. 65 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS, &c. 

Bean, W., ' On Cornbrash Fossils,' &c., Mag. Nat. Hut. 1839, p. 57. 
Buckman, J., ' On the Stonesfield Slate,* &c., Geol. Proc. vol. iv 

p. 437- 
Conybeare and Phillips, ' Geology of England and Walei.' 
De la Beche, Sir H. T., ' On the Geology of Weymoutii,' &c., Geol. 

Tram. vol. iv. 
' On the Lias of Lyme-Regis,' Geol. Tram. 

vol. ii. 
Hunton, Louis, ' Remarks on the Upper Lias,' &c., Geol. Treau. vol. v. 
Lonsdale, W., ' On the Oolitic District of Bath,' &c., Geol. Tram. 

vol. iii. 
LyeU, C, ' Elements of Geology.' vol. ii. p. 39. 
Murchison, Sir R. I., ' Silurian System.' 
' Geology of Cheltenham.' Second Edition, by 

J. Buck-man, F.L.S., and H. E. Strickland, M.A., 1845. 
' On the Coal Field of Brora,' &c., Geol. Tram. 



vol. ii. 
Owen, Prof. R., ' On the Thylacotherium, &c., Geol. Tram., vol. vi. 
Phillips, J., ' Geology of Yorkshire' part I, 
Simpson, ' On the Ammonites of the Lias' 
Stnckland, H. E., ' On the Sections of the Birmingham and Glo'ster 

Railway,' Geol. Tram. vol. vi. 
Webster, T., ' On the Purbeck and Portland Beds,' Geol. Tram. vol. ii. 
Williamson, W. C, ' On the Fossils of the Yorkshire Coast,' Geol. 

Trans, vol. v. and vi. 



FOSSILS OF THE OOLITIC GROUP. 



Alethopteris insignis, Gopp. Carpolithes areolatns, Lindl. 

Phillipsii, Gopp. Bucklandi, Lindl. 

Araucarites pereginus, Presl. conicus, Lindl. 

Bensonia ovata, Buckm. Cyclopteris Beanii, Lindl. 

BrachyphyUum mammillare, itW/. digitata, Brong. 

Bncklandia squamosa, Brong. Dictyophyllum rugosum, Lindl. 
d3 



66 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



Equisetites columnaris, Brong. 

lateralis, Phil. 
Lilia lanceolata, Buckm. 
Lycopodites falcatus, Lindl. 

acuminata, Buckm. 
Naiadea obtusa, Buckm. 

ovata, Buckm. 
Neuropteris recentior, Lindl. 
Otopteris acuminata, Lindl. 

obtusa, Lindl. 
Pacbypteris lanceolata, Brong. 

ovata, Brong. 
Pecopteris acutifolia, Lindl. 
deuticulata, Brong. 
exUis, Phil. 
Haibumensis, Lindl. 
ligata, Phil. 
lobifolia, Lindl. 
obtusifolia, Lindl. 
tenuis, Brong. 
undans, Lindl. 
Whitbiensis, Brong. 
WUliamsonis, Brong. 
Pence Huttoniana, Witham. 
Lindleyana, Witham. 
Phlebopteris contigua, Lindl. 

polypodioides, Brong. 
Polypodites crenifolius, Gopp. 

Liudleyi, Gopp. 
Polystichites Murrayana, Presl. 
Pterophyllum comptum, lAndl. 
minum, Brong. 



Pterophyllum Nilsoni, land. 

tenuicaule, Phil. 
Salicites longifolius, Buckm. 
Solenites furcatus, Lindl. 

Murrayana, LAndl. ' . 
Sphffireda pai'adoxa, LAndl. 
SpbEenopteris arguta, Lindl. 

athyroides, Presl. 
crenulata, Brong. 
cysteoides, LAndl. 
denticulata, Brong. 
hymenophylloides, 
Brong. 
Spherococcites arcuatus, Presl. 

granulatus, Bronn. 
Stricklandia acuminata, Buckm. 
Strobilites elongata, Lindl. 
Taeniopteris latifolia, Brong. 
major, Lindl. 
vittata, Brong. 
Thuytes articulatus, Sternb. 

cupressiformis, Sternb. 
divaricata, Sternb. 
expansus, Sternb. 
Tympanophora racemosa, Lindl. 

simplex, Lindl. 
Zamites Bechei, Brong. 

Bucklandi, Brong. 
gigas, LAndl. 
megalophyllus, Presl. 
microphyllus, Presl. 
undulatus, Presl. 



Amoephozoa. 



Spongia clavaroides, Lamx. 
cymosa, Lamx. 
floriceps, Phil. 
helvelloides, Lamx. 



Spongia mammilifera, Lamx. 
pistilliformis, Lamx. 
stellata, Lamx. 



OOLITIC GBOUP. 



67 



ZOOPHYTA. 



Alccto dichotoma, Lamx. 
Apsendesia cristata, Lamx. 
Agaricia lobata, Goldf. 
Astrea concinna, Goldf. 
fevosoides, FhU. 
micrastron, Ph\l. 
ocnlata, Goldf. 
tubulosa, Goldf. 
Caiyophyllia annularis, Tlem. 
cylindrica, PhU. 
Ceriopora davata, Goldf 
Chiysaora damicornis, Lamx. 

spinosa, Lamx. 
Cricopora csespitosa, Bronn. 

straminea, mi. 
Diastopoia diluviana, Ed. 
foHacea, Lamx. 



Diastopora verrucosa, Ed. 
Eunomia radiata, Lamx. 
Fnngia orbulites, Lamx. 
Heteropora conifera, Blainv. 
dumetosa. Lam. 
Idmonea triquetra, Lamx. 
Intricaria Bajocensis, Bronn. 
lithodendron elegans, Goldf. 
Madrepora limbata, Goldf. 
Meandrina Soemmeringii, Goldf. 
Millepora pyriformis, Lamx. 

ramosa, Flem. 
Montlivaltia carvophyllata, Lam. 
Terebellaria ramosissima, Lamx. 
Theonoa clathrata, Lamx. 
Tnrbinolia dispar, FAil. 



ECHTNODERMATA. 



Amphiora Pratti, Forbes. 
Apiocrinns Pratti, Gray. 

rotundus, Mill. 
Aspidura loricata, Jp. 
Asterias Cotteswoldiae, Buckm. 
Cidaris Blamenbachii, Goldf. 

coronata, Goldf 

crenularis. Lam. 

elegans, Goldf. 

^andifera, Goldf. 

gracilis, Benson. 

maiima, Goldf. 

monilipora, PkH. 

propinquus, Goldf. 

subangularis, Goldf 
Clypeus emargiuatus, Phil. 
orbicularis, Phil. 
omatus, Bu<km, 



Clypexis patella, Aff. 

siuuatus. Pari. 
Diadema Bechei, Aff. 
priscmn, Aff. 
vagans, Phil. 
Disaster ovalis, Aff. 
Discoidea depressa, Aff. 
Echinolampas peutagonalis, PMl. 
Echinus germinans, Phil. 
perlatus, Besm. 
Nucleolites clunicularis, 

dimidiatus, 
Ophioderma Egertoni, Forbes. 
[Ophiura, Bred.) 
Milleri, Forbes. 

{Ophiura, Phil.) 
tenmbrachiata,i^ord». 
Ophiura MurraTii, Forbes. 



68 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



Pentacrinus basaltiformis. Mill. 
Briareus, Ilill. 
scalaris, Goldf. 
subangularis, 3Hll. 



PentacrinTis vulgaris, Schlot. 
Pygaster petallifonnis, Ag. 
semisulcatus, Phil. 



Annelida. 



Serpula capitata, Phil. 

convoluta, Goldf. 
deplcxa, Bean. 
filiaria, Goldf. 
flaccida, Goldf. 
grandis, Goldf. 
intestinalis, Phil. 
lacerata, Phil. 
plicatilis, Munst. 
quadrilatera, Goldf. 
quinquangularis, Goldf 
squamosa, Bean. 



Serjiula tetragona, Sow. 
triangulata, Sow. 
tricarinata. Sow. 
triserrata, Sow. 
vertebralis. Sow. 
Vermilia sulcata, Sow. 
Vermicularia compressa, Phil. 
concinna. Sow. 
nodus, Phil. 
ovata. Sow. 
tumida, Sow. 



Pollicipes complauatus, Mor. 
concinnus, Mor. 



CiRRIPEDA. 

Pollicipes ooliticus, Buckm. 



Insecta. 
Stonesfield Slate. 
Prionus ooliticus, Brod. Coccinella Wittsii, Brod. 



Lias. 



Laccophilus ? aquaticus, Brod. 
Gyrinus natans, Brod. 
Gryllus Bucklandi, Brod. 
Libellula Brodiei, Buckm. 
? Hopei, Brod. 



Agrion Buckmani, Brod. 
Orthophlebia communis, West. 
Hemerobius ? Higginsii, Brod. 
iEshna liassina, Striekl. 
Asilus ? ignotus, Brod. 



Astacus leptomanus, Phil. 
mucronatus, Phil. 



Crustacea. 

Astacus scabrosus, Phil. 
rostratus, Phil. 



OOLITIC GBOUP. 



69 



CONCHIFEBA MoNOJCTAKU. 



Amphidesma decossatmn. Bean. 
recurvmn, FhU. 
securiforme, Fhil. 
Anatina nndnlata. Sow. sp. 
Area senmla, Pkil. 
Backmani, Rich. 
elongata, Buckm. 
gracilis, Buchm. 
ovata, Buckm. 
pnlchra. Sow. 
quadrisnlcata. Sow, 
rngosa, Lycett. 
troncata, Buchm. 
Astarte aliena, PhU. 
caiinata, PJul. 
d^ans. Sow. 
excavata. Sow. 
extensa, Phil. 
Hartwellensis, Sow. 
lurida, PhU. 
\tevis,Goldf. 
miniina, Phil. 
modiolaris, Desk. 
obliqaa, Besh. 
orbicularis. Sow. 
ovata. Smith. 
pulla, Bronn. 
pumila. Sow. 
trigonalis. Sow. 
zonata, Eoemer. 
Cardinia abducta, Stutch. 
attennata, Stutch. 
concinna. Sow. sp. 
crassissima. Sow. sp. 
crassiuscula. Sow. sp. 
coneata, Stutch. 
hybrida. Sow. sp. 



Cardinia imbricata, Stutch. 
lanceolata, Stutch. 
Listen, Sow. sp. 
ovalis, Stutch. 
unionides, Aff. 
Cardium acutangnlmn, Phil. 
citrinoidemn, Phil. 
cognatum, Phil. 
dissimile. Sow. 
gibberulnm, Phil. 
globosum. Bean. 
incertum, Phil. 
lobatxim, Phil. 
multicostatinn, Phil. 
semiglabnun, Phil. 
striatnlom. Sow. 
truncatmn. Sow. 
Corbis Iffivis, Sow. 
ovalis, Phil. 
tmiformis, Phil. 
Corbula depressa, Phil. 
obscrura. Sow. 
rugosa, Buckm. 
striata, Buckm. 
Cucullsea cancellata, Phil. 
concinna, Phil. 
contracta, Phil. 
cylindrica, Phil. 
elongata. Sow. 
imperialis, Phil. 
inaequivalvis, Goldf. 
Isevis, Buckm. 
minuta. Sow. 
oblonga. Sow. 
omata, Buckm. 
pectinata, Phil. 
reticulata, PMl. 



70 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



Cucullsea rudis, Sow. 
Cypricardia solida, Lycett. 
Cytherea dolabra, Phil, 

rugosa, Sow. 
Gastrochsena tortuosa, Sow. 
Gresslya Anglica, Aff. 
Hippopodium ponderosura, Sow. 
Isocardia abrupta, Sow. 

concentrica, Sow. 
cordata, Buckm. 
minima, Sow, 
nitida, Phil. 
rhomboidalis, Phil. 
rostrata, Sow. 
striata, Sow. 
tener. Sow. 
triangularis. Bean. 
tumida, Phil. 
Lucina crassa. Sow. 

despecta, Phil. 
lirata, Phil. 
Portlandica, Sow. 
Lutraria decurtata, Goldf. 
donaciforme, Goldf. 
gibbosa, Phil. 
rotundata, Goldf. 
Unionides, Goldf. 
Lysianassa angiilifera, Goldf. 
literata, Goldf 
rbombifera, Goldf. 
v-scripta, Goldf. 
Mactromya Cardioides, Phil. sp. 
Modiola anatina. Smith. 
bipartita, Soio. 
compressa, Goldf 
cuneata, Sow. 
gibbosa. Sow. 
HUlana, Sow. 
imbricata, Sow. 



Modiola Jurensis, Bronn. 
Isevis, Sow. 
minima, Sow, 
pallida. Sow. 
plicata. Sow. 
pulchra, Phil. 
reniformis. Sow. 
scalprum, Sow. 
parvula, Roemer, 
tenuistriata, Goldf, 
Myasequata, Phil, 

calceiformis, Phil. 
dilata, Phil, 
Myoconcha crassa. Sow. 
Jlytilus cuneatns, Phil. 
pectinatus. Sow. 
pulcher, Goldf. 
sublffivis, Soto. 
Nucula axiniformis, Phil. 
claviformis. Sow, 
complanata, Roemer. 
elliptica, Phil. 
lachryma. Sow. 
Menkii, Roemer, 
mucronata, Sow. 
nuda, Phil, 
ovum. Sow. 
rostralis, Roemer. 
variabiKs, Sow. 
Opis lunulatus, Sow. sp. 

similis, Sow, sp, 
Panopaea elongata, Roemer. 
gibbosa, Sow. 
oblata, Sow. 
Pectunculus minimus, Sow. 
oblongus, Sow. 
Pholadomya acuticosta. Sow. 
asqualis. Sow. 
ambigua, Sow. 



OOLITIC GEOUP. 



71 



Pholadomja angostata, Sotc. 
decorata, Hartm. 
ddtoidea, Sotc. 
fidicnla, Soto. 
Ijrata, Sow. 
Murcliisoniae, Sotc. 
nana, Fkil. 
obliquata, FAil. 
obsoleta, Pkil. 
obtnsa, Soic. 
oralis, Sotc. 
producta, Sow. 
farwla,Iioemer. 
simples, PAU. 
truncata, Buckm. 
ventricosa, Goldf. 
Pholas compressa. Sow. 
recondita, Phil. 
Pinna ampla, Sow. 
cuueata, Bean. 
fissa, Goldf. 
fobum, Phil. 
granulata. Sow. 
Hartmanoi, Ziet. 
lanceolata, Sow. 
mitis, Phil, 
Psammobia laevigata, Pkil. 
Pullastra arenicola, Strickl. 
oblita, Phil. 



PnQastra ? perigrina, Phil. 
recondita, PhU. 
Sphsera Madridi, {Cardium.) Arch. 
Sanguinolaria elegans, Phil. 

oblonga, Buctm. 
? obtnsa, Btickm. 
parvnla. Bean. 
? punctata, Buckm. 
? rotunda, Buckm. 
? striata, Buckm. 
Tetnsta, Phil. 
Tellina ampliata, Phil. 
Thetis varicosa {Venus,) Sow. 
Thracia depressa, Sow. sp. 
Trigonia angulata, Sok. 
clavellata. Park. 
conjungens, Phil. 
costata. Park. 
cospidata. Sow. 
duplicata. Sow. 
gibbosa. Sow. 
Trigonia imbricata. Sow. 
impressa. Sow. 
ineuna. Sow. 
literata, Phil. 
pullns. Sow. 
striata. Sow. 
Unio distortus, Bean. 
Venus Nuculaeformis, Roemer. 



Anemia jurensis, Roemer. sp. 

semistriata. Bean. 
Avicula Braamburiensis, Phil 

complicata, Buckm. 

contorta, Portl. 

costata. Sow. 

cygnipes, Phil. 

echinata, Sow. 



MOXOMYAEIA. 

Avicula elegantissima. Bean. 
eipansa, Phil. 
inaeqnivalvis, Sow. 
lanceolata. Sow. 
longiaxis, Buckm. 
modiokris, Munst. 
Munsteri, Goldf. 
oralis, Phil. 



72 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



Avicula ovata, Sow. 

tonsipluma, Young. 
Crenatula Listeri, ParJc. 

ventricosa. Sow. 
Gervillia acuta. Sow. 

aviculoideSj Sow. 
costatula, Deslong. 
crassa, Strick. 
Hartmanni, Goldf. 
lanceolata, Goldf. 
Isevis, Buckm. 
monotis, Deslong. 
pemoides, Deslong. 
siliqua, Deslotig. 
Gryphsea auriformis, Goldf. 

ChamEeformis, Smith. 
cymbium, Lmn. 
depressa, Fhil. 
dilatata, .Sow. 
gigantea, Sow. 
incurva, Sow. 
inhEerens, Fhil. 
Maccullochiij Sow. 
mima, Phil. 
nana, Sow. 
obliquata, Sow. 
suillse, Goldf. 
virgula, Defr. 
laoceramus amygdaloides, Goldf. 
? cinctus, Goldf 
dubius. Sow. 
Lima antiquata. Sow. 
exarata, Goldf. 
gibbosa, Sow. 
niinuta, Goldf. 
proboscidea, Sow. 
rudis. Sow. 
Liraea duplicata, Goldf. 
Monotis decussata, Munst. 



Ostrea acuminata, Sow. 
archetypa, Phil. 
costata. Sow. ' 
duriuscula, Phil. 
expansa. Sow. 
falcata, Sow. 
gregaria. Sow. 
ineequalis, Phil. 
laeviuscula. Sow. 
liassica, Strickl. 
Marshii, Sow. 
Meadii, Sow. 
obscura. Sow. 
palmetta. Sow 
sandalina, Goldf. 
solitaria. Sow. 
sulcifera, Phil. 
undosa. Bean. 
undulata, Sow. 
Pecten abjectus,PAi/. 

acutiradiatus, Munst. 

sequivalvis. Sow. 

ambiguus, Munst. 

annulatus. Sow. 

arcuatus. Sow. 

articulatus, Schloth. 

barbatus. Sow. 

calvus, Goldf. 

cancellatus. Bean. 

cinctus. Sow. 

cingulatus, Goldf. 

demissus, Phil. 

dentatus. Sow. 

fibrosus. Sow. 

inaequicostatus, Phil. 

lamellosus. Sow, 

lens. Sow. 

obscurus. Sow. 

rigidus, Sow. 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



73 



Pecten similis, Sotc. 

strictns, Mutut. 
sublae^is, Phil. 
sabarmatns, Munst. 
subolatos, 3futut. 
textilis, MuHit. 
textorius, Schlotk. 
T^ans, Sow. 
Valoniensis, Defr. 
vimineus, Sou>, 
virguliferus, Phil. 
Pema Mvtiloides, Lam. 

rugosa, Goldf. 
Plagiostoma altemans, Boemer. 
Cardiifonne, Sok. 
concentricTun, Sow. 
duplicatum, Sok. 



Plagiostoma dongatnm, Goletf. 

gigantenm, Sow. 

Hermanni, VoHz. 

interstmctmn, Phil. 

Iseve, Buckm. 

Iseviusculum, Sok 

obliqnatum. So 

obscnmm. Sow. 

punctatTim, Sok. 

rigidulum, Phil. 

rigidum. Sow. 

rusticum. Sow. 
Pbcatnla sarciimla, Mumt. 
spinosa. Sow. 
veutricosa, Goldf. 
Sjwndj-lus comptus, Goldf. 



Bbachiopoda. 



Crania antiquior, Jelly. 
Linguk Beani, Phil. 
Orbicida granukta. Sow. 

Hximphreysiana, Sow. 
latissima. Sow. 
radiata, Phil. 
Spirifer acuticosfta, Murui. 
Hartmaimi, Ziei. 
rostratus, Schloth. 
verrucosBs, Buck. 
TValcottii, Sow. 
Terebratrda acuta. Sow. 
angolata. Sow. 
bidens, PMl. 
bollata. Sow. 
carinata. Lam. 
concinna. Sow. 
comuta. Sow. 
decossata. Lam. 



Terebratula digona. Sow. 

emarginata. Sow. 
fimbria. Sow. 
flabellulom. Sow. 
forcata. Sow. 
globata, Sow. 
hemisphserica. Sow. 
inconstans, Sow. 
indentata. Sow. 
intermedia, Sow. 
Kleinii, Lam. 
lagenalis, Schloth. 
lampas. Sow. 
lata. Sow. 
maxillata. Sow. 
numismalis. Lam, 
obsoleta, Sow. 
orbicularis. Sow. 
omithocephala. Sow. 



74 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



Terebratula ovoides, Sow. 
perovalis. Sow. 
plicata, Buckm. 
plicatella, Sow. 
punctata, Sow. 
quadrifida. Lam. 
resupinata, Sow. 
rimosa, Bronn. 
serrata, Sow. 



Terebratula simplex, Buckm. 
sphseroidalis. Sow. 
spinosa. Smith. 
tetrahedra. Sow. 
trilineata. Young. 
triplicata, Fhil. 
varians, Schloth. 
(21 socialis, Phil.) 



Gasteeopoda. 



Actseon acutus. Sow. 

cuspidatus, Sow. 
Bucciuum angulatum, Sow. 

carinatum, Roemer. 
Naticoide, Sow. 
unilineatum, Sow. 
Bulla? elongata, Phil. 

subquadrata, Bremer. 
undulata. Bean. 
Cirrus carinatus, Sow. 
cingulatus, Phil. 
depressus, Phil. 
Leachii, Sow. 
nodosus, Sow. 
Dentalium angulatum, Buckm. 
giganteum, Phil. 
nmiimum, Strickl. 
Delphinula coronata, Flem. 
Emarginula scalaris. Sow. 

tricarinata, Sow. 
Littorina concinna, Roemer. 
muricata. Sow. 
omata. Sow. 
punctura, Beati. 
Mm-ex Haccanensis, Phil. 
Natica adducta, Phil. 
alta, Buckm. 



Natica arguta, Phil. 
cincta, Phil. 
elegans. Sow. 
hemisphserica, Roemer. 
inflata, Buckm. 
macrostoma, Roemer. 
nodulata, Phil. 
tumidula, Phil. 
Nerinsea cingenda, Phil. sp. 
elegans, Thurm. 
fasciata, Voltz. 
Goodhallii, Sow. 
punctata, Bronn. 
striata, Buckm. 
Nerita angulata, Sow. 
costata. Sow. 
laevigata. Sow. 
minuta. Sow. 
sinuosa, Sow. 
Patella Ancilloides, Sow. 
lata. Sow. 
latissima. Sow. 
nana. Sow. 
mgosa, Sow. 
PhasianeUa cincta, Phil. 
Pileolus Isevis, Sow. 

plicatus. Sow. 



I 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



75 



Flenrotomaria abbreviata. Sow. 
Anglica, Sow. 
bicarinata. Sow, 
elongata. Sow. 
fasciata, Sow. 
granalata, Sow. 
omata, Befr. 
palliuni. Sow. 
reticulata. Sow. 
sulcata. Sow. 
tuberculosa, Befr. 
Rimula clathrata. Sow. sp. 
Rissoa acuta. Sow. 

duplicata, Sow. 
laevis. Sow. 
obliquata. Sow. 
Rostellaria bispinosa, Phil. 
composita. Sow. 
trifida. Bean. 
Rotella compressa. Sow. 
ejcpansa. Sow. 
polita, Bronn. 
Solarioides, Sow. 
Solarium calyx, Phil. 
Terebra granulata, PhU. 



Terebra Heddingtonensis, Lom. 

lineata, Sow. 

Melanoides, Phil. 

Portlandica, Sow. 

striata, Lont. 

vetusta, PhU. 

vittata, PhU. 
Trochotoma sulcata, Lycett. 
Trochus angulatus. Sow. 

bisertus, PhU. 

dimidiatus. Sow. 

duplicatus. Sow. 

gnttatus, Phil. 

imbricatus. Sow. 

monilitectus, PhU. 

obsoletus, Boemer. 

pjramidatus, PhU. 

tomatus, Phil. 
l^irbo funiculatus, PhU. 
obtusus, PhU. 
. sulcostomus, PhU. 
 undulatus, PhU. 
TurriteUa muricata. Sow. 

quadrivittata, PhU. 



Cephalopoda. 



Ammonites accipitris, Buchn. 
acuticosta, Strickl. 
angulatus. Sow 
anguliferus, PhU. 
annulatus, Sow. 
arcigerens, PhU. 
armatus, Sow. 
atbletus, PhU. 
Bakeriae, Sow. 
balteatus, Phil. 
Banksii, Sow, 
Bechei, Sow, 



Ammonites bifrous, Brug. 
bifrons, Phil. 
binus, Sow. 
biplei, Sow. 
Birchii, Sow. 
bisulcatus, Brong. 
Blagdeni, Sow. 
Boblaj-ei, I^Orb. 
Bodlevi, Buchn. 
Bonardi, Bi'Orb. 
Boulbiensis, PhU. 
Brackenridgii, Sow, 
h2 



76 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



Ammonites brevispina, Sow, 
Brightii, Tratt. 
Broccliiij Sow, 
Brodiei, Sow. 
Brongniartii, Sow. 
Brookii, Sow. 
Brownii, Sow. 
Callovicensis, Sow. 
caprotinus, B'Orb, 
catena, Sow. 
centaurus, If Orb. 
Clevelandicus, Thil, 
Colesii, Buckm. 
communis, Sow. 
Comptoni, Pratt. 
concavus. Sow. 
Conybeari, Sow. 
cordatus. Sow. 
corrugatus, Sow. 
crassus, Phil. 
crenularis, Phil. 
cultellus, Buchn. 
Davsei, Sow, 
discus. Sow. 
Duncani, Sow. 
elegans, Sow. 
Elizabethse, Pratt. 
ellipticus, Sow, 
erugatus, Bean. 
exaratus, Phil. 
excavatus. Sow. 
falcifer. Sow, 
iibulatus, Sow. 
fimbriatus. Sow. 
flexicostatus, Phil. 
fluctuosus, Pratt. 
forficatus, Strickl. 
Fowleri, Buckm. 
funiferus, Phil. 
gagateus, Young. 



Ammonites gemmatus, Phil. 
geometricus, Phil. 
giganteus, Sow. 
Gowerianus, Sow. 
gracilis, Buckl. 
Greenoughii, Sow. 
Gulielmi, Sow. 
talecis, Buckm, 
Hawskerensis, Phil. 
Henleyi, Sow, 
Herveyi, Sow. 
heterophyllus. Sow. 
Humphriesianus, Sow. 
impendens, Phil, 
intennedius, Portl. 
Jamesoni, Sow. 
Johnstoni, Sow. 
jugosus. Sow, 
Koenigi, Sow. 
Isevigatus, Sow. 
lacunatus, Buckm. 
Iffiviusculus, Sow, 
Lamberti, Sow. 
laticostatus. Sow. 
Leacbii, Sow, 
lenticularis, Phil. 
longispmus, Sow. 
Loscombii, Sow. 
Lonsdalii, Pratt. 
Lythensis, Young, 
Macdonnellii, Portl, 
maculatus, Young. 
margaritatus, D'Orb, 
marginatus, Phil. 
modiolaris, Phil, 
monilis, Sow, 
multicostatus. Sow. 
Murchisonffi, Sow, 
Murleyi, Buckm. 
mutabilis, Sow, 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



77 



Ammonites NsntSifbrmis, Buehn. 
nitescens. Young. 
Dtodosns, Sow. 
nodnlosos, If Orb. 
Nutfieldiensis, Sow. 
ohliqnatus. Young. 
obtusus. Sow. 
oculatus, Phil. 
omphaloides. Sow. 
ophioides. If Orb. 
ovatus, Young. 
pansns. Park. 
Parkinsoiii, Sow. 
perannatus, Sow. 
planicostatns, Sow. 
pknorbis. Sow. 
plicatilis, Sow. 
plicomphalus. Sow. 
radians. Rein. 
retroflexus, Phil. 
rotifonnis, Sow. 
rotundus. Sow. 
Sampsoni, Portl. 
Sedgwickii, Pratt. 
serpentinns, Schloth. 
{A. Strangwaysii, Sow.) 
{A.falcifer, Sow.) 
{J. .ilulgrariui. Young.) 
Sigmifer, Phil. 
Smithii, Sow. 
Solaris, Phil. 
Sowerbyi, Sow. 
spioatos, jyOrb. 
spinosns. Sow. 
stellaris, Sow. 
Stoiesii, Sow. 
striatulus, Sow. 
subarmatos, Sow. 
subcarinatns, PhU. 

H 



. Ammonites snbradiatns, Sow, 

sulcatns, Buckm. 

Satherlandise, Sow. 

Taylori, Sow. 

terebratns, Phil. 

tortilis, If Orb. 

triplicatus, 

Trnellii, If Orb. 

Tumeri, Sow. 

Valdani, If Orb. 

varicostatns, Buckl. 

Yemoni, Bean. 

vertebralis. Sow. 

vittatos. Young. 

Williamsoni, Phil. 
Ancyloceras annulatus, Besh. sp. 

Calloviense, Morris. 

costatum, Morris. 
Belemnites acnarius, Schloth. 

{B. tubularis, Phil.)- 
abbreviatns, Mdl. 
acutus. Mill. 
attenuatus, Sow. 
brevirostris, If Orb. 
Bruguierianns, If Orb. 
canalicnlatns, Schloth. 
clavatus, If Orb. 
compressns. Sow. 
ellipticus. Mill. 
elongatus. Mill. 

{B. aduncatus, ilill.) 
Fleuriaosus, If Orb. 
fusiformis, Flein. 
gracilis, Phil. 
hastatus, Blaine. 
longissimus, Mill. 
paxillosus. Volts. 
penicillatus. Sow. 
pistilliformiSj Sow. 
3 



78 



OOLITIC GROUP. 



Belemnites quinquesulcatu8,5/ai»». Nautilus intermedius, Sow. 



subaduucatus, Voltz. 

sulcatus, Mill. 

tomatilis, Phil. 

trifidus, VoUz, 

unisulcatus, Blainv. 
Nautilus annularis, Phil. 
astacoides, Phil, 
hexagonus, Sow. 
inomatus, If Orb. 



liueatus, Sow, 
obesus. Sow. 
polygonalis, Sow. 
semistriatus, B'Orh. 
sinuatus. Sow. 
striatus. Sow, 
truncatus. Sow. 
Onychoteuthis prisca, Munst. 



Pisces. 
Plaeoides. 

AU the species not having the author's name attached are described by Agassis. 



Leptacanthus tenuispinus. 
semistriatus. 
serratus. 
Nemacanthus brevispinus. 
Myriacanthus paradoxus, 
retrorsus. 
granidatus. 
Asteracanthus Stutchburyi. 
acutus. 
semisulcatus. 
ornatissimus. 
Hybodus crassispinus. 
reticulatus. 
fonnosus. 
ensatus. 
marginalis. 
crassus. 
apicalis. 
dorsalis. 
leptodus. 
acutus. 
reticulatus. 
pyramidalis. 



Hybodus medius. 

polyprion. 
raricostatus. 
carinatus. 
Pristicanthus securis. 
Acrodusnobilis. 
. latus. 
gibberulus. 
undulatus. 
Annigiae. 
leiopleurus. 
minimus. 
Ciodus. 
Ceratodus Phillipsii. 
Strophodus magnus. 
tenuis, 
favosus. 
. reticulatus. 
, subreticulatus. 
Sphenouchus hamatus. 
Thyellina prisca. 
Oxyrrhina paradoxa. 
Arthropterus Rileyi. 



I. 



OOUnC GBOTJP. 


79 


Cydartlmu macropterus. 


Chimaera 


Oweni, Buckl, 


Squaloraia polyspondyla. 




rugnlosa, Egert. 


Chimsera emarginata, Egert. 




neglecta, Egert. 


Egertoni, Buckl. 




curvidens, Egert, 


Townsendii, Buckl. 




falcata, Egert. 


JohnsonL 




psittacina, Egert. 


Colei, Bucil. 


Ganoides. 




Dapedins arenatus. 


Lepidotus unguictdatns. 


Colei, 


Pholidophorus Bechei. 


granolatus. 




Flesheri. 


mioans. 




Hastingsiae. 


politus. 




ktiusculus. 


punctatus. 




leptocephalos. 


Tetragonolepis angulifer. 




limbatos. 


confluens. 




minor. 


dorsalis. 




onychius. 


hetCToderma. 




Stricklandi. 


Leachii. 




Pachysomus, Egert 


monilifer. 




crenulahis, Egert. 


ovalis. 


Xothosomus octostychius. 


pholidotus. 


Ophiopsis 


dorsalis. 


pustulatns. 


Eugnathus Chirotes. 


radiatns. 




fasciculatus. 


speciosus. 




leptodus. 


striolatus. 




mandibularis. 


Centrolepis asper, Egert. 




minor. 


Amblyurus macrostomus. 




opercularis. 


Sfiminotns rhombifer. 




ornatus. 


Lepidotus fimbriatns. 




orthostomus. 


gigas. 




Polyodon. 


latimanns. 




tenuidenB. 


minor. 


Ptycholepis BoUensis. 


rugosiis. 


Conodus ferox. 


semiserratas. 


Pachycormus acutirostris. 


semdatus. 




cTirtos. 


taberculatna. 




gracilis. 


oudatua. 




heterurus. 



oU OOLITIC GKOUP. 


Pachycormus latipennis. 


Macrosemius brevirostris. 


latirostris. 


Gyrodus Cuvieri. 


latus. 


trigonus. 


leptosteus. 


umbilicus. 


macrurus. 


punctatus. 


Caturus Bucklandi, 


Sphserodus gigas. 


pleiodus. 


microdon. 


angustus. 


minor. 


Thrissonatus Colei. 


Gyronchus oblongus. 


Amblysemius gracilis. 


Microdon radiatus. 


Sauropsis latus. 


trigonus. 


mordax. 


Periodus marginalia. 


Leptolepis Bronnii. 


Pycnodus Bucklandi. 


caudalis. 


didymus. 


filipennis. 


Stugii. 


macrophthalmus, Hgert 


ovalis. 


Aspidorhynclius Anglicus. 


parvus. 


enodus, Egert. 


Mantelli. 


Belonostomus acutus. 


rugulosus. 


leptosteus. 


umbonatus. 


tenellus. 




Reptilia. 


Cetiosaurus longus, Owen. 


Plesiosaurus brachyspondylus, Ow 


medius, Owen. 


costatus, Owen. 


Chelonia planiceps, Owen. 


dffidicomus, Owen. 


Icthyosaurus acutirostrum, Owen. 


dolichodeirus, Conyb. 


communis, Conyi. 


grandis, Owen. 


intermedius, Conyb. 


Hawkinsii, Owen. 


latifrons, Koenig. 


latus, Owen. 


lonchiodon, Owen. 


macrocephalus, Conyb 


platyodon, Conyb. 


macromus, Owen. 


tenuirostrum, Conyb. 


megacephalus, Stutch. 


thyreospondylus, Owen 


rugosus, Owen. 


trigonus, Owen. 


subtrigonus, Owen. 


Megalosaurus Bucklandi, Cuv. 


trigonus, Owen. 


Plesiosaurus afiinis, Owen. 


trochanterius, Owen. 


areuatus, Owen. 


Pliosaurus brachydeirus, Owen.^ 


brachycephalus, Owen. 


trochanterius, Owen. 



OOLITIC GROUP. 81 

Pterodadylus Bucklandi, (hcen. Teleosaurns brevior, (hceu. 

macronyx, Owen. asthenodeinis, Owen. 

Steneosaarus brevirostrmn, Goldf. Cadomensis, Geoff. 

Streptospondjlos Cavieri, Oaen. Chapmanni, Ktettig. 

Ma30[ALIA. 

Amphitheriom Broderipii, Owen. Fhascolotherimn Backlandi, Owen. 
Prevostii, Owen. 



« Copies <rf Mr. Hawkiiu' 'Book of the Great S<« Dragons,' containing tturty litho- 
graphic plates of the remains of the Ictkyotauri and Plenosauri from the Lias of Somerset, 
Ac, maj be obtained of Mr. Tennant, (149, Strand,) who has prepared a series of labels, 
so that each plate may be referred to the original specimens in the cases of the British Mn- 
senm. Further information on this subject may be obtained from the ' Bridgewater Treatise,' 
by Dr. Bnekland, and Professor Owen's ' Beport on British Fossil Reptiles,' (Bep. Brit. 
Assodatian.) 

From Mr. Tennant may also be obtained, a fine Cast, in Plaster of Paris, of that interesting 
Fossil Saorian, the PUtiotwaiu dolwkoieir\u. The original specimen of the oniqne skeleton 
of this species of Flesiosanms, now in the British Moseiun, was obtained from the Lias, near 
Glastonboiy, and is described and figured in the ' Bridgewater Treatise,' by Dr. Bockland, 
(ToL ii pL 17). 

The Cast, monnted on a strong wood frame, measoring 6 ft. 3 in. in length, by 3 ft. 4 in. in 
width, is well adapted for Scientific and Prorincial Moseoms, as eihibitins the remarkable 
ehaiacten and peculiarity of stnietnR of this lingiilar Beptile. 



82 TRIASSIC SYSTEM. 



TRIASSIC OE SALIFEEOUS SYSTEM. 

English Authors. German Authors. French Authors. 

Variegated Marls . . . Keuper .. . . Mames Irisees . . 

{Wanting in England) . Muschelkalk . . Calcaire Conchylien. 

Variegated Sandstone. . Bunter Sandstein Gres Bigarre. . . 



The Muschelkalk, a shelly limestone, whicli occupies a 
central position in this system on the continent, has not yet 
been recognized in England, so that we have not a clear 
line of separation between the Upper Marls and Lower 
Sandstone of this country, although Sir E. I. Murchison 
considers the calcareous flags of Broughton, near Shrews- 
bury, to occupy the relative position of the Muschelkalk. 

The New Eed System consists of a series of variegated 
red, blue, and greenish marls and laminated clays, con- 
taining thick beds of rock salt and gypsum : below these 
are variegated and laminated sandstones with white and 
grey grits and conglomerates. The " Bone Bed," at first 
formerly classed with the Lias, is considered by Sir P. 
Egerton to belong to the Upper part of the New Eed Sand- 
stone, this bed has been traced from Axmouth, (Devon.) 
to Watchet, Aust Cliff, Westbury, &c., (Somerset,) and 
also at Combe HOI and Wainlode Cliff, (Gloucestershire). 

This system is extensively developed in Gloucestershire, 
Worcestershire, Stafford, Shropshire, and Cheshire, and is 
the gTcat source from which the Eock Salt and Sulphate 
of Lime are obtained, as weU as of the Brine Springs and 
other mineral springs which arise from it, in some of these 
counties. 



TKIASSIC SYSTEM. 83 

The Organic Eemains of this System are not very 
numerous, the deposition of the marls and sandstones 
appearing to be unfavourable to the development of animal 
life. Besides the species of fishes which occur in the 
"Bone Bed," remains of plants and one or two shells 
{Posidonomya) have been found in the sandstones of 
Worcestershire and Warwickshire, where, also, impressions 
of footsteps of animals have been detected, as weU as in Che- 
shire, the most remarkable being those from Storeton HUl, 
near Liverpool. The most interesting discovery, however, 
is probably that by Professor Owen, respecting the bones 
and teeth from the sandstones of Warwick and Leamington, 
in which he has proved that their affinity is, not with the 
Saurian, but with the Batrachian order, and from the 
complicated texture of the fossil teeth, has proposed the 
term Lahyrinthodon for the genus to which these remains 
belong, suggesting at the same time that the foot impres- 
sions to which the name Cheirotherium had been applied, 
might have been produced by the above-mentioned 
creature. 



LOCALITIES FOR FOSSILS, &«. 

Comb Hin, near Cteltenham, and Wainlode Cliff; Newnham, Flailey, 
Tibberton, Boj^hill Quarries, near Stainton, Gloucestershire; 
Broughton Quarries, near Shrewsbury ; Clive, Grinshill and 
Hawkstone Hills; Warwick and Leamington; Runcorn, Che- 
shire. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS, &c. 

Lyell, C, ' Elements of Geology.^ vol. ii. 

Mnrchison, Sir R. I., and Strickland, H. E., ' On the New Red 
Sandstone,' &c., Geol. Tram. vol. v. 



84 TRIASSIC SYSTEM. 

Owen, Prof. R., ' On the Rhyncosaurus/ &c., Camb. Phil. Trans. 

vol. vii. p. 355. 

' On the Labyrinthodon,' &c., Geol. Trans, vol. vi. 

Sedgwick, Rev. A., ' On the New Red Sandstone,' &c., Geol. l^ans. 

vol. iv. 



FOSSILS OF THE TRIASSIC SYSTEM. 
Plants. 
Echinostachys oblongus, Brong. 

CONCHIFEBA. 

Posidonomya minuta, Bronn. 

Pisces. 

Blacoides. 
Hybodus minor, A(f. Ceratodus parvus, Ag. 

Nemacanthus monilifer, Ag. emarginatus, Ag. 

filifer, Ag. gibbus, Ag. 

Leicanthus ? Ag. dsedaleus, Ag. 

Acrodus minimus, Ag. altus, Ag. 

Ceratodus latissimus, Ag. obtusus, Ag. 

curvus, Ag. disauris, Ag. 

planus, Ag. Hybodus minor, Ag. 

Ganoides. 

Gyrolepis Albertii, Ag. Saurichthys apicalis, Ag. 

maximus, Ag. acuminatus, Ag. 

tenuistriatus, Ag. longidens, Ag. 

Palseoniscus catopterus, Ag. 

RfiPTItlA. 

Cheirotherium Hercules, Egert. Labyrinthodon platygnathus,Cte^M. 
Cladyodon Lloydii, Owen. scutulatns, Owen. 

Labyrinthodon Jsegeri, Owen. ventricosus, Owen. 

leptognathus, Owen. Rhyncosaunis articeps, Owen. 

pachygnathus, Owen. Testudo Duncani, Owen. 



PERMIAN GBOUP. 85 



PALEOZOIC SERIES. 



PERMIAN GROUP. DEVONIAN GROUP. 

CARBONIFEROUS GROUP. SILURIAN GROUP. 



PERMIAN OR 3iL\GNESIAN LIMESTONE GROUP. 
Tekrain Peneen. Fr. 

EnglUh Authors. German Authors. French Authon. 

Magnesian Limestone . . ZedLstein .... Calcaire Magn^ian. 

Dolomitic Conglomerate. Kupfer-scMefer . . ScMste Cnivreux. 
Lower Red Sandstone ."1 

Pontefract Rock. . . | Rohte-todte-Hegende. Gr& des Vosges. 



The upper beds of this group consist, in the south of 
England (near Bristol), of calcareous conglomerate or 
breccia, in which rounded or angular pebbles of the older 
rocks are cemented by a red or yellow base of Magnesian 
Limestone or Dolomite ; the pebbles being formed chiefly 
of the materials composing the subjacent rocks. In the 
north of England the limestone varies considerably, and 
contains more or less magnesia ; the colours are white, 
grey, red, but generally yellow — sometimes fine-grained 
and thin-bedded, (Knottingley) — granular and flaglike, 
(Nottingham) — compact or somewhat crystalline and con- 
cretionary, with numerous fossils, (Sunderland.) With 
these are associated, variegated marls, marl slate, red marl 
and gypsum, and thin-bedded grey limestone. (Sedgwick, 
Geol. Trans, vol. iii.) 



86 



PERMIAN GEOUP. 



In the neighbourhood of Manchester, Mr. Binney has 
described red and variegated marls, containing thin bands 
of limestone (with scarcely any magnesia) full of magnesian 
limestone fossils, and somewhat resembling, in their ap- 
pearance and organic contents, the lowest beds of Bolsover. 
The following is a synopsis of the subordinate beds. 



Laminated limestones 
of Knottingley, Don- 
caster, &c.,with layers 
of coloured marls. 
Gypseous, red, bluish' 
&c., marls. 



Magnesian Limestone 



Lower 
Red Sandstone. 



Magnesian limestone, 
yellow, white, of va- 
rious texture and 
structure ; some parts 
full of fragmentary 
masses. 

Marl Slates; lami- 
nated, impure, calca- 
reous rocks, of a soft 
argillaceous or sandy 
nature. Phillips. 

Reddish siliceous grit, 
sometimes grey or 
yeUow, pebbly — a 
loose sand ; associated 
with micaceous sandy 
shale, or variegated 
marl, or a grey mica- 
ceous sandstone, re- 
sembling those of the 
coal measures. {Sedg- 
imck. 



Red and variegated 
marls of Manchester. 

Calcareous conglo- 
meratesof Shropshire. 

Dolomitic conglo. 
merate of Bristol. 



Red sandstone and 
grits, sometimes ar- 
gillaceous, frequently 
calcareous, with deep 
brown-red shales and 
marls, occasionally 
, spotted green, and 
bands of impure 
concretionary spotted 
limestone. 

Shropshire, Worces- 
tershire, {Murchi- 
son.) 



i 



PEBMIAN GROUP. 87 

The name, Pennian, was suggested by Sii E. I. Mur- 
chison, from the strata of this group covering an extensive 
area in the government of Perm, in Russia. The fauna 
and flora of this group are rather peculiar, presenting a 
general analogy with those of the carboniferous system 
upon which it reposes, and containing some species that 
are common to both eras ; thus associating its position 
with the Palaeozoic Series. 



LOCALITIES rOR FOSSILS, &c. 

The quarries at Hmnbleton Hfll, &c., near Sunderland, afford most of 
the characteristic fossil shells ; Coflyhurst, near Manchester, for 
sheDs ; the Azinui obscunu, (Schizodns, King,) is foond at Gar- 
forth Quarry, near Leeds, and very perfect remains of fish are 
obtained from Ferry Hill, Durham. 

Saurians occur at Durdham Down, near BristoL 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS, &c. 

Binney, E. "W., ' On the New Red Sandstone,' &c., QKort. Geol. Jourti. 

vol. ii. p. 12. 
Buctland, Rev. W., ' On the occurrences of Agates in Dolomitic 

Strata,' &c., Geol. Trans. voL iiL 
De la Beche, Sir H. T., ' Geological Manual,' 3rd Edit, p. 358. 
King W., ' Motwgraph of Magnesian Limestone Fossils' 
Lyefl, C, ' Elements of Geology' voL iL p. 94. 
Murchison, Sir R. I., ' SHurian Sgstem,' p. 46. 'Russia,' kc, 

voLl.p.l37. 
Riley, H., M.D., and Mr. Stutchbuiy, ' On Saurian Remains in the 

Magnesian Conglomerate.' Geol. Trans, vol. v. 
Sedgwick, Rev. A., ' On the Geol<^cal Relations of the Magnesian 

Limestone,' &c., Geol. Trans. voL iii 
i2 



PERMIAN SYSTEM. 



FOSSILS OF THE PERMIAN GROUP. 

POLYPARIA. 



Tubuliclidia spinigera, Lorn. 
FenesteUa anceps, Lons. 

flustracea, Fhil. sp. 



Fenestella ramosa, Lons. 

virgulacea, Phil. sp. 



Encrinus ramosus, Schlot. 



Crinoidea. 



Bkachiopoua. 



Terebratula elongata, Schlot. Spirifer cristatus, Schlot. 

sufflata, Schlot. Productus horridus, Sow. 
Schlotheimii, fern. Morrisiantis, {Stropha- 

{Camerophoria,}im^.) losia,) King. 

Atrypa pectinifera, Sow. s]m\ienis,{Strophalosia) 

Spirifer undulatus, Sow. King. 

multiplicatus, Sow. LingiJa Mytiloides, Sow. 



Dimyakia. 



AUorisma elegans, King. 
Schizodus obscurus, Sow. sp. 

paraJlelus, King. 

truncatus, Kinr/. 

rotundatns. Brown, sp. 

parvus. Brown, sp. 

undatus. Brown, sp. 



Schizodus pusUIus, Brown, sp. 
minimus. Brown, sp, 
Nucula vinti. King. 
Area tumida. Sow. 
Mytilus acuminatus. Sow. 
septiferus. King. 
Modiola costata, Vern. 



MONOMYAEIA. 



Avicula spelmicularia, Quenst. 
keratophaga, Quenst. 
antiqua, Munst. 
inflata, Brown. 
Binneyi, Brown. 



Avicula discors, Brotcn. 
Gervillia ? tumida, King. 
Pecten pusillus, Schlot. 
Ostrea pusilla, King. 



PEBMIAN SYSTEM. 



89 



Gastesofoda. 



Natica Tninima, Brovm. 
Pleorotomana carinata. Sow. 
nodnlosa, Ki)ig. 
Turbo mancnDiensis, Brovm. 

minntiis, Brov>n. 
Macrocheilns symmetricns, King, 
Loxonema rugifera, Phil. 



Loionema Urii, Flem. tp. 
Rissoa pasilla. Brown. 

Leighii, Brown. 

minutissima. Brown. 

Gibsoni, Brown. 

obtusa, Brown. 



Pisces. 



Palsoniscas comtos, Aff. 

degans, Jff. 

glaphyrns, Jff. 

longissimus, Aff. 

macropthalmus, Aff. 
Platysomns macmrns, Jg. 



Platysomus parvus, Jfi. 
striatxis, Ag. 
Acrolepis Sedgwicld, Ag. 
Pygopterus mandibularis, Aff. 
Cselacantbus grannlatus. 



Reptilia. 



P^sosaums cylindrodon, Riley. 
platyodon, Riley. 



Thecodontosaurus antiqans, Riley. 



i2 



90 



CARBONIFEROUS GROUP. 



1 . Coal Measures, 
Terrain Houillier. 
Kohlengebirge 



CAEBONIPEEOUS GROUP 

2. Millstone Grit 



Kohlensandstein. 



3. Carboniferous Limestone. 
Calcaire Carbonifere . . 
TJeberganskalk .... 



The Carboniferous Group, consisting of a series of beds 
of Sandstone, Grit, Clay, Shale, Coal, Limestone, with 
layers of Chert and Ironstone, has been divided into the 
Coal Measures, Millstone Grit, and Carboniferous Lime- 
stone. This triple arrangement becomes considerably 
modified as we proceed towards the north of England and 
Scotland, for in Derbyshire and Yorkshii-e, the true coal- 
bearing strata do not cease with" the millstone grit, but are 
intercalated with it, and in Yorkshire the limestone (Yore- 
dale Eocks) contains several coal seams, flagstone, iron- 
stone, &c., and still further northwards, in Northumberland 
and the south of Scotland, the lower limestones become 
frequently divided by intervening beds of grit, shale, and 
coal. The following short summary is abstracted from 
Professor Phillips. 



South of England 
and South Wales. 



Coal Formation. 
Millstone Grit. 

[not very thick) 
Mountain Limestone. 

Old Red Sandstone. 



Derbyshire. 

Coal Formation. 
MiUstone Grit. 
Limestone Shale. 
Mountain Limestone. 
Old Red Sandstone. 
{not much developed.) 



Yorkshire. See. 
Coal Formation. 
Millstone Grit. 
Yoredale Rocks. 
Scar Limestone. 
■• Alternations of Red 
Sandstones, Clays, 
and Limestone. 
Red Sandstone and 
Conglomerate. 



CAKBONIFEROUS^ GROUP. 91 

In the upper part of the Coal Measures of Shropshire, 
Nobold, &c., near Shrewsbury, occurs a deposit supposed 
to be of fi^sh-water origin, and extends for more than 
thirty miles ; and in Coalbrook Dale, Mr. Prestwich has 
described some beds with fresh-water shells (Unto) alter- 
nating with others, containing marine remains (Nautilus, 
Spiri/er, &c.,) thus inferring that a river emptied itself 
into the ancient sea or estuary. In Yorkshire, and near 
Edinburgh, somewhat similar phaenomena have been 
observed. 

The characteristic fossils of the Coal Measures, are those 
belonging to terrestial plants, as Pahns, Ferns, Calamites, 
Lepidodendron and Coniferce, few traces of marine vegeta- 
tion having been observed. The carboniferous limestone 
abounds in marine testacea, the Brachiopoda {Troduct-m 
Spirifer,) and Cephalopoda, (Goniotites, Orthoceras, &c.,) 
forming a large proportion, and these are associated with 
a great number of Crinoidea, and many Corals. 



LOCALITIES FOR FOSSILS, &c. 

At most of the eoal- workings, remains of plants may be obtained ; those 
near Newcastle, in Coalbrook Dale, South Wales, and Radstock 
and Camerton, Somerset, are good localites for procuring them. 

The limestone shales of Halifax, Yorkshire ; the shales and limestones 
of Northumberland (Howick, Hetton, Beadnell, &c.,) ; the dis- 
trict around BoUand, Yorkshire, and the limestones of Derbyshire 
and Bristol, are a few places where the Mollusca and Crinoidea 
may be obtained. In Ireland, Hook Point, near Weiford, Cork, 
Fermanagh, and near Dublin. 



92 CARBOIJIFEIIOUS GROUP. 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS, &c. 

Bowman, J. E., ' On Fossil Trees,' Geol. Proc. vol iii. p. 270. 
Binney, E. "VV., ' On the New Red Sandstone,' &c.. Quart. Geol. 

Journ. vol ii. p. 12. 
Brown, Capt. T., ' Description of some new species of Fossil Shells,' 

&c., Manch. Geol. Trans, vol. i. 
BucWand, Rev. W., ' Ou the South Western Coal District,' Geol. 

Trans, vol. i. 
Conyheare and Phillips, ' Geology of England and Wales' 
De la Beche, Sir H. T., ' Geology of South Pemhroke,' Geol. Trans. 

vol. ii. 

' Geological Manual' p. 376. 

England, Rev. T., 'On the Forest ofWyre Coal Meld,' Geol. Froc. 

vol. ii. p. 20. 
Hawkshaw, J.,'' On Fossil Trees,' &c., Geol. Proc. vol. iii. pp. 139, 269. 
Hihbert, Dr., ' On the Burdie House Limestone,' &c.. Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Edin.' vol. xiii. 
De Konincke, L., ' Terrain Carbonifere de Belgique.' 
Logan, W. E., , On Beds of Clay below the Coal,' &c., Geol. Proc. 

vol. iii. p. 275. 
Lyell, C, ' Elements of Geology,' vol. ii. p. 104. 
M' Coy, F., ' Mountain Limestone Fossils of Ireland.' 
Murchison, Sir R. J., ' Silurian System.' ^t^. 79 to 168. 
Phillips, J., ' Geology of YorksJdre' part II. 
Prestwich, J., On the Coalbrook Dale Coalfield, Geol. Trans, vol. v. 
Williamson, W. C, On the Fossil Fishes,' &c., Geol.Proe. vol. iii. p. 153. 



FOSSILS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS GROUP. 
COAL MEASURES. 

PLAMjE. 

Alethoptheris Cistii, Gopp. Alethoptheris Mantelli, Gopp. 

heterophylla, Gopp. nervosa, Gopp. 

Lindleyana, Fresl. Sauverii, Gopp. 

lonchitidis, Sternb. Serra, Gopp. 



CABBONIFZEOUS GEOUP. 



93 



Alethoptheris Serlii, Gopp. 

orophylla, Goj^. 
vulgatior, Sternb. 
Anabathra pulcherrima, Lindl. 
Annulariafertilis, Sternb. 

longifolia, Brong. 
Antholithes anomalus, Morris. 
Pitcaimia, Lindl. 
Aphlebia adnascens, Preal. 
Artisia approxiinata, Brong. 
distans, Brong. 
transTCTsa, Brest. 
Aspidiaria Anglica, Presl. 
confluens, Presl. 
cristata, Pr^/. 
quadrangularis, Presl. 
nndnlata, Presl. 
Asterophyllites comosus, Lindl. 
foliosns, Lindl, 
galioides, Lindl. 
jubatns, Lindl. 
rigidus, Lindl. 
Bechera charseformis, Sternb. 

grandis, Sternb. 
Bornia eqnisetifonnis, Sternb. 
Brackmaimia grandis, Lindl. 

longifolia, Sternb. 
ligida, Sternb. 
tenuifolia, Sternb. 
tuberculata, Sternb. 
Calamites approximatns, Brong. 
cannaefonnis, Schlot. 
Qstii, Brong. 
decoratns, Brong. 
dubios, Brong. 
inaeqoalis, Lindl. 
Lindleji, Sternb. 
nodosns, Schlot. 
pachydenna, Brong. 



Calamites ramosns, Brong. 

Steinhaueri, Brong. 
Suckowii, Brong. 
nndulatns, Brong. 
yariana, Sternb. 
verticillatus, Lindl. 
Cardiocarpon acutnm, Brong. 
Carpolithes alatus, Lindl. 

helicteroides, Morris. 
marginatns, Artis. 
Zamioides, Morris. 
Caulopteris PhiUipsii, Lindl. 
primaeva, Lindl. 
Chondrites Prestrici, Morris. 
Cyclopteris dilatata, Lindl. 

flabeUata, Brong. 
oblata, Lindl. 
obliqna, Brong. 
orbicularis, Brong. 
reniformis, Brong. 
Cyperites bicarinata, Lindl. 
Fandaria tessellata, Lindl. 

nodosa, Lindl. 
Flabellaria borassifolia, Sternb. 
Halonia disticha, Morris. 
gracilis, Lindl. 
regularis, Lindl. 
tortnosa, Lindl. 
tuberculosa, Lindl. 
Lepidodendron Bucklandi, Brong. 
elegans, Brong. 
Harconrtii, Lindl. 
longifolium, Brong. 
oboTatnm, Sternb. 
plumarium, Lindl. 
selaginoides,^^^^!^. 
Serlii, Presl. 
Stembergii, Brong. 
Lepidophylltun intermedium, 



94 



CARBONIFEROUS GROUP. 



Lepidophyllum lanceolatum. 

trinerve, lAndl. 
Lepidostrobus comosus, lindl. 
omatus, lAndl. 
pinaster, Lindl. 
variabilis, Lindl. 
Lycopodites cordatus, Sternb. 

pMegmarioides, Sternb , 
Megaphyton Allani, Presl. 

approximatum, Lindl 
distans, Lindl. 
Myriophyllites gracilis, Artis. 
Neuropteris acuminata, Brong. 
acutifolia, Brong. 
angustifolia, Brong. 
attenuata, lAndl. 
cordata, Brong. 
flexuosa, Sternb. 
gigantea, Sternb. 
heterophylla, Brong. 
Loshii, Brong. 
macrophylla, Brong. 
rotundifolia, Brong. 
Soretii, Brong. 
 tenuifolia, Sternb. 
Noggerathia flabellata, lAndl. 
Odontopteris Britannica, Brest. 
Lindleyana, Sternb. 
obtusa, Brong. 
Schotheimii, Brong. 
Pecopteris abbreviata, Brong. 
adiantoides, Lindl. 
arborescens, Brong. 
BucMandi, Brong. 
dentata, Brong. 
heterophylla, Lindl. 
laciniata, Lindl. 
Miltoni, Brong. 
muricata, Brong. 



Pecopteris obliqua, Brong. 

oreopteridis, Brong. 
pltimosa, Brong. 
pteroides, Brong. 
repanda, Lindl. 
vUlosa, Brong. 
Pence Withami, Lindl. 
. Pinites ambiguns, Witham. 
anthracina, lAndl. 
. Brandling!, Lindl. 
carbonaceus, Witham. 
medullaris, Lindl. 
Withami, Lindl. 
Pinnularia capiUacea, Lindl. 
Pitys antiqna, Witham. 
primseva, Witham. 
Poacites cocoina, Lindl. 
Rhodea dissecta, Presl. 
furcata, Presl. 
Sagenaria aculeata, Presl. 
cselata, Brong. 
ophiura, Brong. 
Selaginites patens, Brong. 
Sigillaria altemans, Lindl. 
catenulata, Lindl. 
contracta, Brong. 
elongata, Brong. 
flexuosa, Lindl. 
Knorrii, Brong. 
leioderma, Brong. 
laevigata, Brong. 
Murehisoni, Lindl. 
notata, Brong. 
oculata, Lindl. 
organum, Lindl. 
ornata, Brong. 
reniformis, Brong. 
SanUii, Brong. 
Sphenophyllum dentatum, Brong. 



CABBONIFEEOUS GEOUP. 



95 



Sphenophyllam emarginatam, 
Brong. 
erosnm, landl. 
Schlotheimii, 
Brong. 
Sphenopteris acntifolia, Brong. 

Adiantoides, Lindl. 

affisis, LindL 

artemisisefolia, Stemb 

bifida, Lindl. 

candata, Lindl. 

Conwayi, landl. 

crassa, Lindl. 

crenata, Lindl. 

cuneolata, Lindl. 

dilatata, Lindl. 

elegans, Brong. 

eicelsa, Lindl. 

gracilis, Brong. 

Hibbertdi, lAndl. 



Sphenopteris latifolia, Brong. 
linearis, Stemb, 
macilenta, lindl. 
moltifida, Ldndl. 
obovata, Lindl. 
polyphylla, Lindl. 
tenella, Brong. 
trifoliata, Brong. 
, Stigmaria ficoides, Brong. 
Trigonocarpum Dawesii, Lindl. 

Noeggerathii, Brong. 
oblongnin, Lindl. 
olivseforme, Lindl. 
OTatnm, Lindl. 
riodendron A Hani, Buckl. 

Conybearii, Buckl. 
Lucasii, Buckl. 
majns, Lindl. 
miuns, lAndl. 
Walchia pinifonnis, Schlot. 



Amorfhozoa. 
Tragos semicirculare, Mc'Coy. 



ZOOPHTTA. 



AmplexQs nodolosns, PMl. 
coraQoides, Sow. 
Astraea aranea, Mc'Cog. 
Astreopora autiqua, Mc'Coy. 
Aulopon* campanulats, Mc'Coy. 

gigas, Me Coy. 
Berenicea? megastoma, Mc'Cog. 
CaryophyUia afifinis, Flem. 

dupKcata, Flem. 
juncea, Flem. 
Cbsetetes radians, Fischer. 
Cladocora irregulare, FMl. sp. 
sexdecimale, Phil. tp. 



CyatbophyDnm fungites. 

plicatom. 
FaTosites capillaris, Phil. 
Tenestella carinata, Mc'Cog. 

crassa, Mc'Coy. 

guncida, Mc'Coy. 

fiabellata, Phil. *p. 

flustrifonnis, Phil.tp. 

fonnosa, Mc'Coy. 

firutei, Mc'Coy. 

hemisphserica, Mc'Coy. 

laia, Phil. jtp. 

membranacea, Phil. tp. 



96 



•CAEBONIFEROUS GROUP. 



Fenestella Morrisii, Mc'Coy. 

multiporata, Mc'Coy. 
nodulosa, Fhil. sp, 
oculata, 3fc'Cot/. 
plebeia, 3Ic' Coy. 
polyporata, Pkil. sp. 
quadradeciinalis,-Mc' Coy. 
tenuifila, PJdl. sp. 
undulata, Phil. 
varicosa, Mc' Coy. 
Flustra palmata, Mc'Coy. 
Glauconome gracilis, Mc'Coy. 
grandis, Mc'Coy. 
pluma, PJiil. sp. 
pulcherrima, Mc'Coy. 
Gorgonia Lonsdaliana, Mc'Coy. 

zic-zac, Mc'Coy. 
Hemitrypa Hibemica, Scouler, sp. 
Ichthyorachis Newenhami, Mc' Coy. 
lania antiqua, Mc' Coy. 
Bacillaria, Mc'Coy. 
crassa, Mc'Coy. 
Lithodendron fasciculatum, Phil. 
pauciradialis, J!fc' Coy 



Lithodendron sociale, Phil. 
Lithostrotion crenulare, Phil. 
floriforme, Plem. 
reginin, Phil. 
striatum, Tlem. 
Michelinia teuuisepta, Kon. 
Orbiculites antiquus, Mc'Coy. 
Polypora dendroides, M(fCoy. 
marginata, Mc'Coy. 
papillata, Mc'Coy. 
verrucosa, Mc'Coy. 
Ptylopora pluma, Scouler. 
Pustulopora oculata, Phil. 

spicularis, Phil. 
Retepora nndata, Mc'Coy. 
Stromatopora subtilis, Mc'Coy. 
Syrigopora geniculata, Phil. 
ramulosa, Goldf. 
Turbinolia expansa, Mc' Coy. 
Vincularia dichotoma, Mc'Coy. 
megastoma, McCoy. 
parallela, Phil. sp. 
raricosta, Mc'Coy. 



ECHINODERMATA. 



Actinocrinns aculeatus, Aust. 

amphora, Cilb. 

cataphractus, Aust. 

constrictus, Mc'Coy. 

costus, McCoy. 

globosus, Phil. 

lasvis, Mill. 

pusillus, Mc' Coy. 

tesseUatus, Phil. 

triacontadactylus, Mill. 
Atocrinus Milleri, Mc'Coy. 
Cyathocrinus bursa, Phil. 

calcaratns, Phil. 



Cyathocrinus conicus, Phil. 

distortus, Phil. 

inequidactylus. 

macrocheirns,iIfc' Coy 

mammiUaris, Phil. 

omatus, Phil. 

planus. Mill. 
Echinocrinus Benburbensis, 
Portl. sp. 

glabrispina, Pkil, sp. 

Munsterianus, 
de Koninch. 

Urii, Memjtp. 



CAKBONIFEROUS GBOUP. 



97 



Echinocrinus vettistus Phil. sp. 
Eiuyocrinns concavus, Fhil. 
Gilbertsocrinus bursa, Fhil. 

calcaratus, Phil. 
mammillaris, PAH. 
simplex, Portl. 
Palsechinns elegans, Mc'Coy. 
ellipticus, Scouler. 
gigas, Mc'Coy. 
Konigii, Mc'Coy. 
sphaericus, Scouler. 
Pentatrematites acutus, Sow. 

angnlahis. Sow. 
Derbiensis, Sow. 
globosus. Say. 
inflatus. Sow. 
oblongus. Sow. 
orbicularis. Sow. 
pentagonalis. Sow. 
Phillipsocrinus caryocrinoides, 

Mc'Coy. 
Platycrinus antheliontes, Aust. 
contractus, Phil. 
coronatus, Goldf. 
ellipticus, Phil. 



Platycrinus elongatus, PMl. 
expansus, Mc'Coy. 
gigas, Phil. 
laciniatns, PMl. 
hems. Mill. 
microstylus, PMl. 
omatus, Mc'Coy. 
punctatus, Mc'Coy. 
rugosus, Mill. 
similis, Mc'Coy. 
triacontadactylus, 
Mc'Coy. 
tnberculatus, 3Iill. 
Poteriocrinus conicus, Phil. 
crassus. Mill. 
gracilis, Mc'Coy. 
impressus, Phil. 
tennis. Mill. 
Rhodocrinns abnormis, Mc'Coy. 

verus. Mill. 
Symbathocrinns conicus, Phil. 
Taxocrinus Egertoni, Phil. 
granulosus, 
nobilis, 
polydactylns, Mc'Coy. 



Annelida. 

AU the species not having the author's name attached are described by M^Cvf. 



Sabella autiqna. 
Serpnla compressa. Sow. 

hemicarinata. 

omphalodes, Goldf. 

parallela. 

(S. socialis, Portl.) 

scalaris. 



Serpulites carbonarius. 

membranacens. 
Spirorbis caperatus. 

globosus. 

intermedins. 

minutus, Portl. 
Spiroglyphus marginatns. 



Insecta. 
Cnrcolioides Ansticii, Buckl. Curculioides Prestvicii, Buckl. 



98 



CAEBONIFEEOUS GEOUP. 



Crustacea. 



Apus dubius, Prestwich. 


Cytherina PhilUpsiana, Koninek. 


Asaphus t^uadralimbus, Fhil. 


{EntomoconchusScoulerijMc'Coj.) 


Bairdia curtus. 


Daphnia primffiva. 


gracilis. 


Dithyrocaris Colei, Portl. 


Cyclus radialis, de Koninek. 


Scouleri. 


Cypris? arcuata, Bean. 


tenuistriatus. 


? inflata, Murch. 


Entomoconclius Scouleri. 


? Scoto-Burdigalensis, 


fli'W.Eurypterus Scouleri, Hibb. 


? subrectus, Fortl. 


Griffithides calcaratus. 


Cythere amygdalina. 


globiceps, Portl. 


arcuata. 


longiceps, 


bituberculata. 


longispinus, 


costata. 


platyceps. 


cornuta. 


Limulus anthrax, Prest. 


elongata. 


rotundus, 


excavata. 


trilobitoides, Buckl. 


gibberula. 


Phillipsia cselata. 


impressa. 


Colei. 


inflata. 


discors. 


inomata. 


Jonesii, Portl. 


oblonga. 


Kellii, 


orbicularis. 


Maccoyi, Portl. 


pusilla. 


mucronata. 


scutulum. 


ornata, Portl. 


spinigera. 


quadriserialis. 


trituberculata. 


raniceps, Portl. 




seminifera, Portl. 



CONCHIFEEA DiMYARIA. 

Amphidesma ? axiniformis, Portl. Area fimbriata. 

V carbonarium, Sow. Artemis parva, Bronn. 

deltoide, Portl. Astarte gibbosa. 
subtruncatum. quadrata. 

Anatina attenuata. Axinus centralis. 

deltoidea. deltoideus. 

Area cancellata, Sow. nucleoides. 



CABBONIFEROUS GBOUP. 



99 



A Tili ng obliquus. 
obovatns. 
orbicularis, 
sulcatus. Sow. 
Byssoarca clathrata. 
costellata. 
lanceolata. 
reticulata, 
semicostata. 
Cardinia ? acata, Koninck. 
ovalis, Koninck. 
Phaseola, Koninck. 
robusta, Koninck. 
subconstricta, Koninck. 
Cardiomorplia corragata. 

oblonga, Sow. sp. 
ventricosa. 
Cardimn orbicnlare. 
(Dorbis cancellata. 
Corbula senilis, PML 
Crenella acutirostris. 
CucullaEa arguta, Phil. 
obtusa, Phil. 
teuuistria. 
Cypricardia concinna. 
cuneata. 
cylindrica. 
glabrata, PhU. 
modiolaris. 
oblonga. 
rbombea, Phil. 
sinnata. 
socialis. 

tricostata, Portl. 
tumida. 
Cyprina Egertoni. 

? compressa, 
Dokbra cormgata. 



Dolabra eqoilateralis. 
gregaria. 
orbicularis, 
rectangularis. 
Donax primigenius. 
Edmondia uniformis, Phil. sp. 
Isocardia aiinifonnis, Phil. 
Kellia gregaria. 
Lanistes obtusns. 
rugosus. 
Leptodomus fragilis. 
senilis. 

(Corbula. tp. Phil.) 
Lithodomus dactyloides. 
Luciua autiqna. 

Dunoyeri, Portl. 
Lutraria elongata. 
prisca. 

primseva, Portl. 
Mactra ovata. 
Modiola concinna. 
divisa. 

elongata, Phil. 
granulosa, Phil. 
lingualis, Phil. 
megaloba. 
patula. 

squamifera, Phil. 
subparallela, Portl. 
Mytilus comptus, 
Flemingii. 
triangularis, Sow. 
Nucula accipiens. Sow. 
acuta. Sow. 
sequalis, Sow. 
attenuata, Flem. 
birostrata. 
brevirostrum, Phil. 



k2 



100 



CAEBONIFEROUS GEOXJP. 



Nucula carinata. 
clavata. 
cuneata, Phil. 
cylindrica. 
delta. 

gibbosa, Flem. 
Isevirostrum, Portl. 
leiorhyncbus. 
longirostrum. 
Lucmiformis, Phil. 



palmse, Sow. 
rectangularis. 
stilla. 

undulata, Phil. 
unilateralis. 
Pandora ? clavata. 
Pinna flabbelliformis, 3IaTt. 
flexicostata. 
inflata, Phil. 
mutica. 
Pleurorhyncus aliformis, Sow. sp. 
armatus, Phil. 
elongatus. Sow. sp. 
fasiformis. 
giganteus. 
HibemicuSjiSow. sp, 
inflatus. 
minax, Phil. 
nodnlosus. 
trigonalis, Phil. 
Psammobia decussata. 
PuUastra bistriata, Portl. 
crasssistria. 
elegans. 
ovalis. 
Sanguinolites angustatus, Phil. 



Sanguinolites arcuatus, Phil. 

attenuatus, Portl. 

contortus. 

costellatus. 

curtus. 

discors. 

gibbosus. Sow. 

Iridinoides. 

liratus, Phil. 

maximus, Portl. 

oblongus, Portl. 

plicatus, Portl. 

radiatus. 

snlcatus, Phil. 

transversus, Portl. 

tricostatus, Portl. 

tumidus, Phil. 

undatus, Portl. 
Sedgwickia attenuata. 
bullata. 
corrugata. 
gigantea. 



nunima. 
Solemya primaeva, Phil. 
Solen pelagicus. Gold/. 
Venerupis cingulatus. 
obsoletus. 
scalaris. 
Venus centralis. 

eUiptica, Phil. 
paraUela, Phil. 
tenuistriata. 
Ungulina antiqua. 
Unio? modiolaris, Soto, 
? nuciformis, Hibb. 
? parallelusj Sow. 



CARBONIFEROUS GROUP. 



101 



CONCHIPEBA MONOMTAEIA. 



Anomia antiqua. 
ATicnla angosta. 
bicostata. 
cycloptera, Phil. 
flabellnla. 
gibbosa. 
informis. 
Isevigata. 
Innnlata, Kon. 
papyracea, Goldf. 
quadrata. Saw. 
i^diata, Phil. 
recta. 

simplex, Kon. 
sublobata, Phil. 
tessellata, Phil. 
Vemeulii. 
Gervillia elongata, Portl. 
inconspicua, Phil. 
laminosa, Phil. 
squamosa, Phil. 
Inoceramos auriculatus. 

costatus, Brown. 
Isevis, Brown. 
Isevissimus. 
obliquatxis, Broum. 
orbicularis, 
pemoides, Portl. 
lima altemata. 
concinna. 
decnssata. 
laevigata, 
obliqua. 
planicostata. 
prisca. 
semisnlcata. 
Meleagrina altemata. 



Meleagrina echiuata. 
Isevigata. 
pulchella. 
{Avie. Dumontiana 
De Kon.) 
quadrata. 
rigida. 
Monotis seqoalis. 
Pecten aequalis. 

anisotus, Phil. 

araclmoideus, Phil. 

arenosus, Phil^ 

Bellis. 

cancellatus. 

ciugendus. 

clathratus. 

caelatus. 

cognatus. 

comptns. 

concavus. 

concentrico-striatus. 

conoideus. 

consimiUs. 

deomatus, Phil. 

depilis. 

dissimilis, Flem. 

duplicicosta. 

ellipticus, Phil. 

eloagatus. 

exignos. 

fellax. 

filatus. 

fimbriatus, Phil. 

flabelluluiu. 

fiexuosos. 

Forbesii. 

gibbosos. 



k3 



102 



CARBONIFEROUS GROUP. 



Pecten granosus. Sow. 

granulosus, Phil. 

Hardingii. 

heinispliaericus, Phil. 

hians. 

incrassatus. 

inomatus, Phil. 

intercostatus. 

interstialis, Phil. 

irregularis. 

Jonesii. 

Knoconniensis. 

leiotis. 

macrotis. 

megalotis. 

Meleagrinoides. 

micropterus. 

mundus. 

Murcliisoni. 

orbiculatus. 

Ottonis, Gold/. 

ovatus. 

pera. 

planiclatliratus. 

planicostatus. 

plicatus, Sow. 

politrichus, Phil. 

quinquelineatus. 

rugulosus. 

scalaris. Sow. 

sclerotis. 

Sedgwickii. 

Atrypa depressa. 

expausa, Sow. 
fimbriata. Sow. 
? gibbera, Portl. 
lineata, Sow. sp. 



Pecten segregatus. 

semicircularis. 
seniicostatus, Portl. 
seniistriatus. 
serratus. 
simplex, Phil. 
Sowerbyi. 
spinulosus. 
stellaris, Phil. 
tabulatus. 
transversus. Sow. 
tripartitus. 
undulatus. 
variabilis. 
Posidonomya Becbei, Gold/. 

complanata, Portl. 
costata. 
lateralis, Sow. 
membranacea. 
similis. 

transversa, Portl. 
tuberculata. Sow. 
vetusta, Kon. 
Pterinea desquamata. 

intermedia. 
Thompsoni, Portl. 
Pteronites angustatus. 
latus. 

semisulcatus. 
sulcatus. 
ventricosus. 



Beachiopoda. 



Atrypa oblonga, Soto. 

obtusa. 

planisuleata, Sow. 

Roissyi, Be Fern. 
Chonetes crassistria. 



CAKBONIFEBOUS GEOtP. 



103 



Chonetes Dalmaniana. 
gibberula. 

Hardrensis, Pkil. sp. 
multidentata. 
papilionacea, Phil. sp. 
papyracea. 
perlata, Phil. 
serrata. 

sordida, Soic. sp. 
tuberculata. 
Tolva. 
Crania vesiculosa. 
Leptaena analoga. Sow. 
distorta, Soto. 
mnltirugata. 
sordida. Sow. 
Lingula elliptica, Phil. 
margiuata, Phil. 
Mytiloides, Sow. 
parallela, Phil. 
squamiformis, Phil. 
Orbicula cincta, Portl. 
nitida, Phil. 
qnadrata. 
trigonalis. 
Orthis arachnoidea, Phil. 
Bechei. 
caduca. 

connivens, Phil. 
circularis. 
comata. 

crenistria, Phil. 
eylindrica. * 
divaricata. 
Kellii. 
latissima. 
Micbelini, Lea. 

{O.filiaria, Phil.) 
qaadrata. 
? resupinata, Phil. 



Orthis senilis, PhU. 
Sharpii, Mor. 
sulcata. 
Productus aculeatns, Sow. 

antiquatns, Soic. 

auritus. Sow. 

eonoides. Sow. 

concinnus, Soic. 

corrogatus. 

costatos. Sow. 

costellatus. 

crassus, Flem. 

Edelburgensis, Phil. 

elegans. 

fimbriatos. Sow. 

flexistria. 

giganteus. Sow. 

granulatns, Sow. 

hemisphsericus. Sow. 

humerosus. Sow. 

intermedius. 

laciniatns. 

latissimns, Sok. 

larispinus, Phil. 

lobatus, Sow. 

longispinus, Sow. 

margaritacens, Phil. 

Martini, Soto. 

maximos. 

mesolobus, Phil. 

muricatus, Phil. 

ovaiis, Phil. 

pectinoides, Phil. 

personatus. Sow, 

pUcatUis, Sow. 

pngilis, Phil. 

punctatus, Phil. 

postulosus, Phil. 

quiuconcialis, Pkil. 



104 



CARBONIFEEOUS GROUP. 



Productus rugatus, Phil. 

scabriculus, Sow. 

Scoticus, Sow. 

setosus, Sow. 

spinosus, Sow. 

spinulosus, Sow. 

striatus, Fischer, sp. 

subacTileatus, De Vern. 

sulcatus, Sow. 

tortilis. 
Spirifer acutus, Sow. 

attenuatus. Sow. 
bicarinatus. 
bisulcatus, Sow. 
clatkratus. 
convolutus, Fhil. 
cuspidatus, Sow. 
decemcostata. 
decerns, Phil. 
distans, Sow. 
dorsatuSi 

duplicicostatus, Phil. 
elongatus, PJiil. 
exaratus, Flem. 
expansus, Phil. 
furcata. 

fiisiformis, Sow. 
glaber. Sow. 
glabristria, Phil. 
globularis, Phil. 
heinispbffiricTis. 
humerosus, Phil. 
imbricatus, Sow. 
insculptus, Phil. 
integricostatus, Phil. 
laminosus. 
linguiferus, Phil. 
mesogonius. 
mesolobus, Phil. 



Spirifer oblatas, Sow. 

omitborbynclia. 
ovalis, Phil. 
pinguis, Sow. 
planatus, Phil. 
planieostatus. 
planisulcatus, Phil. 
princeps. 
quinquelobus. 
radialis, Phil. 
reticulatus. 

{Martinia, Mc'Coy.) 
rbomboidalis. 
rhomboideus, Phil. 
rotundatus, Sow. 
semicircularis, Phil. 
senilis, Phil. 
septosus, Phil. 
sexradialis, Phil. 
squamosus, Phil. 
striatellus. 
striatus, Sow. 
strigocepbaloides. 
subconicus, Mani. 
symmetricus, Phil. 
transiens. 
triangularis. Sow. 
trigonalis. Sow. 
triradialis, Phil. 
trisulcosus, Phil. 
Urii, Flem. 
Terebratula acuminata, Sow. 

ambigua, Phil. 

angulata, Zinn. 

cordiformis. Sow. 

crumena, Sow. 

flexistria, Phil. 

gregaria. 

hastata, Sok. 



CABBONI FERGUS GROUP. 



105 



Terebrahila isorhyncha. 
Mantise, Sow. 
mesogona. Sow. 
nana. 

pentaedra, Phii. 
platyloba. Sow. 
pleurodon, Fkil. 
proava, FhU. 
pugnns, Sow. 



racHaUs, PMl. 
rhomboidea, Plui. 
Roissyi, Fern. 
saccnlns. Sow. 
snlcirostris, PMI. 
triplex, 
tmnida, Phil. 
Tentflabmm, PhU. 
Tirgoides. 



Gastesofosa. 



Acrocnlia angasta, Phii. 
canalicalata. 
Neritoides, Phil. 
striata, Phil. 
Bucdnnm acntmn, Sow. 

curvilinemn, Phil. 
gjobulare, PhU. 
imbricatmn. Sow. 
parallele, Phil. 
rectiliiiemn, Phil. 
signuliiieimi, PMI. 
vittatmn, Phil. 
Cirrus acutus. Sow. 

pentagonalis, Phil. 
pileopsidens, Phil. 
spiralis, Phil. 
tabolatus, Phil. 
Dentalium inoroatom. 
Elencbos antiqxms. 

subolatns. 
Enomphalns eeqnalis. Sow. 
angois. 
bifrons, Phil. 
calyi, PhU. 
carbonarins. Sow. 
{£. quadratiu.) 
catillns, Sow. 
dansQS, Sow. 



Euompbalos crotalostomus. 
Colei, Sow. 
depressus, Sow. 
elongatns. 
marginatus. 
neglectus. 
nodosas. Sow. 
pentangnlatos. Sow. 
pugilis, PhU. 
tobercuiatns, Tlem. 
Fissnrella elongata. 
Globulus Helicoides, Sow. 
nobilis. Sow. 
vetustus. Sow. 
Lacuna antiqna. 
Loxonema breyis, 

constricta, Phil. 
impendens. 
polygyra. 
pulcherrima. 
rugifera, PhU. 
scalaroidea, PhU. 
sulcatula. 
solcnlosa, PhU. 
tumida, PhU. 
turrita. 
littorina pusiUa. 
Macrocheilus canaliculatns. 



106 



CARBONIFEROUS GROUP, 



Macrocheilus fimbriatus. 
ovalis. 

percinctus, Portl. 
tricinctus. 
Metoptoma elliptica, Pkil. 
imbricata, Phil. 
oblonga, Phil. 
pileus, Phil. 
sulcata, Phil. 
Microconchus carbonarius, Murch. 
Murchisonia angulata, Phil. 
elongata, Portl. 
fusiformis, Phil. 
Larcomi. 
quadricarinata. 
spinosa, Phil. 
sulcata, 
taeniata, Vem. 
Natica ampliata, Phil. 
elliptica, Phil, 
? elongata, Phil. 
lirata, Phil. 
planispira, Phil. 
plicistria, Phil. 
tabulata, PhU. 
variata, Phil. 
Naticopsis canaliculata. 
dubia. 

elongata, Phil. sp. 
Neritoides. 
Phillipsii. 
Nerita striata, Flem. 
spirata, Soto. 
Patella curvata, Phil. 
lateralis, Phil. 
retrorsa, Phil. 
scutiformis, Phil. 
sinuosa, Phil. 
Phanerotinus cristatus, Soto. 



Phanerotinus nudus, Sote.- 
Platyceras trilobatum, Phil. 
tubifer, Phil. 
vetustmn. Sow. 
Platyschisma cirroides. 
Jamesii. 
Zonites. 
Pleurotomaria abdita, Phil. 

acuta, Phil. 

altavittata. 

atomaria, Phil. 

biserrata, Phil. 

canaliculata. 

carinata. Sow. 

datbrata. 

concentrica, Phil. 

conica, Phil. 

decussata. 

depressa, Phil. 

excavata, Phil. 

expansa, Phil. 

filosa. 

flanunigera, Phil. 

gemmulifera, Phil. 

Griffitbii. 

Helicinoides. 

inconspicua, Phil. 

interstrialis, Phil. 

Isevis. 

lenticulata. 

limbata, Phil. 

lyrata, Phil. 

monilifera, Phil. 

multicarinata. 

Naticoides, De Kon. 
(P. Hainesii.) 

ovoidea, Phil. 

rotundata, Sov. 

sculpta, Phil 



CARBONIFEEODS GBODP, 



107 



Pleurotomaria serrilimba, FkU. 

sqnamnla, PhU. 

strialis, Fhil. 

striata. Sow, 

sulcata, Fhil. 

sulcatula, Fful. 

tornatilis, Fhil. 

tumida, Fhil. 

nndulata, Fhil. 

vittata, Fhil. 
Fyramis Owenii, Brown. 

reticnlatns, Brown. 
Siphonaria KonincM. 
Terebra constricta, Sow. 
Trochdla prisca. 



Turbo appropinqnans, Fortl. 
biserialis, Fhil. 
semisolcatus, FhU.. 
spirata. 
tiara, Sow. 
Turritella elongata, Flem. 
megaspira. 
minima, Soto, 
spiralis, FhU. 
suturalis, Fhil. 
tenuistriata, Fhil. 
triserialis, Fhil. 
Uriij-PZflu. 
Umbrella Uerigata. 



Ptebopoda. 



Connlaria qnadrisalcata, Sow. 



Hetebopoda 



Bellerophon apertus. Sow. 

comu-arietes. Sow. 
costatus. Sow. 
decnssatos, Flem. 

{B. reticulaius.) 
hiulcus, Sow. 
interlineatus, Fortl. 
intersectns. 
Isevis. 

Larcomii, Fortl. 
navicula. Sow. 
Oldhamii, Fortl. 



Bellerophon orbiculns. 

Orbignyi, Fortl. 

recticostatns, Fortl. 

spiralis, Fhil. 

striatns, I7em. 

tangentialis, Fhil. 

tennifascia. Sow. 

Urii, Flem. 
Porcellia levigata, Lev. 

Puzo, Lee. 

Woodwardii, Sow, tp. 



Cephalopoda. 



Aetiaoceras Simmsii, Stokes. 

pyramidatum. 
Cfrtoceras tuberculatum. 



Goniatites bidorsalis, Fhil. 
biferus, Fhil. 
Brownii. 



108 



CARBONIFEROUS GROUP. 



Goniatites calyx, Phil. 
caiina, Phil. 
creuistria, Phil, 
cyclolobus, Phil. 
discus. 

dorsalis, Brown. 
evolutus, Phil. 
excavatus, Phil. 
expansus. Buck. 
fasciculatus. 
foraminosus, Phil. 
Gibsoni, Phil. 
Gilbertsoni, Phil. 
granosus, Portl. 
Henslowi, Sow. sp. 
implicatus, Phil. 
intercostalis, Phil. 
intennedius, Brown. 
jugosus. Brown. 
Kenyoni, Breton. 
latus. 

Listen, Sow. sp. 
Longthorni, Brown. 
Looneyi, Phil. 
mixonotus, Phil, 
minutissimus, Brown. 
mixolobus, Phil. 
mutabilis, Phil. 
iiitidus, Phil. 
obtusus, Phil. 
paradoxicus, Brown. 
])arvus. Brown. 
paucilobus, Phil. 
platylobus, Phil. 
proteus. Brown. 
reticulatus, Phil. 
rotiformis, Phil. 
serpentinus, Phil. 
Smithii, Brown. 



Goniatites sphaericus, Sow, sp. 

sphseroidalis. 

spirorbis, Phil. 

splendidus. Brown. 

stenolobus, Phil. 

striatus, Phil. 

striolatus, Phil. 

subsulcatus. Brown. 

truncatus, Phil. 
 undulatus. Brown. 

vesica, Phil. 

vittiger, Phil. 
Nautilus annatus. Sow. 

biangulatus. Sow, 

bilobatus. Sow. 

bistrialis, Phil. 

cariniferus. Sow. 

clitellarius, Sow. 

complanatus, Sow. 

compressus. Sow. 

concavus, Sow. 

coronatus. 

costellatus. 

costalis, Phil. 

crenatus. 

cyclostomus, Phil. 

discors. 

discus, Sow. 
{N. mutabilis, N. trochlea.) 

dorsalis, Phil. 

endosiphonus, Phil. 

falcatus, Sow. 

funatus, Sow. 

furcatus. 

globatus. Sow. 

goniolobus, Phil, 

ingens, Mart. 

latidorsatus. 

Luidi, Mart. 



CARBONIFEROUS GROUP. 



109 



} 



Nautilus marginatus, Flem. 
multicarinatus, Sow. 
ovatus, SoK. 
osystomus, Phil. 
pentagonus, Soic. 
pingnis. 

planidorsatus. Port. 
planotergatus. 
• porcatus. 

quadratus, Ilem. 
subsulcatos, Phil. 
sulcatus. Sow. 
sulcifer. Lev. 
sulcifems, Phil. 
tetragonus, Phil. 
tuberculatos, Soic. 
Orthoceras angulare, Flem. 

annulare, Flem. 

arcuatum, Phil. 

attenuatnm, Flem. 

Breynii, Mart. 

cinctum, Sow. 

cordifonne, Sow. 

cylindraceum, Flem. 

dentaloideum, Phil. 



Orthoceras distans. 

filifemm, Phil. 
fiisiforme, Sow. 
Gesneri, 31ari. 
giganteum, Soic. 
incomitatum. 
inequiseptum, Phil. 
Isevigatum. 
laterale, Phil. 
lineolatmn, Phil. 
mucroDatum. 
ovale, Phil. 
paradoxicum. Sow. 
pyramidale, Flem. 
reticulatum, Phil. 
rugosum, Flem. 
scalpratum, Sok. 
Steinhauerii, Sok. 
sulcatulum. 
sulcatum, Flem. 
undatum, Flem. 
unguis, PAH. 
ventricosum. 
{Poterioceras.) 
Phragmoceras flexistria. 



Pisces. 
Placoidfs. 

Tke fallowing list of Fossil Fishes having been described by Agaaii, it is onnecessarj t» 
repeat his name after each species. 



Onehus sulcatus. 

hamatas. 

rectus. 

plicatus. 

falcatus. 

subulatus. 
Ctenacanthus major. 

teauistriatus. 



Ctenacauthus brevis. 

heterogyms. 

arcuatus. 

crenulatns. 
Ptychacanthus sublsvis. 
Spheuacanthus serrulatus. 
Asteroptychius ornatus. 
Portlockii. 



110 



CARBONIFEROUS GROUP. 



Physonemus subteres. 
Gyracauthus formosus. 

tuberculatus. 
Alnvicensis. 
ornatus. 
Oracanthus MiUeri. 
minor, 
pustulosus. 
confluens. 
Lapracanthus Colei. 
priscus. 
Tristychius arcuatus. 
Cladacanthus paradoxus. 
Cricacanthus Jonesii. 
Orodus cinctus. 
Orthacanttus cylindricus. 
Pleuracanthus Isevissimus. 
planus, 
cylindricus. 
ramosus. 
Helodus simplex. 

laevissimus. 
subteres. 
gibberulus. 
turgidus. 
mitratus. 
didymus. 
mammillaris. 
planus. 
Chomatodus cinctus. 
linearis, 
truncatus. 
Cochliodus contortus. 
magnus. 
oblongus. 
acutus. 
striatus. 
Psammodus rugosus. 
porosus. 



Psammodus cornutus. 
obtusus. 
Psecilodus Jonesii. 
parallelus. 
transversus. 
obliquus. 
sublsevis. 
angustus. 
Pleurodus afBnis. 

Rankini. 
Ctenoptychius apicalis. 
pectinatus, 
denticulatus. 
cuspidatus. 
dentatus. 
serratus. 
macrodus. 
crenatus. 
Ctenodus instatus. 

Robertsoni. 
alatus. 
Murcbisoni. 
Petalodus acuminatus. 
Hastingsise. 
psittacinus. 
Isevissimus. 
rectus, 
radicans. 
marginalis. 
sagittatus. 
Cladodus mirabUis. 
marginatus. 
MUleri. 
conicus. 
acutus. 
Hibberti. 
parrus. 
Diplodus gibbosus. 
miautos. 



CABBONIFEROUS GROUP. 



Ill 



Acanthodes snlcatns. 
Amblypterns nemopterus. 
punctatos. 
striatus. 
Falsoniscns carinatns. 
Egertoni. 



Ganoides, 

Palaeoniscm ilonensis. 

omatissimrts. 
Eobertsoni. 
striolatus. 
•Eurynotus crenatus. 
fimbriatus. 



Sauroidet. 



Megalichthys Hibberti. 
maxillaris. 

Diplopterus carbonarius. 
Robertsoni. 

Pygoptems Bucklandi. 
JamesonL 
Greenockii. 

Acrolepis acutirostris. 

Orognathus conidens. 

Graptolepis omatns. 

Pelodus capitatns. 

Caelacanthus PhillipsiL 



Cselacanthus lepturns. 
Holoptychius Hibberti. 

saoroides. 

fiJcatns. 

PortlockiL 

Gamei. 

granulatns. 

striatus. 

minor. 
Hoplopygus BenneTi. 
Ecronemus lobatus. 
Phylolepis tenuissimus. 



112 DEVONIAN GROUP. 



DEVONIAN GEOUP ; OR, OLD RED SANDSTONE. 

1. Conglomerate and Sandstone. 2. Cornstone and Marl. 
3. Tilestone. 



The strata comprising this division consist chiefly of 
various beds of conglomerate, sandstone, marl, limestone 
and tilestone, alternating with each other, and varying in 
their characters according to the locality. The name is 
derived, from this system being extensively developed in 
Devonshire. A triple subdivision has been adopted by 
Sir R. I. Murchison, (Sil. Syst.) 

1. QuARTZosE Conglomerates and Sandstone. 

{a) The upper beds consist of quartzose grits, with a slight calcareous 

cement, or pink and reddish quartzose conglomerates, passing 
{b) downwards into chocolate, brown, and reddish coarse-grained 

sandstone, with alternating bands of red and green argillaceous 

marls, 
(a) The picturesque cliffs of Symonds Yat, between Monmouth and 

Ross. On the right bank of the Wye to the north of Tintem 

Abbey, and along the summit of Wentwood, between Chepstow 

and Usk. 
{b) The Fan bwlch-y-chwyth, near Trecastle. The Darem, two 

miles north of Crickhowell. 

Fish. — Iloloptychms nobilissimus. 

2. Cornstone and Marl. 

Red and green argillaceous and spotted marls, with alternating bands 
of sandstone, or with irregular courses of concretionary impure 
limestone (Cornstone) mottled, red and green. 



DEVONIAN GROUP. 113 

The Clifis under the Castle at Lanstiphan, near the month of the 
Towey. In the vicinity of Hay, and in the valley of the Tsk, 
near Abergavenny. 

Fishes. — Cephalatpis and OncAtu. 

3. TllESTOXE. 

Rndy laminated, hard, reddish or green, micaceous, quartzose sand- 
stones, which split into tiles ; with occasional beds of reddish 
shale. 

In the gorge of the Teme, between Ludlow and Downton Castle, 
near the Tin Mill. Oakley Park, Ludlow. Horeb Chapel ; the 
Valley of the Cwm Dwr, between Trecastle and Llandovery. 

Fishes. — Diptenu, &c., and remains of Testacea. 

In Scotland this system is also largely developed, iu 
Caitlmess and Cromarty, as described by ^Ir. ^liUer. In 
Dura Den, south of Cupar, in the valley of Strathmore 
and adjacent district, as observed by Mr. Lyell, {ElemenU 
of Geology, vol. ii. p. 148.) 

The mineral characters are ver\- similar, and the divi- 
sions appear to be characterized by the same genera of 
Fishes, but remains of Testacea have scarcely been observed; 
the lowest division, however, contains a larger number of 
the remains of Fishes, than the equivalent beds in England, 
and belonging to the genera, Plericthys, Coccosteus, Diplcp- 
tents, Diptenis, CJieiracanthus, &c. 

Strata of the same age have been recognized as occur- 
ring in Devonshire, but present a different lithological 
aspect, consisting of green chloritic and quartzose slates 
and sandstones, with some conglomerate and limestones, 
and contain a great abundance of the remains of Testacea 
and Crustacea, those of Fishes being on the other hand 
very scarce. Xumerous species belonging to the families 
Brachiojpoda, Cephalopoda, Conchifera and Gasteropoda, 
have been collected. 



114 DEVONIAN GROUP. 

LIST OF WORKS, MEMOIRS, &c. 

Austen, R. C, ' Geology of Devonshire,' Geol. Ti-ans. vol. vi. 
De la Beche, Sir H. T., ' Geological 'Report of Devon, Cornwall' &c. 
Lonsdale, W., ' On the Limestones of South Devon,' Geol. Trans. 
vol. v. 

Lyell, C, ' Elements of Geology' vol. ii. p. 145. 

Malcolmson, J. C, ' On the Old Red Sandstone of Murray,' &c. Geol. 
Proc. vol. iii. p. 141. 

Miller, T., ' The Old Red Sandstone.' Letters in the Witness News- 
paper, 1843. 

Murchison, Sir R. L, ' Silurian System' ^. 169. 

and Sedgwick, Prof., ' On Devonshire,' Geol. 

Trans, vol. v. 

Phillips, J., ' Falceozoic Fossils of Devon,' &c, 

Prestwich, J., ' On the Gamrie Icthyolites,' Geol. Trans, vol. v. 



FOSSILS OF THE DEVONIAN GROUP. 

Amokphozoa. 
Manon cribrosum, Golclf. Scyphia turbinata, Goldf. 

ZOOPHYTA. 

Amplexus tortuosus, Phil. Favosites Gothlandicus, Lam. 

Astrea helianthoides, Blainv. polymorphus, Goldf. 

Hennahii, Lons. spongites, Goldf. 

pentagona, Blainv. Fenestella antiqua, Lons. 

Aulopora conglomerata, Goldf. arthritica, Phil. 

Caunopora ramosa, Phil. flustriformis, Phil. sji. 

Coscinopora placenta, Goldf. prisca, Goldf. sp. 

Cyathophyllum caespitosum, Goldf. laxa, Phil. 

turbinatum, Goldf. Glauconome bipinnata, Phil. 
Cystiphyllum Danmoniense, Lons. Gorgonia ripisteria, Goldf. 

vesiculosum, Phil. Hemitrypa oculata, Phil. 
Favosites fibrosus, Lons. Millepora gracilis, Phil. 



DEVONIAN GROUP. 



115 



Mfllepora similis, Phil. 
Petraia bina, Lons. 

celtica, Loru. 

pauciradialis Phil. 

pluriradialis, Phil. 
Pontes pyrifonnis, Ehrenb. 



Stromatopora polymorpha, Goldf. 

concentrica, Goldf. 

Strombodes helianthoideSj Goldf. 

vennicularis, Lont. 
Sjrmgopora catenata. Mart. 



ECHIKODEKStATA. 

Adelocrinns hystrii, Phil. Cyathocriiins pinnatTis, Goldf. 
Cyathocrinus distans, Phil. variabilis, Phil. 

ellipticus, Phil. Pentatrematites oralis, Goldf. 

geometricus, Goldf. Platj-crinus interscapularis, Phil. 

macrodactylus, Phil. pentangidaris. Mill. 

megashlns, Phil. Taxocrinna macrodactylus, Phil. 

nodulosus, Phil. 



Crustacea. 



Brontes flabeUifer, Goldf. 
Calymene Stembergii, Mumt. 
Harpes macrocephalus, Goldf 
Olenus pmictatiis, Stein. 



Phacops granulata, Munst. 
Isevis, Munst. 
Latreillii, Stein. 



COXCHIFZRA DniTARIA. 



Corbola Hennahii, Sow. 
Cacnllsea arnvgdalina, Phil. 
angusta, Phil. 
depressa, Phil. 
Hardingii, Sow. 
ovata. Sow. 
trapezium, Sow. 
umlateralis. Sow. 
Cypricardia deltoidea, Phil. 
impressa. Sow. 
M^alodon carinatus, Goldf. 
cucuUatus, Sow. 
Modiola amygdalina, Phil. 
scalaris, Phil. 



Modiola semisulcata. Sow. 
Mvtilus Damnoniensis, Phil. 
Nucula latissima, Phil. 
lineata, Phil. 
plicata, Phil. 
Pleurorhvncus alaeformis, Soto. 

minai, Phil. 
Pullastra antiqua. Sow. 
elliptica, Phil. 
complanata. Sow. 
Sanguinolaria elliptica, Phil. 
lyrata, Phil. 
sulcata, Muntt. 



116 



DEVONIAN GROUP. 



CoNCHirERA MONOMTAEIA. 



Avicula anisota, PIdl. 

cancellata, Phil. 

Damnoniensis, Sow. 

exarata, Phil. 

Pectinoides, Sow. 

reticulata, Phil. 

rudis, Phil. 

subradiata, Sow. 

texturata, Phil. 
Pectcn altcrnatus, Phil. 

arachnoideus, Phil. 



Pecten granulosus, Phil. 
nexilis, Sow. 
plicatus, Sow. 
polytrichus, Phil. 
rugosus, Phil. 
trausversus, Sow. 
Posidonomya Becheri, Goldf. 

lateralis. Sow. 
Pterinea radiata, Goldf. 
spinosa, Phil. 
ventricosa, Goldf. 



Brachiopoda. 



Atrjpa cassidea, Balm. 

cremilata. Sow. 

decussata. Sow. 

fallax, Sovj. 

hispida. Sow. 

impleta, Sow. 

implexa, Sow. 

indentata. Sow. 

lachryma, Sow. 

latissima, Sow. 

lineata, Phil. 

oblonga, Sow. 

plebeia, Sow. 

protracta. Sow. 

rhomboidea, Phil. 

spha^rica, Sow. 

striatula, Sow. 

triangularis, Sovj. 

triloba, Sow. 
Calceola sandalina, Lam. 
Chonetes Hardrensis, Phil. sp. 

? membranacea, Phil. .sp. 

sordida, Sow. 



Lepta;na analoga. Sow. 

caperata. Sow. 

depressa. Balm. 
{L. rugosa, Dalm.) 

fragaria. Sow. 

interrupta. Sow. 

membranacea, Pkil. 

nodulosa, Phil. 
Orthis arcuata, Phil. 

arachnoidea, Phil. 
altemata. Sow. 

{compressa. Sow.) 
calcar, Phil. 
crenistria, Phil. sp. 
granulosa, Phil. 
interlineata. Sow. 
interstrialis, Phil. 
lens, Phil. 
longisulcata, Phil. 
parallcla, Phil. 
plicata, Sow. 
resupinata, Mart. sp. 
semicircularis, Sow. 



DEVONIAN GROUP. 



117 



Ortliis sabaracknoidea, Vem. 

teunistriata. Saw. 
Productus coDToIutos, Phil. 

larispinns, Fhil. 

mesolobus, FAil. 

praelongus. Sow. 

reticulatns. Sow. 

scabriculus. Sow. 
Spirifer affinis. Sow. 

aperturatus, Schlot. 
Archiaci Murch. 
calcaratus, Sow. 
cassidea, Bronn. 
costatus. Sow. 
cuspidatus, ^art. tp. 
disjunctns. Sow. 
distans. Sow. 
eitensus. Sow. 
giganteus, Sow. 
grandaevus, Phil, 
heteroclitus, Phil. 
himndo, Phil. 
inomahis. Sow. 
megalobns, Phil. 
mesomalus, Phil. 
microgemma, Phil. 
nudns, Sow. 
oblatus. Sow. 
obliteratus, Phil. 
ostiolatus, Schlot. 
phalsena, Phil. 
protensus, Phil. 
pulcbellus. Sow. 
rotundatus. Sow. 
rudis, Phil. 
simplex, Phil. 
speciosus, Schlot. 
striatus, Sow. 
subconicus. Mart. sp. 



trapezoidalis. Balm. 
Urii, Flem, 
Strigocephalus brevirostrum, Phil. 

Burtini, Befr. 

giganteus. Sow. 
Terebratula acuminata. Mart. sp. 
amblygona, Phil. 
angnlaris, Phil. 

{T. primipilaris, 
Buch.) 
anisodonta, Phil. 
aspera, Schlot. 
bifera, Phil. 
borealis, Schlot. 
compta, Phil. 
concentrica, Buch. 
crumena. Sow. 
Cuboides, Sow. 
eurvata, Schlot. 
desqnamata. Sow. 
ferita. Buck. 
Gry|)hns, Schlot. 
hastata. Sow. 
insperata, Phil. 
juvenis. Sow. 
laticosta, Phil. 
Mantite, Sow. 
pleurodon, Phil. 
primipilaris, Bttci. 
proboscidalis, Phil. 
pugnus. Sow. 
reniformis. Sow. 
reticularis, Bronn. 
rhomboidea, Phil. 
sacculus. Sow. 
subdentata. Sow. 
virgo, Phil. 
Wilsoui, Sow. 



118 



DEVONIAN GROUP. 



Gastekopoda. 



Acroculia sigmoidalis, Phil. 
Buccinuin acutum. Sow. 
breve. Sow. 
imbricatum, Sow. 
Scblotheimii, Vern. 
Euomphalus annulatus, Fhil. 
circularis, PJiil. 
serpens, Phil. 
Loxonema Heimahiana, Phil. 
lincta, Phil. 
cexilis, Phil. 
prseterita, Phil. 
reticulata, Phil. 
rugifera, Phil. 
sinuosa, Phil. 
tixmida, Phil. 
Macrocheilus acutus, Phil. 

elongatus, Phil. 
neglectus, Phil. 
Murchisonia augulata, Phil. 

bigranulosa. If Arch. 
geminata, Phil. 
spinosa, Phil. 



Murchisoiua taeniata, Vern. 
tricincta, Phil. 
Murei harpula. Sow. 
Natica meridionalis Phil. 

nexicosta, Phil. 
Nerita deformis. Sow. 
speciosa. Sow. 
Platyceras vetustum, Sow. 
Pleurotomaria antitorquata, Phil. 
aspera. Sow. 
cancellata, Phil. 
cirriformis. Sow. 
expansa, Phil. 
gracilis, Phil. 
impendens, Sow. 
monilifera, Phil. 
Schizostoma radiatum, Vern. 

Puzosii, Vern. 
Trocbus Boueii, Stein. 
Tui'bo cirriformis. Sow. 

subangulatus. Sow. 
textatus, Phil. 



Heteeopoda 



Belleropbon apertus. Sow. 
globatus. Sow. 
hiulcus. Sow. 
striatus, D'Ori. 
striatus, Bronn. 



BeUeropbon trilobatus, Sow. 

Urii, Flem. 

Wenlockensis, Sow. 
Porcellia Woodwardii, Sow. sp. 



Pteropoda. 
Creseis dimidiatum, {Orthoceras, sp. Sow.) 



DEVONIAN GROUP. 



119 



Cep 


HAWPODA. 




Clymenia fesciata, Fhil. 


Goniatites inconstans, FkH. 


laevigata, Munst. 




insignis, PAH. 


linearis. Sow. 




linearis, Munst. 


plurisepta, Phil. 




miiolobus, PhH. 


sagittaUs, Phil. 




serpentinns, PAH. 


striata, Mutut. 




spiralis, PAH. 


TaUda, PAH. 




spirorbis, PAH. 


CjTtoceras armatum, Phil. 




transitorius, PAH. 


bdellatites, PAH. 




vinctum. Sow. 


fimbriatum, PAH. 


Nautilus 


germ au us, PAH. 


marginale, PAH. 




megasipho, PAH. 


 Nautiloideum, PAH. 


Orthoceras cinctum. Sow. 


nodosum, PAH. 




cvlindraceum. Sow 


obliquatum, PAH. 




cylindricum. Sow. 


oraatum, Gold/. 




ellipsoideum, PAU. 


quindecimale, PAH. 




Ibex, Sow. 


reticulatum, PAH. 




imbricatum, WaAl. 


rusticum, PAH. 




liueolatum, PAH. 


tridecimale, PAH. 




Ludense, Sow. 


Goniatites biferus, PAH. 




striatulum. Sow. 


carbonarios. Sow. 




tentaculare, PAH. 


crenistria, PAH. 




tubicinella, Sow. 


eicavatus, PAH. 




undulatum, Sow. 


globosus, Mumt. 


Pisces. 


{Jaterale, Phil.) 


Placoides. 




Onchus arcuatiB, Ag. 


Ptycliacanthus dubius, Ag. 


semistriatus, Ag. 


Clemetius reticulatus, Ag. 


Pareius recurvxis, Ag. 


Ctenoptychius priscus, Ag. 


Ctenacanthus ornatus, Ag. 







Ganoides. 



Dipterus macrolepiJotus, Sedgw. 
Osteolepis arenatus, Ag. 



Osteolepis microlepidotns, Ag. 
major, Ag. 



]20 



DEVONIAN GROUP. 



Acanthodes pusillus, Ag. 
Diplocanthus crassispinus, Ag. 
longispinus, Ag. 
striatulus, Ag. 
striatus, Ag. 
Cheiracanttus Murchisoni, Ag. 
minor, Ag. 
microlepidotus, Ag. 
Cheirolepis Traillii, Ag. 
uragus, Ag. 
Cummingise, Ag. 
Cephalaspis Lewisii, Ag. 
Lloydii, Ag. 
Lyellii, Ag. 
rostratus, Ag. 
Pterichthys cancriformis, Ag. 
cornutus, Ag. 
hydropWlus, Ag. 
latus, Ag. 
major, Ag. 
Milleri, Ag. 
oblongus, Ag. 
productus, Ag. 
testudinarius, Ag. 
Cocosteus cuspidatus, Ag. 
latus, Ag. 
maximus, Ag. 
oblongus, Ag. 
Chelomchthys Asmusii, Ag. 

{Asterolepis, Ag 
minor, Ag. 



Cheloniclithys Malcolmsoni, Ag. 
Actinolepis tuberculatus, Ag. 
Stagonolepis Robertsoni, Ag. 
Dijjlopterus afRnis, Ag. 
borealis, Ag. 
macrocephalus, Ag. 
Platygnathus paucidens, Ag. 
Jamesoni, Ag. 
minor, Ag. 
Dendrodus latus, Owen. 

strigatus, Owen. 
sigmoideus, Owen. 
Lamnodus biporcatus, Ag. 
Panderi, Ag. 
sulcatus, Ag. 
Ci'icodus incurvus, Ag. 
Megalichthys priscus, Ag. 
HoloptycMus giganteus, Ag. 
Flemingii, Ag. 
nobilissimus, Ag. 
Andersoni, Ag. 
Murchisoni, Ag. 
Glyptosteus favosus, Ag. 

reticulatns, Ag. 
Phyllolepis concentricus, Ag. 
Pamphractus hydrophilus, Ag. 

Andersoni, Ag. 
Homothorax Flemingii, Ag. 
Placothorax paradoxus, Ag. 
) Polypbractus platycepbalus, Ag. 



SILUEIAN GROUP. 



121 



SILUEIAN GROUP. 



ill. 



Ladlow Formation. . . 2. Wenlock Formation. 



1. Caradoc Formation. . . 2. T.landeilo Formation. 



This Group, (which derives its name from the ancient 
kingdom of the Silures, a tract of country where these rocks 
are best developed,) extends over a considerable area in 
the border counties of England and Wales, as well as over 
a large portion of the principality itself. The sedimen- 
tary deposits comprise argillaceous, calcareous and arena- 
ceous beds, varying both in colour and texture. Some of 
the sandstones are fine-grained or gritty. The limestones 
are argillaceous, concretionary and sometimes flaggy. The 
following summary and subjoined localities are abstracted 
from the ' Silurian System' of Sir R. I. Murchison, to whose 
large work the reader is referred for full details connected 
with the whole district of Siluria. 





. a. Upper Ludlow 
Rock. 


«. Slightly micaceous. 




grey-coloured, thin- 






bedded sandstone. 


1. Ludlow Formation. . 


b. Aymestry lime- 
stone 


b. Subcrystalline or 
grey and blue argil- 
► laceous limestone. 




c. Lower Ludlow 


c. Sandy, liver and 


- 


rock. 


Jark-colonred shale 
and flag, with concre- 
tions of eatthy lime- 




b 


stone. 



122 



SILURIAN GKOUP. 



2. Wenlock and 
Dudley Formation. 



d. Wenlock and 
Dudley limestone. 

e. Wenlock and 
Dudley shale. 



d. Highly concre- 
tionary grey and blue 
subcrystalline lime- 
stone. 

e. Argillaceons shale, 
liver and dark grey- 
coloured, rarely mica- 
ceous, with nodules of 
earthy limestone. 



3. Caradoc 
Formation. 



Flags. 



g. Sandstones, grits, 
and limestones. 



/. Thin-bedded, im- 
pure, shelly limestone, 
and finely laminated, 
slightly micaceous, 
greenish sandstone. 
^g. Thick-bedded, red, 
purple, green, and 
white free-stones. Con- 
glomeritic quartzose 
grits. Sandy and 
gritty limestones. 



4. Builth andLIan- 
deilo Formation. 



h, Llandeilo flags. 



h. Dark-coloured 
flags, mostly calca. , 
reous, with some 
sandstone and schist. 



LOCALITIES FOR FOSSILS, &c. 



Ladle w Castle, 'WTiitcliffe, Munskw, Diddlebury, Lardeu, Shrop- 
shire ; Croft Castle, Mortimer's Cross, Titley, Kington, Fown- 
hope. Stoke Edith, Herefordshire ; West flanks of Malvern and 
Abberley Hills, Worcestershire ; West flank of May Hill, Tort- 
worth, Gloucestershire; Presteigne, Pain's Castle, Radnorshire; 
Treweme Hills, Corn-y-fan, Brecon, Llanbadock near Usk. 

Aymestry, Croft Ambry, Gatley, Brindgwood Chase, Downton-on 



SILURIAN GROUP. 123 

the-Rock, Herefordshire ; Yeo Edge, Shelderton, Norton Camp, 
Dinchope, Caynham Camp, Shropshire ; Sedgeley, Staffordshire. 

c. Escarpments of Mocktree and Brindgwood Chase, Gatley, and 

Valley of Woolhope, Herefordshire ; Mary Knoll Dingle, "Wes- 
thorpe, Hopedale, and Long Mountain, Shropshire ; West side 
of Abberley and Malvern HlHs; escarpments in Montgomery, 
Radnor, Brecknock and Caermarthenshires. 

d. Lincoln Hill, Benthall and Wenlock Edge, Shropshire ; Burrington, 

Nether Lye, near Aymestry, Nash near Presteigne, Old Radnor ; 
Pwll-Calch, Caermarthenshire ; Valley of Woolhope, Ledbury, 
and west side of Malvern Hills ; East side of Abberley Hills, 
Dudley, Worcestershire ; Long Hope, near May Hill, Glouces- 
tershire ; Frescoed and Cil-na-Caya, near L'sk. 

e. Buildwas, Hughley, Wistanstow and Clungunford, Salop ; escarp- 

ments in Montgomery, Radnor, Brecknock and Caermarthen- 
shires : West flank of Malvern Hills, Alfrick, Worcestershire ; 
centre of Wren's Nest, Dudley, &c. &c. 

/. Banks of the Onny, near Horderley, Acton Bnmell, Chatwall ; the 
Hollies, near Hope Bowdler, Cheney Longville, Acton Scott; 
East flank of Wrekin and Caer Caradoc, Salop ; Eastnor Park, 
Obelisk, and centre of Woolhope Valley, Herefordshire ; May 
Hill, Gloucestershire. 

g. Horderley, Hoar Edge, Long Lane, and Corston, Shropshire ; 
Ankerdine Hill, Old Storridge, Howler Heath, S.W. of Malvern 
Hills, Worcestershire ; May HOI, Gloucestershire ; and the same 
localities as /. in Shropshire ; Guilsfield and Alt-y-maen, Mont- 
gomeryshire ; Castel Craig Gwyddou, Caermarthenshire. 

h. Rorington, near Shelve, Shropshire : Llandrindod and Wellfield, 
near BuUth, Radnorshire; Tan-yr-Alt to Llandeilo, Caermar- 
thenshire. 

In Yorkshire and Westmorland ; in some parts of Scotland ; in the 
South of Ireland, and other districts, rocks belonging to the 
Silurian Group also occur. 

In the lake district, Professor Sedgwick has divided the 
fossiliferous slates extending from the Coniston Limestone 
to the Valley of the Lime, into five Formations. 



124 SILURIAN GROUP. 



5. Upper Slate of f "• ^''"'^"i'^ ^^'^ "^^ ""^ flagstoBes. 

Kendal i *" ^'^^^ ^°^ slates with Upper Ludlow fossils. 

I a. Coarse slates passing downwards into 4 rf. 



4. Ireleth Slates. . 



' d. Coarse slates, flags and grits. — Terehratula 
navicula, and other Lower Ludlow fossils. 
c. Upper Ireleth slates. 
h. Calcareous slates and limestone. 
a. Lower Ireleth slates. 



% CoTiiston frit / Graptolithus Ludensis, Cardiola interrupta, 
Orthoceras Ibex. 

2. Coniston Brathay r Graptolithus Ludensis, and Upper Silurian 
Flagstone. "^ species. 

1. Coniston Limestone and Slate . . . Lower Silurian fossils. 

The fossil organic remains of this period are very in- 
teresting, as they make us acquainted with some of the 
early forms of life on the surface of the globe. In the 
Lower Silurian, Trilobites and some species of Brachiopoda 
appear to have been abundant, associated with MoEusca, 
Corals, and Crinoidea ; in the Upper beds, Corals become 
more abundant, as well as various orders of marine Mol- 
lusca, Brachiopoda, and Crinoidea, occurring with them, 
and a few remains of Sauroid fish. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS, &c. 

Bo\vman, J. E., ' On the Silurian Rocks to the West of Ahergele,' 
Geol. Trans, vol. vi. 

Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc. vol. i. p. 194. 

Lyell, C, ' Elements of Geology' vol. ii. 

' On the Silurian Strata,' &c., Geol. Proc. vol. iii. p. 463. 

Mc'Coy, F., ' Synopsis of the Silurian Fossils of Ireland.' 



SILURIAN GROUP. 



125 



Mnrchison, Sir R. I., ' The Silurian &fstem' 

Sedgwick, Rer. A., ' On the older Stratified Rocks/ &c., Geol. Froc. 

voL ii. p. 675. ; vol. iii.p. 545. 
• On the Slate Rocks of Cumberland,' Geol. Jowrn. 

vol. ii. p. 106. 

' On North Wales,' Geol. Froc. vol. iv. p. 212. 

Sharpe D., ' On the Bala Limestone,' Geol. Froc. vol. iv. p. 10. 

' On North Wales,' Geol. Joum. vol. ii. p. 283, 

Yates, J., 'On the Border Country of Salop,' &c., Geol. Tram. vol. ii. 



FOSSILS OF THE SLLURIAN GROLT. 



Amoephozoa. 



Cnemidium tenue, Lons. 



ZOOPHTTA. 



Acervularia Baltica, Schiceig. 
Alveolites fibrosus, Lons. 
Astrea ananas, Lons. 
Aulopora conglomerata, Goldf. 

consinulis, Lons. 

serpens, Goldf. 

tubseformis, Goldf. 
Caryophyllia flexuosa. Lam. 
Catenipora escharoides, Lam. 
Ceriopora aflinis, Goldf. 

granulosa, Goldf. 
Cyathophyllum angustum, Lons. 



Esehara scalpellum, Loiis. 
Escharina angularis, Lans. 
Favosites alveolaris, Blainv. 
fibrosus, Lons. 
Gothlandicus, Lam. 
spongites, Goldf. 
Fenestella antiqua, Lons. 
Milleri, Lons. 
reticulata, Lons. 
Fungia lenticulata, Lotis. 
pneacuta, Lons. 
Glauconome disticha, Goldf. 
Gorgonia assimilis, Lons. 



dianthus, Goldf. 
turbinatnm, Goldf. Hornera crassa, Lons. 
Cystiphyllum cylindricimi, Lons. Lhnaria clathrata. Stein. 
Siluriense, Lons. 



Diastopora irregularis, Lons. 
Discopora antiqoa. Lam. 

favosa, Lons. 

squamata, Lorn. 



fruticosa. Stein. 
MUlepora repens, His. 
Monticularia conferta, Lons. 
Petraia bina, Lons. 

elongata, Lons. 

Hi 



126 



SILURIAN GROUP. 



Petraia pluriradialis, Phil. 

rugosa, Fhil. 
Porites discoidea, Lons. 

expatiata, Lons. 

inordinata, Lons. 

pyriformis, Lons. 

tubiilata, Lons. 
Ptilodlctya lanceolata, Goldf. 



Stromatopora concentrica, Lons. 
Strombodes plicatus, Lons. 
Syringopora csespitosa, Jjons, 

furcata, Goldf. 

catenata. 

filiformis, Goldf. 
Turbinolia fibrosa, Portl. 
mitrata, Eis. 



ECHINODERMATA. 



Actinocrinus arthriticus, Phil. 

moniliformis, Mill. 

retiarias, Phil. 

simplex, Phil. 
Cyathocrinus capillaris, Phil. 

rugosus, 31ill. 

goniodactylus, Phil. 

pyriformis, Phil. 



Dimerocrinus decadactylus, Phil. 
icosidactylus, Phil. 
Echinosphserites granulatus, 

Mc'Coy. 
Rbodocrinus quinquangularis, Mill. 
Sagenocrinus expansus, Aust. 
Taxocrinus tuberculatus, Phil. 
Trochocrinus Isevis, Portl. 



Annelida. 



Entobia antiqua, Portl. 
Lumbricaria antiqua, Portl. 
Myrianites Macleayii, Murch. 
Nemertites Ollivantii, Murch, 



Nereites Cambrensis. 
Sedgwickii. 
Serpulites longissimus, Murch. 
Spirorbis Lewisii, Sow. 



CfiUSTACEA. 



Acidaspis Brigbtii, Murch. 

bispinosus, Mc'Coy. 
Agnostus pisiformis, Brong. 

tuberculatus, Murch. 
AmpHon frontilobus, Pand. 

pseudo-articulatus. Port. 
Ampyi Austinii, Portl. 
baccatus, Portl. 
rostratus, Bars. 
Sarsii, Portl. 
Arges plano-spinosus. 



Asaphus Buchii, Brong. 
caudatus, Brong. 
Cawdori, Murch. 
Comdensis. 
cornigerus, Brong. 
duplicatus, Murch. 
latifrons, Portl. 
longicaudatus, Murch. 
marginatus, Portl. 
Stokesii, Murch. 
subcaudatus. 



SILURIAN GROUP. 



127 



Asaphos Tynumas. 

Vulcani. 
Bejrichia Klodeni, Mi^Coy. 
Broates signatns, PkU. 
Bmnastes Barriensis, Murch. 
Calymene Blumenbachii, Brong. 
brericapitatns, Portl. 
Downingise, Murch. 
mnltisegmatBS, Portl. 
tabercolatns, Murch, 
Ceraurns globiceps, Portl. 
Enommrus Stokesii, McCoy. 
Harpes Doranni. 
FlanaganL 
Homalonotas delphinocephalns, 

Murch 
Lndensis, Murch. 
Ulseinis centrotiis, Balm. 
ciassicaada. Halm. 
qQadrato-candatns, Portl. 
Isotelns arcnatns, Portl. 
gigas. 

intermedins. 
Isviceps. 



Isotdns OTatns. 

rectifrons. 
Nattainia Hibernica, Portl. 
Ogygia ^Inrchisoniae, Murch. 
OdontoplenrabinmcronatnSjJfitrcA. 
quadrimncronatns, 

Murch. 
Otarion obtnsum, Mc'Coy. 
Phacop Dalmanni, Portl. 
Jamesii. 
JMurchisoni. 
macroptbalma, Brong. 
Remoplenrides Colbii, Portl. 
dorso-spinifer. 
lateri-spinifer. 
longi-capitatos. 
longi-costatns. 
Sphsereiochu3 calms, M^Cog. 
Trinuclens Caractaci, Murch. 
fimbriatns. 
UoydiL 
nndns. 
radiata&. 



CONCHITEEA DdITAKIA. 



Area cylindrica, Portl. 

dissimilis, Portl. 

Eastnori, Sow. 

obliqna, Portl. 

qnadratns, Mc'Cog^ 

r^nlaris, Portl. 

sdtnla, McCoy. 

snbtmncata, Portl. 

transTcrsa, Portl. 
Cardiola fibrosa. Sow. 

intermpta. Sow. 
Cardinm pectnncol ides, 
UJt. aad 



CuenDaea antiqna. Sour. 
Cawdori, Sow. 
ovata, SoK. 
Cypricardia amygdalina, Sok. 
cymbseformis. Sow. 
impressa. Sow. 
retosa. Sow. 
simplex, Portl. 
sinnata, Mi^Coy. 
undata. Sow. 
Lncina bnDa, Mc'Coy. 
Modiula antiqoa. Sow, 
If Tern, BTjed,Pora. 



128 



SILURIAN SYSTEM. 



Modiola expansa, Portl. 
Nerei, 3Iunst. 
securiformis, Portl. 
Mytilus cinctus, Portl. 

semirugatus, Portl. 
Nucula Isevis, Sow. 

cingulata. His. 

ovalis, Sow. 

grandseva, Goldf. 

radiata, Portl. 

Protei, Munst. 

subacuta, Mc'Coy. 



Nucula subcylindriea, Mc'Coy. 
Pectunculus ambiguus, Portl. 
Apjotni, Portl. 
semitruncatus, Portl. 
Psammobia rigida. Sow. 
Pleurorhynchus pristis, Salter. 
Pullastra complanata, Sow. 
speciosa, MdCoy. 
Isevis, Sow. 
Sangninolaria compressa, Goldf. 
obovata, Munst. 



MONOMYAEIA. 



Avicula antiqua, Goldf. 
bullata, Mc'Coy. 
lineata, Soio. 
Neptuni, Goldf. 
obliqua, Sow. 
orbicularis. Sow. 
planulata, Conrad, sp. 
rectangularis, Sow. 
reticularis, His. 
retroflexa, Sow. 



Inoceramus contortus, Portl. 
priscus, Portl. 
transversus, Portl. 
trigonus, Portl. 
Posidonomya venusta, Munst. 
Pteriuea lamellosa, Goldf. 
lineata, Goldf. 
ventricosa, Goldf. 
fimbriata, Mc'Coy. 
orbicularis, Mc'Coy. 



Brachiopoda. 



Atrypa compressa, Sow. 
crassa. Sow. 
depressa. Sow. 
didyma, His. 
globosa. Sow. 
hemisphserica. Sow, 
lens. Sow. 
linguifera. Sow. 
obovata. Sow. 
orbicularis. Sow. 
plana. Sow. 
rotunda, Sow. 



Atrypa teuuistriata. Sow. 

transversa, Portl. 

undata. Sow. 

Leptsena depressa. Balm. 

{rugosa, Dalm.) 

euglypha. Balm. 

{complanata. Sow,) 
imbrex. Pander. 
laevigata, Sow. 
Isevissima, MdCoy. 
minima, Sow. 
plicotis, Mc'Coy. 



SILURIAN GBOUP. 



129 



Leptsena sarcinnlata, Hupaeh. 
{chonetes, Fischer.) 
sericea, Scm. 
semiovalis, Mc'Coy. 
tenuistriata. Sow. 
transversalis. Balm, 
{duplicata. Sow.) 
Lingnk attennata. Sow. 
brevis, Portl. 
cornea. Sow. 
lata. Sow. 
Lewisii, Sow. 
minima. Sow. 
striata, Sow. 
Orbicnla laevigata, Mujut. 
oblongata, Portl. 
permgata, Mc'Coy. 
rugata. Sow. 
striata. Sow. 
subrotunda. Sow. 
Orthis ActonisB, Sow. 
alata. Sow. 
? applanata, Salter. 
altemata. Sow. 

{compressa. Sow.) 
anomala, Schlot. 
antiqnata. Sow. 
basalis. His. 
bilobata. Sow. 
callactis, Balm. 
calligramma. Balm. 
cancellata, Portl. 
concentrica, Portl. 
costata, Sow. 
degantula, Balm. 
expansa. Sow. 
fallal, Salter. 
filosa, Sow. 
flabellulum, Sow. 



Orthis grandis, Sow. 

hybrida. Sow. 

imbrex, Bitch. 

intercostata, Portl. 

lata. Sow. 

lunata. Sow. 

orbicalaris. Sow. 

parva. Pander. 

pecten, Balm. 

protensa. Sow. 

radians, Sond. 

reversa, Salter. 

rustica, Sow. 

semicircularis, Sow. 

testudinaria. Balm. 

triangularis, Sow. 

vespertilio. Sow. 

virgata. Sow. 

Tmdnlata, Mc'Coy. 
Pentamems galeatns, Balm. tp. 
Knightii, Sow. 
Isevis, Sow. 
oblongus. Sow. 
Spirifer biloba, Linn. sp. 

crispus. Sow. 

decemplicatns. Hall, 
{pctoplicattu. Sow. Sil. 
Syst. not Jlc'Coy.) 

interlineatus. Sow. 

laevis, Sow. 

liratns. Sow. 

ovatns. Me' Coy. 

pisnm, Sow. 

plicatns, Sow. 

ptychodes. Balm. 

radiatus. Sow. 

striatnlus, Schlot. sp. 

trapezoidaUs, Balm. 
Terebratnla bidentata. His. 



130 



SILUKIAN SYSTEM. 



Terebratula torealis, Schlot. 

brevirostrum. Sow. 
canalis, Sow. 
crebricosta, Sow. 
crispata, Sow. 
cuneata, Balm. 
decemplicata, Sow. 
deflesa, Sow. 
forcata. Sow. 
interpHcata, Sow. 
Iseviuscula, Sow. 
marginalis, Balm. 



Terebratula navicula, Sow. 
nucula. Sow. 
pentagona, Sow. 
pulchra. Sow. 
pusilla, Sow. 
reticularis, Linn. sp. 
spheerica, Sow. 
Stricklandi, Sow. 
tenuistriata. Sow. 
tripartita, Sow. 
unguis. Sow. 



Wilsoni, Sow. 



Gasteropoda. 



Acroculia Haliotis, Sow. sp. 
Ecculiompbalus Bueklandi, Fortl. 
Isevis, Sow. sp. 
minor, Fortl. 
Euomphalus alatus. His. 

carinatus, Sow. 

Corndensis, Sow 

discors, Sow. 

funatus, Sow. 

lautus, Mc'Coy. 

perturbatus, Sow. 

rugosus. Sow. 

seulptus, Sow. 

tenuistriatus. Sow. 

triciiictus,J/c'Co_^. 
Helmiiithochiton Griffltbii, Salter. 
Littorina striatella, Sow. 
Loxonema sinuosa. Sow. sp. 
Macrocheilus fusiformis, Sow. sp. 
Murchisonia articulata, Sow. sp. 

biciucta, Mc'Coy. 

corallii, Sow. sp. 

Lloydii, Sow. sp. 

pulchra, Mc'Coy. 



Natica parva. Sow. 
Nerita? glaucinoides, Sow. 

spirata. Sow. 
Patella implicata. Sow. 
Pleurotomaria angulata. Sow. 
inflata, Mc'Coy. 
subrotunda, Fortl. 
latifasciata,l/c'Coy. 
turrita, Fortl. 
undata, Sow. 
ScHzostoma latifasciatum, Fortl. 
Trochus belicites. Sow. 

lenticularis, Sow. 
multitorquatus, Mc'Coy. 
Turbo carinatus. Sow. 
cirrbosus. Sow. 
coneinnus, Mc'Coy. 
Corallii, Sow. 
Prycese, Sow. 
Williamsi, Sow. 
tritorquatus, Mc'Coy. 
trochleatus, Mc'Coy. 
Turritella canceUata, Sow. 
conica, Sow. 



SILUEIAN GROUP. 



131 



Tarritella gregaria, Saw. 
obsoleta, Soto. 



Turritella plana, Mc'Coy. 



CoQolaria elongata, Portl. 

Sowerbii, Ltf. 
Creseis gracillima, SAarpe, 
obtnsa, Sharpe. 



Pteeopoda. 



Creseis primseva, Forbes. 

Sedgwickii, Forbes. 

ventricosa, Sharpe. 
Theca Fwrbesii, Sharpe. 



Heteeopoda. 



Bellerophon acntus, Sow. 
alatus, Fortl. 
bilobatns. Sow. 
carinatus. Sow. 
dilatus. Sow. 
{Jymestriensu, Sow.) 



BelleropboB elongatns. Sow. 
gibbus, Portl. 
globatiis, Sow. 
Murcbisoni, If Orb. 
trilobatus. Sow. 
Wenlockensis, Sow. 



Cephalopoda. 



Gomphoceras pyriforme, Sow. 

subfosiforme, Munst. 
snbpjTiforme,i!/«ttJ^. 
Lituitcs articulatBS, Sow. 
Biddalpbii, Sow. 
comu-arietis, Sow. 
giganteus. Sow. 
Ibei, Sow. 
tortnosas. Sow. 
Nautilus undosus, Sow. 
Orthoceras acuarium, Munst. 
annnlatum, Sow. 
approximatum, Sow. 
articulatum, Sow. 
attenuatum, Sow. 
bisiphonatum. Sow. 
breviconicum, Portl. 
Brightii, Sow. 



Orthoceras Brongniartii, Troost. 
bullatum, Sow. 
calamiteum, ilunst. 
canaliculatum. Sow. 
centrale, His. 
circnlare. Sow. 
coraUifonnis, Mc'Coy. 
couicum, His. 
dimidiatiun, Sow. 
distans. Sow. 
eicentricum. Sow. 
filosum, Sow. 
fimbriatum, Sow. 
Ibex, Sow. 
imbricatum, Wahl. 
inaequiseptum. Sow. 
{gregarium. Sow.) 
Ludense, Sow. 



132 SILURIAN GROUP. 




Orthoceras Mocktreense, 


Sow. 


Orthoceras trachealcj Sow. 


nummularius, 


Sow. 




virgatum, Sow. 


regulare, Schlot. 


Phraymoceras arcuatnm, Sow. 


semipartitum. 


Sow. 




compressum. Sow. 


subgregarium, 


,3fc' 


Coy. 


nautileum, Sotc. 


striato-puEctatum, 




ventricosum, Sow. 




Munst. 








PlSCKS. 








Placoides. 




Onchus Murchisoni, Ag. 




Plectrodus mirabilis, Ag. 


tenuistriatis,^^. 






pleiopristus, Ag. 


Thelodus parvidens, Ag. 




Sphagodus 


i pristodontus, Ag. 


Sclerodus pustuliferus, A^ 


1. 


Pterygotus problematicus, Ag. 



^1. 



!B 



.>^X 



% 



BlNuin^ 



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15U A stratigraphical list 

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arranged under the principal 
division of the British strata 

PicASci