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Full text of "The strawberry, and its culture: with a descriptive catalogue of all known varieties"

UC-NRLF 




SB 3Dfi 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 




THE PRESIDENT WILDER STRAWBERRY. 



$B 



^ 

I 

THE 




STRAWBERRY, 



AND 

ITS CULTURE: 

WITH 

A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 

OF ALL KNOWN VARIETIES. 
BY 

J. M. MERRICK, JR. 



BOSTON: 

J. E. TILTON AND COMPANY. 
1870. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by 

J. M. MERRICK, JR., 
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



STEREOTYPED AT THE 

BOSTON STEREOTYPE FOUNDRY, 
19 Spring Lane. 



THE AUTHOR 



DEDICATES THIS LITTLE TREATISE 



TO HIS FRIEND 



FRANCIS PARKMAN. 



M364366 



PREFACE. 



AN annually increasing interest is felt in this country 
in the cultivation of strawberries. Every year brings 
with it new varieties, and a better knowledge of old 
kinds, new methods, and a clearer insight into the merits 
and defects of those heretofore practised. The old days 
when the Wood strawberry, the Early Virginia, and 
one or two now forgotten kinds supplied the market, 
and when a man who picked fifty boxes a day was held 
to be a large strawberry grower, are past and gone. 
We have now scores of varieties for each one of the 
old kinds, and single commission houses sell sometimes 
twelve thousand boxes a day. 

The magnificent success of Hovey in producing his 
Seedling stimulated many other horticulturists to ex- 
periment, and has led to the production of countless 
kinds, many of them of high rank. The war of words 
that was caused by the production of Hovey's Seedling 
has been succeeded by peace, or by a calm, and it has 
led to much good ; for those who fought so bitterly 
with tongue and pen have attempted to work out their 
theories in the garden, and in so doing have produced 
new and most valuable kinds of strawberries. 

5 



6 Preface. 

Myatt, Rivers, Nicholson, and Ingram, in England ; 
De Jonghe in Belgium; Dr. Nicaise (now no more), 
Gloede, Robine, Pelvilain, Boisselot, and others, in 
France ; Burr, Prince, Scott, Fuller, Read, Durand, 
Downer, Boyden, Wilder, and many others, at home, 
have given us a host of varieties, some of them so good 
that we are embarrassed in choosing amid such pro- 
fusion. 

Many of these, to be sure, do not rise above a certain 
grade of goodness ; but once in a while one comes that 
towers above its fellows, and stands alone in its pecu- 
liar place. Such berries are the Hovey, La Constante, 
the British Queen, and our great recent acquisition, the 
President Wilder. 

The hope of drawing prizes like these keeps experi- 
menters busy with their lotteries of seedlings. The 
number of amateurs at work, the pride they take in 
their own results, the interest they feel in their neigh- 
bors' success, and the broad acres cultivated with straw- 
berries, to supply the ever-greedy markets of our cities, 
are all proofs of the deep hold the strawberry has upon 
the attention of tens of thousands of intelligent culti- 
vators in this country. 

In the hope that one in a thousand of these may feel 
kindly disposed towards a new strawberry manual, I have 
written this little treatise. 

I intended to preface it with a chapter on the botan- 
ical relations of the strawberry, and to discuss the ques- 
tion of the number of species, &c. ; but finding the matter 
so much confused, and learning from the highest botan- 
ical authority in the country (whose kindness to me I 



Preface. 7 

desire to acknowledge) , that he might possibly settle the 
problem, if he gave it a year's study, I concluded to 
omit my prefatory chapter, and to begin with the more 
tangible topics of soil and manure. 

I may add that it would have been easy for the pub- 
lishers to fill this book with illustrations of strawberries 
taken at second hand, and for whose accuracy they could 
not vouch ; but it has been thought better to use only 
drawings made from actual specimens of fruit. Such 
illustrations will be -given in future editions. 

. J. M. M., JR. 

February 8, 1870. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEB 

I. ON MANURES AND PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. . . n 

II. ON PLANTING. . 16 

III. METHODS OF CULTIVATION 19 

IV. ON WINTER PROTECTION 29 

V. ON PROPAGATION 31 

VI. ON INSECT ENEMIES 34 

VII. ON FORCING STRAWBERRIES 38 

VIII. ON THE PRODUCTION OF NEW VARIETIES 42 

IX. THE QUESTION OF TASTE 51 

CATALOGUE OF VARIETIES 59 

(9) 



THE STRAWBERRY BOOK. 



CHAPTER I. 

ON MANURES AND PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. 

NOTHING marks the different kinds of strawberries 
more strikingly than their behavior with regard to the 
soils in which they succeed or fail. The wild native 
strawberry grows and ripens its little berries in the poor- 
est and dryest soil, where our choicer kinds would quickly 
come to nought. 

Taking this as the lowest point, we find next above it, 
in regard to poverty of soil, such kinds as the Scotch 
Runner, the Downer's Prolific, and the Cutter's Seedling. 
These will all grow and do passably well in a light, poor 
soil. I have had a bed of Downer's Prolific that made a 
very decent show of fruit in very light, poor ground after 
three years of total neglect. 

The Agriculturist, although, to be sure, it loves a good 
soil, will do very well in light, sandy land, as will the 
Brooklyn Scarlet, the Scarlet Magnate, and French's 
Seedling. 

Hovey's Seedling (and fine fibrous-rooted kinds gener- 
ally), Triomphe de Gand, Jucunda, President Wilder, 
and, in short, our best large varieties, love a rich, deep, 
and mellow soil, and one that is a little moist ; while for 
La Constante, the Bicton and Elton Pines, Haquin, Dr. 

ii 



12 The Strawberry Book. 

Nicaise, Admiral Dundas, &c., the ground can hardly be 
made too deep or too rich. The latter varieties will fail 
utterly where the Wilson or the Agriculturist would do 
tolerably well. The President Wilder exhibits in many 
respects its relationship to La Constante, and, like that 
fine berry, it is fond of good feeding. 

While many kinds of strawberries will do well, al- 
though poorly fed, there is hardly one that will not do 
better on well-manured land ; and in general, we may 
say, as in the case of other crops, the more manure the 
more strawberries. 

The Germans are fond of saying of their vineyards, 
" Well dug is half manured ; " but deep cultivation and 
fine working the land for strawberries, although of ex- 
ceeding value, will not take the place of manure. 

It is hard to name the fertilizer that cannot be used to 
advantage, either in preparing the soil for a strawberry 
plantation, or as a top-dressing for it. Stable manure, 
compost, unleached ashes, superphosphate of lime, guano, 
fish manure, and hen dung, may each and all be used 
with profit. Market gardeners, who can command an 
abundance of stable manure, generally give that the pref- 
erence, using Peruvian guano, however, as a tonic, or 
special means for bringing up to the mark any part of a 
field that seems to be behind the rest in vigor or health. 
Lime alone is considered by some injurious, but super- 
phosphate of lime is certainly beneficial. Guano alone, 
scattered broadcast half a dozen times through the sum- 
mer, before a rain in each case if possible, using in all 
eight hundred or a thousand pounds to the acre, produces 
wonderful results, and may take the place of all other 
manures. I have used it in this way with excellent 
results. Guano composted in the fall, with say fifty times 
its bulk of peat earth, and allowed to remain through the 
winter in a pile, well covered with a few inches of soil, 
makes, in the opinion of many, the best possible of all 
composts. 



The Strawberry Book. 13 

Unleached wood ashes is an admirable fertilizer. It 
tends to produce runners, and hence is valuable in propa- 
gating new varieties, or in securing what is technically 
called a good spread, i. e., making single rows of plants, 
set three or four feet apart in the spring, cover the whole 
intermediate space by fall. Ashes, of course, should not 
be used together with guano. 

No definite rule can be given as to the amount of ma- 
nure an acre of strawberries requires. The best and most 
successful cultivators I know? men who make a large 
share of their income from their strawberries, in reply 
to my question, " How much manure do you use?" have 
invariably said, " All we can get." I have seen a field 
of naturally strong soil, where the owner ploughed in all 
the stable manure he could conveniently spread, then 
spread and ploughed in a quantity equal to the first, and, 
when his plants had become established, spaded a third 
dressing in between the rows. The variety planted was 
the Triomphe de Gand, and the result was an enormous 
crop of immense berries, selling at the highest price, and, 
I presume, an equally enormous crop of some market 
vegetable the next season. For it should be noticed that 
the system of cultivation adopted must in some measure 
regulate the amount of manure applied. For instance, 
where strawberries are planted in rows or hills, and are 
to remain thus for two or three years, good results may 
be looked for with perhaps half the amount of manure 
required in the annual system where rows set out in 
April or May are to fill the spaces with strong, vigorous 
plants by the first of September. The finer the manure 
the better ; and whatever is applied should be thoroughly 
mixed and incorporated with the soil guano and ashes 
excepted, which do very well if merely sprinkled on the 
surface before a rain. 

With these two admirable fertilizers little and often 
should be the rule. A fall top-dressing of light, strawy 



14 The Strawberry Book. 

horse manure is excellent, acting, as it does, as a fertilizer 
and a protection at once, but it should be very light and 
strawy. A top-dressing of heavy, green manure, applied 
in the fall, will, as I can testify, give the grower a bed of 
black and stone dead plants in the spring. 

The different manures have different claims. Guano 
and ashes, for instance, are portable and convenient, and 
give much strength in a small bulk, while stable manure 
lightens heavy land, and leaves the field in better heart, to 
use a farmer's expression. 

It is said to be unprofitable to use more than half a ton 
of Peruvian guano to the acre. I applied it to a small 
field of plants set out this year at the rate of twelve hun- 
dred pounds per acre, with excellent results, so far as a 
good spread and stockiness of the young vines are con- 
cerned. 

The best preparation the soil can have to fit it for straw- 
berry cultivation is deep and thorough ploughing. The 
soil for strawberries, whether poor or rich, can hardly be 
too fine or too deep. Charles Downing, I think, says that 
he has unearthed strawberry roots that were four feet 
long ; and any one can convince himself of the fact that 
they spread very widely, by carefully tracing out the 
fibrous roots of a Hovey in a good garden soil. 

A clean-hoed crop of corn is, perhaps, as good as any- 
thing to precede strawberries, although, of course, pota- 
toes, or any market vegetable that requires clean culture, 
may be substituted for corn. (I may add, in parentheses, 
that, on the other hand, a strawberry bed that has done 
bearing may be ploughed under and followed by potatoes 
with surprisingly good results.) 

Freedom from weeds is a great blessing in all cases, 
but is especially desirable in strawberry culture, and one 
or two extra hoeings bestowed on a crop of potatoes or 
corn, that is to be followed by strawberries, will not only 
benefit the plants that are hoed, but will be clear gain in 



The Strawberry Book. 15 

the next year's operations. If a piece of pasture or grass 
land be selected for strawberries, it must be cultivated for 
one year, at least, with some clean-hoed crop. The awful 
result of doing otherwise is shown in the chapter on in- 
sect enemies. 

If the land is heavy and inclined to wetness, ploughing 
up the soil in ridges very late in the fall is an excellent 
plan. A good deal of surface is thus exposed to the 
weather, the ridges keep freezing and thawing through 
the winter, and a good many grubs probably meet their 
death. Any process that leaves the field deep, rich, and 
mellow, insures success, so far as soil alone is concerned. 

Now and then we find a soil that is black and unctuous, 
neither wet nor dry, but delightfully moist throughout, 
and light enough to let the roots penetrate easily ; and on 
soils like this are raised the crops that figure in the news- 
papers and in reports of premiums. Fields of this soil, 
well manured, give results that amaze even their owners. 
I have in my mind some fields of this rich, black soil, 
from which, I am told, have been picked nine thousand 
boxes per acre in a single season. 



1 6 Tfie Strawberry Book. 



CHAPTER II. 

ON PLANTING. 

STRAWBERRY plants may be set out in any month from 
April to December, but practically are usually planted 
either in April or May, or in the fall, i. e., in the month 
of September. There can be no question that the spring 
is the best time for planting, and I believe that the earlier 
the vines are set the better. The reasons are obvious. In 
the spring there is less danger of losing the plants by 
drought and hot weather before they get established ; they 
have the benefit of the genial vernal rains ; and the earlier 
the vines are set out, the longer time they have, of course, 
to perfect and ripen the fruit buds on which the next year's 
crop depends. Again, a plant set out in August or Sep- 
tember does little more by the end of the season than estab- 
lish itself, and make sure of living over winter, while a 
plant set in April not only assures its own safety and 
growth, but puts out a host of runners which take root 
and become independent plants before fall. A notion is 
prevalent that we can plant in the fall and get a crop the 
ensuing summer ; but while this is to a certain extent true, 
and while a moderate crop may be had from strong plants 
carefully set in September, the yield obtained cannot be 
compared with that from similar plants set five months 
earlier. Planting in the fall is attended with risks from 
drought and failure to get established, from which spring 
planting is almost entirely exempt. I have had the best 
success in very early planting, that is to say, as early in 
the season as the frost is well out of the ground, and it is 



The Strawberry jBook. 17 

not likely that the surface of the soil will freeze hard again. 
Plants set at this time not only get settled, but begin to 
grow by the first of May, soon put out runners, and by the 
first of September present the well-ripened stocky appear- 
ance that gives promise of an abundant yield. 

These remarks should not discourage any one from 
planting in the fall if he must plant at that time or not at 
all, or if he has new varieties to set, from which he wishes 
an immediate return. Plants that have been carefully 
layered in pots may be transplanted at almost any time in 
the fall, and will give a moderate crop the next year. 

I planted on the 2ist of September, 1868, a hundred 
vines of the President Wilder, layered in pots, and got a 
very decent crop the following season. 

I have planted in August ordinary vines of the Agricul- 
turist and Brooklyn Scarlet, and had moderate success, 
but almost entirely failed with the Triomphe de Gand set 
a little later. The vines of the latter kind lived and grew 
well, but showed no fruit. 

The time being fixed upon, the soil prepared, and the 
vines made ready, shortening their roots one third with a 
clean cut, planting is a comparatively simple affair. A 
strong line should be stretched across the field, the plants 
(which should be kept in a basket, well protected by wet 
moss) dropped at regular intervals, and set out by two or 
three hands distributed along the line. They should all 
work in the same direction, and a very little practice will 
show who sets fastest, and, consequently, at what intervals 
they must be placed. While they are planting, another 
hand (generally the boy who has dropped the plants for 
the first row) stretches a second line at the proper distance, 
and drops plants along it, so that the planters need not be 
delayed a moment. If the soil is as it should be, viz., well 
worked, fine, and free from stones, the planters will not 
need any trowel, but will make a little excavation with 
the fingers, and set the plant with the left hand, giving 

2 



1 8 The Strawberry Book. 

the roots equal distribution, while the right is strowing the 
earth around them. The finish is given by pressing the 
soil firmly round the young plant, the thumbs and fore- 
fingers of both hands steadying it at the same time. A 
vast number of plants perish every year because, in setting, 
the earth is not drawn up around them and then forcibly 
pressed down around the crown of the vine. A certain 
knack gained only by practice is required to do this 
work well ; but an experienced planter will set vines in 
favorable soil at a marvellous rate, and yet make them all 
live. If it be necessary to use a trowel, the progress is of 
course slower. 

When the planting is done very late, say during the first 
week in June, and the weather is hot, certain precautions 
must be used to insure success. The planting should be post- 
poned till about four P. M., and then every minute of the 
time improved until dark. The plants should be brought 
to the field in a bucket of water, and not exposed to the 
sun and wind a moment more than is necessary. The 
holes should be made beforehand along the line, and a 
man should go ahead of the planters with a water-pot and 
fill each hole with water. Plants set thus have all night 
to recover in, an abundant supply of moisture about their 
roots, and will live and do well, when without these pre- 
cautions they would certainly perish. 

The strawberry grower will of course select a cloudy or 
rainy day for planting when he can. The vines once set, 
a day or two settles the question of their living or dying. 



The Strawberry Book. 19 



CHAPTER III. 

METHODS OF CULTIVATION. 

STRAWBERRIES are grown in various ways as regards 
the number of plants originally set per acre, the manner 
in which these are allowed to grow, and the length of 
time the beds remain in bearing. They may be grown in 
beds, in rows, in single hills, or in matted rows, and the 
vines may be allowed to fruit three or four seasons, or 
may be ploughed under as soon as one crop has been 
picked. 

Mr. C. M. Hovey, in a practical article, remarks, " In 
either way, with good judgment and proper treatment, 
good crops may be produced ; and under ordinary garden 
cultivation it is hardly possible, with a good soil and lib- 
eral manuring, to prevent a successful result, whatever 
may be the mode adopted. But in market culture on an 
extended scale, where the greatest profit is, and ought to 
be, the object, it is all important to follow that system that 
will give the greatest paying crop, for it may be that two 
thousand quarts to the acre under one mode of culture 
will pay better than the same crop, or even three thousand 
quarts, by another ; the cost of labor and the quality of 
the fruit consuming the difference. It is, therefore, the 
great object with market gardeners to find out that system 
which gives the best paying results, and to follow it up." 

The very largest fruit in most cases brings the highest 
price, and a market gardener is better off with five hun- 
dred quarts of immense, choice berries, than with three 
times that number of small ones. He will therefore study 



2O The Strawberry Book. 

how to produce the largest fruit, regardless of other con- 
siderations. 

In another market he may find it better to spend less 
labor on his beds, and let them produce as large an 
amount as they will of medium-sized fruit. 

Generally speaking, the large foreign kinds require to be 
cultivated in hills, and to have their runners often clipped, 
in order to produce the best results. On the other hand, 
many varieties, and especially American kinds, grow and 
bear best in beds, the runners being allowed to spread 
and root at will. The Jucunda and the Hovey may stand 
as examples of these two classes. The Jucunda in hills 
gives a large crop of enormous showy berries, but a very 
much smaller crop when allowed to spread, while it is 
impossible to get any results of value from the Hovey 
unless it is grown in a wide bed. The contrast is seen 
further in the fact that the British Queen, Jucunda, Tri- 
omphe de Gand, &c., may be kept in hills for three or 
four years and good crops obtained, while the best results 
are obtained with the Hovey and its congeners by what 
is called the 

ANNUAL SYSTEM. 

This plan, considered by many the neatest of all, re- 
quires a very rich soil, the best plants carefully set out to 
start with, and good cultivation, for complete success. 
Where all the conditions are favorable, the results obtained 
by the annual method are amazing. 

The soil being well prepared, deep, rich, and abun- 
dantly manured, the plants of the best quality, and 
carefully handled are set out in the spring in rows four 
feet apart, and one foot apart in the row. 

The soil between the rows is kept clean by the frequent 
use of the cultivator until the runners begin to spread con- 
siderably, when nothing more remains to be done until 
fall, except to pull out by hand any conspicuous weeds. 



The Strawberry Book. *2i 

If everything goes well, by the first of October, and some- 
times much earlier, the ground should be completely cov- 
ered with a green carpet of vines. A walk a foot wide is 
then sometimes cleared out in the middle of the rows, 
leaving beds three feet wide and solid with plants. But 
where there is a demand for strawberry vines early in the 
season, this operation is deferred until spring. 

On the approach of winter the beds are covered with 
some protecting substance, generally three or four inches 
of old hay. This hay, except enough to fill the foot-wide 
alleys for the pickers to walk in, is raked off in the spring, 
and stacked, to be used again the ensuing autumn for the 
same purpose. 

The berries being picked for market as fast as they 
ripen, the whole crop is off in this latitude by the loth 
of July, and the entire plantation is then immediately 
ploughed under, vines, weeds, and all, another bed 
having been made in the spring to take the place of the 
one that is destroyed. 

The advantages of this method are obvious. 

First. The first full crop from a strawberry bed is the 
largest and best; and here, the vines being in perfect 
health and vigor, and the soil very rich, the plants are 
made to do their very utmost, no regard being had to in- 
juring them, for they are to be ploughed up as soon as the 
fruit is gone. 

Second. In this method a few weeds, more or less, are 
not the very serious annoyance that they prove in a bed 
that is to be kept up year after year, for before they can 
go to seed they are turned into the soil. 

Of course the best grower will have the fewest weeds, 
other things being equal ; but I have sometimes seen quite 
a little crop of grass and weeds in the beds of one of the 
best growers I know grass and weeds derived from the 
seed in the hay used for covering. But they never were 
numerous enough to do any harm, and were all destroyed 



22 The Strawberry Book. 

in July. The same number of weeds would have ruined 
the bed if it had been kept another year. 

Third. The land that bears strawberries one year be- 
ing planted with some other crop, generally potatoes the 
next, is in most excellent condition for a new plantation 
of strawberries in the third season, it having been found 
much better not to take two crops of strawberries in suc- 
cession from the same field. 

This is an old English method, but has been revived, 
and carried to the highest perfection, in this country. 

The growers in Belmont, near Boston, have employed 
this method, and obtained astonishing results with Hov- 
ey's Seedling, using Brighton Pine, or sometimes Boston 
Pine, as a fertilizer. From four thousand to five thousand 
quarts per acre is a fair average crop, some exceptional 
instances showing much higher figures. The productive- 
ness of a variety, I may here remark, must never be esti- 
mated on the basis of the yield obtained from a small 
garden bed in exceptionally favored circumstances ; for if 
this method were fair, stories approaching the marvellous 
might be told of some strawberries. If I do not mistake, 
Mr. C. M. Hovey says that a bed of his Seedling, twelve 
feet by two and a half, has borne twelve quarts in one 
season. This would be more than seventeen thousand 
quarts to the acre a result never yet attained on a large 
scale. 

I have no exact data at command for fixing the average 
yield of English varieties at home, but I find that a prod- 
uct on a small scale, at the rate of thirty-eight hundred 
quarts to the acre, is thought worthy of being chronicled, 
the varieties being the British Queen and Keens' Seedling. 

HILL CULTURE. 

As I have .remarked, the foreign varieties, such as the 
Jucunda and the Triomphe de Gand, make high, promi- 
nent crowns, and give much better returns when raised in 



The Strawberry Book. 23 

hills. This is perhaps true also of some American vari- 
eties, such as the Agriculturist, Russell's Prolific, and 
Wilson's Albany, which do well in hills. The distance 
between the hills in the rows, and the distance from one 
row to another, differ according to the notions of different 
growers. 

Two and a half feet between the rows, and one foot 
from plant to plant, are the distances given by one of the 
best strawberry growers in the country. Others set their 
plants eighteen inches apart, with three feet between the 
rows, while such monstrous stools as Triomphe de Gand 
and some other varieties sometimes make, will not be too 
far apart if they have two and a half feet each way. 

One very successful strawberry grower in this state 
adopts a method of setting out his plants for hill culture 
that seems very neat and satisfactory in its results. 

Instead of setting out as many vines as he means to 
have hills, he sets in the spring one third as many, and 
then allows each plant to make but two runners. These 
are carefully layered one on each side of the old plant, 
and in a line with it, and the soil being good and the 
other runners suppressed, these two make vines by Sep- 
tember hardly smaller or less vigorous than the plant 
from which they spring. 

Hill cultivation does not necessitate so rich a soil as the 
annual system ; but in all cases a good soil is needed, and 
weeds and runners are to be treated alike, that is, de- 
stroyed as soon as they appear. If the variety is valuable, 
and new plants are much needed, one or two runners may 
be allowed to root, but this interferes very much with 
clean cultivation. A good, thorough covering is needful 
to carry the vines well through the -winter (as we shall 
see farther on), and an abundance of hay or some similar 
mulch must be kept round the plants in the summer to 
keep the fruit from contact with the soil. 

As the stools get older they tend to rise up more and 



24 The Strawberry Book. 

more out of the ground, and the earth has to be hoed up 
to them. An annual manuring is of course needful. 

Strawberries may be kept in hills and made to do well 
several years in succession ; but four years, or at the most 
five, is probably as long a time as it pays to leave the beds 
undisturbed. I have, indeed, heard of hills being kept 
for twelve years ; but this must have been an excep- 
tional case. 

It is the custom with many gardeners to mow down the 
vines as soon as the fruit is picked, rake off, and clean the 
bed, and then to dig in among the hills a good dressing 
of manure. The foliage being cut off, and the roots 
broken and greatly disturbed, the plant is stimulated by 
the manure to go to work and repair the damage done, 
which it effectually does by autumn, getting a new crown 
of leaves and rilling the soil with roots. In this way it 
may be said to practically become a new plant, and the 
beds are thus kept along from year to year. 

CULTIVATION IN Rows. 

This is in effect a compromise between hill culture and 
cultivation in broad beds. Rows of plants may be set in 
the spring, three feet apart, with the plants nine inches 
asunder in the rows ; and when the runners appear, the 
first five or six are carefully laid in lengthwise of the row, 
and the rest cut off as fast as they appear. In good soil 
a thick, continuous, bushy row is the result, and some 
varieties do very well when grown in this manner, partic- 
ularly Lennig's White, which most admirable berry is 
very unproductive in a matted bed. The soil on each 
side of the row must be well mulched with straw or hay, 
to keep the fruit off the dirt. 

A method of cultivation somewhat in vogue at the 
West is, to plant the strawberry vines in hills, at a suita- 
ble distance apart, and to put on in the fall a mulch of 
three or four inches of hay. This hay is not removed in 



The Strawberry Book. 25 

the spring, but the laborers go along the rows of hills 
early in the season and poke away enough of the mulch 
to expose the crown of the plant, which soon begins to 
grow. This operation has to be repeated several times to 
make sure that the plants are not smothered, and that no 
weeds are coming up around the vines. The hay, which 
remains on till the fruit is picked, keeps the weeds down 
and the ground moist. It is taken off with a horse-rake, 
and returned in the fall, after the ground has been well 
cultivated and kept clean through the summer months. 

As to the absolute value of the different methods of 
cultivation no fixed rule can be given. Certain varieties, 
like the Hovey, cannot be grown in hills. Some, or per- 
haps most, foreign kinds, with high crowns, do not do 
well in matted beds. Some kinds, like the Wilson, make 
the best of circumstances, and get along pretty well under 
any system. Those who grow strawberries on the annual 
plan insist that the first crop from a bed which with 
them is the only one is better than the second, and much 
better than the third ; but a most successful grower of my 
acquaintance, who mows off the leaves, weeds, and ma- 
nures as soon as the fruit is picked, took off a third crop 
of Wilson's last year which he thought was rather better 
than the first, and he thinks his plants will make a good 
return the present season. 

Strawberry growers who wish to make a pretty display 
of a few hills sometimes make use of what is called the 
strawberry crinoline, a neat little wire frame, which is 
opened and sprung together around the plant, and holds 
up leaves, fruit, and all, so that they cannot touch the soil 
or get defaced. 

Tiles are made of flower-pot material for the same pur- 
pose. Two of them make a square, with a hole in the 
centre large enough for the collar of the plant. Being 
pushed up one on each side till they meet, they serve as a 
mulch, and prevent the fruit from getting dirty. 



26 The Strawberry Book. 

Mr. Augustus Parker, of Roxbury, Mass., a very suc- 
cessful cultivator of strawberries for market, gives his 
method in Tilton's Journal of Horticulture, vol. vi., p. 
281, as follows : 

"I set my plants about the first of May, about a foot 
apart, in a single row, and the rows four and a half feet 
apart, on good, well-manured ground. I keep the culti- 
vator going between the rows till about the 8th of July, 
when the runners begin to run, and then go over the 
ground with a rake and make it level ; after this I go over 
the beds and place the runners so that the plants will 
be as near four inches apart as possible. With me the 
runners cover all the ground between the rows. Keep- 
ing the ground light till you set the runners gives the 
young plant a chance to make good roots, which stand 
the dry weather the next summer when they are in bear- 
ing. If you let the ground get hard for the new plants, 
the roots will be short, and the plants will not be able to 
carry their fruit to the size -and quantity they otherwise 
would. I cover my beds, when they are frozen in the 
fall so that I can drive my team over them without leav- 
ing a mark, .with fine, light horse manure ; cover as light- 
ly as possible, and yet have them covered. In the spring 
I let the plants come up through the manure, which serves 
as a mulching to keep the berries clean. As soon as the 
plants are started enough in the spring to see the old 
plants that were set the spring before, I put a line on the 
beds, and take out the old row, and make the path about 
fourteen inches wide, so as to keep the pickers in their 
proper places. I do not set every year, as some growers 
do ; but, as soon as I get through picking, I dig or plough 
up the sides of my beds to a strip eight or ten inches 
wide ; from this strip new runners will start, which I set 
over the ground as at the first season. I cart off all the 
plants I plough up, and make the ground as light as pos- 
sible ; then, the next spring (of course, manuring in the 



The Strawberry Book. 27 

fall, as above), I take out the old strip with some of the 
new for my path ; and thus I keep my plants one year 
old, which is the best for bearing. I never allow weeds 
to grow at any season of the year." 

Mr. Parker's success is a guarantee that in his hands, 
at least, this system is a very profitable one. 

If more specific directions are needed for laying out a 
garden bed of strawberries, to be used for the supply of 
one's own table, the following proportions will be found 
convenient : 

Select a piece of good strong soil, say sixty feet long and 
twelve wide, spread on it early in the spring, and spade in, 
two or three inches of well-rotted stable manure. Rake off", 
and level the surface, removing all sticks, stones, and coarse 
lumps of manure ; stretch a line one and a half feet from 
the edge of the bed, and set a row of plants one foot 
apart the whole length of the piece. Move the line along 
three feet and set a similar row. Then set a third and 
fourth row in the same way, the fourth row, of course, 
being a foot and a half from the other edge of the bed. 
This being done early in April in this latitude the 
spring rains will soon give the young plants a good start. 
Until the runners begin to grow, keep the bed hoed clean, 
and through June and July sprinkle a few handfuls of 
guano or unleached wood ashes over the bed on the ap- 
proach of showers or during settled rain. By the first of 
September the bed will be one thick carpet of healthy, 
luxuriant, well-rooted vines, which must have a good cov- 
ering of leaves and pine boughs in November. 

The next spring rake off the leaves, and put on a light 
dressing of well-rotted manure or a sprinkling of guano, 
and pull out any large weeds that may show themselves. 
A narrow path, six inches wide, might be cut out through 
the middle of the bed for convenience in picking, but in a 
small garden this may be neglected, the pickers taking a 
little extra care not to step on and crush the crowns of the 



28 The Strawberry Book. 

plants. A bed of the size described will require two 
hundred and fifty plants for its four rows, and if produc- 
tive varieties are planted, should yield a hundred quarts of 
berries. When the crop has been picked, the leaves may 
be mown, the bed manured and weeded, and thus made 
to last another year. 



The Strawberry Book. 29 



CHAPTER IV. 

WINTER PROTECTION. 

No argument is needed to show the necessity of winter 
protection for strawberry beds in a climate where the soil 
is not covered with snow throughout the winter. If, in a 
cold climate, we could be sure of snow the first of Decem- 
ber, and sure that an unbroken coating of it would remain 
on the ground till the middle of March, it is probable we 
should never need to cover our strawberry vines. It is 
likely that there are but very few kinds that can be injured 
by the mere cold of the winter ; but what kills the hardi- 
est varieties is the constant freezing and thawing to which 
they are too often subjected in this climate if left uncovered. 
The foreign varieties, especially, since they make high, 
prominent crowns, are apt to suffer very much if unpro- 
tected, and thus get the reputation of being tender. 

Almost any cheap non-conducting substance suitable for 
mulching will answer to cover strawberry vines. Old hay, 
strawy manure, salt marsh or meadow hay, straw, leaves, 
spent tan, chopped straw, pine needles, pine boughs, corn- 
stalks, &c., are among the numerous articles used, as con- 
venience dictates, for covering strawberry beds. Market 
gardeners often use coarse hay, which they spread on the 
vines in the fall, rake off so much as is not needed in the 
spring, and stack up ready for the next autumn's work. 
Hay is very convenient, the only objection to it being the 
fact that it brings in grass and weed seed. This, however, 
does not matter much if the strawberries are grown on the 
annual system. Perhaps leaves make the best covering 



30 The Strawberry Book. 

when they are easily obtained ; and of these, oak leaves 
are the worst, blowing oft' sometimes faster than they can 
be raked back, and pine needles the best. A uniform, even 
covering of two or three inches of pine leaves, somewhat 
matted by long lying in the woods, with a few pine boughs 
on top, if the bed is much exposed to the wind, is about 
as good a winter protection to the plants as can be desired. 

The beds should be covered before the ground has frozen 
very hard, and, of course, in time to anticipate the first 
heavy fall of snow. One gardener I know, having plenty 
of labor at command, covers his beds early in the winter 
with about eighteen inches of oak leaves, with boughs on 
top, so that I do not believe the soil of his beds freezes 
from one year's end to another. 

Where leaves are used, enough will generally settle in 
among the plants to make a very excellent mulch for the 
summer months. 

A covering of light, strawy manure will answer very 
well for a winter protection ; but a covering of solid, wet, 
barn-yard manure, if applied late in the fall, will almost 
certainly kill every vine. 

A few garden rows of valuable plants may be very neatly 
protected by covering each row with leaves, and then with 
two old boards leaning against each other, so as to make 
a covering like an inverted V, thus keeping down the 
leaves, and turning off the rain. But I must add that I 
have in this manner so thoroughly protected strawberry 
plants in pots, standing on the surface of the ground, that 
they got as dry as ashes in the winter, and were stone dead 
in the spring. 



The Strawberry Book. 31 



CHAPTER V. 

ON PROPAGATION. 

VERY few cultivated plants of any value can rival the 
strawberry in the ease with which they may be propagated. 
A strawberry vine, as soon as it gets well established, be- 
gins to throw out runners, each one of which may take 
root and send out others to multiply in their turn. This 
occurs in open culture, where I have known a single plant 
of the Agriculturist variety to make two hundred and thirty- 
two in the course of the season. 

In rich soil, rows of vines set in April, three feet apart, 
with the plants nine inches asunder, will cover all the inter- 
mediate space with a close carpet of vines before fall. With 
new and rare varieties the artificial aid of a hot-bed or frame 
maybe called into use, and then the multiplication of vines 
goes on very rapidly. I know a gardener who obtained 
in a certain spring, when Hovey's Seedling was new, six 
plants of that variety, and got from them, by autumn, a. 
bed of fifteen hundred. The various kinds differ much in 
regard to the number of runners they send out. In the 
same soil La Constante would put out comparatively few 
runners, the Jucunda a moderate number, while some of 
our native kinds would produce myriads. A sprinkling 
of ashes now and then stimulates plants to produce run- 
ners in large numbers. 

Generally the runners will root themselves, and fasten 
upon the soil ; but with new and choice kinds it pays very 
well to assist nature a little by pressing the end of the run- 



32 The Strawberry Book. 

ner gently into the ground, and laying a small stone or a 
little earth upon it. 

Again, in garden culture, where neat, compact rows are 
desired, it is well to lay in the straggling runners, and press 
their roots into the soil among the parent plants, thus leav- 
ing the space between the raws clear for the use of the hoe. 

Where the cultivator has a bed of a choice variety, and 
wishes to obtain from it every possible plant, he may go 
over his bed late in the season, take out every small, weak 
plant, and every tip of a runner just rooting, and set them 
an inch or two apart in a spent hot-bed. If there is a little 
heat left in the bed, and the vines are watered and shaded 
a very little, they will all grow, and make fine strong plants 
in a few weeks. 

But the most practicable way of obtaining fine healthy 
plants, that will suffer but little from being transplanted, is 
to layer the runners in small flower-pots in the open field. 
The pots, in any convenient number, should be plunged 
to their rims along the rows in July or August, and filled 
with soil. Runners just beginning to root are pressed into 
the soil in the pots without detaching them from their par- 
ent plant, and in a week or two the whole pot will be filled 
with roots. The runners may then be cut off, and the new 
plant transplanted wherever it is needed. I have said this 
may be done in July and August, but of course it may be 
done at any time, a week or two before the plants are 
needed. The size of the plant depends upon that of the 
pot. Three and four inch pots are generally employed by 
the propagators of strawberry vines, who have begun of 
late years to offer for sale plants thus layered. In sending 
such plants to their customers, they turn them out of the 
pots to pack them, the numerous fibrous roots holding the 
earth together in a compact ball. 

The value of such plants, especially for early fruiting, is 
very great. They do not sutler at all from transplanting ; 
and vines carefully layered thus in the fall, and removed 



The Strawberry Book. 33 

in the spring, will give quite a decent show of fruit the first 
season. To the impatient amateur, a plant layered in a 
pot is worth ten vines transplanted in the ordinary way. 
One Western grower appreciates so highly the value of 
pot plants that he raises them in large quantities for his 
own use for planting by the acre. He finds that the extra 
labor, which is not so very great when the work is reduced 
to a system, is more than compensated by the excellence 
of the plants, and by the fact that he can get a large and 
certain crop in June from pot plants set in August or Sep- 
tember. 

The Bush Alpine strawberries produce very few run- 
ners, or none at all, and are propagated by dividing the 
roots. The Alpine strawberries come true from seed, and 
seedlings are usually grown to make new beds, instead of 
transplanting from old ones. Of propagation by seed to 
obtain new varieties I shall speak in a separate chapter. 

3 



34 The Strawberry Book. 



CHAPTER VI. 

ON INSECT ENEMIES. 

THE insect enemies of the strawberry are few in num- 
ber, but some of them are very malevolent and destruc- 
tive. Chief among them I place the larva of the May 
beetle, or dor-bug, Phyllophaga Quercina, whose rav- 
ages are sometimes most disheartening. This, sometimes 
known as the white grub, and sometimes incorrectly 
called by farmers the potato worm, but not to be con- 
founded with the true potato worm, which is the larva of 
a sphinx, is about an inch and a half long, three eighths 
of an inch in diameter, with a brownish-red head. It is 
occasionally found in ordinary garden soil, and its pres- 
ence is made known by the leaves of a strawberry vine 
wilting down, when on pulling it gently the whole plant 
comes up, the root being eaten completely off. But it 
abounds in old grass land and pastures. 

Vines planted on such land recently ploughed will in 
one case out of a hundred thrive and do well, but the 
chances are, that every one will be killed by the white 
grub. I manured thoroughly and ploughed up last spring 
a little more than an acre of pasture land, and set out upon 
it about twenty thousand choice strawberry plants, a large 
percentage of them being of the President Wilder variety. 
The vines took root and began to grow, and some of them 
had begun to send out runners, when the grub attacked 
them, and made clean work of the whole field, devouring 
almost every plant. The field was kept clean by constant 
hoeing, and I attempted to dig out the grubs, as some of 



The Strawberry Book. 35 

the vines were new and valuable ; but I was obliged to 
abandon this plan as equally ineffectual and expensive. 

It is always safer to raise one or two hoed crops on 
land intended for strawberries, as the May beetle seldom 
lays eggs in ploughed soil, choosing grass land where the 
larvae will be protected from birds. These offensive grubs 
live chiefly upon grass roots, and in some places devour 
them so completely that if two parallel lines be cut in 
the turf, the sod between them may be rolled up like a 
carpet. 

Where only a few grubs show signs of their presence 
in well-established beds of strawberries, they must be at 
once dug out and killed. They can be found early in the 
morning close under the plant they have ruined ; but as it 
grows warmer they burrow down in the soil to a depth 
of eight or ten inches, so that an unsuccessful search is 
frequently made for them by those who do not know their 
habits. Skunks are very fond of white grubs, and dig 
them out and eat them with avidity. 

There is another white grub, resembling this one, but 
of a lighter color, and somewhat bluish shade, found usu- 
ally under old manure heaps. It is the larva of a dung 
beetle, the Scarabceus relictus of Say, but whether 
it is destructive or not I have no means of knowing. I 
have found them in great numbers in old hot-beds in the 
middle of a vegetable garden, but never saw any injury 
done to plants that could be traced to their presence. 

The rose-bug (Melolontha subspinosa) ' is not too 
dainty to despise strawberry leaves, when roses and grape- 
blossoms are not at hand. They invaded a strawberry 
plantation of mine last year in vast numbers, and destroyed 
half the foliage of the plants, leaving only the skeleton of 
the leaves. I killed an immense number by hand-picking, 
finding sometimes as many as thirty-eight on a single 
leaf; but I did not prevent their doing great injury. I 
count them second only to the white grub in power of 
mischief. 



36 The Strawberry Book. 

In the case above cited the rose-bugs seemed to come 
from a piece of woods on the west of the strawberry 
field, and they are noticeably more active in a bright, hot 
day than in a dull one. I have noticed, late in the after- 
noon, the air alive with rose-bugs the moment the sun has 
shone out after a cloudy day, while before that hardly one 
was to be seen. 

I presume there is no means of destroying these pests 
except by hand-picking, and burning or scalding. The 
novice who has secured a rose-bug should adopt no half- 
way measures, but should have evidence of the bug's 
actual death. I heard last season of a vigneron in a neigh- 
boring town who picked from his vines in blossom time 
about two quarts of rose-bugs, which he carefully buried, 
stamping the earth firm over them. The next morning 
he found, to his horror, that each bug had bored his way 
to the upper air, and sailed off to fresh woods and pas- 
tures new. 

Cut-worms, the larvas of various Agrotides, sometimes 
attack the strawberry. I have, however, lost but few 
from their ravages. Their presence is indicated by the 
wilting of the leaves ; and the only thing to do is to 
dig the worms out and smash them. If one is not found 
near the plant he has cut off*, search must be made about 
the roots of the next. 

The wire-worm (lulus) is said to be sometimes de- 
structive to the strawberry, but I have never seen any 
vines injured by it. Deep and clean cultivation would 
perhaps be the best remedy. 

Common ants sometimes swarm upon the berries, but 
may be disposed of by pouring hot water into their hills. 

I have seen a small green worm upon strawberry vines ; 
the same, I presume, as that described by Fuller in his 
Manual ; but I never found more than half a dozen, and 
they did but little harm. If they should appear in large 
numbers I should try sprinkling with lime or ashes. A 



The Strawberry Book. 37 

scattering of guano on the damp leaves might perhaps 
annoy them. 

Ashes is also a useful means of assailing the aphis, or 
plant louse, which sometimes congregates upon the roots 
of strawberry vines in light soils. 

Same tender kinds of strawberries are subject, in our 
climate, to sun-scald, and have consequently unhealthy 
foliage ; but, generally speaking, the strawberry is singu- 
larly free from disease. A sudden cold rain will some- 
times cause the blossoms to blight, and the over-ripe fruit 
will mould on the vines in damp weather ; but a straw- 
berry bed is never at the mercy of any scourge like those 
that so often threaten, and which not seldom ruin, a wheat- 
field, a vineyard, or a potato plantation. 



38 The Strawberry Book. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ON FORCING STRAWBERRIES. 

WITH the proper appliances forced strawberries can be 
raised with less trouble than any other forced fruit. If 
proper care and precaution are used, if the plants are of 
a suitable variety, well grown, and w T ell ripened, and if 
the gardener, in forcing, makes haste slowly, failure is not 
far from impossible. The strawberiy is one of the earliest 
out-door fruits, and therefore it requires less time for per- 
fection under glass than any other ; and it often happens 
that a good crop of strawberries can be grown on an un- 
occupied shelf or some other place in a green-house that 
would otherwise be useless. 

A grape vine under glass must be three years old to 
bear a good crop ; a peach tree requires considerable care 
before coming into bearing ; and if trees or vines under 
glass are killed, the loss is quite serious ; while, on the other 
hand, strawberry vines can be grown and got ready for for- 
cing in three months ; and even if they are not set out in the 
open ground after bearing their spring crop, the loss of the 
plants is nothing compared with the loss of a row of three- 
year-old vines. Again, forced strawberries if the plants 
are started at the usual season come into the market in 
advance of other hot-house fruit, and generally command 
a good price, and sometimes are sold at rates that seem 
really extravagant. 

With houses adapted especially for strawberry culture 
it is extremely probable that forced strawberries can be 
raised and sold to the public at lower prices and in much 



The Strawberry Book. 39 

larger quantities than ever before, and yet afford the grower 
a better profit than he obtains from any other forced fruit. 
Indeed, one of the largest growers of forced strawberries 
in this part of the country tells us that they yield an income 
of a dollar per pot, and sometimes twice that amount. In 
addition to this fact, an equally important one should be 
kept in mind, viz., that the crop is all off in March, and 
the house is left vacant for other uses a matter of no little 
moment to the market gardener. 

As, in cooking a hare, the hare must first be caught, so, 
in forcing strawberries, the vines must first be obtained, 
and grown the season previous to the very maximum of size, 
strength, and ripeness. The crowns must be full, plump, 
well ripened, and mature. Such varieties, too, must be 
selected as have been tested and found to force well ; and 
these, generally spsaking, are those that make a full, high 
crown, like the Triomphe de Gand, which is here held in 
high esteem for a forcing variety. Trollope's Victoria has 
been commended for forcing, and I have seen very splen- 
did crops of La Constante ripe in March. The foreign 
catalogues give long lists of varieties that force w r ell, very 
few of which, we presume, have ever been tested for that 
purpose in this country. Among the kinds thus marked 
are the Eclipse, Gweniver, President, Princess of Wales, 
Eliza, Lucas (these last two, from my success with them 
out doors, I should think would do well in pots), Sir Harry, 
Louis Vilmorin, Oscar, and many others ; but while the 
Triomphe de Gand gives so sure and certain a crop of 
high-priced berries, our growers will be slow to abandon 
it. I may add, that the Hooker and the Boston Pine have 
been tried, and found to do well in the forcing-house. I 
have forced a very few plants of the President Wilder 
(Wilder) in a hot-bed, and they did very well, although 
I let all the runners grow, and the plants had not been 
especially prepared for forcing. 

The variety having been fixed upon, the next step is to 



4-O The Strawberry Book. 

layer the plants in small pots. This should be done early 
in July. The first runners from good plants should be 
taken and layered in thumb-pots, filled with any good soil. 
Before the first of August the thumb-pots will be filled 
with roots, and the young plants will be ready for a shift 
into three or four-inch pots. 

The compost now employed should consist of thoroughly 
decomposed sods and top-soil from a pasture, with one third 
well-rotted manure. If this mixture has lain in heaps sev- 
eral months, all the better. 

The plants having been shifted, the soil should be firmly 
pressed around the roots, and the pots should be liberally 
watered and set in a cold-frame, which will hasten their 
growth a little, and at the same time protect them from 
too severe rains. When this set of pots is well filled with 
roots, the vines should be shifted into a larger size. 

Here growers differ. Some transfer the plants into the 
six-inch potsj in which they are to fruit, and others put 
them into .five-inch pots, and give them a final shift into 
eight-inch pots. The two most successful growers I know 
use, the one six, and the other eight-inch pots for fruiting. 
It must, however, resolve itself into a question of room in 
the green-house; and it seems reasonable to think that a 
plant whose well-grown roots fill an eight-inch pot will 
give more fruit than one whose pot is two inches less in 
diameter. 

If the plants are in a frame, it should be left open, ex- 
cept in a storm after the first of October, the vines watered 
sparingly, and allowed to ripen off very thoroughly. By 
the middle of November the cold weather will check all 
growth, and the vines, if all has gone well, will be healthy, 
stout, and plump. The frames may now be filled with 
leaves, and covered with boards, until the vines are needed 
for forcing. The best growers are strongly inclined to 
think that a month's rest and inaction after the plants are 
ripe, and have stopped growing, lead to much better re- 



The Strawberry Book. 41 

suits than to force them at once. This rest may be 
taken through the month of December, and the plants 
brought into the green-house the first of the new year. 

The pots can be put in any part of the house until the 
vines start, and they should be watered at first very spar- 
ingly. It is of much importance that the start the plants 
make should be very gradual. 

As soon as the plants begin to grow, the pots should be 
brought close to the glass. This is important, as they need 
all the light they can get ; and if away from the glass they 
will grow up towards it weak and spindling. Water 
the pots carefully with guano water, made by dissolving 
four or five pounds of guano in a barrel of water. Keep 
the runners cut oft", and if the red spider appears, syringe 
the vines early and late, when they are not in blossom. 

If the aphis -appears, he will have to be destroyed by 
fumigation with tobacco. When the vines are in blossom, 
give them a little more air than at other times. A tem- 
perature of seventy-five degrees by day, and ten or fifteen 
degrees less by night, will be found about right. The crop 
will be ripe in from ten to fourteen weeks after the vines 
are brought into the green-house. 

For forcing, a one-sided house with a very steep roof 
will be found best, the whole roof, or rather the whole 
house, being occupied by a steep stage, close to the glass, 
each step of the stage holding one row of plants. The 
plants are examined and handled from a walk behind them. 

A very good autumnal crop may be obtained from the 
plants that have been forced, by turning them out into a 
bed in the open ground in April. The Triomphe de Gand, 
in particular, will do well in this way, and will make enor- 
mous stools if the runners be clipped during the summer. 



42 The Strawberry Book. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ON THE PRODUCTION OF NEW VARIETIES. 

THE fascination that attends the raising of seedling 
fruits is well marked in the case of the strawberry. The 
abundance of seeds, the ease with which they germinate, 
the early age at which -the new plants bear fruit, and the 
tolerable certainty of getting a very good variety from a 
hundred or two seedlings, all conspire to lead on the am- 
ateur, and induce him annually to increase the size of his 
seed-beds. 

At the same time it must be borne in mind that, while 
it is easy to raise a very good seedling strawberry, it is 
very difficult to raise one possessing qualities that set it 
above the best old kinds, or even on a level with them. 

In a thousand seedlings, raised from the seed of an ap- 
proved variety, it would hardly be possible not to find two 
or three worth preserving ; but to get a strawberry supe- 
rior to all before it is a triumph that does not come for 
the asking. 

Extended experiments, repeated trials, and repeated 
failures must pave the way to success. 

The seeker for new kinds may go to work in two ways, 
viz., by hybridizing and by direct planting. 

The process of hybridizing the strawberry is simple, 
and not very difficult. It consists essentially in impreg- 
nating the blossom of one variety with pollen from those 
of another, so that seedlings resulting from the seed thus 
crossed shall partake of the nature of both parents. In 
practice it is convenient that the plant to be fertilized 



The Strawberry Book. 43 

should be a pistillate variety, for in this case we can make 
absolutely certain that it is not self-fertilized, and shall 
not be plagued by lingering doubts as to whether we suc- 
ceeded in removing every anther before its pollen ripened 
or had a chance to do its work. 

The pistillate plants selected for experiment should be 
isolated from all other kind?, and from each other ; and 
this is best effected by covering them with a glass box or 
frame. The staminate or male plant having been fixed 
upon, its blossoms should be watched, and when they are 
fully expanded, and the anthers shed abundant pollen on 
being snapped or jarred, the whole flower may be cut 
off, and its anthers shaken over the stigma of the pistillate 
flower, or the anthers may be very gently rubbed upon 
the stigma itself. It sometimes happens that we desire to 
experiment with a new variety, whose flowers are too val- 
uable to be totally sacrificed. In that case a few of the 
anthers may be cut off with a fine-pointed pair of scissors, 
and conveyed to the pistillate plant on a dry slip of smooth 
paper. If both varieties on which we work have perfect 
flowers, the task is more difficult. Every anther must be 
removed with the utmost caution and delicacy from the 
blossom of the plant we desire to fertilize before the pollen 
has ripened or has had a chance to reach the pistil. 

It is best to watch the flowers with patient care, and, as 
they show signs of expanding, to unfold the petals prema- 
turely, and immediately remove the anthers. In no case 
must the hybridist speak with any confidence of the 
parentage of his seedlings, unless he has insured the ab- 
sence of all foreign pollen by isolating his plants, or, better 
still, by protecting them by glass. The operation of hy- 
bridizing is best carried on in the middle of a warm, 
sunny day, when every part of the flower is diy. 

If unhybridized seed is to be planted, the vines that 
produce it should be the strongest and most vigorous of 
their kind, and should be limited to one berry each gen- 



44 The Strawberry Book. 

erally the central one produced by the first blossom, all 
others having been cut off. 

The berries that are to furnish seed, whether crossed or 
not, should be allowed to get fully ripe before they are 
gathered. As soon as picked they should be crushed, and 
mixed thoroughly with fifty or a hundred times their vol- 
ume of clean, dry sand, to absorb the juice and divide the 
seeds evenly among the mass. A bed of deep, very rich, 
and dry soil having been prepared, the sand and seeds 
mixed should be sprinkled over the surface, very lightly 
raked in, the soil thoroughly watered, and a frame and 
sashes put on over the whole. If the planting be made 
in the middle of July, young plants may be expected to 
appear during the first week in August, if the sashes have 
been kept closed and the soil well wetted every day. As 
soon as the young plants appear in numbers they should 
be shaded. This is best done by whitening the glass. 
The frames ma} 7 then be kept closed a good part of the 
time, and the seedlings will grow so vigorously that they 
will bear transplanting in a few weeks to the bed where 
they are to remain and fruit. This method is well adapt- 
ed for bringing seedling vines into bearing in the shortest 
possible time, as they get a very strong growth the first 
year. 

Another way, involving even less trouble, is this : Sow 
the mixed sand and seed on a bed of rich soil in July, 
and rake it in lightly, putting on no sash at all. A few 
seeds will germinate in August and September, but by 
far the greater number will come up the next spring, and 
should be thinned and transplanted as soon as large 
enough. In either case the young plants must be pro- 
tected, at the approach of winter, by a thick covering of 
leaves and pine boughs. This is absolutely necessary to 
prevent heaving by frost and thaw. 

The seedlings should be transplanted into beds of rich 
earth, encouraged to make stout, stocky plants, and to this 



The Strawberry Book. 45 

end they should not be allowed to make more than one 
or at most two runners. 

The seedlings may be set in the bed where they are to 
fruit, in rows two feet apart, with the plants eighteen 
inches asunder in the rows. If space is limited, the rows 
may be narrowed six inches, and the plants brought six 
inches nearer each other in the rows. If one or two run- 
ners are allowed to grow, they should be made to take 
root close to the parent plant. All vines whose leaves 
burn, or suffer from sun-scald, may profitably be pulled 
up and thrown away before they fruit. Many seedlings 
that are perfectly healthy are pulled up and destroyed by 
the experienced grower before they fruit. A beginner 
cannot be trusted to do this ; but after raising a few gen- 
erations of seedlings he will be able to select quite a large 
percentage, of which he can prophesy that they will come 
to no good, and which may as well be put out of the way 
at once. 

As the fruit on the seedling begins to ripen, it should be 
closely watched from day to day, and its progress noted. 
When fully ripe it should be tested, and marked, not ab- 
solutely as good or bad, but comparatively, by reference 
to some standard kind. If a seedling seems worthy of 
preservation it should be encouraged to make runners, 
twenty or thirty of which may easily be obtained ; and 
these, carefully transplanted as soon as possible, will give 
a little bed of the new variety for more liberal testing the 
next year. 

No seedling should be preserved a few rare cases ex- 
cepted which is not healthy, vigorous, and productive. 
These are prime requisites. Besides these, its fruit should 
be large, of tolerably uniform size and symmetrical shape, 
with few small berries, bright colored and firm, not too 
acid, and with as high a flavor as possible. Almost all 
these good traits are united in some berries we now pos- 
sess, so that our ideal strawberry is not an impossible one. 



46 The Strawberry Book. 

For hybridizing, no better pistillate plant can be found 
than the Hovey. For a fertilizer La Constants may be 
used with a tolerable assurance of good results. These 
two standard kinds by their union gave us the President 
Wilder, which combines the good qualities of both. In- 
stead of La Constante which is not without its defects 
choice may be made of Triomphe de Gand, or some 
of the immense but shy bearing English kinds. I have 
seedlings from Hovey crossed with Admiral Dundas, 
from which I look for some curious results. 

Again, Hovey crossed with Jucunda ought to give 
plants bearing fruit as immense as the latter and as good 
as the former. A distinguished experimenter tells me 
that his seedlings from the Jucunda come weak. I have 
found this true, having thrown away this year some 
showy Jucunda seedlings ; but uniting this kind with the 
Hovey we ought to have fine results. 

Lennig's White and the Bicton Pine crossed should give 
a berry as large and abundant as the former, with the 
shape of the latter, and a mingling of the high flavor 
of both. 

The Wilson, crossed with a high-flavored, productive 
kind, say the Bonte de St. Julien, would be likely to give 
good results. 

The Agriculturist presents a very fixed type, one hard 
to break, its seedlings all having a family resemblance. 
Some decent varieties have been raised, it is said, from the 
Agriculturist ; but I do not believe that a very good one 
will be obtained without hybridizing, and perhaps La 
Constante or Napoleon III., strawberries far removed 
from the Agriculturist, might break up its fixed habit. 

If the experimenter has size alone in view, he might 
cross Dr. Nicaise with Admiral Dundas ; but the resulting 
seedlings would be valueless, save as curiosities. Where 
it is desirable to communicate firmness of flesh, nothing 
can surpass La Constante as a means of effecting this. 



The Strawberry Book. 4^ 

It has been supposed that mixed pollen, i. e., the pollen 
of two different species or varieties mingled, can act con- 
jointly ; and experimenters have fancied that they saw in 
a hybrid resemblances to three progenitors ; but Darwin 
says, " We now know conclusively, from Gartner [a most 
eminent German hybridist], that two kinds of pollen never 
act conjointly on a third species ; the only effect of min- 
gling two kinds of pollen being the production in the same 
capsule of seeds which yield plants some taking after the 
one and some after the other parent." 

I instance this to show the experimenter the uselessness 
of mixing two or three kinds of pollen, as some have 
advised. 

That the large-fruited scarlet strawberries can be crossed 
with the Alpines seems to be well settled, and there is no 
reason to suppose that further experiments will not demon- 
strate the possibility of making some other crosses here- 
tofore looked upon as unlikely. 

For planting without hybridizing, any choice kind may 
be used. It has just been remarked that seedlings from 
the Agriculturist repeat the parent plant ; and it may be 
added that seedlings from Downer's Prolific, and all 
strawberries of native origin, show their parentage very 
strongly. 

It is safe to advise amateurs to sow seeds of the very 
best kinds, such as Hovey, the parent of many good 
strawberries, La Constante, or, better still, President 
Wilder. 

These will give a sufficient variety, and out of a large 
number of seedlings from these some must prove very 
fine. 

Perhaps this is the place to inquire what are the qual- 
ities requisite in a first-class strawberry. Of course we 
do not expect yet to find all the excellences of every 
strawberry united in one, but must be satisfied with as 
close an approximation to our ideal fruit as we can 



48 The Strawberry Book. 

obtain by patient experiment. Still it is well to have an 
ideal towards which to strive ; and we may say of a per- 
fect strawberry, 

ist. The vines should be hardy, vigorous, and pro- 
ductive, capable of adapting themselves to various soils, 
not making too many runners, and, if possible, of a close, 
compact habit of growth. 

3d. The fruit-stalks should be firm and stiff enough to 
hold the fruit clear from the ground ; and, 

3d. The berries should be large, or at least with 
only a trifling percentage of small ones, of regular and 
uniform shape, solid, easily hulled, firm enough to carry 
some distance to market, without injury, not too acid, 
bright colored, and of the highest possible flavor. 

Large fruit, as a rule, brings higher prices than medium 
sized or small ; a regular and elegant shape adds much to 
the value of a strawberry, as is shown in La Constante ; 
firmness is of course essential, for the fruit must reach the 
market in good order ; a bright color is desirable, as help- 
ing the sale of the fruit ; and, finally, we may say that of 
two strawberries of equal value otherwise, that one which 
is the easier to hull will be judged the better kind. 

4th. The scale of colors laid down by Fuller is, first, 
scarlet ; second, crimson-scarlet ; third, crimson ; fourth, 
dark crimson ; fifth, white. I think his fourth and fifth 
should change places. 

It is undeniable -that the color of a fruit has consider- 
able weight with purchasers. In fact, a bright color gen- 
erally turns the scale in favor of a poor fruit. Red cur- 
rants bring more than white, and it is sometimes difficult 
to sell cream-colored and yellow raspberries when red 
ones are in the market. 

Poor, but bright-colored, smooth pears will sell better 
than first-class ones, if the latter have a dull, rough out- 
side. Lennig's White and the Bicton White Pine, two of 
the most delicious berries in the world, would probably 



The Strawberry Book. 49 

fail to be sold, if offered in our markets, on account of their 
color. These popular notions are due of course to igno- 
rance of the best varieties of fruits, and will be eradicated 
when people become more~Kimiliar with choice kinds. 

Productiveness and hardiness- of the vine, with bright 
color and solidity of the fruit, seern now all that is re- 
quired in a market berry, and even more than is required, 
for the Wilson's Albany has built up and maintains a 
wonderful reputation in spite of its poor color. 

It is a very firm berry, as far removed in this respect 
as possible from many kinds, notable among which is 
the Brooklyn Scarlet a delicious variety, but so tender 
that a single layer of berries set away on a plate over 
night will lose their shape by morning. La Constante 
is remarkable for its firmness, and Underwood's Seed- 
ling, raised from La Constante, is quite wonderful for 
its firmness and keeping qualities, the La Constante type 
being a very persistent one, as regards not only solidity, 
but shape and flavor also. Its beautiful shape reappears, 
a little modified, in the President Wilder. 

One word of advice to the amateur may not be out 
of place- here, viz. : if he should obtain a seedling worth 
naming, let him be sure the name he gives it has not been 
already appropriated to some other strawberry. Neglect 
of this precaution is already leading to confusion. We 
have two Elizas, Rivers's and Myatts's ; two Eclipses, 

Prince's and Reeves's ; two Emilys ; two Charles Down- 
ing's, Downer's and De Jonghe's ; two President Wil- 
cler's, De Jonghe's and Wilder's ; two Riflemen, one 
raised by Roden and the other by Ingram ; two Paulines, 

one a seedling of Prince's and the other a seedling of 
Dr. Nicaise ; two Globes, Myatts's and. De Jonghe's ; 
two- Cornucopia's, Prince's and Nicholson's ; and so on to 
the end of the chapter. There are some other names too 
near alike ; as the Rubis of Dr. Nicaise, and Nicholson's 
Ruby ; Napoleon and Napoleon III. ; to say nothing of 

4 



cjo The Strawberry Book. 

the numerous Queens, Princes, and Princesses, and doubt- 
less others which I have overlooked. 

I do not share in the opinion that we have too many vari- 
eties of strawberries, nor do I think we should cease trying 
to perfect this valuable fruit. What has been done merely 
shows us how great results we may hope for in the near 
future. The careful hybridizer can plan in his mind what 
kind of a strawberry he will have, and by a skilful se- 
lection of parent plants he can realize his ideal. Not by 
the first or the hundredth experiment, it may be, but sooner 
or later he will get what he seeks. Although, to be sure, 
Downing says, " A new variety must possess very supe- 
rior qualities to entitle it to regard now that we have so 
many fine fruits in our collections," yet no less an au- 
thority than De Jonghe reminds us that we are very far 
from having reached the bounds of perfection in straw- 
berries. 



The Strawberry Book. 5 1 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE QUESTION OF TASTE. 

To most persons, to a large majority, at least, of those 
who buy their berries in the market, a strawberry is a 
strawberry. That is to say, if it be ripe, bright colored, 
and not absolutely sour, it is perfectly satisfactory to the 
buyer. 

With the nice questions of taste and flavor, and the del- 
icate distinctions drawn by les vrats amateurs gourmets 
(as a French strawberry catalogue has it), the public has 
little to do. Yet with amateurs, who are annually called 
upon to test new varieties, the subtile and refined differ- 
ences that mark the various berries are certainly important. 
But no book can lay down exact rules in this matter. 

Speaking generally, we may say that a new berry, to be 
approved, must be less acid than the Wilson, and must 
possess, in some measure, the high and refined flavors that 
distinguish some of our choicest kinds. 

There is really a much wider difference in the flavor of 
different strawberries than many inexperienced people will 
at first admit. Some have a distinct and delicious pine- 
apple flavor, as Lennig's White the White Pine-apple 
and White Albion of some foreign lists and Rivers' s 
Eliza. The Lucas, a fine seedling from La Constante, has 
a marked flavor of raspberries, while the Due de Mala- 
koff has a strong apricot, or, as some say, mulberry, taste. 
The Hautbois strawberries are musky. A French berry, 
the Exposition de Chalons^ has a marked taste of currants. 
Some foreign kinds ave a decided cherry flavor. Our 



52 The Strawberry Book. 

native wild strawberries have a delicious aroma, which is 
wholly absent in many of the largest kinds. 

Some varieties have a brisk, refreshing, vinous juice, 
others are simply juicy and sweet, while some are sweet, 
dry, and almost juiceless. In the first class we might put 
the Due de Malakoff, Vineuse de Nantes, and La Con- 
stante among foreign kinds, and the Hovey, President 
Wilder, and Lennig's White among native varieties ; in 
the second class we might put Marguerite and Bijou ; and 
of the third, the Austin, as I have seen it, and Madame 
Collonge among foreign kinds, are excellent representa- 
tives. 

The flavor and taste of most varieties of strawberries 
are necessarily sui generis, and incapable of exact descrip- 
tion, or comparison with other fruits. The exquisite taste 
of a Brooklyn Scarlet or of a Rivers's Eliza cannot be set 
forth in w r ords any easier than the flavor of a Beurre 
d'Anjou pear or a Northern Spy apple. 

In the market, size and color rule. At the table of the 
amateur, size and color both come into consideration, but 
are subordinate to flavor. Many a grower raises for sale 
large crops of berries, like the Wilson, which he himself 
does not deign to eat, having his own private bed of Len- 
nig's White or Hovey, or some still rarer kind, to supply 
himself and his family. In fact, I know dealers who, in 
conversation upon strawberries, always make a wide dis- 
tinction between berries that are good to sell and those 
that are good to eat. 

The education of the public taste is only a question of 
time. Already there are some slight indications of im- 
provement. The public has found that Hovey's Seedling 
is better than the Wilson ; and La Constante, Triomphe de 
Gand, and Jucunda have been promoted from amateur to 
market varieties. Yet, to be strictly correct, we might 
perhaps add, that the enormou% size to which the last- 
named variety can be grown, has, probably, had much to 



The Strawberry Book. 53 

do with its advance in public favor, for in many soils it is 
somewhat deficient in flavor. 

To sum up, we may consider it certain that people who 
love strawberries well enough to buy and eat berries so 
poor as some of our market varieties are, would gladly 
apply themselves to the education of their taste on better 
kinds, if they could get them. 

The Chili strawberries, although some of them are ex- 
tolled for amateur culture, are of little value. They are 
large, coarse, very apt to be hollow, with soft, poor-flavored 
flesh. They have been so thoroughly intermingled with 
other species, that it is very difficult to say of certain named 
kinds that they are or are not partly Chilis. 

The Chili Orange and Wilmot's Superb are pretty good 
types of this class. The Lucida Perfecta I have fruited 
three seasons, and find it worthless in this climate. It is 
set down as a Chili, or a hybrid-Chili, in the catalogues. 
The Souvenir de Nantes and Madame Eliza Vilmorin I 
know only by reputation. 

Hautbois strawberries find very few admirers in this 
part of the country. La Belle Bordelaise, Royal Haut- 
bois, and perhaps Bijou des Fraises are the best of the 
class. Hautbois strawberries seem to be equally neglected 
abroad. 

It is a common question to" ask a person who has tested 
many varieties of strawberries what kinds he recommends 
for general cultivation, and the writers in the horticultural 
journals occasionally favor us with a revised list of the best 
sorts. Yet to make out a catalogue of six varieties for two 
different localities is a very difficult task. Still some gen- 
eral idea may be given to a beginner of the kinds it will 
be well for him to get together ; and he may have those 
pointed out that will bear neglect, and those that need 
careful culture. 

If but one variety is desired, and if that must be one 
that will bear neglect, and produce a tolerable crop some- 



54 The Strawberry Book. 

how, the Wilson stands first. It is too sour to eat ; but it is 
an abundant and unfailing bearer, and generally sells well. 
Downer's Prolific, as I know by trial, will bear decent 
crops after three years' steady neglect, and is better than 
the Wilson. French's Early requires but little care, and 
is pretty good. 

If, however, strawberries are desired for a family supply, 
and can have decent garden culture, then the list of valuable 
kinds lengthens till a choice becomes embarrassing. For 
an early sort, Jenny Lind holds its place, coming in one 
week before Hovey's Seedling and a week, I may say, 
makes all possible difference both with the buyer in the 
market and the gardener who is impatiently waiting for 
his first picking. 

After this come a host of well-proved kinds : Hovey and 
its noble offspring the President Wilder, La Constante, 
Jucunda, Russell's Prolific, a good berry, but a little out 
of favor just now, Brighton Pine, Agriculturist, Tri- 
omphe de Gand, and others which I need not specify. 

Some rows of Jenny Lind for a first crop, a bed of 
Hoveys with a row of Brighton Pine for a fertilizer, a 
row of Triomphe de Gand and another of Jucunda for a 
late berry (both of these two kinds in hills), will give a 
good 'assortment for an ordinary garden. 

La Constante, in a deep, rich soil, comes in late, and 
makes a fine show, paying well for a little extra care, al- 
though it is sometimes perverse and fickle. For a white 
berry, Lennig's White (grown in rows, in a good soil, 
with its runners clipped) stands at the head, and is really 
a luscious fruit no better than the Bicton Pine, perhaps ; 
but this latter kind is too poor a grower and too shy a 
bearer to be much raised here. 

The amateur grower needs no advice. It is his mission 
to test everything that comes to hand, setting the good on 
one side a scanty list it may be and the bad and in- 
different on the other. I class together the bad and the 



The Strawberry Book. 55 

indifferent, for where we have so many good kinds we 
need not trouble ourselves about a merely tolerable straw- 
berry. Dr. Johnson's question, addressed to Boswell, 
" Sir, how can you eat a tolerable egg," may well be 
transferred to strawberries. 

For market culture the list of good kinds must neces- 
sarily be somewhat limited. It is not easy to find all the 
characteristics of a good market berry united in one kind. 
The plant must be hardy, vigorous, and an abundant 
bearer, or else it is not worth growing ; the fruit must be 
large, handsome, and, if possible, sweet, and of good 
flavor. But absence of flavor or presence of acid will 
not prevent a variety, good in other regards, from being 
popular in the market. Witness the Wilson, of which, 
sour and poor as it is, sixty-four hundred quarts have been 
raised on five eighths of an acre. 

Many kinds too numerous to detail have struggled hard 
to get and hold a place among market varieties, but have 
failed from one reason and another, for the capabilities of 
a strawberry are put to a hard test when it is raised for 
the market. If it has a weak side it will surely show it 
under the searching trial it has to pass. Perhaps as good 
a list of market kinds as can be made would comprise 
Jenny Lind, Hovey, Wilson, the Brighton Pine, Jucunda, 
and Triomphe cle Gand. I can see that many readers will 
object to more than one kind here, but yet I believe that 
that is as good an average as can be struck. In Massa- 
chusetts, after a review of last year's market, we are 
tempted to add the Lady of the Lake to this list, for it is 
a good market berry here, and overwhelmingly productive 
on certain soils. 

I do not give merely my own opinion, which might 
not be worth much, but that of experienced cultivators 
and growers, who have seen many new seedlings rise and 
fall, when I say that the President Wilder will undoubt- 
edly become a standard market variety. It has all the 



56 The Strawberry Book. 

elements of a good market strawberry, and will certainly 
prove a rival to some now popular kinds. 

In England, Alice Maude, the famous British Queen, and 
I believe Keens' Seedling, still hold their places as market 
varieties Alice Maude for an early crop, and the Queen 
for a later supply. There, as here, there is a host of con- 
stantly renewed fancy and. amateur varieties. 

The market price of English strawberries does not vary 
very much from the prices in our markets. In 1867, in 
the English market, Alice Maude strawberries sold early 
in the season for one shilling and sixpence per basket, the 
basket holding two thirds of a quart. Later in the season 
they were sold at the rate of two shillings for three quarts. 
Extra, selected British Queen strawberries sold from one 
to two shillings per basket, and later in the season the 
price fell to ninepence. 

In France, the Elton and Princesse Royale are, or were 
recently, very largely raised for market. 

I cannot help adding here one word about strawberry 
culture on a small scale in gardens. 

It is amazing that so many comparatively good gardens 
can be found in all parts of the country with not a straw- 
berry bed in one quarter of them. I do not speak wholly 
of garden patches, whose owners have no time to tend 
and weed a strawberry bed, but of gardens belonging to 
land-owners, who have time, men, horses, ploughs, and 
manure at command, and who yet can never find room 
enough for a good bed of strawberries. A very little ob- 
servation teaches us that a well-cared-for strawberry bed 
is the exception rather than the rule. Yet strawberries 
are always welcome in their season ; everybody is fond of 
them ; people who can hardly afford so expensive a luxury 
buy them freely, and those who have no beds look with 
longing, and may be envious, eyes at the plantations of 
their more provident neighbors. 

Then, too, those who raise their own fruit on a gen- 



The Strawberry Book. 57 

erous scale, pick and eat ad libitum; not harassed by 
being limited to a given number of " boxes," but revelling 
in fresh, sound, unpacked, and uninjured berries. This 
luxury, which habit soon makes a necessity, and which is 
not a mere gratification of the taste, but is really condu- 
sive to sound health, costs but a trifle. I believe that ten 
dollars will establish, and less than that amount expended 
annually will maintain, a strawberry bed large enough to 
meet through the season the demands of any ordinary 
family. But ten dollars will not go far in buying choice 
strawberries by the box. Knowing by experience how 
pleasant it is to have good strawberries in abundance 
through the season, I advise every owner of a garden to 
set apart space enough for a good bed, to manure it well, 
plant it with some good, productive kind, and never there- 
after to be without a supply of luscious berries in their 
season. 

It is worth noticing, that in most cases the neatest and 
best beds of strawberries, except those of the market gar- 
deners, are in gardens owned, or perhaps hired, by me- 
chanics and laborers, who somehow find time to weed 
and tend them before and after their hours of labor, and 
whose success very often puts to shame their wealthier 
neighbors, and affords a parallel to the Lancashire work- 
men's gooseberry bushes. 

It cannot, then, be bad advice to urge those who have 
the land and the means to plant strawberry beds. For 
three weeks in the year, at least, their families will call 
them blessed. 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETIES. 



I HAVE thought it best to arrange the following varieties 
alphabetically, as almost any other classification would be 
impossible, or at least would lead to confusion and mis- 
understanding. Not that the distinction between certain 
species is not broad enough, but the innumerable acci- 
dental and intentional crosses that have been produced 
have made it next to impossible to fix exactly the botan- 
ical rank and place of any named variety. 

I may add that if any amateur wishes to study the 
strawberry critically, he will get much help from the ad- 
mirable essays in the yardin Fruitier du Museum, and 
from the papers contributed by Knight and others to the 
Transactions of the London Horticultural Society. 

It is much to be desired that some competent botanist 
would take in hand the whole question of species and 
varieties in the strawberry family, and reduce to system 
and order what is now considerably confused. 

A thorough research would probably reduce the num- 
ber of species to two or three. 

Meanwhile it is very desirable that every originator of 
a new seedling should keep a carefxl record of its origin. 
From a comparison of these records with the varieties 
produced, a good deal of light will one day be obtained. 

The following is a pretty full list of the named varieties 
of strawberries. In a subsequent edition I hope to make 

59 



60 The Strawberry Book. 

it still more full and more accurate ; and I shall be much 
obliged to any one who will help me in this matter. Of 
the following varieties I have tested a great many, es- 
pecially the foreign kinds, having fruited some of them 
four years, and others fewer seasons ; others I have care- 
fully observed in the plantations of friends and acquaint- 
ances ; and for descriptions of the remaining varieties I 
have had recourse to the best authorities I could com- 
mand. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



The following abbreviations have been used in this 
list, viz. : 

Downing Downing's Fruits and Fruit Trees of 

America. Edition of 1869. 

Hov. Mag Hovey's Magazine of Horticulture. 

Boston. 

Hort . Horticulturist. New York. 

Rev. Hort Revue Horticole. Paris. 

Fuller Fuller's Small Fruit Culturist. 

Alb. de Pom Album de Pomologie. Paris. 

Lond. Hort. Soc. Trans. Transactions of the London Horticul- 
tural Society. 

Duham Duhamel. Traite des Arbres Fruitiers. 

Jar. Mus Jardin Fruitier du Museum. (Quoted by 

the volume, as the plates are not num- 
bered.) 

Fig Figured. 

A star (*) prefixed to the name of a variety shows that that va- 
riety has been rejected by the United States Pomological Society. 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETIES. 



ABD-EL-KADER (Dr. Nicaise). Plant small, but vigorous ; leaf- 
stalks long; leaves small ; fruit large to enormous, elongated, 
orange vermilion ; seeds prominent; flesh salmon color; 
sprightly, somewhat acid, but very good. New. Fig. in Rev. 
Hort. 1869, 470. 

* ABERDEEN BEE-HIVE. This is the old Grove End Scarlet. 

ABINGTON BLUSH (Kohl). Conical; greenish white, with deep 
scarlet red blush. Very handsome and good. Probably a seed- 
ling of Lennig's White. Fig. in Gard. Month. IV. 211. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN (Plattman). A new American variety, 
described as very promising. Name changed to President. 

ADAIR (Elphinstone). (Syn. Sir Adair.} (?) An English va- 
riety, described as very large, heart shaped, pointed, of a 
deep varnished red, with rosy flesh. Vigorous and productive. 

ADELAIDE. 

ADMIRAL DUNDAS (Myatt). This is an enormous English vari- 
ety. A shy bearer at best, and the vines need to be two years 
old to show their best fruit. Berries very large, sometimes 
only eighteen to the pound, variable in form, sometimes cocks- 
combed, bright orange, with seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, 
sugary, and pretty good for so large a berry. I have found 
but very few and very small strawberries on one-year plants. 

ADONIS (Prince). One of W. R. Prince's seedlings. Little known. 

A,FRICAINE (Dr. Nicaise). New. Described by the originator as 
a strong plant, with large, smooth leaves borne on short foot- 
stalks; fruit shining, deep red, almost black, truncated, con- 
ical ; seeds prominent ; sugary, juicy, and perfumed. 

(61) 



62 Catalogue of Varieties. 

AGRICULTURIST (Boyden). Very large, often monstrous, irreg- 
ularly conical, with a long neck. This peculiarity, viz., hav- 
ing a distinct neck, is very noticeable* in seedlings from the 
Agriculturist; color light crimson red; flesh deep red, juicy, 
and about second rate in quality. Varies very much in different 
seasons and localities. Fig. in Fuller, p. 88, and Hort. XXII. 
264. 
Downing gives Abraham Lincoln and President as synonymes. 

*AjAX (Nicholson). Large, roundish, deep red; seeds slightly 
imbedded ; flesh pale red, juicy, and tolerably rich. An extraor- 
dinarily vigorous plant, but a shy bearer. Forces well. 

ALEXANDER II. (Gloede). New, 1869. Figured in the origina- 
tor's catalogue for 1870, and there described as very large; 
heart shaped, orange color, deeper on the sunny side ; flesh sal- 
mon* color, very juicy, sugary, and perfumed. Early and pro- 
ductive. The berries are said sometimes to exceed in size those 
of Dr. Nicaise. 

ALEXANDRA (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit very large, round- 
ed, flattejied, horseshoe shaped, and often larger than the Dr. 
Nicaise; bright orange red ; seeds yellowish, not prominent; 
flesh rosy, of a pleasant flavor, brisk and sugary. A very good 
and distinct variety. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869, 470. 

* ALICE MAUDE. (Syn. Princess Alice Maude,} An English va- 
riety of some repute, and a favorite early market kind at home. 
With me the leaves have all burned before midsummer. Large, 
conical, dark, glossy scarlet ; flesh light scarlet, juicy, rich and 
good. 

ALICE NICHOLSON (Nicholson). Named by Nicholson for his 
only daughter. Fruit medium to large, conical, with long 
neck, rosy orange, shaded with yellow; seeds prominent; flesh 
creamy white, buttery, melting, and exquisite. Fig. in Gloede's 
Cat. for 1869. 

AMAZONE (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit large to very large, 
elongated conical, of a beautiful form and almost always regu- 
lar; clear red, vermilion at the tip; seed little sunken ; flesh 
rosy white, sugary, and perfumed, excellent. Plant half dwarf, 
vigorous, hardy, and productive. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869, 
470. 

AMBROSIA (Nicholson). Very large, roundish, dark shining red; 
seeds deeply imbedded ; flesh rose colored, sugary, and full of 
juice. It is said to force well. I have found it only a moderate 
bearer. The berries have a slight mulberry flavor. 

AMERICA (Keech). Large, obtuse conical, wedge shaped, crim- 



Catalogue of Varieties. 63 

son; flesh firm, juicy, rich subacid. The fruit ripens all at 
once, and as early as the Early Scarlet. Originated in Water- 
loo, N. Y. 

AMERICAN QUEEN (Huntsman). Described by Fuller as large, 
bright scarlet, pistillate. 

ANANAS. (Syn. Praise Ananas.} Possibly a seedling of a Chili. 
Fruit round or oval, brilliant rosy yellow; seeds few, large, 
brown, prominent; flesh white, hollow, with a core; flavor su- 
gary and delicate, never becoming bitter. Runners few, long, 
and red. Plant vigorous, productive, and hardy in France, 
where it was formerly cultivated largely for the Paris market. 
Fig. in Jar. Mus. V. 

ANANAS DE BRETAGNE. White-fruited. 

ANANAS DE GUEMENE. Seedling of a Chili. Described as a mag- 
nificent berry, rosy white, juicy, perfumed, late. 

ANANAS DE LA HULLE. 

ANANAS FOLIIS VARIEGATA. A striped leaved variety of the 
above, with small red fruit. 

ANANAS LECOQ^ A French variety. Fruit large or very large, 
elongated, flattened, often truncated, bright red ; seeds promi- 
nent; flesh rosy, sugary, and perfumed. Plant hardy, vigorous, 
productive, and late. (Gloede.) 

ANANAS PERPETUEL (Gloede). (Syn. Gloede's Perpetual Pine.} 
Fruit medium, conical, sometimes flattened, scarlet red ; seeds 
prominent; flesh white, moderately firm, juicy, and sugary. 
Plant vigorous and productive. Said to bear a full crop in the 
autumn if the runners are cut. Fig. in L'lllustration Horti- 
cole, XIII. 501. 

ANGELIQUE (Prince). Described by the originator as large, con- 
ical, bright scarlet, juicy, of excellent flavor. Plant vigorous, 
hardy, and productive. 

ANNETTE. 

ARIADNE (Prince). Described as rather large, conical, with a 
slight neck, light scarlet, sweet, with very fine flavor. Pistil- 
late. 

AROMATIC CRIMSON (Prince). A seedling from the Black Prince, 
and like its parent. 

ASA GRAY. Discovered by Professor Gray, in 1852, in Western 
New York. Remarkable for its peculiar neck, for the bright, 
transparent red of its skin, and for a peculiar wild flavor. 
Seeds few, yellow on the shady side, red on. the other, very 
deeply sunken. Fig. in Jar. Mus. II. 

ASCOT PINE-APPLE (Standish). New, 1868. Figured in Gloede's 



64 Catalogue of Varieties. 

Catalogue 1868-9, and described as oval or conical, red, var- 
nished; seeds prominent; flesh white with red veins, having a 
decided pine-apple flavor. Season medium. 

* ATHLETE. Originated in Easton, Pa. (?) 

ATKINSON'S SCARLET. This is the Grove End Scarlet 

ATLISTEL. ( ?) 

AUGUSTA (Lebeuf). New, 1869. Figured in Gloede's Catalogue 
of 1870, and described as of the largest size, elongated, flattened 
or cockscombed, bright crimson red, with rosy flesh, very su- 
gary, juicy, and perfumed. Vigorous, hardy, and productive. 

AUGUSTE RETEMEYER (De Jonghe). 1854-5. Fruit large or very 
large, roundish oval, vermilion red, sometimes white at the 
end; seeds superficial; flesh salmon, firm, juicy, sugary, and 
perfumed. Season medium. 

AUGUSTS VAN GEERT. A Belgian variety, described as a good 
bearer, with fruit of medium size, dark color, juicy and good. 

AUGUSTINE (Prince). 

AUSTIN. (Syn. Shaker Seedling.'} Originated at Watervliet, N. Y. 
Accurately described by Fuller as large, roundish, slightly con- 
ical; large specimens usually hollow, light pale scarlet; flesh 
white, soft, acid. Third rate in flavor, and ought not to be tol- 
erated any longer, though productive and vigorous. 

AUSTRALIA. 

AUTUMN SCARLET (Knight). A cross of Knight's Large Scarlet 
with the Old Black. Originated in England in 1817. A good 
bearer. Fruit necked, uniform dark shining red; seeds yellow, 
deeply imbedded; flesh solid, firm, pale scarlet; flavor good. 
Very late in ripening. 

AVENIR (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fig. in Gloede's Catalogue 
1868-9, and there described as somewhat like Marguerite, but 
without the faults of that variety, being large to very large, 
oval, brilliant vermilion red ; seeds superficial ; flesh white with 
a hollow in the centre, juicy, and of a delicious perfume. Hardy, 
vigorous, and productive. 

AYTBURTH'S SEEDLING. Figured in the Album de Pomologie, 
IV. 78. 





Due DE MALAKOFF. 



AMBROSIA. 





JUCUNDA. 



BOYDEN'S No. 30. 



Catalogue of Varieties, 65 



BALTIMORE SCARLET. Synonyme of the Scotch Runner. 

BARABOO. A Wisconsin strawberry. 

BARGEMON. (Syn. Fragaria Majatifea, Fraisier de Bargemont, 
Breslinge d'Angleterre, Cattcasian, Green Pine-apple, Green 
Wood, Powdered Pine, Verte d' Angleterre , Fraisier Vert, 
Williams' s Green Pine, Gilbert's Large Brown.} This very old 
variety, which takes its name from a village in the Alps, has 
been considered a distinct species ; but Fuller calls it a true 
Alpine. Fruit small, roundish, bright violet red on one side, 
greenish violet on the other; flesh greenish, melting, with a 
raspberry flavor. Known in 1583. Fig. in Jar. Mus. IV., and 
Duhamel, V. 269. 

BARNES'S MAMMOTH (Barnes). Probably same as Barnes's Seed- 
ling, which is described by Fuller as very large and handsome, 
and promising to be a very valuable market variety. Very large, 
roundish, obtusely conical, uneven, crimson; flesh scarlet, firm, 
juicy, sprightly subacid. Originated in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 
with D. H. Barnes. 

BARNES'S WHITE. (?) 

BARON BEMAN DE LINNICK (Deman de Lenm'cfc) (?). (Makoy.) 
Very large, elongated, flattened cone, light scarlet; seeds prom- 
inent; flesh pink, solid, sweet, and perfumed. 

BARON DE QUADT (De Jonghe). 1865. Very large, elongated, 
bright red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, juicy, and of exquisite 
perfume. Dwarf, hardy, makes few runners. Very productive, 
and season medium. (Originator's description.) 

BARRAT'S EMPEREUR. 

BARRY'S EXTRA (Barry). Light scarlet, fine flavor. Little 
known. 

BARTLETT. Identical with Boston Pine. 

BATH SCARLET. (Syn. Bath Strawberry, New Bath Scarlet, 
Liverpool, Golden Drop, Devonshire, and probably others.) 
An abundant bearer. Berries roundish ovate, small, with short 
neck, scarlet; seeds dark, varnished red, and very promi- 
nent ; flesh soft, with a large core, pale scarlet, coarse, and no 
flavor. Old. 

BATH STRAWBERRY. Origin unknown. This is the Fragaria 
'5 



66 Catalogue of Varieties. 

Calycina of Duchesne. Fruit round, slightly elongated, whi- 
tish rose ; flesh spongy, whitish yellow, little juice ; fine flavor, 
but disagreeable when too ripe. Fig. in Jar. Mus. V. Duha- 
mel, III. 157, and Album de Pom. III. 20. 

BAYNES' EARLY SCARLET. (Syn. Baynes" Favorite Scarlet.') (?) 

BAYNES' INCOMPARABLE. 

BEATRICE (Prince). Described by the originator as large, ob- 
tusely conical, deep scarlet, sweet, fine flavor, hardy, vigorous, 
and productive. 

BEAUTY (Nicholson). Large, wedge shaped, good. An abun- 
dant bearer. 

BEAUTY OF ENGLAND (Frewin). Large, heart shaped, bright 
shining red; flesh clear red, juicy, sugary, and perfumed. 

BELLE ARTESIENNE (Demay). Very large, conical, dark crim- 
son, poor, and unproductive. 

BELLE BORDELAISE. One of the best of the Hautbois varieties. 
Roundish oval, dark brownish purple ; flesh white, juicy, sweet, 
with a strong musky flavor. Gives sometimes a second crop, 
but has not done so with Fuller in six years' cultivation. This 
variety is said to be a cross of the old Hautbois with an Alpine. 

BELLE BRETONNE (Boisselot). New, 1868. Figured in Gloede's 
Catalogue for 1868-9. Described as very hardy and vigorous, 
fruit-stalks long and firm, holding the berries well above 
the leaves; fruit obtusely conical, bright, varnished red, with 
prominent seeds; flesh rosy, firm, melting, and perfumed. 

BELLE CAUCHOISE (Acher). New, 1869. Figured in catalogues, 
and described as large to very large, oval or flattened, bright 
cherry red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, firm, buttery, exqui- 
sitely perfumed. 

BELLE DE BRUXELLES (Dejonghe). 1852. 

BELLE DE MACHETAUX. 

BELLE D'ORLEANS. 

* BELLE DE PALLUA. 

BELLE DE PARIS (Bossin). Fruit large, sometimes enormous, 
obtusely conical or flattened, bright shining red, with sunken 
seeds; flesh rosy, tender, with a brisk, sugary flavor. Vigor- 
ous and productive. Late. 

BELLE DE SCEAUX (Robine). Conical or oval, vermilion red; 
seeds superficial ; flesh rosy, juicy, brisk flavored, and good. 
Late. 

BELLE DE ST. GILLES (De Jonghe). An Alpine. Originated 
about 1845. Comes perfectly true from seed. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 6f 

BELLE DE VIBERT (Vibert). Large, conical, light crimson, 
sweet, but not rich ; flesh firm. A handsome berry ; succeeds 
poorly, except in a very few localities. 

BELLE LYONNAISE (Nardy). New, 1868. Berry large, round, 
rose colored: seeds prominent; flesh creamy white, melting, 
sugary, and highly perfumed. Vigorous and productive. Late. 

BELL'S EXCELLENT. 

BELVIDERE (Prince). Large, conical, light scarlet, sweet, and 
good. 

BENICEA (Prince). Described by the originator as very large, 
obtusely conical, crimson ; flesh white, firm, sweet, fine flavor. 
Vigorous and productive. Pistillate. 

BERSILLA (Prince). Early, very large, bright scarlet, good. 
Must be grown in hills. 

BICOLOR (De Jonghe). 1849 or l &5- Medium size, conical, 
light crimson, sweet and good. A poor grower. 

BICTON PINE. (Syn. Belle Blanche, Deftford White, Excelsior?) 
Large, roundish, pale flesh color, with a reddish tinge on the 
sunny side. Bears a moderate crop of fragrant and tolerably 
high flavored berries. Requires very careful winter protection. 
Fig. in Hort. XII. 220, Alb. de Pom. IV. 78. 

BIJOU (De Jonghe). 1859-60. Fruit medium to large, regularly 
conical, bright shining rose color; seeds yellow and promi- 
nent; flesh snow white, juicy, and moderatelv good. I have 
fruited the Bijou four seasons, and find it a pretty berry, but a 
poor bearer. 

BIJOU DES FRAISES (Wolf). Entirely distinct from the forego- 
ing. A Hautbois strawberry. 

BISHOP'S ORANGE. (Syn. Bishop's Neiv Orange, Hudson s Bay.} 
Medium, conical, regular; color between orange and light scar- 
let; flesh firm, rich, and excellent. Pistillate. 

BISHOP'S SEEDLING SCARLET (Bishop). A seedling of the Hud- 
son's Bay, and originated in England in 1819. A good bearer, 
very late. Leaves light green, deeply serrate ; fruit moderate 
size, round, with a neck, light scarlet, hairy, seeds deeply im- 
bedded ; flesh solid, pale scarlet, of moderately good flavor. 

BISHOP'S WICK. Large, conical, good. 

BLACK CHILL- A mere sub-variety of darker color. 

BLACK CONE. Medium, conical, third rate. 

BLACK DEFIANCE . (Durand). New. Conical or cockscombed, 
very dark crimson ; flesh solid, juicy, rich, and sprightly. 

BLACK HAUTBOIS. A seedling of the conical Hautbois, raised in 



68 Catalogue of Varieties. 

1815. Fruit conical, dark dingy purple ; seeds little sunken ; 
flesh buttery and high flavored. A great bearer, and early. 

BLACK PINE. (Syn. Read's Black Pine.} Originated with William 
H. Reed, Canada West. Large, short conical, nearly black, 
glossy ; seeds yellow, slightly imbedded ; flesh firm ; of excel- 
lent flavor. Late. Fig. in Hort. XIV. 560. 

BLACK PRINCE (Wilmot)". Originated in England in 1820, and 
known as Wilmot's Black Imperial. Seedling of Keens' s Impe- 
rial. Medium size, spherical, hairy, very dark violet: seeds 
slightly sunken ; flesh solid, very firm, rich dull scarlet, with 
dark juice, a small core, and peculiar flavor. 

BLACK PRINCE (Cuthill). (Syn. Black Imperial, Malcolm? s Aber- 
deen Seedling?) Sent out in 1848. A prodigious bearer, with 
medium-sized, long conical, dark colored fruit; sour in dull 
weather, dry and middling in hot. Said to force well. Fig. in 
Alb. de Pom. IV. 78. 

BLACK ROSEBERRY (Williams). An old English variety, a cross 
of the Roseberry with the Early Pitmaston Black. Fruit of 
good size, bluntly conical, dark purple red; seeds sunken; flesh 
dark red, solid, buttery, and juicy. Fig. in Pom. Mag I. 20. 

BLANCHE D'ORLEANS. An Alpine strawberry; described as 
larger than the Old White Alpine. 

BLUSH PINE (?). 

BONTE DE ST. JULIEN (Carre). A very productive and delicious 
berry. Fruit medium to large, brilliant, but rather dark red ; 
flesh red, very sweet and high flavored. I have fruited this 
kind, and esteem it highly. 

*BOSTOCK. (Syn. Rostock, Rostock Seedljng, Rostock Pine, Wel- 
lington, Cone, Byram, Caledonian, Vernon's, Montague's, Pro- 
lific Bath, New Bath, Whitley 's Pine, Seattle's Seedling. 
Erroneously, Bath Scarlet, Chinese, Red Chili, Devonshire 
Chili?) A somewhat celebrated English variety. An abun- 
dant bearer. Fruit very large, nearly round, with a small neck; 
dark shining red on the sunny side, light scarlet on the other; 
seeds prominent; flesh pale scarlet, coarse, hollow; no flavor. 

BOSTON BEAUTY. A rather new seedling strawberry, said to 
have originated near Boston. I have seen fruit of this variety 
raised by Mr. Talbot, of South Dedham, Mass., which was large, 
handsome, and good, but it seemed a little soft, and somewhat 
resembled Rivers's Eliza. 

BOSTON PINE (Hovey). (Syn. Bartlett.~) A cross of the Grove 
End Scarlet and Keens's Seedling. Medium to large, obtusely 
conical, light crimson ; flesh light colored, sweet, and excellent. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 69 

Plant vigorous and productive; best grown in hills in a rich, 
deep soil. The berries lose their color soon after being gath- 
ered. This variety has been largely used as a fertilizer for 
Hovey's Seedling. Fig. in Hovey's Fruits of America, I. 27. 

BOUDINOT PROLIFIC (Boudinot). A seedling of the Wilson. 
Originated in Alexandria, Ohio, in 1862. Vine hardy and pro- 
ductive; fruit regularly conical, uniform, firm and large; 
flavor like Agriculturist. 

BOUHON (Gloede). Said to be like Sir Charles Napier in growth. 
Flesh firm, very juicy and sugary. 

BOULE D'OR (Boisselot). Very large, round, flattened, bright 
glossy orange-scarlet; seeds prominent; flesh white, sweet, 
and good. Fig. in Fuller, p. 104, and described by Gloede 
as " probably the handsomest strawberry known." 

BOYDEN'S MAMMOTH. Said to be identical with Trollope's Vic- 
toria. Described as a roundish, depressed, deep crimson. 
Vigorous, but not very productive. 

BOYDEN'S No. 15 (Boyden). New. Described as very large, 
productive, and beautiful. 

BOYDEN'S No. 30 (Boyden). An immense roundish, conical ber- 
ry, with a long neck ; crimson or dark scarlet. As I saw it last 
summer, it was a very striking exhibition berry, but too soft. 

BRESLINGE D'ANGLETERRE. (Syn. de Pennsylvam'e.} A green 
strawberry, Roundish, ovate, very small and poor. 

* BRETTONEAU. 

BREWER'S EMPEROR. Medium, ovate, dark red, and good. An 
English variety. 

BRIDGETOWN PINE. A Connecticut seedling. 

BRIGHTON PINE (Scott). Medium to large, roundish conical, 
with short neck ; light crimson ; flesh a little soft, sweet, juicy, 
and good. Much employed by cultivators near Boston as a 
fertilizer for Hovey's Seedling. 

BRILLIANT (Prince). Large, conical, deep crimson. 

BRITANNIA. 

BRITISH QUEEN (Myatt). This is perhaps the most famous 
strawberry ever raised in England, and has been very widely 
grown there,' where it is a favorite market berry. Unfortu- 
nately, it does not come to full perfection here ; and it is not 
only tender, but very capricious in its choice of soils. It is the 
parent of many excellent kinds. Fruit of the largest size, 
roundish, slightly conical, rich scarlet; flesh pure white, and 
of the highest flavor. Forces admirably. Fig. in Hort. VII. 
363, Album de Pomologie, III. 20. 



70 Catalogue of Varieties. 

BRITISH QUEEN SEEDLING. Fruit medium-sized, obtusely con- 
ical, dark red, and greatly inferior to its parent, the preceding. 

BRITISH SOVEREIGN (Stewart and Neilson). Said not only to 
possess the good qualities of the British Queen, but to be more 
vigorous, hardy, and productive.. 

BRITTANY WHITE PINE. Described as a high flavored berry, but 
a poor setter. 

BROOKLYN SCARLET (Fuller). Medium to large, regular coni- 
cal, with neck, bright scarlet; flesh very soft, sweet, rich, and 
excellent. Plant very vigorous ; rather too rank a grower; in 
fact, making an amount of leaves out of proportion to the 
quantity of fruit. One of the best flavored strawberries I have 
ever raised, but too soft for anything but home use. Fig. in 
Fuller, p. 89. Hort. XXII. 266. 

BROOKS'S PROLIFIC. Synonyme of the Iowa. 

BRUNE DE GILBERT. (Syn. Gilbert's Brown.} An Alpine 
strawberry. Said to be small and high flavored. 

BRYAN'S SATISFACTION (Bryan). Originated in Vineland, New 
Jersey, and is a cross of Hooker and Wilson's Albany. Me- 
dium sized, very uniform, heart-shaped, rich, glossy crimson. 
Very rich flavored. New. 

BUFFALO. Synonyme of McAvoy's Superior. 

BUIST'S PRIZE (Buist). Good size, nearly round, light color; 
flesh rather soft; flavor good. Plant a strong grower, and tol- 
erably productive. 

BULLOCK'S BLOOD. An old English variety ; a shy bearer, and 
late. Fruit ovate, large, uniform, light shining red ; seeds dark 
red on the sunny side, yellow on the other, and prominent ; 
flesh pale red, firm, juicy, of very indifferent flavor. 

BURR'S NEW PINE (Burr). Pistillate. Large, pale red; flavor 
highly aromatic, sweet, and delicious. Early and productive. 
Originated with Zerah Burr, Columbus, O. Fig. in Thomas's 
Fruit Culturist, p. 422. 

* BURR'S OHIO MAMMOTH (Burr). Large, roundish, light colored, 

tolerably good flavor; frequently hollow. Not recommended. 

* BURR'S SEEDLING (Burr). (Syn. Burr's Old Seedling, Burr's 

Staminate.} Large, roundish-conical, light scarlet; flesh juicy, 
tender, pleasant. 

BUSH ALPINE, RED. (Syn. Wood Strawberry, Buisson a Friiit 
Rouge, Commun Sans Filets, Sans Coulans ordinaire, Sans 
Filets ordinaire, De Gaillon a Fruit Rouge.} Medium, 
roundish-ovate, sub-acid, dry, agreeable. The plants make 



Catalogue of Varieties. 71 

few or no runners, and are propagated by dividing the roots. 

Suited for the edging of garden beds. 
BUSH ALPINE, WHITE. (Sjn. White Wood Strawberry, Buis- 

son des Alpes Blanc, Buisson a Fruit Blanc.) Similar to the 

above, except that it continues in bearing all the season. 
BYBERRY. A new Americam seedling, little known as yet. 



o 



CALEB COPE. An American strawberry; described as large, 
pointed, scarlet, white-fleshed and pistillate. 

CALLIOPE (Prince). Described as larger than Hovey's. Obovate, 
crimson, pleasant. 

CAMBRIAN PRINCE (Roberts). New, 1869. Figured and de- 
scribed in Gloede's Catalogue for 1870, as a large and beautiful 
berry, oval elongated, clear vermilion; flesh salmon color, 
juicy and refreshing. Plant extraordinarily vigorous and pro- 
ductive. 

CANADA. Said to be a cross between Wilson's Albany and Tri- 
omphe de Gand. Not yet much known, but described as large, 
beautiful, and hardy. 

CAPTAIN COOK (Nicholson). Fruit generally roundish ovate, 
but irregular; red with frequently a green point; flavor hardly 
second rate. Habit dwarf, leaf-stalks hairy, leaflets small oval, 
sharply serrate. 

CARMINE SCARLET (Williams). (Syn. Carmine Roseberry.*) 
Originated in Pitmaston, England, in 1820. Dwarf, leaves nu- 
merous, medium size, deeply serrate, light green. Fruit large, 
obtusely conical, brilliant varnished red ; seeds slightly im- 
bedded ; flesh pale scarlet, firm, and high flavored. Late. 

CARNIOLA MAGNA (Dejonghe). A fine fruit; size large, form 
oval, color bright shining red; seeds superficial ; flesh rosy, 
with red veins ; hollow, firm, juicy, and melting. Plant vigor- 
ous and productive. 

CAROLINA. (Syn. Bath Scarlet, Old Pine.} A moderate bearer, 
and one requiring the highest cultivation. Fruit of the richest 
flavor. 

CAROLINA CHILI. A Chili seedling, formerly cultivated in this 
country. 

CAROLINA SUPERBA (Kitley). Fruit large, of a beautiful rounded 



72 Catalogue of Varieties. 

heart-shape, oiange red; seeds prominent; flesh firm, pure 
white, very sweet, and highly perfumed. Hardy and produc- 
tive. Forces well. 

CECILIA (Prince). Described as large, pointed-conical, crimson. 

CERES (Lebeuf). New, 1869. Figured in Gloede's Catalogue for 
1870, and there described as large, or very large, elongated 
conical, truncated ; color deep red ; flesh red, firm, sugary, and 
juicy. Plant vigorous and productive. A seedling of JIaquin, 
which it surpasses. 

CHAMPION (Neff). Large, firm, melting, sweet. Originated 
with Dr. J. C. Neff, Carlisle, Pa. 

CHAMPION MONTEVIDEO (Prince). Large and late. 

CHANCELLOR (Downing). 

CHARLES DOWNING (Downer). Very large, nearly regular, con- 
ical, deep scarlet; seeds brown and yellow, set rather deep; 
flesh firm, pink, juicy, sweet, and good. Vines vigorous, tall, 
and productive. I have seen this variety in fruit several times, 
and it did not appear to rrte to make good all that had been said 
in its favor. 

CHARLES DOWNING (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Figured in 
Gloede's Catalogue, and there described as of medium size, oval 
shape, brilliant red, with very prominent seeds ; flesh white, 
very firm, melting, and of an exquisite perfume. Plant vig- 
orous and productive, and called " a worthy companion of La 
Constante." 

CHARLES'S FAVORITE. Fruit large, conical, bright scarlet; seeds 
deeply imbedded ; flesh red, solid, sweet, juicy, and pleasant. 
Handsome, hardy, and productive. A seedling from Hovey's. 

CHARLET. A sub-variety of the Alpine class. 

CHARLOTTE (Keens). (Syn. Princess Charlotte.} Raised in 
England about 1820. Leaves dense on hairy foot-stalks, with 
oblong, thick, smooth, dark green leaflets. Fruit round, me- 
dium size, hairy, dark purplish red. Flesh scarlet, firm, high 
flavored. 

CHARLTON'S PROLIFIC. Said to be a seedling of the Iowa; but 
Fuller is unable to see any difference between the two varieties. 
Early. 

CHATAUOJJE PERPETUAL. Probably an Alpine strawberry. 

* CHESTER. 

CHILI. (Syn. Patagonian, GreenivelVs.} Introduced into Europe 
in 1712. Large, irregular ovate or bluntly conical, dull brown- 
ish red ; seeds dark brown and prominent ; flesh slightly red 




DR. NICAISE. 




BIJOU. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 73 

near the outside, whitish within; hollow, with a small core; 
flavor poor and acid. Leaves coarse, hairy, and stout. A mere 
curiosity. Fig. in Duham. III. 160. 

CHILI BLANC ROSE. Very large, rounded, very regular, white, 
slightly tinted with rose on the sunny side; seeds brown and 
prominent; flesh white, hollow, juicy, and perfumed. Only 
moderately productive, and said to be best adapted to pot cul- 
ture. Very late; perhaps the latest strawberry known. 

CHILI ORANGE. (Syn. Praise Souchet.} A good and handsome 
fruit; distinct and late. Fig. in Duham. III. 159. 

CHILI VELU. (Syn. Lamana, Premices de Bagnolet.} Fruit large, 
rounded, sometimes lobed, dull red, inferior. 

CHILIAN (Newland). (Syn. Pyramidal Chilian, Neivland.} Me- 
dium, conical, bright crimson, acid, but good flavor; plant 
hardy and productive; of no especial value. Originated in 
New Jersey. 

CHINESE STRAWBERRY. (Syn. North's Seedling, North's Large 
Scarlet, Red Chili.} A very old variety, and probably a seed- 
ling of a Chili. A great bearer, with medium sized, round, 
compressed berries of a pale varnished red. Seeds brown and 
prominent; flesh soft, with a great core; light pink, woolly, 
and of a poor flavor. 

CHOIX D'UN CONNOISSEUR (De Jonghe). 1849 or I 85- A me - 
dium sized berry, with dark colored prominent seeds, and a 
peculiar sugary flavor. 

CINNAMON SCARLET. Medium, roundish, poor. An old English 
kind. 

CLARENCE (Prince). Very large, obtusely conical, crimson, fine 
flavor. 

CLARISSA (Prince). Medium, conical, light scarlet, sweet, 
showy, and productive. Pistillate. 

CLEOME (Prince). Large, short cone, light scarlet, very sweet. 

CLIMAX (Prince). Pistillate. Vines very vigorous; fruit of a 
very large average size, beautiful light scarlet, but not of first 
quality as regards flavor. 

CLIMAX SCARLET. Described as soft, dry, spongy, sour. 

CLINTON (Camfield). A rather new, and little known New Jer- 
sey variety. Large, roundish, crimson ; flesh firm, juicy, sub- 
acid. Originated with Elias Camfield, Newark, N. J. 

CLUSTERED SCARLET STRAWBERRY. (Syn. Clustered Wood Ptne.'} 
Leaflets large, flat, coarse, serrate, hairy, yellowish green; 
fruit obtusely conical, dark purplish red next the sun ; seeds 



74 Catalogue of Varieties. 

same color as the fruit, unequally imbedded; flesh scarlet, 
firm, well flavored. An old variety. 

*COBB'S PROLIFIC. 

GOBI PROLIFIC. Described as producing a fair crop of large, 
roundish, slightly flattened, dark red berries of medium flavor. 

COCKSCOMB. An English seedling; described as being of a rosy 
salmon color, with rosy white flesh. Possibly identical with 
the Cockscomb Scarlet. 

COCKSCOMB SCARLET (Wilmot). A seedling of Keens's Imperial. 
Originated in 1808. A good bearer; late. Fruit large, com- 
pressed ; the earlier berries very large, and completely cocks- 
comb shape; bright scarlet; seeds pale, slightly imbedded; 
flesh pale scarlet, solid, large core, good flavor. Runners few; 
leaflets very large and nearly round ; dark shining green. Re- 
quires a rich soil. 

CCEUR ST. INNOCENT. 

COLES'S PROLIFIC (Coles). Originated near Bath, England. 
Described as of a deeper color than Alice Maude ; largest size, 
conical, and high flavored. 

COLFAX. An American variety, introduced into South Bend, 
Indiana, about fifteen years ago, by Schuyler Colfax. Medium, 
roundish, very uniform, dark crimson, soft, and poor. Hardy, 
and a rank grower. 

COLONEL ELLSWORTH (Fuller). Very large, irregularly conical, 
with a long neck ; color dark scarlet, fading to a dull crimson ; 
flesh firm, dry, sweet, not rich. A moderate grower, and pro- 
ductive. Apt to burn on warm soils. 

* COLUMBUS (Burr). A cross of Hovey with Burr's. Originated 

in Columbus, O. Large, nearly round, dark color, rich, sweet 
flavor, productive, and hardy. 

* COMPTE DE FLANDRE. Large, conical, good flavor. Fig. in 

Hort. XIV. 420. 

* COMPTE DE PARIS (Pelvilain). Fruit large, heart-shaped, 

deep brilliant red ; seeds superficial ; flesh red, tender, juicy, 
and brisk flavored; by some considered too acid. Vigorous 
and productive ; very late. 

COMPTE DE ZANS. A Belgian variety, of medium growth, con- 
ical or wedge-shaped, bright colored, moderately good flavor, 
firm flesh. 

COMPTESSE DE BEAUMONT. Syn. of Duchesse de Beaumont (?). 

* COMPTESSE DE MARNES (Graindorge). Fruit large or very 

large, varying very much in shape ; bright varnished red ; seeds 



Catalogue of Varieties. 75 

sunken ; flesh rosy, tender, juicy, and sweet. Vigorous, and 
good for forcing. The fruiting period very short. 

CONQUEROR (Prince). 

COOK'S HYBRID. 

COPPER-LEAVED ROSEBERRY. An old English berry. Medium, 
conical, and poor. 

COPPOCK'S No. i (Coppock). Little known. 

COQUELICOT (Dr. Nicaise). Described as vigorous, with leaves 
large, light colored, and thin ; fruit long, poppy-red (hence the 
name Coquelicot) ; seeds prominent; flesh rosy white, very 
sugary, brisk, and perfumed. 

CORDOVA MONTEVIDEO (Prince). Large, conical, light scarlet, 
good. % 

CORINNE (Prince). Large, obtusely conical, crimson, sweet. 
Pistillate. 

CORNISH DIAMOND (Mrs. Clements). New, 1869. Fig. in 
Gloede's Catalogue for 1870. Resembling in shape Boule d'Or. 
Fruit very large, cockscombed, very deep red ; flesh firm, red, 
sweet, and highly perfumed. Vigorous, productive, and late. 

CORNUCOPIA (Nicholson). A seedling of the Filbert Pine, but 
not quite equal to it in flavor. Large, heart-shaped, orange 
red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, veined with red. Described 
as hardy and astonishingly productive. 

CORNUCOPIA (Prince). Large, conical, bright scarlet ; flesh soft 
and sweet, good. 

CORONATION. Described as good, early, and productive. 

CORONET SCARLET (Prince). Medium, rounded, scarlet, pro- 
ductive. Pistillate. 

COULS'S LATE SCARLET. (Syn. Sir George Mackenzie's Late 
Scarlet.} Medium size, deep color, good flavor. Moderately 
productive. About second rate in quality. 

COVODE'S SEEDLING. 

Cox's SEEDLING (Cox). (Syn. Cox's Hybrid.} (?) A seedling 
of the Elton Pine, but not so good. Large, light red, very ir- 
regular; flavor good, but a little acid. A good bearer, and 
very late. The above description agrees with that of Cox's 
Hybrid. 

* CREMONT. (Syn. Cremont Perpetual, General Havelock} (?) 
This is a large, handsome, showy berry, which originated in 
Louisiana. It is occasionally raised in Massachusetts, and ex- 
hibited as the Cremont, while the foreign lists make it the 
same as General Havelock. The latter I have had one season. 



y6 Catalogue of Varieties. 

CRESCENT SEEDLING. Said to be a cross between the British 
Queen and Keens's Seedling. This created a slight sensation 
several years ago as a so-called perpetual strawberry, and was 
then said to have been fruited seven consecutive months in New 
Orleans. Probably out of cultivation now. 

CRIMSON CLUSTER (Mrs. Clements). Medium, round or oval, 
deep red ; flesh rosy, sweet, juicy, with a distinct cherry taste. 
Said to be hardy and productive. 

CRIMSON CONE. (Syn. Pine-apple, Scotch Runner, &c.) Me- 
dium, regular, conical, long neck; seeds deep sunken; light 
crimson ; flesh firm, acid, rich flavor, and highly perfumed. An 
old variety. Too small and too sour, but largely raised for the 
New York market. Pistillate. Fig. in Fuller, p. 90. 

CRIMSON FAVORITE (Fuller). Large, obtusely conical, dark 
shining crimson ; flesh firm, rich, and sprightly. Seedling of 
the Wilson, resembling its parent in its fruit, but not in its 
foliage. Unproductive. 

CRIMSON PERFUMED (Prince). Large, obovate, crimson, sweet, 
high flavored, and productive. Pistillate. 

CRIMSON PROFUSE (Prince). Medium, rounded, acid, crimson, 
firm. Pistillate. 

CRIMSON PROLIFIC Prince). Medium, conical, crimson, sweet, 
and good. Pistillate. 

CRIMSON QUEEN (Myatt). (Syn. Doubleday's No. 2.) Fruit 
large, variable, dull red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, sweet, 
and perfumed. Vines feeble, but productive. Late. One cul- 
tivator describes this variety as " a good grower," and another 
calls the fruit bright scarlet, acid. 

CROOKSHANK. 

CRYSTAL PALACE is said to be Eleanor (Myatt). 

CULVERWELL'S SEEDLING. Long, tapering, ridgy, very dark, 
blackish red; flesh firm and rich. English. 

GUSHING (Brinckle). Medium, roundish, conical, light scarlet; 
flesh tender, sprightly, and pleasant. Originated in Philadel- 
phia. 

CUTTER'S SEEDLING (Cutter). (Syn. Bunce.} Small to me- 
dium, conical, with short neck, bright scarlet; seeds yellow 
and brown ; fle'sh moderately firm, -sprightly, and good. Very 
early and productive, but by no means a first class fruit. I have 
known twenty-six hundred quarts raised on one half acre of 
land, with not the highest cultivation. Originated in Massa- 
chusetts, where it is raised for market. 

CYNTHIA (Prince). Large, round, crimson, exquisite flavor. 



Catalogue of Varieties, 77 



DAGGE'S SEEDLING (Fuller). New, and little known. 

DELANYS' SEEDLING. Little known. 

DELICES D'AUTOMNE (Makoy). A beautiful, large, light crim- 
son variety, of excellent quality. Fruit medium to large, clear 
red ; seeds superficial ; flesh rosy white, and soft. Said to be 
tender, but with Fuller, has proved hardy and productive. 
Does not bear a second crop, though its name seems to indicate 
this. Fig. in L'lllustration Horticole, II. 52. 

DELICES DU PALAIS (Dr. Nicaise). 

DE MONTREUIL A FRUIT BLANC. 

DE MONTREUIL A FRUIT ROUGE. (Syn. De Montreuila Marteau, 
Fressant, De Ville de Bois.} A sub- variety of the Alpine or 
Wood strawberry. 

DENBEIGH SEEDLING. An English variety. Large, coarse, and 
acid. 

DEPTFORD PINE (Myatt). Fruit medium to large, intermediate 
in color between the British Queen and Eliza; flesh firm, melt- 
ing, rather acid. Hardier than the British Queen. Fig. in Jar. 
Mus. V. 

DIACK'S SEEDLING. (Syn. New Aberdeen.} Large, round, third 
rate. 

DIADEM (Prince). Little known. Described by the origina- 
tor as an enormous bearer. Fuller says it is large, globular, 
light scarlet; seeds deeply sunk; flesh soft, acid, and agree- 
able. 

DOCTOR HOGG (Bradley). New, 1867. An immense, irregular 
shaped berry, often cockscombed ; bright shining orange, with 
very prominent seeds ; flesh creamy white, firm, melting, very 
sweet, extremely rich, and perfumed. Hardy, vigorous, and 
late. This variety has found some favor in England as an ex- 
hibition fruit. Fig. in Gloede's Catalogue 1868-9. 

DOCTOR KARL KOCH (Dejonghe). 1854 or 1855. 

DOCTOR NICAISE (Dr. Nicaise). A French strawberry, raised by 
the late Dr. Nicaise, an eminent amateur grower of seedling 
strawberries. It first fruited in June, 1863, and from its enor- 
mous size, became an object of great interest to all amateurs. 
I have fruited it two seasons, and find it a moderate grower; 



78 Catalogue of Varieties. 

very unproductive, with light green, unhealthy looking foliage, 
and bearing a few enormous crimson, misshapen, cockscombed 
berries, often ripe on one side, and green on the other. Flesh 
soft, hollow, very poor flavor. Fig. in Rev. Horticole, 1865, 

P- 375- 

DOCTOR THOMPSON (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Leaves deep 
green, without lustre; lobes horizontal, regularly incised; 
corolla small ; fruit medium to large, conical, regular, shining 
cherry red; seeds abundant, slightly sunken ; flesh pale cherry, 
juicy and brisk. 

DOWNER'S PROLIFIC (Downer). Originated in Kentucky. Me- 
dium to large, roundish oval, light scarlet; seeds deeply im- 
bedded; flesh soft, acid, good flavor, and perfume of the wild 
strawberry. Early, hardy, and productive. I have had a bed 
bear a good crop of medium berries after three years' neglect. 
Good for a near market. 

*DOWNTON (Knight). (Syn. Knights Seedling, Knighfs Straw- 
berry.} An old and formerly much esteemed English straw- 
berry. Originated about 1817, being a cross between the 
so-called Old Black strawberry, and a large Scarlet. Fruit 
large, ovate, often cockscombed, dark purple scarlet ; flesh scar- 
let, firm, and very high flavored. Fig. in Pom. Mag. II. 52, 
and Lond. Hort. Soc. Trans. III. 396. 

DUCHESSE DE BEAUMONT (Lorio). Large to very large; varia- 
ble, bright shining red; seeds superficial ; flesh rosy, with red 
veins, juicy, sweet, and perfumed. Plant vigorous and produc- 
tive. Medium in ripening. 

DUCHESSE DE BERGUES. A white wood strawberry, said to be 
large and productive. 

DUCHESSE DE TREVISE. Syn. of Vicomtesse Hericart de Thury. 

Due DE BRABANT. Large, long conical, bright shining red, 
musky and agreeable. 

Due DE MALAKOFF (Gloede). One of the most satisfactory 
French varieties that I have fruited for an amateur's strawberry. 
Berries enormous, sometimes weighing one and one half 
ounces; variable, cockscombed, dull red; seeds prominent; 
flesh very juicy, and with a sort of mulberry flavor. Vigorous, 
moderately productive, and as hardy as any foreign kind. Said 
to be a cross of a Chili and the British Queen. 

Du POTAGER IMPERIAL DE VERSAILLES. A French sub-variety 
of the Alpine class. 

DUDSON HOUSE SCARLET. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 79 

DUKE (Durand). New, and little known. 

DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE (Stewart and Neilson). Very large, ob- 
tusely conical, bright scarlet red; seeds promment; flesh rosy 
white, firm, sugary, and brisk. Described as a very beautiful 
fruit. Hardy, productive, and late. 

DUKE OF CORNWALL (Mrs. Clements). Fruit very large, heart 
shaped, brilliant vermilion red; seeds prominent; flesh orange, 
sweet, juicy, and perfumed. Hardy and productive. Season 
medium. 

DUKE OF EDINBURGH (Dr. Roden). New, 1869. Figured in 
Gloede's Catalogue, and described as a superb fruit; large to 
enormous, round or oval, necked; varnished salmon color; 
seeds very prominent; flesh white, firm, melting, sugary, and 
delicious. Vines vigorous, hardy, and very productive. 

DUKE OF KENT SCARLET. (Syn. Globe Scarlet, Cluster do., 
Austrian do., Oatland's do., Duke of Tork do., Prolific do., 
Early do. do., Nova Scotia doC) Sent to England from Hal- 
ifax in 1802, and widely disseminated. Globular, medium to 
small, rich bright scarlet; flesh solid, pale scarlet; flavor sharp 
and peculiar. Fruit-stalks very variable in length. Early and 
productive. 

DUNCAN'S SEEDLING. A seedling of Keens's Seedling. Origi- 
nated near Bristol, England. Large, dark colored, and high 
flavor. Productive. 

DUNDEE. Medium, roundish oval, light scarlet, rich acid flavor, 
productive and late. Pistillate. 

DURAND'S SEEDLING (Durand). Originated near Newark, N. J. 
Large, oblong conical, variable, scarlet; flesh firm, solid, nearly 
white, highly perfumed, and of good flavor. Plant hardy, vig- 
orous, and productive. Considered promising by Fuller. Fig. 
in Hort. XXII. 267. 

DURFEE'S SEEDLING. An American ( ?) variety. Acid, and out 
of cultivation. 

DUTCH STRAWBERRY. An old variety. It resembles the Chinese 
and the Surinam. Flesh pale red, hollow, woolly, with a core. 
Flavor poor. 



8o Catalogue of Varieties. 



EARLY GLOBE. Roundish, medium, second quality, acid. Eng- 
lish. 

* EARLY MAY. Early, obtuse cone, deep scarlet, moderately 

good. Said to have originated with Robert Buist. 

EARLY PROLIFIC (Dr. Roden). New, 1869. Figured in Gloede's 
Catalogue for 1870, and described as a variety of very great 
merit. Fruit of the largest size, elongated oval, shining scar- 
let; seeds prominent; flesh white, firm, melting, very sweet, 
and of an incomparable perfume. Hardy, of elegant growth, 
and extremely productive, bearing fruit even .on the present 
year's runners. Excellent for forcing. 

EARLY SCARLET. An old variety, now little grown. Medium, 
conical, light scarlet; flesh firm, moderately acid. 

EARLY VIRGINIA. See LARGE EARLY SCARLET. 

EARLY WASHINGTON. Described as a great bearer, hardy, and 
early. Fruit medium, round, uniform, orange scarlet, of fair 
flavor, but very doubtful whether distinct or not from the Iowa. 

* EBERLEIN. (Syn. Eberleirfs Seedling.} An American seed- 

ling. Described by Mr. M. P. Wilder as productive, with some 

Hautbois flavor. Medium, conical, dark scarlet, sweet, and 

early. 
ECLIPSE (Reeves). English. Large, round, or heart shaped, 

regular, bright red; seeds not deeply imbedded; flesh white, 

firm, sweet, perfumed, and very rich. Hardy, productive, and 

forces well. 
ECLIPSE (Prince). American. Small to medium, light bright 

crimson ; fruit-stalks very strong, holding the fruit well up ; 

good, but not rich ; early, and ripens its whole crop in a few 

days. Pistillate. 
ELEANOR (Myatt). (Syn. Crystal Palace.} Fruit very large, 

conical, long, flattened, bright scarlet; flesh juicy and good. 

In this country a poor bearer, setting about one fourth of its 

berries. Sometimes the fruit is acid. 
ELECTRA (Prince). Medium, conical, dark scarlet, poor flavor. 

Productive. 

* ELIZA (Myatt). Fruit medium, ovate, with a neck; light red; 

flesh pale red next the outside, whitish towards the centre; 



Catalogue of Varieties. 81 

juicy, sweet, rich, and exquisite. Leaf-stalks hairy; leaflets 
roundish oval, obtusely serrate. A good bearer in England 
and hardier there than the British Queen. Medinm in ripen- 
ing. 

ELIZA (Rivers). An excellent strawberry, and a tolerably good 
bearer. Leaves large, deep green, deeply serrate. Fruit very 
large, light colored. Described in foreign catalogues as orange. 
Here it is light crimson. The flesh is somewhat soft, but of 
exquisite flavor. It came into notice a few years since, when 
the Rippowam was introduced. I can see no difference in the 
two, having grown the Eliza several seasons. 

ELIZABETH. A pistillate seedling of Burr's Pine. 

ELLA. New. Said to be large, and fine and early. Little known. 

* ELTON (Knight). (Syn. Elton Seedling, Elton Pine.} Origi- 
nated in England about 1827, and a very prominent variety 
there and on the continent. So late as 1863, two hundred and 
forty acres of this strawberry were cultivated in the environs 
of Paris for the market of that city. Fruit very beautiful, 
large oval, bright red ; seeds fine, numerous, brilliant yellow; 
flesh blood red, acid, not sugary, but of good flavor. Fig. in 
Pom. Mag. III. 135. 

ELTON IMPROVED (Ingram). Fruit large, conical or flattened, 
bright shining red ; flesh red, juicy, sugary, melting, and per- 
fumed. 

EMERITE (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Plant dwarf and strong; 
foliage like La Constante, and fruit like Bijou, but larger, and 
elongated conical, bright cherry red ; seeds on the surface ; 
flesh firm, flesh-colored, juicy, and delicate. 

EMILY (Huntsman). American. Originated in Flushing, New 
York. Little known, but said to be very large, and of excellent 
flavor. Pistillate. 

EMILY (Myatt). Fruit large, flattened conical, pale rose ; seeds 
brown, prominent; flesh creamy white, juicy, sweet, and per- 
fumed. A very distinct strawberry. Said to be hardy and pro- 
ductive. 

EMMA (De Jonghe). Fruit large, obtusely conical, bright shin- 
ing red ; seeds few, sunken ; flesh rosy white, juicy, sweet, and 
perfumed. Hardy, productive, and forces well. The above is 
the description of the Emma ; but a spurious and wretchedly 
poor berry, which I have fruited, has been sold as the Emma in 
this country. Fig. in Tilton's Jour. Hort. VII. 156. 

EMPRESS EUGENIE. (Knevett). Raised in 1854. Plant very vig- 
6 



82 Catalogue of Varieties. 

orous, making large, compact hills, but setting its fruit poorly. 

Berries sometimes enormous, round, and cockscombed ; shining 

purple red, juicy, and good. I have fruited this variety one 

season, when it proved very unproductive. It is said to force 

well. Fig. in Rev. Hort. I. 70. 
ERNESTINE (Prince). Very large, oblong conical, necked, light 

scarlet; flesh scarlet, juicy, sprightly, fine flavor. Vigorous and 

productive. 
ESCULENTA. Old, medium size, a long time in fruit. 

ESTELLE. 

EUGENE (Prince). Rather large, conical, crimson, necked, very 
sweet, fine flavor, rather late. Plant vigorous and productive. 

EUGENIA (Prince). Described as large, obovate, light scarlet, 
sweet, high flavored. 

EUREKA (Prince). Large, regularly conical, light scarlet, firm, 
juicy, sweet, high flavor, and excellent. Plant vigorous, hardy, 
and exceedingly productive. Pistillate. 

EUSTATIA (Prince). 

EVER-BEARING ANDINE. Said to be new; probably an old Alpine. 

*EXCELLENTE (Lorio). Fruit very large, oval or variable, some- 
times round and lobed ; deep red ; flesh rosy, sweet, juicy, and 
perfumed. Said by Gloede to be worthy of its name. 

EXCELSA (Prince). Large, rounded, compressed, crimson, fine 
flavor. Pistillate, 

EXCELSIOR (Heffron). (?) 

EXCELSIOR (Prince). Very large, obtusely conical or rounded; 
necked, deep scarlet; high flavor, and good. Vines vigorous. 

EXHIBITION (Nicholson). Fruit medium, oblong, ovate or irreg- 
ular, bright red; seeds prominent; flesh dull yellow, and of 
poor flavor. Leaf-stalks hairy ; leaflets roundish, sharply ser- 
rate. A good bearer, but of poor quality. 

EXPOSITION DE CHALONS (Dr. Nicaise). Vines vigorous, strong, 
moderately productive. Berries very obtusely conical, dark 
red, or purple ; flesh rosy, with red streaks, juicy, and of a 
very peculiar flavor. I have fruited it three or four seasons, 
but consider it curious rather than useful. In France it is said 
to stand the drought well. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 83 



FAIRY QUEEN. Raised at the royal garden of Frogmore. 
Large, long conical, bright rosy orange; seeds prominent; 
flesh snow white, firm, juicy, highly perfumed. Very hardy 
and productive. 

FANNY (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Plant strong and vigorous; 
leaves large, pale, dull green, acquiring finally a straw color; 
deeply incised ; fruit conical, regular, cherry red, with abun- 
dant seeds. The flesh is "dull white, or flesh colored, juicy and 
piquant when gathered, vinous and sweet the next day. 

FAULKNER'S KING. Syn. of Rippowam. 

FELTON'S SEEDLING. 

FERDINANDE. Large, regular, obtusely conical, deep scarlet red ; 
seeds light yellow; flesh firm, juicy, and high flavored. A 
French variety. 

FERDINAND GLOEDE (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Figured in cat- 
alogues of 1870, and described as a very beautiful fruit, conical 
or heart shaped, very large, cherry color; seeds prominent; 
flesh white, with red veins ; melting, very sweet, and highly 
perfumed. Gloede calls it one of the best of De Jonghe's ac- 
quisitions. 

FERTILIZED HAUTBOIS (Myatt). The most prolific, largest, and 
finest of its class. Medium, conical, deep purple in the sun ; 
sweet flavor. Pretty good bearer. Fig. in Album de Pomologie, 
IV. 78. 

FILBERT PINE (Myatt). This has proved a very feeble grower 
with me. Fruit conical, rosy orange ; flesh white ; seeds prom- 
inent, sweet, and perfumed with a rich, nutty flavor. Forces 
well, and likes a strong, rich soil. In England its color is dull 
purple, and its quality variable. 

FILLBASKET (Nicholson). Fruit rather large, roundish, some- 
times flattened; pale red, hollow, with a core; little flavor. 
Leaf-stalks very heavy ; leaflets deeply and sharply serrate ; 
glaucous beneath. 

FILLMORE (Feast). Originated in Baltimore. Large, obtusely 
conical, dark crimson, rich, sweet, and good. Leaves rough, 
large, round, and very dark green. Gives a fair crop in deep 
soil. Pistillate. 



84 Catalogue of Varieties. 

FLEMING. Large, roundish, obtusely conical, deep scarlet; seeds 
yellow, not deep set. Vigorous ; moderately productive. Pis- 
tillate. Seedling of McAvoy's Superior. 

FLORENCE (Prince). Very large, conical or spherical, scarlet, 
fine flavor. Vigorous and productive. See FRAISIER DE FLO- 
RENCE. 

FONTENELLE (Prince). Very large, rounded, light scarlet, juicy, 
good flavor, vigorous, productive. Pistillate. 

FORMOSA (Dr. Nicaise). Large, heart shaped, shining crimson 
red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, buttery, juicy, sweet, and 
perfumed. Hardy and productive. 

FORTUNATUS (Prince). Little known. 

Fox. (Syn. Fraisier Fox de Quatre Saisons.} A seedling of a 
Chili raised about 1850. Very doubtful whether it is perpetual. 
Fig. in Rev. Hort. II. 20. 

FRAG ARIA LUCIDA. A California strawberry, with beautiful foli- 
age. Unproductive. Parent of the Lucida Perfecta. 

FRAGRANT SCARLET (Prince). One of Prince's numerous seed- 
lings. Little known. 

FRAISIER DE FLORENCE. Small, white, resembling the White 
Pine. A chance seedling found in the Jardin des Plantes in 
1805, and described as superior to the other white varieties then 
known. Fig. in Duhamel, V. 300. 

FRAISIER HETEROPHYLLA. A small, round, wood strawberry. 
Old, but still in the recent catalogues. Fig. in Duham. V. 270. 

FRANCIS JOSEPH II. fDr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit large, 
roundish conical, beautiful, clear, brilliant red; seeds promi- 
nent, yellowish; flesh rosy and agreeable. Foliage clear, shin- 
ing green. Vigorous and productive. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869, 
270. 

FREDONIA (Prince). Very large, obtusely conical, firm, sweet, 
juicj', and high flavored. Productive, bearing large trusses of 
fruit. 

* FRENCH CUCUMBER. 

* FRENCH MUSK. 

FRENCH'S SEEDLING. Discovered by Mr. Lewis French, in a 
meadow near Morristown, N. J. Large, deep scarlet, slightly 
conical, soft, sweet, sprightly, and good. Leaves medium size, 
deep green ; fruit-stalks with numerous light colored hairs. I 
have fruited this for several seasons, and find it a good variety, 
but too soft. Early and vigorous. 

FROGMORE LATE PINE (Ingram). Large, conical to cockscomb, 




STINGER. 




EMMA. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 85 

glossy, bright red, scarlet in shade ; seeds not deeply sunken ; 
flesh tender, rich, red, and of fine flavor. It is a seedling of 
the British Queen, and in England, where it is reported vigor- 
ous and productive, it ripens later even than the Elton. In 
this country it burns very badly. The Brooklyn Scarlet, to my 
own knowledge, and doubtless other varieties, have been sold in 
this country for the Frogmore. Fig. in Florist and Pomologist, 
1863, 173. 



o- 

GABRIELLE (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit large, round, 
rather deep red, varnished; seeds not prominent; flesh red, 
firm, juicy, sugary, of an exquisite flavor. Leaves strong and 
erect; leaflets almost round. Vigorous, hardy, setting its ber- 
ries well, and very late. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869, 270. 

GALLAND (Vigneron). A French sub- variety of the Alpine class. 

* GARDEN OF EDEN. 

GARIBALDI (Stewart and Neilson). The foreign variety of this 
name is described as large, solid, very juicy, and of good flavor, 
though slightly acid ; a good bearer and vigorous grower. 

GARIBALDI (Burgess). Described by Fuller as large, crimson, 
excellent flavor, poor grower. An American variety. 

GARNSTONE SCARLET (Henderson). Originated in England in 
1819. Fruit round, medium, with a short neck, rich, glossy 
scarlet; seeds red, deep set; flesh scarlet, firm, sharp, but 
agreeable. Leaves coarsely serrate, light green. A moderate 
bearer and late. 

GAZELLE (Prince). Very large, round, light scarlet, juicy, good 
flavor; vigorous, hardy, and productive. Pistillate. 

GELINEAU (Gelineau). Fruit large, conical or oval, flattened, 
deep red ; flesh red, juicy, sweet, and brisk. Vines hardy, and 
very productive. Late. 

GENERAL GRANT (Keech). Good medium size, irregular in 
form; dark red, or about the same color as Wilson's Albany; 
somewhat acid, but represented to be early. 

GENERAL GRANT (Burgess). Described as a vigorous grower, 
prolific bearer, fine flavor, and very firm flesh. 

GENERAL HAVELOCK (Filey). Syn. in foreign catalogues Cre- 
mont. Fruit large or very large; obtusely conical or heart 

. shaped, bright red ; seeds superficial ; flesh rosy, veined with 



86 Catalogue of Varieties. 

red, brisk flavored, and good. Plant moderately vigorous, 
dwarfish, and productive. Forces well. I have had this variety 
under cultivation, but have not fruited it, and shall be surprised 
if the synonyme prove correct. 

GENERAL MCCLELLAN. Syn. of McAvoy's Superior. 

GENERAL MEADE (Keech). This and General Grant (Keech), 
General Sheridan, and General Sherman, are said to be crosses 
of the Russell with Triomphe de Gand. Large, rich bright 
scarlet, conical ; seeds deep set, of very good quality. 

* GENERAL JACOJJEMINOT. 

GENERAL LYONS. 

GENERAL SCOTT (Burgess). Large, soft, of the Iowa class, ac- 
cording to Fuller. Another authority says it is too soft for 
market. Large, and very productive. 

GENERAL SHERIDAN (Keech). Medium size, dark rich red, 
somewhat irregular in form ; seeds light colored ; flesh light 
red, pretty firm; promising well for market. 

GENERAL SHERMAN (Keech). Medium size, light, rich scarlet 
red; long, conical ; seeds deep set; flavor poor. 

GENESEE (Ellwanger and Barry). A cross between Hovey's 
Seedling and the Duke of Kent Scarlet. Large, necked, bright 
crimson scarlet, and about equal to the Early Scarlet. A luxu- 
riant grower, and rather late. Said by Fuller to be rather soft 
and prolific. Fig. in Hort. IX. 221, Thomas's Fsuit Culturist, 
p. 417. 

GEORGIA SCARLET. 

GEORGIA MAMMOTH. Medium or small, obtusely conical, dark 
crimson when ripe ; seeds deeply imbedded ; flesh very firm, 
acid, not rich ; ripens very late, and this is its only valuable 
quality. Plant a vigorous grower, and one of the Iowa class. 
(Fuller.) Sour, dry, and husky; one of the most worthless. 
(Prince.) 

GERALDINE (Prince). Described as large, obovate, bright scar- 
let, sweet, and of exquisite flavor. Pistillate. 

GERMANIA (Gloede, fils). New, 1869. Figured in Gloede's Cat- 
alogue for 1870. Described as very large, oval, clear cherry 
color; seeds prominent; flesh white, sweet, with a delicious per- 
fume. Hardy, vigorous, and early. 

GERMANTOWN. Syn. of Hovey's Seedling. 

GIANT ALPINE (Saunders). Originated near Tedworth, Eng- 
land, and said to be a cross of one of the Alpines with a Pine. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 87 

A prodigious bearer (for an Alpine) ; dark color, globular, me- 
dium size, poor flavor. 

GIANT OF ZUIDWIJK. A new variety from Holland. Said to be 
large, dark red, highly aromatic, very productive and late, and 
to make few runners. 

GIBBS'S SEEDLING BLACK (Gibbs). A seedling of the Old 
Black, which it much resembles, though smaller. Originated 
in England in 1818. 

GLAZED PINE. (Syn. Scarlet Pine-apple, Knotfs Ptne.} An old 
English kind. Variable in shape, generally conical, necked, 
large, hairy, dark shining scarlet in the sun, paler in the shade; 
seeds prominent; flesh pale scarlet, firm, with a core; flavor 
good. 

GLOBE (Myatt). Resembles the British Queen in foliage, size, 
color, and flavor, and is probably a seedling from it. Largest 
size, globular, very regular and uniform. A good bearer, and 
of good flavor. 

GLOBE (Dejonghe). Large to very large, of a beautiful round 
or oval shape, crimson red; seeds not deeply sunk; flesh white, 
or rosy white, juicy, sweet, and a little musky. Plant dwarf, 
vigorous, productive, and suitable for forcing. 

GLOBE HAUTBOIS. (Syn. Caperon ordinaire, Danish, Antwerp 
or Mttsk.} A moderate bearer; fruit nearly spherical, dark pur- 
ple, [reddish green (Fuller)]; seeds prominent; flesh greenish, 
firm, with a core ; musky, and good. 

GLOBOSE CLUSTER (Prince). Described as large, round, bright 
scarlet, poor flavor, soft. Vines vigorous and hardy. A seed- 
ling of the Iowa. Pistillate. 

GLOBOSE CRIMSON (Prince). Very large, obtusely conical, crim- 
son, red flesh, acid, and productive. Pistillate. 

GLOBOSE SCARLET (Prince). Little known. Described as large, 
round, and very productive. Pistillate. 

GLOBOSE SWAINSTONE (Prince). Described as very large, ob- 
tuse cone, dull scarlet, very high flavored, and productive. 

GLOBULAR HUDSON'S BAY. 

GLOIRE DE ST. GENIS LAVAL. 

GLOIRE DU NORD. Alpine sub-varieties. 

GLORIA (Nicholson). Medium size, conical, or rounded conical 
with a neck; polished red; seeds prominent; flesh white, firm, 
juicy, sweet, and said to have a piquant Hautbois flavor. 
Hardy and productive. Ripens middle of the season in Eng- 
land. 



88 Catalogue of Varieties. 

GLORY OF ZUIDWIJK. Said to be an exceedingly productive and 
aromatic berry, and, like the Giant of Zuidwijk, to make very 
few runners. 

GLOSSY CONE (Durand). New. Little known. 

GOLDEN QUEEN. Syn. of Trollope's Victoria. 

GOLDEN SEEDED (Read). Medium to large, bluntly conical, 
sometimes flattened ; dark crimson, with prominent yellow 
seed, making the variety almost unmistakable ; sweet, rich and 
early, though later sometimes than Burrs's New Pine ; but suc- 
ceeding in only a few localities. Originated in Canada, and 
considered by Fuller a seedling of a foreign variety. Fig. in 
Fuller, p. 93. 

GOLDFINDER (Sclater). Medium to large, variable, bright 
orange ; seeds superficial ; flesh rosy white, firm, sweet, juicy, 
and brisk. Very productive and early. Forces well. 

* GOLIATH (Kitleys). A seedling from the British Queen, and 
originated near Bath, England, about 1848. Large, ovate, 
not cockscomb shaped; surface not highly polished; seeds 
slightly imbedded; rich red color; flesh solid, with a high vi- 
nous flavor. Fruit-stalks tall, strong, unusually hairy. The 
accounts of it in this country are very contradictory. Fuller 
says it is worthless. Fig. in Hort. VII. 372, and in Album de 
Pomologie, IV. 78. 

GRANDE MERE DE BOLLWILLER. 

GRANGE HUDSON'S BAY. 

GREAT EASTERN (Stewart and Neilson). Medium to large, 
long conical, light crimson, firm, acid, not rich, moderately 
productive. The plants make large stools and few runners. 
A very good market variety (Fuller). Other authoritie's give 
the shape as rounded, color bright rose, and the flesh white. 
I think there is an American variety of the same name. 

GREEN PROLIFIC (Boy den). (Syn. Newark Prolific.} I have 
fruited this two years, and find it a soft, poor, acid berry, vary- 
ing between pale crimson and scarlet; flavor miserable; growth 
very vigorous, and the vines tolerably productive. Fig. in 
Fuller, p. 93, and Hort. XXII. 267. 

GREEN STRAWBERRY. (Syn. Green Pine, do. Wood, do. Alpine, 
Fraisier Vert, Powdered Pine.*} Fruit small, roundish or de- 
pressed, whitish green, and at maturity tinged with reddish 
brown on the sunny side. Flesh solid, greenish, very juicy, 
with a peculiar, rich, pine-apple flavor. Ripens late. Little 
valued or cultivated, being more curious than good. They re- 



Catalogue of Varieties. 89 

semble in general the Wood strawberries. Leaves light green, 
much plaited, shy bearers. (Downing.) 

GRIMSTONE SCARLET. An English variety. Medium, conical, 
necked, dark scarlet; seeds numerous, unevenly distributed, 
and imbedded at different depths; flesh solid, pale scarlet; 
flavor excellent. Leaflets nearly oval, coarsely serrate, hairy, 
yellowish green. Said to be an abundant bearer. 

GROVE END SCARLET (Atkinson). An old English kind. Ori- 
ginated in 1820. Fruit small, round, bright vermilion ; seeds 
sunken ; flesh pale red, acid. Early, and an abundant bearer. 
Fig. in Pom. Mag. I. 7. 

GWENIVER (Mrs. Clements). Good sized, often very large, round 
or cockscombed, bright orange red ; seeds little sunken ; flesh 
rosy, juicy, very sweet, and perfumed. Plant hardy and pro- 
ductive, forcing well. 



1EL 

HAARLEM ORANGE (Dr. Edmondson). Ripens early, and con- 
tinues a long time in bearing. Very productive, good size, 
glossy orange, conical or pine-apple shape; firm; rich flavor. 
Said to be a great favorite with birds. Tested in France, and 
pronounced pasty, no flavor, and an exceedingly shy bearer. 

HAGENBACHIANA. A sub-variety of the Wood strawberry class. 

HAqyiN (Haquin). I have cultivated two varieties under this 
name; one a very rank, coarse plant, totally worthless; the 
other not yet in fruit, but looking more promising. Described 
as large to enormous, obtusely conical or flattened, bright shin- 
ing rose color; seeds few and prominent; flesh white, with 
rosy veins ; sweet, perfumed, and refreshing. Requires proba- 
bly a strong, moist, rich soil. 

HARRISON. Said to be .very large, productive, and fine. A 
chance seedling found in Chester County, Pa. 

HATHAWAY. (Syn. Hathaivay's Seedling.} Large, roundish, 
obtuse, deep scarlet; seeds yellow and brown ; -flesh scarlet, 
juicy, firm, and acid. Vigorous and productive. Raised by 
B. Hathaway, Little Prairie Ronde, Mich. 

HAUTBOIS. (Syn. Old Hautbois, Musky do., Original do., Dioe- 
cious do., Fragaria Elation.} Medium, roundish ovate, reddish 
green ; flavor musky and strong. Foot-stalks of njoderate 
length, hairy; leaflets medium size, sharply serrate, thin. 



90 Catalogue of Varieties. 

Fruit-stalks taller than the leaves. Not worth cultivating, the 
Prolific Hautbois taking its place. Fig. in Duham. IV. 206, 
207, 208, 209. 

HEIN'S CHERRY PINE. 

HEIN'S SCARLET. 

HEIN'S WHITE. 

HELENA JAMIN (Jamin and Durand). (Sjn. Madame Eliza 
Champing Very large, elongated, square at the end, orange 
red; seeds sunken; flesh white, sweet, juicy, and brisk. Hardy, 
productive, and late. 

HENDRIES'S SEEDLING. Large, conical or flattened, orange red; 
seeds prominent; flesh pure white, firm, juicy, sweet, and ex- 
quisite. Plant of the nature of the British Queen, but succeed- 
ing where that fails. Fruit described as very beautiful. 

HERMINE (Prince). Large, obtusely conical, bright crimson, 
good flavor, late. Said to be vigorous and productive. Pis- 
tillate. 

HERMOSA (Prince). Described as very large, obtusely conical, 
deep scarlet, pleasant flavor. Pistillate. 

HERO (De Jonghe). Fruit large, round or oval, varnished red; 
seeds little sunken ; flesh carmine, or cherry colored ; juicy, 
sweet, and brisk. Hardy, productive, and late. I have found 
it a moderate grower on a light soil. 

HEROINE (Prince). Large, sweet, fine flavor. 

HER MAJESTY (Mrs. Clements). New, 1867. Described as a 
superb fruit of very large size, conical, sometimes lobed, shin- 
ing red crimson, with prominent seeds; flesh white, firm, very 
sweet, and highly perfumed. Said to be hardy, vigorous, and 
productive. Fig. in Gloede's Catalogue, 1868-9. 

HIGHLAND CHIEF. Flesh pale red, soft, rich, and excellent; 
mildly acid; fruit large, roundish, or roundish ovate, light 
red ; leaf-stalks rough, and very hairy ; leaflets obovate, coarsely 
serrate. Pronounced in England a first-rate sort. 

HIGHLAND MARY (Cuthill). Fruit large, conical, bright shining 
red; flesh rosy, juicy, and sour. Hardy and productive. 

HIGLEY'S EVER-BEARING. Small, long, deep red, poor, sour, and 
insipid. An Alpine strawberry, probably ever-bearing. 

HILLMAN. A foreign kind. Medium to large, oval, bright 
scarlet. 

HONEY. 

* HONNEUR DE LA BELGIQUE. 

HOOKER (Hooker). Large, short, obtuse conical, nearly globu- 



Catalogue of Varieties. 91 

lar, sweet, and rich ; too soft and dark colored for market, but 
excellent for an amateur. Tender, and always requires pro- 
tection in winter. Originated in Rochester, N. Y. Tested in 
France, and pronounced there lacking in sugar. Fig. in 
Thomas's Fruit Culturist, p. 418. 

* HOOPER'S SEEDLING. Conical and cockscombed, medium, very 
deep crimson, highly glazed ; flavor rich and sweet. Thought 
to be a seedling of Alice Maude. Fig. in Alb. de Pom. IV. 78. 

HOVEY'S SEEDLING (Hovey). (Syn. Germanto-wn, Toting* s 
Seedling.} Very large, often measuring five and a half 
inches in circumference; roundish ovate, slightly conical, with 
a short neck ; never, or very seldom cockscombed ; dark 
shining red ; paler when grown in the shade ; seeds dark, im- 
bedded; flesh scarlet, firm, nearly solid, high flavored, and deli- 
cious. Continues long in bearing Vines very vigorous, hardy, 
making many runners; roots fine. Prefers a strong, rich soil; 
if clayey, better still. Pistillate, and requiring a good fertilizer 
in the proportion of one staminate plant to eight or ten Hov- 
ey's. A standard market variety. Raised by C. M. Hovey 
from a cross either of the Methven Scarlet with Keens's Seed- 
ling, or of the Mulberry with Keens's Seedling. First fruited 
in 1835. A splendid strawberry, whose introduction revolution- 
ized strawberry culture in this country, and, being a pistillate, 
caused more discussion than any other new fruit ever intro- 
duced. The parent of many valuable seedlings, among which 
the President Wilder outdoes all that have gone before. Fig. 
in Fruits of America, I. 25. 

HUDSON. (Syn. Hudson's Pine, Hudson's Bay, Late Scarlet, 
Tork River Scarlet, American Scarlet.} Medium, conical, fine 
shining red; seeds variable in size, deeply set; flesh pale scar- 
let, firm, of a brisk acid flavor. Leaflets concave, bluntly 
serrate, yellowish above, with conspicuous veins. Runners 
numerous, brown, and hairy. Flower stems shorter than leaf- 
stalks. A good bearer in beds, and several years ago considered 
a good market kind. Erroneously known as Atkinson's and 
Hopwood's Scarlet. 

HUDSON'S EARLY. New. Said to be very early and promising. 

HUDSON'S No. 3. New. Untried. 

HUDSON'S No. 9. New. Said to be very large. 

HUNTSMAN'S FAVORITE (Huntsman). Medium, conical, scarlet, 
high flavored, and productive. 

HUNTSMAN'S PISTILLATE (Huntsman). Described by the ori- 



92 Catalogue of Varieties. 

ginator as one of the most productive varieties; fruit large and 
beautiful, but of very indifferent flavor. 

HUNTSMAN'S MONTEVIDEO (Huntsman). Large, bright scarlet, 
late. Moderately productive. Pistillate. 



IDA (Cocklin). Erroneously, Miss Ida. Large, slightly conical ; 
color bright scarlet ; acid, but good. Proves hardy and produc- 
tive, but not equal to the first accounts. Originated in Shep- 
herdstown, Pa. Pistillate. 

IMOGENS (Prince). Described as large, rounded, light scarlet, 
very juicy, high flavored, and productive. 

IMPERATRICE EUGENIE. Large, conical, bright, glossy rosette, 
handsome, firm, sweet, perfumed. (Downing.) 

IMPERIALE (Duval, fils). Large, heart shaped or flattened, bright 
orange red; seeds superficial; flesh white, sweet, and brisk. 
Medium in ripening. 

IMPER-IAL CRIMSON (Prince). Described as large, rounded con- 
ical, dark scarlet, or crimson, sweet, sprightly firm, and pro- 
ductive. Pistillate. 

IMPERIAL SCARLET (Prince). Described by the originator as 
large, bright scarlet, firm for market. Stalks upright* and 
strong. Pistillate. 

IMPROVED HAUTBOIS. A sub-variety of the Hautbois family; 
little known ; probably not very different from the ordinary 
Hautbois. 

IMPROVED BLACK PRINCE (Toyne). Represented as early, me- 
dium size, and a good market sort. 

INCOMPARABLE. Pale; regular shape ; flesh soft; flavor worthless. 

IPHIGENE (Prince). 

IOWA. (Syn. Washington, Early do., Brookes Prolific.} Large, 
globular, somewhat compressed; seeds deeply sunk in large 
depressions; light orange scarlet; acid, poor, early, productive, 
and hardy. Much raised in the West for market. A Western 
seedling. Fig. in Thomas's Fruit Culturist, p. 418. 

IRON DUKE (Graydon}. A Canada variety; said to be very 
large, and wonderfully productive. Berries said to have 
weighed one and three quarters ounces. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 93 



JAMES VEITCH (Gloede). New, 1868. Figured in Gloede's Cata- 
logue for 1869, and described as very large, heart shaped, bright 
vermilion red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, with a central 
cavity; sweet, perfumed, and having a marked apricot taste. 

JAMINETTE. A Belgian strawberry; conical, large, bright red; 
flesh rosy, firm, sweet, and juicy. Said to be one of the most 
productive of its class. 

JANUS (Bruant). New. Described as the best of the perpetual 
strawberries, of good size, handsome, elongated, often lobed. 
Bears a large crop, according to French authority, from 
spring till fall. Figured in Gloede's Catalogue, 1868-9. 

JEANNE HACHETTE (Gloede). New, 1867. A handsome, coni- 
cal fruit, pale rose; seeds brown and prominent; flesh snow 
white, melting, sweet, and like that of the British Queen. 
Said to resemble a Chili, but at the same time to be an abun- 
dant bearer. 

JE ANNETTE. 

JENNINGS'S INDIANA. 

JENNY LIND (Isaac Fay). Conical, bright scarlet, handsome, 
glossy, and of very good, sprightly, subacid flavor. A good 
grower, and productive. One of the standard market kinds 
grown in the vicinity of Boston. No variety has yet been able 
to supplant it for an early crop ; but there are several spurious 
kinds sold as the Jenny Lind, which accounts for some contra- 
dictory reports. 

JENNEY'S SEEDLING (Jenney). Large, roundish conical, dark, 
rich red, firm, rich, subacid, and good. A hardy, vigorous, 
and moderately productive variety, formerly in considerable 
repute. Late. Originated in New Bedford, Mass., in 1845. 
Pistillate. The originator has grown thirty-two hundred 
boxes, on three quarters of an acre. Fig. in Pardee, p. 72. 

BESSIE READ (Read). Large, roundish conical, light scarlet; 
flesh soft, sweet, and rich. Originated with W. H. Read, Port 
Dalhousie, C. W. (Downing.) 

JOHN POWELL. Originated in England at the royal garden at 
Frogmore. Fruit medium to large, oval, with a very distinct 



94 Catalogue of Varieties. 

neck; bright shining red; seeds superficial; flesh white, firm, 
sweet, and perfumed. A long time in fruit. 

JOSEPHINE. 

JOUNA. (Syn. Hauter?) 

JUCUNDA (Salter). (Syn. Knox's 700.) Large to very large, 
sometimes obtusely conical and regular, at others cockscombed, 
bright light scarlet; seeds yellow; -flesh pink, very firm, sweet, 
good, but not very high flavored ; often hollow. Vines rather 
vigorous, making handsome stools if the runners are clipped. 
Brought prominently before the public, of late years, by Mr. 
Knox, of Pittsburg, Pa., who has had great success with it. 
Though not first class in flavor, its beauty and firmness make 
it a splendid market variety. I have bought vines as Hyatt's 
Quinquefolia which proved to be Jucunda. Fig. in Hort. 
XXII. 268. 

JULIE GUILLOT. Very large, globular, shining vermilion red; 
seeds superficial; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet, and perfumed. Sea- 
son medium. 

JULIEN (Kramer). Handsome, medium, bright scarlet, delicious, 
and productive. A seedling of the Peabody. Originated with 
W. F. Kramer, Dubuque, Iowa. 

JUNG BAHADOOR. Described as large, obtusely conical, crimson ; 
flesh rosy, sweet. Vines hardy and vigorous. 



KAMINSKI (Kaminski). (?) Fruit large or very large, variable in 
form, bright rose ; seeds prominent ; flesh white or rosy white, 
firm, sweet, and perfumed. Hardy, productive, and late. 

KATE (Mrs. Clements). A handsome, conical, long-pointed 
strawberry; bright, glossy red; seeds prominent; flesh red, 
juicy, sweet, perfumed, and " tres-rafraichissante." Hardy, 
productive, and very early. 

KEENS'S IMPERIAL (Keens). (Syn. Imperial, Black Imperial, 
Large Imperial Black, Black Pine, Black Isleivorth Pine, 
Keens' s Black, Keens' 's Large Fruited, Keens 's Black Pine.') 
Raised in England from a seed of a large white Chili, about 
1806. Probably an excellent berry for those days, and widely 
disseminated, as is shown by its numerous synonymes. 
Large, roundish, blunt point, very dark purplish red next the 
sun ; seeds prominent ; flesh not juicy, firm, coarse, and hoi- 



Catalogue of Varieties. 95 

low ; flavor tolerably good. Tender. Fig. in Lond. Hort. Soc. 
Trans. II. 101. 

* KEENS'S SEEDLING (Keens). (Syn. Keens's Ne-w Pine, Keens's 
Black Pine, Murphy's Child.') A very famous English straw- 
berry. Large, round, sometimes cockscombed, purplish crim- 
son. Said to be tender; excellent for forcing. In this 
country it is reported as of the highest flavor, a good bearer, 
and very early. I find it a poor grower, or comparatively poor, 
in a light soil. Imported into this country in 1826. Fig. in 
Pom. Mag. II. 91, Rev. Hort. 1864, 47> J an Mus. II. 

KENTUCKY SEEDLING (Downer). New. Very large, bright 
scarlet red; flesh firm and white; plants strong and vigorous, 
with long, stout fruit-stalks. William Parry, in Downing, says, 
"Large to very large, roundish conical, bright scarlet; flesh 
white, firm, rich, juicy, sweet, and of excellent quality." 

KIMBERLEY PINE (Kimberley). Large, variable, oval or flattened, 
with square end ; bright red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh red, 
very juicy, sweet, and brisk. Very hardy, productive, and late. 

KING ARTHUR (Mrs. Clements). Large, conical or flattened, 
bright glossy red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet, 
brisk. Late. Very hardy and productive. 

KITLEY'S SUPERBA. 

* KNEVETT'S NEW PINE. Roundish, large, second rate, shy 

bearer. Does not succeed in all soils. 

KNIGHTS'S LARGE SCARLET (Capper). (Syn. Knights' 's Scarlet, 
American do., Great do. do., Hairy-leaved do., Large do., and 
(erroneously) Bath do.} An old variety, raised in or near Bir- 
mingham, England, from American seed. Round, slightly 
conical, light vermilion, medium size; seeds deep set; flesh 
white, soft, and pleasant. Not productive. Leaves very large, 
coarsely serrate, upper side hairy, and of dark shining green. 

KRAMER'S SEEDLING (Kramer). Fruit deep, dark red, large; 
seeds small, dark, scattered, slightly sunken ; less acid than the 
Wilson, with a rich, wild-strawberry flavor. Originated near 
Dubuque, O. 



96 Catalogue of Varieties. 



LA BONNE AIMEE (Malenfant). Fruit medium, very variable in 
shape, bright rosy orange ; flesh white, firm, melting, and ex- 
quisite. Hardy, productive, and very early. 

LA CHALONNAISE (Dr. Nicaise). Fruit large to very large, elon- 
gated, flattened, bright rose; seeds prominent; flesh pure white, 
firm, very sweet, juicy, and perfumed. Hardy, vigorous, and 
productive. Spoken well of in France. 

LA CHATELAINE (Lebeuf). New, 1868. Figured by Gloede, 
and described as very long conical, brilliant crimson red; seeds 
superficial ; flesh white, very firm, sweet, juicy, and brisk fla- 
vored. Hardy and productive. 

LA CONSTANTE (De Jonghe). 1854 or 1855. Fruit large, conical, 
very rarely irregular; of a beautiful bright glossy red; seeds 
prominent; flesh extremely firm, rosy white, sweet, juicy, and 
exquisite. Plants compact, dwarf, requiring the highest cul- 
ture, and producing comparatively few runners. Foliage apt 
to burn in this climate. Imported into this country by Hovey 
& Co., and by them first distributed. Grown to some extent 
for the Boston market, where it commands the highest price. 
A magnificent and very distinct berry, but very capricious, 
sometimes disappointing the grower at the last moment. It is 
the male parent of the President Wilder. In a recent letter to 
me, De Jonghe still speaks of La Constante as "the type of 
perfection." 

* LA DELICIEUSE (Lorio). Large, variable, apricot-yellow 
color; seeds prominent; flesh yellowish, juicy, sweet, and per- 
fumed. Plant more vigorous than hardy, and only moderately 
productive. Described as a very distinct variety. A spurious 
kind has been sold in this country, which I have fruited, and 
found small, red, and nearly worthless. 

LA FERTILE (De Jonghe). 1861 or later. Fruit large, hand- 
some, conical, deep red, with prominent seeds; interior flesh 
color, firm, juicy, sweet, and brisk. Vigorous and productive. 

LA GROSSE SUCREE (De Jonghe). 1854 or 1855. Fruit large, 
elongated cone, purple red when perfectly ripe ; seeds sunken ; 
flesh white, sweet, and brisk. Said to be hardy, productive, and 
very late. 





EMPRESS EUGENIE. 



EXPOSITION DE CHALONS. 





LENNING'S WHITE. 



MICHIGAN SEEDLING. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 97 

* LA LIEGEOISE. A French strawberry, which, tested in this 
country, has proved very unproductive. Medium size, bright 
scarlet, good flavor, and very early. 

LA MAURESQUE (De Jonghe). 1861 or later. (Syn. La Noire.} 
Medium, oval or conical, reddish brown (very dark when ripe) ; 
seeds on the surface ; flesh blood red, juicy, sweet, with a Haut- 
bois flavor. Medium in ripening. 

LA MERVEILLE DE FLANDRES. 

LA MEUDONNAISE. (Syn. La Meudonnaise a feuilles de laitue, 
Triomphe de Hollande.} A sub- variety of the Alpine class, 
producing fruit the whole season under very high culture. I 
have had no success with it in moderately good soil. 

LA NEGRESSE (Soupert arid Netting). Conical, pretty large, 
dark, but by no means black; sweet and good. A tolerably 
good grower, which I fruited one or two seasons. Petioles 
very long, hairy, and reddish. Leaflets deeply serrate, rough, 
and dull green. Unproductive. 

LA PAYSANNE (De Jonghe). 1861 or later. Fruit large, oval, 
pale vermilion red; seeds superficial: flesh salmon color, hol- 
low, juicy, neither sweet nor brisk. Very productive. 

LA PERLE. 1849 or l &5- Medium, conical, bright red. 

LA PETITE MARIE (Boisselot). New, 1867. Described as hand- 
some, medium, conical, elongated, flattened, bright shining 
red; flesh red, firm, melting, sweet, and brisk. Hardy, with 
rather scanty foliage. Very productive. Gloede says it is 
" une /raise par excellence pour les vrais amateurs gourmets.'' 1 

LA REINE (De Jonghe). 1849 or l &5- Fruit medium, very long 
and flattened, rosy white; seeds prominent; flesh snow white, 
firm, sweet, and very rich. Described as a very marked and 
distinct variety. A tolerable grower with me in a sandy soil. 

LA ROBUSTE (De Jonghe). 1861 or later. Large or very large, 
rounded, bright shining red; seeds prominent; flesh red, juicy, 
sweet, and brisk. Vigorous and productive. Early. 

LA RONDE (Robine). Large, regularly round, beautiful vermil- 
ion ; seeds prominent; flesh white, hollow in the centre, juicy, 
sweet, and good. Early. 

LA RusTiquE (De Jonghe). 1861 or later. Large, oval, elon- 
gated, a little contracted at the base, bright red; flesh rosy, 
juicy, sweet, and brisk. Season medium. Good bearer. 

LA SAVOREUSE (De Jonghe). 1857 or 1858. Large, oval, 
pointed, shining cherry red; flesh white, solid, sweet, very 

7 



98 Catalogue of Varieties. 

agreeable, and of a well-pronounced flavor. Hardy and pro- 
ductive. 

LA SULTANNE (Dr. Nicaise). Seedling of Prince Arthur. 
Large, conical, very light red; seeds brown, slightly imbedded; 
flesh white, with an abundance of sweet and perfumed juice. 
This has sometimes been sold for, or confounded with La Con- 
stante. 

* LA VERSAILLAISE. Very large, oblong, bright scarlet ; flesh 
reddish, firm, juicy, and sweet. 

LADIES' AROMATIC (Prince). Seedling of the Ladies' Pine, but 
larger, round, pale scarlet, sweet, aromatic, exquisite flavor. 
Hardy, productive, and pistillate. 

LADIES' FAVORITE (Prince). 

LADIES' PINE (Read). Small to medium, round, pale orange 
scarlet, slightly crimson in the sun; seeds prominent; flesh 
soft, sweet and rich, and called by Fuller " probably the most 
delicious flavored variety known." Requires high culture. 
Unproductive and pistillate. Originated in Canada, and said 
to be a seedling of Burr's Pine. 

LADY, THE (Underbill). Large to very large, round or flattened, 
rosy white, brighter near the calyx; seeds superficial: flesh 
snow white, tender, sweet, and perfumed. Vigorous, produc- 
tive, and very late. Its color makes it a very distinct variety. 

LADY'S FINGER (Prosser). Medium, elongated, conical; color 
brilliant dark scarlet; seeds set in an open cavity; flesh very 
firm, subacid, good ; plant vigorous and productive. Origi- 
nated with Benjamin Prosser, Burlington, N. J. (Fuller.) Fig. 
in Fuller, p. 95. 

LADY'S FINGER. An English variety; described as oblong, 
orange scarlet; flesh white, sweet, and high flavored. Vines 
vigorous and productive. 

LADY OF THE LAKE (Scott). Large, rather uneven, conical, 
dark red; seeds deep set; flesh pretty firm, not of the highest 
flavor, but good. Plants very vigorous, hardy, and with the 
originator astonishingly productive. Pistillate. I have fruited 
this one season, and do not think it a very choice amateur 
berry; but it is fast working into favor with the market-men. 
Originated in Brighton, Mass. A cross of Prince Albert and 
Brighton Pine. Originated in 1862. Fig. in Tilton's Jour, of 
Hort. IV. 93. 

LAFAYETTE. A Syn. of Prolific Hautbois. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 99 

LARGE BLACK SEEDLING. Large, roundish, second quality. 
Late. An old English kind. 

LARGE BLUSH CHILI. Large, ovate, third rate, and late; 

LARGE CLIMAX (Prince). Large, obtusely conical, bright deep 
scarlet; flesh white, sweet, of very good flavor. Plant vigor- 
ous, hardy, and productive. Belongs to the Iowa class. 

LARGE EARLY SCARLET. (Syn. Early Virginia.} Medium, 
oval, regular, bright scarlet ; flesh tender, rich, sweet, and 
good. Very early. The Native Scarlet, the presumed parent 
of this variety, is a few days later. Fig. in Thomas's Fruit 
Culturist, p. 418. 

LARGE FLAT HAUTBOIS. (Syn. White, Bath, Formosa, not to 
be confounded with the New Formosa of Dr. Nicaise, Sai- 
ler's, Loudorts, Weymouth.} Roundish, depressed, light red, 
pale on the under side ; flesh greenish, no core, delicious flavor, 
but perhaps inferior to the Prolific Hautbois. Seeds imbedded. 
An old variety, rather late, and a good bearer. 

*LATE PROLIFIC (Burr). Good size, rich, and excellent. Vines 
vigorous and hardy. Extremely late. Pistillate. 

LAURELLA. According to Downing, fruit large, broadly conical, 
scarlet; seeds yellowish brown; flesh soft, pink, acid; accord- 
ing to others, sourer than the Wilson. Pistillate. 

LAWRENCIA (Prince). Described as large, bright scarlet, ob- 
tusely conical, fine flavor, and productive. Pistillate. 

LE BARON (Prince). A seedling from the Swainstone. Medium 
to large, obtusely conical, dark red ; flesh soft, sweet, and high 
flavored. Not productive, but vigorous and hardy. 

LEEDS'S PROLIFIC. Medium, light scarlet. 

LENNIG'S WHITE (Lennig). (Syn. White Pine-apple, Albion 
White, Albino, White Albany.} Often incorrectly spelled Len- 
ni#gs. An American variety, and the best of all white straw- 
berries. Thought by some inferior in flavor to Bicton Pine ; 
but the latter cannot compare in vigor or productiveness with 
Lennig's, which, if kept in rows with the runners clipped, gives 
a very good crop. Fruit medium to large, roundish, conical, 
very obtuse or compressed, rosy on the sunny side, pure white 
on the other. Seeds' conspicuous ; flesh melting, delicious, and 
pine-apple flavor. Said to be a seedling of the Wilson, but this 
seems very improbable. 

LEONCE DE LAMBERTYE (De Jonghe). 1861 or later. Named 
probably for M. le Comte Lambertye, the author of an elaborate 
French work on strawberries. Large, conical, a little flattened 



ioo Catalogue of Varieties. 

on the end, varnished red ; seeds superficial ; flesh firm, rosy 
white, abounding in juice, sweet, and very sprightly. Produc- 
tive, and ripens at midseason. 

LEON DE ST. LAUMER (Dupuy Jamin). Large, conical, bright 
pale scarlet; flesh carmine, rich, juicy, and sweet. Moderately 
productive. I have not fruited this variety, but it made with 
me a splendid growth last season, in a soil where the Scarlet 
Pine grew feebly, and the Filbert Pine almost refused to. grow. 

LEOPOLD I. A Belgian variety of medium size, dark color ; seeds 
prominent, fine ; sweet flavor, but only a moderate bearer. 

LEWISHAM SCARLET. (Syn. Scarlet Cluster.} Fruit roundish, 
small, with short neck; purplish red, growing in clusters, 
slightly hairy; flesh scarlet, firm, solid, of moderate flavor. 
Leaves small, flat, yellowish green. English, s'aid to bear well. 

LITTLE MONITOR. Small, roundish, obtuse conical. 

* LIZZIE RANDOLPH. Medium, roundish, light crimson, poor 
flavor. Pistillate. 

LONG-FRUITED MUSCATELLE. An old, very small, and poor 
Hautbois strawberry. 

LONG SCARLET. (Syn. Padlefs Early Scarlet, Oblong- Scarlet.} 
Fruit large, oblong, with a long glossy neck, bright light scar- 
let ; seeds few and sunken. Leaves numerous ; foot-stalks hairy. 
Leaflets small, dark shining green. 

LONG STEM. 

LONGWORTH'S PROLIFIC (Schneicke). (Syn. Schneicke's Her- 
maphrodite.} (?) Large, roundish, broad at base, light crim- 
son ; flesh firm, scarlet (with numerous rays, the remains of the 
filaments. Downing), briskly acid, good. Vigorous and pro- 
ductive. Leaves large, broad, wavy, on long, stout foot-stalks. 
Originated in Cincinnati, O., in 1848, and was once rather a 
famous kind. Probably little cultivated now. 

LORD CLYDE (Dean). This was considered at home, when it 
was introduced, the best novelty among English kinds after 
John Powell. 

LORD MURRAY (Stewart and Neilson). 

LORD SPENCER. 

LORENZO BOOTH (De Jonghe). 1857 or 1858. Large, oval, bright 
g/bssy red ; flesh dark crimson, solid, sweet, and sprightly. 
Said to be hardy, and very early. Other authority gives the 
color of the flesh cherry red. 

LORIO. (Syn. Lorio Pine.} Large, obtusely conical, rich, clear 
dark red ; flesh reddish, juicy, vinous, and sweet. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 101 

Louis VILMORIN (Robine). Large, regularly conical or heart- 
shaped, beautiful bright red ; seeds prominent, or but little 
sunken; flesh firm, rosy, juicy, sprightly, not very sweet. 
Leaves dark green. Said to force well. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 
1865, 39 1 - 

LUCAS (De Jonghe). Large, roundish, oval, glossy crimson; 
flesh hard, firm, and crisp. A very good grower with me, 
and much of the type of Jucunda, but a better fruit. Said to 
force well. The flesh is remarkable for its firmness. 

LUCIDA PERFECTA (Gloede). A magnificent dwarf plant, with 
large, dark, shining leaves, looking as if varnished. Petioles 
red and short. A conspicuous plant, and readily identified 
among a hundred. Berries round, clinging to the calyx ; light 
salmon color, very sweet and good, but not large or numerous. 
Very late, some berries remaining on in 1867, up to July 25. 
Said to be a cross of a Chili and the Fragaria Lucida of Cali- 
fornia. 

LUCIE (Boisselot). Large, variable, good, but by no means best. 
Said to be hardy and late, and though a Chili strawberry, pro- 
ductive. 

LUCY FITCH. 

Luscious SCARLET (Prince). Described as large, rounded, 
dark scarlet, pr-roductive, and good. Pistillate. 

LUXURIANT (Durand). New. American. Described as large, 
flattened, globose, uniform, of good flavor, and very sweet. 

LYNEDOCH SEEDLING. An old strawberry. Medium, ovate, 
second quality, late. 



IM: 

MACEY'S SEEDLING. 

MADAME BAL (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Plant moderately 
strong, hardy,, and productive. Leaf-stalks short and strong; 
leaves deep green, with little lustre, horizontal, and deeply in- 
cised. Fruit conical, medium to large, varnished red. Inte- 
rior of the berry flesh colored, juicy, vinous, and brisk flavored. 

MADAME COLLONGE (Graindorge). Large, round or lobed, pale 
red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, hollow, dry, not very 
sweet, and poor. Vines vigorous and hardy. I have fruited 
this several seasons. It has been advertised as Madame Col- 



IO2 Catalogue of Varieties. 

loque and Madame Cologne. Worthless. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 
VIII. 415. 

MADAME ELIZA VILMORIN (Gloede). A Chili strawberry. 
Large or very large, rounded or lobed, bright rose ; seeds prom- 
inent; flesh white, juicy, very sweet, and exquisitely perfumed. 
Vigorous, hardy, and late. 

MADAME JACOBS (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Of moderate 
growth, leaves small, almost round, dull green, deeply incised. 
Fruit oval or round, shining orange red; seeds in shallow cavi- 
ties; interior of the berry between flesh color and cherry; juice 
abundant, piquant, and brisk flavored. 

MADAME LOUESSE (Graindorge). First berries cockscombed; 
second, roundish oval, very light red; seeds reddish, deep set; 
flesh a little hollow, rosy, sweet, a little pasty, delicate, not 
acid. Fig. in Rev. Hort. VIII. 414. 

MADAME MAUBACH (De Jonghe). New, not yet sent out. 

MAGNIFICENT (Prince). Described as very large, obtusely con- 
ical, light scarlet, good. Pistillate. 

MAGNIFIQUE. 

MAGNIFIQUE DE MOULINEX. 

* MAGNUM BONUM (Barrat). A variety of the British Queen 
class, but hardier and more productive than the type. Fruit 
large, form variable, rosy orange; seeds prominent; flesh pure 
white, firm, sweet, juicy, and perfumed. 

MAID OF THE LAKE. New, little known. Said to be promising. 

MALVINA (Prince). A seedling from Hovey's Seedling. De- 
scribed by the originator as more productive (?), brighter color, 
better flavor, and one week earlier, than its parent. Little 
known. 

MAMMOTH (Myatt). Largest size, cockscomb, bright crimson. 
In this country it is very large, crimson in the sun, white in 
the shade, flavor bad, nearly tasteless. Called a shy bearer. 
Said by one amateur to set forty per cent of its flowers. Fig. 
in Flore des Serres, V. 504. 

MARGUERITE (Lebreton). Fruit large to enormous, some berries 
weighing nearly one and one third ounces ; of beautiful long 
conical shape; light bright shining red; seeds sunken; flesh 
bright orange, juicy, sweet, not high flavored. It fruited with 
me in poor soil and was handsome, but not first class. Fig. in 
Rev. Hort. 1861, 310. 

MARIE AMELIE (Plee). Fruit large, obtusely conical, bright 
vermilion red ; seeds sunken ; flesh rosy, sweet, brisk flavored- 



Catalogue of Varieties. 103 

Hardy and productive, something like the Princesse Royale. 
A hybrid, of which the Elton was one parent. Originated in 
1846. 

MARIE LOUISE (Dr. Nicaise). Fruit very large and beautiful, 
elongated, heart shaped, sometimes flattened, deep vermilion ; 
seeds scattered and prominent ; flesh rosy, sweet, and perfumed ; 
like La Chulonnaise. 

MARQUISE DE LATOUR-MAUBOURG (Jamine and Durand). (Syn. 
Vicomtesse Hericart de T/iury, and Duckesse de Trevise.') 
Fruit variable in size and form, vermilion red ; seeds promi- 
nent; flesh rosy white, sweet, perfumed, and good. Hardy and 
productive, but gives only one picking of large berries. At 
least this is its reputation abroad ; but Fuller says it is second 
to none of the foreign varieties. 

MARY. 

MARYLANDICA (Edmondson). Large, dark crimson; flesh solid 
and firm, "cuts like a pear; " bears transportation well; flavor 
rich. A strong growing American seedling which has been 
tested in France, and found second rate there. Originated in 
Maryland. 

MAY QUEEN (Nicholson). Medium or small, rounded, pale 
scarlet; flesh white, sweet, very highly perfumed. A very early 
strawberry, but neither so early nor so good as the Old Early 
Scarlet. 

McAvoY's EXTRA RED (McAvoy). Large, roundish, scarlet; 
seeds sometimes yellowish ; flesh yellowish, slightly stained 
with red; flavor subacid. Pistillate, and very productive. Ex- 
ceedingly acid, according to Downing. 

McAvoY's SUPERIOR (McAvoy). (Syn. Mc.Avoy's No. 12, Buf- 
falo, General McClellan.*} Large to very large, irregular; color 
varying from a light to a deep brilliant crimson ; seeds crim- 
son, sometimes yellow; flesh dark red, soft, differing in differ- 
ent soils ; sometimes exquisite, sometimes insipid. Vigorous 
and productive. Pistillate. A somewhat noted variety sixteen 
or seventeen years ago, and now occasionally brought forward 
under a new name. Fig. in Hort. VIII. 392. Originated, like 
the above, in Cincinnati, on Mr. Longworth's grounds. 

McAvoY's No. i (McAvoy). Large, roundish, deep scarlet; 
seeds light crimson, and sunk rather deep; flesh whitish, 
stained with red, agreeable, and good. An abundant bearer. 

MEAD'S SEEDLING (Mead). Medium to large, conical, often 
flattened ; seeds conspicuous, light bright scarlet, firm, acid, 



104 Catalogue of Varieties. 

and unproductive. Pistillate. I fruited it one season and 
found it a pretty berry, but too sour. Fig. in Hort. XXII. 195. 

MELANCTHON (Prince). Described as larger than Hovey's (?) ; 
conical, crimson, good flavor, and productive. 

MELANIE (Prince). Described as large, conical, deep scarlet, 
hardy, and excellent. Pistillate. 

MELINDA (Prince). Described as early, large, purse-shaped, 
scarlet, good flavor, productive. Pistillate. 

MEHUS (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit large, flattened, trun- 
cated, often larger at the summit than the base, bright red ; 
seeds prominent, distant; flesh white, sprightly, perfumed. 
Vines small, vigorous, leaves not abundant. 

MELON. Medium, roundish, dark. A Scotch variety long since 
superseded. 

MEN AGERE (De Jonghe). Large, very long, flattened, bright 
red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, sweet, firm, brisk. Late, 
and long in bearing. 

METCALF'S EARLY (Metcalf). Small to medium, ovate conical, 
with long neck; dull scarlet; flesh firm, of fair flavor. Not so 
early, and not so good, as the Jenny Lind. Overpraised, and 
a great failure. Originated in Niles, Michigan. 

* METHVEN SCARLET (Bishop). (Syn. Methven Castle, South- 
ampton Scarlet.} Large, heart shaped or cockscombed, the 
later fruit conical; dark scarlet; seeds pale yellow, not deep 
sunk ; flesh scarlet, hollow, poor. Originated in England in 
1816, and possibly one of the parents of Hovey's Seedling. 
Pistillate. 

MEXICAN EVER-BEARING. This is a distinct variety (Fragaria 
Mexicana. Syn. F. Gilmannii, Clinton} of the Fragaria Vesca, 
distinguished by a leaf on the runner. It has been recently 
brought forward as very valuable, but will probably prove of 
no more worth than the Old Red Alpine. 

MICHIGAN. Described as a seedling of the Wilson, and ten days 
later than that variety, and of better quality. Hardy and vig- 
orous. Fig. in Tilton's Jour. Hort. VII. 155. 

MINERVA (Prince). Said by the originator to be an enormous 
bearer. Little known. 

Miss COUTTS (De Jonghe). New. Of moderate growth, leaves 
roundish, dull green. Fruit conical, above medium, regular, 
pale, shining cherry red; seeds numerous, slightly sunken; 
flesh firm, white, juicy, vinous, and brisk flavored. 

MODELE (De Jonghe). 



Catalogue of Varieties. 105 

MONITOR (Fuller). Large, roundish conical, bright scarlet; 
flesh solid, firm, too acid with me to be agreeable ; high fla- 
vored. Vigorous, and moderately productive. Fig. in Hort. 
XVII. 418. 

MONROE SCARLET (Ellwanger and Barry). Medium to large, 
roundish, light scarlet, of good flavor. Hardy, and very pro- 
ductive; has succeeded well in France. Pistillate. A cross of 
Hovey's and the Duke of Kent. Fig. in Hort. IX. 221. 

MONSTROUS HAUTBOIS. A comparatively new variety. Said to 
be large and fine. Two kinds have been sold under this name; 
one of them, according to Fuller, not a Hautbois at all. 

MONSTRUEUSE DE ROBINE (Robine). (?) Very large, irregular, 
scarlet red ; seeds sunken ; flesh rosy, hollow, brisk flavored, 
not sweet or juicy. Hardy and vigorous. Unproductive, and 
a poor setter. Possibly a Chili. 

MONTROSE (Prince). 

MORGAN SEEDLING (Morgan). Known to me only as a variety 
which took a prize as the best market variety at a fruit growers' 
meeting, held at Rochester, N. Y., in 1866. 

MORRISANIA SCARLET. Fruit in clusters, round, small, shining 
dark red ; flesh whitish, soft, poor. -A good bearer and early. 

MOTTIER'S SEEDLING (Mottier). (?) Large, acid, productive. 
American (?). 

MOUNT VESUVIUS. Described as a long, handsome berry of me- 
dium quality, and a good bearer. 

MOYAMENSING (Schmitz). Medium to large, broadly conical, 
deep crimson ; seeds numerous, deeply imbedded ; flesh red, 
rather firm, pretty briskly acid; much like Hudson. Moder- 
ately vigorous and productive. Pistillate. Raised by Gerhard 
Schmitz, of Philadelphia. (Downing.) 

MR. RADCLYFFE (Ingram). New, 1867. Figured in Gloede's 
Catalogue for 1868-9, and there described as of the largest size, 
form variable (figured as long, of pretty uniform thickness, 
round at the end) ; bright orange red; seeds prominent; flesh 
pure white, firm, and melting, with a delicious pine-apple flavor. 

MRS. GRANT. A new white seedling. 

MRS. WILDER (Dejonghe). New, 1868. Flattened cone, deep 
varnished red; flesh firm, of a cherry or flesh color; juicy, 
sweet, and brisk. .Vigorous, productive, and good. 

MRS. D. NEILSON (Stewart and Neilson). Large, variable, 
orange scarlet, juicy, sweet, high flavored. Vigorous, produc- 
tive, and very late. 



106 Catalogue of Varieties. 

MULBERRY.' (Sjn. Mahone, Cherokee King, erroneously Suri- 
nam.} An old variety; shy bearer and late. Medium, 
ovate, with a short neck; dark purplish red; seeds slightly im- 
bedded ; flesh red, soft, coarse, with large core, and only mod- 
erately good. Plant dwarf. 

MUSCADIN DE LIEGE (Lorio). Fruit large, variable, purplish 
red; seeds prominent; flesh delicate, sweet, and perfumed. 
Vines very hardy and productive. 

MYATT'S PINE- APPLE (Myatt). (Syn. Myatfs Pine.} (?) Fruit 
very large, variable, bright rose ; seeds prominent ; flesh yel- 
lowish white, firm, juicy, with a sweet, rich pine-apple flavor. 
Tender in some soils, and a shy bearer, but recommended to 
amateurs as a fruit of the first quality. 

MYATT'S PROLIFIC (Myatt). Large, resembling Myatt's Eleanor, 
but more pointed; light, glossy scarlet, sweet, and rich. Not 
very prolific in this country. 

MYATT'S PROLIFIC HAUTBOIS. Large, conical, rounding to both 
ends, dull deep pink; on one side nearly white; flesh very 
sweet with a peculiar musky flavor. 



JST 

NAIRNS SEEDLING (Nairns). Moderate size, ovate, irregular, 
sometimes with a short neck; deep, rich shining red; seeds 
deeply imbedded ; flesh pale scarlet, firm, with a core, not rich. 
A good bearer, and late. Originated in England in 1819. 

NAIMETTE (Lorio). 

NAOMI. Medium, roundish oval, quite deep scarlet; flesh white, 
sweet, soft, .not high flavored. An accidental American seed- 
ling. (Downing.) 

NAPOLEON (Lorio). Large, roundish, light clear red or scarlet ; 
flesh firm, juicy, and sweet. Belgian. 

NAPOLEON III. (Gloede). Fruit very large, flattened or cocks- 
combed ; described variously as rosy red, brilliant, crimson, 
light scarlet, and bright orange ; seeds yellow or reddish, little 
sunk; flesh very firm, white, sweet, and delicious. The true 
Napoleon III. is doubtless a splendid and valuable berry; but 
the Austin has been sold in this country as the Napoleon, and 
probably other varieties have been substituted. I have fruited 
two kinds sold as Napoleon III. ; one a large, conical, dark 
colored, and very fine strawberry ; the other a handsome, rank 



Catalogue of Varieties. 107 

grower, with a few small to medium, light red, pasty, and taste- 
less berries ; but I think not the Austin. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 
I. 70. 

NARROW-LEAVED SCARLET (Knight). A cross of Knight's Large 
Scarlet and the Old Black. Medium, conical, with neck, hairy, 
uniform bright scarlet; seeds projecting; flesh firm, solid, pale' 
scarlet, tolerably rich. A good bearer, and late. 

NATHALIE. 

* NECKED PINE. (Syn. Unique Prairie, Pine-appleC) An old 
variety. Conical, with a neck or shoulder; scarlet, early, and 
a great bearer. Flesh tender, sprightly, acid. Pistillate. 
American. 

NEGRO. Described as large and sweet; nearly black. 

NERO. 

NE PLUS ULTRA (De Jonghe). Fruit large to monstrous, varia- 
ble, dark purple red ; flesh red, juicy, not sweet, but brisk. 
Vigorous and productive. Early. Good for preserving. 

NEWARK PROLIFIC (Frill). Described as late, and of good 
flavor. 
NEWLAND. See CHILIAN. 

NEWLAND'S MAMMOTH ALPINE (Newland). Brought forward 
some years ago as a great acquisition. Now unheard of, and 
probably nothing but the Old Red Alpine. Its place seems 
to be filled just now by the Mexican Ever-bearing. 

NEWTON SEEDLING (Challoner). Large, handsome, conical, 
regular, bright shining red; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet, and brisk. 
Plant hardy and productive, but demands a strong, rich, moist 
or well irrigated soil. 

NEW JERSEY (Durand). New. Described as conical, crimson 
white fleshed, good, and showy. 

NEW JERSEY SCARLET. Medium, conical, with long neck; bright 
scarlet; flesh moderately firm, sprightly flavor, and good. Suc- 
ce*eds in sandy soil. Originated near Burlington. Fig. in 
Fuller, p. 97. 

NICANOR (Ellwanger and Barry). A seedling of the Triomphe. 
Originated about 1861. Medium to large, regular, and even 
rounded; cockscombed ; glossy, bright deep scarlet; seeds dark, 
not very deep sunk; flesh reddish, rich, sweet, and high fla- 
vored ; truss with long foot-stalks, and usually from eighteen to 
twenty-four berries on a truss. Leaf large, broad oval, deep 
pea-green color, and deeply serrate. More uniform in size 



io8 Catalogue of Varieties. 

than the Wilson, and ripens more gradually. Fig. in Hort. 
XXIL 273. 

NICHOLSON'S SUPERB (Nicholson). 

* NIMROD (Lucombe, Pince & Co.) Oblong, conical, same color 
as the British Queen ; sweeter, richer, and hardier than that 
variety. Forces well. Said to be very much like Elphinstone's 
Adair. 

NONSUCH (Robertson). Medium, round, shining purple red; 
seeds very prominent; flesh red, juicy, sweet, very highly per- 
fumed. Moderate grower and bearer. Very late. 



OHIO MAMMOTH (Burr). A cross of Burr's Seedling and Hov- 
ey's. Fruit very lai'ge, long, conical, angular, light red, sweet, 
and excellent ; foliage large ; plants vigorous, hardy, and pro- 
ductive. 

OLD BLACK. (Syn. Black Canterbury, Black Pine, Black 
Beacon, Turkey Pine, Mulberry.} Medium, conical, elongated, 
pointed, with a neck ; hairy, and very dark purple red next the 
sun ; seeds same color ; pale, with yellow seed on the shady 
side ; flesh firm, with a core, scarlet, buttery, rich, and very 
high flavored. Leaflets very small, oval, blunt, serrate, very 
. thin, shining light green. An old and tender English variety. 

OLD JOHN BROWN (Schroeder). Described as a cross between 
Wilson's Albany and a Chili. Broadly conical, pointed, light 
crimson; flesh tender, sweetish, fine flavored. Originated in 
Bloomington, 111., and first fruited in 1859. 

OLD PINE. (Syn. Pine, Carolina, Scarlet Pine, Old Scarlet do., 
Old Carolina do., Large do., Miss Gunning's, North's Seed- 
ling, Devonshire Scarlet Pine, Blood Pine, Keiv do., Varnished 
do., Windsor do., Cockscombed do., Regent's Favorite, Bar ham 
Down. Erroneously, Black Pine, Surinam, and Bath Scarlet.} 
Large, ovate, with a neck ; conical compressed, slightly hairy, 
uniform bright scarlet ; seeds slightly sunken ; early fruit cocks- 
combed ; flesh pale scarlet, rich, juicy, high flavored, the largest 
fruit hollow. A famous old kind. American. Its numerous 
synonymes show its former popularity. Prefers a clay soil. 
Fig. in Pom. Mag. I. 47. 

OMER PACHA (Ward). Large, regular and handsome, pale scar- 
let, somewhat cockscombed, with a refreshing flavor, like 



Catalogue of Varieties. 109 

British Queen. Often confounded with Hyatt's Eliza, and by 
some said to be undistinguishable from the Rival Queen. 

ONARGA (Owens). New. Roundish conical, bright scarlet; 
flesh solid and white, with a rich, wild flavor; highly perfumed. 
A very large-leaved, tall, strong growing variety. Originated 
in Onarga, 111. 

ONONDAGA (Ford). A cross between the Victoria and Hovey's. 
Large, soft, good flavor, considered promising. 

ONE-LEAVED STRAWBERRY. (Syn. Fragaria Monophylla.} An 
Alpine strawberry similar to the Green Alpine. Leaves simple, 
not divided. Fig. in Curtis's Botanical Magazine, II. 63, and 
in Duhnmel, VI. 342. Fuller, with whom a similar strawberry 
has orginated, says probably not in cultivation, but it is adver- 
tised in the late French catalogues. 

OPHELIA (Prince). Described as sweet and pleasant. Said to 
be a seedling from the Scarlet Magnate. Best if grown in 
stools, and an excellent fertilizer for pistillate kinds. 

ORANGE OR ORANGE PINE. Syn. of Hudson's Bay. 

ORANGE PROLIFIC (Ellwanger and Barry). Large, roundish, 
somewhat oblate, often necked, deep crimson ; seeds deeply 
sunken ; flesh rather firm, brisk, acid. Originated in Roches- 
ter, N. Y. 

ORB (Nicholson). Round, very light colored, sweet, rich, and 
good. Plants dwarf, of peculiar growth, the leaflets being a 
little folded. I have fruited this three seasons, and consider it 
the poorest bearer I know. Probably not one flower in twenty 
sets a berry. 

ORNEMENT DES TABLES (Soupert and Netting). Fruit large, 
oval or flattened, bright red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, 
firm, juicy, sweet, and perfumed. Hardy and vigorous. De- 
scribed by Gloede as an excellent berry. 

OSBAND'S MAMMOTH. 

OSCAR (Bradley). Large, ovate, angular, sometimes cocks- 
combed ; seeds variable ; color from very dark red to mulberry ; 
flesh described both as rosy white and as red; solid and firm; 
juicy, and of rich flavor. In this country a poor grower, and 
unproductive. Fig. in L'lllustration H*orticole, VI. 223. 

OTHELLO (Mrs. Clements). New, 1868. Medium, oval or round ; 
brilliant purplish red; deeper when perfectly ripe; seeds on 
the surface ; flesh red, firm, sweet, juicy, and brisk. 

OTTOLANDER'S PERPETUAL. New. Said to be an ever-bearing 
strawberry, superior to Gloede's, very aromatic, and bearing 
till frost. 



no Catalogue of Varieties. 



PAGE'S SEEDLING (Page). Good size, conical, dark colored; 
flesh rather soft, but of good flavor. Early. 

PALATINE (Prince). Described as very large, obtusely conical, 
scarlet, "juicy, and productive. Pistillate. 

PALMEE (Vibert). 

PALMYRE (Berger). Large, obtusely conical, pale rose; seeds 
prominent; flesh rosy white, juicy, sweet, and perfumed. Mid- 
dling early, hardy, and productive. 

PASSE-PARTOUT (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit very large; 
the first large and flattened, the others more elongated ; deep 
varnished red; seeds distant, almost black, not prominent; 
flesh red, veined with white, sugary, and perfumed ; slightly 
acid. Plant semi-dwarf, with very deep green leaves. Very 
late. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869, 270. 

* PATRICK. Large, elongated, bright red ; seeds imbedded ; flesh 
rosy white, hollow, sweet, and juicy. Early. 

PAULINA (Prince). Described as obtusely conical, crimson, and 
sweet. Pistillate. 

PAULINE (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit large, elongated, 
deep varnished red ; flesh red, juicy, sugary, brisk, and very 
good. Plant vigorous, leaves shining green. Very productive. 

PAULINE (Prince). Very large, obovate, bright scarlet, acidu- 
late, good flavor, late. Vigorous, hardy, and productive. Pis- 
tillate. 

PAULINUS (Prince). Described as large, conical, bright scarlet, 
and productive. Pistillate. 

PEABODY (Peabody). (Syn. Peabody Seedling, JVew Hautbois.} 
Conical or cockscombed, deep crimson ; flesh sweet and dry, 
lacking high flavor. Does not set well. Introduced some years 
ago with high praise, but has proved an utter failure. Down- 
ing says, "flesh firm, sweet, melting, juicy, with a pine-apple 
flavor." Originated in Columbus, Ga. 

PEAK'S EMPEROR (Peak). Firm, conical, symmetrical, some- 
what cockscombed, dark crimson, and very large. Plant like 
the Agriculturist, hardy and productive. South Bend, Indiana. 

PENELOPE (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit very large, rounded, 
sometimes flattened ; clear red ; seeds small, distant, somewhat 



Catalogue of Varieties. in 

prominent; flesh salmon color, juicy, and slightly acid. Plant 
dwarf, hardy, and productive. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869, 270. 

PENNSYLVANIA (Schmitz). (Syn. Pennsylvania.} (?) A seed- 
ling of the Moyamensing. Large, broad conical, dark crimson ; 
seeds yellow ; flesh red, of fine flavor. Leaves large, and very 
dark green. Pistillate, and in fruit similar to its parent. 

PERFECTION (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit large or very 
large, lobed or conical, regular, very deep red (purplish in col- 
ored engraving) ; seeds in regular rows, of a bright red, which 
contrasts with the color of the berry; flesh rosy white, sugary, 
and perfumed, recalling the flavor of the Brune de Gilbert. 
Plant vigorous and hardy, and in some respects resembling 
Marguerite. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869, 270. 

PERFUMED CONE. 

PERFUMED PINE (Prince). A seedling of Burr's Pine. De- 
scribed by the originator as obtusely conical, very large, bright 
scarlet, juicy, high flavored. Vines vigorous and hardy. 

PERFUMED SCARLET (Prince). Described as medium, rounded, 
light scarlet, and high flavored. Pistillate. 

PERPETUAL PINE (Gloede). See ANANAS, PERPETUEL. 

PERPETUELLE DU POITOU. Given in the French list as a sub- 
variety of the Alpine class. 

PERRY'S SEEDLING (Perry). Medium to large, globular, with a 
slight neck ; bright crimson ; sweet, rich, and sprightly. Origi- 
nated in Georgetown, Conn. Fig. in Fuller, p. 98. 

PHILADELPHIA. Medium to large, uniformly conical, bright scar- 
let, moderately firm. Very early and productive. 

PHCEBUS (Dr. Nicaise). Very large, elongated, flattened at 
summit, clear red ; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet ; seeds brown. A 
splendid berry. Plant vigorous and productive, with erect 
leaves. 

PITMASTON BLACK (Williams). (Syn. Late Pitmaston Black.} 
Originated in England in 1808. A seedling of the Old Black. 
Resembles its parent, but tender, and a shy grower. 

PITMASTON BLACK SCARLET. (Syn. Early Pitmaston Black.} 
Medium, oblong, with neck; dark purple red, slightly hairy ; 
seeds dark purple on one side, yellow on the other; not deeply 
set; flesh scarlet, with small core; tender, sweet, and pleasantly 
acid, with a Roseberry flavor. Productive. 

PLOVER (Nicholson). Described as medium size, rich scarlet, 
with a very rich, luscious, Hautbois flavor. A good bearer. 

PREMIER (Ruffet). (Syn. British Green Seedling.} Very large, 



112 Catalogue of Varieties. 

oval or round, beautiful shining vermilion red ; flesh white, 
with rosy veins ; sweet and perfumed. With me, a very splendid 
grower in light soil. 

PRESIDENT (Green). Large or very large, beautiful round form, 
oval or lobed, bright red; seeds prominent; interior flesh col- 
ored ; juicy and sweet. Vigorous, productive, and forces well. 
English. (?) 

PRESIDENT, OR PRESIDENT LINCOLN (Plattman). American. 
New, and little known. 

PRESIDENT WILDER (De Jonghe). New, 1868. Figured in the 
foreign catalogues for 1868-9, and described as large, oval or 
conical, with a long and very distinct neck; varnished crimson 
red; seeds yellow and prominent; flesh firm, red, veined with 
rose, sweet, and perfumed. Vines dwarf, hardy, very produc- 
tive, and late. Said to surpass La Constante. The shape is 
very different from that of the next variety. 

PRESIDENT WILDER (Wilder). A cross of La Constante and 
Hovey's Seedling, and retaining the good qualities of both va- 
rieties. Fruit large to very large, many specimens in 1868 and 
1869 weighing an ounce each ; roundish, obtusely conical, 
always uniform and regular; bright crimson scarlet; seeds yel- 
low, and near the surface; flesh rosy white, firm, juicy, rich, 
and exquisitely flavored with a faint, hardly perceptible, Haut- 
bois taste. The plant is of dwarf, compact habit, with strong, 
healthy leaves on stout foot-stalks; vigorous and productive. 
One year old plants, not allowed to make runners, sometimes 
send up four fruit-stalks. The foliage resembles that of the 
Hovey more than that of La Constante, and in the nine years' 
trial it has had, has never burned. The fruit borrows its shape, 
and much of its beauty, from La Constante, and it is almost im- 
possible to find a misshapen berry. My first plants were set in 
only moderately good soil, September 21, 1868, and they gave 
me a very good crop in 1869. It originated with M. P. Wilder, 
of Dorchester, Mass., in 1861, and was selected as the best re- 
sult he has obtained from many thousand seedlings in thirty 
years' continual experimenting, and is the most promising new 
strawberry now before the public. Fig. in Tilton's Jour, of 
Hort. 1869, p. i. 

PRIMATE (Prince). Conical, crimson, moderate flavor, showy 
market berry. A good setter, and very productive. 

PRIMORDIAN (Prince). Large, conical, deep scarlet. Pistillate. 

* PRINCE ALBERT. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 113. 

PRINCE ALFRED (Ingram). Very large, heart shaped, beautiful 
purplish red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet, and 
brisk. Plants dwarf, very moderate growers, and very late. 

PRINCE ARTHUR (Ingram). Medium, handsome, oval or coni- 
cal, rosy salmon ; seeds prominent; flesh white, juicy, sweet, 
and brisk. Hardy, productive, and early. 

PRINCE ARTHUR (Wilmot). Large or very large, variable, bright 
rose; seeds on the surface; flesh pure white, firm, juicy, sweet, 
and perfumed. Productive, but demands very careful cultiva- 
tion. Late. 

PRINCE GEORGE (Nicholson). Large to very large, regularly 
round; seeds brown and prominent; flesh yellowish white, 
buttery, sweet, and exquisite. Vigorous, hardy, and middling 
early. 

PRINCE IMPERIAL (Graindorge). Medium, variable, bright 
glossy red ; seeds prominent ; flesh rosy, delicate, sweet, and 
perfumed. Hardy, productive, very early, and forces well. 

PRINCE OF ARGENTINE. New, and little known. 

* PRINCE OF ORLEANS. Medium, tender, rather pleasant flavor. 

Accounts vary as to its productiveness. 

* PRINCE OF WALES (Cuthill). Large, conical, vermilion red; 

seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet, and somewhat 
acid. Hardy, productive, and very late. 

PRINCE OF WALES (Ingram). Very large, oval or elongated, 
bright red; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet, and brisk. Hardy, produc- 
tive, and early. 

PRINCE OF WALES (Stewart and Neilson). Large or very large, 
rounded or lobed, purplish red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh 
rosy white, juicy, and perfumed. Very productive and early. 

PRINCEPS (Prince). Very large, long cone, dark crimson ; flesh 
scarlet, sweet, fine flavor, vigorous and productive. 

PRINCE'S LATE GLOBOSE (Prince). Described as very large, 
round, firm, orange-scarlet, and very late. Pistillate. 

PRINCESS DAGMAR (Mrs. Clements). New, 1868. Round, coni- 
cal, with a blunt point; bright rose; seeds brown and prom- 
inent; flesh yellowish white, buttery, sweet, and melting. 
Hardy, productive, and very early. Fig. in Gloede's Cata- 
logue, 1868-9. 

PRINCESS FREDERICK WILLIAM (Niven). Large, roundish, 
sometimes flattened or cockscombed ; bright scarlet ; flesh rosy 
white, sweet, and a little pasty. Fuller says the plants are 
tender. 

8 



ii4 Catalogue of Varieties. 

PRINCESS OF WALES (Knight). Large, round, oval or flattened, 
bright red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy white, juicy, sweet, 
and perfumed. Vigorous, forces well, and extremely early. 

* PRINCESS ROYAL (Ingram). Uniform, obtusely scarlet, dark 

crimson; flesh firm, highly perfumed, and richly flavored. Has 
proved a good bearer in this country. Pistillate. (?) Fig. in 
Hort. XIII. 467. 

PRINCESSE ROY ALE (Pelvilain). Seedling of the Keens's Seed- 
ling, that from Keens's Imperial, and the latter from the White 
Carolina. Obtained at Meudon, in France, about 1846, and in 
1859 about twelve hundred acres were cultivated for the Paris 
market. Fruit very large, regularly oval, very bright red; 
flesh rosy, firm, with a central cavity, and filled with an acid 
and not highly flavored juice. A favorite abroad ; but Gloede 
remarks that it should be replaced by better kinds. Fig. in Jar. 
Mus. II. and Alb. de Pomol. IV. p. 78. 

PRINCESS ROYAL OF ENGLAND (Cuthill). Medium size, light 
color; flesh lemon color, fine flavored. Productive. 

PRINCE'S IMPERIAL SCARLET (Prince). Fruit large, light scar- 
let, and of excellent flavor. Pistillate. Obtusely conical, firm 
fleshed, juicy, and pleasant, according to another authority. 
Fig. in Hort. XIV. 419. 

PRISCILLA. 

PROFUSE SCARLET. Medium, scarlet, productive. 

* PROFUSION (Burr). Medium or small, rich and sweet; a pro- 

digious bearer. Pistillate. 

PROGRES (De Jonghe). Fruit large, rounded or flattened, 
squared at the end, deep purple red; seeds prominent; flesh 
rosy white, firm, sweet, and brisk. Early. 

PROLIFIC. Large, conical, light glossy scarlet, rich flavor, unpro- 
ductive. English. (Downing.) 

PROLIFIC HAUTBOIS. (Syn. Double Bearing Hautbois, Musk, 
Regenfs, Hermaphrodite, Dwarf, Sacombe, Sir Joseph Banks' s^ 
Spring Grove, and probably others.) Large, obtusely conical, 
dark, but not so dark as the Black Hautbois; seeds slightly 
imbedded ; flesh solid, greenish, and high flavored. The best 
of its class, and sometimes gives a second crop. Fig. in Pom. 
Mag. I. 31. 

PROLIFIC IOWA (Prince). Described by the originator as large, 
conical, bright scarlet, and productive. 

PROLIFIC ORANGE. (See ORANGE PROLIFIC.) 



Catalogue of Varieties. 115 



QyiNquEFOLiA (Myatt). Large, variable, bright red; seeds 
prominent; flesh white, firm, sweet, highly perfumed. Said to 
have five leaflets ; but the variety I once fruited under this 
name, and which was very like the Lucas, did not have this 
peculiarity. I have never been able to get the genuine, although 
I have tried by advertising and otherwise for several years. 

QUEEN'S SEEDLING. (?) 

QUEEN VICTORIA. 



RANDOLPH PINE (Hobbs). A little known Pennsylvania seed- 
ling. 

READ'S No. i. 

READ'S BLACK PINE (Read). Large, scarlet, good. 

RED ALPINE MONTHLY. (Syn. Autumnal Galande, Des Alpes a 
fruit rouge, Des Alpes de tous les Mois a fruit rouge, do. a Deux 
Saisons, Des Alpes a ^Hiatre Saisons, Alpine Rouge, Prolific 
Alpine, Poitou Alpine Monthly La Meudonnaise, &c., &c.) Sim- 
lar to next, but with very high culture fruits continuously. 

RED ALPINE. (Syn. American Alpine, Besancon, De Montreuil 
a fruit rouge, do. do. a Marteati, Fressant, Dent de Cheval, 
De Ville de Bots.} Medium, conical, light crimson; seeds 
prominent, subacid, not rich, and not very good. Hardy, and 
moderately productive. 

RED CONE. Large, conical, second rate, early. This and the 
next are old English kinds. 

RED FINGER. Small, ovate, second rate, and early. 

REEVES'S SEEDLING (Reeves;. A new variety from Long Island. 
Large and handsome, ripening late. 

REFULGENT. 

RKGINA (Prince). Seedling of Longworth's Prolific, and much 
like its parent. 

REGULATOR (Durand). New, and little known. 

RP:INE DES BELGES. Large, varying between long conical and 
obtuse conical ; bright rich scarlet ; flesh firm, juicy, sweet. 



n6 Catalogue of Varieties. 

REINE HORTENSE. Large, dark crimson; quality best. Hardy, 

and moderately productive. 
REINE DE QUATRE SAISONS. An Alpine. 
RBUS VAN ZUIDWIJK (Van de Water). New, 1869. Enormous, 

elongated, flattened or cockscombed, bright vermilion red ; flesh 

rosy, melting, sweet. Hardy, vigorous, and late. Making few 

runners. P'ig. in Gloede's Catalogue for 1870. 
RHODE ISLAND SEEDLING. Described as large, variable, conical, 

dark scarlet, moderate flavor, sour. 

* RICHARDSON'S EARLY (Richardson). Medium, very dark crim- 
son, pleasant, subacid, and good. Ripens with the Early Vir- 
ginia. Pistillate. 

* RICHARDSON'S CAMBRIDGE (Richardson.) 

* RICHARDSON'S LATE (Richardson). Large, roundish, with 
short neck; light crimson scarlet. Rich, subacid, sprightly, 
and good. Sometimes as late as the 2ist of July. 

RICHMOND. 

RIFLEMAN (Ingram). Very large to enormous, elongated; some- 
times cockscombed, sometimes squared; bright orange red; 
seeds on the surface ; flesh white, firm, sweet, and perfumed. 
Vigorous, and extremely productive in some rich, sandy soils, 
while in others it does nothing. Very late. 

RIFLEMAN (Dr. Roden). Large, variable, flattened, brilliant 
red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, veined with red; juicy, sweet, 
and brisk. Early. 

RIPPOWAM (Faulkner). (?) (Syn. Faulkner's King, Ripatvam.} 
Probably this is identical with Rivers's Eliza. See the whole 
subject discussed in Hov. Mag. XXXIV. 74. I am inclined to 
think the Boston Beauty another synonyme of Rivers's Eliza. 

RIVAL HUDSON (Burr). A cross of the Hudson and Burr's. 
Dark shining red, rich, and excellent. Pistillate. Hardy and 
productive. 

RIVAL. QUEEN (Tiley). Said to be identical with Omer Pacha, 
or not distinguishable from it. 

ROBERT TRAIL. 

ROBINSON'S DEFIANCE. Medium, roundish conical, necked, dull 
red; flesh firm, acid. Vigorous and unproductive. (Downing.) 
Robinson's Seedling is probably identical. An Ohio seedling. 

Roi D'YVETOT (Acher). Large or very large, bright red, vari- 
able in form ; flesh red, very sweet, and perfumed. Vigorous, 
hardy, and very late. New. 

ROMEYN'S SEEDLING. Undistinguishable from Triomphe de 



Catalogue of Varieties. 117 

Gand. At least I caeinot tell one from the other by the most 
careful examination. 

ROSALBA. A cross of the Chili Orange with the Rosy White 
Chili, and resembles the latter, but succeeds in a greater variety 
of soils. 

ROSALIND. (Prince). Described as large, conical, bright scarlet, 
showy, fine flavored, and productive. Pistillate. 

* ROSEBERRY. (Syn. Nose Strawberry, Scotch Scarlet, Aber- 
deen, do. Seedling, Prolific Pine.} Medium, elongated, with a 
neck; clear red; seeds yellow, somewhat prominent; flesh 
somewhat acid, with but little perfume. Sometimes gives a 
second crop. Discovered by Robert Davidson, in 1808, in 
Aberdeen, under a rose bush. Hence the name. Fig. in Pom. 
Mag. I. 20, Jar. Mus. V. Trans. Lond. Hc-rt. Soc. II. 380. 

ROSEBUD. Large, ovate, cockscombed, with a neck ; bright red ; 
flesh rich. English. (?) 

ROSETTE (Dr. Nicaise). Plant strong; fruit abundant, rounded, 
beautiful vermilion ; seeds a little sunken ; flesh white, sweet, 
and perfumed. 

ROSINA (Prince). Described as large, round, light scarlet, sweet, 
and good. 

Ross' PHCENIX (Ross). A seedling from Keens's Seedling, 
raised in Hudson, N. Y., in 1836. First fruited in 1839, anc * of 
note only as one of the parents of the Peabody. Large, 
cockscombed or compressed, dark red ; flesh firm, of fair flavor. 
Sometimes productive. Fails in clay soils, and burns in lighter 
ones. Originated in Hudson, N. Y. 

ROYAL HAUTBOIS (Rivers). Medium to large, roundish conical, 
regular, rich, dark crimson; seeds yellow; flesh whitish, soft, 
sweet, and extremely rich. A seedling of Belle Bordelaise, but 
later. One of the best of the class. 

* ROYAL PINE. 

* ROYAL SCARLET. 

ROYAL VICTORIA (Stewart and Neilson). Large, rounded, bright 

glossy red; s'eeds prominent; flesh white, firm, juicy, sweet, 

and brisk. Hardy, productive, and late. 
ROY ALE DE NORMANDIE. An Alpine. 
RUBIS (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Large, round, clear .varnished 

red ; seeds little imbedded ; flesh rosy white, juicy, sweet, brisk. 

Season medium. Vigorous and productive. 

* RUBY (Nicholson). A very large and beautiful fruit ; elongated, 



n8 Catalogue of Varieties. 

compressed, bright glossy red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy 
white, sweet, juicy, and brisk. Productive and early. 
RUSSELL'S PROLIFIC (Russell). Fuller's description is extremely 
accurate, viz. : very large, irregular, roundish conical, with 
neck; deep crimson, moderately firm, sweet and perfumed, 
good ; in sandy soils very good ; flesh lighter than the skin ; 
leaves large ; upper surface wavy ; lobes broadly ovate. The 
Russell is a much stronger grower than McAvoy's Superior, 
and perfectly distinct from it. It has proved an abundant 
bearer with me. Pistillate. Originated with H. Russell, Sen- 
eca Falls, N. Y., 1856. 



SACCHARINE SCARLET (Prince). Described as moderate size, 
conical, scarlet, sweet. Pistillate. 

SABREUR (Mrs. Clements). Large, handsome, conical, pointed, 
pale orange red; seeds very prominent; flesh solid, firm, and 
delicious. Very hardy and productive. Season medium. Fig. 
in Fuller, p. 108. 

SAINT LAMBERT. 

SALTER'S VERSAILLAISE (Salter). Large, ovate, sometimes flat- 
tened or cockscombed ; dark red ; flesh pale, juicy, and rich. 

SANSPAREIL. Long, tapering, uneven, dark blackish red ; flesh 
very solid and firm, red throughout; high flavor. Forces well. 

SAPPHO. 

SCARLET CHILI. Large, ovate, second quality, and late. 

SCARLET CONE (Ellwanger and Barry). Large, perfect cone, 
bright scarlet, vigorous, and productive. Pistillate. (Down- 
ing, who does not mention its quality.) 

SCARLET EXCELSIOR (Prince). Described as very large, obtusely 
conical, deep scarlet, sweet, and high flavored. Pistillate. 

* SCARLET MAGNATE (Prince). Large, roundish, compressed, 
bright scarlet; flesh white, not high flavored; firm, and pretty 
good. A vigorous grower, and productive. Pistillate. I have 
found it to bear next to nothing the second year. 

SCARLET MELTING (Burr). Long, with a neck; bright scarlet; 
flesh very tender and soft; very delicious. Productive and 
hardy. 

SCARLET NONPAREIL. Large, roundish conical, bright red, rich, 
high flavor. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 119 

SCARLET PRIMORDIAN (Prince). Described as early, large, dark 
scarlet, oblong, conical, pleasant flavored. 

SCARLET QUEEN (Standish). New, 1868. Large, elongated, 
with a neck ; bright glossy scarlet ; flesh pure white, firm, melt- 
ing, sweet, with a very distinct pine-apple taste. Late. 

SCARLET PINE. Medium, conical, with a neck; bright scarlet; 
seeds superficial ; flesh firm, juicy, sweet, with a distinct pine- 
apple taste. Hardy and vigorous, according to foreign descrip- 
tions ; with me, a very moderate grower in a light soil, where 
Rivers's Eliza and Haquin do very well. 

SCARLET PRIZE (Prince). Described as very large, bright scar- 
let, fine flavored, and productive. Pistillate. 

SCARLET PROLIFIC (Prince). Medium, conical, bright scarlet, 
sweet, and productive. A seedling of Burr's New Pine. Pis- 
tillate. 

SCARLET ROCK. 

* SCHILLER. Fruit paler than the British Queen ; capriciously 
conical ; flesh firm, rich, aromatic, acid, and sprightly. Late. 

*SCHNEICKE'S PISTILLATE (Schneicke). Medium, obovate, 

bright scarlet, of good flavor, and vigorous. 
SCHMITZ'S No. 3 (Schmitz). A seedling of the Iowa. Large, 

roundish ovate, conical, light cr-imson ; seeds crimson, often 

yellow, deeply sunken ; flesh pale red ; flavor pleasant. Leaves 

large, light green. Pistillate. 

* SCIOTO (Prince). Large, bright scarlet, rich, sweet, and good. 

Vigorous, hardy, and productive. Pistillate. 

SCONE SCARLET (Beattie). Medium, round, no heck; light 
shining red on one side, pale on the other; seeds dark brown, 
and deeply sunk; flesh firm, pale pink, and acid. Good bearer. 
Late. Originated in England in 1813. 

SCOTCH RUNNER. Small, oval, bright scarlet; flavor good, but 
berry too small. Formerly raised for market in New Jersey. 
Fig. in Fuller, p. 99. 

SCOTT'S SEEDLING (Scott). (Syn. Scarlet Runner.*} Said to be 
a cross of the Prince Albert and Boston Pine. Large, long 
conical, deep crimson scarlet; surface shining and uneven; 
seeds yellow, sunken ; flesh pale red, hollow in the centre ; rich, 
and melting. A very beautiful berry, and with high cultiva- 
tion gives good crops. Fig. in Fruits of America, II. 67. Ori- 
ginated in Brighton, Mass. 

SEMPRONIA (Prince). Very large, obtuse cone, bright deep scar- 



I2O Catalogue of Varieties. 

let; flesh white, sweet, very good flavor. Plant very vigorous. 
A seedling of the Hovey. 

SERAPHINE (Prince). Described as monstrous, pleasant flavored. 
Pistillate. 

SERENA (Prince). Described as rather large, conical, bright 
scarlet, sweet, good flavored, productive. 

SIR CHARLES NAPIER (Smith). Heart shaped and cockscombed ; 
varying between glossy orange red, and bright scarlet; very 
handsome ; flesh white, juicy, brisk, but not rich. This variety, 
probably from its beauty, has made some stir in England. 

SIR HARRY (Underbill). A cross of Keens's Seedling and 
British Queen. Large, cockscombed, dark red; flesh solid, 
juicy, and very good. Forces well. Originated in 1853, at 
Edgbaston, near Birmingham. Sometimes confounded with 
Trollope's Victoria. Gloede says Sir Harry is amazingly pro- 
ductive, and advises to cultivate it on the annual system. 

SIR HARRY ORANGE (Makoy). Fruit large or very large, 
rounded, glossy orange red; seeds prominent; flesh white, 
juicy, perfumed, and sweet. Season medium. 

SIR JOSEPH BANKS SCARLET. Oblong or bluntty conical, with 
a neck; bright scarlet; seeds prominent; flesh bright scarlet, 
firm, high flavored. A moderate bearer, ripening early. Leaf- 
lets medium, oval, flat. An old kind. 

SIR JOSEPH PAXTON (Bradley). Rounded conical, cockscombed, 
brilliant crimson red ; seeds prominent; flesh salmon colored, 
firm, sweet, and good. Extremely productive, and said to be 
equally good for open culture or forcing. Early. 

SIR WALTER SCOTT. Large, oblong, pointed, deep red ; seeds 
prominent; flesh pale, firm, and poor. A dwarf, robust 
grower. Leaf-stalks very hairy; leaflets roundish or roundish 
ovate, not deeply serrate. 

SIR WATKIN. A cross between Sir Harry and Black Prince. 
Conical, and dark crimson. Not commended. 

SIRIUS (Prince). Described as monstrous size, light orange 
scarlet, showy, good-flavored, and productive. 

SLOUGH SCARLET. (Syn. Brown's Scarlet.} Very small, round- 
ish, of second quality, and resembles the Duke of Kent. 

SMITH'S SEEDLING (Smith). A Canada (?) variety. Large, 
good flavor, productive, and hardy. Resembles the Wilson, 
but is softer. 

SOLID SCARLET. (Syn. Solid-fleshed.} 



Catalogue of Varieties. 121 

* SOUTHBOROUGH SEEDLING. Medium, ovate, conical, scarlet, 
flesh firm, mild, and rich. An old English variety. 

SOUVENIR D'EMILIE ( Jamin and Durand). Enormous, irregular, 
high flavored. 

SOUVENIR DE KIEFF (De Jonghe). Large, conical, sometimes 
truncated; beautiful, bright glossy red ; seeds very prominent; 
flesh white, firm, sweet, juicy, and good. A moderately good 
grower with me. 

SOUVENIR DE NANTES (Boisselot). Very large or enormous, 
variable, glossy orange red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, juicy, 
sweet, and highly perfumed. A Chili strawberry, aiid like all 
its class, a poor bearer, and late. 

STARR'S SEEDLING (Starr). Described as medium, conical, scar- 
let, and productive. 

STEWART. Described as early, large, conical, scarlet, firm, and 
handsome. 

STINGER'S SEEDLING (Stinger.). First known as Union. Large 
size, scarlet and showy ; flesh not firm enough. Said to be 
more acid than the Wilson, but this is hardly credible. Hardy, 
early, and productive. Said to be a seedling of the Triomphe 
de Gand. Originated near Philadelphia. Likes a warm soil. 
Fig. in Tilton's Jour. Hort. VII. 155. 

* STIRLING CASTLE PINE. Conical, pale, rosy orange; flesh 

white, very buttery and delicious ; full of a fresh, sugary juice. 
Vigorous, but a poor bearer. Originated in 1848. Leaf-stalks 
rough and hairy; brownish red, when old, like the Hudson's 
Bay, of which it is a seedling. Fig. in Jar. Mus. III., Rev. Hort. 
1864, 470. 

STODDARD'S SEEDLING (Stoddard). An Alpine. 

SUCCES (De Jonghe). New. Vigorous and strong; leaves large, 
deep shining green, with horizontal, deeply incised leaflets. 
Fruit large, obtusely conical, yellowish, cherry color; seeds 
abundant in shallow cavities. Interior of berry firm, flesh col- 
ored, juicy, and good. This variety sends out abundant run- 
ners when the fruit is half grown. (De Jonghe.) 

SULTANA (Prince). Large to monstrous, obtusely conical, orange 
scarlet ; flesh pure . white, fine flavor, juicy. Plant hardy and 
vigorous. A showy berry. 

SURPASSE GROSSE SUCREE (De Jonghe). Very large, conical, 
bright red; seeds prominent; llesh rosy white, juicy, sweet, 
and perfumed. Season medium. 

SUPERLATIVE (Prince). A seedling of Burr s New Pine ; about 



122 Catalogue of Varieties. 

equal to its parent in size and flavor, but mor vigorous, and 
perhaps more productive. Pistillate. 

SUPREMA (Prince). Described as large, sprightly flavored, very 
productive. Pistillate. 

SUPREME STAMINATE (Prince). Described as monstrous, ob- 
tusely conical, bright scarlet, of good flavor, and productive. 

* SURPRISE (Myatt). Pale scarlet, cockscombed, very soft, acid, 

and deficient in flavor. 

SURINAM. (Syn. Red Pine, Oldaker's Pine, Red Pine-apple, 
Suttorfs Large.*) Ovate or round, no neck; very large, light 
shining red next the sun, pale on the other side; seeds yellow 
and prominent; flesh firm, with a large core; pale red, and of 
poor flavor. An abundant bearer, and late. A very old kind, 
formerly cultivated in England. 

* SWAINSTONE. (Syn. Szvainstone's Seedling.} Regular oval or 

conical, glossy light scarlet; seeds slightly sunken ; flesh solid, 
and of very high flavor. Foliage -large ; footstalks long. Fruit- 
stems high and strong. An old English variety, once much es- 
teemed. Fig. in Hort. I. 32. 

SWEDISH HAUTBOIS. Very small, roundish, second rate, of 
dwarf habit, not worth cultivating. Old, and probably now 
unknown. 

SWEET CONE (Knight). A cross of the Old Pine with the Old 
Black. Small, conical, with a neck; bright shining scarlet; 
hairy; seeds prominent; flesh firm, brighter than the skin; 
hollow, or with a small core ; high flavor. A poor grower. 

SYLVANIA (Prince). Described as large, conical, dark scarlet, 
dark red flesh, acid, but good. Pistillate. 



TATNALL'S SEEDLING (Tatnall). Described as large, on a stiff 

truss, and very good. 
TAYLOR'S NEW EMPEROR. 
* TAYLOR'S SEEDLING. 
TERPSICHORE (Prince). Described as very early, large, conical, 

bright scarlet, vigorous. 
THE PRAIRIE FARMER (Neff). Very large, oblong, compressed 

or ovate, occasionally cockscombed, irregular, deep scarlet; 

texture firm, subacid. Plant strong and vigorous; foot-stalks 

large and tall. Promises well for market. Originated with 



Catalogue of Varieties. 123 

William D. Neff, Ottawa, 111. (Downing, from Prairie Farm- 
er.) 

THORN'S SEEDLING. 

TIMOTHEE TRIM (Dr. Nicaise). Very large, elongated conical; 
flesh hollow, rosy, sweet, with a peculiar flavor. Leaves large, 
on short petioles. Vigorous and productive. New. 

TINGLEY'S SCARLET. 

TITIEN (Henderson). Large, very long, with a neck; bright 
glossy red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, firm, sweet, highly 
perfumed. Medium in ripening. 

TOPSY (Dejonghe). Medium to large, extremely long conical, 
very peculiar, glossy orange ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, 
firm, juicy, sweet, and excellent. Medium in ripening. Fig. 
in Fuller, p. 108. 

TRANSCENDENT SCARLET (Prince). Described as extra large, 
dark scarlet, roundish, sweet, and good. 

TREVIRANA (Prince). Large, obtusely conical, light scarlet. 
Pistillate. 

TRIOMPHE DE GAND. Very large to monstrous, conical nor- 
mally, but generally much flattened and cockscombed ; bright 
crimson ; paler towards the calyx, and looking as if varnished ; 
exact color very peculiar, and not easily described ; flesh juicy, 
crisp, of a distinct and very good flavor. A good grower. It 
makes immense stools the second season if the runners are 
clipped. Forces admirably. This is the best, perhaps, of all 
the foreign varieties for general cultivation. In a good soil, 
with good culture, it seldom fails. Fig. in Fuller, p. 108. 

TRIOMPHE DE LIEGE (Lorio), Large, variable, sometimes 
cockscombed, deep red ; seeds sunken ; flesh red, juicy, sweet, 
and brisk. Hardy, productive, and early. 

TRIOMPHE DE PARIS (Souchet). New, 1867. Described as a 
supeib berry of the largest size, round or cockscombed, glossy 
orange red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, with a centre cavity; 
juicy, melting, and highly perfumed. Vigorous, hardy, and 
productive. Season medium. This received the first prize of 
the French National Society of Horticulture, and Gloede re- 
tains it in his Catalogue among the novelties of 1868, saying 
that it has exceeded the hopes he had formed of it. Fig. in 
Gloede's Catalogue, 1868-9. 

TRIUMPH (Prince). Resembles the Large Early Scarlet in color 
and flavor, but of twice the size. Very productive. Fruit borne 
on strong trusses. 



124 Catalogue of Varieties. 

TRIUMPH OF AMERICA (Dreer). N*w. Described as of the 
largest size, and, in comparison with the Triomphe de Gand, 
sweeter, larger, more vigorous, and better adapted to light soil. 

TRIUMPH OF HOLLAND (Verkroost). (Syn. Triomphe d'Hol- 
lande, Triumph of Holland Alpine, Des >uatre Sazsons.) 
Large for its class, regular, roundish conical, light scarlet red; 
seeds light yellow; flesh juicy, sweet, rich, aromatic, delicious. 
Growth vigorous, compact. Very productive. A new variety 
from the Netherlands. (Downing.) 

TRIUMPHANT SCARLET (Prince). Described as very large, con- 
ical, deep scarlet, fine flavored, two or three weeks in bearing. 

TRIUMVIRATE (Prince). A seedling from the Iowa. Said to be 
large and productive. 

TROLLOPE'S VICTORIA (Trollope). (Syn. Golden Queen, Trem- 
bly 's Union, and probably others.) Very large, roundish coni- 
cal, varying between light pale scarlet and brick red; seeds 
slightly sunken, and set wide apart; flesh white, juicy, but not 
rich. Very variable in amount of fruit. Said to force well. 
An old English berry, occasionally brought out with a new 
name. Fig. in Fuller, p. 109. 

TROUBADOUR (Prince). Described as large, conical, scarlet, 
handsome, of good flavor, and productive. Pistillate. 

TRUMPET (Keech). New. Described as light colored, with a 
brisk, pleasant flavor. 

TURENNE. Described as very large, obtusely conical, crimson, 
pleasant flavored. 

TURNER'S QUEEN (Turner). New. Originated with Joseph 
Turner, Moore.stown, N. J. Said to resemble the next variety, 
but to be of better flavor. Pistillate. 

TURNER'S FAVORITE (Turner). Very large, bright colored, firm, 
of good flavor; plant vigorous, holding the fruit well up. 
Same origin as the preceding, and like the next three, figured 
in the originator's circulars. 

TURNER'S NONSUCH (Turner). Berries said to be not quite so 
large as those of the Favorite or Queen, but to be exceedingly 
solid. Productive, and a strong grower. Pistillate. 

TURNER'S BEAUTY (Turner). Berries bright red, large, and of 
good flavor. Plant an exceedingly strong grower. 

TURNER'S PROLIFIC (Turner). Berries large, light scarlet. Vig- 
orous, and a strong grower. Said to be very productive, ap- 
proaching in this respect Wilson's Albany. Pistillate. 

TURNER'S PINE. Large, ovate, second quality. Late. English. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 125 

TWICE-BEARING SWAINSTONE (Prince.) Said to be very produc- 
tive, early, of medium size, to be equal in flavor to Hovey's, 
and to bear a second crop in September. Pistillate. 



TJ 



UNDERWOOD'S SEEDLING (Underwood). A seedling of La Con- 
stante. Raised by W. J. Underwood, Belmont, Mass. A good 
grower, productive, and distinguished by its remarkably firm 
flesh, the berries being firm and handsome, after having been 
packed in boxes two days and more. Its flesh is white, juicy, 
and good. Not yet disseminated. 

UNION. Syn. of Trollope's Victoria, and of Stinger's Seedling. 

UNIQUE SCARLET. 



"V 

VALENCIA (Prince). Described as early, conical, deep scarlet, 

vigorous, and productive. 
VAN BOSCOOP. 
VARIEGATED PINE. A weak, shy bearer ; leaves variegated with 

white. 
VERNON'S SCARLET. (Syn. White's Scarlet.} Medium, round, 

dark red, rather hairy; seeds slightly imbedded; flesh pale 

vermilion, white in centre ; solid, well flavored. A good bearer, 

and early. Leaflets small, oval, dark shining green. An old 

variety. 
VICTORIA OVATA (Robine). New, 1867. Large, oval or heart 

shaped, clear vermilion ; flesh firm, rosy at the centre, red near 

the outside ; well flavored ; brisker than Trollope's Victoria ; 

seeds prominent. Vigorous and productive. 
VICTORINE (Prince). Early, very large, conical, bright scarlet. 
VICTORY. 
VICTORY OF BATH (Lydiard). Large, oval, bright orange red; 

seeds slightly imbedded ; flesh white, firm, juicy, sweet, and 

perfumed. Hardy and productive. 
VINEUSE DE NANTES (Boisselot). Medium, round, very obtusely 

conical, bright glossy crimson; seeds very prominent; flesh 

red, solid, sweet, and vinous. Fig. in Fuller, p. 109. 



1 20 (Catalogue of Varieties. 

VINEUSE DE CHAMPAGNE. Fig. in Duhamel, VI. 361, and de- 

scribed as poor and small. 
VIRGINIE (Dejonghe). Large, rounded or conical, varnished 

red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh clear red, juicy, sweet, and 

brisk. Vigorous, or tolerably so, hardy, and productive. Sea- 

son medium. 
VIRGINIA SCARLET. (See LARGE EARLY SCARLET.) Fruit small, 

round, uniform, bright red; seeds small, yellow, deep sunk; 

flesh not firm, puffed up around the seeds ; flavor fresh and 

fine, sweet, and a little acid. Fig. in Jar. Mus. II. 
VOORHIS'S QUEEN (Voorhis). (?). Medium, deep scarlet, good 

flavor. 



WALKER'S SEEDLING (Walker). Said to be a seedling from the 
Black Prince. Medium to large, regularly conical ; color very 
deep crimson, becoming a maroon when ripe. Flesh deep crim- 
son, tender, juicy, fine flavored. Raised by the late Samuel 
Walker, Roxbury, Mass. Fig. in Thomas's Fruit Culturist, 
p. 420. 

* WAL WORTH. 

WARD'S FAVORITE (Ward). Fruit medium to large, roundish, 
deep crimson, sweet, and rich. 

WARDLAW. 

WARREN. 

WARRINGTON (Prince). Described as large, obtusely conical, 
dark scarlet, a moderate bearer. A seedling form the Swain- 
stone. 

WAVERLEY (Prince). 

WEHRLEY'S SEEDLING (Wehrley). Seedling of .Triomphe de 
Gand. Medium to large, roundish conical, inclined to cocks- 
comb shape ; very light crimson ; flesh firm and good. Season 
medium. Said to be more productive than its parent. 

WELCOME (Prince). Described by the originator as a very supe- 
rior and very early berry. Little known. 

WELLINGTON. 

WESTBERE. Ovate, medium, second quality. Old, and probably 
worthless. 

WESTCHESTER. Described as large, obtusely conical, crimson. 

WESTERN QUEEN (Kirtland). Medium to large, roundish coni- 
cal, rich, glossy, dark red; flesh firm, juicy, subacid, sprightly. 



Catalogue of Varieties. 127 

Hardy and productive. Pistillate. Originated in Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

WHITE ALBION. Syn. of Lennig's White. 

WHITE ALPINE. (Syn. Alpine Blanc, White Monthly, Des 
Alpes .a Fruit Blanc.} Differs from the Red Alpine only in* 
color. 

WHITE CAROLINA. (Syn. White Pine, White Bath, White Chili, 
Pale do., Flesh-colored do., Long White.} There are two va- 
rieties, viz., the above, and the Dwarf White Carolina; both 
brownish white, soft, woolly, poor flavored. The fruit of one 
is roundish, with sunken seeds ; of the other ovate, with prom- 
inent seeds. The first is the larger of the two. 

*WILLEY. Medium, roundish, deep crimson; flesh firm, with a 
sprightly, acid flavor. Pistillate. Fruit in clusters. Downing 
says, " good for preserving." 

WILLIAMS'S GREEN PINE. Medium, roundish, second rate. Old. 

WILLOW. 

WILMOT'S LATE SCARLET (Wilmot). (Syn. Wilmofs New Scar- 
let, Wilmofs Seedliug, Large Virginia, Late do., Wilmofs Im- 
perial.} Very large, bluntly conical, irregular, light shining 
red; seeds small, deeply sunken; flesh white, soft, hollow; 
flavor moderately good. Leaflets large, nearly round, dark 
shining green. Originated in 1815. 

WILMOT'S SUPERB (Wilmot). (Syn. Praise Forest.}. Large, 
irregular, roundish, always hairy, rather dark red; seeds 
brown and prominent; flesh firm, hollow, pale scarlet, some- 
times buttery and rich ; at others poor. A cross of the Chili 
and the Roseberry. Originated in England in 1821. Fig. in 
Lond. Hort. Soc. Trans. VI. 392. 

WILSON'S ALBANY (Wilson). Large, irregularly conical, dark 
crimson, extremely acid, only tolerably good when dead ripe ; 
flesh crimson, exceedingly vigorous, productive, and hardy, 
generally giving a good crop on any soil, whether raised in 
hills or in beds. Fuller says the Wilson has done more to ad- 
vance strawberry culture, in this country, than any other variety 
that has appeared since the Hovey. This is true, but at the 
same time it is not more than third rate in flavor, and it owes 
its popularity to its great firmness, and its good behavior under 
careless culture. It has been cultivated with much success at 
the South as a winter crop, ripening in December. Originated 
with John Wilson, of Albany, N. Y. Not much known before 
1857. Fig. in Thomas's Am. Fruit Culturist, p. 421. 



iz8 Catalogue of Varieties. 

WIZARD OF THE NORTH (Robertson). Medium, roundish oval, 
dull red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh red, acid, soft, poor. Very 
late. A Scotch variety. 

WONDERFUL (Jeyes). (Syn. Jeyes's Wonderful, and, according 
to Downing, Myatfs Prolific, which see.) Fuller says it is a 
large, irregular berry, firm flesh, high flavor, and a poor bearer. 
According to Hogg it is large, conical, cockscombed, pale red, 
whitish at apex; seeds numerous; flesh white, tender^ melting, 
with a fine aroma. Resembles Hyatt's Surprise, but larger, 
and more seeds. 

WOOD STRAWBERRY. Fragaria Vesca. (Syn. Common Rouge, 
Des Bois a Fruit Rouge, English Red Wood, Netuland's Mam- 
moth, Stoddard's Alpine, Washington Alpine, &c.) This is the 
wild strawberry of Europe. Long more commonly cultivated 
in our gardens than any other sort, and still perhaps the 
easiest of cultivation, and one of the most desirable kinds. It 
always bears abundantly, and though the fruit is small, yet it is 
produced for a much longer time than that of the other classes 
of strawberries, and is very sweet and delicate in flavor. 
Flowers always perfect; fruit red, small, roundish ovate; seeds 
set even with the surface of the fruit. It ripens at medium 
season. (Downing.) Fig. in Jar. Mus. II. 

WYOMING. 



YELLOW CHILI (Williams). A cross of the Chili and Downton. 
Long, irregularly oval, cockscombed, brown on the sunny side, 
yellow on the other ; seeds brown, and slightly sunken ; flesh 
yellowish, said to be firm ; buttery, with a rich acid flavor. 
Originated in 1821. 

YOUNG'S SEEDLING. By some said to be a seedling from the 
Hovey's Seedling, but probably only a synonym of the Hovey's. 



TILTON'S 

Journal of Horticulture. 

ILLUSTRATED. 

A Monthly Magazine devoted to the Cultivation of 

FRUITS, FLOWERS, and VEGETABLES, with 

ILLUSTRATIONS of New Fruits, Flowers, 

and Vegetables. 

TH^sF* Sample copies sent on receipt of 10 cents. 
Address 

TILTON & CO., Boston. 



IN THE FOLLOWING PARTIAL LIST OF CONTRIBU- 
TORS to the "Journal" for a year past, will be recognized 
names of the ablest practical horticulturists in every part of the 
country. 

MARSHALL P. WILDER, C. N. BRACKETT, 

HENRY WARD BEECHER, PHILIP SNYDER, 

JOHN A. WARDER, SUEL FOSTER, 

PETER HENDERSON, W. C. STRONG, 

W. C. FLAGG, J. M. MERRICK, JR., 

GEORGE W. CAMPBELL, WILLIAM SAUNDERS, 

J. F. C. HYDE, ALEXANDER HYDE, 

M. L. DUNLAP, CHARLES DOWNING, 

M. B. BATEHAM, S. MILLER, 

P. BARRY, D. L. ADAIR, 

FRANCIS PARKMAN, A. VEITCH, 

E. S. RAND, JR., ELMER BALDWIN, 

C. M. HOVEY, EDW. F. UNDERBILL, 

JOHN ELLIS, S. B. PARSONS, 

PARKER EARLE, C. B. DENSON, 

' JOSEPH BRECK, GEORGE SUCH, 

ROBERT MANNING, C. C. MILLER, 

FEARING BURR, D. FOULIS, 

J. J. H. GREGORY, WILLIAM PARRY, 

"BISMARCK," E. S. ROGERS, 

D. W. ADAMS, F. B. SEDGE. 



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