PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID
THE PRESIDENT WILDER STRAWBERRY.
A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE
OF ALL KNOWN VARIETIES.
J. M. MERRICK, JR.
J. E. TILTON AND COMPANY.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by
J. M. MERRICK, JR.,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.
STEREOTYPED AT THE
BOSTON STEREOTYPE FOUNDRY,
19 Spring Lane.
DEDICATES THIS LITTLE TREATISE
TO HIS FRIEND
AN annually increasing interest is felt in this country
in the cultivation of strawberries. Every year brings
with it new varieties, and a better knowledge of old
kinds, new methods, and a clearer insight into the merits
and defects of those heretofore practised. The old days
when the Wood strawberry, the Early Virginia, and
one or two now forgotten kinds supplied the market,
and when a man who picked fifty boxes a day was held
to be a large strawberry grower, are past and gone.
We have now scores of varieties for each one of the
old kinds, and single commission houses sell sometimes
twelve thousand boxes a day.
The magnificent success of Hovey in producing his
Seedling stimulated many other horticulturists to ex-
periment, and has led to the production of countless
kinds, many of them of high rank. The war of words
that was caused by the production of Hovey's Seedling
has been succeeded by peace, or by a calm, and it has
led to much good ; for those who fought so bitterly
with tongue and pen have attempted to work out their
theories in the garden, and in so doing have produced
new and most valuable kinds of strawberries.
Myatt, Rivers, Nicholson, and Ingram, in England ;
De Jonghe in Belgium; Dr. Nicaise (now no more),
Gloede, Robine, Pelvilain, Boisselot, and others, in
France ; Burr, Prince, Scott, Fuller, Read, Durand,
Downer, Boyden, Wilder, and many others, at home,
have given us a host of varieties, some of them so good
that we are embarrassed in choosing amid such pro-
Many of these, to be sure, do not rise above a certain
grade of goodness ; but once in a while one comes that
towers above its fellows, and stands alone in its pecu-
liar place. Such berries are the Hovey, La Constante,
the British Queen, and our great recent acquisition, the
The hope of drawing prizes like these keeps experi-
menters busy with their lotteries of seedlings. The
number of amateurs at work, the pride they take in
their own results, the interest they feel in their neigh-
bors' success, and the broad acres cultivated with straw-
berries, to supply the ever-greedy markets of our cities,
are all proofs of the deep hold the strawberry has upon
the attention of tens of thousands of intelligent culti-
vators in this country.
In the hope that one in a thousand of these may feel
kindly disposed towards a new strawberry manual, I have
written this little treatise.
I intended to preface it with a chapter on the botan-
ical relations of the strawberry, and to discuss the ques-
tion of the number of species, &c. ; but finding the matter
so much confused, and learning from the highest botan-
ical authority in the country (whose kindness to me I
desire to acknowledge) , that he might possibly settle the
problem, if he gave it a year's study, I concluded to
omit my prefatory chapter, and to begin with the more
tangible topics of soil and manure.
I may add that it would have been easy for the pub-
lishers to fill this book with illustrations of strawberries
taken at second hand, and for whose accuracy they could
not vouch ; but it has been thought better to use only
drawings made from actual specimens of fruit. Such
illustrations will be -given in future editions.
. J. M. M., JR.
February 8, 1870.
I. ON MANURES AND PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. . . n
II. ON PLANTING. . 16
III. METHODS OF CULTIVATION 19
IV. ON WINTER PROTECTION 29
V. ON PROPAGATION 31
VI. ON INSECT ENEMIES 34
VII. ON FORCING STRAWBERRIES 38
VIII. ON THE PRODUCTION OF NEW VARIETIES 42
IX. THE QUESTION OF TASTE 51
CATALOGUE OF VARIETIES 59
THE STRAWBERRY BOOK.
ON MANURES AND PREPARATION OF THE SOIL.
NOTHING marks the different kinds of strawberries
more strikingly than their behavior with regard to the
soils in which they succeed or fail. The wild native
strawberry grows and ripens its little berries in the poor-
est and dryest soil, where our choicer kinds would quickly
come to nought.
Taking this as the lowest point, we find next above it,
in regard to poverty of soil, such kinds as the Scotch
Runner, the Downer's Prolific, and the Cutter's Seedling.
These will all grow and do passably well in a light, poor
soil. I have had a bed of Downer's Prolific that made a
very decent show of fruit in very light, poor ground after
three years of total neglect.
The Agriculturist, although, to be sure, it loves a good
soil, will do very well in light, sandy land, as will the
Brooklyn Scarlet, the Scarlet Magnate, and French's
Hovey's Seedling (and fine fibrous-rooted kinds gener-
ally), Triomphe de Gand, Jucunda, President Wilder,
and, in short, our best large varieties, love a rich, deep,
and mellow soil, and one that is a little moist ; while for
La Constante, the Bicton and Elton Pines, Haquin, Dr.
12 The Strawberry Book.
Nicaise, Admiral Dundas, &c., the ground can hardly be
made too deep or too rich. The latter varieties will fail
utterly where the Wilson or the Agriculturist would do
tolerably well. The President Wilder exhibits in many
respects its relationship to La Constante, and, like that
fine berry, it is fond of good feeding.
While many kinds of strawberries will do well, al-
though poorly fed, there is hardly one that will not do
better on well-manured land ; and in general, we may
say, as in the case of other crops, the more manure the
The Germans are fond of saying of their vineyards,
" Well dug is half manured ; " but deep cultivation and
fine working the land for strawberries, although of ex-
ceeding value, will not take the place of manure.
It is hard to name the fertilizer that cannot be used to
advantage, either in preparing the soil for a strawberry
plantation, or as a top-dressing for it. Stable manure,
compost, unleached ashes, superphosphate of lime, guano,
fish manure, and hen dung, may each and all be used
with profit. Market gardeners, who can command an
abundance of stable manure, generally give that the pref-
erence, using Peruvian guano, however, as a tonic, or
special means for bringing up to the mark any part of a
field that seems to be behind the rest in vigor or health.
Lime alone is considered by some injurious, but super-
phosphate of lime is certainly beneficial. Guano alone,
scattered broadcast half a dozen times through the sum-
mer, before a rain in each case if possible, using in all
eight hundred or a thousand pounds to the acre, produces
wonderful results, and may take the place of all other
manures. I have used it in this way with excellent
results. Guano composted in the fall, with say fifty times
its bulk of peat earth, and allowed to remain through the
winter in a pile, well covered with a few inches of soil,
makes, in the opinion of many, the best possible of all
The Strawberry Book. 13
Unleached wood ashes is an admirable fertilizer. It
tends to produce runners, and hence is valuable in propa-
gating new varieties, or in securing what is technically
called a good spread, i. e., making single rows of plants,
set three or four feet apart in the spring, cover the whole
intermediate space by fall. Ashes, of course, should not
be used together with guano.
No definite rule can be given as to the amount of ma-
nure an acre of strawberries requires. The best and most
successful cultivators I know? men who make a large
share of their income from their strawberries, in reply
to my question, " How much manure do you use?" have
invariably said, " All we can get." I have seen a field
of naturally strong soil, where the owner ploughed in all
the stable manure he could conveniently spread, then
spread and ploughed in a quantity equal to the first, and,
when his plants had become established, spaded a third
dressing in between the rows. The variety planted was
the Triomphe de Gand, and the result was an enormous
crop of immense berries, selling at the highest price, and,
I presume, an equally enormous crop of some market
vegetable the next season. For it should be noticed that
the system of cultivation adopted must in some measure
regulate the amount of manure applied. For instance,
where strawberries are planted in rows or hills, and are
to remain thus for two or three years, good results may
be looked for with perhaps half the amount of manure
required in the annual system where rows set out in
April or May are to fill the spaces with strong, vigorous
plants by the first of September. The finer the manure
the better ; and whatever is applied should be thoroughly
mixed and incorporated with the soil guano and ashes
excepted, which do very well if merely sprinkled on the
surface before a rain.
With these two admirable fertilizers little and often
should be the rule. A fall top-dressing of light, strawy
14 The Strawberry Book.
horse manure is excellent, acting, as it does, as a fertilizer
and a protection at once, but it should be very light and
strawy. A top-dressing of heavy, green manure, applied
in the fall, will, as I can testify, give the grower a bed of
black and stone dead plants in the spring.
The different manures have different claims. Guano
and ashes, for instance, are portable and convenient, and
give much strength in a small bulk, while stable manure
lightens heavy land, and leaves the field in better heart, to
use a farmer's expression.
It is said to be unprofitable to use more than half a ton
of Peruvian guano to the acre. I applied it to a small
field of plants set out this year at the rate of twelve hun-
dred pounds per acre, with excellent results, so far as a
good spread and stockiness of the young vines are con-
The best preparation the soil can have to fit it for straw-
berry cultivation is deep and thorough ploughing. The
soil for strawberries, whether poor or rich, can hardly be
too fine or too deep. Charles Downing, I think, says that
he has unearthed strawberry roots that were four feet
long ; and any one can convince himself of the fact that
they spread very widely, by carefully tracing out the
fibrous roots of a Hovey in a good garden soil.
A clean-hoed crop of corn is, perhaps, as good as any-
thing to precede strawberries, although, of course, pota-
toes, or any market vegetable that requires clean culture,
may be substituted for corn. (I may add, in parentheses,
that, on the other hand, a strawberry bed that has done
bearing may be ploughed under and followed by potatoes
with surprisingly good results.)
Freedom from weeds is a great blessing in all cases,
but is especially desirable in strawberry culture, and one
or two extra hoeings bestowed on a crop of potatoes or
corn, that is to be followed by strawberries, will not only
benefit the plants that are hoed, but will be clear gain in
The Strawberry Book. 15
the next year's operations. If a piece of pasture or grass
land be selected for strawberries, it must be cultivated for
one year, at least, with some clean-hoed crop. The awful
result of doing otherwise is shown in the chapter on in-
If the land is heavy and inclined to wetness, ploughing
up the soil in ridges very late in the fall is an excellent
plan. A good deal of surface is thus exposed to the
weather, the ridges keep freezing and thawing through
the winter, and a good many grubs probably meet their
death. Any process that leaves the field deep, rich, and
mellow, insures success, so far as soil alone is concerned.
Now and then we find a soil that is black and unctuous,
neither wet nor dry, but delightfully moist throughout,
and light enough to let the roots penetrate easily ; and on
soils like this are raised the crops that figure in the news-
papers and in reports of premiums. Fields of this soil,
well manured, give results that amaze even their owners.
I have in my mind some fields of this rich, black soil,
from which, I am told, have been picked nine thousand
boxes per acre in a single season.
1 6 Tfie Strawberry Book.
STRAWBERRY plants may be set out in any month from
April to December, but practically are usually planted
either in April or May, or in the fall, i. e., in the month
of September. There can be no question that the spring
is the best time for planting, and I believe that the earlier
the vines are set the better. The reasons are obvious. In
the spring there is less danger of losing the plants by
drought and hot weather before they get established ; they
have the benefit of the genial vernal rains ; and the earlier
the vines are set out, the longer time they have, of course,
to perfect and ripen the fruit buds on which the next year's
crop depends. Again, a plant set out in August or Sep-
tember does little more by the end of the season than estab-
lish itself, and make sure of living over winter, while a
plant set in April not only assures its own safety and
growth, but puts out a host of runners which take root
and become independent plants before fall. A notion is
prevalent that we can plant in the fall and get a crop the
ensuing summer ; but while this is to a certain extent true,
and while a moderate crop may be had from strong plants
carefully set in September, the yield obtained cannot be
compared with that from similar plants set five months
earlier. Planting in the fall is attended with risks from
drought and failure to get established, from which spring
planting is almost entirely exempt. I have had the best
success in very early planting, that is to say, as early in
the season as the frost is well out of the ground, and it is
The Strawberry jBook. 17
not likely that the surface of the soil will freeze hard again.
Plants set at this time not only get settled, but begin to
grow by the first of May, soon put out runners, and by the
first of September present the well-ripened stocky appear-
ance that gives promise of an abundant yield.
These remarks should not discourage any one from
planting in the fall if he must plant at that time or not at
all, or if he has new varieties to set, from which he wishes
an immediate return. Plants that have been carefully
layered in pots may be transplanted at almost any time in
the fall, and will give a moderate crop the next year.
I planted on the 2ist of September, 1868, a hundred
vines of the President Wilder, layered in pots, and got a
very decent crop the following season.
I have planted in August ordinary vines of the Agricul-
turist and Brooklyn Scarlet, and had moderate success,
but almost entirely failed with the Triomphe de Gand set
a little later. The vines of the latter kind lived and grew
well, but showed no fruit.
The time being fixed upon, the soil prepared, and the
vines made ready, shortening their roots one third with a
clean cut, planting is a comparatively simple affair. A
strong line should be stretched across the field, the plants
(which should be kept in a basket, well protected by wet
moss) dropped at regular intervals, and set out by two or
three hands distributed along the line. They should all
work in the same direction, and a very little practice will
show who sets fastest, and, consequently, at what intervals
they must be placed. While they are planting, another
hand (generally the boy who has dropped the plants for
the first row) stretches a second line at the proper distance,
and drops plants along it, so that the planters need not be
delayed a moment. If the soil is as it should be, viz., well
worked, fine, and free from stones, the planters will not
need any trowel, but will make a little excavation with
the fingers, and set the plant with the left hand, giving
1 8 The Strawberry Book.
the roots equal distribution, while the right is strowing the
earth around them. The finish is given by pressing the
soil firmly round the young plant, the thumbs and fore-
fingers of both hands steadying it at the same time. A
vast number of plants perish every year because, in setting,
the earth is not drawn up around them and then forcibly
pressed down around the crown of the vine. A certain
knack gained only by practice is required to do this
work well ; but an experienced planter will set vines in
favorable soil at a marvellous rate, and yet make them all
live. If it be necessary to use a trowel, the progress is of
When the planting is done very late, say during the first
week in June, and the weather is hot, certain precautions
must be used to insure success. The planting should be post-
poned till about four P. M., and then every minute of the
time improved until dark. The plants should be brought
to the field in a bucket of water, and not exposed to the
sun and wind a moment more than is necessary. The
holes should be made beforehand along the line, and a
man should go ahead of the planters with a water-pot and
fill each hole with water. Plants set thus have all night
to recover in, an abundant supply of moisture about their
roots, and will live and do well, when without these pre-
cautions they would certainly perish.
The strawberry grower will of course select a cloudy or
rainy day for planting when he can. The vines once set,
a day or two settles the question of their living or dying.
The Strawberry Book. 19
METHODS OF CULTIVATION.
STRAWBERRIES are grown in various ways as regards
the number of plants originally set per acre, the manner
in which these are allowed to grow, and the length of
time the beds remain in bearing. They may be grown in
beds, in rows, in single hills, or in matted rows, and the
vines may be allowed to fruit three or four seasons, or
may be ploughed under as soon as one crop has been
Mr. C. M. Hovey, in a practical article, remarks, " In
either way, with good judgment and proper treatment,
good crops may be produced ; and under ordinary garden
cultivation it is hardly possible, with a good soil and lib-
eral manuring, to prevent a successful result, whatever
may be the mode adopted. But in market culture on an
extended scale, where the greatest profit is, and ought to
be, the object, it is all important to follow that system that
will give the greatest paying crop, for it may be that two
thousand quarts to the acre under one mode of culture
will pay better than the same crop, or even three thousand
quarts, by another ; the cost of labor and the quality of
the fruit consuming the difference. It is, therefore, the
great object with market gardeners to find out that system
which gives the best paying results, and to follow it up."
The very largest fruit in most cases brings the highest
price, and a market gardener is better off with five hun-
dred quarts of immense, choice berries, than with three
times that number of small ones. He will therefore study
2O The Strawberry Book.
how to produce the largest fruit, regardless of other con-
In another market he may find it better to spend less
labor on his beds, and let them produce as large an
amount as they will of medium-sized fruit.
Generally speaking, the large foreign kinds require to be
cultivated in hills, and to have their runners often clipped,
in order to produce the best results. On the other hand,
many varieties, and especially American kinds, grow and
bear best in beds, the runners being allowed to spread
and root at will. The Jucunda and the Hovey may stand
as examples of these two classes. The Jucunda in hills
gives a large crop of enormous showy berries, but a very
much smaller crop when allowed to spread, while it is
impossible to get any results of value from the Hovey
unless it is grown in a wide bed. The contrast is seen
further in the fact that the British Queen, Jucunda, Tri-
omphe de Gand, &c., may be kept in hills for three or
four years and good crops obtained, while the best results
are obtained with the Hovey and its congeners by what
is called the
This plan, considered by many the neatest of all, re-
quires a very rich soil, the best plants carefully set out to
start with, and good cultivation, for complete success.
Where all the conditions are favorable, the results obtained
by the annual method are amazing.
The soil being well prepared, deep, rich, and abun-
dantly manured, the plants of the best quality, and
carefully handled are set out in the spring in rows four
feet apart, and one foot apart in the row.
The soil between the rows is kept clean by the frequent
use of the cultivator until the runners begin to spread con-
siderably, when nothing more remains to be done until
fall, except to pull out by hand any conspicuous weeds.
The Strawberry Book. *2i
If everything goes well, by the first of October, and some-
times much earlier, the ground should be completely cov-
ered with a green carpet of vines. A walk a foot wide is
then sometimes cleared out in the middle of the rows,
leaving beds three feet wide and solid with plants. But
where there is a demand for strawberry vines early in the
season, this operation is deferred until spring.
On the approach of winter the beds are covered with
some protecting substance, generally three or four inches
of old hay. This hay, except enough to fill the foot-wide
alleys for the pickers to walk in, is raked off in the spring,
and stacked, to be used again the ensuing autumn for the
The berries being picked for market as fast as they
ripen, the whole crop is off in this latitude by the loth
of July, and the entire plantation is then immediately
ploughed under, vines, weeds, and all, another bed
having been made in the spring to take the place of the
one that is destroyed.
The advantages of this method are obvious.
First. The first full crop from a strawberry bed is the
largest and best; and here, the vines being in perfect
health and vigor, and the soil very rich, the plants are
made to do their very utmost, no regard being had to in-
juring them, for they are to be ploughed up as soon as the
fruit is gone.
Second. In this method a few weeds, more or less, are
not the very serious annoyance that they prove in a bed
that is to be kept up year after year, for before they can
go to seed they are turned into the soil.
Of course the best grower will have the fewest weeds,
other things being equal ; but I have sometimes seen quite
a little crop of grass and weeds in the beds of one of the
best growers I know grass and weeds derived from the
seed in the hay used for covering. But they never were
numerous enough to do any harm, and were all destroyed
22 The Strawberry Book.
in July. The same number of weeds would have ruined
the bed if it had been kept another year.
Third. The land that bears strawberries one year be-
ing planted with some other crop, generally potatoes the
next, is in most excellent condition for a new plantation
of strawberries in the third season, it having been found
much better not to take two crops of strawberries in suc-
cession from the same field.
This is an old English method, but has been revived,
and carried to the highest perfection, in this country.
The growers in Belmont, near Boston, have employed
this method, and obtained astonishing results with Hov-
ey's Seedling, using Brighton Pine, or sometimes Boston
Pine, as a fertilizer. From four thousand to five thousand
quarts per acre is a fair average crop, some exceptional
instances showing much higher figures. The productive-
ness of a variety, I may here remark, must never be esti-
mated on the basis of the yield obtained from a small
garden bed in exceptionally favored circumstances ; for if
this method were fair, stories approaching the marvellous
might be told of some strawberries. If I do not mistake,
Mr. C. M. Hovey says that a bed of his Seedling, twelve
feet by two and a half, has borne twelve quarts in one
season. This would be more than seventeen thousand
quarts to the acre a result never yet attained on a large
I have no exact data at command for fixing the average
yield of English varieties at home, but I find that a prod-
uct on a small scale, at the rate of thirty-eight hundred
quarts to the acre, is thought worthy of being chronicled,
the varieties being the British Queen and Keens' Seedling.
As I have .remarked, the foreign varieties, such as the
Jucunda and the Triomphe de Gand, make high, promi-
nent crowns, and give much better returns when raised in
The Strawberry Book. 23
hills. This is perhaps true also of some American vari-
eties, such as the Agriculturist, Russell's Prolific, and
Wilson's Albany, which do well in hills. The distance
between the hills in the rows, and the distance from one
row to another, differ according to the notions of different
Two and a half feet between the rows, and one foot
from plant to plant, are the distances given by one of the
best strawberry growers in the country. Others set their
plants eighteen inches apart, with three feet between the
rows, while such monstrous stools as Triomphe de Gand
and some other varieties sometimes make, will not be too
far apart if they have two and a half feet each way.
One very successful strawberry grower in this state
adopts a method of setting out his plants for hill culture
that seems very neat and satisfactory in its results.
Instead of setting out as many vines as he means to
have hills, he sets in the spring one third as many, and
then allows each plant to make but two runners. These
are carefully layered one on each side of the old plant,
and in a line with it, and the soil being good and the
other runners suppressed, these two make vines by Sep-
tember hardly smaller or less vigorous than the plant
from which they spring.
Hill cultivation does not necessitate so rich a soil as the
annual system ; but in all cases a good soil is needed, and
weeds and runners are to be treated alike, that is, de-
stroyed as soon as they appear. If the variety is valuable,
and new plants are much needed, one or two runners may
be allowed to root, but this interferes very much with
clean cultivation. A good, thorough covering is needful
to carry the vines well through the -winter (as we shall
see farther on), and an abundance of hay or some similar
mulch must be kept round the plants in the summer to
keep the fruit from contact with the soil.
As the stools get older they tend to rise up more and
24 The Strawberry Book.
more out of the ground, and the earth has to be hoed up
to them. An annual manuring is of course needful.
Strawberries may be kept in hills and made to do well
several years in succession ; but four years, or at the most
five, is probably as long a time as it pays to leave the beds
undisturbed. I have, indeed, heard of hills being kept
for twelve years ; but this must have been an excep-
It is the custom with many gardeners to mow down the
vines as soon as the fruit is picked, rake off, and clean the
bed, and then to dig in among the hills a good dressing
of manure. The foliage being cut off, and the roots
broken and greatly disturbed, the plant is stimulated by
the manure to go to work and repair the damage done,
which it effectually does by autumn, getting a new crown
of leaves and rilling the soil with roots. In this way it
may be said to practically become a new plant, and the
beds are thus kept along from year to year.
CULTIVATION IN Rows.
This is in effect a compromise between hill culture and
cultivation in broad beds. Rows of plants may be set in
the spring, three feet apart, with the plants nine inches
asunder in the rows ; and when the runners appear, the
first five or six are carefully laid in lengthwise of the row,
and the rest cut off as fast as they appear. In good soil
a thick, continuous, bushy row is the result, and some
varieties do very well when grown in this manner, partic-
ularly Lennig's White, which most admirable berry is
very unproductive in a matted bed. The soil on each
side of the row must be well mulched with straw or hay,
to keep the fruit off the dirt.
A method of cultivation somewhat in vogue at the
West is, to plant the strawberry vines in hills, at a suita-
ble distance apart, and to put on in the fall a mulch of
three or four inches of hay. This hay is not removed in
The Strawberry Book. 25
the spring, but the laborers go along the rows of hills
early in the season and poke away enough of the mulch
to expose the crown of the plant, which soon begins to
grow. This operation has to be repeated several times to
make sure that the plants are not smothered, and that no
weeds are coming up around the vines. The hay, which
remains on till the fruit is picked, keeps the weeds down
and the ground moist. It is taken off with a horse-rake,
and returned in the fall, after the ground has been well
cultivated and kept clean through the summer months.
As to the absolute value of the different methods of
cultivation no fixed rule can be given. Certain varieties,
like the Hovey, cannot be grown in hills. Some, or per-
haps most, foreign kinds, with high crowns, do not do
well in matted beds. Some kinds, like the Wilson, make
the best of circumstances, and get along pretty well under
any system. Those who grow strawberries on the annual
plan insist that the first crop from a bed which with
them is the only one is better than the second, and much
better than the third ; but a most successful grower of my
acquaintance, who mows off the leaves, weeds, and ma-
nures as soon as the fruit is picked, took off a third crop
of Wilson's last year which he thought was rather better
than the first, and he thinks his plants will make a good
return the present season.
Strawberry growers who wish to make a pretty display
of a few hills sometimes make use of what is called the
strawberry crinoline, a neat little wire frame, which is
opened and sprung together around the plant, and holds
up leaves, fruit, and all, so that they cannot touch the soil
or get defaced.
Tiles are made of flower-pot material for the same pur-
pose. Two of them make a square, with a hole in the
centre large enough for the collar of the plant. Being
pushed up one on each side till they meet, they serve as a
mulch, and prevent the fruit from getting dirty.
26 The Strawberry Book.
Mr. Augustus Parker, of Roxbury, Mass., a very suc-
cessful cultivator of strawberries for market, gives his
method in Tilton's Journal of Horticulture, vol. vi., p.
281, as follows :
"I set my plants about the first of May, about a foot
apart, in a single row, and the rows four and a half feet
apart, on good, well-manured ground. I keep the culti-
vator going between the rows till about the 8th of July,
when the runners begin to run, and then go over the
ground with a rake and make it level ; after this I go over
the beds and place the runners so that the plants will
be as near four inches apart as possible. With me the
runners cover all the ground between the rows. Keep-
ing the ground light till you set the runners gives the
young plant a chance to make good roots, which stand
the dry weather the next summer when they are in bear-
ing. If you let the ground get hard for the new plants,
the roots will be short, and the plants will not be able to
carry their fruit to the size -and quantity they otherwise
would. I cover my beds, when they are frozen in the
fall so that I can drive my team over them without leav-
ing a mark, .with fine, light horse manure ; cover as light-
ly as possible, and yet have them covered. In the spring
I let the plants come up through the manure, which serves
as a mulching to keep the berries clean. As soon as the
plants are started enough in the spring to see the old
plants that were set the spring before, I put a line on the
beds, and take out the old row, and make the path about
fourteen inches wide, so as to keep the pickers in their
proper places. I do not set every year, as some growers
do ; but, as soon as I get through picking, I dig or plough
up the sides of my beds to a strip eight or ten inches
wide ; from this strip new runners will start, which I set
over the ground as at the first season. I cart off all the
plants I plough up, and make the ground as light as pos-
sible ; then, the next spring (of course, manuring in the
The Strawberry Book. 27
fall, as above), I take out the old strip with some of the
new for my path ; and thus I keep my plants one year
old, which is the best for bearing. I never allow weeds
to grow at any season of the year."
Mr. Parker's success is a guarantee that in his hands,
at least, this system is a very profitable one.
If more specific directions are needed for laying out a
garden bed of strawberries, to be used for the supply of
one's own table, the following proportions will be found
Select a piece of good strong soil, say sixty feet long and
twelve wide, spread on it early in the spring, and spade in,
two or three inches of well-rotted stable manure. Rake off",
and level the surface, removing all sticks, stones, and coarse
lumps of manure ; stretch a line one and a half feet from
the edge of the bed, and set a row of plants one foot
apart the whole length of the piece. Move the line along
three feet and set a similar row. Then set a third and
fourth row in the same way, the fourth row, of course,
being a foot and a half from the other edge of the bed.
This being done early in April in this latitude the
spring rains will soon give the young plants a good start.
Until the runners begin to grow, keep the bed hoed clean,
and through June and July sprinkle a few handfuls of
guano or unleached wood ashes over the bed on the ap-
proach of showers or during settled rain. By the first of
September the bed will be one thick carpet of healthy,
luxuriant, well-rooted vines, which must have a good cov-
ering of leaves and pine boughs in November.
The next spring rake off the leaves, and put on a light
dressing of well-rotted manure or a sprinkling of guano,
and pull out any large weeds that may show themselves.
A narrow path, six inches wide, might be cut out through
the middle of the bed for convenience in picking, but in a
small garden this may be neglected, the pickers taking a
little extra care not to step on and crush the crowns of the
28 The Strawberry Book.
plants. A bed of the size described will require two
hundred and fifty plants for its four rows, and if produc-
tive varieties are planted, should yield a hundred quarts of
berries. When the crop has been picked, the leaves may
be mown, the bed manured and weeded, and thus made
to last another year.
The Strawberry Book. 29
No argument is needed to show the necessity of winter
protection for strawberry beds in a climate where the soil
is not covered with snow throughout the winter. If, in a
cold climate, we could be sure of snow the first of Decem-
ber, and sure that an unbroken coating of it would remain
on the ground till the middle of March, it is probable we
should never need to cover our strawberry vines. It is
likely that there are but very few kinds that can be injured
by the mere cold of the winter ; but what kills the hardi-
est varieties is the constant freezing and thawing to which
they are too often subjected in this climate if left uncovered.
The foreign varieties, especially, since they make high,
prominent crowns, are apt to suffer very much if unpro-
tected, and thus get the reputation of being tender.
Almost any cheap non-conducting substance suitable for
mulching will answer to cover strawberry vines. Old hay,
strawy manure, salt marsh or meadow hay, straw, leaves,
spent tan, chopped straw, pine needles, pine boughs, corn-
stalks, &c., are among the numerous articles used, as con-
venience dictates, for covering strawberry beds. Market
gardeners often use coarse hay, which they spread on the
vines in the fall, rake off so much as is not needed in the
spring, and stack up ready for the next autumn's work.
Hay is very convenient, the only objection to it being the
fact that it brings in grass and weed seed. This, however,
does not matter much if the strawberries are grown on the
annual system. Perhaps leaves make the best covering
30 The Strawberry Book.
when they are easily obtained ; and of these, oak leaves
are the worst, blowing oft' sometimes faster than they can
be raked back, and pine needles the best. A uniform, even
covering of two or three inches of pine leaves, somewhat
matted by long lying in the woods, with a few pine boughs
on top, if the bed is much exposed to the wind, is about
as good a winter protection to the plants as can be desired.
The beds should be covered before the ground has frozen
very hard, and, of course, in time to anticipate the first
heavy fall of snow. One gardener I know, having plenty
of labor at command, covers his beds early in the winter
with about eighteen inches of oak leaves, with boughs on
top, so that I do not believe the soil of his beds freezes
from one year's end to another.
Where leaves are used, enough will generally settle in
among the plants to make a very excellent mulch for the
A covering of light, strawy manure will answer very
well for a winter protection ; but a covering of solid, wet,
barn-yard manure, if applied late in the fall, will almost
certainly kill every vine.
A few garden rows of valuable plants may be very neatly
protected by covering each row with leaves, and then with
two old boards leaning against each other, so as to make
a covering like an inverted V, thus keeping down the
leaves, and turning off the rain. But I must add that I
have in this manner so thoroughly protected strawberry
plants in pots, standing on the surface of the ground, that
they got as dry as ashes in the winter, and were stone dead
in the spring.
The Strawberry Book. 31
VERY few cultivated plants of any value can rival the
strawberry in the ease with which they may be propagated.
A strawberry vine, as soon as it gets well established, be-
gins to throw out runners, each one of which may take
root and send out others to multiply in their turn. This
occurs in open culture, where I have known a single plant
of the Agriculturist variety to make two hundred and thirty-
two in the course of the season.
In rich soil, rows of vines set in April, three feet apart,
with the plants nine inches asunder, will cover all the inter-
mediate space with a close carpet of vines before fall. With
new and rare varieties the artificial aid of a hot-bed or frame
maybe called into use, and then the multiplication of vines
goes on very rapidly. I know a gardener who obtained
in a certain spring, when Hovey's Seedling was new, six
plants of that variety, and got from them, by autumn, a.
bed of fifteen hundred. The various kinds differ much in
regard to the number of runners they send out. In the
same soil La Constante would put out comparatively few
runners, the Jucunda a moderate number, while some of
our native kinds would produce myriads. A sprinkling
of ashes now and then stimulates plants to produce run-
ners in large numbers.
Generally the runners will root themselves, and fasten
upon the soil ; but with new and choice kinds it pays very
well to assist nature a little by pressing the end of the run-
32 The Strawberry Book.
ner gently into the ground, and laying a small stone or a
little earth upon it.
Again, in garden culture, where neat, compact rows are
desired, it is well to lay in the straggling runners, and press
their roots into the soil among the parent plants, thus leav-
ing the space between the raws clear for the use of the hoe.
Where the cultivator has a bed of a choice variety, and
wishes to obtain from it every possible plant, he may go
over his bed late in the season, take out every small, weak
plant, and every tip of a runner just rooting, and set them
an inch or two apart in a spent hot-bed. If there is a little
heat left in the bed, and the vines are watered and shaded
a very little, they will all grow, and make fine strong plants
in a few weeks.
But the most practicable way of obtaining fine healthy
plants, that will suffer but little from being transplanted, is
to layer the runners in small flower-pots in the open field.
The pots, in any convenient number, should be plunged
to their rims along the rows in July or August, and filled
with soil. Runners just beginning to root are pressed into
the soil in the pots without detaching them from their par-
ent plant, and in a week or two the whole pot will be filled
with roots. The runners may then be cut off, and the new
plant transplanted wherever it is needed. I have said this
may be done in July and August, but of course it may be
done at any time, a week or two before the plants are
needed. The size of the plant depends upon that of the
pot. Three and four inch pots are generally employed by
the propagators of strawberry vines, who have begun of
late years to offer for sale plants thus layered. In sending
such plants to their customers, they turn them out of the
pots to pack them, the numerous fibrous roots holding the
earth together in a compact ball.
The value of such plants, especially for early fruiting, is
very great. They do not sutler at all from transplanting ;
and vines carefully layered thus in the fall, and removed
The Strawberry Book. 33
in the spring, will give quite a decent show of fruit the first
season. To the impatient amateur, a plant layered in a
pot is worth ten vines transplanted in the ordinary way.
One Western grower appreciates so highly the value of
pot plants that he raises them in large quantities for his
own use for planting by the acre. He finds that the extra
labor, which is not so very great when the work is reduced
to a system, is more than compensated by the excellence
of the plants, and by the fact that he can get a large and
certain crop in June from pot plants set in August or Sep-
The Bush Alpine strawberries produce very few run-
ners, or none at all, and are propagated by dividing the
roots. The Alpine strawberries come true from seed, and
seedlings are usually grown to make new beds, instead of
transplanting from old ones. Of propagation by seed to
obtain new varieties I shall speak in a separate chapter.
34 The Strawberry Book.
ON INSECT ENEMIES.
THE insect enemies of the strawberry are few in num-
ber, but some of them are very malevolent and destruc-
tive. Chief among them I place the larva of the May
beetle, or dor-bug, Phyllophaga Quercina, whose rav-
ages are sometimes most disheartening. This, sometimes
known as the white grub, and sometimes incorrectly
called by farmers the potato worm, but not to be con-
founded with the true potato worm, which is the larva of
a sphinx, is about an inch and a half long, three eighths
of an inch in diameter, with a brownish-red head. It is
occasionally found in ordinary garden soil, and its pres-
ence is made known by the leaves of a strawberry vine
wilting down, when on pulling it gently the whole plant
comes up, the root being eaten completely off. But it
abounds in old grass land and pastures.
Vines planted on such land recently ploughed will in
one case out of a hundred thrive and do well, but the
chances are, that every one will be killed by the white
grub. I manured thoroughly and ploughed up last spring
a little more than an acre of pasture land, and set out upon
it about twenty thousand choice strawberry plants, a large
percentage of them being of the President Wilder variety.
The vines took root and began to grow, and some of them
had begun to send out runners, when the grub attacked
them, and made clean work of the whole field, devouring
almost every plant. The field was kept clean by constant
hoeing, and I attempted to dig out the grubs, as some of
The Strawberry Book. 35
the vines were new and valuable ; but I was obliged to
abandon this plan as equally ineffectual and expensive.
It is always safer to raise one or two hoed crops on
land intended for strawberries, as the May beetle seldom
lays eggs in ploughed soil, choosing grass land where the
larvae will be protected from birds. These offensive grubs
live chiefly upon grass roots, and in some places devour
them so completely that if two parallel lines be cut in
the turf, the sod between them may be rolled up like a
Where only a few grubs show signs of their presence
in well-established beds of strawberries, they must be at
once dug out and killed. They can be found early in the
morning close under the plant they have ruined ; but as it
grows warmer they burrow down in the soil to a depth
of eight or ten inches, so that an unsuccessful search is
frequently made for them by those who do not know their
habits. Skunks are very fond of white grubs, and dig
them out and eat them with avidity.
There is another white grub, resembling this one, but
of a lighter color, and somewhat bluish shade, found usu-
ally under old manure heaps. It is the larva of a dung
beetle, the Scarabceus relictus of Say, but whether
it is destructive or not I have no means of knowing. I
have found them in great numbers in old hot-beds in the
middle of a vegetable garden, but never saw any injury
done to plants that could be traced to their presence.
The rose-bug (Melolontha subspinosa) ' is not too
dainty to despise strawberry leaves, when roses and grape-
blossoms are not at hand. They invaded a strawberry
plantation of mine last year in vast numbers, and destroyed
half the foliage of the plants, leaving only the skeleton of
the leaves. I killed an immense number by hand-picking,
finding sometimes as many as thirty-eight on a single
leaf; but I did not prevent their doing great injury. I
count them second only to the white grub in power of
36 The Strawberry Book.
In the case above cited the rose-bugs seemed to come
from a piece of woods on the west of the strawberry
field, and they are noticeably more active in a bright, hot
day than in a dull one. I have noticed, late in the after-
noon, the air alive with rose-bugs the moment the sun has
shone out after a cloudy day, while before that hardly one
was to be seen.
I presume there is no means of destroying these pests
except by hand-picking, and burning or scalding. The
novice who has secured a rose-bug should adopt no half-
way measures, but should have evidence of the bug's
actual death. I heard last season of a vigneron in a neigh-
boring town who picked from his vines in blossom time
about two quarts of rose-bugs, which he carefully buried,
stamping the earth firm over them. The next morning
he found, to his horror, that each bug had bored his way
to the upper air, and sailed off to fresh woods and pas-
Cut-worms, the larvas of various Agrotides, sometimes
attack the strawberry. I have, however, lost but few
from their ravages. Their presence is indicated by the
wilting of the leaves ; and the only thing to do is to
dig the worms out and smash them. If one is not found
near the plant he has cut off*, search must be made about
the roots of the next.
The wire-worm (lulus) is said to be sometimes de-
structive to the strawberry, but I have never seen any
vines injured by it. Deep and clean cultivation would
perhaps be the best remedy.
Common ants sometimes swarm upon the berries, but
may be disposed of by pouring hot water into their hills.
I have seen a small green worm upon strawberry vines ;
the same, I presume, as that described by Fuller in his
Manual ; but I never found more than half a dozen, and
they did but little harm. If they should appear in large
numbers I should try sprinkling with lime or ashes. A
The Strawberry Book. 37
scattering of guano on the damp leaves might perhaps
Ashes is also a useful means of assailing the aphis, or
plant louse, which sometimes congregates upon the roots
of strawberry vines in light soils.
Same tender kinds of strawberries are subject, in our
climate, to sun-scald, and have consequently unhealthy
foliage ; but, generally speaking, the strawberry is singu-
larly free from disease. A sudden cold rain will some-
times cause the blossoms to blight, and the over-ripe fruit
will mould on the vines in damp weather ; but a straw-
berry bed is never at the mercy of any scourge like those
that so often threaten, and which not seldom ruin, a wheat-
field, a vineyard, or a potato plantation.
38 The Strawberry Book.
ON FORCING STRAWBERRIES.
WITH the proper appliances forced strawberries can be
raised with less trouble than any other forced fruit. If
proper care and precaution are used, if the plants are of
a suitable variety, well grown, and w T ell ripened, and if
the gardener, in forcing, makes haste slowly, failure is not
far from impossible. The strawberiy is one of the earliest
out-door fruits, and therefore it requires less time for per-
fection under glass than any other ; and it often happens
that a good crop of strawberries can be grown on an un-
occupied shelf or some other place in a green-house that
would otherwise be useless.
A grape vine under glass must be three years old to
bear a good crop ; a peach tree requires considerable care
before coming into bearing ; and if trees or vines under
glass are killed, the loss is quite serious ; while, on the other
hand, strawberry vines can be grown and got ready for for-
cing in three months ; and even if they are not set out in the
open ground after bearing their spring crop, the loss of the
plants is nothing compared with the loss of a row of three-
year-old vines. Again, forced strawberries if the plants
are started at the usual season come into the market in
advance of other hot-house fruit, and generally command
a good price, and sometimes are sold at rates that seem
With houses adapted especially for strawberry culture
it is extremely probable that forced strawberries can be
raised and sold to the public at lower prices and in much
The Strawberry Book. 39
larger quantities than ever before, and yet afford the grower
a better profit than he obtains from any other forced fruit.
Indeed, one of the largest growers of forced strawberries
in this part of the country tells us that they yield an income
of a dollar per pot, and sometimes twice that amount. In
addition to this fact, an equally important one should be
kept in mind, viz., that the crop is all off in March, and
the house is left vacant for other uses a matter of no little
moment to the market gardener.
As, in cooking a hare, the hare must first be caught, so,
in forcing strawberries, the vines must first be obtained,
and grown the season previous to the very maximum of size,
strength, and ripeness. The crowns must be full, plump,
well ripened, and mature. Such varieties, too, must be
selected as have been tested and found to force well ; and
these, generally spsaking, are those that make a full, high
crown, like the Triomphe de Gand, which is here held in
high esteem for a forcing variety. Trollope's Victoria has
been commended for forcing, and I have seen very splen-
did crops of La Constante ripe in March. The foreign
catalogues give long lists of varieties that force w r ell, very
few of which, we presume, have ever been tested for that
purpose in this country. Among the kinds thus marked
are the Eclipse, Gweniver, President, Princess of Wales,
Eliza, Lucas (these last two, from my success with them
out doors, I should think would do well in pots), Sir Harry,
Louis Vilmorin, Oscar, and many others ; but while the
Triomphe de Gand gives so sure and certain a crop of
high-priced berries, our growers will be slow to abandon
it. I may add, that the Hooker and the Boston Pine have
been tried, and found to do well in the forcing-house. I
have forced a very few plants of the President Wilder
(Wilder) in a hot-bed, and they did very well, although
I let all the runners grow, and the plants had not been
especially prepared for forcing.
The variety having been fixed upon, the next step is to
4-O The Strawberry Book.
layer the plants in small pots. This should be done early
in July. The first runners from good plants should be
taken and layered in thumb-pots, filled with any good soil.
Before the first of August the thumb-pots will be filled
with roots, and the young plants will be ready for a shift
into three or four-inch pots.
The compost now employed should consist of thoroughly
decomposed sods and top-soil from a pasture, with one third
well-rotted manure. If this mixture has lain in heaps sev-
eral months, all the better.
The plants having been shifted, the soil should be firmly
pressed around the roots, and the pots should be liberally
watered and set in a cold-frame, which will hasten their
growth a little, and at the same time protect them from
too severe rains. When this set of pots is well filled with
roots, the vines should be shifted into a larger size.
Here growers differ. Some transfer the plants into the
six-inch potsj in which they are to fruit, and others put
them into .five-inch pots, and give them a final shift into
eight-inch pots. The two most successful growers I know
use, the one six, and the other eight-inch pots for fruiting.
It must, however, resolve itself into a question of room in
the green-house; and it seems reasonable to think that a
plant whose well-grown roots fill an eight-inch pot will
give more fruit than one whose pot is two inches less in
If the plants are in a frame, it should be left open, ex-
cept in a storm after the first of October, the vines watered
sparingly, and allowed to ripen off very thoroughly. By
the middle of November the cold weather will check all
growth, and the vines, if all has gone well, will be healthy,
stout, and plump. The frames may now be filled with
leaves, and covered with boards, until the vines are needed
for forcing. The best growers are strongly inclined to
think that a month's rest and inaction after the plants are
ripe, and have stopped growing, lead to much better re-
The Strawberry Book. 41
suits than to force them at once. This rest may be
taken through the month of December, and the plants
brought into the green-house the first of the new year.
The pots can be put in any part of the house until the
vines start, and they should be watered at first very spar-
ingly. It is of much importance that the start the plants
make should be very gradual.
As soon as the plants begin to grow, the pots should be
brought close to the glass. This is important, as they need
all the light they can get ; and if away from the glass they
will grow up towards it weak and spindling. Water
the pots carefully with guano water, made by dissolving
four or five pounds of guano in a barrel of water. Keep
the runners cut oft", and if the red spider appears, syringe
the vines early and late, when they are not in blossom.
If the aphis -appears, he will have to be destroyed by
fumigation with tobacco. When the vines are in blossom,
give them a little more air than at other times. A tem-
perature of seventy-five degrees by day, and ten or fifteen
degrees less by night, will be found about right. The crop
will be ripe in from ten to fourteen weeks after the vines
are brought into the green-house.
For forcing, a one-sided house with a very steep roof
will be found best, the whole roof, or rather the whole
house, being occupied by a steep stage, close to the glass,
each step of the stage holding one row of plants. The
plants are examined and handled from a walk behind them.
A very good autumnal crop may be obtained from the
plants that have been forced, by turning them out into a
bed in the open ground in April. The Triomphe de Gand,
in particular, will do well in this way, and will make enor-
mous stools if the runners be clipped during the summer.
42 The Strawberry Book.
ON THE PRODUCTION OF NEW VARIETIES.
THE fascination that attends the raising of seedling
fruits is well marked in the case of the strawberry. The
abundance of seeds, the ease with which they germinate,
the early age at which -the new plants bear fruit, and the
tolerable certainty of getting a very good variety from a
hundred or two seedlings, all conspire to lead on the am-
ateur, and induce him annually to increase the size of his
At the same time it must be borne in mind that, while
it is easy to raise a very good seedling strawberry, it is
very difficult to raise one possessing qualities that set it
above the best old kinds, or even on a level with them.
In a thousand seedlings, raised from the seed of an ap-
proved variety, it would hardly be possible not to find two
or three worth preserving ; but to get a strawberry supe-
rior to all before it is a triumph that does not come for
Extended experiments, repeated trials, and repeated
failures must pave the way to success.
The seeker for new kinds may go to work in two ways,
viz., by hybridizing and by direct planting.
The process of hybridizing the strawberry is simple,
and not very difficult. It consists essentially in impreg-
nating the blossom of one variety with pollen from those
of another, so that seedlings resulting from the seed thus
crossed shall partake of the nature of both parents. In
practice it is convenient that the plant to be fertilized
The Strawberry Book. 43
should be a pistillate variety, for in this case we can make
absolutely certain that it is not self-fertilized, and shall
not be plagued by lingering doubts as to whether we suc-
ceeded in removing every anther before its pollen ripened
or had a chance to do its work.
The pistillate plants selected for experiment should be
isolated from all other kind?, and from each other ; and
this is best effected by covering them with a glass box or
frame. The staminate or male plant having been fixed
upon, its blossoms should be watched, and when they are
fully expanded, and the anthers shed abundant pollen on
being snapped or jarred, the whole flower may be cut
off, and its anthers shaken over the stigma of the pistillate
flower, or the anthers may be very gently rubbed upon
the stigma itself. It sometimes happens that we desire to
experiment with a new variety, whose flowers are too val-
uable to be totally sacrificed. In that case a few of the
anthers may be cut off with a fine-pointed pair of scissors,
and conveyed to the pistillate plant on a dry slip of smooth
paper. If both varieties on which we work have perfect
flowers, the task is more difficult. Every anther must be
removed with the utmost caution and delicacy from the
blossom of the plant we desire to fertilize before the pollen
has ripened or has had a chance to reach the pistil.
It is best to watch the flowers with patient care, and, as
they show signs of expanding, to unfold the petals prema-
turely, and immediately remove the anthers. In no case
must the hybridist speak with any confidence of the
parentage of his seedlings, unless he has insured the ab-
sence of all foreign pollen by isolating his plants, or, better
still, by protecting them by glass. The operation of hy-
bridizing is best carried on in the middle of a warm,
sunny day, when every part of the flower is diy.
If unhybridized seed is to be planted, the vines that
produce it should be the strongest and most vigorous of
their kind, and should be limited to one berry each gen-
44 The Strawberry Book.
erally the central one produced by the first blossom, all
others having been cut off.
The berries that are to furnish seed, whether crossed or
not, should be allowed to get fully ripe before they are
gathered. As soon as picked they should be crushed, and
mixed thoroughly with fifty or a hundred times their vol-
ume of clean, dry sand, to absorb the juice and divide the
seeds evenly among the mass. A bed of deep, very rich,
and dry soil having been prepared, the sand and seeds
mixed should be sprinkled over the surface, very lightly
raked in, the soil thoroughly watered, and a frame and
sashes put on over the whole. If the planting be made
in the middle of July, young plants may be expected to
appear during the first week in August, if the sashes have
been kept closed and the soil well wetted every day. As
soon as the young plants appear in numbers they should
be shaded. This is best done by whitening the glass.
The frames ma} 7 then be kept closed a good part of the
time, and the seedlings will grow so vigorously that they
will bear transplanting in a few weeks to the bed where
they are to remain and fruit. This method is well adapt-
ed for bringing seedling vines into bearing in the shortest
possible time, as they get a very strong growth the first
Another way, involving even less trouble, is this : Sow
the mixed sand and seed on a bed of rich soil in July,
and rake it in lightly, putting on no sash at all. A few
seeds will germinate in August and September, but by
far the greater number will come up the next spring, and
should be thinned and transplanted as soon as large
enough. In either case the young plants must be pro-
tected, at the approach of winter, by a thick covering of
leaves and pine boughs. This is absolutely necessary to
prevent heaving by frost and thaw.
The seedlings should be transplanted into beds of rich
earth, encouraged to make stout, stocky plants, and to this
The Strawberry Book. 45
end they should not be allowed to make more than one
or at most two runners.
The seedlings may be set in the bed where they are to
fruit, in rows two feet apart, with the plants eighteen
inches asunder in the rows. If space is limited, the rows
may be narrowed six inches, and the plants brought six
inches nearer each other in the rows. If one or two run-
ners are allowed to grow, they should be made to take
root close to the parent plant. All vines whose leaves
burn, or suffer from sun-scald, may profitably be pulled
up and thrown away before they fruit. Many seedlings
that are perfectly healthy are pulled up and destroyed by
the experienced grower before they fruit. A beginner
cannot be trusted to do this ; but after raising a few gen-
erations of seedlings he will be able to select quite a large
percentage, of which he can prophesy that they will come
to no good, and which may as well be put out of the way
As the fruit on the seedling begins to ripen, it should be
closely watched from day to day, and its progress noted.
When fully ripe it should be tested, and marked, not ab-
solutely as good or bad, but comparatively, by reference
to some standard kind. If a seedling seems worthy of
preservation it should be encouraged to make runners,
twenty or thirty of which may easily be obtained ; and
these, carefully transplanted as soon as possible, will give
a little bed of the new variety for more liberal testing the
No seedling should be preserved a few rare cases ex-
cepted which is not healthy, vigorous, and productive.
These are prime requisites. Besides these, its fruit should
be large, of tolerably uniform size and symmetrical shape,
with few small berries, bright colored and firm, not too
acid, and with as high a flavor as possible. Almost all
these good traits are united in some berries we now pos-
sess, so that our ideal strawberry is not an impossible one.
46 The Strawberry Book.
For hybridizing, no better pistillate plant can be found
than the Hovey. For a fertilizer La Constants may be
used with a tolerable assurance of good results. These
two standard kinds by their union gave us the President
Wilder, which combines the good qualities of both. In-
stead of La Constante which is not without its defects
choice may be made of Triomphe de Gand, or some
of the immense but shy bearing English kinds. I have
seedlings from Hovey crossed with Admiral Dundas,
from which I look for some curious results.
Again, Hovey crossed with Jucunda ought to give
plants bearing fruit as immense as the latter and as good
as the former. A distinguished experimenter tells me
that his seedlings from the Jucunda come weak. I have
found this true, having thrown away this year some
showy Jucunda seedlings ; but uniting this kind with the
Hovey we ought to have fine results.
Lennig's White and the Bicton Pine crossed should give
a berry as large and abundant as the former, with the
shape of the latter, and a mingling of the high flavor
The Wilson, crossed with a high-flavored, productive
kind, say the Bonte de St. Julien, would be likely to give
The Agriculturist presents a very fixed type, one hard
to break, its seedlings all having a family resemblance.
Some decent varieties have been raised, it is said, from the
Agriculturist ; but I do not believe that a very good one
will be obtained without hybridizing, and perhaps La
Constante or Napoleon III., strawberries far removed
from the Agriculturist, might break up its fixed habit.
If the experimenter has size alone in view, he might
cross Dr. Nicaise with Admiral Dundas ; but the resulting
seedlings would be valueless, save as curiosities. Where
it is desirable to communicate firmness of flesh, nothing
can surpass La Constante as a means of effecting this.
The Strawberry Book. 4^
It has been supposed that mixed pollen, i. e., the pollen
of two different species or varieties mingled, can act con-
jointly ; and experimenters have fancied that they saw in
a hybrid resemblances to three progenitors ; but Darwin
says, " We now know conclusively, from Gartner [a most
eminent German hybridist], that two kinds of pollen never
act conjointly on a third species ; the only effect of min-
gling two kinds of pollen being the production in the same
capsule of seeds which yield plants some taking after the
one and some after the other parent."
I instance this to show the experimenter the uselessness
of mixing two or three kinds of pollen, as some have
That the large-fruited scarlet strawberries can be crossed
with the Alpines seems to be well settled, and there is no
reason to suppose that further experiments will not demon-
strate the possibility of making some other crosses here-
tofore looked upon as unlikely.
For planting without hybridizing, any choice kind may
be used. It has just been remarked that seedlings from
the Agriculturist repeat the parent plant ; and it may be
added that seedlings from Downer's Prolific, and all
strawberries of native origin, show their parentage very
It is safe to advise amateurs to sow seeds of the very
best kinds, such as Hovey, the parent of many good
strawberries, La Constante, or, better still, President
These will give a sufficient variety, and out of a large
number of seedlings from these some must prove very
Perhaps this is the place to inquire what are the qual-
ities requisite in a first-class strawberry. Of course we
do not expect yet to find all the excellences of every
strawberry united in one, but must be satisfied with as
close an approximation to our ideal fruit as we can
48 The Strawberry Book.
obtain by patient experiment. Still it is well to have an
ideal towards which to strive ; and we may say of a per-
ist. The vines should be hardy, vigorous, and pro-
ductive, capable of adapting themselves to various soils,
not making too many runners, and, if possible, of a close,
compact habit of growth.
3d. The fruit-stalks should be firm and stiff enough to
hold the fruit clear from the ground ; and,
3d. The berries should be large, or at least with
only a trifling percentage of small ones, of regular and
uniform shape, solid, easily hulled, firm enough to carry
some distance to market, without injury, not too acid,
bright colored, and of the highest possible flavor.
Large fruit, as a rule, brings higher prices than medium
sized or small ; a regular and elegant shape adds much to
the value of a strawberry, as is shown in La Constante ;
firmness is of course essential, for the fruit must reach the
market in good order ; a bright color is desirable, as help-
ing the sale of the fruit ; and, finally, we may say that of
two strawberries of equal value otherwise, that one which
is the easier to hull will be judged the better kind.
4th. The scale of colors laid down by Fuller is, first,
scarlet ; second, crimson-scarlet ; third, crimson ; fourth,
dark crimson ; fifth, white. I think his fourth and fifth
should change places.
It is undeniable -that the color of a fruit has consider-
able weight with purchasers. In fact, a bright color gen-
erally turns the scale in favor of a poor fruit. Red cur-
rants bring more than white, and it is sometimes difficult
to sell cream-colored and yellow raspberries when red
ones are in the market.
Poor, but bright-colored, smooth pears will sell better
than first-class ones, if the latter have a dull, rough out-
side. Lennig's White and the Bicton White Pine, two of
the most delicious berries in the world, would probably
The Strawberry Book. 49
fail to be sold, if offered in our markets, on account of their
color. These popular notions are due of course to igno-
rance of the best varieties of fruits, and will be eradicated
when people become more~Kimiliar with choice kinds.
Productiveness and hardiness- of the vine, with bright
color and solidity of the fruit, seern now all that is re-
quired in a market berry, and even more than is required,
for the Wilson's Albany has built up and maintains a
wonderful reputation in spite of its poor color.
It is a very firm berry, as far removed in this respect
as possible from many kinds, notable among which is
the Brooklyn Scarlet a delicious variety, but so tender
that a single layer of berries set away on a plate over
night will lose their shape by morning. La Constante
is remarkable for its firmness, and Underwood's Seed-
ling, raised from La Constante, is quite wonderful for
its firmness and keeping qualities, the La Constante type
being a very persistent one, as regards not only solidity,
but shape and flavor also. Its beautiful shape reappears,
a little modified, in the President Wilder.
One word of advice to the amateur may not be out
of place- here, viz. : if he should obtain a seedling worth
naming, let him be sure the name he gives it has not been
already appropriated to some other strawberry. Neglect
of this precaution is already leading to confusion. We
have two Elizas, Rivers's and Myatts's ; two Eclipses,
Prince's and Reeves's ; two Emilys ; two Charles Down-
ing's, Downer's and De Jonghe's ; two President Wil-
cler's, De Jonghe's and Wilder's ; two Riflemen, one
raised by Roden and the other by Ingram ; two Paulines,
one a seedling of Prince's and the other a seedling of
Dr. Nicaise ; two Globes, Myatts's and. De Jonghe's ;
two- Cornucopia's, Prince's and Nicholson's ; and so on to
the end of the chapter. There are some other names too
near alike ; as the Rubis of Dr. Nicaise, and Nicholson's
Ruby ; Napoleon and Napoleon III. ; to say nothing of
cjo The Strawberry Book.
the numerous Queens, Princes, and Princesses, and doubt-
less others which I have overlooked.
I do not share in the opinion that we have too many vari-
eties of strawberries, nor do I think we should cease trying
to perfect this valuable fruit. What has been done merely
shows us how great results we may hope for in the near
future. The careful hybridizer can plan in his mind what
kind of a strawberry he will have, and by a skilful se-
lection of parent plants he can realize his ideal. Not by
the first or the hundredth experiment, it may be, but sooner
or later he will get what he seeks. Although, to be sure,
Downing says, " A new variety must possess very supe-
rior qualities to entitle it to regard now that we have so
many fine fruits in our collections," yet no less an au-
thority than De Jonghe reminds us that we are very far
from having reached the bounds of perfection in straw-
The Strawberry Book. 5 1
THE QUESTION OF TASTE.
To most persons, to a large majority, at least, of those
who buy their berries in the market, a strawberry is a
strawberry. That is to say, if it be ripe, bright colored,
and not absolutely sour, it is perfectly satisfactory to the
With the nice questions of taste and flavor, and the del-
icate distinctions drawn by les vrats amateurs gourmets
(as a French strawberry catalogue has it), the public has
little to do. Yet with amateurs, who are annually called
upon to test new varieties, the subtile and refined differ-
ences that mark the various berries are certainly important.
But no book can lay down exact rules in this matter.
Speaking generally, we may say that a new berry, to be
approved, must be less acid than the Wilson, and must
possess, in some measure, the high and refined flavors that
distinguish some of our choicest kinds.
There is really a much wider difference in the flavor of
different strawberries than many inexperienced people will
at first admit. Some have a distinct and delicious pine-
apple flavor, as Lennig's White the White Pine-apple
and White Albion of some foreign lists and Rivers' s
Eliza. The Lucas, a fine seedling from La Constante, has
a marked flavor of raspberries, while the Due de Mala-
koff has a strong apricot, or, as some say, mulberry, taste.
The Hautbois strawberries are musky. A French berry,
the Exposition de Chalons^ has a marked taste of currants.
Some foreign kinds ave a decided cherry flavor. Our
52 The Strawberry Book.
native wild strawberries have a delicious aroma, which is
wholly absent in many of the largest kinds.
Some varieties have a brisk, refreshing, vinous juice,
others are simply juicy and sweet, while some are sweet,
dry, and almost juiceless. In the first class we might put
the Due de Malakoff, Vineuse de Nantes, and La Con-
stante among foreign kinds, and the Hovey, President
Wilder, and Lennig's White among native varieties ; in
the second class we might put Marguerite and Bijou ; and
of the third, the Austin, as I have seen it, and Madame
Collonge among foreign kinds, are excellent representa-
The flavor and taste of most varieties of strawberries
are necessarily sui generis, and incapable of exact descrip-
tion, or comparison with other fruits. The exquisite taste
of a Brooklyn Scarlet or of a Rivers's Eliza cannot be set
forth in w r ords any easier than the flavor of a Beurre
d'Anjou pear or a Northern Spy apple.
In the market, size and color rule. At the table of the
amateur, size and color both come into consideration, but
are subordinate to flavor. Many a grower raises for sale
large crops of berries, like the Wilson, which he himself
does not deign to eat, having his own private bed of Len-
nig's White or Hovey, or some still rarer kind, to supply
himself and his family. In fact, I know dealers who, in
conversation upon strawberries, always make a wide dis-
tinction between berries that are good to sell and those
that are good to eat.
The education of the public taste is only a question of
time. Already there are some slight indications of im-
provement. The public has found that Hovey's Seedling
is better than the Wilson ; and La Constante, Triomphe de
Gand, and Jucunda have been promoted from amateur to
market varieties. Yet, to be strictly correct, we might
perhaps add, that the enormou% size to which the last-
named variety can be grown, has, probably, had much to
The Strawberry Book. 53
do with its advance in public favor, for in many soils it is
somewhat deficient in flavor.
To sum up, we may consider it certain that people who
love strawberries well enough to buy and eat berries so
poor as some of our market varieties are, would gladly
apply themselves to the education of their taste on better
kinds, if they could get them.
The Chili strawberries, although some of them are ex-
tolled for amateur culture, are of little value. They are
large, coarse, very apt to be hollow, with soft, poor-flavored
flesh. They have been so thoroughly intermingled with
other species, that it is very difficult to say of certain named
kinds that they are or are not partly Chilis.
The Chili Orange and Wilmot's Superb are pretty good
types of this class. The Lucida Perfecta I have fruited
three seasons, and find it worthless in this climate. It is
set down as a Chili, or a hybrid-Chili, in the catalogues.
The Souvenir de Nantes and Madame Eliza Vilmorin I
know only by reputation.
Hautbois strawberries find very few admirers in this
part of the country. La Belle Bordelaise, Royal Haut-
bois, and perhaps Bijou des Fraises are the best of the
class. Hautbois strawberries seem to be equally neglected
It is a common question to" ask a person who has tested
many varieties of strawberries what kinds he recommends
for general cultivation, and the writers in the horticultural
journals occasionally favor us with a revised list of the best
sorts. Yet to make out a catalogue of six varieties for two
different localities is a very difficult task. Still some gen-
eral idea may be given to a beginner of the kinds it will
be well for him to get together ; and he may have those
pointed out that will bear neglect, and those that need
If but one variety is desired, and if that must be one
that will bear neglect, and produce a tolerable crop some-
54 The Strawberry Book.
how, the Wilson stands first. It is too sour to eat ; but it is
an abundant and unfailing bearer, and generally sells well.
Downer's Prolific, as I know by trial, will bear decent
crops after three years' steady neglect, and is better than
the Wilson. French's Early requires but little care, and
is pretty good.
If, however, strawberries are desired for a family supply,
and can have decent garden culture, then the list of valuable
kinds lengthens till a choice becomes embarrassing. For
an early sort, Jenny Lind holds its place, coming in one
week before Hovey's Seedling and a week, I may say,
makes all possible difference both with the buyer in the
market and the gardener who is impatiently waiting for
his first picking.
After this come a host of well-proved kinds : Hovey and
its noble offspring the President Wilder, La Constante,
Jucunda, Russell's Prolific, a good berry, but a little out
of favor just now, Brighton Pine, Agriculturist, Tri-
omphe de Gand, and others which I need not specify.
Some rows of Jenny Lind for a first crop, a bed of
Hoveys with a row of Brighton Pine for a fertilizer, a
row of Triomphe de Gand and another of Jucunda for a
late berry (both of these two kinds in hills), will give a
good 'assortment for an ordinary garden.
La Constante, in a deep, rich soil, comes in late, and
makes a fine show, paying well for a little extra care, al-
though it is sometimes perverse and fickle. For a white
berry, Lennig's White (grown in rows, in a good soil,
with its runners clipped) stands at the head, and is really
a luscious fruit no better than the Bicton Pine, perhaps ;
but this latter kind is too poor a grower and too shy a
bearer to be much raised here.
The amateur grower needs no advice. It is his mission
to test everything that comes to hand, setting the good on
one side a scanty list it may be and the bad and in-
different on the other. I class together the bad and the
The Strawberry Book. 55
indifferent, for where we have so many good kinds we
need not trouble ourselves about a merely tolerable straw-
berry. Dr. Johnson's question, addressed to Boswell,
" Sir, how can you eat a tolerable egg," may well be
transferred to strawberries.
For market culture the list of good kinds must neces-
sarily be somewhat limited. It is not easy to find all the
characteristics of a good market berry united in one kind.
The plant must be hardy, vigorous, and an abundant
bearer, or else it is not worth growing ; the fruit must be
large, handsome, and, if possible, sweet, and of good
flavor. But absence of flavor or presence of acid will
not prevent a variety, good in other regards, from being
popular in the market. Witness the Wilson, of which,
sour and poor as it is, sixty-four hundred quarts have been
raised on five eighths of an acre.
Many kinds too numerous to detail have struggled hard
to get and hold a place among market varieties, but have
failed from one reason and another, for the capabilities of
a strawberry are put to a hard test when it is raised for
the market. If it has a weak side it will surely show it
under the searching trial it has to pass. Perhaps as good
a list of market kinds as can be made would comprise
Jenny Lind, Hovey, Wilson, the Brighton Pine, Jucunda,
and Triomphe cle Gand. I can see that many readers will
object to more than one kind here, but yet I believe that
that is as good an average as can be struck. In Massa-
chusetts, after a review of last year's market, we are
tempted to add the Lady of the Lake to this list, for it is
a good market berry here, and overwhelmingly productive
on certain soils.
I do not give merely my own opinion, which might
not be worth much, but that of experienced cultivators
and growers, who have seen many new seedlings rise and
fall, when I say that the President Wilder will undoubt-
edly become a standard market variety. It has all the
56 The Strawberry Book.
elements of a good market strawberry, and will certainly
prove a rival to some now popular kinds.
In England, Alice Maude, the famous British Queen, and
I believe Keens' Seedling, still hold their places as market
varieties Alice Maude for an early crop, and the Queen
for a later supply. There, as here, there is a host of con-
stantly renewed fancy and. amateur varieties.
The market price of English strawberries does not vary
very much from the prices in our markets. In 1867, in
the English market, Alice Maude strawberries sold early
in the season for one shilling and sixpence per basket, the
basket holding two thirds of a quart. Later in the season
they were sold at the rate of two shillings for three quarts.
Extra, selected British Queen strawberries sold from one
to two shillings per basket, and later in the season the
price fell to ninepence.
In France, the Elton and Princesse Royale are, or were
recently, very largely raised for market.
I cannot help adding here one word about strawberry
culture on a small scale in gardens.
It is amazing that so many comparatively good gardens
can be found in all parts of the country with not a straw-
berry bed in one quarter of them. I do not speak wholly
of garden patches, whose owners have no time to tend
and weed a strawberry bed, but of gardens belonging to
land-owners, who have time, men, horses, ploughs, and
manure at command, and who yet can never find room
enough for a good bed of strawberries. A very little ob-
servation teaches us that a well-cared-for strawberry bed
is the exception rather than the rule. Yet strawberries
are always welcome in their season ; everybody is fond of
them ; people who can hardly afford so expensive a luxury
buy them freely, and those who have no beds look with
longing, and may be envious, eyes at the plantations of
their more provident neighbors.
Then, too, those who raise their own fruit on a gen-
The Strawberry Book. 57
erous scale, pick and eat ad libitum; not harassed by
being limited to a given number of " boxes," but revelling
in fresh, sound, unpacked, and uninjured berries. This
luxury, which habit soon makes a necessity, and which is
not a mere gratification of the taste, but is really condu-
sive to sound health, costs but a trifle. I believe that ten
dollars will establish, and less than that amount expended
annually will maintain, a strawberry bed large enough to
meet through the season the demands of any ordinary
family. But ten dollars will not go far in buying choice
strawberries by the box. Knowing by experience how
pleasant it is to have good strawberries in abundance
through the season, I advise every owner of a garden to
set apart space enough for a good bed, to manure it well,
plant it with some good, productive kind, and never there-
after to be without a supply of luscious berries in their
It is worth noticing, that in most cases the neatest and
best beds of strawberries, except those of the market gar-
deners, are in gardens owned, or perhaps hired, by me-
chanics and laborers, who somehow find time to weed
and tend them before and after their hours of labor, and
whose success very often puts to shame their wealthier
neighbors, and affords a parallel to the Lancashire work-
men's gooseberry bushes.
It cannot, then, be bad advice to urge those who have
the land and the means to plant strawberry beds. For
three weeks in the year, at least, their families will call
CATALOGUE OF VARIETIES.
I HAVE thought it best to arrange the following varieties
alphabetically, as almost any other classification would be
impossible, or at least would lead to confusion and mis-
understanding. Not that the distinction between certain
species is not broad enough, but the innumerable acci-
dental and intentional crosses that have been produced
have made it next to impossible to fix exactly the botan-
ical rank and place of any named variety.
I may add that if any amateur wishes to study the
strawberry critically, he will get much help from the ad-
mirable essays in the yardin Fruitier du Museum, and
from the papers contributed by Knight and others to the
Transactions of the London Horticultural Society.
It is much to be desired that some competent botanist
would take in hand the whole question of species and
varieties in the strawberry family, and reduce to system
and order what is now considerably confused.
A thorough research would probably reduce the num-
ber of species to two or three.
Meanwhile it is very desirable that every originator of
a new seedling should keep a carefxl record of its origin.
From a comparison of these records with the varieties
produced, a good deal of light will one day be obtained.
The following is a pretty full list of the named varieties
of strawberries. In a subsequent edition I hope to make
60 The Strawberry Book.
it still more full and more accurate ; and I shall be much
obliged to any one who will help me in this matter. Of
the following varieties I have tested a great many, es-
pecially the foreign kinds, having fruited some of them
four years, and others fewer seasons ; others I have care-
fully observed in the plantations of friends and acquaint-
ances ; and for descriptions of the remaining varieties I
have had recourse to the best authorities I could com-
The following abbreviations have been used in this
list, viz. :
Downing Downing's Fruits and Fruit Trees of
America. Edition of 1869.
Hov. Mag Hovey's Magazine of Horticulture.
Hort . Horticulturist. New York.
Rev. Hort Revue Horticole. Paris.
Fuller Fuller's Small Fruit Culturist.
Alb. de Pom Album de Pomologie. Paris.
Lond. Hort. Soc. Trans. Transactions of the London Horticul-
Duham Duhamel. Traite des Arbres Fruitiers.
Jar. Mus Jardin Fruitier du Museum. (Quoted by
the volume, as the plates are not num-
A star (*) prefixed to the name of a variety shows that that va-
riety has been rejected by the United States Pomological Society.
CATALOGUE OF VARIETIES.
ABD-EL-KADER (Dr. Nicaise). Plant small, but vigorous ; leaf-
stalks long; leaves small ; fruit large to enormous, elongated,
orange vermilion ; seeds prominent; flesh salmon color;
sprightly, somewhat acid, but very good. New. Fig. in Rev.
Hort. 1869, 470.
* ABERDEEN BEE-HIVE. This is the old Grove End Scarlet.
ABINGTON BLUSH (Kohl). Conical; greenish white, with deep
scarlet red blush. Very handsome and good. Probably a seed-
ling of Lennig's White. Fig. in Gard. Month. IV. 211.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN (Plattman). A new American variety,
described as very promising. Name changed to President.
ADAIR (Elphinstone). (Syn. Sir Adair.} (?) An English va-
riety, described as very large, heart shaped, pointed, of a
deep varnished red, with rosy flesh. Vigorous and productive.
ADMIRAL DUNDAS (Myatt). This is an enormous English vari-
ety. A shy bearer at best, and the vines need to be two years
old to show their best fruit. Berries very large, sometimes
only eighteen to the pound, variable in form, sometimes cocks-
combed, bright orange, with seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy,
sugary, and pretty good for so large a berry. I have found
but very few and very small strawberries on one-year plants.
ADONIS (Prince). One of W. R. Prince's seedlings. Little known.
A,FRICAINE (Dr. Nicaise). New. Described by the originator as
a strong plant, with large, smooth leaves borne on short foot-
stalks; fruit shining, deep red, almost black, truncated, con-
ical ; seeds prominent ; sugary, juicy, and perfumed.
62 Catalogue of Varieties.
AGRICULTURIST (Boyden). Very large, often monstrous, irreg-
ularly conical, with a long neck. This peculiarity, viz., hav-
ing a distinct neck, is very noticeable* in seedlings from the
Agriculturist; color light crimson red; flesh deep red, juicy,
and about second rate in quality. Varies very much in different
seasons and localities. Fig. in Fuller, p. 88, and Hort. XXII.
Downing gives Abraham Lincoln and President as synonymes.
*AjAX (Nicholson). Large, roundish, deep red; seeds slightly
imbedded ; flesh pale red, juicy, and tolerably rich. An extraor-
dinarily vigorous plant, but a shy bearer. Forces well.
ALEXANDER II. (Gloede). New, 1869. Figured in the origina-
tor's catalogue for 1870, and there described as very large;
heart shaped, orange color, deeper on the sunny side ; flesh sal-
mon* color, very juicy, sugary, and perfumed. Early and pro-
ductive. The berries are said sometimes to exceed in size those
of Dr. Nicaise.
ALEXANDRA (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit very large, round-
ed, flattejied, horseshoe shaped, and often larger than the Dr.
Nicaise; bright orange red ; seeds yellowish, not prominent;
flesh rosy, of a pleasant flavor, brisk and sugary. A very good
and distinct variety. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869, 470.
* ALICE MAUDE. (Syn. Princess Alice Maude,} An English va-
riety of some repute, and a favorite early market kind at home.
With me the leaves have all burned before midsummer. Large,
conical, dark, glossy scarlet ; flesh light scarlet, juicy, rich and
ALICE NICHOLSON (Nicholson). Named by Nicholson for his
only daughter. Fruit medium to large, conical, with long
neck, rosy orange, shaded with yellow; seeds prominent; flesh
creamy white, buttery, melting, and exquisite. Fig. in Gloede's
Cat. for 1869.
AMAZONE (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit large to very large,
elongated conical, of a beautiful form and almost always regu-
lar; clear red, vermilion at the tip; seed little sunken ; flesh
rosy white, sugary, and perfumed, excellent. Plant half dwarf,
vigorous, hardy, and productive. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869,
AMBROSIA (Nicholson). Very large, roundish, dark shining red;
seeds deeply imbedded ; flesh rose colored, sugary, and full of
juice. It is said to force well. I have found it only a moderate
bearer. The berries have a slight mulberry flavor.
AMERICA (Keech). Large, obtuse conical, wedge shaped, crim-
Catalogue of Varieties. 63
son; flesh firm, juicy, rich subacid. The fruit ripens all at
once, and as early as the Early Scarlet. Originated in Water-
loo, N. Y.
AMERICAN QUEEN (Huntsman). Described by Fuller as large,
bright scarlet, pistillate.
ANANAS. (Syn. Praise Ananas.} Possibly a seedling of a Chili.
Fruit round or oval, brilliant rosy yellow; seeds few, large,
brown, prominent; flesh white, hollow, with a core; flavor su-
gary and delicate, never becoming bitter. Runners few, long,
and red. Plant vigorous, productive, and hardy in France,
where it was formerly cultivated largely for the Paris market.
Fig. in Jar. Mus. V.
ANANAS DE BRETAGNE. White-fruited.
ANANAS DE GUEMENE. Seedling of a Chili. Described as a mag-
nificent berry, rosy white, juicy, perfumed, late.
ANANAS DE LA HULLE.
ANANAS FOLIIS VARIEGATA. A striped leaved variety of the
above, with small red fruit.
ANANAS LECOQ^ A French variety. Fruit large or very large,
elongated, flattened, often truncated, bright red ; seeds promi-
nent; flesh rosy, sugary, and perfumed. Plant hardy, vigorous,
productive, and late. (Gloede.)
ANANAS PERPETUEL (Gloede). (Syn. Gloede's Perpetual Pine.}
Fruit medium, conical, sometimes flattened, scarlet red ; seeds
prominent; flesh white, moderately firm, juicy, and sugary.
Plant vigorous and productive. Said to bear a full crop in the
autumn if the runners are cut. Fig. in L'lllustration Horti-
cole, XIII. 501.
ANGELIQUE (Prince). Described by the originator as large, con-
ical, bright scarlet, juicy, of excellent flavor. Plant vigorous,
hardy, and productive.
ARIADNE (Prince). Described as rather large, conical, with a
slight neck, light scarlet, sweet, with very fine flavor. Pistil-
AROMATIC CRIMSON (Prince). A seedling from the Black Prince,
and like its parent.
ASA GRAY. Discovered by Professor Gray, in 1852, in Western
New York. Remarkable for its peculiar neck, for the bright,
transparent red of its skin, and for a peculiar wild flavor.
Seeds few, yellow on the shady side, red on. the other, very
deeply sunken. Fig. in Jar. Mus. II.
ASCOT PINE-APPLE (Standish). New, 1868. Figured in Gloede's
64 Catalogue of Varieties.
Catalogue 1868-9, and described as oval or conical, red, var-
nished; seeds prominent; flesh white with red veins, having a
decided pine-apple flavor. Season medium.
* ATHLETE. Originated in Easton, Pa. (?)
ATKINSON'S SCARLET. This is the Grove End Scarlet
ATLISTEL. ( ?)
AUGUSTA (Lebeuf). New, 1869. Figured in Gloede's Catalogue
of 1870, and described as of the largest size, elongated, flattened
or cockscombed, bright crimson red, with rosy flesh, very su-
gary, juicy, and perfumed. Vigorous, hardy, and productive.
AUGUSTE RETEMEYER (De Jonghe). 1854-5. Fruit large or very
large, roundish oval, vermilion red, sometimes white at the
end; seeds superficial; flesh salmon, firm, juicy, sugary, and
perfumed. Season medium.
AUGUSTS VAN GEERT. A Belgian variety, described as a good
bearer, with fruit of medium size, dark color, juicy and good.
AUSTIN. (Syn. Shaker Seedling.'} Originated at Watervliet, N. Y.
Accurately described by Fuller as large, roundish, slightly con-
ical; large specimens usually hollow, light pale scarlet; flesh
white, soft, acid. Third rate in flavor, and ought not to be tol-
erated any longer, though productive and vigorous.
AUTUMN SCARLET (Knight). A cross of Knight's Large Scarlet
with the Old Black. Originated in England in 1817. A good
bearer. Fruit necked, uniform dark shining red; seeds yellow,
deeply imbedded; flesh solid, firm, pale scarlet; flavor good.
Very late in ripening.
AVENIR (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fig. in Gloede's Catalogue
1868-9, and there described as somewhat like Marguerite, but
without the faults of that variety, being large to very large,
oval, brilliant vermilion red ; seeds superficial ; flesh white with
a hollow in the centre, juicy, and of a delicious perfume. Hardy,
vigorous, and productive.
AYTBURTH'S SEEDLING. Figured in the Album de Pomologie,
Due DE MALAKOFF.
BOYDEN'S No. 30.
Catalogue of Varieties, 65
BALTIMORE SCARLET. Synonyme of the Scotch Runner.
BARABOO. A Wisconsin strawberry.
BARGEMON. (Syn. Fragaria Majatifea, Fraisier de Bargemont,
Breslinge d'Angleterre, Cattcasian, Green Pine-apple, Green
Wood, Powdered Pine, Verte d' Angleterre , Fraisier Vert,
Williams' s Green Pine, Gilbert's Large Brown.} This very old
variety, which takes its name from a village in the Alps, has
been considered a distinct species ; but Fuller calls it a true
Alpine. Fruit small, roundish, bright violet red on one side,
greenish violet on the other; flesh greenish, melting, with a
raspberry flavor. Known in 1583. Fig. in Jar. Mus. IV., and
Duhamel, V. 269.
BARNES'S MAMMOTH (Barnes). Probably same as Barnes's Seed-
ling, which is described by Fuller as very large and handsome,
and promising to be a very valuable market variety. Very large,
roundish, obtusely conical, uneven, crimson; flesh scarlet, firm,
juicy, sprightly subacid. Originated in Poughkeepsie, N. Y.,
with D. H. Barnes.
BARNES'S WHITE. (?)
BARON BEMAN DE LINNICK (Deman de Lenm'cfc) (?). (Makoy.)
Very large, elongated, flattened cone, light scarlet; seeds prom-
inent; flesh pink, solid, sweet, and perfumed.
BARON DE QUADT (De Jonghe). 1865. Very large, elongated,
bright red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, juicy, and of exquisite
perfume. Dwarf, hardy, makes few runners. Very productive,
and season medium. (Originator's description.)
BARRY'S EXTRA (Barry). Light scarlet, fine flavor. Little
BARTLETT. Identical with Boston Pine.
BATH SCARLET. (Syn. Bath Strawberry, New Bath Scarlet,
Liverpool, Golden Drop, Devonshire, and probably others.)
An abundant bearer. Berries roundish ovate, small, with short
neck, scarlet; seeds dark, varnished red, and very promi-
nent ; flesh soft, with a large core, pale scarlet, coarse, and no
BATH STRAWBERRY. Origin unknown. This is the Fragaria
66 Catalogue of Varieties.
Calycina of Duchesne. Fruit round, slightly elongated, whi-
tish rose ; flesh spongy, whitish yellow, little juice ; fine flavor,
but disagreeable when too ripe. Fig. in Jar. Mus. V. Duha-
mel, III. 157, and Album de Pom. III. 20.
BAYNES' EARLY SCARLET. (Syn. Baynes" Favorite Scarlet.') (?)
BEATRICE (Prince). Described by the originator as large, ob-
tusely conical, deep scarlet, sweet, fine flavor, hardy, vigorous,
BEAUTY (Nicholson). Large, wedge shaped, good. An abun-
BEAUTY OF ENGLAND (Frewin). Large, heart shaped, bright
shining red; flesh clear red, juicy, sugary, and perfumed.
BELLE ARTESIENNE (Demay). Very large, conical, dark crim-
son, poor, and unproductive.
BELLE BORDELAISE. One of the best of the Hautbois varieties.
Roundish oval, dark brownish purple ; flesh white, juicy, sweet,
with a strong musky flavor. Gives sometimes a second crop,
but has not done so with Fuller in six years' cultivation. This
variety is said to be a cross of the old Hautbois with an Alpine.
BELLE BRETONNE (Boisselot). New, 1868. Figured in Gloede's
Catalogue for 1868-9. Described as very hardy and vigorous,
fruit-stalks long and firm, holding the berries well above
the leaves; fruit obtusely conical, bright, varnished red, with
prominent seeds; flesh rosy, firm, melting, and perfumed.
BELLE CAUCHOISE (Acher). New, 1869. Figured in catalogues,
and described as large to very large, oval or flattened, bright
cherry red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, firm, buttery, exqui-
BELLE DE BRUXELLES (Dejonghe). 1852.
BELLE DE MACHETAUX.
* BELLE DE PALLUA.
BELLE DE PARIS (Bossin). Fruit large, sometimes enormous,
obtusely conical or flattened, bright shining red, with sunken
seeds; flesh rosy, tender, with a brisk, sugary flavor. Vigor-
ous and productive. Late.
BELLE DE SCEAUX (Robine). Conical or oval, vermilion red;
seeds superficial ; flesh rosy, juicy, brisk flavored, and good.
BELLE DE ST. GILLES (De Jonghe). An Alpine. Originated
about 1845. Comes perfectly true from seed.
Catalogue of Varieties. 6f
BELLE DE VIBERT (Vibert). Large, conical, light crimson,
sweet, but not rich ; flesh firm. A handsome berry ; succeeds
poorly, except in a very few localities.
BELLE LYONNAISE (Nardy). New, 1868. Berry large, round,
rose colored: seeds prominent; flesh creamy white, melting,
sugary, and highly perfumed. Vigorous and productive. Late.
BELVIDERE (Prince). Large, conical, light scarlet, sweet, and
BENICEA (Prince). Described by the originator as very large,
obtusely conical, crimson ; flesh white, firm, sweet, fine flavor.
Vigorous and productive. Pistillate.
BERSILLA (Prince). Early, very large, bright scarlet, good.
Must be grown in hills.
BICOLOR (De Jonghe). 1849 or l &5- Medium size, conical,
light crimson, sweet and good. A poor grower.
BICTON PINE. (Syn. Belle Blanche, Deftford White, Excelsior?)
Large, roundish, pale flesh color, with a reddish tinge on the
sunny side. Bears a moderate crop of fragrant and tolerably
high flavored berries. Requires very careful winter protection.
Fig. in Hort. XII. 220, Alb. de Pom. IV. 78.
BIJOU (De Jonghe). 1859-60. Fruit medium to large, regularly
conical, bright shining rose color; seeds yellow and promi-
nent; flesh snow white, juicy, and moderatelv good. I have
fruited the Bijou four seasons, and find it a pretty berry, but a
BIJOU DES FRAISES (Wolf). Entirely distinct from the forego-
ing. A Hautbois strawberry.
BISHOP'S ORANGE. (Syn. Bishop's Neiv Orange, Hudson s Bay.}
Medium, conical, regular; color between orange and light scar-
let; flesh firm, rich, and excellent. Pistillate.
BISHOP'S SEEDLING SCARLET (Bishop). A seedling of the Hud-
son's Bay, and originated in England in 1819. A good bearer,
very late. Leaves light green, deeply serrate ; fruit moderate
size, round, with a neck, light scarlet, hairy, seeds deeply im-
bedded ; flesh solid, pale scarlet, of moderately good flavor.
BISHOP'S WICK. Large, conical, good.
BLACK CHILL- A mere sub-variety of darker color.
BLACK CONE. Medium, conical, third rate.
BLACK DEFIANCE . (Durand). New. Conical or cockscombed,
very dark crimson ; flesh solid, juicy, rich, and sprightly.
BLACK HAUTBOIS. A seedling of the conical Hautbois, raised in
68 Catalogue of Varieties.
1815. Fruit conical, dark dingy purple ; seeds little sunken ;
flesh buttery and high flavored. A great bearer, and early.
BLACK PINE. (Syn. Read's Black Pine.} Originated with William
H. Reed, Canada West. Large, short conical, nearly black,
glossy ; seeds yellow, slightly imbedded ; flesh firm ; of excel-
lent flavor. Late. Fig. in Hort. XIV. 560.
BLACK PRINCE (Wilmot)". Originated in England in 1820, and
known as Wilmot's Black Imperial. Seedling of Keens' s Impe-
rial. Medium size, spherical, hairy, very dark violet: seeds
slightly sunken ; flesh solid, very firm, rich dull scarlet, with
dark juice, a small core, and peculiar flavor.
BLACK PRINCE (Cuthill). (Syn. Black Imperial, Malcolm? s Aber-
deen Seedling?) Sent out in 1848. A prodigious bearer, with
medium-sized, long conical, dark colored fruit; sour in dull
weather, dry and middling in hot. Said to force well. Fig. in
Alb. de Pom. IV. 78.
BLACK ROSEBERRY (Williams). An old English variety, a cross
of the Roseberry with the Early Pitmaston Black. Fruit of
good size, bluntly conical, dark purple red; seeds sunken; flesh
dark red, solid, buttery, and juicy. Fig. in Pom. Mag I. 20.
BLANCHE D'ORLEANS. An Alpine strawberry; described as
larger than the Old White Alpine.
BLUSH PINE (?).
BONTE DE ST. JULIEN (Carre). A very productive and delicious
berry. Fruit medium to large, brilliant, but rather dark red ;
flesh red, very sweet and high flavored. I have fruited this
kind, and esteem it highly.
*BOSTOCK. (Syn. Rostock, Rostock Seedljng, Rostock Pine, Wel-
lington, Cone, Byram, Caledonian, Vernon's, Montague's, Pro-
lific Bath, New Bath, Whitley 's Pine, Seattle's Seedling.
Erroneously, Bath Scarlet, Chinese, Red Chili, Devonshire
Chili?) A somewhat celebrated English variety. An abun-
dant bearer. Fruit very large, nearly round, with a small neck;
dark shining red on the sunny side, light scarlet on the other;
seeds prominent; flesh pale scarlet, coarse, hollow; no flavor.
BOSTON BEAUTY. A rather new seedling strawberry, said to
have originated near Boston. I have seen fruit of this variety
raised by Mr. Talbot, of South Dedham, Mass., which was large,
handsome, and good, but it seemed a little soft, and somewhat
resembled Rivers's Eliza.
BOSTON PINE (Hovey). (Syn. Bartlett.~) A cross of the Grove
End Scarlet and Keens's Seedling. Medium to large, obtusely
conical, light crimson ; flesh light colored, sweet, and excellent.
Catalogue of Varieties. 69
Plant vigorous and productive; best grown in hills in a rich,
deep soil. The berries lose their color soon after being gath-
ered. This variety has been largely used as a fertilizer for
Hovey's Seedling. Fig. in Hovey's Fruits of America, I. 27.
BOUDINOT PROLIFIC (Boudinot). A seedling of the Wilson.
Originated in Alexandria, Ohio, in 1862. Vine hardy and pro-
ductive; fruit regularly conical, uniform, firm and large;
flavor like Agriculturist.
BOUHON (Gloede). Said to be like Sir Charles Napier in growth.
Flesh firm, very juicy and sugary.
BOULE D'OR (Boisselot). Very large, round, flattened, bright
glossy orange-scarlet; seeds prominent; flesh white, sweet,
and good. Fig. in Fuller, p. 104, and described by Gloede
as " probably the handsomest strawberry known."
BOYDEN'S MAMMOTH. Said to be identical with Trollope's Vic-
toria. Described as a roundish, depressed, deep crimson.
Vigorous, but not very productive.
BOYDEN'S No. 15 (Boyden). New. Described as very large,
productive, and beautiful.
BOYDEN'S No. 30 (Boyden). An immense roundish, conical ber-
ry, with a long neck ; crimson or dark scarlet. As I saw it last
summer, it was a very striking exhibition berry, but too soft.
BRESLINGE D'ANGLETERRE. (Syn. de Pennsylvam'e.} A green
strawberry, Roundish, ovate, very small and poor.
BREWER'S EMPEROR. Medium, ovate, dark red, and good. An
BRIDGETOWN PINE. A Connecticut seedling.
BRIGHTON PINE (Scott). Medium to large, roundish conical,
with short neck ; light crimson ; flesh a little soft, sweet, juicy,
and good. Much employed by cultivators near Boston as a
fertilizer for Hovey's Seedling.
BRILLIANT (Prince). Large, conical, deep crimson.
BRITISH QUEEN (Myatt). This is perhaps the most famous
strawberry ever raised in England, and has been very widely
grown there,' where it is a favorite market berry. Unfortu-
nately, it does not come to full perfection here ; and it is not
only tender, but very capricious in its choice of soils. It is the
parent of many excellent kinds. Fruit of the largest size,
roundish, slightly conical, rich scarlet; flesh pure white, and
of the highest flavor. Forces admirably. Fig. in Hort. VII.
363, Album de Pomologie, III. 20.
70 Catalogue of Varieties.
BRITISH QUEEN SEEDLING. Fruit medium-sized, obtusely con-
ical, dark red, and greatly inferior to its parent, the preceding.
BRITISH SOVEREIGN (Stewart and Neilson). Said not only to
possess the good qualities of the British Queen, but to be more
vigorous, hardy, and productive..
BRITTANY WHITE PINE. Described as a high flavored berry, but
a poor setter.
BROOKLYN SCARLET (Fuller). Medium to large, regular coni-
cal, with neck, bright scarlet; flesh very soft, sweet, rich, and
excellent. Plant very vigorous ; rather too rank a grower; in
fact, making an amount of leaves out of proportion to the
quantity of fruit. One of the best flavored strawberries I have
ever raised, but too soft for anything but home use. Fig. in
Fuller, p. 89. Hort. XXII. 266.
BROOKS'S PROLIFIC. Synonyme of the Iowa.
BRUNE DE GILBERT. (Syn. Gilbert's Brown.} An Alpine
strawberry. Said to be small and high flavored.
BRYAN'S SATISFACTION (Bryan). Originated in Vineland, New
Jersey, and is a cross of Hooker and Wilson's Albany. Me-
dium sized, very uniform, heart-shaped, rich, glossy crimson.
Very rich flavored. New.
BUFFALO. Synonyme of McAvoy's Superior.
BUIST'S PRIZE (Buist). Good size, nearly round, light color;
flesh rather soft; flavor good. Plant a strong grower, and tol-
BULLOCK'S BLOOD. An old English variety ; a shy bearer, and
late. Fruit ovate, large, uniform, light shining red ; seeds dark
red on the sunny side, yellow on the other, and prominent ;
flesh pale red, firm, juicy, of very indifferent flavor.
BURR'S NEW PINE (Burr). Pistillate. Large, pale red; flavor
highly aromatic, sweet, and delicious. Early and productive.
Originated with Zerah Burr, Columbus, O. Fig. in Thomas's
Fruit Culturist, p. 422.
* BURR'S OHIO MAMMOTH (Burr). Large, roundish, light colored,
tolerably good flavor; frequently hollow. Not recommended.
* BURR'S SEEDLING (Burr). (Syn. Burr's Old Seedling, Burr's
Staminate.} Large, roundish-conical, light scarlet; flesh juicy,
BUSH ALPINE, RED. (Syn. Wood Strawberry, Buisson a Friiit
Rouge, Commun Sans Filets, Sans Coulans ordinaire, Sans
Filets ordinaire, De Gaillon a Fruit Rouge.} Medium,
roundish-ovate, sub-acid, dry, agreeable. The plants make
Catalogue of Varieties. 71
few or no runners, and are propagated by dividing the roots.
Suited for the edging of garden beds.
BUSH ALPINE, WHITE. (Sjn. White Wood Strawberry, Buis-
son des Alpes Blanc, Buisson a Fruit Blanc.) Similar to the
above, except that it continues in bearing all the season.
BYBERRY. A new Americam seedling, little known as yet.
CALEB COPE. An American strawberry; described as large,
pointed, scarlet, white-fleshed and pistillate.
CALLIOPE (Prince). Described as larger than Hovey's. Obovate,
CAMBRIAN PRINCE (Roberts). New, 1869. Figured and de-
scribed in Gloede's Catalogue for 1870, as a large and beautiful
berry, oval elongated, clear vermilion; flesh salmon color,
juicy and refreshing. Plant extraordinarily vigorous and pro-
CANADA. Said to be a cross between Wilson's Albany and Tri-
omphe de Gand. Not yet much known, but described as large,
beautiful, and hardy.
CAPTAIN COOK (Nicholson). Fruit generally roundish ovate,
but irregular; red with frequently a green point; flavor hardly
second rate. Habit dwarf, leaf-stalks hairy, leaflets small oval,
CARMINE SCARLET (Williams). (Syn. Carmine Roseberry.*)
Originated in Pitmaston, England, in 1820. Dwarf, leaves nu-
merous, medium size, deeply serrate, light green. Fruit large,
obtusely conical, brilliant varnished red ; seeds slightly im-
bedded ; flesh pale scarlet, firm, and high flavored. Late.
CARNIOLA MAGNA (Dejonghe). A fine fruit; size large, form
oval, color bright shining red; seeds superficial ; flesh rosy,
with red veins ; hollow, firm, juicy, and melting. Plant vigor-
ous and productive.
CAROLINA. (Syn. Bath Scarlet, Old Pine.} A moderate bearer,
and one requiring the highest cultivation. Fruit of the richest
CAROLINA CHILI. A Chili seedling, formerly cultivated in this
CAROLINA SUPERBA (Kitley). Fruit large, of a beautiful rounded
72 Catalogue of Varieties.
heart-shape, oiange red; seeds prominent; flesh firm, pure
white, very sweet, and highly perfumed. Hardy and produc-
tive. Forces well.
CECILIA (Prince). Described as large, pointed-conical, crimson.
CERES (Lebeuf). New, 1869. Figured in Gloede's Catalogue for
1870, and there described as large, or very large, elongated
conical, truncated ; color deep red ; flesh red, firm, sugary, and
juicy. Plant vigorous and productive. A seedling of JIaquin,
which it surpasses.
CHAMPION (Neff). Large, firm, melting, sweet. Originated
with Dr. J. C. Neff, Carlisle, Pa.
CHAMPION MONTEVIDEO (Prince). Large and late.
CHARLES DOWNING (Downer). Very large, nearly regular, con-
ical, deep scarlet; seeds brown and yellow, set rather deep;
flesh firm, pink, juicy, sweet, and good. Vines vigorous, tall,
and productive. I have seen this variety in fruit several times,
and it did not appear to rrte to make good all that had been said
in its favor.
CHARLES DOWNING (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Figured in
Gloede's Catalogue, and there described as of medium size, oval
shape, brilliant red, with very prominent seeds ; flesh white,
very firm, melting, and of an exquisite perfume. Plant vig-
orous and productive, and called " a worthy companion of La
CHARLES'S FAVORITE. Fruit large, conical, bright scarlet; seeds
deeply imbedded ; flesh red, solid, sweet, juicy, and pleasant.
Handsome, hardy, and productive. A seedling from Hovey's.
CHARLET. A sub-variety of the Alpine class.
CHARLOTTE (Keens). (Syn. Princess Charlotte.} Raised in
England about 1820. Leaves dense on hairy foot-stalks, with
oblong, thick, smooth, dark green leaflets. Fruit round, me-
dium size, hairy, dark purplish red. Flesh scarlet, firm, high
CHARLTON'S PROLIFIC. Said to be a seedling of the Iowa; but
Fuller is unable to see any difference between the two varieties.
CHATAUOJJE PERPETUAL. Probably an Alpine strawberry.
CHILI. (Syn. Patagonian, GreenivelVs.} Introduced into Europe
in 1712. Large, irregular ovate or bluntly conical, dull brown-
ish red ; seeds dark brown and prominent ; flesh slightly red
Catalogue of Varieties. 73
near the outside, whitish within; hollow, with a small core;
flavor poor and acid. Leaves coarse, hairy, and stout. A mere
curiosity. Fig. in Duham. III. 160.
CHILI BLANC ROSE. Very large, rounded, very regular, white,
slightly tinted with rose on the sunny side; seeds brown and
prominent; flesh white, hollow, juicy, and perfumed. Only
moderately productive, and said to be best adapted to pot cul-
ture. Very late; perhaps the latest strawberry known.
CHILI ORANGE. (Syn. Praise Souchet.} A good and handsome
fruit; distinct and late. Fig. in Duham. III. 159.
CHILI VELU. (Syn. Lamana, Premices de Bagnolet.} Fruit large,
rounded, sometimes lobed, dull red, inferior.
CHILIAN (Newland). (Syn. Pyramidal Chilian, Neivland.} Me-
dium, conical, bright crimson, acid, but good flavor; plant
hardy and productive; of no especial value. Originated in
CHINESE STRAWBERRY. (Syn. North's Seedling, North's Large
Scarlet, Red Chili.} A very old variety, and probably a seed-
ling of a Chili. A great bearer, with medium sized, round,
compressed berries of a pale varnished red. Seeds brown and
prominent; flesh soft, with a great core; light pink, woolly,
and of a poor flavor.
CHOIX D'UN CONNOISSEUR (De Jonghe). 1849 or I 85- A me -
dium sized berry, with dark colored prominent seeds, and a
peculiar sugary flavor.
CINNAMON SCARLET. Medium, roundish, poor. An old English
CLARENCE (Prince). Very large, obtusely conical, crimson, fine
CLARISSA (Prince). Medium, conical, light scarlet, sweet,
showy, and productive. Pistillate.
CLEOME (Prince). Large, short cone, light scarlet, very sweet.
CLIMAX (Prince). Pistillate. Vines very vigorous; fruit of a
very large average size, beautiful light scarlet, but not of first
quality as regards flavor.
CLIMAX SCARLET. Described as soft, dry, spongy, sour.
CLINTON (Camfield). A rather new, and little known New Jer-
sey variety. Large, roundish, crimson ; flesh firm, juicy, sub-
acid. Originated with Elias Camfield, Newark, N. J.
CLUSTERED SCARLET STRAWBERRY. (Syn. Clustered Wood Ptne.'}
Leaflets large, flat, coarse, serrate, hairy, yellowish green;
fruit obtusely conical, dark purplish red next the sun ; seeds
74 Catalogue of Varieties.
same color as the fruit, unequally imbedded; flesh scarlet,
firm, well flavored. An old variety.
GOBI PROLIFIC. Described as producing a fair crop of large,
roundish, slightly flattened, dark red berries of medium flavor.
COCKSCOMB. An English seedling; described as being of a rosy
salmon color, with rosy white flesh. Possibly identical with
the Cockscomb Scarlet.
COCKSCOMB SCARLET (Wilmot). A seedling of Keens's Imperial.
Originated in 1808. A good bearer; late. Fruit large, com-
pressed ; the earlier berries very large, and completely cocks-
comb shape; bright scarlet; seeds pale, slightly imbedded;
flesh pale scarlet, solid, large core, good flavor. Runners few;
leaflets very large and nearly round ; dark shining green. Re-
quires a rich soil.
CCEUR ST. INNOCENT.
COLES'S PROLIFIC (Coles). Originated near Bath, England.
Described as of a deeper color than Alice Maude ; largest size,
conical, and high flavored.
COLFAX. An American variety, introduced into South Bend,
Indiana, about fifteen years ago, by Schuyler Colfax. Medium,
roundish, very uniform, dark crimson, soft, and poor. Hardy,
and a rank grower.
COLONEL ELLSWORTH (Fuller). Very large, irregularly conical,
with a long neck ; color dark scarlet, fading to a dull crimson ;
flesh firm, dry, sweet, not rich. A moderate grower, and pro-
ductive. Apt to burn on warm soils.
* COLUMBUS (Burr). A cross of Hovey with Burr's. Originated
in Columbus, O. Large, nearly round, dark color, rich, sweet
flavor, productive, and hardy.
* COMPTE DE FLANDRE. Large, conical, good flavor. Fig. in
Hort. XIV. 420.
* COMPTE DE PARIS (Pelvilain). Fruit large, heart-shaped,
deep brilliant red ; seeds superficial ; flesh red, tender, juicy,
and brisk flavored; by some considered too acid. Vigorous
and productive ; very late.
COMPTE DE ZANS. A Belgian variety, of medium growth, con-
ical or wedge-shaped, bright colored, moderately good flavor,
COMPTESSE DE BEAUMONT. Syn. of Duchesse de Beaumont (?).
* COMPTESSE DE MARNES (Graindorge). Fruit large or very
large, varying very much in shape ; bright varnished red ; seeds
Catalogue of Varieties. 75
sunken ; flesh rosy, tender, juicy, and sweet. Vigorous, and
good for forcing. The fruiting period very short.
COPPER-LEAVED ROSEBERRY. An old English berry. Medium,
conical, and poor.
COPPOCK'S No. i (Coppock). Little known.
COQUELICOT (Dr. Nicaise). Described as vigorous, with leaves
large, light colored, and thin ; fruit long, poppy-red (hence the
name Coquelicot) ; seeds prominent; flesh rosy white, very
sugary, brisk, and perfumed.
CORDOVA MONTEVIDEO (Prince). Large, conical, light scarlet,
CORINNE (Prince). Large, obtusely conical, crimson, sweet.
CORNISH DIAMOND (Mrs. Clements). New, 1869. Fig. in
Gloede's Catalogue for 1870. Resembling in shape Boule d'Or.
Fruit very large, cockscombed, very deep red ; flesh firm, red,
sweet, and highly perfumed. Vigorous, productive, and late.
CORNUCOPIA (Nicholson). A seedling of the Filbert Pine, but
not quite equal to it in flavor. Large, heart-shaped, orange
red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, veined with red. Described
as hardy and astonishingly productive.
CORNUCOPIA (Prince). Large, conical, bright scarlet ; flesh soft
and sweet, good.
CORONATION. Described as good, early, and productive.
CORONET SCARLET (Prince). Medium, rounded, scarlet, pro-
COULS'S LATE SCARLET. (Syn. Sir George Mackenzie's Late
Scarlet.} Medium size, deep color, good flavor. Moderately
productive. About second rate in quality.
Cox's SEEDLING (Cox). (Syn. Cox's Hybrid.} (?) A seedling
of the Elton Pine, but not so good. Large, light red, very ir-
regular; flavor good, but a little acid. A good bearer, and
very late. The above description agrees with that of Cox's
* CREMONT. (Syn. Cremont Perpetual, General Havelock} (?)
This is a large, handsome, showy berry, which originated in
Louisiana. It is occasionally raised in Massachusetts, and ex-
hibited as the Cremont, while the foreign lists make it the
same as General Havelock. The latter I have had one season.
y6 Catalogue of Varieties.
CRESCENT SEEDLING. Said to be a cross between the British
Queen and Keens's Seedling. This created a slight sensation
several years ago as a so-called perpetual strawberry, and was
then said to have been fruited seven consecutive months in New
Orleans. Probably out of cultivation now.
CRIMSON CLUSTER (Mrs. Clements). Medium, round or oval,
deep red ; flesh rosy, sweet, juicy, with a distinct cherry taste.
Said to be hardy and productive.
CRIMSON CONE. (Syn. Pine-apple, Scotch Runner, &c.) Me-
dium, regular, conical, long neck; seeds deep sunken; light
crimson ; flesh firm, acid, rich flavor, and highly perfumed. An
old variety. Too small and too sour, but largely raised for the
New York market. Pistillate. Fig. in Fuller, p. 90.
CRIMSON FAVORITE (Fuller). Large, obtusely conical, dark
shining crimson ; flesh firm, rich, and sprightly. Seedling of
the Wilson, resembling its parent in its fruit, but not in its
CRIMSON PERFUMED (Prince). Large, obovate, crimson, sweet,
high flavored, and productive. Pistillate.
CRIMSON PROFUSE (Prince). Medium, rounded, acid, crimson,
CRIMSON PROLIFIC Prince). Medium, conical, crimson, sweet,
and good. Pistillate.
CRIMSON QUEEN (Myatt). (Syn. Doubleday's No. 2.) Fruit
large, variable, dull red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, sweet,
and perfumed. Vines feeble, but productive. Late. One cul-
tivator describes this variety as " a good grower," and another
calls the fruit bright scarlet, acid.
CRYSTAL PALACE is said to be Eleanor (Myatt).
CULVERWELL'S SEEDLING. Long, tapering, ridgy, very dark,
blackish red; flesh firm and rich. English.
GUSHING (Brinckle). Medium, roundish, conical, light scarlet;
flesh tender, sprightly, and pleasant. Originated in Philadel-
CUTTER'S SEEDLING (Cutter). (Syn. Bunce.} Small to me-
dium, conical, with short neck, bright scarlet; seeds yellow
and brown ; fle'sh moderately firm, -sprightly, and good. Very
early and productive, but by no means a first class fruit. I have
known twenty-six hundred quarts raised on one half acre of
land, with not the highest cultivation. Originated in Massa-
chusetts, where it is raised for market.
CYNTHIA (Prince). Large, round, crimson, exquisite flavor.
Catalogue of Varieties, 77
DAGGE'S SEEDLING (Fuller). New, and little known.
DELANYS' SEEDLING. Little known.
DELICES D'AUTOMNE (Makoy). A beautiful, large, light crim-
son variety, of excellent quality. Fruit medium to large, clear
red ; seeds superficial ; flesh rosy white, and soft. Said to be
tender, but with Fuller, has proved hardy and productive.
Does not bear a second crop, though its name seems to indicate
this. Fig. in L'lllustration Horticole, II. 52.
DELICES DU PALAIS (Dr. Nicaise).
DE MONTREUIL A FRUIT BLANC.
DE MONTREUIL A FRUIT ROUGE. (Syn. De Montreuila Marteau,
Fressant, De Ville de Bois.} A sub- variety of the Alpine or
DENBEIGH SEEDLING. An English variety. Large, coarse, and
DEPTFORD PINE (Myatt). Fruit medium to large, intermediate
in color between the British Queen and Eliza; flesh firm, melt-
ing, rather acid. Hardier than the British Queen. Fig. in Jar.
DIACK'S SEEDLING. (Syn. New Aberdeen.} Large, round, third
DIADEM (Prince). Little known. Described by the origina-
tor as an enormous bearer. Fuller says it is large, globular,
light scarlet; seeds deeply sunk; flesh soft, acid, and agree-
DOCTOR HOGG (Bradley). New, 1867. An immense, irregular
shaped berry, often cockscombed ; bright shining orange, with
very prominent seeds ; flesh creamy white, firm, melting, very
sweet, extremely rich, and perfumed. Hardy, vigorous, and
late. This variety has found some favor in England as an ex-
hibition fruit. Fig. in Gloede's Catalogue 1868-9.
DOCTOR KARL KOCH (Dejonghe). 1854 or 1855.
DOCTOR NICAISE (Dr. Nicaise). A French strawberry, raised by
the late Dr. Nicaise, an eminent amateur grower of seedling
strawberries. It first fruited in June, 1863, and from its enor-
mous size, became an object of great interest to all amateurs.
I have fruited it two seasons, and find it a moderate grower;
78 Catalogue of Varieties.
very unproductive, with light green, unhealthy looking foliage,
and bearing a few enormous crimson, misshapen, cockscombed
berries, often ripe on one side, and green on the other. Flesh
soft, hollow, very poor flavor. Fig. in Rev. Horticole, 1865,
DOCTOR THOMPSON (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Leaves deep
green, without lustre; lobes horizontal, regularly incised;
corolla small ; fruit medium to large, conical, regular, shining
cherry red; seeds abundant, slightly sunken ; flesh pale cherry,
juicy and brisk.
DOWNER'S PROLIFIC (Downer). Originated in Kentucky. Me-
dium to large, roundish oval, light scarlet; seeds deeply im-
bedded; flesh soft, acid, good flavor, and perfume of the wild
strawberry. Early, hardy, and productive. I have had a bed
bear a good crop of medium berries after three years' neglect.
Good for a near market.
*DOWNTON (Knight). (Syn. Knights Seedling, Knighfs Straw-
berry.} An old and formerly much esteemed English straw-
berry. Originated about 1817, being a cross between the
so-called Old Black strawberry, and a large Scarlet. Fruit
large, ovate, often cockscombed, dark purple scarlet ; flesh scar-
let, firm, and very high flavored. Fig. in Pom. Mag. II. 52,
and Lond. Hort. Soc. Trans. III. 396.
DUCHESSE DE BEAUMONT (Lorio). Large to very large; varia-
ble, bright shining red; seeds superficial ; flesh rosy, with red
veins, juicy, sweet, and perfumed. Plant vigorous and produc-
tive. Medium in ripening.
DUCHESSE DE BERGUES. A white wood strawberry, said to be
large and productive.
DUCHESSE DE TREVISE. Syn. of Vicomtesse Hericart de Thury.
Due DE BRABANT. Large, long conical, bright shining red,
musky and agreeable.
Due DE MALAKOFF (Gloede). One of the most satisfactory
French varieties that I have fruited for an amateur's strawberry.
Berries enormous, sometimes weighing one and one half
ounces; variable, cockscombed, dull red; seeds prominent;
flesh very juicy, and with a sort of mulberry flavor. Vigorous,
moderately productive, and as hardy as any foreign kind. Said
to be a cross of a Chili and the British Queen.
Du POTAGER IMPERIAL DE VERSAILLES. A French sub-variety
of the Alpine class.
DUDSON HOUSE SCARLET.
Catalogue of Varieties. 79
DUKE (Durand). New, and little known.
DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE (Stewart and Neilson). Very large, ob-
tusely conical, bright scarlet red; seeds promment; flesh rosy
white, firm, sugary, and brisk. Described as a very beautiful
fruit. Hardy, productive, and late.
DUKE OF CORNWALL (Mrs. Clements). Fruit very large, heart
shaped, brilliant vermilion red; seeds prominent; flesh orange,
sweet, juicy, and perfumed. Hardy and productive. Season
DUKE OF EDINBURGH (Dr. Roden). New, 1869. Figured in
Gloede's Catalogue, and described as a superb fruit; large to
enormous, round or oval, necked; varnished salmon color;
seeds very prominent; flesh white, firm, melting, sugary, and
delicious. Vines vigorous, hardy, and very productive.
DUKE OF KENT SCARLET. (Syn. Globe Scarlet, Cluster do.,
Austrian do., Oatland's do., Duke of Tork do., Prolific do.,
Early do. do., Nova Scotia doC) Sent to England from Hal-
ifax in 1802, and widely disseminated. Globular, medium to
small, rich bright scarlet; flesh solid, pale scarlet; flavor sharp
and peculiar. Fruit-stalks very variable in length. Early and
DUNCAN'S SEEDLING. A seedling of Keens's Seedling. Origi-
nated near Bristol, England. Large, dark colored, and high
DUNDEE. Medium, roundish oval, light scarlet, rich acid flavor,
productive and late. Pistillate.
DURAND'S SEEDLING (Durand). Originated near Newark, N. J.
Large, oblong conical, variable, scarlet; flesh firm, solid, nearly
white, highly perfumed, and of good flavor. Plant hardy, vig-
orous, and productive. Considered promising by Fuller. Fig.
in Hort. XXII. 267.
DURFEE'S SEEDLING. An American ( ?) variety. Acid, and out
DUTCH STRAWBERRY. An old variety. It resembles the Chinese
and the Surinam. Flesh pale red, hollow, woolly, with a core.
8o Catalogue of Varieties.
EARLY GLOBE. Roundish, medium, second quality, acid. Eng-
* EARLY MAY. Early, obtuse cone, deep scarlet, moderately
good. Said to have originated with Robert Buist.
EARLY PROLIFIC (Dr. Roden). New, 1869. Figured in Gloede's
Catalogue for 1870, and described as a variety of very great
merit. Fruit of the largest size, elongated oval, shining scar-
let; seeds prominent; flesh white, firm, melting, very sweet,
and of an incomparable perfume. Hardy, of elegant growth,
and extremely productive, bearing fruit even .on the present
year's runners. Excellent for forcing.
EARLY SCARLET. An old variety, now little grown. Medium,
conical, light scarlet; flesh firm, moderately acid.
EARLY VIRGINIA. See LARGE EARLY SCARLET.
EARLY WASHINGTON. Described as a great bearer, hardy, and
early. Fruit medium, round, uniform, orange scarlet, of fair
flavor, but very doubtful whether distinct or not from the Iowa.
* EBERLEIN. (Syn. Eberleirfs Seedling.} An American seed-
ling. Described by Mr. M. P. Wilder as productive, with some
Hautbois flavor. Medium, conical, dark scarlet, sweet, and
ECLIPSE (Reeves). English. Large, round, or heart shaped,
regular, bright red; seeds not deeply imbedded; flesh white,
firm, sweet, perfumed, and very rich. Hardy, productive, and
ECLIPSE (Prince). American. Small to medium, light bright
crimson ; fruit-stalks very strong, holding the fruit well up ;
good, but not rich ; early, and ripens its whole crop in a few
ELEANOR (Myatt). (Syn. Crystal Palace.} Fruit very large,
conical, long, flattened, bright scarlet; flesh juicy and good.
In this country a poor bearer, setting about one fourth of its
berries. Sometimes the fruit is acid.
ELECTRA (Prince). Medium, conical, dark scarlet, poor flavor.
* ELIZA (Myatt). Fruit medium, ovate, with a neck; light red;
flesh pale red next the outside, whitish towards the centre;
Catalogue of Varieties. 81
juicy, sweet, rich, and exquisite. Leaf-stalks hairy; leaflets
roundish oval, obtusely serrate. A good bearer in England
and hardier there than the British Queen. Medinm in ripen-
ELIZA (Rivers). An excellent strawberry, and a tolerably good
bearer. Leaves large, deep green, deeply serrate. Fruit very
large, light colored. Described in foreign catalogues as orange.
Here it is light crimson. The flesh is somewhat soft, but of
exquisite flavor. It came into notice a few years since, when
the Rippowam was introduced. I can see no difference in the
two, having grown the Eliza several seasons.
ELIZABETH. A pistillate seedling of Burr's Pine.
ELLA. New. Said to be large, and fine and early. Little known.
* ELTON (Knight). (Syn. Elton Seedling, Elton Pine.} Origi-
nated in England about 1827, and a very prominent variety
there and on the continent. So late as 1863, two hundred and
forty acres of this strawberry were cultivated in the environs
of Paris for the market of that city. Fruit very beautiful,
large oval, bright red ; seeds fine, numerous, brilliant yellow;
flesh blood red, acid, not sugary, but of good flavor. Fig. in
Pom. Mag. III. 135.
ELTON IMPROVED (Ingram). Fruit large, conical or flattened,
bright shining red ; flesh red, juicy, sugary, melting, and per-
EMERITE (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Plant dwarf and strong;
foliage like La Constante, and fruit like Bijou, but larger, and
elongated conical, bright cherry red ; seeds on the surface ;
flesh firm, flesh-colored, juicy, and delicate.
EMILY (Huntsman). American. Originated in Flushing, New
York. Little known, but said to be very large, and of excellent
EMILY (Myatt). Fruit large, flattened conical, pale rose ; seeds
brown, prominent; flesh creamy white, juicy, sweet, and per-
fumed. A very distinct strawberry. Said to be hardy and pro-
EMMA (De Jonghe). Fruit large, obtusely conical, bright shin-
ing red ; seeds few, sunken ; flesh rosy white, juicy, sweet, and
perfumed. Hardy, productive, and forces well. The above is
the description of the Emma ; but a spurious and wretchedly
poor berry, which I have fruited, has been sold as the Emma in
this country. Fig. in Tilton's Jour. Hort. VII. 156.
EMPRESS EUGENIE. (Knevett). Raised in 1854. Plant very vig-
82 Catalogue of Varieties.
orous, making large, compact hills, but setting its fruit poorly.
Berries sometimes enormous, round, and cockscombed ; shining
purple red, juicy, and good. I have fruited this variety one
season, when it proved very unproductive. It is said to force
well. Fig. in Rev. Hort. I. 70.
ERNESTINE (Prince). Very large, oblong conical, necked, light
scarlet; flesh scarlet, juicy, sprightly, fine flavor. Vigorous and
ESCULENTA. Old, medium size, a long time in fruit.
EUGENE (Prince). Rather large, conical, crimson, necked, very
sweet, fine flavor, rather late. Plant vigorous and productive.
EUGENIA (Prince). Described as large, obovate, light scarlet,
sweet, high flavored.
EUREKA (Prince). Large, regularly conical, light scarlet, firm,
juicy, sweet, high flavor, and excellent. Plant vigorous, hardy,
and exceedingly productive. Pistillate.
EVER-BEARING ANDINE. Said to be new; probably an old Alpine.
*EXCELLENTE (Lorio). Fruit very large, oval or variable, some-
times round and lobed ; deep red ; flesh rosy, sweet, juicy, and
perfumed. Said by Gloede to be worthy of its name.
EXCELSA (Prince). Large, rounded, compressed, crimson, fine
EXCELSIOR (Heffron). (?)
EXCELSIOR (Prince). Very large, obtusely conical or rounded;
necked, deep scarlet; high flavor, and good. Vines vigorous.
EXHIBITION (Nicholson). Fruit medium, oblong, ovate or irreg-
ular, bright red; seeds prominent; flesh dull yellow, and of
poor flavor. Leaf-stalks hairy ; leaflets roundish, sharply ser-
rate. A good bearer, but of poor quality.
EXPOSITION DE CHALONS (Dr. Nicaise). Vines vigorous, strong,
moderately productive. Berries very obtusely conical, dark
red, or purple ; flesh rosy, with red streaks, juicy, and of a
very peculiar flavor. I have fruited it three or four seasons,
but consider it curious rather than useful. In France it is said
to stand the drought well.
Catalogue of Varieties. 83
FAIRY QUEEN. Raised at the royal garden of Frogmore.
Large, long conical, bright rosy orange; seeds prominent;
flesh snow white, firm, juicy, highly perfumed. Very hardy
FANNY (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Plant strong and vigorous;
leaves large, pale, dull green, acquiring finally a straw color;
deeply incised ; fruit conical, regular, cherry red, with abun-
dant seeds. The flesh is "dull white, or flesh colored, juicy and
piquant when gathered, vinous and sweet the next day.
FAULKNER'S KING. Syn. of Rippowam.
FERDINANDE. Large, regular, obtusely conical, deep scarlet red ;
seeds light yellow; flesh firm, juicy, and high flavored. A
FERDINAND GLOEDE (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Figured in cat-
alogues of 1870, and described as a very beautiful fruit, conical
or heart shaped, very large, cherry color; seeds prominent;
flesh white, with red veins ; melting, very sweet, and highly
perfumed. Gloede calls it one of the best of De Jonghe's ac-
FERTILIZED HAUTBOIS (Myatt). The most prolific, largest, and
finest of its class. Medium, conical, deep purple in the sun ;
sweet flavor. Pretty good bearer. Fig. in Album de Pomologie,
FILBERT PINE (Myatt). This has proved a very feeble grower
with me. Fruit conical, rosy orange ; flesh white ; seeds prom-
inent, sweet, and perfumed with a rich, nutty flavor. Forces
well, and likes a strong, rich soil. In England its color is dull
purple, and its quality variable.
FILLBASKET (Nicholson). Fruit rather large, roundish, some-
times flattened; pale red, hollow, with a core; little flavor.
Leaf-stalks very heavy ; leaflets deeply and sharply serrate ;
FILLMORE (Feast). Originated in Baltimore. Large, obtusely
conical, dark crimson, rich, sweet, and good. Leaves rough,
large, round, and very dark green. Gives a fair crop in deep
84 Catalogue of Varieties.
FLEMING. Large, roundish, obtusely conical, deep scarlet; seeds
yellow, not deep set. Vigorous ; moderately productive. Pis-
tillate. Seedling of McAvoy's Superior.
FLORENCE (Prince). Very large, conical or spherical, scarlet,
fine flavor. Vigorous and productive. See FRAISIER DE FLO-
FONTENELLE (Prince). Very large, rounded, light scarlet, juicy,
good flavor, vigorous, productive. Pistillate.
FORMOSA (Dr. Nicaise). Large, heart shaped, shining crimson
red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, buttery, juicy, sweet, and
perfumed. Hardy and productive.
FORTUNATUS (Prince). Little known.
Fox. (Syn. Fraisier Fox de Quatre Saisons.} A seedling of a
Chili raised about 1850. Very doubtful whether it is perpetual.
Fig. in Rev. Hort. II. 20.
FRAG ARIA LUCIDA. A California strawberry, with beautiful foli-
age. Unproductive. Parent of the Lucida Perfecta.
FRAGRANT SCARLET (Prince). One of Prince's numerous seed-
lings. Little known.
FRAISIER DE FLORENCE. Small, white, resembling the White
Pine. A chance seedling found in the Jardin des Plantes in
1805, and described as superior to the other white varieties then
known. Fig. in Duhamel, V. 300.
FRAISIER HETEROPHYLLA. A small, round, wood strawberry.
Old, but still in the recent catalogues. Fig. in Duham. V. 270.
FRANCIS JOSEPH II. fDr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit large,
roundish conical, beautiful, clear, brilliant red; seeds promi-
nent, yellowish; flesh rosy and agreeable. Foliage clear, shin-
ing green. Vigorous and productive. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869,
FREDONIA (Prince). Very large, obtusely conical, firm, sweet,
juicj', and high flavored. Productive, bearing large trusses of
* FRENCH CUCUMBER.
* FRENCH MUSK.
FRENCH'S SEEDLING. Discovered by Mr. Lewis French, in a
meadow near Morristown, N. J. Large, deep scarlet, slightly
conical, soft, sweet, sprightly, and good. Leaves medium size,
deep green ; fruit-stalks with numerous light colored hairs. I
have fruited this for several seasons, and find it a good variety,
but too soft. Early and vigorous.
FROGMORE LATE PINE (Ingram). Large, conical to cockscomb,
Catalogue of Varieties. 85
glossy, bright red, scarlet in shade ; seeds not deeply sunken ;
flesh tender, rich, red, and of fine flavor. It is a seedling of
the British Queen, and in England, where it is reported vigor-
ous and productive, it ripens later even than the Elton. In
this country it burns very badly. The Brooklyn Scarlet, to my
own knowledge, and doubtless other varieties, have been sold in
this country for the Frogmore. Fig. in Florist and Pomologist,
GABRIELLE (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit large, round,
rather deep red, varnished; seeds not prominent; flesh red,
firm, juicy, sugary, of an exquisite flavor. Leaves strong and
erect; leaflets almost round. Vigorous, hardy, setting its ber-
ries well, and very late. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869, 270.
GALLAND (Vigneron). A French sub- variety of the Alpine class.
* GARDEN OF EDEN.
GARIBALDI (Stewart and Neilson). The foreign variety of this
name is described as large, solid, very juicy, and of good flavor,
though slightly acid ; a good bearer and vigorous grower.
GARIBALDI (Burgess). Described by Fuller as large, crimson,
excellent flavor, poor grower. An American variety.
GARNSTONE SCARLET (Henderson). Originated in England in
1819. Fruit round, medium, with a short neck, rich, glossy
scarlet; seeds red, deep set; flesh scarlet, firm, sharp, but
agreeable. Leaves coarsely serrate, light green. A moderate
bearer and late.
GAZELLE (Prince). Very large, round, light scarlet, juicy, good
flavor; vigorous, hardy, and productive. Pistillate.
GELINEAU (Gelineau). Fruit large, conical or oval, flattened,
deep red ; flesh red, juicy, sweet, and brisk. Vines hardy, and
very productive. Late.
GENERAL GRANT (Keech). Good medium size, irregular in
form; dark red, or about the same color as Wilson's Albany;
somewhat acid, but represented to be early.
GENERAL GRANT (Burgess). Described as a vigorous grower,
prolific bearer, fine flavor, and very firm flesh.
GENERAL HAVELOCK (Filey). Syn. in foreign catalogues Cre-
mont. Fruit large or very large; obtusely conical or heart
. shaped, bright red ; seeds superficial ; flesh rosy, veined with
86 Catalogue of Varieties.
red, brisk flavored, and good. Plant moderately vigorous,
dwarfish, and productive. Forces well. I have had this variety
under cultivation, but have not fruited it, and shall be surprised
if the synonyme prove correct.
GENERAL MCCLELLAN. Syn. of McAvoy's Superior.
GENERAL MEADE (Keech). This and General Grant (Keech),
General Sheridan, and General Sherman, are said to be crosses
of the Russell with Triomphe de Gand. Large, rich bright
scarlet, conical ; seeds deep set, of very good quality.
* GENERAL JACOJJEMINOT.
GENERAL SCOTT (Burgess). Large, soft, of the Iowa class, ac-
cording to Fuller. Another authority says it is too soft for
market. Large, and very productive.
GENERAL SHERIDAN (Keech). Medium size, dark rich red,
somewhat irregular in form ; seeds light colored ; flesh light
red, pretty firm; promising well for market.
GENERAL SHERMAN (Keech). Medium size, light, rich scarlet
red; long, conical ; seeds deep set; flavor poor.
GENESEE (Ellwanger and Barry). A cross between Hovey's
Seedling and the Duke of Kent Scarlet. Large, necked, bright
crimson scarlet, and about equal to the Early Scarlet. A luxu-
riant grower, and rather late. Said by Fuller to be rather soft
and prolific. Fig. in Hort. IX. 221, Thomas's Fsuit Culturist,
GEORGIA MAMMOTH. Medium or small, obtusely conical, dark
crimson when ripe ; seeds deeply imbedded ; flesh very firm,
acid, not rich ; ripens very late, and this is its only valuable
quality. Plant a vigorous grower, and one of the Iowa class.
(Fuller.) Sour, dry, and husky; one of the most worthless.
GERALDINE (Prince). Described as large, obovate, bright scar-
let, sweet, and of exquisite flavor. Pistillate.
GERMANIA (Gloede, fils). New, 1869. Figured in Gloede's Cat-
alogue for 1870. Described as very large, oval, clear cherry
color; seeds prominent; flesh white, sweet, with a delicious per-
fume. Hardy, vigorous, and early.
GERMANTOWN. Syn. of Hovey's Seedling.
GIANT ALPINE (Saunders). Originated near Tedworth, Eng-
land, and said to be a cross of one of the Alpines with a Pine.
Catalogue of Varieties. 87
A prodigious bearer (for an Alpine) ; dark color, globular, me-
dium size, poor flavor.
GIANT OF ZUIDWIJK. A new variety from Holland. Said to be
large, dark red, highly aromatic, very productive and late, and
to make few runners.
GIBBS'S SEEDLING BLACK (Gibbs). A seedling of the Old
Black, which it much resembles, though smaller. Originated
in England in 1818.
GLAZED PINE. (Syn. Scarlet Pine-apple, Knotfs Ptne.} An old
English kind. Variable in shape, generally conical, necked,
large, hairy, dark shining scarlet in the sun, paler in the shade;
seeds prominent; flesh pale scarlet, firm, with a core; flavor
GLOBE (Myatt). Resembles the British Queen in foliage, size,
color, and flavor, and is probably a seedling from it. Largest
size, globular, very regular and uniform. A good bearer, and
of good flavor.
GLOBE (Dejonghe). Large to very large, of a beautiful round
or oval shape, crimson red; seeds not deeply sunk; flesh white,
or rosy white, juicy, sweet, and a little musky. Plant dwarf,
vigorous, productive, and suitable for forcing.
GLOBE HAUTBOIS. (Syn. Caperon ordinaire, Danish, Antwerp
or Mttsk.} A moderate bearer; fruit nearly spherical, dark pur-
ple, [reddish green (Fuller)]; seeds prominent; flesh greenish,
firm, with a core ; musky, and good.
GLOBOSE CLUSTER (Prince). Described as large, round, bright
scarlet, poor flavor, soft. Vines vigorous and hardy. A seed-
ling of the Iowa. Pistillate.
GLOBOSE CRIMSON (Prince). Very large, obtusely conical, crim-
son, red flesh, acid, and productive. Pistillate.
GLOBOSE SCARLET (Prince). Little known. Described as large,
round, and very productive. Pistillate.
GLOBOSE SWAINSTONE (Prince). Described as very large, ob-
tuse cone, dull scarlet, very high flavored, and productive.
GLOBULAR HUDSON'S BAY.
GLOIRE DE ST. GENIS LAVAL.
GLOIRE DU NORD. Alpine sub-varieties.
GLORIA (Nicholson). Medium size, conical, or rounded conical
with a neck; polished red; seeds prominent; flesh white, firm,
juicy, sweet, and said to have a piquant Hautbois flavor.
Hardy and productive. Ripens middle of the season in Eng-
88 Catalogue of Varieties.
GLORY OF ZUIDWIJK. Said to be an exceedingly productive and
aromatic berry, and, like the Giant of Zuidwijk, to make very
GLOSSY CONE (Durand). New. Little known.
GOLDEN QUEEN. Syn. of Trollope's Victoria.
GOLDEN SEEDED (Read). Medium to large, bluntly conical,
sometimes flattened ; dark crimson, with prominent yellow
seed, making the variety almost unmistakable ; sweet, rich and
early, though later sometimes than Burrs's New Pine ; but suc-
ceeding in only a few localities. Originated in Canada, and
considered by Fuller a seedling of a foreign variety. Fig. in
Fuller, p. 93.
GOLDFINDER (Sclater). Medium to large, variable, bright
orange ; seeds superficial ; flesh rosy white, firm, sweet, juicy,
and brisk. Very productive and early. Forces well.
* GOLIATH (Kitleys). A seedling from the British Queen, and
originated near Bath, England, about 1848. Large, ovate,
not cockscomb shaped; surface not highly polished; seeds
slightly imbedded; rich red color; flesh solid, with a high vi-
nous flavor. Fruit-stalks tall, strong, unusually hairy. The
accounts of it in this country are very contradictory. Fuller
says it is worthless. Fig. in Hort. VII. 372, and in Album de
Pomologie, IV. 78.
GRANDE MERE DE BOLLWILLER.
GRANGE HUDSON'S BAY.
GREAT EASTERN (Stewart and Neilson). Medium to large,
long conical, light crimson, firm, acid, not rich, moderately
productive. The plants make large stools and few runners.
A very good market variety (Fuller). Other authoritie's give
the shape as rounded, color bright rose, and the flesh white.
I think there is an American variety of the same name.
GREEN PROLIFIC (Boy den). (Syn. Newark Prolific.} I have
fruited this two years, and find it a soft, poor, acid berry, vary-
ing between pale crimson and scarlet; flavor miserable; growth
very vigorous, and the vines tolerably productive. Fig. in
Fuller, p. 93, and Hort. XXII. 267.
GREEN STRAWBERRY. (Syn. Green Pine, do. Wood, do. Alpine,
Fraisier Vert, Powdered Pine.*} Fruit small, roundish or de-
pressed, whitish green, and at maturity tinged with reddish
brown on the sunny side. Flesh solid, greenish, very juicy,
with a peculiar, rich, pine-apple flavor. Ripens late. Little
valued or cultivated, being more curious than good. They re-
Catalogue of Varieties. 89
semble in general the Wood strawberries. Leaves light green,
much plaited, shy bearers. (Downing.)
GRIMSTONE SCARLET. An English variety. Medium, conical,
necked, dark scarlet; seeds numerous, unevenly distributed,
and imbedded at different depths; flesh solid, pale scarlet;
flavor excellent. Leaflets nearly oval, coarsely serrate, hairy,
yellowish green. Said to be an abundant bearer.
GROVE END SCARLET (Atkinson). An old English kind. Ori-
ginated in 1820. Fruit small, round, bright vermilion ; seeds
sunken ; flesh pale red, acid. Early, and an abundant bearer.
Fig. in Pom. Mag. I. 7.
GWENIVER (Mrs. Clements). Good sized, often very large, round
or cockscombed, bright orange red ; seeds little sunken ; flesh
rosy, juicy, very sweet, and perfumed. Plant hardy and pro-
ductive, forcing well.
HAARLEM ORANGE (Dr. Edmondson). Ripens early, and con-
tinues a long time in bearing. Very productive, good size,
glossy orange, conical or pine-apple shape; firm; rich flavor.
Said to be a great favorite with birds. Tested in France, and
pronounced pasty, no flavor, and an exceedingly shy bearer.
HAGENBACHIANA. A sub-variety of the Wood strawberry class.
HAqyiN (Haquin). I have cultivated two varieties under this
name; one a very rank, coarse plant, totally worthless; the
other not yet in fruit, but looking more promising. Described
as large to enormous, obtusely conical or flattened, bright shin-
ing rose color; seeds few and prominent; flesh white, with
rosy veins ; sweet, perfumed, and refreshing. Requires proba-
bly a strong, moist, rich soil.
HARRISON. Said to be .very large, productive, and fine. A
chance seedling found in Chester County, Pa.
HATHAWAY. (Syn. Hathaivay's Seedling.} Large, roundish,
obtuse, deep scarlet; seeds yellow and brown ; -flesh scarlet,
juicy, firm, and acid. Vigorous and productive. Raised by
B. Hathaway, Little Prairie Ronde, Mich.
HAUTBOIS. (Syn. Old Hautbois, Musky do., Original do., Dioe-
cious do., Fragaria Elation.} Medium, roundish ovate, reddish
green ; flavor musky and strong. Foot-stalks of njoderate
length, hairy; leaflets medium size, sharply serrate, thin.
90 Catalogue of Varieties.
Fruit-stalks taller than the leaves. Not worth cultivating, the
Prolific Hautbois taking its place. Fig. in Duham. IV. 206,
207, 208, 209.
HEIN'S CHERRY PINE.
HELENA JAMIN (Jamin and Durand). (Sjn. Madame Eliza
Champing Very large, elongated, square at the end, orange
red; seeds sunken; flesh white, sweet, juicy, and brisk. Hardy,
productive, and late.
HENDRIES'S SEEDLING. Large, conical or flattened, orange red;
seeds prominent; flesh pure white, firm, juicy, sweet, and ex-
quisite. Plant of the nature of the British Queen, but succeed-
ing where that fails. Fruit described as very beautiful.
HERMINE (Prince). Large, obtusely conical, bright crimson,
good flavor, late. Said to be vigorous and productive. Pis-
HERMOSA (Prince). Described as very large, obtusely conical,
deep scarlet, pleasant flavor. Pistillate.
HERO (De Jonghe). Fruit large, round or oval, varnished red;
seeds little sunken ; flesh carmine, or cherry colored ; juicy,
sweet, and brisk. Hardy, productive, and late. I have found
it a moderate grower on a light soil.
HEROINE (Prince). Large, sweet, fine flavor.
HER MAJESTY (Mrs. Clements). New, 1867. Described as a
superb fruit of very large size, conical, sometimes lobed, shin-
ing red crimson, with prominent seeds; flesh white, firm, very
sweet, and highly perfumed. Said to be hardy, vigorous, and
productive. Fig. in Gloede's Catalogue, 1868-9.
HIGHLAND CHIEF. Flesh pale red, soft, rich, and excellent;
mildly acid; fruit large, roundish, or roundish ovate, light
red ; leaf-stalks rough, and very hairy ; leaflets obovate, coarsely
serrate. Pronounced in England a first-rate sort.
HIGHLAND MARY (Cuthill). Fruit large, conical, bright shining
red; flesh rosy, juicy, and sour. Hardy and productive.
HIGLEY'S EVER-BEARING. Small, long, deep red, poor, sour, and
insipid. An Alpine strawberry, probably ever-bearing.
HILLMAN. A foreign kind. Medium to large, oval, bright
* HONNEUR DE LA BELGIQUE.
HOOKER (Hooker). Large, short, obtuse conical, nearly globu-
Catalogue of Varieties. 91
lar, sweet, and rich ; too soft and dark colored for market, but
excellent for an amateur. Tender, and always requires pro-
tection in winter. Originated in Rochester, N. Y. Tested in
France, and pronounced there lacking in sugar. Fig. in
Thomas's Fruit Culturist, p. 418.
* HOOPER'S SEEDLING. Conical and cockscombed, medium, very
deep crimson, highly glazed ; flavor rich and sweet. Thought
to be a seedling of Alice Maude. Fig. in Alb. de Pom. IV. 78.
HOVEY'S SEEDLING (Hovey). (Syn. Germanto-wn, Toting* s
Seedling.} Very large, often measuring five and a half
inches in circumference; roundish ovate, slightly conical, with
a short neck ; never, or very seldom cockscombed ; dark
shining red ; paler when grown in the shade ; seeds dark, im-
bedded; flesh scarlet, firm, nearly solid, high flavored, and deli-
cious. Continues long in bearing Vines very vigorous, hardy,
making many runners; roots fine. Prefers a strong, rich soil;
if clayey, better still. Pistillate, and requiring a good fertilizer
in the proportion of one staminate plant to eight or ten Hov-
ey's. A standard market variety. Raised by C. M. Hovey
from a cross either of the Methven Scarlet with Keens's Seed-
ling, or of the Mulberry with Keens's Seedling. First fruited
in 1835. A splendid strawberry, whose introduction revolution-
ized strawberry culture in this country, and, being a pistillate,
caused more discussion than any other new fruit ever intro-
duced. The parent of many valuable seedlings, among which
the President Wilder outdoes all that have gone before. Fig.
in Fruits of America, I. 25.
HUDSON. (Syn. Hudson's Pine, Hudson's Bay, Late Scarlet,
Tork River Scarlet, American Scarlet.} Medium, conical, fine
shining red; seeds variable in size, deeply set; flesh pale scar-
let, firm, of a brisk acid flavor. Leaflets concave, bluntly
serrate, yellowish above, with conspicuous veins. Runners
numerous, brown, and hairy. Flower stems shorter than leaf-
stalks. A good bearer in beds, and several years ago considered
a good market kind. Erroneously known as Atkinson's and
HUDSON'S EARLY. New. Said to be very early and promising.
HUDSON'S No. 3. New. Untried.
HUDSON'S No. 9. New. Said to be very large.
HUNTSMAN'S FAVORITE (Huntsman). Medium, conical, scarlet,
high flavored, and productive.
HUNTSMAN'S PISTILLATE (Huntsman). Described by the ori-
92 Catalogue of Varieties.
ginator as one of the most productive varieties; fruit large and
beautiful, but of very indifferent flavor.
HUNTSMAN'S MONTEVIDEO (Huntsman). Large, bright scarlet,
late. Moderately productive. Pistillate.
IDA (Cocklin). Erroneously, Miss Ida. Large, slightly conical ;
color bright scarlet ; acid, but good. Proves hardy and produc-
tive, but not equal to the first accounts. Originated in Shep-
herdstown, Pa. Pistillate.
IMOGENS (Prince). Described as large, rounded, light scarlet,
very juicy, high flavored, and productive.
IMPERATRICE EUGENIE. Large, conical, bright, glossy rosette,
handsome, firm, sweet, perfumed. (Downing.)
IMPERIALE (Duval, fils). Large, heart shaped or flattened, bright
orange red; seeds superficial; flesh white, sweet, and brisk.
Medium in ripening.
IMPER-IAL CRIMSON (Prince). Described as large, rounded con-
ical, dark scarlet, or crimson, sweet, sprightly firm, and pro-
IMPERIAL SCARLET (Prince). Described by the originator as
large, bright scarlet, firm for market. Stalks upright* and
IMPROVED HAUTBOIS. A sub-variety of the Hautbois family;
little known ; probably not very different from the ordinary
IMPROVED BLACK PRINCE (Toyne). Represented as early, me-
dium size, and a good market sort.
INCOMPARABLE. Pale; regular shape ; flesh soft; flavor worthless.
IOWA. (Syn. Washington, Early do., Brookes Prolific.} Large,
globular, somewhat compressed; seeds deeply sunk in large
depressions; light orange scarlet; acid, poor, early, productive,
and hardy. Much raised in the West for market. A Western
seedling. Fig. in Thomas's Fruit Culturist, p. 418.
IRON DUKE (Graydon}. A Canada variety; said to be very
large, and wonderfully productive. Berries said to have
weighed one and three quarters ounces.
Catalogue of Varieties. 93
JAMES VEITCH (Gloede). New, 1868. Figured in Gloede's Cata-
logue for 1869, and described as very large, heart shaped, bright
vermilion red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, with a central
cavity; sweet, perfumed, and having a marked apricot taste.
JAMINETTE. A Belgian strawberry; conical, large, bright red;
flesh rosy, firm, sweet, and juicy. Said to be one of the most
productive of its class.
JANUS (Bruant). New. Described as the best of the perpetual
strawberries, of good size, handsome, elongated, often lobed.
Bears a large crop, according to French authority, from
spring till fall. Figured in Gloede's Catalogue, 1868-9.
JEANNE HACHETTE (Gloede). New, 1867. A handsome, coni-
cal fruit, pale rose; seeds brown and prominent; flesh snow
white, melting, sweet, and like that of the British Queen.
Said to resemble a Chili, but at the same time to be an abun-
JENNY LIND (Isaac Fay). Conical, bright scarlet, handsome,
glossy, and of very good, sprightly, subacid flavor. A good
grower, and productive. One of the standard market kinds
grown in the vicinity of Boston. No variety has yet been able
to supplant it for an early crop ; but there are several spurious
kinds sold as the Jenny Lind, which accounts for some contra-
JENNEY'S SEEDLING (Jenney). Large, roundish conical, dark,
rich red, firm, rich, subacid, and good. A hardy, vigorous,
and moderately productive variety, formerly in considerable
repute. Late. Originated in New Bedford, Mass., in 1845.
Pistillate. The originator has grown thirty-two hundred
boxes, on three quarters of an acre. Fig. in Pardee, p. 72.
BESSIE READ (Read). Large, roundish conical, light scarlet;
flesh soft, sweet, and rich. Originated with W. H. Read, Port
Dalhousie, C. W. (Downing.)
JOHN POWELL. Originated in England at the royal garden at
Frogmore. Fruit medium to large, oval, with a very distinct
94 Catalogue of Varieties.
neck; bright shining red; seeds superficial; flesh white, firm,
sweet, and perfumed. A long time in fruit.
JOUNA. (Syn. Hauter?)
JUCUNDA (Salter). (Syn. Knox's 700.) Large to very large,
sometimes obtusely conical and regular, at others cockscombed,
bright light scarlet; seeds yellow; -flesh pink, very firm, sweet,
good, but not very high flavored ; often hollow. Vines rather
vigorous, making handsome stools if the runners are clipped.
Brought prominently before the public, of late years, by Mr.
Knox, of Pittsburg, Pa., who has had great success with it.
Though not first class in flavor, its beauty and firmness make
it a splendid market variety. I have bought vines as Hyatt's
Quinquefolia which proved to be Jucunda. Fig. in Hort.
JULIE GUILLOT. Very large, globular, shining vermilion red;
seeds superficial; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet, and perfumed. Sea-
JULIEN (Kramer). Handsome, medium, bright scarlet, delicious,
and productive. A seedling of the Peabody. Originated with
W. F. Kramer, Dubuque, Iowa.
JUNG BAHADOOR. Described as large, obtusely conical, crimson ;
flesh rosy, sweet. Vines hardy and vigorous.
KAMINSKI (Kaminski). (?) Fruit large or very large, variable in
form, bright rose ; seeds prominent ; flesh white or rosy white,
firm, sweet, and perfumed. Hardy, productive, and late.
KATE (Mrs. Clements). A handsome, conical, long-pointed
strawberry; bright, glossy red; seeds prominent; flesh red,
juicy, sweet, perfumed, and " tres-rafraichissante." Hardy,
productive, and very early.
KEENS'S IMPERIAL (Keens). (Syn. Imperial, Black Imperial,
Large Imperial Black, Black Pine, Black Isleivorth Pine,
Keens' s Black, Keens' 's Large Fruited, Keens 's Black Pine.')
Raised in England from a seed of a large white Chili, about
1806. Probably an excellent berry for those days, and widely
disseminated, as is shown by its numerous synonymes.
Large, roundish, blunt point, very dark purplish red next the
sun ; seeds prominent ; flesh not juicy, firm, coarse, and hoi-
Catalogue of Varieties. 95
low ; flavor tolerably good. Tender. Fig. in Lond. Hort. Soc.
Trans. II. 101.
* KEENS'S SEEDLING (Keens). (Syn. Keens's Ne-w Pine, Keens's
Black Pine, Murphy's Child.') A very famous English straw-
berry. Large, round, sometimes cockscombed, purplish crim-
son. Said to be tender; excellent for forcing. In this
country it is reported as of the highest flavor, a good bearer,
and very early. I find it a poor grower, or comparatively poor,
in a light soil. Imported into this country in 1826. Fig. in
Pom. Mag. II. 91, Rev. Hort. 1864, 47> J an Mus. II.
KENTUCKY SEEDLING (Downer). New. Very large, bright
scarlet red; flesh firm and white; plants strong and vigorous,
with long, stout fruit-stalks. William Parry, in Downing, says,
"Large to very large, roundish conical, bright scarlet; flesh
white, firm, rich, juicy, sweet, and of excellent quality."
KIMBERLEY PINE (Kimberley). Large, variable, oval or flattened,
with square end ; bright red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh red,
very juicy, sweet, and brisk. Very hardy, productive, and late.
KING ARTHUR (Mrs. Clements). Large, conical or flattened,
bright glossy red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet,
brisk. Late. Very hardy and productive.
* KNEVETT'S NEW PINE. Roundish, large, second rate, shy
bearer. Does not succeed in all soils.
KNIGHTS'S LARGE SCARLET (Capper). (Syn. Knights' 's Scarlet,
American do., Great do. do., Hairy-leaved do., Large do., and
(erroneously) Bath do.} An old variety, raised in or near Bir-
mingham, England, from American seed. Round, slightly
conical, light vermilion, medium size; seeds deep set; flesh
white, soft, and pleasant. Not productive. Leaves very large,
coarsely serrate, upper side hairy, and of dark shining green.
KRAMER'S SEEDLING (Kramer). Fruit deep, dark red, large;
seeds small, dark, scattered, slightly sunken ; less acid than the
Wilson, with a rich, wild-strawberry flavor. Originated near
96 Catalogue of Varieties.
LA BONNE AIMEE (Malenfant). Fruit medium, very variable in
shape, bright rosy orange ; flesh white, firm, melting, and ex-
quisite. Hardy, productive, and very early.
LA CHALONNAISE (Dr. Nicaise). Fruit large to very large, elon-
gated, flattened, bright rose; seeds prominent; flesh pure white,
firm, very sweet, juicy, and perfumed. Hardy, vigorous, and
productive. Spoken well of in France.
LA CHATELAINE (Lebeuf). New, 1868. Figured by Gloede,
and described as very long conical, brilliant crimson red; seeds
superficial ; flesh white, very firm, sweet, juicy, and brisk fla-
vored. Hardy and productive.
LA CONSTANTE (De Jonghe). 1854 or 1855. Fruit large, conical,
very rarely irregular; of a beautiful bright glossy red; seeds
prominent; flesh extremely firm, rosy white, sweet, juicy, and
exquisite. Plants compact, dwarf, requiring the highest cul-
ture, and producing comparatively few runners. Foliage apt
to burn in this climate. Imported into this country by Hovey
& Co., and by them first distributed. Grown to some extent
for the Boston market, where it commands the highest price.
A magnificent and very distinct berry, but very capricious,
sometimes disappointing the grower at the last moment. It is
the male parent of the President Wilder. In a recent letter to
me, De Jonghe still speaks of La Constante as "the type of
* LA DELICIEUSE (Lorio). Large, variable, apricot-yellow
color; seeds prominent; flesh yellowish, juicy, sweet, and per-
fumed. Plant more vigorous than hardy, and only moderately
productive. Described as a very distinct variety. A spurious
kind has been sold in this country, which I have fruited, and
found small, red, and nearly worthless.
LA FERTILE (De Jonghe). 1861 or later. Fruit large, hand-
some, conical, deep red, with prominent seeds; interior flesh
color, firm, juicy, sweet, and brisk. Vigorous and productive.
LA GROSSE SUCREE (De Jonghe). 1854 or 1855. Fruit large,
elongated cone, purple red when perfectly ripe ; seeds sunken ;
flesh white, sweet, and brisk. Said to be hardy, productive, and
EXPOSITION DE CHALONS.
Catalogue of Varieties. 97
* LA LIEGEOISE. A French strawberry, which, tested in this
country, has proved very unproductive. Medium size, bright
scarlet, good flavor, and very early.
LA MAURESQUE (De Jonghe). 1861 or later. (Syn. La Noire.}
Medium, oval or conical, reddish brown (very dark when ripe) ;
seeds on the surface ; flesh blood red, juicy, sweet, with a Haut-
bois flavor. Medium in ripening.
LA MERVEILLE DE FLANDRES.
LA MEUDONNAISE. (Syn. La Meudonnaise a feuilles de laitue,
Triomphe de Hollande.} A sub- variety of the Alpine class,
producing fruit the whole season under very high culture. I
have had no success with it in moderately good soil.
LA NEGRESSE (Soupert arid Netting). Conical, pretty large,
dark, but by no means black; sweet and good. A tolerably
good grower, which I fruited one or two seasons. Petioles
very long, hairy, and reddish. Leaflets deeply serrate, rough,
and dull green. Unproductive.
LA PAYSANNE (De Jonghe). 1861 or later. Fruit large, oval,
pale vermilion red; seeds superficial: flesh salmon color, hol-
low, juicy, neither sweet nor brisk. Very productive.
LA PERLE. 1849 or l &5- Medium, conical, bright red.
LA PETITE MARIE (Boisselot). New, 1867. Described as hand-
some, medium, conical, elongated, flattened, bright shining
red; flesh red, firm, melting, sweet, and brisk. Hardy, with
rather scanty foliage. Very productive. Gloede says it is
" une /raise par excellence pour les vrais amateurs gourmets.'' 1
LA REINE (De Jonghe). 1849 or l &5- Fruit medium, very long
and flattened, rosy white; seeds prominent; flesh snow white,
firm, sweet, and very rich. Described as a very marked and
distinct variety. A tolerable grower with me in a sandy soil.
LA ROBUSTE (De Jonghe). 1861 or later. Large or very large,
rounded, bright shining red; seeds prominent; flesh red, juicy,
sweet, and brisk. Vigorous and productive. Early.
LA RONDE (Robine). Large, regularly round, beautiful vermil-
ion ; seeds prominent; flesh white, hollow in the centre, juicy,
sweet, and good. Early.
LA RusTiquE (De Jonghe). 1861 or later. Large, oval, elon-
gated, a little contracted at the base, bright red; flesh rosy,
juicy, sweet, and brisk. Season medium. Good bearer.
LA SAVOREUSE (De Jonghe). 1857 or 1858. Large, oval,
pointed, shining cherry red; flesh white, solid, sweet, very
98 Catalogue of Varieties.
agreeable, and of a well-pronounced flavor. Hardy and pro-
LA SULTANNE (Dr. Nicaise). Seedling of Prince Arthur.
Large, conical, very light red; seeds brown, slightly imbedded;
flesh white, with an abundance of sweet and perfumed juice.
This has sometimes been sold for, or confounded with La Con-
* LA VERSAILLAISE. Very large, oblong, bright scarlet ; flesh
reddish, firm, juicy, and sweet.
LADIES' AROMATIC (Prince). Seedling of the Ladies' Pine, but
larger, round, pale scarlet, sweet, aromatic, exquisite flavor.
Hardy, productive, and pistillate.
LADIES' FAVORITE (Prince).
LADIES' PINE (Read). Small to medium, round, pale orange
scarlet, slightly crimson in the sun; seeds prominent; flesh
soft, sweet and rich, and called by Fuller " probably the most
delicious flavored variety known." Requires high culture.
Unproductive and pistillate. Originated in Canada, and said
to be a seedling of Burr's Pine.
LADY, THE (Underbill). Large to very large, round or flattened,
rosy white, brighter near the calyx; seeds superficial: flesh
snow white, tender, sweet, and perfumed. Vigorous, produc-
tive, and very late. Its color makes it a very distinct variety.
LADY'S FINGER (Prosser). Medium, elongated, conical; color
brilliant dark scarlet; seeds set in an open cavity; flesh very
firm, subacid, good ; plant vigorous and productive. Origi-
nated with Benjamin Prosser, Burlington, N. J. (Fuller.) Fig.
in Fuller, p. 95.
LADY'S FINGER. An English variety; described as oblong,
orange scarlet; flesh white, sweet, and high flavored. Vines
vigorous and productive.
LADY OF THE LAKE (Scott). Large, rather uneven, conical,
dark red; seeds deep set; flesh pretty firm, not of the highest
flavor, but good. Plants very vigorous, hardy, and with the
originator astonishingly productive. Pistillate. I have fruited
this one season, and do not think it a very choice amateur
berry; but it is fast working into favor with the market-men.
Originated in Brighton, Mass. A cross of Prince Albert and
Brighton Pine. Originated in 1862. Fig. in Tilton's Jour, of
Hort. IV. 93.
LAFAYETTE. A Syn. of Prolific Hautbois.
Catalogue of Varieties. 99
LARGE BLACK SEEDLING. Large, roundish, second quality.
Late. An old English kind.
LARGE BLUSH CHILI. Large, ovate, third rate, and late;
LARGE CLIMAX (Prince). Large, obtusely conical, bright deep
scarlet; flesh white, sweet, of very good flavor. Plant vigor-
ous, hardy, and productive. Belongs to the Iowa class.
LARGE EARLY SCARLET. (Syn. Early Virginia.} Medium,
oval, regular, bright scarlet ; flesh tender, rich, sweet, and
good. Very early. The Native Scarlet, the presumed parent
of this variety, is a few days later. Fig. in Thomas's Fruit
Culturist, p. 418.
LARGE FLAT HAUTBOIS. (Syn. White, Bath, Formosa, not to
be confounded with the New Formosa of Dr. Nicaise, Sai-
ler's, Loudorts, Weymouth.} Roundish, depressed, light red,
pale on the under side ; flesh greenish, no core, delicious flavor,
but perhaps inferior to the Prolific Hautbois. Seeds imbedded.
An old variety, rather late, and a good bearer.
*LATE PROLIFIC (Burr). Good size, rich, and excellent. Vines
vigorous and hardy. Extremely late. Pistillate.
LAURELLA. According to Downing, fruit large, broadly conical,
scarlet; seeds yellowish brown; flesh soft, pink, acid; accord-
ing to others, sourer than the Wilson. Pistillate.
LAWRENCIA (Prince). Described as large, bright scarlet, ob-
tusely conical, fine flavor, and productive. Pistillate.
LE BARON (Prince). A seedling from the Swainstone. Medium
to large, obtusely conical, dark red ; flesh soft, sweet, and high
flavored. Not productive, but vigorous and hardy.
LEEDS'S PROLIFIC. Medium, light scarlet.
LENNIG'S WHITE (Lennig). (Syn. White Pine-apple, Albion
White, Albino, White Albany.} Often incorrectly spelled Len-
ni#gs. An American variety, and the best of all white straw-
berries. Thought by some inferior in flavor to Bicton Pine ;
but the latter cannot compare in vigor or productiveness with
Lennig's, which, if kept in rows with the runners clipped, gives
a very good crop. Fruit medium to large, roundish, conical,
very obtuse or compressed, rosy on the sunny side, pure white
on the other. Seeds' conspicuous ; flesh melting, delicious, and
pine-apple flavor. Said to be a seedling of the Wilson, but this
seems very improbable.
LEONCE DE LAMBERTYE (De Jonghe). 1861 or later. Named
probably for M. le Comte Lambertye, the author of an elaborate
French work on strawberries. Large, conical, a little flattened
ioo Catalogue of Varieties.
on the end, varnished red ; seeds superficial ; flesh firm, rosy
white, abounding in juice, sweet, and very sprightly. Produc-
tive, and ripens at midseason.
LEON DE ST. LAUMER (Dupuy Jamin). Large, conical, bright
pale scarlet; flesh carmine, rich, juicy, and sweet. Moderately
productive. I have not fruited this variety, but it made with
me a splendid growth last season, in a soil where the Scarlet
Pine grew feebly, and the Filbert Pine almost refused to. grow.
LEOPOLD I. A Belgian variety of medium size, dark color ; seeds
prominent, fine ; sweet flavor, but only a moderate bearer.
LEWISHAM SCARLET. (Syn. Scarlet Cluster.} Fruit roundish,
small, with short neck; purplish red, growing in clusters,
slightly hairy; flesh scarlet, firm, solid, of moderate flavor.
Leaves small, flat, yellowish green. English, s'aid to bear well.
LITTLE MONITOR. Small, roundish, obtuse conical.
* LIZZIE RANDOLPH. Medium, roundish, light crimson, poor
LONG-FRUITED MUSCATELLE. An old, very small, and poor
LONG SCARLET. (Syn. Padlefs Early Scarlet, Oblong- Scarlet.}
Fruit large, oblong, with a long glossy neck, bright light scar-
let ; seeds few and sunken. Leaves numerous ; foot-stalks hairy.
Leaflets small, dark shining green.
LONGWORTH'S PROLIFIC (Schneicke). (Syn. Schneicke's Her-
maphrodite.} (?) Large, roundish, broad at base, light crim-
son ; flesh firm, scarlet (with numerous rays, the remains of the
filaments. Downing), briskly acid, good. Vigorous and pro-
ductive. Leaves large, broad, wavy, on long, stout foot-stalks.
Originated in Cincinnati, O., in 1848, and was once rather a
famous kind. Probably little cultivated now.
LORD CLYDE (Dean). This was considered at home, when it
was introduced, the best novelty among English kinds after
LORD MURRAY (Stewart and Neilson).
LORENZO BOOTH (De Jonghe). 1857 or 1858. Large, oval, bright
g/bssy red ; flesh dark crimson, solid, sweet, and sprightly.
Said to be hardy, and very early. Other authority gives the
color of the flesh cherry red.
LORIO. (Syn. Lorio Pine.} Large, obtusely conical, rich, clear
dark red ; flesh reddish, juicy, vinous, and sweet.
Catalogue of Varieties. 101
Louis VILMORIN (Robine). Large, regularly conical or heart-
shaped, beautiful bright red ; seeds prominent, or but little
sunken; flesh firm, rosy, juicy, sprightly, not very sweet.
Leaves dark green. Said to force well. Fig. in Rev. Hort.
1865, 39 1 -
LUCAS (De Jonghe). Large, roundish, oval, glossy crimson;
flesh hard, firm, and crisp. A very good grower with me,
and much of the type of Jucunda, but a better fruit. Said to
force well. The flesh is remarkable for its firmness.
LUCIDA PERFECTA (Gloede). A magnificent dwarf plant, with
large, dark, shining leaves, looking as if varnished. Petioles
red and short. A conspicuous plant, and readily identified
among a hundred. Berries round, clinging to the calyx ; light
salmon color, very sweet and good, but not large or numerous.
Very late, some berries remaining on in 1867, up to July 25.
Said to be a cross of a Chili and the Fragaria Lucida of Cali-
LUCIE (Boisselot). Large, variable, good, but by no means best.
Said to be hardy and late, and though a Chili strawberry, pro-
Luscious SCARLET (Prince). Described as large, rounded,
dark scarlet, pr-roductive, and good. Pistillate.
LUXURIANT (Durand). New. American. Described as large,
flattened, globose, uniform, of good flavor, and very sweet.
LYNEDOCH SEEDLING. An old strawberry. Medium, ovate,
second quality, late.
MADAME BAL (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Plant moderately
strong, hardy,, and productive. Leaf-stalks short and strong;
leaves deep green, with little lustre, horizontal, and deeply in-
cised. Fruit conical, medium to large, varnished red. Inte-
rior of the berry flesh colored, juicy, vinous, and brisk flavored.
MADAME COLLONGE (Graindorge). Large, round or lobed, pale
red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, hollow, dry, not very
sweet, and poor. Vines vigorous and hardy. I have fruited
this several seasons. It has been advertised as Madame Col-
IO2 Catalogue of Varieties.
loque and Madame Cologne. Worthless. Fig. in Rev. Hort.
MADAME ELIZA VILMORIN (Gloede). A Chili strawberry.
Large or very large, rounded or lobed, bright rose ; seeds prom-
inent; flesh white, juicy, very sweet, and exquisitely perfumed.
Vigorous, hardy, and late.
MADAME JACOBS (De Jonghe). New, 1869. Of moderate
growth, leaves small, almost round, dull green, deeply incised.
Fruit oval or round, shining orange red; seeds in shallow cavi-
ties; interior of the berry between flesh color and cherry; juice
abundant, piquant, and brisk flavored.
MADAME LOUESSE (Graindorge). First berries cockscombed;
second, roundish oval, very light red; seeds reddish, deep set;
flesh a little hollow, rosy, sweet, a little pasty, delicate, not
acid. Fig. in Rev. Hort. VIII. 414.
MADAME MAUBACH (De Jonghe). New, not yet sent out.
MAGNIFICENT (Prince). Described as very large, obtusely con-
ical, light scarlet, good. Pistillate.
MAGNIFIQUE DE MOULINEX.
* MAGNUM BONUM (Barrat). A variety of the British Queen
class, but hardier and more productive than the type. Fruit
large, form variable, rosy orange; seeds prominent; flesh pure
white, firm, sweet, juicy, and perfumed.
MAID OF THE LAKE. New, little known. Said to be promising.
MALVINA (Prince). A seedling from Hovey's Seedling. De-
scribed by the originator as more productive (?), brighter color,
better flavor, and one week earlier, than its parent. Little
MAMMOTH (Myatt). Largest size, cockscomb, bright crimson.
In this country it is very large, crimson in the sun, white in
the shade, flavor bad, nearly tasteless. Called a shy bearer.
Said by one amateur to set forty per cent of its flowers. Fig.
in Flore des Serres, V. 504.
MARGUERITE (Lebreton). Fruit large to enormous, some berries
weighing nearly one and one third ounces ; of beautiful long
conical shape; light bright shining red; seeds sunken; flesh
bright orange, juicy, sweet, not high flavored. It fruited with
me in poor soil and was handsome, but not first class. Fig. in
Rev. Hort. 1861, 310.
MARIE AMELIE (Plee). Fruit large, obtusely conical, bright
vermilion red ; seeds sunken ; flesh rosy, sweet, brisk flavored-
Catalogue of Varieties. 103
Hardy and productive, something like the Princesse Royale.
A hybrid, of which the Elton was one parent. Originated in
MARIE LOUISE (Dr. Nicaise). Fruit very large and beautiful,
elongated, heart shaped, sometimes flattened, deep vermilion ;
seeds scattered and prominent ; flesh rosy, sweet, and perfumed ;
like La Chulonnaise.
MARQUISE DE LATOUR-MAUBOURG (Jamine and Durand). (Syn.
Vicomtesse Hericart de T/iury, and Duckesse de Trevise.')
Fruit variable in size and form, vermilion red ; seeds promi-
nent; flesh rosy white, sweet, perfumed, and good. Hardy and
productive, but gives only one picking of large berries. At
least this is its reputation abroad ; but Fuller says it is second
to none of the foreign varieties.
MARYLANDICA (Edmondson). Large, dark crimson; flesh solid
and firm, "cuts like a pear; " bears transportation well; flavor
rich. A strong growing American seedling which has been
tested in France, and found second rate there. Originated in
MAY QUEEN (Nicholson). Medium or small, rounded, pale
scarlet; flesh white, sweet, very highly perfumed. A very early
strawberry, but neither so early nor so good as the Old Early
McAvoY's EXTRA RED (McAvoy). Large, roundish, scarlet;
seeds sometimes yellowish ; flesh yellowish, slightly stained
with red; flavor subacid. Pistillate, and very productive. Ex-
ceedingly acid, according to Downing.
McAvoY's SUPERIOR (McAvoy). (Syn. Mc.Avoy's No. 12, Buf-
falo, General McClellan.*} Large to very large, irregular; color
varying from a light to a deep brilliant crimson ; seeds crim-
son, sometimes yellow; flesh dark red, soft, differing in differ-
ent soils ; sometimes exquisite, sometimes insipid. Vigorous
and productive. Pistillate. A somewhat noted variety sixteen
or seventeen years ago, and now occasionally brought forward
under a new name. Fig. in Hort. VIII. 392. Originated, like
the above, in Cincinnati, on Mr. Longworth's grounds.
McAvoY's No. i (McAvoy). Large, roundish, deep scarlet;
seeds light crimson, and sunk rather deep; flesh whitish,
stained with red, agreeable, and good. An abundant bearer.
MEAD'S SEEDLING (Mead). Medium to large, conical, often
flattened ; seeds conspicuous, light bright scarlet, firm, acid,
104 Catalogue of Varieties.
and unproductive. Pistillate. I fruited it one season and
found it a pretty berry, but too sour. Fig. in Hort. XXII. 195.
MELANCTHON (Prince). Described as larger than Hovey's (?) ;
conical, crimson, good flavor, and productive.
MELANIE (Prince). Described as large, conical, deep scarlet,
hardy, and excellent. Pistillate.
MELINDA (Prince). Described as early, large, purse-shaped,
scarlet, good flavor, productive. Pistillate.
MEHUS (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit large, flattened, trun-
cated, often larger at the summit than the base, bright red ;
seeds prominent, distant; flesh white, sprightly, perfumed.
Vines small, vigorous, leaves not abundant.
MELON. Medium, roundish, dark. A Scotch variety long since
MEN AGERE (De Jonghe). Large, very long, flattened, bright
red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, sweet, firm, brisk. Late,
and long in bearing.
METCALF'S EARLY (Metcalf). Small to medium, ovate conical,
with long neck; dull scarlet; flesh firm, of fair flavor. Not so
early, and not so good, as the Jenny Lind. Overpraised, and
a great failure. Originated in Niles, Michigan.
* METHVEN SCARLET (Bishop). (Syn. Methven Castle, South-
ampton Scarlet.} Large, heart shaped or cockscombed, the
later fruit conical; dark scarlet; seeds pale yellow, not deep
sunk ; flesh scarlet, hollow, poor. Originated in England in
1816, and possibly one of the parents of Hovey's Seedling.
MEXICAN EVER-BEARING. This is a distinct variety (Fragaria
Mexicana. Syn. F. Gilmannii, Clinton} of the Fragaria Vesca,
distinguished by a leaf on the runner. It has been recently
brought forward as very valuable, but will probably prove of
no more worth than the Old Red Alpine.
MICHIGAN. Described as a seedling of the Wilson, and ten days
later than that variety, and of better quality. Hardy and vig-
orous. Fig. in Tilton's Jour. Hort. VII. 155.
MINERVA (Prince). Said by the originator to be an enormous
bearer. Little known.
Miss COUTTS (De Jonghe). New. Of moderate growth, leaves
roundish, dull green. Fruit conical, above medium, regular,
pale, shining cherry red; seeds numerous, slightly sunken;
flesh firm, white, juicy, vinous, and brisk flavored.
MODELE (De Jonghe).
Catalogue of Varieties. 105
MONITOR (Fuller). Large, roundish conical, bright scarlet;
flesh solid, firm, too acid with me to be agreeable ; high fla-
vored. Vigorous, and moderately productive. Fig. in Hort.
MONROE SCARLET (Ellwanger and Barry). Medium to large,
roundish, light scarlet, of good flavor. Hardy, and very pro-
ductive; has succeeded well in France. Pistillate. A cross of
Hovey's and the Duke of Kent. Fig. in Hort. IX. 221.
MONSTROUS HAUTBOIS. A comparatively new variety. Said to
be large and fine. Two kinds have been sold under this name;
one of them, according to Fuller, not a Hautbois at all.
MONSTRUEUSE DE ROBINE (Robine). (?) Very large, irregular,
scarlet red ; seeds sunken ; flesh rosy, hollow, brisk flavored,
not sweet or juicy. Hardy and vigorous. Unproductive, and
a poor setter. Possibly a Chili.
MORGAN SEEDLING (Morgan). Known to me only as a variety
which took a prize as the best market variety at a fruit growers'
meeting, held at Rochester, N. Y., in 1866.
MORRISANIA SCARLET. Fruit in clusters, round, small, shining
dark red ; flesh whitish, soft, poor. -A good bearer and early.
MOTTIER'S SEEDLING (Mottier). (?) Large, acid, productive.
MOUNT VESUVIUS. Described as a long, handsome berry of me-
dium quality, and a good bearer.
MOYAMENSING (Schmitz). Medium to large, broadly conical,
deep crimson ; seeds numerous, deeply imbedded ; flesh red,
rather firm, pretty briskly acid; much like Hudson. Moder-
ately vigorous and productive. Pistillate. Raised by Gerhard
Schmitz, of Philadelphia. (Downing.)
MR. RADCLYFFE (Ingram). New, 1867. Figured in Gloede's
Catalogue for 1868-9, and there described as of the largest size,
form variable (figured as long, of pretty uniform thickness,
round at the end) ; bright orange red; seeds prominent; flesh
pure white, firm, and melting, with a delicious pine-apple flavor.
MRS. GRANT. A new white seedling.
MRS. WILDER (Dejonghe). New, 1868. Flattened cone, deep
varnished red; flesh firm, of a cherry or flesh color; juicy,
sweet, and brisk. .Vigorous, productive, and good.
MRS. D. NEILSON (Stewart and Neilson). Large, variable,
orange scarlet, juicy, sweet, high flavored. Vigorous, produc-
tive, and very late.
106 Catalogue of Varieties.
MULBERRY.' (Sjn. Mahone, Cherokee King, erroneously Suri-
nam.} An old variety; shy bearer and late. Medium,
ovate, with a short neck; dark purplish red; seeds slightly im-
bedded ; flesh red, soft, coarse, with large core, and only mod-
erately good. Plant dwarf.
MUSCADIN DE LIEGE (Lorio). Fruit large, variable, purplish
red; seeds prominent; flesh delicate, sweet, and perfumed.
Vines very hardy and productive.
MYATT'S PINE- APPLE (Myatt). (Syn. Myatfs Pine.} (?) Fruit
very large, variable, bright rose ; seeds prominent ; flesh yel-
lowish white, firm, juicy, with a sweet, rich pine-apple flavor.
Tender in some soils, and a shy bearer, but recommended to
amateurs as a fruit of the first quality.
MYATT'S PROLIFIC (Myatt). Large, resembling Myatt's Eleanor,
but more pointed; light, glossy scarlet, sweet, and rich. Not
very prolific in this country.
MYATT'S PROLIFIC HAUTBOIS. Large, conical, rounding to both
ends, dull deep pink; on one side nearly white; flesh very
sweet with a peculiar musky flavor.
NAIRNS SEEDLING (Nairns). Moderate size, ovate, irregular,
sometimes with a short neck; deep, rich shining red; seeds
deeply imbedded ; flesh pale scarlet, firm, with a core, not rich.
A good bearer, and late. Originated in England in 1819.
NAOMI. Medium, roundish oval, quite deep scarlet; flesh white,
sweet, soft, .not high flavored. An accidental American seed-
NAPOLEON (Lorio). Large, roundish, light clear red or scarlet ;
flesh firm, juicy, and sweet. Belgian.
NAPOLEON III. (Gloede). Fruit very large, flattened or cocks-
combed ; described variously as rosy red, brilliant, crimson,
light scarlet, and bright orange ; seeds yellow or reddish, little
sunk; flesh very firm, white, sweet, and delicious. The true
Napoleon III. is doubtless a splendid and valuable berry; but
the Austin has been sold in this country as the Napoleon, and
probably other varieties have been substituted. I have fruited
two kinds sold as Napoleon III. ; one a large, conical, dark
colored, and very fine strawberry ; the other a handsome, rank
Catalogue of Varieties. 107
grower, with a few small to medium, light red, pasty, and taste-
less berries ; but I think not the Austin. Fig. in Rev. Hort.
NARROW-LEAVED SCARLET (Knight). A cross of Knight's Large
Scarlet and the Old Black. Medium, conical, with neck, hairy,
uniform bright scarlet; seeds projecting; flesh firm, solid, pale'
scarlet, tolerably rich. A good bearer, and late.
* NECKED PINE. (Syn. Unique Prairie, Pine-appleC) An old
variety. Conical, with a neck or shoulder; scarlet, early, and
a great bearer. Flesh tender, sprightly, acid. Pistillate.
NEGRO. Described as large and sweet; nearly black.
NE PLUS ULTRA (De Jonghe). Fruit large to monstrous, varia-
ble, dark purple red ; flesh red, juicy, not sweet, but brisk.
Vigorous and productive. Early. Good for preserving.
NEWARK PROLIFIC (Frill). Described as late, and of good
NEWLAND. See CHILIAN.
NEWLAND'S MAMMOTH ALPINE (Newland). Brought forward
some years ago as a great acquisition. Now unheard of, and
probably nothing but the Old Red Alpine. Its place seems
to be filled just now by the Mexican Ever-bearing.
NEWTON SEEDLING (Challoner). Large, handsome, conical,
regular, bright shining red; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet, and brisk.
Plant hardy and productive, but demands a strong, rich, moist
or well irrigated soil.
NEW JERSEY (Durand). New. Described as conical, crimson
white fleshed, good, and showy.
NEW JERSEY SCARLET. Medium, conical, with long neck; bright
scarlet; flesh moderately firm, sprightly flavor, and good. Suc-
ce*eds in sandy soil. Originated near Burlington. Fig. in
Fuller, p. 97.
NICANOR (Ellwanger and Barry). A seedling of the Triomphe.
Originated about 1861. Medium to large, regular, and even
rounded; cockscombed ; glossy, bright deep scarlet; seeds dark,
not very deep sunk; flesh reddish, rich, sweet, and high fla-
vored ; truss with long foot-stalks, and usually from eighteen to
twenty-four berries on a truss. Leaf large, broad oval, deep
pea-green color, and deeply serrate. More uniform in size
io8 Catalogue of Varieties.
than the Wilson, and ripens more gradually. Fig. in Hort.
NICHOLSON'S SUPERB (Nicholson).
* NIMROD (Lucombe, Pince & Co.) Oblong, conical, same color
as the British Queen ; sweeter, richer, and hardier than that
variety. Forces well. Said to be very much like Elphinstone's
NONSUCH (Robertson). Medium, round, shining purple red;
seeds very prominent; flesh red, juicy, sweet, very highly per-
fumed. Moderate grower and bearer. Very late.
OHIO MAMMOTH (Burr). A cross of Burr's Seedling and Hov-
ey's. Fruit very lai'ge, long, conical, angular, light red, sweet,
and excellent ; foliage large ; plants vigorous, hardy, and pro-
OLD BLACK. (Syn. Black Canterbury, Black Pine, Black
Beacon, Turkey Pine, Mulberry.} Medium, conical, elongated,
pointed, with a neck ; hairy, and very dark purple red next the
sun ; seeds same color ; pale, with yellow seed on the shady
side ; flesh firm, with a core, scarlet, buttery, rich, and very
high flavored. Leaflets very small, oval, blunt, serrate, very
. thin, shining light green. An old and tender English variety.
OLD JOHN BROWN (Schroeder). Described as a cross between
Wilson's Albany and a Chili. Broadly conical, pointed, light
crimson; flesh tender, sweetish, fine flavored. Originated in
Bloomington, 111., and first fruited in 1859.
OLD PINE. (Syn. Pine, Carolina, Scarlet Pine, Old Scarlet do.,
Old Carolina do., Large do., Miss Gunning's, North's Seed-
ling, Devonshire Scarlet Pine, Blood Pine, Keiv do., Varnished
do., Windsor do., Cockscombed do., Regent's Favorite, Bar ham
Down. Erroneously, Black Pine, Surinam, and Bath Scarlet.}
Large, ovate, with a neck ; conical compressed, slightly hairy,
uniform bright scarlet ; seeds slightly sunken ; early fruit cocks-
combed ; flesh pale scarlet, rich, juicy, high flavored, the largest
fruit hollow. A famous old kind. American. Its numerous
synonymes show its former popularity. Prefers a clay soil.
Fig. in Pom. Mag. I. 47.
OMER PACHA (Ward). Large, regular and handsome, pale scar-
let, somewhat cockscombed, with a refreshing flavor, like
Catalogue of Varieties. 109
British Queen. Often confounded with Hyatt's Eliza, and by
some said to be undistinguishable from the Rival Queen.
ONARGA (Owens). New. Roundish conical, bright scarlet;
flesh solid and white, with a rich, wild flavor; highly perfumed.
A very large-leaved, tall, strong growing variety. Originated
in Onarga, 111.
ONONDAGA (Ford). A cross between the Victoria and Hovey's.
Large, soft, good flavor, considered promising.
ONE-LEAVED STRAWBERRY. (Syn. Fragaria Monophylla.} An
Alpine strawberry similar to the Green Alpine. Leaves simple,
not divided. Fig. in Curtis's Botanical Magazine, II. 63, and
in Duhnmel, VI. 342. Fuller, with whom a similar strawberry
has orginated, says probably not in cultivation, but it is adver-
tised in the late French catalogues.
OPHELIA (Prince). Described as sweet and pleasant. Said to
be a seedling from the Scarlet Magnate. Best if grown in
stools, and an excellent fertilizer for pistillate kinds.
ORANGE OR ORANGE PINE. Syn. of Hudson's Bay.
ORANGE PROLIFIC (Ellwanger and Barry). Large, roundish,
somewhat oblate, often necked, deep crimson ; seeds deeply
sunken ; flesh rather firm, brisk, acid. Originated in Roches-
ter, N. Y.
ORB (Nicholson). Round, very light colored, sweet, rich, and
good. Plants dwarf, of peculiar growth, the leaflets being a
little folded. I have fruited this three seasons, and consider it
the poorest bearer I know. Probably not one flower in twenty
sets a berry.
ORNEMENT DES TABLES (Soupert and Netting). Fruit large,
oval or flattened, bright red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy,
firm, juicy, sweet, and perfumed. Hardy and vigorous. De-
scribed by Gloede as an excellent berry.
OSCAR (Bradley). Large, ovate, angular, sometimes cocks-
combed ; seeds variable ; color from very dark red to mulberry ;
flesh described both as rosy white and as red; solid and firm;
juicy, and of rich flavor. In this country a poor grower, and
unproductive. Fig. in L'lllustration H*orticole, VI. 223.
OTHELLO (Mrs. Clements). New, 1868. Medium, oval or round ;
brilliant purplish red; deeper when perfectly ripe; seeds on
the surface ; flesh red, firm, sweet, juicy, and brisk.
OTTOLANDER'S PERPETUAL. New. Said to be an ever-bearing
strawberry, superior to Gloede's, very aromatic, and bearing
no Catalogue of Varieties.
PAGE'S SEEDLING (Page). Good size, conical, dark colored;
flesh rather soft, but of good flavor. Early.
PALATINE (Prince). Described as very large, obtusely conical,
scarlet, "juicy, and productive. Pistillate.
PALMYRE (Berger). Large, obtusely conical, pale rose; seeds
prominent; flesh rosy white, juicy, sweet, and perfumed. Mid-
dling early, hardy, and productive.
PASSE-PARTOUT (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit very large;
the first large and flattened, the others more elongated ; deep
varnished red; seeds distant, almost black, not prominent;
flesh red, veined with white, sugary, and perfumed ; slightly
acid. Plant semi-dwarf, with very deep green leaves. Very
late. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869, 270.
* PATRICK. Large, elongated, bright red ; seeds imbedded ; flesh
rosy white, hollow, sweet, and juicy. Early.
PAULINA (Prince). Described as obtusely conical, crimson, and
PAULINE (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit large, elongated,
deep varnished red ; flesh red, juicy, sugary, brisk, and very
good. Plant vigorous, leaves shining green. Very productive.
PAULINE (Prince). Very large, obovate, bright scarlet, acidu-
late, good flavor, late. Vigorous, hardy, and productive. Pis-
PAULINUS (Prince). Described as large, conical, bright scarlet,
and productive. Pistillate.
PEABODY (Peabody). (Syn. Peabody Seedling, JVew Hautbois.}
Conical or cockscombed, deep crimson ; flesh sweet and dry,
lacking high flavor. Does not set well. Introduced some years
ago with high praise, but has proved an utter failure. Down-
ing says, "flesh firm, sweet, melting, juicy, with a pine-apple
flavor." Originated in Columbus, Ga.
PEAK'S EMPEROR (Peak). Firm, conical, symmetrical, some-
what cockscombed, dark crimson, and very large. Plant like
the Agriculturist, hardy and productive. South Bend, Indiana.
PENELOPE (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit very large, rounded,
sometimes flattened ; clear red ; seeds small, distant, somewhat
Catalogue of Varieties. in
prominent; flesh salmon color, juicy, and slightly acid. Plant
dwarf, hardy, and productive. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869, 270.
PENNSYLVANIA (Schmitz). (Syn. Pennsylvania.} (?) A seed-
ling of the Moyamensing. Large, broad conical, dark crimson ;
seeds yellow ; flesh red, of fine flavor. Leaves large, and very
dark green. Pistillate, and in fruit similar to its parent.
PERFECTION (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Fruit large or very
large, lobed or conical, regular, very deep red (purplish in col-
ored engraving) ; seeds in regular rows, of a bright red, which
contrasts with the color of the berry; flesh rosy white, sugary,
and perfumed, recalling the flavor of the Brune de Gilbert.
Plant vigorous and hardy, and in some respects resembling
Marguerite. Fig. in Rev. Hort. 1869, 270.
PERFUMED PINE (Prince). A seedling of Burr's Pine. De-
scribed by the originator as obtusely conical, very large, bright
scarlet, juicy, high flavored. Vines vigorous and hardy.
PERFUMED SCARLET (Prince). Described as medium, rounded,
light scarlet, and high flavored. Pistillate.
PERPETUAL PINE (Gloede). See ANANAS, PERPETUEL.
PERPETUELLE DU POITOU. Given in the French list as a sub-
variety of the Alpine class.
PERRY'S SEEDLING (Perry). Medium to large, globular, with a
slight neck ; bright crimson ; sweet, rich, and sprightly. Origi-
nated in Georgetown, Conn. Fig. in Fuller, p. 98.
PHILADELPHIA. Medium to large, uniformly conical, bright scar-
let, moderately firm. Very early and productive.
PHCEBUS (Dr. Nicaise). Very large, elongated, flattened at
summit, clear red ; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet ; seeds brown. A
splendid berry. Plant vigorous and productive, with erect
PITMASTON BLACK (Williams). (Syn. Late Pitmaston Black.}
Originated in England in 1808. A seedling of the Old Black.
Resembles its parent, but tender, and a shy grower.
PITMASTON BLACK SCARLET. (Syn. Early Pitmaston Black.}
Medium, oblong, with neck; dark purple red, slightly hairy ;
seeds dark purple on one side, yellow on the other; not deeply
set; flesh scarlet, with small core; tender, sweet, and pleasantly
acid, with a Roseberry flavor. Productive.
PLOVER (Nicholson). Described as medium size, rich scarlet,
with a very rich, luscious, Hautbois flavor. A good bearer.
PREMIER (Ruffet). (Syn. British Green Seedling.} Very large,
112 Catalogue of Varieties.
oval or round, beautiful shining vermilion red ; flesh white,
with rosy veins ; sweet and perfumed. With me, a very splendid
grower in light soil.
PRESIDENT (Green). Large or very large, beautiful round form,
oval or lobed, bright red; seeds prominent; interior flesh col-
ored ; juicy and sweet. Vigorous, productive, and forces well.
PRESIDENT, OR PRESIDENT LINCOLN (Plattman). American.
New, and little known.
PRESIDENT WILDER (De Jonghe). New, 1868. Figured in the
foreign catalogues for 1868-9, and described as large, oval or
conical, with a long and very distinct neck; varnished crimson
red; seeds yellow and prominent; flesh firm, red, veined with
rose, sweet, and perfumed. Vines dwarf, hardy, very produc-
tive, and late. Said to surpass La Constante. The shape is
very different from that of the next variety.
PRESIDENT WILDER (Wilder). A cross of La Constante and
Hovey's Seedling, and retaining the good qualities of both va-
rieties. Fruit large to very large, many specimens in 1868 and
1869 weighing an ounce each ; roundish, obtusely conical,
always uniform and regular; bright crimson scarlet; seeds yel-
low, and near the surface; flesh rosy white, firm, juicy, rich,
and exquisitely flavored with a faint, hardly perceptible, Haut-
bois taste. The plant is of dwarf, compact habit, with strong,
healthy leaves on stout foot-stalks; vigorous and productive.
One year old plants, not allowed to make runners, sometimes
send up four fruit-stalks. The foliage resembles that of the
Hovey more than that of La Constante, and in the nine years'
trial it has had, has never burned. The fruit borrows its shape,
and much of its beauty, from La Constante, and it is almost im-
possible to find a misshapen berry. My first plants were set in
only moderately good soil, September 21, 1868, and they gave
me a very good crop in 1869. It originated with M. P. Wilder,
of Dorchester, Mass., in 1861, and was selected as the best re-
sult he has obtained from many thousand seedlings in thirty
years' continual experimenting, and is the most promising new
strawberry now before the public. Fig. in Tilton's Jour, of
Hort. 1869, p. i.
PRIMATE (Prince). Conical, crimson, moderate flavor, showy
market berry. A good setter, and very productive.
PRIMORDIAN (Prince). Large, conical, deep scarlet. Pistillate.
* PRINCE ALBERT.
Catalogue of Varieties. 113.
PRINCE ALFRED (Ingram). Very large, heart shaped, beautiful
purplish red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet, and
brisk. Plants dwarf, very moderate growers, and very late.
PRINCE ARTHUR (Ingram). Medium, handsome, oval or coni-
cal, rosy salmon ; seeds prominent; flesh white, juicy, sweet,
and brisk. Hardy, productive, and early.
PRINCE ARTHUR (Wilmot). Large or very large, variable, bright
rose; seeds on the surface; flesh pure white, firm, juicy, sweet,
and perfumed. Productive, but demands very careful cultiva-
PRINCE GEORGE (Nicholson). Large to very large, regularly
round; seeds brown and prominent; flesh yellowish white,
buttery, sweet, and exquisite. Vigorous, hardy, and middling
PRINCE IMPERIAL (Graindorge). Medium, variable, bright
glossy red ; seeds prominent ; flesh rosy, delicate, sweet, and
perfumed. Hardy, productive, very early, and forces well.
PRINCE OF ARGENTINE. New, and little known.
* PRINCE OF ORLEANS. Medium, tender, rather pleasant flavor.
Accounts vary as to its productiveness.
* PRINCE OF WALES (Cuthill). Large, conical, vermilion red;
seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet, and somewhat
acid. Hardy, productive, and very late.
PRINCE OF WALES (Ingram). Very large, oval or elongated,
bright red; flesh rosy, juicy, sweet, and brisk. Hardy, produc-
tive, and early.
PRINCE OF WALES (Stewart and Neilson). Large or very large,
rounded or lobed, purplish red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh
rosy white, juicy, and perfumed. Very productive and early.
PRINCEPS (Prince). Very large, long cone, dark crimson ; flesh
scarlet, sweet, fine flavor, vigorous and productive.
PRINCE'S LATE GLOBOSE (Prince). Described as very large,
round, firm, orange-scarlet, and very late. Pistillate.
PRINCESS DAGMAR (Mrs. Clements). New, 1868. Round, coni-
cal, with a blunt point; bright rose; seeds brown and prom-
inent; flesh yellowish white, buttery, sweet, and melting.
Hardy, productive, and very early. Fig. in Gloede's Cata-
PRINCESS FREDERICK WILLIAM (Niven). Large, roundish,
sometimes flattened or cockscombed ; bright scarlet ; flesh rosy
white, sweet, and a little pasty. Fuller says the plants are
ii4 Catalogue of Varieties.
PRINCESS OF WALES (Knight). Large, round, oval or flattened,
bright red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy white, juicy, sweet,
and perfumed. Vigorous, forces well, and extremely early.
* PRINCESS ROYAL (Ingram). Uniform, obtusely scarlet, dark
crimson; flesh firm, highly perfumed, and richly flavored. Has
proved a good bearer in this country. Pistillate. (?) Fig. in
Hort. XIII. 467.
PRINCESSE ROY ALE (Pelvilain). Seedling of the Keens's Seed-
ling, that from Keens's Imperial, and the latter from the White
Carolina. Obtained at Meudon, in France, about 1846, and in
1859 about twelve hundred acres were cultivated for the Paris
market. Fruit very large, regularly oval, very bright red;
flesh rosy, firm, with a central cavity, and filled with an acid
and not highly flavored juice. A favorite abroad ; but Gloede
remarks that it should be replaced by better kinds. Fig. in Jar.
Mus. II. and Alb. de Pomol. IV. p. 78.
PRINCESS ROYAL OF ENGLAND (Cuthill). Medium size, light
color; flesh lemon color, fine flavored. Productive.
PRINCE'S IMPERIAL SCARLET (Prince). Fruit large, light scar-
let, and of excellent flavor. Pistillate. Obtusely conical, firm
fleshed, juicy, and pleasant, according to another authority.
Fig. in Hort. XIV. 419.
PROFUSE SCARLET. Medium, scarlet, productive.
* PROFUSION (Burr). Medium or small, rich and sweet; a pro-
digious bearer. Pistillate.
PROGRES (De Jonghe). Fruit large, rounded or flattened,
squared at the end, deep purple red; seeds prominent; flesh
rosy white, firm, sweet, and brisk. Early.
PROLIFIC. Large, conical, light glossy scarlet, rich flavor, unpro-
ductive. English. (Downing.)
PROLIFIC HAUTBOIS. (Syn. Double Bearing Hautbois, Musk,
Regenfs, Hermaphrodite, Dwarf, Sacombe, Sir Joseph Banks' s^
Spring Grove, and probably others.) Large, obtusely conical,
dark, but not so dark as the Black Hautbois; seeds slightly
imbedded ; flesh solid, greenish, and high flavored. The best
of its class, and sometimes gives a second crop. Fig. in Pom.
Mag. I. 31.
PROLIFIC IOWA (Prince). Described by the originator as large,
conical, bright scarlet, and productive.
PROLIFIC ORANGE. (See ORANGE PROLIFIC.)
Catalogue of Varieties. 115
QyiNquEFOLiA (Myatt). Large, variable, bright red; seeds
prominent; flesh white, firm, sweet, highly perfumed. Said to
have five leaflets ; but the variety I once fruited under this
name, and which was very like the Lucas, did not have this
peculiarity. I have never been able to get the genuine, although
I have tried by advertising and otherwise for several years.
QUEEN'S SEEDLING. (?)
RANDOLPH PINE (Hobbs). A little known Pennsylvania seed-
READ'S No. i.
READ'S BLACK PINE (Read). Large, scarlet, good.
RED ALPINE MONTHLY. (Syn. Autumnal Galande, Des Alpes a
fruit rouge, Des Alpes de tous les Mois a fruit rouge, do. a Deux
Saisons, Des Alpes a ^Hiatre Saisons, Alpine Rouge, Prolific
Alpine, Poitou Alpine Monthly La Meudonnaise, &c., &c.) Sim-
lar to next, but with very high culture fruits continuously.
RED ALPINE. (Syn. American Alpine, Besancon, De Montreuil
a fruit rouge, do. do. a Marteati, Fressant, Dent de Cheval,
De Ville de Bots.} Medium, conical, light crimson; seeds
prominent, subacid, not rich, and not very good. Hardy, and
RED CONE. Large, conical, second rate, early. This and the
next are old English kinds.
RED FINGER. Small, ovate, second rate, and early.
REEVES'S SEEDLING (Reeves;. A new variety from Long Island.
Large and handsome, ripening late.
RKGINA (Prince). Seedling of Longworth's Prolific, and much
like its parent.
REGULATOR (Durand). New, and little known.
RP:INE DES BELGES. Large, varying between long conical and
obtuse conical ; bright rich scarlet ; flesh firm, juicy, sweet.
n6 Catalogue of Varieties.
REINE HORTENSE. Large, dark crimson; quality best. Hardy,
and moderately productive.
REINE DE QUATRE SAISONS. An Alpine.
RBUS VAN ZUIDWIJK (Van de Water). New, 1869. Enormous,
elongated, flattened or cockscombed, bright vermilion red ; flesh
rosy, melting, sweet. Hardy, vigorous, and late. Making few
runners. P'ig. in Gloede's Catalogue for 1870.
RHODE ISLAND SEEDLING. Described as large, variable, conical,
dark scarlet, moderate flavor, sour.
* RICHARDSON'S EARLY (Richardson). Medium, very dark crim-
son, pleasant, subacid, and good. Ripens with the Early Vir-
* RICHARDSON'S CAMBRIDGE (Richardson.)
* RICHARDSON'S LATE (Richardson). Large, roundish, with
short neck; light crimson scarlet. Rich, subacid, sprightly,
and good. Sometimes as late as the 2ist of July.
RIFLEMAN (Ingram). Very large to enormous, elongated; some-
times cockscombed, sometimes squared; bright orange red;
seeds on the surface ; flesh white, firm, sweet, and perfumed.
Vigorous, and extremely productive in some rich, sandy soils,
while in others it does nothing. Very late.
RIFLEMAN (Dr. Roden). Large, variable, flattened, brilliant
red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, veined with red; juicy, sweet,
and brisk. Early.
RIPPOWAM (Faulkner). (?) (Syn. Faulkner's King, Ripatvam.}
Probably this is identical with Rivers's Eliza. See the whole
subject discussed in Hov. Mag. XXXIV. 74. I am inclined to
think the Boston Beauty another synonyme of Rivers's Eliza.
RIVAL HUDSON (Burr). A cross of the Hudson and Burr's.
Dark shining red, rich, and excellent. Pistillate. Hardy and
RIVAL. QUEEN (Tiley). Said to be identical with Omer Pacha,
or not distinguishable from it.
ROBINSON'S DEFIANCE. Medium, roundish conical, necked, dull
red; flesh firm, acid. Vigorous and unproductive. (Downing.)
Robinson's Seedling is probably identical. An Ohio seedling.
Roi D'YVETOT (Acher). Large or very large, bright red, vari-
able in form ; flesh red, very sweet, and perfumed. Vigorous,
hardy, and very late. New.
ROMEYN'S SEEDLING. Undistinguishable from Triomphe de
Catalogue of Varieties. 117
Gand. At least I caeinot tell one from the other by the most
ROSALBA. A cross of the Chili Orange with the Rosy White
Chili, and resembles the latter, but succeeds in a greater variety
ROSALIND. (Prince). Described as large, conical, bright scarlet,
showy, fine flavored, and productive. Pistillate.
* ROSEBERRY. (Syn. Nose Strawberry, Scotch Scarlet, Aber-
deen, do. Seedling, Prolific Pine.} Medium, elongated, with a
neck; clear red; seeds yellow, somewhat prominent; flesh
somewhat acid, with but little perfume. Sometimes gives a
second crop. Discovered by Robert Davidson, in 1808, in
Aberdeen, under a rose bush. Hence the name. Fig. in Pom.
Mag. I. 20, Jar. Mus. V. Trans. Lond. Hc-rt. Soc. II. 380.
ROSEBUD. Large, ovate, cockscombed, with a neck ; bright red ;
flesh rich. English. (?)
ROSETTE (Dr. Nicaise). Plant strong; fruit abundant, rounded,
beautiful vermilion ; seeds a little sunken ; flesh white, sweet,
ROSINA (Prince). Described as large, round, light scarlet, sweet,
Ross' PHCENIX (Ross). A seedling from Keens's Seedling,
raised in Hudson, N. Y., in 1836. First fruited in 1839, anc * of
note only as one of the parents of the Peabody. Large,
cockscombed or compressed, dark red ; flesh firm, of fair flavor.
Sometimes productive. Fails in clay soils, and burns in lighter
ones. Originated in Hudson, N. Y.
ROYAL HAUTBOIS (Rivers). Medium to large, roundish conical,
regular, rich, dark crimson; seeds yellow; flesh whitish, soft,
sweet, and extremely rich. A seedling of Belle Bordelaise, but
later. One of the best of the class.
* ROYAL PINE.
* ROYAL SCARLET.
ROYAL VICTORIA (Stewart and Neilson). Large, rounded, bright
glossy red; s'eeds prominent; flesh white, firm, juicy, sweet,
and brisk. Hardy, productive, and late.
ROY ALE DE NORMANDIE. An Alpine.
RUBIS (Dr. Nicaise). New, 1868. Large, round, clear .varnished
red ; seeds little imbedded ; flesh rosy white, juicy, sweet, brisk.
Season medium. Vigorous and productive.
* RUBY (Nicholson). A very large and beautiful fruit ; elongated,
n8 Catalogue of Varieties.
compressed, bright glossy red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy
white, sweet, juicy, and brisk. Productive and early.
RUSSELL'S PROLIFIC (Russell). Fuller's description is extremely
accurate, viz. : very large, irregular, roundish conical, with
neck; deep crimson, moderately firm, sweet and perfumed,
good ; in sandy soils very good ; flesh lighter than the skin ;
leaves large ; upper surface wavy ; lobes broadly ovate. The
Russell is a much stronger grower than McAvoy's Superior,
and perfectly distinct from it. It has proved an abundant
bearer with me. Pistillate. Originated with H. Russell, Sen-
eca Falls, N. Y., 1856.
SACCHARINE SCARLET (Prince). Described as moderate size,
conical, scarlet, sweet. Pistillate.
SABREUR (Mrs. Clements). Large, handsome, conical, pointed,
pale orange red; seeds very prominent; flesh solid, firm, and
delicious. Very hardy and productive. Season medium. Fig.
in Fuller, p. 108.
SALTER'S VERSAILLAISE (Salter). Large, ovate, sometimes flat-
tened or cockscombed ; dark red ; flesh pale, juicy, and rich.
SANSPAREIL. Long, tapering, uneven, dark blackish red ; flesh
very solid and firm, red throughout; high flavor. Forces well.
SCARLET CHILI. Large, ovate, second quality, and late.
SCARLET CONE (Ellwanger and Barry). Large, perfect cone,
bright scarlet, vigorous, and productive. Pistillate. (Down-
ing, who does not mention its quality.)
SCARLET EXCELSIOR (Prince). Described as very large, obtusely
conical, deep scarlet, sweet, and high flavored. Pistillate.
* SCARLET MAGNATE (Prince). Large, roundish, compressed,
bright scarlet; flesh white, not high flavored; firm, and pretty
good. A vigorous grower, and productive. Pistillate. I have
found it to bear next to nothing the second year.
SCARLET MELTING (Burr). Long, with a neck; bright scarlet;
flesh very tender and soft; very delicious. Productive and
SCARLET NONPAREIL. Large, roundish conical, bright red, rich,
Catalogue of Varieties. 119
SCARLET PRIMORDIAN (Prince). Described as early, large, dark
scarlet, oblong, conical, pleasant flavored.
SCARLET QUEEN (Standish). New, 1868. Large, elongated,
with a neck ; bright glossy scarlet ; flesh pure white, firm, melt-
ing, sweet, with a very distinct pine-apple taste. Late.
SCARLET PINE. Medium, conical, with a neck; bright scarlet;
seeds superficial ; flesh firm, juicy, sweet, with a distinct pine-
apple taste. Hardy and vigorous, according to foreign descrip-
tions ; with me, a very moderate grower in a light soil, where
Rivers's Eliza and Haquin do very well.
SCARLET PRIZE (Prince). Described as very large, bright scar-
let, fine flavored, and productive. Pistillate.
SCARLET PROLIFIC (Prince). Medium, conical, bright scarlet,
sweet, and productive. A seedling of Burr's New Pine. Pis-
* SCHILLER. Fruit paler than the British Queen ; capriciously
conical ; flesh firm, rich, aromatic, acid, and sprightly. Late.
*SCHNEICKE'S PISTILLATE (Schneicke). Medium, obovate,
bright scarlet, of good flavor, and vigorous.
SCHMITZ'S No. 3 (Schmitz). A seedling of the Iowa. Large,
roundish ovate, conical, light cr-imson ; seeds crimson, often
yellow, deeply sunken ; flesh pale red ; flavor pleasant. Leaves
large, light green. Pistillate.
* SCIOTO (Prince). Large, bright scarlet, rich, sweet, and good.
Vigorous, hardy, and productive. Pistillate.
SCONE SCARLET (Beattie). Medium, round, no heck; light
shining red on one side, pale on the other; seeds dark brown,
and deeply sunk; flesh firm, pale pink, and acid. Good bearer.
Late. Originated in England in 1813.
SCOTCH RUNNER. Small, oval, bright scarlet; flavor good, but
berry too small. Formerly raised for market in New Jersey.
Fig. in Fuller, p. 99.
SCOTT'S SEEDLING (Scott). (Syn. Scarlet Runner.*} Said to be
a cross of the Prince Albert and Boston Pine. Large, long
conical, deep crimson scarlet; surface shining and uneven;
seeds yellow, sunken ; flesh pale red, hollow in the centre ; rich,
and melting. A very beautiful berry, and with high cultiva-
tion gives good crops. Fig. in Fruits of America, II. 67. Ori-
ginated in Brighton, Mass.
SEMPRONIA (Prince). Very large, obtuse cone, bright deep scar-
I2O Catalogue of Varieties.
let; flesh white, sweet, very good flavor. Plant very vigorous.
A seedling of the Hovey.
SERAPHINE (Prince). Described as monstrous, pleasant flavored.
SERENA (Prince). Described as rather large, conical, bright
scarlet, sweet, good flavored, productive.
SIR CHARLES NAPIER (Smith). Heart shaped and cockscombed ;
varying between glossy orange red, and bright scarlet; very
handsome ; flesh white, juicy, brisk, but not rich. This variety,
probably from its beauty, has made some stir in England.
SIR HARRY (Underbill). A cross of Keens's Seedling and
British Queen. Large, cockscombed, dark red; flesh solid,
juicy, and very good. Forces well. Originated in 1853, at
Edgbaston, near Birmingham. Sometimes confounded with
Trollope's Victoria. Gloede says Sir Harry is amazingly pro-
ductive, and advises to cultivate it on the annual system.
SIR HARRY ORANGE (Makoy). Fruit large or very large,
rounded, glossy orange red; seeds prominent; flesh white,
juicy, perfumed, and sweet. Season medium.
SIR JOSEPH BANKS SCARLET. Oblong or bluntty conical, with
a neck; bright scarlet; seeds prominent; flesh bright scarlet,
firm, high flavored. A moderate bearer, ripening early. Leaf-
lets medium, oval, flat. An old kind.
SIR JOSEPH PAXTON (Bradley). Rounded conical, cockscombed,
brilliant crimson red ; seeds prominent; flesh salmon colored,
firm, sweet, and good. Extremely productive, and said to be
equally good for open culture or forcing. Early.
SIR WALTER SCOTT. Large, oblong, pointed, deep red ; seeds
prominent; flesh pale, firm, and poor. A dwarf, robust
grower. Leaf-stalks very hairy; leaflets roundish or roundish
ovate, not deeply serrate.
SIR WATKIN. A cross between Sir Harry and Black Prince.
Conical, and dark crimson. Not commended.
SIRIUS (Prince). Described as monstrous size, light orange
scarlet, showy, good-flavored, and productive.
SLOUGH SCARLET. (Syn. Brown's Scarlet.} Very small, round-
ish, of second quality, and resembles the Duke of Kent.
SMITH'S SEEDLING (Smith). A Canada (?) variety. Large,
good flavor, productive, and hardy. Resembles the Wilson,
but is softer.
SOLID SCARLET. (Syn. Solid-fleshed.}
Catalogue of Varieties. 121
* SOUTHBOROUGH SEEDLING. Medium, ovate, conical, scarlet,
flesh firm, mild, and rich. An old English variety.
SOUVENIR D'EMILIE ( Jamin and Durand). Enormous, irregular,
SOUVENIR DE KIEFF (De Jonghe). Large, conical, sometimes
truncated; beautiful, bright glossy red ; seeds very prominent;
flesh white, firm, sweet, juicy, and good. A moderately good
grower with me.
SOUVENIR DE NANTES (Boisselot). Very large or enormous,
variable, glossy orange red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, juicy,
sweet, and highly perfumed. A Chili strawberry, aiid like all
its class, a poor bearer, and late.
STARR'S SEEDLING (Starr). Described as medium, conical, scar-
let, and productive.
STEWART. Described as early, large, conical, scarlet, firm, and
STINGER'S SEEDLING (Stinger.). First known as Union. Large
size, scarlet and showy ; flesh not firm enough. Said to be
more acid than the Wilson, but this is hardly credible. Hardy,
early, and productive. Said to be a seedling of the Triomphe
de Gand. Originated near Philadelphia. Likes a warm soil.
Fig. in Tilton's Jour. Hort. VII. 155.
* STIRLING CASTLE PINE. Conical, pale, rosy orange; flesh
white, very buttery and delicious ; full of a fresh, sugary juice.
Vigorous, but a poor bearer. Originated in 1848. Leaf-stalks
rough and hairy; brownish red, when old, like the Hudson's
Bay, of which it is a seedling. Fig. in Jar. Mus. III., Rev. Hort.
STODDARD'S SEEDLING (Stoddard). An Alpine.
SUCCES (De Jonghe). New. Vigorous and strong; leaves large,
deep shining green, with horizontal, deeply incised leaflets.
Fruit large, obtusely conical, yellowish, cherry color; seeds
abundant in shallow cavities. Interior of berry firm, flesh col-
ored, juicy, and good. This variety sends out abundant run-
ners when the fruit is half grown. (De Jonghe.)
SULTANA (Prince). Large to monstrous, obtusely conical, orange
scarlet ; flesh pure . white, fine flavor, juicy. Plant hardy and
vigorous. A showy berry.
SURPASSE GROSSE SUCREE (De Jonghe). Very large, conical,
bright red; seeds prominent; llesh rosy white, juicy, sweet,
and perfumed. Season medium.
SUPERLATIVE (Prince). A seedling of Burr s New Pine ; about
122 Catalogue of Varieties.
equal to its parent in size and flavor, but mor vigorous, and
perhaps more productive. Pistillate.
SUPREMA (Prince). Described as large, sprightly flavored, very
SUPREME STAMINATE (Prince). Described as monstrous, ob-
tusely conical, bright scarlet, of good flavor, and productive.
* SURPRISE (Myatt). Pale scarlet, cockscombed, very soft, acid,
and deficient in flavor.
SURINAM. (Syn. Red Pine, Oldaker's Pine, Red Pine-apple,
Suttorfs Large.*) Ovate or round, no neck; very large, light
shining red next the sun, pale on the other side; seeds yellow
and prominent; flesh firm, with a large core; pale red, and of
poor flavor. An abundant bearer, and late. A very old kind,
formerly cultivated in England.
* SWAINSTONE. (Syn. Szvainstone's Seedling.} Regular oval or
conical, glossy light scarlet; seeds slightly sunken ; flesh solid,
and of very high flavor. Foliage -large ; footstalks long. Fruit-
stems high and strong. An old English variety, once much es-
teemed. Fig. in Hort. I. 32.
SWEDISH HAUTBOIS. Very small, roundish, second rate, of
dwarf habit, not worth cultivating. Old, and probably now
SWEET CONE (Knight). A cross of the Old Pine with the Old
Black. Small, conical, with a neck; bright shining scarlet;
hairy; seeds prominent; flesh firm, brighter than the skin;
hollow, or with a small core ; high flavor. A poor grower.
SYLVANIA (Prince). Described as large, conical, dark scarlet,
dark red flesh, acid, but good. Pistillate.
TATNALL'S SEEDLING (Tatnall). Described as large, on a stiff
truss, and very good.
TAYLOR'S NEW EMPEROR.
* TAYLOR'S SEEDLING.
TERPSICHORE (Prince). Described as very early, large, conical,
bright scarlet, vigorous.
THE PRAIRIE FARMER (Neff). Very large, oblong, compressed
or ovate, occasionally cockscombed, irregular, deep scarlet;
texture firm, subacid. Plant strong and vigorous; foot-stalks
large and tall. Promises well for market. Originated with
Catalogue of Varieties. 123
William D. Neff, Ottawa, 111. (Downing, from Prairie Farm-
TIMOTHEE TRIM (Dr. Nicaise). Very large, elongated conical;
flesh hollow, rosy, sweet, with a peculiar flavor. Leaves large,
on short petioles. Vigorous and productive. New.
TITIEN (Henderson). Large, very long, with a neck; bright
glossy red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy, firm, sweet, highly
perfumed. Medium in ripening.
TOPSY (Dejonghe). Medium to large, extremely long conical,
very peculiar, glossy orange ; seeds on the surface ; flesh rosy,
firm, juicy, sweet, and excellent. Medium in ripening. Fig.
in Fuller, p. 108.
TRANSCENDENT SCARLET (Prince). Described as extra large,
dark scarlet, roundish, sweet, and good.
TREVIRANA (Prince). Large, obtusely conical, light scarlet.
TRIOMPHE DE GAND. Very large to monstrous, conical nor-
mally, but generally much flattened and cockscombed ; bright
crimson ; paler towards the calyx, and looking as if varnished ;
exact color very peculiar, and not easily described ; flesh juicy,
crisp, of a distinct and very good flavor. A good grower. It
makes immense stools the second season if the runners are
clipped. Forces admirably. This is the best, perhaps, of all
the foreign varieties for general cultivation. In a good soil,
with good culture, it seldom fails. Fig. in Fuller, p. 108.
TRIOMPHE DE LIEGE (Lorio), Large, variable, sometimes
cockscombed, deep red ; seeds sunken ; flesh red, juicy, sweet,
and brisk. Hardy, productive, and early.
TRIOMPHE DE PARIS (Souchet). New, 1867. Described as a
supeib berry of the largest size, round or cockscombed, glossy
orange red; seeds prominent; flesh rosy, with a centre cavity;
juicy, melting, and highly perfumed. Vigorous, hardy, and
productive. Season medium. This received the first prize of
the French National Society of Horticulture, and Gloede re-
tains it in his Catalogue among the novelties of 1868, saying
that it has exceeded the hopes he had formed of it. Fig. in
Gloede's Catalogue, 1868-9.
TRIUMPH (Prince). Resembles the Large Early Scarlet in color
and flavor, but of twice the size. Very productive. Fruit borne
on strong trusses.
124 Catalogue of Varieties.
TRIUMPH OF AMERICA (Dreer). N*w. Described as of the
largest size, and, in comparison with the Triomphe de Gand,
sweeter, larger, more vigorous, and better adapted to light soil.
TRIUMPH OF HOLLAND (Verkroost). (Syn. Triomphe d'Hol-
lande, Triumph of Holland Alpine, Des >uatre Sazsons.)
Large for its class, regular, roundish conical, light scarlet red;
seeds light yellow; flesh juicy, sweet, rich, aromatic, delicious.
Growth vigorous, compact. Very productive. A new variety
from the Netherlands. (Downing.)
TRIUMPHANT SCARLET (Prince). Described as very large, con-
ical, deep scarlet, fine flavored, two or three weeks in bearing.
TRIUMVIRATE (Prince). A seedling from the Iowa. Said to be
large and productive.
TROLLOPE'S VICTORIA (Trollope). (Syn. Golden Queen, Trem-
bly 's Union, and probably others.) Very large, roundish coni-
cal, varying between light pale scarlet and brick red; seeds
slightly sunken, and set wide apart; flesh white, juicy, but not
rich. Very variable in amount of fruit. Said to force well.
An old English berry, occasionally brought out with a new
name. Fig. in Fuller, p. 109.
TROUBADOUR (Prince). Described as large, conical, scarlet,
handsome, of good flavor, and productive. Pistillate.
TRUMPET (Keech). New. Described as light colored, with a
brisk, pleasant flavor.
TURENNE. Described as very large, obtusely conical, crimson,
TURNER'S QUEEN (Turner). New. Originated with Joseph
Turner, Moore.stown, N. J. Said to resemble the next variety,
but to be of better flavor. Pistillate.
TURNER'S FAVORITE (Turner). Very large, bright colored, firm,
of good flavor; plant vigorous, holding the fruit well up.
Same origin as the preceding, and like the next three, figured
in the originator's circulars.
TURNER'S NONSUCH (Turner). Berries said to be not quite so
large as those of the Favorite or Queen, but to be exceedingly
solid. Productive, and a strong grower. Pistillate.
TURNER'S BEAUTY (Turner). Berries bright red, large, and of
good flavor. Plant an exceedingly strong grower.
TURNER'S PROLIFIC (Turner). Berries large, light scarlet. Vig-
orous, and a strong grower. Said to be very productive, ap-
proaching in this respect Wilson's Albany. Pistillate.
TURNER'S PINE. Large, ovate, second quality. Late. English.
Catalogue of Varieties. 125
TWICE-BEARING SWAINSTONE (Prince.) Said to be very produc-
tive, early, of medium size, to be equal in flavor to Hovey's,
and to bear a second crop in September. Pistillate.
UNDERWOOD'S SEEDLING (Underwood). A seedling of La Con-
stante. Raised by W. J. Underwood, Belmont, Mass. A good
grower, productive, and distinguished by its remarkably firm
flesh, the berries being firm and handsome, after having been
packed in boxes two days and more. Its flesh is white, juicy,
and good. Not yet disseminated.
UNION. Syn. of Trollope's Victoria, and of Stinger's Seedling.
VALENCIA (Prince). Described as early, conical, deep scarlet,
vigorous, and productive.
VARIEGATED PINE. A weak, shy bearer ; leaves variegated with
VERNON'S SCARLET. (Syn. White's Scarlet.} Medium, round,
dark red, rather hairy; seeds slightly imbedded; flesh pale
vermilion, white in centre ; solid, well flavored. A good bearer,
and early. Leaflets small, oval, dark shining green. An old
VICTORIA OVATA (Robine). New, 1867. Large, oval or heart
shaped, clear vermilion ; flesh firm, rosy at the centre, red near
the outside ; well flavored ; brisker than Trollope's Victoria ;
seeds prominent. Vigorous and productive.
VICTORINE (Prince). Early, very large, conical, bright scarlet.
VICTORY OF BATH (Lydiard). Large, oval, bright orange red;
seeds slightly imbedded ; flesh white, firm, juicy, sweet, and
perfumed. Hardy and productive.
VINEUSE DE NANTES (Boisselot). Medium, round, very obtusely
conical, bright glossy crimson; seeds very prominent; flesh
red, solid, sweet, and vinous. Fig. in Fuller, p. 109.
1 20 (Catalogue of Varieties.
VINEUSE DE CHAMPAGNE. Fig. in Duhamel, VI. 361, and de-
scribed as poor and small.
VIRGINIE (Dejonghe). Large, rounded or conical, varnished
red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh clear red, juicy, sweet, and
brisk. Vigorous, or tolerably so, hardy, and productive. Sea-
VIRGINIA SCARLET. (See LARGE EARLY SCARLET.) Fruit small,
round, uniform, bright red; seeds small, yellow, deep sunk;
flesh not firm, puffed up around the seeds ; flavor fresh and
fine, sweet, and a little acid. Fig. in Jar. Mus. II.
VOORHIS'S QUEEN (Voorhis). (?). Medium, deep scarlet, good
WALKER'S SEEDLING (Walker). Said to be a seedling from the
Black Prince. Medium to large, regularly conical ; color very
deep crimson, becoming a maroon when ripe. Flesh deep crim-
son, tender, juicy, fine flavored. Raised by the late Samuel
Walker, Roxbury, Mass. Fig. in Thomas's Fruit Culturist,
* WAL WORTH.
WARD'S FAVORITE (Ward). Fruit medium to large, roundish,
deep crimson, sweet, and rich.
WARRINGTON (Prince). Described as large, obtusely conical,
dark scarlet, a moderate bearer. A seedling form the Swain-
WEHRLEY'S SEEDLING (Wehrley). Seedling of .Triomphe de
Gand. Medium to large, roundish conical, inclined to cocks-
comb shape ; very light crimson ; flesh firm and good. Season
medium. Said to be more productive than its parent.
WELCOME (Prince). Described by the originator as a very supe-
rior and very early berry. Little known.
WESTBERE. Ovate, medium, second quality. Old, and probably
WESTCHESTER. Described as large, obtusely conical, crimson.
WESTERN QUEEN (Kirtland). Medium to large, roundish coni-
cal, rich, glossy, dark red; flesh firm, juicy, subacid, sprightly.
Catalogue of Varieties. 127
Hardy and productive. Pistillate. Originated in Cleveland,
WHITE ALBION. Syn. of Lennig's White.
WHITE ALPINE. (Syn. Alpine Blanc, White Monthly, Des
Alpes .a Fruit Blanc.} Differs from the Red Alpine only in*
WHITE CAROLINA. (Syn. White Pine, White Bath, White Chili,
Pale do., Flesh-colored do., Long White.} There are two va-
rieties, viz., the above, and the Dwarf White Carolina; both
brownish white, soft, woolly, poor flavored. The fruit of one
is roundish, with sunken seeds ; of the other ovate, with prom-
inent seeds. The first is the larger of the two.
*WILLEY. Medium, roundish, deep crimson; flesh firm, with a
sprightly, acid flavor. Pistillate. Fruit in clusters. Downing
says, " good for preserving."
WILLIAMS'S GREEN PINE. Medium, roundish, second rate. Old.
WILMOT'S LATE SCARLET (Wilmot). (Syn. Wilmofs New Scar-
let, Wilmofs Seedliug, Large Virginia, Late do., Wilmofs Im-
perial.} Very large, bluntly conical, irregular, light shining
red; seeds small, deeply sunken; flesh white, soft, hollow;
flavor moderately good. Leaflets large, nearly round, dark
shining green. Originated in 1815.
WILMOT'S SUPERB (Wilmot). (Syn. Praise Forest.}. Large,
irregular, roundish, always hairy, rather dark red; seeds
brown and prominent; flesh firm, hollow, pale scarlet, some-
times buttery and rich ; at others poor. A cross of the Chili
and the Roseberry. Originated in England in 1821. Fig. in
Lond. Hort. Soc. Trans. VI. 392.
WILSON'S ALBANY (Wilson). Large, irregularly conical, dark
crimson, extremely acid, only tolerably good when dead ripe ;
flesh crimson, exceedingly vigorous, productive, and hardy,
generally giving a good crop on any soil, whether raised in
hills or in beds. Fuller says the Wilson has done more to ad-
vance strawberry culture, in this country, than any other variety
that has appeared since the Hovey. This is true, but at the
same time it is not more than third rate in flavor, and it owes
its popularity to its great firmness, and its good behavior under
careless culture. It has been cultivated with much success at
the South as a winter crop, ripening in December. Originated
with John Wilson, of Albany, N. Y. Not much known before
1857. Fig. in Thomas's Am. Fruit Culturist, p. 421.
iz8 Catalogue of Varieties.
WIZARD OF THE NORTH (Robertson). Medium, roundish oval,
dull red ; seeds on the surface ; flesh red, acid, soft, poor. Very
late. A Scotch variety.
WONDERFUL (Jeyes). (Syn. Jeyes's Wonderful, and, according
to Downing, Myatfs Prolific, which see.) Fuller says it is a
large, irregular berry, firm flesh, high flavor, and a poor bearer.
According to Hogg it is large, conical, cockscombed, pale red,
whitish at apex; seeds numerous; flesh white, tender^ melting,
with a fine aroma. Resembles Hyatt's Surprise, but larger,
and more seeds.
WOOD STRAWBERRY. Fragaria Vesca. (Syn. Common Rouge,
Des Bois a Fruit Rouge, English Red Wood, Netuland's Mam-
moth, Stoddard's Alpine, Washington Alpine, &c.) This is the
wild strawberry of Europe. Long more commonly cultivated
in our gardens than any other sort, and still perhaps the
easiest of cultivation, and one of the most desirable kinds. It
always bears abundantly, and though the fruit is small, yet it is
produced for a much longer time than that of the other classes
of strawberries, and is very sweet and delicate in flavor.
Flowers always perfect; fruit red, small, roundish ovate; seeds
set even with the surface of the fruit. It ripens at medium
season. (Downing.) Fig. in Jar. Mus. II.
YELLOW CHILI (Williams). A cross of the Chili and Downton.
Long, irregularly oval, cockscombed, brown on the sunny side,
yellow on the other ; seeds brown, and slightly sunken ; flesh
yellowish, said to be firm ; buttery, with a rich acid flavor.
Originated in 1821.
YOUNG'S SEEDLING. By some said to be a seedling from the
Hovey's Seedling, but probably only a synonym of the Hovey's.
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