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Full text of "Stray feathers. Journal of ornithology for India and its dependencies"

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PUBLISHBD BX IHB CAtCCITA CESIBAL FBBSS CO., ID. 



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PBINTBD BY THH CALCUTTA CENTBAL PES8S CO., IB.j 

6, COUNCIL BOUSB 8TBBBT. 



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CONTENTS OF VOL. X. 

Nos. 1, 2 & 8.— December 1881. 



Page. 
The Birds of the Lucknow Civil Division, by Geo. 
Reid ... ... ... ... ... 1 

A Contribution to the Ornithology of Gilgit, by John 
Scully (A reprint from the " Ibis") ... ... 88 

Phaeton indicus, Hume. Phaeton .etherius, Lin. ... 146 

Note on the Nidification of Ardea goliath ... 149 

Novelties — 

Picus pyrrhothorax ... ... ...150 

Certhia manipurensis ... ... ... 151 

Pomatorhinus austeni ... ... ... 152 

Trochalopterum erythrolsema ... ... ... 153 

The British Museum Catalogue of Birds, Vol. V. ... 155 

Notes — 

On the occurrence of Erismatura leucocephala near 
Delhi ... .. ... ... 158 

On the occurrence of Fuligula marila at Attock ... ib. 

Woodcock at Kurrachee ... ... ... 159 

Buteo desertorum in Southern India ... ... ib. 

On the occurrence of Fuligula marila, Anas marmorata, 
Coracias garrula, at Gurgaon near Delhi ... ... 174 

Letters to the Editor — 

On the occurrence of Sypheotides aurita at Allahabad. — 
A. M. Markham ... ... ... 160 

On the distribution of Francolinus pictus in the 

neighbourhood of the Ghats. — G. Vidal ... ib. 

Notes on the occurrence of various Game Birds, — F, W. 
Butler ... ... ... ... 161 

Wild Fowl in Sylhet,— M. Eden ... ... 163 

Excalfactoria chinensis, at the Vehar Lake, Bombay and 
Poona. — H. Wenden .. ... ... 165 

Sula cyanops at Kurrachi. — J. Murray ... ... ib, 

Glareola lactea, in Sindh. — H. E. Barnes ... ... 166 

The Great Indian Bustard in Madura and Tinnevelly, — 
C. A. Tostems ... ... ... ... 167 

Notes on the occurrence of various species of Wild 
Fowl.— J. H. McLeod ... ... ... 168 

Black Partridge calling perched on a tree. — J. B. 
Murdoch ... ... ... ... 169 

Barred-headed Geese and Shelldrakes in Assam. — W, 
Forsyth ... ... ... ... ib. 



Page. 
Reguloides trochiloides, Horornis flaviventris, Neornis 

assimilis. — W. F. Brooks ... ... ... 169 

Pintail and Fantail Snipe. — G. M. Rayment ... 172 

Painted Snipe in Cashmere. — E. L. Hawkins ... ib. 

Circus cineraceus in Sindh. — J. Murray ... ... 173 

Gallinago nemoricola in the Wynaad. — J. W. Ditmas ... ib. 



No. 4— July 1882. 



A List op the Birds of Pegu, by Eugene W. Oates ... 175 

On the flight of Birds... ... ... ... 248 

A Note on the Genera Schcenicola and Catriscus, by R. 
Bowdler Sharpe, F.L S., F.Z.S., &c., Department of Zoology, 
British Museum — Reprint from the P.Z.S , November 1881 254 
The British Museum Catalogue of Birds, Vol. VI., by 
R. Bowdler Sharpe ... ... ... ... 256 

Further Notes on the Birds of Gilgit, by Major J. Bid- 
dulph— Reprint from the " Ibis" ... .'. ...257 

Rough List of the Birds of "Western Khandesh, by 
J Davidson, Esq., Bo.C.S. ... ... ...279 

Letters to the Editor — 

A correction. — J. H. Gurney ... ... ... 327 

A female Circus melanoleucus in the plumage of the 
adult male. — J. R. Cripps ... ... ... ib. 

Zosterops palpebrosus in Sindh.— J. Murray ... 328 



No. 5 — March 1883. 



Notes on some Birds collected on the Nilghiris and in 

parts of Wynaad and Southern Mysore, by "W. Davison ... 329 
Notes — 

On the several occurrences heretofore recorded of Eris- 
matura leucocephala within our limits ... ... 419 

Letters to the Editor — 

The Lesser Florican breeding in Western Sind. — James 
A. Murray ... ... ... ... 420 

Notes of the Black and Painted Partridges. — F. Mon- 
tresor ... ... ... ... ib. 

On a small collection of birds made in the N. Kanara 

forests by Mr. A. T. Crawford.— G. Vidal ... 421 

Occurrence of Grus communis at Ferozepore on the 25th 
September, — H. A. Kinloch ... ... 423 

Additions and corrections to the " First List of the 

Birds of the South Konkan." — G. Vidal ... ib. 

On the occurrence of Fuligula marila (the Scaup) and 
Clangula glaucium (the Golden Eye) near Attock. — R. 
N. Stoker ... ... ... ... 424 



Ill 

Page. 
Further occurrences of the Golden Eye near Attock. — R, 

N. Stoker ... ... ... ... 425 

Accipiter stevensoni and A. virgatus — J. H. Gdrney... 426 
Painted Sandgrouse in the Deccan. — G. Vidal ... 426 

Erismatura leucocephala, Querquedula formosa, and 

Pterocles alchata near Delhi. — W. N. Chill ... ib. 

Some notes on the " Game Birds of India." — J. M. 

Anderson ... ... ... ... 428 

On the occurrence of the Red Spur Fowl in the Pillibhit 

District — W. C. Plowden ... ... ... ib. 

On the occurrence of the Comb Duck in the Bari Doab, — 

G. Trevor ... ... ... ... 430 

Ornithological Nomenclature. — Alfred Newton ... 431 



No. 6— December 1887. 



Notes Supplementary to Major Butler's Catalogue op 
Birds of the Deccan and South Mahratta Country, by 
J. Macgregor ... ... ... ... 435 

Catalogue of the Birds in the Provincial Museum, N.-W. 
P. and Oudh. Notice by the Editor ... ... 442 

Addenda to the Birds of the Lucknow Civil Division, 
by Geo. Reid ... ... ... ... 444 

A Tentative List of the Birds of Manzeerabad, Mysore, 
by C. J W. Taylor ... ... ... ... 454 

A few Additional Notes on the Birds of the Pulni Hills, 

by ? . . .. ... ... 467 

On Falco babylonicus and barbarus, by J, H. Gurney 
(ex Ibis) ... ... ... ... ... 480 

Our Indian Pelicans ... ... ... ... 487 

Observations on the Pelican visiting the Easteen Narra, 
by Scrope B. Doig, C.E. ... ... ... 503 

Notes — 

A plate of Pernis tweedalii, Hume ... ... 513 

Eggs of Phcenicopterus roseus and minor at the Sambhur 
Lake ... ... ... ... ib. 

The Attock and N.-W. Punjab Hills Hawfinch distinct 
from the European species ... ... ... 514 

Additional weights and measurements of the Scaup and 

Golden Eye recorded by Mr. R. N. Stoker ... 515 

Detailed measurements with colours of the soft parts of 
numerous specimens of Falco babylonicus procured in 
Sindh, recorded by Mr. Doig ... ... ib. 

Woodcock in the neighbourhood of Tonghoo ... 517 

Letters to the Editor — 

Nidification of Peafowl, &c, at Baroda. — H. Littledale 518 
Rooks at Ludhiana. — Frank W. Chanter ... ib. 



IV 



Page. 
Pink-headed Duck in Oudh. — Maurice Tweedie ... 518 
Nidification of Pitta coronata in the Central Provinces. 

— Iver Macpherson ... ... ... 519 

Close-barred Sand Grouse in Rewah, — J. C. Berkeley... 520 
White-faced Stiff-tailed Duck in Pilibheet.— W. C. 

Plowden ... ... ... ... ib. 

White-faced Stiff-tailed Duck near Multan. — T. Bomford 521 
The Likh or Bastard Florican near Baroda in March and 

April. — H. Littledale ... ... ... ib. 

The Sams in Tanna and other notes. — J. D. Inverarity 522 
Grey Lag Geese at the Chilka Lake. — G. Rippon ... ib. 

Woodcock in the Gurdaspur district. — H, M. Plowden 524 
Ceriomis blythi, in the Daffla Hills. — Robert Cran ... ib. 
The adult female of Falco severus. — E. Butler ... ib. 

The Game Birds of theKhorda Sub-division of the Pooree 

district (Orissa). — James H. Taylor ... ... 526 




PREFACE. 



ETWEEN the issue of Parts 1 to 5, and the 
final number of this volume, there has been un- 
fortunately a great gulf in time — a hiatus valde 
deflendus. 

The fact simply is, not that I have in any way lost my 
interest in Ornithology, but that the pressure of other work, 
which to me seems the more important of the two, has entirely 
prevented my giving any time whatsoever either to Birds or to 
" Stray Feathers." 

However, under the friendly pressure of old supporters, I 
have nerved myself to do this much, viz., first to issue this 6th 
number of Vol. X and so complete it ; and, secondly, to publish 
as Vol. XI my very long paper on the birds of Manipore, 
Assam, Sylhet and Cachar, which has lain upon my table ever 
since September, 1881, and which, although doubtless obsolete 
in some respects, will, I am assured, be useful as a platform on 
which others may commence real work. 

ALLAN HUME. 



HJY FEATHERS VOL. x 




■yr/t.-/) FEATHER* VOL Y 




STRAY FEATHERS. 



Vol. X] DECEMBER 1881. [Nos. 1, 2 & 3. 



$fa Jinis of the Snthww dpril liriswn. 



By Geo. Reid. 



(Continued from Vol. IX., page 504.) 
List. 



1.— Vultur monachus, Lin. 

I liave never been able to secure a specimen of this magnificent 
bird, the Cinereous Vulture, but one, now iu the Lucknow 
Museum, was shot a few years ago at Ajgaen in the Unao 
district. It may, therefore, be accepted as an exceedingly rare 
visitor to the Division. 

2. — Otogyps calvus, Scop. Native name — Lal-sira 
Uidh* 

The Black or King Vulture is a fairly common and permanent 
resident, though not nearly so abundant as P. bengalensis. It 
seems to be of a rather solitary disposition. I have seen its nest 
several times on high pipal trees, and once on a tall mangoe 
tree, though from none of them was I able to secure eggs. 

4.— Gyps indicus, Scop. 

I include the Long-billed Brown Vulture with some hesita- 
tion, though Gapt. Irby, in his paper on the Birds of Oudh and 
Kumaon, vide the Ibis, Vol. III. for 1861, p. 217, states that it is 
equally as common as bengalensis ; and that one was " caught 
inside a horse's belly at Alumbagh." Now, there is no Vulture 
here as common as bengalensis ; if there is, it is certainly singular 
that I have not obtained specimens. On the other hand, I 
have occasionally seen a Vulture that I thought could not be 
bengalensis, but whether it was indicus or fulvescens — not to 
mention the probability of pallescens or tenuirostris occurring — I 
cannot say, but should think that it was indicus. 

• Qidh is applied to all Vulture*. 



2 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

5. — Pseudogyps bengalensis, Gm. Native name — 
Chamar Gidh % 

The White-backed Indian or Bengal Vulture is common 
at all seasons. It breeds from November to the end of 
Mai'ch, making its nest on tall trees, as near their tops 
as possible ; and, in the vicinity of Lucknow, at any 
rate, I know of one breeding place where at least 50 or 60 
of their nests may be found, frequently two or three on the 
same tree. The nest is simply a large platform of sticks, 
and never, I think, contains more than one egg, of a dirty 
greenish white color, as a rule unspotted, but occasionally 
beautifully spotted or blotched with brown or reddish brown. 
Four eggs in my possession measure : — 

Average ... ... 3 '35 by 2*40 inches. 

Largest ... ... 340 „ 243 „ 

Smallest ... ... 333 ,, 238 „ 

6.— Neophron ginginianus, Lath. Native name — 
Safaid Gidh. 

The Indian Scavenger Vulture is exceedingly common 
wherever human habitations are found, and is, of course, a 
permanent resident. In the district it breeds invariably on trees, 
except, perhaps, where an old mosque or tomb offers a suitable 
site ; but in and around Lucknow, where old buildings, 
mosques, &c, abound, it invariably selects these, fighting with 
the Common Kite {M. govinda) for the possession of eligible 
building places. 

The only eggs (two) in my possession were taken from two 
different nests — one, on the 7th April from a nest on an old 
mosque near Chinhut, and the other on the 5th May from a 
nest in a pipal tree near the Rahimabad railway station. The 
Chinhut egg was entirely russet brown; the Rahimabad one 
white, with a few minute brown spots. They measure respec- 
tively : — 

Brown egg ... ...2-8 by 2*2 inches. 

White egg ... ... 2-58 „ 1'94 „ 

The nest in both cases was a huge platform composed of 
sticks, old rags, rubbish, &c, that in the pipal tree, being only 
about 15 feet from the ground. 

8.— Falco peregrinus, Gm. Native name— Bhyri. 

The Peregrine Falcon is only a cold weather visitor, and, 
though never abundant, a pair or two may always be met with 
in the vicinity of the larger jhils. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 3 

As remarked by Jerdon, u the Bhyri has particular haunts 
that it frequents for days or weeks together." Two or three 
tall trees by the side of a jhil, all the better if on rising or 
high ground, may be cited as one of these. From such a 
retreat I have often noticed the Peregrine sally forth on the 
report of a gun, and after sailing leisurely about, as if instinc- 
tively searching for a dead or wounded bird, retire to its 
commanding perch, only to repeat the manoeuvre at each 
succeeding shot. 

The Bhyri is still highly esteemed by that remnant of 
the " Barons of Oude" who remember the days when it was 
something to follow the noble sport of Falconry — now, alas ! 
dying out, if not altogether dead. 

9.— Falco peregrinator, Sund. Native name — Kohl 

The " Shahiu" is, perhaps, a permanent resident, but is so 
exceedingly rare that I have only as yet succeeded in getting a 
single specimen. On two or three occasions I have seen it in 
the possession of the Falconers who visit Lucknow with native 
noblemen. Like the Bhyri, it is highly esteemed for the 
chase. 

11. — Falco jugger, J. E. Gr. Native name—- Lag gar. 

The Lagger Falcon is both a common and permanent 
resident. It is, if not invariably, at least popularly called the 
u Pigeon Hawk " in Lucknow. To my knowledge a pair used 
to frequent " Claude Martin's " monument in front of the 
Martiniere, and habitually prey upon the blue-rocks of the 
neighbourhood. The Lagger, however, prefers open country 
to city suburbs, and, like the Kestrel, may often be seen seated 
on some eminence or ridge, either devouring or waiting for its 
prey. It breeds from December to March in the large solitary 
trees so characteristic of the plains of this part of India. A 
nest that I examined in March last contained three young 
birds, semi-fledged. 

12.— Falco babylonicus, Gum. 

On the strength of Capt. Irby's having obtained a specimen 
of Gurney's Falcon at Barabauki in 1858, 1 include it in this list ; 
but never having come across the bird, though I have tried hard, 
both personally aud through native agents, it can only, I 
think, be accepted as a rare and very exceptional visitor. 

In the " Gazetteer of Oudh," M;ijor Cock gives it in his list 
of the birds of the Kheri district ; it is, therefore, probably a 
more frequent visitor to the Terai. 



4 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

13. — Falco subbuteo, Lin, Native name— Moras- 
sani. 

The Hobby is only met with in the cold weather, and then 
but rarely. It frequents, I think, by preference well-wooded, 
marshy districts, where it may be found early in November 
and as late as March. It generally moves about in pairs, or 
in small parties. In January last, I shot one of four that 
crossed my front when passing through a dhak jungle at the 
break of day. 

14. — Falo severus, Horsf. 

I cannot say that I have ever seen the Indian Hobby in its 
wild state ; but it doubtless occurs here, as I have occasionally 
seen recently-captured birds in the Bazaar, and the specimens 
in the Museum were probably purchased locally. It must, 
however, be very rare, or, I think, I should have obtained it, 
as I make it a rule to shoot, if possible, every Falcon I come 
across. 

Natives do not recognize the difference between this species 
and F. subbuteo. 

16.— Falco chiquera, Daud. Native name — Tur- 
muti.* 

8th November, Male. — Length, 12-50; expanse, 2425; 
wing, 820; tail, 5*80; tarsus, 1*40; bill from gape, '90; 
weight, 5| oz. Irides brown ; cere and legs yellow. 

29th October, Female — Length, 14* ; expanse, 28'50 ; wing, 
9*30; tail, 680; tarsus, 1*60; bill from gape, 1* ; weight, 
8f oz. Irides brown ; cere and legs yellow. 

The Red-headed Merlin is a permanent resident, very 
abundant during the cold weather, but less so during the hot 
and rainy seasons. 

On the 21st April I found a nest and three fully fledged young 
ones near the top of a tall mangoe tree. There was nothing 
to distinguish the nest from a crow's, and, contrary to my 
expectations, the parents did not protest (they are usually 
plucky little falcons) against their offspring being made 
prisoners. I kept the youngsters for some months, but from 
some cause or other they died rather suddenly within a few 
days of one another. 

The Red-headed Merlin is the unrelenting enemy of the 
social and other Larks on which it appears to feed by 
preference, probably because, from the bushes they frequent, 
sparrows and other small birds are more difficult to catch. 

* This name appears to be generally accepted as Turutnti by writers who, 
perhaps, follow Jerdon ; but the natives here pronounce it Turmuti or Turmootet, 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION, 5 

17.— Cerchneis tinnunculus, Lin. Native name — 
Koruttia. 

8th October, Female. — Length, 15*50; expanse, 30; wing, 
1080; tail, 8*25; tarsus, ; bill from gape, '90; weight, 
7£oz. 

From about the middle of September to the 15th April, the 
Kestrel is very abundant, though it begins to migrate to the 
hills as early as the commencement of March. But I think it 
doubtful whether the whole of them migrate, having seen a 
pair frequenting the telegraph wires along the railway on the 
30th July — a very early date for their return, supposing them 
to have bred in the hills. 

For some hours in the morning, and for two or three 
before suuset, the Kestrel is much on the wing, hovering 
alike over barren plains and cultivated tracts. During the 
day it frequently takes shelter in trees — solitary ones pre- 
ferred — but as often rests on some eminence or irrigation 
ridge on the open plains. It feeds on small mammals, 
often, I think, on nothing but frogs; but I have seen it break- 
fasting on a dove ( Twtur suratensis), though I am unable to 
say whether it killed it or not. It feeds, however, chiefly on 
insects. 

There is a favorite incubating place of the Kestrel about half 
way between Almora and Naini Tal, where I found it breeding 
in company early in May. 

18 Ms.— Cerchneis pekinensis, Smnh. 

I have not myself noticed the Eastern Lesser Kestrel, but it 
undoubtedly occurs in the Division, though whether as a seasonal 
visitor or a permanent resident, 1 cannot say, though I presume 
as only the former. 

There are two specimens in the Lucknow Museum which were 
captured in the neighbourhood, and Mr. Anderson, on visiting 
the Museum in 1875, took away two more — vide Stray 
Feathers, Vol. III., page 384, so the bird may fairly claim 
a place in this list. • 

23.— Astur badius, Gm. Native name — Shikra. 

Wth November, Male. — Length, 13*; expanse, 2425 ; wing, 
770; tail, 6*60; tarsus, 1-80; bill, from gape, "80; weight, 
5£ oz. Irides dark red ; legs dirty yellow. 

The Shikra — still highly prized by the few natives who 
indulge in Falconry — is a permanent resident and the most com- 
mon and universally spread of all the hawk tribe. It frequently 
enters and lives in compounds, and may be found in almost 



6 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

every avenue and mangoe tope. The following is my record of 
its nests : — 

April 1st ... ... Nest and three fresh eggs. 

JJ 'til ... ••• }j ;, 

„ 16th ... ... „ „ 

May 5th ... Nest and three fully fledged young. 
Average measurement of 9 eggs 1*51 by 12 1 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1*60 „ 1"22 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... 1*42 „ 1*18 „ 

The nests, made of sticks (small platforms), were all on 
mangoe trees; the eggs all of a pale bluish white, rather chalky 
or unglossy in appearance. 

The Shikra, it may be noted, feeds occasionally on the 
Common Squirrel (Sciurus palmarum). One that I saw captured 
was forced to descend the tree by one bird, and on reaching the 
ground was immediately seized by a second pouncing upon it 
from a branch above. 

24. — Accipiter nisus, Lin. Native name — Basha. 

Ath November, Male,juv. — Length, 1325 ; expanse, 26' ; wing, 
8*25 ; tail, 7*; tarsus, 2* ; bill from gape, *70 ; weight, 4f oz. 
Irides yellow ; legs dirty greenish yellow. 

The European Sparrow Hawk is only found in the cold weather, 
and is then fairly common. It frequents much the same locali- 
ties as the Shikra witli which it is often confounded. Though I 
have frequently shot and preserved it, I find, curiously enough, 
that all my specimens are young birds. 

25. — Accipiter virgatus, Reinw. Native name— 
jBesra. 

The " Besra" Sparrow Hawk is not common, and from the 
thickets it frequents is rarely seen. It is a cold weather visitor, 
very locally distributed, as I have never met with it except, in 
the bamboo brakes scattered here and there throughout the 
Division. Through these thickets it moves with great facility. 

27.— Aquila mogilnik, S. G. Gm. .Native name — 
JBarra Jumiz* or Satangal. 

Ibth February, (sex?). — Length, 31* j expanse, 81'; 
wing, 24- ; tail, 14* ; tarsus, 3'60 ; bill, from gape, 260 ; weight, 

7 lbs. Irides cream color, spotted darker ; cere and feet lemon 
yellow. 

The Imperial Eagle is fairly common, especially in dhak jun- 
gles, where solitary Banian and other Fici trees, upon which it 

* Jumiz is applied generally to all large Eagles. The natives care nothing for 
species. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNO'W CIVIL DIVISION. 7 

usually rests, abound. I have not unfrequently seen it in the 
dry beds of jhils, devouring crabs, wherever it got them from, 
and on one or two occasions eating carrion. The specimen, 
whose dimensions are given above, was shot while feeding on the 
carcase of a sheep with a lot of Vultures around it, the locality 
being a dhak jungle. 

27 bis.— Aquila nipalensis, Hodgs. 

3\st January, Male. — Length, 31/75 ; expanse, 7350 ; 
wing, 22-75; tail, 13'; tarsus, 338 ; bill, from gape, 2*90; 
weight, 5 - 25 lbs. Cere and legs yellow; irides light brown. 

The Bifasciated Eagle is not quite so common as the last, but 
like it, my only specimen, was shot while feeding on the carcase 
of a sheep. It appears to frequent the same localities, but I 
know nothing particular in regard to its habits. 

28.— Aquila clanga, Pall. 

\5tk February, Female, juv. — Length, 27' ; expanse, 
69*25; wing, 21*; tail, 11-70; tarsus, 360; bill from gape, 
2 - 30 ; weight, 4£ lbs. Irides dark brown ; cere and feet 
yellow. 

I know but little regarding the Spotted Eagle. It appears to 
be about as common as any species of Eagle (A. vindhiana 
excepted), and seems to frequent the same localities as the rest. I 
procured a specimen frequenting rather tall dhak trees along a 
stream, in a locality where Eagles are rather numerous, i.e., near 
the Rahimabad Railway Station.* 

29.— Aquila vindhiana, Frankl. Native name— 
Wokhab. 

\2th November, Male. — Length, 26*25 ; expanse, 66'25; 
wing, 16*50 ; tail, 1 1*70 ; tarsus, 3" ; bill, from gape, ; weight, 
2| lbs. Irides brown ; cere yellow. 

The Tawny Eagle is a common and permanent resident. I 
have frequently seen it in my own compound and in the 
gardens about Lucknow ; but its favorite resort appears to be 
dhak jungle or open country where solitary trees abound. 

33.— Nisaetus fasciatus, Vieill. Native name — 
Churwa (?) 

Bonelli's Eagle is not common, at least I have never found 
it so. I have only a single specimen (female juv.) and can give 
no particulars of its habits from personal observation. 

* Aquila fulvescens, Gray, the Buff Eagle, ought also to be included, as I hare 
seen a specimen killed in the neighbourhood of Lucknow. — A. O. H. 



8 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

38. -Circaetus gallicus, Gm. Native name— JaU 
lar (?) 

8th November, Male. — Length, 29" ; expanse, 72' ; wing, 
2250 ; tail, 12 - 50 ; tarsus, 3'50; bill, from gape, 225; weight, 
2| lbs. Irides bright yellow. 

The Common Serpent Eagle is a permanent resident and 
fairly abundant. It frequents open country, and like A. vindhiana 
may often be seen seated on some solitary tree in its favorite 
resort — low scrub or dhak jungle. I have also seen it on the 
open plains, seated on babool and other low trees. 

From the open nature of the country which it frequents, it is 
often difficult to approach, especially in the morning ; but after 
it has breakfasted well, and during the heat of the day, it seems 
loath to fly, and may then be easily shot. 

39.— Spilornis cheela, Lath. 

The Indian Harrier Eagle is very common during the cold 
weather, but does not, that I know of, remain all the year round. 
It appears to leave for the hills, or humid submontane tracts, 
about the beginning of April, returning again about October. In 
well-wooded and jungly districts it may be noticed in the morn- 
ings and evenings sailing slowly over the trees and fields, often 
at a great height ; but during the heat of the day it generally 
remains inactive, seated near the top of some tall tree, pretty 
well concealed from view. 

40. — Pandion haliaetus, Lin. Native name — Macka- 
riya and Machi-mar. 

The Osprey is, I believe, a permauent resident, though of this 
I am not quite sure. I have frequently seen it hawking over 
large jhils, but along the Ganges, Gogra, Chowka and Goomti 
rivers it is fairly abundant during the cold weather. It may 
breed in the vicinity of these rivers, though I have never 
found its nest, and possibly it retreats to the rocky torrents of 
the outer Himalayas to breed. During the cold weather it 
may often be seen fishing in the Goomti at Lucknow. 

41.— Polioaetus ichthyaetus, Horsf. 

The Ring-tailed Fish Eagle, like the Osprey, may be met with 
occasionally on large jhils, more frequently on rivers ; but it 
is by no means abundant, and is a wary and difficult bird to 
approach. I have only seen it during the cold weather, and 
then only on two or three occasions. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 9 

41 fo's.— Polioastus plumbeus, Eodgs. 

The Indian Fish Eagle is, of course, only a cold weather 
visitor, and is also exceedingly rare. I mistook it at first for 
the young of ichtlu/ actus. The only specimen in my possession 
was shot on the Goomti at Lucknow, where I found it alter- 
nately dodging about an ancient mangoe tope and fishing in 
the shallow parts of the river. It has a heavy owl-like flight, 
and appears to depend more on stealth than activity in captur- 
ing its prey. It has certainly none of the dexterity of the 
Osprey, and is altogether a poor performer on the wino- for an 
Eagle that may be said to live eutirely on fish. 

42. — Haliaetus leucoryphus, Pall. Native names — 
Macharang, Mardum and Ifachakool. 

Pallas' Sea Eagle is a common and permanent resident. 
There is not a jhil of any pretensions in the Division that 
is not frequented by a pair or two of these Eagles, nor a 
river that cannot boast of their presence. Nevertheless it has, 
in my opinion, little title to be considered a Fishing Eagle. It 
seldom, as a rule, attempts to catch the finny tribe, but acts the 
part of a pirate in robbing the Osprey, Kites, Marsh Harriers, 
&c, of their prey, while sportsmen recognise it as the 
poacher who never loses an opportunity of carrying off a dead 
or wounded Duck, often from under their very noses. It 
will feed on almost anything — birds, snakes, rats, frogs, crabs, 
turtles — anything in fact but fish, unless, of course, it can get 
them without much trouble. I may be hard on this otherwise 
magnificent Eagle, but, if so, it is because I have had ample 
opportunities of gauging his capabilities. 

It has, however, at least one virtue — it pairs, I think, for life ! 
It commences to build as early as the beginning of October, 
making its nest on some tall, solitary tree overlooking some 
favorite jhil. The nest is simply a huge platform of sticks, 
occasionally interlaced with rags and snake skins, and is used 
from year to year by the same birds or by their heirs or succes- 
sors. They usually lay in November not more than three eggs, 
but seldom more than two. On the 3rd, 10th, 17th, 26th and 
30th of that month I have found nests containing eggs; on the 
24th and 30th nests containing young ; while every nest that I 
have looked at in December was either empty or contained 
young. On not one of the many occasions that I have sent 
men to look at or rob their nests did these Eagles ever show 
fight, though in nine cases out of ten the native climber has 
gone about his work in fear and trembling. 

2 



10 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

47.— Buteo plumipes, Eodgs. 

The Harrier Buzzard is only a winter visitor and by no 
means common. It may, however, be met with occasionally, 
two or three in company, beating steadily over dhak jungles 
and niviuy and undulating ground. 

48. — Butastur teesa, Franld. Native name — Teesa. 

13l7i January, Female. — Length, 1675 ; expanse, 36*75 ; 
wing, 11*20 ; tail, 7*50 ; tarsus, 2*60 ; bill, from gape, 1*3. 

The White-eyed Buzzard is common at all seasons, and may 
be met with, generally in pairs, hawking over usar plains, 
dhak jungles, and along the undulating and raviny banks of 
streams ; now perching on some solitary shrub or tree, now 
on a mound or telegraph post, but invariably repairing at night 
to some sheltered mangoe grove. It generally flies low, merely 
skimming the ground, and its flight at times is rapid and 
graceful. It frequently visits road-side railway station yards 
where the grass is generally long and full of grasshoppers, where 
lizards abound on the old rails and metal lying about, and where 
rats and mice are often abundant, both about the station build- 
ings and iu the mud fence around the compouud. 

51.— Circus macrurus, S. G. Gm. 

\hth October, Male. — Length, 1925 ; expanse, 43*0; wing, 
1475 ; tail, 1050 ; tarsus, 250; bill, from gape, 1*30; weight, 
11-25 oz. 

The Pale Harrier is only a cold weather visitor, but a very 
common one. It arrives as early as September and leaves as 
late as the end of April, though the majority may be said to 
leave about the end of March. 

The flight of this Harrier is usually noiseless and slow, but 
it is capable of moving along at considerable speed, and of 
dropping instantaneously on its prey, no matter how fast it may 
be going. It may be found either singly or in pairs — occasion- 
ally in small parties — systematically hawking dhak jungles 
and patches of cultivation, evidently scanning the ground 
minutely as it progresses. On one occasion I saw it pursuing 
a Lark in company with a Red-headed Merlin (Falco chiquera). 
The chase was both interesting and long as the Lark endeavour- 
ed to escape by ascending, but in an evil moment it made tracks 
for dhall field, and, though swooped at several times by the 
Harrier, it fell a prey to the active little Hawk. The former 
then attempted to rob the latter, and but for a friendly mangoe 
tope would probably have succeeded. 



THIC BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 11 

52.— Circus cineraceus, Mont. 

Captain Irby states that Montague's Harrier is u found in 
the same localities as the Pallid Harrier, and is perhaps more 
numerous." If this is so, it is strange that I have no specimens ; 
but I have occasionally seen a Harrier, with a conspicuous 
black wing-patch, that may have belonged to this species.* 

53.— Circus melanoleucus, Forst. 

According to the same authority (Captain Irby) this 
species is tl very abundant near the rivers Cliowka and Grogra, 
on the plains covered with thick grass about two feet high. 
I have never seen this Harrier far away from grass jungle 
where it appears to replace the preceding species and the Pale 
Harrier, although they are now and then seen there also." 

In the low grass and tamarisk jungles for miles above and 
below Byramghat, Harriers of various kinds are undoubtedly 
very abundant; but I don't recollect ever meeting with this 
species, though I include it ou Captain Irby's authority. It 
can scarcely, however, be as plentiful, now-a-days, as his 
remarks would lead one to infer. 

54.— Circus aeruginosus, Lin. Native name— K utar. 

\hth November, Male. — Length, 20; expanse, 47*7 ; wing, 
15'5 ; tail, 9*75 ; tarsus, 33; bill, from gape, 1*45. 

The Marsh Harrier, I am disposed to think, is a permanent 
resident, exceedingly rare in the hot and rainy seasons, it is 
true, but very common in the cold weather, though for one 
adult then met with fully 50 youngsters, in all shades of 
plumage, may be seen. As its trivial name implies, it habitually 
frequents marshes, jhils, river banks, inundated fields, &c, but 
is sometimes met with in almost all kinds of localities. 
Its food is principally frogs, lizards, rats and any small or 
weakly mammals or birds that it may come across. 

Where Marsh Harriers are so numerous as they are on 
our jhils they are an unmitigated nuisance to the sportsman 
in quest of wild fowl. Often, when I have tried to get a 
particular or rare duck, have these villains deprived me of the 
coveted prize by swooping at it or otherwise frightening it 
away. Teal of all kinds particularly dread them, and will 
rise or dive at their approach in abject terror, while they 
drive Coots into tits of frenzy as if in mere wantonness and 
mischief. The dread they inspire arises, I think, from the 
fact that when they capture a dead or wounded bird, as 

* In this species the primaries are black, and there is a rather nurrow blackish 
bar on the grey secondaries, but hardly what would be called " a conspicuous black 
wing-patch." — Ed. 



12 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

they often do, they devour it in the presence of .almost every 
duck on the jhil, by selecting for their repast, either a ridge on 
its banks or a mud eminence in the water itself. Thus seated 
and engaged, it is not an unusual thing to see a dozen or so 
after sportsmen have been their rounds : it is, therefore, not 
surprising that wild fowl should dread them and look upon all 
their actious with suspicion, especially as they immediately 
seize upon any disabled bird that a flock, on taking wing, leave 
behind them. I have never, however, seen the Marsh Harrier 
" strike home," when the bird was of any size and in possession 
of all its powers. 

55. — Haliastur indus, Bodd. Native name — 
Bahmini Chil. 

The Maroon-backed or Brahminy Kite is a common and per- 
manent resident, rarely seen in the dry season at any distance from 
water, but universally spread over the Division during, and for a 
while after, the rains. It is generally found inpairs, and is very 
foud of crabs, judging from the accumulated remains of these 
occasionally seen on the ground beneath some of its favorite 
perches on the Goomti. Though it breeds in the Division, 
I have never been fortunate enough to discover its nest, though 
I have had its eggs brought to me in March. 

56. — Milvus govinda, Sykes. Native name— Chil. 

The Common Kite is everywhere abundant. It breeds from 
November to the end of April, making its nest of sticks 
indiscriminately on trees, mosques, minarets, old buildings, &c, 
and usually lays from two to three eggs of a dirty or greenish 
white, spotted or blotched with brown of various shades, rarely 
two alike, and some very beautifully marked indeed. 

Average measurement of 12 eggs 2 - 17 by 1'26 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 225 „ 1*29 „ 
Meesurement of smallest egg... 2*12 „ 1'22 „ 

Though it is scarcely safe to generalize from a couple of 
instances, it is worth recording that on two occasions eggs 
were again laid in nests from which I had seen incubated etro-s 
taken about a month previously. 

Though Kites actualljr swarm in Lucknow I have looked iu 
vain for Milvus major, Hume; M. melanotis, Tern, and Schl? 
In the jungle, too, where I was most likely to find it, my 
searches have been equally fruitless ; but then, I was probably 
too particular in expecting to find a Kite with a " huge pure 
white wing-patch/' though I have seen some old govindas 
that might pass muster if one was not over-particular about 
the patch being pare white.- 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 13 

57.— Pernis ptilorhynchus, Tern. 

The Crested Honey Buzzard is fairly common about Lucknow 
from Au cjust to November, probably because bee-combs then 
abound ; but is not so numerous during the colder months, a few 
only remaining throughout the year, the majority migrating 
to the hills for the hot and early portion of the rainy seasons. 

A specimen that I shot in October had evidently been feed- 
ing on honey-comb ; for, on lifting it up by the legs, the honey 
ran from its mouth in clear stream, and would probably have 
filled a tea -cup. 

These Buzzards, it should be noted, vary astoundingly in 
plumage, from light fulvous to almost black, so mucb so that 
it would not be an easy task to find two exactly alike. Such, 
at any rate, is my experience. 

59.— Elanus caeruleus, Desf. Nativename — Mastmwa. 

The Black-winged Kite is a fairly common and permanent 
resident. 

On one occasion I saw the Elanus flying over the native 
city of Lucknow, evidently in a great hurry to reach " fresh 
fields and pastures new." But it is in the dhak jungles, 
wherever these are interspersed with taller trees, along the 
railway, perched on telegraph posts, and about the banks of 
nullahs, where these are grassy and rugged, particularly if 
babooi trees exist, that it is chiefly found. 

In Stray Feathers, Vol. VIII., pages 415-16, a good deal 
of information is given about the nidification of this species. 
It probably breeds twice a year, as I have shot almost nestlings 
in January, while other observers state that it nidificates very 
generally from March to June. In November last I noticed a pair 
making their nest near the top of a mangoe tree, of which there 
were three in a clump ; a fortnight later I visited the spot, hoping 
to find eggs, but without success. The birds then appear to 
have forsaken the nest, for, on re-visiting the place, I found 
them busily engaged making another nest on the second tree. 
Thereupon I gave them another fortnight's grace and then 
went for the e^-cr?., but found none. The same thing occurred 
again ; they forsook the nest and commenced to build on the 
third tree. I gave them three weeks this time, but still found no 
eggs, and on re-visiting the place a fortnight later found they 
had decamped. I blessed those birds, I did ! 

60. — Strix javanica, Gm. Native name — Xflu* 

The Indian Screech Owl — though I have never seen it in 
the district — is pretty common about Lucknow, where it inhabits 

* Applied to Owls generally. 



14 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

deserted buildings, wells, mosques, &c, in the city and city 
suburbs. I have seen it frequently in the ruins of the Bailey 
Guard, and occasionally on trees in the neighbourhood. I may 
be wroug, but 1 hardly think this Owl is guilty of screeching, 
at any rate, to any extent. It of course breeds here, though I 
have never found its nest. 

61.— Strix Candida, Tick. 

On one occasion I flushed a solitary Owl, which I took to be 
the Grass Owl, in grass and scrub jungle near Rahimabad, and, 
though I followed it from place to place, the Crows kept 
bothering it, so that it never rested in one spot loug enough to 
allow me to get a shot. Captain Irby mentions it under the 
name of Glaux javanica, and I have little doubt that it occurs, 
though sparingly, in suitable localities, for instance, in the 
jungles about the Chowka and Gogra, where Mr. Anderson 
seems to have met with it — See Stray Feathers, Vol. III., 
page 38H. 

65. — Syrnium ocellatum, Less. Native name — 
Khnsha (?) 

The Mottled Wood-Owl is not at all common, but inhabits the 
better wooded parts of the Division, especially where groves of 
ancient mangoe trees exist. A specimen was, however, pro- 
cured for me from a tree in the noisy vicinity of the Railway 
Workshops at Charbagh. It is a permanent resident. 

68.— Asio accipitrinus, Pall. 

During the cold weather the Short-eared Owl is very common 
in the grass and tamarisk jungle on the banks of the Chowka' 
and Gogra at Byramghat. I have also flushed it in patches of 
sarpatta or thatching grass about Luckuow, and in other parts 
of the Division, principally in dhak jungle aud in broken grassy 
ravines and nullahs. It appears to be gregarious in its 
habits — many being always found together in suitable localities, 
and even in places less inviting it is rarely seen alone. It 
flies well during the daj*, and if pursued by Crows, &c, as it 
often is, will go for miles without alighting. It migrates, I 
believe, at the commencement of the hot weather. 

69. — Bubo bengalensis, Frankl. Native name — 
Ghughu.* 

13th October, Male. — Length, 22*25 ; expanse, 54* ; wing, 
15-25; tail, 9 ; tarsus, 2'50 ; bill, from gape, 1*90 ; weight, 2| tbs. 

* A name elsewhere, and more appropriately (for it exactly represents this bird's 
double coo) applied to Turtur risorius.—Ed. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 15 

13th October, Female. — Length, 22*75 ; expanse, 56 ; wing, 
16-75 ; tail, 9*25 ; tarsus, 2*50 ; bill, from gape, 2 ; weight, 
(not recorded.) 

The Rock Horned-Owl is common in suitable localities, and 
stragglers may be met with in the most unlikely places at all 
seasons. A favorite resort is a clump of bamboos containing 
some tall and stately trees, in which it resides, especially if in 
the vicinity of a stream with raviny and undulating banks. 
I have flushed it occasionally iudhak jungle, but more frequent- 
ly in broken and rugged ground. It flies well during the day, 
and is often difficult to approach when once it is disturbed. 
In the stomachs of four specimens that I examined I found 
nothing but large balls of feathers, unquestionably those of 
Mynahs and Doves. 

Does this Owl ever fish? I shot one once, just at dusk, in a 
very suspicious position, i.e., on the branch of a tree about 
two feet above a stream, intently watching something in the 
water. 

70.— Bubo coromandus, Lath. Native name— Jangli 
Ghughu. 

13th October, Male. — Length, 2375 ; expanse, 58* ; wing, 
16*50; tail, 9 - 75; tarsus, 2*50; bill, from gape, 2-; weight, 
(not recorded). 

13th October, Female. — Length, 24*50 ; expanse, 60* ; wing, 
1675; tail, 975; tarsus, 2-25 ; bill, from gape, 1*90 ; weight, 
4 lbs. 

The Dusky Horned-Owl is a common and permanent resi- 
dent, frequenting ancient maugoe topes, and is very partial to 
tamarind trees. In bamboo brakes, containing high and 
thickly foliaged trees, it is sometimes very abundant. It flies 
well during the day, making its way through branches with 
facility. The common native superstition about an inmate 
dying, should this Owl commence hooting about a house, is 
current throughout the Division. Of three specimens that 
I examined I found in the stomach of each only one huge ball 
of feathers. 

72— Ketupa ceylonensis, Gm. 

13th October, Male. — Length, 24* ; expanse, 55* ; wing, 
16*25 ; tail, 9' ; tarsus, 3* ; bill, from gape, 2*10 ; weight, 4 lbs. 
Irides bright yellow ; legs dirty yellow ; bill slaty black. 

The Brown Fish Owl is a fairly common and permanent 
resident. 

A glance at the date on which I obtained specimens of this 
and of the two preceding species, will show that they were 
all obtained on the same day. I found them inhabiting the 



16 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

same trees, chiefly tamarind and pipal, in a dense bamboo 
clump, evidently once an old fort, but now a jungle. It was 
perfectly infested with these large Owls — Bubo coromandus 
predominating — but they got so wide-awake from my firing 
at them that, in the long run, I found it extremely difficult to 
get near enough for a shot, though approaching silently and 
under cover. 

Though essentially a Fish Owl, K. ceylonensis, like the rest 
of its tribe, does not stick at trifles. In the stomachs of four 
that I examined I discovered nothing but a huge ball of 
feathers in each. I have, therefore, not the least doubt that 
it takes readily to birds when its legitimate food is not avail- 
able. The rainfall of 1877, it must be remembered, was 
lamentably deficient ; many, if not all, of our so-called 
perennial streams were dry or nearly so, as indeed were all 
the jhils, with the exception of a few of the largest. Under 
these circumstances, it is not surprising that K. ceylonensis had 
to change his usual diet, especially as many thousands of 
human beings had to do likewise, or starve. 

74 Us.— Scops sunia, Hodgs. 

Notwithstanding all that has been written about the little 
Scops Owls, I am far from convinced about the specific dis- 
tinctness of S. sunia, Hodgson's Scops Owl. A specimen in my 
possession apcears to be changing from the rufous to the grey 
phase of plumage. I am, therefore, inclined to think that, 
as in the case of the Paradise Flycatcher {M.paradisi, Lin.), the 
rufous stage is only transitory or seasonal,* though I am not 
quite prepared to maintain that it is so in the face of a vast 
deal of evidence to the contrary. Still, the specific distinctness 
of these little Owls sadly wants working out. 

75 ter.— Scops bakkamcena, Penn. 

Pennant's Scops Owl is very common about Lucknow, and is 
a permanent resident. It breeds in holes in maugoe trees in 
the early part of the year, and after the breeding season habi- 
tually frequents bamboo clumps, in which it may be found 
generally seated in pairs. It appears to be quite sylvan in its 
habits, rarely residing near human habitations. 

76.— Carine brama, Tern. Native name — Kasuttea. 

Towards dusk and early morning, and throughout moonlight 
nights, the Spotted Owlet may be heard and seen in the 

* It is certainly not seasonal, and as I have myself procured two old birds with 
four young ones, all of the bright uniform rufous type, I do not think it is transitory. 
Many grey birds show a great deal of rufous, but this is quite a different rufous to 
that of sunia, — Ed. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW" CIVIL DIVISION. 17 

neighbourhood of almost every village, and almost in every 
compound in Lucknow, many often squabbling and screeching 
together. It resides during the day in holes in trees; often 
only on branches, and, if disturbed, flies readily and with faci- 
lity even in bright sunshine. 

On the 24th March I obtained six eggs of this species from 
three different nests, all in holes in mangoe trees. In one nest 
there were four eggs, and one in each of the other two. 

Average measurement of eggs... 1 31 by 104 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg... 1*50 „ 1'02 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg..' 1 "26 „ 1*01 „ 

77.— Glaucidium radiatum, Tick. Native name — 
KalakastU. 

The Jungle Owlet is a common and permanent resident. In 
almost every mangoe tope a pair or two, often many more, may 
be found. As a rule, it is an inveterate skulker, residing in its 
hole in spite of any noise. When disturbed and seated on a 
branch it remains perfectly still, and appears to have the faculty 
of knowing the moment it is discovered, instantly taking wing, 
and will, if pursued, repeat the performance until a lucky shot 
brings it to its bearings. 

The native superstition regarding Buho coromandus applies, I 
think, equally to this Owl ; probably indeed to any Owl heard 
persistently in the neighbourhood of a dwelling. 

81.— Ninox lugubris, Tick. 

13/h December (?) — Length, 11 -60; expanse, 25-; wing, 
8-80; tail, 5*2 ; tarsus, 1 -20 , bill, from gape, '95. Irides bright 
yellow: legs yellow ; bill dusky black. 

The Brown Hawk-Owl is frequently met with in bamboo 
thickets, rarely in mangoe groves, but is nevertheless both a 
common and permanent resident. It is quite nocturnal in its 
habits, rarely, if ever, stirring out before dark. One that I 
wounded and succeeded in recovering cried very much like a 
hare under similar circumstances. I have never heard its 
natural call, though for weeks together a pair frequented a 
tamarind tree in my own compound, and have never found 
its nest. 

82.— Hirundo rustica, Lin. Native name — Ababil.* 

The Common Swallow is abundant during the cold season 
making its appearauce in October and departing at the com- 
mencement of the hot weather. A few stragglers may even be 
found in the early part of May. Here, however, it is never the 

* Applied generally to all Swallows, Swifts and Martins. 

3 



18 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

household pet that it is in England, frequenting for the most part 
open country, especially in the vicinity of jhils, and is not 
unfrequently found skimming over water in vast numbers. It 
sometimes perches on the bare branches of trees, and iu some 
localities probably spends the nighty on them. 

It also frequents the telegraph wires, but has not, that I know 
of, any liking for native villages, though in towns it gets attach- 
ed to mosques, minarets and old buildings, about which many 
may always be found. 

84.— Hirundo filifera, Steph. 

The Wire-tailed Swallow — perhaps the loveliest of its tribe — is 
a permanent resident, and though never found in any great 
numbers, is universally spread over the Division. It habitually 
frequents jhils and rivers, the masonry bridges over the latter 
being favourite resorts ; but it may be met with in any locality 
on its way to and from its especial haunts. 

85.— Hirundo erythropygia, Sykes. 

The Red-rumped or Mosque Swallow is probably a permanent 
resident, though it is only in the cold weather that it is at all 
abundant, the majority migrating to breed either in the hills or in 
suitable localities on the plains, though I do not see why Lucknovv 
should not suit it as well as most places. A few most likely 
do breed in the old mosques and minarets about the city, but 
on every occasion I have failed either to find their nests or to 
see the birds. 

During the cold weather, as already remarked, it is, however, 
very common about Lucknow, frequenting the deep cutting 
known as Hyder Ali's canal, as well as the mosques and 
minarets in the city, in vast numbers. In the district I have 
occasionally come across great flocks basking in the sun on 
the ground, generally in ploughed fields, and sanding them- 
selves like sparrows ; while, at other times, [ have seen them 
on the telegraph wires, sitting in rows and keeping up an 
incessant chattering or twittering. They occasionally perch on 
bare trees, and probably pass the night in mangoe topes iu the 
absence of more suitable resting places. In no other way 
can I account for their presence in localities, remote even from 
villages, where 1 have seen them often in great numbers at 
the break of day. 

89.— Cotyle sinensis, J. E. Gr. Native Name— Chota 
Ababil. 

The Indian Sand-Martin is abundant along the banks of all 
our rivers and frequents Hyder Ali's canal in va3t numbers. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 19 

It breeds from February to May, making its nest invariably in 
holes in river banks, &c, while its daily vocation appears 
to consist of an incessant whirling to and fro, relieved by 
frequent visits to its subterranean quarters. During May 
last I took many eggs from nests in the banks of the G-oomti, 
of which 070 by 0'48 inches is the average measurement 
of ten. 

100.— Cypsellus affinis, J*. B. Gr. 

The Common Indian or White-rumped Swift is very abundant 
about Lucknow and in all suitable localities. 

It breeds, I think, twice a year, as I have seen inhabited nests 
as early as February and as late as August. The inside of the 
roof of the Alumbagli Gateway is usually covered with nests, 
semi-globular in shapeand closely packed together, so much so that 
if you took one down half a dozen others would come alone 
with it. Nests are equally abundant about deserted buildings, 
&c, in and around Lucknow, while solitary pairs not unfrequenU 
ly breed in bungalow verandahs. A pair that took up their 
quarters in the verandah of the house I reside in were so 
fond of twittering at all hours of the night that 1 came to 
regard them as a nuisance and bauished them from the 
premises. 

Average measurement of six eggs, - 90 by 0"57 inches. 

102.— Cypsellus batassiensis, J. E. Gr. 

The Palm Swift appears to be a strictly rural bird, rarely 
found, except in the immediate vicinity of palm trees, those on 
the banks of jhils and streams seemingly preferred. It is a 
permanent resident. 

109.— Caprimulgus albonotatus, Tick. 

15th December, Male. — Length, 1 2*8 ; expanse, 25*; win<r, 
8-45 ; tail, 6S ; tarsus, 0*8 ; bill, from gape, 1*45. Bill blaclT; 
legs and feet vinaceous brown. 

The Large Indian Nightjar is fairly common and a permanent 
resident. As many as twenty may sometimes be flushed'in some 
favourite spot, but, a3 a rule, it is found singly or in pairs, 
generally in thick brushwood under the shade of trees, but it is 
also very partial to bamboo brakes and thick dhak jungle. 
"When flushed, it usually flies but a short distance and squat* 
again, either on the ground or on the low and spacious arm of 
some tree. Occasionally it may be found resting during the day 
high up in thick bamboos, and in clumps of these it probably 
breeds, though I have never found its nest. But in whatever 
tangled thickets it may rest for the day, it sallies forth at dusk 



20 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

to fields and open glades, where it ma}' be seen flying noiselessly 
along, or feeding and shuffling about with great activity on the 
ground, changing the scene of its operations every minute or 
so, while at intervals its fainilar call — chuk, chuk, chuk — 
slowly and monotonously repeated, u is a welcome and pleasing 
addition" (?) to the " voices of the night." 

112.— Caprimulgus asiaticus, Lath. 

10th January, Male. — Length, 9 ; expanse, 18*12; wing, 
6-37; tarsus, *80 ; tail, 4*40; bill, from gape, 1-46. Legs flesh 
color ; irides dark brown ; bill fleshy brown. 

The Common Indian Nightjar is by no means so abundant 
here as C. albonotatus. Indeed I have rarely or never seen ifc 
except when the " shades of evening" have so far advanced as 
to render shooting it next to impossible. It feeds, I think, by 
preference on the mud by the water's edge of streams or jhils, 
where I have often, when waiting for geese, seen it flitting 
actively about. 

117. — Merops viridis, Lin. Native Name — JPatana 
and Hurrial. 

12th January, Male. — Length, 9; expanse, 1175 ; wing, 
375; tail, 4*70; tarsus, 04; bill, from gape, 1-4. Bill black"; 
irides red ; legs and feet plumbeous grey. 

The Common Indian Bee-Eater is a permanent resident 
and very common, being equally at home in our gardens and 
in the less attractive parts of the Division, inhabiting 
even usar plains, where a pair or two may occasionally 
be seen seated on some low shrub. It breeds here in 
March, usually making its nest in the mud walls of 
compounds, in the banks of Hyder Ali's canal, and in similar 
localities about ravines and rivers. It usually lays four almost 
round, white ecms ; the average measurement of 13 being 
079 by 0"71 inches, while the largest measures 083 by 070, 
and the smallest 0'70 by 65. 

Towards the beginnincj, and again about the end of the cold 
weather, they may be seen, a little before sunset, collecting 
in great numbers on some unfrequented road or dry sandy 
land, where they leisurely roll about in the dust. Their sand- 
bath over, they usually take wing together, aud after indulg- 
ing in a few circular and other evolutions, all the while keeping 
up an incessant chattering, they separate into small parties 
for the night. They also ofteu indulge in a similar practice in 
the mornings, but on such occasions they collect, I think, ou 
the wing or on some tree, and dispense altogether with the 
preliminary sand or dust bath. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 21 

118.*— Merops philippensis, Lin. 

The Blue-tailed Bee-eater is by no means as common as the 
last species, while its partiality for the vicinity of water 
naturally localizes its distribution and makes it appear rarer 
than it really is. It is, however, a permanent resident, and is 
fairly abundant along the Goomti where it breeds from March 
to June in the river banks. It also frequents trees and shrubs 
in the neighbourhood of jhils, starting 1 from these at intervals 
for a long cruise over the water. 

123.— Coracias indica, Lin. Native name— Nilkant. 

The Indian Roller is a common and permanent resident. 
It frequents gardens, groves, dhak jungle, and even scrub- 
covered plains, and is numerous along the railway, where it 
usually sits on the telegraph wires watching for the crickets 
that abound in the kunker ballast and for the grasshoppers 
that frequent the side cuttings. A pair of them made their 
nest in a hole in a neem tree about 15 yards from the verandah 
of the house I live in, from which I obtained four white eo^s on 
the 20th April measuring as follows : — 

Average ... ... 1*27 by 1-03 inches. 

Largest egg ... ... 1 "30 „ 1*04 „ 

Smallest egg ... ... 1-25 „ r02 „ 

127.— Pelargopsis gurial, Pearson. Native name— 
Badami Koicrilla. 

The Brown-headed Kingfisher is by no means abundant, and 
never, I think, frequents water that is not well shaded by trees. 
One that I shot, and, with au exception or two, the only one I 
have ever seen, was dodging about a tank surrounded on all sides 
by dense bamboo iungle. I know nothing regarding its habits 
or nidi fi cation, and cannot say whether it is a permanent 
resident or not. It probably is. 

129.— Halcyon smyrnensis, Lin. Native name — 
Kotorilla* 

\oth December, Male. — Length, 1125 ; expanse, 165 ; wing, 
4-65 ; tail, 3-20 ; tarsus, 70; bill, from gape, 275. Bill coral 
red ; irides brown ; legs and feet bright orange red. 

The White-breasted Kingfisher is fairly abundant, frequenting 
alike jhils and rivers, and not unfrequently mangoe topes in their 
vicinity. During the rainy season, and for as long as there is 

* Applied generally to all Kingfishers. 



22 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

water in the side cuttings, it may be seen along the railway, 
sitting occasionally on the telegraph wires or posts, but usually 
on the babool trees (planted as a line fence) overlooking the 
pools. It does not dive for fish — habitually at least; and, though 
it may catch them occasionally, it appears to depend more upon 
grasshoppers, &c, for food. It doubtless breeds here, but I 
have never found its nest. 

134.— Alcedo bengalensis, Gm. 

13th December, Male. — Length, 6-50; expanse, 10*30; 
wing, 275 ; tail, 1*4 ; tarsus, 03; bill, from gape, 1*8. Bill, 
above horny, below vermilion ; legs aud feet bright vermilion ; 
irides brown. 

The Common Indian Kingfisher is, here, fairly common and 
a permanent resident. It frequents jhils and rivers, and also 
the side cuttings along the railway so long as these contain 
water, perching occasionally on the telegraph wires. Unlike 
the last species, it is never seon away from water, unless when 
migrating from one locality to another; is an expert fisher, 
living principally upon small fish and tadpoles, and never, 
according to my observation, condescends to scramble on the 
ground after grasshoppers and locusts. I know nothing regard- 
ing its nidification, except that it is said to breed in holes iu 
river banks from March to May. 

136.— Ceryle rudis, Lin. 

The Pied Kingfisher is exceedingly common on all rivers and 
jhils, and is, of course, a permanent resident. 

Unlike the last two species, it lives, I think, absolutely on 
small fish, which it invariably searches for on the wing and cap- 
tures by a perpendicular plunge into the water. As a preliminary 
to divino - , it usually hovers for a while over its intended victim, 
as if to make sure of its aim, and rarely misses its object. It 
often remains under the water for a considerable time, where, 
perhaps, it continues the pursuit, as it seldom emerges without a 
fish, which it carries to the nearest perching place — generally a 
tree or some elevated portion of the banks — and devours, or if 
small swallows, on the wing. It breeds from February to April 
in holes in the banks of rivers and jhils. 

144.— Ocyceros birostris, Scop. Native name — 
Chakotra. 

Wth October, Male. — Length, 26"; expanse, 29*75 ; wing, 
8-80; tail, 12*37; tarsus, 2-; bill, from gape, 3*60; weight, 
13*25 oz. Irides reddish-brown ; legs dark plumbeous. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 23 

The Common Grey Hornbill is fairly abundant in localities 
where there are plenty of pipal and other species of wild-fig 
trees, upon the fruit of which it feeds. It is generally met with 
in pairs, occasionally three or four together, and when one flies 
from a tree, the others are sure to follow it immediately. Its 
flight is slow and undulating. Though it doubtless breeds here, 
I have not yet found its nest. 

147 quat. — Palseornis indoburmanicus, Hume. Na- 
tive name — Paharee Tota. 

The lndo-Burmese Paroquet only pays a passing visit to the 
Division. It arrives at Lucknow in flocks about the middle of 
August, remains to the end of September, and feeds almost 
exclusively on the berries of the neem trees, frequenting avenues 
where these trees are numerous very early in the morning. To 
the bird-catchers otLucknow it is quite a god-send; they catch and 
retail it (previously giving it some drug to make it appear tame) 
to Europeans and natives alike, as a bird brought all the way 
from Nipal, and for which they consequently ask and receive a 
higher price than they would otherwise get. Perhaps it is the 
young of this species that the natives bring from Nipal (so they 
say) for sale in April and May; but if Hodgson's bird 
(P. nipalensis) be really distinct, the youngsters may possibly 
belong to that jat, probably to both ; but on this point I must 
reserve judgment until I have an opportunity of getting some of 
the young birds referred to. 

148.— Palaeornis torquatus, Bodd. Native name — 
Tota. 

The Rose-ringed Paroquet is much too common to be 
regarded in any other light than that of a most unmitigated 
nuisance. Notwithstanding that it often talks well and is an 
amusing and pleasant cage-bird, its wholesale depredations in 
grain fields aud gardens, if committed in merry England, 
would bring upon it a terrible vengeance. Fancy a farmer 
seeing a thousand or two settle in a field of his, and on being 
driven off depart, each, with an ear of his precious wheat ! 
Just imagine his looks on discovering some hundreds of his 
choicest fruit lying about on the ground, and then picture to 
yourself what a tolerant being the mild Hindoo is, whose only 
remonstrance against such havoc is a threatening shout or a 
tiny mud projectile, which the birds accept as unconcernedly 
as they do his corn and fruit. 

The Rose-ringed Paroquet breeds here very generally in 
March, nesting, I think, for choice in Jamin trees. From 
the following record it will be seen that I once found five 



24 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

eo-o-s in a nest, but tbat four appears to be tbe normal number 
laid :— 

March 10th ... ... nest and 3 fresh eggs. 

„ 17th ... ... „ 4 „ 

„ 17th ... ... „ 5 hard-set eggs. 

„ 24th ... ... „ 4 fresh eggs. 

April 21st ... ... „ 4 young. 

Average measurement of 11 eggs 1'19 by 91 inches. 

Measurement of largest egg ... 1*24 „ 98 „ 

Measurement of smallest egg ... 1*14 „ 90 „ 

149— Palaeornis purpureus, P. L. S. Mull. Native 
name — Jjalsira Tota. 

The Rose-headed Paroquet is a common and permanent 
resident, though not by any means as abundant as P. torquatus. 
In its habits it is much the same, but prefers well-wooded 
tracts, and is rarely seen in any numbers in the more open parts 
of the country. It is particularly numerous along the Chowka 
at Byramghat where ancient maugoe groves and pipal trees 
abound, and is fairly common in the vicinity of Lucknow 
itself. On the 4th March, I found a nest containing four 
young fledglings in a hole near the top of a pipal tree, and 
another on the 1 5th April containing four fresh eggs. These 
eggs measure (average) 098 by 080 inches. 

160.— Picus mahrattensis, Lath. Native name — 
Kntpurwa* 

The Yellow-fronted Woodpecker is both a common and 
permanent resident, frequenting gardens, avenues, inangoe 
groves, &c. It generally moves about in pairs and breeds from 
February to April in holes, artificially made, in decayed trees. 
I have frequently found its nest, but could never get at the 
eggs. 

164.— Iyngipicus nanus, Vig. 

The Indian Pigmy Woodpecker is also a common and perma- 
nent resident. I have met with it singly, in pairs, and often in 
small parties, generally in mangoe groves. It keeps tvell to the 
tops of trees, where it may be seen flying from branch to branch, 
and even hopping about like a Sparrow from bough to bough. 

I found a nest of this species and two fresh eggs on the 24th 
March. The nest was placed about eight feet from the ground, 
in a horizontal aud internally decayed (but not hollow) bough 
of a mangoe tree in a neglected garden in the native city of 

* This name is applied generally to all Woodpeckers and Barbets. 



THE BINDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 25 

Luckuow. The entrance aperture, on the under side of the 
bough, was about |th of an inch in diameter, gradually 
widening to the egor cavity about 10 inches away towards the 
trunk of the tree. The eggs were white, and measured respec- 
tively -70 by -53 and -70 by -52 inches. 

180.— Brachypt emus aurantius, Lin. 

The Golden-backed Woodpecker is common in almost every 
mangoe grove, and frequently enters compounds and gardens, 
while its shrill screaming call, uttered usually as it flies from 
tree to tree, is here quite a familiar u wood note wild." A 
specimen that 1 shot — now in the possession of Mr. Hume — 
had the upper mandible about a quarter of an inch longer than 
the lower, and taking its bill as a whole it was, I thiuk, abnor- 
mally long. 

B. aurantius breeds, I believe, twice a year — first in March 
and April, and again after the rains set in. I have on two 
occasions found its nest, but could not get at the eggs without 
cutting into, aud probably destroying, the large m&ugoe trees 
they were in. 

188.— lynx torquilla, Lin. 

The Wryneck is fairly common during the cold weather. I 
have seen it frequenting dhak jungles, and ou two or three 
occasions have noticed it in my own garden, but being a quiet 
and unobtrusive bird, it escapes detection when others less 
numerous but less retiring in their habits, would surely beseeu. 

193. — Megalsema caniceps, FrankL 

The Common Green Barbet is a permanent resident, and is 
very abundant about Lucknow and in localities where wild 
fruit trees, especially the banian, pipal, &c, abound, upon the 
berries of which it feeds. Though silent, as a rule, throughout 
the cold months, it is nevertheless the first to announce tho 
coming of the spring. Just when the days are getting percep- 
tibly hotter in January, its loud startling call begins to be 
heard in the land, and from then, till the close of the breeding 
season in May, must be familiar to everybody, though i'aw 
perhaps actually know the bird. During the rains its call 
is less frequently heard, aud ceases gradually as the cold season 
advances. 

On the 23rd April, and again on the 5th May, I found nests 
of this species, each containing two fresh eggs. One nest was 
in a hole made by the bird in an old mangoe tree, only about 
six feet from the ground, while the other was in a similar hole j ust 
about the saiue distance from the top of a tall Jamun tree. The 

4 



26 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

egg-shells were translucent, which gave the eggs a fleshy-white 

appearance. They measured as follows : — 

Average of four ... ... 1*1 4 by *86 inches. 

Smallest egg ... ... 1*12 „ '84 ,, 

Largest egg ... ... 115 „ '88 „ 

197. — Xantholaema haemacephala, Mull. Native 
name — Basunta. 

The Crimson-breasted Barbet is a permanent resident and 
one of our most common, as it is also one of our most brightly 
colored, birds. It feeds, like the last species, on fruit and berries 
and young and tender buds. It begins to pair in January, and 
from then to the end of May its loud and monotonous call 
resounds in every tope, and is perhaps the most familiar heard. 
Unlike Palceornis torquatus, it invariably excavates the hole 
for its nest, and selects for that purpose either branches or trunks 
of trees internally or outwardly decayed — the former, I think, 
for choice. It generally lays two eggs — occasionally three — ■ 
smaller of course, but of exactly the same shape aud. appear- 
ance as the eggs of M. caniceps. My record of nests is as 
follows : — 

March 17th ... nest and 2 eggs (fresh ) 

„ 17th ... „ 2 „ (hatching off.) 

„ 18th ... „ 2 „ (fresh.) 

„ 24th ... „ 3 „ (semi-incubated.) 

May 8th ... „ 2 young (just hatched.) 

„ 21st ... „ 2 „ (fledged.) 

Average measurement of 6 eggs '94 by *67 inches. 

Measurement of largest egg ... "97 „ *70 ,, 

Measurement of smallest egg ... "90 „ '64 „ 

199.— Cuculus canorus, Lin. 

Early one morning about seven or eight years ago, while wan- 
dering leisurely about the ruins of the "Bailey Guard," I was 
agreeably surprised to hear the Cuckoo's " Wandering Voice," 
but did not see the bird — fit visitor to such a shrine ; but I was 
more fortunate on the 29th May last, when I both heard and 
saw it in a rather foi*est-looking tract, in which a pineapple 
garden flourishes under the grateful shade of stately trees, and 
through which a clear rivulet runs for eight mouths of the 
year — a delightful spot about two miles to the north of 
Lucknow. 

Though the above record is all I know of the occurrence of 
the Cuckoo in the Division, others may have met with it oftener. 
Still, its visits like those of angels, must, I am afraid, be 
" few aud far between.'" 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 27 

205.— Hierococcyx varius, Vah'l. Native name— 
I* op it/ a. 

The Common Hawk Cuckoo is a permanent resident, fre- 
quenting alike gardens, groves and avenues. During the 
breeding season, i.e., from March to the commencement of 
the rains in June, it is a noisy bird, particularly in the 
evening and early morning, three or four often going up the 
gamut together, each trying to outdo or silence the other; 
while during moonlit nights it often vies with the Koel in 
trying to keep the world astir, but during the cold weather it 
is shy and retiring, seldom seen and never heard. It feeds 
usually, I think, on fruit or tender buds, but frequently on 
small caterpillars for which it may be seen hunting among 
the leaves of trees. Small birds often mistake it for the 
Shikra. Though it doubtless deposits its eggs in the nest of 
some bird or other — probably in that of the Common Babbler— 
I have never been able to find any, if it is possible to distin- 
guish them from the Babbler's eggs. 

208— Cacomantis passerinus, Vahl. 

The Indian Plaintive Cuckoo I have never seen, though for 
all that it may occur in the Division. Mr. Adam, I note, 
would seem to imply that it not only occurs but breeds here — 
see •' Nests and Eggs," page 137 ; but the large ecr^s to which 
he refers as belonging to this species were possibly the eggs 
of Drymatca inornata, some of which vary greatly in size and 
coloration. 

212.— Coccystes jacobinus, Bodd. Native name— 
Kala Popiya. 

The Pied Crested Cuckoo, though not so common as the last 
species, is nevertheless fairly abundant at all seasons ; found 
alike ou hi^h trees and low shrubs, and even feeding on the 
ground. During the breeding season it also is a noisy bird, 
and, like varius, deposits its eggs in the nests of other birds. 

214- — Eudynamis honorata, Lin. Native name — 
Koel and Kala Koeli. 

The Indian Koel, or Black Cuckoo, is a permanent resident, 
very abundant during the rains, but apparently migrates to 
some extent as the cold weather sets in and advances. It feeds 
principally on fruit, being very fond of the small berries of the 
banian and other Fici. During the breeding season several 
males may often be seen following the same female, and from 
this it may be inferred that, like the true Cuckoos, they do not 



^uly 9th . 


.. 1 


>> 


„ 9th .. 


,. 3 


V 


„ 17th .. 


. 1 


}■> 


„ 23rd ., 


.. 1 


'7 



28 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

pair. On such occasions they are very noisy ; while at 
this season their well-known call is often heard at night. 

The Koel, I think, invariably deposits its eggs in the nest of 
the Common Indian Grey-necked Crow (C. splendens). I have 
found them on several occasions. Details as follows : — 

June 30th ... 1 egg (fresh) no Crow's eggs in nest. 
„ 30th ... ,, ( „ ) ,, „ ,, 

(hard-set) 2 „ „ 

V » ) * )) » 

(fresh) 3 „ „ 

( „ ) no Crow's egg in nest. 
Average measurement of 6 eggs... 1*20 by "88 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1-28 „ *94 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... 114 „ "86 „ 

The above record is rather puzzling, but tends, I think, to 
show that the Koel ejects the Crow's eggs from the nest when 
depositing her own. I may also add that at Ohinhut, on the 
25th August, I saw a Crow feeding a young Koel. The young- 
ster, to attract the attention of the Crow, occasionally indulged 
in a continuous " cawing" for all the world like a young Crow. 
It was fully fledged, and flew from tree to tree after its foster- 
parent. On another and more recent occasion I saw a batch of 
three young Koels, being led about and fed by a pair of Crows, 
the young birds making very fair attempts to " caw." 

217 quat. -^-Centrococcyx intermedius, Hume— Na- 
tive name — Mahok. 

Hume's Coucal or Crow Pheasant — which, I believe, is the 
only species of this genus found in the Division — is a permanent 
resident. It is fairly abundant but rather locally distributed, 
frequenting bamboo brakes, particularly where these occur 
round tanks in the neighbourhood of villages ; sugarcane fields 
in the vicinity of jhils, and generally, any odd patches of 
jungle bordering on water, from which latter it is seldom found 
at any distance. In the Horticultural Gardens at Lncknow it 
is rather common, and breeds there in trees overrun with 
creepers. It also breeds in bamboo and other thorny thickets, 
generally in June, but it may have two broods in the year, as I 
have seen quite young birds in November. Of two nests that I 
robbed in June one contained three and the other two white 
eggs, rather dull and chalky in appearance. They average in 
measurement 1-38 by 1*12 inches. 

220.— Taccocua sirkee, Gray. 

The Bengal Sirkeer is a permanent and fairly common resident, 
but is also somewhat locally distributed. In well-wooded 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 29 

tracts it will rarely be found unless there is a deal of grass and 
other jungle growing about ; but in dhak jungles, mingled with 
Fici and other trees, into which it flies and hides when disturb- 
ed, it is fairly abundant. It is a great skulk, and the united 
efforts of half a dozen beaters will sometimes almost fail to eject 
it from one of these trees. It feeds, usually on the ground in 
jungle thickets, on ants, slugs, &c, in this respect resembling 
€. intermedins very closely. Though I have never found its nest, 
I shot quite a nestling on the 3rd November, though I need not 
have wasted my shot as its wing-feathers proved on inspection U 
be quite undeveloped. It had evidently left its nest prematurely, 
and was calling loudly for its parents, or I should never have 
discovered it. 

234. — Cinnyris asiatica, Lath.— Native name — 
Shukur-khora. 

The Purple Honey-Sucker is exceedingly common, and is the 
only Honey-sucker found in the Division. The males of this 
species moult, I think, very irregularly, some retaining their 
purple plumage throughout the cold weather, while as late as 
May others may be seen in their garb of brown. 

C. asiatica breeds generally in May and June, making its 
nest usually on some low shrub in gardens and groves. The 
nest is suspended to a twig, is oval with the entrance hole, some- 
times protected by a slightly projecting roof or awning, on one 
side near the top. It usually lays two eggs of a greyish white 
color, spotted dusky, the spots forming in some a distinctly 
marked zone round the thick end of the egg. 

Average measurement of 6 eggs ... '62 by *43 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ...'66 „ '46 „ 

Measurement of smallest egg ... *58 „ '42 „ 

240.— Piprisoma agile, Tick 

The Thick-billed Flowerpecker is a permanent resident. 
I have usually seen it in small parties hopping about the tops 
of mangoe trees, evidently looking for insects and their larvae. 
I have not, however, as yet found its nest. 

250. — Sitta castaneiventris, Frankl. 

30th September, Male. — Length, 5*31 ; expanse, 9'06 ; wing, 
2-95; tail, 1*66; tarsus, '61; bill, from gape, '76; weight, 
•50 oz. 

The Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch is a common and permanent 
resident. After the breeding season it is usually seen, in almost 
every mangoe grove and about gardens, in small parties ; at 
ether times, generally in pairs. It feeds on insects and their 



30 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

larvae, and, unlike the Woodpeckers, moves with equal facility 
either up or down trees. 

Though this is a very common bird about Lucknow, it has 
baffled all my attempts to find its nest, though I am pretty sure 
that a pair had their nest in a tree in my own garden. 

254.— Upupa epops, Lin. 

The Hoopoe, of Europe, is not common, and is only found 
here in the cold weather. Its larger size and the white band, 
on its crest readily distinguish it from the next species. But 
the scarcity of the bird here is, to my thinking, much more 
remarkable than its presence, considering its reputed abundance 
in other parts of India during the cold season. 

255. — Upupa ceylonensis, Reich. Native name — 
Hudhud. 

The Indian Hoopoe is a common and permanent resident. 
It commences to pair in December, if not earlier, and breeds 
in February and March. On the 5th of the latter mouth 
I obtained a nest and seven fresh eggs in an out-house in my 
own compound. The nest was in a hole in the wall just above 
th-e door, and was nothing more or less than a shapeless and 
gigantic bundle of tow and rags, probably once a squirrel's 
nest. 



Average measurement of eggs ... *88 by *65 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... *91 „ '68 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... "83 „ "60 „ 



256. — Lanius lahtora, Sykes. Native name — Safaid 
Latora. 

The Indian Grey Shrike, though it may be found almost 
anywhere in open country, is numerically rare. It frequents 
dhak jungles, oftener babool and other low trees on open 
plains, and occasionally telegraph wires. Though it feeds 
mostly on crickets, locusts, &c., I have never, as apparently 
others have done, seen it even attempt to seize young or sickly 
birds. 

It breeds here from March to July, making a massive cup- 
shaped nest in babool trees, generally in solitary ones on open 
plains. A nest that I came across on the 24th June contained 
four young, semi-fledged birds. 

257. — Lanius erythronotus, Vig. Native name- 
ilia^'?/ a Latora. 

The Rufous-backed Shrike is decidedly commoner than the 
last species ; and, like it, is a permanent resident, frequenting 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 31 

the same localities, with perhaps less of a liking for open plains, 
but very abundant in all dhak jungles. In its habits it is much 
the same as Li. lahtora, and breeds during the same season, but 
usually in some thick wild corounda bush surrounded by dhak. 
On one occasion I saw it succeed in capturing a large moth on 
the wing. 

260. — Lanius vittatus, Val. 

The Bay-backed Shrike is not common, but may be met 
with occasionally in dhak jungles and in well-wooded bushy 
tracts. It appears to have the usual habits of its tribe, and. 
is a permanent resident. 

261. — Lanius cristatus, Lin. 

The Brown Shrike is fairly common in the cold weather. 
It frequents the same localities as the last species. 

262.— Lanius isabellinus, Hemp. § Elir. 

The Desert Shrike is not common, and is probably only 
a cold weather visitor. It frequents the same localities as the 
preceding species, and appears to have, here, precisely the same 
habits. 

265.— Tephrodornis pondicerianus, Gm. Native 
name — Kerula. 

Yltli November, Male. — Length, 7* ; expanse, 11*25 ; wing, 
3'50 ; tail, 3' ; tarsus, *90 ; bill, from gape, *90 ; weight, § oz. 

The Common Wood Shrike is a common and permanent resi- 
dent, frequenting alike gardens, avenues and maugoe groves ; 
but is rarely, if ever, seen in low scrub or dhak jr.ngle. It 
generally moves about in small parties, apparently searching 
the leaves and branches of trees for insects, caterpillars, &c. 
I have never found its nest. 

270.— Graucalus macii, Less. Native name — Khaki 
Popiya. 

10th October, Female.— Length, 12*25 ; expanse, 20*; wing, 
6*90 ; tail, 5*90 ; tarsus, M0. 

The Large Cuckoo Shrike is fairly common in well-wooded 
tracts, and frequently visits compounds and gardens. A pecu- 
liarity of this bird is, that it rarely alights on mangoe trees, 
preferring to pass over them on its way from one tree to 
another ; while at other times it may be seen on babool 
bushes, evidently oblivious of the comparatively magnificent 
mangoe trees around. I cannot account for this, especially as 
maugoe trees usually swarm with the insects, caterpillars, &c, 



32 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

upon which it principally feeds. Its flight is slow and uudu- 
latiug, and it is seldom seen alone, generally in pairs, and 
sometimes, though rarely, in small parties. It breeds in the 
Division, though I know nothing about its nidification, having 
never been fortunate enough to find its nest. 

271.— Pericrocotus speciosus, Lath. Native name — 
Sat suki kapi* 

Wfh November, Female. — Length, 9* ; expanse, 1275 ; wing, 
4' 10; tail, 4-50; tarsus, '80; bill, from gape, 1-05; weight, 
1-40 oz. 

At one time I was inclined to look upon this lovely bird, the 
Large Minivet, as a rare and very exceptional cold weather 
visitor. Rare it undoubtedly is, but small parties, chiefly females, 
may be met with occasionally, from November to the end of 
February, in mangoe topes all over the Division, while I have 
frequently seen it in the Horticultural Gardens at Lucknow. 
It is strange that while this species visits us P. roseus does not. 

273.— Pericrocotus brevirostris, Vig. 

Wth November, Male. — Length, 8'; expanse, IV; wing, 
3*70; tail, 4*50; tarsus, '70; bill, from gape, '70; weight, 
•62 oz. 

Wth November, Female. — Length, 8*50; expanse, 11*; wing, 
3*70 ; tail, 4'70 ; tarsus, '70 ; bill, from gape, *70 ; weight, 
•62 oz. 

The Short-billed Minivet begins to put in an appearance in 
October, leaving again at the end of the cold weather, but 
duriug its stay is a fairly common visitor to both our gardens 
and groves. It generally moves about in small parties, in 
which females and young in the yellow garb usually predomi- 
nate in the proportion of two or three to one adult male ; keeps 
well to the tops of trees, be they high or low, aud seems always 
busily engaged hunting for insects and their larvae. 

276.— Pericrocotus peregrinus, Lin. 

Wth November, Male. — Length, 6*25 ; expanse, 8*50; wing, 
2"80 ; tail, 4" ; tarsus, "60 ; bill, from gape, *60 ; weight, *40 oz. 

11^ November, Female. — Length, 625 ; expanse, 8*50; 
wing, 2-70; tail, 3-10; tarsus, *70 ; bill, from gape, "60; 
weight, "38 oz. 

The Small Minivet is a common and permanent resident. 
Like the last species, it is generally seen in small parties, 
frequenting mangoe topes and gardens. I have never been 
fortunate enough to find its nest. 

* This name is also applied to P. brevirostris. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 33 

278.— Buchanga atra, Serrn. Native name— 
Bojanga. 

The Common Drongo Shrike or " King Crow" is everywhere 
common, frequenting gardens, avenues, groves, telegraph wires, 
jungly and cultivated tracts, and even low scrub on usar plains. 
It generally perches in positions whence it commands a good 
look-out ; often on the backs of cattle, where it watches for 
the crickets and grasshoppers they disturb when grazing. It 
is an active, pugnacious and noisy bird, particularly during 
the breeding season, when its familiar call-note may be heard 
long before sunrise and after dusk. It has, however, a 
pleasant, prolonged, low twittering song, which it occasionally 
indulges in at dusk when the day's labor's done. 

On one occasion, early in May, I saw what I thought was 
a curious sight — a Drongo cutting such antics on the wing 
that I never for a moment suspected it was all the while 
belaboring a poor Tit or Warbler that it must have had in its 
talons. The liberation of the little captive fairly astonished 
me, but judging from the rapidity with which it made for the 
nearest tree, it was apparently more frightened than hurt. 

The earliest record I have of the breeding of this species 
is the 16th May, and the latest the 20th July; but inter- 
mediately I have come across many nests, by far the most 
from the 15th June to the 10th July. Out of 54 eggs I 
have of the two typical kinds — pure white and spotted — 13 of 
the former and 41 of the latter, including four with only about 
half a dozen minute spots on each. 

Spotted eggs : 
Average measurement of 41 eggs '99 by *72 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg^™ » ,'J| » f^Xst!) 
Measurement of smallest egg "91 „ *64 „ 

Pure white variety : 
Average measurement of 13 eggs '97 by '72 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg { }$ » $ » fZ!^t.) 
Measurement of smallest egg *88 „ *68 „ 

281.— Buchanga caerulescens, Lin. 

The White-bellied Drongo is fairly common during the cold 
weather in well-wooded localities, but rarely, if ever, seen in 
such open country as the last species. In its habits it is much 
the same, except that it never frequents cows' backs, and some- 
times sings sweetly. I believe it migrates to the hills at the 

5 



34 THE BIEDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

commencement of the hot weather ; at any rate, I have not 
been able to find its nest, nor have I seen it during the breeding 
season. 

286.— Chibia hottentotta, Lin. 

The Hair-crested Drongo can only, I think, be considered 
as a rare visitor during the rains. It is then occasionally 
brought into the market, but I have only once seen it in its 
wild state frequenting the outer trees of a mangoe tope near 
Lucknow. It seems strange that it should be found here at all 
during the rains, and not in the cold weather. 

288.— Muscipeta paradisi, Lin. Native names — 
Shah-Bulbul and Sham-Bulbul. 

hth June — Brown, Female. — Length, 8*50 ; expanse, 10*40 ; 
wing, 3*89 ; tail, 425 ; tarsus, -62 ; bill, from gape, 1* ; 
weight, '62 oz. 

The Paradise Flycatcher, though by no means common, is uni- 
versally spread over the Division. Occasionally it may be seen 
flitting about maugoe topes, but oftener in bamboo brakes and 
other thickets, and is a frequent visitor to the Horticultural 
Gardens at Lucknow, where it breeds. On the 6th June last I 
took a nest and four eggs from a low branch of a mangoe tree. 
The eggs, of a delicate white salmon color, were minutely spotted 
with red and ringed with similar spots at the large end. 
Their measurement averages 0*80 by 0*58 inches. 

A complete account of the changes of plumage of this 
Bpecies is still very much required. Personally, I am inclined 
to regard the chestnut phase as its breeding plumage, the 
female having a short, and the male a long, tail at this season ; 
while it is also the universal livery of the young, but for how 
long Heaven only knows. At any rate, during May, June and 
July, these birds are generally in the chestnut plumage, white 
ones being then the exception, though it is these very excep- 
tions that puzzle one so much. Perhaps, some day, we may 
get to know all about them. 

In the " Gulistan of Hafiz" the chestnut and white bird are 
considered as distinct species ; the white — I write from 
memory — being called the Shah, and the chestnut bird the 
Sultana Bulbul. 

290.— Hypothymis azurea, Bodd. 

The Black-naped Blue or Azure Flycatcher is only a cold 
weather visitor, and even then is by no means common. It 
does not seem to care for mangoe topes, in which I have never 
seen it ; but in forest-looking tracts, with plenty of under- 



THE BIKDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 35 

wood or shrubs, it may occasionally be seen, generally two or 
three together. 

292.— Leucocerca aureola, Vieill. 

The White-browed Fantail is common throughout the Divi- 
sion, alike in mangoe groves, avenues, gardens, &c. It feeds 
on small insects, which it usually seizes on the wing, and 
breeds from May to August. On the 25th July I was fortu- 
nate enough to see a pair commence building their nest, and I 
watched its progress daily very carefully. The place selected 
was a horizontal and slender mangoe branch about six feet 
from the ground, at a point where the branch terminated and 
three slender uprights started. In this fork they commenced 
the nest by twisting spider webs round the main or horizontal 
stem upon which their tiny structure was destined to stand. 
Next morning the nest was but little bigger than, and almost as 
neat and compact as a large acorn cup, and entirely unconnected 
with any of the upright twigs. During the next two days 
good progress was made, and on the fifth day the nest was 
a perfect full-sized skeleton, having its sides firmly attached 
to the three perpendicular twigs. The process of thickening 
the sides of the nest then commenced, and in 13 days, counting 
from the beginning, the nest was completed. On the fifteenth 
day it contained two eggs of a creamy white color with a 
zone of brownish spots at the thick end of each. 

Average measurement of the two *63 by 50 inches. 
Kespective measurements ...-! .^ " .ra " 

295.— Culicicapa ceylonensis, Sws. 

Iit7i ftovember, Female. — Length, 5*25 ; expanse, 7'50 ; 
wing, 2*40 ; tail, 2*20 ; tarsus. *50 ; bill, from gape(?) ; weight, 
•25 oz. 

The Grey-headed Flycatcher visits the Division in great 
numbers during the cold weather. It seems to be particularly 
fond of mango topes, where many may always be seen flitting 
a good deal abont the lower branches, and sallying forth in 
all directions after insects. 

297.— Alseonax latirostris, Baffl. 

The Earth-brown Flycatcher is by no means abundant, and 
I am at a loss whether to consider it a permanent resident or 
not. It certainly visits us during the rains •, but I have no 
record or recollection of having seen it at other seasons. 



36 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 






301.— Stoporala melanops, Vig. 

The Verditer Flycatcher is only a cold weather visitor. It 
is never, however, abundant, and frequents for the most part 
the better wooded tracts of the district, though I have seen it 
in my own garden, and very often in the Wingn'eld Park and 
Horticultural Gardens, Lucknow. 

It breeds in Kumaon, where it was very plentiful in June. 
On the 10th of that month, 1 found a nest and three fully 
fledged young in a dak bungalow out-house. The nest, for 
the most part built of moss, semi-globular and rather massive 
in appearance, and lined with fine black roots, was placed 
between the roof and ridge-pole, resting on the latter. Again, 
on the 12th, I took a nest of similar construction from under 
the exposed roots of a tree in a roadside embankment. The 
eggs, three in number and quite fresh, were of a creamy 
white color, with a light but well-defined reddish brown zone 
round the thick end of each, with the circular space at the end 
within the zone of a still lighter shade. They measure respec- 
tively -76 by -54, 72 by -55, and *78 by *56 inches. 

304— Cyornis rubeculoides, Vig. 

The Blue-throated Redbreast is only a cold weather visitor, 
numerically rare and seldom seen, except perhaps in the guava 
groves and gardens about Lucknow. In the district it is occa- 
sionally met with in mangoe topes, frequenting low branches, 
often small shoots projecting from the trunks of the trees, from 
which it sallies forth after insects, rarely returning to the same 
perch, and seldom to the same tree. 

306.— Cyornis tickelli, Bly. 

Tickell's Blue Redbreast is perhaps rather commoner than 
the last species, but is similar in habits, and frequents the same 
localities, keeping, however, more to the upper than to the 
lower branches of trees. It is, of course, only a cold weather 
visitor. 

323.— Erythrosterna albicilla, Tall. 

From having for a long while confounded this, the Eastern 

am 



.prom navmg tor a long wnne confounded tins, the I 
White-tailed Robin Flycatcher, with the next species, 

ui« t. ™..„u „i a ;i u„i : : •_ ii..j 

■ 







unable to say much about it, but my impression is that it is 
quite as common as E. parva during the cold weather, and in 
its habits exactly resembles that bird, frequenting the same 
localities. 

323 bis.— Erythrosterna parva, Bechst. 

The White-tailed Robin Flycatcher is common during the 
<cold weather in mangoe groves, gardens, &c, almost indeed 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 37 

anywhere. It is usually seen sporting about the lower branches 
and trunks of trees, capturing insects, &c, and is an active, 
restless little bird. It retires to the hills in April. 

353.— Petrophila cinclorhyncha, Tig. 

The Blue-headed Chat Thrush can only, I think, be consi- 
dered as a rare cold weather visitor. I have only seen it on 
two or three occasions in the forest-looking topes along the 
Chowka near Byramghat, and once in a rather jungly mangoe 
grove not far from Lucknow. In December last I saw and 
shot a specimen in a mangoe tope near Lucknow. 

355. — Geocichla citrina, Lath. 

The Rusty-throated Ground-Thrush, like the last species, is 
only a cold weather visitor, but is not so rare. It may, to a 
certainty, be found in every forest-looking bamboo brake, 
frequenting damp and dark nooks, where it feeds on the slugs 
and insects usually found in these, turning over the leaves on the 
ground to find them. It not unfrequently enters the Horticul- 
tural Gardens at Lucknow, where it finds suitable haunts in the 
damp shrubberies there ; but in dry dhak jungles, no matter 
how shady the trees may be, I have never seen it. It also 
avoids mangoe topes. 

371 — Oreocincla dauma, Lath. 

2Sth December, Female. — Length, 105 ; expanse, 16*25 ; wing, 
5*60 ; tail, 3*65 ; tarsus, 1-30 ; bill, from gape, 125. Bill, 
upper mandible dark brown, lower much paler brown ; legs 
fleshy white. 

The Small-billed Mountain Thrush, which is also only 
a winter visitor, is about as common as the last species, 
resembling it in its habits and frequenting precisely the same 
localities, though I have not observed it so close to Lucknow as 
in the Horticultural Gardens. 

385.— Pictoris sinensis, Gm. 

litk November, Female. — Length, 7 - 62 ; expanse, (?) ; wing, 
2*50 ; tail, 4* ; tarsus, 1- ; bill, from gape, '60; weight, '50 oz. 

The Yellow-eyed Babbler is very common and a permanent 
resident, rather more abundant during the cold than in the hot 
and rainy seasons. It is fond of grassy bush and dhak jungle, 
but fonder still of patches and rows of tall thatching grass, 
on the stalks of which, when seeding, it settles and searches 
diligently for insects, generally in parties ranging from six to a 



38 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

dozen. Doting the beat of the day the party usually retires 
to rest iu some bush overgrown with long 1 grass, where they 
may be heard conversing in a low chatter. If disturbed then, 
they make a great noise and scuttle through the adjoining grass 
in all directions, becoming silent as they hide or squat, and 
remaining so until the intruder moves off, when they generally 
re-assemble either in the same bush or in some other close 
by. The male bird sings very sweetly, oftenest, 1 think, in the 
cold dewy November mornings. 

432.— Malacocercus terricolor, Sodgs. Native 
name — Ghoughai and Sat-bhai. 

1st November, Female. — Length, 10*; expanse, 13*; wing, 5*50 ; 
tail, 4*80 ; tarsus, 1*40 ; bill, from gape, (?) ; weight, 2'50 oz. 

The Bengal Babbler is very common in avenues, gardens, 
hedgerows, maugoe topes and dhak jungles — in fact where- 
ever there are trees or bushes it is sure to be found. 
Jerdou surely could never have mistaken this species for 
M. malcolmi, yet we find him writing that the latter doubtless 
u extends through most of the N. W. Provinces, whilst 
M. terricolor, so far as we know, is not found there" — ( Birds of 
India, Vol. II., page 65). The reverse is the case, and so far 
from M. terricolor not occurring it is one of the commonest, 
and probably the noisiest, bird in the N. W. Provinces. It is 
universally known amongst the natives as the " Sat bhai," or 
seven brothers ; " babbler" or " chatterer" being the name 
usually applied to it by Europeans. Being a constant resident 
in gardens and compounds its habits are very generally known. 

When tbe Shikra, as it sometimes does, makes a swoop at 
a party of babblers, it is curious to observe how silent they 
become, sneaking off singly to the tops of trees where they 
hide for some time, and then begin to file away to some other 
locality where they still keep very quiet until well into the 
business of feeding again. 

Their breeding season extends from March to September ; 
but though by habit gregarious, they never breed in company. 
Orange, citron, guava and other low trees and shrubs are 
favorite nesting places, as well as the lower branches of mangoe 
trees. Their nests are mostly composed of coarse grasses 
lined with finer grass, but sometimes with coarse hair-like roots, 
the egg cavity being about 5 b} r 4 by 2 inches. They gener- 
ally lay three eggs, of a deep greenish blue (the shade varies 
in some), and occasionally four may be found in a nest. 

Average measurement of 12 eggs *99 by *77 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1*05 „ '79 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... *95 „ '76 „ 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 39 

436. — Argya malcolmi, Sylces. Native name. — Bhaina. 

Since the first part of this paper was published, and long 
after this part was in type, I met with this species, the Large 
Grey Babbler, for the first time in this Division in the dhak 
jungles in the neighbourhood of the Rahimabad Railway 
Station, where, on this occasion, I found them common. During* 
the day I spent there I must have seen some seven or eight 
different parties of from five to ten individuals in each. 
Though I have explored these jungles before, times without 
number, I have never previously noticed this species. I could 
hardly have passed them over as terricolor, for malcolmi is a 
larger bird and recognizable at a glance when flying by the 
whitish color of the lateral tail feathers. Still this seems 
more likely than that this species should now, for the first time 
during several years, have made its appearance here. Anyhow 
it must be very locally distributed in the Division, and it is 
certainly not fouud in the vicinity of Lucknow. The addition 
of this species brings my total number up to 414 (vide p. 501, 
Vol. IX.) 

438.— Chatarrhsea caudata, Bum. 

The Striated Bush-Babbler is a common and permanent 
resident, very abundant in dhak and thorn jungle ; less so in 
patches of thatching grass, which it also frequents, and is seen, 
though not habitually, in hedgerows and about gardens, and is 
not uncommon in the lanje, grass-hedged, <mava groves about 

o / © o/©o 

Lucknow. 

It breeds from April to August, making its nest usually in 
thick bushes, especially in dhak jungles in the wild corounda. 
The following is a record of its nests and the dates on which 
I found them : — 

May 5th nest and 3 eggs (hard-set.) 

„ 31st „ 3 „ (fresh.) 

June 20th „ 3 ., ( „ ) 

July 20th „ 3 ;, ( „ ) 

„ 29th ... ... „ 3 young (just hatched.) 

Average measurement of 12 es^s... 

It ir ©© 

Measurement of largest egg ... 

Measurement of smallest egg 
The eggs are blue and glossy. 

460.— Otocompsa emeria, Lin, Native name — 
Kangra JBulbul. 
The Red-whiskered Bulbul is very common all the year 
round. It frequents gardens and avenues about Lucknow and 



•81 


by 


•62 inches. 


•88 


j) 


•75 


j> 


•77 


i> 


•60 


» 



40 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

abounds throughout the district in all well-wooded tracts. It 
breeds very generally in May : in that month I found the 
following nests : — 

May 5th ... ... nest and 3 eggs (fresh.) 

» 7th ... ... „ 1 H . ( „ j 

„ 10th ... ... „ 2 „ ( „ ) 

„ 31st ... ... „ 3 „ ( „ ) 

„ 31st ... ... „ 3 „ ( „ ) 

Average measurement of 12 eggs '82 by *62 inches. 

Measurement of largest egg ... '86 „ *70 „ 

Measurement of smallest egg ... *80 „ '60 „ 

It habitually breeds in thickly foliaged shrubs, particularly 
in creepers running up trees or lattice work, and in the Horti- 
cultural Gardens, here, nests are consequently very numerous. 

462.— Molpastes haemorrhous, Gm, Native name — 
Bulbul, also Guldum Bulbul. 

The Common Madras Bulbul is quite as abundant as the last 
species, and perhaps more generally spread, being frequently 
found in comparatively woodless tracts. Still, it frequents 
much the same localities, and is very abundant about Lucknow, 
where it is prized by the natives for its fighting qualities. In 
the district, too, it is trained for the same purpose, and on 
iseveral occasions I have seen as many as a hundred perched 
on, and fastened to, separate sticks shaped like the letter T, in 
the courtyards of country magnates. 

The eggs of this species are somewhat larger and redder 
than those of 0. erneria ; but there is but little difference in 
the size and shape of their nests, and they breed in the same 
localities ; 0. emeria very generally in May, but this species 
apparently not until June or July. 

The following is my record of its nests :— 

June 13th ... nest and 3 eggs (fresh.) 

„ 15th ... „ 2 „ ( „ ) 

„ 26th ... „ 3 „ (hard-set.) 

July 18th ... „ 3 „ (partly incubated.) 

Average measurement of 10 eggs *87 by -64 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... *95 „ "72 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... "75 „ *63 „ 

468— Iora tiphia, Lin. 

ISth November, Male. — Length, 5-80 ; expanse, 8 - 25 ; wing, 
2-60 ; tail, 220 ; tarsus, -70 ; bill, from gape, '75 ; weight, 
•62 oz. Legs dark plumbeous ; irides greyish brown ; bill dark 
horny. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 41 

The Green Iora, or White-winged Green Bulbul, as Jerdon calls 
it, is a fairly common and'permanent resident. It frequents 
avenues, gardens, mangoe topes, &c., generally in pairs, but 
occasionally in small parties, keeping well outof sight, as it quietly 
searches the leaves and branches of trees for its insect food. On 
the 16th July I found a nest aud three eggs. The nest was in a 
mangoe tree on a horizontal bough (attached to that and an 
upright twig") about 20 feet from the ground ; it was cup-shaped, 
compact and well made of fine grass stems (lined with finer) and 
cobwebs, and so well concealed from view that I would have 
given long odds against anyone finding it who had not, as I had, 
seen the birds building it. The eggs measured - 75 by *56, "75 
by "56, '73 by '58 inches, and are, I consider, the most beautiful 
in my collection, being of a creamy white color, beautifully 
marked with longitudinal wavy streaks of faint purplish brown. 

470. — Oriolus kundoo, Sykes. Native name— Pllak. 

hth October, Female, juv. — Length, 9*25 ; expanse, 15* ; wing, 
5" ; tail, 3*87 ; tarsus, *87. 

The Mango Bird or Indian Oriole, though a permanent resi- 
dent, is never so abundant during the cold weather as it is during 
the hot and rainy seasons from about the time the mangoe trees 
begin to bloom to the end of September. It frequents gardens, 
avenues, mangoe topes, and is frequently seen in open country, 
taking long flights between trees, principally the banian and 
other Fici, upon the berries and buds of which it feeds. I have 
the following record of its nests : — 

June 16th ... nest and no eggs (building). 

July 2nd ... „ 2 eggs (fresh). 

„ 2nd ... „ 1 „ ( „ ) 

» 5th ... j, 3 „ ( ,, ) 

„ 25th ... „ 3 young (just hatched). 

Aug. 5th ... „ 2 „ (fledged). 

Average measurement of 6 eggs ... 1*10 by # 84 inches. 

Measurement of largest egg ... 1*10 „ *88 „ 

Measurement of smallest egg ... 1 "06 „ *84 „ 

The nests were all alike, cup-shaped, made up of coarse 
grasses, tow, rags, &c, suspended to forks in branches of mangoe 
trees, easily seen from beneath but well concealed by leaves 
above. A nest, which I saw the birds building, was ready for 
fully a mouth before it was used. 

472.— Oriolus melanocephalus, Lin. Native name — 
Pahari Topi-dar Pilah 

12th November, Female. — Length, 950 ; expanse, 16 4 50 ; wing, 
5-30 ; tail, 4- ; tarsus, 110 ; bill, from gape, 1-30 ; weight, 2'50 oz. 

6 



42 THK BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

Unlike O. kundoo, the Black-headed Oriole is much more com- 
mon during 1 the cold weather than it is in either the hot or rainy 
season; many evidently migrating for these seasons. In its 
habits it closely resembles the last species, and frequents the same 
localities. I have never found its nest. It probably does not 
breed here. 

475. — Copsychus saularis, Lin. Native name — Dhyal 

The Magpie Robin is a permanent and familiar resident, 
frequenting- compounds, gardens, guava and mangoe groves, as 
well as dhak jungles and the trees and shrubs in the vicinity of 
villages. Its food must be very varied, for I found one feeding 
on a centipede about four inches long that I made it drop with 
difficulty. On examining the centipede I found that life was 
not quite extinct. 

During the pairing and breeding seasons this Robin sings 
sweetly, particularly in the early mornings and at dusk. It 
usually nests in holes in trees, but occasionally in walls and 
deserted buildings, and generally lays four eggs, pale bluish 
green, spotted or blotched with brown. Of its nests I have the 
following record: — 

May 22nd ... nest and 4 eggs (fresh) mangoe tree. 

July 9th ... „ 2 „ ( „ ) „ 

„ 1 2tli ... „ 4 „ (hard set) „ 
„ 15th ... „ 4 young (unfledged),, 

Average measurement of 8 eggs ... '84 by *74 inches. 

Measurement of largest egcr ... *86 „ "74 „ 

Measurement of smallest egg .». "82 ,, "75 „ 

480. — Thamnobia cambaiensis, Lath. Native name — 
Shama.* 

hth October, Female. — Length, 6*50; expanse, 925 ; wing, 3; 
tail, 2-87 ; tarsus, 1"; bill, from gape, '62; weight, *75 oz. 

The familiar Brown-backed Robin is a permanent resident, and 
frequents the same localities as the last species. It is generally 
seen in pairs, and durino- the breeding season has a pleasing soncr, 
which it usually warbles forth at morn and even, dancing about 
all the time with its wings in a trailing position and its tail 
erect. It generally — almost invariably — -nests in holes in houses, 
masonry or mud walls, and old deserted buildings of any kind ; 
occasionally in nullahs and ravines. The following is my record 
of its nests : — 

March 10th ... nest and 4 eggs (incubated). 

May 24th ... „ 3 „ (fresh). 

June 15th ... „ 3 „ ( „ ) 

July 7th ... „ 3 „ r „ ) 

„ 7th ... „ 3 „ (hard set). 

* I'opulai ly so, though the name properly pertains to Cercotrichas macrura. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 43 

Average measurement of 12 eggs... '79 by *56 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... -83 „ "61 „ 

Measurement of smallest egg ... '74 „ '55 ,, 

One of the above nests, which I found in a wall of the 
Secunder Bagh ruins, was entirely composed of human hair! 
Another, which I robbed on three occasions, each time leaving 
the nest, had soon afterwards a fourth set. This time I allowed 
the eggs to remain, and had the satisfaction of knowing that the 
old lady managed to rear her brood. 

Possibly I am, and was, wrong in supposing her to have laid 
the four clutches ; but though I watched closely, I was con- 
vinced at the time that it was the same pair that kept about 
the nest. 

481.— Pratincola caprata, Lin. Native name— Kala- 
pidha. 

The White-winged Black Robin is common in thin dhalc and 
tamarisk jungles, and scrub-covered, undulating and raviny 
ground ; but does not, habitually at least, frequent gardens 
and well-wooded tracts. It feeds on insects which it usually 
captures on the ground, darting down on them from some low 
perch. It is a permanent resident. 

483.— Pratincola maurus, Pall. 

The Indian Bush Chat, which is very common during the cold 
weather, frequents the same localities as the last species, and 
its habits are much the same. It usually makes its appearance 
about the beginning of October and leaves early in April ; 
is in general a very wary bird, keeping well out of range of 
danger, and flying from bush to bush as one approaches, taking 
at last to thickets if persistently pursued. 

491.— Saxicola isabellinus, Rtipp. 

Menetries ; Wheat-ear is found only in the cold weather, and 
is not common, being rather locally distributed, as it 
frequents, generally, rugged and barren tracts and the more 
open parts of dhak and scrub jungle. I know nothing parti- 
cular in regard to its habits. 

492.— Saxicola deserti, Eilpp. 

The Black-throated Wheat-ear is similarly only a cold weather 
visitor and far from common. It frequents much the same loca- 
lities as the last species. On one occasion I found some five or 
six frequenting block kunker quarries, particularly the material 
lying exposed and scattered about, on the barren margin of a 
jhil at Ajgaen. 






44 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

494. — Cercomela fusca, Bty. Native name — Daitma. 

The Brown Rock Cbat is fairly common about Lucknow, but 
I have not seen it elsewhere. It frequents the numerous old 
buildings and walls in the City Suburbs. A nest which I took 
from an old mosque on the 24th May contained three fresh 
eggs of an uniform pale blue color, marked with tiny spots of 
different shades of brownish red, chiefly towards the larger 
end where the spots formed an irregular dotted zone. Of five 
eggs in my possession the average measurement is 0'80 by 
062 inches. 

497.— Ruticilla rufiventris, Vieill. Native name— 
Lalgonda. 

The Indian Redstart — a cold weather visitor — makes its 
first appearance about the end of September, stragglers remain- 
ing as late as May. It is very common, frequenting gardens, 
man^oe and guava groves, and not unfrequently out-houses, 
■walls and old buildings. It feeds on insects, usually capturing 
them on the ground. 

514.— Cyanecula suecica, Lin. 

The Red-spot Blue-throat is very common in the cold weather. 
It habitually frequents damp places, such as patches of long 
grass, sugarcane, pea fields, &c, in the vicinity of rivers and 
jliils, and is common in the tamarisk jungles about By ramghat. 
It feeds on insects. 

518 Ms.— Lusciniola melanopogon, Tern. 

The Moustached Sedge Warbler is fairly common in all suitable 
localities, but only, I think, during the cold weather. In the 
low-lving (rrass-covered lands here and thereon the banks of the 
Goomti, in the grass and tamarisk jungle in the semi-swamps 
about By ramghat, and in similar localities on the khadir lands 
of the Oudh bank of the Ganges, it is not uncommon, while 
a few may sometimes be found in the rush}' swamps and nooks 
on such rivers as the Goomti and Saie. From its skulking 
habits, it is difficult to get a fair shot at it unless at very close 
quarters, when it generally gets mangled almost past recogni- 
tion. 

520.— Locustella hendersoni, Cass. 

The Eastern Grasshopper Warbler — probably ouly a cold 
weather visitor — frequents the same localities as the last, the 
two being often fouud together, but it is decidedly a greater 
skulk and numerically less common. The ouly specimen I 
have, I captured alive after a good deal of trouble in 



THE BIRDS OF THE LTJCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 45 

trying to get a fairly distant shot at it (I bad already blown 
two to pieces), when I saw it suddenly sneak into a small 
patch of " doob" grass, and rushing- up I caught it between the 
rooting runners of the grass and the ground, so tightly 
squeezed in that I had some difficulty in getting it out. 

530.— Orthotomus sutorius, Penn. Native name — 
Phutki. 

The Indian Tailor-bird is a common and permanent resident, 
frequenting gardens, hedgerows, groves, and all kinds of 
jungles. In gardens it sometimes nests in brinjal bushes, but 
more frequently in the low shoots of guava trees, sewing two 
or three of the leaves together, which it lines with some soft 
material — cotton or wool preferred — if procurable either by fair 
means or foul. I have known it to enter verandahs, and even 
rooms, to pick the fibre out of cotton and other ropes. Its 
eggs are usually white, spotted with reddish brown, but some 
are of a very pale bluish green color, similarly, but more 
minutely, spotted with a lighter shade of brown. Of the two 
varieties, I have nine eggs of the former and four of the 
latter ; they measure respectively : — 

Bluish variety. 
Avernge measurement ... *65 by *46 inches. 

Measurement of largest ecrg 
Measurement of smallest egg ... 

White variety. 

Average measurement 
Measurement of largest egg 
Measurement of smallest egg ... 

It breeds very generally in June and July. 

535. — Prinia stewarti, Bly. Native name — Phutki* 

Stewart's Wren- Warbler is about as common and frequents 
the same localities as the last species, being particularly 
abundant in dhak and thorn jungles. It is very destructive in 
gardens, where it destroys peas with a vengeance, snapping its 
tailf at any one who attempts to interfere with its apparently 
favorite pastime. This it habitually does when disturbed, 
excited or frightened. It makes its nest in any low bush, with 
leaves large enough to answer its purpose when two or three 
are tacked together. The nest is very much like a tailor bird's ; 

* Applied generally, in this Division, to all small Warblers. 

t How does it perform this remarkable and unusual operation ?—Ed. 



69 


?» 


•48 


» 


•63 


» 


•43 


5) 


'64 


by 


•46 


inches. 


70 


j? 


•48 


>) 


64 


5) 


•43 


v 



46 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVTL DIVISION. 

but the eggs are very different, being of a brick-red color. 
The average measurement of six is '64 by "46 inches. 

539.— Cisticola cursitans, Frankl. 

The Fantail Warbler is a permanent resident, abundant in all 
suitable localities, principally in long grass wherever this is found 
— in dhak jungles, where grass is abundant, and in corn and 
pea-fields in the neighbourhood of, or partially surrounded by, 
sarpatta grass ; but never, I think, far away from these and such 
like retreats. It feeds on small insects and their larvae. I have 
no notes regarding its nidification. 

543.— Drymceca inornata, Sykes. Native name — 

Ghas-Fhutki. 

The Earth-brown Wren-Warbler frequents the same localities 
as the last, but in far greater numbers. Indeed, it is one of the 
most common birds in the Division, always found in great 
numbers wherever thatching or sarpatta grass abounds. When 
disturbed, it usually takes a short, jerky, flight and darts again 
into the grass, through which it moves with great facility. 
Sometimes, when undisturbed and " alone in its glory/' it takes 
short excursions into the air, jerks about for a few moments, and 
then returns to the grass to indulge. in a low twittering song. 
It breeds very generally in July. Between the 1st and 31st 
of that month, I must have seen and examined at least 100 nests 
in the sarpatta grass clumps so common along the Goomti at 
Lucknow. The nests were invariably made of fine strips of 
grass, which is alwaj^s used when green and pliable, giving 
them at first a green appearance, but later on, as it fades, a 
straw color. In shape they are rather elongated oval structures, 
very neatly woven, with the entrance hole near the top, and 
are generally about three or four feet from the ground in the 
middle of a clump of grass firmly attached to five or six of the 
stems. The eggs are generally of a pale bluish-green, spotted 
with chocolate and various shades of brown, the larger euds 
generally with, but occasionally without, a zone of denser spots 
entangled in a labyrinth of fine hair-like lines. Another 
variety, though similarly marked, lyive pure pinkish-white 
grounds, and are very beautiful eggs. Out of 70 eggs in 
my possession, 62 belong to the former, and eight to the latter, 
variety. They measure respectively : — 

Bluish variety ; 

Average measurement ... '60 by *45 inches. 

Measurement of largest eo-g ... *6'2 ,, *47 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... •§# „ *44 „ 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 47 

Pinkish-white variety : 
Average measurement ... *57 by *41 inches. 

Measurement of largest e<rsf ••• '59 „ *42 „ 

Measurement of smallest ez£...\ Cf ! " *n " 

1 -59 „ '40 „ 

551.— Franklinia buchanani, Bly. 

The Rufous-fronted Wren- Warbler is fairly common and a 
permanent resident. It frequents very much the same localities 
as the last species, especially low thorn and scrub jungle. It 
makes an oblong loosely-constructed nest with the aperture near 
the top, and lays three or four white eggs, minutely spotted 
with dingy red. Average measurement of four eggs, 060 bv 
0*46 inches. * 

554.— Phylloscopus tristis, Bly. 

The Brown Tree- Warbler is common during the cold weather 
in trees and jungle on the banks of the Chowka at Byramghat, 
and on the Goomti about Lucknow, especially in a large tope 
of young babool trees belonging to the Horticultural Gardens. 
I have also seen it frequenting mangoe topes. 

559.— Phylloscopus nitidus, Bly. 

The Bright-green Tree-Warbler is only, I think, a cold 
weather visitor, though I have shot it early in September, and 
as late as the end of April. It frequents mangoe topes, and is 
fairly abundant in the babool fences along the railway. 

565 bis.—- Reguloides humii, Brooks. 

Hume's Crowned Tree-Warbler is certainly fairly common in 
the mangoe groves about Lucknow and elsewhere during the 
cold weather. On the 11th October I shot two specimens, 
and saw many more in the same tope, and have seen it often 
since. 

582.— Sylvia affinis, Bly. 

The Allied White-Throat is very generally spread over the 
Division during the cold weather ; but I have never seen it 
anywhere so numerous as it is in the babool trees along the 
Goomti and the railway. In the tall dhak and thorn jungles 
about Rahimabad it is also pretty common ; but it never, I 
think, except by chance, enters mangoe topes. 

589. — Motacilla maderaspatensis, Tern. Native 
name — Khanjan. 
The Large Pied Wagtail is a permanent resident, but common 
only, I think ; on rivers and streams* On the Goomti, where 



48 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

I have had opportunities of observing it, I have seldom found 
more than one or two tog-ether, and have never seen it associa- 
ting in flocks like other Wagtails. When flushed it usually flies 
but a short distance along the river — always, I think, over the 
water, and on alighting on the beach is often rudely assailed 
by one of its own species, each evidently considering a certain 
range his own particular beat. 

591.— Motacilla personata, Gould. Native name — 
Dhobin* 

The Black-faced Wagtail is common during the cold weather, 
making its appearance early in September and remaining to about 
the end of April. It may be found almost anywhere, viz., in 
ploughed fields, grassy plains, gardens, topes, and about rivers 
and jhils, usually runniug briskly about after insects. 

591 bis.— Motacilla dukhunensis, Syles. 

The remarks about the last species apply equally to this, 
the Indian White-faced Wagtail, which is everywhere as 
common, frequenting the same localities. 

592.— Calobates melanope, Fall. 

I cannot say that I have ever observed the Grey and Yellow 
Wagtail, though it surely must occur during the cold weather. 
It is mentioned in Captain Irby's paper as u common/' and its 
occurrence can scarcel}' be doubted, though I should not think it 
could be at all abundant, or I could hardly have overlooked it. 

593 bis.— Budytes melanocephalus, Licht. Native 
name — Pilkya. 

The Black-cap Field Wagtail is common during the cold 
weather, coming in early and remaining late. After a good 
shower they may be seen in great numbers on usar plains ; 
are common in rice and well-irrigated corn-fields, and in the 
neighbourhood of jhils and rivers. They sometimes perch 
on trees. 

594.— Budytes calcaratus, Hodgs. 

The Black-backed Yellow-headed Wagtail is not quite so 
common as the last species, but is fairly abundant in marshes, 
inundated fields and damp tracts in the vicinity of jhils and 
rivers. It is only a cold Aveather visitor. 

596.— Anthus maculatus, Hodgs. 

The Indian Tree-Pipit is common during the cold weather, 
appearing about the end of September and departing about the 

* Applied to most Grey Wagtails. , 



THE BTftBS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 49 

end of April. Some few may, however, remain to breed* as I 
saw a pair in a mangoe tope so late as the 29th of May last. 
This Tree-Pipit frequents shady places, and is abundant in 
all mangoe groves where the ground is covered with vegeta- 
tion, from which it may be seen flying up into the trees as one 
approaches. In the gardens about Lucknow it is also common. 
It usually feeds on the ground, but frequently on trees. 

597.— Anthus trivialis, Lin. 

It is not easy to distinguish the European Tree-Pipit from 
the last species without a closer examination than one usually 
gets in the fields ; but it appears to be equally as common, 
frequenting the same localities and very similar in its habits. 

600.— Cory dalla rufula, Vieill 

The Indian Tit-Lark is a common and permanent resi- 
dent, found alike in cultivated tracts, open plains, and 
dhak jungles, but more abundantly in damp and wet places, 
such as thin patches of wild paddy and rice. When the thatch- 
ing grass grown in the suburbs of Lucknow is cut in April 
or May, many will always be found frequenting the stumps or 
tufts, in which they doubtless make their nests. 

604. — Agrodroma sordida, Riipp. 

The Brown Rock- Pipit is not common. I have occasionally 
met with it in cultivated tracts, ploughed fields, and about 
mounds covered with broken brick and scrub jungle. It is 
only a cold weather visitor. 

631.— Zosterops palpebrosa, Tern. Native name- 
Baboona. 

The White-eyed Tit is both a very common and permanent 
resident, found in all well-wooded tracts, very numerous in 
mangoe topes, and the compounds and gardens about Lucknow. 
It is social in its habits, many being always found together, 
and appears to feed on small insects. I have found its nest on 
several occasions. Details as follows : — 

May 18th ... ... nest and 2 eggs (fresh). 

„ 18th ... ... „ 1 „ ( „ ) 

June 8th ... ... „ 3 „ (incubated). 

„ 10th ... ... „ 1 „ (fresh). 

July 23rd ... .. „ 3 „ ( „ ) 

* This seems extremely unlikely; up to the present this species has never been 
known to breed anywhere in the plains. — Bd. 

7 



50 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 



Average measurement of 6 eggs *56 by *46 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... '60 „ *48 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... '53 ,, '45 „ 

The nests were all on mangoe trees, suspended to thin twigs 
at the extreme ends of branches, and very carefully hidden 
by leaves, to the stems of which they were also attached. 

This Tit readily forsakes its nest. All the nests that I 
examined during construction (and I must have looked into a 
dozen or more) were at once abandoned. 

660.— Corvus macrorhynchus, Wagl. Native Name 
— Kala-lwwa. 

The Bow-billed Corby, though not by any means so common 
as the next species, is decidedly plentiful wherever there are 
human habitations, aud is often met with in comparatively 
lonely places. It breeds in thickly-foliaged trees, generally 
mangoe or tamarind, in March and April. The following is 
my record of nests : — 

March 6th ... ... nest and 4 eggs (fresh). 

J) 4= )■) ( J> ) 

v ^ „ ( „ ) 

)) * 3> A 5> ) 

„ 4 „ (incubated). 

Average measurement of 10 eggs 1'74 by 1*4 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1*88 „ 1*16 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... 1*60 ,, 1*2 „ 

The nests are stick platforms, always placed high in the 

trees. 

663.— Corvus splendens, Vieill. Native name — 

Row a. 

The Indian Grey-necked Crow is, of course, abundant, and as 
impudent and familiar here, as it is elsewhere, while its chief 
characteristics are too well known to need recapitulation. I 
may mention, however, that it robs nests, if not habitually, at 
least occasionally, for I have more than once seen it despatch- 
ing eggs with great gusto. 

It breeds very generally in July and August, the first fall 
of rain in June being the signal for building operations to 
commence. It may then be seen vigorously stealing the khus- 
khus from tatties, purloining pea-sticks, annexing twigs, rags, 
&c, with which it soon completes its nest. It usually lays 
four eggs of a greeuish-blue colour, spotted and blotched with 
all shades of brown, some remarkably free from any spots at 
all. 



V 

J) 


10th 
15th 


5> 


24th 
24th 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 51 

The Koel, if, may be noted, invariably lays its eggs in the 
nests of this species. 

674.— Dendrocitta rufa, Scop. Native name— 
Mootri. 

\kih November, Female. — Length, 16; expanse, 18*; 
wing, 5*90; tail, 9'50; tarsus, 1-30; bill, from gape, 1 -20; 
weight, 3 oz. 

The Common Indian Tree-pie is a permanent resident, abun- 
dant in all well-wooded tracts, as well as in the gardens and 
avenues about Lucknow. A specimen that I shot had 
evidently robbed some nest, for its bill was smeared with the 
yolk of eggs. On another occasion, I actually caught one 
in the act of robbing a Babbler's nest. 

This Tree-pie breeds generally from May to the end of July, 
making its nest on high mangoe trees, invariably very near 
their tops. I have found the following nests : — 

May 8th ... ... nest and 4 eggs (fresh;. 

■• 17th ... ... „ 2 „ ( „ ) 

,, 21st ... ... „ o ••(?>) 

July 5th ... ... „ 4 „ ( „ ) 

„ <th ... ... „ 5 „ ( „ ) 

In some nests, the eggs were white with reddish-brown spots ; 
in others of a light bluish-green color with much lighter 
brown spots. Of the former variety I have six eggs ; of the 
latter ten. They measure respectively : — 



Average 
Largest 
Smallest 

Average 
Largest 
Smallest 

681.— Sturnus 

Kusnai and Tilora. 

The Common Starling is very abundant during the cold 
weather, frequenting open cultivated tracts and putting up 
for the night in neighbouring trees. It associates in flocks — ■ 
large or small. These flocks, before roosting, occasionally go 
through a few evolutionary manoeuvres on the wing ; at other 
times they may be seen at dusk flying very low, rising now 
and then to clear trees, and evidently iu a great hurry to reach 



White variety : 




. . . ... 


1*14 by '81 inches. 


... 


1-16 „ '84 „ 


... 


112 „ -80 „ 


Bluish variety : 




• ■« • • • 


1-08 by "83 inches. 


• • • •• • 


1-20 „ -86 „ 


... 


1-00 „ -82 „ 


lgaris, Lin. 


Native names—- 



52 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

some distant nightly abode. When migrating in April they 
often depart in flocks of countless numbers. When out on 
the Volunteer Rifle Range, on the 13th April last, a flock 
passed across the range, covering its entire length of 900 
yards and extending far beyond the Butts, presenting a 
dense and zig-zag line fully 40 yards in breadth — a sight to 
see and hear. 

There is, I think, another Starling that frequents the 
Division — probably S. purpurascens ; but having no specimens, 
I cannot, of course, vouch for its occurrence. 

683. — Sturnopaster contra, Lin. Native name — 
Abulka* Mynah. 

The Pied Starling is a common and permanent resident. 
It feeds in flocks in company with Mynahs, swarms in the 
vicinity of every village, and rests for the night in trees in 
the neighbourhood. In Lucknow it is very generally caged 
for its song ; indeed, when taken youug and brought up within 
hearing of a whistling Shama, {Cercotrichas macrura) it imitates 
the song of that bird to perfection. It breeds very generally 
in July, never, I think, laying more than four glossy blue eggs. 
Seen at a distance its nest might pass for a shapeless bundle of 
old rags and grass, paper, &c, of which, indeed, it is generally 
constructed, in a perfect maze of twigs in babool trees, often 
in the middle of a village. In the absence of the babool, any 
tree would, however, seem to answer for its nest, if it only has 
the recommendation of being: in or near a village. 

Average measurement of 13 eggs 1'09 by *77 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1*14 „ '80 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... T06 „ '75 „ 

684. — Acridotheres tristis, Lin. Native name— 

Mynah. 

The Common Mynah is very abundant, particularly so in 
the vicinity of towns and villages. When taken 3*oung it is 
easily domesticated, and need never be caged, as it rarely 
abuses its freedom by flying away. 

Generally speaking, the Common Mynah-, like the Crow 
( C. splendens), commences to build with the first fall of rain 
in June — early or late as the case may be — and has done 
breeding by the middle of September. It nests indiscrimi- 
nately in old ruins, verandahs, walls of houses, &c, but 

* Usually even in Oudu the bird is called " Ablaka" from " Ailah"=pic-bo.li. and 

not '• Abuika." — Ed. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 53 

preferentially, I think, in holes in trees, laying generally four ; 
but sometimes five, pale blue eggs : — 

Average measurement of 14 eggs 1*18 by - 86 inches. 
Measurement of lar crest e^sr ... 125 „ '91 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... 1*14 „ '82 „ 

685.— Acridotheres ginginianus, Lath. Native 
name — Daryta Mynah. 

The Bank Mynah is also excessively common, keeping more 
to the open country than A. tristis ; but generally speaking 
where one is the other is almost sure to be found. During 
the breeding season it associates in large flocks along the 
banks of the Goomti, where it nidificates in colonies in holes 
in the banks of the river. From some of these holes I took a 
few fresh eggs on the 15th May, and again on the 30th June 
on re-visiting the spot. In the district it breeds in old irriga- 
tion wells, and occasionally in ravines with good steep banks. 

Average measurement of 10 eggs 1*09 by '16 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1*14 „ *74 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... *98 „ *78 „ 

687. — Sturnia pagodarum, Gm. Native names— 
Paivi, Popoya Mynah and Kala-sir Mynah. 

The Black-headed Mynah, though seldom met with in 
any numbers, is universally spread over the Division, and in 
Lucknow inhabits almost every garden. It is perhaps more 
common in the cold weather than it is at other seasons, but 
in this I may be mistaken. Like «S. contra it is commonly 
caged, being a good songster and imitator of other birds. It 
breeds very generally in July, making its nest invariably in 
holes in trees, and usually lays but three eggs. The following 
is my record of its nests : — 

July 9th ... ... nest and 3 eggs (fresh). 

„ 22nd ... ... „ 3 „ ( „ ) 

m 22ud ••« •.. » 3 „ ( „ ) 

„ 23rd ... ... „ 2 „ ( „ ) 

Average measurement of 11 eggs *99 by *70 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1*04 „ -72 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... *94 „ '66 „ 

688.— Sturnia malabarica, Gm. Native name— 

Paivai. 

The Grey-headed Mynah is possibly a permanent resident, 
but is by no means common, and for months at a time one 
may wander about without seeing a single specimen. I am 
inclined to think that it migrates to the hills to breed, but 



54 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

while here it is captured and caged by the natives ; and, though 
I cannot say that I have ever heard it, it doubtless sings well, 
and imitates other birds like the last species. 

690— Pastor roseus, Lin, Name name— Goldbi 
Mynah. 

I have sometimes been inclined to think that some few of 
the Rose-colored Starlings were permanent residents. It is 
only, of course, from about the middle of February to the 
end of April that they occur in vast numbers, but occasional 
stragglers will be met with throughout the hot and rainy 
seasons, and it is fairly abundant as early as the commence- 
ment of October. 

In the early part of the cold weather they are seldom seen in 
parties of more than four or five members, but are very generally 
distributed, particularly in well-wooded and jungly tracts, 
interspersed with jowar fields. As the cold season advances 
these small parties would appear to lose their individuality in, 
or probably combine and constitute, the large flocks that 
traverse the country in all directions preparatory to migrating, 
as 95 per cent, undoubtedly do in April or May at latest. 
Do the few that remain warrant the acceptance of P. roseus, 
as a permanent resident ?* 

694.— Ploceus philippinus, Lin. Native name — 
Baya. 

The Weaver Bird or Baya is a common and permanent 
resident. It is social in its habits, frequenting some localities in 
vast numbers ; is easily tamed, and when taken young may 
be taught a lot of tricks, and on this account is a great favorite 
with the natives. It breeds from June to the end of September, 
but not very generally until the rains have fairly set in, 
making its nest usually on trees standing in or over water. 
Its conspicuous retort-shaped nest iu the babool fences along 
the railway must be familiar to every traveller. Palm trees 
are also favorite nesting places, from five to fifteen nests being 
frequently seen on one tree. Occasionally three eggs may be 
found in a nest, but seldom more than two, cylindrical in form 
and pure white. 

Average measurement of 10 eggs *80 by '57 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... *86 „ '60 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... "75 „ *55 „ 

* Most certainly the Rosy Starling is nowhere a permanent resident of the plains 
of India. I very much doubt if Mr. Keid has ever met with one about Lucknow 
between the 7th of May and the 20th of July. If he has, it can only have been a 
few isolated, weakly or wounded birds. By the end of July or the first week in August 
(it varies in different seasons) they begin to return from their bridal tour (see also 
IX, 456)— Ed. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 55 

695. — Ploceus manyar, Morsf. Native name — 
Telia-baya. 

Thougli Jerdou states that the Striated Weaver-bird does not 
appear to occur in the N. W. Provinces (Birds of India, 
Vol. II., page 349), he must, I think, have been misinformed, 
as it certainly is not uncommon here during the rains, and in 
suitable localities throughout both Oudh and the N. W. 
Provinces. In July 1878, when the Goomti was in high flood, 
some hundreds of these birds commenced building their nests 
in a large jungle of sarpatta grass which was then surrounded 
by and standing in watei', the overflow of the river. Soon 
afterwards the river fell, leaving the grass high and dry, and 
nesting operations immediately ceased. In only two nests did 
I afterwards find eggs — three in each ; the average measure- 
ment of the six being *81 by *59 ; the largest measuring '84 
by - 61 and the smallest '78 by *56 inches. 

698.— Amadina rubronigra, Hodgs. Native name — 

Nakalnor. 

The Chestnut-bellied Muuia is not very common, though it 
is a permanent resident. 1 have rarely seen it, except when 
the thatching or sarpatta grass is in seed, on the long stalks of 
which numbers may often be seen feeding. The Lucknow bird- 
catchers, however, manage to secure large numbers wherever 
they get them from ; but as no two of these gentlemen tell 
the same story when questioned about the haunts of any bird, 
I don't believe, and will not reproduce the yarns they have told 
me about this species. 

699. — Amadina punctulata, Lin. Native name — 
Seena-baz aud Sing-baz. 

The Spotted Muuia is a common and permanent resident. 
It may be found in dhak and indeed in any jungly localities, 
and like the last species frequents sarpatta grass when in seed. 
I have also frequently seen it in flocks in the tamarisk and 
grass juugles about Byramghat. It is also captured in large 
numbers and caged. 

703. — Amadina malabarica, Lin. Native name — 
Chirkwa and Chiroka* 

The Plain Brown Munia is a common and permanent 
resident, generally found in small parties in dhak and grassy 
jungles. It also visits gardens and compounds, and is easily 
caught in trap cages bated with a live bird or two of its own 
species. It usually builds in small thorny trees or shrubs, 
making a rugged, globular-looking nest of fine grasses with 



56 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

the entrance at the side, and lays from five to seven white eggs. 
The following is my record of its nests : — 

July 7th ... nest and 7 eggs (incubated). 

July 21st ... „ 5 „ (fresh). 

Sept. 11th ... „ 7. „ ( „ ) 

Average measurement of 12 eggs '59 by "46 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... '63 „ '48 ,, 
Measurement of smallest egg ... *56 „ *45 „ 

704 — Estrelda amandava, Lin. Native name— 

Lai Munia. 

The Red Wax-bill, or Lai Munia, is also a common and 
permanent resident, frequenting thatching grass when it seeds 
in great numbers. In the tamarisk and grass jungles about 
Byramghat, and in all jungly looking localities wherever met 
with, it is almost sure to be found associating in small or large 
flocks. Like the last species, it is easily taken in trap-cages — 
indeed that is the method of capturing all these Munias — and 
appears to be even happy in confinement, often indulging in its 
short pleasant song a few days after its imprisonment. Large 
numbers may always be had in the Lucknow market, where 
the males are sold for fighting — a pastime in which the 
natives take great delight. 

705.— Estrelda formosa, Lath. Native name— 
Harri Munia. 

The Green Wax-bill is not common^ and, unlike the last 
species, does not, habitually at least, frequent jungles ; but keeps, 
according to what I have seen of it, to mangoe topes and high 
trees. It is also captured and caged, and is sometimes brought 
into the market in considerable numbers. I believe it to be a 
permanent resident. 

706.— Passer domesticus, Lin. Native name— 

Gouriya. 

The House Sparrow is common enough in all conscience, and 
is rather too permanent a resident to be got rid of easily, even 
when you want the scamp to leave your own drawing-room ! 
It is, therefore, needless to say anything about him here. 

711.— Gymnoris flavicollis, Frankl. 

The Yellow-throated Sparrow is both a common and permanent 
resident, frequenting mangoe topes, avenues, and occasionally 
gardens. When passing through dhak jungle in the cold 
weather, I have often seen it in large flocks feeding about 
on the ground. Its call-note is very like that of the Common 
Sparrow, and may be mistaken for it, but fortuuately for man- 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 57 

kind its habits and habitat are somewhat different ! Common 
as it is at certain seasons, I have never found its nest, and, 
though many breed here, I am disposed to think that the 
majority either go to the hills or submontane tracts, returning 
again when the breeding season is over. 

716. — Emberiza buchanani, Bly. 

The Grey-necked Bunting is common in large flocks during 
the cold weather on bare and scrub-covered plains and open dhak 
jungle. Though it resembles the Ortolan of Europe, and was 
for a long time considered identical, it rarely, if ever, finds its 
way to the table, in Luckuow at any rate, where thousands of 
social and other Larks, if not Sparrows, are annually passed off 
as genuine Ortolan ! 

722. — Euspiza luteola, Sparrm. Native name — 
Gandam. 

The Red-headed Corn Buuting is also a common, but only a 
winter visitor. It avoids well-wooded tracts, but is abuudant 
in dhak jungle wherever it borders on cultivation. It also 
frequents thatching grass when in seed, and I have often seen it 
in pipal trees — solitary ones in open country. 

724.— Melophus melanicterus, Gm. (M. cristatus, 
Vig. ?) Native name — Kulcliira. 

The Crested Black Bunting is usually seen solitary or in pairs, 
flitting about grass and dhak jungles, but only during the cold 
weather. It is, however, fairly common about Luckuow when 
the sarpatta grass, which it frequents, is seeding in November 
and December; and again about March or April, then probably 
on its way to the hills, or thinking about going. 

738.— Carpodacus erythrinus, Pall Native name— 
Tutl 

The Common Rose Finch is perhaps only a cold weather visi- 
tor. At the same time I am inclined to think some may be 
permanent residents, as I have seen it in the market for sale at 
all seasons, and have myself shot it early in September. At 
any rate, it is fairly common in the cold weather in the oroves 
and gardens about Luckuow, and in the district in dhak jungles 
and bamboo brakes. It has a feeble, prolonged, but somewhat 
twittering song, and is commonly caged. 

756.— Mirafra erythroptera, Jerd. Native name — 
Aggia. 

The Red-winged Bush Lark is a common and permanent 
resident, found in low scrub and dhak jungles and dry grass 



58 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

lauds, rarely seen in other localities. It usually rises to sing 
from the top of some small bush, takes a short heaven-ward 
flight, and drops down gradually on to the top of auother 
shrub. Though I have never seen its nest, I have met with 
young birds — almost nestlings — in May. 

760.— Pyrrhulauda grisea, Scop. Native name— Duri. 

The Black-bellied Finch Lark is both a common and permanent 
resident, found in open, even usar, plains and ploughed and 
fallow fields, generally in flocks or small parties. I found a 
nest and two eggs on the 22nd April at the root of a tuft of 
sarpatta grass. The eggs measure respectively '73 by *57 and 
•74 by *58 inches. 

761.~Calandrellabrachydactyla, Leisl. Native name 
— Baghaira.* 
The Short-toed or Social Lark (the Ortolan of Indiau dinner 
tables) is only a cold weather visitor (I wonder how the 
khansamas manage in the hot and rainy seasons without it), 
but a very common one, coming in early in October and leaving 
again in April. It is usually seen in open plains and scrub 
jungle; often in ploughed and young corn fields, and in grass 
meadows in the vicinity of jhils and elsewhere, always in flocks 
either large or small, and is looked upon as common property 
by almost all of the hawk tribe. 

767.— Alauda gulgula, Frankl Native name— 
Chundul. 
The Indian Skylark is a common and permanent resident, and 
is found in much the same localities as the last species. It also 
frequently enters grassy compounds, and is very common in all 
low-lying grassy patches, particularly in those about the 
tamariskjungles on the Chowka and Gogra near Byramghat. 
It is a favorite song-bird with the natives, and is consequently 
very commonly caged. I have never found its nest. 

769. — Galerita cristata, Lin. Native name — Chundul. 
The Crested Lark is also a common resident, and, like the 
last species, is a favorite cage-bird. It usually frequents 
open plains, ploughed fields and dry scrub jungle, avoiding, as 
a rule, damp meadow lands. As in the case of A. gulgula, 
I have never found its nest. 

773. — Crocopus chlorigaster, Bly. Native name— 
Hurried. 
1st November, Male. — Length, 12*75 ; expanse, 21* ; wing, 
725 ; tail, 5' ; tarsus, 1* ; bill, from gape, 1*10 ; weight, 7*75 oz. 

* More commonly, and I think correctly, applied to Melanocorypha bimaculata. — Ed> 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 59 

The Southern Green Pig-eon is both a common and permanent 
resident, and is strictly frugivorous, being very fond of the 
berries of the banian and other Fici, in quest of which it will 
enter gardens and compounds freely. The natives here errone- 
ously believe that it never descends to the ground, and even 
pretend that, when shot, it loses about a pound in weight the 
moment it comes in contact with it ! If asked how it manages 
to quench its thirst, they will tell you that it settles upon a 
reed, which bends over with the weight of the bird and enables 
it to drink ! Be all these " yarns " as they may, it is a rare 
occurrence to see a Green Pigeon on the ground — still rarer 
to see it drinking.* I have taken nests as follows: — 

June 6th ... ... nest and 2 eggs (fresh). 

T n 20th „ „ ( ,, ) 

July 3rd ... ... „ „ ( „ ) 

Average measurement of 6 eggs ... 127 by -95 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 132 „ *94 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... 1*19 „ "96 „ 

The nests, small platforms of twigs, were all high up in 
mangoe trees. 

There is, I am inclined to think, another species of Green 
Pigeon found in the Division, but not having seen it of late 
years, I am unable to identify it. 

787.— Palumbcena eversmanni, Bp. Native name— 
Pahari Kabutar. 

The Indian Stock Pigeon makes its appearance in vast flocks 
in March and April when the spring crops are ripening and 
being cut, and disappears iu the beginning of May. They 
invariably rest during the heat of the day, and throughout the 
night, in mangoe topes, and if undisturbed keep to the same 
grove for days and even weeks together. 

788. — Columba intermedia, Strkkl. Native name— 
Kabutar. 

The Indian Blue Rock Pigeon is a common and permanent 
resident, frequenting the mosques, tombs, minarets and palaces 
of Lucknow in vast numbers, notwithstanding the many daily 
caught and sold for domestic use. The natives here do not 
venerate it as they do in Rajputana. It breeds, I think, all the 
year round in and about the buildings it frequents. 

Average measurement of 12 eggs 1'46 by 1*10 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1*50 „ 1*20 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... 1'32 „ 1*06 „ 

* But do they ever drink ? I think not. — Ed. 



60 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

792.— Turtur pulchratus, Ilodgs. Native name— 
Pahari Perki. 

The Indian Turtle Dove is only a cold weather visitor, but is 
then very common. Though it generally frequents mangoe 
topes, it is more partial to bamboo clumps and dhak jungle, in 
which tall trees abound. About the beginning of March it 
begins to collect in flocks, and towards the end of the month, 
when the crops have been cut, may be seen frequenting the 
stubble in great numbers prior to migrating. 

794.— Turtur senegalensis, Lin. Native name — 
Chota Fachta and Perki. 

The Little Brown Dove is a common and permanent resident. 
It frequents gardens, groves of every description, and all dhak 
and thorny jungles, including bamboo brakes. It breeds 
generally in April and May, making its nest, a small platform 
of sticks, in some low thickly-foliaged bush, and lays the usual 
two white eggs. 

Average measurement of 12 eggs TOO by '85 inches. 
Measurement of largest e^g ... 1-10 ,, *88 
Measurement of smallest egg ... 0"90 „ *77 „ 

795.— Turtur suratensis, Gm. Native name— 
Chitroka Fachta and Perki. 

The Spotted Dove is very common in every garden and grove, 
and is, of course, a permanent resident. It is a familiar bird, 
often making its nest in verandahs and under the eaves of 
out-houses ; and with, perhaps, the exception of a month or two 
in the cold weather, breeds all the year round. It usually 
selects some moderately-sized thorny bush to build in, making 
a small thin platform for a nest, and lays two white eggs. 

Average measurement of 12 eggs 1*05 by *81 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1*10 „ "85 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... TOO „ '75 „ 

These Doves hate the Common Tree-pie (Dendrocitta rufa) 
because it doubtless robs their nests, and on two or three 
occasions I have seen a couple of them succeed in driving it 
out of a mangoe tope. 

796.— Turtur risorius, Lin. Native name— Dor 
Fachta and Perki. 

The Indian Ring Dove, though a common and permanent 
resident, is far more abundant in the cold weather than it is at 
other seasons. Many evidently migrate in April, previously 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 61 

collecting in vast flocks. Like T. suratensis it breeds almost 
throughout the year, never, I think, in verandahs or out-houses, 
though often in gardens, and very abundantly in all dhak 
jungles. 



Average measurement of 10 eggs 1*17 by "91 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1"22 „ '98 „ 
Measurement of smallest e^o; ... 1*10 ,, "88 „ 



797. — Turtur tranquebaricus, ILevm. Native name — 
Biki and. Ghirwee Faclita. 

The Ruddy Ring-Dove, though not so common as the two 
preceding species, is a permanent resident and frequents 
gardens and groves. It is very partial to bamboo brakes and 
to the babool fences along the railway. Dhak and thorn jungle, 
if old and tall, is also much resorted to by this species. 

Average measurement of 6 eggs 102 by '81 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1*08 „ '83 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... TOO „ '77 „ 

799. — Pterocles arenarius, Pall. Native name — 
JBhut'Titur. 

There is no doubt that the Large or Black-bellied Sand- 
grouse occasionally occurs, but nowhere in the Division, that 
I am aware of, is there any locality that it habitually frequents. 
It is, however, common in the Hurdui district, where I have 
seen and shot many, and possibly it is equally abundant in the 
west of the Unao district. 

802.— Pterocles exustus, Tern. Native name — Bur- 
Titur. 

The Common Sand-grouse, though a permanent resideut, is 
rarely met with strictly within the limits of the Division. I 
have seen and shot it occasionally on barren land on the banks 
of the Baita nuddy near Rahimabad, where a few may now 
and then be found. It is said to be, and probably is, much 
more common in the west of the Unao district, and I have 
seen vast flocks on the wing steering in that direction. 

803. — Pavo cristatus, Lin. Native name — Mor. 

The Common Peacock is found permanently throughout tli9 
Division wherever suitable localities occur, being abundant 
in dhak and thorn jungles, particularly on the banks of 
streams passing through these, and also in bamboo brakes. 
It is not here the object of that veneration which saves it from 
molestation elsewhere. In its habits it is pretty regular, 



62 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

frequenting daily and for weeks together the same feeding 
grounds and the same tree at nights. It feeds principally on 
grain, occasionally on insects and grubs, and even on snakes ; 
at any rate, years ago, a small snake was taken from the 
stomach of one in my presence. The breeding season here 
extends, 1 think, from June to September. The majority 
probably lay in August, judging from the number of small 
chicks brought into Lucknow for sale in October. 

818. — Francolinus vulgaris, Steph. Native name — 

Kala-Titur. 

Though common in many parts of Oudh, I have never seen 
the Black Partridge strictly within the limits of the Division. 
Stragglers, according to good testimony, have been shot within 
its boundaries on the banks of the Goomti ; while native 
shikaris assert that shey reside in the tamarisk and grass 
jungles in the khadir of the Ganges (Unao district). From 
the nature of the localities referred to, I am inclined to believe 
that they may be found in the vicinity of the Ganges, though 
I have not personally seen or heard them there. 

During my rambles in Kumaon in May and June I found 
this Partridge very abundant in the valleys of the Sarjoo, 
Ramgunga, and Gori rivers (up the latter almost to the snows), 
and frequently saw it perched on trees generally about the 
lower branches ; but once about 80 feet high on the top of 
a dead tree with nothing but the trunk and the stumps of 
some of the larger branches left. It was calling lustily, but 
as no one thought of looking at the tops of the trees it 
bothered us greatly for some time, but was at last discovered. 

822. — Ortygornis pondicerianus, Gm. Native 
name — Titur. 

The Common Grey Partridge, though found almost any- 
where, is nowhere very abundant, except, perhaps, in dhak and 
thorn jungles, to which it flies for shelter when the spring crops 
are cut. From its skulking habits it is often difficult to flush, 
and consequently affords poor sport ; but a few may always 
be bagged in the very early morning when out feeding. 
A few call birds, placed overnight in a suitable place, will 
generally succeed in collecting about them all the males in the 
neighbourhood, when a battue may be arranged the following 
morning. 

This Partridge also takes readily to trees. A pair that I 
flushed some half a dozen times, without being able to bag 
them, eventually took shelter in a huge mangoe tree in which 
I could not see them, and from which they w r ere with difficulty 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 63 

dislodged. Male birds, it may be noted, are eagerly sought 
after by the partridge-fighting community of Lucknow, and 
command a good price in the market. Indeed the steady 
demand for these will probably result in denuding the country 
of birds, aided as it is by the havoc which some mammals and 
birds of prey also inflict on the eggs and young. 

826.— Perdicula asiatica, Lath. Native name — 
Loioa. 

The Jungle Bush Quail is not common. It may, occasion- 
ally, be flushed when beating about hedges and patches of 
grass in unfrequented groves or gardens, and sometimes in 
bush and grass jungle in undulating and raviny ground. It 
appears to be a permanent resident, but of this I am not 
quite sure. 

829. — Coturnix communis, Bonn. Native names— 
Bhater, Ghagir Bhater and Burra Bhater. 

Essentially a migratory bird, the Common or Grey Quail 
does not arrive in any numbers until March, the majority 
leaving again shortly after the spring crops are cut. It is, 
however, fairly common during the cold weather, and 
stragglers — doubtless remaining to breed — may be flushed 
during the hot and rainy seasons. When abundant, large 
numbers are taken in nets and brought into Lucknow for sale, 
prices ranging from Rs. 2 to Rs. 2-8 per hundred. Good 
males are, however, advantageously retailed for fighting — a 
favorite pastime among the Mahommedan community of 
Lucknow. 

830.— Coturnix coromandelica, Gm. Native 
name — Chiming Bhater. 

The Rain Quail — though a permanent resident — is never 
common until the rains set in, but is then very abundant 
in standing crops and grassy jungles. Like the last species, 
it is caught in nets and sold at prices ranging from Rs. 1-8 
to Rs. 2 per hundred, realizing less than the Grey Quail, either 
because it is smaller in size, or because it is captured, as it 
usually is, in greater numbers during the rains than 
C. communis ever is during the cold weather, or even in March 
when it is most abundant. The males of this species are also 
prized for fighting. 

831.— Excalfactoria chinensis, Lin. Native name- 
Gobal-Butai. 

Tin's lovely bird — the Painted or Blue-breasted Quail — is 
exceedingly rare, and is only, I am pretty certain, found during 



64 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

the rains. Professional Quail-catchers inform me that they 
occasionally capture one or two when out netting the Rain 
Quail, but that, like nryself, they have never seen it during the 
cold weather. 

834.— Turnix joudera, Eodgs. Native name— Loioa- 
Butai. 

835. — Turnix dussumieri, Tern. Native names — 
Ghimva-Lowa and Chota-Lowa. 

These Button Quails are permanent residents, though not very 
abundant, T. dussumieri predominating. They are generally 
found in dry grass jungle, but owing to their retiring habits 
are seldom seen, unless specially looked for, when a good deal 
of beating is always required to flush them. They also reside 
in lonely gardens and groves, where the grass is allowed to 
grow long, particularly if these are surrounded and intersected 
by rows of sarpatta or thatching grass, being generally, I 
thiuk, fonder of shade than most of the Quail tribe. 

840.— Cursorius coromandelicus, Gm. Native 
name — Nukri. 

The Indian Courser or Courier Plover is fairly common and 
a permanent resident. It frequents by preference bare plains 
and ploughed fields, generally in small parties, the individual 
members of which, however, keep well apart. I have never 
once heard it utter a single sound or call of any kind. 

842.— Glareola orientalis, Leach. 

Of the Larger Swallow Plover or Eastern Pratincole I have 
no specimens, nor can I recollect ever meeting with it ; but 
Captain Irby says it was " seen at Alumbagh (three miles 
from Luckuow) in January 1858/' I therefore iuclude it. 

843.— Grlareola lactea, Tern. 

The Smaller Eastern Pratincole or Swallow Plover occurs on 

the Ganges at Cawnpore, and probably also on the Chowka 

and Gogra rivers at Byramghat. I have not observed it on 

the Goomti, though it most likely does occur on suitable reaches 

of the river. 

845. — Charadrius fulvus, Gm. Native name — 
Turali (?) 

I am inclined to consider the Eastern Golden Plover a perma- 
nent resident,* having seen, or imagined I saw, a flock of them in 

* Although for the last twelve years this bird has been closely watched by dozens 
of keen observers, it has nowhere, as yet, been discovered breeding anywhere in India 
proper.— Ed. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 65 

July. But be that as it may, they are common enough during 
the cold weather, and are usually seen in flocks in fallow lands 
and ploughed fields in the neighbourhood of jhils — now feeding 
and now moving about in a body, from one spot to another, 
the whole day long. 

848. — iEgialitis cantiana, Lath. 

The Kentish Ring Plover is common during the cold weather. 
If it is only, as I suppose it is, a winter visitor, it certainly 
does not migrate early, for I have seen it throughout the month 
of April — then in its summer or breeding plumage. It 
frequents the banks of rivers and jhils, and occasionally usar 
plains, but only after they have been well saturated by rain. 

849.— iEgialitis dubia, Scop. 

The Indian Ring Plover is a permanent resident, frequenting 
the same localities as, but in greater numbers than, the last 
species. It is, however, often met with singly or in pairs in 
the most unlikely places ; but, as a rule, it occurs generally in 
small companies of from 10 to 20. 

Though the individual members of a flock keep well apart 
when feeding, they usually all rise when one is disturbed, 
collect together on the wing, aud after a deal of whirling to 
and fro settle down only to part again. 

851.— Vanellus vulgaris, Bechst. Native name — 
Saehoor (?) 

The Crested Lapwing or English a Pee-wit " is only a cold 
weather visitor, then fairly common, and generally found in 
flocks about jhils aud marshes and neighbouring fields, usually 
very wary and difficult to approach. 

852.— Chettusia gregaria, Pall 

Though mentioned in Captain Irby's list as " exceedingly 
common on open sandy plains in January, February and 
March," and notwithstanding that it is likely enough to occur, 
I have not come across this species, the Black-sided Lapwing. 
From this I conclude that it cannot be common, whatever 
claim it may have to a place in this list. 

853.— Chettusia villotaei, Audouin. 

The White-tailed Lapwing is a cold weather visitor, frequent- 
ing the same localities as the Pee-wit, but in much smaller 
flocks, rarely in lots of more than eight. It would seem to be 
a very quiet bird, and, as a rule, the members of a flock keep 
some yards apart when feeding or at rest, aud stand stock- 

9 



66 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

still on being discovered. It is, however, very easily 
approached, and in this respect differs from my experience of 
V. vulgaris, which is both noisy and wild. 

? 854.— Chettusia cinerea, Bly. 

Captain Irby states that this species, the Grey Lapwing, is 
" abundant in the cold season about swamps and jhils, seen 
generally in lots of seven or eight ; " but the description so 
aptly applies to villotcsi that I fancy he has mistaken it for 
cinerea. I have never seen the latter, nor do I think that it 
occurs in Oude at all, still less in the Lucknow Division. 

855. — Lobivanellus indicus, JBodd. Native name — 
Titiri. 

The Red-wattled Lapwing is a permanent and common 
resident, usually found about water, though it may be met 
with in the di-iest tracts. It appears to breed very generally 
in May and June, laying usually four eggs on the bare ground. 
A favorite breeding place is the kuuker ballast on the railway, 
where the birds may be noticed getting off their nests on the 
approach of a t.olly or train. I cannot imagine how they 
manage at night; but one would think that the vibration 
caused by passing trains would be fatal to successful incuba- 
tion. 

Average measurement of 10 eggs 1*62 by 1*17 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1*66 „ 1*20 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg... 1*52 „ 1*14: „ 

856. — Lobipluvia malabarica, Bodd. 

The Yellow-wattled Lapwing is also a permanent resident, 
but not quite so common as the last species, and caring less 
for the vicinity of water, is seldom seen near it unless this 
happens to adjoin its feeding grounds. It moves about 
in pairs or in small parties, and seems to be particularly fond 
of dhak jungle and any scrub-covered barren land, while I 
have frequently seen it on usar plains. It breeds in May and 
June, usually laying four eggs on the bare ground. 

Average measurement of 6 eggs 1*45 by 1*05 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 147 „ 1-08 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg... 1*44 „ 103 „ 

857.— Hoplopterus ventralis, Cuv. 

The Spur-winged Lapwing is not common, though it may be, 
and doubtless is, a permanent resident. In the cold weather 
I have occasionally seen a few on the Chowka and Gogra 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 67 

rivers about Byramghafc, but nowhere else. It probably also 
occurs on the Ganges. 

858.—- iEsacus recurvirostris, Cuv. 

The Large Stone Plover is fairly common during the cold 
weather about the Chowka and Gogra rivers in the neighbour- 
hood of Byramghat, where it is usually met with in flocks of 
10 to 20 or 30 generally in fallow land or newly-ploughed fields. 
I have not observed it elsewhere. 

859.— (Edicnemus scolopax, S. G. Gm. 

The Stone or Norfolk Plover, or as many prefer to call it, the 
Bastard Florican, is a permanent resident, and is fairly com- 
mon in all dhak jungles. It also frequents groves, a pair or 
two even visiting the Horticultural Gardens at Lucknow, where, 
on the 6 th May, I found a nest aud two eggs at the root of a 
guava tree. But its favorite breeding place is some lonely 
mangoe tope, moderately studded with grass tufts. I have 
never found more than two eggs in a nest, and of eight in my 
possession, the average measurement is 1*85 by 1*40 inches. 

863. — Grrus antigone, Lin, Native name — Sarus. 

The Sarus is more generally distributed during the rains 
than it is in the hot and dry weather, when it appears to collect 
in small flocks in the vicinity of jhils, in moist and swampy 
tracts, (though few then exist), and along the banks of rivers. 
It breeds during the rains in July and August, in the tem- 
porary and shallow swamps then so common, making a large 
platform of mud, grass, and rushes for a nest, (raising it well 
above water-level), and lays two eggs of a dull white or 
pale greenish color, generally spotted or blotched with reddish 
brown, though some few are scarcely marked at all. Another 
peculiarity about the eggs is, that, while the shells of some are 
smooth and glossy, others have a chalky appearance and a 
rough pimpled surface. I have noticed, too, that the latter are 
generally larger than the former. 

Average measurement of 6 eggs 390 by 2 - 51 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 4*21 „ 2'51 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... 3*75 „ 2'44 „ 

861— Grus leucogeranus, Fall. Native name— 
Tunhi. 

The Snow-Wreath or Great White Crane is decidedly 
rare, and is only met with in the cold weather. Last cold 
season I saw five in a shallow jhil near Sandila, and determined 
at once to circumvent them. I had only a shot gun with me, 
so concealed myself in some dhak bushes, feeling certain they 



68 THE BIRDS OF THE LUOKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

would come in my direction, and within easy range ; but alas 
for human expectations — u bang/' " bang," went a couple of 
guns to my right, before I had been ten minutes in position, 
and away went the Cranes. My mortification was complete 
on discovering a couple of natives frantically endeavouring 
to catch a wounded duck ! 

865.— Grus communis, Bechst. Native name — 
Eulang. 

The Common Crane is abundant during the cold weather, 
and, though not met with every day, may, nevertheless, be seen, 
occasionally in vast flocks, either on the wing or resting in 
some of the larger jhils or in river-backwaters, especially on 
the Gogra, where I have frequently seen it. 

866. — Anthropoides virgo, Lin. Native name — 
Karkarra. 

The Demoiselle Crane appears early in October — often I 
think in September — generally in vast flocks, either flying in 
a straight line or in a line which the letter M. represents very 
well. Occasionally, but rarely, they will settle on large shallow 
jhils ; but on the Ohowka and Gogra at Byramghat they are 
often numerous, particularly during the very cold weather. 
They migrate in March, going, as they came, in immense flocks. 

? 868.— Gallinago nemoricola, Hodgs. 

I have on several occasions, but not of late years, flushed 
a large dark solitary Snipe when out wild-fowl shooting. On 
the occasions referred to it generally rose from amongst the 
weeds within four or five yards of the jhil side. It surety 
could not have been G. solitaria, though it was certainly either 
this or nemoricola. I should say G. nemoricola, the Wood Snipe, 
from its dark coloration and lazy flight. 

870.— Gallinago sthenura, Kuhl. 

The Pin-tailed Suipe is undoubtedly a cold weather visitor, 
but is, according to my experience, exceedingly rare. It is 
possible I may have overlooked this Snipe before I read for the 
first time (only 1 think about four years ago) Captain 
Marshall's paper in Stray Feathers, Vol. I., page 423. I 
have only, that I am certain of, seeu a single specimen, but it 
was in too mangled a condition to be worth preserving. 

871.— Gallinago gallinaria, Gm. Native name — 
Chaha. 

The Common Snipe begins to make its appearance about the 
end of September; but it is not until the end of October that 



THE BIRDS OF THiS LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 69 

it occurs in any numbers. The mnjority leave again about the 
middle of March, though detachments may be met with until 
the end of April. 

Occasionally — during the course, however, of many years — I 
have seen several large flocks on the wing, and in November last 
killed seven out of a flock at a single shot. I was at the time — 
very early in the morning — looking out for wild-fowl, when 
I heard what I thought was a large gang of ducks approaching 
from behind. Looking round I found a flock of something 
coming down from the clouds at a tremendous pace. I had 
barely time to fire when they were down upon me, past and 
gone. There must have been close upon a thousand in the 
flock, and had I had time to change my cartridge for one of 
smaller shot, instead of seven, I should have bagged a dozen 
at least. 

872.— Grallinago gallinula, Lin. Native name — 
Chota Chaha. 

The Jack Snipe is numerically rare compared with the last 
species, but still far from being scarce. Owing to its skulking 
habits and the consequent difficulty of flushing it, most sports- 
men are apt to consider it rarer than it really is. It arrives 
later and departs earlier than G. gallinaria, few, if any, remain- 
ing beyoud the first week of April. 

873. — Rhynchaea capensis, Lin. 

The Painted Snipe, though rarely seen at any other time, 
is common about the commencement of the rains, disappearing 
again in the course of fifteen days or so. Wherever they come 
from they are evidently migrating to the north of Oudh, where 
they not improbably breed in considerable numbers. 

875.— Limosa aegocephala, Lin. Native name— 
Jangral and Khag. 

The Black-tailed Godwit is common during the cold weather, 
when it is usually met with in large flocks frequenting jhils. 
By the beginning of April they have nearly all migrated. 

877. — Numenius lineatus, Cuv. Native name — 
Burra Goolinda. 

The Eastern Curlew is generally met with in small flocks, 
often singly, from October to the end of April, frequenting 
swamps, jhils and rivers. Its loud whistle is often heard at 
night as well as by day. It collects, I think, in large flocks 
before niijjratinsr. 



70 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

878. — Numenius phseopus, Lin. Native name — 
Chota Goolinda, 

The Whimbrel is quite as common here as the Curlew, which 
it resembles in habits and appearance, though, of course, it is 
a much smaller bird. 

880.— Machetes pugnax, Lin. 

Ruffs and Reeves are very common during the cold weather, 
and are almost always seen in large flocks frequenting jhils, and 
the fields in their vicinity. They arrive early in September and 
leave in April, having some time previously partially assumed 
its breeding plumage. Indeed, in some cases, individuals com- 
mence to get their summer plumage towards the end of January, 
and these, it may be expected, assume it entirely before 
migrating. 

882.— Tringa subarquata, GMd. 

The Curlew Stint is only a cold weather visitor, generally 
found about jhils from October to April, but mostly during 
these two mouths, when it is usually met with in considerable 
flocks. It is probably more of a bird of passage than a winter 
visitor ; but many will always be met with throughout the 
season. 

883.— Tringa alpina, Lin. 

The Dunlin, like the last species, is only a cold weather visitor, 
and arrives and departs about the same time. In its habits it 
is much the same, frequenting the same localities. 

884. — Tringa minuta, Leisl. 

The Little Stint is very abundant during the cold weather, 
and is always met with in large flocks, frequenting river sand- 
banks and the muddy foreshores of jhils. 

885. — Tringa temmincki, Leisl. 

The White-tailed Stiut is common during the cold season, and 
frequents jhils and river sides, in fact any pool of water wherever 
found. It arrives early iu September and leaves late, probably 
not much before, some even after, the beginning of May. 

891.— Rhyacophila glareola, Lin. Native name- 
Too t-wari. 

The Spotted Sandpiper is common during the cold weather, 
about every pool and jhil as well as along rivers. Favorite 
resorts are the side cuttings, containing water, along the railway. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 71 

When flushed it usually utters its sharp sibilant note, and 
seldom flies far. 

892.— Totanus ochropus, Lin. 

The Green Sandpiper is common during the cold weather, 
frequenting- the same localities as the last species. 

I am inclined to consider this Sandpiper a permanent resident. 
During the latter part of the hot, and for the first half of the 
rain)', seasons, it is, no doubt, exceedingly rare. I may be 
wrong, but my impression is decidedly in favor of recognizing 
it as a permanent resident, though the majority undoubtedly 
migrate.* 

893. — Tringoides hypoleucus, Lin. 

The Common Sandpiper is never so abundant as the last 
species, and is only, so far as I know, a cold weather visitor ; 
usually seen solitary or in pairs about pools of water, jhils and 
rivers. 

894. — Totanus glottis, Lin. Native name— Tun- 
tuna, 

The G-reenshanks frequents the same localities as the last 
species, and is usually seen alone or in small parties, but only 
during the cold weather. 

895.— Totanus stagnatilis, Beclist. 

The Lesser Greenshanks is common during the cold weather. 
Though usually seen alone or in small gangs, it is occasionally 
met with in vast flocks, and frequents the same haunts as the 
last species. 

896.— Totanus fuscus, Lin. Native name— Outni 

or iSoorma. 

My remarks on the last species apply equally to the Spotted 
Redshanks. 

897.— Totanus calidris, Lin. 

The Redshanks is a common cold weather visitor, usually 
seen in flocks, and often very large ones, particularly on 
shallow jhils, where they seem to congregate if not disturbed. 

* It most certainly is purely a cold season visitant to the Lucknow Division. The 
fact of a few weakly or wounded birds, failing (if this be the fact) to make the 
regular migration, cannot entitle a species to be considered permanent residents. — Ed. 



72 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

898.— Himantopus candidus, Bonn. Native name 
— Gaj-paun and Tinghur. 

The Stilt or Long-legs is very common during the cold 
weather, and is usually seen either in small or large flocks 
frequenting jhils and rivers in the shallow water of which it 
usually alights, remains and feeds. 

900.— Parra indica, Lath. 

Some five or six years ago, the Bronze-winged Jacana was 
common on many large weedy jhils, where a few may still be 
found; but owing to the scanty rainfall of recent years, water 
has not been abundant, and it has, in consequence, made itself 
exceedingly scarce. 

901.— Hydrophasianus chirurgus, Scop. Native 
name — Jhil-Moorgah. 

The Pheasant-tailed Jacana is a common and permanent 
resident, particularly on jhils covered with vegetation. During; 
the drought of 1877-78 it frequented weedy patches on the 
Goomti in great numbers, where I am quite sure (though I 
never took its eggs) that it bred in July, making a nest of 
aquatic plauts on masses of floating vegetation. In years of 
normal rainfall it invariably nests on suitable jhils. 

902.— Porphyrio poliocephalus, Lath. Native name 
— Khima. 

The Grey-capped Purple Coot is also a common and perma- 
nent resident on all rush or weed-covered jhils, particularly on 
those where the lotus flourishes and clumps of pith trees 
abound. Though it is said to commit havoc on rice fields, I 
cannot say that I have ever seen any evidence of its depreda- 
tions. Indeed, I have never seen it off the water except when 
perched on bushes or climbing about bulrushes and tall reed 
grass growing in jhils. 

903. — Fulica atra, Lin. Native names — Art, Khus- 
kul and Thekari. 

The Bald Coot is exceedingly common on all large jhils 
during the cold weather. It is, however, a permanent resident, 
though great numbers migrate in the hot weather. Indeed, 
there has not been in the Division of late years a patch of 
water sufficiently large to tempt these Coots to remain all the 
year round. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 73 

905.— Gallinula chloropus, Lin. 

The Water-Hen is a fairly common and permanent resident, 
though not, I think, so generally spread as the next species. 
It frequents rush-covered jhils, specially those with plenty of 
cover, such as long reeds or sugarcane on their banks, and 
is very partial to streams similarly margined. It swims 
well, but hides better. 

907.-— Erythra phcenicura, Tern. Native names — 
Kinati and Bun-morghi. 

The White-breasted Water-Hen is also a permanent resident, 
not indeed numerous, but very generally distributed. Fre- 
quenting the same localities as the last species, it is much more 
familiar, and a pair or two may, to a certainty, be found 
about every village tank surrounded by bushes or bamboos. 
In bamboo brakes, where pools of water exist, it is often very 
abundant. 

909.— Porzana maruetta, Leach. 

The Spotted Crake is only a cold weather visitor, and is by no 
means common. It frequents, according to what I have seen 
of it, rice fields along rivers and beside jhils ; is difficult 
to flush and seldom seen, never venturing amongst the floating 
vegetation on water. 

910.— Porzana bailloni, Vieill. 

Baillon's Crake is only, I think, a cold weather visitor, 
and though it may be found in the same localities as the 
last species, it is oftener seen in small parties on lotus and 
weed-covered jhils. It swims well and keeps jerking its tail 
when so engaged. 

There are at least two others of the Rail tribe found in the Divi- 
sion during the cold weather, of which I have not yet procured 
specimens, but believe they will prove to be P. fusca, the 
Ruddy Crake, and P. akool, the Brown and Ashy Crake. 

915.— Leptoptilus argalus, Lath. Native name— 
Peda-dhauk. 

During the rains the Adjutant appears to be not uncommon 
in small parties of from two to eight or so ; but during the cold 
weather it is much more scarce, and is then rarely met with. 

916.— Leptoptilus javanica, Eorsf. 

I am inclined to think that this, the Hair-crested Adjutant, 
is the bird that I have seen so often on the banks of the 

10 



74 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

Goomti during the rains— javanicus is quite BLACK above, 
argalus GREY. Its black back and less erect and stumpier 
form are the distinguishing features I go by in separating it 
from L. argalus. 

917.— Xenorhynchus asiaticus, Lath, Native 
name — Loharjunj. 

The Black-necked Stork or Asiatic Jabiru — a permanent 
resident — is not often met with, and then only singly or in 
pairs, frequenting the beds of small rivers and nullahs in 
the hot and cold seasons. During the rains it may be seen 
stalking about fields. It also frequents jhils and marshes. 
On the 15th November last I came across a nest and three-half 
fledged young ones. The nest was a huge platform of sticks 
on the top of a pipal tree near a swamp. 

919. — Ciconia alba, Bechst. Native name — Ghybur. 

The Stork is stated by Captain Irby to be " common, 
specially in the cold season." Of course it is only a cold 
weather visitor, but according to my experience is anything 
but common. 

920.— Dissura episcopa, Bodd. Native name— Lag- 
lag. 

The White-necked Stork is also a permanent resident, usually 
seen in pairs or small parties, often in fields far away from 
swampy tracts, though it generally frequents these. It is 
nowhere common, unless in well-watered localities during 
the rains. 

923. — Ardea cinerea, Lin. Native names — Sain and 
Kabud. 

The Heron is both a common and permanent resident, 
frequenting jhils and rivers ; often in great numbers. Though 
many are usuall}' found together in the same locality, they 
invariably keep yards apart when standing in shallow water, 
take wing together when disturbed, and associate in colonies 
to breed. 

924.— Ardea purpurea, Lin. Native name— Lal- 
Sain. 

The Purple Heron is, like the last, a permanent resident, 
but by no means as common. It is seldom found in any 
numbers except in rush-covered jhils and swamps, caring less 
for open shallow water thau A. cinerea. It usually rests in trees 
for the night. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 75 

924 bis.— Herodias alba, Lin. 

I did not at first recognise the difference between this, the 
White Heron, and the next species, the Indian White Heron, 
but the one appears to be almost as common here as the other. 
Both frequent weedy jhils and marshes and creeks of rivers ; 
but may be met with almost anywhere, especially in well- 
irrigated and cultivated tracts. They roost in trees and make 
their nests thereon. 

925.— Herodias torra, B. Earn. Native name— 
Tar-bagla* 

See remarks on last species. 

926.— Herodias intermedia, Hass. Native name— 
Karchia-bagla. 

The Little White Heron is also common. It frequents 
the same localities as the last two species, and breeds in colonies 
in trees. 

927. — Herodias garzetta, Lin. Native name— 
Kurchia-bagla. 

The little Egret is a common and permanent resident, and 
frequents the same localities as the preceding species. 

There is another small White Egret with black legs and feet 
(in contradistinction to this species which has the feet yellow) 
which I have noticed, though I find I have no specimens— 
probably B. melanopus, which Captain Irby includes in his 
list.f 

929.— Bubulcus coromandus, Bodd. Native 
names — Soorkhia-bagla and Badami-bagla. 

The Cattle Egret is common throughout the year. I found 
it breeding on the 18th August in a village near the Rahimabad 
Railway Station. Two medium-sized tamarind trees were 
literally covered with nests, a few only containing eggs, the 
remainder young in all stages. The nests were made of sticks — 
email platforms, slightly depressed iu the centre. 

Average measurement of 12 eggs 1*69 by 1*30 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1'75 „ 1*35 „ 
Measurement of smallest egg ... 1*66 „ 1"2G ,, 



* Name applied also to H. alba. 

t I have never seen any such bird from Oudh or the North-Western Provinces, and 
it is no use quoting the name applied by Colonel Irby as evidence, because in those 
days when he wrote, the greatest confusion prevailed as to the nomenclature of 
these small White Herons and Egrets— a confusion that even now has not been quite 
cleared up. Captain Irby's remarks about the breast plumes are not very clear, and 
it does not seem to me at all certain that this bird was really distinct, as he thought, 
from garzetta. — Ed. 



76 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

930.— Ardeola grayi, Sykes. Native names— Chama- 
bagli and Bagli. 

The Indian Pond Heron is very common, frequenting jhils, 
rivers and pools of water wherever found. It breeds in July in 
colonies, generally in and about villages bordering on jhils and 
rivers, making a small platform of sticks for a nest and laying 
usually four pale greenish white eggs. 

Average measurement of 6 eggs 1*49 by 1*16 inches. 
Measurement of largest egg ... 1-56 ,, 1*18 „ 
Measurement of smallest Qgg-.. 1'38 „ 1*12 „ 

933.— Ardetta cinnamomea, Gm. Native name— 
Lal-bagla. 

In August last a specimen of the Chesnut Bittern was 
purchased from a local fowler for the Museum. I have not 
myself noticed it in a state of freedom, but it doubtless occurs, 
though sparingly, in suitable localities, throughout the Division. 

936.— Botaurus stellaris, Lin. Native name — Mer- 
gaon. 

The Bittern is not common, and will not be found at all except 
on large rushy jhils, where, of course, it has to be well looked 
for in the day-time as it is quite nocturnal in its habits. The 
only place where I have met with it was in a large reedy swamp 
close to the Chowka river about three miles up-stream from 
Byramghat. It is, I believe, only a cold weather visitant here. 

937. — Nycticorax griseus, Lin. Native names- 
Tar- bagla, Kokrai and Wak. 

The Night Heron is common, but somewhat locally dis- 
tributed, that is, it is most abundant along the Goomti, Ganges 
and Gogra rivers. During the day it rests in mang-oe topes, those 
bordering on water preferred ; but I have not unfrequently, and 
for weeks together, seen it inhabiting tamarind trees in my own 
compound here. I have counted as many as 43 in two trees. 
During the day, without, so far as I could see, anything to 
disturb them they would occasionally take wing, and for a while 
fly round the trees, uttering their well-known wah-ioak call. 
At sunset they invariably made off to their feeding grounds 
on the Goomti, returning again very early in the morning when, 
for a while, they were both noisy and restless. 

938. — Tantalus leucocephalus, Forst. Native 
name — Jhanghil. 
The Pelican Ibis is fairly common and a permanent resident, 
generally very abundaut during the rains, but less so at other 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 77 

seasons. It is usually seen stalking* about jliils in shallow 
water ; occasionally roaming over well saturated cultivated 
tracts. It is easily tamed, aud will answer to its name like 
a dog. 

939.— Platalea leucorodia, Lin. Native name — 
Chamach-buza. 

The Spoonbill is common during the cold weather, usually 
seen in small parties feeding about jhils in company with the 
White Ibis ; but it frequently occurs in vast flocks, especially 
when it arrives in October, though these apparently get broken 
up into detachments as the season advances. It is rather a 
pretty eight to see a large flock settle. If the movement 
commences when the birds are very high, they come whirling 
down, cork-screw fashion, for some distance, and then, iu a 
commiugled mass, sail about with outstretched wings as if 
troubled to select a suitable settlement, finally indicating by a 
few more downward zig-zags that they have at last hit upon 
a spot. 

There does not appear to be another species of Spoonbill 
found in India, yet on one occasion I saw a flock of unmis- 
takable Spoonbills considerably larger thau P. leucorodia. 
The difference in size struck me at once ; but I could not get 
a specimen. 

940.— Anastomus oscitans, Bodd. Native names — 
Ghongal or Ghongheela. 

The Shell Ibis is very common throughout the year, and 
during the rains may be found almost anywhere, particularly, 
of course, about jhils and wet paddy fields. In the cold 
weather they occasionally assemble in large flocks ; at other 
seasons they are chiefly seen singly or in pairs. 

941. — Ibis melanocephala, Lath. Native names— 
Munda, Didhar and Safed Buza. 
The White Ibis is common during the cold season, frequenting 
jhils, marshes and rivers, often in company with Spoonbills. 
It feeds generally on Crustacea and worms ; occasionally 
assembles in great flocks, frequently in small parties, aud is often 
seen singly or in pairs. It is in general a wary bird and 
consequently difficult to approach. 

942.— Inocotis papillosum, Tern. Native name— 
Bhooja or Buza. 
The Black Ibis, or as sportsmen prefer to call it, the King 
Curlew, is a permanent resident. During the cold weather 



78 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

it is occasionally seen in large flocks in the vicinity of jhils 
or on swampy ground ; at other seasons generally in pairs 
or small parties frequenting ploughed fields, grass meadows, &c, 
but seldom far away from water. 

943.— Falcinellus igneus, S. G. Gm. Native names— 
Kewari, (Jhota Bhooja or Buza. 

The Glossy Ibis is common during the cold weather, usually 
seen in large flocks, occasionally singly and in small parties, 
frequenting the edges of jhils and rivers. 

944. — Phcenicopterus roseus, Pall. Native names 
— Hans, Bag- Hans and Raj-Hans. 

I have frequently seen the Flamingo in vast flocks during 
the cold weather, particularly on jhils in the Unao district, and 
about Rahimabad and Sandila. It prefers shallow water as 
extensive as possible, though I have seen it on small weedless 
jhils. Some years ago, if I remember rightly, a tame one used 
to knock about the compound of the Lucknow Museum. 

945. — Anser cinereus, Mey. Native names — Hans 
and Raj -Hans. 

The Grey-Goose is exceedingly common during the cold 
season, coming in about the middle of October and leaving in 
April, always in vast flocks, though during their stay here they 
are often met with in small parties. During the night they 
collect in multitudes on their favorite feeding grounds and break 
up into companies as they leave them in the morning for the 
large jhils or rivers, to which they resort for the day. Their 
feeding grounds, it may be noted, are usually shallow-weedy 
jhils, with a foreshore of mud aud slush and the young green 
corn fields, upon which they commit great havoc in the 
vicinity. 

946. — Anser brachyrhynchus, Baill. 

Though Captain Irby records that he saw a specimen killed 
at Alumbagh on January 5th, I cannot say that I have ever 
Been the Pink-footed Goose ; but it may, I think, be taken for 
granted that it occasionally visits the Division. 

947.— Anser albifrons, Scop. Native name— Rhai- 
Hans. 

There are two specimens of this Goose in the Museum here, 
which the head-stuffer assures me were purchased alive at the 
door some years ago ; and some fowlers, to whom I shewed the 
birds, have guaranteed to get me specimens of this and other 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 79 

rare Geese. They seemed to be perfectly aware of the fact that 
some two or three different species of rare Geese occur, and 
had names on their finger-ends for them all. 

948.— Anser minutus, Naum. 

The Dwarf Goose, like the last species, may be looked upon 
as an occasional visitor, and Captain Irby also records it from 
Oudh. Mr. Hume also has a specimen procured for him near 
Lucknow by Dr. Bonavia. 

Some years ago — I should say about eight or nine — I one 
morning shot about a dozen remarkably small geese on a jhil 
near the Ajgaon Railway Station, where I fouud them in vast 
numbers aud comparatively tame. They most likely were 
this species, but I have not seen or shot any since. 

949. — Anser indicus, Gm. Native names— Mans 
and Kureyee-Hans. 

The Barred-headed Goose occurs in countless numbers, and 
is, I thiuk, unquestionably the most abundant, though the 
Grey Lag runs it very close in point of numbers. My 
remarks on the latter apply equally to this species. 

950. — Sarcidiornismelanonotus, Penn. Native name 
— Nukhta. 

The " Nukhta," or Comb-Duck, or " Black-backed Goose;' as 
Jerdon erroneously calls it, is a permanent resident, common on 
all grassy jhils, aud is easily stalked and shot, being far from a 
wary bird. 1 have seen it frequenting mangoe topes, though it 
was not on any of these occasions breeding. In the early morning 
it may frequently be seen feeding in recently-flooded paddy 
fields, and in swamps among the rushes, generally in parties 
ranging from 4 to 30 — never, according to my experience, in 
larger numbers. 

Sir Samuel Baker, in his " Albert N'Yanza/' refers to a 
Comb-Duck which is probably this species, which appears to be 
common about the Nile.* 

951.— Nettopus coromandelianus, Gm. Native name 
— Girria or Ghirra. 

The Cotton Teal is a permanent resident. Though it may be 
found in large, open jhils, generally in small parties, it prefers 
those covered with weeds, siughara and lotus plants. It doubt- 
less breeds here, but I have not as yet found any nest. 

* This was of course S. africanus, but whether this be really distinct from our bird 
seems doubtful. — Ed. 



80 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

952.— Dendrocygna javanica, Rorsf. Native name 
— Chota Silai. 

Like the last species, the Whistling Teal is a permanent 
resident, frequenting the same kinds of jhils, but not quite so 
common. It is in general a very stupid bird, slow on the wing 
and easily shot, and from a habit it has of circling round the 
gunner when any of its companions are slain, he may, if he 
chooses, bag the greater part of a flock — say of ten — before 
they go away. 

953. — Dendrocygna fulva, Gm. Native name — Bara 
Silai. 

The Large Whistling Teal is decidedly rare, but is, I think, a 
permanent resident. Though I have not myself shot it lately, 
there are specimens of it in the Luckuow Museum which were 
doubtless purchased locally. 

954. — Casarca rutila, Pall, Native name — ChaJaoi- 
chakiva. 

The Brahmiuy Duck, a cold weather visitor, is common on 
jhils and rivers, and is generally met with in pairs and in parties 
ranging from 4 to 30. I cannot say that, like other observers, 
I have ever seen it eating carrion ; but I have seen it, on two 
or three occasions, on the Grogra at Byramghat associating with 
Vultures uuder very suspicious circumstances. It is fortunately 
one of the worst ducks for the table, beiug only fit for a stew — 
hardly, I think, for that. 

956.— Tadorna cornuta, S. G. Gm. Native names— 
Mararia and Safaid-Surkhab. 

The Shelldrake is decidedly rare, and is, of course, only a cold 
weather visitor. Though I have seen it on several occasions, 
1 have only been able to secure a single specimen. 

957. —Spatula clypeata, Lin. Native names— Ghirah 
and Tokarwalla. 

Average, three Females. — Length, 19*25; expanse, 30*50; 
wing, 9*16; tail, 3'80 ; tarsus, 1*26 ; bill from gape, 2*75 ; 
weight, 1 lb. 5 oz. 

Though seldom seen in very large parties, the Shoveller is, 
perhaps, the most common duck found in the Division. It is, 
of course, only a cold weather visitor ; delights in shallow water, 
but does not, I think, evince any marked preference for weedy 
jhils, though it frequents these in great numbers. It associates 
much witlTother ducks,both on the water and when flying, and 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 81 

it is not an uncommon sight to see an old male leading a flock 
of Teal across country at a rattling pace. It is anything but a 
good duck for the table. It is late in leaving the Division, 
many males before departing having assumed their summer 
plumage. 

958. — Anas boscas, Lin. Native names — Nir-rugi 
and Nilsir. 

The Mallard can only be considered as an occasional and 
rare cold weather visitor. After years of good rainfall, when 
the jhils are well filled, it may be met with ; but owing to its 
scarcity at the best of times and the difficulty of getting a 
shot, sportsmen rarely succeed here in baorcrincr it. Further 

* • ill 1 i WO & 

west, it is probably more common, though I know of only one 
place — the Sandi lake in the Hurdui district — that it visits 
with anything like regularity. 

Strange as it may seem, Anas pcecilorhyncha is, according to 
what I have both seen and heard, frequently mistaken by " griffs" 
(wide as the difference is) for the Mallard, and hence the 
accounts one occasionally hears about the abundance of the 
latter on particular jhils. 

959. —Anas pcecilorhyncha, Worst. Native name— 
Garm~pai. 

\1tli December, Female. — Length, 23'25 ; expanse, 35*50; 
wing, 10 - ; tail, 5*30; tarsus, 1-70; bill from gape, 2'40; 
weight, 2 lb. 12 oz. Legs bright orange red ; claws black, webs 
spotted with black ; bill (upper mandible) black, tipped with 
yellow, with a bright orange red baud at base; irides dark 
brown. 

The Grey or Spot-billed Duck is a common and fairly 
abundant resident. During the rains it is usually seen in pairs 
frequenting small and weedy jhils or swamps ; but in the cold 
weather, when these patches of water are diy, it is compelled to 
resort to the larger jhils, and may then be met with in flocks 
ranging from 6 to 30. It is one of the very best ducks for the 
table. It breeds during the rains, but I have not seen its nest. 

960.— Rhodonessa caryophyllacea, Lath. Native 
name' — Golab Lal-sir. 

There is a specimen of the Pink-headed Duck in the 
Luckuow Museum which Dr. Bonavia probably procured in 
the local market. I saw two on a jhilnearRahimabadin Decem- 
ber, and there is also a regular net-work of jhils near 
Mohunlalgunj on the Luckuow and Roy Bareilly road, which 
it visits in the cold weather. It is, however, then exceedingly 

11 



82 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

rare ; but from enquiries which I have lately made, native 
shikarees assure me that it is met with more frequently during 
the rains ; probable enough, but 1 have yet to verify the fact. 

961. — Chaulelasmus streperus, Lin. Native names — 
JBhuar and Mila, 

Average measurement of six Males. — Length, 20*8 ; expanse, 
35*37; wing, 11*22; tail, 4*06 ; tarsus, 1*48; bill, from gape, 
2-13; weight, 1 It). 13 oz. 

The Gadwall is only a cold weather visitor, but a very 
common one, generally associating in small flocks of from 
6 to 20 ; often singly and in pairs." It is fond of paddling 
in shallow water along the edges of jhils, especially in 
sequestered nooks, though, as a rule, it prefers to reside in 
the df.y-time in open water at a considerable distance from the 
shore. It is also a good duck for the table. 

961 6is.™ Querquedula angustirostris, Menetr. 

Though I have not myself seen or shot the Marbled Teal 
within the limits of the Division, last cold season a specimen 
was captured by a fowler in the neighbourhood of Lucknow 
and purchased for the Museum. It must, therefore, be included 
in this l;st. It is, of course, only a cold weather visitor, and 
I should think an exceedingly rare one. 

962- — Dafila acuta, Lin. Native name — Sirk-phur.* 

Average measurement of two Males. — Length, 28*37 ; expanse, 
37*75 ; wing, 11*75 ; tail, 8*70 ; tarsus, 1*55 ; bill, from gape, 
2*30; weight, 2 lbs. 11 oz. Bill black, with sides of upper 
mandible bluish ; irides dark brown ; legs blackish grey. 

Throughout the cold weather, Piutails are very abundant 
on all large jhils. They are generally met with in immense 
flocks, and are extremely wary and difficult to shoot, ascend- 
ing, when disturbed, to heights beyond gun shot. In the 
earlier part of the cold weather, when small weedy jhils and 
marshes exist, the Pintail almost invariably repairs to them at 
night for the purpose of feeding, generally leaving the 
larger jhils long after dark. It is one of the best ducks for the 
table. 

963. — Mareca penelope, Lin. Native names— Chota 
Lal-sir, or Phariah. 

I2tk December, Male. — Length, 19*30 ; expanse, 32*75 ; 
wing, 10*50; tail, 5*; tarsus, 1*50; bill, from gape, 1*75; 
weight, 1 lb. 6£ oz. 

* ? Sink-pur ; this which means, skewer-feather, is the ordinary vernacular name 
in the North-West, kiirk-phur has no meaning,— Ed, 



THE BIRDS OF THE LTJCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 83 

The Widgeon is by no means uncommon, but is, I think, 
rather erratic in its wanderings, being much more common in 
some years than others. During the cold weather of 1878-79, 
when the jhils were much below their average size and many were 
altogether dry, I did not expect to find it, but, as a matter of 
fact, it was much more common than I had ever known it to be 
before. 

The result of my experience is, in short, that the Widgeon 
is fairly abundant in the Division in some years, and exceed- 
ingly scarce in others. 

964 — Querquedula crecca, Lin, Native names — 
Putari and Soiichuriika. 

Measurement of five Males. — Length, 15"30; expanse, 24*75 ; 
wing, 7'76 ; tail, 334; tarsus, 1/lOj bill, from gape, 1*73; 
weight, 12'40 oz. 

The Common Teal arrives in myriads in October and leaves 
again by the end of March or beginning of April, though 
stragglers may be met with to the end of the latter month. 
I have seen flocks of Teal flying about in August, but never 
having succeeded in then obtaining specimens, I am uncertain 
whether it is this species or the next that arrives so early. I 
think the latter, but probably both come in about the same time. 

The Common Teal is fond of weedy shallow lakes and large 
or small swamps, with often but little more than a foot or two 
of water in them ; but as these feeding grounds soon dry up, 
necessity obliges it to resort to the larger jhils, around the 
reedy edges of which, often on the mud, sportsmen may 
slaughter it as they please in the early morning, and continue 
to do so throughout the day if they care to pick up the 
stragglers that ever and anon re-visit the shore. 

965.— Querquedula circia, Lin. Native names — 
Khira and Putari. 

Average of four Males. — Length, 14-93; expanse, 26*47, • 
wing, 8* ; tail, 3*52 ; tarsus, 1*15 ; bill, from gape, 1'85; weight, 
12 oz. 

The Blue-winged Teal is quite" as abundant as the last species, 
arriving in countless numbers in September and October, though 
it is not until the latter month that they seem to settle down 
on the jhils. The majority, however, do not remain long, and 
early iu November appear to " go down south." From then until 
they return again in February, they are not so common as 
Q. crecca, though still far from being scarce. They are shy 
and wild on arrival, keeping well to the centre of jhils ; but as 
the season advances, they become more civilized, aud may 



84 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

then be found pottering about on the mud in company with 
the Common Teal and Spatula clypeata. 

966 bis.— Querquedula falcata, Geor. Native 
name — Kala Sinkhur* 

The Bronze-Capped Teal may be accepted as an occasional 
cold weather visitor, Dr. Bonnvia having, I surmise, obtained 
his specimens in Lucknow — vide Stray Feathers, Vol IV. 
page 225 ; while two years ago I m}-self saw two or three in the 
possession of a native fowler, who would not part with them — 
except at a fancy price — saying he meant to take them, with 
a lot of others that he had, to the ex-King of Oudh, who would 
pay him handsomely. 

967. — Fuligula rufina, Tall. Native name — Lal-sir, 
V2th December, Female. — Length, 21*75 ; expanse, 36' ; wing, 
10-25 ; tail, 3 - 50 ; tarsus, T50; bill, from gape, 2'40 ; weight, 
2 lbs. 5| oz. 

The Red-crested Pochard arrives rather late in the season, 
probably not much before the end of November, but is then 
common enough on all large jhils, generally in parties of a 
dozen or so, though sometimes in vast flocks. One morning 
in December I came across countless numbers on a jhil in the 
Fyzabad district, closely packed, and covering nearly the 
whole surface of the water, with their red heads moving 
independently, while the breeze kept their crests in motion ; a 
distant spectator might have mistaken them for a vast expanse 
of beautiful aquatic flowers. 

968.— Fuligula ferina, Lin. Native names — LaUsir 
and Lal-chouch.-f 

The Pochard or Dun-bird is nearly as common and as widely 
spread as the last species, and its habits are much the same, 
but I have never seen it in very great flocks. It arrives and 
departs about the same time as F. rufina. 

969. — Fuligula nyroca, Gilld. Native name — Burna, 

12/!/j December, Female. — Length, 16*25 ; expanse, 26* ; wing, 
7'20 ; tail, 3'40 ; tarsus, 1*25; bill, from gape, 2"; weight, 
1 lb. 2| oz. 

The White-eyed Duck is very common throughout the cold 
w T eather. Though it may be met with on any jhil, it is never 
found in great numbers, except on those covered with weeds 

* Familiar to the fowlers of Lucknow under tbat name, 

j- ? Lal-chonch, or red-bill, a name always applied to F, rufina, but neither applied 
nor applicable to F. ferina.—Fd. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 85 

and rushes. Long after every other duck has left the lake, 
sportsmen may obtain capital sport by simply " paddling their 
own canoes" through the weeds, in which this species usually 
hides, when it will rise, never more than one or two at a time, 
and all within easy shot. 

971. — Fuligula cristata, Lin. Native names— 
Mahwara and Ablac. 

The Tufted Pochard is also common during the cold weather 
on all large jhils, and, as a rule, keeps well to the centre of 
these. It also frequents small aud weedy lakes in small parties 
in company with F. nyroca ; but never appears to occur in 
very large flocks. 

971 bis.— Clangula glaucium, Lin. 

The Golden-Eye, like Q.falcata, must be a rare cold weather 
visitor. Though I have not noticed it, Dr. Bonavia seems to 
have had it brought to him by some local fowler — vide Stray 
Feathers, Vol. IV., page 225. 

973. — Mergellus albellus, Lin. Native name — 
Jhalow (?) 

I have seen and shot the Smew on several occasions on jhils 
in the Unao district. It does not appear to arrive before the 
very cold weather, nor to remain long, and is generally very 
wild and difficult to get at, never, according to what I have 
seen of it, occurring in parties of less than a dozen and seldom 
in much larger flocks. 

974.— Podiceps cristatus, Lin. Native name— 
Thang (?) 

The Crested Grebe is common during the cold weather on all 
jhils of any size. Though usually a permanent resident there 
has not, of late years, beeu sufficient water in the jhils during 
the hot months to tempt it to remain with us " all the year 
round." 

This Grebe is usually much sought after for its skin, and 
from constant persecution becomes quite an " artful dodger " 
of shots, affording rather exciting sport if pursued in canoes, 
from the manner in which it evades the pursuer and his 
frantic endeavours to bag it. 

975. — Podiceps minor, Gm. Native names — Fandu- 
bie and Jhil-dubie. 
The Little Grebe is a common and permanent resident, and 
may be found on almost any pool of water. I have seen its 



86 THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 

nest on several occasions, but have never been fortunate enough 
to obtain any eggs. 

980.— Larus brunneicephalus, Jerd. Native name— 
Dhomra* 

The Brown-headed Gull is a cold weather visitor, but is never 
numerous. I have seen it frequently at Byramgbat and on 
the long narrow jhils about Ajgaou, most abundantly in the 
very cold months. There is another and even larger Gull 
which I have frequently seen, about whose identity, however, I 
am not quite sure. 

983.— Sterna anglica, Mont. 

I am doubtful whether the Gull-billed Tern is a permanent 
resident or not. It is certainly common in September and 
throughout the cold weather; but I am inclined to think it is 
only a seasonal visitor and does not breed here. It frequents 
marshes, tanks, river, creeks, &c, often iu great numbers, but 
generally in small parties. 

984.— Hydrochelidon hybrida, Pall. 

The Marsh Tern is very abundant on all jhils, marshes, rivers, 
&c. It is a permanent resident. 

985.— Sterna seena, Sylces. 

The Large River Tern is also a permanent resident, and is 
particularly abundant on the Gogra and Chowka at Byramgbat, 
as also on the Goomti at Lucknow and the Ganges at Oawnpore. 
It also frequents, though not habitually, tanks and jhils, 
generally in pairs or small parties, and breeding on river 
sand banks, though I have not of recent years come across 
any breeding colonies. 

988.— Sterna minuta, Lin. 

Captain Irby states that he saw this Tern ° once or twice on 
the Gogra, always in the cold season ;" but I fancy that it is 
equally as possible, if not more probable, that the bird he saw 
was either sinensis, gouldi or saundersi, and until I get speci- 
mens to settle the point, it is difficult to say which of these 
forms actually does occur. Captain Irby's identification, 
however, entitles minuta to a place iu this list — at any rate — ■ 
for the present. 

* Applied, I think, to moat Gulls. 



THE BIRDS OF THE LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 87 

987.— Sterna melanogastra, Tern. 

The Black-bellied Tern is also a permanent resident, frequent- 
ing- and breeding in the same localities as the last species. 

995. — Rhynchops albicollis, Sws. Native name — 
Pancheera. 

The Indian Skimmer is a permanent resident, very common 
on the Chowka and Gogra at Byramgbat, where it breeds on 
sand-banks in April and May. 

1003. — Pelecanus javanicus, Horsf. 

Captain Irby states that this Pelican is " very common on 
large jhils and on rivers in the rainy season." According to 
my experience it is much more common during the cold 
weather. Last season I came across a jhil literally covered 
with these Pelicans, packed as close as they could sit, and the 
" little fishes" — there were lots in the jhil — must have had a 
lively time of it. 

1004.— Pelecanus philippensis, Gm. Native names — 
Chota Howasal and Jalasind, 

The Grey Pelican is a permanent resident, most abundant 
during the rains and the early part of the cold weather, when 
it may be found on almost any jhil, and indeed on any patch 
of water, two or three together, and often in vast flocks. 

1004 bis, — Pelecanus crispus, Bruch. 

The Dalmatian Pelican is represented in the Museum by, I 
suppose, locally-purchased specimens, and Mr. Hume has obtained 
it from near Fyzabad. There can, therefore, be little doubt that 
it occurs in the Division, at any rate on the Gogra — a river 
very much frequented by Pelicans. 

Though I have not included it, I am pretty certain that 
P. onocrctalus also occurs. 

1005. — Phalacrocorax carbo, Lin. Native name— 
Pan-kowa, Jal-kowa. 

The Cormorant is pretty common during the cold weather 
on the Goomti, Chowka and Gogra rivers, and is generally 
found in or about creeks where the banks are high and 
rugged. It usually associates in large flocks, and is probably 
a permanent resident. On one occasion I knocked over six at a 
shot, and wounded many more, so closely were they packed. 



88 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

1007— Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, Pall, 

The Little Cormorant is abundant throughout the year alike on 
jhils, rivers and streams. From the fact that it is always most 
common on jhils near rivers, 1 conclude that it prefers running 
water and habitually resides within easy reach of streams. 

1008. — Plotus melanogaster, Penn. Native name— 
Bhanwa. 

The Indian Snake Bird is a common and permanent resident, 
occurring sometimes singly, in pairs, and in flocks. During 
the day it is fond of sunning itself on the grassy banks of 
jhils and on the bare branches of trees on their margin, flying 
off or darting into the water on the approach of danger. It 
is capable of moving for considerable distances under water, 
and usually swims with nothing but its head and neck exposed, 
though, when danger threatens, everything but its bill disap- 
pears, till it considers it has gone far enough to be perfectly 
safe, when it gradually shows up again. 



(Reprint from the " Ibis. ,, y 



% djantributtan to tk (Srnttholoigir of dttgti 

By John Scully. 

The following notes on the birds of Gilgit are founded on a 
collection of 1,543 specimens obtained in that country during 
a residence of nineteen months. Of this period nine months 
were passed in Major Biddulph's company ; and for the rest 
of the time I was alone. 

I have endeavoured to make my remarks quite supplementary 
to Major Biddulph's interesting paper on the birds of this region, 
published in this Journal (republished Stray Feathers, Vol. 
IX., p. 301). I have restricted my observations here to the 
precise limits of countiy laid down by Major Biddulph, and, 
as a matter of convenience, have adopted his classification and 
numbers ; the species not preceded by numbers in my paper 
were omitted in his account. This explanation renders unne- 
cessary a reference to my friend's paper under each species. 

My specimens have been carefully compared by me in this 
country ; and with reference to this matter I have to acknow- 

* As this paper forms a most important commentary on Major Biddulph's paper, 
which I reprinted, I am obliged to reprint this also.— Ed., S. E. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 89 

led o;e my obli cations to Messrs. Seebohm and Dresser, who 
Lave kindly allowed me the freest access to their hue 
collections. 

1. — Vultur monachus, Lin. (l.)* 

I never saw this Vulture in the Gilgit district. Youno- 
Gyps himalayensis, soaring at a distance, might very easily 
be mistaken for it. From what we know of the distribution 
of V. monachus, however, it should certainly be found about 
Gilgit. 

2.— Gyps fulvescens, Hume. (3 bis.) 

As already noted (ante, p. 38), Major Biddulph's supposed 
example of this species is probably the young of Gyps hima- 
layensis ; but the specimen should be carefully compared, as 
the true G. fulvescens is likely to oocur in Gilgit on passage 
to Turkestan, whence Severtzoff seems to indicate it under 
the name of Gyps rutilans. 

3.— Gyps himalayensis, Hume. (3 ter.) 

This fine species, as seen on the wing, has the whole body 
white, sharply contrasted with its black wings and tail ; its 
great size and majestic flight make it a very characteristic 
adjunct of Gilgit scenery. I have seen it in winter at eleva- 
tions not exceeding 5,000 feet ; but it never seeks its food close 
to the villages, like the Bearded Vulture. The following are 
measurements in the flesh of a fine adult female : — Length, 
47 inches; expanse, 111; wing, 31 ; tail, 16*4; tarsus, 
4 - 6 ; mid toe s.u., 4"3 ; bill from gape, 3'15. 

5.— Gypaetus barbatus, Lin. (7.) 

The Lammergeyer is held in respect by the natives of Gilgit 
who have some story to the effect that the bird was a com- 
panion of their Prophet. Once I fired at one of these birds 
as it sailed over a field ; and, in its alarm, it dropped a large 
bare bone, which nearly struck me. An adult male, with the 
lower surface rusty red, measured : — Length, 46 inches ; 
expanse, 105 ; wing, 32 ; tail, 21*7 ; tarsus, 3'6 ; mid toe s.u., 
3'6 ; bill from gape, 3*3. Iris bright orange. 

6— Falco peregrinus, Tunst (8.) 

Peregrines are found in Gilgit in October when migrating 
southward, and in April on their passage to the north. I 
doubt whether they " breed in the neighbourhood of Gilgit 

* As before, I have added in brackets after the name of each species its Indian 
Catalogue number. — Ed., S. F. 

12 



90 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

at about 6,000 feet," A male Peregrine, shot on the 25th 
April, agrees with Sharpe's description of the adult male (Cat. 
I., p. 377), except that the feathers of the mid abdomen are not 
cross-barred, but have merely small dart-shaped marks ; the 
flanks are pale grey, cross-barred with black ; and the forehead 
is not whitish, but slate-grey, with black shafts, like the rest 
of the head. Length, 16 inches ; wing, 12 - 25 ; tail, 6*5 ; tarsus, 
1-8; mid toe s.u., 2*15 ; bill from gape, 1*15 ; weight, 1 lb. 4 oz. 

Falco sacer, Gm. (10.) 

This species must be added to the list of birds of Gilgit. 
A specimen was captured in Gilgit in October 1879, when it 
was doubtless migrating southwards. The bird was imma- 
ture ; but, after careful examination, its large size and large 
oval spots on the centre tail-feathers left no doubt that it was 
a true Saker. 

7.— Falco subbuteo, Lin. (13.) 

The Hobby is very common in Gilgit at 5,000 feet, on 
arrival, from the end of April to the second week in May, and 
again on its way southwards from the last week in September 
to the middle of October. 

Out of eleven specimens preserved, only three are fully 
adult. Two males, shot in autumn, are changing from a dark 
brown upper plumage to the slaty colour of the adult ; they 
have rich ferruginous thighs and under tail-coverts ; and 
the uropygials are regularly barred across both webs. Six 
immature birds all want the rich rufous thighs and under 
tail-coverts of the adult, are more broadly streaked on the 
lower surface, have the under wing-coverts and axillaries 
more rufous, and all have pale margins to the feathers of the 
upper surface ; only one of these specimens has faint bars on 
the uropygials. Of the eleven specimens, therefore, only 
three have the uropygials barred ; and these exceptions are 
males. 

8.— Falco sesalon, Twist. (15.) 

The Merlin, according to my observation, is only found in 
Gilgit in winter, and is not common. Considerable difference 
of opinion has prevailed about the plumage of the fully adult 
female in this species, Mr. Sharpe having stated, in the first 
volume of the British Museum Catalogue, that the adult 
female is blue-grey above, like the male, while Mr. Dresser 
has taken some pains to prove, in his " Birds of Europe/' that 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 91 

tliis is not the case. The evidence of the Gilgit specimens is 
entirely in favour of Mr. Sharpe's view, as I slmll now show. 

It will be noticed that in Major Biddulph's note on this 
species he mentions a female with the wing 8'85 inches, and 
says that it is much paler than the male [adult J specimen ; 
he adds, i( the blackish tinge on the grey of the head and 
shoulders has almost entirely disappeared." On the 10th 
December I shot a female, as proved on dissection by myself, 
of which the following is a description : — Length, 12*25 inches ; 
expanse, 27*2; wing, 9 25; tail, 6*2 ; tarsus, 1*4 (feathered in 
front) ; bill from gape, 0*7 ; closed wings short of end of tail, OS ; 
weight, 6 # 2 oz. Above, including the secondaries and wing- 
coverts, pale blue-grey, lighter on ramp and upper tail-coverts ; 
all the feathers with distinct black shaft-stripes, most marked 
on the head, where the crown is lightly tinged with buff; a 
broad band, including the sides of the neck and the nape, rich 
rufous, this colour being prolonged narrowly above the ear- 
coverts to hinder margin of the eye, where it meets the 
supercilium ; all the feathers streaked or shafted black ; fore- 
head, lores, supercilium, and sides of face sullied white ; a 
small dark streak downwards from anterior commissure of eye ; 
ear-coverts pale rufescent, margined with grey posteriorly ; 
chin aud throat white, bounded on each side by a pale rufous 
band, with the feathers black-shafted ; entire underparts rufous- 
buff, paler on abdomen, with median blackish shaft-stripes ; 
under wing-coverts white, barred with black, and black- 
shafted ; quills greyish black, barred with white on the inner 
web, and suffused with bluish grey near the bases of the outer 
webs ; outer web of first primary margined with pure white, 
and all the quills narrowly margined with greyish white at 
their tips ; tail pale bluish grey, with black shafts, a broad 
subterminal baud of black and a narrow white tip ; beneath 
the inner webs of all but the urop) r gials crossed by about seven 
black bands, exclusive of the broad subterminal one. 

Mr. Gurney, who has examined the interesting specimen 
above described, suggests to me that the reason why the stage 
of plumage it represents is not better known in Europe, is 
probably due to the fact that this Falcon is here seldom allowed 
to attain to old age. The female Merlin doubtless takes a 
considerably longer time to attain the fully adult plumage 
than the male; but that the plumage I have described is not 
exceptional is, I think, proved by the fact that of three Merlins 
shot in Gilgit two are females, both in grey plumage.* 

* I think the assumption of the complete blue plumage of the adult must be rare 
and exceptional in the case of females. I do not think I have ever seen an "instance 
of this, and there is cot, I find, a single specimen in our museum of a female in this 
plumage. — Ed., S. F. 



92 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILOIT. 

9-— Cerchneis tinnunculus, Lin. (17.) 

The Kestrels in my collection from Gilgit are of the common 
pale form ; but two specimens have the black bars on the 
upper surface rather strongly marked, though not so greatly 
as in the race called C. satxiratus, Blyth. A male in transi- 
tion from immature to adult dress has the change most 
marked on the rump, next on the head, and least on the tail; 
the tail is usually considered the first part to undergo change. 
An old female has the rump and upper tail-coverts blue-grey, 
with faintly rufous tips ; the tail grey, washed with rufous, 
especially at the margins, and with incomplete black bars, 
interrupted along the shafts of the feathers. 

10.— Astur palumbarius, Lin. (21.) 

Goshawks are not uncommou about Gilgit in autumn, on 
migration. In the autumn of 1879 many immature speci- 
mens were captured in Gilgit itself. The instance mentioned 
by Major Biddulph of a Goshawk being carried from the 
valley of the Oxus to Bombay, and many similar cases known 
to me, should be borne in mind in assigning localities for 
trained birds of prey. Thus the fact that a Rajah in the 
Punjab has a trained Falcon of a certain species should cer- 
tainly not be considered proof that the bird in question wa8 
not captured in Central Asia. 

11.— Scelospizias badius, Gmel. (23.) 

A migratory species in Gilgit, passing northwards in April, 
and southwards in September. It is rare with us, or, at all 
events, makes a very short stay in the district. 

12.— Accipiter nisus, Lin. (24.) 

Common from the first week in April to the second week 
in December. In seven males the wing measures 8 to 8*5 
inches ; tail, 6*6 to 71 ; tarsus, 2 to 22 ; weight, 5 to 5"3 oz. 
Seven females measure : — Wing, 9'3 to 10 inches ; tail, 7'9 
to 8-5; tarsus, 2'15 to 2-4; weight, 7 to 9'5 oz. Of these 
fourteen examples, two males and two females have five bars 
on the uropygials ; all the rest have only four bars on these 
feathers. 

14— Aquila chrysaetus, Lin. (26.) 

An old male, without any white on the tail, shot on the 
3rd April, measured : — Length, 33*5 inches ; expanse, 82'5 ; 
wing, 25 ; tail, 15*2 ; tarsus, 4; mid toe, 3*2 ; bill from gape, 
2-55 ; weight, 7 lb. 3 oz. Irides dull yellow. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 93 

15.— Nisaetus pennatus, Omel. (31.) 

The Booted Eagle is a summer visitor to Gilgit, and is 
common from the middle of March to the first week in October; 
it breeds at an elevation of 5,000 feet. The dark and 
light forms are about equally common, the difference in colour 
not being dependent upon sex. The iris seems to be variable 
in colour, some having it buff mai'ked with darker spots, 
others orange, and one brownish yellow. In four males the 
wings varied in length from 143 to 15*3 inches; in two 
females they measured 15*7 and 165; a male weighed 1 lb. 
10 oz., and a female 2 lb. 9 oz. A nestling, captured on the 
12th July, had the underparts pale. 

16.— Pandion haliaetus, Lin. (40.) 

The Osprey is not common in Grilgit, and probably occurs 
there only on migration. It has been observed throughout 
March and during the first week in April, and again in 
September on its way southwards. I never saw it in winter. 
A male shot on the 16th September measured: — Length, 22 
inches; wing, 177 ; tail, 9 ; tarsus, 2-1 ; bill from gape, 1-5 ; the 
closed wings extended half an inch beyond the tip of the tail. 
In this specimen the feathers of the upper surface are margined 
with white, the bars on the tail are distinct, and the mottling 
on the breast is mostly fulvous. 

17.— Buteo ferox, Gmel. (45.) 

I preserved 17 specimens of this Buzzard in Gilgit; but my 
series leaves me still greatly in the dark as to the explanation 
of the perplexing variations in size and plumage of this species. 
In the adults the males have the wing 16'15 to 17*4 inches ; length 
of tarsus, 2*8 to 34 ; bare portion of tarsus in front, 1*1 to 1*7. 
In the females, wing, 17*2 to 18 - 4 ; tarsus, 3 to 3*3 ; bare portion 
of tarsus, 1*2 to 1*6. The smallest female has the dimensions con- 
siderably below what is given fori?, ferox; but there is no doubt 
about the determination of the sex, and it cannot be referred 
to any other species. The colour of the iris is very variable, 
ranging from brown to yellowish cream-colour. In plumage 
hardly two specimens are alike ; but certainly the oldest bird 
is the palest in the series, and has the tail salmon-coloured, 
with only traces of imperfect bars near the tip. Captain 
Wardlaw-Ramsay's interesting discovery of a nestling of this 
species in the melanistic phase of plumage (Ibis, 1880, p. 47), 
effectually disposes of the view that the darkest examples are 
only old birds. 



94 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

18.— Buteo plumipes, Eodgs. (47.) 

This Buzzard is found in small numbers about Gilgit from 
December to the end of March. A female, shot on the 23rd 
February, measured : — Length, 19 inches ; wing, 15*8 ; tail, 9*8 ; 
tarsus, 2*6 ; bare portion of tarsus in front, 1 ; bill from gape, 1*6 ; 
weight, 1 lb. 15 oz. Iris drab ; tail with mottling and traces 
of imperfect barring near the shafts of the feathers only. 
Another female, shot on the 21st March, measured : — Length, 
21 inches ; wing, 16 ; tail, 9'6 ; tarsus, 27 ; bare portion of tarsus 
in front, 1. Iris hair-brown; tail barred. Both these specimens 
are in the phase of plumage to which the title of Buteo 
japonicus is usually applied. 

19— Circus cyaneus, Lin. (50.) 

The Hen-Harrier is a winter visitor, arriving in the last 
week of September and leaving early in May. Immature 
males, in the plumage of the female, and adults of both sexes, 
have the irides yellow ; the immature female has the irides 
hazel-brown. 

20.— Circus macrurus, Gmel. (51.) 

This species must, I think, be considered a winter visitor, 
appearing at the end of August, and leaving about the middle 
of May. I have shot it iu Gilgit early in January, and 
observed it throughout the winter of 1879-80. Like Circus 
cyaneus, in this species the adults of both sexes and the 
immature male have the irides bright yellow, while the 
immature female has the iris dark brown. 

21.— Circus cineraceus, Mont. (52.) 

This Harrier passes through Gilgit on migration, being 
fairly common from the third week in March to the first week 
in May, and re-appearing on its way southwards about the 
third week in September. In two adult males the iris was 
bright yellow ; in two immature males the iris was hazel, 
slightly tinged with yellow in one, and pale straw-colour in 
the other example. 

22.— Circus seruginosus, Lin. (54.) 

In twelve specimens, the males have the wings 14 to 16*1 
inches ; the females 154 to 17. The adult female has no grey 
colour on the wiugs or tail. If in this sex the plumage of the 
adult male is ever assumed, the case must be as exceptional 
as in the Kestrel. The adults of both sexes have the iris 
yellow ; and the immature birds of both sexes have the iris 
brown. In the male changing to adult plumage, the tail is 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILQIT. 



95 



the first part to become grey ; and at this stage the iris is of 
some shade intermediate between brown and yellow. 

23.— Milvus melanotic Tern. 8f Schl. (56 bis.) 

The Kite referred to by Major Biddnlph under the name 
of Milvus govinda, and which I call M. melanotis, is a migra- 
tory species iu Gilgit, appearing as early as the 2nd February, 
and passing over the valley in large flocks until the beginning 
of May. In five males the wings measure 19*25 to 20 iuches ; 
tail, 12'7 to 13; tarsus, 2 to 22. In a female, wing, 20; tail, 
13; tarsus, 2 2. 

I cannot agree with Captain Marshall that Mr. Brooks has ^hj/^" 
conclusively shown that Milvus melanotis ( = M. major, 
Hume) should be called M. govinda. Following Mr. Gurney 
(Ibis, 1879, p. 76), it seems necessary to recognize three 
races of Kites in India, under the names of M. melanotis, 
M. govinda, and M. affinis. Of course if these three forms are 
to be considered as constituting only one species, they must 
all be joiued under the title of M. govinda. 

Milvus govinda, Sykes. (56.) 

This medium- sized Kite, which is not included in Major 
Biddulph's list, appears to be a straggler to Gilgit, probably 
from some of the valleys to the south, where it may be resi- 
dent. I obtained two adult females in April, which have the 
wings 18*8 and 18*9 inches, aud the tails 11 "3 and 12. These, 
it will be noticed, are conspicuously smaller than even the 
males of the race I call M. melanotis. I at first thought that 
these two specimens might be Milvus migrans, which has been 
recorded from Afghanistan ; but on comparison with specimens 
of the latter species from Sarepta, it became evident that the 
Gilgit birds are distinct. 

24.— Syrnium biddulphi, Sp. Nov. (66.) 

Adult female. — Crown and space between the facial disks 
uniform blackish brown ; occiput, nape and hind neck dark 
brown, the feathers indented on the margins with greyish 
white, giving a spotted appearance to this region ; back, 
minor and median wing-coverts, rump and upper tail-coverts 
greyish brown, profusely vermiculated with greyish white; 
the scapulars and median wing-coverts with large white spots 
on their outer webs ; primaries and their coverts dark brown, 
with pale ochraceous-brown bars and tips, which are stippled 
with dark brown ; the bars on the outer webs of the third to 
sixth primaries creamy white, slightly mottled with brown; 
secondaries pale brown, freckled with irregular greyish white 



> 







$Q A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY" OF GILG1T. 

bars, which become pure white on the margins of the inner 
webs ; uropygials pale greyish brown, irregularly vermicu- 
lated with dark brown, and having only indications of one or 
two very narrow imperfect bars near the tips ; the next pair 
of rectrices with the outer webs unbarred, and coloured like 
the uropygials ; the inner webs broadly barred with dull 
brown ; the rest of the tail-feathers dark brown, irregularly 
barred on both webs with pale ochreous, which becomes nearly 
white towards the margins of the inner webs ; all the rectrices 
tipped with white ; facial disk gre} T ish white, the feathers 
with blackish shafts and two or three narrow bars of dark 
brown across both webs ; the ruff surrounding the disk 
blackish brown, beautifully barred with white, above the 
anterior part of the eye, and on the chin the white bars suffused 
with rufous ; underparts white, all the feathers with a central 
broad streak of blackish brown, and complete transverse bars 
on both webs of the same colour, the feathers of the fore-neck 
having one .bar, those on the breast two, on the abdomen 
three, and on the under tail-coverts four ; under wing-coverts 
and axillaries white, irregularly barred and spotted with brown; 
tibial feathers cream-colour, transversely barred with brown ; 
feathers covering the tarsi and toes white, irregularly mottled 
here and there with brown ; cere green ; bill green, yellow at 
tip ; iris black. Length, 19 inches ; expanse, 445 ; wing, 136 ; 
tail, 8*6; tarsus, 185; bill from gape, 1*45 ; cere, 07 ; closed 
wing short of end of tail, 2. 

Adult male. — Similar to the female in colour, but the ear- 
coverts darker and more strongly barred ; cere olive ; bill 
green, yellow at tip ; iris dark brown ; toe-scales pale green ; 
claws black, slaty at bases. Length, 18*7 inches ; expanse, 426 ; 
wing, 12 - 7 ; tail, 8 5 ; tarsus, 1*8 ; bill from gape, T46; cere, 
065 ; closed wings short of end of tail, 1*7 ; weight, 1 lb. 3j oz. 

The measurements given above were taken from fresh birds, 
the wings being measured on the under surface. As this is 
not the usual practice in measuring wings of large birds, I 
must mention that, taken on the upper surface with a tape, 
the wing of the female has a length of 14 inches, and that of 
the male, 13. 

This species differs from S. davidi by its smaller size, vermi- 
culated (not plain) rump, and different character of markings. 
From S. nivicolum it differs in being larger, in not having the 
uropygials barred, and by its colour.* With the ordinary 
form of Syrnium aluco it could not be confounded for a 

* As already noticed, S. F., IX., p. 311», I consider this merely the pale western 
form of Syrnium nivicolum. I have a series of birds from the Himalayas of the 
Punjab, any one of which might have sat for the figure given by Dr. Scully of his 
supposed new species, and which answer perfectly to his description. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 97 

moment ; from the large grey form of S. ahcco, of which I have 
examined fine female specimens from Stockholm aud Tangier, 
with the wing 11*5, it differs in its much greater size (the 
male Gilgit bird being considerably larger than even the 
largest female of this race), in its paler and greyer colour, 
different character of markings, &c. 

This fine Owl is probably a permanent resident in the 
Gilgit district, and seems to keep closely to the forests. I 
obtained my specimens on the 30th September and 13th 
November. 

25.— Asio Otus, Lin. (67.) 

The Long-eared Owl arrives early in March, and is com- 
mon up to the middle of May. Females are rather darker 
and more boldly marked than males ; but the difference is not 
so conspicuous as in Asio bracliyotus. 

26.-— Asio brachyotus, Gmel. (68.) 

The Short-eared Owl is fouud in Gilgit on passage, being 
fairly common from the middle of April to the middle of 
May, and again on its way southwards from the beginuing 
of November to the 20th December. The females are much 
darker than the males, and have the black marks more pro- 
minent and the general colour more buff. Major Biddulph's 
remarks have reference to this sexual difference, I think, as 
he only had a male from Gilgit before him when his note was 
written. 

The largest specimen I have, and even that is a little smaller than Dr. Scully's 
measurements, was shot on the Peshawur Mess House on the 17th January 1869, by 
Captain Nairne, then Brigade Major of Artillery. 

Its measurements (as recorded by him in the flesh) compare thus with Dr. 
Scully'6 : — 

L. Ex. W. T. Ts. B. f. g. 

Gilgit 187 426 127 85 18 1-46 

Peshawur 180 390 120 90 20 1-5 

Further east they run smaller. The following are dimensions of specimens, all 
carefully measured in the flesh :— 

W. T. Ts. B. f. g. 

11-75 7-0 1-9 147 

11-25 725 212 2'0 

12 7-4 — 17 

123 71 195 15 

130 79 — — 

No one could possibly separate these from the Peshawur, or this latter from the 
Gilgit bird. The pale silvery colour holds as far as the Bhagiratti I think ; at any rate 
the most westerly specimen I have showing colour (though nothing like the deep tints 
ot the iiikhim birds) is from the valley of this river near Mr. Wilson's place at Hursil. 
I have repeatedly, during the last seven years, called attention in Stray Feathers 
to this great difference in the colour of the Eastern and Western races of nivicolum, 
and I think it a pity that Dr. Scully should have given a new specific name to this 
Western form.— Ed., S. F. 

13 







L. 


Ex. 


Simla Male 




165 


380 


Ditto 




16-25 


39-5 


Ditto 




16 5 


390 


Ditto 




16 25 


410 


Kussowlie TPema 


tie 


175 


420 



98 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY Or GILGIT. 

27.— Bubo turcomanus, Fversm. (68 quat.) 

I agree with Messrs. Biddulph and Marshall that this Owl 
is specifically distinct from Bubo ignavus. I did not obtain 
a specimen of B. turcomanus in Gilgit ; but, as far as my 
memory serves me, Major Biddulph's specimen is identical 
with the Eagle Owl I obtained in Yarkand (Stray Feathers, 
IV., p. 129, 1876), which is certainly distinct from B. ignavus. 
Eversmann's Eagle Owl is probably only a rare straggler to 
Gilgit in winter. 

Bubo ignavus, Forst. (68 ter.) 

A pale form of the Eagle Owl is not uncommon in Gilgit 
in winter at an elevation of about 5,000 feet. Two males 
measured: — Length, 24*8 and 25-5 inches ; wing, 17-1 and 17 2 ; 
tail, 10 ; tarsus, 2*7 ; bill from gape, 1*9. One of these examples 
■weighed 3 lb. 5 oz. ; the third primary is the longest, the 
second a little longer than the fourth, and the first primary 
is intermediate in length between the fifth and sixth. 

Compared with a large series of B. ignavus these specimens 
differ greatly in colour, being much paler and less rufous ; 
indeed two high authorities on the birds of prey, on seeing 
these skins, would not admit that they were to be assigned to 
B. ignavus, and suggested that they should be compared with 
B. bengalensis. But B. bengalensis is much smaller, the 
largest female not measuring more than 16 inches in length 
of wing (in four specimens I have measured, the wings vary 
from 14-75 to 15*5) ; the wing is differently shaped, the fourth 
quill being the longest, and the second half an inch shorter 
than the fourth ; there is more black on the back and minor 
wing-coverts ; and the toes are less feathered. 

My Gilgit birds are specifically distinct from the Yarkand 
specimens which I refer to B. turcomanus, and are doubtless 
the same as the specimen recorded as follows in P. Z. S., 1860, 
p. 99 : — ic Mr. Sclater exhibited a specimen of a large Horned 
Owl shot by Major W. E. Hay, F. Z. S., upon the borders of 
the Pangkong Lake, in Thibet. He was disposed to consider 
the bird as a pale variety of Bubo maximus.'" This form of 
Eagle Owl, which appears to be confined to the interior of 
the Himalayas, should perhaps be distinguished from B. ignavus, 
at least as a sub-species, and would then probably bear the title 
Bubo hemachalanus, Hume. 

28.— Scops pennatus, Eodgs. (74.) 

In addition to the specimen in my collection mentioned by 
Major Biddulph, I obtained a female of this Owl in Gilgit 
on the 4th October, which measured : — Length, 7 -9 inches ; wing, 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILQIT. 99 

6 4 ; tail, 2'8 ; tarsus, 1 ; bill from gape, 0'8 ; closed wings beyond 
the tip of tail, 0*1. This example is in the dark grey phase 
of plumage, with only some mottlings of rufous on the breast 
and shoulders ; the male, the measurements of which are 
given in Major Biddulph's paper, is about half rufous and half 
grey. In both specimens the second and third primaries are 
subequal and longest, and the first is intermediate in length 
between the fifth and sixth. Some specimens of the variable 
Scops gin are hardly separable from these Gilgit birds. 

29.— Scops bruciij Hume. (74 sept.) 

I obtained five specimens of this species in Gilgit, in March, 
April, and September. Two males measured : — Length, 8 inches ; 
wing, 6*4 and 65 ; tail, 3 and 3'3 ; tarsus, 1*2 ; bill from gape, 
0*75 and 08. Three females measured — Length, 8 to 8.8 
inches ; wing, 6*45 to 6'7 ; tail, 3*3 to 3*6 ; tarsus, 1*1 to 
1*15; bill from gape, 0'75 to 08. One of these examples 
weighed 3'3 oz. In these five specimens the third quill is the 
longest, the second and fourth are subequal, and the first is 
intermediate in length between the sixth and seventh. There 
is no appreciable variation iu colour, all being of the same 
characteristic brownish-buff tint. After careful comparison 
with the fine series of Scops gin and allies in the British 
Museum, I do not doubt that Scops brncii is a perfectly good 
and distinct species. 

30.— Hirundo rustica, Lin. (82.) 

Three females in my collection, shot in April and May, have 
the wings 4*5 to 47 inches, and the tails 3*1 to 3*65. All have 
a broad black pectoral band. 

31.— Hirundo rufula, Tern. (84 bis.) 

This Swallow is a summer visitor to Gilgit, but never 
appears to be common. A female measured : — Length, 6'Q 
inches ; wing, 4*35 ; tail, 3*45 (to fork, 1*7} ; tarsus, 0*45 ; bill 
from gape, 055. From Hirundo nipalensis, to which Major 
Biddulph referred it, the Gilgit red-rumped Swallow is distin- 
guished by its smaller size, faintly striated lower surface, and 
unstriated ear-coverts. In a note to Biddulph's paper I 
identified the species as H. erythropygia, Sykes ; but on fuller 
examination I now feel satisfied that it is really Hirundo 
rufula. The difference between these two forms is slight ; 
H. erythropygia is smaller, and has the rump uniform chest- 
nut, while H. rufida is larger, and has the chestnut rump 
paling to nearly white towards the upper tail-coverts ; two 
females of H. erythropygia have the wing 4'1 and 4'3) and a 



100 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

male 4*35 ; and five males of H. rufula have the wing 4*55 to 
4 - 85, and five females 4*45 to 4*75. Now my Gilgit specimen 
has the rump paling to white towards the tail, and, though 
rather small, must be referred to H. rufula* 

32.— Cotile rupestris, Scop. (91.) 

A summer visitor, arriving about the third week in March, 
and very common in the lower valleys throughout April and 
May. In the males collected the wings measure 5"1 to 5*4 
inches, and in the females 495 to 5. Eight specimens shot 
in spring have dusky streaks and. mottlings about the chin ; 
in some this marking is confined to the point of the chin, 
while in others it extends to the throat and cheeks. 

Chelidon urbica, Lin, (92.) 

The House-Martin is a summer visitor, and is very com- 
mon in Gilgit in May and June. A female, shot in Gilgit 
on the 10th May, agrees with many Eur-opean examples with 
which I have compared it in the colour of the axillaries and 
under wing-coverts, and in all other particulars. Length, 5*5 
inches ; wing, 44 ; tail, 2*6 ; tarsus, 0'53; bill from gape, 0'5 ; 
the uropygials 0*8 shorter than the outermost tail-feathers. 
Major Biddulph does not include this species in his list, but 
gives the closely allied Chelidon cashmiriensis, which I did 
not obtain ; the length of the tarsus in his specimen is mis- 
printed 5 for 5. 

34.— Cypselus pekinensis, Swinhoe. (99 quat.) 

This Swift is a summer visitor to Gilgit. It was common 
in the lower valleys throughout May and the first half of 
June, but in July and August was only found at elevations 
of over 9,000 feet. Gilgit specimens agree perfectly with the 
type of Cypselus pekinensis, Swinhoe. This form, as has been 
often pointed out, differs from the European C. apns in being 
paler throughout, with a markedly paler forehead, more white 
on the chin and throat, and with a white margin above the 
anterior part of the eye. The difference is doubtless slight ; 
but on actual comparison of specimens it is manifest. Many 
accepted species do not differ in a greater degree ; and it 
seems that a colouration which is constant in such a range as 
from Pekin to Gilgit is worthy of some notice in our nomen- 
clature. 

* In all the adults of rufula that I know of the wing has more or less exceeded 
6 inches. Are there two races, a larger and a smaller, included in this species ?— • 
Ed,, S. F. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 101 

35.— Caprimulgus unwini, Hume, (ill bis.) 

This Goatsucker is only a summer visitor ; it arrives early 
in May, and is common in the lower valleys at an elevation 
of about 5,000 feet. A specimen obtained by Mr. Blanford 
at Saigan, on the Persian plateau, and referred by him to 
C. europceus, is identical iu colour, markings, and size with Gilgit 
examples. Caprimulgus unwini is closely allied to C. europceus ; 
but on comparison of my specimens with a large series of 
European birds, I find that they differ iu being of a paler 
silvery-grey colour. It seems desirable to distinguish this 
eastern form, which is the G. europaus, var. aralensis, of Severt- 
zofF, under the name of C. unwini. 

36 — Merops persicus, Pallas. (120.) 

This Bee-eater was only observed in Gilgit from the 20th to 
the 28th November 1879, when several flocks passed over the 
valley on migration southwards. I secured three immature 
specimens, two males and one female, with the uropygials 
only from 0*2 to 0*4 longer than the next pair of rectrices. 
These birds measured: — Length, 10*3 to 105 inches; wing, 
5*6 to 565 ; tail, 4 to 4*1 ; tarsus, 0"47 to 0*5; bill from 
gape, 2'05 to 2*15. The female has the bill more slender 
than the males : the chestnut-colour of the throat is paler ; 
and the rump and upper tail-coverts are not so blue. 

38.— Coracias garrulus, Lin. (125.) 

The Common Roller is plentiful in the hottest valleys of 
the Gilgit district throughout the summer, and there makes 
day hideous wilh its harsh grating cry ; it does not appear 
to ascend above 6,000 feet. In 1880 it made its first appear- 
ance in Gilgit on the 30th April. Most of these birds leave 
us in October ; but I have observed stragglers as late as the 
11th November. Five specimens, measured in the flesh, gave 
the following results : — Length, 13*1 to 13*4 inches; wing, 7*7 
to 8*25 ; tail, 5 4 to 5*6 ; tarsus, 0'9 ; bill from gape, 185 ; a 
male weighed 4| oz. Gilgit specimens agree completely with 
examples from Asia Minor. 

39.— Picus himalayensis, Jard. fy Selb. (154.) 

This Woodpecker is strictly confined to the pine-forests, 
and does not straggle down to the lower valleys. Half a dozen 
adult specimens have the wings 53 to 5*4 inches ; tails, 3'35 to 
3-8; bill from gape, 1*8 to l - 45. The specimens described by 
Captain Marshall as having the underparts sullied, the lower 
tail-coverts very pale, and the bill short, are merely the 



102 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILOIT. 

immature of this species ; and I cannot agree with him that 
they constitute " a very remarkable race." 

Adult male P. himalayensis differs from the adult male 
P. major in having the whole crown crimson, while the latter 
has only the occiput thus coloured, and in several other 
points ; but the young males of these two species are very 
much alike, both having the whole crown crimson and the 
lower surface yellowish and slightl} 7- dark-streaked. The young 
birds, however, can be readily separated by the colour of the 
ear-coverts ; in P. major this part is whitish throughout ; in 
P. himalayensis the anterior upper half of the same region, 
behind the eye, is dusky or blackish. 

40.— Gecinus squamatus, Vig. (170.) 

A permanent resident in the district, found in the lower 
valleys from November to May, and during the rest of the 
year at an elevation of about 9,000 feet. In six specimens 
the wings measured 64 to 66 inches ; tails, 5 to 5'4 ; bill from 
gape, 1*77 to 2*1. The specimens mentioned by Captain 
Marshall as having the neck and back grey were probably 
birds about a year old, with the feathers worn and faded, and 
at the next moult would have assumed the usual green colour. 
A moulting female in my collection, shot on the 4th August, 
has the hind neck and upper back brownish grey ; but a few 
new feathers, which have appeared on those parts, are quite 
green. Mr. Blanford, in his u Zoology of Persia," p. 135, 
describes a parallel stage of Gecinus viridis in a specimen which 
was scarcely mature (probably a bird of the preceding year) 
and with the plumage worn. 

41. — lynx torquilla, Lin. (188.) 

The Wryneck is common from the middle of April to the 
first week in October. A male shot on the 22nd April had 
the irides hazel. In none of my specimens is there any trace 
of rufous on the underparts, as mentioned by Major Biddulph ; 
the colour which prevades these parts to a variable extent is 
buff-yellow. 

42.— Cuculus canorus, Lin. (199.) 

The Common Cuckoo is a summer visitor, and is fairly 
common from the beginning of May to September. Some 
of my Gilgit specimens are rather small ; but they are all 
doubtless referable to C. canorus. Two adult males have 
the wing 8'6 to 8*8 inches ; four full-grown females have the 
wing 8*1 to 8"7 ; and two females in hepatic plumage have 
the wing 7*5 and 7*7. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 103 

43.— Cuculus himalayanus, Vigors. (200.) 

I did not obtain any specimens which can be referred to 
this species ; nor did I ever hear its cry in the Gilgit district. 
Major Biddulph/s specimens, which I think were immature, 
may have been merely rather small examples of C. canorus. 

45.— Certhia himalayana, Vigors. (243.) 

A permanent resident; common at an elevation of 5.000 
feet from the third week in October to the end of March, 
and during the rest of the year in the pine-forests above 
8,000 feet. In seventeen specimens the wing measures 26 to 
295 inches ; tail, 22 to 295. 

46.— Certhia hodgsoni, Brooks. (243 bis.) 

This species is rare in Gilgit. Specimens were only 
obtained in June and July, in the pine-forests, at an elevation 
of over 9,000 feet. In Certhia hodgsoni there is no pale spot 
on the outer web of the first four primaries. In a large series 
of C. familiaris I find that only the first three primaries are 
uuspotted, a pale spot being constantly found on the outer 
web of the fourth quill. There are some other distinctions ; 
but the one mentioned suffices for the discrimination of the 
Kashmir Creeper from its European ally. 

47.— Tichodroma muraria, Lin. (247.) 

A winter visitor ; common at an elevation of about 5,000 
feet from the middle of October to about the end of March. 
Specimens obtained from October to the middle of February 
have the head brown ; towards the end of February and in 
March the brown cap is replaced by grey. 

48. — Sitta leucopsis, Gould. (249.) 

I only obtained this Nuthatch from the beginning of April 
to September ; it was never seen in the lower parts of the 
valley's away from pine-forests. Ten specimens measure — 
Wing, 2-95 to 3-15 ; tail, 17 to 1-9 ; tarsus, 0*7 to 0'73 ; bill 
from gape, 0'8 to 0'86. The colour of the feet in fresh specimens 
varies from slaty to black. 

49.— Upupa epops, Lin. (254.) 

I obtained the Common Hoopoe in Gilgit as early as the 
25th February. Five specimens have the wing 5'6 to 5*9 
inches ; bill at front, 1-75 to 23, and agree well in colour with 
examples from Asia Minor. 



104 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

50.— Lanius homeyeri, Cab. (256 Us.) 

This Grey Shrike is rare in Gilgit, and is only found on 
migration in spring- and autumn. I obtained a male on tiie 27th 
November, which measured: — Length, 10 - 4 inches; expanse, 
14-6 ; wing, 465 ; tail, 4'5 ; tarsus, 115 ; bill from gape, 1*14 ; 
culmen, 075 ; closed wings short of end of tail, 3 ; outer tail- 
feathers, 85 shorter than uropygials. I proceed to give a 
description of this specimen, by which the species may be 
discriminated from its numerous allies. 

Forehead sullied white ; lores white, with fine black shafts 
to the feathers ; rump grey, the same colour as the back ; 
basal part of upper tail-coverts white, the terminal halves of 
these feathers a paler grey than the rump and back ; minor 
wing-coverts grey ; chin, upper throat, lower wing-coverts and 
axillaries, and lower tail-coverts white; rest of lower surface 
pinkish white, with faint cross bars on the breast and upper part 
of abdomen, formed by narrow pale-brown margins to the 
feathers ; all the primaries white on both webs at the bases ; 
the secondaries white on both -webs at the bases, except the 
innermost two, the white on the inner webs running narrowly 
down to the tips of the feathers ; from the eighth primary to 
all but two of the innermost secondaries with conspicuous 
white margins to the tips of the feathers ; outermost pair of 
rectrices wholly white, the central part of the shaft alone black ; 
next pair white on outer web, the inner web white, with a 
large black patch about the middle of the feather ; third pair 
white at base and tip, the intermediate part black on both 
webs ; fourth pair with more black than the preceding on 
both webs, especially towards the tip, where only half an inch 
of white remains ; fifth pair with only a small spot of white 
at tip, and little more white at base than on the uropygials ; 
uropygials black, white at base for 1*2 inch. 

This specimen is, I believe, correctly referred to L. homeyeri. 
It differs from L. lahtora in many particulars, too numerous to 
mention. From L. excubitor it differs in having more white on 
the lores, wings, and tail, the size of the feet and the breadth 
of the tail-feathers being the same as in that species. 

51.— Lanius erythronotus, Vigors. (257.) 

In my collection are specimens of this Shrike shot in Gilgit 
from the 18th April to the 28th December; but the last bird 
must be considered very late in migrating, as this species 
leaves us, I think, in October. 

52.— Lanius cristatus, Lin. (261.) 

This species must be expunged from the Gilgit list. In 
the rufous-tailed Shrikes there are two distinct sections, 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 105 

characterized by the shape of the tail : — One (A) embracing 
cristatus, phamicurus, and allies, in which all the rectrices are 
narrow, the outer pair decidedly more narrow than the next, 
and over three-quarters of an inch shorter than the uropy- 
gials; and another (B), which includes isabellinus, phceni- 
curoides, speculigerus, and collurio (female and young), in 
which the tail-feathers are bi'oad, with the outermost pair as 
broad as the next, and not more thau half an inch shorter 
than the centrals. Now I examined the specimen secured by 
Major Biddulph, and identified in his list as L. cristatus. It 
certainly belonged to section B, and was one of the three 
following species ; but which of these, I am not prepared to 
say without further examination. 

Lanius isabellinus, Hemp. & Ekr. (262.) 
Lanius arenarius, Blyth. 

This Shrike only passes through Gilgit on migration. I 
obtained an adult specimen on the 27th April, which mea- 
sured : — Length, 7*4 inches ; wing, 3*5 ; tail, 3*1 ; tarsus, 094. 
Third and fourth quills equal and longest, second interme- 
diate in length between the sixth and seventh ; fifth, sixth, 
and seventh primaries with a small spot of white on both 
webs at base ; head and back pale sandy ; lower surface cream- 
coloured, slightly tinged with rufous ; lores white, with a small 
dark spot in front of the eye. 

Mr. Dresser, in his " Birds of Europe," has figured L. phce- 
nicuroides under the name of the present species, on the 
assumption that L. phcenicuroides merely represents the full 
breeding-plumage of L. isabellinus. That this is an error I 
can assert, as I obtained many specimens of L. isabellinus in 
breeding-plumage, in Yarkand,not differing in colour at all from 
winter examples common in collections from the north-west of 
India. I may here mention that the young of L. isabellinns 
differs altogether from the young of L. phcenicuroides, 
the former being even paler isabelline above than the 
adults, aud very slightly cross-barred on the lower surface, 
while in young L. phcenicuroides the colour above is dark 
rufous-brown, and the underparts are prominently cross- 
barred. 

Lanius speculigerus differs from L. isabellinus in having the 
whole lores black, aud it has a large white patch on the wing. 
A difference in shape of bill has also been insisted on ; but in 
the few examples of L. speculigerus I have examined there 
seemed to be hardly any variation in this respect. 

14 



106 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT* 

Lanius phcenicuroides, Sever tzoff. (262 bis.) 

Lanius phcenicuroides, Severtzoff, Stray Peathers, 
III., p. 430 (1875). 

This species was only observed during the autumn migra- 
tion. An immature specimen shot on the 8th September 
measured: — Length, 7*5 inches; wing, 3*5; tail, 3'15 ; tarsus, 
085 ; bill from gape, 0*8 ; culmen, 0-75. Third and fourth pri- 
maries longest, second intermediate in length between the fifth and 
sixtli ; head, rump, and under tail-coverts rufous, barred with 
black ; rest of upper surface dark rufous-brown, unbarred ; 
lower surface white, cross-barred with dark brown. 

The adults of this species differ from Lanius isabellinus in 
having a differently shaped wing and tail, in the wiug-spe- 
culutn being larger, the lower surface white, the whole lores 
black, the head more rufous than the back, and the quills 
more black. To phcenicuroides must be referred : — Mr. Dres- 
ser's figure of L. isabellinus before mentioned; Lord Walden's 
figure and description of L. isabellinus in The Ibis, 1867, 
pp. 224, 226, pi. v., fig. 1 ; Schalow's supposed young 
L. arenarius, J. f. O., 1875, p. 143 ; Nos. 1 and 15 of the speci- 
mens mentioned by Mr. Blauford in his i! Zoology of Persia/' 
p. 140; and the specimen referred to as a fully adult male by 
the same author in his " Zoology of Abyssinia," p. 339. 

Severtzoff's name of L. phcenicuroides is happily chosen ; for 
his species does bear a great resemblance to L. phcenicurus ; 
but, as I mentioned under L. cristatus, it belongs to a different 
section according to the characters of its tail. 

Lanius collurio, Lin. (260 bis.) 

The Red-backed Shrike is found in Gilgit only on passage. 
I obtained three immature examples, on the 4th and 16th 
September and 2nd November, during the autumn migration, 
but never observed it at any other time. This Shrike is 
recorded by Severtzoff as breeding in Turkestan, and is a 
rare autumn straggler to the plains of India in the north-west. 
My specimens measure: — Length, 7*2 to 7*4 inches; wing, 3'7; 
tail, 3-2 to 3-5 ; tarsus, 0-8 to 0-95 ; bill from gape,0'8 to 8'85 ; 
culmen, - 68 to - 7. They agree perfectly with a series of 
young English examples of L. collurio with which I have com- 
pared them. Young L. collurio is very like young L. phceni- 
curoides. but can easily be distinguished from it thus : in 
L. collurio the second primary is intermediate in length between 
the fourth and fifth, and the distance between the longest 
secondaries and longest primary is about equal to the length 
of the tarsus ; in L. phcenicuroides the second primary is inter- 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 107 

mediate in length between the fifth and sixth, aud the distance 
between the tips of the secondaries and the point of the wing 
is less than the length of the tarsus. There ai - e also some 
minor differences in colour, amount of cross-barring beneath, 
and in the relative lengths of the uropygials, aud secoud 
primary. 

53.— Pericrocotus brevirostris, Vigors. (273.) 

This species seems to be only a winter visitor to the lower 
valleys of the Gilgit district; it is not uncommon from the 
last week in October to the beginning of February. All the 
flocks I saw consisted exclusively of females and young males 
in grey and bright yellow plumage, the gorgeous black and 
crimson adult males being conspicuous by their absence. 
Six specimens measured: — Length, 7*3 to 8*3 ; wing, 3*5 to 3'7 ; 
tail, 4 to 4'7 ; bill from gape, 0*72 to 0'76. These examples 
agree well with a series of Pericrocotus brevirostris from the 
Himalayas further east, but have the ear-coverts paler grey. 

54.— Buchanga longicaudata, Bay. (280.) 

This species is only a straggler to Gilgit, probably from 
some of the lower and hotter valleys further south. A female 
shot in Gilgit on the 2nd of September measured : — Length, 10*8 
inches ; wing, 53 ; tail to fork, 4, to end of outermost rectrices, 
5'9 ; tarsus, 0'65 ; bill from gape, 1*05. This was an immature 
bird with whole lower surface dull black without gloss, the 
under wing-coverts barred and tipped with white, and the 
hides dark brown. 

55.— Muscipeta paradisi, Lin. (288.) 

This Flycatcher is rare in Gilgit, and appears to visit us 
only on migration. I obtained a male on the 11th May, in 
chestnut plumage and with the short tail ; the crest was well 
developed, and the chin and throat glossy black. An imma- 
ture specimen procured on the 25th August is also iu chest- 
nut plumage, but with the crest short, and the neck and breast 
dull ashy. Severtzoff records this species as migratory to 
Turkestan, where it breeds ; so the examples obtained at 
Gilgit may have been on migration to and from that country. 

56— Hemichelidon sibirica, Gmel. (296.) 

This Flycatcher appears in Gilgit as early as the 11th May, 
and leaves for the south in September. From the middle of 
May to the first week in June it is common in the lower 
valleys, principally in orchards, at elevations of 5,000 to 7,000 
feet; in the latter part of June and throughout July and 



108 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OP GILGIT. 

August it is only found in the forest above 8,000 feet, where 
it breeds. A young but full-grown bird, shot on the 6th 
August, differs a little from Mr. Sharpens description of the 
young of this species (Cat. IV., p. 121). Head sooty, narrowly 
streaked with white ; back brown, streaked and mottled with 
buff; rump and upper tail-coverts margined and spotted with 
rufous buff; lower tail-coverts rufesceut, edges of quills as in 
adult ; gape bright yellow, base of mandible yellow ; iris 
black. 

57.— -Muscicapa grisola, Lin. (299 Us.) 

This species is common from the middle of May to the 
end of September. In May, and during the last three weeks 
of September, it is found in the lower parts of the valleys ; but 
from the beginning of June to the first week in September it 
is only met with in the pine-forests, at elevations of over 
8,000 feet, where it breeds. Examples shot in September 
have the wing-coverts and secondaries broadly margined and 
tipped with pale fulvous; in midsummer these feathers are 
narrowly margined with white. 

58.— Siphia ruficauda, Swains. (307.) 

A summer visitor only, arriving about the 10th May, and 
doubtless breeding in the pine-forests. The sexes do not 
differ in any way in colour. The maxilla is dark brown and 
the mandible pale horny. 

59.— Troglodytes neglectus, Brooks. (333 bis.) 

This Wren is a permanent resident in the district, and in 
winter is one of the commonest and most familiar birds in 
the lower parts of the valleys. Four specimens measured : — 
Length, 3-5 to 3'8 inches ; wing, 1-8 to 2'05 ; tail, 1*15 to 1 35 ; 
tarsus, 0'65 to 0'7 ; bill from gape, 0*57 to 0'6. Compared 
with specimens of T. nipalensis from Sikkim, I find that the 
distinctions on which Mr. Brooks separated the Kashmir 
Wren from the Eastern-Himalayan form are fairly borne out. 
The Gilgit birds are paler in colour, and have the feet smaller 
and more slender, with the claws shorter and less powerful than 
in T. nipalensis. 

60.— Myiophoneus temmincki, Vig. (343.) 

Gilgit specimens are identical with examples from Kashmir. 
In males the wings measure 71 to 7*6 iuches; in females, 
67 to 68. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 109 

61.— Cinclus asiaticus, Swains. (347.) 

This Dipper is a permanent resident, being common in 
summer along the small streams at elevations of 6,000 to 9,000 
feet, and frequenting the larger rivers in winter at an eleva- 
tion of less than 5,000 feet. In ten specimens the wing 
measures 3'55 to 4*1 inche3 ; tail, 2*4 to 265 ; tarsus, 1*05 to 1*2 ; 
and culmen, 0"9 to 1. 

62.— Cinclus cashmiriensis, Gould. (348.) 

The Kashmir Dipper was only found by me on the stream 
of a valley near Gilgit at an elevation of about 9,000 feet. 
The species was rare there, and only one male (a moulting 
and immature bird) was secured, which measured : — Length, 
7*8 inches ; wing, 3*9 ; tail, 2*4 ; tarsus, 1*1 ; bill from gape, 1 ; 
culmen, 9 ; bastard primary, 09. The following is a descrip- 
tion of my specimen, shot on the 14th October : — Head, 
sides of face and neck, hind neck, and upper back mixed slaty 
grey and dark brown, the latter being the colour of the new 
feathers and marking the adult dress ; minor and secondary 
wing-coverts dusky grey, with black margins to the feathers ; 
greater coverts and quills dusky grey, with narrow white 
margins to their tips ; lower back and rump dark grey, the 
feathers with narrow black margins ; upper tail-coverts and 
tail slaty grey ; chin, throat, breast, and centre of abdomen 
white, with faint narrow brown undulations on the throat and 
breast, and a few new brown feathers on the abdomen ; flanks 
dark brown, with narrow pale tips to the feathers ; lower tail- 
coverts slaty grey, pale-tipped. 

63.— Monticola cyanus, Lin. (351.) 

Common at an elevation of 5,000 feet from the third week 
in April to the third week in May, and again from the middle 
to the end of October on migration. In the series collected 
none of the males have any trace of chestnut on the abdomen ; 
and in fifteen specimens, the sex of which was carefully deter- 
mined, no female was met with in the blue plumage of the 
adult male.* In the males the wings measure 4*5 to 4*8 inches; 
and in the females, 4*4 to 4'65. 

64.— Monticola cinclorhyncha, Vigors. (353.) 

The only specimen of this species observed in Gilgit was 
shot by me on the 28th September; it may have been on 
migration, or possibly was only a straggler from some of the 

* I believe that this is a precisely similar case to that of the Merlin. In rare cases 
the old females in both species assume the perfect plumage of the adult male. 
Normally they do not. — Ed., S. F. 



110 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

neighbouring valleys to the south. The bird, a young male, 
is profusely spotted, but has the minor coverts blue, and the tail 
edged with the same colour. Length, 7*25 iuches ; wing, 3*95 ;, 
tail, 2*7 ; tarsus, 095 ; bill from gape, 1. Bill dusky ; gape pale 
yellow. 

65.— Monticola saxatilis, Lin. (351 ter.) 

Common in Gilgit, on migration, from the 20th August to- 
the 30th September. The adults seem to make no stay in 
the district; all the birds observed and shot are immature. 
In thirteen specimens, in immature barred and spotted plumage, 
the wings vary from 4*7 to 4*9 inches. 

67.— Merula atrogularis, Tem. (365.) 

This species is common at an elevation of about 5,000 feet 
from the first week in October to the middle of May. In 
thirteen examples from Gilgit the wings vary in length from 
49 to 5*3 inches. My specimens do not bear out Major 
Biddulph's observation that, when the black on the throat is 
fully assumed, the axillaries and under wing-coverts become 
earth-brown, uniform with the flanks.* 

68.— Turdus viscivorus, Lin. (368.) 

I only met with this Thrush in the Gilgit district in sum- 
mer, at elevations of over 9,000 feet, where it breeds. My 
specimens agree perfectly in colour with examples from Asia 
Minor. An adult bird has the wing 6"45 ; and. a young bird, 
shot on the 28th July, has the wing 6*15. 

69.— Trochalopterum simile, Hume. (418 bis.) 

This fine species is, with us, singularly local. I never saw 
it in Gilgit, but it is common and a permanent resident in 
Sharot and. Bargo, 15 miles higher up the valley, at an eleva- 
tion of about 5,500 feet. It is only found in places densely 
covered with trees and bushes. In eleven specimens the 
wing varies in length from 4 to 4*25 inches ; all these have 
the outer webs of the quills and the subterminal band on the 
tail pure grey, without any shade of yellow, red, or olive. 
The ear-coverts are ashy, not dark brown ; the grey band on 
the uropygial varies in depth from 1 inch to 1*2, and this 
grey band increases on the lateral tail-feathers, encroaching 
more on the outer web ; the outermost pair of rectrices are 
not marked at all with black. 

* Vide my note, S. F., IX., p. 319. This is clear! j some accidental mistake or 
misprint in Major Biddulph's paper. — Ed., S. F. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGITi 111 

70.— Trochalopterum lineatum, Vigors. (425.) 

A permanent resident, common and widely distributed in 
the district, wherever bushes and trees are found, at elevations 
of from 4,600 to 9,000 feet ; it breeds in June. Gilgit exam- 
ples are identical with specimens from the Kashmir valley, 
and are rather larger and paler* than the birds from the more 
eastern parts of the Himalayas. 

71.— Oriolus kundoo, Sykes. (470.) 

This Oriole is found throughout the summer about orchards 
in the lower valleys, and apparently does not ascend above 
7,000 feet ; it migrates southwards from Gilgit in September. 
It is remarkable that this species, which is widely spread and 
sedentary in many parts of the plains of India, should be a 
summer migrant to the valley of Nepal, Gilgit, and even to 
Yarkand in Central Asia. Specimens from these three loca- 
lities, however, are quite identical with examples from the 
plains of India. 

Pratincola caprata, Lin. (481.) 

Of this species, which is not included in Major Biddulph's 
list, I shot a single specimen in Gilgit on the 10th December 
1879, when it was doubtless on migration ; this was the only 
occasion on which it was observed. The bird, a female, 
measured: — Length, 5'05 inches ; wing, 2'64 ; tail, 1*95; tarsus, 
0*8 ; bill from gape, 063. Bill, feet, and claws black ; irides 
dark brown ; upper tail-coverts deep ferruginous, lower tail- 
coverts buff. P. caprata has been found as far west as the 
valley of the Atreck (Seebohm, P. Z. S., 1879, p. 764). 

72.— Pratincola maura, Pallas. (483.) 

This species is common in Gilgit from the last week in 
March to the middle of May, and again from the first week 
in September to the beginning of November. It probably 
breeds in the district at high elevations. In seventeen spe- 
cimens the wings vary from 255 to 2*97 inches, and the tails 
from 1*93 to 23. The specimens mentioned by Captain Mar- 
shall with striated upper tail-coverts and rump are, I think, 
certainly not P. rubicola ; the streaks referred to are much 
less pronounced than in female P. rubicola, and apparently 
indicate a phase of plumage of the immature P. maura. 

* As in the case of Sgrnium nivicolum.— Ed., S. F, 



112 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

73. — Pratincola robusta, Tristram apud Marshall, 
Ibis, 1881, p. 55, nee Tristram, (483.) 

Pratincola robusta cannot be included in the list of Gilgit 
birds. Canon Tristram's type of that species, from Mysore 
in the south of India, has recently been shown (Stray 
Feathers, IX., p. 133, 1880) to be quite distinct from the birds 
referred to by Captain Marshall under that name. The form 
mentioned by Captain Marshall would, if distinct from 
P. maura, require a new name ; but with a large series of these 
birds from Gilgit, and after examining the specimens in 
Mr. Seebohm's collection and in the British Museum, I cannot 
agree that the proportional length of the tail or any of the 
other points brought forward will justify the splitting of 
Pratincola maura into two species. 

74.— Saxicola opistholeuca,* StricM. (488.) 

This species is rare in Gilgit, and perhaps only occurs there 
on passage to Turkestan, whence Severtzoff records it, under 
the name of S. syenitica, as breeding. According to my 
observations it appears in Gilgit, in small numbers, in April 
and May on its way north, and passes southwards again late 
in autumn. I have the following notes of a bird of this 
species shot in Gilgit on the 23rd December : — Length, (V5 
inches ; wing, 3*7 ; tail, 2*9 ; tarsus, 095 ; bill from gape, 0*85. 
Bill, feet, and claws black ; gape yellow ; iris brown ; the head 
and nape aslry, forming an ill-defined cap. The young bird 
described by Major Biddulph is possibly the young of Saxicola 
morio. 

75.— Saxicola picata, Blyth. (489.) 

Saxicola capistrata, Gould. 

A summer visitor to Gilgit, and exceedingly common from 
the middle of March to the middle of September. Of fifty 
specimens in my collection, thirty are males, and these show 
every possible gradation between the form with the greyish- 
white cap (capistrata) and the one having the whole head 
pure black (picata) ; it is quite impossible to separate my 
series into two species. I have observed and shot examples 
with the white cap throughout the breeding-season in com- 
pany with brown females quite undistinguishable from those 
of picata, so that the females of both forms are certainly 
alike. With reference to Major Biddulph's remarks on this 

* Throughout I have allowed the specific names to stand in the feminine, but 
saxicola, framed on the model of agricola, ought, I think, to be treated as mat- 
culine.— Ed ., S. F. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILQIT. 113 

subject, I do not now believe that the white head " is assumed 
in the spring" of the first year only ;" in a large series exa- 
mined (including the type) there is no satisfactory evidence 
that the white cap is dependent upon age. Saxicola picata 
is said to have a wider range than S. capistrata, and this 
question merits further investigation ; but I find that about 
half of the specimens usually called S. picata show, on close 
examination, some slight traces of white about the sides of 
the head. 

Messrs. Blanford and Dresser, in their Monograph of the 
genus, confused Saxicola capistrata with Saxicola morio, and 
described a male of the former from Lahore as S. morio. S. 
capistrata, male, differs from S. morio, male, in breeding- 
plumage, in having the bill and feet much larger aud coarser, 
the white on the head not extending to the interscapulary 
region, a different pattern of black on the tail-feathers, and the 
wing-formula never the same; in Saxicola capistrata (—picata) 
the second primary is intermediate in length between the sixth 
and seventh ; in S. morio the second primary is intermediate 
between the fifth and sixth. In the flesh the two birds 
could not be mistaken, S. capistrata being much more bulky 
than S. morio. 

76.— Saxicola albonigra, Hume. (489 bis.) 

This fine species is, according to my experience, only a 
winter visitor to the Gilgit district, aud is common there, at 
an elevation of about 5,000 feet, from the beginning of 
November to the end of February. I never saw it in summer, 
and the specimen procured by Major Biddulph in June may 
have been only a straggler. The sexes are precisely similar 
in plumage, but the female is smaller than the male. Twelve 
males measured : — Length, 7 to 7*4 inches ; wing, 4*1 to 4*35 ; 
tail, 2-9 to 3-1 ; tarsus, 1 to M ; bill from gape, 0'95 to 0"96. 
Five females measured : — Length, 6'7 to 6*85 ; wing, 3'9 to 4'02 ; 
tail, 2-5 to 2-8 ; tarsus, 0"9 to 1 ; bill from gape, 0"85 to 0-95. 
The black band on the lateral tail-feathers varies in depth 
from 0'5 to 0*85 ; the second primary equals the sixth in 
length. 

Saxicola albonigra is distinguishable from Saxicola picata 
by having the sexes coloured alike, by being much larger, and 
by having a differently shaped wing. 

From the male of S. picata, with which alone it could be 
confounded, its large size, diffei'ent wing-formula, brighter 
colours, and less extended black on breast and back at once 
separate it. 

15 



114 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

77.— Saxicola morio, Hemp, fy Mr. (490 ?) 

81. — Saxicola hendersoni, Hume* 

This species is common in Gilgit from the third week in 
April to the end of June, and again from the beginning of 
September to the first week in October. Most of the birds 
that visit us iu spring go further north, but a few probably 
breed in the district. I preserved fifty-five specimens of this 
species, and after comparison with the types in the British 
Museum, I eutertain no doubt that Saxicola hendersoni is 
merely a synonym of S. morio. S. hendersoni was described 
from specimens iu autumn plumage ; but I for some time 
thought that even in breeding-plumage it could be distin- 
guished from typical S. morio by having more white on the 
lateral tail-feathers. Every intermediate stage, however, is 
represented in my collection, from a broad black band on the 
ends of the feathers next to the uropygials to the form in 
which the white runs rigkt down to the tips of these rectrices. 
Major Biddulph has correctly pointed out that the female of 
this species is quite unlike the male iu colour. In my series 
the length of the wings varies from 335 to 38, and the 
second primary is intermediate iu length between the fifth 
and sixth. 

78 — Saxicola vittata, Bempr. fy Mr. (491 b.) 

This rare species appears in Gilgit in very small numbers, 
and probably on migration only. I obtained two males, of 
which one, shot on the 11th of May, is in full breeding- 
plumage, and measures : — Length, 6 inches ; wing, 37; tail, 2*5 ; 
tarsus, 087. This specimen only differs from the adult male 
S. morio, in breeding-plumage, in having the chin, throat, and 
breast pure white instead of black. The other male, men- 
tioned in The Ibis, 1881, p. 59, is probably immature, as 
the black feathers of the upper surface are narrowly edged 
with brown. The female referred to this species by Major 
Biddulph, on page 60, I find, on re-examination, to be really a 
female of Saxicola picata and not of S. vittata. 

79.— Saxicola isabellina, Biipp. (491.) 

This species is fairly common in Gilgit on migration, from 
March to the third week iu April, and again from the last 
w T eek in September to the first week in November. 

Mr. Blanford, in his "Zoology of Persia," p. 148, remarks 
that the length of the black tip on the lateral tail-feathers of 

• I very much question this identification ; but unfortunately I cannot get at my 
specimens until the summer, when I will take the question up. Till then I must 
aek my readers to suspend their opinion.— Eo., S. F, 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 115 

S. isabellina is | fco f inch. This does not at all accord with 
my experience. In sixteen specimens of this species now 
before me, the length of the black tip on the lateral tail-feathers 
varies from 9 to 105 inch. Mr. Blanford, in the passage 
above cited, seems to have confounded female Saxicola osnanthe 
with S. isabellina. I should say that in the former species the 
black tip to the outer rectrices does not exceed f of an inch, 
while S. isabellina always has more than § of an inch of black 
at the end of the lateral tail-feathers. 

80.— Saxicola cenanthe, Lin. (491 a.) 

This Wheatear passes Gilgit on migration, and is found 
there in small numbers from the 20th of March to the 22nd 
April. I did not secure any specimens of this species during 
the autumn migration. Gilgit examples have the wings 3 7 
to 3'9 inches, and the amount of black on the lateral tail- 
feathers varies from 0'6 to 0'7 ; they do not seem to be sepa- 
rable from European examples of S. cenanthe with which I have 
compared them. 

82.— Ruticilla rufiventris, Vieill. (497.) 

This Redstart passes Gilgit on migration, being common 
in April and May, on its way northwards, and passing down 
again late in September. Out of fourteen males procured 
in spring no less than six were in the plumage of the female. 

84.— Ruticilla erythronota, Eversm. (498 bis.) 

This Redstart is a winter visitor to Gilgit, and is common 
at an elevation of 5,000 feet from the middle of October to 
the first week in March. In eleven males the wino-s vary in 
length from 3 4 to 36, and in five females from 33 to 335. 
The females have two whitish wing-bars formed by the pale 
tips of the coverts. 

R. alaschanica, Prjevalsky, which is allied to this species 
by its chestnut back and wing-markings, appears, nevertheless, 
to be quite distinct. R. erythronota, male, has a broad band, 
comprising the lores, ear-coverts, and sides of neck, black ; 
while in R. alaschanica these parts are grey, like the head and 
nape. In it!, erythronota the second primary is intermediate 
in length between the seventh and eighth, but nearer to the 
seventh ; in R. alaschanica the second primary is equal to the 
eighth. The females of the two species are probably very 
similar in colour, but the difference in shape of wing will 
doubtless help to distinguish them. 



116 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

85.— Ruticilla erythrogastra, Gnld. (499.) 

A winter visitor, and common at «*in elevation of about 
5,000 feet, from the middle of October to the middle of April. 
The males in autumn have the head bluisb white ; in January 
and February the cap becomes whiter, and is pure white in 
the latest-killed April birds. In fifteen males the wings 
measured from 395 to 4'25 inches, and eleven females have the 
wings 37 to 4*1. 

Major Biddulpb mentions a specimen of which the sex is 
doubtful ; but there should never be any doubt about the sexes 
in this species, as the young male, even iu first plumage, has 
a large snow-white patch on the wing, which is never seen in 
the female. 

86 —Ruticilla frontalis, Vigors. (503.) 

Not uncommon at an elevation of 5,000 feet on first 
arrival in April. The female of this handsome species may 
be readily distinguished from the other brown-coloured hens 
of the genus by the black band, nearly half an inch deep, 
on the tips of the lateral tail-feathers. Male. — Length, 6*4 
inches; wing, 353 ; tail, 3; tarsus, 0*94 ; bill from gape, 0-7. 
Female. — Length, 6 ; wing, 3'15 ; tail, 2*7 ; tarsus, 0'8 ; bill 
from gape, 0*65. 

87.— Ruticilla cseruleocephala, Vigors. (504.) 

Common in the forests from the third week in March to 
the end of September. In the immature spotted plumage 
the males can be readil} 1 - distinguished from the females by 
the former having snow-white outer margins to the inner 
secondaries. 

88.— Ruticilla leucocephala, Vigors. (506.) 

There does not seem to be any variation in the plumage of 
this species due to season. Six males have the wings 375 to 
4 inches; tail, 3-2 to 3-26; and bill from gape, 0-78 to 08. 
A female measures : — Wing, 3 4 ; tail, 2*9 ; bill from gape, 7. 
One of the male birds has a siugle chestnut feather on the 
black nape. 

89.— Tarsiger rufilatus, Eodgs. (508.) 

Nemura rufilata. Hodgson, P. Z. S., 1845, p. 27. 
A summer visitor, and breeds in the pine-forests at an 
elevation of about 10,000 feet. This species is quite distinct 
from T. cyanurus, Pallas, under which name it is entered in 
Major Biddulph's list. In the male of T. cyanurus the lores 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILG1T. 117 

aid eyebrow are white, surmounted by a narrow line of cobalt- 
blue, and the under-surface is cream-coloured ; while in 
T. rvjilatus the lores and eyebrow are brilliant cobalt, and the 
under surface is greyish white. The female T. cyanurus is 
easily distinguished from the same sex of T. rvjilatus by being 
more brown on the upper surface, cream-coloured on the 
abdomen, and by having the lores paler. 

Gilgit examples of T. rujilatus are paler than specimens 
from Silckim with which I have compared them. The spe- 
cimen from which Major Biddulph took his description of 
"the plumage before the first moult" was probably not 
correctly referred to this species, in which the tail is never 
" hair-brown." 

The immature male of T. rujilatus is precisely of the same 
colour as the adult female, and, as has been several times 
recorded, breeds in that plumage. The immature female 
differs from the adult in having the feathers of the head pale- 
centred, the blue on the rump and tail paler, the white throat- 
stripe only faintly indicated, and the rust-colour on the flanks 
less extended. 

A nestling obtained on the 14th of August is profusely 
spotted on the body above and below, and the head is streaked. 
The upper surface is olive-brown, each feather with a yel- 
lowish central spot or streak and a dark brown margin ; the 
under surface is pale yellowish, the feathers with complete 
dull-black margins; the wings are coloured as in the adult 
female ; the tail, which is under an inch in length, dull 
greyish blue on the upper surface ; bill pale brown, brown on 
culmen ; feet and gape pale fleshy ; claws brown, pale at tips. 

90.— Calliope pectoralis, Gould. (513.) 

A summer visitor only. An adult male has the wing 29, 
and a female 2 - 65. The very distinct C. tschebaiewi of 
Prjevalsky does not extend so far to the west as Gilgit. 

91,— Cyanecula suecica, Lin. (514) 

This species is very common with us throughout March 
and up to the third week in April ; and again during the 
autumn migration, from the third week in August to the third 
week in September. I doubt its breeding in the district ; but 
Severtzoff records it as breeding in Turkestan, and it certainly 
breeds in Yarkand. In nineteen specimens the wings vary in 
length from 26 to 2*95. 

92.— Cyanecula leucocyanea, Brehm. (514 bis.) 

Lest any one should doubt the correctness of identification 
of the bird in my collection referred to by Major Biddulph 



118 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

under this head, I may mention that I have carefully com- 
pared it, and that it is undoubtedly an example of the white- 
throated form of Cyanecula wolfi in full breeding-plumage. 
I did not obtain another example, unless a female, shot on 
the 1st of September, ought to be assigned to this species. 

93.— Acrocephalus dumetorum, Blyth. (516.) 

A summer visitor only, leaving the district in September. 
In seven specimens the wings measure 24 to 2 - 5 inches; tail, 
2-15 to 2-33 ; tarsus, 084 to 0-9 ; culmen,064 to068 ; second 
primary intermediate between the fifth and sixth. 

94. — Dumeticola major, Brooks. (519 quat.) 

A summer visitor only. In ten specimens the total length 
varied from 59 to 6'45 inches ; wing, 2*2 to 2*35 ; tail, 2*4 to 
265 ; bill from g:ipe, - 75 to - 85. The third or fourth 
primaries are longest, the second equals the seventh or eighth, 
and the exposed portion of the bastard primary averages 055. 

96-— Phylloscopus tristis, Blyth. (554) 

Common in the lower valleys on arrival from the first week 
in March to the middle of April, and again from the third 
week in September to the end of November, on its way to 
the south ; in summer only found above 8,000 feet. I cannot 
detect any difference between several of my skins and 
examples of P. sindianus, Brooks, described in Stray Feathers, 
VIII., p. 476 (1879).* 

97.— Phylloscopus lugubris, Blyth. (558.) 

I have no specimen in my collection which can be referred 
to this species. The example obtained by Major Biddulph 
may perhaps have been P. magnirostris, which is closely allied 
to P. lugubris. The latter has hitherto been considered quite 
an Eastern form, not occurring in the north-west of India ; 
while P. magnirostris, according to Mr. Brooks, breeds in 
Kashmir, and is therefore more likely to occur in Grilgit. 

* No superficial examination suffices to distinguish many of these small sylvine 
birds. The eye must be regularly trained to the group. "When one has not been looking 
at these Phylloscopi for a few months, it is extremely difficult to separate many of the 
species which after a week's work, when the eye has become habituated to their minute 
differences, are manifestly distinct. I in like manner doubted the validity of sindianus 
•when Mr. Brooks sent me his first specimen, but a careful comparison of all the types 
with our enormous series of tristis showed me (S. F., IX., 99) that it was quite distinct. 

As a rule the colour suffices to separate it from tristis, but occasionally tristis itself 
approaches closely to the neglectus, rama and sindianus type of colouring, and then the 
shape of the little first primary must be looked to, but I have never seen a tristis quite 
the colour of sindianus. — Fd., S. F. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILQIT. 119 

98.— Phylloscopus viridanus, Blyth. (560.) 

I secured specimens as late as the 23rd September at Gilgit, 
on migration south. 

Phylloscopus nitidus, Blyth. (559.) 

This species must, I believe, be added to the Gilgit list 
on the evidence of a single example shot there on the 23rd. 
September. This specimen, a female, has wing 2 4 inches ; tail, 
l - 85 ; bill from gape, 053 ; exposed portion of bastard primary, 
055, one (lower) wing-bar. Compared with several specimens 
of P. viridanus shot on the same day, its brighter green colour 
above, and considerably more yellow underparts, seem to decide 
in favour of its being referred to P. nitidus; and this view 
is strengthened on comparison of the specimen with Mr. 
Seebohm's fine series of both species ; but unfortunately the 
Gilgit skin is in bad condition. 

100.— Phylloscopus affinis, Tichell. (561.) 

A summer visitor, arriving early in May, and migrating 
southwards about the end of September. In May, part of June, 
and September it is found in the lower valley ; but in the 
intermediate months it is confined to the forests at high eleva- 
tions, where it breeds. 

101.— Phylloscopus indicus, Jerdon. (562.) 

I found this species less common than its ally P. affinis. 
A specimen was obtained as late as the 14th October, which 
bIiows that P. indicus is rather late in leaving the district. 

102.— Reguloides occipitalis, Blyth. (563.) 

I obtained specimens of this species as early as the 11th May, 
and young birds in July. Major Biddulph appears to be right 
in not admitting P. trochiloides or flavo-olivaceus to the Gilgit 
list. 

103.— Reguloides humii, Brooks. (565 bis.) 

Common from the 21st March to the end of September. 
Young birds are more green above than adults, have the secon- 
daries conspicuously margined and tipped with buff, and have 
two prominent greenish-yellow wing-bars. 

104.— Reguloides subviridis, Brooks. (566 Us % ) 

This species arrives in Gilgit as early as the 19th March, 
and leaves iu the beginning of October. It has a very marked 
cry, and can always be distinguished from other allied species 
by its note. 



120 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILG1T. 






105.— Regulus cristatus, Koch. (580.) 

A summer visitor, only found iu the forests at high eleva- 
tions, and apparently not common. A male with wing 215 
inches, bill at front - 37, has two distinct whitish wing-bars. 

Sylvia jerdoni, Blyth. (581.) 

This Eastern long-billed race of Sj/lvia orphea appears to> 
have been accidentally omitted from Major Biddulph's list, 
as he had obtained a specimen in Gilgit before his paper was 
written. It only passes through Gilgit on migration, in May 
and June, and again early in September. 

106.— Sylvia affinis, Blyth. (582.) 

I have only three specimens, obtained in April, May, and 
September, which can be referred to this form. The wings 
measure 26 to 2*63, and the second primary is intermediate 
between the sixth and seventh. The September specimen has 
the upper parts more brown than the other two, and this is 
probably due to its having freshly moulted. 

107.— Sylvia althaea, Hume. (582 ter.) 

A summer visitor, and common from the 25th April to the 
end of September ; it breeds at an elevation of about 9,000 
feet. In males the wings vary from 2*73 to 283 ; in a female 
the wing measures 2'7. There can be no doubt about the 
identification, as my skins have been compared with a typical 
specimen in Mr. Seebohm's charge. 

108 —Sylvia rufa, Bodd. (582 quat.) 

So far only obtained during the autumn migration. Two 
specimens measured: — Wing, 28 inches; tail, 2 6 and 2*7; 
tarsus, 0*85 and 0-86. 

109.— Henicurus scouleri, Vigors. (587.) 

A permanent resident, at elevations of 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 
It is nearly confined to the small streams, but is occasionally 
found iu winter on the banks of the larger rivers, and has for 
associates Ruticilla leucocephala and Cinclus asiaticus. I cannot 
detect any difference between Gilgit examples of H. scouleri 
and a specimen from Moupin iu Eastern Thibet. 

110.— Motacilla hodgsoni, Gray. (589 bis.) 

Two males of this Wagtail, shot on the 20th May, measure : 
— Length, 8-1 and 82 inches; wing, 3'8 and 384 ; tail, 4 and 
42 j tarsus, 0'9 and 93 ; bill from gape, 73 ; culmen, 067 
and 0-7. A female, shot on the 16th May — Length, 78 ; wing, 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 121 

3-6 ; tail, 3'8 ; tarsus, 09 ; bill from gape, 0'75 ; culraen, 07. 
These specimens are in full breeding-plumage, and have the 
whole back black. A comparison of the above measurements 
with those which I give of the next species will show that 
M. hodgsoni is not constantly larger than M. personata, although 
on the average it may be a heavier bird. The black back of 
M. hodgsoni seems to be the only constant difference between 
the two forms ; but that is certain, and proves that it is 
specifically distinct from M. personata. 

111.— Motacilla personata, Gould. (591.) 

Major Biddulph mentions that he did not preserve any 
specimens of this Wagtail during the summer months ; but I 
have a number of specimens, shot towards the end of May, 
with pure grey backs; certainly in both sexes of this species 
the back is always grey. Thirty-four adult specimens, shot 
in Gilgit, measure: — Length, 7*4 to 8*2 inches ; wing, 3*3 to 3*9; 
tail, 3-5 to 4'1 ; tarsus, 08 to 1*03; bill from gape, 65 to 
0-76 ; culmen, 063 to 0-7. 

112.— Motacilla alba, Lin. (591 bis.) 

This Wagtail only passes through Gilgit on migration ; it 
is not uncommon in April, when I secured a specimen as early 
as the 13th, and again from the third week in September to 
the first week in November. A comparison of six specimens 
from Gilgit, with twenty Eui*opean specimens of Motacilla alba, 
shows that the Gilgit birds are of a paler grey colour on the 
back, and have more white on the wing ; moreover winter 
specimens of the European bird are tinged with yellow about 
the face, while the Gilgit examples do not show any trace of 
this colour. Those who maintain that M. dukhunensis of Sykes 
must be distinguished from M. alba, would class the Giljnt 
specimens under the former title. 

113.— Calobates melanope, Pallas. (592.) 

Common from March to November, and breeds from May 
to July, ab elevations of 6,000 to 9,000 feet. Females shot on 
the 26th April, when the males had fully assumed the black 
on the throat, had the whole chin and throat pure white. 

114.— Budytes viridis, Gmel. (593.) 

This species seems only to pass through Gilgit on the spring 
and autumn migrations, and is never common. Two adult 
males, shot on the 9th May, have the head and nape dark 
bluish grey ; the lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts black, and do 
not show any trace of a pale supercilium. 

16 



122 k CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

116 — Budytes calcaratus, Hodgson. (594) 

A summer visitor, and breeds in Gilgit. In nine specimens 
the wings measure 3*15 to 3*5 ; the adult female has the back 
coal-black, as in the male, but is smaller and has less white 
on the wing. 

117.— Budytes citreolus, Pallas. (594 Us.) 

This Wagtail is a summer visitor, and breeds in the Gilgit 
district. I obtained specimens from the 6th March to the 
6th June, and again from the 18th August to October. I can 
confirm Major Biddulph's observation that the fully adult 
female of this species is coloured precisely like the adult male 
in breeding-plumage ; but many of the females appear to 
breed in a younger stage of plumage, when the head is olive, 
Avitb a bright yellow supercilium and dark ear-coverts. In 
twenty-two males the wings vary from 33 to 3*7 inches, and 
in twelve females the wings measure 3*1 to 32. 

118— Anthus trivialis, Lin. (597.) 

A summer visitor, arriving about the middle of April, and 
migrating southwards in September ; it breeds at an elevation 
of about 9,000 feet. In the series collected, every stage of 
plumage can be exactly matched by European specimens 
procured at like seasons. The Eastern form, A. maculatus of 
Hodgson, is quite distinct from this species. 

120.— Anthus rosaceus, Hodgs. (605.) 

Common on passage from the 22nd April to the end of May ; 
not observed during the autumn migration. Ten specimens, 
in full breeding-plumage, have the wing 3'3 to 3 - 7 inches ; 
and tail, 2*6 to 3*1 ; minor wing-coverts green; edge of wing 
and axillaries sulphur-yellow. 

122— Anthus blakistoni, Swinhoe. (605 quat.) 

Common from the middle of October to the beginning of 
April. In the males the wings vary in length from 34 to 3*7 
inches, and the tails from 2*75 to 2*9 ; in females the wings 
measure 325 to 345, and the tails from 25 to 2*9. Birds 
shot in Gilgit in November agree perfectly with Mr. Swichoe's 
type of Anthus blakistoni from Amoy, with which I have 
compared them. 

124.— Leptopcecile sophiae, Sev. (633 bis.) 

The occurrence of this interesting species in the Indus 
valley, at an elevation of little over 5,000 feet, shows how 
little this region has been explored by Indian ornithologists. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 123 

Had this portion of our territories been worked, we should 
have secured this bird long before M. Severtzoff, who has so 
accurately described it. The following are measurements of 
an adult pair of L. sophice, shot in the Gilgit district in 
January at an elevation of about 5,500 feet : — Male. — Wing, 
2*02 inches; tail, 213; tarsus, 0'75 ; culmen, - 4. Female. — 
Wing, 2 inches; tail, 2*1 ; tarsus, 0*74; culmen, 04. The 
outermost tail-feather, 0*4 shorter than the uropygials ; 
exposed portion of first primary, 065 ; fourth, fifth, and sixth 
primaries equal and longest ; third primary equal to seventh 
iu length. 

125.— iEgithaliscus leucogenys, Moore. (634 bis.) 

This species is a permanent resident in the district, but is 
very local. I only found it along the course of the main 
valley above Gilgit, in a tract about sixteen miles in length, 
from Bargo to Singal, at elevations of from 5,500 to 7,000 
feet; there it was fairly common in summer and winter in the 
forests and anions the tamarisk bushes aloncr the banks of 
the river. 

In the adult the bill is black ; irides pale creamy or white ; 
feet pale orange ; claws dusky or brown. The young are out 
of the nest by the middle of May. In a young bird, obtained 
on the 19th of that month, the stripe down the throat is pale 
pinkish, with dusky bases to the feathers ; the head is paler 
than in the adult ; the wing-feathers are margined on the 
outer webs with pale rufous, and the flanks and abdomen are 
buff. In more advanced birds the throat-stripe is dusky. 

126.— Parus melanolophus, Fig. (638.) 

Confined to the pine forests from 7,000 to 12,000 feet. The 
sexes are alike, the female only averaging slightly smaller 
than the male. In fresh specimens the tarsi and toes are 
always a bluish leaden colour. 

127.— Parus rufonuchalis, Blyth. (640.) 

This Tit is also a denizen of the pine forests, where ifc 
breeds ; but it is occasionally found low down in the main 
valleys after heavy weather ; thus I shot a specimen in Gilgit 
itself (4,900 feet) on the 21st April. A young bird, obtained 
on the 20th July at au elevation of 9,000 feet, has the parts 
that are velvet-black in the adult replaced by dull sooty, the 
back and abdomen are suffused with olive-colour, and the 
axillaries and under tail-coverts are pale buff. 



124 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

128.— Parus nipalensis, Eodgs. (645.) 

Tin's is one of the most familiar birds in the Gilgit 
district, where it abounds throughout the year in all the lower 
valleys. In winter it is quite gregarious, and may be con- 
stantly seen feeding on the ground after the manner of a 
Sparrow. The young, which differs greatly from the adult, 
has been fully described (S. P., IX., 338). In five adult speci- 
mens the wings measure 285 to 2*93 inches; tail, 26 to 2'8 ; 
tarsi, 0-64 to 075. 

129— Accentor nipalensis, Eodgs. (652.) 

According to my experience this Accentor only occurs in 
small numbers in the district in mild or ordinary winters. I 
never saw it in such numbers as Major Biddulph records for 
the exceptionally severe winter of 1877-78. Gilgit speci- 
mens are decidedly paler above and less rufous than most 
specimens of A. nipalensis from Sikkim ; but that species is 
so close to A. alpinus, Bechst., that it is impossible to insert 
an intermediate species between them. The Gilgit bird 
agrees best with A. nipalensis, and is, no doubt, properly 
referred to that form. 

130.— Accentor altaicus, Brandt. (653.) 

A rare cold-weather visitor, except in severe winters. A 
male shot in January at an elevation of 8,000 feet measured : — 
Wing, 3'8 inches; tail, 2*4; tarsus, 0'9; culmen, - 6. 

131. — Accentor jerdoni, Brooks. (654 bis.) 

Gilgit specimeus of this Accentor are identical with an 
example from Dharmsala, obtained and named by Mr. Brooks. 
This species seems to be perfectly distinct from the eastern 
A. strophiatus, Hodgson. The differences are pointed out 
by Mr. Brooks in his original description (J. A. S. B., 1872, 
p. 327). In A. jerdoni the head, between the lateral black 
streaks, is quite plain, while in A. strophiatus the head is 
boldly streaked exactly like the back. I note, however, that the 
bill is variable, and that there is no constant difference between 
the two species in this respect. I have examined a specimen 
of Accentor multistriatus, David, from u Yangkyonpo/' in Mr. 
Seebohm's collection ; and it seems to me the same in every 
respect as A. strophiatus. 

132.— Accentor atrogularis, Brandt. (655.) 

A winter visitor only to the main valley, arriving about the 
middle of October and leaving in the third week in March. 
The birds are usually found in pairs, and are not very shy. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 125 

I have shot specimens of this Accentor in orchards, where 
they were running" about on the sward near rose-bushes; 
when alarmed in such situations they occasionally seek shelter 
on the lower branches of small fruit-trees. 

133. — Accentor fulvescens, Severtzoff. (655 ter.) 

This species is a winter visitor to Gilgit, and is common 
there from the first week in October to the third week in 
March ; it comes to us from the north. I have now forty- 
five specimens of this Accentor; and I have no hesitation in 
Baying that it is a good species, thoroughly distinct from 
Accentor montanellus, Pallas, with which Mr. Dresser confounds 
it. Gilgit examples are identical with Turkestan specimens 
named by M. Severtzoff, and with birds collected by myself 
in Eastern Turkestan. The differences between 4. montanellus 
and A. fulvescens are carefully pointed out by Col. Pijevalsky 
(Rowley's Orn. Miscl., Vol. II., p. 186). 

134.— Corvus corone, Lin. (659.) 

This Crow appears to be rare in Gilgit. I procured only a pair, 
one bird on the 22nd May and the other on the 2nd October, 
both being adult. The male measured in the flesh : — Length, 
21"5 inches; wing, 13*4 ; tail, 8*65; tarsus, 2"6 ; culmen, 23 ; 
, depth of closed bill at nostrils, 075. And the female : — Length, 
20*4; wing, 13' 1 ; tail, 8"2 ; tarsus, 2*4; culmen, 2*2; depth 
of closed bill at nostrils, 0'7. The outermost tail-feathers are 
1*2 shorter than the middle ones. The specimens agree per- 
fectly with a series of the European C. corone with which I 
have compared them. They are sharply distinguished from 
C levaillanti by having a much smaller bill, by the throat- 
hackles extending further down towards the breast (these 
feathers being large and glossed purple in G. corone, smaller 
and green-coloured in C. levaillanti), and by the whole lower 
surface and hind neck being glossed with purple, while in 
C. levaillanti these parts have a greenish steel gloss. 

135. — Corvus cornix, Lin. (659 Us.) 

A winter visitor only, and fairly common in the valleys 
from the middle of November to the third week in March. 
All the specimens secured are thoroughbred C. comix, not 
showing any signs of interbreeding with C. corone or any 
other stranger. The Gilgit birds are paler than European 
examples, but do not otherwise differ. 



126 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

136.— Corvus levaillanti, Less, (660.) 

I cannot concur with Major Biddulph in his view that there 
are two species of Crows of this type in Gilgit.* On the con- 
trary, I am satisfied that we have only one species — the 
Long-tailed Hill-Crow, so common in the Himalayas. The 
supposed difference in habit referred to is merely due to 
season : in winter these Crows affect the lower valleys, 
are gregarious, and circle about in the air in a fashion that 
lias often been described ; in summer they are found at higher 
elevations, and then, of course, mostly associate in pairs, as 
they are breeding. As to the small size of some of Major 
Biddulph's specimens, I suggest that these were females, and 
possibly with the wings and tail not fully grown. It is sin- 
gular that a large proportion of these Crows in collections are 
moultinor the win-2 and tail-feathers, so that, without a care- 
ful examination of these parts, some examples may easily be 
considered so small as to represent a distinct race. 

My series of this Crow from Gilgit agrees perfectly with 
Mr. Sharpe's description of Corone levaillanti (Cat. III., p. 39). 
I do not think that the separation of Corone and Corvus as 
genera, as advocated by Mr. Sharpe (Cat. III., p. 5) can be 
maintained on the shape of the wings. I find two specimens 
of C. sinensis (which is the same as C. levaillanti, and should 
be referred to Corone, according to Sharpe) with the wing of 
Corvus, i.e., first primary equal to longest secondaries ; while 
the type of C. culminatus ^whichis Corvus, apud Sharpe) has 
the first primary about an inch shorter than the longest 
secondaries, and would therefore fall under Corone. 

138.— Corvus umbrinus, Redenb. (660 Us.) 

I think it very improbable that this species occurs in Gilgit. 
C. umbrinus is essentially a bird of the desert and of low eleva- 
tions, and is therefore not at all likely to be found in a highly 
mountainous country at an elevation of 12,000 feet. I never 
saw any true Raven in the Gilgit district ; but some examples 
of G. corax may possibly stray there occasionally. 

139.— Corvus frugilegus, Lin. (664 ) 

The Rook is common in the district from the third week in 
October to the third week in April. It keeps aloof from the 
Crows, but associates amicably with the Jackdaws and 
Starlings, the two latter being often found in a flock of Rooks. 
The Gilgit birds agree perfectly with specimens from England 
and Turkestan. 

* Vide S. F., IX., p. 341 w.— Ed., S. F. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 127 

140.— Coloeus monedula, Lin. (665.) 

The Jackdaw is not uncommon from the middle of October 
to the first week in December, and again from the beginning 
of March to the third week in April. It does not breed in the 
district; and I never noticed it during the season of extreme 
cold. 

Coloeus COilaris, Drummond. (665 bis.) 

Two specimens, both females, procured in March and 
October, are referable to this sub-species or race. They have a 
marked white half-collar extending from the sides of the neck 
acd above the interscapulary region ; and the breast and 
abdomen are paler and more grey than in C. monedula. The 
measurements are : — Wings, 9 3 inches ; tail, 5 - 3 ; tarsus, 1*5 and 
1*6; bill to gape, 1*35 and 1*4. The second primary is about 
- 4 shorter than the fifth, instead of being equal as in my 
examples of G. monedula. 

141 — Nucifraga multipunctata, Gould. (667.) 

Two young birds, obtained in the third week in July at an 
elevation of 9,000 feet, have the head and nape much paler 
brown than in adults, the tippings to the wing-coverts are 
fulvous (not white), and on the uuder surface of the body the 
feathers are pale fulvous, with narrow central streaks of white. 
Two adults, shot in the middle of May, are moulting, the 
body-feathers and the primaries being equally in process of 
renewal. 

142.— Pica rustica, Scop. (66S bis ) 

The Gilgit Magpie is quite identical with European speci- 
mens of P. rustica. In none of my examples does the white 
on the inner webs of the quills extend to the tip, as in the race 
called P. leucoptera ; the tips of the primaries are blackish for 
about three-quarters of an inch. 

143.— Fregilus graculus, Lin (679.) 

In seven specimens the wings vary from 11*2 to 12"3 inches. 
After an examination of a large series of these birds from 
various parts of the Himalayas and from Europe, I quite agree 
with Mr. Sharpe (Oat. III., p. 147) that F. him a I ay anus, Gould, 
cannot be separated from F. gracidus. 

144— Pyrrhocorax alpinus, Vieitl. (680.) 

This species is far less common in the district than 
F. gracidus. I only found it twice near Gilgit, at the end of 
December and in January. 



128 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF QILGIT. 

145— Sturnus vulgaris, Lin. (681.) 

This Starling is not uncommon on passage south in October, 
and again on its way north from the middle of March to the 
middle of April ; a few birds remain in the valley throughout 
the winter. In six specimens preserved the upper parts from 
hind neck to tail are green. 

146. —Sturnus purpurascens, Gould. (681 ter.) 

This species is found in Gilgit at the same season as 
8. vulgaris, and in about equal numbers. I have killed examples 
of the two species at one shot. In the five skins pre- 
served the upper parts from the hind neck downwards are 
purple. 

147.— Sturnia pagodarum, Gmel. (687.) 

The occurrence of this species so far north as Gilgit is note- 
worthy. A male shot there on the 26th August measured 
in the flesh : — Length, 8 inches ; wing, 435 ; tail, 285 ; tarsus, 
1-05 ; bill from gape, 1. Gape and base of bill cobalt-blue ; ring 
round bill at nostrils green ; anterior half of bill Indian yellow ; 
irides bluish white ; feet and claws greenish yellow. 

149.— Passer indicus, JaH Sr Selb. (706.) 

This Sparrow is mainly a migratory species with us, being 
a summer visitor, and breeding in the lower valleys; but m 
the winter of 1879-80, I observed it in small numbers 
throughout the winter, and preserved specimens in November, 
December, January, and February. I suspect that it only 
leaves the district completely in severe winters, and does not 
migrate very far. In my series the males have the wings 3 to 
3"2 inches, and the females 2'9 to 305. 

150.— Passer hispaniolensis, Tern. (707.) 

A rare winter visitor. I shot only a pair, about the end 
of November, when it may have been merely passing south- 
wards. 

151.— Petronia stulta, Gmel. < 711 bis.) 

A winter visitor, and common from the third week in 
November to the third week in March. In thirteen males the 
winors varied in length from 3*9 to 4'2 inches, and in four 
females from 3'7 to 39. 

152.— Emberiza leucocephala, Gmel. (712.) 

The Pine-Bunting is tolerably common in the main valley 
in mild winters ; it often associates with Emberiza stracheyi, 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 129 

but can always be distinguished from that species by its note. 
In the males the wings measured 36 to 3*8 inches ; in the 
females 3-4 to 3*5. One male bird had the mandibles crossed 
as in Loxia, the maxilla to the right. 

153.— Emberiza stracheyi, Moore. (714.) 

This can hardly be regarded as a very good species. Gilgit 
specimens are iu many respects intermediate in colouration 
between Emberiza cia and E. stracheyi from Simla. 

A nestling, obtained on the 22nd July at an elevation of 
9,000 feet, had the head, mantle, and back rufous brown, all 
the feathers with broad central black streaks ; rump and upper 
tail-coverts rufous, with narrow central black streaks ; two 
well-marked rufous-buff wing bands formed by the tips of the 
coverts ; inner secondaries broadly edged on outer web with 
rufous ; rest of wings and the tail as in the adult; supercilium 
pale fulvous ; lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts dusky, the feathers 
with pale-buff margins ; chin greyish white ; rest of under 
surface buff ; the throat, breast, and flanks boldly streaked with 
blackish ; lower tail-coverts uustreaked rufous buff. 

154. — Emberiza hortulana, Lin. (715.) 

This species is rare in Gilgit, and only occurs on passage. 
I obtained a male on 9th May which measured : — Wing, 3*5 
inches ; tail, 2*75 ; tarsus, 0*85 ; culmen, 0*5. This specimen 
agrees completely with examples of E. hortulana from 
Norway, with which I have compared it. I have examined the 
type of Emberiza shah, Bonap., from Persia, in the Paris 
Museum ; it is certainly nothing but an example of 
E. hortulana, 

155.— Emberiza huttoni,* Blyth. (716.) 

Fairly common on passage throughout the month of Sep- 
tember; not obtained in spring. Gilgit specimens are identical 
with examples from Kandahar, whence the specimens originally 
described by Blyth were collected. 

156.— Emberiza stewarti, Blyth. (718.) 

Common in the lower parts of the Gilgit valley, from Gakuch 
to the Indus ; it arrives during the first week in April, and 
leaves for the south again about the middle of September. 
Eight males have the wings 3 to 3*25 inches, and four females 
2 - 8 to 287. A young male shot in the first week in September 
only differs from the adult female in having rufous margins 
to the outer webs and tips of the latter secondaries, and 

* Must stand as E. buchanani, BIy,— Ed., S. F. 

17 



130 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILG1T. 

in showing a faint indication of the chestnut breast-band of the 
male bird. 

157.— Emberiza schceniclus, Lin. (720 ter.) 

A winter visitor in small numbers from December to March. 
A male shot in Gilgit on the 15th December measured : — 
Length, 6*3 inches ', wing, 3'3 ; tail, 3 ; tarsus, 0*75 ; bill to gape, 
042. Gilgit examples of this species agree completely with 
specimens from Eastern Turkestan, Kandahar, and Asia 
Minor. As to " E. schceniclus, var. JB. Pallas," mentioned 
S. F., IX., 346, this has been shown by Mr. Seebohm (Ibis, 
1879, p. 39) to be 22. passerina, Pallas, a species quite distinct 
from E. schceniclus, Lin. 

158.— Euspiza luteola, Sparrm. (722.) 

Merely a bird of passage with us ; obtained from the third 
week in August to about the middle of September, when it 
was doubtless on its way south. In The Ibis, 1880, p. 66, 
Capt. Wardlaw-Ramsay gives an interesting account of the 
nidification of this species. He had not then met with any 
account of its breeding-habits, having overlooked my note on 
the subject in Stray Feathers, 1876, p. 167. I found the 
bird breeding abundantly about Yarkand in 1875. 

Euspiza, Sp* 

A single immature bird of this genus, a male, shot in Gilgit 
on the 28th August, differs so much from examples of 
E. luteola of the same sex and age, that it probably represents 
a distinct species. The following is a description : — Head, 
hind neck, and back with all the feathers broadly streaked 
down the centre with brownish black, and their margins buff, 
suffused with greenish yellow ; rump and upper tail-coverts 
greenish yellow, with narrow dark-brown shaft-streaks ; rec- 
trices dark brown, the outermost pair paler, and all with pale 
yellowish margins to the outer webs and tips ; wing-coverts, 
primaries, and secondaries brown, all margined on the outer 
webs and tips with sullied white; lores and chin buff; cheeks 
and ear-coverts sandy brown, faintly washed with yellow; 
whole lower surface dull yellow ; the throat, breast, and 
flanks boldly striped down the centres of the feathers with 
dark-brown ; axillaries pale yellow, with greyish-white bases ; 
under wing-coverts greyish white, spotted with brown near 
the edge of the wing. Longest secondaries 0*8 shorter than 
longest primary, intermediate in length between the eighth 

* This possibly belongs to the spodocephala, personata, sulphurata group. 
Though too large for this, the plumage seems to be very close to that of immature 
spodocephala. — Ed., S. F. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 131 

and ninth quills. Length, 6*5 inches ; wing, 3*3 ; tail, 2*7 ; 
tarsus, 0-77 ; culmen, 0'52. 

This bird differs from immature E. luteola in having the 
throat and breast striped with brown, and in the wing being 
differently shaped. In E. luteola the difference between 
the longest secondaries and longest primaries averages 057, 
the longest secondary being intermediate in length between 
the sixth and seventh quills. In the British Museum there 
is an undetermined specimen of a Bunting, received from 
the Moscow Museum, coloured exactly like my Gilgit bird. It 
measures: — Wing, 3*4 inches; tail, 28 ; culmen, 053 ; secon- 
daries short of point of wing, 0'85. This bird is certainly 
not any stage of E. aureola. I do not propose any name 
for it, as I have only examined specimens in immature 
plumage. 

159.— Euspiza melanocephala, Scop. (721.) 

This species merely passes through the district on migration, 
and is rare. I obtained only one immature specimen, on the 
17th September. In immature dress this Bunting can only 
be distinguished from the same stage of E. luteola by its supe- 
rior size and notably larger bill and coarser feet. 

160 — Mycerobas carnipes, Ilodgs. (728.) 

I have compared Gilgit examples of this species with others 
from Kansu and Thibet, and cannot detect any difference in 
size or colours. There cannot be any doubt that Cocco- 
thraustes speculigera, Brandt., from Northern Persia, is merely 
a synonym of C. cariiipes, Hodgson. 

161.— Pyrrhula aurantiaca, Gould. (732.) 

The following are measurements of eight specimens of this 
Bullfinch : — Length, 5*7 to 5*9 ; wing, 3'1 to 33 ; tail, 2-4 to 
2-53 ; tarsus, 65 ; bill to gape, 0*44 to 5 ; culmen, 0*35 
to 0*4. The adult female has the head, nape, ear-coverts, and 
sides of neck ashy, the hind head being tinged with dark grey ; 
back and mantle olive, with a faint tinge of red ; fore neck and 
breast reddish ash, rest of lower surface dull j-ellow ; the 
remaining parts as in the male. Young males, in the middle 
of October, closely resemble the female in colour ; but the 
head, hind neck, and ear-coverts are overlaid with the olive hue 
of the back. 

162 — Carpodacus mongolicus, Swinhoe. (732 bis A.) 

Erythrospiza incarnata, Severtzoff. 

Very common in large flocks throughout the winter, at an 
elevation of little less than 5,000 feet ; from May to October 



132 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

it is only found at higher elevations, where it breeds. I have 
compared Gilgit specimens of this bird with Swinhoe's type 
of Carpodacus mongolicus (in Mr. Seebohm's collection), and 
find that the species is identical. The Chinese bird is not 
darker than Gilgit or Turkestan examples ; neither does it differ 
from them in any respect whatever. The adult female only 
differs from the male in being slightly smaller and in having 
the rose colour less intense. The following are the extreme 
dimensions of sixty-eight specimens of this species : — Length, 
5-3 to 6*15 inches; wing, 3'35 to 3*8 ; tail, 2*2 to 2*5 ; tarsus, 
0-63 to 0-7 ; bill to gape, 0*4 to 0-43. 

164.— Carpodacus erythrinus, Pall (738.) 

Common from the 18th April to the middle of September. 
In twenty adult specimens the wings in the males measure 
325 to 35 inches, and in the females 3*15 to 33. 

165.— Propasser rhodochlamys, Brandt. (741) 

This species is very common, and is found at 5,000 feet and 
less throughout the winter ; in summer it occurs up to ah 
elevation of about 9,000 feet. I canuot detect any difference in 
colour, in either sex, due to season ; and, in fact, in my series 
of this bird there is less variation among individuals than in 
any other species of which I have examined equal numbers. 
Females are rather smaller than males, but not constantly 
so ; young males are absolutely inseparable from adult females 
in size and colour. I did not obtain any immature males 
showing the transition from the female to the male plumage. 
The following are measurements taken from thirty fresh 
specimens : — Length, 6"9 to 7-4 inches; wing, 3*4 to 3*8 ; tail, 
2-8 to 3-2 ; tarsus, 0-75 to 0-9 ; bill to gape, 0-62 to 0-7. 

168.— -Carduelis caniceps, Vigors. (749.) 

This Goldfinch, which is the same as C. orientalis, Evers- 
manu, is very common at an elevation of about 5,000 feet 
from the first week in November to the first week in March ; 
in summer it is only found in the district at higher elevations, 
where it breeds. In twenty-four specimens the males have 
the wings 3'15 to 3*3 inches, and the females 3 to 8*1. 

169.— Metoponia pusiila, Pall (751.) 

A permanent resident in the district, and common ; found 
at 5,000 feet throughout the winter. Birds shot in April, 
when they must have been about nine months old, have only 
one or two red feathers on the head. In twenty-four speci- 
mens, of both sexes, the wings vary from 275 to 3'05 inches. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 133 

170— Linaria brevirostris, Gould. (751 bis.) 

Extremely common at an elevation of about 5,000 feet from 
the first week in November to the first week in April ; it 
probably breeds in the district at high elevations. In spring it 
is found about Gilgit in huge flocks; on the 7th March I 
picked up thirty-four specimens after one shot. Young males 
resemble the adult females in not having any pink colour on 
the rump ; but the pale tips to the wing-coverts and the mar- 
gins of the inuer secondaries are broader. Sixty-six males 
measured : — Length, 53 to 5*8 inches ; wing, 2'93 to 3*2 ; tail, 
2-4 to 2-85 ; tarsus, 0-6 to 07 ; bill to gape, 0'39 to 0'43. 
And thirty-two females — Length, 5*15 to 5*4; wing, 2*83 to 3; 
tail, 23 to 2*5 ; tarsus, 0'6 to 0'65 ; bill to gape, 0*38 to 0'4. 

171.— Linaria cannabina, Lin. (751 ter.) 

Fairly common in winter at an elevation of 5,000 feet, from 
the beginning of November to the end of February. Gilgit 
specimens differ considerably from English ones, as noted 
ante, p. 87, but agree well with examples from Persia and 
Asia Minor. Many of my male birds are red on the rump, 
and have a red streak on the throat. If this pale eastern 
form of L. cannabina is to be separated, it should apparently 
bear the name of L. bella, Ehrenberg, with L. fringillirostris, 
Bonap., as a synonym. Thirteen males shot at Gilgit mea- 
sured : — Length, 5*4 to 5 9 inches; wing, 3'1 to 3*3; tail, 2*3 to 
2-54 ; tarsus, 0"6 to 0*67 ; bill to gape, 044 to 0'47. And 
twelve females — Length, 5*5 to 5*8 inches ; wing, 305 to 325; 
tail, 2-3 to 2'42 ; tarsus, 0'6 to 0-65; bill to gape, 0'43 to 0'45. 

172. — Fringilla montifringilla, Lin. (752.) 

The Brambling only occurs on passage, and is not common. 
I have compared my Gilgit specimens with a large series of 
European ones ; and they do not differ in any respect. In 
European specimens the white bar does not extend right 
across the wing ; it begins on the outer web of the fourth 
quill, precisely as in the Gilgit specimens. 

174.— Fringillauda sordida, Stoliczka. (753 bis.) 

Very common at an elevation of about 5,000 feet from 
November to the first week in April ; obtained in the third week 
in June at 9,000 feet. In nineteen males the wings measure 
39 to 4'1 inches, and in nine females 3 64 to 3'83. 

175.— Calandrella brachydactyla, Leisl. (761.) 

The Short-toed Lark is found in Gilgit in March on its way 
northwards, and is common again from the third week in 



134 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

September to the first week in November on its way south. 
In a dozen specimens the males have the wings 35 to 3-85 
inches, and the females 3'4 to 36. 

176.— Melanocorypha bimaculata, Menelr. (761 ter.) 

This Lark passes through the district in small numbers on 
migration in October and March ; a few pairs may remain 
with us in mild winters, as a specimen was shot in Gilgit on 
the 9th December. 

177.— Calandrella pispoletta, Pall (762 quat ?) 

This Lark is of rare occurrence in Gilgit, and has only been 
secured during the autumn migration. I obtained one speci- 
men, a female, on the 14th November, of which -I noted the 
following particulars : — Length, 6*3 inches ; wing, 4 ; tail, 2*7 ; 
tarsus, - 82 : hind claw, 0'83 ; culmen, 0*47 ; secondaries short of 
longest primaries 0"75. In colour and markings this example 
is identical with the specimen described and figured by 
Dresser in the "Birds of Europe" as C. pispoletta, Pallas ; 
but it is to be noted that, according to Herr v. Homeyer 
(J. f. 0., 1873, p. 197), this form is not the true A lauda 
pispoletta of Pallas, but should stand as Calandritis heinii, 
Homeyer. 

178.— Alaudula adamsi, Hume. (762 ter.) 

This species is not found in Gilgit. I was wrong in my 
surmise (quoted by Major Biddulph) that I had obtained 
specimens of this Lark. 

179.— Otocorys penicillata, Gould. (763.) 

Very common at an elevation of 5,000 feet, from the end 
of October to the middle of April. The following are measure- 
ments of a dozen fine males : — Length, 7*3 to 7*8 inches ; 
wing, 4-55 to 4-85 ; tail, 32 to 3'7 ; tarsus, 0'8 to 0*9 ; bill 
from gape, 0'64 to 0'73. 

I wish to notice, in connexion with this species, the very 
distinct O. longirostris, Gould, which has been considered 
identical with 0. penicillata by Messrs. Hume and Dresser. 
The accompanying woodcuts of the adult males in breeding- 
plumage of these two species will, I think, show that the birds 
are quite different. 

Otocorys longirostris does not occur in Gilgit, but is 
common at the head of the Astor valley, about eighty miles, in 
a direct line from Gilgit. The following are measurements of 
males of G. longirostris, for comparison with those given above 
of O. penicillata: — Length, 8'25 to 8 # 5 inches; wing, 4*95 to 



A CONTRIBUTION TO TFIE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 135 

5-2 ; tail, 36 to 3'75 ; tarsus, 0'92 to 095; bill from gape, 0*8 
to 0*82. I will now mention the main distinctions between 
these two forms, premising that I refer to adult males in 
breeding-plumage. 0. longirostris is a conspicuously larger 
bird than 0. penicillata ; it has no black band on the fore- 
head, while 0. penicillata has a broad one ; the black band 
on the side of the neck is separated from the black patch on 
the breast by an intermediate white bar a quarter of an inch 
in width, whereas in 0. penicillata the black on the side of 
the neck is quite continuous with the breast-patch ; the sinci- 
pital tufts are shorter in the larger bird, and the bill is longer, 
more slender, and more curved. There are other minor 
differences in the plumage ; and the females are easily distin- 
guishable. The habits of the two species are quite different. 
C, longirostris is a strictly alpine bird, never quitting tli9 
mountains ; 0. penicillata swarms in winter in the Gilgit 
valley and about Yarkand and Kashghar ; and of all the 
large number of larks of this type shot by Major Biddulph 
and myself in the localities just mentioned, not one can be 
referred to 0. longirostris. 

The fact that the validity of 0. longirostris has been 
questioned is probably due to several causes. In the first place, 
the name 0. longirostris at once raises a prejudice against 
the species ; in a group like the Larks, where the bill is so 
variable, the title selected is rather unfortunate. 0. penicillata 
certainly has the bill very variable in size ; and some 
Persian specimens especially have a large and deep bill, 
but still never quite like that of the species I am endeavouring 
to defend, which, moreover, by no means depends on its bill 
alone for recognition. Again, 0. penicillata in winter has the 
black of the neck and breast much concealed by pale tips to 
the feathers; and thus, in some specimens, the breast and 
neck-patches seem to be quite separated, as in 0. longirostris ; 
the bases of the feathers, however, will be found to be black 
in these examples ; and such cases are really no reason why 
these two species should be united. Due regard being paid 
to sex, age, and season, the two forms are readily separated. 
Mr. Blanford (Stray Feathers, 1879, p. 183) maintains the 
distinctness of 0. longirostris aud 0. penicillata ; and 1 quite 
agree with him. 

180.— Alauda dulcivox, Hodgs. (766.) 

This large Sky-Lark, so common in Gilgit in winter, is dis- 
tinct from the next species (A. guttata), but only doubtfully 
so from A. arvensis. After comparison of my birds with a 
large series of A. arvensis from Europe, I find that the Gilgit 



136 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

examples average larger and paler, but I cannot make out 
any perfectly constant differences. In eighteen males the 
wings measure 4'5 to 4*85 inches, and in seven females 4*1 
to 4-25. 

181 — Alauda guttata, Brooks. (? 767 bis.) 

It is difficult to decide whether our summer Sky Lark 
should be referred to Alauda gulgula, Frankl., or considered 
distinct from that species ; it seems to be merely a large pale 
race of A. gulgula. In ten males the wings measure 3'9 to 
4*1 inches, and in four females 3 6 to 3*7. 

182.— Galerita cristata, Lin. (769.) 

The Gilgit race of this common species is small and very 
grey-coloured. In the males the wings measure 4 to 41 inches, 
and in the females 375 to 385. 

183.— Alsocomus hodgsoni, Vig. (783.) 

A summer visitor only to the forests, not found in the 
main valley. A male example from Gilgit agrees completely 
with an adult male from Moupiu in Mr. Seebohm's collection. 

The female differs from the male in having all the colours 
more dull ; the cap is ashy, there are fewer white spots ou 
the coverts, the ruddy triangular marks on the feathers of 
the lower parts begin on the chest only, and do not extend 
to the fore neck ; the flanks are more invaded by dusky ash- 
colour ; and the sides of the neck are more uniform grey. 

In none of the specimens I have examined are there any 
white spots on the flanks. 

184.— Columba casiotis, Bonap. (784.) 

This Wood-Pigeon is a fairly common summer visitor ; it 
arrives about the middle of April, and leaves in the middle of 
November. It breeds in the forests above 8,000 feet, and is 
found in the main valley at about 5,000 feet, on arrival in 
April and May, and again in October and November on its 
way down south. Adults of this species are well distin- 
guished from the European C. palumbus by having a bufF 
instead of a pure white neck-patch ; but young birds, before 
the assumption of the neck-patch, are precisely similar in 
both forms. 

186.— Columba livia, Bonap. (788 bis.) 

I cannot agree with Major Biddulph that we have two 
species of Pigeon of this type in Gilgit. I paid much atten- 
tion to these birds, shot scores of them, and preserved the 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 137 

palest and darkest specimens ; and after careful comparison 
of my series, I have no hesitation in saying that the dark 
typical C. intermedia does not occur in the district. But, on 
the other hand, our birds are not typical C. livia ; they vary 
greatly in tint, but are always a little darker than European 
C. livia ; the colour of the rump ranges from pale grey to 
■white. Specimens showing every gradation of colour between 
C. livia and C. intermedia have been recorded, and several 
names have been proposed for these intermediate forms ; but 
as it is admitted that there is no constancy in the colouration 
of these races, it seems best to retain only two names for the 
extreme forms. I class the Gilo-it Pigeon as C. livia, seeing 
that it is nearer to that form than to C. intermedia. 

187.— Columba rupestris, Fall (789.) 

This Pigeon is not uncommon in the lower valleys in 
winter, but in summer is onlv found at liitjh elevations. I 

7 •/ O 

have shot it at an elevation of 5,000 feet as late as the 9th 
April. Neither in my Gilgit examples, nor in a large series 
from Thibet, China, &c, can I detect any white shoulder-patch, 
such as is mentioned by Major Biddulph (ante, p. 92). 
Gilgit specimens agree perfectly with the type of C. leucozo- 
nura, Swinhoe, in Mr. Seebohm's collection. 

188. — Columba leuconota, Fig. (790.) 

I obtained a specimen in the middle of October at an 
elevation of about 8,000 feet. 

189.— Turtur ferrago, Eversm. (792.) 

This Dove is common in the district in summer, and breeds 
there ; it arrives in the third week in April. 

In The Ibis, 1880, p. 68, Captain Wardlaw-Ramsay has 
discussed the question of the distinctness of the present form 
from T. orientalis, Lath., and has shown clearly that the 
only difference between the two supposed species lies in the 
colour of the lower tail-coverts and tips of the rectrices, 
T. ferrago having these parts white, while T. orientalis has them 
of various shades of grey. Now, in Stray Feathers, 1879, 
p. 340, I mentioned that in a series of these Doves obtained 
in Nepal there was every possible gradation of colour in the 
parts supposed to be diagnostic, and therefore that the differ- 
ences alluded to were certainly not constant. It is possible, 
however, that T. ferrago and T. orientalis may interbreed in 
a common meeting-ground such as Nepal ; aud it will perhaps 
be more convenient to give a distinct name to the extreme 
forms. On this view the Gilgit specimens must all be referred 
to T. ferrago. 

18 



138 A CONTKIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

As to the difficulty experienced by Captain Wardlaw-Ramsay 
in reconciling Eversniann's description of the tail of 
T. ferrago with the Dove now under consideration, 1 think all 
becomes plain if we suppose a misprint of one word : for 
" albis" substitute " fuscis," and the description will be 
quite correct — thus, " rectricibus apice albis, exceptis duabus 
medis totis fuscis." 

190.— Turtur auritus, Gray. (792 bis.) 

This species appears to be a summer visitor only, and is 
much less common than T. ferrago. I did not secure a spe- 
cimen. Its occurrence in Gilgit is very interesting ; it is 
not found in any other portion of British Iudia, except 

Quetta.* 

191.— Turtur cambayensis, Gmel. (791.) 

I also only obtained one specimen of this Dove in Gilgit, 
on the 27th January ; it is evidently very rare with us. This 
species, which has been supposed to be the same as T. senega- 
lensis, differs from examples of the latter which I have examined 
in its smaller size, less bright colours, and brown rump and 
upper tail-coverts, which are precisely the same colour as the 
back. T. senegalensis has a dark grey rump; but I do not 
know that these differences are constant. 

192.— Turtur suratensis, Gmel. (795.) 

According to my observation this Dove is only found about 
Gilgit from November to March ; I never met with it iu 
summer. 

193.— Tetraogallus himalayensis, Gray. 

A fine male of this species measured in the flesh : — Length, 
27*1 inches; wing, 12-1 ; tail, 8'7; tarsus, 2*65; bill to gape, 
1*5 ; it weighed 5 It. 11 oz. Examples from Eastern Turkestan, 
w r hich have been referred to T. himalayanns, differ consider- 
ably from my Gilgit specimens ; the former are paler and 
more brown, with not nearly such strong contrasts of colours. 
Five eggs of this species, taken in the Gilgit district on the 
28th April at an elevation of about 10,000 feet, measure in 
length 2 '57 to 2 - 65 inches, and in breadth 1*84 to 1/85. 

* This is not quite correct, for in April 1874, Mr. Mandelli obtained a fine speci- 
men of this species from Native Sikhim, now in our Museum, and I have seen a 
specimen obtained in the Sind Valley, Cashmere. Both were, of course, mere strag- 
glers.— Ed., S. F. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILQIT. 139 

194.—Caccabis chukar, Gray. (820.) 

The Gilgit Chikore agrees exactly with the race from Ladak 
(C. pallescens of Hume). This form ought possibly to be 
separated from C. chukar ; it is not merely a pale form of 
that species, as the name might lead readers to infer, but is 
distinguished by an appreciably different colouration. In the 
Gilgit specimens the upper parts and wings are very grey, a 
rufous-brown tinge being only present on the hind head aud 
as a band across the interscapulary region ; the breast is pure 
French grey ; and the black bars on the flanks are wider 
than in typical C. chukar. The Ohikore of Eastern Turkestan 
(C. pallidas of Hume), however, is only slightly paler and 
more sandy-coloured than C. chukar from the southern slopes 
of the Himalayas, and should not be separated from the 
latter. 

195.— Coturnix communis, Bonn. (S29.) 

The Common Quail is a summer visitor to Gilgit, and breeds 
there in small numbers. It arrives about the end of March, 
and leaves at the end of September. I never saw it in 
winter. 

196.— Otis tetrax, Lin. (836 for.) 

This species appears to be merely a straggler to Gilgit ; 
and it seems to me certain that it does not breed in the 
district. 

197.— Charadrius fulvus, Gmel. (845.) 

This species appears merely to pass through the district in 
spring; in autumn it occurs in small numbers, and hardly 
makes auy stay. I secured two specimens, both males, on 
the 27th September and 3rd October ; the wings measure 
62 and 6'7 inches ; and the axillaries are dark grey. 

199.— .fflgialitis curonica, Gmel. (849.) 

This Plover is common in Gilgit on passage from the end 
of March to the first week in May, and from the third week 
in September to the middle of October. Eight specimens 
preserved have the wings 45 to 4 - 7 inches, and agree com- 
pletely with European examples. 

200. — jffigialitis hiaticula, Lin. (849 bis.) 

This species seems to be only a rare straggler to Gilgit in 
autumn. I obtained but one specimen, a female in immature 
plumage and lacking the black frontal band, on the lHh 
October 1879. This example agrees completely with English 



140 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

specimens of the same age, and measures : — Length, 7 inches ; 
■wing, 4*9 ; tail, 2*25 ; tarsus, 093 ; mid toe and claw, 0*85 ; 
bill from gape, 0*58. yEgialitis hiaticula has only once, with 
certainty, been i*ecorded from the plains of India (Stray 
Feathers, VIIL, p. 198, 1879). 

201— Vanellus vulgaris, Bechst. (851.) 

Common in spring and autumn on passage ; but a few 
remain in favourable spots throughout the winter ; they do not 
leave the district for the north, until about the first week in 
April. As to the note about the colouration of the sexes 
{ante, p. 94), it is certaiu that the adult female has the lores, 
chin, and throat black as iu the male; the specimens having 
these parts white were probably immature. The adult female 
in breeding plumage only differs from the male in having a 
shorter crest and the colours less vivid. 

202.— Chettusia gregaria, Pallas. (852.) 

This species passes through Gilgit on migration in spring 
and autumn, without making any stay. Occasional specimens 
were secured between the 4th March and 8 th April. 

203.— Lobivanellus indicus, Bodd. (855.) 

Apparently only a straggler to Gilgit in spring. I heard 
its unmistakable cry once, in June 1879, but neither saw nor 
heard it afterwards until the following year, when I secured 
a fine specimen on the 24th April. 

204.— Grus virgo, Lin. (866.) 

A flock passed over Gilgit on the 21st March, flying north- 
wards. 

205.— Scolopax rusticula, Lin. (867.) 

The Woodcock is found about Gilgit, in ordinary winters, 
only in very small numbers. It may breed in the district, 
in the mountains at high elevations, but certainly not in the 
Gilgit valley. A pale-coloured female, shot in December, 
had the wing 7*6 inches in length, and weighed 9*75 oz. 

206.— Gallinago solitaria, Hodgs. (869.) 

I found this fine Snipe in fair numbers about the middle 
of October, in a small valley near Gilgit, at an elevation of 
9,000 feet. It very rarely occurs in the main valley. 

207.— Gallinago scolopacina, Bonap. (871.) 

My dates for the arrival and departure of the common 
Snipe quite agree with those given by Major Biddulph. Very 



A CONTRIBUTION TO TEE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 141 

few birds remain about Gilgit throughout the winter ; but 
they are found in fair numbers in autumn and spring, on 
passage. 

208.— Limosa segocephala, Lin. (875.) 

This species is found in Gilgit on migration only, in spring 
during the first half of April, and in autumn in the third 
week in September. The following are dimensions of a male 
in summer plumage, and of a female in winter-dress : — 

Male. — Length, 17'1 in. ; wing, 845 ; tarsus, 315 ; bill at front, 4 15. 
Female.— Length, 197 „ „ 8 9 „ 385, „ „ 48. 

209.— Machetes pugnax, Lin. (880.) 

Not uncommon on passage ; in spring observed in the third 
week in March, and in autumn obtained from the first week in 
September to the middle of October. 

211.— Tringa minuta, Leisl. (S84) 

The Little Stint is common in Gilgit on passage : in spring 
it was found during the first week in April ; and I shot it on 
its way southwards from the 12th September to the 26th 
October. 

212.— Tringa temmincki, Leisl. (885.) 

Temminck's Stint is also common in Gilgit during the senson 
of migration. I obtained it on its way north from the 14th 
to the 22nd May, and while it was passing southwards from 
the 10th September to the 23rd October. 

213.— Tetanus glareola, Lin. (891.) 

This species is less common in Gilgit than T. ochropus or 
T. hypoleucus. On its northward migration it is found with 
us from the 23rd April to the middle of May. It is never 
seen between May and September. On its autumnal migra- 
tion it appears about the 12th September, and remains in the 
district only a very short time. 

214.-— Totanus ochropus, Lin. (892.) 

Very common on migration from the beginning of April 
to about the middle of May; and again from the middle of 
August to the end of September. A few rare stragglers 
pass the winter in the district, as I 6hot a specimen once on 
the 3rd January. 

215.— Tringoides hypoleucus, Lin. (893.) 

Common on passage to the north from the 12th April to 
the 23rd May ; on its way southwards it first appeared on 



142 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 

the 4th September; and I shot a straggler as late as the 29th 
December. 

216.— Totanus glottis, Lin. (894.) 

Tliis species is tolerably common in Gilgit on its north- 
ward and southward migrations. I obtained a number of 
specimens during the latter half of April and in the first half 
of September. 

218.— Totanus calidris, Lin. (897.) 

The Redshank only occurs on passage, and then in very 
small numbers. I shot a specimen on the 10th April, and saw 
others in the first week in September. 

219.— Himant opus candidus, Bonnat. (898.) 

Passes through the district, in small numbers, in spring and 
autumn. Specimens were shot on the 18th April and 15th 
September. 

Hydrophasianus chirurgus, Scop. (9 CI.) 

This species, not included in Major Biddulph's list, seems 
to be merely a straggler to our district. The only specimen 
seen in Gilgit, an adult male in breeding-plumage, was shot 
on the 26th April; it was found on a pool of w r ater near the 
Gilgit river, and was solitary. The following are measure- 
ments of this example: — Length, 17 inches ; wing, 78 ; tail, 
8 - 9; tarsus, 2; mid-toe and claw, 31 ; hind claw, T15 ; bill to 
gape, 1-24. 

220.— Fulica atra, Lin. (9C3.) 

Common in spring and autumn on passage. I never observed 
it in winter. Many specimens were obtained from the first 
week in March to the middle of April. 

221.— Gallinula chloropus, Lin. (905.) 

I found this species common on passage, throughout April 
and October only. 

222.— Porzana maruetta, Leach. (909.) 

My specimens of this Rail were obtained from the 12th to 
the end of April. Some birds breed in the district; but, 
owing to their shy disposition, I failed to ascertain the date of 
their departure in autumn. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILQIT. 143 

223.— Porzana bailloni, Vieill. (910.) 

A summer visitor in small numbers to the main valleys, 
especially where rice is cultivated. A few pairs breed about 
Gilgit. 

224.— Porzana parva, Scop. (910 bis.) 

This species appears merely to pass through the district in 
spring and autumn. It is found in Sindh in winter ; and the 
birds that visit us probably breed further north. I shot 
three specimens in Gilgit between the 5th October and 2nd 
November ; and these agree perfectly with European examples 
of this Rail with which I have compared them. 

225.— Crex pratensis, Bechst. (910 quat.) 

I obtained only a single specimen of the Corncrake at 
Gilgit, on the 8th October ; the bird was found on a small 
■watercourse which ran by the side of a field of Indian corn. 
The species was never observed on any other occasion. My 
example, a female, measured : — Length, 10 inches ; wing, 5*4 ; 
tail, 2*25 ; tarsus, 1*5 ; middle toe and claw, 1*5 ; bill from gape, 1. 
The bill was flesh-coloured, grey at the tip ; irides brown ; feet 
drab ; claws pale brown. The specimen agrees perfectly in 
plumage with English examples with which I have com- 
pared it. 

226. — Rallus aquaticus, Lin. (914 bis.) 

A migratory species in Gilgit, occurring in small numbers 
from the middle of March to the end of April. I did not 
ascertain the date of its passage iu autumn ; but it does not 
seem to breed in the district, and certainly is not found 
there in winter. My specimens agree perfectly with European 
examples of this species. Rallus indlcus, of which I have 
examined Chinese, Japanese, and Indian examples, is distin- 
guished from R. aquaticus by having a dark brown or dusky 
stripe continued from the lores under the eye and over the 
upper part of the ear-coverts ; but there is apparently no other 
constant difference. 

227.— Ciconia nigra, Lin. (918.) 

Ths Black Stork is found in Gilgit only on migration in 
spring and autumn. On its passage north it was observed 
from the middle of February to the third week in April, 
sometimes in large flocks of over one hundred birds ; in 
autumn it seems to pass over without halting in the district. 
A fine adult male shot on the 16tb April measured :— Length, 



144 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF GILQIT. 

43-5 inches; wing, 225 ; tail, 10*3 ; tarsus, 8"5 ; bill from gape, 
8-25 ; weight, 7 ft. 

228.— Ardea cinerea, Lin. (923.) 

This Heron is common in Gilgit, according to my obser- 
vation, throughout March and April, when on its way to the 
north, and from the middle of August to the beginning of 
October, when repairing southwards. I have no evidence of 
its breeding in the district. My specimens agree completely 
with European examples, and consequently do not accord with 
the description of Ardea brag from Cashmere. 

229.— Ardetta minuta, Lin. (935.) 

I only secured one specimen of the Little Bittern in Gilgit ; 
it was captured in a rice-field on the 20th September. The 
example, an immature male, agrees well in plumage with 
specimens of a similar age from Holland. Length, 14*3 inches; 
tail, 1*9; tarsus, 1'6; mid-toe and claw, 2*1 j bill from gape, 25. 
Iris bright pale yellow ; orbital skin pale green ; bill pale grey, 
dusky along culmen ; feet green ; claws black. 

230.— Nycticorax griseus, Lin. (937.) 

The Night-Heron is a summer visitor to Gilgit, but is only 
found there in very small numbers ; a few pairs probably 
breed in the district. An adult female, obtained on the 5th 
May, with a wing 11 inches, had a crest 6 inches long, and 
weighed 14 oz. 

233.— Spatula clypeata, Lin. (957.) 

The Shoveller is not uncommon in Gilgit on migration in 
spring aud autumn. I shot specimens from the middle of 
April to the first week in Ma}', and again throughout September. 
A female, shot on the 30th September, is remarkable 
in having precisely the plumage worn by the adult male from 
July to October ; the lesser wing-coverts are glossy grey-blue, 
and the inner half of the speculum bright green. 

234.— Anas boscas, Lin. (958.) 

Although some specimens of the Mallard are to be obtained 
throughout the winter in Gilgit, it is most common there in 
October and November, and again in March aud April, the 
greater number of the birds that visit us evidently wintering 
further south. 

235.— Anas strepera, Lin. (961.) 

This Duck merely passes through the district in spring and 
autumn, hardly making any stay in Gilgit, which is not a 



A CONTRIBUTION TO TIIK ORNITHOLOGY OF GILGIT. 145 

favorable locality for the duck tribe. I obtained specimens 
of the Gadwall in the first week in October, and observed it 
again in March. 

236.— Anas acuta, Lin. (962.) 

I obtained this Duck in Gilgit from the third week in 
September to the end of October, and from the first week in 
February to the middle of April, but never observed it in 
November, December or January. A male, shot on the 28th 
September, is in summer plumage, with the uropygials only 
0*3 longer than the next pair. 

237.— Anas penelope, Lm. (963.) 

The Wigeon evidently only passes through Gilgit on migra- 
tion. I shot a solitary example, the only one I ever saw there, 
on the 23rd March. 

238. — Anas crecca, Lin. (964.) 

Fairly common in October and November, and in March 
and April; a few stragglers only seem to remain with us 
throughout the winter. On the spring migration I obtained 
specimens of this Teal as late as the 26th April. 

239.— Anas circia, Lin. (965.) 

This Teal is more scarce with us than A. crecca, and is onlv 
found during the autumn and spring migrations. I obtained 
it throughout September, and from the first week in March to 
the 2 1st April. 

241.— Fuligula nyroca, Gilld. (969.) 

A through-passer in spring and autumn ; specimens were 
secured on 28th March and 4th October. 

242.— Fuligula cristata, Lin. (971.) 

This species also merely passes through the district on 
migration. I obtained only one specimen in Gilgit on the 
5th March. 

244.— Podiceps fluviatilis, Tunst. (975.) 

Rare, aud only seen on passage. I obtained a female 
near Gilgit in nearly full breeding-plumage on the 5th April. 

Larus ridibundus, Lin. (9S1.) 

The Black-headed Gull, which is not included in Major 
Biddulph's list of Gilgit birds, is a rare visitor to the district, 
apparently on migration. I obtained only one specimen, a 
male in winter plumage, on the 2nd May. 

19 



14 C PHAETON INDICUS, Hume. PHAETON .ffiTHERIUS, &MI. 

247.— Hydrochelidon hybrida, Pall. (984.) 

This Tern is tolerably common about Gilgit in spring and 
autumn. I shot many specimens from the 22nd April to the 
3 3th May, when on its way to its breeding-haunts, and again 
from the 23rd August to the 8th October, while it was passing 
southwards. 

248.— Hydrochelidon nigra, Lin. (984 ter.) 

This species must be expunged from the list of birds of 
Gilgit. Major Biddulph misunderstood my remarks about 
the five Terns I had shot. I was referring to something 
that had been published about the diagnosis of the three 
species of Hydrochelidon ; and I intended to say that, if 
measurements alone were to be relied upon, some of my 
specimens might be H. leucoptera or H. nigra. As a matter 
of fact all the examples referred to are immature H. hybrida. 
It is to be hoped, therefore, under these circumstances that 
Gilgit will not be quoted as a locality for the Black Tern. 

249.— Phalacrocorax carbo, Lin. (1005.) 

This Cormorant is tolerably common along the larger rivers 
in the district. It is a summer visitor to Gilgit, and doubtless 
breeds there. I observed it continuously from the first week 
in March to the middle of September, but never saw it in 
winter. The following are the measurements and weight of 
a female in the plumage of the first year, shot on the 21st 
April : — Length, 305 inches ; wing, 12'7 ; tail, 7 ; outer toe and 
claw, 3*6 ; tarsus, 21 ; bill from gape, 3*6 ; weight, 3 tb. 
13 oz. 



Phaeton indicus, Hume. Phaeton setherius, Lin. 



In Stray Feathers, Vol. I., p. 286, I fully described the 
common Phaeton of the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf and Red 
Sea and Bay of Bengal. 

In Vol. IV., p. 481, I gave further dimensions and particu- 
lars of this species, which I separated as P. indicus, on the 
^rounds that it was altogether a smaller bird than P. atherius, 
with a wing always under 12, against a wing of over 13 in 
(Btherius; central tail feathers always under 13, against 20 to 
30 ; a bill not exceeding 23 at front, against a bill of 25 
to 27 in cetlierius, and a smaller tarsus, &c. Also on the 
grounds that it never assumed the pure white plumage 
attributed to the perfect adult eetherius. I showed also that 



PHAETON INDICUS, Hltme. PHAETON .ETHERfUS, Lin. 147 

Heuglin's measurements and experience entirely confirmed 
my view. 

In Vol. V., p. 302, further particulars were given, and both 
Captain Butler and Mr. Davison from independent observa- 
tions confirmed my view of the distinctness of our Asiatic 
bird. 

Quite recently, despite all this, I find in a newly published 
work, P. indicus calmly treated as a syuonym of P. atherius. 
Under the circumstances, this is simply indefensible, and were 
it not that it may mislead others, who have not had the 
opportunity of examining both species, I should not have noticed 
it. As it is, a few additional remarks on the subject may 
perhaps prevent the further propagation of this misconception. 

I have now obtained and examined 23 specimens of the 
Asiatic species, some of which were shot in every month of 
the year, except April and September. 

I have also obtained, though with great difficulty, a speci- 
men of the Atlantic bird, procured, / believe, at Ascension 
Island. 

All the differences, in size of wing, length of central tail 
feathers, length of bill, size of tarsi, above pointed out, held 
good in all the 23 specimens of indicus, and in the single 
specimen of atherius. 

Further, comparing the specimens, I notice the following 
additional differences. Whether invariably constant, having 
only one specimen of atherius, I cannot of course say ; but they 
are such as can be easily verified where numerous specimens 
of atherius exist. The differences in dimensions and tail 
development are alone sufficient to separate the two species, 
but these further differences, if constant, will conclusively 
demonstrate their distinctness : — 

First as to bills : Though longer, the bill in atherius is 
perceptibly slenderer, and has the angle of the gonys distinctly 
marked, whereas in indicus there is practically no angle. 
In every specimen of indicus, the bill was when fresh (and ia 
so still) a dull red, more or less orange towards the base of 
the lower mandible, and there was, and is, a dark line 
distinctly marked along the entire commissure ; the bill is bright 
coral red, and there is no trace of this line in my atherius. 

Second as to plumage : In indicus, -there is a distinct, though 
very narrow, black line from the nostrils to the gape along 
the margin of the feathers ; there is nothing of this in the 
atherius before me. In atherius, all but the first two pri- 
maries have a conspicuous white margin to the outer 
webs, while in indicus, the fifth or in some birds the 
sixth, primary is the first to show this. In atherius the 
central tail feathers are black or dusky shafted for fully 



148 phaeton indicus, Hume, phaeton ^therius, Lin. 

seven inches beyond the tips of the longest upper tail- 
coverts, while in indicus this is the case for less than two inches 
(in some specimens for less than one inch). The barrings 
on the upper surface, specially on the scapulars of atherius, 
area sort of dusky slatey, while in indicus they are jet black 
in some specimens, and all but black in the rest. A similar 
difference in colour is noticeable in the white margined tertials 
of the two species, and even in that of the subaxillary flank 
tufts. 

Third as to feet. There appeal's to be more black on the feet 
of indicus ; in cetherius the inner long toe is only black on 
the nail and small terminal joint, whereas in indicus the 
black covers the second joint also. 

How far, as I have already said, these minor differences 
would prove constant in a large series of cetherius, I cannot 
say ; but the differences in the colour of the plumage and bills, 
at any rate, would certainly seem so, to judge from the 
following remarks by my friend Major Butler, contained in a 
letter recently received from him: — 

tl A word now about tropic birds. I think I remember your 
discussing the subject of plumage, length of tail, &c, in Stray 
Feathers in the diagnosis of Phaeton indicus of the Mekran 
Coast, and on that account I made a point of examining two or 
three skins of the St. Helena bird, which I take from memory 
(no books on board) to be P. atherius with the following 
results : — 

" Firstly. — The central tail feathers seemed to me greatly to 
exceed the length of any of the Indian specimens I have 
seen, viz., 2j? feet from vent to tip of the longest pair I measur- 
ed ; the feathers were much worn and showed scarcely any 
traces of the web towards the tips. 

" Secondly. — The color seemed to me to differ from that 
of the Indian specimens, vis., (extract from my note book) : — 
' Plumage above beautifully pencilled with dark slatey grey, 
extending to the thighs on either side of the body. Lower parts 
pure glossy white like satin. Bill bright coral red/ 

" Now, as far as I recollect, in the birds I shot along the 
Mekran Coast the markings above were black or nearly so, aud 
the tail very much shorter. As regards the colour of the bill, too, 
there may be some difference; they did not seem the same 
somehow, but this can be easily settled by reference to the 
tickets of your birds and those I sent you." 

It is to be hoped that henceforth no one will place P. indicus 
as a synonym of P. cetherius without specifying clearly why 
they reject the former species, or without a careful comparison 
of a series of both forms. 

A. 0. H. 



149 

Jtote on the pdifkatton of grctea jgoliath. 

By Major E. A. Butler, R I. Rifles. 
On the 17th October 1881 I found a nest of the Giant 
Heron in Natal, about 10 miles east of Newcastle. I had 
visited the spot about the 7th of the month when the birds 
were just commencing to build, and as they rose upon that 
occasion very wild I mistook them for Grus (Paradisea) 
Stanley anus. On re-visiting the place, however, on the 17th 
instant, accompanied by my friend, Captain Reid, R.E., we 
approached the nest under cover of a low undulation in the 
ground which enabled us to get within about 70 yards of one 
of the birds which proved to belong to the present species. 

The nest was situated in the centre of an open valley, and 
placed on the top of a patch of green sedge beaten down by 
the wind and rain, and forming, as it were, a sort of small island 
some 40 or 50 yards from the side of the tank, being raised 
about two feet above the level of the water. It consisted of a 
dense mass of dry sedge and reeds lined with dark-colored 
sedge and a species of aquatic creeper, being about two feet in 
diameter and very flat on the surface and exposed to view 
from all sides. The male bird was sitting, and as we approached 
raised himself off the nest and walked slowly away in an erect 
attitude for a few yards before taking flight. After settling for 
a few minutes on a patch of open ground some hundred yards or 
so from the nest, watching our movements as we separated and 
tried to conceal ourselves in the low rushes close by, he rose 
and flew towards us, when R. fired a long shot, but without 
effect. He then flew off to a distance of 500 or 600 yards, 
alighting fortunately within gun-shot of the river bank, aud 
affording an opportunity for a stalk, which R. promptly seized 
and brought him to bag. The shot only winged him, and as 
he became very savage, tearing up the grass with his bill, and 
showing every intention to fight to the last, R. had to despatch 
him with another cartridge. It was a fine bird measuring as 
follows : — 

Sex L. W. T. Bf. Bg. Exp. 
$ 60 25£ 8.V 7£ 10 87* 

Legs and feet black ; iris bright yellow ; orbital skin, 
plumbeous. 

We did not see the hen bird at all, but another Heron 
(A. cinerea) was feeding within a few yards of the nest when we 
first approached it. The eggs, three in number and quite fresh, 
were very large, but in other respects like the eggs of 
A. cinerea, though perhaps slightly coarser in texture, being 
broad ovals, slightly chalky in texture and of a pale bluish 
white or skim milk color. 



150 



Picus pyrrhothorax, Sp. Nov. ? 



Like P. cathpharius, but differs in both sexes having an intense red 
gorget, in the much greater amount of white on its quills and lateral 
tail feathers, and in the female also having a broad crimson occipital 
band, Sfc. 

At Aimole, in the Eastern Manipur hills, I procured two 
specimens of a most lovely little Woodpecker which I believe 
to be new. 

At any rate, it is none of our hitherto recorded Indian 
Burmese or Malayan species ; it is not one of the Chinese 
species included by Pere David and Oustalet ; nor is it any 
Palsearctic species included by Dresser ; nor is it in Malherbe, 
the P. E. or P. (J., the Fauna Japonica, or any other book I can 
think of. 

It more resembles P. cathpharius than any other species, 
but differs, inter alia, in its intense red gorget, present in both 
sexes ; in the much greater amount of white on the quills and 
lateral tail feathers ; in the female also exhibiting a huge, broad, 
fiery crimson occipital band, &c. 

The following are particulars of my two specimens : — 

Length. Expanse. Tail. Wing. Tarsus. Bill from gape. WeigM. 
? „ 68 117 285 3 72 6 0-8 95 oz. 

6 ... 68 120 24, 385 071 082 095 „ 

Female. — Legs and feet dusky lavender ; claws brown ; bill 
blackish horny, greyish at base of lower mandible ; irides lac red. 

Male. — Legs and feet dull sap green ; claws horny dusky ; 
bill leaden dusky, paler at base of lower mandible ; irides lac red. 

The female, which I procured on the 18th April, and of which 
I quote my full description written before the bird was skinned, 
lias the frontal baud rusty white ; the rest of the forehead 
and crown black ; lores, a band over and below the eye, 
cheeks, and ear-coverts silver white ; a broad black mandi- 
bular stripe down the sides of the neck to the breast ; chin and 
upper throat white ; lower throat buffy. 

Upper breast between the ends of the mandibular stripes 
intense crimson ; from the lower margin of this crim- 
son patch, and the ends of the mandibular stripes, strongly 
marked streaks of black radiate out over the entire breast, the 
ground of which is white, more or less tinged with rusty, and 
this is the colour of the abdomen and sides, though most of the 
feathers are dark shafted, and there is a decided reddish tinge 
on the lower abdomen, just above the vent ; lower tail-coverta 
white, tipped and tinged with rather dull crimson. 



NOVELTIES. 151 

Bnck of neck black ; sides of neck, between this and mandi- 
bular stripe, pale crimson, the white bases of the feathers 
showing through ; entire occiput intense crimson, the feathers 
lengthened so as to form a short full crest. 

Rest of upper surface black, (a little brownish on primaries 
and rectrices,) with the following -white markings : — (1;, secon- 
dary, greater and median coverts pure white; (2), all the 
quills, but the first abortive one, with white spots on both 
•webs, forming in most cases imperfect bars, but there is only 
one white spot, quite at the base, on the outer web of the 
second (first long) primary, and on the next three there are 
no white spots on the inner webs corresponding with the one, 
two, or three terminal ones on the outer web ; (3), only ten visible 
tail feathers, the fifth on each side tipped with white, and with 
two white bars above this, the upper one more or less imper- 
fect ; fourth similar, but with only one bar; third with only a 
trace of a tipping. 

Axillaries and wing lining (except a black patch about the 
shoulder of the wing) white. 

I was sitting at the door of my hut, when the bird above de- 
scribed came and perched, or rather clung, on about the level of 
my eye near the top of a small tree growing down the slope. 
My gun was on my lap and I instantly shot it. After that I 
hunted high and low for others, and on the 26th I shot another, 
a male. 

The male only differs in having the black mandibular stripes 
still broader, and in having tbe black streaking, which, in the 
female, is confined to the breast, denser, and extending over the 
upper abdomen, sides and flanks ; in having the ground of the 
lower surface slightly darker ; in the white spots on the quills 
being smaller and less conspicuous ; and in having less white on 
the lateral tail feathers. 

This may be a young bird, and the adult male may prove 
to be somewhat different, but the specimen seems adult. 



Certhia manipurensis, Sp. Nov. ? 



Like C. discolor, but with a longer bill; (0'82 against 0-75) with a pure 
buff throat and breast, and a dingy bvffy grey loiver abdomen, $-c. 

This was the only Creeper I met with in Manipur, and that 

only in the Eastern hills, where from 5,000 to 6,000 feet it was 

not very uncommon, though by no means abundant. 

Length. Expanse. Tail. Win*. Tarsus. Bill from gape Weight. 
«? ..6 2 8 2 2 72 2-76 64 076 O36oz. 

¥ ... 6 1 8 2 85 26 64 7 032 „ 



152 NOVELTIES. 

Male. — Legs and feet pale fleshy brown ; upper mandible 
blackish ; lower mandible very pale Heshy pink ; irides hazel. 

Female. — Legs and feet brown, with a fleshy tinge ; upper 
mandible dark brown ; lower mandible pale horny pink ; irides 
brown. 

This Creeper belong to the unbarred-tailed section (vide 
S. F., V., 79). In this section C. nipalensis has the tail plain 
brown, the other three stoliczka, discolor and manipurensis all 
have the tail distinctly rufous. 

A glance at the lower surfaces will suffice to distinguish 
the three : — 

Throat and Breast. Loioer abdomen. 

C. stoliczkee ... White, with a warm buff tinge. Rich ferruginous brown. 
C. discolor ... Dingy earthy olive brown, with Dirty brownish grey. 

a faint yellowish shade. 
C. manipurensis ... Pure buff. Dingy buffy grey. 

This species is nearest to discolor, with which I cannot 
help thinking it may have hitherto been confounded. The 
upper surface of the two are almost the same, only the pale 
markings are less buffy, and the bar on the outer webs of the 
primaries, which is a warm buff in discolor, is almost white in 
manipurensis. Moreover, the bill in this latter is longer, running 
to 082 (though several are less) from forehead to tip straight, 
against 0*75 as a maximum (the majority are rather less) in 
discolor. 

No detailed description is necessary. The upper parts 
might be mistaken for discolor, the lower nevei', when specimens 
of the two species are compared. Eveniu a much worn weathered 
specimen, in which the buffy throat and breast are become dull 
and somewhat greyish, the contrast between the colour of these 
parts in the two species at once attracts notice. 



Pomatorhinus austeni, Sp. Nov. t 

Like P. ochraceiceps, but with the upper surface olive brown and the 
flanlcs olivaceous. 

There is a sub-group of three species of this genus, all charac- 
terized by long, compressed slender bills, of which one species 
has now to be described for the first time. They may be thus 
diagnosed : — 

Upper surface Breast and Upper Abdomen. Flanks. 

(1.) Olive brown. Whire. Olivnceous. P. austeni. 

(2.) „ tinged ochraceous.Fulvous buff. Fulvous. P. stenorhynchus. 
(3 ) i, very strongly 

tinged ochraceous. "White. Ochraceous. P. ochraceiceps. 

The first I only know r from the Eastern Manipur hills. The 
second I only know from the easternmost parts of the Debru- 



NOVELTIES. ] 53 

garb district. I got my specimen? from Tippook. Godwin- 
Austen his on the Manbum Tila on the Tenga Pani river near 
Saddia. The third has only been produced in the Central and 
Northern Tenasserim hills, and their offshoot the Karen hills. 
The following: are particulars of the only two specimens of 
austeni that I measured in the flesh : — 



Sex. 


Length. 


Expanse. 


Tail. 


Wing. 


Tarsus. 


Bill from Weight. 




.. 102 
.. 100 


107 
11-0 


45 
475 


3 66 
35 


1-26 
18 


giipe. 
1-47 1 3 oz. 
153 1 31 „ 



Legs and feet pale grey brown with a dull green shade, or 
greyish olive; claws light brown or horny yellow, brownish 
towards tips ; soles yellowish ; bill coral red to orange ver- 
milion ; irides pale buff, or very pale orange, or white, with 
an orange tint. 

Lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts black, brownish on the latter ; 
a long narrow pure white supercilium from the narea nearly 
to the nape; entire upper surface a dull earthy olive brown, 
only on the head, and just behind the ear-coverts, a faint 
ochraceous tinge ; chin, throat, breast, and abdomen pure white ; 
flanks, sides, vent, and lower tail-coverts the same dull earthy 
olive brown, with a faint buffy tinge on the sides of the breast. 

Utterly different looking, as, owing to the great difference in 
colour, it is, this species is a washed out nonrufous edition of 
ochraceieeps, but this striking difference in colour is constant 
between all our Tenasserim and all our Manipur birds, and it 
is impossible to overlook or ignore it. The two birds are 
related to each other precisely as are P. horsfieldi and 
P. obscurti8. 

This species has a more than usually loud chuckling call, 
which it emits perched up on some branch or sloping bamboo, 
some five or six feet from the ground, in the midst of dense 
forest jungle. As soon as I learnt its note, it proved to 
be common enough about all the higher forests of the Eastern 
hills, but I neither saw nor heard it elsewhere. 



Trochalopterum erythrolsema, Sp. Nov. ? 



Like T. erythrocephalum, but with the cheeks and throat uniform with 
the crown. 



There is a small subgroup of Trochalopterums characterized 
by having more or less chestnut about the crown, occiput, or 
nape, the tail and wings conspicuously margined with 
unbroken golden olive or yellow, and a conspicuous wing-patch 

20 



154 NOVELTIES. 

formed by the greater secondary coverts being a more or less 
rich and pure maroon red. This sub-group divides into two ; the 
first division has the plumage of the neck all round, upper back 
;md breast, uniformly colored, i.e , unspotted. Of thia division 
T. melanostigma, Blyth, is the type, and with this division we 
need not at present concern ourselves further. 

The second division always has the plumage of the neck 
all round, and more or less of the upper back and breast, more 
or less marked with darker subtermiual lunules or spots. This 
sub-division includes at least four species : — 

/Cheeks and throat 
I —Entire top and back N blackish ... 1 T. erjthrocephalum, Vig. 

of head red. 1 Cheeks ami throat 

C uniform with crown 2 T. erjthrolsema, Hume. 
II.-Hinder part of f cbin and ear . coverts 
crown, occiput and nape<j gfey 3 T ruficapLllum) Bl ^ 

f Chin black, ear-coverts 
HI. — Occiput only red-^ black, margined sil- 

(^ verj ... 4 T. chrjsopterum, Qould. 

I only obtained one specimen of this new species, which, 
though coming from the Eastern hills of Manipur (near 
Matchi), is far more nearly allied to the Western Himalayan 
erythrocephalum than to the Eastern Himalayan chrysopterum, 
or the Assamese hill ruficapillnm. 

The following are the dimensions and other particulars of 
my specimen : — 

Male. — Length, 10 3 ; expanse, 118 ; tail, 4*5; wing, 3*7; 
tarsus, 1*5; bill from gape, 107. Weight, 236 ozs. 

Legs and feet fleshy brown, pinker on feet; bill blackish 
brown ; irides grey. 

The lores blackish dusky; the extreme tip of the chin dusky; 
rest of chin, entire throat, cheeks, ear-coverts, upper neck all 
round, forehead, crown, occiput and upper part of nape, deep 
chestnut red, a little brighter on top of head, a little duller on 
the throat; upper breast similarly colored but paler; lower 
breast and upper abdomen paler again, and much yellower and 
rustier ; most of the feathers on these parts with subtermiual 
blackish spots, beyond which the tips are fringed paler ; 
middle of lower abdomen pale ferruginous, unspotted. 

Sides of body and abdomen, flanks, vent and lower tail-coverts 
a dull olivaceous earth brown ; tibial plumes much the same, 
but with just a faint touch of the colour of the middle lower 
abdomen ; wing lining grey, but some of the feathers just 
tipped with reddish or orange ferruginous ; interscapulary 
region a pale greenish olive grey, all the feathers with large 
blackish brown subterminal spots, succeeded by a paler fringe ; 
space between iuterscapulary region, and where the uniform 
red of the nape ends, similar and similarly spotted to the 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM CATALOGUE OF BIRDS, VOL. V. 155 

former, but more or less overlaid with the bright red of the 
crown, and with a yellower tinge of this ; lower back, rump, 
upper tail-coverts, tertiaries and tail, where not tinged with 
golden, the same pale greenish olive grey, as the ground of the 
interscapulary region. All the tail feathers tinged and 
margined on their outer webs, most strongly towards their 
bases, with a somewhat olivaceous golden ; outer webs of 
primaries and secondaries a brighter shade of this same golden ; 
inner webs deep hair brown ; primary coverts mostly golden ; 
secondary and tertiary greater coverts rich maroon chestnut ; 
their median and lesser ones a paler tint of this mingled with 
}-ellow. 



®he British Utttseum (Eaiatope of girds, #ol. V. 
$ijr giro # uUhn. 



I have too long already delayed to notice this valuable addi- 
tion to Ornithological Literature, aud yet even now I find it 
impossible to make the time to review it alike as its merits 
deserve, and as in the interests of our favourite science would 
be desirable. 

To delay any longer, however, in calling attention to the 
mass of honest painstaking labour which this volume repre- 
sents, would be an act of ingratitude to one to whom all orni- 
thologists are greatly indebted ; and I must, therefore, faute de 
mieux, content myself with such brief remarks as shall induce 
brothers of the craft in India to study it for themselves, and 
leave to a time of greater leisure the detailed review that to 
my mind this volume specially demands. 

In Volume V. we are presented with a catalogue of the 
known species of the Family of the Turdid^e, as defined by 
Mr. Sharpe — a definition which I cannot but agree with Mr. 
Seebohm fails to synthesize a natural group, and on the 
contrary includes parts of two quite distiuct groups. To avoid, 
as far as possible, the confusion that would result from this 
arrangement, Mr. Seebohm divides all the species fallinor 
within Mr. Sharpe's definition into two sub-families — the 
Sylviisle or Warblers, and the Turdin^] or Thrushes. Of course 
this only partially meets the difficulty, for the definition of the 
Turdidce, being such as it is, many of the most closely allied 
genera find themselves in different families, while united in the 
same family with many but distantly related ones. 

It is, however, only fair to recall that Mr. Sharpe himself was 
fully cognizant of the difficulties which his modification of 



156 THE BRITISH MUSEUM CATALOGUE OF BIRDS, VOL. V. 

Sundevall's system, equally with this latter, involves. He 
remarks (Vol. IV., p. 6) : — 

" In attempting to draw a hard and fast line between groups 
which nature has connected by intermediate forms, the difficulty 
of dealing with the connecting links has to be faced. I have 
preferred to accept a line which is capable of definition even in 
cases where forms, apparently nearly allied, must be separated, 
beii y convinced that any line, wherever drawn, must be subject 
to the same objection." 

This is equivalent to the assumption that the line in question 
is as good as any other that can be drawn ; but when I find 
that Hue, to give two instances, uniting a ground feeding Thrush 
like Cochoci) with Bemipus and TepArodomis , and these again 
with Platylophtis and Hypocolius, and on the other hand 
dividiuor off into different families Cettia and Prinia, I confess 
that I, personally, think but poorly of that line, and look 
forward to the drawing of a very different line, open to much 
less serious objections. 

Mr. Sharpens work is admirable, but, to my idea, the frame 
in which he has placed it is most artificial and unnatural. 

But to return to the present volume. In a most interesting 
preface Mr. Seebohm gives some idea of the principles by 
which he has been guided in his work. He explains that he 
has rejected the old-fashioned axiom that genera must be 
founded upon structural characters, because he is convinced 
that these so-called structural characters have no generic value 
at all, and has fallen back for his generic characters upon colours, 
or pattern of colour, as a character which in fact dates further 
back than the shape of the wings, tail, or bill. 

Without stopping to enquire for the proof on which this last 
assertion is based, I may say that to my mind the results of 
this novel system appear in the highest degree unsatisfactory ; 
and that, for instance, each of Mr. Seebohm's genera Geocichla, 
lurdus and Merula constitute a melancholy jumble of discre- 
pant forms. If we are to have citrina, Lath., monticola, Vig., and 
wardi., Jerd, in one genus, then at least let us return to the 
simplicity of Linue, and keeping only l^urdus, discard, along 
with all the other genera, Geocichla and Menda. There is 
no logical standpoint between Turdus, solus and some fifteen or 
seventeen genera. 

But the idea of structual characters for genera is not the 
only old-fashioned notion that Mr. Seebohm has felt impelled to 
reject. He feels equally bound to reject those rules of the British 
Association Code of scientific nomenclature, which do not meet 
his approval. Of course he gives very weighty reasons for his 
violations of the law — reasons that, if considered only with 
reference to the particular instance, might well be allowed to 



'IH-S BRITISH MUSEUM CATALOGUE OF BIRDS, VOL. V. 157 

carry a favourable verdict. But the fact is that, in such 
cases, references to particular instances are inadmissible. 

The question must be looked at as a whole if we are to arrive 
at any sound conclusion. 

Now, taking the question as a whole, it is obvious that 
the most important point, from a purely scientific point of 
view, where nomenclature is concerned, is to ensure uniformity. 
Uniformity can only be secured in such a case by general 
adherence to fixed rules — by a code in fact. But a code, 
however good, is useless if every individual, nominally subject 
to its sway, is to be allowed to disregard it iu such particulars 
as he pleases. If Mr. Seebohm would disregard the code in 
certain particulars, others would wish to do so in others, e.g., 
I should wish to adopt all good binominal names, whether 
prior to 1766 or not. If one may violate, all may violate ; 
if one rule may be broken, all may be broken ; the code 
becomes obsolete, each naturalist acts in accordance with his 
personal predilections, and hopeless confusion replaces orderly 
uniformity. It is childish for any one ornithologist to dream 
that he may make amendments in the law, and that others 
will adopt these and read them, as the lawyers say, as 
part of the code. Let him be ever so wise, his emendations 
lack authority. I have met men who conceived that they 
could profitably rewrite and amend sundry chapters in the 
Bible. One very pious and learned man who has done so 
is still living ; but could any individual learning, eloquence 
or virtue give authority to such " revised versions ?" So it 
is with the code ; the emendations that one man approves 
carry no weight, no authority with others, and if they follow 
him at all, it will only be in his bad example of transgressing 
the code, whose rules they will violate, probably in a precisely 
contrary direction. 

There is no half-way house. You must either have a code 
rigidly obeyed and with it uniformity, or each left to his 
own devices and chaos. 

I am no blind admirer of the British Association Code, which 
modern science has sadly outgrown. I have persistently urged 
a conference of the most distinguished naturalists to revise 
and repromulgate it ; but until this is done, and so long as 
that old code remains unrepealed, I cannot but esteem every 
naturalist who knowingly violates its provisions as one who 
wilfully obstructs uniformity, and thus, pro tanto, impedes 
progress. 

But though it seems to me impossible to approve Mr.Seebohm's 
principles, we can scarcely do otherwise than appreciate and 
extol what may in contradistinction be called his practice. 
The work before me contains the most abundant evidence 



158 NOTES. 

of long and patient toil, and will prove of the greatest service 
to every ornithologist. An immense mass of intricate syno- 
nymy has been disentangled, a wonderful number of facts 
have been collected and carefully arranged ; and though of course 
on a vast number of points of detail every ornithologist is 
sure to differ, very few, if any, could pretend to believe that 
they themselves could, on the whole, have produced equally 
satisfactory results. 

A. 0. H. 



otcs. 



In Vol. VIIL, p. 456, I recorded the capture, by Colonel 
0. St. John, of a pair of White-faced Stiff-tail Ducks (Erisma- 
tura leucocephala) in the neighbourhood of Khelat-i-Ghilzi, 
and I predicted the occurrence of this species as a straggler 
in the Punjab and Sindh. 

In Vol. IX., p. 296, I had the pleasure of recording that Mr. 
F. Field had actually procured a specimen of this species 
about a mile from the civil station of Loodhiana, Punjab. 

Now, much further east, a specimen, a male (immature, 
like the three other previously obtained specimens) has been 
procured at the Najafgarh Jhil near Dehli ; it is almost need- 
less to say by Mr. W. N. Chill, to whom I have owed more 
rarities in the way of water birds than to any other collector 
in India. 

Another rare Duck, an immature female Scaup (Fidigula 
marila) was kindly sent me by Mr. R. M. Stoker, who pro- 
cured it on the 3rd of November, on the Indus, near Attock. 

He recorded the following particulars in the flesh : — 

Length, 14-75 ; expanse, 27'0; tail from vent, 265; wing, 
7'6; tarsus, 1*3 j bill from gape, 175. Weight, 15*25 oz. 
Irides yellow. 

Hodgson, I believe, sent home one specimen, or perhaps more, 
from Nepal. Whether this or any of these were adult I do 
not know ; the only other three specimens that I know to have 
been procured within our limits are • this present specimen, 
and two others from Cashmere, all immature. It is much 
to be regretted that no adult has ever been procured, for 
the small size of all our specimens leads to the suspicion 
that they may possibly, after all, not be assignable to the true 
Fuligula marila, but rather to the smaller little known 
F. mariloides, Richardson, of which Mr. Swinhoe sent home live 



NOTES. 159 

specimens in 1873 to the London Zoo, but of which I have 
hitherto been unable to procure specimens for comparison. 



Mr. J. Strip writes to say that he flushed a Woodcock in 
one of the Kurrachee gardens, though he was unable to pro- 
cure it, as. owing to the number of men, women, and children 
all around, it was too risky to fire. It will be remembered 
that some winters ago, Major Butler bngged a Woodcock in 
the Lyaree Gardens, Kurrachee. 

The question of the occurrence of Bateo desertorum in the 
British Asian Empire has been already a good deal discussed 
in this journal (c. f. IV., 359, V. 65, &c.,) and the conclusion 
arrived at both by Mr. Gurney and myself was that Jerdon's 
B. rufiventer was B. plumipes, and that the occurrence of 
B. desertorum at all in India was extremely doubtful. Now, 
however, while no doubt need be entertained as to the first 
conclusion, it seems almost certain that desertorum does occur, 
as well as plumipes, in the hills of Southern India. 

On the 16th April 1881 my friend Mr. Davison shot a 
small Buzzard on the Brahmagari hills, of which he recorded 
the following particulars: — Male. — Length, 190; expanse, 
44'0 ; tail, 7*4 ; wing, 134 ; tarsus, 2*6 ; bare portion of 
front of tarsus, 1*6; bill from gape, 1*5. Weight, 1^ lbs. 
Legs, feet, cere and gape yellow ; claws and bill black, 
plumbeous at base of lower mandible ; irides whitey brown. 

Now, with a wing of only 13*4, I could make nothing of 
this but desertorum; it could not be plumipes with a wing 
of only 13 - 4, and moreover, though it is difficult to describe 
in words, the plumage was unlike that of any of the specimens 
of plumipes that I have examined. 

A very important question of distribution being involved, 
I sent the specimen to my kind friend Mr. Gurney, our last 
appeal when in doubt as to any Raptorial birds, and I now 
subjoin his decision : — 

" Your curious little Buzzard has reached me safely ; it is, 
I think, either an undescribed species, or an abnormally short- 
winged specimen of B. desertorum. We have 23 specimens 
of B. desertorum in the Norwich Museum, but all of them 
with the wing over 14 inches. The following are the measure- 
ments of one of the smallest, a male, from the Volga : — Wing, 
14*3; tarsus, 2-8; mid-toe, 1*4. 

" At the same time it will be remembered that at pages 65 
and 66 of Stray Feathers, Vol. V., I gave measurements 
considerably below this, viz., 1375, 13"9, 13 8 and 137, and 
quoted from Dresser one of only 13*5. 



160 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

" The plumage of this Volga specimen on the upper parts 
is almost exactly like yours, including the barring on the tail, 
but on the under surface there is more white on the breast 
and abdomen than in your bird, and the brown patches on these 
parts are smaller ; but this does not go for much, as in B. 
desertorum it is rare to see two individuals exactly alike in 
the markings of the under surface, and I, therefore, do not 
attach much importance to the fact that all our Norwich speci- 
mens differ more or less in this respect from your bird, some 
being more white coloured on the under surface and some less 
so, besides many variations of tint or of the shape of the 
markings. I incline to think that your bird may be a very 
small example of B. desertorum, but if others should be here- 
after obtained equally small, I should look upon it as a distinct 
sub-species. I may add that females of B. desertorum usually 
measure in the wing over 15 inches, and we have one that 
measures over 16 inches. So far as I can judge from our 
specimens, the style of colouring and markings in your small 
bird comes nearer to B. desertorum than to B. plumipes." 



letters to the (Editor. 



Sir, 

I write to inform you that a very fine Likh Florican, 
in full bleeding plumage, has just been shot in the lowland by 
the race course below my house. A pair were flushed together, 
but the hen escaped. I am in one sense very sorry that the 
bird was shot, as they were doubtless breeding •, but imprimis, 
the business may have been concluded, and the female may 
now carry it on alone ; and in secundis, I doubt if the brood 
could be reared in the locality, as it will be put under water 
next month. I have begged the sportsmen to spare the bird 
if she be flushed again. But the Rain Quail are in thousands 
there, and there are half a dozen guns out morning and 
evening, so I fear she has but little chance if she stays on 
this side. 

The ear-plumes are fully five inches long. 

A. M. Markham. 
Allahabad, 16th July 1881. 



Sir, 

As the distribution of the Painted Francolin is still a 
little uncertain, I think it may be worth recording that I came 
across a good lot of them this vear at Kaili in the Western 



LETTEHS TO THE EDITOR. 161 

Ghats, in the valley of the Indra} r ani, immediately below the 
celebrated Buddhist excavations. Karli is not above five 
miles from the u Great Divide" of the range. As the species 
generally avoids forest country, I should not have expected 
it to occur so near the Ghat edge. I found the birds however, 
and looked in vain for the forests. The country hereabout 
lias much more of a plains facies than one would expect from 
its close proximity to the Ghat watershed. Here and there 
is a tiny patch of thick jungle which has escaped the axe, 
only because it is sacred to a rustic deity. But the hill sides 
geuerally are bleak and bare, while in the valley below lie 
rice and wheat fields, alternating with stretches of desiccated 
flats riddled all over by burrowing land crabs, and covered 
in patches with coarse hummocky thatch grass. This grass 
and the bushes and hedges round the fields provide all the 
cover wanted by the Partridges. I flushed a few, however, 
in a temple grove with thick undergrowth where possibly 
they had nests, which I failed to discover. 

G. Vidal. 
May 2nd 1881. 

P. S. — Having kept the above till now I am able to add that I 
have since found Painted Francolins at one or two other localities 
near the Western Ghats, viz., at Khadkalla on the G. I. P., 
ten miles east of Karli, and in the same valley, and again 
in the valley north of the Karli caves, at a point rather nearer 
the edge of the Ghats than Karli. 

G. V. 

June 27th, 1881. 



Sir, 

I send a few further notes in regard to birds men- 
tioned in your Game Birds : — 

The Lesser Florican or Likh, Vol. I., page 33, et seq. 

Mr. W. G. Probyn, C.S., in 1872, shot a Likh near Koomar- 
heira, in the Saharunpore district. I never heard before or 
since of the Likh having been met with in the Saharunpore or 
any adjacent district. 



The Great Indian Bustard, Vol. 1., page 7, et seq. 

I have been informed that this bird was seen during the 
cold weather of 1879-80 iu the Budaon district. It is said to 
breed iu this district. My informant was a native, however, 
and I cannot be certain as to whether he has not mistaken a 

21 



162 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Florican for a Bustard. My informant was very positive that 
the bird does come into the Ganges Kadir to breed. 

In my note on this bird, which is published in Vol. III. of 
the " Game Birds," I told you that the Bustard was not uncom- 
mon in the Mozuffernugger district. During the cold weather 
of 1879-80 a Bustard was shot in that district and brought into 
Roorkee. 



The Bengal Florican, Vol. 1., page 25, et seq. 

In a late number of the Asian Mr. A. M. Markham states 
that " the Bengal Florican is very common in the Kadir of 
the Ganges (right bank) in the Mozuffernuggur and Saharun- 
pore districts, especially in the former." 

I must beg to differ from Mr. Markham. The bird is occa- 
sionally met with in Mozuffernuggur, but it is very rare in the 
Saharunpore district. I shot from 1871 to 1879 steadily in the 
Ganges Kadir of the Saharunpore district, and never once came 
across the bird in it. During this long period I repeatedly 
shot in the Ganges Kadir of the Mozuffernuggur Tehsil, and 
on only one occasion did I kill, or even flush, a Florican. I 
shot too for three weeks one year in the Jansut Tehsil (Mo- 
zuffernuggur) which adjoins the Meerut district. I know the 
Ganges Kadir well from Hurdwar to Bhokaheri, fairly well 
from below that to the edge of the Meerut district. I have 
frequently shot over this country with two, three, and four 
guns. During all these years that I was in the Saharunpore 
district, this tract was steadily shot too by the officers of the 
Roorkee garrison, and ridden over both by them and by the 
officers of the Meerut garrison, yet 1 never heard of a Florican 
having been killed by an officer of either garrison. I know 
that a brace or two of Florican are yearly killed in the Ganges 
Kadir somewhere between Hurdwar and the edge of the- 
Aligurh district in the Kadir of the Ganges, but the bird can- 
not be said in this tract to be anywhere " very common," or 
even common. 

I saw a brace of Florican killed in the Doodla swamp, or 
rather near it, on the left bank of the Ganges in the Bijnore 
district. Colonel J. T. Watson of the Bengal Army killed a 
brace of Florican in the Ganges Kadir of the Saharunpore dis- 
trict, some ten or twelve years ago. I have heard of three or 
four brace of Florican having been killed by a party some years 
ago near the Seekree jheel, which is below Bhokaheri, in the 
Mozuffernuggur district. I have twice flushed Florican myself 
in the Saharunpore district, once near Bussee, and once near 
Deobund. Neither pjace is in the Ganges Kadir or near it. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 1(33 

The Painted Sandgrouse, Vol. I., page 59, et seq. 

I saw twice these birds being hawked about for sale last 
rains at jubbulpore in the Central Provinces. A Gond told 
me that these birds were not uncommon on the tops of the 
jungle covered hills adjaceut to the station. 



The Grey Lag Goose, Vol. III., page 56, et seq. 

This bird is called in the upper part of the Doab tl budl- 
bay" with heavy dal. The dental sound is clearly pronounced 
to distinguish the bird from the pig, commonly called in those 
parts " bud." The Grey Lag is very common in the Saharun- 
pore and Mozuffernuggur districts. I have never shot any 
other kind in them. I never heard the word Sona applied to 
a goose in those districts. 



The Whistling Teal, Vol. III., page 109, et seq. 

This bird is common in Saharunpore along the Ganges and 
Eastern Jumna canals from May to October. The bird here 
disappears. 

F. W. Butler, Major. 
Etah, March 30th, 1881. 



Sir, 

I see that you have no correspondent from this part 
of Sylhet, and I, therefore, send you a few notes. I shall deal 
chiefly with the Wild Fowl, as that is the chief shooting we get 
here. 

The Gre} r Lag Goose occurs here in great numbers in a 
favourable year, that is to say, when there is plenty of water 
in the bheels. The last season, 1880-81, there have been very 
few. The season before, 1879-80, they were in great numbers. 
They are very difficult to get near. 

The Barred-headed Goose is rare here. I have killed one 
this season. There was a flock of seven. I saw the remaining 
six several times afterwards, but did not succeed in killing 
another. From the little I have seen of them I should say 
they were not nearly so wild as the Grey Lag. 

The Cotton Teal is common here all through the year. They 
are in the greatest numbers at the beginning and end of the 
rains. In the months of November, December and January, 
when the bheels are swarming with other kinds of Teal, Duck, 
and Geese, you hardly see any of the Cotton Teal. I don't 
know the reason of this, but such is the fact. 



164 LHTTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

The Whistling Teal is also common here throughout the year, 
and breeds, though not in any great numbers. They breed 
here chiefly in the thick grass on the bheels, and do not, 1 
think, frequent trees much — at least I have never seen one on a 
tree. This season, owing to there being little water on the 
bheels, all the Whistling Teal disappeared about the end of 
November, and have not put in an appearance again yet. In 
1879-80, the Whistling Teal were in enormous numbers in 
November and December. 

I have seen flocks of at least 2,000. They were very 
wild, and the only way we could get at them was by standing 
up to our waists in water, and sending boats round to drive ; in 
this way they gave very pretty shooting. 

The larger Whistling Teal is by no means uncommon here. 
The seasou of 1879-80, self and a friend used to shoot on an 
average at least once a week all through the season, and we 
frequently killed the larger Whistling Teal ; for twenty common 
Whistling Teal we would get about three or four larger Whistling 
Teal. This last season we have not killed any, though we have 
shot regularly all through the season. Whether or not they 
breed here 1 am unable to say, but I expect a few do. 

The Ruddy Sheldrake is fairly common here, usually seen 
in pairs or small parties of four or five. I have never seen 
them in large flocks, though a friend tells me that in the 
cold weather of 1878 he frequently saw them in large 
flocks here. They are fearfully wary birds, chiefly frequenting 
small pools, and in a flat country like this you may imagine 
they are not very easily circumvented. They arrive here about 
the end of October, and leave about the end of March. 

The Common Sheldrake is, I fancy, a very rare bird here. I 
have killed one this season, and the boatmen who were with 
me said they had never seen a duck like that before. I have 
seen altogether five. Upon the first occasion, upon which I saw 
this duck, there were four of them, and I managed to kill one 
at very long range. (This was on January 9th, 1881). The 
remaining three settled about a quarter of a mile off on the 
mud, but I could not get within shot again. On March 6th, I 
saw one of these birds. He was swimmiug about on a small 
pool, with some Common Teal, but was very wary, and though 
I did my best, I could not get a shot. 

Shovellers, Pintails, Common and Blue-winged Teal are all 
fairly numerous from December to about the beginning of 
March. Here they are all very wild — the Shoveller, I think, 
being least so. 

With regard to Snipe I think the Fantails predominate in 
the early part of the season, and the Pintails at the end. The 
Snipe we are getting now in scrub jungle are all Pintails almost 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 165 

without exception. Out of 63 Snipe killed by self and a 
friend, within the last few weeks (end of March aud beginning 
of April) 59 were Pintails, 3 Fantails and 1 Painted Snipe. 
However, this next season I will keep an account carefully, and 
let you know the result. 

Painted Snipe are rather rare. We have only killed six 
altogether all through the season, shooting every week, and I 
have only seen one more, so that I think they cannot be very 
common. 

Jack Snipe are not at all uncommon. I see from my diary 
that on November 21st last year, out of 22 Snipe I killed, four 
were Jacks, aud in the early part of the season, from October 
to the end of November, every time we went out we used to 
get a few Jacks, though, excepting the day I have mentioned, 
we never got more than three in one day. 

Golden Plover occur here in enormous quantities throughout 
the cold weather. I mention this as I hear they are rather 
scarce in Cachar. 

I fancy many other kinds of Wild Fowl occur here, but I 
have only mentioned those I have been able to identify. For 
instance I fancy the Grey Duck and Gadwall must occur here, 
but I have not as yet been able to identify them. 

Mirzapore Tea Estate, Sylhet, M. Eden. 

6th April 1881. 

Sir, 

By same post I send you a skin just received from a 
friend in Bombay for identification. Is it not male Excalfactoria 
chinensis* ? 

I think you have never heard of it in these parts. 

Some years ago I got one in a gram field quite surrounded 
by high and well irrigated sugarcane crops here in Pooua. 

This one was procured near the Vehar Lake, Bombay. 

Poona, H. Wenden. 

13th November 1881. 



Sir, 

I write to inform you of my having succeeded in 
getting a Sula, which, from your description of the Boobies in 
Volume V of Stray Feathers, I believe to be cyanops. 

The measurements agree fairly with Captain Butler's in 
page 307, and the only differences I find are that the irides 
in my specimeu were lemon yellow aud not pale green ; and 
instead of the plumage of head, back, and uuderparts being 

* Yea.— Ei>., S. F. 



K5G LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

entirely white, the bind neck and round to below the nude 
pouch are mottled with dusky, as is also the lower back and 
rump and the lesser eoverts. 

The following are the measurements : — 

Male. — Length, 32^ ; bill at front, 4 ; gape, 4| ; tail from 
vent, 8 ; tarsus, 2£. Irides lemon yellow ; bill horny, blackish at 
base; both mandibles denticulated or serrate for one-half their 
length from tip ; head, ueck, upper back, breast, abdomen, and 
lower tail-coverts white, with a very slight yellowish tinge ; the 
feathers of the neck all round from below the nude pouch, and also 
a 8mall space behind each eye, tipped with dusky brown, also 
those of the lower back and rump, but broadly ; the primaries 
were cut by the fisherman who brought in the bird, and as 
much as can be seen are chocolate brown, and also are the 
secondaries, tertiaries, scapulars and greater coverts ; the bases 
of all white ; lesser coverts white, with tippings and broad 
dashes of the same chocolate brown ; the outer webs of 
some of the scapulars are white ; tail chocolate brown, or a 
shade darker than the primaries ; legs and feet slaty blue. 

Can this be a young* bird? It was got on the 9th July. 
The fisherman who brought it in said there were three flocks of 
about 30 in each, about three miles out of the harbour, and that 
the specimen I have entangled itself in his net. The man 
also said it was the first of its kind ever seen in or about the 
Kurrachee Sea. 

Kurrachi, James A. Murray. 

26th August 1881. 

Sir, 

I believe that Glareola lactea has not yet been 
recorded from Sind. I found them very common at Kotri. My 
first specimens were obtained on the 20th February. On dissec- 
tion I found that they were about to breed. Early in March 
I unfortuuately sprained my knee, and was unable to go after 
them, but on the 10th I managed to drive along the banks of 
the Indus, and about a mile downstream I found a small island 
literally swarming with birds, evidently breeding. They com- 
prised the following kinds : — Sterna seena, Rhynchops albicollis, 
Glareola lactea, and a pair of Esacus recurvirostris. I made 
arrangements next day to have the eggs taken. I could not go 
myself as 1 could scarcely put my foot to the ground, so I sent 
a Bheel shikaree with my gun, but he was arrested before ho 
had gone half a mile for carrying arms, and the gun taken 
from him, and it was only after a deal of bother that I got it back. 
On the 15th I again drove down, but found that during the 

* Yes, clearly an immature bird.— Ed., S, F. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 167 

night the river had unexpectedly risen, and my island had 
disappeared. On the 3rd April I again went down, and cross- 
ing the river made as thorough a search as was possible. On 
the sandy bank just below Kotri, I found it very trying work, 
as my crutches (I could not dispense with them) sank several 
inches into the mud at every step. My diligence was rewarded 
by finding three nests (or holes would be the more correct 
term) containing, respectively, two, two, and one egg, all hard 
set, not so much, but I made decent specimens of them. The 
two pairs were of the usual type, but the single egg was very 
deficient in color, and densely clouded at the larger end with 
pale underlying patches of purple. I attribute the fact of 
there being but one or two eggs in each batch to the birds 
having commenced to lay on the island before it was flooded, 
and were forced to finish laying in the nearest suitable place. 
The spot where I procured these eggs was not an unfrequented 
one, neither was it a spit of land ruuning into the water, and 
scores of people passed it daily, yet the eggs were not in any 
way concealed. This, I believe, is contrary to their usual 
habits. 

I can only find a record of one specimen of Tchitrea paradisi 
having been obtained in the province. I shot a second one in a 
babool grove to the east of the camp. There seems also a 
doubt of the occurrence of Gallicrex cinereus. I flashed one 
from a caper thicket in 1879 during the inundation. I was not 
aware at the time of its rarity, so did not preserve the skin ; 
there is no mistake, I know the bird well, having examined 
specimens in the Kurrachee Museum, and in addition the desic- 
cated remains were seen by Mr. Murray a day or two after. 

I am not aware that any eggs of Coccystes jacobinus have 
been recorded as taken in Sind. I took one on the 20th August 
1879 from a nest of Chatarrheea caudata. 



H. E. Barnes. 



Hyderabad Sind, 
26U April 1881. 



Sir, 

Regarding the " Great Indian Bustard" let me inform 
you that I shot one some years ago, three miles west of 
Arupacottah, a large village in the Madura district. On that 
occasion I saw seven or eight Bustard. I have repeatedly seen 
eight or ten of a morning near the same place, which is on the 
borders of Madura and Tinnevelly. 

The Tamil name for the Bustard seems to me very appro- 
priate. It is called the Kanal-Myle (the " I" is not pronounced 



168 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

in the double word), or " Mirage Pea Fowl/' from the Tamil 
words Kanal, meaning Mirage, and Myle, a Pea Fowl. The 
Bustard come to these plains (in Tiuuevelly and Madura) about 
September and October. 

In the Kuruool district (Deccan) Bustard are often to be had 
in the cold weather. 

In the first week of June this year a Florican {hen, of 
the Lesser Florican or Likh) was caught near this place, 
Rajahmundry, by a native shikari, and brought in to me. I 
have never before come across them in this district so early as 
this. I have shot three and four of a morning in December and 
January. About Ongole, in the Nellore district of this Presi- 
dency, there are plenty of Florican. 

Rajahmundry, Charles A. Tostems, 

10*A July 1881. Major, Staff Corps. 



Sir, 

The following notes may be useful : — 

1st. — The Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus). I shot 
one of these out of a flock of about 20, on the Kanawan jheel, 
near Gurdaspore, Punjab, in 1853, with a bullet. 

2nd. — Whistling Teal {Dendrocygna javanica). The first I 
ever shot was at Kishnagur, near Calcutta, in 1849, and the 
next I shot was at Firoza, Bhawulpore, in 1879. 

3rd. — The Shieldrake {Tadorna cornuta). I shot a pair of these 
in 1873 on some salt lakes in the sand hills between the 
Chenab and the Indus, near Moozuffernuggur. 

4th. — In December 1879 I shot several Marble Duck at 
Firoza (133 miles down Indus Valley Railway) in the 
Bhawulpore territory, and also near Gurdaspore, Punjab. 

6th. — In December 1879, at Firoza, Bhawulpore, I shot a 
female Anas falcata. I had it stuffed, and I showed it to 
Major Marshall who was then at Lahore, and he said it was 
a female Anas falcata. 

Qt//. — In May 1878 I shot a female Merganser at Tangrote 
Ferry, on the Poonch river. 

Conoor, J. H. McLeod, Major-General 

Sth February 1881. Retired R A. 



Sir, 

I see you say at page 12, Vol. II., of the " Game 
Birds/' that you yourself have never seen the Black Partridge 
calling from off a tree. I may mention that this morning (April 
15th, 1881) I watched for some time a Black Partridge (male) 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 109 

sitting 1 on a jhow bush, and calling vigorously. I got 
quite close and watched him some time, so that there could be 
no mistake. He was about six feet off the ground. 

J. Burn Murdoch, 
Jacobabad, Sindh, Lieutenant R.E. 

lbth April 1881. 

Sir, 

In your remarks on the Barred-headed Goose, you 
write, " I have no record as yet of its occurrence iu Tipperah, 
or any part of Assam." 

On the 22nd, in steaming up the Brahmaputra, and when 
within about six or eight miles of Dhubri, the first Assam 
station, I saw a pair of Barred-headed Geese swimming in the 
river. I watched them for some time through a telescope, until 
the near approach of the steamer put them to flight. 

On the same day, and within two miles of Dhubri, I saw a 
Shelldrake, of which you also say that it has never been 
recorded near Assam. 

On the 26th, returning from Dhubri, and when about 15 
miles down the river, I noticed a wounded Shelldrake amongst 
a number of Brahminy Ducks, moving about on a saud bank 
just topping the water. Two miles further on 1 saw a couple 
sitting on the dry saud close to the waters' edge. 

Saidpore, W. Forsyth. 

Slst March 1881. 



Sir, 

At last I have succeeded in procuring the original 
description of Reguloides trochiloides, which I subjoin for the 
benefit of Indian ornithologists : — 

Since it was a Calcutta bird that Sundevall describes, this 
pretty well settles the matter, for the common species at 
Calcutta is N. Jiavo-olivaeeus. But you have, I think, one of 
the white-bellied species in your museum, a Shillong one, so 
the identification is not absolutely conclusive. If that 
Shillong one is the white-bellied bird, the fact of its being 
the only Indian example seen, is in favour of Sundevall's 
bird being the well known one. I believe there is no type to 
be found. There is the other question as to whether the 
white bellied form is distinct, or whether this species may not 
be very occasionally subject to a want of colour in the belly. 
But to me it appeared to possess, like Reguloides superciliosus, 
a silky shining white below, showing a different quality of 
feather as in the two Reguloides — humii and super ciliosus. 

22 



170 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Seebohm has borrowed the white-bellied specimen* you lent 
me, and he won't be back till the end of this month from 
Russia. We will have a regular deliberation over the bird 
before I return it to you. I will also try and get your Sylvia 
alihea\ that he borrowed. 

I went to the British Museum last week and examined 
the types (three) of Horornis jlaviventris, Hodgson. All 
are from Nepal, and without dates. Above they are 
much about the same tone of colour as Dumeticola 
affinis ; below they are much like a yellowish Horornis 
fortipes. There is no spotting on the breast, but one 
is very slightly mottled on the chin and upper throat. 
The breast is browner than the throat and abdomen. The 
tone of the bird below by no means warrants the name of 
Jlaviventris. One of the three has the lower tail-coverts 
tolerably perfect. These are brown, with broad, pale brownish 
white margins in the true Dumeticola, Tribura and Locustella 
fashion. The wing is also that of a Dumeticola, and so is 
the very rounded tail, with the outer feathers a good half inch 
short of central feathers. The wings of one specimen mea- 
sure 1*97; of the quills the third=7tb, fourth=6th, and 
second=12th or 13th. 

This bird has the most perfect wing of the three, and may 
be relied upon. The length of tail is 1*65 ; tarsus, *75 ; bill 
at front, *33 ; from centre of nostril, *29. 

To me the species looks much like unspotted Tribura ajjinis 
(Dumeticola ajjinis, Hodgs.), and may be the young of that 
species or the bird in a yellowish plumage ; but I am not sure 
about its being ajjinis, for the latter has, as a rule, a longer 
wing, and the third feather is proportionally longer, there being 
a greater distance or step between second and third than in 
Jlaviventris. 

You will see by the above formula of the wings that the 
bird is not Horornis at all. In this conclusion Blyth was 
quite right. The birds you have from Mandelli asH.Jlavi- 
ventris are, I think, Horornis (iV 'eornis) flavo-olivacea. 

I examined the types of Horornis assimilis, one presented 
by the Secretary of State for India, and the other by B. H. 
Hodgson. The colouration is precisely that of fortipes. 

No. 1.— Wing, 1-85 ; tail 1-80. 

No. 2.— Wing, 1-9 ; tail, 1*7 ; tarsus, 1-79. 

Both are from Nepal. You long ago suggested that this 
was the young of fortipes. Seebohm thinks them on\y fortipes, 
and I think so too. They are rather small as regards wing, 

* And of course has not returned it. — Ed., S. F. 

•(• This, let me do him the justice to say, he has returned.— Ed., S. F. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 171 

but you will see when you compare your examples with the 
above dimensions. I think I would discard Horornis assi- 
milis as a bad species. Tribura flaviventris also appears rather 
doubtful, for we have not met with the bird since Hodgson 
got it. 

On looking at my Muddapur killed Stonechats, one, an 
autumnal bird, turns out to be leucura. So the bird is 
found about that part of the country after all. It is a redder 
one than those I got in Sind. It is not moulted and in ragged 
summer plumage. 

Uth April 1881. W. E. Brooks. 



Extract from Ann. and Mag. of Natural History, Vol. XV III. % 
1846, p. 252. 

M. SUNDEVALL ON THE BlRDS OF CALCUTTA. 

18.— Acanthiza trochiloides, n. 

Olivaceo-viridis, subtus alba, antice flavo tincta ; cauda 
integra penna extima breviora, apice intus alba. Linea per 
oculos fusca. 

$ 15th February. — Caput paullulum fusco tinctum ; superci- 
lia elongata pallide flava. Ala subtus alba ; tectrices superiores 
apice pallescentes. Cauda fuscescens, obsolete transversim 
undato-micans. Rostrum subtus album, superne et pedes 
pallide fusci. Long. 5 poll; ala 47 millim ; tarsus 19 ; cauda 
45; rostrum efronte 9. Rostrum apice leviter compressum. 
Remiges 3 anticae gradatae ; 2a=10a; 4 et 5 reliquis lougiores. 
Pennae cubiti ad 5-6 alae flexae extensae. 

This little bird has a greater interest for us on account of 
its remarkable resemblance to our Sylvia trochilus. I have 
only seen the above described specimen, and can say nothing 
else about its way of living than that even in its actions 
it has an extraordinary resemblance to Sylvia trochilus, so 
that I fully believed I had found that species until an 
examination of its flattened, much broader beak, and the some- 
what different formed wings proved my mistake. These are 
the only points in which the genus Acanthiza (Vig. et Horsf.) 
differs from our Sylvia. The beak is even unlike that of our 
S. hippolais. 

In New Holland there are several species to be found. 
I heard no note from the bird described. This is most likely 
the bird to which authors allude who speak about the Indian 
Sylvia trochilus. (For example, Edwards in the text to 
plate 278). 



172 letters to the editor. 

Sir, 

The following scraps may be interesting, although 
you probably know all about them already : — 

I saw no Pintail Snipe in Pishin, Shorawak, the Bolan, or 
Hurnai passes, or at Muskaff or Dadur; all that I shot were 
Jack or Common. 

The season of 1876-77 was a good snipe season in 
Hyderabad, Deccan,and I noticed that the Pintail outnumbered 
the Common by three to one ; putting aside Jack aud Painters, 
three birds, out of four would be Pintail. 1877-78 and 1878-79 
were indifferent seasons, and I found that the Pintail were much 
more rare, the Common being in the majority. My own idea 
is that the Common were as plentiful as usual, and the Pintail 
for some season had not come into the district as they had 
done in 1876-77. 

Gr. M. Rayhent, Vety. Surgeon, 

Bangalore, 1st M. Light Cavalry. 

June 12th, 1881. 

Sir, 

In Vol. Ill of your work on the " Game Birds 
of India," you write (page 382) : rt 1 have no record of the oc- 
currence of this species (the Painted Snipe) in Kulu, Kashmir," 
and I have, therefore, enclosed to you the skin of a bird of this 
species which I shot at Sumbul, on a sheet of the Woollar 
Lakes, on the 14th September this year. I shot three others the 
same morning, all like the one I send, which I opened and found 
to be a male. The birds sat very close, not rising till close upon 
them, consequently the others I shot were too much injured 
to skin. The wing feathers I enclose are those of a bird shot 
at Bunnir near the Woollar by an officer of the 65th, who 
also saw numbers. I do not however think I saw any females — 
at least I did not secure one. I do not think the Painted 
Snipe remains long in Cashmere, as, though I was out several 
days shooting after the middle of September, I saw very 
few. 

Edward L. Hawkins, 

Morar, Lieutenant- Colonel, R.A. 

9 th November 1881. 



Sir, 

Just a line to inform you that I have an addition* 
to the Sind List in the shape of Circus oineraceus, Mont. 

* No, vide Vol. VII, p. 603.— Ed , 8. F. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 11, 



The bird was shot by Lieutenant Dupnier of the 98th Regiment 
here and sent to me. 

The birds are, I am told, plentiful above eight miles out of 
Kurrachee, associated with Swainsoni. 

James Murray. 



Sir, 

I am in hopes that a few notes, although from an un- 
scientific observer, upon Gallinago nemoricola, may be welcome 
to you. 

During 18 years residence in the Wynaad I have only 
seen seven of these birds, of which three were ba^cred. 
Until to-day I always called them " Solitary Snipe," but to- 
day I had the advantage of comparing one of them with your 
notes in Vol. Ill of " Game Birds of India/' and I discovered 
that it was a nemoricola. 

When once the " more conspicuous differences," as pointed 
out by you, are known, it would be of course almost impos- 
sible to mistake nemoricola for solitaria. In fact I may say 
that I found these a better guide even than the coloured plates. 

Being thus indebted to you, it struck me that the least I 
could do would be to send you the little information I have on 
the subject, especially as some of it differs from what you 
have written in the " Game Birds." 

On 31st December 1879 Mr. A. "W. Rees and 1 flushed three 
of these nemoricola in a very retired rushy swamp, where I had 
in former years seen Bison (Gaur), the swamp being the 
nearest point to civilisation, which the Bison about there ever 
reach. 

Of the three we bagged, two, one to each, gun, they were 
evidently male and female, as they weighed 6£ and 8^ oz. 
respectively. The three birds were flushed within 50 yards of 
each other. 

I have always intended paying another visit to that swamp, 
known as the Makki Poyil, but was never able to do so until to- 
day, when my wife and I drove out seven miles in the early morn- 
ing, and I picked up four couple of Pintail and a Spurfowl on the 
way. Leaving my wife in the curricle I got on to the ground 
where I expected to find the nemoricola, and quartered the 
ground carefully with two coolies, two spaniels, and a bull 
terrier, but after going over the whole of the swamp where we 
bad seen them in 1879 we found nothing. I went on to the 
head of the valley to see if there were any fresh tracks of Bison, 
but found none ; and on my way back flushed a nemoricola 
within a few yards of where we had found them in 1879. I 
missed him with my first barrel as I was excited at having 



174 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

found him, but brought him down with the second barrel. In 
looking for him amongst the long grass and rushes a second 
bird was flushed, which 1 winged with ray second barrel, and 
backed, but in doing so we lost the first bird that I had knocked 
over ; and though we hunted for it for over half an hour we 
could not find it. I have no doubt but that some one of us 
most have trodden on it, and crushed it down into the mud 
which, in parts, was nearly a foot deep, as otherwise the dogs 
would have found it. 

I think it will be interesting to you to know that on two 
occasions these birds were found in company, in 1879, there 
being three birds within a radius of 50 yards, and in 1882 two 
birds within 25 yards of each other. 

I see that Captain Baldwin says they are particularly gamey 
birds and most excellent for the table. My experience of 
them is that they are very much inferior to the Pintail in flavor, 
and the meat is coarser in texture. Exceedingly handsome 
birds in appearance ; they feel soft and flabby to the touch 
when compared with the firmness of a Pintail. 

The weight of the nemoricola bagged to-day was 1\ oz. 
On vising he gave a hoarse sort of croak, as described by Captain 
Baldwin, and the same, but much louder, when picked up 
with a broken wing. The first bird to-day rose silently. 

A peculiarity of the Pintail this season is that the majority rise 
silently, and consequently many get away which otherwise 
would not do so. 

J. W. DlTMAS. 



I have long had by me a collection of Birds kindly sent me 
by Mr. Chill. Amongst these I now find, a fine adult female 
Scaup, killed near Gurgaon, on the 5th of March 1881, which, 
except in having the wing rather shorter (7*75), and having 
the bill rather shorter and broader, the white on the primaries 
purer, and the grey speckling on the back rather more extended, 
does not seem to me to differ from my English specimens. 
Mr. Chili also sends a young female Scaup procured at the 
same place on the 14th March, and a fine male of the Marbled 
Teal, also shot near Gurgaon, on the 28th April 1881. Lastly, 
he sends a specimen of Coracias garrula, which he shot there 
on the 30th of May 1881.— Ed., S. F. 









STRAY FEATHERS. VOL. X 



MAP OF PEGU 

To illustrate jVr. Oatesa paper. 

The part coloured red la th« portion dealt vita. 











Cap & 2V~egrcLcs 



9\4 



STRAY FEATHERS. 



Vol. X.] JULY 1882. [No. 4. 



3i list 4 Hte §Ms of |cj,„. 



By Eugene W. Oates. 



The ornithology of a portion of Pegu was dealt with by 
Mr. Hume in a former volume of Stray Feathers (III, pp. 
1 — 194), and subsequently, (IV, pp. 295 — 451) Dr. Armstrong 
gave us a list of the birds met with by him in the deltaic 
portion of the province. The following paper is an attempt 
to compile a complete list of the birds of the whole of Pegu. 

The area now dealt with is bounded on the north by the 
frontier line separating British from Independent Burma, 
and running east and west at about the latitude of 19° 40' 
north ; on the east the boundary is the Sittang river ; on 
the west, the Irrawaddy river, and its most westerly discharge 
channel, the Bassein creek. The sea forms the southern limit 
of the area. The province, as thus defined, is about 300 miles 
in length, by an average breadth of about 100 miles. 

The Pegu hills run down the centre of this tract of country 
from the frontier to Rangoon, or for about 200 miles. They 
extend laterally nearly down to the banks of the Irrawaddy 
and Sittang rivers, leaving a comparatively narrow belt only 
of level or undulating country along the margins of these 
two rivers. The remaining portion is a vast plain, little, or not 
at all, elevated above high water of spring sides. 

The hills are covered with dense forest, and an undergrowth 
of shrubs and canes. On the eastern side the vegetation is 
very luxuriant, and mostly evergreen. On the western side, 
it is composed of trees which appear to do with less moisture, 
and the undergrowth is less deuse. The difference in the 
raiufall between the two sides of the hills is probably 30 inches. 
A vast number of birds are found on the eastern slopes which 
are never seen on the western. 

The vast plains which occupy the southern third of the 
province are, where not cultivated, covered with elephant 
grass and reeds. The plain is everywhere intersected by 
tidal channels, and is more or less permanently flooded during 

23 



17G A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

the raius. The floods, however, are not as a rule of such a 
nature as to prevent cultivation, and vast portions of the plain 
are yearly planted with rice. 

The rainfall varies from about 40 inches at the frontier to 130 
inches at Pegu. This variation has, however, less to do with the 
distribution of birds than might be expected. Many species, 
which a few years ago were thought to be exclusively 
confined to the drier portions of Pegu, are now known to be 
very abundant further south in the same province, extending 
even into Teuasserim where the rainfall is excessive. 

The materials for this paper have been furnished by large 
collections made by myself in almost every portion of the 
area comprised under the general name of the province of 
Pegu. For many years I collected at or near the town of 
Pegu, a small place about 60 miles north-east of Rangoon. 
Near Pegu is the small village of Kyeikpadein on the banks of 
the canal which I was constructing, and here most of the 
rarer, and more interesting, species of reed birds and aquatic 
birds were procured. 

The tract of country dealt with by Dr. Armstrong has not 
been explored by me except in a hurried manner, and con- 
sequently his investigations have enabled me to define the 
distribution of many species with greater exactness. In the 
following paper about twenty species are inserted on bia 
authority, which would otherwise have been omitted. 

Of the species inserted by Mr. Hume in his list of the birds 
of Upper Pegu I have now omitted the following five: — 
Anthocincla phayrii. 
Phylloscopus affirm. 

,, indicus. 

Passer assimilis. 
Gallinago gallinula* 

1 am not satisfied that any of these birds have occurred 
within the limits as above defined. 

The occurrence of the following birds requires confirmation. 

They are recorded by Blyth in his k ' Birds of Burma" 
as having been received from Pegu. They have not again 
been discovered in Pegu since his time, and it is probable that 
they do not occur in Pegu as defined in this paper. f They 
are six : — 



Circus cineraceus. 
Volvocivora sylcesi. 
Chatarrhaa caudata. 



Rhyacornis fuliginosus. 
Allotrius melanotis. 
Lobipluvia malabarica. 



* But this certainly occurs in Pegu, as I have had a specimen from near the mouth 
of the Bassein river. — Ed., S. F. 

f I also omitted all these from the Pegu paper, Vol III, for the same reason, 
but I was wrong about the last, which must be admitted. — Ed., S, F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 177 

I have also omitted from the list, Polioaetus /lumilis. Mr. 
Hume says (S. F., V, 130) that this species occurs as far 
north at any rate as Cape Negrais,* but I can nowhere find 
any notice of its occurrence within my limits, and I must 
consequently decline to admit it for the present. 

I have not made use of the serial numbers of Mr. Hume's 
cataloguef as I find numerous instances in Stray Feathkrs 
of the same species being referred to under quite different 
numbers. One instance will suffice. In Volume VI, Anthreptes 
malaccensis is numbered 224 sextus, while in the general cata- 
logue iu Volume VIII it appears as 233 quintus.% 

I have, however, followed the order of the catalogue, and, 
with few exceptions, Mr. Hume's nomenclature^ 



1.— Otogyps calvus, Scop. (2.) 

Occurs singly, or in couples, in all parts of the province. 

2.— Gyps indicus, Scop, (4.) 

Mr. Hume records this from Upper Pegu. I have not 
observed it. 

3.— Pseudogyps bengalensis, Gm. (5.) 

Very abuudant. 

4— Falco peregrinus, Gm.\\ (8.) 

By no means rare during the dry weather from November 
to May. I have procured it at Prome, Pegu, and Suway- 
gheen. 

* Whence I received a specimen, but I have never seen a specimen from Pegu, 
and quite concur in its omission from this list. — Ed., S. F. 

•f I however have added the serial numbers in brackets after each species, 
because these are most useful to ornithologists all over the world, compiling 
monographs or working out the distribution of groups. They turn up the species 
in the general list, find its number, and then run through the various local 
lists in S. F. Where my catalogue numbers are given, they can ascertain in 
one minute whether the species they are dealing with is or is not included in any 
particular list. If this number were not given it would take them ten minutes 
to make certain of this. This is not theory. The following is a translation of part 
of a letter from one of the most eminent of ornithological systematists: — "Your 
arrangement is, as you admit, antiquated — pardon me if I add barbarous — but your 
practice of invariably arranging the species in the same order, and under the same 
serial numbers, renders the Stray Feathkrs easier to consult for facts than any 
otlier ornithological publication." — Ed., 8. E. 

J Of course, because prior to the issue of the general catalogue, slight 
alterations in some few numbers were made, in order to rectify some of the must 
glaring misplacements, for which I was answerable. But until the new list of the 
birds of the British Asian Empire and its dependencies is published, no further 
change will be made in the numbers. — Ed., S. F. 

§ Mr. Oates in this most excellent list includes altogether 454 species. I have 
added 16 species that certainly have occurred in Pegu, making a total of 470. 
It is probable that when the avifauna has been exhaustively worked out, it may prove, 
including chance stragglers, to include something like 550 species. — Ed., S. F. 

|| Tunst.— Ed., S. F. 



178 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

5.— Falco peregrinator, Sund. (9.) 

Major Lloyd appears to have procured a specimen at 
Tounghoo. (B. of B., p. 58.) 

6.— Poliohierax insignis, Wald. (16 bis.) 

Fairly abundant from the frontier down to Prome, extending 
to the west as far as the ridge of the Arakan hills. Captain 
Ramsay got it at Tounghoo. 

7. — Cerchneis tinnunculus, Lin. (17.) 

Very abundant from November to March in almost all parts 
of the province. 

8— Cerchneis amurensis, Badde. (19 bis.) 

The bird procured at Thyetmyo by Captain Feilden (S. F., 
Ill, p. 22) appears to belong to this species, judging from what 
Mr. Hume says at a later date (S. F., V, p. 6). I have never 
met with this bird. 

9. — Microhierax caerulescens,* Lin. (20.) 

I have procured this small Falcon at Thyetmyo and Prome, 
•where it is abundant. It probably occurs in other parts of 
Pegu.f 
10.— Astur rufitinctus, MoClell. (22 bis.) 

The only specimen I have ever met with was killed on the 
Pegu hills as recorded in S. F., Ill, p. 24. 

11.— Astur poliopsis, Hume. (23 bis.) 
Generally distributed, and common. 

12.— Accipiter nisus, Lin. (24.) 

The Sparrow Hawk was procured at Thyetmyo by Captain 
Feilden and by myself, and it was got at Tounghoo by Captain 
Ramsay. It appears to be rare. 

13.— Accipiter virgatus, Beimv. (25.) 

Captain Feilden procured this Hawk at Thyetmyo,^ and I 
met with it on the Pegu hills just above Pegu. It does not 
appear to be common. 

* Should stand us eutolmus, Hodgson, vide Gurney, Ibis, p. 272, 1881. I may add 
with reference to what Mr. Gurney says further on, that I personally feel quite 
certain that this species never occurred at Bangalore in a wild state, though I have 
heard of specimens, brought from the Himalayas and trained to kill Sparrows, having 
been seen at the Hyderabad and Mysore Courts. — Ed., S. F. 

f Blanford produced it on the hills of the Bassein district. I have also received a 
specimen labelled Bassein. — Ed., S. F. 

X I never saw Feilden's specimen, which, however, from the description I believe 
to have been virgatus ; but Mr. Gurney, who did see the specimen at one time, at any 
rate, identified it as A, rhodogaster, Seal.— Ed., S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 179 

14— Aquila nipalensis, Hodgs. (27 Us.) 

Captain Feilden found this Eagle common at Thyetmyo, and 
it occurs along the banks of the canal near Pegu, where I 
have shot a few specimens every year about November. 

15.— Aquila clanga, Fall. (28.) 

I procured some specimens in 1875 at the junction of the canal 
with the Pegu river from December to March, and I do not 
recollect ever meeting with it again. Captain Feilden procured 
it at Thyetmyo. 

16.— Hieraetus pennatus, Gm. (31.) 

Procured by Captain Feilden at Thyetmyo. 

17.— Limnaetus caligatus, Raff. (34). 

Generally distributed in well-wooded localities, and pretty 
common. 

18.— Spilornis undulatus, Vig. ; S. cheela, Lath. (39.) 

Occurs along the frontier from Thyetmyo to Tounghoo, and 
appears to be replaced elsewhere by the next species. 

19.— Spilornis rutherfordi, Swinh. (39 ter.) 

Generally distributed in the province, except along or near 
the frontier, where the larger species only appears to be found. 
I have never met with any bird which might be considered 
intermediate to the two species, nor have I ever shot the two 
birds in the same locality. 

20.— Pandion haliaetus, Lin. (40.) 

Two or three pairs of the Osprey may be seen daily in both 
the Pegu and the Sittang rivers during the dry weather, and 
I fancy that a few birds remain in Burma throughout the 
year, but I cannot make certain of this fact.* 

21.— Pelioaetus ichthyaetus, Eorsf. (41.) 

Very generally diffused over the lower and more swampy 
parts of the country. I found it excessively common in the 
forests west of Shwaygheeu where they were breeding near 
Pelicans and Adjutants. 

22.— Haliaetus leucoryphus, Fall. (42.) 

Very abundant in the plains lying between the Pegu and 
Sittang rivers, and especially so along the banks of the canal. 

* Note this also from the Southern Coast, from near the mouth of the I3assein 
river.— Ed., S. F. 



180 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

23.— Haliaetus leucogaster, Gm. (43.) 

Frequently seen along the southern coast of Pegu, and on one 
occasion I observed it near the town of Pegu. 

24.— Buteo plumipes, Sodgs. (47.) 

Recorded from Thyetmyo by Mr. Hume, to whom a speci- 
men was sent by Captain Feilden.* 

25.— Butastur teesa, Franhl. (48.) 

Apparently restricted to the northern portion of the province. 
It is common at Thyetmyo, and all the way down to Prome. 
Captain Ramsay records it from Toungboo. 

26.— Butastur liventer, Tern. (48 ter.) 

Although not abundant this bird is found in every portion of 
the province which is suited to its habits. It frequents the 
plains and creeks, and does not appear to be found in forest 
country or dry hilly ground. 

A young bird, reared from the nest, escaped at the age of 
three months, and had to be shot. At this age the white bars 
extend up to the middle of the belly. The edge of the wing 
is white, the breast is brown, and the throat, with the lores 
and forehead, nearly pure white ; the top of the head is rufous, 
and the plumage generally is brown where, in the adult, it is 
grey ; the bars on the tail, which in the old bird are interrupt- 
ed, are in the young very clearly defined and unbroken. 

27.— Circus macrurus, S. G. Gm. (51.) 

Tolerably common during the cold season in all the plains of 
the southern portion of the province. 

28— Circus melanoleucus, Forst.t (53). 

Very abundant from the end of September to the middle of 
May in all parts of Pegu, except the hills, where it is not found 
at all. 

A young bird differs from that figured by Mr. Swinhoe 
(Ibis, 1874, pi. X) in being very rufous without a trace of 
yellow in its plumage. 

29.— Circus seruginosus, Lin. (54.) 

As abundant as the preceding, and found in the same tracts 
during the cold season. 

* Another specimen received from near Touughoo. — Ed., S. E. 
t Benn.— Ev., S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 181 

30.— Haliastur indus, Bodd. (55.) 

Very common throughout the province. 

31.— Milvus affinis, Gould. (56 ter.) 

The majority of the smaller Kites of Pegu appears to be 
referable to this species, but some specimens are not far 
removed from govinda. It will probably be found impossible 
hereafter to maintain both species. At one time (S. F., VII, 
p. 44) I thought it easy to discriminate the two birds ; but as 
I accumulated a larger and larger series, the salient points of 
distinction appeared to disappear. 

The common Kite is very abundant in every part of Pegu, 
except from June to September. Its return in the latter 
month indicates the termination of the rainy season. 

32.— Milvus melanotis, Tern. & Schl. (56 bis.) 

Immediately round the village of Kyeikpadein, and away in 
the plain, where fisheries are worked, this large Kite is very 
abundant from about October to February, or perhaps later. 
It does not appear to breed in Pegu. 

33.— Pernis ptilorhynchus, Tern. (57.) 

A rather uncommon bird ; found in well-wooded districts 
generally over the province. 

34.— Elanus cseruleus, JDesf. (59.) 

This Kite is seen from July to the middle October in con- 
siderable quantities on the plains of the south. I procured a 
specimen at Tounghoo, and Captain Feilden records it from 
Thyetmyo. 

35.— Strix flammea,* Lin. (60.) 

Abundant in every part of the province. 

36.— Strix Candida, Tick. (61.) 

Procured at Tounghoo by the late Colonel Lloyd. 

37.— Phodilus badius, Ilorsf. (62.) 

Captain Ramsay procured this Owl at Tounghoo, and the bird 
recorded from Thyetmyo by Captain Feilden (S. F. } III, p. 37) 
was probably of the same species. 



* This is what we call javanica, and I am doubtful of the propriety of following 
Mr. Sharpe ia uniting this with our common European Barn Owl.— Et., S. F. 



182 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

38.— Syrnium seloputo, Horsf. (65 Us.) 

I found this handsome Owl abundant in a grove of trees 
about two miles from Kyeikpadein. I have seen birds which 
were shot at Rangoon, and the Owl referred to as having been 
procured at Thyetmyo by Captain Feilden (S. F., Ill, p. 37) 
was probably this species. It appears to be generally distri- 
buted but somewhat local. 

During the day this Owl sits on the branch of a large tree 
near the summit, and can be discovered with little difficulty if 
its presence is suspected. It does not begin to move till after 
sunset. 

A young nestling has the upper plumage white, barred with 
chocolate brown. The rectrices are extensively tipped with 
very pure white, and the webs are slightly barred. The lower 
plumage is white, closely barred with brown. The thighs are 
plain fulvous white. Facial disc as in the adult, spotless 
bright ferruginous. 

The sexes are alike in plumage, and they differ little in size. 
A fine pair, the parents of the nestling described above, 
measured respectively : — Length, 18*5, 18*3 ; expanse, 48, 47 ; 
tail, 7*6, 7'5 ; wing, 14*4, 14 ; tarsus, 2'15, 2'0 ; bill from gape, 
1*5, 1*65 ; the first figures in each case referring to the male. 

The bill and cere are dark horn colour ; iris dark brown ; 
edges of the eyelids pink ; feet and claws dark brown ; 
underside of toes whitish. 

39.— Asio accipitrinus, Pall. (68.) 

Captain Wardlaw- Ramsay procured this Owl at Tounghoo. 

40.— Bubo nipalensis, Bodgs. (71.) 

Recorded from Tounghoo by Captain Ramsay. 

41— Ketupa ceylonensis, Gm. (72.) 

Very abundant in every part of the province. 

42.— Ketupa javanensis, Less. (73 bis.) 

Appears to be confined, in Pegu, to the delta of the 
Irrawaddy, where it is common. 

43.— Scops pennatus, Hodgs. (74.) 

I procured two specimens at Kyeikpadein, which have been 
identified for me by Mr. Grurney and Mr, Sharpe. Captain 
Feilden got it at Thyetmyo. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU, 183 

44.— Scops lettia, Ilodgs. (75.) 

A very abundant species round Pegu and Kyeikpadein, 
and probably generally distributed throughout the province.* 

45. — Carine pulchra, Hume. (76 quat.) 

Abundant from Thyetmyo to Prome for a distance of 10 
or 15 miles from the Irrawaddy. 

46.— Grlaucidium cuculoides, Fig. (79.) 

Found abundantly throughout the province. It comes out 
some time before sunset, aud remains out till late in the 
morning. 

47.— Ninox lugubris, Tick. (81.) 

I gather from Mr. Hume's remarks (8. F., VI, p. 40) that 
the Pegu birds are not his burmanica. In this case, allowing 
the distinctness of all the races of this bird, the Pegu one 
will be lugubris.'f 

This Hawk Owl is very common in every part of Pegu. 

48.— Hirundo rustica, Lin.% (82.) 

Extremely common throughout the year in all parts of the 
province. It does not, however, appear to breed here. 

49.— Hirundo horreorum, Bart. (82 ter.) 

Judging from what Mr. Dresser says about the different 
races of Swallow in his article on Hirundo rustica (B. of E., 
part XXXIX) I have little doubt but that tytleri is a 
synonym of the above. § Writing of these two forms he 
says : — 

" Should it prove from an examination of a series of speci- 
mens that it (tytleri) does not have the dark band continuous 



* Add 75 quint. — Scops lempiji, Ilorsf. 

One specimen from near Rangoon clearly belongs to tbis species by its completely 
unfeathered toes. Lettia is no doubt the common Pegu bird, but I have seen two 
specimens from Upper Pegu that were quite intermediate between the two species, 
besides this one from Lower Pegu which is lempiji, pur et simple. — Ed., S. F. 

t Yes ; I find all my Pegu specimens are lugubris. — Ed., S. F. 

j But note that all the Pegu birds I have seen belong to the smaller race, guttu- 
ralis. Scop.— Ed., 8. F. 

§ I cannot say that I am disposed to agree as yet. It is a great pity Mr. Oatea 
did not himself carefully compare a series of adults of the two forms. Had he 
done so, and pronounced them identical, I should have had nothing further to say, as 
I know how careful his work is. But I compared some score of adult tytleri with 
four adult horreorum kindly lent me, and they seemed to me to differ perceptibly. 
Of course they are very like each other, quite the same type of bird, but I came 
to the conclusion that they were distinct and immediately distinguishable. I regret 
that before returning the birds I did not note the differences, and so many years 
have passed that I have quite forgotten wherein I supposed the differences to 
exist, but I am very careful in making comparisons, and I cannot but believe that 
valid differences do exist,— Ed , S. F. 

24 



184 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

across the chest, there will then be no character by which 
it can be distinguished from the American form. 5 ' 

Now the band of tytleri is constantly interrupted, and in 
no instance have I ever seen it continuous. Mr. Hume also 
confirms this (S. R, VI, p. 42). 

The American Barn Swallow visits Pegu in large numbers 
almost every winter. In 1874 they were remarkably nume- 
rous near Pegu, and it would be interesting- to know whether 
the winter of 1873-74 was .very severe in North America.* 

Under the head of II. tytleri, Mr. Hume quotes some 
remarks of mine (S. R, III, p. 41) which I certainly intended 
to apply to H. rustica. I never got the former bird at 
Thyetmyo to the best of my recollection. f Before the 
paper on the birds of Upper Pegu was completely written, I 
waa transferred from Thyetmyo to Pegu, and it was from 
the latter locality I sent Mr. Hume a specimen of II. tytleri, 

50.— Hirundo filifera, Steph. (84.) 

Lieutenant Ramsay records this species from Tounghoo. I 
have never met with it. I have reason to believe it is common 
near Rangoon. 

51.— -Hirundo nipalensis, Hodgs. (85 bis.) 

The only Red-rumped Swallow I have procured in the pro- 
vince is this species. It is abundant, and some may be seen 
in every month of the year. 

52.— Cotile riparia, Lin. (87.) 

1 procured two birds in the Pegu river, and I have no 
doubt the bird is common in the dry weather. I have fre- 
quently seen a Sand Martin larger than the next, and it must 
have been riparia. 

53.— Cotile sinensis, J. B. Gr. (89.) 

Very abundant in the Irrawaddy, Pegu, and Sittang rivers. 

54.— Cypselus affinis, J. B. Gr. (100.) 

I noticed a pair of these Swifts in January at a place 
about 30 miles above Rangoon, on the road to Pegu. They 
had a nest under a wooden bridge. To my great disappoint- 

* But please note that they have been met with in myriads at Dacca and other 
places in Eastern Bengal in June. This does not look as if they came from 
America. — Ed., S. F. 

f This is a mistake ; my friend Mr. Oates sent me a specimen, which is still in our 
museum, marked rustica, but clearly tytleri ; it is marked " male, Palow, Thyetmyo 
district, 11th May 1873." No doubt he also sent me two specimens, also in the 
museum, from Pegu, which bear date 20th March 1874 and February 1875. — ■ 
Ed., S, F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 185 

ment it only contained a Sparrow's e£g. The nest was quite 
new, and the birds were constantly coming to it. I failed to 
shoot them, and after being fired at once or twice they 
mounted high, far out of shot. Of course I cannot be posi- 
tive about the identification of this Swift, but it is more likelv 
to be affinis than sabfurcatus. One of the two it must have 
been. 

55.— Cypselus pacificus, Lath. (101 his.) 

There are few parts of the province where I have not seen 
this bird, but it was only near Thyetm} r o that they were 
flying- sufficieutly low to be shot. It does not appear to be 
very common. 

56.— Cypselus infumatus, Sclat. (102 Ms.) 

Very abundant everywhere, where there are toddy palms. 
They stick to these trees in a most pertinacious way even when 
not breeding. 

57.— Dendrochelidon coronata, Tick. (104.) 

I have observed these birds only between Thyetmyo and 
Prome, and never in any other part of Pegu. 
Lieutenant Ramsay got it at Tounghoo.* 

58.— Caprimulgus albonotatus, Tick. (109.) 

I procured this on the Pegu hills. Captain Ramsay records 
it from Tounghoo. I do not think it can be well separated 
from the next species. 

59.— Caprimulgus macrurus, Horsf. (110.) 

This smaller species occurs in every part of the province 
both in the hills and in the plains. 

60.— Caprimulgus asiaticus, Lath, (112.) 

This is a bird of the plains only. I got it at Thyetmyo, 
and it is very abundant round Pegu and Kyeikpadein. 

61.— Caprimulgus monticolus, Franhl. (114.) 

I have never met with this Nightjar. Captain Ramsay 
records it from Tounghoo. 

* Add 107 bis.— Caprimulgus jotaka, T. fy S. 

This species certainly occurs in Pegu, as I have had a specimen from some- 
where near Kangoon, and another from south-west I'egu, near the mouth of the 
Bassein river, 



186 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

62.— Lyncornis cerviniceps, Gould. (114 Ms.) 

I have heard of this bird being common about 15 miles 
above Pegu. Captain Ramsay met with it on the Pegu hills near 
the frontier. The only time I ever met with the bird was in 
December at the foot of the Arakan hills. It is no doubt 
fairly common in the province in suitable localities. 

63.— Harpactes erythrocephalus, Gould. (116.) 

Occurs in all heavy forest both in the hills and plaius, but 
far more abundant in the former. 

64.— Harpactes orescius, Tem. (116 Us.) 

I saw one specimen on the Pegu hills near the frontier, and 
I procured a few birds of this species in the tract of forest 
between the Sittang and the hills. It is rare within my 
limits. 

65.— Merops viridis, Lin. (117.) 

Excessively common in all parts of Pegu, except the higher 
hills. 

66.— Merops philippinus, Lin. (118.) 

As abundant as the preceding, but more confined to the large 
rivers and their neighbourhood. 

67.— Merops swinhoii, Hume. (119.) 

Generally distributed, but comparatively rare. 

68— Nyctiornis athertoni, J. & S. (122.) 

I met with this bird once near Pegu, and Captain Ramsay 
got it at Touughoo.* It is rare ia the Pegu province. 

69.— Coracias affinis, MeClell. (124.) 

Very abundant in all parts of the province where the ground 
is open or the forest not very thick. 

70.— Eurystomus orientalis, Lin. (126.) 

I found this species abundant up the Pegn river a few 
miles above Pegu. I also procured it at Tonnghoo and 
Shwaygheen.f It is a bird of heavy forests, and I have never 
seen it in the open. 

* Blanford also procured it at Bassein. — Ed , S. F. 

t This also ia recorded by Blauford from Baaaein.—ED,, S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 187 

71.— Pelargopsis burmanica, Sharpe. (127 bis.) 

Found commonly throughout the province in wooded 
nullahs. On the hills it is especially abundant. I have not 
observed them in the tidal treeless streams of Lower Pegu, 
and I see that Dr. Armstrong does not record it from the 
Irrawaddy delta. 

72.— Pelargopsis amauroptera, Fears. (128.) 

Dr. Armstrong procured this bird at the mouth of the 
Rangoon river. I have it from other parts of the delta, and 
it seems to be confined to tidal waters in Pegu.* 

73. — Halcyon smyrnensis, Lin. (129.) 

There are few parts of the province where this bird may 
not be seen and heard. It is extremely abundant. 

74.— Halcyon pileata, Bodd. (130.) 

I procured one specimen on the Irrawaddy between Prome 
and Thyetmyo, where it appears to be rare. I observed it 
common in the streams and fisheries lying between the Sittang 
and the Pegu hills, north of Paghein, and it seems abundant in 
the Irrawaddy delta. *J* 

75.— Halcyon coromanda, Lath. fl.31.) 

I got one bird near Pegu, and observed another somewhat 
further north near Shwaygheen. It seems rare in the 
province. 

76.— Halcyon chloris, Bodd. (132.) 

A bird of tidal creeks. I got a solitary specimen near Pegu, 
and it seems to be common in the delta; j 

77.— Carcineutes pulchellus, Eorsf. (132 ter.) 

Since procuring a pair in the evergreen forests of the Pegu 
hills, I have never again met with it. 

78.— Ceyx tridactylus, Ball. (133.) 

This Kingfisher is not uncommon in the evergreen forests 
of the eastern slopes of the Pegu hills. I also shot two birds 
near Kyeikpadein in a small nullah. 

79. — Alcedo bengalensis, Gm. (134.) 

Very abundant in every part of the province in swamps, 
paddj'-land and nullahs running in open country. This is not 
a forest species at all as the next is. 

* Yes, we have received it from near the mouth of the Basseiu river. — Ed., S. F. 
"f Especially in places near the sea where there are mangroves. — Ed., S. F. 
X We have received it from near the mouth of the Bassein river. — Ed., S. F. 



188 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

80.— Alcedo meningting, Horsf. (135 ter; ? quat.) 

Until I have had an opportunity of comparing my series of 
this bird with others from India and Java, I prefer calling the 
Pegu birds by the above name.* It is common in the wooded 
nullahs running into the Pegu river above Pegu, and also in a 
patch of hilly juugle two miles north of Kyeikpadeiu, where 
I have found numerous nests. I have not observed it any- 
where else. 

Young birds able to fly have the bill black with the tip 
white ; the legs pale red and the iris dark brown. One young 
bird, probably a male, has the whole upper plumage just as 
bright as the adult male, aud the cheeks and ear-coverts blue. 
Another, probably a female, has the upper plumage much 
duller than the adult. The ear-coverts and cheeks are rufous 
with a slight intermixture of blue. Adult females have the 
cheeks and ear-coverts blue aud rufous, mixed in about equal 
quantities. In the adult male the ear-coverts are black, and 
the part under the ears, as well as the cheeks, are blue, obso- 
letely barred with black. 

81.— Ceryle rudis, Lin. (136.) 

Excessively common, but confined entirely to the plains. 

82.— Psarisomus dalhousise, Jam. (138.) 

I have observed this bird only in the evergreen forests lying 
on the route from Thyetmyo to Tounghoo on the eastern slopes 
of the Pegu hills. It appears to be tolerably common in these 
parts. 

83. — Serilophus lunatus, Gould. (139 Ms.) 

Appears to be common over the whole of the Pegu hills in 
good thick forest. I also shot one bird as low down as 
Kyeikpadeiu and took its nest there. 

84.— Cymborhynchus affinis, Bly. (139 quat.) 

Although a bird of the Arakan hills, this species comes into 
the limits of this paper at many points between Bassein and 
Kano-oon. Mr. JStrettell gave me a specimen labelled " 10 
miles east of Rangoon." I have many specimens procured 
near Yandoon on the Irrawaddy. For a note on the plumage 
of this bird, see S. F., Ill, p. 336. 

85.— Dichoceros cavatus, Shaw. (140.) 

Abundant throughout Pegu in forest country. It does not 
come out much into the comparatively treeless plains of Lower 
Pegu, except when the peepul trees are in fruit. 

* Both our Pegu birds are of the intermediate form, which in Vol. VI. p. 84, 
I have entered as A. beavani. This form differs as explained, loc cit, aud IV, 383, 
alike from beavani aad meningting. — Ed., !f. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 189 

86.— Hydrocissa albirostris, Shaw. (142.) 

Very common and generally distributed. 

87.— Rhyticeros undulatus, Shaw. (146 bis.) 

I enter this on the authority of the late Marquis of Tweed- 
dale, who states (Ibis, 1877, p. 296) that Capt. Ramsay procured 
a young male at Touncjhoo. I have never met with it. 

88.— Rhyticeros subruficollis, Bhj. (146 ter.) 

Occurs from Pegu to Touughoo along the valley of the 
Sittang. It is very abundant. This Hornbill feeds ou snails 
a good deal, in search of which it spends much time. Near 
Myetkyo, at the head of the canal, twenty birds may be seen 
at one time hopping about those portious of the plain where 
the grass is low. They are in the habit of flying every day 
over exactly the same Hue of route, and they are not to be 
frightened from this procedure. When I began constructing 
the lock at Myetkyo I noticed great numbers of Hornbills 
passing low overhead every morning. They kept to this 
route the whole time the lock was being built, regardless of 
the noise made by a large number of men and two pumping 
engines. 

89. — Palaeornis indoburmanicus, Hume. (147 quat.) 

A very common species throughout the plains. I do not 
think it frequents the higher hills. 

90.— Palaeornis torquatus, Bodd. (148.) 

As common as, or perhaps commoner than, the preceding. 
Also confined to the plains. 

91.— Palaeornis cyanocephalus, Lin. (149 Us.) 

Like the two preceding Parrots, the present one is very 
numerous in the plains. 

92.— Palaeornis finschi, Hume. (150 Us.) 

The birds I formerly procured on the Pegu hills were so 
dirty and imperfect that Mr. Hume was unable for certain 
■whether they belonged to schisticeps or finschi. As Capt. 
Ramsay's specimens from the Tounghoo hills were identified 
by Lord Tweeddale with finschi, it is probable that the 
Pegu hills birds belong to the same race. I found it com- 
mon in the large forests on the hills between Thyetmyo and 
Touncrhoo. 



190 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

93.— Palseornis fasciatus, P. L. S. Mull. (152.) 

Less common than the other species of the plains. This bird 
occurs also in the hills, where it is very foud of clearings. It 
occurs in every part of the province. 

94.— Loriculus vernalis, Sparrm. (153.) 

An abundant species in the well-wooded portions of the 
province. It is one of the few birds that Burmans catch with 
bird-lime and keep in captivity. 

95.— Picus analis, Mors/. (157 ter.) 

This species, which is not at all common, has been found in 
the Thyetmyo district by myself, in Tounghoo by Capt. 
Ramsay, and at Elephant Point by Dr. Armstrong. These are 
places very distant one from the other, and the presumption 
is that this Woodpecker is of general distribution over the 
province, but undoubtedly rare in many parts. 

96.— Picus mahrattensis, Lath. (160.) 

Appears to be confined to the upper or northern part of 
the province. It is commou in the Thyetmyo district and 
Captain Ramsay procured it at Tounghoo. 

97.— Iyngipicus canicapillus, Bly. (163 bis.) 

This small Woodpecker is found in every portion of the 
province, and is abundant. 

98.— Hemicercus canente, Less. (165 bis.) 

Common throughout the province. 

99.— Miglyptes jugularis, Bly. (165 quat.) 

I procured one specimen on the Pegu hills, and have never 
since met with it. 

100.— Chrysocolaptes sultaneus, Hodgs. (166.) 

One of the commonest species of Woodpecker ; found every- 
where in the province. 

101.— Muelleripicus pulverulentus, Tem. (168.) 

This large Woodpecker is found in all the thick forests of 
the Pe<m hills, and less frequently in the plains. 

102.— Thriponax feddeni, Blanf. (169 ter.) 

Is confined to the northern portion of the province* ; is 

* Blauford, however, obtained it at Eassein.— Ed , S. F. 



.A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 191 

abundant in the Thyetmyo district, and becomes less common 
to the eastward, disappearing altogether, I think, at the sum- 
mit of the ridge of the Pegu range.* 

103.— Gecinus striolatus, Bly. (171.) 

Confined, as far as my experience goes, to the Thyetmyo 
and Prome districts, but I notice that Mr. Blanford records 
it from the Irrawaddy delta, and Lord Tweeddale from 
Tounghoo. 

104.— Gecinus vittatus, Vieill. (171 bis.) 

Distributed over all parts of Pegu, and generally abundant. 

105.— Gecinus erythropygius, Elliot. 

There can be little donbt that Mr. Hume's nigrigenis is 
the same as this.f I have procured it at Tounghoo, and 
it does not seem to cross the Sittang river into my limits 
in large numbers. I know nothing of its habits from 
personal acquaintance with the bird. 

106.— Gecinus occipitalis, Vig. (172.) 

One of the commonest Woodpeckers, and found all over 
the province. 

107.— Chrysophlegma flavinuchus, Gould. (173.) 

Abundant in all thick forests, more especially on hilly 
ground. 

108.— Chrysophlegma chlorolophus, Vieill. (174.) 

I have observed this bird only in the northern portion of 
the province from Thyetmyo to Tounghoo, between the fron- 
tier and a line parallel to it about 30 miles south of it. It 
is tolerably common. 

109.— Gecinulus viridis, Bly. (177 bis.) 

Common on the Pegu hills between Thyetmyo and Tounghoo 
both in dry and in evergreen forest. I have not observed it 
elsewhere. 

* But reappearing in the plains country between the Sittang and Salween, and 
in the hills further east. — Ed , S. F. 

f Time will show. Elliot's bird is from Cochin China. I admit that the 
Northern and Central Siamese bird is the same as mine, but I think that the 
Cochin Chinese bird differs as noted in Vol. II, 471», for I have ascertained 
that the plate and dimensions given in the Nouvelles Archives are accurate,— 
E»., S. F. 

25 



192 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEOU. . 

110.— Micropternus phseoceps, Bly. (178.) 

Very common on the eastern slopes of the Pegu hills from the 
frontier right down to Rangoon, round which town it is 
specially abundant.* 

111.— Tiga javanensis, Zjung. (184) 

Spread over the whole province in great numbers. It is I 
fancy the Woodpecker most generally met with, and it affects all 
descriptions of jungle. 

112.— Sasia ochracea, Hodgs. (187.) 

I got one specimen on the Pegu hills on the eastern side in 
heavy evergreen forest. It probably occurs in other places. 

113.— lynx torquilla, Lin. (188.) 

A common cold weather visitor. I have procured it near 
Thyetmyo and also near Kyeikpadein. 

114.— Megalaema hodgsoni, Bp. (192.) 

Every mile of forest in the province contains dozens of this 
bird. It is equally common in the dry and in the evergreen 
forests. 

115,— Megalaema asiatica, Lath. (195.) 

As common as the preceding, but confined to the damp ever- 
green forests on the Pegu hills. 

116.— Xantholaema hsemacephala, P.L.S. Mutt.(197.) 

Universally distributed throughout the plains, chiefly in spare 
jungle, and in cultivated lands. 

117.— Megalaema cyanotis, Bly. (198 ter.) 

An inhabitant of thick forests from the frontier down to 
Rangoon, and not occurring, I think, on the western side of the 
Pegu hills. 

118.— Cuculus canorus, Lin. (199.) 

I have procured this bird from August to February round 
Pegu and Kyeikpadein. It is fairly common, but (probably 
owing to the season it visits us) I have never heard it call. 
I got a specimen at Prome in November. Capt. Ramsay heard 
the call of this Cuckoo quite commonly in Karennee. The 
wiucrs of Pegu birds run from 7*75 to 8'1. 



* And we hnve several specimens from Thyetnijo, and othera from Bassein, 
where also Blnnford procured it. — Ed., S, F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 193 

119.— Cuculus striatus, Drap. (200.) 

I procured one specimen at Kyeikpadein in October. It 
seems rare. This bird was a female : Wing", 6*8; tail, 6*0 ; bill 
at front, 75. The breast is washed with chestnut and 
the belly is tinged with buff. 

120.— Cuculus sonnerati, Lath. (202.) 

Captain Ramsay records this Cuckoo from Thyetmyo. I 
have never met with it. 

121.— Cuculus micropterus, Gould. (203.) 

Very generally distributed over the whole province in 
forests and well-wooded parts of the country. 

122.— Hierococcyx nisicolor, Hodgs. (206.) 

I procured one specimen at Kyeikpadein in November, a 
male, with the wing 6"9, and tail 6"0. Another bird, unsexed, 
from near Touughoo has the wing 6 - 8, and tail 6*2. Both are 
rufous below, but unbarred, and the centres of the feathers are 
slightly ashy. 

123.— Hierococcyx sparveroides, Vig. (207.) 

Very equally distributed over the whole proviuce, but not 
common except on the higher hills. 

124.— Cacomantis threnodes, Cab. (209.) 

A very common bird throughout the plains, frequenting 
gardens and low jungle. They are fond of swamps and jheels, 
where no doubt caterpillars are abundant. Wings of Pegu 
birds range from 4*0 to 4*6. 

125.— Surniculus lugubris, Mors/. (21C.) 

A common bird in Lower Pegu from Pegu down to Rangoon. 
It probably occurs throughout the better-wooded and other 
parts of the province. 

126.— Chrysococcyx maculatus, Gm. (211.) 

I have heard of onlj' one specimen of this species shot within 
my limits. It was procured by Mr. Olive, and is now in my 
possession. It is in adult plumage, and cannot be confounded 
with the next. It was shot at Prome. 

127.— Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus, Eorsf, 
(211 bis.) 

A fairly common bird near Kyeikpadein, and also at 
Rangoon. A young bird of this genus, and very probably this 



194 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

species and not the preceding, was shot by me at Thyetmyo. 
I have also got the bird from Karennee, the only perfectly 
adult male I have. We may conclude that it occurs in all 
suitable localities in the province. 

It frequents orchards and clumps of trees, and lives amongst 
the leaves, where it is not easy to detect it. 1 have not heard 
its note. 

At no age does the female ever assume the violet plumage 
of the adult male, nor even a single violet feather. I feel 
pretty certain that both basalis, Horsf., and malayanus, Raff., 
are based on females of this species. 

It is to be noted with reference to tin's that in the list of 
these birds given at page 506, S. F., VI, all Mr. Hume's 
.mnthorhynchus are males, all his malayanus,* except one 
unsexed bird, are females. 

In the adult female, the whole lower surface, from the chin 
to the tip of the under tail-coverts, the lores, cheeks, ear- 
coverts and sides of neck are white, closely barred across with 
greenish bronze ; the bars on the under tail-coverts are 
broader and wider apart than elsewhere : the head, neck, 
back, rump and upper tail-coverts are shining bronze, tinged 
with copper on the head ; the forehead and over the eye are 
speckled with white; the lesser wing-coverts are brilliant 
bronze, each feather narrowly edged with rufous ; the greater 
coverts are less brilliant, and are broadly notched all round 
with rufous ; primaries brown, glossed with green, very 
narrowly edged with rufous, and the later ones also tipped 
with the same ; the inner web of all with a broad streak of 
rufous along the basal two-thirds of the edge ; secondaries and 
tertiaries greenish bronze, edged all round with rufous ; centre 
pair of rectrices uniform bronze green, tinged with blue near 
the tip ; the next pair has on each web alternate triangular 
patches of greenish brown and rufous ; the bases of the brown 
patches and the apices of the rufous ones lying next the shaft. 
In the next pair the brown patches are less in extent, each 
pair being fully separated from the next by the rufous ; the 
tip is white ; the next pair again is very similar, the brown 
being still further reduced and the white tip broader ; the 
outer pair is rufous, with four black bars, and on the outer 
web between each pair of black bars there is a white patch ; 
the tip is broadly white. 

In less mature females the central rectrices are barred 
greenish brown and rufous ; the white spots on the outer pair 

* But I Cud in the museum two specimens of malai/anus, sexed by dissection by 
Davison, aa inules. I don't think he could have made tivo mistakes like this.— 
Ed , S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 195 

extend to both webs ; the upper plumage everywhere is closely 
barred with rufous ; the lower plumage at all ages is the same. 

The description of malayanus agrees well with the above, 
except that the lower tail feathers are said to be barred with 
broion, black and white. This is the only discrepancy. I have 
never seen a female which had not a vast deal of rufous in 
the tail. 

florsfield's description of basalis also answers well to the 
above. Of the tail he says : — Reclrices externa supra viridi- 
fuscescentes infra nigrescentes albido maculates, reliquce (duabus 
intermediis exceptis) basi castaneee, apice albido fasciata, 

I give the dimensions of a female : — Length, 6*9 ; expanse, 
11*5; tail, 3*3 j wing, 3 - 95; tarsus, 5 ; bill from gape to tip, 
•85. Iris reddish brown ; eyelids greenish, the edges pale red ; 
inside of mouth salmon colour ; bill brown, paler beneath, 
and orange at gape ; legs and claws brown. 

The adult male is well known. Immature males have from a 
very early ago one or more violet feathers* shewing out in 
the plumage, and their recognition is consequently easy. The 
change goes on by an easy transition and not by a moult. 
J3y February the full plumage is assumed. In October the 
change appears to have just begun. The young male never 
assumes the adult plumage of the female, the change to mature 
male plumage taking place while the upper surface is densely 
barred with rufous. The young male differs in nothing from 
the young female, except that the green bars below are much 
broader and further apart. 

The quite young bird is described (S. F., Ill, p. 81), by 
Mr. Hume, from a specimen procured by me at Thyetmyo. 
He states that the bird is not a nestling. This is true, 
inasmuch as the specimen has all the feathers fully grown ; 
but I am of opinion that the bird is not more than a 
few weeks old In birds of this genus the nestling appears to 

* I suspect this is not invariably the case, and that our two male malayanus are 
young males which happen not to have as yet developed any violet feathers. If not, 
despite their extreme similarity of female xanthorhynchus and malayanus, we must 
conclude that the latter is really distinct, both sexes exhibiting a plumage very close 
to, if not identical with, that of the female of the former. And we must remember 
that the Australian specimens I have of lucidus or basalis (I do not know which 
they are) are not separable from my Malayan malayanus, and that in Australia 
xanthorhynchus does not occur. 

I myself have long inclined to the view Mr. Oates now sets forth, in consequence 
of Mr. Cripps having sent me several specimens of xanthorhynchus and malayanus 
from Dibrugarh, which were all got at the same time and place, and which ho 
affirmed of his own observation were males and females of the same species. But against 
this were my two undoubted male malayanus, the two perfectly similar birds from 
Australia (one sexed a male), and the non-occurrence of xanthorhynchus in Australia. 
I do not think we are yet in a position to decide the question, If basalis and 
malayanus are not distinct from xanthorhynchus, then we should have, it seems to 
me, to suppress the latter and call all lucidus, Gm., for the Australian birds are, it 
seems to me, identical with the Malayan ; but then how is it there arc nu violet birds 
in Australia ?— Ed, , S. F, 



396 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

assume a distinct plumage for a short time, and then the change 
towards adult plumage rapidly progresses. Some interesting 
remarks ou the allied Australian Cuckoos will be found in 
P. Z. S., 1865, p. 460, by Mr. Edward P. Ramsay. 

128.— Coccystes jacobinus, Bodd. (212.) 

Confined to Thyetmj'o and its neighbourhood where it is 
common. 

129.— Coccystes coromandus, Lin. (213.) 

Distributed over the whole province, and fairly common. 

130.— Eudynamis malayana, Cab. fy Rein. (213.) 

Common all over Pegu from February to June. I have 
procured nestling birds in May. 

131.— Rhopodytes tristis, Less. (215.) 

A very common bird in all parts of the province. Consider- 
ing however what a remarkable tail it has, it is wonderful how 
seldom it is seen. It glides very gracefully from branch to 
branch, concealing itself admirably. 

132.— Centrococcyx intermedins, Hume. (217 quat.) 

Birds from all parts of the province are similar. It is very 
common, except in the thicker forests, where I have not 
observed it. 

133.— Centrococcyx bengalensis, Gm. (218.) 

Extremely abundant in all the lower open parts of the 
country. It is not a forest bird, but rather one of grass land, 
especially where swampy. The length of the upper tail-coverts 
in this bird is, I think, entirely dependent on age and not in 
any way connected with season or sex. 

The young birds in first plumage are clothed in the adult 
winter plumage ;* hence it happens that in September and 
October birds in both stages of plumage are found together. 

* If we are to gather from this that Mr. Oates has ascertained that the white 
shafted plumage is the normal adult winter plumage, the fact is important. 

Hitherto the question since I touched upon it, S. F., Ill, 84, and mentioned for the 
first time on Mr. Simson's authority, that this stage of plumage was seasonal, the 
matter has been sub judice. I have presumed that the brown white shafted plumage 
was that of the cold weather, because the great majority of my specimens, killed 
between the 15th November and 15th March, were in this stage ; several killed between 
15th March and the end of April in an intermediate stage, and the great majority 
killed between 1st May and 1st November in the black stage. But then I have 
perfectly black birds killed at the end of November and in January, and brown birds 
killed in May and June. But I am not sure that these dates, which are Mandelh's, 
are reliable, and certainly every specimen of our own collecting, or of which the 
dates are certainly reliable, confirm Mr. Oates' present statement.— Ed., S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. . 197 

134— Arachnothera aurata, Bly. (223 bis.) 

Common on the eastern slopes of the Pegu hills in evergreen 
forests. Occurs also in the belt of jungle between the hills, 
and the Sittang. 

135.— Arachnothera longirostra, Lath. (224.) 

I procured one specimen only on the hills about ten miles 
north of Pegu. It probably occurs generally over the hills. 
Captain Ramsay procured it at Tounghoo. 

136— iEthopyga cara, Eume. (225 ter.) 

Abundant round Rangoon. It is also common on the hills 
near Pegu. I procured it on the banks of the Sittang a little 
below Shwaygheen, and Captain Ramsay rec ords it from 
Tounghoo. 

137.— Cinnyris hasselti, Tern. (233 bis.) 

In the course of some years I have shot a few specimens 
of this Honeysucker. It occurs at Kyeikpadein, and also on 
the hills north of Pegu, but is rare. 

138.— Anthreptes phcenicotis, Tern. (233 sext.) 

I did not meet with this species in Thyetmyo ; but 
throughout Lower Pegu it is extremely common. Captain 
Ramsay shot it at Tounghoo. It is perhaps more common near 
Rangoon than elsewhere in the province. As it occurs in 
Tipperah on one side and Tenasserim on the other, it is pro- 
bably found in every part of Pegu. 

139.— Cinnyris asiaticus, Lath. (234.) 

Found in every part of the province, but nowhere very com- 
mon according to my experience. 

140.— Cinnyris flammaxillaris, Bly. (234 ter.) 

Confined to Lower Pegu, south of a line drawn roughly from 
Henzada to Shwaygheen. In this tract it is extremely 
common. 

In a note contributed by Messrs. Hume and Davison to 
Captain Shelley's Sunbirds, they state that, like C. asiaticus, 
the males put off the breeding plumage in the winter and 
assume a dress precisely similar to that of the female, except 
in so far as they retain a gular stripe. Specimens killed at 
the close of April had nearly completed the change. 

I presume the change here meaut is that of the male from 
winter to breeding plumage again. 



198 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

That this bird undergoes any change of plumage at all is 
quite contrary to my experience. I have males in full plu- 
mage shot in every month of the year, and I have taken 
several nests in March, when certainly the male birds were in 
full dress. The fact is that the young male is plumaged like 
the female till the following February, and that during the 
winter months there are more young males about than old 
oneSj owing to this species having two or more broods a year.* 

141.— Dicaeum cruentatum, Lath. (236.) 

Extremely common over the whole of the province. 

142. — Dicaeum trigonostigma, Scop. (236 Ms.) 

I have only one female of this species shot at Kyeikpadein. 
It appears to be very rare. 

143.— Dicaeum chrysorrhceum, Tern. (237.) 

Only procured near Rangoon, where it is not uncommon. 
Captain Ramsay records it from Tounghoo. 

144.— Piprisoma agile, Tick. (240.) 

Several specimens, shot at Kyeikpadein, are identical with 
an Indian specimen. I have procured it nowhere else within 
my limits. My men got a specimen at Malewoon in South 
Tenasserim which I identified with Prionochihis modestus, 
Hume, till I got an Indian example of P. agile with which to 
compare it. The two seem very close to each other.f 

145.— Sitta neglecta, Walden. (250 bis.) 

This Nuthatch is found in all the dry forests of the lower 
hills and plains over the whole province. It also frequents 
secondary jungle, compounds and open country where there 
are a few trees. 



* I have no doubt Mr. Oates is right ; at the same time we have very few males 
in full plumage shot in the winter, and it seemed fair to conclude that these were 
only exceptions, that as in the parallel case of asiatica retained the breeding 
plumage right through. About one in fifty I should say of asiaticus do this on 
the average, though this is commoner in damp warm localities, and rarer in dry 
cold ones. In the case of fiammaxillaris, I only went by a very large series of 
specimens. But Davison confirmed this view by his own personal observation of 
the extreme difficulty of getting full-plumaged males during the winter. — Ed., S. F. 

+ I hope Mr. Oates will again compare his specimens. I rather doubt Piprisoma 
agile occurring at Malewoon. The fact is that though usually, broadly speaking, this 
Bpecies is a pale grey brown with a faint greenish tinge, and P. modestus a pure 
green, yet I have seen faded birds of the latter undistinguishable, so far as colour 
went/from freshly moulted ones of the former, Hut the bills differ altogether ; that 
of modestus is considerablv longer, and pet the gonys of agile is a third longer than 
that of modestus! If P. agile really occurs at Malewoon, it is an interesting 
fact.— Ed., S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 199 

146.— Dendrophila frontalis, Sorsf. (253.) 

Common all over the Pegu hills and ranging 1 into the plains 
where the vegetation is at all evergreen, and suitable to it.* 

147. — Upupa longirostris, Jerdon. (251 bis.) 

Extremely common in all the dry forests of the plains, as 
well as in cultivated and bare ground. In thick dry forest, 
such as there is at Eutagan, 13 miles south of Pegu, on the 
Rangoon road, it is remarkably abundant. 

148. — Lanius nigriceps, Franhl. (259.) 

Common in the rains, somewhat rarer in the dry weather, 
in the grassy plains between the Pegu and the Sittang rivers. 
I also procured it at Prome, and Captain Ramsay got it at 
Tounghoo.f 

149.— Lanius colluroides, Less. (260 ter.) 

Common at Thyetmyo and Prome. Also throughout Lower 
Pegu it occurs in considerable numbers ; but it is not common 
except in Upper Pegu. It leaves the province from about 
February to July to breed, and perhaps goes to native Burma 
for the purpose. 

150. — Lanius cristatus, Lin. (261.) 

Excessively common over the whole province from Septem- 
ber to April in the plains, frequenting open ground and the 
neighbourhood of houses aud villages. 

151.— Tephrodornis pelvicus, Modgs. (263.) 

Occurs in all parts of the province in forests and well- 
wooded localities. 

152.— Tephrodornis pondicerianus, Gm. (265.) 

Very abundant everywhere, but a bird more of the open 
ground and of cultivation than of the forest. 

153.— Muscitrea grisola, Bly. (266.) 

Apparently rare. I have procured only one specimen which 
I shot on the banks of the canal about ten miles from Pe<ni. 

154. — Hemipus picatus, Syhes. (267.) 

Not a common bird, but very generally distributed over 
the province. 

* We have received it from Bassein, and Blanford also appears to have procured 
it there.— Ed , S. F. 
t Also near the mouth of the Bassein river.— Ed., S. F. 

26 



200 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OP PEGU. 

155.— Volvocivora* avensis, Bly. (268 bis.) 

Fairly common everywhere, but not so numerous a9 the 
rext. It frequents orchards aud clumps of trees, but is not 
found, I think, in forests. 

156. — Volvocivora intermedia, Hume. (269 bis.) 

More common than the preceding-, but more of a forest bird. 
I think it is confined to the southern portions of the province. 

157.— Graucalus macii, Less. (270.) 

Fairly common in all parts of Pegu. 

158— Pericrocotus elegans, 31c Clell. (271 ier.) 

This bird is common in all the forests aud well-wooded parts 
of the province. 

159.— Pericrocotus roseus, Vieill. (275.) 

1 have found this species very common near Pegu and 
Kyeikpadein. Captain Ramsay got it at Touughoo, and Dr. 
Armstrong at Rangoon and Syriam.f 

160.— Pericrocotus peregrinus, Lin. (276.) 

Extremely abundaut everywhere, except perhaps in the 
thicker forests on the hills. 

161.— Pericrocotus albifrons, Jerd. (277 bis.) 

Confined strictly to Thyetmyo and a few miles south of 
this place. It probably extends far above the frontier.^ 

162.— Pericrocotus cinereus, Lafr. (277 quat.) 

One single bird, a female, procured at Kyeikpadein, is, 
referable to the present species, aud differs in many important 
particulars from the next species. I have compared it with a 
series in the British Museum. 

163.— Pericrocotus cantonensis, Swinh. (277 ter.) 

I have three females of this speeies, two killed at Kyeik-> 
padeiu and one at Malewoon, in Tenasserim. The three 
specimens are all alike. 

The following remarks apply only to females, all my birds 
being of this sex : — 

In cinereus the upper plumage is a dark brown, and the 
rump and upper tail-coverts coucolorous with it; 

* 1 prefer to retain Volvocivora for the non-metallic-glossed-plumai:ed Asiatic 
species, and restrict Campophaya to the metallie-glussed-pluinaged African species.— 
Ed, SF. 

f And Blanfovd got it at Bassem.— Ed., S. F. 

J Blanford procured it as far aa Tayan. — Ed., S, F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 201 

The wing spot is pure white. 

The axillaries are pale buff. 

The dark portion of the tail and the shafts are black. 

The white of the tail is small. On the first pair, from the 
outside, the white measure '6; on the second also *6 ; ou the 
third, '85 ; and on the fourth, V7 in length. 

In the present species the upper plumage is hair brown ; the 
rump and upper tail-coverts conspicuously paler. 

The wing spot is yellow. 

The axillaries are yellow. 

The dark portions of the tail are brown, and the shafts pale 
hair brown. 

The white of the tail is extensive. On the first pair, the 
white measures '8 ; on the second, *8; on the third, 1*3; on 
the fourth, 2 - l in length. 

In cinereus the white on the fourth pair of rectrices extends 
to only half the width of the inner web. In cantonensis, the 
white extends to the edge of the inner web for a distauce of 
one and a quarter inches. The tail, closed and viewed from 
below, is entirely white. In cinereus the closed tail, viewed 
from below, has about equal quantities of black and white. 

The dimensions of tiie two species do not differ in any 
important particular, and Mr. Hume has already given suffi- 
cient information on this head (S. F., V, 176) when dealing 
with the bird he named immodestus* 

Both these species occur at Kyeikpadein. in a thick and 
almost impenetrable grove of mango trees with an under- 
growth of pineapples. I have tried unsuccessfully to procure 
males. I have compared the Pegu birds witli Mr. Swinhoe's 
series of cantonensis now in Mr. Seebohm's collection. 

164.— Buchanga atra, Berm. (278.) 

In Pegu this Drongo is only a cold weather visitor. It is 
very abundant from October to January in all suitable loca- 
lities, and less common from January to March. 

165.— Dicrurus annectans, Bodgs. (279.) 

A passing visitor in October, when it is very abundant near 

* And this, and not cantonensis, I am inclined to think, Mr. Oates' birds are. 
As to the distinctness of this form from cinereus, on which Mr. Oates now insists 
in detail. I pointed this out when dealing with it, and suggesting the name 
immodestus, S. F., V, 176. At the time I pointed out that this approached can- 
tonensis, but I also showed how it, and especially the male, differed. It is possible 
that my male (I only got one male and seven females) is a y>un£ bird, though it 
does not look so ; but it is separable at once from our only cantonensis, by its much 
duller rump, distinct wing bar, and darker upper surface. 

However, with only one adult male of each form it is impossible to be certain, and 
on the comparison of the females only no reliance can be placed. The matter must 
remain sub judke till Mr. Oates gets a series of males. — Ed., S. F. 



202 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

Pegu and Rangoon. I have not seen it at any other time of 
the year. 

It is generally considered that the birds with white on the 
breast and abdomen are voung, and that the black birds are 
adult. Is this proved? Dr. Dohrn (P. Z. S., 1866, p. 327) 
says of D. modestus : "The older they grow the more the 
tips of the feathers of the abdomen and breast are white 
bordered." 

166.— Buchanga longicaudata, A. Bay. 

This ashy black Drougo, exactly of the same tint of colour 
as the Malabar bird, appears to differ in the extent to which 
the tail is forked — a very important point in this familj". I 
have only one Indian specimen, and the fork is 22 deep. In 
Burmese birds it varies from 1*5 to 1*7. The colour of this 
bird must prevent it ever being confused with the two next 
which are clear ashy and not ashy black. 

The present species is a constant resident, and fairly common 
in all forest country in Lower Pegu. 

167.— Buchanga intermedia," Bly. (280 bis.) 

The ashy Drongo, a totally different coloured bird from the 
preceding, is common throughout the province in wooded 
localities. Wings, 4'9 to 5*4; tails, 56 to 60 ; fork of tail, 
1-7 to 1-9. 

168 —Buchanga pyrrhops, Hodgs. (280 bis.) 

A larger form of the preceding with wing 5*75 ; fork of tail, 
20. I have no specimen of it, but Lord Tweeddale examined 
specimens collected at Rangoon by Captain Ramsay. f 

169.— Chaptia senea, Vieill. (282.) 

Sparingly distributed over the whole province. 

170.— Bhringa remifer, Tern. (283.) 

Generally found, but rather rare. 

* This and the next are certainly not separable ; every intermediate size occurs. 
It is simply ahsurd to pick out all the large birds and call them one species, and 
all the small ones and call them another. 

Then as to difference of colour : it is most decided at the two ends of the scale, but 
■we have fully one hundred specimens lying between the extreme forms, and abso- 
lutely bridging over the difference. It may be convenient to retain one name to 
indicate this form lying between longicaudaius and leucophaa, but it is absolutely 
illogical for any one who adopts atra as the title for all the black Kingcrows, to go 
and" make two species here. Why atra includes at least five races, each much more 
distinct (I speak of typical examples of each) than is pyrrhops from inter- 
media. — Ed., S. F. i i i i t. 

f And Armstrong procured numbers there and elsewhere along the Pegu 
coast, and we have specimens from the JJasseia riyer estuary.— Ed., S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 203 

171.— Dissemurus paradiseus, Lin. (285.) 

In a foot note to an account of the nidification of the Great 
Kacket-tailed Drongo which I wrote (S. ¥., VIII, p. 166), Mr. 
Hume asks whether paradiseus or grandis is meant. After 
shooting these birds for some years in all parts of Pegu, and 
examining specimens procured by my men in Tenasserim, I am 
now of the opinion that the two cannot be separated.* Upper 
Pegu birds are larger, and have more ample crests than those 
from Lower Pegu and Tenasserim ; but no line can be drawn 
between the two, and the difficulty is best met by ranging them 
all in under one name. 

172.— Chibia hottentotta, Lin. (286.) 

This bird seems to wander about a good deal in flocks, and 
there are few places where it is not common at one time of the 
year or the other. 

173.— Artamus fuscus, Vieill. (287.) 

Generally distributed, and very common in many places, 
such as Thyetmyo, but apparently capricious in its choice of 
locality. In many tracts of country I have never met it. 

174.— Muscipeta affinis, A. Bay. (289.) 

Fairly common in all parts of Pegu. Iu September 
large numbers sweep through the province, apparently on 
migration. 

175.— Hypothymis azurea, Bodd. (290.) 

Excessively common everywhere. 

176.— Leucocerca albicollis, Vieill. (291.) 

Generally distributed, but nowhere commou. 

177. — Leucocerca aureola, Vieill. (292.) 

Confined to the upper portions of the province near Thyet- 
myo and Tounghoo. I have never met with it elsewhere. 

* The great mass of the birds from all over Pegu and Tenasserim are unques- 
tionably paradiseus. But true grandis is perfectly separable. Very likely Mr. Oates 
has never seen one in Burma. W"e have only two, one from the .North Arakan hills, 
and one from the extreme north of Tenasserim. 

But from Thyetmyo in Pegu, we have two specimens, which might pass for or andis, 
but which, when closely examined, have smaller crests and smaller bills, though larger 
than those from Rangoon, &c. I agree therefore with Mr. Oates now, that it is best 
to keep all the Pegu birds as paradiseus- But if he means that true grandis is 
not separable from paradiseus, then I must differ from him — five birds in a hundred 
may be found intermediate between the two near the junctions of their respective 
Areas I admit ; but Low about keeping intermedia and pyrrhops separate when posi- 
tively fifty out of every hundred birds are intermediate between these two forms and 
both occur as a rule in the same areas? I may note thatoa the last line of p. 221, 
Vol. VI, Pegu has been printed for Arakaa.— Ed., S, F. 



204 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

178.-— Culicicapa ceylonensis, Swains. (295.) 

In Upper Pegu it seems to be confined to the hills, but in the 
lower parts it is generally distributed as a cold weather 
visitor. 

179.— Hemichelidon sibiricus, Gm. (296.) 

A rather rare bird in general, but appears to occur in all 
parts of the province. 

180.— Alseonax latirostris, Baffl. (297.) 

Excessively common in Lower Pegu during the dry weather, 
particularly near Rangoon and Pegu. Captain Ramsay got it 
at Tounghoo, but I did not meet with it at Thyetmyo. 

181.— Alseonax ferrugineus, Ilodgs. (299.) 

Of rare occurrence. I have got two specimens near Kveik- 
padein in the course of five or six years. Thyetmyo {Blyth). 

182.— Stoporala melanops, Fig. (301.) 

During one dry season this bird was excessively abundant 
round Kyeikpadein, and I procured as many as I wanted. I 
have seen it every year again, but not in such large numbers. 
Dr. Armstrong got it at Syriam and Elephant Point.* 

183.— Cyornis rubeculoides, Vig. (301) 

A common bird over the whole province in the dry weather. 

184.— Erythrosterna albicilla, Pall. (323.) 

Common over the whole province during the dry weather. 

185.— Erythrosterna maculata, Tick. (326.) 

I shot one bird at Kyeikpadein in the cold weather. It is 
very rare apparently. 

186. — Myiophoneus eugenii, Hume. (343 Ms.) 

Confined to the rocky streams in the Pegu hills where it is 
common. Does not appear to cross the Irrawaddy river to the 
west, where temmincki replaces it. 

187.— Hydrornis oatesi, Hume. (344 bis.) 

Common in certain streams of the evergreen forests of the 
Pegu hills. 

* And Blunt'urd at Basaeiu, whence we also have received it. — Ed , S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 205 

188.— Pitta cyanea, Bly. (344 ter.) 

Generally distributed in the bills and in the well-wooded 
portions of the plains. 

189.— Pitta moluccensis, P. L. S. Mull (345 lis,) 

Very common over the whole province from May to July, 
merely visiting us for breeding purposes. 

190.— Pitta megarhyncha, Sold. (345 ter.) 

Appears at much the same time as the preceding species, but 
is comparatively rare. 

191.— Pitta cuculata, Earth (346.) 

Distributed and common in suitable localities over the whole 
province.* 

192. — Cyanocinclus solitarius, P. L. S. Mull. (351 bis.) 

I do not know to which species the Pegu bird belongs — this 
or cgamis.] It is a fairly common bird, found throughout the 
province in the dry weather. 

193.— Geocichla citrina, Lath. (355.) 

Nowhere very common apparently, but found in all parts of 
Pegu. 

194.— Turdus obscurus, Gm. (369 bis.) 

I procured one specimen at Kyeikpadeiu, and it appears to. 
be rare. 

195.— Oreocincla mollissima, Ely. (370.) 

Capt. Ramsay got this bird at Tounghoo. I have not met. 
with it. 

196.— Oreocincla dauma, Lath. (371.) 

I found this bird on the hills, and I procured a specimen at 
Kyeikpadeiu. Capt. Ramsay records it from Touughoo. It 
seems to be rare. 

197.— Pyctorhis sinensis, Gm. (385.) 

Very common throughout the plains. 

* Add 350 bis. — Zoothera marginata, Bly. 

A msle from the North Vegu bills — Ed., S. F. 

f I hardly understand this. Both forms occur in Pegu. Either Mr. Oates accepts, 
both as species, and then he should enter both, or he thinks them different races of 
one species, and then cyanus lias priority, — Ed., S, E. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OP PEGU, 

198.— Pyctorhis altirostris, Jerdon. (386 bis.) 

I have already described this bird (S. F., V, p. 249). Since 
I became acquainted with the note of this species I have heard 
it very frequently in the vast plain west of the canal, and 
have procured many specimens. It is very difficult to shoot, 
as it clings to the lower parts of the elephant grass, and ia 
seldom seen. I have fouud it the best plan to go after them, 
in a canoe during high floods. Nothiug but the tips of the 
grass are then available for shelter, and a few birds are secured 
with tolerable ease. 

They are abundant along both sides of the reclamation bund 
extending from the head of the canal to the road from Pegu 
to Tounghoo. Also down the canal as far as Wan. In marching 
this year from Pegu to Tounghoo I heard the note every day 
nearly up to Tounghoo wherever there was elephant grass. As 
is well known, Dr. Jerdon procured it at Thyetmyo. It also 
probably occurs in the plains in other parts of the Irrawaddy 
valley. 

Its note is peculiar and unlike that of any other bird. It ia 
however impossible to describe it. Although not gregarious, 
yet the bird is seldom alone, and several may frequently be 
heard calling and answering from the same clump of grass. 
It feeds in the rains chiefly on large grasshoppers which abound, 
to an incredible extent, in all the flooded lands, 

199.— Trichastoma abbotti, Bly. (387.) 

Very common throughout the southern portions of the 
province in gardens, orchards, and damp forests, provided 
that in these there is a dense undergrowth of small and 
entangled brushwood. It has a remarkably pretty note, 
uttered so frequently, and in such rapid succession, that it 
may be said almost to have a song. It feeds chiefly ou the 
ground, but I have seen it in trees peering under the leaves 
of the smaller branches for insects.* 

200.— Alcippe phayrii, Bly. (388 bis.) 

I procured this bird only in the evergreen forests of the 
Pegu hills, where it was common. 

201.— Stachyrhis nigriceps, Eodgs. (391.) 

Appears to be fairly common in the Pegu hills on the 
Eastern slopes, where I have twice taken its nest. 

* Add 388. — Alcippe nipalensis, Hodgs. 

I have examined a specimen of tuis from the .North Pegu lulls.— Ev., S. P. 



A LIST OF TIIE BIRDS OF PEGU. 207 

202.— Stachyrhis rufifrons, Hume. (393 bis.) 

I have no doubt this bird is pretty common on the Pegu 
hills, but I only met with it once or twice. 

203.— Mixornis rubricapillus, Tick. (395.) 

Excessively commou in all parts of Pegu, except perhaps 
in the drier parts near Thyetmyo, where I do not remember 
to have observed it. 

204.— Timalia bengalensis, God.-Aust. (396.) 

Common in all parts of the province in the plains both in, 
brushwood and in elephant grass. In all the plains round 
Pegu it is common to a degree. 

205.— Pellorneum tickelli, Bly. ; Trichastoma minus, 
Hume ; Drymocataphus fulvus, Walden. 
(387 bis). 

Mr. Hume favored me some time ago with a specimen of 
the bird he calls P. tickelli, and also with one of his T. minus. 
The latter is undoubtedly* the bird described by Blvth and 
Tickell, and also the bird I recorded from Upper Pegu (S. F., 
Ill, p. 119). Mr. Hume's P. tickelli, which is much streaked. 
on the breast, will require a new name I think. 

I think the Marquis of Tweeddale was right in classing 
this species under Drymocataphus. It is hardly a Pellorneum. 
(See Ibis, 1877, p. 451.) 

1 fouud this bird common on the Pegu hills in nullahs, 
creeping on the ground in brushwood on the banks. 

I wish to note that Mr. Hume's P. tickelli appears so rare 
in Teuasserim that Mr. Davison got only one specimen. Of 
Trichastoma minus he got ten, and Tickell is therefore hardly 
likely to have got the former and not the latter. f 

206.— Pellorneum subochraceum, SwinJwe ; P. minus, 
Hume. 
Common in every part of the province, except perhaps on 
some portions of the hills. 

207.— Pomatorhinus nuchalis, Ttoeeddale%(M)Z.) 

In the list of the birds of Upper Pegu, (S. F., Ill, p. 121) 

* This is rather begging the question. I say per contra, and have quoted 
both descriptions, that they absolutely do not apply to T. minus, and do 
exactly, word for word, agree with the bird I call tickelli. But quot homines 
tot sententiw. — Ed., S. F. 

f This is the only real point agninst my view, but can that outweigh ha 
fact thnt the descriptions exactly fit one bird, while they can only, with difficulty, 
be made to cover the other? — Ed., S. F. 

% This is P. leueogasler. Gould. I have fully discussed this question, S. F , IX, 251, 
One Thyetmyo specimen that we have is typical schisticeps, while another is 
iuspparable from a Simla leucopaster. I suspect Mr. Oates had overlooked my 
elaborate exposition of this question loc. cit. sup. — Ed., S. F, 

27 



208 A LTST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU* 

this bird is entered as schisticeps, Hodgs. Having received a 
bird lately from Mr. Hume from Mr. Maudelli's collection 
made in Sikkim, I find that the Thyetmyo bird is clearly 
different from the Sikkim bird, differing in the flanks being* 
ferruginous instead of olive brown, and by the absence of 
white streaks on the lateral breast feathers, and also by having 
a pale ferruginous collar on the nape. 

I found this species common round Thyetmyo, but have 
not observed it anywhere else.* 

208.— Garrulax belangeri, Less. (407 bis.) 

Distributed over every portion of the province and abundant. 

209.— Garrulax chinensis, Scop. (408 ter.) 

Rarely met with. I have got it once or twice near Kyeikpa- 
dein and to the west of Shwaygheen. 

210.— Garrulax pectoralis, Gould. (412.) 

Abundant near Thyetmyo and across the Pegu hills to 
Tounghoo, appparently not further south than the latitude of 
Prome. 

Mr. Hume remarks (S. F., Ill, p.123) that, as far as he 
knows, this species and the next are always found together. In 
the greater portion however of the Pegu province, moniliger 
only is found. I notice also that in Tenasserim Mr. Davison 
saw the present species only once,f whereas he procured a 
large series of the next. These peculiarities in the distribution 
are good evidence of the total distinctness of the two species. 

211.— Garrulax moniliger, Eodgs. (413.) 

Very abundant throughout the province, mingling with 
pectoralis where that species is found, but being found alone in 
the greater part of Pegu. 

212.— Chatarrhsea earlii, Bly. (439.) 

Very abundant in the grass plains west of the canal. I also 
met with it at Henzada, and Mr. Blanford says he got it at 
Thyetmyo. 

* Add 402.— Pomatorhinus schisticeps, Hodgs. 

We had one typical specimen of this form from Thyetmeyo and so if leuco- 
gaster is retained distinct, this (schisticeps) must also appear in the Pegu list. 

f But this seems to have been a mere personal idiosyncracy, for Darling got lots 
of pectoralis, and Bingham has found both species equally common in Tenasserim, 
(vide S. F., IX, 181). I hare seen, I may add, specimens of pectoralis from near 
Eangoon. — Ed., S. F. 



A LIST OP THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 209 

213.— Chatarrhsea gularis, Bly. (439 bis.) 

Confined to the Thyetmyo and Prome districts up to the 
foot of the hills. Particularly abuudaut in Thyetmyo itself, 
and fairly common elsewhere. 

214.— Megalurus palustris, Eorsf. (440.) 

Very common in the grass plains west of the canal and extend- 
ing south of the canal some distance, possibly as far as Rangoon. 
It does not seem to be known that the sexes differ not only in 
size, but also very markedly in colouration.* I am sorry my 
specimens are all packed up, and that I cannot describe them in 
this paper. 

215.— Criniger griseiceps, Hume. (451 Ms.) 

A common bird in all the forests on the eastern slopes of the 
Pegu hills. 

I received three specimens of a Criniger from Mr. deWet 
who shot them only a few miles east of Touughoo, and conse- 
quently outside my limits. They agree exactly with flaveolus 
from the Himalayas, with the exception of the crest, which is 
conspicuously tipped yellow. I note that Mr. Blyth records 
flaveolus from Tenasserim.f Neither Mr. Davison nor Captain 
.Ramsay appear to have found it. 

216. — Ixus davisoni, Hume. (452 quat.) 

Confined to the southern portions of the province. I have 
procured it at Rangoon, aud all the way up the road to Pegu. 
Also at Kyeikpadein. Dr. Armstrong procured it at Elephant 

* This latter is certainly not generally known, nor is it in my opinion a fact. The 
bird being specially familiar to me, I was much surprised when I read Mr. Oates' 
remark as to the sexes differing materially in colouration — but live and learn — I deter- 
mined at once to make up, by careful study, for my past ignorance. I had lying 
handy a large series of this species killed and sexed by myself in Manipur, I examined 
these, but could detect no sexual difference in plumage. Then I turned out between, 
thirty and forty of each sex, from various parts of India, Assam and Burma but 
here too failed to discover any trace of what Mr. Oates contends for. I found 
that specimens of both sexes varied in colouration to an extraordinary extent; first 
according to season, from the warm rufescent streakless head, nape and extreme 
upper back, with unspotted, often yellow, throat and breast, and uniform fulvous 
brown, lower parts of the freshly moulted bird to the cold greyish brown strongly 
streaked head, white throat, strongly spotted or streaked lower throat and upper 
breast and dingy white lower parts of some of the April and May birds ; and 
second according to individuals, birds of the same ( as well different ) sexes shot at 
the same place on the same date, differing very markedly both in tone of colour 
and in the character and intensity of the streakings of the upper surface ( especi- 
ally of the crown), and the spottings, if I may so call the markings, on the lower 
throat and upper breast. But I have been able to find no male that I could not " 
match with some female, and no female that I could not match with some male.— 
Ed., S. F. 

f Griseiceps had not then been discriminated. There is little doubt that the ' 
birds Blyth referred to were really griseiceps. In those days, we knew so little of 
the possible variations of what are now common Himalayan birds, that small 
differences were not much attended to. — Ed., S. P. 



210 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

Point, and Mr. Blanford at Bassein. He records it under the 
name of finlaysoni, which, however, is not found west of the 
Sittang river. The limits of these two birds are very clearly 
and curiously defined by the ISittang. On the same day I 
have shot davisoni on the west bank, and finlaysoni on the 
east, but I have never known either of the birds to be found 
on the contrary sides of the river to these, 

217.— Ixos blanfordi, Jerd. (452 quint.) 

Very abundant in all the plains portion of the province, 
and common as it is at Thyetmyo and Upper Pegu generally, 
it is much commoner in some places in Lower Pegu, such as 
Pegu and Kyeikpadein. 

218.— Iole viridescens, Bhj. (452 dec.) 

This Bulbul is spread generally over Lower Pegu, in the 
hilly country chiefly, and extends up the iSittang valley to 
Tounghoo. 

219. — Rubigula flaviventris, Tick. (456.) 

Common throughout Southern Pegu, and extending up to 
Tounghoo both in the hills and plains. 

220. — Brachypodius melanocephalus, Gm. (457 Ms.) 

Very common round Rangoon and up to Pegu, theuce 
extendiug some miles into the hills. I have not met with it 
elsewhere.* 

221. — Brachypodius cinereiventris, Bly. (457 quat.) 

I have no doubt myself that this is a distinct species. I 
have never found any bird with the lower plumage mixed up 
with yellowish green; the grey is always uniform. Mr. 
Hume's theory (S. F., VI, p. 320) that the skin of cinereiventris 
has ceased to secrete the yellow pigment is a very convenient 
one, if you wish to make away with the species. f The same 

* But Blanford got it at Bassein. — Ed., S. F. 

•f I have not the least wish to make awny with any species. I merely stated the 
fact that the difference between melanocephalus. cinereiventris, and chalcocephalus 
consisted solely in the extent to which the skin did or did not secrete a certain 
yellow pigment. I distinctly said, " whether these are species or local races," or what 
not, this is the sole difference between them. Now whether such differences consti- 
tute valid species, depends solely on whether they are normal and constant in a 
body of birds over a certain area, or whether they are abnormal or sporadic, 
affecting, like albinism, particular individuals only, and not the bulk of the birds 
of any locality. From what we read, (I do not know the thing of my own 
knowledge) the entire inability to secrete the yellow pigment, which gives us 
chalcocephalus, is a constant and persistent character of a vast number of birds 
covering a huge, but definite area. If this he so. then chalcocephalus must be 
admitted as a good species. But we know nothing of the same kind about the 
partial iuability to secrete the jeiluw pigment, which gives us cinereiventris. On the 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF TEGU. 211 

argument might, with equal justice, be applied to any other pair 
of similar species, and one of the two abolished. 

The present species has apparently the same distribution a9 
the preceding. I note, however, that Lieutenant Ramsay got it 
at Tounghoo, where he does not seem to have observed melano- 
cephalusi 

222.— Otocompsa emeria, Lin. (460 ) 

Extremely common, commencing from Prome, extending 
down to Southern Pegu, and reaching up to Tounghoo, where 
Captain Ramsay wrote to me it was very abundant. Not found 
on the hills. 

223.— Pycnonotus burmanicus, Sharpe. Cat. VI., 
p. 125. (462 quat.) 

Of common occurrence everywhere in Pegu except the hills. 
I cannot find that birds differ at all from each other from one 
end of the province to the other. 

1 recorded the finding of the nest and eggs of P. intermedins 
in Pegu (S. F., Y, p. 157). This note must be cancelled. It 
applies to P. bxirmanicus. 

224.— Phyllornis chlorocephalus, Wald. (463 bis.) 

Confined to the evergreen forests of the Pegu hills from 
Rangoon up to the frontier, and pretty common. 

225.— Phyllornis aurifrons, Tem. (465.) 

Extends from Thyetmyo down the valley of the Irrawaddy, 
Is common throughout Southern Pegu and runs up to Tounghoo. 
It is I think confined to the plains. 

226.— Iora typhia, Lin. (468.) 

Extremely common in all parts of the province in gardens 
and waste land. 

227.— Irena puella, Lath, (469.) 

Confined to the evergreen forests of the hills, and not 
descending far into the plains unless the forest is very thick. 
It is extremely common wherever it occurs. 

contrary, so far as we yet know, this partial inability appears to be rather sporadic, 
affecting only individual birds, and not general or common to the bulk of the birds' 
anywhere. If this be so, we can no more admit rinereiventris as a species, than 
we can the bright yellow Xantholmma hcemacephala, Palaomis torquatus, and 
purpurens, or any other of the fifty odd familiar, and constantly recurring forms of 
albinism and lutinism. I believe that this form is more common in Tipperah than 
elsewhere, but even there it did not seem to me to affect one per cent, of the 
birds. Still, if hereafter in any area this partial inability to secrete the yellow 
pigment shall prove to be a normal, persistent, hereditary characteristic of any 
considerable body of birds, I shall willingly accord specific rank to this form. At 
present, I must repeat, (and it is a question I have carefully studied) that all 
available evidence is opposed to aDy such general diffusion of this peculiarity,— 
Ed.. S. F. 



212 A LIST OF THE BIIIDS OF PEG1U. 

Young birds of both sexes are clothed in the plumage of 
the female. The male changes into adult plumage when about 
nine months old or about March. The change takes place 
without a moult. In one young bird nearly changed into 
adult plumage, the centres of the upper feathers are still of 
the dull blue of the female. 

228.— Oriolus indicus, Jerd. (471.) 

Confined, as far as my experience goes, to Lower Pegu. 
It is abundant near Rangoon and Pegu, and in the intermediate 
tract. 

229.— Oriolus tenuirostris, Bhj. (471 ter.) 

Common in the Thyetmyo district, and extending down to 
Rangoon and Lower Pegu generally, but rare there. Major 
Lloyd appears to have sent it from Tounghoo. Where found, 
it affects the same jungle as indicus. 

230. — Oriolus melanocephalus, Lin. (472.) 

Extremely common in every part of the province. 

231.— Oriolus trailli, Vig. (474.) 

Captain Ramsay records this from Tounghoo, and I have 
several specimens shot a few miles east of that place. 

232.— Copsychus saularis, Lin. (475.) 

Very common in all parts. It does not as a rule frequent 
forests, but I have occasionally seen them in such places. 

233.— Cercotrichas macrura, Gm. (476.) 

A forest bird, remarkably abundant in all parts of Pegu. 

234.— Pratincola caprata, Lin. (481.) 

Very abundant in all parts of the province in the plains. 

I have not recorded yet the finding of the nest of this bird 
in Burma. I may as well do so now. I found the nest on 
the 20th April in a foot-print in an old paddy field, and it 
contained three eggs quite fresh. This was near Pegu. 

235.— Pratincola maurus, Pall. (483.) 

Generally distributed as a dry weather visitor throughout 
the province in the plains only. 

236.— Pratincola leucurus, Bly. (4S4.) 

I only procured this species at Thyetmyo, where it is rather 
rare. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 213 

237.— Pratincola ferreus, Hodgs. (486.) 

I procured this at Prome where it is rare. Captain Ramsay 
records it from Tounghoo. 

238— Oreicola jerdoni, Bly. (487.) 

Mr. Blanford got this at Bassein. I have never met with it. 

239.— Ruticilla aurorea, Pall. (500.) 

Recorded from Thyetmyo by Mr. Hume, on the strength 
of a specimen sent him by Captain Feilden. I have never met 
with it. 

240.— Larvivora cyane, Pall. (507 bis.) 

I shot one specimen, an adult male, at Kyeikpadein. It is 
probably rare as I have been paying particular attention to 
this class of birds for some years, and have failed to procure 
more than one. 

241.— Calliope camtschatkensis, Gm. (512.) 

Very abundant during the cold weather in the neighbour- 
hood of Kyeikpadein, and near Myitkyo on the canal. At 
the former place it frequents tangled brushwood, and in the 
latter, elephant grass. It keeps to the ground a good deal, 
but perches on shrubs when not feeding. It is very difficult 
to get a shot at this bird unless it happens to be running 
along a footpath. The male bird, even in December, has a 
very pretty little song, by hearing which I got first acquainted 
with the species. Feilden procured it at Thyetmyo. 

242.— Cyanecula suecica, Lin. (514.) 

Very abundant in the grass plains west of the canal. It 
comes out habitually into burnt-up open patches to feed, and 
is very easy to procure. It is silent. It has the habit of 
running with great speed about ten feet at a time, then stopping 
suddenly, elevating and jerking its tail a good deal when stop- 
ping still. It is by no means shy, and at Wan it may frequently 
be seen running about the compound of the Inspection 
Bungalow from 7th November to 15th May. 

243.— Acrocephalus stentoreus, Hemp. § Mr. (515.) 

Not uncommon at Kyeikpadein, and mixed up with orientalis, 
from which it is difficult to separate it if the wing is imperfect. 
As a rule these birds want the marks on the breast, which are 
almost always present in orientalis. 

244.— Acrocephalus orientalis, Tern,. §r Schl. (515 bis.) 

I described this bird in S. F., Ill, p. 337. I have nothing 
to add to what I then said, except that the amount of striation 



214 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

on the breast varies much, in some being very pronounced, 
and in others obsolete. 

It is an extremely common species from Kyeikpadein up to 
Myitkyo, remaining from the beginning of October to the 
middle of May. Although fond of patches of grass, it is 
found more frequently in trees, bamboo hedges, and weeds. 
It has a hoarse croaking note which develops into something 
like a song in April and May. 

In orientalis, the second primary equals the fourth, and they 
fall short of the tip of the third, the longest by *04 to *08 ; 
sometimes the second is longer than the fourth by a trifle. 

In stentoreus, the second primary is equal to the fifth or 
thereabouts, and they fall short of the tip of the third, the 
longest, by '15 in typical examples. 

In size and plumage both species are so much alike that 
they cannot be discriminated by these alone. 

245. — Acrocephalus dumetorum, Bly. (516.) 

Rare, as compared with agricolus. Frequents paddy, and 
when this is cut, takes to long grass. I have procured it 
only near Kyeikpadein. 

246.— Acrocephalus agricolus, Jerd. (517.) 

Very abundant from Kyeikpadein up to Myitkyo in paddy 
and elephant grass. In marching up to Tounghoo this year 
I saw it on the banks of the Sittang once or twice, aud I have 
no doubt it is common in most parts of the plains. Burmese 
examples are very rufous, strikingly more so than birds from 
India. 

247.— Acrocephalus bistrigiceps, Swinh. (517 ter.) 

Apparently very common, but so difficult to get that six 
specimens in one season is good work. It arrives at the com- 
mencement of November, my first bird having been procured 
on the 5th of that month. On its arrival it takes to the 
paddy fields, and remains till the crops are cut, when it 
betakes itself to the thicker patches of grass. It moves about 
from stalk to stalk, searching for minute insects, and has a low 
note. I have never heard anything like a song proceeding 
from the bird. It remains in this country at least as late 
as the 15th April, on which day I shot a specimen. 

This bird undergoes no change of plumage during the five 
or six months it remains in Pegu. The sexes also are alike in 
plumage. 

A line from the nostril over the eye to the nape is pale 
yellowish buff; over this runs a broader streak of blackish 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OP PEGU. 215 

brown, widening posteriorly ; lores brown ; cheeks, ear-coverts, 
sides of neck and breast, and the flanks, the same as the eye 
streak, but darker ; breast, abdomen, vent, and under tail- 
coverts pale yellowish buff ; chin and throat white, tinged with 
yellowish ; the head and whole upper plumage olive brown, 
tinged with rufous, brightest on the rump and upper tail 
coverts ; all the quills brown, edged narrowly on the outer 
webs with the colour of the back and upper plumage ; tail 
brown, very narrowly edged rufous ; upper wing-coverts 
brown, very broadly edged with rufous olive brown. 

A male measured: — Length, 5*12 ; expanse, 6'6 ; tail, 2*1 ; 
wing, 2 - 05 ; tarsus, "08 ; bill from gape, "68. The iris was 
brown; mouth pale yellow; upper mandible brown; lower 
mandible flesh-coloured, slightly dusky at tip ; legs plumbeous 
flesh colour; soles of feet yellow; and the claws horn colour. 

I have met with this bird only in the immediate vicinity of 
Kyeikpadein, chiefly in the plain in front of the bungalow 
there. 

I mav as well add that the first primary is uncommonly 
large for birds of this genus, measuring half an inch in length. 
The second primary equals the seventh, or falls sometimes 
between the sixth and seventh. The third, fourth, and fifth 
primaries are nearly equal in length. 

248.— Arundinax aedon, Pall. (518.) 

Very abundant in all the country lying west of the canal, 
and also for some distance away from its eastern bank. 
Captain Ramsay got it at Tounghoo, and Dr. Armstrong at 
Elephant Point. It seems, therefore, to be universally distributed 
over the province. 

It is far more aquatic than any of the five Acrocepliali just 
noted. It is generally found on the banks of streams and 
ponds in long grass, or even in shrubs. 

249— Locustella lanceolata, Tern. (520 bis.) 

This bird is very common near Kyeikpadein from the middle 
of October to the end of February, and probably later. On 
first arrival it goes into the paddy, and when this is cut, it 
remains in the stubble, and when this is trodden down or 
burnt it takes refuge in grass, the thickest clumps being 
selected. As long as the paddy fields are wet it feeds from 
stalk to stalk, but when the ground gets dry, it seems to feed 
habitually on the ground, running about among the roots of 
the herbage and rice. 

Mr. Hume has described this bird at length (S. R, I, 
p. 409; VI, p. 339). 

28 



216 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

Tlie second primary is generally equal to the fourth. Ont 
(Of 50 birds only three have the second equal to the third. 
The first varies in length from *35 to '5. 

The streaks on the lower surface become reduced in what 
I take to be aged birds. The bird least marked in my series 
has a few streaks only on the centre of the breast and on the 
flanks, with one or two faint marks on the under tail-coverts. 
In this state it is very like the Indian L. kendersoni. The 
majority of the birds are densely streaked from the chin to the 
tail-coverts, except on the abdomen, and all these are charac- 
terized by a richer tone of colouring beneath. 

The tail-coverts vary in the most extraordinary manner. 
In many of the birds they are entirely unmarked ; in others 
densely streaked, and this follows no rule viewing it in connec- 
tion with the amount of streaking on the other parts of the 
lower plumage. I can make no deductions of value from the 
examination of my large series. We require authenticated 
birds of the year, and old birds shot off the nest before any- 
thing can be made out for certain. 

250.— Locustella certhiola, Fall. (521.) 

Another bird, which is extremely common near Kyeikpadein 
and portions of the canal, but one which is never by any 
chance seen except by accident. It swarms in inundated 
paddy fields to an incredible extent. I have procured it from 
the 18th October to the 16th December. At this latter date 
the paddy harvest begins, and the bird disappears entirely. 
Unlike lanceolata it does not appear to go into grass at all. 

It frequents those fields in which the paddy is very high 
and thick, and very swampy. It rises at one's feet and settles 
again at once, affording only a snap shot at about two yards 
distance. 

The young bird up to October has the whole upper plumage, 
including the coverts and tertiaries, blackish brown ; the feathers 
of the head narrowly, and all the others broadly, margined 
with reddish brown ; rectrices chiefly blackish brown, 
irregularly margined with rufous brown, and very broadly 
terminated with whitish. 

The lower plumage is buff, pale on the throat and upper 
breast, dark on the breast, and increasing in depth of colour 
down to the tail-coverts ; the throat and breast are closely 
spotted with triangular blackish brown marks ; stripe over the 
eye, and a streak from the bill under the cheeks and ear-coverts, 
yellowish buff; ear-coverts hair brown; under wing-coverts 
whitish ; primaries and secondaries dark brown, narrowly 
edged with reddish brown. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 217 

Birds in this plumage are undoubtedly nestlings. But they 
differ from what Mr. Seebohm says of this stage by not being 
yellowish below to such an extent as his description implies, 
or Mr. Dresser's plate shews it to be. In the latter also the 
spots on the throat and breast are hardly numerous enough for 
an average young specimen, and the tippings to the tail feathers 
are too narrow, they being really about *2 in breadth. 

Birds with the bright yellowish buff lower plumage are not 
spotted, and I take this to be the stage into which the nestling 
moults in October or November. In this stage the upper 
plumage is much brighter, caused by the black centres to the 
feathers being smaller, and the margins larger ; the rump is 
almost unstreaked. The black on the rectrices is less in extent, 
and the white tips reduced to the same size as in the adult ; 
the eye streak, the chin, throat, and the whole lower plumage 
are lively yellowish buff, intensifying and becoming warm 
ochreous on the flanks and under tail-coverts. There are no 
spots, but a few of the feathers on the sides of the neck are 
obsoletely tipped darker, but so slightly as not to be noticeable 
without close inspection. 

From this stage the bird in spring moults into the full 
plumage. The adults, according to Mr. Seebohm, (Ibis, 1879, 
p. 13) have both a spring and an autumn plumage, differing 
from each other in the colour of the underparts, but my large 
series does not support this view. 

The adults — both sexes seem alike — have the head blackish 
brown, each feather narrowly edged with pale reddish brown. 
A collar behind the nape is reddish brown without marks. 
This unspotted collar is only seen in a very few birds, and 1 
take it to indicate very old birds; the back, scapulars, and 
wing-coverts dark blackish brown, rather broadly edged with 
reddish brown ; the rump reddish brown, without marks ; 
the upper tail-coverts reddish brown, each feather with a laro-e 
central drop of black ; the outer tail feathers are nearly all 
black, the rufous margins being small. Towards the middle of 
the tail each pair of rectrices becomes progressively less black 
and more margined with rufous, and the middle pair are 
rufous with a broad shaft line of black. All the rectrices are 
tipped with white, the breadth of the tips being about '05 of 
an inch. 

Eye streak yellowish white ; ear-coverts hair brown, and a 
patch below the ear-coverts yellowish buff; chin, throat, and 
centre of abdomen whitish ; remainder of the underparts 
delicate buff, darkening on the flanks and under tail-coverts ; 
the wings are brown, the teitiaries being edged with whitish, 
and the other quills with pale rufous brown. 

As a rule, the underparts are quite unmarked ; but in many 



218 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

birds in adult plumage there are a few tiny marks on the 
feathers of the side breast. 

The second primary is equal to the fourth, and the first 
primary projects very slightly indeed beyond, the tips of the 
primary coverts. 

I have mislaid my measurements of this bird in the flesh, 
and also the notes on the colours of the soft parts. 

In skins the wing measures 2*3 to 2*45, and. the tarsus 08 ; 
tail, 2-1 to 2-3. 

251. — Tribura taczanowskia, Swinh. P.Z.S., 1871, 
p. 355. Tribura intermedia, Oates, S. 3?., IX , 
p. 220. (522 A.) 

Mr. Brooks has recently examined in England the young 
specimen of this species which was Swinhoe's type, and he 
assures me that the two species are identical. The first speci- 
mens I got I identified with taczanowskia, and under this name 
it will be found recorded in my list of Burmese birds furnished 
to the B. B. Gazetteer. Mr. Brooks, however, was of opinion 
that the bird was new, and I was induced to describe it as 
intermedia. 

The adult bird was described (/. c), and it now remains to 
deal with the immature plumage. Mr. Swiuhoe's description 
applies to the bird after the first autumn moult, in which, as in 
L. certhiola, the bird is characterized by its yellow tone of 
plumage. The whole upper plumage is olive brown, as in tho 
adult ; the wings and tail hair brown, margined with the colour 
of the upper plumage ; shafts of rectrices, viewed from 
below, conspicuously pale ; ear-coverts, hair brown ; super- 
ciliary streak, cheeks, under the ear-coverts and whole lower 
plumage yellowish buff, tinged with olive brown on the 
breast, sides of body, thighs, and tail-coverts ; the cheeks are 
faintly barred with olive brown. This description is taken 
from a bird shot in February, and in beautiful new plumage. 

Several birds shot in November and December are, I think, 
birds of the year before the autumnal moult ; the chin and 
throat are nearly white ; the breast is tinged with brown 
aud spotted ; the whole remaining underparts are ochraceous 
brown, except the tips of the under tail-coverts, which, as in the 
adult, are broadly whitish ; the superciliary streak and cheeks 
are yellowish brown, the latter conspicuously barred. 

The bird was so fully dealt with when I described it first 
that any further description appears unnecessary. 

I met again with it this year from November to the middle 
of February, and had better opportunities of observing its 
habits. On first arrival, and until the crops are cut, it keeps 
to the standing paddy together with the Locustellas and 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 219 

Acrocephali, and it is impossible to distinguish one species from 
another till dead, and in the hand. All have the same habit 
of springing up at your feet and settling again a few feet off. 

When the rice is cut, it remains in the stubble, creeping 
about on the ground, and never shewing itself. At sunset it 
frequently flits about in a restless manner, and it was at this 
time that I found it possible to get a few specimens with 
tolerable certainty. 

The bird is also found in scrub and grass jungle, running 
about among the roots on the ground. It is abundant all 
round Kyeikpadeiu, and near the banks of the Peo-u river. 

252.— Orthotomus sutorius, Penn. (530.) 

Very abundant over the whole province in the plains and 
lower hills. 

253.— Orthotomus atrigularis, Tern. (530 bis.) 

I have found this bird common from Rangoon to Pegu, and 
further up into the hills in the Pegu river valley. It is a forest 
species, uttering its loud call from the top of some high tree, 
which the preceding species never does I think. 

254.— Prinia flaviventris, Deless. (532.) 

I found this species common in the swamps round Rangoon, 
and it occurs abundantly in the thick grass on the upper parts 
of the canal, and in the plain to tho west of it. 

255.— Prinia gracilis, Fmnkl. (536.) 

A common bird over the whole province. It does not 
appear to occur on the hills or in thick forest where the next 
species replaces it. 

256.— Prinia beavani, Walden. (538 bis.) 

I have observed this bird in every part of the province I 
have visited. It frequents the forests, or at all events very 

well-wooded localities. 

257.— Cisticola cursitans, FranM. (539.) 

An excessively common bird in all grass land and cultivated 
ground, and generally distributed in the plains. 

258.— Cisticola volitans, Swinhoe* (541.) 

Originally found in Formosa. This little Warbler, like so 

* Myth's name has, I believe, precedence. I cannot discover where Blylh first 
published the name, but hs early as 1856 he wrote it on the tickets of Tytler'a 
Dacca specimens. So I presume he must have published it at or about that time — 
but where? Swinhoe's name was first published in 1859 in the Journ. N. Chin. 
A. S. .;erdon only published Blyth's name in 1863. So of course if Myth himself 
did not publish the name, Swinhoe's name will stand. But I feel pretty sure Blyth 
did publish the name.— Hd , S. E. 



220 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

manv other Chiuese species, occurs very abundantly along 
the banks of the canal wherever there is thick grass and 
deserted patches of cultivated land. In habits it resembles 
cursitans, but it has a very different note, and one easily 
recognizable from it. It flies in the air in the same eccentric 
manner as cursitans. 

The male in breeding plumage has the top of the head from 
the bill to the nape golden fulvous; the nape dusky fulvous; 
«ar-coverts whitish ; centre of the abdomen and under tail- 
coverts white. "With these exceptions the whole lower surface 
is pale yellowish buff; the back and scapulars are dark 
brown, each feather broadly edged with grey ; wing-coverta 
and wings brown, edged with rufous grey ; tail very dark 
brown, almost black, each rectrix narrowly tipped with 
white ; rump and upper tail-coverts plain fulvous. 

The female in breeding plumage is different from the male 
in the following respects : — The top of the head is streaked 
with blackish brown ; the nape is darker, and the tips to the 
tail feathers are double the width, nearly as wide in fact as 
in cursitans. The amount of streaking on the head varies 
somewhat, in some being very thick, in others rather spare. 

Mr. Swinhoe's type was measured by Mr. Dresser, and 
recorded in the Birds of Europe in the article relating to 
C. cursitans. The wing measured 1*7 ; tail, l'l ; tarsus, 77 ; and 
culmen, '42. 

In two Pegu specimens, both males, the measurements 
W ere :— Length, 405, 385 ; expanse, 58, 5'7 ; tail, 125, 1*15 ; 
wing, 17, 1-75; tarsus, '7, *72 ; and bill from gape to tip, 
•5, -55. 

The females are about the same size. 

The third, fourth, and fifth primaries are about equal and 
longest, the second is about 2 shorter, and the first primary mea- 
sures '4 in length, the tip projecting beyond the wing-coverts 
by '25. The outer tail feathers fall short of the tip of the 
tail by -25. 

I cannot describe the bird in winter plumage, but I think 
the mnle then hns the head streaked like the female, for I have 
an April bird with a golden head, but with one black feather 
in the centre. The female probably undergoes no change. 

Breeding operations commence in the middle of May. On 
the 28th of this month I found two nests, one containing four 
eggs, slightly incubated, and the other, two quite fresh. 

The nest is a small bag about four inches in height and two to 
three in diameter, with an opening about one inch in diameter near 
the top. The general shape of the nest is oval. It is composed 
entirely of the white feathery flowers of the thatch grass. 
The walls of the nest are very thin, but strong. The nest is 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 221 

placed about one foot from the ground in a bunch of grass, 
and in the two instances where I found the nest, against a 
weed, with one or two leaves of which the materials of the nest 
were slightly bound. 

The eggs are very glossy pale bine, spotted all over with 
large and small blotches of rusty brown. I have no eggs of 
cursitans which match them, in this species the spots being* 
alwa} r s minute and thickly scattered over the shell, whereas in 
volita?is the marks are large, and fewer in number. Six egg3 
measured in length from *54 to "57, aud in breadth from 
•42 to -43. 

This species is easily distinguished from cursitans by its 
small size, the total absence of rufous on the upper plumage, 
aud by the narrow tippings to the tail feathers. The colour of 
the head is also quite sufficient to separate the males. 

Since writing the above I am inclined to think that C. rufi- 
ceps, Gould, C. eryfhrocephala, Jerdon, C. volitans, Swinhoe, 
and the Pegu bird may be all one species.* 

259. — Drymceca blanfordi, Wald. (543 tor.) 

Recorded from Tounghoo by Ramsay. It is probably 
Phylloscopus fuscatus. I have not met with it. 

260. —Drymceca extensicauda, Swirih. 

Mr. Brooks took home lately a very large series of this bird 
which I gave him. He has compared them with the birds in, 
the Swinhoe collection, and found them identical. f 

I have already described the bird, (S. R, III, 340). It 
occurs very abundantly round Pegu and Kyeikpadein, and along 
the canal aud plains on both sides. It also occurs at Rangoon 
and all the way up to Pegu, but is not so abundant anywhere 
as it is in the grass plains near Pegu. 

261.— Suya crinigera, Hodgs. (547.) 

Occurs only near Thyetmyo so far as I am aware. 

262.— Neornis flavolivaceus, Hodgs. (552.) 

Mr. Hume identified a bad specimen of this bird I sent him 
from Thyetmyo. I have the bird still, and I think the identi- 

* Of C. ruficeps, Gould, I Lave no knowledge, but C. erythrocephala, Jerdon, 
with the wing 19 to 2 is quite distinct. But C. volitans, Swinhoe, is of course 
nothing but C. tytleri, Blvtb, and as I long ago pointed out, (S. F., V. 351) 
C. melanocephala , Anderson, and O. ruficollis, Walden, are only the females of tytleri 
or volitans, whichever name stands — a point I have already discussed, ante p. 219 
«.— Ed., S. F. 

f !>even years ago (vid£ S. F., Ill, 340) I identified this species for Mr. Oates, 
by comparison with birds sent me by Mr. Swinhoe. It hardly needed to send a 
large series home for comparison.— JiD., S, F. 



222 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

fication is correct. All I know about this bird is recorded in 
S. F., III, p. 139. 

263.— Phylloscopus fuscatus, Bly. (555.) 

Very abundant all over the province. It is a ground 
Warbler, being found in grass and brushwood, and not in trees 
as a rule. 

264.— Phylloscopus borealis, Bias. (556 his.) 

I have procured a few specimens near Pegu and Kyeik- 
padein. It cannot be called a common bird. It frequents 
mango and other trees infested with minute insects. 

The first primary of this species is always very minute, 
varying in length, in seven birds, from *3 to *45 ; and the 
second primary is very constantly intermediate in length 
between the fifth and sixth. In one specimen only was it equal 
to the sixth. It is one of the easiest species to discriminate. 

265.— Phylloscopus schwarzi, Badde. (556 ter.) 

Apparently rare. I procured one specimen at Kyeikpadein 
in the same jungle with Locustella and Tribura. This species 
has been very fully dealt with in various volumes of Stray 
Feathers. 

266.— Phylloscopus tenellipes, Swinh. {Z56quat.) 

One of the rarer species. I have procured it two or three 
times near Kyeikpadein. 

A male specimen measured : — Length, 515 ; expanse, 8 2 ; 
tail, 2-0; wing, 2*67 ; tarsus, 73 ; bill from gape, "63; upper 
mandible brown ; lower mandible pale fleshy, dusky at tip; legs 
and claws pale flesh colour ; iris brown ; the second quill is 
intermediate between the sixth and seventh. The peculiar tint of 
buff on the plumage is alone sufficient for the identification 
of this species. 

267.— Phylloscopus lugubris, Bly. (558.) 

One of the commonest species. Appears to be generally 
distributed throughout Southern Pegu. It abounds round 
Kyeikpadein, and Dr. Armstrong got it at Elephant Point. 

268.— Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus, (558 bis.) 

This is a very common species round Pegu and Kyeikpadein, 
from September to April. It is strictly arboreal in its habits, 
and I have never found it near the ground. 

I do not know how the species ever could have got con- 
founded with viridams. Comparing 29 specimens of the latter 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 223 

from India, with a large series of pluml eitarsus, the differences 
between them are sufficiently striking-. The smaller size, the 
constant two wing bars, and the abrupt connection of the 
colour of these with the adjoining green, are always sufficient 
to separate plumbeitarsus from viridanus. 

The wing of this species varies from 2*1 to 2*5, the latter 
dimension being however exceptionally large. The tail varies 
from 1*55 to 1*9; the tarsus from '68 to 75; the second 
primary is almost always intermediate between the seventh 
and eighth ; in one or two cases it is equal to the eighth. 

The upper mandible is brown, the lower clear yellow ; iris 
brown ; mouth yellow ; legs pale plumbeous brown; and the 
toes are tinged with yellow ; the claws are pale horn colour. 

Mr. Brooks has now come to the conclusion that P. burman- 
icus must be suppressed in being only plumbeitarsus with 
the second wing bar worn away.* 

269.— -Phylloscopus coronatus, Tern, fy Schleg. 
(563 bis.) 

Not uncommon during migration in September and April, 
but I have not met with it at other times. 

270.— Phylloscopus trochiloides, Sund. (561.) 

It seems quite clearly proved now that flavo-olivaceus, 
Hume, and viridipennis ,f Blyth, are synonymous with the present 
species. It is abundant in all parts of the province during 
the winter months. Burmese birds cannot be separated from 
those procured in Bengal. 

271.— Phylloscopus superciliosus, Gm. (565.) 

By far the commonest species of Phylloscopus in Pegu. It 
abounds everywhere from October to April. I have never met. 
with a specimen which could be mistaken for humii or mandellii. 

272.— Crypt olopha tephrocephalus, Anders. (569Ms.) 

A very abundant cold weather visitor to all parts of the 
province I have visited, except perhaps in the northern portions, 
where it appears to be rare. 

* Mr. Oates is doubtless correct, but this is not the tenor of a letter from Mr. 
Brooks from Canada, received at the same time as this paper. — Ed., S. F. 

f The identity of flavo-olivaceus with trochiloides is discussed, ante. p. 169, but 
the identity of viridipennis with this latter is not only not proved, but I believe 
not even supposed, now by any ornithologist but my friend Mr. Brooks — vide for 
the distinctness of viridipennis, not only the numerous notes in this journal, but 
the B. M. C, V, 53. Possibly however Mr. Oates means viridipennis, Blyth, apud 
Jerdon, which may be identical with trochiloides, though it is by no means proved. 

Note that if this bird is to be retained as Phylloscopus, the genus Reguloides 
being suppressed, then it must stand under Blyth's name Phylloscopus reguloides, 
which dates from 1842, against 1846 for Sundevall's name. If, however, you retain 
the genus Reguloides, as I prefer to do, then Sundevall's specific name will 
stand.— Ed., S. F. 

29 



224 A LIS/ OF THE BIRDS OF FEGIT. 

273.— Abrornis superciliaris, Tick. (574.) 

I procured this on the hills between Thyetrayo and Tonn- 
ghoo, and I have met with it in Southern Pegu between Pegu 
and Rangoon. It appears to be rare. 

274. — Henicurus immaculatus, Modgs. (585.) 

Very common in all the rocky hill streams of the Pegu 
range of hills. 

275.— Motacilla leucopsis, Gould. (590.) 

Very abundant in the plains of the whole province from 
the middle of September to April. According to m} r views 
this species never has more than a mere patch of black on the 
breast, varying in breadth from half to a quarter of an inch. 
Birds just arrived in early autumn, and those leaving in late 
spring, are uniformly the same with regard to this patch. 
Not a particle of black is ever present on the throat. 

276— Motacilla felix, Swinh. P. Z $. 3 1870, p. 121. 
(590). 

This is in my opinion a perfectly good species, always to be 
distinguished from the preceding by the presence of black on 
the upper breast and throat. 

It may be said that Wagtails with this amount of black 
on the throat are merely leucopsis in breeding plumage. I 
am, however, very certain they are no such thing.* Leucopsis 

* Such a very positive assertion puts me in a peculiar position. I have the greatest 
respect and regard for my friend Mr. Oates. I know what a patient and earnest 
questioner of nature he is, and when I read this statement, I accepted it un- 
hesitatingly. I knew that I had a good many specimens of felix, and I thought 
I would separate these out and have the catalogue corrected. 

There are about 100 specimens of this species in the collection, but I had to 
get out also those in the Assam collection, in the Malayan collection, and in 
the duplicate collection— in all over 400 specimens. I spent the whole day, yester- 
day, in getting these out and studying them, and now I am compelled to say that 
in my humble opinion Mr. Oates is quite wrong, and that felix is nothing but 
the breeding plumage of leucopsis. My conviction is founded on tho following 
facts : — 

1. From every locality where Mr. Brooks and I made, or caused to be made, syste- 
matic collections of leucopsis, viz., Darjeeling, Diuapoor and Patna, Calcutta, 
Cachar, Shillong, Debrugarh, Eangoon, and Northern Tenassemn, we have both 
leucopsis and felix, 

2. Out of this immense series, there is only one single specimen killed between 
the 1st September and the loth February, at all of the felix type, and that is only 
so far of this type that the patch on the breast is about f of an inch deep, 

3. Every single bird killed on and subsequent to the 18th March is distinctly 
felix, or passing to felix. 

4. Fully half the birds killed between the 1st and 17th March show distinctly 
that they are passing to the felix stage. 

5. A few specimens obtained in the latter half of February show more or lesa 
of the same, and one killed 25th February is distinctly felix. 

Now Mr. Oates refers to April birds. In every locality in which our collections 
were made the mass of the birds disappeared by the end of March. They come in 
quite at the beginning of September, we have at least fifty September specimens, 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 225 

is extremely common in Pegu, and if it assumes a black throat 
in summer, a certain proportion of tbe specimens shot in 
September and April would shew traces, at any rate, of this 
colour on the throat. JDukhunensis invariably shows a good 
deal of its breeding plumage in those months, so does 
ocularis. Now the only specimens of the leucopsis type that 
I have been able to shoot with black throat, during the course 
of some years, are eight in number. It is preposterous 
to suppose that if leucopsis ever assumes a black throat, 
specimens should be so rare especially when it is remembered 
that the bird comes in very early, and leaves very late.* 

I am bound to believe that felix is a good species, a rare 
one in Pegu, but common in some parts of China. It pro- 
bably does not extend to India ; but it would be extremely 
interesting to go through a large series of Indian killed birds 
to ascertain whether felix does occur, and if it does, in what 
proportion compared with the true leucopsis. 

The plumage and the changes of plumage of felix appear 
not to differ from those of the common species, except in 
regard to the throat patch. The wing-coverts are perhaps 
more white, but there are no other constant differences. 

In summer, felix probably has the whole chin black, and to 
this bird Mr. Swinhoe applied the name sechuensis. 

I find that felix is a smaller bird than leucopsis. The wing 
runs from 3*2 to 3*5f in my specimens. 

277.— Motacilla dukhunensis, Syhes. (591 Us.) 

Common in Lower Pegu, but not nearly so much so as 
leucopsis. 

278.— Motacilla ocularis, Swinh. (591 quat.) 

Very common along the banks of the Canal, and less so in 

and they leave by the end of March. This is our experience. We have, therefore, 
very few April birds, only seven altogether, and they are one and all "felix." 

Now in the face of the evidence afforded by this gigantic series, it will not be 
sufficient to show one or two "felix" killed between the 1st September and the 
15th February, or one or two leucopsis killed later than the 18th March, because, 
as every one knows, who has studied this group of black, white and grey Wagtails, 
these birds are a little irregular in their changes of plumage ; not only are some 
exceptional birds considerably earlier and later than the rest, but here and there 
you come across individuals that retain the breeding plumage right through the 
year, (I have a hodgsoni killed on the 3rd January in the fullest breeding plumage) 
while others again seem not to assume the breeding plumage at all, these being, 
we think, backward late or sickly birds of the last year. 

I hope Mr. Oates will give us the dates of all his felix, and also state how many 
leucopsis, as defined by him, he had killed in April. I may here note that I am 
inclined to believe that Motacilla francisi, Swinh , P. Z. S., 1870, 123, is nothing 
but M, hodgsoni. — Ed., S. F. 

* Yes ; but is this a fact ? It comes in early no doubt, by the first week in Sep- 
tember, but according to our experience 999 out of every 1,000 have; in most years, 
left by the 1st of April.— Ed.. S. F. 

t In 37 birds, more or less developed felix,th.e wings run from 3"3 to 3'72.— 
Ed., S. F. 



226 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

other parts of Lower Pegu. It does not arrive till November, 
and remains on to April, when they are in perfect breediug- 
plumage. 

Males up to December have the head pure black. After 
this date the black gives place to an ash, more or less marked 
with black, and in April the pure black is resumed. 

Females from first arrival up to their departure have the 
head more or less mixed black and ashy. I have never seen 
a black-headed female, nor is the head in this sex ever pure 
ashy. 

The upper plumage in both sexes is always a pure grey. 

In the breeding plumage, both sexes are black from the 
bill down to the breast. In winter the chin and throat become 
white, but there are always traces of black spots on the throat, 
especially on its sides. 

The white on the wing-coverts is not of great extent, being 
about the same as in dukhunensis. In other respects the plu- 
mage does not differ from dukhunensis* 

A male measured : — Length, 8* ; expanse, 12* ; tail, 4* ; wing, 
3-85 ; tarsus, '94 ; bill from gape, -8. 

The iris is brown ; legs and claws black ; bill black, slightly 
plumbeous at the base. 

The females are rather smaller than the males. 

It is a very sprightly bird, and very seldom seen away from 
water. 

279 — Calobates melanope, Pall. (592.) 

A fairly common bird, and probably extending to all parts 
of the province. 

280— Budytes cinereocapillus, Savi. (593.) 

Extremely abundant in all the swamps and paddy fields of 
the province. A very large series of these yellow Wagtails 
sent to Mr. Brooks were all identified by him with this species. 
I notice that Dr. Armstrong found B. fiava common in the 
Irrawaddy delta, but he did not get the present species. I 
fear there must have been some confusion of species, the more 
so as B. flava of Dr. Armstrong's Catalogue (S. F., IV, p. 329) 
is numbered 593 quat by Mr. Hume ; whereas there is no 
such number in the Catalogue, Birds of India,f (S. F., VIII). 
Mr. Brooks is, however, such a very excellent authority of 
these birds that I enter cinereocapilla in this list, and exclude 

* Except in the conspicuous black line through the lores, by which the bird is at 
once distinguished. — Ed., S. F. 

f No, but flava was 593 quat in the. old catalogue, which the list published in 
Yol. VIII. superseded,— Ei?., S. JT. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF TEGU. 227 

flava, about the occurrence of which there may be reasonable 
doubts.* 

281— Limonidromus indicus, Gm. (595.) 

Rather rare, but found in all parts of Pegu. 

282.— Pipastes maculatus, Hodgs. (596.) 

A very common winter species abounding in all parts of 
the province. 

283.— Pipastes trivialis, Lin. (597.) 

I have only met with this bird once on the Pegu hills 
(S. F. Ill, p. 142.) 

284.— Corydalla richardi, Vieill. (599.) 

Very abundant throughout Lower Pegu in paddy fields and 
short grass, in winter only. 

285.— Corydalla rufula, Vieill. (600.) 

Also very abundant in Lower Pegu throughout the year. 
I do not remember to have met with it in the north. 

286.— Anthus cervinus, Pall. (605 bis.) 

An abundant cold weather visitor throughout the vast 
plains of Lower Pegu. 

287.— Herpornis xantholeucus, Hodgs. (630.) 

Appears to be generally distributed. I met with it on the 
hills between Tounghoo and Thyetmyo, and also on some low 
spurs some few miles from Pegu. 

288.— Zosterops palpebrosa, Tern. (631.) 

A comparatively rare species. I have procured a few speci- 
mens at Kyeikpadein, and Captain Feilden got it at Thyetmyo. 

* Add 592 ter. — Budytes beema, Sykes. 

The oriental form of Budytes flavus, Lin., certainly occurs in Pegu; not only 
did Dr. Armstrong bring me two specimens which I identified for him, but I have 
another specimen, from "12 miles north of Rangoon," and one from the Bassein 
river. Considering that at page 297 Dr. Armstrong expressly says that I iden- 
tified all his specimens for him, and that only a tyro could possibly make a 
mistake between flavus and cinereocapillus, I cannot think Mr. Oates justified 
in omitting this species, simply because he never happened to meet with it. Dr. 
Armstrong himself of course did not in those days know one bird from another ; he 
•was only commencing, he happened to shoot two flavus, and for all I know may have 
observed numbers of cinereocapillus, and thought them the same, and so concluded 
that flavus was very common. I should say, seeing how few specimens of this, and 
how many of the former, we have from Pegu, that flavus, i.e., beema, was rare, 
and cinereocapillus common. In Northern Tenasserim beema is still rarer. I have 
only one specimen from north of Moulmein, and Davison never met with it north 
of this. But surely this is no valid reason for excluding a bird, the occurence 
of which has been duly recorded by a reliable collector, all of whose specimens. 
have been carefully identified by a competent ornithologist. —En-, S. F. 



228 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

289.— Zosterops siamensis, Bit/. (631 qmt.) 

Very abundant from Rangoon up to Kyeikpadein and Pegn, 
<roing about iu flocks and frequenting tall trees. 

290. — Parus nipalensis, Bodgs. (645.) 

A rather rare bird, hitherto only found in the Thyetmyo 
district.* 

291.— Melanochlora sultanea, Eodgs. (650.) 

Common on the Pegu hills, not descending, I think, into the 
plains. 

292— Corvus macrorhynchus, Wagl. (660.) 

Common in all parts of Pegu, both in the jungle and in 
towns and villages. 

293.— Corvus insolens, Hume. (663 bis.) 

Excessively common in all parts of the province, except on 
the higher hills. 

294.— Garrulus leucotis, Hume. (669 bis.) 

I got this bird at Tounghoo and at Shwaygheen, and Mr. 
Olive, Superintendent of Police, who knows the bird well, 
assures me he has shot it on the hills near Prome. It is how- 
ever rare in the province. 

295.— Urocissa occipitalis, Bly. (671.) 

I cannot separate the Pegu birds from several birds from 
the Himalayas with which I have compared them. The colour 
of the iris and legs is apparently the only point in which the 
two races differ. 

It is common in the Thyetmyo district, and Captain Ramsay 
met with it at Tounghoo. 

296.— Cissa chinensis, Bodd. (673.) 

Abundant on the hills, but not found in the plains. 

297.— Dendrocitta rufa, Scop. (674.) 

Very abundant in all parts of the province. 

298.— Crypsirhina cuculata, Jerd. (678 ter.) 

Confined to the country between Thyetmyo and Prome, and 
extending laterally on both sides the Irrawaddy to the foot of 
the hills. 



* But see that Armstrong says, IV, 350 : " Met with abundantly in the open 
tidal jungle bordering portions of the coast, between Elephant Point and China 
Bakeer, and nlso in similar localities along the margin, of the liaugoon river 
at Eastern Grove."— Er., S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 229 

299.— -Crypsirhina varians, Lath. (678 quat.) 

Very abundant throughout Lower Pegu, extending up the 
Sittnng valley to Tounghoo, and up the lrrawaddy valley only 
as far as Prome, although on one occasion I saw a specimen 
near Thyetmyo. 

300.— Sturnopastor superciliaris, Bly. (683 bis.) 

Excessively abundant over all parts of the province except 
the hills. 

301.— Acridotheres tristis, Lin. (684.) 

Generally distributed, and common. 

302.— Acridotheres fuscus, Wagl. (686.) 

Found along with the preceding in all parts of the forest 
country. 

303— Sturnia malabarica, Gm. (688.) 
304.— Sturnia nemoricola, Jerd. (688 bis.) 

Both these species occur together all over the province, except 
perhaps in the northern parts. In Lower Pegu they are 
excessively abuudaut. I have never auy difficulty in separating 
birds of the two species. I have already pointed out (S. F., 
VII, p. 48) how the two species are distinguished, and not- 
withstanding that nemoricola has occasionally the first primary 
black, and malabarica has it occasionally white, yet the combina- 
tion of the characters I gave will always suffice. 

305.— Sturnia sinensis, Gm. (688 ter.) 

This very beautiful species is rare in Pegu. I have succeeded 
in procuring only three specimens, all near Kyeikpadein, where, 
on the occasions I met with the bird, it occurred in small 
flocks feeding on the ground and flying right away when fired 
at. Mr. Swinhoe's surmise that this bird wintered in Pesru 
is erroneous. 

The following is the description of a fine mature male in its 
very best plumage : — 

The head, from the forehead to the crown, the lores, gape, 
yellowish buff, tinged with ferruginous on the eyelids and 
adjacent parts; back and sides of the head, the cheeks, ear-co- 
verts, and the whole back, deep grey ; lower back, rump and 
upper tail-coverts yellowish buff; quills deep black, the ter- 
tiaries and the edges of the outer webs of the secondaries 
glossed with bright steel blue ; winglet and primary-coverts 
black; the upper and lower wing-coverts and scapulars white, 



230 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

tinged with pale yellowish buff; the lower neck, breast, and 
abdomen grey. With this exception the whole lower plumage 
is a beautiful rosy buff, deeper in colour on the flanks. 
Tail black, the outer five pairs of feathers broadly, the, 
middle pair narrowly, tipped with buff. 

A younger bird has some of the secondaries plain brown, the 
wing-coverts and scapulars pure white, and the rosy buff tiuge 
on the lower surface is much duller. In other respects it 
resembles the adult. 

A male measured: — Length, 8'; expanse, 12*5 ; tail, 26; 
wing, 4 - ; tarsus, 1*08 ; bill from gape, 1'05. The bill was 
uniformly blue ; the mouth darker ; iris white ; legs plumbeous ; 
claws horn colour. 

306.— Sturnia burmanica, Jerd. (689 bis.) 

Very abundant in the Thyetmyo district, becoming less 
common, but extendiug south down to Rangoon. In the 
Sittang valley I have never seen it, but I note that Captain 
Ramsay got it at Tounghoo. 

307.— Sturnia sturnina, Tall. (689 sex.) 

I have only seen this bird once. It was a specimen in Mr. 
Raikes's collection, and was shot about ten miles north of Pegu. 
It was an adult bird, with a distinct patch of violet black on 
the head. 

308.— Eulabes intermedia, A. Ray. (693.) 

Very common over the whole province. It also extends 
without change down to the extreme end of Tenasserim, from 
which province I have a large series, ^.t Malevvoon, however, 
another quite distinct species is also met with, which, if not 
javanensis, is the Malaccau species indicated by Lord Walden. 
{Ibis, 1871, p. 176.) 

From intermedia it differs in the very large size of the bill 
and legs, and in having a longer tail and wing. The feathered 
patch across the side of the head is joined on to the ear-coverts, 
or is separated by an interval less than the thickness of a 
hair pin, whereas in intermedia, — and I have examined a 
hundred birds or more — the interval is never less than "15 ot 
an inch — a very striking difference. The first primary is 
•9 long ; in intermedia only *75. The fifth primary is fre- 
quently the longest, and in no case falls short of the others by 
more than '1, whereas in intermedia the fifth primary is always 
about '25 shorter than the longest. The colour of the bill in 
dried specimens of the two species is strikingly different. 



A. LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 231 

Mr. Hume does not admit tliese different species.* I have 
however examined enough specimens of hoth tliese species to 
convince myself of their absolute distinctness. I can of course 
form no opinion of the other Indian species. They are 
probably like the P/iylloscopi, all very much alike, till small 
structural differences are discovered. 

309.— Saraglossa spiloptera, Vig. (691.) 

Captain Ramsay records this bird from Tounghoo. I have 
not met with it. "f* 

310— Ampeliceps coronatus, Bly. (693 ter.) 

A few specimens have been procured by me near 
Kyeikpadein in the course of some years. It appears to be 
rare. It is recorded from Tounghoo (? district) by both Blyth 
and Major Llovd, and Dr. Armstrong got it at Elephant 
Point. 

311.— Ploceus baya, Bly. (694 bis.) 

Very common over the whole province in the plains. 

312.— Ploceus manyar, Eorsf. (695.) 

Very common, but confi ned to the grassy plains, never 
building its nest in any thing but elephant or similarly large 
grass. 

313.— Ploceus bengalensis, Lin. (696.) 

Mr. Blanford records this from Thyetmyo. I have never 
met with it. % 

314.— Ploceella javanensis, Less. (696 Us.) 

I think Mr. Hume will prove to have been correct in separat- 
ing the Pegu bird from the Java bird (S. F., VI, p. 399 n.) 
under the name of chrysea. Our bird appears to be remarkably 
local, not even occurring in Tenasserim. It is very common 
in the Pegu province, extending up to Thyetmyo and Tounghoo. 
The Sittang and Irrawaddy appear to be the boundaries of its 
distribution. 

* No, because while admitting that these and a dozen other minute differences 
can be pointed out between groups collected in different localities, I hold thut aa 
all these can be 6hown to be bridged over by intermediate forms, none of these 
races are entitled to specific rank. There is no dispute about the facts ; it is merely 
a question of opinion as to how we shall treat them. — Ed., S. F. 

f Dr. Armstrong gave me a pair shot near Elephant Point, and we have three 
other specimens from near Rangoon. — Ed., S. F. 

% Nor have I ever seen it from any part of British Burma, and when Blanford 
wrote tho paper referred to he was only just taking up birds, and I am by no means 
sure that there was not some mistake in his identification. — Ed., S. F. 

30 



232 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

The genus Ploceella may be described thus : Tail rounded, 
the outer tail featlears falling short of the centre ones by 
double the distance of that in Ploceus ; bill from nostrils to 
tip as long as the height of the bill at the nostrils. Its mode 
of nidification removes it widely from Ploceus as already 
pointed out (" Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds.") 

The male commences to change into breeding plumage 
about the middle of May, and the full change is effected by tire 
1st June. In the winter months the male is uudistiuguishable 
from the female. 

315. — Amadina rubronigra, Hodgs. (698.) 

Very abundant in all the plains of the province. 

316.— Amadina superstriata, Hume. (699 bis.) 

Pegu birds appear referable to this species and not to snhun- 
dulata* It is excessively common over the whole province in 
suitable localities. 

317.— Amadina acuticauda, Hodgs. (702.) 

Comparatively rare, but found in all parts of Pegu. 

318.— Estrelda flavidiventris, Wall. (E. burmanica, 
Hume.) (704 bis.) 

Very common in the plains on both sides the Canal and 
extending down to Rangoon and Elephant Point. 

The adult male undergoes no changes of plumage, being the 
same all the year round. f The sides of the face, the chin, 
throat, breast, and sides of neck are crimson, the two latter parts 
speckled with white ; sides of the body pale red, much spotted 
with white ; belly and vent yellowish red ; the under tail- 
coverts vary somewhat. In most they are blackish brown or 
black, tipped with maroon. Some have the centres of the 
feathers whitish, tinged with pink, the edges paler, and the tips 
maroon ; in others the feathers are uniformly blackish brown. 
Upper surface of body pale greenish, washed with crimson; the 
rump with short transverse lines or elongated spots of white ; 
upper tail-coverts crimson, speckled with white ; tail black, 
the four outer pairs of rectrices tipped white ; the upper series 
of wing-coverts plain brown, the others brown, each feather 
with a terminal spot of white ; quills plain brown, the ter- 
tiaries with white tips. 

* I am in fault here. This species is very variable. Having now procured an 
immense series in Manipur, whence Godwin-Austen's types came, I find that subun- 
dulata covers both superstriata and inglisi, and in my account of the birds of 
Manipur I have suppressed both these species. — Ed , S. F. 

■f This is very remarkable. Is Mr. Oates quite certain of the fact ? In the very 
closely allied IS. amandava, the adult male has two quite distinct plumages, the 
breeding crimson, arid non-breeding brown.— JiPj S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 233 

The female has the lores black ; the sides of the face and 
neck, and the upper surface from bill to rump hair brown ; 
upper tail-coverts dull crimson, generally uniform, but some- 
times with each feather tipped with a minute spot of Avhite ; 
tail blackish brown ; the two outer pairs with the terminal 
half of outer web broadly edged with white, this white 
extending to the tip of the inner web. The next two pairs 
are tipped with white, as in the male, and the two central 
pairs are wholly blackish brown ; chin, throat, breast, and 
flanks greyish yellow ; abdomen and vent saffron yellow ; 
wings brown ; the tertiaries and greater coverts each with a 
terminal white spot ; under tail-coverts saffron yellow, paler 
than the abdomen, and in some birds a few of the feathers have 
a mesial black line. 

Occasionally in both sexes the two centre rectrices are 
slightly tipped white. 

Young birds from the nest are like the female adult. The 
change to male adult plumage takes place in April, the red 
appearing first on the head. By May the greater portion of 
the head and breast are red, and the abdomen becomes tinged 
with red. By July the change is almost complete, and in 
August there are no immature birds. 

The length is 4 ; expanse, 59 ; tail, 1*5 ; wing, 1*8 ; tarsus, 
*6 ; bill from gape, *35. 

319.— Passer domesticus, Lin. (706.) 

There is no part of the province where this species is not 
found, but in general it is less common than montanus. 

320.— Passer flaveolus, Bly. (708 Us.) 

Pretty common at Thyetmyo, and extending down to 
Rangoon. Near Pegu I see a few every year. It has a very 
loud note, which immediately attracts attention. 

The male has already been described (S. F., Ill, p. 156), 
and so has the female ; but as the description of the latter is 
brief — too brief for the identification of the bird — I subjoin a 
fuller account. 

The chin, throat, cheeks, and the whole lower plumage with 
the under wing-coverts pale yellow ; a streak from the eye 
to the nape yellowish white; the upper plumage, including 
the scapulars and lesser wing-coverts, hair brown, the shafts 
of all the feathers being darker; the median and greater 
coverts and quills dark brown, each feather edged with 
yellowish white ; tail brown, edged with whitish on the outer 
webs. 

In the male, the iris is dark hazel ; bill black ; legs, feet 



234 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

and claws fleshy plumbeous. The female differs in having 
the bill flesh coloured. 

A pair of these birds had a nest with young ones in Kadote 
bungalow at the end of March. The nest was placed in 
exactly the sort of place a sparrow usually chooses. 

The following are the dimensions of a male and female : — 
Length, 5-5, 5-2 ; expanse, 9", 8'4 ; tail, 2 1, 2'0; wing, 2'7, 
2-5 ; tarsus, "62, "6 ; bill from gape, '52. 

321.— Passer montanus, Lin. (710.) 

Excessively common in all parts of the province. 

322.— Emberiza fucata, Pall. (719.) 

This Bunting is fairly common in some portions of the plains 
round Pegu, in winter.* 

323.— Emberiza rutila, Pall. (722 Us.) 

Mr. Blanford records this from near Bassein, and Captain 
Ramsay from Tounghoo. I have never met with it.f 

324.— Emberiza aureola, Pall. (723.) 

Extremely abundant in every portion of the plains of the 
southern part of the proviuce, and extending up to Thyetmyo 
and Tounghoo sparingly 4 

325.— Oarpodacus erythrinus, Pall. (738.) 

Captain Ramsay records this bird from Tounghoo. I have 
no doubt it occurs in other parts of the province. § 

326.— Mirafra microptera, Hume. (755 bis.) 

Very abundant at Thyetmyo, and not, I think, found else- 
where in my limits. 

327.— Alaudula raytal, Ely. (762.) 

Very abundant on the banks of the Irrawaddy from the 
frontier down to Prome. 

328.— Alauda gulgula, Franhl. (767.) 

A very common bird in the cultivated portions of Lower 
Pe<Hi, extending up the Sittang to about Shwaygheen. It is 

* Also west of Tounghoo, and " between Tounghoo and Thyetmyo." — Ed., S. F. 

f The first specimen I think I ever saw of this species was sent from Eangoon, and 
procured in its immediate neighbourhood. — Ed., S. F. 

X Mr. Oates does not notice that Blyth gives 724. Melophus melanicterus, Gm., 
from Pegu. I have never seeu it thence, and I think it very doubtful whether it 
occurs there, though we got it in the plains country of Tenasserim between the 
Sittang and Salween, and I have received it from Arakau. — Ed., S, F. 

§ We received it from near Thyetmyo.— Ed., S. F, 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 235 

not found to my knowledge in the Irrawaddy valley, but was 
procured by Dr. Armstrong in the Rangoon district. 

329.— Treron nipalensis, Hodgs. (771.) 

Common in all the hill tracts, descending at times to the well- 
wooded portions of the plains. 

330.— Crocopus viridifrons, Bly. (773 bis.) 

Common alike iu the hills and plains. 

331.— Osmotreron bicincta, Jerd. (774) 

As common or more so than the above. 

332.— Osmotreron phayrii, Bly. (776.) 

Confined to the hills where it is abundant.* 

333.— Sphenocercus sphenurus, Vig. (778.) 

Confined to the hills and the forests skirting them. 

334.— Carpophaga senea, Lin. (780.; 

Very abundant in every portion of the province. 

335.— Alsocomus puniceus, Tick. (782.) 

Generally distributed, but comparatively rare. 

336.— Turtur meena, Sykes. (793.) 

Abundant on the hills, but less so in the plains. 

337.— Turtur tigrinus, Tern. (795 Us.) 

Very common in. all the plains of the province. 

338.— Turtur risorius, Lin. (796.) 

I met with this bird only at Thyetrayo, where it is decidedly 
rare. 

339.— Turtur humilis, Tern. (797 bis,) 

Not very common anywhere, but generally spread over the 
province. It is commoner in the Thyetmyo and Prome 
districts than elsewhere. 

340.— Chalcophaps indica, Lin. (798.) 

Common in every part of the province, iu bamboo jungle 
generally. 

341.— Pavo muticus, Lin. (803 bis.) 

An extremely difficult bird to get, but very common in most 
parts of the province where the forests are thick. 

* JBlauford gives thia from tlio " Irrawaddy delta, near Uassein." — Ed., S. F, 



236 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

342.-— Euplocamus lineatus, Lath. (811 ter.) 

Found wherever there is rocky ground aud good cover, and 
extremely abundant on the higher hills. 

343.— Gallus ferrugineus, Gm. (812.) 

Abundant alike in the hills and plains. 

344.— Francolinus chinensis, Osb. (819 Us.) 

Confined to the Irrawaddy valley from about Prome up 
to the frontier, where it is common. It is not found in the 
Sittang valley till the mountains on the east are reached, far 
out of my limits. 

345.— Arboricola brunneopectus, Tick. (824 ter.) 

Confined to the mountain streams of the evergreen forests, 
where it is abundant. 

346. — Arboricola chloropus, Tick. (824 quat) 

Of the same distribution as the preceding, and equally 
abundant.* 

347.— Coturnix coromandelica, Gm. (830.) 

I have found this bird onlyf in the Thyetmyo district where 
it is common. 

348.— Excalfactoria chinensis, Lin, (831.) 

Arrives in Lower Pegu in great quantities in May, and 
after breeding goes away again I think. In the cold weather 
I have never met with the bird. In January 1874 I trod on 
a small nestling Quail which must have been a young one of 
this species, or the preceding. It was too young to make sure. 
The present bird I know breeds in August, and it quite puzzles 
me to account for this chick. 

349.— Turnix plumbipes, Hodgs. (833.) 

A tolerably common species, found singly or in couples over 
the whole province. Pegu birds are identical with Malacca 
specimens. 

350.— Turnix maculosa, Tem. (834 Ms.) 

The commonest species of Turnix found everywhere from 
* Add 829. — Coturnix communis, Bonn. 

Procured by Blanford in Pegu, and of which a single specimen was sent us from 
near the mouth of the Bassein river. — En., S. P. 

f But I have received it from the Bassein district from close down to the sea.— 
Ed., S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 237 

the frontier down to the sea. I got it high up on the hills, 
but it is not so common there as in the plains. 

351.— Turnix dussumieri, Tem. (835.) 

I procured a pair of this species at Pegu, but I have not 
been able to compare them with Indian birds. It appears to 
be rare. 

352.— Glareola orientalis, Leach. (842.) 

Abundant in the plains throughout Lower Pegu. It arrives 
in February, and leaves in June or July, a very few birds 
remaining till August. It affects burnt up paddy fields, and 
does not appear to be a bird of the larger rivers like the next. 

353.— Gareola lactea, Tem. (843.) 

Extremely common on the sandbanks of the Irrawaddy, and 
less so in the Sittang.* Immense flocks of this bird come 
inland in the evening and hawk about for insects, wheeling 
about on the same spot for some teu minutes at a time. 

354.— Squatarola helvetica, Lin. (814.) 

Dr. Armstrong procured this bird at Elephant Point, f I 
have never seen it. 

355.— Charadrius fulvus, Gm. (845.) 

Very abundant throughout the plains portion of the pro- 
vince, coming in about 8th October. 

356.— .ffigialitis geoffroyi, Wagl. (846.) 

Procured at Elephant Point by Dr. Armstrong. \ 

357.— JEgialitis mongola, Fall. (847.) 

Very abundant in the dry season. 

358— iEgialitis cantiana, Lath. (848.) 

Procured in the Rangoon river by Dr. Armstrong, and at 
Tounghoo by Captain Ramsay. 

359.— .ffigialitis dubia, Scop. (849.) 

Distributed throughout the delta of the Irrawaddy, and the 
streams of Lower Pegu, but not very abundant. 

* Armstrong got it at Elephant Point below Kangoon, and we received it from 
near the mouth of the Bassein river. — Ed., S. F. 

f And Itamsay got it at Tounghoo. — Ed., S. F. 

j And we received numerous specimens from near the mouth of the Bassein 
river.— Ed., S. F. 



238 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

360. — jEgialitis minuta, Pall* (850.) 

I got this bird at Thyetmyo, aud I have not met with it 
elsewhere. 

361.— Chettusia cinerea, Bhj. (854.) 

Common in all large swamps. 

362.— Lobivanellus atronuchalis, Ely. (855 Us.) 

A common bird throughout the province, eveu ascending the 
hills.t 

363.— Hoplopterus ventralis, Ouv. (857.) 

Distributed over the province in the larger rivers, but not 
very common. 

364.— iEsacus recurvirostris, Cm. (858.) 

Found sparingly in the large rivers. 

365.— (Edicnemus crepitans,! Tcm. (859.) 

Fairly common in all parts. 

366.— Strepsilas interpres, Lin. (860.) 

I shot one young bird of this species in a flooded paddy 
field, near Kyeikpadein, on the 23rd September. 

367.— Grus antigone, Lin. (863.) 

Common in the vast plains of Lower Pegu, but becoming less 
common every year. I did not find it at Thyetmyo, but 
Captain Kamsay got it at Touughoo. 

368.— Scolopax rusticula, Lin. (867.) 

A Woodcock is shot in the province almost every year. At 
Tounghoo it is far from rare. I am informed that an officer in 
that station has shot seven in one morning. 

369.— Grallinago sthenura, Kuhl. (870.) 

The common Snipe of the country. 



* Must stand as M. jerdoni, Legge. Bamsay procured it at Tounghoo. — £i>., 
S. F. 

t Add 856.— Lobipluvia malabarica, Bodd. 

Procured by Blanford at Thyetmyo — Ed., S. F. 

X Surely S. G. Ginelin's specific name scolopax lias precedence. — Ed., S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 239 

370— Gallinago gallinaria, Gm* (871.) 

Less common than the preceding, arriving much later. f 

371.— Rhynchsea bengalensis, Lin.% (873.) 

Tolerably common in suitable localities. 

372.— Pseudoscolopax semipalmatus, Jerd. (871) 

Of this rare wader I have only been able to shoot two speci- 
mens. This was near Kyeikpadein on the 29th September. 
I never met with it again. They were a pair. The male 
still shewed a good deal of the breeding plumage ; the breast 
and flanks being rufous, as well as the edges of the back 
and scapular feathers. The female was in winter plumage 
with no trace of rufous. 

The male and female measured: — Length, 13'5, 13*4; 
expanse, 23, 21*5; tail, 2 9, 2-5 ; wing, 7*, 6'8; tarsus, 205; 
bill from gape, 2'9, 3"25. 

The bill is black, turning to plumbeous at base ; iris dark 
brown ; legs and toes dark plumbeous ; claws black. 

They v\ere feeding on the banks of a small pool, and were, 
as far as I could see, probing the mud with their bills. The 
white on the wing is very conspicuous when the bird is flying. 

373.— Limosa segocephala, Lin. (875.) 

Abundant in the Sittang and the Canal and adjacent creeks. § 
The 11th May is the latest date I have seen them. 

374.— Terekia cinerea, Gilld. (876.) 

Dr. Armstrong procured this species at Elephant Point. 

375.— Numenius lineatus, Cm. (877.) 

Not uncommon in Lower Pegu.|| Captain Feilden found ifc 
at Thyetmyo. 



* Must stand as G. ccelestis, Frenzl. — Ed., S. F. 

t Add 872. — Gallinago gallinula, Lin. 

This species certainly occurs in Pegu, as I had a specimen sent mo shot some- 
where near the mouth of the Bassein river in Pegu. I note too that, though he now 
excludes this species, Mr. Oates himself formerly said of it referring to Upper Pegu : 
" A single specimen is occasionally killed, hut it is very far from common," III, 
182). I find too that I had two notes for "The Game Birds" — one that a Jack Snipe 
was killed about seven years ago near Eangoon, and another of one being killed near 
Tounghoo. It is doubtless extremely rare, but there can be no question that the 
bird has occurred as a straggler in many parts of Pegu. — Ed., S. F. 

J Must stand as R. capensis, Lin. — Ed., S. F. 

§ And I have received it from the Bassein estuary. — Ed., S. F. 

|| Very common all along the coast line, and in its neighbourhood from the 
Bassein river to the Sittang.— Ed,, S. F. 

31 



240 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

376.— Numenius phseopus, Lin. (878.) 

Less common than the preceding, but generally distributed. 

377.— Machetes pugnax, Lin. (880.) 

Very abundant in the creeks near the mouth of the Sittang 
and near the Canal.* 

378.— Tringa crassirostris, Tern. & Sc7il. (881 bis.) 

Dr. Armstrong procured this species in the China Bukeer, 
one of the numerous streams of the Irrawaddy delta. 

379.— Tringa subarquata, Quid. (882.) 

Common in the creeks of Lower Pegu in tidal waters, and 
neighbouring lagoons. 

380.— Tringa minuta, Leisl. (884.) 

Rather rare. I have procured it near Jvyeikpadein, and 
Dr. Armstrong at Elephant Point. 

381.— Tringa ruficollis, Pall. (884 bis.) 

A common bird in all parts of the province. 

382.— Tringa temmincki, Leisl. (885.) 

The rarest of the small waders. I procured a specimen 
at Thyetmyo, and one at Kyeikpadein. 

383.— Limicola platyrhyncha, Tem. (886). 

Appears to be rare. I have only met with it once at Kyeik- 
padein. Dr. Armstrong procured it in the Rangoon river. 

381— Eurynorhynchus pygmseus, Lin. (887.) 

Dr. Armstrong prcured this species at Elephant Point. I 
have never met with it in Pegu, but I have specimens procured 
on the Arakanese coast. 

385.— Calidris arenaria, Lin. (888.) 

This is another species, for the discovery of which, in Pegu, 
we are indebted to Dr. Armstrong. He shot it at Elephant 
Point. 

386— Rhyacophila, glareola, Lin. (891.) 

Not common but generally distributed. 

387.— Totanus ochropus, Lin. (892.) 

Fairly common in all parts of the province. 

* Also sent from the Bassem estuary.— Ed , S, F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF FEGU. 24.1 

388.— Tringoides hypoleucus, Lin. (893.) 

Extremely abundant wherever there is a drop of water 
lying on the ground, and in every stream both tidal and sweet. 

389.— Totanus glottis, Lin. (894) 

Very abundant in all streams. 

390.— Pseudototanus haughtoni, Armstrong. (894 
bis.) 
Procured by Dr. Armstrong at Elephant Point. 

391. — Totanus stagnatilis, Bechst. (895.) 

Common and generally distributed iu Lower Pegu. 

392.— Totanus fuscus, Lin. (896.) 
Fairly common throughout Lower Pegu. 

393.— Totanus calidris, Lin. (897.) 

Less common than the preceding, but found in most parts of 
Lower Pegu. 

394.— Himantopus candidus, Bonn. (898.) 

Rather common on the Canal and in the Sittang river. It 
occurs in other parts of the province, such as the Thyetmyo 
district.* 

395.— Para indica, Lath. (900.) 

Very common in all swamps and weedy tanks. 

396.— Hydrophsianus chirurgus, Scop. (901.) 

I have seen this bird in most parts of the province, but it is 
not very abundant anywhere. 

397.— Porphyrio poliocephalus, Lath. (902.) 

Common in very large swamps and flooded tracts of grass 
land. 

398.— Fulica atra, Lin. (903.) 

This bird was rather common in a large swamp about 20 
miles north of Pegu, at a place called Payagalay. I have not 
seen it elsewhere. Captain Ramsay procured it near Tounghoo. 

399— Podica per sonata, G. R. Gray. (903 Us.) 

I got one specimen in the Eugmah swamp below Prome, and 
* And near the mouth of the Bassein estuary.— Ed. ; S. F. 



242 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 

I once saw the bird in a forest stream a few miles west of 
Shwaygheen. Lieutenant Lloyd, RE., brought me a fine 
specimen from Karennee shot during- the expedition sent out to 
demarcate the boundaries between Burma and Karennee. 
It is undoubtedly a rare bird in the province of Pegu. 

400.— Gallicrex cinereus, Gm. (904.) 

A common bird in all suitable localities. 

401.— Gallinula chloropus, Lin. (905.) 

I ouly procured this Waterhen at Thyetmyo. Captain 
Hamsay found it at Tounghoo. 

402.— Erythra phcenicura, Penn. (907.) 

Very abundant in all the plains where there is water and tree, 
or bamboo jungle. 

403.— Porzana bailloni, Vieill. (910.) 

I got only one specimen at Kyeikpadein in a paddy field. 
It may be, and probably is, common. 

404.— Porzana fusca, Lin. (911.) 

Generally distributed, and fairly abundant. 

405.— Rallina euryzonoides, Lafr. (912.) 

I procured one specimen at Thyetmyo, and have seen no 
other from my limits. 

406.— Hypotsenidia striata, Lin, (913.) 

Very abundant in all parts of the province which are suitable 
to it. 

407.— Leptoptilus argalus, Lath. (915.) 

Occurs in immense numbers in some parts of Lower Pegu, 
where it arrives in October, and immediately commences to 
breed. It leaves about February or March. A few birds 
appear to remain throughout the year. 

408.— Leptoptilus javanicus, Horsf. (916.) 

Occurs throughout the province, but not in very large num- 
bers. It does not migrate to any great extent. 

409.— Xenorhynchus asiaticus, Lath. (917.) 

Occurs singly or in pairs, more numerously in Lower than in 
Upper Pegu. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 243 

410.— Dissura episcopa, Bodd. (920.) 

The remarks about the preceding bird apply equally to 
this. 

411. — Ardea cinerea, Lin. (923.) 

Rather a common bird in the plains throughout the dry 
weather, and probably occurs also in the northern dry parts, 
though I do not remember seeing it there.* 

412.— Ardea purpurea, Lin. (924.) 

Extremely abundant in all parts of the provincet 

413.— Herodias torra, B. Ham. (925.) 

As the preceding. Wing, 135 to 147 ; bill at front, 4*0 to 
4*6 ; tarsus, 5 2 to 6'1. 

414.— Herodias intermedia, Bass. (926.) 

Less common than the preceding, but generally distributed. 

415.— Herodias garzetta, Lin. (927.) 

Very common in all parts of the province. Wing, 9*6 to 11*5 ; 
bill at front, 2-8 to 37 ; tarsus, 3-1 to 38.f 

416.— Bubulcus coromandus, Bodd. (929.) 

Found pretty commonly all over Pegu. 

417.— Ardeola grayi, Sykes. (930.) 

Extremely common. 

418.— Butorides javanica, Horsf. (931.) 

Abundant in all rivers and creeks, the banks of which are 
well wooded. 

419.— Ardetta flavicollis, Lath. (932.) 

Very common in all the plains, and found also sparingly in 
the nullahs on the hills. 

420.— Ardetta cinnamomea, Gm. (933.) 
421.— Ardetta sinensis, Om. (934.) 

Both these are equally common, but of course comparatively 
seldom seen. 



* But Feilden sent it from Thyetmyo.— Ed., S. F. 

t Add 928 bis. — Demiegretta sacra, Gm. 

From near the mouth of the Uassein estuary.— Ec, S. F, 



244 A LIST OP THE BIRDS OF PEGF. 

422.— Botaurus stellaris, Lin. (936.) 

Captain Jenkins shot two of these Bitterns near Pegu on 
the 2ud December. He saw several others. These were all 
in a swamp surrounded by paddy land. 

Both birds were females and measured : — Length, 28* ; 
expanse, 46 and 44; wing, 125 and 12*2 ; bill from gape, 
3-75 and 3;80. 

Iris yellow ; eyelids greenish ; lower mandible and margins 
of the upper pale green ; remainder of upper mandible, and 
in front of eye, smoky brown ; legs green, with a tinge of 
yellow ; claws horn colour. 

423.— Nycticorax griseus, Lin. (937.) 

Very common all over the province. 

424.— Tantalus leucocephalus, Penn. (938.) 

Occurs numerously from Pegu down to Rangoon, and up 
the Irrawaddy river as far as the plains extend. It is far 
more numerous in the rains than at other times. 

425.— Anastomus oscitans, Bodd. (940.) 

I procured one specimen at Thyetmyo many years ago, and 
have never met with it again. 

426. — Ibis melanocephala, Lath. (941.) 

Occurs in very large flocks in all the plains of Lower Pegu. 

427.— Graptocephalus davisoni, Hume, (942 bis.) 

A few pairs of this bird may be generally seen in the less 
frequented parts of the plains on either side the Canal, but they 
are very wary and difficult to shoot. In the dry weather they 
are fond of recently burnt up patches of grass land, where 
they may be seen stalking about for hours looking into cracks 
of the soil for small reptiles. 

I have heard of there being Black Ibis in the Irrawaddy 
valley, about Henzada and Bassein, and I expect they belong 
to this species. 

A note on the nidification of this Ibis will be found in 
S. F., Y, p. 168, under the name /. papillosus. At the breeding 
season it has a most fearful cry which can be heard a couple 
of miles off. 

An adult bird from Pegu had the bill bluish, the iris orange, 
the skin of the head blackish brown, and the band round the 
neck white, tinged with blue; the legs pale coral colour, and the 
claws brown. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU; 245 

428.— Falcinellus igneus, S. G. Gm. (943.) 

I once saw a flock of these birds at Thyetmyo, where also 
Captain Feilden procured it. I have met with it nowhere 
else in Pegu. 

429.— Sarcidiornis melanonotus, Penn. (950.) 

A permanent resident and common in most swamps and 
lakes. 

430.— Nettopus coromandelianus, Gm. (951.) 

Very common in all parts of the country. 

431.— Dendrocygna javanica, Horsf. (952.) 

Very common throughout Lower Pegu, and less so in the 
drier northern portions. 

432.— Dendrocygna fulva, Gm. (953.) 

Less common than the preceding, and found all over the 
province. 

433.— Casarca rutila, Tall. (954.) 

Very abundant in the dry weather on all the sandbanks of 
the Irrawaddy river, and occurring in pairs sparingly in other 
suitable localities. 

434.— Dafila acuta, Lin. (962.) 

Very abundant during the dry weather in all large jheels.* 

435.— Querquedula crecca, Lin. (964.) 

This Teal is rather rare. One or two may, however, be 
shot in the course of a long day's Duck shooting in most parts 
of the province. 

436.— Querquedula circia, Lin. (965.) 

Very abundant, occurring in large flocks in such jheels as 
the Engmah, and the one at Payagalay. It is also found in 
pairs, or singly on smaller pieces of water. I am not sure 
whether some remain through the rains to breed or not. 

437.— Podiceps minor, Gm. (975.) 

The small Grebe is found in every part of Pegu, and is very 
abundant. 



* I fully believe that we ought to add 963. —Mareca penelope, Lin. I attach 
little importance to the fact that Mason included it in his List of Pegu Birds. 
But Colonel McMaster waa a gi-eat sportsman, and thoroughly reliable, and he knew 
"Waterfowl well, and having been stationed two or three years in Pegu, he deli- 
berately wrote that the Wige^n was more common in Burma than in India. I 
suppose he meant the parts with which he was acquainted, and in many parts of 
Upper India the Wigeon is very rare. "Ed., S. F. 



246 A LIST OF THE BIRDS OP PEGU. 

438.— Larus ichthya'etus, Tall. (979.) 

During the cold weather considerable numbers of this large 
Gull may be seen iu the Sittang river, near Kayasoo, and occa- 
sionally on the Canal. They are mostly young birds. One young 
bird measured : — Length, 25'7 ; expanse, 62 ; tail, 66 ; wing, 
18-6 ; tarsus, 2*85 ; bill from forehead, 2*2; middle toe and 
claw, 26. 

The iris was dark brown ; the edges of the eyelids black ; gape 
and basal half of the margins of the bill pale yellow ; remainder 
of the bill very dark brown ; inside of the mouth pale salmon 
colour ; legs, feet, and webs pale purpurescent browu ; claws 
black. 

This young bird agrees exactly in colour and dimensions 
with a bird shot in the Akyab harbour. It is also undoubtedly 
of the same species as four adult birds, two in full summer 
plumage, shot at Bhamo. In these adult birds the colouration 
of the bill, so peculiar, clearly shews them to be ichthyaelus. 
As Mr. Hume has already pointed out, the full grown bird has 
the tail pure white, and not with a black bar across. This bar 
seems peculiar to the young birds only. 

439.— Larus brunneicephalus, Jerd. (980.) 

Very common in all tidal waters. I do not remember to 
have ever seen it far from salt water. 

440.— Sterna caspia, Pall (9S2.) 

Uncommon. I shot two in the Sittang river during a gale 
of wind and rain, and have never met with it again. 

441.— Sterna anglica, Mont. (983.) 

Doctor Armstrong procured this species at Elephant Point.* 

442.— Hydrochelidon hybrida, Pall (984.) 

Abundant in all the rivers and creeks of Lower Pegu in the 
cold weather. 

443.— Hydrochelidon leucoptera, Meis. 8f Schl. 
(984 bis.) 

A large series of these birds have been kindly identified for 
me by Mr. Howard Saunders. It is as common as the pre- 
ceding, and found in the same localities. 

444.— Sterna seena, Syhes. (985.) 

Very abundant over the whole province.f 

* And I have received it from the Bassein estuary. — Ed., S, P. 

t Add 985 bis. — Sterna dougalli, Mont. 

Several specimens from the Bassem estuary.— Ed., S. F. 



A LIST OF THE BIRDS OF PEGU. 247 

445.— Sterna melanogastra, Tern. (987.) 

Distributed like the preceding, but not quite so common. 

446.— Sterna gouldi, Bume. (988 quat.) 

All the little Terns of Pegu belong to this species. It is very 
common in the Pegu and Sittaug rivers, and probably also in 
the Irrawaddy, though I do not remember to have seen it in 
that river.* 

447.— Sterna fuliginosa, Gm. (992 bis.) 

I shot one specimen in the dusk of the evening as it was 
flying along the Canal. There were two birds. I have never 
met with it again. By some oversight Mr. Hume returned me 
the specimen labelled dnous stolidas, and Mr. Howard Saunders 
drew my attention to the mistake. f 

448.— Rhynchops albicollis, Sws. (995.) 

Very abundant in all the streams.^ 

449.— Pelecanus philippensis, Gm. (1001.) 

This Pelican is generally distributed over the province, 
but is common only in the vast plains of the lower portions 
of the province which are intersected by tidal streams, and 
covered with pools of water. From October to Februarv 
there are more birds than at any other period of the year, and 
Burma is undoubtedly their chief breeding place. 

I have kept this bird in captivity for }-ears, rearing the 
young birds from the nest, and noting the changes of plumage 
from year to year. I hope to give a full account of these 
changes soon in another place. 

450. — Pelecanus minor, Bupp. (1003.) 

The Pelican, which usually figures under the name of java- 
nicus is abundant in Southern Pegu from August to Februarv 

* Add 989.— Sterna bergii, IAcht. 

Common near the mouth of the estuary of the Bassein river. 

Add 991.— Sterna sumatrana, Haffl,. 

Two specimens from the south coast, near the mouth of the Bassein estuary.— 
Ed.,- 8. F. 

f These birds, were all named by my friend Mr. Davison. 

Add 993. — Anous stolidus, Lin. 

I have a specimen procured off the south coast of Pegu, between Cape Negrais 
and Rangoon. — Ed., S. F. 

X Add 997. — Phaeton flavirostris, Brandt. 

Has been procured on the south coast of Pegu near the mouth of the Bassein 
estuary. 

998. — Sula australis, Steph. 

Specimen procured on voyage from Calcutta to Rangoon after rounding Cape 
JJegrais.— Ed , S. F. 

32 



248 ON THE FLIGHT OF BIRDS. 

or March. I have had its breeding places indicated to me by 
Burmans, but I have not been able to visit them. 

The white Pelicans are too difficult a group of birds to be 
dealt with here in Burma. 1 have studied them carefully 
for years, and I hope to be able to throw some light on them 
when working up my series of these birds in England.* 

451.— Phalacrocorax carbo, Lin. (1005.) 

Extremely abundant in all the streams and fisheries of 
Lower Pegu, and somewhat rare in the high northern parts of 
the province. 

452.— Phalacrocorax fuscicollis, Steph. (1006.) 

In some parts of Pegu this Cormorant is very common. 
Such is the case in the Canal and the Sittang river about 
Myitkyo. Elsewhere it does not appear to be common, occur- 
ring in pairs only, or in very small flocks. 

453.— Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, Pall. (1007.) 

Generally distributed, and very common both in large and 
small streams. 

454.— Plotus melanogaster, Penn. (1008.) 

As the preceding, but perhaps not quite so numerous. 

tin t\u (flight of Stria. 

There is a high hill behind my house, rising to an elevation 
of above 8,000 feet, which I often ascend in the early morn- 
ings. A little below the summit is a broken precipitous slope, 
nearly a quarter of a mile in length, close aloug the base of 
which, in the early mornings, Lammergeyers and Vultures (the 
latter almost exclusively Gyps himalayensis, nobis), are wont 

* I too have been studying these Pelicans for years, and have several hundred 
specimens collected from all parts of the British Asian Empire. Unable to procure 
Specimens of onocrotalus from Europe, I cannot decide what bird it is ; but I am 
certain that the three specimens, still in the Asiatic Society's Museum, on which 
Jerdon founded his three' supposed species, onocrotalus, Lin, mitratus, Licht, and 
javanicus, Horsf., one and all belong to the same species. I pointed this out 
nine years ago, vide S. F., I, 128. Of course there is a small Pelican in Lower 
Bengal and that is what Jerdon had seen and referred to under P. jav aniens, 
but there is no specimen of this in the Asiatic Society's Museum, nor, though 
I have twice seen it, have I ever procured a specimen, and the bird he did 
describe (I have verified the measurements), and which is in the Asiatic Society's 
Museum, is not of this small species, but of the same species as those he described 
under onocrotalus and mitratus. If Mr. Oates will only set us right by careful 
comparison as to what the Burmese javanicus, of which I have some 70 specimens 
of different sexes and ages really is, it will be a great boon to Indian ornitholo- 
gists.— Ed , S. F. 



ON THE FLIGHT OF BIRDS. 249 

to sweep on their way to the slaughter-houses and more popu- 
lous parts of Simla, where they mostly resort during the day. 

A large colony of Vultures and several pairs of Lammergey- 
ers always roost and breed in some nearly inaccessible cliffs at 
the back of the Mahassu range, the crest of which may be 
distant about four miles, as the crow flies, from the Jacko preci- 
pices already referred to. It is the denizens of this colony 
whose "march past" I almost daily observe from a recess 
about half way down the slope, along which, often within five 
yards of the cliff, the birds sweep, one after the other, en 
route to their breakfasts. 

On fine summer mornings the birds begin to pass between 
six aud seven o'clock, but on cold winter days, especially on 
cold wet days, they will not appear till nearly 9 A.M. From 
where I sit, I can, on bright mornings, with a glass, clearly see 
them as the} r top the Mahassu ridge, and thence observe their 
whole course until they pass me and for from one to two miles 
after they have passed me. 

Now it often happens that one of the Vultures comes the 
whole way from the Mahassu ridge to my nest, and passes 
thence southwards, out of sight, a distance of at least five, 
and often six miles, without having made, during the time it 
was in sight, a single movement of the wings, or more than 
three or four gradual shifts of the tail when slightly altering; 
its course. 

Wishing to ascertain the velocity with which they pass — a 
velocity which varies very greatly — I put up two posts on two 
projecting points right and left of my seat, and somewhat 
further out. I then, for several mornings, noted the times of 
each bird's passing each post, and approximately the distance 
at which each passed outside the posts, aud then having pre- 
viously ascertained all the sides of my fixed triangle, of which 
my own position was the apex, while the two posts marked the 
basal angles, it wns of course easy to calculate the actual 
length of that portion of the Vulture's path visible to me be- 
tween the two posts. 

The Vultures, as a rule, slacken speed a good deal in passing 
my precipice. This faces the east, and is very warm and 
pleasant in the mornings, and commands a vast view down a 
deep valley, and not unfrequently, when I have come up a 
little later than usual, I have found several Vultures, and once 
or twice a Lammergeyer, sunning themselves on the ledges. 
So I suspect they slacken speed, intending, if the coast be clear, 
to alight and enjoy the warm sun awhile before continuing 
their matutinal cruise for a meal. 

Well, I found that between seven and eight miles an 
hour avus the lowest speed at which any Vulture passed 



250 ON THE FLIGHT OF BIRDS. 

me, and between 26 aud 27 miles the greatest speed. At 
tbe same time, I believe that elsewhere, when not thinking 
of alighting, or wishing to examine the ground closely, 
they travel with far greater rapidity. As far as I can 
make out that portion of the Mahassu ridge, above which 
they generally first appear, is almost exactly four miles 
distant from my post of observation, and on more than 
one occasion only six or seven minutes have elapsed between my 
first sighting a bird over the ridge, aud its passing me, which 
would give a speed of 34 to 40 miles an hour. But then, of 
course, it is impossible to be certain that I really sighted the bird 
directly it did top the ridge. I may only have caught sight 
of it after it had progressed some considerable distance to- 
wards my position. 

Be this as it may, as a rule, the majority of the Vultures 
pass my station at a velocity of between 12 and 15 miles per 
hour. 

These Vultures are about four feet long, have an expanse of 
about nine feet, and weigh from I8lbs. to 201bs. But in flight 
they retract the neck, aud so appear much less than their full 
length, and laying out a freshly killed bird, with the neck 
drawn in as in flight, and with wings and tail spread to the 
utmost and tracing the outline, I found that at the outside the 
flying Vulture does not subtend a total surface of above 12 
square feet. 

It is to be observed that when you shoot these birds dead, 
they fall like stones ; when you wound one badly, in the body, 
it also falls like a stone for 10, 15 or 20 yards, and then re- 
covering itself by a few laboured strokes, sails away, without 
another flap of the wings, quite out of sight. Nay, at times, 
if you only suddenly frighten them, down they drop as if 
shot. There is a projecting point, which they generally 
pass very closely. On several occasions I have hid in a 
clump of bushes, which is just at the hang of the point, and 
when a bird has been about to pass me at the distance of a 
very few yards have started up shouting and firing both 
barrels (with powder only) just as he was abreast of me. In 
many cases, thus assailed, the birds have merely given a shud- 
der, and have swung on with the irresistible sweep of some 
planet in its course. But, occasionally, almost exclusively in 
the case of young, striped or lineated birds, the Vulture has 
fallen head over heels as if wounded, only recovering itself after 
a perpendicular descent of several yards. 

Near my favourite post of observation live two pairs of Black 
Crows (C. macrorhnyckus). These Crows know me perfectly; 
they are quite aware that, though I do carry a gun, I shall not 
shoot them, but still, on .Driuoiple, they disapprove of men 



ON THE FLIGHT OF BIRDS. 251 

going about with gnus, and some time or other during my 
morning's visit, they think it their duty to call in, and circling 
slowly round and round above my head, at a height of not 
more than 20 yards, solemnly protest, in voices tremulous 
■with emotion, against my persistent violation of what they 
consider good manners. For there is nothing in regard to 
which a Crow feels and expresses himself so strongly as in the 
matter of what he holds to be that pernicious and low habit 
of canning a gun. 

I remember, when Brooks was rearing some young Eagles, 
he had at first occasion to shoot a good many Crows, eight or 
ten daily, to satisfy the cravings of his interesting nurselings. 
Within a week after he began this massacre of the innocents, 
let him but show his face outside his house, carrying a gun, and 
every Crow seemed to have left the country. He might peer 
and poke about, bustle up and hunt, but there was not a Crow 
to be seen. One might have fancied that he had killed off all 
the Crows of the neighbourhood. But let him issue, as on 
Sunday, without a gun, and presto! the whole place was alive 
with Crows, cursing and swearing at him in language which, 
had I understood it, would, I feel sure, have been too dreadful 
to record, and which was all the more shocking for having been 
indulged in on the Sabbath. It was no use his putting up a 
stick, and pretending that it was a gun ; only the most infantile 
Crows were thus imposed upon ; the great majority received 
the demonstration with derisive cheers, and renewed and 
intensified objurgations. 

I never kill Crows myself — I have a strong liking for them ; 
perhaps I have some faint remembrance of the time, in long 
past aeons when I was a Crow, (or what then represented a 
Crow,} myself — I have five or six pairs about my grounds, 
some of whom are quite tame ; one especially who, if he be 
drinking at a sunken water barrel, distinctly declines to move 
to allow of my filling a watering pot. But thereby hangs a 
tale, for one day hearing a great splashing and running up 
to the butt, 1 found this Crow, in articulo mortis, wet through 
and fast smking. The water was low ; he had fallen in, there 
was no foothold, and he was drowning. I caught hold of his 
bill, and lifting him gently out, laid him on a sunny plot 
of turf where he soon recovered. Let me do that Crow (and 
my fellowmeu who are mostly equally intelligent) the justice 
to record, that, from that day forth, he has treated me with 
an uniformly pitying contempt. 

But this is a digression. I often carefully watch my Crows 
up hill as they circle slowly round and round over head, 
tenderly admonishing me against the evil habit of carrying a gun, 
aud I notice that wheu there is no wind ; and it is quite calm, 



252 ON THE FLIGHT OF BIRDS. 

they will sail round and round very slowly, six, eight, even ten 
times, in the course of five to ten minutes, without even once 
moving their wings, only slightly incliuing the tail in varying 
directions so as to rise and fall a little, as they revolve, 
their rounds being not circles, but a series of ascending and de- 
scending spirals. 

Now what keeps the Vultures up, and a fortiori, what keeps 
these Crows up ? Stuff a Crow carefully, as I have done, with 
wings and tail extended ; let your stuffed Crow, like mine, 
weigh 5|ozs. instead of lib. 8ozs. which the live Crow weighs ; 
get a multiplying wheel with a thin silk twiue, 30 yards long, 
weighing an ounce at most ; attach it to the skin so that this will 
sail straight without twisting ; place the skin on the top of a post 
15 or 20 feet high so as to give it a good start ; then whirr the 
wheel, and your dead Crow shell will come through the air 
to you three times as fast as ever the live Crow succeed- 
ed in making his way, but the skin will have hit the 

ground before reaching you. Yet the live Crow, weighing 
more than four times what the skin does, circles round and 
round my head without one single action that could, with refer- 
ence to resistance of the air, &c, account for its not falling, at 
certainly less than one-te?ith of the velocity which I, by 
mechanism, impart to the skin. 

I venture to hope that no one will fatuously revive that old 
exploded fallacy of air-cells filled with heated air. If all 
the cells were filled in the case of a Crow with air at 
a temperature of 160° P., the outside air being at 70° F., 
the raising power thus engendered would not suffice to sustain 
a single ounce weight, whereas my skin that won't keep up, 
weighs only 5^ozs. against lib. 8ozs. of the live bird. 

But for all that the live birds do keep up, and there has 
never yet been, so far as I am aware, any explanation of their 
so doing, that can, when tested, be accepted. 

The real explanation is simple enough, but I do not doubt 
that when I set it forth, especially when I explain, as I must, 
how I was led to suspect it, my statement will be received 
much as the Crows used to receive Brooks' walking-stick 
demonstrations. 

The only difference will be, that, whereas the Crows, having 
only instinct to guide them, were right in the view they took 
of the case; the intellectual people, who will reject my explana- 
tion, will be wrong. Well, they will know better some day. 
Every great truth is a folly to the generation in which it first 
shows itself. 

Now did any of my readers ever hear of JEthrobacy ? Of 
course the majority reply : "Is it anything to drink ? Is it 
good ?" No, it is not a potable article ; it is a fantastic name, 



ON THE FLIGHT OF BIRDS. 253 

signifying walking in the air, applied to the manifestations 
of an occult power, occasionally acquired by human beings, 
of raising themselves for a short distance above the surface 
of the earth, without any physical support or mechanical aids. 

A good many (ignorant) people will say at once flatly : "But 
this is all humbug ; no one ever did acquire any such power." 
This however is a mistake ; there are at least three Yogis at this 
present moment in India, who possess this power, and you have 
only to study the questiou to ascertain that there is no fact in 
the history of mankind better established, by a greater number 
of reliable witnesses, than the acquisition of this power by 
exceptional individuals. This has occurred, alike in ancient 
and modern times, in Asia and Europe, in the case of men 
and women, Buddhists, Hindoos, Mahomedans, and Christians. 

An absolutely pure life and intense religious concentration 
seem necessary in most cases for the development in human 
beings of this power, which, in the case of man, is abnormal. 

It is all very well for Protestants and modern materialists 
to discard unexamined all facts of this nature as manifestly 
falsehoods or frauds, fables or dreams; but no candid person 
can examine the judicial records of the exhibition of this power 
in the case of some of the Roman Catholic Saints and Saintesses, 
without admitting that the thing is as well established as any 
single fact on record. 

Of course, it had nothing to do with the profession of any par- 
ticular creed. Mahomedans, Hindoos and Buddhists, living 
similar, self-denying, excessively abstemious, absolutely pure 
unworldly lives, and similarly concentrating their minds and 
souls on things spiritual, have equally acquired these powers ; 
and, as I said before, there are men at this time, in this country, 
endowed with them ; but I refer to Roman Catholic Saints, 
because the records of their doings are more readily available 
to Europeans, and carry more weight than those of the so- 
called miracles of Eastern Saints and Sages. 

But when we begin to study the hidden science that lies at 
the base of all these abnormal phenomena, we discover that this 
faculty of iEthrobacy is susceptible of a simple scientific 
explanation ; it depends upon the power of so altering the 
magnetic polarity of the physical frame that in lieu of being 
attracted it is repelled by the earth. 

Gravity is nothing but another name for the force, which, 
viewed from different aspects, we designate heat, light, elec- 
tricity, magnetism ; or at any rate, all are outward and 
appreciable manifestations of analogous impulses propelled 
through one and the same all-pervading medium. 

Now this power of modifying and reversing the polarity 
of the physical body, which is so rarely, and only under 



254 A NOTE ON THE GENERA SCHCENICOLA AND UATRISOUS. 

very exceptional circumstances, acquired by human beings, 
is normal and inherent in the great majority of winged birds. 
But it varies very greatly in potency in different families 
and genera, and while in some it operates almost wholly to 
neutralize the attraction of gravity, in others it only slightly 
diminishes the tension of this. 

This power is directly connected with what we may call, even 
in a bird, the mind principle, and is liable to be suspended by any 
sudden shock or fright, which for the moment checks the out- 
going of will power in that direction. 

This explanation of much that has long puzzled us in connec- 
tion with the flight of birds, is not an hypothesis, but a fact ; 
but as I am not in a position to give that demonstration of it, 
which I am well aware physical science must insist on before 
accepting anything as a fact, I only ask my readers to treat it 
as a hypothesis, and test how far it systematizes and explains 
the many hitherto inexplicable facts connected with the flight 
of birds. 

A. 0. H. 



% gote JW itte (Seiwra ^ctaucola and Catriscns. gir 
Jv. Somtkr ^harjn?, Jf.Ju^., $%.§., &c. f §tyminunt 
jof ^ofltorjn, Driiish gfeettm. 

(Reprint from the P. Z. S., November 1881.) 

During the last two years a great deal of interest has been 
shown in India with respect to Jerdou's Schoenicola platyura, 
a little Reedbird, which was described by him as Timalia 
•platyura (Madr. Jouru., xiii., p. 170), and was afterwards 
made the type of the genus Schamicola by Blyth (J. A. S., 
Beug., xxxiii., p. 374). The typical specimen was lost; and 
the bird remained unidentified for years, merely receiving a 
short notice, in 1863, from Jerdon in his " Birds of of India" (ii., 
p. 73). In 1878, however, Mr. Frank Bourdillon met with the 
species in Southern Travaucore, as recorded by Mr. Hume in 
the seventh volume of " Stray Feathers" (p. 37). Again, in 
Capt. Legge's " Birds of Ceylon/' reference is made to a specimen 
which had been since 1854 lying undetermined in a box in the 
British Museum ; but Capt. hegge (somewhat inconsistently 
in my opinion) only gave it a place in his work in a foot-note. 
There is not the slightest reason for believing that the specimen 
in question is not a genuine Ceylonese skin, as it was purchased 
by the Museum from Mr. Cuming, who received it doubtless 
from one of his correspondents, perhaps Mr. Thwaites or 



A NOTE ON THE GENERA SCHCENICOLA AND CATRISCUS. 255 

Mr. Layard. Anyhow, I have no doubt that the bird occurs in 
Ceylon, and has escaped observation there just as it did for so 
lou« > in India. 

In the ninth volume of " Stray Feathers' 7 several notices of 
this bird are published. At p. 209 Mr. W. Edwin Brooks, 
who has made the Warblers of India his especial study, gives 
a minute account of the generic features of Schcenicola, based 
on the Travancore specimen procured by Mr. Bourdillon (Mus. 
A. 0. Hume) ; and at p. 211, Mr. Hume gives an editorial note, 
with additional information from Mr. Bourdillon, recording' 
the capture of three more specimens. Two of these have since 
passed into the collection of the British Museum, and are marked 
by the collector as " breeding" — a statement on which Capt. 
Butler afterwards comments. At p. 234, Mr. Hume records 
the capture of a specimen by Captain Butler at Belgaum, and 
suggests the possibility of Schcenicola being identical with the 
African genus Catriscus. Lastly, at p. 260 of the same 
volume of "Stray Feathers," Mr. Hume gives an excellent 
resume of the history of Schcenicola platyura as far as known, 
and Capt. Butler adds some most interesting notes on the nest- 
ing of the species at Belgaum. In the space of two years, 
therefore this interesting bird has been rescued from the obli- 
vion into which it had fallen, and we now know a good deal 
about its habits and general economy. 

It is with the object of answering Mr. Hume's question as 
to the possibility of the Indian bird being identical with the 
African Catriscus apicalis, that I write these few lines. A 
perception of affinities has been one of Mr. Hume's most 
noticeable qualities as an ornithologist ; and his association of 
Schcenicola with Catriscus turns out to be perfectly correct ; 
but the Iudian species is not exactly the same as the African 
one. The following I believe to be the literary history of the 
genus, with its two species : — 

Schcenicola. 

Type. 

Schomicola, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xiii., p. 374, 

(1844, necBp. 1850) S.p>latyura. 

Catriscus, Cab. Mus. Hein. Th., i., p. 43 (1850) . . S. apicalis. 

Clavis specierum. 

a- Saturate rufescenti-brunneus, regione parotica pileo eoneolori ; hypo- 
chondriis saturate rufescenti-brunneis ; subcaudalibus fulvescentibus 
vel rufescenti-brunneis platyura* 

J. Pallide rufescenti-brunneis, regione parotica pallide brunnea ; hypo- 
cbondriis fulvescentibus ; subcaudalibus nigricantibus pallide inar- 
ginatis apicalis. 

1. Schcenicola platyura. 

Timalia platyura, Jerdon, Madr. Jo urn., xiii., p. 170 (1844) ; 
Gray, Haud-1. B. i. p. 315, no. 4706. 

33 



256 THE BRITISH MUSEUM CATALOGUE OF BIRDS, VOL. VI. 

Schcenicola platpira, Blytb, J. A. S. Beng., xiii., p. 374 
(1844) ; Jerd. B. Iud., ii., p. 73 (1863) ; Hume, Str. F., 1878, 
vol. vii., p. 37 ; id. Str. F., 1879, p. 97 ; Brooks, Str. F., 1880, 
p. 209; Hume, t. cit., p. 211 ; Legge, B. Ceylon, p. 532, note 
(1880; ; Hume, Str. F., 1880, pp. 234, 260 ; Butler, Cat. B. of 
South Bombay Press, p. 43 (1880). 

The Indian Broad-tailed Reed-bird inhabits Southern India, 
and has been procured by Capt. Butler at Belgaum in 16° N. 
]at. ; also by Jerdon in the Goodalore Ghat, Wynaad, 1 1° 30' 
N. lat. ; again, in Southern Travancore, in 8° 30' N. lat. 
(Bonrdillon); and extends into Ceylon (spec, in Mas. Brit.), 
the exact locality beiug unknown, though Mr. Hume suggests 
about 7° N. lat. 

2. Schcenicola apicalis. 

Sylvia apicalis, Licht, MS. in Mus. Berol., unde. 

Catriscus apicalis, Cab. Mus. Hein. th., i., p. 43 (note) ; 
Gurney, Ibis, 1863, p. 323, id. Ibis, 1866, p. 140 ; Heugl., Ibis, 
1869, p. 81; id. Orn. N. O.-Afr., p. 273, tab. ix. (1869); 
Shelley, Ibis, 1875, p. 71 ; Sharpe, ed. Layard B. S. Afr., p. 
283 (1876). 

Bradypterus brevirostris, Sundev. K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. 
Stockh., 1850, p. 483. 

Cettia apicalis, Licht. Nomencl. Av. Berol., p. 29. 

Spheneeacus alexince, Heugl. J. f. O. 1863, p. 166. 

Drymoica apicalis, Layard, B. S. Afr., p. 96, no. 173 (1867) ; 
Gray, Hand-1. B., i., p. 201, no. 2833 (1869). 

Calamodyta brevirostris, Gray, Hand-1. B., i., p. 209, no. 2958 
(1869). 

In North-eastern Africa the African Broad-tailed Reed-bird 
was met with by Heuglin in the vast grass-lands on the 
affluents of the Gazelle river. In South Africa it appears to 
be found only in Natal. 



By R. Bowdler Sharpe. 



The new Volume of the Catalogue contains a portion of 
the Family of the Timelid^ as defined by Mr. Sharpe, Vol. 
IV., p. 7. 

This Volume is by Mr. Sharpe himself, and well maintains 
the high standard of this important work. 

By some oversight at page 1, only the following sub- 
families are stated to be included in the Timelid^:, viz., the 
Brachypodince, the Troghdytince, and the Timeliiw (proper ;) 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 257 



but 


as a fact the following 


five sub-families are incl 


this 


volume, viz. : — 






(1) Brachypoditiffl 

(2) Ti-oglodytinae 

(3) Miminae 

(4) Myiadectirus ... 

(5) Ptilonorliynchinse 


... or Bulbuls ; 

... or Wrens ; 

... or Mocking Thrushes ; 

... or Solitaires, &c ; 

... or Bower Birds ; 



and there remain the Timelirue, and possibly some other sub- 
families to be dealt with in an ensuing volume. 

With the last three sub-families (two of which in my opi- 
nion are scarcely rightly here placed), we have no concern in 
India ; even amongst the Troglodytina, the great majority 
of the genera are American, and Pncepyga and Cinclus are 
the principal genera with which we here have to do. Of the 
Brachypodina of course a very large proportion of the 
genera and species occur within our limits. 

It is gratifying to learn that the second volume of this family is 
well advanced, and that there is now a prospect of a somewhat 
more rapid progress in this work than has hitherto been 
found possible. The present race of oruithologists will doubt- 
less be gathered to their fathers before the catalogue is 
completed, but from what Dr. Giiuther intimates in a brief 
preface which he prefixes to the present volume, our sons may 
now possibly witness its termination. This is good news, and 
we will hope that it may prove true. 

Of this present volume there is little to be said. It is charac- 
terized by the same completeness, and displays abundant 
evidence of the same industry and research that have been the 
leading features of every work of Mr. Sharpe's since, as scarcely 
more than a boy, he gave to the world his Monograph of the 
Kingfishers. Some of the illustrations are decidedly good, while 
others again strike me as rather harsh, but all are a decided 
improvement on some that appeared in one at least of the earlier 
volumes. 

A. 0. H. 

$ntiht $otcs oft i\xt SMs ojj (SiLgit. 

By Major J. Biddulph. 



Reprint from the "Ibis." 

Since the publication of my former paper on the Birds of 
Gilgit I have been again resident, from May 1880 till March 
1881, in that place, during which time I procured several 
species not previously obtained, either by Dr. Scully or myself. 
The summer of 1880 was marked by an unusual amount of bad 
weather — the monsoon, which, as a rule, is never felt so far 



258 FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

from the plains of India, having made its influence apparent. 
The end of July and the beginning" of August, which, in 
ordinary years, is the hottest season in Gilgit, was marked 
by ten days' continuous rain and stormy weather. In con- 
sequence of this the autumn migration commenced a fort- 
night earlier than usual, and on the first two days in August 
a number of watei'-birds and waders, such as Ibidorliynchus 
struthersi, Machetes pugnaa;, Tringa temmincki, Totanus gla- 
reola, Totanus calidris, &c, appeared : amongst them a special 
prize, in Tringa acuminata, was secured. I also saw several 
Kites (Milvus melanotis or M. govinda.) 

In July and August I sent native collectors to the Darel 
valley, to the Deosai plain, and to the Shandur plateau, which 
divides the Gilgit-Yassin valley from the Chitral valley. The 
jealousy of the Darelis caused them to regard my men as 
spies who had come to study the nakedness of their land, for 
which purpose ornithology was but a transparent veil ; and 
my men were obliged to return after four days' stay in the 
valley. They brought back forty-six specimens, representing 
eighteen species. Of these, three do not appear in the Gilgit 
list, viz., Garrulus lanceolahis, Otocorys longirostris, and 
Uydrobata leucogaster, the last-named being hitherto unrecorded 
south of the Himalayas. Orcecetes cinclorhynchus, which only 
appears as an occasional straggler in Gilgit, seems to be 
exceedingly common in Darel, together with Garrulus lanceo- 
latus } which appears to be equally abundant. The vegetation 
of Darel, which valley has remained till now unvisited by any 
European, probably approaches in character more nearly to 
that of Cashmere than to that of the Gilgit and Astor valleys. 

My collector who visited the bleak Deosai plain was also 
unfortunate in having encountered weather so bad as to 
make any prolonged stay impossible, even in July, at so great 
an elevation. He brought back fifty-seven specimens, repre- 
senting twenty-four species, only one of which, Otocorys 
longirostris, does not appear in the Gilgit list. 

The man who visited the Shandur plateau was more fortu- 
nate in being well received by the people of the country, and 
remained there for over a fortnight. During this he collected 
numerous specimens, which tend to show that the plateau is 
a favourite breeding-ground for many of our Gilgit birds that 
are forced to seek a considerable elevation for the purpose. 

Further observation has tended to confirm my former 
conjecture, that the Indus valley forms the chief route by 
which migrants between Central Asia and Northern India 
pass and repass. This is also borne out by the appearance 
of several species of rare or previously unknown occurrence 
in India having been recorded at Attock in the pages of 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 259 

Stray Feathers during the last few years. Punjab orni- 
thologists will probably find themselves well repaid by a 
careful collection of species during the months of October, 
November, December, and January at Derbund, where the 
Indus emerges from the Himalayas into the plains of the 
Put) jab. 

The Indian Government having decided against the further 
retention of a British officer at Gilgit for the present, it will 
probably be some time before any further continuous orni- 
thological observations at that spot can be made, though 
many sportsmen will no doubt find their way up to so good 
a sporting locality. Up to the time of my departure I con- 
tinued to add new species to the list, which now comprises 
265 species. Of this number only one, the Owl named after 
me by Dr. Scully, is new to science. Five are of doubtful iden- 
tification, no specimen having been secured, though in each 
instance there is no doubt that a species not otherwise re- 
corded in the list was observed. These are Vultur monachus, 
Neophron percnopterus, Corvus umbrinus, Branta i'uflna, and 
Mergus castor. The absolute identification of Gyps fulvescens 
must also remain undecided, for reasons hereafter stated. 
My identifications of Corvus culminatus and Columba livia may 
also be accepted with hesitation, as also the specific distinc- 
tion of Corvus collaris. Without taking these into account, 
twenty-one species, not previously recorded, or of doubtful 
occurrence, in India, according to Mr. Hume's list of 1st 
March 1879, must now be added to the number of our Indian 
species. They are Cerchneis vespertina, Lanius homeyeri, 
Lanius phanicuroides, Turdus hy emails ?, Saccicola vittata, 
Saxicola cenanthe, Leptopoecile sophice, Accentor fulvescens, 
Sturnus purpurascens, Petronia stulta, Emberiza hortidana, 
Erythrospiza incarnata, Propasser blythi, Linaria cannabina, 
Fringilla montifringilla, Leucostlcte brandti, Turtur aurita, 
yEgialitis hiaticula, yEgialitis jerdoni, Tringa acuminata, and 
Crex pratensis. The occurrence of Hydrobata leucog aster 
within Indian limits, though not included in the Gilgit list, is 
also recorded for the first time. 

1. — Vultur monachus, Lin. (1.)* 

I may have been wrong in my identification of those birds ; 
but they were certainly not the young of Gyps hirnalayensis 
They were a pair of adult birds of a totally different species. 

2. — Gyps fulvescens, Hume. (3 bis.) 

I regret that I did not bring this specimen home for com- 
parison. To the best of my recollection, however, it was an 

* I have added our catalogue numbers as usual.— Ed., S.F. 



260 FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

adult bird. Owing- to tbe difficulty of transport, I left this 
and a fine specimen of A. chrysaetos behind me. 

9 «.— Cerchneis vespertina, Lin. (19.) 

A single specimen, a young male in immature plumage, was 
obtained in October. Length, 11*25 inches ; wing, 8'8 ; tail, 5'1 ; 
tarsus, 1 '12. Irides light brown ; legs and cere orange; claws 
paler. 1 have compared this specimen with those of C. amu- 
rensis and G. vespertina in Mr. Seebohm's collection, and have 
no doubt of its identity with the latter species, though the 
immature specimens are difficult to discriminate. 

12.— Accipiter nisus, Lin. (24.) 

Out of twenty-one Sparrow Hawks from Gilgit Mr. Sharpe 
identifies only thirteen as true A. nisus, the rest apparently 
belonging to the larger race which I have called A. tnelas- 
chistus of Hume. 

18.— Buteo plumipes, Sodgs. (47.) 

I obtained a male in the rufous stage of plumage from the 
Deosai plain. 

29.— Scops brucii, Stime. (74 sept.) 

A fine specimen was brought to me alive, but numbed with 
cold, after some bad weather in the beginning of July. 

33.— Chelidon cashmirensis, Gould. (93.) 
33 a. — Chelidon urbica, Lin. (92.) 

During the time of our being in Gilgit together, Dr. Scully 
and myself failed to notice that we had more than one House- 
Martin, and while he only obtained C. urbica, I only ob- 
tained C. cashmirensis. 

In the beginning of July 1880 the weather, after being 
intensely hot, suddenly changed, and for four days rain fell 
on the neighbouring hills, ending in heavy snow during the 
night of the fourth day, when the thermometer in Gilgit fell 
to 45° Fahr. 

The following morning a number of Martins were picked 
up, either dead or so numbed with cold as to be unable to 
move ; and I then observed that there were two kinds. Of 
a dozen brought to me five proved to be C. urbica, and the 
remaining seven C. cashmirensis, all adults. 

A male of C. urbica measures : Length, 5*8 inches ; wing, 4*6 ; 
tail, 275 ; tarsus, 0*4. A female measures : Length, 59 ; wing, 
436; tail, 275 ; tarsus, 0-45. 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 261 

A male of C. cashnirensis measures : Length, 5 '36 inches ; 
wing, 4*05 ; tail, 2'28 ; tarsus, 0'45. A female measures : Length, 
5*5 ; wing, 4*03 ; tail, 2*4 ; tarsus, 0*5. 

All the specimens of C. cashnirensis are dusky beneath, 
instead of pure-white as in C. urbica, and have dusky mesial 
centres to the feathers of abdomen, flanks, and rump. The 
under wing-coverts are brown, instead of dirty white, as in 
C. urbica. My specimens are identical with Gould's type in 
the British Museum. 

35.— Caprimulgus unwini, Hume, (ill bis.) 

My collector brought me a female from the Deosai plain, 
where it appeared to be common. 

46.— Certhia hodgsoni, Brooks. (243 Ms.) 

This species appears to be commoner in the Astor valley, 
where it probably breeds. I procured two immature speci- 
mens there in July at an elevation of 10,000 feet. 

47.— Tichodroma muraria, Lin. (247.) 

I saw one of this species in September at an elevation of 
15,000 feet ; aud I fancied that I identified one at an elevation 
of 13,000 feet in July ; so it probably breeds in the district. 
I have procured it in Ladakh at 13,000 feet, in the middle of 
September. 

52.— Lanius phcenicuroides, Severtz. (262 bis.) 

The Shrike referred to (Ibis, 1881, p. 51) under the name 
of L. cristatus, proves to belong to this species. I obtained 
two immature specimens on 6th September and 16th October. 

53.— Pericrocotus brevirostris, Vigors. (273.) 

I procured a single specimen on the 9th August in Gilgit, 
and a number in September and October, all females, °or 
males in female plumage. This Minivet never appeared in 
Gilgit during the first two winters I spent there. I certainly 
never procured it ; and it is so conspicuous, even in the grey 
and yellow plumage, that I could not have helped remarking 
it had it been there. I procured it in Chitral, in November^ 
at 6,000 feet elevation ; and it is probably to be found in 
Darel, though I did not get it from there. 

56.— Hemichelidon sibirica, Gmel. (296.) 

None of the specimens I have from the North-west Hima- 
layas appear of so dark a tone as a specimen sent me from 
Sikkim by the late Mr. Maudelli ; this is specially notice- 



262 FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

able in the colour of the wings and tail. Most specimens 
show a faint white streak extending" from the nostrils to the 
eye, and a faint circle of white round the eye. I procured 
this Flycatcher also from Darel. 

58. — Cyornis ruficauda, Swainson. (307.) 

This Flycatcher extends into the Darel valley, whence my 
collector brought me several specimens. 

59. —Troglodytes neglectus, BrooJcs. (333 bis.) 

Birds killed at the same time of year are scarcely distin- 
guishable from T. nipalensis, Hodgs. ; but T. neglectus is a 
little smaller and paler underneath. The freshly moulted 
autumn birds and those killed in summer are more distinct, 
and paler than T. nipalensis in every way ; but in the winter 
they are hardly distinguishable. 

62. — Hydrobata cashmirensis, Gould. (348.) 

I procured an adult specimen of this Dipper from the 
Deosai plain, but did not meet with it in Gilgit. Dr. Scully's 
specimen was procured in a valley between Gilgit and Darel, 
where its occurrence is somewhat remarkable, as I received 
from Darel, which is still further to the south, an adult male 
of H. leucogaster (348 bis) in fine plumage— the first instance, I 
believe, of its occurrence on the Indian side of the Himalayas. 
Dr. Scully's specimen is undoubtedly H. cashmirensis. 

64 — Orcecetes cinclorhynchus, Vigors. (353.) 

I shot a young male of the year, in Gilgit, in August 1880, 
and later observed two adult males. The species appears to 
be common in the Darel valley, whence my man brought me 
back several specimens. Young males of the year are easily 
distinguishable from the females by the white wing-bar, 
which appears to be assumed in the earliest stage of plumage 
and before any trace of blue is apparent. 

66. — Turdus hyemalis, Dybowski. (? 364 bis.) 

The specimen which, in my former paper, I classed as 
T. ruficolhs (Ibis, 1881, p. 53), I have compared with a large 
number of specimens in the British Museum and other col- 
lections ; and I find that it cannot stand under that name. 
It is a fully adult male, shot in January. The markings are 
essentially the same as those of T. ruficullis and T. atrognlaris, 
with the exception of the colouring of the tail and breast. The 
tail is rufous, hardly so vivid as in typical specimens of 
T. niftcollis, but much more vivid than in any specimen of 
T. atroyularis. The breast is a fine deep vandyke-brown, much 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 263 

darker than in any specimen of T. ruficollls, and easily distin- 
guishable from that of T. atrogularis. 

It is apparently Dybowski's T. hy emails ; but I leave it for 
Mr. Seebohm to pronounce on its merits as a hybrid or a 
good species. Mr. Seebohm's collection contains a similar 
specimen from Lake Baikal ; and I have also one shot in 
Yarkand. 

67.— Turdus atrogularis, Tern. (365.) 

When I wrote concerning this species in a former paper 
(Ibis, 1881, p. 53), I did not observe that I had before me a 
specimen of an adult male in a melanistic form of plumage. 
The feathers of the head and hinder part of the neck are 
tinged with black ; the tail is much darker than in other spe- 
cimens ; and the axillaries and under coverts are dull brown. 
All other specimens that I have seen have the axillaries and 
under wing-coverts dull rufous. 

70 .— Trochalopterum lineatum, Vigors. (425.) 

My Gilgit specimens of this Babbler are much paler than 
those I have from Cashmere, which, again, are paler than 
those sent me by Mandelli. The difference between Gilgit 
and Simla forms, however, is greater than between the 
Simla and Darjeeling forms. Specimens of Sibia capis- 
trdta from Murree and Sikkim show the same differences of 
colouration. 

72.— Pratincola indica, Blyth. 

Pratincola maura, Fall. (483.) 

73.— Pratincola robusta, Tristram. 

Dr. Scully has shown (Ibis, 1881, p. 441) that our large 
Gilgit Bush-Chat is not Canon Tristram's species ; but I can- 
not allow that all the Chats of the P. indica (or maura) type 
are referable to a single species. My collection contains 
forty-eight adult specimens from different localities. These 
show two races, more or less well marked, and differing in 
size and colour, but connected by intermediate forms, which 
may be hybrids, as the two races apparently exist side by 
side in Gilgit aud in some other localities. As in some spe- 
cimens the measurements slightly overlap, I have not taken 
difference of size as a point of diagnosis, but simply colour. 
The males show a constant difference in the amouut of white 
on the back part of the neck. The race which I will call 
Form A shows a white patch on the side of neck, but 
not extending round to the back of it. In no specimen is 

34 



264 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 



there any white discernible on the nape of the neck. The other 
race, which I will call Form B, also has a white patch on 
each side of the neck, which extends round to the back, meeting 
the white from the other side, so as to form a complete demi- 
collar when viewed from above. This is most conspicuous 
in breeding-plumage ; but specimens procured at all seasons 
show some trace of white on the nape. Separating the nine- 
teen males in my collection with reference to this point alone, 
I find they measure as follows : — 





Form A. 




W in g-mcas ureme n t . 


Locality. 


Season. 


Inches. 






30 


Kumaon Terai... 


... March. 


30 


Gilgit 


... April. 


299 


., ... ... 


... M 


29 


,, ... ... 


... September. 


2 85 


,, ••• ••• 


... April. 


2-85 


i 99 ... * i • 


... tf 


275 


■ n ... ••• 


... September. 


27 


Astor 

Form B. 


... j> 


Wing.measurement. 


Locality. 


Season. 


Inches. 






275 


Giljrit 


... September. 


272 ... 


, Waldiau 


... April 


2-7 


Yassin ... ... 


... August. 


2-7 , 


i ,, ••• ••• 


„ 


27 




... Septembar. 


265 , 


Gilgit 


... March. 


265 


Astor 


... September. 


26 


,, ... ••• 


... u 


258 , 


Gilgit 


... October. 


255 


Cashmere ... 


... May. 


2 52 


Simla 


... June. 



N.B.— The last two specimens are in full breeding-plumage. 

The females also show well-marked differences in colour. 
Those which in general appearance much resemble the males 
of Form A in non-breeding plumage, have broad rufescent 
margins to the feathers of the back, the wing-coverts, and 
white secondaries, while the tail-feathers are broadly tipped 
and margined with the same, and there are narrow rufescent 
edgings to the feathers of the head and neck. These I have 
referred to Form A. The others are altogether of a much 
darker tone, having the wing and tail-feathers nearly uniform 
dull brown, with very faint inconspicuous pale edgings, and the 
striations of the head and back very broad and dark, with 
narrow margins, and the whole tone of colouration less rufes- 
cent. These I refer to Form B. Separating twenty-four 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 



265 



females solely by differences of colour, I find they measure 
as follows : — 





Form A. 




Wing-measurement . 


Locality. 


Season. 


Inches. 






2 7 


Sikkim 


... March. 


265 


,. ••• ••• 


... November, 


265 


Astor 


... September. 


2 6 


Sikkim 


... November. 


26 


Gilgit 


... September. 


26 


Yassin 


... August. 


26 


Cashmere ... 


... May. 


255 


Murree ... ... 


... Undated. 


255 


Astor 

Form B. 


... September. 


Wing-measurement . 


Locality. 


Season. 


Inches. 






26 


Astor 


... July. 


26 


.Cashmere... ... 


' ••• 99 


2-6 


Deosai ... 


••• J» 


255 


Chenab valley ... 


... May. 


255 


Gilgit 


... April. 


25 


Cashmere 


... July. 


25 


„ 


... May. 


25 


Gilgit 


... ,, 


2 5 


,, ... ..< 


... June. 


2 45 


,, ... ••• 


... April. 


2-4 


„ ... ... 


... July. 


24 


Cashmere... 


... Undated. 


24 


Simla ... .. 


... July. 


24 


Cashmere. 


... May. 


235 


,, <i. ..< 


... Undated. 



Wing-measurement. 


Locality, 


Season. 


Inches. 






27 


Gilgit ... 


... April 


2 6 


Meerut ... 


... January 


26 


Wakhan... 


... April 


2 6 


Meerut ... 


... January 


2-6 


Gilgit ... 


... April 



Five specimens, which I am unable to separate by differ- 
ences of colour, measure as follows :— 

Sex. 

Unsexed. 

? 

? 
Unsexed. 

¥ 

Now it cannot be denied that these measurements overlap 
considerably, especially among the females ; but the fact 
remains that, after separating forty-three specimens solely 
by colour and markings (omitting the last five undetermined), 
those of one form average considerably larger than those of 
the other, and that the greatest divergence iu colour is shown 
between those which differ most in size. It may be that 
the specimens that overlap in measurement are to be account- 
ed for by hybridism — an explanation that no ornithologist 



26G FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

can affect totally to ignore when treating of two very closely 
allied species found in the same locality ; or it may be that 
some of those classed as females would have been fouud by 
more careful examination to be males that had not got rid of 
female plumage. Whatever may be the explanation of this, 
I believe that we have here two species. 

The smaller species of Chat, which I have called Form B, 
is evidently the P. indica of Blyth ; but it is more difficult to 
say which is the P. maura of Pallas. 

74.— Saxicola opistholeuca, Strickland. (488.) 

I find that I got four specimens of this Chat in Gilgit — 
three at the beginning of April, and one in December. The 
young bird previously referred to (Ibis, 1881, p. 55) turns 
out, on further comparison, to be a young specimen of 
S. morio. There is no reason to suppose that S. opistholeuca 
breeds in the district. 

75.— Saxicola picata, Blyth. (489.) 

Dr. Scully and myself have brought away from Gilgit 181 
specimens of this Chat. Of these there are 102 adult males, 
46 adult females, the rest being of both sexes in different 
stages of immaturity. 1 can add little to what has already 
been said about this bird. The specimens of the males before 
me show every gradation, from the creamy-white head to jet- 
black ; but those with pure black heads are the most numerous ; 
next in number come those in different phases, while those 
that have entirely white heads are the scarcest. 

The adult females are all of the same type, with the excep- 
tion of a single specimen, which differs iu having the lower 
throat nearly black. Dr. Scully tells me that he has also 
a precisely similar female specimen. There is no doubt as to 
the determination of the sexes of these two specimens ; but the 
wing-formula is the same as in all other specimens of 
S. picata. Among the immature specimens females are 
undistiuguishable from males. 

77.— Saxicola morio, Bempr. Sr Mr. (490.) 

Dr. Scully and I have brought away from Gilgit alto- 
gether 153 specimens of this Chat. Dr. Scully's assertion of 
the identity of this species with S. hendersoni must, I think, 
be accepted. The specimens of adult males show clearly the 
gradation of plumage from the black, with pure-white cap, of 
the breeding-stages, to the S. hendersoni type of autumn. 
Two specimens, of 27th April and 23rd May, show a few faint 
brown specks on the back and head. Four specimens, of 
lb'th, 21st, and 25th July, have the freshly moulted secon- 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILG1T. 2G7 

daries and wing-coverts broadly margined with pale rufes- 
cent, and the head much infuscated. August specimens have 
nearly reached the hendersoni stage, but still retain a certain 
amount of black on the back. No specimen was procured 
after July of the accepted morio black-and-white type. 

The females vary considerably in the colour of the lower 
throat, which, however, does not appear to be connected with 
the season ; it may possibly be a question of age, birds of the 
second year becoming very dark. 

I took a nest of this Chat in Astor on the 26th June, at an 
elevation of 7,000 feet, containing five hard-set eggs. It was 
placed, about a foot deep, in a wall of loose stones supporting 
a built-up road on the mountain-side, over which was constant 
traffic. The eggs were very pale blue, with small dusky-red 
freckles thinly scattered over the surface, slightly tending 
towards a zone at the thicker end, and measured *725 inch 
in length by '565 in diameter. 

78.— Saxicola vittata, Mempr. fy Mr. (4915.) 

I procured one specimen, an adult male, in Gilgit, on the 
4th June. Three others were seen at the same time. 

82.— Ruticilla rufiventris, Vieill. (497.) 

I procured a specimen as late as 27th November. It ap- 
parently breeds on the Shandur plateau, whence I received 
an immature specimen in August. 

84.— Ruticilla erythronota, Eversm. (498 bis.) 

A female of this bird was, by mistake, passed as R. hodgsoni, 
which it much resembles in my former paper {Ibis, 1881, 
p. 62). After noting the specimen I mislaid it, and was 
unable to put my hand on it again. It has since turned up, 
and proves to belong to this species. It is to be distinguished 
from R. hodgso7ii by the double wing-bar and conspicuous 
pale edgings to the secondaries. R. hodgsoni, which is 
much whiter ou the abdomen, must be expunged from the 
Gilgit list. 

87 a.— Ruticilla fuliginosa, Vigors. (505.) 

I procured a single specimen, a 3 T oung bird of the year in 
immature plumage, on the 8th of July. There is nothing 
remarkable in the occurrence of this species in Gilgit; but it 
is somewhat curious that, with the exception of this specimen, 
neither Dr. Scully nor I have observed any of this species 
during a period extending altogether over four years, either 
in or near the Gilgit district. 



268 FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

The Plumbeous Water-Robin is a true flycatcher ; and I 

have often watched a pair hawking at insects on the wing, 

and returning to their post on a stone or tree-stump at the 
water's edge. 

90.— Calliope pectoralis, Gould. (513.) 

I received specimens of this bird botli from Darel and the 
Deosai plain. My largest specimen has a wing of exactly three 
inches. Through some mistake in my former paper it was 
stated to measure 3*25 inches. 

92.— Cyanecula leucocyanea, Brehm. (514 bis,) 

It may be useful here to mention that in 1874 I found this 
species very common on both sides of the Digar pass, between 
the Nobra and Indus valleys, during the last week of June. 
With the exception of the specimen secured by Dr. Scully, 
I never saw another of the species in Gilgit. 

93.— Acrocephalus dumetorum, Blyth. (516.) 

Out of twenty-four specimens brought away from Gilgit, 
I find that nineteen were procured in August (mostly in the 
latter half of the month), and the remaining five in the first 
half of September. In the summer of 1880 they first ap- 
peared in Gilgit on 22nd August. 

93 a.— Locustella straminea, Severtz. (520.) 

I shot an adult female of this species on 1st September, and 
saw another on the following day. Length, 5*75 inches ; wing, 
2*2 ; tail, 2*12 ; tarsus, 0'74. Irides dark brown ; legs fleshy 
red. 

97.— Phylloscopus lugubris, Blyth. (558.) 

This species must be expunged from the Gilgit list. 

99— Phylloscopus tytleri, Brooks. (560 bis.) 

I obtained altogether three specimens, iu May, June, and 
August ; so it no doubt breeds in the district. I also got it 
in Astor in May. 

103 a.— Reguloides proregulus, B alias. (566.) 

I obtained three specimens, two females and one male, in 
Gilgit, iu January. 

105.— Regulus cristatus, Koch. (580.) 

I procured three specimens in June at an elevation of 
10,000 feet, in a valley leading towards Darel. I also pro- 
cured specimens in the Astor valley, where it appears to be 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILCIIT. 269 

common in July and October. A male measures : — Length, 
375 inches ; wing, 2*12 ; tail, 1*3 ; tarsus, 0'62. The female is 
slightly smaller. 

105 a. — Sylvia jerdoni, Blyth. (581.) 

I somehow overlooked this species in my former list of the 
Gilgit birds. I procured two specimens, a male, on 6th Sep- 
tember, in immature plumage, and a female, on 11th June, in 
full plumage with black cap. The hides of both were pale 
yellow. 

106.— Sylvia affinis, Blyth. (582.) 
107.— Sylvia althaea, Hume. (582 ter.) 

Out of thirty-two specimens six are of the S. althaa type, 
thirteen of the S. affinis type, and the rest are of intermediate 
forms. From Iskardo and Ladakh I have specimens of 
iS. althaea, and from Darel of S. affinis. 

109.— Henicurus scouleri, Vigors. (587.) 

Two young males, shot on 12th September, at 11,000 feet 
elevation, have the throat and breast white, sullied with 
dusky markings, and the forehead black. A female, shot on 
the 23rd September, at 9,000 feet, has the throat black, with 
a few white feathers showing on the chin, and the forehead 
partly white. The change of colour on the breast appears to 
be due to a change in the colouring of the feathei's, but on 
the forehead to a moult of feathers, as small white feathers 
can be discerned growing under the black feathers on the fore- 
beads of the two younger specimens. 

112.— Motacilla alba, Lin. (591 ter.) 

I obtained two specimens in February, and two in Decem- 
ber. Two young birds of the year, shot in September, 
show a considerable amount of yellow about the face and 
neck. 

116.— Budytes calcaratus, Eodgs. (594) 

I procured specimens from Darel and Deosai in July, and 
from the Shandur plateau in August. 

117.— Budytes citreolus, Pall. (594 bis.) 

I got two specimens, in Gilgit, on the 3rd and 4th August. 
I also got specimens from Darel and Deosai in July. 

It is somewhat strange that, out of over 200 specimens of 
Green Wagtails, neither Dr. Scully nor myself procured a 
single specimen of B. flavus, Liu., which species I obtained 
in Wahkan in April 1874. 



270 FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

120.— Anthus rosaceus, Eodgs. (605.) 

I procured two adult specimens in July from Darel. 

121.— Anthus cervinus, Pallas. (605 bis.) 

la addition to the specimens previously recorded I pro- 
cured two ou 21st and 22ud October. 

123.— Cephalopyrus flammiceps, Burton. (633.) 

I obtained specimens iu Juue and September. The general 
colouration is paler than iu specimens sent me by Mandelli. 
Birds in full adult plumage appear to lose the yellowish-green 
margins of wing and tail-feathers. 

124.— Leptopcecile sophiae, Severtzoff. (633 bis) 

I was mistaken in supposing this to be a winter visitor 
only. In June I procured a number of specimens of both 
sexes at an elevation of 10,000 feet in a secluded valley close 
to the Indus, where they were doubtless breeding. The males 
at this season have the whole abdomen vinous purple, with- 
out the buff space in the centre that all winter specimens 
show; the colouring of the head is also more vivid. 

125.— iEgithaliscus leucogenys, Moore, (634 bis.) 

I obtaiued several specimens from the Darel valley. 

127. — Lophophanes rufonuchalis, Blyth. (610.) 

The amount of rufous in the nuchal spot appears in some 
degree seasonal. Two winter-killed specimens show much 
more rufous than any procured in summer. I procured this 
Tit also from Darel. 

129. — Accentor nipalensis, Hodgson. (652.) 

Captain Wardlaw-Itamsay has shown me specimens of 
M. Severtzoff's A. rvfilatus, whieh are identical with Gilgit 
specimens of A. nipalensis. It would appear as if A. alpinus and 
A. nipalensis were only the two extremes of one species, which 
are bridged over by intermediate forms, in the same way as 
the eastern and western forms of Trochalopterum lineatum. 

131. — Accentor jerdoni, Brooks. (654 Us.) 

I procured this species both from the Deosai plain and the 
Shaudur plateau. 

A rubeculoides does not appear to extend further westward 
than the Astor valley, where I have procured it. 

139.— Corvus frugilegus, Lin. (661*.) 

Earliest autumn appearance in Gilgit ou the 19th October. 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILG1T. 271 

147.— Temenuchus pagodarum, Omel. (687.) 

I got altogether five specimens during four summers I spent 
in Gilgit — three in May and two in June. 

149.— Passer indicus, Jard. & Selby. (706.) 

During the winter of 1880-81 which was not a severe one, 
I procured a few specimens, all males. They were, however, 
scarce. 

152.— Emberiza leucocephala, S. G. Gmel. (712.) 

The earliest specimens were observed on the 11th 
November, and the latest on the 3rd March, but it was only in 
December that any quantity was obtained. 

154.— Emberiza stewarti, Blyth. (718.) 

I procured a single specimen, a female, in December, in 
Gilgit. With this exception, no other specimen was observed 
later than 4th October. 

155.— Emberiza buchanani, Blyth. (716.) 

I received specimens of this Bunting from the upper part 
of the Yassin valley, near the foot of the Shandur plateau, in 
August. In the Gilgit district I never saw it except in 
September. 

158.— Euspiza luteola, Sparrm. (722.) 

I procured a male in adult plumage on the 19th May ; no 
others were seen at the time. In August I procured a male 
and female, and in September two males, all four in imma- 
ture plumage. I also procured a male and female, in August, 
from Yassin, at an elevation of over 10,OUO feet. 

I have examiued the Euspiza mentioned by Dr. Scully 
(Ibis, 1881, pp. 575, 576), as appearing to belong to this 
species. Several of my immature specimens show the same 
difference in measurement between the longest secondaries 
and longest primaries, and three specimens also show slight 
spots on the breast, though in none are the spots so large and 
conspicuous as in Dr. Scully's specimen. The bird is, 
however, so like E. luteola in every other particular that I 
cannot believe it to belong to another species. 

162.— Erythrospiza mongolica, Swinh. (732 bis A.) 

I obtained a male in breeding plumage in June, at an ele- 
vation of 9,000 feet. The two wing-patches, which in other 
specimens are dusky-white, in this are pure white, while the 
tips of the larger coverts, which are of a faint rose-colour at 

35 






272 FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

other times, are bright carmine. The underparts are washed 
with bright carmine instead of faint rosy, as at other seasons, 
and the rump and supercilium are bright rosy. Out of a 
large number of specimens obtained by Dr. Scully and myself, 
this is the only one iu this stage of plumage, when it differs 
so greatly from those obtained at other times of the year, that 
it might almost pass muster as a different species. Mr. See- 
bohm's collection contains several ' similar specimens from 
Central Asia. As my collection contains a number of spe- 
cimens shot within a few days of this one, and which, though 
much brighter than ordinary winter specimens, do not show 
any thing like such bright markings as this one, I am inclined 
to think that this plumage is not assumed by adult males 
till after the second moult, that is in the third year of their 
existence. The males of the Propasser and Garpodacus group, 
as far as is known, all breed iu female plumage the first year, 
and there is no reason why some such delay in assuming full 
breeding plumage should not similarly occur iu the Erythros- 
piza group. The colouring of E. githaginea appears to under- 
go a somewhat similar change. 

Gould's plate in pt. xxix. of the " Birds of Asia" shows a 
male in the plumage I have described, and a female in winter 
plumage. The figure iu David and Oustalet's " Oiseaux de 
la Chine" is of a specimen in winter plumage. 

166.— Propasser blythi, Sp. nov. (744.) 

I obtained altogether two males and five females of this 
species in a secluded valley close to the Indus. The males 
agree with Blyth's type of Propasser frontalis in the 
Calcutta Museum. Blyth first described this species iu the 
"Journal of the Asiatic Society" for 1863; but in his 
Appendix to the "Birds of India," Jerdon writes that Blyth 
had ceased to regard it as specifically distinct from P. thura. 
It is, however, certainly distinct, and has a wing averaging 
from *10 to *25 inch longer, both in the male and female. 
The whole colouration is fainter and softer, aud the geueral 
ground-colour of the upper parts is dull earthy brown, un- 
mixed with rosy, instead of dark rufous brown as iu P. thura, 
or dark crimson-brown, as in P. rhodopeplus, while the bill 
is finer and less Pyrrhuline. The female has the underparts 
and rump tinged with pale yellowish chestnut, which in 
P. thura are deep reddish chestnut, and the upper parts aud 
wings are free from any tinge of rufous. 

Blyth's specific name has, unfortunately, been given to 
a Rose Finch in North America. The generic distinctness of 
the Carpodacus aud Propasser groups does uot appear well 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 273 

marked in all species, and a different classification must some 
day be found necessary. Under the circumstances I would 
suggest the name of Propasser blythi for this species. 

In the Rose Finch group there is extremely little variation 
between individuals of a species ; but written descriptions of 
the three species, P. thura, P. blythi, and P. rhodopeplus, are 
necessarily so similar that, without comparison, a collector 
must find it difficult to discriminate any single one of the 
three. Some guidance appears to be furnished by the wing- 
measurements of the males, which are as follows : — P. blythi, 
325 to 3*4 inches; P. thura, 3'15 to 3'3 ; P. rhodopeplus, 3 
to 3*1. The feet and tarsi of P. blythi are also more 
slender than in the other two species. Still greater difficulty 
exists in discriminating the females ; nor are their measure- 
ments so sure a guide as in the males, by reason of males 
of the first year being classed as females when not sexed by 
dissection. 

169.— Metoponia pusilla, Pallas. (751.) 

I procured a number of specimen? from the Shandur pla- 
teau between Yassin and Chitral. Having now a large 
number of immature specimens, I see that my former assump- 
tion of the adoption of the red feathers in the poll during the 
first year was incorrect. The black breast and golden mark- 
ings to the wing-coverts are assumed in the first year during 
the autumn ; but the red head is not complete till after the 
first breeding season. I have a specimen shot on the 7th June 
which barely shows any trace of red on the head, though 
in other respects the adult plumage is complete. 

170.— Linaria brevirostris, Gould. (751 bis.) 

As before mentioned (Ibis, 1881, pp. 86, 578), I did not 
meet with this Linnet anywhere in the district during 1876, 
1877, 1878, and the first eight months of 1879. It suddenly 
appeared in the autumn of the last-mentioned year, when 
Dr. Scully procured a large number of specimens. I subse- 
quently procured adult examples in Gilgit in June and 
September, and my collector brought back twenty-two 
specimens from the Shandur plateau in August. 

171.— Linaria cannabina, Lin. (751 ter.) 

Both our Gilgit Linnets appear to be capricious and un- 
certain in their movements. During the four winters through 
which birds were collected by Dr. Scully and myself this 
species was only seen in the winters of 1877-78 and 1879-80, 
but was not seen during the winters of 1878-79 or 1880-81. 



274 FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILOIT. 

175.— Oalandrella brachydactyla, Leisl. (761.) 

I procured numerous specimens from the Deosai plain in 
July, and from the Shandur plateau in August. It appears 
to breed in both places. Five specimens, procured in Astor, 
and higher up the Indus, near Iskardo, appear paler than 
others. 

176.— Melanocorypha bimaculata, Memtr. (761 ter.) 

During the last winter I was at Gilgit this species was 
common from the 10th November to 21st December. 

179.— Otocorys penicillata, Gould. (763.) 

I obtained three adult specimens and a number of young 
birds from the Shandur plateau in August, which is, no doubt, 
a breeding-ground of the species. The young are spotted, 
like the young of other species of Otocorys. They appeared 
in Gilgit for the first time on 14th October, and in consi- 
derable numbers. My specimens of 0. longirostris completely 
bear out Dr. Scully's remarks (Ibis, 1881, p. 580). I first 
procured the species in the Pangong district in 1873, and 
later on the Burzil pass in 1876 and succeeding years. 1 
have six males aud two females from the latter place, three 
males and four females from the Deosai plain, and three males 
and three females from the high ground between Gilgit and 
Darel, but from the Darel side of the watershed, so it cannot 
be counted among the Gilgit species. None of these speci- 
mens could possibly be mistaken for 0. penicillata. The 
Horned Larks are excellent eating. 

189.— Turtur ferrago, Eversm. (792. ) 

I obtained young birds of this species, in Gilgit, as late as 
19 th October. 

191.— Turtur cambayensis, Gmel. (794) 

I procured altogether four specimens of this Dove, two in 
January, one in March, and one in October. In all, the 
rump and upper tail-coverts are brown, like the back. 

192.— Turtur suratensis, Gmel. (795.) 

I procured specimens of this Dove from the 7th October 
to 18th April. 

192 a.— Turtur humilis, Tern. (797 bis.) 

A single specimen, a male, was brought to me on 23rd 
June by a native, who shot it in the middle of Gilgit, and said 
that he had seen a pair of them. The measurements were as 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GTLGIT. 275 

follows : — Length, 9'95 inches ; wing, 5*7 ; tail, 4*1; tarsus, 0*9. 
Leg-s blackish purple ; irides dnrk brown. 

This bird is the true T. humilis of Temminck, as is shown by- 
Lord Waldeu in his paper on the " Birds of the Philippine 
Islands" (Trans. Zool. Soc., IX., pp. 219, 220). It is darker 
and richer in colouring than the Indian Red Dove, which 
stands as T. tranquebaricus, Herm., and has the under wing- 
coverts dark ashy. The most distinctive point is in the size, 
T. tranquebaricus averaging 9*25 inches in length, with a 
wing 5-2 (Stray Feathers, IV., p. 292). 

I have examined the series in the British Museum, and the 
difference between the two species holds good throughout, 
a specimen from Amoy being undistinguishable from the 
Gilgit specimen. In the Museum series are several of this 
species obtained in Nepal by Mr. B. H. Hodgson. One of 
them is labelled u jE. murmensis, Hodgs.." printed by mistake 
jE. murwensis in the " Zoological Miscellany/' p. 85, and cor- 
rected by Mr. Hodgson in his own handwriting in the British 
Museum copy. Giebel, in his " Thesaurus Ornithologige," 
(sub voc. Jurtur humilis), and Bonaparte, in "Comptes Ren- 
dus," XLI., p. 659, misprint this specific term rnuroensis. 

192 b. — Pterocles arenarius, Pallas. (799.) 

I secured a single specimen, a female, in the Sai valley, on 
the 19th December. No others were seen. 

198-— iEgialitis cantiana, Latham. (848.) 

I procured a male in adult plumage on 13th August. 

199. — IEgialitis philippensis, Scop. (849.) 
iEgialitis curonica, Gmel. 

I shot a number of specimens of this Plover in the first 
half of August. 

200 «. — IEgialitis jerdoni, Legge. (850.) 

I procured two specimens of this Plover, both females, one 
on the 11th May, and the other on the 27th September. It 
differs from JE. curonica in the basal half of the lower man- 
dible being yellow, in the absence of a black frontal band, 
next to the bill, and in having a fleshy-yellow ring to the 
eyelids. It is also slightly smaller, and the female is smaller 
than the male ; whereas in JE. curonica the female is the 
larger. 

208 a.— Ibidorhynchus struthersi, Vigors. (879.) 

On the 6th August I procured a young female in immature 
plumage in Gilgit. 



276 FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

209 —Machetes pugnax, Lin. (880). 

I obtained four specimens in the beginning of August, and 
observed others. They all show dark markings oil the breast 
and flanks. 

209 a.— Tringa acuminata, Mors/. (883 bis.) 

I shot a single specimen, a male, in adult plumage, in Gilgit 
on the 1st August. It was flying about with a number of 
Machetes pvgnax. It measured : — Length, 8 - 75 inches ; wing, 
525 ; tail, 2*5; tarsi, 1*3; culmen, 1*05. This is, I believe, the 
first notice of the occurrence of this species so far to the west- 
ward, or within Indian limits. It was first described by 
Horsfield from Java, in 1821, in the following terms : — " Supra 
fuscus, plumis dorsalibus ferrugineo tectricibus griseo mar- 
ginatis ; subtus albidus, pectore sublutescente, rectricibus acu- 
minatis." It was afterwards figured by Gould in his " Birds 
of Australia" under the name of Schceniclus australis. Swiu- 
hoe met with it in North China, where it was very abundant 
in August (Ibis, 1863, p. 412). He states that at the end of 
August it goes southward along the coast and returns in May. 
The measurements he gives are smaller than those of my 
specimen, viz. : — Leugth, 8"4 inches ; wing, 4 - 9 ; tail, 2'3 ; tarsi, 
1*2 ; culmen, 1. 

In breeding plumage this species is easily distinguishable 
from T. alpina by the abdomen being pure white, sparingly 
spotted with light brown, whereas T. alpina has the whole 
abdomen dull black. T. acuminata also has the ground-colour 
of the upper breast rufous, with large dark-brown spots, while 
T. alpina has a faint rufous tinge in some specimens only, with 
small streaks. The best point of distinction is in the tail- 
feathers, all of which are pointed in T. acuminata (whence the 
name), while in T. alpina only the central ones are pointed. 

210.— Tringa subarquata, Quid. (882.) 

I shot three adult specimens, all females, on the 2nd and 
9th August. The entire underparts are rufous, with black 
markings in two out of the three specimens. One shot 
on the 4th September has completely assumed the winter 
plumage. 

211.— Tringa minuta, Leisl. (884.) 

I obtained two specimens in Gilgit iu the middle of August. 

212.— Tringa temmincki, Leisl. (885.) 

I obtained one specimen in July, and a great number io 
August. 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 277 

213.— Totanus glareola, Gmel. (884.) 

This Sandpiper was extremely plentiful in Gilgit for ten 
days in the beginning of August, when I secured several 
specimens. With one exception, they are much spotted beneath. 

315.— Tringoides hypoleucus, Lin. (893.) 

I obtained an adult male from the Deosai plain in July, 
and two immature birds and one adult in Gilgit on 7th, 
17th, and 25th August. The young birds are almost entirely 
white on the underparts of the neck and breast, and have the 
wing-coverts completely covered with fine banded markings 
of black and reddish brown. 

216.— Totanus glottis, Lin. (891.) 

I procured three specimens, in Gilgit, on the 10th, 14th, 
and. 17th August. 

218.— Totanus calidris, Lin. (897.) 

I procured three specimens, all males, in summer plumage, 
in the beginning of August. 

219.— Himantopus candidus, Bonn. (898.) 

A specimen shot in Gilgit, 10th August. 

229,— Ardetta minuta, Lin, (935.) 

During the summer of 1880 I procured two specimens in 
Gilgit — one, a male in full plumage, in July, the other, a 
female in immature plumage, on 29th August. 

230 «.— Falcinellus igneus, S. G. Gmel. (943 ) 

I procured a young male, in nearly full plumage, on the 16th 
September. 

245.— Larus ichthyaetus, Pallas. (979.) 

In my former paper on the birds of Gilgit (Ibis, 1881, 
p. 101), under the name of L. a finis, Reinh., I noticed a 
specimen obtained 26th August, 1876, which has since been 
pronounced to belong to L. ichthyaetus by Mr. Howard Saun- 
ders, who has favoured me with the following note : — 

"This specimen is a bird of the first year, just going to 
moult; thatistosay.it was hatched about June 1875; its 
plumage is, therefore, rather more than a year old, and. is con- 
sequently considerably worn and abraded. All immature 
Gulls of the same size are somewhat alike at the first glance ; 
but L ichth//aetus, jr., may be distinguished by the following 
characteristics : — In L. a finis, L. fuscus, L. argentatus. &c, 



278 FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

the tips of the secondaries are edged with white, forming a 
band, but in L. ichthyaetus not only the tips, but both edges 
of the secondaries are distinctly margined with white for a long 
way up each feather. Again in L. ichthyaetus the tail pre- 
sents a broad uniform dark band (only the outer feathers being 
edged with white), whereas in L. afjinis, &c., the tail is mottled 
with dark markings, and the band is completely broken up. 
Other points of difference exist, but to describe them would, 
only be confusing, as the above are ample for recognition. 

" I have not as yet been able to examine a young bird of 
the same year as that in which it was hatched, when the 
plumage is fresh. Another " link" which is missing is the stage 
between the following April, when the mantle is mainly grey, 
but the wings and tail are brown, and the spring after that, 
when the mantle is wholly grey, but there are still some 
brown mottlings on the carpals and primary coverts and a 
little dark on the tail; the black hood is then assumed for the 
first time. 

L. ichthyaetus must, therefore, be substituted for L. affinis 
in the list of Gilgit birds. 

246.— Gelochelidon anglica, Mont. (983.) 

I secured an adult male passing through on 1st August ; 
the black of the head is changing to the winter stage of 
plumage. Two days later I secured a young bird of the year ; 
the head is white, marked with brown streaks, and the whole 
back is smeared with brown. 



279 

$tou<)h list of the lints of (totesfern ithaiuhsh. 

By J. Davidson, Esq., Bo.C.S. 



After many applications it suited the convenience of a 
paternal Government, in October 1879, to transfer me to 
Khandesli, and from that time till May 1881 I was on duty 
there. Unfortunately my work was confined to the western 
part of the district, and I was unable even to visit the major 
portion of the eastern talukas. Still what I saw gave me 
a very fair idea of the ornithology of the western half, at 
any rate, of this great district, and I managed to pick up a 
considerable number of specimens both of birds and of eggs. 
The results of this year and a half's observations in Khandesli 
I now chronicle at the request of the Editor.* At the 
same time I must caution every one, indulgent enough to read 
through it, that the subjoined list does not pretend to be an 
exhaustive one, even of those parts of Khandesli which I have 
visited, much less of the ornithology of Khandesh as a whole, 
as, up to the very last day of my stay, I hardly passed a week 
without meeting with species new to me. It may, however, 
be of use to any one subsequently visiting the district, and 
is, so far as it goes, as accurate as I can possibly make it. 

Khandesh, the largest of the Collectorates in the Bombay 
Presidency, was, when we obtained it in 1818, in great part 
almost uninhabited. Though once well cultivated, successive 
wars and raids by the Pindarees and the Holkars had pre- 
vented the villagers cultivating, and vast tracts having lapsed, 
into jungle were theu only inhabited by a few wandering Bheels 
and by wild animals, who proved most unpleasant neighbours 
to any adventurous settlers and their cattle. It was then 
a perfect paradise for sportsmen. Now, settled Govern- 
ment and increase of cultivation and population have, in 
sixty years, transformed these wild jungles into a huge black 
soil plain, crowded with villages, and covered, as far as the eye 
can reach, with wheat and cotton fields, and inhabited by a 
peasantry better off, less discontented, and in every way superior 
to that of any other part of India, I have ever served in. 

The original kingdom of Khandesh was a huge slice of 
country comprising, outside the present limits of the district, 
the western portion of Nimar on the east, and the greater 
part of the Nasik Collectorate on the w r est. 

The present district consists of a long strip of land following 
the river Tapti for over one hundred and sixty miles, and 

* Up to date nothing hus ever been put on record concerning the Ornithology of 
Khaudesh.— Ev., S. F. 



280 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

varying in breadth from fifty to a hundred miles at various 
parts. There are, in addition, nine or ten Dang States in the 
extreme west of Pimpalnir, and also five or six Me was States 
west of Taloda included under the Khandesh Political Agency. 
As I have never visited any of these States, they are not 
included in the annexed sketch map. 

Khandesh naturally divides itself into three parallel belts 
extending from east to west. The northern consists of the 
Satpuras, the central of the plain valley of the Tapti, and the 
southern of the Satmullas or Ajunta hills, and the ranges 
extending from them, spreading out on the west to the table- 
land of Nizampur, and the many barren ranges of hills in 
the western half of the Dhulia taluka. 

The Satpuras consist of a series of ranges of hills thirty or 
forty miles broad, and form the northern boundary of Khan- 
desh. 

In the eastern portion, i.e., in Sawda, Chopra, and East 
Shirpur, only the outside ranges and the spurs from them are 
now in Khandesh, Lord Lyttou's government having pre- 
sented nearly 200 square miles of country, and that containing 
the best forests in Khandesh, to the Maharajah Holkar, presum- 
ably in return for his conspicuous loyalty in 1857. The 
Satpuras, as we proceed westwards, diminish in width while 
increasing in height, and only the spurs are in Khandesh along 
the borders of the Shada taluka. When they reach Taloda they 
break into two branches — one, the highest, stretching south-west 
through Taloda, while the other, a much lower range, skirts 
the Nerbudda, there the boundai'y of Khandesh ; between 
these lies the tableland of the Akrani. 

The rainfall is considerable all through the Satpuras, and 
the talukas north of the Tapti hardly ever suffer from want of 
rain. In the Akrani itself the rainfall is excessive. 

The Satpuras, though of trap rock, are, as a rule, well wooded, 
large areas being under forest management as reserved forest. 
Nearly every tree found in Western India is found growing 
there, and though the commonest tree is the worthless " Salai" 
(Boswellia thurifera), the beautiful blue Anjan (Hardwickia 
binata) is found abundantly through Shirpur and Chopra, and 
a°"ain along the Nerbudda. Khair (Accacia catechu) is also 
abundant through the hills, and there is a great deal of good 
teak, particularly in the western forests. The best forests are 
those forming the Toran-mal reserve, consisting of over 
160,000 acres, but owing to the difficulty of transport they 
are not much worked. Some of the trees in the valleys there 
are very fine. In the central part of the Akrani there is a 
great deal of cultivation, the people there being mainly Powra 
Rajputs. These are capital husbandmen and live in scattered 



ROUGH LrST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 281 

homesteads, and not as most cultivators do in villages. The 
Akrani is a high tableland, being from 1,600 to 2,500 feet 
above the sea, and gradually sloping down to the Nerbudda, 
there a very i*apid stream rushing through a deep gorge in 
the hills. The highest point in the Akrani is Toran-mal hill, 
about 4,000 feet high, a charming place when you can manage 
to get at it, with a very old artificial lake over a mile in cir- 
cumference. The heavy rainfall throughout the Satpuras causes 
the grass to grow excessively long, and it is almost imprac- 
ticable to traverse them till February or March, when 
the grass gets burnt. By that time the Bheels, who find that 
the long grass interferes with their gathering honey, roots, &c, 
in spite of piles of legislation manufactured at Simla and 
Mahableshwar decreeing the most terrible penalties for lighting 
a fire within miles of a forest, manage to have every yard of 
grass burnt every year. The hills contain a number of Mhowa 
trees (Bassia latifolia,) which in the season furnish the 
staple food of the Bheels as well as of many of the wild 
animals and birds. 

The central belt of Khandesh consists, as a rule, of deep 
black soil, producing capital crops of wheat, cotton, gram, and 
the various millets, the latter being the staple food of the poorer 
classes everywhere. In all the central and eastern talukas the 
whole plain is practically under cultivation, but in the north 
of Shada and in West Nandurbar and Taloda, as well as in the 
black soil portion of Pimpalnir below the ghats (Nowapur), 
a great deal of laud is still covered with jungle. In Shada 

• • . T7"l • 

this is very poor, and consists mainly of stumpy Khair 
trees. In Taloda and Nandurbar however the " Palas" or 
" Dhak" (Butea frondosa) is the principal tree, and the jungles 
there are lovely in the beginning of the hot weather, when the 
" Palas" is in flower. There is some very fine " Khair" mixed 
with the " Palas" in the Nowapur country below the ghats. 
Except along the Tapti river there are, as a rute, mango and 
tamarind groves round most of the villages, and in many places 
there are gardens, some of them extensive, affording cover for 
small birds. Most of the sides of the roads in Khandesh have 
been planted, and some of the avenues, though almost entirely 
composed of ,c Neem" trees (Azadirachtaindica) are exceedingly 
fine, and give the country a very green, wooded look. 

To the extreme east of the district, there are the Haiti hills 
on the further side of the river Purna, adjoining extensive 
reserve forests in Nimar. These are mainly skirted by dense 
babool jungle, and the best shooting in the district is to be got 
there. 

The southern belt of the country consists of the Satmulla or 
Ajuuta hills, with numerous spurs stretching out from them. 



282 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

They form the boundary between Klmndesh and the high 
tableland of the Deccau. There are a few villages of the 
Chalisgaum taluka above the ghats on the Deccan plain, 
and entirely surrounded by the Nizam's territory ; but, as a 
rule, Khandesh only reaches the edge of the hills. In the 
west of Pimpalnir the Sahyadra range reaches into Khan- 
desh, separating Nowapur from the rest of Pimpalnir. 
Ranges of hills pass from them along the south of the Pim- 
palnir and Dhulia talukas, separating them from Nasik, and 
spreading out all over the Dhulia taluka. These are exten- 
sively clothed in places with " Anjan" trees, but they are not 
good, and have been much cut as food for cattle — a practice 
which, however, is now strictly prohibited. Other ranges 
from the ghats spread through Nizampur, separating Nan- 
durbar from it, and passing through the north of the Dhulia 
taluka. Nizampur is consequently entirely enclosed among 
these ranges and forms a barren tableland. The soil through- 
out this part of the sub-division, except along the small rivers, 
is very poor, and will not bear a crop more than two years 
consecutively. There are large areas uncultivated ; much of this 
is, nominally, Government forest, but the barren hills and stunted 
shrubs do not deserve the name. Along all the Pimpalnir and 
Dhulia rivers there are old " bandharas" opposite nearly every 
village, forming a small tank at which the village cattle drink, 
and irrigating some village lands below. These are kept up 
by Government, and dependent on the water are extensive 
gardens growing wheat, sugarcane, rice, and other crops, 
though the amount of rice is very small. There are also 
lar^e mango groves around almost all the laige villages along 
the Panjra, forming a grand breeding ground for Syrnium 
ocellatum, Ketupa ceylonensis, and Ocyceros birostris, all of 
which are common throughout this part of the district. 

The rainfall is scanty in the central and southern parts of 
Khandesh, though none of the districts have ever suffered from 
want of rain so much as the neighbouring Deccan districts. 
The rainfall from 1861 to 1871 averaged from 20 to 30 inches, 
the heaviest rainfall being at Pachora, and the least at Virdeil. 
Khandesh is a very hot district, (not only in the black soil 
plains but throughout the Satpuras,) the thermometer in March, 
April and May frequently rising to from 105° to 111° iu 
the shade ; the nights, however, are generally fairly cool, except 
in the early part of the rains. Iu spite of all that is said to 
the contrary, except in the western parts of Pimpalnir and 
Nandurbar, the climate is fairly healthy, both to Europeans 
and Natives, if moderate care betaken; a visit, however, to 
West Nandurbar or Pimpalnir, except in the hot weather or early 
rains, is almost certain to be followed bv bad malarious fever. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 283 

Khandesh was originally one of the best districts for big 
game shooting iu the presidency, and very large bags were 
frequently made. The great increase of cultivation, and per- 
petual persecution, have however vastly diminished the amount 
of game ; still from 18(35 to 1879, inclusive, there were 193 
tigers and 658 panthers killed in the district. At present 
tigers, once found all over the district, are very few and are 
restricted to the Satpuras and the babool jungles east of the 
Puma ; single animals are, however, occasionally found in the 
west of Naudurbar, the Kondabhari Ghat of Pimpalnir, and 
sometimes even among the Ajuuta hills. Panthers are, on the 
other hand, fairly common along all the rocky hills, except in the 
four central districts — Amalnir, Erandole, Nasirabad, and 
Virdeil. There are a few hunting leopards and lynxes in the 
Satpuras, but they are very scarce. 

Bears, originally very common, have diminished much lately. 
They have been practically exterminated iu Pimpalnir, where 
they formerly abounded, and. have become scarce everywhere 
except iu the Akrani. 

Bisou are found in considerable herds in the Akrani all the 
3 r ear through, and they visit the Khandesh Satpuras iu the 
rains and cold weather, but, except in the Akrani, they are 
seldom found within Khandesh limits at other seasons. 

Sambur, though in diminished numbers, are found through- 
out the Satpuras aud Satmullas, aud occasionally about the 
Kondabhari Ghat. 

Cheetul (Axis maculatus) were formerly very common in the 
jungles east of the Purna river, but were so persecuted during 
the making of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway that they 
almost deserted the district. There are still a good many in 
the babool jungle iu Edlabad, and a few small herds iu Shada 
aud Shirpur, aud I believe one herd in the Ajunta hills. Bark- 
ing Deer (Cervttlus aureus) are uot common, but I have seeu 
them in various places in the Satpuras. 

Chinkara (Gazella bennetti) are common through all the rocky 
lulls; there are a few herds of Antelope (A. bezoartica) spread 
about the plaiu country, and a few, I believe, are occasionally 
met within the Deccan villages beyond the ghats in Chalisgaum. 

Nilghai (Portax pictus), formerly abundant everywhere, 1 am 
told, are now restricted to the edges of the hills. There are a 
few still iu Nizainpur, and a herd visit the Kooraus near Dhulia 
every rains. 

Pig are common in the hilly country, but the ground makes 
riding them almost hopeless. Jackals arc decidedly scarce, but 
there are loads of foxes and hares, and the country is iu mauy 
places very well suited for coursing. 

The small game shooting is uot very good. Some years 



284 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH- 

there are a good many Quail, and I bad very nice shooting at 
them one April in the Shad a and Taloda talukas in the bazii 
stubbles. They are however local, but the shooting is very 
nice when they are numerous, varied as it is by Painted 
Partridges, a i'ew of which generally find their way into the 
bag everywhere. 

There are i'ew marshy places and not many tanks in Khan- 
desh, and except the Mukhti and Pawla tanks none are large. 
With the exception, however, of the Mukhti tank, which is 
rocky and has no feeding, they are generally well stocked with 
Duck and Teal. In Nizampur, particularly, some of the small 
tanks are very good, and as the native community there, 
reverencing the order of some forgotten superintendent of 
police not to disturb the Duck, reserve the shooting for the 
sahibs, capital sport may occasionally be got. The tanks, how- 
ever, are very small, and will not stand more than a couple of 
days shooting at a time, but the sport is good. One day I fired 
between 80 and 90 shots without moving, having waded out 
and got shelter behind a small bush. 

The results were disappointing, as not having a dog, and no 
attempt being made to pick up the slain till I had exhausted 
all my cartridges, the wounded birds got lost in the reeds or 
swam out to the deep water, and we only picked up 33 or 
34 Duck. There are lew Snipe round the tanks, and i'ew other 
places where they are found. I have never got more than ten 
brace in a day, and that only on one occasion. 

There are a few places also on the Tapti where Duck may 
generally be found, and fair shooting can be got at them, par- 
ticularly if you have a boat and let it drift down the middle 
of the stream, as the Duck and Teal keep passing within shot 
being unwilling to leave the river. Sand grouse are fairly 
common through the plains, and there are Peafowl in all the 
jungles, and a few Jungle Fowl in the Satpuras, but these can 
hardly be said to afford much sport. 

Now, however, to turn to my proper subject, the list of 
Khandesh birds; I find I have entered in all 294 species. 

Of these, however, Nos. 9, 40, 118, 194, 211, 285,492, 
UAbis, 705, 722, 842, 865, 908, 911, 934, and 1004 are entered 
as doubtful, as I have procured no specimens, and it is just 
possible that some mistake may have been made. 

Of the remaining species, all those marked with an asterisk, 
210 in number, have been submitted to Mr. Hume for verifica- 
tion, and he has kindly verified, and in a good many cases 
corrected, my identifications ; the rest are mostly large and 
common species, about which there can be no doubt, and which 
were not considered worth sending. An examination of the sketch 
which accompanies this, in which the portions of the district 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 285 

visited by me are marked in red, will show that, although much 
of the district has not been visited, yet, except in the southern 
portion, there is no type of country in it of which I have not 
seen samples, so that the list should contain a fair proportion of 
the birds of the entire district. These are, as a rule, what 
might naturally be expected from the position and type of 
country of Khandesh, but a few rare birds, such as Salpomis 
ftpilonotus and Heteroglaux blewitti, seem to have their head- 
quarters there. The most noticeable deficiency is that of 
Thrushes and Bulbuls. Of the former I have seen two speci- 
mens of Pitta brachyura, while Cyanocinclus cyanus is moderate- 
ly common among the rocky hills. I have, however, never 
seen such common Deccan species as Myiophoneus horsfieldi f 
Merula nigropilea, Petrophila cinclorhyncha, and at least one 
species of Geocichla. Some of these probably do occur in the 
cold weather, but they must be rare, or I should have come 
across some of them. The only Bulbul I have seen is Molpastes 
hcemorrhous. Otocompsa fuscicatidata I fully expected to find, 
but I certainly never came across it either in the Sahyadra 
range in Pimpaluir or among the Satpuras. 



List. 



2.— Otogyps calvus, Scop. The Black Vulture. 

Permanent resident. Generally distributed throughout the 
district, but by no means common anywhere. As a rule appears 
to resort to the Satpuras to breed, numerous nests being found 
by me in March there, and without exception on high trees in 
thick jungle. The only other nest I found was on a high tree 
among scrub jungle at the foot of the Bhameir fort in Nizam- 
pur. This was in the begiuning of January and the bird had 
not laid. 

36**.— Gyps fulvescens, Hume. The Bay Vulture. 

Decidedly rare, but noticed by me on two or three occasions 
in the cold weather in Dhulia and Nandurbar. 

4fo'*.— Gyps pallescens, Hume. The Long-billed Pale- 
brown Vulture. 

This was the common Vulture of Western Khandesh, and 
breeds abundantly along the cliffs in the south of Pimpalnir, 
at the Bhameir fort in Nizampur, and also along the cliffs in 
the Satpuras. Some nests taken by me in the last week of 
December at the Bhameir fort contained either hard-set eggs 
or small young. 



286 ROUGH LTST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

5.— Pseudogyps bengalensis, Gmel. The Indian 
White- backed Vulture. 

Very rare, and only noticed on one or two occasions in the 
cold weather. I do not think it breeds anywhere in Western 
Khandesh. 

6.— Neophron ginginianus, Lath. The Indian 
Scavenger Vulture. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the district ; breed- 
ing here almost invariably on cliffs. I have taken eggs from 
the beginning of February till May. 

? 9.— Falco peregrinator, Sund. The Shalieen 
Falcon. 

In December 1880 I noticed a pair of Falcons flying round 
one of the cliffs below the Bhameir fort, and calling vigorously* 
They were very red underneath, and I am sure were not Laggar 
Falcons. Uuluckily I had not a gun with me at the time, and 
when I returned next day they were gone. It was very un- 
lucky, as they let me watch them within 50 or 60 yards with a 
good glass. I have also seen Falcons among the Satpuras which 
I believe belonged to this species. 

11. — Falco jugger, J. E. Gr. The Laggar Falcon. 

Permanent resident. Moderately common through the 
Dhulia, Viideil and Pimpaluir talukas. It is however scarce 
along the Tapti. Several nests were taken by me with eggs and 
young in January and February. 

16. — Falco chiquera,* Daud. The Red-headed 
Merlin. 

Permanent resident. Fairly common, particularly along the 
Tapti valley among the groves round the villages ; not nearly 
so commou however as in Sholapur and the Deccan generally. 
Nests with eggs were taken by me in February and March. 

17. — Cerchneis tinnunculus, Lin. The Kestrel. 

A whiter visitant. Not by any means very common, and none 
remaining to breed about the Satpuras or Kondabhari ghat. 

23.— Astur badius, Gm. The Shikra. 

Very common everywhere during the cold weather ; only 
noticed by me in the plains on one or two occasions during the 
hot weather, though on one they had a nest. It seems to migrate 
to the Akraui and higher Satpuras as a rule to breed. In 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 287 

April it was breeding everywhere in the Akrani and along- the 
higher ranges of the Satpnras ; and as the trees were then 
almost leafless, four or five of its nests could easily be found iu 
a morning's work along the hill valleys. 

24. — Accipiter nisus, Lin. The Sparrow-hawk. 

A rare winter visitant I think. Only one specimen was obtain- 
ed by me in the Dhulia taluka, but doubtless had I been shoot- 
ing small Hawks as a rule, others would have turned up. 

21bis.— Aquila nipalensis,* Hodgs. The Eastern 
Imperial Eagle. 

This Eagle is very abundant from November to April all 
along the plain at the foot of the Satpnras, and is generally 
distributed through the rest of the district, as far as I know it, 
during the cold weather. I have never been near the Satpnras 
later than the end of April, so cannot tell if this Eagle entirely 
leaves them. Iu April, however, they certainly appeared much 
scarcer. I saw no signs of their breeding anywhere. 

29.— -Aquila vindhiana,* Frankl. The Indian Tawny- 
Eagle. 

Permanent resident. Very common everywhere both along 
the jungles at the foot of the Satpuras and through the black 
soil and scrub districts. It breeds abundantly in November 
and December, and many are the nests I have taken, and the 
disappointments they have occasioned, particularly along the foot 
of the Satpnras, where, tempted by hope of a good reward, some 
Bheel would declare he had found a nest of the " bura jat" only 
a koss off, but always in an unridable direction, and after a 
walk of miles through long grass and up and down abominably 
steep-banked nullahs a nest would be pointed out, but alas ! in 
every case an unlucky vindhiana paid the penalty of being 
mistaken for its larger sister. Two fresh eggs were brought 
to me in the end of April from a nest on the south bank of the 
Tapti. It was not very far from my camp, but I was too done 
to go myself, and the man sent either missed or could not get 
the bird. If they belonged to this species they must have 
been a very late nest, but they may have belonged to A. clanga — ■ 
a bird I have never actually procured in the district. 

31.— Hieratus pennatus, Om. The Booted Eagle. 

This Eagle is rare, but I have seen it at all seasons of the yean 
so I suppose it must be a permanent resident. As its eggs are 
scarce, I took no end of trouble to look for nests, but uever 



288 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

found the slightest sign of its breeding 1 . I have seen pairs 
very noisy in the cold weather, and in March I found a family 
of four or five at Koperlee on the Tapti ; the young were, however, 
quite strong on the wing, and they may have bred elsewhere. 

33— Nisaetus fasciatus, Vieill. Bonelli's Eagle. 

Rare; only noticed on two or three occasions in Pimpalnir, 
Nizampur and Nandurbar. 

35.— Limnaetus cirrhatus,* Gm. The Crested Hawk 
Eagle. 

This Eagle is a permanent resident, and very common in the 
Akrani and Satpuras, and fairly so along the ghata near 
Kondabhari. I have also noticed it on several occasions along 
the spurs of hill in the Nandurbar taluka. I have never seeu 
it in the plain country. I have found many of its nests in 
February, March and April. In Khandesh it seems almost 
invariably to fix on a high tree growing on the bank of 
one of the dried-up nullahs along the Satpuras. The only 
other nest I found was on a huge banyan or peepul close to a 
large village, but overlooking a dried-up tauk (there was, how- 
ever, loads of jungle up to the very village walls). In no case 
have I found it building two years running in the same nest, 
and one generally finds two or three nests of this bird (one 
only occupied) within a couple of hundred yards. Mr. Vidal 
says that he found it shy in Rutnagherry, and that if its nest was 
visited it was sure to desert it. I certainly have not found this 
to be the case. The very first nest I found was in December, and 
though I had the tree climbed every three weeks till February, 
it did not desert. I took an egg from this nest early in March, 
and even then the birds hung about the nest and laid again on the 
22nd April. This second egg was, however, a very small 
specimen. Next year this pair of birds bred about 300 yards off 
on the bank of a dried-up nullah. 

38.— Circaetus gallicus/* Gm. The Common Serpent 
Eagle. 

Uncommon, but generally distributed in the cold weather. 
I have seen no sigu of its breeding anywhere. 

39. — Spilornis cheela,* Lath. The Indian Harrier 

Eagle. 

Uncommon ; and only noticed by me along the Satpuras 

and in West Nandurbar. Is probably a permanent resident, 

as a very richly-colored Eagle's egg was brought to me in 

April taken from a nest along a runuing nullah in the heart 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 289 

of the Satpuras. The men who brought it, however, only 
produced it as I was leaving, and the distance was too great to 
send any one on the chance of the bird being still about the nest. 
It, therefore, like many other good eggs, had to be thrown away. 
I think however it probably belonged to this species. 

? 40.— Pandion haliaetus, Lin. The Osprey. 

A large whitish Eagle was not uncommon along the Tapti 
hovering over the river, which I believe to have been an Osprey. 
I unfortunately have not got a specimen. 

48. — Butastur teesa, Frankl. The White-Eyed 
Buzzard. 
Permanent resident. It breeds all over the district, but 
is not as common in Khaudesh as in the Deccan. Nests were 
taken in March and April in the plains, the Satpuras, and 
Akrani. 

51.— Circus macrurus,* S. G. Gm. The Pale Har- 
rier. 

Winter visitant; is exceedingly common ; the earliest speci- 
men I remember seeing was on September 4th, and the latest 
on 8th April. 

52— Circus cineraceus,* Mont. Montague's Har- 
rier. 

Winter visitant; common ; but not so common as macrurus. 

53.— Circus aeruginosus,* Lin. The Marsh Har- 
rier. 
Winter visitant ; not uncommon but local, and generally 
confined, to the river sides. Noticed as late as April 29th. 

55. — Haliastur indus,* Bodd. The Brahminy Kite. 

Permanent resident. Very local. Along the'Panjra "it is 
common, and breeds in February, there being a nest about every 
two miles along that river. Elsewhere, except along the Tapti 
I have only noticed the bird about a dozen times. 

56.— Milvus govinda,* Sykes. The Common Pariah 
Kite. 

Permanent resident, very common, breeding from November 
to March and probably at other seasons. 

57.— Pernis ptilorhynchus,* Tern. The Crested 
Honey Buzzard. 
Probably a permanent resident ; not common but certainly 
seen in all months, except March to June. No nests seen. 



290 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

59.— Elanus caeruleus,* Desf. The Black-winged 
Kite. 

This Kite, formerly rare in the Deccan, after the scarcity in 
1876-77-78, became very abundant there, and when I was 
first sent to Khandesh in October 1879, I found it common 
all around Dhulia and through Virdeil, obtaining nests with 
small young and hard-set eggs in the middle of November. 
After that it seemed to disappear, and I don't think I saw half a 
dozen specimens during the last fifteen months I was in Khandesh. 
Now what became of all these birds ? Did they go south and 
join the crowds of this species that had taken up their quarters 
in the Deccan ; or were they like the Deccan birds merely 
new immigrants? And have these latter also again left? It 
would be most interesting to find out if the bird is still as 
common in the Poona and Sholapur districts now as it was 
in 1879. 

60. — Strix javanica,* Gm. The Eastern Screech- 
Owl. 

I have repeatedly come across single specimens of this Owl 
in the jungles, along the base of the Satpuras, and also iu 
the Akraui in the hot weather. Eleswhere I think it is more 
or less migratory. In April 1880 I found between 30 or 40 
iu a small village grove in the Shada taluka, while there were 
certainly none there in December ; and I have similarly come 
on little groups of say five or six on several occasious. Two eggs, 
said to belong to this Owl, were brought to me in the Akrani iu 
April, and I saw an old well among some jungle where I was 
told they bred every year. 

65.— Syrnium ocellatum,* Less. The Mottled Wood- 
Owl. 

This Owl is a permanent resident, and very common in the 
maugo groves everywhere. It breeds in December as a rule, 
but 1 obtained eggs at Bhadgaum as late as February. 

68. — Asio accipitrinus,* Fall. The Short-eared 
Owl. 

A winter visitant. Moderately common among the stubbles 
and grass fields. 

69.— Bubo bengalensis,* Frankl. The Rock 
Horned-Owl. 
This bird is common along the clay cliffs through the 
Satpuras, and also among the Pimpaluir hills, and along the 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 291 

Tapti ; elsewhere it is scarce. It is a permanent resident, and 
breeds early, eggs being taken by me in November, and } 7 oung 
birds nearly able to fly early in December. 

70— Bubo coromandus,* Latham. The Dusky 
Horned-Owl. 

Probably a permanent resident, bnt scarce. I only cnme 
across it twice, in both cases in December, breeding. The first 
nest I obtained contained a single eg£ nearly ready to hatch 
and a small young one, and was in the heart of the Satpuras. 
The second was in an old nest of L. cirrkatus. It had con- 
tained two fresh eggs, but I was only in time to find 
a large rock snake finishing the last mouthful of them. 

72.— Ketupa ceylonensis,* Gm. The Brown Fish- 
Owl. 

A permanent resident; found along all the streams in which 
the water runs till the end of March. It breeds in January, 
laying, as a rule, only one or two eggs. In one case, however, 
after waiting a week I shot a heu off a single ego-. On skin- 
ning her I found a shelled ecr^ ready to be laid, and a third 
full-sized ep;g which only wanted a shell, so that three en-as are 
occasionally laid. The Bheels have the greatest objection to 
this bird, and invariably try to kill it when they get a chance, 
and more than one pair, whose eggs I expected to obtain, 1 
found had been killed or driven away by them. 

l^sept— Scops brucii,* Hume. Bruce's Scops 
Owl. 

A Scops Owl is common in the Akrani and in the deep 
valleys running' into the Satpuras. It is, however, a very 
sileut shy bird, remaining all day in holes in trees, and very 
likely to be passed over. Several of its eggs were brought to 
me early in March, and loads of its young iu April. The 
Bheels, however, could not or would not catch the old ones, and 
I never could get a chance of shooting one except when bio- 
game of sorts was supposed to be about, and I always put 
off shooting them with the usual result. A very youno- 
specimen, sent to Mr. Hume, probably belongs, he informs 
me, to this species. 

76.— Carine brama, Tern* The Spotted Owlet. 

Permanent resident ; common up to the edge of the juno-les, 
but never seen by me in the Akrani or in the deep valleys of 
the Satpuras. Lays in March and April. 



292 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

76bis— Heteroglaux blewitti,* Hume. The Forest 
Owlet. 

Tliis bird was not discriminated by me, but three specimens 
were included among those of brama sent to Mr Hume. 
From the dates of the specimens I remember very distinctly 
about them. All were shot in the heavy jungle below the 
Satpuras, and all were shot late in the morning sitting alone 
on the tops of thin trees. This being such an extraordinary 
position for brama I shot the birds to make sure, but not having 
specimens of brama to compare them with, stupidly took for 
granted they were only brama. They are not uncommon in 
this dense jungle, and I have repeatedly seen others sitting on 
exposed trees. I do not think they are found in the Akrani 
or higher Satpuras, as 1 have never seen any Owl of the brama 
type there. t 

77.— Glaucidium radiatum,* Tick. The Jungle 
Owlet. 

I have once or twice noticed this bird during the cold 
weather in Nizampur and Nandurbar, but only as a casual 
visitant. It is a permanent resident in the ghats in Pimpalnir, 
and is very abundant in the Satpuras and Akrani. It is a late 
breeder. In 1881 I took a great number of its nests in holes 
in moderate-sized trees from 15 to 25 feet from the ground. 

82.— Hirundo rustica * Lin. The Swallow. 

A common cold weather visitant, but local. 

83.— Hirundo filifera, Steph. The Wire-tailed 
Swallow. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the district. 
Breeds along all the rivers and nullahs over water from Feb- 
ruary to May. 

85. — Hirundo erythropygia, Sykes. The Mosque 
Swallow. 
Permanent resident. Common throughout the district. 
Breeds in the rains. 



f The type of this hitherto very rare species was shot in December 1872 in the 
dense forests of the western portions of the Tributary Mehals (in N. E. 
Peninsular India) by my late lamented friend Mr. F. It. Bl'ewitt. A second 
specimen was procured several years later by my friend Mr. Valentine Ball in Karial, 
still in N. E Peninsular India, but about 160 miles south of where the type was 
procured. No more specimens had been obtained until my friend Mr. Davidson 
obtained the three referred to in the text in N. W. Peninsular India, 660 
miles to the west of where the former specimens had been procured. — Ed., S. F. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 293 

86.— Hirundo fluvicola,* Jerd. The Indian Cliff 
Swallow. 

Resident from August to March, and probably all the year. 
It is very local, and I ouly found it in two or three places along 
the Panjra river. It bred in October, and again in January, 
in immense colonies. 

89.— Cotyle sinensis, J. E. Gr. The Indian Sand- 
Martin. 

Common in Taloda, Shada, and Nandurbar in the cold 
weather. I think it left the district in the hot weather, but 
find nothing about it in my notes and cannot remember. It 
bred abundautly along the Tapti in November and December. 

90.— Ptyonoprogne concolor, Sykes. The Dusky 
Martin. 

Permanent resident. Fairly common. Breeds in the rains. 

91.— Ptyonoprogne rupestris,* Scop. The Moun- 
tain Martin. 

Cold weather visitant ; staying till late in the hot weather. 
Not very common, but noticed all through the Satpuras and 
at the Bhameir and Lalling forts. 

92.— Chelidon urbica,* Lin. The House-Martin. 

Noticed by me on only two occasions, in November 1880 and 
in April 1881, in both cases at the same village — Prakasha on 
the Tapti. On the first occasion there was a very large flock 
(over 100) flying high and seemingly all immature; on the 
second there were half a dozen or so in fine plumage, and I 
noticed them on several days. 

98— Cypsellus melba,* Lin. The Alpine Swift. 

Permanent resident. Not common. At one time I thought 
they bred at the Lalling fort near Dhulia in the rains, and 
watched them carefully ; but though three or four were seen 
every day there, and though affinis bred in hundreds, I am sure 
there were no nests, and the birds may have come immense 
distances. Unless they bred on the high cliffs in the adjoining 
Nasik district I do not know where they could have bred, 
but I have seen them certainly in every month of the 
vear. 



294 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

100.— Cypsellus affinis,* J. E. Gr. The Common 
Indian Swift. 

Permanent resident. Common everywhere ; apparently 
breeding at all seasons. 

102.— Cypsellus battasiensis,* J. E. Or. The Palm 
Swift. 

Probably a permanent resident. Only noticed by me in the 
Shada and Taloda taluk as, where there are a few palmyra 
palms round most of the villages on the fringe of the Satpuras. 
There were a pair or two breeding in the hot weather in almost 
every one of these. 

104.— Dendrochelidon coronata,* Tick. The Indian 

Crested Swift. 

Restricted to the lower ranges of the Satpuras, the plains 
jungle along their bases, the ghats near Kondabhari, and a few of 
the spurs through Nandurbar. I have never noticed it in the 
Akrani or higher 'Satpuras. It breeds early in January and 
the beginning of February, nesting singly in the low plains 
jungle. At Wurgaum in Shada, during the last week of 
February, I found four nests on consecutive days at heights 
varying from eight to twenty-five feet from the ground ; three of 
these however contained each a young bird, and the fourth 
contained a fresh egg of a pale stone colour. The nests are easily 
found, as the male keeps flying round and round the place in a 
circle of a hundred yards or so, and the hen answers him occa- 
sionally from the nest, so that finding it is only a matter of 
a little patience. 

107.— Caprimulgus indicus,* Lath. The Jungle 
Nightjar. 

Very common in the hot weather in the Satpuras. It is a 
very noisy bird, and its call cannot possibly be mistaken. I 
have repeatedly followed the cry and found the bird sitting on 
a tree — a fact I have not noticed in the case of other Nightjars. 

112 — Caprimulgus asiaticus,* Lath. The Indian 
Nightjar. 

Permanent resident. Very common all through the district 
wherever there are rocks and scrub juugle. It breeds abun- 
dantly all round Dhulia in July, August, and the beginning of 
September. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 295 

113.— Caprimulgus mahrattensis,* Sfykes. Sykes' 
Nightjar. 
Only obtained duriDg the cold weather. Appears scarce. 

114.— Caprimulgus monticolus,* Frankl. Frank- 
lin's Nightjar. 

A permanent resident. Very common through the Satpuras 
in the cold weather, and again all round Dhulia in the rains. 
I shot a young one in August barely able to fly, and 
no doubt this species breeds at this season. At that time 
I offered a considerable reward to the herd boys for 
Nightjar's nests, and very many were shown to me. In 
every case when 1 went myself, and shot the bird, it turned 
out to be asiaticus. In two cases, however, when I sent 
a sepoy, a monticolus was brought back. In one of these 
cases the eggs are quite differently shaped and longer than 
any I have of asiaticus, but in the other I can discover no 
difference. On cross examination the sepoy acknowledged 
that he shot the bird on each occasion near the nest, sitting 
after it had flown once or twice; and it is possible that, as both 
species are common, he may have changed the bird he was 
following. However, there is no doubt that the bird breeds 
abundantly in the district. 

117. — Merops viridis * Lin. The Indian Bee-eater. 

Permanent resident. Breeding abundantly in March along 
the Tapti. 

? 118. — Merops philippinus, Lin. The Blue-tailed 
Bee-eater. 

I saw a flock, apparently migrating, in Pimpalnir in May 
1880, and a single specimen in Nizampur in the same month. 
The flock was flying south-west. As no specimen was secured I 
enter this as a doubtful species. 

120.— Merops persicus,* Fall. The Egyptian Bee- 
eater. 

A winter visitant. Large flocks appear in the beginning of 
October, and stay for a couple of months or so about the 
Mukhti and Goondoor tanks near Dhulia. 

123. — Coracias indica,* Lin. The Indian Ptdler. 

Permanent resident. Common all through the district in the 
cold weather. In the hot weather migrates to the Satpuras, 
Akrani, Pimpalnir and Nandurbar jungles, where it breeds in 
March and April. 

38 



296 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

124.— Coracias garrula,* Lin. The Roller. 

A single specimen was obtained by me at Dhulia in Sep- 
tember 1880. 

127.— Pelargopsis gurial,* Pears. The Brown- 
headed Kingfisher. 

Rare. I have, however, seen specimens along most of the 
rivers running among the Satpura hills; also a single specimen 
on the Panjra at Pimpaluir. 

129.— Halcyon smyrnensis,* Lin. The White- 
breasted Kingfisher. 
Parmanent resident ; scarce. Breeds about Dhulia in July. 

131— Alcedo bengalensis,* Gm. The Indian King- 
fisher. 
Permanent resident. Moderately common along all the rivers. 

136. — Oeryle rudis* Lin. The Pied Kingfisher. 

Permanent resident. Very common along all the rivers. It 
breeds in January and February. 

144— Ocyceros birostris,* Scop. The Grey Hornbill. 

Permanent resident, scarce in the Satpuras, but very common 
in all the mango groves in Dhulia and Piinpalnir, and fairly 
common in Nandurbar. It breeds in April, and appears almost 
invariably to return to the same nest-hole. In 1881 I obtained 
eggs from every nest I had found in 1880, though, from the 
stupidity of some of the people who discovered them, the hens 
had been killed in 1880. 

147. — Palseornis eupatrius,* Lin. (var)4 The West- 
ern Rose-band Parroquet. 

Permanent resident. Restricted to the Akrani, and the higher 
hills in the Satpuras, though occasionally straggling a few 
miles from their base. It breeds earlier than either of the 
other Parroquets, the young being able to fly frequently by 
Christmas time, though I found one nest containing small 
young ones as late as the middle of March. This Parroquet 

t The name eupatria applies to the Cingalese form, the Southern Rose-band 
Parroquet. This western form differs — it differs even more markedly from the 
northern form nipahnsis (Hodgson), the eastern form indoburmanicus (Hume), and 
the Andamanese form magnirostris (Ball). Whether all these five forms should be kept 
distinct, or " lumped," will always remain a matter of opinion. If kept distinct 
the western form will require a name, but it is the least distinct of the five, and 1 do 
not, myself, propose to name it. — Ed., S. F. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 297 

is a great favorite with natives, aud the hill men bring down 
numbers for sale on bazar days. 

148.— Palaeornis torquatus,* Bodd. The Bose- 
ringed Parroquet. 

Permanent resident. Found all over the district, though 
scarcer in the Satpuras than in the plains. It breeds in January 
aud February. 

149.— Palseornis purpureus,* P. L. S. Mull. The 
Western Rose-headed Parroquet. 

Permanent resident. Common all over the plains (wherever 
there are mango groves) in the rains. In the cold weather 
found mainly in the villages near the foot of the Satpuras, 
and then iu very large flocks. These it deserts about Feb- 
ruary, aud while a few breed about the ghats in Pimpaluir, the 
rest seem all to betake themselves to the glens of the Satpuras, 
generally, not high up. It is in February the commonest 
bird in the low Satpuras, and I have found as many as a dozen 
nests in a day's walk through the hills. 

160. — Picus mahrattensis,* Lath. The Yellow- 
fronted Woodpecker. 

Permanent resident; very common. Breeds in February, 
principally in the low khair jungle along the base of the 
Satpuras. The nest-holes I generally found quite low down, 
frequently within two or three feet of the ground. It also 
breeds in the plains. I never noticed this Woodpecker in the 
Akrani, nor I think on any of the higher peaks of the Satpuras. 

164.— Yungipicus nanus,* Fig. The Indian Pigmy 
Woodpecker. 

This must be rare as I only got one specimen on a mango 
tree above my camp at Taloda iu December 1879. 

167.— Chrysocolaptes festivus," Bodd. The Black- 
backed Woodpecker. 

Permanent resident. Moderately common all through the 
Satpuras, Western Nandurbar, and the Pimpaluir Ghats, 
but does not seem, like aurantius, to come down to the 
plains. It breeds very early in November, December, 
and January. The first pair I noticed were at Taloda in 
December 1879. I shot the male not noticing they had 
just finished excavating a hole. Next year I found a pair 
of birds still there. They had made at least five or six new 
nest-holes in rotten stumps but had not laid. I had all the 



» 

298 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

holes examined every Monday, but the birds deserted the spot. 
The only egg I obtaiued was sent to me early in January from 
a nest in the Satpuras in a hole in a tree in which the bird had 
bred the year before. Two nests, found near Shirpur at Christ- 
mas 1880, each contained one young one just able to fly. The 
young were very handsome, the crest being flame-colored. 
They seem to breed, as a rule, every year in the same immediate 
neighbourhood, but almost alwa} r s I think in a new hole. 
They only lay one egg, I think, and certainly I have never 
seen the old ones accompanied by more than one young bird. 

175.— Chrysophlegma chlorigaster,* Jerd. The 
Southern Yellow-naped Woodpecker. 

Probably a permanent resident. Found throughout all the 
jungle districts. It is however scarce everywhere. 

180.— Brachypternus aurantius,* Lin. The Golden- 
backed Woodpecker. 

i Permanent resident. Common in all the jungles, and found 
pretty well all over the district in the rains. It breeds iu 
February, March and April, and probably sometimes earlier, 
laying one or two eggs (in one case only I found three). The 
form found in Khandesh is, Mr. Hume writes, "intermediate 
between aurantius and puncticollis, but nearer aurantius" and 
probably with larger series dilutusj[ puncticollis and aurantiu3 
will all be merged in one. 

188.— Yunx torquilla, Lin. * The Wryneck. 

Cold weather visitant. Common everywhere among the 
scrub jungle. This bird is very tame, and has allowed me to 
strike it down with a riding whip while riding. 

19Zbi8.— Megalaima inornata,* Wald. The Western 
Green Barbet. 

Permanent resident in the Akrani, Satpuras, the Kondabhari 
Ghat, and wherever there is tree jungle. It is fairly common, 
breeding in April and laying generally three eggs, though I 
have found only two eggs nearly fully incubated. 

? 194— Megalaima viridis, JBodd. The Small Green 
Barbet. 

I think I have once or twice noticed this bird in the 
Satpuras, but unluckily have never got any specimens. 

•f- As I pointed out nearly ten years ago, S. F., L, 171-3, dilutus is not only not a 
species, but is barely, if at all, distinguishable as a local race. — En , S. F, 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 299 

197.— Xantholsema haemacephala,* P. L. S. Mull. 
The Crimson- breasted Barbet. 

Not noticed by me in the Akrani or higher Satpuras, but a 
permanent resident, and common everywhere else. In breeds 
from February to April. 

199.— Cuculus canorus, Lin. The Cuckoo. 

Only noticed by me on two occasions. I have, however, 
been several times told by others that they had heard it, and 
that it is common in the Satpuras in the early part of the 
rains. 

201. — Cuculus poliocephalus,* Lath. The Small 
Cuckoo. 

Passed through Dhulia in large numbers from the middle of 
September to the middle of October. I did not notice it on its 
return migration. 

205.— Hierocoocyx varius,* Vahl. The Hawk 
Cuckoo. 

Tolerably common about Dhulia in the rains from July to 
October. It must breed, but I found no eggs anywhere that 
I could believe to belong to this species. 

?211. — Chrysococcyx hodgsoni, Moore. The Eme- 
rald Cuckoo. 

I believe I have noticed this bird in the Satpuras, but have 
never got any specimens. 

212.— Coccystes jacobinus,* Bodd. The Pied Crest- 
ed Cuckoo. 

Arrives early in June. Is very common in all the scrub 
jungles round Dhulia, laying in the nests of A. malcolmi and 
C. caudata; from the eggs of the latter its eggs are easily 
distinguishable. It leaves about September, and is a noisy bird 
in the breeding season. 

214.— Eudynamis honorata,* Lin, The Koel. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the district. Lays 
in June. 

217.— Centrococcyx rufipennis, 111. The Crow 
Pheasant. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the district ; 
breeding in July aud the beginning of August. 1 do not re- 
member it in the Akrani or Satpuras. 



300 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

220. — Taccocua sirkee,* Gray. The Bengal Sirkeer. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the Satpuras, and 
in Pimpalnir, and seen occasionally in all parts where there is 
any scrub jungle. I was not fortunate enough to find any 
nests. 

232.— Cinnyris zeylonica,* Lin. The Amethyst- 
rumped Honeysucker. 

A scarce straggler. One immature specimen obtained at 
Dhulia in May. 

234.— Cinnyris asiatica,* Lath. The Purple 
Honeysucker. 

Permanent resident. Common all over the district. Breeds 
in March, April and late in February. 

238.— Dicaeum erythrorhynchus,* Lath. Tickell's 
Flowerpecker. 

Probably a permanent resident. Rare, and only observed by 
me in Nizampur and Pimpalnir, i.e., the extreme south-west 
of the district. A nest just finished was found by me at 
Pimpalnir in the beginning of February. 

246.— Salpomis spilonotus,* Frankl. The Spotted 
Gray Creeper. 

A pair were obtained by me at Dhulia in October 1880. 
They were also noticed by me in January at the Kondabhari 
Ghat, and were not at all uncommon all along the lower and 
higher Satpuras aud the plain jungle below them, so much so 
that I frequently saw three or four pairs in an ordinary morn- 
ing's stroll through the jungle. I found no nests. 

250.— Sitta castaneoventris,* Frankl. The Chestnut- 
bellied Nuthatch. 

Probably a permanent resident. Fairly common in the 
Satpuras from November to May. It was abundant in the 
Akrani in April, and was no doubt breeding, as in that month 
I fired at a small bird on the top of a rotten tree, aud on the 
report one of this species flew out of some hole pretty high 
up. The bird did not return, and the Bheels could not find the 
hole, so, as I could not climb the tree myself, I was forced to 
leave it. 

254.— -Upupa epops,* Lin. The Hoopoe. 
Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the district. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 301 

255. — # Upupa ceylonensis, Reich. The Indian 
Hoopoe. 

Rare, but noticed by me at all seasons, perhaps once or 
twice a month. The only specimen I sent to Mr. Hume lie 
writes is an intermediate form, possessing the white penulti- 
mate crest-band of epops, but otherwise as in ceylonensis. 

256. — Lanius lahtora,* Sykes. The Indian Grey 
Shrike. 

Permanent resident. Common all through the district. I have 
taken nests in every mouth from January to July. 

257.— Lanius erythronotus,* Tig. The Indian 
Rufous-backed Shrike. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon in the cold weather, 
but rare in the rains. A few pairs breed about Dhulia in Juue 
and July. 

260.— Lanius vittatUS,* Valenc. The Bay-backed 
Shrike. 

Permanent resident. This is much the commonest Shrike of 
the district, being found everywhere. It breeds in the plains in 
June and July, and in the Sat pur as in March. 

265.— Tephrodornis pondicerianus,* Gm. The Wood 
Skrike. 

Permauent resident. Very common through the Akrani, 
Satpuras, and all along the " Palas" j tingle in Taloda, Nan- 
durbar, and Pimpalnir. It breeds in February, March and 
April. The nests are almost invariably in a fork of a " Palas" 
tree 10 or 12 feet feet from the ground, but are very difficult 
to discover unless the bird is watched, as they exactly approxi- 
mate iu colour to the tree in which they are made. 

267.— Hemipus picatus,* 'Sykes. The Little Pied 
Shrike. 

Probably a permanent resident. Noticed in small flocks in 
the Akrani and Satpuras iu April. 

268.— Volvocivora sykesi,* Strickl. The Black- 
headed or Sykes' Cuckoo Shrike. 

This species passed through Dhulia during June, and again 
appeared in the end of September and October. It probably 
bred on the Satpuras. 



302 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESB. 

270.— Graucalus macii,* Lesson. The Large Cuckoo 
Shrike. 

This species was common all through the district from 
November to May. During June it was very common in 
Dhulia, being then, as it was at the other times, in families. 
It disappeared from the beginning of July till October, and I 
suppose bred in the Satpuras, 

276 — Pericrocotus peregrinus,* Lin. The Small 
Minivet. 

Permanent resident. Common everywhere, breeding in July 
and August round Dhulia. 

277. — Pericrocotus erythropygius,* Jerd. The 

White-bellied Minivet. 

Permanent resident. This is the Common Minivet of the 
district, and I noticed it all through the Satpuras, in Nandurbar, 
Nizampur, &c, during the hot and cold weather. During the 
rains I noticed it once or twice about Dhulia, but though there 
are many thousand acres of scrub around War and Gundoor, 
which I searched thoroughly for Nightjars, I found none of 
these birds breeding. I however happened to be staying a few 
days at Arvee in the extreme south of Dhulia, and found this 
bird breeding there in considerable numbers. This was in 
the end of August (26th to 31st), and I was rather late, most 
of the nests containing young, and in some cases the young 
were able to fly. I however found eight nests with eggs, (most 
of them veiy hard set). All the nests which are small and less 
ornamented than those of 'peregrinus were placed from three 
to four feet from the ground in a small common thorny scrub. 
They were all placed in low thin jungle, and never where the 
jungle was thick and difficult to walk through. A great deal 
of the jungle round Arvee is full of Anjan trees, but none of the 
birds seem to breed in these. 

278.— Buchanga atra,* Herm. The King Crow. 

Permanent resident. Common all through the plains, breed- 
ing abundantly in June. 

280.— Buchanga longicaudata,* Hay. The Long- 
tailed King Crow. 

Probably a permanent resident. Obtained in the Satpuras 
and in Pimpaluir. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 303 

281— Buchanga cserulescens,* Lin. The White- 
bellied King Crow. 

Permanent resident. In the cold weather generally distri- 
buted. In the hot weather fairly common through the Satpuras 
and along the Pimpaluir Ghats. Two nests only were seen 
by me. They were on adjoining trees in the Akrani. They 
were largish nests, not like those of aim, but more resembling 
those described in " Nests and Eggs" of longicaxidata. One 
nest contained three young ones, the other was only building, 
and nothmg could have been more plucky than the way the 
old ones defended their nest. 

? 285. — Dissemurus paradisi,* Lin. The Lesser 
Racket-tailed Drongo. 

I have never seen this bird myself, but I have been told by 
officers that they have seen this bird in the Western Dang. 

288.— Muscipeta paradisi,* Lin. The Paradise 
Ply catcher. 

Common about Dhulia in the early part of the rains, becom- 
ing scarcer later. A few however in immature plumage were 
seen all through the rains. In the cold and hot weather a 
few pairs and single specimens were noticed in both white and 
chestnut plumage, but I saw no sigus of their breeding. 

290. — Hypothymis azurea,* Bodd. The Black-naped 
Blue Flycatcher. 

Common about Dhulia during the rains in immature plum- 
age. Noticed in full plumage occasionally in the cold and hot 
weather, but scarce. 

292.— Leucocerca aureola,* Vieill. The White- 
browed Fantail. 

Permanent resident. Common ; breeding in May and June. 
It is commoner than the next species everywhere north of 
Dhulia. 

293. —Leucocerca leucogaster,* Cuv. The White- 
spotted Fantail. 

Permanent resident. Common, except along the Satpuras ; 
breeds abundantly in May and June. 

295. — Culicicapa eeylonensis,* Swains. The Grey- 
headed Flycatcher. 
A « inter visitant. Common through the district. 

39 



304 ROUGH LIST OF. THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

297.— Alseonax latirostris,* Raffl. The Southern 
Brown Flycatcher. 

Appears at the end of the rains, and is then not uncommon. 
Seemingly stays only a few weeks and passes on. 

301.— Stoporala melanops,* Fig. The Verditer 
Flycatcher. 

A straggler ; rare. Specimens obtained in March at Shada. 

306.— Cyornis tickelli,* Blyth. Tickell's Blue Red- 
breast. 

Permanent resided. Fairly common wherever there is jungle 
or groves. Noticed in all parts of the district at all seasons. 

310.— Muscicapula superciliaris,* Jerd. The White- 
browed Blue Flycatcher. 

A single specimen was obtaiued by me in the Akrani in 
March 1881. 

323 bis. — Erythrosterna parva,* Bechst. The "White- 
tailed Robin Flycatcher. 

Winter visitant. Common from October to March ; the 
males assuming the red breast before leaving. 

345. — Pitta brachyura,* Lin. The Indian Ground- 
Thrush. 

Rare. I have only twice obtained specimens, one in Dhulia in 
the beginning of July, and another in the scrub jungle somewhere 
near this station, in August. The last was brought by some 
Bheel herd-boys who said they had caught it on its nest. They 
produced a nest which might have belonged to the bird, but 
the eggs therein were those of A. malcolmi, though the nest 
did not belong to this species. The specimen of brachyura was 
alive, but had lost its tail, and the boys had pulled out its wing 
feathers to prevent it flying. It had clearly been sitting on 
eggs, and I have no doubt that they had caught it on its nest, 
but having broken the eggs, they substituted the first eggs 
they came across afterwards. 

351.— Cyanocinclus cyanus,* Lin. The Blue Rock- 
Thrush. 

Cold weather visitant. Not common, but fouud in all the 
rocky hills. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 305 

385.— Pyctoris sinensis,* Gm. The Yellow-eyed 
Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Common everywhere. Its nests were 
abundant in July, August and September ; except Franklinia 
buchanani, it was the commonest breeding bird about Dhulia in 
the rains. 

398.— Dumetia albogularis,* Blyth. The White- 
throated Wren Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon about Dhulia and 
Nandurbar, and noticed elsewhere, but very local. It bred iu 
the eud of the hot weather aud beginning of the rains. 

399.— Pellorneum ruficeps,* Swains. Swainson's 
Wren Babbler. 

I obtained a single specimen of this bird at Nandurbar in the 
hot weather. 

404fe?\— Pomatorhinus obscurus,* Rume. Hume's 
Scimitar Babbler. 

Probably a permanent resident; rare. Only noticed among 
the hills in the Pimpalnir taluka in the south-west part of the 
district. 

434.— Malacocercus malabaricus,* Jerd. The Jungle 
Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Common in the Satpuras, and in the 
jungles along the ghats in Pimpalnir. It is exclusively con- 
fined to the jungles aud perhaps a i'ew bushy nullahs a mile or 
two from them. It breeds in the hot weather, and I have no 
doubt also in the rains. As soon as cultivation begins this bird 
is replaced by the next species. 

436— Argya malcolmi,* Syles. The Large Grey 
Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Very common all over the district 
except in the thick jungles; breeding from May to December. 

438.— Chatarrhsea caudata,* Dum. The Striated 
Bush Babbler. 

Permanent resideut. Very common everywhere except in 
the thick jungles ; breeding at all seasons. 



306 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIUDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

462. — Molpastes hsemorrhous,* Gm. The Madras 
Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. Common everywhere, breeding in 
August, September aud October. 

463.— Phyllornis jerdoni,* Blyth. The Green 
Bulbul. 

Probably a permanent resident; rare. Noticed along the 
glens below the Kondabhari Gliat in May and June, and a single 
pair at Taloda in December 1880. 

468. — Iora typhia,* Lin. The Black-headed Green 
Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. Common all through the district. 
Breeds iu July and August 

468^'s. — Iora nigrolutea,* Marsh. Marshall's Green 
Bulbul. 

Permanent resident Noticed by me in the Dhnlia and 
Nizampur talukas only, and there apparently pretty much re- 
stricted to the dry scrub jungles. It breeds in June and July. 

470. — Oriolus kundoo,* Sykes. The Indian Oriole. 

Probably a permanent resident. In the end of the rains, 
cold and hot weathers, found through the plains, hills, and 
jungles. Most leave Dhulia in June, but a few stay and 
probably breed. 

472.— Oriolus melanocephalus,* Lin. The Black- 
headed Oriole. 

Permanent resident iu the Satpuras and among the Pimpalnir 
Ghats, spreading in the cold weather through the district. 

475.— Copsychus saularis,* Lin. The Magpie 
Bobin. 
Permanent resident. Fairly common all through the 
district. I however found no nests. 

479— Thamnobia fulicata,* Lin. The Indian Black 
B-obin. 

Permanent resident. Very common everywhere, except 
in the Akraui aud higher Satpuras ( where 1 saw none). 
It breeds from March to August. Some of the specimens from 
the north of the Tapti show a tendency towards cambayensis, 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 307 

and none of the Khandesh specimens seem quite as dark 
as those from further south. 

481.— Pratincola caprata,* Lin. The White-winged 
Bush Chat. 

Common in the rains and cold weather, apparently leaving 
in the hot weather. I saw no sijms of breeding. 

483.— Pratincola maura," Pall. The Indian Bush 
Chat 

Cold weather visitaut. Common as a rule everywhere except 
in the jungles. 

488. — Saxicola opistholeucus,* StricM. Strickland's 
White-tailed Wheatear. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare and only noticed singly on 
perhaps a dozen occasions among scrub jungle on the banks 
of the Tapti and in Nizampur and Virdeil. 

491- — Saxicola isabellinus,* Eilpp. Menetries' 
Wheatear. 

Cold weather visitant ; rare ; noticed however on several occa- 
sions. 

? 492.— Saxicola deserti, Bilpp. The Black-throated 
Wheatear. 

I am sure I have seen this species in the cold weather on one 
or two occasions, but, as I have never shot any specimens, I 
enter it as doubtful. 

497.— Ruticilla rufiventris,* Vieill. The Indian 
Redstart. 

Cold weather visitant. Generally distributed. Common from 
the middle of September to the beginning of the hot weather. 

514. — Cyanecula suecica," Lin. The Ked-spot Blue- 
throat. 

Cold weather visitant. Common everywhere where there is 
any swamp, and also along the sides of bushy nullahs. 

515.— Acrocephalus stentorius,* Hemp, and Ehr. 
The Large Reed Warbler. 

Noticed by me iu the reedy nullah below the Mukhti tank near 
Dhulia, in September and October ; also in May there. Noticed 
in December and April as very abundant on the bushy islands 



308 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

in the Tapti below Prakasha. From the way the birds were 
sinoino- both on the wiii£ and on the bushes I cannot help think- 
ing they were going to breed. 

516 — Acrocephalus dumetorum,* Blyth. The Lesser 
Heed Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Tolerably common throughout the 
district in suitable places. 

530.— Orthotomus sutorius,* Forst. The Indian 
Tailor Bird. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the district ; 
breeding in June and July. 

535. — Prinia stewarti,* Bly. The Lesser Ashy 
Wren Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Common all through the plains. Breeds 
abundantly in July and August round Dhulia. 

536. — Prinia gracilis,* Frankl. Prinia hodgsoni, 
Blyth. Frauklin's Wren Warbler. 

Permanent resident. Common all over the district. It 
breeds in the rains, but its nests are difficult to find. All the 
eggs found were an unspotted blue. 

539.— Cisticola cursitans,* Frankl. The Fantail 
Warbler. 

Probably a permanent resident. Only however noticed by 
me during the cold weather, and only in the west of Dhulia 
and in Pimpalnir. It was common there in marshy spots along 
the Panjra. 

543.— Drymceca inornata,* Sykes. The Earth-brown 
Wren Warbler. 

Permanent resident. Not common but found through the 
plain districts. Breeds in September and October rouud Dhulia. 

? 544^'s — Drymceca rufescens, Hume. The Great 
Rufous Wren Warbler. 

A large Wren Warbler was noticed by me at Laling in 
September, and its nest with three eggs found there. One of 
these t sent to Mr. Hume, who replied that he thought it to be 
the egg of this bird. I was not able to get a specimen. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 309 

551,— Franklinia buchanani,* Blyth. The Rufous- 
fronted Wren Warbler. 

Permanent resident. Much the commonest bird breeding 1 
about Dhulia in July, August and September. 

553. — Hypolais rama,* Sykes. Sykes' Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Common all through the district. 

553bis.— Hypolais caligata,* Licht. The Booted 
Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. I did not discriminate this from the 
last, but it is probably equally common, as out of five specimens 
sent to Mr. Hume as rama, two turned out to belong to this 
species. 

554.— Phylloscopus tristis,* Blyth. The Browu 
Tree Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Fairly common everywhere in the 
district. 

559.— Phylloscopus nitidus,* Blyth The Bright 
Green Tree Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Not common. Only one specimen, 
obtained at Dhulia in October. 

563.— Reguloides occipitalis,* Jerd. The Large 
Crowned Tree Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. One specimen obtained at Dhulia in 
the beginning of November. 

bQbbis. — Reguloides humii,* .Brooks. Hume's 
Crowned Tree Warbler. 
Cold weather visitant. Common all through the district. 

581.— Sylvia jerdoni,* Blyth. The Eastern Black- 
capped Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Generally distributed through all the 
scrub jungle and lines of babool trees, but not common any- 
where. 

582.— Sylvia affinis,* Myth, The Allied White-throat. 

Cold weather visitant. Common among hedges and scrub 
jungles all through the district. 



310 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

582ter.— Sylvia althaea,* Hume. Hume's Allied 
White-throat. 

Cold weather visitant. Not as common as the last species. 

589— Motacilla maderaspatensis,* Gm. The Large 
Pied Wagtail. 
Permanent resident. Moderately common along all the 
rivers. Breeding in January and February. 

591iis. —Motacilla dukhunensis,* Syles. The Indian 
White-faced Wagtail. 
Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the district. 

592-Calobates melanope,* Pall. The Grey and 
Yellow Wagtail. 
Cold weather visitant. Common through the Satpuras, in 
Pimpaluir, and wherever there is running water. 

593.— Budytes cinereocapillus,* Sam. The Slaty- 
headed Field Wagtail. 
Cold weather visitant. Common all along the nullahs and 
rivers, and in every muddy place near a village. 

5936/s.— Budytes melanocephalus,* Licht. The 
Black-cap Field Wagtail. 
Cold weather visitant. Equally common with the last. 

5945 is— Budytes citreolus,* Pall. The Grey-back- 
ed Yellow Wagtail. 
Cold weather visitant. Very common in all suitable localities. 

597.— Anthus trivialis, Lin* The Tree Pipit. 

Cold weather visitant. Very common all through the district. 

600.— Cory dalla rufula,* Vieill. The Indian Tit 
Lark. 

Permanent resident. Moderately common through the dis- 
trict. I think however it is scarcer in the rains than in the 
other seasons. 

602.— Agrodoma campestris,* Lin. The Stone Pipit, 
A few specimens obtained at Dhulia in October. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 311 

604.— Agrodoma sordida,* Hiipp. The Brown Rock 
Pipit. 

Winter visitant. Scarce, but generally distributed through 
the stubble fields. 

631.— Zosterops palpebrosa,* Tern. The White-eyed 
Tit. 

This bird, which I found common all over the district where- 
ver there are groves or jungle during the cold and hot wea- 
ther, leaves Dhulia in the rains. It no doubt breeds iu the 
Satpuras aud other jungles at that season. 

645.— Parus nipalensis,* Hodgs. The Indian Grey- 
Tit. 

Probably a permanent resident. Common in the Satpuras, 
and generally through the district ; not noticed about Dhulia in 
the rains, at which season no boubt it breeds. 

648— Machlolophus aplonotus," Blytli. The South- 
ern Yellow Tit. 

Permauent resident. Common throughout the district. I saw 
a pair building in the hole of a large mango tree at Malpur in 
Pimpaluir in the end of May. 

660— Corvus macrorhynchus, Wagl. The Indian 
Carrion Crow. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the district, breed- 
ing in March, April aud May. 

663. — Corvus splendens,* Vieill. The Indian Grey- 
necked Crow. 

Permanent resident. Common ; breeding in May and June. 
674.— Dendrocitta rufa,* Scop. The Indian Magpie. 

Permanent resident. Common all over the wooded part of 
the district. Not common about Dhulia. It breeds abundantly 
in April in the Akrani, but I do not think it breeds in the 
plains. 

684. — Acridotheres tristis,* Lin. The Myna. 

Permanent resident. Common all through the district both 
in the plains and Satpuras. It breeds in June and July. 

40 



313 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

635.— Acridotheres ginginianus,* Lath. The 
Bank Myna. 

A winter visitant. Coming in October and leaving- early. It 
is not common. 

687. — Sturnia pagodarum,* Gm. The Black-headed 
Myna. 

Permanent resident. Very common through the Satpuras ; 
moderately common elsewhere. Breeds sparingly about Dliulia 
in the beginning of July. 

688.— Sturnia malabarica,* Gm. The Grey-headed 
Myna. 

Noticed in small flocks feeding on the flowers of the silk 
cotton tree iu the Satpuras in April. 

690. — Pastor roseus.* The Rosy Pastor. 

Cold weather visitant. Arrives early and stays till April. 
Very common everywhere iu the plains. 

694.- Ploceus philippinus,* Lin. The Weaver- 
bird. 

Permanent resident. Very common. Breeds abundantly 
round Uhulia iu August and September. 

699.— Amadina punctulata,* Lin. The Spotted 
Munia. 

Permanent resident ; local. A few seen in the Shada taluka 
below the Satpuras, in April. In June there were considerable 
flocks in Dhulia. These stayed till August when they scattered 
through the scrub jungle. They bred there, and I got a nest, 
at Arvee iu the south of Dhulia in September. 

703.— Amadina malabarica,* Lin. The Plain 
Brown Munia. 

Permanent resident. Common everywhere in the plains 
and scrub jungles. Breeds at all seasons. 

704.— Estrelda amandava,* Lin. The Red Wax- 
bill. 

Permanent resident; rather local. A large flock kept about 
the scrub jungle near Dhulia from May to September when 
they paired and bred all along the nullahs below the tanks at 
Mukhti and Gundoor. I also found it breediug abundantly 
along the Panjra in Pimpaluir aud between that and Dhulia 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 313 

in January. The nests are very well concealed, but the habit 
of the cock, of continually carrying straws to the nest while 
the hen is sitting, makes it easy to find the nests. 

? 705.— Estrelda formosa, Lath. The Green Wax- 
bill. 

I found considerable flocks of what I have no doubt was 
this bird, in the end of April, in the jungle along the Tapti 
in the extreme west of Taloda, and another small flock in 
May west of Naudurbar. On the first occasion I was following 
a wounded black buck and had only a rifle with me ; and on 
the second I was riding with no one with me. As I have never 
actually shot the bird in Khaudesh I enter it as doubtful. . 

706.— Passer domesticus,* Lin. The Sparrow. 

Permanent resident; common everywhere. 

711.— Gymnoris flavicollis,* Frankl. The Yellow- 
throated Sparrow. 

Permanent resident. It is the commonest bird in the Sat- 
puras, breeding in the hot weather. Out of at least a dozen 
nests of which I have notes, in only one case was there more 
than two eggs. It is found also through all the jungle districts. 

716— Emberiza buchanani,* Blyth. The Grey- 
necked Bunting. 

Cold weather visitant. Very common everywhere except 
in the thick jungles. 

721.— Euspiza melanocephala,* Scop, The Black- 
headed Corn Bunting. 

Cold weather visitaut. Very common in the fields all through 
the district. 

? 722. — Euspiza luteola, Sparrm. The Red-headed 
Corn Bunting. 

I believe I have seen this species in the cold weather, but I 
have never got any specimens. 

724.— Melophus melanicterus,* Gm. The Crested 
Black Bunting. 
Permanent resident. In the cold weather common all along 
the small rivers, and in the hot weather through the SatpuraS 
and other jungles. Breeds in the rains, several pairs breeding 
at Laling seven miles from Dhulia. 



314 BOUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

738.— Carpodacus erythrinus,* Fall. The Com- 
mon Rose Finch. 

Cold weather visitant. Common in the fields through Shada, 
Taloda and Nandurbar ; and noticed also in the other talukas. 

756. — Mirafra erythroptera,* Jerd. The Red-wing- 
ed Bush Lark. 

Permanent resident. Very common in Dhnlia, Pimpalnir, 
and Virdeil. Breeds from June to November ; all the many nests 
found by me were covered over with the entrance at the 
side. 

758. — Ammomanes phcenicura,* Frankl. The Ru- 
fous-tailed Finch Lark. 

Permanent resident. Common all along' the black soil dis- 
tricts, even in single fields among' the Satpuras. Numerous n^sts 
were found by me from the beginning of March to the end of 
April. 

760.— Pyrrhulauda grisea,* Scop. The Black- 
bellied Finch Lark. 

Permanent resident. Breeds from June to December. Very 
common in all the plains. 

761.— Calandrella brachydactyla,* Leisl. The 
Short-toed Lark. 

A very rufous form of this bird was common in the cold 
weather through the plains. I have seen flocks consisting of 
thousands. 

765.— Spizalauda deva,* Sykes. The Small Crown 
Crest Lark. 
Permanent resident. Moderately common in Virdeil, 
Dhulia and Pimpalnir ; beeding from July to October. 

773.— Crocopus chlorigaster, Blyth. The Southern 
Green Pigeon. 

Permanent resident. Found sparingly through the rains 
all over the district wherever there are groves. Iu the hot 
weather it leaves the plains for the Akrani, Satpuras, and the 
other forest tracts. It is common there, and breeds from 
February to May. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 315 

788.— Columba intermedia, Strickl. The Indian 
Blue Rock Pigeou. 

Permanent resident. Common all over the plains though 
not in the large numbers I have seen in parts of the Deccan ; 
found also on the rocky cliffs in the Satpuras. 

792. -Turtur pulchratus,"* Hodgs. The Indian 
Turtle Dove. 

Found by me during the cold and hot weather in moderate 
numbers, through the Akrani and Satpuras. I am inclined 
to think that this bird is a permanent resident. It certainly 
is fouud from December to the end of April, durino- which 
mouths only I have been in the Satpuras. I found one nest 
which I believe belonged to this species in the Satpuras in 
March. The nest was a mere platform of sticks, some 30 feet 
up a tree, and contained two fresh eggs. Unluckily I missed 
the bird as it flew off, and the light was so bad I could not 
absolutely be certain what bird it was. 

794.— Turtur senegalensis,* Lin. The Little Brown 
Dove. 

Permanent resident. Common all over the plains, but hardly 
entering the Satpuras. It breeds at all seasons. I have found 
three eg^s in the nest of this bird. 



on 



795.— Turtur suratensis/* Om. The Spotted Dove. 

Permanent resident. This is the Common Dove of the Sat- 
puras, breeding abuudantly in the hot weather there. I have 
noticed it all over the northern part of the district, and of 
course in Pimpalnir in the cold weather; and it visits Dhulia 
in the rains. 

796.— Turtur risorius, Lin. The Common Ring 
Dove. 

Permanent resident. Common all over the district. It 
breeds commonly at all seasons everywhere I have been both 
in the plains and in the Satpuras. 

797.— Turtur tranquebaricus/* Rerm. The Ruddy 
Riug Dove. 

Permanent resident ; very local. Breeds in the rains on 
babool trees adjoining tanks. 



■316 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KIIANDESH. 

800.— Pterocles fasciatus,* Scop. The Painted 
Sandgrouse. 

Permanent resident. Moderately common along the base of 
the Satpuras, and through all the scrub jungle in the Nandur- 
bar, Pimpalnir, Jamner and Dhulia talukas. It probably breeds 
at all seasons, as I have taken eggs in November, January, 
March, and May, in all cases fresh. 

802.— Pterocles exustus,* Tern. The Sandgrouse. 

Permanent resident. Common all through Khandesh except 
north of the Tapti. I have taken eggs at Naudurbar in 
February. 

803.— Pavo cristatus, Lin. The Pea Fowl. 

Permanent resident. Fairly common through the Akrani 
and Satpuras, and in Pimpalnir and .Nizampur. Scarce amongst 
the Dhulia hills. It is quite a forest bird here, and the natives 
do not venerate it at all. It lays in September aud October. 

813.— Gallus^ sonnerati, Tern. The Grey Jungle 
Fowl, 

Permanent resident ; rare ; and only found in the Akrani 
and along the valleys among the higher spurs of the Satpuras. 
I obtained eggs in the end of April. The Bheels catch both 
this bird and Pea Fowl, by simply running them down. This I 
have seen them do. They hear one call and scatter all over 
the adjoining forest for some hundred yards all round. One 
man then chases the bird, which flies two or three hundred 
yards, aud then settles. As there are a lot of men about, 
some one immediately starts it again, and on its settling a 
second or third time, it almost invariably runs to the nearest 
thick cane, generally "bom" reeds, where it allows itself to 
be caught. 

814.— Galloperdix spadiceus, Gm. The Red Spur- 
fowl. 

Permanent resident. Moderately common in the Satpuras, 
and iu the Pimpalnir hills. 

819.— Francolinus pictus,* Jard. and Selb. The 
Painted Partridge. 
Permanent resident. Very common all through the Satpuras, 
and moderately common wherever there is any forest or garden 
land. It breeds in September. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 317 

822.— Ortygornis pondicerianus, Gm. The Grey 

Partridge. 

Permanent resident. Common all over the district except 
in the Akrani and Satpuras, where I don't remember to have 
seen it. I have taken its eggs in, I think, every mouth except 
June and July. 

826.— Perdicula asiatica,* Lath. The Jungle 
Bush Quail. 

Permanent resident. Common in the Akrani, Satpuras, 
below the Pimpaluir Ghat and in West Nandurbar, and in 
short wherever there is heavy jungle. It was never observed 
to spread through the cultivation. I obtained eggs in October 
from the jungles north of Taloda. 

827.— Perdicula argoonda,* Syltes. The Rock 
Bush Quail. 

Permanent resideut. Abundant over all those parts of the 
district where asiatica is not found, and seeming to follow culti- 
vation everywhere. It is the only Bnsh Quail of Dhulia, 
Verdeil, Nizampur, and the plains. I have taken its eggs in all 
months but May, June, July and August. 

829.— Coturnix communis, Bonn. The Grey 
Quail. 

Cold weather visitant. Fairly numerous, and generally 
distributed. 

830.— Coturnix coromandelica,* Gm. The Rain 

Quail. 

Permanent resident. Oddly enough I have neither taken 
a nest, had the eggs brought to me, or seen young unable to 
fly. There were however a good many pairs along the nullahs 
near Dhulia in the rains, and I have seen and shot them all 
through the cold and hot weather. They were in great num- 
bers in the stubbles in Shada and Taloda in April lSb'O, and 
then afforded capital sport. 

832.— Turnix taigoor, Sykes. The Black Breasted 
Bustard Quail. 

Probably a permanent resident. It is however decidedly 
scarce. A few pairs bred round Dhulia in the rains, 
and I obtained a few eggs. I also saw it in Shirpur in the 
cold weather. 



318 ROUGH LTST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

834.— Turnix joudera, Hodgs. The Large Button 
Quail. 
Rare. The only specimen I saw T caught among some grass 
among the Satpuras. This was in March. 

835.— Turnix dussumieri, Tern. The Small Button 
Quail. 

Rare. A few specimens seen in the cold weather in 
Nizampur, and in the rains in Dlmlia. I obtained one nest in 
September. Probably they are commoner than I suppose 
as 1 beat few places for Quail. 

836.— Eupodotis edwardsi, J. E. Gr. The Indian 
Bustard. 

Moderately common in the hot and cold weathers in the 

plain along the Tapti, and in Pimpalnir and Nizampur. I 

have seen flocks of at least twenty birds iu the Nandurbar 
taluka. 

839.— Sypheotides aurita, Lath. The Lesser Elo- 
ricau. 

Breeds in moderate numbers in a few places in the district, 
round Dharamgaum in Erandole, near Kapurna in the north- 
west of Dlmlia, aud in a few other places. I have seen it 
occasionally in the cold weather in Nandurbar, but I think 
almost all the birds leave the district at the end of the rains. 

? 842.— Glareola orientalis, Leach. The Eastern 
Pratincole. 

Rare. In November 1879 there were a considerable flock 
of Pratincoles at Prakasha on the Tapti. They used to fly 
backwards and forwards along the Groma on the bank of which 
I was encamped in the evening. I stupidly neglected to pro- 
cure any specimens, so enter it as doubtful as it is just 
possible that the birds may have been G. pratincola. 

845.— Charadrius fulvus, Gm. The Eastern Golden 
Plover. 
Cold weather visitant ; rare. Only noticed by me on one or 
two occasions, and never in large flocks. 

850.— iEgialitis jerdoni,* Legge. The Lesser 
King Plover. 

Permanent resident. Common along all the rivers, and along 
the sides of the Mukhti tank. 1 took eggs oa the Tapti in 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 319 

March and April, and saw young newly hatched near Dhulia 
in May. The birds however breed much earlier, as I have seen 
them making nests in December and January. This is the 
only Ringed Plover I found in Khandesh. 

852 — Chettusia gregaria,* Pall. The Black-sided 
Lapwing. 

Cold weather visitant ; rare and local. Considerable flocks 
were scattered all through the stubbles around Shada in 
Februaiy 1881, and I have noticed it iu Nandurbar. 

853.— Chettusia villotsei.* The White-tailed Lap- 
wing. 
Cold weather visitant ; rare. Only noticed by me once in 
December 1880, at Nandurbar. There were four birds in all, 
very tame, and I shot three of them. 

855.— Lobivanellus indicus, Bodd. The Red-wat- 
tled Lapwing. 

Permanent resident. Very common all through the district. 
Breeds abundantly iu the hot weather and rains. 

856— Lobipluvia malabarica,* Bodd. The Yellow- 
wattled Lapwing. 

Permanent resident. Not common, but found sparingly in 
all talukas. Eggs were obtained by me both iu the rains and 
cold weather. 

858. — iEsacus recurvirostris,* Cuv. The Large Stone 
Plover. 

Permanent resident. Only noticed by me on the Tapti. It 

is abundant on the rocky islands below Prakasha, and four or 

five miles below Kukurmoonda. I obtained several eggs at 
the latter place in March 1881. 

859.— (Edicnemus scolopax,* S. G. Gm. The 
Stone Plover. 

Permanent resident. Not common, but generally distributed 
through the scrub jungle. 

863.— Grus antigone, Lin, The Sams. 

A straggler. A single specimen was noticed by me on April 
21st, 1881, on the south bauk of the Tapti. I have been told 
that a pair used to breed at a small tank among the hills in 
Nizampur, but in January 1881, when I visited it, there were 
none to be seen ; the tauk however was one exceptionally suited 

41 



320 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

for this bird, and I should not be surprised if they really bred 
there in the rains. 

?865.— Grus communis, Bechst. The Crane. 

I have been repeatedly told by officers that this Crane is 
common in the cold weather, and that they have often shot 
it. I do not remember ever seeing one myself, so enter the 
species as doubtful. 

866.— Anthropoides virgo, Lin, The Demoiselle 
Crane. 

Cold weather visitant. Abundant along the Tapti valley, 
and near Dhulia. In the middle of March 1880 large flocks 
passed north-east over the Satpuras, 

870.— Gallinago sthenura,* Kuhl. The Pintail 
Snipe. 

Winter visitant. Not as common as the next species, per- 
haps one sthenura being shot to every four coelestis. 

871.— Gallinago ccelestis,* Frenzl. The Common 
or Pantail Snipe. 

Winter visitant. Not common in Khandesh, but distributed 
through the rice fields and wherever marshy places exist. 
I saw a snipe, but I do not know of which species, as early 
as 14th September 1880. 

872. — Gallinago gallinula,* Lin. The Jack Snipe. 

Cold weather visitaut. Not as common as either of the 
other species. 

873.— Rhynchsea capensis, Lin. The Painted Snipe. 

Permanent resident. Not very common. Breeds iu April. 

875.— Limosa segocephala,* Lin. The Black-tailed 
Godwit. 

Cold weather visitant. Found along the Tapti and generally 
through the district, though it is by no means common. By 
the end of April, when it leaves, some of the birds are in full 
summer plumage. 

877.— Numenius lineatus, Cuv. The Curlew. 

Cold weather visitant ; rare. Only observed by me at the 
Mukhti tank in October. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 321 

880.— Machetes pugnax, Lin. The E,uff. 

Cold weather visitant; rare, and only noticed once or 
twice along the Tapti. 

884.— Tringa minuta,* Leisl. The Little Stint. 

Cold weather visitant. Is common along all the rivers. 

885.— Tringa temmincki,* Leisl. The White-tailed 
Stint. 

Cold weather visitant. Is probably fairly common. I did 
not discriminate this from the last, but there were two specimens 
of this (shot on the same day) among nine sent to Mr. flume 
as minuta. 

891.— Rhyacophila glareola,* Lin. The Spotted 
Sandpiper. 

Cold weather visitant. Fairly common along all the rivers. 

892.— Totanus ochropus,'* Lin. The Green Sand- 
piper. 

Winter visitant. Common than the last throughout the 
district. 

893— Tringoides hypoleucus,* Lin. The Sandpiper. 

Winter visitaut. Common throughout the district. 

894.— Totanus glottis," Lin. The Greenshank. 

Cold weather visitant. Very common everywhere. 

895.— Totanus stagnatilis,* Bechst. The Lesser 
Greenshank. 
Cold weather visitant. Scarce. 

897.— Totanus calidris, Lin. The Redshank. 

Cold weather visitant; rare. A single specimen seen by me 
at a small tank near Bhameir in January 1881. 

898.— Himantopus candidus,* Bonn. The Stilt. 

Cold weather visitant. Fairly common throughout the 
district. 

901.— Hydrophasianus chirurgus, Scop. The Pheas- 
sant-tailed Jacana. 

Probably a permanent resident. Not uncommon. I have 



322 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

noticed it on the tanks at Nizampur, at Gundoor near Dhulia, 
both in the cold weather and well on in the hot weather. There 
was very little rain about Dhulia in June, July, and August 
1880, and the tanks at Bhokar and Gundoor were dry, so there 
was no chance of birds breeding there that year. 

902— Porphyrio poliocephalus,* Lath. The Indian 
Purple Coot. 

Possibly a permanent resident; rare. Not noticed by me till 
July 1880, when I found three or four pairs among the reeds 
in the nullah between the Mukhti tank and the Pahjra; also 
a few along the Panjra. They were evidently breeding, but I 
fouud no nests. I noticed a pair in the Mukhti nullah iu May 
1881. 

903.— Fulica atra,* Lin. The Bald Coot. 

Cold weather visitant. Common on all theKhandesh tanks. 

905.— Gallinulla chloropus, Lin. The Water-hen. 

Cold weather visitant. Not common. 

907.— Erythra phcenicura/" Perm. The White- 
breasted Water-hen. 
Permanent resident I think, but am not sure. Common 
enough about Dhulia iu the rains. 

9 908— Porzana akool, Syhes. The Brown and 
Ashy Crake. 

I saw three or four Rails I believe of this kind, in a reedy 
place close to the village of Gundoor. This was in Octo- 
ber 1879. I did not unfortunately shoot a specimen, and never 
saw one since, the year 18S0 being such a dry season. 

909.— Porzana maruetta, Leach. The Spotted 
Crake. 
Cold weather visitant; rare. A single specimen shot at Gun- 
door in October 1879, while Snipe shooting. 

? 911.— Porzana, fusca, Lin. The Buddy Crake. 

A single specimen of what I believe to have been this bird 
got up at my feet while walking along the Mukhti nullah in 
September 1880. I however had no gun with me at the time, 
aud never saw it again. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 323 

915. — Leptoptilus argalus, Lath. The Adjutant. 

Winter visitant ; rare. I have only once come across it. 
This was in January 1881, in the north-west of Dhulia 
taluka, and it was fighting with a lot of Vultures over the car- 
case of a sheep. 

918. — Ciconia nigra, Lin. The Black Stork. 

Cold weather visitant. Not common, but noticed along the 
Goma in Shada, and along the Panjra. It is very shy and 
difficult to shoot. 

919 —Ciconia alba, Bechst. The White Stork. 

Cold weather visitant ; rare. I have only seen it twice, once 
in Nandurbar near the Tapti in April, and once at Gundoor in 
October. 

920.— Dissura episcopa, Bodd. The "White-necked 

Stork. 
Probably a permanent resident. Not common, but generally 
distributed in the cold and hot Weather. 

923.— Ardea cinerea, Lin. The Heron, 

Not uncommon. There are generally a few about at all 
seasons, but I do not believe they breed in the district. 

924.— Ardea purpurea, Lin. The Purple Heron. 

Not as common as cinerea, but still I have seen odd birds at 
all seasons. 

925.— Herodias torra, B. Hamilton. The Large 
Egret. 
Cold weather visitant. Not common I think. 

926. — Herodias intermedia, Rass. The Little White 
Heron. 

Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the district. It 
may breed, but I have found no nests. 

927.— Herodias garzetta,* Lin. The Little Egret. 

Permanent resident. Very common. Breeds along the 
Panjra in April. 

929.— Bubulcus coromandus, Bodd. The Cattle 
Egret. 
Probably a permanent resident ; breeding in the rains in 
Pimpaluir, where I fouud large flocks in May in breeding 
plumage. 



324 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDE8H. 

930.— Ardeola grayi, Sykes. The Indian Pond 
Heron. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the district. It 
breeds from May to July along the Panjra, aud probably 
elsewhere. 

931.— Butorides javanica,* Eorsf. The Little Green 
Bittern. 
Permanent resident. Not very common. 

? 933. — Ardetta cinnamomea, Gm. The Chestnut 
Bittern. 

I noticed a pair of what I believe were this species among 
some thick reeds along the Mukhti nullah in August 1880. 
I did not shoot them as I expected they would breed. They 
however disappeared. 

937.— Nycticorax griseus, Lin. The Night Heron. 

Probably a permanent resident. Common in Dhulia in the 
rains, and noticed in different parts of the district at all seasons. 

938.— Tantalus leucocephalus, Forst. The Pelican 
Ibis. 
A winter visitant. Not uncommon along the two larger 
rivers. 

939.— Platalea leucorodia, Lin. The Spoonbill. 

A winter visitant. Not common anywhere ; indeed I have 
only seen two or three pairs in the eighteen months I have been 
in Khaudesh. 

940.— Anastomus oscitans,* Bodd. The Shell 
Ibis. 
Cold weather visitant. Fairly common along the Tapti and 
in the northern part of the district. 

941.— Ibis melanocephala, Lath. The White Ibis. 

Cold weather visitant. Fairly common throughout the 
district, particularly in the upper parts of the Paujra in 
Pimpaluir. 

942.— Inocotis papillosus, Tern. The Black Ibis. 

Possibly a permanent resident; very local, and sparingly 
scattered through the district. 



ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 325 

943.— Falcinellus igneus,* S. G. Gm. The Glossy 
Ibis. 
Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the district; 

944.— Phcenicopterus roseus, Pall. The Flamingo. 

Cold weather visitant; scarce. I have only twice come 
across the bird, both times at Prakasha on the Tapti. In the 
first instance there were four or five immature birds feeding at 
the mouth of the Goma. This was in December 1880, and in the 
second there was a flock of over 200. This was in April 1880, 
and the birds were flying due west down the Tapti. 

950. — Sarcidiornis melanonotus,* Penn. The Comb 
Duck. 

A mere straggler. A single specimen was seen and obtain- 
ed by me at Til tana in Nizampur in February 1880. 

951.— Nettapus coromandelianus, Gm. The Cotton 
Teal. 

Also a straggler. A small flock were seen by me at Tiltana 
on the same occasion as I procured the Nukhta. 

954. — Casarca rutila, Pall. The Ruddy Shieldrake. 

Cold weather visitant. Common on all the rivers. I have 
noticed them on the Tapti as late as April 20th and as early 
as October. 

957.— Spatula clypeata,* Lin. The Shoveller. 

Cold weather visitant. Common along all thd rivers and 
in all the tanks. There were considerable flocks about Dhulia 
as late as 7 th May 1881. 

959.— Anas pcecilorhyncha, Forst. The Spot-bill 
or Grey Duck. 

A straggler; only noticed once on the Tapti in April. There 
were three birds, but I failed to secure one. 

961.— Chaulelasmus streperus,* Lin. The Gad- 
wall. 

Cold weather visitant. This is much the commonest Duck 
in Khandesh, and arrives early. I saw a pair on the Tiltana 
tank in Nizampur as late as 25th April, but one was evidently 
a cripple. 



326 ROUGH LIST OF THE BIRDS OF WESTERN KHANDESH. 

962.— Dafila acuta,* Lin. The Pintail. 

Cold weather visitant ; common. I saw the latest, a single 
bird, on 9th April 1881, on the Tapti. 

963.— Mareca penelope, Lin. The Wigeon. 

Cold weather visitant. Fairly common throughout the 
district. 

964. — Querquedula crecca, Lin. The Common Teal. 

Winter visitant. Very common wherever there is any water. 
I saw a considerable flock on 19th September 1880. 

965. — Quequedula circia,* Lin. The Garganey. 

Winter visitant; also very common. There were large flocks 
at Dhulia in the beginning of May 18 81, and I saw a single bird 
there as late as May 10th. 

968.— Fuligula ferina, Lin. The Pochard. 
Winter visitant ; rare. Only noticed by me at Tiltana. 

969. — Fuligula nyroca, * Qiild. The White-eyed 
Pochard. 
Winter visitant ; common on all the tanks. 

971. — Fuligula cristata,* Lin. The Tufted Pochard. 

Winter visitant. Fairly common aud generally distributed. 

975. — Podiceps minor, Gm. The Little Grehe. 

Permanent resident ; common. I found a number of nests 
with fresh eggs in a small tank in the Virdeil taluka in Novem- 
ber 1880, but that year there had been ver*/ little rain in the 
early part of the monsoon, and the tanks had never filled. 

982.— Sterna caspia,* Pall. The Caspian Tern. 

A straggler. I shot one in May on the Mukhti tank, and 
have seen them at other seasons. 

985. — Sterna seena,* Sykes. The Large River Tern. 
A straggler. Occasionally seen in the cold aud hot weather 
along the Tapti and Panjra. 

987.— Sterna melanogastra, Tern. The Black-bellied 
Tern. 
1 have seen a few occasionally along the rivers, but it is 
not common. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 327 

? 1004.— Pelicanus philippensis, Gm, The Grey 
Pelican. 

I found eight Pelicans, I believe, of this species, at the 
Mukhti tank in the beginning of May 1881. I could not 
get near enough to procure a specimen. 

1006.— Phalacrocorax fuscicollis,* Steph. The Les- 
ser Cormorant. 

Both this and the next species are very common along the 
Panjra, and also fairly common along both the Goma and Tapti. 
I think I have seen them in large flocks at all seasons, but 1 
have never seen any signs of their breeding. 

1007.— Phalacrocorax pygmaeus,* Fall The Little 
Cormorant. 

Equally common with the larger species. 

1008.— Plotus melanogaster, Fenn. The Indian 
Snake Bird. 

Probably a permanent resident. Moderately common on all 
pieces of water, 



MUn h tfa (Mtior. 

Sir, 

I request permission to correct an inadvertent error 
in my letter, printed in Stray Feathers, Vol. X., p. 159. 

I there said that all the 23 specimens of Buteo desertorum 
preserved in the Norwich Museum have the wing measurement 
over 14 inches, but I ought to have limited this statement to 
20 out of the 23, as three of the smaller specimens mentioned in 
the succeeding paragraph also form part of the series in the 
Museum at Norwich. 

I am, yours, &c, 

J. H. GURNEY. 



Sip., 

By to-day's post I have sent you the skin of a female 
Circus melanoleucus. No mistake about the sex. It was flying 
past the bungalow with some bird in its claws, and it was 
more to find out what it had caught that I shot it. Taking 



328 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

it to be a male I got the boy to rip open its stomach, when, 
to my astonishment, I found it was a female. I had it skinned 
just to let you see that the sex does, at times, assume the 
male plumage. It was very thin, but did not appear to be 
sickly. It bad robbed the nest of Sturnopastor contra of a 
young one. 

J. R. Cripps. 

Borbam, Assam. 

[I am puzzled with this skin. It seems to me too small for a female — 
wing barely 14 inches ; tarsus, 3*17 at the outside. Most of our ascer- 
tained young females are larger, and this must be a very old bird. The 
plumage only differs from that of the normal adult male in having the 
winglet, primary greater coverts, and secondaries a dark iron grey instead 
of a more or less silvery grey, but I have seen males showing this same 
variation — Ed., S. F.J 



Sir, 

Another bird to record from Sind, viz., 631. — Zosterops 
palpebrosus. * Mr. J. Cumming shot it in the Lyaree Gardens, 
and sent it to me to-day. It is a young bird, and I have no 
doubt, after seeing the eggs collected by Mr. Cumming last 
year at about the same time, that the species breeds in Sind. 
The eggs shown to me as having been taken last year are a 
very pale blue. The specimen answers Jerdon's description 
very well, except that it is about one-eighth smaller in size. 
The wings too are smaller, the under wing-coverts and abdomen 
bare. 

J. Murray, 

Curator, Frere Museum, 

Karachi. 

* See for distribution in Western India, III., p. 491.— Ed. S. P. 



32 

it 
to 

J u 
m: 
sic 



B( 



tai 

pit 
wii 
of 
vai 



Si 

pa 
an 
do 

y e 

Tt 

ve 
ve 
Tb 
ba 



ROUGH SKETCH MAP 
to illustrate Mr. W. Davison's 
paper on the Birds of the Nilghiris, 
the Wynaad, and closely adjacent 
portions of the Bramagherriea and 
Mysore. 

The dolled line* indicate the 
author't eourie. 




20 




K 



wm 



^ 



STRAY FEATHERS. 



Vol. X.] MARCH 1883. [No. 5. 

Jtotes 011 some Dints rottccted on the Jtitghtris and 
in parte of 'ciatnnaad and Southern $Rjjfurr& 

By William Davison. 



The following notes on a collection of birds from part of 
Southern India ought to have appeared long ere this, but a 
serious illness prevented my writing it before, and even now 
that it is done, I feel that it is far from satisfactory. 

Finding myself on the Nilghiris in March 1881, and having 
some time to spare, it struck me that it, would be a good thing 
to try and procure specimens of Trochalopterum jerdoni, and 
clear up the question whether it really was distinct from 
T. fairbanki, or not. 

I left Ootacamund for the Wynaad on the 23rd of March, 
and returned to Ootacamund on the last day of May, so that 
my trip occupied two months and a few days. 

I marched very slowly, and collected all the birds of interest 
I came across. I also kept a careful daily journal, in which I 
entered everything of interest, and, as far as I could, carefully 
noted the occurrence of birds of which I did not actually 
procure specimens. 

I have endeavoured in the paper to make the list of birds as 
complete as possible, but it is notwithstanding I know sadly 
incomplete, and this is due to several reasons. It is impossible, 
in the short space of two months, to get anything like a com- 
plete knowledge of the avifauna of as large a tract as that 
embraced in this paper. The time of year was bad. When I 
started the country was all dried up, and by the time I 
returned the rains had rendered travelling anything but easy 
or pleasant, added to which it was the most sickly time of the 
year as I found to my cost. 

However, I succeeded in the chief object of my journey, 
which was to procure Trochalopterum jerdoni. I got twelve fine 
specimens, and though I did not procure them actually in the 
same locality as Dr. Jerdon did, I got them on the Brama- 

42 



330 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

gherries, a range of hills separating Coorg from the Wynaad, 
and only about 20 miles in a direct line from Banasore (or more 
correctly perhaps Balasore), the peak where Jerdon procured his 

It will be found in the paper that I have omitted birds which 
must occur. For instance, I have not entered any of the white 
Egrets. These I have omitted, because I was unable to identify 
the species with certainty. I did not during this trip procure 
any specimens, but I saw white Egrets on several occasions ; the 
same with Dendrocygna. A Dendrocygna occurs on the Gundalu- 
pet lake, but not having procured specimens lately, I could not 
venture now, at this distance of time, (it is about 12 years 
since I was last duck-shooting there) to state whether it was 
D. major or D. javanica, though from what I can remember 
I think it w r as the former ; possibly both species occur. 

I had intended to have given a description of the country 
passed through, but this is, 1 think, hardly necessary, and will 
only tend to make the paper unnecessarily long. There will 
be hardly any of my readers who do not know what the Nil- 
ghiris are like, undulating grassy hills, with the ravines between 
the hills filled with strips of evergreen forest, mostly small, 
called sholas. Sometimes, however, the forest does not confine 
itself to the ravine, but spreads over the hills on either side 
more or less, sometimes covering several hills, and thus forming 
an extensive forest. Most of the sholas have a stream running 
through them, and nearly all tail oft* in a marsh. Most of the 
forests are evergreen, the undergrowth consisting chiefly of 
SlrobilantheSj and easy enough to get about in, but often the 
undergrowth consists of a thin bamboo, about the thickness of 
one's finger. 

As one gets down the slopes, the evergreen forests give way 
to a great extent, to deciduous trees and large bamboos, 
especially one very thorny kind, and the jungle becomes thin. 
This is chiefly on the Seegore and Coonoor side of the hills. 
But on the Neddivuttum side, the ghat leading into the Wynaad, 
the evergreen forests continue much lower, being somewhat 
broken about Goodalore, but soon recommencing. 

The Wynaad of course is now, to a very great extent, denuded 
of its forests, plantations of coffee and chinchona having taken 
their place, but large extents of forests are still existent, chiefly 
on the ghats overlooking the low country towards Calicut. 

A bird's-eye view of Wynaad would show it as a country 
of innumerable little hills, with marshy ground between the 
hills, the hills mostly cultivated with coffee, &c, many still 
covered with forest, aud the marshy ground between mostly 
under rice cultivation. 



AND IN PARTS OF WINAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 331 

Passing from the Wynaad to the Mysore country, the 
character of the vegetation continues much the same up to 
Ram pore, on the line of division between Mysore and the 
Wynaad. From here the country begins again gradually to 
change, the soil becoming sandy, and the trees stunted, especially 
teak and blackwood when they occur ; still further on it 
changes still more, all forest disappearing, and thorny scrub 
taking its place; the soil gets more sterile and rocky, till near 
Gundalupet it becomes very rocky indeed. The country about 
Bandipur though is different, consisting of open jungle with 
fine grassy glades, and only here and there in the ravines dense 
scrub and bamboo, and so it contiuues for most of the way till 
Goodalore is again reached. 

To Mr. Rhodes Morgan I am greatly indebted, and it is 
mainly owing to his assistance that I was enabled to procure 
specimens of T. jerdoni, and I have to thank Mr. Hume for 
his kindness in verifying in many cases my identifications. 
All the birds collected during the trip are now in Mr. Hume's 
Museum. 

[Mr. Davison enumerates 281 species. Of these, 4.— Gyps 
indiciiS) and, 986. — Sterna JIuviatilis, probably should stand as, 
4 bis. — G. pallesceiis, aud 987 bis. — Sterna albigena. 135 guat.— 
Alcedo beavani, is doubtful, and probably, if identical with the 
Travancore bird, should bear a distinct name. As for 105. — 
Batrachostomus moniliger, there is really no good reason for 
believing that it occurs on the Nilghiris. I have added in 
brackets 50 species* that I know to have occurred within the 
limits to which Davison's list refers ; and there are fully an 
equal number of species which I am quite sure must occur 
there, but in regard to which I have no certain record, at least 
on which I can at the moment lay my hands. One point has 
to be remembered: Davison's trip in the low country was very 
hurried, and was made during April and May after all the 
migratory ducks, &c, had left, so that, despite his long and 
accurate knowledge of the Upper Nilghiri birds, it is not sur- 
prising that his list (written away from the museum, and 
when he was ill) should contain only, say, 280, out of a 
probable total (in round numbers) of 400 species. — Ed., S. E\] 



2.— Otogyps calvus, Scop. The Black Vulture. 

As Vultures count this species is not abundant on the 
Nilghiris, for, when perhaps as many as forty or fifty other 

* Since this has been in type, Mr. Davison himself, in correcting the proofs, hn§ 
confirmed from his own expel ience the occurrence of 8 or 10 of theso 6u species.. — liv. 



332 NOTES ON SOMR BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

Vultures may be congregated near a body, only two or tliree, 
seldom indeed as many as half a dozen, of this species, will be 
found with the mob. At other times they are met with singly 
or in pairs. 

On two occasions I hnve come across this Vulture feeding 
on carrion hid away in the depth of heavy forest. Once was 
in Bunnah, when in company with Mr. A. L. Hough, 
ascending the Pakchan, we came across one tearing at the 
bodv of a freshly killed muggur. In this case the body lay 
on a tiny sandbank abutting on the bank of the stream ; and, 
although visible from the canoes, was so overshadowed by the 
dense vegetation growing on the bank as to be, I should 
think, quite invisible from a height of even five or six feet. 
The other occasion was on the Nilghiris ; walking up the bed 
of a stream in a thick shola, I flushed one otf the putrid remains 
of what appeared to be the body of a dog or jackal ; but as the 
body was partiallj r submerged, and the smell intolerable, I did 
not stop to make sure. The repast to that Vulture was no 
doubt extremely nice to judge from the reluctance with which 
it quitted it. It was facing me, and must have seen me when I 
was 30 yards away ; yet I approached within ten yards and 
then stood, but it took no apparent notice of me. But on one 
of my dogs putting in an appearance, it (the Vulture and not 
the dog) took a couple of ungainly hops towards me. Rising 
with a lumbering flight it passed over my head at a height of 
about six feet, into the open, through a break in the trees. 

In my trip through the Wynaad and part of Mysore I saw 
it but twice to identify it with certainty — once at Goodalore 
and once at Sultan's Battery. 

I too have noticed what Jerdon says about the fear shown 
by Gyps bengalensis and G. indicus of this species. 

4. — Gyps indicus, Scop. The Long-billed Brown 
Vulture. 

5.— Pseudogyps bengalensis, Gm. The White-backed 
Vulture. 

Both these species* occur on the Nilghiris and its slopes, and 
through the Wynaad. The former is, comparatively, not very 
common, especially on the Nilghiris, where I have only noticed 
it occasionally. The latter is abundant everywhere. 



* I thiuk it very doubtful whether the Nilghiri bird is indicus; it is more probablj 
pallescens. — Ed., S. Jf, 



AND IN PARTS OP WTNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 333 

6. — Neophron ginginianus, Lath. The Indian 
Scavenger Vulture. 

Tin's species is very abundant on tlie Nilghiris, but especially 
so within the station of Ootacamund and about the Badaga 
villages in its vicinity. 1 found it also common on the slopes, 
and over those portions of the Wynaad that I traversed. It 
is a fearless bird, and allows of a very near approach, especially 
when feeding. They breed about the numerous cliffs on the 
Kilg[hiris and their slopes. A pair bred for many years on the 
cliffs just above the last toll-bar into Ooty on the Coonoor road, 
but they have deserted the 9pot for many years now. They 
always used the same nest, merely adding to it year by year, 
till at last it became so high that I, who yearly ascended to 
take the eggs, could barely look into it when standing on the 
ledge, so thinking the best thing to do was to remove the 
entire structure, 1 did so, hoping they would commence afresh, 
but they never returned to the spot afterwards. 

[8. — Falco peregrinus, Tunst. The Peregrine. 

Has been killed in the Wynaad, near Sultan's Battery. — 
A 0. H.] On the 24th of January last 1 saw a pair of 
Peregrines close to Ootacamund ; they passed close enough for 
me to identify them with certainty. — W. D. 

9. — Falco peregrinator, Sund. The Shaheen. 

This Falcon is rare on the Nilghiris and its slopes ; in former 
years I have noticed it occasionally. On the 26th of March 
last, half way between Neddivuttum and Goodalore, one passed. 
me with great velocity, and made a stoop at a number of 
Acridotheres mahrattensis perched on a small dead tree, but, as 
far as I could see, without success. It did not return but kept 
on its course towards a cliff about half a mile distant, among 
the crags of which I saw it finally disappear. 

[11.— Falco jugger, J. E. Gray. The Laggar. 

Has occurred in S. W. Mysore, close to Gudalupet. — A. O. H.] 

? 14. — Falco severus, Borsf. The Indian Hobby. 

I enter this species as an inhabitant of the Nilghiris with 
doubt. I have never shot it, nor have I lately seen it, but 
about ten years ago, when 1 was living at Neddivuttum, I, on 
several occasions, noticed a pair of small blackish Falcons with 
dark ruddy underparts frequenting the ibex rocks near Pykarra. 
They were too small for Falco perigrinator, and I cauuot think 
what else they could have been if not F. severus.* 

* Which occurs in the Travancere hills, vide " S. F.," IV, 354. — E»., S. F. 



334 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

[16. — Falco chiquera, Doud. The Turum-tee. 

Has occurred at the base of the Nilghiris on the Bangalore 
road, and doubtless throughout the low country. — A. 0. H.] 

17.— Cerchneis tinnunculus, Lin. The Kestrel. 

I obtained specimens of both races of the Kestrel on the 
Nilghiris — the pale migratory race and the dark rufous resident 
race. The dark resident race is not confined to the Nilghiris, 
but spreads through the Wynaad. I shot one near Karote at the 
foot of the Banasore Peak, and saw a couple of others on the 
Bramagherries. 

I think it not improbable that Dr. Jerdon was in error in 
stating that he found the Lesser Kestrel breeding on cliffs on the 
Nilghiris ; he probably mistook it for the resident race of the 
common Kestrel, which does breed on cliffs, &c. A pair have, 
for many years, as long as I can remember, frequented and 
yearly bred on the cliffs at the entrance to Ootacamuud from 
Coonoor. This year (January 1883) they are still there. 

The resident race is common on the Nilghiris and their 
slopes, frequenting the more open and cultivated tracts. They 
feed chiefly on reptiles, but occasionally at any rate on birds. 
I have seen one pounce down, seize and carry off a Quail 
(Microperdix erythrorhynchus). 

22.— Astur trivirgatus, Tern. The Southern-crested 
Goshawk. 

This species is not common on the Nilghiris and its slopes, 
but occurs somewhat more numerously in parts of the Wynaad. 
As a rule it keeps to the forest or its outskirts, but I have, on 
several occasions, seen it frequenting isolated trees on grassy 
land. It preys largely on small birds, but also seizes lizards 
and locusts. It is very quick and sure in its movements. On 
two occasions I have seen Hypsipetes ganeesa seized by it in 
thick jungle. It is not a shy bird, and when it has seized any 
prey it allows of a very near approach. Jerdon says that "it 
is not very rare in the Nilghiris, and occasionally commits 
depredations on pigeons, chickens, &c.' } It may not have been 
rare on the Nilghiris when he wrote, but my own experience 
is that in three or four mouths hard collecting on the Nilghiris 
one may secure two or three specimens during that time, 
whereas in the Wynaad, beetweeu Nellacotta and Devala, I 
have seen as many as five in one morning. As to its depreda- 
tions among pigeons and chickens, I have never seen it come 
about houses. The bird that does commit sad havoc in poultry 
yards and dovecots is Bonelli's Eagle (JNisaetus fasciatus). 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 335 

The following' are the dimensions and colours of soft parts 
of a fine male shot in the cardamum forests, Peria, Wynaad, 
on the 2nd of May 1881 :— 

Male. — Length, 15 - 0; expnnse, 27*3 ; tail, 6*8; wing, 8*2; 
tarsus, 22 ; bill from gape, 1*1 ; weight, 8 ozs. I rides orange; 
legs and feet chrome yellow ; claws, upper mnndible, edges 
and tip of lower mandible black ; rest of lower mandible 
plumbeous blue; gape, cere, edges of eyelids and facial skin 
greenish yellow. 

23.— Astur badius, Gm. The Shikra. 

This species is not uncommon on the plateau of the Nilghiris, 
but occurs more commonly on the slopes of the hills and in the 
Wynaad. 

24. — Accipiter nisus, Lin. The Sparrow Hawk. 

A winter visitant, and occurring sparingly on the hills. 
A female shot at Ootacamund on the 7th of February 1881 is 
undistinguishable from many European specimens, showing 
no approach to melaschistus. 

25.— Accipiter virgatus, Reinw. The Besra. 

This species is rare on the Nilghiris. I obtained a couple on the 
Coouoor Glint, and have seen it several times in the same loca- 
lity. I did not meet with it in the Wynaad or the Mysore 
country. It is a forest-loving bird, keeping to the forest or its 
outskirts, and never, that I am aware, coming any distance into 
the open. I have occasionally seen it taking short circling 
flights above the tree tops, but usually it keeps low down, on 
the lower branches of the larger trees, or in the undergrowth, 
taking short rapid flights from tree to tree, generally giving 
itself a shake on alighting. It is very watchful and difficult to 
approach once it suspects danger. One specimen I shot, a 
male, had seized a Carpodacus erytkrinus, and in its stomach I 
found the remains of a green tree-lizard and a black wood- 
beetle. It is, I think, a very silent bird, and only once have I 
heard its note — a rather prolonged soft double whistle, rather 
an odd note for a Hawk. It is I think a permanent resident, 
but I have never found its nest. 

[31.— Hieraetus pennatus, Gm. The Booted Eagle. 

Not uncommon in the Wynaad, from which I received a pair 
many years ago. — A. O. H.] 

32.— Neopus malayensis, Reimo. The Black Eagle. 

This fine Eagle is not uncommon on the Nilghiris and its 
slopes. Jerdon has so well and fully described its habits that I 






336 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

liave nothing to add, except that I can, with certainty, speak of 
its, occasionally at any rate, feeding" on reptiles, as I have found 
the remains of a small snake in one. 

33. — Nisaetus fasciatus, Vieill Bonelli's Eagle. 

This Eagle is not very rare on the Nilghiris and its slopes, 
and I have also seen it in the plains country at the foot of the 
hills. It is very bold, and commits great havoc among domestic 
pigeons. I have seen one pounce down and carry off a 
large-sized English hen that certainly must have weighed as 
heavy as it did itself; and on another occasion I saw one make 
two unsuccessful stoops at a hare, striking it, however, the third 
time. Usually it is seen in pairs, and I have not unfrequently 
seen a pair circling at a considerable height over the station 
of Ootacamund. 

[35.— Limnaetus cirrhatus, Gm. The Crested Hawk 
Eagle. 
Certainly occurs not only on the Nilghiris themselves, whence 
I have had specimens, but also in the Wynaad and S. W. 
Mysore. — A. 0. H.] 

36.— Limnaetus nipalensis, Eodgs. Hodgson's 
Hawk-Eagle. 

I know of but one specimen of this species obtained on the 
Nilghiris, and that was given to me in June 1872 for Mr. 
Hume by Mr. F. L. Chapman of Ootacamund.* This species 
is always, as pointed out by Mr. Hume {vide S. P., I., 319), 
distinguished at once from the other Indian Hawk-Eagles by 
the feathering of the tarsi running down beyond the first 
joint of the mid toe. 

I once at Neddivuttum saw a large crested Hawk-Eagle 
perched on a tree by the roadside, which was probably also 
of this species. 

39. — Spilornis cheela, Lath. The Indian Harrier- 
Eagle. 
I obtained one specimen of this species, a female, at Kullar, 
at the foot of the Coonoor Ghat on the 1st of February 1881. 
The wing measured 18*5 inches. This species I should say 
is very rare in Southern India. 



* I cannot now find this skin, and I cannot, therefore, be sure that this specimen 
did not belong to the southern form called S. kelaarti by Major Legge.— Ed., ci. F. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 337 

39bis.— Spilornis melanotis, Jerd. The Southern 
Indian Harrier-Eagle. 

Neither this nor the former species occurs on the higher 
portions of the Nilghiris ; but I have on two occasions seen a 
Harrier-Eagle at Coonoor, but too far off to identify the species; 
they were probably of the present, and not the preceding- 
species. The present species I have seen but seldom on the 
lower portion of the slopes, but it is not uncommon at 
the foot of the hills and through the Wynaad. Its habits 
and note are the same as those of the other species of the 
genus, perching, by preference, on some huge dead tree from 
whence it can see over the surrounding country for a Ion a- 
distance. It preys on lizards, snakes, and, as 1 found, on small 
laud tortoises as well. When seated, it is as a rule silent; 
occasionally as it hikes flight it utters its wild plaintive note, 
but it is when circling far overhead that its cry is most 
frequently heard. I have usually found them singly, occa- 
sionally in pairs, and once I saw four together circling high 
in the air. It sometimes eats its prey on the ground where 
it has seized it instead of carrying it away to some neighbour- 
ing tree. 

The following are the dimensions, &c, of two fine adult 
females shot in the Wynaad : — 

No. 1, female ad : Ne.llacotta, 30th of March 1881.— Length, 
24-2; expanse, 48 5; tail, 110; wing, 156; tarsus, 36 ; Tbill 
from gape, 1*75 ; weight, 225 lbs. 

No. 2, female ad : Nellacotta, 28th March 1881.— Length, 
245; expnuse, 54 ; tail, 110; wing, 154; tarsus, 345; bill 
from gape, 1*8; weight, £-12 lbs. B'acial skin, legs, and feet 
chrome yellow ; irides bright yellow ; bill plumbeous; tip of 
lower mnndible, and apical half of upper mandible, dull black. 

No. 1 has the ear-coverts and sides of face behind the eve 
and the throat almost black. The upper breast is a very dark 
brown, gradually paling towards the abdomen. The feathers 
of the upper and lower breast are fringed paler owing to the 
abrasion of the ends of the feathers. There is absolutely no 
trace of barring anywhere on the lower surface. 

No. 2 has the sides of the face and ear-coverts blackish 
brown, but the throat is unicolorous with the breast, which is 
somewhat of a lighter shade than in No. 1. On the abdomen 
there are a very few indistinct traces of cross barring on 
the feathers, but otherwise the lower surface is unbarred. 
Both these specimens were sexed by myself, and I am per- 
fectly sure that both were females. In No. 2 the ovaries were 
well developed, the largest egg being nearly the size of a 
waluut. 

43 



338 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRtS 

I may mention that I observed tbat tins species iu tire 
Wynaad appeared to frequent by preference those tracts of 
country covered with bamboo, and interspersed with grassy 
glades, with here and there isolated trees or small clumps of 
these. When I observed it near any extensive forest it was on 
the outskirts. 

? 47. — Buteo plumipes, Hoclgs. The Harrier Buzzard. 

I saw a specimen, a Buzzard, in the dark fuliginous plumage 
of plumipes in a swamp within the station of Ootacamund, 
but having no gun with me at the time I failed to secure it. 
In former years, when resident on the Nilghiris, I have seen 
Buzzards on several occasions, but the genus is rare on the 
Nilghiris. 

? 47 bis. — Buteo desertorum. The African Buzzard. 

Male. — Bramagherries, 16th April 1882. 'Length, 190 ; ex- 
panse, 44'0 ; tail, 7*4 ; wing, 134 ; tarsus, 2*6 ; bill from gape, 
15 ; weight, 1*25 lbs. Legs, feet, cere, gape yellow ; claws and 
bill black; lower mandible plumbeous at base: irides whitey 
brown. 

This, the only specimen of a Buzzard that I. obtained, has 
been referred to desertorum by Mr. Hume, in whose view Mr. 
Gurney concurs.* The type of colouration more nearly 
approaches that of plumipes than of desertorum. I have, how- 
ever, I should note, never seen a specimen of desertorum., and 
judge entirely by the figures in Le Vaillant, Bree and Dresser. 
Among our large series of plumipes there are several which 
very closely approach my specimen in colouration. But what 
has led to our assigning the bird to desertorum rather than to 
plumipes is its size, the wing measuring only 13'4. 

In 34 specimens of plumipes, the measurements of which are 
recorded by Mr. Hume (S. F.,IV., 361, and V., 348), the wing 
varies from 1 4*3 iu the smallest male to 159 in the largest 
female. Iu our museum is quite a young bird from Cashmere 
with the nestling down still adhering to the feathers, and in 
this the wiug is 142, although its bill, tarsi aud feet are smaller 
than in my specimen. 

51. — Circus macrurus, S. G. Gm. The Pale Harrier. 

This Harrier is a cold weather visitant, only, to the Nilghiris, 
comiug in about the end of October, and I have seen it as late 
as the last week in April. 

It is very abundant, frequenting, by preference, the cultivated 
land about the Badaga villages, but also found commouly about 

* Vide ant$, p. 159. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 339 

the bare grassy hills and swamps. It avoids thickly-wooded 
ground. It'feeds chiefly on reptiles and field mice, but also ou 
birds. I saw one carry off a Myna (Acridotheres mahrattensis) 
from out of a flock of about thirty that were feeding on the 
ground. I followed the Harrier up and shot it ; the Myna was 
quite dead, but in excellent condition, but it was blind of one 
eye. I have also found the remains of young Quail (III. 
erythrorhynchus) in the stomach of one shot near Coouoor. 

The following are the dimensions, &c, of three nearly adult 
females:— Length, 20-0 to 20'5 ; expanse, 44*1) to46"5 ; tail, 9'3 
to 106 ; wing, 140 to 14'7 ; tarsus, 2 - 8 to 3"0 ; bill from gape, 
1*3 to 1*35 ; weight, 15 to 16ozs. 

Irides bright yellow ; legs and feet chrome yellow ; cere 
greenish ; claws black ; bill plumbeous, shading to black at tip. 

Jerdon, in his description of the female of this species, says : 
" Beneath dark ochraceous, with brown streaks continued ou 
the lower tail-coverts, &c" Now the lower surface is not always 
dark ochraceous ; in two out of my three females, which are all 
very nearly adult, the lower surface is white, broadly streaked 
with brown iu one, narrowly in the other. In the third speci- 
men the lower surface is a pale ochraceous buff similarly 
streaked. 

In the .young male, which is not described by Jerdon, the 
lower surface is what I should call a warm ochraceous buff, 
this colour extending in a narrow somewhat interrupted band 
completely round the ueck ; a supercilium, a streak below the 
eye, and a fringing to all the wing-coverts, and some of the 
tertiaries, are of this same colour ; the outermost three tail 
feathers on each side on their upper surfaces are ochraceous, 
broadly transversely banded with dull black ; the other tail 
feathers arehair brown, with a silvery grey shade towards their 
bases, indistinctly transversely banded with black, and with a 
broad subterminal black baud which is very narrowly fringed 
with ochraceous. The rest of the upper surface is a warm hair 
brown, darkest ou the head. 

53. — Circus melanoleucus, Venn. The Pied Harrier. 

The Pied Harrier occurs but sparingly ou the Nilghiris, their 
slopesj and iu the Wynaad. The young are I think more often 
seen than adults. In habits and food this species does not 
differ from the preceding, and like it, it is of course only a cold 
weather visitant. A young male, shot near Manantodd}', iu the 
Wvnaad, was in the transition stage to the adult plumage, show- 
ing a mottling of black feathers on the head, neck, mantle, 
sides of face, and throat. 



340 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS* 

54.— Circus seruginosus, Lin. The Marsh Harrier. 

This Harrier is not uncommon on the Nilghiris and their 
slopes. Usually it keeps about marshy ground, but not un fre- 
quently it may be seen hunting over the grassy side of a hill, 
or dry cultivated ground. It is a bold fearless bird, and I have 
on more than one occasion seeu one strike at wounded Snipe 
and Quail. Young birds are much more commonly met with 
than adults. 

55. — Haliastur'indus, Bodd. The Brahminy Kite. 

This species is not very numerous on the Nilghiris. It is 
much more common in the Wynaad, and one or more may be 
found in almost every paddy-field. Jerdon has given such an 
excellent description of the habits, &c, of this bird, that 
I can add nothing. A few pairs may always be found about 
the swampy shores of the lake at Ootacamund. If the nest or 
eggs of this species are touched, often, if the nest is merely 
looked into, the birds will, as a rule, forsake the nest, breaking 
any eggs that there are iu it. 
(/ 

56.— Milvus govinda, Sykes. The Pariah Kite. 

From December till the commencement of the rains in 

June this species is common about Ootacamund, but very few 
»... \ i....: a... q \\t tvi t i ___..• i xt 



J* 

are to be seeu during the S. W. Monsoon. I have noticed the 
Kites about here very closely, but I haven't seeu either the 
large melanotis y Tern, and Schl. or the small affinis, Gould. 
Very few indeed breed on the Nilghiris. 

57.— Pernis ptilorhynchus, Tern. The Crested 
Honey Buzzard. 

I have never noticed this species on the plateau of the 
Nilghiris, or ou the more elevated portion of the slopes, but 
it occurs on the lower portion of the slopes and through the 
Wynaad. I procured two females, one at Manautoddy and the 
other at Bandipnr iu Mysore, in both of which the crest was 
much more developed than iu the mass of birds from Upper 
India. 

Both specimens had been feeding on honey and vouno- 
bees ; and in one was the half-digested remaius of a youu< r 
snake. 

59.— Elanus caeruleus, Desf. The Black Winded 
Kite. 

This species is rare ou the hills. Some years ago I shot 
one at Neddivuttum, and my shikaree got another below 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 341 

Kotagherry, and I have seen it on perhaps half a dozen 
occasions. I am unable to say whether it is a permanent resi- 
dent or not. 

60.— Strixjavanica, Gm. The Eastern Screech-Owl. 

Rare on the Nilghiris, lives in holes of rocks. I believe 
it to be a permanent resident. 

61. — Strix Candida, Tick. The Grass-Owl. 

This species too is rare on the Nilghiris, but not so rare 
perhaps as the last. I have myself shot it on several occasions, 
and have handled two or three others. It does not always 
live iu long grass, as I have, on two occasions, flushed it from 
grass scarcely a foot high. 

A fine adult male, shot on the Bramagherries on the 19th of 
April (a range of hills dividing Coorg and the Wynaad), 
measured in the flesh : — Length, 14*8 ; expanse, 45*5 ; tail, 53 ; 
wing, 1 3*2 ; tarsus, 33; tibia, 40; bill from gape, 1*9; 
weight, 14 oz. Bill and cere pinky white; legs and feet 
bluish brown; irides deep brown; claws horny, tinged 
bluish. 

Jerdon's description (Birds of India, Yol. I., p. 118) is 
probably that of an immature bird, and as the bird is rare 
I append a description of my specimen, a fine adult male. 

The whole of the upper surface, including forehead and 
crown of head, is a rich dark-brown, each feather of the back, 
scapulars, upper tail-coverts, and tertiary coverts with a minute 
triangular white speck at the tip ; the feathers of the occiput, 
mantle, scapulars, secondary, and tertiary coverts, more or 
less broadly edged on the sides with buff. Primaries buff on 
their outer webs, on their inner webs white, tinged along the 
shaft with buff, and with one or more bars or splashes of dark 
brown, freckled along their outer webs with dark brown, 
which becomes more and more dense towards the tip of the 
feathers, the terminal inch or more of which are brown ; 
Secondaries similar to the primaries, but wanting the buffy 
shade on their inner webs, and with the mottling, and bare 
ring, and terminal inch or so of a much paler brown. In the 
tertiaries the buff)' tinge is altogether lost, except at the extreme 
edge of the outer webs ; the two uppermost tertiaries are 
brown, whitish towards their bases, which colour, however, 
is hid by the overlapping coverts. The ground colour of the 
tail is pure white ; the central pair of feathers are barred across 
both webs with two bars of rich dark brown, and exhibit a 
shaft spot of the same colour, three-fourths of an inch from 
the end of the upper tail-coverts ; the outer feathers are 



342 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRI3 

banded only on their outer webs with brown, which becomes 
paler and less developed on each succeeding- feather, the two 
outermost feathers on each side being pure unsullied, white; 
the disc, ruff, and entire lower parts, including* wing- 
lining, axillaries, tibial, and tarsal plumes, pure white, with 
the following exceptions : there is a deep brown spot at the 
inner angle of the eye; the ruff, which is otherwise of a pure 
satiny white, is slightly tinged with buff; there is a tinge of the 
same colour on the upper breast, and each feather of the breast 
and abdomen has a small brown triangular spot ; the sides 
of the shoulder and wing, along carpal joint, buff; the feathers 
of each side of the neck with a small triangular spot at the 
tip. 

63.— Syrnium indranee, Sykes. The Brown Wood- 
Owl. 

This Owl is not uncommon on the Nilghiris and their slopes, but 
is less common in the Wynaad. Sometimes it is found in pairs, 
sometimes singly. It generally keeps to the sholas during the 
dav, coming out by dusk ; but I have flushed it from among 
rocks. It is very fond of perching on the roof of a house at 
night and hooting, remaining often for an hour or more, 
hence it is that it is so dreaded by the natives, who believe 
that such visits are bad omens, portending the death of one 
of the inmates of the house. There is nothing very dreadful 
in the sound of its hoot, which is not unlike that of bi/mium 
nivicolum, only consisting of four hoots instead of only a 
double hoot. I have heard the hoot many hundreds of times, 
but I have never heard it utter the doleful cries attributed to 
it by Captain Legge and others. It seems to see well during 
the day, and once disturbed is by no means easy of approach. 
It is not unfrequently flushed, when beating the sholas for 
game. 

The following are the dimensions recorded in the flesh of 
two fine females: — Length, 18-5, 190; expanse, 42, 45; 
tail, 8'0, 83, wing, 13*5, 13*6; tarsus, 2-1, 2*3 ; bill from gape, 
1-6 ; weight, 22 and 26 ozs. Irides dark brown ; bill bluish 
horny ; exposed portion of feet bluish fleshy ; claws pale 
brownish horny. In this species the colour of the disc appears 
to vary considerably. In a specimen in our museum from 
Ceylon, the outer margin is a dark ochraceous. In one of my 
specimens the ochraceous of the disc is very much paler than 
in the Cevlon specimen, while in my other specimen the 
ochraceous' is still paler, and is closely transversely banded 
with black. This barring of the disc is probably a sign of 
nonage, as the specimen that has it is apparently not quite 
adult. 



AND IN PARTS OF WANAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 343 

[65.— Syrnium ocellatum, Less. The Mottled Wood- 
Owl. 

Southern base of the Nilghiris, north of the Collegal taluk. 
South-west Mysore. — A. 0. H.] 

[68. — Asio accipitrinus, Pall. The Short-eared Owl. 

Certainly occurs on the lower slopes of the Nilghiris, as it 
does also by the way on the Pulueys. — -A. 0. H.] 

69. — Bubo bengalensis, Frankl The Rock Horned- 
Owl. 

Very rare on the Nilghiris. On two occasions I have flushed 
it from under a bush growing- on the bank of a dry ravine, 
and on several occasions I have flushed a large owl from 
amoncT rocks which I at the time identified as S. indranee. but 
which probably really belonged to this species. 

71 — Bubo nipalensis, Bodgs. The Forest Eagle-Owl. 

This grand Owl occurs sparingly on the Nilghiris, confining 
itself to the larger sholas, so that the only time it is seen is 
when beating for big game, for even after dusk it seldom leaves 
the shelter of the jungles. Usually I have found it singly, 
occasionally in pairs. It is a permanent resident on the 
Nilghiris. The native shikarees say that it continually kills 
hares, young jackal and young muntjac. 

72. — Ketupa ceylonensis, Gm. The Brown Fish-Owl. 

This Fish Owl used to be not uncommon in the sholas of the 
Nilghiris, but of late years it seems almost to have disappeared. 
It extends also through the Wynaad, for I flushed one on the 
banks of the river near Mauautoddy. As stated by Jerdon, its 
food consists largely of crabs, which abound in all the swamps 
and marshes on the Nilghiris. It is usually found in pairs. 

[74. — Scops pennatus, Hodgs. The Indian Scops Owl. 
I believe I have seen this from Nilghiris ; and a pair were 
certainly sent us from the Wynaad. — A, 0. H.] I have since 
obtained a beautiful specimen of this species from Seegore. — 
W. D. 

75 quat.— Scops malabaricus, Jerd. The Malabar 
Scops Owl. 

The Malabar Scops Owl does not ascend the hills to any height. 
I have never seen it above 4,000 feet, but when it does occur, 
it is apparently not very rare, for every night its rather melan- 



344 NOTES ON SOME BIKDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIIUS 

clioly double metallic boot is sure to be heard, but it is a difficult 
bird to obtain specimens of, as it apparently never comes forth 
till night has well set in. It feeds like all the other Owlets on 
insects chiefly, but also captures field mice. 

76. — Carine brama, Tern. The Spotted Owlet. 

I have never met with the Spotted Owlet on the Nilghiris or 
its slopes ; it is apparently confined to the plains country, and 
there it is common enough. It is the earliest of all the owls 
to appear, aud the last to disappear.* I have seen it almost 
immediately after sunset, and in the morning- as late as 8 o'clock. 
It is such a noisy little bird that it always attracts attention ; 
and its habits must be so well known to everyone who has 
ever been in the plains that it is not worth my while saying 
anything further about it here. I may, however, remark that 
the species seems to vary considerably in depth of colour, birds 
from Southern India being usually much darker, with the 
markings on the head smaller (approaching in this respect pul- 
chra) than those from Upper India, Sindh, &c, but this is not 
an invariable rule. One of the palest birds in the museum is 
from Madras, and a specimen from Sindh, on the other hand, is 
undistinguishable from the darkest Southern Indian bird ; nor 
does the character of the markings hold good. My specimens 
are all very dark coloured, quite as dark as pulchra, but the 
white markings, especially those of the head, are not so small, 
and the band on the throat conspicuously lighter than in that 
latter species. 

77. — Glaucidium radiatum, Tick. The Jungle Owlet. 

I have carefully compared a fine adult male shot at Seegore 
(at the foot of the Ghat leading into Mysore) with others from 
Anjango, Allahabad, &o. It is greyer even than birds from 
Allahabad, with the white barrings broader and more conspicu- 
ous. And another specimen from Coonoor is very similar 
to the Seegore bird, though not quite so grey perhaps, though 
still showing no approach to the form separated as malabaricum. 

Since the above was written I have obtained another typical 
specimen of radiatum, quite as grey as the other. 

Though no doubt typical forms of malabaricum and radia- 
tum are very distinct, yet in a large series even from the same 
district the two forms will be found to glide into each other, 
forming a perfect unbroken series between the two varieties. 

This Owlet ascends the hills up as high as Coonoor, where I 
have shot it. It seems to see well in the day. It is more 

* Except Q. cuculoides, which one oi'teu sees in the Eastern Hills out in the open 
at midday. — Ed., S, F. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 345 

common on the lower slopes, and at tlie foot of the hills. Jer- 
don's name of Jungle Owlet is not a particularly happy one, for 
it is not more of a jungle Owlet* than Carine brama, inhabiting- 
similar situations. 1 have seen as many as four or five perched 
on the telegraph wire opposite the bungalow at Seegore. 

It makes its appearance in the evening, a little later than 
brama, and retires, as a rule, earlier, though in a very shady 
grove of trees or bamboos. I have seen it on the move till quite 
late. It feeds on locusts, lizards, &c. 

78.— Glaucidium malabaricum, Bly. The Malabar 
Owlet. 

I enter this species in ray list, as I have a bird which, though 
not attaining the depth of rufous tint that the Travancore birds 
as a rule do, yet approaches more closely to that form than to 
radiatum. This specimen was also shot at Seegore. 

816w.— Ninox scutulata. Raff. The Southern 
Hawk Owl. 

Nearly every night, while in the Wynaad, and also on the 
Bramagherries, I heard a Ninox, but unfortunately was unable 
to procure a specimen. I have no doubt, however, that it was 
this small dark race. 

[82. — Hirundo rustica, Lin. The Swallow. 

Occurs throughout the region, though perhaps not ascend- 
ing the hills to any great elevation. I saw several at the 
foot of the Coouoor Ghat. — A. H.] 

83.— Hirundo javanica, Sparrm. The Brown-bellied 

Swallow. 

A resident species, and very common on the Nilghiris and 
its slopes. They commence to breed about the last week in 
February, building an open cup-shaped nest of mud, thickly 
lined with feathers, and placed against the roof of some deserted 
building or under some shelving rock. The following are the 
dimensions of a male taken in the flesh : — Length, 5 - 2 ; expanse, 
11-1, tail, 205 ; wing, 43 ; tarsus, 36 ; bill from gape, 0"5. 

85.— Hirundo erythropygia, Sylzes. The Mosque 
Swallow. 

This species is also abundant on the Nilghiris, and is a resi- 
dent species breeding in the same situations as the last, but 

* Put you never get it in any tract of country devoid of jungle, whereas you 
get brama almost iu the desert. Vide S. F., I , 16A. — Ed., S. F. 

44 



346 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

building a retort-shaped nest. They generally, though not 
always, breed several together, and sometimes three or four 
nests are joined together. The male often continues to lengthen 
the entrance after the female is sittiug. I once found a nest 
of this species with the entrance walled up with pellets of clay, 
and on opening the nest I found a swallow dead and quite 
dried up in the tubular neck of the nest. Jerdon says : ''The 
eorgs are white, faintly marked with rusty coloured spots." 
This is the exception, not the rule. As a rule, the eggs are pure, 
spotless white. The species is common, not only on the 
Nilghiria and its slopes, but occurs commonly through the 
Wynaad and the Mysore countrv abutting on the Nilghiris. 
The following are the dimensions taken in the flesh of a male : — 
Length, 65 ; expanse, 1 2*25 ; tail, 3*05; wing, 445; tarsus, 
- 55; bill from gape, 05. 

90.— Ptyonoprogne concolor, Sykes. The Dusky 
Martin. 

Not uncommon during the cold weather on the Nilghiris 
and slopes, but very few apparently remain to breed. It is only 
found about rocky places, or in their immediate viciuity. It 
occurs from the level of the plains to as high up as Ootaca- 
mnnd. The following are the dimensions of a male taken in 
the flesh: — Length, 50; expanse, 11 4; tail, 20 ; wing, 4*3 ; 
tarsus, 035 ; bill from gape, 0*5. Bill and claws black ; legs and 
feet pale fleshy brown. 

91.— Ptyonoprogne rupestris, Scop. The Moun- 
tain Martin. 

A cold-weather visitant only, and never very numerous. 
I have observed it only in the immediate viciuity of Ootaca- 
mund, and always about rocky cliffs. By the end of March 
all have apparently departed. The following are the dimensions 
of a male taken in the flesh: — Leugth, 5*9; expanse, 1 35 ; 
tail. 2*3 ; wing, 4 9 ; tarsus, - 45 ; bill from gape, 055 ; weight, 
62, oz. 

92.— Chelidon urbica, Lin. The House Martin. 

Only once have I met with this species, and that was some 
years ago I came across a small party flying about near a 
steep cutting on the old road between Ootacamund and 
Coonoor. 

95.— Chaetura sylvatica, Tick. The Eorest Spine- 
tail. 
I came across a party of these Swifts hawking over a stream 
of water in the Peria Forests of Wynaad. I obtained one 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAl) AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 317 

specimen, a male (shot 1st May,) and the following are its 
dimensions, &c., taken in the flesh : — Length, 44 ; expanse, 10 # 4 ; 
tail, T65 ; wing, 4>"l ; tarsus, 4; bill from gape, 05 ; weight, 
0*45 oz. Bill and claws black ; legs and feet purplish ; irides 
deep brown. 

The trivial name given to this species by Dr. Jerdon, " the 
White-rumped Spinetail/' is not a happy one. The name applies 
much better to C. leucopygialis, Blyth, from Tenasserim and the 
Malayan Peninsula, which has a pure white rump, where- 
as in the present species the rump is not white but pale 
ashy. 

96.— Chaetura indica, Hume. The Large Spine- 
tail. 

The large Spinetail occurs only at odd intervals on the 
Nilghiris and their slopes, appearing iu parties of from about 
a dozen to fifty or more, but they seldom remain in sio-ht more 
than a few minutes, disappearing, not to be seen again, perhaps 
for months. They generally put in an appearance from the 
east, and disappear in a westerly direction. 

Though I have often seen this species about Coonoor and 
Ootacamund, I have never shot a specimen, so it is just possible 
that I may be wrong in my identification, and that it is 
96bis. — Chcetura gigantea, Hass., that really occurs, or both 
species may occur.* 

98.— Cypsellus melba, Lin. The Alpine Swift. 

The Alpine Swift is not very common on the Nilghiris, but 
there seems to be a permanent colony located at St. Catherine's 
Falls at Kotagherry, and a few are geuerally to be seen at the 
falls at Kartary and Pykarra. I did not notice either this 
species or the large Spinetail in the Wyuaad or Mysore. 

100.— Cypsellus affinis, J. E. Gr. The Eastern 

Swift. 

The only place I met with this Swift was at the dak 
bungalow at Bandipur, iu Mysore, and there the verandah was 
tenanted b}' many hundreds. I did not notice it elsewhere 
during my trip either iu the Wyuaad or Mysore, and I have 
never seen it anywhere on the Nilghiris. At Bandipur they 
had only just commenced to build their nests. This was on the 
24th of May. 

This mouth, January 1883, I have seen this Swift on several 
occasions in the immediate vicinity of Ootacamund. 

* All our numerous specimens from the Nilghiris, Wynaad, Coimbatore, and Ban- 
galore are indica. — Ed., S. F. 



348 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGH1R1S 

[102— Cypsellus batassiensis, J. B. Gr. The 
Palm Swift. 

Occurs in the Wynaad nt any rate, as a specimen was sent 
us by mistake from Sultan's Battery with several C. unieolor. — 
A. 0. H.] 

103. — Collocalia unieolor, Jerd. The Indian Edible 

Nest Swiftlet. 

Very abundant on the Nilghiris and Bramagherries, where 
they breed in caves, but never make a pure nest, the nest always 
being composed of moss aud lichen, merely agglutinated to- 
gether with saliva. 

104. — Dendrochelidon coronata, Tick. The Indian- 
Crested Swift. 

I have never met with this species on the Nilghiris commonly 
as Dr. Jerdon seems to have done {vide B. I., Vol. L, p. 186). 
I have met with it occasionally in the Wynaad, and on the 
Ghats. 

105.— Batrachostomus moniliger, Lay. The Sing- 

alese Frogmouth. 

I have never myself met with this species either in the 
Wynaad or the Ghats of the Nilghiris, nor have 1 met with 
any one who has obtained a specimen in these localities. It 
must, I think, be extremely rare, if indeed it occurs at all.* 

108.— Caprimulgus kelaarti, Bly. The Nilghiri Night- 
jar. 

This species is common on the Nilghiris, and it also occurs, 
though somewhat more sparingly, through the Wynaad. 
During the day it retires into some shady place, settling on the 
ground, or perching on a thick bough. It makes its appearance 
in the open soon after sunset. 

During- the pairing and breeding season the males are very 
noisy. The following are the dimensions taken in the flesh of 
a male and female : — 

Male. — Length, 11*4; expanse, 24*5 ; tail, 5*9 ; wing, 7*9 ; 
tarsus, 0*7 ; bill from gape, 1'4; weight, 3ozs. 

Female. — Length, 10*6; expanse, 22*0; tail, 4*9; wing, 
7*45; tarsus, 6; bill from gape, 1*4. 

* ' e have it from the Travancore hills, but from nowhere as yet further 
north.— Ed., S. F. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 349 

111.— Caprimulgus atripennis, Jerd. The Ghat 
Nightjar. 

I only met with this Nightjar at Manantoddy in the Wynaad, 
and in that immediate vicinity. It does not seem to occur on 
the Coonoor, Neddivnttum, or Seegore side of the Nilghiri 
Ghats, but it occurs below Kotagherry, for Mr. Hume has both 
skins and eggs from that locality iu his museum. The note of 
this species is quite distinct from that of any of the other 
Caprimulgi, and the first time I heard it I took it for the hoot 
of an owl. 

I noticed that this species was much later in putting in an 
appearance of an evening than the other Nightjars. I obtained 
one specimen only, a female, iu fine plumage, shot at Manan- 
toddy on the 22nd of April. The following are the dimensions, 
&c, taken in the flesh : — 

Female. — Length, 10 8 ; expanse, 21*8 ; tail, 5*1 ; wine, 7-5 ; 
tarsus, 0"7 ; bill from gape, 1'45; weight, 2*25 ozs. Irides 
very dark brown, appearing almost black; bill blackish; legs, 
feet, and claws reddish horny brown. 

112.— Caprimulgus asiaticus, Lath. The Asian 
Nightjar. 

Confined to the foot of the Ghats, and not common even 
where it does occur. I obtained specimens at Muddur, in the 
Mysore country. 

[114.— Caprimulgus monticolus, JPrankl, Franklin's 
Nightjar. 

I have seen this from South Mysore, close to the bases of the 
Nilghiris.— A. 0. H.] 

115.— Harpactes fasciatus, Penn. The Malabar 
Trogon. 

Though nowhere abundant, this species occurs all through 
the Wynaad, and up the slopes of the Nilghiris to at least 6,500 
feet elevation. 1 have seen it in the forests of the Droow, at 
Coonoor, at Pykarra, and Neddivnttum. 

It seems to prefer dense shady forests, but I have also seen 
and shot it in comparatively open places. 

It is, as remarked by Jerdon, a somewhat silent bird, and, 
besides the cat-like mewing note, it has another and perhaps 
more common note, a sort of kur-r-r-r with all the r's rolled 
together. This is the note it always utters when alarmed, or 
when it takes flight. I have seen them descend to the ground 
to pick up food, but usually, I think, it is taken on the wing. I 



350 NOTES ON SOME BIUDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

have never found anything but insects in the stomach, and these 
swallowed whole, aud but slightly crushed. Beetles seem to 
constitute their chief food. 

The sexes do not seem to differ perceptibly in size. Jerdon 
is not quite accurate iu his description of the colors of the soft 
parts. The following are the dimensions aud colors of the soft 
parts of a female taken in the flesh : — 

Female. — Length, 12 0; expanse, 15*8 ; tail, 6*5 ; wing. 5*1 » 
tarsus, 0*6; bill from gape, i"0; weight., 2*25 ozs. Upper 
mandible to nostril, ridge of culmen, and extreme tip of lower 
mandible blackish ; rest of bill, gape, and orbital skin cobalt 
blue ; legs aud feet pale purplish smalt blue ; claws paler ; irides 
deep brown. 

117. — Merops viridis, Lin. The Indian Bee-eater. 

Common on the slopes of the Nilghiris, at the foot of the 
hills and in the Wynaad and Mysore country ; on the slopes of 
Nilghiris between Kulhutty and Seegore it is especially common, 
breeding in large numbers in company with Merops swin- 
hoii (119) in the banks of the road. It does not ascend quite 
to the plateau of the Nilghiris, stopping at about 6,000 feet 
elevation. 

118. — Merops philippinus, Lin. The Blue-tailed 
Bee-eater. 

In the tract of country to which the present paper refers, 
I have found this species very locally distributed, and not 
numerous, always in small flocks, and never staying beyond a 
few days in any one locality. I have noticed them on the 
Coonoor Ghat, on the skirts of the Government cinchona 
plantations at Neddivuttum, and in the Wynaad at the foot of 
the Bramagherries. 

119. — Merops swinhoii, Hume. The Indian Chesnut- 
headed Bee-eater. 

This handsome species is quite a common bird on the well- 
wooded slopes of the Nilghiris ; and it also occurs, though less 
numerously, iu the Wynaad, and parts of Mysore. It does not 
ascend to the plateau of the Nilghiris. A favourite perch for 
this and M. viridis is the telegraph wire. This species breeds nu- 
merously iu company with M. viridis on the Seegore Ghat, 
and 1 have also found the nests (as stated by Jerdon) in the 
banks of the road ou the Uoonoor Ghat, 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 351 

122.— Nyctiornis athertoni, Jard. and Selb. The 
Bearded Bee-eater. 

I have obtained this bird at several pbices on the slopes of 
the Nilghiris up to about 5,000 feet elevation, and I have also 
seen it in the Wynaad. It restricts itself to well- wooded 
localities, and is nowhere very numerous, occurring, so far 
as I have observed, either singly or in pairs. Its note is quite 
similar to that of N. amictus. 

123. — Coracias indica, Lin. The Indian Roller. 

This species does not ascend the hills, and even at the base 
of the hills, and in the Wynnad it is not common, that is com- 
pared to what it is in the plains of India. 

I shot a specimen, a female, at Rampore on the borders of 
Mysore and the Wynaad. This specimen has a broad white 
nuchal collar,* as in C. nuchalis of Africa. 

126— Eurystomus orientalis, Lin. The Broad-billed 

Roller. 

Not common, but I have sometimes seen it on the Coonoor 
Ghat, and once in the Wynaad. 

127. — Pelargopsis gurial, Pears. The Brown-headed 
(Stork-billed) Kingfisher. 

I have seen this species on some of the larger streams in 
the Wynaad, but only occasionally. It is not a common bird 
even where it does occur. 

129. — Halcyon smyrnensis, Lin. The White-breasted 
Kingfisher. 

This bird is a straggler to the table land of the Nilghiris. 

I have on two or three occasions shot it at Ootncamund ; at 

the base of the hills, especially in the better wooded portions 
of the couutiy, it is not an uncommon bird. 

134. — Alcedo bengalensis, Gm. The Indian King- 
fisher. 
Common everywhere. 

? lZ5qnat. — Alcedo beavaili, Wald. Beavan's King- 
fisher. 

On the banks of a small stream, between Goodalore and 
Nellacotta, in the Wynaad, I saw a small brilliantly blue King- 

* Mny not Chrysococeyx limborgi, Wald, be a similar lusus nature 7 — Ed., S. F. 



352 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

fisher which I have doubtfully referred to this species. It 
was probably the same form as that obtained by Mr. Bour- 
dillou iu South Travancore.* 

[136. — Ceryle rudis, Lin. The Pied Kingfisher. 

Occurs in South-West Mysore certainly, and I believe in the 
Wynaad also.— A. 0. H.] 

140.— Dichoceros cavatus, Shaw. The Great Horn- 
bill. 

This species occurs sparingly in the forests of the slopes 
of the Nilghiris, but is more common in the forests of the 
Wynaad. In the cardamum forests of the Peria Ghat I once 
saw some 50 of these birds all congregated together. Neither 
this species nor the two following ones ascend to the table- 
laud of the Nilghiris. I have never seen the present species 
above Burliar, about half-way between Coonoor and the foot 
of the Ghats. 

141. — Hydrocissa coronata, Bodd. The Malabar 
Pied HornbilL 

Occurs in the evergreen forests of the Wynaad, and the 
slopes of the Nilghiris, usually in small parties, but not un- 
frequently in pairs. It does not ascend the slopes of the hills 
as high even as D. cavatus does. 

145. — Tockus griseus, Lath. The Jungle Grey Horn- 
bill. 

This species occurs through the Wynaad, and all about 
the base of the hills, but does not ascend their slopes 
that I am aware of. I have sometimes found it in pairs, 
and once came across a single one, but this is very rare, 
as it is almost always in small flocks, varying from half 
a dozen to twenty or more individuals. It is an extremely 
noisy bird, the whole flock keeping up an almost incessant 
screaming as they move about feeding, one bird commencing, 
and the others taking up the call in rapid succession. But 
though their presence is easily detected by their call (which 
might be syllabized Kyah, Kyah, Kyah ad lib.) : they are so 
exceedingly shy that it is no easy matter to secure a specimen. 
1 have more than once followed a flock about a forest here, 
there, everywhere, for four or five hours at a stretch without 
obtaining a shot. Unlike the other two species of Horubill, 



* Vide S. F., IV., 383- I believe this ought to be separated as a distinct species. 
Ed., S. F. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 353 

they do not confine themselves to the larger and deuser forests, 
but frequent thin tree and bamboo jungle. The following are 
the dimensions recorded in the flesh of three males : — 

Length, 235 to 243; expanse, 270 to 29*0; tail, 9'6 to 
100 ; wing, 84 to 8*6; tarsus, 1*7 to 19 ; bill from gape, 4*1 
to 435 ; weight, 10 to 12 ozs. Irides orange yellow. 

148.— Palseornis torquatUS, Bodd. The Rose-ringed 
Parroquet. 

I have only occasionally come across this species, and that 
was in the Mysore country near Muddur. It does not ascend 
the slopes of the hills. 

149. — Palaeornis purpureus, P. L. S. Mull. The 
Western Rose-headed Parroquet. 

Not uncommon in the Wynaad, and at the base of the hills 
It ascends the slopes of the Nilghiris to about 3,500 feet. 

151.— Palseornis columboides, Vig. The Blue-winged 
Parroquet. 

This handsome species occurs throughout the Wynaad, 
Mysore and Nilghiris. It is perhaps most numerous on the 
slopes of the Nilghiris up to about 5,000 feet ; but it occasion- 
ally ascends quite to the plateau. I have shot it on more than 
one occasion quite close to the town of Ootacamund. I can 
endorse all Jerdon says of it, but must add that it does very fre- 
quently occur at a higher elevation than he states. 

The following are dimensions and colours of soft parts of 
three males and a female recorded in the flesh : — 

Males.— Length, 139 tol5'2; expanse, 178 to 18*4; tail, 
75 to 8-7 ; wing, 58 to 6-25 ; tarsus, 53 to 6'0 ; bill from gape, 
0-8 to 0-85 ; weight, 3 to 4 ozs. 

Female. — Length, 136; expanse, 16 6; tail, 7*8; wing, 5*5; 
tarsus, 0'6 ; bill from gape, 0*7 1 ; weight, 3*5 ozs. 

In the male the upper mandible, except the extreme tip, 
which with the lower mandible is dull black, is vermilion red. 
Iu both sexes the irides in the adults are creamy yellow, and 
the legs and feet glaucous green. 

153.— Loriculus vernalis, Sparrm. The Indian 
Lorikeet. 

Generally spread through the Wynaad, and slopes of the 
Nilghiris, which it ascends to nearly 6,0u0 feet. In some parts 
of the Wynaad, especially along the old avenues of jack trees, 
about Manantoddy, I found it quite commou. 

45 



354 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON 1HE N1LGHIRIS 

160.— Picus mahrattensis, Lath. The Yellow-fronted 
Woodpecker. 

Occurs sparingly throughout the Wynaad, and in the 
Mysore country. It does not, that I am aware of, ascend the 
hills. It is not a forest "Woodpecker, being usually found in 
open ground interspersed with bamboo. 

164fo's.— Yungipicus gymnopthalmus, Bly. The 
Southern Pigmy Woodpecker. 

Occurs on the slopes of the Nilghiris to about 3,000 feet 
elevation, and in the Wynaad and Mysore country. It avoids 
heavy forest, frequenting scrubby and bamboo junglo, and 
open grnssy glades interspersed with trees. I have always 
found it in pairs or in small families of four or six. It does 
not, I think, differ in habits from other members of the genus. 
Unfortunately I find I have only recorded the measurements 
and colours of soft parts of two females: — 

Length, 4-9 to 51 ; expanse, 100 to 10-1 ; tail, 15 to 16; 
wing, 30 to 301 ; tarsus, 05 to 0*55 ; bill from gape, 65 to 
07; weight, 0-6 oz. Irides pearly white ; orbital skin pink; 
upper mandible, legs, and feet dark plumbeous ; lower mandible 
pale plumbeous ; claws blackish. 

165.— Hemicercus cordatus, Jerd. The Heart- 
spotted Woodpecker. 

Not a common bird, found in pairs or parties sparingly 
distributed through the Wynaad and Mysore country. It 
ascends the slopes of the hills to about 3,000 feet. The bird 
described by Jerdon as the male of this species is certainly, 
as Mr. Hume long ago suggested, the female, and vice versa. 
There is no doubt about this, as I have carefully dissected 
several of both sexes to decide this point. 

The following are the dimensions and colours of soft parts- 
recorded in the flesh of a female : — 

Length, 5*7 ; expanse, 11*8; tail, 1 '5; wing, 36; tarsus, 
0*65; bill from gape, 08; weight, 1-2 oz. Bill black; legs 
aud feet blackish, tinged plumbeous; irides deep brown. 

166.— Chrysocolaptes strictus, Horsf. The Southern 
Large Golden -backed Wood-pecker. 

This species is not uncommon in the Wynaad, Mysore, and 
slopes of the Nilghiris. It ascends quite to the summit of the 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE, 355 

Nilghiris, but is not common there. It is almost always found in 
pairs, and prefers the evergreen forest. A female measured :— t- 

Length, 1T8; expanse, 1975; tail, 4*2; wing, 6'25 ; tarsus, 
1*05; bill from gape, 0*85. Irides pearly white. 

169.— Thriponax hodgsoni, Jerd. The Indian Black 
Woodpecker. 

This fine species is not uncommon in the Wynaad, when the 
country is well wooded, but it is so shy that it is difficult to 
procure specimens. It is usually found in pairs. I have 
occasionally seen several together, once as many as six. These 
most probably were a family consisting of the two adult birds 
and their brood. As a rule, the bird keeps to the evergreen 
forests. Once I shot a specimen in some bamboo jungle at 
Goodalore. It does not ascend the slopes of the hills to any 
height. 

[167.— Chrysocolaptes festivus, Bodd. The Black- 
backed Woodpecker. 

We have received this from the northern bases of the Nil- 
ghiris.— A. 0. H.] 

171. — Gecinus striolatus, Bly. The Small Green 
Woodpecker. 

Sparingly spread through the "Wynaad, Mysore, and the Nil- 
ghiris; a few pairs are always to be found iu the forests about 
Ootacamund, but it is rarer at that elevation than lower down. 
It perhaps more often than the other species* of Gecini descends 
to the ground. I have often fouud it hunting for insects in the 
droppings of cattle. 

175— Chrysophlegma chlorigaster, Jerd. The 
Southern Yellow-naped Woodpecker. 

This species does not ascend to the plateau of the Nilghiris, 
but occurs on the slopes as far up as 5,000 feet. It is also spread 
through the Wynaad and Mysore, but is nowhere very common. 
It occasionally, like the Gecini, descends to the ground. I have 
always found it singly or in pairs. A young male measured in 
the flesh : — 

Length, 95 ; expanse, 15*5 ; tail, 3*4 ; wing, 48 ; tarsus, 082 ; 
bill from gape, 1*1 ; weight, 2*25 ozs. Irides wood brown; 
lower mandible from base to angle of gonys and gape dull 
yellow ; rest of bill dull black ; legs and feet dirty dull green ; 
claws plumbeous green. 

* O. squamatus is more often seen feeding on the ground than on trees.— 
Ed., S.F. 



356 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGH1RTS 

179. — Micropternus gularis, Jerd. The Madras 
Rufous Woodpecker. 

I have a record of having obtained one specimen of this 
6pecies a few miles from Ootacamund, but its occurrence at this 
elevation is quite exceptional. It occurs, but nowhere numer- 
ously, on the slopes of the Nilghiris", in the Wynaad and 
Mysore countr} r . It avoids the heavy forest frequenting thin 
tree and bamboo jungle. Like the other species of the genus, 
the feathers, especially about the head and breast, are often 
covered with a viscid resinous substance.* A female shot near 
Manantoddv measured in the flesh : — Length, 100 ; expanse, 
J 7-0; tail, 32; wing, 49; tarsus, 09; bill from gape, 1-2-; 
weight, 4 ozs. Bill dull black ; legs, feet, and claws the same, 
but tinged with plumbeous ; irides deep brown. 

180. — Brachypternus aurantius, Lin. The Golden- 
backed Woodpecker. 

I obtained one specimen, a female, shot three m iles from 
Seegore on the Mysore road, which is intermediate between the 
typical forms of aurantius and puncticollis. The white spotting 
on the throat is not nearly so well developed as in aurantius, 
and the black of the ear-coverts and markings behind these is 
much more developed than is usual in aurantius, but not quite 
bo much so as in puncticollis. 

The bird is exactly intermediate between the two forms, and 
might be classed as a somewhat abberraut form of either. 

181.— Brachypternus puncticollis, Malh. The 
Southern Golden-backed Woodpecker. 

I have never obtained this species either on the tableland 
or higher portion of the slopes of the Nilghiris, but it is not 
uncommon in the better wooded portions of the Wynaad, the 
Mysore country, and about the base of the Nilghiris. 

The present species is barely entitled to the rank of a 
species ; it should rather be classed as a race. 

B. clilutus, Blyth (now not usually admitted as a species), 
is the palest form, and is from the western portion of India. 
Then the intermediate form is B. aurantius, and then comes 
the darkest of the three, B. puncticollis, from the south. An 
exactly analogous case is that of Pericrocotus peregrinus, which 
in Sindh is a pale washed-out bird with hardly any depth of 
colouring, the colour gradually deepening as the species ranges 

* The Microjiterni are par excellence ant-eaters. The viscid substance so con- 
stanrlY found adhering to 'heir plumage is not resinous, but is derived from the 
ants' nests. — Ed., S. F. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORffi. 357 

■south, till in Southern India the birds are as dark as are those 
from the Andamans and Burmah. 

I have one lovely specimen of puncticollis, in newly moulted 
plumage; in this the spots on the throat are small, but ex- 
ceedingly deuse, giving the throat a very white appearance ; 
the black of the ear-coverts and sides of the neck is well- 
developed, each feather of the ear-coverts having a triangular 
huffy-white spot at the tip, the feathers immediately in front 
of and above the eye are also huffy white, spotted. 

The following are the dimensions, &c, taken in the flesh of 
a fine pair : — 

Male. — Length, 121 ; expanse, 18*9 ; tail, 37; wing, 
5'75 ; tarsus, 1*0; bill from gape, 1-6; weight, 4*25 ozs. 

Female. — Length, 11*7; expanse, 1 80 ; tail, 35 ; wing, 
5*5 ; tarsus, 0'9; bill from gape, 1:5 ; weight, 4*0 ozs. 

The colours of the soft parts do not appreciably differ in 
the sexes ; the legs and feet are a glaucous or bluish green; 
the claws plumbeous horny; the bill dull black; and the irides 
deep brown. 

183.— Tiga shorii, Vig. The Large Three-toed 
Woodpecker. 

I obtained a pair in some forest below the Government 
Cinchona Plantations at ' Neddivuttum ; these are the only 
specimens * I have met with in Southern India. 

184.— Tiga javanensis, Ljung. The Common Three- 
toed Woodpecker. 

I have only obtained this species in the Wynaad, and there 
it is not a common bird, frequenting thin tree jungle, or the 
outskirts of the larger forests. 

My specimens do not apparently differ from others of the 
same species collected in Teuasserim and the Malayan Peuin- 
sula. 

186.— Vivia innominata, Burt. The Speckled 
Piculet. 

I obtained a male of this species bel'nv Kotagherry on the 
14th of March 1881. It is undistingui suable from Himalayan 
specimens with which I have compared it. The forehead is 
golden yellow with a strong orange tinge, f 

* I think these specimens should be re-examined. — Ed., S. F. 
f Sign of the male ; in the female forehead and crown are unicolorous green. 
Darling sent this years ago from the Wynaad, vide S. F., V., 351. — Ed., S. F. 



358 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIR1S 

194— Megalaema viridis, Bodd. The Small Green 
liarbet. 

Very numerous indeed on the Nilghiria and its slopes, and 
through the Wynaad, occurring also not uncommonly in the 
better wooded portions of the M} r sore country. 

On the Nilghiris a great amount of damage is done in 
orchards, especially to apples and pears by this Barbet. It lives 
entirely on fruit, and in the evergreen forests of the south of 
India some kind of fruit is always in season. It will descend 
close to the ground to feed on the fruit of the so-called Brazil 
cherry or cape gooseberry ( Physalis peruviana. ) 

Jerdon says that he u never saw any of these Barbets clinging 
like a Woodpecker, nor heard them tapping ; " and says that 
Mr. Blyth positively asserted that they did not. All I can 
say is that the bird is one of the commonest on the Nilghiris, 
and for about nineteen years I had many opportunities of 
observing it closely, and I can as positively assert that they 
both cling like a Woodpecker and tap. The}' breed in holes in 
trees, and these holes are always cut out by themselves. I do 
not think they ever bore into the trunks or branches of trees 
for food, but they certainly do so for nesting purposes. 

The sexes do not appreciably differ in size. The following are 
the dimensions taken in the flesh of three adults : — 

Length, 9-2 to 95 , expanse, 14-0 to 14 5; tail, 2'6 to 2-8 ; 
wing, 4*0 to 4'15; tarsus, l'O; bill from gape, 1*4; weight, 
275 to 35 ozs. 

197.— Xantholaema haemacephala, P. L. S. Mull. 
The Crimson-breasted Barbet. 

Sparingly distributed about the base of the Nilghiris and 
through the Wynaad. 

198.— Xantholaema malabarica, Bly. The Crimson- 
throated Barbet. 

This species seems to be spread through the Wynaad, and in 
some parts, as in the neighbourhood of Manan toddy in North 
Wynaad, is a comparatively common bird. In its hahits it 
doesn't differ from the other Barbets; its voice is very similar to 
that of X. hsemacep/iala, but more subdued. 

I measured a large number ; the sexes do not appear to differ 
appreciably in size. The following is a resume of the dimensions, 
&c, taken in the flesh of fifteen adults : — 

Length, 585 to 67 ; expanse, 103 to 115 ; tail, 1*55 to 1-9 ; 
wing, 3-02 to 33; tarsus, 07 to0"8; bill from gape, 085 to 
0-91; weight, M2 to 15 oz. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 359 

Irides dark brown ; legs and feet litharge red ; claws and bill 
dullblack ; base of lower mandible to just beyond angle ofgonys, 
and base of upper mandible at gape plumbeous bine. 

In quite young birds of tbis species tbe green of the plumage 
is paler, but somewhat brighter than in the adult; a line above 
and below the eye, aud the throat, are golden orange ; the sides 
of the neck and posterior portion of the ear-coverts are a pale 
dirty glaucous blue, and there is a dull black band across the 
top of the head. In one specimen there are a few orange- 
coloured feathers immediately above the base of the bill. 

200.— Cuculus striatus, JDrap. The Eastern 
Cuckoo. 

Sparingly distributed in the Wynaad. I should think that it 
was a permanent resident, as 1 have heard it calling late in 
ay. 

202 —Cuculus sonnerati, Lath. The Banded Bay 
Cuckoo. 

I have occasionally obtained this species on the slopes of the 
Nilghiris. I have not noticed it iu the Wynaad or Mysore, but 
it doubtless occurs there. 

203.— Cuculus micropterus, Gould. The Large-billed 
Cuckoo. 

Like 200. I have found this species occasionally in the 
Wynaad. Both species doubtless occur in the Mysore coun- 
try and on the slopes of the Nilghiris, but I have not noticed 
them. 

205. — Hierococcyx varius, Vahl. The Hawk- 
Cuckoo. 

This is the common Cuckoo of Southern India, occurring 
plentifully on the. plateau of the Nilghiris, on their slopes, and 
all through the Wynaad and Mysore country. It is especially 
abundant on the Nilghiris, and there is hardly a garden or 
grove of trees that does not contain one or more. I have 
seen the young of this species being fed by Tvoclmlo'pterum 
cacldnnans. 

207.— Hierococcyx sparveroides, Tig. The Great 
Hawk-Cuckoo. 

This species is nowhere abundant, but occurs most numer- 
ously on the Nilghiris, frequenting the sholas, and occasionally 
also well-wooded gardens. Birds from Southern India never 



360 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

seem to attain to the very large size that birds from tlie Hima- 
layas* do. 

208.— Cacomantis passerinus, Vahl. The Indian 
Plaintive Cuckoo. 

Not uncommon on the slopes of the Nilghiris which it ascends 
to about 5,500 feet. It also occurs, but more sparingly, in the 
Wynaad and Mysore country. 

212.— Coccystes jacobinus, Bodd. The Pied Crested 
Cuckoo. 

A common bird on the Nilghiris ; it avoids forest or thickly- 
wooded country, and frequents cultivated land interspersed 
with scrub and bushes; it is most numerous perhaps about, the 
cultivated land in the vicinity of Ootacamund, Coonoor, Kota- 
gherry, &c, &c. I have also seen it occasionally in the Wynaad, 
and not unfrequently in the Mysore country. It lays its eggs 
in the nest of the JUalacocerci, which frequent the same sort of 
places that it does. 

213.— Coccystes coromandus, Lin. The Red-winged 
Crested Cuckoo. 

I have never myself obtained this species anywhere in the 
tract this paper deals with, but some years ago I saw a skin of 
this species in the possession of a native taxidermist, who said he 
had himself shot it in South-East Wynaad. 

214.— Eudynamis honorata, Lin. The Koel. 

I once shot a pair of this species in a garden at Ootacamund, 
but their occurrence at that elevation is quite unusual; the 
bird, however, is not uncommon on the lower slopes of the 
Nilghiris, and in the plains country. In March and April of 
18H1 I found them common in the Wynaad, and very noisy. 

216.— Rhopodytes viridirostris, Jerd. The Small 
Green-billed Malkoha. 

This species does not ascend the hills, but occurs, though 
nowhere very numerously, in the better wooded portions of the 
country about the base of the Nilghiris and Wynaad. 

The sexes do not differ appreciably in size, and the colours of 
the soft parts are the same in both. The following is a resume 
of the dimensions, &c, recorded in the flesh : — 

* And it fortiori, from Upper Burmah. — Ed , S. F. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 361 

Length, 15*5 to 15-9 ; expanse, 16-0 tol62 : tail, 9*0 to 100 ; 
wing, 5*1 to 5*4 ; tarsus, 1*4; bill from gape, 1*4; weight, 25 
to 3 ozs. Irides deep brown ; bill, pale apple-green ; orbital 
skin, pale blue, palest round the eye, gradually deepening in 
shade toward the feathers ; legs and feet plumbeous. 

217.— Centrococcyx rufipennis, III. The Coucal, 
or Crow Pheasant. 

Occurs commonly through the Wynaad and slopes of the 
Nilghiris. It occurs also on the plateau of the Nilghiris but 
less numerously. It is looked upon as a great delicacy by the 
natives.* I noticed that through the portion of Mysore lying 
between the foot of the "Nilghiris and Wynaad, it was a com- 
paratively rare bird. 

218.— Centrococcyx bengalensis, Gm. The Lesser 
Coucal. 

I only met with this species on some half a dozen occasions 
in the Wynaad, and always in long grass. I have never met 
with it on the Nilghiris or its slopes. 

219. — Taccocua leschenaulti, Less. The Southern 
Sirkee. 

I have only occasionally met with this species, and should 
class it as a comparatively rare bird in the portion of Southern 
India that I have worked. I have met with it up to about 
6,000 feet on the slopes of the Nilghiris. 

224.— Arachnothera longirostra, Lath. The Little 
Spider-hunter. 

Not uncommon on the slopes of the Nilghiris up to about 
5,500 feet and through the Wynaad. It affects the better 
wooded portions of the country. 

The following are the dimensions, &c, recorded in the flesh 
of a fine adult male of this species: — 

Length, 63 ; expanse, 86; tail, 1*7; wing, 2 - 6; tarsus, 
1*4 ; bill from gape, 06 ; weight, 07 oz. 

Upper mandible black; lower mandible pale plumbeous; 
legs, feet, and claws plumbeous ; irides very deep blackish 
slate. 



* So it, and th? allied species maximvs and * ntermedius, appear to b? by the 
Mahomedane, throughout Northern and Eastern India. — Ed. ; S. F. 

46 



362 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

232.— Cinnyris zeylonica, Lin. The Amethyst- 
rumped Honey-sucker. 

This species is sparingly spread through the Wynaad and 
round the base of the Nilghiris ascending the slopes to about 
2 500 feet. Though apparently so closely allied to C. minima, 
it does not, like that species, change its brilliant plumage for 
more sober tints after the breeding season. 

The following are the dimensions, &c, of an adult male : — 
Length, 4*9; expanse, 69 ; tail, 1*4 ; wing, 23 ; tarsus, 0*6; 
bill from gape, - 65 ; weight, 0*6 oz. Bill, legs, feet, and claws 
black; irides deep brown. 

233.— Cinnyris minima, Sykes. The Tiny Honey- 
sucker. 

This lovely little bird is most abundant on the higher slopes 
of the Nilghiris, but it occurs also throughout the Wynaad. 
After the breeding season it loses the bright colors of the throat 
and head, but retains the amethystine lower back. 

The following are the dimensions of several males measured 
in the flesh : — 

Length, 38 to 40; expanse, 59 to 6-1; tail, 12 to 1-3; 
wing, 1'9 ; tarsus, 0*5; bill from gape, 6; weight, 018 
to 02 oz. 

Bill, legs, feet, and claws black ; irides deep brown. 

234. — Cinnyris asiatica, Lath. The Purple Honey- 
sucker. 
This species occurs on the Nilghiris and its slopes, but appears 
to be entirely replaced at the foot of the hills, and in the 
Wynaad by the next species. 

235.— Cinnyris lotenia, Lin. The Large Purple 
Honey-sucker. 

This species occurs throughout the Wynaad ; it ascends the 
slopes of the Nilghiris to about 5,000 feet or rather more. I 
have shot it on the Coonoor Ghat, four miles from the station 
of Coonoor. This species (as well as C. asiatica) does put off 
the bright plumage during the non-breediug season. The 
female is slightly smaller than the male. The following is a 
resume of the dimensions of a large' number of specimens care- 
fully measured in the flesh : — 

Males.— Length, 53 to 5'6 ; expanse, 7-2 to 7*7; tail, 1*55 
to 17; wing, 2*2 to 2-4 ; tarsus, 06 ; bill from gape, J/1 to 
1-3 ; weight" 035 oz. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 363 

Females. — Length, 47 to 49 ; expanse, 6*5 to Q'8 ; tail, 
1*2 to 1*4; wing, 2*0 to 205; tarsus, 0*58; bill from gape, 
l'O ; weight, 0*25 oz. 

In both sexes the bill, legs, feet, and claws are black ; the 
irides deep brown. 

[238.— Dicaeum erythrorhynchus, Lath. Tickell's 

Flower-pecker. 

This occurs about the bases of the Nilghiris. I have had 
a specimen from below Burliar, and another from the Wynaad.— 
A. O. H.] I have shot it at Goodalore.— W. D. 

239. — Dicaeum COncolor, Jerd. The Nilghiri Flower- 
pecker. 

This species is most abundant on the plateau of the 
Nilghiris ; but it also occurs commonly all over the slopes, 
and through the Wynaad. 

Jerdon's statement (B. of I., Vol. 1., p. 375) about the food 
of this species is not quite correct. Though it does sip the 
nectar of flowers, and occasionally, I dare say, may eat insects, 
its principal food certainly consists of berries. 

The sexes do not differ in size. The following are the dimen- 
sions of six specimens measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 3*5 to 3*7 ; expanse, 6 - l to 66; tail, l'O to 1*15 ; 
wing, 1*9 to l - 95 ; tarsus, 0'5 to 055; bill from gape, 045 to 
05; weight, 0"13 to 0*18 oz. Irides dark brown; lower 
mandible and sides of upper mandible towards base pale 
leaden blue ; rest of upper mandible blackish ; legs, feet, and 
claws dark plumbeous. 

250.— Sitta castaneiventris, Fmnkl. The Chesnut- 
bellied Nuthatch. 

This species does not apparently inhabit the hills or their 
slopes, but it occurs sparingly in the Wynaad and Mysore. 
I found it most abundant in the tract of thinly-timbered 
country in Mysore lying between Rampore on the borders 
of the Wynaad and the foot of the Nilghiris. 

The following are dimensions and colors of soft parts recorded 
in the flesh : — 

Length, 51 to 5 - 5 ; expanse, 95; tail, 1*5 to 1*7 ; wing, 
30 to 3-15 ; tarsus, 65 to 0'7 ; bill from gape, 0-8 to 0*82 ; 
weight, 5 to 055 oz. Legs and feet dark greenish plum- 
beous ; base of lower mandible, and base of upper mandible 
at forehead, pale plumbeous ; rest of bill black ; irides dark 
brown. 



364 NOTES ON SOME EIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

253.— Dendrophila frontalis, Horsf. The Velvet- 
fronted Nuthatch. 

A common bird all over the region embraced in this paper. 
On the Nilgbiris it is particularly abundant. 

254.— Upupa epops, Lin. The Hoopoe. 

Jerdon records this species from the Nilghiris, but it must, I 
think, be of extreme rarity there. I have shot a great number 
of Hoopoes on the Nilghiris and other places in Southern 
India, but I have never been fortunate enough to meet with it. 

255. — Upupa ceylonensis, Belch. The Indian 
Hoopoe. 

Not an uncommon bird on the Nilghiris and its slopes, any 
in the Wynaad and Mysore where the country is not heavi Id 
wooded. It is a permanent resident in Southern India, breed- 
ing in holes in trees, old walls, &c. The length given by 
Jerdon, 10*5 inches, seems rather small ; the shortest length I 
have recorded is 11 inches, the longest 11*3 inches. The weight 
varies from 1*5 to nearly 2 ozs. The legs aud feet are dirty 
grey ; claws and bill blackish ; pale brownish fleshy at base of 
lower mandible. 

257&is.— Lailius caniceps, Bly. The Southern Ru- 
fous-backed Shrike. 

This Shrike is very common on the Nilghiris and the higher 
portions of their slopes. It becomes less numerous as one de- 
scends towards the plains, and is very sparingly distributed 
in the Wynaad. I did not meet with it in the portion of 
Mysore I passed through. 

Mr. Parker states that this* Shrike impales its prey on 
thorns. It may do so in Ceylon, but it most assuredly 
does not do so in Southern India. I have had ample oppor- 
tunities of observing the bird, aud I could hardly have failed 
to have found some evidence of the fact. Nor have Morgan 
and others, who have also observed the habits of the bird 
closely, ever obtaiued any evidence of such a habit. I once, 
many years ago, did find a beetle impaled on a thorn, and 
still alive, but I am pretty sure it was self-impaled. 

The following are the dimensions of several specimens 
measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 9-0 to 105; expanse, 11*8 to 125; tail, 4*5 to 
5*4; wing, 36 to 3*85; tarsus, 105 to 1*1; bill from gape, 
0-8 to 0-9; weight, 1-4 to 162 ozs. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 365 

260.— Lanius vittatus, Yalenc. The Bay-backed 
Shrike. 

This pretty little Shrike is found at the base of the Nilghiris 
and in Mysore, hut as far as I have observed only where the 
country was sparsely wooded. 

261. — Lanius cristatus, Lin. The Brown Shrike. 

A winter visitant to Southern India. From towards the 
end of November to early in March it is very common on the 
Nilghiris, frequenting gardens, orchards, &c. The great 
majority of the birds are immature, showing more or less of 
the barrings on the lower surface. 

264.— Tephrodornis sylvicola, Jerd. The Malabar 
Wood-shrike. 

This Wood-shrike does not ascend quite to the tableland of 
the Nilghiris, but I have shot it at Neddivuttum, at about 
5,500 feet elevation, though it is rare at this height. It is 
nowhere very common, but is, perhaps, most numerous in the 
well wooded portions of the Wynaad. Usually it is in parties 
of from four to eight, occasionally in pairs. It does not 
differ in habits from T. pelvica. 

The following are the dimensions, &c, of several taken in the 
flesh :— 

Length, 8'4 to 8*7 ; expanse, 146 to 15*0 ; tail, 3-3 to 
35 ; wing, 45 to 465 ; tarsus, 0*75 ; bill from gape, 1-12 to 
1-21; weight, 1-12 to l'4oz. 

Bill and claws black ; legs and feet dark plumbeous ; irides 
greenish yellow. 

265.— Tephrodornis pondicerianus, Gm. The Com- 
mon Wood-shrike. 

I found this species sparingly distributed in the Wynaad. 
I have never met with it on the slopes of the Nilghiris. 

267.— HemipUS picatus, Sykes. The Pied Fly- 
shrike. 
This species, though classed as a Shrike, is in habits a Fly- 
catcher. It is a common bird on the Nilghiris and its slopes, 
and through the Wynaad and Mysore. It prefers well- wooded 
country. 

268.— Volvocivora sykesi, Strickl. The Black-headed 
Cuckoo-shrike. 
Occurs, but not abundantly, on the slopes of the Nilodjiris 
in the Wynaad and Mysore. I have shot it in the Government 
Gardens at Qotacamuud. 



366 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

270bis.— Grauculus macii, Less, The Large Cuckoo, 
shrike. 
Rarer than the preceding species, but fouud iti the same 
localities. 

272.— Pericrocotus flammeus, Forst. The Orange 
Minivet. 
Common in the Wynaad and lower slopes of the Nilghiris. 
It gets less numerous the higher one ascends, and it may be 
practically said to stop about the elevation of Coonoor, though 
I have on two or three occasions seen it as high up as Oota- 
camund. 

276.— Pericrocotus peregrinus, Lin. The Small 
Minivet. 
I have occasionally met with this species in the Wynaad 
and at the foot of the Nilghiris, but it is rare. 

277.— Pericrocotus erythropygius, Jerd. The White- 
bellied Minivet. 

I have only met with this species in the thorny scrub at 
the foot of the Seegore Ghat. 

278.— Buchanga atra, Serm. The King Crow. 

Occurs, but somewhat sparingly, on the slopes of the Nilghiris, 
the Wynaad and Mysore. It is, however, not very common, 
and it does not, that I am aware of, go as high up as the 
plateau of the Nilghiris. 

280.— Buchanga longicaudatUS, Bay. The Long-tailed 
King Crow. 

This species, like the last, is not very common ; it occurs where 
the other does, and I have also not unfrequeutly procured it in 
the neighbourhood of Ootacamund. It is more of a forest- 
loving species than atra. 

281.— Buchanga cserulescens, Lin. The White-bellied 
King Crow. 

This species occurs on the lower slopes of, and at the foot 
of the Nilghiris, and in the Wynaad and Mysore. 

It is not a forest bird, but frequents thorny scrub and 
bamboo jungle as a rule, and comparatively open spaces. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 367 

282.— Chaptia senea, Vieill. Bronzed Drongo. 

Jerdon (B. I., Vol. I., p. 431) says this species is found up 
to 4,000 feet elevation on the Nilghiris, but it ascends the 
hills to a much greater height, for I have frequently seen 
and shot it in the vicinity of Ootacamund, aud also on the 
Bramagherries in Coorg. It is most numerous, however, on 
the lower ranges. It is a forest-loving species, and is not 
usually found in open places like B. atra and B. longicaudaia. 
It has much the same habits as these species, however, perch- 
ing on some dead twig in a conspicuous place from which 
it seizes its insect prey on the wing, returning usually to the 
same perch. 

285.— Dissemurus paradiseus, Lin. The Lesser 
Racket-tailed Drongo. 

This fine species is sparingly distributed on the slopes of 
the Nilghiris, through the Wynaad, &c, very seldom appa- 
rently asceuding to a greater height than about 6,000 feet, 
though on one occasion I shot a specimen on the Kotagherry 
road close to Ootacamund. In April I found a pair in a tall 
Bombax tree close to Manantoddy, but as I saw one of the 
birds carrying materials to build the nest, and as the treef 
was a particularly difficult one to climb, I determined to leave 
the nest for a week to make sure of its containing eggs, 
but unfortunately at the end of the week the nest contained 
three young birds, apparently several days old, so the nest, 
though the birds were still building to it, must have contained 
eggs when I first found it. 

I found this species most numerous in the forests on the 
Peria Ghat ; they were at that time generally in parties 
consisting of two or three young and the old birds. 

This species, though usually found in forests or their out- 
skirts, is also not unfrequently found in open spaces, gardens, 
&c, especially where there is bamboo to which they appear 
to be particularly partial. They have a wonderful variety of 
notes, and can imitate the call of almost any of the birds 
found where they usually occur. 

286.— Chibia hottentotta, Lin. The Hair-Crested 
Drongo. 

I have found the Hair-crested Drongo very rare in Southern 
India, having met with it on only two or three occasions, 
and always feeding on the flowers of the silk cotton tree 
(Bombax malabaricum). 



3G8 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHtRIS 

287-— Artamus fllSCUS, VieilL The Ashy Swallow 
Shrike. 

This species does not quite ascend the higher ranges of the 
Nilcrhiris, but it is not uncommon at about 5,500 feet at 
certain seasons. I have also met with it in many places iu 
Wynaad, &c. 

The following are the dimensions, &c, taken in the flesh of 
a fine adult male shot at Karote at the foot of Balasore on 
the 13th of May :— 

Length, 70; expanse, 15*5 ; tail, 2*2; wing, 55 ; tarsus, 
0-6 ; bill from gape, 0-95 ; weight, 1*62 ozs. 

Bill pale blue; tip black ; irides deep brown ; claws black ; 
legs and feet dull purplish black. 

The young of this species differs from the adult in having 
the breast and abdomen suffused with pale buff, with indis- 
tinct transverse barrings to the feathers. The feathers of the 
upper parts, except the head, edged with ferruginous buff ; the 
primaries and secondaries edged with huffy white, and all, 
except the two central tail feathers/ broadly tipped with ashy 
white, and not merely narrowly fringed as in the adult, and 
there is a narrow band of ferruginous buff across the fore- 
head terminating at the anterior angle of the eye. 

288. — Muscipeta paradisi, Lin. The Paradise Fly- 
catcher. 

Dr. Jerdon says that this species does not generally ascend 
the hills higher than 2.000 feet, but it is as common a bird at 
5,000 feet as it is at 2,000 feet, and I have on several occa- 
sions shot it at heights of six to eight thousand feet, and seen 
it much oftener. My experience is that it is nowhere a 
very common bird, and rather locally distributed. I have quite 
failed to make out clearly the various changes that take place 
in the plumage of this species. I have shot specimens the 
same day, pure white and in various phases of the chesnut 
and white plumage, both adult and young birds. The female 
never, that I am aware, assumes either the long tail feathers 
or the white plumage, and the immature birds are at first, I 
think, chesnut. 

290. — Hypothymis azurea, Bodd. The Black-naped 
Blue Flycatcher. 

A common bird all through the Wynaad and the Nilghiris, 
but it does not quite ascend to the plateau. It is very fond 
of bamboo, and is found most numerously where this abounds. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 369 

292. — Leucocerca aureola, Vieill. The White-browed 
Fantail. 

I saw this species only on two or three occasions in the 
Mysore country and Wynaad, and obtained one young bird 
at Rampore on the 21st of May. It is, I should say, decidedly 
a rare bird in the country through which I passed. 

293.— Leucocerca leucogaster, Cuv. The White- 
spotted Fantail. 

This Flycatcher is a common species on the Nilghiris, but it 
is most abundant on the warmer slopes about 5,000 to 6,000 
feet ; it also occurs through the Wynaad and in parts of Mysore, 
but less abundantly. 

The following are the dimensions taken in the flesh of a 
fine male shot in Ootacamund on the 15th of March 1881 : — 

Length, 7*2 ; expanse, 92 ; tail, 40 ; wing, 305 ; tarsus, 
0*7 ; bill from gape, 05 ; weight, 0*35 ozs. 

Bill black ; legs and feet dull purplish black ; irides dark 
brown. 

295.— Culicicapa ceylonensis, Sws. The Grey- 
headed Flycatcher. 

Dr. Jerdon in his " Birds of India" has given a capital 
account of the habits of this species. As he remarks, it is 
very abundant ou the higher ranges of the Nilghiris, but it 
is also common throughout the whole district included in the 
present paper wherever the country is well-wooded, and where 
it occurs is, 1 believe, a permanent resident. 

297.— Alseonax latirostris, The Southern Brown 
Flycatcher. 

I not unfrequently met with this species in the Wynaad. I 
have not noticed it in those parts of the Mysore country 
through which I passed. I have on two or three occasions 
found it on the slopes of the Nilghiris, but it is I think most nu- 
merous in the Wynaad, but even there it is not a common bird. 
It is of course only a cold weather visitant. I find I have 
specimens shot as late as the 4th of April. 

300.—Ochromela nigrorufa, Jerd. The Black and 
Orange Flycatcher. 

This lovely little bird is common on the Nilghiris and its 
Blopes ; it occurs also in the Wynaad, but is rare there. Jerdon's 
description of the habits of this is extremely good, except in 
that he states that " it is a very silent bird." I almost always 

47 



370 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

discover the whereabouts of the bi rd by its note, a sort of 
prolonged chtir r-r-r. The following are the dimensions, colours, 
&c, taken in the flesh of ten specimens, five males and five 
females : — 

Males. — Length, 5 to 5'65 ; expanse, 7-5 to 79 ; tail, 1*8 to 
2 2 ; wing, 24 to 2 5 ; tarsus, 0*75 to 0*84; bill from gape, 58 
to 06; weight, 0'35 to 04 oz. 

Females.— Length, 4*8 to 5 - ; expanse, 7*1 to 7*4 ; tail, 1*7 to 
1*75 ; wing, 2'21 to 235 ; tarsus, 075 to 0*8; bill from gape, 
0-55 to 06 ; weight, 0-25 to 0'35 oz. 

In both sexes the legs, feet, and claws vary from fleshy to pale 
plumbeous brown ; irides dark wood brown. 

301.— Stoporala melanops, Fig. The Verditer Fly- 
catcher. 

Jerdon gives this species from the Nilghiris, but I myself 
have never met with it in Southern India ; it must be, I think; 
of extremely rare occurrence. 

302.— Stoporala albicaudata, Jerd. The Nilghiri 
Verditer Flycatcher. 

A very common bird on the Nilghiris and the slopes to about 
4,000 feet elevation j it also occurs at considerably lower eleva- 
tions, but in. much diminished numbers and only where the 
country is well wooded. It is a permanent resident, breeding 
in holes of trees, banks, walls, &c. The male during the breeding 
season has a pleasing but rather feeble song. The following are 
the dimensions, &c., of a large number of specimens recorded in 
the flesh; the sexes do not appear to differ materially in size. 

Length, 5-8 to 6'6 ; expanse, 96 to 102 ; tail, 2'4 to 285 ; 
wing, 3*0 to 32 ; tarsus, 72 to 078 ; bill from gape, 0*68 to 
071 ; weight, 62 to 08 oz. 

304.— Cyornis rubeculoides, Fig. The Blue-throated 
Red-breast. 

Occurs sparingly about the base of the Nilghiris and in the 
Wyuaad. I obtained only two specimens, both males, in 
February and March — one at Seegore, the other at Nellacotta 
in the Wynaad. 

306.— Cyornis tickelli, Bly. Tickell's Blue Red- 
breast. 

This species is not uncommon in the drier and less densely 
wooded portions of the slopes of the Nilghiris and beyond iuto 
Wynaad and Mysore. I obtained one specimen, a male, close 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 371 

to the town of Ootacamund on the 10th of February 1881, but 
it seldom, indeed, ascends to such an elevation. I found it most 
numerous in the thinly wooded portion of the country beyond 
Ram pore in the Mysore country. 

307— Oyornis ruficaudus, Sws. The Rufous-tailed 

Flycatcher. 

Occurs but sparingly on the plateau of the Nilghiris, along 
their slopes and in the Wvnaad. It is migratory, I believe, 
leaving about the end of April. 

309.— Cyornis pallipes, Jerd. The White-bellied 
Blue Flycatcher. 

This species does not seem to ascend higher than about 5,600 
feet elevation, but from thence it spreads all over the slopes and 
into the Wynaad. It is a shy bird, and keeps to the denser 
portions of the undergrowth. 

It is nowhere common, and the females are hardly ever seen ; 
although I was especially on the look-out for it I only obtained 
some seven or eight males, and but one female, which latter, 
I believe, has never before been described. 

The male is a magnificent songster, the song being particu- 
larly rich and varied, and is almost exactly like that of Oreo- 
cincla mlgldriensis heard from a distance — in fact so close is the 
resemblance that I have often been puzzled whether the song 
I heard proceeded from a Flycatcher close at hand, or a Thrush 
at some distance. 

The following are the dimensions of seven males and one 
female recorded in the flesh : — 

Males. — Length, 6 to 6*4-; expanse, 94 to 99; tail, 2*3 to 
2-65 ; wing, 295 to 3'05 ; tarsus, 0'7 to 0'75 ; bill from gape, 0'8 
to 086 ; weight, 75 to 08 oz. 

Female. — Length, 6 - ; expanse, 93; tail, 2'1; wing, 29; 
tarsus, 0'7 ; bill from gape, - 82 ; weight, 0*62 oz. 

In both sexes the legs, feet and claws are fleshy, more or less 
strongly tinged with purple, the bill is black, and the irides 
deep wood brown. 

The female of this species is a bird quite sui generis, and is 
remarkable for having the entire lores snow white, while these 
in the male are black. In many particulars it closely resembles 
the English Robin. 

The lores and a line of feathers on the lower lid white; 
forehead brownish olive, shading into olive grey on the crown 
and occiput ; sides of the throat, ear-coverts, and feathers 
above and behind the eye dull blue gi'ey, most of the ear 
coverts pale shafted ; chin white, very slightly tinged with 



372 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

fulvous (might be more so in other specimens) ; central 
portion of the throat, and all but quite the lower part of the 
breast a rich rusty red ; extreme lower breast, abdomen, vent, 
lower tail-coverts and axillaries white ; the bases of the feathers 
dusky, which showing through on the lower breast, and ex- 
treme upper abdomen, give a greyish tinge to these parts; 
wing-lining brownish white, margined with white ; back 
slightly rufescent olive brown, most so on the rump ; upper tail- 
coverts intense ferruginous ; tail feathers ferruginous, duller, 
and somewhat brown on the inner webs, and at the tips ; visible 
portion of coverts, except greater primary coverts, somewhat 
olivaceous rufescent ; quills and primary greater coverts rather 
dark hair brown ; the outer webs more or less suffused with 
the colours of the coverts. 

[32ZMs.— Erythrosterna parva, JBechst. The White- 
tailed Robin Flycatcher. 

Occurs in Southern Mysore, at the foot of the Nilghiris on the 
Bangalore road, and probably all round the bases of the hills 
and on their lower slopes. — A. O. H.] 

339.— Callene rufiventris, Bit/. The Rufous-bellied 
Short-wing. 

Inhabits the Nilghiris, Bramagherries, and other ranges 
in South India. It does not, I believe, go much below about 
6,000 feet elevation. It has much the habits of Brachypteryx, 
but even more than that species keeping to the denser 
portion of the undergrowth in evergreen forest. I can- 
not recall ever having seen it in the open. It keeps 
almost entirely to the ground, occasionally, however, when 
alarmed flying up into a tree, but soon returning to the 
ground. Found in pairs usually, sometimes singly, and is very 
partial to densely-wooded ravines, especially if they are moist. 
The male has a very pleasing little song, but consisting only 
of a few notes. 

I measured a good many specimens. The following is a 
resume" of the measurements : — 

Males. — Length, Q'Q to 6 - 8 ; expanse, 9 - 8 to 10*2 ; tail, 
2-4 to 2-6; wing, 30 to 32 ; tarsus, 1*15 to 1'2; bill from 
gape, 081 to 0*9 ; weight, 0'8 to 1*0 oz. 

Females. — Length, 63o to 6* -.» ; expanse, 9*4 to 99 ; tail, 
2-15 to 2-3 ; wings, 3*0 to 32 ; tarsus, 1-05 to 1-2 ; bill from 
gape, 0-8 to 082 ; weight, 08 to 0-82 oz. 

In both sexes the legs, feet, and claws pale fleshy brown ; 
bill black ; hides dark wood brown. 

The bird is of course a permanent resident where it occurs. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 373 

[385.— Pyctorhis sinensis, Gm. The Yellow-eyed 
Babbler. 

Common in S. W. Mysore ; and I believe I have seen it 
from the Wynaad. — A. 0. H.] I have shot this about six miles 
from Ootacamuud. — W. D. 

342. — Myiophoneus horsfieldi, Vig. The Malabar 
Whistling Thrush. 

This bird does not occur on the plateau of the Nilghiris, 
about 6,000 feet being the greatest elevation to which ife 
ascends. It is not very numerous anywhere, but every small 
stream will contain a pair or two, and the larger ones several. 
It is always found about streams, and never wanders far (unless 
much disturbed) from their immediate vicinity, unlike M. 
temmincki, which is as often found miles away from any stream 
as near them. I can add nothing to Jerdon's excellent account 
of the bird. The following are the dimensions, &c, recorded 
in the flesh of a few specimens. The female is slightly smaller 
than the male : — 

Males. — Length, 11*9 to 122; expanse, 19'5 ; tail, 48 
to 5 ; wing, 635 to 65 ; tarsus, 19 to 20 ; bill from gape, 
149 to 5 ; weight, 50 to 60 ozs. 

Females. — Length, 1 1*5 to 11*7; expanse, ISO to 18*5; 
tail, 4-27 to 4*4; wing, 5*7 to 6'05 ; tarsus, 1*7 to 1'8; 
bill from gape, L4 to 15 ; weight, 425 to 45 ozs. 

In both sexes the bill, legs, feet, and claws are black ; iride3 
deep brown. 

345.— Pitta brachyura, Lin. The Indian Ground 
Thrush. 

A winter visitant to the South. I have shot it near 
Ootacamund all about the slopes, and in the Wynaad, but I 
have never found it numerous anywhere. 

351.— Cyanocinclus cyanus, Lin. The Blue Rock 
Thrush. 
A cold weather visitant, always solitary, and very fond 
of frequenting rocky ground. 

353— Petrophila cinclorhyncha, Vig. The Blue- 
headed Chat Thrush. 
Also a cold weather visitant, generally distributed, but in 
some places, as at Coonoor and the Ghats below it, the bird is 
very common. 



374 NOTES ON SOMK BIRDS COLLRCTKD ON TBE NILGH[RIS 

354.— Geocichla cyanotis, J. and S. The White- 
throated Ground Thrush. 

I have only met with the species in the Wynand and the slopes 
of the Nilghiris np to about 4,000 feet elevation. A fine female, 
shot in the Peria forests, measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 79; expanse, 13'0 ; tail, 2 7; wing-, 4*1; tarsus, 12; 
bill from gape, 1*0. 

Bill black ; base of lower mandible whitish ; legs and feet 
fleshy white ; claws pale brown ; irides deep brown. 

357. — Turdulus wardi, Jercl. Ward's Pied Blackbird. 
Rare in the South. I have only shot it a few times. I am not 
certain, but 1 think it is only a winter visitant. 

360.— Merula simillima, Jerd. The Nilgiiiri Black- 
bird. 

Very common on the plateau of the Nilgbiris, and extending 
some little way down the slopes, but in considerably decreased 
numbers. It also occurs on the Bramagherries in Coorg, a 
female I obtained there being undistiuguishable from numerous 
females obtained on the Nilghiris. 

372.— Oreocincla nilghiriensis, Bly. The Nilgiiiri 
Thrush. 

This fine bird, so far as I am aware, is found only on the 
higher ranges of the Nilghiris and Bramagherries, and even 
where it does occur is rare. It is usually found singly, some- 
times in pairs. It is a glorious songster, and its rich and 
varied song can be heard for nearly a mile. 

The following are the dimensions of a fine male shot on the 
Bramagherries on the 20th April 1881 : — 

Length, 105 ; expanse, 16*0 ; tail, 37 ; wing, 5 3 ; tarsus, 1-2 ; 
bill from gape, 155; weight, 375 ozs. Legs, feet, and claws 
dark fleshy ; irides dark brown ; upper mandible blackish ; 
lower brown, palest at base; gape yellowish. 

389.— Alcippe poiocephala, Jerd. The Nilghiri 
Quaker Thrush. 
Jerdon says that this is not a common bird. On the 
slopes of the Nilghiris, especially about Coonoor and the Ghat be- 
low it, it is, I should say, an exceedingly common bird. It ascends 
the hills to quite 6,000 feet, and is also found in the Wynaad 
and on the Bramagherries. It goes about in parties of from 
four or five to twenty or more, keeping chiefly amongst the 
undergrowth, but also not uufrequently ascending to the tops 



AND IN PAIU'S OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHEUN MYSOKK. 875 

of the highest trees, and though acting independently of 
each other, yet still keeping up communication by continually 
calling to aud answering one another. The following are the 
dimensions taken in thp flesh of an adult male : — 

Length, 6"l ; expanse, 8*5; tail, 2 - 5 j wing, 278 ; tarsus, 
08 ; bill from gape, 0*7; weight, 0*7 oz. 

Irides slaty grey ; legs, feet, and claws greyish fleshy ; bill 
horny brown. 

390.— Alcippe atriceps, Jerd. The Black-headed 
Wren Warbler. 

This species only ascends the hills to about 4,000 feet. All 
about the base of the hills, and through the Wynaad, &c, it is 
a common bird, going about in larger or smaller parties, but, 
unlike poiocephala, it seems to prefer bamboo and scrub. But 
it also occurs in evergreen forest. It is particularly numer- 
ous about Manautoddy. 

The following is a resumd of specimens measured in the 
flesh :— 

Length, 53 to 5-8; expanse, 7 to 7-7; tail, 2'0 to 
2-15; wing, 2*3 to 24; tarsus, 0-9 to 0-98; bill from gape, 
0*68 to 0-7 j weight, 0-6 oz. 

Irides bright yellow ; lower inaudible and upper mandible 
along commissure, fleshy piuk ; rest of upper mandible dull 
black; the legs, feet, aud claws vary much; sometimes they 
are pale plumbeous, sometimes pure fleshy pink, and at other 
times pink, more or less strongly 'tinged with purple. 

398.— Dumetia albogularis, Bit/. The White-throated 
Wren Babbler. 

I found this Babbler very common about Rampore. I also 
met with it in many places in the Wynaad, and I have shot 
it ;<t Neddivuttum at an elevation of 6,500 feet, but it seems 
to be very local in its distribution. I might march for days with- 
out seeing one, and then pass through a tract in which I met 
with a dozen or more parties in a day's march. 

The following are the dimensions, &c, of a couple of speci- 
mens : — 

Length, 58, 59; expanse, 7*1, 7-2; tail, 2 3, 2-5; 
wing, 21, 22; tarsus, 0-75, 0*8; bill from gape, 0-6,0.61; 
weight, 05 oz. 

Irides white ; bill, legs, feet, and claws pinkish fleshy ; upper 
mandible alonjr culmeu and claws tinned with brown. 



376 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIIUS 

399.— Pellorneum ruficeps, Sws. Swainson's Wren 
Warbler. 
I have never found this bird very numerous. I have on 
one occasion shot it at Neddivuttum, and a few times in 
the station at Ooonoor, but it is rare indeed at this elevation. 
It spreads through the Wyuaad, and I have seen it on the 
Bramagherries. It is usually in flocks, but not unfrequently 
in pairs, and keeps almost entirely on the ground among 
brushwood or bamboo jungle. It has the same note as the 
other species of Pellorneum with which I am acquainted, a 
clear musical whistle resembling the words " pretty dear." 
The whistle consists of four notes. This note is continually 
repeated while the birds are feeding or moving about undis- 
turbed, but when they are disturbed they utter another and 
quite different note, a harsh sort of "churr." 

The following are dimensions, &c, of two fine males : — 
Length, 72 to 73 ; expanse, 9-3 to 9"6 ; tail, 2'6 to 2-65 ; 
wing, 29; tarsus, 1*1; bill from gape, 09; weight, 08 oz. 
Irides in the quite adult are crimson lake, in less mature 
birds cinnamon brown ; legs, feet, and claws, and lower man- 
dible, fleshy white ; upper mandible dark brown. 

404— Pomatorhinus horsfieldi, Sykes. The Southern 
Scimitar Babbler. 

This species is a common bird on the Nilghiris, many 
parts of Wynaad, and the Bramagherries, frequenting forests 
and gardens, almost always in pairs. Occasionally, however, 
it does occur in small parties, but in these cases I am inclined to 
think that the parties consists merely of a pair of adults 
and their young. Jerdon says it ascends the Nilghiris to 
above 6,000 feet. So it does, for it goes as high up as it possibly 
can without leaving the forest. I have myself shot it imme- 
diately below the summit of Dodabetta, the elevation of which 
is 8,727 feet. Jerdon also says it is very shy and wary ; well 
that just depends upon circumstances. I have seen it remark- 
ably shy close to towns where every native boy in the place 
was continually amusing himself by either throwing stones, or 
firing with a pellet-bow at every small bird he came across ; 
and again in places not much frequented I have found it so 
tame as to allow me to approach within a few yards of it; but 
when it has been much disturbed, and is consequently shy, 
there is no bird more wary or successful in evading observa- 
tion. It must, I think, breed twice, as I found a nest on the 
10th of March with fully fledged young, and late in April 
another nest with perfectly fresh eggs. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 377 

There does not seem to be any material difference in the 
size of the sexes : — 

Length, 93 to 97; expanse, 118 to 12-25; tail, 35 to 4'2 ; 
wing-, 3-8 to 4'0; tarsus, 1*2 to 1*3; bill from gape, 1*21 to 
135 ; weight, 15 to 1*8 oz. 

Lower mandible and part of upper mandible yellow, vary- 
ing from a very pale to a moderately dark orange yellow ; 
rest of upper mandible blackish ; irides crimson in the adults, 
dark wood brown in the immature ; legs and feet dark plum- 
beous brown. 

409.— Garrulax delesserti, Jerd. Delessert's Bab- 
bler. 

This species is, as remarked by Jerdon, rare. I have only 
seen it, and, on but few occasions, on the slopes of the Nilghiris, 
and on the Bramagherries. It has the habits of the other 
Babblers, associating in parties and working about on the 
ground, and amongst the brushwood, the whole party at intervals 
giving vent to their harsh unmusical laugh. 

Two specimens I measured in the flesh were as follows : — 
Male. — Length, 102; expanse, 135 ; tail, 375 ; wing, 405 ; 
tarsus, 1*45, bill from gape, 13; weight, 32 ozs. 

Female. — Length, 102 ; expanse, 132 ; tail, 375 ; wing, 42 ; 
tarsus, 1*45 j bill from gape, 1*3; weight, 275 ozs. 

In both sexes the irides are crimson ; lower mandible, legs, 
feet, and claws fleshy white ; upper mandible blackish brown. 

423.— Trochalopterum cachinnans, Jerd. The Nil- 
ghiri Laughing Thrush. 

Exceedingly numerous on the plateau of the Nilghiris, and 
occurring on the slopes as low down as 4,000 feet, but not 
lower I think. 

This bird is one of the most characteristic birds of the 
Nilghiris. It is found everywhere in forests, gardens ; in fact 
wherever there are a few bushes or a little scrub the bird is 
sure to be found, and its pleasant noisy laugh is one of the com- 
monest sounds one hears about Ootacamund, Coonoor, &c. 

Jerdon gives a very good description of its food and habits. 
The male is rather larger than the female. The following are 
the dimensions of a few of both sexes : — 

Males. — Length, 92 to 95 ; expanse, 1 1*1 to 11*5 J tail, 
3*9 to 3 95 ; wing, 375 to 38; tarsus, 1*4; bill from gape, 
09 to 0-92 ; weight, 1-4 to 1-6 oz. 

Females. — Length, 8 - 3 to 8 6 ; expanse, 102 to 10'5 ; tail, 36 
to 3-75 ; wing, 3'32 to 3-5 ; tarsus, 1-2 ; bill from gape, 078 to 
0-89; weight, 1-12 to 15 oz. 

48 



378 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

In both sexes the legs and feet are greenish plumbeous ; the 
claws and bill black ; and the irides crimson lake in the adult, 
dark reddish brown in the immature. 

424.— Trochalopterum jerdoni, Ely. The Banasore 
Laughing Thrush. 

The habits of this bird are much the same as those of 
cachinnans, but it is a much more shy and wary ; at least I found 
it so, but I had not the opportunity for an extended observation. 
The voice is also similar, but, as observed by Jerdon, more sub- 
dued. I procured twelve specimens of jerdoni on the Brama- 
gherries, a range of hills in Coorg within sight of Banasore or 
Balasore (it is called as frequently by one name as by the other), 
the locality where Jerdon procured the type. Banasore is 
separated from the Bramagherries in a direct line by a distance 
of only about twenty miles, 

Jerdon's description of this species is imperfect and unsatis- 
factory. Blyth's original description, J. A. S. B., 1851, Vol. 
XX, p. 522 (which is given below as a note*), is far better but 
hardly full enough, and as three other closely allied species 
are already known, there cannot be a too detailed description. 
I may here mention that Mr. Rhodes Morgan informs me 
that there is on the higher ranges of the Animullays a Trochalop- 
terum similar to Jerdoni, and having the grey throat and 
breast of that species. Mr. Morgan did not procure any 
specimens of the bird, but from what he saw of it he inclines 
to the belief that it is identical with jerdoni; it would be very 
interesting to know that this really is the case. I should think 
the probabilities are that it will prove a distinct species. 

The following is a detailed description of the species :— 

Chin, upper throat, feathers at base of lower mandible, lores, 
a streak behind the eye, forehead, and a narrow line above the 
white supercilium, dull black ; supercilium white, as far as pos- 
terior angle of eye, from whence it gradually becomes tinged 
with ashy until it merges and is lost in the dark ashy of the 
nape. The supercilium and the narrow black streak above it 
are the same length, and extend to 05 beyond the posterior angle 
of the eye; crown and occiput (occupj'ing the space within the 
supercilia) dark slaty brown ; feathers of the crown, in most 
specimens, margined somewhat darker, so as to produce a some- 

* Note: — Blyth's original description of T. jerdoni is as follows: — 
"Garbulax (?) jbedoni, nobis, resembles G. (?) cachinnans, Jerdon, except 
that there is no trace of rufous on the cheeks, foreneck, and breast; the black of 
the chin is also less developed, and the nape is of a dull ashy hue : foreneck and 
breast paler ashy, passing to whitish on the ear-coverts. The medial abdominal 
feathers only are rufous; those of the flanks, back wings, and tail are olive M in 
G. (?) cachinnans, and the head, lores, and supercilia are likewise similar." 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 379 

what scaly effect; tin's varies a good deal in individual speci- 
mens ; in some the crown aud occiput are the same colour, forming 
a distinct cap contrasting with the dark grey of the nape and 
mantle; in others the colour gradually shades away till it merges 
into the grey of the nape, thus not producing any distinct line 
of demarcation; nape and interscapulary region dark ashy 
grey, darkest in the centre, gradually paling on the sides to- 
wards the breast; rest of the upper surface olive brown (the 
same colour as in cachinnans). The grey of the nape is not 
abruptly defined, but gradually shades away into the olive of 
the back ; ear-coverts pale silver grey, some of the upper fea- 
thers tipped black, where these merge into the black spot 
behind the eye ; throat mingled grey and white ; breast and 
sides of neck immediately behind the ear-coverts ash grey, 
the feathers more or less dark shafted, giving a streaky appear- 
ance to these parts. The amount of white on the throat, the 
depth of tint of the ash colour of the breast, and the dark 
shafting to the feathers varies considerably in individual 
specimens. Flanks, tibial plumes, and lower tail-coverts, olive 
brown, like that of the upper surface ; abdomeu rufous but 
paler than in cachinnans, — in fact nothing more than a ferrugi- 
nous buff. 

I append a short key to the four species, cachinnans, jerdoni, 
fairbanki, aud meridionale. 

{Throat and breast rusty ... cachinnans. 

Throat and breast white and grey, ) . , . 
striated ... * '^jerdoni. 

( Forehead, crown, and occiput form-") » . , ,. 
ing a defined dark cap •••/ 

Chin grey -l Forehead, crown, and occiput, uni-~) 

colorous with nape into which > meridionale. 
^ they blend ... ... J 

1 have compared two specimens of meridionale with nine 
of fairbanki, to see how far the seven points of distinction 
given by Mr. Blanford (J. A. S. B., Vol. XLIX, Pt. II., p. 
143) hold good, with the following results : — 

Mr. Blanford says : " T. meridionale is distinguished from 
T. fairbanki by (1) the much shorter white superciliary 
stripe terminating above the eye, whereas in T. fairbanki it 
extends back to the ear-coverts." 

This point, as far as I can judge from our not-overgood 
specimens, appears to hold good. 

" (2) By there being no brown band behind the eye, the fea- 
thers immediately behind the eye being rufesceut grey, like the 
cheeks in T. meridionale, whilst they are brown like the lores 
and crown in T. fairbanki, ," 



380 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

This point holds good in one specimen of meridionals, in 
the other specimen the upper feathers of the ear-coverts (which 
are grey, strongly tinged with rusty), are tipped with dark 
brown, forming a small but distinct patch behind the eye, the 
same colour as the lores and crown. 

" (3) By the back and upper parts generally being much 
greyer, and by the brown colour of the crown passing gradual- 
ly into the olivaceous tinge of the back, and not being sepa- 
rated by a distinct margin." 

This is the best and most characteristic point of difference 
between the two species, but it is hardly " the back and 
upper parts generally being greyer." This would perhaps be 
better expressed by saying that these parts in meridionals want 
the rusty tinge they have in fairbanki ; remove this rusty 
tinge, and the colour of the upper parts in both species would 
be identical. 

'• (4) By the tail feathers being browner, and more distinct- 
ly transversely barred above." 

This point does not hold good as far as the barring is con- 
cerned. 

" (5) By the striation on the throat and breast being more 
strongly marked." 

This point does not hold good ; two specimens of fairbanki 
have the striation quite as much developed as in the Travancore 
birds. 

" (6) By the middle of the abdomen being white instead of 
ferruginous/' 

Several of our specimens of fairbanki show traces of white 
on the abdomen, while in one specimen of meridionale there 
is not a trace of white on the abdomen, it being uniformly 
rufous. 

" (7) By the rather stouter bill." 

This point does not hold good ; there is nothing to choose 
between the stoutest-billed meridionale, and five out of nine 
specimens of fairbanki in this respect. 

I obtained twelve specimens of jerdoni on the Bramagherries, 
but unfortunately only two out of the ten measured were males. 
This does not so much matter, however, as these two males do 
not appreciably differ in size from the females. The follow- 
ing is a resume of the dimensions, &c, of these ten specimens : — 
Length, 8-0 to 8 6 ; expanse, 99 to 107; tail, 3'3 to 3*7 ; 
wing, 3-05 to 3*4 ; tarsus, 1*2 to 13; bill from gape, 09 to 
1-01 ; weight, 1*5 to 1*82 oz. The bill is dull black ; the legs, 
feet, and claws dark plumbeous brown ; irides in the adult 
crimson lake, in immature birds deep red brown. 

Jerdon in his description (B. of I., Vol. II., page 49) omits 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 381 

all mention of the black chin, the most important characteris- 
tic serving at once to separate it from the other two closely 
allied species, fairbanki and meridionale* 

433.— Malacocercus griseus, Lath. The White- 
headed Babbler. 

I only met with this species in the Mysore country, and 
even there only in places that were not heavily wooded. I 
found it most numerous between Muddur .and Gundaluput. 
It was nowhere very common. Jerdon has given a very full 
and elaborate description of the habits of this bird (vide B. of 
I., Vol. II., page 60.) 

The following are the dimensions, &c, of three specimens : — 
Length, 90 to 9-2; expanse, 12'45 to 12*5; tail, 3'8 to 
4*6; wing, 3*9; tarsus, 1*26 to 1*3; bill from gape, 0'9 to 
1*0; weight, 2 - 25 to 2'5 ozs. Legs, feet, claws, bill, and 
orbital skin dead white, slightly tinged with yellow ; irides 
creamy white. 

434.— Malacocercus malabaricus, Jerd. The Jungle 
Babbler. 

All over the Nilghiris and its slopes, and through the 
Wynaad, this species is common. Jerdon calls it the Jungle 
Babbler. As far as my experience of it goes, it studiously avoids 
all heavy jungle, and I doubt if it ever enters any forest or 
heavy jungle a distance of a hundred yards. Its chief haunts 
are among scrub, and in the cultivated lands in the vicinity 
of Ootacamund, Coonoor, Kotagherry, &c, it is specially 
abundant; these fields are as a rule intersected in all direc- 
tions by ravines filled with brushwood, besides many 
patches of scrubby uncultivated land ; the birds feed in the 
fields, and when disturbed, or they retire of themselves, they 
betake themselves to this scrub. They are always in parties, 
even in the breeding season, and in habits resemble other 
members of the genus, feeding much on the ground, and mov- 
ing about together. Their note is a sort of chuckling- lauorh, 
and as soon as one commences, the whole party join in a chorus ; 
they are noisy though sprightly birds. The following are the 
measurements, &c, taken in the flesh of two males and two 
females. The sexes do not differ in size : — 

Length, 95 to 10-1 ; expanse, 123 to 131 ; tail, 39 to 4*1 ; 
wing, 3-8 to 431 ; tarsus, 1*3 to 1*38 ; bill from gape, 
1*05 to 1-1 ; weight, 2'5 ozs. 

Legs, feet, claws, bill, aud orbital skin dirty fleshy white ; 
upper mandible and claws tinged more or less strongly in dif- 

* But these two were then unknown, and he saya like cachinnans which has the 
chin black.— Ed., S. F. 



382 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

ferent individuals with pale brown ; lower mandible sometimes 
tinged with pale yellow ; irides bright pearly white. 

436.— Argya malcolmi, Syhes. The Large Grey-front- 
ed Babbler. 

This Babbler is not a common bird in the country embraced 
in this paper. I have met with a few flocks occasionally on 
the lower slopes below Kotagherry, and in the Mysore country 
near Gundulapet* and Muddur. I have never met with it on 
the slopes below Coouoor, Neddivuttum, or the Seegore Ghat. 
I may mention a curious incident about this bird. In 1869 
or 1870, lam not certain which, a flock of about twenty indivi- 
duals of this species suddenly made their appearance in the 
town of Ootacamund, taking up their abode in the Government 
Public Gardens, from whence they strolled among the well- 
wooded gardens in the vicinity for about a radius of a mile. 
I noticed their arrival at once, for I was, at that time, quite 
unacquainted with the bird, and their very peculiar and un- 
familiar note made them very conspicuous. I left Ootacamund 
in 1872, and then they seemed to be just the same number; 
when I returned nearly ten years afterwards the flock was 
still there and frequenting the same place, but reduced to five 
individuals. I made many enquiries among both Europeans 
and natives who had noticed their arrival, and found that they 
always remained thereabouts, never seemed to breed, and 
gradually diminished in numbers. This party always frequent- 
ed the tops of the highest trees, and if disturbed when 
feeding in the ground, at once betook themselves to the high 
trees. 

I shot one, a female, out of the remaining five, and this 
I measured with the following results : — 

Length, 11*1; expanse, 14*5 ; tail, 5*4; wing, 4*6; tarsus, 
1*41; bill from gape, 1*09. Irides bright yellow; upper 
mandible dark brown ; lower mandible, legs, and feet fleshy, 
slightly tinged blue. 

437.— Layardia subrufa, Jerd. The Rufous Bab- 
bler. 

This bird in habits and voice is quite a Malacocercus ; the 
only points of difference are that it keeps to much denser cover, 
being fouud far away in forests, and the voice is softer and more 
subdued. It is especially partial to dense thorny scrub jungle 
and bamboo. It feeds, like the Malacocerci, on the ground 
chiefly. It does not ascend to the plateau of the Nilghiris, 
but I have shot it about a couple of miles from Coonoor on 
the Ghat. It is also not. uncommon in the Wynaad, but I did 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 383 

not meet with it anywhere in the Mysore country, which ia 
very much drier than the Wynaad. 

I procured a wood number of specimens. The following is a 
resume of the dimensions and colours of soft parts of those 
measured. Sexes do not differ in size : — 

Length, 9-9 to 102 ; expanse, ll'O to 11'3 ; tail, 4 4 to 4*9 ; 
wing, 35 to 3-6 ; tarsus, 1-35 to 1*4; bill from gape, 0*92 to 
1-0 j weight, 2*1 to 2*75 ozs. 

Upper mandible from gape to nostril chrome yellow, rest of 
upper mandible blackish brown, shaded along commissure 
with pale yellow ; lower mandible chrome yellow, sometimes 
shaded with pale brown ; irides sometimes creamy white, 
sometimes pale yellow. Legs and feet vary greatly ; they are 
dark yellowish fleshy, pale reddish brown, greyish yellow, &c. 

[438.— Chatarrhaa caudata, Dum. The Striated 
Bush Babbler. 

I observed three birds of this species, close to the Railway 
Station, at the base of the Coonoor Ghat. I have no doubt 
it occurs everywhere on the lower levels where not too wet 
and jungly. — A. 0. H.] 

442.— Schcenicola platyurus, Jerd. The Broad-tailed 
Heed Bird. 

I failed to procure specimens of this bird during my trip, 
though I saw it on two or three occasions in the dense screw- 
pine swamps in the Wynaad. 

446.— Hypsipetes ganeesa, Sykes. The Southern 
Black Bulbul. 

This species is very numerous on the higher portion of the 
Nilghiris, at about Ootacamund, Coonoor, &c, but it gradually 
diminishes in number as it descends, stopping at about 4,001) 
feet. It is also found on the Bramagherries. It goes about 
in parties usually, though occasionally met with in pairs ; it 
is very noisy, keeping up a continual chatter. It feeds on 
fruit, and is rather a wary bird. 

450.— Criniger ictericus, Strickl. The Yellow-browed 
Bulbul. 
This bird does not occur on the plateau of the Nilghiris* 
but it is common from about the elevation of about 6,500 feet 
downwards to the foot of the Gh&ts. It also occurs in the 
forests of Wynaad, on the Peria Ghat for instance, aud on the 
Bramagherries in Coorg. It goes about in pairs aud small 



384 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

parties, feeds on fruit, lias a soft, rather mellow whistle, and 
keeps much to the undergrowth of the evergreen forests, ventur- 
ing occasionally, however, into gardens. 

A specimen I shot in the Peria forests differed so con- 
spicuously in the colours of the soft parts, from what is recorded 
by Jerdon, that I give it. Male, shot 1st May. — Irides wood 
brown; legs and feet pale blue; claws bluish horny; upper 
mandible black ; lower mandible pale brown, darkest along 
edges and at tip. 

[452.— Ixos luteolus, Less. The White-browed 
Bush-Bulbul. 

Occurs in the Wynaad, whence I once received a specimen, 
but is, I believe, rare there. — A. O. H.] 1 met with this 
species at Rampore in Mysore.- W. D. 

452. — Rubigula gularis, Gould. The Ruby-throated 
Bulbul. 

This little Bulbul is a bird of the evergreen forests, with the 
usual habits of the genus, and a note very similar to that of 
li.flaviventris. It is by no means common ; and even in the dis- 
trict in which it occurs is very local ; it usually associates in 
small flocks. I met with it first near Devala in Wynaad. It 
does not ascend the hills that I am aware of — at least I have 
never met with it on the Ghats. 

I only procured a few specimens. The following are the di- 
mensions and colours of soft parts of four specimeus, two males 
and two females: — 

Length, 67 to 6-8 ; expanse, 94 to 95 ; tail, 28 to 3*0 ; 
tarsus, 05 to 0*55 ; bill from gape, 0*7 to 0*78 ; weight, 
0"7 ozs. Irides vary from white to pale yellow ; bill aud 
claws black; legs aud feet plumbeous, sometimes tinged with 
brown. 

457.— Brachypodius poiocephalus, Jerd. The Grey- 
headed Bulbul. 

The species is not uucommon in some parts of the Wynaad, 
as at Manantoddy and its neighbourhood, the Peria forests,, &c. 
I have also found it in other parts of Wynaad, but in much 
reduced numbers, and in May last I met with one specimen 
about a mile from Coonoor. 

The bird is only found in well-wooded places — I mean by 
that ou the outskirts of the evergreen forests, aud similar 
places ; for although a place may be well-wooded with deci- 
duous trees, bamboos, &c, the bird would not frequent it, so that 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 385 

it might, like Irena puella, be termed a bird of the evergreen 
forests. It has the same habits as other members of the genus, 
but the note is quite unlike that of any other species of Brack t/- 
podius, with which I am acquainted, being a single soft low whis- 
tle. Those I examined had eateu berries. Usually they are in 
pairs, and I have even found them siugly, but in the mornings 
and evenings they may be found in numbers feeding in company 
with other Bulbuls, Orioles, Ireuas, &c, in flocks. They are 
very wary, and after being fired at once or twice become so 
wary that it is next to impossible to approach within shot. 
I managed to secure a large number of specimens, but this was 
by stationing myself under a tree in fruit in the morning and 
evening with my air gun. 

The following is a resume" of the measurements of a large 
number of specimens taken in the flesh. The sexes do not vary 
in size: — 

Length, 7'0 to 7-5 ; expanse, 9'2 to 100 ; tail, 27 to 325; 
wing, 29 to 3*25; tarsus, 0*5 to 0"65 ; bill from gape, 0"7 to 
0-85; weight, 0*8 to 1-15 oz. 

In both sexes the legs are fleshy, strongly tinged with orange; 
the bill pale green, almost the same shade exactly as the fore- 
head ; the irides a clear blue grey, the grey tint predominating 
more or less in different specimens. 

Jerdou's description of this species was evidently taken from 
a single specimen, and as individuals vary to a considerable 
extent, it will be perhaps as well to re-describe the species. Jer- 
don, moreover, in his description says : " Feathers of the rump 
light yellowish green, broadly streaked with black." This is apt 
to convey a very erroneous impression ; the feathers, as in all 
the Brachypodii, are black, very broadly fringed with a lighter 
colour, in this case by green. The followiug is a detailed 
description of a fine adult male : — 

Feathers immediately above nostril and forehead bright 
greenish yellow ; the feathers immediately in front of the lores 
are hardly, if at all, tinged with green, the colour being an 
almost pure gamboge yellow; lores, feathers round eye, 
a short streak from posterior angle of eye, most of the feathers 
of the ear-coverts, and a patch at the base of lower mandible, 
dull green, much the colour of the back, but duller; the bases 
of the feathers on lores are black, aud this showing through 
gives a blackish appearance to these parts ; chin and upper 
throat dull black ; crown, occiput, nape, sides of neck immedi- 
ately behind ear-coverts and lower throat, a rather dark ash 
grey ; interscapular^* region, scapulars, upper back, and visible 
portion of closed wing rather dark warm olive green ; there is 
the same green on the lower surface, but much lighter in tint, 

49 



?,SC) NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRtS 

darkest on the upper breast, gradually paling, till on the tibial 
plumes, flanks, and lower abdomen the feathers are merely 
washed with a delicate tint of green. 

Feathers of the lower back and rump black, very broadly 
edged with pale ashy green, the black showing through to a 
considerable extent, giviug the mottled appearance to these 
parts characteristic of the Bracliypodii ; the feathers too are 
loose and very full, also characteristic of the genus ; upper and 
under tail-coverts, four central tail feathers, and entire uuder 
surface of tail, a delicate French grey ; the four lateral tail 
feathers on each side black for two-thirds of their length, the 
terminal third French grey and margined on their outer webs 
with green ; the black on the tail is confined entirely to the 
upper surface of the feathers, the lower surface for their entire 
length being grey ; primaries, secondaries, and tertiaries black- 
ish brown; the first primary entirely of this colour, the re- 
mainder edged on their outer webs with green, at first very 
narrowly, but more broadly on each succeeding feather, till 
on the tertiaries the entire outer webs, and on the later ones 
the tips of the inner webs also, are green. 

Taking- a large series, the birds are found to vary somewhat 
inter se. In some specimens the grey of the head and throat is 
almost or entirely wanting, and the amount of black on the 
chin and throat of the different specimens varies considerably ; 
the green edging to the outer webs of the tail feathers too 
varies ; in some all the tail feathers are green edged, in others 
only the outer four on each side. With regard to the almost or 
entire want of grey on the head aud throat, this appears to be a 
sign of nonage. 

This species is apparently figured and described in the ''Voy- 
age de la Bonite, PI. 5, under the name of Ixos fisquettii. A young 
bird showing the merest trace of grey about the head and 
throat, and with the central tail feathers grey edged. 

4606is.— Otocompsa fuscicaudata, Gould. The 
Southern Red-whiskered Bulbul. 

An exceedingly abundant species all over the Nilghiris, 
through the Wynaad and Mysore. Most numerous perhaps on 
the higher ranges. Found singly, in pairs, or parties. It is a very 
familiar bird, keeping much to gardens, &c, and as a rule 
avoiding heavy forest. 

462.— Molpastes haemorrhous, Gm. The Madras 
Bulbul. 

This species is very rare on the highest portion of the Nil- 
ghiris, being only occasionally seen about Ootacamund, but 



AND- IN "PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 387 

about four miles from Ooty, it commences to get common. It is 
very numerous about Ooonoor, and all down the Ghats. It is 
much rarer on the Neddivuttum side, owing, I suspect, to there 
being so much evergreen forest on that side which it dislikes, 
its chief haunts being comparatively open land studded with 
bushes- and scrub. Jerdon says it ascends the Nilghiris only 
to about 6,000 feet. It is quite possible it may have been so 
when lie made his observations, but now, though rarely, it 
certainly is found right up to Ootacamund, for I have shot it 
more than once in the Government Gardens : — 
A male measured in the flesh : — 

.Length, 8*2; expanse, 12*4 ; tail, 3 5 ; wing, 3'8 ; tarsus, 
0"85 ; bill from gape, 082 ; weight, 1*2 oz. 

463.— Phyllornis jerdoni, Bly. The Green Bulbul. 

I did not procure specimens of this species during my trip. 
I met with it on a few occasions in the Mysore country. 

464. — Phyllornis malabaricus, Gm. The Malabar 
Green Bulbul. " 

This species is not uncommon in the Wynaad and on the slopes 
of. the Nilghiris. I have shot it as high up as the Government 
Plantations at Neddivuttum, about 6,000 feet elevation, but it 
does not go higher than this I think. Its voice is very similar 
to that of aurifrons, and it has the usual habits of the genus, 
going about in pairs or small parties. It lives largely on fruit, 
but I have also found insects in the stomachs of some. It is 
very fond of frequenting the silk cotton trees {Bombax mala- 
baricum) when in flower. 

The following are the dimensions, &c, taken in the flesh of 
three fine males : — 

Length, 72 to 8'? ; expanse, 117 to 12-0; tail, 27 to 8-85 ; 
wing, 36 to 37 ; tarsus, 07 to 0*75 ; bill from gape, 0'95 to 
1-0; weight, 082 to 1-3 ozs. 

468. — Iora typhia, Lin. The Common Iora. 

A common bird all through the Wynaad, the base of the 
Nilghiris, and up their slopes to an elevation of about 3,000 feet. 
Jerdon has given a full account of the habits of the species 
( B. of I., Vol. II., p. 200) under the head of Iora zeylonica. . 

469 — Irena puella, Lath. The Fairy Blue Bird. 

Found in the Wynaad, and on the slopes of the Nilghiris up to 
about 5,000 feet, but only in the evergreen forests. It avoids 
dry open country. A full account of its habits, &c, will be 
found in our Tenasserim paper, 8. F., Vol. VI., and Jerdon, B. 
of I., Vol. II., 105. 



388 NOTES ON SOME B1KDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

470.— Oriolus kundoo, Sykes. The Indian Oriole. 

This species occurs on the Nilghiris (rarely ascending higher 
than about 6,000 feet) and through the Wynaad. It is most 
abundant at the lower elevations. 

[471.— Oriolus indicus, Jerd. The Black-naped 
Indian Oriole. 

I have received a specimen from the Wynaad from, I think, 
the neighbourhood of Manantoddy. It must be rare, as it was 
sent as an unknown bird by a stranger. — A. O. H.] 

472.— Oriolus melanocephalus, Lin. The Black- 
headed Oriole. 

This Oriole occurs over the same country as 0. hindoo, 
but it ascends the hills somewhat higher, and I have on 
more than one occasion seen and shot it close to Ootacamund. 

475.— Copsychus saularis, Lin. The Magpie Bobin. 
The Dhial is common in the Wynaad, and it also occurs on 
the slopes of the Nilghiris to an elevation of about 4,500 feet. 

476.— Cercotrichas macrura, Gm. The Shama. 

I only met with this species in some thick bamboo jungle 
at the foot of the Bramagherries, where I obtained a male. 
In former j-ears I have once or twice obtained it also in bamboo 
jungle a few miles from Seegore at the foot of the Nilghiris. 

479.— Thamnobia fulicata, Lin. The Southern Black 
Robin. 

I found this Robin very common in the Mysore country 
through which I passed, where the country was not heavily 
wooded. It also occurs commonly on the slopes of the Nilghiris 
up to about 3,000 feet, but not higher I think. It avoids 
heavy jungle, and frequents open stony ground grown over 
with thorny scrub. 

On the 23rd of May last year I found a nest of this species 
containing three partially incubated eggs. The nest was 
placed under a bush on the very edge of the road. 

Two males measured : — 

Length, 65 to 67; expanse, 9*3 to 96; tail, 2*5 to 
26; wing, 2*95; tarsus, 1*0 to 101; bill from gape 
061 to 0*71 ; weight, 0"8 oz. Bill, legs, feet, and claws black ; 
irides very dark brown. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 389 

481 — Pratincola caprata, Lin. The Black Bush 

Chat. 
Occurs sparingly in the Mysore country, and J observed it 
two or three times in the Wynaad, in cultivated land. It 
keeps to the plains country. 

482.— Pratincola bicolor, Sykes. The Hill Black 
Bush Chat. 

This is one of the most common, and certainly the most 
familiar bird on the Nil gh iris. It is especially common on the 
plateau at Ootacamund and its vicinity, and abont Coonoor, 
Kotagherry, &c. It loves to frequent the neighbourhood of 
houses, and it is a most familiar and pleasing little bird. 
"When found away from towns, it keeps to open cultivated land, 
seldom, I think, descending lower than about 5,000 feet. It 
breeds freely on the Nilghiris, commencing as early as Feb- 
ruary. 

[483— Pratincola maura, Pall. The Indian Bush 
Chat. 

This is reported common in S. W. Mysore during the cold 
season. — A. 0. H.] 

497.— Ruticilla rufiventris, Vieill. The Indian Red- 
start. 

This Redstart is only a winter visitant to the south, and even 
then it is not numerous. I have never known it to ascend the 
hills. I have seen it most often about the stony ground at the 
base of the hills, and procured specimens near Seegore. 

507.— Larvivora superciliaris, Jerd. The Blue 
Wood Chat. 

This Wood Chat is very abundant on the Nilghiris and their 
slopes. It also occurs not uncommonly in the Wynaad, and 
I found it in the forests on the Brnmagherries. It usually 
keeps in the forests, frequenting chiefly banks of streams and 
marshy spots, usually singly, sometimes in pairs, hopping 
about on the ground, and when disturbed, flying up into some 
low tree, but only to alight again almost immediately. 

It is a permanent resident on the Nilghiris (breeding in holes 
of trees), but whether it is so in the Wynaad or not I cannot 
say. It is a noticeable fact that the males seem to be very much 
more numerous than the females. 

Jerdon gives the bill as dusky, so it is in the immature, but 



380 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE N1LGHIRIS 

in the adult it is quite black ; legs and feet fleshy ; irides very 
dark brown. 

[514.— Cyanecula suecica, Lin. The Red-spot Blue- 
throat. 

This is common in both S. W. Mysore and the Wy~ 
uaad.— A. 0. H.l 

? 5 15 r — Acrocephalus stentorius, Hemp, and Ehr. 
The Large Reed Warhler. 

On the 2nd of April last year, while passing through a coffee 
estate in Charambady, Wynaad, I noticed two large Acroce- 
phali in a rose hedge, but I was unable to obtain a specimen, 
so I have entered the species with a query, as it is possible* they 
might have been 5l5bis. — A orientalis, Tern, and Sch. 

516.— Acrocephalus dumetorum, Bly. The Lesser 
Reed Warhler. 

A cold weather visitant, and very abundant from about the 
middle of December to late in March on the Nilghiris. It 
occurs also in the Wynaad, and I have shot it on the Braraa- 
gherries. It frequents gardens, and the undergrowth on the 
outskirts of the jungles, working its w r ay through tangled and 
dense vegetation in a marvellous way, and as it moves about* 
keeps continually uttering its peculiar note, which cannot be 
syllablized, but can be produced exactly by placing the tongue 
against the teeth, and drawing it back rapidly. The sexes do 
not vary in size, the following being a resume of a number 
measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 55 to 5*7 ; expanse, 7 3 to 7-7 ; tail, 1*95 to 21 ; 
wing, 23 to -255 ; tarsus, 09 to 0*95; bill from gape, 06 to 
71; weight, 03 to 0'35 oz. Upper mandible dark brown; 
lower mandible fleshy ; legs and feet pale fleshy brown ; hides 
pale wood to yellow brown. 

[517. — Acrocephalus agricolus, Jerd. The Paddy- 
field Warbler. 

I received one specimen of this from the Wynaad. — A. O. H.] 

530.— Orthotomus sutorius, Penn. The Indian 
Tailor Bird. 

This bird does not ascend to quite the plateau of the Nilghi- 
ris, but occurs from about the level of Coonoor downward, and 

* I don't think so as we have stentorius from all ever Southern Iudia.— Ed., S. F. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 391 

all through the Wynand and the Mysore country. It avoids 
very dry and stony localities, frequenting- the better wooded 
portions of the country. It is such a well known and familiar 
bird, and has so often been written about, that it would be 
superfluous for. me to say anything more of it now. 

534. — Prinia socialis, Sykes. The Ashy Wren Warb- 
ler. 

I have only met with this species on the Nilghiris, where it 
is not uncommon in the vicinity of Ootacamund, Coonoor, &c. 
It does not descend the slopes that I am aware of — at least 
I have, I think, never met with it below about 6,000 feet. It 
goes about in pairs, or singly, usually the latter, never in flocks 
or parties. It keeps among the scrub, and is very fond of 
working its way up to some conspicuous post, to the top of one 
of the long flower stalks of Lobelia excelsa, for instance, where 
it will halt for a minute or two, and then after making a feeble 
attempt at a song will dive suddenly into the brushwood and 
disappear. 

. Jerdon says (B. of I., Vol.11., p. 171): l( The eggs are 
usually reddish white with numerous darker red dots, &c " 

I have taken a great number of the nests of this bird in my 
time, over 50 perhaps, but I never obtained one in which the Pri- 
nias > eggs were not a uniform red throughout, lighter or darker 
in different nests, but always red throughout, and not 
as Jerdon would make out, only sometimes brick red throughout. 

The following are the dimensions, &c, of two fine males : — 

Length, 55 ; expanse, 6'Q; tail, 23 to 2*5; wing, 2'0 to 
205; tarsus, 0'85 to 0-9 ; bill from gape, 62 ; weight, 035 ozs. 
Bill black ; legs and feet yellowish fleshy ; irides litharge red. 

536.— Prinia gracilis, Frankl. Franklin's Wren 
Warbler. 

This species, whether gracilis or hodgsoni, does not ascend the 
hills to any great height; the highest elevation at which I have 
ever obtained it has been about 3,500 feet. It spreads through 
the Wynaad, but I have never found it common. It is always 
in small parties of from four to a dozen or more. An adult male 
that I shot at Charambady in the Wynaad on the 2nd of April 
has the pectoral band very distinct. 

539. — Cisticola cursitans, Frankl The Fantail 
Warbler. 

I met with this species a few times in the Wynaad, near 
Mauantoddy in rice cultivation, and in long grass bordering 



392 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

ditches, &c. I procured one specimen, a male, for identification, 
and this is identical with many among the large series con- 
tained in our museum. 

540.— Cisticola erythrocephalus,* Jerd. The Red- 
headed Fantail Warbler. 

I found this species only on the Bramagherries, and on the 
Peria forest hills, and they were rare there, and very difficult 
to obtain, keeping, as they do, to the long elephant grass. I 
found them generally in small parties, very shy, and keeping 
most persistently to the long grass. I noticed the peculiar loud 
call mentioned by Jerdon. 

The following are the dimensions and colours of soft parts 
of two specimens (both unfortunately females) taken in the 
flesh :— 

Length, 4*8 to 50 ; expanse, 5*7 ; tail, 2*0 to 2*1 ; wing, 1*7 
to 1*75 • tarsus, 0"7 to 0*75 ; bill from gape, - 5 to 06 ; weight, 
0-3 to 35 oz. 

Irides burnt sienna ; lower mandible, legs, feet, and claws 
fleshy ; upper mandible pale brown. 

Two specimens of this species in the museum — one from 
Saugor, C. P., and the other from the Pulneys — have the entire 
top of the head and entire lower parts uniform ferruginous ; 
the Saugor bird is not dated, the bird from the Pulneys was 
shot on the 12th June, and is sexed a male. I collected five 
specimens, f four from the Peria forests, shot between the 1st 
and 6th of May, aud one shot on the Bramagherries on the 
17th April. All these birds have the head more or less strongly 
striated, — in fact in four out of the five the black markings 
preponderate over the ferruginous. In one the entire head is 
almost black, there being only a supercilium, and a few narrow 
edgings to the feathers of the feathers of head, ferruginous. 
In the one exception the head is ferruginous, with only a few 
black spots showing here aud there. In all these five specimens 
the throat, breast, flanks, and lower tail-coverts alone are 
ferruginous, the chin and abdomen being white. This species 
may, however, always be distinguished from cursitans by not 
having the tail feathers white tipped, and by the ferruginous 
of the lower surface, which is always present in a greater or 
less degree. 



* From the dimensions given and description, I suspect these birds are C. tytleri 
(vide nnte p. 219 n, and 221 ».)— Ed , S. F. 

f I have not seen these specimens, and Mr. Davison's remarks make me doubtful 
of the identification.— Ed , S. F. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 393 

543.— Dfymoeca inornata, Sykes, The Earth-brown 
Warbler. 

I hnve entered the Wren Warbler found on the Nilghiris, its 
slopes, the Wynaad, the Mysore country, &c, under the above 
name. Imay ; however, have confounded two species, D. longican- 
data* and the above. However, if the two are distinct species, 
they certainly do not differ in habits. D. inornata is found 
from the plateau of the Nilghiris all down the slopes, in the Wy- 
naad and Mysore, frequenting by preference the long elephant 
grass, but found also in scrub jungle. Jerdon has given a very 
good description of the habits of the species (B. of I., Vol. II., p 
179). 

553.— Hypolais rama, Sykes. Sykes' Warbler. 

We have a specimen of this in our museums, a female, procured 
by Miss Cockburu. at Kotngherry, on the 14th October 1874. 
The measurements of this, as recorded by Miss Cockburu, are 
as follows : — 

Length, 55; expanse, 7'0 ; tail, 2*0 ; weiglit, 2 drs. 
Legs and feet light grey ; bill brown above, light beneath ; 
i rides greyish. 

556.— Phylloscopus magnirostris, Bly. The Large- 
billed Tree Warbler. 

I shot a female of this species in some undergrowth near 
Manantoddy on the 18th of May 1881. I have compared it 
very carefully with our large series, and find it is undoubtedly, 
of this species. 

559.— Phylloscopus nitidus, Bly. The Bright-Green 
Tree Warbler. 
I procured a specimen of this species at Manantoddy on the 
10th of April 1881 ; it was a male. I saw several others during 
the trip. 

560— Phylloscopus viridanus, Bly. The Greenish 
Tree Warbler. 
This is the common Phylloscopus of the Nilghiris, Wynaad, 
&c. They come in early, aud I have shot it in Wynaad as late 
as the 4th of April. 



* But B. longicaudata is certainly merely the winter plumage of D. inornata.— 
Ed„ 8. F. 

50 



394 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

560 fo's.— Phylloscopus tytleri, Brooks. Brooks' Tree 
Warbler. 

I obtained one specimen, a male, of this species at Ootaca- 
mund on the 10th of March 1881. This measured in the 
flesh :— 

Length, 4*7 ; expanse, 7*4 ; tail, 1"65 ; wing, 2'4 ; tarsus, 
0'7 ; bill from gape, 0"52 ; weight, 0*35 oz. 

I shot a second specimen at Ooty on the 22nd of January 
Inst, 

I also append the measurements, taken in the flesh, of seven 
specimens of this rare species which were collected at Simla 
and its immediate neighbourhood. All these specimens having 
been collected in September and October are in the bright 
autumnal plumage. The specimen I obtained at Ootacamund is 
more like, though not quite so, dull coloured as the specimens 
collected from April to June in Cashmere. Of the Simla 
specimens, five are males, one a female, and one has not been 
sexed. 

The sexes do not apparently differ in size. 

My specimen from Ootacamund was most carefully compar- 
ed with our comparatively large series, both by Mr. Hume and 
myself, and there is no doubt whatever about the identifica- 
tion : — 

Length, 4*4 to 47; expanse, 6'65 to 7*3; tail, 1-45 to 
1-8; wing, 2*15 to 2*45 ; tarsus, 07 to 75 ; bill from gape, 
0-5 to 53 ; weight, 025 oz. 

The legs and feet vary ; they were dark greenish plumbeous, 
dingy green, yellowish grey, dark brownish green, and very dark 
plumbeous brown ; upper mandible and apical half of lower 
mandible blackish brown ; rest of bill and gape yellowish ; irides 
dark brown. 

561.— Phylloscopus affinis, Tick. Tickell's Tree 
Warbler. 

From December to April this Warbler is very numerous on 
the plateau of the Nilghiris, and even on the slopes. It has 
all the habits of the other Phylloscopi, and it also has a pecu- 
liar habit that I have not noticed in any other species of the 
genus. 

The land in the vicinity of Ootacamund, Coonoor, Kotagherry, 
&c, is cultivated in a very crude sort of way by a tribe of 
hill people called Badagas, and in aud about the cultivated 
land are patches of land lying fallow and sparsely cover- 
ed with brushwood. Parties of this Phylloscopus assemble 
together (I have seen twenty or thirty together), and feed 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 395 

about on the ground, noting to a certain extent independently 
of one another. When disturbed they scatter and take refuge in 
the bushes, but when all is quiet, they drop one by one to the 
ground, and soon all re-assemble. They are of course commonly 
found wandering about singly or in small parties, and even 
then they feed much on the ground ; from what I have observed, 
I should say, far more than they do in trees and bushes. They 
are a familiar little bird, and are fond of frequenting gardens, 
when they hunt about among the flower or vegetable beds, de- 
stroying a great number of insects. Their note is a feeble tsip, 
tsipi uttered very frequently. 

The female is slightly smaller than the male, and perhaps in 
freshly moulted specimens a shade lighter coloured. 

The following are the dimensions of three males and a 
female recorded in the flesh : — 

Males,— Length, 47 to 4'8; expanse, 7-1 to 73 ; tail, 17 
to 1*8; wing, 2*0 to 2'4; tarsus, 07 to 0*71 ; bill from gape, 
0*5 to 0-51 ; weight, 0*2 oz. 

Female. — Length, 4*5 ; expanse, 66 ; wing, 2*0 ; tail, 1*8 ; 
tarsus, 071 ; bill from gape, 0'5. 

Upper mandible dark greenish brown ; lower mandible yel- 
low ; legs and feet yellowish fleshy, sometimes tiuged brown. 

589.— Motacilla maderaspatensis, Gm. The River 
or Large Pied Wagtail. 

A few pairs of this Wagtail frequent the shores of the lake 
at Ootacamund. I have also seen it at Grundalupet in Mysore, 
and about the river at Manantoddy, and other streams in the 
Wynaad, but it is not an abundant bird. It is a permanent 
resident where it does occur, breeding in holes in banks, among 
stones and rocks, &c, but always I think in the vicinity of 
water. 

[591 b ^.—Motacilla dukhunensis, Sykes. The 
Indian White-faced Wagtail. 

Common below the foot of the Coouoor Ghat. Received also 
from S. W. Mysore, and I doubt not common everywhere 
below 3,000 feet, if not higher, in suitable ground during the 
cold season. — A. O. H.] 

592.— Calobates melanope, Fall. The Grey and 
Yellow Wagtail. 

A cold weather visitant to the south, but very common dur- 
ing its stay. It is found everywhere close to streams, in marshy 
places, in cultivated land, in gardens, &c. 



396 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIIUS 

It \s a very familiar bird, and not at all shy, and will trip 
along lookiug for insects. They arrive in September, and have 
almost all left by the end of March. 

[593.— Budytes cinereocapillus, Savi. The Slatey- 
headed Field Wagtail. 

I have aeen this from Wynaad and S. Mysore. — A. 0. H.J 

69 ?— Budytes Sp. ? Field Wagtail ? 

In former years, when I neither collected nor worked at birds, 
I saw during the cold weather on several occasions a Budytes on 
the marshy hanks of the fake at Ootacamund, but I have not 
recently been able to procure a specimen for identification. 

[594 fos.— Budytes Cltreolus, Pall. The Grey-backed 
Yellow Wagtail. 
Several specimens were sent from the Wynaad. — A. O. H.] 

595.— Limonidromus indicus, Gm. The Forest 
Wagtail. 

This species, which Jerdon classes as a Wagtail, is as far as 
habits at any rate go, much more of a Pipit. Jerdon well de- 
scribes it as a "wood-loving species/' I have shot a good number 
in my time, but I certainly never met with it in the open. I have 
always found it under cover. It is usually found singly, occa- 
sionally in pairs in thin tree jungle, feeding on the ground. 
When disturbed, it either runs along the ground till some dis- 
tance away, when it takes wing, or else rises at once and flies up 
into some tree, generally alighting on some large bough, along 
which it walks, and then flies on to another, and so on till, if it 
sees danger still present, it flies off to another part of the jungle ; 
or, if it thinks all is quiet, drops on to the ground, and recom- 
mences feeding. The only note I have heard it utter is a feeble 
sharp chip. This it utters chiefly when disturbed, but occasionally 
also when quietly feeding. It seems to live entirely on insects. 
At least 1 have never found anything but insects, chiefly the 
remains of ants, in those I have examined. It occurs all over 
the Nilghiris, Wynaad, and the Mysore country through which 
I passed, but it is rare. 

596.— Anthus maculatus, Eodgs. The Indian Tree 
Pipit. 

This Pipit is a cold weather visitant to the south in largo 
numbers, and spreads over the whole of the Nilghiris, the 
Wynaad, and Mysore* It is always in small flocks, and feeds, 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 397 

ns a rule, in shady places, such as gardens, forest paths, <fcc. When 
disturbed, they immediately take refuge in the nearest trees. 
I have occasionally found them feeding on grassy hill sides. 

598. — Anthus montanus, Jerd. The Hill Tree 
Pipit. 

This Pipit seems to be restricted to the plateau of theNil- 
ghiris. I failed to find it on the Bramagherries, nor can 
I learn that it occurs on the Anamullays or Shevaroys. On 
the Nilghiris it is not uncommon, frequenting grassy land, but 
always close to cover, to which it betakes itself when disturbed, 
perching on some tree or bush. It is always found siugly or 
in pairs, never in flocks, and it is a permanent resident on the 
Nilrjhiris. 

The following is a resume of the dimensions of eight speci- 
mens measured in the flesh ; the sexes do not vary the one 
from the other in size or colours of soft parts : — 

Length, 66 to 7'0 ; expanse, 98 to 104 ; tail, 23 to 2'62 ; 
wings, 29 to 3 2 ; tarsus, 95 to l'O ; bill from gape, 0'65 
to 071 ; weight, 0-8 to 0-85 oz. 

Upper mandible and apical portion of lower mandible, and 
claws dark brown ; lest of lower mandible, legs, and feet pale 
fleshy brown ; irides deep wood brown. 

600— Cory dalla rufula, Vieill. The Indian Tit- 
lark. 

Very common on the Nilghiris, the Bramagherries, the 
Wvnaad, in fact wherever there is open grassy land. It is a 
bird of the open grassy country, avoiding cover, and it never, 
that I am aware of, perches on trees. It is a permanent resident 
on the Nilghiris and Bramagherries, but I do not know whether 
it is so in the low country of Wvnaad and Mysore. Birds of 
this species from Southern India are darker and brighter 
coloured than those from parts of India further north. 

603.— Agrodroma similis, Jerd. The Rufous Rock 
Pipit. 

I have only noticed this Pipit on the slopes of the hills near 
Coonoor and Kotagherry. It is decidedly rare. I have found 
it on grassy land and in barley fields that had been reaped. It 
is shy. Its flight is strong and undulating, its note is much like 
that of C. ric/iardi, but louder and clearer. 

The following are the dimensions and colours of soft parts of 
a fine male and female : — 

Male. — Length, 7-95; expanse, 12*3; tail, 34 ; wings, 37 ; 
tarsus, 111 ; bill from gape, 0'95 ; weight, 1*2 oz. 



398 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

Female. — Length, 7-71 ; expanse, 1.1*41; tail, 318 ; wings, 
3*3 ; tarsus, 1"1 ; bill from gape, 0'9 ; weight, 1*05 oz. 

Irides wood brown; upper mandible black ; lower maudiblo 
fleshy, the tip blackish ; tarsus reddish fleshy; feet darker ; claws 
dark reddish brown ; gape yellow. 

631— Zosterops palpebrosa, Tern. The White-eyed 
Tit. 

This pretty little bird is very abundant on the higher ranges 
of the Nilghiris. It also extends over the slopes, but dimiuish- 
es in numbers the lower down it gets, till in the low country 
of the Wynaad, &c, it may be said to be rare. Except during the 
breeding season, it goes about in small flocks, working about 
among the trees aud bushes iu a most systematic manner, keep- 
ing up a continuous twitter the while. As far as I have observed, 
I believe it to be entirely insectivorous, but according to Hutton 
it eats berries too {vide B. of I., Vol. II., p. 266). I have found 
many hundreds of its nests in my time, but I certainly never 
found one, as stated by Hutton, suspended with fibres of silk or 
hair, but always securely hung in the fork of some branch or 
twig of a bush. 

645.— Parus nipalensis, Hodgs. The Indian Grey- 
Tit. 

Occurs all over the Nilghirisaud the Wynaad, and the better 
wooded portions of the Mysore country. It is aburdant on 
the higher ranges of the Nilghiris, specially near the inhabited 
parts. The natives of the Nilghiris call it Puttani Kurivi 
(Anglice Pea Bird) from the destruction it commits among peas. 
It also eats fruits aud berries of various kinds, and insects as 
well; in fact its food appears to be as much vegetable as animal. 
It has the usual habits of the tribe, except that it usually goes 
singly or in pairs, and seldom indeed in flocks. A male mea- 
sured in the flesh : — 

Length, 57; expanse, 92; tail, 2 # 4 ; wing, 2*8; tarsus, 
0-78; bill from gape, - 5; weight, 06 oz. Bill black; legs 
aud feet plumbeous. 

648.— Machlolophus aplonotus, Bly. The Southern 
Yellow Tit. 

This Tit does not ascend to the plateau of the Nilghiris, but 
it is not uncommon iu the vicinity of Coonoor, Kotagherry 
aud from thence down the slopes, and into the Wynaad. Unlike 
the last species it avoids the immediate vicinity of habitations 
keeping more to the jungles. Its note is exactly like that 
of its northern representative — M. xaiithogenys. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 399 

The following fire the dimensions of two males : — 
Length, 5-7, 5*9; expanse, 9-5, 10-8; tail, 24, 2-5; 
wing, 2-9, 3-2 ; tarsus, 075, 0*79 ; bill from gape, 05, 
5f; weight, 0-62, 065 oz. Bill black; legs, feet, and claws 
plumbeous ; irides dark brown. 

660.— Corvus macrorhynchus, Wagl. The Indian 
Corby. 

Exceedingly common everywhere throughout the district 
under consideration. 

663.— Corvus splendens, Vieill. The Indian Grey- 
necked Crow. 

This species does not ascend the hills, and even in some 
parts of the low country at the foot of the hills it does not 
occur, or is rare, for instance from Goodalore to Nellacotta, 
though on reaching Nellacotta it suddenly appeared, and was 
common ; and this I noticed in other places, though in general 
it swarms throughout the low country wherever there are 
human habitations. Jerdon has given (B. of I., Vol. II., p. 298 
et. seq.) a very full account of its habits. 

674. — Dendrocitta rufa, Scop. The Indian Magpie. 

This species very rarely ascends the hills above 5,000 feet 
elevation. I have on one occasion shot it about seven miles from 
the town of Ootacamund at an elevation of about 6,500 feet ; 
but this was the only occasion in all the years that I resided on 
the Nilghiris that I met with it so high up. 

But on the Ghats from about 5,000 feet it is not uncommon, 
and becomes more numerous the lower one descends. It is quite 
common through the Wynaad and the Mysore country. 1 can 
add nothing to Jerdon's description of its habits. 

? 676.— Dendrocitta himalayensis, Bly. The Hima- 
layan Magpie. 

Jerdon records this as from the hills of Southern India {vide 
B. of. I., Vol. II., p. 316). It may be so, but I spent the greater 
portion of my life in South India, and never from the time I 
was a boy of about ten or twelve years of age missed collecting 
birds, and I have never met with it. If it really does occur, it 
must be of extreme rarity. Jerdon himself never procured it ; 
he merely thought he recognized it on the Seegore Pass. Hors- 
field got a specimen in Madras, but on what authority that it 
was killed in South India he does not say. On the whole I 



400 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NFLGHIRIS 

should say the evidence was insufficient to class it as a South- 
ern Indian bird. * 

678 — Dendrocitta leucogastra, Gould. The Long- 
tailed Magpie. 

This beautiful species occurs on the slopes of the Nilghiris 
from about 5,000 feet, but it is not common. It is much more 
numerous in the Wynaad, but I did not observe it in Mysore. 
It is, unlike D. rufa, a forest species, keeping to the evergreen 
forests, and avoiding deciduous jungle and bamboo forests, whiie 
D. rufa delights in these. It has, however, much the same 
habits as D. rufa; the note is similar, but louder, harsher, and 
less metallic. 

The following are the measurements of a spleudid adult 
female : — 

Length, 192 ; expanse, 17*6 ; tail, 12*25 ; wing, 565 ; tarsus, 
1*12 ; bill from gape, 1*12 ; weight, 3*5 ozs. Bill black ; legs 
and feet dull black ; irides deep brown. 

684.— Acridotheres tristis, Lin. The Myna, 

This M} T na in the south of India (at any rate in the district 
embraced in the present paper) does not ascend the hills at 
all (while in Northern India, at Simla for instance, it is not 
uncommon), but at the foot of the hills, and in the Wynaad, it 
occurs not uncommonly. 

Wynaad specimens are identical with those from Simla and 
other parts of Upper India, having the black of the throat 
and upper breast abruptly defined, and the rest of the upper 
parts pale, and not as in birds from Ceylon and Anjango, where 
the dark colour of the throat and breast coalesce with the colour 
of the lower parts which is also dark. 

686 bis.— Acridotheres mahrattensis, Sykes. The 
Southern Dusky Myna. 

This Myna is very abundant on the Nilghiris, especially on the 
higher ranges. It also occurs throughout the Wynaad and Mysore 
but in diminished numbers. They are very fond of atteudiug 
on cattle while grazing, catching the grasshoppers and other 
insects disturbed ; and, as mentioned by Jerdon, they are very 
partial to clinging to the stems of the Lobelia excelsa, and I 
have shot them with their foreheads completely covered with 
pollen from the flowers. They also do immense damage to the 
fruit gardens on the Nilghiris, and it is next to impossible, with- 
out the aid of nets or other means, to preserve pears from their 
depredations. 

* I should say, certainly, does not occur in Southern India. — Ed , S. F. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 401 

687.— Sturnia pagodarum, Gm. The Black-headed 
Myna. 

I met with this Myna only at Gundalupet and Bandipur in 
Mysore, where I found it not uncommon. I have occasionally 
seen it about Ootacamund associating" with flocks of Acrido- 
theres mahrattensis, but this has been very rarely, and these 
birds were evidently only stragglers. 

688.— Sturnia malabarica, Gm. The Grey-headed 
Myna. 

Occurs sparingly on the slopes of the Nilghiris, of the Wynaad, 
and parts of Mysore. Jerdou states that it is only a cold 
Weather visitant to the south of India, but I should be inclined 
to doubt this, as I have repeatedly seen, and often shot it as 
late as the end of April on the Ghat below Coonoor. It does 
not, that I am aware, ascend above about 5,000 feet elevation. 

689.— Sturnia blythi, Jerd. The White-breasted 
Tree Myna. 

I found this species rare in the country I passed through, 
meeting with it only twice. I obtained two specimens, one quite 
a young bird ; in this the irides were slaty grey, the bill pale 
yellow, fleshy at base of lower mandible. The other was a fine 
adult male shot at Karote at the foot of the Balasore peak. In 
this the bill was blue at base, then green, then yellow ; the irides 
a clear pearly white ; legs, feet, and claws horny yellow. It 
measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 7*7; expanse, 125; tail, 2'25 ; wing, 3*9; tarsus, 
0*9 ; bill from gape, 1*09 ; weight, 1*7 oz. 

They have a similar note, and similar habits to S. malabarica. 

[690. — Pastor roseus, Lin. The Rosy Pastor. 

1 have seen a specimen obtained near Gundalupet. — A. O. H.] 
I have obtained several specimens of this species from the foot 
of the hills near Seegore and about 14 miles from Ooty. — 
W. D. 

692. — Eulabes religiosa, Lin. The Southern Hill 
Myna. 

This is a bird of the evergreen forests; it occurs on the slopes 
of the Nilghiris from about 4,000 feet downwards, and through 
the Wynaad, but it is very local. It was not uncommon in the 
Peria forests. It goes in parties of five or six or in pairs as a 
rule, and is fond of frequenting the highest trees ; enormous 
trees standing dead in some plantation surrounded by evergreen 

51 



402 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

forest are favorite resorts, and it is in such places that the bird 
usually breeds. 

A fine adult female measured : — 

Length, 10*0 ; expanse, 17*0 ; tail, 2-7; wing, 5*2; tarsus, 
1*2; bill from gape, 1*4; weight, 5 ozs. Bill pale orange 
vermilion ; legs and feet dull yellow ; claws black ; hides 
deep brown. 

694.— Ploceus philippinus, Lin. The Indian Weaver 
Bird. 

I am not aware that this bird ascends the hills at all, but it 
occurs at the foot of the hills and through the Wynaad, and 
even in Mysore. Jerdon has given a capital account of it {vide 
Birds of India, Vol. II., p. 344 et seq) except the passage on p. 
345 from the word but in line 13 to the end of line 19. This 
passage evidently refers to 696 bis of our catalogue, Ploceella 
javanensis, which does, as I have myself observed, suspend its 
nest from the eaves of houses. 

697. — Amadina malacca, Lin. The Black-headed 
Munia. 

I met with this Munia in the Wynaad on two or three occa- 
sions, but did not observe it elsewhere. 

699. — Amadina punctulata, Lin. The Spotted 
Munia. 

Comparatively common on the Nilghiris and its slopes, but 
I did not observe it in the Wynaad. It is most abundant about 
Ootacamund, feeding in small flocks about cultivated land. 
It has the usual habits of the genus, builds a globular nest, 
which it lines with feathers, and after the young are hatched 
and have flown, the two old birds and the young still continue 
to use the nest at nights till the moonsoon destroys it. 

700.— Amadina pectoralis, Jerd. The Rufous-bellied 
Munia. 

This Munia occurs on the Gh&ts of the Nilghiris up to about 
5,000 feet, and it is also spread through the Wynaad, but I have 
not noticed it in Mysore. I have usually found it in small 
parties or pairs. It is more of a forest Munia than any of the 
others. I have found it most common about the Ghat below 
Coonoor, where it feeds in pairs or parties among the droppings 
of cattle, and on the grain dropped from carts, &c, passing up 
to Coonoor. 

It is rather local in its distribution. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 403 

704.— Estrelda amandava, Lin. The Red Waxbill. 

I did not notice tin's species in the Wynaad, nor in those 
parts of Mysore which I traversed, but it is common on the 
Nilghiris and its slopes, most numerous perhaps on the table- 
land, where it frequents the cultivation. They are always in 
flocks (even in the breeding season apparently), and when rising, 
flying, or alightiug, they keep up a continuous feeble, sharp, 
single note. This note too they occasionally utter when seated 
on the ground, feeding.' They breed, as a rule, in thorny bushes, 
building a large globular nest of grass (generally green), but 
never lining it with feathers as Munia punctulata does. I have 
never, that I am aware, seen it perch on trees or bushes, except 
during the breeding season when it is building its nest. 

706.— Passer domesticus, Lin. The Sparrow. 

Common everywhere where there are human habitations ; the 
Sparrow is specially abundant on the Nilghiris, aud about the 
Badaga villages large flocks may be seen feeding in the fields. 
As a rule Sparrows build about houses, but on the road between 
Ootacamund and Coonoor large numbers breed in the holes in 
the steep cuttings on the road. 

711.— Grymnoris flavicollis, Frankl. The Yellow- 
necked Sparrow. 

This Sparrow occurs on the slopes of the Nilghiris to about 
4,000 feet elevation. I have also seen it in Wynaad and Mysore. 

I have found it most numerous on the Seegore Ghat. I 
have never seen it in the large flocks Jerdon speaks of, but in 
small parties, in pairs, and even singly. I have never found it 
near habitations, but always in thin tree jungle. 

[722. — Euspiza luteola, Sparrm. The Red-headed 
Cora Bunting. 

Occurs in the south and south-west of Mysore, and I believe 
in the Wynaad also at times. — A. O. H.] 

738.— Carpodacus erythrinus, Pall. The Common 
Rose Einch. 

A cold weather visitant, and found all over the district, but 
especially numerous on the Nilghiris, where it remains till quite 
late, till the last week in April, at any rate, for I have shot 
specimens then ; the males are then in nearly full breeding 
plumage. It is always in flocks, and feeds about gardens, 
&c, on seeds. I have never seen it feeding except when there 
was a good deal of cover close at hand to which it could easily 



404 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILQHIRIS 

retreat when alarmed. Although associating in flocks, they 
seem to act to a jrreat extent independently of one another, for 
coming upon a flock, they do not all rise simultaneously but 
singly or in pairs, and so on. 

755.— Mirafra affinis, Jerd. The Madras Bush 
Lark. 

This Lark occurs round the base of the Nilghiris, and I found 
it rather numerous about Gundalupet and Muddur in the 
Mysore country. It frequents stony ground and ploughed land, 
and is partial to coming on to the roads. When approached 
it usually runs for a short distance a foot or two, and then 
squats close to the ground, and only when directly and very 
closely approached does it fly. I have passed one squatting 
within a yard, and it has not attempted to fly. Its flight is 
undulating and rather weak. It has the usual habit of the 
genus of rising a few feet into the air singing, and then 
descending with a quivering motion of the wings, usually 
alighting on a bush. 

The following are the dimensions taken in the flesh of four 
specimens : — 

Length, 5'4 to 5*9 ; expanse, 10*4 to 11 -0 ; tail, 1*6 to 1 '9 ; 
wing, 3 - to 3 3; tarsus, 1*0 to 1*01 ; bill from gape, 0*6 to 
07? weight, 0'75 to 10 oz. 

Irides vary from burnt sienna to cinnamon brown ; legs, 
feet, lower mandible, gape, and edge of upper mandible along 
commissure fleshy ; rest of upper mandible brown ; claws bluish 
horny. 

760.— Pyrrhulauda grisea, Scop. The Black-bellied 
Finch Lark. 

I only met with this species in Mysore, and only in those 
places that were arid and stony. As remarked by Jerdon, 
it is particularly partial to roads. When approached it squats 
close to the ground, and, as a rule, allows of a very near ap- 
proach. It keeps entirely to the low country, and does not, 
1 believe, ascend the hills at all. 

765. — Spizalauda deva,%to. The Small Crown-crest. 

This Lark was not at all uncommon between Gundalupet and 
Muddur in Mysore, frequenting the grassy plains, cultivated 
land, edges of roads, &c. It rises to a good height in the air 
singiug (but not so high as A. gulgula). It has much the 
same habit as A. gulgula. I found it usually in pairs. The 
following are the dimensions of three specimens, two males 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 405 

and one female. The female measures slightly smaller than the 
males, so I give them separately : — 

Males. — Length, 5*7 to 605; expanse, 1M ; tail, 2*1 to 2 2 ; 
wing, 3*3 to 3-4 ; tarsus, 0*7 to 0*75 ; bill from gape, 0*6 ; weight, 
0-75 oz. 

Female. — Length, 55; expanse, 10*4 ; tail, 1"85 ; wing, 
3*1 ; tarsus, 8 ; bill from gape, 0*6 ; weight, 0*7 oz. 

Lower mandible, and upper mandible along commissure, legs, 
feet, and claws, fleshy, sometimes more or less tinged with 
brown ; rest of upper mandible horny brown ; irides vary from 
sienna to cinnamon brown. 

765 bis.— Spizalauda malabarica, Seep. The Large 
Crown-crest. 
This species replaces the last on the hills ; it is not uncommon 
on the plateau of the Nilghiris, frequenting the grassy hills 
in pairs or small parties, most usually the latter. It is a per- 
manent resident there, or more correctly a great proportion 
are permanent residents, for I once during my trip came across 
a flock of about thirty a few miles from Gundalupet ; they kept 
together, and seemed very unsettled in their movements. I 
shot some to make quite sure that they were S. malabarica. 
Whether they were migrating to or from the hills I cannot 
say. This was on the 23rd of May. This was the only time 
that I have seen them away from the hills. They avoid the 
vicinity of cover as a rule. A few years ago they were common 
on many of the grassy hills and downs in the town of Oota- 
camund, but since these have been planted with trees and 
shrubs, the Larks have quite deserted them, and taken themselves 
off to the outskirts of the town where lots of grass land still 
remains untouched. They have the usual habits of the true Lark, 
and their song is much more powerful than that of the preced- 
ing species, but not so prolonged as that of A. gulyula, nor 
do they rise so high in the air as this last named species. 

The following is a resume of the dimensions taken in the 
flesh of a number of specimens, the males being a little larger 
than the female, but the sexes not differing in the colors of the 
soft parts : — 

Malts. — Length, 64 to 66 ; expanse, 12*2 to 1275 ; tail, 
2*2 to 2*4 ; wing, 4'0 to 4-12; tarsus, - 98 ; bill from gape, 
71 to 072; weight, 1-2 to 125 oz. 

Females. — Length, 61 to 6-2 ; expanse, 11*6 to 120 ; tail, 
1-9 to 2-0; wing, 35 to 38; tarsus, 098 ; bill from gape, 0*7 
to 0-71 j weight, 1*12 to 1*2 oz. 

Lower mandible and upper mandible along commissure, 
legs, feet, and claws pale fleshy brown; rest of upper mandible 
dark borny brown ; irides vary from wood to cinnamon brown. 



406 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

767 — Alauda gulgula, Frankl* The Indian Sky- 
lark. 

The Skylark is very common on the Nilghiris, and occurs, but 
less abundantly, in the Wynaad, &c. It frequents only grassy 
places and avoids cover. Its song is very fine, and long con- 
tinued, and it rises to a great height in the air. A few years ago 
its song during the season could be heard any morning within 
the town of Ootacamund, but since all the hills and swamps 
within the limits have been planted up with Eucalypti, the bird, 
like S. malabarica, has retreated to the outskirts of the station 
where plenty of grassy land still remains implanted. 

The following is a resume of a number of specimens mea- 
Bured in the flesh : — 

Length, 65 to (58; expanse, 11-7 to 127 ; tail, 1*85 to 2"4 ; 
wing, 35 to 4^0; tarsus, 0'95 to 10; bill from gape, 0'7 to 075 ; 
weight, 50*85 to 1*2 ozs. 

Legs, feet, claws, and lower mandible fleshy, sometimes 
more or less tinged reddisli ; upper mandible dark horny brown, 
sometimes edged along commissure with pale fleshy brown ; 
irides vary from hazel to dark nut brown. 

773.— Crocopus chlorigaster, Bly. The Southern 
Green Pigeon. 

I met with this Pigeon in flocks in Seegore, and between that 
place and Bandipur in Mysore. I also noticed it on one or two 
occasions in the Wynaad. They do not differ in any particular 
in habits from C. viridifrons of Burma, of which a full account 
will be found in Vol. VI. of S. F., and they have a similar note. 

774. — Osmotreron bicincta, Jerd. The Orange- 
breasted Green Pigeon. 

I did not obtain this species myself during my trip, but some 
years ago I saw a specimen that had been shot in Charambady 
in Wynaad by Mr. F. Hodgson. 

775.— Osmotreron malabarica, Jerd. The Grey- 
fronted Green Pigeon. 

I found this Pigeon in small flocks in different parts of the 
Wynaad, and in the better wooded parts of the Mysore country, 
but nowhere very abundant. It has the same note and habits 
as the other members of the genus. It does not ascend the hills, 
nor does it frequent any but well-wooded districts. 

• This of eourse is A. australis, Brooks. Personally T concur with Davison that 
the southern hill form of gulgula scarcely merits specific, separation. — Ed., S.F. 



fl9fi 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 407 

The following is a resume of a number of specimens mea- 
sured in the flesh. The sexes do not appear to differ in size : — 

Length, 10-6 to 111 ; expanse, 172 to 180 ; tail, 34 to 36 j 
wing, 5*6 to 5*9 ; tarsus, 08 to 0'85 ; bill from gape, 0*9 to 0*95 ; 
weight, 4*5 to 5*5 ozs. 

Irides, outer ring pink, inner bright pale blue ; horny portion 
of bill bluish white; rest of bill pale bluish green ; legs and 
feet lake pink ; claws bluish white, 

781 his. — Carpophaga cuprea, Jerd. The Southern 
Bronze Imperial. 

This fine Pigeon is not uncommon in the grand forests of the 
Wynaad and the slopes of the Nilghiris. I have alwa}*s found 
it in small flocks. I have never found it anywhere except in 
heavy forest. It is particularly fond of eating the wild nut- 
meg. It swallows the nutmeg with the mace on, the latter being 
digested, but the nutmeg with its hard outer shell being voided. 

786.— Palumbus elphinstonii, Syhes. The Nilghiri 
Wood Pigeon. 

This Wood Pigeon is not uncommon in the woods on the 
Nilghiris and its slopes, but I did not meet with it in either the 
Wynaad or Mysore. It is, however, comparatively common in 
the Bramagherries in Coorg. It moves about a good deal, and 
a shola that may be full of them one week will not contain a 
single specimen the following week ; this is due, I fancy, to the 
prevalence or otherwise of berries. I too have often noticed 
the fact mentioned by Jerdon of their feeding on the ground 
outside the forests. I found them very numerous in March in 
the forests about Neddivuttum, and procured a good number 
of specimens, eight of which I measured. 

The sexes do not differ in size or colour of soft parts, one 
from the other. 

The following is a resume of the dimensions, &c, of these 
eight specimens : — 

Length, 16-1 to 177 ; expanse, 250 to 26*5 ; tail, 6-3 to 6*9 ; 
wing, 8*3 to 9'0 ; tarsus, 1*08 to 1*15 ; bill from gape, 1*1 to 
1-2; weight, 100 to 120 ozs. 

Fleshy portion of bill, legs, feet and eyelids pink; rest 
of bill and claws horny white; irides vary from a pale yellowish 
red to a red brown. 

792.— Turtur pulchratus, Eodgs. The Indian Tur- 
tle Dove. 

I shot a specimen of this at Manantoddy. This specimen I 
have carefully compared with others from Simla and its neigh- 



408 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

bourhood, and it in no ways differs from them. The abdomen, 
vent, and lower tail-coverts in the specimen I procured are 
snow white. 

I saw several others close to where I procured my specimen, 
and 1 also noticed some Doves near Mnddur in Mysore, which 
I incline to think were of this species. Turtur meena may occur, 
but I have not observed it. 

794.— Turtur senegalensis, Lin. The Little Brown 
Dove. 

This little Dove occurs sparingly on the tableland of the 
Nilghiris, and a few can always be obtained about the Badaga 
cultivation. It is much more common at the foot of the hills in 
the Mysore country, but always about cultivation, especially 
when the fields are stony. It avoids well wooded land. 
Four specimens measured in the flesh as follows : — 
Length, 10*5 to 10*8; expanse, 15*5 to 16*0 ; tail, 45 to 49 ; 
wing, 47 to 5*1; tarsus, 0'75 to 0*8; bill from gape, 0*75 to 
0*8 ; weight, 2*75 to 30 ozs. Bill and claws black; legs and 
feet pink ; irides deep brown. 

795. — Turtur suratensis, Gm. The Spotted Dove. 

This species was very common all over the district in suitable 
localities. Some years ago it was much more numerous in the 
vicinity of Ootacamuud than it is now, but it is so slaughtered 
by the natives that it has greatly diminished iu numbers. 
It is particularly fond of feeding about the roads. 

796. — Turtur risorius, Lin. The Eastern Ring 
Dove. 

These Doves were not uncommon about Seegore, and near 
Gundalupet. Many years ago I shot one at a village about 
seven miles from Ootacamund and on the plateau of the Nilghiris, 
but it is the only one I ever heard of being killed at this 
elevation. 

798. — Chalcophaps indica, Lin. The Emerald Ground 
Dove. 

This species does not occur as high on the Nilghiris as 
Ootacamund, but I have shot it as high up as Coonoor on the 
one side, and Neddivuttum on the other, but they are not 
common at this elevation ; lower down on the Ghats and in the 
Wynaad they occur more numerously, but they are not 
common anywhere. They keep a good deal to cover, and 
are fond of feeding along shady roads. Their coo is a very 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 409 

prolonged and mournful one, and can be heard an immense 
distance. Their flight is exceedingly rapid. I have taken the 
nest on several occasions, and I can confirm Layard's state- 
ment as to the colour of the eggs. Blyth must have made some 
mistake, because the eggs always are more or less of " a pale 
yellowish drab" or very pale cafe mi lait. 

803— Pavo cristatus, Lin, The Pea-fowl. 

Occurs through the Wynaad and Mysore, and on the 
slopes of the Nilghiris up to about 4,000 feet ; it is local and 
not common anywhere; the only place where I found it at all 
abundant was in the vicinity of Muddur in Mysore. 

813.— GalhlS sonnerati, Tern. The Grey Jungle-fowl. 

This species occurs all through the Wynaad in the Mvsore 
country, ascending quite to the summit of the Nilghiris, and is 
pretty abundant. The undergrowth of many of the forests on 
the Nilghiris is almost entirely composed of Strobilanthes 
whitiani, and when this seeds,as it does once in about seven years 
the Jungle-fowl assemble in vast numbers to feed on the seed. 
They do this too when the bamboo seeds. In places, where as in the 
vicinity of Ootacamund and Coonoor they are much disturbed, 
they become exceeding^ shy and wary, but where they are 
not much disturbed, they are easily approachable. The crow 
of the cock is peculiar, and might be syllablized kuk-kah-kaha- 
kuk, and is quite unlike that of the red Jungle-fowl. The call 
of the female is somethiug like kukkun-kuk kun. 

The cock crows chiefly in the mornings and evenings, and 
sometimes also during the day in cloudy weather. The cock 
goes through a partial moult, losing his hackles and central 
tail feathers during the rains. When in really fine plumage the 
male is an exceedingly handsome bird. I shot a magnificent 
male on the 31st of March at a village a few miles from 
Ootacamund, and not wishing to carry it about with me all 
the morning, I sent it back to camp, and when I returned about 
mid-day, I found to my disgust that it had been skinned, so I 
can only give partial measurements and those taken from the 
skin, and I can give no weight, but I should judge that it weighed 
quite three pounds. The following are the dimensions of theskiu : — 

Male.— Length, 31"3 ; tail, 18'0 ; wing, 9*85 ; tarsus, 28; 
bill from gape, 1*4. 

The following are dimensions taken in the flesh of three fine 
but ordinary males, and a female : — 

Males. — Length, 24 9 to 26*6 ; expanse, 28*0 to 30-0 ; tail, 
12-6 to 147 ; wing, 8*75 to 96 ; tarsus, 2-8 ; bill from gape, 1*4 ; 
weight, 2-0 to 2*5 lbs. 

52 



410 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

In the male the irides are orange red to wax yellow ; the 
facial skin, comb, wattles, &c., pale pinky vermilion ; legs and 
feet yellowish fleshy. 

Female. — Length, 17*6 ; expanse, 23*5 ; tail, 5*5 ; wing, 75 ; 
tarsus, 25 ; bill from gape, 1*1 ; weight, 1*5 lbs. 

814— Galloperdix spadiceus, Gm. The Red Spur- 
fowl. 

This Spur-fowl occurs over the same limits as the Grey Jungle- 
fowl, but is much more numerous, and does not confine itself 
to the forests and sholas, but occurs in scrub jungle. Since 
the introduction of a close season on the Nilghiris, this species 
and all the small resident game have greatly increased in 
numbers. I have seen the present species feeding on the road- 
side in the early morning, within the limits of the town of 
Coonoor. The male has a partridge-like call heard in the 
morning and evenings during the cold weather. The sexes 
do not vary in size apparently. The following is a resume 
of the dimensions of eight specimens, four males and four 
females : — 

Length, 13-3 to 14*2 ; expanse, 18'0 to 20'3 ; tail, 4*3 to 57 ; 
wing, 5*4 to 6 5 ; tarsus, 1*7 to 1*9 ; bill from gape, 0'85 to 
1*0 ; weight, 110 to 16 ozs. 

Legs, feet, facial skin, base of bill, blight red ; rest of bill 
reddish horny ; irides deep red brown. 

815.— Galloperdix lunulatus, Valenc. The Painted 
Spur-fowl. 

I have once killed this Spur-fowl on the Ghat below Coonoor. 
Mr. G. R. Dawson of Coonoor procured another there, and 
Mr. Rhodes Morgan shot one, I believe, on the Seegore Ghat. 
These are all the specimens that I know of having been 
procured.* The bird is certainly very rare on the Nilghiris. 
I do not know of its occurrence in Wyuaad or Mysore. 

822 — Ortygornis pondicerianus, Gm. The Grey- 
Partridge. 

Occurs sparingly on the slopes of the Nilghiris to about 
5,000 feet on the Seegore side, and it is not uncommon in 
some parts of Mysore. 



* But see '• Thb Game Birds op India," I. 246. We have had specimens sent 
us from the Orange Valley below Kotagherry, and at least half a dozen localities about 
the bases of the Nilghiris.^ED., S. F. 



AND IN PAHTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 411 

826— Perdicula asiatica, Lath. The Jungle Bush 
Quail. 

Not uncommon in some parts of Mysore, between Gun- 
dahipet and Muddur for instance. It is always in coveys 
keeping much to the thorny scrub. I have not noticed it on 
the slopes of the Nilghiris, nor did I come across it in the 
Wynaad. 

A male measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 7*2; expanse, 106; tail, 1*7; wing, 3'4 ; tarsus, 
1*1 j bill from gape, 0*5 ; weight, 275 ozs. 

Legs and feet pale reddish yellow ; upper mandible and tip 
of lower mandible dull black ; base of lower mandible plum- 
beous ; irides cinnamon red ; claws pale reddish horny. 

828.— Microperdix erythrorhynchus, Sykes. The 
Painted Bush Quail. 

This handsome Quail occurs all over the district embraced 
within this paper. It is still common in many parts, but 
of late years has become quite scarce in the neighbourhood 
of Ootacamund and Coonoor, &c. But coming as it does 
under the protection of the close seasou, it is to be hoped it 
may again increase in numbers. It occurs in larger or smaller 
coveys, and with dogs affords some pretty shooting. 

The sexes do not differ in size. The following are the 
dimensions of four specimens : — 

Length, 6'9 to 7'3 ; expanse, 10-5 to 10-6; tail, 175 to 
21; wings, 3*15 to 33; tarsus, 1*0 to T07 ; bill from gape, 
0-6 to 061 ; weight, 2'12 to 25 ozs. Bill, legs, and feet, ver- 
milion red ; irides red brown. 

829.— Coturnix communis, Bonn. The Quail. 

I shot a specimen of this Quail, a female, within three miles 
of the town of Ootacamund on the 14th January 1881. In 
former years too I have on a few occasions met with them 
on the Nilghiris. I did not meet with it either in the Wynaad 
or Mysore. 

830.— Coturnix coromandelica, Gm. The Rain 

Quail. 

This Quail was not uncommon near Muddur in Mysore in 
moderate sized coveys. I also observed it in other parts of 
Mysore, near Guudalupet, Teppu Kardu, &c, and it also 
occurs in the Wynaad, though I did not obtain it there. 
Some years ago I shot one out of a small covey on the ed^e 
of the Government Cinchona Plantations at Neddivuttum, 
and on auother occasion I killed one in Ootacamund. 



412 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

831.— Excalfactoria chinensis, Lin. The Blue- 
breasted Quail. 

I found tins beautiful species occurring sparingly through 
the grassy portions of the Wynaad, and obtained some speci- 
mens at Rampore, on the confines of the Mysore territory. 
I did not observe it, nor do I know of its occurrence, on the 
hills. 

832. — Turnix taigoor, Sykes. The Black-breasted 
Bustard Quail. 
I found this species not uncommon about the cultivated fields 
in Mysore, always in pairs or singly, more frequently the latter. 
I did not meet with it in the Wynaad, but it doubtless occurs. 
I have never met with it on the hills. 

834. — Turnix joudera, Kodgs. The Larger Button 
Quail. 

I obtained a single specimen of this species, a male, near 
Karote at the foot of Banasore Peak in the Wynaad. It was 
the only time I met with it. It measured — 

Length, 5*6 ; expanse, 101; tail, 1-05; wing, 295 ; tarsus, 
09 ; bill from gape, 0*62 ; weight, 162 ozs. 

Legs, feet, claws, lower mandible and upper mandible to 
nostril pale yellow ; lower mandible tipped pale brown ; rest of 
upper mandible dark brown ; irides white. 

[839.— Sypheotides aurita, Lath. The Lesser 
Floricau. 

A single specimen was killed on the slopes of the Nilghiris 
some years ago between Neddivuttum and Pykarra, going down 
to the Wynaad.— A. 0. H.] 

[840.— Cursorius coromandelicus Gm. The Indian 
Courier Plover. 
Has been sent from S. W. Mysore, quite near to Gundalupet, 
—A. 0. H.] 

[849.— iEgialitis dubia, Scop. The Common Ring 
Plover. 

Sultan's Battery, Wynaad; S. W. Mysore; near the foot of 
the Coonoor Ghat, and I expect everywhere about the bases of 
the Nilghiris.— A. O. H.] 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 413 

855 — Lobivanellus indicus, Bodd. The Red-wattled 
Lapwing. 

I found it not uncommon in the Wynaad and Mysore. It 
occasionally also ascends the hills, for I have shot it within 
five or six miles of Ootacamund, but it does not, I think, breed 
on the hills, lor I have only met with it during- the cold weather. 

[856.— Lobipluvia malabarica, Bodd. The Yellow- 
wattled Lapwing. 

I have seen this from S. W. Mysore. — A. 0. H.J 

859.— (Edicnemus scolopax, S. G. Gm. The Stone 
Plover. 

I have met with this species at the foot of the Nilghiris at 
Seegore. I also came across it at Bandipur, where 1 obtained 
both adult and young birds. On all occasions I have found 
it in thin tree jungle with hardly any undergrowth. 

867.— Scolopax rusticula, Lin. The Woodcock. 

On the Nilghiris Woodcock are not uncommon from about 
October to the end of February ; they frequent the sholas, and 
Woodcock shooting is a favourite amusement on the hills. 

868.— Gallinago nemoricola, Eodgs. The Wood- 
Snipe. 

A cold weather visitant to the Nilghiris, and I have heard of 
its being killed in the Wynaad. It doubtless also occurs on the 
Bramagherries. On the Nilghiris it was never common, and it 
seems to be getting still more rare, year by year, and though 
when on the Nilghiris last 1 had offered all the native shikaris 
a large price for any specimens they could procure me, I failed 
to get any. It frequents much the same sort of places as the 
Woodcock does, but I have flushed it from among some bushes 
[jrowinff on the ed«je of a marsh. 

870.— Gallinago sthenura, Kuhl. The Pintail 
Snipe. 
Also only a cold weather visitant, but coming in earlier and 
leaving later than either the Jack or Wood Snipe. It arrives on 
the Nilghiris early in September usually, but I have known 
it to come in as early as the last week in August, and I have 
killed it as late as the 5th of May in the W} 7 naad. 

[871,— Gallinago ccelestis, Frenzl. The Snipe. 

This occurs throughout the region treated of, alike in hills 
and plains ; but it may be much rarer, as some say, on the 
former. — A. 0. H.] 



414 NOTES ON SOME BIBDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

872 .— Gallinago gallinula, Lin. Tlie Jack Snipe. 

Occasionally visits the Nilghiris. I have not heard of itsbaing 
ohtiiiueJ in the Wynaad. It is possible that it is not so rare 
as it appears, as it may often be overlooked from its inveterate 
habit of lying so close as to be almost impossible to flush with- 
out dogs. 

873. — Rhynchaea bengalensis, Lin. The Painted 

Snipe. 

I have seen specimens of this Snipe from the Wynaad, but 
I do not know whether it is a permanent resident there or not. 
I am not aware of its ever having been seeu or obtained on the 
hills. 

Since the above was written Mr. Rhodes Morgan writes tome 
that a specimen was shot by Mr. Hadfield in January contain- 
ing a fully shelled egg, so it must breed in the Wynaad. 

[884. — Tringa minuta, Leisl. The Little Stint. 

I myself saw this below the Coonoor Ghat, and have received 
it from S. W. Mysore. -A. 0. H.] 

891. — Rhyacophila glareola, Lin. The Spotted 
Sandpiper. 

Common about marshes, pools of water, and along the banks 
of streams, where these are not bordered by trees. On the 
Nilghiris it remains very late. I have seen specimeus about the 
ponds iu the Botanical Gardens at Ootacamuud as late as July. 
I thought that they might possibly breed there, but the most 
careful searching failed to discover any nest. 

892.— Totanus ochropus, Lin. The Green Sand- 
piper. 

Some years ago I saw a specimen of this Sandpiper shot on 
the bank of the lake at Ootacamuud. It is the only time I 
have seen it iu Southern India. To the hills at any rate it must 
be a very rare visitant. 

893.— Tringoides hypoleucus, Lin. The Common 
Sandpiper. 

As common as 891, and frequenting the same kind of places. 
On the Nilghiris, at any rate, it does not stay so late as R. glareola. 

[894. — Totanus glottis, Lin. The Green Shank. 

Received from the Wynaad. Doubtless common everywhere, 
where there is water, below 3,000 feet. — A. 0. H.] 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 415 

900. — Parra indica, Lath. The Bronze-winged 
Jacana. 

Occurs in the Wynaad. Mr. T. Darliug of the Rasselas Estate, 
near Manantoddy, obtained a specimen. 

905. — Gallinula chloropus, Lin. The Water Hen. 

Common on the lake at Ootacamund, where it breeds among 
the sedge, growing on the margin. I have also often seen it 
in Wynaad, and in Mysore on the Gundalupet lake. 

907.— Erythra phcenicura, Penn. The White- 
breasted Water Hen. 

Rare on the Nilghiris and its slopes, but not uncommon at 
the base of the hills, through the Wynaad, and in Mysore. I 
have killed it in the Botanical Gardens at Ootacamund. 

[910. — Porzana bailloni, Vieill. Baillon's Crake. 

Sent us from the Wynaad. — A. O. H.] 

911. — Porzana fusca, Lin. The Ruddy Crake. 

I obtained two specimens, both males, of this species, in some 
rice fields at Karote in the Wynaad on the 2nd of May. It 
was the only time I saw it during my trip. I have never 
met with it, nor am 1 aware of its ever having been obtained 
on the hills. 

In the specimens I obtained, the bill was black, the legs and 
feet coral red, and the irides crimson. 

913.— Hypotsenidia striata, Lin. The Blue-breasted 
Bauded Rail. 

The late Mr. J. Darling shot n specimen of this Rail in the 
Wynaad ; he showed me some fragments of the skin, sufficient 
for identification however. 

919.— Ciconia alba, Bechst. The White Stork. 

Mr. G. A. R. Dawson, of Coonoor, obtained two specimens 
of this bird on the Nilghiris, one of which is, I believe, still in his 
possession. He says : " During the mouth of October 1870, 
a flock of eighteen of this species were seen feeding on the 
open grass land near the sandy nullah between Ootacamund and 
Pykarra. I was only made aware of the fact by a couple of 
the birds having been shot by a native and brought to me. I 
visited the spot early next morning, but found the birds had 
flown/' 

I have never myself come across this species in Southern 
India. 



416 NOTES ON SOME BFRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIRIS 

920.— Dissura episcopa, Bodd. The White-necked 
Stork. 

Saw a pair on a dead tree on the river bank at Manantoddy, 
Wynaad, the only pair I saw during- the trip. 

[923. — Ardea cinerea, Lin. The Heron. 

Occurs in S.-W. Mysore. I believe in the very piece of 
water Davison visited. — A. 0. H.] 

[924.— Ardea purpurea, Lin. The Purple Heron. 

One specimen was sent ns for identification from somewhere 
about the bases of the Nilgiris. — A. 0. H.J 

[927.— Herodias garzetta, Lin. The Little Egret, 
and 

929— Bubulcus coromandus, Bodd. The Cattle 

Egret, 
were both contained in a collection made in S.-W. Mysore. — 
A. 0. H.] 

930.— Ardeola grayi, Sykes. The Pond Heron. 

Common through the Wynaad and Mysore in suitable locali- 
ties. Some years ago this species was rare on the Nilghiris, a 
few occurring during the cold weather about the lake at 
Ootacamund, but within the last three or four years it has 
become quite numerous about the marshy banks of the lake. 
I counted thirty in the course of a walk one morning. It is, 
however, only a cold weather visitant to the Nilghiris, disappear- 
ing as the breeding season approaches. 

931.— Butorides javanica, Hortf. The Little Green 
Bittern. 

On several occasions I met with this bird both in the 
Wynaad and in Mysore, always on the banks of well-wooded 
streams. I am not aware that it ascends the hills. 

932.— Ardetta flavicollis, Lath. The Black Bittern. 

I have shot this species on the Moyar river immediately 
below Neddivuttum. I have also seen it in the Wynaad: 
Very rarely it ascends the hills. I have once seen a specimen 
killed by a native shikaree close to Ootacamund. Like many 
of the Herons this species is crepuscular in its habits. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MVSORE. 417 

[933— Ardetta cinnamomea, Gm. The Chestnut 
Bittern. 

Two or three specimens of this were sent us some years «*igo 
from the Wynaad.— A. 0. H.] 

937.— Nycticorax griseus, Lin. The Night Heron. 

Though I have never actually procured a specimen, I have 
on several occasions heard the Night Heron in the Wynaad. 

940. — Anastomus oscitans, Bodd. The Shell Ibis. 

I saw a small flock of ahout twenty of these hirds at Bandi- 
pur in Mysore. 

942.— Inocotis papillosus, Tern. The Warty-headed 
Ibis. 

I found flocks of this Ibis frequenting the trees bordering 
the banks of the river at Manan toddy in the Wynaad during 
April 1881. It was the only time I saw the species dnring my 
trip. They were exceedingly noisy, and were no doubt pre- 
paring to breed. 

[950.— Sarcidiornis melanonotus, Penn. The Comb 
Duck. 

This occurs in S.-W. Mysore certainly, also I believe in the 
Wynaad.— A. 0. H.] 

[951.— Nettopus coromandelianus, Gm. The Cotton 
Teal. 

This certainly occurs in both the Wynaad and S. Mysore. — 
A. 0. H.] 

[952.— Dendrocygna javanica, Horsf. The Whist- 
ling Teal. 

I have seen this both from the Wynaad and S. W. Mysore, 
but never fulva, though this too may possibly occur. — A. O. H.] 

[954.— Casarca rutila, Pall. The Ruddy Shell 
Drake. 

Occurs, but is rare in both the south of Mysore and the 
north of Coimbatore about the bases of the Nilghiris. — A. 0. H.] 

[957.— Spatula clypeata, Lin. The Shoveller. 

A specimen was seut me from the Wynaad, where I presume 
it is rare. — A. 0. H.] 

53 



418 NOTES ON SOME BIRDS COLLECTED ON THE NILGHIIUS 

959. — Anas pcecilorhyncha, Forst. The Spot Bill 
or Grey Duck. 
I saw a pair of this species in a small swampy jheel surround- 
ed by jungle about three miles from Muddur in Mysore. I have 
occasionally seen it in other parts of Mysore near Gundalupet, 
&c. 

[961.— Ohaulelasmus streperus, Lin. The GadVall. 

Is common in S. Mysore right to the bases of the Nilghiris, 
and I am almost sure it was reported to me from the Wyuaad. — 
A. 0. H.J 

[962.— Dafila acuta, Lin. The Pintail. 

Occurs both in the Wynaad where reported rare, and S.-W. 
Mysore.— A. 0. H.J 

964. — Querquedula crecca, Lin. The Common Teal. 

In suitable places this Teal is not uncommon, and in some 
places as at the Gundalupet lake it is very numerous. I have 
also on many occasions seen small parties on the lake at Ootaca- 
mund, but they do not remain many days after their arrival, 
being- either all killed, or frightened away. It is of course 
only a cold weather visitant. 

[965.— Querquedula circia, Lin. The Garganey. 

This has beeu sent from S.-W. Mysore, and occurs in the 
Wynaad.— A. O. H.J 

975.— Podiceps minor, Gm. The Little Grebe, or 
Dabchick. 

Common on the lake at Ootacamund, where it is a permanent 
resident. I have also found it in several places in the Wynaad 
and Mysore. 

? 986.— Sterna fluviatilis, Nanm. The Common 
Tern. 

Jerdon notes having obtained this species on the lake at 
Ootacamund.* I have myself on several occasions in past 
years noticed a small Tern on this lake, but it would only 
remain a few days and then disappear. I never saw more 
than one at a time. It is the only place where I have noticed 
them. 

* It is next to certain that Jerdon was mistaken. His specimen was probably 
either tibetana or albigena, vide S. F., Till, 159.— Ed., S. F. 



AND IN PARTS OF WYNAAD AND SOUTHERN MYSORE. 419 

[987.— Sterna melanogastra, Tern. The Black- 
bellied Tern. 

P.-TV. Mysore, certainly. The Wynaad I think.— A. 0. H.] 

1007.— Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, Pall. The Little 
Cormorant. 

I have seen this species on the lake at Gundalupet in Mysore, 
and I think, late one evening near Manautoddy, I saw a party 
of this same species flying high overhead. 

1008.— Plotus melanogaster, Penn. The Indian 
Snake Bird. 

I have obtained this species on the Pykarra river about nine 
miles from Ootacamund. I have also noticed it in Wynaad 
and on the lake at Gundalupet in Mysore. 



SJofos. 



Mr. TV. N. Chill has sent me another specimen of Eris- 
matura leucocephala, the White-faced Stiff-tail Duck, pro- 
cured by him in the Gurgaou district on the 28th October 
1882. 

It will be remembered that the first time this species was 
obtained eastwards of Palestine and Asia Minor, in our lati- 
tudes (further north it was known to occur on the Caspian 
and in Western Turkestan) was when a pair of immature birds 
were shot near Khelat-i-Ghilzai, by Colonel Sir Oliver St. John 
on the 20th October 1879. 

I then predicted that the species would turn up in the 
Punjab and Sindh. 

Within a few months of this prediction Mr. F. Field shot 
an immature bird of this species close to the civil station of 
Loodhiana. This Avas on the 28th of October 1880. On the 
21st of January 1882 Mr. Chill obtained an immature male 
of this species near the Najafgarh jheel, (say approximate- 
ly Lat. 29 G N., Long. 77° E.), and now again auother near 
the same locality ou the 28th October of the same year. 

The bird cannot, therefore, be very rare, as five specimens 
have reached me in three years. It is, therefore, extremely 
strange that it should have remained unnoticed up to 1879. 
Many sportsmen well up in water birds, myself amongst the 
number, have during the last 20 years shot ducks all over the 



420 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Punjab, and yet none of us, so far as I can ascertain, ever 
met with any Stiff-Tails. Now the peculiarity of the wood- 
pecker-like tail is such that the bird could hardly have been 
overlooked if shot, and hence a suspicion arises that it has 
only been within the last few years that this species has ex- 
tended its migrations so far eastwards. It is possible that 
just as Pallas' Sandgrouse (Syrrhaptes paradoxus) only oc- 
casionally at long intervals of time makes a far westerly 
migration, as a rule travelling little out of Asia, though during 
its abnormal migrations reaching as far west as Ireland, so 
too the White-faced Stiff-Tail may only at long intervals, for 
two or three successive years, migrate as far east as Delhi. 

All the specimens yet obtained have been birds of the year. 
No adult male or female seems to have been met with thus 
far within our limits. 

Since this was written Mr. Lean of the 5th Bengal Cavalry 
informs me that he has just shot a duck of this species in the 
Pilibheet district. In India therefore the bird gets at least 
ns far east as the 80th degree E. Longitude, and later still 
Mr. Chill reports having obtained two more specimens uear 
Farukhnaggor. 



Sbttai to the (Editor. 

Sir, 

I write to inform you that a single egg of the Flori- 
can (Sypheotides aurilus) was found by Mr. F. 0. Constable on 
the Hubb plain3 on the 13th iustaut (August.) It is a very 
broad oval with scarcely any perceptible tendency to a point, 
of a dark olive or stone color, with reddish brown rather broad 
markings at the larger end and streaks about the middle. 

James A. Murray. 



Dear Sir, 

In your work, the " Game Birds of India/' I notice 
your remark regarding the call of the Painted Partridge as 
bein^ "quite distinct from that of the Common Francolin," 
or Black Partridge. Without venturing to contradict your 
assertion, I merely submit my own experiences in the matter, 
and should be much obliged if you could set me right. 

I was sent down to Nowgong in Central India last year in 
February, and one day, while driving to a distant jheel, I 
heard, as I thought, several Black Partridges calling. I must 
premise that I had never seen a Painted Partridge, while Blacks 
were tolerably common to me, and I could recognise their call 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 421 

pretty correctly. I had, however, heard that there were no 
Blacks in that part of the country, so subsequently couclnded 
that these must be Painted Partridges, and remarked to a friend 
of mine how very similar the calls of the two birds were. 
He acquiesced in this, but remarked that the Painted Partridge 
left out the single preliminary note, with which the Black 
commences his call. Some time after, when after these birds, 
I listened very attentively, and I found that the bird occasion- 
ally omitted this first note, but as often as not, sounded it, 
while in other respects the calls seemed identical. I shot about 
three brace of Painters that morning, and not a single Black 
was flushed, — in fact, I believe they are never seen there. It is 
impossible, as you say, to represent the call on paper, but the 
" beats" of the call seem to me something like this 



=fc=z=fezzl— £=: 



I do not mean that these notes played on a piano will give you 
the least idea of the call as far as the sound goes, but in a 
certain way expresses the time or cadence of the notes. I am 
afraid I have troubled you with a long letter on a somewhat 
unimportant subject. I have only to add that should there be 
any birds in this part of the country whose skins you happen 
to want, I shall be very happy to try and get them for you. 

F. Montresor, 

bth Bengal Cavalry. 
Bareilly, September 28<A, 1882. 



Sir, 

Last year my friend, Mr. A. T. Crawford, while on 
a short shooting excursion in North Kanara, got a small 
collection of birds numbering 24 species. The majority of 
these are common, but there were a few species of some 
interest amongst them, and as nothing has ever, I believe, been 
published about the ornithology of the North Kanara 
jungles, I thought it might be useful to send you the list. I am 
sorry I could not also send you the skins for verification, 
especially the one I discriminated as Lanius caniceps. I 
examined them, however, as carefully as I could, and I do not 
think I can have made any mistakes. 

I sent you this same list about a year ago, but it appears 
never to have reached you. I have now added one or two notes. 

G. Vidal. 
Broach, 10*7* October 1882. 



422 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



List of a small collection of Birds made in the North Kanara 
Forests in May 1881 by Mr. A. T. Crawford, C.S. 



'So. 



60 
115 
119 
123 
141 
149 
160 



214 
224 



257 
bis 



285 
286 
342 
345 
354 

469 
678 



775 

781 

bis 

796 
813 
845 
849 
907 



Species. 



Strix javanicii, Gm. 
Harpactes fasciatus, Forst 
Merops swinltoii, Hume 
Corncins indica, Lin. 
Hydroeissa coronata, Bodd 
Palaeornis purpureus, Bodd 
Picus mahrattensis, Lath 



Eudynnmvs honoratn, Lin. ... 
Aracnothera longirostra, Lath 



Lanius caniceps Big. 



Disspmurus parndiseus, Lin .. 
Chibiii hottentota. Lin. 
Myiophoneus horsfieldi, Yig. 
Pitta brachyura, Lin. 
Genciclila cyanotis, Jard. and 

Sell. 
Irena puelln, Lath. 
Dendrociita leucogastra, Gould 



Osmotreron malabarica, Jerd. 
Carpophaga cupreu, Jerd. 



Turfcur risorius, Lin. 
Gallus sonnerati, Tern. 
Charadrius fulvus, Gm. 
JEgialitia dubia, Scop. 
Erythra nhcenioiira. Penn. 



Eemabks. 



Dark breasted West Const race ; 
similar in all respects to Ratnagiri 
specimens. 

This species has been obtained by 
Mr. Laird (teste Butler, vide S. F., 
IX., 389) in the forests west of 
Belgaum. Capt. Butler had not 
heard of its occurrence elsewhere 
within the limits treated of in his) 
pnper. A specimen (vide S. F., VII., 
35) was got by Mr. Bourdillon in 
South Travancore. 

The single specimen obtained 
appeared to belong to the southern 
form (vide S. F., IV., 243). The 
difference between this specimen 
and L. erythronotus, in the absence 
of rufous in the lower back and 
scapulars, was strongly marked. 
After a careful examination of the 
skin according to the key given at 
S. F., VII., 374, I have little doubt 
that it was correctly discriminated. 



This species appears to be com- 
mon in the Travancore Hills (vide 
S. F., IV., 402), and Jerdon states 
that it is found in some of the 
jungles of the Malabar Coast and 
in the Wynand, and on the slopes 
of the Neilgherries, besides Coorg 
and Travancore. Mr. Fairbank 
does not appear to have met with, 
it on the Palani hills. 

This species also is said to be 
abundant in Travancore, vide 8. F., 
IV., 403. 



letters to the editor. 423 

Sir, 

In the Game Birds of India, you say in your descrip- 
tion of Grits communis or the Kullaug that you have never 
seen it before the 3rd of October. I may tell you I saw a 
flock consisting of from eight to ten of the above birds pass 
over this station on the 25th September last. I may also 
add that yesterday, the 8th of October, I saw a pair of Gadwal 
on a small jhil about eight miles distant. 

The Kullang were proceeding in a westerly direction, 
evidently towards the Sutlej river. 

H. A. Kinloch, Lieut., 
Ferozepore. 60th Rifles. 

Sir, 

I have one addition and a few unimportant correc- 
tions to make to the " First List of the Birds of the South 
Konkan," published at pp. 1 to 96 of Vol. IX of Stray 
Feathers. Since I left Ratnagiri my former shikari sent 
me a skin of the following species :— 

902* — PORPHYRIO POLIOCEPHALUS, Lath. 

The specimen was shot at Malvan in November 1880. I 
never saw or heard of it myself in the South Konkan, and its 
occurrence must be rare. The local vernacular name for the 
species is said to be Kambala fite. Capt. Butler says it is rare 
in the Deccan, and that he did not find it in the neighbour- 
hood of Belgaum. I found a small colony of purple Coots 
last year in the reeds in the Patas tank in the Poona district. 

This makes the total number of species recorded 286, 
instead of 284 as entered in the list, one species having pre- 
viously escaped enumeration. Of these 269 have been verified 
by the Editor, not 266, as stated at page 3. The remaining 
17 unverified species are as follows : — 

4. Gyps indicus, (probably 4bis. G. pallescens.) 

5. Pseudogyps bengalensis. 

6. Neophron ginginiamis. 
63. Syrnium indranee. 

115. Harpactes fasciatus. 

119. Merops <&winhoii 

145. Tockus griseus. 

166. Chrysocolaptes sidtaneus. 

198. Megalama malabarica. 

767. Alauda gulgula. 

796. Turtur risorius. 

902. Porphyrio poliocephalus (newly added). 

911. Porzana fusca. 

952. Dendrocygna javanica. 



42 t LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

957. Spatula clypeata. . . 

961. Ohaulelasnms streperus. 

981. Larus ridibundus. 

Asterisks, I may add, were wrongly prefixed to Querquedula 
crecca, 964, and Querquedula circia, 965. 

Of the above unverified species the occurrence of Chrysoco- 
laptes sultaneusj Alauda gulgula, and Porzana fusca, is some- 
what doubtful. It is also not certain whether the long-billed 
brown Vulture appears in the form of indicus or pallescens. 
As to the remaining species there is no doubt. 

G. Vidal. 
Broach, October 23rd, 1882. 



Sir, 

At page 158 (ante) you recorded the capture of the 
immature Scaup (Fuligula marila) that I sent you in Novem- 
ber 1881, but you omitted, I think, to notice the two other 
Scaups, both females, and both immature, that I sent you 
later. 

The first was killed on the 13th January in the Indus river, 
about 14 miles above Attock. Of this I noted that the bill was 
greyish blue with black nail; iris deep yellow ; legs and feet 
leaden, darker on the joints. 

The second was killed on the 10 th of March in the Jubbee 
river near Hasan Abdal. Length, 155; expanse, 24'G* ; 
wing, 7*9; tail, 27 ; tarsus, 1*2 ; bill from gape, 17 ; greatest 
width of bill, 087. Iris deep yellow ; bill greyish blue with 
black nail ; legs greyish blue, darker on joints. 

I see from page 174 (ante) that Mr. Chill procured a fine 
adult female of this species near Gurgaon on the 25th of 
March, and a young female on the 14th of that month, but 
apparently up to date no one has procured a male adult or 
otherwise. 

I have now to record shooting near Ghazi on the Indus a 
female Golden Eye (Clangula glaucium). I saw one drake and 
four ducks, but unfortunately only succeeded in getting one of 
the latter. 

This measured : Length, 15-75 ; expanse, 26*5 ; tail, 3'66 ; 
bill from gape, 1*66 ; weight, 1 lb. 5 ozs. 

The irides were a bright pale yellow ; the feet bright yellow- 
ish orange, with dark blackish webs ; bill black at base, and 
tip with a medial yellow band about 0*25 in width. 

I noticed this latter particularly because at Vol. III., p. 288 
of the " Game Birds," you remark that though not noticed by 
any European writers, this yellow or orange band, spot or bar, 
does occur often in females, occasionally in young males, and 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 425 

rarely in old ones, and certainly in this, the only female I have 
3 r et seen, it did occur. 

In this specimen the brown of the head was much darker, 
the white of the neck purer, and the grey of the breast darker 
tjinn in the female figured in the " Game Birds." 

You mention having received one specimen of an adult 
male procured near Lucknow by Dr. Bonavia, but I believe 
this is the first recorded instance of the female Golden Eve 
being procured (and preserved) within the limits of the British 
Asian Empire. 

R. N. Stoker. 

P.S. — Since this was written I have shot another Golden 
Eye, a bird of the year. It was much duller colored than the 
first (I send both so you can see for yourself). The feet were 
a dark blackish yellow with ashy webs ; the bill had a } r ellow 
band, but a very dull one, and the nail was yellowish with black 
spots. The head was more ashy than in the first, and the 
irides were a paler yellow. A third bird, precisely like this 
second, was shot about the same time by an officer here ; but 
hitherto the drake has evaded all our attempts to assassinate 
him. 

I showed the first bird to a very intelligent native at Ghazi, 
and he assured me that they appear there every year regularly, 
and that three years ago he shot one. I am certain now that I 
shpt a duck of this species here some three years ago. It 
puzzled me at the time, but now I have no doubt what it was. 

R. N. S, 



Sir, 

Since I last wrote, I have succeeded in procuring a 
fine Drake Golden Eye, which I am sending you. 

There were four of them together on a little stream opposite 
the village of Hasanpore. 

The natives call them " Burgee," the '•? bur " pronounced as 
in " burrow" Burgee I believe only means patches of black 
and white. 

Mr. Barlow informs me that these ducks come to Ghazi 
every winter. 

This Drake measured: Length, 17*42; expanse, 305 ; tail, 
4*42; wing, 90; tarsus, ; bill from gape, 2 08. 

We all said what a heavy bird, but it only weighed 1 lb. 10 ozs., 
which is 6 ozs. less than the lightest weight given by you for 
an adult male.* 

• I dare say my weights are wrong, as I mention in the text of the "Gami 
Bibbs " I have not recorded particulars of fresh birds ; I merely copied the figures 
from other*. 

54 



426 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

The hides were bright yellow; the bill black ; the legs ami 
feet orange yellow with black webs and nails. The stomach 
continued fish, weeds, and sand. 

With this drake was procured a female, similar to those for- 
merly sent. It was only wounded, and was put in a cage, 
and unfortunately was allowed to escape. 

We may now set the Garrot or Golden Eye down as a 
regular winter visitant to the Punjab portion, at any rate of 
the Indus ; and as Burnes procured it near the mouth of the 
Indus, it most probably occurs throughout the entire length of 
that river. But can it be confined to the Indus ? Surely if 
properly looked for it will be discovered in the Chenub and 
other Punjab rivers. Is it purely a river duck with us? 
Or will it also occur in jheels ? Other sportsmen in the Punjab 
must help us to settle these questions. 

R. N. Stoker. 

P.S. — My last Golden Eye is a young female. Weight, 
I lb. 3 ozs. Length, 1525 ; expause, 2691 ; tail, 354 ; bill 
from gape, 166. Irides whitish yellow ; feet dusky on the legs, 
dull yellow on the toes ; webs blackish ; bill greyish black. Shot 
at Hasanpore on the 15th instant. It was seen with a number 
of others on a little pool. There were no other ducks about. 
It is decidedly not the duck that escaped. When 1 have time I 
shall pack it, and send it to you with the drake. 

B. N. S. 



Sir, 

With reference to the paragraphs in " Stray Feathers," 
Vol. IX, pp. 109, 231, relating to Accipiter stevensoni, I may re- 
mark that I believe that the young of this species can only be 
distinguished from that of A. virgatus by the middle toe being 
about l-10th of an inch shorter iu the males of A. steve?isoni, and 
about l-5th of an inch in the females, than it is in the corre- 
sponding sexes of A. virgatus. 

Most old males of A. stevensoni have the throat immaculate, 
but in some a few of the feathers of the throat have a very 
narrow dark shaft mark. 

A Malacca skin, now before me, and another from China, 
both of which I believe to be young males of A. stevensoni, 
have a very narrow dark central gular stripe, aud this also 
occurs in the birds which I suppose to be adult females of 
A. stevensoni. 

It is to be hoped that a pair of A. stevensoni may, at some 
time, be found uesting, which would much help our knowledge 
of this species. 

J. H. GlJRNEY. ' 



letters to the editor. 427 

Sir, 

Messrs. Davidson and "Wenden, in. their Deccan List 
,(S. F., VII., 68) say that Painted Sandgrouse are "abundant in 
several suitable localities ;" and Captain Butler, in his Deccan 
and Southern Mahratta Catalogue (S. F., IX., p. 421) states that 
it is u not uncommon in suitable localities throughout the plains 
portion of the region as far south at all events as Belgaum, 
and as far north as Nagar." 

One would gather from this that the species must be frequent- 
ly met with in the Deccan plains districts. I don't know what 
the experience of others may be in this respect; but, although 
I have shot and observed all kinds of birds for many years in the 
Sattara and Poona districts, I never until yesterday had the 
good luck to come across a single specimen of this Grouse. 
There are no doubt many suitable localities, but I can't believe 
that the bird is very common anywhere in these districts. 

A few days ago I had heard from a friend of his having 
shot specimens at this place, and yesterday verified his state- 
ment by bagging a brace in the rocky scrub-clad slopes between 
the Commissariat Cattle Farm and the Bhima ; but even 
here, although in the course of a whole day's shooting almost 
every likely place was beaten, my companion and I only- 
flushed five birds, two pairs and a single. The large area of 
broken stony ground at Alegaon, covered with low scrub, 
chiefly babul, wild caper and jujube bushes, stretching from 
the river to the hills above, is, 1 should fancy, an especially 
favourable locality for this species ; and if abundant anywhere, 
one would expect to find them here in large numbers. 
Alegaon, Poona District. G. Vidal. 



Sir, 

On the 27th December last, I sent you in a tin box an 
Erismatura leucocephala. Since that I have managed to pur- 
chase two more of this species — one a cat took away, and the 
other one I have got stuffed. To-day a man has brought me a 
rare Teal ; it is very much like Querquedula formosa. I cannot 
stuff it until it gets back some of the wing feathers, which the 
bird-catcher has plucked out. I suppose I will have to keep it 
in captivity for about two months. On the 1st and 3rd of this 
month my man met flocks of t^o and five hundred Pin-tailed 
Sandgrouse. On the 1st he bagged eight, out of which I have 
had five stuffed. This is the first time I have seen this bird. 

I have heard that the late Mr. Robert Blewitt shot some 
when he was in Garhi Harsaru.* 
Faruknagar, via Delhi, W. N. Chill. 

8th February 1883. 
-^ 1 ' ■- ~~~ — 

* Yes, he did, and seut me i\\v ejiei-iweue.— Ed. S. b. 



428 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Sir, 

I send you a few notes I have made with reference to 
your " Game Birds of India," for any use you may wish to 
make of them. 

Wood Snipe. — I shot two in the jungles of Mysore, west of 
Shimoga, and heard of two others that were shot in the Man- 
jerabad districts. 

Mallard. — I shot one in Nimar near the Kundwa Railway 
Station, and one near Aurungabad ; these are the only ones I 
have ever seen in the Deccan. Here in Sind it is one of the 
commonest Ducks found. 

Painted Partridge. — Major Ward quotes me erroneously at 
page 21, Vol. II. I have frequently shot them in the grasslands 
along the edge of the jungle in North- Western Mysore, and 
also in the range of hills extending through the centre of the 
province from Chittaldroog to Tuukur, but nowhere in any num* 
bers — about four brace the most I have shot in a day. It is curi- 
ous their being found in this isolated range of hills ; knowing 
all the country well I think I may certainly say there are none 
within 50 miles of the hills in any direction, and probably not 
within 100. 

Snipe. — I believe Snipe breed in the marshes near the North- 
West Ghats of Mysore. I have often seen them up to June 
when they were all in pairs. I was never in that part of the 
country later than June. 

Demoiselle Crane. — In thousands on the Toongabudra near 
Hurrihur, but rarely south of that. I have occasionally seen 
small flocks as far south as Chittaldroog and the Sulikeri lake, 
never south of these points. 

Florican. — I saw one specimen shot on the very edge of the 
Western Ghats of Mysore. Its presence so far within the jun- 
glesraustbe very rare, as I never saw auother there. I have shot 
them iu different parts of Mysore in I may say every month 
of the year. They are numerous about Bangalore in the rains 
and cold weather, and I have shot a good many in the hot 
weather in the Shimoga districts to the north, at which time 
there are few or none left at Bangalore. 

Chikor. — I think you are wrong in supposing them to be found 
in the plains of South Sind.* H. H. Aga Khan, I believe, 
turned out a few couple some years ago in the plains near 
Karachi, and in the Mulleer valley in the hills, but they disap- 
peared immediately, and have never been seen since. 

Rain Quail. — Arrive in South Sind towards end of July, and 
remain to breed, the young being fully grown by middle of 
October; they then all disappear. After commencement of 

* I cannot remember having any where said that they were found in the plains of 
South Sind.— Be, S. F. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 429 

September I notice that few old cocks are sbot, all being hens 
and young birds, so presume they leave first, leaving the hens 
and broods to follow. These birds, for the purpose of breeding, 
do not here appear to go inland more than twenty miles from 
the Coast, and the greater number not more than ten miles. 

Grey Quail. — These are fewer in Mysore than in any part of 
India I have visited. About Tunkur and Chittaldroog occa- 
sionally they are in some numbers, but anything like a bag of 
Quail is rarely made in Mysore. 

I forgot to mention that some Rain Quail remain all the year 
round in Mysore. 

Sandgrouse. — I shot four brace of Lichten steins Sandgrouse in 
the hills near Karachi last October, and a few days ago shot 
several Pterocles coronatus in the western desert near the hills ; 
they were in flocks of from six to twenty, and very tame; very 
different to the P. arenarius which I find to be one of the most 
difficult birds to approach 1 know. 

J. M. Anderson, Lt.-Col., 

Supt., Sind Survey. 

Sir, 

When out shooting this past week on the Mala swamp 
and along the forest edge about three to four miles east of it, in 
the Philibhit district, we shot five brace of the Red Spur Fowl 
in the small detached thickets and brakes. One hen* we shot 
had no spur at all. 

As I had not your " Game Birds" out with me, I did not know 
that the breed as a rule did not appear so far west as the Mala, 
or I should have kept a skin, especially of the spurless hen. 

I heard of them east of the Mala, at Richowla, about six miles 
due east of Philibhit (city). 

They were locally known as Lai tita, and Mnrghi 'en. 
Another name is Chakoe', chakoe', and others again call it the 
Ko-kyah, or bad Swamp Partridge. 

Their habits are vile, as they won't break, and always fly 
back through tho beaters, if there is another thicket within 
$0 or 30 yards, and if they are very hard pressed, we found 
they would sometimes make an effort to get away. 

One pair I found in a tree after furious driving, and they had 
been put up several times. 

Their note I heard three times, when they were a bit pressed. 
It sounded like coo, coo, coo, coooh very low. 

W. C. Plowden, 

Uh B.C. 
\lth March 1883. 

• Ileus often do not get the spurs till they are nearly two years.old. — Ed., 8. F« 



430 letters to th i editor. 

Sir, ■ ■ ' ■ * 

You say in the " Game Birds" that you do not know 
of the occurrence of the Comb Duck in the Punjab Trans-Sutlej. 

Although it certainly is nowhere common in this region, I 
know of its having been 6hot on more than one occasion in the 
Lahore district, in the Goordaspur district, and again further 
south in the Baree Doab, but only during the rainy season and 
always in the immediate neighbourhood of the canals. 

1 heard of a nest being taken as far south as the Changa 
Manga Plantation, but I am not sure of the fact. I have never 
heard of or seen the bird west of the Ravee, but throughout the 
canal irrigated portion of the Baree Doab, the whole tract 
between the Beas and Sntlej and the Ravee, it certainly does 
occur, though very sparingly, duriug the rainy season. 

G. Trevor. 

[The occurrence of this species in the Lahore district has 
already been pointed out by an anonymous writer in the Asian, 
■whose remarks I reproduce : " I am surprised to find that in the 
third volume just published of the " Game Birds of India," all 
description, or even mention, of the spur on the wing of the 
[Nukhta (Sarcidiornis melanonotus) is omitted. I see that 
Mr. Hume says about this duck, " I do not know of its occur- 
rence in the Punjab Trans-Sutlej." I am happy to he able to 
state that it not only occurs, but that it breeds in the Punjab 
Trans-Sutlej. A friend of mine, an engineer on the Baree 
Doab Canal, sent me a female Sarcidiornis for identification 
from Bhambe in the Lahore district. Ou opening the bird, I 
found a perfectly formed egg ready to be laid, and from other 
investigations it seemed clear that a nest was in the vicinity. 
Durino- the rains, the neighbourhood of Bhambe in one direc- 
tion is fairly under water, and canna brakes are very common, 
with patches of water between, and dotted here and there with 
large trees, just the place for the Nukhta. It was at one such 
place that my friend saw the pair often, and ou the day he shot 
the female, had fired one or two shots unsuccessfully at either 
her or the male, but was rather surprised at the way in which 
both returned wheeling round and round, without going away 
for any distance. As soon as the female was shot, the male 
■went further off' and did not afford another shot ; but the whole 
circumstance goes far to prove that there must have been a nest 
close at hand. I have the egg at present in my collection. 
The date upou which the bird was shot was July 18th, 1874. "J 



431 



©rntthatojgfcat jjtomencfatow. 1 



( An Addendum to " The Ibis" for January, 1883. ) 



After the lapse of more than three years,f I regret to find 
myself again forced into a controversy on Nomenclature 
-. — the most vexing and barren subject that can afflict tha 
naturalist ; but certain remarks in the last number of " The 
Ibis" leave me no choice. My friend Mr. Howard Saunders 
therein takes up more than two pages in trying to prove that 
a well-known species of Shrike should bear the name of 
Lanius pomeranus rather than L. auriculatus, of which latter 
designation he charges me with being, apparently, " the god- 
father." In what sense, if any, this word is used I know not. 
The name against which he protests was not given by me, 
but (as he himself admits) by P. L. 8. Miiller in 1776 ; and 
Mr. Cassiu, in the " Proceedings" of the Philadelphia Academy 
for 186^, restored it, adding, what is unquestionably true, 
that it u has priority of all names, except that of Brisson, 
and is sufficiently described by Prof. Miiller, and especially 
mentioned as { Buffon's Pie-grieche rousse.' Brisson's name 
is generally adopted, but, in strict adherence to priority in 
the binomial method, this name has the right." Mr. Saunders 
disallows the use of " auriculatus" because of the insufficiency 
or inaccuracy of Muller's diagnosis ; but any one versed in 
zoological literature must know that on the same grounds 
scores of names bestowed by the best naturalists, not only 
of the last century but even of the present day, would have to 
be set aside. Miiller, in the preface to his " Anhang," expressly 
stated that the species he added to those enumerated by 
Linnaeus are such as had been described by Buffon and other 
naturalists, which he then brought into the " Natursystem,''' 
and named according to the Linnaean method. Nothing 
therefore was further needed to identify the species than 
to quote the name under which Buffon described it, and 
this Miiller did. But strange to say Mr. Saunders is not 
contented herewith. Instead of turning to Buffon's unmis- 

* I received a printed copy, of this addendum just as this number was about to 
issue, and reproduce it at once, as it seems only fair that both sides of the question 
should be heard, and, one way and another, out here, we have heard a great deal 
during the last two years of Messrs. Seebohm and Saunders' views of Professor Newton's 
supposed deliqnuencies. Personally, so far as the principle of a rigid adherence to 
the rules is concerned, I wholly agree with my honored friend, Prof Newton. Ed. .S F 

t See " Annals and Magazine of Natural History" for August and December 1879. 



432 ORNITHOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURB. 

takeable description (Hist. Nat. des Oiseaux, i., pp. 301 — 303) 
of the " Pie-grieche rousse," he must look into another work, 
the " Plauches Enlumiuees" of Daubenton, and then mystify 
himself and his readers because, though he allows that there 
"is a perfectly recognizable representation" of the male 
of this species, the female of another species is figured for 
that of the one under discussion — as if husbands and wives 
bad not been over and over again wrongly assigned to one 
another by zoologists ! It is useless to go into further details 
of this matter. From 1794, when DonndorfF brought out his 
" Ornithologische Bey tr age" ft, p. 197), till now, nobody, so 
far as I am aware, has iutimated any doubt on the subject. 
Lastly, Mr. Saunders makes the astounding assertion (the 
italics are his own (that " the earliest unimpeachable descrip- 
tion and figure of the Woodchat is that of Lanius pomeranus, 
Sparrman" — forgetful not only of this very description of 
Buffon's, but of those of Brisson, Klein and Willnghby, as well 
as of this figure of Daubenton's, aad those of Albin, Frisch, 
Pennant and the u Storia degli Vccelli." 

Further on in " The Ibis" my old opponent, Mr. Seebohm, 
renews his notice of me, saying that he has done his " best 
to cure some of the confusion caused by the ill-judged 
attempts" of myself and some others to obey the laws which 
a majority of the best zoologists of the time laid down, and 
shews his kindly disposition towards my fellow-criminals 
aud myself by " pointing out a few of the rocks ahead on 
which these gentlemen must rush if they persist in their 
present course." For myself I may say that I have no fear 
of the result. Where I have erred I have erred, and I am 
thankful to anyone who will shew me that I have done so ; 
but they who have gone down to the sea in ships know that 
while there are many uususpected dangers in waters that 
have been imperfectly surveyed, there are not a few tl rocks" 
marked on charts which have no real existence, and such 
is the case with some of Mr. Seebohm's instances. Here is 
one. He says : u Another book has now been unearthed 
from obscurity, published by Gerini in 1767 (Orn. Meth. 
Dig.)*," and then proceeds to state that the Latin names 
found therein should have as much, or as little, authority as 
those of Boddaert. It would be hard to excel the sentence I 
have quoted for its combination of inaccuracies. In the first 
place this work which " has now been unearthed" by the 
labour of Mr. Seebohm is the well-known ' Storia degli LJcelli? 
cited I canuot say how often by Latham, Temmiuck aud many 



• In a foot-note ilr. Seebohm adds the full Latin title of this work. 



ORNITHOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE, 433 

other ornithologists, who mostly contented themselves with 
merely referring to the plates or the Italian names it contains 
as occasion required. Next it was not " published by Gerini 
in 1767/' for the very good reason that Geriui had died (as 
the book itself tells us) in 1751; while in regard to the in- 
genious argument which Mr. Seebohm founds upon it, I shall 
save trouble by simply saying that the work is in Italian 
and Latin — the latter (we may fairly infer) being a translation 
of the former; and, considering that Gerini was dead several 
years before the Linnaean method of binomial nomenclature 
was propounded, one does not easily see how he could be 
acquainted with or adopt it. It is the merest trifling with 
the most trifling subject to urge that these names have any 
value in scientific nomenclature, quite unlike those of 
Boddaert, who deliberately set himself to bestow names 
according to the Liuusean method on the species figured 
in Daubenton's work. That Boddaert's intention occasionally 
failed* is no fair reason for putting him aside. 

* •* •* * 

Mr. Seebohm seems to labour under two delusive impres- 
sions. First, that once upon a time ornithology wore an 
aspect of almost Arcadian simplicity, and next that this golden 
age was needlessly disturbed by certain wicked persons who 
incited the British Association to draw up rules for nomencla- 
ture. I cannot recommend him or any one else to waste his 
toil on such an object, but if he should continue his nomen- 
clatural studies, 1 hope that he will at last come to the conclu- 
sion that there is now more accord in this matter than there 
ever was before, and that, so far as this accord has been 
attained, it has been reached by the adoption first of the 
Linnseen method, and next of the code of rules, against both 
of which he raises such an outcry. Furthermore I trust 
that in time he will discover that it is not *I who played the 
resurrection-man in regard to Boddaert's, Muller's or other 
neglected names. Those who did that are beyond the reach 
of Mr. Seebohm's wrath. Whether they acted wisely is beside 
the present question, but one thing must be said of them : 
neither the late Mr. G. R. Gray nor the late Mr. Cassin had 
part or lot in the conspiracy which promulgated the code so 
odious to Mr. Seebohm. 

Finally I would again state that little good comes from 
these lengthened disquisitions, and repeat that I have no wish 
to convert Mr. Seebohm or any other aberrant nomenclator ; 
but I trust I may save some from being perverted to his 

* One of the failures Mr. Seebohm cites is wrong. To the subject of PI. Enl, 
602, the nam e given is Alcedo viridirufa, not viridis rufa. 



434 ORNITHOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 

views, while I own I should like to be spared his invectives 
and the trouble of noticing them. Most naturalists at some 
time of their life have taken nomenclatural fever : but it 
usually supervenes at an early age, when, as with other dis- 
eases incidental to youth, the patient, aided by good advice, 
speedily recovers from the attack. Uufor tunately this is not 
Mr. Seebohm's case, and he appears to be suffering from the 
malady in its severest form. What is worse is that Mr. 
Saunders seems to have caught the infection from him. How- 
ever, if these gentlemen are bent upon harassing their peace- 
able brother-ornithologists, it would be well if they would 
inform themselves more fully on the subject of which they 
treat. I have heard nomenclature compared to heraldry, and 
there is a story told by Horace Walpole of the rebuke ad- 
ministered to a king-at-arms who was said not to know his 
own " silly business/' which might convey a lesson to nomen- 
clatural critics. 

Alfred Newton. 
Magdalene College, Cambridge. 
22nd January 1883. 



STRAY FEATHERS. 



Vol. X.] DECEMBER 1887. [No. 6. 

JJotes sttwlementarg to JJtajor Sutler's Catalogue of 
lints of tlu §mm\ and J^outh Paltratta djotintrir. 

("Stray Feathers;' Vol. IX., p. 367. j 



By J. Macgregor. 



(N.B, — These notes refer only to the Belgaum District.) 



The accompanying rough Supplement to Capt. Butler's paper is submitted 
for what it may be worth. I have only added three species- Nos. \6ibis, 755 
and 896 — to the list, and I have prefixed a star to the number in each of these 
cases, so that they may readily catch the eye. 



18. — Cerchneis naumanni, Fleisch. 

I have obtained one specimen of this bird. It was nau- 
manni, not pekinensis. 

33.— Nisaetus fasciatus, VieilU 

Is very common in Belgaum. 

48. — Butaster teesa, Franklin* 

Is very common in the forest tracts as well as in the open 
country. 

54.— Circus seruginosus, Lin. 

Is very common in the southern portion of the district. 

55. — Haliastur indus, JBodd. 

I should say this was a very common bird. It occurs 
wherever there are ponds or marshy land. 

57.— Pernis ptilorhynchus, Tern, 

Very common in the wooded parts, less so in the open 
country. 

55 



436 NOTES SUPPLEMENTARY TO MAJOR BUTLER'S CATALOGUE 

59.— Elanus cceruleus, Desf. 

Very common " in the hills," and in well-wooded parts of 
the country, as Well as in the open. 

72.— Ketupa ceylonensis, Gm. 

Is not uncommon in the open parts of the country in the 
south of the district. 

76.— Carine brama, Tern. 

Is also common in the thinly-wooded parts of the country 
away from the Ghats. 

107. — Caprimulgus indicus, Lath. 

Occurs in the open country in topes. Commonest Night- 
jar of the Bidi forests. 

111.— Caprimulgus atripennis, Jerd. 

Occurs all along the Ghats and in the adjacent forest tracts, 
but is rare. 

114.— Caprimulgus monticolus, FranU. 

Extremely common in all jungles. 

115— Harpactes fasciatus, Forst. 

This bird is common in the extreme south of the district 
in heavy jungle, and at the foot of the Ghats. I have not 
observed it anywhere else. 

122. — Nyctiornis athertoni, Jard. fy Selb. 

Occurs sparingly in the Ghats. It is not so very rare. 

127. — Pelargopsis gurial, Pears. 

Occurs only below the Ghats on the Tillar nadi, where it is 
not rare. 

140— Dichoceros cavatus, Bodd. 

Occurs as a straggler in the open parts of the country too. 

145. — Tockus griseus, Lath. 

Is very common in all jungles south and west of Belgaum. 

153. — Loriculus vernalis, Sparrm. 

In the hot and cold weather it is common only on the crest 
of the Ghats, but during the rains it finds its way far inland 
to the east of Belgaum. 



OF BIRDS OF THE DECCAN AND S. MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 437 

*164fo's. — Iyngipicus gymnopthalamus, Ely. 

This species is not included in his list by Captain Butler, 
but it occurs sparingly in the Bidi jungles of the Belgauni 
District. 

166. — Chrysocolaptes strictus, Horsf. 

This is the commonest Woodpecker of the moist forest 
zone. 

167. — Chrysocolaptes festivus, Bodd. 

I have procured this bird in the extreme south of the district 

169.— Thriponax hodgsoni, Jerd. 

I have procured this bird only in the extreme south in 
purely forest tracts. It is rather rare there. 

171. — Gecinus striolatus, Blyth. 

Obtained only in the extreme south. 

194. — Megalaema viridis, Bodd. 

Common all over the district. It is not confined to the 
purely forest tracts. 

202. — Cuculus sonnerati, Lath. 

I think this bird occurs only in the rains, as I have been 
unable to procure it at any other time. 

203. — Cuculus micropterus, Gould. 

This bird is decidedly rare. I have obtained it only once 
in the Ghats. 

208.— Cacomantis passerinus, Void. 

Common at all times of the year in open forest tracts. 

212. — Coccystes jacobinus, Bodd. 

Very common at all times of the year, frequenting low thick 
jungle wherever it occurs north of the Malprabha river. 

219.— Taccocua leschenaulti, Less. 

Occurs in the scrub jungle east of Belgaum. Rare. 

232.— Cinnyris zeylanica, Lin. 

Is common everywhere, including the Ghat tract. 



438 NOTES SUPPLEMENTARY TO MAJOR BUTLER'S CATALOGUE 

240.— Piprisoma agile, Tick. 

Common everywhere. 

253.— Dendrophila frontalis, Rorsf. 

Very common in the jungles of the south and in the Ghats. 

256.— Lanius lahtora, Sykes. 

Very common in the open country east of Bel gaum. 

264. — Tephrodornis sylvicola, Jerd. 

Common in the jungles of the south. 

265— Tephrodornis pondicerianus, Gm. 

Common in all jungles lying east as well as west of Belgaum. 

268. — Volvocivora sykesi, StricM. 

Very common in all jungle tracts. 

270.— Graucalus macii, Less. 

Common in the Ghats, and very common iu the Bidi jungles. 

272.— Pericrocotus flammeus, Forst. 

Common in the jungles and topes in the eastern portion 
of the district as well as in the western. 

278. — Buchanga atra, Herm. 

Common also in the Ghats. 

281.— Buchanga ccerulescens, Lin. 

Very common in the Ghats and in the adjacent jungles of Bidi. 

292.— Leucocerca aureola, Vieill. 

Very common in all forest tracts excepting the Ghats. 

293 —Leucocerca leucogaster, Cuv. 

Occurs everywhere, including the open country. 

436.— Argya malcolmi, Sykes. 

Very common in the open and wooded country north and 
east of Belgaum. 

442.— Schcenicola platyurus, Jerd. 

I obtained this bird eight miles west of Belgaum. 

446.— Hypsipetes ganeesa, Sykes. 

Very common in and near the Ghats. 



OF BIRDS OF THE DECCAN AND S. MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 439 

455.— Rubigula gularis, Gould. 

Occurs only at the foot of the Ghats. 

460&zs. — Otocompsa fuscicaudata, Gould. 

Occurs also in the eastern jungles away from the Ghats. 

476.— Cercotrichas macrura, Gm. 

Occurs also in the jungles towards the east. 

514.— Cyanecula suecica, Lin. 

Very common all over the more open parts of the country. 

bbSbis. — Hypolais caligata, Licht. 

I have obtained the bird in the Belgaum district. 

563.— Reguloides occipitalis, Jerd. 

Procured in Belgaum. 

581. — Sylvia jerdoni, Blyth. 

Occurs in the jungles east of Belgaum. 

595.— Limonidromus indicus, Gm. 

Common in the ber forests of the extreme south. Occurs 
also along the Ghats and in the adjacent jungles. 

692 — Eulabes religiosa, Lin. 

There is, I think, a mistake here. I have never seen or pro- 
cured this bird in any part of the Belgaum district, forests or 
plains, and I doubt very much whether it occurs at all 
within that district. 

699.— Amadina punctulata, Lin. 

Tolerably common throughout the forest tracts, excepting 
the Ghats. 

703. — Amadina malabarica, Lin. 

Common also in the jungles of Bidi. 

738.— Carpodacus erythrinus, Pall. 

Is, I think, a permanent resident.* Occurs also in the east- 
ern jungles. 

* This I must beg leave to doubt. Tt breeds up in Gilgit and other places 
in the Himalayas, but nowhere I think so far south or so low down as 
Belgaum.— Ed , S.F. 



440 NOTES SUPPLEMENTARY TO MAJOR BUTLER'S CATALOGUE 

*755 — Mirafra affinis, Jerd. 

Although this species is not included by Captain Butler it is 
common in the jungles east of Belgaum. 

756.— Mirafra erythroptera, Jerd. 

Very common in the scrub jungles east of Belgaum. 

758— Ammomanes phcenicura, Frankl. 

Occurs also in the forest tracts east of Belgaum. 

760. — Pyrrhulauda grisea, Scop. 

Occurs in the forest east of Belgaum. 

786.— Palumbus elphinstonii, Sykes. 

Occurs on the crest of the Ghats. Rare. 

788.— Columba intermedia, Strickl. 

It does not necessarily follow cultivation. It is very com- 
mon on the scarps of the Sahyadri far away from all 
cultivation. 

793. — Turtur meena, Sykes. 

Common in the more open forest tracts. 

795.— Turtur suratensis, Gm. 

Common everywhere. 

796.— Turtur risorius, Lin. 

Very common in all jungle tracts. It is absent during the 
rains in the part of the country west of the town of Belgaum. 

798. — Obalcophaps indicus, Lin. 

Occurs in the Bidi jungles. Rather rare. 

819.— Francolinus pictus, Jard. & Selb. 

It can scarcely be said that this bird avoids the forest tracts, 
as it occurs in fields surrounded by forest. As a rule, it 
avoids the Ghats, the ground there not being suited to its 
habits. 

822.— Ortygornis pondicerianus, Gm. 

Very common in the low dense jungle and fields of the 
eastern talukas. 



OF BIRDS OF THE DECCAN AND S. MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 441 

832. — Turnix taigoor, Sykes. 

Is a permanent resident. I have procured it at all seasons. 

834.— Turnix joudera, Hodgs. 

I have procured this bird in the Belgaum district. 

840.— Cursorius coromandelicus, Gm. 

Is also common in the jungle tracts east of Belgaum. 

859 — (Edicnemus scolopax, S. G. Gm. 

Is also common in the Ghats. 

*896.— Totanus fuscus, Lin. 

Captain Butler does not include this species in his list, 
but I obtained it at Belgaum. 

900.— Parra indica, Lath. 

Is very common in the Bidi jungle tracts. 

902.— Porphyrio poliocephalus, Lath. 

Common in the reedy tanks in the south of the district. 

903. — Fulica atra, Lin. 

Very common on all reedy tanks. 

905.— Gallinula chloropus, Lin. 

Is common on tanks overgrown with weeds and water-lilies 
in the Bidi taluka. 

907.— Erythra phcenicura, Penn. 

A permanent resident ; I have seen it at all seasons. 

908. — Porzana akool, Sykes. 

Though Captain Butler never met with this species I 
obtained it near Belgaum, so Mr. Hume's identification of 
Captain Butler's eggs was doubtless correct. 

910— Porzana bailloni, Vieill. 

Very common all over the district. 

920.— Dissura episcopa, Bodd. 

Very common in the jungle tracts including the Ghats. 



442 CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS IN THE PROVINCIAL 

924.— Ardea purpurea, Lin. 

I have procured this bird in the Bidi taluka. 

933. — Ardetta cinnamomea, Gm, 

Is a permanent resident, not a mere seasonal visitant. 

938.— Tantalus leucocephalus, Forst. 

I have shot this bird on the Ghatprabha river at Konur. 

942.— Inocotis papillosus, Tern. 

Occurs in the cold weather throughout the district. 

951.— Nettopus coromandelianus, Gm. 

I have shot this bird in the Bidi taluka. 

957.— Spatula clypeata, Lin. 

This bird is sometimes very common in the cold weather 
in the Belgaum district. 

959.— Anas pcecilorhyncha, Forst 

Is common, and probably a permanent resident. 



Cafatope of the girds in ifte flrcdnrial $Riisenin, 
S.-m jp. and ©udh, f ttchuour.* 

Mr. George Reid, one of the Committee of Management 
of the Lucknow Museum, and who is in honorary charge of the 
Natural History Department of that Institution, has done good 
service to ornithologists in compiling an accurate catalogue of 
the specimens of birds contained in that Museum on the 1st 
January, 1886. 

The collection is but a small one, containing less than 3,000 
specimens (representing rather less than 600 species), fully 
half of which were collected and presented by Mr. Reid himself. 
But great pains have been taken to ascertain and record 
the localities of almost every specimen ; while of all species 
not included in Dr. Jerdon's work, descriptions taken from 
" Stray Feathers" or elsewhere are given in an Appendix. The 
names adopted are those in the " Tentative List," but so far 

* Printed by order of the Museum Committee by ttie Calcutta Central Treaa Co., 
Ld., 5, Council House Street, Calcutta, 1886. 



MUSEUM, N. W. P. AND OUDH, LUCKNOW. 443 

as the ten published volumes permit of this, the names 
adopted in the British Museum Catalogue are also given, 
together with a reference to the page and volume of this work 
where the species is described. 

The species included in the Catalogue are mostly common ; 
but I notice a specimen of the Knot (881 — Tringa canutus, 
Lin.) said to have been obtained in Lucknow. Now in the 
first place I should like to know whether Mr. Reid is abso- 
lutely certain of his identification of the specimen. I do not 
think I have ever seen an Indian-killed specimen of this 
species — all hitherto sent me as such have been T. crassirostris. 
If the identification be correct still I cannot consider, seeing 
that this was one of the old Museum specimens, that there 
is any certainty that it really was procured at Lucknow or 
anywhere within Indian limits. If, however, Mr. Reid can, 
for any reason, be certain that the bird was really obtained at 
Lucknow and is a veritable Knot, then it is, I think, the gem 
of the collection, since, so far as I know, no other Indian-killed 
specimen of this species exists. Thus far I have hitherto 
considered that the Knot did not occur within our limits, and 
if Mr. Reid can show that it really has so occurred, it will be 
a matter of some interest.* 

The Pink-footed Goose (946 — Anser brachyrhynchus, 
Baill.), of which the Museum contains two specimens, is ex- 
cessively rare, and these are, I believe, the only Iudian-killed 
specimens of this species now in existence. But there is no 
doubt that it does occur in Northern India, as I myself once 
shot a pair. 

The Bronze-capped Teal (9G6bis— Querquedula falcata, 
Georg.), of which also there are two specimens obtained 
near Lucknow, is likewise a rare species ; but I have obtained 
specimens of it in past years from Lucknow, Calcutta, Kurnal 
and Sultanpore, so that it is nothing like so rare as the Pink- 
footed Goose. 

No other species entered in the Catalogue seems to call for no- 
tice ; but one correction occurs to me as necessary. Having enter- 
ed correctly 27 — Aqnila mogilnik, Gmel. (The Imperial Eagle) 
and 27bis — Aquila nipalensis, Hodgs. (The Bifasciated Eagle) 
separately, Mr. Reid adds the note : " In the B. M. C. this 
species" (the Bifasciated Eagle) " is considered to be iden- 
tical with A. mogilnik. It is generally, however, thought 

* Since the above was written the specimen referred to was kindly sent me for 
identification. It turned out to be a Curlew Sandpiper in summer plumage. 
It appears always to have 3tood in the Museum as the Knot, and the plumage 
corresponding tolerably with Jerdon's description of that bird, and he having omitted 
a description of the summer plumage of the Curlew Sandpiper, the error, des- 
pite the great difference in the siEe and bills of the two species, was allowed, inad- 
vertently, to be perpetuated in the New Catalogue.— A. 0. B. 

5G 



444 ADDENDA TO THE BIRDS OF THE 

a different bird." This may mislead. No one doubts that 
the two species arc distinct ; the doubt is as to which 
of the two species should bear Gmelin's title ; Mr. Sharpe 
assigned it to the Bifasciated Eagle, and called our 27 — A. 
heliaca. I, on the other hand, considered that it was the 
Imperial Eagle that should take Gmelin's name and fell back 
upon Hodgson's name for the Bifasciated Eagle. 

I rather think that it has since been shown that neither 
Mr. Sharpe nor myself were correct, and that neither bird 
should bear the names assigned by either. On this I offer no 
opinion. All I wish to make clear is that, though there may 
have been difficulties about the names, no one of late years 
has, I believe, doubted as to the two species being distinct. 
As I said the Catalogue is not a record of much that is " rich or 
rare," but its value consists in giving a large number of 
accurate localities for a considerable number of species, and 
neglecting those assigned to the 479 specimens taken over from 
the old Museum, the whole of the rest of the localities are, I 
believe, absolutely reliable and certain. 

If all our other local Museums would prepare and publish 
equally careful Catalogues, boldly recording " unknown" against 
all those specimens of whose origin nothing certain is 
known, students would certainly be in a better position than 
now to work out those generalizations which are the primary 
objects of all sciences. 

A. O. H. 



guhtemla to the lints of the Jhtchnour (Kicit prison. 
{Ante ft). 1—88.) 



By Geo. Reid. 



Since my paper was published in Stray Feathers, I have 
been able to add a few more species to the Birds of the 
Lucknow Civil Division, and these I propose now to enu- 
merate. But before doing so I wish to offer a few remarks 
in continuation and correction of my original paper. 

In my former paper I noticed that the drought of 1877 
had ruined the division as a winter resort of wildfowl. 
The same disastrous result still obtains. From being one 
of the finest, it is now one of the worst districts for wildfowl 
shooting in the province. Few people now in Lucknow 
remember the fine shooting to be had almost at the City 
Gates, the market teeming with wildfowl from which not a 



LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 445 

few rare and beautiful species were obtained (some now im- 
mortalised in the British Museum ! ) , and the troops of 
fowlers who used to cater for the city and cantonments. 
The few whose memories carry them so far back must 
have noticed the mighty change. The market as a mart 
for wildfowl no longer exists. You may go there in the 
season, morning after morning, and find nothing — nobody. 
Sometimes a solitary hawker, as if risen from the dead, 
may appear at your door, and try to beguile you into pur- 
chasing some dead, attenuated teal, or perchance a Brahminy 
more foolish than his kind, or he would never have been 
caught ; but of genuine snipe, duck and geese, one sees but 
little, and that little not very good. No ! The fowlers' 
occupation is gone. So, too, are the days when one took a 
delight in examining his treasures, or perchance assisted in 
his nightly raids. His nets and decoys are laid aside, and 
he wars with the web-footed tribes no more. 

With the average sportsman it is different. Usually one 
of the here-to-day-and-there-to-morrow type, he has no me- 
mories of the past to haunt him (except, perhaps, memories 
of another kind), and is content if he gets a shot now and 
again, and brings home a dozen birds composed of equal 
parts of teal and shovellers. Ye gods ! What a falling off 
is there ! I remember the time when bags of from 15 to 30 
couple of the choicest ducks were the common lot of average 
shots, and I have myself killed as many as 32 brace in a 
day without the aid of a duck gun. This was at Ajaen 
in 1867. In the cold weather of 1885-86, in shooting over 
the same jhils, on three different occasions, my largest bag 
was four birds ! In other localities the result of that season's 
experience was somewhat better, but still far from good. 
Snipe-shooting, too, within easy reach of Lucknow, has fallen 
off to the vanishing point, but it is still possible, in these 
days of railways, to get to places where snipe are fairly 
abundant, though, as we all know, it is quite another thing to 
bag them. 

Now how is this falling off to be accounted for ? Am I right 
in attributing it to the drought of 1877 (see remarks in my pre- 
vious paper) or do wildfowl move about in cycles ? I think not. 
I believe they came here, as usual, in 1877 and found the jhils 
dry, went away disgusted, and having spent the cold weather, 
comfortably, in some other locality, have ever since gone there in 
their winter migrations. The famine that followed the drought 
gave a great impetus to the cultivation of the singhara nut, and 
on lakes where it is now cultivated to any extent birds, as a rule, 
are not allowed much peace. This may partially account for 
the comparative absence of birds in certain localities, but I 



446 ADDENDA TO THE BIRDS OF THE 

have little hesitation in attributing the general falling off to 
the drought of 1877. The jhils, too, it must be remembered, 
have never been the same since that year. Though apparently 
as full of water as ever at the close of the monsoon, they are 
most of them dry long before the close of the cold weather. 
This used not to be, and is due to two causes : first, the great 
amount of water absorbed by their dry, parched beds on the 
recurrence of the monsoon, and, secondly, the greater amount 
of water required to irrigate the ever-increasing area of wheat 
under cultivation. The most familiar example lean think of 
is thejhil at Chinhut, just out of Lucknow. Before 1877 it 
contained water all the year round, was full of fish, had a boat 
or two on it, and was always good for a morning's wildfowl 
shooting in the season. Now, in the hot season of 1886, it is 
as dry as the season itself, and has been so, annually, since 
1877. The change is not greater, methinks, than the falling off 
in our wildfowl. 

But if the decrease is not local, and has been observed gene- 
rally in other parts of the country, I may be attributing it to 
a wrong cause. This, other observers only can confirm or 
refute. For my part I have never even heard it whispered that 
wildfowl visit India in less numbers now than they did, say, ten 
years ago. If they do, may not their decrease be due to the 
advancing Russians ? I'm not a Jingo, but I may as well have 
a shy (like my betters) at the enemies of India ! 

Untoward events, it would therefore appear, have often a 
deal to do with the distribution of species, even when climatic 
and other conditions are favorable. 

The Crested Grebe, too, is another bird that has become ex- 
ceeding rare in localities where formerly it was very abundant, 
but its scarcity now is due to another cause. Slaughtered whole- 
sale and systematically for the sake of its beautiful skin, we 
now seldom see its silvery-white breast glistening in the sun. 
Slowly, but surely, too, our beautiful White Herons and Egrets 
are sharing a similar fate. A price has been put upon their 
feathery snow-white plumes, and man must needs debase his 
manhood by pandering to the insatiable vagaries or depravities 
of fashion. The worst of it is that the plumes, which are so 
much in request, are only to be had during the breeding season, 
and whole heronies, to my knowledge, have been wantonly 
destroyed to obtain them. The total annihilation of the parents 
means, of course, a still greater catastrophe in the loss of the 
young. This is wanton cruelty in its most aggravated form, and 
if it goes on unchecked these beautiful birds will soon cease to 
adorn the landscape and the lakes and rivers, of which they are 
now such familiar adjuncts. That peculiarly Indian scene — a 
newly-irrigated paddy field, its beautiful green sward studded 



LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 447 

over with snow-white Egrets and Herons, with a village urchin 
or two thrown in, will soon — only too soon — be a memory of 
the past. That such wanton destruction should be tolerated 
by the powers that be seems to me inexplicable.* There is no 
occasion to enact game laws or close seasons and so add to the 
miseries and perplexities of the people. They are not the 
real offenders, while they have laws enough to observe in all 
conscience. A single stroke of the pen prohibiting the ex- 
portation of bird skins altogether, except such as are bond 
fide trophies or scientific specimens, or the infliction of a pro- 
hibitive export duty, would at once put a stop to the iniquities 
of which I and others have so long and fruitlessly complained. 
No half measures will do, but it is hopeless, I suppose, to 
expect anything else, if we get anything at all. 

If I have written strongly it is because I feel strongly on a 
subject that requires immediate attention. The destruction 
not only of Grebe, Herons, Egrets, Pheasants, &c, but of 
beautiful small birds of every description, is going on apace, 
and while the depredators are reaping a rich harvest by pil- 
fering the nation's property — its game birds and the beautiful 
songsters of its woods and fields — those who ought to protect 
them by holding aloof are simply participating in their de- 
struction. This state of affairs can only lead to extermination, 
when, of course, every one will regret the result, but — who 
would have thought it ? Echo then may well answer — who ? 

Returning to our birds, I may as well begin by modifying or 
attesting what I said of some of those included in my pre- 
vious paper. 

Subsequent observations confirm the opinion I previously ex- 
pressed that the chestnut phase is the breeding plumage of the 
Paradise Flycatcher (Muscipeta paradisi). It is no use argu- 
ing to the contrary, because a few white birds may be seen 
during the breeding season. The Purple Honeysucker (Cinnyris 
asiatica), for instance, may be seen in his breeding plumage all 
the year round, yet no one ever questions its right to wear it 
out of season, or doubts that his winter livery is usually 
like that of his sombre lady-love. I have seen a Para- 
dise Flycatcher early in May of a regular brown 
and white piebald appearance ; later on the two long 
feathers of its tail were the only white about it, and still 
later on, when I took its nest and eggs, the bird had a 
short tail and had donned its entire chestnut livery. I think 
this is pretty conclusive. 

This Flycatcher has no dread of water. The other day 

* An Act has now been passed to put a stop to this wicked and wanton destruction.— 
Ed., 8. F. 



448 ADDENDA TO THE BIRDS OF THE 

when fishing on the lake at Bhimtal I saw it frequently 
alight on the surface of the water in pursuit of the aquatic 
insects it was feeding on. 

The large Grey Babbler (Argya malcolmi) is by no means 
so rare as my previous paper would lead one to suppose. I 
have since met with it in many places and have both seen 
and heard it about Lucknow itself. 

I have not been able to ascertain whether the Plaintive 
Cuckoo breeds about Lucknow. Mr. Adam indeed concludes — 
though he does not state it as a fact — that boys (I write 
from memory) brought him the eggs from the nests of 
Drymceca inornata. This I now think highly improbable, 
as, were the birds about in the rains, when D. inornata 
breeds, one would certainly either see or hear them. 

The Plaintive Cuckoo is, however, a regular cold-weather 
visitor to the division. 

The breeding of the Blue-throated Redbreast (Cyornis 
rubeculoides) in Lucknow is, however, noteworthy. On the 
21st July, 1885, I found a nest and four rather hard-set eggs 
in the ruins of the Secundra Bagh. For some time previous 
I saw both birds almost every time I went to the Horticul- 
tural Gardens. Later on I saw only the male about, and made 
certain that the female was sitting, but though I searched 
every likely hole and corner of the ruined walls and gateways, 
I could not discover the nest. One day, however, when I 
had given up all hope of finding it, I happened to look 
into a little cell at the base of what was once evidently 
a staircase tower, and there, staring me in the face, was 
the little bird — the male — upon its nest, within two or three 
yards of a pathway frequented all day long by the garden work- 
people and others, and often by myself. The nest was 
placed quite openly in a small niche, such as natives use 
for their chiraghs. Externally it was loosely made up of 
old decomposed leaves — soft skeleton leaves in fact — inter- 
laced and held together with slender grass stems and 
cobwebs ; internally it was nicely lined with fine dark hair-like 
roots, the neat inside contrasting strongly with its rugged 
exterior. 

Palceornis indoburmanicus, though included in my former 
list, is rather a doubtful species, but the fact that Mr. Hume 
identified a specimen— now in the Provincial Museum — as 
such deters me from rejecting it. The bird is none other, 
I think, than a possible variety of P. nepalensis. Indeed I 
very much question whether these large Paroquets are not 
all referable to one and the sames pecies — P. ewpatvia, Lin. 
In a large series from all parts of India and Burma the 
differences relied on by separationists in support of their 



LUCKNOW CIVIL DIVISION. 449 

respective species would probably be found to have connecting 
links in intermediate species, the slight variations in size 
and color being such as might reasonably be ascribed to 
climatic causes. 

Falco babylonicus is another bird that ought not, perhaps, 
to have been included in my former list. In the days 
when Captain (now Colonel) Irby wrote there was — and still 
is — much diversity of opinion as to the changes which 
Falcons generally undergo in plumage, and the specimen which 
he got at Barabanki (it does not appear to have been 
preserved) may have been nothing more than the " Shahin " 
in a certain phase of plumage. At any rate I have tried in 
vain for a specimen that would satisfy me that it was the true 
babylonicus, though I have a specimen of what I consider to 
be an adult " Shahin " that might pass muster for Gurney's 
Falcon so far as description goes. Another bird, one from 
Southern India, is so different in coloration as to lead to the be- 
lief that from youth to decrepit age the " Shahin " must undergo 
many changes in plumage, and that, in one or more of these 
changes, it may possibly resemble, if it is not, babylonicus. 

The Shahin, it should be noted, is not quite so rare as my 
former paper would lead one to suppose. It is indeed about 
as common as the Peregrine during the cold weather, the two 
being often found together by the side of some favorite 
jhil. I know of one such favorite resort where eight or ten of 
these Falcons constantly reside in the cold weather. One day 
I took it into my head to " go for them." The first I shot 
was a Peregrine, the second a "Shahin" (the adult above 
alluded to) ; the third and remainder are, I hope, living still, 
having given me a wide berth when they saw what I was 
up to. They had been living for the most part on the 
Rose-ringed Paroquets, the ground beneath the trees they 
frequented (each couple appeared to have their own special 
tree) being literally covered with the remains of these birds. 

The occurrence of either the Common or Blue-winged Teal 
(I was unable to make out which) on the plains on the 2nd 
of May is worth recording. While travelling by train on that 
date I noticed a flock of at least 50 on a jhil just outside 
of Bareilly station. 

The following is a list of the spieces — 23 in number — that 
have now to be added to those included in my paper on 
the " Birds of the Lucknow Civil Division." It is difficult 
to say how many more will have to be added before the 
list is absolutely complete ; but I think we may safely assume 
that not more than 350 species occur in the division, of which 
337 have now been accounted for — not hastily, but during 
and after many years of careful and persevering research. 



450 ADDENDA TO THE BIRDS OF THE 

As in my former list, the number prefixed to each name 
is that under which the species is included in Jerdon's " Birds 
of India" and Mr. Hume's list— vide S. F., Vol. VIII. 

28bis. — Aquila fulvescens, Gray. 

The Buff Eagle, as Mr. Hume took occasion to point out, 
should have been included in my former list. It is rather 
rare I fancy, though I may have often, in the field, confounded 
it with vindhiana, and so have passed it over. Mr. Sharpe 
indeed considers these Eagles to be identical, and rejects 
fulvescens as a good species with the remark, that it is doubtful 
whether vindhiana should be considered more than a small 
race of A. ra^ax. 

30.— Aquila hastata, Less. 

A Lucknow-killed specimen of the Long-legged Eagle is now 
in the Museum. It is by no means common, and I know 
nothing particular in regard to its habits. 

31. — Hieraetus pennatus, Gm. 

The Dwarf Eagle, like the last, is by no means abundant, 
but I have met with it here and there all over the divi- 
sion during the