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Full text of "Stray feathers. Journal of ornithology for India and its dependencies"

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FBINTBD AND PUBLISHED BY A. ACTON, AT THE CALCUTTA CENTEAL PEES3, 
6, COUNCIL HOUSE STBEET. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. IX. 
1380. 

~§«Q>$4 — . 

Nos. 1 to 3. — August. 



Paga. 

First List of the Bieds op the South Konkan, by 

G. W. Yidal ... ... ... ... 1 

Remakes on some Species recently described by Me. 

Brooks ... ... ... ... 96 

Notes on Geocichla innotata, Blyth, by Henry Seebohm 99 
Geocichla dissimilis, Blyth ... ... ... 103 

The Birds op the Western Half of the Malay Penin- 
sula, Third Notice ... ... ... 107 

Additional Notes on some op our Indian Stonechats ... 133 
Additional Notes on the Birds op Tenasserim, and 
specially on those of the Thousgyeen Valley, 
by Captain C. T. Bingham ... ... ... 138 

The " Game Birds of India," Addenda et Corrigenda 198 
A few Hemarks on Schosnicola platyuea, by W. Edwin 

Brooks ... ... ... ... 205 

Notes on the Nidification of certain Species in the 
neighbourhood op Chaman, S. Afghanistan, by 
H. E. Barnes ... ... ... ... 212 

On a new Species op Trtbura (Ddmeticola), by Eugene 

"W. Oates, and note on the same, by W. Edwin Brooks... 220 
Additional Notes on Alseonax cineheo-alba oe 
latirostris, and Alseonax terricolor, by W. E. 
Brooks ... ... ... ... 225 

Notes— 

Rejected slcins to le disposed of ... ... 226 

Suggested identity of Suya albogularisafl£?S. super- 

ciliaris ... ... ... ... 227 

Burnesia gracilis, distinct from B. lepida ... 228 

A brornis jerdoni, unquestionably a good species ... ib. 
Sturnia blythi — its real diagnosis ... ... ib. 

Extended range of Gfbimkius melanolophus in India 230 
Chffitura caudacuta and C. nudipes probably distinct ib. 
Accipiter gularis, virgatus and stevensoni ... 231 

Hypolais pallida and rama ... ... jj # 

He-discovery of Passer pyrrhonotus, Blyth ... 232 

The Indian Rubecula akahige apud Verreaux, is 

really the young of Niltava sundara ... 234 

Schoeuicola platyura, further note : its identity with 

Catriscus apicalis suggested ... ... 234i 



Page. 

Mr. Sharpens supposed eggs of Leptoptilus javanicus, 

doubtful ... — ... ... 235 

Letters to the Editor — 

Birds seen between Suez and Bombay. — H. E. M. 
James ... ... ... ••• 235 

Young of Painted Snipe, swim well.— J. Davidson 236 

How the principles of natural (or unnatural) selec- 
tion are at times carried out — ~W. E. Beooks ... ib. 

The Kurrachi Museum Palumbus is casiotis ; 
breeding of JEsacus recurvirostris in Sindh. — 
C, Swinhoe ... ... ... 237 

Distinctness of Sturnia blythi ; an albinoid speci- 
men of Chrysocolaptes strictus.—~Sl. A. Butlee... ib. 



No. 4. — November. 



A HlSTOET OF THE BlEDS OF CeTLON ... ... 239 

Note on Teibuea Mandelli, by "W. E. Brooks ... 24-0 

A second List of the Bieds of Noeth-Eastebn Cachab 24 L 

SCHffiNICOLA PLATYURUS ... ... ... 2(50 

puffinus chlororhynchus ... ... ... 264 

Sturnia bltthi ... ... ... ... 267 

Meegus seeeatob ... ... ... ••• 268 

Pn an undesceibed species of Phtlloscopus, by "W. 

Edwin Brooks ... ... .«* ... 272 

lophotriorchis kieneri ... ... ... 273 

Birds Nesting on the Eastern Naeba — Additions and 

Alterations, by S. B. Doig ... ... ... 277 

Notes— 

Difficulties connected with the nomenclature of some 

Asiatic Snipe ... ... ... 283 

Acridotheres siamensis ... ... ... 285 

Colours of the soft parts in the Mishmi Hill speci- 
men of Ceriornis temmincki ... ... 286 

Chsetura nudipes, again ... ... ... ib. 

Priuia poliocephala not distinct from P. cinereo- 
capilla; the latter possibly only a variety of 

P. socialis ... ... ... ib. 

Gracupica nigricollis ... ..- ... 288 

Collocalia brevirostris, Jifacclelland, a good and 

distinct species ... ... ... 289 

Reguloides viridipennis, Blyth ... ... 290 

Garrulax leucogaster, WaUen ... ... 292 

Pica bottanensis, a perfeclty distinct spe cies ... 293 

Sturnia incognita, in Tenasserim ... ... 295 

Acridotheres melanosternus, scarcely in my opinion 

a valid species ... ... ... ib- 

Cyornis poliogenys, Hume ... ... ib 



Ill 

Page. 
Pterocles coronatus, near Fort Jumrood ... 296 

Erismatura leucocephala, near Loodhiana, Punjab... ib. 
Letters to the Editor— 

Oalornis tytleri and CTirysococcyx maculatus at 

Madras— W. F. Dique ... ... 298 

A reply to Major Swinhoe. — E. A. Butler .- ib. 

Birds Nesting in Southern Travancore.— T. P. 

Bouedillon ... ... ... 299 

Nidification of Graptocephalus davisoni, Hume. — 

Eugene W. Oates ... ... ... 300 



Nos. 5 & 6.— September 1881. 



The Birds of Gilgit, by Major John Biddulph (a reprint, 

with Notes, from the Ibis) ... ... ... 302 

A Tentative Catalogue op the Birds of the Deccan 
and South Mahbatta Country, by Captain E. A. 
Butler, R. M.'s 83rd Begt. ... ' ... ... 367 

Passer pybbhonotus, Blyth ... ... ... 442 

Dumeticola bbunneipectus, Blyth, by W. Edwin Brooks... 445 
Pebnis Tweedalti, Hume, by J. H. Gurney, {Note on a 
Malayan species of Pernis distinct from P. ptilorhyn- 
clius) ... ... ... ... ... 446 

A List of Birds observed in the neighbourhood of 

Chaman, S. Afghanistan, by H. E. Barnes ... 449 

Novelties.— 

CallopTiasis Jiumice, Sp. Nov. ... ... 461 

Perdicula manipurensis, Sp. Nov. ... ... 467 

Additional Notes on the Nidification of Birds in 

British Bubma ... ... ... ... 471 

Notes, chiefly Oological, from North- West Ceylon, 

by H. Parker, C.E. ... ... ... 475 

The Birds op the Lucknow Civil Division, by Geo. 

Reid {Part I) ... ... ... ... 491 

Notes — 

Pratincola insignis,y*ro»? Gondah in Oudh ... 505 

Additional species from N. E. Cachar ... ib. 

Trochalopterum meridionale, of W. Blanford ... ib. 
Letters to the Editor — 

Albinoids.— W. F. Dique ... ... 507 

Painted Snipe breeding in December.— A. Toues 508 
Index .. ... ... ... ... i 



PREFACE. 



The lamentable delay that has occurred in completing 
Volume IX has been due to a variety of causes. In the first 
place, in consequence partly of urgent private affairs and partly 
of severe and long-continued sickness, my valued friend and 
collaborateur, Mr. W. Davison, has for the past twelve months 
been entirely unable to help me in any way, and it will pro- 
bably be next April before I can look for any further help 
from him in my museum. 

In the second place my explorations of Manipur involved 
my being on the move from December last year until the end 
of June of the present year. 

In the third place since my return this number has been 
kept back owing to an intimation from a valued contributor of 
his being about to despatch a long paper of unusual interest, 
which should, I considered, be published without delay. 

I have never received this promised paper, nor can I learn 
anything about it, and so am compelled to issue this number 
without waiting longer for it. 

ALLAN HUME. 



STRAY FEATHERS. 



Vol. IX.] AUGUST 1880. [Nos. 1 & 2.**? 

$mt list 4 ito Itrda of tfo gtauth lotto. 

By G. W. Vidal. 



It appears to be the orthodox custom that each contributor of 
a paper to Stray Feathers should commence by offering profuse 
apologies for its incompleteness and imperfections ; should 
deplore all his sins of omission and commission ; should dis- 
claim all knowledge of his subject ; deprecate all criticism ; and, 
finally, in a paroxysm of modest confusion, throw the entire 
responsibility of his work on the devoted head of the Editor, 
without whose assistance and unremitting reminders, &c, &c, 
it never could have seen the light. All this goes without the 
saying, and in my case may be taken for granted. 

No account of the birds of the particular tract I am about 
to describe has, as far as I know, ever been published, excepting 
a chapter on the Ratnagiri species that I have lately contributed 
to the Bombay Provincial Gazetteer. Mr. Fairbank collected for 
a few weeks on the eastern frontier of Savant Vadi,* but 
he does not appear to have gone over the Ratnagiri Frontier 
intermediate between Mahableshwar and Savant Vadi. 

I have known the South Konkan Districts for seven years, 
having been stationed at Ratnagiri from 1869 to 1873, and 
again from 1877 to the present date. During the first period 
I made, from an ornithological point of view, little or no use of 
my time. I shot various birds — Waders, Scratchers and Swim- 
mers — which I had good reason to believe from experience and 
the teachings of veteran epicureans to be " aves sapidissimce in 
patina" I also collected numerous ornate and bright-coloured 
specimens to be set up in England. I was invariably accom- 
panied in my annual wanderings by Dr. Jerdon, as personified 
in his '' Birds of India," and many an hour have I spent with 
his help in laboriously and often vainly trying to identify some 
non-familiar species. But I should as soon have thought in 
those days of shooting and seriously examining a Drymceca or 
a Phylloscopus as of throwing stones at my grandmother. For 
the last three seasons only have I systematically collected all 
specimens, pretty or plain, clothed with bright silks or stuffs 

* Vide S. F., IV., 250, et seq. 



2 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

of russet brown, that came within reach. From these collec- 
tions, containing 242 species, the list has been mainly compiled. 
During the season of 1877-78 a collection was also made between 
Ratnagiri and Vijuydurg by Dr. James Armstrong of the 
Marino Survey. Dr. Armstrong very kindly gave me a list 
of the species collected by him, including, in the case of the 
rarer birds, the localities at whieh they were obtained. I have 

thus been 

355. — GeoeieJila citrina. 
767. — Alanda gulgula. 
796. — Turtur risoria. 
952. — Dendrocygna javanica. 



5.— Gyps bengalensis. 

63. — Syrnium indranee. 

151. — Palceornis columboides L 

166. — Chrysocolaptes sultaneus 



able to add 
nine spe- 



981. — Larus ridibundus. 



cies noted 
in the mar- 
gin, which 
I have not myself obtained or preserved specimens of. 

I have also been able to add from his list, in the case of 
many other species, localities from which I have not collected 
specimens. 

In 1878-79 a further considerable collection was made at 
Ratnagiri, Savant Vadi, and other parts of the district for 
Mr. A. J. Crawford, C.S. Mr. Crawford was kind enongh to 
allow me to examine his specimens from time to time, to 

verification. 
I have thus 
been able 
to add to 
the list 19 
other spe- 
cies which 
I have hi- 
therto fail- 



catalogue them, and send them to Mr. Hume for 



16. — Falco cliiquera. 
39. — Spilornis cheela, 
98. — Cypsellus melba. 

164. — Yungipieus nanus. 

203. — Cuculus micropterus. 

205. — TLierococcyx varius. 

233. — Cinnyris minima. 

253. — Dendrophila frontalis. 

255.— Upupa ceylonensis. 



267. — Uemipus picatus. 
282. — Chaptia anea. 
469, — Irena puella. 
471. — Oriolus indicus. 
307. — Larvivora superciliaris . 
697.— Amadina malacea. 
738. — Carpodacus erythrimis. 
793. — Turtur meena. 
794. — Turtur senegalensis. 



852. — Cliettusia gregaria. 



ed to obtain myself. This makes the total number of species, 
actually collected and preserved, 269. To these I have added 
six more, which, though not included in any of our collections, 
I have either shot in former years, or know, beyond all reason- 
able doubt, to occur. These species are as entered in the 

margin 

957. — Spatula clypeata. 

961. — Chaulelasmus streperus. 

969. — Fuligula nyroca. 



* 4. — Gyps indicus. 

6.— Neophron ginginianus. 
Qll.—Porzanafusca. 



The 



rea- 
sons for 
their in- 
clusion are stated in the list. 

I have also added to the list four species recorded by Mr. 

Fairbank 

115. — Harpactes fasciatus. I 145. — Toclcus griseus. 

J 19. — Merops swinhoii. | 198. — Megalama malabarica. 



from the 
eastern 



frontier of Savant Vadi. 



* Vide p. 29. 



STRAY FEATHERS YOL.IX. 



73 



7 2 



7|6 



-**. 



MAP OF 

WEST COAST 

Scale 250Miles4lnclj 




FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 3 

The Editor has added four species, three of them from the last 
batch of skins sent to him, viz. : — 

86.— Ht>tt«<*o fluvicola. 698. — Amadina rubronigra. 

846 quat. — JEgialitis asiatica. 992. — Sterna anaetheta. 

The inclusion of these additional species makes the grand- 
total of the birds entered in the list 284.* Of these, 266 have 
already been verified by the Editor. The remaining 18 species 
have been marked in the list with an asterisk. 

With these necessary explanations I will pass on to the 
description of the tract to which the paper relates. 

Boundaries. — The narrow strip of west coast littoral, which 
for the purposes of this Paper I have called the South Konkau,| 
includes the whole of the 13 ri tisli district of Ratnagiri and the 
adjoining Native State of Savant Vadi. Its situation with refer- 
ence to other places on the west coast will be seen by a glance 
at the accompanying map. Roughly speaking it lies between 
the 16th and 18th degrees of North Latitude, and the 73rd 
and 74th degrees of East Longitude. For the last twenty- 
four miles of its course the Savitri river, one of the Panck 
Gang a, or five streams, which rise in the sacred village of 
Mahableshwar, forms the northern boundary of Ratnagiri, 
separating it from the territory of the Habsi or Sidi Chief of 
Jinjera. On the west the Indian ocean gives our tract a 
seaboard of about 160 miles, from Bankot or Fort Victoria on 
the north to Fort Terekhol, which, on the south, separates 
it from the Portuguese territory of Goa. Except at the north- 
east angle, where, for a few miles, the adjoining British district 
of Kolaba intervenes, the watershed of the Western Ghats, or 
Sahyadri mountains, forms a well-defined natural boundary 
on the east throughout the tract. This barrier is overstepped 
at one point only — the village of Gotne. At the south-east 
corner the Savant Vadi State intervenes between the Ghats 
and the Ratnagiri district, leaving the latter a narrow tongue 
of laud, running down the seaboard and diminishing almost to 
a point near Fort Terekhol. 

The extreme length of the tract is about 165 miles, and the 
breadth varies from thirty to forty-five miles. The combined 
area of Ratnagiri and Savant Vadi is 4,689 square miles, (Rat- 
nagiri 3,789 square miles, Savant Vadi, 900 square miles). The 
Ratnagiri district is throughout well populated. The census 
returns of 1872 shewed the large total of 1,019,136 souls, 
which gives an average of 268 to the square mile. In Savant 

* When complete the total will doubtless not fall far short of 350.— A. 0. IT. 

t The terms North and South Konkan are sometimes used to denote the parts of the 
Konkan north and south of Bombay, from the Tapti river to Karwar or Sadasivg.-irh : 
but the more usually accepted boundaries of the South Konkan are the Savitri river on 
the north and Terekhol or Tcrracoil, on the Goa frontier, on the south. — Q, V. 



STRAY FEATHERS VOL.IX 




RATNAC1R 

SAVANT VADI 

ON TH E 

WE ST COA.RT 



INDIA 

(To Jliuii rat; M? Vod-aJ-'s Pctpn) 



Scalt<, Z4Milr* I Inch. 



741 



LiTMOO BY CENTRAL PRESS 



4 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

Vadi the population is more sparse, being at the rate of about 
170 to the square mile. 

Aspect. — Reserving- further statistics for the present, I will 
pass on to the chief physical features of the tract. In de- 
scribing any country the highest perfection of art is to convince 
the reader that he, no less than the writer, has been there. 
This I cannot expect to accomplish. People who have not 
seen a country often describe it better than those who have. 
A peripatetic clergyman and preacher for the S. P. G., who 
had never so much as crossed the British channel, once deli- 
vered an eloquent lecture on South Africa, in a village school 
in rural England. After an hour of full and graphic descrip- 
tions of the scenery, the natives, and their manners and customs, 
he had fully succeeded in making his simple audience believe 
he had been a spectator of the scenes he described. Their 
disappointment was keen when they learnt that the lecturer 
was no more a traveller in ' furrin' parts than they themselves 
were. " Lor, Sir ! " said an old crone at the close of the pro- 
ceedings, " us did think now as yu'd bean there yureself." I have 
no doubt, if the truth were known, that this untoward revela- 
tion prevented the simple folks from contributing half as many 
halfpence as they otherwise would have done towards provid- 
ing pocket-handkerchiefs, umbrellas, tooth brushes, hymn 
books, and other articles, conventionally held to be necessary 
for the welfare of the heathen blacks. 

However, whatever my readers may be disposed to believe, 
after reading my descriptions, I am painfully aware of the fact 
that I have been " there/' although this may not help me to 
paint very clearly the physical features which govern the dis- 
tribution of species. 

If you could steer a balloon straight enough from N.N.W. to 
S.S.E. or vice versa, to traverse the whole length of the tract, 
and obtain a good bird's-eye view of its configuration, you 
would see little else than a congeries of rugged hills too numer- 
ous to count, with every variety of contour, traversed in all 
directions by deeply cut precipitous ravines and valleys, through 
which the rivers and streams, flowing westwards from the 
Ghats, have, for ages untold, scoured their tortuous courses. 
Except in Savant Vadi, where the jungles have been jealously 
preserved, you would see betwixt sea and Ghats, from 
November to June, a monotonous succession of bare hill sides 
and plateaus of black slag-like rock, almost wholly unrelieved 
by verdure, and would lament the short-sightedness of previous 
generations of rulers who sat still and looked on unconcerned, 
while this wholesale denudation was being gradually and surely 
effected. You would note, in pleasing contrast, the snug, well- 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 5 

wooded groves which mark, like oases in a desert, the village 
sites and homesteads of a patient, thrifty, law-abiding- population. 
You would see that while the valleys and alluvial banks of 
the rivers are the only really arable land the tract can boast 
of, picks and hoes have not been idle in bringing under culti- 
vation steep hill slopes and stony plateaus. Wherever the 
crumbling rock gives two or tree inches depth of free soil, 
there are sown, transplanted and reared, with infinite labour, 
slender crops of coarse hill grains. Wherever, on the sides or 
near the base of a rugged hill, a portion of the flood water that 
scours the slopes in torrents during the rainy season can be 
gathered and held, there you see rows of tiny terraced rice 
fields, levelled and banked in with infinite skill and labour. 
You would marvel at the minuteness of the work, while you 
admired the patience and care of the cultivator, and would 
moralise on the struggle for existence which the expendi- 
ture of such laborious toil on such unkindly soil 
betrays. Sir George Wingate, the father of the Bombay Re- 
venue Survey, when he first visited Ratnagiri profession- 
ally, placed on record his opinion that the cost of surveying the 
district would exceed the value of the fee-simple of the entire 
land, Exaggerated, of course, as this statement was, you would 
see at once from your balloon that a detailed field survey would 
be no light work. And, knowing the density of the population, 
you would at once rightly guess that no part of the district can 
produce food sufficient for the inhabitants. Large imports of 
grain are, indeed,an annual necessity, and in the poorer villages 
on the slopes and spurs of the Ghats which these imports fail to 
reach, the frugal hill peasantry, after exhausting their scanty 
stock of Harik (Paspalum scrobiculatum) , (which, by the way, 
is rank poison unless specially prepared by steeping in cowdung 
and water,*) habitually subsist, for several months, i. e., until the 
next harvest, on wild plantains, roots, and other jungle produce. 

The exports of local produce are few, and consist of salt fish, 
shell lime, fins and maws, of four or five species of sharks and 
saw fish, cocoanuts, coir fibre, and betelnuts. 

The pressure of the population is relieved by an annual migra- 
tion of some 100,000 able-bodied men to Bombay and other places. 
Soon after the harvest is reaped, and the fair weather has set 
in, — leaving a slender store of grain (all that a rack-renting 
farmer and a grasping money-lender has left untouched) for the 
women and children, and the old and weakly of both sexes — they 
wend their way by land or sea to Bombay, returning again to 

* A party of Vaghir convicts who escaped, after a serious outbreak, from the 
Ratnagiri Jail, were caught, after a long hunt, in a state of utter collapse, brought on 
by eating raw Harik plucked from standing crops. 



o FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

their homes in May with their savings just in time to prepare 
their fields for the coming monsoon crop. Thus are both ends 
made to meet. Numbers also of the able-bodied males, Marathas, 
Kanbis, Mahars, and Chambhars, enlist in the native army and 
police, while the Konkani Brahmans, everywhere noted for 
their keen intelligence, find ready employment in the various 
public offices in the Presidency. Thus Ratnagiri, which is the 
nursery of the Bombay Army and the home of thousands of 
pensioners of all grades, civil and military, pays its way, and, 
despite the poverty of its fields and pastures, manages to con- 
tribute its fair quota to the public revenues. 

Returning once more from the people to the land, you will 
note that riding, save on the beaten tracks, is a game not 
worth the candle ; that you cannot get across country without 
encountering a succession of loose boulders, high field embank- 
ments, and sheets of slippery laterite; that to mount the hills 
you must have an animal who can walk up and down flights of 
stone steps and is as sure-footed as a moke. Pigsticking is, of 
course, an impossibility. No first or last spears have ever been 
won in Ratnagiri ; no right-minded pig would allow such dangers 
to be encountered for his sake; soif chance should ever locate you 
in the South Konkan you will, if you are wise, get rid of your 
valuable Arab, as an objet de luxe, and a source of constant 
anxiety. If you must have a mount, you will, if the Cabul 
Field Force has left any, get a sturdy Deccan tat, slow and 
sure; or else will take to " Shank's mare," with the occasional 
variety for a long march of the country dooly, which, carried 
by means of cross bars on the heads of jungly rustics, who 
insist on keeping step, will shew you in perfection the poetry of 
motion and the doubtful "rapture of repose." Or you will, 
after a few weeks of this sort of thing, avoid the land, and, " all 
comfort scorning," go from port to port in emotional coasting 
steamers, and creep in country boats up the tidal creeks. 

Lucky will you be if you reach your destination within 
twelve hours of the time you fondly appointed in your ignorance 
of tides and the ways of native boatmen. Horrors untold 
should your servants have neglected to bring an ample store of 
provisions. When becalmed and tidebound, you rock to and 
fro through the hottest hours of the. day, whistling for a wind 
that never comes, and singing anything but a peaceful lullaby. 
Sometimes the monotony is pleasantly relieved by your boat 
sticking hopelessly in the mud. The boatmen shew an aggra- 
vating nonchalance, and pass round the hubble-bubble, but make 
no effort to extricate you. They told you there was no water, 
but you knew better. You had consulted a tide table, and there 
you are, and there you must stick for hours. . . 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 7 

When the shades of evening are falling, a happy thought strikes 
you. You will get that cranky little canoe launched with an 
outrigger tied on to make it steady, and with one man to paddle, 
and another to do nothing. You will take your gun, and steal 
up the lagoons on the sides of the creek through forests of man- 
groves and rushes, and expect, at every wind of its wriggling 
course, to put up a flock of Teal, Wigeon or Pintails. You 
recline in the bows with your guu resting on the gunwale, and 
despite all previous disappointments, you contrive to feel a 
glow of gentle excitement. 

"Man never is, but always to be, blest." All of a sud- 
den the paddle stops. The boatman points mysteriously 
behind a bed of rushes, not twenty yards a head. He thinks 
you don't grasp the situation fully, and proceeds to explain in 
a hoarse stage whisper, " Sahib, badak hai !" in tones loud 
enough to disturb all the birds within half a mile. If he was 
within reach, you would kick him, but as he isn't, you can 
only shake your fist, and look unutterable things at him. 
Luckily, as yet, his indiscreet croaking has not alarmed the 
duck. By emphatic signs you make him turn the boat close 
in shore, and proceed cautiously yard by yard. You speculate 
on the strength of the flock and the number of birds you 
will drop to each barrel. You come nearer and nearer to the 
high sedge, and strain your eyes to see what lies behind. You 
are there, but no duck has yet risen or uttered a quack of 
alarm. You rise slowly to peer over the heads of the rushes, 
and decide rapidly that you will have a sitting shot with your 
first, and a blaze into the brown with your second, when up 
rise a couple of Pond Herons with a jeering " quawk," and 
there is that fool of a boatman dancing and gesticulating with 
a grin of triumph on his face, and shouting " Maro ! maro ! I" 
like a fiend, and plainly expressing by his looks that he thinks 
you are an incomprehensible duffer for not shooting them. This 
is a damper. Of course there were no Duck, and you resign 
yourself to your fate with whatever composure you can. It is 
useless to argue, and you give the wretch a look of withering 
contempt, and go on as before. There is still half an hour of 
daylight, and after all there may be Duck ahead. You see a 
flock of Golden Plover on the mud banks, and you let them 
pass. A Blue Heron rises stiffly fifty yards ahead, followed 
by a Green Bittern, and a party of Whimbrel, and a trio of 
noisy Greenshanks. You surprise a party of Cormorants, larking 
in the water, and bobbing up and down like a lot of charity 
school children having their annual dip in the sea at Margate. 
A flock of White Ibis are grazing in the sedge, well within 
shot. Egrets, Sandpipers and Kingfishers are everywhere, but 



8 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

your thoughts are not for them. A Rail appears at the 
edge of the swamp, and before you have time to see what 
species it belongs to, scuttles back under cover. You know it 
is useless to try to find it, and the mud on the banks is too 
deep and black to be attempted without graver provocation. 
So you creep on through gullet after gullet, and begin to think 
it quite time you bagged something, and that a few of those 
Golden Plover you passed would have been better than 
nothing. In desperation you conceive wicked designs against 
that Pied Kingfisher who will keep flying backwards and 
forwards, but you relent when you see him hover so confidingly 
about five yards from the muzzle of your gun. 

Talking of Ceryle rudis reminds me of a story of 
a griffin who was always, according to his own account, 
shooting Snipe at impossible times and places : — rt He never 
could understand," he said, tl why men said Snipe were so 
difficult to hit. He thought there was nothing easier. Of 
course they went off at a good pace, but you had only to 
wait till they hovered, and you generally hit them." A 
few days afterwards it was discovered that this innocent had 
been for weeks clearing all the rivers of Geryle rudis, in the 
fond and confident belief that they were "full Snipe." What 
he thought of the flavour of his game, history does not say. 
Well, you let off that " hovering" Snipe, and it is too late 
to land and beat the paddy fields you knew must lie behind 
that long embankment for real Snipe. At any rate you 
may as well shoot two or three good specimens of common 
birds before it gets dark. There are several Prinias flitting 
about in the thorny bushes close by, and perhaps you have 
not got them from this locality. You have given up the last 
faint hope of the Duck on this occasion. So you draw your 
full charges and substitute half ones, and no sooner is this 
accomplished, then you see something black in the water 
coming rapidly towards you. Is it a Snake Bird ? No, by 
Jove ! it's an Otter. He comes within twenty yards — sees the 
boat — stops and looks at you with his head well out of water. 
You may never have such a chance again, but " confound those 
specimen charges !" Half an ounce of No. 10, driven by a 
dram and a half of powder, would make no more impression 
on his sleek little head than a peashooter on a costermonger's. 
While you fumble in your cartridge bag for an S. S. G., the 
Otter looks interested and amused; but just as you have 
succeeded in making the needful preparations for his immediate 
execution, the knowing little fellow gives a wink and a grin, 
and down he goes singing, 

" I'm a young man from the country, 
But you don't get orer me." 



FIRST LIST OP THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 9 

Up he comes again after a short dive fifty yards the other 
side of you. As soon as you can get that idiot with the 
paddle to turn round you give chase. Down goes the Otter 
again. At last you get a snap shot forty yards off. Off 
goes your first barrel, and you see the shot strike the water 
in a wide circle round his poor devoted head. You hear 
the flapping of many wings, as, startled by the shot, 
up gets a large flock of Teal from a bed of green rushes, 
not twenty yards from the boat. You had passed them with- 
out disturbing them ten minutes ago. A lovely shot, but 
hardly worth taking with an S. S. Gr. Never mind ! they 
will settle again, and you give strict orders to your man 
not to take his eyes off them till they are down. Besides, 
you know ycu hit that Otter, and are determined to bag him. 
But the leery brute had dived at the flash, and after a fruit- 
less search of some ten minutes, you see him a hundred 
yards ahead, quietly land on the mud bank, and. with a 
derisive snuffle, canter off, unharmed, into the mangrove 
swamp. So you give him up. After all what's the good 
of an Otter ? If you had got him, you would only have 
kept his skin, till, like everything else in this climate, moths 
and rats had destroyed it. 

But now your friend and admirer of the blind Baglas is 
quite sure that the Teal, after circling round several times, 
have settled somewhere in the main channel. So, after a 
circuitous route in and out of all sorts of winding channels, 
you at length emerge once more in the open river, and there, 
sure enough, are the Duck well in the middle of the stream 
with no cover within two hundred yards on either side of 
them. While you are debating whether you will go straight 
at them, as if you didn't mean it, in the hopes of a long 
shot, you see another flock of larger birds, Wigeon or Pin- 
tail, close under the lee of the shore, not very far ahead. 
There is no time to be lost, for the sun 

" Now sinks behind yon ridge, 
And the usual evenin? midge 
Is settling on the bridge 

Of your nose." 

There are high rushes close to the waters' edge, for the 
tide is half way in. So you determine to land and stalk 
through the slush. You mark the point opposite which the 
Duck lie and land, dropping all the loose cartridges in your 
pocket ia the mud. As you do so, you tramp along some 
hundred and fifty yards in about as pitiable a condition as 
a fly in treacle, except that the mud doesn't taste or smell 
quite so sweet as the syrup, and suddenly you come to one 

2 



10 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

of those horrible ditches with mud up to your calves and 
water up to your waist. However, there is no good stopping. 
In for a penny, in for a pound, and you flounder through 
and scramble up the other side. Unfortunately, this bog- 
trotting- cannot be accomplished without noise. Each time 
you succeed in extricating a leg from the sticky mire, out 
it comes with a loud pop like a volley of soda water corks. 
So when you think you are all there, and cautiously raise 
your head over the rushes, you find the canny Duck have 
swum well out from shore, and that, instead of being within 
30 yards of them, they have put at least double that dis- 
tance between you and them. There is no time for further 
manoeuvring, so you blaze away merrily with both barrels, 
and if you are lucky, succeed in bringing down three birds, 
at least two of which are quite certain to escape. However, 
one Wigeon is better than nothing ; and, with a sense of 
partial success, you reseat yourself in your canoe, with your 
legs dangling placidly in the water, by which pi'ocess you 
expect, in good time, to relieve yourself of the superincum- 
bent weight of some twenty pounds of clogging mud, and 
give the word for "home," meaning that delightful yacht, with 
an awning of plaited palm leaves which keeps out the breeze 
and lets in the sun, and which is full of creeping things 
innumerable. 

On your way back to your mud-stranded home, you pause 
as you come across a clump of chipi trees in a mangrove 
swamp and hear a confused chattering. From all directions 
parties of Egrets, Herous, Crows, Cormorants, Ibis, Snake- 
birds and Mynas are arriving in quick succession to this 
common roost. Each new arrival provokes angry remon- 
strances from those already seated, and the trees begin to 
groan under the weight. As yon come closer, the noise is 
deafening. Still you can distinguish the different notes, 
and loud above all, the nagging "caw" of Corvus splendens. A 
solitary Pond Heron comes sneaking up unobtrusively like 
an amateur casual, and is immediately set upon by a combined 
force of frows and Cormorants. He makes a precipitate 
retreat and falls foul of some lasge White Egrets, who resent 
his intrusion as an impertinence. After running the gauntlet 
for several minutes, he at length gets a footing on a modest 
perch, on the lowest branch of a tree, and escaping further 
observation for a time, curls himself up as small as he can, 
and tries to go to sleep. 

Twilight is departing, and you steal up, though not unob- 
served, under the dark shadow of the trees. You single out 
a particularly fine White Egret. You fire, and he falls, and 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 11 

all the host rises simultaneously with frantic screams. You 
send the intelligent boatman to pick up the bird, with parti- 
cularly emphatic injunctions net to hold the creature by its 
wings, and not to draggle it in the mud. After floundering 
about the slush, and apparently having an exciting shikar 
on his account after a wounded bird, he returns with a miser- 
able specimen of H. garzetta, wildly clutching both wings 
together with one hand, and with the other grabbing it 
firmly by the neck. It is too dark to see anything more, and 
you paddle back to the boat disgusted, with a lively sense 
of the vanity of human wishes. The Wigeon are whistling 
around you, and you hear them rise close ahead, but you can- 
not see them, 

" For on the silent river 
The floating star beams quiver, 
And now, the saints deliver 

You from fleas." 

I have been too garrulous already, but the above is an 
unvarnished picture of the sport you may expect on a Ratnagiri 
tidal creek in the cold weather, and of the birds you may see, 
except that you can only get Wigeon in any number on the 
Vashishti. You might have varied your programme by landing 
and shooting a few brace of Snipe; and if you had gone 
up the steep scrubby slopes of the hills that overhang the 
creek amongst the Corinda bushes ( Carissas corinda), you would 
have flushed a few coveys of Perdicula asiatica, and if you 
had hit on the right place might have got a Peacock, especially 
if you had waited till he had gone to roost on the leafless 
bough of some ghostly silk cotton tree, and had stalked him 
through the thorny bushes and clinging undergrowth. You 
would have seen plenty of Bulbuls and Rock Robins, and 
several parties of Pyctoris sinensis, Malacocercus somervillii 
Drymceca inornata, large flocks of Merops viridis, numerous 
Honey-suckers and Ioras, and oue or two Magpies, Orioles 
and Woodpeckers. In the gloaming you would have seen at 
least two kinds of Goat-suckers, ( C. monticolus and asiaticus), 
and would have heard the weird sigh of Ketupa ceylonensis 
and the Huhii of Ascalaphia bengalensis ; and on a tall 
mango you might have found a nest of Limncetus cirrhatus. 
But I cannot mention any more possibilities without prema- 
turely giving a catalogue of more than half the birds found 
iu the district. 

Returning to the balloon, and once more looking all round, 
you would see that coursing would be almost as hopeless an 
amusement as pigsticking, that it would be dangerous to man 
and beast, and cruel to dogs, not to mention hares and foxes. 



12 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

So you will break up your stud of greyhounds as soon as 
ever you are in orders for the South Konkan. 

If your weather-eye is open you will also see that a good 
rifle would be rather an unnecessary embarrassment, on the 
summit of the Ghats, a day's journey from any camp in 
Ratnagiri or Savant Vadi ; there are of course a few localities 
where bears, sambhar, and an occasional bison may be seen j 
but the lowlands of the South Konkan hold no big game, 
and very little small. A few panthers rove about the country, 
and kill goats and dogs, and lie up by day in the thick temple 
groves, but they are hard to find, and the natives are unused 
to marking and tracking. Hysenas are found on the rocky 
slopes of the highest hills, and pig are plentiful in one or 
two localities on the hills, which overhang the creeks, where 
the jungle is still moderately thick, and in the hot weather 
habitually come down from the hills at low tide to wallow in 
the mangrove swamps. Four-horned antelope (Tetraceros 
quadricornis) range from coast to Ghats in suitable places, 
preferring open country and thin scrub to thick jungle, while 
barking deer (Cervulus mantjac or vaginalis) are found in the 
denser ravines and thickets at the base of the Ghats. Otters 
are plentiful on the coast and up the tidal creeks. Hares are 
scarce, and not worth the trouble of beating for. 

But though the larger mammalia are badly represented, 
reptiles of all kinds, from Grocodilus palustris to Calotes versi- 
color, are plentiful. Ratnagiri has the unenviable reputation 
of being the snakiest place in the Bombay presidency, not 
so much for the variety of species found there, as for the 
excessive abundance of that wicked little Viper (Echis 
carinata) . 

In 1862, within eight days, (December 2nd to 10th) 115,921 
nominally venomous snakes, at least 90 per cent, of which 
were Echis carinata, were destroyed at a reward of two 
auuas a snake, and during the rainy months they are still more 
plentiful, or, to speak more correctly, more often seen. In 
October last, within ten days, upwards of a thousand of these 
little pests were brought to me, all alive and kicking, packed 
in earthen chatties, with loose cocoanut shells for stoppers. 
But as these are the pages of Stray Feathers and not Stray 
Scales,'" (au ophiological journal of the future), I will not 
trouble my readers further on the subject of snakes, but 
will refer them, if they care for further particulars of Echis 
carinata, to the Asian of the 28th October 1879. Luckily the 
" Phiirsas" keep pretty close to their own homes under the large 
boulders on the rocky hills, and do not often enter human 
habitations. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 13 

As you sail along you will see very little pasture, save 
coarse rank grass, and will note the absence of sheep, and 
the leanness of the stunted kine. Goats alone of the domestic 
animals contrive to pick up a decent subsistence, browsing 
contentedly on the few forlorn leaves that sprout through 
the crevices of the rocks. The few sheep that are brought 
down from the Ghats to the large towns rapidly deteriorate. 
Horses lose bloom and condition, and buffaloes give less and 
thinner milk. So when you visit the South Konkan you 
must make up your mind to be satisfied with a diet of 
fish and fowl, prawns, crabs, and oysters, and Alphonse 
mangoes during the season. Beef you will never get, and 
if wise you will avoid goat mutton. 

Coast Line. — You will see as you proceed that the coast line 
is everywhere rocky and dangerous, more particularly so be- 
tween Malvan and Vengurla. Bold bluff headlands of black rock, 
bare and gaunt, jut into the sea in close, but irregular, succession. 
Behind these promontories, and scarcely discernible from the 
track of coasting craft, lie numerous snug bays and coves edged 
with white sand. In the more exposed portions of the bays 
the sand is blown into low hills or dunes, covered with sea 
pinks (Spinifex squarrosus), and sand convolvulus (C. pes-capra) 
with here and there a madder bush and a rough fence to land- 
wards of screw pines (Pandanus odoratissimus) , and other 
shrubs that flourish in a sandy soil. In places cocoanuts are 
grown in these drifts, but the attempt is not usually successful. 
The dunes shift so continually with the action of the coast 
currents and northerly breezes, that they ill repay the expendi- 
ture of capital. Years hence they will probably be covered with 
forests of Casuarina trees. 

In places where the hills recede, rich levels of alluvial silt, 
brought down by the rivers, are found, wherein are made good 
rice fields and productive cocoanut gardens. Every ten 
miles or so is a river or a backwater, large enough to form a 
safe port for a small native craft during the north-west breezes. 
There are, however, but few harbours open during the south- 
west monsoon. The water near shore has a good average depth, 
but the mouths of all the larger rivers, with the notable excep- 
tion of Vijaydurg, are blocked by formidable bars, which, 
at all times difficult to navigate, are during the rainy seasons 
impassable. The estuaries of the principal rivers are flanked 
by numerous sandbanks, where they meet the ocean's wave, 
and further inland, with large stretches of mud flats and 
salt marshes. The tidal gullets and backwaters are fringed 
with mangrove swamps of varying extent, thickly covered 
with Bruguiera thecdi and other Khizophoracece, and peopled 



14 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

with Herons, Egrets, Rails, Kingfishers, and Mud Fish. A larger 
area of land has, in these localities, been reclaimed by earth 
and masonry embankments, and converted into valuable rice 
fields and excellent Snipe grounds, although, owing to the soil 
being always impregnated with salt in these Kharoat lands, 
the coarser kinds of rice can alone be produced. 

The coast villages, which are situated either on beds of littoral 
concrete in all the sheltered nooks and bays, or in more marshy 
soil at the estuaries of the creeks, are very picturesque, if 
we except the clusters of filthy overcrowded fishermen's huts, 
which are crammed together at each available landing place, 
with all the intermediate spaces blocked up by confused heaps 
of boats, spars, fishing tackle and putrid fish. The houses are 
built in one or two long lines following the contour of the 
beach. The better sort are tiled and made of substantial late- 
rite, while the poorer are content with thatched roofs and walls 
of deep red mud. But rich or poor, each house stands in its 
own little plot of garden, densely shaded by cocoa and betel 
palms, and the white flowered Alexandriau laurel ( Calophyllum 
inophyllum) which grows so luxuriantly on the coast, and is 
so valuable for its oil, and the timber it yields for boat build- 
ing. Such villages, although the air is steamy and close under 
the dense shade, are a pleasing contrast to the dreary, treeless 
villages of the Deccau, with their coloui'less mud huts, and the 
hideous spectral walls which enclose them. 

Besides the above trees, there are found in more or less pro- 
fusion in all the maritime villages, mangoes, tamarinds, jacks, 
bhendis (T/iespesia popuhiea), banyans, pipals, silk-cotton 
trees (Bombax malabaricum) , coral trees {Erythrina indica), 
wild mangostins (Garcinia purpurea), cashews [Anacardium 
occidentale) , and more rarely jujube trees [Zizyplius jujuba), 
and feathery horse radish trees {Moringa pterygosperma) ; wild 
date trees {Phoenix sylvestris), and the Palmyra palm 
(Borassus flabelliformis) are almost unknown throughout the 
tract, but the raimad (Caryota urens) is common in places. 
The cashewnut again is more abundant and more highly 
cultivated in the south of the tract than in the north ; about 
Malvan and Vengorla it is indeed the commonest tree you see, 
being reared in extensive orchards. These well-wooded coast 
villages attract naturally a considerable variety of arboreal birds. 
Minivets (P. perigrinus), Drongo Shrikes {B. atra and longi- 
caudata), Babblers (M. somervillei), Bulbuls (0. fuscicaudata 
and M. hcemorrhous), Orioles (0. melanocephalus) , Magpie, 
Robins, Pipits (^4. trivialis), Mynas [A. fuscus), Weaver 
Birds, Amandavads (A. striata), Coucals, Koels and Paroquets 
perhaps the commonest species met with, not counting Crows, 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF TIIE SOUTH KONKAN. 15 

Kites and Shikras. Outside these shady villages the coast lino 
is bare and rugged, and the trees are few and far between, 
though here and there, where a sprinkling of crumbling red 
earth contrasts with the weather-beaten rocks, you see patches 
of stunted brushwood. 

The headlands which guard the approaches to the larger rivers 
are uniformly crowned, as indeed are all the larger hills and 
coigns of vantage inland, with the ruins of old Maratha forts. 
There are as many of these grand old strongholds, as there are 
days in the year. The majority were either built, restored, or 
added to by the great Sivaji Bhonsle, two hundred odd years ago. 
Many have interesting histories attached to them, and some, such 
as Suvamdurg (the golden fort) and Vijaydurg, are closely 
associated with British deeds of prowess in old times when the 
coast was overrun by the piratical Grabs and Gallivats of the 
Angrias and the Savants of Vadi. Two of these forts, Suvamdurg 
off Harnai, and Sindhudurg off Malvan, are built on rocky 
islands separated from the mainland by narrow channels. 

Between Malvau and Vengorla are a number of rocks and reefs 
of all sizes, called the Burnt Islands, the uheos queimados of 
the Portuguese, one of which, lying some six miles from the 
nearest mainland, is celebrated as a breeding haunt of Collocalia 
unieolor. Swallows, Swifts, and Crag Martins (H. erythropygia, 
C. affinis, and P. coneolor) are abundant about all the rocky 
headlands at the base of the cliffs, and travelling up the more 
open portions of the coast, you see, in addition to the usual 
shore birds, Gulls and Terns, behind almost every other boulder 
a Thamnobia fulicata and an occasional Blue Rock Thrush, 
while every now and then a grand old Sea Eagle (Haliaetus 
leucogaster) beats up the shore, and with a mighty rush 
plunges on an unsuspecting Hydrophis. Brahminy Kites, too, 
are common about all the coast villages, and are skilful crab- 
catchers and occasionally, but not often, you may see a Peri- 
grine. 

Inland Tracts. — Above the beach, at the summit of the cliffs, 
you will see an irregular, but withal well-defined belt, of later- 
ite, running parallel to the coast, and stretching inland for 
from fifteen to twenty or more miles. This part of the country 
is a series of raised peaks and plateaus, capped with sheets and 
boulders of the black slag-like Konkan laterite, and cut through 
by innumerable streams and watercourses. The dismal barren- 
ness of the uplands is, in great part, redeemed by the well-wooded 
fertile valleys which divide the table lands. Some of these 
ravines are mere rocky beds of mountain torrents, dry, save in 
the monsoon ; but through the larger valleys wind the tidal 
rivers, leaving on their banks rich beds of alluvial silt for rice 



16 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

fields and cocoanut gardens. So abruptly does their course 
change from point to point that they appear like land-locked 
lakes, until the passing of a hill reveals the channel at right 
angles to its former course. 

The laterite resting uncomformably on the trap, covers a 
very large area of the South Konkan, and is in places of great 
thickness. It extends in one continuous sheet from Bankot to 
Malvan, the trap being exposed in the coast section, only in the 
deepest cuttings and at the base of the cliffs. From Mai van south- 
wards and in Savant Vadi the laterite still crops up, but in irre- 
gular outliers ; near the coast metamorphic rocks, granites and 
quartzites, not found north, are freely exposed in Malvan, Vengorla 
and Savant Vadi, relieving with their greyer tints the obtrusive 
reds and blacks of the laterite. But the latter is everywhere the 
prevailing rock, which gives a tone to the whole country. Whether 
the Konkan laterite is, as some assert, the product of decomposed 
trappean rock, or whether, as others argue, on apparently better 
evidence it is of purely sedimentary origin, is still a vexed ques- 
tion which the geologists must settle. It varies, however, much 
in its character, being harder and more compact to the north, 
and softer and more mixed with shales, clay, and conglomerate 
in the south. The best that can be said of it is, that although 
it doesn't always cut quite like new cheese, it is, as a rule, easily 
quarried and cut into large slabs ; and that though not always 
quite watertight, it is a cheap third-rate building stone, well 
suited to the needs of the population. But if the pillars of your 
verandah be made of laterite, be sure, unless you wish the first 
heavy shower of rain to stain everything within reach with a 
fast red brown colour, to have them coated with chunam. 

These laterite plateaus, which in some places are level, in others 
undulating, have a general elevation of from 200 to 300 feet, and 
a gentle but perceptible rise to the east. They are dreary, black, 
weather-stained wastes, monotonous to a degree, and indescri- 
bably depressing to your spirits until you catch beyond them 
lovely peeps of wooded valleys and winding rivers in the 
ravines below. Throughout the greater part of the year there 
is no vegetation to be seen on the table lands but cactus bushes 
and a few stunted trees ; but during the rains, as if by a 
miracle, all the crevices between the rocks are filled with a 
wealth of maiden hair and parsley fern, while caladiums, arums, 
lilies, ( Gloriosa superba) and other plants and creepers 
springing up in all directions, convert these wilds into a 
botanists' paradise. The " flame of the forest" bursts into 
flower on all the slopes, while the purple larkspur and wild 
balsams cover the level uplands. Grass, coarse and rank, but 
refreshing in its greenness, sprouts everywhere. In all the 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKA.N. 17 

small basins or depressions which occur here and there on the 
tops of the laterite hills, you see diminutive rice crops, and 
wherever the crumbling of the laterite gives a few inches of 
stiff ferruginous soil, a few stalks of Nachni {Eleusine coracana), 
Vari (Panicum rniliare), Harik (Paspalum scrobiculatum), and 
the golden-blossomed Til (Guizotia oleifera)m&y be seen. To rear 
these slender crops a vast amount of labour is expended. Soil is 
frequently brought from a distance to fill into the cavities of 
the rocks. All the dry brushwood and grass available is col- 
lected and burnt on the surface of the fields. Cow dung, goat's 
dung, decayed fish, and any other manure procurable is added to 
the ashes. Then, after repeated ploughings and harrowings and 
brushings, the seeds are sown in a carefully prepared nursery, 
and the seedlings afterwards transplanted with incredible 
labour. On the steeper slopes, where ploughs are out of the 
question, and where men can scarcely crawl, the pick is used 
instead, and the seed sown broadcast, after the usual burning 
of grass and brushwood. 

Of course the same change, though to a lesser degree per- 
haps, is observed everywhere after the monsoon has set in. In 
the towns and villages the old laterite walls become covered 
with thick masses of ferns — the baked rice fields in the 
valleys are transformed into cool green terraces — the decidu- 
ous trees, leafless and withered during the hot weather, are 
again clothed with fresh verdure, while rills and cascades 
innumerable splutter down every hill side. 

The species of birds which abound most on the laterite table- 
lands near the coast are Spizalauda malabarica and Pyrrlm- 
lauda grisea. Doves (Turtur suratensis), Shrikes {L. erytliro- 
notus), Buschats (Pratincola caprata and indica) are also com- 
mon, and of course Buchanga atra is everywhere. Courier, 
Plovers, Yellow Wattled Lapwings are found occasionally, aud 
Stone Plovers rarely, while flocks of Golden Plover habitually 
resort to these stony uplands at high tide during the cold 
weather. 

Between the seaboard, where the laterite crops so plenti- 
fully to the surface, and the pure trap range of the Ghats, 
lies an intermediate belt where both trap and laterite are 
irregularly exposed. This portion of the country is less rocky 
than near the coast, and more undulating, while the hills 
are higher and less bare. The uplands are more generally 
cultivated, and the valleys are, on the other hand, less fertile ; 
as near the coast, the village homesteads, lying in the glades 
and hollows, are well wooded with mango, tamarind and jack 
trees. But the general aspect of the country is, during the 
dry season, hardly less rugged and sterile than the seaboard. 



18 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

The evergreen trees of the coast, coeoanuts, betelnuts and 
Alexandrian laurels are, to a great extent, replaced by deciduous 
trees, such as the "Ain" (Terminalia glabra), the (i Kinjal/' 
(Terminalia paniculata), and in a few localities by puny teak 
(Tectona grandis). The burning of the grass and brushwood 
for ash mauure on all the uplands and hill sides gives the 
whole couutry side a blackened and withered appearance, 
intensified by the leafless pollarded trees, which everywhere 
meet your eye. But even here there are dotted about plea- 
sant groves marking the shrines of some rustic deity, where, 
from ages past, no branch or stick has been suffered to be cut. 
These sacred groves are seldom of large extent, but often 
present a mass of luxuriant vegetation. Overhead are lofty 
trees, such as the Satvin (Alsto?iia scholaris) and the Bel 
(Marmelos cegle), overgrown with creepers, ferns, and orchids, 
Avhile numerous parasites, trailing in long, graceful festoons, 
join tree to tree with endless links. Below is a mass of tangled 
bush and scrub, dense thickets, penetrable only by one of 
two narrow paths which lead from either end to the rude 
temple which lies thus hidden in the inner depths of the 
grove. 

Grand places are these groves for Woodpeckers of all 
sorts, Barbets, Ioras, Tits (M. aplonotus and Z. palpebrosa), 
Thrushes and Blackbirds (G. cyanotis and M. nigropilea), 
Blue Redbreasts, (Cyornis tickelli,) Green Pigeon, and 
many another birds. Wherever you see on hill side or 
valley a particularly thick patch of jungle, you may be 
sure it is a devrdn or temple grove. Fortunately, they 
are pretty common, especially in the inland tracts. With 
the exception of about 2,000 acres of teak plantations near 
Dapuli, and a few small reserves in the Malvan sub-division, 
there are no forests worth the name throughout the Ratnagiri 
district, though a considerable area of sheet rock, and almost 
perpendicular trap scarp has, with a pleasant irony, been 
declared by the Government to be forest reserve. In Savant 
Vadi, however, as before explained, the jungles have been 
very strictly preserved -, and, although there is little timber of 
any value in them, the well-wooded hills and dales shew a 
refreshing contrast to the generally denuded condition of 
Ratnagiri. 

On the tops of some of the highest hills between Ghats 
and sea, there are, here and there, patches of evergreen jun- 
gle, where birds and plants, usually associated with the higher 
ranges of the Ghats, are found ; but the earth-hunger, which 
over population causes, leaves but a small part of these 
hills to nature. On the steepest slopes up to the very scarp 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 19 

the jungle is cleared and burnt by the hungry peasant. Their 
inaccessibility to man alone has hitherto preserved what trees 
and bushes still protect the head waters and gathering grounds 
of the South Konkan rivers. Tons and tons of soil are 
thus annually washed down the hill sides into the river beds, 
and so the tidal creeks, the chief highways of the district, 
silt up, and merchants grumble, as old-established wharfs 
and quays become, year by year, accessible only to boats of 
smaller and still smaller draught. In old days, when the 
South Konkan was undoubtedly a forest tract, large country 
crafts could work up with the tide, and load with ease, at 
many places, where now nothing but a flat-bottomed tub or 
a small canoe can approach. This is, as I hear, a native friend 
remark, u one of the baneful effects of civilisation." It is 
a drawback certainly, and only to be repaired by keeping 
steadily in view for many long years what a high official 
used to call mysteriously " the higher objects of the Forest 
Department." But on the other hand it must be acknow- 
ledged that, though much material wealth has been buried 
in the process, a howling wilderness has been transformed 
into a peaceful and fairly prosperous tract. 

Ghat Range. — From all parts of the tract the scarp line of 
the Western Ghats bounds the eastern horizon, forming a con- 
spicuous inland cliff, varying from two to three thousand feet in 
height. The belt of lowland at the foot of the Ghats, broken up by 
the countless spurs and knolls, thrown out westwards from the 
main range, and intersected at every point by precipitous 
ravines and rocky river beds, is a rough bit of country to 
get over. The grand old hills rise almost sheer in places 
from base to crest like a giant wall, majestic and impreg- 
nable, in an endless vista of peaks, bluffs and headlands. 
The hills which form the main range are easily distinguish- 
able from any of the spurs that roughen the surface of the 
country from the western face to the sea. The forest on the 
lower slopes and at the foot of the range is seldom thick, 
except in the more sheltered gorges, or where small patches 
have been preserved round rude hill temples. On the higher 
slopes immediately below the massive scarps, where a goat 
can scarcely climb, and even the hardy hill peasant fears 
to tread, there are patches of evergreen jungle, where you 
may hear the cocks crowing, the loud call of the Green Barbet, 
the whistle of the u lazy school boy" (Myioplioneus hors- 
fieldi), the song of the Shama, and the clear ringing notes 
of the Scimitar Babbler. But it is not till you reach the 
summit of the range, and cross the watershed into the high- 
lands or Konkan Ghat Mahta that you see thick and con- 



20 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN, 

tinnous belts of evergreen forests, and feel yourself fairly 
amongst the mountain fauna. 

A large area of the western slopes, inaccessible as they seem, 
is annually under cultivation, and burnt hill sides and withered 
saplings reveals, but too clearly, the ruthless work of axe and fire. 
But above all this amongst forests of Anjan (Memecylon edule), 
Jambuls {Eugenia jambolana and salicifolia) , Jasund (Antiaris 
saccidord), Gela [Randia dume torum) , Hirda (Terminalia chebula), 
"Wild Jack (Artocarpus hirsuta) and other evergreens, you are 
alone with nature, in a very pleasant kind of way. And when 
you gaze from some giddy precipice on the steamy littoral below 
you, with its endless confusion of bare brown hills, stretching 
mistily to the west, its fire blackened fields, and its rivers like 
tangled threads ; and when a glowing sunset reveals the far 
ocean as a faint streak in the dim horizon, and bathes the 
hills in liquid violet, you admire the grandeur of the scene, 
but devoutly hope, especially if the hot weather has set in, that 
you may never never return to that abyss of moistened heat 
below. 

The change from the languor of the Konkan to the bracing 
air of the Western Ghats is, in fact, " too awfully jolly." The 
scenery of the Ghat range, as you climb the crests of any of 
the passes, is glorious, and with trailing mosses and orchids 
overhead, and Braehen and silver fern under your feet, you feel, 
if you are not a discontented misanthrope, with a liver, or a 
grievance, an ecstacy of exhilaration. 

On the other hand I must confess that as regards birds I 
have always been more or less disappointed in my rambles in 
the higher Ghat ranges. I could name at least a dozen species 
which I know to occur in the Western Ghats, but of which, time 
after time, I have failed to get the slightest glimpse. Perhaps 
one expects too much both in variety and abundance of species, 
but it is disappointing when you are particularly anxious to 
get a Harpactes fasciatus, a Dendrophila frontalis, a XantJw- 
Itema rnalabarica, a Uemicercus canente, or an Irena puella, to 
see nothing but a few parties of Pectoris sinensis and Alcippe 
poiocephala, and many Pratincola caprata and other common 
species which you need not have climbed so high to get. 

The changes, in both animal and vegetable forms is, in fact, 
not nearly so great as you approach the higher elevations of the 
Ghats from the west or Konkan side, as from the east or Deccan 
side. There are very few species characteristic of the Ghat 
region which are not found on the western slopes, as well as on 
the crest of the range ; and many of these birds, as the locali- 
ties entered in my list will shew, descend the Ghats and appear 
in wooded tracts near the sea. On the other hand very few, 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 21 

if any, of the hill species ever descend eastwards to the dry 
Deccan plains. The western Green Barbets, the Spotted 
Dove, the Rose-headed Paroquet, the Jungle Myna, and the 
Red-whiskered Bulbuls, which are seldom if ever seen at any 
distance to the east of the main range, are yet more or less 
common throughout the sub-ghat littoral, from the sea to the 
Ghats. Numbers of similar instances might be quoted. The 
comparatively heavy rainfall of the Konkan, as compared 
with the Deccan, is obviously the true explanation of this 
difference in forms. As Mr. Hume pointed out in his 
article in Stray Feathers (Vol. VII., p. 502) " the average rain- 
fall is the most potential factor in determining the distribution 
of species where birds are concerned." The whole of the 
Konkan, from the coast to the summit of the Sahyadri Range, 
falls within the moist zones of 70 inches and upwards rainfall. 
The eastern slopes and spurs of the great Ghat range, before 
reaching which the rain clouds have spent their fiercest force, 
belong to the intermediate zones, wherein the rainfall ranges 
from 50 to 70 inches. The dry zone, of between 15 and 30 
inches rainfall, is reached a few miles east of the main range, 
where the spurs subside into the Deccan plains. 

The Ghats are crossed at intervals by steep mountain passes, 
the least precipitous of which are passable by pack bullocks. 
During the last twenty years much has been done in improv- 
ing the communication of the district. At three of these passes 
in the Ratnagiri and Savant Vadi districts good cart roads 
have been made. The Kambharli Ghat road brings the old 
port of Chiplun on the Vashishti river in direct communica- 
tion with Karad and the cotton districts between Sattara and 
Kolapur. The Phonda Ghat road places Kolapur and Nipani 
in communication with the Ratnagiri ports of Rajapur, 
Vijaydurg, Devgad and Malvan, while the Ambola Ghat road 
provides an easy outlet from Belgaum to the coast at 
Vengorla. During the fair season there is an active traffic 
along all these roads. Cotton, food grains, molasses, ghi, gall 
nuts, oil nuts, turmeric, chillies, tobacco, and other produce of the 
Deccan passes over the Ghats, to be shipped at the nearest Ratna- 
giri ports for Bombay and the Malabar Coast, while by the reverse 
route piece goods and metals are carried from Bombay to the 
Deccan districts. Ordinarily no food grains are sent eastwards, 
but during the famine of 1876-77 about 90,000 tons of grain 
were poured into the affected tracts of the Deccan. A fourth 
cart road passing over the Amba Ghat direct from Kolapur 
to Ratnagiri is now under construction, and the new road from 
Mahableshwar to Mhar, at the head of the Savitri river, con- 
nects the Northern Ratnagiri districts with Sattara. 



22 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

All the principal towns in Ratnagiri are situated either on 
the coast or at the heads of the tidal creeks. Chiplun, Raja- 
pur and Vengorla are, however, the only towns having any- 
considerable trade. 

To return to the configuration of the country once more, and 
for the last tim3, you will no doubt wonder, as you see the 
ocean on one side and the great Sahyadri flange running 
parallel to it, as a huge inland cliff, whether the sea has 
receded from the Ghats, or whether the denudation of the 
Konkan has been accomplished by rain and rivers alone. 
Geologists, as far as I can learn, are still in doubt on the point, 
and the true history of this little portion of the earth's crust 
still remains to be written. As the subject is important I 
cannot do better than quote Mr. Blanford. He says*: — " It is 
impossible to see this cliff (the Sahyadri Range) without specu- 
lating on the possibility of its origin being due to marine 
action. A depression of about 1,000 to 1,500 feet would leave 
the crest of the Sahyadri everywhere, at least 500 feet 
above the sea, with a few spurs jutting out of capes, 
and such plateaux as Matheran remaining as islands ; all 
the lower hills would be covered. It is true that in India 
at the present day sea cliffs are rare and exceptional, but 
this fact is due to the circumstance that the large quantity 
of detritus, brought from the interior by rivers, tends to protect 
the coast. As the drainage from the crest of the Ghats is 
eastwards, no rivers, and only very small streams, would have 
run into the sea from the Sahyadri, and cliffs would neces- 
sarily have been formed. Of course any marine denudation of 
the Konkan must have taken place at a sufficiently distant 
date for the surface of the country and the form of the cliffs 
to have been greatly modified by subaerial denudation, after 
the period of elevation above the sea. 

ic There are two difficulties to be accounted for in supposing 
that the Sahyadri scarp is an ancient line of sea cliffs. One 
is the circumstance that if the Konkan was beneath the sea, 
whilst the cliffs were being cut, marine deposits must have 
formed to a considerable extent; none of these deposits have, 
however, hitherto been detected. The other difficulty is the 
irregularity of level at the base of the scarp. As the surface 
of the sea is uniform in height, it always cuts back a line 
of cliffs from a horizontal coast line. Further research is 
necessary before it can be stated either that marine deposits 
are wanting in the Konkan, or that no trace of an original 
shore line can be detected ; and it is certain that both marine 

* Articles on the Geology of portions of the Bombay Presidency, written for the 
Bombay Gazetteer, 1878. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 23 

deposits and the line of coast would tend to be rapidly obli- 
terated in a country where the rainfall is so heavy as it is 
along the western face of the Sahyadri range. Such a scarp, 
as that of the Sahyadri, might probably be formed by fresh 
water denudation alone, for somewhat similar cliffs may be 
traced north of the Nerbudda, along the edge of the Malvau 
plateau, and there is no reason to suppose that marine denu- 
dation has aided in their formation. The chief peculiarity, 
indeed, in favour of a marine origin in the case of the Sahya- 
dri scarp is its approximate parallelism throughout so great 
a distance with the present coast line. 

" There is, however, one curious circumstance which tends 
strongly to suggest that the cliffs of the Konkan are of marine 
origin. Upon all the precipices of the Sahyadri, and on the 
steep sides of Matheran, and probably on other plateaux, a 
kind of mollusc is found so closely resembling in shell, 
animal, and habits one of the Littorince, or periwinkles of the 
Indian coast, that it is difficult to believe that the two forms 
have not the same origin. The Sahyadri shell (CremnoeoncJius 
sdhgddrensis) differs, in fact, from such forms as Littorina 
malaccana, chiefly in having a greenish epidermis like other 
fresh-water mollusca. The Littorina lives on the face of the 
rocks above high water mark, where the spray of the sea only 
reaches it occasionally, and it frequently remains dry and 
torpid for weeks, perhaps for months at a time. Cremno- 
eoncJius similarly remains attached to the dry rock for more 
than half the year, and is only recalled to active life in the 
rainy season, when water trickles down the cliffs. It is 
far from improbable that the Cremnoconehus is the altered 
descendant of a Littorina which inhabited the cliffs of the 
Western Ghats when they were washed by the sea. Besides 
Crpmnoconcfats, two other species of the same genus exist, all 
like the type, confined, so far as 'is known, to the cliffs of the 
Sahyadri range and its immediate neighbourhood. 

"Whichever view be adopted, whether the denudation of the 
Konkan be ascribed to rain and streams, or to the action of the 
sea, supplemented by subaerial (fresh water) agencies, it 
is clear that all this low ground has been carved out 
from the original Deccan plateau, which must, originally, 
have extended westward to the neighbourhood of the present 
coast. A thickness of at least 4,000 feet of rock, and pro- 
bably considerably more, has been removed by one agency 
or another from the surface of the Konkan Valleys/' 

Mr. Blanford, it will be seen, does not commit himself to 
either view. It may not be uninteresting to note hero the 
popular Hindu tradition as to the origin of the Konkan. 



24 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

Vishnu, in his incarnation of Parasram, had, with boundless 
generosity, given away, little by little, all the land in the 
Deccan to pious Brahmans, till he had no spot whereon to 
rest his head. He then went to the edge of the Sahyadri cliff, 
which was then washed by the sea, and called On Varuna, the 
god of the ocean, to yield him up a space of dry land. 
Varuna, who had a grudge against Parasram, refused ; and 
the latter determined to use his miraculous power, and compel 
the ocean to recede, so he took his bow and arrow and shot 
a shaft into the sea, with the command that the waves should 
retire to the spot where the arrow fell. Originally he intended 
that the arrow should travel for 40 koss, or about 100 miles, 
but this intention was partially frustrated by the craftiness 
of Varuna. Shortly before this episode, the ocean deity had 
taken compassion on a carpenter bee which had fallen into the 
sea, and had carefully restored it to dry land. On divining 
Parasram's intention Varuna at once bethought him of the 
bee, and pressed it the night before the day fixed for the 
miracle, to bore a hole through the string of Parasram's bow. 
The grateful bee accepted the office with alacrity, and performed 
his task so well, that when the eventful moment came, the string 
snapped, and the shaft, instead of flying 100 miles, fell within 
about 50 miles of the cliffs. To this point, and no further 
the waves receded, and Parasram took up his abode in the 
narrow strip thus reclaimed, and called after him in Hindu 
books Parasram Kheter. His head-quarters were at the village 
of Pedhe or Parasram on a high hill overhanging the Vashishti 
river, nearly opposite the town of Chiplun. This place is also 
celebrated as the birthplace of the powerful sect of Chitpavan 
or Konkani Brahmans. 

No detailed account of the numerous hills is necessary for 
the purpose of this paper. Here and there, detached from the 
main Ghat range, are hills almost rivalling in height the 
Sahyadri scarp, but they are few and far between. Close to 
Khed, at the north-east angle of the district, are three isolated 
hills of considerable height, rising in a line parallel to the 
Sahyadri chain, and separated from it by a narrow valley. 
These are the hill forts of Mahipatgad, Somargad, and Rasal- 
gad. All are strongly fortified, and the first faces Makarandgad, 
the well-known saddleback of visitors to Mahableshwar. 
Mandangad, to the north of Dapuli, fourteen miles from the 
sea, though of lower elevation, is a conspicuous land mark 
for many miles round, and its higher slopes are fairly covered 
with jungle. The only other hill worth mentioning is Machal, 
lying close to, but detached from, the Ghats by a narrow gorge, 
east of Ratnagiri. Unlike most of the Konkan hills, which are 



FIRST LfST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 25 



capped by narrow ridges, Machal is crowned by a broad 
open plateau, some 2,500 feet above the sea. 

The following table shews approximately the elevations of 
some of the localities where collections have been made : — 
Approximate Elevations. 
6 miles from coast. 

■»" »! >» J» 

Coast. 

Ghat range. 

Do. a mile or two east of watershed. 

Khind at top of Phonda Pass. 

Top of ghat. 

Top of Amba ghat. 

17 miles from coast. 

Rainfall. — I subjoin a table showing the average rainfall for 
the last ten years at each of the registering stations in the dis- 
trict. As a general rule it will be seen that the rainfall, all 
other conditions equal, is heavier or lighter according as the 
station is further from or nearer to the Ghats. The exceptions 
are Savant Vadi and Mandangad. The proportionately higher 
rainfall of the former, is, I believe, sufficiently accounted for by 
the heavy jungles which surround it ; while Mandangad, although 
nearer the coast, has a much greater elevation than any of the 
other inland stations from which observations have been recorded. 
Average Rainfall. — 



Dapuli ... 


800 


Mandangad 


1,300 


Ratnagiri Fort ... 


300 


Bavda 


2,200 


Manbet 


1,800 


Dajipur 


1,600 


Phonda 


2,000 


Murshi 


2,200 


Savant Vadi ... 


355 



Coast Stations—' 

Gahagar ..< 

Ratnagiri ... 

Devgad ... 

Malvan 

Vengorla ... 

Inland Stations — 

Mandangad 

Dapuli ... 

Khed 

Chiplun 

Sangameshvar ... 

Lanje 

Rajapur ... 

Savant Vadi ... 



76 inches. 
101 „ 
113 „ 

74 „ 

91 ■ „ . 

133 inches, 15 miles from coast. 



112 
130 
126 
127 

127 
113 
147 



6 
18 
24 
20 
20 
15 
17 



The humidity of the Ratnagiri station is relatively great. 
According to the formula used by "the Meterological Reporter, 
the average means at 10 hours in 1878 was 64=75 per cent., 
and at 16 hours or 4 p.m. 69*66 per cent. 

Thermometer readings at Ratnagiri from 1871 to 1878 
shew the mean annual temperature to be 81°55', and the range 
between the greatest and least monthly means 9°12'. The 
mean annual temperature of Dapuli from 1871 to 1877 has 
been recorded 76°2T, or rather mo-re than 5 degrees lower 



26 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

than Ratnagiri. The temperature at Vengoria in the south is 
very slightly in excess of that of Ratnagiri. 

,On the sea coast, and for some miles inland, as far as the 
see breeze penetrates, the climate is very equable though ener- 
vating and relaxing, extremes of heat and cold being never felt, 
further inland, and at the foot of the Ghats, both days and nights 
during March, April, and May are oppressively hot. The sea 
breeze passes high over head, and the heat is further intensified by 
the refraction of the great trap scarp of the Sahyadri Range. 

Distribution. — The total number of specimens as yet collected 
is too small, I am afraid, to warrant any definite conclusions as 
to tlje distribution of the various species within the limits of 
the small tract under notice. I have, however, entered in the 
list the exact localities at which the various species have been 
either shot and preserved, or found breeding. The entry of 
these localities does not necessarily denote that the species is 
restricted to these specified places. I have endeavoured, as 
far as I can, in my remarks regarding each species, to give all 
the information I possess as regards its distribution. But in 
the case of the rarer species, this information is necessarily 
meagre and inconclusive. In order to show the distribution 
as clearly as is possible I have divided the tract into 
three longitudinal belts. In the first I include all the places 
on the sea coast or its immediate neighbourhood where speci- 
mens have been collected. The second division I call the 
central inland belt extending from a line drawn parallel to, 
and about eight miles distant from, the coast to the foot of 
the Western Ghats. The last belt includes air the area from 
the summit to the base of the Ghats. For convenience of 
reference I append a key to all the localities mentioned in the 
paper, arranged in order from north to south, according to 
these three divisions. By the aid of this key and the accom- 
panying map the position of any locality mentioned can be 
at once fixed. The characteristic features of each belt are 
also briefly summarised. In the list of the species all the 
coast localities are printed on the left hand side of the page, 
those of the inland central belt in the middle, and the places 
in the Ghat range on the right, so that it can be seen at a 
glance in which parts of the tract from east to west any 
species has been obtained. 

After some consideration I thought this would be the best 
plan, since narrow as the tract is in comparison with its length, 
its physical features vary more from west to east than from 
north to south. This arrangement will show, though imper- 
fectly, the wrtical range of the species according to elevation, 
from the sea level up to about 2 2 500 feet. There are, for 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 27 

instance, many forest-loving species, which are not as a rale 
found outside the Ghat region. They keep to the evergreen 
jungles on the slopes and spurs of the mountains, rarely cross- 
ing the belt of low and comparatively bare plain country 
which intervenes between the foot of the range and the Ghats. 
Where such species are found near the coast their presence is 
usually to be accounted for by continuous belts of jungles stretch- 
ing from the spurs of the Ghats westwards to the sea. To the 
north of Ratnagiri no such jungles are found, and consequently 
the species most characteristic of the hill region are there rarely 
found near the coast. In the south, throughout the well-wooded 
Savant Vadi State, such links occur, and many of the hill 
species there find their way to the coast at Malvan or Ven- 
gorla. The most prominent instances of this are, Myiopho- 
neus horsfieldi, Pitta brachyura, Petrophila cinclorhj/nchus, Alcippe 
poiocephala, Pomatorldnus horsfieldi. All these species have 
been found on the coast either at Malvan or Vengorla, but 
have not been found west of the Ghat range in the country 
north of Ratnagiri. Other Ghat species, such as Pericrocotus 
Jlammeus, Hypsipetes ganeesa, and Criniger ictericus, although 
not found anywhere on the coast, descend the Western Ghats 
to Savant Vadi, to a point intermediate between the sea and 
the foot of the range. 

To make the distribution perfectly clear, however, it would 
be necessary to divide the district into two or more lateral 
zones from north to south ; but my collections from the south 
have not been sufficiently exhaustive to make such a division 
so useful as it otherwise might be. 

It is, however, worthy of note that of the 284 species 
entered in the list, the following 18 species have as yet only been 
obtained at the extreme south of the tract, in the Savant Vadi 
forests or the neighbouring districts of Malvan and Vengorla. 



39. Spilornis cheela. 

81. Ninox lugubris. 

98. Cypsellus melba. 

103. Collocalia unicolor. 

118. Merops philippinus. 

1 30. Haley oil pileata. 

202. Cuculus sonnerati. 

208. Cacomantis passerinus. 

213. Coccystes coromandus. 



216. Rhopodytes viridirostris. 

239. Bicceum concolor. 

253. Dendrophila frontalis. 

269. Volvocivora melaschista, 

281. BucJianga ceerulescens. 

285. Dissemurus paradiseus. 

286. Chibia hottentotta, 

287. Artamus fuscus. 
469. Irena puella. 



Several of these no doubt occur to the north of Savant Vadi, 
and their having escaped notice elsewhere may of course be 
accidental ; but I believe that the Savant Vadi jungles, and 
their outskirts will be found to be the northern limit, on 
the west coast of Cypsellus melba, Collocalia unicolor, Merops 



28 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONEAN. 



philippinus, Jlhopodytes viridirostris, Dendrophila frontalis, Disse- 
munis paradiseus, Chihia hottentotta, and Irena puella, to which 
may be added Harpactes fasciatus, Merops swinhoii, Xantho- 
Icema malabarica, recorded by Mr. Fairbank from Savant 
Vadi.— (S. F., IV., pp 254, 255.) # 

Conversely there are many species entered in the list, which, 
although comparatively common from Ratnagiri northwards, 
have not yet been recorded from the south of the tract. This 
is in great part due, no doubt, to the meagreness of oar collec- 
tions from the south as compared with those made in the 
north. It is, however, possible that some of these species reach 
their southern limit, somewhere in the northern half of the tract. 

With these remarks, which I fear will have tired out all 
possible readers long ere they have reached the end, I will 
now go on with the list of species found, and will only add 
in conclusion, the saving clause or declaration invariably attach- 
ed to official bills, " errors and omissions excepted." 

Key to places entered in the map from north to south. 

Seaboaeu. Cesteal island Ghat Range. 



Headlands bare and 
rocky. Bays fringed be- 
tween cliffs and sea with 
dense gardens of cocoa 
and betel palms. Estu- 
aries bordered with mud 
flats, salt marshes, and 
thick mangrove swamps. 
At the summit of the 
cliffs rugged and bare 
hills, and rocky plateaus. 
Valleys deeply cut and 
more or less tree covered. 
Cultivation in most part 
restricted to valleya and 
alluvial deposits on bonks 
of tidal rivers. 

Baokot. 

Eelshi: 

Ade. 

Anjarle. 

Harnai'. 

Suvamdurg Fort. 

Dabhol. 

AnjanveT. 

Pe\e\ 6 miles inland. 

Guhdgar. • 

Pdche"ri, 6 miles inland. 

Ratnagiri. 

Vijaydurg. 

Devgad. 

Mdlvan. 

Tengorla. 



Cbbtbal island 
Belt. 

Hill sides bare or clad 
with thin scrub and pol- 
larded trees, except in 
Savant Vadi, where the 
forests are strictly con- 
served. Valleya fairly 
wooded and village sites 
everywhere well shaded 
with mango, jack, 
tamarind, banyan, pipal, 
cashewnut and other 
trees. Country more un- 
dulating than near the 
coast, and less rocky. 



Mohapral. 

Mandangad. 

Palgad. 

Dhamni. 

Dapuli. 

Ehed., 

Lavel. • 

Chiplun. 

Aroli. 

Sangameshvar. 

Vandri. 

Tvivli. 

Xanje. 

Rajapur. 

Vagbotan. 



From base to water- 
shed. Country broken up 
by countless spurs and 
deep ravines. Jungle 
thick and evergreen on 
sheltered slopes, and in 
the valleys, thin on the 
sides exposed to the S. W 
monsoon. 



Durga Vadi. 

Gotne. 

Devrukh. 

Murshi. 

Bavda. 

Manbefc. 

Easarde. 

Phonda. 

Dajipur. 



Eankavli. 
Phamapur. 
Savant Vadi. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN, 29 
List of Species. 

2 — Otogyps calvus, Scop. 

Ratnagiri. 
Malvan. 

Rare. Dr. Armstrong got a specimen from Ratnagiri, and 
I Lave one from Malvan. 

4. # — Gyps indicus,t Scop. 

Common, especially in the large coast villages ; but I have 
found no breeding places in the district. 

5.*— Pseudogyps bengalensis, Gm. 

The common Vulture of the South Konkan breeds from 
October to January. Nests are usually found in mango or silk 
cotton (Bombax malabaricum) trees. As a rule not more than 
one nest is seen on each tree, but I once found within a few 
feet of each other on the same tree a nest of this species and 
of Neophron ginginianus. - 

6.*— Neophron ginginianus, Lath. 

Rather scarce, both on the coast and inland. I have seldom 
seen more than one pair in any , one place below the Ghats. 
Above the Ghats in Sattara it is, I think, the commonest of all 
the Vultures. The only two nests I have found in this district 
contained two young ones each in January j and were both 
built in forks of mango trees. 

8.— Falco peregrinus, Gm. 

Suvamdurg Fort. J Gotne. 

Vijaydurg. 

Rare. Its favourite haunts are the perpendicular scarps of 
the Sahyadris, and the ruined island forta on the coast. 

16.— Falco chiquera, Baud. 

Ratnagiri. 

The only pair I have yet seen in the district were shot at 
Ratnagiri in October 1878. The species is common in the 
Deccan plains, but doesn't appear to descend below the Ghats, 
except on rare occasions. 

17.— Cerchneis tinnunculus, Lin. 

Ratnagiri. I Palgad. 

Malvan. | Savant Vadi. 

f The species here referred to is most likely to be Gyps pallescens, No. 4 bis, of ther 
Tentative List, Unfortunately no specimens have been sent for identification. — En,, 
S.F. 



30 FlfcSf LIST OP THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

Common in the cold weather throughout the tract, especially 
on the more open and undulating plains. 

23.— Astur badius, Gm. 



Kelshi. 
Rafcnagiri. 
Mai van. 



Savant Vadi. 



Devrukb. 



Common everywhere about villages and groves of trees. 
Breeds in March and April. 

31.— Hieraetus pennatus, Gm. 

Guhagar. | Palgad. j 

21st January 1879, Male. — Length, 19 ; wing, 15 ; tail, 8 ; 
tarsus, 2\ ; mid toe and claw, 2|-. 

16th March 1879, Male.— Length, 20J ; wing, 15i ; tail, 9 ; 
mid toe and claw, 2£ ; irides golden ; cere yellow. 

Rare. I have not seen it in this district, except at the loca- 
lities mentioned. 

35.— Limnaetus cirrhatus, Gm. 



Eelshi. 


Mahapral. 


Guhagar. 


Mandangad. 


Peve. 


. Palgad. 


Ratnagiri. 


Dhamni. 




Dapuli. 




Khed. 



15/ May 1878, Adult Male.— Length, 25£; wing, 16; tail, 

Hi. 

15th February 1878, Adult Male. — Length, 28 ; wing, 16 ; 
tarsus, 4 ; mid toe and claw, 3. 

18th January 1879, Adult Male. — Length, 25| ; wing, 16|. 

21st February 1878, Young Female. — Length, 29| ; expanse, 
49; wing, 15£ ; tail, 11£ ; tarsus, 4; mid toe and claw, 3; 
(breast almost pure white.) 

Irides from pale straw colour to deep yellow ; bill black ; cere 
and feet yellow ; the breast markings vary considerably. In 
young birds the breast is pure white, or with a few faint central 
streaks or spots at the sides and on the flanks. In adults 
the white breast is more than half covered by large dark brown 
lozenge-shaped spots. Between these phases of plumage 
every gradation is met. The shade of the upper plumage 
similarly varies from pale rufescent brown to dark hair brown.* 

A young bird which I took from the nest on the 1st April 
1879, apparently about five weeks old, had the feathers of the 
back and upper parts pale wood brown with whitish margins ; 
the head was paler still and slightly rufescent; the white 

* See also the Editor's remarks, S.F., IV., 356. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 31 

margins of the feathers widening towards the forehead which 
was grisly white ; the irides were in this bird pale bluish 
grey; the cere as well as the bill was black, and the legs 
were pale chrome yellow ; the breast and under parts were 
pure white, save a few brown streaks at the sides and on the 
flanks ; the crest was half developed. 

This is the commonest Eagle in the district, but I have found 
it more abundant to the north than to the south. It rangea 
from the Coast to the Ghats, keeping to well-wooded tracts at 
all elevations. I have seen it strike at Bush Quail, and unsuc- 
cessfully chasing Green Pigeon from tree to tree. I have also 
seen it in the act of killing a small viper, drawing itself up to 
its full height with its head back, and its crest lowered like 
the ears of a vicious horse, and its feet well to the front, 
clawing and striking the snake with great vigour, but keeping 
it at a safe distance from any vulnerable part. I have heard 
also of one having been seen attacking a mongoose, but I 
cannot vouch for this. On taking a nest from a tamarind tree 
close to a house on the sea beach at Guhagar, I was told that 
the old birds had carried off successively four young kittens 
from the premises. 

The Crested Hawk Eagle breeds in this district from December 
to April, January being the favourite month. The nests are 
large, and comparatively deep stick structures, loosely put 
together with the twigs hanging down untidily. They are 
always profusely lined with green mango leaves. They are 
built very high up, as a rule, in forks of trees ; any large tree 
serves the purpose. I have found nests in banyan, tamarind, 
wild fig (Ficus glomerata), and bel trees (CEgle marmelos) ,♦ 
but the great majority were in mango trees. The old birds 
make no attempt to defend their nests. Out of 32 nests 
examined, none contained more than one egg or one young bird. 
The average of 25 eggs measured gives a length of 2'6*3 with 
a breadth of 2 - 04. The largest egg measured 3 X 2*1, and 
the smallest 2*25 % 1*85. In shape they vary greatly, but the 
usual type is a moderate oval, pointed at the smaller end. The 
colour is a dull greenish white, sometimes unspotted, and 
sometimes faintly streaked at the larger end with reddish 
brown. The texture is comparatively smooth, but devoid of 
all gloss. The lining is, of course, pale green. 

39.— Spilornis cheela, Lath. 

| Savant Vadi. 

A single specimen was obtained at Savant Vadi. It appears 
to be replaced throughout the district, at all events north ot 
JR-atnagirij by the smaller fqrm S. melanotis, Jcrd. 



§2 FIRST LIST OF THE EIKPS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 



395k— Spilornis melahotis, Jerd. 



Guhdgar. 



Mandangad. 



Aroli. 
Vagkotan. 

hth Decemler 1879, Male,— Length, 27 ; wing, 17£. 
; !St7i December 1877, Female. — Length, 27 ; expanse, 57 ; 
wins', 18£; tail, 12; tarsus, 4£ ; mid toe and claw, 2| ; hind 



toe and claw, 



H. 



24th January 1879, Female. — Length, 26 ; wing, 17. 

Cere, orbital skin and legs yellow ; irides orange ; bill 
bluish, black at tip. 

Common north of Ratnagiri, but less often seen than Limnae- 
tus cirrhatus. Frequents damp ground, and may often be 
seen perched on low trees near muddy rice fields, watching 
for frogs. I have seen sometimes three or four together tbus 
engaged ; occasionally, but more rarely it is found in the dry 
uplands and in hill side jungle. 

The only eggs of this species I have, were taken from two 
nests on the 18th and 20th March. They measure, respectively, 
2*75 by 2*25, and 2*65 by 2 - 12, and are broad white ovals 
slightly pointed at the small end, streaked all over with reddish 
brown, and with a confluent cap of the same shade at the large 
end. 

40.— Pandion haliaetus, Lin. 

Yijaydurg. | Cliiplun. | 

. Common in the cold weather on the coast, and up the large 
tidal rivers. 

43.— Haliaetus leucogaster, Gm. 

Bankot. 

Kelshi. 

Ade. 

Anjarle. 

Eamui. 

Dabkol. 

Guhagar. 

Ratnagiri. 

Common throughout the sea board, occasionally strays a few 
miles inland up the larger creeks, but is most often seen about 
the fishing villages at the estuaries. 

When once paired, these Eagles make the tree, on which 
they have built their nest, their permanent head-quarters all 
the year round, returning to the tree after each foraging trip 
with great regularity, and using the nest as a larder and 
a refuse pit for fish and snake bones and other waste food. 
Once when the young birds of the season had long since left 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KOttKAN. 35 

the nest, I found a half-eaten fowl in it freshly killed. At night 
they roost, whether breeding or not, close to the nest. The 
young are very soon driven off after they are able to shift 
for themselves. 

They breed in October, November and December. The ear- 
liest egg I have was taken on the 21st October, and the latest, 
hard-set and just ready to hatch out, on the 16th December. 
All the nests I have seen, about twelve, have been in trees. 
They are gigantic platforms, built of strong thick sticks fully five 
feet in diameter, with a comparatively slight depression in the 
centre. The same nests are used, year after year, a few sticks 
being added each year by way of repairs. There is a well- 
known nest on the fork of two horizontal branches of an old 
banyan tree, overhanging the massive walls of the ruined 
island fort of Suvamdurg. I first saw this eyrie in 1869. 
How ancient it was then I don't know, but ten years later, in 
October 1879, it had two fresh eggs in it. At this particular 
place the old birds are very wild and wary, but where, as fre- 
quently happens, they build in large trees in the midst of 
houses and cocoanut gardens, they become very familiar and 
are not easily disturbed. Their loud, clanging note, when close 
over head, is almost deafening, and is audible at the distance 
of a mile or more. 

In all the nests that I have taken, containing single eggs, the 
eggs have been fresh ; and wherever the eggs were hard-set, 
or there were young birds, the number was two. The eggs 
are greenish white, unspotted, and rather smooth but with no 
gloss, with a pale green or eau de nil lining. The average of 
six eggs measured gives a length of 2*81, and a breadth of 2*07, 
the largest egg measuring 3 by 2' 06 and the smallest 2 - 7l 
by 2 -04. 

48.— Butastur teesa, Frankl. 

I Palgad, 
I Lanje. 

Scarce. Only found as yet at the places indicated which are 
midway between the sea and the Ghats. 

51.— Circus macrurus, S. G. Gm. 

Ratnagiri. J Palgad. 

I Dapuli. I 

5th February 1879, Male. — Length, 17^; wing, 13£ ; tarsus, 3. 
Slst January 1879, Female. — Length, 19; wing, 14£; tarsus, 
3 ; tail, 9. 

Common from October to April on all the more open parts 
of the tract. 

5 



34 FIKST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KOtSKAN. 

54.— Circus aeruginosas, Lin. 

Malran. I DapulL | 

Rare. Not observed elsewhere. 

14tk February 1879, Male.— Length, 20|; wing, 16; tar- 
sus, 3£. 

3rd March 1880, Male.— Length, 19± ; wing, 15| ; tail, 9£ ; 
tarsus, 3f ; mid toe and claw, 2£ ; cere, irides and feet yellow ; 
bill blue black. 

The only specimens obtained were shot on the edges of wet 
paddy fields. . 

55.— Haliastur indus* Bodd. 

Kelshi. Palgad. 

Harnai. 

Bantot. 

G-uhagar. 

Batnagiri. 

Common about all the large rivers both inland and on the 
coast. No food seems to come amiss to it. Day after day from 
a seaside bungalow have I watched a pair of these birds catch- 
ing crabs on the rocks at low tide. Swooping down they seize 
the crab, and bearing it aloft, pick the shell clean and drop it. 
On the wing, I have also often seen them hawking on the dry 
rocky uplands, when the southern Crown Crest and the little 
Finch Lark (P. grisea) have young broods, and have more than 
once seen them pounce on these unprotected fledgelings. 

Breeds from the middle of January to the end of March. 
Prefers cocoanut trees on the coast, and mango trees inland. 
Deserts its nest on the slightest provocation. 

56.— Milvus govinda, Syles. 

Eelshi. Palgad. 

Ado. Khed. 

Guhagar. 

Abundant everywhere. Swarms at all the fishing villages on 
the coast and at inland towns, such as Khed, where there is a 
constant traffic in putrid fish. 

Breeds from January to March. 

60.— Strix javanica, Gm. 

j Mahapral. 

Palgad. 
I Khed. 

Not common, but I have seen it at Ratnagiri as well as at the 
localities given above. 

I found a nest with four young ones, in a hole, high up in the 
wall of a house at Khed. I kept two of the youDg ones who were 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 35 

very wild and vicious. One, who was shut up in a cage with a 
young Syrnium ocellatum, quite as large and nearly as old as 
itself, killed and ate a large portion of its cage fellow one night. 
After this exploit I packed it off with other young Owls to the 
Victoria Gardens at Bombay. 

63.*— Syrnium indranee, Sykes. 

j Fanasgaon. 

I have not found the Brown Wood Owl myself, but I saw a 
single specimen in Dr. Armstrong's collection, which he had got 
at Fanasgaon, twenty miles inland from Vijaydurg. 

65.— Syrnium ocellatum, Less. 

I Palgad. 
I Aroli. 

Not common, but occurs here and there in the northern dis- 
tricts in mango clumps and well-wooded village homesteads 
inland. I have not yet seen it on the coast. 

Three nests were found in January with two young birds or 
two eggs in each, all in hollows of mango trees. The four 
young birds which I kept for some weeks were, when first taken 
from the nest, white all over with black pencillings, with no 
rufous colouring. They were very gentle and good tempered, 
except with dogs and strangers ; but the wing bones, whether 
from want of properfoodor not, I cannot say, were exceedingly 
brittle, and before they were six weeks old each bird had had at 
least one of its wings fractured or dislocated. Cockroaches, lizards 
and grasshoppers were their favourite food. Cooked meat they 
ate, if hungry, but didn't much care for. Notwithstanding their 
damaged wing bones they were very active, and would climb up 
tent ropes, using their beaks like parrots. 

69.— Bubo bengalensis, Frankl. 

Kelshi. j Palgad. j 

Ratnagiri. j Dharani. 

Rather common on the rocky hill sides overhanging the tidal 
creeks. Two nests were found in January, both in fissures be- 
tween steep boulders on the sides of hills. In one nest there 
were five, and in one only two young birds. One of the nests faced 
due east, a fact worth mentioning, as Captain G. F. L. Marshall 
{vide " Nests and Eggs," page 62) has pointed out that (in 
Northern India) these birds almost invariably select a cliff facing 
westward. The young thrive well in confinement, but are deci- 
dedly bad tempered. 



36 FIKST LIST OF THE BIKDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

72.— Ketupa ceylonensis, Gm. 

Kelshi. Palgad. ^ 

Guhagar. Khed. 

Batnagiri. 

9 th January 1878, Female. — Length, 23 ; expanse, 48 ; wing, 
16 ; tail, 8£ ; tarsus, 3| ; mid toe and claw, 3. 

25th February 1878, Female. — Length, 21 ; wing, 16; tail, 
8 ; weight, 3|lbs. 

Common both on the coast and inland, wherever there are 
shady groves and large trees near water. Apparently less com- 
mon towards the south of the district. 

Nine nests found from January to March, all in hollows or 
depressions of mango trees, one or two eggs or young birds in 
each. One abnormally long egg I have measures 2'55 by 1'87. 
These Owls also do well in captivity, and are quiet and tractable. 
I kept one until it was nearly a year old, when I made it over 
to the Victoria Gardens in Bombay. It never once, by night or 
day> uttered the dismal and unearthly sigh of its species, but 
like other Owls, when alarmed, it snapped its mandibles and hiss- 
ed like an engine blowing off steam. It liked fresh raw meat, 
mice and small birds, apparently, quite as well as fish. 

7&sept.— Scops brucii, Hume. 

| Khed. | 

9th January 1879, Female. — Length, 8^ ; wing, 6£. Irides, 
straw yellow. 

I got a single specimen at the locality mentioned which I 
failed at the time to discriminate. I have not found it else- 
where. 

7f>quat.— Scops malabaricus, Jerd. 

Pove. Palgad. [ 

Batnagiri. Dapuli. 

Malvan. Khed. 

Vengorla. Savant Vadi. 

Measurements in the flesh : — 

Four Males. — Length, 1\ to 8 ; wing, 5f to 6£ ; tail, 2\. 

Four Females. — Length, 8 to 8|; wing, 5| to 6 ; tail, 1\ 
to 2|. 

Bill horny; feet fleshy grey; irides from light yellow in the 
young birds in the greyer plumage, to deep orange in the 
adults in rufous plumage ; the tarsal feathers are unbarred, and 
the fourth quill exceeds the third by one-eighth of an inch. 

The above measurements, which were carefully taken, corre- 
spond as near as possible with- those given by Mr. Hume in his 
Scrap Book, page 402. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 37 

The Malabar Scops is common in the north of the Ratnagiri 
district, but less so as far as my present experience goes in the 
south. It is entirely nocturnal, but its low, subdued call after 
nightfall easily betrays its haunts. I have found it in holes of 
trees in houses, and in nooks in dry wells. 

All the nests, six in number, I have found were got in Jan- 
uary and February, in holes of mango and jack trees. Three 
appears to be the maximum number of eggs. In two instances 
two hard-set eggs were found. None of the nests contained any 
lining but rotten tonchwood. One nest within ten feet of the 
ground contained three hard-set eggs, on which the female was 
sitting. The male, who was caught in a similar hole in an 
adjoining tree, made no attempt whatever to claw or bite, but 
submitted to his fate with great meekness. The eggs are in shape 
and size almost exactly similar to those of Carine brama, but 
they are decidedly more glossy, and have a more creamy tinge. 
The average dimensions of seven eggs measured were 1'34 
by 113. 

[Mr. Sharpe, it will be remembered, unites this species with 
Scops bakhamoena, Penn. The very large series of it that, 
thanks to Mr. Vidal and others, I now possess, enables me to 
assert positively that, unless a vast number of other species, 
which he retains, are also to be suppressed, rnalabaricus must 
be retained. The rich, rufous, buff tint which always charac- 
terizes the adults of this race, distinguishes them at a glance 
from the widely-spread bakhamoena. It is far more difficult 
to separate them from many specimens of both lempigi (I 
mean the Malayan lempigi) and lettia. 

But if, besides my proposition, above quoted by Mr. Vidal, 
that rainfall is the most important factor in this part of the 
world in determining distribution, it be further admitted that 
where a species (in many families at any rate) occurs in both 
a scanty and a heavy rainfall region, the inhabitants of the 
former are pale (often silvery), and of the latter dark (and 
generally rufous), and that the size of races is influenced by 
these conditions also, then I should have no difficulty in uniting, 
not only bakhamoena and rnalabaricus, but a great many other 
supposed species — just as we do now unite the pale and 
silvery and dark and rufescent forms of Syrnium nivicolum and 
Glaucidium brodii, from the N. W. Himalayas on the one 
hand and Sikhim on the other. And this, although the ex- 
traordinary difference in colour in the two races of the former 
is so persistent, that during more than ten years Mr. Man- 
delli never succeeded in getting a pale specimen in Sikhim, 
and I never succeeded in getting a dark or at all rufous one 
in the North- West. 



38 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 



But until it be generally admitted that the striking differ- 
ences in colour and to a less extent in size, due to differences 
in rainfall, are not of specific value, (and at present hundreds 
of species have been founded on such differences), we must, 
I think, retain malabaricus as a distinct species. — A. 0. H.] 

76.— Carine brama, Tern. 



Vengorla. 



Phonda. 



IPalgad. 
Lanje. 
Dhamapur. 

Rare to the north of the tract, but comparatively common to 
the south about Vengorla. 

Two nests found in January and February, one in an "aiu" 
tree ( Terminalia glabra), and one in a cocoanut tree, in one four 
hard-set eggs, and in the other two fresh eggs. Two other nests 
in February with, in each, three fresh eggs. 

lQth January 1879, Female. — Length, 8£ ; wing, 6 \ ; tail, 
3 ; tarsus, 1£. Irides yellow. 



78.— Grlaucidium malabaricum, Bly. 



Kelshi. 
Vengorla. 



Dapuli. 

Khed. 

Chiplun. 

Lanje. 

Rajapur. 

Vaghotan. 

Funusgaon. 

Savant Vadi. 



Desrulsh. 
Kasarde. 



Sex. 


Length. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Tarsus. 


Soft parts. 


Four Males 


7f to 8i 


5 to5^ 


2f to 3 


1 


Feet greenish 
yellow to green ; 
cere greenish ; 
bill greenish hor- 
ny ; irides yel- 
low. 


Four Females 


8 to 8k 


5-A- to 5* 


21 


1 



Rather common throughout the district in well-wooded 
parts. Calls loudly by day as well as night. I have seen 
one, in the full blaze of the sun, make a sudden dash out of 
a tree at a Phylloscopus I ' 
slowly to the ground. 

My shikaree brought 
birds on the 14th April. 

Dr. Armstrong also got a nest in March with three eggs, 
scarcely distinguishable, as far as I could judge, from those 
of Carine brama, in size, shape, tone, or texture. 



had shot, and which was fluttering 
me two fresh eggs with the parent 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 39 

Note. — The specimens sent to Mr. Hume from Kelshi and 
Khed in the north of the district were, I thought, referable to 
G. radiation. Mr. Hume, however, pointed out that they 
were intermediate in form between radiatum and malaba- 
ricum, but nearer to the latter, though almost as close to radia- 
tum. I have not been able to detect any marked and constant 
differences between these skins and others subsequently obtain- 
ed to the south of the district, or again between these and 
other skins in Dr. Armstrong's and Mr. Crawford's collections. 
Individuals certainly vary a little. The light bars on the back 
and rump in some pale to a dingy white, while in others they 
retain a tinge of fulvous. In some the tarsal plumes are creamy 
yellow, unbarred in front, and with a few dusky spots at the 
sides ; in others they are strongly barred with dusky and pale 
rufous. In some the tips of all the tail-feathers and the outer 
webs of the outer feathers are sullied with faint rufous, while 
in others they are pure white. Similarly the rufous tint on 
the head, neck, breast, and hind neck varies in warmth and 
intensity in individuals, but it would, I think, be quite impos- 
sible to separate any of the skins in my present collection from 
north to south. Comparing the Ratnagiri skins as a body 
with a specimen sent me by Mr. Hume from Raipur as a 
typical radiatum, the former are certainly more warmly tinted 
throughout. The transverse bars of the head, nape, and hind 
neck are slightly narrower, and more rufous than in radia- 
tum ; there is less white about the scapulars in the Ratnagiri 
skins ; the black bars of the tail-feathers are, as a rule, deci- 
dedly deeper in hue, contrasting more strongly with the white 
ones ; the primaries also are more distinctly marked and 
barred than in radiatum, the rufous being richer in hue 
and the dark parts a shade deeper ; the throat and breast are 
also more rufous, and the barring of the abdomen and lower 
parts is narrower, and more regular than in radiatum. 
These are all the distinctions I can make out. In size they 
are identical. In fact, the radiatum looks like a washed out 
and faded copy of our Ratnagiri birds. Mr. Hume, in his Scrap 
Book (p. 411), notes the difference in tint between radiatum 
from the north, and the same species from the south of India, 
the northern birds being more rufous, and the southern more 
grey. I cannot help thinking that ultimately it will be found 
that malabaricum is inseparable from radiatum as a species, 
the warmer tints of the former being due to climatic causes 
only. A humid climate, such as the Konkans and Malabar has, 
as will I think be admitted, a general tendency to darken 
and impart a deeper hue to the plumage of birds, the fur of 
auimals, and even the pigment which underlies the human 



40 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

cuticle. Many instances of this might be quoted. The Editor, 
after examining the first batch of skins I sent him from this 
district, was struck by the comparative darkness and brilliancy 
of the plumage of many of the species. In particular the 
specimens of Perdicula asiatica were said to be " so dark as 
to be almost a distinct species." Of course this and other 
similar instances do not prove that the two Glaucidia are one 
and the same species. 

Before G. malabaricum can be suppressed still closer connect- 
ing links must be found than even these Ratnagiri birds 
afford. But that such links exist seems highly probable, and 
I hope that Mr. Hume will be able to get a sufficiently large 
series of representatives of this genus from all parts to enable 
him to settle the point authoritatively. 

Since writing the above, I have read an article in the Nine- 
teenth Century of January 1880, on the " Origin of" Species 
and Genera," by Mr. A. R. Wallace, which contains some 
remarks bearing very closely on the point above discussed. In 
reviewing the work of Mr. /£. A. Allen in Eastern North Ame- 
rica, and his elaborate observations as to the variations between 
individuals of the same species, as to tint, distributions of 
colours, and markings, &c, Mr. Wallace remarks : — 

" Colour also varies greatly in correspondence to latitude 
and longitude. Dark coloured birds are said to become blacker 
towards the south ; in others the red or yellow bands become 
deeper ; while in those transversely banded the dark bands 
become broader and the light ones narrower. Those with 
white spots or bands have them smaller in the south, and 
sometimes lose them altogether. These differences are some- 
times so great that the extreme northern and southern forms 
might be considered distinct species, were it not for the perfect 
gradation of intermediate types in the intervening localities. 
There is also an increase of intensity of colour from east to 
west, as exhibited by the same or by closely-allied representa- 
tive species inhabiting the Atlantic and Pacific coasts respec- 
tively. In the desert plains of the interior, however, the colours 
are paler than on either coast." 

The great variation in forms in India with reference to physi- 
cal conditions — a subject which opens out a vast field of inquiry 
hitherto but imperfectly explored — will no doubt furnish a close 
parallel to the case of America. Picus mahrattensis, whose breast 
assumes a darker hue on the west coast, is a striking instance of 
intensification of colour from east to west. The case of Perdicula 
asiatica, noticed above, is another good illustration, while a good 
example of similar change from north to south is furnished by 
Acridotliera tristis, Lin., of India, which becomes the doubtful 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 41 

species A. melanosUrnus, Legge, in Ceylon. Careful observation 
will, no doubt, disclose scores of similar instances. 

[The above quotation shows, 1 think, how entirely even 
the greatest authorities have failed to grasp the point I have 
so often urged, viz., that the variation in depth and intensity 
of colour has nothing to do with latitude and longitude, but 
depends on rainfall. If they could (or would) only realize 
this, they would perceive that it explains at once an enormous 
number of the variations in tint, which have puzzled ornitho- 
logists. 

It is not a question of east or west, north or south ; 
it is the average rainfall and average humidity that 
mainly determine intensity of color, in the adults of 
non-migratory, but widely extended species. 

To return, however, to this particular species. This 
Glaucidium is a very good instance of the variation in color 
due to differences in the amount of rainfall. Take a specimen 
from Allahabad, where the rainfall is under 40 and the 
atmosphere normally dry, and you have radiatum without 
a trace of rufous. Take another from Anjange in Travancore, 
where the rainfall is very heavy and the atmosphere always 
humid — painfully so to my feelings — and you have malabaricum 
with the entire head and upper back densely overlaid with 
chestnut rufous, and with the rest of the plumage, especially 
the wing-lining, tinted in many places with the same hue. 

Between these two forms, almost exactly mid-way as regards 
coloration, lie all these Ratnagiri birds, of which Mr. Vidal 
has procured me a huge series. Precisely similar to these are 
specimens from Kalodoongi, at the foot of the Kumaon Hills, 
where the average rainfall and humidity are almost precisely 
the same as in Ratnagiri. 

But one point has to be noticed. It would appear that it is 
only, as time runs on, that moisture operates to darken and 
intensify plumage to its fullest extent ; the birds of the year, 
whether of Scops malabaricus, Glaucidium brodii (in Sikhim), 
Syrnium nivicolum, (in Sikhim), or Glaucidium malabaricum, are 
invariably much paler, and less rufous than the adults, and 
the older the birds grow the more deeply colored they become 
in the heavy rainfall tracts, while in the scanty rainfall, and 
a fortiori desert regions, they become paler as they advance in 
years. 

Wallace says : " Dark colored birds are said to become blacker 
towards the south/' and so they do, if that south happens to 
be a well-watered region ; but it is just the contrary if it be 
a dry and desert locality. Greater southing, greater heat, per se 
in no way affect color — dry heat pales, damp heat intensifies. 

6 



42 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

Light, of course, operates as an auxiliary, and intensifies the 
action of humidity, or the converse ; and the palest and the 
darkest forms will be found iu tropical deserts and tropical 
swamps. 1 do not think that heat has anything directly to 
say to the matter, but as practically in nature greater inten- 
sity of light for the year round is accompanied by a higher 
average temperature, it may often appear to be a factor, and 
indirectly, in so far as in well-watered regions it increases the 
humidity of the atmosphere, it no doubt is so. But the primary 
cause of these variations in tint is, I believe, a difference in 
the average rainfall and average humidity of the atmosphere. 
Generally the two go together, but by no means invariably. 
In Simla the rainfall is over 60 inches, often much more ; but 
during the major portion of the year the atmosphere is dry to 
a degree, and the birds are pale. Again, there are many 
localities in the Terai where the rainfall scarcely exceeds 40, 
where, owing to perennial swamps, fed by the distant-wooded 
hills, and the high average temperature, the atmosphere is 
always more or less laden with moisture, and there the colours 
of birds are more intense. 

But it is useless to pursue this question further here. Suffice 
it to say that the Batnagiri Glaticidium is radiatum, only 
half transformed by increased moisture into malabaricum. — 
A. 0. H.] 

81.— Ninoxlugubris, Tick. 

Vengorla. 

22nd February 1880, Male. — Length, 11 ; wing, 8| ; tarsus, 
1£; tail, 5. Cere green; bill dusky with pale tip; feet yellow; 
irides golden. 

Single specimen obtained in a cocoanut garden. 

I had some difficulty in fixing this bird, aud I may be 
wrong in calling it lugubris. The tail is pale grey, tipped with 
dirtv rufescent white — one of the characteristics, according to 
Mr." Sharpe {vide S. F., IV., 285 ) of lugubris. But the head 
is not grey but dark brown and concolorous with the back as 
in scutulata. The axillaries are as in lugubris, barred white and 
brown. I have no other specimens to compare it with, but it 
evidently cannot be classified according to the points given by 
ftlr. Sharpe. 

[This must be accepted as lugubris, but Mr. Vidal's remarks 
are correct ; the diagnosis given by Mr. Sharpe often fails ; 
'from many parts of the country forms are sent quite interme- 
jdiate between lugubris and scutulata, and the more I see of 
these Ninox, the more I incline to the belief that they will have 
hereafter to be extensively u lumped." — A. 0. H.] 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 43 

82— Hirundo rustica, Lin. 

Ratnagiri. 

Came to Ratnagiri in large numbers in November 1879. I 
have not seen it elsewhere, but may have overlooked it. 

84. — Hirundo filifera, Steph. 

Ratnagiri. | Khed. 

Peye. I 

Seen also at Malvan and Dhamapur in the south, and Bankot 
in the north. Nowhere common, though associating in consider- 
able flights. 

85,— Hirundo erythropygia, Syhes. 

Hamai. | Mahapral. 

| Palgad. 

Common and generally distributed. Breeds in the hot wea- 
ther on the cliffs and under eaves of houses. 

[86.— Hirundo fluvicola, Jerd. 

| Dhamapur. | 

A single specimen of this species killed at Dhamapur, 
12th February 1880, was contained in Mr. Vidal's last batch of 
specimens, sent with this paper. — A. O. H.] 

90.— Ptyonoprogne concolor, Syles. 

Bankot. 

Kelshi. 

Harnai. 

Peve. 

Guhagar. 

Ratnagiri. 

Common on the coast, and for a few miles inland. I have 
found nests on the cliffs in February, March and April, and 
under the eaves of a bungalow in August. 

98.— Cypsellus melba, Lin. 

J Savant Vadi. | 

Our specimens were got from Savant Vadi. Hitherto I havo 
not seen the Alpine Swift north of Malvan, nor have I shot 
it within the limits of the Ratnagiri district. But between 
Malvan and Vengorla, and for many miles inland, numbers are 
to be seen every evening at sunset, flying very high, and all 
apparently travelling southwards. I have not found any roost- 
ing or breeding places in these parts. Are they bound for the falls 
of Gairsoppa in North Kanara, where, as we know from Jerdou, 
they roost and congregate ? Captain Butler tells me that C. 
melba passes over Belg-auin (75 miles east of Vengorla) in 



44 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

hundreds, every evening flying due west, and every morning 
flying due east. This confirms Jerdon's statement " that such of 
these Swifts as have been questing at great distances from their 
roosting haunts, fly first towards the coast, and then make their 
way along the sea side, picking up stragglers from other regions 
on their way to the cliffs of Gairsoppa, or other similar 
precipices. 

100.— Cypsellus affinis, J. E. Gr. 

Suvamdurg. 
Batnagiri. 

Common throughout the seaboard. Nests found in February 
and April in clusters on the island fort of Suvamdurg and the 
rocky cliffs on the coast. Once in May I found and caught a 
pair of these Swifts, apparently roosting only, in a mud retort- 
shaped nest under the eaves of a bungalow, which was evidently 
the handiwork of Hirundo erythropygia. 

102.— Cypsellus batassiensis, J. E. Gr, 

Bankot. 
Batnagiri. 

Seen also in large numbers at Malvan and Vengorla. I only 
know at present of two Palmyra palms ( Borassus flabelliformis ) 
in the whole district, one at Bankot and one at Malvan. At 
Bankot, in April, I saw a pair of these Swifts flying out of the 
solitary Palmyra but found no nests. At Malvan, in January 
and February, I saw numbers flying in and out of the leaves of 
the one tree there. They must have had nests, but the tree was 
very high, and I could get no one to climb it. There are no 
Palmyras at Ratnagiri, and as the species is common there, about 
the cocoanut and betelnut gardens, it is probable that, as Mr. 
Davidson noted in Mysore, ( vide S. F., VII., 172), they nest 
here in betelnut, if not in cocoanut palms also. There are 
certainly fifty times too many birds at Malvan to find accommo- 
dation in the one Palmyra palm, though it is evidently a favou- 
rite haunt. 

103.— Collocalia unicolor, Jerd. 

Vengorla Bocks 

or 
Burnt Islands. 

This species, as Jerdon says, is found at one of the group 
of rocks which lie between Vengorla and Malvan, some five 
or six miles from the mainland, and breeds there regularly 
every year. The right to collect the nests is annually sold by 
auction, and realises on an average about Rs. 30. Two trips 
are made by the farmer — the first towards the end of February, 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 45 

and the second about the first week in April. The first harvest 
yields about 141bs., and the second from 28 to 421bs. Either 
the yield was overstated by Jerdon, or else the number of birds 
has greatly diminished since he wrote ; half a hundredweight 
is now the maximum outturn. 

None of the nests I Jiave ever got from the Vengorla rocks 
are pure white. In April 1878 I sent my shikaree, to bring 
nests, eggs and birds, and he returned with specimens of all 
three. The birds were all Collocalia, and the nests all mixed 
with grass and feathers, the saliva being pure only where the 
nest is attached to the rock, and on the rim of the saucer. The 
nests vary a good deal in size and shape. They are very 
shallow, seldom deeper than half an inch, and have a diameter 
of about two inches. Externally the saliva, freely mixed with 
grass and feathers, is smooth and coagulated. Inside the cup 
it forms a net-work of fine shreds. They look at a little dis- 
tance exactly like deep oyster shells with one side flattened, 
the saliva, where it is smoothed down, having a pearly 
appearance. As this batch of nests was collected about a week 
after the farmer had paid his last visit to the rocks to the 
season, and had presumably left no nests worth taking, and 
as the natives, who ought to have known, persisted in saying 
that pure white nests were to be had at the first take, I could 
come to no definite conclusion about the matter. However, in 
February 1880, I sent my man again to the rocks, with the 
farmer's people. They were there for three days, and returned 
on the 28th with about 12 or 141bs. of nests which I exa- 
mined. These nests were undoubtedly first nests, as not a 
single egg had been laid. All were quite as impure and mixed 
with grass and feathers as those I had got in the preceding 
April, when there were eggs or young birds in every nest. The 
farmer still held out that white nests are sometimes got. Of 
course it is possible that a few pairs of spodiopygia may breed 
in the same cave, but none of the specimens got were of this 
species, and I think it is highly improbable that they occur. 
Determined to sift the matter as closely as possible, I sent my 
shikaree again with the farmer's people for the April take. He 
spent three days on the rocks, from the 7th to 9th April, and 
returned with about two dozen of the purest and comparatively 
whitest nests that were found on this occasion, as well as eggs 
and specimens of Collocalia. The nests were all mixed with 
grass and feathers precisely as before. 

The evidence, therefore, is now pretty complete, and shews 
conclusively that this Collocalia does not make pure white nests 
at any rate in this locality. The Vengorla nests are all des- 
patched to Goa iu the first instance, but I have not yet ascer- 



46 FIKST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

tained their ultimate destination. Commercially, they must 
rank as a very third sort commodity. The nests I got in 
February were literally swarming with common bugs. 

The rock is very difficult to get at. It can only be approach- 
ed by a small boat on account of the reefs, and owing to the 
constant swell during the north-west winds, a landing can only 
be effected at night, and even then with difficulty. The caves: 
where the Swiftlets breed opens on a narrow ledge of rock, 
with a steep drop into the sea, which cannot be climbed from 
below. To get to the cave you have to scramble up the cliff 
from the landing place, and be lowered on to the ledge some 
forty or fifty feet by ropes. Hitherto I have shirked any 
personal investigation of the mysteries of the cave. From the 
description given to me it appears to run in about 30 or 40' 
yards from the sea. The entrance is said to be about 20 to 24 
feet broad, and the height of the cave to be from 40 to 50 feet. 
The nests are glued to the rocks close together at a height of 
from 10 to 20 feet from the ground, and are always out of 
hand's reach. My shikaree, who collected about seven dozen 
eggs, fresh and hard-set, said he never found more than two 
in a nest. 

Whether the birds remain at the rocks all the year round 
I cannot find out for certain. They were there in large numbers 
in December 1879. The farmer says that they leave the rocks 
in the south-w r est monsoon, and come for shelter to the cliffs on 
the mainland which may or not be true. It is certain, however, 
that no one has ever yet visited the rocks during the monsoon. 
Even the lighthouse people on an adjoining rock are com- 
pletely cut off from all communication with the mainland from 
June to September. This inaccessibility is especially uu- 
fortunate, as Mr. Hume, on visiting the rocks in January 
1875 on his trip to the Laccadives and West Coast, found con- 
vincing evidence in the shape of fragments of eggs, &c, that 
they are a regular breeding place for Terns, and perhaps some 
of the larger Larida. It is singular that Mr. Hume found 
no traces during his visit of the Swiftlets, no birds and no 
fragments of nests. Did he visit all the rocks? I cannot help 
thinking he must have overlooked the particular haunt of the 
Collocalias. Last December my shikaree — the same man who 
had brought me nests, eggs and birds in the preceding year, 
and must know the species well — visited the rocks and reported 
that there were hundreds flying about. Nor does the con- 
tractor seem to make a clean sweep of all the nests, as last 
year I obtained several perfect ones, as good as any he has 
since shewn me, after he had paid his last visit to the island 
for the season. I fancy Mr. Hume must have gone to the wrong 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 47 

cave, more especially as he mentions the presence of the 
Pigeons, which, I am told, do not inhabit the same cave as the 
Swiftlets. 

[I certainly failed to find this smaller cave, but I rowed 
all about amongst the larger rocks, and failed to see a single 
Swiftlet. Had there been a dozen even about the rocks at 
the time I visited them (February 4th) between the hours of 
10 a.m. and 5 p.m., the whole of which time I spent either 
rowing in amongst or clambering over the rocks, I must 
have seen them. But it has to be noted that Jerdon tells 
us that he similarly, at Pigeon Island, failed to see a sin ale 
bird; but was told by a native that they would return bv 
8 or 9 p.m., which native that night actually caught numbers 
of the birds on their return, so that my failure to see any 
may have been due solely to their being away in quest of food. 

Mr. Vidal's investigations are important. It will be remem- 
bered that the Marquess of Tweeddale united the present 
species imicolor, and the species I identified as spodiopygia, 
(and other equally distinct species according to my view) 
under the name, at one time, of francica, at another of fuciphaga. 
As explained, S. F., I., 294, I did not consider the name 
fuciphaga, which refers to some species of " cauda rotundata" 
applicable to any known species. This, however, was a matter of 
no moment ; the real point at issue was the specific distinctness 
of the two forms above referred to. To me it seemed impos- 
sible for any one who had watched the two in life, or who 
even carefully examined a good series of both, to doubt this 
fact ; but as an additional proof of the distinctness of the two 
I asserted that in every instance in which we had found them 
breeding, the nests of imicolor had been composed of moss, 
grass feathers and the like, cemented together by saliva, while 
those of spodiopygia were snowy white and entirely composed 
of saliva. But the flaw in this argument admittedly was, 
that I had only obtained the nests of unicolor far inland, in 
the Nilghiris and other hills of Southern India, while I had 
only procured those of spodiopygia on the sea coast or on 
islands. It might be that unicolor, when living in similar 
situations, would assume the different tint of plumage and 
whitey brown rump of spodiopygia, and also construct the 
pure white nests. But now here on the Vengorla rocks, 
miles out at sea, we have unicolor absolutely identical with 
specimens from the Nilghiris, and practically identical with 
those from the Himalayas (though there is just a shade of 
difference in the colour of these last), and constructing nests 
mixed with straw and feathers, precisely similar to those that 
they make hundreds of miles inland. 



48 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

Whatever opinions may be formed as to the correct gcientific 
titles for the two forms, it seems to me impossible for any one 
to dispute henceforth their specific distinctness. — A. 0. H.] 

104.— Dendrochelidon coronata, Tick. 



Mahapral. 
Mandangud. 

Fanasgaon. 
Savaut Vadi. 



Durga Vadi. 
Kasarde. 



13th April 1878, Male.— Length, 9£ ; wing, 6£ ; tail, h\. 
Generally distributed from Coast to Ghats. Nowhere 
abundant. 

107.— Caprimulgus indicus, Lath. 

Gubagar. j I Devrukh. 

Vengorla. 

Less common than asiaticus and monticolus. I shot a female 
measuring, length, 11 ; wing, 7^, in a thick temple forest at 
Guhagar, perched at 9 a.m., on the branch of a tree some 25 
feet from the ground. 

112.— Caprimulgus asiaticus, Lath. 

Guhagar. Dbam pur. 

Malvan. 

Vengorla. 

Common, especially in gardens on the Coast. 

114.— Caprimulgus monticolus, Frankl. 



Kelslii. 
Malvan. 



Palgad. 
Dapuli. 
Klied. 



Common here and there in scrub jungle, but is not generally 
distributed. 

115*.— Harpactes fasciatus, Forst. 

| Savant Vadi. | 

Mr. Fairbank (S. F., IV., 254) records this species from 
" the woods of Savant Vadi iu the Konkan." I was dis- 
appointed in not coming across any specimens. 

117.— Merops viridis, Lin. 

Kelshi. 
Batnagiri. 

Abundant everywhere. 



FIRST LIST OP THE BIRDS OP THE SOUTH KONKAN. 49 

117.— Merops philippinus, Lin. 

I Dhamapur.* 
I 8avant Vadi. 

Confined to the south of the district. I found it common 
about the summer rice fields irrigated by the Dhamapur tank. 

119.*— Merops swinhoii, Hume. 

| Savant Vadi. | 

Recorded from the " sides and bases of Goa and Savant Vadi 
hills" by Mr. Fairbank (S. F., IV., 254)._ I did not obtain 
any specimens at Savant Vadi itself, which is intermediate 
between the sea and the base of the hills. 

123.— Coracias indica, Lin. 

Khed. 
Chiplun. 
Aroli. 
Savant Vadi. 

Tolerably common inland in well-wooded country, but very 
much less so near the coast. Breeds in March. 

127.— Pelargopsis gurial, Fear son. 

Malvan. I Eajapur. 

I Dhamapur. 

Eare. Has also been seen at Ratnagiri, but not as yet 
north of that place. 

[This Pelargopsis on the West Coast has the entire cap, nape 
and ear coverts, a really dark brown, very different to the pale 
(in some cases whitey) brown, of specimens from most other 
parts of India. The two forms are quite as distinct as several 
that Mr. Sharpe has admitted in his famous work as separate 
species, but I believe he himself considers that in any future 
revision of the genus a good deal of " lumping" will be neces- 
sary. — A. 0. H.] 

129.— Halcyon smyrnensis, Lin. 

Eatnagiri. Mahapral. 

Malvan. Mandangad. 

Vengorla. 

Generally distributed but not common. Avoids large tidal 
rivers, and prefers secluded jungle streams. Often found in 
dry jungles at some distance from water. 

130.— Halcyon pileata, Bodd. 

Malvan. J | 

As yet I have only got two specimens of this Kingfisher at 
the locality specified. Jerdon notes its occurrence at Telli- 

* Capt. Bingham tells me that he has found this species not uncommon about 
Vengorla in January.— Ed., S. F. 



50 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KoNKAN. 

cherry. I can find no other record of its occurrence on the 
West Coast. 

18th January 1880, Female. — Wing, 4| ; tail, 3| ; bill, 1\. 

Bill red ; irides brown ; legs and feet red with dusky bars. 

132.— Halcyon chloris, JBodd. 

Kelshi._ _ 
. Eatnagiri. 

Hitherto obtained only at the places named, though I have 
seen it on the Vashishti river, midway between the two 
(vide S. F., VII., 168, and VIII., 414). At both places I found 
it scarce. It frequents the thick mangrove swamps which 
fringe the estuaries of the creeks, and feeds at low tide on the 
mud flats. 

134.— Alcedo bengalensis, G<m. 

Eatnagiri. J Ehed. 

Exceedingly abundant everywhere, and more especially so on 
the tidal creeks. 

136.— Ceryle rudis, Lin. 

Eatnagiri. I Khed. 

Common throughout, but appears, as a rule, to prefer fresh 
to tidal waters. 

140.— Dichoceros cavatus, Shaw. 

II Devrukh. 
I Manbet. 

6th November 1879, Male.-— Length, 50; wing, 20; tail, 17 ; 
tarsus, 3 ; bill from gape (straight) , 9 £ ; perpendicular height of 
casque and bill, 4 ; length of casque, 6^ ; breadth of casque, 
3| ; from base of casque to tip of bill, 14. Irides, deep crimson ; 
legs and feet fleshy grey. 

Found along the base and on the slopes of the Sahyadri 
range, extending as far north as Khed, north latitude, 17°45', 
where in years gone by I have shot it, and probably much 
further. Although not often seen far from the Ghats, it 
occasionally strays towards the Coast, and I have on several 
occasions seen it at Dapuli, within five or six miles of the sea. 
At Devrukh I saw a great number feeding on ripe banyan 
berries, and I once shot one with a snake, a young d ham an 
(Pty as mucosus) in its mouth. I have found no nests, but 
have been told that it breeds at Poladpur, in the Kolaba dis- 
trict, twenty miles north of Khed. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 51 



141.— Hydrocissa coronata, Bodd. 



Aroli. 
Fanasgaon. 



Devrukh. 
Kasarde. 





6 
P 


oc 

a 
o 




'3 


<0 

o 

en 
O 

H 


03 
O 

"o 

"so 


S3 

a 

o 

n 


Sopt Pabts. 


Hi 

m 


Irides. 


Legs and 
feet. 


Gular skin. 


$. 


OS 

oo 
o 


37 
34 


13» 
13 


14 
13| 


4i 
3J 


sif 

6| 


n 

eh 


Orange Red. 
Brown. 


Grey. 
Grey. 


Kid White. 
Kid White. 



Found inland in the belt of wooded country at the foot 
of the Ghats. Does not extend, I believe, as far north as 
D. cavatus, nor is it found near the Coast. 

[These may be considered typical examples of coronata, as they 
are precisely similar to those from the Malabar Coast further 
south. Comparing a large series of these western birds with an 
equally large one from Raipur and Chota Nagpore on the east, 
I find that these latter have the casques even more compressed, 
and in birds of like age advancing further along the culmen to 
the point. I can detect no other constant difference. — A. 0. H.] 

145.*— Tockus griseus, Lath. 

f Savant Vadi. [ 

In his " Popular List of the Birds of the Maratha country," 
compiled for the Bombay Gazetteer, and published at the 
Government Central Press in 1876, Mr. Fairbank mentions 
having obtained this species at Savant Vadf. 

148.— Palseornis torquatus, Bodd. 

feve. I Dharani. j 

Ratnagiri. | Savant Vadi. | 

Plentiful, but somewhat locally distributed. Less common 
than P. purpureus. 

149.— Palseornis purpureus, P. L. S. Mull. 



Bankot. 
Ratnagiri. 



Dapuli. 
Savant Vadi. 



Generally distributed and very plentiful. 



52 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

151 — Palseomis columboides, Vig. 

\ | Bavda. 

Appears to be restricted to the Sahyadri forests, and the 
western slopes of the Ghats. Dr. Armstrong procured it at 
Bavda, and it is tolerably common near Mahableshwar. 

153.— Loriculus vernalis, Sparrm. 

Ratnagiri. Dapuli. 

Rajapur. 
Savant Vadi. 

Plentiful here and there both on the Coast and inland, but 
rather locally distributed. 

160.— Picus mahrattensis, Lath. 

Kasarde. 



Bankot. 


Dhamni. 


Kelshi. 


Khed. 


Peve. 


Vaghotan. 




Savant Vadi. 



Generally distributed, but rather scarce. This, says Mr. 
Hume, is the darker breasted West Coast race. 

9th March 1878, Male. — Length, 7|; wing, 4; bill at front, 
f . Irides red. 

[This is another species, the depth of colouration of which 
varies all over the country according to the comparative average 
humidity of the locality. Comparing some of the richest and 
feeblest colored, they might well be considered distinct species. 
—A. 0. H.] 

164.— Yungipicus nanus, Vig. 

| Savant Vadi. | Bavda, 2,000 feet. 

Restricted to the Ghats and the heavy forests at the base, 
such as Savant Vadi. 

[I identified these specimens, only a little further south. Y. 
gymnopthalmus occurs on the Ghats, and I had expected to find 
this species, and not nanus, in Ratnagiri. — A. O. H.] 

166.*— Chrysocolaptes sultaneus, Hodgs. 

Ratnagiri. | I 

One or two specimens were got by Dr. Armstrong at or near 
Ratnagiri. I have not yet met with the species. 

[This is not at all likely to be sultaneus ; it will most proba- 
bly prove to be strictus, Horsf. (=delesserti, Malh. apudauct.) 
vide S. F., VIII., 154.— A. 0. H.] 

167.— Chrysocolaptes festivus, Bodd. 

Ratnagiri. Vaghotan. I Kasarde. 

I Fanaegaon. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 53 

Rare. The specimens, with the exception of one I got at 
Ratnagiri, were all got by Dr. Armstrong. I have not seen 
the species north of Ratnagiri. 

179.— Micropternus gularis, Jerd. 

Peve. I Mandansad. 

Guhagar. I Savant Vadi. I 

I obtained in 1878, at Mandangad, at the extreme north 
of the district, a single specimen (female), which I sent to 
Mr. Hume as gularis, and which he passed as such without com- 
ment. In 1879 I sent three specimens (one male and two 
females) from Guhagar and PeV£, thirty miles south. These, 
Mr. Hume said, were intermediate between gularis and phce- 
oceps, but nearer the former. On comparing the Mandangad 
specimen again with one from Peve, which most nearly 
approximates to gularis, I find that the throat feathers of the 
former are slightly darker, but the difference is barely per- 
ceptible. This species also appears, therefore, to be inter- 
mediate and not typical gularis. To settle the point a large 
series of skins is necessary, but unfortunately the bird is 
decidedly scarce. It may prove ultimately that gularis is not 
a good species. 

Mandangad, 1st May 1878, Female :— Length, 9| ; wing, 5 ; 
tail, 2|. 

[Two specimens obtained by Dr. Armstrong in the Ratnagiri 
district are, like those mentioned above, far from typical, having 
the gular stripe very light colored, the feathers scarcely darker 
than those of the breast. But 1 have already (S. F., V., 472 et 
seq.) shown that the species of this genus vary greatly from 
district to district, and we must, I think, accept the Ratnagiri 
birds as gularis. — A. O. H.] 

181.— Brachypternus puncticollis, Malh. 



Palgad. 

Dapuli. 

Chiplun. 

Aroli. 

Nivli. 

Lanje. 

Rajapur. 



Guhagar. 
Ratnagiri. 

Mai van. 



Savant Vadi. 

The commonest Woodpecker in the district, and generally 
distributed. These birds are true puncticollis, and were de- 
scribed by Mr. Hume as the most typical birds of the species 
he had seen. 



54 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN: 

193fo's.— Megalsema inornata, Wald. 

Guhagar. I NMi. 

Eatnagiri. | Kajapur. 

Found in well-wooded villages on the Coast, but perhaps 
more common inland and at the foot of the Ghats. 

194.— Megalsema viridis, Bodd. 

| | Devrukh. 

1th November 1879, Male. — Length, 9 ; wing, 4 ; bill at front, f . 

Our only specimens as yet have been got from Devrukh, 
a well-wooded village at the foot of the Ghats, where it is 
common, but it no doubt ranges all down the Ghat line. 

197— Xantholsema hsemacephala, Mull. 

Kelshi. I Khed. 

Eatnagiri. f Savant Vadi. j 

Abundant everywhere. Breeds in February. 

198.*— Megalaema malabarica, Bly. 

| Savant Vadi. 

Recorded from the Savant Vadi forests by Mr. Fairbank 
(S.F., IV., 255). I failed to obtain any specimens. 

201.— Cuculus poliocephalus, Lath. 

J I Devrukh. 

5tk November 1879, Male. — Young bird. Length, 9f ; 
wings, 5 1 ; tail, 5 ; bill at front, f ; bill from gape, nearly 1 ; 
tarsus, |. Irides brown ; orbits, legs and feet yellow ; bill 
black, pale below ; yellow at gape ; wings reach to within 
two inches of tail. 

A single specimen obtained. Does not entirely correspond 
with Jerdon's description. There is no trace of a green gloss. 
The outer tail feathers have white spots on both webs. The 
chin, throat and breast are spotted with white, ashy and 
rusty, and the head is spotted with white, but possibly I have 
not discriminated the species correctly. 

[It is a young bird and an indifferent specimen, but I believe 
it has been correctly identified. — A. O. H.] 

202.— Cuculus sonnerati, Lath. 

Malvan. I 

Vengorla. 

2lst February 1880, Female. — Length, 9| ; wing, 4| ; 
tarsus, | ; tail, 4£ ; bill at front, | ; from gape, 1£. 
Irides brown ; legs greenish grey ; bill dusky ; tail feathers 
not tipped with white ; orbits grey. 

Single specimen obtained at each of the localities noted. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 55 

203. — Cuculus micropterus, Gould. 



A single specimen obtained at Ratnagiri in October. 

205. — Hierococcyx varius, Vahl. 

| Savant Vadi. | Devrukh. 

Rare. 

208.— Cacomantes passerinus, Vahl. 

Vengorla. 

21st February 1880, Male. — Length, 8£ ; wing, 4§ ; tarsus, 
| ; tail, 4^ ; bill at front, § ; from gape, 1. Irides red ; legs 
and feet brownish yellow ; bill black, red at gape ; under tail 
coverts ashy, almost concolorous with breast, but slightly paler. 

2bth February 1880, Female. — Length, 8£ ; wing, 4-^ ; tail, 
4 § ; tarsus, f ; bill from gape nearly 1 inch ; at front, f. 
Soft parts as in the male. This specimen had the under tail 
coverts pure white. 

Only two specimens obtained. 

212.— Coccystes jacobinus, Bodd. 

I Devrukh. 
Rare. Has been seen also at Dapuli and on the summit of 
the Amba Ghat in the Kolapur district. 

213.— Coccystes coromandus, Lin. 

I Savant Vadf. 

A single specimen procured. 

2nd January 1880, Male. — Wing, Q\ ; tail, 9. 

214.— Eudynamys honorata, Lin. 

Ratnagiri. I Dapuli. 

Malvan. I Khed. 

Common in well-wooded tracts from Coast to Ghats. 

216.— Rhopodytes viridirostris, Jerd. 

Malvan. | | 

24th January 1880, Male. — Length, 16 ; wing, 5£ ; tail, 9£ ; 
tarsus, 1^ ; bill at front, 1. Bill green ; orbital skin pale 
whitish blue ; irides red ; legs and feet dark green. 

Rare. I found a few pairs in thin bush jungle on a hill side 
near Malvan, on the Coast. Not observed elsewhere. The 
female is rather smaller, the wings measuring from 5 ; 5 6 to 5£ 
inches. 



56 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONK AN. 

217— Centrococcyx rufipennis, III. 

Kelshi. I Dapuli I Devrukh. 

Peve. | Khed. 

Common. " True rufipennis" writes Mr. Hume, " with 
the black interscapulary region." 

219.— Taccocua leschenaulti, Less. 

Peve. I Maniangad. j Durga Vadi. 

Malvan. 

1st May 1878, Female. — Length, 17£; wing, 6; tail, 9; 
tarsus, 1^. Irides brown. 

Rare. Found in hill side jungle. I obtained a nest with a 
single fresh egg on the 8th April. The nest, a thick loose cup 
of sticks and leaves, was in a fork of a jambul {Eugenia jam- 
bolana) tree, about 12 feet from the ground. The egg cavity, 
about six inches in diameter, and very slightly depressed, was 
profusely lined with green jambul leaves. The egg is a dull 
glossless white oval. 

The specimens obtained at Peve and Malvan were found 
some five or six miles inland. 

226.— iEthopyga vigorsi, SyJces. 



Kelshi. 


Mahapral. 


Gotne. 


Katnagiri. 


Dapuli. 
Eajiipur. 
Savant Vadi. 
Bavda. 


Bavda 



Distributed from the Ghats to the gardens on the Coast, but 
scarce. 

232.— Cinnyris zeylonica, Lin. 

Kelshi. I Mahapral. 

Peve. | Palgad. 

Gnhagar. 

Batnagiri. 

Malvan. 

Common and generally distributed. Nests found with eggs 
in January, March, April and September. 

233.— Cinnyris minima, SyJces. 

| Savant Vadi. | Bavda. 

Found sparingly on the western slopes of the Ghats. Com- 
mon in the Savant Vddi forests. 

234.— Cinnyris asiatica, Lath. 



Kelshi. 


Khed. 


Peve. 


Lanje. 




Savant Vadi. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 57 

Common in hill side scrub jungle, and gardens throughout 
the district. 

Nest found in April. 

235. — Cinnyris lotenia, Lin. 

Kelshi. I 

Katnagiri. 

Rare. 

238.— Dicaeum erythrorhynchus, Lath. 

Peve. ] Durga Vadi. 

Katnagiri. | 

4th April 1879. — Length, 3f ; wing, If; tail, f ; tarsus, 
j 4 ^; bill, f . Bill fleshy; tip dusky; hides brown; legs dark 
plumbeous (unsexed specimen.) 

Bare. Appears to replace D. eoncolor north of Ratnagiri. 

239.— Dicaeum eoncolor, Jerd. 

| Savant Vadi. | 

Common at Savant Vadi, where, I think, it replaces D. ery- 
throrhynchus. 

240.— Piprisoma agile, Tick. 



Dhamapur. I Devrukh. 

Savant Vadi. 



Rare. 



253.— Dendrophila frontalis, Horsf. 

1 Savant Vadi. | 

A single specimen obtained. 

254 — Upupa epops, Lin, 

Katnagiri. Palgad. Devrukh. 

Dapuli. 
Vaghotan. 

Common in the cold weather in groves of trees. 

255.— Upupa ceylonensis, Beich, 

Less common than U. epops. 

257.— Lanius erythronotus, Vig, 

Katnagiri. | Kbed. 

Common everywhere. 



58 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 



260.— Lanius vittatus, Valenc. 

I Palgad. 



Bavda. 

Manbet. 

Dajipur. 



I6t7i January 1879, Female.— Length, 1\ 
3|. Irides dark brown. 

Rare. Not found on the Coast. 

265.— Tephrodornis pondicerianus, Gm. 



wing, 3J 



tail, 



Batnagiri. 
Malran. 



Mahapral. 

Mandangad. 

Vandri. 



Common, as also at Savant Vadi. Nest found with three 
hard-set eggs on the 18th February, low down in a mango tree. 
Nest a very neat compact cup of grasses and fibres, woven 
throughout with spiders' webs. Eggs greyish white, with 
brown and inky purple spots. 

267.— Hemipus picatus, Sykes. 

1 Bajftpur. 
I Savant Vadi. 

Rare. I have not myself found the little Pied Shrike ; but 
there w r ere a few from each of the localities named in Mr. 
Crawford's collection. 

268.— Volvocivora sykesi, StHchl. 

Kelshi. Mandangad. 

Guhagar. Khed. 

Batnagiri. Bajapur. _ 

Vengorla. Savant, Vadi. 

Not common ; only found in well-wooded parts. 

269.— Volvocivora melaschista, Hodgs. 

I Savant Vadi. | 

Rare. Only two specimens obtained. 

270.— Graucalus macii, Less. 

Kelshi. I Klied. j 

Chihagar. I Bajapur. I 

Common. Breeds in February and March. 



272.— Pericrocotus flammeus, Font. 



Larvje. 
Bajapur. 
Savant Vadi. 



Durga Vadi. 
Devrukh. 
Mtirshi. 
Easardi. 



Common at the foot of the Ghats, and the well-wooded parts 
of the central belt. Not found on the Coast. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 59 

276.— Pericrocotus perigrinus, Lin. 

Kelshi. I Khed. i 

Ratnagiri. Savant Vadi. 

Malvan. ' 

Common everywhere. 

[This is the richly colored form which occurs in all humid 
regions, strangely different from the pale races of the semi-de- 
sert tracts. See also S. F., V., 179.— A. O. H.] 

278. — Buchanga atra, Herm. 

Peve. Mahnpral. 

Ratnagiri. 

Abundant. Breeds in May. 

280.— Buchanga longicaudata, Hay. 

Ratnngiri. I Khed. 

Very common about all well-wooded villages from Coast to 
Ghats.* 

281.— Buchanga caerulescens, Lin. 

I Savant Vadi. 

Very common in the Savant Vadi jungles. I have not yet 
found it in the Ratnagiri district, but Dr. Armstrong had a 
specimen which he got somewhere between Ratnagiri and 
Savant Vadi. 

282.— Chaptia senea, Vieill. 

I Savant Vadi. J Bavda. 

Very rare. Not observed elsewhere in the district. 

285.— Dissemurus paradiseus, Lin. 

Vengorla. I Savant Vadi. 

Three Males. — Length, 22 to 25 (to end of outer tail feathers) ; 
wing, 6 to 6§ ; tail to end of middle feathers, 6 to 6| ; tail 
to end of outer feathers, 14 to 18. 

Three Females. — Length, 22 to 24; wing, 6 to 6| ; tail to end 
of middle feathers, 6 to 6| ; to end of outer feather, 14 to 16. 

Does not extend north of Savant Vadi, where it is rather 
common. A nest was found in the first week of April. 

286.— Chibia hottentotta, Lin. 

I Savant Vadi. 

Four Females.— Length, 11 to 12 ; wing, 6£ to 6f ; tail, 5 to 
5f ; bill at front, 1£; tarsus, 1. 



60 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 



Not uncommon in the forests of Savant Vadi, which appear 
however to be its northern limit. 

287.— Artamus fuscus, Vieill. 

Vengorla. J 

Rare. Not observed elsewhere in the district. 

288.— -Muscipeta paradisi, Lin. 

Eelshi. Ehed. 

Gubagar. Dltamapnr. 

Eatnagiri. Savant Yadi. 

Generally distributed. Scarce near the Coast. Plentiful in 
the Savant Vadi forests. One specimen, a white male, has three 
uropygial feathers, twelve inches long ! 

290. — Hypothymis azurea, Bodd. 



Bankot. 
Eatnagiri. 



Mandangad. 
Ehed. 
Lanje. 
Savant Vadi. 



Scarce, except at Savant Vadi, where it is comparatively 
common. 

293.— Leucocerca leucogaster, Cm. 

Guhagnr. Dapuli. I 

Eatnngiri. Ehed. 

Malvan. | 

Very plentiful on the Coast and central inland tracts. 
Appears to replace L. aureola. The latter may occur in the 
Ghat range. I have not hitherto found it on the western 
slopes, but have perhaps overlooked it. 

297.— Alseonax latirostris. 



Eatnagiri. 



Ehed. 
Vagkotan. 
Dhamapur. 
Savant Vadi. 



Rare in the north, and comparatively common in the south 
of the tract. 



301.— Stoporala melanops, Vig. 



Savant Vadi. 



Devrukh. 



Eelshi. 

Eatnagiri, 

Vengorla. 

Common in the Savaat Vadi and Ghat jungles, but scarce 
near the Coast. 



FIRST LIST OP THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 



Gl 



306.— Cyornis tickelli, Bly. 

Guhagar. Palgad. 

Ratnagiri. Dapuli. 

Savant Vadi. 

Not uncommon in the cold weather in well-wooded places. 

323 bis.— Erythrosterna parva, Bechst. 



Khed. 



Devrukh. 



Scarce, but is seen now and then in the cold weather. 
Leaves early before the breast of the male turns red. 

342.— Myiophoneus horsfieldi, Vig. 

Vengorla. 



Vaohotau. 


Devrukh. 


Fnnasaaon. 


Bavda. 


Savant Vadi. 


Kasarde. 



5th November 1879, Female. — Length, 11 ; wing, 5| ; tail, 4 ; 
tarsus, If. 

Vengorla is the only locality on the Coast in which I have 
met this species, but it is tolerably common in the Ghat range, 
and in the southern central belt, in suitable localities. 

345.— Pitta brachyura, Lin. 



Mai van. 



Fannsgaon. 
Dhamapur. 



Durga Vadi. 
Devrukh. 



Found rarely in gardens near the Coast, and more commonly 
in the Ghat jungles. Scarce in the north, more common in 
the south of the tract. 

351.— Oyanocinclus cyanus, Lin. 



KelsM. 
Katniigiri. 



Khed. 



Not very comzon, but solitary individuals are always to be 
seen in the cold weather on the rocky cliffs by the sea side 
and On the stony hills inland. 

353.— Petrophila cinclorhyncha, Vig. 



Vengorla. 



Savant Viid 



Bavda. 



Very common about Savant Vadi in the cold weather. It 
is also common about Mahableshwar on the north-east of 
Ratnagiri. It appears, like many other forest-loving birds, to 
stick to the Ghat range throughout the northern and barer 
parts of Ratnagiri, and to approach the Coast only in the south 
through the well-wooded jungles of Savant Vadi. 



G2 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

354,— -Geocichla cyanotis, Jard and Selb. 

Bankot. I Dapuli. Devrukh. 

Anjanvel. Khed. 

Peve. Savant Vadi. 

Guhagar. 

Malvan. I 

Common in gardens and scrub jungle throughout the tract. 
Breeds during the rainy months. The nests, which I have 
not taken myself, have been described to me by Mr. A. Jardine 
of Dapuli, who has collected a large number of these Thrushes' 
eggs, as follows : — " The nest is made of roots, twigs, and grass, 
with a good deal of mud. The egg cavity is about five and half 
inches in diameter, and from two to three inches deep. The nest 
is generally placed in the fork of a tree low down. The highest 
I ever saw was about fifteen feet from the ground in a kinjal 
tree, but they are mostly found in mango trees. When the 
Thrushes have young, they will not let anyone go near the 
nest, but come flying at you, and peck like fun." The eggs 
vary greatly in colour and markings, presenting two or three 
very distinct types. 

355.— Geocichla citrina, Lath. 

Amongst a lot of skins from Ratnagiri and Burmah, which 
Dr. J. Armstrong kindly gave me, I found a single specimen 
of G. citrina. It was not ticketed, but the sex and date were 
endorsed on the paper cone in which it was wrapped. From 
the date (5th January 1878) the specimen must have been 
got somewhere in the Ratnagiri district, where Dr. Armstrong 
Avas then working, unless by accident the cover has been 
changed. As G. citrina occurs at Amherst, whence several of 
the birds in the same box had been collected, 1 at first thought 
it possible that some mistake had been made. A few days 
afterwards, however, I met Dr. Armstrong, and he assured me 
that he had got both G. cyanotis and G. citrina, while in the 
Ratnagiri district, though he could not remember the exact 
localities, and further that he had never got a single specimen 
of citrina at Amherst. There can, therefore, be no doubt as to 
the occurrence of this species in the South Konkan. It must, 
however, be very rare. I have never seen it myself, nor does 
Mr. Fairbank appear to have got it anywhere on the western 
Ghat range from Khandalla to Goa, nor is it entered in Messrs. 
Davidson and Wenden's list. On the other hand, its occurrence 
in ihe Konkan is noted in a list* compiled by Major J. H. 
Lloyd. 

* Natural History of the Konkan. Printed at the Government Central Press, 
Bombay, 1876. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 



63 



359.— Merula nigropilea, Lafr 



Kelshi. 


Mandnngad. 


Devrukh 


Peve 


Dapuli. 


B&vda. 


Kntnngiri 


Khed. 


Pbonda. 


Malvan 


Fnnasgaon. 
Savant Vadi. 





Common everywhere in groves and gardens, both on the 
Coast and inland. 

355.— Pyctoris sinensis, Gm. 



Kelshi. 


Palgad. 


Devrukh . 


Malvan. 


Fanasgaon. 


Murshi. 
Kesarde. 



Common here and there in hill side bush jungle in small 
parties. 

389.— Alcippe poiocephala, Jerd. 



Malvan. 



Bajapur. 
Dhamapnr. 
Savant Vadi. 



I have not seen this species north of Rajapur. But as it is 
common, according to Dr. Fairbank, at Mahableshwar, it is 
probable that it occurs throughout on the western slopes and 
bases of the Ghats, and does not approach the Coast except 
through Savant Vadi. 

398.— Dumetia albogularis, Ely. 

Guhagar. | Bajapur. 

Scarce throughout the tract. Its distribution is probably 
similar to that of Alcippe poiocephala. I have found it plenti- 
ful at Mahableshwar, but did not see a single specimen in 
Savant Vadi. 

399.— Pellorneum ruficeps, Sws. 



Kelshi. 



Mandangad. 
Savant Vadi. 



Met with in small parties here and there, like D. albogularis, 
but is scarce and very locally distributed, away from the Ghat 
range. 

404.— Pomatorhinus horsfieldi, Sykes. 

Malvan. I Durga Vadi. 

Vengorla. 

27 th December 1878, Male.— Length, 9 ; wing, 3f ; tail, 4 ; 
tarsus, l\; bill at front, 1|. 

Common at Mahableshwar and along the Ghat ranges. I 
have not found it near the coast in the north of the district ; 



64 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

but like many other species it makes its appearance on the 
sea board through the jungles of Savant Vadi. 

435.— Malacocercus somervillii, Sykes. 



Bankot. 

Gl-nhagar. 

Ratnagiri. 



Dapuli. 

Khed. 
Rajapur. 
Vaghotan. 
Savant Vadi 



Murshi. 
Maubat. 



3rd February 187 '9, Two Males. — Length, 10 ; wing, 4 and 4 \. 
Irides yellowish white. 

Abundant. As far as I have yet observed remains typical 
from north to south. Breeds in the rainy months. 

446.— Hypsipetes ganeesa. 

| Savant Vadi. | Devrukh. 

Kare. Not found away from the Ghat range except at 
Savant Vadi. 

450.— Criniger ictericus, Strickl. 

| Savant Vadi. | Bavda. 

Scarce, though associating in moderate sized flocks. Distri- 
bution similar to Hypsipetes ganeesa. 

452.— Ixus luteolus, Less. 

Vijaydurg. 
Mai van. 
Vengorla. 

This species is so rare in this district that I cannot ascertain 
its precise distribution. As yet our only specimens have been 
obtained on the Coast to the south of the tract, and I have 
also found some near the sea at Goa. It appears to avoid the 
Ghat range, as Mr. Fairbank, although he found it near the 
Gatprabha river, in the Belgaum district, did not come across it 
on the hills of the Goa frontier (S. F., IV., 258). 

460 bis. — Otocompsa fuscicaudata, Gould. 

Kelshi. j Savant Vadi. 

Ratnagiri. 

Very common throughout in bush jungle, gardens and groves. 

462— Molpastes hsemorrhous, Gm. 

Kelshi. 

Ratnagiri. ) 

Abundant everywhere. Breeds in April and again in 
September. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 6§ 



463.— Phyllornis jerdoni, Blyth. 



Kelshi. Mahapral. Murshi. 

Peve. Fanasgaon. Kesurde. 

Ratnagiri. Savant Vadi. 

Common and generally distributed from Coast to Ghats. 



468— Iora tiphia, Lin. 



Kelshi. 


Palgad. 


Guliagnr.' 


Khed. 


Butnagiri. 


Vandri. 




Lanje. 



Both forms, tiphia and zeglonica, are common throughout 
the tract. Breeds in March and April. 

469.— Irena puella, Lath. 

| Savant Vadi. 
Very rare. A single specimen was obtained by Mr. Crawford's 
shikaree at Savant Vadi. 



470-— Oriolus kundoo, Sykes. 

Batnagiri. Mandangad. 

Khed. 
Savant Vadi. 



Devrukh. 



Found sparingly. Not so common as O. melanocephalus. East 
of the Ghat range, in Sattara, kundoo is the common species, 
while melanocephalus is very rarely seen. 

471.— Oriolus indicus, Jerd. 



Very rare. Single specimen obtained, 
recorded it from Savaut Vadi. 

472.— Oriolus melanocephalus, Lin. 



| Devrukh. 

Dr. Fairbank has also 



Kelshi. 


Mandangad. 


Katnagiri. 


Khed. 


Malvan. 


Savant Vadi 



Devrukh. 



Very common everywhere, from the Coast to the summit of 
the Ghats. It is gradually replaced east of the Ghat range 
by 0. kundoo. This is evidently the species which Mr. Fair- 
bank (S. F., IV., 259) calls ceylonensis* and states to be found 
in the Konkan and on the western declivities of the Sahyadri 
from Khaudala to Goa. 

* The name cktlonensis was applied to the southern form, but the name melano- 
cephalus was also originally applied to this, though later usually restricted to the 
northern one. But as a matter of fact, as anyone may prove who takes the trouble to 
examine a really large series from all parts of the empire, the two forms are not spe- 
cifically separable, and Capt, Legge's proposed name for the northern form must be 
suppressed. — Ed., S. F. 



6(5 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

475.— Copsychus saularis, Lin. 

Kelshi. I Dapuli. 

ltutnagiri. I Khed. 

Very common throughout. Breeds in May and June. One 
nest I found with four eggs in the hole of a tree was lined 
profusely with the dry leaves of the Casuarina tree. 

476.— Cercotrichas macrura, Gm. 

I Kajapur. 
J Savant Vadi. 

Rare. Seen also at Devrukh under the Ghats. Not found 
near the Coast, hut I have seen so few that I cannot determine 
its exact distribution within the district. 

479.— Thamnobia fulicata, Lin. 

Bnnkot. Khed. 

Kelshi. 

Peve. 

Guhagar. 

llatnugiri. 

Common everywhere on the bare and rocky hill sides 
and about villages. Breeds in March and April, in crevices 
between the boulders, or rocky hill sides. 

481.— Pratincola capratus, Lin. 

Peve. [ Khed. f 

I Savant Vadi. ' 

Very common inland, and under the Ghats in scrub-clad hill 
Bides. Less common on the Coast. Breeds in April. 

483.— Pratincola indicus, Bly. 

Ratnagiri. Palgnd. 

Dapuli. 
Khed. 
Fanasgaon. 

Common in the cold weather in open country. 

497.— Ruticilla rufiventris, Vieill. 

I Palgnd 
I Chiplun. 

A cold weather visitant, and decidedly rare in the South 
Koukan. 

507.— Larvivora superciliaris, Jerd. 

| | Gotne. 

A single specimen obtained in the Ghat juugles by Mr. 
Crawford's shikaree. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 67 

514 .— Cyanecula suecica, Lin. 

Only seen on one occasion on the banks of a grassy nullah. 

515. — Acrocephalus stentorius, Hemp, and Ehr. 

Malvnn. Khed. 

Vengorla. 

Rare. 

516.— Acrocephalus dumetorum, Bly. 



Kelahi. 


Chiplun. 


Peve. 


Savant Vadi. 


Guhdgnr. 




Ratnagiri. 





■ Common in the cold weather in trees and hedges. 

530.— Orthotomus sutorius, Penn. 

Bankofc. I Khed. 

Peve. 

ltatnagiri. I 

Common in gardens and hedgerows. 

\Qth March 1878, Female. — Length, 4|; wing, 1|; 
tail, If ; tarsus, f ; bill at front, £. Irides reddish yellow. 

534.— Prinia socialis, Sykes. 

Peve. | | 

Rare. I have only found it in the locality mentioned, 
amongst some thorny bushes in a mangrove swamp. 

538.— Prinia hodgsoni, Bly. ~p * c~&~ 

Ratnagiri. i Mnndangad. I Devrukh. 

Peve. | Palgad. 

Common in mangrove swamps, reeds, hedgerows, thickets, 
and bush jungle throughout the district. Breeds during the 
rainy months. 

539.— Cisticola cursitans, Franhl. 

I Khed. | 

Found sparingly in open grass country in the cold 
weather. 



543.— Drymceca inornata, Sykes. 

Kelshi. I Palgad. 

Peve. J 

Common throughout the tract. 



$8 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

544 bis.— Drymceca rufescens, Hume. 

Bankot. Palgad. 

G-uhagir. 

Eatnagiri, 

Found here and there in bush and scrub jungle, but not so 
common as D. inornata. One specimen (unsexed) measured : — 

Length, 6£ ; wing, 2£ ; tarsus, § ; tail, 3£. Irides brownish 
yellow. 

546— Drymceca neglecta, Jerd. 

I Khed. | 

A single specimen obtained in January in long grass on 
the banks of a nullah measured (unsexed ) : — 

Length, 6 ; wing, 2^ ; tail, 2| ; tarsus, |. Legs fleshy pinkish 
in front, yellowish behind ; bill horny above, fleshy below ; 
irides yellowish brown. 

553 bis.— Hypolais caligata, Lichst. 

| Khed. | 

A single specimen only procured in long reeds close to a 
hot spring. 

559.— Phylloscopus nitidus, Bly. 

Eatnagiri. 

Common at Eatnagiri, where several specimens in bright 
plumage were got in October. 

560.— Phylloscopus viridanus, Bly. 

Feve". I Khed. I 

j Dhamapur. 

Appears to be equally common as nitidus. But I have shot 
very few specimens, and did not at first discriminate the tw o 
species. 

563.— Reguloides occipitalis, Jerd. 

Eatnagiri. | I Devrukh, 

Not common as far as my present limited observation of 
the species goes. 

589.— Motacilla maderaspatensis, Gm. 

Kelshi. 
Eatnagiri. 

"Not very common ; more often seen on the Coast than inland. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 69 

591 fo's.— Motacilla dukhunensis, Syhes. 

Malvan. | Khed. | 

Common inland in the cold weather; less common near the 
Coast. 

692.— Calobates melanope, Pall. 

Banfcot. 
Eatnagiri. 

Occurs near the Coast in the cold weather, but is not very 
common. 

593.— Budytes cinereocapilla, SavL 

Kelslii. | I 

This, or an allied form, is common in rice fields throughout 
the tract in the cold weather. But the only specimen I 
preserved was rather doubtfully accepted by Mr. Hume as 
cinereocapilla. 

595.— Limonidromus indicus, Gm. 

Vengorla. | Kajapur. | 

21st February 1880, Male.— Length, 6| ; wing, 3 T V ? tail, 2| ; 
tarsus, | ; bill at front, £. 

Kare. 

597.— Anthus trivialis, Lin. 

I Khed. 

I Dhamapur. 

Common in groves and gardens. If maculatus occurs I 
have hitherto overlooked it. 

600.— Corydalla rafula, Vieill. 

Peve. | Mahapral. | 

Common in rice fields and grassy plains. 

631.— Zosterops palpebrosa, Tern. 

[ Khed. I 

J Savant Vadi. 

Seen occasionally in thick groves and forests in small parties? 
but is decidedly scarce. 

648.— Machlolophus aplonotus, Bly. 



G-uhagar. 
Katiiagiri. 



Mnhapral. 
Khed. 
Savant Vadi. 



Not uncommon in well-wooded parts, either on the Coast or 
inland. Always found in small flocks. I was astonished on 



70 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 



one occasion to see one of these sprightly little tits catch and 
dispose of a huge hairy caterpillar, tearing it up piecemeal. 

660.— Oorvus macrorhynchus, Wagl 



Guhagar. 



Dapuli. 
Khed. 



Oppressively common. Divides the land with splendens. 
Breeds from March to May. 

663 — Corvus splendens, Vieill. 

Guliagar. Mahapral. 

Peve. Dapuli. 

Aroli. 

Sangameshvar. 

More numerous on the whole than macrorhynchus, though 
in some villages the latter has a monopoly. Has two broods, 
the first in March and April and the second in November and 
December. 

674.— Dendrocitta rufa, Scop. 

Kelslii. Palgad. 

Peve. Dapuli. 

Eatnagiri. 

Common about all well-wooded villages from Coast to Ghats. 
Breeds in April. 

684.— Acridotheres tristis, Lin* 

Palgad. 
Dapuli. 
Bajapur. 

Plentiful in certain places, but not nearly so common or so 
widely distributed asfuscus. 

1th February 1879, Female. — Length, 10 ; wing, 5| ; bill at 
front, f . Irides brown, with white spots. 

686.— Acridotheres fuscus, Wagl. 



Bankot. 
Kelshi. 
Anjanvel. 
Guliagar. 

Eatnagiri. 



Dapuli. 



Exceedingly common. Breeds in May. The irides of all 
I have seen were pale slate blue. A male measured :— 
Length, 9| ; wing, 5 ; tail, 3. 

687.— Sturnia pagodarum, Gm 

Guliagar. 
Eatnagiri. 
Malvan. 

Scarce. 



•FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OP THE SOUTH KONKAN. 71 

16tk March 1879, Female.— Length, 8; wing, 4£ j tail, 2£ ; 
tarsus, 1. Irides pale yellow ; bill blue at base, yellow at tip ; 
legs yellow; orbital skin bluish white. 

688.— Sturnia malabarica, Gm. 

Kelshi. Savant Vadi. 

Peve. 

Batnagiri. 

Common at times in certain localities, but capriciously 
distributed. The head is always grey, and never white as iu 
btythi* 

690.— Pastor roseus, Lin. 

Bankot. I Pnlgad. j D^vrukh. 

Kelshi. I Dapuli. 

Common, though not seen in such immense flocks as in the 
Deccan. Always to be seen on silk cotton trees when in blos- 
som, picking insects out of the flowers. 

694.— Ploceus philippinus, Lin. 

Ratnagiri. | Mahapral. | 

Very common, especially near the Coast. Boosts in large 
flocks in the stunted bushes growing in the tidal swamps. 
Breeds about August and September. On the Coast the nests 
are usually found on cocoanut trees. While inland the her 
(Zhyphus jujuba), the khair (Acacia catechu), and bamboos are 
favourite sites. Moults in October. 

697— Amadina malacca, Lin. 

Ratnagiri. 

I found a small party of black-headed Munias at Ratnagiri 
in October in a maugrove swamp. I have not seen them else- 
• where. 

[698.— Amadina rubronigra, Hodgs, 

Two specimens of this species, collected by Dr. Armstrong m 
the Ratnagiri district, were contaiued in the last batch of skius 
sent for identification. — A. 0. H.] 

699.— Amadina punctulata, Lin. 

I Palgad. I 

I Khed. j 

Common inland. I have not observed it near the Coast. 

* Although I expressed a disbelief in the validity of this species (S. F., VI., 391), 
Capt. Butler assures me that I am wrong, and has promised to procure me specimens 
of the true S. btythi, Which] from his description, I have apparently never eecn«— 
Ed., S. F. 



72 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

701.— Amadina striata, Lin. 

EVlslii. I Dapuli. 

Katnagiri. I Dliamapur. 

Common everywhere in gardens and jungles. I have found 
numbers of old nests used as roosting places, but have never 
succeeded in getting any eggs. 

703.— Amadina malabarica, Lin. 

| Falgad. | 

Scarce. I found a nest on the 20th January 1879 in hill 
side jungle in a ber (Zizyphus jvjuba) tree. The nest, a 
round globe, was made externally of very dirty coarse grass, 
with a very small opening at the top on one side. The nest 
inside was also shabby, but the lining was of finer grass, and 
for ornament there were a few Green Paroquets' feathers. Two 
old birds were sitting on four eggs. I got one bird, and while 
I was waiting for the other to return a lizard got into the nest, 
and within five minutes succeeded in destroying three of the 
eggs, breaking two and making away with a third. 

706.— Passer domesticus, Linn. 

Bankot. 

Katnagiri. 

Comparatively scarce, though found in most of the larger 
towns and villages. A considerable colony inhabits the old 
island fort of Suvamdurg, breeding in holes in the walls far 
away from the haunts of man. 

711.— Grymnoris flavicollis, Frankl. 

Katnagiri. P«lgad. 

Rajapur. 
Khed. I 

Seen in small flocks in the cold weather, but not common. 
I don't think it is a permanent resident. 

721. — Euspiza melanocephala, Scop. 

| Khed. | 

A rare and uncertain cold-weather visitant. 

738.— Carpodacus erythrinus, Pall. 

| Cuiplun. | 

A pair were obtained at Chiplun in the cold weather. I 
have not seen it elsewhere in the district. 

758.— Ammomanes phsenicura, Franhl 

Peve. I Dapuli. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 73 

Very uncommon. I have only found it at the places 
specified. 

760.— Pyrrhulauda grisea, Scop. 

Batnngiri. Dapuli. 

Guhagar. 
Peve. 

Very common in the more open country, in fields and rocky 
table lands. Breeds in October, November, and again in April. 
The nests are tiny cups of grass, lined with tow and shreds 
of wool, probably pilfered from the blankets of the cowherds. 
I have never found more than two eggs in a nest. This species 
is very abundant on the rocky laterite plateau on the summit 
of the cliff at Ratnagiri. Here it builds its nest on the bare 
surface of the sheet rock. The nests are not hollowed out, 
but are built in all round with a little wall or embankment of 
loose gravel and detritus. There is no attempt at concealment, 
but as a sort of landmark, and perhaps with an idea that it 
gives protection, a small stone, from four to six inches high, 
is invariably found at the side of the nest. In fields, and 
wherever the soil admits of being dug up, a small hollow is 
scooped out, or else a natural hollow, such as a hoof mark, is 
chosen, but in these situations also I have always observed the 
small protecting stone. 

765 bis,— Spizalauda malabarica, Scop, 

Kelshi. I Palgad. 

Batnagiri. | 

Abundant in the fields and uplands. Sings loudly on the 
wing as well as when on the ground. October is the month 
in which the majority breed, but I have also taken eggs in 
November, and young birds in January. Possibly it has two 
broods. Three is the maximum number of eggs laid. The 
nests are moderate sized cups made of grass throughout, 
coarse exteriorly and finer inside. They are sometimes placed 
like those of P. grisea on the bare rock and sometimes 
under cover of grass or standing crops. 

767.*— Alauda gulgula, ? . 

This species was obtained by Dr. Armstrong somewhere to 
the south of Ratnagiri, and he shewed me several specimens. 
1 have not met with it myself. 

773.— Crocopus chlorigaster, Bly. 

Kelshi. | | 

Common throughout wherever there are large groves of 
trees in secluded situations. Feeds on pipal and banyan berries, 
and the fruit of the Zizyphus jujuba. 

10 



74 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

775.— Osmotreron malabarica, Jerd. 

j Savant Yadi. 
Rare. In days gone by I have shot them also near Chiplun, 
but did not preserve any specimens. I have not found them 
near the coast. 

786.— Palumbus elphinstonii, Syhes. 

| Durga Vadi. 

A single specimen procured. Is not, I believe, uncommon 
in. the Ghat forests throughout the range. 

788.— Columba intermedia, Strickl 

Vengorla Rocks. | Chiplun. | 

Not at all common, the ordinary Konkan fare of coarse hill 
arains being too meagre for its voracious appetite. A large 
colony inhabits one of the Burnt Islands or Vengorla rocks, 
and a few are found about the island fort of Suvamdurg, and 
about the large inland towns, living in the temples. Here 
and there, along the Ghat range, a few are abo found about the 
rocky scarps. 

There is a story, which I give for what it is worth, that the 
Veno-orla rock Pigeons lay up during the fair season a regular 
granary for monsoon consumption. The very strong south- 
westerly winds, which prevail from June to September, make 
it very difficult for the Pigeons to return to the rocks after a 
trip to the mainland for food. It is said also that every year, 
at the end of May, the native boatmen plunder the Pigeons' 
o-odowns and carry off several maunds of grain. But I have 
never yet been able to verify the story. 

793.— Turtur meena, Syles. 

| | Gotne. 

This species is common at Mahableshwar in the cold weather, 
and I presume extends throughout the range. It can, however, 
scarcely be called a Konkan species, as it does not appear to 
descend the western slopes. Our only specimen was got at 
Gotne, the only piece of land in the Ratuagiri district which 
lies east of the Sahyadri watershed. 

794.— Turtur senegalensis, Linn. 

Savant Vadi. Gotne. 

Very rarely found below the Ghats, though very common 
in the Deccan, Has only been obtained as yet at the places 
specified. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 75 

795— Turtur suratensis, Gm. 

Bankot. Klied. 

Peve. 

Ratnagiri. J 

The common Dove of the district, abundant everywhere 
from Coast to Ghats. Nests with eggs taken in October, 
January and April. 

796.*— Turtur risorius, Lin. 

I I Phonda. 

Very large flocks of the ashy Ring Dove visited the district 
in the cold weather of 1877-78, the year succeeding the Deccan 
famine. Dr. Armstrong got some specimens in that year from 
the Phonda Ghat, but unfortunately I did not preserve any. 
Their occurrence was, I now think, unusual, as I have not 
seen one in the two succeeding seasons although I have kept a 
sharp look-out for them. The dry plains in the central belt 
in the northern portion of Ratnagiri, in the neighbourhood of 
Dapuli, were covered, with them in 1877-78, in December and 
January, and I fancy they must have been driven down to 
the Konkan in search of food, after the previous year's drought 
above the Ghats. 

797.— Turtur tranquebaricus, Herm. 

| Ehed. | 

Very rare. I have only seen one pair in the cold weather 
of 1877-78 at the locality given. 

798.— Chalcophaps indica, Lin. 

Pacheri. | 

Rare. I have not seen the species alive, and owe tbe only 
two specimens 1 have to the kindness of a friend. They were 
shot about six miles from the Coast near the north bank of the 
Shastri river. 

803.— Pavo cristatus, Lin. 

Kelahi. | | 

I have nothing to add to the note at page 89 of Vol. I of 
the Game Birds of India, which is as follows : — " In the Rat- 
nagiri district Pea-fowl are found here and there in suitable 
localities. Near the Coast they affect the steep slopes that 
overhang the large tidal creeks, if well clad with trees and 
bushy undergrowth. Going up these rivers in a boat Pea- 
Fowl may often be seen and heard about sunset, as they come 
down to the river banks to feed before roosting. Inland they 
resort to large temple forests, with luxuriant undergrowth, 



76 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

hillside jungles, and well-wooded ravines. They are also 
found sparingly in the Sahyadri forests, both on the summit 
and the western and eastern slopes. 

" In no part of Ratnagiri are Pea-Fowl kept in a state of 
semi-domesticity as they are in other parts of India, and they 
are consequently wild and shy wherever found." * * * " In 
the jungles and forests Pea-Fowl eat various fruits and berries, 
such as the wild fig ( Covillio glomerata) and the korinda 
(Carissa carandas).'''' 

Pea-Fowl are also plentiful in Savant Vadi, where their 
plumes are largely used in decorating hand-screens and mats, 
made of the roots of the kaskas grass. The feathers are collected 
in the jungles by the villagers and find a ready sale in the 
market. 

813— Gallus sonnerati, Tem. 

| Savant Vadi. 
Common in the forests on the top of the Sahyadri, but 
scarce on the western slopes, which alone are included within 
Ratnagiri and Savant Vadi limits. Very rarely strays towards 
the Coast, but is sometimes found on high hills between the 
Ghats and the Coast, and detached from the main range by 
deep valleys. 

814.— Galloperdix spadiceus, Gm. 

Kelshi. I Dhamapur. 

I Savant Vadi. 

Common on the western slopes of the Ghats ; and found 
sparingly in thick hillside jungle and temple groves through- 
out the tract. 

829.— Coturnix communis, Bonn. 

| Khed. | 

Scarce and very uncertain in its arrival. A very few may 
be flushed in the cold weather in the fields of Pigeon Pea 
and Doliclws on the alluvial banks of the large rivers, and 
a few in grassy uplands ; but a large bag can never be 
made. 

Coturnix coromandelica, Gm. 

Eelshi. | Lavel. | 

Rain Quail are also very scarce indeed. Now and then a 
few brace are bagged in the cold weather in crops and grass, 
but it is seldom worthswhile beating for them on specula- 
tion. I have never seen or heard any during the rains, but my 
observations at this time of the year have always been limited 



Bankot. 


Mnndangad 


Kelshi. 


Palgad. 


G-uhagar. 


"Yaghotan. 


Walvan. 





FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 77 

to the Ratnagiri station and its immediate neighbourhood, 
and I am uuable to say whether they are permanent residents 
or not. 

826.— Perdicula asiatica, Lath. 

Durga Vadi. 



Very common in hillside scrub throughout the district ; 
appears to replace P. argoondah entirely. Comes down from 
the hill sides to drink and feed in the stubbles on the banks 
of streams at sunset. I found a nest with two fresh egga 
on the 17th January 1879. The eggs were much pointed 
at one end. These are of a pale cafe au lait tint. Dwarf 
Partridges roost, huddled together in the open, but generally 
close to some bush. Natives, after marking them down for 
the night, return after dark with a lantern, and by throwing 
a net over the place frequently secure a whole covey. 

[These Ratnagiri specimens are most richly and deeply tint- 
ed, presenting a striking contrast to those procured in the dry 
regions of the N. W. Provinces. — A. O. H.] 

832.— Turnix taigoor, Syhes. 

Guhagar. Palgad. 

Malvan. | Kbed. 

Not very common, but is occasionally flushed in crops and 
thin hillside scrub. 

835.— Turnix dussumieri, Tern. 

| Khed. j 

Scarce. Probably only a cold-weather visitant. 

839.— Sypheotides aurita, Lath. 

ILavel. 
Chiplun. 

Florikin rarely pass the Ghat barrier which divides the 
Konkan from the Deccan. In seven seasons spent in the 
Ratnagiri district I have only seen two birds at the places 
indicated. One was flushed while beating for Quail out of a crop 
of pulse, and the other in long rank grass. I have also heard 
of one having been obtained at Dapuli. 

840.— Cursorius coromandelicus, Gm. 

Guhagar. 
Ratnngiri. 

Scarce. Restricted, as far as my observation goes, to the bare 
laterite plateaus which stretch for about ten or twelve miles 
inland from the Coast. 



78 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

842 Ms.— Glareola pratincola, Lin 

Eatnagiri. 

22nd August 1879, Male. — Wing, 8£ ; tails, 5, forked for 
upwards of an inch; bill at gape nearly 1 ; tarsus, 1£. 

The occurrence of these Swallow Plovers at Ratnagiri is, 
I think, exceptional. The only occasion on which I have seen 
them was on the date above given, when I secured one out of a 
pair, which were hawking about on the bare table-land above 
the Ratnagiri station. 

[This specimen was sent as G. orientalis, but it is unmistak- 
ably G. pratincola, with the deeply-forked tail and the white 
shaft to the first primary. This is quite a young bird, but 
the fork is already over 1*75. 

This species breeds in Lower Sindh, whence I have numer- 
ous specimens, kindly collected for me with the eggs by 
Mr. Doitf, aud this specimen may be a straggler thence, or may 
have been blown over from Africa. This is the first time that 
G. pratincola has been observed within our limits outside of 
Sindh. m . 

There is some difficulty in distinguishing specimens of 
Glareola pratincola, with imperfectly developed tails, from 
those of G. orientalis. 

In Volume II, page 284, the difference between the two 
species was said to consist in — 

(1), the greater degree to which the tail is forked, the exte- 
rior tail feathers in pratincola projecting from 2 - to 2*5 in- 
ches beyond the central ones, while in orientalis they scarcely 
project an inch; (2), in the conspicuous white tippings to 
the short secondaries in pratincola, which is wanting in orien- 
talis ; (3), in the wing in pratincola being longer than in 
orientalis. 

Now where the tail is fully developed the first is an in- 
fallible diagnosis ; the second, broadly speaking, holds good, 
but I have now come across specimens of pratincola in which 
the white tipping is very inconspicuous, and others of orientalis 
in which there is a trace of this. As for the third it may 
hold good on an average of specimens, and the wings in 
pratincola run up to fully 8 inches, while I do not think that 
in orientalis they ever exceed 7 '60 inches, and they are 
generally considerably smaller, but I have several pratincola 
in which the wing is under 7 "50 inches, so that as a diagnosis 
the length of the wing is useless. 

The following additional differences will aid in distinguish- 
ing the two species ; (a) the shaft of the first primary in 
orientalis is brownish white, in some lights almost quite brown, 
while in pratincola it is nearly pure white, probably quite 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 79 

pure in fresh specimens ; (?>) the black throat band (in adults) 
is distinctly broader and more strongly marked in orientalis ; 
(c) there is more black (again in adults of course), in front 
of and under the eye in orientalis ; (d) there is a more pro- 
nounced rufous tinge on the breast and upper abdomen of 
adults of orientalis; (e) the upper plumage is of a slightly 
darker shade, and there is generally a more marked rufous 
tinge on the back of the neck of orientalis ; (/) the red of 
the gape, which is present in adults of both species, extends 
more on to the lower surface of the lower mandible in praiin- 
cola than in orientalis. 

Bearing in mind all these points there ought to be no 
difficulty in separating specimens of the two species, even 
where the tails are imperfect. — A. 0. H.] 

844.— Squatarola helvetica, Lin. 

Malvan. | 

23rd January 1880, Male. — Length, 11£ ; wing, 1\; tail, 
3£; tarsus, If; bill, 1£. Irides brown; bill black, pale horny 
at base. 

I have only seen Grey Plover hitherto at the locality named. 

845.— Charadrius fulvus, Gm. 

Bankdt. 
, Kelshi. 
Batnagiri. 

Common in the cold weather on the mud and sedge banks of 
the tidal creeks and wet paddy fields. At high tide, when the 
mud flats are covered, these Plovers congregate in largish 
flocks, and after circling round a few times often fly inland 
to the dry plains and uplands where they pass their time till 
the receding tide again leaves their feeding grounds accessible. 

They arrive early and leave late as compared with other 
migrants, and at one time I thought it possible that a few 
stayed to breed on the laterite plateau above the Ratnagiri 
station. On the 16th April one year T saw Golden Plover there 
in almost full breeding plumage, and on the 2nd September 
following shot young birds apparently too weak to have come 
a long journey. But I have since ascertained, beyond reason- 
able doubt, that no Plover do remain during the rains at 
.Ratnagiri. 

[845 quat. — iEgialitis asiatica, Pall. 

Amongst the specimens forwarded to me for verification 
by Mr. Vidal was one identified by him as Afyialitis geoffrcyi, 
shot at Ratnagiri on the 10th of October 187 ( J. The slender 



80 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KOJSKAN. 

bill and the very broad, unbroken, whitey-brown breast-band 
at once attracted my attention and closer examination, and a 
comparison with specimens sent me by Mr. Harting proved 
that this bird was really a young individual of JBgialitis 
asiatica. 

This is the first authentic instance of the occurrence of this 
species within our limits. 

The nearly allied vereda has been once procured at the 
Andamans (vide S. F., I., 83) ; but, so far as I know, there is no 
reliable record of the present species having been previously 
obtained in the British Asian empire. It will be found fully 
described in S. F., VIL, 438. 

Dresser says : " This species inhabits Western Asia, straggling 
rarely into the Western Palsearctic region ; and in the winter 
season is found in Africa as far south as the Cape of Good Hope '." 
and Harting says, after mentioning that it was first discovered 
by Pallas about the Salt Lakes in the southern deserts of 
Tartary : " Its usual line of migration appears to be by the 
Red Sea shore and Abyssinia to South and South-West 
Africa." And as SevertzofF found it breeding throughout 
Russian Turkestan, and it has been met with on the Caspian, 
in Palestine, on the north coast of Egypt and the Gulf of 
Suez, we might believe that this, the western form, migrated 
from Siberia to the Cape of Good Hope just as the larger 
eastern form, JS. vereda, migrates from Northern China to 
Australia. In the case of both species stragglers would be 
dropped here and there along the route, and individuals wander 
right and left of the route, a stray asiatica turning up at 
Heligoland and a stray vereda at the Andamans. But it 
would seem from what Heuglin says about meeting with this 
species in full breeding plumage in April and May, and the 
young in autumn in the swamps of East Kordovan, on the 
lower portions of the White and on the Blue Nile, in the 
beds of the rain torrents of the province of Kalabat and 
along the shores of Lake Tana in Abyssinia, that it breeds in 
Africa also, the mere so that he adds that it has been observed 
in June by others. 

The migration of this species is, therefore, by no means so clear 
and distinct as has been thought, and at present we can be by 
no means sure whether this Ratnagiri bird is an African-bred 
one blown over from the Red Sea, or a Siberian or Turkestan- 
bred one, which in its migratiou to the south-west has taken 
a easterly course. 

The present specimen is a young one, the whole plumage of 
the upper surface narrowly fringed with pale buff or reddish 
white. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 81 

The dimensions of the shin are as follow : — 

Length, 8'4; wing-, 5'5 ; tail (from insertion of feathers), 2*2 ; 
bill at front (from margin of feathers), 0'87 ; bare portion 
of tibia, 0*75 ; tarsus, 1"42. 

The tarsus is short. In a very similar but somewhat older 
bird, killed on the 4th January at Ofjimbuigne, Damara land, 
it is 1*5 full, and in an adult 1*6 nearly. I say nothing further 
here as to the diagnosis of this species, because there are now 
nine species of JEgiulitis known certainly to occur withiu our 
limits, and I propose to give separately a rough key by which 
these species may be readily distinguished in the plumage in 
which we usually meet with them. — A. 0. H.] 

846.— iEgialitis geoffroyi, Wagl. 

Guhagar. 

Ratuagiri. j 

\6th March 1879, Female. — Length, 8| ; wing, 5| ; tarsus, 
H; bill, 1. 

Rare. The only specimens I obtained were amongst mixed 
flocks of mongola and cantiana. 

847.— iEgialitis mongola, Fall. 

Guhagar. 
Bat.nagirl, 

Malvan. 

6th March 1879, Female. — Length, 1\ ; wing, 5 ; tarsus, \\ ; 
bill, | at front. Legs plumbeous ; feet aud toes darker ; bill, 
orbits, and irides black. 

Very common in the cold weather on the Coast aud on the 
banks of the tidal creeks. 

848.— iEgialitis cantiana, Lath. 

Guhagar. 

6th March 1879, Female. — Length, 6f ; wing, 4£ ; tarsus, 1. 
Legs light plumbeous ; feet darker ; bill black, yellow at base ; 
orbits black ; irides brown. 

4/A March 1879, Male.— Length, 6£; wing, 4| ; tarsus, H. 
Not so common as mongola. 

849.— iEgialitis dubia, Scop. 

Guhasar. I Makapral. I Dcvrukh. 

Vcngorla. 

5th March 1879, Female.— Length, 7 ; wing, 4f ; tarsus, 1. 
Legs yellow ; bill black, yellow at base ; orbits yellow ; 
irides dark browu. 

Generally distributed from Coast to Ghats, though scarce 
inland. 1 have frequently seen these Plovers in pairs towards 

li 



82 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

the end of April and May, and although I have not found 
their nests believe them to be permanent residents. 

852.— Chettusia gregaria, Pall. 

Batnagiri. | 

A young' male, wanting the black on the breast. One of a 
party of three was shot on the table land above the Batnagiri 
station, on the 31st October 1878, by Mr. Crawford's shikaree. 
I have not seen it elsewhere in the district. 

855.— Lobivanellus indicus, Bodd. 



Bankot. 
Peve. 
G-uhagar. 
Batnagiri. 


Khed. 






Abundant everywhere, usually in pairs, but 
large flocks. Breeds in bare stubbles on the 
rivers in March and April. 


sometimes in 
banks of the 



856.— Lobipluvia malabarica, Bodd. 

Kelshi. , I Fanasgaon. 

Batnagiri. 

Scarce. A pair is now and then seen on the dry laterite table 
lands near the Coast, and on the plains of the central tracts, 
but one may travel many miles without seeing the species. 

859.— CSdicnemus scolopax, S. G. Gm. 

Batnagiri. Dha.ma.pur. 

Bare. For many 3 ? ears I had never once seen or heard of 
this species in the district, and should have been prepared to 
assert confidently that it did not occur. But in bird collecting 
unexpected discoveries are always being made. Last year Mr. 
Crawford's shikaree shot a single bird, the only one he saw, 
on the rocky table land above the Batnagiri station, at the 
latter end of the monsoon. This year 1 came across three or 
four pairs on a bare rocky plateau on the outskirts of a dense 
jungle which flanks one side of a large tank at Dhamdpur, in 
the south of the district. 

860.— Strepsilas interpres, Lin. 

Malvan. | I 

I have only come across the turnstone as yet on one occa- 
sion. Out of a small party of four or five my shikaree got a 
single specimen at Malvan in April 1880. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF TIIE SOUTH KONKAN. 83 

862.— Haematopus ostralegus, Lin. 

Kelslii. 

Ratnagiri. | 

Scarce. A few are to be seen in the cold weather at the 
estuaries of the principal creeks, but they seldom travel more 
than a mile or so from the Coast, and are very wary and shy. 
The 2nd October is the earliest date on which I have noticed 
them. 

870.— Gallinago sthenura, KuM. 

I Mahapral. 
I Mandangad. 

Pintail Snipe come in, in considerable numbers, in October and 
November. The earliest date on which I have shot them is the 
2nd October, and the latest the 16th April. The supply varies 
very much according to seasons. I am inclined to think that, 
as a rule, the best times are those succeeding years of lightest 
rainfall. After an exceptionally heavy rainfall in 1878, the 
highest indeed on record, both this and the next species were 
decidedly scarce, as indeed were many other migratory 
aquatic birds. It may be, as I suggested in a paper in " Stray 
Feathers," Vol VIII., p. 175, that the rainfall having been 
everywhere proportionally heavy, the birds were arrested in their 
southerly flight. Or it may be, possibly, that the inundated 
area being everywhere larger after heavy rains, the birds 
are more scattered and appear to be in smaller numbers. The 
result to the sportsman, however, is the same, and only small bags 
are made. Snipe-shooting in Ratnagiri can seldom be had before 
the first or second week in November, after the monsoon rice 
has been harvested. Even then the birds are so scattered and 
uncertain in their choice of grounds that a great deal of heavy 
walking is necessary to make a moderate bag. The best grounds 
are the low-lying kharvat rice fields, on the banks of the tidal 
creeks, and reclaimed from the salt water by earthen embank- 
ments. But in shooting over such grounds it is well, if possible, 
to choose your time so as to have two or three hours of the 
highest tide ; for all round the paddy fields are acres and acres 
of mud swamps with stunted thorny bushes, iu which many of 
the birds lie at low tide until they are driven up to the fields 
by the flood. These mud swamps, intersected by numerous 
deep channels and full of pit-falls and sticky black slush, are 
too nasty walking to tempt even the most enthusiastic sports- 
man. Bnt as the Snipes themselves are driven from these 
pestilent strongholds by the tide there is happily no necessity 
to venture into them. The best Snipe- shooting is to bo had 
near the Coast in the vicinity of the large rivers. But inland 



84 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

there are many snug little grounds formed by terraced rice 
fields at the foot of the hills, and here and there a low-lying 
tank, where the monsoon water, rapidly receding, leaves an oozy 
bed of rushes and sedge, where a few Pintails are always at 
home. December and January are the best months for Snipe- 
shooting, as by that time the superfluous rain-water has all 
evaporated, and the birds are concentrated in all their regular 
legitimate haunts, whereas earlier in the season the area of 
wet ground is so large that there is no knowing where to look 
for them. 

871.— Gallinago gallinaria, Gm. 

Kehhi. 1 I 

Equally distributed and equally common with stlienura. I 
have kept no accurate record of the numbers of each species I 
have shot, but I usually find, after a day's shooting, about as 
many common Snipe as Pintails in the bag. Sometimes the 
Pintails preponderate, probably because they are not so often 
missed, for although the two species cannot perhaps be discri- 
minated with certainty on the wing, the Pintail has, I believe, 
a steadier and less erratic flight. 

872.— Gallinago gallinula, Lin. 

Kelshi. I I 

One or two are usually flushed in the larger Snipe grounds, 
but the Jack is not very common. 

873.— Rhynchaea bengalensis, Lin. 

Eatnagiri. | Khed. | 

Common here and there in patches of reeds and grass in 
semi-reclaimed rice fields, sometimes flushed in pairs, and 
sometimes in large wisps of from a dozen to twenty or more 
birds. 

877.— Numenius lineatus, Ouv. 

KelshL | ! 

Curlew come in September and leave about the end of 
March. The earliest arrival I have noted is the 31st August. 
They are found about the estuaries of all the principal creeks, 
on the mud banks and spits of sand. Occasionally in the early 
part of the season they are seen a few miles inland, feeding on 
open grassy plains, where the ground is still damp and soft 
after the monsoon rains. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 85 

878.— Numenius phseopus, Lin. 

Rnthasiri. 

Malvan. I 

Equally common with Curlew in the same localities, 
but is, as far as I have been able to observe, much later in 
arriving. 

880.— Machetes pugnax, Lin. 

Ratnagiri. 

I shot a solitary Ruff in winter plumage on the mud flats at 
Ratnagiri, on the 22nd September 1879. I have not seen the 
species before or since. 

He measured as follows: — Length, 12f ; wing, 7|; tarsus, 
2 nearly ; tail, 2^ ; bill at front, 1 1. Irides brown ; legs 
greenish. 

882.— Tringa subarquata, Quid. 

Ratnagiri. 

30th October 1879, Male.— Length, 8; wing, 5 ; bill, 11 at 
front ; tarsus, 1£. 

Large flocks of Curlew Stints come in to Ratnagiri in October 
1879, and I have since seen them in considerable numbers at 
Malvan ; but strange to say I have never seen any in previous 
seasons, although they are doubtless regular winter visitants. 

884.— Tringa minuta, LeisL 

Ratnagiri. j 

17th October 1879, Female. — Length, 5f; wing, 4; tarsus, 
|; bill at front, f. 

Like the Curlew Stint, I saw numbers of the Little Stint at 
Ratnagiri throughout last October, but had never seen it in 
previous seasons. The earliest date on which I first observed 
both species was the 22nd October. 

888.— Calidris arenaria, Lin. 

Malvan. | [ 

I shot a Sanderling at Malvan on a sand bank in January 
1879, amongst a large and motley flock of Mgiliatis mongola 
and cantiana and Tringa subarquata. It was a female mea- 
suring — 

Length, 7£ ; wing, 4f ; tarsus, 1 ; bill, 1. Bill black ; legs 
dusky grey. This is the only occasion on which I have seen 
the bird. 



8Q FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

891.— Rhyacophila glareola, Lin. 

Kelshi. I I 

Scarce. Very seldom seen on the banks of the creeks, but 
more often by the margins of reedy tanks. 

892.— Totanus ochropus, Lin. 

Mahapral. 

Palgad. I I 

More common than Rhyacophila, bat still comparatively 
scarce. 

893.— Tringoides hypoleucus, Lin. 

Bankot. 

Excessively common in the cold season, and generally distri- 
buted from Coast to Ghats. 

894.— Totanus glottis, Lin. 

| Mahaprul. | 

Common in some years and scarce in others. Keeps as a 
rule to tidal waters. 

897.— Totanus calidris, Lin. 

Kelshi. 1 I 

Common on some of the larger rivers, but not universally 
distributed. 

898— Himantopus candidus, Bonn. 

Dhamapur. | 

Rare. I shot a pair of Stilts in February 1880, on a large 
tank at Dhamapur, and have seen a pair at Kelshi at the estuary 
of the creek. These are the only occasions on which I have 
noticed the species. 

901.— Hydrophasianus chirurgus, Scop. 

| Chiplun. | 

8th December 1878, Female. — Length, 13; wing, 8 ; tarsus, 
2£ ; mid toe and claw, 2 ; hind toe and claw, 2. Irides 
yellow. 

Not common. There are a few reedy and deserted tanks 
scattered about the district in which small parties of these 
pretty Jacanas are occasionally found in the cold weather and 
in winter plumage. 

903.— Fulica atra, Lin. 

| Chiplun. | 

The Bald Coot was very plentiful on the Vashishti river some 
years ago, and on many of the tanks about Chiplun. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 87 

Latterly they have almost entirely deserted their old haunts. 
For two years not a single Coot was to be seen. This year, 
1879-80, which has beeu a moderately good season for all 
aquatic birds, I found a few pairs again established on the 
Vashishti. 

905— Gallinula chloropus, Lin. 

| Chiplun. | 

I shot a pair of Water Hens in a tank near Chiplun last year. 
One or two are usually to be seen on any secluded pond over- 
grown with lilies and sedge. 

907.— Erythra phsenicura, Penn. 

Kelshi. I Muhapral. 

I Savant Vadi. | 

Common throughout the tract, both in the mangrove swamps 
that fringe the larger creeks, and in irrigated garden lands. 
Breeds during the rains. 

910.— Porzana bailloni, Vieill. 

Ratnagiri. | Chiplun. | 

Flushed occasionally in Snipe grounds and on the margins 
of tanks from Ratnagiri northwards. Hitherto I have seen 
no specimens to the south, but don't doubt its occurrence there 
also. 

911*— Porzana fusca. 

I am rather doubtful as to the propriety of entering this 
species in a list which, if inaccurate, is worse than useless. One 
day, however, I saw, while passing in a canoe by a narrow 
tidal gullet through a mangrove swamp at Ade, a little Red- 
cheeked Rail, which I felt sure must have been Porzana fusca. 

As I was at the time intent on following a wily Otter I let 
it pass. Returning shortly afterwards the little skulker was 
nowhere to be found, and as usually happens when one par- 
ticularly wants to verify a doubtful point, I have been unable 
to find the species again. 

913.— Hypotsenidia striata, Lin. 

Peve. I Chiplun. 

Malvun. 

'60th March 1879, Male.— -Wing, 4| ; bill, If ; tail, 1| ; mid 
toe and claw, If. Irides red; legs greenish; bill dusky above, 
reddish below. 

I passed several years in the district before I came across 
this species. Last year I found a small colony in a mangrove 



88 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

swamp on the Vashishti, and this year have shot one in some 
swampy land near Malvan. Rails are always troublesome birds 
to find. The large area of mangrove swamps throughout the 
Coast section should attract and keep a number and variety 
of Kails, but somehow, if they occur, they manage to keep in 
wonderfully close hiding. 

920.— Dissura episcopa, Bodd. 

| Mahapral. | 

Scarce near the Coast, more common inland beyond the limit 
of the tidal waves, but everywhere uncertain in its occurrence. 
It is one of many species which the large rivers of the Deccan 
seem to attract in much greater numbers than do the streams 
of the sub-ghat littoral. 

923. — Ardea cinerea, Lin. 

I Mahapral. | 

Common on all the large tidal rivers. 

924.— Ardea purpurea, Lin. 

| Chiplun. | 

Common on the Vashishti and Savitri rivers, but less often 
seen than cinerea, as it keeps more closely to the cover of man- 
grove swamps, and seldom feeds on the open mud banks. 

925.— Herodias torra, B.-Ham. 

Peve. | Mahapral. 

12th April 1878, Male.— Length, 34; wing, 14£ ; bill from 
gape, 4^ ; tarsus, 5| ; mid toe, 3f. 

2bth April 1879, Male.— Length 37| ; to end of dorsal train, 
43 ; wing, 14| ; tarsus, 6 ; bill from gape, 4| ; mid toe and 
claw, 4. 

Legs, feet, and claws black "; bill yellow, mixed with dusky ; 
orbital skin greenish yellow. 

Common throughout the cold weather on all the creeks, stay- 
ing till late in May, by which time the dorsal train is in its full 
development. 

927.— Herodias garzetta, Lin. 

Peve. 1 I 

30th March 1879, Female.— Wing, 10| ; tail, 3| ; tarsus, 31 ; 
bill at front, 3£ ; expanse, 38^. Legs black ; feet mixed yellow 
and black. 

Very common everywhere, and not restricted as torra to the 
large tidal rivers, but straying far inland to fresh- water streams 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 89 

and tanks. Comes and goes with torra. Eoosts also in company 
with all the other Herons in mangrove swamps, side by side 
with Cormorants, Snake Birds, Ibis and Crows. Garzetta appears 
to retain its dorsal train and pectoral plumes much longer than 
any other species. Specimens have been shot late in March 
with the last year's train in more or less perfect condition. 
Torra, on the other hand, by November or December at the 
latest loses all vestige of its breeding plumage. 

928.— Demiegretta gularis. 

Eaukot. 

One or two ashy Egrets usually accompany each mixed 
flock of Herodias torra and garzetta, but like them are frequently 
solitary by day. 

929.— Bubulcus coromandus, Bodd. 

I Mahapral. 

Abundant in certain places, but not found everywhere. 
There are of course numbers to be seen in the neighbourhood 
of all the large creeks. Here and there, also in some inland 
villages far removed from any large stream, and where one 
least expects them, a colony of cattle Egrets is found. 
Whether these or any other Egrets stay to breed anywhere 
in the district I cannot say. At Eatnagiri itself there are 
plenty of suitable places. Thousands of Herons might build 
in the tree-clad swamps about the tidal backwaters without 
fear of molestation. But as far as I have been able to see 
the first burst of the monsoon makes a clean sweep of Ardea 
cinerea and purpurea, Herodias torra and garzetta, and Bubulcus 
coromandus. Up to the end of May there is no apparent 
diminution in their numbers, and most of the birds are then 
in fully-developed breeding plumage. But look where you 
will in the lull which succeeds the first grand storm and 
you see no Herons. Last year I had specially good oppor- 
tunities of observing this sudden exodus. Starting on the 
night of the 22nd May I marched straight into Eatnagiri 
by the Coast road from Anjanvel, a distance of about fifty 
miles. On the morning of the 23rd the day broke clear and 
fine, the sky was blue, and there were no indications of a 
coming storm. At every little creek I crossed the White 
Egrets were stalkiug about in their usual unconcerned way. 
Suddenly, at about 8 a.m., a violent hurricane sprung . up from 
the north-east, and black rain clouds came racing up from all 
quarters of the heavens. Eain fell in torrents, at short 
intervals from then till noon of the following day. The 

12 



90 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 

•wind veering gradually round from south-east and south 
to south-west became a regular cyclone. A more miserable 
journey, in the teeth of this hurricane, till I was safely landed 
in my own house at midnight, drenched and limp, I never had. 
Each small ferry crossing was like the British Channel in a 
sou-wester. Hundreds of native craft, totally unsuspicious of 
all danger, were wrecked close to shore. Many more were 
broken to pieces while anchored in fancied security in the 
snug little fair-weather ports all down the Coast. Few that 
were taken aback by this hurricane lived to tell the tale, and 
for days and weeks the seaboard was strewn with spars and 
bales, with here and there the corpses of the drowned, and 
knots of anxious men and women gathered round, fearing to 
identify a missing comrade or relation. The day after this 
disastrous storm no Herons or Egrets of any description 
could I see about the tidal swamps. There were many wise 
men and old inhabitants who doubted that this cyclone was 
the bursting of the true monsoon. But the birds knew better 
and they proved right. No more Egrets were seen till the fol- 
lowing September. It is possible that some of the Egrets may 
stay to breed on the Vashishti and Savitri. I can only 
answer for none being found at Ratnagiri during the rains. 
I am inclined to think that the rainfall is everywhere too 
heavy to make the business of nidification a comfortable 
employment. Butorides javanica, the only species of the 
Ardeidce, which I know for certain to breed in the district, 
must, from the dates on which I have found its nests, get 
the work over before the heavy rains have set in. 

930.— Ardeola grayii, Sykes. 

| Mahapral. 
Very abundant throughout the wet area of the district. 
Dons its breeding plumage at the end of April. I have never 
found its nest. 

931-— Butorides javanica, Horsf. 

Eatnagiri. I Mahapral. 

Khed. 
) Vaghotan. 

Common and widely distributed both inland and on the 
Coast. On the 15th April 1878 I have found a nest in a thorny 
bush, a few feet from the ground, on the banks of a small 
creeklet funning into the Savitri river The nest was a small 
stick platform, very shallow, with only a slight depression. 
Two fresh eggs of the usual eau de nil colour were secured. 
In shape they were almost perfect ovals, measuring about 162 X 



FIRST LIST OF TIIE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 91 

1*18. On the 20th April following another nest, with one fresh 
egg, was found in a similar situation. 

933. — Ardetta cinnamomea, Gm. 

Malvan. Savant Vadi. 

In addition to the localities mentioned I shot a Chestnut 
Bittern in a Snipe ground near Dapuli, but did not preserve 
the specimen. I imagine it will be found to be very sparingly 
distributed in suitable places throughout the district. 

937.— Nycticorax griseus, Lin. 

Mdlvan. | Dhainapur. 

Rare. I did not see the species at all in the northern parts 
of the district, but may of course have overlooked it. 

939.— Platalea leucorodia, Lin. 

I Chiplun. | 

Up till this year I believed that this species, as well as Tanta- 
lus leucocephalus, Anastomus oscitans, Inocotis papillosum, and 
Falcinellus igneus, all comparatively common on the rivers of 
the adjoining Sattara district, never descended the Ghats into 
the Konkan. Last November, however, I was surprised and 
interested to see for the first time a couple of Spoonbills on the 
Vashishti. They were in miserable plumage, and were evi- 
dently stragglers, who, like Artemus Ward during a trip by 
steamer, " felt sick and sorry they'd come/' The laws which 
govern the distribution of species having the same habits, and 
requiring the same food, do occasionally seem capricious. Why 
should Ibis melanocephala be comparatively common, while 
Tantalus leucocephalus was a total stranger ? 

941.— Ibis melanocephala, Lath. 

| Mahapral. | 

Comes to the Savitri and Vashishti rivers in considerable 
flocks in the cold weather. Its flesh is thought an especial 
dainty by both Marathas and Musalmans, although described, 
says Jerdon, as execrable by a writer in the Bengal Sporting 
Review. 

944.— Phsenicopterus roseus, Pall. 

Ratnagiri. 

Flamingos occasionally are seen on the mud flats at Ratna- 
giri. Dr. Armstrong got several specimens in 1877-78, and 
I got a pair on 31st October 1879. 

3 1 st October 1879, Female. — Length, 43; wing, 15 ; tarsus, 
12 ; bare portion of tibia, 1{ ; bill from base to tip round curve ; 



92 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAST, 

5^. Irides pale yellow ; bill pink, with black tip ; edges of 
both mandibles black ; orbits pale pink ; legs bright pink. 

951.-— Nettapus coromandelianus, Gm. 

| Chiplun. | 

Scarce and usually solitary. I have only seen it at the loca- 
lity mentioned, but Dr. Armstrong, I believe, got some speci- 
mens at Ratnagiri. 

952*.— Dendrocygna javanica, Horsf. 

Rare. Several years ago I shot three or four brace out of a 
moderate sized flock, which I found feeding on some paddy 
fields on the banks of the Vashishti. Dr. Armstrong has also 
got specimens from the Ratnagiri district, but I am not aware 
of the exact locality where he obtained them. 

957.*— Spatula clypeata, Lin. 

I have only seen one flock of Shovellers since I first travelled 
in the district. I found them on a narrow inland stream, and 
though I shot several unfortunately did not preserve a single 
skin. 

961.*— Chaulelasmus streperus, Lin. 

In old days I have shot Gadwall on the Vashishti, and eaten 
them, but have no skins to bear me witness, and have not seen 
any during the last two seasons. 

962.— Dafila acuta, Lin. 

| Chiplun. | 

19^/i November 1879, Male.— Length, 23; wing, \0\; bill, 
2J ; tarsus, If; tail, 4^. Legs blue ; irides brown; bill black, 
blue at sides. 

Pintails are to be seen in some years in small parties in the 
large Duck ground at the junction of the Vashishti and 
Tagbudi rivers ; but they come late and go early. 

963. — Mareca penelope, Lin. 

Ratnagiri. | Chiplun. | 

Wigeon in some years are very abundant on the Vashishti 
river, congregating in large flocks of five hundred birds or 
more ; but they are not, like common Teal, widely distributed. 
In 1878-79, after the highest rainfall on record, not a Wigeon 
was to be found in the district; but in 1879-80, after a year 
of moderate rainfall, they reappeared again in their usual 
strength on the Vashishti. Wigeon arrive comparatively late 
and usually leave by the end of February. Before the reeds 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 03 

on the mud banks have been cut, very pretty shooting is to be 
bad at the junction of the Vashishti and Tagbudi rivers by 
stealing up the lagoons in a light and silent canoe. But after 
the reeds are cut the Duck get very wild and cannot be 
approached by land or water. The only way then is to take up 
a position in ambush at the edge of some swamp over which 
they pass and repass on their way from one ground to another, 
and to have them driven backwards and forwards. 

964.*— Querquedula crecca, Lin. 

Eatnagiri. | Chiplun. 

Teal are more widely distributed than Wigeon, but never 
appear in such large flocks. They come in earlier before the 
rice crops are cut and stay later than Wigeon. 

965.*— Querquedula circia, Lin. 

Eatnagiri. 

Blue Winged Teal are comparatively scarce. 

969.— Fuligula nyroca, Quid. 

| Vanoshi. J 

Rare. I shot a single specimen of the White-eyed Duck out 
of a flock of five or six in a weedy tauk near Khed in December 
1878. The skin was preserved, but was unfortunately carried 
off while drying by a wanton Kite. 

971.— Fuligula cristata, Lin. 

Eatnagiri. | Chiplun. j 

2\st November, 1879, Male.— Length, 17; wing, 8^; bill, 
1-j-V; tarsus, \\ ; tail, Z\ ; mid toe and claw, 2f . Irides golden. 

2nd November 1879, Female — Young bird. — Wing, 7§; tarsus, 
1£; bill, If ; mid toe and claw, 2^. Irides pale brownish 
yellow. 

Before this year 1 had never seen the Indian Golden Eye in this 
district. But in November I shot a solitary specimen at Ratna- 
giri, and a little later found considerable flocks of them on the 
Vashishti river, feeding in the inundated paddy fields. It is 
probable that two or three more species of Duck than are 
entered in this list occur. But except Wigeon and Common 
Teal all the Duck are very uncertain in their comings and 
goings. 

975.— Podiceps minor, Gm. 

Malvan. | Chiplun. | 

Common on all large weedy tanks. 



94 FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONEAM. 

978 ter.— Larus affinis, Reinh. 

Kntnngiri. 

Malvan. 1 

Specimens were got by Dr. Armstrong, and I have also got 
it at Malvan and Ratnagiri. It does not appear to be common. 

979.— Larus icthyaetus, Pall. 

Guhagar. J 

I have only seen this Gull as yet on one occasion. A . single 
specimen was obtained out of a party of five or six. 

26th March 1879, Male. — Length, 26 ; wing, 19; expanse, 
62 ; tail, 7 ; tarsus, 3 ; bill at front, 2£, at gape, 3^. Irides 
brown ; bill yellow orange at gape, red at tip, with a dusky 
spot ; legs and feet yellow. 

980.— Larus brunneicephalus, Jerd. 

Bankot. 

Harriai. 

Guhagar. 

Rutnagiii. 

Malvan. 

28th March 1879, Male.— Length, 15£ ; wing, 13 ; tail, 5 ; 
tarsus, 2 ; bill, 1^. Irides light brown ; bill red ; tip dusky ; 
legs and feet dull red. 

Abundant all down the Coast and at the estuaries of all the 
creeks. 

981."— Larus ridibundus, Lin. 

Ratnagiri. | | 

I have not myself procured any specimens of the Laughing 
Gull, but have seen it at several places on the Coast amongst 
the native shipping. Dr. Armstrong has specimens from 
Katnagiri. 

983.— Sterna anglica, Mont. 

| Mahapral. | 

Seen occasionally hawking up the larger rivers, but not 
plentiful. 

987 bis.— Sterna albigena, Licht. 

Guhagar. 
Katnagiri. 
Malvan. 

Three Males, 25t A March 1879, Guhagar. — Length, 12^ to 
14 ; wing, 9 to 10 ; tail, 5 to 6£ ; tarsus, f ; bill, If. 

Three Females, 2bth March 1879, Guhagar. — Length, 11 to 
14 J ; wing, 8| to 9f ; tail, 4 to 6 ; tarsus, f to f ; bill, 1£ to 1£. 



FIRST LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE SOUTH KONKAN. 95 



3rd March 1880, Female.— Length, 13£ ; wing, 10; tail, 5 



One of the specimens from Ratnagiri, a young male, 
may, Mr. Hume thinks, have been tibetana of Saunders. 
I have not recorded its measurements. 

These Terns appear on the Coast at intervals during the cold 
season in large flocks. My specimens were got in October and 
March. Occasionally a few individuals of Sterna media are 
mixed up with these flocks, and once only I found a saundersi 
amongst them. Sometimes they arrive in an utterly exhausted 
condition, too weak to make any attempt at escape when 
caught. One September, at Harnai, hundreds so arrived and 
were caught by the fishermen and their boys, and sold in the 
bazar for food. Many more fell victims to the rapacity of the 
Sea Eagles at Suvamdurg, as testified by the discovery of 
numerous skeletons about and below their nest, and for a year 
and more afterwards the walls of the grand old fort were 
covered here and there with the remains of these Terns. 

Similarly at Malvan last February a large flock of distressed 
Terns arrived while I was there, but being left in peace they 
recovered their strength in a day or two. They appear to 
choose an open sandy beach and to return there regularly every 
evening at sunset, in small parties for a week or so, and then 
suddenly to vanish altogether. 

988 ter.— Sterna saundersi, Hume. 

Ratnagiri. 

A single Ternlet, which Mr. Hume discriminated as above, 
was got by my shikaree at Ratnagiri, in October 1879, amongst 
a flock of albigena. I did not record its measurements. 

989.— Sterna bergii, Licht. 

Vijaydurg. I I 

Mlavan. | 

Common about the rocks of Malvan, where it seems to be 
always present in the cold weather. 

A pair were got for Mr. Crawford at Vijaydurg. I have not 
observed it yet at any of the ports north of this locality. 

990.— Sterna media, Horsf. 

Peve. I 

Vijaydurg. | 

Appears here and there all down the Coast, but not in large 
flocks like albigena. A few individuals are often seen associ- 
ated with the latter. 

3rd April 1879, Male. — Length, 16^; wing, llf ; tail, 6| ; 
tarsus, 1 ; bill, 2£. Legs black ; bill yellow ; irides brown ; 
orbits black ; wings reach exactly to end of tail. 



96 REMARKS ON SOME SPECIES RECENTLY 

[992.— Sterna ansetheta, Scop. 

I procured numerous dessicated specimens of this species, 
on the Vengorla Rocks, the majority no doubt young birds, but 
two or three of them old adults. It is quite certain that this 
species breeds on these rocks during the monsoon, and it is 
clearly entitled to a place in the present list. — A. 0. H.] 

1007.— Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, Pall 

I Khed. I 

| Chiplun. 

This our only species of Cormorant I believe is excessively 
common on all the large rivers, travelling miles inland by day 
in search of fish-stocked waters, and returning with the greatest 
punctuality every evening at sundown in successive detach- 
ments to some common roost, usually a mangrove swamp, 
where, with Herons, Egrets, Ibis, Snake Birds and Crows in 
one vast motley crew, they fight and scream and wrangle for a 
full hour, before they settle down for the night. No Cormorants, 
I believe, stay to breed in the district, but leave like the Egrets 
at the first burst of the south-west monsoon. 

1008— Plotus melanogaster, Penn. 

Kelshi. | | 

Abundant on all the large rivers in their fresh waters as well 
as tidal sections. I don't think any Snake Birds stay to breed 
in the district. 



Stonarfes on some series mmity teriM % 
Pr. ImoR 

I have carefully examined Mr. Brooks' types of Cyornis 
•poliogenys (described S. F., VIII., p. 469). I find that I have 
one* specimeu of this species from Comillah, Tipperah, a 
female, killed on the 28th March 1869, and measured in the 
flesh by the late Mr. Valentine Irwin. At the time I obtained 
this specimen, I noted on the ticket " very possibly should 
be separated as C. intermedins." There are twenty-four adult 
females of rvheculoxdes from various parts of India and 
Burmah in our collection ; all these are clearly distinct from 
poliogenys. 

The first point of distinction^ the larger size of the wing. This 
varies in the above referred to specimens of female ruoeculoides 
from 2*6 to 2"8 as a maximum. Mr. Brooks', by some error, 

* Also I find one from the Bhutan Dours, and many others also from the Dours 
are in the late Mr. Mandelli's collection. 



DESCRIBED BY MR. BROOKS. 97 

gave the length of the wing of his type as 2'75 ; he probably 
intended 2'95, which is the length of the wing in one of his 
types ; in the other it is 2*82 ; and in the Comillah speci- 
men 2*9. 

In poliogenys the entire throat is paler than in rubeculoides ; 
and in two specimens out of the three is sordid white without 
any fulvous tinge ; in the third it has a slight tinge of fawn 
color. The breast in all three specimens of poliogenys is a 
dull, pale, rusty buff, very much paler and duller than the 
corresponding parts in rubeculoides ; and whereas the greater 
part of the abdomen in rubeculoides is, as a rule, pure white, 
in poliogenys nearly the whole abdomen is coloured like the 
breast, and scarcely at all paler than this. Then in rube- 
culoides the sides of the head, including the cheeks and 
ear-coverts, are much the same olive brown as the back, while 
in poliogenys these parts are distinctly a grey or earthy brown, 
or as some would call it ashy brown. As regards bills, legs, feet, 
and wing formula there seem no marked differences, though 
the third primary in poliogenys seems to run proportionally 
somewhat shorter. 

My specimen, which is precisely like the types, was sexed a 
5 by dissection, and I entertain no doubt myself that the 
male will prove to be blue like rubeculoides ; possibly I may 
have males in the museum, but I have not time now to go 
fully into this group. I merely write this note now at 
Mr. Brooks' request to indicate that, so far as I can judge, 
Cyornis poliogenys is a good species. Mr. Brooks' two types 
are, one from the Sikkim Terai, the other from the Bhootan 
Doars. 

I have also examined Mr. Brooks' type specimens of 
Calandrella tibetana, and find that I have many more specimens 
of this in my museum. These are what I believe to be the 
true Calandrella pispoletta ; at any rate they appear to me to 
be the Calandrella pispoletta of E. F. v. Homeyer, J. Fur. O., 
1873, p. 196. They have the long tail and the peculiar grey 
colouring. Mr. Brooks' two types have a dull earthy brown 
baud on the breast, but are not spotted there, but other 
specimens in our museum from Thibet are strongly spotted 
on this breast band. 

This, however, is not the Lark figured and described by 
Dresser as pispoletta which is C. heinii of Homeyer. Of this 
latter we have a good many specimens from the north-west 
Punjab procured during the winter. This has a tail of 2'3 
to 2*5, while in the grey pispoletta it is 2*7 to 2'85. 

Besides these two species, which occur within our limits (for 
we have specimens of the grey pispoletta (tibelana, Brooks,) from 

13 



98 REMAKES ON SOME SPECIES RECENTLY 

Native Sikkim) there is also a third species ( Calandrella minor), of 
which I have obtained a single specimen from Sultanpoor near 
Delhi. A fine adult .female, so exactly resembling Dresser's 
figure and description, that I cannot doubt that I have cor- 
rectly identified it. This is distinguished from the others by 
its small size, wing, 3*4 ; tail, 2'1 ; and by the conspicuous, 
strongly marked and abundant, though fine, spotting on the 
breast. 

From brachydactyla this spotting at once separates it ; from 
pispoletta ( —tibetana, Brooks), the grey color of the latter at 
once distinguishes it, its own color being a regular lark buff 
or fawn (I refer to the upper surface) marked with brown. 

There remains C. heinii (=pispoletta, apud Dresser) which 
in general tone of coloring it a good deal resembles, and with 
which it agrees in being spotted on the breast, but heinii is 
somewhat paler and less rufous, and the wing in heinii 
varies from 3'7 to fully 4*0. The spottings or streakings on 
the breast in heinii are larger, coarser, and less numerous. 
Minor, moreover, has a very conspicuous buffy white superci- 
lium extending almost from the nostrils to the nape, whereas 
there is scarcely a trace of this in heinii. 

In the true pispoletta (tibetana, Brooks), the elongated 
tertiaries extend quite to the end of the longest primary, 
in some specimens exceed it by a hair's breadth, whereas in 
the birds I call heinii they fall short of the longest primary 
by 075 inch or even more ; in minor they appear, judging by 
my single specimen, to fall short by 0*4. 

In both pispoletta and heinii the outer web of the outer tail 
feather is white, while in minor it is distinctly pale rufous 
fawn. I forgot to mention that in heinii the tail seems to 
vary from 2*3 to 2*5, so that, while the wing is longer, the tail 
is shorter than in the bird that, following v. Homeyer, I call 
pispoletta. 

I must say that comparing Pallas' original description 
Z. R. A., I., 526, with the two birds pispoletta (=tibetana, 
Brooks) and heinii (—pispoletta apud Dresser) I entertain little 
doubt that v. Homeyer's identification is correct, and that 
the ashy grey bird, " magisque cinerascente" is the true pispoletta. 

If Von Homeyer is right then I fear Mr. Brooks' name 
must be suppressed ; but if Dresser is right, and C. heinii 
of Homeyer is the true pispoletta, then probably the name 
tibetana will stand, as I cannot find that any other name has 
been applied to it, it having apparently been generally accepted, 
to judge from their remarks, by Russian and German ornitholo- 
gists as the true pispoletta. Certainly the measurements of tho 
tail given by Radde can apply only to the grey bird. 



DESCRIBED BY MR. BROOKS. 99 

Mr. Brooks' Phylloscopus sindianus is in ray opinion a perfectly 
good species. 

The only species for which it could be mistaken are tristis 
and neglectus, but as Mr. Brooks correctly points out it cannot 
be mistaken for tristis wheu carefully examined, and from 
neglectus it is separated at once by its superior size and conspi- 
cuously larger bill. I cannot doubt that this is a perfectly 
good and distinct species. I have recently had reason to 
believe that this is a permanent resident of, and breeds in, 
Sindh. 

A. 0. H. 



litotes on torkhta hnriata, llgtlt. 



By Henry Seebohm. 



By the kindness of Mr. Wardlaw-Ramsay the Thrushes in 
the Tweeddale collection have been sent to me for comparison 
with those in the British Museum and in my own collection. 
Some of the results of the examination of so large a series 
may be interesting to the readers of Stray Feathers. I pro- 
pose in the present paper to treat of the species allied to 
Geocichla citrina, (Lath.), but which have no white on the winor- 
coverts. Of these there appear to be three fairly marked spe- 
cies. 

Geocichla innotata, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., XV., p. 370 (1846), 
Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., XVI., p. 146 (1847); Walden, Ibis, 
1874, p. 139. This species is represented by two examples in the 
Tweeddale collection — one apparently a female, having the upper 
back suffused with olive, labelled Malacca, Maicy, January 
1868, measuring 4*8 in length of wing, and having the second 
primary equal to the sixth ; the other, also a female, labelled 
? Karin Nee, 1st April 1874, Wardlaw-Ramsay, measures 
4*55 in length of wing, and has the second primary longer 
than the sixth. Both these skins agree in having the rich dark 
orange chestnut head of G. albogularis, Blyth, and both agree 
in having the paler orange chestnut under-parts of G. anda- 
manensis, Walden, with the throat, as in that species, scarcely 
paler than the breast. The under-parts of both these species — 
G. innotata, Blyth, and G. andamanensis, Walden — scarcely 
differ from those of G. citrina, (Lath.) 

Geocichla albogularis, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., XVI., p. 146 
(1847) ; Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 138, is represented by eight 
skins from the Nicobar Islands — four males, three females, and 



100 NOTES ON GEOCICHLA INNOTATA, BLYTH. 

one young in first plumage, labelled Captain Wimberley, 
December 1873 to February 1874. The seven adults all agree 
in having the colour of the head a rich dark orange chestnut, 
as rich but slightly darker than in G, rubecula, Grould, from 
Java. In all of them the white chin and upper throat is very 
conspicuous, but less so than in G. cyanota, Jard. The rest of 
the under-parts, except the vent and under tail-coverts, are 
similar in colour to those of G. layardi, Wald., from Ceylou, 
that is intermediate between those of G. rubecula, Gould, and 
those of G. citri?ia, (Lath.), G. andamanensis, Wald., and G. 
innotata, Blyth. These seven examples vary in length of wing 
from 4*2 to 3*9, and have the second primary shorter than tha 
sixth. 

Geocichla andamanensis, Walden, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, 1874, 
p. 156. Hume ; Stray Feathers, IV., p. 289, is represented by 
21 skins, collected by Mr. Wardlaw-Ramsay and Captain 
Wimberley on the Andaman Islands, the former collection con- 
taining six males and two females obtained in March, April, 
and May 1873, and the latter five males and five females ob- 
tained from September 1873 to May 1874, The other three 
skins are labelled — one Andamans, and the other two Java, These 
skins vary slightly inter se, but agree in being darker and 
browner on the head than G. citrina, Lath., but not quite so 
dark, and not nearly so rich as G. innotata, Blyth, and G. 
albogularis, Blyth. These skins vary from 4'2 to 3*8 in length 
of wing, and have the second primary shorter than the sixth. 

In all three species in what I presume must be young 
birds, there are traces of dark edges to the ear-coverts. This 
is specially noticeable in the young in first (spotted) plumage 
from the Nicobars. The white on the vent appears to be a 
variable character, in some skins being confined to the under 
tail-coverts. 

In the Tweeddale collection is also a skin of Geocichla trico- 
lor, Hume, and I have since obtained a second through the 
kindness of Captain Elwes. Both these skins were collected 
by Dr. Day in Assam. The latter is figured in the P. Z. S., 
where I have taken an opportunity of correcting the error 
into which I fell from not having previously seen a skin of the 
fully adult male of this handsome Thrush. It is not a Geo- 
cichla, as an examination of the under surface of the wing will 
.show ; but is, I have not the shadow of a doubt, the fully adult 
male of Geocichla dissimilis, Blyth, and will stand as Turdus 
dissimilis, Blyth. It appears that the female and immature 
male of this species are indistinguishable from those of Turdus 
hortulanus, Sclater. The Siberian bird will probably be iden- 
tical with the Chinese bird, but until an adult male of the 



NOTES ON GEOCICHLA INNOTATA, BLYTH. 101 

former is discovered, the name of Turdus pelios, Bonap., will 
hang in terrorem over the two names, unless the good sense of 
future ornithologists refuses to use a name, which was orginally 
applied to a Siberian bird, afterwards freely used for an African 
species, and then re-transferred to the Siberian bird — a process 
which has destroyed its scientific value except in the eyes of 
the modern school of ornithologists, whose aim is to carry out 
the rules of the British Association regardless of consequences. 
I am indebted to Mr. Hume for correcting another error in my 
paper in Stray Feathers, p. 438, which, together with the 
more important error of confusing the Indian with the Chinese 
bird, I corrected in my paper in the P. Z. S., 1879, p. 803. 
Turdus unicolor, Tickell, certainly has precedence of Turdus 
tinicolor, Gould, though curiously enough both names were 
applied to the same species. 

It seems as if one could never exhaust the synonomy of this 
species. There can be no doubt that Turdus protomomelas, 
Cab. Journ. Orn., 1867, p. 286, applies to the adult male of 
Turdus dissimilis, Blyth. 



Remarks by the Editor. — The above note by Mr. Seebohm 
might lead my readers to suppose that Geocichla innotata, Blyth, 
was really a good species, whereas in my opinion nothing 
can be more contrary to the fact. 

Instead of two females I can show Mr. Seebohm amongst 
our enormous series of G. citrina from all parts of the empire, 
from the Malay Peninsula* to the hills of the Rutnagherry Dis- 
trict, half a dozen males and females absolutely wanting any 
trace of the white spot on the wing. 

In these specimens the blue or olive of the back, the colour 
of the head and nape, and of the lower parts varies precisely 
as it does in citrina. 

Mr. Seebohm hardly seems aware how extraordinarily this 
species varies in colour. There are many specimens of citrina, 
in which the head is as rich and dark an orange chestnut as 
any G. albogularis. Again in one specimen I find it only an 
ochreous yellow, and between these extremes every intermediate 
shade of colour is observable. 

The same is the case with the colouring of the under-parts. 
In some the colouring is doubly as intense as in others. One 
splendid male, entirely innotata so far as the wing is concerned, 
has richer coloured under-parts than nine-tenths of the citrina, 
instead of having them paler, whilst its head is less deeply 

♦Amongst others a Tonka specimen with a more than averagely large white 
wing spot. 



102 NOTES ON GEOCICHLA INNOTATA, BLTTH. 

coloured than those of a good many citrina. Before my friend Mr. 
Seebohm accepts shades of colouring as of specific value in this 
group, he should get together a couple of hundred specimens 
of the two or three supposed species he wishes to contrast. 
People laugh at the enormous, and, I admit, unwieldly series of 
every species that I retain ; and I have myself repeatedly 
thought of weeding out my museum, but it is only by the help 
of such series that one can confute ornithologists' intent upon 
making species on slight differences in shade of colour. Here I 
have before me citrina and innotata, some of each presenting the 
shades of colouration supposed to be characteristic of the other. 
It is absolutely certain that so far as shade of colouring is 
concerned, innotata cannot be maintained for a moment. 

But it may be said, at any rate, citrina has a well marked 
white patch on the wing, and innotata has no trace even of 
this. Surely this is sufficient to constitute a distinct species. 

Here, again, the extreme variability of G. citrina has to be 
taken into account. From an abnormally large pure white 
patch, the size of the last joint of a man's little finger, down to 
a greyish white margin to a single feather of the coverts of 
one wing, every intermediate amount of white on the wing be- 
tween G. citrina and G. innotata is exhibited by our series. 

Even this does not exhaust the variability of the species. 
In some the whole lower abdomen, vent, and lower tail-coverts 
are pure white ; in a few the rich ferruginous tint continues 
right down to the vent leaving nothing, but the lower tail- 
coverts white, and even, these not pure, but with a faint orange 
buff shade. In one specimen the entire half of the whole abdo- 
men up to the breast is pure white ; on the other half of the 
abdomen the ferruginous color descends half way to the 
vent. 

If, after the above explanation, the result of the examination 
of certainly the largest series ever collected in one place, Mr. 
Seebohm still thinks fit to separate innotata as a distinct spe- 
cies, I cannot, of course, cavil ; but nature has made no such 
separation, and I must remind my readers that it is 

" Better to err with Tier than shine with Mm." 

In the above note Mr. Seebohm also speaks of Geocichla 
layardiy as if this too were a good species ; but this has even 
smaller claims to recognition than innotata. It has not even 
the prima facie plausible distinction of an entire absence of 
white on the wing, and as a matter of fact every Ceylou 
Geocichla* of this type may be matched with an Indian 

* This bird, though doubtless rare in Ceylon, is by no means so rare as Major 
Legge seems to think' I can at any rate add three more specimens to those he 
mentions. 



GEOCICHLA DISSIM1LIS, BLYTH. 103 

one, and there is every reason to believe that it is in Ceylon 
a purely migratory bird finding its way at intervals during 
the cold season from the mainland to Ceylon. 

When we come to the question of separating G. andamanen- 
sis and G. albogularis, we enter on more doubtful ground. 

As I said long ago, taking the birds from both islands as a 
body, it may correctly be said that the Nicobar birds are more 
deeply coloured, and have more white on the throat than the 
Andaman ones ; but where both the colour and the amount of 
white on the throat in the birds from both islands vary as they 
do, there must, according to my view of what constitutes a 
valid specific difference, be a constant superiority in respect to 
points like these, of all the birds of one race over all the birds 
of the other. There is no such constant* difference in the case 
of these two supposed species. On the contrary, we have Anda- 
manese birds as deeply coloured, and showing as much white 
on the throat as several of the Nicobar birds ; and if the whole 
lot be thrown together, and the tickets removed, there are at 
least one in five of which no one on earth could predicate whe- 
ther it came from the Nicobars or the Andamans. Here, again, 
if Mr. Seebohm considers it right to maintain two species, I 
can only record my dissent and warn my readers against 
what I consider to be hair-splitting, valde deflendus. 



torMta toimilia, IJtgtft. 



In consequence of Mr. Seebohm's remarks on the above 
species, I applied, through my friend Mr. Wood-Mason, who is 
always anxious to help in clearing up every difficulty, to the 
Trustees of the Calcutta Museum, for the loan of Mr. Blyth's 
own specimens, of this species six in number, entered in his 
Catalogue at page 163, No. 955, 1 male and 5 females. 

They very kindly acceded to my request, but informed me 
that two had been probably destroyed and one lost. 

When years ago I examined these birds there were six of 
them, all in a row on one board, and these were then all with- 
out exception Geocichla imicolur, Tick. 

Now the three remaining specimens are mounted each on small 
separate stands. Two are still unicolor — the third is un- 
doubtedly a young male or female of the species that I named 
tricolor. 

* Note too that from the Little Cocos, an island belonging to the northernmost 
portion of the Andaman Group, we have a specimen with a throat almost whiter 
than any specimen from the Nicobars. 



104 GEOCICHLA DISSIMILIS, BLYTH. 

This bird, now made to do duty as one of the six specimens 
entered in the Catalogue, was not amongst these six some years 
a<ro, but it is one of Blyth's old birds, and it agrees well enough 
with his description of adult male dissimilis ; and though it 
was not one of the six catalogued by him as dissimilis, we 
may accept it, I think, as having been the bird he referred 
to, and may consequently accept his name for the species. 

But it must be clearly understood that Blyth was entirely 
abroad about this species. The bird that he considered the 
female of dissimilis, of which he says he procured some eight or 
ten in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, were all unicolov, and 
wherea3 he, owing to this mistake, says, that his dissimilis is 
not uncommon in the cold season about Calcutta, it is in 
reality so extremely rare that during ten years collecting in 
that neighbourhood I have never seen a single specimen, 
thouorh I have seen scores and scores of unicolor, and indeed 
neither the museum nor Mr. Parker, nor any of the other 
collectors in that neighbourhood with whom I am acquainted, 
have ever obtained a specimen. Indeed but for Blyth's printed 
remarks, as to what the male of his dissimilis was, all his other 
remarks and all the six specimens that he himself labelled 
dissimilis, would prove conclusively that his dissimilis was 
really unicolor. 

It may be useful to quote his remarks in extenso, J. A. S. B., 
Vol. XVI., p. 144, Feb. 1847 :— 

"12. — T. dissimilis, nobis ; T. unicolor et T. modestus, nobis 
passim, as in XI, 460, &c. : Calcutta Thrush, Latham, the 
female. This bird, as well as the preceding one, is very 
closely allied to the succeeding group Geocichla; and the 
mature male of the present species has the whole underparts 
from the breast, except the medial line of the belly and the 
lower tail-coverts, which are pure white, of the same bright 
ferruginous colour as in G. citrinus, G. cyanotics, &c. 

" An approach to the same colouration is exhibited by old 
males of T. rufulus. The female, however,* shows no sign 
of this except on the axillaries, and on more or less of the 
under surface of the wing, yet, before obtaining the male, 
I had preceived the affinity of this species for the Geocichla ; 
and it is curious that I procured some eight or ten in the 
feminine plumage (whether all females, however, I cannot say, 
for some were only skins), before I succeeded in getting^ 
male, which, as I all along suspected, proved to be clad in 
not quite so homely a garb as his mate. The male is indeed 
rather a handsome Thrush. Length nine inches by fourteen 

* Here he refers to the female unicolor. My tricolor (which we are now agreed 
to call dissimilis,) at every age in both sexes shows the ferruginous flanks. 



GEOCICHLA DISSIMILIS, BLYTH. 105 

and a quarter in spread of wing ; closed wing, four and a 
half; tail, three and one-eight; bill to gape, an inch and one- 
eight ; tarsi the same. Colour of the upper-parts plain olive- 
brown in both sexes,* with ashy beneath the surface of the 
feathers, tending a little to predominate about the rump ; 
throat, middle of belly, and lower tail-coverts white; the 
sides of the throat with dusky linear spots more or less 
diffused, and some often appearing in the middle; breast 
light olive-brown, with a few dusky spots, sometimes small 
and triangular, sometimes larger and more linear; and the 
flanks spotless olive-brown in the female, and perhaps in the 
juvenescent male, but in the old male bright ferruginous, 
spreading to the white medial line of the abdomen ; beak 
dusky, with generally some intermixture of yellow ; and leo-s 
bright yellowish-brown. As in the Geocichlce, the bill of a 
fresh specimen of this species is usually much clotted with 
mud ; and the bird, like them, is mostly seen on the ground, 
hopping about among the underwood. It is not rare in 
Lower Bengal during the cold season. Mr. Jerdon has 
lately obtained it in the south, and it often occurs in collec- 
tions from the Himalaya. f" 

It is quite clear from the above that Blyth/s supposed 
mature male was either a female or a young male, and that 
his eight or ten females were simply unicolor, as two of his survi- 
ving types prove ; and indeed if female unicolor with the 
yellowish olive tinge suffusing the breast and flanks be com- 
pared with the adult female of what we are now agreed to 
call dissimilis, it is easy to understand how the latter may 
easily have been mistaken for the male of the former. 

However, there is sufficient in the description, especially 
the words " have the whole under-parts from the breast 
except the medial line of the belly and lower tail-coverts, 
which are pure white, of the same bright ferruginous color 
as G. citrina — " a statement absolutely correct of both the old 
female and the young male of my tricolor, to show that Blyth 
really had got hold of one specimen of dissimilis, and I am 
therefore quite willing to suppress my own and adopt his 
name, although his description included two species and 
although all his originally catalogued types belong to another 
species. 

* This again refers to female (or young male) unicolor and dissimilis. In both 
species the adult males have a grey mantle, paler and bluer in the former, darker 
and more iron grey in the latter. 

f This all refers to unicolor ; even in Sikkim, in all these years, and collecting 
so excessively closely and on so large a scale as poor Mandelli did, he never obtained 
any specimen of dissimilis. On the other hand it is common towards the head of 
the Assam valley, during the cold season. 

14 



106 GEOCICHLA DISSIMILIS, BLYTH. 

I have no doubt that the bird that now does duty as one 
of those six, was the identical bird referred to in the passage 
above quoted. No doubt, as often happened in the old crowded 
quarters, this specimen got lost, and so was not mounted 
along with the others. Then, after Blytlr's departure, this 
specimen was found up at the time of Mr. Cai'leylle's famous 
revision of the ornithological collection, and he then attached 
to it a paper ticket (or somebody else did, the ticket is not in 
Blytlr's hand-writing. I have compared it carefully with letters 
of his.) 



Geocichla cardis,* Tern. 
G. dissimilis, Bl. 
Cal. Bot. Garden. 



Then later, when things were re-arranged, this bird being 
found to answer to Blytlr's description, the little black ticket 
originally attached to the board, and bearing distinctly the 
words " male and female, Bengal and Nepal," was attached 
to the single stand on which this one bird had been mounted — 
a stand which could not have been labelled as bearing ci male 
and female," as it could not possibly have contained more than 
a single bird. 

It may be well to note that my origiual type had the whole 
throat and breast a much duller colour than adults that I have 
subsequently received from Assam, and than is figured in the 
P. Z. S., 1879, PI. LXIV. It is much more, in fact, like 
the breast in the figure of Turdus javanicus, Ibis, 1875, PI. 
VIII, and with the dark color descending considerably lower 
than is shown in the plate in the P. Z. S. though not quite 
so low as in javanicus. 

Further I may note that the coloration of the rufous parts 
in the plate in the P. Z. S. is not nearly a sufficiently intense 
ferruginous for old adults, and the female there depicted in 
the background must have been a very young one, for in the 
old female the ferruginous is as intense as in the old male. 
The great difference being in the upper surface, which in the 
female is a fine dark olive brown, becoming slightly greyish 
on the rump, upper tail-coverts and tail, and in the male black 
on the head and nape, and elsewhere a dark iron grey much as 
in dark specimens of Hypsipetes psaroides ; it is in fact a very 
dark edition of the upper surface of old male unicolor, just as the 
back of the female dissimilis is a darker edition of that of the 
old female unicolor. 

* Some one has scratched out the word " cardis" with a blue pencil. The ticket, 
though not new, ia twenty years younger at least than the specimen. 



GEOCICHLA DISSIMILIS, BLYTH. 107 

In conclusion I ought to note that the bird, of whose 
nidification I gave an account under the head of Geocichla 
dissimilis (Nests and Eggs, p. 231), was nothing but a very old 
and well colored female of unicolor, in which the yellow, (not 
the bright ferruginous colour characteristic of dissimilis,) similar 
to that shown at the base of the throat in Jerdon's plate (Ibis, 
1872, PI. VII), descends upon the breast, sides, and flanks, 
just as the ferruginous does in dissimilis. 

A. O. H. 



+ ®>fa gtnts of tfa Wttnkm galf af tlxt JJMag 
§4MttsttIa. 

Third Notice. 

Our Second Notice of the birds of the Malayan Peninsula 
left the list as follows : — 

Number of species which we knew, or thought we 

had good reason to believe, occurred ... 437 

Number of species, the occurrence of which though 
asserted seemed doubtful ... ... 17 

Number of species of which we had actually 

collected specimens ... ... ... 373* 

To the 437 species we have now 28 to add, making a total 
of 465. 

Out of the 1 7 doubtful species one, namely Chrysocolaptes 
sultaneus, may, as remarked in my Second Notice, be definitely- 
excluded, as we now know that the bird that occurs is C. strictus. 
Besides this we have obtained one of the doubtful species (one 
that I least expected to find), namely, Acridotheres fuscus, 
the true fuscus with the yellow irides. This raises the number 
of accepted species to 466, and reduces the doubtful species to 
15. Of these the validity as species of the following four is 
doubtful. 

39 quint. — Spilornis bacha. — (I doubt whether it is possible ever 
to ascertain the particular species to which this desig- 
nation applies). 
lASbis B. — Hydrocissa migratorius, Maingay. — (This can scarce- 
ly be a good species, but I am unable to ascertain to what 
particular species the name really applies). 
261 A. — Lanius super ciliosus. — (I believe this to be only the 
perfect adult of cristatus). 

* Erroneously given as 372 in our last notice. 



108 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN 

355 ter. — Geocichla innotata, Bly. — (I disbelieve in the dis- 
tinctness of this supposed species) . 
Of the following eleven species the occurrence in the Malay- 
Peninsula is extremely doubtful. As at present informed I 
altogether disbelieve it : — 

77. — Glaucidium radiatum. 
107. — Caprimulgus indicus. 
148. — Palaeornis torquatus. 
151 ter. — Palaeornis caniceps. 
152. — Palaeornis fasciatus. 
215 — Bhopodytes trietis. 

To these, however, I must now add the following, the occur- 
rence of which in the Malay Peninsula, despite the authorities 
on whose testimony 1 included them, I am now compelled to 
doubt : — 



219. — Taccoeua leschenaulti. 
584 ter. — Henicurus leschenaulti. 
678 quat. — Crypsirrhina varians. 
798 Sis. — Calcenas nicobarica. 
781 quint A. — Carpophaga grisea. 



778 A. — Sphenocercus oxyurus. 
778 B. — Sphenocercus korthalsi. 



69. — Elanus coeruleus. 
103 quat A. — Collocalia troglodytes. 
136.— Ceryle rudis. 

This reduces the number of accepted species to 461 and 
leaves the doubtful at 20. 

But besides these there is one other species, which must, I 
think, be not only excluded from our list, but altogether sup- 
pressed, and that is, 387 B. — Trichastoma olivaceum, Strickl., A. 
and M. of N. H., 1847, p. 132. 

Let me first reproduce, for the convenience of readers, Strick- 
land's original description : — 

u Malacopteron olivaceum, Strickland — M. supra olivaceo- 
brunneum, remigibus fuscis, extus rufobrunneo, intus albido 
marginatis ; rectricibus rufo-bruuneis, rufo-marginatis, loris 
superciliisque cinerascentibus, mento et gula sordide albidis, 
pectore lateribusque pallide olivaceis, abdomine pallide fulvo, 
crisso pallide rufo. 

" Upper parts olive brown ; remiges fuscous, edged exter- 
nally with reddish brown and internally with whitish ; tail red- 
dish brown, margined externally with rufous ; lores and streak 
over eye greyish; chin and throat dirty white; breast and sides 
pale olive brown ; belly pale fulvous ; vent and lower tail-co- 
verts light rufous ; upper mandible fuscous, lower yellowish ; 
feet and claws yellowish brown. 

" Total length, 6 inches ; beak to front, 10 lines ; to gape, 1 
inch ; height, 3 lines ; breadth, 3£ lines ; wing, 2 inches 10 lines ; 
medial rectrices, 2£ inches ; external ditto, 2 inches ; tarsus, 
1 inch ; middle toe and claw, 11 lines ; hind ditto, 9 lines." 

This specimen of Strickland's came from Malacca, and if its 
description be carefully compared with specimens of Trichas- 
toma abbotti from Singapore to Sikkim, it will be found to cor- 
respond absolutely with fully one-fourth of the number. With 
other specimens it does not agree so well, because this species 



HALF OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 109 

is one that varies very considerably both in depth and shade of 
colour and in the amount of greyish about the face, according, 
as I conclude, to age and season. There is no doubt, howevei', 
that one and all are one and the same species. Whether in 
Sikkim, Dacca, Tipperah, Pegu, Tenasserim, or the Malay 
Peninsula you get darker and lighter, more olive or more rufous, 
birds, or again birds with very grey lores and eye streaks, and 
others with scarcely a trace of grey, but, to judge from our very 
large series, the rufous and brighter-colored types predominate 
southwards, the duller colored and more olivaceous ones north- 
wards. Blyth's type of abbotti was one of the rather browner 
duller colored birds — Strickland's apparently one of the bright- 
er colored and more rufous types. Blyth himself doubted 
whether Strickland's bird, which Strickland appears to have sent 
him, was more than a variety of abbotti. He had then seen but 
very few specimens from any locality. I, with something like a 
hundred from all parts of Eastern India, Burma, and the Malay 
Peninsula, from Sikkim to Singapore, have no doubt that the 
bird is not even a variety, merely one of the better colored 
types of the species, of which Blyth had two years previously 
described one of the duller forms as abbotti. 

This supposed species must therefore be removed from our 
list, reducing the total number of accepted species to 460. 

1 entirely agree with Salvadori that this Trichastoma abbotti 
vel olivaceum is entirely and absolutely congeneric with his 
Malacocincla rufiventris which I have from Borneo- But Blyth's 
Trichastoma rostratum (which by the way is totally distinct 
from his Alcippe affinis, of both of which I have numerous spe- 
cimens identified with Blyth's types), is (as indeed is Alcippe 
affinis) a Malacopterum, a true tree bird, whilst the abbotti group 
are entirely ground birds. Very probably the generic name 
Malacocincla ought to be adopted. 

Another bird has also to be excluded from the list which I 
take shame for ever having entered, and that is Astur cucu- 
loides. Long ago we obtained a small adult Hawk precisely 
resembling Mr. Sharpe's figure of this species, B. M. Cat., I, 
pi. 4., fig. 2. It was accepted as cuculoides and put aside with- 
out examination. Recently, having occasion to examine it, its 
thin tarsi and long toes showed it at once to be an Accipiter, and 
further going into the subject, I entertain no doubt that it is a 
very pale and old example of Accipiter stevensoni, Gurney. This 
adult is conspicuously distinct from any that I have ever seen 
of either the true virgatus or the Sikkim gularis {vide Gurney, 
S. F., VIII., 443) ; but I confess that I have not yet sufficiently 
mastered this species to make sure whether or no any of the many 
young Malayan specimens that I have entered as virgatus 



110 



THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 



should really be assigned to stevensoni, and it would be a real 
chanty if Mr. Gurney would point out clearly, giving a dis- 
tinct diagnosis, how young birds of virgatus and stevensoni, sex 
unknown, are to be separated. 

This therefore reduces our total to 459. 

Out of these 459 accepted species we had previously actually 
collected specimens of 373 ; we have now preserved specimens 
of 27 out of the 28 species which we have this time to add to 
the list, as well as of 15 of the species previously entered on 
the authority of others in our lists, but of which we had not 
hitherto succeeded in securing specimens. This makes up the 
total number of species, of which we have up to date succeeded 
in obtaining specimens, to 415. 

Out of the 44 species that we have as yet failed to procure, 
a very few may be doubtful. Thus there may have been some 
mistake about Gyps indicus, Cyanoderma bicolor, Arundinax 
adon, Budytes melanocephala, Gallus varius, Leptoptilus argalus, 
and Tantalus lacteus. But of the great majority there can be 
no doubt, as we have ourselves seen most of them, although we 
have not yet preserved specimens. 

Of course, there are two species — Microtarsus olivaceus and 
lole cinerea — which may be synonyms of two species that we 
have obtained. But even excluding these and the previous 
seven there remain 35 certain, which, added to the species we 
have obtained, gives an ascertained total of 450 species. Out of 
these 450 certainly ascertained species, all, except 115 species, 
have been ascertained to occur elsewhere within our limits out- 
side the Malay Peninsula. It may be useful to subjoin a list 
of these 115 species, as this will give an idea of the charac- 
teristic features of the avifauna of the Malay Peninsula as 
contrasted with that of Tenasserim. 



List of Malayan species not hitherto observed elsewhere 
within our limits. 



25 A. — Accipiter stevensoni. 

39 quat A. — Spilornis pallidus. 

53 A. — Circus spilonotus. 

67 bis. — Pernis brachypterus. 

63 A.— Syrnium maingayi. 

74 A. — Scops stictonotus. 

74 sext. — Scops malayanus. 

74 nov. A. — 8cops rufescens . 

85 quint A. — Hirundo archetes, 
105 ter A. — Batrachostomus stellatus. 
103 ter C. — Batrachostomus auritus. 

114 ter A. — Lyncornis temminckii, 

115 A.— Harpactes diardi. 



115 B — Harpactes kasumba. 

1 15 bis A. — Harpactes rutilus. 

117 A. — Merops sutnatranus 

127 bis A. — Pelargopsis malaccensis. 

133 A. — Ceyx rufidorsus. 

140.4. — Buceros rhiaoceroides. 

141 bis. — Hydrocissa convexa. 

143 bis. — Hydrocissa malayana. 

?143 bis A. — Hydrocissa nigrirostris. 

145 quat A. — Craniorrhinus corrugatus. 

152 ter. — Palseornis longicaudus. 

153 A. — Loriculus galgulus. 

163 bis A.— Yungipicus variegatus. 



OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 



HI 



164 A. — Reinwardtipicus validus. 

187 bis. — Sasia abnormis. 

190 A. — Indicator malayanus. 

196 bis A. — Megalaenia henrici. 

196 quat A. — Megalaema ver?icolor. 

196 quat B. — Megalaema chrysopogon. 

198 ter A. — Megalaema duvauceli. 

202 A. — Cuculus pravatus, 

205 A. — Heirococcyx fugax. 

208 A. — Cacomantis merulinus. 

217 A. — Centrococcyx rectunguia. 

217 quint A. — Centrococcys eurycercus. 

224 A.. — Arachnothera crassirostris. 

224 B. — Arachnothera flavigastra. 

224 C. — Arachnothera robusta. 

224 D. — Arachnothera simillima. 

225 ter A. — iEthopyga siparaja. 
223 ter A. — Anthreptes rhodolaema. 
240 sept. — Prionochilus thoracicus. 
257 A. — Lanius bentet. 

263 A. — Tephrodornis gularia. 
267 bis. — Hemipu8 obscurus. 

267 bis A. — Xanthopygia tricolor. 

268 ter. — Volvocivora culminata. 
270 quat A. — Graucalus sumatrensis. 
273 quat A. — Pericrocotus ardens. 
277 ter A. — Pericrocotus cinereus. 
285 A. — Dissemurus platurus. 

289 .4.— Muscipeta incii. 

289 B. — Muscipeta princeps. 

289 ter A. — Philentoma iDtermedius. 

291 A. — Leucocerca perlata. 

3C1 A. — Stoparala thalassoides. 

303 A. — Cyornis cyanopolia. 

304 A. — Cyornis elegans. 
304 B. — Cyornis frenatus. 

307 ter A.— Cyornis albo-olivaceus. 
324 A. — Krythrosterna erythaca. 
336 A. — Brachypteryx malaccensis. 
346 bis A. — Pitta boschii. 
353 A. — Petrophila gularia. 
356 A. — Geocichla avensis. 
366 A. — Turdus naumanni. 
387 A. — Trichastoma rostratum. 
390 A. — Alcippe cinerea. 



390 ter A. — Turdinus macrodactylua. 
393 bis A. — Stachyris poliogaster. 

395 d. — Macronus ptilosus. 

396 A. — Timalia nigri chilis. 
396 B. — Timalia maculata. 
396 C — Timalia poliocephala. 
396 D.— Timalia leucotis. 
396 bis B. — Kenopia striata. 

396 bis C. — Trichixoa pyrrhopygus. 
396 ter A. — Malacopterum cinereum. 
396 ter B. — Malacopterum magnirostris. 
396 ter C. — Malacopterum affiuis. 
396 ter D. — Setaria albogularia. 
396 ter E. — Alcippe cantori. 
402 A. — Pomatcrbinua borneensis. 
450 A. — Criniger theoides. 
452 dec A. — Iole olivacea. 

452 dec B. — Iole terricolor. 

453 A. — Microtarsus melanoleucua. 
457 quint A- — Ixidia webberi. 

463 bis A. — Phyllornis icterocephala. 
469 A. — Irena cyanea. 
530 bis A. — Orthotomus maculicollia. 
530 ter A- — Orthotomua cineraceu8. 
593 ter A. — Budytes taivanus. 
595 bis. — Eupetes macrocercus. 
662. — Corvua enca. 

697 A. — Amadina maja. 

698 A. — Amadina atricapilla. 

699 A. — Amadina nisoria. 
703 bis. — Amadina oryzivora. 
771 A. — Treron capellii. 

774 A. — Osmotreron olax. 

779 A. — Ptilonopus jambu. 

803 quint. — Polyplectrum bicalcaratum. 

811 A. — Alectropbasis erythropthalmus. 

825 quat. — Arboricola charltoni. 

831 ter A. — Melanoperdix niger. 

831 quat A. — Rhizothera longirostris. 

875 A. — Limosa melanuroides. 

875 bis. — Limosa nova? zealandiae. 

902 A. — Porphyrio edwardsi. 

912 bis A. — Rallina superciliaria. 

912 bis B. — Rallina paykulli. 



I have not included Baza jerdoni, because it is pretty cer- 
tain that this bird was identical with my incognita, and this 
latter is certainly sumatrensis, and has occurred in Tenasserim. 
I have excluded Bairachostomus affinis, of which Captain 
Bingham has sent me a specimen from Tenasserim. I have 
excluded Alcedo euryzona, because I cannot find that any 
specimen of typical euryzona has been certainly obtained in the 
Malay Peninsula. Nigricans, the supposed young of this species, 
has been there obtained, but it is not certain that the two are 
identical. If they be so, then euryzona occurs in Tenasserim 
also. 

I have put a note of interrogation to Hydrocissa nigrirostris, 
because it seems probable that this may be only the female, as 
Wallace has always stated, of malayana. 



112 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

I now subjoin two lists, one of the 28 species that have to 
be added to our list, and the other of the 15 species of which, 
though previously entered, we have now for the first time 
procured specimens ; and I will add a few remarks on certain 
other species to which I wish to call attention. 

As in previous lists, species occurring elsewhere in the 
British Asian Empire, outside the particular tract we are 
working, are entered in italics. Those not so occurring in 
ordinary Roman text. A star prefixed signifies that we have 
ourselves shot and preserved or procured specimens. 



Species to be added to the List. 



*103 ter. — Collocalia i?mominata i Hume. 

[Selangore. ] 

A single specimen of this fine large Swiftlet, the only one 
of this species that we have as yet met with in the Malay 
Peninsula, was shot for us near the town of Selangore, in the 
state of that name, by Mr. H. C. Syers on the 2nd of 
November 1879. 

165 bis. — Hemicercus canente, Less. 

A nest of this species was taken by Mr. Darling, at 
Kussoom, only about 120 miles south of the southernmost 
point of Tenasserim and one of the parents captured, identified 
and made over to one of the taxidermists to skin, but what 
became thereafter of that skin never subsequently transpired. 

*177 bis. — Gecinulus viridis, Bly. 

[Kussoom.] 

A single specimen was obtained quite in the north of the 
Peninsula at Kussoom, on the mainland a little north of Junk 
Ceylon. 

*178. — Micropternus phaoceps, Bly. 

[Klang, Selangore.] 

Strange as it may seem we procured a typical specimen of 
phaoceps at Klang in about 3" North Latitude. We have obtain- 
ed scores of specimens of Micropterni north and south of, and 
at this same locality, and all have been brachyurus with the 
central portions of the throat feathers very much darker than 
the breast feathers, and with the generally darker and duller 
shade of plumage that characterises that species ; but here we 
obtained a single specimen with the central portions of the 
throat feathers unicolorous with the breast, and with the 



OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 113 

generally lighter and brighter chestnut plumage of the Pegu 
race of phteoceps. A bird absolutely inseparable from some 
specimens from the Doon, the Nepal Terai, and Dacca, as well 
as from others from Pegu and Northern Tenasserim. 

*289 ter A. — Philentoma intermedius, Sp. Nov 

[Foot of Gunong Pulai, Jphore.] 

The wings fall short of the tail by more than the length of the 
tarsus. The second primary is considerably shorter than the 
secondaries, but the third is not equal to the latter ; it is so 
in velatum, but in both pyrrhopterum and the present species 
it is longer than these latter. The wing is rounded ; the 
distance between the primaries and the secondaries is not 
so great as the culmen. There is no doubt, therefore, that this 
should be classed as a Philentoma, which it resembles in 
every respect, even to the masses of fluffy flank feathers, except 
in having a proportionally somewhat longer and narrower bill 
than either of the two previously known species. 

Only a female has been procured, which was shot at the 
foot of Gunong Pulai in Johore, at the extreme south of 
the Malayan Peninsula on the 6th March. 

This female is quite of the same type as the female of 
velatum, but is much smaller and altogether of a different 
blue, viz., exactly the same blue as that of the head, neck, 
and throat of the male P. pyrrhopterum, between which and 
velatum it thus, as it were, forms a link, so far as tint of 
plumage is concerned. 

The specimen is a very good one and a perfect adult. The 
following are the dimensions : — Length, 6* ; wing, 3*18 ; 
tail to insertion of feathers, 2*7 ; bill from gape, 0*88 ; bill from 
frontal bone straight to point, 0*8 nearly ; tarsus, 068. 

The exposed portion of the 1st primary is 097, the 2nd 
primary exceeds the 1st by 0*84 ; the 3rd primary exceeds 
the 2nd by 0-65 ; the 4th exceeds the 3rd by about 0'07 ; 
the 5th and 6th are nearly the same length ; the 6th a hair's 
breadth the longest. 

The entire head, including forehead, lores, cheeks, chin, throat, 
ear-coverts, sides of the neck, back, wing-coverts and breast, a 
dull pale grey blue, just the color of the throat in good 
specimens of adult male P. pyrrhopterum ; the rump greyer, 
and a few of the under feathers whitish ; upper tail-coverts 
the same color as the back ; quills and tail brown, but the 
outer webs of all the feathers, and both webs of the tertiaries 
suffused with the same color as the back. I say the back, because, 
although the color of the head and the back are much the 
same, the feathers on the head are closer set, and therefore 

15 



114 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

produce the effect of a somewhat purer color than on the back. 
In certain lights the feathers of the lores are slightly and the 
feathers surrounding the upper margin of the eye decidedly 
a paler and purer blue. The abdomen is a dull pale brownish 
grey, irregularly streaked with pure white owing to the bases 
of the feathers showing through. Some of the vent feathers 
and all the lower tail-coverts are pure silky white. The sides 
and flanks are mingled dull slaty or brownish grey and white ; 
the axillaries are bluish grey. The wing lining much the same 
color as the head. Unfortunately the colors of the soft parts 
were not noted. 

It is probable that the male is differently colored as in the 
case of velatum. 

*301. — Stoporala melanops, fig. 

[Girbee, south of Tonka between 7 9 and 8° N. Lat.] 

This is another of the Indian forms which, it now appears? 
extend into the northern portions of the Malay Peninsula. 
Further south this is replaced by S. thalassoides. 

*304 B. — Cyornis frenatus, Sp. Nov. 

[Jurrum, Klang in Selangore.] 

We obtained two specimens of a Cyornis which might, primd 
facie, have been thought to be males, but which proved on 
dissection, (one of them dissected by Davison himself,) 
to be females, in Selangore, in about 2° 30' N. Latitude. 

One was shot on the 11th August 1879, near Jurrum ; the 
other on the 15th of February 1880, near Klang. These 
birds belong, as far as I can judge, to no known species. 

They are what I should call typical Gyornis, that is to say, 
that in the matter of bill, feet, wings, and tail, they correspond 
precisely with Cyornis rubeculoides, and they are everywhere 
dark blue above, and below everywhere more or less tinged 
with the orange ferruginous, characteristic of the rubeculoides 
section of this genus. 

The prominent feature of this new species is a broad pure 
white streak from the point of the forehead to the upper 
part of the eye, extending a little beyond the level of the 
anterior angle of the latter. The greater part of the lores, at 
any rate that portion immediately in front of the eye, is 
black. The entire upper surface, including the whole visible 
portion of the closed wings and tail, is a dark almost indigo 
blue, a little paler and brighter on the lower back, rump and 
upper tail-coverts, and also perhaps on the wing-coverts, and 
a little darker on the crown, but as a whole the colour is 
extremely uniform, and there are no brighter lazuline spots 



OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 115 

or bands on the shoulders of the wing, or ou the forehead, or 
above the eyes as in many other species. The cheeks and 
ear-coverts and sides of the neck are the same dark bine 
as the crown. 

The point of the chin is white, or whitish, as are also the 
sides of the upper throat where they abut on the lower 
mandible and cheeks. The rest of the throat, breast, and 
lower parts, including the lower tail-coverts, axillaries, and 
wing lining are orange buff, pale on the throat, growing more 
intense and ferruginous on the breast, and elsewhere again 
paler, becoming almost white in the middle of the lower 
abdomen. The extreme sides of the breast and the hinder 
part of the flanks, where they join on to the back and rump, 
brushed with the same dark blue as the upper parts. 

The following were the dimensions, etc., recorded in the 
flesh of one of the two specimens : — Length, 5*7 ; expanse, 8'8 ; 
tail, 2*15; wing, 28; tarsus, 07; bill from gape, 0*7; 
weight, 0'52 oz. 

The bill was black ; the legs, feet, and claws purplish plum- 
beous ; irides deep brown. 

* 332 ter. — Turdinulus murina, S. Mull. (Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 
47.) 

Pnoepyga roberti, God.-A.ust. and Wald., Ibis, 1875, p. 252; 
S. F., IV., 218 ; VI., 234. 

[Klang, in Selangore.] 

The occurrence of this species far down in the Malay Penin- 
sula brought to my mind the bird described by Blyth, loc. cit., 
and a comparison of my specimens, Indian and Malayan, with 
Blyth's description have left me little doubt that the above 
identification is correct. 

Blyth's description runs as follows : — 

" M. murina, S. Miiller, N. S., also a true Turdinm, and the 
smallest of the genus. Plumage as in its congeners, with long 
white supercilia, and white spots tipping the wing-coverts. 
Length, 4^ inches ; wing, 2 inches ; tail, 1 inch ; bill to gape, 
f inches. Sumatra. 

Now this description and these dimensions exactly fit our 
bird. In my former notices of this (loc. cit. sup.) I unaccount- 
ably omitted to give dimensions and colors of soft parts, 
though we recorded these of a very large series. 

The sexes do not differ appreciably in size, but large and small 
individuals of each occur. The following is a synopsis of the 
measurements of nine individuals of both sexes, recorded in 
the flesh. 



116 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

Length, 3*9 to 4-7 ; expanse, 65 to 7*15 ; tail, 05 to 09 ; 
wing, 1-9 to 2-1 ; tarsus, 07 to 0'85 ; bill from gape, 0'7 to 082 ; 
weight, 0-62 to 0*7 oz. 

The legs, feet, and claws, vary from pale brown and brown 
to pale fleshy brown and dusky fleshy ; the upper mandible 
from brown to black, the lower mandible pale to dark plumbe- 
ous ; the irides brown from light brown, to cinnabar, or again 
Sienna brown, and to deep brown. 

The general shade of color of the birds also varies a 
good deal ; some are paler, some darker, some have the 
long superciliary stripe and the entire throat buff color, and 
the entire breast and abdomen olive brown, the feathers 
streaked centrally with buffy white, and no pale unstreaked 
patch in the middle of the abdomen. Others have the super- 
cilium and the entire throat and even part of the breast white, 
and the greater part of the abdomen unstreaked white, clouded 
with the same brownish rufescent buff, that covers the 
throat of the specimens at the other end of the scale, and with 
the brown striated feathers almost confined to the sides of the 
breast and flanks. 

The two types look rather different at first sight, but they 
run into each other, and the birds are structurally identical. 

Taken as a body, though there are exceptions to the rule, the 
Assam birds appear to be deepest colored, the Malayan palest, 
and the Tenasserim intermediate. 

*35l Us. — Cyanocinclus solitarius. P. L. S. Mull. 

[Girbee.] 

Another species that runs a short way down the Malay 
Peninsula. 

* 353 A.— Petrophila gularis, Swinh. {Ibis, 1863, p. 93, PI. 3. 

[Malacca."] 

A single specimen of this Chinese species was obtained 
in the neighbourhood of Malacca. A fine adult male in full 
plumage. 

* 393 bis A — Stachyris poliogaster, Sp. Nov. 

[Foot of Gunong Pulat Johoro.] 

Length, 4*6 ; expanse, 6-5 ; tail, 1*7 ; wing, 2'05 ; tarsus, 0-65 ; 
bill from gape, 0'6 ; bill at front from margin of feathers, 
052 ; weight, 0'45 oz. 

Irides a deep brown; lower mandible fleshy pink; upper 
mandible plumbeous brown ; legs, feet, and claws dark fleshy, 
tinged with green. 

The entire lores, extending quite to the nostrils, and closing 
over the culmen so as to form a frontal band, the feathers 



OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 117 

above and below the eye and the cheeks, dull grey or 
greyish white, a little browner on the cheeks ; chin and throat 
white, with a grey shade, most of the feathers black shafted. 
A pale olive brown band across the breast ; lower breast, 
abdomen, sides, flanks and tibial plumes, grey, darker and bluer 
on the sides ; and the tips of some of the flank feathers with a 
brown tinge ; lower tail-coverts pale fawny brown ; wing 
lining and axillaries pure white. The posterior portion of the 
forehead and the crown bright ferruginous chestnut, the feathers 
dark shafted. Nape, back, and lesser wing-coverts dull brownish 
olive ; wings and tail hair brown, with the visible portions in 
the closed wing everywhere suffused with a faintly rufescent 
olive shade ; the tail faintly and obsoletely barred ; the edge 
of the winsf white. 

This little Stachyris, of which I have a single specimen, 
obtained near the foot of Gunong Pulai, near the southernmost 
extremity of the Malay Peninsula, belongs to the same 
sub-group as rujiceps, Blyth, rufifrons, Hume, and prcecognitus, 
Swinhoe, but is distinguished at once from all of them by its 
grey face and grey underparts ; the latter only traversed by 
the pale brown breast band. 

"When on the subject of Stachyris I should very much like to 
know how S. bocagei of Salvadori is to be distinguished from S. 
assimilis, Walden, which latter differs from S. chrysoza, Hodg- 
son, precisely in the particulars by which bocagei is said to 
differ. Perhaps Count Salvadori will kindly compare his 
specimen with specimens of assimilis, and explain how they differ. 
*396 D. — Timalia leucotis, Strichl. 

[Malacca, and foot of Gunong Pulai, Johoro.] 

Of this well-known species, unaccountably hitherto omitted 
from our list, we have now procured numerous specimens, both 
in the neighbourhood of Malacca and about the extreme south 
of the Malay Peninsula. 

*403 bis. — Pomatorhinus olivaceus, Bly. 

[Kussoom,] 

This is another northern species which runs down the Malay 
Peninsula, for 150 miles or so, south of the Tenasserim border. 
*556 quat. — Phylloscopus tenellipes, Swinh. 

[Kussoom.] 

A single, but thoroughly typical, example. 
*599. — Corydalla richardi, Vieill. 

[Kussoom, Poongah, Girbee, Klang, Singapore] 

Numerous specimens obtained this year in various parts of 
the Peninsula. 



118 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

*688 ter. — Sturnia sinensis, Gm. 

[Singapore.] 

Davison obtained a single specimen, an immature bird, 
of this species, on Singapore Island. It is of course the 
Pastor elegans of Lesson, and it has been recently procured, 
on several occasions, in Pegu, by Mr. Oates, to whom I am 
indebted for a nearly adult specimen. 

*704. — Estrelda amandava, Lin. 

*704 bis. — Estrelda flavidiventris. Wall. 

[Singapore Island.] 

We procured specimens of both these species in a thoroughly 
wild state on Singapore Island, but, as in the case of Oryzivora 
leucotis, they appear to occur nowhere else in the Peninsula, 
and plentiful as they may now be, in a wild state on that 
Island, we believe that all three species have been introduced 
there. 

*844. — Squatarola helvetica, Lin. 

[Jurrum in Selangore, Pulo Nongsa.] 

*848. — yEgialitis cantiana, Lath. 

[Singapore, Pulo Nongsa.] 

*875 bis A. — Liraosa novae-zealandise, Gray. 

[Changlii, Singapore Island.] 

A single specimen, with the much barred rump, (and it 
appears to me, sex for sex longer bill,) of this eastern race, was 
procured on the southernmost extremity of Singapore Island. 
It differs, recognizably, I think, from our large series of 
lapponica (rufa) which I obtained at Kurrachee. 

*877. — Numenius lineatus f Cnv. 

[Tonka.] 

Although omitted from our previous lists, this species is not 
uncommon in the Malay Peninsula, along the sea coast, right 
down to the southernmost extremity. 

*878.; — Numenius phaopus, Lin. 

[Klang, Jurrum, Pulo Nongsa.] 

Even more common than the preceding. 
*911. — Porzana fusca, Lin. 

[Klang.] 

The only specimen of this species we have yet met with in 
the Peninsula. 



OP THE MALAY PENINSULA. 119 

*929. — Bubulcus coromandus, Bodd. 

[Klang.] 
*989. — Sterna bergii, Licht. 

[Pulo Nongsa, Johore Straits.] 

*1000 bis. — Fregata minor, Gm. 

[Pulo Nongsa.] 

Davison has repeatedly seen frigate birds about the coasts 
of the Malay Peninsula, at Tonka, Copah . and on one occasion 
at Lankowrie Islands, north of Penang, he saw nearly twenty 
together, but he has never succeeded in procuring one. 
Lieutenant Kelham, of the 74th Regiment, however, succeeded 
in shooting one on Pulo Nongsa, an island about 30 miles 
south-west of Singapore. 

This bird, which I take to be a young one, just assuming, in 
places, mature plumage, measures as follows in the skin :— 

Length, 28 ; wing, 20'3 ; tail from iusertion of feathers, 
11 "3 ; bill, along curve of culmen to point, from margin jf 
feathers, 4*6 ; from gape straight to point, 4*0 ; mid toe and 
claw, 2 65; claw, only (which is feebly serrated on inner 
edge), 0-8 ; tarsi, 0'7. 

The space between the lower mandibles and a lengthened 
triangular pouch (apex downwards), running for nearly two 
inches down the throat, forming doubtless in life a pouch, bare ; 
the whole of the rest of the head and neck all round, sordid 
fawny white, most of the feathers faintly darker shafted, and 
a good many of them, especially on the occiput and at the base 
of the throat, suffused towards the tips with pale chestnut. 

The upper breast hair brown, passing into blackish brown on 
the lower breast ; the abdomen pure white ; the sides, flanks, 
tibial plumes, and lower tail coverts, and entire under surface 
of the wing, blackish brown, almost black in some places, and 
there with a faint green gloss ; winglet, primaries, secondaries 
and their greater coverts blackish ; tertiaries and tail (which 
latter is much abraded) dark hair brown ; lesser and median 
wing coverts hair brown, each feather margined with brownish 
white ; back, scapulars, rump and upper tail-coverts dark hair 
brown ; most of the feathers of the middle back a good deal 
Avorn and weathered, and in amongst these peeping out a few 
new feathers, much darker, and with a purple or green sheen. 

*1003. — Pelecanus javaiiicus, Horsf. 

[Klang in Selangore.] 

A single specimen of the large Pelican, of the onocratalus 
type, which we identify in India as above, was shot for us in 
July by Mr. H. 0. Syers. Some years Pelicans appear iu 



120 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

prodigious numbers on the coasts of the Malay Peninsula, but 
since we have been regularly collecting there, they have been 
extremely rare. 



List of species entered in our First List, but now for the first 
time obtained. 



*23 ter. — Astur soloensis, Horsf. 

[Malacca, Klang.] 

*41. — Polioaetus ichthyaetus, Horsf. 

[Poongah, about 8° N. Lat.] 

Not yet observed further south. Leucogaster, on the other 
hand, is common everywhere along the Coast, and on every 
island. 

*55. — Haliastur Indus, Bodd. 

[Klang, Selangore.] 

This specimen, though obtained well down in the Malayan 
Peninsula, has the dark central streaks as strongly developed 
as in any Indian specimen, and shows no tendency towards 
the intermediate Javanese race, or a fortiori to H. leucosternum 
of Australia. 

*56 ter. — Milvns afjinis, Gould. 

[Klang.] 

This is the only specimen we have yet even seen in the 
Malayan Peninsula. 

*83. — Hirundo javanica, Sparrm. 

[Kussoom, mouth of the Poongah river, Jaffaria, Johore.] 

These specimens prove to be absolutely identical with 
Nilgiri ones. 

*114: bis. — Lyncornis cerviniceps, Gould. 

[Kussoom, Poongah.] 

Davison previously stated that this bird certainly occurred 
in the northern portions of the region, as he had frequently 
heard its peculiar call there. We have now obtained numerous 
specimens, showing that it comes down at least as far south as 
the 8° N. Lat. 

*233 quat.—Antlireptes simplex, S. Mull. 

[Kussoom.] 

A very rare -bird in the Straits, which does not appear to 
extend to the south. 



OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 121 

*686. — Acridotheres fuscus, Wagl. 

[Penang and Jurrum.] 

A rare bird in the Malay Peninsula, but the specimens 
obtained are true fuscus, as I have already remarked, with the 
yellow irides, and not with the blue ones which characterize 
the Southern Indian mahrattensis, Sykes. 

*703 ter. — Erytkrura prasina, Sparrm. 
[Selangore.] 

This lovely little Finch, common as it is in the southern parts 
of Tenasserim, appears to be extremely rare in the Peninsula. 
It is not known to the Malaccan dealers, and the only specimens 
we have ever met with were a few at Selangore. Even here 
the Malays, who notice bright colored birds very readily, 
professed never to have seen the bird till our people shot some, 
and yet the conditions of life in the southernmost portions of 
Tenasserim appear to be entirely identical with those of 
Malacca, and other parts of the western-half of the Malay 
Peninsula. 

*831 quat. — Caloperdix oculeus, Tern. 

[Eopah.] 

•902 A.— Porphyrio edwardsi, Elliot. S. F., VII., 23, PI. 1. 

[Near Klang.] 

Purple Coots are not common in the Malay Peninsula. The 
explored portions of the tract contain few localities suited to 
their habits, but in a large swamp, about 15 miles east of Klang, 
Davison met with a good number of these birds, and Mr. Sj r ers, 
who accompanied him, succeeded in bagging one, which proved 
to be, not calvus, as Blyth and Eyton had recorded, but Elliott's 
new Siamese species edwardsi. The plate already given of 
this species in Stray Feathers (loc. cit. sup.) is an extremely 
faithful one. 

* 9 Qi.— Gallicrex cinereus, Gm. 

[Klang and Selangore.] 

By no means a common bird in the Peninsula. 
*990. — Sterna media, Horsf. 

[Jurrum and Selangore.] 

*992. — Sterna anaetheta, Scop. 

[Between Penang and Malacca.] 

•1004. — Pelecanus philippensis, Gm. 

[Malacca.] 

We obtained from a dealer a single old skin of a young 
bird of this species, killed some years ago, in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Malacca. 

16 



122 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

There are a few species in regard to which I desire to make 
a few remarks. 

57 bia. — Pernis brachypterus, Bly. 

It is now to my mind quite certain that we have in the 
Malay Peninsula a species of Honey Buzzard quite distinct 
from ptilorhynchus. It is quite possible that this may be 
Pernis celebensis, with which it agrees in having the entire 
•wing lining and axillaries strongly and broadly, transversely, 
barred, but it agrees neither with SchlegeFs figure " Valk Vogel," 
pi. 26, fig. 4, nor Mr. Sharpens description, Cat. B. M., I., p. 34y, 
and would rather seem to be referable to the same species as 
the fourth Sumatran example referred to by Mr. Gurney, Ibis, 
1880, p. 213. 

I have now two specimens, the one apparently a male, wing, 
14*75; the other a supposed female, wing, 16*1. Both are of 
precisely the same type, and both unmistakably distinct from 
any Indian or Malayan specimen of ptilorhynchus that I have 
ever examined. 

I have never seen celebensis. I cannot find out what Blyth's 
brachypterus really was. Our present birds may not be refer- 
able to either of these species, or supposed species, but I am 
absolutely certain that they are not ptilorhynchus. 

The male I take to be the youuger bird of the two. It has 
the entire forehead, crown, occiput, nape and full broad crest 
(nearly 3 inches in length), the sides of the head, including 
the cheeks, ear-coverts, and sides of the neck, almost black ; 
a few of the feathers of the forehead, of the hind head, and 
the crest, are very narrowly margined with sordid white, as 
are most of the blackish brown feathers of the hind neck ; 
the entire chin and throat pure white ; a good many of the 
feathers, however, faintly washed with creamy towards the tips ; 
a very few of the feathers, with parts of the shaft, black, and 
three feathers, one above the other, just at the base of the centre 
of the throat with conspicuous black shaft stripes, as if the last 
remains of a central throat stripe ; the entire breast and upper 
abdomen mingled white (with, in many places, a creamy tinge) 
and blackish brown ; in the upper part of the breast the brown is 
confined to a shaft stripe, say 0"2 in width ; lower down this has 
expanded into a diamond-shaped shaft stripe, nearly half an 
inch wide at the broadest part, and lower down still it has 
expanded still more so as to cover the greater portion of the 
feather, but is now cut into by deep opposite festoons showing 
how the change from the longitudinal to the transverse 
markings takes place; the lower abdomen, flanks, vent, and 
lower tail coverts dark brown, regularly and conspicuously 



OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 123 

barred with white, suffused with dingy buff about the lesser 
lower tail coverts where the barrings are closer and narrower 
than elsewhere; the tibial and tarsal plumes are browner and 
less black, and they are narrowly and closely, transversely, 
barred with buffy white, only in the longest of the tibial 
plumes, which descend quite on to the foot, are the bars a little 
bolder and purer. The axillaries and entire wing lining are 
deep brown, strongly barred, transversely, with white, which is 
rufescent everywhere except on the lower greater primary 
coverts. Nothing like this has been observable in any of the 
numerous (say over 100) examples of ptilorhynchus that I have 
examined. The whole mantle and interscapulary region are 
brown, darker at the base of the neck and along the lesser wing* 
coverts, and in the case of many feathers having a distinct 
purple sheen ; the primaries, except the first two, distinctly 
barred on the outer webs with three or four ill-defined bands 
of a paler and more fawny brown. 

In the case of the secondaries and tertiaries there are 
indistinct traces of narrow dark transverse bands. The tail 
feathers are narrowly tipped with sordid white, then comes a 
band of blackish brown 0'9 in width, then a two-inch bar of 
fawny brown, zigzagily mottled with a darker shade, then an 
0'9 blackish brown band, then a similar fawny brown darker- 
mottled band of the same width. Then a third blackish band 
about 0*7, and then again another of the fawny bands about 
05. Above that an 0'7 dark band, but not so dark as the 
preceding one; then an 03 fawny band mottled with white, 
and then an irregular brown band lighter than any of the 
preceding, mottling away into the white of the base of the 
feathers. 

The supposed female is very similar, except that the lores 
and cheeks and part of the anterior portion of the forehead 
are grey. There is a feeble and irregular throat stripe. The 
entire breast, abdomen, and lower parts are white ; the feathers 
dark shafted, with at least one very broad subterminal blackish 
brown transverse bar. On the breast this is all ; on the upper 
abdomen there is a second similar bar higher up, and on some 
of the feathers of the lower abdomen there is yet a third hio-her 
up still. The tail is difficult to describe because it consists 
half of old feathers, greatly abraded, and half of new feathers 
not yet quite fully grown, but the new portion may be de- 
scribed as having an 0'2 inch grey tip ; a 2*3 black band, a 2*5 
grey band mottled darker, a 2*0 inch black band, an 0'4< inch 
brownish grey baud succeeded by an irregular dark brown 
band, mottling away into the white of the extreme base of the 
feather. 



124 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

In conclusion it must be distinctly understood that besides 
these birds we have specimens of the ordinary Indian 
P. -ptilorhynchus shot near Singapore, &c. 

73 nov. A. — Scops rufescens, Horsf. 

About this species there is some difficulty. Horsfield's 
original brief description is simply valueless, and he gave the 
dimensions as " total length, 8 inches." 

Lord Arthur Hay, having obtained a very large Scops Owl at 
Malacca, Jerdon identified it with rufescens, but Blyth hesitated 
to endorse this identification in consequence of the small 
total length assigned by Horsfield to his specimen. 

Blyth apparently (J. A. S. B., 1845, Vol. XIV., p. 181) 
sent the specimen home to Strickland. At auy rate he savs 
that he determined Lord A. Hay's specimen with Strickland's 
assistance, who examined the original specimens of the birds 
described in Dr. Horsfield's Javanese list. There seems there- 
fore no possible doubt that the specimen obtained by Lord A. 
Hay was really identical with Horsfield's type of rufescens* 
This specimen Blyth describes as follows : — i( Length 
about eleven* inches, of which the tail measures four 
and three quarters ; wing, six and three quarters. General 
color ferruginous brown, much paler below, the forehead and 
lower part of the disc and aigrettes in part, conspicuously 
white with a few minute dark speckles ; upper parts marked 
with whitish spots along the shaft of each feather ; the lower 
variegated with dusky and whitish in cross stride ; primaries and 
tail with numerous and broad dusky bars, amounting to about 
twelve in number in the latter ; tarsal feathers not continued 
over the base of the joint over the toes." 

On the other hand Mr. Sharpe, (Cat. B. M., II., 102) 
adopting Horsfield's name rufescens, describes a specimen (said 
to be the tj^pe of mantis of Temminck and Schlegel,) with 
the following dimensions : — " Length, 9*4 ; culmen, 0'9 ; wing, 
5-2; tail, 2 6; tarsus, 1-05." 

Now but for the great difference in the lengths of the tails, 
the total lengths of Blyth's bird and Mr. Sharpe's bird would 
not be widely different, but wings of 5*2 and 6-75 in birds of 
this genus are utterly irreconcilable. Clearly unless the wing 
of the specimen of mantis measured by Mr. Sharpe was en- 
tirely undeveloped, (and if it had been so, he would scarcely 
have given the dimensions without comment), or unless Messrs. 
Blyth and Strickland blundered inconceivably, mantis of Tern, 
and Sch. is a different and altogether smaller bird than rufescens 
of Horsfield. 

* The italics are mine.— A, 0. H. 



OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 125 

But Mr. Wallace obtained a specimen near Malacca of either 
the true rufescens or mantis. It is a pity that Mr. Sharpe did not 
give the length of the wing of this specimen which he records 
as in the museum. He had also another skin from Malacca. 
Are we to understand that the wings of these two birds also are 
only 5 '2 ? This is by the way extraordinarily small for an Owl 
of this group which measures 9*4 inches in length in the skin.* 
If, however, these wings are really all 5-2, then they certainly 
do not belong to the species which Blyth and Strickland, after 
an examination of Horsfield's type, decided to be rufescens. 

It is impossible to decide among such authorities which is 
right and which is wrong, but really now that Horsfield's types 
are again available, it is to be hoped that Mr. Sharpe will take 
an early opportunity of clearing up this difficulty. 

I would only add that whatever the true Scops rufescens may 
prove to be, I cannot but think that the bird described by 
Blyth, on Strickland's authority, as identical with Horsfield's 
type of this, will prove to be neither more nor less than one 
stage of Scops sagitlatus, Cassin — a name which, if Strickland 
was correct, would have to give way to Horsfield's. 
233 ter A. — Anthreptes rhodolsema, Shelley. 

With reference to my remarks, Vol. VIII., pp. 151, 152, 1 may 
now mention that we have ourselves collected several specimens 
of this species in the Malay Peninsula, so that its occurrence 
there is no longer doubtful. 

289 B. — Muscipeta princeps, Tern. 

I think there is possibly some error in my friend Mr. Sharpens 
diagnosis of this species, Gat. B. M., IV., 345. He says:— 

" b. Tail chestnut like the back. 

f 3 . Throat and breast grey, &c, &c, ... princeps, female. 
but as a matter of fact princeps appears never to have the 
tail chestnut. In the very youngest birds it is a dusky rufescent 
brown, and apparently the adult females are like the immature 
males. No single bird of this species, which we have as yet 
collected of either sex, has had the tail chestnut. The birds 
referred by this diagnosis to female princeps are really I believe 
incii; at any rate one of the stages of incii answers accurately 
to this diagnosis. 
307 ter A. — Cyornis albo-olivaceus, Hume. 

Mr. Sharpe, in his last volume of the British Museum Cata- 
logue, (IV., 457 note), remarks that this species will probably 
prove to be the female or young of some bright colored male. As 

* Scops Owls, measuring about 7 inches say in the skin, will have wings of at least 
5 5. How can a Scops, 94 inches long in the skin, have a wing of only 52 ? Yet this 
is no mere misprint, for in the diagnostical table, torn cit. p. 47, rufescens is classed 
as " size small ; wing not exceeding 56." The whole thing is a puzzle. 



12 6 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

however, we have now a large series of this bird, male and 
female, this hypothesis must be abandoned. He further also 
says that it is very probably not a Cyornis at all, and may- 
turn out to be Rhinomyias pectoralis, Salvad. No doubt the 
general arrangement of dark and light colors and the general 
appearance of the bird is much as in Salvadori's plate, but the 
color of the upper parts, a rich rufescent olive, is not in the 
smallest like Count Salvadori's figure, nor is it under any lights 
" a dark ochraceous brown," as described by Mr. Sharpe torn cit., 
p. 368. Nor are the " lores white, with dusky brown bases, 
a ring round the eye blackish brown." There is no ring at 
all round the eye. Tho lores are the same color as the head ; 
only from the nostrils to the upper part of the eye there runs 
above the lores a greyish white streak. 

I call this bird a Cyornis, with which it agrees in structure 
and in habits. But then I totally disagree Avith Mr. Sharpe in 
uniting Ochromela nigrorufa and Siphia strophiata, both birds 
differing widely from Cyornis in habits and complexion, if 
I may use the word, with all the Cyornis, under the one generic 
name Siphia. And I confess that I find the greatest difficulty 
in ascertaining from Mr. Sharpe's key whether this bird of mine 
would be a Rhinomyias under his definitions. His generic cha- 
racters are too often of a kind which cannot be verified without 
explanatory plates showing what exactly they mean. For 
instance, when he says that the bill when measured at the base 
of the forehead is equal to the hind toe without the claw, 
I am unable to discover without a plate where he intends this 
measurement to be made. In these triangular-billed birds 
the breadth varies enormously, according as you measure it a 
little further forward or a little further back. What is meant 
by base of forehead ? Does he mean opposite margin of frontal 
feathers or opposite junction of frontal bone and bill? At the 
former the bill of my bird is as wide as the hind toe and half 
the hind claw ; at the latter it is as long as the hind toe and 
claw together, in fact longer. 

Then again he says : — " The difference between the tips of the 
primaries and the tips of the secondaries equal to or greater 
than the length of the culmen." What is meant by culmen 
here ? European writers use the word in two distinct senses 
if not in three — 1st, length from frontal bone along the curve of 
the culmen to the tip ; 2nd, from margin of feathers along the 
culmen to tip. 

In our bird the primaries exceed the secondaries by about 0*47 ; 
the culmen, according to the first mode of measurement, is 0"74 ; 
according to the second, about 0*55 ; straight from frontal bone 
to tip it is about 0*69. 



OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 127 

Then again he says, (of Hhinomyiai) u the distance between 
the tips of the primaries and the tip of the tail, not as much aa 
twice the length of the tarsus." In our bird, the 1st is 1*5, the 
2nd, 07. So that, so far as I am able to test his diagnosis, my 
bird would not be a Rhinomyias according to Mr. Sharpe. 
But I cannot but feel that all these empirical and artificial 
distinctions are liable to misconstruction by any one but 
the person who himself evolved them, and therefore 
I cannot feel at all certain that this bird should not, according 
to Mr. Sharpe, be classed as Rhinomyias. Though I am quite 
certain myself that if general structure, habits, texture of plu- 
mage, and general appearance are to be considered, it should be 
classed with Cyornis, which also I am quite sure should not be 
united with Siphia strophiata. But if Count Salvadori's figure 
is at all to be relied upon, or if Mr. Sharpens description is cor- 
rect, then certainly my bird is not R. pectoralis. In my bird 
the head is decidedly not duller, but if any thing richer colored 
than the back. The breast band is no doubt grey, but it is 
everywhere overlaid with a rich olive brown. 

The olive brown of the cheeks, ear-coverts, and sides of the 
neck is precisely the same color as the head. There is no dark 
brown patch on the under side of the wing. The flanks and 
thighs are white and not " entirely ochraceous brown." 

The stripe above the lores I have already alluded to, and 
generally for the present I prefer to retain my bird under its 
original name Cyornis albo-olivaceus. 

387 A. — Trichastoma rostratum, Bly. 

Blyth says, Ibis, 1865, p. 47 : — " Napothera atricapilla, Mailer 
= Trichastoma rostratum, nobis. Male with blackish cap ; female 
with brown cap." This is altogether a mistake.* I have a con- 
siderable series of the true Trichastoma rostratum, Blyth, identi- 
fied with his types ; the sexes are precisely alike ; in both the 
cap is brown. 

Napothera atricapilla may be Malacopteron ajlnis, but it is 
certainly not Trichastoma (lege. Malacopteron) rostratum, 
which in no sex ever has a dark cap, let alone a blackish one. 

390 A. — Alcippe cinerea, Blyth. 

It may be well to notice that I have numerous specimens of 
the bird which Blyth identified under the name of Alcippe 
cinerea (J. A. S. B., XIII., 384.) with Malacopteron cinerewn 
of Eyton. My specimens have been compared with Blyth's 
bird ; there is therefore no doubt that this is Alcippe cinerea, apud 

* It must be remembered that Blyth was writing from memory, with no specimens 
to compare, and when years had elapsed since he had seen hid own types. 



128 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

Blyth, and it is undoubtedly both in structure and in habits a 
true Alcippe. On the other hand Malacopteron cinereum of 
Eyton is a true Malacopteron ; and, as I have already shown con- 
clusively, S. F., Vl.y 271, is nothing else than the bird to which 
Blyth, and others hastily following him, errorneously assigned 
Eyton's other name magnum, which latter, as I have also shown 
loo. cit., really applies to the species re-named majus by Blyth. 

So far therefore as Eyton's sponsorship for the name of the 
present species is concerned, the bird is nameless ; but we may 
fairly accept it, I think, as an original name of Blyth's, and 
retain the bird under the designation heading these remarks. 

The following are the dimensions, colors of the soft parts, and 
description of this species : — 

Two Males. — Length, 5*5, 5*9 ; expanse, 8-5, 8*6 ; tail from 
vent, 24, 2*3 ; wing, 2*75, 2*8 ; tarsus, 0*8 ; bill from gape, 
0-61, 0*60; weight, 0-62, 0-6 ozs. 

Lower mandible, legs, feet, and claws dark fleshy, strongly 
tinged with brown, to pale plumbeous brown ; upper mandible 
dark brown ; irides pinkish grey. 

One Female. — Length, 5'5 ; expanse, 8*25 ; tail, 2*35 ; wing, 
265 ; tarsus, 0*8 ; bill from gape, 0*65 ; weight, 0*5 oz. 

Legs, feet, and claws pale dirty plumbeous ; upper mandible 
slaty brown ; lower mandible pale brown, yellowish white at 
base ; gape dull yellow ; irides slaty. 

Unfortunately we only moaoured 3 specimens in the flesh : — 

The lores and feathers immediately in front of the eye grey- 
ish white ; the cheeks and ear-coverts a pale grey brown, the 
latter more or less obscurely pale shafted. In good specimens 
this same pale grey brown extends as a narrow band over the 
eye, but this is often not visible. The entire forehead, crown, 
occiput, and nape dull brown, with more or less of a smoky 
sooty or grey shade ; this varies in different specimens. The 
entire mantle and visible portion of the closed wing olive brown, 
more rufescent on the wiugs and towards the rump. Tho 
rump has a decided, though not strong, ferruginous tint, 
shading into the ferruginous brown of the upper tail-coverts. 
The tail a dull reddish ferruginous brown, more rusty along 
the outer margins of the feathers. Though not very sharply 
defined in most specimens, there is always a strong contrast be- 
tween the grey or sooty brown of the occiput or nape, and the 
olive brown of the back. The inner webs of the quills are a dark 
hair brown. The sides of the neck behind the ear-coverts 
are much the same colour as these latter, but in some speci- 
mens there is a shade of olive here. In specimens in which the 
head is of the darker or sooty brown type (it is never really 
dark) the ear-coverts look a good deal paler, but where the head 



OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 129 

is grey brown, they scarcely differ in colour except in conse- 
quence of the pale striations. The entire lower parts are 
sordid white, a little purer on the throat and abdomen, but 
everywhere more or less faintly brushed with grey, and especi- 
ally about the breast and sides with feeble shades of earthy or 
ashy brown. There is no distinct breast band, no distinct 
striation, but the whole lower surface is sordid. The lower tail- 
coverts and tibial plumes are generally slightly browner, a dingy 
vellowish brown. The wing lining, the edge of the wing at 
the carpal joint, and the axillaries are nearly pure white. In 
some specimens too the middle of the abdomen is nearly pure 
white. 

The wing is much rounded ; the exposed portion of the 1st 
primary about 0*8 in length, the 2nd primary about 07 longer, 
the 3rd about 0*4 longer, the 4th, 0"£ longer, the 5th and 6th 
each a shade longer. 

I do not know whether this is the bir4 commonly accepted as 
Alcippe cinerea, Blyth, but this is his bird, and there should in 
future be no mistake about it. 

396 bis A. — Cyanoderma bicolor, Bly. 

As regards this species I desire again to repeat, (since I have 
recently seen Count Salvador's error in regard to this species, 
repeated in more than one European work,) that C. bicolor and 
C. erythropterum are not the different sexes of the same species. 

This is not a matter of opinion. In Tenasserim and the 
Malay Peninsula we have now collected nearly one hundred 
specimens of erythropterum, males and females, young and old, 
at different seasons of the year ; they are all erythropterum, pure 
et simple, and we have never succeeded in obtaining a single 
specimen of C. bicolor. Indeed at present we are compelled to 
doubt whether this ever does, really, occur in the Malay 
Peninsula. 

396 bis C. — Trichixos pyrrhopygus, Less. 

It seems to me quite certain that this bird has no business 
where, following Salvadori and others, I have located it. It is 
really a " Shama," and should be located with Copsychus and 
Cercotrichas. It has a song very like that of the Shama ; like 
it, it is a tree bird, often descending to the ground for a 
moment, and indeed in all its habits it precisely resembles this 
bird, differing only in its alarm note, which, instead of the 
harsh " kurr " of the Shama, is a clear full, prolonged whistle. 
Salvadori places it between Kenopia striata and Malacopteron, 
but it has no connection with either. Kenopia is a little ground 
bird that goes poking about like Timalia nigricollis and leucotis, 
and Macronus ptilosus, but generally alone, while these latter all 

17 



130 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

go in little mobs The Malaeopterons, on the other hand, are no 
doubt tree birds, but their habits are widely different ; they 
go in flocks, while Trichixos always goes in pairs, and generally 
they are quite distinct. 
396 ter E. — Alcippe cantori, Moore. 

There is another bird on our list, Alcippe cantori, which, 
although I do not hold it in any way doubtful, I have never been 
able to obtain. Considering the enormous number of Straits spe- 
cimens that have now passed through our hands, to say nothing 
of the huge collection our museum contains, it is extraordinary 
that we should never have obtained this species ; that is to say, 
if Dr. Cantor really obtained it at Penang ; but numbers of 
species, of which he sent specimens from the Malay Peninsula, 
were certainly never obtained there in a wild state, and it is 
quite possible that this also may really have come from 
elsewhere. 

For facility of reference I reproduce the original descrip- 
tion : — 

" A. cantori. — Upper parts olive brown, tinged with rufous on 
the rump ; crown ash brown, being much lighter than in A. 
affinis ; nape paler; lores, a streak over and behind the eyes, 
with the ear-coverts, ashy white; throat, belly, vent, and under 
tail-coverts white ; breast mingled white and ash ; wings rufes- 
cent brown, the remiges margined brighter ; upper tail-coverts 
and tail deep rufo-ferruginous, darker towards the tip ; bill 
horny above, pale below ; feet greenish. Length, nearly 7£ 
inch ; of wing, 3 inch ; tail, 3^ inch ; bill to frontal plumes, ^ 
inch ; to gape, f inch ; and tarsi, \% inch. 

Distinguished from A. affinis and A. albogularis by its larger 
size, longer wings, and tail." 

The first characteristic point is " lores, a streak over and he- 
hind the eyes, with the ear-coverts ashy white." The second is 
the large size. Length, 7i ; wing, 3 ; tail, 3£. Far exceeding 
the dimensions of both affinis and magnirostris. 

Of course placed as Moore has placed it between affinis and 
magnirostris and under the same generic designation (wholly 
misapplied in their cases) of Alcippe, cantori should also, proba- 
bly like these, be classed as a Malacopterum. 
593 ter A, — Budytes taivanus, Sioinh. 

I find on comparing a large series of Chinese and Malayan 
examples, that this species can always be distinguished by its 
yellow supercilium. In the old males of course the rich uniform 
green of the head and entire upper surface, suffice, without refer- 
ence to the almost golden yellow supercilium, but the immature 
birds are so like the similar ones of flava, having the same con- 



OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 131 

spicuous supercilium, that it is in some cases only by the pale 
primrose yellow tint of the long eye streak of taivanus, as com- 
pared with the greyish white one of young jtava, that the birds 
can be readily separated. 

988 quat. — Sterna gouldi, Hume. 

The birds that I before entered as sinensis must, I find on 
careful re-examination, be entered as gouldi. In whatever lio-ht 
and in whatever position you hold the wing- of sinensis, the 
shafts of the first three primaries (to speak only of these) are 
on their upper surfaces, white, with, at most, a grey shade ; while 
in gouldi {vide S. F., V., p. 326) the shaft of the first primary 
is white or brownish white, and the second brown, often a dark 
brown, and the third a grey, more or less tinged with brown ; 
but to see this properly you should hold the wing with points of 
the feathers downwards, and standing with your back to the lio-ht. 
Thus held the difference between the color of the shafts in 
sinensis and this race is very conspicuous. You may turn the 
wing of sinensis as you please, the shafts are always white. On 
the other hand in gouldi you can hold the wing in some lights so 
that all the shafts look almost white or at any rate whitish. 

Recently Mr. Parker went, at my request, to Goalundo on 
the Brahmaputra, during the breeding season of the little Tern, 
and shot and preserved for me 19 specimens ; 18 of these are 
gouldi, but one specimen, an adult breeding, has the shafts of 
the two first primaries blackish brown, and has the coarse bill 
of minuta, from English specimens of which I am quite unable 
to separate it. 

In Sterna saundersi the shafts of the first three primaries are 
blackish brown. I have numbers of specimens now of this 
race, (I procured one myself this year on the Ganges at 
Allahabad), and I find that it is very constantly characterised 
by a slenderer bill than minuta or sinensis or gouldi. 

I have said nothing about the amount of the black on the tip 
of the bill ; this is, I am convinced, an utterly valueless charac- 
ter, for out of sixteen adult Sterna gouldi, shot all at the same 
time and place, and all in breeding plumage, the amount of black 
tipping varies from 0'4 to a mere speck on the tip of the upper 
mandible, and in three specimens there is absolutely no black 
at all. 

Again I have said nothing about the shade of grey of the 
upper plumage, nor of the color of the tail, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts. These vary in these birds according to age and sea- 
son, and even according to individuals. Amongst these gouldi, 
(as above, all shot at the same time, all adults, all breeding on 
the same chur), some have the rump, upper tail-coverts and the 



132 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF, &.C. 

entire tail, except the outer tail feather, the same grey as the 
back. Others, about one-fourth, have these parts white, or quite 
as nearly white as in the majority of English minuta, (which 
very often have an excessively faint grey shade over these parts,) 
and every intermediate amount of grey on rump and tail 
occurs in these specimens. Again in some the back is a much 
paler grey than in others. 

Take again saundersi, here, in the not perfectly mature birds, 
the whole back, rump and tail is grey, of a darker shade than in 
any of my European specimens of minuta, but in more mature 
birds, killed oif the eggs, many are quite as pale as any English 
specimens, and one has become nearly entirely white on the 
upper surface, the whole of which is quite as white as the rump 
in many specimens of minuta. But for the slender bill and the 
very black shafts of the first three primaries, a blackness observ- 
able in nestlings which have not left the nest, it would be diffi- 
cult to separate &aundersi in some cases from minuta. No doubt 
typically the rump and tail of saundersi are grey, those of: minuta 
white, but a good many English minuta have a distinct, though 
very pale, grey tinge on the rump, upper tail-coverts and 
central tail feathers, while on the other hand every here and 
there a saundersi has no more than this. 

As regards the number of dusky feathers amongst the earlier 
primaries, although this seems to be quite constant iu perfect 
adults, in full breeding plumage, namely, three in saundersi, two 
in gouldi, one in sinensis, still it is useless as a diagnosis, because 
in somewhat younger birds there are always more than in the 
adults. Thus I have sinensis with two, gouldi with three, and 
saundersi with four and five dusky primaries. 

This is I fear a very tedious paper, but it has been written to 
a great extent in the hopes of eliciting information. 

I am working very hard to get together, pro bono publico, a 
really correct list of the birds of the western half of the Ma- 
layan Peninsula, (a matter of considerable interest and impor- 
tance,) and I hope it may not be considered unreasonable if I 
entreat ornithologists elsewhere to aid me by sending me the 
names — 1st, of all species which they know certainly to occur 
therein, not yet included in my accepted list, as now revised, 
with such particulars as may enable me so to include them; and, 
2nd, of all species, not included in either of my lists either as 
accepted or doubtful, which they know to have been recorded from 
the Malayan Peninsula, with a reference to the place of record. 

I should be exPremely grateful for any such assistance or for 
any corrections, and should most promptly and thankfully 
acknowledge them. A. 0. H. 



133 

Additional §ota on «ome of our Indian ^tonechak 



Through the kindness and courtesy of Canon Tristram and 
Mr. Brooks I have had an opportunity of examining and com- 
paring the two types of Pratincola robusta, referred to in the 
Ibis of 1870, p. 497. 

I may say at once that, in my opinion, these two types have 
no earthly connection with each other. The one, said to be 
from Mysore, is a magnificent bird of the torquata vel pastor 
vel sybilla type, with the lower abdomen, vent and lower tail- 
coverts snow white, and with the axillaries and a good deal of 
the wing lining also white ; the other, the Himalayan bird, is 
our large Eastern Stonechat which I discussed so fully, Vol. V, 

f>p. 242, 243, &c, and which has the abdomen, vent, and 
ower tail-coverts rufous, and the axillaries mostly blackish 
brown. 

This second type we may neglect as it is quite clear that 
Canon Tristram's real type was the Mysore bird. Whether 
the Eastern Himalayan and Assam race requires a separate 
specific designation I will rediscuss further on. For the 
present I propose to refer only to the bird that I consider the 
real type of robusta, Tristram. This is said to have come from 
Mysore, and from the original label which it bears I believe 
this to be correct, since it has the color of the eyes recorded 
on it in the peculiar way that was customary years ago at the 
Bangalore Museum. 

Now at first sight I should have identified this, unhesitatingly 
with P. torquata. It agrees, in most respects, perfectly with 
the picture given by LeVailliant, except in so far as the breast 
is a little deeper cinnamon rufous in the Mysore bird, and the 
latter wants the nuchal collar. 

The dimensions agree exactly with those given for this 
species by Layard and Von Heuglin. But against this has to 
be noted, first Canon Tristram's remark that the colors are 
more intense than in pastor. In this of course he may have 
been mistaken ; he thought that his bird was " very much 
larger than any known species of Pratincola" so that clearly 
he could not have had by him specimens of pastor vel torquata 
vel sybilla (1 do not know whether these are really two or 
three races) or he would not have said this, since these are 
quite as large, and he may have relied for his diagnosis of 
colors on LeVaillant's or some other author's plate. 

But secondly, Von Heuglin says of pastor, " Subalaribus 
nigris."" If this were correct it would set the question at rest, 
for most certainly no one could describe robusta as being 



134 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON SOME 

" Subalaribus nigris." Of this bird the characteristic should be 
subalaribus albis. 

When you open the wing all you see is white ; no doubt, when 
the very full axillaries are pushed aside, the under wing coverts 
themselves are seen to be black, margined with white, and no 
doubt the bases of the axillaries are dusky also ; but the general 
effect of the body of feathers under the wing is white. 

This Mysore bird is connected with insignis which has similar 
white axillaries, but it may be distinguished at once by its 
entire black throat, that of insignis being entirely white ; by its 
smaller wing, that of insignis being at least 3 # 6 ; by the less 
amount of white on the wing ; by the greater amount of white 
on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; and by the pure white of 
its lower abdomen. 

The original description of robusta referred to the " intensity 
of its rufous breast, extending down to the abdomen without 
any white," the meaning of which is even now not clear to me, 
but which I have hitherto taken to signify that, as in our 
eastern bird, the whole lower parts, including the abdomen, were 
rufous, whereas one of the most marked characteristics of the 
Mysore robusta is the snowy whiteness of its lower abdomen, 
vent, and lower tail-coverts. 

It is desirable I think to put on record, for the beneBt of 
Indian readers, a fuller description of this Mysore bird than, 
so far as I am aware, has yet appeared. 

The following are the measurements in the skin : — Length, 
6*05; wing, 2*92; tail to insertion of feathers, 2*33; bill from 
gape, # 68 ; bill from frontal bone straight to point, 0*67 ; 
tarsus, 0'9. 

The wing formula is somewhat different from that of our 
large Eastern Stonechat. The second primary is only 0*26 
shorter than the third, which again is 0*05 shorter than the 
fourth which is longest. In our Eastern bird the second 
primary is fully 3 shorter than the third primary. 

The entire head, including lores, cheeks, ear-coverts and 
tliroat, the nape and entire mantle, and the tail, black ; the 
feathers of the crown and occiput excessively narrowly, and 
those of the mantle narrowly ; fringed with rufous buff. On 
either side of the neck is a conspicuous patch of white which 
runs down and joins the white axillaries ; indeed some few 
feathers at the extreme sides of the breast are also white. 
There is a conspicuous white wing spot consisting apparently 
of the whole of the secondary and tertiary wing-coverts, great 
and little ; the quills are brown ; the secondaries and tertiaries 
very narrowly margined on the outer webs with pure or nearly 
pure white, and with sordid fawn color at the tips; the primary 



OF OUR INDIAN STONECHATS. 135 

wiug-co verts are blackish brown or almost black ; the lower 
part of the rump and upper tail-coverts pure white ; the outer 
tail feathers, which are 025 shorter than the longest, very 
narrowly margined on the outer webs towards the tips, and 
at the tips with sordid white. A trace of the same, but at the 
tips only, on the two next feathers on either side ; the entire 
breast and part of the upper abdomen and sides a rich deep 
cinnamon rufous, a color that can barely be matched for 
richness just on the upper breast of the brightest colored 
examples of our large Eastern Stonechat. In this latter 
species the rufous color rapidly pales from the base of the 
throat. In robusta it is uniform throughout and abuts directly 
on the pure white of the middle of the abdomen, vent, and 
lower tail-coverts ; the flanks also are mostly white, but they 
are washed with a paler shade of the rufous of the breast ; 
the extreme sides of the breast and all but the bases of the 
axillaries pure white ; the visible portion of the lower wing- 
coverts black, fringed with white ; the tibial plumes, black, 
fringed with sordid white. Perhaps I should have called the tail 
blackish brown instead of black ; the bill, legs, feet, are all black. 

Now the question arises, is this torquata^ There is nothing 
extraordinary in an African bird finding its way to the Hills 
ot Mysore. If not torquata, or at any rate one of the forms 
known under the names of torquata, sybilla, pastor, &c, it may 
be a local race like insignis. 

And here I must again repeat that insignis is not a bird of 
the Eastern Himalayas as Mr. Sharpe gives it, and never 
occurs in Nepal, whence Mr. Sharpe records Hodgson's type 
specimen. Hodgson's type came from Segowlee, a canton- 
ment in the plains of the Chumparun District, 16 miles south 
of the Nepal frontier, {vide S. P., Vol. V., 1877, P . 132), 
and the bird is, to this day, not uncommon along the plains 
country at the foot of the Himalayas, stretching from the Bhutan 
Doars at any rate (torn, cit, p. 496), to the Bustee and Gorak- 
pur Districts, (S. F., VII., pp. 454 and 519). It is a bird of 
the plains and not of the hills. 

To return to robusta it has to be noticed that according to 
Mr. Sharpe's diagnosis and description (Cat. B. M. IV., 1 79,190), 
this species if belonging to either of the two forms he admits 
would be torquata, which he separates from sybilla, as having 
the orange chest-patch large and occupying the whole breast 
and flanks, while in sybilla this is restricted to the chest and 
upper breast, the flanks and sides being white like the abdomen. 
In the case of our bird the flanks however might more pro- 
perly be called white, the tips of some of the feathers washed 
with a pale shade of the breast color. 



136 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON SOME 

Note that Mr. Sharpe differing from Von Heuglin gives the 
axillaries in both these species as white, with concealed black 
bases, thus agreeing well with the Mysore robusta. 

Mr. Sharpe's description loc. cit. answers in many respects to 
the Mysore bird, but the breast in this latter is not orange chest- 
nut; there is no orange about it at all, it is a cinnamon rufous, 
the abdomen is pure white, and not buffy whitish ; and though 
I have carefully raised both upper and under tail-coverts, I can 
discover no white on the bases of the tail feathers. Lastly, the 
feathers adjoining the hind neck are not white with black tips, 
there is no trace of white on the back of the neck, and no indi- 
cation of the white collar so distinctly shown in the P. E. 572, 
and in Le Vaillant's figure, 0. d'A., 180. 

On the whole, therefore, I am disposed to consider the Mysore 
robusta, as probably a local species of very limited distribution, 
and I shall now endeavour to procure more specimens. I know 
no one at present collecting in Mysore, but should any of my 
readers be there stationed, I hope they will keep a look-out for 
this bird, and perhaps, the officer in charge of the Bangalore 
Museum would kindly examine all the locally killed Stonechats 
he has, and see whether any of them are robusta. 

On the other hand it is to be hoped that the type, which Mr. 
Brooks is now taking home, will be there carefully compared 
with a good series of torquata. 

And now to return to Canon Tristram's other type of robusta, 
which is nothing but our large Eastern race of indica. Mr. 
Brooks persistently urges me to assign a separate specific name 
to this form, and he declares that if I do not, he will. I have 
consequently very carefully reconsidered the subject, and have 
re-examined several hundred specimens from all parts of the 
empire, but only I am bound to say with the same result as 
before, and with a strengthened conviction that it is very unde- 
sirable to separate this race specifically. 

The question lies in a nutshell; this Eastern form is, broadly 
speaking, distinguished by its larger size and by its rufous color- 
ing, descending unbroken on to the lower tail-coverts. But, as 
regards size, a couple of hundred specimens, collected in various 
parts of the empire, exhibit dimensions of every possible grada- 
tion between the very smallest of the race to which Mr. Brooks 
would restrict the name indica, and the very largest of that one 
on which he would bestow a separate specific appellation. There 
is nowhere a break of even one hundredth of an inch in the 
dimensions of the wings, tail, bill, or tarsus, at which a specific 
barrier could be erected. An absolutely unbroken series of forms 
inextricably interlink the largest and the smallest examples. I 
have made enormous collections to verify this, and I have now 



OF OUR INDIAN STONECHATS. 137 

carefully examined the twenty-seven supposed typical birds sent 
me by Mr. Brooks, and this fact of a perfect gradation of dimen- 
sions is absolutely incontestable. 

Precisely the same is the case where color is concerned ; here 
too between the typical coloration of the form to which Mr. 
Brooks would restrict the name indica, and the most character- 
istic coloration of the race on which he would bestow a distinct 
appellation, every conceivable intermediate type of coloration 
occurs. 

But Mr. Brooks urges that it is quite possible to separate the 
Eastern race on the broad grounds of generally larger size and 
more rufous coloration beneath ; but if you go by size, you will 
find included amongst, say, the ten largest birds out of the 200, 
at least one, the coloration of which is what Mr. Brooks considers 
characteristic of true indica, and this not only in the males but 
in the females also; and if you go by color you must separate 
off into the new species some of the very smallest birds, and 
under these circumstances I hold it to be neither expedient nor 
logical to separate these naturally interlinked forms into two 
species. What nature has joined let no rash ornithologist put 
asunder ! 

In my remarks on the influence of rainfall (ante, p. 4), I 
have already dwelt at length on variations of this nature. In 
my opinion the birds, which Mr. Brooks considers typical of 
indica, are those which have mostly been developed in zones of 
scanty or moderate rainfall, while those which he considers 
typical of the form he desires to separate specifically, belong pro- 
perly to the zone of heavy rainfall ; each form of course will 
straggle within the province of the other, so that it would be 
quite possible to shoot characteristic examples of each race on 
the same bush, but this does not, in my opinion, affect the ques- 
tion; and neither in this case nor in any of the many other in- 
stances to which I have referred, (loc. tit.) do I consider that the 
somewhat larger size, and somewhat greater intensity of coloring 
which characterise races inhabiting zones of heavy rainfall, as 
compared with those of more arid regions, are, when unaccom- 
panied with other differences, and more especially when inter- 
linked by a perfect series of intermediate forms, valid grounds 
for specific separation. 

A. 0. H. 



18 



138 



Additional gates on the lids d| jfenassmw and 
an/matl]* on thou of the Whomx^een $ altejr. 



By Captain C. T. Bingham. 



For the last two years I have been almost continuously in 
the forests of the western half of the Thoungyeen valley, 
and during this time have had many opportunities of collect- 
ing the birds of this region and taking notes of their habits 
and geographical distribution. I have, therefore, in the heading 
to my paper, specially referred to this tract, the more 
readily that it has heretofore remained omithologically almost a 
terra incognita. Mr. Davison, it is true, passed through 
the upper half of it, but he was en route to Mooleyit, and did 
not spend any time in the valley itself. 

I have not, however, confined myself to noting the birds 
that occur in the Thoungyeen valley alone, as previous to 
the period referred to above I had, in the course of my official 
duties, to visit several places in the province from Hpapoon 
to Tavoy and Mergui, and had all along collected as diligently 
as I could. 

I have to apologize for the meagre information supplied under 
the great majority of species noticed, but the fact is, that 
nearly all that could possibly be said about their habits, etc., 
has already been so well told by Mr. Davison in Vol. VI. of 
Stray Feathers, that I have had scarcely anything left to 
add. When I have said nothing it will be understood that 
my observations coincide with what he has recorded. 

It should be noted throughout this paper that when I speak 
of the Thoungyeen valley, I refer only to the western half of 
it. All to the east of the stream being foreign territory, I have 
had no opportunity of exploring there. 

A few remarks on the natural features, etc., of the valley 
may be acceptable. 

Five streams — the Golee, Popee, Oukreen, Oukra, and 
Megla combine to form the Thoungyeen river, which has its 
origin in their junction in about (the country has never been 
accurately surveyed) Lat. 16° 20' K, Long. 98° 40' E. 

These five streams drain the western and northern flanks of 
a high, almost unexplored, mass of mountains comprised between 
the Pawan-Kyan range in Shan territory, and the well known 
peak of Mooleyit, from whence the hills run north-west, spread- 
ing out to form the Taoo plateau, and thence continuing in 
an almost unbroken range north-north-west to the Salween 
river near its junction with the Thoungyeen. 



J ' 




ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM,. ETC. 139 

Mooleyit was ascertained by Major Tickell to be 7,171 feet 
in height. Moulat, a peak further to the south and east, is 
given on the Official Government Map of Tenasserim as 5,500 
feet high, but it is I believe in reality higher than Mooleyit, 
and the Taoo plateau is stated to have an elevation of 
4,000 feet. 

The whole of these mountains, collectively called the Dawna 
range, constitute the southern and western walls of the 
Thoungyeen basin, and divide it on the south from the sources 
of the Mekalang (of Siam) and the Houndraw which rise 
on its southern flanks. Westwards they form the watershed 
between the valleys of the Thoungyeen and Houndraw, 
and further north the Hlinebooey, which latter river, rising in 
the northern extremity of this range, turns southwards to meet 
the Houndraw flowing from an opposite direction. From their 
junction they become the Gyne (properly Jyne.) 

The Thoungyeen river, as is well known, forms the boundary 
between the Shan states and British territory. Its general 
direction is north-west, and " its entire length, following the 
windings of the stream, cannot be much short of 200 miles." 
On the whole it is a narrow but sluggish river, easily fordable 
in many places along its length during the dry weather, and 
interrupted by numerous " hats" (i.e. rapids) formed by the 
obstruction of rocks crossing the bed of the stream. The 
chief of these and the only two of any importance are Kam- 
aukla and Kymkhet, one below, and the other above the town of 
Meeawuddy. 

The following passage, extracted from the " Progress Report 
of the Forests of the Tenasserim and Martaban Provinces for 
1858-59 and 1859-60," gives a very good idea of the character 
of the Dawna range : — 

a The ranges which bound the valley of the Thoungyeen to 
the south-west present a rugged, and at first sight an irregular 
mass of mountains, covering a wide extent of country between 
the parallel valleys of the Thoungyeen on the one side, and 
the Houndraw and Hlinebooey rivers on the other. 

" The greater part of the tops and ridges of these mountains 
are composed of granite, but occasionally steep and rugged 
masses of blue limestone form elevated peaks among them. 
Frequently the structure of these mountains is that of parallel 
ranges running north-north-west ; but as they are joined 
laterally by transverse spurs, generally of lower elevation, the 
direction of the whole mass is shifted, and is almost due north- 
west and south-east." 

The wide extent of country covered by this range narrows 
the valley of the river considerably. In many places spurs 



140 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

from the main hills abut on to the river; and indeed the 
whole valley may be said to consist of an intricate network 
of larger and smaller spurs forming a succession of hill and 
dale, with numberless small streams draining their sides, all 
flowing to the main river. From the sources of the Thoungyeen 
to its mouth such a thing as a plain of any extent is unknown. 

Beginning at the sources of the Thoungyeen, and proceeding 
downwards, the first considerable spur thrown off from the main 
range is that which forms the east watershed of the Meknay 
stream, and which runs almost due north. This minor line 
of hills is in places as high as the main rauge itself, and 
from the east presents the aspect of an intervening range 
between the Thoungyeen river and the Dawna mountains. 
The country between it and the Dawna is drained by the 
Meknay and its feeders, which stream eventually falls into 
the Meplay. Further north another large spur bounds to the 
east of the valley of the Meplay, the only large trubutary on 
the western side of the Thoungyeen. 

This minor range, striking from the Dawna in a south-east- 
erly direction, comes down as far as the mouth of the Meplay. 

From the crest of the main mountain range to the bank 
of the Thoungyeen the country is covered by almost unbroken 
forest. The inhabitants of the valley being few and far 
between, have made but comparatively little impression on the 
vast forest area of this district. 

The forest may be roughly said to consist of four different 
kinds — 

Evergreen clothing the crests and sides of the main range 
and higher spurs, as well as the banks in the immediate vici- 
nity of the large streams ; 

Moist forest consisting of bamboo — Pyma (Lagerstrcemia 
flos-regina) , Pynkado (Xylia dolabriformis), and such like trees 
with occasionally teak mixed ; 

Teak forests, in which teak and bamboo prevail to a 
great extent, but intermingled however with other trees, 
and presenting an open character of forest which strikes 
the eye at once. Large belts of this exist at the 
sources of the Thoungyeen along its banks, and in the 
Meplay valley ; and 

Dry Dillenia forests, composed wholly of Eng, Zitnatum 
(Dillenia pentagyna), and trees capable of growing on 
the poorest soil. Often in these open forests pine 
(Pinus massoniana) is found mixed with the Eng to a 
considerable extent, while teak, stunted and crooked in growth, 
is sometimes found on the borders. In the dense evergreen 
forests on the higher slopes of the hills, bison, sambur, and 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 141 

tigers are said b} r the Karens to abound. Personally I have 
never come across them. But for birds an evergreen forest 
is the best collecting ground I know of. 

Hornbills, Green Pigeons, Barbets, Bulbuls, and all fruit- 
eating birds abound, while the undergrowth thickets are 
alive with the calls and flitting forms, twining in and out restless- 
ly, of Trichastoma, Alcippe, etc. By the streams, especially 
in the higher hills, one is sure to meet Myiophoneus eugenii 
and Henicurus schistaceus, while it is very likely that Alcedo 
nigricans and Ceyon tridactyla may dash across your path like 
living gems lost to sight ere you can raise } 7 our gnu. 

Passing out into the moist forests you find the great slaty 
Woodpecker (Muelleripicus pulverulentus) flying from tree to 
tree in parties uttering their queer querulous notes. But 
the real "happy hunting ground" of all Woodpeckers seema 
to be the dry teak forests open, and mixed with clumps 
of bamboo. In these places they go simply in great mobs, 
all species mixed up together, and having not a few strangers 
of other genera among their number, such as Garrulax mom* 
lige.r and belangeri, Cissa chinensis, Hoopoes and Jays. 

In the open barren-looking Eng jungles bird-life is scarce. 
A few Nut Hatches {Sitta neglecta), Hume's Green Woodpecker 
( Gecinus nigrigenis), an occasional Minivet (Pericrocotus) or 
Fantail {Leucocerca), and above all the little Burmese Piculefc 
( Yungipicas canicapillus) are the chief birds seen. 

In the long grass, which frequently covers the bare ridgea 
of these forests, a species of Hare (Lepus peguana) is 
sparsely scattered, while in the rains, when the new grass has 
sprung, bison, saing (wild cow), sambur, and daray (hog- 
deer) are found in secluded places. 

When referring to the four kinds of forests, I must be clearly 
understood not to speak of them as succeeding in zones 
to each other. The nature of the Thoungyeen valley, cut up 
by numerous ridges and spurs of hills, gives a vast diversity 
of flora. Wherever laterite soil collects along the banks of the 
various streams there teak may be expected. Let it be a little 
more moist and the forest is changed into evergreeu, while 
on the bare laterite ridges eng and pine occupy the ground, 
the soil beiug too poor to allow of the growth of auythiug 
else. 

The heavy rainfall on the Dawna range brings out a 
marvellous vegetation, and is, I fancy, the cause of many 
Bpecies, such as Baza lophotes, Eurylamus javanicus, Nyctior- 
nis amicta, Rhyticeros undulatus, Cymbor/iynchus macrorItynchu3 y 
and dozens of other southern forms extending their range 
so fur north. 



142 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

In conclusion my best thanks* are due to Mr. Hume for 
his aid in identifying obscure species, and for allowing me 
the use, for purposes of comparison, of the grand series of 
Tenasserim Birds in his Museum. 



List of Species. 



2.— Otogyps calvus, Scop. 

The Indian King-Vulture is distributed sparingly throughout 
Tenasserim. At Kaukarit, on the Houndraw river, I have seen 
several pairs at various times. It occurs also in the Thoun- 
gyeen valley, and seems to me much more of a forest Vulture 
than the commoner Psendogyps bengalensis. In September 1877 
a pair of these Vultures, accompanied by an immature young 
one, found out the carcase of an elephant that had died in my 
camp, at that time pitched in dense evergreen forest at the head 
waters of the Thoungyeen, but strange to say none of P. benga- 
lensis turned up. 

6. — Pseudogyps bengalensis, Gm. 

Common throughout Tenasserim. I have seen hundreds assem- 
bled round the carcases of elephants and buffaloes near Kaukarit. 

In the Thoungyeen valley I have noticed it at Laidawgyee, 
on the Thablooko choung, at Meeawuddy, at Hpoyoobah, and 
various villages in the Meplay valley. 

16 bis.— Poliohierax insignis, Wald. 

Mr. Davison got this at Meeawuddy aud Laidawgyee in the 
Thoungyeen valley ( S. ¥., Vol. VI., p. 2). I have not myself 
come across it. 

20. — Microhierax ccerulescens, Lin. 

Common on both sides of the Dawna range, the western 
boundary of the Thoungyeen valley. In August 1879 I noticed 
a great number in the dry Dillenia forests near Meeawuddy. 
There must have been nearly a hundred of them on the road to 
Kaukarit between Meeawuddy and Thingaugyeenoun. The 
measurements in the flesh of a large series is as follow : — 

Males.— Length, 6-10 to 6-40; expanse, 11-50 to 12*20; 
wings, 3-77 to 3'88 ; tail from vent, 2-60 to 270 j tarsus, 0'78 
to 0^82 ; bill from gape, 0-40 to 0-51. 

Bill plumbeous, blackish at tip ; cere and feet black ; legs 
dull blackish on the back surface, tinged with green in front ; 
claws horny ; hides nut brown. 

* The obligation is really all the other way. To Captain Bingham our museum is 
indebted for many hundred fine specimens of birds and numerous large aeries of 
rare eggs. To no contributors do we owe so much as to Captains Bingham and 
Butler, though Miss Cockburn, Messrs. Adam, Bourdillon, Chill, Cleveland, Cripps, 
Doig, Inglis, Parker, Reid, Unwin, and Vidal, have all aided us most materially, to say 
nothing of nearly an hundred occasional contributors. — Ed., S. F. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 143 

Female*.— Length, 6'9 to 72; expanse, 13*3 to 137 ; wing, 
4-0 to 4-37 ; tail from vent, 2 7 to 2*95 ; tarsus, 0'84 to 0*9 ; 
bill from gape, 0*5 to 0'62. Colors of the soft parts as in the 
male. 

I have more than once noticed this bird descend to the 
ground in search of a grasshopper or other iusect after the 
manner of the King Crow. 

For.nidification, vide S. P., Vol. V., p. 80. 

23 bis.— Astur poliopsis, Hume. 

This bird, 1 fancy, is more or less migratory. I have noticed 
it come in in great numbers both at Maulmain and at Meea- 
wuddy in November and December. 

A large male measured in the flesh : — Length, 13*20 ; wing, 
8-10; tail from vent, 6*20; tarsus, 2-10 ; bill from gape, 0*90. 

Bill black, having on the under mandible, below the gape, a 
bluish spot on each side ; legs and feet yellow ; cere and gape 
greenish yellow ; irides light lake red. 

In the young bird the iris is light yellow. 

23 for— Astur soloensis, Horsf. 

Only one immature specimen of this rare bird was procured 
by Mr. Davison in the extreme south of Tenasserim at Male- 
woon. 

On the 12th April this year I shot an old adult female in 
open teak forest on the bank of the Thablooko choung, Thoun- 
gyeen river. 

Its dimensions, etc., in the flesh Avere as follow : — 

Length, 11 -95 ; expanse, 25*0; wing, 7*63 ; tail from vent, 
5*9 ; tarsus, 17 ; bill from gape, 0*8. 

Bill horny plumbeous ; cere and orbits light yellow ; legs and 
feet orange yellow ; irides pale straw color. It agrees very well 
with Mr. Sharpe's description of the adult (Cat. I., 115,) only 
instead of being " light bluish grey above" it is very dark 
slaty. The entire wing lining and axillaries are uniform pale 
buffy white. 1 noticed nothing particular about it at the 
time of shooting, but on dissection fouud the remains of a 
lizard and a frog in its stomach. 

34.— Limnaetus caligatus, Raff. 

A very rare bird in Tenasserim, which does not, so far as I 
know, occur in the Thoungyeen valley. A young male I pro- 
cured at Yeaboo on the Attaran river, measured in the flesh : — 
Length, 2(?0; expanse, 54'0; wing, 16*7; tail from vent, 12*8; 
tarsus, 3-8 j bill from gape, 1*9. Cere, bill, and claws black ; 
feet dirty greenish white; iris clear greyish brown. 



144 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

39 ter.— Spilornis rutherfordi, Swinh. 

Wlierever there is a quin {i.e., marsh) or large patches of 
wet paddy cultivation, a pair of these Harrier Eagles are 
almost certain to be found. 

It is very common in the Thoungyeen valley, where, on the 
14th March this year, I revisited a nest I had had marked down 
for me in February, and took from it a solitary egg measuring 
2*57 by 2'08 — in fact rather a broad oval of a dull white 
ground, blotched, clouded, and dashed with pale purple and. 
rusty red, the purple forming a dull cap of irregular shape 
over nearly half the egg at the larger end. The nest, which was 
placed some 70 feet up a Kanyin tree (Dipterocarpus 
alatus), was composed of large branches, laid across in a 
fork, with a superstructure of small sticks intertwined in a 
circular form, and the hollow in which the egg reposed lined 
with very fine twigs ; the whole mass may have been some 
three and a half feet in diameter and one and a half feet thick. 

A young bird I procured on the Zammee choung, Attaran 
river on the 15th January 1879, was just beginniug to get the 
peculiar white-mottled brown feathers on the lower portion of 
the stomach, the centre of the latter, chin and throat pure 
white; the breast white, with some of the feathers brown-cen- 
tred on one side of the shaft. 

41.— Polioaetus ichthyaetus, Borsf. 

A bird much oftener seen than shot. It is quite common 
along the course of the Attaran with its two branches, the 
Zammee and Winyeo choungs, on the Yoonzaleen, and along 
the whole length of the Thoungyeen from its sources to its 
mouth. In my many trips up the Salween, the largest river 
of the lot, to which the others are but tributaries, 1 have not, 
etrange to say, noticed a single one. 

On the 3rd March, being encamped near the mouth of the 
Hteekleethoo choung, a small stream falling from the east side 
of the Meplay East Watershed range, and flowing to the 
Thoungyeen river, my attention was attracted, as I sat outside 
my tent in the evening, by the persistent passing of one of 
these Eagles backwards and forwards between two large 
Kanyin trees {Diptero carpus alatus.) The trees not being more 
than a few hundred yards off, I made my way to them, and found 
that a large stick nest had been built in the first fork of the 
largest of them, at a height of at least a hundred feet. 

Next morning I sent up a couple of Karens, who managed 
to climb the tree in the usual way by means of bamboo pegs, 
and brought me down the solitary egg the nest contained. 
The nest they, or rather the one man who went up the whole 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 145 

way, described as a large mass of sticks and twigs, with 
scarcely any depression in the centre, and unlined. 

The egg was chalky white, rather a broad oval, without 
markings of any kind, and perfectly fresh. It measures " 2*58 
by 2-03." During the robbery the birds flew about uneasily 
round and round the tree, but out of shot, and it was not till 
after an hour's watching and stalking I managed to bag one of 
them, which, on dissection, proved to be the female with ano- 
ther perfect, but shell-less, egg inside her. 

53.— Circus melanoleucus, Forst. 

This bird coming in in November is not uncommon where- 
ever there is any paddy cultivation. I have noticed it at 
Maulmain, near Ngabeemah, on the Attaran, arouud Kau- 
karit on the Houndraw River, and close to two villages in the 
Thoungyeen valley. 

55.— Haliastur indus, Bodd. 

In the Thoungyeen this is the commonest of the Raptors. 

I noticed a pair breeding near Kaukarit on the Houndraw 
river, but the nest, when examined on the 4th April, was 
still unfinished. 

56 fe?\— Milvus affinis, Gould. 

Common at Kaukarit and all through the plains. Exces- 
sively rare on the east side of the Dawna range in the 
Thoungyeen. It was only at Meeawuddy, opposite to which 
the Dawna range sinks to an elevation of only 1,000 feet, 
that I observed one or two on the 3rd February. 

As noticed in my former paper (vide S. F., Vol. VIIL, p. 191) 
JUilvus govinda also occurs, but as I shot and preserved only 
one specimen, and that turned out so bad a one that I 
threw it away, I have not entered it, and only noticed it as 
above in this paper. 

58. — Baza lophotes, Cuv. 

On both sides of the Dawna mountains this bird I find is 
common. In the Thoungyeen forests I have always found 
it in small parties, never singly. In July 1879 I tried to 
stalk a few that were seated on the trees round a cultivation 
clearing near Koosaik on the Thouugyeen river, but they 
were too wary, flew up and began to sail in circles round 
and round at a great height. 

On the 11th August 1879 I shot a young female in the 
act of being fed by the old ones, both parent birds flying 
off and procuring food for her. 

19 



146 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

In plumage this specimen exactly resembles the adults, 
except that the black of the throat is duller ; the black band 
across the chest is narrower, the crest is shorter, and there 
is more chestnut on the wings than in the fully-plumaged 
bird. 

The following are the measurements in the flesh of this 
young one, and an adult male and female : — 

Male. — Length, 12-55 ; expanse, 29'5 ; wing, 9*35 ; sail 
from vent, 5 8; tarsus, 1*0; bill from gape, 1*0. 

Female. — Length, 13-3 ; expanse, 30'7 ; wing, 992; tail from 
vent, 6-25; tarsus, 1*2; bill from gape, 1*0. 

The colors of the soft parts in both these were — Cere, legs, 
and feet, dull leaden blue; bill horny plumbeous, tipped 
brownish above and whitish below ; irides purplish brown ; 
claws horny. 

Female — Juv. — Length, 12*8; expanse, 29 - 0; wing, 8'93 ; 
tail from vent, 5*7 ; tarsus, 0'9 ; bill from gape, 1*0. 

Cere pale whitish blue ; upper mandible dark horny, lower 
fleshy white ; iris pale straw brown ; legs and feet dirty 
white; claws horny. 

60.-— Strix javanica, Gm. 

I have already noticed this (S. F., Vol. VIII., p. 191), 
and have nothing further to remark about the species, except 
that, so far as I have been able to find out, it does not extend 
into the Thoungyeen valley. 

? 65 bis.— Syrnium seloputo, Horsf. 

I am almost certain that I have heard the call of this bird at 
night, on two or three occasions, in the Thoungyeen valley. 

Once when I was encamped at a village in the Meplay 
during the rains, I heard the rolling hoo-hoo-hoo, so well 
described by Mr. Davison (vide S. F., Vol. VI., p. 28), 
just after nightfall. Seizing my gun I was on the point of 
going out in search of the bird, when the most fearful yells and 
cries arose from the village, which effectually frightened it 
away. On enquiring the cause of the excitement I was 
informed that it was not a bird but an evil spirit that had 
hooted, and had to be propitiated by cries and supplications. 

72.— Ketupa javanensis, Less. 

This fine Owl occurs everywhere from north to south. I 
have never managed to secure a specimen, but to my certain 
knowledge it is found along the whole of the Thoungyeen, 
and one or two on each tributary, as I have often and often 
heard their soft low whistle., but owing to their wariness never 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 147 

succeeding* in shooting one here. I got one however in 
March 1877 in the Sinzaway Reserve Forest on the Younzaleen. 

74.— Scops pennatus, Hodgs. 

This bird is common throughout the plains country and 
up the hills to a moderate elevation. It is not as common 
in the Thoungyeen valley as the next species, but its whistled 
call of whoo, whoo, whoo-hoo, incessantly repeated, is by no 
means an uncommon accompaniment to the many sounds of 
night in the drier forests in the Thoungyeen. 

A pair in my collection measured in the flesh : — 

Male. — Length, 7*0; expanse, 17*2 ; wing, 53; tail from 
vent, 2'3; tarsus, 0*85 ; bill from gape, 0'75. 

Cere and feet a pale whitish yellow ; bill horny ; base and 
tip of lower mandible white ; irides yellow ; claws horny. 

Female. — Length, 7*11 ; expanse, 194; wing, 5*75 ; tail from 
vent, 2'7 ; tarsus, 9 ; bill from gape, 0'78. 

Cere dusky dark green ; bill horny ; gape fleshy white ; 
irides bright yellow ; feet fleshy brownish yellow ; claws 
horny. 

This female was evidently breeding ; she had a large and 
fully-formed but shell-less egg inside her. 

75 quint.— Scops lempigi, Sorsf. 

Common in the Thoungyeen valley. I have myself neither 
seen nor heard it anywhere else. 

The call of this bird is peculiar for a Scops, — it is a long 
rolling kur-r-r-r, continued for minutes together.* On the 
11th March a Karen, who had been marking down nests for mo 
in the Meplay valley, took me to a tree on the bank of the 
Choung and showed me a hole in the branch of a large Pyma 
tree {Laqerstrosmia flos-regina) , in which he said a small Owl 
had its nest with three eggs. On his ascending the tree a female 
of the above species flew out, which I shot. In ten minutes he 
brought me down three round white, uearly glossless, eggs per- 
fectly fresh, which he said were laid on the bare wood in a natural 
hollow in the branch. The hole was about three feet from the 
base of the branch on the under side, and about fifteen to 
twenty feet above the ground. 

I found a second nest in the hollow of a dead Thingaw tree 
[Hopea odorata) near the bank of the Mekhnay stream, a 
feeder of the Meplay, on the 30th of the same month. The 
eggs, four in number, were similar, and like the others laid on 

* Both Davison and myself are inclined to suspect some mistake here. This 
rolling kurr is a common night sound, but we have always attributed it to Ninox.— 
A. OH. 



148 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERTM 

the wood with no pretence to a nest. The seven eggs taken 
vary from 115 to 1*29 in length, and T07 to 112 in 
breadth. 

79.— Glaucidium cuculoides, Fig. 

The commonest Owl ; found everywhere. 

80.— Glaucidium brodiei, Burton. 

Generally, but locally, distributed in the forests of the higher 
hills, not perhaps usually descending much below an elevation 
of 1,500 feet. In the Thoungyeen it was excessively common 
in the evergreen forest, about the village of Gatai on the 
Hteepoyo choung, in the Meplay valley. I have heard it 
eallino- both by day and night, its call being like that of 
S. pennatus, with the two last notes inverted thus, whoo, whoo- 
hoo, whoo, and perhaps more bell like. 

81 ter.— Ninox burmanica, Hume. 

At Maulmain and in the dry jungles on the Yoonzaleen 
choung, this bird is excessively common. In the Thoungyeen 
valley however, except just about the large frontier town of 
Meeawuddy, it is rare. 

A male, in my collection, has the following measurements 
taken in the flesh attached to it : — 

Length, 11-70; expanse, 27*5 ; wing, 8'4 ; tail from vent, 4"9 ; 
tarsus, 1*0 ; bill from gape, 1*15. 

Cere and bill greenish horny ; irides bright yellow ; feet 
lemon yellow ; claws horny. 

82 bis.— Hirundo gutturalis, Scop. 

Very common everywhere. In the Thoungyeen valley I have 
shot them from October to February. 

84.— Hirundo filifera, Steph. 

I have nothing to add to my former note concerning this 
species, except that at the Kamaukla rapids I again saw a few 
of them this year. 

85 bis.— Hirundo nipalensis, Hodgs. 

The three specimens of the Swallow that I entered doubt- 
fully under erythropygia (vide S. F., Vol. VIII., p. 192) 
have been identified by Mr. Hume as the above. 

I have never seen any of this species in the Thoungyeen 
valley. I may remark that my specimens are very markedly 
striated on the under surface. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 149 

87.— Cotyle riparia, Lin. 
89.— Cotyle sinensis, J. E. Gr. 

These two species, common round Maulmain in the cold 
weather, have never been seen by me in the Thoungyeen 
valley. 

102 fo's.— Cypselus infumatus, Sclater. 

Both at Kaukarit and at Meeawuddy this dusky little Swift 
is common about the palm trees round the pagodas and 
kyoungs. 

104.— Dendrochelidon coronata, Tick 

Messrs. Hume and Davison give this bird as rare, but it is 
not really rare along the Thoungyeen valley from its source to 
its mouth, though it is very difficult to shoot. 

105 quat.— Batrachostomus affinis, Bly. 

In February 1878, while encamped near the village of 
Hpamee on the Bawthaloo choung in the Meplay valley, 
a Karen brought me a bird that he had shot with a charge of 
slugs at three yards distance ! Recognizing it is a Batrachos- 
tomus of some kind, and therefore a rarity, as to my knowledge 
none had as yet been procured in Tenasserim, I duly skinned 
the rag of a thing. After that I hunted high and low for 
others, but never saw the ghost of one. 

I subsequently submitted the above-mentioned specimen to 
Mr. Hume, who very kindly sent me back the following note 
on it : — 

lc The specimen of the Bairachostomus which you sent me, 
is so terribly mauled about the back and wings, the whole of 
the tertiaries and longer scapulars being wanting, that I cannot 
pronounce certainly in regard to it. 

" The following are the dimensions of the skin : — Length, 85 ; 
wing, 4*7; tail, 4 - 8 ; bill from gape, straight to point, 1*14 ; 
width at gape, 1*27 ; tarsus, 0*52. 

" This specimen agrees very closely with Colonel Tickell's des- 
cription* of a specimen obtained near Tounghoo, which the 
Marquis of Tweeddale assigned to Batrachostomus affinis. 

* The following is Colonel Tickell's description, vide P. Z. S., 1877, 429:— "Head 
upper back, and scapulars bright umber, shaded ferruginous on back and mingled 
with greyish on scapulars, the whole vermiculated crossways, black ; outer webs of 
two or three scapulars white, bordered with black ; tertials clouded brown, ferruginous 
and grey, with black vermiculations ; wing-coverts rusty vinous, broadly vermiculated 
black. Secondaries and primaries, outer webs chestnut-rusty, with broken narrow 
bars of black; inner webs sepia; tips of primaries pale and mottled; tail 
cinnamon-brown, shaded grey marginally, and vermiculated black and crossed with 
five paler bars (not joining the shafts,) subterminal series (sic.) ; the bars are edged 



150 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

t{ I myself am disposed to suspect that your bird and TickelFs 
may represent a distinct species. Closely allied no doubt to affinis, 
but with a considerably larger bill than the true affinis, and 
differing moreover somewhat in shade of plumage and in 
having more or less traces of a nuchal collar ; but until we ob- 
tain some really good specimens it would be unwise to propose 
any new name for the Burmese race.' 34 ' 

" Note : that the present specimen has just a perceptible 
trace of the white nuchal collar, absolutely no white spots 
whatever on the wing, but a few of the outer scapulars (all that 
remain) broadly tipped with white, and margined with black." 

110.— Oaprimulgus macrourus, Horsf. 

This is the commonest Nightjar, and as Mr. Davison 
remarks (S. F., Yol. VI., p. 58) its incessant call of tok-tok-tok 
is very annoying at night. 

It is common in the Thoungyeen valley even in dense ever- 
green forest. On the 15th March 1879, while tramping back 
to my camp pitched on the bank of the Queebawchoung, a 
tributary of the Meplay, I arrived about dusk at a dense bam- 
boo forest just above my tent. There being lots of fallen 
bamboos, I had to pick my steps carefully in threading my 
way through, and in so doing all but trod on a female of the 
above species ; she flew up, and 1 saw lying on the dry bamboo 
leaves, a couple of blunt oval eggs, pinkish stone color, with 
washed out purple blotches, clouds, and spots of various shades. 

Both these I found slightly set, and a third one half formed 
in the oviduct of the female which I shot. I mention this 
circumstance as I have never found more than two eggs in 
any Nightjar's nest. 

Subsequently on the 15th March 1880, I found a second nest 
with two eggs precisely similar, which measured 1*16 by 0'85 
and 1-23 by 0*87. 

112. — Caprimulgus asiaticus, Lath. 

Dr. Armstrong procured a specimen of this species at 
Amherst (S. F., Vol. VL, p. 59.) 

black and obscurely vermiculated ; all under parts from bill vinous rusty, with a 
group of white ; black-margined patches on throat, and another across bottom 
of breast, below which the colour is paler, and broken with rusty and dusky 
irregular bars : this entends to lower tail-coverts ; lower back and upper tail-coverts 
as back ; a pale tawny supercilium ; lining of wings whitish ; length, 9 inches ; 
wing, 4f ; tail, 4f , of which beyond body 2| ; bill, f ; tarsus, J> B ; middle toe, f . 

* Since writing the above Mr. Hume and I have gone carefully through a series of 
ascertained stellatus and affinis from the Malay Peninsula, and have little doubt 
that this specimen is referable to affinis, which latter seems always tc want the white 
spottings on the wing-coverts, while it has large white spots on the lower breast and 
upper abdomen, which spots are more or less conspicuously edged with black. More- 
over it has scarcely any trace of the nuchal collar on the back. The bird itself (to 
judge from skins) and its bill are much smaller in the case of affinis.- -C. T. B. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 151 

I got a second, strange to say, far inland, at Meeawuddy on 
the Thoungveen river, of which the following are the dimen- 
sions, etc., taken in the flesh : — 

Femafe. — Length, 9'21 ; expanse, 18*6 ; wing, 4*5; tail 
from vent, 6*1 ; bill from gape, 1*25 ; tarsus, 0*85. 

Bill fleshy brown ; legs and feet dirty pale brown ; irides 
dark brown. 

114. — Caprimulgus monticolus, Frankl. 

I have not found this Nightjar common in Tenasserim. Two 
specimens I have were procured — male, on the 11th July 1879, 
at Koosaik on the Thoungyeen river : female, at Kaukarit 
on the Houndraw river, on the 16th November 1879. Only 
the latter was measured in the flesh. Its dimensions etc., are — 

Length, 10*3; expanse, 19*0 ; wing, 7*6 • tail, 4*7 ; tarsus, 
0'65 ; bill from gape, 1*4. 

Bill and gape pale brown ; the former dark horny at tip ; iris 
dark brown ; legs and feet pale fleshy brown ; claws horny. 

The Karen women extract the oil from the bodies of Night- 
jars and use it under the belief that it stimulates fertility. 

114 bis.— Lyncornis cerviniceps, Gould. 

This magnificent bird is undoubtedly more plentiful in the 
north. I have heai'd and. seen it on the Yoonzaleen choung, 
on the Salween river, and on the Zammee choung. In the 
Thoungyeen valley it is more or less rare, and I have only 
procured it or heard it along the lower portion of the Thoun- 
gyeen river. 

In a note to p. 61 of Vol. VI., Mr Hume suggested that 
these birds might roost in caves, and such I have now ascer- 
tained to be the case. 

In a limestone cave in the Meplay Bast Watershed range, 1 
found a whole colony of these birds in the day time. On my 
entering, they darted out with prodigious swiftness and dropped 
into the jungle outside, and although I beat backwards and 
forwards over the very ground, I did not succeed in putting 
up a single one. 

The dimensions, etc., recorded in the flesh of a fine male shot 
at the mouth of the Daylaw choung, on the 30th January 
1880, are- 
Length, 16-0 ; expanse, 35*7; wing, 21*3 ; tail, 9*30 ; tarsus, 
06; bill from gape, 1*6. 

Bill at tip and at the region of the nostrils horny ; remain- 
der, with legs and feet brownish fleshy ; irides dark brown. 



152 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

116.— Harpactes erythrocephalus, Gould. 

By no means a common bird, and only found in the higher 
hills, generally in evergreen forest. 

I procured two males and a female in the Thoungyeen valley. 

Male. — Length, 12 - 8 ; expanse, 175 ; wing, 6 0; tail, 7-7; 
tarsus, 0"60; bill from gape, 11. 

Fore part of bill horny ; remainder, with gape and eyelids, 
rich cobalt blue ; legs and feet a light fleshy purple ; irides 
brick red ; claws horny. 

Female, (caught off eggs, a note of which is given below). — 
Length, 12 - 5 ; expanse, 18'8; wing, 55 ; tail, 73 ; tarsus, 0*6 ; 
bill from gape, Tl. 

Bill, legs, feet, etc., as in male ; irides a rich crimson. 

On the 11th March I found a nest of this bird containing 
two eggs almost pure white, blunt oval in shape and one of 
which measured 1'08 by 090. The nest was iu the head of 
a stump leaning over the Queebaw choung, (a feeder of the 
Meplay) at its sources, and consisted merely of a little hollow 
dug out of the rotten wood at the top at a height of about 
8 feet from the ground. A Kareu who was with me mauaged 
to catch the female alive with his hand as she sat on her nest, 
but unfortunately broke one of the eggs. 

116 ter.— Harpactes oreskios, Tern. 

The very commonest of common birds wherever evergreen 
forests occur, and therefore, of course, throughout the Thoun- 
gyeen valley. 

It has a feeble, croaking, querulous note, and a stupid, flus- 
tering, noisy way of flying off its nest on any one's approach, 
which in nine cases out of ten, direct attention to it. For 
notes on its nidification, see S. F., Vol. V., pp. 50 and 82. 

117.— Merops viridis, Lin. 

Except in heavy forest land this little bird is almost as 
common in Tenasserim as in the North- West Provinces of 
India. 

It crosses the Dawna range into the Thoungyeen valley, 
and is found in suitable spots all along the river. 

It is a permanent resident and breeds there. 

118.— Merops philippinus, Lin. 

This bird being partially migratory is often overlooked ; but 
it is common nearly all the year round at Kaukarit on the Houn- 
draw river, where it breeds in April and May in the sandy 
banks of the Kaukarit choung. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 153 

In the Thoungyeen valley, I have procured it at Meeawuddy 
in June, at Laidawgyee in April, and on the Dawna pass in 
November. 

119. — Merops swinhoii, Hume. 

The commonest Bee-eater, as it affects not only forests but 
the banks of streams so numerous throughout the country. 

122.— Nyctiornis athertoni, Jard. and Selb, 

_ I have seen a party of this Bee-eater, some four or five, sit- 
ting on the trees dotted about over a bare plain, which in the 
rains forms a marsh. This was near Kaukarit. 

It is, however, far more common along the well-wooded 
Dawna range, and in the Thoungyeen valley. 

It has a croaking, querulous note, something like that of 
Rhopodytes tristis, but ending up with a clucking sound. 

122 bis.— Nyctiornis amicta, Tern. 

Certainly one of the loveliest birds in the forest. Besides 
the specimens mentioned as obtained by me in S. F., Yol. VIII., 
p. 193, I have since shot a fine male on the 19th November 
1879 in the Thoungyeen valley, near the banks of the Thin- 
gaugyeenoun choung, a feeder of the Meplay. This specimen 
measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 13'1 ; expanse, 18'6; wing, 5*4; tail, 5*3 ; tarsus, 
0"8 ; bill from gape, 2'4.. 

Bill dark horny, rather whitish at base below ; legs and 
feet plumbeous green ; irides tawny. 

124.— Coracias affinis, Mc.Clell. 

The Eastern Roller is common throughout the province, and 
though a bird of the open plains it is by no means uncommon 
in the open Dillenia forests that form a great belt along almost 
the vvhole lower course of the Thoungyeen. 

126.— Eurystomus orientalis, Lin. 

I shot one specimen of this as before noticed (S. F., Vol. 
VIII., p. 193), on the Zammee river. 

In September 1879 I found it common at the head waters 
of the Thoungyeen, but so wary that I did not manage to 
secure a single specimen. The one procured on the Zammee 
river, a male, measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 12*93; expanse, 25*7 ; wing, 7'6 ; tail from vent, 
4*2 ; tarsus, 8"69 ; bill from gape, 1*65. 

Bill bright rose red ; tip black ; legs and feet dark Indian 
red ; irides dark clear brown ; claws horny. 

20 



154 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF. TEN ASSERIM 

127 bis. — Pelargopsis burmanica, Sharpe. 

Found all over the country, but not so numerous in the 
Thoungyeen valley, as I have noticed it elsewhere. 

It breeds in the Thoungyeen in the latter end of February, 
in March, and in the beginning of April, commencing and 
finishing the digging of its nest-hole long before the eggs are 
laid. 

On the 23rd March, being encamped just on the bank of the 
Meplay close to its mouth, I noticed, while seated outside my 
tent in the afternoon, a pair of these birds going in and out of a 
hole in the bank opposite. On inspecting it closer, it proved to 
be the opening to a tunnel t\ inch in diameter, and going in for 
fully five feet, where it ended in a rounded chamber, consider- 
ably larger than the passage, in which lay four roundish glossy 
white eggs. There was no lining of any kind, the eggs reposing 
on the bare ground. 

They measure respectively, 1*19 by 1'05, 1*17 by 1*03, 
1-18 by 108, and 1-15 by 1-03. 

129.— Halcyon smyrnensis, Lin. 

I have procured this bird all over the province. In the 
Thoungyeen it is by far the commonest Kingfisher, and I have 
Been it far from any water in dry Eng (Dipterocarpus) jungle. 

One specimen, a male, shot at Kaukarit on the Houndraw 
river, on the 15th November 1879, is remarkable as having 
very little white on the chest, which is further confined by 
an incomplete chestnut bar at the base of the throat. It 
measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 11*0 ; expanse, 16*5; wing, 4-6; tail from vent, 
3'15 ; tarsus, 0*6; bill from gape, 2*71. 

Bill dark coral red, suffused with horny at the edges and near 
the nostrils ; irides nut brown ; legs and feet dark coral red, 
tinged with black in front. 

130.— Halcyon pileata, Bodd. 

In the rains this species wanders far up the rivers inland. 
In September and October I found it especially plentiful at 
the head waters of the Thoungyeen, and along its numerous 
feeders down to its mouth. 

132 ter,— Carcineutes pulchellus, Horsf. 

This lovely forest Kingfisher is found throughout the 
Thoungyeen valley ; in some places, as in the valley of the 
Meplay, it is very common. On the western side of the Dawna 
range I have only once procured it, and that was just at the 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 155 

foot of the bills. I have never myself seen or shot it sitting over 
any running stream or pool after the manner of other 
Kingfishers ; in fact it seems to me to avoid the vicinity of water 
altogether, and to live entirely on lizards, land insects, worms, 
&c. It is a very stupid bird, and will sit quite quietly within 
three feet of you, and let you load your gun if it happens to 
be empty. 

A pair measured in the flesh : — 

Male (shot 24th February 1880 on the Maplay choung) :— . 
Length, 9*2 ; expanse, 12'9; wing. 3*43 ; tail from vent, 3*3; 
tarsus, 0*6 ; bill from gape, 2'0. 

Bill dark vermilion red ; gape and eyelids lighter ; legs and 
feet ochraceous pink ; irides ashy grey. 

Female (shot 22nd November 1879 on the Maigla choung, 
head watei's of the Thoungyeen) : — Length, 95 ; expanse, 12'6* j 
wing, 3'48 ; tail from vent, 3*2 ; tarsus, - 54 ; bill from 
gape, 2-1. 

Bill vermilion red ; irides yellowish grey ; legs and feet 
ochraceous pink. 

133.— Ceyx tridactyla, Pall. 

This little living gem is excessively rare in the Thoungyeen 
valley, but along the western foot of the Dawna range it 
eeems fairly plentiful in the evergreen forests. 

A female shot on the 12th August 1879, at Thoung-cheein- 
Bakan on the Kaukarit and Meeawucldy road measured in the 
flesh :— 

Length, 5*4; expanse, 8*5; wing, 2*38; tail from vent, 
1'04 ; tarsus, 0'4 ; bill from gape, 1*63. 

Bill, legs, feet, and claws orange, the first lightening to a pale 
yellow at tip ; irides dark brown. 

134.— Alcedo bengalensis, Gm. 

Here and there through the Thoungyeen valley this bird 
occurs, but it is not at all plentiful. 

Hale (shot 31st January 1880 on the Thoungyeen rivei*, 
measured in the flesh): — Length, 6'57 ; expanse, 10 - 35 ; wiug, 
2-82 ; tail from vent, 1*4; tarsus, 0*3 ; bill from gape, 1*8. 

Bill above horny, below and at gape light vermilion ; legs 
and feet a darker shade of vermilion ; irides brown ; claws 
horny. 

Female (shot 1 9th September 1877 on the Oukree choung):— 
Length, 6'57; expanse, 100 ; wing, 2'68; tail from vent, 1*4; 
tarsus, 0*34; bill from gape, 182. 



156 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON TEE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

Bill dark horny brown, dashed reddish white at base of 
lower mandible ; gape, legs and feet coral red ; irides brown ; 
claws horny. 

135 Ms.— Alcedo nigricans, Bly. 

I am certain that in the rocky choungs flowing into the 
Thoungyeen from the east flank of the Meplay East Watershed 
range, I have more than once come across this Kingfisher, but 
owing to its extreme wariness I have hitherto failed to secure 
any specimens. 

136.— Ceryle rudis, Lin. 

In August 1879 going up the Houndraw river, I was 
astonished at the immense numbers of this species that had 
collected on some willows on the bank, just below the Forest 
rest house at Kyaen ; there must have been fully a hundred of 
them. For what purpose they had assembled I could not 
make out. Along the Thoungyeen it is by no means uncom- 
mon, but I have not seen it more than occasionally up any of 
the tributary streams. 

137.— Ceryle guttata, Vig. 

I have nothing further to add to my former note concerning 
this species (S. F.. Vol. VIII., p. 193,) except that since writing 
it I again saw a few in the same locality mentioned in it. 

138. — Psarisomus dalhousise, Jam. 

I have found this Broadbill common along both sides of the 
Dawna range, and on the higher spurs running off it. 

A pair, shot on the 1st February 1880, at the sources of the 
Quaymoo choung, a small feeder of the Thoungyeen, entering 
a little below the rapids of Kamankla, measured in the flesh 
as follows : — 

Male. — Length, 11*1 ; expanse, 13*7 ; wing, 4*02 ; tail from 
vent, 5*1 ; tarsus, 1*13; bill from gape, 1*4. 

Bill brownish yellow, bluish at gape and at tip ; irides 
brown ; legs and feet light green ; claws horny. 

Female. — Length, 11*00; expanse, 13*8; wing, 4*0; tail 
from vent, 5*2; tarsus, 1*05; bill from gape, 1*3. 

Bill bluish green, tinged with brownish yellow, tip whitish ; 
irides brown ; legs and feet light green ; claws horny. 

A young female, shot on the 10th September at the head 
waters of the Thoungyeen, measured : — 

Length, 9*15 ; expanse, 13*20 ; wing, 3*98; tail from vent, 
3*20; tarsus, 1*0; bill from gape, 1*4. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 157 

Bill greenish yellow, blue at tip and at gape ; orbicular skin 
yellow ; irides ashy brown ; legs and feet pale green ; claws 
light horny. 

The general color of the bird is duller than in the adult. 
There is a considerable amount of green on the forehead ; the 
blue patch on the centre of the head consists only of one or 
two blue feathers, and the yellow of the chin and throat is 
much mixed with green. 

139 bis.— Serilophus lunatus, Gould. 

This is the commonest Broadbill in the country, descending 
in the rains even to the jungles round Maulmain. 

In the Thoungyeen it is common from the sources to its 
mouth. For notes on its nidification vide S. F., Vol. V., p. 455. 

139 ter.— Eurylaemus javanicus, Horsf. 

Mr. Davison got this at Meetan on the Houndraw river 
aud below Amherst. I have since found that it extends along 
the whole of the eastern face of the Dawna range nearly to 
the mouth of the Thoungyeen. Probably it continues up 
along the ranges on the Sal ween to Tounghoo where Major 
Loyd got it. 

139 quaL— Cymborhynchus macrorhynchus, Gm. 

It is strange my getting a specimen of this lovely Broad- 
bill, hitherto supposed to be confined to the south of Tenas- 
serim and the Malay Peninsula, so far north as the pass from 
Meeawuddy over the Dawna to Kaukarit. 

The pair I saw, and the female of which I managed to 
procure, may have been mere stragglers ; but I am inclined 
to believe that owing to the heavy rainfall on these moun- 
tains many birds extend along its forests, which are in most 
localities denizens of more southern latitudes. The following 
are the dimensions, etc., of the one shot :— 

Female, (10th August 2879) : — Length, 9*48 ; expanse, 130 ; 
wing, 4*1 ; tail from vent, 3*9 ; tarsus, 0*89 ; bill from gape, 1*2 ; 
upper mandible, and a bordering along the edge of the lower 
mandible, brilliant blue ; remainder of the latter yellowish ; 
edges of both transparent white ; irides emerald green, shot 
"with gold ; legs and feet ultramarine blue ; claws horny. 

139 sext.— Corydon sumatranus, Bqffl. 

This species is common in the north and in the Thoungyeen 
valley, but I have never shot one anywhere on the Houndraw, 
or in the plains country on the Hlinebooey or Gyne rivers. 

A male measured in the flesh :— Lengtb, 10*5 ; expanse, 



158 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

17'3 ; wing, 5*2 ; tail, 4*3 ; tarsus, l'O ; bill from gape, 1*45. 

Bill pale pinkish white; edges and tip of both mandibles 
fleshy purple ; irides nut brown ; legs, feet, and claws black. 

A female : — Length, 11*1 ; expanse, 18'0 ; wing, 5*25 ; tail, 
4-33; bill from gape, 1-62. 

Bill, etc., precisely as in the naale. 

140,— Dichoceros cavatus, Shaw. 

This Hornbill is very abundant in the Thoungyeen valley. 
Near Gatai on the Hteepoyo choung in the Meplay, in February 
1880, I saw enormous numbers collected on four or five fig 
trees that happened to be in fruit at one time. 

I have taken several of their eggs, and have nothing to 
add to my account of their habits and nesting (S. F., Vol. 
VIII., p. 461.) 

142.— Hydrocissa albirostris, Shaw. 

A very common bird in the Thoungyeen valley. Sub- 
sequent to the taking of the two nests, as described in 
my paper above referred to, I had marked down for me 
and procured three more nests on the 5th March 1880, of 
which one contained a single egg, and two, two eggs each. 
The mode of nidification, etc., was, in the case of this as well 
in that of the different Hornbills referred to below, precisely 
as described in my former paper. 

I give the dimensions taken in the flesh of an old adult 
female caught off one of the nests on the 5th March : — 

Length, 27'0; expanse, 34*0; wiug, 10*2; tail from vent, 
irO ; tarsus, 1*7 ; bill from gape straight to point, 4 # 3. 

Bill yellow, shaded with black on the fore and hind portions of 
the casque, on the fore part of the upper mandible and tip, and 
edges of both ; just in front of the gape on the bill there 
is a reddish patch ; the legs and feet are dusky plumbeous 
black ; the irides reddish brown, and the bare skin of the face 
livid white, tinged blue. 

144 bis.— Ocyceros tickelli, Blyth. 

It is strange how tame this Hornbill is during the breeding 
season, ordinarily, (and I have come across flocks of it on the 
hio-h hills, between the Zammee choung and the Hound raw 
river, on the ranges near the Sal ween, and in various places 
on the Dawna and its spurs, from the head waters of the 
Thoungyeen to its mouth, i.e., from Mooleyit to the Salween,*) 
it is the wariest of the wary, keeping well above the tops of 

* I have boon assured by Karens that this species occurs much further north in 
the Bceling hills.— C. T. B. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 159 

the highest trees. I described in a former article a nest and 
eggs ; subsequent to that I managed to procure three nests 
more on the 5th March ; out of these one contained four eggs, 
one three and one two respectively. 

146 Us.— Rhyticeros undulatus, Shaw. 

I first found out that this species ranged much further north 
than noticed by Mr. Davison, by obtaining a specimen on 
the Zammee river, which was shot in the act of being fed. 

This, a young male with no trace of plications on the bill, 
measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 43*0; expanse, 65-0; wing, 20-0; tail, 15-0; tarsus, 
3'0 ; bill from gape straight to point, 7*2. 

Bill whitish green, reddish at base ; gular skin bright 
chrome yellow with an imperfect band ; legs and feet black ; 
irides yellow. 

Later on I found them abundant in the Thoungyeen forests,* 
and took their eggs (S. F., Vol. VIIL, pp. 459-463.) Sub- 
sequent to the taking of the one nest therein described, I 
got two others on the 5th March, each containing two eggs, 
and a fourth on the 17th of the same month, also with two 
eggs, hard set. It is pretty clear therefore that the bird lays no 
more than two. 

146 ter.— Rhyticeros subruficollis, Bly. 

This seems to me much more a bird of the plains and low 
hills than the foregoing species. It is not very abundant in the 
Thoungyeen, and I only got two nests, one on the 5th March 
with two eggs, and the other on the 7th, with only one eg<r. 
The three eggs measure respectively 2'22 X 1'63, 2'28 % 
1-68 and 2'49 X 1'78. 

A very old adult female, shot 5th February 1887, measured 
in the flesh: — Length, 33'0 ; expanse, 47-0 ; wing, 15"0; tail 
from vent, 9*5 ; tarsus, 2'0 ; bill from gape, straight to point, 5'5. 

Bill yellow, red at base above ; gular skin purplish blue ; 
irides red ; legs and feet black ; claws horny. 

147 quat.— Palaeornis indoburmanicus, Hume. 

This species I have never seen in the Thoungyeen valley, 
and I do not think it crosses the Dawna range. About 
Kaukarit on the Houndraw river, and again all up the 
Salween as far as I have gone, it is common. 

* In S. F., Vol. VIIL, p. 459, in my " Notes on the Nidification of some Hornbills," 
by a slip of the pen I stated in the second paragraph that R. undulatus was less 
abundant than R. subruficollis; it is just the reverse; it is R. subruficollis that is 
scarce in the Meplay forests, Of R. undulatus, I used daily to see large parties. — 
C. T. B. 



160 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIH 

149 .fe— Palseornis cyanocephalus, Lin. 

Except in the dry forests to the north and about Maulmain, 
this species seems to me the commonest of all the Parakeets. 

It is so in the Thoungyeen valley, where it ranges from the 
sources of that river to its mouth. 

Males measured. — Length, 12-0 to 127; expanse, 16"4 to 
16*7 ; wing, 5-39 to 5*67 • tail, from 6*0, in a partially abraded 
though otherwise perfect specimen, to 7*8 ; tarsus, 0*50 • bill 
from gape, 0'68. 

Cere, legs and feet brownish ashy ; bill, upper mandible deep 
wax yellow, tipped horny white • lower black, just a tinge of 
yellow at centre of base ; irides yellow. 

Females.— Length, 11-48 to 11*92 ; expanse, 15*20 to 16*00 ; 
wing,5-l to 5-4 ; tail, 6'1 to 7*0 ; tarsus, 0'48 ; bill from gape,0-67. 

Cere, legs, and feet dusky slaty • upper mandible yellow, 
whitish horny at tip ■ lower dull black ; irides yellow. 

150 bis.— Palaeornis finschi, Hume. 

This handsome Parrot is common in the higher hills and 
spurs of the Dawna along the whole of the Thoungyeen 
valley, and I fancy it must occur in the ranges between the 
Attaran and Houndraw, as I procured a young male at Maul- 
main, evidently a straggler, on the 22nd November 1877. The 
following are its dimensions, etc., taken in the flesh : — 

Length, 13-8 ; expanse, 17*4 ; wing, 5*90 ; tail, 7*61 ; tarsus, 
0'85 ; bill from gape, 0'8. 

Bill light cherry red on basal two-thirds of upper mandible ; 
tip of which and lower mandible pale yellow ; cere, legs, and 
feet light plumbeous ; irides bright yellow ; claws horny. 

This specimen differs from the adult in having the cap a 
dull bluish brown, with a small admixture of green feathers 
on the crown and back part of the head ; in there being no 
black edging to the cap on the chin and behind the cheeks, as 
in the adult ; and in the complete absence of any wing spot. 
In other respects its plumage corresponds in its characteristic 
narrow tail and coloration to Mr. Hume's original description 
of the species, (S. F. Vol. II., p. 509). 

152.— Palaeornis fasciatus, P. L. S. Mull. 

This bird does not to the best of my belief extend into the 
Thoungyeen valley. In, the plains country, about Maulmain, 
on the Attaran, Gryne, and Houndraw rivers, up the Salween 
and its tributary the Yoonzaleen, they abound. 

On the 8th February 1878 I found a nest in the Maoo 
reserve, Zammee river, in a hole cut in the decayed branch 
of a large Zimbun tree (Dillenia jaentagyna)\ it contained one 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 161 

egg, pure white, coarse grained and glossless ; resting on some 
decayed chips of wood. It measured 1*25" by O'DS." 

153.— Loriculus vernalis, Sparrm. 

This bird is very common in the Thoungyeen valley. 

On the 24th February 1880, a nest hole of this pretty little 
Lorikeet was pointed out to me by a Karen, in the branch of 
a large silk cotton tree {Bomb ax) on the bank of the Meplay 
choung below Gatai village. It was on the side of the branch 
at a height of about 40 feet from the ground, so that it was 
with a good deal of difficulty I managed to get the three eggs 
it contained down by the help of a rope ladder I had con- 
structed, which, however, did not work well. 

The hole was about 1^" in diameter, and about 6" to 7" 
deep, going in obliquely inwards towards the base of the 
branch. It was unlined, except for a few fragments of chipped 
wood. The eggs were dull dead white, glossless and roundish ; 
they measure respectively 0-68" by 0-59", 0'69" by 0-60", 0'68" 
by 0-61". 

163 Us.— Yungipicus canicapillus, Blyth. 

Wherever dry forests occur on either side of the Dawna hills, 
this little Woodpecker is sure to be found ; sometimes singly, 
oftener in pairs. 

165 Us.— Hemicercus canente, Less. 

Not very plentiful in the Thoungyeen jungles, but I have 
seen this bird from the head- waters of the stream nearly to 
its mouth. 

On the 11th March 1880, I cut out a nest hole of the above 
species, out of the dead and decaying trunk of a large teak 
tree, at a height of about twelve feet from the ground, on 
the bank of the Meplay choung. I had watched the bird for 
two days previously going in and out. 

The entrance to the nest was a little more than an inch in 
diameter, the tunnel, passing rather obliquely downwards for 
about 18 inches, ended in a large hollow, the bottom of which 
was strewed with broken bits of decayed wood on which 
reposed two, dull white, bluntish eggs. These measure respec- 
tively 0.87* by 0-65", and 0-90" by : 70". I managed to catch 
the female on the nest. 

165 ^watf.— Miglyptes jugularis, Blyth. 

Though not common it still occurs here and there in tho ever- 
green forests of the Thoungyeen. 

21 



162 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSEBIM 

A male measures : — Length, 7'75 ; expanse, 14*0 ; wing, 
4'18 ; tail, 2"4 ; tarsus, 0-75 ; bill from gape, I'l. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet dusky green ; 
claws horny. 

A female : — Length, 7*2 ; expanse, 13*6 ; wing, 4*1 ; tail, 2'1 ; 
tarsus, 0*72; bill from gape, 0*93. Colors of soft parts as 
in the male. 

166.— Chrysocolaptes sultaneus, Hodgs. 

Mr. Davison has already given this from the Thoungyeen 
valley. It is common all over the country. 

168.— Muelleripicus pulverulentus, Tern. 

The same remark applies to this as to the former species, only 
that this is a bird of the heavy forest, is seldom found in open 
jungle and never in the bare plains country. 

A male shot on the 18th February 1878, on the Zammee 
choung, Attaran river, is peculiar in having the yellow of the 
throat washed over with a pinkish crimson. 

It measured in the flesh: — Length, 19*7; expanse, 27*8 ; 
wing, 9"0; tail, 6*5; tarsus, 1*4 ; bill from gape, 2*91. 

Bill, legs and feet dark slaty ; irides dark brown. 

female. — Length, 18*45 ; expanse, 28*0 ; wing, 8*8 ; tail, 
6-66 ; tarsus, T38 ; bill from gape, 2-87. 

Bill, ridge of upper mandible and whole tip of both dark slaty, 
remainder dusky, smoky, white; irides dark brown; legs and 
feet plumbeous. 

169 ter.— Thriponax feddeni, Blanford. 

I have procured this species as far south as the head-waters 
of the Thoungyeen, and though not common in this valley, it 
is widely spread. In March 1878, I saw a number and shot a 
young male on the Zammee choung ; again near Kaukarit on 
the Houndraw river it may be said to be fairly common. 

A pair procured here on the 16th August measured in the 
flesh as follows : — 

Male. — Length, 15'8; expanse, 26*3; wing, 8*2 ; tail from 
vent, 6*3 ; tarsus ; 1*2, bill from gape, 23. 

Bill slaty; irides yellow; legs and feet plumbeous; claws 
horny. 

Female.— -Length, 16*6 ; expanse, 26 # 3 ; wing,8'61 ; tail from 
vent, 68; tarsus, 1*2 ; bill from gape, 2*1. Colors of the soft 
parts as in the male. 

The young male above referred to measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 14*8 ; expanse, 241 ; wing, 7*79 ; tail from vent, 5'4 ; 
tarsus, l'l ; bill from gape, 1*82. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 163 

Bill light plumbeous ; irides dark grey ; legs and feet dark 
plumbeous ; claws horny. The chin and throat are white, and 
it completely wants the crimson moustachial stripe, otherwise the 
plumage is as in the adult male. 

171 5ts.— Gecinus vittatus, Vieill. 

This is one of our commonest Woodpeckers, in the Thoung- 
yeen valley as elsewhere. 

A male measured in the flesh : — Length, 129 ; expanse, 18*3 ; 
wing, 5*21; tail, 4*8; tarsus, 1*0; bill from gape, 1*67. 

Bill horuy, basal two-thirds of lower mandible yellow ; irides 
reddish brown ; legs and feet dirty greenish ; claws horny. 

A female. — Length, 12*2; expanse, 17*3 ; wing, 5 - 14; tail, 
4*8 ; tarsus, 1*0 ; bill from gape, 1*55. Colors of the soft parts 
as in the male. 

171 ter.— Gecinus nigrigenis, Hume. 

The handsomest Woodpecker in the jungles I think. All 
through the Thoungyeen valley it is fairly common, but local. 

In the great laterite belt covered with Eng ( Dipterocarpus) 
forest, that runs parallel to the Thoungyeen river, north of 
Meeawuddy, I found it plentiful ; its peculiar cry, and the rich 
contrast of the jet black cheeks, with the yellow of the chin 
and throat once heard and seen, are not easily forgotten. 

A very fine pair measured in the flesh : — 

Male. — Length, 12'8 ; expanse, 19*2; wing, 6*2 ; tail from 
vent, 4'7 ; tarsus, 1*1 ; bill from gape, 1*55. 

Bill dark horny ; irides sulphur yellow ; legs and feet dark 
green ; claws horny. 

Female. — Length, 12*8 ; expanse, 19*2; wing, 5'8; tail, 4*7; 
tarsus, 1*1 ; bill from gape, 1*53. Color of the soft parts as 
in the male, with the exception of the irides, which were 
greenish yellow. 

On the 1 8th March, I found a nest of this Woodpecker in a 
hole in a Pynkado tree {Xylia dolabriformis) , on the bank of the 
Meplay choung. Cutting it out with chisel and hammer, I found 
the passage (about 10 inches in length by 1| inch in diame- 
ter) go obliquely down, and end in a slightly enlarged chamber 
in which I found two white, rather long and glossy, eggs lying 
on chips of wood. They measure 1*18 by 085 and 1*19 by 083. 
I may add that I shot both male and female before cutting out 
the nest. 

The note of this species is quite unlike that of any other 
Gecinus with which I am acquainted. It consists of from 12 to 
15 whistled notes, uttered in the most rapid succession, the first 
very high and shrill, and each succeeding one lower, till the last 



164 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSER1M 

is almost base. They continually thus call to and reply to each 
other, and it has been by following these calls that I have pro- 
cured most of my specimens. 

172.— Gecinus occipitalis, Vig. 

I have found this species all over the country. It breeds alike 
in the north and in the south-west in the Thoungyeen valley 
in April. On the 28th of that month I took five eggs out of 
a dried Tbitpouk tree (Tretranelles nudiflora), on the Yoonza- 
leen choung. 

The eggs were of the usual, glossy white, Woodpecker type. 

173.— Chrysophlegma fiavmucha, Gould. 

Mr. Davison has already given this bird from the Thoung- 
yeen valley. I found it fairly common there. 

174.— Chrysophlegma chlorolophus, Vieill. 

The same remark will apply to this as to the latter. It is 
even more abundant than flavinucha ; and a wonderfully silent 
bird. I have never heard its note to my knowledge. 

177 Ms.— Gecinulus viridis, Blyth. 

Along nearly the whole length of the Thoungyeen an almost 
uninterrupted belt of bamboo lines both banks, in which this 
little Woodpecker is fairly common. 

A male shot 20th September 1879, near the mouth of the 
Thablooko choung, Thoungyeen river, measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 10*07 ; expanse, 16*5 ; wing, 5*12 ; tail from vent, 
3*4; tarsus, 1*0; bill from gape, 1*17. 

Bill translucent white, suffused with blue, darker at base, 
lighter at tip ; irides nut brown ; legs and feet grass green ; 
claws horny. 

178.— Micropternus phaeoceps, Blyth. 

A fairly common bird in the Thoungyeen jungles. I remem- 
ber seeing one hard at work boring a hole in an ant's nest, 
while the ants swarmed over him. He, however, apparently 
took little or no notice of them. 

184.— Tiga javanensis, Ljungh. 

The commonest of common Woodpeckers in the Thoungyeen 
as elsewhere over the couutry. I subjoin a note of a nest and 
eggs I found. It was the 22nd March 1879, and a frightfully 
hot day. I was returning to camp, and my road lay through 
some dry, already burnt Eng (Dipt erocar pus) jungle. Passing 
close to a small stunted Pyma> tree (Lagerstrcemia flos-regince), 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 165 

a Woodpecker flew out of a hole on the side nearest to me, 
nearly hitting my face as it flew, and perched, or rather stuck 
on, as they do, to a tree not far off". Keeping my eye on her, 
I got one of the peons with me to widen the hole, and see 
whether there were any eggs. In a few moments he announc- 
ed three. I then shot the bird, which proved to be the above- 
mentioned Woodpecker, a female. The three eggs were trans- 
lucent whity pink, and rather glossy. Laid on the decayed 
wood in a natural hollow, a passage to which the bird had cut 
from the outside, at only four feet above the ground ; it was a 
wonder that when the jungle was fired they hadn't been 
roasted. 

186.— Vivia innominata, Burt. 

I procured one specimen of this species not hitherto, at least 
since Blyth's time, obtained in Tenasseriuj. I shot it on the 
10th March, at the sources of the Day law choung, Thoungyeen 
river, at an elevation of about 2,000 feet. 

The specimen, a male, measured in the flesh: — Length, 4*15 ; 
expanse, 7"9 ; wing, 2*33 ; tail from vent, 1*3 ; tarsus, 0*51 ; 
bill from gape, 0'62. 

Bill, upper mandible and tip of lower dark horny ; base of 
lower dark plumbeous; irides dark brown; legs and feet 
plumbeous ; claws horny. 

191 6w.— Megalsema virens, Bodd. 

This bird (the Chinese and not the Himalayan form) is exces- 
sively common in the Thoungyeen valley ; its incessant cry 
being at times quite annoying. 

A fine male measured in the flesh : — Length, 13*3 ; expanse, 
190 ; wing, 5*78 ; tail from vent, 4*5; tarsus, 1*21; bill 
from gape, 2*17. 

Bill and gape wax yellow ; the former whitish at the top, 
and horny at tip ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet dirty sap 
green ; claws horny. 

192.— Megalsema hodgsoni, Bonap. 

Mr. Davison has already given this from Meeawuddy and 
the Thoungyeen valley. It is common all over the country, 
but does not approach towns to the best of my belief. 

A male, shot 17th March 1880, on tho Meplay choung, 
Thoungyeen river, has the brown markings on the throat and 
breast, so faint as to be almost absent on the former. 

195 bis.— Megalaema davisoni, Hume. 

This Barbet, allied very closely to M. asialica, is common in 
the Thoungyeen valley, and I have shot it on the western side 



166 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

of the Dawna range, in the pass leading from Yunbine on 
the Salween to Koosaik near the mouth of the Thoungyeen. 
On the 16th March, while moving- camp from the head- waters 
of the Meplay choung to some ten miles lower down the stream, 
I was fortunate enough to observe a Barbet of the above species 
leaving a hole in the under side of a large branch of a Pyma 
tree (Lagerstroemia fios-regince). On sending up a man, who 
with ease enlarged the entrance in the half-rotten wood with a 
" dah," or Burmese knife, he found two rather glossy white 
eggs resting on the bare wood. I found these slightly set. 
As soon as he announced that there were eggs, I shot the bird 
which had flown to a neighbouring tree, and on which I had 
kept a watch. 

On the 20th of the same month a second nest was discovered 
for me by a Karen. This also contained two eggs, one of which, 
however, was smashed in getting it down. The nest hole was 
in a teak tree and similar to the first, as were the eggs. 
The three eggs measure respectively, T13" byO'Sl"; 1*13" 
by 0'81" ; and 1-08" by 0-78". 

195 ter.— Megalaema incognita, Hume. 

This little Barbet is common at certain seasons in the Thoun- 
gyeen valley, but whether it is migrant or not I don't know. 
Certainly during the rains and cold weather you scarcely ever 
hear its call so incessant in April and May. 

197.— -Xantholsema hsemacephala, Mull. 

In the Thoungyeen valley, at least wherever Dillenia forests 
occur, the incessant note of this Barbet can be heard even at the 
hottest time of the day. It occurs thus in dry forests through- 
out the valley, and is very common at Meeawuddy and at 
certain places on the Meplay choung. 

198 quat. — Megalaema cyanotis, Blyth. 

This pretty little species I have found very common in the 
Thoungyeen valley. Nor was it rare on the Attaran. I give 
below a note of finding the eggs and nest, recorded long ago. 

Bank Thabybee choung, Winyeo river, 12th February 1878. — 
Crossing a Blioomah, or deserted Toungyah (anglice, cultiva- 
tion clearing) this morning, I heard and saw a small Barbet, 
which by its call I recognized as Megalamia cyanotis, shouting 
vigorously from the top of a tall dead Pynkado tree. As I ap- 
proached for the purpose of getting a shot, the bird flitted down 
to a thick lower branch, and disappeared on the under side. 
On getting under the tree I discovered a tiny hole, and imme- 
diately sent a peon up to ascertain if there were any eggs. As 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN . VALLEY. 167 

he got on to the next branch below, the one in which the hole 
was, the little bird darted out, and though I fired hastily, 1 
missed ; however I had identified it, so I didn't much care. 
After cutting and hacking for a short time at the branch 
which was decayed more or less, the man managed to get his 
hand in and shouted down that there were two eggs resting on 
the bare wood. 

These I directed him to extract carefully, tie up in his goung- 
boung (head handkerchief), and let down carefully with a 
string he had taken up. No sooner said than done. He then 
cut off the decayed branch. The nest hole ran about six inches 
into the branch downwards, and the entrance looked as if it 
had been about an inch in diameter. The two eggs were 
pure pearly white, with a pinkish tinge from the yoke showing 
through, not very glossy and rather elongated in shape. They 
measure respectively, 1*00 and 0'97 by 0*7 and 0*69. 

203.— Cuculus micropterus, Gould. 

In the Thoungyeen valley this bird is not rare in March 
and April. They seem to begin to come in about the middle 
of February and all day long to keep up their noisy call. 

A male I shot on 4th March 1880, on the Thekkaya choung, 
Thoungyeen river, measured in the flesh : — Length, 12*17 ; 
expanse, 220; wing, 7-9; tail, 6*0; tarsus, 08; bill from 
gape, 1*34. 

Bill horny, below lighter and tinged yellowish towards 
gape ; gape and eyelids lemon yellow ; irides nut brown ; legs 
and feet light yellow ; the claws were curiously coloured, two 
front ones being horny, two hind ones milk white. 

207.— Hierococcyx sparveroides, Fig. 

Must be very rare, but is found in the Thoungyeen valley. 
One specimen I shot at Maulmain ; and a second I shot but 
lost in the Thoungyeen river near Meeawuddy. 

209.— Cacomantis threnodes, Cab. 

This species does not, so far as I have as yet observed, extend 
into the Thoungyeen valley. Just across the hills near 
Kaukarit it is abundant. A specimen (male) shot there in 
my garden measured : — Length, 8*95 ; expanse, 12 8 ; wing, 
4*3 ; tail, 4'9 ; tarsus, 0*62 ; bill from gape, 09. 

Bill horny above ; gape and under mandible yellowish pink ; 
irides dark brown ; legs and feet yellow ; claws horny. 

211.— Chrysococcyx maculatus, Gm. 

This bird is not rare I think, but being of quiet retired habits, 
is seldom noticed. I myself have only come across it in the 



168 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

dense evergreen forests of the Thoungyeen. A fine male 
I shot 23rd February 1880 measured in the flesh : — Length, 
7-2; expanse, 13'0 ; wing, 4'37; tail, 3*0; tarsus, 0*6; bill 
from gape, - 9. 

Bill tipped horny, remainder yellowish; gape and 
eyelids vermilion red ; irides brick red ; legs, feet, and 
claws black. It is not quite in the fullest plumage the beauti- 
ful emerald green not descending unbroken as far down on 
the breast and fore-part of stomach as it does in very 
old birds ; the feathers of these parts being still edged with 
white. 

? 211 quat.— Chrysococcyx limborgi, (?) Wald. 

I put a specimen obtained on the 7th March 1880 on the 
Meplay choung doubtfully down as the present species. 
It is identical with one so ticketed in Mr. Hume's museum ; 
but then both birds want the distinct broad white nuchal 
collar, (although exhibiting apparently indications of it), and 
this (collar) seems the distinguishing mark of limborgi* 

My bird, a female, measured in the flesh : — Length, 7*05 ; ex- 
panse, 12*60; wing, 4"27; tail, 3*3; tarsus, 0*52; bill from 
gape, 0*84 

Bill, legs, and feet greenish brown ; gape, edges of eyelids, 
and inside of mouth, orange vermilion ; irides brownish 
red ; claws horny. 

214 bis.— Eudynamys malayana, Cab. and Rein. 

This species is found, though not very common, in the 
Thoungyeen valley, during March, April, and May. Its call 
is the same as that cf the better known konorata. A superb 
pair in my collection measured in the flesh :— 

Male. — Length, 16*7 ; expanse, 24"9 ; wing, 7*9 ; tail from 
vent, 4 - 2 ; tarsus, 1*5 ; bill from gape, T68. 

Female. — Length, 17*0 ; expanse, 25*3 ; wing, 8*25 ; tail 
from vent, 10*5 ; tarsus, 1*5 ; bill from gape, 1*58. 

In both the irides were crimson ; bill pale horny green ; 
legs and feet plumbeous ; claws horny. 

215— Rhopodytes tristis, Less. 

A common bird in the Thoungyeen valley. The fol- 
lowing is a note of finding its nest and eggs that I recorded 
long ago : — 

On the 13th March I found a nest of the long-tailed 
Malkoha near Poodeesaki village in the Meplay forest, 

* Until more specimens are obtained it must remain doubtful whether this is a 
good species or a mere accidental variety. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 169 

shooting the female as she flew off the nest. It was a loose 
and very untidy mass or pad of half-dried leaves and twigs, 
(containing three pure white, chalky cylindrical eggs,) 
placed in the head among the dense leaves of a pollarded 
evergreen of some kind. I had some difficulty in finding it, 
and two hours waiting before I managed to trace the bird 
back and shoot her. 

217 quat.— Centrococcyx intermedius, Hume, 

Although this species does cross the Dawna range int° 
the Thoungyeen valley, still it is far more common in th e 
plains country to the west ; all up the Gyne, Hlinebooey, and 
Houndraw rivers it is plentifully distributed. 

On the 12th July 1879 I shot a female at Kolon on the 
Salween river, and on dissection found inside her an egg 
just ready to be laid. It was pure white in color and rather 
long and cylindrical in shape. 

The bird measured in the flesh : — Length, 20*7 ; expanse, 
24 - ; wing, 7*85; tail, 11*2; tarsus, 2*2; bill from gape, 
1-9. 

Bill, legs, feet, and claws black ; irides deep crimson. 

In the young bird the plumage is barred with dingy white 
on the whole of the under surface, sides and back of the 
neck, lower back, and upper tail-coverts, and with black on 
the chestnut coloured wings and upper back ; the top of the 
head too is slightly marked with chestnut. 

218— Centropus bengalensis, Gm. 

This bird puzzled me very much. I shot one on the 26th 
March 1879, and for the life of me could not make out what 
Centropus it could be. On showing it to Mr. Hume, however, 
he told me it was the above species in the striated phase of plum- 
age. The specimen, a male, shot in the Meplay valley, measured 
in the flesh : — Length, 13'3; expanse, 17*8 ; wing, 5*85 ; tail, 
7*0 ; tarsus, 1*5 ; bill from gape, 1*2 ; length of hind claw, 1*0. 

Bill pinkish yellow, darker on culmen ; irides whitish yellow ; 
legs and feet dark slaty. 

223.— Arachnothera magna, Modgs. 

This large Spiderhunter is excessively common in the 
Thoungyeen. 

A pair measured in the flesh : — 

Male.— Length, 7*71 ; expanse, 11*6 ; wing, 37 ; tail, 2'0 ; 
tarsus, 0-85 ; bill from gape, 1*8. 

Female.— Length, 7'6 ; expanse, 104; wing, 3"3 ; tail, 18; 
bill from gape, 175. 

22 



170 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

Bill in both sexes dark horny ; edges of lower mandible 
yellow (not seen when closed) ; irides brown ; legs, feet, and 
claws orange yellow. 

224 .— Arachnothera longirostra, Lath. 

Very common. 

A pair from the Thoungyeen valley measure : — 

Male. — Length, 6 - l ; expanse, 8*35 ; wing, 2 , 47 ; tail, 1*63 ; 
tarsus, 0'6 ; bill from gape, 1'52. 

Bill, upper mandible, dark horny, lower light fleshy plumbe- 
ous ; irides nut brown ; legs and feet dark plumbeous blue ; 
claws horny. 

Female. — Length, 5'8 ; expanse, 7 - 6; wing, 2*3; tail, 1*6 ; 
tarsus, 0-55 ; bill from gape, 1*38. Colors of the soft parts 
as in the male. 

225 ter. — iEthopyga cara, Sume. 

Male, (shot 12th July 1879, Napyandan choung, Salween 
river). — Length, 4*91 ; expanse,7*l ; wing, 2'2 ; tail, 1*9; tarsus, 
0-54 ; bill from gape, 0*75. 

Bill, upper mandible black, lower horny reddish brown ; 
irides dark brown ; legs, feet, and claws horny brown. 

Female, (shot 26th November 1879, Bawthaloo choung, 
Meplay, Thoungyeen river). — Length, 4*3 ; expanse, 6'3 ; wing, 
2'0 ; tail, 1*5 ; tarsus, 0*5 ; bill from gape, 0'7. Colors of soft 
parts as in the male. 

Sparsely distributed in the Thoungyeen valley. 

233 seoct— Chalcoparia singalensis, Gm. 
234— Cinnyris asiatica, Lath. 

234 ten— Cinnyris flammaxillaris, Blyth. 

These three are the commonest Sun birds in the Thouugyeen 
valley. I have found them from its sources to its mouth in 
all sorts of jungles. 

236— Dicseum cruentatum, Lin. 

Not observed in the Thoungyeen valley. 

236 bis.-— Dicaeum trigonostigma, Scop. 

See Stray Feathers, Vol. VIII., p. 195. 

237.— Dicseum chrysorrhaeum, Tern. 

I shot one specimen of this in the Sinzaway, a male, which 
measured in the flesh : — Length, 4'1 ; expanse, 7*5 ; wing, 2*48 .; 
tail, 1-1 j tarsus, 0*53; bill from gape, 052. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYKEN VALLEY. 171 

Bill dark horny ; pale bluish at base of lower mandible ; 
irides orange red ; legs, feet, and claws dark plumbeous. 

This species I have not yet met with in the Thoungyeen 
valley. 

237 ter.— Dicaeum olivaceum, Walden. 

I got one specimen of this species at Maulmain, but have 
seen it nowhere else. 

240 sext. — Prionochilus modestus, Hume. 

This species, hitherto only procured in Southern Tenasserim, 
I found sparingly distributed in the Thoungyeen valley. 

A female (shot 27th November 1879,y on the Meplay choung, 
measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 42 ; expanse, 7'5; wing, 2*39; tail, 1*17; tarsus, 
0"5 ; bill from gape, 0'45. 

Bill horny, fleshy white at base of lower mandible ; gape 
yellow ; irides yellowish brown ; legs, feet, and claws plumbeous 
black. 

250 bis.^- Sitta neglecta, Wald. 

This Nuthatch is fairly common in the dry forests of the 
Thoungyeen valley. 

A male, (shot 20th January 1880,) on theThekkaya choung, 
measured : — 

Length, 5-8; expanse, lO'O ; wing, 31; tail, -1*8; tarsus, 
0-65 ; bill from gape, 0-89. 

Bill and legs dark horny ; feet dirty brown ; claws horny ; 
irides dark brown. 

253.— Dendrophila frontalis, Horsf. 

Fairly common in the Thoungyeen valley. 

On the 18th February I found a nest in a hole in a branch 
of a Pynkado tree {Xylia dolabriformis), but I was too early 
for eggs. 

254 bis.— Upupa longirostris, Jerd. 

Common in the dry forests of the Thoungyeen valley. 

260.— Lanius colluroides, Less. 

I got this at Maulmain (S. E, Vol. VI., p. 203,) and on the 
4th March 1880 shot a female in dry Dillenia forest on the 
Thekkaya choung, Thoungyeen river. This measured in the 
flesh :— 

Length, 7"55 ; expanse, 10*8 ; wing, 3*3 ; tail from vent, 
3*4 ; tarsus, 092 ; bill from gape, 0"98. 



172 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

Bill horny ; gape fleshy white ; irides dark brown ; legs 
plumbeous ; feet blackish. 

261.— Lanius cristatus, Lin. 

This Shrike comes as a mere straggler to the Thoungyeen 
valley, frequenting open cultivation clearings, glades in the 
forest and borders of quins. 

A very rufous female, shot 13th December 1879, on the 
Meplay choung, measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 8'0 ; expanse, 11"8; wing, 3*61; tail, 3*6; tarsus, 
1*1 ; bill from gape, 0*9. 

Bill horny ; base of lower mandible, gape and edges plum- 
beous white ; irides brown ; legs and feet plumbeous ; claws 
horny. 

263.— Tephrodornis pelvicus, Hodgs. 

This Woodshrike is very common in the Thoungyeen forests. 
Specimens differ very much in shade and tiut of color inter se. 

267.— Hemipus picatus, Sykes. 

Occurs throughout the Thoungyeen valley. 

Male, (shot 28th March 1879, on the Meplay choung) mea- 
sured : — Length, 5-6 ; expanse, 7*9; wing, 2'25 ; tail, 2*49; 
tarsus, 0-45 ; bill from gape, 0*7. 

Bill, legs, feet, and claws black ; irides dark brown. 

Female (shot 12th December 1879, in the same locality) : — 
Length, 5*55; expanse, 77; wing, 215 ^ tail, 2*4; tarsus, 0*45; 
bill from gape, 0*68. Colors of the soft parts as in the male. 

269 bis.— Volvocivora intermedia, Hume. 

All the Thoungyeen specimens I have are clearly referable to 
this race. 

A pair procured on the Meplay choung measured : — 

Male. — Length, 9*7 ; expanse, 14*7 ; wing, 4'87 ; tail, 4'55 ; 
tarsus, 0*85 ; bill from gape, 1*0. 

Bill, legs, feet, and claws black ; irides nut brown. 

Female. — Length, 9*6 ; expanse, 14*5 ; wing, 4*8 ; tail, 4*5 ; 
tarsus, 82 ; bill from gape, 1*0. Colors of the soft parts as in 
the male. 

270.— Graucalus macii, Less. 

Common as this bird is on the west side of the Dawna, it is 
rare and locally distributed in the Thoungyeen. Young birds 
have the under surface much barred and spotted with brown, 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 173 

271 ter.— Pericrocotus elegans, Mc. Glell. 

This species is common in the Thouugyeen valley. 

275.— Pericrocotus roseus, Vieill. 

Less common than the above aud more a bird of the plains 
country. 

277.— Pericrocotus immodestus, Hume. 

I got one female of this species on the Thablooko choung 
and a second on the Taoo clioung in the Thoungyeen valley. It 
is characterized by the dull yellowish wash on the rump aud a 
trace of yellow on the wiugs. 

The two measured iu the flesh as follows : — 

Female (shot 24th January 1879).— Length, 8*0 ; expanse, 
11*0 ; wing, 3 - 7 ; tail, 3*85; tarsus, 06 ; bill from gape, # 8. 

Female (shot 25th March 1880). — Length, 8 - ; expanse, 
1 1*0 ; wing, 3*6 ; tail, 40 ; tarsus, 0'6 ; bill from gape, 0*8. 

The color of the soft parts were identical iu both • bill, legs, 
feet and claws black ; irides dark brown. 

278.— Buchanga atra, Herm. 

In the Thouugyeen valley I hive only seen this species at 
Meeawuddy, where I have seen a number at different times of 
the year. 

280 bis.— Buchanga pyrrhops, Hodgs. 

This bird is rather common in the dry Dillenia forests of the 
Thouugyeen where ten or a dozen will sit on adjoining trees at 
an immense height. 1 have found them wary to a degree. 

282.— Chaptia senea, Vieill. 

A common bird all over the country, including the Thouug- 
yeen valley. 

I have put all my specimens down as this species, and not as 
malayensis, which in my humble opinion should be joined with 
this and knocked on the head. If depth of colouring, however 
persistent, is to be of specific value, all the Pericrocoti will have 
to be separated.* 

283.— Bhringa remifer, Tem. 

A rare and locally distributed species in the Thoungyeen 
forests. I have seen it at the sources of the Thoungyeen, high 

* It ia not exactly a question of depth of coloring in this case. The difference 
relied on here is the comparatively dull grey rump of malayen/sis as compared with the 
metallic coloring of the corresponding parts iu cenea. — A. O. II. 



174 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TBNASSERIM 

up in the Meplay choung, aucl near Koosaik, the old road cross- 
ing over to Myneloongyee. 

285. — Dissemurus paradiseus, Lin. 

This species is very common all over the country. In the 
Thoungyeen valley it chiefly affects bamboo forests. 

There is a point in the succession of plumage of this bird that 
I have never seen alluded to, and that is, that on the first 
growth of the two long tail feathers the shafts of these are 
webbed on both sides the whole way down, broader on the in- 
side ; only for about an inch above the racket does the web 
narrow. It is not till the second moult that the tail assumes 
the adult form. 

286.— Ohibia hottentotta, Lin. 

During the breeding season in the end of March and in 
April, I saw a great number of nests round and about Meea- 
wuddy; but all inaccessible, as they were invariably built 
out at the very end of the thinnest branches of Eng (Diptero- 
carpus) Teak, Thingan (Hopea odorata), and other trees. 

Except during those two months, I have not seen the bird 
plentiful anywhere. 

290. — Hypothymis azurea, Bodd. 

Common all through the Thoungyeen valley. 

291. — Leucocerca albicollis, Vieill. 

All through the Thoungyeen vallej'- at elevations above 1,500 
feet, in dense evergreen jungle, this species is to be found, but 
even then scarce. 

A female, I shot in the Meplay East Watershed range, mea- 
sured in the flesh: — Length, 7'4 ; expanse, 8*9; wing, 2'9; 
tail, 3-88 ; tarsus, 0'74 ; bill from gape, 072. 

Bill, legs, feet, and claws black ; irides dark brown. 

? 292.— Leucocerca aureola ? Vieill. 

Two specimens that I shot, I refer, with great hesitation,* to 
the above bird. They were procured in dry Eng forest in the 
Thoungyeen valley. 

* The five species of Leucocerca that wo obtain are easily separable. — ■ 
(1.) L. aureola has a very broad -white supercilium, more or less covering the 
entire forehead and extending to the nape. The throat is black, more or less mottled 
with white. The breast and abdomen pure white. There are two rows of conspi- 
cuous triangular white spots on tips ot the wing-coverts. 

(2.) L. albicollis has a conspicuous, though narrow, white supercilium not extend- 
ing quite to the forehead in front or backwards much behind the eye. It has more or 
less of the throat white, and the breast and abdomen dusky. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 175 

295.— -Culicicapa ceylonensis, Swains. 

This pretty cbeery little species is found all over the province, 
being most numerous in the evergreen forests. 

299.— Alseonax ferrugineus, Sodgs. 

The one specimen I got of this species was shot on the 
20th October, between Thingangyeenoun in the Thoungyeen 
valley and Tounjah, the top of the pass over the Dawna. 
I saw another in April at the head-waters of the Htenoo- 
choung lower south. The bird is easily recognizable by its 
ferruginous tint and the circle of conspicuous white feathers 
round the eye. 

301.— Stoporala melanops, Vig. 

This bird is scattered widely over the country from October 
to April. In the Thoungyeen valley I have invariably found 
them by the banks of streams. 

304.— Cyornis rubeculoides, Vig. 

This bird is very common in bamboo jungles all through the 
country. 

I procured a young bird on the 13th August 1879, at Kau- 
karit on the Houndraw river, that puzzled me not a little ; it is 
in the rufous garb of the young just changing into the blue of 
the adult. I had never seen or shot the bird in this stage 
before. 

(3.) L. leucogaster has a very narrow supercilium, not quite extending to the 
forehead; chin and throat white ; black transverse band at base of throat more or 
less spotted with white ; centre of breast and abdomen white, more or less tinged 
with fawn. 

(4.) L. perlata has a trace of a white supercilium, and the throat and breast 
dusky, with large oval white spots ; abdomen white. 

(5.) L. javanica has no supercilium, or only a faint trace of one. Throat 
white; a transverse band at base of throat blackish without spots; middle of breast 
and abdomen white; the latter tinged with fawn. 

The Thoungyeen specimen is an extremely indifferent carbolized one, and the 
lateral tail-feathers are not half grown, but it seems to differ from aureola, — 1st, 
in wanting the triangular spots at the tip of the wing-coverts, which spots are 
present, even in the youngest aureola, though in this they are buff coloured 
instead of white ; 2nd, — in the four central tail-feathers being entirely black, and 
there being less white on the lateral tail-feathers, 3rd, — in the chin, throat, and 
upper breast being white. In Aureola the black feathers of the throat are always 
more or less fringed at the tips with white, but even where these fringes are most 
widely extended, (and in some specimens they are almost entirely wanting) there 
is always a band of dark feathers at the junction of the throat with the breast 
to which they do not extend ; there is no such dark band in this specimen. In other 
respects the bird does not differ from Indian aureola, though perhaps the mantle is 
greyer and paler. 

If the differences thus indicated prove to be constant in other specimens obtained 
in this locality, the bird will have to be separated and might stand as burmanica, 
but it has to be noticed that a Thayet Myo specimen in our museum seems to furnish 
a connecting link between the present specimen and Indian ones ; the tail and throat 
are as in the latter, but the upper surface is like that of the Thoungyeen specimen, 
and the spots on the coverts are almost obsolete.— A. O. H.] 



176 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

323.— Erythrosterna albicilla, Pall. 

It is wonderful how early some of the cold weather visitants 
to Burmah and Tenasserim come in. I have got specimens of 
this bird in the beginning of September in the Thoungyeen 
forests when the rains were in full blow still. 

326.— Erythrosterna maculata, Tick 

I got a specimen of this species at about 1,500 feet elevation 
in the Meplay valley. I have not observed it elsewhere. 

343 bis.— Myiophoneus eugenii, Hume. 

I have seen this species in various places from Hpapoon in 
the north to the sources of the Thoungyeen. On the Zammee 
and "Winyeo it is not common even in the higher sources of 
the same, but throughout the Thoungyeen valley, and specially 
in the Meplay and its tributaries, it abounds. 

Once when encamped for a few days at the sources of the 
Queebaw ehoung a feeder of the Meplay, I had very good 
opportunities of watching a pair that frequented a rocky 
stream just below where my tent was pitched. Early in the 
morning, while it was still dark, one or other of them would 
sit on a particular large rock in the opposite bank and whistle 
a few cheery notes, at intervals now and then until it was 
light ; when both would fly up the stream, and hunt about 
for their breakfast of shells. In search of these they would 
wander far up the hill side away from the water, but seemed 
invariably on finding a landshell to bring it to the banks to 
eat, where, if it was a large one, they battered it against the 
rock and picked out the animal piece-meal. The number of 
broken shells and fragments along the course of that little 
ehoung was incredible ; every little piece of rock had a pile 
near it. They seem to me far more silent birds than their 
Himalaj^an and South Indian representatives. 

344 bis.— Hydrornis oatesi, Hume. 

This species may occur in the Thoungyeen valley as Mr. 
Davison got it at Mooleyit, but I have never myself come 
across it. 

344 quat.— Pitta cyanea, Blyth. 

I have found this Ground Thrush fairly common both at 
Kaukarit and in the Thouugyeen valley. It keeps far more 
to the ground than do moluccensis and cuculata. A permanent 
resident in the Thounorveen forests. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 177 

345 bis.— Pitta moluccensis, P. L. S. Mull. 

This bird, during May and June, is so common in and around 
Kaukarit and in the Thoungyeen, that a dozen could be easily 
procured in a morning. 

346.— Pitta cuculata, Hartl. 

I only once procured this bird, and that was at the foot of 
the bills on the Thoungyeen side of the Tounjah pass. 

346 ter.-— Anthocincla phayrii, Blyth. 

This excessively rare Pitta — for Pitta it is — straggles into the 
Thoungyeen valley. I procured two specimens, one of which, 
to the best of my belief, was a female. I sexed it myself and 
can scarcely think I could have been mistaken ; but then 
Mr. Hume has a specimeu, sexed as female, from Thatone, which 
as far as looks go ought to be the real female ; it has the plumes 
behind the ear shorter, wants the velvet black about the head and 
cheeks, and has just a suspicion of pink on the under tail-coverts, 
whereas my sexed female is identical with the male. The pro- 
babilities are that I have made a mistake and sexed my bird 
wrong, Still there is a chance that the old adult female assumes 
the same livery as the male, for on the 5th April 1879 I came on 
two of these birds trotting about with sticks and twigs in their 
mouths as if they were going to build a nest. I watched them 
for nearly three-quarters of an hour, but failed to discover any 
nest or beginnings of one : at last one flew away, and I shot 
the other, which proved to be a male. These two were identi- 
cal in plumage and may have been a pair. 

The following are the measurements in the flesh of the two 
specimens I have procured : — 

Male. — Length, 9*3; expanse, 13*7 ; wing, 4*2 • tail, 2*25 ; 
tarsus, 1*1 ; bill from gape, 1*5. 

Bill black ; legs and feet dark fleshy • irides dark brown. 

f Female. — Length, 96 ; expanse, 14*2; wing, 4*16; tail, 
22 ; tarsus, 1 "32 ; bill from gape, 1*54. 

Bill horny black ; irides dark brown ; legs, feet, and claws 
fleshy white. 

350 bis.— Zoothera marginata, Blyth. 

In some places, as for instance on the east flank of the 
Meplay East Watershed, this species is not uncommon. Out of 
the Thoungyeen valley I have not met with it. 

A pair, procured 20th December 1879, on the Hteekleethoo 
choung, measured in the flesh : — 

Male. — Length, 99; expanse, 16 ; wing, 5*15 ; tail, 3*2 ; 
tarsus, PI ; bill from gape, 15. 

23 



178 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIKDS OF TENASSERIM 

Bill horny, fleshy white at gape and base of lower mandible ; 
irides dark nut brown ; legs, feet, and claws dusky white. 

Female. — Length, 9 "3 ; expanse, 15*9 ; wing, 5*0 ; tail, 3*2 ; 
tarsus, 1 '1 ; bill from gape, 145. Colors of the soft parts as 
in the male. 

351.— Cyanocincla cyana, Lin. 

Visits the Thoungyeen valley in common with all Burmah. 
I have never seen a female in the complete blue garb of the 
male. 

355.— -Geocichla citrina, Lath. 

Very rare in the Thoungyeen valley. I have only procured 
it once at Thingangyeenoun. I procured one too on the Attaran 
not far from Maulmain. Both localities are further north than 
it was ever obtained by Davison. 

371.— Oreocincla dauma, Lath. 

I shot one specimen of this on the Day law choung, Thoung- 
yeen river, on the 29th January 1880. It is a male and 
measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 10*6 ; expanse, 17'4 ; wing, 5"65 ; tail, 4*15 ; tarsus, 
1*4 ; bill from gape, 13. 

Bill horny, whitish at base of lower mandible ; gape, legs, 
and feet yellow ; claws horny. 

384 bis.— Gampsorhynchus torquatus, Hume. 

This species is not uncommon in the higher spurs of the 
Dawna range as beyond Tounjah in the Nubboo pass, and a 
little way up Maul-at. I came across a large flock of them on 
the Meplay East Watershed range, in dense evergreen forest. 

Male measured in the flesh: — Length, 9'7 ; expanse, 12*2; 
wing, 3*9 ; tail, 4*95; tarsus, 1*2; bill from gape, 1*05. 

Bill fleshy white, shaded with horny on the ridge of upper 
mandible ; irides yellow ; legs and feet pale plumbeous ; claws 
pinkish. 

Two females measured respectively : — Lengths, 9'7 and 10*10; 
expanse, 12 '35 and 12-5; wings, 3-82 and 4-02; tails, 4'15 
and 5*10; tarsi, 1'20 each; bills from gape, 1*1 each. Colors 
of soft parts as in the male. 

387.— Trichastoma abbotti, Blyth. 

This is a very common species in the Thoungyeen evergreen 
forests ; and it extends along the base of the Dawna to, at any 
rate, as far as the mouth of the Thoungyeen river. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 179 

387 bis. — Trichastoma minus, Sume. 

I have only met this bird on two successive years in one 
spot, viz., the sources of the Queebaw choung, Meplay river. 

A male measured in the flesh : — Length, 5*9 ; expanse, 8"1 ; 
wing, 2*49 ; tail, 2*05 ; tarsus, 1*0; bill from gape, 0*8. 

Bill greenish horny above ; lower mandible, legs, and feet 
fleshy brownish ; irides reddish brown ; gape yellow ; claws 
horny. 

The following is a note I recorded two years ago : — 

On the 15th March I found a little domed nest made of 
dried bamboo leaves, and lined with fine roots, placed in a cane 
bush a foot or so above the ground. It contained three tiny 
white eggs, with minute piuk dottings chiefly at the larger end ; 
one egg, however, is nearly pure white. I shot the little bird 
off the nest which Mr. Hume identifies as this species. 

388 bis. — Alcippe phayrii, Blyth. 

Common enough throughout the Thoungyeen valley. Else- 
where I have only noticed it on the Yoonzaleen. 

390 quat.— Turdinus crispifrons, Blyth. 
390 quint. — Turdinus brevicaudatus, Blyth. 

I have little doubt that both these species occur in the 
Thoungyeen valley, since there are numbers of isolated lime- 
stone ranges and peaks, on which the former ought to be 
found ; and as for the latter it has been got at Mooleyit. 
Personally I myself have never come across these two birds in 
the Thoungyeen. 

390 sext.— Turdinus guttatus, Tick. 

This bird occurs sparingly in small flocks in thick evergreen 
or bamboo jungle on the main range and higher spurs of the 
Dawna. I have procured it at Tounjah on the road from 
Kaukarit to Meeawuddy, and on the Meplay East Watershed 
range at the head waters of the Queebaw choung. 

Male. — Length, 7'1 ; expanse, 9'4 ; wing, 2*8 ; tail, 2'55 ; 
tarsus, 1*02 ; bill from gape, 0"94. 

Bill dark plumbeous, lighter at tip ; irides nut brown ; legs, 
feet, and claws a greenish yellow brown. 

393 fo's.— Stachyris rufifrons, Hume. 

This species is rare in the Thoungyeen valley. It occurs 
wherever the jungle is pretty open, allowing an undergrowth 
of grass to spring up. I have never seen it in evergreen 
forests. 



180 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

A fine pair measured in the flesh : — 

Male. — Length, 5 - ; expanse, 6*8; wing, 2 25 ; tail, 1*75; 
tarsus, 073 ; bill from gape, 0'57. 

Bill bluish plumbeous ; irides crimson ; legs, feet, and claws 
fleshy yellow. 

Female. — Length, 485 ; expanse, 65 ; wing, 21 ; tail, 1*7 ; 
tarsus, 0'73 ; bill from gape, 0*57. Colors of the soft parts as 
in'the male. 

The female differs from the male in having the rufous of the 
forehead and head paler. 

395.— Mixornis rubricapillus, Tick, 

A very common bird throughout the province. In the 
Thoungyeen valley it seems to affect bamboo jungle and open 
forest with grassy undergrowth. I have never seen it in 
evergreen or dry Lillenia forests. 

399.— Pellorneum subochraceum, Swinh. 

As common as the last. I can add nothing to Mr. Davison's 
accouut of it, S. F., Vol. VI. 

403.— Pomatorhhms leucogaster, Gould. 

A rare bird. I have only shot oue specimen at the head- 
waters of the Thoungyeen. 

403 Us.— Pomatorhinus olivaceus, Blyth. 

This is the Pomatorhinus of the Thoungyeen valley being 
found from the sources to the mouth of that river. A note 
recorded two years ago of a nest that I found is given below : — 
4th March. — Having to go over the ground along the southern 
boundary of the proposed Meplay reserve, I had to cat my 
way though dense Wahgoke bamboo (Bambusa sp. ?), a nasty, 
bending, hard bamboo, to go through a long belt of which 
is hard work. To make it worse in this case several clumps 
had been burnt by fire and blown down. As I was slowly 
progressing along, bent almost double, out of a little hollow 
at my feet, a bird flew out with a suddenness that nearly 
knocked me down. I looked into the hollow, and there un- 
der the ledge of the sheltering bank was a nest of dry bamboo 
leaves lined with strips of the same shredded fine. It was 
cup-shaped, loosely made, about \\ inches in diameter, and the 
same in depth, containing three pure white eggs perfectly fresh ; 
(measured afterwards they proved respectively, 0'98"x0-7r, 
0-99" x 073", and 0-99' ; x0'73") ; gun in hand I watched, 
hidino- myself behind a clump of bamboos about thirty ywcd<\ 
off. For an hour I watched, but the bird did not retun , 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 181 

so I marked the spot and went on. Returning back the same 
way just before dusk, I managed to start her again, and to 
get a hurried shot ; she fell and I secured and recognized her 
as P. olivaceus. 

405 quat.— Orthorhinus tickelli, Hume. 

This is another species that, to the best of my belief, follows 
the line of the Dawna mountains and its spurs to as far as 
the mouth of the Thoungyeen at any rate. 

Male. — Length, 11*2; expanse, 13*0; wing, 4 '42; tail, 
430; tarsus, 15 ; bill from gape, 1'78. 

Bill dark slaty brown, blackish at base of upper mandible ; 
irides deep brown ; legs and feet fleshy slaty ; claws horny. 

Female. — Length, 1T4 ; expanse, 135; wing, 4'2 ; tail, 
4 - 2 ; tarsus, 1*6 ; bill from gape, 1*63. 

Bill light slaty brown ; irides dark red ; legs and feet fleshy 
slaty ; claws horny. 

A young female, shot on the 8th February 1880 on the 
Queebaw chonng, a feeder of the Meplay, exactly resembles 
the old birds in plumage, but differs extraordinarily in length 
of bill; this, measuring straight from gape to poiut, only 1*3 
inches. 

407 bis. — Garrulax belangeri, Less. 

Common in the Thoungyeen valley as elsewhere. 

408 ter.— Garrulax chinensis, Scop. 

This species is, as far as I know, rare in the Thoungyeen 
valley. I have only once come across a flock, and that was 
in October, on the Thablooko choung near Kyonkhet on the 
Thoungyeen river. 

412. — Garrulax pectoralis, Gould. 
413—- Garrulax moniliger, Rodgs. 

These two species are very apt to be confounded as they 
nearly always go about in parties together and have the same 
note and habits. I have observed, however, that pectoralis 
is not only a much more silent bird, but is perhaps partially 
migratory, which moniliger certainly is not. I found the 
former much commoner during the rains, both at Kaukarit and 
in the Thoungyeen valley than at other seasons. 

Both are to be found in the Thoungyeen. 

446 Ms.— Hypsipetes concolor, Blyth. 

I have found this bird rare in the Thoungyeen. As far as 
I know it keeps to the sides of the Dawna mountains and 
never descends into the plains country. 



182 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

A male measured in the flesh : — Length, 10*1 ; expanse, 
15*3; wing, 4'8; tail, 4 - 4 ; tarsus, 0-7 ; bill from gape, 1/2. 

Bill, legs, and feet deep red ; claws horny ; irides dark 
brown. 

448 ter.— Hemixus davisoni, Hume. 
449.— Alcurus striatus, Blyth. 

These two species no doubt occur in the Thoungyeen valley, 
but I have never come across them. 

451 bis.— Criniger griseiceps, Hume. 

I have shot this noisy little Bulbul in the evergreen forests 
near Hpapoon, and again found it common throughout the 
Thoungyeen forests. 

451 ter.— Criniger gutturalis, S. Mull. 

I have only seen this bird once, when I shot a specimen 
at Maulmain on the 13th May 1879. It was doubtfully sexed 
as a female, and in plumage resembles the species I have 
entered it under, but differs in the much paler tint of the 
upper surface and in the white of the throat descending to 
the upper breast. 

452 ter.— Ixus finlaysoni, Strickl. 

This spesies is common alike through plains and hills, but 
never to any great elevation. It is found more plentifully in 
the evergreen forests of the Thoungyeen than anywhere else, 
that I know of, in the province. 

452 dec— Iole viridescens, Blylh. 

Common everywhere, except in the dry Dillenia forests. 
The specimens I have shot of this bird differ very much in 
shade of color from one another. 

456.— Rubigula flaviventris, Tick. 

Common enough in the Thoungyeen forests, affecting chiefly 
the neighbourhood of villages and clearings. The following 
is a note of finding a nest and eggs I recorded in April 1878 : — 
On the 14th April I happened to be putting up for the day 
in one of the abandoned Karen houses of the old village of 
Podeesakai at the foot of the Warmailoo toung, a spur from 
the East Watershed range of the Meplay river. Having to 
wait for guides, I had nothing particular to do that day, a 
very rare event in my forest work. I devoted it to a fruitless 
search for bears. I had returned tired and rather dispirited 
and was moving about among the ruined houses, between 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 183 

and amongst which a lot of jungle was already springing up, 
when, just as I passed a low bush about 3 feet high, out flew 
a Black-crested Yellow Bulbul ; of course the bush contained 
a nest, a remarkably neat cup-shaped affair, below and outside 
of fine twigs, then a layer of roots, above which was a lining 
of the stems of the flowers of the " theckay" grass. It 
contained three eggs on the point of hatching, out of which 
I was only able to save one. It is one of the loveliest eggs 
I have seen ; in color I can liken it only to a peculiar pink 
granite that is so common at home in Ireland. Its ground 
color I should say was white, but it is so thickly spotted with 
pink and claret that it is hard to describe. It measured 085 X 
061 inches. 

457 Us.— Brachypodius melanocephalus, Gm. 

This Bulbul I have found locally distributed ; in the 
Thoungyeen valley it is anything but common. I only once 
saw a few near Meeawuddy. At Kaukarit and Maulmain it 
abounds during June and July, but I have not noticed it during 
the cold and hot weathers, 

460.— Otocompsa emeria, Lin. 

Common, though rather sparsely — a pair here, three or four 
there — distributed all over the country. In the Thoungjeen 
1 have not found it so abundaut as in the plains. 

462 bis.— Molpastes nigropileus, Blyth. 

Common as this Bulbul is throughout the plains from 
Maulmain to Kaukarit, it is strange that it never, as far as 
I know, straggles over into the Thoungyeen valley, where its 
place is taken by the next species. 

462 ter.— Molpastes atricapillus, Vieill. 

Excessively abundant iu the Thoungyeen valley from the 
sources of that river to its mouth ; but I have found it 
nowhere else. 

463 bis.— Phyllornis chlorocephalus, Wald. 
465.— Phyllornis aurifrons, Tem. 

Both these species I have found abundantly distributed in 
the richly wooded parts of the Thoungyeen valley as elsewhere 
in the province. 

468.— Iora tiphia, Lin. 

This species is common throughout the country. As a rule 
its nest is well hid, but one I saw iu the compound of a house 



184 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

in Mauliiiain was placed in the exposed leafless fork of a tree, 
not above six feet from the ground. It contained no eggs when 
I examined it, and was deserted a day or two after. This was 
in the beginning of May. 

468 quint. — Iora lafresnayii, Lath. 

I once got a straggler of this species on the Zammee river 
as mentioned in Stray Feathers, Vol. VI., A pp. I, p. 516. 
A second specimen was shot by me on the 8th February 1880, 
on the Queebaw choung, Thoungyeen river. It was a male 
and measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 6*79 ; expanse, 9*5 ; wing, 2*8; tail, 2'4 ; tarsus, 0'85. 

Bill from gape, 10 ; bill, legs, and feet plumbeous ; the ridge 
of the upper inaudible shaded with horny ; hides brown ; 
claws horny. 

469.— Irena puella, Lath. 

Common throughout the Thoungyeen as elsewhere in ever- 
green forests. 

The following note on a nest and eggs that I took may be 
interesting :— 

On the 11th April I was slowly clambering along a very 
Bteep hill-side overlooking the Queebaw choung, a small tribu- 
tary of the Meplay stream, when from a tree, whose crown was 
below my feet, I startled a female Irena puella off her nest. 
I could see the nest aud that it contained two eggs, so I shot 
the female who had taken to a tree a little above me. On get- 
ting the nest down, I found it a poor affair of little twigs, with 
a superstructure of moss, shaped into a shallow saucer, on 
which reposed two eggs, large for the size of the bird, of a dull 
<rreenish white, much dashed, speckled, and spotted with brown. 
They were so hard set that I only managed to save one, which 
measured 1*09 by 0*77 inches. 

472.— Oriolus melanocephalus, Lin. 

Common in the Thoungyeen, as throughout the province. 

475.— Copsychus saularis, Lin. 

The same remark applies to this as to the above species. 1 
have not only found it in open country, but also in the densest 
evergreen forests. 

476.— Cercotrichas macrura, Gm. 

This bird is as common as the preceding, but never like it 
approaches very close to or perches on the tops of houses. 
The following is a note about its nidification : — 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 185 

On the slope of a steep spur of the East Watershed range of 
the Meplay river, in dense bamboo forest, I found, on the 4th 
April 1878, a nest of the above bird. A Woodpecker had 
made a hole in a partially dry Wahbo bamboo (Bambusa bran- 
disiana) of immense girth. Of this the Shama had taken 
advantage, and having stuffed up the hollow from the next 
knot below to within three inches of the hole, with dry bamboo 
leaves, had above that made a loose cup-shaped nest of twigs 
and roots. I was eating my lunch, seated on a rock not far 
from the bamboo in question, and saw the female, after making 
two or three short flights and balking herself in the direction 
of the hole, finally enter it. I approached very cautiously, and 
stuffing my handkerchief into the entrance hole, managed to 
secure eggs and bird. The former were four in number, 
slightly set, of an oily green color, much spotted, speckled, and 
dashed with umber brown. They measured respectively, 09" X 
0-62", 0-87" x 0'62", 0-85"-xO'6i" and 0'85"x0-62". 

481.— Pratincola caprata, Lin, 
483.— Pratincola indicus, Blyth. 

Both these species are found sparingly through the Thoun- 
gyeen valley-— the former as a permanent resident, the latter 
as a cold weather migrant. In the plains about Kaukarit and 
the banks of the Gyne river they abound. 

486.— Pratincola ferreus, Eodgs. 

A mere straggler to the Thoungyeen valley. I shot one speci- 
men in dry JJillenia forest on the banks of the Thekkaya 
choung, on the 4th March 1880. It occurs, but I have not 
personally come across it, elsewhere in the province. 

507 Us.— Larvivora cyane, Fall. 

By the sides of streams, and along the edges of cultivation 
clearings, I have found this bird solitary or in pairs. In the 
Thoungyeen valley it is rarer perhaps, (less often seen at any 
rate) than on the Houndraw and Gyne. 

518— Arundinax sedon, Pall. 

I have been unfortunate in collecting reed birds. Somehow 
or another I have never come across any but this species, and 
that only on two occasions, once on Gwoongyee choung, 
Zammee river, and once at Kaukarit. I have never noticed 
it in the Thoungyeen valley. 

24 



186 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

530.— Orthotomus sutorius, Fenn. 

Occurs throughout the Thoungyeen valley as elsewhere in 
the province. 

538 bis.— Prinia beavani,* Wald. 

This is the common Prinia of Tenasserim, and is found 
throughout the province. I have not noticed that it keeps 
particularly to long grass. I have shot it just as often among 
bamboos, and in the thick undergrowth of evergreen forests as 
in Kine or other grass. 

539.— Cisticola cursitans, Frankl. 

This species is common all along the Gryne and portions of 
the Houudraw ; and at Kaukarit on the latter river it abounds. 
In the Thoungyeen valley, on the contrary, I have found it 
rare. 

544 quat— Drymoica extensicauda, Swinh. 

About Kaukarit on the Houndraw river I found this species 
in June 1878 very common. They were then breeding, and 
I found several nests, all, however, unfinished ; these were in 
material and make very like the nests of D. inornata which I 
had taken years ago in India. My taxidermist got one speci- 
men of this bird at Maulmain. In the Thoungyeen valley I 
have never yet come across it. 

556 ter.— Phylloscopus schwarzi, Radde. 

I have not paid the attention I should have to these trouble- 
some little Warblers, and have consequently obtained only a few 
specimens of still fewer species. 

Of the above, I obtained two specimens — one shot on the 2nd 
March on the Hteekleethoo choung, a small tributary of the 
Thoungyeen, is a male and unmistakeable. 

It measured in the flesh : — Length, 5'55 ; expanse, 7 "8 ; wing, 
251 ; tail, 23; tarsus, TO; bill from gape, 0'63. 

Bill horny, at base fleshy white ; gape yellow ; irides brown ; 
legs and feet fleshy yellowish white ; claws brown. 

The second specimen of this species (also a male) was shot on 
the 4th March 1880, at Thekkaya choung, elevation about 1,500 
feet, on Thoungyeen river. Structurally it is nearly identical 
with Indian examples of indicus with which I have compared it, 
but the entire upper surface, including wings and tail, is 
suffused with dull olive green, instead of being dull earth grey ; 

* Has this species ever been compared with P. superciliaris, Salvad, U. di B., 
249, 1874? The two supposed species seem to be identical .—A. O. H. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 187 

and the centre of the abdomen is a purer yellow than I have 
ever seen in Indian indious ; the bill is a trifle broader also than 
indicus. The superciliary stripe is buffy, as in indieus ; the wing 
Hiring and under tail-coverts are precisely as in this species, 
but the throat is whiter and less buffy ; the breast and 
flanks are somewhat differently coloured, and the centre of the 
abdomen, as already mentioned, is a sort of greyish yellow. 
In some respects the bird is intermediate between indicus and 
affinis, while it is almost identical on the upper surface with 
schwarzi. 

The dimensions were as follow: — Length, 5*35; expanse, 
7*50; wing, 2*3 ; tail from vent, 2*32; tarsus, 0-86; bill from 
gape, 0'63. 

Bill horny above, below fleshy yellowish white; gape 
yellowish ; iris dark brown ; legs yellowish ; feet tinged plumbe- 
ous ; claws horny. 

Mr. Hume and I both think that for the present this must 
be accepted as an abnormally coloured and abnormally small 
schwarzi, although if other similar specimens should be 
obtained, it may deserve specific separation. Mr. Brooks, to 
whom also the specimen, a singularly perfect and beautiful one, 
was submitted, remarks as follows : — 

It is an undoubted example of P. schwarzi from its gener- 
ally smaller appearance, viz., in bill, wing, tail, and tarsus. I 
should certainly take it to be a female. Compare it with the 
first Paphoon female that you obtained. I think the colora- 
tion will be found to correspond fairly well. The points of 
identity I go by are : — (1), the fine long supercilium reaching to 
the very nape; (2), dark eye band; (3), the schwarzi leg and 
foot ; (4), schwarzi yellow buff tail-coverts contrasting with the 
rest of the plumage. In upper surface it is unmistakably 
identical. Cheeks are identical. 

"I don't understand the variation of lower surface, some being 
white and some yellow, as a Locustella, but I have seen the 
same variation in other collections. It may be that yellow 
indicates last year's nestlings, or may be peculiar to the female. 
Nothing but further research can settle the point. I think there 
is the same difference to be observed in the bills of male and 
female P. magnirostris ; but even if correctly sexed,* which 
I very much doubt, it is decided schwarzi; 9th July 1880." 

558 bis.— Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus, Swinh. 

Two specimens were obtained in the Thoungyeen valley, 
unfortunately both males. Their dimensions in the flesh were 
respectively : — Lengths, 4*55 and 4"15 ; expanse, 71 and 6 8 ; 

* I am positive I sexed the bird correctly.— C. T. B. 



188 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

wings, 2-1 and 20; tails, 1*7 and 2*0; tarsus, 0'78 and 0*7; 
bills from gape, 065 and 0'57. 

Bill brown ; irides dark brown ; legs, feet, and claws light 
plumbeous. 

565.— Reguloides superciliosus, Gm. 

Personally I have only observed it in the Thoungyeen valley, 
where I found it sparsely scattered about the edges of cultiva- 
tion clearings. 

569 bis. — Cryptolopha tephrocephala, Anders. 

Sparsely scattered through the Thoungyeen. Elsewhere I 
have not noticed it. 

574 — Abrornis superciliaris, Tick. 

I have shot this bird on the Zammee choung, where I got a 
nest and eggs, vide infra ; and I have more than once seen it 
in the Thoungyeen forests. 

The following is an account of a nest I found, recorded in 
my note book : — 

" Khasat village — Khasat choung. Zammee river, 9th March 
1878. 

" My camp to-day was pitched in the midst of a dense 
bamboo brake, close to a path leading to the village. 

"About ten feet from my tent, on this path, passers-by had 
cut one of the bamboos out of a clump and left it leaning up 
against it ; between two knots of this a rough hack had broken 
an irregular hole into a joint. 

" Sitting outside my tent and looking carelessly about, my 
attention was attracted to what I took to be a leaf fluttering 
down close to the abovementioned bamboo, which to my surprise 
disappeared before it reached the ground. Wondering at this, 
I got up and approached the place, when from the aforemen- 
tioned hole in the bamboo, out darted a little bird ; and looking 
in, I saw a neat little nest of fibres placed on the lower knot 
with three eggs, white, densely speckled, chiefly in a ring at 
the larger end, with pinkish claret spots. 

" I went back to my tent, watched the bird return, and shot 
her, as on being frightened off, she flew out a second time. It 
proved to be the above species. 

" I took the nest and eggs. The latter, I regret to say, were 
lost subsequently through the carelessness of a servant, but I 
had luckily measured and taken a description of them. 

" Their dimensions were respectively, 0'57 X 0'42, 0*59 % 
0-42, and 059 X 0'44." 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 189 

586.— Henicurus schistaceus, Hodgs. 

From east of Tounjah, on the road from Kaukarit to 
Meeawuddy, to the foot of the hills on the Thoungyeen side, 
and along the whole valley of the Thoungyeen, this handsome 
Fork-tail is to be found frequenting the banks of every stream 
almost. Elsewhere I have not yet found it. 

Toiling along the steep ascents and descents on the road 
from Kaukarit to Meeawuddy on the Thoungyeen river, on the 
1st March, I came to a small stream, rocky and covered with 
boulders. As I wished to get a few Fork-tails for my collection, 
I approached cautiously. On the left I could see nothing. 
On the right — yes, there hopping out from under a falleu log, 
was a specimen of H. schistaceus. Next moment I had rolled 
it over, and secured the body as it came floating down the 
stream. With some trouble I worked my way up to the fallen 
tree, and after a good hunt succeeded in finding the nest, 
beautifully concealed in a crevice between the roots on the 
underside of the tree. Nest made of moss felted together into 
a cup about 2 inches deep and the same in diameter, lined with 
the skeletons of peepul leaves, and containing three slightly 
set bluntish oval eggs, pure dead white, sparsely speckled and 
spotted, chiefly at the larger end, with pale brown. 

On the 13th March, lower down in the valley of the Meplay 
river, a feeder of the Thoungyeen, I found a second nest, 
similarly wedged into the crevices of the roots of a fallen tree, 
in a little rocky stream. Nest, not two pins different to the 
last one, contained three unfledged young ones. Two of the 
eggs taken as above described, measured 0'87 x 0*62 and 
0*85 % 063, respectively. 

590. — Motacilla leucopsis, Gould. 
591 quat. — Motacilla ocularis, Swinh. 
592.— Calobates melanope, Pall. 
593.— Budytes cinereocapilla, SavL 

I have shot these four species of Wagtails in the Thoungyeen 
valley which they visit in the winter, in common with other 
parts of the country. 

595.— Limonidromus indicus, Gm. 

A permanent resident, to the best of my belief, throughout 
the Thoungyeen valley, as it seems to be iu the province. ° 



190 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

596.— Pipastes maculatus, Eodgs: 

A rare winter visitant to the Thoungyeen. Elsewhere during 
that season it occurs more abundantly. 

597.— Corydalla richardi, Vieill. 

A winter visitant. It arrives in great numbers in October 
and November. I shot one once on the Thoungyeen river in 
dense evergreen jungle, when my attention was attracted to 
the bird by its running in and out among the undergrowth like 
a mouse. It was neither a sick nor a wounded bird as far as 
I could make out. 

600.— Corydalla rufula, Vieill. 

Common alike in the Thoungyeen valley, and in the plains 
country to the west of the Dawua, but far more plentiful in 
the latter. It is a permanent resident. 

605 bis. — Anthus cervinus, Fall. 

I have found this in flocks in April, going west, both on the 
Houndraw and in the Thoungyeen valley. 

630— Herpornis xantholeucus, Eodgs. 

This, a busy restless little bird, is very common in the 
Thoungyeen valley. Elsewhere I have only seen it on the 
Yoonzaleen choung. 

650.— Melanochlora sultanea, Eodgs. 

I have found this common in all the well-wooded parts of 
the country, especially in the Thoungyeen valley. 

On the 25th March 1880, near Meeawuddy, I saw two of 
these birds enter a hole in the decayed branch of a Zimbun tree 
( Dillenia pentagyna), but in cutting it open I found nothing. 
I cannot say whether they intended laying their eggs there or 
not. There was no semblance of a nest. 

660.— Corvus macrorhynchus, Wagler. 

This bird seems scattered through the length and breadth of 
the land, but is seldom seen in greater numbers than two or 
three together. It is comparatively common in the Thoun- 
gyeen valley. 

663 bis.— Corvus insolens, Eume. 

Very common at Maulmain. Some have penetrated to 
Kaukarit, and a few stragglers have reached Meeawuddy even, 
but the species is a pure town bird, and never found iu the 
forests as a rule. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGTEEN VALLEY. 191 

669.— Garrulus leucotis, Hume. 

Like Mr. Davison I have found this very handsome Jay 
affecting only the dry Dillenia and Pine forests so common in 
the Thonngyeen valley. I have seen it feeding on the ground 
in such places with Gecinus nigrigenys, Upupa longirostris, 
and other birds. I shot one specimen, a female, in April, near 
the Meplay river, that must have had a nest somewhere, which 
however I failed to find, for she had a full formed but shell-less 
egg inside her, 

671 bis.— Urocissa magnirostris, Blyth. 

This species I have only found common in the Thoungyeen 
valley. Elsewhere it seemed to me scarce. Below I give a 
note about its breeding. 

I have found three nests of this handsome Magpie — two on 
the bank of the Meplay choung on the 14th April 1879 and 
5th March 1880, respectively, and one near Meeawuddy on the 
Thoungyeen river on the 19th March 1880. 

The first contained three, the second four, and the third two 
eggs. 

These are all of the same type, dead white with pale claret 
coloured dashes, and spots rather washed out looking, and 
lying chiefly at the large end. One egg has the spots thicker 
at the small end. They are moderately broad ovals and vary 
from 1-19" to 1-35" in length, and from 0-93" to 0-8" in 
breadth. 

The nests were all alike, thick solid structures of twigs and 
branches, lined with finer twigs ; about 8 or 9 inches in 
diameter, and placed invariably at the top of tall straight 
saplings of Teak, Pynkado (Xylia dolabriformis) , and other trees 
at a height of about 15 feet from the ground. 

673.— Cissa chinensis, Bodd. 

This bird is very common in the Thoungyeen valley from 
the head-waters of the river to its mouth. For an account of 
its nidification, see S. F., Vol. V., p. 85. 

674.— Dendrocitta rufa, Lath. 

Like the former species this is very common, but it affects 
open jungle and cultivation clearings more than C. chinensis 
does. It is worthy of remark that I have two specimens, 
shot at Kaukarit on the Houndraw river on the 3rd May and 
11th August, respectively, that entirely want the dirty white 
tippings to all but the two longest tail feathers, such as all 
other birds of this species which I have shot have ; moreover, 
they are of a slightly darker shade above. They cannot how- 



192 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM 

ever be considered more than a variety, as on the same date, 
off the same tree, I shot one of the ordinary coloured Magpies. 

678 quat— Crypsirina varians, Lath. 

I have not found this species in the Thoungyeen valley, 
and as far as I know it does not cross the Dawna range. 
About Maulmain, on the Attaran, Gyne, and Houndraw rivers, 
it is very common. 

683 bis.— Sturnopastor superciliaris/5^. 

Not a jungle bird at all. Common about Maulmain, and 
at all the larger villages in the interior. I have seen a few 
about Meeawuddy. 

684.— Acridotheres tristis, Lin. 
686.— Acridotheres fuscus, Wagl. 

Both these birds are fairly common about Kaukarit, and I 
have seen a few about Meeawuddy and near a large Shan 
village at Koosaik. About Maulmain they abound. 

688 Us.— Sturnia nemoricola, Jerd. 

This is the representative of the Brahminy Maina in Tenas- 
serim, and is fairly common all over the country. I have seen 
it in the Thoungyeen valley. 

689 sext— Sturnia sturnina, Pall. 

About this bird I know nothing. My only specimen, 
a young male, was shot out of a large flock seated on some dead 
trees near a cultivation clearing on the banks of the Houndraw 
river. It measures: — Length, 7 - 5 ; expanse, 13*0 ; wing, 4*1 ; 
tail, 2-0; tarsus, 1*05; bill from gape, i*0. 

Bill plumbeous blue ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet 
brownish green ; claws horny. 

I have not come across this bird in the Thoungyeen. 

691.— Calornis chalybaeus, Horsf. 

A southern bird, but which strays up as far as the Attaran, 
where I shot a specimen on the 10th Februarj- 1878, near 
Khayasee. It was among a vast number of Eulabes, Pigeons, 
Irenas, and other birds feeding on a fig tree in fruit. I have 
not seen it in the Thoungyeen. 

693.— Eulabes javanensis, Osbech. 

One of the commonest and most widely spread birds in the 
province. The following is an account of its nidification : — 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF TIIE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 193 

This bird lays two distinct sizes of eggs, all however of the 
same type and colouration. Out of holes in neighbouring 
trees, on the bank of the Meplay on the 13th March 1880, 
I took two nests, one containing three, and the other two eggs. 
The first lot of eggs measured respectively, 145" X 0'77", 
1-15" x 0-80", and 1'16" x 0-79*, while those in the second 
nest 1-30" x 0*95", and 1-27" X 0-93" respectively. All the 
eggs, however, are a pale blue, spotted chiefly at the larger end 
with light chocolate. The nests were in natural hollows in the 
trees and lined with grass and leaves loosely put together. 

698.— Munia rubronigra, Hodgs. 

This is the only Munia I have noticed in the Thoungyeen 
valley, where it is sparsely distributed wherever there is a 
large extent of Kine grass. On the Houndraw and Gyne rivers 
it is common. 

710— Passer montanus, Lin. 

I observed a few of these at Meeawuddy. At Kaukarit 
and in Maulmain it is abundant. 

723.— Euspiza aureola, Pall. 

This species is a migrant through the country. This year 
(1880) in March a large tract of bamboos seeded near Meeawuddy, 
and there must have been some thousands of these birds feeding 
there. 

771.— Treron nipalensis, Hodgs. 

Not a rare bird in the Thoungyeen, but less common than 
O. phayrii. 

I found several nests of this bird which breeds in the Thoun- 
gyeen forests throughout the end of February and the whole 
of March. My first four nests were all found in one day, 
and all were little platforms of straws on horizontally growing 
bamboos, containing each a couple of unfledged young. 
This was on the 3rd March. Again on the 22nd March, I got 
a nest similarly placed with two eggs so hard set that I failed 
to save them. 

The only egg I got was on the 28th March, near Yok 
village in the Meplay district. It was placed in the usual flimsy 
nest in the fork of a small tree about 10 feet above the 
ground, and was pure white in color and perfectly fresh. I 
procured the female to make certain. 

25 



194 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSER1M 

773 bis.— Crocopus viridifrons, Blyth. 

I have only come across this fine green Pigeon in the 
Thoungyeen valley. It is not uncommon on the banks of 
the Meplay, where I found a nest as detailed below: — ^ 

At the place where the Hteechara choung flows into the 
Meplay stands a grand old Ficus tree, which in March is loaded 
with fruit and becomes the resort of Hornbills, Pigeons, Barbets, 
and innumerable other birds. On the 16th of the above month, 
I found in a small Zizyphus tree {Zizyphus jujuba), growing 
about twenty yards from the Ficus, a nest of this Pigeon con- 
taining two pure white eggs slightly set. The nest was the 
usual careless few twigs laid cross and across, and was not 
more than twelve feet from the ground. I shot the female 
as she flew off. The eggs measured, l-23"x0'90" and 1-22" X 
C'81" respectively. 

776.— Osmotreron phayrii, Myth. 

I have found this the commonest green Pigeon n the 
Thoungyeen and the higher parts of the Houndra w river 
Elsewhere I have not come across it. 

780.— Carpophaga senea, Lin. 

This common Imperial Pigeon I have seen in the north on 
the Yoonzaleeu choung, on the Attaran, Gyne, and Houndraw 
rivers, but nowhere in such numbers as in July on the 
Salween, where, in one day, driving them backwards and foi- 
wards between a few Ficus trees in fruit, I managed to bag 
over thirty. 

It is not rare in the Thoungyeen. 

On the 19th March, on the road from the village of 
Podresakai to Meplay, I found a nest of the above Pigeon with 
the usual solitary egg, which proved to be hard-set. It was 
easily seen from below through the flimsy nest of a few 
sticks and straws laid cross and across a horizontally grow- 
ing bamboo, where a smaller shoot had forked out from it. I 
shot the female as she flew off and sat on a neighbouring tree. 

The egg is pure white and slightly glossy, measuring 1*8" 
by 1-32". 

795 Ms.—- Turtur tigrinus, Tern, 
797.— Turtur humilis, Tem. 

Both these Doves are common, the former frequenting even 
dense evergreen forests, the latter affectiDg cultivation 
clearings. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYKEN VALLEY. 195 

798.— Chalcophaps indica, Lin. 

This also is common ; in the Thoungyeen especially so. 
In the middle of the day it has a habit of squatting in groups 
on the ground at the foot of bamboo clumps. 

803.— Pavo muticus, Lin. 

During three years' constant search I have never succeeded 
in shooting one of these birds in Tenasserim. In the Thoung- 
yeen they are very rare. In the Attaran I both heard and 
saw them, but they are so wary that I never succeeded in 
getting within shot. 

803 gwa*.— Polyplectrum tibetanum, Gm. 

This occurs to my knowledge in the Thoungyeen valley, 
for I have seen its feathers lying on the roadside, where some 
Karen hunter had succeeded in snaring or shooting one, but 
personally I have never come across it here. 

In the Sinzaway reserve I shot one in April 1877. 

811 ter.— Euplocamus lineatus, Vig. 

This Pheasant is fairly common in the Thoungyeen jungles. 
I procured one specimen, a male, on the 16th October 1879 
on the Hteekotaw choung, which, in the bold markings on the 
tail, approaches E. crawfurdi. 

812.— Gallus ferrugineus, Gm. 

Common throughout the province wherever suitable bamboo 
cover occurs. 

824 tev.— Arboricola brunneopectus, Tick. 

I have only shot or seen this species on the east side of 
the Dawna range, and on its higher spurs. 

The dimensions of a pair shot near Tounjah taken in the 
flesh were : — 

Male. — Length, 10*9 ; expanse, 195 ; wing, 6*05 ; tail, 2*8 ; 
tarsus, 1*5; bill from gape, 0'92. 

Bill horny ; bare skin of face and throat reddish pink ; irides 
brown ; legs, feet, and claws pale pink. 

Female. — Length, 10'75 ; expanse, 18*5 ; wing, 5*5 ; tail, 
2*6 ; tarsus, 1*5 ; bill from gape, 0*92. Colors of soft parts 
as in the male. 

824 quat— Arboricola chloropus, Tick. 

Besides getting a pair of these at Maulmain (vide S. F., Vol. 
VI., p. 447), I have seen this bird only in the lower hills of 
the Thoungyeen valley. 



196 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM • 

831.— Excalfactoria sinensis, Lin. 

About Kaukarit on the Houndraw river and on the hill at 
Maulmain this little Quail is common in June, July, and August. 
In the Thoungyeen I have flushed it a few times. 

834 bis.— Turnix maculosa, Tern. 

I have only once come across this Quail, when I flushed a 
covey near the banks of the Meplay river on the 11th April 
1878. I only succeeded in getting one, a male, which measured 
in the flesh : — 

Length, 6*5 ; expanse, 12*8 ; wing, 3'4; tail, 1*2; tarsus, 
1-03 ; bill from gape, 0'77. 

Upper mandible, and tip of lower, horny ; gape, and remain- 
der of lower mandible, yellow ; legs and feet dull yellow ; irides 
yellowish white. 

842.— Glareola orientalis, Leach. 

1 have only shot this species at Kaukarit. As far as I know 
it does not occur in the Thoungyeen valley. 

845.— Charadrius fulvus, Gm. 

This i3 very common in the cold weather both in the Thoung- 
yeen valley, near Meeawuddy, and about Kaukarit. It leaves 
about the end of May. One specimen, shot 1st May 1879, has 
nearly the whole under surface black. 

849.— iEgialitis dubia, Scop. 

I have not as yet gone in for these little Plovers, the Waders, 
and other water-birds ; but one specimen of the above species 
I procured at the mouth of the Thoungyeen, and I know it 
occurs at Kaukarit on the Houndraw river. 

855 bis.— Lobivanellus atronuchalis, Bly. 

Common throughout the Thoungyeen as elsewhere. 

857.— Hoplopterus ventralis, Cab. 

Common along the course of all the larger rivers, including 
of course the Thoungyeen, but does not ascend any of their 
small tributaries as far as I know. 

870.— Gallinago sthenura, EM. 
871.— Gallinago gallinaria, Gm. 

I have shot both these at Kaukarit and in the Thoungyeen 
valley. See also S. F., Vol. VIII., p. 196. 



AND SPECIALLY THOSE OF THE THOUNGYEEN VALLEY. 197 

873.— Rhynchaea bengal ensis, Lin. 

Numerous enough at Kaukarit on the Hound raw river, and 
at Maulmain ; in the Thoungyeen the Painted Snipe is rather 
scarce. 

891.— Rhyacophila glareola, Lin. 
892.— Totanus ochropus, Lin. 
893.— Totanus hypoleucus, Lin. 

These three Sandpipers are winter visitants to the Thoung- 
yeen valley as well as other parts of the country. Except 
these I have neither procured nor observed any Snippets in the 
Thoungyeen. 

900.— Parra indica, Lath, 

This handsome bird is very common in quins (anglice 
marshes; throughout the Thoungyeen valley as elsewhere. 

902.— Porphyrio poliocephalus, Lath. 

It is strange that in the Thoungyeen, so close to Siamese ter- 
ritory, I should have got the above species, aud not Mr. Elliott's 
newly described species edwardsi. 

907.— Erythra phcenicura, Penn. 
913.— Hypotaenidia striata, Lin. 

In some places, as in the Attaran and near Kaukarit, on the 
Houndraw river, these two species abound. In the Thoungyeen 
valley, as far as I know, they are very scarce. I only once or 
twice came across them. 

915— Leptoptilus argalus, Lath. 

I have seen this species close to Kaukarit, but it does not, to 
the best of my belief, cross over into the Thoungyeen valley. 

929.— Buphus coromandus, Bodd. 

I have once or twice come across small parties of this Heron 
herding with buffaloes in the Thoungyeen valley. On the Houn- 
draw, Gyne, and Attaran rivers I found it common. 

930.— Ardeola grayi, Sykes. 

Common in the Thoungyeen valley as elsewhere. 

931.— Butorides javanica, Eorsf. 

I have never seen tbis species in the Thoungyeen valley. On 
the Attaran it is common. 



198 THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 

932.— Ardetta flavicollis, Lath. 

During the rains this was common in some places in the 
Meplay and at Laidawgyee. I have shot it also at Kaukarit. 

933— Ardetta cinnamomea, Gm. 

This Bittern, though it seems fairly abundant at Kaukarit, I 
have never yet seen, (though it probably may occur there,) 
in the Thoungyeen valley. See also S. F., Vol. VIII., p. 197. 

951— Nettapus coromandelianus, Gm. 
952.— Dendrocygna javanica, Horsf. 

These two species occur in some of the larger quins (marshes) 
in the Thoungyeen valley, but never in such numbers as in 
other parts of the country. I have never seen any Teal or 
Duck, except these two species, anywhere in the Thoungyeen. 

965.— Querquedula circia, Lin. 

A few of these I observed once in the great Yangoke river, 
(half marsh, half pond), near Kaukarit in November. 

1007.— Phalacrocorax pygmseus, Pall 
1008,— Plotus melanogaster, Penn. 

Both these occur, sparsely distributed, throughout the Thoung- 
yeen valley as elsewhere. 



($h* danw girite of Jndk. 

(Reprint from the " Asian.") 

Addenda et Corrigenda. — Edited by A. O. Hume. 

No. 2. 



During the last few months there has been an important 
addition to the Game Birds of India, in the discovery, in 
Eastern Assam, of Ceriornis temmincki, the Chinese Crimson 
Tragopan ; the female of Lop7wp7wrus sclateri, the Crestless 
Moonal, unknown when our first volume was published, ha3 
been obtained, and I have received a few notes in regard to 
species included in both the first and second volumes. 

Of this new information I have now to submit what the 
Law Commissioners would, I hope, be pleased to accept as an 
" orderly synthesis." 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 199 

The Great Indian Bustard. (Vol. I., pp. 7, et seq.) — 
" I have seen Bustard in the Betul District between Badnur 
and Muttaie, and once near Satna (between Jabalpur and 
Allahabad) ; in the latter instance the bird was close to the 
Railway when the train passed, and did not appear to mind 
the rattle and noise. I was surprised, for I had always ima- 
gined them to be very shy birds." 

J. A. Betham. 



The Bengal Florican. (Vol. I., pp. 23, et seq.) — 

To Mr. F. A. Shillingford, of the Kholassy Factory, 
Purneah, I am indebted for the first egg of this species that 
I have succeeded in procuring. 

This egg is of the same type as regards texture and colour- 
ation as many of those which I possess of the Great Indian 
Bustard and Lesser Florican, but is intermediate in size, and 
conspicuously more elongated than those of either of the 
others. It is more of the shape of a hen's egg, but rather 
more elongated than this even, and decidedly more compressed 
towards the small end. The shell is firm and strong, smooth 
and compact, but has little gloss. The pore-pittings are very 
inconspicuous. 

The ground colour is a dull pale green stone colour, and it 
is rather sparingly streaked and blotched with dull, rather pale 
brown, somewhat greyer in some spots, more olivaceous in 
others. 

It measures 2 "6 inches in length by 1*76 in breadth. 

Mr. Shillingford says : — 

" The Florican's egg I myself picked up in June last. The 
female bird was seated on it when I first saw her about five 
yards distant ; when she rose I found one egg. There was no 
attempt at a nest; the egg was lying on damp mud with the 
few blades of grass that were growing near trodden dowu. 
Young birds have several times been caught in this district." 



" The Bengal Florican is very common in the Khadir of 
the Ganges (right bank) in the Muzaffarnagar and Saharanpur 
districts, especially the former. 

"In May 1871, I shot a hen Florican in the Patli Dun, on 
the banks of the Ramganga, many miles inside the outer 
range of the gwasi-Siwalik Himalayas. 

" On the 5th of February at Mahewa, close to the Jumna, in 
the extreme west of this, the Allahabad district, I twice put 
up a hen Florican (S. bengalensis of Jerdon) ; not the small 
Leek Florican {S. auritus of Jerdon) of Central India, but the 



200 THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 

laro-e Florican which we meet with in the grass plains of 
Bohilkhand and Northern Oudh. Most unfortunately I had 
only Quail shot in my guu when she first got up, and I only 
tickled her, and when I put her up the second time, she was 
out of shot. I could not put her up again, and next day had 
to leave the locality. I never heard of a Florican here, and am 
curious to know what you think of the occurrence. It most 
certainly was a Florican, and not a Bustard. I have seen 
hundreds and shot scores of them." 

A. M. Markham. 



" It may be worth noting that I have seen and shot Florican 
in the Mymensingh district, as I see you do not mention that 
as a known locality. It occurs not infrequently along the 
skirts of the Mudhopore jungle. 

The Black Partridge is common in the grass glades of the 
same jungle. 

S. H. Fasson. 



The Large or Black-bellied Sand-Grouse. (Vol. I., 
pp. 47, et seq.) — 

" The late General Mc.Master killed a bird of this species, 
(a male,) on the plains near Sirhpoor (? between Ahmedabad 
and Deesa) on the 7th May, but it may have been a chance 
or wounded bird, though apparently strong and quite at home. 
(I take the above from a note made by General Mc.Master in 
the margin of his Jerdon.)" 

R. H. C. TUFNELL, M.S.C. 



The Spotted Sand-Grouse. (Vol. I., pp. 53, et seq.) — 
"Near Rajanpore, on the Punjab Frontier, these birds were 

extremely plentiful in August last, running about on the open 

' pat,' or among the stunted tamarisk bushes." 

R. H. 0. TUFNELL, M.S.C. 



The Coronetted Sand-Grouse. (Vol. L, p. 57.) — 
I stupidly said that I could find nothing recorded of the 
habits of this species, when in reality years ago I had put the 
following on record : — 

" Sir William Merewether tells me that the flight and cry 
of P. coronatus are both quite different from those of all the 
other species. They have a curious fluttering flight, and 
appear often to hover in the air, especially before settling, and 
their cry is a twittering one/' 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 201 

'.' While at Vitakri, in Beluchistan, I procured several speci- 
mens of this Sand-Grouse, of which the following are the 
measurements and description : — 

" Measurements of a male specimen : — Length, 11*5 ; wing, 
7*0 ; tail, 3'5 ; tarsus, nearly 1 inch. 

" Legs feathered to base of tarsus ; toes bare, armed with 
largish scuta ; hind toe minute and raised. 

" Tail graduated, all feathers, except the two central, tipped 
white. 

rt Primaries brown, with inner edges light ; quills whitish ; 
and general coloration not unlike that of arenarius above, but 
neither sex has any massed black on the lower parts. 

" Male. — Head. — Black stripe on each side of bill and under 
chin ; occiput brownish grey, bordered by a line of light grey 
extending from the base of the bill round the eye and meeting 
on the nape ; beneath this a broad band of yellow ; above 
marbled grey and yellowish brown, beneath unspotted grey, 
inclining to fulvous on the abdomen. 

" Female. — Upper head lighter than in the male, minutely 
striated with black, and bounded by a band of yellow from 
chin and throat round nape of neck ; upper parts pale brown, 
minutely banded with black; breast light grey, banded 
darker ; abdomen white, banded (in some specimens spotted) 
darker. 

" The specimens, from which the description is taken, were 
killed in December." 

R. H. C. TUFNELL, M.S.O. 



The Painted Sand-Grouse. (Vol. I., pp. 59, et seq.) — 

"As regards the occurrence of this bird in the Mysore 
province I can speak, from experience, of its being anything 
but rare on the wooded islands of the Cauvery, near 
Seringapatam. The largest bag I can remember making in 
that part of the country was thirteen birds killed near 
French Rocks on 17th October 1878, by Major St. John and 
myself. They breed in the same place." 

R. H. C. Tufnell, m.s.c. 



tl The country in which I have found these most abundant 
consists of low, flat-topped hills, such as are found in the 
Nerbudda valley, south of Mhow. These hill-tops have patches 
of black soil on them, and are covered with thin tree jungle. This 
year, in Khandesh, I have found these birds common on the 
same sort of ground, and have noticed them in the evening on 

26 



202 THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 

the cart tracks, where they were probably dusting themselves, 
as there is no grain traffic on these roads. In both places, 
but more especially in the Nerbudda vallej'-, I generally got 
about a brace whenever I went out shootng for an hour 
or two. I agree with Jerdon in thinking they have crepus- 
cular or nocturnal habits, as I have seen them flitting round 
when it was practically dark." 

W. J. Heaviside, Captain, R.E. 



The Close-barred Sand-Grouse. (Vol. I., pp. 65, et seq.) — 

" At page 65 it was stated that this bird had not been 
as yet obtained in Beluchistan. It may, therefore, interest 
your readers to know that two specimens were procured last 
November on the Bhor plain in that country. Aud the 
officer who killed and gave them to me told me that he saw 
many more of the same species on the plain. I think I saw a 
small flock of these birds near the same place in the beginning 
of January, but could not be certain." 

K. H. C. TUFNELL, M.S.C. 



The Common Pea-Fowl. (Vol. I, pp. 81, et seq.) — 

" Hoonsoor, Mysore, 25tk April. — Took a Pea- Fowl's nest 
containing four fresh eggs. One of my men first found it 
about a week ago ; it then contained only one egg. This 
seems to be an early date for Pea-Fowl to lay in the South 
though I see that some are said to lay in April in the North." ' 

Charles McInroy, Major. 



The Eastern or Burmese Pea- Fowl, (Vol. I., pp. 93, et seq.) — 

tl The Peacock found in this, the Chittagong district, is the 
Eastern or Burmese Pea -Fowl, Pavo muticus. 

■' I have seen a live specimen, and have heard of small 
flocks at Jooykhola in Fatikchiri, the extreme north of the 
district, at Gurjunia and at Ramoo in the south, and at 
Rangunia on the Kurnafoolee, where one was shot the other 
day. These small parties, of four or five birds each, are the 
only ones I have had khabar of, and they seem to stick 
a good deal to those neighbourhoods, so that when I asked 
in various parts of the district if there were any Pea-Fowl 
about, I used to get the answer, ' There are none here, but 
there are some near Gurjunia, or at Ramoo, &c.,' as the case 
might be. I saw the place they frequent at Gurjunia ; it is 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 203 

a great stretch of high reed jungle and elephant grass, 
filling a wide valley between forest hills/' 

H. Fasson. 



The Grey Peacock- Pheasant. (Vol. I., pp. 105, et seq.)~ 

a The Polyplectron of this district (Chitagong) is undoubtedly, 
as you say, Poly 'plectrum tibetanwn, and the Mathura, Euplo- 
camus horsfieldi. 

11 They are both very common in all the heavy jungles of 
the district, the Polyplectron rarely to be seen or shot, but not 
unfrequently snared with horse-hair by the village boys— -the 
Mathura often put up and shot when beating for Jungle- 
Fowl. 

" The Polyplectron is in this district invariably called 
' katmoir' ; and is not known by any of the vernacular 
names given in your book. I do not know what ' kat' is 
intended to signify ; ' moir' is of course ' Peacock. " 

H. Fasson. 



The Moonal. (Vol I., pp. 125, et seq.) — 

" Here, in Chamba, they call the male Nilgur, and the 
female Nulwai. " 

C. H. T. Marshall, Major. 



" I see that you are not aware of the Moonal being found 
out of the Himalayas, or westward of Cashmere. So you may 
be glad to hear that it is common in the Sufaid Koh here 
(Kurrum, Afghanistan). Freshly-killed birds were brought 
in by the natives to Shalozan last winter. The natives here 
(Turies) all call the Moonal, Kukur, but I cannot say whether 
this is its specific name or applied to all Pheasants indis- 
criminately." 

W. T. Fairbrothek, 29th P.JS.l 



The Crestless Moonal. (Vol. I., p. 135, et seq.) — 

I am indebted to the Chief Commissioner of Assam, Sir 
S. C. Bayley, for a magnificent specimen of the male of 
this species, the first of the kind that I have been able to pro- 
cure. 

The specimen was skinned and stuffed by some of the 
Mishmis, and the manner in which it has been stuffed is 
peculiar. The skin having been taken off the body, a neat 



204 THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 

slight basket has been made out of strips of slender bamboo. 
The basket is in the shape of a Florence flask, but the neck 
portion, instead of being round, is spread out into a wide fan, 
so as to support the tail. 

Over this basket-work the skin has been neatly pulled. 
No other stuffing has been used, and the consequence is that, 
for its size, the specimen is about the lightest I ever saw. 

Looking through my former description, I find that I have 
omitted one important point, and that is, that the basal portions 
of the tail feathers (completely hidden by the upper and 
under tail-coverts) are black, with a few imperfect narrow 
white bars. 

The dimensions of this specimen do not differ materially 
from those given in the " Game Birds" by me, but there is a 
strong spur, 0-61 in length, on each leg. 

A female of this species has at last been obtained from the 
Mishmis, who brought it down to Sadiya, and a description and 
plate ot it has been given in the P. Z. S. 

The female differs from that of the common Moonal in 
having the ground colour of the whole lower back, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts creamy, profusely variegated with dark brown, 
and in having the tail feathers (which are black) broadly 
tipped with this same creamy colour, and crossed higher up 
with numerous narrow transverse zig-zaggy bars of the same 
colour. 

The general style of coloration, too, is much more uniform, 
and the bird is smaller. The following is the published descrip- 
tion of this female :— 

" Description. — Head and (upper) back very rich dark umber- 
brown, each feather of the former with a V-shaped pale ochre 
mark ; each of the latter has a centre line of a richer brown, 
finely mottled towards the margins ; a broad extent of the 
rump and upper tail-coverts are pale ochraceous white, very 
finely and delicately mottled with dark brown ; tail above 
rich black, with six or seven narrow whitish bars, and tipped 
with the same (the counter colouring of the male) ; 
shoulder of wing very rich dark chestnut brown ; the shafts pale 
ochraceous; primaries rich dark umber; secondaries slightly 
mottled with brown ; cheeks and throat dark umber, markings 
like those on the head; chin white; breast, abdomen, and 
thio-hs dull umber, most delicately and finely mottled with 
pale ochre ; underside of tail black, with narrow white bars ; 
the legs appear to have been of a pale grey, and the bill 
whitish. " 

"Wing, 11-5 ; tail, about 8 ; tarsus, 3 ; bill at front, 1*75. " 
I have not as yet, myself, seen a female. 



addenda et corrigenda. 205 

The Chinese Crimson Tragopan. 

When our first volume was published, the occurrence of this 
species within our limits was quite unsuspected. For full 
particulars of this species, vide ante, Stray Feathers, Vol. 
VIIL, p. 201, et seq. 



The Koklass. (Vol. I., pp. 159, et seq.)— 

a In Chamba the people call this species the kukrola or 
simply kuk. " 

C. H. T. Marshall, Major. 



The Black-breasted Kalij. (Vol. I., pp. 197, et seq.) — 

u I notice you say that you have not information of the 
Maihura Pheasant (Euplocamus horsfieldi) occurring in 
Southern Chittagong. I can speak distinctly to this, as I 
have seen and shot Mathuras on several occasions in Thanna 
Chukurea, near Dooloohazara. 1 have also twice seen them 
put up when beating for Jungle-Fowl in Thanna Puttea." 

H. Fasson. 



The Red Jungle-Fowl. (Vol. I., pp. 217, et seq.) — 

'• Jungle-Fowl, which the people call kura, afford very 
fine sport here in Chittagong. The low hills which fringe 
the bases of the various ranges are divided by numerous 
narrow valleys, which have been now converted into long 
winding strips of paddy cultivation, while the hills themselves 
still remain clothed with scrub jungle and forest. The birds 
attracted to the cover these more or less isolated hills afford, 
by the rice in the intervening valleys, may be flushed, in great 
numbers, by coolies beating through the scrub, and afford fine 
shooting to sportsmen posted in the valleys, as the birds cross 
these, seeking new cover in the next of these low hills. They 
fly under these conditions very fast, and take hard hitting 
to bring them down. " 

H. Fasson. 



The Grey Jungle-Fowl. (Vol. I., pp. 231, et seq.)— 

" Adverting to the remarks of Mr. Davidson in the " Game 
Birds of India," and of Major Mclnroy in the " Addenda et 
Corrigenda?' on the Grey Jungle- Fowl, as a bird for the table, 
I beg to record my experience. 



206 THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 

" When living at Mount Aboo some years ago, I shot numer- 
ous Jungle- Fowl at the foot of the hill, in the cold weather, 
and always found them (old and young of both sexes) excel- 
lent eating-, reminding one of the flavour of an English Phea- 
sant. On turning to the account of the bird in the first 
volume of the Game Birds, I was surprized to find it cried 
down as an article of food, and intended writing to you before ; 
however, perhaps it is as well I delayed doing so, as my opi- 
nion now is changed from the following circumstance : — At 
the beginning of March, this year, I shot a pair of Jungle- 
Fowl {male and female) near Belgaum, in the afternoon, and 
in the evening after returning home my butler said they smelt 
so strong that he did not consider them fit for table. Having 
decided upon skinning them, I had them put upon one side till 
the following day, when I discovered that the strong odour, 
referred to by the butler, arose from the crops of the birds 
being charged to the muzzle with human excrement. 

" This may be an exceptional case, but as food is scarce in 
the hot weather, I have no doubt myself that, at that season, 
they feed constantly upon the filth I have mentioned, so 
recommend those who regard the flesh as ' palatable and gamey' 
to satisfy themselves in future before ordering them for table, 
as to the source from which that ' gamey' flavour is 
produced. 

a I may add that two Pea- Fowl, shot the same day, had their 
crops also bulged with the same disgusting food, and yet all 
of the birds were shot in a wild jungle far away from any 
village, and where only a few wood-cutters existed. In the 
cold weather and in the rains, when food is abundant,' I dare 
say they may be fit for table, and indeed I know from expe- 
rience that they are excellent eating ; but in the hot weather, 
when their natural food is scarce, there can be no doubt, from 
the above facts, that they are the foulest of feeders, as also 
are the Grey and Black Partridges, some of the Button- Quails, 
and numerous other species of so-called Game Birds that I 
could mention/' 

E. A. Butler, Captain, H. M.'s 3rd Regt. 



The Painted Spur-Fowl. (Vol. I., pp. 255, et seq.) — 

" I have shot the Painted Spur-Fowl in the wooded rocky 
hills in the south of Allahabad. They are fairly common there. ' r 

A. M. Mabkham, c.s. 



" I have shot the Painted Spur-Fowl at Rhotas, a place 30 or 
40 miles up the Sone from Dehree, where the grand trunk road 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 207 

crosses that river. It h common in the hills on the Gya and 
Shahabad sides of the river." 

W. Forsyth. 



The Himalayan Snow-Cock. (Vol. I., pp. 268, et seq.) — 
"Here, in Chamba, they call the Snow -Cock Galound." 

C. H. T. Marshall, Major. 



Lieutenant Fairbrother, of the 29th P. N. I., writing from 
Kurrum, 29th June 1880, says : — u A party which ascended the 
highest peak (Seetaram, 15,000 feet) a week ago, came across a 
brood of Snow-Cock, and captured all the chicks (nine I think), 
but later released them. The parents were not obtained, though 
fired at with a small rifle, the party having no gun." As no 
specimens were preserved, we cannot even yet be quite positive 
what the species is that inhabits the Safaid Koh, but there is 
little doubt that it is the same as the Himalayan one. 



" It may be interesting to your readers to know that, in 
1875, 1 myself shot the Himalayan Snow-Cock, about 13,000 
feet above sea level, above the Neelni Nulla in Cashmere. The 
best description of the place, where I actually shot these birds, 
will be to say that I found them on high ridges above the Upper 
Trisangum Nulla, about four easy marches from Bundypur, on 
the Wuller Lake. I myself only found them in this particular 
place, but I have no doubt that there are plenty of them scat- 
tered over the district surrounding Grurais and Tilail; subject 
to the condition they would not be found lower down than 
about 13,000 feet at any rate prior to the end of September. 

" Above this altitude I believe they occur throughout the 
higher spurs of the Haramook mountain, &e. 

" Where I shot the birds I could have killed a good many as 
there was a large pack thereabouts, and they were certainly the 
tamest game birds I ever came across. The largest of the two I 
shot was a male ; it weighed 81bs., and measured over 30 inches 
in length, and 44 in expanse. The other was a female not 
very much smaller, but wanting the blunt spurs. What struck 
me particularly about these birds was their tameness and sin- 
gularly musical call. When walking they carry their tails like 
an ordinary hen." 

A. C. Bruce, r.e. 



208 THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 

The Painted Partridge or Southern Francolin. (Vol. 
II., pp. 19, et seq.) — 

Mr. J. G. Horsfall has kindly sent me a specimen of the 
Partridge found in parts of the upland taluks of the Masuli- 
patam district, and this proves to be No. 819, Francolinus pic- 
tus, the Painted Partridge or Southern Francolin. 



The Grey Partridge. (Vol. II., pp. 51, et seq.) — 

" This despised bird is common in Shakawattee and Bikanir, 
and appears to me to be very good eating there. The flesh was 
more tender and juicy than usual, owing, I believe, to their 
feeding on white-ants : these insects are easily got at in that 
sandy country, as they work very much on the surface of the 
ground." 

W. T. Heaviside, Captain, r.e. 



The Blue-breasted or Painted Quail. (Vol. II., pp. 161, 
et seq.) — 

Mr. Laird writes to say that he had confounded two species, 
and that the birds he got ten miles south of Belgaum prove to 
have been the painted Bush Quail, and not this present species. 

At the same time I notice that Jerdon says that he recorded 
one specimen in his catalogue from Belgaum. So that possibly a 
straggler may occur in this district occasionally, though hitherto 
neither Mr. Laird nor Captain Butler (who first drew atten- 
tion to the matter) have met with it there. 



" With reference to the remarks in Volume II of " The Gamh 
Birds,"" regarding the distribution of Excalfactoria chinensis, I 
write to say that in December last I shot a pair of this species, 
near Goodavancherrie, Chingleput district, some 20 miles 
from Madras. I was shooting Snipe at the time, and got the 
cock, but lost the female amonst the long grass." 

F. Bidie, Central Museum, Madras. 



The Burmo-Malayan Button-Quail. (Vol. II., pp. 183, 
et seq.) — 

To Mr. H. Fasson, I am indebted for a fine specimen of Tur- 
nix maculosa. The Burmo-Malayan Button-Quail, ehot on 
the 13th December, at Jooykhola, Thanna Fatikchiri, district 
Chittagong. 



A FEW REMARKS ON SCHXENICOLA PLATYURA. 209 

I hope those correspondents, whose remarks I have above 
quoted, will accept this as an acknowledgment of their contri- 
butions. Generally I venture to hope that those who send me 
information will be satisfied with seeing their facts duly record- 
ed under their own names in these papers, and will not interpret 
the non-receipt of a separate private acknowledgment as any indi- 
cation of a want of gratitude on my part for the assistance they 
have rendered. The fact simply is, that where communications 
are plain and to the point, and I have no further questions to 
put, I cannot always find time to write merely to acknowledge 
their receipt. 

Once for all let me say how thankful I am to every one who 
contributes even the smallest scrap of new and reliable inform- 
ation. 



In conclusion, it is with great regret that I have to announce 
that, again owing to circumstances beyond our control, the 
appearance of the third volume is delayed. It may be the 1st 
of October before it issues. It is all written ; the plates are all in 
India, and half of the text is printed, but there are no covers 
and no title page. 

A. O. Hume. 



31 few wmarfts <m ^rhomfcaJa ptoipra. 

By W. Edwin Brooks. 



The Editor was kind enough to lend me his solitary ex- 
ample of this rare and obscure bird, which I carefully examin- 
ed. I quite agree with him that it has very much the appear- 
ance of a large Dumeticola, as we have hitherto used this term, 
but there are one or two points in which it differs from Dume- 
ticola, which I shall presently refer to ; and this being the 
case, I think the generic term Schcenicola should be retained 
solely for S. platyura, unless other species of the same genus 
should be discovered. 

The distinctive points worthy of notice in this bird are — 

1. — A rather strong' and well-curved bill, differing consider- 
ably from the rather straight slender one of Dumeticola, which 
is almost like that of Locustella. In being much compressed 
at the sides, the bill of Schcenicola is not unlike that of Dume- 
ticola, i.e., when it is looked upon from above. 

2. — There are a pair of very strong curved rictal bristles 
at each side of the gape. These strong bristles won't agree 
with Dumeticola. 

27 



210 A FEW REMARKS ON SCHCENICOLA PLATYURA. 

3. — The tail is excessively graduated, the outer feathers 
being rather more than one inch short of the central ones ; 
and the tail-feathers generally are of a peculiar broad or squar- 
ish shape at the ends instead of being oval or slightly lan- 
ceolate as in Dumeticoia. 

Jt is worthy of note that there are really twelve feathers 
in the tail, but the outer pair are only seen when the long 
under tail-coverts are lifted up, which accounts for the bird 
having been originally described as having only ten. 

4. — The feathers on the forehead are stiff and strong, which 
is a characteristic not possessed by Dumeticoia. 

Schomicola is not unlike Bradyptetus, but the latter has a 
slender straight bill, much compressed at the sides, and the 
rictal bristles are very fine and hardly observable ; they are 
also straight. The tail of Bradyptetus, as far as I can ascer- 
tain from the specimens I have examined, has only ten feathers. 
It is not so strongly graduated as in Schcenicola, the outer 
feathers being about half an inch short of the tip. The wing 
of Bradyptetus is very close to that of Schcenicola, and in the 
full soft body plumage, and the broad ample tail, the two genera 
are much alike, as indeed, they also are to Dumeticoia. 

A remarkable peculiarity in S. platyura is the very long 
slender foot, compared with the size of the bird. This long 
foot, with such slender toes and small claws, is, I think, some- 
what distinctive of Schcenicola. 

Looked at in a good light, the whole back and upper tail- 
coverts are cross rayed, the bars being at narrower intervals 
than on the tail. The upper surface of the bird is quite as 
red, and of a richer tone than in Tribura luteoventris ; below 
it is quite as red a bird, but with a less amount of central 
albescent or fulvous white than in that species. This central 
whitish patch is interrupted by the light reddish brown across 
the breast. The lower tail-coverts are pale, slightly reddish 
brown, and have much lighter edges. The central ones are 
about '85 short of the tip of the tail. 

There is the usual small sylvine notch at end of the upper 
mandible. 

The Editor has shown that Dumeticoia was founded upon an 
Acrocephalus, and as there is really no structural difference 
between Tribura and the birds we have hitherto termed Dume- 
ticoia, he proposes using the term Tribura for the whole lot. 
I think this decision is a very correct one, and much better 
than inventing a new generic term. There is a rather stronger 
development of first primary in Tribura, and it is said never 
to be spotted, but these differences are not important. We 
have both spotted and unspotted Turdus, and one Locustella is 



A FEW REMARKS ON SCHCENICOLA PLATYURA. 211 

spotted below, while another is quite plain. In some of the 
Phylloscopi the first primary is very small, while in others it is 
largely developed. Tribura will, therefore, do very well for 
all the group, whether spotted or unspotted. 

I forgot to note in the proper place that the cross bars on 
the under side of the tail of S. platyura are most remarkable. 
They are exceedingly bold and of a blackish brown, far more 
distinct than the bars on upper surface of tail. The tail 
feathers are not pale tipped as in some Locustellas. 



[Note by the Editor. — On the whole I have come to the con- 
clusion that Schcenicola platyura may reasonably be retained 
in a genus of its own. It is very close to the group of birds 
that we formerly called Dumeticola, and to which I later extend- 
ed the term Schcenicola, but still there is a difference in the bill 
(a slight one, but still appreciable), and a clear difference in the 
strong rictal bristles and long foot and ample much graduated tail. 
Tribura j therefore, appears to me now to be the proper term to 
apply to the olim, Dumeticola group, as most certainly what- 
ever may be said about Schcenicola platyura there is no valid 
generic distinction between Dumeticola affinis and Tribura 
luteoventris. 

The following additional information about Schcenicola pla- 
tyura, received recently (in lit.) from Mr. Frank Bourdillon, 
will be interesting to all who are concerned with this trouble- 
some group : — 

" Last week, April 17th, I made an expedition to the Cola- 
thoorpolay Patnas" (you will possibly be able to recall the 
name) in search of more Schcenicolas. I was only there two 
days, and on the second I was fortunate enough to bag three 
specimens. They are funuy little birds and difficult to collect 
(at least without blowing them to bits), for they skulk in long 
grass and brushwood at the edges of forest, and only appear 
for a second or two at the very muzzle of one's gun. 

" I found that very early in the morning, and late in the 
evening, when there was barely enough light to see them at 
20 yards, they were less shy, and would take short flights or 
sit warbling on a bare rock, somewhat as Corydalla rufula, does 
in the middle of the day. Their song is a pleasing, but very 
feeble warble, which also contains one or two harsh notes. In 
flight they appear much overweighted by their broad and long 
tails, and the way in which they hurl themselves out of a tuft 
of grass at one's feet to drop suddenly into another just before 
one can bring the gun to bear on them is quite annoying. In 
covert their comparatively long and strong legs enable them 
to run and creep about with great activity. 



212 NOTES ON THE NIDIFICATION OF CERTAIN SPECIES IN 

" The following are the measurements recorded in the flesh of 
the three Schcenicolas 1 secured: — 

(a).— Male, (breeding).— Length, 6*19 ; extent, 8-06; wing, 
2-62 ; tail, 25 ; tarsus, 0-84 ; bill, 0'6 ; at front, 0'43. 

(b).-Male, (breeding).— Length, 6*75 ; extent, 8'25 ; wing, 
2'62 ; tail, 2-5 ; tarsus, 0-81 ; bill, 0-62; at front, 0'43. 

(c).— Female, (not breeding). — Length, 6'19; extent, 8*06; 
wing, 2*5 ; tail, 2-43; tarsus, 087 ; bill, 0*6 ; at front, 047. 

" Irides pale clay brown ; bill above plumbeous, below pale 
horny white ; legs, feet, and claws pale brownish. 

"Although some of the birds were obviously breeding, I 
unfortunately failed to discover a nest/'] 



Sotes on ifa Utdtjkattcn of mimx nptit* hx tfa ntiajx- 
bonvhooi of dfhaman, #, Jiftjktttsiam 

By H. E. Barnes. 

Chaman, as most of my readers already know, is situated on 
the Kandahar side, and at the base of a range of mountains 
known as the Khoja Amran, and has been selected as a post 
to guard the entrance to the Khojak Pass between Quetta and 
Kandahar. The fort is situated within half a mile of, and 
nearly opposite to, the entrance to this pass ; — in fact from the 
fort itself the numerous windings of the ascent dotted here 
and there with strings of camels laden with Commissariat 
supplies, &c.j are visible to a great distance. East and south- 
east of Chaman the range is continued, and to the north lies 
an immense sandy plain covered with stunted shrubs and 
southernwood (Artermsia Sp.), and, here and there, where rocks 
occur, boasting a sprinkling of puny trees known as the 
" Wun," a species of Pistacia which covers the mountain 
heights and fills the innumerable ravines of the Amran range 
growing, in these situations, to a height of nearly thirty feet. 

The plain referred to is singularly level, and is only broken 
here and there, at rare intervals, by a few low rocks or sandy 
undulating ridges and dry water-courses. This semi-desert 
extends for nearly seventeen miles, and except the burying 
beetle, which infests the plains, a lizard which is as numerous, 
a few hares, foxes, chikara deer, and Corvus lawrencii, the 
Neophron, Pterocles arenarius et coronatus and Galerida cristata, 
the plrdn may be said to be devoid of animal life, while on the 
mountain ranges, which rise nearly perpendicularly in some 
places, and in others at a considerable angle, the presence of 
Magpies, Lammergeyers, Kestrels, Chukor, and Seesee, &c, 



THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF CHAMAN, S. AFGHANISTAN. 213 

makes one forget the perils and dangers of a ramble, and the 
prohibitive order which forbids British residents to stray outside 
the camp. 

On my arrival here during winter, I was much struck with 
the paucity of bird-life, although in Beloochistan, outside of 
and in the Bolan, birds were not uncommon, especially those 
species found also in Sind. 

Amongst the hills in the vicinity of Chaman, the only 
species that I met with during November were — Caccabis 
chukar, Ammoperdix bon/tami, Pica ruslica, and Wagtails 
of several species ; while on the plains, Galerida cristata, Passer 
montanus, Corvus lawrencii, the Lammergeyer, Pterocles 
arenarius and Columba livia were also common. 

About the latter end of January we experienced a succession 
of severe snow-storms, and many birds were in consequence 
driven do"wn from the hills, amongst which I noticed the Indian 
Cushat {Pal. casiotis) in large flocks, Tardus atrogularis, 
evidently in course of migration to a more congenial clime, as 
well as Hirundo rustica in small parties, and Saxlcola deserti. 

As the weather became warmer, the Scavenger Vulture 
{Neophron percnopterus) appeared in small numbers, also a 
Milvus, which I cannot myself determine, but which I am 
confident is neither gomnda nor major vel melanotic. For 
affinis it is much too large ; it does not bear the white wing 
patch said to be so conspicuous in major, nor is the wing 
mottled as in govinda. 

The plumage of the lower parts is of a dark rufous color, 
each feather having a dark central streak ; the wing lining is 
similar, and so are the thigh coverts and flanks ; the outer webs of 
quills are nearly black ; the inner web of a greyish brown, 
transversely barred darker ; scapulars edged with rufous. 

The crown of the head is yellowish brown, with dark central 
streaks to each feather. 

These characteristics are of course not present in any of the 
species of Milviuse known in India. 

In April, Hawks and Falcons began to show themselves, and 
the most numerous were — LitJiofalco eesalon, Cerchneis tinnun- 
culus and Accipter nisus. Marsh Harriers, too, arrived about 
the same time, and Circus swainsoni and cyaneus were also 
obtained by myself and friends in our rambles over and across 
the Khojak. Saxicola picata et isabellina were also common. 
Lanius lahtora, erythronotus et vittatus were the only Shrikes 
seen. Cyanecula suecica, with Budytes melanocephala, citreola 
et calcaratus were found in some numbers along the streams. 

The following notes are most incomplete I feel ; but my 
leisure is too limited to permit my doing justice to the subject 



214 NOTES ON THE NIDIFICATION OF CERTAIN SPECIES IN 

at present, and I cannot pretend now to do more than refer 
briefly to those thirty-one species that I kuow to breed here. 



1. — Vultur monachus, Lin. 

Is fairly common and breeds on the Khojak. A full fledg- 
ed young" one was brought in about the end of May, and 
was stated to have been taken from a nest on the edge of a 
cliff at Morgha Chaman, about 16 miles north-east from here. 

Unfortunately it only lived for a month. 

6 bis.— Neophron percnopterus,* Linn. 

The Scavenger Vulture is common, but I did not observe it 
before the end of February. 

It generally builds in trees, and by the end of April the 
young are hatched. 

7.— Gypaetus barbatus, Lin. 

The eggs I have of the Lammergeyer are not, I regret to 
say, well authenticated ; but I have myself no doubt that they 
belong to this species. They were brought in to me by friendly 
Afghans, who said that only a single egg was found in each 
nest, and described the eyries as being in almost inaccessible 
places on the highest peaks of the Khojak. The eyries being 
at a considerable distance from here, I was unable, owing to 
the disturbed state of the country, to go personally and see 
for myself. In fact, camp orders prevented my wandering so 
far beyond our limits. 

7.— Cerchneis tinnunculus, Lin. 

The Lark Kestrel is very common, but I did not observe it 
until March. The first eggs found were taken from a deserted 
Magpie's nest (P. rustica). They resemble those of Falco 
chiquera, of which I have taken many near Deesa. 

The eggs, of which I possess a large series, average, 14 
by 12. 

42 — Haliaetus leucoryphus, Tall. 

An egg, supposed to belong to this species, was brought to me 
on the 18th March. The nest was a huge structure composed 
of sticks, and was unlined. 

It is oval in shape, pure white, and measures 3" by 2*28." 

* Specimens received from Quetta and Kandahar show that it is this species and not 
N. ginginianus that occurs there. — Ed. S., F. 



THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF CHAMAN, S. AFGHANISTAN. 215 

? 56 quat.— Milvus migrans, Bodd. 

The Kite, which has so puzzled me, vide remarks above, 
has been identified by Mr. Murray as M. migrans. I cannot 
of course vouch for the correctness of this identification. 
This species, whatever its real name, breeds towards the latter 
end of March and the commencement of April, and neither 
eggs nor nests can be distinguished from those of its relative 
M. govinda. 

The eggs measure about 2*2" by 1-75." 

76 ter.— Carine bactriana, Hutt. 

I found two young birds of a species which I identify as 
above on the 3rd J une, in a hole in a tree, about nine feet from 
the ground. I cannot be certain of the identification, but I 
shot the parent birds, and they will be identified later by the 
Editor. 

82.— Hirundo rustica, Lin. 

The Chimney Swallow is not uncommon ; still they do not 
occur in such numbers as they do in Kandahar, where almost 
every out-house contains nests. They breed in May. I found 
two nests affixed to the roof of a " Landy" used as a native 
hospital. One contained three young birds, and the other 
three eggs, spotted not unlike those of Hirundo filif era ; one 
egg was pure white. 

They measure '72 by "5. 

Ill Us.— Caprimulgus unwini, Hume. 

Not uncommon, and breeds in May, as I obtained a younor 
bird barely able to fly about the end of that month. 

121.— Merops apiaster, Lin. 

The European Bee-eater is very common, especially on the 
hills about the end of April. I have not been able to find a 
nest, but I feel certain they breed somewhere about the hills. 
On dissecting several females at the end of May, I found 
the ovaries well developed, and containing eggs larger than 
peas. This, coupled with the fact that they are still common 
(July), convinces me that the birds breed here ; but up to the 
present time not a single nest has been found, nor are any 
holes seen anywhere in the vicinity, where the birds appear 
most numerous. 

? 158.— Picus scindianus, Gould. 

The Sind Woodpecker is very common and breeds during 
April and Ma}*-. I have not succeeded in obtaining eggs, but I 



216 NOTES ON THE NIDIFICATION OF CERTAIN SPECIES IN 

found a nest containing three young birds on the 6th May — one 
of which I kept and have succeeded in rearing. 

248 quint.— Sitta neumayeri, Mich. 

This Nuthatch is very common on the hills. It appears to 
choose very different localities to build in. In some instances 
a hole in the face of a rock is selected, and this it lines with 
agglutinated mud and resin, continuing the lining case until 
it projects in the shape of a cone to fully eight inches. It seems 
fond of decorating its little palace with feathers to a distance 
of two or even three feet, and is thus a conspicuous object ; 
but most nests are found in holes in trees, and even here 
feathers are stuck into crevices all around. They are usually 
well lined with camel's hair. 

They breed in March and April. The eggs are usually four in 
number (I have sometimes found five), are oval in shape, more 
or less glossy white, and more or less densely or sparsely 
(generally most densely towards the large end) spotted and 
blotched, with varying shades of chestnut to reddish brown, 
more or less intermingled with pale purple and occasionally 
purplish grey. Some eggs are very richly marked. Some 
are almost pure white. They average 0-87 by 0'57. 

254.— Upupa epops, Lin. 

The European Hoopoe arrives during March, and commences 
to breed soon after. I have been very unfortunate in pro- 
curing eggs, although I have many times found young birds. 
All the nests I have examined have been in holes in trees, 
slightly cleared out by the birds, and all having an offensive 
smell. 

The only egg I have was obtained in a peculiar manner, but 
in such a way as to leave no doubt of its identity. An Afghan 
found a nest containing three eggs, which he accidentally broke ; 
he caught the parent bird which, strange to say, laid another 
egg in his hand. I confined the bird in a cage, hoping she 
would lay again, but during the night she escaped. The egg 
is a very pale skim milk-blue, nearly white, rather rough and 
chalky in texture and oval in shape. 

25@.— Lanius lahtora, Sykes. 

The Grey-Backed Shrike is extremely common, breeding 
about the end of March, in much the same situations as in 
India. I have collected many specimens, and failed to detect any 
difference between the Indian species and that found here. Of a 
large series, the average of 12 is *97 by '75. 



THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF CHAMAN, S. AFGHANISTAN. 217 

278.— Buchanga atra, Eerm. 

The King Crow is very uncommon. I only saw one specimen — 
a male. Its testes were abnormally large, showing that it was 
breeding. I searched for its mate, but without success. 
Possibly further in the hills they are more common. 

489.— Saxicola picatus, Blyth. 

The Pied Stone-Chat arrives early in March. The first nest 
was found on the 20th of that month ; it was built in a hole in 
a tree, and was composed of dry grass, lined with feathers, and 
contained four eggs of a very delicate greenish blue tint, 
obsoletely speckled with rusty brown or pale brownish red at 
the larger end, where the markings form an irregular zone.* 
A few specks of the same colour are scattered over the rest of 
the surface of the egg. The average of 12 eggs is '81 by -56. 

491.— Saxicola isabellinus, Ritpp. 

The Desert Stone-Chat, if not a permanent resident, at least 
arrives much earlier than its congeners. 

I have not been able to find a nest, although I have spent 
many an hour searching for them. That they do breed here is 
quite certain, as an Afghan brought in a young one for sale 
about the end of March, but I could not extract any informa- 
tion from him ; he could not talk Hindustani, and my Pushtoo 
is very weak. 

645.— Parus nipalensis, Eodgs. 

This Tit i3 very common, and remains with us all the year 
round. I found a nest on the 10th April, built in a hole in a tree ; 
the nest was composed entirely of sheep's wool ; it contained 
three incubated eggs, white, with light red blotches, formino- a 
zone at the larger end. They measured *69 by *48. 

550 Us.— Scotocerca inquieta, Hupp. 

These birds are quite common about here on the plains, 
but I have not observed them on^the hills. They commence 
breeding towards the end of March ; the nest is globular in 
shape, not unlike that of Franklinia buchanani, but somewhat 
larger, built invariably in stunted bushes about two feet from 
the ground. It is well lined with feathers and fine grass, 
the outer portion being composed of fibres and coarse grass. 
The normal number of eggs is six. I have found less, but 
never more, and whenever a lesser number has been taken 
they always proved to be fresh laid. 

* I. have taken eggs of Cercomela fusca at Aboo, very similar to these.— H. E. B. 

28 



218 NOTES ON THE NIDIFICATION OF CERTAIN SPECIES IN 

The eggs are oval in shape, white, with a pinkish tinge when 
fresh, very minutely spotted and speckled with light red, most 
densely at the larger end. The average of twelve eggs is *62 
by -43. 

668 Us.— Pica rustica, Scop. 

The Magpie is not uncommon in the hills, wherever there 
are trees, but it seldom descends to the plains. They com- 
mence breeding in March, in which month and April I have 
examined scores of nests, which in every case were built in 
the " Wun/' a species of Pistacia — the only tree found here- 
abouts. A stout fork near the top is usually selected. 

The nest is shallow and cup-shaped, with a superstructure of 
twigs, forming a canopy over the egg cavity. The eggs, generally 
five in number, are of the usual corvine green, blotched, spotted, 
and streaked, as a rule, most densely about the large end with 
umber mingled with sepia brown. The average of thirty 
eggs is 1*25 by '97. 

706.— Passer domesticus, Lin. 

The Common Sparrow is ubiquitous in the summer ; in winter 
not one is to be seen. 

I shall merely note the fact that it breeds here. 

710.— Passer montanus, Lin. 

The Tree Sparrow is a resident, and occurs, especially in the 
cold weather, in great numbers ; but as the weather gets warmer 
it is not noticed so often, retiring probably further into the hills 
to breed. I have only succeeded in obtaining a single egg, and 
this was taken from a hole in a tree. This ess does not differ 
much from that of Passer domesticus. 

716.— Emberiza buchanani, Blyth. 

Is very common, appearing in the plains about March, but 
they retire to the hills in May, when I believe they breed, 
although I have been unable to verify the fact. But the testes 
of the males and ovaries of the females are much enlarged at 
this season. I found an empty nest at the foot of a stunted 
bush, which I believe to belong to this species. 

This was on the Khojak. 

784— Palumbus casiotis, Bp. 

I did not see the Indian Cushat until midwinter, when they 
appeared in vast flocks, and continued abundant until the 
commencement of June, when they retired to the hills and 
commenced breeding. The eggs are small for the size oi the 



THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF CIIAMAN, S. AFGHANISTAN. 219 

bird, only measuring 1*53 by 1*13. They are pure white, 
without the slightest tint of ivory, and are fairly glossy. 

794.— Turtur senegalensis, Lin. 

The Little Brown Dove is not very common during summer, 
and between October and March I did not see a single speci- 
men. I found them breeding in May. 

796.— Turtur risorius, Lin. 

The Common Ring Dove arrives about the second week 
in March, and breeds during May, at which time they literally 
swarm. 

799.— Pterocles arenarius, Tall. 

The Large Sand Grouse is very common. I found them 
breeding in May. The eggs, three in number, are, as regards 
shape and color, exact counterparts of those of Pterocles 
exustus, but are of course much larger. They average 1*8 
by 1-35. 

801.— Pterocles coronatus, Licht. 

The Coronetted Sand Grouse is not very common. I have 
only seen a single pair, which I shot, and from the spot where 
I flushed them I found three eggs, so hard set as to be unfit 
for specimens. They measured 1*5 by 1'06. 

820.— Caccabis chukar, Gray. 

The Chukor is very common on the hills, and in the nullahs 
at their base, but is rarely seen far out on to the plains. 
They commence to breed about the end of March, or early 
in April. There is no nest; the eggs are deposited on the 
ground in a depression under a bush. I have never found 
more than eight eggs, but the Afghans assert that they often 
lay 15 or 20. The eggs are somewhat peg-topped shaped, of 
a pale stony color, speckled and blotched with lavender brown. 
They average 1 '61 by 1*4. 

821.— Ammoperdix bonhami, Gray. 

The Seesee is not uncommon, but is not so often met with 
as the Chukor. It breeds at the same time and in precisely 
similar localities. 

The eggs are not unlike those of 0. pondiceriana, but 
scarcely as large. The average of 12 eggs is 1*36 by 1*1. 



220 ON A NEW SPECIES OF TR1BURA (DUMETICOLA.) 

855.— Lobivanellus indicus, Bodd. 

The Red Wattled Lapwing is rare owing to the scarcity of 
water. I have only noted two pairs, and have found but one 
nest, similar in all respects to those found in India ; it contained 
four eggs, hard set. 

This was on the 10th May. 



This is but a short list. Doubtless many other species would 
be found to breed here, were the neighbourhood to be thoroughly 
explored ; but it must be remembered that such collections 
as 1 have succeeded in making were got together under 
adverse conditions. That I worked in a time of war, when 
my legitimate and far more important duties left me but scant 
leisure, and when my nest-hunting rambles were rigidly limit- 
ed by necessary camp regulations. 



<§n a new species of W rihura (fmnetkota). 

By Eugene W. Oates. 

And note on the same, 
By W. Edwin Brooks. 



Dumeticola intermedia, Sp. Nov. 

Description, Male. — Whole upper plumage olive-brown, tinged 
with rufescent, and more strongly so on crown of head, wings, 
and tail ; tail indistinctly cross rayed in most examples, and 
very conspicuously so in some ; a distinct ■ greyish white 
supercilium ; chin, throat, and ceutre of abdomen dull white ; 
breast pale ochraceous brown, becoming darker on the flanks ; 
under tail-coverts pale brownish, broadly edged and tipped 
with dull white ; under wing-coverts bright pale brownish 
white ; tail feathers, when perfect, with light greyish brown 
tips, not abrupt and well defined as in Locustella certhiola, but 
blending into the colour of the tail. 

Five other examples, all males,, agree with the above descrip- 
tion. Two other males differ only in having a few small, faint 
and rather cloudy brown spots on the lower throat ; a ninth 
male has similar throat spots, but the whole lower plumage is 
suffused with dull buffy yellow ; the supercilium is also of this 
colour. 

The tenth, a female, has chin, throat, breast, and centre of 
abdomen, a uniform dull buffy yellow ; supercilium, cheeks, 



ON A NEW SPECIES OF TR1BURA (DUMETICOLA.) 221 

and sides of neck, the same, but more dusky ; sides of breast 
and flanks yellowish, but washed with dusky ; in other respects 
like the males ; all have the cheeks slightly mottled with pale 
brown. This is the case with all Reed Warblers and Locustelles. 

The total length of one male was 5*55 ; expanse, 69 ; tail, 
2'4 ; wing, 2-18; tarsus, "78 ; bill from gape, *65. The tail is 
much graduated, and the feathers are shaped as in Locwlella. 
The outer pair fall short of the tips of the central pair by TO, 
the next pairs successively by "6, *4, '2, and '1. The first 
primary is *5 long, with the inner web slightly sinuate towards 
the end ; the third primary appears slightly the longest, the 
fourth and fifth almost equal to it, but the latter a shade the 
shortest ; the second *3, and the sixth '1 short of end of wing; 
the second is equal to the eighth or ninth. 

My friend Mr. Brooks ; to whom I submitted my specimens, 
assures me that intermedia differs from all the allied species 
with which he is acquainted, and urges its description as new. 
He has kindly promised to add a note to this paper stating in 
what respects the new bird differs from some others of the 
genus. 

This bird frequents scrub jungle on the banks of the Pegu 
river, two miles above the Canal Lock. It was the only 
locality where it was met with, and ten specimens were shot 
between the 22nd December and 23rd February, after which 
date no more were procured, though careful search was made 
for them. They run on the ground, and consort with Locustella 
lanceolata. 

The habits of both appear to be very similar. Both have a 
somewhat similar low note, by which alone they can be found. 
They run on the ground between the tufts of grass and low 
bushes, and are seen with the greatest difficulty. 



Note by W. E. Brooks. 



The colour of the upper surface is somewhat like that of 
Acrocephalus dumetorum, but much more inclined to reddish ; 
but it is not so rufous as in Acrocephalus ugricolus. But for 
the Locustelle-like, pale-tipped, lower tail-coverts, this bird 
might almost have been taken for a Reed Warbler of the 
phragmitis type ; but it has a very much larger first primary 
than that species. This first, or bastard primary, is, however, 
much of the same size and shape as that of Acrocephalus 
bistrigiceps ; the bill is also similar in form to that of bistrigi- 
ceps, but longer and more compressed at the sides, like 
Locustella and Dumeticola. The form of the wing is that of 
Dameticola, but with a slightly smaller first primary. This 



222 ON A NEW SPECIES OF TRIBURA (dUMETICOLA.) 



first primary is much too large for Locustella, and we have 
not the streaked Locustella upper plumage. As therefore style 
of coloration, and especially the bordered lower tail-coverts, 
the shape of the bill, the legs and feet, the wing and tail, and 
the long upper and lower tail-coverts, all agree with Dumeticola, 
I think it should stand in that genus. Mr. Hume has shewn 
that the type of the genus is strepera, which is a true Acroce- 
phalus, and he proposes to place all the Dumeticola group in 
Schcenicola. I think this is a mistake, for the following reason : 
Schcenicola platyura, Jerdon, is said to be a Timaline bird 
with only ten tail feathers,* and its bill is described as rather 
stout. I have not seen it myself, but only go by a sketch of 
Pr. Jerdon's, his description and Mr. Hume's in Stray 
Feathers, Vol. VII., pp. 37, 38. If Schcenicola platyura be 
a Timaline bird with only ten tail feathers, our birds with 
twelve, and very close to Locustella and Acrocephalus, cannot 
be placed in its genus. For my own part, I think a new 
generic term is wanted instead of Dumeticola. 

I measured Mr. Oates's ten examples, and as a few measure- 
ments may be useful I give them : — 



No. 


Sex. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Bill at 
Front. 


Tarsus. 


Remarks. 


1 


Male... 


2-15 


230 


•45 


•75 




2 


)» • •• 


217 


2-22 


•43 


■75 




3 




212 


230 


•45 


•75 




4 


„ ... 


2-02 


2-20 


•43 


•75 




5 


!» 


2-05 


220 


•43 


•75 


Slightly yellow below. 


6 


Female. 


214 


2-17 


•43 


•75 


Yellow below. 


7 


Male... 


204 


212 


•45 


•75 


[Note. — This is a buffy yellow 


8 




2-10 


215 


•45 


•75 


like that of L. hendersoni in 


9 


» •• 


208 


215 


.43 


•75 


fresh moulted plumage, and not 


10 




208 


2-08 


'45 


•75 


the reddish ochraceous yellow 
of Tribura luteoventris.j 















In colour of upper surface this bird is of a reddish brown, 
slightly tinged with olive on the back. It is not nearly such 
a dark rufous brown as Dumeticola affinis, but as before 
observed, somewhat resembles the upper surface colour of 
Acrocephalus dumetorum, only more rufous, especially on wings, 
tail, and crown of head. B. major is of a much greyer brown 
than the new bird. It is in fact an intermediate bird, both as 
regards size and colour, between major and affmis ; and hence 
its name. The bill is about as much longer than that of ajjinis 
as it is shorter than that of major ; in other respects major 

* This is a mistake. I have since had an opportunity of examining Mr. Hume's 
specimen of this species, and have recorded a separate note on it, vide supra pp. 209-11. 
— W. E. B. -. '• 



ON A NEW SPECIES OF TRIBURA (DUMETICOLA.) 223 

and intermedia appear to be much of the same size. As in 
the case of major, it is comparatively a short winged bird with 
reference to its total length. Although one total length is on 
record, I think this species will, as a rule, average fully 6 
inches. The lower surface is very similar to that of major, 
and considerably lighter than in affinis. As in affinis and 
major, the tail is cross-rayed, but more conspicuously so than 
in those two. The sides of the head, including the cheeks, 
are very like those of major, but more tinged with rufous. 
Some examples have a few minute cloudy pale brown spots on the 
upper breast, similar to those of major, but much less conspi- 
cuous and fewer in number. The bill is more slender, compres- 
sed at sides towards tip, and straighter on culmen than in ajjinis. 

This species cannot be mistaken for D. mandellii, which is a 
much closer ally of D. ajjinis, and even more decidedly rufous, 
approaching D. luieoventris [Tribura lutteoventrn). 

I have endeavoured to be particular in comparative differ- 
ences, as one description, apart from dimensions, would almost 
apply to ajjinis, major, mandellii, luieoventris, and intermedia. 
All are reddish brown above, greyish white below, with pale 
brown on sides of breast and flanks ; the latter, however, very 
reddish in luieoventris. Except luieoventris, all are sometimes 
plain and sometimes spotted on the throat or upper breast. 
D. major is well distinguished by its long bill ; but with 
regard to the others, no one would be able to identify surely 
any one of them by the best description that could be written. 
They must be seen and compared to understand them. The 
same remark may be made with regard to Phylloscopus, where I 
have seen the most amusing mistakes made by very careful men. 

P. S. — The Editor, before publishing this note, desired to see 
a specimen of the new species, and on receipt of a single and 
not very typical example of D. intermedia, expressed doubts 
as to whether it was properly separable from Tribura luieoven- 
tris, of which, by the way, I had had no specimens to compare 
it with. 

Mr. Gates, having again sent up the type and another speci- 
men, I have carefully recompared these with Mr. Hume's series 
of luieoventris, and can now say that closely-allied as the two 
species undoubtedly are, the latter is always so much more 
rufous in tone as to be fairly separable by colour alone, apart 
from the fact that the bill of intermedia is somewhat longer, 
as a rule, than that of luieoventris. 

As I rely a good deal upon the great difference of plumage, 
it may be well to note that all the specimens of intermedia 
were collected in the cold season, when as yet there can have 
been but little weathering or fading of the plnmage. 



224 ON A NEW SPECIES OF TRIBURA (DUMETICOLA.) 

The Editor considers it ad visible, for the reasons stated, S. F., 
VII., 37, to drop the name Bumeticola altogether, and is 
further disposed, agreeing with me, to restrict the name 
Schcenicola to platyura, and to use the name Tribura for all the 
birds hitherto classed by me as Dumeticola and by him as 
Schcenicola as well as for luteoventris. As these birds are all 
really congeneric, I am inclined to agree, and the new bird 
should therefore stand as Tribura intermedia, Oates. 

Note by the Editor. 

I am disposed to agree with Mr. Brooks. I have only seen 
three specimens of T. intermedia, but these though structurally 
very close to T. luteoventris, appear to differ from this 
latter so persistently in colour, and I think, sex for sex, in 
length of bill as to be specifically separable. 

We all know how birds of this class fade between the 
autumnal moult and the end of the breeding season ; and it 
might occur to some that intermedia was only the pale, non- 
rufous summer plumage of luteoventris. There is not much 
more difference between them than there is between the sum- 
mer or terricolor, and winter or longicaudata, plumages of 
Drymaeca inornata. But then we have a good series of T. 
luteoventris, including a female shot in May off her eggs, and 
this summer plumage, though far less rich and deep than that 
of the end of October, is still altogether more rufous in tone than 
that of intermedia killed in January. So different, that con- 
sidering the seasons at which the specimens were collected, 
it is impossible at present not to consider the two distinct, 
though very closely allied and representative species. 

Another point of considerable importance is that in one or 
two of the brightest colored intermedia, the lower surfaces were 
yellow, but this yellow, Mr. Brooks tells me, (I have not myself 
seen these specimens) was the clear buffy yellow of spring 
Locusiella hcndersoni and lanceolata, and not at all the rufous 
or ferruginous yellow of luteoventris. 

On the whole luteoventris is a bird so comparatively well 
known to me, and of which we have such a sufficient series, 
that we can say pretty certainly within what limits it normally 
varies ; and although one can never speak certainly as to the 
tone of plumage which a single sickly bird may assume — and I 
therefore hesitated to accept intermedia on the faith of a single 
specimen, having now seen three all alike and having obtained 
a positive assurance that all ten specimens were alike as 
regards general tone — I am quite prepared to admit Tribura 
inte^Ma as prim a facie a good species. 



225 



JMUtiima! Jtote <m %\mmw thmo-zM ox MixoM* 
and gtowax Uxxhohx. 

By W. E. Brooks. 



I have had an opportunity of examining the large series of 
these birds in my friend's, the Editor's, museum ; and, although 
the two are very closely affined, still I think they are separable. 

The following are the points of difference worthy of 
notice : — 

1. Cinereo-alba has a somewhat shorter bill ; it is also 
slightly wider at base, and generally its outline, when looked 
upon from above, is more bulged or slightly convex at the 
sides than that of terricolor, which latter has the sides of the 
bill almost straight. 

2. The bill is very black above in cinereo-alba, and the black 
on the apical portion of the lower mandible is most striking, 
and extends about half way towards the base ; this black is 
replaced by pale brown in terricolor, and this brown is of less 
extent. 

The upper mandible of terricolor is generally much paler, 
and frequently only an ordinary rather light brown. 

3. As a rule, cinereo-alba has a decidedly shorter tail, from 
one-eighth to one-quarter of an inch. 

4. Upper plumage of cinereo-alba, as a rule, is darker and 
greyer. The white of lower surface purer, and the dusky 
across the breast is greyer in cinereo-alba, and browner in 
terricolor. 

5. The first primary of cinereo-alba is shorter, as a rule, 
and more pointed than in terricolor. In both species, however, 
the size of this little feather is variable, and especially so in 
cinereo-alba. I would not attach so much importance to this 
distinction, but still it is worthy of notice and is sometimes of 
assistance. 

I think the superior blackness of the lower mandible, and 
the great extent of this blackness, together with the almost 
invariably shorter tail in cinereo-alba, are very good distinctions, 
and might be taken as conclusive, when we only get the paler 
billed and longer tailed bird in the northern parts of India. 
I have seen one or two South Indian examples referable to 
cinereo-alba, and some of the Burmese examples appear to 
be referable to terricolor ; but terricolor appears to be as scarce 
in the east as the other is rare in the west. 

The young birds of each are more difficult to separate than 
the older birds, being similarly pale toned, the bill often 
included. 

29 



226 NOTES. 

I have so very often observed the black bill and the short 
tail in eastern examples, that I cannot resist the conclusion 
that it is a distinct species from terricolor. 

Further observation as to notes, nests, and eggs may throw 
some light on the subject. 

Note by the Editor. — I cannot agree with Mr. Brooks as 
to there being two species. As to size and shape of bill and 
first primary, this is equally variable in both supposed forms. 
As to the supposed difference in the length of the tails, I 
cannot convince myself that it is real. I entirely agree that 
two types may be selected — one altogether greyer, with black 
legs and feet and black bill, and the terminal portion of the 
lower mandible black {cinereo-alba) ; and the other altogether 
browner, with brown legs and feet, and brown bill and very 
little brown even at the tip of the lower mandible (terricolor). 

But I notice that every reliably typical cinereo-alba, in my 
large series from the Malay Peninsula, Tenasserim, Burma, 
all parts of India and Ceylon, (and I have both forms from 
all these localities) was killed in November, December, January, 
or February, and every typical terricolor in April to October, 
and I myself have no doubt whatsoever that the former is the 
winter, and the latter the summer plumage, though there are 
no doubt several puzzling February, March, and April birds, 
which might belong to either form, and which show that all the 
birds do not change their tone of plumage synchroniously, and 
that some remain grey long after others have turned brown. 

At the same time I have failed to meet with a single 
" terricolor" killed in December or January, or a single 
'• cinereo-alba" killed in May, June or July. 

A. 0. H. 



fj0t*S. 



I have, lying by me, four or five large cases containing 
between 2,000 and 3,000 rejected skins. Probably at least 600 
species are represented in this lot. 

Many are vile, all are indifferent specimens, too indifferent 
to offer aB exchanges (though worse have often been sold to me) 
or to retain in our museum. 

Although such poor specimens, they are quite good enough to 
enable any one to learn the species from them, or for compari-' 
son, or indeed for purposes of study. 

They are useless to me, but before throwing them away, I 
want to make sure that no one else who is working at ornitho- 
logy would like to have them. 



NOTES. 227 

If any one wants skins merely to learn by (tbey are all 
correctly named), I shall be delighted to send them out of this 
lot, one or two specimens of every species it contains. Only 
I will not be at any expense about them. Those who want them 
must pay the cost of their transit by bullock train to the 
Umballa Railway station, whence they can be sent bearing by 
Rail to any station indicated. 

If there should chance to be several applicants they will be 
served in the order in which their applications are received, and 
as the lot must contain single or at most two or three specimens 
only of many species, the later applicants will receive fewer 
species. 

Six weeks from the date of the issue of this notice, I shall 
destroy all the skins not applied for up to that date. 



[ HASTEN to draw attention to a fact that I have only just dis- 
covered, namely that my Suga albogularis, shot by Davison 
on the east coast of Acheen, Sumatra, in January 1873 (S. F., 
I., 459., 1873,) is apparently identical with Dr. Anderson's 
Sitya super ciliaris, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 212, procured at Momien 
in Yunan, and subsequently obtained by us on the higher slopes 
of Mooleyit in Tenasserim (S. F., VI., 350). 

Sumatra being outside our limits, I have never looked at my 
type from the day I described it, until the present time, when 
it occurred to me to see what the bird was like, and, directly 
I got it out, I recognized it. The only peculiarity of the 
Sumatran specimen is, that the cap is greyer, and that it en- 
tirely wants the peculiar black speckly streaky markings on 
the breast. It has, however, quite as strongly marked as the 
specimens which we identified as superciliaris, the grey mark- 
ings on the sides of the breast, which are not alluded to in Dr. 
Anderson's description, and of which no trace is shown in his 
plate (Yunan Expeditions, pi. 51). But then in his descrip- 
tion he tells us that the faintly-black-spotted breast is one of 
the distinguishing characters of the species, although no trace 
of this either is observable in the plate, so I attach no great 
importance to this omission, from both plate and description, 
of these rather conspicuous grey markings. The Mooleyit 
and Sumatran specimens are clearly identical, but it is just 
within the limits of possibility that they may represent a southern 
representative species, and may be distinguishable from super- 
ciliaris, but I do not think this likely, and the occurrence of 
this Momien bird in Mooleyit and Sumatra is interesting. 
Doubtless we shall later obtain it on some of the higher hills 
of the Malay Peninsula. 



228 NOTES. 

Comparing: a specimen of the true Burnesia gracilis collected 
by Canon Tristram at Genazareth, 9th March 1864, a male, with 
Indian specimens, of the same sex, killed at the same time of the 
year, of Burnesia lepida, I am compelled to agree with Mr. 
Brooks that they are just separable. In gracilis the bill is 
decidedly larger, the whole upper plumage is darker and browner, 
and the dark striations are slightly broader. But the most 
conspicuous difference is in the antepenultimate dark bars of 
the lateral tail feathers, which in gracilis are conspicuously 
broader, darker, and far better defined than in any of the 
numerous specimens of lepida in the museum. 

Of course it is necessary in the case of all birds of this 
class to compare birds killed at the same season of the year. 
In the winter the bills of lepida are pale, brownish horny 
above, yellowish horny below. In the summer they are 
black. In the early part of the winter the entire plumage is 
darker and browner, and it gradually fades and grows 
greyer and greyer until the close of the breeding season. 

Doubtless gracilis goes through precisely the same stages, 
yet the darkest and brownest November lepida is not by 
any means so dark or brown as this sixteen-year-old March 
specimen of gracilis. I cannot discover any difference in 
dimensions, or in wing formula, though, perhaps, the first 
primary of lepida may be a trifle larger. 



I Have received recently two more spcimens of Abrornis 
jerdoni, Brooks, from Mr. Cripps from near the eastern extremity 
of the valley of Assam. I have now four specimens, and 
entertain no doubts that it is a perfectly good and distinct 
species. 

To Captain Butler and Mr. Laird I am now indebted for 
specimens of Sturnia blythi, the validity of which species 
I formerly, erroneously, questioned. 

The essential difference between this species and malabarica 
has never, I think, been pointed out. 

It has been called the White-headed Mynah, and the 
whiteness of the head has always been insisted on as its 
distinguishing characteristic ; but this, as I formerly showed, 
is invalid. The heads of malabarica vary from French grey 
to a white, every bit as pure as that of blythi; the real difference 
lies in the breast, and the bird should be designated the 
White-breasted Tree Mynah. No matter how white the head, 
neck, and throat may be in malabarica, the breast is always, 
in adults, more or less rufous. Some of the elongated linear 
lanceolate throat plumes, often pure white, may overhang 



NOTES, 229 

the upper part of the breast, but none of the breast feathers 
themselves in adult malabarica are ever pure white. On the 
other hand in blythi, not only in adults, but in all fairly 
fully plumaged birds, the whole of the breast feathers are as 
pure white as th6 throat, and it is this whiteness of the entire 
breast in adults which constitutes the distinguishing charcteristic 
of the species. The white head will, no doubt, often suffice 
to separate blythi, but malabarica occur, though these are no 
doubt the exception, with just as white heads and the real 
diagnosis of the species consists in the white breast. 

Of the distinctness of the adults there can be no doubt ; nor 
when the whiteness of the breast is sufficiently attended to, can 
there be any difficulty in separating the adults of the two 
species. The quite young birds are, as far as I can judge, in- 
separable ; but malabarica, although when it first leaves the nest 
it is entirely sordid white underneath, soon begins to acquire 
some slight tinge of colour on the breast (and abdomen,) and 
directly this is the case it is separable from the young of blythi. 

But three-quarter grown specimens of blythi are in this res- 
pect apparently quite inseparable from some specimens of a like 
age of nemoricola, (which often have the breasts quite white,) 
when these, as is not unfrequently the case, especially in the 
females, show no white on the wing. When they show white on 
the wing they are of course at once separable, but when this 
is not the case, the birds are only to be separated by the almost 
entire absence, on the rump and upper tail-coverts of blythi, 
of the fulvous or rufous tinge which is almost always observable 
on those parts in birds of that age of nemoricola. 

I may add that if I doubted the authenticity of this species it 
is due to Jerdon having put forward specific characteristics, 
every one of which are invalid and having ignored the only 
valid one. He says (Must. Ind. Orn.) :— 

" It differs from the common Grey-headed Mynah in being 
larger in all its dimensions, in the colour of the head and neck, 
in the primaries not being tipped with grey, and in some other 
slight points." 

As a matter of fact, it is not larger than malabarica. The 
wings vary, as in that species, from about 3'75 to nearly 4*2, 
according to age and sex. In the colour of the head and 
neck it can be matched by many specimens of malabarica, and 
the primaries in the very finest adults, such as one kindly 
lent me to look at by Mr. Laird, are quite as conspicuously 
tipped with grey as those of malabarica. 

The real characteristic difference of the species consists in 
its white breast, and it should be called, henceforth, the White- 
breasted Tree Mynah. 



230 NOTES. 

Of late years, the range of Goisakius melanolophus within 
our limits has been found to be far more extended than was 
formerly supposed. 

Jerdon only seems to have known of it as from Malacca, 
Sumatra, and Japan, but Layard had long previously reported 
its occurrence in Ceylon. 

We procured it in the Nicobars, and later in Southern Tenas- 
serim, and all through the Malay Peninsula. Mr. Inglis sent it 
to us from Cachar. We obtained it near Dibrughur, in Assam, 
and Mr. Cripps sent it to us from near Sibsagar in that province. 
Mr Frank Bourdillon sent it to us from Southern Travancore, 
and now Mr. Laird has obtained it as far north in the Penin- 
sula of India astheBelgaum District, and to him I am indebted 
for the oldest and most perfect specimen I have yet seen. 

Probably this species is less rare, and more widely spread 
in zones of heavy rainfall, than has hitherto been suspected, it 
having escaped detection owing to its purely nocturnal habits. 



Mr. Dresser, in a recent number of the Birds of Europe, 
figures and describes Chcetura caudacuta, Latham {ciris of Pallas, 
and nudipes of Hodgson apud Dresser) with a broad white 
frontal band. The specimen he figures is said to have come 
from the Himalayas. 

It is curious that out of ten very fine adults of both 
sexes, sexed by dissection, from various localities in the 
Himalayas, namely Hazara, Cashmere, Kotegurh, Darjeeling, 
and native Sikkim, not one single specimen shows the smallest 
trace of this white band ; on the contrary the deep brown, 
glossed with green, runs down unbroken right to the bill. 
Moreover Hodgson, when he described his nudipes, made no 
mention of this white band. 

On the other hand every one of my Australian specimens shows 
the white band distinctly. 

I can discover no other constant difference between the two 
forms, but I suspect that the Asiatic and Australian forms 
are entitled to be kept distinct Mr. Dresser will be able to 
ascertain whether any undoubted Himalayan examples exhibit 
the white frontal band. 

I may notice here that Hirundo ciris, of Pallas, which Mr. 
Dresser quotes as a synonym of caudacuta, has nothing what- 
soever to do with this bird, as is obvious from Pallas' descrip- 
tion. 

" Corpus supra totum nigrum. Gula cinerea ; caeterum sub- 
tus nigra ; sed subcaudales ex albo-lutescentes, punctis nigria 
paucis. " 



NOTES. 231 

Clearly this cannot possibly apply to any specimen, old or 
young, of either caudacuta or nudipes. 

For the present Indian readers had better follow my list and 
retain our Indian birds as nudipes ; unless some extraordinary 
fatality has attended my collections, all the Himalayan birds 
belonging to one type, and all the Australian to another, the 
two forms are specifically separable. 

Mr. Dresser will probably be able to throw more light on 
the question. 

I have been trying to make out the two species Accipiter 
gularis, and virgatus. I find that gularis occurs in the Himalayas 
from Sikkim to Mussoorie, and that in this species the wings of 
males (nine specimens) vary from 7'6 to 7'8, while in the 
females ( eight specimens) they vary from 8'0 to 8*2 

The true virgatus also occurs in this same region, and also 
further west in the Himalayas, and throughout the entire 
Continent and Peninsula of India and Burmah and the 
Malay Peninsula. The bird is variable to a degree in size, but 
it never approaches gularis. I have only 26 specimens, but in 
these the wings of males vary from 575 in a tiny bird, appa- 
rently just out of the nest, from the Andamans, to 6*9 in an 
old adult obtained near Darjeeling, while the wings of females 
vary from 7 - in a very young Malayan specimen to 7'5 in 
the nearly adult ones from the same locality — 7'3 being an old 
adult female from the Andamans. 

When we come to Accipiter stevensoni, I feel that I am on 
very insecure ground, and I fear that I may not have identified 
the species correctly. My reason for doubting this is, that both 
Messrs. Gurney and Sharpe treat stevensoni as if it was a race 
of gularis and virgatus, whereas the birds that I have called 
stevensoni are distinguished at once from both these forms by the 
absence of the central gular stripe, which is exhibited by every 
single one of my forty-three examples of gularis and virgatus, 
old and young, and no trace of which appears in any of my 
supposed stevensoni, male, female or young, and no trace of 
which I may add, is shown in Mr. Gurney's original figure of 
this species (ibis, 1863. pi. XI), or that in P. Z. S. 1878, p. 936. 

In my stevensoni or supposed stevensoni, the wings vary 
from 6-4 to 67 in males, and 7-3 to 7*6 in females. 



I have admitted Hypolais pallida, Hemp, and Ehr., in our 
Indian list, but I am somewhat doubtful whether I have been 
ri^bt in this. Pallida does occur, I believe, in Western Belu- 
chistan, aud so would be included in our larger list, but 
the Sind birds, on the strength of which I admitted this 



232 NOTES. 

species to the Indian list, is not, I am now disposed to think, 
pallida, but rather abnormal rama. 

Comparing rama and pallida, the two birds are very close, 
the differences appear to consist mainly in — 

1st. — The somewhat superior size of pallida, the wing in 
which almost always exceeds 2*5, and runs to 2*65, while in 
rama the wing varies from 2*3 and rarely exceeds 2*45. This, 
however, is by no means a sufficient diagnosis as occasionally 
a rama has a wing of 2'5, and pallida (eliaca) a wing of less 
than this — still this is an indication. 

2nd. — Pallida has a smaller first primary and a longer 
step between the tip of this and the tip of the second primary 
than in rama. In rama this step is generally less than one 
inch ; in pallida it is generally over 1*1. 

3rd. — A slight difference in the wing formula, the second 
primary in pallida being apparently either equal to, or a little 
longer or shorter than the 6th primary, while in rama it is 
equal to, or a little longer or shorter than the 8th primary. 

As regards all other points — colour, bill, &c. — there is really 
no appreciable difference ; and according to Mr. Blanford, 
throughout Persia and Beluchistan, intermediate forms occur 
which he considers hybrids. I don't believe in the - hybrid 
theory, and I have grave doubts in my own mind as to whether 
pallida ought to be specificably separated. However, most 
ornithologists are agreed so to separate it. 

The re-discovert by Mr. Scrope B. Doig, C.E., on the 
Eastern Narra, Sindh, of Passer pyrrhonotus, Blyth, which has 
so long been considered a doubtful bird, is a most noteworthy 
event, and not amongst the least important results of that 
gentleman's earnest and intelligent labours in the cause of 
ornithology. 

Blyth's and Jerdon's descriptions are, to a certain extent, 
correct, and the bird is distinguishable at once from Passer 
domesticus by its very much smaller bill, which closely resem- 
bles that of Passer cinnamomeus, and by its tiny legs and feet. 
The only fault I have to find with the description is, that 
Blyth says of the male, " rump feathers dull maroon/' while 
Jerdon says, " a chestnut stripe from the eye to the nape, the 
rest of the plumage maroon," whereas in the specimen sent 
to me there is no maroon at all, the rufous being every- 
where chestnut, unicolorous with the stripe behind the ear. 
Except for the very small bill, legs, and feet, the bird is quite 
of the type of the common Sparrow, but it is everywhere very 
much smaller, and the following are the more conspicuous 
differences in the plumage. The grey of the crown is duller 
and more ashy ; the red patch behind the eye, the mantle, and 



NOTES. 233 

the rump are chestnut, not the maroon of the common 
Sparrow, and descending right to the lower tail-coverts. There 
is no black and no white band on the wing. The whole of 
the lesser and medium wing-coverts are chestnut, but the 
greater secondary and tertiary coverts and tertiaries, instead 
of being as in the common Sparrow, so broadly edged with 
rufous as in the closed wing, to leave scarcely any other 
colour visible, are, in pyrrhonotus, hair brown like the quills, 
narrowly margined with pale fulvous or whitey brown. 

The 2nd to the 6th or 7th primaries have the outer webs at 
the bases a dull white (not in the least fulvous), forming a 
distinct wing spot. On the interscapulary region there are a 
few black streaks similar to, but less strongly marked than in, 
the common Sparrow. There is the usual black throat stripe, 
but though the specimen sent was a breeding male, this stripe 
only occupies one-third of the breadth of the throat, instead 
of at least one-half, as in the common Sparrow, and does not, 
as in this latter, descend on to the breast ; the ear-coverts are 
a grey, with a dusky line dividing them from the chestnut of 
the side of the posterior part of the head. With these excep- 
tions the plumage of the male does not differ from that of the 
common Sparrow, but the total length cannot have exceeded 
4*8' against 6 5 in the common Sparrow; the wing is only 
2*6 against 3*0 to 3'2 in the common Sparrow; the tarsus, 
very slender, is 0'65 against, say, 0*75 to 0'8 in the common 
Sparrow, and the mid-toe and claw about 0*6 against 08 in 
domesticus; bill at front from margin of feathers 04, and 
therefore very little shorter than that of the common Sparrow, 
but very much more slender. 

The female similarly differs in the small feet and bill from 
the female of the common sparrow ; but the only specimen 
sent is so extremely indifferent, the bird being in moult to 
begin with, and having had at least half the feathers shot out, 
that I can only say that the plumage seems very close to that 
of female domesticus, but with less striation on the interscapu- 
lary region and a greyer crown, and that it appears also to 
show the white wing spot, which in the female, as in the male, 
domesticus is far less marked, and pale fulvous. 

Of the distinctness of this species there can be no doubt. 
It is none of the African Sparrows, castanopterus, motitensis, 
Sivainsoni, simplex, diffusus, &c, and it seems to be a 
thoroughly good species. How it is that it has for so long 
escaped notice, (the only specimen previously obtained having 
been procured fully forty years ago by Sir Alexander Burnes, at 
Bhawalpur,) we shall be better able to explain when we know 
more about the distribution of the bird. It is not impossibly 
an Arabian species which only comes to Sindh to breed, but we 



234 NOTES. 

must now wait for further particulars from Mr. Doig, who 
promises shortly a paper on the nidification of this and some 
other species. 

In the Ibis for 1871, at page 31, I noted a specimen of a 
young bird which I had obtained in Kumaon, and which the 
late Mr. Verreaux had pronounced to be the young of Rubecula 
ahahige. 

Recently re-examining this specimen I find that the bird in 
question is undoubtedly the young of Niltava sundara. Dr. 
Jerdon, it will be remembered, at the time considered that this 
was probably the young of some species of niltava, and I have 
no doubt now that the bird is really the young of Niltava 
sundara, as I have other similar specimens, the parentage of 
which is undoubted. 



Whilst this number was passing through the Press, I 
received from Captain Butler a female of Schcenicola platyura, 
vide ante, p. 209, killed by him at Belgaum. 

This bird was breeding, and he found the nest, but unfor- 
tunately it contained no eggs. The following are the particu- 
lars recorded by him : — 

Length, 675 ; expanse, 8'25 ; wing, 2-62 ; tail, 262 ; bill 
at front, 0'43 ; bill from gape, 0*69. Irides olive brown ; 
legs and feet fleshy brown ; bill brown above, fleshy below. 

This bird corresponds precisely, structurally, with the 
Travancore specimen, but being killed late in summer, its 
colour is everywhere much paler. Above, it is a dull, pale, rather 
light rufescent brown, almost as faded as a summer Eypolais 
caligata; but the transverse barrings on the upper surface of 
the tail come out stronger than in the earlier killed bird. 

The entire lower surface is white, everywhere, except on the 
throat, tinged with fulvous fawn, a little darker, and with a 
faint olive tinge on the flanks. 

We thus have this species now, recorded from Southern 
Travancore by Mr. Bourdillon, in about 8° N. Lat., from the 
Goodalore Ghat leading down from the Nilgiris to the 
Wynaad in about ll ,o 30", and from Belgaum in about 60° 
N. Lat. all along the west coast. 

The question now arises, can this be an African species ? 
I have not the time or materials for working this out myself 
thoroughly ; but the peculiar strong rictal bristles, the long 
slender feet, and the strong barring on the tail ought to render 
the comparison with African birds of the same type easy. 
Provisionally I am disposed to suggest that our bird is con- 
generic, if not identical, with Catriscus apicalis, Licht., in which 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 235 

case Cabanis' generic name Catriscus (Mus.-Hein. Vol. I., 43 
note) will have to give place to Blyth's schcenicola. 

Nothing but a comparison of birds will settle these points. 
English ornithologists, desirous of clearing up the matter, should 
refer to Mr. Frank Bourdillon (10, Calverley Park Gardens, 
Tunbridge Wells,) the re-discoverer of the species who has two 
or three specimens of it with him. 

Mr. Sharpe, I notice, at page 72 of the Ibis for 1879, says :— 
" Mr. Low sends two eggs of Leptoptilus javanicus along 
with the head of the old female. The eggs are pale greenish 
blue ; axis, 2*7 inches ; diameter, 1*95 inch." 

I think these eggs must be accepted with reservation. In 
the first place these eggs are too small for the bird. The eggs 
of Leptoptilus argalus average considerably above 3'0 inches 
by 2 - 25. Those of Mycleria atistralis, a much lighter bird 
than javanicus, average fully 2*9 by 2'15. In the second place 
the eggs seem rather too elliptical for this class of bird. 
In the third place this group of Storks does not lay pale green- 
ish blue eggs. 

Mr. Oates has taken, as he believes, the eggs of this species, 
and these eggs are similar to those of argalus. I suspect that 
the eggs received by Mr. Sharpe are really those of Ardea 
sumatrana to which the description and measurements would 
apply well enough. 



$tttm io ifa <Mit0t\ 

Sir, 

I no not know whether it is a matter of interest to 
you to know that coming through the Red Sea, on the 6th May, 
I caught a Kestrel Hawk on board. We saw several parties 
of four or five of these birds, and I am told that they come on 
board nearly every voyage. The Hawk was a small one, with 
conspicuous white claws, such as you warned me years ago to 
be on the look-out for in Sind. I kept the specimen alive for 
three days, but just before reaching Aden it gorged itself 
with meat and died of suffocation. As of Henry the First we 
can say of it, " it never smiled again and died of a surfeit" 
(of beef, not of lampreys). I skinned it; but alas ! during the 
brief interval in which I placed it in the rack in my cabin to 
set, a rat got hold of the skin, and only its mangled remains 
were subsequently discovered. 

The day after we left Aden, we had another visitor on board, 
which I thought rather a curious one, as I suppose we were fifty 
miles from land. It was a Goat Sucker, the largest I ever saw, 



236 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

with a large white wing spot covering I suppose the three 
middle primaries. It flew alongside the ship in the early 
moraine, and several times alighted on deck, twice upon the 
sweetly slumbering forms of passengers. It would not, how- 
ever, let itself be caught and eventually we lost sight of it. 

The only other birds I noticed in particular in the voyage 
were what the passeugers called Boobies, in the Red Sea, elegant 
looking Gulls, with delicately marked heads, which followed us 
in great flocks. This kind is always seen in crowds in the Red 
Sea, and I need not describe it further, as of course, you know 
it. Perhaps you would tell me the real name of it, as also of 
the Boatswain bird, a maguificent Gull which we saw three 
days off Bombay. It whistles like a Syrang, aud hence its 
name. We saw three or four of these and some Storm Petrels 
about the same time. 

Calcutta, H. E. M. James. 

10th June 1880. 



[The Kestrel was of course Oerchneis naumanni, the Lesser 
Kestrel of Europe. As for the other birds nothing positive 
can be said — " Boobies/' are huge clumsy goose-like birds, like 
the Solan Goose. Perhaps ci the passeugers" meant " Noddies." 
Smoky chocolate brown birds with bluish grey crowns. If so 
the birds were probably Anotis stolidus. Then Boatswain birds 
{Phaeton indicus) are not "magnificent Gulls/' but slender Tern- 
like birds, with long pointed tails, so that here likewise it is 
impossible to guess what species our correspondent refers to. — 
Ed., S. F.] 

Sir, 

I don't know if any one has noticed before the fact 
that young painted Snipe ( Rhjnchcea bengalensis) swim capi- 
tally. This morning, while walking up a large rocky nullah, a 
Snipe fluttered up at my feet, and on looking down I found four 
young. As their quills were just beginning to grow, I think they 
must have been about 10 days old. On touching them they at 
once ran to the water then about a foot deep, and two deli- 
berately swam right across a pool about 15 yards wide and 
sought refuge in a large tuft of grass on the other side. 

Khandesh District, J. Davidson. 

2Qt/t May 1880. 

Sir, 

I saw a most amusing natural history fact here the 
other day. Talk of the principles of natural selection, &c, &c, 
I believe birds are awful muffs at choosing the fittest. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 237 

One of my cocks gave chase to a rather small black hen, and 
a larger and stronger kind rushed at him to prevent his paying 
his addresses, and a fight ensued. A Black Drake, seeing how 
matters stood, and what a mull the two had made of it, made a 
most determined rush at the hen, and after a long stern chase 
caught her and made a series of ineffectual attempts to seduce 
her. Meanwhile the two combatants stopped their fight and 
followed the hen and drake, and then they stared one on each 
side with long out-stretched necks, but they never tried to assist 
the unfortunate hen. The drake left her and there she lay, I 
thought dead at first, for she never stirred, but she was only 
exceedingly shocked and got up at last a very untidy and 
ruffled bird ; most of her neck feathers had been pulled out 
by the ferocious drake. I wish Mr. Darwin had seen how the 
principles of natural selection are sometimes carried out. 
Muddapur, W. E. Brooks. 

25th May 1880. 

Sir, 

I notice in your Journal, Vol. VIII., 386 and 500, 
with reference to Palumbus casiotis in the collection of the Kurra- 
chee Museum, the notes by Captain Butler. His memory has 
not served him well in this instance. The example in the collec- 
tion here really is Palumbus casiotis ; the neck patch is buff and 
not white, and Captain Butler may be in error in stating that 
Mr. Murray expressed any doubts on the subject — Mr. Murray 
being too good an ornithologist to mistake this bird for torquatus. 
The example is not, and never could have been, labelled Golumba 
livia; it is very badly mounted on a common piece of board, 
and is evidently the work of some native who knew very little 
about the art of bird-stuffing, and certainly never could have 
come from England. The entry in the museum catalogue is 
P. casiotis, locality unknown. Mr. Murray also refers to this 
example in his Hand Book of the Zoology of Sind, with the 
remark, " said to be from Upper Sind." 

Have you any note of the nidification in Sind of JEsacus 
recurvirostris ? On the Queen's birthday, when mahsir fishing at 
the Hubb near Minad Khan's place, I found one solitary egg 
lying in the sand in the river-bed; no nest of any kind. The 
egg is now in the museum here. 

KURRACHEE, C. SwiNHOE, Major. 

18tt June 1880. 

Sir, — Having now sent you a series of skins of 689 — 
Sturnia blythi, Jerdon, in various stages of plumage, I feel 
sure that you will agree with me in considering it a good spe- 



238 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

cies. Jerdon's diagnosis seems to describe the male bird fairly 
enough, and I can see nothing 1 to add to it, but he has not des- 
cribed the female, which is slightly different as you will see by 
the specimens forwarded. They arrive in Belgaum in large 
numbers towards the end of May, or beginning of June, 
in very bad plumage, and remain all through the rains, 
leaving again about October, by which time they are in per- 
fect plumage. 

Shortly after they leave the greyer-headed species, S. mala- 
barica arrives, and is equally common all through the cold wea- 
ther, but the latter species does not arrive until all of the 
former has left. The habits and food of both are very similar, 
as also the note, and they are both gregarious, occurring often 
in large flocks. 

I fancy that the present species must, as Jerdon says, be con- 
fined to the Malabar Coast, as I have never heard of it from 
any other part of the country* extending to certain localities in 
the adjoining country, like Belgaum in the rains. Mr. Vidal 
has never met with it iu Ratnagiri. 

Let me now add a description of a remarkable albinoid speci- 
men of l&Qbis — Chrysocolaptes strictus, Borsfield, (C. deles- 
serti, Malh. abud Jerdon) which has been procured by Mr. 
Laird on the Ghats, South-west of Belgaum. 

Description. — Top of head and crest crimson, the feathers 
being pale or albescent at the base ; upper back and greater part 
of the wings externally pale creamy buff, washed with pale golden 
yellow ; lower part of back shiuing carmine red ; ear-coverts 
pale brown ; primaries hair brown, spotted, as usual, on the 
inner web with white, and having the whole, except the first two, 
edged exteriorly, and broadly tipped with pale buff ; upper tail- 
coverts and tail dark brown ; the lower surface, from chin to 
vent, whitish buff, mixed with brown, the drops on the breast 
beino- edged all round with reddish brown, and becoming larger 
and more conspicuous on the sides of breast and flanks ; lower 
tail-coverts whitish buff and brown mixed ; under surface of 
wing hair brown, transversely barred with white. 

Owing to its being a bad specimen, the markings of the head, 
neck, and throat are omitted. 

The crimson of the head, and- red of the back, are much paler 
than in typical delesserti. E. Butler, Capt., 

Belgaum. 83rd Reqiment. 

[Note. — This issue wrongly headed (on page 1) Nos. 1 & 2, 
is really Nos. 1, 2 and 3 of Vol. IX.] 

* Mr. Iver Macpherson has recently sent me both, a skin and eggo of this 
species from Mysore. 



s 



Y^ 



STRAY FEATHERS. 



Vol. IX.] NOVEMBER 1880. [No. 4. 



31 iistog 4 ilu $mte of %gtom 

The third part of Captain Legge's admirable work, published 
in September 1880, completes the History of the Birds of 
Ceylon. — 

The work is in Koyal Quarto, contains thirty-four most 
beautiful plates of the forty-seven species peculiar to the island, 
an excellent map, in which the several Zoological Provinces 
have been carefully traced out ; and some 1,300 pages of letter- 
press (including the introduction) which comprise a careful des- 
cription and an account of the haunts, habits, and distribution 
of each of the 371 species, ascertained or believed to occur on 
the island. 

To ornithologists in Southern India this work will be almost 
as useful as to those resident in Ceylon ; and we can, and do most 
earnestly, recommend all such to provide themselves with a 
copy of it. 

Certainly no more complete and satisfactory record of the 
Avifauna of any British possession has ever appeared. Each 
order, family, and genus is carefully defined. Under each 
species the author first gives an useful list of synonyms and 
references ; and in preparing this he has shown, we think, great 
judgment. He might, without the slightest additional trouble, 
have doubled the length of these lists, and thus have given an 
appearance of great learning and research to his work ; but, 
in so doing, he would scarcely have added anything to its 
value, as he has given, as it is, almost every reference likelv to 
be useful to Indian ornithologists. Next follow accurate des- 
criptions and measurements of male, female, and youno-, with 
useful remarks in regard to variations in and changes of plu- 
mage, abnormal varieties, nomenclature, nearly-allied species, 
&c, &c. 

All this in smaller type by way of introduction to the 
article which treats of the species, and which is divided into 
three sections under which, (1) the distribution, (2) the habits, 
and (3) the nidification are fully dealt with. 

Under the first head the distribution of the species in the 
Island of Ceylon is naturally first considered and explained in 

31 



240 NOTE ON TRIBURA MANDELLII. 

great detail ; then, where the bird is not peculiar to Ceylon, its 
distribution in the rest of the British Asian Empire is dealt 
with ; and, lastly, all other parts of the world to which it is known 
to extend are noticed. As regards the distribution in the 
British Asian Empire, this is no doubt, in many cases, imper- 
fectly given, the necessary information not being at the author's 
command, but it is nevertheless, in almost every case, as per- 
fect as the published materials permitted Major Legge to make 
it ; and the attention which he has bestowed on the compilation 
of this section is deserving of much praise. 

No less can be said of the sections which deal with the 
haunts, habits, and the nidification of each species, — where 
Captain Legge has himself been able to observe the birds, 
these sections leave nothing to be desired, and if in some 
cases, in which he has had to rely mainly upon the statements 
of others, the accounts are neither quite as full nor quite as 
accurate as they might have been, he certainly cannot be held 
responsible for any such shortcomings. 

Not the least useful or interesting part of the work is the 
introduction, in which, in very brief compass, Captain Legge has 
succeeded in conveying a most excellent idea of the physical 
geography, climate and seasons of the island, of the affinities 
of its ornis, and of the several great classes into which these 
naturally divide themselves, to the local observer. 

Taken as a whole, this is undoubtedly by far the most com- 
plete and satisfactory work that has yet appeared in regard to 
any portion of the British Asian Empire. It has involved \ears 
of persevering labour, and testifies not only to the industry but 
to the literary skill and sound judgment of its author, and by it 
Captain Legge has honourably earned the gratitude, not only of 
all those specially interested in Ceylon, but of ornithologists 
and naturalists generally. 

A. 0. H. 



State on ©rifotra mamtettn. 

By W. E. Brooks. 



The Editor has kindly sent me, for examination, seven very 
perfect examples of this bird. On a close examination, all are 
found more or less spotted on the throat and upper breast. In 
some there are only a very few scattered small, rather cloudy, 
spots, which, at a cursory glance, might escape notice, but of the 
whole seven not one is spotless. 

I have also been able to compare them with eleven examples of 
the closely-allied Tribura luteoventris, all from Mr. Hume's 



NOTE ON TRIBURA MANDELLII. 241 

collection, and not one has the slightest indication of spotting ; 
neither is there any indication of the ash grey so conspicuous 
across the breast of T. mandellii. T. mandellii, as a rule, has a 
stronger and larger bill, and most of the bills are more or less 
black, as in ajjinis. 

The lower surface of the body is very much more rufous 
in luteoventris than in mandellii. 

After a very careful comparison of the two birds, with ample 
material before me, which Mr. Seebohm bad not, I have not the 
least hesitation in stating mandellii to be perfectly distinct. 
The dry skins to me will not prove anything else, and the two 
could not be correctly united but by observation of the birds 
in life. It is a pity that all Mandelli's birds are unsexed ; for 
he never collected himself, and his native collectors were not 
able to sex correctly. Had they been reliably sexed, and all the 
spotted T. mandellii had turned out to be males, while all the 
unspotted and more rufous luteoventris turned out to be females, 
there would then have been some reason in Mr. Seebohm's very 
decided conclusion that my species was a bad one. As it is, 
he has only begged the question, and can, in no way, prove his. 
point, any more than he can that Phylloscopus viridanus and 
P. plumbeitarsus are one and the same bird — -a mistake only 
equalled by my own some years ago that P. tristis was identical 
with P. collybita. 

Mr. Hume has been accustomed to term T. mandellii D. 
brunneipectus, Blyth ; but I think this is wrong ; for Blyth 
describes his brunneipectus as being of the same uniform dark 
olive brown colour above as D. affinis, and our present bird 
being very different above from D. ajffinis, and of a much lighter 
and rufous brown as in luteiventris, Blyth's term could not, 
I hold, apply to it. 

An examination of Blyth's type would decide the question, 
and this examination I hope soon to be able to make. 

Blyth does not make any mention of spots on the breast, and 
these appear to be characteristic of T. mandellii. 



% utoxd list jo| ifa litis of $forth-fata djaduir. 

Since the publication of our first list, (S. R, V., 1, 1877), 
Mr. Inglis has from time to time kindly sent additional speci- 
mens, representing species not formerly included, and some 
of them of considerable interest. 

The first list comprised 157 species. We have now 100 more 
species to add (making a total of 257), and a few additional 
remarks to add in regard to one or two species previously 



242 A SECOND LIST OF THE BIRDS 

included, so that the time seems to have come for publishing a 
second list, which is subjoined. 

In this list the names of species included in the first list are 
printed in the ordinary Roman type, while those of species 
not so included, are in Antique. 

Mr. Inglis's notes in regard to the several species treated of 
are reproduced under his own initials. 



List. 



8.— Falco peregrinus, Gm. 

" This Falcon does not appear to be a resident here. I have 
often observed it about November hawking in the evening 
about dusk, and the specimens I have procured were birds 
perched on a tree apparently resting during a journey. — J. I." 

Two specimens ; a very fine, very large adult female, with a 
wing 14'5, and with a faint buffy pinky tinge on the breast 
and abdomen, and a young male of the second year, both shot 
near Dilkhushah. 

11.— Falco juggur, J. K Gr. 

" This species is somewhat rare here. — J. I." 
One specimen, a male, not quite adult, 26th March 1878, 
Enayetgunge. 

16.— Falco chiquera, Baud. 

" Is quite common in Sylhet, although rather rare here. 
I saw two nestlings in Cachar this season. — J. I." 
A male killed on the Khooshyara river. 

18 bis. — Cerchneis pekinensis, Swinh. 

" I have only succeeded in securing two more specimens of 
this species, since I obtained the bird referred to S. F., V., 5. 
First an adult male, which I shot in December, picking him 
out from amongst about one hundred of the Eastern Red- 
Legged Hobby which were hawking white ants. Second a 
young male, which I killed on the 26th of March, out of a party 
of five which were hovering over my bungalow. Of this latter, 
I noted the following particulars at the time : — 

" Length, 12*6 ; wing, 92 ; expanse, 27*75 ; tail, 6*5 ; tarsus, 
1*4 ; bill from gape, *7. 

' l Crown, head and hind neck ashy blue ; chin and throat almost 
white, slightly tinged with cinnamon; back chestnut, also 
mantle ; wing quite black, edged with whitish ; wing-coverts ashy, 
dashed with rufous ; tail, colour of head, with black bar, in centre ; 



OF NORTH-EASTERN CACHAR. 243 

feathers 2 inches, and side feathers 1^ inches wide, tipped witli 
white ; chest dark cinnamon ; breast or body cinnamon, though 
slightly lighter than chest, most feathers having a heart-shaped 
black spot ; vent whitish, tinged with creamy ; under tail- 
coverts almost white ; under wing pure white, with a few 
black oblong spotS ( on secondary and tertiary under wing- 
coverts ; feet yellowish orange ; claws pale whitish yellow ; 
thigh-coverts light cinnamon ; cere darker yellow than legs ; 
bill bluish horny at point, somewhat lighter at base. — J. I" 

A very fine perfectly adult male of this species, procured 
near Dilkhushah, is clearly pekinensis, with the entire wing- 
coverts blue, except a few just where the wings join the body. 

The wing is only 9*2 ; tarsus only 1*1. My C. inglisi, with 
nearly the whole of the wing-coverts red, is a less mature bird 
of this present species. 

In the present adult male specimen the entire breast and 
upper abdomen are spotless, and there are only a few small 
oval brown spots on the lower abdomen ; the entire chestnut 
of the back is uniform and unspotted, only the one longest 
scapular on each side is broadly blue grey at the tip, and the 
next longest scapular has a small blue, oval, subterminal spot, 
and the next has the shaft just perceptibly darker than the rest 
of the feather; the wing-lining is pure unspotted white. 
This is the most mature specimen I have ever seen, but pos- 
sibly in the very old bird all marks above and below disappear. 

19 bis. — Cerchneis amurensis, Radde. 

" These little Falcons appear regularly here about the middle 
of October in hundreds. This season they appeared in large 
numbers, and remained about a week only. I send, amongst 
others, a young male showing the change from juvenile plumage. 

" The following were the dimensions of an adult female 
which I shot out of a flock that passed over my bungalow at 
dusk on the 31st October : — 

" Length, 11 "8 ; expanse, 28*1 ; wing, 9*5 ; tail from vent, 5*5 ; 
tarsus, 1*5 j bill from gape, 0'6. 

" Chin and throat slightly creamy white; thigh-coverts and 
under tail-coverts light cinnamon ; nine bars on the tail. — 
J. I." 

The young bird above referred to was killed, according to the 
ticket, on the 8th of May. It is sexed a male, and measured 
in the flesh : — 

Length, 11*75 ; expanse, 25*25 ; wing, 9 ; tail, 5*25; tarsus, 
1*25 ; bill from gape, 0'75. 

The head, neck and entire mantle are bleached to a dull 
pale earthy brown ; on the crown and about the nape, &c, a 
few new sooty black feathers are showing out. There are also 



244 A SECOND LIST OF THE BIRDS 

two fine adult males, both killed in the neighbourhood of Dil- 
khushah. The one everywhere much darker and blacker, the 
other paler and more slaty, with wings measuring 9-0 and 9'1, 
respectively, and both with the uniform snow-white wing- 
lininff and axillaries. 

41 ter.— Polioaetus humilis, S. Mull. 

{i Although not so common as P. plumbeus it is far from rarr." 
I have noticed that it is more often found in the neighbourhood 
of rivers than jheels. P. plumbeus, from my experience, prefers 
fishing in stagnant water. — J. 1." 

A single specimen of this small Fishing Eagle, the only one 
that I have yet seen killed within our limits, is apparently an 
old adult ; the wing barely 16*0. It was not sexed, but was 
probably a female. In the nearly allied plumbeus, the wings 
of adults appear to run from 16 - 5 to 18*2 or 18*3 ; but if I 
have correctly identified this species, (and I have unfor- 
tunately no Malayan specimens at present in my collec- 
tion to compare it with) plumbeus might be looked upon 
as merely a large Himalayan race of humilis. This latter is, 
no doubt, markedly smaller, with much smaller bill, and with 
a markedly slenderer, though not shorter, foot and tarsus ; but I 
can discover no difference in the plumage, unless perhaps there 
is rather more white about the abdomeu, and rather more 
feathering on the tarsus in plumbeus than in humilis. Both 
species have the same, more or less, mottled white bar on the 
lower surface of the basal half of the tail feathers, and the 
plumage appears to be identical, except that this particular 
specimen of humilis has the ear-coverts a pale fawny brown, 
contrasting markedly with the grey brown of the rest of the 
side of the head — a feature which I do not observe in specimens 
of plumbeus, and which is very possibly not constant in humi- 
lis. 

As already observed, the tarsus, though much slenderer, is 
very little shorter than in plumbeus. In the present specimen 
it is exactly 3 inches in length, while in one large plumbeus, 
with a wing 18*2 or more, it is, though double as thick, only 
3*1 in length. 

42.— Haliaetus leucoryphus, Tall. 

" Extremely common in Sylhet, but is not often met with 
in Eastern Cachar. Breeds about the beginning of December. 
—J. I." 

A large female, just moulting into adult plumage, killed near 
Dilkhushah. 



OF NORTH-EASTERN CACHAR. 245 

56 Us.— Milvus melanotis, Tern. & Sch. 

u Very common during the cold weather ; arrived this year 
during the first week in September ; departs about May. — J. I." 

A young bird with a wing fully 19 and a huge whito 
wiug patch. 

67.-— Pernis ptilorhynchus, Tern. 

" Not uncommon ; generally seen near heavy forest. — J. I." 
A female, killed 27th April 1878, of the nearly uniform, dull- 
brown, black-shafted type, with a scarcely noticeable crest, less 
than one inch in length ; presumably a young bird with no grey 
about the face, and with a small wing, 16'0. 

62.— Phodilus badius, Eorsf. 

" I have procured about half a dozen specimens of this Owl 
in the villages. — J. I." 

One specimen killed at Dilkhushah, identical with Sikhim 
examples. 

81 ter. — Ninox burmanica, Hume. 

" This Owl is rather common. — J. I." 

Another example, a male, killed, Dilkhushah, 25th April 1878, 
with a wing 8*75, of the large, dusky, chocolate-coloured Ninox, 
entered in our first list as Ninox innominata, but which, as I 
subsequently explained (S. F., VI., 40,) may, I think, be properly 
united with the Tenasserim birds, which I formerly named 
burmanica. 

82 fo's.— Eirundo gutturalis, Scop. 

" Very common. — J. I." 

These are additional specimens of the birds entered in our 
first list as rastica. There is no doubt that all are referable to 
gutturalis, though whether that form is deserving of specific 
separation remains to me very questionable (c.f. S. R, VI., 41.) 

82 ter.— Hirundo tytleri, Jerd. 

(i Very common. — J. I." 

A single, very characteristic adult of this species shot near 
Dilkhushah with a wing fully 4' 6. The breast and the rest 
of the lower parts, including the lower tail-coverts and win cr- 
iming, a rich, though not deep, chesnut. The mantle steel blue ; 
wings and tail glossy green ; and the outer tail feathers project- 
ing 2 '05 beyond the rest. 



246 A SECOND LIST OF THE BIRDS 

85 bis.— Hirundo nipalensis, Hodgs. 

« Very common. — J. I." 

Several specimens killed near Dilkhushah, on the 19th and 
21st March, and 10th of May, have been sent. 

85 quat. — Hirundo substriolata, Hume. 

" Common.— J. I." 

Two more very fine specimens, killed on the 20th of February 
near Dilkhushah, have been sent since those first described. 
I have already discussed this very fine large species (S. F., V., 
264,) and have nothing now to add. 

87. — Cotile riparia, Lin. 

u Exceediugly common. — J. I." 

A female of the European Sand-Martin killed at Dilkhu- 
shah, 15th April 1878. 

101 Us.— Cypsellus pacificus, Lath. 

" This Swift is very common when the weather suits it. I 
have seen it in hundreds one afternoon, and perhaps not observed 
it again for a week. It is most generally observed between 
September and January. — J. I." 

A single specimen from near Dilkhushah obtained in Decem- 
ber 1877. 

116.— Harpactes erythrocephalus, Gould. 

a This nestling is one of two, which my man was foolish 
enough to blow to pieces when they were perched together 
on a branch of a small tree. I have often seen the parent 
birds near the place where these infants were murdered. — J. I." 

A nestling of this species, obtained on the 10th of June, is a most 
curious looking little bird. The entire head and body above and 
below is a sort of dull orange ferruginous, with the grey bases 
of the feathers showing through more or less. Only the feathers 
about the vent and the lower tail-coverts are nearly pure white. 
The central tail feathers are dull chesnut, narrowly tipped with 
black ; the next two on each side pure black ; the next three on 
either side pure white, but black on the basal one-third on the 
inner webs only. The wings are black ; all the coverts but the 
primary greater and median coverts, are broadly margined 
with orange or rusty buff, and the greater secondary coverts 
exhibit traces of imperfect barrings of the same colour. The 
primaries are very narrowly margined on their outer webs with 
greyish white, and the later secondaries are freckled with the 
same colour on their outer webs towards their margins.' 



OF NORTH-EASTERN OACHAR. 247 

135 quat.— Alcedo beavani, Wald. 

" Is somewhat common here. It is always found on old river 
courses or on small streams in forest. I have never seen it 
on large rivers. It is easily distinguished by the brilliancy of 
its colouration. — J. I.'"' 

Two specimens, both obtained near Caehar, are probably refer- 
able rather to this species than to meningting. They are very 
richly coloured, but the blue of the forehead aud back is near- 
er to the greenish blue of the Andaman bird than to the violet 
blue of the Mala} T an one. 

139.— Serilophus rubropygius, Hodgs. 

" I obtained a few specimens of this bird during the 
rains. — J. I." 

A single specimen, a male, obtained near Dilkhushah, 19th 
June 1878. 

146 bis.— Rhyticeros undulatus, Shaw. 

(l Very common. — J. I." 

A fully-plumaged and full-sized, but still young bird, as yet 
barely showing any traces of the plications on the sides of the 
bill, and with only two ill-marked plications on the casque. 

147 quat. — Palseornis indoburmanicus, Hume. 

" Exceedingly common. — J. I." 

More specimens of the species entered in our former list as 
P. magnirostris, but which should now, as explained S. F., VII., 
458, appear under the above title. 

157.— Picus macii, Vieill. 

il This Woodpecker is rather rare. — J. I." 
A female ; Barak river ; 10th January 1878. 

186 — Vivia innominata, Burt. 

"Very rare. I have only secured two as yet.— J. I." 
Two males from Dilkhushah. 

187.— Sasia ochracea, Hodgs. 

"Quite common in thick jungle. — J. I." 
A female; Dilkhushah ; 27th June 1878. 

197.— Xantholaema haamacephala, P. L. S. Mull. 

" Common. Its monotonous call can be heard nearly a mile. — 
J. I." 

A specimen from near Dilkhushah. 

32 



248 A SECOND LIST OF THE BIRDS 

203.— Cuculus micropterus, Gould. 

" Extremely common. — J. 1." 

Old and young of this species from near Dilkhushah. 

207.— Hierococcyx sparveroides, Fig. 

"Common here. — J. 1." 
Neighbourhood of Dilkhushali. 

209. — Cacomantis threnodes, Cab. 

" Somewhat rare. — J. I." 

Other specimens, old aud young, of this species entered in 
our first list as Ololygon rufiventris, obtained at Dilkhushah in 
March 1879. 

210 — Surniculus lugubris, Eorsf. 

"Very common about April aud May. — J. I." 
Specimens obtained near Dilkhushah in June. 

211.— Chrysococcyx maculatus, Gm. 

"This pretty Cuckoo is very rare here. — J. I." 
Male, female, and young obtaiued near Dilkhushah in June, 
July aud August. 

211 bis.— Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus, Eorsf. 

" Also very rare here. — J. I." 

An adult in full plumage, obtained near Dilkhushah. 

214 bis.— Eudynamis malayana, Cab. & Heine. 

"Very common in the villages. — J. I." 
An adult male obtained near Dilkhushah. 

224.— Arachnothera longirostra, Lath. 

" Rather common. — J. I." 

A single specimen obtained near Dilkhushah. 

236 — Dicaeum cruentatum, Lin. 

" Met with all the year round, and is common. — J. I." 
Specimens obtained at both Dilkhushah and at the foot of 
the hills at the extreme north of the Cachar District. 

237.— Dicseum chrysorrhseum, Tern. 

" Very common here. — J. I." 

A male, from near Dilkhushah, 6th June 1878. 

240.— Piprisoma agile, Tick. 

" A very rare bird in these parts. — J. I." 
Two males from near Dilkhuahah. 



OF NORTH-EASTERN CACHAR. 249 

263— Tephrodornis pelvica, Eodgs. 

"This Wood Shrike is rather rare.— J. I." 

A young female iu the first plumage ; 15th June 1878. 

282— Chaptia senea, Vieill. 

"Very common everywhere here. — J. I." 
A specimen with the typical dull greyish rump from Dil- 
khushah. 

286.— Chibia hottentotta, Lin. 

" Very common ; is very shy and keeps to dense jungle. 
Is often found on cotton trees when they are in flower. — J. I." 
A female, from Dilkhushah, 15th June 1878. 

289.— Muscipeta aflinis, Hay. 

11 This bird is rare. I have only seen young birds as yet. — 
A young male, 11th July 1878, from Dilkhushah. 

291.— Leucocerca albicollis, Vieill. 

" Very common about here. — J. I." 
Specimens from near Dilkhushah. 

301 — Stoporala melanops, Vig. 

" Very common. — J. I," 

A specimen from Dilkhushah, 22nd July 1879. 

308.— Cyornis magnirostris, Bly . 

" Very rare, I think.— J. I/' 

A young bird, which had just left the nest, in the usual 
spotted plumage, obtained at Dilkhushah, 11th May 1878. 

323— Erythrosterna albiciUa, Fall. 

" This bird is also very rare according to my experience, 
but perhaps I have overlooked it. — J. I." 
Specimens from near Dilkhushah. 

344.— Hydrornis nipalensis, Hodgs. 

" This Thrush is very seldom seen ; it keeps to thick forest. 
I have only observed it during the cold weather. — J. I." 

A specimen obtained near Dilkhushah, a female, measured 
in the flesh : Length, 93 ; expause, 139 ; wing, 47 ; tail, 2'1 ; 
tarsus, 2*1 ; bill from gape, 1*25. 



250 A SECOND LIST OF THE BIRDS 

346— Pitta cuculata, Earth 

" A friend procured one specimen of this Thrush close to 
Silchar.— J. I." 

A specimen obtained in North Cachar. 

351. — Cyanocinclus cyanus, Lin. 

" This Thrush is not at all rare during the cold weather. 
It is not, "however, so common as C. solitaria. — J. I." 

A specimen shot on the Barak river close to Dilkhushah, 
10th January 1878, by Mr. Davison (who ascertained it by dis- 
section to be a female,) is one of the few specimens of this sex 
that I have yet met with, in the full blue plumage of the adult 
male. 

386.— Pyctorhis longirostris, Eodgs. 

" This bird is rare.— J. I." 

A specimen from near Dilkhushah. 

387.— Trichastoma abbotti, Bly. 

"Extremely common in this neighbourhood. — J. I." 
A specimen from near Dilkhushah, a female. 

391 — Stachyris nigriceps, Eodgs. 

" Tin's bird also is very common here. — J. 1." 
A male, 25th July 1878, from Dilkhushah. 

395.— Mixornis rubricapillus, Tick. 

" Very common. — J. I." 

Two specimens from near Dilkhushah. 

396. — Timalia bengalensis, G.-Ausl. 

"Very common. — J. I." 

A pair, 15th January 1878, from near Dilkhushah, with less 
difference in the size of the sexes than is usual. Male, wine, 245 • 
female, wing, 2*65. The white of the face, chin, throat, breast 
and forehead of the female purer than in the male, as is also the 
red of the cap, which is a richer and purer chesnut -than in the 
male ; otherwise the plumage is identical. 

399 .Us.— Pellorneum nipalensis, Hodgs. (P. mandellii, 
Blanf.) 

"Very common. — J. I." 

A female, 1st July 1878, Dilkhushah. 



OF NORTH-EASTERN CACHAR. 251 

402— Pomatorhinus schisticeps, Eodgs. 

" Rather rare.— J. I." 

A specimen, clearly belonging* to this species, a male from 
Dilkhushah, 24th July 1878 :— Length, 9*3 ; expanse, 108 ; 
wiug, 36 ; tail, 4*0; tarsus, 1*5 ; bill from gape, 1*3; weight, 
15 oz. 

Referring to my remarks, S. F., VI., pp. 282, 284, 1 have 
now re-examined our series, and my general conclusion is, that 
Pomatorhinus nuchalis, Tweeddale, is not specifically separa- 
ble from P. leucog aster, of Gould, and that, despite variations 
discernible in plumage, &c, both these forms are very doubt- 
fully distinct from P. schisticeps, Hodgs. 

Mr. Gould's name was published at the close of 1837. 
Mr. Hodgson's name was first published in Asiatic lies., 
Vol. XIX., p. 181, and I have not now the means of ascertain- 
ing when this latter was published. On this will depend, sup- 
posing we agree to unite all the three forms, which name 
should be adopted. 

As to schisticeps I have a very large series of Darjeeling and 
Nepal specimens ; they are all, with one exception, of the same 
type, with the more or less distinctly slaty head, larger bill and 
more intense, almost maroon, ferruginous of the red stripe at 
the sides of the neck and breast, and they are all characterized 
by more or less conspicuous white shaft stripes, or shafts on a 
greater or less number of the rufous feathers on the sides of 
the breast. Two Cachar specimens are precisely similar, but 
have less of the slaty tinge on the head. One Thayetmyo 
specimen was precisely similar. 

Turning to leucogaster and to Gould's original description, 
P. Z. S., 1837, p. 137, we find that it was characterized by the 
absence of the marked slaty tinge on the head, which is des- 
cribed as unicolorous with the back (summo capite, corpore 
supra, alis crissoque, olivaceo-fuscis) , and by the brighter 
colour of the rufous on the sides of the neck and breast; and 
the absence of white central shafts to the feathers of this rufous 
band [lateribus colli, pectoris, corporisque, idtide rufis.) 

Now these birds of Gould's were collected by Mr. Furell 
somewhere near Simla, and I have two specimens from the 
immediate neighbourhood of Simla, which answer precisely to 
Gould's description. The heads are practically concolorous with 
the back, the red is a brighter and more rusty rufous, and there 
are scarcely any traces of white shafting to the feathers of this 
rufous. These birds are absolutely inseparable from some of 
the Tenasserim nuchalis, but some of these latter differ in 
having the red of the sides of the neck continued right round 
its back as a broad nuchal collar. This is by no means an 



252 A SECOND LIST OF THE BIttDS 

universal characteristic ; some birds show it very strongly, some 
birds killed at the same time and place show no more of it than 
do the Simla birds. One Thayetmyo specimen is precisely 
similar to the Simla birds. One Darjeeling specimen, the ex- 
ception above referred to, is also not separable from the Simla 
birds. 

Three specimens from Hill Tipperah must be classed as schis- 
ticeps, though their heads scarcelj r differ in colour from their 
backs, since they have the larger bill and rufous feathers more 
or less white striped. The same may be said of specimens 
from Dehra Doon and from the hills north of Mussoorie, 
though in some of these latter the slaty tinge on the head is 
well marked. 

Numerous specimens from the valley of Assam, from Tippook, 
Sadiya, Dibrugarh, Khowang, are all, I think, most properly 
referable to schisliceps, as all show the white shaftings of the 
rufous feathers most conspicuously, and all have the rufous 
very deep in tint, but in several the slaty tiut on the crown is 
very 'feeble. Two have small bills, and one has a broad rufous 
nuchal collar as conspicuous as in any Tenasserim example, but 
deeper in tint than in any of these. 

I think it is quite certain that Pomatorhinus nuchalis must 
be abandoned, as man}^ specimens of it are absolutely insepara- 
ble from specimens collected in the same locality as Gould's 
types of lencogaster, and answering'perfectly to his description. 

But further reviewing our whole fairly large series, com- 
prising nearly seventy specimens, I am very much disposed to 
doubt whether leucogaster itself is specifically distinct from 
schisticeps. There are some unmistakable schisiiceps, with really 
dark slaty heads, which scarcely show any white shafting to 
the rufous feathers — birds too in which that rufous is of the 
deepest and most intense tint. There are others again in which 
the rufous is far lighter and more rusty, in which the shaft 
stripes are most conspicuous, but in which the slaty tint on the 
crown is extremely feeble, and there are specimens of leuco- 
gaster in which there are signs of white shaftings to the rufous 
feathers, and others which have a faint shade of slate on the 
crown. 

On the whole, taking all the birds from Tenasserim, Pegu, 
Hill Tipperah, Cachar, Assam to its extreme easternmost point, 
and the Himalayas from Native Sikhim to Simla, I am greatly 
disposed to doubt whether there is more than one real species. 
As for size of bill every intermediate gradation presents itself. 
In some the entire bill is yellow, in others nearly the basal half 
of the upper mandible is black, and every intermediate amount 
of black on the upper mandible is exhibited. Between a dark, 
purely slaty crown, and an olive one absolutely concolorous with 



OF NORTH-EASTERN CACHAR. 253 

the back, every intermediate shade of colouring- occurs. As 
for the red on the sides of the neck and breast, it varies in 
different specimens between the most intense maroon ferrugi- 
nous and the brightest orange rusty, while similarly the white 
shafting of the rufous feathers varies from absolutely nil to a 
broad, white shaft stripe to each feather. 

It may be convenient to retain the birds under two names ; 
but I doubt whether, in so doing, we follow nature ; and I am 
sure that there will always be a good many birds in regard to 
which it will be difficult to decide whether to assign them to 
leucogaster or schisticeps. 

405 ter. — Orthorhinus inglisi, Hume. 

u I procured two specimens of this bird last cold weather. — 
J. I." 

Since our former list was published, the entire distinctness of 
my Orthorhinus tickelli has been universally admitted ; but in 
regard to the present species it has been suggested, firstly, that 
it is identical with hypoleucus of Blyth, which has a great red 
patch down the side of the neck; and, secondly, that if really 
distinct from this, it must be the same as P. albicollis of Horsfield 
from Assam ; but this latter species is distinctly figured by 
Gray, with the characteristic red patch of hypoleucus, and there 
is no cause for surprise in this case at this bird having been 
obtained in Assam, since the birds from the Naga Hills, 
obtained by Major Godwin-Austen, also appear to.be hypoleucus, 
whilst his specimen from the North Cachar Hills, like all my 
Cachar specimens, want the rufous on the sides of the neck, and 
are what I call inglisi. There is nothing at all contrary to 
experience in obtaining the same species in the Arracan and Naga 
Hills, and a distinct representative species in Sylhet and Cachar. 
At present I still continue to believe that Orthorhinus inglisi is 
as distinct from hypoleucus as Garrulax leucolophus is from 
belangeri. 

440.— Megalurus palustris, Horsf. 

" Very common. — J. I." 

Two specimens of this species are remarkable as showing 
the extent to which the colour of this class of birds varies by 
exposure. Both were killed at Dilkhushah. The one killed 
early in September has a rich rufous brown tint throughout 
which has entirely disappeared from the other killed early in 
November. 

444.— Hypsipetes psaroides, Vig. 

" I have only procured one specimen of this bird. It was 
with a lot of common Bulbuls. — J. I." 
A typical example of the Himalayan form. 



254 A SECOND LIST OF THE BIRDS 

452 dec.—Iole viridescens, Bly. 

" Very rare here. — J. I. ,J 

Specimens from Dilkhushah and the foot of the Cherra 
Poorjjee Hills. 

457 quat— Brachypodius cinereiventris, Bly. 

" Extremely common. — J. I." 

A typical specimen of this somewhat doubtful species (c. f. 
S. F., VI., 319) killed at Dilkhushah, 11th November 1879. 

477. — Myiomela leucura, Hodgs. 

" Somewhat rare. — J. I." 

A young male, obtained at Dilkhushah, 9th February 1879, in 
almost perfect adult plumage, but showing, on the coverts of one 
wing, a single oval orange buff spot, the last trace of the 
nestling plumage. 

481.— Pratincola caprata, Lin. 

u Rather rare, and seen only during the cold weather. — J. I." 
A pair from Dilkhushah. 

487.— Oreicola jerdoni, Bly. 

(i This bird is often seen on the top of reeds along road sides ; 
it is extremely shy and difficult to procure. — J. I." 

One specimen only is sent, an adult male of this species, 
■which is an extremely rare one even in Indian collections. 
Jerdon himself only described the male in his el Birds of India;" 
but he appears to have presented specimens of both sexes to 
the British museum, and Mr. Sharpe has described the female, 
I think for the first time, in the fourth volume of the British 
Museum Catalogue. 

The followiug are the measurements and description of a fine 
female obtained by the late Mr. Mandelli from Cachar : — 

Length, about 5*5; wing, 2 - 5 ; tail, from insertion of feathers, 
24; tarsus, 08 ; bill, at front from frontal bone, 062. 

Bill blackish horny, paler on base of lower mandible ; legs 
and feet brown. 

The forehead, crown, occiput, sides, and back of the head and 
neck, and interscapulary region a uniform faintly rufescent 
olive brown, which, in the lower back and rump, has a ferru- 
ginous tinge, and on the lower tail-coverts becomes pure ferru- 
ginous ; the tail feathers dull hair brown, slightly paler along 
the margins ; the wings hair brown ; the median and greater 
coverts and tertiaries margined with pale ferruginous; the 
primaries and secondaries just perceptibly yellowish white on 



OF NORTH-EASTERN CACHAR. 255 

tlieir outer edges ; cbin and throat white, with a creamy tiDge ; 
breast, abdomen, vent, and lower tail-coverts pale fulvous. 

This bird strongly recalls the female of Pratincola (or Orei- 
cola) ferrea, but our present bird is smaller ; the interscapulary 
region and middle back is uniform, whereas in ferrea it is dis- 
tinctly striated, as is also generally the head, and in this present 
species, the breast and abdomen are pale fulvous, while in ferrea 
the breast and sides of the abdomen are pale earthy brown. 

I forgot to mention that in the present species there is a 
faint albescent streak from the nostril over the lores and above 
the eye : but this is not nearly so conspicuous as the correspond- 
ing streak in ferrea. Inferred the ear-coverts are picked out, 
as it were, by a distinct rufous tinge ; in the present species they 
are uniform with the rest of the upper parts. 

500.— Ruticilla aurorea, Pall. 

" Observed only during the cold weather. — J. I." 

A male obtained near Dilkhushah on the 29th December 1878. 

512. — Calliope camschatkensis, Gm. 

tc Is not at all common. — J. I." 

A fine adult male of the Ruby-throat, shot at Dilkhushah, 
10th April 1878. 

514— Cyanecula suecica, Lin. 

" Very common during the cold months. — J. I." 
A single specimen obtained near Dilkhushah. 

54=2— Graminicola bengalensis, Jerd. 

" Common.— J. I." 
Dilkhushah. 

558.— Phylloscopus lugubris, Bly. 

A male obtained by Davison, on 27th December 1877, at 
Terria Ghat, at the foot of the Cherra Ponjee Hills. This is a 
less dusky and brighter coloured specimen than I have before 
met with, but unless there is still an undescribed species 
of Phylloscopus ( as Mr. Brooks suspects ) intermediate between 
lugubris and viridanus, this specimen is certainly lugubris. 
Its superior brightness may be due to its being a young bird. 

591 bis.— Motacilla dukhunensis, Sykes. 

" I have observed about a dozen of this Wagtail. I have 
never seen it in the open, but always found it°on a shaded 
path or road in jungle. — J. I." 

A male unmistakably of this spieces, killed at Dilkhushah. 

33 



256 A SECOND LIST OF THE BIRDS 

593— Budytes cinereocapilla, Savi. 

" Very common. — J. 1." 
Specimens from near Dilkhushab. 

593 ter.— Budytes flava, Lin. 

" Common — J. I/' 

Specimens from near Dilkhushab. 

595.— Limonidromus indicus, Gm. 

" Very common. — J. I." 
Specimens from near Dilkhushab. 

596— 'Anthus maculatus, Hodgs. 

''Very common. — J. 1/ 
Specimen from near Dilkhushah. 

599.— Corydalla richardi, Vieill. 

ei Common in the cold months. — J. I." 
Specimen from Dilkhushah. 

630.— Herpornis xantholeucus, Eodgs. 

"Rather rare.— J. I." 

A male, killed at Dilkhushah, 18th January 1879. 

650 — Melanochlora sultanea, Eodgs. 

"This specimen was killed iu the North Cachar hills. — J. 1." 
A specimen killed by one of Mr. Inglis' friends some- 
where in North-East Cachar. 

660.— Corvus macrorhynchus, Wagl. 

tl Very common. — J. I." 

A specimen from near Dilkhushah. 

691.— Saraglossa spiloptera, Vig. 

" Very rare ; I have only procured one bird. — J. I." 
A young male from near Dilkhushah. 

693 ter.— Ampeliceps coronatus, Bly. 

" I shot one of these Mynas in the month of April. I have 
frequently seen birds pass over the tea garden, and from their 
habit of flying low have been able from a height to distinguish 
the yellow wing marking ; still the bird here is rare. — J. I." 

The occurrence of this rare species so far north as Dilkhushah, 
in North-East Cachar, is most noteworthy. 



OF NORTH-EASTERN CACHAR. 257 

694 bis.— Ploceus baya, Bly. 

"Very common throughout this district. — J. I," 
A male in full breeding plumage; a fine eld adult, as usual 
without a trace of yellow on the breast. 

696.— Ploceus bengalensis, Lin. 

"This bird is quite us common as the former. — J. I." 
Several specimens from near Dilkhushah. 

702.— Amadina acuticauda, Hodgs. 

" Very common ; may be met with throughout the year ; 
breeds during the rains. — J. I/' 
Specimens from near Dilkhushah. 

717.— Emberiza spodocephala, Pall. 

i( Rather rare here. — J. I." 

A pair from near Dilkhushah, 10th January 1879. 

738.— Carpodacus erythrinus, Pall. 

A male in nearly full breeding plumage, shot at Dilkhushah, 
on the 15th of March. 

754 — Mirafra assamica, McClell. 

" Extremely common. — J. I." 

A specimen from near Dilkhushah. 

771.— Treron nipalensis, Hodgs. 

" This Pigeon is not uncommon during the rains. It congre- 
gates on trees of the Ficus tribe, and seems to feed on the fruit. 
—J. I." 

A specimen, a male, from near Dilkhushah, 15th June 1878. 

773 Ms.— Crocopus viridifrons, Bly. 

"This bird is frequently met with. — J. I." 
Specimen from near Dilkhushah. 

774.— Osmotreron bicincta, Jerd. 

" This lovely Pigeon is among the most common we have in 
Cachar.— J. I." 

A female, killed, 18th April 1874 ; a male, 18th May 1878 ; 
near Dilkhushah. 

776.— Osmotreron phayrei, Bly. 

" Is also very common. — J. I." 

A male, 17th July 1878, near Dilkhushah. 



258 A SECOND LIST OF THE BIRDS 

782 — Alsocomus puniceus, Tick. 

u The Purple Wood Pigeon is not very rare ; some seasons I 
have killed many, still I was 5 years here before I procured a 
specimen. — J. I.'' 

A male, 28th -May 1878, Dilkhushah. 

795 bis.— Turtur tigrinus, Tem. 

" Is rather rare. — J. I. M 

A male, from Dilkhushah, 13th April 1878. 

796.— Turtur risorius, Lin. 

" Is very plentiful throughout Cachar. — J. I." 
A female, 21st March 1878, Dilkhushah. 

797 bis.— Turtur humilis, Tem. 

"This Dove is very rarely seen. I have shot only some four 
birds.— J. I." 

A male of the eastern race, (not the common Indian form 
tranquebaricus that we used to call humilis,) from the Barak 
river, 10th January 1878. 

823.— Ortygornis gularis, Tem. 

" This Partridge, three years ago, was not to be found in 
Eastern Cachar ; since that date they have become plentiful, so 
much so that last March a friend and I killed four birds when 
6nipe-shooting one morning. — J. I." 

Specimens from near Dilkhushah. 

829.— Coturnix communis, Bonn. 

11 Coveys of the Quail may be met with from October to 
February. They do not breed here. — J. I." 
A single specimen killed near Dilkhushah. 

831.— Excalfactoria chinensis, Lin. 

11 This beautiful Quail remains here throughout the season, 
and breeds here. When snipe-shooting in September I flushed 
a covey and got two adult males. — J. L" 

Specimens from Dilkhushah. 

848 bis.— iEgialitis placida, G. B. Gr. 

" Is rather common here, I think. — J. I." 

An adult of this rare species shot on the Barak river.* 

885.— Tringa temmincki, Leisl. 

11 Is very common on all the jheels in Cachar during the cold 
season. — J. I." 

Specimens shot on the Barak river, cold season of 1878. 

* It has also recently been obtained near Sibsagur in Assam by Mr. Cripps. 



OF NORTH-EASTERN OACHAR. 259 

892.— Totanus ochropus, Lin. 

" Common during the cold season. — J. I." 
Specimens from near Dilkhushah, January to April. 

897.— Totanus calidris, Lin. 

" Is somewhat rare here. — J. I." 

A female, commencing to assume summer plumage, shot 
23rd March 1878. 

902. — Porphyrio poliocephalus, Lath. 

" Is not uncommon, and is yearly becoming more plentiful. 
—J. I/' 

A male, shot near Dilkhushah, 23rd May 1878. 

910.— Porzana bailloni, Vieill. 

A single specimen obtained near Dilkhushah. 

913— Hypotaenidia striata, Lin. 

"Is somewhat rare hereabouts. — J. I." 

Specimens shot from March to June near Dilkhushah of the 
ordinary Indian and Burmo-Malayan type, not approaching the 
Andaman form (H. obscuriora.) 

934.— Ardetta sinensis, Gm. 

An adult male, shot near Dilkhushah, 26th July 1879. 

936 bis.— Goisakius melanolophus, Baffl. 

" Two young birds were brought to me alive during the 
rains. I kept them alive for a few months, feeding them on 
frogs and fish. A Kookie found them near the river bank in 
forest.— J. I/' 

A specimen from near Dilkhushah. 

943.— Falcinellus igneus, S. G. Gm. 

" The glossy Ibis is rather rare in Cachar, but is very fre- 
quently found in Sylhet during the cold weather. — J. I." 
A specimen from the Balagung river, Cachar. 

969.— Fuligula nyroca, Quid. 

A young female from near Dilkhushah. 

997.— Phaeton flavirostris, Brandt. 

The occurrence of this species has already been noticed, S.F., 
V., 498. 

A. 0. H. 



260 

So much has been written of late (vide S. F., VIL, 37 ; IX.., 
209 and 234) in regard to the Broad-tailed Reedbird, that 
I feel a little nervous about inflicting a further yarn in regard 
to this insignificant-looking little skulker on the readers of 
Steay Feathers. But looks, fortunately, even in this world 
are not everything, and trumpery a little bird as it may 
appear to the uninitiated outsider, to the ornithological adept, 
who has been duly admitted within the arcana of the science, 
it must, until we know much more of it than has yet been 
put on record, continue an object of much interest. 

I see that my friend Captain Legge has discovered, in the 
British Museum drawers, a specimen from Ceylon collected 
by Mr. Cumming, clearly pertaining to the same species as that 
obtained by Mr. Bourdillon and Captain Butler; but I also see 
that Captain Legge only doubtfully identifies this species with 
Sclwnicola platyurus of Jerdon, on the ground that the type 
of this having been lost, and the description being somewhat 
curt, " it will be a very difficult matter to determine what 
Jerdon's bird really was." 

As a matter of fact, however, we have far greater certainty 
on this latter point than we have in regard to at least three- 
fourths of all the species named by Linne, Gmelin, Pallas, 
Scopoli, and in fact the mass of the older ornithologists. 
Their types too are lost. Their descriptions, alike generic and 
specific, are far more curt, more unsatisfactory, and less 
accurate than Jerdon's, while their indications of the localities, 
whence their specimens were procured, are seldom as exact as 
those furnished in this case by him. 

As a fact we have a seizes of generic characters which, with 
one single exception, fit our bird to the T. This one exception, 
the number of the tail feathers, is explained by the fact that 
the outer tail feather on each side is hidden by the lower tail- 
coverts, and is, therefore, extremely likely to have escaped 
notice. 

We have a specific description, which, though rather brief, 
also fits our birds perfectly. 

Lastly, our birds have been procured both due north and due 
south of the locality in which Jerdon obtained his, and in the 
same range of hills. 

Lastly, we have a moral certainty that no other species, to 
which Jerdon's description would possibly apply, occurs any- 
where in the district whence he procured his specimen. 

There is no earthly doubt in my opinion that our bird is 
Schamicola platyurus of Jerdon ; the only point for decision is, 



SCHCENICOLA PLATYURUS. 



261 



is it also, as 1 have suggested ( ante, p. 234) Catriscus apicalis, 
Licht. ? 

We have now this species from — 

(1.) Ceylon (locality uncertain, say 7° North Latitude) 

collected by Cumming. 
(2.) Southern Travancore, in 8° 30' North Latitude, by 

Bourdillon. 
(3.) Wynaad, Goodalore Ghat, 11° 30' North Latitude, 

by Jerdon. 
(4.) Belgaum, 16° North Latitude, by Butler. 
All the three latter localities are situated in the same chain of 
the hills, viz., the southern section of the Western Ghats, and 
I personally entertain no doubt that this species will prove 
to occur throughout this section. 

Captain Butler has most kindly sent me a series of valuable 
notes which I introduce here so as to keep all the information 
in regard to this species as much together as possible. 

First he sends accurate details of seven specimens shot by 
him at Belgaum in August and September. Unfortunately he 
never measures the tarsi in his specimens : — 



Sex. 



Wing. 



Tail, from 
vent. 
30 
30 
2-87 
312 
312 
262 
2-75 



Bill, at 
front. 
05 
047 
0-44 
044 
0-47 
0-44 
0-44 



Bill, from 
gape. 
068 
0-62 
0'62 
065 
065 
0-68 
0-65 



Date. 

26-8-80 

26-8-80 

26-8-80 

1-9-80 

19-9-80 

1-9-80 

9-9-80 



pale 
pale 



Length. Expa 

Male ... 7-12 85 281 

... 7-0 8-37 2-81 

„ ... 6-75 8-5 281 

„ ... 7-0 875 2-75 

„ ... 7-25 8-62 2-62 

Female ... 675 8"25 262 

„ ... 6-75 812 256 

" Iris olive brown ; legs and feet brown in front, 
whitish flesh behind, and on the soles ; bill black above ; 
horny blue below ; gape black. 

" In the female the legs and feet are fleshy brown, and 
paler than in the male ; the bill is brown above, fleshy below, 
and the mouth is not black inside." 

On another occasion he wrote : — 

" Referring to the remarks, ante p. 210, on this species, I 
would point out one or two slight differences between my birds 
which are in the pale breeding plumage, and your specimen 
which is in the dark cold weather plumage, and to which 
Mr. Brooks' remarks apply : — 

Capt. Butler's specimens in 
pale breeding plumage. 



Mr. Bodrdillon's specimen 
in cold weather plumage. 

1. Mr. Brooks remarks, p. 
210, para. 3, at top of the page 
a the outer feathers being ra- 
ther more than one inch short 
of the central ones/' 



1. In my specimens the dif- 
ference is at least 1 \ inches, if 
anything rather more. 



262 SCHOSNICOLA PLATYURUS. 



2. Lower down on the same 
page he remarks : " Looked at 
in a good light, the whole back 
and upper tail-coverts are 
cross-rayed, the bars being at 
narrower intervals than on the 
tail/' 

3. P. 211, he says : " The 
tail feathers are not pale tipped 
as in some Locusiellas." 



2. In my specimens the tail 
is cross-barred, but the back 
and upper tail-coverts are per- 
fectly plain, and show no signs 
of cross-rays in any light. 



3. In all of my specimens 
the tail feathers are conspicu- 
ously pale tipped on the lower 
surface. 

" On the same and following page it is noted by Mr. Bour- 
dillon, ' that the birds he shot on the 17th April in the 
Assamboo Hills were obviouslv breeding, although he failed to 
discover a nest/ This seems strange as the birds were then 
in the dark, rufeseent brown, cold weather plumage, whereas 
they breed in the pale bleached summer plumage about Belgaum 
in September for certain, as I found two or three nests myself 
this year in that month, one of which contained four eggs, 
and I saw several other pairs of birds at the same time, all 
of which were breeding beyond a doubt. The bird may pos- 
sibly breed twice a year, viz. in April and again in September. 
In this there is nothing very remarkable, but it is a fact worthy 
of note if it breeds in the dark cold weather plumage as well 
as in the pale summer plumage/' 

I cannot myself consider the breeding in April as by any 
means established as yet. The females examined by Mr. Bour- 
dillon showed no traces, his brother writes to me, of this, and 
in some species the testes of the males begin to enlarge months 
before they actually breed. 

Lastly, Captain Butler sent me for the new edition of " Nests 
and Eggs" a note on the nidification of this species, which I 
think is sufficiently important to be published at once. He 
says : — 

" On the 1st September 1880, 1 shot a pair of these birds as 
they rose out of some long grass by the side of a rice field ; and, 
thinking there might be a nest, I commenced a diligent search, 
which resulted in my finding one. It consisted of a good sized 
ball of coarse blades of dry grass with an entrauce on one side, 
and was built in long grass about a foot from the ground. 
Though it was apparently finished, there were unfortunately no 
eggs, but dissection of the hen proved that she would have laid 
in a day or two. On the 10th instant, I found another nest 
exactly similar, built in a tussock of coarse grass, near the same 
place ; but this was subsequently deserted without the bird lay- 
ing. On the 19th September, I went in the early morning to 



SCH(ENICOLA PLATYURDS. 263 

the same patch of grass and watched another pair, soon seeing 
the hen disappear amongst some thick tussocks. On my ap- 
proaching the spot she flew off the nest, which contained four 
eggs, much incubated. The nest was precisely similar to the 
others, but with the entrance hole perhaps rather nearer the 
top, though still on one side. The situation in the grass was 
the same — in fact it was very similar in every respect to the nest 
of Drymceca insignis. The eggs are very like those of Mol- 
pastes heemorrhous* but smaller, having a purplish white ground, 
sprinkled all over with numerous small specks and spots of pur- 
ple and purplish brown, with a cap of the same at the large end, 
underlaid with inky lilac. 

These birds closely resemble Chcetornis striatus in their 
actions and habits, and in the breeding season rise con- 
stantly into the air, chirruping like that species, and descend- 
ing afterwards in the same way on to some low bush or tussock 
of grass, sometimes even on to the telegraph wires. They 
are fearful little skulks, however, if you attempt to pursue 
them, and the moment you approach, disappear into the grass 
like a shot, from whence it is almost impossible to flush them 
again unless you all but tread on them. It is perfectly mar- 
vellous the way they will hide themselves in a patch of grass 
when they have once taken refuge in it; and, although you may 
know within a yard or two of where the bird is, you may search 
for half an hour without finding it. If you shoot at them and 
miss, they drop to the shot into the grass as if killed, and 
nothing will dissuade you from the belief that they are so until 
after a long search the little beast gets up exactly where you 
have been hunting all aloug, from almost under your feet, and 
darts off to disappear, after another short flight of fifteen or 
twenty yards in another patch of grass, from whence you may 
again try in vain to dislodge it." 

If to Mr. Bourdillon we are indebted for the rediscovery of 
this interesting species, to Captain Butler we owe most impor- 
tant information as to its distribution and life history ; and this is 

* No doubt the egg does resemble one of the feebly marked speckly types of the eggs 
of If. hmmorrhous ; but it is extremely unlike all the more richly coloured, boldly 
marked types. The following is my description of the egg, taken from the MSS., 
new edition of u Nests and Eggs" : — 

"The eggs of this species, though much smaller, are precisely of the same type as 
those of Megahirvs palustris and Chcetomiss striatvs ; moderately broad ovals with a 
very fine compact shell with but little gloss, though perhaps rather more of this than 
in either of the species above referred to. The ground colour is white, with perhaps a 
faint pinkish shade, and it is profusely speckled and spotted with brownish red. almost 
black in some spots, more chesnut mothers. Here and there a few larger spots, or 
small irregular blotches occur. 

Besides these markings, clouds, streaks, and tiny spots of grey or lavender grey 
occur, chiefly about the large end, where with the markings (often more numerous there 
than elsewhere) they form, at times, a more or less confluent but irregular and ill- 
defined cap, 

" One egg measured 073 by 0-6."— A. O. H. 

34 



264 PUFFINUS CHLORORHYNCHUS. 

only one of numberless valuable contributions that he has made 
during the last few years to our knowledge of Indian ornitho- 
logy. It is with unfeigned regret, therefore, that I learn that 
before this article even can be published, Captain Butler will 
have left India with his regiment ; and we shall have lost, (but 
let us hope not for ever) one of the most persevering, accurate 
and enthusiastic field ornithologists that India of the present 
day can boast. 

A. O. H. 



The Green-billed Shearwater. 



By Captain W. Vincent Legge, K.A.* 

Gavle. 

■Fain. Procellaridce. 

Bill hooked at the tip, which is elevated and distinct from 
the base in both mandibles ; sides grooved, in some furnished 
with lamellse ; nostrils tubular, placed on the base of the cul- 
men and opening to the front ; wings long and pointed; tail 
short, variable in the number of feathers ; legs short, placed 
far back ; the tibia more feathered than in the last family ; 
feet fully webbed, the outer toe not shorter than the middle ; 
hind toe present as a claw only. 

Of oceanic habit and powerful flight. Of variable size, 
nestinor n rocks or in holes in the ground. Sternum with one 
fissure in each half of the posterior margin. 

Genus Puffinus. 

Bill rather long and slender, the tip much elevated and Looked ; the gonys curved ; 
nostril tube flattened above, rather short, and with two orifices with a division equal 
to their width ; wings long, the 1st quill slightly exceeding the 2nd ; tail of 12 lea- 
thers graduated, rounded at the tip ; tarsus much compressed, the sides protected by 
well-defined scutes, shorter than the outer and middle toes ; hind claw very small. 



Pvfinus chlororhynchus, Lesson, Traite d" 1 Orn., p. 613 (1831); 
Newton, Ibis, 1861, p. 181, et 1867, p. 359. 

Pvffinus, sp. ?, Legge, Sir. leath., 1875, p. 374 ; Hume, ibid, 
1879, p. 115 (List B. of Ind.) 

* This is not really an article written for S. F. by my friend Capt. Legge, but sim- 
ply an extract verbatim et literatim, from his " Birds of Ceylon," of his article on this 
species. This latter has to be added to our list, and some account of it had to be given 
in Stray Feathers, and I have adopted Capt. Legge's account, in order thus to give 
my readers an idea of the careful and comprehensive manner in which he deals with 
every species included in his work, This, owing to the circumstances of the case, is 
perhaps the meagerest artiole in the whole book. 



PUFFINUS CHLORORHYNCHUS. 265 

Adult Male (Cevlon).— Length from skin, 15 5 inches; wing. 10 6 ; tail, 5 2 ; tarsus, 
1'8; middle toe, 2 : 0; outer toe, 2-0; bill to gape (straight), 20 ; length ofnosthl 
tube, 03. 

Iris dusky ; bill dusky greenish; legs and feet fleshy white. 

Above glossy smoke-brown ; the wing-coverts and tertials slightly darker than the 
back, the latter with a greyish tinge or bloom (similar to the appearance of a Tern's 
wing) on the centre of the feathers ; primaries and tail brownish black ; beneath uni- 
form pale brown ; the chin and gorge pervaded with ashy grey; under tailcoverts 
dark brown, the tips slightly paler than the rest of the feathers; under wing uniform 
grey-brown. 

6bs. — An example of this Petrel in the British Museum from Bourbon is a. facsimile 
of the specimen here described ; the only difference perceptible is the slightly less grey 
tint of the under surface. It measures : — Wing, 108 inches; tail, 50 ; tarsus, 1'8; mid- 
dle toe and claw, 2"25 ; bill to gape (straight), 2 ; length of nostril tube, - 35. 

This species is very close to P. fuliginosus, which is larger, has a longer bill and 
white under wing-coverts ; wing, llo to 11'7 inches; tarsus, 21 ; bill to gape, 2 2. 

A species of this group inhabiting the Persian Gulf, and larger than the Dusky 
Shearwater, P. obscurus, Gm., has been described by Mr. Hume as P. persicus (Str . 
Feath., 1873, p. 5). It measures: — Length. 13(J inches; wing, about 80 ; bill at front, 
1 2. '• Bill pale lavender, dusky at the tip ; iris dark brown ; legs white, with an 
opalescent gloss ; lower part of tarsus blackish" (Butler). Upper pluoiage blackish 
brown, paler on the head; the under-parts white, with the flanks, axillaries, and a por- 
tion of the under wing-coverts and the longer under tail-coverts deep brown ; the 
white of the face encircles the eye, extending backwards from the posterior angle as a 
narrow streak for 4 inches (Hume) 



Distribution. — This species, which is one of the most interest- 
ing of late additions to the Avifauna of Ceylon, occurred for the 
first time on the west coast in May 1875. During the height 
of the south-west monsoon two individuals were met with on 
the Bolgodde Lake, not far from Panedura. They were on the 
water near the mouth of the lake, and one was shot, the other 
escaping. The specimen procured was sent to Mr. Mac Vicar, 
who gave it to me. In January 1875, I saw two Petrels, 
evidently of the same species, swimming in the sea near the 
fort of Trincomalie ; aud recently Mr. MacVicar writes to me 
that the Colombo Museum has acquired a specimen shot last 
year on the west coast. The Green-billed Petrel would, there- 
fore, appear to be a not unfrequent straggler as far north as 
Ceylon. It is an inhabitant of the southern part of the Indian 
Ocean, and is not at all uncommon at the Mauritius, Bourbon, 
liodriguez, and other islands. Mr. Edward Newton met with 
it at Rodriguez in October; and the Shearwater of the Sey- 
chelles, which he met with between the islands of Praslin and 
Mahe, is identified by him doubtfully as this species. Speci- 
mens were evidently not procured, and hence the doubtful 
identification ; but it is probable, I think, that the birds seen 
were Green-billed Shearwaters. I have seen dark Petrels near 
the Cocos Islands, and thence southwards to the vicinity of the 
west coast of Australia, which I conclude belonged to the 
present species. 

Habits. — Like other members of this family, this Petrel is 
purely a denizen of the ocean, dwelling on the wide waste of 
waters hundreds, nay thousands, of miles from land, which it 
rarely approaches, except for the purpose of rearing its young. 



266 PUFFINUS CHLOROKHYNCHUS. 

All Petrels appear to be perfectly at borne in all weatbers on 
the vast ocean expanse ; and the present species forms no 
exception to this rule. Solitary individuals are frequently seen 
flying across tbe track of vessels passing through the trade- 
winds ; they come in sight, perhaps, away on the weather-beam, 
shearing over the billows, one wing up and then down, with 
great speed ; in a few minutes they will have crossed ahead 
of the ship or flown round it at a distance, making their way 
off to leeward, and disappearing as rapidly as they came in 
sight. Their flight is performed by swaying the body as it were 
from side to side, with the wings outstretched, and not 
flapping, but turned up successively from the horizontal, the 
course after each sudden inclination being downward and 
then up again with a rapid sweep, overtopping the waves, and 
instantly dropping again into the succeeding trough of the sea. 
They feed on mariue substances, oily matter, the fat of 
whales when it can be procured, and any garbage they may 
find floating on the water. They sit buoyantly on the water, 
and must, of necessity, sleep in that position, possibly reposing 
a good deal by day. 

JSidification. — The Green-billed Petrel breeds at Round Island, 
Mauritius, at Rodriguez, and probably other islands in the 
Indian Ocean. Mr. Edward Newton, who visited a breeding- 
place of this species at the first-named island, gives an interest- 
ing account of it in the Ibis, 1861, p. 181, stating that there 
is a large colony at the north-east of the island, although 
they are spread over the greater part of it. He observes that 
they are as tame as the Tropic birds but not so harmless. 
" They breed/' he says, " under stones, and bite most awfully 
if they get a chauce. The only way to get them out and take 
their single egg is to contrive to turn them round, so that one 
can grab their folded wings and tail. If dropped on the ground 
they will run about, and for some time will not try to fly ; but 
if thrown into the air, they will glide down gently towards the 
sea. On going near any rock where there may be a dozen or 
two, one bird seems to give the alarm, and a chorus of the 
most extraordinary sounds immediately proceeds from under 
the ground. I hardly know what to compare it to, as there is 
nothing like it, except, perhaps, the noise made by cats when 
they set up their backs and squall. ...It is kept up for a minute 
or two, and increases when the individuals are hauled out in 
the manner above described." Two eggs of this Petrel from 
Round Island, for an examination of which I am indebted to 
Mr. Foottel, of Croydon, are elongated ovals, one slightly 
broader than the other, and both a little pointed at one end ; 
they are dull white and smooth in texture, measuring 2*57 by 
151 and 23 by 1 53 inches. 



267 

By Captain E. A. Butler, H. M/s 83rd Regt. 
( Vide, pp. 228, et seq., Sf 237, 238.) 



I should like to make a few more remarks on this species, 
the more so that the female seems almost to have escaped 
notice. 

The hen of this species differs from the cock in having the 
head grey (almost the same shade as the back, but slightly 
paler) instead of white, and in having the lower surface paler. 
In some specimens, which I take to be the fully adult birds, 
the forehead is white for about half an inch. Again, in the 
cock-bird the whole of the throat, chin and breast are pure 
white, whereas in the hen the chin and throat only are whitish 
(not pure white), and the breast is the same colour as the abdo- 
minal parts, but slightly shaded with grey, (owing to the base 
of the feathers being of that colour), as are also the flanks. 

Mr. Hume does not consider the whiteness of the head in the 
cock-bird as a distinguishing characteristic, having obtained 
specimens of malabarica also with white heads. I, on the con- 
trary, have never* seen a white-headed malabarica about Bel- 
gaum, although the species swarms here in the cold weather. 
One thing I have noticed, and that is, that out of the large 
number of blythi that I have shot from time to time, I have 
never observed any white feathers in the lower tail-coverts, as 
is so often the case in malabarica. (S. F., VI., 391.) 

Hens of blythi, except when they have the white forehead, 
are not at all unlike both sexes of malabarica; but the cocks, 
with their snowy-white head, neck, chin, throat and breast, 
cannot possibly be mistaken for that species. 

As Mr. Hume remarks, it is strictly a Tree Myna, never, so 
far as I have observed, settling on the ground, and like mala- 
barica keeps up an incessant chattering whilst hopping from 
bongh to bough in search of food, which consists principally 
of berries. It is particularly fond of the berries of the wild 
Lantana, which grows in such profusion about Belgaum. 



* No doubt specimens of malabarica, with heads as white as old adult, full pluroa- 
ged males of blythi, are very rare. I have only seen three such out of many hun- 
dreds of specimens that have passed through my hands; but malabarica, with heads quite 
as nearly white, as all the fouuale and young male blythi that I have yet seen are 
quite common. 



268 MERGUS SERRATOR. 

I append measurements of six fully adulfc birds of the pre- 
sent species taken in the flesh, and of six adults of S, mala- 
barica for comparison, all shot at or near Belgaum : — 

Species. Sex. length. Expanse. Wing. Tail. ^J* ^^ Date. 

S blvthi ... Male ... 812 12-25 406 2"47 068 10 10-10-80 

... „ ... 825 12-75 40 25 075 1-06 10-10-80 

... „ ... 825 1238 4-0 25 0-65 1-0 10-10-80 

„ ... Female.. 775 11-87 383 2-62 0'68 10 5-10-80 

„ ... 80 12-25 3-93 2-75 075 10 17-10-80 

„ 7'87 120 3-83 2 62 0-68 1-0 17-10-80 

S. malabarica.. Male ... 8 125 40 275 68 TO 4-1-80 

„ ... „ ... 7-87 1238 387 2'37 068 1-0 6-10-80 

... „ ... 8-12 12-75 4-12 2 62 068 10 7-10-80 

„ ... ,, ... 775 12-25 40 2 5 68 10 23-2-80 

, ... „ ... 812 12-75 4-12 275 0-75 106 3-3-80 

„ ... Female.. 775 12 25 40 25 075 10 3-1-80 

In both species the iris is greyish white (or grey in some 
specimens) ; legs and feet vary from yellow to brownish yellow, 
olive yellow, yellowish olive; bill blue at base, green in the 
centre, yellow at the tip. 



JJtergtrs smator. 

As mentioned in the third volume of the " Game Birds" the 
Red-breasted Marganser has to be added to the Indian list, and 
demands, therefore, some notice and a description in "Stray 
Feathers. " 

On the 24th of November 1875, Captain Bishop shot a female 
Merganser, at Manoura Point, Kurrachee. The specimen was 
preserved, and some years later kindly sent to me by Mi*. 
Murray of the Kurrachee museum. I did not examine it closely 
at the time, and it was only when writing my article on the 
Goosander for the " Game Birds/'' and closely scrutinizing our 
large series of that species, that I discovered that Captain 
Bishop's bird was uumistakeably the female of the Red-breasted 
Marganser. 

No other instance of its occurrence within our limits is 
known. 

It is common in winter throughout China (as it likewise is 
in Japan), but Pere David tells us that he never succeeded 
in procuring an adult male there ; probably chiefly the birds 
of the year visit China. At Lake Hanka Prjevalski found it 
scarce. In Mongolia he only saw it at the Dalai-Nor, and 
in Kansu he met with only a single specimen, a young one. 
Throughout Southern and South-eastern Siberia, where it breeds 
freely, it is more common than the Goosander. It has 
not yet been recorded from Yarkand, Western Turkestan, 



MERGUS SERRATOR. 269 

Afghanistan or Beluchistan (unless, as is possible, the birds 
observed by Bishop* at Chabour and Jask on the Mekran Coast 
belonged to this and not, as he believed, the more common 
species) nor even in Persia or the Caspian, or Asia Minor ; but 
I suspect it will prove to occur, as a rare straggler, in severe 
winters to most, if not all, these localities. 

On the Coasts of Palestine it has been observed in the Sinai- 
tic Peninsular, and has occurred accidently in Egypt and 
Algiers. 

It occurs throughout Europe elsewhere on passage, or as a 
winter visitant only, but breeding in Scotland, the Shetland 
and Faeroe Islands, and commonly in Iceland, in Denmark, 
Sweden and Norway right up to the North Cape, the southern 
littoral of the Baltic, Finland, and Northern Russia. On the 
whole perhaps it is more common in the north, and less so in 
the south than the Goosander. In North America its range is 
similar to that of the latter species, but it occurs in Greenland ; 
and, though recorded from California, hardly travels quite so far 
south in winter. 

Generally I think it may be said to have a rather more 
northerly range, to extend and breed further north, and to 
straggle less frequently far south than the Goosander ; and it 
is a species which I should only expect to meet with within 
our limits as a rare straggler. 

I have no original particulars to furnish of this species. The 
following I compile from European and American specimens 
and sources : — 

Males.— Length, 24'0 to 26"0 ; expanse, 29'0 to 32-5; 
wing, 90 to 10'0 ; tail, from insertion of feathers, 3 - l 
to 4*2; tarsus, 1*8 to 2*05; bill, at front, along culmen, 2*4 
to 2*5 ; weight (Neumann) a little over 2 lbs. 

Females, — Length, 22*0 to 23*5 ; expanse, 28*0 to 31*0 ; wing, 
85 to 9*3 ; tail, from insertion of feathers, 2'7 to 36 ; tarsus, 
1-66 to 1'83 ; bill, as above, 2*1 to 23. 

In the male the bill varies from orange red to deep vermilion, 
is more or less dusky on the ridge, aud has the nail varying 
from pale yellowish grey to aUnost black. The feet vary simi- 
larly to the bill, and are brighter externally, paler internally, 
and duller on the webs. The claws are light grey, duller and 
browner, or redder towards their bases. 

In the young females there is more dusky on the upper 
mandible, where the red is often only a lateral band, and the 
feet are duller coloured than in the adult male. 

In the adult male, the whole head, chin, throat, and the neck 
all round, for about one inch, black, glossed with metallic green 

• c.f., IV., 496. 



270 MERGUS SERRATOR. 

on the sides of the head and a bluer sheen elsewhere. Along 
the middle of the crown and occiput runs a comparatively 
narrow line of excessively narrow, more or less disintegrated- 
webbed, elongated feathers, of which the longest are over three 
inches in length, formiug a conspicuous crest. The rest of 
the neck, all round, to just the base, pure white, with a couspi- 
cuous narrow black line down the centre of its hinder aspect. 
At the base of the neck a light brownish-rufous or pale brown- 
ish-chestnut band extends all round, narrower behind, and 
broadening into a crop patch in front. This band is streaked 
longitudinally with blackish brown. The interscapulary 
region and upper back, the extreme sides of the breast and the 
scapulars, velvet black. Outside the scapulars and between 
these and the wing there is a conspicuous patch of long white 
feathers. The primaries, aud their greater coverts (which latter 
are darkest), the shoulder of the wing and the lesser coverts 
just above the carpus, blackish brown. The rest of the lesser 
and median coverts pure white ; the secondary greater coverts 
black, all except the first three broadly tipped with white, but 
leaving a portion of their black bases visible below the white 
median coverts, thus forming the first black bar across the 
white of the wing. The secondaries black, all except the first 
three very broadly tipped with white ; here again this white 
does not reacli quite as far up as the white tips of the greater 
coverts, and thus a second transverse black bar is formed. The 
tertiaries, or as some call tliem the elongated inner secon- 
daries, are (except the last three which are black) pure white, 
conspicuously margined with black. The axillaries are pure 
white. Just above the bases of these, at the sides of breast, 
there is a remarkable tuft of feathers, pure white, but every- 
where conspicuously margined with velvet black. The whole 
or* the rest of the lower parts are white, with, in life, a beau- 
tiful salmon or buffy tinge which disappears in the skin. 
Sides and flanks also white, but very conspicuously and rather 
coarsely vermiculated with greyish black. Middle and lower 
back, rump and upper tail-coverts also white, but extremely ■, 
finely, and closely vermiculated^ with dull black, so as to pro- 
duce a general grey effect. Tail dull brown ; wing lining, ex- 
cept along the edge of the wing aud the greater lower primary 
coverts (which are satin grey) white. 

The female has the entire crown, occiput and crest (which 
is similar to, but smaller than, that of the male) brown, with 
more or less of a dull rufous or chestnut tinge, and more or 
less of ashy towards the forehead ; the sides of the head and 
neck all round pale dull brownish chestnut ; the chin white, 
and the front of the throat more or less albescent. The breast 
and entire lower parts white or pinkish white in life, only at 



MERGUS SERRATOR. 271 

the base of the throat and ou the crop, the grey -brown bases 
of the feathers show through to a certain exteut like hidden 
bars, and the sides of the breast and body and flanks are brown 
of the same peculiar greenish or ashy shade (though rather 
purer in tint) as the upper surface. The entire interscapular/ 
region, mantle, lower back, rump and upper tail-coverts, brown, 
with, to my eyes, a sort of greenish tinge, or some would call 
it ashy, most of the feathers paling towards the margins. 
The quills are dusky, almost blackish ; the secondaries and 
their greater coverts black, all but the first three broadly- 
tipped with white, but leaving a portion of the black bases of 
the secondaries visible below the white tips of the coverts, 
thus forming a more or less conspicuous, though posteriorly- 
narrow, black band across the white wing patch. There is 
a second upper black band as in the male, but as the lesser 
and median coverts in the female are dusky ash, it is hardly 
noticed. 

The tertiaries blackish dusky, paling anteriorly, whitish to- 
wards the tip, and the innermost one mostly white with a 
black outer margin. The tail feathers are much the same 
colour as the back. 

Both sexes, as will have been gathered from the above des- 
cription, resemble those of the Goosander, but may be distin- 
guished by their smaller size, and bills much thinner in pro- 
portion to their length, especially at the base. 

The adult males, moreover, are at once to be recognized by 
the conspicuous light brownish rufous baud round the base of 
the neck, narrow behind, broading out in front into a crop 
patch, which band is everywhere adorned by black streaks; 
by a narrow black baud stretching down the back of the neck, 
a greater length of which is white than in the Goosander ; 
by the flanks (pure white in this latter) strongly vermiculated 
with greyish black in the present species, and by the much 
longer and differently-shaped crest and other minor differ- 
ences. 

But we are very unlikely to get adult males in this country, 
and the young and females far more closely resemble those of 
the Goosauder. 

They may, however, be distinguished by their smaller size 
(they weigh about two-thirds of what the others do) and differ- 
ently shaped bills ; by their browner crowns and crests ; by 
their entire upper surface being a tolerably dark brown, or ashy 
brown, or dusky slaty with a brownish or greenish tinge 
instead of the clear light blue grey of the Goosander ; and by 
the white wing patch composed of the terminal portions of 
the secondaries and their greater coverts, which in the Goosan- 
der forms a single patch ; but in the present species, (the tips 

35 



272 ON AN UNDESCRIBED SPECIES OF PHYLLOSCOPUS. 

of the coverts not quite extending- to where the white tippings 
of the quills commence) is crossed by a dark bar, (broader 
anteriorly, narrower posteriorly,) dividing it into two. 

A. 0. H. 



(ffht an mtteribd %#um of lu-gltrrsraps. 

By W. Edwin Brooks. 



Phylloscopus burmanicus, N. Sp. 

The first example of this bird I received from Mr. Oates 
without any name on the label, about May 1880, and the 
second example I found in Mr. Hume's museum, labelled P. 
viridanus. These two accord so perfectly, and differ so decided- 
ly from all others with which I am acquainted, that I have 
no hesitation in concluding them to be specifically distinct. 

The upper surface is pale olive as in viridanus ; there is a 
broad yellowish white supercilium, and the usual brownish band 
through the eye ; lower surface albescent as in viridanus, and 
tinged in the same way with dusky or grey on sides of breast 
and flauks; centre of lower parts faintly tinged with yellow, 
to the same extent as in viridanus ; upper surface of bill light 
brown; lower mandible horny white. There is a very conspi- 
cuous wing bar of the same character as in plumbeitarsus, but 
no second or upper bar is visible as in that species. 

The first primary is of moderate size as in plumbeitarsus ; 
second a trifle longer than the 8th. There is a considerable space 
between 2ud and tip of wing ; in one example *4, and in the 
other *36 ; this is about one-tenth longer than in viridanus. 

The date of Mr Oates' example is 15th November ; locality, 
Pegu. Of Mr Hume's, 12th October; locality, 100 miles north 
of Moulmein, both are marked as males. 

The Pegu bird has the following particulai's on the label : — 
<f Length, 4*7 ; expanse, 7'5 ; tail, 1*8 ; wing, 2'4 ; tarsus, '78 ; 
bill from gape, "59. Iris brown ; lower mandible of bill yellow, 
dusky at extreme tip ; upper one brovin; legs and toes yellow- 
ish brown ; claws pale brown." 

The Moulmein bird's wing is 2*37; tail, 1*8; bill, at front, 
•36 ; from gape, "58 ; tarsus, *78. 

It is one of the broad B?/polais~h\\\ed group, like nitidus, poly- 
glotta, viridanus, magnirostris, lugubris, plumbeitarsus and 
others. 

From viridanus it may be distinguished as follows : — 

(1.) The wing bar being abruptly separated from the greenish 
colour of the rest of the feather, while in viridanus the wing bar 



LOI'IIOTIIIORCFIIS KIENEIU. 273 

is shaded off, or blended into the adjoining greenish colour. 
This distinction is alone conclusive. 

(2.) The bill is larger mid most conspicuously so when looked 
at from below, the lower inaudible being longer and broader at 
the base. The bill is both whiter below and paler brown above. 

(3.) The different shape of the end of the wing, the step 
between 2nd and tip being much shorter iu viridanus. This 
remark also applies to plumbeitarsus and lugubris. 

From plumbeitarsus its larger size, longer wing, only one 
wing bar, paler tone and longer distance between 2nd and tip of 
wing separate it. 

From lugubris its very much paler tone, smaller first or bas- 
tard primary, and longer distance between 2nd and tip of wing 
separate it. 

With an average lugubris, it could never be confounded, but 
sometimes this species is much clearer and less dusky than 
usual, in colour much resembling magnirostris, and then, if some- 
what faded, it would not be unlike our new bird, save for the 
other points noted. 



IflpltdriM'dus fkum. 



In Volume I, page 310, et seq, I gave a very full description 
of the adult of this species, the Rufous-bellied Hawk-Eagle. 
At page 9 of Vol. V.. while recording it from North-east 
Cachar, I pointed out one great difference existing in apparent 
adults of this species, viz., that, whereas some have the chin, 
throat, and breast snow white, in others these parts are 
strongly tinged and overlaid with the rich ferruginous 
chestnut of the rest of the tower parts. At page 33 of 
Vol VII., 1 recorded it from Southern Travancore — a locality 
important because I had previously reason to doubt whether 
the Peninsula species was really, as it proves to be, identical 
with the Himalayan. 

Hitherto nothing has been said of the immature plumage 

of this species. In fact, so far as I know, only one youno- 

bird has ever been described, and that by Mr. Sharpe, in hia 

Addenda to Vol. 1. of his British Museum Catalogue, page 458. 

I find I have in my collection several young birds, one 
considerably younger, and two again considerably older than 
that described by Mr. Sharpe; and with these four and other 
intermediate ones, we are now in a position to understand 
fairly well the changes of plumage which this species under- 
goes. 



274 LOPHOTRIORCHIS KIENERI. 

The youngest specimen I have yet seen is a young male, 
shot on Singapore Island, on the 19th January. It is in the most 
beautifully fresh plumage, and I apprehend has only just left 
the nest. Broadly speaking it is a comparatively light brown 
above, the feathers, darker centred or shafted, and every feather 
tipped albescent or white; the longest crest feather is nearly 
two inches long-; beneath it is everywhere an uniform snow white, 
except the tips of the large plumes of feathers that, springing 
on each side of the breast, cover the sides of the body, which 
tips are dark brown, and the axillaries which exhibit fulvous- 
brown, linear, oval, subterminal shaft-spots. 

&t page 312 of Volume I, I quoted the description of 
a specimen figured in Jardine and Selby's illustration of orni- 
thology, plate 66. Comparing our young bird with that figure, 
there is no doubt, I think, that the two belong to the same 
species ; but ours is a younger bird ; the brown is not nearly 
so dark in our bird; and the albescent tippings to all the fea- 
thers of the upper parts seem to have disappeared in Jardine 
and Selby's specimen. On the other hand the primary greater 
coverts, which in that bird are represented as tipped with 
pure white, are iu our bird only tipped in the same 
way as all the rest of the feathers of the upper surface, 
with a sort of yellowish or brownish white. Probably this 
pure white is an artistic exaggeration. Lastly, the crest in the 
figure is represented as occipital, whereas it really arises near 
the base of the occiput, and might more px*operly be called 
nuchal. 

With this exception I do not doubt that, had our bird lived 
three or four months longer, so as to lose the pale nestling 
tippings to the feathers, and permit the gradual darkening of 
these which seems to take place, it would have agreed most 
exactly with Jardine's figure. That a bird of this species should 
have been killed on the coast near Aberdeen, as was asserted when 
the plate referred to was published, seems hardly credible. Mr. 
Gurney will probably be able to tell us whether anything 
further as to the history of this specimen has ever transpired. 

I will now give a more detailed description of our youngest 
bird. 

Male. — Singapore, 19th January 1880. — Length, 21 ; wing, 
14 ; tail, from insertion of feathers, 79 ; tarsus, 2'6 ; bill, from 
gape, straight to point, 1*5. 

The feet and cere were pale creamy yellow; the irides pale 
yellow ; bill and claws horny black ; lower mandible yellowish 
at base. 

Forehead and a narrow line over the eye fawny white ; 
a strongly-marked black line running downwards from the 
posterior angle of the eye over the ear-coverts, rather more 



LOPHOTRIORCHIS KIENERI. 275 

than an inch in length ; crown, occiput, nape, and back of the 
neck fawny brown ; every feather tipped with albescent or 
yellowish white, and .ill the feathers of the crown and central 
part of the occiput more or less centred with dark brown ; 
crest springing from the centre of the base of the occiput with 
the terminal visible portions deep brown, narrowly tipped whitish 
like the rest of the feathers ; interscapular^" region and scapulars 
a rather pale hair brown, the feathers tipped albescent, dark 
shafted, and on the interscapulary region especially darkening 
towards the centres; feathers of the back, rump, and upper 
tail-coverts similar, but not dark centred: the three or four 
longest scapulars with the whole visible portions dark brown ; 
lesser and median coverts, and tertiaries, the same hair brown 
as the back, and similarly tipped, but the tippings more decidedly 
white; primaries, secondaries, and greater coverts blackish 
brown, all the feathers narrowly tipped {very narrowly in the 
case of the first five primaries) with white or brownish white ; 
the tail a greyish olive brown, pretty broadly tipped with pure 
white, and with ei^ht rather narrow, transverse blackish brown 
bands, of which only five are visible on the central tail feathers 
below the upper tail-coverts ; entire lower surface of the body, 
axillaries, and wing-lining uniform snow white, except — 

(I.) The terminal halves of the ear-coverts, which are warm 
fawny brown, black at the extreme tips where they join the 
black line already referred to. 

(2.) The terminal portions of the elongated plume of 
feathers starting on either side of the breast, which termi- 
nal portions are in the longest feathers blackish brown, 
tipped white, and in the others brown shafted or with brown 
shaft stripes. 

(3.) The axillaries which each exhibit either a dark shaft 
near the tip or a fawny-brown, linear-oval, shaft-spot near 
the tip. 

(4.) One or two of the earlier primary greater lower 
coverts, which exhibit an imperfect blackish brown bar. 

On the lower surface of the wing the first five primaries exhibit 
a very conspicuous notch ; above this notch the feathers are 
white, greyish brown towards the shafts, with three or four 
narrow, transverse, dusky bars ; below the notch, the feathers 
are dark brown, silvery grey towards the shafts, with three 
rather indistinct, transverse, dark brown bars on this grey. 
The lower surface of the tail is grey, with five to seven narrow, 
transverse, dark brown bands ; on the outer web the outer 
margin is also of this same colour. 

The bird described by Mr. Sharpe would seem to be some- 
what older, and to have begun to acquire the yellow tinge of 



276 LOPHOTRIORCHIS KIENERI. 

plumage of the lower surface, &c, which characterizes the 
next stacre, and which in its full intensity only appears, I think, 
at the next moult. I quote his description : — 

t( Young. — Above dark brown, the feathers lighter on their 
maro-ins; wing-coverts coloured like the back, but the greater 
series with narrow, white margins ; hind neck paler than back, 
rufous brown, with dark brown longitudinal centres, causing 
a slightly streaked appearance; quills blackish, with whity 
brown shafts; the secondaries paler brown, like the scapulars, 
all the quills narrowly banded with black, nearly obsolete on 
the primaries, but more distinct on the secondaries, especially 
underneath, where the lining of the wing is whitish ; tail 
dark brown, whitish at tip, and crossed with seven or eight 
rather narrow bands of black ; crown of head dark brown, 
with tiny cream-coloured tips to the feathers ; the occipital 
crest black, and 1'9 inch long; forehead and eyebrow very 
broad, rich creamy buff; cheeks and entire underparts 
creamy white, as also the tarsal feathers and under wing and 
tail-coverts ; the greater under wing-coverts with a few indis- 
tinct blackish bars. Total length, 20'5 inches ; wing, 13*3 ; 
tail, 8-5 ; tarsus, 2'5." 

Next we have a supposed male killed in April 1876 in Sikhim. 
Generally this specimen is black or intense blackish brown 
above, but with the rich creamy yellow, almost a maize yellow, 
of the bases of the feathers showing through, about the nape, 
and with the entire lower surface of this same rich creamy 
yellow, but with a few black linear lanceolate shaft spots on 
the feathers of the breast and sides of the abdomen, and with 
the tibial plumes, and the lower tail-coverts, intermingled with 
a slicrhtly duller shade of the chestnut of the adult. The 
winor-lining is still white, but the axillaries are bright chestnut 
(not quite so red as in the adult), with a narrow black shaft 
stripe ; the tips of the lateral pectoral plumes are black pre- 
ceded by chestnut, and a very few of the feathers across the 
middle of the abdomen are here and there tinged with chestnut, 
showing that this colour first comes not by a moult, but by 
a chano-e in the tint of the existing feathers. The forehead 
and the line over the eye extending in this bird, half an inch 
bevond the posterior angle, are of the same rich yellow, as the 
under parts, and the ear-coverts are of this colour also, but 
with black shaft stripes, and the longest of them broadly 
tipped with black. The tail is very similar to that of the 
younger bird, but so much darker in tint that on the central 
feathers, at any rate, the transverse bars are scarcely discern- 
ible. The white tips to the rectrices have disappeared, and 
the feathers are only just perceptibly paler margined at the tips. 



BIRDS NESTING ON THE EASTERN NARRA. 277 

Later again, to judge from another young bird, a sup- 
posed male purchased at Malacca, as the chestnut begins to 
creep over the abdomen, the rich yellow tinting fades away, 
the forehead becomes black, and the stripo over the eye almost 
disappears. 

There seem, therefore, to be four recognizable stages : — 

(1.) As it leaves the nest; uniform, snow white below, 
rather light hair brown above, every feather conspicuously, 
though narro\vl} r , tipped white, or brownish, or fawny white. 

(2.) Change anterior to first moult ; similar, but a creamy 
tinge often pervading the white of the lower surface, the brown 
of the upper surface darker,* and the whitish tippings wanting 1 , 
or obsolete, or nearly so. 

(3.) First moult ; upper surface intense blackish brown or 
almost black, but the bases of the feathers of the crown, occiput 
and nape, and the entire lower surface rich creamy yellow, 
and a few of the feathers of the breast and sides of the abdo- 
men with black linear lanceolate shaft spots. 

(4.) Change interior to second moult; upper surface similar, 
but a good deal withered in places ; the rich yellow tinge 
everywhere disappearing or having entirely disappeared ; the 
linear lanceolate shaft spots having increased in number and 
size, and a chestnut similar to that of the adult plumage, but 
duller (beginning on the lower tail-coverts, tibial plumes and 
axillaries,) creeping over the lower surface. 

A. 0. H. 



iirds ftesttnig on the (fatern jtarra. 

Additions and Alterations. 



By S. B. Doig. 



Since my paper on the above subject appeared in your jour- 
nal, I have had a letter from my friend Captain E. A. Butler, 
in which he makes certain remarks on my Tentative List there- 
in given. Among others he says : " Surely most, if not all, of the 
following birds breed on the Narra, viz., Bubo bengalensis, Scops 
baklcamoena, Taccocua sirlcee, &c, &c." I have specimens of 

* This change also appears to occur in the feather itself. First the webs grow 
a little Harker on either sicb of the shaft near the point; then the feather becomes 
distinctly sub-terminally darker centred; at the same time, in some birds at any 
rate, a creamy tinge creeps over the white everywhere ; then the dark centres spread 
and grow darker still. But it is not until the first moult that they put on the 
intense black brown above or the full yellow below, and both these fade before the 
second uVmlt. when the complete adult plumage is assumed- Whether the loss of white 
on throat and breast, in apparent adults, referred to at the commencement of the 
above article, indicates a third moult, or is an individual difference, I do not know 



278 BIRDS NESTING ON THE EASTERN NARRA. 

all these birds in my collection which I have shot in other parts 
of Sind, and 1 have no doubt they are all permanent residents 
in the province ; but many of them I have never met with on 
the Narra ; and, as my paper only professes to give a list either 
of the birds whose eggs I have actually collected in this dis- 
trict, or of those of which I have every reason to believe do 
breed here, I regret I cannot add all lie has pointed out- Some 
however I can. These I now proceed to give a list of, as well 
as some other species which I have discovered during the last 
twelve months. 

First of all, as pointed out by Captain Butler — . 
761. — C. brachydactyla, should be expunged from my list, and 
the following birds added : — 
265. — Tephrodornis pondicerianus, Gm. Nest and young, 25th 

June. 
292. — Leucocerca aureola, VieilL Three fresh eggs, 4th July. 
530. — Othotomus sutorius, Forst. Eggs not collected. 
762 ter. — Alaudula adamsi, Hume. Not properly identified. 
830. — Coturnix coromandelica, Gm. Ecrgs not collected. 

Thirty species were entered in my former list in italics> as 
being birds, which I believed to breed on the Narra, but of 
which I had not obtained eggs. I have, during the last twelve 
months, obtained eggs of eleven out of these thirty species. 
They are as follows : — 
16. — Falco chiquera, Daud., 16th April. 
55.— Haliastur indus, Bodd., 4th April. 
100.— Cypsellus affinis, J. E. Gr., 22ud June. 
118.— Merops philippinus, Lin., 15th July. 
158. — Picus sindianus, Gould., 2nd April. 
385. — Pyctoris sinensis, Gm., 10th July. 
760.— Pyrrhulauda grisea, Scop., 28th August. 
760 bis. — Pyrrhulauda melanauchen, Cab., 10th September. 
933. — Arde'tta cinnamomea, Gm., 3rd August. 
975. — Podiceps minor, Gm., 8th July. 
985. — Sterna seena, Sykes, 10th August. 

In addition to the above, I have, of the following birds, not 
included in my original list, either taken the eggs, or acquired 
reasonable grounds for believing that they breed on the Narra. 
Those entered in italics represent the latter: — 
120.— Merops persicus, Pall., July, August. 
515. — Acrocephalus stentorius, Hemp, and Ehr., August. 
553.— Hypolais rama, Sykes, March, June. 
583 bis.— Sylvia nana, Hemp, and Ehr., September. 
709.— Passer pyrrhonotus, Ely., August. 
770. — Certhilauda desertorum, Sianl., June. 
837.— Houbara macqueeni, J. E. Gr. and Hardw., May, June. 
893.— Tringoides hypoleucus, Lin., June, July. 



BIRDS NESTING ON THE EASTERN NARRA. 279 

As little or nothing is known of the nidification of some of 
these birds I will proceed to give the result of my observa- 
tions. 

158.— Picus sindianus, Gould. 

Found a nest with two fresh eggs on the 2nd April ; the 
eggs were laid in a hole in a tamarisk tree, situated about 
four feet from the ground ; the tree was close on the bank of 
the Narra, the hole facing the north ; there was no lining to 
the nest, the depth of the hole being about 10 inches. 

515. — Acrocephalus stentorius, Hemp, and Ehr. 

On the 4th August, while my man was poling along in a 
canoe in a large swamp on the look-out for eggs, he passed a 
small bunch of reeds, and in them spotted a nest with a bird on 
it. The nest contained three beautiful fresh eggs. A few days 
later I joined him, and on asking about these eggs, he described 
the bird, and said he had found several other nests of the same 
species, but all of them contained young ones, nearly fledged. 
I made him shew me some of these nests, all of which were 
situated in clumps of reed, in the middle of the swamp, and, 
in these same reeds I found and shot the young one, which 
though fledged, were not able to fly. These I sent with one of 
the eggs to Mr. Hume, who has identified them as belonging 
to this species. The nests were composed of frayed pieces 
of reed grass and fine sedge, the latter being principally to- 
wards the inside, thus forming a kind of lining. The nests were 
loosely put together, were about 3 inches inner diameter, 1£ 
inch deep, the outer diameter being 6 inches. They were 
situated about a foot over water line, in the tops of reeds grow- 
ing in the water. 

553.— Hypolais rama, Syhes. 

I first obtained eggs of this bird in March 1879. The first 
nest was found by one of my men, who afterwards shewed 
me a bird close to the place he got the eggs, which he said 
was either the bird to which the nest and eggs belonged, or 
one of the same kind. This I shot and sent to Mr. Hume with 
one of the eggs to identify. Some time after I again came 
across a lot of these birds breeding, and this time lay in wait 
myself for the bird to come to the nest and eggs, and when it 
did, shot it. This I also sent to Mr. Hume to identify. Some 
time after I heard from Mr. Hume, who said that there must 
be some mistake as the birds sent belonged to two different 
species, viz., Sylvia affinis and Hypolais rama, and were both, 
he believed, only cold weather visitants. This year I again 

36 



280 BIRDS NESTING ON THE EASTERN NARRA. 

" went for" these birds, and again sent specimens of birds and 
eggs to Mr. Hume, who informed me that the birds now sent 
were H. rama, and that the eggs must belong to this species. 
Soon after this Mr. Brooks saw the eggs with Mr. Hume, and 
identified them as being H. Tama's eggs, and identical to eggs 
he saw at home collected by, I think, Mr. Seebohm, of this 
species, in Siberia. Only fancy, a bird breeding on the Narra, 
of all places, especially in May, June, and July, in preference 
to Siberia ! Locally they are very numerous, as I collected up- 
wards of 90 to 100 eggs in one field, about eight acres in size. 
They build in stunted tainai-isk bushes, or rather in bushes of 
this kind which originally were cut down to admit of cultiva- 
tion being carried on, and which afterwards had again sprouted. 
These bushes are very dense, and in their centre is situated the 
nest composed of sedge, with a lining of fine grass, mixed some- 
times with a little soft grass reeds. The eggs are, as a rule, 
four in number, are of a dull white ground colour, with brown 
spots, the large end having, as a rule, a ring round it of most 
delicate, fine, hair-like brown lines, something similar to the 
tracing to be seen on the eggs of " Drymoeca inornata." The 
egg in size is also similar to this species.* 

583 fe— Sylvia nana, Eemp. and Ehr. 

On the 13th November, while visiting the "Allah" Bund in 
the Runn of Kutch, 1 found the young of this species just able 
to fly. They, with C. desertorum and a few da.vicola deserti, 
were the only birds to be seen in this desolate region. 

709.— Passer pyrrhonotus, My. 

Forty years is a long period for one and the same bird not to 
have been met with in India. However, at the time I met 
with it, viz. in August, Sind, as a rule, is not visited by orni- 
thologists for pleasure, and not many Europeans, official or 
otherwise, are travelling about in the districts. My duties 
fortunately (?) took me into my districts at this time, and one 
day, while trying to shoot some A. slentorius, I shot a bird 
which I did not know, and eventually some days after, on 
joining my kit, and looking it up in my books, I discovered I 
had got a prize. I was then a long way off from the place 
I obtained the above specimen ; and, though I sent a man to 
shoot and carbolize as many specimens as he could get, he could 
find none. The following are my notes on this bird : — 

li 25th August. — While beating some tamarisk bushes in the 
middle of a swamp for A. stentorius I shot a bird I did not 

* They are really a good deal broader eggs. Fifty eggs of D. inornaia,fl\ei&ge 
61 by 045, while fifty of R. rama average 0616 by 0-495.— A. O. H. 



BIRDS NESTING ON THE EASTERN NARRA. 281 

recognize, and which I had noticed fly past me two or three 
times towards some small acacia trees growing in the water. 
On going to these trees, I found three nests exactly similar 
to nests of P. domesticus, only rather smaller, placed in the 
topmost branches, and about 12 feet over water line. All the 
nests had young ones more or less fully fledged ; in order to 
have a pair of the birds, 1 shot a female." 

Had 1 only known at the time of the importance of my prize 
t could have got all the birds — nest, young and all. The pair 
I shot, along with another male obtained some days after in 
another part of the Narra, I sent to Mr. Hume, who corrobo- 
rated my identification. The second male, I shot out of a flock, 
which were migrating south, flying from tree to tree along the 
bank of the Narra. 

760 fo's.— Pyrrhulauda melanauchen, Cab. 

This bird, wherever there are sand drifts, is very common, 
and is never, as far as my experience goes, found in company 
with P. grisea. They breed at the end of February and begin- 
ning of March, at the end of May and commencement of June, 
and again in the end of August and beginning of September. 
One breeding place I found in this latter month was situated 
away from the Narra, some 10 miles out in the desert near some 
salt deposits, and where evidently rain had fallen, as there was 
a considerable growth of grass. The nests were very similar to 
those of P. grisea both in size and description, and were invaria- 
bly placed at the root of some tuft of grass, on the north side, 
evidently to be sheltered from the hot wind. In this place I 
collected over 40 eggs. They are very similar to those of P. 
grisea, perhaps as a rule more boldly marked, and some of them 
had well defined rings of colour round the larger end. The 
normal number of ecjcrs j s two. 



no 



770.— Certhilauda desertorum, Stanl. 

On the 3rd June I found a nest and young of this species on 
a large, open plain on the borders between the Narra and 
Hydrabad districts. Since then I have to thank my friend, Mr. 
Ffinch, for an egg of this bird taken at Jask. The nest I 
found was similar to those of P. grisea, but larger. The egg in 
my collection is in markings very similar to eggs of P. mela- 
nauchen, the markings being bolder and the egg about twice 
the size. 

837.— Houbara macqueeni, J. F. Gr. and Eardw. 

My egg collector told me in July last that one year, while 
travelling through the desert from Gudra to Renahoo, he had 



282 BIRDS NESTING ON THE EASTERN NARRA. 



seen 



,.,-,» " Tilloor" there in the months of May and June. This 
year in September a man voluntarily informed me one day that 
he had seen the eggs of the " Tilloor" in the desert, at a place 
near where my man had seen the birds, and, strange to say, he 
described the eggs as being of an uniform buff or deep cream 
colour without any markings.* 

893.— Tringoides hypoleucus, Lin. 

On the 3rd July my man found a nest of this species^ con- 
taining two eggs ; he shot the parent bird, which he saw sitting 
on the%ggs, as it left the nest. This he carbolized aud sent 
to me ; the eggs being hard set he was unable to preserve. I 
sent fragments of the carbolized bird to Mr. Hume, who identi- 
fied them as belonging to this species. The nest was a few 
shells aud sand scraped together near the waters' edge of a 
salt deposit, and on these the eggs were laid. ' The eggs, my 
man described, as being similar to those of Mgialitw minuta, 
but larger and more strongly marked. 

933.— Ardetta cinnamomea, Gm. 

Found a nest on the 3rd August of this species in a thick 
clump of reeds in the middle of a swamp ; it contained four 
fresh eggs. The nest was a platform of coarse grass and reed, 
the eggs were nearly perfect ovals, of a chalky white colour. 



Additions to the Sind Avifauna. 



13. — Falco subbuteo, Lin. — On the 9th June at Hydrabad, my 
man brought me a nearly adult female of this species which he 
had shot in the babool grove below the camp. Being busy at 
the time, I was unable to look it up in Jerdon, but 1 sent it to 
Mr. Hume, saying I thought it was a strange-looking falcon, and 
he identified it as belonging to this species. 

709. — Passer pyrrhonotus, Bly. — Found, as already mentioned 
above. 

* Natives can rarely describe eggs correctly. The eggs of the Houbara, according 
to good figures, ai'e of precisely the same type as those of Otis tarda and tetrax, 
Euvodotis edwardsi, Sypheotis bengalensis, and Sypheotides auritus. — A. O. H. 



283 



The nomenclature of some of the Asiatic Snipes is in a 
sorely confused state, and it is to be hoped that some competent 
authority at home will look into the question. 

First, we have our Eastern Solitary Snipe, G. solitaria, and 
coupled with this a G. hyemalis of Eversmann {Bui. de la Soc. 
Imp. de Natural, de Moscou, 1845, I, 257), which Middeudorf 
and others formerly held to be identical with it, but which 
BogandofT, Severtzoff, &c, assert to be, and Taczanowski and 
others now-a-da} r s accept as, distinct. 

As stated in my article on solitaria, id Vol. Ill of the Game 
Birds, I do not myself at all believe in the distinctness of 
hyemalis, and I doubt whether any Continental ornithologist 
has access to a sufficient number of Himalayan specimens of 
solitaria (which is a very variable species, both in size, colour, 
markings and number of tail feathers) to be able to decide the 
question. I have not myself unfortunately access to Evers- 
mann's original description, or I might perhaps be able to settle 
the matter ; but in Englaud, where so many specimens of 
solitaria exist, there ought to be no difficulty in solving the 
problem. 

Then, again, we have G. sthenura (Kuhl in Bp.), and 
G. rnegala, Swinhoe, and we have moreover G. helerocerca, 
Cabanis (J. F. 0., 1870, 235) and G. heteroeaca, Cabanis (J. F. 
O., 1872, 317). 

As far as I can make out, it is now usually, though not 
universally, admitted that the bird we call megala is the bird 
that Cabanis now calls his heterocerca. 

Cabanis (J. F. O., 1873, 104» n.) appears to believe that 
Swinhoe really applied the name megala to solitaria, and that 
subsequently the name was wrongly transferred to his, Cabanis', 
heterocerca, and he refers to passages written by Swinhoe, 
before the latter had ever seen solitaria, in which (judging 
merely from the plate and description in the F. Japonica,) 
Swinhoe expressed the opinion that his megala and solitaria 
might be identical ; but Cabanis ignores the fact that later 
Swinhoe, when he saw solitaria, at once recognized its distinct- 
ness, that Swinhoe's name was applied to the Common Great 
Snipe of China ; and that though Swinhoe obtained solitaria from 
Pere David from Pekin, he himself never got this species 
in China, unless, indeed, possibly one specimen, which he sent 
to Blyth and which was lost, whereas of his megala he had 
many specimens, and continually met with it everywhere. It 
is quite impossible, therefore, that Swinhoe' s name megala should 
have been originally applied to solitaria, or to any bird except 



284 NOTES. 

that to which all English authors attatch it, vis., the Common 
Great Snipe of China. 

But Prjevalski, I see, keeps megala of Swinhoe and heterocerca 
distinct, and I think rightly so ; and I have to suggest for Dr. 
Cabanis' consideration whether possibly his original heterocerca 
was not a sthenura, and whether, instead of Swinhoe's name 
megala having been transferred to his species heterocerca, the 
fact may not be that he has now transferred his name hetero- 
cerca to Swinhoe's species megala. 

I do not for a moment suppose that this has been knowingly 
done. I only wish him' to verify by reference to the original 
specimen whether it is or is not a sthenura. So far as his 
description goes (and I must in all humility protest against 
such imperfect and meagre descriptions) there is nothing to 
render this improbable. His only specific characters are larger 
size (size very variable in sthenura), difference in the number 
of tail feathers (which number in sthenura varies from 20 to 
28 in specimens now before me, and the narrow feathers on 
each side from 5 to 9), and the greater length of the lateral ones 
(the length of these being most variable in sthenura, so that 
the spread tail is sometimes round and sometimes wedge- 
shaped). 

Of course Dr. Cabanis remarked later, when describing his 
6r. heteroeaca, " und hat im Schwanze jederseits eine verengte 
steuerfeder mehr, ein Umstand, auf wekhen Gewicht zu legen 
ist, da die Zahl der Steuerfedern in der Gruppe keineswegs 
als zuiallag, sondevn mit als das sicherste Criterium fiir Unter- 
scheidung der Arten zu betrachten ist." But this, as he has 
probably since observed, is wholly a mistake ; indeed it would 
be more correct to say that, in the sub-group of the Pintail 
Snipes, the number of lateral tail feathers was totally valueless 
as a specific characteristic. 

Not only does the number vary in sthenura as above, but in 
solitaria again it varies from 16 to 24, and the number of 
stiff laterals from 4 to 8 on each side. Nay, in sthenura it is 
extremely common to get a greater number of these peculiar 
feathers on one side than the other, 6 on one side, 7 on the 
other, and so on, and that too in fresh birds, with absolutely 
uninjured tails. Indeed it is by no means rare to get sthenura 
with none of these stiff lateral feathers. They appear in fact 
to be excessively variable in number, very easily shed, and 
about the last portions of the bird's plumage on which to base 
specific distinctions. 

But to return. If heterocerca is not sthenura, what I would 
ask is heteroeaca ? This latter is said to be extremely like 
heterocerca, but to be " somewhat larger in all its dimensions," 
yet it has a wing of only 14 etm = 5*54 inches English ! Why 



NOTES. 285 

the wing in sthenura runs to 5"4 ? Clearly, therefore, if hetero- 
eaca, with a wing of only 554, is larger than heterocerca, 
heterocerca cannot be larger than sthenura, and as the other 
diagnoses, number of lateral tail feathers and shape of tail, 
are, so far as stated, invalid, one has a right to presume, until 
we are favoured with a proper description, that heterocerca 
equals sthenura. If this were so, then heteroeaca (from Luzon, 
where, so far as we know, only ccelestis and megala occur) 
might be megala. 

I have now contributed my mite towards the elucidation of 
this troublesome question, and I must leave it to Dr. Oabanis 
and other European writers to clear the matter up thoroughly. 
At present (i heteroeaca " is a myth to most of us, while hetero- 
cerca, treated by some as identical with megala, by others (like 
Prjevalski) as distinct, and applied to what I think must be 
sthenura, is a perfect bete noir, Anathema maranatha ! 



When treating of Acridotheres siamensis, S. F., VI., 388, 
I was unable to give a proper description of the bird not 
having then seen a specimen. From Mr. Swinhoe's description 
(I should say remarks, for he never gave any description) I had 
gathered that the bird was very close to fuscus ; but it is really 
totally distinct, as the following particulars taken from a bird, 
said to have been shot on the Tenasserim river, will sufficiently 
show : — 

Length, about 9 5; wing, 5*3; tail from insertion of 
feathers, 3*3 ; tarsus, 1*6; bill from frontal bone, 1*15. 

The bill, legs and feet appear to have be^n orange yellow. 

The whole bird may be said to be entirely black, except, (1) 
the lower tail-coverts which, save at their bases, are pure white ; 
(2) the tail feathers which are tipped with pure white, the 
central ones narrowly, and each succeeding feather more and 
more broadly till, on the exterior pair of all, the white tippings 
are nearly an inch in length ; and (3) the wings, of which the 
primary greater coverts are pure white, and the primaries white 
at their bases. The first primary on the inner web only, the 
rest of the primaries on both webs. 

The feathers of the forehead are linear and (all but the front 
row or so which are shorter,) an inch or more in length, and 
form a conspicuous crest contiuued by a baud of similar feathers 
along the centre of the crown. 

When I say that the bird is black, it must not be understood 
that it is jet black ; it is black, everywhere, except on the 
secondaries, tertiaries and their greater coverts, and the 
central portions of the scapulars (all of which have a bronzy 
brownish lustre) overspread with a slightly greenish hoary 



286 NOTES. 



or greyish metallic lustre. In some lights the tail also has a 
slightly bronzy lustre. ' The primaries have no metallic lustre 
and are almost jet black. 



In my note on the Chinese Crimson Tragopan (S. F., VIII., 
201) I said in a footnote, on the authority of Major Cock's 
letter, that the wattles of the Mishmi specimen were said to be 
yellow. Captain H. Stevens, of the 42nd N. I., who was 
the original discoverer of the species, now writes : " I notice 
that the wattles are said to have been yellow. This is a mis- 
take. I kept the bird for over a year in a cage in my verandah. 
It had light blue horns and dark blue wattles, with crimson 
bars. The Mishmis brought two to Sudiya that year ; this 
one was brought for me in lieu of a Crestless Moonal, a live 
specimen of which I wanted. I wrote to Colonel Godwin- 
Austen about it some two years ago; he replied that from my 
description it must be the Chinese bird. Major Cock, who 
saw it alive in my verandah, would have it, even after this 
letter, that it was only the Naga bird in another stage of 
plumage ; he and I had a bet about it, and this is how the skin 
came to be sent to Major Marshall whom I have never seen." 



Since my note on the distinctness of the Himalayan 
Cheelura nudipes was published (ante, p. 230), I have received 
five more Sikhim specimens, which also entirely want the white 
frontal band. I have also looked up Hodgson's original plate 
which contains highly finished paintings of two birds of the 
species. In neither of them is there the slightest trace of any 
frontal band. 



In the P. Z. S. for 1878, page 370, the late Mr. A. Anderson 
figured anddeseribed what he considered a new Prinia under 
the name of poliocephala. I reproduced his description, 
S. F. ,VII., 319, and entered it as a doubtfully distinct species, 
(535 bis) W^my " Tentative List of the Birds of India. - " 

This species was supposed to differ from P. cinereocapilla 
of Hodgson, first described by Moore, P. Z. S., 1854, p. 77), 
in having the entire forehead grey like the crown, whereas 
cinereocapilla had been described as having the nareal and 
frontal plumes and a streak over and behind the eye of the 
same rufous as the back, and only the crown grey. 

Mr. Anderson fortified his own opinion by that of Mr. 
Brooks, who, he said, had informed him that his specimen 
was not cinereocapilla. 



NOTES. 287 

There may have been some mistake about this, but anyhow, 
after seeing the specimens in our Museum, Mr. Brooks entirely 
agrees with me that the two birds are not distinct. 

It must be understood that this is apparently a very rare 
bird. So far as I know I have never myself seen a specimen 
alive, nor have I known of any other specimens, but the 
following, having been procured : — 

(1). A specimen obtained by Mr. Brooks in May 1874, 
high up in the valley of the Baghirathi. This is the most westerly 
point where the species has been known to occur. This speci- 
men, now in our museum, corresponds exactly with Moore's des- 
cription. 

(2). The specimen procured by Mr. Anderson in the 
Alpine District of North- Western Kumaon, the type of the 
supposed uew species poliocephala. 

(3). The specimen obtained by Mr. Hodgson in 1846 (but 
whether in the valley of Nepal or the Terai is uncertain) and 
which is the type of cinereocapilla. 

(4.) Two specimens obtained by Mr. Mandelli in January 
1876 and Jannary 1877 in the Bhutan Doars, both of which 
are intermediate between Mr. Brooks' and Mr. Anderson's birds. 
The one being nearer the former, the other nearer, in fact 
almost identical, with the latter. 

Independently of the specimens showing a distinct gradation, 
it is manifest that no two species could be thus intercalated. 

First, on the west in Garhwal, typical cinereocapilla; next 
a little to the east, typical poliocephala ; next a little further 
east again, typical cinereocapilla ; and next further east again, 
birds, one of which is nearly cinereocapilla, and the other very 
nearly t} 7 pical poliocephala. 

Unquestionably in my opinion poliocephala is merely a stage 
of plumage of cinereocapilla, and should be expunged from our 
list of species. 

There is one curious point about this bird. Mr. Moore's descrip- 
tion is clear, enough, " back, rump and wings bright rufous 
brown," and he described Hodgson's specimen No. 890, but 
Hodgson's original drawing 890 shows a bird with the nape 
and back unicolorous with the crown, in fact represents Prinia 
socialis, of which stewarti is a small dry plains-country race. 
It seems clear, therefore, that Hodgson did not distinguish the 
two forms, and that, while figuring socialis, he preserved and 
sent home a specimen of cincereocapilla. Again the extreme 
apparent rarity of cinereocapilla suggests the idea that cinereo- 
capilla may be only an abnormal variety (aud not a species or 
even race at all) of socialis. Where Mr. Mandelli procured 
his two specimens of cinereocapilla he procured large numbers 
also of socialis, and the two birds absolutely only differ in 

37 



288 NOTES. 

' cinereocapilla wanting the grey on the back. None of these 
Prinias migrate across the Himalayas, and if cinereocapilla 
were a bond fide resident species, it seems incredible that 
amongst the tens of thousands of specimens that have passed 
through the hands of, or been examined by, Mandelli, Brooks 
and myself, we should only have come across four specimens, 
including the single specimen procured by Anderson. Of course, 
it may be a good species, but at present the probabilities are 
against this, and I think we may certainly conclude that, 
whatever conclusion may ultimately be arrived at in regard 
to cinereocapilla, poliocephala at any rate is not a good species. 

Amongst Mr. Mandelli's specimens, I find numerous 
examples of Gracupica. nigricollis, Payk, some of which 
are said to have been collected on the Tenasserim River, close 
to the Siamese Frontier. The locality whence these specimens 
are said to have come was never. reached by Davison or any 
of my parties, and it may be that this bird really does occur 
there. It is very common just across the frontier in Siam, and 
may, as stated, occur just inside our boundai'y near the low 
pass or gap in the main range, through which the road from 
Tavoy vid Mitamyo runs to Bankok. 

It seems desirable, therefore, to give a description of the 
species. 

This bird (which will stand as, ? 683 ter, in our list) is very 
much of the Sturnopastor type, but is considerably larger. The 
following are measurements taken from skius, one from Amoy, 
three from Bankok, and four from the Tenasserim frontier. 
The females are rather smaller than the males. 

Length, 10*5 to 11*5 ; wing. 59 to 6 '4 ; * tail from insertion 
of feathers, 35 to 4*0 ; tarsus, 1*3 to 1*6 ; bill from frontal 
bone, straight to point, 1*25 to 1*4. 

The bill appears to have been horny blackish brown, with, 
perhaps, a slight reddish tinge ; the extreme tips yellowish 
horny ; the legs and feet are said to be greyish yellow, and 
the large bare space under and behind the eye bright yellow, (?) 
becoming orange posteriorly. 

The entire head above and below (except the bare facial 
space) pure white, more or less sullied in many specimens. 
The feathers of the crown and occiput somewhat elongated, so 
as to form a short full crest. The neck all round, and the ex- 
treme upper portion of the breast, a more or less dull black. 
Below this, the breast, abdomen, vent, lower tail-coverts, sides 
and flanks white, the flanks with a few brown feathers inter- 
mingled. 

* Pe"re David gives the wing at 6'8, but in none of our specimens does it exceed 
638. 



NOTES. 289 

From the sides of the breast a narrow white band runs 
round the base of the hind neck, dividing the black collar from 
the back, which, with the scapulars and longer upper tail-coverts, 
are brown, more or less faintly margined paler. The rump and 
shorter upper tail-coverts ave white, as are the edge of the wing 
and primary greater, upper and under coverts. The rest of 
the wing and the tail a darker brown than the back, every 
feather tipped with white, of a breadth and purity varying in 
different specimens ; in the case of the wings often obsolete or 
nearly so on the primaries, and everywhere less conspicuous 
in younger birds ; in the case of the tail the tippings com- 
paratively narrow (say 5 of an inch) on the central pair, and 
growing wider and wider on each succeeding pair, until, on the 
exterior ones, they are fully an inch in width, and moreover 
run upwards beyond this, occupying the outer half or more of 
the outer web. 

In quite young birds (we are told, non vidi), the head, 
throat and upper breast are brownish, the feathers margined 
paler, the lower parts are sullied white, and there are no traces 
of the black collar. 

We know that this species extends from Bankok, where it is 
very common, right through Siam, the Shan States, Yunan and 
Southern China, as far north as the province of Fokien. Pro- 
bably it extends to Tonquin, Cambodia, &c, but of this I have 
no certain information. 



Recently, when looking through Hodgson's original draw- 
ings, I came upon a picture of two Swallows which had puzzled 
me before. They were exactly like the hill Collocalia, which I 
have hitherto called unicolor, of Jerdon, but they were de- 
picted with the tarsi feathered, whereas the tarsi in unicolor, as 
also in spodiopygia, are perfectly bare. It occurred to me to 
examine my Himalayan specimens, and lo and behold ! they had 
the tarsi feathered, and corresponded exactly with Hodgson's 
drawing No. 962. 

I have, on several occasions, hesitated to unite the Himalayan 
and Southern Indian forms, owing to a certain difference in 
shade of colour, which is difficult to express in words, but which 
one feels when a series of both is before one ; but this present 
difference, now discovered by the help of Mr. Hodgson's draw- 
ings, of the tarsi being bare in the Southern Indian bird unicolor, 
Jerdon, and feathered in the Himalayan bird, settles the 
question. 

And here I may say one word about this feathering for fear 
of mistakes arising. It is not only rather sparse, but extremely 
delicate, and easily rubbed off, and where the legs have had strings 



290 NOTKS. 

tied round them for tickets it is mostly worn away. Yon only 
see it well in the case of the leg which has had no string tied 
round it, and has not been meddled with. 

This Himalayan species is of course Collocalia brevirostris of 
McClelland's Catalogue, P. Z. S., 1839, 155, and Mr. Gray, in 
his Second Edition of the Catalogue of Hodgson's specimens 
and drawings, page 23, correctly identifies Hodgson's drawing 
962 with this species. Who the authority for this name brevirostris 
really is, I feel uncertain. Mr. Gray (loc. cit.) attributes the 
name to Strickland, but there is nothing in the P. Z. S. to lead 
to the inference that Strickland was concerned in naming any 
of these species, and Horsfield, in his Catalogue of the E. I. C. 
Museum, page 100 (and it was he who read McClelland's 
paper at the Zoo) distinctly attributes the name to McClel- 
land himself, and we must, therefore, I think, accept this 
latter as the author. 

McClelland's original description will be found S. F., Vol. I., 
p. 295, where, not being then aware of the occurrence of this 
present species in Assam, I wrongly suggested that brevirostris 
might be intended for infumatus of Sclater — a species we knew 
to be very common in Assam. 

We now know that this present species, which will stand as 

103 A.— Collocalia brevirostris, McClelland, 

extends pretty well throughout the Himalayas, at any rate 
from as far west as Dalhousie, about 76° E. Long, to the further 
extremity of Assam, say about 95° E. Long. 

I do not think I can improve on the original description, 
brief as this is, but I may say that the wing is about 4*9 in 
length, and that, though the tail may, when closed, be looked 
on as " subfurcale,'" when fully opened it is perfectly square or 
very nearly so. The tarsi, thinly feathered to the toes, will 
always distinguish this species from the closely-allied southern 
one, which has the tarsi perfectly bare. 



In a recent letter to me Mr. Brooks remarks : " I don't 
at all agree with your identification of the little White-tailed 
Mooleyit bird as viridipenms, of Blyth. I examined Blyth's 
viridipennis in the museum, and I am very sure indeed that they 
are flavo-olivaceus. The wing of one is nearly 2 \. Blyth makes 
no mention of the white tail, and it was hardly likely that when 
first obtained all eight feathers were knocked out. I found no 
difference whatever between these two types labelled by himself 
and our flavo-olivaceus. They were in much better condition when 
I first examined them than they are now. I examined them 
a^ain. I see no reason at all for connecting Blyth's species 



NOTES. 291 

with your Mooleyit bird, since the other bird is the com- 
moner of the two in Burmah, and Blyth's description fails to 
indicate it, and as Miiller {apud Seebohm) lias not described 
his species, you should describe the Mooleyit bird, or rename it 
rather. If you don't, I will, after this year is out ; but I would 
much rather you would name your own bird. It is incon- 
venient to have a bird standing without a name. I could never 
refer to it as viridipennis, for I am quite convinced that it is not 
Blyth's species, and no one can prove the contrary." 

Now I also have examined Blyth's types, and I am of opinion 
that no one can say positively what species they belong to. 
The whole weight of the evidence, derived from the locality 
whence these types came— a locality where flavo-olivaceus has 
not been observed, and where the bird we have called viri- 
dipennis is the only one of the kind obtained — is in favour of 
Blyth's viridipennis being the Mooleyit bird, to which, with the 
sole exception of the omission to notice the white tail feathers, 
his description applies perfectly. 

Mr. Brooks says that it is not likely that, when Blyth first 
obtained his specimens, all the eight white feathers had been 
knocked out. I can only say that all are now wanting. 

But even if Mr. Brooks were right (and I think that he is 
quite wrong) it would be preposterous, in my opinion, to give 
a new name to this species, which, if not viridipennis, Blyth (as 
I feel certain that it isl , is beyond question presbytia of Miiller. 
If it be said that Miiller did not describe his species, then I 
declare that my full description, S. F., V., 332, applies to 
presbytis of Miiller, and so failing viridipennis of Blyth (the 
name I intend to adhere to) the species must stand as presbytis, 
Miiller, and no other new name applied now by any one else 
can, according to rule, have any validity. 

I may here notice that we have two Heguloides — the one 
that I have hitherto identified with trochihides of Sundevall, 
a very rare bird, that I have only (as yet) obtained in Burmah, 
with very white under parts. The other, the species that 
Mr. Brooks persuaded me into naming Jlavo-olivaceus, a 
bird common in India, and Mr. Brooks informs me in Burmah 
also, but by this he must mean Pegu, as no specimen of it 
has ever been procured in Tenasserim Proper. 

Now it seen^s to me an open question whether jlavo-olivaceus 
may not after all prove to be the true trochihides of Sundevall, 
and whether it may not be the white-bellied bird that requires 
a new name. This latter is so rare that it seems unlikely 
that Sundevall should have got hold of it, and so far as I 
know it does not occur in Bengal. The only way this can be 
determined is by a careful comparison with Sundevall's type 
if extant, or with his original description, to which I have 



292 NOTES. 

not here access, and this comparison Mr. Brooks, who will 
take home one of my white-bellied Burmese birds, promises 
to make. 



Amongst the specimens in Mr. Mandelli's collection I 
find three Laughing Thrushes collected for him by some 
gentleman in Captain Hill's survey party, according to the 
tickets, in Tenasserim, and apparently on the frontier hills 
between Tavoy and Siam. 

These specimens were labelled G. belangeri by Mr. Mandelli, 
and no doubt they beloug to the same little group as G, leuco- 
lophus of the Himalayas and Aracan,*' G. belangeri of Burmah, 
and G. bicolor, Mull., of Sumatra ; but it is clearly the Garrulax 
leucog aster of Walden, described by him, P. Z. S., 1866, 
p. 548, from a specimen received by him from some part of 
Siam. 

As this species must probably now be included in our list 
(it would stand as 4tQ7ter) a brief description of it is necessary. 

Dimensions (taken from the skin) : — Length, from 11*5 to 
12*5; win or, 5'0 to 575 ; tail from insertion of feathers, 5'0 to 
5*5 ; tarsus, 1*6 to 1*8 ; bill straight from frontal bone to tip, 
1-1 to 12. 

Bill black ; legs and feet apparently have been dark plum- 
beous. The lores, cheeks and ear-coverts velvet black, as in 
leucolophus and belangeri; entire cap white, and head fully 
crested, but the crest not quite so large or conspicuous as in 
these two species ; the tips of the longest crest feathers 
slightly shaded with grey ; a broad grey half collar on the 
back of the neck ; the feathers along the middle of the back 
of the neck, with rufous olive shafts, and a little shaded on 
the webs on either side with this same colour ; mantle bright 
ferruginous, brighter, i.e., not so deep, as in belangeri, becoming 
rusty olive on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; wings 
precisely as in belangeri; the inner webs dark hair brown ; the 
outer webs olivaceous, with a yellowish ferruginous tinge ; 
tail deep hair brown, obsoletely barred, and the central feathers 
and the outer web3 of the laterals faintly shaded, except just 
at the tips with a duller shade of the colour which suffuses 
the outer webs of the quills ; chin, throat, breast, abdomen 
pure white ; sides, flanks, lower tail-coverts, and outer tibial 
plumes rusty olivaceous brown, much the same colour as the 
wino-s ; the basal portions of the lower tail-coverts are greyish 
white, and the interior tibial plumes are white, faintly tinged 
with the colour of the outer tibial plumes. The grey half 
collar just runs up to and meets the tips of the black ear- 
coverts. 



NOTES. 293 

It will be seen that this species is distinguished at ouce by 
its white belly and broad grey nuchal collar from both leuco- 
lopkus and belangeri. 

This, I believe, is the first time that this species has been 
properly described. Lord Walden merely indicated it. 

But while this species is certainly leucogaster of Walden, 
it seems also possible that, as subsequently pointed out by 
him, Ibis, 1867, 381, this is also Turdus diardi of Lesson — 
Tr. d'Orn, 408. It is true that the brief description there 
given — " cheeks black, head and neck white, mantle ashy, 
wings bright rufous" — does not by any means suit our 
bird well, but Lord Walden himself considered, after reading 
M. Pucheran's detailed description (Arch, du Mus. VIL, p. 
376, No. 37) of the type of Turdus diardi, that the two might 
be the same. He pointed out, however that neither Pucheran 
nor Lesson refer to any crest in diardi, which could scarcely 
have escaped their notice. 

But he seems to have overlooked a most important point in 
Lesson's diagnosis, " mantle ashy." I have not access to Puche- 
ran's detailed description, and therefore I do not know whether 
" mantle ashy" was a mistake of Lesson's or not. If not, then 
leucogaster of Walden is clearly distinct. It is to be hoped that 
some ornithologists at home, who have access either to the 
type in the Paris museum, or to the Archives du Museum 
(I have only the Nouvelles Archives') will set us right on this point, 
and let us know whether diardi really has an ashy mantle. 

In the meantime we had better retain Lord Walden' s name 
of leucogaster, which certainly applies to our bird. If diardi 
has an ashy mantle, it is clearly distinct, as indeed we might 
expect the Cochin-Chinese form to be ; if it has not, then it is 
very doubtful whether the name founded on such a gross mis- 
description ought to be allowed to stand. 



Mr. Sharpe, Mr. Dresser and other European writers all 
unite Pica bottanensis, Deles, with Pica rustica, in which latter 
I include, not only the European bird, but media, sericea, bactri- 
ana, leucoptera, Sfc. 

In my humble opinion these excellent authorities can only 
thus have united this well-characterized, though variable, 
species with the very distinct Bhutanese and Tibetan form 
(and by Tibetan I do not refer to Ladakh which people com- 
monly call Tibet, but to Chinese Tibet lying north of Sikhim and 
Bhutan) because they do not really know what bottanensis is. 

In the first place, P. bottanensis is to P. rustica what the raven 
is to the carrion crow. It probably weighs half as much again, 
and is very much larger than any specimen of rustica that I 



294 NOTES. 

have ever seen or heard of. I have a very perfect specimen now 
before me, but the tail not quite fully developed, which measures 
as follows : — Length, 21*5 ; wing, 10'5 ; tail from insertion 
of feathers, 11*75 ; tarsus, 2*3. Bill straight from frontal bone 
to point (measured with compass) 2*0. Has any one ever seen 
a Pica rustica anything approaching these dimensions ? 

Mr. Sharpe gives the following dimensions of an adult male 
from Sweden : — Length, 16'0 ; wing, 7*9 ; tail, 9*8 ; tarsus, 
1*95 ; culmen, 1'5. Amongst the vast series of this species 
examined by Mr. Sharpe only one single specimen, and that 
from Central Asia, had a wing exceeding 8*7. That one spe- 
cimen had a wing of 9 "3. Again from the forehead to the tips 
of the longest tail-coverts the entire bird is velvet black, with 
over the whole back rather faint metallic green reflections. 
We know that in Pica rustica the rump varies from pure white 
to dark grey, but has any one ever seen rustica with the whole 
upper surface uniform black ? Again like mauritanica, bottan- 
ensis has a distinct bare spot behind the eye, larger iu some, 
smaller and partially overhung by feathers growing above it 
in others, but always distinct and entirely wanting in all the 
rustica, European and Asiatic, that I have examined. 

If after this explanation European writers still persist in 
ignoring Pica bottanensis it will, at any rate, be no fault of mine. 
It may indeed prove that Delessert's bottanensis (I have not 
access to his original description) is not the bird we call botta- 
nensis and not a good species, but the bird that inhabits the nor- 
thern portion of Bhutan and Native Sikhim and Chinese Tibet 
immediately north of these, the bird that I have above charac- 
terized, is as good aud distinct a species as mauritanica. 

I mav add, for some confusion seems to exist on this point, 
that this species does not get as far west as Ladakh, which 
people commonly talk of as Tibet. In Afghanistan, Cashmere, 
Ladakh, and Yarkand, and the countries lying between these, we 
have races of rustica which have been separated as bactriana, 
leucoptera, &c, but all with more or less white or grey upon 
the rump, all wanting the bare spot behind the eye, and none 
with wings exceeding, or in fact quite extending to, 9 inches. 
So far as we know, no form of this Magpie occurs either in Nepal 
or Kumaon, but Hodgson obtained one specimen, apparently 
a young and imperfect bird, which he figured half size in his 
plate No. 960, and of which he gives the length as only 20 
inches and the wing 9*75 ; but the figure shows clearly the 
unbroken black back, rump and upper tail-coverts. To this Hodg- 
son gave the name of Pica tibetana, (a name I here repeat in case 
Delessert's should prove inadmissible) and he has written across 
the drawing " India House, June 1848, No. 12," so I suppose 
there must be a copy of this drawing at home. It is not in- 



NOTES. 295 

eluded in Mr. Gray's Catalogue of the drawings and specimens 
presented to the British Museum, nor is it included in Mr. 
Hodgson's own Catalogue of Nepalese birds collected between 
3 824° and 1841, printed by himself, in the journal of the 
Asiatic Society, aud a Hindee note on the back of the plate shows 
that this specimen came into Mr. Hodgson's hand after he had 
left Nepal, when he was living at Darjeeling on the 16th of 
January 1848-, that he ouly got a skin bought from a Bhootea, 
and that his measurements were taken from the skin, sex being 
unknown. 



I do not think I have yet mentioned, that amongst the spe- 
cimens in Mr. Mandelli's collection I find a huge number of speci- 
mens of my Sturnia incognita (S. F., VIII., 396), which, accord- 
ing to the tickets, were collected inside our frontier on the hills 
that divide Tavoy from Siam. This species will, therefore, have 
to be included in our list, in which it will stand as No. 689 bis A. 

At page 72, Yol. VIII., I reproduced Captain Legge's 
account of his supposed species Acridotheres melanosternus from 
Ceylon. I confess that I do not see my way to supporting 
this supposed species. I have now before me specimens from 
Ceylon and Aujango in Travancore, which are absolutely in- 
separable, although the flanks of the Ceylouese birds are a 
trifle deeper chocolate than those of tho Anjango ones ; and 
again from the very pale birds, such as one obtains at elevations 
of five and six thousand feet in the Himalayas, to the very 
dark ones that we get in Southern Travancore, an unbroken 
series of forms exist. All we can say is that, as a body, the 
Ceylonese birds run much darker than the birds of the dry 
plains portions of India, which indeed is no more than might 
have been anticipated from the difference in the rainfall, but 
they are inseparable from some Travancore examples, and 
these Travancore examples are themselves linked by an unbroken 
chain of forms with the very palest examples from the driest 
regions, and under these circumstances I confess that I think it 
would have been better to refrain from bestowing a new name 
on the Ceylonese forms. 



With reference to my remarks, ante p. 96, on Cyornis 
poliogenys, I have to note that I have altogether now ten* speci- 
mens of this species — one from Commilla, Tipperah, and six from 
the Bhootan Duars. None of these, except the Commilla bird, 
reliably sexed, and three just sent me from Joonktollee, Dibru- 
gur, Assam, by Mr. J. R. Cripps, a male and two females sexed 

* Since this was in type I have received a specimen from N. E. Cachar from 
Mr. Inglis. 

38 



296 NOTES. 

- by dissection. The sexes scarcely differ in plumage, but the 
I male is just a shade darker everywhere on the upper surface, 
I and the buff of the breast is a trifle brighter and more ochra- 
ceous orange. 



The occasional range of Pterocles coronatus within our 
limits is considerably more entensive than I suspected. Lieute- 
nant W. W. Lean writes to me under date the 7th of October : — 

"Two males of the Coronetted Sand-Grouse were shot within 
three miles of this post, (Fort Jumrood, near the mouth of the 
Khyber Pass) this morning by Dr. Julian Smith. The flock 
(some 20 in number) was first seen flying from the direction of 
the Khyber uttering their peculiar cry. Suddenly they separated 
preparatory to alighting along a nullah, which crosses a very 
stony plain, to drink. 

" The largest of the birds measures 12 inches in length and 
23'25 in expanse, and weighs 23 rupees, say 8^ ozs. 

" The colouring of the plate in "The Game Birds" is, as 
you say, defective. The occiput is really cinnamon and not 
burnt sienna ; the blue grey superciliary stripe forms a com- 
plete ring, a little white intervening between it and the eye. The 
orange of the plate should be more of a yellow ochre, which 
goes rather lower down than itis shown in the plate, and is con- 
tinued on across the back of the neck, thus forming a ring. 
The yellow tinge of the plate is replaced by stone grey or rather 
a mixture of cinnamon and grey stone, and the burnt sienna 
and sepia shades are replaced by stone and brown. 

" The neck is not thick, but Dove-like — in fact in shape exactly 
like that of the male Spotted Sand-Grouse as depicted in the 
plate. 

" I can only find small seeds and gravel in their crops." 

When first noticing the occurrence of Erismaiura leucoce- 
phala near Khelat-i-Gilzai in South Afghanistan, and describing 
the species, I predicted that it would before long be found to 
straggle to the Punjab and Sindh. 

This prediction has been already fulfilled, and Mr. F. Pield, 
U.C.S., Punjab, has just kindly sent me a specimen of a duck 
that he was unable to identify, which proves to be a 3 r oung bird 
of this present species. He says : " I shot this bird on the 28th 
of October at the " old nullah," about a mile from the Civil- 
Station of Loodhiana, Punjab. It was sitting alone in a pool. 
I stalked up close behind some reeds, and then showed myself, 
expecting to see it fly. All it did was to cock its little stiff, 
thin pointed tail, and swim off in a quiet way for some ten yards. 
Its appearance, while swimming with its tail turned upwards, was 
most peculiar. I tried to frighten it into flying, but it would 



NOTES. 297 

not rise, so I shot it while swimming. Unfortunately I did not sex 
it. It measured in the flesh : — Length, 180; wing, 6*1 ; tail 
from vent, 3 5 ; tarsus, 1*3 ; bill at front, straight from margin of 
feathers to point, 1*7 ; from gape, 2*0 ; mid-toe and claw, 2'8. 

" The irides were brown ; the bill very dark grey, almost 
black ; the legs and feet grey, with blackish webs and joints/' 

This species may be recognized at any age by the tail, com- 
posed of 18 narrow spine-like feathers, with scanty, stiff, dis- 
united, narrow webs, quite worn off towards the tips, which 
exhibit only the bare shafts ; the lateral feathers are succes- 
sively shorter and shorter, so that the whole tail is sharply- 
wedge-shaped, and owing to the nature of the feathers, which 
are only covered for about half an inch at their bases by the 
upper and under tail-coverts, looks poor and scraggy, much of 
the Cormorant type, but much feebler, thinner, barer, and poorer 
in appearance. 

Still, though the tail will suffice for identification, it 
may be well to add to Mr, Field's remarks a detailed 
description of his bird, as young birds like this are the most 
likely to occur in India. The lores, forehead, crown, and upper 
part of the occiput are a dark brown, the feathers barely per- 
ceptibly margined at the tips with yellowish brown ; the rest 
of the occiput and nape are nearly similar, but the pale margins 
of the feathers are broader and more conspicuous; a broad 
dull, white stripe, (a little speckled with brown) from the base 
of the upper mandible on either side to near the base of the 
occiput, but not quite meeting behind ; below this, from the 
gape, a broad dark brown stripe, also feebly freckled with pale 
buffy ; below this again, the rest of the cheeks, the chin and 
throat dull white ; the neck all round grey brown, freckled 
■with yellowish white. 

The interscapulary region, scapulars, tertiaries, upper tail- 
coverts, back and rump, except the central portions of the two 
latter, a dull, pale brownish yellow or dull buff, freckled and ob- 
soletely vermicellated with darkish brown ; the central portions 
of back and rump dark brown, narrowly and imperfectly barred 
with dull buff; the tail, a dull rather pale brown, earthy in 
places, and in places with a rusty tinge ; the wings, a grey 
brown ; primaries and their greater coverts plain ; the rest more 
or less freckled towards the tips of the feathers with dull buff. 

The breast and the rest of the lower parts, with the basal por- 
tions of the feathers brown, and the tips dull brownish yellow on 
the breast, passing to buffy white lower down, and a little nearly 
pure white about the vent. The brown bases show through, more 
or less, everywhere, least on the upper breast, most on the lower 
abdomen. The wing-lining is mingled French grey and white ; 
the axillaries are pure white. 



298 LETTEES TO THE EDITOR. 

Captain Elwes informed me that he once received a skin, 
which he had good grounds for believing came from the Malay- 
Peninsula, and which he had come to the conclusion belonged to 
this present species. This quantum valeat, possibly his skin 
may have first come from elsewhere to Singapore, or may 
belong to come other species of the genus of which there are 
several. Amongst these are E. moccoa, Smith, of Southern 
Africa, (the female of which much resembles that of our bird,j 
E. australis of Western Australia, and E. rubida, ferruginea 
and dominica from America. 



Ifotte to tfa (ftdttor. 



Sir, 

It may perhaps interest some of your readers to hear 
that a young female Calornis, probably of the same species as 
occurs in the Andamans and Nicobars, C. tytleri was captured 
at Poonawallee, about twelve miles to the west of Madras, on 
the 9th October last. It was feeding on a Banyan (Ficus 
bengalensis) tree among a lot of Mynas, (Sturnia pagodorum) , 
Barbets (Xantholama hamacephala), and other birds that usually 
infest these trees when in fruit. 

I may also record the following interesting captures : — 

1. On the 6th March 1878 a lovely male Chrysococcyx 
maculatus was caught with bird-lime in a garden at the Adyar, 
a few miles to the south of Madras. This specimen has the 
" entire breast uniform emerald green." The hen bird was 
never found, though search was made for it. 

2. A fine adult Surniculus lugubris w T as caught on the 14th 
October 1879 in the museum compound. It was at first taken 
for a Drongo {Btichanga atra) ; but was found on examination 
to be the present species. Length of wing, 5 "2 inches. 

W. F. Dique. 



Sir, 

Referring to Major Swiuhoe's letter, p. 237, in which 
he says, " Captain Butler may be in error in statiug that Mr. 
Murray expressed any doubts on the subject, &c," I beg to 
inform him that I am not in error, neither has my memory 
failed me in this instance as suggested by him. The Wood- 
Pigeon, I referred to in the Kurrachee Museum, was certainly 
labelled Columba livia when I saw it, otherwise I should not 
have stated so, and how Major Swinhoe can state positively in 
the face of my assertion " that it never could have been thus 
labelled," is more than I can comprehend. That it may be 
a Sind specimen is not improbable, and if it is casiotis, as Major 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 299 

Swinhoe asserts, it probably is. I merely expressed my doubts 
upon this point from the manner in which the specimen was 
set up, but as regards the label being marked Columba livia 
when I examined the specimen, I am prepared to swear to the 
fact, whatever Major Swinhoe may say to the contrary, other- 
wise I should never have got hold of the idea. 

In the latter part of his letter he mentions having taken a 
nest of JEsacus recurvirostris at the Hubb river. I may add 
that whilst in Sind I also saw one or two pairs of these birds 
in the hot weather on an island in the Kurrachee harbour 
that were evidently breeding, though I failed to discover their 
eggs. 

Yours faithfully, 

E. A. Butler, 
Captain, H. M's 83rd Regt. 

Belgaum, 
20^ October 1880. 



Sir, 

I send a few notes in regard to nests that I have 
recently met with : — 

22. — Lophospiza trivirgatus. 

A nest with two nearly-fledged birds, taken 14th April. 
The nest was placed in a tree at a distance of 30 to 40 feet 
from the ground. It was loosely constructed, and lined with 
leaves which must have been fresh when the eggs were laid. 
The young birds flourished for two or three weeks, when I 
gave them to the Trevandrum gardens. When youno- the 
iris is quite dusky, but becomes lighter as the young birds grow 
up. Five years ago I took an exactly similar nest containing 
two eggs, which I could not identify, but 1 have very little doubt 
that they were those of this bird. They were like large speci- 
mens of Potior nis teesa ; eggs not so rounded and with a slightly 
bluer tinge. I have not the measurements with me, but will 
send them to you. 

300. — Ochromela nigrorufa. 

Two nests, each containing two fresh eggs, and a new nest, all 
found in dense jungle at an elevation of 3,700 to 4,000 feet. 
The bird is not uncommon here. The nests were composed 
of the leaves of the « eeruV (a reed peculiar to the Western 
Ghats, which has been called Beesha travancorica ,, and domed. 
From 3 to 8 feet from the ground. Size '65 x '50.— 29th March 
1880. 



300 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

390 Us.— Alcippe bourdilloni ? 

I took a third nest of this bird on 24th March. It was 
a domed structure, very similar to the nest of Ochromela nigro- 
rvfa, but slightly larger, and, though composed externally of 
" eeruV leaves, was lined with fine hair-like roots. It was 
found at an elevation of 4,300 feet above the sea, and was 
placed in a low bush within eighteen inches of the ground. 
The eggs are white, very sparingly spotted with purple, except 
towards the larger end, where the spots coalesce and form an 
imperfect zone. The size of the eggs is "75 x "52. In 1876, 
my coolies brought me the nest, egg, and bird (which latter 
they had caught on the nest) of this species, and which I set 
down at once as A. atriceps ; but as it does not seem likely 
that both varieties, atriceps and bourdilloni, occur together, I 
fancy it must have been the latter. This is my doubt. I took 
my second nest in 1877, on the road-side, two feet from the 
ground, at an elevation of about 2,400 above sea level. I was 
unable to get the parent bird of my last-taken nest, as, though 
I waited 20 minutes gun in hand, the bird did not return, and 
it was getting dark, and I was some miles from home. 

692.— Eulabes religiosa. 

This bird lays from one to two eggs in holes of large trees. 
I never heard of more than two in a clutch. It breeds most 
abundantly on our coffee estates from April to June ; but as 
the trees selected are usually very large, they are inaccessible 
to all but the hill men. Description exactly as in "Nests and 
Eggs." Size of this year's eggs average 1*35 X '95. 

781 bis.— Carpophaga cuprea. 

One nest of this bird taken at an elevation of 4,000 feet in 
tangled eerul jungle. Only one egg in the nest and that hard 
set. Size, 1*37 * 1*06; colour pure white. Bird observed 
flying off the nest, and again when it returned. My brother 
and I were tracing a road, and had not brought a gun with 
us. 

T. Fulton Bourdillon. 

Mynall Estate, S. Tbavancore. 



Sir, 

At page 168, S. F., Vol. V., I recorded the finding of a 
nest of a Black Ibis, but was not sure of the species. I have 
got the bird in this neighbourhood recently, and it is your Grap- 
tocephalus davisoni. There is no doubt the egg and nest belonged 
to this species. 

Eugene W. Oates. 



V" 



STRAY FEATHERS. 



Vol. IX.] SEPTEMBER 1881. [Nos. 5 & 6. 



(Reprint from the "i7>is."j* 



fflw girds of (Silgtt. 

By Major John Biddulph.! 

The birds enumerated in the following list were collected 
during a residence of two years in Gilgit, a tract of country, 
the ornithology of which has not yet been studied. As Gilgit 
is known but to few, a brief sketch of the locality will be useful. 

In the north-west corner of the Cashmere dominions, 
where the Indus, after a north-north-west course of nearly 
five hundred miles, makes a sudden turn to the south, the 
Gilgit river joins the great stream on the right bank, after 
draining a very large extent of country north and west of 
the Indus. Its most western source is in the mountains at the 
head of the Swat valley. Further east a large affluent joins it 
in Yassin, which takes its rise in the Hindoo Koosh. Along 
this stream migrants from the Oxus valley find their way to 
the Indus. Further east still is its third and largest affluent, 
the Hunza river, of which one of the branches rises on the 
southern slope of the mountains that enclosed the Tagh- 
dooughash Pamir, and the other on the western slope of the 
mountains that form the watershed between it and the valley 
of the Yarkand river. All around rise snow-clad mountains 
of great height, the ridges being from 13,000 feet to 17,000 
feet above sea level, while the number of lofty peaks and 
glaciers is not equalled by any tract of similar extent in the 
Himalayas. 

Twenty-four miles from the Indus, at an elevation of little 
less than 5,000 feet, is the fort of Gilgit. The valley, which 
is here about two miles broad, is barren and rocky, save in 

* I reprint from the Ibis this very important and valuable paper, the more so that 
it is most especially interesting to local ornithologists, and that out of between 80 
and 90 gentlemen and ladies whom I know to be actually working at ornithology 
here, only three, besides myself, see the Ibis. 

I have added descriptions of species not heretofore described in STBA.Y FsATHEES, 
and a few notes in brackets, and under my own initials. — Er., S F. 

+ Dr. J. Scully, who is so often referred to by Major Biddulph, has 
kindly added some footnotes to this paper, which are distinguished by his 
initials. — Ed,, Ibis. 

39 



302 THE BIEDS OF GILGIT. 

the spots of cultivation, which are few and far between. 
The cultivated spots themselves are thickly wooded. Higher 
up the valley contracts, and the cultivated spots are nearer 
tog-ether. The base of the mountains consists of precipitous 
bare rock ; but above 7,000 feet deep glens, pine forests, 
and grassy slopes meet the eye everywhere up to the snow- 
line. The climate is dry, and subject to great extremes ; the 
rain and snow, which fall abundantly at the higher eleva- 
tions, seldom reach the main valley in any quantity. The 
rainfall of the year is only about five inches. The winter 
lasts about four months, during which there are six weeks of 
intense dry cold, when the thermometer in the open air goes 
down to zero. 

Owing to the great radiation from the rocks, the heat in 
summer for about two months is very great ; but the nights 
are cool, and the heat is never trying as in India. 

It will be observed that the greater proportion of birds in 
the list are migratory, the constant residents being very few. 
It is probable that many migrants still remain to be added 
to the list ; for it is curious of how many species only single 
specimens were secured. Abnormal weather is also likely 
to bring in birds not seen at other times, and to detain birds 
on passage that would not otherwise be noticed. The winter 
of 1877-78 was remarkably severe ; snow began to fall 
heavily in October, and continued without intermission till 
the middle of J anuary, forming the heaviest snow-fall known 
for fifty years. This brought in a number of species that 
remained the whole winter, many of which were never seen 
in the succeeding winter, and others only rarely. 

There can be little doubt that in such a mountainous 
country the lines of migration are along the valleys ; and so 
many northern species use this road on their way to and from 
India, that further observations at this point might furnish 
useful information on the migration of different birds. Some, 
like the Bluethroat, stay for more than a month on their 
way through in spring, before going on to their breeding- 
grounds. Others " come like shadows, so depart," like 
hasty travellers hurrying on to their journey's end. Of the 
Saxicola the males of S. picata appear in great numbers 
for over a fortnight before the females, after which the greater 
number vanish, and only a few remain to breed. Notwith- 
standing these eccentricities, the few dates of arrival and 
departure, which I was enabled to note, seem very regular. 
Passer indicus appeared each year on the same day ; so did 
Fringilla montifringilla. Others were first noted within two 
or three days of the same date in each year ; and the irregu- 
larity was possibly as much clue to the observer as to the birds. 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 303 

In my list will be noticed a few species, the right of which 
to be classed among our Indian avifauna has been questioned, 
such as Fringilla montif ring ilia and Emberiza hortulana ; but 
the seasons at which they were observed make it evident that 
their migration was from the south.* Others such as Lep- 
topcecile sophice and Leucosticte brandti, are, altogether new 
to our lists of birds found south of the great watershed that 
divides us from Central Asia. 

The neighbouring valley of Darel, which has not yet been 
visited by any European, appears to possess a different vege- 
tation and soil from all the surrounding valleys. It is doubt- 
less owing to this that the occurrence of stragglers of the 
stamp of Coccystes jacobinus, Orececetes cinclorhynchus and 
Buchanga longicaudata is due. 

The autumn migration begins, apparently, as nearly as 
possible on 15th August, the first birds to appear being the 
Snippets and Sandpipers. In the last three days of August 
1879 a heavy fall of snow took place in the mountains above 
11,000 feet, and drove down a great number of Cuckoos, 
Kites, Swifts, Crows, and Harriers of three kinds. 

In both years I was unavoidably absent during the latter 
part of the autumn migration, and am indebted to Dr. Scully 
for a notice of species procured by him after my departure, 
which had not previously been recorded by me. I have also 
to acknowledge my thanks to Dr. Scully for many interest- 
ing remarks regarding other species, of some of which I had 
failed to procure specimens, but which he had succeeded in 
obtaining before my departure. It was only by the assis- 
tance of a large series of S. picata, collected by him in addi- 
tion to my own, that the curious facts regarding the change 
of colour of this bird were determined beyond doubt. 

Specimens of every bird on the list have been obtained, 
except in a few instances, which have been duly noted. The 
list is confined to birds obtained in the Gilgit district itself, 
that is to say, in the main valley for forty-three miles from 
the Indus, and in the side valleys within that rise up to their 
crests, except the great Hunza valley, of which only the lower 
twenty miles belong to Gilgit. By going higher up the maiu 
valley, and taking in a larger area, more species might be 
recorded; but the list would lose in completeness without 
gaining in interest. 

The large number of specimens brought away by me has been 
carefully gone through by my friend Captain G. F. L. 
Marshall, who has taken a large share in the preparation of this 

* [I believe this to be erroneous. Both these birds have occurred in Afghanistan, and 
I believe that the Gilgit birds came thence and not from India,— A. O. il.j 



304 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

paper. In some cases he has added notes of his own, as 
designated by his initials ; and I am indebted to him for the 
identification of many species. 

1.— Vultur monachus, Lin. (1).* 

Not common. I saw a pair soaring over a dead ibex on 
the 5th May, at about 12,000 feet elevation, among more than 
a hundred Gyps himalayensis. The black colour and square 
appearance made them very conspicuous. 

2.— Gyps fulvescens, Hume.f (3 bis). 

A summer visitor only. One, a female, shot in July, and 
many others seen. On 5th May, out of over a hundred Vul- 
tures observed closely over a dead ibex, not a single one of 
this species was noticed. 

3.— Gyps himalayensis, Hume. (3 ter). 

Very common in summer at over 10,000 feet, in winter 
at 6,000 feet. On one occasion I had a snap-shot at a 
markhor going up the hill-side, and thought I had missed. 
Immediately two of these birds came and perched close by. 
This caused me to send a man up to look ; and he found the 
wounded beast walking slowly along, shot through the brisket 
which had not been enough to disable it. The big birds had 
spotted it at once. 

4.— Neophron percnopterus, Lin. (6 Us). 

I saw a single Neophron on the 21st April 1879, which I 
believe to have been N. percnopterus, from its appearing 
larger than N. ginginianus, aud having darker bill and wings. 
I had a good view of it at about twenty-five yards for some 
minutes. Severtzoff mentions it in Central Asia, whence this 
was, no doubt, a straggler, like Lanius homey eri and others. 
I never saw another.^ 

5.— Gypaetus barbatus, Lin. (7). 

The Bearded Vulture is very common at all times of the 
year. In summer it is generally seen at a mean eleva- 
tion of about 8,000 feet ; in winter it comes low down, and 
may often be seen seeking its food close to habitations. 

* [I have added in brackets the Indian Catalogue number of each species.— 

f This species is, I believe, entered here through an error, for which I am res- 
ponsible. Major Biddulph's specimen seems to be an immature brown-coloured 
example of G. himalayensis, Hume. — J. S. 

% [All the Neophrons received by me from Cabul, Kandahar, Quettah, &c, are 
<percnopterus. — A. O. H.] 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 305 

6.— Falco peregrinus, Tunst. (8). 

Always about on the faces of rocky precipices. A number 
are caught always in October, which is the great season for 
catching them. I procured one specimen, a male, just com- 
mencing to get the grey feathers on the back, shot on the 
14th April, at an elevation of 5,000 feet. Dimensions as fol- 
lows : — Length, 16*5 inches; expanse, 38*2 ; wing, 124; tail, 
6*7 ; tarsus, 1*85 ; middle toe, 2 ; culmen, 0'8 ; bill from gape, 
1*25. Cere and legs, greenish yellow; irides, dark brown. 
Weight, 1 lb. 4 oz. 

The Peregrines breed in the neighbourhood of Gilgit at 
about 6,000 feet, on the face of precipices. A few remain 
throughout the winter ; but the greater number leave in the 
autumn. 

7.— Falco subbuteo, Lin. (13). 

A summer visitor. It arrives about the end of April, and 
is very common throughout the summer ; it appears to breed 
at about 9,000 feet elevation. 

8.— Falco sesalon, Tunst. (15). 

Tolerably common, but not venturing, as a rule, far from 
the mouths of the ravines leading up to the high mountains, 
except in the depth of winter. The dimensions of a male 
are : — Length, 11 inches ; wing, 7*7 ; tail, 5*2 ; tarsus, 1*4 ; and 
of a female the wing measures 8*85. The latter is much paler 
than the male specimen, and appears more fully adult ; the 
blackish tinge on the grey of the head and shoulders has 
almost entirely disappeared. 

9.— Cerchneis tinnunculus, Lin. (17). 

A few seen all through the winter. In summer it appears 
in great numbers, especially about harvest-time, when I have 
counted upwards of twenty together hovering over a newly 
reaped corn field, hunting for mice. 

10.— Astur palumbarius, Lin. (21). 

A number are caught yearly in all the neighbouring valleys 
and higher up in the Gilgit valley ; but I never shot one, and 
only once saw a pair, in Gilgit itself. 

White ones are occasionally caught, and considered a great 
prize. I saw one that had been caught in Wakhan and was 
being conveyed to Aga Khan, in Bombay. Birds in this 
phase of plumage are called " Taighoou/' a name given to 
all albinos. 



306 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

11.— Micronisus badius, Gm. (23). 

One adult specimen, shot 25th April, which apparently 
belongs to the pale race to which Severtzoff gave the name of 
Astur cenckroides. 

[The plumage of this specimen is in a very remarkable 
stage : it is of a pale tone throughout ; and the ferruginous 
bands on the upper breast are continued into a broad con- 
spicuous collar of ferruginous buff completely encircling the 
neck, and contrasting with the brownish grey of the head 
and upper back, into which it shades above and below. The 
outer tail-feathers are banded as in the specimen described 
by Blanford in bis " Zoology of Eastern Persia," No. 18, 
p. 108, as Astur cenckroides (?) ; and the present specimen 
agrees well with the description throughout, except that the 
barring of the lower surface is narrower and closer — in this 
respect agreeing with Indian examples of M. badius, to which 
species it is doubtless referable. Sex, male. Dimensions — 
Length, 13*6 inches ; expanse, 3265 ; wing, 7'8 ; tail, 65 ; tar- 
sus, 1*63 ; culmen, 0*5 ; middle toe, 1*15. "Weight, 5'25 oz. 
Irides, bright orange ; cere, yellowish green ; legs, horny green ; 
feet, dull yellow. A young male of this species, shot on 1st Sep- 
tember, is identical with other Indian examples. — Gr.F.L.M.] 

12. — Accipiter nisus, Lin. (24). 

Very common, except in the depth of winter. I took a 
nest and four hard-set eggs on the 23rd June. The nest was 
in a fir tree, about thirty feet from the ground, and an elevation 
of about 10,000 feet. The collection contains a very fine 
series of these birds, eleven females and eight males. 

13.— Accipiter melaschistus, Hume. (24 bis). 

The collection contains one specimen which, if the sex is 
rightly ascertained, is clearly referable to this species. Unfor- 
tunately the determination of sex was made by one of the 
native collectors ; but as the man had had many years' expe- 
rience, and the bird was killed in July, it seems hardly cre- 
dible that a mistake should have been made. 

Sex, male. Wing just short of 10 inches ; tail, 8*5. The 
claws are decidedly larger and more powerful than in female 
specimens of A. nisus of similar general dimensions; and the 
plumage agrees closely with Hume's original description. 

14.— Aquila chrysaetus, Lin. (26). 

To be seen at all times of the year, generally in pairs. I 
have constantly seen them stoop at Partridges (Caceabis 
chukor.) 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 307 

Many young ones, conspicuous by the white tail, noticed 
in winter time, hunting these Partridges. 

15.— Nisaetus pennatus, Gm. (33). 

In March and April a number are seen for a short time. 
Not noticed at any other time. A few specimens were secured 
in these months. One, a male, is in the plumage figured by 
Dresser in the " Birds of Europe," except that the whole 
of the sides of the neck and the throat are brown, each feather 
centred darker, but palest in the middle of the throat. 
Length, 2025 inches ; wing, 14 '5 ; tail, 9 ; tarsus, 2*5. Weight, 
1 lb. 8 oz. Cere, pale yellow ; irides, pale red. 

16.— Pandion haliaetus, Lin. (40). 

An Osprey was observed by me, at intervals of about three 
weeks, in the vicinity of a small marsh ; but it was so wary 
that for a long time I failed to get a shot at it. It proved to 
be a male in almost adult plumage. Its stomach was full of 
a watery fluid, and contained a number of small wireworms 
about two inches long ; and the bird was extremely fat. This 
was in March. I have once or twice fancied that I have 
identified the bird at other times in winter ; but it is certainly 
not common. 

17.— Buteo ferox, Gm. (45). 

Extremely common in the main valley in winter. In the 
summer it ascends to the higher valleys, and breeds appa- 
rently at about 10,000 feet. All specimens, both of this 
Buzzard and B. plumipes, shot during the winter, had large 
balls of a hard gummy substance firmly attached to their 
claws, which must considerably interfere with their grasping 
their prey. 

18. — Buteo plumipes, Hodgs. (47). 

A winter visitant, not very common ; three specimens were 
shot about January. 

A male, in early adult plumage, corresponds fairly with the 
description in Sharpens Catalogue (I., p. 181) ; but on the breast 
the feathers entirely lack the black shaft-stripe, the shaft 
only being black ; each feather on the chest is dark rufous 
with a bluish tinge, and with a paler and brighter margin. 
On the upper surface the dark purplish gloss is confined to 
the mantle. Expanse, 49'5 inches; length, 20'3 ; wing, 15*7 ; 
tail, 9-4 ; tarsus, 2'6 ; bill at gape, 1*55. Weight, 1 lb. 10 oz. 

None of the specimens observed or obtained were in the 
dark ferruginous plumage figured in Sharpe's Catalogue 
(Vol. I.) ; all were of the " B. japonicus" type. 



308 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

19.— Circus cyaneus, Lin. (50). 

Single birds seen at intervals during the winter. In March 
it becomes more common, and disappears in the beginning of 
May. One adult female, killed while carrying off a chicken, 
measured :— Length, 21*5 inches ; wing, 15*5 ; tail, 1075 ; tar- 
sus, 3. Cere, yellow ; legs, bright yellow. One male in immature 
plumage, shot in December, and two adult females, shot in 
March and April, had the irides light yellow. 

20 — Circus macrurus, Gm. (51). 

Appears at the beginning of April, during which month it 
is very common, disappearing about the middle of May. It 
appears again for a short time at the end of September, on its 
way south. I shot a female (while devouring a half-grown 
chicken it had carried off) which measured : — Length, 19 inches ; 
wing, 13-85 ; tail, 95; tarsus, 265. Irides, light brown. It? 
this specimen Mr. Hume's diagnosis (See Stray Feathers, 
Vol. I., p. 160) does not hold good, the third and fourth quill 
being equal, while in the other specimens it does hold good. 

Two males, shot in April and October, in immature plu- 
mage ; both had the irides gamboge yellow. 

21— Circus cineraceus, Mont. (52). 

Not common, and only appearing in spring and autumn. 
An adult female shot 19th March measures : — Length, 18*5 
inches ; wing, 15*15 ; tail, 10'4 ; tarsus, 236. Iris, orange yellow ; 
bill, Mack ; legs, yellow. 

A male in not quite adult plumage was also shot by 
Dr. Scully. 

22.— Circus seruginosus, Lin. (54). 

The collection contains twelve specimens, of which four 
are females and eight males. 

One of the former, shot in April, is in the uniform choco- 
late stage of plumage, with the throat and top of the head 
and nape buff, sharply defined ; the feathers on the head 
dark-centred, while those of the throat are merely inconspi- 
cuously dark-shafted, the lower ones being nearly white. 
The other three specimens, shot on the 13th and 29th March 
and 23rd April respectively, show, in addition to the buffy 
patches described above, a more or less complete bro ad luteous 
band across the lower breast, while on the mantle, back, and 
wing-coverts many of the feathers are broadly margined with 
this colour, some being entirely luteous white, with dark 
centres. The irides were dark brown, and the cere pale 






At 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 309 

greenish yellow. Length, 225 to 23 inches ; wing, 16 to 
16-75 ; tail, 105 ; tarsus, 3 ! 25 to 3 75. 

The eight males all have the grey tails, and grey on the 
wings, and were all shot between the 9th March and the 
latter end of April. The under surface varies from chocolate 
brown, nearly uniform on the abdomen, aud margined with 
rufescent on the throat and breast, to rufescent white with 
narrow dark centres. The irides light yellow. Length, 20*5 
to 21 # 5 inches ; wing, 1575 to 16 ; tail, i0 ; tarsus, 3'25 to 35. 

This Harrier appears to soar and hover often at a consi- 
derable height as a Kite does. It was not noticed in the 
depth of winter. At the beginning of March a number 
appear, all of which are in adult plumage ; these disappear in 
April, and are succeeded by birds in immature plumage, 
which arrive in great numbers throughout April, getting 
scarcer in May. A few remain throughout the summer ; and 
in the middle of August adult birds begin to reappear, having 
apparently bred higher up, but not far off ; by the middle of 
November all have left the valley. In one instance a female 
was brought to Dr. Scully, alive, which had struck a Coot 
(Fulica atraj in the water; during the struggle a native 
waded in and secured both birds. 

23.— Milvus govinda, Sykes. (56 bis). 

None are visible during December and January ; but on 
the 8th February I shot one specimen, after which it becomes 
common. 

This Kite agrees, as regards habits, with the description 
of M. melanotis as given in Stray Feathers by Brooks, but 
does not quite come up to Hume's measurements. It is 
much shyer than the Indian Kite, and avoids habitations, 
hunting about the fields, often in large flocks of fifty or sixty. 
On the 22ud February I saw a large flock of over 300 that 
appeared to be just arriving; and for many days afterwards 
they were seen in flocks of twenty or thirty, theflocks gradually 
getting small till about the end of April, when they disap- 
peared. A single one was seen 29 th August, in heavy 
weather. /V 

[This Kite is the species named M. major by Mr. Hume, 
which now, as conclusively shown by Mr. Brooks,* should stand 
as M. govinda, Sykes.— G. F. L. M.J 



* 



* [This is a matter of opinion. Sykes says his govinda is the common Kite of the 
Deccan. Now the large Kite M. melanotis ( = M. major) is almost, if not quite, unknown 
in the Deccan. I procured one specimen at Bombay, but Butler says (vide his 
Catalogue) that there is no other record of the bird anywhere in the southern half ^N,. 
of the Bombay Presidency. On the other hand, of the medium-sized Kite, he says : ^^ ^ 
" Permanent resident. Very common in most localities throughout the region," \A 
This shows clearly that Sykes' govinda cannot have been the large, and must have 

40 



310 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

24 — Syrnium- — ?* (66). 

Since I left Gilgit Dr. Scully writes that he has secured 
a Syrnium which he believes to be new. As soon as he is 
able to describe it he will do so. 

25.— Asio otus, Lin. (67). 

A summer visitor. Appears a little after the middle of 
March, and is tolerably common. 

Dimensions of a Female. — Length, 14*5 inches ; wing, 12 i tail, 
63 ; tarsus, 1'8. Irides, orange. Weight, 875 oz. 

26.— Asio accipitrinus, Pall. (68). 

A summer visitor ; appears in the middle of April. These 
have more and purer white on the outer margins of the wing- 
coverts, and the general tone of the plumage is paler than is 
usual in specimens obtained further to the east. A male shot 
on the 5th May had the testes slightly developed. Length-, 
14*5 inches ; expanse, 41 ; -wing, 125 ; tail, £; tarsus, 1*7. 
Weight, 5-25 oz. 

27.— Bubo turcomanus, Eversm. (68 quat.). 

The only specimen observed, a fine female, was brought in 
on the 4th January by a native, who had knocked it over with 
a pellet-bow. 

It corresponds exactly with the original description, except 
in two points : there is no trace of white in the centre of the 
feathers of the back ; and the primaries, instead of having the 
yellow interspaces marked with nothing more than a few 
minute dots of brown, have dense mottlings on the outer web, 
which are almost entirely wanting on the inner. The dis- 
tinctive points separating this species from B. ignavus given 
by Sharpe in his Catalogue hold good, and are well exhibited 
in this specimen. 

been the medium-sized bird. Against this it is contended that one of Sykes' two types J iy f** 

is the large Kite, and one the medium-sized one. Some of Sykes' birds were, it is known, J '£. rf£A*j\ 

collected about Bombay, where the large Kite does occur, and that is doubtless where c 

the one so-called type was procured ; but this does not alter the fact that Sykes '(, 

explicitly states that his name govinda was applied to the common Kite of the 

Deccan, and that the medium-sized Kite is the only Kite at all common there. 

See also note, pp. 229, 230, S.F., Vol. HI. Sykes never set forth any of his speci- 
mens as types. It is only by constructive evidence that the specimens presented by 
him to the H. E. I. C.'s Museum can be taken as types, and certainly no evidence 
■drawn from these can overthrow clear and explicit declarations of his accom- 
panying his original description. It may be contended that the three races so run into 
one another that they are not specifically separable. This is a perfectly tenable 
view, though one from which I personally dissent. But if the three species be 
accepted, then the name govinda must be applied to the medium-sized Kite, the com- 
mon Kite of the Deccan. — A. O. H.J 

* Allied to S. aluco, and quite distinct from S. nivicolum, HodgB, I 
hope to finish some notes about this interesting Owl shortly, — J. S. 



T i*^r 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 311 

As compared with European and Chinese specimens of 
B. ignavus in the Indian Museum, the present species appears so 
well marked as to be worthy of more than the sub-specific dis- 
tinction assigned to it by Sharpe. 

[It may be noted that Mr. Hume possesses a " pale" Eagle- 
Owl (which has been suspected to be a specimen of B. turco* 
manus) from Kulu, for which he some time ago proposed a 
provisional name, but added that " it is of precisely the same 
type of coloration as B. maodmus (=B. ignavus of Europe)." 
Now B. turcomanus is not precisely of the same type of colo- 
ration as B. ignavus ; it differs in style as well as in tone of 
markings. I have seen Mr. Hume's specimen ; and, speaking 
from memory and after seeing the Gilgit specimen, I am 
inclined to believe that the Kulu bird is merely a male of 
B. ignavus* 

Again Mr. Blanford, in his u Zoology of Persia," notices a 
female Eagle-Owl which he identifies as B. sibiricus (= B. 
turcomanus), obtained near Shiraz, and adds that it is possibly 
the species referred to by Mr. Hume as above. The wing of 
the Shiraz bird is 17 inches, and the tail 9 '5. These dimen- 
sions appear to be too small for any bird of either of these 
two types, and rather to correspond with those of a specimen 
of B. ascalaphus, also from Shiraz, which is now in the Indian 
Museum. 

It does not seem probable that either of these birds could 
be rightly identified with B. turcomanus, to which species the 
Gilgit bird belongs. The dimensions of the latter (also a 
female) are — Wing, 19*1 inches ; tail, 12*3 ; expanse, 70 ; leno-th, 
27 ; bill from gape, 2*1. Weight, 4 lb. 9*25 oz.— G. F. L. M.J. 

Since my leaving Gilgit Dr. Scully has written to tell me 
that he has secured a specimen of a large Owl which appears 
to be too dark for B. turcomanus. 

28.— Scops pennatus, Hodgs. (74). 

One specimen was procured in Ponyal by Dr. Scully on 
the 21st May. Length, 7'6 inches ; expanse, 19 ; wing, 6'1 ; 
tail, 2*8 ; tarsus, '85 ; middle toe, '7 ; bill from gape, *76 ; bill 
from cere, *45 ; cere, *34 ; wings beyond tail, -35. Irides, pale 

* [I agree here. What I doubt is, whether the different shade of colouring, 
observable in the Siberian birds, one of which I have now examined, warrants specific 
separation. Certainly the differences between Bubo ignavus and Bubo turcomanus 
are less than those between Syrnium nivieolum, from say Peshawar and the same 
bird from Sikhim, or again Glaucidium brodii of Simla and Sikhim. I see that 
Scully has got hold of one of the larger pale nivicolums, which I also have from 
Peshawar and Murree and Simla (though they run smaller there), and proposes t» 
separate it, but it grades into the smaller richly coloured Nepal and Sikhim form. 
I have often drawn attention to this very great difference in colour, but I continue 
to think this insufficient in such cases to warrant specific separation. There are 
ecores of similar cases, e. g., Pericrocotus rosevs from Murree and Tenasserim. &c — • 

A. O. A.] »»«ilUl, OKI,. 



312 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

bright greenish yellow ; bill, dingy plumbeous ; toes, dull plum- 
beous ; cere, dull plumbeous. 

Believed to be common, but, though very often heard in 
Gilgit, most difficult to see. 

29.-— Scops brucii, Hume (74 sept). 

A single specimen shot ; many others heard, but most diffi- 
cult to find in the daytime. The specimen obtained corre- 
sponds exactly, to the minutest detail, with the description 
given by Mr. Hume (Stray Feathers, I., p. 9). 

Another specimen, a male, shot just across the Indus at 
Boonji, opposite the mouth of the Gilgit river, also corre- 
sponds in all points with the description, except that the pure 
buff feathers forming the ruff are more broadly tipped with 
dark brown. 

The fact of the specimens from this north-westerly locality* 
corresponding exactly with those originally described from 
Ahmednuggur, places beyond a doubt the right of this species 
to specific separation from 5. gin. (See observations in 
Sharpe's " Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum/' Vol. II., 
pp. 62, 63.) 

30— Hirundo rustica, Lin. (82). 

Seen at intervals all through the summer. The earliest 
date at which any Swallow was remarked was 4th March. 
Specimens obtained in March, May, and June belong to 
typical H. rustica. Length, 775 inches ; wing, 5 ; tail, 4. 

31.— Hirundo nipalensis, Hodgs.f (85 bis.) 

A few seen and two specimens shot on 16 th May, among 
a large number of Chelidon cashmeriensis. 

32.— Cotile rupestris, Scop. (91). 

|_Two specimens brought ; these are the true C. rupestris, 

larger and darker than the southern C. obsoleta. Length, 5 '85 

to 6*25 inches; wing, 5*3 to 5; tail, 2 25 ; tarsus, *45. Irides, 
brown.— G. F. L. M.] 

* [Many specimens have also been sent from Sindh and Quettah, and one from 
Dehra Ismael Khan. — A. O. H.] 

f The species here referred to is H. erythropygia, Sykes, — J. S. 

[This is an unsatisfactory sort of note. Captain G-. F. L. Marshall certainly knows 
H. nipalensis. He may have made a mistake, but it is not likely, and as prima facie 
the birds in Gilgit are more likely to be nipalensis than erythropygia, something 
more than Dr. Scully's ipse dictum was necessary. Dimensions should have been 
given, and a description of rump band and other diagnostical points (vide S. P., V., 265) 
so as to prove if such be the fact, that Dr. S. was right and Captain Marshall wrong. — 
A. O. H.] 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 313 

33.— Chelidon cashmeriensis, Gould. (93). 

Appears about middle of April, and becomes very common 
in May. 

[Only one specimen brought ; differs from C. urbica in 
having the axillaries and wing-lining brown instead of greyish 
white. Length, 5 inches ; wing, 4 ; tail, 2 ; tarsus, 5. Irides, 
brown.— G. F. L. M.] 

34.— Cypselus apus, Lin. (99). 

First seen on 6 th May. Very common during May in 
large flocks. 

35.— Caprimulgus unwini, Hume. (Ill bis). 

First observed in 1879, on the 13th of May, but was 
common in the summer. This is the pale form of C. euro- 
pmis, uow retained by Mr. Hume as distinct. 

The Gilgit specimens appear to be identical with one from 
Shiraz, and to be barely, if at all, separable from other speci- 
mens from Persia in the Indian Museum. 

36.— Merops persicus, Pall. (120). 

Since my leaving Gilgit Dr. Scully writes that he secured 
specimens of this Bee-eater passing through late in the 
autumn. 

37.— Merops apiaster, Lin. (121). 

One specimen was shot, on 16th May, out of a flock of 
about a dozen which came over but did not stay — the only 
occasion of any being seen. 

38.— Coracias garrula, Lin. (125). 

A summer visitor. 

Appeared both years on 28th and 29th April. Breeds at 
5,000 feet. 

39.— Picus himalayensis, Jard. 8f Sell. (154). 

Tolerably common at 9,000 to 10,000 feet elevation, where 
it breeds. 

. [Of the specimens brought down, four correspond with the 
Kashmir form of this species, having the under-surface very 
pale, almost white. In these, also, the lower tail-coverts are 
deeply rufous, the outer tail-feathers are barred throughout, 



314 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

the primaries have no white tips, and usually five white spots 
on the outer web, and the bill is large. 

Seven other specimens have the underparts strongly sullied, 
as much so as in the darkest Sikhim* specimens; the 
lower tail-coverts are usually barely rufescent ; the outer 
tail-feather is barred on the outer web only at the tip ; the 
primaries are usually black, tipped with six white spots on 
the outer web ; and the bill is smaller. 

This is a very remarkable race ; but as in the small series 
obtained the dark tone of the underparts appears to be the 
only distinctive feature that is constant, sufficient ground 
is not afforded for specific separation. — Gr. F. L. M.] 

40.— Gecinus squamatus, Vig. (170). 

In the winter and spring is common in the main valley, 
but appears to ascend in the summer to higher elevations. 

[Three specimens shot in December and January are iden- 
tical with the Indian type ; but three others obtained in 
March, at an elevation of 5,000 feet, near Gilgit itself, are 
remarkable for having the neck, back, and outer margins of 
secondaries grey instead of green, while the wing-coverts are 
mixed grey and green. All three are females ; and in two out 
of the three some traces of green are visible among the grey 
on the lower back ; so that it may be only a phase of plumage 
of G. squamatus. In his " Zoology of Persia," Mr. Blanford 
notices an analogous grey form of the Gecinus viridis type. — 
G. F. L. M.] 

41 —lynx torquilla, Lin. (188). 

A summer visitant. 

Specimens shot in May have the abdomen pure white, 
while the rufous tone of the throat is more pronounced and 
strongly contrasted than in the autumn specimens ; the flanks 
and under tail-coverts are also more or less strongly tinged 
with rufous. 

42.— Cuculus canorus, Lin. (199). 

Appears about 7th May. Common everywhere, up to 
12,000 feet, in July. 

* The Sikhim specimens referred to are perhaps referable to P. majoroides, 
Hodgson, as P. himalayensis does not occur in Sikhim.— J. S. 

[ Sikhim here was of course a lapsus calami for Simla, where the specimens exhibit 
the dark tone referred to.— A. O. II.] 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 315 

43— Cuculus himalayanus,* Blyth. (200). 

Not very common. Appears at the same time as G. 
canorus. 

44.— Coccystes jacobinus, Bodd. (212). 

One specimen, a straggler, a female, apparently breeding, 
brought in by a native who bad killed it with a stone, 15th 
June. None others seen. 

45.— Oerthia himalayana, Vig. (243). 

Very common below 6,000 feet in winter, disappearing 
at end of March, when it goes up to the forests above. In 
winter plumage the whole of the underparts are dark sooty, 
gradually changing to white as spring comes on, not, appa- 
rently, by a moult, but by change of colour. The size of bill 
varies greatly according to age : a young bird four months 
old has the bill at gape 0*62 inch ; one of eight months, 0*8 ; 
full-grown, 1, 

One specimen has the tail very closely barred, as also has 
one shot in Chitral. 

46.— Certhia hodgsoni, Brooks. (243 Us), 

A single specimen, a male breeding, obtained at 9,000 feet, 
by Dr. Scully, on the 11th June. Tail unbarred; throat and 
abdomen silky white ; lower mandible white ; first four primaries 
unspotted. 

Length, 5-2 inches ; wing, 27 ; tail, 2*1 (damaged) ; tarsus, 
0*6 ; bill from front, 0*46 ; bill at gape, 0'8. 

47.— Tichodroma muraria, Lin. (247). 

Very common indeed in November and December, but 
began to disappear in January. Two specimens were shot 
after the middle of March with the black throat fully deve- 
loped. During the summer not one was seen even up to 
16,000 feet elevation. 

48.— Sitta leucopsis, Gould. (249). 

A permanent resident ; breeds at 10,000 feet. 

[I do not know how Blyth's name can be retained, I have compared specimens 
from the Himalayas, the Assam and Munipur Hills, Burmah, the Malay Peninsula, 
China, Siam and Sumatra, and can discover no difference, and Blyth himself finally 
adopted Schlegel's view that str iatus, Brapiez (vide B. of B., p. 79) was the correct 
name for this species. Possibly some further evidence which has escaped me has 
transpired, but for the present Indian ornithologists had better adhere to the name 
itriatus.— A. O. H.J 



316 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

49.— Upupa epops, Lin. (254). 

A summer visitant ; first seen on 6th March. 

50.— Lanius homeyeri, Cab. (256 bis). 

A single specimen, the only one seen, was shot on the 4th 
March, close to Gilgit. This specimen approaches L. excu- 
bitor in the rump being greyish instead of pure white, the latter 
being given by Severtzoff as one of the distinguishing features 
of L. homeyeri ( Stray Feathers, III., p. 430) ; but it has the 
inner web of the secondaries broadly margined with white, 
while the lores are white with black shafts instead of white. 

[From L. lahtora it differs in the entire absence of the black 
frontal band, not only the forehead but also the lores, as men- 
tioned above, being pure white. — G. F. L. M.] 

51.— Lanius erythronotus, Vig. (257). 

A summer visitor ; appears about 19th April. 

Jerdon's description of the colouring of the wing is incom- 
plete : the secondaries are narrowly edged with buff on the 
outer web, the tertiaries broadly edged with buff and rufous 
on outer web' and tip; upper wing-coverts black, narrowly 
tipped rufous, with a rufous patch and creamy white edging 
at the shoulder. 

52.— Lanius cristatus, Lin* (262). 

A number of immature specimens appeared at the end of 
August and beginning of September for a few days ; they were 
not observed at any other time. 

53.— Pericrocotus brevirostris, Vig. (273). 

Since my leaving Gilgit Dr. Scully writes that he saw 
several flocks of this Minivet in Gilgit about the beginning of 
winter, but all the specimens secured by him were in yellow 
plumage. 

54.— Buchanga longicaudata, Hay. (280). 

A single specimen was procured by Dr. Scully in August. 
Probably a straggler from Darel. 

55— Muscipeta paradisi, Lin. (288). 

A single specimen, a young female, was brought in by a 
native, who had killed it with a pellet-bow. None were seen 
at any other time. 

* The Shrike here referred to is L. isabellinus, Hempr. & Ehr. — J. S. 

[This is probably correct, as cristatus has not yet been observed in the far North- 
West. Even isabellinus has not, so far as I am aware, been previously recorded from 
any portion of the hill region of Kashmir.— A. 0. H.] 



THE BIRDS OF G1LGIT. 317 

56 — Hemichelidon sibiricus, Gm. (296). 

Appears about 16th May, and is very common all through 
the summer. 

57.— Butalis grisola, Lin. (299 Ms). 

Common in summer. 

58.— Cyornis ruficaudus, Sws. (307). 

Common in May, June, and July, at 9,000 and 10,000 feet. 

59. — Troglodytes neglectus, Brooks. (333 bis). 

Very common in winter, keeping generally to the sides of 
water-courses. In summer it goes up to the higher elevations 
where I have seen it at about 10,000 feet. 

60.— Myiophoneus temmincki, Vig. (343). 

Common all the year round. Breeds in the end of May, at 
about 8,000 feet ; in winter comes down to 5,000 feet. 

61.— Hydrobata* asiatica, Sws. (347). 

Very common. Appears to breed early in March, as full 
fledged young were about in the middle of April. 

All the specimens show a narrow circle of white feathers 
round the eye ; and many of them have pale greyish white 
margins to the secondaries and wing-coverts, and the under 
tail-coverts tipped with white. The pale margins are probably 
remains of the immature plumage (which is blackish grey, each 
feather more or less margined with white) ; but the white circle 
round the eye appears to be a permanent feature.! 

62.— Hydrobata cashmiriensis, Gould. (34S). 

Since I left Gilgit, Dr. Scully writes that he found the Cash- 
mere Water-Ouzel in the upper part of the Kergah valley, at 
the head of which is a pass leading to Darel, but that it appears 
to be rare. 

63.— PetrocossyphusJ cyanus, Lin. (351). 

Appears about 22nd April, and is common all through the 
summer at about 7,000 fe,et. 

* [In several cases generic, and even specific, names are used in which I do not 
concur, but in most instances, as this is a matter of opinion, I have thought it 
unnecessary to point this out. In the present case it appears to me that the use of 
Hydrobata is distinctly wrong, and that it is certain (and not a mere matter of opinion) 
that Cinches should be used — A. O. H.] 

t This has also been noted in birds obtained as far east as Shillong. Of. Godwin- 
Austen, J. A. S. B., 1876, Part II., p. 203.— J. S. 

[I am not sure that Godwin-Austen may not have incorrectly identified his Shillong 
birds. Mine from that locality are, I consider, O. pallasi, and his description point8 to 
the same species. — A. O. H.] 

t [This generic name cannot possibly stand. Either Boie's name, Monticola, must be 
adopted, or my name Cyanocinclus.—A. O. H.] 

41 



318 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

64.— Oreoecetes* cinclorhynchus, Vig. (353). 

Since my leaving Gilgit, Dr. Scully writes that he procured 
a single immature specimen in Gilgit late in the autumn ; 
probably a straggler from Darel. 

65.— Monticola saxatilis, Lin. (351 ter). 

A number in immature plumage appeared each year in 
autumn. 

Two young males, in plumage corresponding to that 
described by Dresser in the l< Birds of Europe/' were obtained on 
the 21st August and 6th September. 

Length, 7 - 6 inches and 7*75 ; wing, 4*45 and 4'65 ; tail, 2'5 
and 2 3 ; tarsus, 1*1 and 1*12. Irides, red-brown. No adult 
birds of this species were observed. 

66— Turdus ruficollis, Pall. (364). 

One specimen secured in January, the only one seen. 

[The throat and breast are a deep Vandyke brown, with a 
ferruginous gloss and narrow ferruginous borders to the tips 
of the feathers. 

The uniform dark throat and the pure rufous of the tail 
distinguish this species from T. atrogalaris.'f — G. F. L. M.] 

* [This generic name is thus spelt in the Ibis. Gray, when constructing the name, 
spelt it Orocetes, and to me this seems the right form to adopt. But whichever way 
it is spelt, it cannot possibly stand. Either Petrophila of Swainson, or Monticola 
of Boie, must be adopted. — A. O. H.] 

+ [I cannot quite understand this. I have over thirty specimens of ruficollis from 
China, Assam, Munipur, Sikhim, the Bhutan Duars, &c, now before me, and in not 
one of these is either the breast or throat " a deep vandyke brown, with a ferruginous 
gloss and narrow ferruginous borders to the tips of the feathers ;" not one has an 
** uniform dark throat." 

In old adult males the chin, throat and breast are an absolutely uniform rusty 
rufous, brighter in some specimens and with more of a chestnut tinge in others. In 
somewhat younger males, there is a single narrow ill-defined mandibular stripe of 
small dusky spots down each side of the throat In still younger males these dark 
stripes are broader and more conspicuous. Younger birds still are like the females, 
except that I am doubtful whether the young males ever have dusky spots on the 
breast. The adult females have the centre of the throat creamy or rufous white, 
spotted with rusty rufous, and the mandibular lines of spots well marked, almost 
black, in many specimens, and continued round behind the ear-coverts. The breast 
is a duller rusty rufous than in the males ; the feathers are more or less fringed with 
creamy or buffy white, and the breast is more or less thickly dotted about with some- 
what sagittate shaped blackish brown spots. In younger females, again, the rufous of 
the breast is very faint and mingled with the ashy brown of the upper surface ; the 
rufous spottings on the throat are almost wanting, and the darker spots on the breast 
are more or less obsolete. 

As to the tail it must not be supposed that the whole of this is pure rufous ; even 
in the oldest adult males the terminal inch of both webs of the central feathers is ashy 
brown, and there is more or less of this same colour on the next three or four pairs 
of feathers, at least on the outer webs towards the tips. Some quite adult males have 
the whole of the two central feathers ashy brown. In many young birds the whole 
of the outer webs of all the tail feathers, except the two or three outer ones quite at 
their bases, are of this same brown; but at all ages the inner webs of the outer tail 
feathers are rufous, generally pure, but sometimes a little clouded with ashy brown, 
and when the birds get a little older, the whole of the inner webs of all the lateral 
tail feathers, in the males, become a pretty pure rusty rufous. In the females a 
certain amount of ashy brown seems always to remain upon even the inner webs of 
the lateral tail feathers towards their tips.— A. 0. H.J 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 319 

67.— Turdus atrogularis, Tern. (365). 

Not uncommon in the winter, but not a summer resident. 
When the black plumage of the throat is fully assumed, the 
rusty tint of the axillaries and under wing-coverts disappears 
and is replaced by earth-brown uniform with the flanks.* 
Though I have not remarked it in summer, it probably does 
not leave the district, but keeps to the higher elevations. 

68.— Turdus viscivorus, Lin. (368). 

Tolerably common in Gilgit during the severe winter of 
1877-78, but seldom comes so low down, keeping generally 
to the higher valleys, where I found it in July at 10,000 feet. 

69.— Trochalopteron simile, Hume. (418 bis). 

Seldom seen in Gilgit, but appears to be common higher 
up the main valley. A pair were shot in Gilgit in the severe 
winter of 1877-78. 

70.— Trochalopteron lineatum, Vig. (425). 

Common at all times. In summer goes up to about 9,000 
feet. 

71— -Oriolus kundoo, Sykes. (470). 

A summer visitant, and common. Appears about 1st May. 
Nest with three eggs hard-set, taken 8th June ; several other 
nests taken later on. 

72.— Pratincola indicant Bly. (483). 

A summer visitor, but breeds higher up than Gilgit, where 
it is only common in spring and autumn. 

[Herren Cabanis and Severtzoff pointed out (Stray Feathers, 
III., 429) the distinction between this species and P. rubicola, in 
that u P. rubicola has always blackish markings along the 
feather-shafts of the white rump, P. indica never." Sub- 
sequently Mr. Hume improved on this definition by statin a- 
that " the upper tail-coverts and lower part of the rump in 
indica are never striated." 

According to Mr. Hume's definition, two of the Stonechats 
obtained would be P. rubicola, but according to Herr Severt- 
zoff only one ; for one has the rump and upper tail-coverts 

* [This remark is apparently based upon some misconception. I have scores 
of specimens with the throat and breast entirely black, in all of which the rusty tint 
of the axillaries, &c, is most conspicuous. Nay I have a Gilgit specimen shot in 
April, with both throat and breast black, in which this rusty tint is as strongly 
marked as in any other specimens, so that one cannot explain the text by the 
supposition that the Gilgit birds differ in this respect— A. O. H.] 

t [Should stand as P. maitra, Pall.— A. O. H.] 







320 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

distinctly striated, the other has tbe upper tail-coverts striated, 
but no trace of dark centrings on the rump.* 

The two birds belong to the same species ; and Mr. Hume's 
diagnosis appears to be the more strictly accurate of the two ; 
but as both the specimens are females, and as no male approach- 
in o- the P. rubicola type was found among the numerous 
specimens preserved, I hesitate, on the strength of these two, 
to include P. rubicola among the birds of Gilgit. 

All the males show a small amount of white at the base of 
the tail, about a quarter of an inch in some ; but none have 
white on the outer tail-feathers as in P. hemprichi. 

They are distinguished from P. macrorhyncha by having 
the white patch formed by the upper tertials and tertiary 
coverts next the body, and from P. rubetroides\ by having the 
axillaries black and not white. — G. F. L. M.] 

73— Pratincola robusta, Tristram. (483). 

[Out of twenty specimens brought down, five apparently 
belong to the type separated as P. robusta by Cauon Tristram. 

r. Hume points out (S.F., V., 243) that no constant specific 
difference has as yet been shown between this form and the 
smaller P. indica, and retains them both under one name. 

After looking into this question with Mr. Brooks, and com- 
paring a number of specimens, we concluded that P. robusta 
is a good species. It is not only a larger but a slenderer bird, 
with a tail much longer in proportion to its length of wing 
than P. indica. In specimens of P. indica and P. robusta, 
each with the wing three inches in length, the tail of the latter 
exceeds the tail of the former by a full quarter of an inch. 
The females also are more rufous altogether; and the males, 
in breeding-plumage, are less black above on the back.| — 
G. F. L. M ] 

74.— Saxicola opistholeuca, Strickl. (488). 

Never very common ; appears about 1st May. I shot one in 
December ; but this was in immature plumage, and its appear- 

* A similar colouration has been noticed in some Chats procured in Nepal (S. F., 
1879, p. 301).— J. S. 

f [Captain Marshall had perhaps overlooked my remarks, S. F., VII., 65, in which 
I pointed out that P. macrorhyncha and P. rubetraoides were one and the same 
species. Of this there is no doubt ; the only doubt is whether macrorhyncha is, as 
my numerous specimens showed, the young of rubetraoides, or, as Blanford suspected, 
the females. — A. O. H ] 

X [These remarks were probably penned before Captain Marshall had seen my 
remarks, S. F., IX., 133. In these I pointed out that the true robusta of Tristram 
was a magnificent bird of the torquata type, totally distinct from the large Eastern 
race of indica. "Whether this Eastern race deserves or requires specific separation 
is a matter of opinion which I have discussed loc. cit. sup. According to my views 
it does not, but even if this be dissented from, it will require a new name and cannot 
stand under that of robusta, Tristram, which was applied to a wholly distinct species. 
—A. O. H.J 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 321 

nnce was quite accidental, I fancy. 1 never saw another in 
winter. Two of tbe specimens have a greyish tinge on the 
head and nape, forming a distinct cap, which appears to be a 
mark of nonage, as a young bird has the whole upper plumage 
suffused with this colour ; in a still younger bird, the back and 
breast, are rufescent buff, edged with brown ; the wings brown, 
each feather edged with fulvous, and the tail as in the adult. 

The young appear to differ widely from those of S. leucura 
as figured by Dresser in the " Birds of Europe " 

The adult female is similar to the male, except that the whole 
of the upper plumage is less black and presents a rusty appear- 
ance. The head also has a faint cap of dark brown extending 
to the neck, as in the young males; and the chin is light brown 
instead of black. 

75.— Saxicola picata, Bly. (489). 

This was the commonest Stonechat in Gilgit, where it 
breeds. A very large series was collected in every month from 
March to September. 

Mr. Hume has for some years past asserted that S. capistrata 
of Gould is merely the young male of S. picata: the ques- 
tion is one extremely difficult to decide finally ; but the series 
now got together for examination bears out, to a very great 
extent, Mr. Hume's conclusion. The only point suggestive 
of a doubt of the identity of the two supposed species is, that 
throughout the summer numerous specimens were obtained 
in every month with pure black heads, showing no trace what- 
ever of white. 

Of eleven specimens collected in March, eight have pure 
black heads, one has a trace of a pale supercilium, one has the 
same more pronounced, and also a whitish forehead, and one has 
the sides of the occiput and nape almost pure white, while 
the whole of the top of the head is more or less streaked with 
dingy white. 

Of seven obtained in April, three have pure black heads, 
the wings being quite brown in one specimen and nearly black 
in the other two ; two have a faint trace of white behind the 
eye; and two have the forehead paler, with a well-marked 
whitish supercilium and frontal band. 

Of five specimens obtained in May two have pure black 
heads, the wings in one being quite brown ; two have the sides 
of the occiput and the head streaked, as in the March speci- 
men ; and the fifth has the top of the head slaty white, pure 
white at the sides of the occiput, and is similar to S. capistrata, 
Gould, except that the white does not extend on to the mantle. 

Of three specimens obtained in June, each has the head 
pure black. 



322 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

Of ten birds obtained in July, five are young birds of the 
year ; the five old birds are moulting and in bad plumage : 
four of the latter appear to have the head pure black ; and one 
shows a greyish tinge on the cap. 

Of three birds obtained in August, two have the heads black, 
and one has a greyish tinge on the cap. 

Of seven obtained in September, one has only the faintest 
trace of white behind the eyes, one has the pale supercilium 
and frontal band, five have an indistinct greyish tone over the 
whole cap ; but none show the white head, and one, showing 
no trace of white on the head, has the wings broadly margined 
with rufous. 

Again, the adult specimens above referred to show many shades 
of brown on the wings, from light hair-brown to black ; but this 
feature does not appear to be distinctive of either age or season. 

In the young bird of the year the tertiaries and scapularies 
are narrowly margined with rufous brown. In a September 
bird, apparently of the earliest brood, which has assumed the 
black on the upper parts, the tertiaries and scapularies are even 
more broadly edged with rufous than in the youuger birds. 
The uniform brown wing, after losing the rufous margins, 
appears in birds of every season, and is not in any way con- 
nected with the assumption of the white on the head ; it is seen 
equally in the most white-headed birds and in those with pure 
black heads. The rufous tone of the under tail-coverts appears 
most pronounced in spring and autumn ; but even this does not 
hold good throughout the series. 

Dr. Scully and I have closely examined a very large number 
of specimens j aud the only way in which we can account for 
the occasional appearance of the white on the head is, that it is 
assumed in the spring of the first year only. The young bird 
has the head uniform dull brown, rather darker than in the 
adult female, with narrowish rufous edgings to the tertiaries 
and scapularies ; and towards the next spring a white cap is 
gradually assumed, which is perfected in the beginning of May. 
Directly after breeding, the white of the head appears to give 
place to dark grey, hardly distinguishable from the black of the 
back ; and in the succeeding autumn-moult the bird assumes 
the fully adult plumage with the glossy black head, which is 
not afterwards lost. 

It may be that the species with the pure black head is dis- 
tinct from that which assumes the grey cap ; but we are unable 
to separate them into two on this or any other hypothesis.* 

* [I still believe that there is only one species. Blanford, after examining a selection 
of my huge series, still thought there were two, but that in certain stages of their 
plumage they were indistinguishable. This may be so, but I cannot see my way to it.— 
A. O, H.J 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 323 

The sixty-odd specimens, now examined, show at least twenty 
phases or gradations of plumage ; and though we cannot 
separate them into two distiuct species, neither can we show 
conclusively that the gradations, according to age or season, 
are applicable on the assumption that there is only one species. 

In no case does the white in these birds extend on to the 
mantle, as it does in S. morio at all ages. 

S. picata also has the bill stronger and deeper, and the tarsus 
and toes stronger and coarser than in S. morio. Some speci- 
mens measure as much as 6'8 inches in length, while only a 
single specimen of S. morio measures 6"4 inches, the next 
longest being 6*25 inches. No other measurements show per- 
manent distinctions ; but, on the whole, 8. morio has somewhat 
the shorter tarsus. 

Two dissected females, shot March 31st and April 5th, have 
black throats and breasts, albescent chins, and dark brown 
backs ; two males, shot March 25th and April 1st, seem to 
belong to the same type, having brown on the back. 

In the middle of June a nest was found deep in the crevice 
of a stone wall in a ruined fort. After two eggs had been laid 
the bird was apparently killed by some animal. One egg was 
found broken, and the ground strewn with feathers of the hen 
bird. The egg is pale blue, thinly spotted all over with rusty 
red, more thickly (but not very thickly) at the larger end. 

76.— Saxicola albonigra, Hume. (489 bis). 

This species is never very common, but is the only Saxicola 
which remains in winter. I have procured specimens both in 
January and June. It may always be distinguished from 
S. picata by the size of its bill, which is always over half an 
inch in length. 

77.— Saxicola morio, Hemp, fy Mr. (490). 

This species is apparently only to be distinguished from 
S. leueomela (under which name it is described by Jerdon) by 
the inner web of the quills being black instead of white. (See 
Blanford and Dresser's Monograph, P. Z. S., 1874, p. 225.) 

From S. picata it may be distinguished by its more delicate 
legs, feet, and bill : it shows white on the head at all seasons ; 
and the white extends on to the mantle. In no specimen of 
5. morio obtained is there any trace of rufous on the under 
tail-coverts. One specimen differs in this point only from 
Gould's plate of S. capistrata ; and the specimen mentioned 
in the monograph as from Lahore, with rufous on the under 
tail-coverts, would appear to be a stage of the form described 
as 5. capistrata (see S. picata) : the white is very silky, and 



324 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

the black more intense and shining than in S. picata, especially 
on the throat. On the whole it is a shorter and more slender 
bird than S. picata, but has an equally long wing. Messrs. 
Dresser and Blanford are wrong in supposing that the female 
is like the male : it closely resembles the female of S. picata 
as figured in Gould's " Birds of Asia" in the plate of Dromolcea 
picata; but the bill and feet are similarly weaker as in the 
males, the upper parts are more rufous-isabelline instead of 
hair-brown, and there is a well marked, though narrow, pale 
supercilium and frontal band ; the whole head is paler and 
more rufous than the back, whereas in S. picata the head and 
back are alike. 

The younger male closely resembles the female, except in 
having the fore neck and upper part of the breast black mottled 
with rufous. 

S. morio was first seen on April 22nd ; in May and June it 
was tolerably common, but never seen in great numbers. 

78— Saxicola vittata,* Hempr. 8f Ehr. (4915). 

Two specimens referred to this species were procured by 
Dr. Scully. The first, a male, shot on June 11th, agrees well with 
Mr. Blanford's description of the type, but differs slightly in 
size. Length, 6*1 inches ; expanse, 105 ; wing, 3*6 ; tail, 2*4; 
tarsus, 0'9; bill from gape, 08 ; bill from front, '5. The crown 
and nape are slightly sullied with brown, as iu some specimens 
of S. morio; chin, throat, and breast pure white. 

The female is much paler than the female of S. morio, but 
has the chin and throat dirty white, and has no supercilium.. 
Length, 5*8 inches ; expanse, 106 ; wing, 8*45 ; tail, 2'6 ' 
tarsus, 0*9 ; bill from gape, 08 ; bill from front, 0'47. 

* [This species is new to our Indian list, and must therefore be described. I have 
seen no Gilgit specimen. A great number of Gilgit birds were in Mr. Mandelli's collec- 
tion, but this was not amongst the number, and we had no specimen in our Museum. 
I must, therefore, avail myself of Mr. Seebohm's description. His diagnosis is — 
Saxicola Vittatus — 

" Throat white or nearly so. 

" Base of tail feathers white. 
" Back aud scapulars black. 

" Desceiption — 

" Adult male in breeding plumage. — Head and nape, extending on to the upper back, 
greyish white ; lores and ear-coverts black ; the rest of the back and scapulars black ; 
wings and wing-coverts nearly black ; rump and upper tail-coverts white ; tail white, 
except the terminal two-thirds of the two centre feathers, and the terminal fourth of 
the remainder, which are black ; the black tip on the outside feathers extended to half 
the length of the feather on the outside webs ; under parts white; axillaries and 
under wing-coverts black; inner margin of quills dark-brown ; bill, legs, feet, and 
claws black ; wing, with the third and fourth primaries, nearly equal and longest ; 
second primary intermediate in length between the fifth and sixth; bastard primary 
6 inch. Length of wing, 3'9 inches ; tail, 2-55 ; culmen, 07 ; tarsus, 07. 

" The female differs from the male in having the black parts replaced by brown, and 
in having the head and nape suffused by brown." — A. O, H] 



THE BIRDS OF GILG1T. 325 

79— Saxicola isabellina, Rtipp. (491). 

None were observed in the first year. In the second year 
several specimens were procured. They appeared about March 
6th, and were tolerably common till the end of the month. One 
specimen was secured on April 21st. 

This is not Saxicola cenanthe (No. 491 of Jerdon) as identified 
by Messrs. Hume, Dresser, and Blanford. Jerdon's descrip- 
tion is correctly applicable to the true «S. cenanthe.* 

The female has the plumage of a paler tone throughout than 
the male. 

80.— Saxicola cenanthe, f Lin. (491a). 

Two specimens were obtained, and about half a dozen others 
observed, during some heavy weather in March, but never seen 
at any other time. Both are males, and are assuming the 
summer plumage, as shown in the plate in Dresser's " Birds 
of Europe." 

Mr. Hume has identified Saxicola mianthe, as described by 
Jerdon, with &. isabellina; and in this he has been followed 
by Messrs. Blanford and Dresser in their exhaustive mono- 
graph of the genus. But Jerdon's description and the detailed 
description given in that monograph of S. cenanthe correspond 
exactly both with each other and with the specimens now 
brought from Gilgit. (In the fifth liue of the description 
" outer" is probably a misprint for " other/') And as Jerdon, 
who very accurately describes the species, states that he got 
a specimen near Mhow, there is no ground for excluding 
S. cenanthe from the list of Indian birds.* 

* [ I think that the correctness of these remarks is doubtful. 

Jerdon's description is clearly a compiled one — " male above ashy with a brown tinge,", 
applies neither to the summer nor winter plumage of cenanthe. In the summer this 
latter is pale slate grey ; in the winter a dull brown, with more or less of a light red- 
dish buff tinge towards the tips of the feathers. On the other hand the whole descrip- 
tion applies fairly well to isabellinus in winter, except " under wing-coverts blackish, 
with white edgings," which properly could only apply to cenanthe in summer plumage. 
In the second place plenty of other specimens of isabellinus have been obtained in 
the tract of country in which Mhow is situated, namely, the Indore Agency, but never 
one of cenanthe. In the third place Jerdon identified all our Etawah, Agra, Cawnpore, 
&c, isabellinus as his cenanthe. 

Under these circumstances I have not the least doubt that, be the sources what they 
may from which he compiled his curt and by-no-means satisfactory description, the bird 
he intended to represent under his 491 was really isabellinus. — A. O. H.j 

f [Saxicola cenanthe has never been fully described in Steay Feathees, and in my 
opinion Jerdon's description under 491, however unsatisfactory, applies better to isabel- 
linus than to cenanthe, and I therefore ex tract a description from Mr. Seebohm's Cata- 
logue : — 

"Adult male in breeding plumage. — General colour of the upper parts pale 
slaty grey; forehead and eye-stripe, which extends to the nape, white ; lores and 
upper part of the ear-coverts black ; wings and wing-coverts nearly black, a few traces 
of the autumnal buff margins to the feathers generally left ; rump and upper tail- 
coverts white ; tail white, except the terminal three- fifths of the two centre feathers, 
and the terminal fourths of the others, which are nearly black ; under parts very pale 
buff, slightly darker on the throat and breast ; axillaries and under wing-coverts white, 
with dark centres; inner margin oi quills brown; bill, legs, feet and claws black; 

42 



326 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

It may be distinguished from S. isabellina by the wings 
and tip of tail being black, not brown, the dark tippings of 
the side-feathers of the tail being much narrower, and by the 
conspicuous broad black stripe on the side of the head from 
the lores through the eye to the ear-coverts, and in summer 
by the blue grey tone of the back. 

81.— Saxicola hendersoni, Hume* (492 bis). 

This species was not noticed the first year ; but in the second 
year a number appeared in September, chiefly young birds, and 
a few adults among them. Messrs. Blanford and Dresser, in 
their Monograph of the Saxicolinse, and the latter also in the 
" Birds of Europe," suppress this species, and place the name 
as a synonym of S. melanoleuca. The reasons for this are not 
given ; and the colouration of the base of the feathers on the 
back seems to be utterly incompatible with the assumption of 
a white back in summer ; so that this decision could not be 
accepted, even in the absence of specimens in full breeding 
plumage. But Mr. Hume has recently pointed out that three 

wing, with the third and fourth primaries, nearly equal and longest; second primary 
sometimes as long as the fourth ; bastard primary 075 to - 65 inch. Length of wing, 
42 to 3 5 inches (females, 37 to 345) ; tail, 245 to 20 ; culmen, 0*7 to 062 ; tarsus, 
1-2 to 1'05. 

" Adult female in breeding plumage. — General .colour of the upper parts dull 
brown ; forehead and eye-stripe bullish white, much narrower than in the male; lores 
and upper parts of ear-coverts brown ; wings and wing- coverts not so dark as in 
the male ; rump and upper tail-coverts white ; tail as in the male, but the dark parts 
not quite so dark ; under parts as in the male. After the autumn moult both sexes 
have a buffish brown margin to every feather, so that they are scarcely distinguish- 
able, and resemble the adult female in breeding plumage, except that the quills and 
tail feathers are margined with buffish brown at the tip, and the innermost secondaries 
and wing-coverts are similarly margined, not only at the tip but along the outside 
webs. The under parts are also darker in colour. It is not known that birds of the 
year differ from adult." 

There is no reason really to believe that either Jerdon or any one else has ever as yet 
procured this species anywhere in the plains of India ; but having been obtained in 
Gilgit, it is highly probable that sooner or later stragglers will occur there.— 
A. O. H.] 

* This is the same as S morio, No. 77 of this list. Mr. Hume's original descrip- 
tion and figure of 8. hendersoni admirably represent the winter plumage of 8. morio, 
Hempr. & Ehr.— J. S. 

[This, i.e. my S. hendersoni, is certainly not the same as No. 77 of this list. It may 
be the same as the true morio of H. and E., but it is not the same as the morio of this 
list, which has the inner webs of the quills black (vide sup.) while in heidersoni they 
are a pale grey brown. Dr. Scully overlooked the fact that No. 77 of this list 
is apparently morio apud Blanford and Dresser ; and this, according to Seebohm, is 
capistrata of Gould, and not the true morio of Hempr. and Ehr. 

"What Dr. Scully should have said is, that 8. hendersoni, Hume, is, according to 

Seebohm, identical with morio, H. & E. apud Seebohm. But the whole thing is doubt- 

/ ful, because Seebohm claims to have the types of S. hendersoni in the British museum 

I whereas they are in my museum. Dr. Henderson had a great number of Stonechats, 

and I have no certainty that the birds he gave the B. Museum were really identical 

with the types. 

In winter plumage a good many of the species are difficult to separate, and Mr. 
Seebohm has never seen hendersoni in full breeding plumage ; but I have, and I can 
only say that if as I gather the true morio is the same as the bird we have hitherto called 
leucomela, Pall., then in my judgment S. hendersoni is not identical with morio. The 
points of difference are clearly pointed out, S. F., II., bottom of p. 526.— A. O. H.] 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 327 

males obtained by Dr. Stoliczka, in the Second Yarkand Expe- 
dition, are in full breeding plumage, and have the back, as 
might have been anticipated, black. 

It is worthy of note that the nearly allied S. deserti, which 
is common in the Indus valley above 7,000 feet, is not found in 
Gilgit. 

There is nothing to add to Mr. Hume's careful and detailed 
description of his species S. hendersoni. 

82.— Ruticilla rufiventris, Vieill (497). 

With reference to the distinctive difference pointed out by 
Mr. Blanford in " Eastern Persia," "Vol. II., p. 165, all specimens 
procured in Gilgit have rufous under wing-coverts, thereby 
distinguishing them from the R. erythroproda type, which has 
the under wing-coverts black. 

Eleven males agree fairly with stage IV. in Stray Feathers, 
Vol. V., p. 36, except that the back is only partially black, and 
the greyish white band on the forehead is only visible in the 
May specimens. 

The fact of males breeding in female plumage has been before 
remarked ; but it seems far commoner than has been supposed. 
Like many other birds, this species probably does not get its 
fully adult plumage till after the first breeding season. 

In males of the first year in autumn the black of the back 
is concealed by ashy brown, instead of grey as in more mature 
birds. 

These birds go beyond Gilgit to breed as a rule ; one female 
was shot off the nest with young at 10,000 feet elevation in the 
Gilgit district. 

83.— Ruticilla hodgsoni, Moore* ( ? 497 ter). 

A single specimen of a female procured in February. Its 
measurements correspond best with the measurements given by 
Jerdon for R. hodgsoni. In other respects the plumage is most 
like the description of R. caruleoeephala given by Hume in 
" Lahore to Yarkand ;" but the whole tail, except the two outer 
feathers, is rufous, and there are faint rufous tints on the 
breast. 

84.— Ruticilla erythronota, Eversm. (498 bis). 

Two male specimens of thi3 handsome Redstart were pro- 
cured in December and January. It appeared to be common 

* This is hardly likely to be R. hodgsoni, as that species has not, I believe, been 
obtained west of Nepal, and the large tract of country between Nepal and Kashmir 
has been well explored. It might possibly be R. mesoleuca. — J. S. 

[I agree that this can hardly be hodgsoni, and that it is not impossibly the female 
of mesoleuca, — A. O. H.j 



328 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

in the upper part of the Chitral valley in November, when I 
procured several specimens of both sexes.* As noted by^ Mr. 
Blanford, the amount of rufous on the back and breast differs 
in different specimens ; but a specimen shot in December is 
almost entirely rufous on the back, showing very little grey. 
The feathers of the back and breast have margins of grey 
above and isabelline below, which are decomposed ; and the 
breadths of these margins seem to differ in different specimens, 
causing a greater or less amount of rufous to be visible ; the 
December bird is also small in all its measurements, with a bill 
of only 032 inch in front. 

The white speculum on the primary coverts is very prominent 
in the December and in one November specimen ; in the other 
November and in the January specimen it is inconspicuous, 
almost wanting in the latter. 

The speculum, where prominent, agrees with Eversmann's 
description. Mr. Blanford's description omits all notice of it 
(probably accidentally) in the Shiraz specimens; while in 
Mr. Moore's description of R. rufogularis the speculum is des- 
cribed as formed by the basal portion of the primaries being 
white. In other respects the three descriptions coincide well 
with each other and with the Gilgit and Chitral specimens. 

85.— Ruticilla erythrogastra, Guld. (499). 

Was extremely common during the severe winter of 1877-78 
dowu to an elevation of 5,000 feet, but in ordinary years 
does not come much below 6,000 feet. The white of the head 
and back of neck in the male appears to be a sign of 
maturity. One specimen, of which the sex is doubtful, has 
the dull plumage of the female, but has more rufous on the 
underparts, and is probably a young male of the year. Of 
the males in adult plumage some specimens have the white 
of the head and back of the neck thickly dashed with dark 
slaty grey, being, perhaps, males of the second year. Those 
in the most perfect plumage have the head and back of neck 
dull white, extending rather further down the back. 

The female is slightly smaller than the male, the wing 
measuring from 3| to 4 inches. With the exception of the 
wincr-feathers being margined with silvery grey instead of 
rufous, there seems to be no difference except that of size 
between the females of R. erythrogastra and R. rujlventris.'f 

* TThis species is very common throughout the winter months ahout Attock, in 
the Kbyber, and generally about the bases of the hills N. W., W. and S. W. of the 
Peshawar Valley .—A. O. H.] 

f [In rufiventris the abdomen, vent and flanks are light rusty chestnut; in 
erytkrogaster they are pale fawn colour. Again the grey brown of the upper surface 
is much paler in erythrogaster.—A. O. H.] 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 329 

Thi9 Redstart is said to breed higher up the valley, in Yassin, 
at an elevation of 8,000 feet. 

86.— Ruticilla frontalis, Vig. (503). 

A summer visitor, appears in April and remains up in high 
ground about 9,000 to 10,000 feet, being only once Been in 
Gilgit during some heavy weather in April. 

The male in breeding plumage loses the terminal brown 
edgings to the feathers of the head, back, throat, and breast, 
these parts becoming uniform dusky cyaneous, while on the 
feathers of the throat and breast a lazuline sheen appears. 

In a young bird of the year the entire head, back, and 
breast are deep brown, each feather centred with rufous fawn 
colour, more largely on the breast than on the back ; the 
wings are nearly black, the secondaries narrowly, and the 
tertiaries and greater coverts broadly, edged with bright 
rufous; abdomen, rufescent fawn colour; upper and lower tail- 
coverts and tail as in the female. 

87.— Adelura* caeruleocephala, Vig. (504). 

A summer visitor. It appears in April, and breeds at about 
10,000 feet. 

88.— Chimarrhornis leucocephala, Vig. (506;. 

A resident, but never very common. A few pairs to be seen 
generally at about 10,000 and 11,000 feet in summer ; it comes 
down to 5,000 feet in winter. 

89.— Nemura cyanura, Pall.f (508) 

Obtained in Gilgit in May, and in the Nulter valley in 
August, at 11,000 feet. In August the young were fully 
fledged. The plumage before the first moult is bright rufous 
brown above, paler below, each feather margined with dark 
brown ; wings and tail hair brown ; middle of abdomen pure 
white. 

90.— Calliope pectoralis, Gould. (513). 

First seen on May 1st, by which time it was in full breeding 
plumage ; birds shot in the beginning of June being not 
nearly so brilliant. It breeds at 10,000 feet. 

The measurements and description given by Jerdon do not 
entirely correspond with the specimens secured ; the wing in 

* f I can discover no valid grounds now for separating this species generically ^S~ 
from the other Buticillas. Its habits are precisely those of the rest of the group. /„ ,-• 
In November and December this and frontalis are our two commonest Simla birds — 
A. O. H.] 

t [This is the Himalayan N. rvfilata, distinct from N. cyanura, Pall. —J. S. , ■ 
[Correct, and our catalogue should be altered accordingly.— A. O. H.] 



330 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

some is as much as 3 # 25 inches in length. In the breeding male 
the top of the head and nape are brown, forming a defined cap 
in contrast with the ashy grey of the back and sides of the 
neck, and there is no trace of the white moustachial spot ; 
the female has no white on the tail at all. 

The young males in July, in immature plumage, show no 
throat spot, but can be distinguished by the white at the base 
of the tail. 

Young birds and nestlings are spotted, and approximate 
to those of Adelura cceruleocephala. Evidently two broods are 
produced in the year. 

91.— Cyanecula suecica, Lin. (514). 

The earliest migrant. It appears from the south about 
February 7th, is very common all March, and disappears in 
April. It breeds somewhere higher up, but not far off, and 
reappears on its way south on August 21st. 

In all the March specimens the blue throat and rufous patch 
are fully developed. One of these is remarkable for having 
the lower rufous band below the black and white gorget an 
inch deep ; in all the others, obtained earlier and later, this 
band is about a quarter of an inch deep. 

All the September specimens are in the " young" stage, as 
described by Jerdon, having white throats with blue mousta- 
chial streaks. 

92.— Cyanecula leucocyanea,* Brehm. (514 bis). 

A single specimen was procured by Dr. Scully on April 15th 
with the white throat spot. A faint rufous tinge appears at 
the bases of the satin-white feathers, looking very much as 
if there were a change of colour in the feather. Length, 5*7 
inches; expanse, 8*75 ; wing, 2'75 ; tail, 2-15; tarsus, l'l ; bill 
from gape, 0*8 ; from front, 0'45. 

93.— Acrocephalus dumetorum, Blyth. (516). 

Common in the summer. 

94.— Dumeticola major, Brooks. (519 quat). 

Common in the Nulter valley in June, July and August, 
where it breeds at an elevation of from 8,000 to 10,000 feet. 

Young birds shot in August are much the same in plumage 
as the old birds ; but they have a strong tinge of green on 

* [Vide S. F., VII., 391. It is still uncertain whether the plain blue-throated 
species (.0. wolfii) and the white-spotted one are distinct. Unless they are so the 
name wolfii has precedence.— A. O. H.] 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 331 

the under surface ; the breast spots are indistinct and cloudy, 
lower mandible pale yellowish, upper brown ; feet pale. 

95.— Hypolais caligata, Licht. (553 bis). 

A few specimens procured in August and September at 
5,000 to 7,500 feet. 

96.— Phylloscopus tristis, Blyth. (554). 

A summer visitor. Breeds at about 8,000 feet. Very 
common. 

97.— Phylloscopus lugubris, Blyth. (558). 

A single specimen shot at 10,000 feet at beginning of June* 

98.— Phylloscopus viridanus, Blyth. (560). 

Common from the beginning of June till the middle of 
September. 

99.— Phylloscopus tytleri, Brooks. (560 bis). 

One specimen (?) shot on August 9th, in the Nulter valley at 
10,000 feet. Length, 4'4 inches ; wing, 2*36; tail, 1*55 ; tarsus, 
075. Legs, greenish horny ; soles of feet, yellow. 

100.— Phylloscopus affinis, Tick (561). 

Three specimens obtained at 5,000 feet in May and June, 
and several others at 10,000 to 10,500 feet in July and 
August. 

101.— Phylloscopus indicus, Jerd. (562). 

Very common in summer. 

102.— Reguloides occipitalis, Jerd. (563). 

A summer visitor. Common in June, July, and August at 
9,000 feet. 

According to Jerdon this species is distinguishable from 
R. trochiloides by its size ; but according to Seebohm the measure- 
ments of both are alike, and the only difference is that 
R. occipitalis has one bar, and R. trochiloides two, on the wings j 
but a specimen sent me by Mr. Brooks as R. occipitalis has 
two bars. If Seebohm is right, then two of my specimens would 
appear to be R. flavo-olivaceus, Hume (Stray Feathers, Vol. V., 
p. 504) ; but the barring of the wing appears to depend on 
age and season, and I believe them all to be R. occipitalis. 

103.— Reguloides humii, Brooks. (565 bis). 

A summer visitor. The young of this and R. subviridis are 
most difficult to distinguish. Both breed in the Nulter valley 
at about 9,000 feet. 



332 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

104.— Reguloides subviridis, Brooks. (566 bis). 

Common at 5,000 feet in March, April, May, and beginning 
of June ; breeds in the Nulter valley in July at 10,000 feet. 
Young birds shot in August fully fledged. 

105.— Regulus cristatus, Koch. (580). 

One specimen shot at 11,000 feet in July. 

106.— Sylvia affinis, Blyth. (582). 

A summer visitant. Arrives about May 1st, and leaves in 
October. 

107.— Sylvia althaea, Hume. (582 ter). 

The specimen which I have referred to this species was pro- 
cured in May. 

108.— Sylvia cinerea, Lath. (582 quat). 

A few specimens were secured each year, in August and 
September. 

109.— Henicurus scouleri, Vig. (587). 

Tolerably common in all the small streams. In addition 
to Jerdon's description may be noted that the primaries, 
except the first and second, and all the secondaries, have part 
of the outer edge white. There is also a conspicuous dark 
band across the rump between the white of the lower part of 
the back and the upper tail-coverts. The flanks are smeared 
with sooty. 

110.— Motacilla hodgsoni, Gray. (589 bis). 

Extremely rare; only a single specimen obtained, in full 
breeding plumage, in June, at an elevation of 8,000 feet; two 
specimens, obtained in April, were assuming the breeding 
plumage. In September it was tolerably common higher up 
the Indus towards Iskardo, and was then rapidly assuming 
the winter plumage. 

Dr. Scully's diagnosis of the grey Wagtails in Stray 
Feathers, Vol. VIII., p. 312, is extremely clear and accurate, 
so far as these specimens show, though there is some variation 
in the size of the bill. 

M. hodgsoni may be best described as the black-backed 
representative of M. personata; while M. leucopsis (= M. 
luzoniensis) is the black-backed representative of M. alba. The 
distinction between M. hodgsoni and M. leucopsis is now pro- 
bably questioned by no one, though it was formerly discussed 
in the earlier numbers of Stray Feathers. 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 333 

111.— Motacilla personata, Gould. (591). 

Common all the year round. In summer it goes up to about 
9,000 feet or more. 

Severe weather in winter, spring, and autumn always drives 
a number down to the low ground. They are as good as a 
barometer, always appearing a day before the bad weather, 
and disappearing again before it entirely clears. The speci- 
mens preserved were obtained in February, March, August, 
September and October ; and all show the grey back, while 
during the summer months, though unfortunately no grey- 
backed specimens were shot, they were constantly observed 
and were extremely common. This point establishes the specific 
distinctness of M. personata from M. hodysoni. 

112.— Motacilla alba, Lin. (591 ter). 

Not a constant resident, 

In spring it was first observed on 24th April, when a large 
number in full breeding plumage suddenly appeared during 
heavy weather. In the summer none were seen ; but in Sep- 
tember it was again extremely common for a short time in 
Gilgit, aud also up the Indus towards Iskardo. Young birds 
secured at this time show the yellow tinge over the white 
on the face and neck. 

113.— Calobates melanope, Pall. (592). 

Common in summer, but rarely seen in winter. The 
female in breeding plumage has, instead of the black throat, 
which is assumed by the male at that season, an interrupted 
streak of dusky spots at each side from the base of the lower 
mandible. 

The young bird is similar to the female in winter plumage, 
but duller in tone throughout. 

114,— Budytes cinereicapillus, Savi. (593). 

A single specimen obtained on the 10th May. Field Wao- 
tails, except of the yellow-headed type, were only common for 
a few days in spring and autumn ; a few were occasionally 
seen during winter. 

[Mr. Brooks has given an excellent diagnosis of the cha- 
racters by which the males of several of the species can be 
distinguished in adult summer plumage; the following key 
extends the diagnosis to include all those recorded from India 
or neighbouring countries : — 

A. With the entire bead yellow. 

1. Entire buck black .. ... B. calcaralus, 

2. Buck grey ... ... ... li. citreolus. 

43 



334 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

B. With the top of the head pure black ; super- 

cilium very narrow or wanting. 

3. ... ... ... ... 3. melanocepTialus. 

C. With the crown yellowish green ; supercilium 

yellow, broad. 

4. ... ... ... ... B. rayi. 

D. With the crown grey. 

5. Crown pure light grey ; supercilium white, 

broad ; cheeks pale grey and pure white ... B- dubius.* 

6. Crown deeper grey ; supercilium white, 

broad ; cheeks dark grey, with a few 

white streaks ... ... B. flatus. 

7. Crown dark grey ; supercilium white, nar- 

row or wanting ; cheeks dark slate, 

almost black ... ... B. cinereicapillus. 

— G. P. L. M.] 

115.— Budytes melanocephalus, Licht. (593 bis). 

A single female shot on the 10th April in immature plumage. 

116.— Budytes calcaratus, Hodgs. (594). 

Out of ten specimens obtained in May and June, nine are 
males ; and the only female has the back strongly tinged with 
green, and a good deal of dusky green is mixed with the 
yellow on the nape. The young of this species appear to be 
undistinguishable from those of B. citreolus, except perhaps by 
a generally rather darker hue. A single specimen was secured 
in March ; but no others were noticed till May, after which it 
was common till October. 

117.— Budytes citreolus, Pall. (594 bis). 

Of this species males and females were obtained in about 
equal proportions. A female shot early in March has the 
black cowl well developed, and the back from the shoulders to 
the middle of the tail-coverts pure grey with a very slight 
wash of green. 

Another, shot at the end of April, is similar, but the black 
cowl is much less prominent, though the whole head and nape 
are pure unmixed yellow. 

In a third, shot at the end of May, the back is pure grey, 
the black cowl entirely absent, and the yellow on the nape is 
suffused with dusky; this is apparently a breeding but not 
fully adult bird. The bird figured by Gould (B. Asia, Pt. XVII.) 

[This is Hodgson's name. I think the form with the pale pure blue grey head and 
much pure white on the cheeKs fairly distinguishable, and would adopt the name 
beema of Sykes which— dtt&iws of Hodgson, and has priority for it ; but I believe' 
that in Europe ,the distinctness of this form from flavus is not generally admitted. 
Note that in my catologue I took Budytes as feminine, but I believe that my 
derivation was wrong, and that (awkward and barely intelligible as it is) we must 
derive the word from {3ov-dvTr]Q, and ovrrig, a diver is masculine. So in 
the Tentative List, "■flwa" &c, must be altered to "j?ai>ws.— "A, 0. H.] 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 335 

as female B. citreoloides in full plumage is B. citreolus in win- 
ter or immature plumage. 

In Gilgit B. citreolus appears in March, and is common till 
May and again in October; it ascends to higher elevations to 
breed. The breeding plumage is identical in the two sexes. 

118.— Anthus trivialis, Lin. (597). 

Was very common throughout the summer, and breeds in 
July at the higher elevations. 

[The series brought down contains many examples of the 
European type as described by Dresser in the " Birds of 
Europe/' and also many of the Indian type, " purer and 
greener in colour, with the spots on the breast boldly defined ;" 
but Mr. Dresser's conclusion that they are all referable to one 
and the same species appears to be qnite correct. 

During the summer months, while breeding, the plumage 
loses much of its brilliancy, the general tone becomes very 
brown, and the striations on the back are ill-defined ; the 
brighter plumage is re-assumed in September. — G. F. L. M.] 

119.— Anthus campestris, Lin. (602). 

A single specimen shot on 8th March ; no others seen. Evi- 
dently a straggler. 

120.— Anthus rosaceus, Kodgs. (605). 

A number were observed and ten obtained at the end of 
April and throughout May ; but after the end of May none 
were seen. 

121.— Anthus cervinus, Fall. (605 bis). 

Two specimens shot in May and December. 

122.— Anthus blakistoni, Swinh. (605 quat). 

Very common all through the winter. About the 20th Feb- 
ruary the males begin to assume the rufous tinge of under 
plumage and the grey on head and neck. The females do 
not commence to assume their breeding plumage till the mid- 
dle of March. By the end of March the breeding plumage 
is fully assumed. 

I had entered this bird as A. spinoktta ; but Mr. Brooks, 
on seeing some specimens, pronounced them to belong to this 
species, and distinct from true European specimens of 
A. spinoletta, which has a richer brown on the back, and is less 
striated, with the breast spots large and cloudy. 

123 — Cephalopyrus flammiceps, Burt t (633). 

Three shot on 1st September at 9,000 feet. 



336 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

124.— Leptopcecile sophism* Sev. (633 bis). 

A winter visitant, but seldom comes below 6,000 feet 
except in very severe weather. 

In 1874, after returning from Yarkand with some speci- 
mens of this bird, I found a young one labelled as having 
been shot at Leh, but not identified at the time. On show- 
ing my collection to Mr; Hume, he suggested that the label 
must have been attached by mistake, and that the specimen 
must have been procured with the others north of the Kara- 
korum. After procuring the bird at Gilgit, 1 doubt not that 
my label was correct, and that specimens are to be procured 
at Leh ; but the bird is at all times so difficult to see and to 
shoot, that it is not surprising that it has hitherto escaped 
notice. Dr. Scully also informed mo that he found it in the 
Nobra valley in Ladak. 

The plumage is very thick and soft, and the basal part of 
the feathers and down ou the lower surface is deep black, 
concealed by the colour of the tips. 

The male only has been figured by Gould ; but the letter- 
press contains an accurate description of the female by 
Severtzoff. 

125.— iEgithaliscus leucogenys, Moore. (634 bis). 

This species was described by Moore iu the P. Z. S. as long 
ago as 1854, from specimens in the Indian Museum, labelled 
from Afghanistan ; the description is accompanied by a short 
extract "from Griffith's MS. notes ; but subsequently to this 
the bird does not appear to have been obtained, nor is its 
correct habitat defined. 

A number of specimens were obtaiued in the main valley 
about fifteen miles above Gilgit, among thick bush and tree- 
jungle, about the middle of May. In these the chin and 
throat are of a deep blackish maroon, rather than jet black 
(as described by Moore) ; and towards the breast the lower 
margin of the dark patch is narrowly, but distinctly, fringed 
with chestnut. Iu other respects they agree exactly with 
the original description. 

The dimensions, taken in the flesh, are as follows : — 

Adults :— Length, 4*75 to 4-8 inches; wing, 2*2 to 223; tail, 
22 to 2-25 ; tarsus, 0*63 ; bill at front, 0'25. 

Young :— Length, 4*3 inches ; wing, 195 ; tail, 1-8; tarsus, 
055. 

* [Both sexes of this species, which must be included in our List as 633 bis, will 
be found very fully described S. F., II., 513, et seq., under the name of Stoliczkana 
stoliczkae. When I described it, it was unknown to 99 out of every 100 ornithologists, 
though as a fact it had just previously been described in a Russian work by my 
distinguished friend Severtzoff, whose name of course must stand.— A. O. H.] 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 337 

In the young birds the dark throat pntch is only partially 
developed, and is blackish mixed with white. 

126.— Parus melanolophus, Vig. (638). 

A constant resident, but seldom comes below 7,000 feet 
even in winter. 

A number of specimens were obtained — all males, strange 
to say ; the buff tint of the spots on the wing-coverts appears 
to be a mark of nonage, the pure white being obtained when 
the birds are fully adult. 

In many specimens the white tips to the secondaries are 
absent, and in others only faintly marked ; their full deve- 
lopment appears to take place in the adult bird. 

The axillaries and under wing-coverts are rufous, as well 
as the flanks. The plate in Gould's handsome work, " The 
Birds of Asia," represents this species very accurately. 

127.— Parus rufonuchalis, Bly. (640). 

This species is distinguishable from P. beavani by its larger 
bill and by the black extending further down the breast ; the 
bill in P. beavani is similar to that of P. melanolophus. 

It is a permanent resident at about 9,000 feet, but seldom 
descends even in the depth of winter to the main valley. It 
is very common where found. 

Compared with Blyth's type (which comes from Simla), the 
nuchal spot is less rufous, in some specimens being almost 
entirely white. 

128.— Parus nipalensis, Eodgs. (645). 

All the specimens procured are paler on the nape ; in some 
the edging to the black is albescent, but not anything like a 
semicollar. Specimens from Murree cannot be separated 
from G-ilgit birds. 

Many show a vinaceous tinge on the white of the abdomen. 
Nestlings and young birds are strongly tinged with yellowish 
green. 

The birds from Gilgit are similar to the type found in the 
Himalayas as far east as Nepal at all events ; but they are 
considerably larger than the type found in the plains,* and 
lack the distinct white marking on the nape, whether spot or 
semicollar. 

Measurements given in Stray Feathers, Vol. II., p. 417, 
by Ball, from Chota Nagpore, are : — Wing, 2*4 inches in one, 
2*5 in another. Sex not mentioned. 

* Mr. Blanford has also pointed out that the birds of this species found on the 
Nilgiris are larger than specimens obtained in the plains (J. A. S. B-, 1869. Fart 
II., p. 181W. S. 



338 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

Also Stray Feathers, Vol. I., p. 384, by Adam, from 
Sambur lake — Wing, 2*6 inches. Sex not mentioned. 

Jerdou gives measurements as 28 inches. A male from 
Murree measures (by my measuring) 29 ; and those procured 
at Gilgit measure 297 in the males, and 2-7 in the females. 

The young birds are green on the back, the under surface 
pale yellow ; the black markings are dull, with a brownish 
tinge and no gloss whatever, similar in extent to those of the 
adults on the upper surface, but beneath confined to a stripe 
from the chin towards the abdomen, not coalescing with the 
black on the upper surface, the sides of the face and neck 
being also pale yellow. In the nestling just fledged (killed in 
June) there is a well-defined pale yellow demicollar on the 
nape, beneath the black. In a rather older bird (killed in 
August) the back is still green, the black without gloss, and 
the pale demicollar less marked, and the black of nape and 
throat show no signs of coalescing ; but the yellow tint of the 
under surface is disappearing, and the wings and tail (which 
are fully developed) are coloured as in the adult. There is no 
intermediate stage represented in the collection, but as the 
green-backed bird is never found in winter, there can be no 
doubt that it is the immature phase of P. nipalensis, which 
is the commonest bird in Gilgit. 

This is the only bird that does not appear to make any 
seasonal change in its habits (? habitat) in this locality. 

129.— Accentor nipalensis, Hodgs. (652). 

This Accentor was extremely common during the winter 
of 1877-78. It was generally met with in scattered flocks of 
fifteen or twenty, and seemed to prefer keeping to the vicinity 
of water. It was very bold, allowing one to come quite close, 
while it hopped unconcernedly about searching for worms, &c. 
Occasional specimens seemed much lighter-coloured than the 
generality. All the specimens obtained were shot in Decem- 
ber, January, and February. 

The sexes are coloured alike. 

130.— Accentor altaicus, Brandt. (653). 

During the severe winter of 1877-78 several flocks of this 
Accentor appeared ; but it was never very common. It was 
generally in compact flocks of twenty or thirty, keeping to 
the hill sides, and not very easy to approach. The flight is 
very rapid ; and, like most of the Accentors, it appears very 
Finch-like in its habits, approaching in this respect especially 
to the genus Montifringilla. The measurements given by 
Jerdon are apparently those of a female. In the adult male 
the wing measures 3f inches, and the tail 2 \. Irides, cherry- 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 339 

red > the ear-coverts are fulvous ; the interscapulary region 
and tertiaries black, with broad rufous margins ; lower back, 
dingy grey ; the wing-coverts are more or less tipped with 
white, as in A. nipalensis, forming two conspicuous but 
irregular wing bars ; the under tail-coverts are brown, broadly 
margined with white ; chin, white ; the feathers of the throat 
and fore neck white, with black tips. 

The grey of the shoulders and lower back contrasts strongly 
with the ferruginous tint on the upper back ; and the crown 
of the head is in some specimens very distinctly streaked with 
brown. 

131.— Accentor jerdoni, Brooks. (654 bis). 

Common in the summer at elevations of 10,000 feet and 
upwards, where it breeds. It was not observed in winter. 
This is the species figured by Gould (B. Asia, Pt. VII.} as 
A. strophiatus. A young bird just able to fly, shot towards 
the end of July, has the upper plumage dark brown, broadly 
margined with ferruginous, a party-coloured wing bar, formed 
by huff tips to the secondary coverts and dark brown tips to 
the primary coverts ; the whole supercilium is buffy white ; 
the lower parts are fawn colour, almost white on the throat, 
and strongly tinged with ferruginous on the breast ; most ot 
the feathers dark centred. This is a much younger sta^e than 
that described by Mr. Hume in " Lahore to Yarkand." 

132. — Accentor atrogularis, Brandt. (655). 

Tolerably common during the winter; leaves about the 23rd 
March. 

Agrees well with Jerdon's description of A. huttoni, and 
also with Gould's plate of A. atrogularis, which latter name 
has precedence if the two names refer, as they apparently do, 
to one and the same species. 

133.— Accentor fulvescens, Severtzoff? (655 Us). 

A species of Accentor was common in Gilgit during the 
winter, which, in the absence of the type to compare with, 
must stand under this name, though it neither agrees with the 
plate nor the description given in Gould's " Birds of Asia," 
Part XXIII. (vide Stray Feathers, Vol. III., p. 428), which 
Dr. Severtzoff says is his A. fulvescens. 

Description. — Sexes alike. Top of the head almost uniform 
dull brown; the rest of the upper plumage grey brown; the 
feathers of the back indistinctly ceutred dull brown ; wino-g 
and tail dull brown, with pale edgings ; two white wino- bars 
formed by tippings to the coverts; no pale tips to the inner 
webs of the tail-feathers ; except a faint trace on the outermost 



340 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

pair ; superciliary streak, extending over the ear-coverts, pure 
white ; sides of the face and ear-coverts deep brown, a few of 
the latter tipped whitish ; under surface pale fulvous, deepest 
on the breast, albescent on the chin, throat, and lower centre 
of abdomen. Length, 625 to 6 4 inches; wing, 3 to 3*15 ; 
tail, 25 to 2*65 ; tarsus, '75, dull red. 

This bird is retained as A. fulvescens solely because it 
appears to be identical (speaking from memory) with the speci- 
mens obtained in Yarkand, which were identified by Dr. 
Severtzoff himself as belonging to this species ; but it cer- 
tainly differs, as stated above, from both the figure and the 
description. 

It is not the A. montanellus figured in Gould's " Birds of 
Europe ;" for that has the back reddish ash, the supercilium 
buff, and the flanks striped. 

It is not the A. montanellus in Gould's "Birds of Asia" for 
the same reasons, and, further, because it wants the grey 
patch on the side of the neck, and the white tippings to the 
secondaries. 

It is not the A. montanellus figured in David and Oustalet's 
a Oiseaux de la Chine ;" for that is a much darker bird, and has 
the buff supercilium and reddish brown back. 

It is not the A. temminckii of Brandt; for that is identical 
with the A. montanellus figured in Gould's rt Birds of Europe." 

It is not the A. montanellus described by Dresser in the 
fi Birds of Europe ;'' for that also has the supercilium buff and 
the back chestnut red. 

And if not A. fulvescens, Severtzoff, it is a species hitherto 
undescribed.* 

It is somewhat similar to A. atrogularis, which was almost 
equally common; but, besides wanting the black throat, its 
pale and almost uniform tone of colouration, and the absence 
of all tinge of red on the back, markedly distinguished it from 
that species. 

134.— Corvus corone, Lin. (659). 

Since my leaving Gilgit Dr. Scully writes that he has secur- 
ed two undoubted specimens of this species. 

135.— Corvus cornix, Lin. (659 bis). 

A few specimens always to be observed in December, 
January and February, mixed up with other Crows. 



* [It must not be forgotten that fulvescens of Severtzoff may be only one stage of 
the plumage of •montanellus. We are still quite ignoraut of the changes of plumage 
uudergone by this species. — A. 0, H ] 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 341 

136.— Corvus levaillanti, Less. (660). 

There are evidently two species of Crows of this type ; but 
the only good distinction in the dried skin seems to be the 
length of the tail. The short-tailed ones (C culminatus) go 
about in flocks ; the long-tailed ones ( C. levaillanti ) only in 
pairs and keep to the higher elevations, only coming down in 
winter to the main valley.* These Crows are apparently what 
Sharpe identifies as Corvus culminatus and Corone levail- 
lanti, except that the dimensions of his C. culminatus are too 
small for the Gilgit bird. The distinction in comparative 
length of first primary holds fairly good, except in one speci- 
men; the distinction in the lie of the rictal bristles is somewhat 
better, but is less decidedly marked in some specimens of 
C. culminatus than in others ; but the differences in habit leave 
no doubt that, however difficult of definition, the species are 
distinct. 

Out of nine specimens of C. levaillanti the wing ranges 
from 13 to 13*8 inches, except in a single specimen, unsexed, 
which measures 12*6. The tails measure 9 to 9*5, except in 
the specimen referred to above, in which it is only 8'8. In 
C. culminatus the wing ranges from 11*4 to 12 6 ; the tail 
from 7-85 to 875. 

137.— Corvus culminatus, Syhes. (660). 

See preceding remarks. 

138.— Corvus umbrinus, Hedenb. (660 bis). 

On one occasion, among several hundred Crows collected 
over a dead animal, at 12,000 feet elevation, I distinguished a 
pair which differed from all the others in size, colour, and 
voice and which I refer to this species. 

139.— Corvus frugilegus, Lin. (664). 

Very common in winter; appears in large flocks. 



[I regard all these distinctions as fallacious. It is not true that all the short- 
tailed birds live lower down and keep in flocks, or that all the long-tailed ones live' 
higher up and keep in pairs. It may have happened to be so in the few specimens ^ 
here referred to. but I have conclusively shown that neither those nor any of the 
other supposed differences between our Black Crows are constant. 

Of course some birds affect higher, some lower ranges ; of course those bred and 
dwelling at higher elevations will average larger — of course, too, where the birds are 
very sparsely distributed they will generally only be seen, in pairs, while where 
there are many they will often congregate in flocks. 

There are many parts of the plains of Upper India (the Etawah District for 
instance, where almost every bird is small sized and short-tailed) where they are scarce 
and keep invariably in pairs. Others (as in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Allahabad) where they are common, and may be seen in parties of 20 to 40. 

Both supposed species should undoubtedly stand under the one name, macror* 
hynchus.— A. O. H.'J ^\ <f- 

' 44 




342 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

110— Corvus monedula, Lin. (665). 

A few always about during the time of extreme cold, gene- 
rally mixed up with other Crows, but disappear in April. 
The specimens procured and observed show no approach to 
the C. collaris type with the white half collar, which is 
recorded from Kashmir and Afghanistan. 

Since leaving Gilgit Dr. Scully writes that he has pro- 
cured specimens of the C. collaris type, which appear distin- 
guishable from C. monedula. 

141.— Nucifraga multipunctata, Gould. (667). 

Common at all times in the forests above 8,000 feet. 

Of six specimens the length of wing varied from 7 "75 to 
825 inches (the smallest being a female and the largest a 
male), total length, 14 to 1515 ; tail from 58 to 6-5. Irides, 
brown ; legs, black. 

142.— Pica rustica, Scop. (668 bis). 

The form separated as P. bactriana by some authors. 

Very common at all times. In winter it comes down to 
5,000 feet ; but in April it ascends to about 8,000 feet in the 
side valleys. The natives train the Sparrow-Hawk (Accipiter 
nisus) to take the Magpie with. 

A nest with five eggs, hard set, taken in a mulberry tree at 
Nonval (5,600 feet) 9th May. 

A nest with three eggs, f quite fresh ) taken at Dayoor 
(5,200 feet) 25th May. The bird had evidently not done 
laying. 

143.— Pyrrhocorax graculus, Lin. (679). 

Common at the lower elevation in December, January, 
February and March, when they commit great havoc on the 
newly sown corn. In summer they keep entirely to the 
mountains. 

144.— Pyrrhocorax alpinus, Koch. (680). 

Seems to care less for cold than the Red-billed Chough, only 
appearing in the main valley during the time of extremest 
cold, and then only in small numbers. 

145.— Sturnus vulgaris, Lin. (681). 

Occasional specimens secured during the winter, but not 
common. 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 343 

146.— Sturnus purpurascens, Gould. (681 ter). 

A winter visitant The specimens obtained are precisely 
similar to those got in Yarkand. 

147.— Temenuchus pagodarum, Gm. (687). 

One or two procurable each summer, at all elevations up 
to 8,000 feet, where cattle are herded. 

148.— Pastor roseus, Lin. (690). 

Two young birds of the year shot on the 19th and 28th 
August ; a few others in immature plumage were also seen at 
the same time, but no adults. 

149.— Passer indicus, Jard. 8f Selb. (706). 

Begin to disappear in November, and leave Gilgit alto- 
gether during the time of extreme cold. In both years they 
reappeared in small numbers on 22nd February, but did not 
become common till the end of March. Dr. Scully writes 
that he has procured specimens all through the last winter ; 
they were certainly not there in the two preceding winters. 

150.— Passer hispaniolensis, Tem. (707). 

Two specimens only procured in the winter. The female 
differs from that of P. indicus in having a stronger bill, and 
having a very faint supercilium ; otherwise the markings are 
so similar that it is not distinguishable. 

151.— Petronia stulta,* Gm. (711 bis). 

This Sparrow was tolerably common in December, January, 
and February. It was generally in flocks of fifteen or sixteen, 
and prefers open stony places. I never saw it near trees. 

* [This species has not been described in Steay Feathebs, and I may therefore 
describe it from a number of Gilgit and other specimens in our Museum. The 
sesea hardly differ; but as a rule the yellow throat spot is comparatively incon- 
spicuous in the female, and in most specimens of this sex the colouration generally is 
a trifle duller. In the young of both sexes the throat spot is always obsolete or 
nearly so, and the colouration everywhere markedly paler, especially on the abdomen. 

The bill is a moderately dark brown ; a dull yellowish fleshy towards the gape and 
on the basal half or nearly so of the lower mandible ; the legs and feet light brown ; 
the irides hazel (?) 

The forehead, crown and occiput are brown, darker in some, lighter in some speci- 
mens ; the feathers usually more or less paling towards the margins. A broad whity 
brown band commencing just above the forehead runs down the centre of the crown 
and occiput, and widens out somewhat on the nape. From the nostrils, a pale fawny 
stripe runs backwards over the eyes and far behind these over the ear-coverts joining, 
or nearly joining, the expanded tips of the crown stripe at the sides of the nape. 
This supercilium is very dull and ill-defined where it commences, and nearly obsolefe 
above the middle of the lores. The lores are mostly a darker brown, and a corre- 
sponding dark brown stripe runs from the posterior angle of the eye along the top 
of the ear-coverts (immediately under[the fawny whitejstripe already referred to), and 
partially curves round their tips behind. The cheeks, throat, ear-coverts and sides of 
the neck are pale fawny or earthy brown, but there ia a more or less well marked 



314 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

$ . Length, 6| inches ; wing, 4£ ; tail, 2| ; tarsus, | j bill in 

front ^. 

$ .' 2 Length, 6£ inches ; wing, 4 ; tail, 2-,\ ; tarsus, f j bill in 

front, h 

152.— Emberiza leucocephala, Gm. (712). 

Occasional specimens secured in December, January, Feb- 
ruary, and March. The specimens obtained in the latter 
month are assuming the breeding plumage. 

153.— Emberiza stracheyi, Moore. (714). 

Extremely common all the winter, but goes higher about 
the beginning of April, and breeds at about 8,000 feet. I took 
two nests (second brood, no doubt) in the first week of August. 
Both were on the ground under a stone. One had only one 
egg in it ; the other three. 

I also took a nest with three fresh eggs in it on 1st June at 
9,000 feet, and took two nests, each with three eggs quite fresh, 
on 23rd and 24th June. 

The colouring of all Gilgit specimens is paler than that of 
Kashmir or Simla individuals. 

dark 6pot near the base of the lower mandible and a short paler mandibular stripe 
on either side of the upper throat. At the very base of the throat is a gamboge 
yellow band or blotch, of varying degrees of intensity and size, according to sex, 
age and season, almost entirely wanting in quite young birds, and apparently attaining 
its fullest development in old males only. The breast and the lower parts 
generally are similarly colored to the throat, but somewhat paler, becoming almost 
albescent on the centre of the abdomen, vent and lower tail-coverts, and these latter 
and the feathers of the sides and flanks are darker centred, as indeed, though to a less 
degree, are often those of the upper abdomen. The axillaries and lower wing-coverts 
are yellowish white, mingled along the edge of the wing with light grey brown. 
The back, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts are dull brown, more earthy in 
some, more of a wood brown in others, and varying a good deal in shade. The 
feathers of the interscapulary region have a dark brown stripe on the inner webs, 
and a fawny or creamy patch on the outer near the tips, producing the usual 
sparrow-like markings. The scapulars are similar, but have the pale patches less marked. 
The feathers of the upper tail-coverts are margined towards the tips with pale 
fawny or creamy white. The tail is deep brown, margined with creamy (which 
occupies nearly the whole of the outer web of the outermost feathers) and paling 
just at the tips, each feather with a nearly pure white spot on the inner web near 
the tip, almost obsolete on the central feathers, and growing successively larger and 
larger on each succeeding pair. The quills, winglet and greater coverts are dark 
brown towards the tips, light hair brown elsewhere, everywhere more or less narrowly 
or broadly margined and tipped with pale fawn or fawny white, which colour 
occupies nearly the entire outer web of the first primary. 

The lesser coverts are plain brown, like the rump, or nearly so, while the median 
coverts are marked much like the interscapulary region aud scapulars. 

Some birds are altogether darker and browner, some greyer and more ashy, while 
in some a warm fawny almost rufous tinge prevails. 

The males seem to average a little larger than the females. Gilgit birds are 
larger than any others I have seen. Wings in males from various localities before 
me vary from 37 to 4*1, and in females from 36 to 4 0. 

The range of this .species is Central and Southern Europe, North Africa, Asia 
Minor, Persia, Turkestan, Siberia and Northern China. Gilgit, the extreme north- 
western corner of the British Asian Empire, and Northern Afghanistan are the only 
places where, so far, it is known to have occurred within our limits,— A. O. H.J 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 345 

[The collection contains a large series of specimens of this 
bird, which I have compared and found identical with the 
plate of K stracheyi by Wolff in the " Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society for 1855/' The difference pointed out by 
Dresser in the " Birds of Europe," the absence of the white 
spots on the wing-coverts, holds good ; but in some winter 
specimens the pale fulvous spots approach very closely to the 
white spots of E. cia. There is, however, a further and well- 
marked difference in the pure white of the nuchal eud of the 
supercilium iD E. stracheyi as compared with the grey of that 
part in E. cia, giving in the former bird three pure white 
marks on the side of the head, instead of two. In E stracheyi 
the entire supercilium throughout its length is pure white. — 
G. F. L. M.] 

154.— Emberiza hortulana,* Lin. (715). 

A single specimen, a female or young male, shot at Chim- 
mooghur, in the main valley, ten miles from the Indus, on 
26th May. Evidently migrating at the time. Length, 6*4 
inches ; wing, 3*2 ; tail, 2 - 6 ; tarsus, *75. Irides, dark brown. 

The head is considerably battered ; but the yellow tone of 
the markings on the throat, the greenish tone of the head, as 
far as traceable, and the strongly defined striations of the 
upper plumage, serve sufficiently to distinguish it from 
E. buchanani. 

The tints agree well with those of the figure of the young 
bird given by Dresser in the " Birds of Europe," pi. 99. 

155.— Emberiza buchanani, Bly. (716). 

Not observed in the first year ; but a number appeared in 
the beginning of September in the second year. 

156.— Emberiza stewarti, Bly. (718). 

A summer visitant. Appears in April, and is very common 
in May and June, when it replaces E. stracheyi at the lower 
elevations. Breeds below 6,000 feet. 

157.— Emberiza schceniclus, Lin. (720 ter). 

Scarce ; and never more than a single one was seen at a 
time. Four specimens were secured in January, Februaiy, 
and March. Both these and my Turkestan specimens are 
paler coloured birds than English specimens, the ruddy tints 

* [This species, heretofore doubtful, has now to be included in our list. It is much 
to be regretted that our authors do not inform us whether the Gilgit bird belongs 
to the European form of this species or to the Persian form, E. shah, Bp. A des- 
cription of the European bird is given by Jerdon (Vol. II., pp. 372, 373) compiled 
from European sources, which is sufficiently correct, and it is unnecessary therefore 
to describe it further here. See also S. F., VII., 150.— A. O. H.J 



346 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

on the wings and back being especially lighter ; but they corre- 
spond fairly well with a specimen in the Indian Museum at 
Calcutta, obtained by exchange from Mr. Dresser, and labelled 
"E. sckoeniclus, var. B. Pallas, Lake Baikal/' 

158.— Euspiza luteola, Sparrm. (722). 

A few specimens shot in the end of August and September 
were all in immature plumage ; no adult males were either 
procured or observed. 

159.— Euspiza melanocephala, Scop. (721). 

A single specimen, an immature female, was procured by 
me on the 5th October. 

160.— Mycerobas carnipes, Eodgs. (728). 

Common at all seasons in the pine forests above 8,000 feet, 
seldom coming lower down even in winter. On one occasion 
only, in the severe winter of 1877-78, I saw and shot a pair 
in the main valley at 5,000 feet elevation. 

These birds belong to the western form which has been 
separated as M. speculigerus, Brandt. They differ from the 
usual eastern type in being of larger size ; the colour of the 
abdomen is more vivid, and of a more decided yellow ; the 
yellowish edgings of the tertiaries and wing-coverts are more 
conspicuous and much broader, and the bill more full and 
bulged. They correspond exactly with the figures in Gould's 
" Birds of Asia," which were taken from specimens from the 
Altai. But as the late Mr. Mandelli obtained in Sikhim 
specimens which correspond to the western form, there do 
not seem to be sufficient grounds for retaining M. speculigerus 
as a distinct species.* 

The males measure from 8*9 to 9 # 7 inches in length (the 
average being 9*4), with the wing from 4-55 to 4*8, and the 
tail from 3*9 to 4'3. In the females the wing measures from 
4*35 to 4*65 inches, and the tail from 3*9 to 4. 

Breeding males shot in June and July were still in female 
plumage, which is apparently not assumed (? doffed) till after 
the first breeding-season. Jerdon is wrong in stating that 
the sexes are alike. In the females the sooty black is replaced 
by brownish ash, and the feathers of the cheeks, throat and 
breast are pale centred. 

* [I entirely agree that the Gilgit birds are inseparable from Sikhim ones. I have 
compared six or seven of the former with some forty from Sikhim and other localities in 
the Himalayas ; and while individuals are very variable, there is no Gilgit specimen 
that cannot be exactly matched by others from Sikhim and elsewhere. Altai birds I 
have not seen, and can therefore say nothing about the true speculigerus, which, 
although this is unlikely, may prove, when closely examined, to be separable.— 
A. O. H.J 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 347 

161.— Pyrrhula aurantiaca, Gould. (732). 

This Bullfinch appears to be very local, but in certain 
localities is common, especially among pine forests. They are 
permanent residents. 

The upper tail-coverts are velvet black, not white (as stated 
by Jerdon.) 

162. — Erythrospiza incarnata,* Sev. (732 bis A). 

A constant resident, but seldom comes below 6,000 feet, 
except in severe weather. I found it at about 10,000 feet 
In the Astor valley in June, when it was no doubt breeding". 
I have seldom seen it except in large flocks of twenty or thirty. 
On 29th April I shot seven out of a flock, which all turned 
out to be males. 

The plate in Pere David's " Oiseaux de la Chine" represents 
the bird as far darker than any of the Gilgit specimens, espe- 
cially about the cheeks and nape. 

163.— Carpodacus rubicillus, Guid. (737). 

Very common in Gilgit, in flocks of twenty and thirty, 
from the middle of December to the beginning of March in 
1877-78, but never seen again at any season or elevation. 

* [This species is referred to by Severtzoff, S. F., III., p. 422, in which he himself 
says tnat it is identical with Carpodacus mongolicus of Swinhoe. He retains his own 
name, on the grounds that he discovered the bird in 1864, and *Mr. Swinhoe in 1865, 
but unfortunately it is a question, not of discovery, ^but of publication. Now Mr. 
Swinhoe described his bird P. Z. S., 1870, p. 447, whereas I cannot discover that 
Severtzoff described his bird before it appeared at p. 117 of Tome VIII., Vapousk 2, 
of the " Izviestia Imperatorskavo obstchestvaliouvetelei estestvoznania, Anthropo- 
logii ethnographii, in other words Transactions of the Imperial Society of amateurs 
of Natural History, Anthropology, and Ethnography ; in his " Verlikalnoe i horizontal- 
noe raspredlenie Turkestanskikh jevotnikh," or Vertical and Horizontal Distribution 
of the animals (?) of Turkestan, which was edited by A. P. Fedchenko and L. P. 
Cabanis, and published by the Society at Moscow in 1873. Under these circumstances 
it appears to me that we must necessarily retain Swinhoe's name, and the species which 
our museum contains not only from Gilgit but also from Ghaman, Sfc, in South 
Afghanistan, must stand in our list as 732 bisA. — Ebythbospiza mongolica, 
8 win. 

Severtzoff, loc cit sup., has pointed out how this species differs from E. githaginea 
but it may be well to refer to Swinhoe's original description, and to quote for com- 
parison P^re David's later one. 

The former's description is quoted S. F., II., 327. 

Pe>e David says :— " Length, 552 ; tail, a little forked, 218 ; wing, 377 ; tarsus, 71 ; 
bill, short, thick and convex, 36;; height of bill, 0-33. Upper surface of the head and 
neck, the back and rump of a grey brown or pale earthy grey, with the centre of the 
feathers of a darker tint ; upper tail-coverts rose coloured ; eye-brows washed with 
rose colour ; throat, breast and sides of the abdomen of a very pale rose ; middle of the 
abdomen and lower tail-coverts greyish white, lightly shaded with rufous in summer ; 
sides of the neck an d of the breast of a uniform earthy rufous ; tail feathers brown, 
margined with rosy white; quills brown, narrowly margined with rose colour; 
the tertiaries margined and tipped with grey; two great patches, specuhe-like 
(en forme de mirors,) one on the great coverts and the other on the middle of the 
secondaries. 

The adult female only differs in having the rosy tints on different parts of the 
plumage, and especially on the upper tail-coverts less well marked.— A. O. H.j 



348 THE BIRDS OP GILGIT. 

They prefer stony places, and keep to the same place day 
after day. There were places where I could always depend 
on finding a flock. 

I have now a large series of this bird from Turkestan, 
Ladak, the valley of the Yarkand river near its source, and 
the Oxus valley. The plumage varies greatly in both sexea 
according to age, season, and locality, so much so that I 
had some difficulty in believing that they are all of the same 
species. The specimens from Turkestan are extremely pale, 
and the rose-tints are very delicate; so that Severtzoff seems 
quite justified in distinguishing them as C. pallidas. The 
Gilgit specimens are darker ; and those of Ladak and the 
Oxus valley are darker still. Specimens from the last two 
places have black instead of brown legs, and appear slightly 
larger than the others, but not markedly so. 

The young male retains the striations on the back for some 
time after 'the rose markings on the head aud breast are com- 
plete. The striations of the females, both on back and breast, 
vary greatly according to age. 

164.— Carpodacus erythrinus, Pall. (738). 

A summer visitor. Earliest appearance noted April 22nd. 
Breeds at 10,000 feet in July aud August. The male does 
not get the roseate plumage till the second year, apparently. 
Several males with fully developed testes, shot in July, and 
evidently breeding, were still in female plumage. They pro- 
bably get the rosy plumage just after the first breeding season, 
and by a change of colour, not by moult, as some shot in May 
show a faint rosy tinge against the light. About the begin- 
ning of September they leave the hills and come down 
into the valley. 

The young bird has two well-defined wing bars formed by 
rufous edgings to the wing-coverts ; and the tertiaries are broadly 
tipped with the same colour; the striations of the upper 
plumage are darker, broader, and more pronounced. 

An albino (pure cream colour, with hazel brown irides) 
was shot on September 7th by Dr. Scully. Its plumage was 
much abraded. Several nests were found, all situated within 
a foot of the ground, either in low bushes or among the stems 
of coarse grass, about 2 feet high in scrub jungle. The nest 
is a neat cup-shaped structure of grass, lined with the finer 
roots and stems only, except in one instance, in which a good 
deal of hair is mixed with the lining ; the interior is from 
2 to 2£ inches wide, and 1£ deep. The eggs are blue, of a 
purer and slightly deeper shade thau those of Trochalopteron 
lineatum, with chocolate spots sparingly scattered over them. 



THE BIRDS OF QILGIT. 349 

chiefly towards the larger end. In one out of a dozen the 
spots are almost entirely wanting; in some they are paler, 
almost of a sienna tint, in others nearly black, while on a few 
there are also one or two pale purplish spots and fine reddish 
scrawls at the larger end ; and in these the spots are almost 
confined to the larger end in an ill-defined zone or cap. 

Nests were taken at 10,000 feet elevation on July 16th, 17th, 
20th, 21st, 29th, and 30th, all with eggs mostly fresh. 

165.— Propasser rhodochlamys, Brandt. (741). 

Is a permanent resident, but is very seldom seen below 
6,000 feet. The measurements of the numerous specimens 
obtained correspond exsictly with those given by Jerdon, and 
the bird itself with Gould's plate in the " Birds of Asia," also 
with the plate of Carpodacus sophios in Bonaparte's rt Mono- 
graphic des Loxiens/' and with a specimen in the Museum 
from the hills north of Simla. 

As in C. erythrinus, the males do not get their full plumage 
until after the first breeding season. Several males with 
fully developed testes were shot in May and June in female 
plumage. 

166.— Propasser frontalis, Bly. (?). 

[Mr. Hume has, I think, prematurely* expunged this spe- 
cies from the Indian list. A pair of Rose Finches, male and 
female, in full breeding plumage, shot at Gilgit in June 1878, 
were brought down with the collection, which, after a careful 
comparison with some specimens of P. thura from the late 
Mr. Mandelli's collection, I decided must stand as P. fron- 
talis, Blyth. Unfortunately the notes taken of the compa- 
rison were accidentally destroyed after leaving Calcutta, and 
as the specimens of P. thura were returned, I can now only 
give the distinctive features with reference to Jerdon's meagre 
description. 

The male corresponds with Bly th's description of P. fron- 
talis, except that the feathers of the top of the head, instead 
of being plain dark brown, are paler edged, similarly to, 
though more narrowly than, those of the back ; the feathers 
of the chin, throat, and neck are not silvery-white-s/ia/W, 
but have a silvery streak near the tip of each feather ; and 
this silvery streaking hardly extends on to the breast. It 

* [I do not admit that I was premature. Blyth described the species, and I 
expunged it on his authority. He had previously written to the same effect to Jerdon 
vide p. 874, Appendix to Jerdon's Birds of India. Of course Blyth may have erred 
in this, but I submit I had full warrant for expunging the species. It is impossible 
to say positively what the apeeiea ia that ia referred to in the text.— A. O. H.] 

45 



350 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

also shows whitish at the centre of the abdomen near the 
vent, and at the hinder end of the superciliary streak. 

It differs from P. thura in having a broad frontal band 
rose piuk, in the lores and a narrow band round the base of 
the bill crimson, and in the silvery streaks on the chin, 
throat, and breast, while on the back the general hue is much 
less dark.* 

The female answers well to Blyth's description, and differs 
from that of P. thura chiefly in lacking the broad pale super- 
cilium, and in the ground colour of the face, abdomen, and 
lower tail-coverts being white instead of light yellowish brown. 
— G. F. L. M.] 

* [This is quite incomprehensible to me. Thura has a broad frontal band 
rose pink ; it has the lores and a narrow band round the base of the bill crimson, 
and it has the silvery streaks on the chin, throat and the extreme upper part of 
the breast. Yet it is on the possession of these features that our authors base 
their conclusion that frontalis is distinct ! In my humble opinion — I speak under 
correction — the Gilgit birds were possibly after all really " thura," and compared 
with some wrongly named specimens of Mandelli's. 

Our lamented friend knew the Sikhim birds well, yet of his whole collection I 
found when it passed into my hands that a large proportion of the specimens had 
been wrongly named out of sheer inattention. 

At the same time it may be noticed that thura is a decidedly variable species ; 
the rose pink of the broad frontal band and superciliary stripe, cheeks, throat, 
breast and abdomen varies very much in tint, being very much more crimson in 
some and much paler and more silvery in others. Again, while in the majority only 
the lores and a narrow band over the base of the bill are crimson, this colour 
sometimes extends to the chin and upper throat, and in one specimen (which I was 
at one time disposed to consider distinct, though I now find it connected with the 
more common form by intermediate links), it also strongly suffuses the entire 
cheeks, and frontal and superciliary band. Again, the colour of the crown, occiput 
and back is a much deeper brown in some specimens than in others, and the 
blackish brown striations are much more strongly marked in some specimens than 
in others. Indeed, in some specimens these are almost obsolete on the crown, so 
that this latter, unless very carefully looked into, might be described, as Blyth 
described it, as plain brown. Again, in some specimens the whole of the quills, 
winglet and primary greater coverts are almost absolutely plain brown, while in 
others, not only are the tertiaries very broadly margined on the outer webs with 
pale brownish buffy, or creamy white (it varies in different specimens), but the 
rest of the quills are quite conspicuously margined on the outer webs with a pale 
generally somewhat reddish brown. 

The females are equally variable. In one the superciliary stripe and the entire 
lower parts, except the centre of the lower abdomen and vent, are strongly suffused 
•with a rich rusty rufous, while in others this tint is very much paler, and is 
absolutely confined to the centre of the throat and upper breast. In some females 
the rump and all but the longest upper tail-coverts are bright orange, each 
feather with a dark brown centre. In others these parts are a pale straw yellow, 
similarly dark centred, while again here and there specimens are found with only 
the barest shade of yellow on these parts. 

I write this with sixty specimens before me, and I really think that I could 
pick out three types which, if not connected by such a series, would be pronounced 
distinct species. 

I see that I have forgotten to note that the silvery central streaks to the 
feathers, especially of the chin, throat, face, and upper breast in the male, are 
also extraordinarily variable. In some specimens these streaks are comparatively 
broad, intensely silvery, and cover all these parts. In others they are at most 
only rosy white, narrow and traceable only in the centre of the throat and on 
some of the ear-coverts. The young males are like the female, but at one stage 
of their plumage at any rate are distinguished by a very broad unstreaked whitish 
superciliary stripe, exactly occupying the space which the rosy one of the adult 
would— A. O. H.j 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 351 

167.— Pyrrhospiza punicea, Hodgs. (747). 

These birds seem loath to leave the mountains. I never 
saw them below 10,000 feet, except in one place ( the mouth 
of a ravine leading into the plain), and there only in the middle 
of January 1878, at the time of greatest cold. 

The markings of the back in winter are much more defined 
than in the summer plumage ; aud one female specimen has 
broad buff tips to the wing-coverts, which form a conspicuous 
wing bar. The outer edges of the secondaries are also broadly 
tipped with whitish buff. 

The plate of this species in Bonaparte and Schlegel's 
tl Monographic des Loxiens" shows the upper plumage as 
darker and more uniform, while the red tint of the under parts 
extends further down the breast, and is less scarlet iu tint than 
in any of the specimens obtained in Gilgit. 

168.— Carduelis caniceps, Vig. (749). 

. Small flocks appeared from time to time during the season 
of extreme cold, but never seemed to remain more than two 
or three days at a time. They breed at about 9,000 feet, and 
are common m Kashmir in summer as well as in winter. The 
lores are black, interrupting the scarlet round the bill, which 
latter is rather wider in the male than in the female. 

169.— Metoponia pusilla, Pall. (751). 

Appear at intervals during the winter, when driven down 
by very severe weather. I shot two out of a flock on May 2 1st 
at 5,000 feet (Gilgit), where they had been attracted by the 
ripe mulberries ; but I have seen them high up in the snow, 
at over 9,000 feet, in February. They breed at about that 
height ; and iu August the young birds collect in large flocks 
of fifty or sixty, when not a single old bird can be seen, 
among them. They seem to acquire the red head in the first 
year, as 1 have only procured one specimen without it (a 
young male shot m Astor about November 20th) later than 
August. 

On July 28th, I had a nest brought me, which my shikari 
had been watching several days. He shot one of the pair of 
old birds about the nest, which turned out to be the male of 
M. pusilla. The nest contained three eggs perfectly fresh 
(and the number was apparently not complete), in colour a 
dull stone white, with small red brown spots dotted about 
the larger end. The nest was about 20 feet from the ground, 
in a cedar tree (Juniperus excelsa), neatly made of grass fibres, 
and lined thickly with sheep's wool, and matted on the out- 



352 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

side with soft bits of decayed wood, so as to look like the bark 
of a tree. 

170.— Linaria brevirostris, Gould. (751 bis). 

Since I left Gilgit Dr. Scully writes : — " How on earth did 
you miss this bird ? I have preserved over sixty specimens, 
and have left off shooting it. It is one of the very commonest 
birds about now (January)/' 

As this is a bird I know well, having procured many speci- 
mens further eastward, it is hardly possible that I should have 
missed it, had it been as common as Dr. Scully says in the 
two preceding winters. I should be more inclined to regard 
this as an instance of the changes that take place in the 
migrations of birds owing to increase or decrease in the seve- 
rity of the winter season. 

171. —Linaria cannabina, Lin. (751 ter). 

Fifteen or sixteen specimens were procured in January and 
February 1878, when the winter was an exceptionally severe 
one ; and many more were seen. They were generally in small 
flocks of four or five, and rather difficult to approach, keeping 
on open stony places. They are very restless birds, and 
constantly take short flights, uttering a twittering note. A 
specimen was apparently secured in Sind during the same winter 
(vide Stray Feathkrs, Vol. VII., p. 122). Mr. Hume, speak- 
ing of the specimen in question, says that, as far as plumage 
is concerned, it is absolutely identical with European speci- 
mens. This is not the case with these, which are all markedly 
paler and with more white about them than three English 
specimens I have compared them with. In the English spe- 
cimens the white edgings to the primaries, which, when the 
wing is closed, form a conspicuous bar less than half inch long, 
in these form a patch 1£ inch in length. All the primaries 
are margined with white to the tip, whereas in the English 
specimens none are. The centre tail feathers, which in the 
English bird have very faint pale margins, in these have a 
broad margin of snowy white for half the web. 

The large amount of white on the upper tail-coverts, and 
the broad white margins to all the tail-feathers, are very con- 
spicuous when the bird is flying. In size, also, they differ 
from the English specimens, the wing of several of the males 
being fully 3£ inches, and the tail 2£ inches. 

Dr. Scully writes that they have been common during the 
present winter, though duriDg the winter of 1879-80 none 
were seen. 



THE BIRDS OF GILO IT. 353 

172.— Fringilla montifringilla, Lin. (752). 

A few specimens were shot in March and April on their 
way northwards in both years. Mr. Hume doubts the occur- 
rence of this Finch in Indian limits (Stray Feathers, Vol. 
VII., p. 465). These had most undoubtedly come from the 
south.* A male, shot on April 15th, had the breeding plumage 
nearly complete. 

The wing bar formed by the white spot on the outer web 
near the base of the quills does not extend right across the wing ; 
it is absent from the first three primaries, commencing on the 
fourth. In other respects these birds correspond exactly with 
the description given by Dresser in the "Birds of Europe." 

173— Leucosticte brandti, Sev. (752 Ms A.) 

This is the bird which I procured in 1874 in the moun- 
tains west of Kashghar, and took for M. hcematopygia ; but 
M. SevertzofF, on examining my collection, identified it as 
Leucosticte brandti. It first appeared about January 20tb, 
single specimens being mixed up in flocks of Carpodacus 
rubicillus. It gradually became commoner; but I never saw 
more than three or four together at a time. It disappeared 
about March 10th. 

Measurements of a male taken in the flesh : — Length, 7£ 
inches ; wing, 4-f ; tail, 3£ ; tarsus, |; bill at gape, nearly i inch. 
Irides, grey brown. Out of eleven specimens secured, none 
had a black bill like those obtained by me in 1874 in the end 
of March and beginning of April. It is probably distinctive 
of the breeding plumage. 

This species can be readily distinguished from M. htema- 
topygia by its greater size and the rose-coloured shoulder 
patches. The rose tints on the rump are paler and less con- 
spicuous than in M. luematopygia ; and the general tone of 
the plumage is conspicuously palenf 

174.— Fringillauda sordida , Stol. (753 bis). 

A continuous resident in the district, appearing in flocks 
of forty or fifty at the lower elevations during the winter. 

* [This is just what I doubt. I know that this species occurs in Northern Afghanis- 
tan, and I believe these birds came from the south-west from Afghanistan and not 
India.— A. OH] s 

t [If to these remarks I add that the bill is very much larger in hamatopygia, and 
that in this latter the primaries are not tipped noticeably wiih any paler colours, while 
in brandti they are conspicuously and broadly margined at the tips with white or 
creamy or brownish white, enough will have been said of the species to render any 
detailed description unnecessary; but I may notice that, though they average somewhat 
larger, many brandti are not larger than many hcematopygia. In these latter the 
wings of adult males vary from 45 to 4'75; in brandti, from 4 6 to 49. 

I pointed out ten years ago that in M. adamsi and L. hcematopygia, the bills 
were black in summer and yellow in winter.— A. 0. H.] 



354 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

In summer it goes up to 10,000 feet and higher. The young 
birds apparently do not acquire the rufous brown head till 
the second year. I saw an immeuse flock of this Finch at 
Astor in November, and picked up twenty-six after one shot. 
This is probably the red-headed Sparrow said to appear in 
Leh in winter. The axillaries in this species are white instead 
of yellow, as in F. nemoricola. * 

175.— Oalandrella brachydactyla, Leisl. (761). 

A few appeared in March, but were not seen again in 
Gilgit. In September and October I obtained a few higher up 
the Indus, towards Iskardo. The March specimens are in 
very faded plumage ; those got in the autumn are in fresh 
plumage with the rufous edgings to the feathers perfect. 
The males are 6'5 inches long ; wiug, 3*75 to 4*0 ; tail, 2*4 to 
2 5 : the females, 6 to 6'25 inches long; wing, 3*3 to 3 4 ; tail, 
2-25 to 245. 

176.— Melanocorypha bimaculata, Menetr. (761 ter). 

Three specimens were secured in the months of December 
and March, all males. In one specimen the height of the 
bill at front is 0"33 inch ; no others seen. 

177.— Alaudula pispoletta,t Pall. ( ? 762 quae). 

Dr. Scully writes that he has obtained a specimen since I 
left Gilgit, with short hind claw, spotted breast, and secon- 
daries 0*75 inch shorter than the primaries. 

178.— Alaudula adamsi, Hume. (762 ter). 

Since I left Gilgit Dr. Scully has obtained specimens of 
this Lark. 

179.— Otocorys penicillata, Gould. (763). 

Extremely common from November till the end of March, 
when, after forming large flocks of over a hundred, it suddenly 
disappears. Out of many specimens shot, none appears to 
answer to the description of O. longirostris. 

180.— Alauda dulcivox, Eodgs. (766). 

This large Skylark is a winter visitant only, first appearing 
in November and leaving by the end of March. In March, 
when assuming breeding plumage, just before leaving, it gets 
much darker, but never apparently so dark as A. guttata, 

* [Vide S. F., I., 43, November 1872, where this was first pointed out.— A. O. H.] 
f [This is probably the form figured as pispoletta by Dresser, the Calendrella 
heinii of v. Homejer. See for full particulars, S. F., VIIL, 97.— A. O. fl.l 






THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 355 

from which it can readily be distinguished by its superior 
size. In males the wing measures from 4 4 to 4|| inches; 
in females from 4 to 4i ; the tarsus measures from f to -|-, 
being generally slightly smaller than in A. guttata ; bill at 
front barely ^, generally fe. Of the large primaries the 
second is slightly the longest, and the first slightly shorter than 
the third ; sometimes all three are equal ; the fourth is fully 
a quarter inch shorter than the second ; and there is more than 
half an inch between the tertiaries and primaries. The outer 
web of the first developed primary is white in winter, and 
creamy buff in summer. The distinctions pointed out by Brooks 
(Stray Feathers, I., 484) between this species and A. arvensis 
hold good in the series of fifteen specimens of the former 
brought down. 

181.— Alauda guttata,* Brooks, ( ? 767 bis). 

This Skylark is a summer visitant only, appearing at 
the end of March and leaving about October. The first 
specimen was obtained on the 29th March, the same day 
as the last of A. dulcivoos. One specimen was obtained iu 
September, on the 27th, but none later. In males the 
wing measures from 3f to 4 T V inches. I have never pro- 
cured one yet with a wing measuring fully 4£. In females 
it does not exceed 3|, tarsus |, bill at front from T 7 g to 
nearly \ inch. 

Of the developed primaries the second is slightly longest, 
first and third subequal; sometimes all three are subequal ; 
the fourth is -,'^ inch shorter than the second. Tertiaries 
reach to less than f inch from the primaries. Iu summer 
the outer web of first primary is rufous ; tail more furcate 
than in A. dulcivox, from which it is generally distinguished 
by its darker colour and smaller wing ; outer tail feathers 
white, aud not fulvescent. 

In one specimen, a female, shot in September, the plu- 
mage is fresh and perfect, showing broad pale edgings on, 

* [This form was first described as a distinct species by my friend Mr. Brooks, 
J. A. S. B., XLL, 1872, p. 85. It is the race figured by me in "Lahore to Yarkand" 
(pi. XXVIII), under Hodgson's name of triberhyncha, but which should rather, 
I think, have been figured as leiopus. When, in 1872, I first wrote about our Indian 
Skylarks (S. F., I., 38), I admitted five distinguishable races of Alauda gulgula. 
I now see that if we begin separating races, at least a dozen will have to be admitted \ 
in the British Asian Empire, all grading one into the other, and even the most 
typical examples of each differing in minute and doubtfully constant particulars. 
1 therefore am averse to assigning separate specific names to these races, although, if 
the trinomial system was in vogue, I would gladly assign to each a secondary specific 
name and designate them Alauda gulgula australis, Alauda gulgula guttata, and 
soon. This not being admissible under the B. A. Code, I recommend Indian Orni- 
thologists to retain all under the one name gulgula. At the same time out of all the 
various races, no two are better marked than australis, Brooks, and leiopus, Hodg- 
son = guttata, Brooks.— A. O. 11.] 



356 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

the tertiaries, which are rounded ; the edgings of the pri- 
maries are more rufous, the outer web of the first large 
primary being rosy ; the patch behind the eye is fulvesceut 
instead of white, and the dark markings on the breast are 
more shaded off and not so decided ; the centre tail-feathers 
are black instead of dark brown, and the outer tail-feathers 
fulvescent white. "Wing, 3£ inches ; tail, 2£ ; tarsus, f ; bill at 
front, £. Of the large primaries the second and third are equal, 
and first and fourth are equal, with -| inch between the tertiaries 
and primaries. The legs are much more transparent looking 
than in the other specimens, all of which are in worn and 
faded plumage, with the feathers much abraded. 

The distinctions pointed out by Brooks between A. gut- 
tata and A. gulgula hold good, except that the tendency 
of the spots to coalesce at the sides of the breast, which the 
specific name has reference to, is not at all well marked. The 
most notable distinctive points are the albescent hue of the 
plumage of the underparts and the larger size. 

182.— Galerita cristata, Lin. (769). 

This is one of the very few birds that remain in Gilgit all 
the year round ; it is very common. 

183 — Alsocomus hodgsoni, Vig. (783). 

Procured only in the forests at about 8,000 feet elevation, 
where it seems tolerably common. A male shot in July lacks 
the white spotting on the flanks described by Jerdon. 

184.— Columba casiotis, Bp. (784). 

A single specimen, a female, belonging to this species was 
procured in the main valley on 24th April. Jerdon's de- 
scription hardly represents correctly the amount of white on 
the wing. The outermost secondary coverts are pure white, 
forming a conspicuous longitudinal patch extending for over 
3£ inches down from the carpal joint. The primaries are 
margined with white, each except the second less conspi- 
cuously than the one before it, gradually shading into ashy, 
but not sufficiently broad to form a bar (as stated by Jerdon). 
The neck-patch is clayey buff or ochraceous ; and the green 
gloss prevails above the patch, and the amethystine below. 
This style of colouration of the neck-patch also appears in 
specimens from Kumaon ; and the distinction referred to by 
Jerdon, as pointed out by Blyth, does not hold good. Weight, 
llf ounces. Length, 16*8 inches; wing, 10*1 ; tail, 6*8; tarsus, 
1*3; bill at gape, 1*1 ; bill from, front 085. Irides, yellowish 
white. A few other specimens were seen at elevations of over 
8,000 feet during the summer, but not one during the winter. 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 357 

185.— Columba intermedia, StricM. (788). 

In November the Pigeons begin to collect in flocks, which 
increase in size as the winter goes on. 

At first they are mostly composed of C. intermedia, with a 
single specimen of G. rupestris in the flock. Gradually C. ru- 
pestris gets commoner, and a few specimens of C. livia appear. 
When the corn is sown the Pigeons collect in great flocks of 
several hundreds, and settle on the newly sown fields till it seems 
as if not a single grain would be left. 

Till the end of April they appear at intervals whenever 
heavy weather in the mountains drives them in. In the 
beginning of May they pair ; and a large number of them 
leave the main valley in the summer for the higher elevations. 

The specimens of G. intermedia killed in summer show the 
ashy grey rump, tending in some almost to white, but never so 
marked as in C. livia. 

186.— Columba livia, Bp. (788 bis). 

A few specimens seen both in summer and winter. 

187.— Columba rupestris, Tall. (789). 

C. rupestris never appears in large numbers ; and 1 have 
never seen a flock of this species which had not specimens of 
one or the other before mentioned Pigeons with it. 

It has a conspicuous white shoulder patch in winter plumage, 
which is not mentioned by Jerdon. Wing, 9 inches ; tarsus, 1| ; 
bill at gape, f . 

188.— Columba leuconota, Vig. (790). 

Not very common. Never seen below 10,000 feet. The 
whole head and neck are ashy black, not the top of the bead 
and ear-coverts only, as described by Jerdon. The under parts 
are white, shading into ashy on the abdomen and under tail- 
coverts. 

189.— Turturrupicola, Tall (792). 

A summer visitor ; appears about 1st May. 

190.— Turtur aurita, G. R. Or. (792 Us). 

Appears about the same time as T. rupicole. 
S, Length, 12 inches; wing, 7*1 ; tail, 49; tarsus, 0'85. 
P. Length, 11-4 inches ; wing, 675 ; tail, 4-7 ; tarsus, 0'80. 
lrides, orange ; feet and legs, lake-red. 

46 



358 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

191.— Turtur cambayensis,* Gm. (794). . 

One single specimen, killed in the beginning of March among 
a flock of T. suratensis, in no way differs from the type com- 
monly met with in India. 

192.— Turtur suratensis, Gm. (795). 

Never very common, but seen from time to time at all seasons 
of the year, in small flocks of four or five. 

[This is nearer the typical form of T. suratensis than the 
Spotted Dove of the plains, which approaches T. tigrina. 
In one specimen the buff spots on the feathers are enlarged 
60 as almost to make the back uniform, while all the 
tints are paler and more delicate than usual ; four other 
specimens are undistinguishable from those generally obtained 
in the Western Himalayas. — G. F. L. M.J 

193.— Tetraogallus himalayensis, G.B. Gr. (816). 

Common everywhere in favourable ground. It makes its 
nest at about 8,000 or 9,000 feet, and breeds early. Directly 
the young are hatched they go up to the lower edge of the 
snow — in fact, as high as they can. I procured a nestling about 
three days old on 28th May. Six eggs (which were hatched 
two days afterwards under a hen) were brought in the last 
week in June ; the old bird was also snared and brought in, 
and being let loose she wandered round the tent all night. 

I have never seen these birds in large flocks like T. tibetanus ; 
they are generally in pairs only. In the depth of winter a 
few collect together, but when disturbed separate at once. 

In the nestling the lower plumage is silky white unspotted ; 
the upper part white, tinged with rufescent, here and there 
variegated with dark brown markings, darkest and best- 
defined on the head. Wings and tail pale rufous, mottled 
with dark brown, except on the terminal fringe. 

194.— Caccabis chukar, G. B. Gr. (820). 

Very common. In summer it breeds at all elevations from 
5,000 feet to 10,000 feet, the nests at the highest elevations 
being hatched latest. At 5,000 feet some of the young birds 
are able to fly by the first week in June. I took a single 
fresh egg out of a new nest on the 5th May. 

A nestling obtained on the 22nd July at about 6,000 feet 
elevation, with the wing only 3*6 inches long, unable to fly, 
had the top of the head earthy brown with a slight rufescent 
tinge ; ear-coverts deep brown ; chin, throat, and cheeks white, 

* [Should apparently stand as T. senegalensis, Lin,— A. O. H.] 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 359 

the rest of the plumage pale earthy brown, each feather with a 
pale buffy-white tip, largest on the abdomen, where the 
brown is almost lost ; upper plumage rather darker, barred 
with pale buff, the bars edged with narrow interrupted 
blackish lines ; primaries hair brown, with large irregular 
buff spots on the outer margin. 

195.— Coturnix communis, Bonn. (829). 

Seen at intervals all through the year. In April becomes 
common, and breeds in May. Eleven eggs ready to hatch 
were brought to me on 26th June. 

196.— Otis tetrax, Lin. (836 ter). 

A male in winter plumage was shot on 27th March on a 
stony plain overgrown in places with coarse grass, about six 
miles from Gilgit. It weighed 21£ ounces. Another was 
seen at the same time. The natives say that a pair or two 
are to be found in the same place every summer ; so they 
probably breed there ; but I doubt if the bird is to be found 
anywhere else in the district, as the ground is hardly suitable 
to it. 

197.— Charadrius fulvus, Gm. (845). 

After I left Gilgit, Dr. Scully secured a specimen during 
the autumn migration. 

198.— .ffigialitis cantiana, Lath. (848). 

A single specimen, a female, procured at Gilgit on the 
20 th September. 

199.— iEgialitis philippensis, Scop. (849). 

Tolerably common in April and May, in full breeding 
plumage. 

200.— iEgialitis hiaticula, LH. (849 bis). 

Dr. Scully writes that after my leaving Gilgit he secured 
a specimen of this species. 

201.— Vanellus vulgaris, Bechst. (851). 

A few are to be seen at all times scattered about during 
the winter. In March they collect into flocks of twenty or 
thirty, and disappear about the 25th. 

Jerdon mentions that the only distinction between the 
sexes is in the size of the crest; but the few specimens 
collected seem to show that the females never have the lores, 
chin, and throat black like the male. The colours of the 
male also are much more intense. 



360 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

202— Chettusia gregaria, Pall. (852). 

Two specimens were secured, a male and a female, one in 
each year, in the beginning of April, when the birds were 
apparently passing up from the south. The male had another 
one with it at the time of being shot. No others were seen 
alive ; but one was picked up apparently freshly killed by a 
Falcon. Both specimens are in full summer plumage. The 
axillaries aud inuer lining of the wing are pure spotless 
white. 

203.— Lobivanellus indicus, Bodd* (855). 

A single one was heard, but not secured, by Dr. Scully on 
2nd June, after dusk. There could not be much chance of 
mistaking the cry for that of any other bird. 

204.— Anthropoides virgo, Lin. (866). 

One specimen was brought to me alive in September. 
Two flocks were seen on 29th August late in the evening, in 
very heavy weather, flying west. They appeared to have just 
come down from the Pamirs by the Hunza valley. 

205.— Scolopax rusticola, Lin. (867). 

A winter visitant. During the severe winter of 1877-78 
Woodcocks were not uncommon, generally keeping to the 
small water-courses made for irrigational purposes. I have 
never seen any in the summer, though they probably breed 
in the valley. A single specimen in the collection, shot in 
January, has the pale tone of colouring which characterizes 
so many of the birds in this locality. 

206.— Gallinago solitaria, Hodgs. (869). 

A few occur in winter and spring, at heights of from 
5,000 to 9,000 feet. I have never noticed them in the 
summer. A specimen shot in January has the pale lines 
formed by the edges of the outer dorsal and scapulary feathers 
nearly pure white, and a good deal of white intermixed with 
the pale bands on the wing-coverts and secondaries. 

207.— Gallinago scolopacina,t Bp. (871). 

The around is not sufficiently favourable to induce Snipe 
to remain in any numbers ; but a few are always to be found 
all through the winter, from 2nd September to the end of 
April, along the water-courses and edges of rice fields. 

* I subsequently obtained a specimen — J. S. 

f [Should stand as shown by Dresser as G. ecslestis, Frenzel.— A. O. H.J 



THE BIRDS OF GILG1T. 361 

[A point of distinction between this species and G. stenura, 
Tertiminck, in addition to those which have been noticed 
by various writers, is the conspicuous white tipping on the 
secondaries in G. scolopacina, corresponding to the wide white 
tipping of its under wing-coverts. — G-. F. L. M.] 

208.— Limosa segocephala, Lin. (875). 

After I left Gilgit Dr. Scully secured a specimen during the 
autumn migration. 

209.— Machetes pugnax, Lin. (880). 

A male was procured in September, apparently on its way 
southwards. The colours are somewhat more vivid than those 
of the winter plumage ; but the ruff and other breeding insig-r 
nia are wanting. Wing, 7*25 inches ; tail, 2'7 ; tarsus, 1*75 ; 
bill at front, 1*5. A female was subsequently secured in 
the same month : — Length, 9*5 inches ; wing, 6 ; tail, 2*4 ; 
tarsus, 1*6. Irides, brown. 

210.— Tringa subarquata, Guld. (882). 

A single specimen, a male, shot on 7th September, evidently 
passing southwards. 

211.— Tringa minuta, Leisl. (884). 

Since my leaving Gilgit, Dr. Scully writes that he found 
the Little Stint very common during the end of autumn and 
beginning of winter. 

212.— Tringa temmincki, Leisl. (885). 

Four specimens obtained in May in transition plumage — 
two on the 14th, and two on the 22nd. 

Dimensions. — Male — Length, 62 ; wing, 38 ; tail, 2*12 ; 
tarsus, 0*7. Female — Length, 61; vung, 3*75; tail, 2*05; 
tarsus, 07. Irides, brown. 

213.— Actitis glareola, Lin. (891). 

Several specimens occurred about 23rd April, but not 
noticed at other times. 

214.— Actitis ochropus, Lin. (892). 

One specimen killed in January. Very common in April ; 
disappears May, June, and July; reappears in considerable 
numbers in the middle of August. 



362 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

215.— Tringoides hypoleucus, Lin. (893). 

Tolerably common about the middle of May. A few strag- 
glers noticed during- the winter. Considerable numbers sud- 
denly appeared in the middle of May for a short time. 

The dates of the northern migrations of these Waders are 
well marked, and differ a good deal. Actitis ochropus appears 
in considerable numbers about the second week in April, and dis- 
appears a little before the end of May. A few stragglers 
remain all the winter, and also are found in favourable 
places above 8,000 feet in summer. 

A. glareola appears about the end of April, and disappears 
by the middle of May. No stragglers seen at any other time. 

T. hypoleucus and Tringa temmincki appear together in 
considerable numbers about 15th May, and disappear after 
a short stay. 

216.— Totanus glottis, Lin. (894). 

A single specimen, a male, was procured in September, 
apparently on its way southwards. 

217.— Totanus fuscus, Lin. (896). 

Not common. One specimen secured on 23rd April, a 
male in transition plumage, sooty black feathers appearing 
on the head and under surface ; secondaries incompletely 
barred with white, and wing-coverts with a row of white 
spots on the outer margin ; upper tail-coverts and all the tail 
barred with white ; under tail-coverts with a few narrow 
brown bars. 

218.— Totanus calidris, Lin. (897). 

A single specimen of the common Redshanks has been 
obtained by Dr. Scully since I left Gilgit. 

219.— Himantopus candidus, Bonn. (898). 

One specimen, a female, shot in April ; no others seen. 

220.— Fulica atra, Lin. (903). 

Common in November and December, but seems to go 
further south during the great cold, and reappears in March 
and April on its way back to its breeding grounds, when it 
is very common. It probably breeds at the big lakes at the 
head of the valley. 

221.— Gallinula chloropus, Lin. (905). 

Common in spring and autumn. A young bird procured 
26th August. 






THE BIRDS OF CHLGIT. 363 

222.— Porzana maruetta, Leach. (909). 

Though I have procured specimens of three kinds of Rails, 
strange to say, 1 have never seen one about, nor has a man 
who has been employed in shootiug birds daily for nearly 
two years ever procured one. All the specimens I have 
Been have been brought in alive by natives. I imagine that 
a few of each species breed here every year. They are cer- 
tainly only summer visitors. 

Two of this kind were brought to me, a male and a female — 
one in the middle of April, the other at the beginning of 
July. 

223.— Porzana pygmaea, Naum. (910). 

One specimen, a male, was brought to me alive on 20th 
May, when it was evidently breeding-. 

? 224.— Porzana parva, Scop. (910 bis). 

Since my leaving Gilgit, Dr. Scully writes that he has 
secured an immature specimen which he believes to belon^ 
to this species. Wing, 4 inches. 

225.— Crex pratensis, Bechst. (910 quat). 

Since my leaving Gilgit, Dr. Scully writes that he secured 
a specimen during the autumn migration. 

226.— Rallus aquaticus, Lin. (914 bis). 

A single specimen which I refer to this species was 
brought to Dr. Scully alive, by a native, on the 25th April. 
Length, 10-9 inches; expanse, 15*25; wing, 4*65; tail, 23; 
tarsus, 1-6 ; middle toe, 1'75 ; tibia (bare), 0*5 ; bill from front, 
1*54 ; gape, 1-7 ; depth, 0*35. 

227.— Ciconia nigra, Lin. (918). 

Flocks of Black Storks appeared at intervals in February, 
March, and April. One was brought to me alive on 14th 
April, with the glossy bronze markings on the head and neck 
very vivid. 

228.— Ardea cinerea, Lin. (923). 

Herons appear in the end of September, apparently on 
their way to the south, and again in the end of February 
when they are common till the end of March, during which month 
they collect in flocks of ten or twelve, and gradually disappear 
a few being seen till the beginning of May ; but as they are 
known to breed in Kashmir, it is probable that a few pairs 



364 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

breed in Gilgit also* Most of them appear to go northwards, 
to breed near the lakes at the head of the Gilgit valley, which 
are favourite breeding places for Water-fowl. 

229.— Ardetta minuta, Lin. (935). 

After 1 left Gilgit, Dr. Scully secured a specimen in the 
month of October. 

230.— Nycticorax griseus, Lin. (937). 

One specimen brought in alive to Dr. Scully iu the first 
week in May. A young bird in the collection, shot on the 
8th July, has a wing 10 inches. 

231.— Anser indicus, Lath. (949). 

I have several times observed flocks of Geese flying over 
Gilgit, but have never shot auy in the district. Higher up 
the valley I saw a number, and shot several specimens of 
this bird, which is said to breed on the Shandur lake in 
May. This was the only Goose I saw on the Pamir in April 
1874. 

232.— Casarca rutila, Fall. (954). 

A pair occasionally seen in autumn and spring. 

233.— Spatula clypeata, Lin. (957.) 

The first Duck of the season, seen 30th August, looked 
like S. clypeata; and others were noticed iu autumn and spring. 
One specimen shot. 

234.— Anas boscas, Lin. (958). 

Appears about the middle of October, and is the common 
Duck to be seen during the winter. It remains till nearly 
the end of April. 

235. — Chaulelasmus streperus, Lin. (961). 

Since my leaving Gilgit, Dr. Scully writes that he has 
secured a specimen of the Gadwal. 

236.— Dafila acuta, Lin. (962). 

The Pintail is seen at intervals during the winter, but is 
never common. It remains much later than Anas boscas. I 
have seen it as late as the middle of April. 

237.— Mareca penelope, Lin. (963). 

A single specimen of the Wigeon has been procured by 
Dr. Scully since I left Gilgit. 



THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 365 

238— Querquedula crecca, Lin. (964). 

To be seen at intervals all through the winter, from the 
middle of September to the middle of April, but is never 
very common or in parties of more than eight or ten, 
generally less. 

239. — Querquedula circia, Lin. (965). 

Seen occasionally, but is never very common. I shot a 
pair in the middle of September, and one in the end of March. 

One shot 2nd September, and a flight seen flying from 
the north at the same time. I rather think this Teal only 
appears very early and very late, but does not remain all 
through the winter. 

240.— Branta* rufina, Fall. (967). 

I believe I identified two of this species among a flock of 
Ducks in March, but was not able to shoot a specimen. 

241— Fuligula nyroca, Guld. (969), 

On one occasion in March I saw some of the White-eyed 
Duck among a flock of Teal ; and Dr. Scully has since written 
to me that he has secured a specimen. 

242.— Fuligula cristata, Leach. (971). 

Dr. Scully writes that he has procured a specimen since I 
left Gilgit. 

243.— Mergus castor, Lin. (972). 

I have several times come across the Merganser in winter 
in the mountain streams, but never secured a specimen. 

244 — Podiceps philippensis,t Gm. (975). 

One specimen was secured by Dr. Scully out of a small 
flock on 29th March ; but they are seldom seen, and 
apparently do not stop at all on their passage through. 

245.— Larus affinis, Reinh. (978 lev). 

A single specimen which appears to be L. leucopftaus, 
Licht., but which now, according to Mr. Howard Saunders 
(Stray Feathers, VII., p. 463), stands as L. affinis } was pro- 
cured. Top of the head almost white, sinciput and ear- 
coverts darker ; neck and upper plumage generally of various 
shades of brown, each feather edged with whitish except on 
the back, where the edgings are grey ; primaries brownish 
black, faintly tipped with whitish; secondaries brown, con- 

* [Lege Fuligula, the generic name Branta certainly cannot stand for this 
species. — A. O. H] 
f [Should stand as P. minor, Gm.— A. 0. H.] 

47 



366 THE BIRDS OF GILGIT. 

spicuously tipped and fringed on the outer margin with 
white; inner web broadly margined with white, the basal 
portion being completely white ; greater primary coverts 
brown bordered with white ; secondary coverts broadly edged 
with grey ; lesser coverts coloured like the upper surface ; 
tertiaries and scapulars brown tipped with white ; upper tail- 
coverts white, with a few brown spots ; tail pure white at 
base, with a broad black terminal band ; under surface white, 
suffused w r ith brown on the neck and sides of the breast ; 
under tail-coverts white, with a large brown spot on outer web 
near tip ; axillaries pure white, a few of them fwith a brown 
spot at tip ; under wing-coverts white, barred with brown.* 

Dimensions (taken from dried skin) : — Wing, 17*15 inches ; 
tail, 7*3 ; tarsus, 2'65 ; (longer by 0*4 than the middle toe with 
claw, which, according to Mr. Howard Saunders, serves to 
distinguish this species from L. cac/dnnans and L. argentatus). 
Bill, blackish, with horny tips, yellowish at base of lower 
mandible. Length from gape, 3*25 inches. Legs and feet, yellow. 

246.— Gelochelidon anglica, Mont. (983). 

Terns are seldom seen, and never linger on their passage 
through. One specimen secured 23rd April. 

247.— Hydrochelidon hybrida, Pall. (984). 

Two specimens secured 22nd April, when a party of eight 
or ten were seen. 

In a young bird procured by Dr. Scully, 29th August, the 
bill is black, not red, as suggested by Hume (Stray Feathers, 
VII., p. 445), and the feet are dark brown with a reddish tinge. f 

A Tern, which looked like Sterna fluviatilis% was seen by me 
on 23rd August, evidently passing through on its way south. 

248.— Hydrochelidon nigra, Lin. (984 ter). 

Since my leaving Grilgit, Dr. Scully writes that he has 
secured five specimens, which he believes to belong to this 
species or to H. leucoptera. The measurements vary from 8"2 
to 9 inches in the wing, and from 0*74 to 0*9 in the tarsus. 

249.— Graculus§ carbo, Lin. (1005). 

Several times I have seen a Cormorant which I assign to 
this species ; but I have never secured a specimen. On 12th 
September 1 saw a flock of five in the Sai valley. 

* [The specimen described is of course a quite immature bird. Adults are described 
under the name of L. argentatus, S. F., I., 270. — A. O. H.] 

f [Not impossibly this specimen was one of H. nigra, of which the bill is black 
and. the feet dark brown with a red tinge. — A. O. H.] 

J [This was almost certainly Sterna tibetana. — A. O. H.] 

§ [Must stand, I think, as Phalacrocorax carbo.— A. O. H.] 



STRAY FEATHERS VOL IX 




367 



31 SfetattM dfatatop* of ifa $}irfte nfl the §mmx and 
$ont\x JjRaltratia (tantrg. 



By Capt. E. A. Butler, E. M.'s 83nZ Regt. 



I desire to reproduce in a somewhat modified, and, I hope, 
improved form, in Stray Feathers (where it will be more 
generally available to ornithologists), a paper in which (at the 
request of the compiler of the Bombay Gazetteer) I endeavoured 
to give as complete a list as possible of the birds of the 
southern portion of the Bombay Presidency. 

Roughly speaking the region to which this paper refers may 
be said to extend as far north as Nagar iu about Latitude 19 p ; 
south, as far as Goa, Latitude 16 p ; east to Sholapur about 
Longitude 76° ; and west to Bombay or Longitude 73 Q . 

It includes the following districts which have been more 
or less 

Ornithologically explored*: — 

Northern Deecan. — Nagar, Poona, Sholapur. 
Southern Deecan. — Satara and Belgaum. 
Konkan. — Savantvadi, Ratnagiri and Bombay (in part). 
Sahyadri Range. — From Goa to Khandalla (partially) ; and 
the following which may be classed as 

Ornithologically unexplored :— 

Southern Deecan. — Kolapur, Dharwar, Kaladgi. 

* It may be useful to note, so far as they are known to me, the names of those 
who have collected within this region, and of the districts in which their collections 
have been made. 



Name. 


District. 


G. Vidal, Esq. 


Eatnagiri, Savantvadi, Sahyadri range (in parts) 

and Satara. 
Savantvadi. 


A. Crawford, Esq. ... 


Capt. E. A. Butler, 83rd Begt.... 


Belgaum, Sahyadri range (in parts), Poona, Satara, 




Mahableshwar, Khandalla, &c. 


J. Davidson. Esq. ... ... ") 


Sholapur, Satara, Thana, Poona, Khandalla, 


[ 


Matheran and other parts of the Sahyadri range 


H. Wenden, Esq. ... ...) 


and Deecan. 


Eevd. S. Eairbank ... 


Sahyadri range, Belgaum, Nagar, Khandalla, 




Mahableshwar. 


Major Lloyd ... ... 


Konkan and Sahyadri range (in parts). 


Colonel Sykes ... 


Deecan and Sahyadri range (in parts). 


J. S. Laird, Esq. ... 


Belgaum and the trhats, W est, parts of JM . Kanara, 




parts of the Deecan. 


Dr. Jerdon 


Parts of the Deecan and Malabar Coast. 


A. 0. Hume, Esq. ... 


Bombay Island and Harbour. 



368 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

Konkan. — Northern Kanara, Thana, Kolaba, and Bombay 
(in part). 

Sahyadri Range. — Many parts still quite unworked. 

Necessarily this list must be incomplete when so many of the 
districts it includes are still blanks for us ; and it is only from the 
fact that their physical conditions in many cases are apparently 
identical tvith those of others which have been move or less 
satisfactorily worked, that I am able to hope that, as regards 
the plains portion of the tract dealt with, the list will be found 
tolerably exhaustive. But the case of the Ghats is totally 
different, and I feel that many species occurring" in these and 
their neighbourhood, in the vast and almost wholly unworked 
jungles and forests that they include, must very certainly have 
been omitted. 

Besides ray own collections and some of those of Mr. Laird, 
which he has occasionally allowed me to glance at, I have con- 
sulted the following authorities : — 

Col. Sykes' Birds of the Deccan, P. Z. S., 1832, 77 and 149. 

Lieut. Burgess' Notes on the Habits of Indian Birds, P. Z. S., 
1854, pp. 1, 45, 102,142, 158, 255 ; 1855, 27, 32, 70, 79, 184. 

Jerdon's Birds of India, 3 Vols. 

Stray Feathers, edited by Allan Hume, Vols. I to VIII. 

Major Lloyd's List of Konkan Species. 

Mr. Vidal's List of the Birds of the South Konkan, Stray 
Feathers, IX., p. 1. 

To all these authorities I am greatly indebted, as well as to 
the Editor for his assistance in rewriting this paper ; but I am 
compelled to say (though I have always duly quoted his state- 
ments) that I think some of Major Lloyd's specimens must 
have been erroneously identified.* It is simply incredible, for 
instance that Propasser rhodochrous should have occurred at 
Matheran. On many occasions in the course of this list I have 
been obliged to notice that certain common Deccan birds, as 
I consider them, are not included in Messrs. Davidson's and 
"Wenden's list of the birds of that region ; but it must not be 
supposed that 1 intend by these remarks to impute any care- 
lessness to these gentlemen to whom I am otherwise much 
indebted. Their list was avowedly hastily compiled, merely 
to give some idea of the avifauna of certain districts with 
which they were more or less acquainted. It had even less 

* I entirely concur. At least a dozen species are included in Major Lloyd's list that 
I should say certainly never could occur in the Konkan, while other birds that certainly 
do occur are omitted. It would be useful if Major Lloyd would state whether he 
preserved specimens of every bird he includes, and whether these have all been 
identified by a competent ornithologist. If he can give us these assurances, then of 
course we can accept all his species, despite the a 'priori incredibility of the occur- 
rence of a good number. At present all ornithologists out here, who know that part 
of India, treat his list as a record of—" Not what there is, but what there might have 
been."— Ed., S.F. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 369 

pretence to exbaustiveness than the present catalogue, which 
will, I am only too certain, itself prove similarly imperfect. 

This catalogue includes altogether 452 species, but out of these 
3 (viz. Nos. 473, 533 and 538) are doubtful as species, and these 
I have entered in italics, while the occurrence of 20 other species, 
(viz.'Nos. 26, 34,50,61, 87, 101, 273, 291, 357, 434, 488, 512, 
594, 596, 601, 742, 831, 911, 916 and 960,) is to my mind 
questionable, and to these I have prefixed a note of inter- 
rogation. 

The species included are arranged as in Dr. Jerdon's work, 
and Mr. Hume's Tentative list of the Birds of India, published 
in Vol. VIII., p. 73, et seq. This arrangement is admitted on 
all hands to be in many respects imperfect, but it is the one with 
which most Indian ornithologists are familiar, and I have 
therefore adopted it. 

In conclusion I can only express a hope that all ornithologists 
who discover from time to time errors and omissions in this 
catalogue will notify the same to the Editor of Stray Feathers 
for publication in his Journal. 



2. — Otogyps calvus, Scop. The Black Vulture. 

Permanent resident. Occurs throughout the region. Not 
uncommon as a rule, but less abundant in some districts than 
in others. 

4 bis. — Gyps pallescens, Hume. The Long-billed 
Pale-Brown Vulture. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon in districts where 
there are high cliffs to which it resorts to breed. This is pro- 
bably the species entered in Mr. VidaPs list of Ratnagiri 
species as G. indicus ( S. F., IX., 29). According to Sykes, 
G. indicus of Latham, Vantour Indou of Tem., P. C, 26, is 
common in the Deccan. Possibly he refers to the present 
species, but Temminck's plate, to which he specially refers, repre- 
sents appai-ently G. fulvescens, Hume, and possibly this also 
should be included in this list. 

5.— Pseudogyps bengalensis, Gmel. The White- 
backed Vulture. 
Permanent resident. Common throughout the region. 

6.— Neophron ginginianus, Lath. The Indian 
Scavenger Vulture. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the region, though 
less numerous in Ratnagiri than in other districts. 



370 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

8.— Falco peregrinus, Gm. The Perigrine Falcon. 

Cold weather visitant. Occurs sparingly along the coast of 
Ratnagiri, and may be found as a straggler inland. I observed 
it occasionally in and about Belgaum, but as yet we have no 
other record of its occurrence in other parts of the region. 

9. — Falco perigrinator, Sund. The Shaheen Palcon. 

Permanent resident. This species belongs to the Grhat dis- 
trict, and, though not common, no doubt occurs sparingly along 
the whole range. I obtained it near Poona and heard of an 
eyrie at Khandala, where, I believe, it breeds annually. I 
also saw a Falcon at Amboli, on the Ghats near Belgaum, 
which I believe belonged to this species. Mr. Davidson 
observed it in the Satara districts near Adul on the Kohinoor 
river, and Mr. Fairbank mentions it as having been found in 
the Mahratta country. Major Lloyd also includes it in his list 
of Konkan species. 

11. — Falco jugger, J. E. Gr. The Laggar Palcon. 

Permanent resident. Locally'common, but in many parts 
of the southern portion of the region rare. I seldom observed 
it about Belgaum, and it has not been recorded yet from 
Ratnagiri. 

13.— Falco subbuteo, Lin. The (European) Hobby. 

Winter visitant. Not common. I noticed it occasionally 
about Belgaum, and obtained one fine specimen. Jerdon 
remarks, " not very common, though occasionally killed in 
different parts of the country. I have killed it near Jalna in 
the Deccan." 

16.— Falco chiquera, Baud. The Turumti or Red- 
headed Merlin. 

Permanent resident. Locally common, but in some districts, 
Ratnagiri for instance, and about Belgaum, scarce. 

17.— Cerchneis tinnunculus, Lin. The Kestrel. 

Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the region. 
Mr. Davidson thinks it breeds at Mahableshwar and in the 
cliffs below Matheran, and, as it is known to do so further 
south on the Nilgiris, he may be right in his conjecture, but 
as yet the fact has not been proved. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 371 

18.— Cerchneis naumanni, Fleisch. The Lesser Kes- 
trel. 

Cold weather visitant. Locally common in the Deccan. 
Davidson observed several hundreds near Sholapur on one 
occasion. Mr. Fairbank obtained it at Nagar, where it appears 
to occur also in flocks. In the southern portion of the region 
it has not yet been obtained, and, if it does occur, must be 
rare. 

Mr. Hume remarks, not having seen specimens from Southern 
India, that it is still doubtful whether the form that occurs 
there may not be C. pekinensis, which differs from the present 
species in the larger amount of grey on the wings which 
extends right up to the carpal joint. (S. F., III., 384 ; VII., 
333.) 

19 bis.— Cerchneis amurensis, Badde. The Eastern 
Orange-legged Hobby or Kestrel. 

Cold weather visitant. Bare as a rule. I observed a huge 
flock numbering some thousands passing over Belgaum on the 
24th November, and shot two fine specimens. It feeds on 
insects in open country, hovering over the fields exactly like 
the common Kestrel. It is not included in any of the other 
local lists, but Mr. Laird told me he had once obtained a 
specimen in the same district. 

The adult birds differ from the Western form, C. vespertina, 
in having the under wing-coverts and axillaries pure white, 
the same parts in vespertina being bluish grey like the 
breast. 

In both of my specimens, which appear to be in immature 
plumage, the under wing-coverts are transversely barred with 
slaty black on a white ground, the front view of the bird 
closely resembling the common Hobby, as pointed out S. F., 
II., 528. 

23. — Astur badius, Gm. The Shikra or Indian 
Sparrow Hawk. 
Permanent resident in most parts of the region. Common. 

24. — Accipiter nisus, Lin. The European Sparrow 
Hawk. 

Cold weather visitant. Uncommon, occurring only as a 
straggler. 

? 26.— Aquila chrysaetus, Lin. The Golden Eagle. 

This species is enumerated in Sykes' list, and we are told 
that his specimen differs so slightly from the European bird 



372 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

as not to justify its separation. It could not, therefore, have 
belonged to the next and very much smaller species as has been 
surmised. But admitting it to have been a genuine golden 
eagle, it seems next to certain that it cannot have been 
procured in the Deccan. 

27,— Aquila mogilnik, S. G. Gm. The Imperial 
Eagle. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. Mr. Davidson mentions a 
young male shot at Sholapur in the Deccan, south of which it 
does not appear to have been obtained within the region. 

Sykes includes A. bifasciata = A. nipalensis, and this species 
also may occur, but in those days mogilnik and nipalensis were 
lumped, and his supposed bifasciata may probably have been 
only mogilnik. 

28.— Aquila clanga, Tall. The Spotted Eagle. 

Probably only a seasonal visitant. Very locally distributed 
and not common, occurring, as a rule, only where there are 
tanks. Mr. Fairbank believes it breeds near the Ekruk 
Tank. 

29. — Aquila vindhiana, Frankl. The Indian Tawny- 
Eagle. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region, excepting perhaps in Ratnagiri, where it appears to be 
scarce. 

31.— Hieraetus pennatus, Gm. The Booted Eagle. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon as a rule, but scarce 
about Belgaum and in Ratnagiri. 

32.— Neopus malayensis, Beinw. The Black Eagle. 

Rare and only found on the Ghats and in the adjoining 
jungles. Mr. Fairbank obtained it at Mahableshwar, and 
Major Lloyd includes it in his list of Konkan species, so 
that it probably occurs sparingly along the whole range of 
hills. 

33.— Nisaetus fasciatus, Vieill. Bonelli's Eagle. 

Permanent resident. Occurs sparingly throughout the 
region. Mr. Vidal does not include it in his list of Ratnagiri 
birds, but Major Lloyd enters it as a Konkan species. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 373 



? 34.— Limnaetus caligatus, Raffl. The Changeable 
Hawk-Eagle. 

Rare. Mr. Fairbank says, " may uow and tlien be obtained 
in the plains of the Deccan," and that he shot a specimen 
near Nagar. No one else seems to have met with it, so that 
probably it only occurs as a straggler if it occurs at all. Pos- 
sibly he really referred to the next species. 

35,— Limnaetus cirrhatus, Gm. The Crested Hawk- 
Eagle. 

Permanent resident. Confined, or nearly so, to the hilly 
tracts where it is not uncommon. In Ratnagiri it appears to 
be exceptionally plentiful. 

38.— Circaetus gallicus, Gm. The Common Serpent 
Eagle. 

Probably a permanent resident. Occurs sparingly through- 
out the region, except in Ratnagiri, whence it has not yet been 
recorded. 

39— Spilornis cheela, Lath. The Indian Harrier 
Eagle. 

Rare. A single specimen was obtained by Mr. Crawford at 
Savantvadi, which is the only instance I have heard of its 
occurrence. The bird, Mr. Fairbank alludes to as common 
along the Sahyadris, is doubtless the next species, although he 
has entered it under this heading. 

39 bis.— Spilornis melanotis, Jerd. The Lesser or 
Southern Indian Harrier- Eagle. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon as a rule along the 
Ghats, but confined to the hilly tracts and adjacent jungles. 

40.— Pandion haliaetus, Lin. The Osprey. 

Cold weather visitant. Common along the coast of Ratna- 
giri amongst the tidal creeks and estuaries, and observed by 
Mr. Hume in the Bombay Harbour, but occurs nowhere else 
that I am aware of within the region. 

43. — Haliaetus leucogaster, Gm. The Grey-backed 
or White-bellied Sea-Eagle. 

Permanent resident. Like the last species, not uncommon 
along the coast, but not found elsewhere within the region. 
A large colony frequents and breeds upon Pigeon Island lower 
down the coast {vide S. F., IV, 422.) 

48 



374 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

45.— Buteo ferox, S. G. Gm. The Long-legged 
Buzzard. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon throughout the 
region, excepting in Ratnagiri, whence it has not yet been 
recorded. 

48. — Butastur teesa, Frankl. The White-eyed Buz- 
zard. 

Permanent resident in many parts of the region, and com- 
mon almost everywhere, except in Ratnagiri and the forest 
tracts, where it appears to be scarce. 

It appears to have been omitted accidentally in Messrs. 
Wenden and Davidson's Deccan list. 

? 50. — Circus cyaneus, Lin. The Hen Harrier. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare, I believe, if it occurs at all. 
Messrs. Davidson and Wenden record it from the Deccan, but 
it is not recorded from any other portion of the region at 
present, and they do not seem at all sure of their identi- 
fication. 

51. — Circus macrurus, S, G. Gm. The Pale Harrier. 

Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the region. 

52. — Circus cineraceus, Mont. Montague's Harrier. 
Cold weather visitant. Not very common, but occurs I 
believe sparingly throughout the region, though not recorded 
yet from Ratnagiri. 

54. — Circus seruginosus, Lin. The Marsh Harrier. 

Cold weather visitant. Common in some parts of the region, 
less so in others, but occurs in suitable localities throughout 
the whole tract of country with which we are dealing. 

55. — Haliastur indus, Bodd. The Maroon-hacked 
or Brahminy Kite. 

Permanent resident in some parts of the region. Not very 
common, but generally distributed, occurring in most of the 
districts. Prefers w^ell-waiered tracts. 

56. — Milvus gOvinda, Sykes. The Common Pariah 
Kite. 

Permanent resident. Very common in most localities 
throughout the region. 



THE DECCAN AND SOtTM MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 375 

56 bis. — Milvus melanotis, Tern. 8f Schl. The Large 
Pariah Kite. 

Permanent resident in all probability. Not common. 
Mr. Hume mentions having obtained a single specimen in the 
Bombay Harbour. I have no other lecord of its occurrence 
throughout the region. 

57. — Pernis ptilorhynchus, Tern. The Crested Honey 
Buzzard. 

Permanent resident. Locally not uncommon, but in some 
districts very rare or absent altogether. It occurs in the 
Deccan and again in the jungles west of Belgaum ; but Mr. 
Vidal has not as yet met with it in Ratnagiri. I procured 
specimens at Satara and in the neighbourhood of Belgaum. 

59. — Elanus cceruleus, Besf. The Black-winged 
Kite. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon in many localities, and 
distributed generally throughout the plains portion of the 
region, but as yet has not been recorded from Ratnagiri, neither 
is it found, that I am aware of, on the hills. It seems to be 
particularly common about Poona, Sholapur and in many 
other parts of the Deccan, and it is not uncommon about 
Belgaum. 

60. — Strix javanica, Gm. The Eastern Screech Owl. 

Permanent resident. Common in many localities through- 
out the region, especially in Belgaum and in the Deccan, and 
generally distributed throughout the region, including Ratna- 
giri. 

? 61.— Strix Candida, Tick. The Grass Owl. 

Mr. Fairbank says he has more than once flushed a Grass Owl 
that he believes to be this, and on his authority I have given 
it a place in the list as a doubtful species ; but as no other col- 
lector has noticed it within the region, and as Mr. Fairbank 
omits Asio accipitrinus in his list of Mahratti species which is 
common and frequents the very ground he mentions, possibly 
he may have mistaken that for the present species. 

63 — Syrnium indranee, Sykes. The Brown Wood- 
Owl. 

Uncommon and confined to the Ghats and adjacent forests. 
Mr. Laird has obtained it west of Belgaum, and Mr. Fairbank 
at Mahableshwar and along the Sahyadri Range. Mr. Vidal 
also records it from Ratnagiri. 



376 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIBBS OF 

65 .— Syrnium ocellatum, Less. The Mottled Wood- 
Owl. 

Permanent resident. Common in many localities, and gener- 
ally distributed throughout the region, including Ratnagiri, 
but does not affect heavy forest, preferring, as Mr. Vidal points 
out, mango clumps on the outskirts of villages. It is specially 
common about Satara, and I have constantly seen it in the 
vicinity of Belgaum. 

68. — Asio accipitrinus, Pall. The Short-eared Owl. 

Cold weather visitant. Generally distributed over the plaina 
portion of the region, and tolerably common, affecting long grass 
in open country. Mr. Vidal does not mention it from Ratna- 
giri, but it is not improbable that it occurs there, as it is com- 
mou in the neighbourhood of Belgaum. 

69. — Bubo bengalensis, Frankl The Rock Horned- 
Owl. 

Permanent resident. Common in the plains portion of the 
region, including Ratnagiri, affecting river banks and big 
nullahs in open country, and occurring in most of the districts, 
excepting of course the forest tracts. 

72.— Ketupa ceylonensis, Gm. The Brown Pish 
Owl. 

Permanent resident. Common in the southern portion of 
the region wherever there is forest. It affects tall thick jungle 
with running streams as a rule, and does not occur in the more 
open parts of the country except as a straggler. 

74.— Scops pennatus, Eodgs. The Indian Scops 
Owl- 
Cold weather visitant. Rare. Mr. Fairbank obtained this, 
or a closely allied species, at Mahableshwar. I procured it at 
Belgaum, and Messrs. Davidson and Wenden include it in their 
list of the Deccan birds, having procured specimens at Shola- 
pur, Sangola and other places. Major Lloyd has also entered 
it in his list of Konkan species, and Jerdon mentions it from 
the Western Ghats. 

74 sept. — Scops brucii, Hume. Bruce's Scops Owl. 

Rare. Mr. Fairbank obtained specimens at Rahuri near 
Nagar, and Mr, Vidal procured it at Khed in Ratnagiri, but 
no other notice of its occurrence throughout the region has 
been recorded. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 377 

75 quit.— Scops malabaricus, Jerd> The Malabar 
Scops Owl. 

Permanent resident in Ratnagiri, whence it has been recorded 
by Mr. Vidal. It appears to be not uncommon in that district, 
but has not yet been noticed in other parts of the region. 

76— Carine brama, Tern. The Spotted Owlet. 

Permanent resident, and common, as a rule, throughout the 
region, except on the Ghats and adjoining forests, where it is 
replaced by the next species. It is rare in Ratnagiri. 

78.— Glaucidium malabaricum, Blyth. The Malabar 
Owlet. 

Permanent resident. Common along the Ghats and in the 
adjoining forests, also in Ratnagiri ; but does not occur I 
believe in the plains portion of the region. The Ratnagiri 
specimens being intermediate in form between G. malabaricum 
and G. radiatum, it would appear that the two supposed species J 
are merely local races of the same bird, especially as both 
occur along the Malabar Coast* 

81.— Ninox lugubriSj Tick. The Brown Hawk-Owl. 

Uncommon, but apparently has a somewhat extensive range 
in the southern portion of the region. Mr. Vidal records it 
from Ratnagiri. Messrs. "Wenden and Davidson obtained it at 
Sholapur. 1 shot a specimen in the Fort at Belgaum. Mr. Laird 
also got it in the jungles west of Belgaum, and Mr. Fairbank 
mentions it in his list of Mahratti species. None of the 
specimens, from this part of the country, that I have seen, are 
typical, but they are nearer to lugubris than scutulata. 

:'.-.■•"' 

82 — Hirundo rustica, Lin> The Common Swallow. 

Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the region. 

84.^Hirundo filifera, Steph. The Wire-tailed Swal* 
low. 

Permanent resident. Common and occurs in most localities 
throughout the region. 

85.— Hirundo erythropygia, Syhes. The Red-rumped 
or Mosque Swallow. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the region. 



*> 



378 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

86.— Hirundo fluvicola, Jerd. The Indian Cliff 
Swallow. 
Permanent resident. Locally common, but in many dis- 
tricts unknown. It occurs at Sholapur and Satara, and has 
once been obtained by Mr. Vidal in Ratnagiri. I have never 
beard of its occurrence in the Belgaum District. 

9 87. — Cotyle riparia, Lin. The European Sand- 
Martin. 

Cold weather visitant if it does occur, which is very doubtful. 
Mr. Fairbank includes it in his list of Mahratti species, but 
omits the next species, which is common in that portion of the 
region ; and as it does not appear to have been noticed by 
other collectors, I think, in all probability, he is mistaken in 
his identification. Jerdon, however, is said to have obtained 
specimens at Jalna in the Deccan, so that it may possibly occur 
within our limits. 

89. — Cotyle sinensis, J. B. Gr. The Indian Sand- 
Martin. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, in suitable loca- 
lities throughout the region, but not as yet recorded from 
Ratnagiri. It probably avoids the forest tracts. 

90.— Ptyonoprogne concolor, Syhes. The Dusky 
Cras:- Martin. 
Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region. 

91.— Ptyonoprogne rupestris, Scop. The Mountain 
Crag-Martin. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon on the hills. I 
observed it at Ambolee, at Khandala, Siughur, and on the Fort 
hill, Satara, &c, &c, and doubtless it occurs along the whole 
of the Sahyadri range. 

92.— Chelidon urbica, Lin. The English House- 
Martin. 
Seasonal visitant. I observed several pairs of these Martins 
flying round the barracks in Belganm, during the first fort- 
night in May 1880, after which they disappeared. They used 
to appear iu the morning for about an hour, daily, between 6 
and 7 a.m., after which they were not to be seen again till 
the following day. Where they retired to during the day time 
I haven't a notion, but there can be no possible doubt about 



THE DEOCAN AND SOUTB MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 379 

the species as I watched them closely for several days, being- 
unable to shoot them on account of their being in barracks, 
and there is no other Martin for which they could have been 
mistaken. In all probability they were in course of migration 
from the Nilgiris, where they are known to occur. I believe 
I saw it also at Singhur some years ago when I first arrived in 
India, but cannot be quite certain, as I did not take the same 
interest in ornithology in those days that I do now. It is 
easily recognised by its short, forked tail, broad white rump 
band, glossy blue black upper surface and snow white lower 
surface ; legs, feet, and toes feathered white. 

98. — Cypsellus melba, Lin. The Alpine Swift. 

Cold weather visitant, as far as my experience goes. Com- 
mon all along the Ghats, frequenting high cliffs, in which it 
roosts, and descending into the surrounding plains during the 
day time to feed. In Belgaum, throughout the cold weather, 
large flocks may be seen every morning passing over the station 
between 6 and 8 a.m. in an easterly direction, and returning 
again in a westerly direction to the hills to roost just before 
dusk in the evening. Mr. Davidson says that it is a per- 
manent resident at Satara, and he thinks breeds there on the 
cliffs. This may be the case as it is known to breed on the 
Nilgiris, and, if so, it may also breed at Singhur and on other 
high cliffs along the Ghat range, but as yet the fact has not 
been proved. 

100.— Cypsellus affinis, J. R Or. The Common 
Indian Swift. 
Permanent resident. Common throughout the region. 

? 101.— Cypsellus leuconyx, Blyth. The White- 
clawed Swift. 

Entered in Mr. Fairbanks list of Mahratti species, but on 
what authority, unless Jerdon's, I do not know. No other 
collector has recorded it, neither have I myself ever come across 
a specimen ; I have therefore entered it as doubtful. If it does 
occur, which appears to be the case according to Jerdon, it 
must be a rare bird. Jerdon says, u a rare species. I obtained 
one specimen on the western part of the Deccan and several 
in Malabar, where it frequents rocky hills/' I have no other 
record of its occurrence. 

102.— Cypsellus batassiensis, J. E. Gr. The Palm 
Swift. 

Permanent resident. Common in some localities where there 
are groups of palmyra, areca or cocoanut palm trees ; in other 



380 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

localities it is unknown. Mr. Vidal mentions it from Ratnagiii 
find it is common at Vengurla. Mr. Davidson records it from 
Akalkot and Nulwar. It is also common in Poona, so that 
it is generally distributed, although absent altogether in many 
districts where there are no palm trees. 

103.— Colloealia unicolor, Jerd. The Indian Edible- 
nest Swiftlet. 

Seasonal visitant. Appears in the hot weather in large num- 
bers on the Vengnrla rocks, where it breeds. Unknown in any 
other portion of the region. 

104— Dendrochelidon coronata, Tick. The Indian 
Crested Swift. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon along the Sahyadri 
range, extending into the neighbouring forests ; but it can only 
be regarded as a straggler, if it occurs at all, outside of the 
forest tracts. 

107.— Caprimulgus indicus, Lath. The Jungle 
Night. Jar. 

Probably a permanent resident. Appears to be not uncommon 
throughout the forest portion of the region. Jerdon obtained 
it in the Deecan. 

108.— Caprimulgus kelaarti, Blyth. The Nilgiri 
Night- Jar. 

Obtained by Mr. Laird in the forest tract west of Belgaum, 
and included in the list of Konkan species by Major Lloyd, 
though Mr. Vidal does not appear to have met with it in 
Ratnagiri. This species is doubtfully distinct from the pre- 
ceding. 

111.— Caprimulgus atripennis, Jerd. The Ghat 
Night-Jar. 

Obtained by Mr. Laird in the forest tract west of Belgaum, 
but has not as yet been recorded from any other portion of the 
region. 

112,— Caprimulgus asiaticus, Lath. The Common 
Indian Nightjar. 

Permanent resident. Locally common throughout the region, 



TfiE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 381 

113.— Caprimulgus mahrattensis, Sykes. Sykes's 
Goat-sucker. 

Probably a permanent resident. Not common as a rule, 
but generally distributed. Mr. Laird obtained it in the 
Belgaum District, and Major Lloyd includes it in bis list of 
Konkan species, though Mr. Vidal lias not as yet met with it 
in Ratnagiri. Mr. Fairbank obtained it at Rahuri near Nagar, 
in which locality it appears to be rare, and it is not included 
in Messrs. Davidson and Wenden's list of the Deccan species, 
though doubtless it will be found hereafter to occur in some 
of the districts. Colonel Sykes obtained specimens from the 
Western Ghats. 

114.— Caprimulgus monticolus, Franhl. Pranklin's 
Nightjar. 

Probably a permanent resident. Mr. Vidal records it as 
common in parts of Ratnagiri, and Mr. Fairbank reports its 
occurrence on the Goa frontier, and has entered it also in his 
list of Mabratti species. Mr. Laird also procured it in the 
forests west of Belgaum, but it is not included in Messrs. 
Davidson and Wenden's list of Deccan species. 

115.— Harpactes fasciatus, Forst. The Malabar 
Trogon. 

Permanent resident. Occurs sparingly in most of the well- 
wooded tracts along the Sahyadri Range. Mr. Laird obtained 
it in the forest tract west of Belgaum, in wbich jungles I have 
other evidence also of its occurrence. Mr. Fairbank procured 
it in the woods of Savantvadi and at the base of the Goa hills ; 
but it is not as yet recorded from Ratnagiri. In Kanara it is 
not uncommon. It is essentially a forest bird. 

117.— Merops viridis, Lin. The Common Indian 
Bee-eater. 

Permanent resident in many localities, and common through- 
out the region. 

118.— Merops philippinus, Lin. The Blue-tailed 
Bee-eater. 

Not common. Occurs along the Ghats and in the jungles 
adjoining, including the south of Ratnagiri and Savantvadi. 
Mr. Fairbank also obtained a specimen at Nagar. 

49 



382 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OE 

119.— Merops swinhoii, Hume. The Indian Chest- 
nut-headed Bee-eater. 

This is another forest-loving species, affecting the same loca- 
lities as the hist, and is not very common. I noticed it on the 
Ambolee Ghat, west of Belgaum. 

120.— Merops persicus, Pall. The Egyptian or 
Blue-cheeked Bee-eater. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. Mr. .Davidson obtained a speci- 
men in immature plumage at Pandharpur, about 100 miles 
east of Sholapur, in October. There is no other record of its 
occurrence within the region, so probably it only occurs as 
a straggler. 

122. — Nyctiornis athertoni, Jard. & Selb. The Blue- 
necked Bee-eater. 

Hare. Obtained by Mr. Laird in the forest tract west of 
Belganm. I have not heard of any other instance of its occur- 
rence within the region. 

123. — Coracias indica, Lin. The Indian Roller. 

Permanent resident in some localities, migratory in others, 
retiring to the better-wooded tracts to breed. Common, as a 
rule, throughout the region in the cold weather. 

127. — Pelargopsis gurial, Pears. The Brown- 
headed Kingfisher. 

Bare. Mr. Fairbank mentions having seen it on the Koina 
river, near Mahableshwar. Mr. Laird obtained it in the forests 
west of Belgaum, and Mr. Vidal includes it in his list of 
Batnagiri species. It does not occur in the plains portion of 
the region, excepting, perhaps, where there is thick jungle. 

129.— Halcyon smyrnensis, Lin. The White-hreast- 
ed Kingfisher. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the region. 

130.— Halcyon pileata, Bodd. The Black-capped 
Purple Kingfisher. 

Very rare. Mr. Vidal obtained it in Batnagiri, the only 
instance recorded of its occurrence within the region. It is a 
coast species, and not likely to be found at any distance from 
the sea. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 383 

132. — Halcyon chloris, Bodd. The White-collared 
Kingfisher. 

This is another coast species, obtained by Mr. Vidal in 
Patnagiri, where he met with it on one or two occasions in 
small colonies, in mangrove swamps on the banks of tidal 
creeks. 

133.— Ceyx tridactylus, Tall. The Three-toed 
Purple Kingfisher. 

Probably a permanent resident. Rare. I first observed this 
species in the jungles below the reversing station at Khaudala, 
and this year (1880) I saw one in July, perched upon a stone 
by the side of the road, about half way down the Ghat between 
Ambolee and Danowlee. Major Lloyd enters it in his list as 
a Konkan species, and Colonel Sykes got it somewhere in the 
Deccan, so that it doubtless occurs sparingly all along the 
Sahyadri range and in the adjacent forests, wherever there are 
streams running through dense jungles. 

134. — Alcedo bengalensis, Gm. The Common 
Indian Kingfisher. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region. 

135 quat.— Alcedo bsavani, Wald. Beavan's 
Kingfisher. 

Rare. I have a specimen that was shot in the jungles west 
of Belgaum. I know of no other instance of its occurrence 
within the region. 

136. — Ceryle rudis, Lin. The Pied Kingfisher. 

Permanent resident. Tolerably common wherever there is 
water throughout the region, excepting, perhaps, on the Ghats. 

140. — Dichoceros cavatus, Bodd. The Great Horn- 
bill. 

A permanent resident in the forests of the Sahyadri range, 
where it is not uncommon, and extends certainly as far north as 
the south of Kolaba. 

141.— Hydrocissa coronata, Bodd. The Malabar 
Pied Hornbill. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon in the forests surround- 
ing Belgaum, and extends along the Sahyadri range to 



384 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

Ratnagiri, but how much further north I don't know. It is 
common in the Kanara jungles. 

144.— -Ocyceros birostris, Scop. The Common 
Grey Hornbill. 

Entered in Messrs. Davidson and Wenden's list of Deccan 
species as " moderately numerous in suitable localities." 
Neither Mr. Vidal, Mr. Laird, or myself, have ever met with it. 
Mr. Davidson has lately written to me to say that the speci- 
mens referred to in his paper were procured about Satara, and 
that he believes he identified them correctly, and that the species 
is common in Khandesh. 

145.— Tockus griseus, lath. The Jungle Grey 
Hornbill. 

Permanent resident. Obtained by Mr. Fairbank and myself 
in the jungles below the reversing station at Khandala. Also 
obtained at Savantvadi and in the forests west of Belgaum ; it 
doubtless therefore occurs sparingly all along the Sahyadri 
range, though as yet Mr. Vidal has not met with it in Ratna- 
giri. 

148.— Palaeafnis torquatus, Bodd. The Rose-ring- 
ed Parroquet. 

Permanent resideut in most localities. Common, as a rule, 
throughout the region. 

149.— Palseornis purpureus, P. L. S. Mull The 
Western Rose-headed Parroquet. 

Permanent resident in some localities ; but most of them 
retire to the Ghats in the hot weather to breed. Common all 
along the Sahyadri range and in the adjacent forests, and in 
the rains and cold weather common iu most districts through- 
out the region. 

151— Palseornis columboides, Vig. The Blue- 
winged Parroquet. 

Probably a permanent resident. Not uncommon along the 
whole Sahyadri range, and extends certainly as far north as 
Khandala, where I obtained specimens. It is particularly 
common on the Ghats west of Belgaum. 

15S — Loriculus vernalis, Sparrm. The Indian 
Lorikeet. 

Cold weather visitant. This is another forest-loving species 
that occurs along the Sahyadri range, at all events, as far 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 385 

north as Khandala and in the neighbouring forests. Locally 
not uncommon. It occurs in the Goa and Savantvadi forests 
and in parts of Ratnagiri. Mr. Elliot mentions it as visiting 
Dharwar in the rains. 

160. — Picus mahrattensis, Lath. The Yellow- 
fronted Woodpecker. 

Permanent resident. Locally not uncommon throughout 
the region, but in some districts it is absent, especially in the 
south. 

164. — Yungipicus nanus, Vig. The Indian Pigmy 
Woodpecker. 

Rare. Occurs sparingly along the Sahyadri range as far 
north as Khandala. It has been obtained at Mahableshwar, 
Savantvadi, Ratnagiri, in the Goa forests, and on the hills west 
of Belgaum. 

165.— Hemicercus cordatus, Jerd. The Heart- 
spotted Woodpecker. 

Rare. Occurs sparingly along the Sahyadri range as far 
north as Khandala, where I obtained a specimen, and Mr. Laird 
got it in the forests west of Belgaum, and in North Kauara. 

166 Ms.— Chrysocolaptes strictus, Horsf.=C. de- 
lesserti, Malh. apud Jerdon. The South- 
ern Large Golden-backed Woodpecker. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon, all along the Sahyadri 
range and in the adjacent forests. Mr. Vidal in his list of 
Ratnagiri species mentions C. sultaneus, but probably he refers 
to this species, which is the Southern Indian form, with the 
wing about 6 inches and the bill about If inches. I have 
never seen a specimen from this region large enough for 
sultaneus. 

An albinoid specimen was shot by Mr. Laird at Nagargali, 
a few miles south of Belgaum (vide S.F., IX., 238). 

167.— Chrysocolaptes festivus, JBodd. The Black- 
backed Woodpecker. 

Is found in Ratnagiri, according to Mr. Vidal, though not 
common, and doubtless occurs in other forests along the Ghats 
also, but it appears to be a very local species and rare or absent 
in most places. Mr. Elliot met with it in Dharwar, not far 
from Goa. 



386 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

169.— Thriponax hodgsoni, Jerd. The Great Black 

Woodpecker. 

Rare. Mr. Laird obtained specimens in North Kanara and 
also in the forests west of Belgaum. 1 have no other record of 
its occurrence throughout the region. 

171.— Gecinus striolatus, Blyth. The Small Green 
Woodpecker. 

Rare. Obtained by Mr. Laird in tlie jungles west of 
Belgaum, and is probably the bird referred to by Mr. Davidson 
as having been observed on the Bhore Ghat, Kolaba district, 
in which case it probably occurs sparingly along the whole of 
the Sahyadri range. 

175.-— Chrysophlegma chlorigaster, Jerd. The 
Southern Yellow-naped Woodpecker. 

Probably a permanent resident. Not uncommon in the 
forests south-west of Belgaum, whence I have seen several 
specimens shot by Mr. Laird and others, but it does not appear 
to have been observed elsewhere hitherto within the region, 
though surely it must occur in some of the other forest 
districts. 

179.— Micropternus gularis, Jerd. The Madras 
Rufous Woodpecker. 

Permanent resident. Is not uncommon, and occurs all along 
the Sahyadri range and in the adjacent forests as far north as 
Khandala. Some of the specimens procured by Mr. Vidal 
in the north of Ratnagiri are prououuced by Mr. Hume to be 
intermediate between gularis and phceoceps. 

181.— Brachypternus puncticollis, Math. The 
Lesser Golden-backed Woodpecker. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon and occurs along the 
whole range of hills from Goa to Khandala. In some of the 
districts, Ratnagiri for instance, it is more numerous than in 
others. Major Lloyd mentions B. aurantius in his list of 
Konkan birds ; but he possibly referred to the present species. 
At the same time very possibly aurantius occurs also within our 
limits, as it does on the Nilgiris. The two species, I may add, 
are somewhat doubtfullj' distinct, and in some localities run into 
each other. 

188.— Yunx torquilla, Lin. The Wryneck. 

Cold weather visitant. Occurs sparingly in the northern 
portion of the region about Poona and Nagar, as also in the 



TEE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 387 

south about Belgaum, whence I procured specimens, but it is 
decidedly uncommon. 

193 bis.— Megaleema inornata, Wald. The West- 
era Green Barbet. 

Permanent resident on the Ghats. Not uncommon along the 
whole of the Sabyadri range as far north as Khandala. 

# 194.— Megalaema viridis, Bodd. The Small Green 
Barbet. 

Permanent resident. Common all along* the Sahyadri range 
as far north, at all events, as Khandala; and in most of the 
forest tracts adjoining. It is one of the commonest birds in 
Belgaum. I noticed it occasionally also at Satara. 

197.— Xantholaema haemacephala, P. L. S. Mull. 
The Crimson-breasted Barbet or Copper- 
smith. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region. 

198.— Xantholaema malabarica, Blyth. The Crim- 
son-throated Barbet. 

Rare. Mr. Laird obtained it in the forests west of Belgaum 
and Mr. Fairbank records it from Savantvadi. Major Lloyd 
incredible as it seems, includes it also as a Konkan species ; but 
Mr. Vidal has not as yet obtained it in Ratnagiri. I have no 
other record of its occurrence in the region. 

199. — Cuculus canorus, Lin. The European 
Cuckoo. 

Cold weather visitant. Uucommon. Colonel Sykes procured 
it in the Deccan, and Messrs. Davidson and Wenden also 
include it in their list of Deccan species with the remark, 
" occurs sparingly during the rains and cold weather," but no 
other collectors appear to have met with it. I wrote to Mr. 
Davidson about this bird to make sure of the species, and he 
replied that he had observed it several times in the Deccan, but 
had never shot a specimen, being satisfied b}' the call it uttered 
,(" cuckoo") that it was canorus. 

* Major I>loyd proposed to separate the Small Green Barbet of Western India under 
the name of M.syJcesi (S. F., I., 419), but Mr. Hume has shown (S. F., IV., 391) 
that this proposal is untenable. — E.A.B. 



388 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OP 

201.— Cuculus poliocephalus, Lath. The Small 
Cuckoo. 

Probably only a seasonal visitant. Not common. Messrs. 
Wenden and Davidson include it in their Deccan list with the 
remark, "scarce, but seen and procured during the rainy and 
cold seasons." Mr. Fairbank records it from Nagar, and Mr. 
Vidal from Devrukh in Ratnagiri. In the southern portion of 
the region I have not heard of its occurrence. 

202. — Cuculus sonnerati, Lath. The Banded Bay- 
Cuckoo. 

Probably only a seasonal visitant. Not common. Has been 
obtained at Khandala, in Ratnagiri, and by myself in Belgaum, 
and Mr. Hume has specimens from Matheran. It evidently 
belongs to the forest tracts. 

203. — Cuculus micropterus, Gould. The Indian 
Cuckoo. 

Probably a permanent resident on the Ghats. Common all 
along the Sahyadri range and in the adjoining forest tracts. 
It occurs in Belgaum as a straggler, and Mr. Fairbank records 
it from Nagar. Mr. Vidal reports that it is exceedingly rare 
in Ratnagiri. It belongs to the forest districts. 

205— Hierococcyx varius, Vahl. The Common 
Hawk-Cuckoo. 

Permanent resident probably. Common, as a rule, along the 
Sahyadri Range, and extends also to the well-wooded tracts 
adjacent. It belongs to the Ghat districts, but occurs as a 
straggler in Belgaum. In Ratnagiri it appears to be rare. 

208 — Cacomantis passerinus, Vahl. The Indian 
Plaintive Cuckoo. 

Common during the rains in many parts of the southern 
portion of the region, especially in the forests tract west of 
Belgaum, as far west as Vengurla. 

In the northern portion of the region, although it does occur, 
it is less commou. I noticed it at Satara, and Mr. Fairbank 
obtained it at Nagar ; Mr. Vidai also records it from Ratnagiri, 
where however it is rare. 

212.— Coccystes jacobinus, JBodd. The Pied Crest- 
ed Cuckoo. 

Seasonal visitant. Occurs, I believe, only in the rains. 
Generally distributed throughout the region, but much more 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 389 

common in the north than in the south. In fact in many of 
the southern districts, for instance, Ratnagiri, Belgaum, &c, 
it only occurs as a straggler. 

213. — Coccystes coromandus, Lin. The Red-wing- 
ed Crested Cuckoo. 

Very rare. Mr. Vidal obtained a single specimen at Savant- 
vadi, the only instance I know of its occurrence within the 
region. 

214. — Eudynamis honorata, Lin. The Indian Koel. 

Permanent resident in some districts. Locally common 
thi'oughout the region, especially in Belgaum, Ratnagiri, &c, 
where it is very abundant. 

216.— Rhopodytes viridirostris, Jerd. The Small 
Green-billed Malkoha. 

Permanent resident. Locally not uncommon. Occurs in 
the jungles about Belgaum, in Ratnagiri, and about Nulwar, 
where Mr. Davidson found a nest containing two eggs, in July. 
1 have no record of its occurrence in the northern portion of 
the region. 

217. — Centrococcyx rufipennis, III. The Common 
Coucal or Crow-Pheasant. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the region. 

219.— Taccocua leschenaulti, Less. The Southern 
Sirkeer. 

Rare in the south-western portion of the region. Mr. Vidal 
obtained a few specimens and eggs in Ratnagiri, and I have 
heard of its occurrence in the Belgaum district, about Nulwar, 
Satara, and other localities in the northern portion of the 
region, where it is not uncommon, and a permanent resident. 
Jerdon also records it from the Deccan. Mr. Fairbank men- 
tions T. affinis, Blyth, in his list of Mahratti species, and also 
in his list of birds collected in the vicinity of Khandala, Nagar, 
&c. ; but he does not include the present species, probably only 
one species occurs. Jerdon also implies in his remarks that 
the birds he procured at Jalna, in the Deccan, were probably 
affinis, and Mr. Hume has shown that affinis and leschenaulti 
are not separable. 

224. — Arachnothera longirostra, Lath. The Little 
Spider-hunter. 

Rare. Mr. Laird obtained specimens in the forests west of 
Belgaum. I have heard of no other instance of its occurrence 

50 



390 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OP 

throughout the region. It is eminently a bird of the evergreen 
forests, though it doubtless also frequents gardens near the 
borders of these. 

226.— iEthopyga vigorsi, Syhes. The Violet-eared 
Red. Honey-sucker. 

Permanent resident. Common along the Sahyadri range and 
in the adjacent forests as far north as Khandala. 

232 — Cinnyris zeylonica, Lin. Amethyst-rumped 
Honey-sucker. 

Permanent resident in the Peccan where it is common. In 
the southern portion of the region it is rare, or unknown, in 
many localities. Mr. Vidal says that it is common in Ratna- 
giri, but I never observed it in Belgaum, though Mr. Laird 
has obtained it in the neighbouring jungles, and Mr. Fairbank 
says, '' not found at Khandala or Mahableshwar, though it is 
common about Poona, Satara and Bombay." I fancy it avoids 
the Ghats. Further south in Madras it is very common. 

233.— Cinnyris minima, Syhes. The Tiny Honey- 
sucker. 

Permanent resident on the Ghats. Common, as a rule, all 
alono- the Sahyadri range from Goa to Khandala, extending 
often to the adjacent forests. 1 obtained one or two specimens 
in Belgaum, where, however, it can only be regarded as a 
straggler. 



'oo 



234.— Cinnyris asiatica, Lath. The Purple Honey- 
sucker. 
Permanent resident in some localities, but in others, Belgaum 
for instance, only a seasonal visitant. Common, as a rule, 
throughout the region. 

235.— Cinnyris lotenia, Lin. The Large Purple 
Honey-sucker. 

Not common. Belongs to the Ghats and adjoining forests. 
Mr. Vidal records it from Ratuagiri, and Mr. Laird obtained it 
in the forest tracts west of Belgaum. Mr. Fairbank says, 
" found in the Koukan, and he is told in Bombay." I have no 
other record of its occurrence within the region. 

238.— Dicseum erythrorhynchus, Lath. Tickell's 
Plower-pecker. 
Permanent resident. Locally common. It is common in 
Belgaum, and breeds there in the hot weather. Occurs all 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 391 

along the Sahyadri range as far north, at all events, as Maha- 
bleshwar and in Ratnagiri. 

239.— Dicseum COncolor, Jerd. The Nilgiri Flower- 
pecker. 

Mr. Fairbank remarks : " Occurs in the same localities as the 
last, but rare." I obtained it in Belgaum, where, in the rains, 
it 13 not uncommon. It has also been obtained at Savantvadi. 
It belongs to the Sahyadri range and adjoining forests, but 
whether it is a permanent resident or not I do not know. Mr. 
Vidal lias not observed it in Ratnagiri, though Major Lloyd 
includes it in the Konkan list : possibly the latter was mis- 
taken. 

240— Piprisoma agile, Tick. The Thick-billed 
Elower-pecker. 

Occurs in the same localities as the last two species, extend- 
ing to Ratnagiri. As a rule it is not very common, but I 
found it tolerably plentiful in Belgaum, especially in the cold 
weather. 

253.— Dendrophila frontalis, Horsf. The Velvet- 
fronted Blue Nuthatch. 

Rare as a rule. Confined to the Sahyadri range and adjacent 
forests. It occurs in the jungles, west of Belgaum, including 
Savantvadi and along the (xoa frontier, but Mr. Vidal does not 
mention it in his Ratnagiri list. Mr. Laird obtained it at 
Nagargali, south-west of Belgaum. 

254.— Upupa epops, Lin. The European Hoopoe. 

Cold weather visitant. Common, as a rule, throughout the . 
region. 

255.— Upupa ceylonensis, Reich. The Indian 
Hoopoe. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region. 

256.— Lanius lahtora, Sykes. The Indian Grey 
Shrike. 

Permanent resident in the localities, where it is common, for 
instauce, in many parts of the Deccan ; but in the south-west 
portion of the region it is almost unknown. Mr. Vidal has not 
observed it in Ratnagiri, though Major Lloyd includes it in 
the Konkan list, and 1 have very seldom met with it about 



382 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

Belgaum and only in the cold weather. Mr. Laird has also 
obtained specimens in the Belgaum district. It belongs to 
the plains portion of the region. 

257.— Lanius erythronotus, Vig. The Indian 
Rufous-backed Shrike. 

Permanent resident in most localities. Common, as a rule, 
throughout the region, excepting perhaps in the Sholapur 
district, where Mr. Davidson says it is rare. 

260,— Lanius vittatus, Valenc. The Bay-backed 
Shrike. 

Permanent resident in many localities. Locally common, 
especially in the Deccan, but iu some of the southern districts, 
for instance Ratnagiri, it is comparatively rare. In the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of Belgaum I only observed it in the cold 
weather, but in the neighbouring jungles it is not uncommon 
and remains the whole year round. 

261.— Lanius cristatus, Lin. The Brown Shrike. 

Cold weather visitant. Common in Belgaum, but Mr. 
Fairbank remarks, "rare in the Nagar districts." It is not 
mentioned by Mr. Vidal from Ratnagiri, neither is it included iu 
Messrs. Davidson and Weuden's list, so that if it occurs 
elsewhere within our limits, it is probably rare. 

264.— Tephrodornis sylvicola, Jerd. The Malabar 
Wood Shrike. 

Not common. Mr. Laird obtained it in the jungles west of 
Belgaum. Major Lloyd includes it in his list of Konkan 
species, but I very much doubt its occurrence in the Konkan ; 
Mr. Vidal has not met with it as yet in Ratnagiri, the only por- 
tion of Konkan in which it was at all likely to occur, — and I 
have no other record of its occurrence throughout the region. 

265.— Tephrodornis pondicerianus, Gm. The Com- 
mon Wood Shrike. 

Permanent resident. Locally not uncommon, and occurs 
from north to south of the region, but in some districts it is 
rare, or absent altogether. It is most abundant along the 
Sahyadri range and in the Konkan. I never observed it about 
Belgaum. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 393 

267.— Hemipus picatus, Sykes. The Little Pied 
Shrike. 

Locally not uncommon along the Sahyadri range. Mr. Fair- 
bank obtained it at Nagar, Mr. Laird in the juugles south-west 
of Belgaum, Mr. Crawford at Savautvadi, and Mr. Vidal 
mentions it from the south of Ratnagiri. Outside of the forest 
tracts, it probably does not occur. Jerdon remarks, " occurs all 
along the crest of the Western Ghats, as far south as the 
Nilgiris." 

268.— Volvocivora sykesi, Strickl The Black- 
headed Cuckoo Shrike. 

Locally not uncommon, but probably only a seasonal visitant 
in most localities, though it may breed on the Ghats and in the 
neighbouring forests. It passes through Belgaum in consider- 
able numbers before and after the rains, but where it goes 
to breed I don't know. Mr. Fairbank says : u Common in the 
woods by the Ghatprabha river in the Belgaum districts." In 
the northern portion of the region and in Ratnagiri it appears 
to be much less common. 

269. — Volvocivora melaschista, Hodgs. The Dark- 
grey Cuckoo Shrike. 

Rare. Has been obtained atSavantvadi, but I have no other 
record of its occurrence throughout the region. 

270.— Graucalus macii, Less. The Large Cuckoo 
Shrike. 

Permanent resident in Ratnagiri and other localities. Locally 
not uncommon, but in the plains portion of the region it ap- 
pears to be rare. It is not included in Messrs. Wenden and 
Davidson's list of Deccan species, and I only met with it as a 
straggler in Belgaum and Satara. In Ratnagiri and about 
the Ghats it is much more common, though it avoids very dense 
forest. 

272.— Pericrocotus flammeus, Forst. The Orange 
Minivet. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon all along the Sahyadri 
range from Goa to Khaudala. It does not occur in the plains 
portion of the region. 

? 273.— Pericrocotus brevirostris, Fig. The Short- 
billed Minivet. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare if it occurs at all, which is 
doubtful {vide distribution of species, S. F., IV., 209, and V., 



39'i A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

188). Mr. Davidson says, "saw a flock of tins species at 
Sangola, but it is not common in these districts." I have heard 
of no other instance of its occurrence throughout the region; 
and as Mr; Davidson does net seem certain of his identification, 
I have only entered it as doubtful. 

276.— Pericrocotus perigrinus, Lin. The Small 
Minivet. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region. 

277.— Pericrocotus erythropygius, Jerd. The 
White-bellied Minivet. 

Rare. Mr. Laird obtained it in the Belgaum district, and 
Mr. Fairbank procured it in the Nagar districts. I have no 
other record of its occurrence throughout the region, except 
Jerdon's, who procured it near Jalna, in the Deccan. 

278.— Buchanga atra, Eerm. The Common Drongo- 
Shrike or King-Crow. 

Permanent resident in most localities in the plains portion of 
the region. Common, as a rule, throughout the region, except 
perhaps, along the Ghats, where it is replaced by the next 
species. 

280.— Buchanga longicaudata, May. The Long- 
tailed Drongo. 

Permanent resident on the Ghats and in the adjoining forests. 
Common all along the Sahyadri range and in the adjacent 
forests, extendi nor, a t all events, as fur north as Khandala. It 
is particularly common in Belgaum in the cold weather. 

281. — Buchanga caerulescens, Lin. The White- 
bellied Drongo. 

Permanent resident probably on the Ghats, along the whole 
range of which it occurs sparingly, being common in some 
localities. In the plains portion of the region it is a seasonal 
visitant and not common, but generally distributed. I got it 
in Belgaum, and Mr. Davidson at Sholapur, aud Mr. Vidal 
mentions a specimen obtained by Dr. Armstrong in the south 
of Ratnagiri. 

282. — Chaptia aenea, Vieill. The Bronzed Drongo, 

Permanent resident, probably, on the Ghats. Not uncom- 
mon along the whole of the Sahyadri range as far north as 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 395 

Khandala, but does not occur in the plains portion of the region, 
neither has Mr. Vidal observed it in Ratnagiri. 

285 — Dissemurus paradiseus, Lin. The Lesser 
Racket-tailed Drongo. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon in suitable localities, 
all along the Sahyadri range, as far north as Khandala, extend- 
ing into the adjoining forests below the Ghats. It is particularly 
partial to bamboo jungles. Unknown in the plains portion of 
the region outside of the forest tract. 

286. — Ohibia hottentotta, Lin. The Hair-crested 
Drongo. 

Rare. Has been obtained at Savantvadi by Mr. Crawford 
and Mr. Vidal, where it is not uncommon. I have no other 
record of its occurrence throughout the region. Like the last 
it is unkuown in the plains portion of the region. 

287.— Artamus fuscus, Vieill. The Ashy S wallow - 
Shrike. 

Rare. Mr. Vidal remarks, "has been found in the cocoanut 
gardens round Vengurla." I have no other record of its 
occurrence within our limits, though Jerdon records it as a rare 
visitant to the Deccan. 

288.— Muscipeta paradisi, Lin. The Paradise Ply- 
catcher. 

Probably a permanent resident on the bills and in the adja- 
cent jungles. Not uncommon, and occurs, as a rule, sparingly 
throughout the region. It is most abundant on the Ghats and 
in the forest tracts adjoining. 

290. — Hypothymis azurea, Bodd. The Black-naped 
.Blue Flycatcher. 

Probably a permanent resident in the better-wooded districts 
along the Ghats. Occurs sparingly along the whole of the 
Sahyadri range, as far north as Khandala, and extends as a 
eeasonal visitant to the well-wooded districts adjoining. I got 
it in Belgaum, and Mr. Fairbauk mentions it from Nagar ; Mr* 
Vidal also obtained it in Ratnagiri. It belongs to- the Ghat 
region. 

? 291.— Leucocerca albicollis, Vieill. The White- 
throated Fantail. 

Jerdon remarks : " Not known in most parts of the south of 
India, though Colonel Sykes includes it in his birds of the 



396 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

Decean." Adams also records it as common at Poona, but he 
does not mention albofrontala which is common there ; possibly 
he may have mistaken the species. I have no record of its 
occurrence. 

292. — Leucocerca aureola, Vieill. The White- 
browed Eantail. 

Permanent resident in some districts, but seems to be far 
more common in the Decean than in the southern portion of the 
region, where, if it does occur, it is decidedly rare. Mr. Vidal 
has not observed it in Ratnagiri, and I have only once heard 
of its occurrence in the neighbourhood of Belgaum ; at Satara 
it is common. 

293.— Leucocerca leucogaster, Cuv. The White- 
spotted. Fantail. 

Permanent resident. Common in the southern portion of the 
region aud in some parts of the Decean, according to Mr. Fair- 
bank, who observed it at Satara and Poona. Mr. Davidson 
mentions it also from Igatpuri. All along the Sahyadri range 
and in the neighbouring forests it is plentiful, also in Ratnagiri 
and about Belgaum. 

295. — Culicicapa ceylonensis, Swains. The Grey- 
headed Elycatcher. 

Probably only a cold weather visitant. Common in Satara, 
where, Mr. Davidson thinks, it breeds, but this, in the absence 
of proof, I am strongly inclined to doubt. Mr. Fairbank also 
mentions it from the Nagar districts. I have no record of its 
occurrence in the southern portion of the region. 

297. — Alseonax latirostris, Baffl. The Southern 
Brown Flycatcher. 

Cold weather visitant. Occurs sparingly throughout the 
region, but seems to be more plentiful in the south-west 
portion of the region about Ratnagiri and Belgaum than in 
the north. 

301.— Stoporala melanops, Vig. The Verditer Fly- 
1 catcher. 

Cold weather visitant. Generally distributed in suitable 
localities throughout the region, but most common along the 
Ghats and in the better-wooded districts. It is not uncommon 
in Belgaum, and has been obtained at Nagar, Sholapur, Maha- 
bleshwar and in Ratnagiri. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 397 

304.— Cyornis rubeculoides, Vig. The Blue- 
throated Redbreast. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. I obtained a specimen at 
Belgaum and saw another in the same neighbourhood. Major 
Lloyd also includes it as a Konkan species, but Mr. Vidal has 
not met with it in Ratnagiri. I also heard of a specimen being 
seen at Savantvadi, but have no other record of its occurrence 
throucrhout the reo-ion, though Jerdon met with it also on the 
Western Coast. 

306. —Cyornis tickelli, Blyth. Tickell's Blue Red- 
breast. 

Probably a permanent resident in the forest districts. 
Common along the Ghats and in the adjacent forests and in 
Belgaum and Ratnagiri, but in the plains portion of the region, 
although it does occur in the cold weather, it is somewhat 
scarce and locally distributed. 

307.— Cyornis ruficaudus, Swains. The Rufous- 
tailed Elycatcher. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. Mr. Fairbank mentions it 
from Nagar, and Mr. Davidson from Sholapur. I have no other 
record of its occurrence throughout the region. It probably 
therefore only occurs as a straggler. 

309.— Cyornis pallipes, Jerd. The White-bellied 
Blue Elycatcher. 

Probably only a cold weather visitant. Rare. Mr. Fairbank 
procured specimens near Parwar, on the Goa frontier, and 
Mr. Laird obtained it on the Ghats, west of Belgaum. I have 
no other record of its occurrence throughout the region. It 
belongs to the Ghat range. 

310.— Muscicapula superciliaris, Jerd. The White- 
browed Blue Elycatcher. 

Seasonal visitant, and only occurs as a straggler. Very rare. 
Mr. Faii'bank obtained a single specimen at Nagar. I have no 
other record of its occurrence throughout the region. 

323 bis.— Erythrosterna parva, Bechst. The White- 
tailed Robin Elycatcher. 

Cold weather visitant. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region. 

51 



398 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

342.— Myiophoneus horsfieldi, Vig. The Malabar 
Whistling-Thrush. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon along the whole of the 
Sahyadri range as far north, at all events, as Thana. Affects 
well-wooded ravines and rocky nalas, water-falls, &c, on the 
hill sides. 

345.— Pitta brachyura, Lin. The Indian Ground- 
Thrush. 

Seasonal visitant. Locally common at the seasons of migra- 
tion (April and May, and again in September and October), 
especially along the Ghats and in the adjacent forests. I 
obtained many specimens in Belgaura in May. Mr. Davidson 
observed it at Sholapur at both seasons of migration. Mr. Vidal 
mentions it from Ratnagiri, and Mr. Fairbank observed it at 
Khandala and Nagar, so that it is generally distributed through- 
out the region. It prefers the better-wooded districts. 

351.— Cyanocinclus cyanus, Lin. The Blue Kock- 
Thrush. 

Cold weather visitant. Common as a rule. Occurs through- 
out the region. 

353.— Petrophila cinclorhyncha, Vig. The Blue- 
headed Chat-Thrush. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon all along the Sahya- 
dri range, and occurs also sparingly in the plains. It is record- 
ed from Nagar, Poona, Sholapur, Nulwar and Belgaum ; also 
from Mahablesh war and Ratnagiri, so that it is generally distri- 
buted throughout the region. 

354. — Geocichla cyanotis, Jard. 8f Selb. The White- 
throated Ground-Thrush. 

Permanent resident. Common all along the Sahyadri range 
and adjoining forests, as far north as Khandala. It is essentially 
a forest bird, but I shot a single specimen once in Belgaum. 

355. — Geocichla citrina, Lath. The Kusty-throated 
Ground-Thrush. 

Cold weather visitant (?) Very rare, occurring, if at all, only 
as a straggler. Mr. Vidal mentions instances of its supposed 
occurrence in Ratnagiri, and it is included in Major Lloyd's 
list of Koukan species, but it has not been recorded from 
any other part of the region. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 899 

356. — Geocichla unicolor, Tick. The Dusky Ground- 
Thrush. 

Cold weather visitnnt. Eare. Mr. Blauford obtained a 
specimen at Khandala in November, and I procured another in 
Belgaum in April. Jerdon also procured it in the Deccan. I 
have no other record of its occui'rence throughout the region. 

? 357.— Turdulus wardi, Jerd. Ward's Pied Black- 
bird. 

Jerdon remarks : " Spread very sparingly through the plains 
of India in the winter." He obtained it from the foot of the 
Nilgiris, and it is included in Major Lloyd's list of Konkan 
species, but its occurrence within the region requires confirma- 
tion. 

359.— Merula nigropilea, Lofr. The Black-capped 
Blackbird. 

Permanent resident. Common all along the Sahyadri range 
and in the adjacent forests as far north as Khandala, being most 
abundant in the rains. It belongs almost exclusively to the 
Ghat region, but I have shot stragglers in Belgaum on two 
occasions. 

385. — Pyctoris sinensis, Gm. The Yellow-eyed 
Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Tolerably common throughout the 
region. 

389— Alcippe poiocephala, Jerd. The Nilgiri Quaker 
Thrush. 

Permanent resident. Locally common along the Sahyadri 
range and in the adjoining forests as far north as Khandala. 

390— Alcippe atriceps, Jerd. The Black-headed 
"Wren-Babbler. 

Not uncommon locally. Obtained by Mr. Laird in the forests 
west of Belgaum, but I have no other record of its occurrence 
throughout the region. 

397. — Dumetia hyperythra, Frankl. The Rufous- 
bellied Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Mr. Wenden found it breeding near 
Thaua and at Khandala in the rains, and remarks, " that it is 
tolerably numerous in the Konkan." I have no other record of 
its occurrence throughout the region. 



400 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

398— Dumetia albogularis, Blyth. The White- 
throated Wren-Babbler. 
Permanent resident. Not uncommon. Occurs all along the 
Sahyadri range and in the adjoining forests. 

399. — Pellorneum ruficeps, Swains. Swainson's 
Wren-Babbler. 

Not uncommon. Occurs all along the Sahyadri range and 
in the neighbouring forests, at all events as far north as Maha- 
bleshwar. In Ratnagiri it extends sparingly as far as the 
coast. 

404.— Pomatorhinus horsfieldi, SyTces. The South- 
ern Scimitar Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Common all along the Sahyadri range 
as far north as Mahableshwar (and probably to Khandalaj, 
extending often into the adjoining forests. 

433.— Malacocercus griseus, Lath. The White- 
headed Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Seems to he confined to the jungle south 
and east of the Ghatprabha river ; north of Belgaum as far as 
Sutgatti, and east and south of Belgaum it is common, but on 
the hills to the west, I don't think it occurs at all. Anyhow I 
have no record of its occurrence along the Sahyadri range, and 
Mr. Vidal has not observed it in Ratnagiri. 

435.— Malacocercus somervillii, Syhes. The Ru- 
fous-tailed Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the Southern 
Konkan and all along the Sahyadri range and in the adjoining 
forests as far north as Khandala. I observed it on the Ambolee 
Ghat, west of Belgaum, but where it joins the last species I am 
not quite certain. 

? 434.— Malacocercus malabaricus, Jerd. The Jun- 
gle Babbler. 

Jerdon remarks : " found in forests and jungles throughout 
the greater part of the Peninsula of India, including the 
Malabar Coast to the latitude of Bombay, slopes of the Nilgiris, 
&c," and Major Lloyd includes it in bis list of Konkan species. 
1 have not heard of its occurrence within the region from any 
other source, and believe its occurrence withiu our region, 
except perhaps in the Northern Konkan, very doubtful. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 401 

436. — Argya malcolmi, SyJces. The Large Grey 
.Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Common in the Deccan, but does not 
occur along the Ghats. I have noticed it occasionally in the 
Belgaum district, but in the southern portion of the region it 
is scarce. Mr. Fairbank thinks that the Ghatprabha river, 
about 20 miles north of Belgaum, separates this species from 
M. griseus, but this cannot be the case, as Jerdon mentions it 
from much further south, Mysore and the Nilgiris. 

437.— Layardia subrufa, Jerd. The Bufous Bab- 
bler. 

Occurs sparingly along the Sahyadri range. Rare. Mr. Laird 
pi*ocured it on the hills west of Belgaum, and Mr. Fairbank 
obtained a specimen at Talmet near Mahableshwar. It is also, 
doubtless, included in Major Lloyd's list of Konkan species, but 
Mr. Vidalhas not observed it in Ratnagiri, again the only part 
of the Konkan in which it was likely to occur. 

438.— Chatarrhsea caudata, Bum. The Striated 
Bush-Babbler. 

Permanent resident. Common in the Deccan, but rare or 
absent in some localities in the southern portion of the region. 
I have observed it occasionally along the Dharwar road seven 
or eight miles south of Belgaum, and in one or two other places 
about Belgaum, but it does not appear to occur in the forest 
tracts to the west or in Ratnaffiri. 

442.— Schcenicola platyurus, Jerd. The Broad- 
tailed Reed Bird. 

Probably only a seasonal visitant. Very rare. I found five 
or six pairs at Belgaum breeding in September in long grass by 
the side of rice fields, and obtained some good specimens. 

446.— Hypsipetes ganesa, Sykes. The Ghat Black 
Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. Rare. Occurs sparingly along the 
Sahyadri range as far north as Mahableshwar, being most 
abundant along the Goa frontier. Mr. Vidal obtained it at the 
foot of the hills in Ratnagiri and at Savantvadi, and Mr. 
Fairbank at Mahableshwar. Colonel Sykes also obtained it 
along the Western Ghats. 



402 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

450— Criniger ictericus, Strickl. The Yellow- 
browed Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. Locally not uncommon along the 
Sahyadri range as far north as Mahableshwar. Mr. Vidal says, 
" plentiful at Bavda at tlie foot of the hills in Ratnagiri in the 
Rajapur sub-division," and Mr. Fairbank remarks that it is 
" abundant along the Goa frontier." He also obtained it at 
Mahableshwar, and Mr. Laird met with it on the hills west of 
Belgaum, and Mr. Crawford at Savantvadi. 

452. — Ixus luteolus, Less. The SVhite-browed Bush- 
Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon in some localities. Mr. 
Fairbank met with it along the Ghatprabha river, 20 miles north 
of Belgaum, Mr. Laird got it west of Belgaum, and Mr. Vidal 
also procured it in Ratnagiri at Vijaydurg, near the coast, and 
it occurs also in Bombay. It appears to be a very local species, 
and, as Mr. Vidal remarks, to avoid the Ghat range, being 
absent altogether in most districts throughout the region. 

455.— -Rubigula gularis, Gould. The Ruby-throat- 
ed Bulbul. 

Rare. Mr. Laird obtained it in the forest south-west of 
Belgaum. I have no other record of its occurrence through- 
out the region. 

457.— Brachypodius pyocephalus, Jerd. The Grey- 
headed Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. A purely forest species ; in some few 
localities not uncommon. Obtained iu the forests south-west 
of Belgaum by Mr. Laird. No other record of its occurrence 
throujrhout the region. 

460 5*5. — Otocompsa fuscicaudata, Gould. The 
Southern Red-whiskered Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. Common all along the Sahyadri range, 
and in the adjacent forests from Goa to Khandala. I observed 
it occasionally at Satara, but it does not, as a rule, stray far 
from the Ghats. 

462.— Molpastes haemorrhous, Gm. The Common 
Madras Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the region. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 403 

463. — Phyllornis jerdoni, Blyth. The Common 
Green Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. Common all along tbe Sahyadri range 
and in the adjoining forests as far north as Khandala. Mr. 
Davidson found it also at Egutpuri. 

464. — Phyllornis malabaricus, Gm. The Malabar 
Green Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon all along the Sahyadri 
range from Goa to Khandala in the well-wooded tracts. Mr. 
Vidal does not mention it however in his list of Ratnagiri 
species. 

468. — Iora tiphia, Lin. The Black-headed Green 
Bulbul. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region. Mr. Vidal remarks, " both forms tiplda and zeylonica 
are common in Ratnagiri.''' 

469. — Irena puella, Lath. The Eairy Blue Bird. 

Probably a permanent resident. Rare. Occurs at Savant- 
vadi, and has been obtained by Mr. Laird in the forests south- 
west of Belgaum. I have no other record of its occurrence 
throughout the region. 

470. — Oriolus kundoo, Sykes. The Indian Oriole. 

Permanent resident in many localities. Common, as a rule, 
throughout the region, excepting perhaps on the Ghats, where 
it is replaced partly by 0. melanocephalus. 

471.— Oriolus indicus, Jerd. The Black-naped 
Indian Oriole. 

Rare. Occurs at Savantvadi, and has been obtained at 
Devrukh at the foot of the hills in Ratnagiri. I have no other 
record of its occurrence throughout the region. 

472.— Oriolus melanocephalus, Lin. The Bengal 
Black-headed Oriole. 

Permanent resident. Common all along the Sahyadri range 
and in the adjoining forests as far north as Khandala. 

473. — Oriolus ceylonensis, Bp. The Southern 
Black-headed Oriole. 

Permanent resident. Occurs in the same localities as the 
last, excepting Ratnagiri, if it is a good species, which seems 



404 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

to be a disputed point at present. Mr. Wenden procured a 
specimen at Egutpuri. 

475.— Copsychus saularis, Lin. The Magpie Eobin. 

Permanent resident in the southern portion of the region, 
where it is very common everywhere. In the Deccan, as a rule, 
it only occurs as a seasonal visitant and is less plentiful. It 
breeds abundantly in and about Belgaum. 

476.— Cercotrichas macrura, Gm. The Shama. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon all along the Sarryadri 
range and in the adjoining forests as far north as Khandala. 

479.— Thamnobia fulicata, Lin. The Indian Black 
Robin. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region . 

481. — Pratincola caprata, Lin. The White-winged 
Bushchat. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region, but merging on the higher portions of the Ghats into 
the larger, doubtfully distinct, P. bicolor. 

483.— Pratincola maura, Pall. The Indian Bush- 
chat. 

Cold weather visitant. Co mmon, as a rule, throughout the 
region. 

? 488.— Saxicola opistholeucus, Strickl. The Indian 
White-tailed Wheatear. 

Cold weather visitant, and rare if indeed it occurs at all. Mr. 
Fairbank thinks he has observed this species on one or two occa- 
sions near Nagar. I have no other record of its occurrence 
within the region, and if entitled to inclusion in this list, which 
seems doubtful, it will only be, I apprehend, as a rare stra^ler 
to some of the northern districts. 

491.— Saxicola isabellinus, Bupp. Menetries' 
Wheatear. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. Occurs as a straggler about 
Nagar. I have no other record of its occurrence within the 
region. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 405 

492— Saxicola deserti, Biipp. The Black-throated 
Wheatear. 

Cold weather visitant. The same remarks apply to this spe- 
cies as to the last. 

497.— Ruticilla rufiventris, Vieill. The Indian Red- 
start. 

Cold weather visitant. Tolerably common throughout the 
region, avoiding, as a rule, the forest tracts. 

507. — Larvivora superciliaris, Jerd. The Blue Wood- 
chat. 

Cold weather visitant. Not common. Mr. Fairbank got it 
at Mahableshwar and along the Goa frontier in damp deep 
shade, and Messrs. Davidson and Wendenin their list of Deccan 
species remark," moderately common during the rains and cold 
weather.'" Mr. Vidal records it from Grotna in the Sangamesh- 
war sub-division of Ratnagiri, and Mr. Laird got it in the forests 
south-west of Belgaum. I also obtained a single specimen in 
the Fort of Belgaum. 

? 512.— Calliope camtschatkensis, Gm. The Com- 
mon Buby-Throat. 

Jerdon mentions having once seen a specimen that had taken 
refuge on board ship, a little south of Bombay, in the month 
of November. 

514.— Cyanecula suecica, Lin. The Bed-spot Blue- 
throat. 

Cold weather visitant. Locally not uncommon, throughout 
the region, affecting swampy ground. In the rice-fields about 
Belgaum it is particularly common. 

515.— Acrocephalus stentorius, Hemp. & Mr. 
The Large Beed Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Bare. Affects reed-beds, sugar- 
cane fields, and standing crops. Mr. Fairbank procured it at 
Nagar, and Mr. Vidal obtained a single specimen in Ratnagiri 
at Khed. I also shot a few specimens about Belgaum. 

516.— Acrocephalus dumetorum, Blyth. The Lesser 
Beed Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Tolerably common throughout the 
region. 

52 



406 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

517— Acrocephalus agricolus, Jerd. The Paddy- 
Field Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon about Belgaum, 
frequenting standing crops, rice fields, sugarcane and tall 
reed -beds. I have no record of its occurrence in other parts of 
the region. 

520— Locustella hendersoni, Cass. Henderson's 
Locustelle. 

Probably only a seasonal visitant. Not uncommon about 
Belgaum during the rains, frequenting rice fields and high 
grass. I have no record of its occurrence in any other portion 
of the region, though doubtless it will be found to occur here- 
after in other suitable localities. 

530— Orthotomus sutorius, Forst. The Indian 
Tailor Bird. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region, affecting gardens. 

533. — Prinia adamsi, Jerd. The White-bellied Wren- 
Warbler. 

This species is included in the Indian list, solely I believe on 
the authority of Dr. Adams, who says that it occurs at Poona 
in corn-fields. Is it a good species ? 

534. — Prinia SOCialis, Sykes. The Ashy Wren- 
Warbler. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region, affecting corn fields, &c. In Ratnagiri it appears to be 
rare. 

536. — Prinia gracilis, Franhl. Pranklin's Wren- 
Warbler. 

Permanent resident. Common all along the Sahyadri range, 
and in the adjoining forests. 

538. — Prinia hodgsoni, Blyth. The Malabar Wren- 
Warbler. 

Permanent resident. The same remarks apply to this as to 
the last. I have entered it in italics since, according to Mr. 
Brook's remarks (S. F., VIII., 476), it= P. gracilis in breed- 
ing plumage. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 407 

539. — Cisticola cursitans, Frankl. The Fantail 
Warbler. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, in all grass lands 
and corn-fields throughout the region. 

543.— Drymceca inornata, Sykes. The Earth-brown 
Wren-Warbler. 

Permanent resident. Common in all grass lands and corn- 
fields throughout the region. In winter plumage it=544 D. 
longicaudata, Tick. 

544 bis.— Drymceca rufescens, Hume. The Great 

Rufous Wren- Warbler. 

Probably a permanent resident. Recorded by Mr. Vidal as 
" common in the brambles on the slopes of Fort Victoria or 
Bankot in Ratnagiri," and Mr. Hume has specimens from 
Mahableshwar. I have no other record of its occurrence at 
present, throughout the region, but doubtless it will be found 
hereafter to occur in suitable places all along the Sahyadri 
range and in the adjacent jungles. In all probability this= 

545 bis D. insignis, Hume, in cold weather plumage (vide 
S.F., VII., 217, 218.) 

546.— Drymceca neglecta, Jerd The Allied Wren- 
Warbler. 

Rare. Mr. Vidal obtained a single specimen at Khed in 
Ratnagiri. I have no other record of its occurrence throughout 
the region. In all probability this=545 D. sylvatica, Jerd., 
in cold weather plumage, which Jerdon records from the 
Nilgiris and Malabar Coast. 

551 — Franklinia buchanani, Blyth. The Rufous- 
fronted Wren-Warbler. 

Probably a permanent resident in the Nagar districts, whence 
it is recorded by Mr. Fairbank. I have no other record of its 
occurrence throughout the region. It does not occur, I believe, 
anywhere in the southern portion of the region. 

553.— Hypolais rama, Sykes. Sykes' Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon, as a rule, throughout 
the region. 

553 bis. — Hypolais caligata, Licht. The Booted 
Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Mr. Vidal obtained a single speci- 
men at Khed in Ratnagiri. I have no other record of its 



408 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

occurrence within the region, though it is not improbable that 
it has occurred in other localities, and been passed over in 
mistake for the last species to which it is closely allied. 

554.— -Phylloscopus tristis, Blyth. The Brown 
Tree-Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Recorded from Nagar by Mr. 
Fairbank, and from the Konkan by Major Lloyd. 

556.— Phylloscopus magnirostris, Blyth. Tbe 
Large-billed Tree- Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Not common. I procured a single 
specimen in Belgaum, but it does not appear in any of the 
other local lists. 

558.— Phylloscopus lugubris, Blyth. The Dull 
Green Tree- Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Recorded from Nagar by Mr. 
Fairbank. 

559.— Phylloscopus nitidus, Blyth, The Bright 
Green Tree- Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Recorded from Ratnagiri as common 
by Mr. Vidal, and from Nagar by Mr. Fairbank. I also 
obtained it in Belgaum. 

560.— Phylloscopus viridanus, Blyth. Tbe Green- 
ish Tree- Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. I obtained it in Belgaum where it 
is common, and it is recorded from E.handala by Mr. Fairbank, 
and from Ratnagiri by Mr. Vidal, where it is also common. 

561.— Phylloscopus affinis, Tick. Tickell's Tree- 
Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Recorded from Karti near Khandala 
by Mr. Fairbank. 

562,— Ph ylloscopus indicus, Jerd. The Olivaceous 
Tree- Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Recorded from Nagar and Khandala 
by Mr. Fairbank, and from Karkulla, between the Bhore Ghat 
and Poona, by Messrs. Wenden and Davidson. Jerdon also 
procured it near Jalna in the Deccan. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 409 

563. — Reguloides occipitalis, Jerd. The Large 
Crowned Tree- Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Recorded from Nagar by Mr. 
Fairbank, and from Ratnagiri by Mr. Vidal. 

565.— Reguloides superciliosus, Gm. The Crowned 
Tree- Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Recorded by Mr. Fairbank as com- 
mon along the Sahyadri range. 

565 bis. — Reguloides humii, Brooks, Hume's 
Crowned Tree- Warbler. 

A specimen I shot in Belgaum was pronounced by Mr. 
Hume to belong to this species, which seems to be very closely 
allied to the last, but differs principally in having the back, 
wings, and tail of a less bright green, and the yellow tips to 
the wing-coverts not so pure. It is only a cold weather 
visitant. 

Note. — Probably the whole of the species of this family 
enumerated above will be found hereafter to occur more or 
less abundantly throughout the region in suitable localities, as 
hitherto few collectors seem to have taken the trouble to collect 
specimens. 

581. — Sylvia jerdoni, Blyth. The Eastern Black- 
capped Warbler. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon, as a rule, in the 
plains portion of the region, but is not included in Mr. Vidal's 
list of Ratnagiri species. Probably it avoids the hills and 
forest tracts. I obtained it near Belgaum. It is somewhat 
partial to babool jungles. 

582.— Sylvia affinis, Blyth. The Allied White- 
throat. 

Cold weather visitant. Mr. Fairbank remarks, "common 
in the Deccan/' but strange to say it is not included in Messrs. 
Wenden and Davidson's list of Deccan species, neither has it 
been recorded yet from Ratnagiri. I procured it at Belgaum 
towards the end of the cold weather, but it seems to be 
decidedly scarce in the southern portion of the region, and 
probably avoids the Ghats and forest tracts. Jerdon also 
mentions it from Jalna and other parts of the Deccan. It is 
doubtless this species that Mr. Fairbank intends to refer to 
when he records S. curruca, Lin., (which does not occur iu 
India) as common in the Deccan. 



410 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

589.— Motacilla maderaspatensis, Om. The Large 
Pied Wagtail. 

Permanent resident. Tolerably common, as a rule, through- 
out the region, frequenting river banks and swampy ground. 

591.— Motacilla personata, Gould. The Masked 
Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon in Belgaum, 
especially about the barracks and round the edges of the 
tanks ; but I have no other record of its occurrence throughout 
the region, except Jerdon's remark, " very common in the 
Deccan." 

591 bis.— Motacilla dukhunensis, Sykes. The Indian 
White-faced Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the region. 

592.-— Oalobates melanope, Fall. The Grey and 
Yellow Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the region. I 
observed it in Belgaum as late as the 10th May, but it had not 
then assumed the summer plumage. 

593.— Budytes cinereocapillus, Savi. The Slaty- 
headed Field Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant. Common in suitable localities through- 
out the region. Mr. Vidal records it from Ratnagiri, and 
Messrs. Davidson and Wenden record it as a common winter 
visitant in the Deccan, and I can testify to its being plentiful 
about Belgaum. To what species Mr. Fairbank refers under 
the head of B. viridis in his two lists I am not sure, but pro- 
bably to this one. 

593 bis.— Budytes melanocephalus, Licht. The 
Blackcap Field Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant. Common as a rule, I believe, in 
suitable localities throughout the region, though strange to say 
it does not appear to be included in any of the local lists before 
me, unless it is also included under the head of B. viridis in Mr. 
Fairbank's paper. It is certainly common about Poona, Satara, 
and Belgaum, assuming the black cap about March. It is 
always to be found plentifully about night-soil pits. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 411 

593 for.— Budytes flavus, Lin. The Grey-headed 

Field Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. I obtained a single specimen 
in Belgaum, feeding ronnd the edge of one of the night-soil 
pits, but have no other record of its occurrence throughout 
the region. I cannot now be certain whether this was the 
true flayus or the Indian form now often separated as dubius, 
but which Mr. Hume informs me must, if so separated, stand 
as B. beema., Sykes, P. Z. S., 1832, p. 90. 

? 594.— Budytes calcaratus, Hodgs. The Black- 
backed Yellow Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant. Mr. Fairbank remarks that, "it 
occurs sparingly about Nagar aad Khandala in beds of streams 
and other damp places," and Major Lloyd includes it in his 
list of Konkan species, but Mr. Vidal has not met with it in 
Ratuagiri. I have no other record of its occurrence through- 
out the region. Can Mr. Fairbank have mistaken it for the 
next species, which is not included in either of his lists, and 
which is common ? 

594 bis.— Budytes citreolus, Pall. The Grey-backed 

Yellow Wagtail. 

Cold weather visitant. Common, as a rule, in suitable 
localities throughout the region, affecting rice fields and 
swampy ground. Mr. Vidal does not mention it from Ratna- 
giri, but I fancy it must occur there. It is abundant about 
Belgaum, and Messrs. Wenden and Davidson record it as 
common throughout the Deccan districts. 

595.— Limonidromus indicus, Gm. The Eorest 
Wagtail. 

Rare. Probably only a cold weather visitant. Mr. Fairbank 
records it from Mahableshwar and the Goa frontier, Mr. 
Vidal from Rajapur and Vengurla in the south of Ratnagiri, 
Mr. Laird procured specimens at Nagargali, a few miles 
south-west of Belgaum, and I obtained a single specimen in 
Belgaum. It belougs strictly to the forest tracts. 

?596.— Anthus maculatus, Hodgs. The Indian Tree- 
Pipit. 

Cold weather visitant. Messrs. Davidson and Wenden, and 
Mr. Fairbank, record this species as common, and possibly such 
may be the case, as Jerdon says, " it occurs all over India/' 
but is it not possible that they have mistaken A. trivialis for 



412 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

it which is common throughout the region, and yet omitted 
in both of their lists ? Mr. Vidal has not observed it in 
Ratnagiri, and I have never seen it about Belgaum. 

597.— Anthus trivialis, Lin. The European Tree- 
Pipit. 

Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the region. 

600.— Corydalla rufula, Vieill The Indian Tit- 
Lark. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the region. 
Breeds plentifully about Belgaum. 

? 601.— Corydalla striolata, Blyth. The Large Tit- 
Lark. 

Recorded by Mr. Fairbank as "not uncommon in the 
Deccan." I have no other record of its occurrence. _ It is not 
included by Messrs. Wenden and Davidson in their list of 
Deccan species, nor by Mr. Vidal in his Ratnagiri paper, 
neither have I observed or heard of it about Belgaum. Mr. 
Hume has never seen a specimen from the Deccau, and thinks 
it possible that Mr. Fairbank may not have correctly identified 
the species. 

602.— Agrodroma campestris, Lin. The Stone- 
Pipit. 

Cold weather visitant. Recorded by Mr. Fairbank as " com- 
mon in the Deccan/' It is not included in Mr. Vidal's Ratnagiri 
list, nor in Messrs. Wenden and Davidson's paper, neither have 
I noticed it about Belgaum. Jerdon remarks, " most abundant 
in the Deccan/' 

603. — Agrodroma similis, Jerd. The Kufous Rock- 
Pipit. 

Rare. Mr. Fairbank obtained a single specimen on the 
Imampur Ghat, near Nagar, and remarks, " that he has 
observed others in the same neighbourhood on the hill sides." 
I have no other record of its occurrence throughout the region. 

604. — Agrodroma sordida, Btipp. The Brown Rock- 
Pipit. 

Jerdon obtained this species at Jalna in the Deccan, on 
rocky ground, at the edge of stony ravines. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 413 

631.— Zosterops palpebrosa, Tern. The White-eyed 

Tit. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon, as a rule, throughout 
the region. Mr. Vidal remarks, that " it appears to be rare in 
Ratnagiri." 

645. — Parus nipalensis, Rodgs. The Indian Grey 
Tit. 

Permanent resident. Locally not uncommon. Major Lloyd 
mentions it as a Konkan species, but Mr. Vidal has not met 
with it in Ratnagiri. It is common in Belgaum, and according 
to Mr. Fairbank in the Deccan, but strange to say it is not 
included in Messrs. Wenden and Davidson's list of Deccan 
species. I myself procured specimens in Poona. Sykes also 
includes it. 

648.— Machlolophus aplonotus, Blyth. The Southern 
Yellow Tit. 

Permanent resident. Common along the Sahyadri range, 
and in all the adjoining well-wooded country, including 
Ratnagiri and Belgaum. In the more open country it is rare 
or unknown. 

660.— Corvus macrorhynchus, Wagl. The Indian 
Bow-billed Corby or Carrion Crow. 
Permanent resident. Common throughout the region. 

663.— Corvus splendens, Vieill. The Common 
Indian Grey-necked Crow. 

Permanent resident. Common everywhere throughout the 
region, except on the Ghats, where it does not occur at any 
great elevation. In Ratnagiri it appears to breed twice in the 
year according to Mr. Vidal, and from noticing very early broods 
about Belgaum, I am inclined to think it does the same in 
that district also. 

674. — Dendrocitta rufa, Scop. The Common Indian 
Magpie. 

Permanent resident. Common all along the Sahyadri range 
and in most of the well-wooded districts throughout the 
region. 

684. — Acridotheres tristis, Lin. The Common 
Myna. 

Permanent resident. Generally distributed throughout the 
region, but more common in the Deccan than in the southern 

53 



414 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

districts. In Ratnagiri it is comparatively scarce, being, to a 
great extent, replaced by the next species. 

686 bis. — Acridotheres mahrattensis, Sykes. The 
Southern Dusky Myna. 

Permanent resident. Locally common along the Sahyadri 
range, and in the adjoining forests, including Ratnagiri. I 
also noticed it constantly about Belgaum in the cold weather. 
The Southern Indian form, having pale blue irides, should be 
separated perhaps as above, but for my part I confess I should 
rather prefer to treat it as only a local race. 

687.— -Sturnia pagodarum, Gm. The Black-headed 
Myna. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region. 

688— Sturnia malabarica, Gm. The Grey-headed 
Myna. 

Probably only a cold weather visitant. Common in the 
neighbourhood of Belgaum in the cold weather, and occurs 
also but sparingly in Ratnagiri, but as it is not included in 
either of Mr. Fairbank's lists nor in Messrs. Wenden and 
Davidson's paper, it is probably confined to the well-wooded 
tracts in the south-western portion of the region. 

689.— Sturnia blythi, Jerd. The White-breasted 
Tree-Myna. 

Common all about Belgaum in the rains, remaining till 
October, after which it retires, 1 believe, to the hills west to 
breed. Mr. Vidal has not observed it in Ratnagiri, neither 
has it been recorded from any other portion of the region, 
so that it appears to be a very local species ; but Jerdon remarks, 
" only found in the Malabar forests, occurring from the extreme 
south of the Malabar Coast to about N. Lat. 15° or 16.°" 
It seems to me to be a well-marked species. Mr. Hume has 
lately received eggs from Mysore. 

690. — Pastor roseus, Lin. The Rose-colored Pastor 
or Jowari Bird. 

Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the region 
wherever the r e is cultivation. 

692. — Eulabes religiosa, Lin. The Southern Hill 
Myna. 

Rare. Major Lloyd mentions it as found in the Sahyadri 
forests in the Southern Koukan. As yet Mr. Vidal has 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 415 

not met with it in Ratnagiri, but Mr. Laird has procured it in 
the forests south-west of Belgaum. It only occurs along the 
Ghats, and in Kanara it is not uncommon. Jerdon remarks, 
rt found in the forests of Malabar from Travancore to N. Lat. 
16° or 17.°" 

694. — Ploceus philippinus, Lin. The Common 
Weaver- Bird. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the region. 

695. —Ploceus manyar, Eorsf. The Striated Weaver- 
Bird. 

Common about Belgaum in the rains, breeding in the sugar- 
cane fields and bulrushes round the edges of tanks. Jerdon 
remarks, " extends to the Deccan, but not common." 

697.— Amadina malacca, Lin. The Black-headed 
Munia. 

Seasonal visitant. Very common all about Belgaum in the 
rains, breeding abundantly in the sugarcane fields. It occurs 
also sparingly in Ratnagiri, but I have no other record of its 
occurrence throughout the region. The young birds of the 
year have the upper parts plain rufescent brown, and the lower 
parts pale buff, the chin and throat being albescent, and the 
lores dusky. 

698.— Amadina rubronigra, Hodgs. The Chestnut- 
bellied Munia. 

Probably only occurs as a rare straggler. Two specimens 
were obtained by Dr. Armstrong in the Ratnagiri District. I 
have no other record of its occurrence throughout the region. 

699.— Amadina punctulata, Lin. The Spotted 
Munia. 

Permanent resident in some districts. Locally not uncom- 
mon, but in many districts rare or unknown. I observed it 
occasionally about Belgaum, and Mr. Fairbank met with it 
rarely at Nagar. In parts of Ratnagiri, according to Mr. 
Vidal, it is common, and Messrs. Davidson and Wenden 
include it in their Deccan list as a common species. 

700.— Amadina pectoralis, Jerd. The Rufous-bellied 
Munia. 

Rare. Procured by Mr. Laird in the jungles west of 
Belgaum. I have no other record of its occurrence throughout 
the region. 



416 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

701.— Amadina striata, Lin. The White-backed 
Munia. 

Permanent resident. Common in the Konkan and all along 
the Sahyadri range and. in the adjoining forests from Goa to 
Khandala. It is confined to the Ghat region. 

703.— Amadina malabarica, Lin. The Plain Brown 
Munia. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region, (excepting perhaps in the forest tracts) especially in the 
Deccan. 

704. — Estrelda amandava, Lin. The Red Wax-bill. 

Not common as a rule, but occurs locally. I procured it at 
Belgaum, where it breeds in September and October, and Mr. 
Laird in the same district, and Mr. Fairbank obtained it near 
Mahableshwar. It has not been observed as j r et in Ratnagiri, 
and it is not included in Messrs. Davidson and Weuden's list 
of Deccan species. Jerdon, however, found it, though rarely, 
in the Deccan. 

705.— Estrelda formosa, Lath. The Green Wax-bill. 

Not common. Mr. Fairbank procured it near Mahableshwar, 
and Major Lloyd includes it in his list of Konkan species ; but 
Mr. Vidal has not observed it in Ratnagiri. I have no other 
record of its occurrence throughout the region. 

706.— Passer domesticus, Lin. The House Sparrow. 

Permanent resident. Common everywhere throughout the 



region. 



711.— Gymnoris flavicollis, FranM. The Yellow- 
throated Sparrow. 

Probably a permanent resident. Not uncommon in many 
districts, and occurs throughout the region. It appears to be 
most plentiful in the hot weather, at which season it breeds. 
In Belgaum it is common. 

716.— Emberiza buchanani, Blyth. The Grey -necked 
Bunting. 

Cold weather visitant. Mr. Fairbank remarks, "everywhere 
and abundant on some Ghats," but it does not appear in Mr. 
Vidal's Ratnagiri list, nor in Messrs. Wenden and Davidson's 
list, so that I conclude it is only locally distributed. I myselt 
have observed it about Poona, where it is not uncommon, and 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 417 

on one or two occasions about Belgaum, where it occurs only 
I believe as a straggler in the migratory seasons. 

721.— Euspiza melanocephala, Scop. The Black- 
headed Corn Bunting 1 . 

Cold weather visitant. Common in the plains portion of the 
region in all of the cultivated districts. 

722.— Euspiza luteola, Sparrm. The Red-headed 
Corn Bunting. 

Cold weather visitant. Mr. Fairbank procured it sparingly 
in the Nagar districts, and I found it common about Belgaum 
in company with the last species, so that it occurs probably 
wherever there is cultivation throughout the plains portion 
of the region, though it has not been observed as yet in 
Ratnagiri, nor is it recorded in Messrs. Davidson and 
Wenden's list of Deccan species. Mr. Elliot found it abundant 
about Dharwar. 

724.— Melophus melanicterus, Gm. The Crested 
Black Bunting. 



o 



Probably a permanent resident. Mr. Fairbank remarks, 
"sparsely scattered on the sides of the Sahyadris and alono- the 
spurs that extend into the'Deccan." I observed it also alono- 
the base of the hills, west of Poona, but have no record of its 
occurrence in any other portion of the region, though Colonel 
Sykes obtained it also in the Deccan on rocky and bushy 
mountains. 

738.— Carpodacus erythrinus, JPall The Common 
Rose-Finch. 

Cold weather visitant. Common along the Sahyadri rano-e 
as far north as Khandala, but outside of the forest tract less 
numerous. Mr. Vidal has obtained it in Ratnagiri, and I o-ot 
it in Belgaum, one or two early arrivals being in breeding 
plumage. It is not included in Messrs. Wenden and David^ 
son's list of Deccan species. 

? 742.— Propasser rhodochrous, Vig. The Pink- 
browed Rose Finch. 

Cold weather visitant. Extremely rare, if it occurs at all 
which is almost incredible. Major Lloyd, indeed, records it in 
his general Konkan list from Matheran, but there is no other 
record, I believe, of its occurrence throughout the region. 



418 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

756.— Mirafra erythroptera, Jerd. The Red-winged 
Bush-Lark. 

Permanent resident. Common in tbe Deecan and all along 
the railway line as far south, at all events, as Raichore, but 
in the south-western portion of the region, including Ratnagiri, 
the Ghat, and forest districts and Belgaum is it virtually- 
unknown. Jerdon remarks that " it is very common about 
Jalna in the Deecan." 

758.— Ammomanes phcenicura, Franhl. The Rufous- 
tailed Einch-Lark. 

Permanent resident. Common in the plains portion of the 
region, and found sparingly in Ratnagiri ; but in the forest 
tracts it is unknown. It is common about Belgaum. 

760.— Pyrrhulauda grisea, Scop. The Black-bellied 
Pinch-Lark. 

Permanent resident. Common everywhere throughout the 
region, except in the forest tracts. 

761.— Calendrella brachydactyla, Leisl. The Short- 
toed or Social Lark. 

Cold weather visitant. Common in the plains in most 
localities throughout the region wherever there is cultivation, 
but does not extend to Ratnagiri so far as we know at present, 
or the hills. I found it plentiful about Belgaum, and Mr. 
Fairbank records it as plentiful in the Nagar districts, but 
it is not included in Messrs. Wenden and Davidson's list of 
Deecan species. 

765.— Spizalauda deva, Sykes. The Small Crown- 
• crest Lark. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
plains portion of the region, but does not occur in Ratnagiri 
so far as we know at present, nor I believe on the Ghats, nor, 
as a rule, in the forest tracts. 

765 bis— Spizalauda malabarica, Scop. The Large 
Crown-crest Lark. 

Permanent resident in some localities. Common all along 
the Sahyadri range from Goa to Khandala, extending to 
Ratnagiri and Belgaum. I don't think it breeds about 
Belgaum. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 419 

767.— Alauda gulgula, Frankl. The Indian Sky- 
Lark. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, in the plains 
portion of the region and in the southern parts of Ratnagiri. 
I noticed it as particularly plentiful on all the grass lands 
about Belgaum. It also occurs on the hills on open grass land, 
but avoids the forest tracts. 

769. — Galerita cristata, Lin. The Crested Lark. 

This species is entered in Messrs. Wenden and Davidson's 
paper as " observed to be common on the top of the Satara 
Ghats," but I have no other record of its occurrence through- 
out the region, except Jerdon's statement, and possibly 
Spizalauda malabarica, which is not included in their list, was 
mistaken for it. I wrote to Mr. Davidson on the subject, and 
he replied that he could not be sure of the species, but he may 
be right, as Jerdon mentions, it also as common in the Deccan, 
though he does not say in what districts. 

773.-— Crocopus chlorigaster, Blyth. The Southern 
Green Pigeon. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon along the Sahyadri 
range and in the neighbouring forests, extending to Ratnagiri, 
and occurs also in the plains, as a rule, throughout the region 
wherever there are tall banian trees, upon the fruit of which 
it feeds. 

775.— Osmotreron malabarica, Jerd. The Grey- 
fronted Green Pigeon. 

Occurs sparingly all along the Sahyadri range as far north 
as Khandala, extending also to the well -wooded tracts of 
Ratnagiri. Mr. Laird got it in the forests west of Belgaum. 

786. — Palumbus elphinstonii, Sykes. The Nilgiri 
Wood-Pigeon. 

Not common. Mr. Vidal records it from the Chiplun sub- 
division in Ratnagiri, and Mr. Fairbank from Mahableshwar, 
where it is well known, It occurs, therefore, probably all along 
the Sahyadri range and in the adjoining forests. Jerdon re- 
marks, "found on the higher elevations of the Western Ghats." 

788.— Columba intermedia, Strickl. The Common 
Indian Blue-Rock Pigeon. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the region wher- 
ever there is cultivation, avoidiug dense forests. 



420 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

792.— Turtur pulchratus, Hodgs. The Indian Tur- 
tle Dove. 

Recorded by Mr. Fairbank as t{ common all along the Sahya- 
dris, especially on the western slopes, but rare in the Nagar 
district/' I observed it also in Belgaum and the neighbouring 
villages, where it is common at the end of the cold weather. 
Mr. Vidal does not mention it from Ratnagiri, nor is it includ- 
ed in Messrs. Wenden and Davidson's list of Deccan species. 
Dr. Scully in his paper on the Ornithology of Nepal tries to 
prove that this and T. meena belong to the same species, and 
proposes lumping them under the name of orient alls, however 
Mr. Hume disagrees with him in toto, in which I think he is 
right. 

793. — Turtur meena, Sykes. The Kufous Turtle 
Dove. 

Probably only a cold weather visitant. Common all along 
the crest of the Sahyadri range, according to Mr. Vidal, and 
at Mahableshwar. In Ratnagiri it has only been met with 
hitherto at Gotna in Sangameshwar. Mr. Davidson also 
mentions it as common in Satara and on the surrounding hills, 
and Mr. Elliot records it from Dharwar. It is distinguishable 
at once from the last species by the under tail-coverts which 
are slatey grey, whereas in pulchratus they are pure white or 
nearly so. 

794.— Turtur senegalensis, Lin. The Little Brown 
Dove. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
plains portion of the region ; but only occurs as a straggler in 
Ratnagiri, and it is not very common about Belgaum. Mr. 
Crawford got it at Savantvadi, but it does not belong to the 
Ghat region. 

795.— Turtur suratensis, Gm. The Spotted Dove. 

Permanent resident on the hills. Common all along the 
Sahyadri range and in the adjoining forests, also in Ratnagiri. 
Mr. Davidson remarks, '* common in Sholapur during the rains.-" 
It belongs to the hills and well-wooded portions of the region. 
I have not observed it in Belgaum, but in the surrounding 
jungles it is plentiful. 

796. —Turtur risorius, Lin. The Common Eing- 
Dove. 

Permanent resident in the plains. Common, as a rule, through- 
out the region, but scarce in some localities in the south- 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 421 

westtrn portion of the region. I never saw it in the station of 
Belgaum, but iu some parts of the adjoining country it is 
common. It appears to visit Ratnagiri only in the cold 
weather, and somewhat irregularly, being abundant some 
seasons, and absent altogether in others, avoiding the Ghats, as 
a rule. 

797.— Turtur tranquebaricus, Eerm. The Ruddy 
Ring-Dove. 

Permanent resident in some localities. Locally not uncom- 
mon throughout the region, but in some districts it is rare or 
absent. In Ratnagiri Mr. Vidal has only met with it on one 
occasion, and it is not common about Belgaum. 

798.— Chalcophaps indica, Lin. The Emerald 
Ground Dove. 

Probably a permanent resident. Occurs doubtless sparingly 
in suitable localities all along the Sahyadri range. I procured 
it at Khandala, and Mr. Vidal along the Shastri river in Ratna- 
giri. It usually frequents dense forests. 

800.— Pterocles fasCiatus, Scop. The Painted Sand- 
Grouse. 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon in suitable localities, 
throughout the plains portion of the region as far south, at all 
events, as Belgaum, and as far north as Nagar. In Ratnagiri 
it is unknown. It is most abundant in scrub jungle at the 
base of low rocky hills. 

802.— Pterocles exustus, Tern. The Common Sand- 
Grouse, 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the region, 
excepting in Ratnagiri and the forest tracts, where it does not 
occur. It affects dry open country. 

803.— Pavo cristatus, Lin. The Common Peacock. 

Permanent resident. Very common in the jungles about 
Belgaum, aud occurs all along the Sahyadri range and in the 
adjoining forests, including Ratnagiri, but it has been so per- 
secuted by sportsmen and Phansi Pardis that it is not very 
common now in most localities. It is essentially a jungle bird 
in this part of the country. 

813.— Gallus sonnerati, Tern. The Grey Jungle- 
Fowl. 

Permanent resident. Tolerably common all along the Sahya- 
dri range from Goa to Khandala and in the adjoining forests, 

54 



422 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OP THE BIRDS OF 

including the hilly parts of Ratnagiri and Belgaum. Mr. 
Davidson also records it from the granite hills about Nulwar. 
In some of the jungles, about Belgaum and along the Ghats, 
it is particularly plentiful. 

814.— Galloperdix spadiceus, Gm. The Red Spur- 
Fowl. 

Permanent resident. Tolerably common all along the 
Sahyadri range as far north as Khandala, and in most of the 
adjoining forests, extending to the jungles about Belgaum 
and the hilly jungles of Ratnagiri. 

815.— Galloperdix lunulatus, Valeric. The Painted 
Spur-Powl. 

Rare. I have only once heard of the occurrence of this 
species within the region, and that was shot at Gokak about 
40 miles north-east of Belgaum. I examined the skin myself, 
so that there is no doubt about the species, and the man who 
shot it told me he saw a few others in the same locality. 

819. — Francolinus pictus, Jard. fy Selb. The Paint- 
ed Partridge, 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon in suitable localities, 
throughout the plains portion of the region. About Belgaum 
it is particularly partial to sugarcane fields. It avoids the 
forest tracts, and is unknown in Ratnagiri, though included in 
Major Lloyd's list of Konkan species. Mr. Yidal has met 
with them at Karli in the valley of the Indrayani, not five miles 
from the watershed of the Ghats, at Kadkalla, ten miles east of 
Karli, and again north of Karli even nearer the crest of the 
Ghats, but generally they avoid the hills. 

822.— Ortygornis pondicerianus, Gm. The Com- 
mon Grey Partridge. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the plains portion 
of the region as a rule, but does not extend to Ratnagiri, and 
is scarce about Belgaum. It avoids the Ghats and forest 
tracts. 

826.— Perdicula asiatica, Lath. The Jungle Bush- 
Quail. 

Permanent resident. Common all along the Sahyadri range 
and in the adjoining forests. It occurs also in Ratnagiri and 
in the jungles about Belgaum, Nulwar and Satara. It is 
essentially a jungle bird. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 423 

827.— Perdicula argoondah, Sykes. The Rock Bush- 
Quail. 

Permanent resident. Common throughout the plains portion 
of the region from Nagar to Belgaum, avoiding the Ghat 
range and adjoining forests. It does not occur in Ratnagiri, 
according to Mr. Vidal, but is included in the Konkan list by 
Major Lloyd. 

828.— Microperdix erythrorhynchus, Sykes. The 
Painted Bush-Quail. 

Permanent resident. Locally not uncommon. Occurs all 
along the Sahyadri range as far north as Khandala, extending 
often into the well-wooded districts adjoining. According to 
Mr. Vidal it does not occur in Ratnagiri, but it is included in 
Major Lloyd's list of Konkan species. In some localities about 
Belgaum, a few miles south-east, for instance, it is common ; 
but in most localities, as a rule, it is not common. Mr. 
Fairbank met with it at Khandala and Mahableshwar and Mr. 
Davidson at Sholapur, Satara hills and near Poona, where I 
mj'self also procured a specimen on the hills. Jerdon says 
that it occurs all along the Ghats, from the Wynaad to near 
Poona. 

829.— Coturnix communis, Bonn. The Large Grey 
Quail. 

Cold weather visitant. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region, but less numerous on the Ghats and in the adjoining 
forests and in Ratnagiri, where it only occurs as a straggler. 
It is much less common in the south-west portion of the region 
about Belgaum, &c, than in the plains further north. In fact 
it avoids well-wooded districts. 

830.— Coturnix coromandelica, Gm. The Black- 
breasted or Bain-Quail. 

Permanent resident in many districts. Common, as a rule, 
throughout the region, but less numerous, like the last, along 
the Ghat range and in the adjoining forests. It is scarce in 
Ratnagiri, but common in the plains from Nagar to Belgaum, 
being most abundant in the rains and cold weather. It breeds 
abundantly about Belgaum in August, September and October. 

? 831.— Excalfactoria chinensis, Lin. The Blue- 
breasted Quail. 

Jerdon mentions a single specimen from Belgaum, but I 
have no other record of its occurrence within the region. 



424 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

Mr. Hume it is true on Mr. Laird's authority also records in 
the Game Birds its occurrence near Belgaum, but this was a 
mistake of Mr. Laird's, and has been corrected in the Appendix. 

832. — Turnix taigoor, Sykes* The Black-breasted 
Bustard-Quail. 

Probably only a seasonal visitant in most localities, being 
most numerous in the rains. Not uncommon throughout the 
region, though less common on the Ghats and in the forest 
tracts. It is rare in Ratnagiri. 

834.— Turnix joudera, Hodgs. The Large Button- 
Quail. 

Probably only a seasonal visitant. Rare. I procured it 
myself at Poona, as did Mr. Wend en, who obtained it also at 
Sholapur, but have no other record of its occurrence through- 
out the region, though Jerdon mentions it as "rare in the 
Deccan." 

835.— Turnix dussumieri, Tern. The Small Button- 
Quail. 

Most numerous in the rains and cold weather. Not uncom- 
mon throughout the region, excepting in Ratnagiri, where it is 
scarce. It prefers open country, avoiding the Ghat and forest 
tracts. 

836.— Eupodotis edwardsi, J. B. Gr. The Indian 
Bustard. 

Probably a permanent resident. Locally not uncommon in 
the plains portion of the region, but confined to certain 
districts. It is common about Miraj and Sholapur. Occurs also 
iu the Nagar, Poona, and Belgaum districts, but does not occur 
in Ratnagiri, nor in the forest tracts. 

839.— Sypheotides aurita, Lath. The Lesser Flo- 
rican or Likh. 

Permanent resident in some localities, at all events, if not in 
all. Locally not uncommon throughout the plains portion of 
the region. It is common about Sholapur, Dharwar, some parts 
of the Belgaum district and in other places, but is rare in 
Ratnagiri, and of course avoids the forest tracts. A few 
remain about Belgaum all the year round. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 425 

840.— Cursorius coroman.delicus, Gm. The Indian 
Courier-Plover. 

Permauent resident. Common throughout the plains portion 
of the region, but is rare in Ratnagiri, and avoids the forest 
tracts. 

842.— Glareola orientalis, Leach. The Larger Swal- 
low-Plover, or Eastern Pratincole. 

Rare. Probably only a cold weather visitant. Mr. Davidson 
observed it along the Bhima river, 40 or 50 miles south of 
Sholapur. I have no other record of its occurrence through- 
out the region. 

842 bis.— Glareola pratincola, Lin. The Collared 
Pratincole. 

Seasonal visitant. Rare. Obtained by Mr. Vidal on one 
occasion in Ratnagiri. I have no other record of its occurrence 
throughout the region ; in fact this is the only record of its 
occurrence within Indian limits out of Sindh. 

843.— Glareola lactea, Tern. The Smaller Swallow- 
Plover, or Eastern Pratincole. 

Rare. Probably only a cold weather visitant. Observed by 
Mr. Davidson along the Bhima river south of Sholapur, where 
it was common in the cold weather. I have no other record of 
its occurrence throughout the region. 

844.— Squatarola helvetica, Lin. The Grey Plover. 

Cold weather visitant. Occurs sparingly along the coast of 
Ratnagiri according to Mr. Vidal ; and Mr. Fairbank says, 
"that it occurs in the Deccan in flocks in the cold weather;" but 
as it is a coast bird, and not included in Messrs. Wenden and 
Davidson's list of Deccan species, and as I have never met 
with it myself, nor heard of it inland in this part of the country, 
I am inclined to think he may have been mistaken. 

845.— Oharadrius fulvus, Gm. The Eastern Golden 
Plover. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare in the Deccan, but not uncom- 
mon in Ratnagiri and in some parts of the Belgaum districts, 
where I have met with it in large flocks. At Hubli, about 18 
miles south-east of Belgaum, I saw several hundreds feeding 
in flocks upon a grassy plain. 



426 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIED8 OF 

845 quat.— iEgialitis asiatica, Pall. The Caspian 
Sand-Plover. 

Cold weather visitant. Very rare. Mr. Vidal obtained a 
single specimen at Ratnagiri, which is the first authentic 
instance of its occurrence within Indian limits. 

846.— iEgialitis geoffroyi, Wagl. The Large Sand- 
Plover. 

Cold weather visitant. Occurs sparingly along the coast. 
I have no record of its occurrence inland. 

847. — iEgialitis mongola, Pall. The Lesser Sand- 
Plover. 

Cold weather visitant. Common along the coast of the 
Konkan and Ratnagiri. I have no record of its occurrence 
inland. 

848. — iEgialitis cantiana, Lath. The Kentish Pving- 
Plover. 

Cold weather visitant. Not common, but occurs along the 
coast. I have no record of its occurrence inland, though Jerdon 
states that it does occur often far inland. 

849.— iEgialitis dubia, Scop. The Common Ring- 
Plover. 

Possibly a permanent resident in some districts. Common, 
as a rule, throughout the region. Mr. Davidson says he found 
it breeding in the Deccan, but it is doubtful whether this species 
breeds in the plains of India. Probably the bird he found 
breeding was JE. jerdoni of Legge. 

850 — JEgialitis jerdoni, Legge. The Lesser Ring- 
ed-Plover. 

Jerdon remarks: " I procured this small Plover in the Deccan 
generally among hills." 

852.— Chettusia gregaria, Pall. The Black-sided 
Lapwing. 

Rare. Cold weather visitant. Mr. Vidal has once met with 
it in Ratnagiri, and I obtained a few specimens that were shot 
by a friend of mine in the Belgaum District. I have no other 
record of its occurrence throughout the region, though Jerdon 
met with it about Jalna in the Deccan. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 427 

855.— Lobivanellus indicus, Bodd. The Ked-wat- 
tled Lapwing, or " Did-he-do-it." 
Permanent resident. Common throughout the region. 

856.— Lobipluvia malabarica, Bodd. The Yellow- 
wattled Lapwing. 

Permanent resident. Common in suitable localities through- 
out the region, except in Ratnagiri, where it is scarce, and the 
Ghat region, It affects dry uplands and cultivated districts. 

858.— JEsacus recurvirostris, Cuv. The Large 
Stone-Plover. 

Burgess records having procured specimens of this species 
on the Bhima river, and it must therefore probably be included 
in our list. / ' ^ J ^ 

859.— (Edicnemus sfceio^ax, S. G. Gm. The Stone- 
Plover, Norfolk Plover, or Bastard MoricaD. ;-, , 

Permanent resident. Not uncommon in suitable localities, a .*' , , , . f . 
throughout the region, except in Ratnagiri, where it is rare, 
and in the Ghat region. n /! I 



860.— Strepsilas interpres, Lin. The Turnstone, 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. A coast bird, seldom occur- 
ring inland, though Jerdon mentions having procured a speci- 
men in the Deccan, 200 miles inland. Mr. Vidal obtained a 
single specimen in Ratnagiri, and Mr. Hume procured it in the 
Bombay harbour. 

862.— Haematopus ostralegus, Lin. The Oyster- 
Catcher. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon along the Coast, but 
does not occur inland. Mr. Vidal records it from Ratnagiri, 
and Mr. Hume observed it on Bombay Island and about the 
harbour. 

865.— Grus communis, BechsL The Common Crane. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon in the Deccan, but in 
Ratnagiri about Belgaum and in the forest region it is unknown, 
though it may occur possibly as a straggler. 

866.— Anthropoides virgo, Lin. The Numidian or 
Demoiselle Crane. 

Cold weather visitant. Common in the Deccan. The same 
remarks apply to this species as to the last. 



428 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

867.— Scolopax rusticula, Lin. The Woodcock. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. Has been procured in the 
jungles about Belgaum by Mr. Laird, near Thana by Mr. Cairns, 
and in Kanara by Colonel Peyton, and will probably be found 
to occur as a straggler all along the Sahyadri range. 

868.— Gallinago nemoricola, Uodgs. The Wood- 
Snipe. 

Cold weather visitant. I have entered this species on the 
authority of Mr. Richardson, a well-known sportsmen in Bel- 
• gaum, who told me that he had shot a solitary Snipe some years 
ago on some swampy ground near Tunis, about 15 miles south 
of Hubli and some 30 miles south of Dharwar, and another one, 
a few years later, on the borders of the Mysore country. I have 
also been told that it has been killed in Kanara by Colonel 
Peyton. Certainly from the description given to me of the 
bird killed at Tunis I should say unhesitatingly that it was a 
solitary Snipe, and as the present species is recorded from the 
Nilgiris by Jerdon and Mr. Davison, probably it was nemoricola. 
Burgess also records a specimen from Nasik. 

870.— Gallinago sthenura, Kuhl. The Pin-tail Snipe. 

Cold weather visitant. Very common in Ratnagiri, about 
Thana, in the Belgaum district aud in all of the woodland 
tracts adjoining, and common, according to Messrs. Wenden 
and Davidson, in the Deccan ; but it is not included in 
Mr. Fairbank's list of birds collected in the viciuity of Khaudala, 
Nagar, &c, and at that time he possibly did not distinguish this 
species from the next. 

871.— Gallinago coelestis, Frenzel. The Common or 
Full Snipe. 

Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the region, 
especially in Ratnagiri and about Belgaum, Dharwar, &c. 

872.— Gallinago gallinula, Lin. The Jack Snipe. 

Cold weather visitant. Less common than the two last species, 
but generally distributed throughout the region. 

873.— Rhynchsea capensis, Lin. The Painted Snipe. 

Permanent resident. Occurs throughout the region, but is 
somewhat local in its distribution. In many districts it is com- 
mon, and in others scarce. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 429 

877— Numenius lineatus, Cuv. The Curlew. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon in the tidal creeks 
along the Coast, but rare inland, though it has been recently 
observed near Belgaum. 

878. — Numenius phaeopus, Lin. The Whimbrel. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon in the tidal creeks 
along the Coast, but almost unknown, I believe, inland. 

880 — Machetes pugnax, Lin. The Ruff. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. Mr. Vidal procured a single 
specimen in Ratnagiri, Mr. Davidson shot one out of a small 
flock at Pandharpur, west of Sholapur, and I myself procured 
it near Belgaum. Mr. Fairbank does not appear to have met 
with it. 

882.— Tringa subarquata, Guld. The Curlew Stint. 

Cold weather visitant. Occurs in large flocks in Ratnagiri ; 
elsewhere it is rare. It is recorded from Sholapur by Mr. 
Wenden, who shot two or three specimens in June. What they 
were doing there at that season of the year I don't know, as 
they certainly don't breed in this part of the country, if they 
do anywhere in India which I should doubt. I have no other 
record of its occurrence throughout the region. 

884. — Tringa minuta, Leisl. The Little Stint. 

Cold weather visitant. Occurs throughout the region in the 
cold weather, and in many localities it is common. 

885.— Tringa temmincki, Leisl. The White-tailed 
Stint. 

Cold weather visitant. Obtained by Mr. Fairbank at Nagar, 
mentioned also by Sykes, and occurs probably throughout the 
region, but it is not included in Messrs. Wenden and Davidson's 
list of Deccan species, neither is it recorded by Mr. Vidal from 
Ratnagiri, and I do not remember ever noticing it myself with- 
in our limits. 

888. — Calidris arenaria, Lin. The Sanderling. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. Occurs along the Coast only, 
and has been procured on one occasion in Ratnagiri by 
Mr. Yidal. 

891.— Rhyacophila glareola, Lin. The Spotted 
Sandpiper. 

Cold weather visitant. Common, according to Messrs. 
Wenden and Davidson, in the Deccan and recorded from Nagar 

55 



430 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

by Mr. Fairbank, but not common in Ratnagiri. It occurs 
probably throughout the region. I noticed it about Belgaum, 
Satara and Poona. 

892. — Totanus ochropus, Lin. The Green Sand- 
piper. 

Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the region, but 
not so plentiful iu Ratnagiri as in other localities. 

893. — Tringoides hypoleucus, Lin. The Common 
Sandpiper. 
Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the region. 

894. — Totanus glottis, Lin. The Green-Shank. 

Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the region. 

895. — Totanus stagnatilis, Bechst. The Lesser 
Green-Shank. 

Cold weather visitant. This is not included in Mr. Vidal's 
list of Ratnagiri birds, but is recorded from Nagar by 
Mr. Fairbank, and is included as a common species in Messrs. 
Wenden and Davidson's Deccan list. It probably therefore 
occurs throughout the region. Jerdon mentions having seen 
it in large flocks on the banks of the Trichoor lake in 
south Malabar. 

897. — Totanus calidris, Lin. The Red-Shank. 

Cold weather visitant. Common in Ratnagiri amongst the 
tidal creeks according to Mr. Vidal, but rare iu the Deccan 
according to Messrs. Davidson and Wenden, and it is not men- 
tioned in either of Mr. Fairbanks list. I believe I saw it in 
the neighbourhood of Belgaum. 

898. — Himantopus candidus, Bonn. The Stilt or 
Long-legs. 

Cold weather visitant. Common, as a rule, in suitable 
localities throughout the region, except in Ratnagiri, where 
Mr. Yidal reports it to be rare. 

900.— Parra indica, Lath. The Bronze- winged 
Jacana. 

Probably a permanent resident. A very local species and not 
common. It occurs sparingly from north to south of the region, 
as I have heard of its occurrence in the Thana district and in 
the Beloaum district. Mr. Fairbank mentions it as rare in the 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 431 

Deccan, and it is included in the Konkan list by Major Lloyd, 
though not yet observed in Ratnagiri by Mr. Vidal. Messrs. 
Wenden aud Davidson, however, have omitted it in their 
Deccan list. 

901 .— Hydrophasianus chirurgus, Scop. The Phea- 
sant-tailed Jacana. 

Probably a permanent resident in some of the well-watered 
tracts. Mr. Vidal records it from Ratnagiri as not uncommon 
in the cold weather, and it occurs, as a rule, sparingly in 
suitable localities throughout the region. I only observed it 
occasionally about Belgaum. 

902.— Porphyrio poliocephalus, Lath. The Purple 
Coot. 

Rare, but probably a permanent resident in some localities. 
Occurs sparingly in the Deccan, frequenting tall reed beds, aud 
has once been obtained from Malvan in Ratnagiri, by Mr. Vidal, 
but I have not met with it in the neighbourhood of Belgaum. 

903. — Fulica atra, Lin. The Common or Bald Coot. 

Cold weather visitant as a rule, but remains to breed in some 
districts. Common in many parts of the Deccan, but scarce 
now in Ratnagiri and other localities and about Belgaum, 
though I got a nest in the latter district. 

905.— Gallinula chloropus, Lin, The Common 
Water-Hen. 

Probably a permanent resident in some parts of the region ; 
not uncommon in Ratnagiri and in some localities in the 
Deccan, but about Belgaum and other districts it seldom occurs 
at all. 

907.— Erythra phaenicura, Venn. The White-breast- 
ed Water-Hen. 

Not uncommon as a rule in the rains, throughout the region, 
but whether it remains with us the whole year round I cannot 
say. In the Ratnagiri and Belgaum districts it is particularly 
common. 

908.— Porzana akool, Sykes. The Brown and Ashy 
Crake. 

Jerdon remarks, " has been found in the Deccan," whence 
indeed Sykes' type was obtained, and Mr. Hume assures me 
that some of the eggs I sent him from Belgaum belong to this 
species, but I myself have never come across the bird. 



432 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

909. — Porzana maruetta, Leach. The Spotted 
Crake. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon in the Deccan; but 
has not yet been obtained in Ratnagiri. I have observed and 
shot it also occasionally about Belgaum. 

910. — Porzana bailloni, Vieill. Baillon's Crake. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon, as a rule, through- 
out the region. Mr. Fairbank records it from Nagar, and Mr. 
Vidal mentions it as common in Ratnagiri. I found it plentiful 
too about Belgaum ; but as it is not included in Messrs. Wenden 
and Davidson's list of Deccan species, it is probably somewhat 
local in its distribution. 

? 911-— Porzana fusca, Lin. The Ruddy Crake. 

Probably only a seasonal visitant. Rare, if it occurs at all, 
which is doubtful. Mr. Vidal thinks he saw it on one occasion 
in a mangrove swamp in the Dapoli sub-division of Ratnagiri, 
but unfortunately was unable to secure specimens. I have no 
other record of its occurrence throughout the region. 

913. — Hypotaenidia striata, Lin. The Blue-breast- 
ed Banded Rail. 

Seasonal visitant. I observed it on several occasions in the 
rice and sugarcane fields about Belgaum in the rains, procur- 
ing several specimens and eggs, and Mr. Vidal records it from 
Ratnagiri, but I have no record of its occurrence from any other 
portion of the region. It breeds in August and September. 

915. — Leptoptilus argalus, Lath. The Adjutant. 

Seasonal visitant. Rare. Occurs sparingly in the Deccan, 
but I have no record of its occurrence from any other portion 
of the region. Jerdon remarks, " not rare about Hyderabad in 
the Deccan." 

? 916.— Leptoptilus javanicus, Borsf. The Hair- 
crested Stork. 

Seasonal visitant. Rare. Mr. Wenden is sure that he has 
seen this species occasionally about Nulwar in the rainy season, 
but as he did not obtain specimens, and as I have no other 
record of its occurrence within our limits, I have included it as 
a doubtful species. 

917.— Xenorhynchus asiaticus, Lath. The Black- 
necked Stork. 

Rare. Observed at Habli, and Mr. Davidson is almost 
certain that he also has observed this species in the Deccan. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 433 

918.— Ciconia nigra, Lin. The Black Stork. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. Occurs sparingly in the 
Deccan. Mr. Davidson observed it in the Sholapur Collectorate, 
and Mr. Vidal on the Nira in Satara. It is also mentioned in 
Mr. Fairbank's list as occurring rarely in the Deccan. I have 
no other record of its occurrence within our limits. Jerdon 
also procured it in the Deccan. 

919.— Ciconia alba, Bechst. The White Stork. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon in the Deccan, and 
Major Lloyd records it as having been seen on one occasion in 
the Mahad sub-division of Kolaba, but it has not been observed 
yet in Ratnagiri, neither have I observed it about Belgaum, 
though it may occur as a straggler in those districts. 

920.— Dissura episcopa, Bodd. The White-necked 
Stork. 

Permanent resident. Generally distributed throughout the 
region. Tolerably common in the Deccan and in Ratnagiri, 
and occurs also about Belgaum. 

923. — Ardea cinerea, Lin. The Common Heron. 

Common as a rule. Occurs throughout the region in the 
cold weather, but I am not sure whether it remains in any of 
the districts to breed. 

924.— Ardea purpurea, Lin. The Purple Heron. 

Not uncommon in Ratnagiri, and in the Deccan in the cold 
weather, but I have not observed it about Belgaum. The same 
remarks about breeding apply to this as to the last species. 

925.— Herodias torra, B. Hamilton. The Large 
Egret or Large White Heron. 

Common throughout the region as a rule, in the cold weather, 
but I know of no breeding grounds within our limits. 

926.— Herodias intermedia, Hass. The Little White 
Heron. 

Common throughout the region in the cold weather, except 
in Ratnagiri, whence it has not been recorded by Mr. Vidal ; 
probably, however, it will be found to occur there hereafter. 
It also disappears in the breeding season. 

927.— Herodias garzetta, Lin. The Little Egret. 

Common as a rule throughout the region, disappearing \\\ Q 
the others in the breeding season. 



434 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

928.— Demi-egretta gularis, Bosc. The White- 
throated Reef Heron. 

Occurs sparingly amongst the creeks along the Coast, and 
according to Mr. Fairbank it is plentiful in the Deecan, though 
Messrs. Wenden and Davidson have not included it in their 
Deecan list. Mr. Laird also found it not uncommon along the 
banks of rivers inland in the neighbourhood of Belgaum, and 
Jerdon and Colonel Sykes also found it far inland on the banks 
of rivers in the Deecan. It is, however, I believe, more of a 
coast than inland species. 

929.— Bubulcus coromandus, Eodd. The Cattle 
Egret. 

Common as a rule. Occurs throughout the region in the cold 
weather, and breeds in some districts in the Sholapur collec- 
torate in the hot weather. 

930. — Ardeola grayi, Sykes. The Indian Pond Heron. 
Permanent resident in most districts. Common throughout 
the region. 

931. — Butorides javanica, Eorsf. The Little Green 
Bittern. 

Permanent resident. Common in Ratnagiri, especially in 
the mangrove swamps, where it breeds, and not uncommon 
throughout the regiou in suitable localities, frequenting well 
wooded rivers, canals, &c. Always more or less crepuscular in 
its habits. 

933.— Ardetta cinnamomea, Gm. The Chestnut 
Bittern. 

Seasonal visitant probably. Common all about Belgaum in 
the rains and breeds. In Ratnagiri it is scarce. Mr. Fairbank 
procured it at Mahableshwar, where it is also rare. Sykes 
remarks that it is rare in the Deecan. I have no other record 
of its occurrence throughout the region. 

934.— Ardetta sinensis, Gm. The Yellow Bittern. 

Rare. Mr. Davidson procured a single specimen in some 
reeds at Pandharpur west of Sholapur in October. I have no 
other record of its occurrence throughout the region. It affects 
tall reed-beds. 

936.— Botaurus stellaris, Lin. The Bittern. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. Sykes says it is rare in the 
Deecan. Mr. Inverarity mentions having shot two and seen a 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 435 

third in the vicinity of Bombay (S. F., VII., 526). I have 
no other record of its occurrence throughout the region. 

936 bis.— Goisakius melanolophus, Baffl. The 
Malayan Tiger Bittern. 

Very rare. Mr.L aird procured a single specimen in a nalah 
in thick jungles in the forests west of Belgaum. I have no 
other record of its occurrence throughout the region. 

937. — Nycticorax griseus, Lin. The Night Heron. 

Probably a permanent resident in some districts. Locally 
not uncommon throughout the region, in suitable localities. 
Mr. Hume recorded it as very numerous on the island of 
Elephanta. 

938.— Tantalus leucocephalus, Forst. The Pelican 
Ibis. 

Permanent resident probably about Nagar, where it breeds 
in large numbers in some of the villages. It occurs also 
sparingly throughout the Deccan, but does not extend to 
Ratnagiri, though it has been recently observed about Belgaum. 

939.— Platalea leucorodia, Lin. The Spoonbill. 

Not uncommon in some localities in the Deccan, and breeds 
in some of the districts. It is rare in Ratnagiri, and I have 
not observed it about Belgaum, though possibly it may occur 
as a straggler. 

940.— Anastomus oscitans, Bodd. The Shell Ibis. 

Occurs sparingly in the Deccan in the rains and cold weather, 
but I have no record of its occurrence iu other parts of the 
region. 

941.— Ibis melanocephala, Lath. The White Ibis. 

Probably a permanent resident in some districts. Occurs 
sparingly throughout the region in suitable localities, but is 
more common iu Ratnagiri and the Deccan than in the southern 
districts. 

942.— Inocotis papillosum, Tern. The Warty-headed 
or Black Ibis or King Curlew. 

Permanent resident. Common, as a rule, iu the Deccan, but 
does not occur in Ratnagiri, though included by Major Lloyd 
iu the general Konkan list, and I have not noticed it about 
Belgaum. 



436 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

943.— Falcinellus igneus, S. G. Gm. The Glossy 
Ibis. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. A single specimen was 
observed by Mr. Davidson at Pandharpur, west of Sholapur, in 
September, and Mr. Vidal says, " comparatively common on the 
rivers of the Satara district.'" I have no other record of its 
occurrence throughout the region. 

944.— Phcenicopterus roseus, Pall. The Flamingo. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare as a rule. Mr. Vidal has 
observed it in the large tidal backwater north of the Ratnagiri 
fort, and Mr. Fairbank remarks, (c occasionally visits the larger 
pieces of water in the Deccan and the salt-pans in Bombay.''' 
Messrs. Wenden and Davidson have also observed it occasion- 
ally in the Deccan. In the southern portion of the region, 
about Belgaum, it is virtually unknown, though it occurs in the 
Dharwar districts occasionally. 

944 Ms.— Phcenicopterus minor, G. St. Hill. The 
Lesser Flamingo. 

Captain Feilden procured this species at Secnnderabad in the 
Deccan, aud there can therefore be little doubt as to its right to 
a place in this list. 

950.— Sarcidiornis melanonotus, JPenn. The Nuktah 
or Comb Duck. 

Seasonal visitant. Occurs sparingly in the rains and cold 
weather in the Deccan and about Belgaum, but it is not com- 
mon. Mr. Fairbank omits it in his list, and Mr. Vidal has not 
observed it in Ratnagiri, but I have occasionally seen it in the 
Belgaum district, and Messrs. Wenden and Davidson record it 
in their Deccan list as "moderately common." 

951.— Nettopus coromandelianus, Gm. The White- 
bodied Goose Teal or Cotton Teal. 

Seasonal visitant. Locally not uncommon. It appears to be 
comparatively scarce in Ratnagiri, but accordiug to Messrs. 
Wenden and Davidson " moderately common in the Deccan.'" 
Mr. Fairbank, however, does not include it in his list, and I 
have not met with it about Belgaum. It prefers secluded tanks 
overgrown with weeds and lotus plants. 

952.— Dendrocygna javanica, Horsf. The Whistling 
Teal. 

Seasonal visitant. Not common as a rule. Mr. Vidal found 
it very rare in Ratnagiri, and Mr. Fairbank only mentions it 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 437 

from Mahableshwar. Messrs. Wenden aud Davidson, however, 
in their Deccan list remark, "somewhat rare in the more open 
parts of the country, but very common about the Avooded 
districts in the rains and cold weather." I have shot it 
occasionally about Belgaum in the rains. 

953.— Dendrocygna fulva, Gm. The Large Whist- 
ling Teal. 
Seasonal visitant. Rare. Mr. Fairbank procured a pair at 
Nagar, and according to Mr. Wenden it occurs at Nulwar. I 
have no other record of its occurrence throughout the region, 
though Jerdon found it tolerably plentiful at Jalna in the 
Deccan, in fact as common as the last species. 

954. — Casarca rutila, Pall. The Ruddy Shieldrake 
or Brahminy Duck. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon on the larger rivers 
in the Deccan ; but does not extend to Ratnagiri, so far as we 
know at present, and it is rare in the Belgaum district. Jerdon 
remarks, " that it is a well-known winter visitant to all parts of 
the country." 

957.— Spatula clypeata, Lin. The Shoveller. 

Cold weather visitant. Net uncommon in the Deccan, but 
rare in Ratnagiri and about Belgaum. It occurs throughout 
India according to Jerdon. 

958 —Anas boschas, Lin. The Mallard or Common 
Wild Duck. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. I have only once met with 
this species within the region, and that was at Habli on the 
Dharwar road, about 18 miles south-east of Belgaum. I flushed 
three from a small tank and shot one, but have no other record 
of its occurrence within our limits. 

959.— Anas pcecilorhyncha, Font. The Spotbill or 
Grey Duck. 

Probably a permanent resident in some districts. Not 
uncommon in the Deccan, but not recorded from Ratnagiri, and 
not common about Belgaum. 

? 960.— Rhodonessa caryophyllacea, Lath. The Pink- 
headed Duck. 

Seasonal visitant. Rare. Mr. Fairbank remarks in his list 
of Khandala species, &c, "one rose from a tank close by me, 
so that I am sure of its identity though I did not bag it." 
The bird referred to not having been secured, aud having no 

56 



438 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OP 

other record of its occurrence throughout the region, I feel 
justified in entering it as a doubtful species. It is a pity 
Mr. Fairbank has not mentioned the locality in which the bird 
referred to was flushed. Jerdon also heard of it as an 
occasional visitant to the Deccan, but says that it is rare in 
Southern India, which is doubtless the case. In fact it seems 
to be rare everywhere. 

961.— Chaulelasmus streperus, Lin. The Gadwall. 

Cold weather visitant. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region, wherever Ducks occur, but less numerous in Ratnagiri 
than in other districts. 

962. — Dafila acuta, Lin. The Pin-tail. 

Cold weather visitant. Occurs throughout the region, but 
is not very common as a rule, and in Ratnagiri it appears to 
be rare^ 

963.— Mareca penelope, Lin. The Wigeon. 

Cold weather visitant. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region, especially in Ratnagiri. It is strange that neither this 
species nor the last should be entered in Mr. Fairbank's list of 
birds collected in the vicinity of Khandala. 

964. — Querquedula crecca, Lin. The Common Teal. 

Cold weather visitant. Common throughout the region. 

965.— Querquedula circia, Lin. The Garganey or 
Blue-winged Teal. 

Cold weather visitant. Common, as a rule, throughout the 
region, but less numerous in Ratnagiri than in other districts. 

967.— Fuligula rufina, Pall. The Bed-crested 
Pochard. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. Mr. Fairbank has recorded it 
from the Deccan, but it is not included in any of the other lists, 
and I have no other record of its occurrence throughout the 
region. Mr. Fairbank's lists contain no other species of 
Pochard. 

968.— Fuligula ferina, Lin. The Pochard or Dun- 
bird. 

Cold weather visitant. Occurs sparingly in the Deccan, and 
is recorded by Major Lloyd in his list of Konkan species, 
though it has not been observed by Mr. Vidal yet in Ratnagiri. 
It has recently been observed at Habli. 



THE DECCAN AND SOUTH MAHRATTA COUNTRY. 439 

969. — Fuligula nyroca, Quid. The White-eyed 
Pochard. 

Cold weather visitant. Not common, but occurs sparingly 
throughout the region. Mr. Vidal has only once noticed it in 
Ratnagiri. I have procured it myself near Belgaum and near 
Poona. Jerdon remarks, (i common in Northern and Central 
India, less so in the south." 

971. — Fuligula cristata, Lin. The Tufted Pochard. 

Cold weather visitant. According to Messrs. Wenden and 
Davidson it is fairly common in the Deccan, and Mr. Vidal 
records it from Chiplun in Ratnagiri, but I should say, as a 
rule, that it was rare. I shot it occasionally about Poona and 
Belgaum. Jerdon says, " very common in Central and South- 
ern India." 

975. — Podiceps minor, Gm. The Little Grebe or 
Dabchick. 

Common throughout the region in the rains and cold weather; 
breeding in the monsoon. 

978 ter— Larus affinis, Beinh. The Slatey Herring 
Gull. 

Cold weather visitant. Occurs sparingly along the Coast. 
Probably it was this species that Dr. Jerdon obtained at Jalna 
in the Deccan and not L. fusctts, the occurrence of which in 
India seems to be very doubtful. 

979.—Larus ichthyaetus, Pall. The Large Black- 
headed Gull. 

Cold weather visitant. Occurs sparingly along the Coast. 

980.— Larus brunneicephalus, Jerd. The Brown- 
headed Gull. 

Cold weather visitant. Common along the Coast. 

981.— Larus ridibundus, Lin. The Laughing Gull. 

Cold weather visitant. Not uncommon along the Coast. 

981 ter.— Larus hemprichi, Bonap. The Sooty Gull. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. Mr. Hume observed it in the 
Bombay harbour. I have no other record of its occurrence 
throughout the region, even the northern portions of whose 
coasts are almost outside its normal range. 

982.— Sterna caspia, Pall. The Caspian Tern. 

Cold weather visitant. Rare. Mr. Hume observed it in the 
Bombay harbour. I have no other record of its occurrence 



440 A TENTATIVE CATALOGUE OF THE BIRDS OF 

throughout the region, though it doubtless must occur occasion- 
ally all aloug the Coast as it extends even to Ceylon. 

983.— Sterna anglica, Mont. The Gull-billed Tern. 

Cold weather visitant as a rule, but Mr. Vidal mentions 
that it occurs in Ratnagiri during the greater part of the year, 
and according to Mr. Davidson a few remain in parts of the 
Decean all the year round. Eggs, however, have not been 
taken, and I do not think it probable, if any do remain through- 
out the year, that they breed in this part of the country. It 
is not included in Mr. Fairbank's list of Decean species, neither 
have I noticed it about Belgaum, but it doubtless occurs through- 
out the region wherever there are large rivers or mar