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Full text of "The street railway review"

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THE 



STREET RAILWAY 

REVIEW 



INDEX TO VOLUME III 



1893 



CHICAGO 

WINDSOR & KENFIELD, PUBLISHERS 

269 DEARBORN STREET 



II 



INDEX. 



Articles marked 



are illustrated. World's Fair is abreviated as "w. f." 



Editorial, 

Accidents 1, 63 

Ambulance Cars ' 461 

Ammonia Motors _. ■ 2 

Attention to Possible Traffic 195 

Batimore Street Crossing Ordinance. .461 
Blocking Streets by House Moving. .331 

Boston Rapid Transit 06, 137, 138, 267 

Brakes lor Hills 624 

Broadway Cable Construction 64 

Bursting Boilers 680 

Cable Construction in New York 459 

Capital vs. Engineering Knowledge. .269 

Chicago Cable Stocks 459 

Convention 3, 128, 129, 534, 525 

Construction in 1893 127 

Connecticut Roads 61, 65 

Coal Blockades 63 

Coal Consumption Variation. 523 

Cook's Elevated Railway 194 

Credit Basis in Purchasing Supplies.. 397 

Criminal Carelessness by Motormen 3 

Damage Suits 65, 460 

Detroit Troubles 2, 333 

Economy in Power Plants 461 

Elevated Electric Roads. 127, 267 

Elevated vs. Underground Roads 523 

Employes Request Reduced W,iges ..587 

Fares for Long Rides 129 

Fenders 193,459 

Fires.. , 63 

Financial Stringency.. 395, 524 

Fly Wheel Accidents 587 

Free Rides for Mail Carriers. 26!) 

Gettysburg Trolley 331 

" Go Ahead " Signals From Passen- 
gers 678 

Grade Crossings 13i), 269, 331 

Induced Traffic 137 

Insurance and the Trolley 63 

Itemized Accounts and Records 194 

Legislation 65, 137, 128 

Legal Decisions 193, 331, 677 

Locomotives vs. Car Motors 588 

LosAngeles Cable Railway Suit 331 

Maine Street Railway Association 533 

Matlock Cable Opening 459 

Municipal Ownership 1 

Oil as a Fuel 677 

Old Motors 395 

Oregon City Electric Road Opening.. 397 

Our Medal ..■:.. 587 

Paving to T Rail ,,,,^ ..„,.128 

Pennsylvania Street RailWsiy A'lS'sb-' 

elation '-■If!.'- 1 

Philadelphia Changes. i^i-.^. ^^'-'-'--64 

Populists Electric Railroad 'Schef*ie.'.895 
Power Selling by Street RaiKV^ys 

-----;t^8. 139i.l0.1., 397 

Promoters of Electric Eo'ads...,! i.'..267 
Railroad Building in the Upjt^^ 

States '.'.'.',: j-— ',.•.■. 461 

Rapid Transit CommiSsioir, New'Ysjrk.l 

Return Circuits .■.,j,i llsi'G. 678 

Separate Car Questiori ih' the Sduth 

.V..o.....'i"l«"7, 396 

Short Riding I'.-.L '../"..SSI 

Shocks from 500 Volts!,;.'! '.'.'.'."..461 

Snow Blockades '.;..„ 64 



Editorial. 

Speed Limitations 396 

Stephenson, John, Death of 460 

Steps 128 

Storage Batteries in Power Stations. .128 

Strikers at Toledo 3 

Strikers 64, 127,194,525,679 

Sugar Plantation Electric Roads 195 

Sunday Cars in Toronto 395, 523 

Supply Business 396 

Taxation of Street Railways 66, 269 

Telephone vs. Tramway 269 

Three.cent Fares _63 

Travel Increasing in St. Louis 64 

Transportation Department at w f 267 

Trailers and Economy of Power 677 

Trolley in Chicago.. 679 

Tug of War, " Railroad Day " w f 587 

Vestibule Platform Laws.. 66 

Washington Troubles 2, 193 

Winter Riding in 1892-'93 65 

World's Fair _ 

...1, 64, 193, 194, 268, 331, 395, 460, 588 



Accident, A Strange 70 

Accident, Deliberately Planned 516, 517 

Accident, A New Kind of Invented 695 

Accidents and Car Steps 161 

Accidents, List of in Milwaukee 109 

Accounts, A Simple System of. Suited to 

Small Roads 422,432 

Accounts, Standard Form For Street 

Railway 718,719 

Accounts, Complete Classification of 

298,299,300, 301, 30J 

Acme Oil Filter* 58 

Acme Sash Wheel* 369 

Acme Storage Battery .103 

Adams' Water Tube Boiler* ....795 

Advantages, Make the Most of Your 398 

Advertising Your Line 398 

Aetna Section Insulator* .778 

Africa, Street Cars in* ..696, 697 

After the Fair* 772 

Air Brakes, The Christensen* 295 

Aluminium Tickets* 516 

Aluminium Silver 505 

Always Room at the Top* 774 

Ambulance, St. Louis Car* 463 

American Street Railway Association — 
Twelfth Annual Convention : 

Introduction 590 

Wednesday Morning Session. .591 to 600 

Mayor's Welcome 591 

President Longstreet's Address* 

591 to 592 

Executive Committee Report*. 592 to 595 
" Power House Engines," by E. G. 

Connette 596 to 599 

Discussion of Connette's Paper. 599 to 600 

Wednesday Afternoon 601 

Wednesday Evening, Remarks by 
O. T. Crosby, on " Power House 

Engines" 601,602 

" Best Method of Heating and Light- 
Street Railway Cars," by G. F. 

Greenwood .602 to 604 

Discussion, " Paving to T Rail " 604 



American Street Railway Association — 
Twelfth Annual Convention; 

"Traction and Street Railway 
Trucks," by Elmer H. Sperry.604 to (iOg 

" Storage Batteries in Electric Gener- 
ating Stations," by C O. Mailloux* 
606to613 

" Direct Driven Generators," by C.J. 
Field* 612 to 614 

Election of Officers (portrait of H. C. 
Payne) 615 

The Banquet 615 

Friday 616 

The Local Committee 616 

The Ladies Present 616 

Exhibits of the Convention. 617, 618, 
6S9, 060, 601, 662, 663, 664, 665, 666, 667 

Delegates 676 

Ammonia Motor 7 

Ancient Kicker, An.. _ 555 

And the Car Came Back 722 

And She Felt Sorry For It 3«3 

Anderson, A. A, (portrait) 338 

Andrews, D. A ..364 

Annual Review of the Year With Our 

Advertisers 799-800 801-802-80;i 

Another case of Circumstantial Evidence. 482 

Another Suspender Car Scheme 155 

Ansonia's, w f Exhibit* 405,406 

Anthony Reckenzan (obituary) ..ilQ 

Argentine's Street Railways 48r 

Arrester, Discharging* ..258 

As Hartford Sees Us... 563 

As Usual 188 

As Seen From the Dark Side 63!' 

Ashland, Wis., Combined Light and 

Power Station _ 17, 

Association, American Exhibits at* 331 

Aurora, 111., Increasing Revenue at*. 640, 641 

Australasian Electric Lines 50'} 

Austin Dam, Break in the* 5M 

Automatic Brake Company Brake* 183 

Auxilliary on Grades, An Unique* 430, 431 

Awards in the Street Railway Industries 

at the w f 650 

B 

Babcock, Charles (portrait) 407 

Baggage Car on the Chattanooga Electric 

Railway*. 704 

Bailey, Theo. P. (portrait) 217 

Baker, Judge, Decision of 103, 104 

Baker Heater, The* 657 

Baltimore- Washington Electric, The 164 

Baltimore, Fenders in 717 

Baltimore's City & Suburban Earnings 705 

Baltimore, The Lord No. 2* 638, 039 

Baloonisf Falls and is Saved by a Street 

Railway Man 532 

Ball Engine, Western Agency of 634 

Ball, of Erie, w f Exhibit of* 437 

Ball Engine High Speed Tandem* 180 

Ball Vertical Cross Compound Engine* ..092 

Ballad of the Crinoline* , 185 

Barnard, W. T. (portrait) 307 

Barnes, W. F. and John, Exhibit of* w f..470 
Barnes Cable Car on Chicago City Rail- 
way 357 

Barre Sliding Railway* w f _ ..337 



(^lAietlF^oiWoy-u^Vic^^ 



ill 



Bass Engine Exhibit* w f._ > ;■ 

Bass, J. H. (portrait) . 

Bates Machine Company, w f E^^.i^i* 

■ Bay Citv Changes ._ 

Bean, W. Worth (portrait) 

Beats Geo. Washington's Little Hatchet. Ji32 

Bellinap Motor Compan}'* w f 341 

Bellaire, Bridgeport & Martin's Ferry 

Electric Railway* 693,694 

Belt of Steel and Cotton, A* 657 

Belt Builder, A Big* S69, 570 

Belt, A Big* 256 

Benefit Association 239 

Benefit Association, The St. Louis 188 

Bessbrook & Xewry Tramway* (Ireland). 478 

Best Men Know It, The 180 

Biggest Boiler Plant in the World* 143 

Binghamton, N. Y., Increased Earnings... 36 

Birthday, Our Second 9 

Bishop, Harry (portrait) 211 

Block Signal, A \'aluable* 4 

Block Signal for Turnouts* 16 

Block System, The 239 

Blue Island Avenue Cable Line, Chicago, 

Starting the 497 

Board in Chicago, Where to 78 

Bogardus, W. A. H. (portrait) 15 

Boiler, Death From a Bursting* 681, 682 

Bona, The Chicago* 684 

"Bonding," by H. R. Keithley. (191 

Boston Pivotal Trolley* 429 

Bowen, M. K. (portrait) 205 

Bowery, Cable Threatens the 699 

Boys Stealing Rides on Cars 478, 479, 560 

Bradford, H. P. (portrait) 110 

Brakes for Electric Cars 639 

Brake Shoe, The Safety* 655 

Brake, A New Street Car* .182 

Brake Problem, A Ul 

Brandau Track and Wheel Brake, The*... 781 

Brevities 126 

Brill Factory, Improvement at 07 

Bridge of Pleasant Valley Traction Com- 
pany* 308,309 

Bridgeport, A Syndicate for .84 

Brigantine Transit Company* 566, 567 

Broadway Cable, First Car 371 

Broadway Cable, The* 71, 7i, 73, 74, 75, 76 

Brooklyn City, New Secretary of 15 

Brooklyn's Big Chimney .. 741 

Brooklyn " L," The 370 

Brooklyn Elevated , Lowering the Grade 

on 501 

Brooklyn, Fly Wheel Bursts at* 669, 670 

Brooklyn City Railway's Report 704 

Brooklyn Bridge Problem, A Solution 196 

Brown Electric Company, The* 712 

Brownell's Artistic Exhibit* 163, 409 

Brush Holder, The Lyons* 258 

Brush Holder, A Simple Track* 552 

Brush Grinder, A Dynamo* , 555 

Buckeye Engines at the Fair* 107, 475 

Buckeye Engines at Convention* ...668 

Buckeye Engines at w f* 107 

Buffalo, Phenomenal Increase of Traffic in .91 

Bullock, M. C. (portrait) 212 

.Burling, W. S. (portrait) 209 

Burrell, E. (portrait) 210 

Bursting of a Fly Wheel* 513 

Burton's Elevated Electric w f .. . ,.347 

Byrns, John, Driver (portrait) 771 

c 

Cable Car Barns on the Chicago City 

Railway 3.57 

Cable Car, The First* wf 374 

Cable, Under East River, Thfve. 40 



Cable Railway, The Invention of* 

147, 148, 149, 150 

Cables Report, Chicago's 181 

Cable Crossings in Chicago* 328, 329 

Cable Road Switch* 624 

Cable Road Brake, Maynard's* 571 

Caldwell, R. F. (portrait) 377 

California Rail Joint 394 

Cameron, D F. (portrait) 207 

Canadian Volts 308,498,619,700 

Canadian Cities, Fares per Capita in 699 

Candle, The Innocent and the Electric 

Light 370 

Canton Car Barn Conflagration 653 

Capen, Geo. D. (obituary) , 391 

Carried Stolen Registers 693 

Carrulhers-Wain, W.J. (portrait) 550 

Car Manufacturing Company, The Morse*658 

Car, New Castle Combination* 553 

Car Bodies, Dead Weight in 565 

Car House, Watertown* .41 

Car Heating, Electric* 241 

Car Floors and Cleanliness 358, 359 

Car Barns, Large vs. Small 83 

Car Steps and Accidents 161 

Car Builders of America* 392 

Car Belle, A 293 

Carey, P. H. (portrait) 311 

Caught on the Rush Trip 49 to 54, 

Ul to 116, 175 to 179, 249 to 253, 
315 to 319, 379 to 383, 446 to 450, 507 
to 511, 573 to 577, 643 to 647, 725 to 729 

Cass Avenue Contracts 37 

Cash Belts for Conductors 720 

Cat Tale, A 58 

Cedar Rapids & Marion Express* 433 

Cedar Rapids & Marion City Railway, 

Cost of Power on the* 515-510 

Cellular Opestacitis 490 

Cement for Steam Pipes 431 

Centennial, Corliss at the 438 

Center Bearing Rail* 236 

Chadbourne, A. H. (portrait) 698 

Chairs, the World's Fair Rolling* 377 

Chapman, J. R. (portrait) 528 

Charlton, B. E. (portrait) .. 539 

Chattanooga Electric Railway, Baggage 

Car on* 704 

Cheney, F. A. (portrait) ..620 

Chicago & Evanston Electric Railway 133 

Chicago's Grand Central Company.. 309 

Chicago City Railway, Electricity on* 

33-34-35-36 

Chicago* 204 

Chicago Street Car Air Brake Company 10 

Chicago City Railway Electric Plant* 313 

Chicago Electric Club, The 57 

Chicago Cable's Reports 181 

Chicago City Railway's Electric Plant 

and Equipment, Performance of* 

685-686.687-688 

Chicago City Railway Fire* 652 

Chicago & Central Indiana Electric Rail- 
way* 561 

Chicago, Another Electric for 370 

Chicago Cables Cross* ...328-329 

Chicago City Railway Cuts a Melon ,S77 

Chicago Day Transportation* 670-671 

Chicago, Transportation in During the 

World's Fair 724 

Chicago & St. Louis Electric Railway*.. 

,. 18-19 20-254 

Chimney, Brooklyn's Big 741 

Chinese Cable Line, A* 95 

Christenaen Air Brake, the* 295 

Cinciivi^ti, Lost Car in... 87 

Cinciwiati Landslide*. .501 



City Loses, The... 77'i 

City & South London* 5(11 

Clark, J. W. (portrait) 214 

Classification of Accounts 299.300-301-302 

Clean' the Track* ' 803 

Cleveland's Cables Consolidate , 424 

Cleveland Combine, The 188 

Cleanliness, Car Floors and 35.8-359 

Cleminshaw, Chas. (portrait) 420 

Climax Boilers at w f* 714 

Coal Comsumption, Variation of in Power 

Plants* 564 

Coal Mines, Electric Haulage for*.. 292 

Coal Production in Japan 780 

Cochran, Henry (portrait) _ 393 

Code, The Street Car 409 

Cog Railroad, Pikes Peak* 504-505 

Columbia (S. C.) Electric Railway*.. 370-377 
Coldren's Combination Brake and Con- 
troller* 3-27 

Cold Storage Fire* 464-405 

Columbus Benefit Association .709 

Columbia, Pa., New Line at 85 

Combination Car* 162-163 

Compressed Air at Leavenworth 40 

Conductor's Traffic in Tickets 434 

Conductors, Where They Come From 694 

Controller and Brake Combined* 327 

Consolidated Car Heating Company w f 

Exhibit* 277-278 

Concord's Road Opens 426 

Concord's Case .171 

Connecticut's Competition 132 

Connecticut Night Horse 239 

Connelly Motor, Trial of 62 

Congress, Electrical 572 

Convention, The Coming .Street Railway. 526 
Convention, Twelfth Annual (see Ameri- 
can Street Railway Association). 

Convention, Railroad Rates to 546 

Continuous Rails 307 

Cook, W. J. (portrait) 219 

Cook's Elevated Railway* 197198-199 

Cook Elevated Electric, w f Exhibit of 439 

Cook, C. S. (portrait) 2L<4 

Cook High Speed Elevated Exhibit w f...584 

Cooney, S. A. (portrait) 373 

Corby, J. F. (portrait) 218 

Cosmopolites on the Intramural* 408 

Cost of Power on the Cedar Rapids & 

Marion City Railway 515-516 

Cost of Fuel 142 

Cost of Iron Ore 780 

Cost of Storage and Overhead Systems 781 

Coyle, John A. (portrait) 24-25 

Crawford, R. C. (portrait) 206 

Crimmins, John D. (portrait) 5'28 

Crimmins' First Car 371 

Crossing, Interlocking on the Chicago 

North Shore Electric Railway*. .729-730 

Grossman, T. E. (portrait) 539 

Crowbar on the Intramural, A 420 • 

Crowd, The Largest in the World*... 670-671 

Current, Killed by the 433 

Curves, New Wheels on 292 

Cutter's Boulevard Street Hood* 427 

Cutter, George, in Electricity Building at 

w f* 473 

Cutter, George (portrait) 210 

D 

Dam, Break in the Austin* .514 

Dangers of Horse Cars 489 

Davenport & Rock Island, Induced Traf- 
fic* 428-439 

Davis, D. W. (portrait) 213 



555c%") 



IV 



<p/\Jwd^J^aA^/hJfJs^^^^ 



Day's Endless Chain Carriage* 331 

Dead Weigiit in Car Bodies _56a 

Dean, D. B. (portrait) 225 

Deatti from a Bursting Boiler* 681-682 

Delegation, A Big -..674 

Denver Company's Picnic 481 

Denver's Amalgamation ., 455 

Denver City Cable Railway Company in 

Receiver's Hands 719 

Depot, Lindell, St. Louis* 46 

Des Moines Appliances, Some* .424 

Detroit, Persecution in 674 

Devices, Some New .189 

Dictionary of Technical Terms 54-121-390 

Didn't Care if he was a Gripman 560 

Distresses the Horses 625 

Doctors Disagree 557 

Dodge Manufacturing Company, w f 

Exhibit of* 410 

Dressel Dash Light 732 

Durnin, T.J. (portrait) 549 

E 

Easily Moved 293 

Echoes from the Trade 60 to 62, 119 to 123 

182 to 185, 259 to 260, 323 to 325, 387 
to 388, 456 to 458, 520 to 524, 582 to 
583, 650 to 651, 735 to 738, 804. 

Eclipse Exhaust Pipe Head* .555 

Edison Feeder Patent.. 264 

Edison's Sand 239 

Edison Direct Coupled Unit at w f* 340 

Editorial 743-744-745 

Efficient Work, Prizes for .^247 

Electricity Draws the Traffic 476 

Electric Car Elevator* 713-714 

Electric Light on a Chicago Cable Train. .773 

Electricity Building 329 

Electric Heating, Cost of 295 

Electricity for the Farm* 28 

Electricity Building Street Railway Ex- 
hibitors in* 411 

Electric Light Association 78 

Electric Traction in 1850* 139-140 

Electric Heating Consolidated Company ..241 

Electrical Measurements I* 88-89 90-91 

Electrical Measurements It 159-160 

Electric Grand Stand, An 141 

Electricity Building, w f* 338-389 

Electricity on the Canal. 719 

Electrical Congress _ 673 

Electric Belts 619 

Electric Locomotive at the w f* 442 

Electrical Inspection Department I 619 

Electrical Inspection Department II 700 

Electrolysis of Water Pipes 283-284 

Electrolysis More About* 364-385 

Elevated Railroad Bridge at w f* 353 

Elevated Railway at Liverpool* 135 

Elevated Railway, Cook's Exhibit of 439 

Elevated vs. Underground : Electric Trac- 
tion in England 558 

Elevated Electric Exhibit, The Cook High 

Speed at w f 584 

Elevated Railway, Cook's* 197-198-199 

Elevator, An Electric Car* 713-714 

Elmira Horseheads Interurban Opened 480 

Elmira & Horseheads Electric Railway* ..628 

Ely, H. S. (portrait) 387 

English Rail Cleaner, A* 418 

England, Tramway Expenses in 699 

English Fare Raising 694 

tngine Exhibit at w f .108 

Engine, Ball's High Speed Tandem* 180 

Engineering Feat, A Remarkable 501 

Entirely Useless 321 

Euphrat Fender, The* , 750 



Eureka Tempered Copper Comyany at 

wf .'.469-470 

Evans, Major H. C ,... 59 

Events of 1892, Leading Street Railway.. 

38 39 

Everett, Dr. A. (portrait) 528 

Excursions, Special Street Railway 496 

Exhibits, w f Key to Map of 272 

Exhibits, w f Map of 273 

Exhaust Pipe Head, Eclipse* 555 

Exhibit at w f to March 109 

Express, Cedar Rapids and Marion*. 432 

Experiences of a Superintendent — Part I. 

By C. P. Young (portrait) 789-791 

Experiments and Experiences with Light- 
ning 401-402 

Extensometer, An Historical 417 



Fall's Rivet & Machine Company w f 

Exhibit* 406-407 

Fares per capita in Canadian Cities 699 

Fare Register, Folger* , 123 

Fare Freak, .\ 162 

Fares of the Fair ..724 

Farmer Electric Railway, Historical w f 

Exhibit* 340 341 

Farmer, Moses G. (portrait) 374 

Farm, Electricity for* 28 

Fenders in Baltimore 717 

Ferris Wheel, Dedicating of the* .405 

Ferris Wheel, The* 274 

Fete Days at World's Fair 354 

Fire, Cold Storage* 464-465 

Fire, The Chicigo City Railway* 652 

Fire, Canton 653 

Fire Risks and the Trolley 680 

Fire, A London* 647 

Fire, The Milwaukee* 6 

Fires, Power House*. .8* 

Fire, North Chicago Car Barn* 741 

Fireproof Construction* 365.366 

Fisher, Harry C. (obituary) 391 

Five Hundred and Fifty Volts, Received. 13-13 

Flat Car, A Large* .118 

Florida Mule, A 482 

Florida's First Electric* 287-388 

Fly Wheel Bursts at Brooklyn 609-670 

Fly Wheel, Bursting of a (Memphis) 513 

Folger Electric Gong* 59 

Folger's Fare Register* 133 

Foreign Facts 57-375-443-5 14-67.5-740 

Ft. Wayne's Electric System. *167-I68-169-170 

Ft. Wayne, Sprinkling Car at .570 

Forever and Forever 166 

Fowler Car Company, The New .258 

Fowler Snow Sweeper, The* 760 

Free List Fiend _374 

French Street Railway Strike 738 

Freight Car, A Neat* 367 

Friction Clutches, Lake Company's* 798 

'Frisco, Fun in 377 

Front Vestibules at Vincennes* 773 

Fuel, A New 163 

Funeral, A Strange .357 



Garton Arrester Discharging* 258 

Gas Motors on Cars 295 

Gazette, The Street Railway, Changes 

Owners , 76 

General Electric Soo* 393 

General Electric Company at w f* 

.- 378 279345-346 

Genett Factory, The* 311 

Genett Air Brake Exhibit at w f* 629 

Genett Air Brake Exhibit at w f 343-344 



Genuine Diplomat, A 766 

German Iron Poles* 808 

Germany, Growth of the Trolley in 700 

Gettysburg Battlefield, Electric Railway 

on the* 635-636-637 

Gettysburg Street Railway 425 

Gibbs Trolley, The* ." 433 

Gilbert, E. G. (portrait) 264 

Given, Wm (portrait) 85 

Gondola, Transit a la, at w f* 353 

Gong, Folger Electric* _59 

Goodhue, Wells (portrait) 216 

Gould, Jay, A Story of.. 47 

Gowan's Rail Cleaner* 394 

Grand Rapids Pleasure Resorts on Road*. .37 

Graham's .Standard Truck* 11 

Grade Climber, A* .359 

Greased Trolley Wire __37 

Green, F. R. (portrait) .305 

Green Tandem Compound Engine* 481 

Great Britain, Annual Meeting of the 

Tramways Institute .500 

Green Bay Power House, Historic Site of. 565 

Gregg, S. K. (portrait) 215 

Green Fuel Economizer at the w f*.. .348-349 

Griffin Wheels, w f Exhibit of* 415 

Griffith, T. B. (obituary and portrait) 518 

Grip Loan Collection, A* 413-413 

Grips, A w f Exhibit of* 413-413 

Grip 6SS 263 

Ground Plates, An Argument in Favor 

of, as Against a Continuous Copper 

Return l;7-118 

Grounding, Plain Argument in Favor of*. 559 

G round Return 389-393 

Ground Return (by J. F. E.) 117-118 

Ground Return 313.313 

Ground Return, The 

97-98-151-152-153-154-154-155 

Guernsey Railway, A* 559 

H 
Half Fares 5-134-133-134-201 

306 - 334-3 15 - 444 145 - 585-589-7 10-7 1 1-763 

Hale & Kilburn's Exhibit at w f 351 

Halladie, A. S. (portrait) 150 

Hammond & East Chicago Railway, 

Building of 173 

Hand Strap, Rombauer 749 

Harrison, E. H. (portrait) 311 

Harrison's Syndicate yiiO 

Harris Patent Anti-Friction Trolley Base. .32 

Harris, N. W., & Company 310 

Harris, J. H. (portrait). 319 

Hasbrouck, D. B. (portrait) 630 

Has a Mania 236 

Hayes, J. M. (portrait) 313 

Heating, Electric 363 

Heater, The Baker* 657 

Heaters, Cost of Operating Electric 395 

Heart, A Change of 39 

Healy Steam Motors, The* 707 

Helm, J. W. (portrait) 206 

Hieatzman Underground Trolley System*. 441 

His Malady 577 

Holmes, John G. (portrait) 538 

Holmden, W. (portrait) 551 

Hommell, G. W. (portrait) 548 

Honest Editor, One 37 

Hoover, P. H. (portrait) 231 

Hoppes Manufacturing Company, w f 

Exhibit of 435 

Hot Pressed Pinion* 654 

Hover, F. A. (portrait) 551 

How It Happened 399 

How They Read the Review. 552 

Hubbard, S. B. (portrait) 287 



Hunt Company, C. W., at w f.A : -' 

Hurt, Joel (portrait) , ,, . . ''-".' 

Hydraulic Wheel Press* jA.-.-'S'J 

Ice as an Insulator ' iit) 

Ice, Removing from Trolley Wire 236 

tde & Sons Exhibit at w f* 517-518 

Ide Engine, Chicago Agency of 432 

Illuminated Sign on the Calumet* 493 

Inauguration Crowds* — 2o7 

Increased Earnings 36 

Incandescent Lamp Decision 31 

Indianapolis, Gas Accident* ._ .310 

Indianapolis Situation at. _ 164 

Indianapolis History 314 

Indianapolis Citizen's New Officers 322 

Indianapolis Railway Group* .203 

Indefinite Postponement 9S 

Induced TralKc* 428 439 

Inducing Traffic 398 

Induced Traffic 62 

Induced Traffic 37 

Induced Traffic -- 37 

Insurance and the Trolley 85 

Insurance and the Trolley 680 

Insurance and Grounded Circuits. 559-560 

Insurance, Grounded Circuits and 355-356 

Insulation of Coils* 44 45 

Insulators From the Sea* 335 

Inspection Department, The Electrical I. .619 
Inspection Department, The Electrical 11.700 
Interlocking Grade Crossing on The 
Chicago & North Shore Electric Rail- 
way* 729-730 

Interurban Service, New Car for* ..92-93 

Interuruan, Another Large. 70 

International Tramways Union 235 

International Fare^Register, w f Exhibit of* 413 

Intramural Railway at w £ Grounds* 

21-22-23-24 

Intramural at w f 279 

Intramural Cars and Motors 229-230 

Irish Tramway, A* 4 '8 

Iron as a Conductor 572 

It Was'nt Dynamite 799 

J 

Jackson & Sharp Company Will Build 

Street Cars, The* .704-765 

Jacksonville Electric Railway* 287 

James Christopher (portrait) 550 

Jefferson Street Power House of West 

Chicago Street Railroad* 14 

Jenkins, C. E. (portrait) 330 

Jewett Car Company, Handsome Cars of 

the* 571 

Johnson Company of Johnstown at w f 531 

Joint, Trolley Wire 370 

Joint, Old Girder Rail as Bridge* 498 

Jolly,]. K. (portrait) 694 

Jones Cars at w f* 353-353 

Judges in Transportation and Electricity 

Departments at wf 522 

Just the Point 370 

K 

Kansas City, Consolidation in 658 

Keen, C. C. (portrait) 320 

Kenfield, F. S, (portrait) 225 

Kicker, A High 423 

Killed by the Current 433 

Killed the Goose That Layed the Golden 

Egg 418 

Kodaked With a Pencil 414-415 

Kohlcr, G. A. W. (portrait) 209 

Kohler, F. W. (portrait) 309 



(^JAcctl^^aiVxiy-j^ieW' 



L 

Labor in Small Power Plants 502-503 

LaCrosse, Rail Bonding At* 439 

LaCrosse Railway Opens to Traffic .738 

Laclede's Exposition Car* 570 

Ladder on Wheels, A*. 738 

Lafayette Electrics* 29-30-31 

Lake Street Elevated of Chicago 683-684 

Lake Roland Elevated, The*.. 75 1-752-753-754 

Lake Roland Road 307 

Lake, J. H. D. & Company 418 

Lamp Patent Suit at St. Louis 321 

Lamont and the Railway 425 

Lamokin Cars at w f* ...383, 3-54 

Lamokin Car Works 327 

Lane & Bodley w f Exhibit of* 438 

Latest Washington Nonsense, The 755 

Launches, Electric*. - 276 

Leavenworth, Pneumatic Railway 40 

Leach, P. F. (portrait) -215 

License for Motor men -781 

Lightning in a Cable Plant 500 

Light, S. P. (portrait) 552 

Lightning, Some Experiments and Exper- 
iences with 401-403 

Light, National Electric Convention 190 

Lillie's, Dr. Electric Car 139-140 

Lillie Dr., (portrait) 139 

Lindell Railway, Handsome Depot of the* 46 

Lindell Railway Fire of* 82 

Little, Hon. Samuel (portrait) 700 

Littell, H. M. (portrait) 8 

Liverpool Overhead Railway*. 13.5-136-137-138 

London Laugh, A 700 

London's Metropolitan Hades -.621 

Londoners, How They Travel _. 83 

London Fire, A* 647 

London, City and South* 561 

Longstreet, D. F. (portrait) 527 

Long Trailers, Disadvantages of... 87 

Long Distance Transmission. 2;')4 

Long Distance Electric Railway* 18-19-20 

Longwell, H. E. (portrait) 224 

Lord Baltimore No. 2* 638-639 

Loss, C. E. (portrait). 315 

Los Angeles Consolidated Cable Rail- 
way* 67 68-69 

Los Angeles and Pasadena Electric 307 

Los Angeles Cable Road Sold 652 

Los Angeles Receiver's Report 760-766 

Louderback, D. H. (portrait) 490 

Louisville Changes 91 

Love Electric Conduit System 17 

Lowell & Suburban Street Railway, The*. 758 

Lowrey, G. P. 337 

Ludlow Combined Car Step and Gate*.. .642 

Lunken Gate Valve* 499 

Lynn, A. W. (portrait) 5-18 

Lyons Brush Holder* _ 268 

MAC 

McAdam a Scotchman 695 

McClosky, J. W. (portrait) 345 

McDonald, R. T. (portrait) 79 

McEwen Engine at \v f* 476 

McGuire, W. A. (portrait) 319 

McGuire's w f Exhibit* 404 

McGuire's Bicycle Truck* .427 

Mcintosh & Seymour at Jackson Park*... 474 

McKeesport Railways 392 

McLean, Manager, of Indianapolis, 

Threatened With Assassination* 720 

McTighe, T. J. (portrait) 631 

M 

Machinery Hall* 108 

Machinery Hall , 409 



V 



Madison, Wis., Mules Replaced by Motors. 13 

Madras , 68 1 

Magnetic Pulleys 700-707 

Maine's New Road (Calais & St. Stephen). 371 

Maine Street Railway Association .580 

Manhattan's Millions 680 

Manufacture of Electric Railway Appara- 
tus in England* 748-749 

Mark Center Bearing Rail* 236 

Marshall, Col J. Q. (portrait) 376 

Married - 'i59 

Massachusetts Railways. 79 

Mason, A. L (portrait) .322 

Mason, W. R. (portrait) ..219 

Massachusetts Street Railway Association. 104 

Matrimonial 59 

Matlock Cable Tramway* 

483-484-485.486-487 488 

Maynard's Cable Road Brake*.. 571 

Meaker Manufacturing Company*. 323 

Mehling Car, The* 164-165 

Melbourne, Tramway Affairs at .630 

Melms, G.J. (portrait) ..549 

Memoriam, In 57 

Mertes, A,, Manufacturing Company 733 

Merrill, G. B. (portrait) 335 

Metropolitan Traction Changes 433 

Metal Ties in Mexico 436 

Middletown-Goshen Traction 781 

Milwaukee Temporary Power House 15 

Milwaukee Fire, The* 

Milwaukee, Map of ..547 

Milwaukee's Hotel Pfister* 453 454-455 

Milwaukee Street Railway Men 548-549 

Milwaukee Accidents 109 

Milwaukee, Hotels in 546 

Milwaukee of To day* 

534-535-536-537 .538-539-540-541 

Milwaukee Street Railway Companies*.. 

.541-543 543-544-545-546 

Milwaukee, History of Rapid Transit*530-531 

Milwaukee, Exhibit Space at 546 

Milwaukee, The Old*...: 532-533 

Minary, T.J. (portrait)... 538 

Minneapolis and St. Paul, Performance of 

Plants at 491492-493 

Mistake, A 366 

Mobile's New Rapid Transit* 730-731-732 

Model Men (Orange, N.J) 6.i3-654 

Montreal's Street Railway System*. .25-26-27 

Morse Car Manufacturing Company 658 

Mosher Lamp, The* 146-265 

Mosher, J. A. (portrait) 2.'3 

Motorman, An Heroic 553 

Motor, Narrow Gauge* ..255 

Motor Suspension, New Method of* 643 

Motor Switch, Cutter's. 806 

Motors, A Use for Old 421 

Motor, G. E. 8oo* 393 

Mt. Auburn Trolley Wheel. 705 

Movable Sidewalk, The Pier 443 

Moving Sidewalk, The* 517 

Moving Sidewalk, The 105 

Movable Sidewalk* .■.226-227-228 

Moving Sidewalk, Life on the*. 718 

Moving Sidewalk,The 15 

Multiphase Railway Motor, Siemen's at 

wf.... 473-473 

Multiphase Currents for Traction Work ..174 

Municipal Management in Canada 555 

Munson Belting* 748 

Myers, L. E. (portrait) 218 

Myers, G. (portrait) - 221 

N 

Nagl, Chas (portrait) 206 

Naval Exhibits in Transportation at w f* .347 



VJ 



(^W«tli\ailAVayj^ytc\/ 



New Castle Car Company, New Manager 

of .551 

New Castle Combination Car* ..553 

New Wav to Get Trolley Wire, A 771 

Newark and Centerville Railroad* 638 

Newspaper Rapid Transit 4 

New Jersey's Roads 371 

New Jersey, Prospects in _ 188 

New Haven & West Haven Street Rail- 
way Power Honse 99-100-101 

New Haven Fare Register 857 

New Haven Fare Register, w f Exhibit 

of* 4U 

New Lines for Havana, Cuba — 77!) 

News from the Cities. 683-78J-78a-78G-787-78H 

New Publications, 

126186-265-330 3S6-439-581-656-730 

New Orleans, Opening of First Electric 

in* 77-78 

New Orleans News — 4 

New Orleans and CarroUton Electric Line* 

303-304-305 

New Orleans, Electrics popular at* 173 

New York, Broadway Cable* 71 to 76 

New York, Broadway Cable Starting of 

by Constance Cruminis*. 161 

New York City Rapid Transit 771 

New York, Rapid Transit in 45 

New York State, Eleventh Annual Meet- 
ing of the Street Railway Association 

of* .' 585-630 

Niagara Falls Park & River Railway* 

689.690-691 

Niagara, Long Distance Transmission at., 688 

Noiseless Rail joint Exhibit at w f 391 

Norwich, Conn. Lines Change Hands 8- 

North Hudson Company Road, Officers 

of 155 

North Chicago Road Will Not Increase 

its Stock 558 

North Chicago Rapid Transit Company, 

Plans of 294 

North Chicago Cleans House 235 

North Chicago Car Barn Fire* 741 

Nugent W. W. (portrait) .._ 214 

Nuttall R. D (obituary and portrait) 572 

o 

Oakland,jElectric Line in* 46 

Oakland's Electrics Combined 489 

Obituary _ — 71J3 

Obstructing The Street Cars 91 

Ogden City Street Railway Plant, Perfor- 
mance of, 568-569 

O'Hara w f Exhibit 393 

Ohio State Tramway Association 637-638 

Ohio State Tramway Association. 573 

Oil Refiner, Ideal Steam* 254 

Oil Fuel at The wf 144 

Oil Filter, Acme* 58 

Old Motors, A Use For 421 

Omnibus Coach* 393 

One of the Old Families 513 

One on Solomon _ ., 313 

One on Her* 87 

O neida's Earnings 307 

On the Grip I .140-141 

On the Grip II 288 

On the Grip III 367 

Opening the World's Fair*. .270 

Orange Mountain Cable* 371-372-373-374 

Orr, C. F. (portrait) 209 

Orr, C. F.,& Company 209 

Our British Visitors. 550 

Our Medal 587 

Ouray Electric Railway 56 

Overhead Material, Type G* 445 



Palmer, G. E. (portrait) 216 

Papers Said the People Didn't Want the 

Trolley ,. 505 

Parallel Coupling with Water Power 356 

Paranite Displayed atwf 586 

Paris Public Carriages of the Past*,.. 622-623 

Parkhurst, Dr., on the Car 334 

Parsons, J. B. (portrait) 206 

Patents, Street Railway ._.. 

17-a55-330-385-452-5 12-573-654-733 

Patent Office Gossip 384-451-512-578-733 

Patent, How it Protects 166 

Paving, A Chapter on .237-338 

Paving, A Chapter on* 285-286 

Paving in Europe 715 

Payne, H. C. (portrait) 548 

Peckham Motor, Truck & Wheel Com- 
pany, w f Exhibit of* 409-110 

Peckham's Improved 6 A Truck* 391 

Penington, T. C. (portrait) 205 

Pennsylvania Mortgage, A , 489 

Pennsylvania, Decision of Court 91 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Association,, 10 
Pennsylvania Street Railway Association, 

Second Annual Meeting of, 551-552 

Peoria, Fire at* 82 

Peoria Power Plant 293 

Persecution in Detroit ._ 674 

Performance of the Ogden City Street 

Railway Plant 568 

Performance of Street Railway Power 

Plants (St. Paul and Minneapolis) 

491-492-493 

Performance of the Chicago City Rail- 
way's Electric Plant and Equipment* 

..." 685-686-687-088 

Personals .,.7-93-94-186-293- 

326-373-440-441-086-648-649-720-721-796 

Philadelphia's Trolley 20 

Philadelphia, New Cable Line for 84 

Philadelphia Changes 314 

Philadelphia Traction Companies' Plans.. 694 

Philadelphia Bad Boys 693 

Phillip, T P 207 

Phoenix Iron Works, The* 436 

Pictorial Events of the Month* 

125-386-481-506-581-648-807-808 

Picnic, Denver Company's — 481 

Pikes Peak Cog Railroad* 504-505 

Pinion, A Hot Pressed* 654 

Pittsburg Combinations 434 

Pleasant Valley Traction Company 

Bridge* 308 309 

Pleasure Resorts and Created Travel*756-7o7 

Plugging Ties* 695 

Polka, A Trolley 519 

Police, Street Railroad. 483 

Porter New Rocker Switch* 31 

Portland, Me., A Good Year at 102 

Portland Street Car Plunges Into an Open 

Draw* 7J1 

Power Plants, Performance of 491-492-493 

Power House Force 560 

Power Plant, A Suburban* ,. 245-246 

Power, Cost of, on the Cedar Rapids & 

Marion City Railway 515-516 

Power Plants, Labor in Small 502-503 

Postal Street Cars* 199-300 

Pratt Portable Register* 311 

Pratt, Geo. E. (portrait) 354 

Predictions Fulfilled, Our 295 

Preston, E. B. (portrait) 220 

Pulleys, Magnetic •,..706-707 

Purifying Steam Water* 298 

Put-in-Bay & Southwestern* 293 



Q 

Qwf. i! the Dead...;,,,. 39-708 

R 

Racing's Street Railway* 130-131-132 

Rails, Continuous -, ,307 

Rail Bonding and the Ground Return I 

97-98 

Rail Bonding and the Ground Return II* 

151 152-153-154.155 

Rail Bond, The Chicago* 684 

Rail Bonding at LaCrosse* 439 

Rail Bonding 389-390-391-292 

Rail Bonding, by H. R. Keithley ,.'.691 

Rail Joint, An Overlapping 365 

Rail Joints, Hot Riveting .',329 

Rail Joints, by Joseph Anthony* 703 

Rail, Old Girders as Bridge* ,...498 

Rail Cleaner, Gowan's* 394 

Railway in a Day, A 431 

Railway Equipment Company's Section 

Insulator 393 

Railway Equipment Rail Bond* ... 708 

Rapid Transit Idyl 247 

Ran, Otto M. (portrait) 549 

Ray Pulley Covering, The* .,. 778 

Reading Rooms 247 

Record for Hazard Cables, A 715 

Recording Ammeter on the Cleveland 

City Railway* 625 

Reel True Story, A* 766 

Reflector, American* 171 

Register, New Haven Fare 257 

Register, Pratt Portable* 311 

Reinoehl, Judge Adolphus (obituary and 

portrait) 673 

Reimann, G. L. (portrait) ...,223 

Removing Ice from Trolley Wire 236 

Resorts, Winter ...63 

Restrictions, Prohibilive 418 

Return Circuits, Overhead Copper for 36'J 

Return Circuits* 364-36i 

Return Circuit. .,,312-:n3 

Return Circuit of an Electric Street Rail- 
way, The by O. M. Rau* 767-708-7iJ9 

Return Circuit of Electric Railways, Re- 
port of Committee on 031.632-633 634 

Return Circuit, Iron as a Conductor in 572 

RicviEW Has Horns, The,.. 778 

Rhoads, H. R (portrait) 553 

Richmond & Manchester Consolidation 189 

Richardson, William (portrait) . 86 

Richardson, Wm. (portrait) 527 

R'gg. J- A. (portrait) 434 

Roach, J. M. (portrait) .206 

Robins' Life Guard, The*. 770 

Robinson, M. S. (portrait) 109 

Rochester Street Car Advertisement, A*,. 779 

Robinson, N. W. (portrait). 213 

Rochester Blaze, A 3.57 

Rochester's Railway Depot G99 

Roebling's Son's Company, Wire Exhibit 

of at wf* 467-468 

Rogers, E. P. (portrait) 221 

Rolling Chairs at w f* 277 

Romance, A Back Platform _ 557 

Royal Electric Mail Car at Ottawa* 783 

Running Board, All Steel* 314 

s 

Sacramento's System igi 

Safety Brake for Mountain Roads, A* 4U0 

Safety Gate Fastener* 770 

Saleve, Water Power Electric Road at* 

567-568 

Salt Lake, Small Boys in 557 

Sand Box, Sterling Supply Company's* ,,497 



i^bicd.l?(aiWay-5\eV^ 



VII 



Sand Dr^'ing Machine, A* 172 

Sander, Vogan Bros* 571 

Sandusky Receivership 031 

San Diego, Street Railway in* 435 

San Francisco's Consolidation Com- 
pleted 683 

San Francisco's Gigantic Combination 623 

San Francisco, New Terminal at* 798 

San Francisco, Terminal Facilities in* 553 

San Francisco, History of the Market 

Steel Cable at 362 

Sargent, C. S. (portrait) 432 

Sargent & Lundy 208 

Scarrit Car Seat Exhibit at w f 3S*4 

Scarrit Car Seat Company* 741 

Scheme to Ride with the Birds __._ 40 

Schieren, Chas. A. & Company at w f*__ 

350 351 

Schultz, J. A.J. (portrait) 569-570 

Schieren, Chas. A. Elected Mayor of 

Brooklyn (portrait) 712 

Sciiuttler Manufacturing Comyany, w f 

Exhibit of 414 

Schichau's Engines w f Exhibit 407 

Scranton & Carbondale Traction Com- 
pany ; 480 

Scranton, New Buildings at .. 40 

Scranton Carbondale Electric Railway* _ 

697-6ft8 

Seattle, New Sale at 83 

Seattle Notes 256 

Searching for a Solution 190 

Selling Power From Trolley Circuit. .333-334 

She Talks Back ' 166 

Sheffield Car Company at w f* 471-472 

Sheriffs, J. A. (portrait) 223 

Shield for Motormen, Acme* ...254 

"Short Lap," A Talk on*... 742 

Siamese Train, A 554 

Sidewalk, The Moving* 517 

Siemens & Halske at the Convention 668 

Siemen's Multiphase Railway Motor at 

w f 472-478 

Singapore, An Electric Railway in* 32 

Single as Against Double Motor Equip- 
ment 774 

Sioux City's Cable Changes Hands 623 

Situation, An L of a ...431 

Small Roads, Account System for 422-423 

Smith, F. M., of Oakland 163 

Smith, of New York* 347-348 

Smith, C. H. of Scranton (portrait)* 394 

Smith, Willard A. (portrait) lOB 

Smith, Wm. H. (portrait) 313 

Snow and Electric Cars _ 172 

Some Denials _13 

Something to be Proud of 356 

Sorrow Turned to Joy ,162 

South Chicago City Railway* ...156-157-158 

South American Street Railways 336 

South American Ox Cart, A* 380 

South Carolina, The First Electric Rail- 
way in* 376-377 

South Africa, Street Cars in* 6U6 697 

Span and Bracket Construction 781 

.Spain, Making a Street Car in* 733-723 

Spencer, Lieut. E.J. (portrait) 346 

Spikes, Effect of Driving in Wooden Ties. 503 

Splice, A Speedy _ 62 

Sprinkler, Day's* 805 

Sprinkling Car at Ft. Wayne 570 

Stalwart Stack, A* 755 

Stanwood .Step* 314 

Standard Railway Supply Company, w f 

Exhibit of 436 

Standard Divider, The* 708 

Station Force (Ft. Worth) 560 



Standard Paint Conipany, w f Exhibit of. 417 

Steps, Steel*.. 314 

Steam Motor, .\ Swedish* 556 

Stephenson Company's Exhibit at w f*.. 

477-t78 

Stealing Rides on Car 478-470 

Stephenson, John (portrait) ..463-463 

Stenographer, The Official (T. E. Cross- 
man) 529 

Stealing Rides on Cars, Boys. 560 

Stewart, B. F. (portrait) 224 

Steam Motors, The Mealy* 707 

Stever Rail Joint, The* .399 

Stirling Boiler Exhibit at w f* 342 

Storage Battery Trial in Chicago* 795-790 

Storage Battery, The Logan 360 

Storage Battery, The Acme 102 

Storage Batteries Fail Again 258 

Storage Battery Buckled 327 

Storage Battery, Decision 461 

Storage Battery Operation, Cost of, on 

Second Avenue, New York* 716 

Storm Vestibules in Ohio* 778 

■ Strikers and the Law 103 

Stromberg & Allen (portraits). 210 

Strikers, Billings, J., on 305 

Street Railway Law 42, 30, 191, 243, 298, 368, 

419, 494, 562, 626, 70!, 761, 763 

Street Car Curtains* 793 

Street Sprinkling by Street Railways* 794 

Street Railway Man to the Rescue 6'35 

Streets in Germany 431 

Street Car Advertising in New York 234 

Strike at Toledo, Sequel to .110 

Strike at Wheeling 188 

Streator, An Intei-esting Case at 714 

Street Car as a Geologist 718 

Strap Handles, Wooden 256 

Sturges Sleet Trolley Wheel* 78 

St. Louis Street Car Ambulance* 463-464 

St. Louis Mileage 719 

•St. Louis, Noble Work Among the Street 

Railway Employes in 709 

St. Louis Quarterly Report .698 

St. Clair Street Electric Line, Cleveland. .476 

St. Louis, Travel in 483 

St. Louis, Passenger Traffic in 84 

St. Petersburg, Tramways of 361 

St. Paul & Minneapolis Again 235 

St. Paul and Minneapolis, Performance 

of Plants at 491-492-493 

Suburban Service, Largest in the World*. 335 

Summer Resort Roads 773 

Sunday Transportation in Toronto 624 

Sunny, B. E (portrait) 317 

Supplies, Street Railway in Chicago 

208 to 225 

Supply Men's Organization 47 

Swedish Steam Motor, A* 555 

Switchboards, A Sermon on 717 

Switch, Adjusted Overhead* 418 

Switch, A Cable Road* 624 

Switch, Porter New Rocker* 31 

Syndicate, The New Jersey 246 



Taylor, W. (portrait 316 

Taylor Truck, The Improved* 44 

Taylor Truck, The New* 655 

Taylor Truck Exhibited at w f 468 

Tebbetts, J. S. (portrait) 224 

Tertninal Facilities at Jackson Park* 230 

Terminal Station at w f* 349 

Tesla, Exhibit A* 410417 

The Funny Star 624 

They Tore Up the Tracks 757 



Third Avenue Road, New Ytjrk, Main 

Power Station of* 791-702 

Those Absurd Curves 6'JO 

Thrown up by the Sweeper.. 739 

Threedy, F. L. (portrait) 200 

Thurston, C. B. (portrait) 306 

Tickets, Aluminum 516 

Ties, Metal 358 

Ties, Plugging* 695 

Tiffin, Fire at* 83 

Timber Test Work, U. S ..196 

Toledo, Last Horse Car in 5 

Toledo Tower Wagon* ly-j 

Toronto, Canada Power House, Engines 

in the 625 

Toronto, Sunday Transportation in 624 

Toronto Transfer Ticket.. 716 

Tower of Light, w f* 343 

Tower Wagon* 363 

Tower Wagon, The Toledo*. 187 

Tower Wagon on City Railway-, Knox* 797 

Tower, The, on the Davenport & Rock 

Island* .428-439 

Traction, Comparative Resistance to 357 

Traffic, Electricity Draws the ..476 

Tram Car Letter Boxes in Dublin* 780 

Transportation, Primitive, at w f* 347 

Transportation Building, How to See the* 

270-371 

Transportation Building, A Stroll 

Through 375-276 

Transportation at World's Fair 233 

Transportation for the Business District 

of Chicago, by Means of Movable 

Sidewalks .750 

Transfers, A Few Sample* 320 

Transfer Table, Day's* 321 

Transfer, The Troublesome 556 

Transfer Table, A Flush 653 

Transfer Printer, A Time 676 

Transfer Ticket, A Toronto 716 

Transfer, A Novel*... 724 

Track Brush Holder, A Simple* 553 

Track Drainage* 430 

Track Curios* 404 

Tracy, L. M. (portrait) 314 

Travel in St. Louis 483 

Traveling Hospital, A ...806 

Transmission, Long Distance, at Niagara. 689 
Tramways Institute of Great Britain, 

Annual Meeting ol". ,500 

Tramway Expenses in England ..699 

Tropical Car, A* 403 

Trolley Head, R. and E.* 777 

Trolley Wire Joint 370 

Trolley Boy, The .81 

Trolley Wheel, West End* 264 

Trolley Circuit Arc Lamp*... 265 

Trolley Base, Harris Anti-Friction* 33 

Trolley, The Gibbs* 433 

Trolley Malaria .558 

Trolley Polka 519 

Trolley as a Hypnotizer 490 

Trolley in Egypt.. 647 

Trolley, Boston Pivotal 439 

Trolley Patent, Again the 280 

Trolley Wire Splicer, A Threaded* 334 

Trolley Wheel, The Mt. .\uburn 705 

Truck, Graham's Standard* 11 

Truck, Taylor Improved* 44 

Truck, Manufacture of an Electric Street 

Car 5B-56 

Truck, McGuire's Bicycle* 437 

Truck, The NewTaylor*- 055 

Truck, Peckham's Improved 6 A* 391 

Trucks, Curious Idea in Motor* 719 

Tug-of-War Railroad Day* 639 



VIII 



(joiyi£d/l(\aiiM^li^Vu^ 



u 

Underground vs. Elevated Traction in 

England _ 558 

Underground Trolley, Hieatzman's Sys- 
tem* , 441 

Underground Railways _621 

Universal Brace* 777 

Urbana & Champaign Electric Railway 

and Its Operation, The* 775-776-777 

V 

Valentine,;. L 264 

Valve, Lunken Gate* 499 

Van Nuis and the Albert & J. M. Ander- 
son Exhibit at w f* 467 

Variation of Coal Consumption in Power 

Plants 504 

Vestibuled Platform Law in Ohio* 

_. 671-072-673 

Vestibule, The Vogan Brothers Adjust- 
able* _ 740 

Vestibule Plan, Another 704 

Vestibule, A New Street Car* 36 

Vogan Brotliers' Sander* 571 

Vogan Brothers' Adjustable Vestibule* 740 

w 

Waddell-Entz Batteries in New York 716 

Waddell-Entz System, The* 398-399 

Wages and Profits, As to 34 

Walking, How About Sunday 39 

Walworth Pole Exhibit at w £ 351 



Wants His Scalp 174 

Washburn & Moen vv f Exhibit* 342-343 

Was it a Hoodoo.' .54 

Washington, D. C, Crowds* 257 

Wason,C. W. (portrait) 289 

Watertown, Car House at* _ ,41 

Watertown Mutual Aid Society 339 

Water Pipes, Electrolysis oi .283 

We Pull His Teeth 36 

Webster Vacuum Feed Water Heater* ...765 

Welding Rail on the West End 436 

Wells, Erastus (obituary) 673 

West End's New President* 700 

Western Bank Note Company, w f 

Exhibit of 413 

Westinghouse Railway Exhibit at w f* 344 

Westinghouse Company, w f Switch- 
board of* 280 

Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Com- 
pany, w f Exhibit of* 435 

Westinghouse at w f* 381-383 

Westinghouse Multiphase w f Exhibit 

416-417 

West Chicago, Jefferson Street Power 

House of 14 

Wharam, Wm. (portrait)... 551 

What Killed Him 558 

Whale Back Christopher Columbus*. 30 

Wharton Derailing Switch* 780 

Wheeler, G. K. (portrait) 317 

Where Horses Ride* .240 

Wheels on Curves, New 393 

Wheeler, Geo. H. (portrait) 304 

W here Cond uctorsComeFrom 694 



Whitewash, Receipt for.. 84 

Whitney, Henry M. (portrait) 340 

Why Paint Blisters 426 

Wilcutt, Joseph L. (portrait) '.303 

Will Move Mountains Yet 143 

Willans Engine and Its Western Home*. .715 

Will Do His Own Reviewing 708 

Willams Engine and Clutch Works..: 402 

Winding the Westinghouse Multipolar*. ,458 

Windsor, H. H. (portrait) 235 

Wood's Adjustable Pipe Bracket* 522 

Worcester & Millbury Interurban 70 

Worst Yet 2^9 

World's Fair Notes 105-330-400 

World's Fair* 143-144-145- 

146-337-338-329-230-231-233-270-371- 
373-373-374-375-376-277378-279-280- 
381-283 403-401-405-406-407-408-4C9- 
410-411-413-413-414-413-310-417-435- 
430-437-438-406-467-468-409-470-471- 
473-473-474-475-470-477-478 517-531- 

579-580-584-586-639-650-714-715 

World's Fair, Street Railway Interests 

at* ...;i36-337-3;i8- 

339-340-34 1 343-343-34 1-3 15-340-347- 
.... 348-349-350-351-353-353-354-393 394 

Y 

Yerkes, C. T. (portrait) ..206 

Yerkes' New Residence 439 

Young, W. D. (portrait) 346 

Young, T. Hackworth 238 

Youngstown Railway, The* 740-747 





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Address all Commanieations and Retntttances to The Street Railway Review 

2bg Dearborn Street^ Chicago. 
H. H. WINDSOR. F. S. KENFIELD, 

Editor. Business Manager. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

We cordially invite correspondence on all subjects of interest to those engaged 
in any branch of Street Railway work, and will gratefully appreciate any marked 
copies of papers ornews items our street railway friends may send us, pertaining 
either to companies or officers. Address: 

THE STREET RAILWAY REVIEW, 

269 Dearborn Street, Chicago. 



Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Seeond Class Matter. 



This paper member Chicago Publishers' Association. 



VOL. 3. 



JANUARY, 1893. 



NO. 1 



BEGIN now to make your plans to visit the World's 
Fair and the Street Railway Review. The 
former is the event of a life-time; the latter will endeavor 
to make your visit to Chicago more enjoyable. 

THIS number marks the second birthday of the 
Street Railway Review. We may not want 
to double its size in the next two years, but shall continue 
to make it intensely wide-awake and progressive. 



STREET railway companies in all parts of the Union 
have a bright and busy 3'ear before them. Manjr 
roads will the coming season begin to realize returns from 
lines intended chiefly for pleasure riding, and which were 
completed too late for use last year. 



AN unusual number of rare and disastrous accidents 
occurred during the last week ai 1892. It seemed 
as though old Father Time suddenly awoke to wasted 
opportunities and endeavored at the last moment to 
make a startling record. He succeeded. 

THE city council of Cleveland adopted a resolution 
expressing approval of municipal ownersliip of 
street railways in general; but evidently .saw the error of 
its ways, for a little later a franchise was granted the 
cable company for rapid transit on the St. Clair line, 
which has been pending many moons. 



THE New York Rapid Transit Commissioners have 
had their compensation fixed at $5,000 a year each 
The general term of the supreme court which fixed the 
salary says that the commissioners should not think that 
$5,000 is an adequate return, but that "they must look to 
public gratitude for their reward." We fear they will 
need the Yerkes telescope. 



ON December 28, last, the Pennsylvania Street Rail- 
way Association was organized under the most 
favorable circumstances, at Lancaster. There is much 
that the state organization can accomplish which does 
not come within the pro\ince of the American, and the 
Review extends congratulations to the new association. 
John A. Coyle, Lancaster, was elected president. 



THE city council of Bloomington has just ordained 
that the operation of open cars in that city must be 
restricted to the months of May to October, inclusive. 
There have been days in Chicago in November far more 
suitable to the operation of open cars than many other 
dajs in May or even June. We believe it should be left 
to the companies, and that such privilege would not be 
abused, to use open or closed cars according to their own 
judgment. 

ON another page of this issue we publish a letter from 
an electrician who received upwards of 500 volts, 
and, while very vigorously shocked, was at work twelve 
hours later. That the full voltage was passed through 
his body is unquestioned, as the accident short-circuited 
the station. It is almost impossible that anything like as 
severe a shock could be received from a falling wire, and 
the props are now well knocked out from under the 
"deadly trolley" crank. 



WITH the constantl)- increasing number of supply 
houses, and the desire for certain lines of business 
by manufacturers who heretofore have had no interest in 
street railway work, will come stronger competition. 
The buyer will therefore have a wider range in which to 
select, and, in some materials and appliances, lower prices. 
Purchasers should not, however, allow the attractions of 
extremely low bidders to overbalance their judgment of 
what is most servicable combined with the necessary 
wearing qualities. Repairs, not interest on first cost, 
count. 



THIS is pre-eminently a World's Fair year. We read 
the fact not onl^- in the coin of the realm but even 
in postage stamps. No one has yet read, however, 
enough to convey any approachable comprehension of the 
surpassing magnitude and completeness of the enterprise 
No one who attends will fail to be happily surprised. It 
is fitting to entitle it the event of a lifetime. We trust 
every one of our readers will make it possible to attend. 
In the meantime the RevIew will keep you fully posted 
as to what is being done at the point of interest, on which 
the eyes of all the world are centered. 



THE obstructionist mayor of Detroit, Mayor Pingree, 
recently undertook to give an extra turn of the 
thumb-screws and proposed to enact a tax on the free 
list of the Citizens' railway. As the aforesaid free list was 
composed of the city officials and their satellites this pro- 
posed assessment was a case of plucking live feathers 
from the goose. General Manager Hawks was equal 
to the emergency, however, and instantly revoked all 
passes except the company's own employes. He has 
since lifted the ban from the fire and police department, 
but the city dads are doing penance, and find even the 
excellent streets of Detroit a hard Jordan to travel on foot 
these cool days. 

ABOUT once in so often the old anhj'drous ammonia 
motor is heard, or rather smelled of in a new part 
of the country. It is to be noted that, in all its travels 
during the past fifteen years, it is the same old anhydrous 
though usually bobbing up in a different suit of clothes, 
and never twice in the same place. If we had all the 
good money that has been squandered on ammonia motors 
we would have — well, enough to start a small syndicate. 
There has been as much humbug in the various chemical 
motors which have been sprung on the railway frater- 
nity as in the fallacious car starter. Cars can be run by 
anhydrous ammonia, and caustic soda, and a long list of 
other gentle stimulants; they can be made to carr)- 
people; and so can balloons and ox carts, but none of 
them are commercially practical. They afford gigantic 
illustrations of what every student has seen in the physi- 
cal laboratory, with all out doors for a class room and the 
whole public as spectators; and it all is very wonderful 
and very expensive and very rank of smell. But no 
chemical power at present known to man affords a suita- 
ble motive force for the operation of street cars. 



THE linemen of Toledo, fearful lest an ill-timed strike 
on their part should fail in its purpose, maliciously 
cut the electric light and electric railway wires, and on 
Christmas eve the city was plunged in darkness and 
deprived, to a large extent, of street car service. The 
demands for higher wages and the limiting of the number 
of apprentices to one apprentice to every five men, were 
made by the union and not by the employes direct to their 
respective companies. Such acts of vandalism are as 
reprehensible as they are unwarranted, and at the start 
the strikers deprived themselves of any sympathy which 
otherwise might have existed. The trouble arose from 
the national union, which learned that lower wages pre- 
vailed in Toledo for this work than in some other cities. 
Wages in San Francisco, New Orleans and New York 
have nothing to do with the basis of wages in Toledo. 
To be consistent the union should furnish this class of 
labor as cheaply in Montana as in Maine, if Toledo wages 
are to be based on some other place. No thanks are 
due the strikers that loss of life did not result from the 
cut light wires. A person who cuts wires which do not 
belong to him should be as promptly sent to the peniten- 
tiary as the manager of a company who for some griev- 



ance, real or imagined against his men, should destroy 
part or whole of the house and furniture in which the 
employe lives. 

AS a rule, we believe, the street railways generally 
make a good selection in the choice of their men, 
and that these men endeavor to perform their duties in 
an earnest and sincere manner. To the most experienced 
and careful will sometimes come accidents in spite of all 
the watchfulness possible. There are many accidents 
which the victims actuallj' force upon a company and for 
which their own personal negligence is to blame. On 
the other hand there occasionally creep into the ranks 
men who either are naturally careless of danger them- 
selves, and expect others to be the same, or who allow 
themselves to become indifferent and so heedless of pos- 
sible consequences, until they are suddenly awakened by 
some terrible fatality. 

While not detracting in the least from what we believe 
to be the burden of caution resting upon the public, there 
can be no doubt that employes, where the evidence con- 
clusively proves criminal and inexcusable carelessness, 
should be amenable to higher powers than the mere dis- 
missal by the company's superintendent. Human life is 
invaluable and every reasonable precaution should be 
taken to protect it 

The foregoing is suggested by the recent sentence to 
one year at hard labor of one of the motormen of the 
Citizens' road, Memphis. So unusual is the case and so 
pointed are the comments of the Memphis Avalanche, we 
are impelled to quote the following from a recent editor- 
ial. Under the title of " Criminal Carelessness," it says: 

The sentence of Motorman Stevens of the Citizens' Street Railway 
Company to one year at Iiard labor in the fetate's prison, because of crim- 
inal negligence in killing Joseph Thompson, while operating his car, 
affords an example which should be heeded by all persons engaged in 
employments which invoh-e the care of lives of others. It is rare that 
convictions have been attained in such cases, and the Stevens case fur- 
nishes a precedent, if the verdict and Judge OuBose's instructions shall 
be sustained by the Supreme Court, which will be of important effect 
everywhere. The only recourse the public had iii the case was to arrest 
and punish Stevens. A civil suit for damages might have been brought 
against the company by the heirs of Thompson. But that would have 
been a matter of private concern. The company laid no duty upon 
Stevens which he could not have fulfilled without endangering human 
life. Stevens merelv forgot himself. He had never hurt any one, and, 
therefore, he grew careless and took chances. There was, of course, no 
malicious intent. Tiie verdict was in line with right public policv. 
Stevens, of course, is entitled to some sympathy, and the public would 
not complain if he should be pardoned. It is sufficient for the public 
interest that it has at last been shown that the courts are ready to pun. 
ish those wno are guilty of criminal carelessness. It will make life more 
safe on our streets and railroads. Employes who are charged with trusts 
that include a watchful regard for human life that may be iinperilled by 
their own recklessness or by too exact observance of carelessly given 
orders from their superiors, should find in the verdict a warning not to 
be ignored. It is well from everv point that the importance of the statute 
has been emphasized. It was rapidly growing obsolete and Judge 
DuBose's charge should be studiously read by all persons who have 
responsibilities like those with which Stevens was entrusted. 

AS a novel feature of the next convention at Milwau- 
kee, General Manager Payne has suggested to the 
executive committee, that instead of the stereotyped ban- 
quet, one of the palace steamers of the Goodrich line, 
plying between Milwaukee and Chicago, be chartered. 



%l*^^*^t^ 



The vessel could leave Milwaukee late in the evening, 
say lo to 12 o'clock, and be at her dock at the World's 
Fair Grounds at daylight. After spending the whole 
day at the Fair, the return trip would again be made at 
night. The steamers are among the largest and finest 
on the lakes, and the trip would afford a delightful trip 
b}^ water. We heartily endorse the plan, but agree 
with Mr. Pavne, the date of the meeting should be made 
a little earlier on this and other accounts. 



AS TO WAGES AND PROFITS. 



THE people who constitute the public, in Washington, 
D. C, — that is, the minority who are left after sub- 
tracting the honorables and others who do not breathe 
plebeian air, and who consider themselves above riding in 
a street car except on passes, constitute the prize "Kick- 
ers"of all the great family, who from Atlantic to Pacific 
take up their favorite exercise at earlj' dawn and continue 
the exhibition far into the hours of darkness. We think 
we have discovered the special objects of the Vander- 
biltian anathema. Only a short time ago these people 
complained because there was no place of shelter at the 
end of the line in which to wait for a car. Then the 
companj^ changed its schedule and held a train at the ter- 
minus until the next one came up to relieve it. As every 
street railway man knows, this means one full train and 
all its crew lying idle throughout the entire operating da}'; 
which means extra expense to the company. In most 
cities a grateful and intelligent public would have appre- 
ciated this endeavor on the part of the company. But 
not so in Washington. The inoffensive cars at once 
became a scandal, "occupying the streets to the detriment 
of the business interests of a large number of its citizens." 
Kickers addressed open abusive letters to ''honorable 
senators," one of whom promises the public and threatens 
the company with a bill ''to prevent the occupancy of 
streets by other than moving cars." Doubtless if ter- 
minal cars were kept revolving on a turn table, or raised 
and lowered on some kind of a gigantic see-saw, they 
might evade the bill and still claim to be the necessary 
"moving cars." The people of "the states" have always 
been told there was an overstock of fools in Washington, 
but it was hardly suspected the contagion had spread to 
such an extent. The street car companies of Washington 
deserve the sympathy of all the brethren. In no city in 
the country do street railways have as much of ignorance 
of street railway necessities, and the law-making powers, 
to contend with. There are no better roads in the United 
States than in the Capital City; their managers stand 
high in the American Street Railway Association as men 
of abilitj- and experience; equipment is good; speed all 
that can be asked; employes carefully selected. Not- 
withstanding all this the roads are a perpetual target of 
abuse and vindictive legislation. The secret of it all lies 
in the fact that the railways of Washington are so subject 
to governmental control. The lesson is easily read as to 
what municipal control of street railways would create. 
The "honorable senator" better make a requisition on St. 
Peter for an equipment of golden chariots — roller bear- 
ings and buffet vestibules being specified. 



THE employes of the West End Street Railway 
Company, a corporation which operates exten- 
sive lines through Cambridge and other suburbs 
lying west of the city of Boston, have asked for an increase 
of pay. The case is such a thoroughly typical one that 
it is worth some attention. 

The employes do not urge with any particular stress 
the argument that they are not now reasonably well paid, 
they say they have made an analysis of the income and 
outgo of the company; and as a result they are convinced 
that the company is earning unduly large dividends. 
The position of the employes is that the company should 
therefore divide these profits with them. Accordingly 
the demand is for higher pay and i educed hours of work. 
In this matter several important considerations are to 
be taken into the account. In the first place the West End 
Street Railway has made a financial statement proving 
that its income is no more than is needed to pay its regu- 
lar rates of dividend and interest. The company has 
within the last few years gone to great expense in doing 
away with horses and putting in an elaborate system of 
electric power. To meet this outlay there was a corres- 
ponding increase of capital upon which dividends must 
be paid. Consequently a much larger income is needed 
than before. 

Yet, even were the company earning more than enough 
to meet its fixed charges, the employes have no right to 
assume that they are entitled to the excess. There is no 
special reason for granting them increased wages or 
reduced hours of work, so long as the company can hire 
all the men it wants at less wages than those now given. 
One fact to be remembered in connection with this 
subject is that the street railway companies are not now 
in the position which they occupied ten or fifteen years 
ago. Then horses were used almost everywhere, and 
changes in motive power were not contingencies for which 
it was necessary to save much money. To-day, on the 
other hand, the liability is that almost any morning the man- 
ager may wake up to learn that during the night some one 
has discovered an improvement in electric railway appli- 
ances which renders some part of his equipment obsolete. 
In order to furnish the best obtainable to the patrons of 
the road he is forced to incur enormous expenditures, 
and suffer perhaps a total loss on what was until that time 
the best in the market. So rapid have been the improve- 
ments marking the past three years of electric railway 
metamorphosis that many roads have actually thrown out 
more than they have worn out. While it is fair to pre- 
sume this danger is on the decrease, no inteligent man 
would for a moment consider the liability as removed. 

Accidents to horse-stock could be very closely antici- 
pated, and with the exception of severe epidemics which 
have appeared only at long intervals, such losses were 
evenly distributed throughout the year. 

In the electric plant the burning out of a single arma- 
ture may involve a loss of two thousand dollars in a frac- 
tion of a second. 



An electric railwaj' power station is a small exposition 
of delicate and costly machinery. 

As soon as better appliances are invented the West 
End Company, as well as most of the others in this coun- 
try, will be forced bj' public opinion, if not by the instinct 
of self preservation, to adopt them. The change will 
mean a considerable loss for which the companies should 
be now making some preparation. In other words, there 
is a rainy daj^ a head for which it would be wise to save 
something, to say nothing of necessarj' renewals from 
wear. 

Still another view of the case is brought forward by the 
Boston Herald, which, in commenting on the demand 
upon the West End road, begs the employes to remember 
that, leaving aside the necessities of the corporation, the 
public is entitled to some share of e.xcessive profits. The 
public grants the railway a monopoly of the streets. 
While the employes argue that the company is not enti- 
tled to surplus profits, and that the extra money should 
go to the employes, the truth of the matter is that the 
employes are no more entitled to excessive wages than 
the company to excessive profits. A companjr which re- 
ceives a franchise from the community is in turn bonud by 
an obligation to the community. 

If it earns excessive profits, the public and not already 
full)' paid employes, should receive the benefit, and this in 
the form of an improved and increased service. Fran- 
chises are not granted nor roads built to merely afford 
wage earning opportunities to employes. Roads are 
built to serve the pubhc, of which the company's em- 
ployes constitute a very small part. Employes are enti- 
tled to what their work is worth; after this, if a road 
reaches a point where profits are "excessive" the obliga- 
tion immediately arises to improve its service. 

When that time comes companies have it largely in 
their own power to create the public sentiment they wil 
have to meet. 

The sum of the matter is, then, that the public should no 
more countenance a street railway company in paying 
employes excessive wages than in exacting excessive 
profits. 

NEWSPAPER RAPID TRANSIT. 



THE exceedingly dismal failure of the gigantic 
scheme to furnish the city of New York with 
rapid transit should be an object lesson to three 
classes of people, namely, the secular press, the political 
economist and the recalcitrant citizen known commonly 
as the kicker. The general progress of the great object 
to be attained has been retarded two years at least. 
Eminent men and true, first-class engineers and the best 
lethal talent have failed to do what one single every -day 
capitalist with common sense could have done in half the 

time. 

The wildly delirious joy which welcomed the rapid 
transit scheme is best illustrated by a few excerpts from 
the Tribune, Mail and Express, Times, and Post, who 
hailed the scheme in these words: 



"The franchise will be one of the most valuable railroad franchises in 
the world. The travel in that great artery of the metropolis will be 
enormous as soon as the road is open, and it will increase steadily and 
rapidlv. Look at the vearly increase on the elevated roads, and remem- 
ber that the new ro.id is to be the great popular line for a fast growing 
city." 

"The proposed system is immediately feasible from a financial point of 
view. The probable cost of construction and equipment falls within 
moderate limits, and hence the project appeals to men of prudence and 
stability, instead of to visionaries. There will not be the slightest diffi- 
culty in enlisting capital in the undertaking. There is likely to be a 
livelier competition for tlie franchise than the best interests of the cil^' 
require." 

"The road will cost a great deal of money, but so will any road that 
shall adequately meet the need. As it is certain to pay good dividends 
upon a heavy in\estment, its cost will be no barrier to its early comple- 
tion. There i.^ capital in plenty eager for an investment so siu'ely profit- 
able." 

"No railroad was ever planned anywhere on the face of the globe that 
presented such attractions to capital. Never since Stephenson laid his 
first rails from Stockton to Darlington has any road been surveyed that 
promised to gather half as much traffic per mile." 

The sequel of one bid, and that refused, tells the whole 
tale. Let rapid transit men provide rapid transit; let the 
engineers engineer and the preachers, teachers and school 
children attend strictly to business. 

The mora! also is pertinent that when cities undertake 
to engage in the planning of intramural transportation 
they are out of their proper sphere. How much more, 
then, would they be in the vastly increased responsibility 
of owning and operating. 

The public are better provided for with street railway 
lines in the hands of corporations than it could possibly 
be under municipal control. 

NEW ORLEANS NEWS. 



E\'ERVI}ODY and everybody's smartest agent is 
now looking southward to New Orle--"-- .where 
the biggest orders since the Brooklj-n equipment 
of last year, will be distributed during the last of this 
month or the first of next. It is pretty well understood 
that the General Electric has the first say as to equip- 
ment in their Imes. The New Orleans manager will be 
H. M. Littell, of Cincinnati, while M. Hart, of New 
Orleans, will hold some high oflSce, perhaps be president. 

A VALUABLE BLOCK SIGNAL. 



A\'ERY simple yet effective system for operating 
cars on single track, where it is impossible to see 
from one turnout to the next has been devised 
and put in successful operation by Mr. Ramsey, of the 
Pleasant Valley road, Allegheny. The illustrated descrip- 
tion on another page will prove useful for adoption or 
modification on many single track lines which have exper- 
ienced the same difficulty which gave rise to the adoption 
of the system mentioned. 

The Buda Pesth Electric has been sold by Siemens 
& Halske to the Anglo-Austrian bank there for 3,000,- 
000 florins. The great confidence shown by such con- 
servative capitalists augurs well for the financial success 
of like undertakings elsewhere in Europe. 



HALF FARES. 



Interesting Facts from all Parts of the Country 
Boiled down for Busy Readers. 



mayor promptly resigned, but the city fathers sensibly 
refused to accept it, and again all is quiet on the Potomac. 



St. Paul citv council have fi.xed speed limit at lo and 
12 miles an hour. 

The product of the St. Louis street car factories for 
1892 was nearly $5iOOO''^0'-'- 



Official.s of the Kansas City Cable, and reported 
buyers, both deny the sale of that property. 



Winnipeg street railways are indulging in a rate-cut, 
and passengers now ride twelve times for 25 cents. 



The Columbus, O., railway gave 350 turkeys to the 
married employes and $200 in mone)- to other of its men, 
on Christmas. 



The Appleton street line, Springfield, Mass., has a 
tower car in place of a tower wagon, and it issaid to greath- 
facilitate repairs. 

Wages have been raised 1 1 per cent on the South 
Covington & Cincinnati road, conductors and motormen 
now receiving $2 per day. 

Kans.^s Citv is besieged with a com]iressed air scheme. 
The Kansas City Cable Company has received 7,000 feet 
of cable from Leeds, England. 

When President Yerkes is in New York he keeps in 
constant touch with his Chicago offices of the North Side 
and West Side roads by the use of the long distance 
telephone. 

President Lewis, of the Brooklyn City Railway has 
renewed his contract with the Knights of Labor for 1893, 
conductors and dri\ers receiving $2, and stablemen 
$1.75 per day. 

The divorced wife of M. Clemenceau, who recently 
indulged in a little harmless target practice, is visiting her 
uncle, James Sticknor, president of the West End Electric, 
Rockford, 111. 

In Denver, a tobacco spitting passenger was offered 
his choice of desisting or leaving the car. He got off and 
•so did five shots from his re\olver, which narrowly missed 
the conductor and passengers. 



A FEW days before the big fire General Manager Payne 
was hauled over the coals for a little smudge caused by 
one of his power-house .stacks; but when he made $250,- 
000 worth of smoke and trouble tiiere wasn't a word said 
about the smoke nuisance. 

The Mayor of Racine, Wis., is interested in the street 
railway there. Somebody conceived the idea that while 
either in itself was all right, to be both was sinful. The 



The Wheeless system of underground electric railway 
which many papers are publishing as nearly completed 
in Washington, D. C, and which the promoters maintain 
will be in operation the 20th of this month, has not 
been commenced, and the opening seems a long way off. 



A CAR on Soho Hill, at Pittsburg, refused to obey the 
brake and reversing handle, and went coasting on its own 
account. Snow on the track was the cause. Most of the 
passengers got off. The car jumped the track after 
smashing two wagons, and was finally stopped by a heavy 
telegraph pole, which was snapped like a pipe-stem. 



The annual report of the Postmaster General gives 
very favorable results as to the use of house collec- 
tion buxes in cities. Money order offices were increased 
two-thirds during the year, and sixteen and three-fourths 
million miles of railroad travel added. The deficit was re- 
duced a million dollars and 2,790 new offices established. 



THE LAST HORSE CAR IN TOLEDO. 



IT may not be apparent to the careless observer that 
Manager Albion E. Lang, of Toledo, is possessed 
of sentiment and poetry in a high degree. But 
such is the case. His poetic nature finds a channel in 
deeds rather than words, as the following incident will 
show. 

Eleven or twelve years ago Mr. Lang purchased of its 
original owners a strip of strap rail and a few dilapidated 
cars, known as the Dorr street line. 

After j'ears of patient labor the Toledo Consolidated 
has been brought to its present perfection, and the last 
line to come into the fold of electric traction was the Dorr 
street line. On the last day of 1892, however, Mr. Lang 
was notified that the line was finished and Mr. Lang 
indulged the sentiment above referred to. So, equipped 
as motor man, the manager ran the first car over the line 
amid the cheers of the citizens and the waving of hand- 
kerchiefs. 

Upon his return to the office Mr. Lang thought of 
more sentiment and put it into execution. Therefore the 
old horse car was run onto the tracks, and Mr. Lang as 
driver took the reins of the midright car, and while 1892 
flitted away and the dreary midnight bells tolled the death 
of the old year, the last horse of the last horse line made 
its farewell appearance in Toledo. 




THE MILWAUKEE FIRE. 



A PILE of formless brick, a few jaggecj pieces of 
wall and heaps of warped and twisted trucks 
were all that the flames left of the Kinnickinnic 
avenue barns of the Milwaukee Consolidated, on the 
morning of December 28. 

The magnificent car barns and well equipped shops of 
the Villard syndicate were brought to their highest per- 
fection in the Kinnickinnic plant, which structure had 
been finished but a short time. The building was an 
immense structure, 270 feet long and extending 204 feet 
deep, of solid brick, two stories high and most substan- 
tially built. The car barns proper cost $35,000, while 
the new shops were worth $30,000, besides machinery 



tion discredit this theory, which is supported by the end- 
less accounts of fires in Milwaukee for three months past. 
The lo;s sustained is hard to estimate, but it undoubt- 
edly lies between $250,000 and $300,000. Nothing 
was saved and the fire burned itself out. The insurance 
will cover the greater part of the loss. Immediate 
preparations were made by the energetic management 
for a new plant. 



The English custom of leaving luggage on the plat- 
form with the conductor has given rise to some trouble 
as to liability of the compan}' in case of loss. A recent 
decision against the compan}- was caused by the fact that 
the company's rules require large baggage to be left on 
the platform. 




RUINS OF THE KINNICKINNIC AVENUE C.\R HOUSE, MILWAUKEE. 



costing close to $70,000. A temporary power plant, 
which was in process of building at the Dutcher Stove 
Works adjoining, was not touched, and except for a few 
supplies suffered no interruption. 

THE FIRE 

began, according to the statements of the watchman, with 
an explosion in an owl car which was brought in about i 
o'clock. The flames rapidly spread, and before the car 
could be removed or help summoned the flames were 
running from one car to another along the line of stored 
cars. One hundred and four cars in the building were 
destroyed, which is nearly half the equipment of the road. 
One hundred and twenty-seven motors were lost. 

Manager Lynn believes the fire to have been of incen- 
diary origin, while the police department in self protec- 



BAY CITY CHANGES. 



A PHILADELPHIA syndicate represented by W. 
B. McKinley, of Chicago, has purchased the 
roads of Bay City and West Bay City, Mich. 
This is the same syndicate that operates the lines at 
Buffalo, Rochester, Indianapolis, and other places. West 
Bay City is already equipped with electricity, and the 
syndicate will at once install the same at Bay City, mak- 
ing in all, about 20 miles of road so operated. The sta- 
tion now operated by a 200 horse-power, Allis engine 
and Westinghouse generator, will have two more similar 
units added. As two of the units will operate the station, 
the reserve is 50 per cent. Eighteen new 50 horse-power 
motor equipments will be put on at first, and the service 
greatly improved in various ways. 



PERSONALS. 



S. Dana Green, with John Krensi and other officials 
of the General Electric, made a December visit to the 
World's Fair city. 

H. C. Thom, chairman of the Republican state central 
committee of Wisconsin, has been made secretary of the 
Four Lakes Power & Lighting Company. 



A. BAiiTi.ETT, superintendent, Syracuse, N.Y., consoli- 
dated, has resigned, and will remove to California. Mr. 
Bartlett has been in street railway work upwards of thirty 
years. 

A. B. Peavey has resigned as superintendent of the 
Siou.x City Street Railway, and will enter business for 
himself. His successor i.s L B. Walker, who has been 
electrician of the road since its electric installation. 



J. H. Allen, advertising manager, of Dixie, Atlanta, 
displayed a beaming countenance, the result of recent 



CoL. John Scullin, of St. Louis, is another rising man 
in rapid transit circles. His latest acquisition of the Ben- 
ton Bellefountaine road, and the consolidation with the 
Union Depot and the Mound City Lines, will make him 
one of the largest street railway owners in the west. 



Leo Daft, whose name is such a familiar one in elec- 
tric railway circles, favored the Review with a most 
delightful call during his recent brief visit to Chicago. 
With a view to benefiting his family's health, Mr. Daft 
a few months ago took up a temporary residence on Puget 
Sound, and has already become largely interested in a 
new street railway and light plant at Everett, Wash., and 
in numerous valuable mining enterprises, which bid fair 
to make him one of the bonanza kings. 

An inquiry made by Major General Hutchinson into 
the condition of the Highgate, England, Cable Tramway 
resulted in an order to shut down the works until repairs 
could be made. 




SCENES OF THE KINNICKINNIC AVENUE CAR BARN FIRE, MILWAUKEE. 



triumphs while in Chicago in the interest of his journal; 
the December souvenir number of which was very fine. 



McMAHON'S ammonia MOTOR. 



L. M. Collins, of the New York office, of the Electri- 
cal Engineer, becomes western editor and manager, with 
headquarters in Chicago. Mr. Collins is well known to 
the electrical fraternity of the west, and the Review 
wishes him success. 

L. M. Hart, New York, business manager of the new- 
consolidated publications, under the new name of Heating 
and Ventilation, called upon us a few days ago. He is 
meeting with good success, and under his management 
the paper is sure to prosper. 



H. Forman Collins, who, as western editor and 
manager of the Electrical Engineer, has made so many 
friends and so marked a success, has resigned to accept 
the position of business manager of the Western Elec- 
trician. We sincerely wish for Mr. Collins in his new 
relation all the success the increased scope offers. 



THE McMahon ammonia motor is being again 
exploited, this time on the Twenty-eight street 
line in New York. The anhydrous ammonia is 
obtained by evaporation from aqueous ammonia 120"^ F. 
It is then put into a tank on the car at a pressure of 80 
pounds. The motor is run from this tank and the 
exhaust delivered into a weak solution of aqueous ammonia 
carried on the car. The claims made resemble perpetual 
motion. The outside cost for operating the ammonia 
motor is to be 7.68 cents a car mile, and the cost of a 
fifty car plant $25,000 as against $250,000 for the electric. 
The latent heat of the aqua ammonia carried on the car is 
to furnish force enough to keep the gas tank sufficiently 
warm to furnish force to run the car after the common 
every day energy is all gone. 

One advantage possessed by no other motor lies in 
the fact that, when the proverbial old lady faints on the 
car, the conductor can instantly turn a hose of liquid 
melling salts on the patients. 



H. M. LITTELL. 



DECEMBER'S DIRE DOINGS. 



NEVER honor came more deserved than that 
which made H. M. Littell, of the Mt. Auburn 
road of Cincinnati, manager of the recently con- 
sohdated New Orleans lines. 

In selecting a man for this pi\otal position there are 
enough requirements demanded to make the most experi- 
enced manager quake, and enough hard problems to 
solve to wrinkle up the smoothest brow into a map of 
County Clare. In the first place, the New Orleans lines 
will have to be completely reorganized, from groom to 
master mechanic, and the winnowing out of incompetent 
and uneducated workers will fall mainlj' upon the man- 
ager. Then, too. there is a great big public in New 
Orleans, not any better or 
any worse than in other 
places, but all completely 
ignorant of the advantages 
of rapid transit, and made 
aware of electric traction 
only b}' the vapid musings 
of some country editors 
down in New York City. 
These good people will have 
to be educated to the neces- 
sary degree of intelligence, 
and great patience and tact 
is another requisite of the 
manager. 

These are some of the 
considerations by virtue of 
which Mr. Littell has been 
chosen. 

It was four years ago 
since the affairs of the Mt. 
Auburn Inclined Plane and 
Street Railway Company 
began to look for a Moses 
to take them out of the land 
of deficits, and later there 
arrived a handsome young 
man who was introduced as 
H. M. Littell, the new man- 
ager. Under Mr. Littell's „. « 
management the road was 

electrified, heavy girder rail laid, and improved inclined 
plane carriages made, together with e.xtensions and 
improvements which have made new territory, won the 
public approbation and paid dividends. Stock that was 
bought at five cents on the dollar is now worth ninety- 
five. This Mr. Littell has been the means of doing. 
Previously he was manager of the St. Paul roads. 
Personally Mr. Littell is affable, a great favorite in 
society, and a leader in many benevolent and social enter- 
prises, and for him we predict success in direct proportion 
to his great opportunities in New Orleans, the citizens of 
which city will find in him a broad-gauged, liberal man 
of strong executive ability. 



A" 




N unusual number of fatal and peculiar accidents 
occurred in various parts of the country during 
the last few days of December. 
In Chicago, John Nelson, driver of a horse car on the 
West Chicago road, managed to stop his car, but the run- 
away team dragged him over the dash and some distance 
along the stone pavement, causing injuries from which he 
died in a few hours. 

A lad}' passenger on the North Side cable entered a 
car dragging a piece of telegraph wire, one end of which 
was wound around her leg, the other fastened to a large 
coil of the wire at a pole. It was not discovered until the 
car started, when the unfortunate woman was suddenly 

jerked through the door, 
striking the dash, and before 
the car could be stopped had 
most of the flesh stripped 
from the bone and she was 
otherwise injured. The 
accident has no parallel, so 
far as we can learn. 

At Boston, the Everett 
power house of the West 
End road was wholly des- 
troyed by fire, in which four 
employes lost their lives. 

At Milwaukee, the Kinnic- 
kinnic car house and machine 
shops of the Milwaukee 
Street Railway were burned 
at 2 o'clock on the morning 
of December 28, 1892. Loss, 
$300,000. 

At Minneapolis, a crowd- 
ed car was run down by a 
Great Northern switch en- 
gine and many injured, on 
December 24. 

On December 29, as a 
horse car of the Forty- 
seventh street line of the 
Chicago City Railway was 
^j-LL. crossing the tracks of the 

Pennsylvania railroad, a con- 
struction train running at high speed ran down the car, 
and four persons were killed. The accident occurred 
very early in the morning, before light, and the blame 
seems to rest on the gate tender, who was warming 
himself in a shanty near by, and the failure of the train 
crew to display proper headlights. 

At Seattle, the day before Christmas, an electric car 
jumped the track, plunged into the bay, and sank. All 
were rescued, one passenger is probabl_v fatally injured. 
The iron supports of the new power house of the Bal- 
timore City Passenger Railway, now building, gave way 
and the roof fell in, injuring eleven workmen, one of 
whom will die, 



OUR SECOND BIRTHDAY. 



At the Age of Two Years the "Street Railway Review" Enjoys Prosperity and Prestage Rarely Obtained 
in Ten— An Ever Increasing Success— Its Columns Read and Quoted all over the World — 

Again Forced to Seek Larger Quarters. 



WE, that is the Street Railway Review, 
are two years old. True, two years are 
not man)% yet two ytars were sufficient to 
develop the magazine 3'ou hold in your 
hand from a purpose known only to its publishers, to 
what it is, the leading journal in the world devoted to 
street railway interests. In two years the anxieties (!) in 
certain quarters, that the Review would not hold out 
have been entirely dissipated: in two years the Review 
has won a foremost place among the thousands of publi- 
cations which fill the land; in two 3'ears it has become 
a gladl}- welcomed visitor to every street railway office 
on the continent, and is on the select hst of the hmited 
number of periodicals read by railway presidents, direc- 
tors, managers and stock holders, whose interests are 
large and whose time is valuable. 

The world moves and so does the Street Railway 
Review, not because it does not promptly pay its rent, 
but because its rapidly developing interests have con- 
stantly required more room. For the third time in two 
years we have outgrown our quarters, and so last month 
took up our present abode, with ample accommodations 
for every department of our work. With a special view 
to taking care of all the street railway people who will 
visit our city during the Fair, we have secured ample 
room for pleasant reception quarters, opening into our 
business offices; while the location could not be better 
chosen, the Post Office and two leading hotels being 
within one block, and central to all railroad depots. We 
thus early extend an invitation to all our friends to make 
the Review office headquarters when visiting the citj'. 

OUR circulation 

while surprisingly large from the start, has rapidly and 
steadily grown each month until we now have a larger 
number of readers than any other journal devoted to 
street railwaj' interests. Considering the size, character 
and quality of the Review, our subscription price is the 
lowest of any technical paper published, and while our 
readers generously urge us to increase the annual dues, 
we have always believed in, and worked along a broad- 
gauge policy. 

the advertising pages 

of any paper at once indicate what manufacturers think 
of it, and the well-filled columns of this department are a 
gratifying endorsement of a " two-year old." Our record 
shows an increase for every month over the preceeding 
month, while the advertisements carried are those of lead- 
ing concerns. 

Our well-known policy in uniform rates, has never 
been deviated from in a single instance and has won the 
.respect of business men. We have but one price, and 



that the same to all. An offer of one dollar less than 
established rates would be no greater temptation than one 
hundred dollars. We are aware that comparatively few 
publications adhere to this policy, although no reputable 
publisher will, for a moment, take advantage of one 
advertiser and charge him more for a given space than is 
paid by any other advertiser using an equally good loca- 
tion. It is not only an unbusiness like procedure, but 
positively dishonest. 

OUR engraving department 

has been largely increased and improved during the past 
3'ear, andthe quality of our illustrations place, them among 
the finest put in print. In this, as in the feature of press 
work and paper, no expense is spared to secure the best 
for the purpose, which can be obtained. The Review 
has now a special photographer in almost every city on 
the continent, and within a few hours a telegram brings 
any desired view for illustrating, which may be of inter- 
est or value to our readers. 

the editorial force 

has been doubled and includes carefully trained and intel- 
ligent writers. Their work speaks for itself. In addi- 
tion several hundred correspondents scattered all over the 
continent and in foreign lands enable us to secure reliable 
and interesting information from authentic sources. Our 
department devoted to 

street railway law 

furnishes each month a digest of decisions in higher courts, 
and is edited by a leading attorney of Chicago, who for 
years has made a special study of street railway cases. 
The first few fines of each report epitomize what is elab- 
orated below, making a perusal of the entire digest un- 
necessary. 

our daily edition. 

For several months past the Review has issued a daily 
edition, which is mailed at noon every day except Sun- 
day. This edition is specially compiled for the exclusive 
use of our advertisers, and contains advance information 
of the organization of new street railways, where pur- 
chases are likely to be made soon, who the buyers are 
and what they will want to buy. Our facilities for secur- 
ing this information is unequalled, and, it is hardly neces- 
sary to add, the " two-year old " Review is the only 
publication in the field furnishing such advance news. 
The value to our advertisers of this publication is fully 
attested by complimentary letters received almost every 
day. If all the 

good words for the review 

received by us were printed they would require several 
pages each month. It has never been the policy of this 



10 



paper to reprint such letters, as the standing and charac- 
ter of the Review sufficiently speak for it. We do, how- 
ever, most fully and sincerely appreciate the encouraging 
terms of approval our readers so kindly send, and shall 
alwa3's endeavor to merit their fullest confidence; and are 
thus constantly urged to greater efforts in our aim to con- 
tinue in serving them with the best street railway paper 
in the world. 



PENNSYLVANIA STREET RAILWAY 
ASSOCIATION. 



THE CHICAGO STREET CAR AIR BRAKE. 



AS an evidence of Chicago enterprise the progress 
of the compan}' whose title appears at the head of 
this article is a bright example. An air brake for 
street cars has just been perfected by N. A. Christianson, 
who has been at work on the appliance for several years. 
Having satisfied themselves of its undoubted merit, and 
well knowing the demand for a good brake, the com- 
pany was organized on December i, 1892, as follows: 
President, John A. Kruse, who is president of the Lone 
Star Iron Company, Jefferson, Texas, and a large capi- 
talist; Edward Atfield, secretary and treasurer; L. J. 
Gennett, inventor of the air brake which bears his name 
as mechanical superintendent; N. A. Christianson, con- 
sulting engineer; and David Reid, general sales agent. 
Mr. Reid's long connection with' street railway interests 
and his acquaintance, which includes so large a number 
of street railways, specially fit him for the department he 
has in charge. Mr. Gennett's experience in air brake 
development will be invaluable in his new connection. 

The new company in less than forty days after its 
organization had fully perfected its manufacturing 
arrangements and already have a large force of skilled 
mechanics engaged in getting out the brakes. It is one 
of the quickest cases on record. The makers confi- 
dently assure the railway public that the Chicago Street 
Car Air Brake is by far the most simple yet devised, and 
is, moreover, the only one that can be adapted to all 
trucks. No removal of car wheels is necessary to apply 
the brake which can be done by ordinary mechanics. 
The wearing parts are few and inexpensive. So thor- 
oughly satisfied are the makers they offer to send a man, 
at their own expense, to put in a trial brake for any street 
railway which makes application therefor. The factory 
is at 44 South Jefferson street and the offices 804-806 
Rookery Building, Chicago. 



GOOD RECORD. 



HAMILTON, Ohio, has 18,000 people and nine 
miles of electric road, on which are 15 motor 
cars and 8 trailers. While horse lines were 
the only means of traffic, the company could hardly pay 
expenses, now the road pays 4 per cent with the follow- 
ing inci ease in traffic. Passengers carried January 1892, 
58,426; February, 55,147; March, 62,048; April, 67,108; 
May, 76,378; June, 86,442; July, 98,799; August, iio,- 
224; September, 100,577; October, 100,623; thus going 
an increase in ten months of 42,197, or nearly 75 per cent. 



THE above title adds another to the list of state 
associations, and while contemplated for some time 
past, was brought to a focus by a call made by 
John A. Coyle, of Lancaster, at which city the conven- 
tion met to organize, on December 28. 

The meeting was a very enjoyable and satisfactory 
one, and after adoption of a constitution and by-laws, 
elected officers for the first year as follows: 

President, John A. Coyle, Lancaster. 
Vice-president, John G. Holmes, Pittsburg. 
Second vice president, H. R. Rhoads, Williamsport. 
Secretary. L. B. Reifsnyder, Alloona. 
Treasurer, Wm. H. Lanius, York. 

The next meeting will occur at Harrisburg, the first 
Wednesday' in September. Initiation was fixed at $25, 
with annual dues of same amount. The executive com- 
mittee are authorized to transact all business between 
meetings. The members of this committee are: The 
president and secretary ex-officio, and B. F. Meyers, 
Harrisburg, Wm. B. Hayes, West Chester, S. P. Might, 
Lebanon. 

THE REPRESENTATIVES PRESENT 

included the following gentlemen: B. F. Meyers, repre- 
senting the Citizens' Company, of Harrisburg; L. B. 
Reifsynder, of the City Railway, of Altoona; John 
Haeigen, of the Johnstown lines; W. H. Lanius, super- 
intendent Charles Long and Captain Geise, of the York 
Company; Patrick Russ, of Harrisburg, representing the 
Wyoming Traction Company, of Wilkes-Barre; John F. 
Ostrom, of the Middleton & Steelton road; J. Q. Denny 
and E. C. Felton, of the East Harrisburg line; W. B. 
Given, of Columbia; H. C. Harner, of the Lebanon and 
Annville; Wm. Hager, of West Chester; H. B. Rhoads 
of Williamsport, and others from a distance. J. W. B. 
Bausman, Esq., Lancaster and Lititz; Dr. M. L. Herr, 
Lancaster and Strasburg. Local roads, of course, were 
represented, and H. J. Kenfield, of the Street Railway 
Review, held up the street railway press alone. 

In the opening speech Mr. Coyle stated that of forty- 
nine operative railways in the state, two-thirds of that 
number replied favorably to the suggestion, and that 
great benefit ought to accrue from the organization. 

President Coyle very appropriately and generously 
closed proceedings with an elegant champagne dinner 
and a ride over his lines. 

The only supplyman present was Howard Wheeler, of 
the Globe Iron Works, New York, but we can assure 
our Pennsylvania friends that their next meeting will be 
well attended by both newspaper and supplj-men. 

The Pennsylvania association is most fortunate in its 
executive department, and we strongly urge the smaller 
roads in the state to aid by presence and support. 



Edwin A. Allen, president of the Houston, Tex., 
Street Railway Companjr, died at Chadron, Neb., Jan. 7. 
Mr. Allen was a high mason. 



11 



GRAHAM'S STANDARD ELECTRIC MOTOR 
TRUCK. 



THE severe wear which has come to rail joints with 
the use of electricit}- is not entirely due to the 
increased speed of the electric cars, nor to the fact 
alone that those cars are a great deal heavier than was 
possible when operating with animal power. It has been 
in many cases largely due to an improper suspension of 
the weight rather than the weight itself. A truck with- 
out proper springs allows the wheels to come down with 
a solid weight and pound the joints. 

With the special object of correcting this difficulty the 
Consolidated Railway Supplj' Company are manufactur- 
ing, and have put on the market, the Graham Standard 
Truck, which embodies several new features which will 
interest street railwaj' men. 



attaching truck to the car. Four bolts hold the truck to 
the car body. These can be taken out in a very short 
time and car body removed. The large cut, Fig. i. 




FIGS. 2 AND 3. 

represents Graham's standard short truck " No. 32," 
which is intended for use on short cars. The attachment 
of the truck to the car is such as to prohibit all side play, 
making a perfectly solid joint. 

A radial truck for four-wheel cars is also made. The 
frame is of 3x1 inch steel. Brake gear positive and sim- 
ple; and twenty-eight bolts in the entire truck. 




FIG. I. — GRAHAMS STANDARD SHORT TRUCK, NO. 3J 



As shown in the cuts the weight of truck and car is 
carried on springs. These springs are of two kinds. 
The spirals take the greater part of the work until the 
car is heavily overloaded, when they are exhausted and the 




SPRING EQUALIZER AND PEDBhTAL, WITH FRUNT REMOVED. 

half-elliptics " do the rest." The spiral springs will carry 
1,500 pounds before e.xhaustion and the half-elliptics 
5, 000. 

Figs. 2 and 3 show the male and female castings for 



In the case of one motor breaking down, it is only 
necessary to change the disabled end, and by a simple 
operation keep the car in service. Jack up the car at the 
disabled end; remove king bolt and coupler bolt; run the 
disabled part out and new one in ; then drop the car down ; 
couple up the motors and it is again ready for service. 
It prevents oscillation, has an extended wheel base of 
from seven to ten feet, and takes curves easily and can be 
easily attached or removed. 

Superintendent Pond, of the New Haven & West 
Haven road, says: " It took the sharpest curve we have 
easily and without an}' hard grinding, and after leaving 
curve squared itself without any trouble. No oscillation, 
whatever, was perceptible, even when our ten bench 
open cars were fully loaded." 

The Consolidated Railway Suppl}- Compan}', have 
offices at 258 Washington street, Boston, 20 Market 
Square, Providence, and 616 Ashland Block, this city. 
They are confident that they have a practical truck and 
invite inspection by street railway men. 



A MULTIPHASE railway system has just been patented 
by Prof. F. B. Badt. It, involves the use of multiphase 
currents in connection with converters and sectional ex- 
posed rails. 



12 



RECEIVED 550 VOLTS. 



And Lives to tell the Readers of the "Review" all about it— Hard at Work Twelve Hours Later- 
Statement of the Attending Surgeon. 



PEOPLE generally have been lead to believe that 
the slightest contact with a live trolley wire 
meant an instantly dead individual. The daily 
press has preached this gospel bj- the column. 
Electricians have denied it in vain, although honestly 
admitting that the power which propels an hundred 
loaded cars was necessarily rather energetic. Claims 
have been made by numerous persons as having "received 
500 volts and lived," but in previous cases there has been 
wanting positive proof of the actual amount received. 

At last, however, we find an instance which admits 
of no doubt, and while the 
gentleman whose experience 
we are about to relate at first 
refused the publicity which 
this article brings, finally con- 
sented to give to the readers 
of the Street Railway Re- 
view an account of the acci- 
dent and his sensations "before 
and after taking," purel}' on 
the grounds of its scientific in- 
terest and rarity. The gen- 
tleman referred to is Lewie A. 
Chatterton, the accomplished 
electrician of the Auburn, N. 
Y., City Railway, and reply- 
ing to our inquries he writes 
'us only a few days after the 
event and tells, as follows: 

HOW 500 VOLTS FEEL. 

"I was testing a new arma- 
ture, my mode being to raise 
the car in the air, try the 
armature first with the lower 
field and pole block, before 
putting the upper field and 

pole block in their places. The current had been applied 
three times. The brush holder side-tension springs 
were very weak, and I placed my foot upon the upper 
holder to make a perfect contact. I then told the house- 
man to turn on the current again; the armature appeared 
to be running away; my foot slipped from the brush 
holder down on the commutator, and whether my hand 
grasped the connections on the field block, or the stove, 
I cannot tell. I got that r/iug; the armature seemed to 
reverse, and that is all 1 remember until I regained con- 
sciousness in the office, which they say was between 23 
and 30 minutes. When I came to myself I was taken 
with nausea and was very numb all through my left side. 
I tried to stand and my limbs doubled up. The sickness 
remained until the next day. The tired feeling is about 




LEWIE A. CHATTERTON 



all gone; but I am very nervous and the slam of a door 
will make me jump. We were carrying between 500 
and 550 voltage, but I do not know what quantity I 
received. 1 have received a great number of shocks 
but never one to put me to sleep before. At one time in 
particular 1 was connecting the main trolley v^'ire in the 
station to a branch trolley, and the ladder being against 
the main trolley, I placed a coil of No. 3 copper wire on 
a box and taking the end in my left hand started up the 
ladder. When near the top of the ladder, which was 
onlv three inches above the trolley, I thought the ladder 

was slipping and grasped for 
the trolle}- wire to save my- 
self. The sudden move 
caused the coil of wire to 
slide off the box, on to the 
rail, or house track, thus form- 
ing a complete circuit and 
burning my fingers. That 
felt as though I had been 
struck in the base of the neck 
with a sand bag. 1 was lame 
for two daj's after that but not 
sick. The last accident short 
circuited the station. 

I have since repaired two 
armatures, wound three fields 
and am now re-winding an 
armature. 1 can say that aside 
from being a little nervous I 

FEEL .\S WELL AS EVER 

I have felt. After the lirsl chug 
I had no sensation whatever 
until I came to myself, and 
then as heretofore described, 
I don't hke notoriety, but for 
the sake of the " I told you 

so's" and the "deadly trolley" cranks I am willing to 

give you my experience." 

Yours very truly. 



Sr/!^yify/£IV' 




(UM-o 



When the accident occurred the company immediately 
summoned Dr. C. O. Baker, a well-known physician of 
Auburn, and who, as one of the official surs^eons, has 
been called to witness the infliction of the death penalties 
by electrocution, all of which have occurred in the 
Auburn Prison. Hence, the statement of Dr. Baker is 
one based on actual experience and is rendered the more 
interesting and valuable on account of that observation. 



13 



THE DOCTOR .S STATEMENT. 

It is true that I was called to see L. Chatterlon, of the 
Auburn Street Railway Companj-, who was recently 
injured while repairing some part of a car motor. He is 
an expert and I am informed that he received a 500-volt 
current. I found him probably 20 minutes after the 
shock, sitting in a chair in the company's office, uncon- 
scious. Skin cold and moist all over the body, pulse verj- 
irregular and about 140 and sometimes almost impercep- 
tible, respirations about 10 per minute, muscles of the 
body relaxed save those of the left leg, in which he 
received the current, and left arm. I think that the 
course of the current. 

I ordered him placed on his back on a table, with the head 
quite low, which position sent more blood to the brain, but 
did not. for five minutes at least, improve the pulse very 
much. I asked to have a piece of soft iron placed in his 
hands as an experiment, and a piece of cast iron weigh- 
ing 10 or 15 pounds was placed under his hands, and in 
two or three minutes the pulse improved, and in ten 
minutes he was sitting up and telling how it happened 
that he had taken the shock. I am not prepared to sa}- 
that the iron did any good. I would suggest that it is 
always best, however, to place such a patient upon the 
back with the head either on a plane with the body, or 
lower, and to stimulate by friction and artificial respira- 
tion. Why this man did not suffer more than he did I do 
not know; probably because more vital tissues were not 
invaded. He complained of a bad feeling in the head 
and numbness of the leg and side, but went to work the 
next morning, 12 hours after the accident, seemingly all 
right. 

You speak of electrical execution and ask if there is a 
parallel between it and the case of Chatterton. I should 
say no. I cannot argue the point full}' for I do not know 
the position nor the contact of the body in Chatterton's 
case, and no one saw him at the exact time of the acci- 
dent. In arranging for an electrical execution the utmost 
care is taken that all points of contact are perfect, and 
that the current is passed directly through the vital parts 
of the body. The brain and spinal cord are aimed at 
with "deadly precison" and the electricity measured out 
in quantity, quality and time, accurately and scientifically, 
by cool and careful hands. The first shock or contact of 
the electric current given to a man in the electrical chair 
probably kills in a space of time loo small to calculate 
intelligently. It may be compared to the blowing out of 
a candle, and who can appreciate the time in which the 
flame is "going out." The current is continued for a few 
seconds, and all the muscular tissues of the body are con- 
tracted to some extent, and when the electricity is taken 
off the muscles relax, but it is not life. The}- will not 
again contract except by the electric stimulation. The 
pathological changes you ask for are not manifest at the 
post-mortem to the microscopical examination, and the 
microscope has failed thus far to give the desired infor- 
mation as to the cause of death. I am very glad that 
science has afforded us at last a means of administering 



the death penalty which is completely under control and 
which is instantaneous and painless, and in a manner 
somewhat humane. 

Very truly, 

C. O. Baker, M. D. 



The reader should bear in mind that the contact made 
by Chatterton was made with all his strength, and that 
the accident occurred at the power house where the vol- 
tage is the highest. That he received the extreme 500 
to 550 volts is proved by the short circuiting of the 
station. It would be impossible for a person to receive 
as severe a shock from falling railway wires in the street 
as was experienced by Mr. Chatterton. 

SOME DENIALS. 



C'^ ROVER CLEVELAND positively denies any 
connection with the street railway syndicate. 
^ This was the first of a series of annual denials. 
Henry Villard repays the compliment of Mr. Cleveland's 
repudiation of street railway business by boldly saying 
that he will not go into Mr. Cleveland's cabinet. Then 
comes ex-Secretary Whitney, of the navy, who says that 
nothing on earth will now stop him from a rapid transit 
career, and John D. Crimmins says that managing rail- 
ways with the full complement of kickers, and New 
York kickers at that, is more to his taste than politics. 
Even Bismark says of the Milwaukee street railway that 
"he is not in it." The Street Railway Review 
stands ready to print denials from all the rest of its con- 
stituency if it becomes necessary. 

MOTORS DISPLACE MADISON MULES. 



AMONG the recent "converts" is Madison, Wis., 
which has just inaugerated motors in place of 
mules. The new cars are the latest of the St. 
Louis Car Company, and are mounted on McGuire trucks, 
and propelled by two W. P. 30 motors of the General 
Electric Company. There are nine motor cars and four 
trailers. The line covers eight miles, two and a-half 
being new. Rails are 50 pounds T, laid on cedar ties, 
two feet between centers. The officers under .he new 
ownership are: President, Geo. D. Cook, of Chicago; 
Secretary and Treasurer, H. H. Welch; Superintendent, 
Geo. H. Shaw, who was formerly connected with the 
Chicago City Railway. At the time Mr. Shaw took 
charge of the road, it was giving a very poor service, 
which under his able management was improved until 
no farther improvement was possible with animal power. 
Now that electricity is at work the capital city of Wis- 
consin will have a service which is every way in keeping 
with the city of Madison. 



A BILL is now ]iending in the Ohio legislature to compel 
street railway companies to put cabs on motor and grip 
cars. The bill has strong friends and enemies both among 
the companies and employes. 



14 



THE JEFFERSON STREET POWER HOUSE OF THE WEST CHICAGO. 



THE Cable plant of the West Chicago Street Rail- 
road Company, at the corner of Washington and 
Jefferson streets, has three times undergone en- 
largement. The last changes have just been completed, 
and the plant will soon be operating the "tunnel loop" as 
formerly. 

The boilers are the same as used before, being six in 
number, of the horizontal return tubular tjpe, dimensions 
iS feet by 72 inches, rating 150 H. P. each. 

The steam separators were made b}^ Fraser & Chal- 
mers under patents of Westinghouse Church, Kerr & 
Co. The companj- also continue the use of oil as a fuel 
and find it satisfactory. The new engines were built and 
erected by Fraser & Chalmers, Chicago, and have a five 
foot stroke with three foot 
cylinders. These engines 
are among the finest in the 
city, and no pains have been 
spared to make them per- 
fect in ever}' waj'. Con- 
structed as the}' were for 
this particular work, 
several special features 
were introduced to meet 
the severe requirements of 
cable operation. The cyl- 
inders are lagged with 
walnut, the working parts 
are all emer\' polished, and 
the remainder tastefully 
painted to harmonize^ 
Altogether the two giants 
form a pair of twins which 
will attract many visitors 
during the World's Fair. 
To accommodate its ex- 
pected guests the com- 
pany have erected a com- 
modious platform opening 
on Jefferson street, from 

which point of vantage the whole plant can be seen to 
best advantage. Steam separators are placed over 
each engine, giving the engine dry steam and automatic- 
ally returning the water to the boilers at a high tempera- 
ture. The engines are fed by lo-inch overhead mains 
and the exhaust led to the Berryman heaters through 
12-inch pipe below the floor. The two Corliss engines 
are rated at 1,200 each, but will develop much higher, 
and work directly on the engine shaft at the ends of 
which they are placed, and which is 20 feet long and 15 
inches in diameter. From the engine shaft the power is 
transmitted by 24 3-inch cotton ropes. The driving 
pulley is 7 feet 6 inches in diameter and the driven 27 
feet 6 inches. The engines run at about 60 revolutions a 
minute and the transmission drum shaft at about 14; this 
latter shaft is 12 inches diameter by 76 feet long. Engine 
fly wheels weigh 40 tons and are 20 feet in diameter and 




INTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM JEFFERSON STREET POWER HOUSE. 



of handsome design. The Walker segmental drums of 
12 feet diameter are used, and through cut steel gears 
both are driven, and give the cable a speed of about seven 
miles an hour. The Walker drum is being adopted in 
all the plants of the company and gives a largely increased 
life to the ropes. The drums are heavily cast, and while 
the differential rims will last a long time, and can then be 
easily replaced, the drum proper will practically never 
wear out. The gears on the drum shaft are 120 inches 
in diameter, 98 teeth, 12 inch face, and 4 inch pitch. 
The intermediate gear is 53 inches diameter, with same 
face and pitch. They were made by Walker Manufac- 
turing Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

At first sight these gears give the same impression that 

would be produced by a 
light buggy wheel under a 
big victoria. But they are 
cut steel and the hardest 
steel tools make scarcely 
any impression upon them. 
While this class of work is 
highly expensive, it simply 
illustrates the care which 
extends to every part of 
the plant, in sparing no 
expense to secure a dur- 
able and reliable source of 
power. 

This station will operate 
the present down town 
tunnel loop, and also the 
State street loop, as soon 
as that line is opened. 
The present loop cable is 
10,475 feet long and was 
made by J. A. Roeblings 
Sons Company. The 
cable is capable of trans- 
mitting 2,500 horse- 
power, diameter i 5-16 
inches. Several changes are thus necessitated in lead- 
ing out the ropes, and the new work relating to the 
ropes has been directed by T. C. Nash, superin- 
tendent of cables. The plans for the location of the 
engines and heavy machinery and loop work down- 
town cable crossings, etc., and the responsibility of 
the installation, has of course, rested upon the com- 
pany's chief engineer, S. Potis. 

That it should so soon become necessary to re-equip 
the entire plant with power and winding machinery of 
more than double that originally installed, shows the won- 
derful increase in transportation which the West Chicago 
Street Railway has experienced, and General Manager 
Parsons may well take a moment from his multitudinous 
duties to take a just pride in his new plant, in which noth- 
ing is wanting to make it one of the best appointed and 
arranged in the world. 



15 



THE NEW SECRETARY OF THE BROOKLYN 
CITY. 



MANY surmises have been put to rest, perhaps 
bets settled, and not a few railway men sur- 
prised by the election of Washington A. H. 
Bogardus, of Chicago, as the successor of Wm. H. 
Thompson to the treasurership and secretaryship of the 
Brooklyn City Railway Company, of Brooklj-n, N. Y. 

An associated press dispatch dated January 1 1, brought 
the news to the Street Railway Review, and on the 
following day Mr. Bogardus' portrait was in the engra- 
ver's hands. 

A visit to the branch office of the Armour Packing 
Company found Mr. Bogardus as usual directing the 




W. A. H. BOGARDUS. 



large interests that report to him, and between orders to 
his army of clerks the Street Railway Review gath- 
ered a few items of interest concerning his career. 

Washington Augustus H. Bogardus was born thirty- 
four years ago, in New York city, of a good old New 
York family. His great grandfather was General Robert 
Bogardus. Here his education was attained in the excel- 
lent cit}' and high schools. 

His first business venture, however, was at Rome, in 
the same state, where he entered a private bank in 1877. 
Here in the banking and insurance business his first busi- 
ness e.xperience was gained. 

Three years later Mr. Bogardus came west and entered 
the counting room of Armour & Co. in the capacity of 
clerk. His native ability soon put him through nearly all 
the clerical parts of the work, and in one year Mr. Bogar- 
dus went on the road organizing branch houses, attending 
all the accounting of that portion of the business. 

In 1890 Mr. Bogardus was put in charge of the branch 



house business and became chief accountant of that large 
system. Besides these duties Mr. Bogardus is the dis- 
bursing auditor for the building department, and has 
charge of the taxes and assessments, leases, and the credits 
and collections of the refrigerator system. 

In addition to his magnificent clerical and executive 
record, Mr. Bogardus has a good knowledge of steam 
engineering and electrical affairs. 

Mr. Bogardus will take charge of his new position 
about Februarj- i, and it is understood that Mr. Lewis 
will continue as chief executive. We bespeak for Mr. 
Bogardus a cordial welcome into the fraternity. 



A TEMPORARY POWER HOUSE. 



TO relieve the main power plant of River street, the 
Milwaukee Street Railway Company has recently 
erected on the South side a temporary plant, pend- 
ing the completion of the Kinnickinnic permanent one. 

The contracts for the station were let the first week in 
December, to be completed the first day of January, 1893. 
This was not an easy undertaking, when it is known that 
the steam plant consists of three simple Corliss engines, 
aggregating 1200 horse-power, and that the electrical 
equipment included three machines of 100, 150 and 200 
kilowatts respectively, of the Edison bipolar tj'pe. 

The E. P. Allis Companj' is responsible for the power 
installation, and the General Electric Company for the 
generators. The engines are belted direct to the 
dynamos. 

The plant required the work of three gangs of men, 
working eight hours each, and the temporary connections 
alone consumed 14,000 feet of feeders, well strung, to 
connect with the underground feeder, and the necessary 
ground return was put in carefuU)'. 

A. W. Lynn, superintendent of repairs, is the director 
of the building and construction work, while the com- 
pany's electrical engineer, L. T. Gibbs, is responsible for 
the electrical part of the plant. 



THE MOVING SIDEWALK. 



THE company which constructed the experimental 
multiple speed and traction sidewalk illustrated last 
year in this maganize will build a line of their struc- 
ture one mile in length from the steamship landing to the 
grounds. The power will be furnished by the Intramural 
Railway. Some contracts have been already let, and 
some are still pending. Max Schmidt, the manager, has 
sold an option on the English right to build the struc- 
ture to a London corporation. 



The Salt Lake City Street Railway Company has in 
the past year made improvements costing $75,000, has 
added two new lines and has run 3,520 miles per day 
on the system. 

Another victory has been scored for common sense 
progress and the trolley in the recent decision of the Penn- 
sylvania Supreme Court. 



16 



ELECTRIC BLOCK SIGNALS FOR TURN- 
OUTS. 



THE Pleasant Valley Company, of Allegheny, have 
considerable single track electric, and with a con- 
stantly decreasing headway, and the further 
complication of numerous curves where buildings 
obstructed the sight of motormen, an urgent necessity 
arose to either double track the line or devise some posi- 
tive means of signals. 

As the double track is at present impracticable. Elec- 
trical Superintendent W. M. Ramsey set about inventing 
the alternative — the signals. 

This he has done in a manner which is proving very 
satisfactory, and which admits of almost unlimited varia- 
tions in its adaptation to the varying circumstances of 
other roads. 

There are some dozen or more of these block stations 



side of box) and if the lamps in upper half of box burn' 
he can go on to next switch. When he reaches next 
switch, box No. 2, he will find lamps burning in lower 
half of box (which he lighted when he left box No. i). 
He must then turn them out, using switch on lower side 
of box. Then if lamps are not burning in upper half of 
box, he can turn them on as before, using upper lamp 
switch, and turning them out when he arrives at next 
switch, box No. 3, by using lower lamp switch. This 
process is repeated until the up end of the line is reached. 
The same order, only reversed, is followed in making the 
return, down trip, and conductor moves his car only when 
light are not burning in lower half of box. The whole is 
summarized in the two rules which Mr. Ramsey finds 
sufficient, and which read as follows: 

Rule i. Cars going UP-HILL are blocked bj lamps burning in 
UPPER lialfof box. They can block cars at UPPER switch bv turn- 
ing switch on UP-HILL side of box; this n;iakes lamps burn in lower 
half of box at next switch, and must be turned out when car reaches it 




==Ground 



= Ground 



== Ground (track) 



ELECTRIC BLOCK SIGNALS — INTERIOR VIEW. 



on the line, but for descriptive purposes we take only 
three, as the rest are simply a repetition of the same .sys- 
tem. The illustration readily explains the boxes, which 
are divided into upper and lower halves, each containing 
three lights. If desired different colored lamps maj' be 
used in the upper half, although Mr. Ramsey finds this 
unnecessary in his case. 

The upper half of box No. i is connefcted with the 
lower half of box No. 2. The upper half of box No. 2 
is connected with the lower half of box No. 3, and so on, 
so that conductor on car going up-hill looks at upper half 
of box. If the lights are burning, then he understands 
that another car is on the single track ahead of him — 
either on its way to the next switch, or approaching. If 
the car is on its way to the ne-xt switch, and too far ahead 
to allow him to follow on the same signal, then he must 
wait until that car arrives at ne.xt switch, and turns lamps 
out. He can then throw switch (small switch on upper 



by using switch on DOWN-HILL side of box. 

Rule 2. Cars going DOVVN-HILL are blocked by lamps burning in 
LOWER half of box. They can block cars at LOWER switch by turn- 
ing switch on DOWN-HILL side of box. This makes lamps burn in 
upper half of box at next switch, and must be turned out when car 
i-eaches it by using switch on UP-HILL side of box. 

The system is really quite simple; in fact, much more 
so to operate than to describe. The men readily caught 
the scheine, and the result has been regularity in running, 
where formerly a run back to turnout was of more than 
hourly occurrence. 



It is reported that ex-Mayor Grant, of New York, will 
engage in the street car advertising business. 



It is officially denied that the Rhomberg lines at Du- 
buque have been sold, or offered for sale. 



The Detroit Electrical Works sent out a very 
handsome calendar. 



17 



PROGRESS TO DATE OF THE LOVE ELEC- 
TRIC CONDUIT SYSTEM. 



THE tempoiar}- excitement attending the opening of 
the Love electric conduit sj-stem on the Fullerton 
avenue loop of the North Chicago Railway Com- 
pany, which occurred March 12, 1892, has assuaged con- 
siderably. As a matter of fact, the line has frequently 
suspended operations, and for several weeks before Christ- 
mas the patient horse betook himself around the cur\e as 
of yore. A visit to the scene of operations about Novem- 
ber 15, revealed this state of affairs, and a call at the 




ELECTRIC BLOCK SIGNAL — EXTERIOR. 

power house and conversation with the engineer elicited 
the information that "the company was overhauling the 
construction," although no signs of the said overhauling 
were visible. The engineer stated that the usual 500 
volts and from fifteen to twenty amperes were required 
to operate one car by the undergrpund system. 

A. G. Wheeler, manager of the Love Company, is 
now at Washington City for the purpose of constructing 
a similar line, the greatest progress in which is along U 
street. It will be but a few blocks in length, but "if the 
directors are satisfied with the undertaking it will be 
extended several miles." Parenthetically it may be 
stated that this is evidence that the S3-stem is still in an 
experimental stage. Among other difliculties encoun- 
tered by Mr. Wheeler is the crossing of the cable con- 
duit. This he promises he can do. 

For the past two weeks the Chicago line has again 
been "Lovely," although during each of two visits of a 
Review man to the scene of action the car became dis- 
abled, and had to be pushed by the Connelly motor. The 
results of numerous burn-outs were also recorded on the 
charred switch board. 



An old man from the Wisconsin woods recently wand- 
ered into the capital of that commonwealth. Becoming 
weary he leaned up against an iron street railway post 
and, with hat in hand, pressed his ear against a mail box, 
listening to the buz. After a few minutes evidently satis- 
fied he turned away and remarked, eyeing the mail box 
approvingly, "Thar, now, I hev heard a telephone talk 
at last." 



STREET RAILWAY PATENTS, 

Selected list of patents relating to Street Railway Inventions, granted 
during the past thirtv days, reported especially for the Steet Railway 
Review, by Munn & Co., Patent Attorneys, 361 Broadway, New 
York, N. Y. 

ISSUE OF DECEMIIER 13, 1S92. 

Fare Register, J. W. Fowler, Brooklyn, N. Y 487.731 

Conduit for Electric Railways, J. W. Hayden, Fort Wayne, Ind. 488,735 
Means for Transmitting Power, W. E. Walsh, San Francisco, 

Cal 487,805 

Trolley Catcher, J. Werling and J. F. Agnew, Minneapolis, 

Minn 487,808 

Electric Railway Trolley, A. Warner, BudaPesth, Austria, Hun- 
gary -' 487,813 

Electric Railway Trolley, D. Mason, New York, N. Y .488,022 

Tramway Switch, J. H. Reinhardt, Newark, N. J ..488,132 

Elevated Railway, E. M. Turner, St. Louis, Mo 4S8.IS4 

Elevated Railway, E. M, Turner, St. Louis, Mo 488,155 

Elevated Railway, E. M. Turner, St. Louis, Mo 488,156 

Double Track Elevated Railway, E. M. Turner, St. Louis, Mo. .488,157 

ISSUE OF DECEMBER 20, 1892. 

Trolley Stand for Electric Cars, E. M. Bently, Boston, Mass 488,170 

Cable Crossing, W, Bowers, New York, N. Y 488,262 

Street Railway Switch, W. E. Brown, Milawana, Pa., and L. H. 

Smith, Elmira, N. Y 488,263 

Street Car Fender, G. T. Hall, Monrovia, Cal 488,286 

Elevated Railway Structure, J. L. Meigs, Boston, Mass 488,283 

Closed Conduit for Electric Railways, R. A. Dion, Natick, Mass 488,35. 
Fender for Cars, H. A. Gamage and W. N. Schmidt, Boston, 

Mass 488,353 

Car Fender, S. L Crafts, Boston, Mass 488,376 

Sand Box for Cars, S. Cory, Cambridge, Mass ..488,387 

Means for Operating Station Indicators, R. B. Ayres, New 

York, N. Y 488,415 

Propellirig Gear for Tramway Locomotives, C. D. Scott, San- 
ford, Pa 488,484 

ISSUE OF DECEMBER 27, 1892. 

Tramway Switch, W. G. Carmell, Columbus, Ohio 488,599 

Trolley Catcher, W. L. Brown, Worcester, Mass, 488,706 

Tram Car Door, John Stephenson, New York, N. Y 488,722 

Closed Conduit for Electric Railways, F. Mansfield, New York. 

N. Y 488,838 

Trolley Wheel, L.J. Hirt, Arlington, Mass 488,811 

Electric Railway Trolley, C. J. Van Depoele, Lynn, Mass 488.929 

Electric Locomotive, C.J. Van Depoele, Lynn, Mass 488,930 

ISSUE OF JANUARY 3, 1893. 

Trolley Wire Support, G. H. Scranton and L. Spillman, Colum- 
bus, O 489,097 

Rail Cleaner for Railway and Tramway Rails, H. Conradi, Lon- 
don, England 489, i3o 

Car Fender, G. F. Topliff, Boston, Mass 489,134 

Automatic .Switch for Trolley Tracks, W, H. Brodie, Brooklyn, 

N. Y 489,189 

Fender for Electric or other Cars, M. S. Starkweather, Boston, 

Mass 489,207 

Electric Railway Trolley, J. Reutlinger, St, Louis, Mo. 489,234 

Electric Elevated Railway, A. L. Rutter, Washington, D. C 489,330 

Underground Conduit for Electric Railway, C. P. Tatro, Spok- 
ane, Wash 489,422 

A GENTLE,M.\N, evidently from darkest Indiana, recently 
boarded a Calumet electric for the purpose of transpor- 
tation and investigation. The thing that interested him 
most was the fare register, which he studied intentl}-. 
Finally his curiosity got the better of his bashfulness and 
he asked the conductor, "Say, mister, how does that 
tarnal thing let your boss know it every time you take in 
a nickel? I've watched it a long time and I vum I 
gan't see ! " 



18 



LONG DISTANCE ELECTRIC RAILWAY. 



LONG distance and high speed electric railways 
are constanthr attracting more attention, not only 
from electricians but capitalists. Numerous lines 
are in daily operation, and have been for months past 
where a speed of 30 miles an hour is obtained with the 
ordinary motors, an ordinary track and with the usual 
voltage. On some of these lines current is transmitted 
direct for a distance of 15 miles from the power station. 
As we have had occasion to mention almost every month, 
the number and length of these interurban roads presents 
the most attractive field for future operations in electric 
railway work. Among the longer projected lines in this 
country is one to connect Galveston and Houston, a dis- 
tance of 50 miles ; one to extend 60 miles from Sanduskj-, 
Ohio, another between New York and Hartford, and 
still another to connect Chicago and Milwaukee, which 
latter is being kept very quiet, but when the first move 



appear from time to time in their printed announcements 
of plans under way, or accounts of the progress of the 
work. It is now stated, 
however, that pending ne- 
gotiations are well along 
toward settlement by which 
the entire bond issue will be 
taken in New York and 
Boston, although the buyers 
do not desire their names 
given out until the deal is 
closed. The preliminarj^ 
survey was made several 
months ago and the topo- 
graphical map reveals a line 
with practically no difficul- 
ties. The grades are all c. e. blever. 
slight, and the onlj- bridge of any consequence is the 
one over the Kankakee river, and that onh- 1,100 fee 





UK. ADAMS AND HIS DAUGHTER ALICE, THE FIRST "WORKMAN 



is made matters will be pushed to completion in short 
order. But by far the longest ever projected, and the 
one which is attracting universal attention, not only in this 
country but abroad, is the Chicago & St. Louis Electric 
Railway, which promises a speed of 100 miles an hour 
between this city and the settlement at the other end of 
the big bridge. The company have two general ofiices, 
one in St. Louis and the other in the Temple Building in 
this city, which latter is in charge of Charles E. Bleyer, 
assistant general manager, a most pleasant gentlemen 
whose business interests are extensive in both St. Louis 
and Chicago, and whois a man of large executive ability. 
The affairs of the road are closely managed and very 
little inside information reaches the public. The mana- 
gers are cautious and make few statements other than 



in length. Grade crossings are to be wholly avoided 
by elevating the tracks over roads and other railroads. 

Work on the roadway was commenced October 6, at 
Edinburg, 111., and at this writing some 24 miles have been 
graded. We are also informed, contracts for the entire 
balance of the fine have been let and will be pushed as 
fast as the weather will permit, with hopes of completion 
by next fall, although the management hope to have a 50 
mile section in working order before the closing of the 
Fair. While there are some who question the ability to 
make the speed named, the public and press generally 
throughtout the countrj' confidently' expect it can be done 
even though they do not understand the details. 

Electricians of high standing concede the possibility of 
100 miles an hour, but have heretofore maintained that 



tefe^^ % ui w? 



19 



the same work could be performed much cheaper by tion can be made economical, we are not prepared to saj-, 

steam locomotives. This the managers of the electric as a demonstration will be the best evidence. The com- 







HIGH SPEED ELECTRIC CAR. 



road state thej- will overcome by using for fuel the slack pany's engineer states the coal properties already secured 

from mines which they either own or control, which slack should suffice to operate the road for something like a 




I'ROSPECTIVE BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF ROAD. 



burned at the mine costs only 17 cents a ton, and is ordi- century. Power station No. i is allotted Edinburg. and 

narily unmarketable. Whether at this figure the opera- plans are being made for a second, in Livingston county, 







. ■ - -v' - ^L ^ JS~ ■- 



TMK POWER STATION AT EDINIJURr,, ILL. 



20 



near Fairburj', while a third is mentioned for Blooming- 
ton, and possiblj- one at Clinton. The farmers along the 
line are much enthused, and no small amount of real 
estate speculation has arisen in anticipation of what the 
road will do. 

One of the most noticeable instances of this may^be 
seen at Alpine Heights, just 23 miles^from Chicago and 
situated near the line of the road. This fact alone has 
been sufficient to create a perfect boom in this beautiful 
county suburb, and prices are advancing rapidly and 
transfers being made at constantly increasing prices. 

The company will in all probability adopt the Moffett 
Journal bearing for their motors. 

Dr. Adams, president of the road, expects the first 
motor, which is being built in Germany, will reach here 
about March i. The track is to be standard gauge, rock- 
ballasted and laid with 72-pound steel rails, and its pro- 
gress will be watched with great interest. 



'ZE GREAT CHRISTOPHER COLUMBO." 



AWHALEBACK steamer is not exactly a street car, 
but the one shown in the engraving is to ply on 
one of the great thoroughfares between the heart 
of Chicago and the World's Fair. We are indebted to 
the Marine Review for the illustration of what will be the 
first whaleback used in passenger service. It is intended 
to run between Van Buren street and the Fair. This 
vessel is made entirely of steel, being 362 feet in length 
over all, 42 feet beam and 24 feet deep. The hull is of 
the same shape as that used on freight boats, but carries 
a watei' ballast of 730 tons in her double bottom. Engines 
are triple expansion, intended to develop 3,000 horse 
power. The passenger accommodations are all in the 
superstructure, which is supported b}- nine turrets in the 
center, and b}- ventilator tubes around the outside. The 
turrets are occupied by stairways, engine-rooms and 




THE GREAT WHALE BACK PASSENGER STEAMSHIP, CHRISTOPHER COLUJIBUS. 



PHILADELPHIA'S TROLLEY. 



In the cases, known as the " trolley cases," or " the 
citizens' committee against the traction company" in the 
Court of Common Pleas No. 4, the review of the Su- 
preme bench gives a sweeping victory for the corpora- 
tion. The decision handed down by Justice Mitchell 
makes it dependent entirelj' upon questions of law of the 
greatest local and State interest. 



Garson Myers, president of the Standard Railway 
Equipment company, is meeting with splendid success 
with his car heaters. Among a multitude of complimen- 
tar}' letters we select the following from J. S.Ticknor, 
manager of the West End road, Rockford, 111., who writes 
under date of January 6, 1893, as follows: "We have 
been using eight of the "Standard" Stoves, bought of 
you last November, in our cars, and though we at first 
had serious doubts of their efficiency in very cold weather, 
and hence did not feel justified in giving them our 
endorsement, we can now, after having experienced the 
coldest weather in this locality for the last six years, 
speak in unqualified praise of these stoves. During our 
coldest weather the cars have been as comfortable as one 
could wish and have occasioned numerous compliments 
from our patrons. Another winter we expect to equip 
all our cars with the ' Standard ' Stoves." 



stacks. It will be seen that there are two decks. Din- 
ing rooms are in the middle of the lower deck. On the 
saloon deck the grand saloon is 225 feet long and 30 feet 
wide. The top of the saloon is a promenade 257 feet 
long. The whole vessel will be heated by steam and 
lit with electricit}-. Carrying capacity is about 5000 
persons, and the run of seven miles will be made in thirty 
minutes. It is designed for excursion traffic, and conse- 
quently staterooms are omitted. The appointments are 
among the best. A large fountain will play in the center 
of the grand cabin. 



The first number of the World's Fair Electrical En- 
gineering, of which Fred DeLand is editor, has made its 
appearance, and is a very readable and attractive issue. 
Mr. DeLands' well known abilit}' as a writer has ample 
scope in his new magazine, which starts out with bright 
prospects. 

A MAN who knows, says that Grand Rapids, Mich., 
would be a first-class point for building street cars. Car- 
riages and wagons are built there, the shipping facilities 
are good and power is cheap. The street railway has a 
machine-shop and paint-shop in operation there. 



E. A. Lang, general manager of the Consolidated lines, 
Toledo, was a welcome caller January 12th. 



21 



INTRAMURAL RAILWAY AT THE WORLD'S FAIR GROUNDS. 



OUR readers will no doubt remember the article 
published on this subject in the Street Rail- 
way Review for July. This article brought 
the first details of the work to the public eye 
and the present supplement gives the first detailed 
account of the remainder of the construction. 

Referring to our engraving of the elevated structure, 
accompanying this article, the graceful outline and the 
light but strong construction of the road bed may be seen. 
The post foundations are concrete, 7x7 feet and 12 inches 
thick. The grades are slight, running from .5 to 2 per 
cent, and the curves vary from 100 to 200 feet radius. 
The radii of terminal loops are 100 feet. The length of 
the line is three and six tenths miles. 

It starts with a loop near the Fisheries Building, run- 
ning north to the boundary of the grounds, thence west 



tasteful superstructure the contract for which was taken 
by Remington & Co., Chicago. 

The Illinois steel companj- has the contract for the 60 
pound-rail that is to be laid. The current will be con- 
veyed to the car by an under running trolley wheel, run- 
ning upon 60-pound steel T rails. A portion of the way 
this rail will be supplemented by two others of equal size 
in order to give sufficient carrying capacity. The I beams 
of the structure and the rails upon which cars run will 
form the return current. The motors will be controlled 
by the series parallel controller which is now being put 
into extended use by the General Electric Company. The 
cars will be equipped with four 50-horse-power Thomson- 
Houston motors capable of exerting a maximum capacity 
of loo-horse-power each, making the total capacity of 
each motor car 400-horse-power. 




ELEVATED STRUCTURE; POWER HOUSE LNDEK ^ '. 



and south just inside of the enclosing fence to a point near 
the Transportation Annex. Then runs over the roof of 
the Transportation Annex in a southeasterly direction, 
being supported upon posts built into the Transporta- 
tion Building. From the Transportation Building it runs 
south to a point near the Machinery Hall, then makes a 
loop to the west around the west end of this building, 
thence runs due east to a point between the Colonnade 
and the Agricultural Building, where it turns and runs in 
a southeasertly direction toward the south end of the For- 
estery Building. Here it turns north and runs up to the 
lagoon near the east side of the Agricultural Building. At 
this point there is a loop upon which the trains turn and 
proceed back over the route above outlined. The road con- 
nects with the Barre sliding railwaj', with the Alley L and 
with the moveable sidewalk. Its introduction is one of the 
greatest conveniences on the grounds and will be appre- 
ciated by millions of passengers during the Exposition. To 
C. P. Matlack, engineer in chief, belongs the honor of the 



There will be along the line eleven stations for passen- 
gers and sufficient transfer stations. 

THE POWER .ST.\TION 

is situated near the Forestry building. It is of staff, 
with a brick back wall for the furnace and smoke-stack. 
The latter is shown in our engraving, as well as the bat- 
teries of Babcock-Wilcox boilers, aggregating 5,000 
horse-power. 

This station, an elevation of which is also shown, is 
the product of the experience and talent of Bion J. 
Arnold, the consulting engineer. This work, which is of 
the most difficult character, as it involves the building of 
a temporary plant to do work that would test a perma- 
nent power house, bids fair to be as successful as Mr. 
Arnold's previous plants at Little Rock, St. Joe, Mich., 
and elsewhere have been. We call particular attention 
also to the longitudinal section of the power house. 

The engine room is 140 feet long by 87 feet wide. 



20 



The boiler room is 140 feet long by 60 feet wide. The 
building is of frame construction, with the exception of the 
rear wall of the boiler room, which is of brick, as above 
stated. The entire building is covered with staff outside 
and in, this making it cheap to construct. The trusses are 
of wood, and support the corrugated iron roof. The roof 
of the boiler room consists of common gravel roof, with 
tarred paper between the sheathing and the gravel. The 
building is so designed that all windows used in it are of 
standard size used for ordinary house building, so that con- 
siderable money can be realized from the sale of them 
after the Exposition is over. This idea has been con- 
formed to by the designer of this station all through, and 
it will be noticed that heavy timbers are used in almost 



severe tests that will be put upon it when the road goes 
into operation. To have built these foundations with 
piling in the ordinary manner would have cost double the 
money that the present work calls for, and it was 
thought best to depend upon concrete foundations. 

The water for the plant is secured from the lake, which 
is about 300 feet from power-house, through an 18-inch 
vitrified sewer pipe and flows to the power-house by 
gravitJ^ The condenser pumps take the water from this 
pipe, force it through the condensers and lift it high 
enough to give a sufficient head for the water to flow 
back into the lake through another vitrified sewer pipe. 
It will thus be noticed that all the energy that is required 
of the air pumps is to lift the water about 6 feet, as the 







■.Siira 'iiii m m 'iW ^^ ^^' '^W n^ Willi' wii 



jp!»i jm 





^^■'"'^m:^' 



•9 S^^^ -^ 



t'iiSf^ 



,«nrT«nCS^*;S?! 





THE POWER HOUSE. 



all cases, and that little cutting has been necessary, thus 
making the timber after the building has been torn down 
almost as good as new. 

The extraordinary weight of the machinery to be 
placed in this building makes the matter of foundations 
quite an important subject, especially so when it is known 
that the station stands on running sand, which is almost 
as bad as quick sand. It will be noticed from the draw- 
ings that the earth is excavated to a point about three 
feet below the surface, which is below frost line. Over 
this is a temporary grillage work, consisting of two layers 
of 4x12 inch plank, placed at right angles to each other, 
and thoroughly spiked together. Upon this mass of tim- 
ber was built one solid concrete stone, 140 feel long by 
60 feet wide and 3 feet thick, made of Portland cement 
and sand. Upon this stone was built the engine and con- 
denser foundations, and it is believed that it will stand the 



water flows to and from the power-station by gravity. 
In the center of the engine-room will be noticed a 2,000 
horse-power Reynolds-Corliss cross compound condens- 
ing engine, built by the Edward P. Allis Company, of 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, coupled direct to a 1,500 kilowatt 
Thomson-Houston multipolar railway generator. At one 
end of the building is a 750 horse-power Reynolds cross 
compound engine coupled direct to a 500 kilowatt Thom- 
son-Houston multipolar generator with an over-hung 
armature. It will be noticed that this generator is so built 
that the field can be moved off from over the armature by 
means of screws and hand wheels, thereb}- permitting 
easy access to the armature or fields for repairs. Midway 
between this engine and the main engine is located a 750 
horse-power Hammond-Williams compound condensing, 
xertical engine, coupled direct to a 500 kilowatt Thomson- 
Houston multipolar generator. This generator is of the 



r^fe^ ^V U W ? - 



same design as the one attached to the 
Allis tandem engine, except that it is 
provided with an out-board bearing for 
the armature. At the other end of the 
engine- room is located a 750 horse- 
power tandem cross compound con- 
densing Greene engine built hj- the 
Providence Steam Engine Company, 
of Providence, R. I., coupled direct to 
a multipolar 500 Thomson - Houston 
generator, with a tightener on the slack 
side of the belt furnished by the Eclipse 
Clutch Works, of Beloit, Wisconsin, 
lietween the Greene engine and the 
large engine, located in the center of the 
building, is placed a 400 horse-power 
tandem compound condensing engine 
built by the Mcintosh & Seymour 
Company, of Albany, N. Y., coupled 
direct to a multipolar 200 kilowatt 
Thomson-Hou.ston generator. 

In the rear of the engine-room stand 
the condensers and boiler feed pumps 
for the entire plant, and it will be noticed 
that the engine-room floor is left open 
and a railing provided around the open- 
ing, thereby' making a gallery for spec- 
tators to view the machinery below. In 
this condenser pit will be located two 
Allis vertical fly - wheel condensers, 
which are to work in connection with 
their engines. To the Williams engine 
there will be attached a fly-wheel con- 
denser built by the Conover 'Manufac- 
turing Company, of New York. To 
the Mcintosh & Seymour engine will 
be attached a single acting condenser 
built by the Deane Steam Pump Com- 
pany, of Holyoke, Mass. The Greene 
engine will be attached to a duplex- 
condenser, manufactured by Henry R. 
Worthington, of New York. The feed 
water for the boilers will be supplied 
by a triplex pump built by the Gould 
Manufacturing Company, of New York, 
and a duplex steam pump built by the 
Smith- Vaile Company, of Dayton, O. 
These boiler feed pumps will be ar- 
ranged to take the water directly from 
the lake and the hot water wells of the 
condensers as occasion demands. They 
will also be attached to a system of fire 
service pipes running throughout the 
building and car barns of the com- 
pany, located a short distance from the 
power house, so that these pumps will 
not only act as boiler feeders but will 
be on hand for fire service at all times. 




24 



They will also supph' hot water for washing the cars 
in the car barns. 

It will be noticed that the condensing machinery is all 
steam driven and that each engine is provided with an 
independent condenser. The valves for handling the con- 
densers and engines will be controlled by wheels located 
near the engines, so that the engineers can start the 
machiner}' without changing their positions to any great 
extent. In the boiler room will be located ten 300-horse- 
power Babcock & Wilcox water tube boilers, having a 
total maximum capacity of 5,000 horse-power, as occa- 
sion demands. In the rear of these boilers will be built 
brick smoke flues, and on the outside of the building will 
be placed two batteries of Greene's fuel economizers 
built by the Fuel Economizer Company of Mattewan, N. 
Y. The feed water will be taken from the hot wells of 
the condensers forced b}' the boiler feed pumps through 
these eccnomizers, then to the boiler. The hot gases from 
the boilers will pass through the economizers on their 
way to the stack, thus heating the feed water to a high 
temperature before entering the boilers. 

It will be seen that the piping for the plant is all 
independent of the building. A main header connects all 
the boilers from which leads three large steam pipes 
down beneath the boiler room floor to the engines, 
branches being taken off at proper points to supply the 
different condensers and pumps. An automatic pump and 
drainage tank is located below the lowest point of anj' of 
the pipe work and takes care of all water condensation. 
This pump will force the drainage water back into the 
boilers, thus doing awa}' with all the traps and waste water 
in the plant. The boilers will be supplied with oil burning 
apparatus and will secure their supply of oil from the tanks 
of the World's Columbian Exposition Company, located 
about 300 feet distant from the power-house. The oil burn- 
ing plant will be installed by the National Supply Com- 
pany, of Chicago, while it is expected that a variety of oil 
burners will be used in the plant, endeavoring thereby to 
ascertain the real economy of the different burners now 
on the market. 

The switch board of this plant will be located on a half 
story above the engines, which will permit the electrical 
operator, who will be located on the switch board platform, 
at all times to have complete supervision of all the 
machinery and electrical apparatus in the plant. The 
feeder wires will be laid from the power station to the 
elevated structure in an under ground conduit, provided 
with the necessary drainage and means for access. 

The trains, 18 in number, will be run on a iji minute 
headway or 40 per hour, giving a capacity of 15,000 peo- 
ple per hour. The cars are built by Jackson & Sharp 
Co., of Wilmington. Del. A ten-cent fare will be 
charged. 

The personnel of the staff is: W. E. Baker, gen- 
eral manager; R. I. Sloan, consulting engineer of the 
elevated structure; B. J. Arnold, consulting engineer; C. 
P. Matlack, engineer in chief; C. H. Macloskie, chief 
electrician, and G. K. Wheeler consulting electrical engi- 
neer. 



The contractors of the work are as follows: Reming- 
ing & Co., Chicago, the elevated structure and car barn; 
McArthur Bros.. Chicago, Power station building ; Cas- 
sidy & Victor, Cincinnati, Ohio, foundations; WiOiam E. 
Dee, Chicago, sewer work; Crane Company, Chicago, 
pipe work; J. H. Mathews, Harvey, 111., smoke stack. 



JOHN A. COYLE. 



THE first president of the Pennsylvania Street Rail- 
way Association, formed December 28, 1S92, is 
John A. Coyle, of Lancaster, who has also been 
president of the Lancaster City and West End Street 
Railway Company since its consolidation. 

Mr. Coyle comes of a good Irish family on his father's 
side of the house, while his mother belonged to one of 
the oldest of the Pennsylvania German stock. With this 
heredity of Irish quickness and sagacity and German pru- 
dence John Coyle was born April 23, 1858, in Lancaster. 
After a preliminary education in the excellent citj- schools 
of Lancaster, young Coyle entered the famous institution 
known as Seton Hall, of which the presiding genius was 
bishop, now arch bishop Corrigan. From this school he 
was graduated in 1877 with high honors, and having 
chosen the law as his profession, entered the ofhce of 
William Aug. Atlee, and was admitted to the bar in 1880 
He was at once favored with a large practice and was 
known as the rising attorney among the younger men 
with a clientele that an old practitioner might envy. 

Although Mr. Co3''le's first care is his profession, like 
all men of his ability, he finds time for man}' public affairs. 
He is one of the owners of the Freie Presse and the 
Lantenrie, two German newspapers, is a trustee of St. 
Mar3''s Orphan Asylum, St. Mary's Cemetery, several 
benevolent organizations, and last but not least, guides the 
destinies of the Consolidated railways of Lancaster. 

In 1890 the first consolidation of the Lancaster roads 
was made, followed in January of the next year by a 
consolidation of the Millersville line, practically making 
the roads one. 

Mr. Coyle was a firm believer in electric equipment 
and was one of the main supporters of a then unpopular 
idea. His predictions have been wonderfully fulfilled, 
however, since in the last "horse-year" 183,000 passen- 
gers were carried, against 426,000 for the first electric's 
year, and for the last year 1,249,250. 

Through Mr. Coyle's efforts various pleasure resorts 
have been placed on the line, notably Potts' park on the 
east, Engleside on the south and the beautiful park of 
Little Conestoga, whither concerts and amusements draw 
the crowds. 

Mr. Coyle's intimate connections with rapid transit, by 
knowledge of its needs and legislative wants as well as 
his wide experience in human affairs, makes his choice as 
president of the Pennsylvania State Association one of 
particular suitability. 

Personally Mr. Coj'le is of that magnetic influence that 
belongs to men of strong natures and of a suavity that 
marks the men of affairs and of the world. 




JOHN A. COYLE, 

Lancaster, 
President Pennsylvania Street Eailway Association. 



■_'o 



MONTREAL'S STREET. RAILWAY SYSTEM. 



0\'ER three hundred j'ears ago, to -wit, about 
this time of year. Anno Domini, 1535, Jac- 
ques Cartier, captain of the ships of Francis 
I, most Christian emperor, first landed in Montreal. It 
was rather greed than glorj' that caused Francis to send 
Cartier to the New World, for, if history says aright, his 
most Christian majesty swore a most wicked swear sa)'- 
ing, "I would fain see the clause in Adam's will that 
bequeaths all that vast heritage to my brothers of Spain 
and Portugal." However that ma)- be, brave Captain 
Cartier found the great Gulf of St. Lawrence and came 
on to the village of Hochelega. The captain very prop- 
erly took possession of all he saw in the name of the 



Its peculiar population, where the Scotch Presbyterian 
jostles the Jesuit, with convent walls abutting factories 
and French barristers in English courts, makes it of the 
deepest interest to the scholar and the politician. 

Rapidl)' increasing in population, with a large traffic, 
both by land and sea, with progressive men and a rest- 
less competitor across the boundary line, the future of 
Montreal is assured. In 1760 its population was 3,000; 
in 1S50, 57,700; in 1S70, 179,000 and in 1890, 217,000. 

It was in November, 1S61, that the first street car was 
pronounced tres bon by the inhabitants of the city of 
Montreal. 

The line was a short one, operated by horses and 




CAR HOUSE — MONTREAL STREET RAILWAY. 



king, and named the beautiful eminence near the town, 
Mount Royal, and the settlement at its base, in later 
days became to the hybrid tongues, Montreal. 

With Cartier and the French priests came the French 
people, of whom great numbers still live in the surround- 
ing country, speaking their own tongue, so that street 
car conductors and policemen must know both languages. 
Canada was ceded to the English in 1763, and Montreal 
became the stronghold of the English power. 

Since 1840 radical and swift changes have come to 
Montreal, and the beautiful city has become modernized, 
and to-day is one of the best cities on the continent and 
the center of commercial Canada, with banks, churches, 
architecture, colleges, schools, railroads, bridges and 
improvements becoming our century and our country. 



using sleighs in winter. It was known as the Montreal 
Street Railway Company. This name has never been 
changed through all its vicissitudes, although the owner- 
ship has frequently changed. 

The present management is composed of R. B. Angus, 
L. J. Forget, G. C. Cunningham, K. W. Blackwell and 
H. A. Everett. These gentlemen bought out the Jesse 
Joseph syndicate, which held the reins of power until the 
present management took charge. 

The road until the present year was of no particular 
interest, except a very large horse line of about 50 miles, 
which used sleighs every winter at a deficit and had 
stormy directors' meetings to inquire at regular intervals 
as to the this-thusness of things. 

However, after months of patient work, and after many 



26 



battles with recalcitrant old fogies, and aldermen seeking 
a reputation among their constituents, a change took place. 
This transmogrification was born with the street railway 
concession of July 19, 1892, allowing the Montreal Street 
Railwa}' Company to use the overhead electric system, 
known to fame as the trolley. The contract is to run 30 
years, and, under the conditions named, it was necessary 
to have in operation a large portion of the system. The 
honor of the victory for the 
new system belongs to W. 
McKenzie, the energetic 
president of the Toronto 
street railway S3'stem, and 
James Ross, connected with 
McKenzie as the contractor 
for the system, and H. A. 
Everett, so widely known in 
the States for his street rail- 
way management. 

Mr. Ross was president 
from the beginning of the 
management, but finding 
that he could better further 
the interests of the company 
by giving more of his time 
to the construction, he resigned on October 5, when L. J. 
Forget succeeded him. Mr. Forget has been long and 
favorably known in connection with the Montreal Street 
Railway, and is a firm friend of rapid transit. 

The managing director is H. A. Everett, above men- 
tioned, who has so well applied his large experience and 
extensive knowledge of street railwaj' work. 



The tabulation is as follows, and is too remarkable not to 
claim a full share of the attention of street railway men: 





1891 


Aug. 


990,740 


Sept. 


1,121,999 


Oct. 


902,824 


Total increase 



1892 

1,427,308 
1,627,769 
1,430,190 



Increase in '92 
436,628 
505,770 
537,366 




ST. CATHERINES STREET — LOOKING EAST. 



1,479,764 

This has been accomplish- 
ed with but part of the line 
equipped with the new agent. 
At present, 47 miles of 
track are traversed by Mon- 
treal cars with one-third of 
the mileage electrically 
equipped. 

The engineer of the road 
is Granville C. Cunningham, 
M. I. C. E., late city engineer. 
He has found nearly all the 
rail in the city too light, and 
the new 70-pound girder and 
45-pound tram rail is rapidly 
replacing the strap whereon 
the horse car was wont to 
glide. The new rail is made by Dick, Kerr & Co- 
The rolling stock consists of 200 cars made by various 
manufacturers, both Canadian and American. The Amer- 
ican cars are principally from the shops of John Stephen- 
son and the Newburyport Car Company', while the Cana- 
dians are represented by Crossen and the La Riviere 
works near Quebec. The Canadian cars are very fair 




OTABLKS, Willi Klil'AlR SHOP TO THE LEFT — MONTREAL STREET RAILWAY. 



On November 2, the annual report of the stock- 
holders showed a remarkable increase over previous 
years which is principally attributable to the influence of 
electric traction in the three months previous to the 
report. The net profits for the year ending September 
30 was $93,880.21, as against $60,261.77 of the 
previous year. Out of that amount two dividends 
of 4 per cent, amounting to $71,000, having been 
declared. 

The reports of the three months of August, September 
and October show an increased patronage of 1,479,764^ 



representatives of the art. The cars are 16, 18 and 20 
feet in length. They are mounted on trucks from the 
well known factories of Brill, Bemis and the Fulton 
foundry. The wheels are made by the Buffalo Car 
Wheel Company. 

The cars are equipped with two motors each. The 
motors are divided among the Royal Electric Company 
of Montreal, the Edison and the Westinghouse Com- 
panies. Their service is very hard, as there are numbers 
of 10 and 12 per cent grades and a maximum incline of 
14 per cent. 



27 



At present the power used is furnished bj- the Ro3-al 
Electric Company and, as sufficient power can be rented. 
the company will not now build a power house. 

The copper trollej- wire is strung on wooden poles 
temporarily, but iron poles will be substituted. 



J^: 




ST. CATHERINES STREET — LOOKING WEST. 

The most distinctive feature of railway work in Mon- 
treal arises from the frequency, pertinacity and depth of 
the beautiful snow, which is no respecter of corpora- 
tions, and falls in a cold, damp, hard-packed blanket on 
the street railway tracks and the heart of the manager. 
For many years the great difficulty was overcome to 
some degree by the use of sleighs which made regular 
trips. There were lOO of these in use. 

To take care of the snow fall is an immense task, as 
the average fall for the past seventeen years has been 12 
feet annually. This the railway company is required by 
ordinance to cart off from curb to curb, the city paying 
one-half the expense. 

With the advent of electric cars more extensive means 
of removing the snow must be made, and the very inge- 
nious suggestion is made by Mr. Ros.s, of melting the 
snow. Chief engineer Cunningham works out the idea 
to this effect. The heat generated from 15 tons of coal 
will melt 1,000 tons of snow in 20 hours, or somewhat 
more than would accumulate on a mile of street at a 
depth of 12 inches. This will reduce the e.xpenses of 
hauling snow from the central part of the city; with the 
additional help of electric snow sweepers and track 
brooms it is estimated by the engineer that the expense 
of keeping 10 miles of track open can be done at a 
reasonable expense, dependent on the organization of the 
snow cleaning force. 

The number of .sleighs will be reduced for this winter, 
and as these vehicles could not be heated, and the electric 
cars will be provided with hard coal stoves and Burton 
electric heaters, the public will be better pleased. 



On the line of the railway are found numerous resorts 
which, with rapid transit facilities, will be liberally patron- 
ized. Historic Mount Royal and the beautiful Sohmer 
and Lacrosse parks have many attractions for both visitor 
and inhabitant of Montreal. 

The addition of 35 miles of new track and the final 
changing of the 50 miles now existant will also have its 
effect on outlying property. 

The present management is a strong combination of 
forces, and the street railway world looks to it for a strong 
example of enterprise. President Forget and Secretary 
E. Lousher are first-class men, who, with Superintendent 




NEW TOWER WAGON — .MONTREAL. 



jFranklin, are well acquainted with locality and people, 
'while the accomplished skill and the extensive experi- 
ence of Managing Director Everett does the rest. 



ONE HONEST EDITOR. 



THERE was much opposition in the good old city 
of New London, Conn., to the introduction of the 
trolley system. The daily "Day," more honest 
than most papers, says: "The street railway has done 
all for the town that was promised by its projectors, and 
more. We make the acknowledgement now, not only for 
our own satisfaction, but for the benefit of course, of our 
contemporaries in other parts of the state, who are strug- 
gling with the same misgivings and influenced by the 
same unfounded prejudice? which led us to question the 
expediency of introducing the trolley system." 



28 



ELECTRICITY FOR THE FARM. 



A RATHER rose colored scheme for keeping the 
boys on the farm is proposed by Nelson Black, 
in a recent engineering magazine. Mr. Black 
estimates that more than 90 per cent of the roads in the 
United States could be equipped with electric traction at 
the cost of $3,500 per mile, and to accomplish his Utopian 
scheme, he claims that a capitalization of $10 per acre 
would fit up a district 10 miles square with lines one mile 
apart. In other words, an interest charge of $60 annually, 
on the average farm. 

Mr. Black's enthusiasm is commendable, and his plan is 
to some degree practicable, but as to to the manner and 
means of accomplishing the end considerable latitude 
should be allowed. 

As to the manner, the most feasible idea is to build a few 
lines to the more thickly settled districts, and at sufficiently 
frequent points on the line, place stations and loading 
platforms, where the neighborhood should meet to load 
the electric freight cars for market and to receive in their 
wagons the supplies brought from town. This will 
economize time without 
waste of money, on lines 
where traffic will be lim- 
ited, and as lines on all 
streets of all cities will 
not pay, much less will 
the mile-block system of 
suburban electric lines 
return a dividend to the 
agricultural investor. 

Suppose however, that 
a line should be built 15 
miles in each cardinal 
direction from a market 
town, the center of, say, 
100,000 people. This 

would bring a shipping point within two or three miles 
teaming of at least one-half of the above number. This 
is the best method if it be done. 

Mr. Black's estimate of $3,500 a mile as the cost of 
construction, is considerably out of plumb with the exist- 
ing circumstances as to supplies, labor, and engineering 
difficulties frequently to be overcome. A mile of sub- 
stantial electric road, laid with 45-pound T rail, will cost 
$5,000. For if built at all, it should be built in a first- 
class manner, capable of any freight work that may come 
upon it and be less liable to repairs. The line work is 
now worth perhaps $1,700 a mile. In addition to this 
first cost of construction, the power plant and attendance, 
as well as rolling stock, must be accounted for, bringing 
the total cost to a figure apparently not appreciated by 
the granger writer. 

The revenue which some might imagine as available, 
from rental of power along his line, will be found to be 
more theoretical than practical. The farmer must have 
his teams, and would figure his "horse-power" as costing 
him nothing, for with the exception of running threshers^ 




THE farmer's dream. 



which is largely done by portable engines, his other work 
requiring stationary machinery, is operated either by 
wind mill or by horse-power machine, in neither of 
which case is there any outlay for operating expenses. 
Hence little revenue can be estimated from this source. 

There is nothing, moreover, harder than convincing the 
average farmer of the value of interest. He much pre- 
fers the dollar in the hand to several hundred in the 
future, and as to Mr. Black's method of raising the 
necessary capital, it is less possible than his original 
propostion. 

Along certain roads with some particular advantages 
of commodity and with a particular kind of people, the 
idea is good, but with ordinary difficulties of construction, 
with ordinary values of commodities and among ordinary 
rural population, the scheme of co-operative railway 
would go the way of the granger movement, the farmers' 
alliance, and half a dozen socialistic villages. 

We are earnest advocates of interurban roads, and 
were among the earliest to point out their benefits, but 
the impracticability of the road-a-mile is neither suffi- 
ciently extravagant to be original, nor sensible enough 

to be commendable. 
" Such writers are harmful 
to the best interests of 
electric traction. 



His death recalls an 
interesting event in the 
life if Dr. Siemens, who 
was at one time impris- 
oned for acting as second 
in a duel. While there 
he was allowed to ex- 
periment on electroplat- 
ing, and was greatl}- 
disappointed when, after 
a month, was pardoned. 



FUEL CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED 
STATES. 

THE following table gives the consumption of fuel 
for the past twenty years according to the United 
States census: 

1870 iSSo 1S90 

Gross tons of anthracite coal 13,925,229 23,580,189 40,714,721 

Gross tons of bituminous coal 15,356,610 38,242,641 85,383,059 

Bushels of charcoal 74,008,972 90,000,000* 

Cords of wood i45.77S,i37 180,000,000* 

Barrels of petroleum 5,260,745 26,286,123 34,820,306 

Natural gas, value of coal displaced. No report. No report. $20,000,000* 
♦Estimated. 

The present consumption is equal to about 3}^ tons of 
coal per annum in calorific value, per capita. A million 
and a half tons of fuel have to be transported every day 
in the year, and the mining and handling require a million 
laborers. This does not include natural gas. 

Wm. S.'Walcott has been appointed superintendent of 
the Danvers division of the Lynn & Boston Street Railway. 



29 



LA FAYETTE ELECTRICS. 



T 



HE natal state of James Whitcomb Riley has no 
prettier city than 

"THAT TOWN OF LAFAYETTE." 



Here, on the historic soil trodden by the warring bands 
of redmen and the resolute early settlers, redolent with 
the history of "Tippecanoe and Tjler too," down on the 
banks of the Wabash dwell the 16,000 wide awake, pro- 
gressive, and busy people of LaFa3'ette. 




.MAIN STREET BRIDGE. 



The town was founded in 1827, and has had a slow 
but sure growth in population and wealth ever since. 
Toda}' the carriages, farm implements, machinery, cloth, 
paper, and other articles of domestic manufacture made 
here are known all over the land. The town boasts of 



electric traction, that what is said to be the second 
Sprague system in the world was installed with proper 
enthusiasm. This first electric road used seven-and-a- 
half horse-power motors on the old horse cars. There 
were eight motor cars in use all told, although in 1889 
there was added another car equipped with Sprague No. 



"«tet^ 



f 







MOUNTING A 7.5 PER CENT GRADE. 

6 motors, which were improvements over the old style, 
but still crude from the present point of view. 

On October 14, 1891, the road was reorganized under 
the present management, and a new and modern equip- 
ment ordered, with the exception of the engines and 
boilers of the old plant, which were retained for the new 




INTERIOR OF POWER HOUSE — LAFAYETTE STREET RAILWAY. 



twenty-seven churches, three daily and five weekly news- 
papers, and is besides the home of Perdue University, an 
institution well known for its scientific attainments. It is 
on a state foundation, and its curriculum includes a 
thorough mechanical course, including electrical engineer- 
ing in all its branches, with practical applications to 
industries there settled. 

From 1827 to 1884 the good burgers of LaFayette 
wore out shoe leather and patience in walking to and 
from their daily haunts of business and pleasure. The 
oldest inhabitant finally died of o/er-exertion in pedestrian 
e.vercise, and a valient company accepted a franchise for 
a horse street railway, which was built in 1884. Three 
years later the rumors of electric traction excited the 
curiosity of the owners of the road, and an investigation 
showed such superior merits, even at that early stage of 



service, and a 220-volt dynamo used for running station- 
ary motors. A contract was made with the Edison Gen- 
eral to furnish six double equipments of No. 14 Edison 
motors, and two dynamos of the same make of 60 kilo- 
watts capacity each, together with the line construction, 
switch board, and other minor equipments. At the same 
time the J. G. Brill Company, of Philadelphia, was bidden 
to construct five closed 14- foot cars of their best make, 
and, to honor these high-class equipments, new 56-pound 
Johnson T rail was laid on the entire roadbed of five 
miles. Brill has furnished three more cars, so satisfac- 
tory were the first ordered. These cars carry two 20- 
horse-power motors, and run on Brill, and Griffin Wheel 
and Foundry wheels. Brill's trucks are also used. 

The power station is provided with a 130-horse-power 
Hamilton-Corliss engine, now in use long enough to 



;50 



make it the "stand-by" and "swear-by" of the company, 
by reason of its excellent performance. Hoover, Owens 
& Rentschler made the two boilers, which give the best 
of results, and Hoppes' feed water heater is an indispens- 
able adjunct of the station. Natural gas is used as the 
fuel, at a saving of two-thirds over coal. We illustrate 
the burning connections. 




CAR HOUSK — LAFAYETTE STREET RAILWAY. 

The stationary motor business is no small item in the 
year's business, consuming the 220-volt output of the two 
Edison 25-horse-power generators, which drive 14 
motors ranging from 'j,^ to lo-horse-power. This power 
is giving excellent satisfaction in operating printing 
houses, shoe factories, elevators, ventilating fans, and 




METRE FOR MEASURING NATURAL GAS. 

light manufactories. This rented power does not inter- 
fere with the regular progress of business, and we 
strongl)' advocate similar enterprise in several cases of 
"too small income." 

Perdue University above mentioned gives a good pat- 
ronage to the road, having for three quarters of the year 
eight hundred students in attendance. The bridge over 



the Wabash river to the universit}' is shown in the accom- 
panying engraving. Both conductors and motormen are 
employed on all cars. 

The present management which has raised the road to 
its present excellence, consists of T. J. Levering, presi- 
dent and treasurer; J. C. Welles, secretary, and J. S. 
Hill, general manager. 

It gives us great pleasure to introduce by means of the 
graphic art the faces of the two latter named gentlemen, 
and also to give sketches of their lives up to date. 

J. S. HILL. 

The general manager made his debut Jan. 22, i860, 
and stayed on the farm until his twentj'-first year, when 
his inclination towards mechanical art took him to a 
machine shop at his native town of Delaware, Indiana. 




Here he learned the trade which has since been so valu- 
able to him. In 1SS8 Mr. Hill took charge of an electric 
light plant until 1889, when he became wireman for J. 
K. How, of Baltimore, with work at Washington City. 
After working for the Wenstrom Company and the Marr 
Construction Company, of Pittsburg, Mr. Hill went into 
electric railway work with Thomson-Houston, at Brook- 
lyn, in 1890. In June of the same year he became manager 
of the Glen Echo road, Maryland, and in December be- 
came associated with his present affiliation. Mr. Hill's 
energy and practical knowledge as well as his pleasing 
personality and social ability has made him the master of 
every situation he has 3'et encountered. 

J. C. WELLES, 

the popular and efficient secretary of the company, was 
ushered into this sphere of joy and tribulation November 
27, 1865, at Newburgh, N. Y. 

After a good preparation in the excellent common and 
high schools of his native place, Mr. Wells served a 
varied apprenticeship at clerical and machine work, end- 
ing with a good position with the Marr Construction 
Company, of Pittsburg, and going in this employ to 



31 



various parts of the country. Mr. Welles' life has not 
been long enough to admit of much history, but the suc- 
cess he has already attained bids fair for a longer biog- 
raphy at some later date. He became secretary of the 



THE PORTER NEW ROCKER SWITCH. 




C. WELLES. 



LaFayette line in April, 1892, and the success of his 
efforts have been recorded in the preceding history of 
the strides of the road towards life, liberty and dividends. 



THE INCANDESCENT LAMP DECISION. 



THE U. S. Court of Appeals has granted the injunc- 
tion asked for by thfe Edison General Electric 
Company against the Sawyer-Man Company 
(Westinghouse). The injunction is a permanent one, for- 
bidding the latter company to manufacture incandescent 
lamps infringing the Edison patent. The court imposes 
the condition that the Edison Company must sell lamps 
for use with Westinghouse apparatus installed prior to 
Judge Wallace's decision of July 14th, 1891, " Upon 
terms reasonable under the circumstances of the particular 
case." 

No provision whatever is made for applying lamps to 
Westinghouse apparatus installed since July 14th, 1891, 
or that may be hereafter installed, and the question of 
terms, prices, etc., for lamps for use with apparatus 
installed before that date is left open, except that they 
must be " reasonable under the circumstances of the par- 
ticular case." 



A LARGE amount of Belgian block is being laid by the 
Philadelphia companies, who are using it to replace 
cobble. 

Henry S. Ives, the " Napolean of Finance," who dis- 
tinguished himself by borrowing $23,000,000 before he 
was 24 years old, is said to be forming a syndicate for 
extensive purchase of street railway interests, and that 
the Seligman's will back him. 



THE Porter new rocker switch, made by the Porter 
Tramway Switch Company, of Cleveland, differs 
from all other switches made, in that the point 
instead of being fixed at one end moves with an equal 
motion at both ends. 

As will be seen in the engraving the switch is sur- 
rounded with a cast iron box. The main object of this 
box is to receive the dirt that is caught in the switch. 
The openings around the switch allow whatever debris is 
caught in this waj- to fall through whenever the switch 
is turned, thereby keeping the point free from dirt and 
ice. The point is supported on a segment of a roller and 
the motion is a simple tilting of the wedge or switch 
point from one side of the switch box to the other. Thus 




THE PORTER ROCKER SWITCH. 



there can be no slipping of the switch from side to side 
while the car is passing over. The combination is heavy 
enough to hold eighty tons. 

The switch point being only thirty inches long it 
is adapted to almost any curve. If convenient sewer 
connections can be made with the box, making it practi- 
cally self-cleaning. They are made either single or self- 
acting, and the tongue can be thrown from the car either 
by electricity or a shifter lever on the front platform. 
Every wearing part can be renewed in a few minutes 
without removing pavement or interfering in any manner 
with traffic. 

This switch has been tried on several roads in Cleve- 
and with great success and is being rapidly introduced 
in other cities. For an appliance which is of so recent 
introduction its success has been quite imusual. J. Y. 
Porter is the inventor and the switch is manufactured by 
the Porter Tramway Switch Company, 53 Wade Build- 
ing, Cleveland. 



33 



THE HARRIS PATENT ANTI-FRICTION 
TROLLEY BASE. 



ALTHOUGH not of such primary importance as a 
sound road bed, or a highly efficient motor, yet 
the trolley attachment is of considerable impor- 
tance in making up the best equipped electric car. 

Of the many and various kinds of trolle}' bases in use 
the one of which we give a sketch is well deserving of 
prominence. 

It is light, easy of adjustment and exxeedinglj' strong. 
The stand is made from one malleable iron casting, hav- 
ing an upright arm, 4 7-S inches long. The body is 




MARK IS TROLLEV UASE. 



also made from one malleable iron casting, and has a 
sleeve fitting arm on stand, and made to revolve freely by 
means of an anti-friction roller bearing. 

Encased in the body are two highly tempered spiral 
springs. Covering the body, and thus protecting the 
springs, is a cast steel plate 25J/2 inches long and 4 
inches wide, fitted to body bj- grooved joint. A rack in 
the center of this plate has teeth, which are made to 
mesh with teeth in steel pinion. To the steel pinion is 
cast the socket for holding the trolley pole. These parts, 
with a few minor fittings, comprise the whole base. 

The Brooklyn Street Railway Company, Clevelandi 
Ohio, say that during the twelve months since they first 
put them into use the repairs on them have been nomi- 



nal as compared to other trolley bases which they have 
used. All parts are made interchangeable They are 
manufactured by The Steel Motor Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

AN ELECTRIC RAILWAY IN SINGAPORE. 



IT isn't every country that is so advanced in civiliza- 
tion that it can leap boldly from shank's horses and 
palaquins to a lightning propelled carriage, without 
going through the intermediary processes of wheel bar- 
rows, wagons and steam engines. This thing, however, 
has been done at Singapore, a city off the Mala}- penin- 
sula of India, on an island of the same name, under the 
protectorate of England. 

The population of the island is about 275,000, com- 
posed of Malays, Chinamen, Dutch, French and English. 
The government is under the supervision of native 
princes, with Mr. Gladstone's ministry immediately 
behind the throne for decapatative purposes. The par- 
ticulars of the installation are at present very meagre, 
but suffice it to say that our engraving, which is made 
from a photograph, shows the crown prince of Johore 




MiNOAruKE KLECIKIC RAILWAY. 



with a right royal retinue of sword bearers, high muck- 
a-mucks and harems. The Sultan of Penang may be 
recognized also by those of our readers who have met his 
Terribleness, together with his first wife, Thea Nectar, 
and half a dozen of his mothers-in-law. 

The line is now one mile long, but is the beginning of 
a longer one to be completed between Singapore and 
Kranzi. The road is counting on a good traffic, from 
both the natives and the thousands of Europeans who 
come thither as travellers or as merchants. Three cars 
were run in one train for seven days, b}' way of trial, 
and the working was found very complete and satisfac- 
tory. Open cars with curtains are the only ones in use^ 
and, while we do not admire the graceful outline of the 
trolley stand and pole, we suppose they are for the benefit 
of our Simian ancestors, who may wish to travel on top. 
As this form of trolley pole has not been patented in 
America there may be a chance for some of our readers. 



The manager of the Muncie, Ind., line is going to give 
a storage battery car a trial. Thus far the managers 
who have experimented with -'bat" cars have been the 
ones who have had the " trials." 



^^ 



ELECTRICITY ON THE CHICAGO CITY RAILWAY. 



ONE of the greatest strides electrically, for 
street railway work that has taken 'place in the 
year 1892, is the adoption of electricity for its 
crosstown lines of the Chicago City Railway, 
of which Geo. H. Wheeler is president, M. K. Bowen, 
superintendent and Robt. J. Hill, chief engineer. 

The first lines to be equipped are two miles on Sixty- 
first street from State street to Jackson Park, with a 
branch on Cottage Grove avenue to Sixty-third street; 
thence on Sixty-third street to Jackson Park with a double 
loop extending north and south at the park; four miles 
on Forty-seventh street extending from Western avenue 
east to Cottage Grove avenue; and three miles on Thirty- 
fifth street from California avenue east to State street. 
All the above mentioned lines will be equipped and run- 
ning before the opening of the World's Fair; the balance 



is finished so as to appear from the street to be two 
stories high, while, in reality, it is but one story, 35 feet 
in height. Red pressed brick with terra cotta and stone 
trimmings forms the structure. The roof is trussed tile 
and designed to carry a weight of 40,000 pounds. Sky- 
lights will be placed in the roof to afford the best possible 
light. 

The boiler room is 56 feet b}' 128 feet, and will con- 
tain 14 Mohr tubular boilers, 72 inches by 18 feet long, 
each to have sixty-four 4-inch tubes and be equipped 
with a Murphy smokeless furnace. Coal will be supplied 
to these furnaces by a coal conveying apparatus running 
from the bins to each furnace. The bins in this house 
will have a storage capacity of 420 tons. The stack is 



rLFTrim'-ii-i-n 



c^'g,_^mitM 





IMPROVED VVHEELOCK ENGINE, WITH HTLL VALVE GEAR — CHICAGO CITY RAILWAY. 



of the lines that are now operated by horses will be 
changed as soon as equipment can be procured and when 
all complete will comprise: 108 miles of track and 350 
car equipments: 200 cars will have two 25-horse-power 
motors to each car, and 150 cars will have two 15 -horse- 
power motors to each car. 

The power plant to generate the electric current for 
these lines, contain some new features; and all of the im- 
provements known for the commercial and mechanical 
success of such work have been taken adavntage of in 
this plant. 

The building is now almost completed and is situated on 
Wabash avenue, between Fifty-second and Fifty-third 
streets, and is 130 by 147 feet on the ground floor, and 



placed in the center of the boiler room and has 7 boilers 
on each side, leading the gases into it by means of iron 
breechings extending over all the boilers. When com- 
pleted it will be 175 feet high, 17 feet outside diameter 
with a 10 foot flue the entire length. Between the stack 
and the engine room there are to be two Baragwanath 
heaters of proper capacity to heat the feed water for the 
entire boiler plant. 

The system of piping in this plant is certainly modern 
in every detail. 30-inch drums 53 feet in length extend 
over the entire batter}- of boilers and are connected, as 
shown in the cut by means of an 18-inch copper goose 
neck. From the 30-inch drums, steam is taken to each 
engine by means of a lO-inch heavy steam piping, having 



34 



a lo-inch angle valve placed next to the drum. Copper 
joints and elbows are used throughout the entire plant, 
which probably accounts for the comfort now enjoyed by 
Engineer Hill in his present plants. 



into two sections each of the shape of a letter V on its 
side; these meet at a central door which allows access to 
the rear of the board. The outside of each division will 
control the station apparatus, while the inside of the board, 




ELEVATION OF POWER HOUSE — CHICAGO CITY RAILWAY. 



The engine room is to be a fine specimen of steam and 
electric equipment. The dimensions of the engine room 
will be 90 feet by 128 feet and finished in white enameled 
brick; the generators are to be ten in number, each of 



formed by the other side of the V, controls the lines. 
Most of the apparatus will be composed of marble or slate. 
A separate lighting plant will illuminate the dynamo 
room by 10 arc lamps and 60 incandescent lights. 




HOADLEYS' COMPOUND WIND SYSTEM— CHICAGO CITY RAILWAY. 



the Westinghouse No. 6 type, rated at 700-horse-power 
when running at 300 revolutions per minute. 

The switch board for the plant will be placed on a 
balcony in front of the dynamo room. It will be divided 



The engines to drive this plant are of the improved 
Wheelock type, equipped with E. K. Hill's valve system. 
They are ten in number composed of five pair. They 
are designed to run 100 revolutions per minute with 100 



pounds boiler pressure, and while so running will develop, 
per pair, 1,400 horse-power. The size of the cylinders- 
are 24 inches by 48 inch-stroke. 

The Hill valves and their arrangement are illustrated 
on pages 33 and 35. The advantages of the valve gear 
need no explanations, while the ease and quickness with 
which the gear may be stripped and replaced is a 
recommendation. 

Each pair of these engines will have an iS foot "built 
up" flv wheel, weighing about 50,000 pounds. The hub 
will be forced on the shaft and each arrn (10 to each 
wheel) recessed 4 inches into the hub; each segment will 
be bolted to arm and keyed with side keys; each wheel 
will be grooved for 21 wraps oi 1% inch rope. A new 
departure in transmission of power is being inaugurated 
in this plant and will be watched with great interest. It 
is the endless system of rope transmission and- is a com- 
bination of the Dodge, Hitzeroth, Williams, Macdonald 
and Hoadley patents. It is known as the compound 
wind and is extensively used on the Pacific coast for 
electrical work. The driven pulleys in this case are 72 
inches in diameter and revolve 300 turns per minute, are 



35 



grooved in for 32 wraps oi i}{ inch rope and drive two 
700 horse power generators. The compound multiple 




SECTION OF VALVES AND CYLINDERS. 

winder is 72 inches diameter, grooved for 11 wraps lj{ 
inch rope. The stationary and carriage tighteners are 



^^^j^s^^^^^s^^^^^^^^^^s^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^sss^^^^^^^^^^ss^sis^p^ss^Sis;^^^^^^^^! 




bi^sz 



^^^'^^^.v.:■;^^^k^'^^v;■;■,^^^:j■■■s^'^^^^^^; 



?;^^\v ' ij.Vs^'vV^m^'\\\\W^^^^^ 



PLAN OF POWER HOUSE — CHICAGO CITY RAILWAY. 



3G 



84 inches in diameter and suspended from the ceiling. 
These transmissions are designed to transmit 1,600 horse 
power, and when it is noted that the fly wheel face is only 
39 inches in width, it is something of importance in hand- 
ling large powers. The rope will be lubricated with 
Bichette rope dressing and it is expected that one set of 
ropes will last five years when properly handled. 

This plant is being constructed and furnished by the 
California Engineering Company of Chicago, Hoadley 
Brothers engineers. They are having the engines 
built by the Wheelock Engine Company, of Worcester, 
Mass., and the Eclipse Clutch Works, of Beloit, Wiscon- 
sin, who also furnish these mammoth clutches. The 
rope transmission pulleys and attachments by the Dodge 
Manufacturing Company, of Mishawaka, Indiana. It is 
expected to have the plant in operation within thirty days. 



WE PULL HIS TEETH. 



INCREASED EARNINGS OF RAPID TRANSIT. 



SO much has been written on what a change from 
horse to mechanical power will accomplish, 
readers are apt to accept the statement, but 
neglect to notice in how marked a degree is the resulting 
increase. 

The Binghampton, N. Y., street railway is a good 
example of the above, and the more so because it is not 
one of the larger roads. This road shows the following 
wonderful increase in the past three years: — 

Gross earnings year ending Sept. 30, 1889 $12,163.40 

Gross earnings year ending Sept. 30, 1892 52,250.33 

Gain for July, August and September, 1S91, over 1S90 4,631.05 

Gain for July, August and September, 1S92, over 1891 5,008.14 

Showing a total gain of this period of three months of 
1892 over 1890 of $9,629.19, the same being a gain of 
73 per cent and with the same track mileage and local 
conditions. 

The earnings shown for year ending Sept. 30th, 1892, 
were made with ten miles of the system operated by elec- 
tricity; the balance by horse power. The remaining 3 J^ 
miles have been electrically equipped by the Bingham- 
ton Railroad Company since consolidation, and operation 
of the same commenced Oct. 13th, '92, and with the 
same number of cars (three) for the first four weeks 
earned, viz. : — 

Oct. 13 to Nov. y, '92, electricity (3 cars) $1,264,80 

Oct. 13 to Nov. 9, 'yi, horses, (3 cars) _. 53S 55 

Earnings under same conditions and with same num- 
ber of cars, for the first two weeks operated by elec- 
tricity, and last two weeks operated by horses : — 

Oct. 13 to Oct. 26, 'y2, electricity $680.30 

.Sept. 2y to Oct 13, '92, horses _. 322.60 

The growth of the cit}' of course has had somewhat to 
do with this increase, but does any person imagine for a 
moment horse car earnings could have made any such 
showing? 

The Consolidated of Toledo, O., has increased its mile- 
age 50 per cent in three years, and have dropped from 
650 to 80 horses. 



A GENTLEMAN in the East who recently had 
occasion to place an advertisement, which he 
desired should reach every street railway man in 
the country, sent it to the Review with a pleasant letter 
of which the following is a part: — 

"Your valuable journal reminds me of the Chinaman's 
sign of a good dentist. When a Chinaman in his native 
country desires to have a tooth extracted, he travels 
'round from one dentist to another and inspects the recep- 
ticles they use for teeth they have extracted. A full one 
indicates prosperity and popularity'. An empty one, or 
nearly so, is considered the result of a poor and unpopu- 
lar dentist. Consequently the suffering Chinaman sets in 
the chair that is recommended by the full basket and 
feels sure he is in the right place. Your journal is the 
full basket compared with the other journals that come to 
my office. Consequently you pull my teeth." 
Next! With or without "gas.^" 



NEW STREET CAR VESTIBULE. 



A RECENT invention has been made by J. E. 
Foster for street car vestibules, doing away with 
outside steps. Both ends of the car are similarly 
constructed, but whichever is used by the motorman is 
occupied by him exclusively. The vestibule is semi-cir- 
cular, and is entered directly from the street. Sliding 
entrance doors are placed at "D." A pivoted door opens 
from the vestibule into the interior of the car and com- 




pels passengers to enter and depart at their right, and is 
intended to prevent a blockade of that passageway. 
The car floor is elevated one step above the vestibule floor. 
While the arrangement is new, objections may be made 
to having passengers in leaving, step to the ground with 
their backs to the car, as any accidental start would almost 
certainly throw them down; and a crowded vestibule 
would seriously interfere with ingress and exit and also 
the opening of the pivoted door. 



Stop-over Privileges Discontinued. 

To avoid manipulation and illegitimate use of its 
tickets, the Wabash Railroad Company has found it 
necessary to discontinue the granting of stop-over privi- 
leges on all kinds and classes of tickets, and after January 
1st, 1893, passengers will be obliged to purchase tickets 
from point to point. The new arrangement, however, 
which will be fuUv explained by any of the Company's 
agents, will be found to be equally as convenient to the 
traveling public as the old, while the Company will be 
enabled to protect itself from imposition. 



37 



CASS AVENUE COMPANY'S CONTRACTS. 

THE three lines known as the Cass Avenue and 
Fair Grounds, the Northern Central Railway, 
and the Union Railroad Company, of St. Louis, 
have been united under the head of the Cass Avenue and 
Fair Grounds Railway Company, of which D. G. Hamil- 
ton, Chicago, is president, and Captain Robert H. 
McCuUoch, general manager. Contracts have been let 
for $1,500,000 worth of electric equipment, allotted as 
follows: Track material, Johnson Company, Johnstown, 
Pa.; ties. Duff & Company, St. Louis; electrical equip- 
ment, General Electric Company; engines, (three Soo- 
horse power and one 300-horse-power), E. P. Allis & 
Companj-, Milwaukee; twelve boilers, John O'Brien, St. 
Louis; one hundred cars, St. Louis Car Company; wire, 
J. A. Roebling's Sons Company. 

PLEASURE RESORTS ON THE GRAND 
RAPIDS ELECTRIC. 



OUR readers know how great an interest is being 
taken all over the country in the creation of 
pleasure resorts in connection with street rail- 
way enterprise. In some places the city joins with the 
compan}-, as in Minneapolis, in others the burden falls 



pany will also provide a first-class band to play after- 
noons and evenings during the summer season of seven- 
teen weeks. Toilet accommodations are provided in the 
building. Fine steamers ply on the lake, and there are 
pic-nic grounds, bath houses and other attractions, so that 
people who go to Reed's lake for recreation can have 
their choice of a variety of amusements. Another enter- 
prise of the company is the dredging out of a channel 




PAVILLIOX AS SEEN FROM LAKE. 



between Reed's lake and Fisk lake, making them practi- 
cally one, the result of a long cherished scheme of B. 
S. Hanchett, Jr., the assistant secretary and treasurer. 
The present general manager 'of the road is Jas. R. 
Chapman. When these improvements are completed 
Grand Rapids will have one of the best pleasure resorts 
of any city in the country, and the whole undertaking 




re&d's lake pavillion as seen fro.m the street railway. 



entirely upon the road. As an instance of the latter the 
work of the Consolidated Street Railway, Grand Rapids, 
Mich., is a notable one. 

The Reed's lake pavillion will be read}- for occupancy 
at the beginning of next season. Reed's lake is situated 
on the company's ground, and the site of the new 
pavillion is occupied by old buildings at present. It is 
the intention to remove these and put in their place a fine 
n^w pavillion, that will be all that could be desired, for 
the accommodation of the pleasure seeking public. The 
main building will be 75x140 feet, with an L in front 
75x75 feet. The lower part is open, as can be seen in 
the engraving. Up stairs will be a dining-room, with 
balconies leading off. The tower is to be 75 feet high 
and made resplendent with electric lights. The building 
will have two complete systems of water works, one for 
drinking and the other for general purposes. The corn- 



reflects great credit upon the company and its enterpris- 
ing management. The architect of all the buildings is C. 
S. Thompson, of Denver, who certainly has conceived a 
structure most happily adapted to its purpose. The rail- 
way tracks run direct to the main entrance. 



"GREASED LIGHTNING. " 



AVERY successful attempt has been made in 
Portland to keep ice from the trolley wires b}- the 
use of vaseline. The application is very simple. 
Two men stand on a platform on top of a car and while 
it is moving at the ordinary rate of speed one man 
spreads the vaseline on sponges while the other applies 
it. It takes about a gallon to grease the whole system 
and when the weather is cold the vaseline will stay on a 
long time. It is applied onlj- to the top of the wire. 



3!S 



^g» <^ l ti/ 0^r< p'^U!rf 



LEADING STREET RAILWAY EVENTS OF 
1892. 



JANUARY. 

Helena, Montana, Electric, opens January i. 

Stout Street Electric, Denver, opens January i. 

Atlanta & West End and the Grant Park railways consoli- 
date. 

Metropolitan, of San Francisco, begins work on the first 
electric line in that city. 

The Robinsons and the Consolidated of Toledo, O., sign a 
treaty of peace. 

Aurora & Chicago Electric organize. 

Street Railway Review celebrated its first birthday 
January 15. 

Power house of the Uniontown, Pa., Railway burns. 

Strike at Birmingham, Alabama. 

FEBRUARY. 

Watevvliet Turnpike & Railroad Company leased to the 
Albany Railway Company. 

Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti road suspended. 

Baltimore City Passenger awards cable construction con- 
tract to E. Saxton, of Washington, and Walker Manufactur- 
ino- Company secures contract for driving machinery. 

Beatrice, Neb., Rapids Transit Company buys out the 
Beatrice Street Railway Company. 

Death of Calvin A. Richards, Feb. 15. 

Use of electricity resolved on by Philadelphia Traction 
Company. 

Carthage, N. Y., road bought from American Loan & 
Trust Company for $35,000. 

Siemens & Halske of America incorporated. 

Dr. Lewis Bell resigns from the Electric World. Carl 
Herring succeeds him. 

Massachusetts Railway Association eats at Young's Hote 
Boston, and talks snow plows. 

Great Indianapolis strike. 

Death of A. D. Whitton, chief engineer of the Philadel- 
phia Traction Company, Feb. 23. 

KARCH. 

Indianapolis strike terminates. 

The City Council of Ann Arbor repents and allows the 
interurban to enter. 

Metropolitan Elevated, of Chicago, organizes. 

Missouri Railway Company's shops burnt at St. Louis, 
March 15. 

Brooklyn City awards its big electric contracts. 

Death of Chas. J. VanDepoele, March 18. 

The consolidation of the Edison and the Thomson-Houston 
Companies is assured. 

.4^PRIJL.. 

Death in SanFrancisco of Calvin Goddard, April 4, Presi- 
dent of South Side Rapid Transit Company, Chicago. 

Death of Samuel T. Pope, superintendent of the Chicago 
City Railway. 

The Chester, Pa., electric awards its contract. 

The Elmira Syndicate buys up the electric railway and 
lightning interests of Elmira. 

M. K. Bowen promoted to the superintendency of the 
Chicago City Railway vice S. T. Pope, deceased. 

Boston Rapid Transit Commission reports. 

Judge Cox decides the storage battery suit in favor of the 
Accumulator Company. 



MAY. 

Northern Car Company, Minneapolis, burns May 7; loss, 
$60,000. 

New 2,000-horse- power engines of the Chicago City Rail- 
way put in commission. 

Transportation within the grounds of the World's Fair 
awarded to the Thomson-Houston Company. 

Detroit Citizens' Railway makes arrangements for the 
trolley. 

General Electric Company organizes with $50,000,000 capi- 
tal; C. C. Coffin, president; A. S. Bevis, treasurer; E.J. Gar- 
field, secretary. 

Metropolitan Electric, of San Francisco, opens its lines. 

Chicago's first elevated opened May 27. 

New Orleans strike. 

JUSJE. 

The American Institute of Electrical Engineers meets 
June 6, 7, 8, at Chicago. 

Willard J. Hield becomes general manager of the Twin 
Cities Rapid Transit Company at Minneapolis. 

The Worcestor & Mellbury road awards its electrical con- 
tracts. 

Street railways along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers 
suffer from the floods. 

The Calumet Electric runs its first car to connect with the 
Chicago City Railway. 

Contracts awarded for the Duluth electric line. 

JUI.Y. 

Chicago & Jefferson Urban Transit Company organized. 
Elgin, Aurora and Fox River Electric road is organized. 
Sand storm in St. Paul stops traffic. 
Montreal aldermen vote trolley rights. 

American Electrical Works tender their fourteenth annual 
banquet to the trade, at Providence, R. I., July 23. 

AtlGUST. 

Otis Elevating Railway opened in the Catskill mountains. 

Griffin Wheel & Foundry Company totally destroyed by 
fire Aug. 10, opened in two weeks. 

Victoria, B. C, Tramway lost its power house and equip- 
ment by fire, August 10. 

Horses on all the roads suffer from heat. 

Washington & Georgetown Street Railway opens its new 
cable lines. 

SEPTEUBER. 

Baltimore Cable put in commission. 

Tenth annual meeting of the Street Railway Association 
of the State of New York, held at the United States Hotel, 
Saratoga, September 20. 

OCTOBER. 

Eleventh Annual Convention of the American Street Rail- 
way Association held at Cleveland, October 19, 20, 21 ; Soo in 
attendance. 

Columbia Exposition dedicated at Chicago, October 21. 

Great crowds at various Columbian festivities tax rapid 
transit in all the cities. 

NOVENBEB. 

The street railway employes strike at Columbus, O., on 
account of a dime. 

Lindell car barns burn at St. Louis, loss, $150,000. 

Ohio State Tramway Association meets at Zanesville, Nov. 
16. 



Sit 



The Staffordshire Tramway, of England, inspected Nov. 
12. Worked by electricity. 

November i6 sees the beginning of work on the Leaven- 
worth compressed air, street railway. 

Philadelphia's first electric road opens. 

Atlantic Avenue Street Railway bought by the Philadel- 
phia syndicate of the Richardsons, for $3,000,000. President 
Richardson will retire. 

The New York Rapid Transit commission, after two years' 
work, report in favor of an underground road to cost $50,000,- 
000. 

Indianapolis street railways bought by the Pittsburg syndi- 
cate. 

DECEMBER. 

New York bankers buy the New Orleans street railways 
for $10,000,000. 

Dr. Werner Siemens, of Siemens & Halske, dies at Berlin, 
December 6. 

A severe snow storm in the Missouri^ valley stops cars at 
Omaha, Council Bluffs and Sioux City. 

The Kansas City Elevated changed from steam to elec- 
tricity and opens December 6. 

Death of Jay Gould, December i. 

Street Railway Review occupies its new offices, 269 
Dearborn street. 

Car house of West End ro.ad, Boston, burns December 31, 
with $135,000 loss, and four employes perish in the flames. 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Association organized at Lan- 
caster, December 28. 

A car on 47th street line, Chicago City Railway, run down 
hy an engine of the Pennsylvania road, four passengers killed, 
many injured, December 29. 

Lines at Syracuse, N. Y., consolidated, December 30. 

Fire completely consumes car house^and machine shops at 
Milwaukee City Railway, December 28. Loss, $225,000. 

Montague cable road, Brooklyn, sold, December 22. 

Rapid Transit Commissioners offer underground franchise, 
December 29, without success. 

John ScuUin of the Union Depot Lines secures the Benton- 
Bellefontaine, December 30. 



THE QUICK AND THE DEAD. 



ABOUT THE SUNDAY WALKER. 



THE New Orleans Picayune read the following in 
the Boston Transcript : "No," said the good man, 
"I never patronize the street cars on Sunday. I 
consider it a desecration of the day. So I walk, and I 
receive my reward in an approving conscience, not to 
speak of the beneficial effects of the e.xercise, nor of the 
fact that I have saved 5 cents;" and then it com- 
mented: "It does not follow that a man will put in the 
contribution box at church the nickel he has saved in 
walking to worship. The saving grace is for his own 
pocket." 

The Metropolitan dummy lines at Alanta, Ga., have 
passed back into the hands of the Consolidated. 



An Iow.\ paper relates the fall of a driver upon a 
detached electric truck, which dislocated his hip, and 
then dislocates his finer feelings by adding: "This is a 
severe blow to Mr. Murphy." 

We should say it was. 



TWO papers came to us by the same mail. One was 
from a well-to-do but decidedly slow town down 
in Massachusetts; the other from a smaller place 
but with big ideas, over in Indiana. 

The Bay State paper, sailing under the refreshing title 
of the "Breeze," blows about the objections which should 
be raised to the invasion of the place by a proposed elec- 
tric railway, and through its leaves come the mournful 
sound that "if we mistake not, a very loud protest will 
be heard by the legislative committee on street railways, 
against the right to build a street or electric railway 
through Magnolia and Manchester." The editor evi- 
dently labors under the fear that the new road would 
enhance the value of real estate and he will have to pay 
a dollar a month more rent for a place to store a few old 
type and his army press. 

On the other hand the blue-jeans editor over in Hoop- 
pole county is glad he is alive and in a live town; and on 
the occasion of the christening of the electric road 
■ delivered himself thusly: — 

"It is true that the motormen on street cars should be 
very watchful and cautious, and give people a chance for 
their lives. But the people must remember that we are 
in an age of rapid transit, and should likewise use extra 
precautions and quicken their pace, to conform to the 
idea of rapid transit." 

Veril)', the quick and the dead. 

A CHANGE OF HEART. 



THE California papers which only a year ago pro- 
claimed destruction and disaster as a concomitant 
of the trolley, are begii:ning to chant a very 
different tune. One case will illustrate this change of 
heart. The Oakland, SanLeandro & Haywards electric 
line, 13 miles in length, was fully described and illustrated 
in a recent Review. The line has been in operation less 
than one year, but already several small towns have 
started along the route. SanLeandro has developed from 
a ranch to a place of considerable importance, and Hay- 
wards has had a lively waking up, and is rapidly extend- 
ing its limits. Only last June, when a Review represen- 
tative visited the power house at SanLeandro, it stood 
alone. Now a long row of stores flank it on either side 
on land only recentl}' devoted to farming, and concrete 
walks replace the beds of weeds and flowers which 
skirted the roadside. 

In this connection the Oakland Tribune remarks: — 
"Electric railroads are proving to be wonderful factors in 
the development of all of Oakland's back country, but the 
territory traversed by the Haywards line is at present 
undergoing changes more marvelous than any other of 
Oakland's suburbs." 

The possibilities of these interurban lines in all parts of 
the Union are as yet but little realized, and we predict 
the construction of country lines in the near future will 
be little less wonderful than the last three years in cities. 



40 



SCHEME TO RIDE WITH THE BIRDS. 



BLOWING OPEN THE GROUND. 



WHEN the ordinary citizen has nothing to do of 
a Sunday afternoon, he generally thinks for 
half an hour, and hatches up a magnificent 
scheme for settling the vexed question of rapid transit. 
While poetry and criticism and letters from " vox populi " 
can be had at the sacrifice of a few sheets of virgin paper 
and, perhaps, a two-cent stamp. 

Yet there be schemes and schemes. " One hundred 
feet in the ground " some one proposes, " through the 
buildings," cries his neighbor, "elevated roads with 
spurs," howls the man across the street, while just now 
" one hundred feet in the air," comes the cry of Edward 
Norton, the successful tin-ware manufacturer and mer- 
chant, of Chicago. 

Mr. Norton would, in brief, build a series of suspension 
bridges from the high buildings, to run through the 
alleys in the congested portion of the city, to form a down- 
town terminal for the north, west and south surface roads 
and the two elevated structures, with huge elevators to 
lift and lower the crowds to and from the terminal points. 
It is designed to use the multiple speed and traction side- 
walk, described by the RK\iiiw last year, but the mana- 
ger of the sidewalk says no definite proposals have yet 
been received, and Mr. Norton, in an interview, stated 
that his scheme was considered by engineers to be feasible, 
and that, as to the company to push the construction, he 
would say nothing, leaving the interviewer to imagine 
.some gigantic syndicate. 



NEW BUILDINGS AT SCRANTON. 



THE car house and engine room of the Scranton 
Pa., Traction Company, are now in process of 
erection and will be completed probably about 
March i. The plans were drawn by J. H. Bickford, of 
Salem, Mass., which goes to show that the management 
of the Traction Company thinks the best none too good. 
The work is being done under the direct personal 
supervision of C. M. Knight, of Indianapolis. 

The car house will be on the same lot with the power 
plant. The outside stone wall will be 114 feet 4 inches 
long, and 93 feet 4 inches wide. This barn will accom- 
modate 60 cars. Between the car barn and the power 
house will be a driveway. The engine room will be 124 
feet by 63 feet 8 inches, and will harbor a Corliss of 
2,400-horse-povver, made by the Dickson Manufacturing 
Company. Here will also be placed a vitrified brick 
switch board in a vulcanized hard pine frame, with 
lightning arresters and feeders. The boiler room will be 
69 feet 8 inches by 68 feet, and will contain 3,000-horse- 
power boilers. 

A store house will be built in the rear of the 
buildings. These premises are convenient to steam 
roads, and a permanent switch has been built to the seat 
of operations. 

The citizens at Scranton owe much to the energy and 
good management of the Traction Company. 



ON the afternoon of November 16, 1892, at i 
o'clock, Dr. R. J. Brown, of Leavenworth, 
Kas., broke ground for the construction of the 
Pneumatic Street Railway line. The breezes of heaven 
crept into their holes while the air line made its debut. 
The gentle zephyrs were abashed and the rough north 
wind hid his face. 

The enthusiastic promoters were in their element, and 
nothing remained but to put their element to work. Com- 
pressed air with expressed " nerve " would do many 
things for Leavenworth. It promises ten miles of street 
railway, ten factories, and tender care for each and all of 
the inhabitants of Leavenworth. It will be piped into 
their houses to cool them in summer and heat them in 
winter. It will rock the cradle and run the sewing 
machine — if it goes, and if it doesn't, the ghost of simi- 
lar deceased enterprises will arise from Washington, New 
York, Pullman, Paris and Chicago and plaintively pipe 
" where air we at? " 

There were present at the dedication: Harry L. Earle, 
wife and daughter, J. W. and Mrs. Crancer, Mr. and Mrs. 
Tuttle, of the »Etna Loan Company, Hon. John Hamon, 
Frank Hunt, J. C. Douglas, E. Jameson, Col. Graves, 
constructing engineer Henry Costello and others. 

Mr. Earle made the speech of the occasion. It was 
promised that the rails would be laid as fast as the road- 
bed was prepared. 

After this ten men shoveled for a day or two, digging 
a trench about two feet deep for one block, and laying a 
small iron pipe. Construction of the compressor plant 
has not yet begun. As chronicled from time to time in 
the Ren'iew, the scheme from beginning down to the 
present time has given little promise of success, and now 
that the street railway people seem likely to at last secure 
their ordinance for electricity, the compressed air folks 
threaten to pull stakes and abandon Leavenworth and the 
$250,000 bonus still in escrow. 



BY CABLE UNDER EAST RIVER. 



THE New York & Brooklj'n Railway Company 
has applied to the New York board of aldermen 
for a franchise to construct a tunnel under the 
East river. It is proposed to build from a point near 
Park Row in New York to Myrtle avenue and Fulton 
street in Brooklyn. President Benjamin S. Henning said 
that the work could be completed in two years at a 
cost of from $6,000,000 to $12,000,000. The com- 
pany's idea at present is to use cable traction. If the 
franchise is granted, borings will be made in the river 
bed and should it prove too diflncult an imdertaking the 
project will be abandoned. No difficult}' is expected 
however. Geo. S. Morison, engineer of the Mississippi 
bridge at Memphis, has looked over the ground and will 
superintend the borings. The companj' has good finan- 
cial backing and action of the two cit}^ councils is all 
that is now necessary. 



41 



A CONVENIENT CAR HOUSE. 



THE attention which has been given to convenience 
in planning buildings for street railway uses 
affords a sharp contrast to what was considered 
"good enough" five years ago. Now, when a company 
erects a new building, provision is made for the comfort 
not only of officers but employes as well. 

A very nicely planned building recently erected is that 
of the Watertown Street Railway, Watertown, N. Y- 




PLAN SECOND STORY. 



The front is of stone, with stone turreted corner, and 
generous sized bay window on the second floor front. 
The remaining walls are of brick. Dimensions are 70 
feet front bj' 152 deep. Two large entrances are for 
running in and out cars, and another admits to a vesti- 
bule 5 by 20 feet, opening into the public waiting room 
which is 15 by 20 feet, with a toilet room for gentlemen 
and another for ladies. To the rear of this is an attrac- 
tive room for the conductors and drivers, 20 by 24 feet. 



Returning to the vestibule, a handsome oak stairway 
leads to the second story, where are domiciled the 
officers of the road, in two rooms respectively 20 by 23 
feet and 20 by 30 feet. Between the two rooms, are 
toilet rooms and a fire proof vault 5 by 7 feet. The 




IRONT EXTERIOR VIEW. 



building is a credit, not only to the company, to Hinds 
& Bond, the architects, but to the enterprising city of 
which the Watertown Street Railway is so important 
and popular an institution. 



I 






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or 



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-•A 

s- 



Jltl2L= 



r^q •■€ 



Coal liin 



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j(— Shnloff 



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PLAN FIRST FLOOR 

with individual lockers for each man, extending around 
three sides of the room, and large windows on the 
remaining side. Chairs, tables, and brushes for cleaning 
clothes and shoes are provided, together with the Street 
R.MLW.w Re\ikw and other attractive reading matter. 
To the rear of this room is the lamp room, surrounded 
by fire proof walls. The balance of the ground floor 
is devoted to car storage, with a transfer table 30 feet 
long, located midway and running from one side to the 
other. Pits and wash rooms are conveniently and suffi- 
ciently supplied. 



WATERTOWN CAR HOUSE. 

A GANG of Italian laborers, at Johnstown, New York, 
after working several weeks on the Cayadutta electric 
road and receiving no pay, held up Contractor Coffin with 
stillettos and pistols, demanding their wages. But for 
the arrival of citizens with clubs and bricks, Mr. Coffin 
might have needed one. 



CoMi'LAiNT comes from Calcutta of the miserable con- 
dition of the tramway tracks in that city. The rails are 
from three to five inches below the level of the street and 
are a constant menace to carriage travel. 



42 



STREET RAILWAY LAW. 



EDITED BY MR. I'RANK HUMBOLDT CLARK, ATTORNEY AT LAW, CHICAGO. 



Defective Imulation of Wirei of Electric Railway. 

An electric street railway company is liable for injuries to a passenger 
who receives an electric shock from the handles of the dash-board of 
the car, which had become charged as the result of defective insulation 
of the wires conducting the motive power. 

In the opinion the Court said: "The learned council for 
the defendant comp'aay made the point in his argument 
that the companj' had no notice or knowledge of the 
peril that a person, passing'from one car to another in the 
manner that plaintiff attempted so to pass, might receive 
an electric shock. He argues therefrom that the com- 
pany is not liable in this action. We think the point is 
not well taken. The company was chargeable with 
notice that the electrical apparatus on its cars was in a 
defective condition, for it appears that it had the means 
of readily ascertaining whether any electricity was escap- 
ing from the machine and works in the body of the car, 
and knowledge must be imputed to the company that if 
it escaped the iron handles of the platform were liable to 
become charged therewith. The only other question 
argued in the case is, whether the evidence conclusively 
proves that the attempt of plaintiff to pass from one car 
to the other when the cars were in motion, in the manner 
he did, was negligence on his part which contributed 
directly to the injury of which he complains, or, stated in 
another form, was it error for the trial court to submit 
the question of contributory negligence to the jury? The 
testimony tends to prove that the company had no rule 
prohibiting passengers from stepping from the platform of 
one car to the platform of the other when the cars were 
in motion, and had never given any caution against the 
practice; that before plaintiff was injured, passengers on 
those cars, among whom was the plaintiff, frequently did 
so without objection on the part of the company; and that 
the car conductors constantly passed from one car to 
another when the same were in motion, in the same manner. 
Moreover, while it may reasonably be claimed that there 
was some peril of being thrown from and under the cars, 
there was no apparent reason to apprehend, and the 
plaintiff did not apprehend, the presence of any peril that 
by so doing he would come in contact with a current of 
electricity. Under these circumstances we cannot say 
that contributory negligence on the part of the plaintiff 
was conclusively proved. Hence it was not error to sub- 
mit that question to the jury." 

(Sup. Ct. Wis. Burt V. Douglas County &c. Ry. Co. 
8 N. Y. L. Jour. 48S. 

Iniftited KegligcHce — Injury to Person riiling in Wagon 
Negligence of Driver of Wagon. 

If the plaintiff herself was free from negligence, and 
her injury was due to the concurrent negligence of the 
railroad company and the person with whom she was 
riding in a wagon, he not being her servant, and it not 
appearing that she was the owner of the horse or wagon, 
or that she had any agency or concern in procuring or 



driving the same, and nothing appearing which tends to 
show that she was aware of any incompetency in the 
driver, the company is liable to her for all the damages 
consequent upon the injury, and can take no credit as to 
any part thereof on account of the contributory negli- 
gence of the driver of the wagon. 

(Sup. Ct. Ga. Metropolitan St. Ry. Co. v. Powell. 
16 S. E. Rep. 118.) 

Riding on Platform of Electric Car — Contrilmtory 

Negligence. 

In this case the plaintiff was riding on the front plat- 
form of an electric car, and was thrown to the ground in 
consequence of the car Tunning off the track. The acci- 
dent was primarily due to a defective and worn-out 
switch. The case was tried in the Superior Court, and 
the question of negligence was left to the jury. In charg- 
ing the jury the Court said: "In one respect this case 
presents a novelty. The Court has decided that if a pas- 
senger voluntarily and unnecessarily rides on the platform 
of a steam car and there gets hurt, he cannot recover, 
because the very fact that he undertakes to ride on the 
platform when the car is in motion instead of riding on a 
seat within the car, when he might do so, is held to be an 
act of carelessness on his part, which will prevent him 
from recovering damages for an injury sustained by him 
while so riding on the platform; but the Court has also 
decided that it is not necessarily negligent for a passen- 
ger to ride on the platform of a horse-car in motion. 

"The reason for the distinction is this: the steam car 
is propelled or driven by a great force, the tremendous 
power of steam, and is or may be driven at a very high 
rate of speed, and the danger attending the employment 
of great power, great forces and moving at great speed, 
is greater than when the vehicle in which we are riding 
is drawn or propelled by horse power at a less speed, and 
therefore in this case the place in which the passenger 
rides is conclusive as to the want of care, and in the 
other it is a mere question of fact, to be decided by the 
jury in each case. It is the extraordinary force of the 
propelling power of the steam car that is decisive. 

"The car in this case was not a horse car; it was pro- 
pelled by electricity. If electricity is a force that may 
drive the car at a speed equal to that of the steam car, 
then there would be attending the employment of this 
force the same dangers that might attend the employment 
of steam, and whether you drive your car by electricity 
at a high speed, or by steam at a high speed, would 
not make the difference between danger and safety; 
but it is the fact of the force, and the rapidity with 
which the car is driven." 

The jury found that the plaintiff was guilty of negli- 
gence, and returned a verdict for the defendant. The 
instructions of the Court below are held correct. 

(Sup, Jud. Ct. Mass. Beal v. Lowell & Gracut St. 
Ry. Co. ; not yet reported.) 



43 



Personal Injury by being struck by Grip car — Negligence 
of Driver in Jailing to stop Car — Insufficient Evidence. 

In an action for damages caused by collision with a 
street grip-car, on the theory that defendant's grip-man 
could have stopped the car in time to avert the injurj' 
after he saw, or by the exercise of reasonable diligence 
could have seen, the perilous position of plaintiff. Where 
there is no evidence as to the space within which the car 
could have been stopped, nor as to the distance of plain- 
tiff from the car when his peril could first have been 
observed, it is error to submit the case to the jurj'. 

(App. Ct. Mo. Turfluh v. People's Ry. Co. 46 Mo. 
App. 636.) 

Boy riding on Car at invilalion of Motor-man — Liability 
of Company for Injuries. 

Plaintiff, a boy eight j'ears old. after opening a switch 
of an electric street railroad as a service to the motor- 
man, was in return invited and allowed b}- the motor-man 
to ride on the car, against the prohibition of the defendant 
company. In getting on the car. which was moving 
slovvl}', plaintill slipped, and the car passed over his legs. 
Held, that the motor-man went beyond the scope of his 
authorit}'; that defendant owed no duty to plaintiff as a 
passenger, and that he was not entitled to recover for the 
injury. 

(Sup. Ct. N. Y. Finley v. Hudson Electric R. Co. 
19 N. Y. Supp. 621.) 

(Note. — A contrary decision was rendered by the Supreme Court of 
Missouri in the case of Buck vs. People's St. R. Co., 18 S. W. Rep. 1090, 
in whicii it is stated that wlien a small boy becomes a free passenger on 
a street-car by consent of the driver in charge, the Company is bound to 
exercise towards him llie same care as towards other passengers. — ^Ed ) 

Street-car Having intoxicated Driver — Evidence — Injury 

to Pedestrian. 

In an action against a street railroad for injuries sus- 
tained by being struck by a car, in consequence of the 
driver's negligence and into.xication, evidence that the 
driver had on that same trip missed a switch at a certain 
street, that he had failed to respond to the conductor's 
signal to stop at another street, had driven rapidly, and 
that a person had been thrown down in attempting to get 
aboard, is admissible as showing a series of acts indicative 
of such intoxication at the time of the accident as to 
incapacitate him for the proper control of the car. The 
fact that the driver had had drink just before starting on 
the trip, was admissible as bearing on his condition at the 
time of the accident. 

(Ct. Com. Pis. N. Y. Pyne v. Broadway & Seventh 
Av. R. Co. ip N. Y. Supp. 217.) 

Improvement of Streets — Agrectncnt liy Street Railway 
Company — Contract let by City. 

Where a city caused to be awarded to contractors a 
contract to pave with gravel a street on which the tracks 
of a street railway company were located, and which 
under a contract previously made between the city and 
the street railway the company was bound to plank, and 
the company submits to the city a proposition to pay part 



of the cost of graveling the street in lieu of its planking 
contract, which proposition is acted upon. The city can- 
not maintain a suit to compel the company to plank the 
street, without having rescinded its action in awarding 
tlie subsequent contract to have the street graveled. 

(Sup. Ct. La. State v. St. Charles St. R. Co. 10 So. 
Rep. 927.) 

Pozvcrs of City Council — Granting Franchise to Lay 

Track in A^arrozv Street. 

The grafit of a right to lay a street railway in a street 
where the driveway is so narrow that but 8 feet 7 3^:2 inches 
will be left on each side of a street car for the passage of 
teams, is not beyond the power of a city council. 

(Sup. Ct. Mich. People v. Ft. Wayne & E. R. Co. 
52 N. W. Rep. loio.) 

Abutting Property Owner — Rig/its in Street — Damage 

bv Street Railway — Space for Market Wagons. 

The interest of an abutting owner in the continuance 
of a market in the street is not one of his incidental rights 
in the street which can be impaired by the construction 
therein of a street railway, causing the market wagons to 
remove elsewhere. 

A double track street railway is not an interference 
with the right of access of an abutting owner because 
there is not sufficient space between the rails and curb to 
permit teams to stand at right angles to the street. 

(Ct. Com. Pis. Ohio. Sells v. Columbus St. R. Co. 
28 Ohio L. J. 172.) 

Passenger Standing on Car Step — Injury by Passing 
Car — Defective Condition of Tracks. 

A passenger upon a street car is not guilty of negli- 
gence contributing to his injury by being struck by 
another car going in an opposite direction, owing to the 
fact that the tracks were too near each other for safety, 
and that the inner rails were depressed so that the upper 
portion of the cars were tilted towards each other, in 
standing upon the outer rail or step, where that is the 
only apparently unoccupied place when the car stops to 
take him up, and he is ignorant of the condition of the 
tracks. 

(Sup. Ct. N. Y. Herdt v. Rochester City & B. R 
Co. 20 N. Y. Supp. 346.) 

Ordinance Granting Pranc/iisc — Conditions — Payment 

of Percentage of Gross Earnings. 

A cable street railway company authorized by ordi- 
nance to operate a certain route within a city on condition 
of paying a percentage of its gross earnings from all 
sources, must pay such percentage upon the earnings from 
an extension of its line in an adjoining village, where such 
extension is operated by the same cable as the city line 
from an engine within the city, since the earnings are 
directly dependent upon the franchise granted by the 
cit}'. 

Earnings from rentals of the privilege of advertising in 
the cars are within the conditions of such ordinance. 

(Cin. Super Ct. Cincinnati v. Mt. Auburn Cable R. 
Co. 28 Ohio L. J. 276.) 



44 



IMPROVED TAYLOR ELECTRIC TRUCK. 



INSULATION OF COILS. 



THE Taylor Electric Truck is designed purely in 
the light of modern electric traction, and is an 
attempt to get rid of all of the old fallacious ideas 
inherited from horse-car days, and working great injury 
to electric service, as it is at present. The makers 
claim that this truck eliminates the " galloping," or end- 
tilting, so frequent on electric roads. The main frame 
of the truck is a rectangle of wrought iron bars, strength- 
ened in the center by two more bars which serve to sup- 
port the end of the motor. On the side bars of this frame 
are bolted the jaws for holding the journal boxes. These 
jaws are also supported by angle irons and by rods 
running from one box to the other. It will be seen 
from the cut that while the boxes are held firmly they are 
allowed vertical play. The weight of car and truck frame 
is supported by half elliptical springs, resting on the boxes 
and fastened to side bars of the truck. The car body itself 
rests on the elliptical springs, as shown in the cut, and, 
instead of being fastened to the body bolster on top of 
the springs, the car body is held down by two king bolts. 



THE greatest objection to the use of electrical machin- 
ery up to the present time has been its liability to 
burn out. No class of users has felt this more 
strongly than street railroad men. Owing to the hard 
usage of generators and motors in such work "burn- 
outs" are uncomfortably frequent, and introduce an ele- 
ment of uncertaint}' both in the service and in the repair 
bills, that is never pleasant to contemplate. " Burn-outs" 
are not, by any means, as frequent as formerly, because 
more care is taken in the construction of coils, ; nor are 
they as expensive, because railway apparatus is now 
universally made so as to admit the re-winding of one coil 
or section without disturbing others. 

At the December 21 meeting of the Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, New York, a paper was presented on 
"Micanite and its Application to Armature Insulation," b}- 
C. W. Jefferson and A. H. S. Dyer. The following 
abstract will be read with interest by all railway electri- 
cians. Judging from the apparatus in use to-day there 
has been \-ery little progress in the line of heat-proof 



ra» 6-O-tV^rfL B»tt '0*6 



ro» 7'0'iv^ut.Bitrr It' 6- 




WHit 0* BAaiM» »./c* J Ptiati £ivt tutu mts anSAMtJBlL 



These king bolts are kept tight bj- 
a coiled spring, whichis designed 
to prevent the -end-tilting of the 
car. The truck can be removed 
from the car by taking out the 
king bolts, and the wheels and 
journals removed by taking out 
only the bottom braces to the 
pedestals. 

One of the special features of this truck is the brake, 
the shoe of which adjusts itself to the wheel periphery 
however the car may be loaded, securing an even wear. 
The brake shoe is a separate part, and can be renewed 
when worn very thin, thereby saving metal and expense. 
The releasing springs are adjustable, so that the shoes can 
be set at equal distances from the wheels. It is claimed 
that the brake shoes when worn out weigh only 3^ 
pounds. 

The truck forms a complete and rigid unit in itself and 
is fastened to the car body in a substantial manner. 
The Taylor truck has been well received by managers 
and are giving satisfactory service on the already large 
number of roads which have adopted them. They are 
manufactured by the Taylor Electric Truck Company, 
Troy, N. Y. 




TAYLOR TRUCK 



insulation for coils, but this paper 
shows that effort has not been 
wanting in that direction, and the 
amount of work done and number 
of materials tried will surprise 
those who have not known the 
inner workings of our great fac- 
- tory laboratories. 

The paper states first, that 
the difficulty of armature insulation lies in the fact that 
while the insulating material must take up very little 
space it must at the same time be able to withstand high 
pressure, and at times, great heat. Besides this, it 
must be firm. Though many devices have been used 
to cool the armature, there will always be times when 
the machine becomes abnormally hot. If the insula- 
tion is combustible, it will become charred in time. 
Shellac is the only available substance that does not have 
its resistance lowered by charring. Even shellac, how- 
ever, has its rigidity impaired b}' heat, and loss of 
solidity is even worse than lowering of insulation. Iron 
rust has proved a fairly good insulator for iron disks. 
Shellaced glass is barred by mechanical reasons. The 
introduction of mica probably came from its use as a tem- 
porary insulator. It is used universally between commu- 



45 



tator segments. Mica is a good insulator, besides being 
heat-proof. There are many varieties of mica differing 
in chemical constitution. Another advantage of mica is 
its even laminated structure. The trouble with natural 
mica is that it breaks when twisted. Large sheets are 
also very expensive. Water can enter between the layers. 
It is easily injured by splitting during handling. It can 



RAPID TRANSIT DIFFICULTIES. 




MICANITE TUBE FOR INSULATING CORE PROJECTIONS. 

not be neatly cut. Comminuted or pulverized mica held 
together with cement has been tried. This is practically 
a cement insulator, as the current can leak around between 
the particles of mica without touching them. Commi- 
nuted mica cement made of a mi.xture of powdered mica, 
asbestos, sodium, silicate and sulphur compounds is good for 
trolley wire hangers, but will melt and run when subjected 
to armature heaL 

Pieces of micanite were then exhibited as the authors' 
solution of the problem. Three of them are shown in 
our engravings. The authors stated that they were prac- 
tically all mica, being made of thin sheets cemented to- 
gether by a cement adapted to the purpose for which 



MICANITE TUBE. 

the micanite is to be used. Plates can be made of any 
size or thickness. In the manufacture scrap mica is 
first split up into pieces. These are then laid together by 
machinery, with the edges overlapping. After the cement 
is applied pressure is used, so that the cement actually- 
remaining in a piece is very small, almost infinitesimal. 
Micanite is superior to natural sheet mica in that it can be 
cut, has more tenacitj' between the layers, and will not 
absorb moisture. It is also very much less costly and 
much stronger, and can be moulded in any shape. In 
making a comparative test with ground mica and shel- 




MICANITE ARMATURE SLOT INSULATOR. 

lac, the mica and shellac softened after remaining on the 
steam table a minute, while the micanite remained so solid 
after five minutes that it was able to flatten a piece of 
copper wire against which it was compressed, being 
only slightly crumpled where the wire pressed against it. 
Micanite can be used for anything from a dynamo bed 
plate or armature head to a single wire insulator on an 
armature. Insulation tests show that its insulation is 
practically the same as that of mica. Plates of micanite 
can be split with a thin knife. This substance has such 
metal-like qualities that it can almost be called " insulat- 
ing metal." Being made of scrap mica, an increase in 
size does not enormously increase the cost, as with the 
natural plate. 



RAPID transit in New York has become synono- 
mous with underground railroading. This is 
unfortunate for the great object to be attained, 
as well as for the most practical exponents of rapid transit, 
the cable and the trolley. The New York .scheme, pro- 
posed by seemingly intelligent men, and endorsed bj^ 
really reputable engineers, has one difficulty that all the 
" perfumes of Araby " can not make sweet to the capi- 
talist who has the dollars. It is an unfortunate thing that 
the only people in this world who are contented with glory 
and the good of human kind are newspaper men. From 
the pulpit to the plow all, except this class, are looking for 
increase on energy and capital expended. It is this diffi- 
culty of dividends that is harassing the great tunnel scheme 
in New York. The capitalist finds the following objec- 
tions: First, the bonded indebtedness of the company is 
limited to $50,000,000. The question is, What are these 
bonds worth? No one knows until the road is built what 
they are worth, or what the road will cost. Guesses make 
the cost from forty to one hundred million of dollars. 
With this uncertainty the bonds cannot sell at par. As a 
bonus for buying these bonds the banks would probably 
demand an equal amount of stock to the bonds subscribed 
for. 

Now the stocks having been given away to sell the 
bonds they would produce no money for the company. 
This, however, can not be done by the terms of the sub- 
scription. It is contemplated that this stock shall go at 
par, and 5 per cent, or $2,500,000, must be paid in at the 
time of subscription. And each stockholder is individu- 
ally liable to the creditors of the corporation to full amount 
upaid on the stock for all debts and liabilities. These 
provisions defeat the scheme more thoroughly than the 
original proposition. Taking the bonds at 70, with stock 
thrown in, the entire amount available to build the road is 
but $35,000,000. Besides, the road must be built under 
the supervision and control of the board. This will add 
15 per cent to the expenses. 

The only salvation for the scheme, in the mind of the 
Review, is that the board be compelled to take half the 
stock. This would probably kill the scheme extremely 
dead and give a few practical men a chance to give New 
York what it iieeds — rapid transit. 



A CONDUCTOR on one of the Accelerator cars on the 
North Side cable line in Chicago, recently said: "I 
would rather work 16 hours on one of these cars than 12 
hours on one of the old cars. It is so much easier and I 
am relieved of the constant quarreling with the passen- 
gers in my efforts to keep a passage way over the plat- 
form so persons can get in and out of the car. I can 
also handle 1 20 people on one of these cars easier than I 
can 60 on one of the old style. It is the best car I ever 
saw to work on, and all the conductors like them." This 
is quite a compliment to the Brownell Car Company, who 
built the cars, and it shows commendation from a source 
well worthy of consideration. 



•1() 



TELEGRAPH AVENUE ELECTRIC LINE, 
OAKLAND. 



THE Telegraph avenue line began traffic the first of 
the _vear. The electrical equipment is Thomson- 
Houston throughout, and the installation has been 
made under the charge of A. L. Abell. To " begin at 
the beginning " the coal is thrown onto rocking grates 
under Babcock & Wilcox water tube boilers. Three com- 
pound condensing engines of the Lake Erie Engineering 



HANDSOME DEPOTS OF THE LINDELL 
LINE. 



THE Lindell Railway Company, operating an elec- 
tric in the above suburb of St. Louis, furnishes 
examples of enterprising effort to create traffic 
that are worthy of rich reward. The first of these enter- 
prises was the pavilion at Forest Park, known as the 
Lindell Railway Pavilion, and situated at the end of their 
Washington Avenue line. The park is about ten years 



1™^* 



'f ' \»t 




LINDELL RAILWAY PAVILION, FORKST PARK, 



Works are belted direct to 120 horse-power multipolar 
generators. The cars are supplied with two fifteen horse- 
power motors. Thirteen cars are closed the remaining 
seven are open. The motorman is protected by a vesti- 
bule. Headlights are on top of cars. Light will be 
plenty inside the cars and at the station. Each car has 
seven 32 candle-power incandescents and the power- 
house 120 " sixteens." Cars are fitted with ratchet lever 



old, and up to last year no street car lines entered the 
park, and no shelter was provided for the public. Presi- 
dent Geo. Capen, of the Lindell Railway, initiated the 
idea of running into the park, and a franchise was granted 
on condition that the company erect within ten years a 
$25,000 pavilion. The building erected last year is 
shown in the engraving, and is 200 feet long by 60 wide, 
having a floor space of 15,000 square feet. The clock 




LINDELL PASSENGER DEPOT AT MISSOURI PACIFIC R. R. 



brakes. Eight miles an hour is to be the speed in the 
city and twelve miles an hour outside. The power house 
is built with a view to enlargement when the Twelfth 
street extension is built. At present it is counted that 
two of the three power units at the station will be enough 
to operate sixteen cars. Engineer A. Goodrich has 
charge of the station. 



tower furnishes an observatory affording a good view of 
the park. The building is of white cut stone and yellow 
brick, being finished with yellow pine, Hghted with elec- 
tricit}' and furnished with janitor service. 

Another undertaking was the erection of the Missouri 
Pacific Passenger Depot at the end of its Vandeventer 
Avenue line. This handsome building was built entirely 



47 



at the expense of the Lindell Railway Company, and 
turned over to the use of the Missouri Pacific Railroad. 
This road has the great bulk of the St. Louis-Kansas 
City travel, and heretofore the Lindell people have had 
to go two miles down town to the Union Depot before 
they could get a train or leave one. Since the recent 
opening of this new depot all passenger trains stop at 
Lindell. The traveler can then go to almost any part of 




LINDELL PASSENGER DEPOT, FOREST PARK. 

the city over the street lines, instead of going up to the 
crowded Union Depot, only to come back several miles. 
Eames and Young, of St. Louis, were the architects of 
both the pavilion and railroad depot, and a glance at the 
engravings will show the substantial excellence of the 




CA.nea kM^wNo A«. 



— ■ l-f,4t'.t 



work. The same firm are just starting to build a 
$30,000 depot for the Forest Park, Laclede Avenue and 
Fourth Street Railway, a sketch of which, as when com- 
pleted, is shown in the cut. 



THE RETURNS ALL IN. 



AT the Cleveland convention, Jos. E. Lockwood, 
secretary of the Detroit Electrical Works, pre- 
sided over a meeting of supplymen, who convened 
to discuss the advisability of an au.xiliary organization. 
The committee then appointed to confer with the execu- 
tive committee were unable to secure a report before the 
convention adjourned, and now report as follows : 

Mr. Jos. E. Lockwood, Chairman: 

Dear Sir — The undersigned Committee appointed by you to con- 
fer with the Executive Committee of the American Street Railway 
Association, beg to submit the following report: That a majority of the 
Committee waited upon the Executive Committee of the American 
.Street Railway Association, at their headquarters at the HoUenden 
Hotel, and briefly stated the case, as the time had then arrived for the 
convening of the Association, and wanted to settle the matter definitely 
for the present. It was moved by Mr. Lang of the Executive Commit- 
tee, and unanimously carried, that it was the sense of the Executive 
Committee that the association of supply men, such as was contem- 
plated, ix'as not necessary at the present time. 



WHAT A GOOD NAME DID. 



THE death of a noted man always brings to light many 
forgotten or unknown glimpses of his character, 
and the death of Dr. Siemens and Jay Gould, 
within so short a period, lend unusual interest to the fol- 
lowing, which we find in the Electrical Review. 

Jay Gould wanted a cable to be laid upon the bed of 
the Atlantic ocean. He wanted to own one; why or 
wherefore it matters not; he wanted to possess a cable 
and that was sufficient. With this in view he telegraphed 
to the agent of the celebrated firm of Siemens & Halske, 
in New York, saying he wished to see him. (Millionaires 
don't write letters when they own telegraph companies, 
they telegraph.) The agent very prompt!}' presented 
himself at Mr. Gould's office and was requested to be 
seated. Awed in the presence of the great little man, he 
obeyed. Suddenly Mr. Gould turned toward the agent 
and said : 

"You are the agent of Siemens & Halske, of Berlin? 
I want a cable laid across the Atlantic ocean, and I want 
Siemens & Halske to make it. Have it ready as soon as 
possible, please." 

When the agent had recovered from the shock, he 
managed to find breath to say : 

'• Very well, Mr. Gould, we will be pleased to take 
your order. I shall cable to the firm and have the plans 
ready for you in a short time." 

Mr. Gould turned his bright little eyes on the agent 
and said: 

'• My dear man, I didn't ask for any plans. What 
I want is a cable. Oh! I see, I beg your pardon." 
Whereupon Mr. Gould pressed a button and a clerk 
appeared. 

" Mr. B , just write out a check for $100,000 to 

the order of Siemens & Halske, of Berlin, and give it to 
this gentleman. I suppose that will be enough to start 
with. Come in at the end of a week and let me know 
how the work is progressing. Good morning." 

At the end of a week the agent again presented him- 
self at the office. 

" Mr. Gould, our engineers would be pleased to call 
upon you at your earliest convenience. They are pre- 
pared to submit their figures to you." 

" My dear sir," protested Mr. Gould, " I told you before 
I didn't want any plans or figures. I know Dr. Siemens. 
I know the firm of Siemens & Halske, and I am sure that 
whatever the doctor undertakes he does thoroughly and 
to the best of his ability. I don't care about the price, 
go ahead and make the cable and bring the bill to me. 
But, perhaps," — and again did Mr. Gould push the but- 
ton, and again was a check for $100,000, payable to the 
order of Siemens & Halske, put into the hands of the 
astonished agent. 

In quick time the cable was finished and laid, and is at 
the present day one of the best and most serviceable 
under the Atlantic ocean. 

Such was the handsome tribute paid to Werner 
Siemens by Jay Gould. 



48 




49 



CAUGHT ON THE RUSH TRIP. 



American Street Railway Association. 

D. F. LONGSTBEET, Pbesident, Denver. Col. 

DR. A. EVKRETT, FiEST Viok-Phesident. Cleveland. O. 

JOEL HURT, Second Vioe-President, Atlanta. Ga. 

W. WORTH BEAN. Thied Vice-Pbeside.nt. St. Joseph, Midi. 

WM. J. RICHARDSON, Seobetaey and Teeasueeb. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

EiEOunvE Committee— The President, Vice-Presidents, and John G. 
Holmes. Pittsburg, Pa-; J. D. Crimmins, New York City; Thos. Minary, Louis, 
ville, Kv.; Jas. R. CHAPaiAN, Grand Rapids. Mich., and Benj. E. Charlton- 
Hamilton, Ont. 

Next meeting, Exposition Building, Milwaukee, third Wednesday in October. 



Massachusetts Street Railway Association.' 

President, Charles B. Pratt. Salem; Vice-presidents, H. M. Whitney, Boston, 
Amos F. Breed, Lynn, Feank S. Stevens; Secretary and Treasurer, J H. Eaton, 
Lawrence. 

Meets first Wednesday of each month. 



Ohio State Tramway Association. 

President.^. E. Lanq, Toledo; Vice-president, W. J. Kelly, Columbus; Secretary 
and Treasurer, J. B. Hanna, Cleveland; Chairman Executive Committee, W. A. 
Lynch, Canton, O. 

Meets at Cincinnati on the fourth Wednesday in September, 1893. 



The Street Railway Association of the State of 
New Jersey. 

President, John H. Bonn, Hoboken; Vice-president, Thos. C. Babe, Newark, 
Secretary and Treasurer, Charles Y. B.\mford, Trenton; Executive Committee, 
OrncEES and C. B. Thcbston, Jersey City; H. Romaine, Paterson; Lewis Per- 
RINE, Jr., Trenton. 

The Street Railway Association of the State of 
New York. 

C. DENSMORE WYMAN, President, New York. 

D. B. HA8BRO0CK, First Vice-president, New York- 
JAS. A. POWERS. Second ViOE-PKESlDENT.Glen Fallii. 

W. J- RICHARDSON. Secretary and Treasceeb, Brooklyn. 

Executive Committee.— D. F. Lewis, Brooklyn; John N. Beckley, Rochester, 

J. W. MoNamaba, Albany. 

The next meeting will be held at Rochester, September 19, 1893. 



Pennsylvania Street Railway Association. 

JOHN A. COYLE. President, Lancaster. 

JOHN G. HOLMES. Vice president. Pittsburg. 

H. R. RHODES, Second Vice-president, Williamsport. 

L. B. REIF8NEIDER, Secretary, Altoona, 

WM. H. LANI0N8, Tbeasdeeb, York. 

Next meeting . 

Arizona. 

Phoenix, Ariz. — H. L. Wharton has been granted franchise for one 
and one-half miles of electric railway before March 7, 1S93; Joseph 
Campbell, mayor, 

Tempe, Ariz. — The electric line, which T. W. Hine, of Phoeni.x, has 
promoted, will be built, passing through this city and extending to- 
Phoenix and Mesa. Completion is promised in six months. 



Arkansas. 

Hot Springs, Ark — An ordinance is in process giving the Hot 
Springs Company electric rights and some extension of privileges. 



California. 

Coltok, Cal. — The electric to connect Rialto, San Bernardino, 
Bloomington, Riverside and Colton, it is said, will be pushed rapidly 
next spring. 

Nevada City, Cal. — Peter Tautphaus, president Providence Mining 
Company, heads a scheme to build an electric to Grass Valley. 



Oakland, Cal.— S. and W. Meek, W. E. Meek, W. J. Sanders ask 
franchise for an electric. 



The Council will compell E. C. Sessions to erect iron instead of 
wooden poles. 

Oakland, Cal. — The old Mctz line charter to Alameda has been 
changed to allow electric. 



Oakland, Cal. — The branch of the Berkeley electric down Thii 
teenth street is to be in operation February i. 



Oakland, Cai..- llie Highland Park & Fruitvale Railroad has 
secured the passage of its ordinance granting valuable street rights in 
this city. E. C. Sessions is president. 



Oakland, Cal. — Mayor Chapman has signed the ordinance giving 
the Oakland Railrcid Company permit to substitute electricity for 
horses. Road owned by Pacific Improvement Company. J. Y. Loring, 
superintendent. 

Santa Anna, Cal. — M. J, Bundy has been granted right-of-way to 
Garden Grove, Westminster and the Beach. The road will be com- 
menced soon. 



San Francisco, Cal.— The Fowler & Durand, and the West Shore 
franchises have been passed by council. 



Santa Rosa, Cal.— John Wharton Morris, of Oakland, asks for 
electric rights. Road to begin building in six months. 



Chicago. 



Chicago. — The Cicero & Proviso will extend a new line to Maywood. 
Company will bridge the Desplaines river. 



Organized: The World's Fair Rapid Transit Company; capital 
stock, $150,000; incorporator, W. H. Murdock. 



Chicago.— South Side Urban Rapid Transit Company, capital $500,- 
000; incorporators, G. H. Smith, J. Meredith Davis and Lafayette, Kirk- 
patrick. 

Chicago — Organized: The Chicago General Street Railway Com- 
pany; capital stock, $3,000,000; incorporators, Lyman M. Paine, H. L. 
Burnetle and Chas. L. Hull. 



Chicago. — The Great Western Electric Company will at present say 
nothing about the reported change of base to Duluth. Manager says it 
is only an idea for discussion, but will not deny. 



Chicago. — The Globe Storage Battery Company, organized at 
$1,000,000; J. H. Wheeler, S. Kapig and L. Dumas. H. C. Porter, secre- 
tary, Des Moines, la. Traction and other purposes. 



Chicago. — The Chicago, Lake View & Suburban Railroad Company, 
organized at $500,000 to construct electric from Chicago to Waukegan. 
WilliamlJ. McGarigle, Henry Jampolis, John McKeough Henry South- 
worth and J. G. Jenking are the incorporators. 



Chicago. — The Chicago & Calumet Valley Railroad incorporate to 
build in southern part of city, through Lj'ons, Worth, Palos and La- 
monte. Capital, $500,000. Board of Directors are: John G. Campbell, 
John Barton Payne, Henry S. Ritter, Wm. Brace and Cornelius V. 
Smith, all of Chicago. 



Chicago. — Organized: The Chicago Suburban Transit Company, 
Chicago, capital stock, fi,ooo,ooo; incorporators, Andrew Christ 
Thorbjornson and William W. Riley. Organized: The Chicago Street 
Air Brake Company, Chicago; capital stock, $200,000; incorporators, 
John A. Kruse, James Hanley and David Reed. 



Colorado. 

Denver, Colo. — The Denver and Globeville Street Railway incor- 
porated at $10,000; R. G. Head, J. H. Head, W. S. Renean; horse line. 



Denver, Col. — The Standard Railway Supply Company, Monad- 
nock building, Chicago, has sold the Tramway company stoves for their 
suburban trains. 



Denver, Col.— Otto Meats, president "Rainbow Route" of the Rio 
Grande, has returned from the East, where money was raised to build 
the Ouray electric ; eight miles long. Will carry freight also. 



Denver, Col. — The Denver, Mt. Olive & Golden Railway Company 
incorporated to build from Golden; capital stock, $125,000. Office at 
Denver; incorporators, Charles E. Tallmadge and Daniel Sayer, of 
Denver, and Ira Coulehan, Charles Fisk and Elwood Easlcy, of [offer- 
son county. 



50 



Denver, Col. — Denver & Westminster Railway Company organ- 
ized; capital, $1,000,000, D. R. C. Brown, the Aspen millionaire; J. W. 
Downing, of Aspen, R. W. Woodbury, of the Union National Bank, 
Mitchell Benedict and H.J. Mayhani are in the directory. Line to be 
electric, five miles long. 

Trinidad, Col.— Council has revoked old franchise. Best chance 
in the state to organize a railway; 8,000 people. 



Trinidad, Col. — A proposition for electric in place of horse car has 
been presented by the Mountain Electric Company, of Denver. 

Connecticut. 

Ansonia, Conn.— The Birmingham & Ansonia Horse Railway asks 
large extensions and right for increase capital slock to $150,000. 

Bridgeport, Conn. — The East End Railway Company asks fran- 
chises on new streets and extensions on old ones. 



Hartford, Conn. — Ralph and Frank Cheney will incorporate the 
South Manchester Light, Power & Tramway Company. Said to be 
a go. 

Hartford, Conn. — An electric is being agitated to run to Rockville. 
State Treasurer E. S Henry, Col. F. J. Maxwell and W. H. Prescott 
are leading promoters. 

New Haven, Conn. — Henry Sutton and Chas. K. Bush, of Orange 
will petition the legislature for incorporation to build an electric from 
this city to Derby, and on various streets in the two places. 

Norwalk, Conn. — The Tramway Company will ask of next Legis- 
lature right to run through the towns of Norwalk, Darien, Stamford. 
New Canaan, Westport, the city of South Norwalk, the borough of 
Norwalk, the borough of Stamford and borough of New Canaan. 



MooDus, Conn. — Charter is to be asked for the Moodus, Marlborough 
& Glastonbury Electric. Power to be supplied from Leesville. 

Stonington, Conn. — Notice is given that a petition will be made in 
next legislature for a charter for an electric line here. 



Wallingford, Conn. — The Wallingford Electric Tramway Light & 
Power Company organized by prominent home men : Rev. Father Mal- 
lon H. F. Hall, W. D. Wilson, et al. Scheme considered sure and pros- 
pects for patronage good. 

District of Columbia. 

Washington, D. C. — Bill introduced to incorporate the East End 
Electric to run within the city. Stock 250,000; incorporators: William 
Lee White, George J. Seufferle, John E. Herrell, Charles Barker, Albert 
Carry, George W. Moss, Isaac Childs, Thomas J. Brown, John D. Crois- 
sant, John F. O'Neill, John H. Oberly, A. S. Lindsay, John L. Vogt, R. 
S. Saunders, Francis A. Kennedy, E. E. White, Samuel Cross, R. Lee 
White and M. D. Brainard of the District of Columbia and R. R. 
Glover of Kentucky. 

Also introduced, a bill to incorporate the Washington & Marlboro 
Electric Railway. Incorporators are James G. Berrett, Charles E. 
Creecy, William I. Hill, Robert A. Howard, George J. Johnson, John 
A. Luttrell, Chas. C. Lancaster, James T. Perkins, Archibald M. Bliss 
and John W. Belt and their associates. 



Florida. 

Tampa, Fla. — The Consumer's Electric Light ,& Power Company is 
ready to lay track on certain streets and establish service, but are waiting 
for bonus. 

Georgia. 

Atlanta, Ga. — F. I. Stone has secured the contract to build and 
equip 7 miles of electric railway here. Will also build and equip the 
power station. 

AuGl'STA, Ga. — North Augusta, Langley, Graniteville and Aiken are 
to be connected with an electric. Maj, W. T. Gary has taken the fran- 
chise before the legislature. 

Idaho. 

PocATELLo, Ida. — A. A. Courter, L. S. Keller and W. J. Scott have 
applied for electric franchise. As another company is bidding, the 
scheme seems assured. 



Illinois. 

Alton, III. — Eastern stockholders of the C. B. & Q. have bought 
the street railway here, and will extend and electrify. A. M. Farnum, 
Windsor, Vt., is chief promotor. 



Bloomington, III.— The Bloomington City Railway, after a big 
fight, have been granted an ordinance by the City Council to lay T rails 
on all its lines. The company will build some extensions in the spring 



Galesburg, III. — The Galesburg Electric Power & Motor Company 
has elected officers as''follows: President, W. Secord; secretary, H. F. 
Arnold, and superintendent, Wm. Wise; $80,000 has been expended on 
the system. 

Ottawa, III. — W. Y. Soper proposes to unite the City Passenger and 
the Electric, and issue transfers with franchise for thirty years. 



Pekin, III. — W. L. Prettyman is obtaining right of way for his line. 

Pekin, III, — Pekin Rapid Transit Company, organized; capital stock, 
$100,000; electric; W. L. Prettyman, J. J. Reed and Chas. Karchen. 



Peoria, III. — The AveryVille trustees have given right-of-way to the 
Peoria Heights Railway. Theo. J. Miller, of this place, and C. W. Con- 
stantine, of Springfield, O., are heavily interested. 



Utica, III. — The General Electric and Chicago has already com. 
pleted its survey for an electric to the clay beds. Line used for freight. 



Indiana. 

Brazil, Ind. — Officers are elected Rapid Transit Railway here: Geo. 
Van Ginkel, president and treasurer; J. D. Sourwine, vice-president; R. 
I. Baylees, secretary. 

Brazil, Imd. — The Brazil Rapid Transit Electric Street Railway is 
making solid progress. Is asking $8,000 bonus to build to Harmony. 
Will probably get it. 

Elkhart, Ind. — C. W. Fish is appointed receiver of the Elkhart 
Electric Street Railway which owes $85,000. 



Redkey, Ind. — There is a good opening here for some one to build a 
line to connect this place with Dunkirk. Natural gas here in abund- 
ance. (Redkey, population 2,000; Dunkirk, I,Soo.) 



Shelbyville, Ind. — The Shelbyville Electric Street Railway has let 
contract for power house, and track work will commence at once. 



Valparaiso, Ind. — A scheme to unite the town! of Hammond, Val- 
paraiso and LaPorte is on foot. The Hammond & East Chicago line is 
the first of which the organizers are: C. F. Grifiin, A. R. Sliroyes and 
W. H. Fitzgerald; capital $200,000, organized at Indiantpolis. 



ViNCKNNES, Ind. — Plans are being made for an electric to Monroe 
City, a distance of 15 miles. Local capital is interested. Line will carry 
baggage, mail and express. 

Brazil, Ind. — J. D. Sourwine, representing the Des Moines syndi- 
cate, has been granted a franchise for the Brazil Rapid Transit Company. 
Sourwine may be found at the Chamber of Commerce building, Chicago. 
He is a Brazil man. 

Iowa. 

Keokuk, Ia. — The Keokuk Railway & Improvement Company has 
been organized, with a capital stock of $1,000,000; to run 50 years. 
Wm. Ballinger, president; W. C. Anderson, secretary. 



Siou.\ City, Ia. — Sioux City & Leeds Elect: ic will soon begin build- 
ing its own power plant. More equipment. 



Sioux City, Ia. — A. B. Peavey, superintendent of the Sioux City 
Street Railway, has resigned, to lake effect January ist. Will go into 
usiness, and be succeeded by 1. B. Walker, present electrician of com- 
pany. 

Kansas. 

Leavenworth. Kas. — City council has quashed the Putnam fran- 
chise. 

Leavenworth, Kan. — The Leavenworth Electric Railway is before 
the council lor franchise. The opposition from the Earl Compressed 
Air Scheme has weakened, and the electric ordinance will undoubtedly 
now pass. Wm. Dill, attorney for petitioners. 



51 



Kentucky. 

Covington, Ky.— Registers are being placed on tlie Covington cars. 



OwEXSBORO, Kv.— Organized: The Oweneboro Electric Car Com- 
panv, capital, $600,000. 



OwENSBORO, Kv.— J. N. AIsop and W. E, Whitley have bought con- 
trol of the railway. The new company will endeavor to put in an elec- 
tric immediately. 

OwENSBORO, Kv.— R. H. Neely, superintendent of the Owensboro 
City Railway, states his company intend putting in electricity. Prob- 
ably stimulated by the Owensboro Electric Railway, recently incorpo- 
rated. 

Maine. 

Elsworth, Me. — Electric railway it being agitated here. 



Mexico. 



City of Mexico. — J. S. Clarlison, ex assistant postmaster general; V 
T. Meek, president of the Colorado Iron Company ; R. W. Clay, of Phila- 
delphia, and T. H. Blakewell, of New York, are said to have bought the 
tramways here for from seven to nine million dollars. They intend to 
work the road by electricity. The plan is a paying one and the report is 
probably correct. 

Manitoba. 

Winnipeg, Manitoba.— The motion of the old Street Railway Com- 
pany to enjoin the electric railway from running cars has been dismissed 
and the cars are now to run. 



Maryland. 

Baltimore, Md. — The Maryland Electric Company is capitalized at 
f 2, 000,000. W. T. Putney, of New York, president; A. J. Carr, secre- 
tary: R. T. McDonald, of Ft. Wayne, is also interested. The company 
will do light, heat and power business, and controls all Edison patents in 
this vicinitv. 



Haggerstown, Ml) — ^J. C. Blackwell, .S. Murdock, R. H. Edmonds 
and others, of Baltimore, and Col. Wm. F. McCar-ty, of this place, are 
before the council for ordinance to construct electric railway. Success 
almost sure. 

Upper Marlboro, Md — H. W. Clagett, J. W. Belt and Jas. T. Per- 
kins, of this place, are incorporators of the Upper Marlboro & Washing- 
ton Electric Railway. 

Massachusetts. 

Lawrence, Mass. — The big street railway deal, consolidating the 
Lowell Haverhill & Lawrence, the Haverhill & Groveland, and the Mer- 
rimack Valley road is engineered by John U. Heckley and his syndic.ite 
of Rochester from their Boston office. 



Lowell, Mass.— The Lowell, Haverhill &: Lawrence Street Rail- 
way petitions for rights to build in North Andover and Bradford. It 
asks also the right to buy the Groveland road. 



Newton, Mass.— H. B. Parker, G. W. Morse, A. R. Mitchell, et al. 
incorporate the Newton & Brighton Street Railway Company; capital 
stock, $100,000. There is said to be no antagonism with the West End 



Rockland, Mass. — The Abington & Rockland Electric have secured 
an extension of franchise to August i, '93. Company promise to begin 
work in Mav. 



Worcester, Mass. — The directors of the Consolidated voted to peti- 
tion for right to double track its entire system, and also ask for further 
extensions. The company will erect a large power station as soon as a 
convenient site can be secured. The horse-power will be 2000, provided 
by five triple expansion engines of 500-horse-power each. There will be 
ten generators of 250-horse-power each. An enormous iron building, 
two stories high, will be built to store 100 large electric cars. Paint and 
repair shops will occupy the upper slory, together with the office of the 
company, while the lower floor will accommodate the cars. It is 
intended to equip the entire system of twenty-five miles or more with 
electricity by June, 1893. 



Michigan. 

Detroit, Mich.— Bela Hubbard, C. B. Hubbard, R. H. Fyfe and 
others petition for a street car line on Warren avenue. Bids will be 
advertised for franchise. 



Detroit, Mich. — Homer Warren, R. H. Fyfe, Collins B. Hubbard 
and others are seeking franchises on Jefferson avenue. Supposed to 
represent a new company. 



Detroit, Mich. — The Detroit Suburban Railw.ay Company has 
bought in the Highland Park Electric for $125,000. The new purchas- 
ers will spend $100,000 in improvements. 



Detroit, Mich. — The new Metropolitan Railway Company, of which 
A. E. Riopelle is president, has filed a petition to operate a street railway 
by electricity. The stockholders say they mean business. 



Detroit, Mich. — Eber W. Cottrell has secured a franchise for ninety 
nine years in Greenfield township for a street railway to run from 
present terminus of Grand River Avenue line. Two miles must be laid 
in two years. 

Detroit, Mich.— At a director's meeting of the Citizens' Street Rail- 
way, the secretary was ordered to get plans and specifications for sixty 
new cars. Half to be motor cars, other half so constructed that they 
can be changed from trailers to motor. 



Detroit, Mich.— C. W. Harrah heads a syndicate which has bought 
he Windsor, Ont, electric road. The line was electric only in name, 
and horses will be still used until May i, by the former owner, Mr. 
Boomer. Then the road will be delivered and electrified. 



Gladstone, Mich. — M. B. Koon, W. D. Washburn, Jr., and W. D. 
Hale have been granted a franchise to construct a street railway here, 
which must be in operation prior to Jan. i.'gj. Any but steam locomo- 
tion or animal power may be used. 



Ionia, Mich. — A project is onfoot to dam Prairie creek to furnish 
power for the electric railway. Mayor Davis, L. B. Townsend and Sur- 
veyor Crawford are looking over the ground. The road is projected by 
Sam Tibbitts. 

Kalamazoo, Mich.— W. F. Davidson, of Port Huron, Mich., bought 
in the Kalamazoo City & County Railway at $32,000. Davidson rep- 
resents the General Electric. 



Lyons, Mich.— H. R. Wagar, the capitalist of Ionia, proposes to use 
the water power here for the power of an electric in both and between 
these cities. 



West Bay City, Mich.— The Philadelphia syndicate has bought the 
lines here and in Bay City. Price $350,000 for the twentv-five miles. 
To be changed to electricity in the spring. 



Minnesota. 

Duluth, Minn.— The Minnesota Point Street Railway Company 
has had its right-of-way confirmed in the village of Park Point. Animal 
or pneumatic power to be used. R. W. Petre, A. McDougall, R. P 
Edson, Bernard Silberstein et al. 



Minneapolis, Minn.— Arrangements are about complete for the 
reorganization of the Northern Car Company. New stock to the 
amount of $50,000 is to be subscribed, and the factory will be located at 
CoUnnbia Heights. 



Mississippi. 



Vicksburg, Miss.— C. R. McFarland is now receiving bids for 
material to construct an electric road. Light and power will be sold in 
addition to operating cars. 



Vicksburg, Miss.— C. R. McFarland, J.J. Mulligan and L. W, Ma- 
gruder, of Vicksburg, incorporate the Vicksburg Electric Transit Com- 
pany. 

Missouri, 

Kansas City, Mo.— The Wyandotte ordinance is likely to pass. 

St. Louis, Mo.— The St. Louis & Madison Bridge Transfer Com- 
pany ; capital .$350,000, to build electric roads and wagon way over the 
Merchants' bridge at North St. Louis. 



oa 



JoPLijt, Mo. — The Southwest Missouri Electric Railway Company 
has received a franchise between here and Webb City. 



Kansas City, Mo. — West Side Street Railway will extend from 
present terminus at Eighteenth street to Quindaro. Bonus now raised. 

Geo. H. Churchill is appointed receiver of the Tenth Street Cable 
in place of H. P. Churchill, resigned; Supt. Frank Phillips remains. 

St. Louis, Mo. — O. D. Tucker will press his elevated franchise 
scheme by introducing a bill into the house of delegates. 



St. Louis. — St. Louis Traction Company filed papers of agreement; 
stock, $2,000; James Campbell, iS shares, W. T. Reed and W. S. Cor- 
coran, I each. 



F. L. Thomas, of Belleville, has applied for rights in East St. Louis. 



St. Louis. — The Kirkwood, Webster Groves and St. Louis Railroad 
makes a new offer. They will construct and operate a line to cost 
$300,000 if local parties will subscribe $100,000 and take second mort- 
gage bonds, payable when the road is running. August Heman is presi- 
dent; J. D. Housman, Jr., secretary. 



Nebraska. 

Omaha, Neb. — Car stables at Albright near South Omaha, one car 
burned ; loss, $5,000. 

New Jersey. 

Bridgeton. N. J. — The council has received an application for charter 
from the Bridgeton Rapid Transit Company. Capitalized at $100,000; 
incorporators, T. U. Harris, J. Smalley, W. O. Garrison of Bridgeton; 
E. V. Douglass, W. P. Douglass and P. Newbold of Philadelphia. The 
company expects to introduce the Conelly motor. 

Newark, N. J. — The Worcester Traction Company has incorporated 
under New Jersey laws for $5,000,000 to buy, sell and operate street 
railways. 

Newark, N. J. — Worcester Traction Company, organized to buy, sell 
build and operate street railways by Edward A. Dennison, Edward J. 
More, and C. F. Stephenson, of Philadelphia, Stephen E. Haas, of 
Chester, Pa , and Thomas C. Barr, president of the local electric lines 
here, incorporators. The capital, $5,000,000. 



New York. 



Brooklyn, N. Y. — The Brooklyn & Jamaica Plains, electric, has 
decided to extend to Wood Haven. Other extensions will follow. 



Brooklyn, N. Y. — The Montague Cable Line has been sold. Buy ■ 
ers not yet known. 

The Brooklyn City has received a franchise for new lines on Flushing 
avenue, Fresh Pond road and to Bowery Bay beach. 



Brooklyn, N. Y. — The Brooklyn City offers $250,000 for franchise 
on about 50 streets. This is the first oSer of compensation for fran- 
chise. 

Gloversville, N. Y. — H. Walter Webb of the New York Central 
has acquired the Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville electric 



Ilion, N. Y. — Frankfort & Ilion Street Railway, electric, asks rights 
between the two towns. A. J. Douglass, president board of trustees. 



Jamestown, N. Y. — Superintendent Maltby says his company will 
double track their line to Falconer. 



Lockport, N. v. — The Lock City Electric Railway Company has 
received its franchise and put up forfeit. Work must begin by Ma}- i 
and finished by Sept. 1, 1893. This ends the fight. 



New York City. — The Kings Company Electric has applied for 
extensive additions. The road will be second in mileage to the Brooklyn 
City. 

New York City. — New York, Mapleton & Van Pelt Manor Elec 
trie has elected A. D. Baird, president; W. P. Rae, secretary, and will 
build to the Thirty-ninth street ferry to Twentieth and Cropsey avenue. 



Lexington Avenue Railroad Company has organized; capital, 
$75,000; A. Lazarus, Albert J. Elias. Henry Hart, E. Lauterbach, direc. 
tors. 



New York City. — The Broadway cable is to be extended to iioth 
street, and a $500,000 forfeit put up. The Columbus & Ninth Avenue 
Company bought the franchise but W. C. Whitney, of the Metropolitan 
brought down the check. 



New York City. — Incorporated: Columbus & Ninth Avenue 
Railroad, $3,000,000; Pavonia Ferry Railroad, $5,000,000. Former will 
construct 3 miles; latter 7 miles. Directors: both corporations the same 
N. Brady, of Albany, Phillip E. Bray, John Seage, Howard Vansideren, 
Edward Ferrero, James J. Traynor, John J. Gumming, James R. Breen 
and Samuel Goldsticker, of New York. 



New York City. — The great auction of the franchise for the under 
ground rapid transit sj'stem, formulated by the Rapid Transit Commis- 
sion, was held December 29 and just one bid made — and that not in 
accordance , with advertised terms. One-half of i per cent of gross 
earnings and $500 annual rental was offered for 999 years. Commis- 
sioners_^will immediately tackle the question of elevated transit. 



Niagara Falls, N. Y. — W, Carroll Ely, of this place, seeks rights to 
build an electric to Buffalo. 



Rochester, N. Y. — Rival companies ask new franchises. The 
Rochester City stands the best chance of gaining them. 



Rochester, N. Y. — The Rochester, Windsor Beach & Irondequoit 
Bay Railway organized with Stephen Remington, president; \ice-presi- 
dent, Charles Goetzmann; secretary and treasurer, Frank J. Hone; direc- 
tors, the above named and A. J. Johnson, George Weldon, George W. 
Archer, Joseph W. Palmer, John Fahy, John VanVoorhis, William 
Moran, Max Brickner, Henry Gallagher, I. C. Tone. The capital stock 
of the new company is $1,000,000. 



Rome, N. Y.— Charles D. Haines, of the firm of Haines Brothers, 
New York, will probably get possession of the road here. Conditions 
are that the firm is to equip electrically and secure the bonds of the com- 
pany. 

Waverly, N. Y. — Incorporated: the Interstate Traction Company, 
to build surface road; capital ijijo.ooo; directors, Arthur, William and 
Edward Frothingham, M.J. and E. G. Wightman, and James H. Torrey, 
of Scranton, Pa. ; J.T. Sawyer, J. B. Floyd, and Fred A. Sawyer of 
Waverly. 

White Plains, N. Y. — An electric from Tarrytown to this village 
and from here to Port Chester, L. I. sound is talked of. A stage com- 
pany does a good business and an electric could do better. 



Ohio. 



Cincinnati, O. — The Cincinnati Street Railway are asking permis- 
sion to electrify some of their present lines and to coubtruct an inclined 
plane as a part of the new lines asked. 



Cleveland, O. — St. Clair street electric franchise granted to the 
Cleveland cable. 

Lancaster, O. — Frank Barrett and A. Bauman have gained their 
electric franchise. Contracts will soon be let. 



Marion, O. — Clark Rude, of Sandusky, and Reid Carpenter, of Mans- 
field, secure contract for construction of electric line here. They are 
now receiving bids for all material and equipment. Five cars will be 
bought. Line must open July 1st, '93. 



Warren, O. — Contract for constructing the electric from this city to 
Niles is let to the Pennsylvania General Electric Company, of Pittsburg, 
for $100,000. Road must be delivered June-ist. 



Youngstown, O. — The south-city franchises have been accepted by 
the street railway company. 



The Third Avenue line has certified to extensions. 



PiQUA, O. — The Miami Valley Railway Company, of this city, are 
considering the construction of an electric line from this city to Coving- 
ton and Bradford, with an extension to West Milton and Dayton. Com- 
pany will incorporate soon. 



WoRTHiNGTON, Ohio.— The directors of the Worthington, Clinton- 
ville & Columbus Street Railway Company effected a permanent organ- 
ization. President, O. W. Aldrich; vice, J. M. Milne; secretary, R. M. 
Weaver; treasurer, H. C. Cooke; executive rommittee, O. VV. Aldrich, 
H. C. Cooke, J. M. Loren, A. M. Milne and H. W. Wright. The board 
determined to investigate the practicability of using the storage system 
for their electric cars. 



Marion, O.— The Marion Electric Street Railway Company has 
elected officers as follows; Daniel Babst, president; W. E. Scofield 
secretary ; Harry True, treasurer. C. H. Norris and W. E. Scofield were 
appointed a committee to confer with the Electric Light Company regard- 
ing their furnishing the power. 



MiDDLETOW.v, O.— A New York capitalist wants to build an electiic 
here. A local company unites in the deal, and the work will begin early 
in the vear. 



Cleveland, O.— The Johnson Electric Company has transferred its 
business to the Steel Motor Company of this city. F. J. Lewis is the 
manager of the new company. 



Columbus, O.— Transfer tickets are to be issued by the Columbus 
Consolidated. 



Troy, O.— Col. W. P. Orr says that the Miama Valley Electric Rail- 
way Company has bought all the stock of the old Piqua Electric. The 
interurban to Piqua will not be built by this company, and a good oppor- 
tunity is offered for anew company. 



WoosTRR, O.— Council has a proposition from B. M. Barr for the 
Thomson- Houston Electric Company, of Cleveland, to construct a street 
railway in this city. 



Columbus, O.— The directors of the Worthington, Clintonville & 
Columbus elected officers. President, O. W. Aldrich ; vice president, 
J. M. Milne; secretary, R. M. Weaver; treasurer, H. C. Cooke; execu- 
tive committee, O. W. Aldrich, H. C. Cooke, J. M. Loren, A M Milne 
and H. W. Wright. 



NiLES, O.— The Warren-Niles road has re-organized, with H. G. 
Chresty president, A. D. Sillisas, vice president, and E. D. Kennedy^ 
secretary and treasurer. It is now promised that the road will be in 
operation by June ist. 



Cleveland, O.— Citizens petition the city to build a line to Gordon 
Park. The director of public works is to take charge. 



Osborne, O.— Stock subscribed for an electric from Dayton to 
Osborne. 



Oklahoma. 



Guthrie, Oklahoma.— W. D. Ford, president of the Guthrie Elec- 
tric Railway Company, is advertising for ties and will receive bids for 
material on electric line. 



Ontario. 

London, Ont.— Everett & Grace, of Montreal, have bought the con. 
trol of this line and will electrify soon. 



Windsor, Ont.— The street railway electric power house burned. 
December 26th. 



Hamilton, Ont.— Strong efforts are made to put the H. W. & G 
Electric road through the village of Waterdown and East Flamboro. 



Oregon. 



Portland, Ore.— Portland capitalists have bought the controlling 
interest in the Salem Electric Railway & Light Company. 



Portland, Ore.— The Multnomah Consolidated is being importuned 
to construct a line .on Union avenue. The company is also seeking 
further franchises. 



Salem, Ore. -Geo. B. Markle, S. Z. Mitchell, E. P. McCormack 
incorporate the Salem Consolidated Street Railway for 1500,000. 



53 



Pennsylvania. 

Easton, Pa.— Philacfelphia capitalists have options on the Reading 
roads, Mt. Penn gravity; Neversink Electric and other roads. 

Pittsburg, Pa.— The Larimer Street Railway Company Ordinance 
has been passed. 

The Morningside & Highland Park franchise was amended to death 
and then passed. 

Duquesne Traction granted extensions. 



Ashland, Pa.-D. D. Phillips, S. A. Beddall and J. J. Coyle have 
gone to Norfolk, Va., to secure right-of.way of the Norfolk-Ocean View 
line. Charter granted and work will begin soon. 

Braddock, PA.-The Braddock Street Railway Company will extend 
to Turtle creek. 

Gettysburg, Pa.— Council has granted the right of way over all of 
the principal streets of the borough to the Electric Railway Company 
which will build a line over the battlefield. 



Philadelphia, Pa.-Jes. Rawle, of the Brill Company, is the head 
of a company that has obtained the control of the Manayunk Company, 
running an incline and surface road that has never yet'paid a dividend' 
It will now be electrified. Road five and one-half miles long. 

_ P1TT.STON, PENN.-Council have granted the long sought franchise 
10 the Wilkesbarre & Wyoming Traction Company. 

Philadelphia, PA.-The Philadelphia, Castle Rock & Westchester 
Railway, incorporated for $90,000, to build 15 miles. 



Bristol, Pa.— Leading citizens of this place and ;Langhorne and 
Newtown, are meeting to organize an electric road to connect the three 
places. Franchises will be asked early in January. 

Phoenixville, Pa.— Incorporated : The Schuylkill Valley Electric 
Railw.iy Company ; capital, $50,000 ; eight miles, Phoenixville to Rovers- 
ford. The directors of the company are George P. Pierson, Charles H 
Davis, Edward Chamberlain, Philadelphia; Bayard Snyder A C Milli 
ken, Pottsville; Welde cV Thomas Brewing Company, Philadelphia 
capital $400,000; directors, John Welde, John Thomas, William t' 
McLaughlin, Jacob J. Kitschler. 



Rhode Island. 

Providence, R. I.-The Union Railroad Company has decided to 
make its own power, and is now securing plans for a power house 76x^2; 
feet. ' •^ -^ 



Tennessee. 



Nashville, Tenn.-M. A. Spurr, J. B. Armstrong, G. W. Ehle 
Isa.ic Litton and A. Wills have filed an application for a charter of the 
Maplewood Electric Railway Company. 



Chattanooga, Tenn.— A scheme is on foot among heavy local cap. 
italists to convert the Belt line into an electric. 



Chattanooga, TENN.-The Chattanooga Electric Railway has 
secured control of the new tracks of the Chattanooga Company, Limited 
The line extends over and beyond the river three miles. ' Will open 
February 15. 

Chattanooga, TENN.-The Lookout Mountain Railway Company 
has changed hands, being reorganized with T. B. Redmond president- 
Lmn White, vice; C. S, Henry, secretary. Another electric road to the' 
mountain is the meaning of this. 



, Texas. 



Uallas, Tex.-CoI. Chas. S. Freeman has been appointed receiver of 
the Dallas Rapid Transit Railway. 



Victoria, TEX.-Victoria Street Railway sold under mortgage to I 
M. Brownson for I400. He will probably tear it up in the interests of 
thehackmen. 



Vermont. 



Burlington, Vt.-J. A. Bowers, of Lansingburg, a suburb of Troy 
NY., has purchased the Winooski & Barlington Horse R.iilway and 
will equip electrically in the spring. 



54 



Washington. 

Elberton, Wash. — D. M. Nulty, editor oi the "Wheat Belt," is 
working up an electric railway to connect towns in the Palouse valley. 



Spokane, Wash.— Loren C. Barton says the Manhattan Company 
ha3 completed its survey to Chelan Falls and will build next spring. A 
beautiful resort will also be established at the lake. 



Wisconsin. 



Wausau, Wis. — The council is considering a proposition from John 
D. Ross, Walter Alexander and Hiram Dunfield to build a street rail- 
way. 

JANESVILLE, Wis,— A line of iS miles, from here to Johnstown, isv 
contemplated. 



Milwaukee, Wis. — The Wauwautosa motor line extension to North 
Greenfield will be built. Bonus of $10,000 raised and route ready for 
survey. 

Racine, Wis. Reiplinger & Francis have purchased the old cars of 

the Belle City Street Railway Company and it is reported that they will 
run an independent line to the Rapids and North Point. 



Racine Wis. President Holmes states the additions to his power 

plant the coming season will include a 5oo-horse-power engine, 6 motor 
cars, 6 trail cars, and will also enlarge buildings. 



Abraham Lincoln 

When leaving his home at Springfield, 111., to be inaugurated President 
of the United States, made a farewell address to his old friends and 
neighbors, in which he said, "neighbors give your boys a chance." 

These words come with as much force to day as they did thirty years 
ago. 

How give them this chance.' 

Up in the Northwest is a great empire waiting for young, and sturdy 
fellows to come and develope it and "grow up with the country." All 
over this land are the young fellows, the boys that Lincoln referred to 
seeking to better their condition and get on in life. 

Here is their chance! 

The country referred to lies along the Northern Pacific R. R. Here 
you can find almost anything you want. In Minnesota and in the Red 
River Valley of North Dakota, the finest of prairie lands fitted for wheat 
and grain, or as well as for diversified farming. In Western North 
Dakota, and Montana, are stock ranges limitless in extent, clotted with 
the most nutrious of grasses. 

If a fruit farming region is wanted there is the whole State of Wash- 
ington to select from. 

As for scenic delights the Northern Pacific Railroad passes through 
a countrv unparalleled. In crossing the Rocky, Bitter Root, and Cascade 
Mountains, the greatest mountain scenery to be seen in the United 
States from car windows is to be found. The wonderful bad lands, 
wonderful in graceful form and glowing color, are a poem. Lakes 
Fend d'Oreille and CcEur d'Alene, are alone worth a trans-continental 
trip, while they are the fisherman's Ultima Thule. The ride along 
Clark's Fork of the Columbia River is a daylight dream. To cap the 
climax this is the only way to reach the far-famed Yellowstone Park. 

To reach and see all this the Northern pacific Railroad furnish trains 
and service of unsurpassed excellence. The most approved and com- 
fortable Palace Sleeping cars; the best Dining cars that can be made; 
Pullman Tourist cars good for both first and second class passengers; 
easy riding Day Coaches, with Baggage, Express, and Postal cars, all 
drawn by powerful Baldwin locomotives, make a train fit for royalty itself. 

Those seeking for new homes should take this train and go and spy 
out the land. To be prepared, write to 

Chas. S. Fee, 

G. P. & T. A. 

St. Paul, Minn. 



Frank De H. Robison, president of the Cleveland 
City Cable Railway, generously offers to be one of the 
200 to contribute $1,000 each, or one of forty to give 
$2,500 each, to start a subscription to float city bonds to 
be issued for a system of boulevards and parks. 



HAS IT A HOODOO? 

WHEN Sheriff Lewis sold the Dundee Place 
Electric Line at Omaha, the other day, he put 
an end, at least temporarily, to a succession 
of misfortunes that pursued this unfortunate piece of track 
from before its building. Right at the beginning, a suit 
followed a dispute with the contracting engineer, and the 
former is still in litigation. The lucky bidder for the con- 
tract sent to Germany for the material, and the enraged 
Atlantic promptly protected home industries by sinking 
ship and cargo. Or, better stated, the car didn't go. 

The contractor proceeded to fail for $So,ooo, leaving 
the line uncompleted. The owners finished the equip- 
ment, put in electricity, and carried people free until the 
overworked expenses landed the rocd with the sheriff. 
Romance yet attends this tale: R. W. Patrick and his son 
were rivals for possession. The young man started it at 
$10,000, the old man raised him ten thousand, the 3'oung 
man looked at his hand, called out $25,000, the old man 
raised him another five thousand, when the son ended the 
game with a $40,000 bid. 



The Milan, Italy, council has granted permission to 
the Edison Company for building a tramway at that place. 



OUR DICTIONARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS. 





'CALLED SHORT. 




'A ROUND TRIP. 



Map of the United States. 

A large handsome map of the United States, mounted 
and suitable for office or home use, is issued by the Burl- 
ington Route. Copies will be mailed to any address on 
receipt of fifteen cents in postage, by P. S. Eustice, Gen'l 
Pass. Agent, C, B. & Q. R. R., Chicago, 111. 



55 



THE MANUFACTURE OF AN ELECTRIC 
STREET CAR TRUCK. 



WHAT constitutes the most necessary qualities 
in a good truck for an electric or cable car 
has been a matter over which several hun- 
dred managers have studiously toiled, and still others 
will have to take up the question soon, for the first time. 
One of the most successful and popular trucks is that 
made b}- the McGuire Manufacturing Company, of this 
city, and, while this article will not go into minute detail 
as to its evolution, a few words as to the process of its 
construction cannot but be of interest. The makers attri- 
bute their success largely to the peculiar feature of their 



number of an English street railway paper, in an article 
on electric railwavs in England, an exact counterpart of 
this frame is shown, excepting that the McGuire Company 
makes the flanges turned outward while the English turn 
theirs inward. Accompan\ing this the following para- 
graph appears: "The managers of the road have 
recently made a tour of the United States for the pur- 
pose of examining the American system, and have 
embodied, after the most critical survey of all the 
important roads, those features which they thought the 
most valuable." This shows that John Bull, whatever 
amount of alleged stupidity he may possess, and however 
lacking in originality, has an abnormally developed bump 
of perceptiveness and imitativeness. 




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6-- 




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0' 




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il 





im 



.J l i 1 1 I I I , 




frfr^e^icr/ 



M GUIRE TRUCK IN VARIOUS STAGES OF MANUFACTURE. 



pressed steel truck frame. This frame has attracted the 
attention of electric railway people, iron and steel 
workers in all parts of the world where electric railroad- 
ing has been introduced, as is shown by the fact that the 
company have sold within the last year to England, Ger- 
many, France, Mexico, Canada and South America. 
Only recently a mechanical engineer, a representative of 
the oldest and largest electric manufacturing and con- 
struction company in the world, not satisfied with the 
study of one of the trucks made for his people by the 
McGuire Manufacturing Company, came all the way 
from Germany to see the complete operation of making 
one of these frames. How interesting a work this is can 
only be appreciated by witnessing it. In the December 



The peculiar construction and manufacture of this 
frame is instructive and interesting, demonstrating as it 
does a fact that a piece of mechanism can be so con- 
structed that its weakest point is as strong as its strongest, 
like the " deacon's wonderful one-horse shaj'." 

The margin of strength, combined with the iiexibility 
of all parts, and the elasticity of the steel, permits the 
ready adjustment of the truck to the car body, under any 
and all the varying strains met with on rough tracks and 
in electric service generally, without bending or crystal- 
izing any of its parts and adding greatlj' to the life of 
the car body. All corners and fillets being large and 
well rounded, the steel being sheared and pressed at a 
bright red heat, precludes all possibility of crystallization, 



56 



cracks or fissures; even the rivet holes are placed with 
that exact nicety that even the most critical must admire. 
The end sills are pressed of the same material and the 
whole frame being riveted together at the corners. The 
absence of a bolt or joint in the entire frame, or a truss 
rod to crystallize and break, makes the frame include the 
three essentials necessary to a perfect truck frame, viz. : 
symmetrj', flexibility and strength. 

The process of manufacture is well worth seeing, as it 
is done in one movement of a huge hydraulic press into 
which steel dies are set. 

The accompanying sketches of the side frames, show- 
ing the different stages of the process before and after 
pressing, should be interesting. The extraordinary 
length, thirteen feet six inches, as compared with the 
width, five inches, necessitates having the light sheet, 
three-eighths inch, equally heated its entire length and 
handled with the greatest care to place it between the 
dies, so that when the pressing is done the flanges around 
the entire frame will be found to be exactly as designed, 
that is to say of equal depth at every point, generally 
two inches. Cut No. i represents a sheet of steel thir- 
teen feet six inches long by sixteen inches wide, three- 
eights inch thick, from which sides for the Chicago City 
Railway Company were pressed. The full lines show 
how the sheets are sheared, the dotted lines the shape 
after being pressed. The space between the full and 
dotted lines shows the metal left for forming the flange, 
extending two inches at right angles after being pressed. 
Cut No. 2 shows the side after being pressed and punched. 
Cut No. 3 gives an edge view of the same, showing 
flange and thickness of the metal. Cut No. 4 is the rein- 
forcement for pedestal and around oil box before being 
sheared or pressed, the space between full and dotted 
lines showing the flange. Cut No. 5 shows the rein- 
forcement after being sheared, punched and pressed. 
Cut No. 6 an edge view of same. Cut No. 7 and 8 are 
an edge and face view of finished side with reinforce- 
ment riveted on and flanges turned opposite each other 

The McGuire Company have now on exhibition at 
their works the latest production of the inventive talent 
which always keeps that company in the foreground. 
It is called the "Columbian" truck. The new feature 
is an ingeniously devised plan of setting a spring on each 
side of the frame over the journal box, thus cushioning 
every part of the truck frame and placing every pound 
of weight of load, car body and truck frame, on the 
springs, thereby obtaining the softest riding qualities. 



LARGE SHEAVES REPLACE CURVE PUL- 
LEYS AT MELBOURNE. 



A HAIR LIFTER. 



THE president of the Rio Grande Southern Railway, 
Otto Mears, is planning to connect Ouray and 
Ironton, Colorado, with an electric road that will 
surpass the famous Georgetown loop in hair lifting effect. 
The line will run down the Uncompliagre canon, through 
a tunnel and around a loop down to Ouray. Length to 
be eight miles; maximum grade, seven per cent. Both 
freight and passengers are to be carried. 



AS previously mentioned in these columns, the largest 
operating cable road in the world, and one of the 
best, is that of the Melbourne Tramway & Omni- 
bus Compan}'. When the line was constructed small 
curve pulleys were used on all curves, but, as has been 
the experience of all cable engineers, the wear on the 
rope at such points was excessive. Some months ago 
the curve system was remodeled, and wherever gravity 
or momentum was sufficient to carry the train around a 
curve the small pulleys were removed and 12 foot 
sheaves substituted. Only one line has been so changed 
a sufficient length of time to afford much data, but on 
that section, which has two right angle curves and one 
obtuse curve, the result has been highly satisfrctory. 
The rope in use since the change gave a life of fifty- 
se\'en weeks, against a previous average life of sixteen 
and a previous maximum of twenty-eight weeks. 



HOURS AND WAGES IN OHIO. 



THE bureau of labor statistics, of the State of Ohio, 
of which W. T. Lewis is commissioner and 
andThomas Thomas is chief clerk, are compiling a 
report on street railwaj- emploj-es. To the courtesy of Mr. 
Thomas we are indebted for the following table. These 
figures are for the fiscal year ending July i, 1892, and 
are returns from 43 companies operating in the State. 
No reduction in wages has since been reported by anj' 
road, but there were 27 advances, ranging from 5 to 40 
per cent, mostly for drivers, conductors and motormen. 
The table does not include the advances. 

NUMBER OF ROADS, 43. 





No. of 
Employes. 


.-\veriige Hours 
of Labor 
Per Day. 


Average 

Wages 

Per Bay. 


Conductors (electric cars) 

Conductors (horse cars) 

Conductors (cable cars) 

Drivers ,..- 


S03 
3.3 

67 
46S 

94' 

307 
153 
21 
21 
110 
'4 
51 
62 

5J 
38 

>3 

29 
241 

13 

6 

90 

36 
69 


11 2 
11.4 
10. 

'■■5 
11.2 
II. I 
II. I 
10. 

'O-S 

1 1.6 

1 1.7 
ii.S 
II. 
10.7 
II. 13 
11.4 
12. 

1 1.7 
II. 

'0-5 

10.5 

10. 

10. 

lO.I 

10. 
9-4 


$1 8} 
I 85 

I 69 
I 80 


Motormen 


Trollevmen ._- 


> 58 
2 10 


Linemen . . 


Laborers . -_ . -... 


I 46 




2 01 




. 87 
I 57 


Shedmen . 




: 60 




I SS 




I 60 


Engineers . 


2 ss 




I 70 


Oilers 


1 68 


Dynamo tenders 


I 91 


Feeders 


I 53 


Grooms 


I 45 


Farriers 

Harness repairers 


2 40 
I 71 


Wood workers . .- 


2 21 


Blacksmitlis 


2 oS 


Painters . 


2 17 


Cashiers . . 


2 10 


Not Classified 








Total ' 


4,i6S 







57 








Coventry is in the midst of a trolley tight. 



One fare for the round trip is a novelty recently intro- 
duced on an English tram line, sold mornings to w orking- 
men, but good to return any time during the day. 

More underground railways to be operated by cable 
or electricity are being considered by Parliament as a 
remedy for the congestion of population in London. 



Europeans seem to be doing much more than Ameri- 
cans in the way of long distance transmission from water 
falls. In Italy transmissions are especially numerous. 



The society of engineers recently heard Herr Koester 
describe an electric motor which is to travel 123 miles an 
hour. A road is projected from Vienna to Buda Pesth. 



Manchester, England, conductors have a Christmas 
fund to which passengers may contribute. It is divided 
among the whole force. Subscription books hang in 
each car. 

The Glasgow Tramways Company has a new car, or 
as we should call it, a double-decked bus, with pneu- 
matic tires. The vehicle runs between the city and 
Pollockshields. The front tires are inflated to 150 
pounds and the rear tires to 170 pounds. 



The Edinburgh Tramways Company informs the city 
that it is prepared to sell out the part of the undertaking 
within the city for $1,525,000. The company has eight- 
een miles of road worked by horse power and the capi- 
tal expenditure of the company is nearly $2,000,000. 



A NEW London company, called the United Electric 
Tramways, limited, proposes to build, acquire and install 
electric railways and stations for light and power gener- 
ally. The capital is $150,000 and the financial papers in 
England seem to doubt the sufficiency of such a capital. 



A FINE IMPROVEMENT AT THE BRILL 
FACTORY. 



THE well known car builders, J. G. Brill Company, 
are always forging to the front with improve- 
ments in their plant, with the idea of making it the 
most complete car factory in the country. The latest 
addition to the works is a testing electric railroad. This 
line extends around two sides of an eleven-acre enclosure, 
and is half a mile long, including curves as sharp as 30 



feet radius and a gradient of 5 per cent. Any cars on 
which the electric machinery is mounted at the works of 
Brill Company, either b}- the employes of the General 
Electric Company, Westinghouse Companj' or other elec- 
tic manufacturing companies, or by the regular electri- 
cians in the employ of the Brill Companj-, are run out of 
the shop and put to a severe test and all connections cer- 
tified to as being correct. The advantage of this im- 
provement was manifest only a few days ago, when the 
equipment for the Philadelphia Traction Company's 
Catherine & Bainbridge Streets line was delivered. 
There were twenty-two cars furnished in all; twenty by 
the Brill Companv and two by another maker. The 
Brill cars were out on the street and operated successfull}', 
while the other two cars could not be moved by the cur- 
rent. The railway fraternity cannot but express com- 
mendation of the progressive and enterprising spirit of 
the officers in charge of the business of the Brill Com- 
panv. By this railway also a great deal of time is saved 
in the loading of cars; a wire is attached to the truck 
frame and connected with the rail, to make the ground 
current and the electric car mounts the skids to the freight 
car by its own power. This is an interesting and valua- 
ble improvement, one worth the attention of all railwaj- 
men. 

IN MEMORIAM. 



At a meeting of the Chicago Electric Club the following was 
adopted : 

Whereas, It has pleased the Almighty to remove from our midst two 
honored and beloved members of this club, and 

Whereas, We acknowledge the wisdom of God while we cannot 
fathom his infinite designs, 

Resolved, That we feel in the demise of Geo. H. Meeker and M. M. 
M. Slattery the club has lost two members of whom all were justly 
proud, as fellows and friends, genial and upright men, whose removal 
will leave a blank place in our circle, and whose presence will be missed 
at our social and literary meetings. 

Resolved, That we deeply sympaihize with the relatives of the 
deceased, and earnestly commend them to the Father of all for the con- 
solation he alone can give. 

Resolved, That copies of these resolutions be properly certified and 
transmitted to the families of the deceased, and published in all electri- 
cal papers. 

W. A. Kreidler. 

Secretary. 

Winter Resorts of the South. 

Jacksonville and Tampa, Fla., and other South Atlantic and Gult 
Coast resorts can be reached with but one change of cars from Chicago, 
and that at Louisuille or Cincinnati, where the Monon makes close con- 
nection with the L. & N. and Q. *fc C. Vestibule trains, running through 
to Florida. 

The Monon's day trains are now all equipped with beautiful new Par- 
lor and Dming Cars, while its night trains are made up of Smoking 
Cars, Day Coaches, and Pullman and Compartment Sleepers, lighted by 
electricity from headlight to Iiindermost sleeper. 

The Monon has gradually fought its way to the front, making extens- 
ive improvements in its road-bed and service, until to-day it is the best 
equipped line fr.'tm Chicago to the South, offering its patrons facilities 
and accommodations second to none in the world, and at rates lower than 
ever before. 

Mrs. E. M. Burke, wife of Superintendent Burke, 
of the Terra Haute, Ind., Street Railway died December 
23 of pneumonia. Mrs. Burke was formerly a resident 
of Chicago. 



58 



ACME OIL FILTERER. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



COMPETENT engineers at this age of the world 
need no urging to adopt an oil filter. The only 
question is to what type of lubricant saver; and 
to answer this question the Acme Filter Company, of 
714 N. Main street, St. Louis, put forward the device 
herewith illustrated. 

The main design is to remove the coarser matter by 
means of a filter check and allow- 
ing the oil to pass down a tube 
from which it passes by gravity 
through filtering material and 
water, reappearing cleansed and 
ready for re-use at the top of the 
filter. A steam chamber is also 
provided, by means of which the 
oil thickened by cold, may be 
rendered easier to handle. Every 
three or four months the filter 
material should be cleaned, which 
is easil}- accomplished, and the 
filter check can be readily cleaned 
every week. 

The company gives a positive guarantee at 30 da3's 
trial and avers that the use of the filter will save 50 per 
cent in the oil account, as it restores drip or dirt}- oil to its 
original color and condition. Three hundred have been 
sold in 15 months and abundant testimonial is furnished 
by the delighted users of the filter. The device is made 
in four sizes, applicable to steam plants of every size and 
condition. 




A CAT TALE. 



THE veracious president of the Ananias Club, of 
Grand Rapids, Mich., tells the following tale: "At 
last I have discovered the secret of the wonderful 
growth of our cats on Lagrove street. The electric road 
is responsible for the great change. Before, in horse car 
days, our cats were scrawny and sickly. Now they are 
large and frisky, more like Newfoundland pups. Com- 
ing home after a night at the office, I discovered what 
caused the change. The (pars had ceased running except 
at long intervals, so the road was clear, and there, to my 
surprise, I saw all along the line the Lagrove street cats 
taking an electric bath. They would wallow on the rails 
until every several hair was full of electricity, and then 
fall over in an electric trance. There they were, Thomas 
cats and pussy cats, and kittens in assorted sizes, in worse 
orgies than that enjoyed in catnip days. Electro thera- 
peutics is a great thing, and the only drawback is the 
voice culture of the cats." 



Captai.n Willard L. Candee, American manager of 
the Okonite Company, limited, 13 Park Row, New 
York, sailed December 31 on the North German Lloyd 
steamship Saale for London, on business connected with 
the company. 



Electric Heating is the title of a neat little pamphlet just pub- 
lished by the Burton Electric Company, setting forth the advantages of 
electric over other kinds of heating, for street cars, steam cars, dwellings, 
offices and domestic uses. Taylor, Goodhue & Ames, Chicago, selling 
agents. 

Willard J. Hield, general manager of the Twin City Rapid Transit 
Company, St. Paul. Minneapolis, has just issued one of the best compila- 
tions^|of rules for conductors and drivers we have seen. It contains 
cuts and diagrams of all parts of motors used, with parts named, and the 
book is entitled "The Trainman's Guide." 



Mrs. Lee C. Haruv, ajournalist and novelist well-known in the South 
and in New York, contributes a bright, gossipy article entitled, "In the 
Old South Slate" to tlie January New England Magazine. It deals with 
the interesting old town of Georgetown, S. C, and its social and historical 
traditions. It is finely illustrated by Jo. H. HatSeld and H. Martin 
Beal. 

■'Do You Use Machine Belting.'" is the attractive title of a most 
attractive 72-page booklet just issued by the Schultz Belting Companx', 
St. Louis. The promise on the first page, that the book is filled with 
information useful to engineers and belt users is faithfuUv carried out. 
The work will interest every engineer, to whom it will be sent free on 
application. 

Lii'PINCott's Magazine for January contains a complete novel by 
Mary E. Stickney, under the title, "A Pacific Encounter." The Atlan- 
tic Series article for the month is on "Foils and Fencing," by Captain 
VanSchaik, of the Manhattan Athletic Club. W. S. Walsh wTites in a 
very entertaining way on "Gossips of the Century " Among other 
articles are "Men of the Day,'' (including Emile Zola, Thos. A. Edison 
and Geo. DuMaurier,) by M. Crofton, and a chapter of Mrs. M. E. W. 
.Sherwood's remininiscenses headed "In War Time." 



Electricity and Ma(.netis.m, W.J.Johnston Company, Limited, 
41 Park Row. New York; price, $i — the title of a series of advanced 
primers, by Prof. Edwin J. Houston. This volume is a compilation 
and revision of eighteen former primers, by Prof. Houston. Thev have 
been brought up to the times and thoroughly revised, the last one being 
a "Primer of Primers," which sums up the essential points in the others. 
The book is intended for popular reading, but is it the same time of 
great value as a reference book for electricians, who wish to review 
minor points in tiie sliid)' of electricity. 



Original Papers on Dynamo Machinery and Allied Subjects, hv 
John Hopkinson. W.J.Johnston Company, L't'd , 41 Park Row, New 
York, ^i. This is a collection of all the origiaal papers written by Prof. 
Hopkinson on electrical subjects. There are eleven in all, the first hav. 
ing been written in 1879. Ever since that time Mr. llopkinson's papers 
have been among the standard references for electrical students, and the 
object of this publication is to make available in convenient form what 
was formerly found only in the files of current literature. The author's 
vigorous mathematical treatment of his subjects is too well known (o 
need comment. 

Davis .Standard Tables for electric wiremen ; W. J. Johnson Com- 
pany, L't'd., 41 Park Row, New York. $1. The book has been thorough- 
Iv revised and an attempt made to leave out all useless tables and matter 
of an unpractical nature. The rules of the National Electric Light 
Association in regard to safe wiring and Ayres instructions to linemen 
are included. The lamp wiring tables are all calculated on the basis of 
5^ watt lamps. Formulas taken from actual practice on the horse 
power of engines and boilers and the heating surface and rating of 
boilers are among other valuable contents. The tables for the limiting 
current of outside conductors and candle power of arc lamps are entirely 
ne.v in their present form; and the work is among the most valued of 
their manv excellent publications. 



Dr. W. L. BuitTON, inventor of the electric heater 
which bears his name, died at his home in Richmond, 
\'a., December 17, 1892. 



o9 



THE FOLGER ELECTRIC GONG. 



THIS gong is the first one intended to be operated 
from the trolley circuit ever put on the market. 
All previous apparatus was not designed for so 
heavy a current. The makers of this gong claim that 
mechanical gongs operated by hand or foot are worthless 
at the very moment they are needed most, because the 
motorman needs all his powers to stop the car. The 
Folger gong will ring continuously upon the touching of 
a button with the foot or turning of a switch. The clap- 
per of the gong is made to vibrate between two solenoids 




when the current is turned on, giving a continuous alarm 
at times most needed, and yet always under control of 
the motorman. The gongs are made for any voltage 
required. By using a low voltage gong, for e.xample 
one taking lOO volts, it can be connected up in series 
with a powerful reflector electric headlight on top of the 
car, so that when the bell is rung, a light is flashed ahead 
of the car to any desired distance. The evident advan- 
tages of such a gong speak for themselves. At times 
when the current is broken the bell may be sounded by 
use of the ordinary clapper and depending bell cord. 




The bell can be adjusted to'give either a single tap or a 
continuous rattle, as desired. It is made of carefully 
selected materials. The three illustrations sulliciently 
explain themselves. Figure i shows the bell with a por- 
tion of the gong cut away. Figure 2 is a similar view, 



showing the attachment for ringing the bell by hand or 
foot, should there be any stoppage of the current, while 
Figure 3 shows apparatus attached to the car. 

It is made by the Cincinnati Novelty Manufacturing 
Company, of which Chas. H. Mergard is manager. 




MATRIMONIAL. 



The jolly and popular Major H. C. Evans, New York 
representative of the Johnson Rail Compan}-, has decided 
to leave — not the Johnson Company but the state of 
single blessedness and on December 21, Miss Grace L. 
Whitney became Mrs. Evans, in the presence of many 
friends at the home of the brides' parents in Brooklyn. 
Congratulations are almost needless to both parties to 
the contract but the Stuket R.mlwav Review, never- 
theless ventures to e.xpress a wish for long and happv 
life to the couple. 

The Finney Motor Company, of Chicago, has been 
incorporated. Douglas Dyrenforth of the patent attor- 
ney firm of Dyrenforth & Dyrenforth, is at the head. 
A gas motor will soon be on the market. 



C. E. Maijk, accompanied by Secretary Hogan, of the 
Mark Company, Cleveland, paid the Review a pleasant 
visit on their recent trip to Chicago. 



60 



ECHOES FROM THE TRADE. 



The R. D. Nuttall Company, Allegheny, have sent 
their friends a very neat and useful desk tab and calendar. 

George Cutter is building a new form of the Cutter 
non-inductive voltmeter with a large circular dial that, can 
be read at considerable distance. 



The Laclede Car Company has received many 
handsome compliments from the people of Superior, 
Wis., on account of the new cars placed there recently. 



The Illuminated Street Car Sign Company, of 
Newport, Ky., is a new concern with W. R. Garner and 
D. A. Glenn in command. They will endeavor to fill a 
long felt want. 

The Walworth Manufacturing Company, Bos- 
ton, are getting out two car loads of their electric railwaj' 
poles on an order from Rio Janiero; one car load for the 
West Indies and another for Mexico. 



"The Cushion Car Wheel Company," says P. F. 
Leech, at club room 9, Grand Pacific, " is doing very 
well, thank you. We have just received a nice order for 
Bay City, Michigan, and another for a trial at Columbus, 
O., on the Consolidated." 

The Goubert Manuf.xcturing Company, 32 Cort- 
landt street. New York, have delivered to the Broadway 
Cable Road, of that city, the three 1,000 horse-power 
feed water heaters ordered by the road for its power 
station at Broadway and Houston street. 

The Steel Motor Company are the successors to 
the Johnson Electric Company, Cleveland. O., and find 
the trade in excellent attitude toward their specialties. 
The Harris trolley base mentioned elsewhere is a late 
acquisition that bids fair to make a large place for itself. 

The Lynn & Boston .Street Railway Company 
are fitting up two large plants, one at Lynn and the other 
at Chelsea, with Babcock & Wilcox boilers. The same 
compan}- are putting in 3,000 horse-power in addition 
to the 6,000 already installed in the West End Com- 
pany's main station. 

J. M. Jones' Sons, West Troy, N. Y., say that 1893 
starts in most encouragingly. A new order for fifty 
twenty-foot cars for the new electric service at Provi- 
dence, R. I., is among a number of late contracts. The 
companj-'s long standing reputation is upheld by every 
car that goes out of the shop. 



The Lunkenheimer Company, of Cincinnati, of which 
E. H. Lunkenheimer is president, C. F. Lunkenheimer, 
vice-president and general manager and D. T. Williams, 
secretary, has doubled its capital to $500,000, in order 
to give scope for the manufacture of its brass and iron 
specialties, for which there is an increasing demand. 
Their oil and grease cups have been very well received 
by the street railway trade, 



Within the past week contracts have been let by the 
Everett, Washington, Light & Power Company as fol- 
lows: One 200, two 150 horse-power Ball cross com- 
pound condensing engines; four tubular 125 horse-power 
boilers, Washington Works, Seattle; incandescent lights, 
Westinghouse, 2,000 arc lights, 150 Standard; cars, Amer- 
ican Car Company, St. Louis; rail, Illinois Steel Com- 
pany, Chicago; trucks, McGuire; motors, forty horse- 
power single reduction, Westinghouse. 



The Bates Machine Company, Joliet, 111., states that 
their last year has been the best in its histor}-. The 
record of 1S92 has far exceeded that of last year and has 
been all they could desire. The Bates-Corliss engine, of 
which they are sole manufacturers, has grown both in 
popularit}- and demand and is doing all they claim for it. 
The outlook for the coming year is considered very flat- 
tering, indeed, so much so that they feel warranted in 
making man}' improvements which are now under way. 



A handsomely steel engraved announcement, dated 
Chicago and St. Louis, January i, reads: 

" We beg to inform you that the busiiie=is heretofore conducted under 
the firm name of O. W, Mevsenburg & Co., will be continued by the 
same parties under the firm name of Littlelield & Meysenburg." 

For some time past the street railway business of 
the firm has been largely managed b)' Mr. Littlefield, 
and it was a happy compliment in Mr. Meysenburg, 
whose interests are both large and varied, to thus use 
Mr. Litllefield's name at the front end of the firm title. 



The Detroit Electrical Works, through Louis E. 
Myers, their active Chicago manager, has secured a big 
order from the Calumet Electric, of this city, and will 
furnish in addition to all the station electrical equipment, 
twelve motors of forty horse-power each, ten generators 
100 kilowatts and a switch-board which it is said will be 
the finest in the west. It is needless to say that the 
order was secured against very strong competition. Mr. 
Myers also sold six motors and two generators the same 
day to the Racine road. 



Queen & Company, incorporated: Among recent 
business changes of special interest to the electrical fra- 
ternity is the transferring of the business of James W. 
Queen & Company, Philadelphia, to a stock corporation 
bearing the title Queen & Company, incorporated. The 
new company starts with a paid capital of $600,000, 
which will be increased from time to time as may be 
required for the extension of its numerous interests, 
which, in addition to electrical measuring instruments, 
comprise scientific apparatus of every description. The 
incorporators and directors for 1893 are S. L. Fox, R. B. 
Fox, J, G. Gray, W. Biddle, Jr., J. G. Biddle and F. W. 
.Stanwood, all of whom have been actively connected 
with the old firm. E. G. Willyoung continues as super- 
intendent of the electrical laboratory . 



(ll 



The National Fare Box Company is making a 
fare box that is as good as a Hall Safe. The following 
letter tells its own storj-; 

Lima Electric Railway Company, Lima, O., Oct. 22, 1892. 
National Fare Box Company: 

Gents: We have to-dav shipped to you by Adams Express fare box 
No. 723. made by you. We received a new car last week and put it into 
service Wednesday evening. The box unlocked all right on Wednesday 
night but we could not open it Thursday. I took it to a locksmith but 
he could not open it so thought it better to return it to you. Please have 
it fixed immediately and return contents in box. 
The Lima Electric Railway Company, W. II. Thoimpson, 

.Secretary. 



C. & G. Cooper, by their Chicago agent, Mr. Hayes, 
report a flourishing trade. The shops are running night 
and day, with more orders coming in for future deliver}'. 
The western branch has secured an order for five engines 
from the Fred. W. Wolf Company, of Chicago, and is 
now installing 350 horse-power tandem, compound con- 
densing at Galesburg, for the Paving Brick Company, 
and but recently sold Chas. Pope 'Glucose Company, of 
Racine, 100 horse-power. Mr. Hayes has every reason 
to be proud of his success and of the success of his instal- 
lations. 

Among recent sales of the Goubert Manufacturing 
Company, 32 Cortlandt street. New York, sole makers 
of the Goubert Feed Water Heater, we notice the fol- 
lowing: Negaunee & Ishpeming Street Railway & 
Electric Company, Negaunee, Mich., 350 horse-power; 
Urbana & Champaign Electric & Street Railway Com- 
pany, Champaign, 111., 600 horse-power; Mutual Light 
& Power CoiTipan}', Montgomery, Ala., 700 horse-power; 
Edison Electric Illuminating Company, of New York, 
2,000 horse-power; Edison Electric Illuminating Com- 
pany, of Brooklyn, N. Y., 1,000 horse-power; West 
Side Street Railroad Company, Elmira, N. Y., 40ohorse- 
power. 

The Shultz Belting Company, St. Louis, had an 
exhibit at the St. Louis exposition, and the following inci- 
dent was the result of a visit of a small Divoll-school boy. 
The teacher who had just finished an elementarj- astronomy 
lesson, in review questioned the above mentioned small 
boy: "Johnnie, what makes the earth and moon spin 
around like tops?" " That there strap," answered 
Johnnie promptly. " What strap?" inquired the mysti- 
fied teacher. •' Well, that there strap I seen on the 
pitcher card at the exposition what had the 'machine 
chopping up pieces of leather and a pitcher of a strap 
running around the earth and moon and making 'em spin 
like tops." And then the teacher sat down and reflected 
on the subject of advertising as an educator. 



The Electric Railway Equipment Company, of 
Cincinnati, O., started in business the first of last July, 
in the manufacture of their patent wrought iron and 
steel tubular poles and electric railway supplies for all 
systems. The first month they were in business they 
furnished some 1,200 of their patent jointed poles to 
the street railway lines at Evansville, Ind., and have 
since supplied their poles to different lines at Cincinnati, 



O., Covington, Ky., St. Louis, Mo., and other points, 
and are now rushed with orders, but have the best of 
facilities for furnishing poles on short notice. Their fac- 
tory is pushed to the utmost with orders, for their over- 
head line work, pinions, bearings and motor repair parts, 
and trolley wheels for all the different systems. They are 
adding many new patterns and putting in much new 
machinerj', and aim to keep up with the rapid progress of 
their line of business. 

The Crossley' Car Brake Company not only brake 
cars but keeps right along breaking its record for sales. 
A recent letter from the Brooklyn Street Railroad Com- 
pany is self-explanatory. The letter bears date of Nov. 
15, 1892, and in it Samuel Harris, superintendent, says: 
" Your rope brakes put on our Jennings Avenue Line 
some months ago are giving us good satisfaction. They 
are the easiest on the men, the motors and cars and the 
cheapest, most simple, durable and effective and cost 
least for repairs of any brake we have ever used or have 
knowledge of. We have concluded to equip our Wilson 
and Scoville avenue lines with them. Please send us a 
dozen at once for a starter." The company has met 
with large sales the latest being equipments for the Chat- 
tanooga & North Side Street Railway Company, Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn., Chattanooga Electric Railway Company 
and the Montgomery & Cloverdale Electric Railway 
Company, Montgomery, Ala. 



McIntosh, Seymour & Company, of Auburn, N. Y., 
are still running twenty-three hours per day, putting out 
engines for every variety of work, especially for electric 
railway and light plants. Among recent sales we notice 
one 1,200 horse-power, double tandem compound con- 
densing for the Syracuse Electric Light & Power Com- 
pany, Syracuse, N. Y., having a new style frame; another 
ball and socket, self-oiling pillow-block bearings, auxili- 
ary shafts carrying the eccentrics and governor to a 
seven-foot face fly wheel to carry two belts. The 
machine will weigh 125 tons. At Elmira, N. Y., two 
engines have been sold. One is a 600 horse-power, four 
cylinder, vertical, triple expansion and one a 350 horse- 
power tandem, compound condensing railway engine. 
Both of these are for the Elmira Illuminating Company. 
Two 500 horse-power standard, compound condensing, 
self-contained engines, have also been ordered for the 
East River Electric Company, New York City, and the 
Edison Illuminating Company, New York. These are 
among the largest and heaviest in the country, weighing 
forty tons each with eleven-inch shafts. Foreign orders 
include a 250 horse-power standard compound for Dur- 
ban, South Africa, and three 150 horse-power, same 
type, for the Union Elektricitats-Gesellschaft, Berlin. 
Besides this list other orders make a total of 7,000 horse- 
power, exclusive of the above mentioned. The company 
has magnificent and deserved success. 



The Massachusetts Chemical Company are var- 
nish makers in general, with offices at 8 Oliver street, 
Boston, 60 and 62 Broadway, New York, and 390 Con- 



62 



gress street, Portland, Maine. Their factor)- and labra- 
tories are at 165 and 167 A street, South Boston. The 
company is particularly interesting to the electrical frater- 
nity as manufacturers of Insullac, a new insulating com- 
pound adapted to armature windings and other work 
where a smooth, rapid-drying insulator is needed. Insul- 
lac is perfectly waterproof, does not require baking, con- 
tains no acids injurious to any material. It may be 
applied with any metallic fastened brush and it can in no 
way effect the health of the workman. Samuel Barnes, 
chief electrician of the Grand Rapids Consolidated, says 
in a letter dated Dec. 16, 1892: " I have used gallons of 
your Insullac for armature winding and can gladly say 
that it is better and cheaper for insulating purposes than 
shellac and gives satisfactory results for all you claim for 
it." President Hill, of the Hill Electric Company, 13,? 
Oliver street, Boston, says under date of Dec. 7, 1892: 
"We have used j'our Insullac on all our factor}- work for 
the past three months and I am pleased to report ihat it 
has given the most satisfactory- results. We have been 
doing some tine work that required extra good insula- 
tion which from the character of the work was ditTicult to 
secure with ordinary methods. We tried Insullac and it 
filled the bill. I feel safe in recommending it as far 
superior to any insulating compound I have ever seen." 
The compound can be made as thin as desired and can 
be supplied at short notice from any office. Harrj- 
Bishop is Chicago agent. 

TRIAL OF THE CONNELLY. 



WINTER RESORTS. 



THE Revikw representative attended the first trial 
trip, last week, of the improved Connelly gas 
motor, which was taken out on the north side 
line for its initial run. Superintendent Lynch, of the 
Connelly Motor Company, who has redesigned the 
motor in many particulars, acted as motorman and has 
every reason to feel proud of his work. The new fric- 
tion gear gave no signs of springing and the whole 
machine acted in a ver}' satisfactory manner during the 
test. It was lirst run around the Fullerton and Webster 
avenue loop pulling a trailer. At one point it came u]> 
behind a heavy Love electric motor car with trailer that 
had lost the trolley wire and pushed it for some distance 
at good speed. It is evident that starting an electric 
motor car, with its high speed armature, is not light work 
but the Connelly stood up to its work and, with the use 
of sand, could probably do much more. The car was 
then taken down on the Clark street cable line as far as 
Division street and maintained its speed with the grip 
cars. The foundation for the gas works to supply these 
motors with fuel is already in and more cars will be put 
regular service before long. 

A I'ETiTiON with 600 signatures asking for a new 
trolley line in the Thirteenth ward, Philadelphia, is a 
strong testimony since these 600 names were once signed 
to an anti-trolley petition and the 600 owners of the 
names swore many dire swears to keep the trolley out of 
the ward. 



THE profitable revenue which is derived from the 
establishment of pleasant summer resort attrac- 
tions along the line of so many roads, find even 
better results this winter with many companies who are 
providing good skating. 

One of our traveling representatives reports a very 
large number of winter resorts in Pennsylvania, among 
the best of which is the skating park at Lancaster. The 
company secured control of a small lake at the terminus 
of one of its electric lines, and at trifling expense keep a 
man in charge; the ice nicely swept; a cheap but com- 
fortable shelter in which to warm and rest; and lights 
with current from the trolley wires. President Coyle 
says it draws far better than a summer resort. We know 
of a number of roads which are allowing this business to 
take care of itself, when by a little effort and nominal 
expense the receipts from this source might be increased 
many times. Give the public something to go to, and 
they will do the rest. 



A SPEEDY SPLICE. 



THE Washington Street Cable or Tunnel Loop of 
the West Chicago Street Railway Company was 
injured on December 31st, at 3:30 p. m., by a 
careless gripman not letting go at the proper place. As 
a result the cable was stranded nearly 4000 feet. After 
the damaged strand was removed, the cable was started 
up again and ran until 12:30, when it was stopped, and 
preparations made to run a new rope in, which was 
accomplished in one hour and twenty minutes. The 
cable is 10,475 feet in length, the first splice being made 
in twelve minutes, and the permanent splice connecting 
both ends of the new rope was made in twenty-six min- 
utes. The balance of the time was consumed in running 
the cable into the conduit. 



Thh Wabash road has put on a new equipment of 
vestibule cars. Coaches are seventy feet long and will 
seat eighty passengers. All cars have toilet and smoking 
compartments, and are lighted with Pintsch gas and 
heated wiih steam. The Chicago-Detroit line is just 
completed and is sevei-teen miles shorter than any other 
route. Passenger service will begin over the new route 
in about three months. The road will be run in connec- 
tion with the Grand Trunk, West Shore, and Fitchburg 
lines, making an important new service from Chicago to 
the seaboard, each road furnishing a quarter of the equip- 
ment. 

Thi; Amalgamated Association of Employes at Cleve- 
land has died for want of a head. The men didn't want 
to pay the ofTicers and the officers were not in it for their 
health. 

An industry known as the Chicago Naptha Motor com- 
pany for street railways wishes to settle at Braidwood, 
111. Hon. Wm. Mooney offers to give the neccessary 
land for the factory. 




"wiosrjDSOE, & :K::B3sr:FiEXi3D, 

PUBLISHERS AND PROPRIETORS, 

269 DEARBORN ST.. - - - CHICAGO. 

Published on the 15th of each month. 



SUBSCRIPTION, - 
FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTION, 



TWO DOLLARS. 

20 SHILLINGS. 



Address all Commumieathns and Remittances to The Street Railway Review 

2bg Dearbarn Street, Chicago. 
H. H. WINDSOR, F. S. KENFIELD. 

Editor. Business Manager. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

We cordially invite correspondence on all suhjects of interest to those engaffcd 
ia any branch o£ Street Railway work, and will gratefully appreciate any marked 
copies of papers or news items our street railway' friends may send us, pertaining 
either to companies or officers. Address: 

THE STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 

269 Dearborn Street, Chicago. 



Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 



This paper member Chicago Publishers' Association. 



VOL. 3. 



FEBRUARY 15, 1893. 



NO. 2 



ONE of the advantages of the Anti-Sunday car reg- 
ulation in Toronto, Canada, was discovered on 
Monday, when it was found the rails had become so 
securely embraced in the icy grasp of winter that it was 
impossible to operate the line until near noon. 



DURING the past month two of the best known 
presidents have withdrawn from active service. 
Dr. A. Everett, of Cleveland, who has been at the helm 
for thirty-three consecutive years past, and Wm. Rich- 
ardson, of Brooklyn who has been so prominent a figure in 
the street railway interests of his cit^' for twentj'-five years. 



ELECTRICITY having thrown the street car mule 
out of a job, bids fair to supplant in the very near 
future that field of usefulness on canals also. The trolley 
is in every way adapted to this work, and it is to be hoped 
the effort now making in the New York State legislature 
to bring about the change may be successful. 



WONDER is that out of all the hundreds of thous- 
ands carried daily b}' the street car service of the 
country, the number of fatalities is so few. The annual 
report of the coroner of the county of which Milwaukee 
constitutes the largest portion of inhabitants shows that 
the three unusual classes of accident nameh^, scalding, 
falling down stairs and drowning in cisterns, were each 
responsible for more deaths than the street railway. 




fi3 



A WELL cfe ^jgfAQtfeg^ ^^s been gained in the 
Supreme Court ot r'en'nsylvania over the obstreper- 
ous teamster who delights himself in obstructing a car 
track. The case is mentioned elsewhere and will serve 
as a valued precedent, especially as the decision of Justice 
McCullum was a reversal of the verdict in the lower 
courts. 

WASHINGTON dailies and correspondents have 
been full of direful tales of a general closing of 
fire insurance offices in Brooklyn, and a refusal to renew 
old risks or write new ones — all on account of the advent 
of the trolley. We have taken pains to carefully investi- 
gate the report and find it utterly without foundation. 
Rates have been advanced in Brooklyn, but from other 
reasons and wholly independent of the trolley, which had 
no influence whatever in the matter. The same is true 
of Boston, Buffalo and other cities. 



POWER HOUSE and car house fires have been so 
numerous in the past two months that the question 
is forcing itself upon managers as to the relative advan- 
• tages and dangers of large as against small buildings. 
Opinion, however, seems largeh' to prevail, that the larger 
buildings can afford more frequent and careful inspection, 
and certainly on man}' accounts are more economical to 
maintain than several smaller structures. We print else- 
where, this month, the views of several leading managers 
on this question. 

CONTINUED cold weather which marked the greater 
part of the month of January was a severe test on 
the coal suppl}' of the country. A few electric com- 
panies were " called short " on their supply and were 
forced to shut down in some cases an entire day. Fuel 
is as essential to the operation of an electric line as 
passengers, and it would seem that ordinary foresight in 
this respect should leave no chance for excuse for failure 
from this cause. No road should carry less than a four 
days' supply in constant reserve during winter months, 
and a week is little more than a safe limit. 



IT is two j-ears now since a bill was last introduced in 
the legislature of this state providing for three cent 
fares. The only reason this length of time has been 
allowed to lapse in this careless manner is entirely due to 
the fact that it is now two years since the legislature last , 
met. The same old bill, with the same old ear marks 
has been introduced by one Berr}'; whether a black Berry 
or a white Berry we are not informed. In the Chicago 
market February berries come high. Mr. Berry has 
assumed a great life work on behalf of his agricultural 
constituents who, when they visit the city once each )'ear, 
are compelled to yield up a hard earned nickel for a ride 
of lO miles in a comfortable car, which same distance 
in a lumber wagon over a rough road could not be pur- 
chased for five times the price. It is a curious circum- 
stance that this class of sand bag legislation is generally 
introduced by some back woods representative, whose 
district has less than a dozen miles of street railway all told. 



iH 



gS tf tf^ ^gth ^^^^ife- 



IN the department devoted to street railway interests at 
the World's Fair, printed elsewhere in this issue, w;] 
be found our announcement of the plan formulated b^' the 
Street Railway Review for helping our readers to 
desirable boarding and lodging places at any time during 
the exhibition. This has involved a large amount of 
work, and will demand much more as the Fair opens, but 
we have made a special department for this purpose, and 
like everything else undertaken bj- this paper, the plan 
will be carried out in a thorough and business-like man- 
ner. Our friends are invited to avail themselves of this 
opportunity. 



WERE the subject any less practical and commend- 
able, the good people of ' Connecticut might well 
be thought to have gone crazy on the subject of electric 
roads. No less than thirty-one charters are now pending 
for the incorporation of lines, many of which will cer- 
tainly be built and others not unlikel}'. The explanation 
in this phenominal waking up is due to the fact that no 
legislature has been held in four years, and a general 
desire prevails to secure charters against future needs. 
The volume of electric railway business which is already 
in sight in the wooden nutmeg state offers a very attractive 
field to the manufacturer and dealer in railway supplies. 



SOUTHERN roads are not expected to be equipped 
to combat northern snow falls, and there is little won- 
der the big January storm found them ill prepared. 
The energy with which the means at hand — in most 
cases simply men with shovels — were used, reflects great 
credit on the various managers. One road in West 
Virginia gave up the ship and its lines were dead for 
a period of forty-eight hours, but the rest gave valiant 
battle. One manager was in the saddle continuoush' 
for forty hours. In Chicago the storm was the hard- 
est to handle of any since the historical January bliz- 
zard of i8SS, but cars were operated with little delay 
and no suspensions. " Bucking" snow is a prodigiously ex- 
pensive amusement, a very little of which goes a long ways. 

BROADWAY with its modern transportation facili- 
ties now about completed would present a strange 
picture to a returning Knickerbocker of the ante-Sharp 
days. The construction of the cable system thereon 
has been one of the most gigantic municipal undertak- 
ings of the age. An hundred dilhculties presented, any 
one of which might well discourage men of less persever- 
ance than those who have had the enterprise in charge. 
But from start to finish the work has been prosecuted 
with diligence and intelligence and now stands as a last- 
ing monument to the men who dared to undertake so 
large a work. The annoyances attending construction 
will all be soon forgotten b}' the public, who will in so 
large a measure enjoy the fruits of others' enterprise and 
money, and a suggestion to return to a former condition 
of affairs would raise a tempest - of remonstrance. The 
engineering problems solved have called for and given 
opportunity to effort never excelled in any chasm or 
mountain summit of the far west, 



JUDGE BAKER, of the United States Court, sitting 
at IndianapoHs, has handed down an opinion in the 
case of the Lake Erie & Western strikers, that, while 
eminently dignified and humane, most clearly and forcibly 
sets forth the necessity and majest)' of the law. It is 
printed in full in this number and should be thoughtfully 
read by every street railroad man in the country', from 
president down to the least important position. The 
judge recognizes the right of labor to organize for any 
and all legitimate purposes, and for such commends the 
same; but draws a sharp line between organization for 
betterment of condition as against organization for unlaw- 
ful purposes. He sounds the keynote when he states 
that violation of the law by an organized body is no less 
criminal than the same overt act when undertaken by the 
individual, and points out the danger the workingman 
would bring upon himself if deprived of the protection 
of the law he so heedlessly and, in some cases thought- 
lessly violates. To overthrow law would be to return 
the laborer to the prevailing evils of the dark ages, and 
call back the days when feudalism ruled. 



THE announcement of the decision of the directors of 
the Philadelphia Traction Company to thoroughly 
overhaul and reconstruct their entire cable svstem is a 
matter of the highest satisfaction, not only to the citizens 
of that city, but the advocates of the cable system. At 
the time when the lines in question were built the cost of 
cable work w^as nearly double what it is to-day, and the 
experience which has come from fifteen years of cable 
operation did not exist. The management took chances 
and expected to make a much cheaper construction 
answer the purpose. The result is too well known and 
has proven anything but satisfactorj'. Frequent stop- 
pages, annoying delays and break-downs followed one 
another in such rapid succession as to largely unpopular- 
ize the cable system in Philadelphia. Reconstruction has 
been the constant history of the road from its opening 
da)^ and while of late years many evils have been rem- 
edied, the system was far inferior to the cable systems of 
Chicago and other cities. Hence the wise decision to 
thoroughly rebuild will enable the company to guarantee 
a first-class service. The moral of a first-class construc- 
tion is too apparent to even need cursory mention. 



AN increase in two years of 30,000,000 passengers 
over the preceeding twelve months is the astound- 
ing record which is shown in detail elsewhere. St. 
Louis is the city. While there has been a healthful 
growth in population there has been nothing in the nature 
of a boom, and the figures can be explained in only one 
way — rapid transit. The splendid cable and electric lines 
of St. Louis are equaled by no other city of its size in the 
world. In the good old horse daj's the people of St. 
Louis frequently found it more expeditious to walk than 
ride. Now all this is changed, and residents undertake 
frequent trips to other parts of the city because the time 
consumed in transit has been made so short. The excel- 
lent management of the St. Louis lines has, of course, 



65 



largely contributed to this result, but first-class rapid tran- 
sit is almost synonomous with first-class management. 
Other cities and towns which are exerting unwise efforts 
to curtail the prime value of mechanical traction by a 
foolish restriction of the speed limit ma)- well study the 
policy of St. Louis, which some envious persons have 
called "slow" but which is anything but that in the 
matter of street railway facilities. 



AS an instance of the consummate meanness of which 
some people are capable, the recent damage suit of 
one Dr. [?) C. Steiner against the Pittsburg Traction 
Company is but a single case out of many — how many, is 
only known to the claim departments of our large roads. 
In the trial the leading witness confessed he was hired to 
give testimonv which had been written for him by Steiner, 
who in fact had admitted he had never been in an acci- 
dent on the defendant's road, and that he was resorting 
to leeches and irritating drugs to produce inflammations, 
sores, and other phenomena, as necessary "exhibits" before 
the jur}-. It was also proved that Steiner had worked 
the same game on a steam railroad and secured a large 
amount; the promise of a trip to Germany being the 
compensation of his chief witness in that case. We could 
cite a very large number of similar cases which have 
come under our own personal notice. It is hard to 
imagine a more despicable and abhorent practice than the 
disfigurement of the human body as an aid to infamous 
blackmail suits. The duly which the Traction Company 
owes the fraternity' and the public, is to follow the case 
up and land the culprit in the penitentiary. Such matters 
should not be allowed to go by default, nor should the 
company be satisfied to escape the payment of blood 
money which was so narrowly averted. The courts cer- 
tainljr cannot but inflict the full penalty provided by law 
if the injured company does not withdraw objection. A 
few convictions, a few more blackmailers clothed in 
stripes, and the storj' and sequel of the case industriously 
circulated through the press, will exert a most helpful and 
moral influence, and do much to purge the courts of a 
large number of cases, which, if only the truth could be 
uncovered, would prove the basest prostitution of law and 
justice. 

A BILL is pending before the Connecticut legislature 
for the appointment of a "Board of Street Railway 
Commissioners," to consist of one lawyer, one electrical 
engineer and one "business man." None of the board 
may have any pecuniary interest in a street railway or 
any appliance sold same. Great care seems to have been 
thrown about the proposed commission to prevent the 
inevitable disaster of having a board which might pos- 
sibly know anything about the business for which it is 
created. Even the electrical engineer may fill the "bill" 
and still know absolutely nothing of the actual operation 
of a street railway beyond the technical and mechanical 
features of electrical construction. If the mover of the 
bill really wanted to create a board in the fullest capabili- 
ties suggested by the act, he should have further stipu- 



lated that each member should be both deaf and blind 
and a resident of the county not less than fiftj' and of the 
state not less than eight}' j'ears. The "electrical engin- 
eer" is not so bad, but the "business man" is open to sus- 
picion, and the "lawyer" is simply dreadful. In other 
states roads are planned, built and made servicable to the 
public with a simple charter from the secretary of state 
and a franchise from the city in which the tracks are laid. 
The method admits of progress that is progress and not a 
weary nursing into life, which is the history of such enter- 
prises in Connecticut and some other states. It is a 
matter which concerns the city and not the state. The 
people of any city are obviously better quahfied to know 
what their special needs are than any commission ever 
appointed by any governor. It is a useless, needkss, 
excuseless compHcation to strain matters through an 
additional sieve, which does nobody (but the commission) 
any good and is a restricting of local rights along a line 
which prevails in the Old World, and is in direct variance 
with the spirit of a free and independent people. 



THE public in nearly all the northern cities have in- 
dulged in considerable ill-timed and inconsiderate 
complaint through the columns of the daily press, at the 
street car facilities. It is true the cars have been crowded 
to an uncomfortable and unusual extent. There is, how- 
ever, a good reason for this, and the manager has a 
wide margin of excuse this winter. It is interesting to 
take up one dail\' after another until the leading papers of 
a dozen or more States have thus been examined. In all 
of them on the same day, and about the same time, the 
writers really seem to believe themselves the most unfor- 
tunate of mortals. But could they only know the same 
experience has been an almost universal one there would 
doubtless be both comfort and patience in the thought. 
The aforesaid reason is that the demand on street car ser- 
vice this winter is a wholly unprecedented one. This 
winter has been the most severe on street car operation 
of any in the past five years. During that time cities 
have grown enormously, down-town districts have become 
greatly congested, and the public have been educated up 
to a high standard of mechanical service which breeds 
impatience of dela}', which, under the old horse regime 
was philosophically accepted as part of the inevitable, 
and then aroused sympathy which is now turned to com- 
plaint. The winter has proportionally been much harder 
on street car operation than on the steam roads; although 
on the latter the arrival of a train on time was the excep- 
tion, and yet people found no fault. In addition to diffi- 
culties of operation there has been a tremendous increase 
in riding from people who during the past few winters 
have been accustomed to walk or use carriages. This 
season these two methods of transportation have been 
well nigh impossible. The public also have largely in- 
creased their short riding owing to difliculty of getting 
about. All this has taxed the car accommodations to the 
utmost, which, under ordinary conditions, would have 
been ample, and all an ordinary business could afford. If 
any one could have predicted the existing weather, not 



Cfi 



less than eighteen months ago, it would have been possi- 
ble to have ordered extra cars built to meet the unexpected 
want. We have yet, however, to hear from an}' one who 
did so forecast the future. The public, then, should in 
all fairness give the unhappy manager his due — most of 
him would be satisfied with even less — and remember 
when compelled to stand on the homeward trip that such 
conveyance is a big improvement over walking, and then 
sign a petition to Uncle Jerry Rusk to get out an injunction 
on this kind of a " winter of our discontent." 



AND now comes the mayor of Brooklyn with a pro- 
posed bill to tax the gross receipts of the surface 
roads; and with a mild sarcasm invites the local presidents 
to come before him on a certain day that he may draw 
pleasure from their distress. It was shown that the com- 
panies are already taxed in no less than eight different 
ways, and that any addition would not only be a hardship 
but a discrimination and positive injustice. Among the 
speakers was Wm. Richardson, whose thirty years' 
experience at the head of a Brooklyn compan\' specially 
fits him to discuss this question, and which he sums up 
as follows: 

"Why," lie asked, "should any criticisin apply to the business of street 
railroads, provided they give the highest degree of accomniodation to 
their passengers at ttie lovk'est rates of fare at which the service can bo 
rendered. The fact that they can make a return to tlieir stockholders, 
after long years of patient waiting, in many c.ises without any tiividends 
being paid at all, is no reason for taxing them imequally. The compan>' 
with which I have had the honor to be connected, has ttiade during the 
twenty-one years of its existence an aggregate of ^832,653, in dividends, 
being at the rate of 5.15 per cent on the outstanding capital stock during 
the whole period of existence. I claim, Mr. Mayor, that it is to the 
interest of the city to encourage the street surface railroads to the high- 
est form of development, holding them rigidly to their obligations for 
the accommodation of the people, rather than to attemjit, bv annoying 
penalties and taxations, to limit and cripple their future development.*' 



ALTOGETHER the most sensible and practical sug- 
gestion that has been made in all the voUniies of 
schemes to give Boston rapid transit, is that proposed by 
a Mr. Chester. This gentleman bases his arguments on 
a fact which seemed to escape others; that is, that Boston 
already has rapid transit but imder present conditions 
receives few of the benefits. As a luatler of fact almost 
no city in the country is better provided with electric cars, 
but certainly in no other city is their operation attended 
with more difficulty. This is not the fault of the equip- 
ment but of the unfortunate condition of streets. Boston 
streets will never be less crowded than now; the neces- 
sity for cars will increase not diminish. Mr. Chester 
recommends for the congested district that certain streets 
be widened; that others be cut through; that wagons be 
allowed to occupy their width only ; that all work on road- 
way be done at night only; that a standard maximum 
load be established by law, proportioned to the weight of 
the aniinal drawing it; that loads requiring much time in 
delivery be handled at night — such as safes and similar 
loads which now cause blockades. These and other sug- 
gestions would reduce the present causes of blockade to a 
large extent, and blockades removed, rapid transit at once 
has a chance to assert itself. To reconstruct the business 



streets of Boston is an undertaking of such magnitude 
and expense that no wonder is occasioned that each gen- 
eration evades the duty and passes it on with ever increas- 
ing difficulties to the next; but it is a question which wil 
surely have to be met and solved some day and only a 
courageous and radical treatment will ever give perma- 
nent relief. Then, too, a sentimental regard , for the 
antiquities has ever proved a barrier to progress in Bos- 
ton, utterly out of keeping with the needs and good busi- 
ness sense of the present age. In Chicago nothing is 
allowed to block the wheels of progress. Churches, 
schools, asylums, the residence of the oldest settler all 
have to clear the track when the car of progress comes 
along. True all these institutions are cared for in other 
and frequently better localities, but in these days few land- 
marks are so valuable but that occasion may arise when 
absence serves a better purpose than presence. 



TO the title of the " New South " may soon be added 
the •' New Orleans," now that its first electric car 
on February ist entered on its mission of supplanting 
the laz}' little mules which have for so many years been 
emplo^'ed to get up inotive power. The construction 
work has been free from the difficulties of heavy grades, 
as the city is an almost perfect level, but the pole plant- 
ing called out the ingenuity of the engineer, owing to the 
yielding nature of the soil. Other lines are speedily to 
follow, and a great stimulus to activitj' may confidently 
be e.xpected when the city shall have become fully elec- 
trified. No city in the country is better adapted to use 
the electric system than New Orleans. The opening 
ceremonies occasioned the greatest enthusiasm. 

IN both the Ohio and Illinois state legislatures bills have 
been introduced making it obligatory on street railwaj' 
companies to use winter cars with inclosed platforms. 
We do not, however, consider the measure either wise or 
necessary, and it is very evident the framers of these 
bills have no practical experience as to the details of street 
railway operation. It is true that during several days of 
the present winter the weather was so severe as to render 
the front platforin on undesirable place to spend the day; 
but, let us ask the senator, during the past six years, 
which more than covers the use of electric railways, how 
many such days have there been in Ohio and Illinois? 
It is well known that running a car against a snow or 
rain storm so completel}' blinds the glass windows of the 
vestibule that the driver cannot see his track or passen- 
gers on the sidewalk desiring to stop the car; and the 
conservative opinion of a very large majority of the man- 
agers who have had most experience, is that the inclosed 
platform would very greatly add to the danger of oper- 
ating. We earn«i#j- advocate all reasonable and practi- 
cal means to proiTiote the welfare and comfort of the 
men, and it is too obvious to even discuss the advantage 
to the company of so caring for its employes; but we are 
convinced the remedy is in wearing heavy clothing and 
not as contemplated in the act. Why not pass a bill requir- 
ing drivers to wear fur coats r 



e,7 



THE LOS ANGELES CONSOLIDATED ELECTRIC RAILWAY. 



The Finest Electric Railway Plant on the Pacific Coast, and one of the best in the Country — History of its 

Organization and Construction. 



LATE in 1890 a party of capitalists casting about 
on the Pacific coast for a desirable investment in 
street railway property were confronted with two 
propositions. One was to construct a line in 
Oakland and the other was to construct a line in Los 
Angeles. Oakland offered the projectors a bonus and 
was in need of an additional sj-stem of street railways. 
Los Angeles to the contrary' held out no inducements 
and was supplied with street railways. The splendid 
system of roads of the Pacific Cable Companj' had been 
completed but two years before at a cost of $3,000,000 
and, notwithstanding the efficiency of the service, it had 



than before. Besides these spots on what might be called 
colonies or centers of population, dotted here and there 
within the city boundaries, the city has grown marvel- 
ously in the direction of the lines of the cable railwa}'. 
But the growth has not clustered along the rights of way 
of the cable. To the contrary it has spread, tapering away 
off until much of it became practically out of the reach of 
the cable, so that the system came to afford a very poor 
service to some districts, and the need of additional rail- 
ways became to people living therein a serious and press- 
ing matter. The district of the city known as " The 
Hills " comprising the elevated section west of the center 




POWER HOUSE AND CAR BARK — BATTERY OF STIRLING BOILERS. 



made but poor returns on such an investment, the S3rstem 
had been placed under heavy mortgages and a squabble 
was pending between stockholders and mortgagees as to 
who should escape with the least loss. The cable com- 
panv's lines were built in the shape of an elongated cross 
and reached into the eastern, western and southern por- 
tions of the cit}'. These branches penetrated the suburbs 
and there is no question but they contributed immensely 
to building up the outlying sections of the city. But even 
in sections reached by the cable company there were 
large areas equally as populous as those immediately 
tapped by its lines which were so remote from those 
lines as to be altogether unprovided bj' a railway sys- 
tem. Los Angeles has encountered a phenomenal 
growth and this growth has been, as it were in spots, 
dotting the great stretch of land enclosed by the boundary 
limits of the city, and this growth has been greater per 
annum since the cable company completed its system 



of the city, had been furnished several years before with 
a service consisting of a small cable line; which continued in 
service about two j'ears and then went to pieces, partly 
through poor construction and partly through bad man- 
agement. During the period of its existence, however, 
it built up that part of the city, rendering it quite popu- 
lous and a desirable quarter in which to live. When it 
collapsed it left the residents along its lines in a sore 
plight; they had built houses on high hills difilcult of 
access without the aid of a car line from the business 
center where most of them were employed, hence they 
commenced immediately to clamor for a service upon the 
stumbling down of the cable and their demand for sev- 
eral years continued a " crying one." 

Another part of the city unsupplied with a railway ser- 
vice at the time of which we write was Pico Heights. 
As was the case with " The Hills " this section was 
settled up by a line of street railway- which quit business 



68 



just about the time, had it been legitimately run, when it 
should have begun to pay. A rapid transit company 
operating an electric line had developed out of a scheme 
to sell lots on the heights. The road was operated sub- 
sidiary to the business of selling lots. Every purchaser 
of a lot was given a bunch of free passes, and the pur- 
chasers being many, very soon the road was running 
entirely on a free pass basis. The lots having been all 
sold and the purchasers holding great quantities of these 
passes there was nothing in operating that road for the 
next year or more except to redeem those free passes. 
This the proprietors did not care to do so the road was 
permitted to subside. The condition of the people they 
had beguiled to this extremity of the city, was worthy of 
sympathy. They had their car service suddenly cut off; 
many of them had to move temporarily away; while 
others remained and continued to make the welkin 
ring with their demands for cars. 



sioner of streets and was thoroughly acquainted with alJ 
the thoroughfares. With his assistance the lines were 
marked out and the council readily granted the franchise. 
A power house and car barn were built on the corner of 
Central avenue and Wilde street, an entire block of land 
being purchased there for the site. The buildings are 
handsome edifices of brick, fronting 150 feet on Central 
avenue and 435 feet on Wilde street. The power house 
is ornamented with Arizona brownstone, the whole struc- 
ture covered with an iron roof supported by a net work 
of iron beams and trusses, making the entire absolutely 
fire proof and really one of the finest and most complete 
power houses in the country. This power house is orna- 
mented over the main entrance on the corner by a tower 
and is made one of the distinguishing land marks of the 
city by a handsome chimney 154 feet high. 

This power house was equipped with two 700-horse- 
povver double engines triple expansion, built by the 




INTERIOR VIEW OF POWER STATION, LOS ANGELES CONSOLIDATED ELECTRIC RA1LWA\. 



Then there was the district along Maple avenue and 
Seventh street, tending westerly from the center of the 
city. This, too, had been traversed by an electric rail- 
way operated under the Daft system; but this like the 
others had disappeared, leaving its patrons to mourn its 
loss. Besides these were numerous systems of horse 
lines, whose patronage entirely justified the operation 
upon their routes of superior electric cars, and the absorb- 
tion by a large concern of the several companies was a 
matter, which as results have shown, would easily suc- 
cumb to an attempt. 

Accordingly a company was incorporated with a capi- 
tal stock of $3,000,000, and with Gen. M. H. Sherman 
president, E. P. Clark vice president and manager, F. V. 
McDonald treasurer, and A. W. Barratt superintendent. 
The company organized, it at once set to work. Lines 
were built to reach the sections where roads were most 
needed and which are indicated above, all lines passing 
through and connecting in the business center of the city. 
Captain Barratt had recently left the office of comniis- 



Golden State & Miners Iron Works, of San Francisco 
Each engine operates 740-horse-power of generators. 
These engines have been a marvel of smoothness in run- 
ning, have each developed more power than contracted 
for and have been successes in every way. The drive 
wheels are respectively 17 feet and 19 feet in diameter. 

One engine drives two 250-horse-power Westinghouse 
multipolar generators and one 2 40-horse-power Edison gen- 
erator; the other engine drives one 500-horse-power West- 
inghouse multipolar generator and one 240-horse-power 
Edison generator. The 500-horse-power generator was 
the lirst of that size built in this country and has a 
capacity of 700 electrical horse-power. The same may 
be said of the two 250-horse-power Westinghouse 
machines; they were the first two of that size ever built 
in this country and thev were built expressly for this com- 
pan}'. This is, therefore, the first plant in this country 
installed with generators of large units, and the success of 
their operation has fully proven the wisdom of the experi- 
ment. 



^^ilfc^MtM- ^^r iC W^: 



r,9 



The boiler rooms are equipped with 1500-horse- 
power of the Stirling water tube boilers, comprising 
three batteries of Soo-horse-power each. These boilers 
are believed by Mr. Clark and others to be the most 
efficient and economical boilers in use for large plants. 
The fuel used is oil, suppplied by the Santa Paula Oil 
Company, but coal can be used as well. 

The power house further contains a machine shop 
which is the most complete in its equipment on the coast, 
outside of San Francisco. In this a motor can be made 
complete, and all the repairs and rebuilding of either 
motors or cars are done in this shop. 

The car house is iminediatel_v in the rear of the power 
house, separated only by a .small open court. This is 
built also of brick of the same pattern as the power house 
and contains space for 60 cars. It is provided with trans- 
fer tables and all other conveniences. 



t"i?*^*""Wiw^<t*. 




ONE OF THE WESTINGHOUSE GENERATORS — LOS ANGELES 
CONSOLIDATED ELECTRIC. 

The construction^of the road bed is one of the most 
substantial features of the entire plant. Part of it was 
built under contract with the Pacific Rolling Mill Com- 
pany and part was completed by the company itself. The 
trackage is mostly of 45 pound girder combination rails 
of the Pacific Rolling Mills pattern, laid on iron ties 
imbeded in cement, making a most secure and permanent 
mode of construction, there being no ties to rot out and 
little repair work required. 

The line material is uniform throughout. The poles 
are neat and of the same size ; they are 1 2 inches square 
at the bottom and from 6 feet up taper to 8 inches square at 



the top ; they are 30 feet long, with six feet in the ground ; the 
.corners are all champered; they are all painted and pre- 
sent an ornamental style of line construction. 

There is, including ground wires, feeding wires and 
trolley wires, over 120 miles of copper wire mostly sizes 
o and 000. All of the line construction has been done in 
the most careful manner. 

The rolling stock includes 45 electric cars, 15 of which 
are double truck, open at the ends and seating 48 per-, 
sons. Builders represented are J. G. Brill Company and 




GEN M H. SHERMAN, PRESIDENT. 

the St. Louis Car Company. Motors are single reduction 
Westinghouse, and have given splendid service. One 
line is a series of grades from 5 to 13 per cent with deep 
cuts and immense fills. Lines are as follows: — 

Division. Miles. 

Second street 4-5 

Depot 3 5 

Maple avenue ._ 35 

Vernor 5 5 

Pico street 3 75 

Elysian Park 325 

A consolidation of the properties of the electric with 
the cable company in all probability will be com- 
pleted at an early date. This means what the name of 
the company implies, viz.: The Los Angeles Consoli- 
dated Electric, whose plant as it stands now is the most 
extensive on the coast, and one of the finest in the 
country. 

A few words need yet be said of the moving spirits 
of this great enterprise. It has resulted mainly from 
the activities of two men — Gen. M. H. Sherman, the 
president, and E. P. Clark, the vice-president and man- 
ager. Gen. Sherman is only 38 years old and looks much 



younger. He was born in New York but came to the 
coast twenty years ago and early identified himself with 
the young and promising territory of Arizona. For a 
number of years he held the position of superintendent 
of public instruction and later of adjutant general of the 
territory. He is now a capitalist on a wide scale. He 
owns more real estate in Phoenix, Arizona, than anj^ 
single man there, his tax bill being the heaviest;he is sole 
owner of the Valley Street Railway, of Phoenix, is a large 
owner in the water system of Phoenix and heavily inter- 
ested in the Great Arizona Canal Company, which con- 
trols all the irrigation waters of the Salt River Valley 



DID THE OSTRICH ACT. 




GENERAL MANAGER E. P. CLARK. 



General Sherman's success is due to his own efforts. 
He inherited none of this world's goods and came west 
poor. He is to-day one of the most striking figures 
in western development. His energy is restless and irre- 
sistible and his brain power appears equally strong. 
Yet a young man and a millionaire of his own making 
it is perfectly clear that the future for this man holds 
great things. 

E. P. Clark was born forty-five years ago in Iowa, 
and came to Arizona twenty-five j'ears later on account 
of his health. For ten years he was county auditor in 
Arizona, and subsequently became engaged in an exten- 
sive manufacturing lumber business, also in mining and 
drilling. He is a man of wide practical knowledge and 
experience in handling of men, and under the matter of 
fact business methods he has introduced in the opera- 
tion of the company, the enterprise has been a success 
from the start, and is destined to be a property of great 
value. 



AN unusual accident in Cleveland recently deprived 
an employe the use of his head for awhile. The 
East Cleveland sweeper rounded a sudden curve 
precipitating one of the crew, head first into the sand-box. 
The grinding machinery bruised his head and fractured 
his skull, but his prospect for life is still good, and after 
this he will refrain from putting his head in the sand. 



PEORIA PUSH AND PLUCK. 



MANAGER FINLEY, of the Central City rail- 
way, Peoria, believes in pushing things. 
Before the smoke had ceased to rise from the 
ruins of his power house, new generators had been 
ordered and were shipped part of the way by express 
and on the home stretch by special train. In the mean 
time arrangements had been made with a paper mill 
for use of water power, and foundations and feed wiring 
completed. The fire occurred on the early morning of 
January 1 6th, and the 550-horse-power generator was in 
place and operating five cars on the 26th, only ten days 
after the fire. The temporary return to horses was quite 
enough to make the Peorians realize the superior advan- 
tages of electricity. 



ANOTHER LARGE INTER-URBAN SYSTEM. 



WHAT promises to be the most extensive 
suburban electric railway in the world has 
just been organized as the Central Massa- 
chusetts Railway Company at Worcester, Mass. The 
new company is composed of the Worcester, Leicester 
& Spencer, the Worcester & Millbury and the Worcester 
& Southbridge lines, together with proposed extensions 
and additions aggregating forty miles of new track and 
trolley. The entire svstem will bring seventy-five to 
eighty miles of electric under one management. 

The most remarkable thing about the scheme is the 
large number of towns within the thickly settled area 
about Worcester that will be connected and inter-con- 
nected by this web of track. Cities, towns, villages 
and hamlets to the number of twenty-six, as follows: 
Worcester, Marlboro, Spencer, Leicester, Millbur}', 
Shrewsbury, Northboro, Westboi'o, Grafton, Sutton, 
Northbridge, Upton, Auburn, Oxford, Charlton, South- 
bridge, Sandersdale, Webster, Wilkonsville, Farmers- 
ville, Fisherville, Rockdale, Jamesville, Rochdale, North 
Grafton and Saundersville. The popular summer resorts 
in the surrounding region will be touched by the lines, 
and mail and express service is to be instituted. A 
schedule of fares is to be issued. As the steam road 
connections are very poor and the coach and tally ho 
facilities nearl)' as bad, the possibly 200,000 people in the 
district will be greatly pleased with and duly patronize 
the new system. 



A sTKF.RT railway employe in Rockford, 111. 
recently fallen heir to $3,000,000. 



has 



THE BROADWAY CABLE. 



The Most Difficult Enterprise Undertaken by a Street Railway-A Magnificent Construction-Massive 
Machinery-Handsome Power Stations-A Stupendious Triumph of Engineering Skill. 




S the Pennsylvania Iron Works Com- 
pany have now in succefsful opera- 
tion the first cable power plant of the 
five stations which they have in 
course of construction for the Broad- 
way and Third Avenue cable lines in 
New York City, our readers will be 
glad of the opportunity to inform themselves of the pro- 
gress made in this important branch of railway work in 
the great metropolis. 

It is impossible with words and the engraver's tool to 
adaquately present the immensity of the undertaking, the 
difficulties of which arose each day like a morning fog, 
and the splendid triumph of energy and brains over all. 
To onlv those who bore the burden and heat of the day, 



man to an end in the following year by the death of 
heart-broken Jacob Sharp, on April 5. 

But the difficulties which confronted the builders of the 
Broadway cable were no whit less discouraging, although 
of a different character, than those which impeded 
progress in former years. We refer to the condition of 
Broadway itself — the sub-Broadway as it were. For 
more than 50 years there had been an ever increasing 
network of gas. water, electric, steam and other pipesand 
conductors burrowing their endless lengths beneath the 
busy street, and when at last as a sort of judgment day, 
all these works were uncovered and laid bare, the picture 
was one to astonish even the best posted in such matters, 
and enough to discourage and turn back any man or com- 
pany possessed of even more than ordinary courage. 




CONSTRUCTING A CURVK. 



and we might add, the chill and exposures of many a 
stormy night, can ever have a true appreciation of all that 
is conveyed in the three words, " Broadway is cabled." 
The history of rapid transit on Broadway is intermi- 
nably mingled and coincident with the life and labors of 
Jacob Sharp, who from 1850 until 1884 kept up a gallant 
fight for a surface line along this thoroughfare. Jacob 
Sharp when a young man began the public agitation for 
a horse car line from the battery to Manhattanville in the 
summer of 1851, and kept up a ceaseless combat with the 
opposition until August in 1884, when the ordinance was 
passed over the Mayor's veto and the injunction of the 
court. A. T. Stewart, one of the most astute figures in 
New York municipal history, was Sharp's heaviest oppon- 
ent. Without ceasing, the endless Irish tenacity and the 
bull dog firmness of Jacob Sharp hung to the idea for 30 
years. His .successive troubles culminating in an unproved 
indictment for bribery in 1887, brought the contest of one 



A !■ KW " D11-1'ICL:1,T1KS." 

The fight was a long and bitter one, but skill, patience 
and great expense finally overcame all, and to-day the 
energies which find their current in the iron arteries 
beneath Broadway are in an orderly, systematic condition 
that is not to be compared with the chaotic mysteries of 
the ante-cable days. 

THE TRACK 

is probably the most substantial of any in existence— cer- 
tainly the best on this continent. The lines being divided 
into four sections, as follows: — 

1st section — South Ferry to Bowling Green 14; mile 

2nU section — To Houston street 2 miles 

3rd section— Houston to Thirty-seventh '^ miles 

4th section— To Central P.ark at Seventh avenue and Fifty-ninth 

street ' ""'e^ 

The yokes are cast iron, weigh 550 pounds each, and 
are 5 feet 2 }4 inches long, t,7% inches high to bearings 
and 1 2 inches wide at base. They are spaced 4 feet 6 
inches from center to center. Each rests on a concrete 



foundation 45 inches long by 18 wide and 6 inches deep. 
The conduit is 24 inches deep and 15 inches wide, formed 
of concrete and brought up to sustain the pavement next 
the rail. Carrj'ing pulleys are cast iron and measure 14 
inches diameter to bottom of groove, which is chilled and 
the ground perfectly true and smooth. Each pulley 
with its shaft weighs 35 pounds and are spaced to inter- 
vals of 31 feet 6 inches. At such points the conduit is 
enlarged to form a pulley pit 42 inches long, 37 inches 
wide and 48 inches deep. Sewer connections are as fre- 
quent as necessit}' requires. 

The track rails rest directly on the yokes, are grooved 
girder, made by the Johnson Company and weigh 91 
pounds to the yard. Joints have received special attention 
and instead of resting on yokes are made 13^1^ inches 
between them. The splice is a fish plate, 16^ inches 



section" and weighs 40 tons. Ropes are i^ inches 
diameter with the usual hemp core and were made by the 
John A. Roebling Sons Company, Trenton, N. J., and 
the Trenton Iron Company. As already noted there are 
two similar ropes in each conduit, (except on the first sec- 
tion) so that in any possible case of strand there will 
always be the reserve rope which can be started up on a 
moment's notice, hence inspection and repairs are not con- 
fined to night work, and it is very diffiult to imagine an 
accident which can cripple the line. 

THE GRIP 

used is the double, side opening, with fixed lower jaw and 
rope ejector. It is 37 inches long over all, with die lining 
23 inches long. It weighs complete about 450 pounds 
and is similar to Robertson's. The gripping power is 90 
pounds to the square inch, fully 2,000 pounds total. 




LAVING THE rails: looking north from canal street. 
( From Engineering Magazine. ) 



long, weighing 1 2 J4 pounds each, fastened with four i-inch 
bolts and the McConway & Torley clamps. The slot 
rail is 7 inches deep, weighs 67 pounds per yard, is firmly 
braced to the track rail with iron rods, and forms a slot 
54^ inch wide. The pavement on and between the tracks 
is of Maine granite. 

The curve work is the best possible and the admiration 
of every observing engineer and railway man. The rope 
is conducted on horizontal wheels, on separate shafts for 
the upper and lower (alive and dead cables) ropes, no 
cone pulleys being used. Diameter of curse wheels at 
bottom of groove is 30^ inches. 

THE CABLES 

are seven in number (three of which are the reserve 
cables) and have a total length of nearly 11 miles; the 
longest being 21,000 feet. This rope is on the "second 



THE CARS 



are marvels of beauty and comfort, no expense having 
been spared in their construction, as has been the rule 
throughout the entire system. The Laclede Car Com- 
pany has delivered its sample car and will have 25 more 
ready within 30 days, being a part of their order for 100 
cars. They are 22 foot bodies, 33 J^ feet over all, ex- 
treme width 7 feet and roof 10 feet 4 inches above rails. 
The ceiling is in natural light woods and very light and 
handsome. Windows are glazed with English crystal 
glass, cushioned with rubber to the sash v\ hich is cherry. 
There are 8 large, high windows on each side, and shaded 
with rich spring roller curtains. The double doors at 
each end are of cherry. Seats are covered with best 
Wilton carpet and all the metal trimmings are solid bronze. 
At night cars are lit with 3 center cluster lights of Pintch 



73 



gas. Both ends of cars are plentifully supplied with 
safetj- hand rails of brass and the steps are of specially 
easy ascent, hung low, and have rubber treads. The 
braking system is the design of the engineering depart- 
ment of the road and is powerful and positive. At sides 
and ends of platforms wire life guards are placed. Plat- 
forms are large and capacious, each end being closed al 
one side to prevent accidents from persons jumping on or 
off between passing trains. Special provision is made for 
quick ingress and egress, the doors being very large and 
opening simultaneously by one motion, and with 
approaches near the steps. 

The John Stephenson Company also furnish one hun- 
dred cars of their Bombay roof type, on their own trucks. 
They are same dimensions as those already described and 
like them seat 30 passengers. 

One power house is now ready for service and another 
nearly so. The completed plant is 




BLASTING BROADWAY. 

THE FIFTY-FIRST STREET STATION, 

situated on the block bounded by Si.xth and Seventh 
avenues and Fiftieth and Fifty-first streets, formerly 
occupied by the old horse and car barns. This plant 
will drive the cables on the upper end of Broadway and 
Seventh avenue, the first rope for which started on its 
endless journey on the last day of January, of this year. 
The structure is of brick, well lighted from good sized 
windows, capacious and convenient. There were no 
special difTiculties in the way of its construction. 

THE liOII.ER ROOM 

has been specially well laid out with a view to conven- 
ience, ventilation and applicability for its purpose. The 
boilers are six in number and are of the patent Heine 
safety type, of 250-borse-power nominal capacity each. 
They are set in the most approved manner recom- 
mended by the builders, and are also arranged in connec- 
tion with Gallager furnace, and the McCaslin device 



for handling coal and ashes, located in a large trench 
immediately beneath the boiler ash pits. The grates 
being dumped deliver into the chutes or hoppers from 
whence they pass into trucks below running on tracks 
which lead to a convenient dumping place outside. Coal 
is conveyed to the boilers by the same means, except that 
the tracks are elevated to the surface of the boiler room 
floor, and the load is weighed before being dumped into 
the coal bank, which is arranged along the fronts of the 
boilers. The steam upon leaving the boiler is con- 
veyed to the engine, through an elaborate system of 
steam piping, especially arranged for high pressures, as 
the working pressure of this plant will be 150 pounds. 
The piping is so arranged that anj- of the boilers can be 
cut out of service without in the slighest degree handi- 
capping the efficiency of the plant. 

Automatic pressure regulating valves are provided with 
each boiler, thus maintaining a nicety of regulation of 
steam pressure on each of the boilers. 

The boiler room also contains the boiler feeding pump 
devices. The heater is of the well known Goubert style 
of 1,000-horse-power capacity. The pumps are of the 
Snow make. There are two 10 by 5 by 10 Duplex 
pumps. The high reputation which these pumps have 
established for themselves since their introduction on the 
market renders special comment upon their merits unne- 
cessary in connection with this article; suffice it to say, 
however, that pumps of this make have been installed in 
nearly all of the cable power plants throughout the coun- 
try which have been recently constructed. Particularly 
has this been the case with the stations installed b}' the 
Pennsylvania Iron Works Company. 

The engines are two high-pressure Dickson-Corliss, 
with cylinders 36 inches in diameter by 60 inches stroke. 
The fly wheels are 24 feet in diameter and weigh 80,000 
pounds each. The main shaft is iS inches diameter in 
the bearings and 20 inches in the swell. Engines are 
rights and lefts and are placed at opposite ends of the 
main driving shaft, to which they are coupled bj' means 
of large plate couplings with cross keys and bolts. The 
shaft is supported on extra large bearings, which are sub- 
stantially mounted on heavy stands anchored to the foun- 
dation masonry by 21^-inch by lo-foot anchor bolls. 
Power is transmitted from main to drum shafts by rope 
transmission, the main shaft drivers being four in num- 
ber, 10 feet in diameter and carrying 2-inch cotton ropes. 
They are fitted with phosphor-bronze bushings being 
intended to remain idle on the shaft when not thrown into 
use by means of improved friction clutches with which 
they are engaged. This admits of the use of either, or all 
pairs of rope drums at will. The driven drums are 32 feet 
diameter built up in segments with centers mounted on 
hollow steel shafts which are supplied with independent 
bearings. 

The cable drums are of the solid type, 1 2 feet diameter, 
both being driven. They have live removable rims, in 
which are turned grooves. 

The system of tension apparatus which is in use is that 
commonly known as the direct system, and in this instance 



is 'contained in a tower of structural iron, and is about 40 
feet high, thus enabhng a very wide range of movement 
from the tension carriage. The means of lengthening 
and shortening the tension of dead ropes is provided on 
the end of the tension carriage and is of the usual drum 
pattern, arranged to operate with worm wheel and gear. 




B^Piilll;' 




lUE iluLMUN hlKKET I'OWER STATION. 

There is provided in conjunction with this plant a pair 
of auxiliary reversing engines, specialh* designed for use 
in the operating of the idle cable, and they are connected 
to the shaft by means of gears, which are mounted on 
either side of the several plate couplings. By the use 
of a patented sliding pinion gear, these engines can be 
made to operate either half of the entire plant, while the 
other half is in full operation and propelling cars. Thus 
it will be readil}' seen that a very important feature is 
well provided for, viz., the practicability of making speedy 
changes in new cables and examining the idle rope at 
an)' time during the 24 hours, as it must be remembered 
that in the duplex system, while the rope is in operation 
continuously, no chances can be taken which will in any 
waj' involve the stoppage of the system. With this con- 
stantly in view, the builders of the plant have been care- 
ful to consider every point which would make these plants 
perform the functions required of them, with the least 
possible chance of tie-up, and thus prevent any hitch in 
any part of the machinery which could possibly extend 
beyond a very few moments. 

In order to appreciate the immensity of this room and the 
ponderous machinery installed, one must needs make it a 
personal visit. The room is 100 by 260 feet, and con- 
tains no columns or other obstructions to the view of the 
machinery. 

The foundations for this plant are built entirely on bed 
rock and in consequence of this it was necessary to ele- 
vate the machinery and its foundation about 14 feet above 
the originally contemplated level. The foundations are 
built of brick and stone, and are faced up with Philadel- 



phia pressed brick, making a very striking appearance 
and indicating from the very first entrance in the building 
the substantial manner in which all of the work in con- 
nection with this monstrous undertaking of installing the 
cable system on Broadway has been done. The machin 
ery is fully in keeping with its magnificent home. 

THE HOUSTON STREET STATION 

as shown in the illustration, is a handsome business block 
nine stories high, erected at a cost of $700,000 for the ■ 
building, which fronts 125 feet on Broadwa}' and 200 on 
Houston street, occupying the northwest corner. From 
the exterior there is little to suggest the mine of power 
safely installed in the basement, which was excavated to a 
depth of 42 feet below street Wei for the purpose. 

The plant is fast nearing completion and will be the 
largest of them all. 

The engineering difficulties which were required to be 
overcome in the preparing of the foundations for the 
immense machinery plant, can best be told by the Broad- 
way and Seventh avenue Railroad Chief Engineer Major 
G. W. McNulty, and would of itself make a ver}' inter- 
esting article to our readers, and we will therefore re- 
frain from touching upon these points at this time, and 
confine ourselves alone to the enormous undertaking of 
installing the largest cable railway plant which up to this 
time has been attempted, we believe, in the world. 

The foundations for this plant are also entirely made 
of brick, and have been very carefully laid out, in order 
to provide ample weight and surface for the machinery, 
at the same time keeping clear of the numerous columns 
which are contained within the basement for supporting 
the large building. At no point whatever do the founda- 
tions for the machinery and thi^ building come in contact 
with each other; thus primarily overcoming anj' possible 




SPLICING THE TRANSMISSION ROPES. 

chance for vibration being telegraphed through the build- 
ing, which would necessarily annoy tenants. 

From this station will be operated two live ropes, and 
there will also be led the two duplex or reserve ropes. 

The machinery for transmitting the power of these 
ropes in service of the very naturally increased traffic in 



^m^'^Mef^^ml^ 



75 



the lower part of the city must necessarily be very much 
heavier than at other stations. To compensate for this 
there will be introduced four engines of the Dickson-Cor- 
liss high pressure pattern, with cylinders 38 inches dia- 
meter by 60 inches stroke. They are arranged in pairs 
of rights and lefts and transmit their power to a main jack 
shaft through a rope wheel, which is 26 feet in diameter, 
built up in the sections and mounted on a shaft which is 
20 inches in diameter on the journals by 26 inches in the 



mounted. These are four in number, 10 feet diameter 
each, and contain thirty-four grooves for 2-inch diameter 
cotton rope, and like those previously described for the 
51st street station, are mounted loose on the shafts and 
are engaged for services with a similar clutch device. 
The capacity of each of these friction clutches, it might 
be stated, is known of 1,000 horse power. In combina- 
tion with the jack shaft is also arranged a pair of duplex 
auxiliary engines of the reversing motion, for the same 




HEINE BOILERS AT 5 1 bT ST. STATION. 
ROPE DRIVE AT HOUSTON ST. STATION. 

( From Flash-Light Photogra 

swell. A half plate coupling is provided on each end 
whereby connection can be made with the corresponding 
halt coupling fitted to the respective engine shafts, so as 
to enable the use of either one of the engines for the pur- 
pose of driving either complete set of the cable driving 
machinery. The 32 feet rope wheels contain twent}' 
grooves of 2-inch diameter for cotton ropes. The main 
shaft extends the full width of the building within a few 
feet and is 18 inches in diameter, with 20-inch swells, 
where the loose rope driving drum pinions are 



32-I'OOT WHEEL AT HOUSTON ST. STATION. 
ENGINE ROOM AT 5 1 ST ST. STATION, 
phs by tlie Review Artist. ) 

purpose as stated for the other end of the line. From 
these 10 feet diameter rope drums the power is transmit- 
ted to the first and second driving shafts, for each half of 
the winding machinery. The arrangement of this part 
of the driving machinerj' is so as to make substantially 
two complete systems, entirely independent of each other. 
There are eight cable drums of the solid type, 14 feet in 
diameter, each containing five grooves, and are made 
substantially the same as those described at the other 
stations. In fact, it may be stated that the general 



76 



^Sg^^^|6^ % U! w ^ 



arrangement of this machinery, so far as its immediate 
relation to the cable drums is concerned, is in every par- 
ticular like that of the other station, except that in all of 
the parts the dimensions have been very materially 
increased. For instance, the connecting shafts are from 
20 to 28 inches in diameter, to suit requirements of the 
condition, many of the bearings being 20 inches diameter 
by 36 inches long. The cable driving pedestals are also 
made especially large. The most interesting feature of 
this- station to a general observer and a mechanic alike, is 
the ponderous proportions of the large cotton rope drums, 
which are 32 feet in diameter and contain thirty-four 
grooves for 2-inch diameter cotton ropes. The rim seg- 
ments are made the entire width of the wheel and are 
mounted on two centers with two distinct sets of arms. 
The boilers which will be used for generating steam for 
this plant will be twelve Heine patent safety, 250-horse- 
power each, arranged in two batteries of six each, and 
are so connected to the engines b}- the system of steam 
piping that will enable the use of any of the boilers to the 
exclusion of an)' that may be put out of service, and like- 
wise with the engines. There have been supplied here 
three 10 by 6 by 10 Snow pumps for the boiler feed 
service and two 1,000-horse-power capacity Goubert 
heaters. Condensing water is obtained from six tube 
wells, each 86 feet deep. The smoke-stack is concealed 
by the building walls and is 220 feet high. 

In this plant the tension runs and appliances are all 
arranged underneath the floor and are consequently 
hidden from the view of the visitor. The steam piping is 
arranged so as to be kept out of view in the power room, 
being carried underneath the floor. To suit the location 
the tension apparatus here will be somewhat of the 
modification of the one employed at Fifty-first street 
station, but the same principle is maintained. 

Special facilities have been provided in eacli of these 
plants for the handling of an\' of the parts which for any 
cause might need repairing or examining, by the intro- 
duction of portable and hoisting appliances. In fact, it 
may be said that no expense has been spared to pro- 
vide any appliances in either of these plants, or 
throughout the entire system, which could in any way 
contribute to its efficiency or perfectness. 

SPLENDID ELECTRIC LIGHT SYSTEM. 

The station will be as light as day from its own electric 
lighting plant of 5,000 lights capacity. This plant will 
represent the very latest developments in electrical work. 
The choice of engines, dynamos, wire, etc., was left en- 
tirely with H. Ward Leonard & Company, the bulk 
electric contractors, and they have selected Siemens & 
Halske d^'namos. Ideal engines, and Habirshaw wire. 
The dynamos will be direct coupled, that is, will be 
placed upon the main shafts of the engines. The engines 
and dynamos will run at 300 revolutions per minute. 

The voltmeters and amperemeters are of the Weston 
manufacture, and the rheostats are of the new and enamel 
type, made by the Carpenter Enamel Rheostat Com- 
pany. 



All of the wiring will be done in interior conduits. 

The switches will be of special design, and made 
expressly for this building. 

There will be 1,900 lamps in the engine room, the 
lamps being arranged in coronas upon the columns. 

The electric plant will be in operation about the 
middle of March, and will thereafter be in continuous 
service night and day. 

For the owners, President John D. Crimmins has not 
spared his own strength or comfort to secure to them a 
system that will be one of the finest railway properties in 
the world. His fine executive ability has found a con- 
stant occasion to display itself, as one knotty problem after 
another presented, commanding instant decision and 
where a mistake in judgment meant wrong construction 
which could never be rectified. 

To the Pennsylvania Iron Works Company belongs the 
credit of buildincr and installing the several thousand tons 
of machinery, and the work already accomplished will be 
a lasting monument to W. L. Elkins, Jr., its president, 
general manager B. W. Grist and A. E. Moore the super- 
intending engineer of construction. The contract taken 
by the Pennsylvania Iron Works was one of the largest 
and most exacting character, and their satisfaction is nat- 
urally proportionate to their efforts, now that installation 
has reached a point where the merry travel of the engines 
and uniform and noiseless gliding of the endless ropes 
tells the story of accomplished success. 



STREET RAILWAY GAZETTE CHANGES 
OWNERS. 



THE Street Railway Gazette, Chicago, has again 
changed hands. It is now controlled by J. H. 
McGraw, president, and C. E. Stump, business 
manager of the Street Railway Journal of New York. 
The rumor that the Gazette was to be removed to New 
York is now denied. A strong effort has been made to 
conceal the identity of the new owners, but we have it 
from absolutely reliable authority. Edward Caldwell, 
recently of the Electrical World, has been selected to rep- 
resent the McGraw-Stump interests here and has entered 
on h-is duties as editor. 



Lord Salisbury, formally opened the Liverpool, 
England, elevated electric, February 4. Lord Salisbury 
first visited the generating station and started the engines. 
Then his lordship, accompanied by the Earl of Latham, 
Lord Kelvin, the electrician-, and the mayor of Liverpool, 
entered a car and traveled over the line at a speed of 22 
miles an hour. This line was described by the Review 
in 1S90 and is operated by electricity. 



The New Jersey Traction Company, organized to 
gain possession of the Jersey City lines, has selected its 
site for the erection of a gigantic power plant. The syn- 
dicate has possession already of the Newark Lighting 
Company's plants. 



77 



OPENING OF THE FIRST ELECTRIC IN NEW ORLEANS. 



T}iE era of electrical progress began in the 
metropolis of the South on February i, 1S93, with 
the baptismal trip of the New Orleans & Carroll 
ton Electric Railway at New Orleans. 

For many months past the engineers and contractors 
for the road bed have been battling with the almost bot- 
tomless mud and sand upon which the old citj- is founded 
and finally after conquering this succession of troubles 
from water, mud and quicksand, the road is turned over 
to the owners. 

On the opening day Chief Engineer A. Langstaff John- 
ston, Superintendent C. V. Haile a and deputation of all 
the prominent business men of the city, mounted the 
beautiful St. Louis Car Company cars, and were whirled 
through the city on the wings of electricity. Wondering 
crowds, white and negro inhabitants, greeted the new 
power with cheers and with exclamations of delight. 
The day was a perfect one and no auspicious incident 
was wanting to prophesy bon voyage to the envoy of 
progress. Aristocratic old families left their high born 
repose to stand out in the open air to watch the progress 
of the car. Pedestrians stopped and looked back as lon<r 
as the cars were in sight, while the more demonstrati\e 
school children and colored people cheered like mad. It 
was a gala day for New Orleans. 

THE EQUIPMENT OF THE ROAD 

is modern in every respect, and installed with the care that 
characterizes the labors of A. Langstaff Johnston, of 
Richmond, Va., who has been engineer in chief. 

The power house, situated on Napoleon avenue near 
the river, for convenience to water supply, is 85 by 123 
feet in dimensions. Here are installed three Babcock & 



The cars, when the entire order arrives from the St. 
Louis Car Company, will number fifty. Thirty of them 
are painted green, ten red and two yellow, to denote 




C. V. HAILE, SUPERINTENDENT. 



their routes. Each car is equipped with a 25-horse- 
power General Electric single reduction water proof 
motor and is 18^ feet in length. 




THE INAUGURAL TRIP — NEW ORLEANS. 



Wilco.v boilers of 300-horse-power, and three engines, 
Lane & Bodley compound condensing, of 300-horse- 
power, furnished by C. S. Burt & Company, of New 
Orieans. The engines are connected to three 200 Kilo- 
watt Thomson- Houston dynamos. The car barn, near 
CarroUton avenue, is 128 feet wide by 265 feet long, with 
paint shop and repair facilities in connection. 



J. G. White & Company, of New York, were contrac- 
tors for the overhead construction, for which the Ansonia 
Brass & Copper Compan3' furnished the wire. 

The rail is divided as follows along the 10 miles of 
line: Five miles of 50-pound steel T, made by the Belle- 
ville Rail Company, of Birmingham, Ala., and sold by 
G. Herbert Ellerbe; five miles of Johnson girder, and a 



considerable amount of Duplex Strt Railway Track 
Companj^'s special^-. This order is the first of the kind 
in New Orleans. Center pole construction is used. 

Chas. Munson Company furnished the belting for the 
power plant from their New Orleans house. 

One of the specialties introduced in the power house is 
the electric current disconnector, made by the Johnston 
Safe Automatic Electric Company, of Richmond. 

The officers of the company are J. Hernandez, presi- 
dent; Walter V. Crouch, secretary, and Chris V. Haile 
superintendent. 

So much of the success of the installation of the line 
has depended upon Mr. Haile that we are pleased to 
present his features as those of the first electric railway 
superintendent in the Crescent City. The engraving of 
the trial trip tells better than words the keen interest that 
the new line has aroused. 

The New Orleans City & Lake Railroad, of which 
H. Mitchell Littell is the manager-elect, will follow this 
event with the changing of his line from the mule to 
electricity within the next twelve months. 

STURGES' SLEET TROLLEY WHEEL. 



A TROLLEY for cutting sleet from the wire has 
been invented by William H. Sturges, superin- 
tendent of the Utica Belt Line Street Railroad 
Company. Instead of being solid the wheel has spokes 
and is divided into halves, one of which is shown in our 
engraving. Each half is free to turn independently of 
the other, and the groove for the trolley wire is made 
very deep and narrow, being, in fact, just wide enough 
for the trolley wire. The shoulders on the edge of the 
groove act to break the ice before the trolley wire begins 




INSIDE VIEW OF HALF OK STLRGES' SLEET TROLLEY WHEEL. 

to make contact in the bottom of the groove. This trol- 
ley has been tried in several sleet storms with succe.ss and 
without the usual sparking. 

The wheels, as shown us, are made of cast brass and 
are very light. When sleet begins to fall it is simply 
necessary to replace the usual wheels with the "sleet cut- 
ters" and the traffic goes on without interruption. 

No one who has ever had anything to do with trolley 
wires in a heavy sleet storm can fail to realize the field 
there is for an invention of this kind. It is cheap but 
wonderfully effective and will save many a road from 



tribulation. If sleet is allowed to form the trolley wire 
will be practically insulated, and, unless there is some 
quick way to clear it, traffic will either be stopped or 
slowed to such an extent as to cause much complaint. 



ANNUAL MEETING NATIONAL ELECTRIC 
LIGHT ASSOCIATION. 



THE annual meeting of the National Electric Light 
Association, the sixteenth occasion of which is 
Februarj' 28, will be held in the Bell Telephone 
building, corner of Tenth and Olive streets, at St. Louis. 
This meeting will be of more than passing interest to 
street railway men, as many of the subjects under discus- 
sion are closely related to street railwaj' practice. The 
program includes the following papers: "Under What 
Conditions is the Use of Water Power Economical?" L. 
B. Still well, Pittsburg; C. S. Bradley, Ft. Wayne, on 
"Long Distance Transmission of Power;" R. H. Sterling, 
Denver, "Some Experiences with Alternating Systems;" 
E. A. Armstrong, Camden, N. J., "Morals of Corpora- 
tions;" Captain Wm. Brophy, Boston, "Electrical Insur- 
ance;" with papers by Dr. Bell, Boston; William Stanlej', 
Pittsfield, Mass., and Professor Weston, of Newark, N. 
J. Professor George Forbes, the London authority on 
long distance transmission, may be present and read a 
paper and Professor Elihu Thomson will take part in dis- 
cussion. The crowning event of the meeting will be the 
lecture at Music Hall on Tuesday evening, by the bril- 
liant Nikola Tesla, in which some experiments will be 
performed. 

It is not often that the West is honored by so distin- 
guished a group of electricians and this meeting should be 
greeted by a large attendance of all electric workers. 



WHERE TO BOARD IN CHICAGO. 

THE Street Railway Re\ikw, realizing the 
annoyances and inconveniences that strangers will 
experience in securing a desirable stopping place 
when away from home, and which will be largely 
increased in Chicago during the Fair, has formulated a 
plan for assisting its readers in this dilemma. 

We have already secured a large list of desirable 
places, including hotels, good boarding houses and suit- 
able private famihes, where accommodations may be had 
for any length of time desired, and ranging in price 
according to the location and accommodations. Thou- 
sands of the best families in Chicago will open their 
homes for a limited number of guests each, and such 
places will on many accounts afford specially desirable 
quarters. We know the demand will be large, but expect 
to have a supply that will be ample. Readers desiring 
further information will please address the Review, 
stating about what time they desire accommodations, for 
how long and to what extent. We make no charge for 
this service. 

The People's Traction Company of Philadelphia, suc- 
ceeds the People's Passenger Railway Company. 



^gefc^fe^^*^^ 



79 



MCDONALD'S BROAD RIPPLE PURCHASE. 



CONSIDERABLE excitement was caused in street 
railway circles at Indianapolis, some time since, 
by an unknown individual who appeared in that 
city without any name or address, and began investigat- 
ing the famous Broad Ripple franchise which has been in 
statu quo for nearly two years. 

The excitement was finally allayed when it later became 
known that R. T. McDonald, of Ft. Wayne, was the 
principal in a deal that contemplated the reviving, buying 
and galvanizing of the right to build an electric line 
between Indianapolis and Broad Ripple. Dr. Cal. Light 
is the present holder, but litigation and other troubles 
have prevented the build- 
ing of this much needed 
suburban route. 

Mr. McDonald says that 
any litigation against the 
road will be fought to the 
court of final resort, and 
that he represents no 
scheme, combination or 
syndicate. He is sure that 
the road would pay and is 
willing to attempt it. He 
wishes a 30-year franchise, 
agrees to pay 2}^ per cent 
for the first 5 years, 5 per 
cent for 15 years and 7 
percent for the remaining 
10 years. Mr. McDonald 
contemplates an additional 
complete system of subur- 
ban connections. New 
franchises will be asked 
and no doubt given. 

We wish to assure the 
good people of Indianapo- 
lis that their Broad Ripple 
road is perfectly safe in 
Mr. McDonald's hands. 
He is a man of no ordinary 
mind or experience. 

Ten years ago R. T. McDonald was a poor man. To- 
day he is one of the financial pillars of Ft. Wayne, a town 
noted for its wealth. Mr. McDonald is yet this side of 50 
and a native Indianian from Steuben county. When he 
was a 3'oung man he went to Ft. Wayne, entering a dr}- 
goods establishment of which he was afterwards third 
owner. His business career was interrupted by a long 
and honorable war record, but returning to Ft. Wayne 
resumed the art of peace with the same fire and enthusi- 
asm. 

Mr. McDonald braved the uncertainties of inventions 
and became president of the Jenney Electric Light Com- 
pany. The concern grew, was added unto and has made 
its backers wealthy. 

Mr. McDonald is thoroughly interested in street rail- 




ways at Ft. Wayne, New Orleans and other points, with 
business connections with literally hundreds of other 
enterprises. He is a Scotchman with all a Scotchman's 
tenacity, and an American with all an American's shrewd- 
ness. 

Mr. McDonald is a firm, fighting Republican, a pub- 
lic-spirited citizen and a thorough gentleman. A number 
of good stories of his earlier life are told at Ft. Wayne. 
It is said that once when poor and unknown he applied 
to a hotel for lodging, but was refused because he had no 
baggage. Mr. McDonald told the land-lord that some 
day he would come back and buy him out. Ten years 
later the prophecy was fulfilled. His application for a 
loan of $25 was refused once by a bank. Five years 

later his check for $125,- 
000 saved the same insti- 
tution from ruin. A great 
admirer of Judge Gres- 
ham, he bitterl3- opposed 
Harrison's nomination at 
the last republican national 
convention and took the 
Ft. Wayne Blaine club to 
Minneapolis at a cost to 
his own pocket of $9,000. 
Nothing daunts him. He 
goes into nothing rashly, 
and we prophecy final 
triumph for the Broad 
Ripple line and R. T. 
McDonald. 

Through the kindness 
of D. O. Beldin, of the 
Aurora Electric Railway, 
the Universitj' Extension 
lecture delivered by Pro- 
fessor Thwing, of the 
Northwestern University, 
was illustrated with a 500- 
volt current from the 
trolley. 



R. T, M'DONALD. 



The Metropolitan, of 
Kansas City, has had a 
daily increase of 2,200 fares during the past year. 



MASSACHUSETTS RAILWAYS. 



ON the thirtieth of September, 1892, Massachu- 
setts had 814 miles of street railway, an increase 
of 190 miles over the previous year. Of this 
492 miles were wholly or in part electric, with one stor- 
age battery line. The aggregate capital stock is 
$23,540,536, an increase of $4,000,000. There were 
193,760,783 passengers carried, an increase of 18,000,000. 
The average received for transportation of a passenger ■ 
was 5.07 cents, cost 3.85 cents. The total dividends were 
$1,582,668, an average of 6.72 per cent against 5.63 of 
preceding year. Fatal accidents numbered twenty-six. 



so 



STREET RAILWAY LAW. 



EDITED BY MR. FRANK HUMBOLDT CLARK, ATTORNEY AT LAM% CHICAGO. 



Ordinance requiring Street Railway to -pave 2><^>'t it 
Street. 

Under an ordinance requiring a street railway company to keep tlie por- 
tion of tlie street between its tracks, and two feet on each side thereof, 
in as good repair and condition as the city keeps tlie balance of the 
street, it is the duty of the street railway company to pave said portions 
of the street when the city paves the balance. 

It is insisted by counsel for respondent that no further 
duty is imposed b}' the ordinance than to repair the por- 
tions of the streets in question, and that the duty to repair 
does not include the obligation to pave. Under the duty 
to repair would doubtless be included the liability to 
restore any pavement that might be put down by the 
City; but simply to repair cannot be construed into a 
duty to place the pavement in the first instance. Coun- 
sel for the City contend that the ordinance in question 
means more than simply to repair. In determining the 
rights and duties of the respective contestants here, a 
liberal construction should obtain in favor of the relator. 
The grant to the respondent of the right to use the streets 
for the prosecution of its business for profit i.s a benefit 
and privilege, and the rule is that such grants are to be 
construed against the beneficiar}'. Taking the language 
of the contract between the parties in its literal meaning, 
we thii;k it cannot be confined simply to repairs. We 
think that when the city paves the balance of the streets, 
the duty devolves upon the respondent company to pave 
between its tracks and two feet on each side. When the 
Citv paves, if the railroad company declines, it cannot be 
said that it keeps those portions of the streets in as good 
condition as the City keeps the balance. In order to 
meet this obligation, the railroad company must pave. 

No question of changing the grade of the street is pre- 
sented by the pleadings. The ordinance provides that 
said portions of the street sliall be kept in as good repair 
and condition as the city keeps the balance, and of even 
grade with the street, excepting in cases of regrading. 
The 13th section of the ordinance expressly provides that 
the grade of the railway tracks shall not be changed at 
the expense of the railway company. 

That mandamus is the proper remedy is not denied. 
It is settled by authority that the writ will lie against such 
a corporation to compel it to perform a clear duty to the 
public. 

(Sup. Ct. Fla. State vs. Jacksonville St. R. Co. 10 
So. Rep. .S90.) 

(Note. — In the case of Mayor vs. New York & H. R. Co. (Supreme 
Court N. Y.) 19 New York Supplement 67, a street railroad had been 
authorized to lay its tracks in certain streets on condition that it should 
pave the streets in and about the tracks. Afterwards an Act was passed 
authorizing it to extend its tracks in Madison avenue from 79th street to 
86th street, and as far northerly as the avenue might from time to time 
be opened, but it did not expressly impose the condition that it should 
pave the street — merely providing that in the construction, use and 
operation of its tracks and extensions, it should have the same rights 
and privileges which it then possessed under former grants. The Act 
also provided for the appointment of commissioners to fix the amount of 
compensation to be paid for the rights and privileges granted. It was 
held that the Act did not impose on the company the duty of paving 
between its tracks north of 79th street. — Ed.) 



Electric Railway — Operation by Construction Company 

— Liability for Personal Injuries. 

Though under the contract for the construction and 
equipment of an electric railway line, the construction 
company agrees to operate the road satisfactorily for ten 
days before payment for the equipment, still where during 
that time regular passenger cars manned with the usual 
help and on which the public are invited to take passage 
at the usual fare, are run, the railway company is 
responsible for an accident to a passenger occasioned by 
negligence in the operation of the cars. 

(Sup. Ct. Wash. Cogswell vs. West St. &c. Elec. R. 
Co. 31 Pac. Rep. 411.) 

Care required of Street Raihvay at Crossinu- of Steam 
Railway — In/urv to Passenger on Street Car. 

A passenger in a street car, while crossing the tracks 
of the Chicago & Northwestern Railwa}', was struck by 
an engine belonging to that road and seriously injured. 
The action was brought against the street railway com- 
pany' and the steam railwav company jointly'. Judgment 
was rendered against both, and the street railway com- 
pany alone^ppealed. 

Upon the trial there was evidence that upon the arrival 
• of appellant's car at the Rockwell street crossing, the 
gates were down and a freight train was passing; that as 
soon as the gates were raised by the man in the signal 
tower, appellant's conductor, who had gone ahead of the 
car, gave the signal to the driver to come on; that he 
gave this signal before the freight train had completely 
passed; that as soon as the freight train was entirely by, 
the driver of appellant's car started on and went directly 
in front of an engine going in a direction opposite to that 
in which the freight train was moving. 

Grade crossings are well known to be places of immi- 
nent peril; the diligence of the carrier at these points 
must be proportionate to their well kno'Vvn danger. We 
think it was the duty of the servants of appellant to go 
forward upon the railroad tracks to a position where 
could be ascertained the fact whether or not the cars of 
said Northwestern Railway Company were approaching 
said crossing. 

It is immaterial that the negligence of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railway Company may have been greater 
than that of appellant; the question presented, so far as 
appellant is concerned, is, Did it perform its duty toward 
appellee, its passenger? 

(App. Ct. 111. Martin vs. West Chicago St. R. Co.; 
not yet reported. 

Street Railroads — Use of Steam — Ordinance — Turn-outs 
tnnl Switches. 

A city ordinance authorized the construction of a rail- 
way on certain streets "to be operated by electricity or 
such other power as will not unnecessarily obstruct the 
use of said streets by the public." Held, That evidence 



81 



that it was not intended to allow the use of steam, was 
inadmissible. Said ordinance did not confer on the com- 
pany the absolute right to operate its cars by steam, the 
question as to whether the use of steam would "neces- 
sarily obstruct said streets" being one of fact foi the jury. 

The grant of a right to construct a railway carries with 
it the right to construct such turnouts and switches as may 
be necessary for the successful operation of the road. 
Where a citj- ordinance grants permission to build a rail- 
road in its streets the right of the city to be consulted 
about the situation of side tracks, switches and turn-outs, 
is of equal dignity with the right of the railway company 
to construct them; and until it can be shown that the city 
has waived its privilege or declined to act, the railway 
company is not entitled to an injunction in that respect. 

(Sup. Ct. Tex. Mayor vs. Houston B. & M. R. Co. 
19 S. W. Rep. 786.) 

Elevated Railroad — Conditional Franchise. 

The condition in the articles of association of an elevated 
railroad company organized under the New York Rapid 
Transit Act, that the compan)- shall not be permitted to 
do any work towards the construction of its road on a 
certain street until it shall have entered into an agreement 
.vith the companies owning and operating a surface steam 
railroad thereon, transforming said surface road into a mere 
street railway and transferring its operation b}' steam to 
the elevated tracks, is a condition subsequent and does 
not prevent said elevated railroad company from acquiring 
a franchise or capacity as a corporation until such contract 
is made. The agreement directed is to precede construc- 
tion, and not corporate existence. The company is to 
make the agreement, and it must exist first irr order to 
agree at all. When it has acquired corporate life and so 
has capacity of acting, it is endowed, not with absolute, 
but with a conditional franchise to become absolute, by 
the performance of one or more imposed conditions. 

Such condition is authorized by the provision of the 
Rapid Transit Act, that commissioners may impose such 
conditions on railroad companies organized under it as 
shall seem expedient, and that they shall embody the con- 
ditions in the articles of association tendered for accept- 
ance. 

(N. Y. Ct. App. In re Atlantic Ave. El. R. Co. 32 
N. E. Rep. 771.) 

Contracl to Construct Street Railway to Plaiutitf's Land 
— Action for Breach — Damages. 

A street railway corporation, of which plaintiff and 
associates were stockholders and officers, in its corporate 
capacity, agreed to sell certain franchises to defendants, 
stipulating to transfer to them additional rights of way 
over certain portions of the proposed route. Afterwards 
plaintiff and associates, as individuals, sold and transferred 
the stock of the corporation to defendants, the latter 
agreeing to construct and complete the railway within a 
specified time, to a certain point, which was over the 
route for which the corporation agreed to secure the 
rights of way. Held., that the failure of the corporation 
to secure the rights of way is no defense to an action by 



plaintiff for the breach of defendant's agreement to con- 
struct the railway, as their contract with plaintiff and 
associates was separate and distinct from the contract 
with the corporation. 

After plaintiff had purchased on contract land which he 
subdivided for residence lots, defendants agreed with him 
to construct to such land a street railway within a speci- 
fied time and to sell tickets for passage to residents and 
property owners on such land, at a specified price. 
Held, that in an action for breach of defendant's contract, 
defendants must have known that the loss to plaintiff of 
the enhanced value of the land by the construction of the 
railwaj-, would be the result of their failure to perform 
the contract. 

(Sup. Ct. Ore., Blagen v. Thompson. 31 Pac. Rep. 
647.) 

Crossing of two Street Raikvay Tracks — Care required 
— Collision between Street Cars. 

Deceased was a driver of a horse car, in the employ of 
the West Chicago Street Railway Company, and was 
thrown from his car and killed by a collision which 
occurred between the car which he was drivintf and a 
grip car crossing its track. 

Where street cars of two different lines have equal 
rights at a crossing of their tracks, the fact that the hind end 
of the car upon one of them is struck by the front end of 
the other, while passing over such crossing, of itself and 
without explanation, raises the presumption that the collid- 
ing car was carelessly managed. * * * 

Any increase in speed of the horse car or lessening of 
the speed of the grip car only makes the case worse for - 
the grip driver. He was bound to see the horses when 
they entered upon the cable track, and if he did see them 
there was no rate of speed shown by the evidence of both 
or either of the cars that would render it impossible for 
him to stop the grip before he struck the rear end of the 
horse car, if he exercised reasonable diligence to do so. 
If he did not see the horses take the crossing, or havinc 
seen, did not apply his brake in time, or with sufficient 
power, then he was negligent. If he undertook to calcu- 
late the rate at which the horse car was moving and by 
that calculation gauged his own speed, he took the risk 
of all errors in his estimate. Nor is he relieved by any 
sudden or unexpected slackening of the speed of the 
horse car in going over the track. The horse car had 
the crossing and the gripman was bound to so govern the 
movement of his train as that whether the horse car went 
fast or slow, and even if it came to a dead stop with the 
rear end still in the cable track, he could stop before 
striking it. 

(Ills. App. Ct. Chicago City Railway Company v. 
McLaughlin. 40 Ills., App. Rep. 496.) 



A PROMINENT coal dealer of Winnipeg, Manitoba, has 
given the use of his offices as a waiting station for street 
railway passengers. The gentleman thinks the adver- 
tisement worth the trouble. Many other railways may 
profit by this exchange of courtesies. 



82 



TWO POWER HOUSE FIRES. 



JANUARY seemed ambitious to keep up December's 
reckless record in the matter of destruction. The 
year is j'oung yet but if this thing continues we 
shall be compelled to call for a special insurance rate on 
power houses. 

On the sixteenth of the month the Tiffin Electric Light 
Compan}''s plant, including the almost complete power 




RUINS OF TIFFIN PLANT. 



house that was to furnish the electricity for the two rail- 
ways at Tiffin, Ohio, was laid in ashes. The loss was 
$30,000, partially covered by insurance. 

Three hours earlier, the same mornin<r, tire was dis- 
covered at the machine shops of the Central Railway 
Company at Peoria. Before the fire could be controlled 
the entire plant was in flames. This loss involves $20,000 




THE FIRE AT PEORIA. 



on buildings, $12,000 on engines and boilers, $6,500 on 
machinery, $35,000 on electrical equipment, and $27,500 
on nine motors, making a total of $101,500. The insur- 
ance was $61,500. 

In the latter conflagration two employes were consider- 
ably burned about the face in their efforts to escape. In 



both cases the firemen worked at a disadvantage from 
late arrival and lack of water. There ought to be under 
ordinary circumstances proper facilities in every car barn 
and power house for fire protection. 

The Review artists were earl}' at the scene of action, 
as our engravings of the events testify. 

The Lindell, St. Louis, narrowlj' escaped a serious 
blaze at its car barn on Fairfax street. The flames in 
this case were discorered in time, and made a loss of 
onl)' $600. The fire was extinguished by running the 
burning car out of the barn. This happened January 11. 



EVERETT, WASH., ELECTRIC ROAD. 



NINETEEN months ago the spot of land at 
present occupied by the city of Everett, Wash., 
was a w ilderness of fir and cedar trees. To- 
day 5,000 inhabitants have dispossessed the original settlers 
and built 18 modern brick blocks and many miles of 
planked streets and plank walks over the former theater 
of the forest primeval. 

Factories, too, have settled down upon this pleasant 
spot. On the Puget Sound or salt water side of the town 
a nail factory is already turning out 200 kegs of wire 
nails per diem; the south part boasts of a large paper 
mill, a steel barge works on the northern side, with a lib- 
eral garnishment of lumber factories, shingle mills and a 
pressed brick factory. 

With its situation on the Snohomish river and Puget 
Sound, and being the terminus of the Great Northern, 
Everett has a great future, and the Everett Railway, 
Power & Light Company appreciates and has faith in 
this fact. This companj- has entrusted to Leo Daft the 
installation of a complete arc and incandescent light plant 
and seven miles of electric railway. In its power plant 
will be found Ball cross compound condensing engines in 
units of 200, 150 and 150; four tubular Washington 
Works boilers of Seattle; Westinghouse dynamos and 
40-horse-power, single reduction Westinghouse motors, 
under American Car Company's cars on McGuire trucks. 
The station will admit of an increase of 1,000-horse- 
power in the future. The seven miles, standard gauge 
track with one loop, 3 turnouts and 7 curves has an over- 
head construction of No. i hard drawn copper wire. 
The small car equipment is at present all the trafEc 
demands. But increase of cars 'and service will surely 
follow the success that is sure to be attained by Everett 
and its railway. 

NORWICH, CONN., LINES CHANGE HANDS. 



THE Norwich, Conn., Street Railway Companj' has 
passed into the Hands of a Boston syndicate and 
the following Boston men will act as trustees: 
Wm. A. Tucker, John T. Crocker and Francis Peabody, 
Jr. The old management will probably be retained, 
with E. P. Shaw as superintendent. 



It takes 250,000 feet of natural gas per day to run the 
power plant of the Ft. Wayne, Ind., railway. 



83 



ONE LARGE VERSUS SEVERAL SMALL 
CAR BARNS. 



A SYMPOSIUM. 



THE recent destructive car barn fires at Milwaukee, 
Boston, St. Louis and other places of less note, and 
consequent loss of rolling stock, have been the 
cause of some question as to the advisability of storing a 
large number of cars in one place. 

With a view of ascertaining the opinions of some of 
our most noted managers, the Review wrote to a half- 
dozen in various cities, asking their judgment on the 
question. Their replies make up the present symposium. 

J. E. RUGG, 

superintendent of the Citizens' Traction Company, of 
Pittsburg, says: "In m}' opinion circumstances ought to 
govern, but I prefer small car-houses well distributed, 
instead of concentrating a large amount of property in 
one place. A verj- long route with large equipment is 
better operated by having a car house at each end. I 
.hink the power house should be separate from the car 
storage." 

HENRY HURT, 

president of the Washington & Georgetown, of Washing- 
ton Cit}', replies: -'We favor car houses at the termini of 
each line." 

JOHN N. BECKLEY, 

of the Rochester, N. Y., railway, states that his opinion 
inclines to one large rather than to two small car houses 
on an electric road, and this at the center of the S3'stem. 
This method gives the superintendent the best opportun- 
ity to manage the plant, as well as giving more economi- 
cal service. 

TOM L. JOHNSON, 

of the Brooklyn line, at Cleveland, O., drops legislative 
duties long enough to write from the House of Rep- 
resentatives at Washington. Mr. Johnson says: "With 
smaller companies having 50 cars or less I prefer one 
car house. When the companies are large my practice 
has led me to limit the contents of one house to not over 
100 cars, multiplying houses beyond that point. But 
really it is very hard to lay down a rule, as so many ele- 
ments enter into the question." 

THOMAS II. m'lEAN, 

general manager of the Houston, West Street & Pavonia 
Ferry Railroad Company, of New York City, replies: "I 
fail to see wherein a large depot should not be as safe 
from fire as smaller ones, assuming that every precaution 
is used. I attach great importance to the use of the wet 
pipe sprinkler system, having had personal knowledge of 
their efficiency in checking fire prior to the arrival of the 
department. It is of course essential to have an efficient 
staff of watchmen. If several divisions are concentrated 
in one the building might be isolated to an extent, thus 
reducing the risk considerably. 



GEO. \v. baumhoff, 
of the Lindell, of St. Louis, declares unequivocally in 
favor of the large car house, provided the arrange- 
ment of the tracking is such as to facilitate the removal 
of cars in case of fire. Mr. Baumhoff says: "A large car 
shed can be built with track similar to switch track in 
steam railroad yards, which, on account of the loss of 
room in car sheds having less depth, would be a decided 
disadvantage. A car shed with the longest possible 
length, having one main track crossing and leading into 
each main track at each end of the building, is in my 
opinion the best adapted and least e.xpensive to maintain, 
and insures less loss of space." 

C. S. SERGEANT, 

of the West End, of Boston, thinks that if proper fire 
protection is afforded that the large car house has the 
advantage. He suggests that the barn be constructed in 
fire proof sections. Mr. Sergeant also states: "The car 
house should be so situated as to get the greatest amount 
of time on the street for the men employed in the car 
service within the number of hours' labor which are 
established to constitute a day's work. This element of 
expense I should deem of more consequence in determin- 
ing the location of houses than the expense incident to 
protection against fire." 

The Review will be pleased to hear from other man- 
agers having views on this highly important question. 



NEW DEAL AT SEATTLE. 



THE Seattle Consolidated Street Railway Company 
has undergone changes that may result in changes 
on all the Seattle roads. The new president is F. 
T. Blunck, of Davenport, Iowa, and the stock is now con- 
trolled by eastern men. C. S. Clark, of Kansas City, 
will have the management of the road, and it is the inten- 
tion to devise means for consolidation with other of 
Seattle's numerous roads. Seattle has 104 miles of sin- 
gle track, but divided among so many lines that few of 
them are paying expenses. Previous attempts at consoli- 
dation have failed, but it is thought that eastern capital 
may be able to effect it. 



HOW LONDONERS TRAVEL. 



IN " dear old Lunnon, d'ye know," it takes 10,000 
horses to work the extensive 'bus system on which 
so great a portion of the metropolitans depend for 
transit and the road cars require 3,000 more. Besides 
this 20,000 tram horses are in use hauling two and a half 
ton cars. Each omnibus weighs one and a half tons and 
carries a ton of passengers, earning forty-four shillings or 
$11.00 per diem. The capital required for the omnibus 
service is $7,500,000, and for the tram lines $17,500,000. 
The average cost of food per week is $2.50 per horse. 



The corner of Bleeker street and Broadway has been 
bought by the Metropolitan, of New York, for $750,000. 
An office building will probably be erected. 



84 



THE TROLLEY BOY. 




of the amusing features of some Old 
World lines, to an American at least, is 
a functionary who would be known in 
English as the trolley boy. It seems 
that the epidemic common here a few 
years ago, which caused the trolley to 
leave the wire at inconvenient times and 
places, has traveled eastward, contrary to the general 
rule, and now turns up in Europe. We admit, how- 
ever, that the European method of curing this trouble 
is an original one, and gladly give them credit for it. 
On the Vevey-Montreux road in France the current 
is taken from two copper tubes of .6 inch inside diam- 
eter, slotted on the under side and with the contact 
sliding inside. These tubes are hung from wooden 
brackets and have steel wire along the top to help 
prevent sag. As there is some trouble at switches the 
company emploj'S a trolley boy to roost on the car roof 
and keep the trolley " in the way it should go." At 
another place where the under running trolley is used 
the boy stands with the rope in his hand, on the rear 
platform, ready to replace it whenever it runs oH. And 
now word comes that the Staffordshire trolleys described 
in our December issue come off frequently in regular 
service. Americans rather expected this although ear- 
nestly hoping that the Staffordshire S3'stem would be a 
success, and it may yet be with slight modifications. One 
English paper even goes so far as to suggest that a 
trolley boy may eventually be necessary on the above 
line. We fear that the gravity of an American street 
railway man would be seriously disturbed by the sight of 
a trollej' boy vainly striving to steer the "cranky" double 
jointed trolley around one of the sharp curves on the 
above road, for the reason that Americans have latel)' 
been given to understand that their experience and 
patient work for the last ten years has been thrown awa}', 
and that England would now proceed to show the world 
how to build trolley lines. 



NEW CABLE LINE FOR PHILADELPHIA. 



THE directors of the Philadelphia Traction Company 
have voted to rebuild the entire cable system, put- 
ting in the most modern and approved methods 
and appliances. A power house for the electric feeder 
lines will also be built in the North-central part of the 
city. Samuel Hart & Sons will probably take the con- 
tract for the power houses and the Field Engineer- 
ing Company for the electrical equipr»ent. The direc- 
tors are heartily in favor of sparing no expense to 
make the new lines the best that money, brains and 
pains will procure. The paving which the road lays 
will be asphalt, block or brick, as the residents along 
the line may vote. The manifest intention of the Trac- 
tion Company to make the facilities the best ought to 
be met with the utmost consideration on the part of the 
citizens. 



PASSENGER TRAFFIC IN ST. LOUIS IN 1892 

THE St. Louis railways have officially published 
their traffic totals for 1892. The returns are 
gratifying and read as follows : 

Missouri Railway _ _ 14,708,1^6 

Lindell 12,411 ,794 

St. Louis 12,301,596 

Union Depot 10,628,535 

Citizens' 9,372,125 

FourLli St. & Arsenal (leased) 22,532 

Baden & St. Louis 193,144 

Union Line 820,497 

Bellefontaine 3,072,992 

Cass Ave & Fair Grounds 4,151,592 

Jefferson Ave _... ii9S7<5Si 

Mound City 4,484,728 

Nortliern Central _ 1,046.508 

Peoples' 4.731.379 

St. Louis & Suburban 7i037.685 

.Soulliern _ 4,744,761 

Total 91,685,576 

This shows an increase of ten and a half million pas- 
sengers over last year and twenty-five million over 1890. 
Nearly all railway stock reported is above par, Jeffer- 
son avenue bringing $300 and Union Depot $200. The 
index of a city's material prosperity is its railways, 
which rule shows St. Louis to be in a highly prosperous 
condition. 

SYNDICATE AT BRIDGEPORT. 

THIC new syndicate which has bought the East End 
fine at Bridgeport, Conn., at the head of which is 
Col. N. H. Heft, is attempting to gain control of 
the " old line " — the Bridgeport Horse Railroad Com- 
pany'. Chas. Hotchkiss, the owner of the latter line, 
however, [wants $100,000 more than the syndicate are 
willing to pay and matters are at a standstill. Should the 
syndicate gain control the whole Bridgeport system will 
be rebuilt and electrified, giving as high a grade of ser- 
vice as can be found anywhere. 

A GOOD RECIPE FOR WHITEWASH. 

TO make a good whitewash for car barns take a half 
bushel of good unslacked lime and slack with 
boiling water, covering up during the process to 
confine the steam. Strain the liquid and add a peck of 
salt dissolved in warm water, three pounds of ground rice 
boiled to a thin paste, a half pound of Spanish whiting 
and one pound of clean glue previously dissolved by 
thorough soaking. Heat this mixture just below the 
temperature of boiling water. (This can best be done 
by putting the kettle inside another kettle of boiling 
water). Add five gallons of hot water and stir well. 
Let stand for five days. Coloring matter can be put in 
if desired. This kind of whitewash has been on the 
White House for vears, and is nearly as good to-day as 
when applied. 

John Greenleaf Whittier's estate was found to 
amount to $133,000, mostly invested in railroad and elec- 
tric stocks covering over 100 investments. 



85 



THE NEW LINE AT COLUMBIA, PA. 



DECEMBER 21, 1S92, was a red letter day in 
Columbia for the Columbians and for William 
Given, all on account of the opening of one of 
the prettiest little electric railwa}- plants in the great old 
state of Pennsylvania. 

The power equipment of the road is just such as Pres- 
ident Given would be expected to buy, and consists of 
one 1 2_5-horse-power Ball & Wood horizontal, automatic 
cut-off engine. The engine is fed from a Supplee Steam 
Engine Compan\-'s horizontal tubular boiler, 6 feet di- 
ameter by 18 feet long, with 122 three-inch tubes. Its 
horse-power is 125. A No. 8 Otis heater, Worthington 
pump and Korting injector complete the Kst of steam 
appliances. The electric equipment consists of one 125- 
horse-power Westinghouse multi-polar railway generator 

and four car equipments 
of eight 20-horse-power 
Westinghouse motors, 
single reduction. J. G. 
Brill Company made 
the four motors and 
two trail cars, each 18 
feet over all. 

The rail is 66-pound 
Johnson girder, care- 
fully bonded. The 
gauge is standard. 

The buildings of the 
company consist of a 
car shed 30 by 100 feet, 
a boiler room 25 by 60, 
an engine room 20 by 
48, two stories high, 
and an office building 
of two stories. 
The principal spirit in the enterprise is William B. 
Given, whose portrait is herewith presented. Mr. Given 
is a lawyer by profession, but finds time between ques- 
tions of legal importance to put forth his best energies in 
any direction that will develop the interests of his city. 
This loyal citizen in return is loyally supported by other 
loyal citizens, who willingly concede Mr. Given the honor 
of the enterprise. The other members of the manage- 
ment of the Columbia Electric Railway Company are 
Joseph Janson, treasurer, and Frank S. Given, superin- 
tendent. 

On the day of the inauguration of the system President 
Given tendered a banquet and inspection trip to the 
prominent citizens, stockholders of the road, and news- 
paper men of Columbia. 



INSURANCE RATES NOT AFFECTED BY 
THE TROLLEY. 




WILLIAM GIVEN. 



"Conductor! Conductor!" screamed an e.xcited old 
lady as she pushed on to the platform of a Pittsburg car, 
the other day, "well ma'am ?" "There's a drunken man 
in there with his arms around a young lady. You ought 
to see about it !" "Is it embarassing to the lady ma'am?" 
asked the conductor in good faith. The crowd howled. 



THE most fertile imaginative product of the century 
is the trolley liar. He lies by note, and runs the 
whole gamut from the high C of the deadly wire 
to the gutteral G of the fire insurance rate. He lies twice 
as fast as the campaign liar, and is believed eight times 
more. 

The latest howl comes from the New York Tribune, 
and a supposititious interview with J. H. Washburn, vice- 
president of the Home Insurance Company, reads as fol- 
lows : " Last summer the Board of Fire Underwriters gave 
notice that the insurance rates would be raised if the trol- 
ley came onto the island." A letter from Mr. Washburn, 
of January 11, says: " The Board of Fire Underwriters 
is not a rate-making body, and the only action taken has 
been the ordering of an investigation of the Tariff Asso- 
ciation." This report has not been yet made. 

The same bright young man who gets up interviews 
says in the same article: "Insurance rates were raised 
in Boston last fall because of fires attributed to trolley 
wires." We give in rebuttal to this bare-faced " fake " 
the following letters from Osborne Howes, Jr., secretary 
of the Boston Board of Fire Underwriters, 55 Kilby street, 
Boston: " While the rates of insurance in Boston are 
higher than they were before the introduction of the trol- 
ley system, this change is by no means one of cause and 
effect, but is due largely to the fact the fire losses through- 
out the I'nited States have been for the last two years so 
large that it has been necessary for fire underwriters in 
all parts of the United States to materially advance their 
rates, and Boston has simply joined the procession. While 
there have been fires attributable to trolley wires, it cannot 
be shown that any were of serious consequence; nor would 
justify any change in rates." 

Fire Marshal Lewis, of Brooklyn, promptly brands the 
story of the Washington Star, reprinted in the New York 
World, in which it is said that several insurance compa- 
nies have closed their offices and are leaving Brooklyn to 
its fate. Mr, Lewis remarks: "There is not a particle 
of truth in the rumor that the introduction of the trolley 
has caused the insurance companies to close their offices, 
or refuse to renew old risks. Rates have been too low 
in Brooklyn, and there is a tendency to increase them. 
I know of no fire in Brooklyn which has resulted from 
the trolley." 

B. C. Thorn, secretary of the Brooklyn department of 
the Phenix Company, makes substantially the same state- 
ment as Mr. Lewis, and the general summing up of the 
case is that advices from a dozen other companies contain 
the same statement. 

The lie that is part the truth is so much the more a lie. 

The veterinar}' department of the Government of 
Great Britian states that the number of cases of glanders 
increased from 947 in 1890 to 1,260 in 1891, and the 
animals suffering from farcy from 861 in 1890 to 1,175 
last year. 



86 



WILLIAM RICHARDSON. 



A BIOGRAPHY. 



THE subject of our sketch this month is Mr. 
William Richardson, who has been so well 
known throughout street railway circles as the 
President of The Atlantic Avenue Railroad 
Company, of Brooklyn, New York. He was born in 
Berkhampsted, Hertfordshire, England, on December 
Sth, 1822. His parents soon after moved to London, 
and what schooling he had was obtained in that city 
before he reached ten years of age. At this age he 
entered the services of a barrister in Elm Court, Middle 
Temple, London, where he remained several years, dur- 
ing which time he had opportunities for self-improvement 
and quite an extended course of reading. In 1834 '^'^ 
father, with William and another son, John, came to this 
country, and located at Mt. Vernon, Ohio. The trip from 
New York to Ohio occupied one week by the quickest 
routes; the journey being made by steamboat to Albany, 
thence by cars to Schenectady, by way of the Erie Canal 
to Buffalo, and the remainder by steamboat on Lake 
Erie. William was at once engaged in the office of the 
Knox County Republican, where he remained over a 
year, and after service on a farm with relatives and in 
several stores in Mt. Vernon, the family moved to Albany, 
N. Y., in 1840. This was the year of the Harrison cam- 
paign, and he took an active interest in it. 

His experiences in Albany, where he resided for 
twenty-five years, were somewhat varied. He was suc- 
cessively a hotel clerk, an umbrella maker, and finally 
opened a paper and paper-hanging store, in which he 
continued until 1850. In September, 1844, he .was mar- 
ried to Miss Mary Freeman, and they look forward to 
the celebration of their Golden Wedding next year. Both 
are in good health and there is every reason to believe 
that their expectations will be realized. Seven children 
were born, four of whom are now living — a daughter and 
three sons — one of whom is William J. Richardson, Sec- 
retary of the American Street Railway Association and 
The Street Railway Association of the State of New 
York. 

In politics Mr. Richardson was always opposed to 
slavery, and since the advent of the Republican party has 
been its earnest adherent. In 1857 he was elected Clerk 
of the New York State Assembly, and was re-elected for 
the two terms following; and during the memorable ses- 
sion of 1858, when there was a "tie" in the House, he 
performed the duties of both Clerk and Speaker for six 
weeks. As a result of this severe mental and physical 
strain he was prostrated with a fever, and his hair became 
white, which is now so distinctive a feature of his person- 
ality. Subsequent to this he was engaged for a short 
time as a proof reader on the Albany Evening Journal, 
and the training received there has endured through his 
life, as anyone knows who has had occasion to observe 
his exactitude. On June ist, 1861, he was appointed 
Additional Paymaster in the United States Army, and 



after a service of three years, when located at New 
Orleans, tendered his resignation and returned home. In 
1870 Mr. Richardson received the Republican nomina- 
tion for Alderman of the Twenty-second Ward, Brook- 
lyn, and although the ward was strongly Democratic, was 
elected and re-elected in 1872. He accepted a nomina- 
tion by Republicans for State Senator in 1878 but was 
defeated. This ended his political aspirations, if he evey 
had any. 

Mr. Richardson's introduction to the street railway 
business took place in 1865, when he was elected a direc- 
tor of the Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery Railroad 
Compan}', of New York City. A few weeks afterward 
he was elected president, and his management of the road 
in a short time, b)' means of several judicious extensions 
and the grant of new rights, more than trebled the 
receipts. In 1867 he was induced to take a lease for 
forty years of the Jamaica Railwaj' Companj', a road run- 
ning between Brooklyn and Jamaica, and he undertook 
the control of this road as a personal enterprise. Every- 
thing connected with the road was run down, and Mr. 
Richardson had a decidedly uphill undertaking before 
him, but kept manfully at it until 1872, when, being 
unable to meet a first mortgage on the property which 
became due that year, a sj-ndicate was formed by which 
the road was purchased and the franchise and equipment 
transferred to the Atlantic Avenue Railroad Company, 
which was then organized. 

Mr. Richardson is largely known as "Deacon" Rich- 
ardson, but this prefix is entirely mythical. It was con- 
ferred upon him at a time when, having laid a certain 
track early one Sunday morning (an injunction restrain- 
ing the company from doing which having expired Satur- 
day night) charges of disorderlj' walk were brought 
against him in the Hanson Place Baptist Church, of which 
he was a member, and it was out of the newspaper 
reports of this occasion that the title grew. 

Mr. Richardson recently consummated a sale of the 
rights, property and franchises of the Atlantic Avenue 
Railroad Company, and realized therefrom large personal 
irains, havinor been a verv large shareholder in the com- 
pany. He now retires at the age of seventy years from 
active life. He is a man who has been capable of great 
physical and mental effort, with a clear idea of what he 
wanted to do and a strong will which enabled him to 
accomplish it. He has been the subject of more or less 
unfriendly criticism; but this, as we know, follows 
naturally upon the president of a street railway cor- 
poration; although we are glad to say, en passant, 
that the feeling against street railways and their otficials 
is not so harsh as in former years. Mr. Richardson has 
figured conspicuously in the combats with the Knights of 
Labor, his road having been made an especial mark for 
some of their most unreasonable demands. It was on 
his road that the two greatest street railroad strikes in 
the east were inaugurated — March, 1886, and January, 
1889. The first strike continued three days, during 
which time all the street railroads in New York and 
Brooklyn were involved, and the concessions demanded 




WILLIAM RICHARDSON, 

Brooklyn, 
For 25 years President Atlantic Avenue Railroad. 



:,FREELIBP.£:.T, 



^, 



lirjMOB: 



87 



were acceded to. The strike of 1S89 was of ten days' 
duration, and confined to this road alone, and after a hard 
struggle, during which manj' outrages were committed 
extending to murder, the company came off victorious. 
Mr. Richardson at this time was confined to his bed, but 
directed all the movements on the part of the companj'. 
He has been a prominent figure at the meetings of the 
American Street Railway Association, having attended 
all of them since the New York meeting in 1884, except 
the meeting in Cincinnati in 1886, and has usually been 
accompanied by his wife and daughter. 



ONE ON HER. 



LOST CAR IN CINCINNATI. 



THE superintendent of the Dayton, Cincinnati & 
Covington line at, Dayton, Ky. had an experience 
lately on one of his lines similar to that related 
by the late Calvin Richards in the days of the Metro- 
politan of Boston. It happened in this wise. The com- 
pany had lately put on its extra list a gentleman named 
"Jim" from "Central Kaintuck sah." Can you manage 
a carr" asked the superintendent dubiously-. " Enny fool 
orter be able to foller a track and git back," replied 
Jim, "Jes' gim me a trial, boss, and I'll git around." 
So Jim got a car one morning, and after cracking his whip 
in a professional manner headed his car for Cincinnati, 
across the river. His mind was not clouded by doubt 
and he went on with unsuspicious passengers and mules. 
Crossing the bridge an unforseen difficulty presented itself 
There was a net-work of track with not a mark to 
show whither they led. " Well, one's as good as 'tother," 
soliloquised Jim, " and the rule is turn to yer right." So 
to the right he went, taking everjf switch he came to 
The passengers meantime had taken to the sidewalk 
and the mules bewildered switched their tails and said 
nothing. 

Jim went on and on. The track seemed endless and 
the terminus removed itself further and further. "Git 
up thar," said Jim, " we'll git to the end if we keep 
going." Finallj- about five o'clock in the afternoon Jim 
called a halt and yelled to a passing citizen: " Say, boss, 
whar's Fountain Squar'P I've been travellin' all day and 
I can't find it." The citizen saw Jim's difficulty and 
mounting the car landed it at the bridge safe in "Kain- 
tuck." The last that was seen of Jim was in an exciting 
dialogue with the superintendent on time account and trip 
sheets. 

The Marks Railway Equipment Comtany, Cleve- 
land, is the new stock company, successors to Marks & 
Sterling, and of which C. E. Marks is president. The 
new organization was made necessary by the rapid 
increase in the company's business which has demanded 
constantly enlarged faciHties for manufacture. The city 
of Cleveland has long had a national reputation for street 
railway supplies, and the success of President Marks is 
proving no exception to the rule. Their joint bridges 
and other track specialties are being rapidly introduced. 
Harrison & Carey have become Chicago agents and will 
actively pu.sh the good work in this territory. 




SHE had escaped the perils of the guard, the gate 
and the gang and settled herself in a South Side 
elevated car. Her lap was full of bundles, show- 
ing that the day's shopping was done, and her black 
alpaca gown was very becoming. But all the above 
enumerated mercies did not make her 
happy. Her drawn-down mouth and 
restlesg eye showed outwardly an in- 
ward grief. Finally her feet began to 
shufl^le and it became apparent to the 
philospher that the bran new pair of 
shoes that encased her pedal extremities 
were at least a size too small. This 
solved the question. They looked well, 
but, oh my! how they did pinch. Several persons left the 
train at Twenty-first street and she saw her opportunity. 
She stooped over, fumbled her skirts, and with a sigh of 
relief leaned back with an almost beautific expression. It 
was plain that the offending shoe had been removed. 
" Fifty-fifth, all out, faraswego!" yelled 
the guard in his best Calumet dialect. 
Then the trouble began. She fumbled 
the skirts with vigor, but the abused 
foot rebelled. It had swollen and re- 
fused. Concealment was not longer 
possible. The woman jerked and 
sawed, said something between her 
clenched teeth and fourteen horrid men 
laughed, when a disconsolate female 
limped out on the platform with her arms full of bun- 
dles, and one shoe in her hand. But the look on her 
face was nearh' akin to fighting lunacy, and the philos- 
opher walked two blocks the wrong way to keep out 
of her road. 




THE DISADVANTAGES OF LONG TRAILERS. 



S' 



OME faceteous member of the Rapid Transit 
Board of New York has a point well taken when 
W. J he says : "Take any down town day car and 30 
per cent of the passengers are women, 40 per cent men, 
and 30 per cent boys and girls. Now it is demonstrable 
that a person can safely approach within four feet of a 
woman with the present long trained dresses. Now as 
most men measure only eleven inches through the dorso- 
ventral section, one woman takes up the space of four 
men in getting on and off trains and standing in the car. 
Thus 30 per cent of the women consume approximately 
80 per cent of the time for stopping, and the number of 
stops multiplied by the saving of time by one trainless 
skirt will give the net earning on one trip, to say nothing 
of packing qualities." 
Picture ! 



"NuRSiN(i Tkamcaks " is what they say in England 
when a wagon obstructs the passage of a street car. In 
this country much more emphatic terms are considered 
jis unequal to the necessities of the occasion. 



ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS, 



BY PKOF. GEORGE D. SHEPARDSON, OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA. 



THE electrical measurements required for ordinary 
commercial purposes are those of current, electro- 
motive force and resistance. These are usually 
quite simple when dealing with direct currents. Measure- 
ments of current and electromotive force are compara- 
tively easy, and, since they are used in most methods for 
measuring resistance, they will be considered first. 

Current is measured by connecting an "ammeter" into 
the circuit. The ammeter measures the rate at which 
the current is passing, as an anemometer measures the 
rate at which the wind is blowing. A "current-meter" 
or "recording ammeter" measures the product of the rate 
by the time, or the ampere-hours, as a water meter 
measures the total number of cubic feet of water passed. 
A "voltmeter" connected to any two points, measures the 
difference of potential (electromotive force, pressure or 
voltage) between them as a manometer tube measures 
the difference of pressure between the ends of the tube. 
Electrical measuring instruments may be either "direct 
reading" or "zero" instruments. The former give the 
value of the measurements directly by the amount of 
deflection of a pointer. In the latter class some part of 
the instrument must be adjusted until the pointer comes 
back to its zero position, or the position it occupies when 
no current is passing. The position of the adjustable part 
when the balance is obtained gives the proper reading. 

The two classes are well illustrated by weighing scales, 
the spring balance being direct reading. The lever bal- 
ance is a "zero" instrument, since the load is balanced by 
adding or moving weights until the beam swings freely 




T H A. C. AND D. C. AMMETER. 



and the pointer stands at zero, or midway between the 
stops, the load being measured by the position or number 
of counter-weights on the beam. The advantage of the 
direct reading instruments is that they indicate any 
changes of the quantity being measured and do not 
require any handling. The advantage of zero instru- 
ments is that they ma}' be adjusted to closer measure- 
ments. Since zero instruments may be set to read zero 
at normal current or voltage, and may be so sensitve 



that a small variation will give a large deflection which 
may be seen across the room, they are of special value in 
the entwine room or dynamo room, where the machines 
must be regulated to give constant current or constant 
potential. 

What is commonly called an electric current is materi- 
ally diiferent from a current of water in that it cannot be 
observed by the senses directly. It can only be detected 
and measured indirectly by its effects. An electric cur- 




WESTON A. C. AND D. C. VOLTMETER. 

rent heats the conductor, produces a magnetic field in the 
surrounding space, gives the conductor an electric charge 
which attracts or repels other charged conductors, and 
chemically acts upon any portion of the conductor that 
may be a' liquid (unless the liquid be an elementary sub- 
stance). All these effects are proportional to the quantity 
of current, hence any one of them may be used as a 
measure of the current. 

Instruments based upon these effects may be arranged 
for use either as ammeters or voltmeters. For use as 
ammeters either the conductors in the instruments are 
made large enough to carry the entire current without 
introducing undue resistance and without being over- 
heated; or only a known fractional amount of the total 
current passes through the instrument, the remainder 
passing through a shunt. When used as voltmeters they 
are really only modified ammeters, the conductor being a 
fine wire of high resistance (an external resistance being 
sometimes added), so that only a small current will pass 
through the instrument when it is connected to the two 
points whose difference of potential is to be measured. 
By Ohm's well known law the current through the 
instrument will be the difference of potential divided by 
the resistance of the voltmeter; but since the resistance of 
the voltmeter is practically constant, the current through 
it is proportional to the difference of potential at its ter- 
minals, so that the instrument may be calibrated to read 

volts. 

P^lectro-magnetic measurements are based upon the 
fact that a current of electricity is surrounded by mag- 
netic lines of force which follow the path of least resist- 
ance. Since iron gives a better path for magnetic lines 
than air the lines will be- attracted to the iron, and (by 
their tendency to shorten) will tend to draw the iron into 
such a position as to furnish the shortest possible path for 
the lines of force. This tendency to move the iron may 



^@^^fa!^ %yi c »^ 



89 




T!IOMSOX-R1CE VOLTMETtK. 



be measured by the force required to balance it, the force 
being exerted bj- a spring, gravitj', magnetic field or any 
combination of them. 

The simplest and cheapest instruments for measuring 
current are based upon the tendency of a solenoid or coil 
of wire carrying a current, to draw or suck an iron core 
into itself, this motion being opposed by a weight (some- 
times that of the iron core), or by a spring. This class 
of instruments is illustrated by the well known Edison or 
Brush ammeters. 

If the core is not e.xactly 
in the center of the coil it 
tends to move away froui 
the center and get as close 
as possible to the wire. 
This is the principle used 
in the well known T.-H. 
ammeters and voltmeters 
for direct or alternating 
currents. A thin strip of 
soft iron is bent so as to 
form three sides of a rect- 
angle and IS pivoted ec- 
centricall}' inside a coil 
through which the current 
passes. As the iron strip 
rotates it comes closer to 
one side of the coil, the 
rotation being opposed by 
small counter weights or by the weight of the iron strip 

itself. 

A common method of measuring electricity is by the 
opposition of two magnetizing forces, on the principle 
that a movable body acted upon by two forces at right 
angles to each other assumes an intermediate position 
depending upon their relative intensities. In such mstru- 
ments one of the forces is generally of constant strength 
while the other varies. This principle is used in the 
ordinary form of Weston instruments, in which a coil of 
wire rotates in the field of a permanent magnet. The 
movable coil is connected with the electric circuit by 
delicate spiral springs. In the new Weston alternating 
and direct voltmeters the current through the mov- 
ing coil passes also through a stationary field coil, 
which replaces the permanent magnet of the other instru- 
ments. 

Another class of instruments closely allied to the above 
has a small permanent magnet called the "needle" for 
the movable part, the conductor being stationary and 
usually arranged as a coil with the needle at its center. 
The movable needle may be placed in the strong field 
between the poles of a horseshoe magnet, with the sur- 
rounding coil placed so that its magnetizing force is at 
right angles to that of the magnet. When no current 
passes the needle takes a position directly across between 
the poles of the magnet. Current through the coil tends 
to turn it at right angles to this position. The position it 
takes depends upon the strength of the current in the 
coil. This used to be a common form of instrument. 



illustrated by the Thomson-Rice voltmeter and some 
forms of Bergmann ammeter. 

When the conductor is a coil concentric with the needle 
and the controlling force is the earth or a magnet at a 
distance, so that the needle is in a comparatively weak 
and uniform field, the instrument is called a "galvanom- 
eter." The galvanometer may be made extremely 
sensitive by the use of very light needles suspended by 
long delicate fibres of silk or quartz. Usually the needle 
carries a mirror which reflects the light from a scale to a 
telescope, so that very small deflections may be read. 
Galvanometers have been made on which a current of 
TO (TO (fooTTuo ampere could be measured, but they are 
very delicate and can be used successfully only by skilled 
observers. 

Since a magnetic field surrounds every current, and 
since the magnetic lines tend to shorten, it follows that 




CUTLER HOT WIRE VOLTMETLR. 



parallel wires carrying currents in the same direction 
attract each other and those carrying currents in opposite 
directions repel. This principle is utilized in the ampere- 
balance, in which movable coils are pktced between 
parallel stationary coils, so connected that one attracts the 
movable coil while the other repels it. This tendency 
to move may be balanced by sliding a weight along a 
beam until the movable coil returns to its zero position 
midway between the two coils, as is done in the Thom- 
son balance. Or the movable coil may be allowed to 
take different positions and so be direct reading. 

In the second class of instruments the heating effect of 
the current is measured either by the longitudinal exten- 
sion of a portion of the conductor, or by the indirect effect 
of the heat upon other bodies. The extension of the 
heated conductor may be magnified by a train of gearing 



90 




CONNECTIONS OF HOWELT. LAMI' 
INDICATOR. 



with a long pointer attached, as in the Cardew voltmeter, 
or by a long lever arm, as in Cutler's new hot wire 
instruments. 

The chemical action of the current is largely used in 
laboratory work for testing or calibrating ammeters, and 
is used in one or more commercial forms of current regis- 
tering devices. Current passing through any liquid 
(except an elementary chemical substance), decomposes 
it. If two metallic plates are immersed in a solution of 

a salt of the same metal, 
current passing through 
will decrease the weight 
of one plate and increase 
that of the other, the 
amount of change being 
proportional to the 
product of the time and 
strength of the current. 
The chemical action of 
the current is not suit- 
able for ammeters sjnce 
it does not give the instantaneous value of the current. 
Nor is it suitable for use with alternate currents, since the 
chemical changes caused by the current while in one 
direction are almost exactly neutralized by the current in 
the reverse direction. 

As stated before, these various methods for measuring 
current may be adapted for use in measuring electro- 
motive force. There are other methods suitable for 
measuring electromotive force but not current. 

The first is the "potentiometer" or "fall of potential" 
method, which is based upon principles deduced from 
Ohm's law, that the potential of a current ilowing through 
a uniform resistance falls uniformly from one end of the 
resistance to the other. The difference of potential or 
voltage between any two points of the circuit has the 
same ratio to the total voltage whatever the latter may 
be. Also the portion of the vi'hole circuit, which must 
be taken to obtain a given voltage, depends upon the 
total voltage. 

This method is used in one of two ways for measuring 
higher voltages than the voltmeter could measure directly. 
The first is by inserting in series with the voltmeter 
any multiple of its resistance, so that the fall of potential 
through the voltmeter is a definite fraction of the total 
voltage. Thus if the extra resistance is twice that of the 
voltmeter the total resistance of the voltmeter circuit is 
three times what it was before. When the circuit is 
closed the voltage between the terminals of the voltmeter 
will therefore be only one-third of the total, and its read- 
ing must be multiplied by three. 

Another fractional melhod'is that introduced by M. D. 
Law, who measures very high voltages, such as those on 
arc light circuits, by connecting a series of incandescent 
lamps across the terminals of the circuit and measuring 
the voltages of the separate lamps by an ordinarj' volt- 
meter. The total voltage is the sum of these separate 
ones. For this purpose the voltmeter should have a 
resistance many times greater than that of each lamp, so 



that the current through the lamp will not be appreciably 
affected by it. 

The Edison Company has introduced a zero potentio- 
meter instrument in which a high resistance is connected 
to the two points whose voltage is to be measured. 
Shunted around part of this resistance is a second circuit 
including a battery of constant electromotive force and 
a galvanometer. One end of the galvanometer circuit is 
permanently connected to the main circuit while the other 
end ma}' be adjusted to make contact at different points. 
When the contact is made at the right point the electro- 
motive force of the battery equals the difference of poten- 
tial between the two points on the main circuit, and no 
current goes through the galvanometer. The position of 
the contact for obtaining a balance varies with the voltage 
at the terminals of the mstrument and a scale indicates the 
voltage corresponding to the different positions. 

Another well-known zero instrument used by the 
Edison company, the Howell Lamp Indicator, is based 
upon a further development of the fall of potential 

method. Since the 
potential falls from one 
end of a conductor to 
tlie other, it is evident 
that if current flows 
through two conductors 
connected in parallel, 
the ends of one conduc- 
tor will be at the same 
potential as the corres- 
ponding ends of the 
other. It is also evi- 
dent that for any point 
in either conductor a 
corresponding point 
may be found in the 
other conductor which 
will have the same po- 
tential, and if a galva- 
nometer were connect- 
ed to two such points, no current would flow through it. 
vSuch an arrangement is known as a Wheatstone bridge 
and is commonly used for measuring resistance. 

The Howell lamp indicator is a Wheatstone bridge, 
three sides of which are made of German silver and cop- 
per wire, while the fourth side is the carbon filament of 
an incandescent lamp. Carbon has the peculiarity that 
its resistance decreases with rise of temperature while 
that of most conductors increases. The galvanometer 
circuit is arranged with a sliding contact at one end, so 
that a balance may be obtained for any voltage at the ter- 
minals of the instrument. Suppose the indicator is ad- 
justed so that the galvanometer points to zero for a given 
voltage. If the voltage at the terminals is increased more 
current flows through both sides of the bridge, the resist- 
ance of the lamp decreases on account of its higher tem- 
perature while that of the wire is increased, and the lamp 
becomes a smaller part of the total resistance than before. 
The points connected with the galvanometer are therefore 




TIIOMSu:. Li.L n^u^. 1 ; 1 li \OLlMtLMJi 

(high presstre) 



01 



at different potentials and a current will pass between 
them, deflecting the galvanometer to one side. If on the 
other hand the voltage at the terminals is decreased, then 
the difference of potential between the term'mals of the 
galvanometer will be reversed and the needle will be 
deflected in the opposite direction. 

Another special method of measuring voltage is the 
electrometer or " electrostatic " method, based upon the 
fact that two surfaces charged with electricity of the same 
polarit}- repel each other and that two oppositely charged 
attract each other. The " quadrant electrometer " in its 
highly developed form is a delicate laboratorj- instrument, 
but modifications of it are well suited for ordinary use. 
The best known of these is the Thomson " electrostatic 
voltmeter," which, in various sizes and types, has a range 
of from 40 to 100,000 volts, and is equalh" suitable for 
direct or alternating electromotive forces. 

(^TO BE CONTINUED.) 



PHENOMENAL INCREASE OF TRAFFIC IN 
BUFFALO. 



TO show the tremendous increase in traffic on the 
Buffalo railway, General Manager Littell has pre- 
pared a monograph which was published in the 
city papers. In this review Mr. Littell states that in 1S90 
the total number of passengers was 16,211,846 to whom 
457,112 transfers were given. The increase in traffic for 

1890 showed 200,000 more in December than January. In 

1891 there were 18,780,595 passengers carried and 476,- 
295 transfers issued; an increase of 2,500,000. The year 

1892 showed 23,912,938 passengers and 6,575,148 trans- 
fers, with an increase of 5,200,000 passengers and 6,098,- 
847 transfers in that twelve month. With this tremen- 
dous increase the car mileage kept pace, ranging from 
3,566,274 car miles in 1891 to 5,447,500 car miles in 
1892, showing that accommodations kept pace as quickly 
as possible with the increase of traffic. 

In June, 1891, every car was operated by horse with 

the following showing: 

Miles of track, single §2^ 

Number of horse cars , 96 

Horses... _ ,, 1,264 

Passengers, daily , 53i*7- 

Paid transfers, daily _ 1,454 

Employes 750 

In twenty months the figures show : 

Miles track, single _ 114 ^V 

Horse cars 69 

Motor cars 8; 

Trailers 16 

Total cars 1*7 

Horses 982 

Passengers, daily 97.915 

Free transfers ii,9Sj 

Employes ■,.'i05 

In 1893 all horse lines will be changed to electric and 
100 motor cars are under contract. To operate this new 
equipment three engines of an aggregate maximum 
capacity of 2,250 horse-power, with the needed boiler 
equipment is now under way. All of these changes 



can not be made in a day, and with the present over- 
crowding of car orders alone the magnificent service 
given to the people of Buffalo should be a subject of con- 
gratulation to the millions using the poor man's carriage. 
It is safe to say that no other street railway system in the 
country has stood up more bravely under such a tremen- 
dous increase in traffic coupled with the difficulties attend- 
ing the reorganization of such an extensive service from 
the oldest known to the latest used. 



WAGONS MUST NOT DELAY CARS IN PENN- 
SYLVANIA. 



THE decision of Justice McCollum, of the Pennsyl- 
vania Supreme Court, reversing the decision of 
Common Pleas No. 2 of Allegheny county, in the 
case of Robert Winters vs. the Federal Street & Pleasant 
Valley Railway, appellant, gives some very pungent and 
readable remarks on the obstruction of rapid transit by 
teamsters and other vehicle drivers. The case referred 
to was that of a teamster who drove upon the track of 
the Federal street road, in order to remove a safe from 
his dray, and obstructed traffic. 

Here it seems that his team suffered some, and in the 
action for damages the case was appealed and reversed 
by the Supreme Court, making the railway company 
the victor. 

In the decision. Judge McCollum substantially says: 
Now that rapid transit is recognized as essential to the 
business and prosperity of cities it is necessary to make 
the danger as little as possible, and that such actions as 
were practiced by the appellee are in defiance of safety 
and coinmon sense. With the introduction of cable and 
electric cars so much the more caution is required and the 
appellee's contributory negligence calls for an affirmance 
of the appellant's point and is a sufficient answer to the 
claim. 



LOUISVILLE CHANGES. 



THE introduction of the trolley into New Orleans 
will take from Louisville, Ky., a number of its 
inost experienced street railway men. A. H. Ford 
goes as secretary and treasurer of the new company. H. 
Mitchell Littell becomes general manager as previously 
noted. Benjamin B. Oilman resigns as superintendent 
of the Louisville Railway Company to accept a similar 
place at New Orleans, and J. O. Haddox takes his place. 
Lawrence Field succeeds Mr. Haddox. 



The returns from South Wales, England, tram lines, 
.show at Cardiff, 10,724,703 passengers carried on 53 
cars, at a profit of $10,0000 at Llauelly, 263,128 passen- 
gers, 5 cars; at other places, 4,525,554 passengers, 43 
cars. Only one line is operated mechanically and that 
by steam. 

A DRIVER of a Brooklyn, N. Y., car, who failed to an- 
swer signals, for several blocks, was, on investigation, 
found standing on the jilatform stricken with paralysis. 



92 



J. C. Weaver, superintendent of the Mt. Adams & 
Eden Paik Inclined Railway Company, is a man that can 
be trusted to keep his line going under all circumstances^ 
Some time ago when a gripman on his road became so full 
of election beer that it was dangerous to keep him on the 
car, in default of an extra man Mr. Weaver took the grip 
and kept the cars in motion. The action was heartily 
applauded by the public, and the company is to be con- 
gratulated on their superintendent. 



NEW CAR DESIGN FOR INTER-URBAN 
SERVICE. 



FROM Spokane, Wash., to the beautiful Coeur- 
'd Alene lake, 32 miles distant, an electric railway 
will soon be transporting the delighted citizens 
of that famous city. For use on this road, B. C. Riblet, 
of Spokane, the chief engineer of the Spokane & Coeur- 
'd Alene Railway & Navigation Company, has designed an 




PLAN VIEW RIBLET'S 1\TER-URBAN CAR. 



A NO i.Ess authority than the London Electrician 
gravely advises its readers, editorially, to place in each 
boot, before arising, an 8-candle power light. '-Boots 
being tolerably adialhermous," says the electrician, "their 
temperature will soon rise." This mav be an English 
joke, therefore we refrain from commenting on this anti- 
dote for cold feet. 



entirely new type of car, and one which is specially well 
adapted to the work to which it will be assigned. This 
car, which is about 40 feet in length, will have a seating 
capacity of 60 persons, with a separate compartment for 
carr3'ing freight and express, having a capacity- 6 by 8 by 
9 feet. A speed of 40 miles an hour on levels is contem- 
plated, and will doubtless be attained a good part of the 



TT rr 



II II II IT 




ELEVATION RIBLET'S INTER-URBAN CAR. 



Good Col. Elliott Shepherd, of New York, has a 
judgment of $50,000 against that disgrace to New York, 
the Fifth avenue stage line. We hope the Colonel will 
get possession of the affair and put a printed copy of the 
golden rule on every stage with other appropriate scrip- 
ture on the horses. 

The Southport, England, town council, has adopted a 
plan for constructing an electric road. It is also reported 
that a line will be opened in the Matlock district. The 
latter is a private affair. 



distance, as the grades do not exceed one per cent, and 
curves are also very light with the exception only of two 
ID-degree curves. 

Cars will be equipped with air brakes and upholstered 
with embossed leather, and the windows of plate glass; 
the entire finish being of palatial character. Outside of 
the regular passenger and freight business the company 
will do a big excursion business during the summer 
months. Trailers will be attached to motor cars to accom- 
modate the traffic at such times. The Coeurd' Alene 
Lake will be one of the termini of the road. This lake is 



tel:^^^ % - UiW? 



93 



a very beautiful sheet of water some 30 miles in length, 
situated in the heart of the Coeur d' Alene mountains) 
and abounds in fishing and hunting. It is ahead}' one of 
the most popular resorts of Eastern Washington. Our 
illustrations convey a ver} intelligent idea of the arrange- 
ment of the interior of the car. The observation room 
will be specially inviting and will also be the location for 
the motorman. Mr. Riblet has succeeded in planning a 
car strong in construction, of large carrying capacity and 
unusually attractive in both interior and exterior. 

The driving wheels are 42-inch diameter paper wheels 
with steel tires. The smaller wheels are 30 inches, of 
same make. Two 45 horse-power single reduction mo- 
tors will be used on each car. Car and motor equipment 
will weigh 9 tons. Controlling stands will also be placed 
on front platform for use in operating car when on that 
portion of the line within the city. Car will be painted 
tvorv white with gold trimmings. The distance from 



PERSONALS. 



A. E. TowNSEND, Pittsburg, is the new president of 
the Washington, Pa., electric railway company. 

Henrv Miller becomes president of the Suburban 
Rapid Transit, of Pittsburg. 



C. H. Cobb, general manager of the Kankakee Elec- 
tric Railway, made us a pleasant call recently. 

S. W. Hume has been selected as the new western 
representative of Power. 



Geo. a. Murch has resigned the superintendency of 
the Worcester, Leicester & Spencer Electric. 



C. S. Montgomery, a prominent attorney of Omaha, 
has been elected to the presidenc}- of the Houston, Texas 
City Railway Company, vice E. A. Allen, deceased. 



■r:^^lflSi"W^:.m 




NEW CAR FOR THE SPOKANE & COEUR D ALEXE RAILWAY * XAVIGATION COMPAKY. 



Spokane to the lake is 32 miles. Power will be derived 
from two water-power stations, one in the city and the 
other at Post Falls, on the line of the road 22 miles from 
Spokane. 

The pending bill in congress to allow the importation 
without duty of certain electrical machinery neccessary to 
the operation of electric railways at a verj' high speed is 
being fought by the General Electric Company through 
its counsel, E. C. Lewis. On January 12, before the 
senate committee, Mr. Lewis admitted his company had 
not, nor did he know of any in this country which had, 
ever built the special machinery in controversy, but ex- 
pressed his belief that they could do so in time. Dr. Wel- 
lington Adams, who is asking the passage of the bill for 
the Chicago-St. Louis electric, stated the apparatus need- 
ed by his road was made only in Germany, and that to 
wait for the perfection of machinery here would entail 
severe losses and delays upon his work. The bill is not 
a special concession as it applies to any high speed long 
distance road which may desire the same privileges here, 



Lewis J. Cox, vice-president and treasurer of the 
Terre Haute Car & Manufacturing Company, made the 
Review a pleasant visit during his last trip to Chicago. 



B. F. Harris, Jr., Champaign, 111., general manager 
of the Urbana & Champaign lines, has just returned from 
an eastern trip in the interest of his company. 



H. S. Cooper, of the Winston-Salem, N. C, road, 
has been appointed superintendent of the Alexandria & 
Mt. Vernon, of Washington, D. C. 



F. C. Davies, secretary of the Piqua. O., street rail- 
way, and Miss Margaret Johnson, of Cincinnati, were 
married last month. 



J. P. Kemi'Er, of New Orleans, recently of the Grea 
Western, has taken up residence in Chicago to engage in 
electrical construction. 

Ben B. Gilman, who as superintendent of the Louis- 
ville City has earned so enviable a record, has accepted 
the same position with the new consolidated in New 



04 



Orleans. Mr. Gilman is another example of self promo- 
tion, having started in as driver, and by sheer merit 
worked himself up to his present responsible and desir- 
able position. 

D. W. DoziER has assumed his office as chief engineer 
of the Kansas City Cable. Mr. Dozier is one of the most 
enthusiastic and capable engineers in the cable fraternity. 



JoHN.s Hopkins, vice-president of the Huntingdon & 
Broad Top railway, has been elected president of the 
Hestonville, Mantua & Fairmount Passenger Railwaj' 
Company, of Philadelphia. 



J. Louis VanNes.s, Jr., of New York, is associated 
with Harry Bishop, of the Massachusetts Chemical 
Company. These gentlemen, with offices at 823 Monad- 
nock, Chicago, will represent insullac in the west. 



Fred. S. Wardvvell, general manager of the Duluth 
street railwaj', and under whose guidance the company 
have been able to show so flattering a business, spent sev- 
eral days in Chicago, calling on the Re\ievv^ while here. 



G. Hellebruck, assistant in the railway department of 
the General Electric at Lyrin, has accepted the position 
of master merchanic with the General Electric Company 
at Brussels, Belgium. 

F. A. Reed, of the Washington, Alexandria & Mt. 
Vernon road, Washington Citj', has taken charge of the 
business relations of the company after putting the road 
in operation. 

E. F. Seixas. of the Street Railway Gazette, has 

accepted a flattering offer and becomes manager of the 

advertising department of the Chicago & St. Louis Elec- 
tric railroad. 

Geo. F. Talcott, the general sales agent of the Camp- 
bell Electric Supply Company, Boston, paid the Review 
a most pleasant \'isit during his recent very successful 
business trip in the west. 



John C. Weaver, the energetic and capable .superin- 
tendent of the Mt. Adams & Eden Park lines in Cincin- 
nati, has been making a trip inspecting the railway sys- 
tems of Chicago, St. Louis and other places. He made 
the Re\'iew a pleasant call while' in Chicago. 



Col. W. IL Sinclair, Galveston, exchanged for ten 

days, the icy weather of his home for the delightful sum- 
mer breezes of Chicago and New York, the first of the 
month. During his stay in Chicago, his two sons, who 
are studying at a military school in Michigan, paid him 
a visit. 

Wm. Riciiaruson, who as president of the Atlantic 
Avenue Railroad, Brooklyn, has managed its affairs in so 
signally successful a manner for the past twentj'-five 
years, has declined a re-election, although remaining with 



the compan)' in an advisory capacity. Mr. Richardson is 
one of the best known street railway managers in the 
country, and fully deserves a well earned enjoyment of 
relief from vexatious details. 



W. H. Shaffer, manager of the Richmond, Ind., 
road, is to assume charge of the Asbury Park, N. J., line 
of which his brother, John C. Shaffer, is president. The 
citizens of Richmond are very sorry to lose Mr. Shaffer. 
Fred Roth will probably' succeed as manager of the Rich- 
mond road. 



The South Chicago City railway is to be congratulated 
on its electrical engineer in the person of J. F. Esterbrook. 
He is one of those who has risen from the ranks of the 
every day electrician to a position where his recent labors 
have resulted in one of the finest electric plants in the 
country, and one in which he feels a just pride. 



S. H. Pierce and H. T. Purdv, general manager 
and general superintendent respectively, of the Tacoma 
Railwa}' & Motor Company, have assumed their duties. 
Mr. Pierce comes from the Northwest General Electric 
of St. Paul, and Mr. Purdy is a graduate of St. Paul street 
railway practice and Edison experience. Both are com- 
petent and progressive men. 



Mrs. Chas. T. Yerkes recently lost two beautiful 
7-carat diamonds in her New York hotel on Fifth avenue. 
A reward of $500 was offered for their recovery, and a 
servant girl in the house, three daj's later turned in the 
stones which she had found, and claimed the reward, 
which was promptly paid. The servant girl has since 
received forty-seven offers of marriage from the male 
attaches of the hostlery. 

Dr. a. E\erett, for the last 33 years president of 
the East Cleveland railroad, retires from his long and 
successful career by resigning these duties to his son, 
Henry A. Everett. Dr. Everett has well earned his va- 
cation, but his strong influence and kindly presence will 
be sorely missed in the meetings of the street railway 
fraternity. The result will be a reorganization. Henry 
A. Everett has a splendid personal record as well as good 
street railway heredity, having grown up with the com- 
pany. 

Geo. a. Cr.vgin, who Has scored so e.xcellent a record 
as general manager of the San Francisco branch of the 
Washburn-Moen Company, will take charge of the com- 
pany's interest at Houston, Texas, and be succeeded by 
Frank L. Brown, of Portland, Ore. The latter leaves the 
position of secretary' of the extensive interests of Mitchell, 
Lewis & vStaver, at Portland, to connect himself as above 
He is a most genial gentleman of wide business experi- 
ence and splendid executive ability. Mr. Cragin is 
already so well known to electric railway managers that 
it is quite unnecessary to add that he as fully is entitled to 
the good ijualities just attributed to Mr. Brown. Both 
gentlemen were in Chicago for a few days the past month, 



95 



A CHINESE CABLE LINE. 



PERHAPS many readers of the Reveiw are sur- 
prised at this title, but the " heathen Chinee " has 
learned more than one game from his occidental 
brethren. The latest cue taken is an improvement for 
getting up hill, which exercise is no more relished by the 
celestial pedestrian than by the inhabitants of San Fran- 
cisco. 

The citj' of Hong Kong, where the cable is installed, 
is on an island about twenty-seven miles in circumfer- 



mountain springs, on account of which feature comes 
the name Hong Kong — " sweet waters." A fine, six- 
story hotel with all modern conveniences ministers to 
the sea-worn traveler, and several beautiful resorts 
enable the residents to ameliorate the torridity of the 
climate. One of the most popular of these pleasure 
spots is known as the Peak and to this Peak our story 
has its most pointed reference. 

The Peak lies at the back of the town and has an 
elevation of i,8oo feet. To reach the top by foot requires 
more energy than is allowable to the ease-loving east- 




IJONG Kt.»NG tABLE RAILWAY — SHOWING UEl'KES^iOS PCLLE^. 



ence and is, by all odds, the most modern city in eastern 
Asia. Its record is much more like many new American 
towns than any on the continent. 

In 1 84 1 the island was only a rendezvous for pirates, 
but English money and Saxon ideas have made it a 
city of 200,000 souls, with a magnificent harbor, a 
civilized European municipal government and the only 
cable railway on the mother continent of our race. Eight 
thousand Europeans dwell in the island, and in their ships 
is taken the greater part of Chinese commerce. 

The island itself is beautiful — diversified by mountain 
peaks and well supplied with water from hundreds of 



erners, even for pleasure. It was necessary to devise 
other means to attain this end. Therefore the High 
Level Tramways Compan\', limited, with an eye to the 
sheckels, built the present cable line, which for 4,900 feet 
passes through the most beautiful of the hill residence 
portion of the town. The scene from the car is a 
magnificent panorama of fantastic residence, solid English 
houses, crystal brooks and green lawns culminating in a 
surprisingly beautiful landscape visible from the summit. 
On either hand may be seen the sea studded with 
islands and alive with the tiny boats of the natives and 
the greater vessels of the transpacific, and transatlantic 



96 



fet^^^#^ 



commerce. The mainland is distinctly visible, separated 
only by a nairow channel from the British-governed 
stronghold. 

The residence portion along the route is laid off in 
terraces, and one of the greatest points of interest is a 
stop at the Bowen road which stretches along for miles. 
This road is the city aqueduct paved over smoothly 
and is one of the most beautiful pleasure walks in the 
world. 

The cable road was opened for traffic in iS88, and was 
three years in construction. The gauge is five feet, and 
the grade averages one in four, with a minimum of one 



The cars are of the composite pattern on double trucks, 
32 feet long, weighing 4^^ tons empty. They carry 
fortj' passengers and two employes. 

For safety in this sensational climb, a clip-brake, grip- 
ping a center rail is used, and frequent governmental 
tests are made of the machinery and rope. 

Our engravings show the method of guiding the rope 
by means of pulleys placed at intervals for straight runs, 
lateral curves and concave vertical curves. The road is 
successful - commercially, and a great convenience to 
travelers. 

The personnel of the company's force is as follows: 




HUNG KONG CAULE — ONE CAK AUUVE AND ONE CAR BELOW I'Ol.NT WHEKE rilOTOURAri! IS TAKEN. 



in twenty-five and a maximum of one in two feet. The 
method used is the tail end system, with a cable 2H 
inches in circumference and breaking strain of fifty tons, 
made by D. H. and G. Haggle, Sunderland, England. 
The rope winds three times around the drum, which is 
eight feet in diameter at the bottom of the grooves. The 
motive power is furnished by two pairs of engines of 220 
indicated horse-power, made by Ruston, Proctor & Co., 
London, supplied by two 40 horse power semi-portable 
locomotive boilers. 

Municipal regulations require a speed of less than 9 
miles per hour. The actual speed, however, is from 
$j4 to 6yi miles an hour. 



I. F. Boulton, A. M. I. C. E., resident engineer; W. 
Smith, C. E., Aberdeen, Scotland, consulting engineer; 
I. D. Humphreys & Son, Hong Kong, managers. 



THE NEW YORK COMMISSION. 



THE ultimatum of the much-suffered New York 
Rapid Transit Commission is at hand. This ukase 
holds the underground road in abeyance, and 
declares that present needs shall be met with extensions 
of the elevated. The commission still adheres to the 
underground idea, and hopes for some capitalist to sacri- 
fice himself for future generations. 



97 



RAIL BONDING AND THE GROUND RETURN. 



Brief History of Methods— Present Difficulties— Reports from Leading Roads Throughout the Country. 



THE question of rail bonding and the ground return 
has been a living one ever since the operation of 
the first electric railway. One reason for this 
was the fact that in the early daj's the ground 
return was not made heavy enough or was soon overtaxed 
by the growth of traffic. The more recent troubles, how- 
ever, are from electrolysis. This latter acts much more 
quickly in some soils than in others, and depends in part 
on the amount of traffic and the metal used. Thus iron is 
thought to be much better for some soils while in others it 
is almost worthless. The fact still remains, however, that 
wherever there is moisture a bare conductor laid in the 
ground will be subject to electrolytic action. The ques- 
tion is how to reduce this action to as low a point as pos- 
sible. 

In the first roads the rails alone without any bonding 
were used. Of course so much power went to waste 
that something had to be done, and rail bonding was re- 
sorted to. The most primitive way of doing this was to 
simply rivet the bond wire to the rail ends. This gave 
trouble in most cases, because moisture would get in around 
the riveted joint and the result was poor contact ending in 
complete corrosion. The next step in the direction of 
bond improvement was to either weld or solder the bond 
wire to the rivet. There has been some complaint from 
poor contact at the weld in these cases, and faults are 
said to develop from the jarring of the rail end. Where- 
ever moisture gets in around connections there is liable to 
be trouble. Wedging in the bond with channel pins has 
found some favor. The more recent forms of bond are all 
made in one piece with the ends so fixed that they can be 
riveted into the rail end. It has recentl}' been suggested 
to protect the bond from moisture by slipping over it a 
block of wood slotted on one side to receive the bond and 
filled with pitch before application. Track feeders and 
connections to water and gas pipes were the next step in 
the evolution of the ground return. 

A typical railway system of the present will consist of 
some or all of the following features: Connections with 
gas and water pipes along the line and at the station; 
similar connections with ground plates, buried car wheels, 
etc.; bare track feeders run to different points along the 
road; bond wires (or double bond wires) connected to 
feeders and cross connected at regular intervals. In ad- 
dition, overhead return feeders are being installed at pre- 
sent in many places. There is much difference of opmion 
as to the relative merits of iron and copper for bonds and 
feeders. Some claim that there will always be chemical 
action between iron and copper when placed in the 
ground, while on the other hand the more numerous ad- 
vocates of copper point to the enormously greater m^iss 
of metal required to conduct a given current than would 
be required with the use of copper. It is very probable 
that the difference in soils is responsible for many of 
the differences of opinion on the iron and copper question. 



Quite recently plans have been suggested for the use of 
old rails as return feeders. By using a great number it is 
claimed that a sufficient cross section can be obtained 
while the use of worn out rails makes it cheap. 

It is evident that whenever the current is obliged to 
flow from the ground to a metallic conductor or from a 
conductor to the ground electrolysis will show itself on 
the metal. The aim then should be to prevent such pas- 
sage of current as much as possible by the use of low 
resistance metallic circuits, unless it is intended to use 
ground plates and renew them regularly. 

With the idea of obtaining information as to past expe- 
rience and present practice in this matter the Street 
Railway Review has written to a number of the older 
and larger roads of the country asking the following 
questions: 

How long has jour road used electricity.? 

Have you had any trouble with track bonding and the ground 
return.? If so what.? 

What methods have you used and what have been the results.' 

What do you consider the ultimate solution of the problem.? 

Have you ever tried dispensing with ground plates and depending on 
track feeders alone? 

Any complaint from water companies as to the oxidation of their 
mains from the current,? 

The answers received afford the greatest variety of 
practice conceivable. The soil, the traffic and the age of 
the road all show their influences in these answers. 

On behalf of the Review and its readers we take 
this occasion to thank our friends for their prompt and 
comprehensive replies. 

DENVER. 

Superintendent C. K. Durbin, of the Denver Tram- 
way Company, writes that their road has used electricity 
since December 25, i88g. The only trouble they have 
had with track bonding arose from the use of iron bond 
wires, where there was electrolysis caused by salt. At first 
they used iron bond wires and then No. 4 copper, but finally 
adopted No. o copper. He considers the solution of the 
problem to be good connections at the joints, good ground 
connections, such as water pipes, creeks, rivers, or any 
water body, and plenty of return feeders. The company 
has never used ground plates and has had no complaint 
from water companies. 

SALT LAKE CITY. 

The Salt Lake Rapid Transit Company have no track 
feeders but use bond wires cross connected about every 
500 feet. The bonds are Nos. 2 and 4 B. & S. copper 
wire tinned. These are set and soldered in the head of 
a malleable iron rivet. They are grounded to water 
pipes, artesian wells, waterways and any other places 
where a good ground is obtainable. No complaint from 
water companies. Some of their bond wires have been 
eaten out in six months and some have been in for two years. 



98 



The difference in soil causes this. Some galvanized iron 
bonds have been used b}' the side of copper but have not 
been in long enough to show what the}' will do. 

Jas. N. Smith, electrician of the Salt Lake City Rail- 
road Company, says that they use a No. 4 copper wire 
bond with cross bonds at every joint. They had tried 
dispensing with ground plates and using track feeders 
alone, but it was not satisfactory and they had found that 
if.the track bonding was poor there would be trouble 
from water pipes. Personally Mr. Smith says that he has 
installed some four or five electric roads and has found 
that good track bonding is necessary and that the return 
can not be too good. He has tried the feeder sj'stem and 
also tapping onto water pipes, but does not consider the 
latter good as it injures the pipes. 

OGPEN, UTAH. 

H. H. Smith, electrician of the Ogden City Street Rail- 
way, says that they use a No. 3 copper wire for return, 
and the bonds are connected directly to this, the joints of 
course being soldered. All wires are in as good condi- 
tion to-day as when first put down, in September, 1891. 
No complaints from water companies. Mr. Smith thinks 
it best to depend on feeders for a return. 

FROM DES MOINES. 

General Manager Hippee replies: "We use the rails 
bonded and an o wire on each track. The bond wires 
are soldered to the continuous wire and are cross connec- 
ted at close intervals. Our return wires have been in 
about three years. We have never had any trouble with 
them, except where we have an exxessive amount of cur- 
rent going through them near our power house, where 
the}' burned off; but this was on account of not having 
enough wires. We use some ground plates but not 
many. We ha\-e during the last sixty days put up over- 
head return wires, which are connected to the rails at 
intervals where our heaviest current is used, and think 
that this i^ much the preferable way. I believe that there 
is as much necessity for an equal amount of ground wire 
going back to ihe power house and to the generators as 
there is for feed wires to carry the current to \oi'r line." 

W.ASIIINGTON, D. C. 

The report from the Eckington & Soldiers' Home 
Railway, of Washington, D. C, says that they use a 
supplementary in connection with track bonding. Bonds 
are of No. 6 copper, held with channel pins, and the 
return has been in three 3'ears. They depend on track 
feeders alone for the return, and have had no trouble 
from electrolysis of water pipes. 

ANOTHER EASTERN CITY 

of over 100.000 inhabitants reports as follows: They have 
used electricity about eighteen months and have had no 
trouble wiih their return. They use rail bonds with a 
supplementar}' copper wire, and cross connections from 
rail to rail and between double tracks. In some cases 
only bonds are used. No ground plates are used, and 
here has bien no complaint from water companies. 



LA FAVETTE, INDIANA. 

Another very interesting and valuable reply is that of 
Superintendent J. S. Hill, of the Lafayette Street Rail- 
way Company. 

"I take pleasure in replying to 3'our favor of the 3rd 
inst. relative to ground returns for electric street railways, 
as I have read with interest the articles regarding this 
subject, and think it is one which all street railway men 
should give their careful attention. We are using nothing 
but the ordinary rail bond on our road here, that is, since 
rebuilding the S3Stem. We have removed the old copper 
ground wires which were put in in 1S8S, as they were 
entirely eaten through in manj^ places, and the light cop- 
per wire by which they were fastened to the rails was in 
nearly all cases gone entirely. Our bond wires are of 
galvanized iron, three-sixteenths to one-fourth inch diam- 
eter, riveted across the rail splice in the usual way on 
the T rail, with a cross bond from both rails every three- 
rail lengths. This we find very satisfactory, as our rails 
are fifty-six pounds to the yard, which gives us a large 
metallic surface for a ground return. There are also 
several ground plates which were used by the old system, 
but which I abandoned, as they were not reliable, and we 
use four No. 2 copper wires from the power house strung 
on poles, and in addition to this several short sections of 
rail sunk in the river and connected on switch board at 
power house. We have been using this for over one 
year with entire success, and we have had no complaints 
from water or gas companies regarding oxidation of their 
pipes, and in fact I have been compelled to use the 
natural gas pipes for a return during the extreme cold 
weather in the winter of 1S92, as we had torn up our 
track to relay it, and while the ground was wet we had a 
good return, but as soon as it became frozen it was almost 
impossible to run a car. But I connected the pipe at the 
power house to switch board and then to the branch line 
where we had the trouble, and succeeded in running 
everything all right. I believe the oxidalion of gas and 
water pipes due to electric current is caused by their not 
being connected directlv to the ground wires at the power 
house, or that they are used enlirely as a ground return, 
and have not sufficient surface to carry tlie heavy amper- 
age which street railways use. But it is an undoubted fact 
that the above subject is worthy of consideration on the 
part of all street railway men, as a good ground return is 
a necessity for the successful running of an electric street 
railway." 

(to be continued,) 



INDEFINITE POSTPONEMENT. 



Father of the Heiress — Whatareyourexpectations? 

The Suitor — I am to be manaijer of the Underground 
railway of New York. 

Father of the Heiress — Bless you, my son, when 
the road's built you can have her. 



Mr. Cleveland denies the story that he is in the St. 
Louis syndicate deal. 



99 



POWER STATION OF THE NEW HAVEN & WEST HAVEN STREET RAILWAY, 

NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



THE New Haven and West Haven Street Railway 
operates a line of double track road between 
"The Green" in the city of New Haven, Conn.^ 
and a seaside resort known as Savin Rock, in 
West Haven, with two branches in the residence district, 
being a total di5tance of 9 '4 miles, of which 4^ miles are 
double tracked. Their present equipment consists of 42 
cars, comprising seven open cars having two motors of 
30-horse-power each, and 16 cars equipped with one 30- 
horse-power motor each, nine cars with single 20-horse- 
power motors and ten trailers. The road has the usual 
city and suburban trade throughout the year, and in the 
summer season it handl es a heavy pleasure travel to the 
Savin Rock resort. 



tion to operate the road electrically on the 4th of Julj-, 
the company having disposed of most of its equipment of 
horses, relying on the power plant to handle the holiday 
crowd. As events resulted steam was raised on the 
I St day of July, and the road was ready, so far as the 
power was concerned, to take care of the 4lh of July 
traffic, and as a matter of fact did so to the extent of the 
full car equipment at that time in service. 

The plant is situated at the west end of the West Haven 
bridge, at tide water. A pier runs out 300 feet to the 
ship channel so that coal may be handled by the cargo. A 
Hunt tramway with dumping car carries the coal from 
the pier head and distributes it through a coal pocket 
outside of the boiler room. This pocket is carried on 




INTERIOR. OF ENGINE ROOM. 



The power station which this article illustrates is a re- 
markable example of modern engineering in this depart- 
ment. So far as known it is the first power station in 
this country which has followed the European practice in 
completely equipping with direct-connected, slow-speed 
d3-namos, or "Kodaks;" and the whole design of the 
plant in its minor details is so thorough a departure from 
the older lines of practice as to attract the attention of 
engineers and railway men throughout the country. The 
power station was constructed under contract by West- 
inghouse. Church, Kerr & Co.; the work being designed 
and supervised by William Lee Church of the above 
concern. It is worthy of remark that the contract 
was awarded on the 6th of April, 1892, and the ground 
was broken on the following daj'. The contractors, 
although not formally bound, were under a moral obliga- 



heavy timbers, with a floor incline at such an angle as to 
let the coal run freely into the fire-room through open- 
ings in the building wall opposite each boiler. A coal 
supply for ten weeks can thus be stored, being sufficient 
to tide over any possible freezing of the bay during a 
severe winter. 

The building is laid out for a total plant of 1,000 horse 
power, nominal generator capacity; 500 horse power 
being installed at present under the original contract. 
The boiler room is 72 feet b}' 29 feet with a clear height 
of 26 feet under the trusses. The floor is of brick laid in 
cement, being on a level with the grade outside. A slope 
of about 4 feet in the lot enables the floor of the dynamo 
room to be raised above the boiler room, and at the same 
time to be entered at grade from the front of the building. 
The boiler plant at present consists of three Manning 



100 



boilers of 150 horse power each, two of which are ade- 
quate to run the present plant to its full capacity, the third 
standing as relay. These boilers are furnished with 
shaking grates, and an ash car runs on a track within con- 
venient distance of the ash pits. 

A most striking feature of this plant is the perfect con- 
trol of the fires independent of conditions, by the use of 
mechanical suction draft. The observer will be struck by 
the absence of the usual chimney stack, and will find it 
difficult to believe that an insignificant steel stack 4 feet 
in diameter and showing onlj- nine feet above the ridge of 
the roof, is the only provision for firing the ultimate plant 
of 750 horse power of boilers to their fullest capacity. 



fan is a Westinghouse engine of nominally 5-horse-power, 
but which runs under a throttle barely started from 
its seat. The economizer extracts all available heat 
from the gases, reducing their temperature in the fan to 
practically that of the incoming feed water, and returning 
to the boiler a heat value which would otherwise be re- 
quired for the production of natural draft in the chimney. 
The economical results are very marked, but a not less 
important feature in connection with street railways is 
the entire control which the fireman has over his steam 
pressure under all the fluctuating emergencies of railwaj^ 
service. He no longer fears a poor quality of coal, dirty 
tubes, or dirty fires after a long and hard run. He is not 




STACK AND liXllALSl" FAN. 



The smoke flues from the boilers are carefully protected 
b}' non-conducting material, so as to save all the avilable 
heat for transference to the feed water in the economizer- 
The smoke flue after running to the back of the boiler room 
dives down into a brick chamber, in which is a Lowcock 
economizer, the scrapers of which are operated by a little 
engine on its upper deck. A by-pass with damper runs 
underneath the floor of the economizer, so that the lattir 
can be cut out for repairs without interfei ing with the 
boiler service. The cold end of the economizer opens 
directly into a large slow-running e.xhaust fan whose wheel 
is 6 feet and its crse 9 feet in diameter. This fan stands 
on I beams in an annex to the boiler room, and discharges 
directly up into the bottom of the stack before mentioned. 
In the base of the stack a steam nozzle may be placed as 
a relay in case of temporary repairs to the fan, the 
chances of which may be judged from the fact that it runs 
in ordinary service at from 40 to 50 turns, and in rare 
emergencies at 80 turns. At the latter speed the air can 
be heard to whistle through the ash pit doors, and an in- 
tensity of combustion is obtained which practically doubles 
the rated horse power of the boilers. The power for the 




INTERIOR OF BOILER ROOM. 



appalled by a heavy snow fall or by a sluggish condition 
of the atmosphere, which is apt to kill the draft at a time 
when the tracks are the greasiest. 

Its capabilities were brilliantly illustrated by an incident 
occurring shortly after the road was opened in JUI3' last. 

The day was a sultry summer day, and in consequence 
a large crowd had accumulated at the sea shore. The 
company had only four motor cars at that time in service, 
the remainder of the traffic being taken care of by the 



horse cars. Several other motor cars were equipped and 
standing in the car shed, but no motormen had been 
assigned to them. A railway man need not be told that 
a green motorman will use an e.xtravagant amount of 
current, and will unlatch the circuit breakers with a 
frequency which is ruinous to the morals of the man at 
at the other end. In the evening a heavy thunder storm 
came up and the crowd immediately flocked for the cars. 
Word was telephoned to the power house that the crowd 
was coming and must be taken care of; that the new 
cars would be run out with green men and must be 
handled at all hazards. One boiler and one engine were 
running, and the second standing banked from the night 
before, and showing a pressure of 45 lbs. The fan was 
speeded up a few 
turns, the second 
engine immediately 
started from the 
same boiler, and the 
fire hauled down in 

the second boiler. 

In eight minutes 

from receiving the 

message the second 

boiler showed 120 

pounds of steam, 

and the first boiler 

had pulled through 

the double duty and 

the car service per- 
formed without a 

break. These facts 

appeal mightilv to 

the railway man- 
ager, who cannot 

make up for lost 

time in dealing with 

the public, which 

accepts no excuses. 
In the boiler room 

is the usual double 

equipment of feed 

pumps, either pump 

being adequate to 

supply the full battery of boilers. These pumps take 

water through a meter, so that by weighing the coal, and 

dividing into the water, a running log of the evaporative 

duty can be taken and reported to the office. The feed 

water is first carried through a National heater, into 

which are turned the exhausts from the feed pumps, con- 
denser, fan engine, etc., the whole being sufficient to 
raise the temperature to about 150'. From the heater 
it goes through the economizer, and reappears with a 
temperature of about 330% in which condition it is fed to 
the boilers. 

A pit in the boiler room contains a Deane independent 
condenser which receives the e.xhaust from all the main 
engines in the generator room. The injection is salt water 
drawing through a suction pipe from the end of the pier. 




PLAN OF POWER STATION— BUILDI.NO, 74x64. CAPACITY, loOO H. 



101 



and discharging to waste, its value being as a producer of 
vacuum only. Entering the generator room, we find a 
floor space 72.X31 feet and 16 feet high under the trusses. 
This room contains three Westinghouse compound encrines 
of 160-horse-power each, with maximum of 200-horse- 
power under 125 pound steam coupled direct through a 
flexible insulating coupling to Westinghouse slow-speed 
generators of 160-horse-power nominal capacity. The 
room will ultimately contain six of these generators, 
aggregating around looo-horse-power of rating, with a 
maximum capacity much in excess of this figure. Each 
kodak occupies a floor space 6 feet bj- 16 feet 4 inches, 
and the arrangement is as shown in the interior view, the 
distance between centers being 1 1 feet. A separator ia 

placed in the steam 
line to each engine 
near the throttle, 
and an independent 
steam loop runs 
from each one, get- 
ting its rise in the 
roof of the boiler 
house. Absolutely 
dry steam is thus 
insured, and all 
water of condensa- 
tion or entrainment 
is returned to the 
boilers. The 12 
inch exhaust line is 
is made tight against 
vacuum by screw- 
ing the pipe clear 
through the flanges 
and riveting the 
end down into a 
counter-sink. Ex- 
pansion is taken 
care of by copper 
bends in both the 
steam and exhaust 
lines, and since 
starting the plant 
not a sign of leak- 



age either of steam or air has appeared, and a steady 
vacuum of 27 inches is maintained. 

A trolley-fall runs on an I beam over the line of 
engines and over the line of generators, permitting of 
quick handling in case of repairs. An alcove 30 feet 
long and 6 feet deep contains a skeleton switchboard of 
quartered oak, so located as to be accessible from all 
sides without projecting into the main body of the room. 
The floor is laid in diagonal stuff of hard pine, and ample 
provision is made for artistic lighting on the generators 
and switchboard, the lighting circuits being on a shunt 
from the main circuits. The perfection of the engines as 
to speed is strikingly exhibited by the perfect steadiness 
of the lights, notwithstanding the --apid and extreme 
fluctuations of load common to railwa}* service. 



102 



A fact which will strike every practical man is the 
remarkably small space occupied by the entire plant. 
We have here a building 74 feet b\' 6^ feet outside 
which contains a 1,000-horse-power equipment complete, 
including engines, generators, switchboard, boiler plant, 
with relay, economizer, condenser, feed pumps, and all 
sundries, including a most generous space for the fire- 
room. The remarkable economy in ground space thus 
secm-ed is indicated in the fact that less than 5 square feet 
of space per electrical horse power is required for all 
purposes. This for a small plant. A more recent design 
for a complete power station of 8,000-horse-power gen- 
erator capacity on a still more compact arrangement, 
reduces to 2.3 square feet per electrical horse power. 
The bearing of this fact upon the cost of real estate, par- 
ticularly in cit}' plants, and upon the cost of the building, 
is obvious, amounting to a reduction of fullv two-thirds of 
this heavjf item. 




W^r'^_' 



,.^ 



!&'• 



COAL HOIST AND IKAMWAY. 



The effect upon the capital account is obvious, and 
the next point of interest is the result in the operating 
expenses. In this particular the records of the above 
described station speak for themselves. No official test 
has yet been made, as the complete car equipment was 
not in service until the summer rush was over. A 
detailed test will be made in the summer of 1S93, but the 
company has kept running records of the car mileage and 
coal consumption, which give the essential information. 
Owing to the non-completion of the pier and the suction 
line to the condenser, the engines were run non-condens- 
ing for some months after the plant was started. During 
this time an average of almost exactly 2,000 car miles 
per day was performed at a total cost of coal of exactly 
$18; coal being $3.67 per ton delivered in the bins. This 
reduces to of one cent per car mile. About the first 



of October the condenser was connected with an imme- 
diate reduction to .82 of a cent per carmile. At the pres- 
ent writing the plant is running on almost exactly four 
tons of coal per day gross consumption, including not only 
banking of fires, steam for pumps, condenser, fan engine, 
etc., but also the electric heating of all the cars in one of 
the severest winters on record, or slightly less than three- 
quarters of a cent per car mile for power, light and heat. 
This, at the comparatively high price of coal obtaining in 
New England, is a result which demands the thoughtful 
attention and comparison of railway managers, and very 
conclusivel}' establishes the question of the adaptability of 
a proper design of compound engine, either condensing or 
non-condensing, to the variable loads of railway service. 
It further indicates the economical advantage of convert- 
ing the power in the most direct manner possible from the 
piston of the engine to the armature of the dynamo with- 
out the frictional losses due to counter-shafting, clutches, 
etc. 

The operating force of the station consists of a chief 
engineer, who is held responsible for the plant in general, 
and who runs from starting time until 4 p. m., at which 
time the second engineer goes on and runs until mid- 
night. There are three tiremen running eight hour 
turns, changing at 6 a. m., 2 p. m., and 10 p. m., the last 
man acting also as night watchman, and raising steam 
and starling one engine for the morning run. 

The station above described is a bold departure in 
engineering, but one which rests upon a substantial 
foundation of practical experience and a full appreciation 
of the commercial as well as the engineering side of the 
problem involved. Its success has been marked, and the 
officers of tlie company are unstinted in their commenda- 
tion of the whole plant, and of the contracting parties. 



THE ACME STORAGE BATTERY. 



ANEW storage battery called the Acme has been 
tried on Ninth avenue, New York. The battery 
and car complete weigh about six tons. The 
peculiar feature of the cell is that the plates are held in a 
non-conducting material, and this non-conducting material 
being unaffected by the acid or action of the current pre- 
vents the plates from bucking and falling apart. The 
cells, 144 in number, weigh about a ton. The battery is 
the invention of P. Kennedy, of New York. 



A GOOD YEAR AT PORTLAND, ME. 



THE Portland, Maine, Railroad Company directors 
report that their road has carried 3,449,583 pas- 
sengers during the year. The power station has 
been enlarged 250-horse-power, making 550 in all. The 
whole business has had a substantial increase. The com- 
pany now make their own cars. During the year $12,000 
in dividends were paid, leaving a surplus of $19,000. 
The former officers were re-elected for 1893. 



The New York Rapid Transit Commission have a 
new play for sale, called ■' A Hole in the Ground." 



in;', 



THE STRIKER AND THE LAW. 



The United States Court at Indianapolis Hands Down an Important Decision— Violation of Law by an 
Organized Body no less Criminal than by the Individual. 



IN the Ignited States Court at Indianapolis, on Jan- 
uary- 20, Judge Baker, in reviewing the case of the 
Lake Erie & Western Railroad strikers, hands 
down a most thoughtful and sound opinion which so 
clearly and fairly passes on the acts and rights of organ- 
ized labor that it fully merits reproduction in full in these 
columns. Judge Baker said : — 

"The court recognizes the right of any man or number 
of men to quit the services of their employers; and it 
recognizes the right of men to organize, if they deem it 
expedient to better their condition. It also recognizes the 
hardships of the life of the average laboring man. Their 
conditions are often such as to touch the sensibilities of a 
feeling heart. The court is also aware of the scanty 
wages which they often receive, of their long and ardu- 
ous hours of service, frequentl}' exposed to the rigors of 
an inclement season. All these things are calculated to 
produce sympathj- in every right-minded man. It is 
laudable for men, whether the}' are day laborers or 
are engaged in other vocations of life, b)' organization, 
to take any lawful course for the purpose of bettering 
their condition. But it must be done according to those 
principles that lie at the very foundation of the social 
compact. Man was created for organized society, and in 
order that society shall exist, whatever may be the form 
of government, it is absolutely indispensible that the great 
fundamental and God-gi\'en right of every human being, 
unrestrained and unintimidated, to labor and enjoy the 
fruits of his toil, should be protected. There is little 
excuse for labor to organize and by unlawful means 
attempt to overthrow the law. Societj- is organized 
under our form of government on the recognition of 
man's rights as man. If society were overthrown and 
men turned back into conditions of anarchy, as they were 
in large measure during the dark ages, when power and 
force made right, the condition of the laboring man 
would not be bettered. If such were the condition of 
society the man or the men with great intellectual power 
and great wealth would become the masters of the labor- 
ing classes as in those dark ages, and the laborer would 
be little better than a slave. 

"The effort of these defendants, as the evidence in this 
case shows, is an effort not only to overthrow the law, 
but also an effort to overturn the just authority of the 
courts. To permit ' this would be an offense not only 
against society, but against thel aboring men themselves. 
In the convulsions of society, when law becomes silent 
and force reigns, it is the humble, and the poor and the 
powerless that become the victims. The condition of 
things that is evidenced by these strikes is well calculated 
to impress thoughtful men with their danger. I do not 
know but that I am a little old-fashioned in my notions, 
but I confess that I cannot look with any degree of toler- 
ance on the false and dangerous teachings of those who 



actively, or by their silent acquiescence, are leading labor 
organizations to think that because they are organized in 
associations they have the right to seize property, or by 
intimidation to prevent well-disposed people from labor- 
ing. In my judgment it is no less criminal for an organ- 
ized body of men to commit these wrongs than it would 
be for a single man, armed with bludgeons or revolvers, 
to commit the same wrongs upon the persons or property 
of others. I confess that so far as I can see, if my prop- 
erty or personal rights are invaded by a bod}' of men 
who call themselves organized laborers, there is no dis- 
tinction, either in the view of God's law or human law, 
than if the same things were done by a single individual. 
Indeed, it would be more tolerable if it were done by the 
midnight robber in the silent watches of the night than if 
it were done by an organized bod}' of men. I think it 
would be wholesome if this lesson which was taught me 
by my parents in a rude frontier cabin in the early settle- 
ment of northwestern Ohio liad been taught these men 
by their fathers and mothers. When I come to the final 
disposition of these cases I shall deal justly and mercifully 
with these men. But I do not intend that it shall ever be 
said of me, if anything shall ever be said, that, as a mag- 
istrate, I failed in the discharge of my duty in any such 
way as tended to unsettle the foundations of our govern- 
ment. I am charged with a great and solemn duty. 
There can be no greater or more solemn duty than that 
which requires judges to impress on men not only the 
supremacy of the law, and the rightful supremacy of the 
aw, but that it is necessary that men should be punished 
who violate the law, in order that the fabric of human 
society may not go to pieces. 

"In this case the evidence shows that there are a num- 
ber of men who belong to a secret labor organization 
whose ramifications reach not only over the entire extent 
of the United States, but into Canada as well. It has 
kindred associations by other names in Europe. All 
these organizations have the same general aim, and that 
s by force, violence and terrorism to compel their employ- 
ers to submit their business, their property, their means 
of livelihood to the arbitrary demands of these associa- 
tions. In their secret, oath-bound assemblies they deter- 
mine for themselves on what terms they will work for 
others. They refuse those who are not members of 
their association to labor when they desire to do so. 
Those who will not submit tq their exactions have no 
more option about carrying on their business than has the 
belated traveler when a highwayman presents a revolver 
and bids him submit. 

"As I say, I do not see any difference, either morally or 
legally, between this sort of business where an organized 
body of men combine for the criminal and unlawful pur- 
pose of compelling somebody else, against his will, to 
submit to their demands, than if the same thing were 



104 



done by a single individual. If they compel submission 
it is robbery, because, whoever compels me by force or 
terrorism to give up one dime of my money or one dime's 
worth of my property is equally guilty, whether it be the 
man who meets me on the street corner in the night- 
time, or an organized band of strikers who take possession 
of my property and deprive me of its use. But these 
combinations are infinitely worse than isolated violations 
of the law in that they teach general disregard and con- 
tempt of law. They make people think that human 
rights are of no value. The}' teach the fantastic and 
monstrous doctrine that a man who is hired to labor and 
is paid for his work has some sort of equitable right in 
the property of his employer, together with a right of 
perpetual employment. It has been said on the floor of 
the United States Senate that the laborer has a sort of 
an equitable lien on the property of the man for whom 
he works, whose money bought the property, together 
with the right of perpetual employment. It may do for 
men that are reckless of the welfare of human society, 
who care nothing for its peace and good order, to imperil 
life, property and liberty, and the perpetuity of our 
institutions by teaching such doctrines, but the judge who 
tolerates it ought to be stripped of his gown and be driven 
from the sacred temple of justice. 

■'I think these men have been misled. I think the}' 
have been deceived by false teachers, but still they ought 
to have known better than to violate the law of the land 
and to trample under foot the solemn processes of the 
court. I want it to be understood so far as this court is 
concerned that such offenses will not be deemed trivial, 
and that the law cannot be violated with impunity bj' any 
combination of men under whatever name they may 
clothe themselves. They will not be permitted to violate 
the law and then set themselves above the court. 

"If laborers wish to organize to learn the principles of 
political economy, to learn something about the great 
laws of supply and demand, to learn something about the 
effect of immigration and the increase of the number of 
laborers on the wage market of the country; if they want 
to organize for the purpose of quitting their employers, 
in short, if they want to organize to do anything that is 
recognized as within the pale of the law, I have no word 
of criticism. I think that such organizations for lawful 
purposes are to be commended. But when these organ- 
izations, as I said on yesterday, combine and confederate 
for the purpose of seizing other men's property, or when 
they undertake by force and intimidation to drive other 
men away from employment, and thus deny them the 
right of earning a livelihood, they commit a crime — they 
commit a crime that this court cannot suffer to go 
unpunished. There ought to be blazed on the minds of 
every one of these men that belongs to a labor organiza- 
tion, as with a hot iron, so that they shall know and 
understand it, that while it is lawful and commendable to 
organize for legitimate and peaceful purposes, that it is 
criminal to organize for the invasion of the rights of 
others to enjoy life, liberty and property. 

"I will not pass upon the cases of these men now, and 



before I do pass upon them I shall be glad to know who 
and what they are, something about their former lives, 
what they have been doing, whether they have been 
engaged in criminal combinations before this. The 
gravity of crime depends on the character of the criminal. 
An ignorant boy who, in the heat of excitement or the 
impulse of the moment, is lead into the commission of 
crime, is to be looked upon with .sympathy, and ought to 
be dealt with lightly; but the man who is given to law- 
lessness, who is a confirmed criminal and violator of the 
law, on whom reason and mercy would have no influence, 
ought to be made to feel the heavy hand of the law, so 
that if respect for law and respect for the rights of their 
neighbors will have no influence upon them, the power 
of the law and its judgments may have." 



MASSACHUSETTS STREET RAILWAY 
SUPERINTENDENTS' ASSOCIATION. 



THE third regular meeting was held in the afternoon 
of Friday, January 27th, 1893, at the Woodland 
Park Hotel, Auburndale. Prior to the meeting 
the members gathered at Newtonville, and took a trip in 
a special car provided by Superintendent Henderson, of 
the Newton & Boston Street Railway Company. 

The party then took a special car for the hotel, where 
a fine repast was served. After the cigars were lighted 
Vice President B. J. Weeks, in the absence of President 
Murch, assumed the chair and, after a short address, the 
business of the meeting was proceeded with, the session 
lasting four hours. The committee on by-laws made a 
report which was adopted. In these the usual quota of 
officers are provided for and the member.ship fee is fixed 
at five dollars a year. The third Wednesday in June is 
set as the date of the annual meeting, with quarterly 
meetings determined b}' the board of officers. 

It is incumbent on every member to make known to 
the Secretary any subject on which he may need advice 
or help, and the officers shall, by correspondence or dis- 
cussion, arranged for at the regular meeting, attempt to 
help that member to the aid he seeks. 

The following matters were discussed: 

The best methods for keeping a good rail in winter. 

Snow plows. 

Improvements in cars. 

Improvements in trucks. 

Wages paid conductors and motornien. 

Arbitrary rule by a president. 

Life saving fenders. • 

It was the most interesting and profitable meeting that 
the association has had and of great value to those 
present. It was voted to hold the next meeting at Law- 
rence, date to be fixed by the secretary. 



A BIG black horse attracted considerable attention 
lately by following one of the new electric cars at Peoria 
for several days. Investigation revealed that in former 
years he had been in the street car business, and couldn't 
forget his old habits. He was finally coralled, and his 
owner notified. 



105 




P!f^ 







Work on the exterior of the large buildings is practi- 
cally finished and an immense force will be turned on 
inaide work. 

The avalanche of wet snow that slid from the top of 
the Liberal Arts Building and crashed through the wings 
below, was much less severe in its damange than cur- 
rently reported. 

The Siemens-Halske of America will show one of the 
most interesting displays in electric railway lines. This 
will consist of a full}' equipped conduit system i,ioo feet 
long with station complete, on the pattern of the Buda 
Pesth plant. 

Carnegie, Phh-ps & Co., will have no exhibit, owing 
to their inability to secure space in accordance with then- 
application. Twenty-five hundred square feet were 
applied for and 500 allowed. The Illinois Steel Com- 
pany withdraws for the same reason. 



The Inter-Ocean for March 25 will be a complete 
avant courier for World's Fair visitors. A full list of 
rooming places, hotels, churches, public buildings, theaters, 
hack fares, street railways and other items of interest will 
be found in its pages. They will print 200,000 copies. 

The lighting contract for the World's Fair requires 
machinery, wiring and lamps for a minimum of 92,000 
sixteen-candle lamps. The Westinghouse people will 
supply 12 large generators of 15,000 lamp capacity. Six 
of these will be driven by Westinghouse Machine Com- 
panjr's engines, direct coupled. The other six will be 
belted to exhibited engines. High tension long distance 
transmission will be illustrated in the Electricity Building. 
The company, if possible, will install a model lamp factory 
to show the process of manufacture. 

The subways for the spider web net work of under- 
ground wiring at the Exposition grounds will be perhaps 
one of the greatest exhibitions of the wireman's skill ever 
shown to the lay or professional visitors. For two miles 



there are conduits in which a man can walk upright 
without danger to his silk hat, and running from these 
main arteries are the thousands pf ramifications bringing 
light, heat and power to the various buildings. The 
two mains run 1,200 feet straight away from the 
Machinery Building to the Administration Building. Here 
the left hand tunnel divides into two directions, one run- 
ning to the Electricity Building and the other to the 
Mining Building. The second conduit runs to the Elec- 
tricity Building, turns east to the Manufacturers' Building, 
under the lagoon to the Government Building and nar- 
rowing ends at the Fisheries. The conduits measure 6 
feet 6 inches at Machinery Hall. The exterior, including 
concrete and sand floor, plaster wall and timber roof are 
8 feet 4 inches by the same. The wires within are 
arranged on cross arms and are suspended at intervals of 
20 feet on iron uprights. There are twelve cross arms 
between floor and ceiling. Each arm carries 5 insulators 
and each insulator two wires. Engineer Sargent cal- 
culates that 700 miles of underground wire will be used, 
and the cost of the conduits at $65,000. 



MOVING SIDEWALK ON THE CASINO PIER. 

Contracts have been let for the construction of 4,500 
feet of movable sidewalk on the great Casino pier of the 
World's Fair grounds. The sidewalk is designed prin- 
cipally to carry passengers arriving by steam boats from 
the lake end of the pier to the shore, 2,500 feet westward. 

The Pier Movable Sidewalk Company owns the con- 
cession granted by the E.xposition Company for a display 
of this novel and useful method of transportation on the 
Casino pier. The Pullman Palace Car Company has the 
contract for the entire rolling stock, the General Electric 
Company for the motors and electrical equipments and 
Hiero B. Herr & Co., the contractors who have just 
finished the pier, will build the substructure, the plans 
calling for the movable platforms to be five feet above the 
floor of the pier, so as to afford to all of its passengers an 
elevated and unobstructed view of the shore and lake. 
The directors of this company are Wm. Eliot Furness, 
Max E. Schmidt, Geo. F. Brown General Manager of 
the Pullman Palace Car Company, H. B. Herr, J. L. 
Silsbee, Dr. Arnold P. Gilmore and F. W. Gookin. 
Work will be commenced at once, and rapidly pushed. 
This exhiJMt will afford one of the most novel, interesting 
and practical exhibits on the trrounds. 



1(16 



WILLARD A. SMITH. 

The chief of the department of transportation is al- 
ready a well-known figure in steam railway work, and 
under the three sympathies of a railroad man, an editor, 
and the chief of this department, we take pleasure in 
presenting his features to the street railway fraternity. 

Mr. Smith was born at Kenosha, Wis., in 1849, °^ ^ 
sturd}- New England family, that came in an early day to 
the then wilds of Wisconsin. His primary education 
was obtained at the Kenosha public schools, with a col- 
legiate preparation at Rockford, 111. The year 1S65 
found him duly matriculated at Shurtleff College, Alton, 




WILLARD A. SMITH. 



from which he was graduated in 1869. Having chosen 
the law as a profession, Mr. Smith removed to St. Louis 
and took up the study of his choice at Washington Uni- 
versity, from which well-known institution he obtained 
his sheepskin in 1871. Here also his first essay into 
journalism was made in a successful college paper. After 
graduation the publication of the St. Louis Post Office 
Bulletin occupied his attention. Having disposed of this 
venture at a profit, he started the St. Louis Railway 
Register, a weekly journal, which he conducted with 
great success until 1S73, when he sold out to take posses- 
sion of our Chicago contemporary and namesake, the 
R.MLw.w Review, the ■ success of which is a standing 
monument of Mr. Smith's ability. 



He owes the nomination to his present position to the 
unanimous voice of the managers of the railways center- 
ing in Chicago, which action shows the confidence re- 
posed in him by men noted for their critical judgment of 
strict integrity. 

The national and local commissions ratified unanimously 
and immediately the choice of the railway managers. 
Mr. Smith may be found now at his comfortable oflnce 
in the transportation building, one of the hardest working 
and most obliging ofiicers of the Columbian Exposition. 




The message of the Sphinx, an heroic statue by 
Theodore Bowers, will grace the permanent art exhibit. 
We show an engraving of this unique and powerful 
subject. 




An engraving of the travelling crane that helps binld 
the intramural's tracks is shown herewith. The point of 
view is at the annex of the Transportation Building. 



ANOTHICH TEMPORARY I'LANT. 

The temporary power plants at the World's Fair 
grounds are first-class exhibitions of the skill of some 
of our best engine builders and boiler makers. The 
conditions are ordinarily as severe as conditions can very 
well be, but the records made and the work done are up 
to the standard of the various artisans represented in the 
plants. Of the exhibitions of this character we note 



107 



one of the mosl interesting exhibitions of temporary- 
power installation is the structure just south of the Trans- 
portation building, where the necessary electric energy 
is generated to light the immense buildings and the expo- 
sition grounds. The chief of these interesting features 
in the building referred to is a Buckeye engine, made by 
the Buckeye Engine Company, of Salem, O. This 
machine was one of the first installed, under the most 
discouraging conditions, but the engineers are only the 
prouder of its service. The engine has a ii by i6 inch 
high pressure cylinder, and 21 by 16 low. It is running 
at 275 revolutions per minute, and, although seldom indi- 
cated, is of 150 horse-power rated capacity. It is belted 
to run one 80-light arc machine, and one 125 power and 
incandescent generator. Hoyt's belts, sold b}- W. D. 
Allen & Co., 151 Lake street, Chicago, are used, and 
give the best of satisfaction for solid leather belting. The 
engine foundation is not of the best construction, and, in 
fact, the temporary construction of the plant militates 
everywhere against the best results. In spite of this the 
engine does good work. Our illustration shows the 
engine and its surroundings. 



The Morgan Engineering Co. of Alliance, O., has 
built several electric cranes, one of which we show, to- 
gether with the interior of Machinery Hall. This 




machine can lift and transfer 40,000 pounds; has a span 
of 75 feet and a run of 400. The General Electric 
made its motors. 




BUCKEYE ENGINES AT TEMPORARY ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER PLANT. 



Besides this machine the Buckeye Company has furn- 
ished for the e.xposition a 14 by 24 and 28 by 24 inch, 
cross compound, one i.? by 21 inch, medium speed, one 
i6'/2 by 30, slow speed, one 13 by 16, high speed, and a 
triple expansion of 1,250 horse- power with a 20 by 48 
inch high pressure cylinder, two low pressures, each 36 
by 48 inches, with intermediate cylinders 323.^ by 48. 
This exhibit, representing the several types built by the 
company, should be a matter of just pride to the builders 
and of interest to all visiting power users. 

The Fine Arts display will far exceed any previous 
collection ever attempted. 



There are already on the grounds 35,000 packages 
of exhibits, of which a large proportion are foreign. 



The Chinese exhibit, numbering 1,367 packages, has 
just arrived in Chicago. 

The Western Union Telegraph company has shipped 
a model of the steamship Great Eastern, which laid the 
Atlantic cable. It is valued at $5,000. 



A KEMAKKABi.E Collection of photographs of trans- 
portation vehicles in all parts of tlie world, is in bond. 
The collection includes chariots, coaches, wheelbarrows, 
street cars and steam cars. 



1()S 



MACHINERY HALL. 

Machinery Hall will be a mine of interest, as will also 
be the power plant near by. 

The boiler plant is situated in a long, narrow building 
with a total length of 850 feet. In this largest boiler 
room the world has ever seen will be arranged from 45 
to 50 boilers of the water tube type, with a uniform pres- 
sure of 125 pounds to the square inch. The boilers now 
contracted for are as follows: 

Two batteries of two each of the Gill type, 1,500-horse- 
power; two of two each. Root type, 1,500-horse-power; 
two of four each, Heine make, 3,750-horse-power; two 
of two each. National, 1,500-horse-power; five batteries 
comprising nine Campbell & Zell, aggregating 3,750- 



Ball, of Erie, Cross compound of 480-horse-power; 
Armington & Sims, simple, 400; General Electric, triple 
expansion, 1,000; Phoenix, triple expansion, 500, tandem 
compound and a simple, each of 250; Woodbury, tandem 
compound, 600 and one 375; Ida, tandem compound, 2 25 
simple, 200; Ball & Wood, Cross compound, 200, two 
simple of 150 each, and tandem compound of 150-horse- 
power; Westinghouse, four compound, 1,000 each; 
Buckeye, triple expansion, 1,000; Atlas, compound, 1,000, 
Mclntosh-Seymour, double tandem compound of 1,000, 
horse-power. Two Westinghouse compound follow of 
1,000 each; one Buckeye cross-compound. 300, two sim- 
ple, 125-horse-power each, a simple, 190 and a tandem 
compound, 150; one Russell, double tandem compound 




MACHINEKV ilALL — IHfc. LAbl IN ItXTtKlOK COMI'LEXIUN. 



horse-power; five of two Babcock & Wilcox, 3,000-horse- 
power; two of two each, Sterling boilers, 1,600-horse- 
power. All boilers will be fired with crude petroleum 
from the Standard Oil Company's tanks on the ground. 
The main header extends the length of the house and is 
thirty-six inches in diameter. 

THE ENGINE E.XIIIBIT 

will be also the greatest ever known, and will call for one 
quadruple expansion, ten triple expansion, thirty com- 
pound and thirteen simple engines. Twenty-five thou- 
sand horse-power will be required as follows: 13,000 
for incandescent work; 4,200 for power generators for 
motor work; 4,600 for arc lighting, and from 3,000 to 
5,000 for line shafting in Machinerj- Hall. They are to 
be arranged in blocks as follows: 

K. P. Allis & Companj' will put in the quadruple expan- 
sion of 2,000-horse-power; Eraser & Chalmers will make 
the double triple expansion 1,000-horse-power machine; 



500; Lane & Bodley, cross-compound and tandem com- 
pound, each of 300; Bass cross-compound, 224-horse- 
power; Atlas, tandem 500, and to close the list a Water- 
town double tandem compound, 250-horse-power, two 
Skinner, simple, of 150 each, two Westinghouse of 400, 
three smaller of the same make and an A, W. McEwen 
tandem compound condenser. 

Besides these lists contracts have been made for addi- 
tional power with the Harrisburg Foundry & Machine 
Works, Golden State & Miners' Iron Works, B. W. 
Payne & Son, Cooper, Roberts & Co., Skinner Engine 
Company, Hamilton-Corliss Company, Providence Steam 
Engine Company, Armington & Sims and with one for- 
eign engine of English make. 

The belting of the plant will be entered for exhibition. 
Five 72-inch belts will be supplied by Page-Jewell, Chas. 
A. Schieren & Company, of St. Louis, and Laden & 
Fayerweather. More belting is yet to be contracted. 



I (10 



EXHIBITS TO DATE. 



IN THE TRANSPORTATION BUILDINC. 



THE Street railway exhibit at the World's Fair will 
not be as extensive as many outside of the trade 
maj' expect. To those who understand that those 
manufacturers particularly and solely interested in street 
railway supplies prefer to meet solely and particularly 
street railway managers this will not be particularly' sur- 
prising. "Your convention in Milwaukee," said Mr. W. 
A. Smith, chief of the transportation department, " will 
in a great measure curtail this exhibit in the Transporta- 
tion Building. However, the following companies have 
applied for and have been allotted space in our depart- 
ment: Under the head of cars. Brill of Philadelphia, 
Stephenson of New York, the Lamokin Company of 
Chester, Pa., J. M. Jones' Sons of Troy, Brownell of 
St. Louis, the Snider Combination Company of Chicago, 
and Mehling of Cleveland, will exhibit. The Johnson 
Company of Johnstown, Pa., the Duplex Street Railway 
Track Company of New York, Wm. Wharton Jr. & Co. 
of Philadelphia, and the Porter Tramway Switch Com- 
pany of Cleveland, will make particular exhibits, all 
except the Wharton Company being out of doors. The 
truck men will be represented by the McGuire Manufac- 
turing Company of Chicago, the Peckham Motor, Truck 
and Wheel Company of Kingston, N. Y., the Taylor 
Electric Truck Company of Troy, and the Steel Motor 
Company of Cleveland. The Morton Car Heating Com- 
pany will have a display, as will also the International 
Register Co., the Reliable Manufacturing Co., and the 
Standard Fireless (ammonia) Motor. G. W. Ludlow 
will exhibit an elevated electric railway system, as will 
J. L. Pope, W. D. Beach and Moser & Merckel. The 
Coburn Trolley Track Company, J. I. Cody and J. N. 
Volley, with other devices for traction, will be repre- 
sented. Compressed air will be represented by the 
Nesson Manufacturing Company, the Smith Pneumatic 
Transfer and Storage Co., and the Jarvis Pneumatic 
Railway Co., R. A. Park, and the Rand Drill Co. J. P. 
Murray will show a car brake. The Otis Elevating 
Railway Company will show photographs of their Kats- 
kill Cable, illustrated by your magazine. Numerous 
manufacturers will exhibit in connection with other ex- 
hibits on the grounds; for instance, the American Car 
Company will show to advantage on the Barre Sliding 
railway, and Jackson & Sharp on the intramural. All 
specialties, such as these mentioned, the Movable Side- 
walk, and a host of other means of transportation, are 
entered as exhibits although in working order. The 
GrifKn; Cushion Car Wheel Company; Baltimore, and 
other car wheels, fare registers, etc. The Standard Rail- 
way Equipment Company, stoves, have accepted space." 

THE ELECTRICAI, EXDIHITS, 

superintended by John P. Barrett, chief of the depart- 
ment, and Dr. J. W. Hornsby, his assistant, will include 
many displays of interest to street railway men. The 
building itself is well adapted to the display and conven- 



iently' located north of the Administration and east of^the 
Mining building. Electricity will have 243,000 square 
feet of ground floor and 95,000 square feet in the gallery 
devoted to its manufacturing and commercial interests. 
It is pleasing to note that all so-called electric belts and 
body-appliances have been denied room. 

The building is well along towards completion, with 
two booths nearly ready for the Bell Telephone and the 
Western Union respectiveh'. 

The electric traction exhibit is to be complete, although 
the exact details of the installation cannot be given. The 
list of exhibitors and plat of the building published in 
several of the electrical journals is declared by Assistant 
Chief Hornesby to be both inaccurate and insufficient. 
The correct locations cannot be known until almost the 
opening day. 

The present list as corrected for the Street R.\ilway 
Review by Mr. Hawley gives the following firms as 
making applications: Detroit Electric Works; C. & C. 
Motor Companj'; Sperry Electric Mining Machinery 
Company; Eddy Electric Companj'; Schieren Belting 
Company; Page Belting Company; the E. S. Greeley 
Company; New York Insulated Wire Company; Akron 
Electric Company; Washburn & Moen; American Stor- 
age Battery Company; Brush Electric Company, and 
Short Electric Railway' Company; General Electric; 
Western Electric; Electrical Supply Company; A. C. 
Mather, and a number of spaces marked "apparatus" 
and "miscellaneous" will have their share of electrical 
supplies. The foreign exhibits, under the heads of Italy 
(two allotments) and Belgium (one space), have with- 
drawn their exhibits from this building. The allotment 
has been attended by many changes and readjustments, 
with more to follovv', so that a complete, accurate and 
official list will not be possible for some time yet. 



KILLED IN MILWAUKEE. 



THE coroner o£ Milwaukee states that during the 
past year 234 deaths have been under his investi- 
gation, of these 1615 were accidental. The rail- 
roads caused 40 of these, 28 wtre drowned, burned, 11 ; 
drowned in the cistern, 5; fell down and killed, 28; 
scalded, 7 ; suffocated b}- coal gas, 5 ; killed by street 
cars, 5. This needs no comment other than to call the 
deadly trolley crank's attention to the fact that scalding, 
falling down stairs, and drowning in cisterns is more fatal 
than the " juggernaut." 

The Brownell Car Company and its accelerator are 
household words in several cities now. Milwaukee and 
Detroit have large orders in, one to replace the big fire 
loss and the other to equip their new lines. The new 
management of the Atlantic Avenue Traction Company 
has ordered 50 cars for their lines. Daily newspapers in 
all the cities where the accelerator has been introduced 
are heartily pleased with the new style. The Cincinnati, 
Covington & Newport is one of the latest roads to intro- 
duce the car to the general satisfaction of populace and 
manager. 



no 



H. P. BRADFORD. 



THE successor of H. Mitchell Litlell in the superin- 
tendency of the Mt. Auburn Cable Line must needs 
be a man of ripe judgment, full experience and 
endless industry. To the end of finding in the field of 
street railway work such a man. the "availables" were 
carefully canvassed, and the man chosen was found at 
Little Rock, Arkansas, in the person of H. P. Bradford, 
whose features are represented in the engraving on this 
page. 

Mr. Bradford's present position is the logical result of 
years of painstaking, intelligent work in various branches 
of industry pertaining to street railway work and trans- 
portation in general. 




II. p. BRADFORD. 



H. P. Bradford was born July 29, 1858, at Memphis, . 
Tenn., and after a short tuition in the public schools 
began active life as a messenger for the Western Union 
Telegraph Company. Afterward he branched out as a 
news a<rent and at the same time handled the team 
delivery of coal for the Memphis Coal Supply. Later, 
during the yellow fever epidemic of 1873, Mr. Bradford 
was given the entire charge of the coal fleets and yards 
of Halt & Lewis and Brown & Jones, two of the largest 
dealers in the city. After two years in this capacity Mr. 
Bradford went East in the steam railroad service, drifting 
South again in the employ of the Missouri Pacific as local 
freight and passenger agent at Little Rock. Resigning 
this office in 1885 Mr. Bradford began his street railway 
work by securing valuable franchises at Pine Bluffs, 
Arkansas, 42 miles south of Little Rock. Here he built 
and equipped a line 10 miles long, building and operat- 
ing at the same time a steam freight elevator for loading 
and unloading the river steamboats of the Mississippi. 



He also bought and improved the freight and passenger 
transfer lines at this place, filling in the gaps of time 
when he had nothing else to do by taking railroad con- 
tracts. 

In 1890 the three lines at Little Rock, the City Elec- 
tric Railway (steam), the Citizens' Street Railway (^horse) 
and the Little Rock Street Railway (horse), found that 
something must be done to consolidate, and H. P. Brad- 
ford did the deed, combining all and electrif3-ing it under 
the name of the Citj- Electric Street Railway Company. 
Of this road he was made president and general manager, 
from which office he resigned to take his present position. 

Mr. Bradford's enterprise and sagacity well fit him for 
a position in which a less capable man would feel ill at 
ease. 



SEQUEL TO THE. TOLEDO STRIKE. 

LAST month we had occasion to mention the 
criminal acts of the striking linemen at Toledo, 
extending to both railway and telegraph lines. 
Since the article was printed some further developments 
have come to light. 

It seems that while the strike was in progress and lines 
being cut, the Union held a meeting and denounced the 
persons who were committing the depredations, and 
volunteered their services to detect the guilty parties. 
When the companies took them at their word, and 
endeavored to secure a committee to patrol the lines, the 
strikers backed down. The companies, however, did not, 
and were successful in detecting several of the guilty 
parties. The case was laid before the grand jury, and 
the evidence was so clear an indictment was found 
against six men. Of these, five escaped service by leav- 
ing the city, and the other pleaded guilty and was allowed 
bv the court to go on payment of a fine of twenty-five 
dollars. The lesson to the men should be a lasting one, 
as they certainly are very fortunate in that the companies 
seem willing to let the matter rest where it is. The 
action of the Union plainlj- shows the wire-cutting was 
not only known, but countenanced, if not actually ordered 
by the strikers' association, and places that body in a 
most undesirable position. The five strikers who ran 
away must have had some good reason for doing so, and 
their action admits of but one explanation. It is just such 
experiences as these that compel managers of companies 
to refuse to have anything to do with unions, which 
"tote fair" just so long as matters happen to suit them, 
and violate contracts and destroy property when the 
notion pleases. 

The Toledo, O., Electric Light Plant is to have 
the largest belt in regular use as soon as the Schultz Belt- 
ing Company can fill the order. It is to be 80 inches 
wide and 100 feet long. The same company has orders 
for another 72-inch belt from the St. Louis & Suburban 
road. 

J. P. Kempkk has returned from New Orleans to en- 
gage in electric construction work in Chicago. 



11] 



CAUGHT ON THE RUSH TRIP. 



American Street Railway Association. 

O. F. LONGSTREET. Pbesidest. Denver, Col. 

DR. A. EVERETT, First Vice-Pbesident, Clevelaml. O. 

JOEL HURT, Second Vice-President, Atlanta, Ga. 

W. WORTH BEAN, Third Vice-President, St. Joseph. Mii;li. 

WM. J. RICHARD.SON, Secretary and Treastjbeb, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

ExEOUTlvE Committee— The President, Vice-Presidents, and John G. 
Holmes, Pittsburi;, Pa : J. D. Crimmins, New York City; Thos. Minart, Louis, 
ville. Kv.; Jas. R. CHAPM4N, Grand Rapiils. Mich., and Benj. E. Charlton- 
Hamilton, Ont. v 

Next meeting. Exposition Baildinp, ^lilwaukee. third Wednesday in October. 



Massachusetts Street Railway Association. 

President, Charles B. Pratt, Saiem; Vice. presidents, H. M. Whitney, BosUm, 
Amos F. Bbeed. Lynn, Frank S. Stevens; Secretary and Treasurer, J H. Eaton, 
Lawrence. 

Meets first Wednesday o£ each month. 

Ohio State Tramway Association. 

President A. E. Lanii, Toledo; Vice-president, W. J. Kelly, Colnmbus; Secretary 
and Treasurer, J. B. Hanna, Cleveland; Chairman Executive Committee, W. A. 
Lynch, Canton, O. 

Meets at Cincinnati on the fourth Wednesday in September, 1893. 

The Street Railway Association of the State of 
New Jersey. 

President, John H. Bonn. Hoboken; Vice-president, Thos. C. Bark, Newark, 
Secretary and Treasurer, CuABLES Y. Bamford. Trenton; Executive Committee, 
Officers and C. B Thi. rston, Jersey City; H. Romaine, Paterson; Lewis Per- 
BlNE, Jr., Trenton. 

The Street Railway Association of the State of 
New York. 

C, DENSMORE WY.MAN, President, New York. 

D. B. HA8BR0CCK. First Vice-president, New York. 
JAS. Ji.. POWERiS. Second Vice-presidest, Glen Falls. 

W. J. RICHARDSON, Secretary and Treisueee, Brooklyn. 

EXECITTIVE Committee.~D. F. Lewis, Brooklyn; John N. Beokley, Rochester. 

J. W. McNamaka, Albany. 

Th^ next meeting will be held nt Rochester, September 19, 1803. 



Pennsylvania Street Railway Association. 

JOHN A. COY'LE. I'kesident, Lancaster. 

JOHN G. HOLMES. Vice president. Pittsburg. 

H. R. RHODES. Second Vice-president, Williamsport. 

L. B. REIFSNEIDER, Secbetahy, Altoona. 

WM. U. LANIONS, Treasurer. York. 

Next meeting. Harrisbnrg, September 6, 1893. 



Alabama. 

Mo.vTGo.MERV, .\L.\ —Montgomerv Terminal & Street Railunv will 
equip with electricity. Bids for equipment called for. 

Arizona. 

PiioEN-ix, Arizona. —J. T. Dennis and F. L. Brill are piibhing the 
survey of the Northern .\ddition Electric Railway. 



Yuma, Ariz— Frank McMullen, of San Francisco, and Judge J. L. 
VanDcrwerker have been granted a franchise here for an electric. 



California. 

Grass Vm.i.ev, Cau— Peter Tautphaus and others, of San Francisco, 
liavc franchise from supervisors for line to Nevada City. Promoters 
will put men at work soon. 

Nai'A, Cal — Col J. W. Ilarlzell, manager of the .San Francisco* 
San Mateo electric, is asking a franchis.; here. 

f )AKI.A\i>, Cm. — The supervisors have granted the Consolidated 
Piedmont, rights for caMle or electric on Piedmont avenue to Mountain 
View Cemetery. 

Oakland, Cal.— The Highland Park Street Railway Comp.my 
.'dlowed to sub.'.titule eleclricily for horse power. 
East Oakland asks for new streets. 
Alameda, Oakland and Piedmont asl4 for new lines, electric. 



Pacific Grove, Cal. — The Pacific Grove Monterey, & Del Monte 
organized at $^50,000, by J. T. McCrosson, Win. H. Chapman, Geo. W. 
Hopkins and M. W. Bell. 



Santa Cruez, Cal. — Bonds have been issued by the Santa Cruez 
Electric Railway, amounting to $280,000 and by the S. C. Electric 
Light & Power Company of $200,000. The city bank is fiduciary 
agent. These securities are considered good here. 



San Jose, Cal. — Ordinance under way giving J, W. Morton, J. F. 
Parkinson rights for cable, electricity or horse. 



S.\NTA Rosa, Cal. — Organized; Union Street Railway Com 
Santa Rosa, Sonoma County. Capital stock, f 50,000. Directors, B. 
Spencer, H. G. Hahmann, G. E. Grosse, L. Burbank, B. Hettinger, J. S. 
Taylor and C. F. Juilliard. 

Canada 

Hamilton, Ont. — The Street Railway will extend in spring. J. B . 
Griffiths has gone to England to buy rail. 



Toronto, Can. — A. W. Dingman, of the Toronto and Scarboro Elec- 
tric Railway^ight & Power Company, asks rights to enter city via 
tlie Don railway allowance. 



Windsor, Ont. — W. Ryckman has bought the Sandwich, Windsor 
& Amherst for 1155,000, closing up their option. Extensions will be 
made in the spring. 



Windsor, Ont. — The franchise on Oueiette avenue is bought by 
J. S. Visger of Detroit, for $2,100. 



Chicago. 



Chicago. — Calumet Electric gave mortgages to tlie Jennings Trust 
Company for $1,250,000. Loan made in 6 per cent gold bonds. 



Chicago. — Incorporated: The Englewood & Chicago Street Railway 
Company. The capital stock is $1,000,000. The incorporators and first 
board of directors are James P. Mallette, David D. Chidester, George C. 
Lazear, Wm. H. Comstock and F. W. Pringle, all of this city. 

The West Chicago Railway Company has increased its stock from 
$10,000,000 to $30,000,000. The North Chicago increased from five to 
ten millions. 

Colorado. 

Brighton, Col. — Platte Valley Electric Railway Company has a 
clear right of way. Hon. D. F. Carmichael is prime mover. 



Brighton, Col. — Tlie electric from here to Den\'er is agitating the 
public mind, and a general petition has gone before the County Com- 
missioners of Arapahoe county asking rights for 20 years for such road. 



Colorado Springs, Col — A twenty-five mile electric road, backed 
by eastern capitalists, will be built to Cripple Creek. J. H. Jewett, of 
Green Mountain Falls, Frank Earle, of Colorado Springs, and C. B. 
Wilder, of Colorado City, are also interested. 



OuRAV, Col.— The Mayfield Coal Mine, Toll Road & Electric Rail, 
way Company is incorporated to operate in Ouray county; capital stock, 
$100,000; incorporators, F. N. Mayfield, Wm. Hory, F. Hochull, A. 
Humphrey and C. W. Haskins. 



PuEULO, Col. — II. E. Chubbuck, of Omaha, is manager of the rail- 
way, vice J. B. Downey. W. M. Martin is superintendent. A large 
amount is to be used in betterments. 



PiiKui.o, CoL. — H. IC. Cliubbuck, of Omaha, agent General Electric, 
has brought several experienced electric railway men here, Geo. Martin, 
of Chicago, and Wm. Martin, of Om;iha. Improvements are to be 
made and extensions buill. 



112 



Connecticut. 

Griswold, Conn. — A. A. Young, of Griswold, Windham county, 
asks for electric riglits. 



Florida. 



Tampa, Fla. — President Atiern, of tlie Street Railway, says tlie 
Westinghouse system is to be used, and tlie line to be operated March i. 



Georgia. 

Savannah, Ga. — The People's Electric Light & Power Company 
gets control of the ten miles of electric road now operating and of three 
miles now in construction. The Savannah Electric Company has sold 
out for $125,000. The People's Company will expend about $200,000 
in a ligliting plant, in addition to the power plant, new cars, extension of 
road, etc. J. S. Collins is president of the company, W. J. Lindsay, 
vice-president, and T. G. Reid, secretary and treasurer. 



Illinois. 



Alton, III,— The Alton Electric Street Railway Company, Alton ; 
capital stock, $250000; incorporators, Manning Mayfield, Henry G. 
McPike and John F. McGinnis. 



Dundee, III. — Incorporated: The Dundee Rapid Transit Company, 
Dundee; to operate a street railway; capital stock $50,000. Edgar C. 
Hawley, G. Frank Oatman and William Fay. 



Dundee, III. — The Dundee Rapid Transit Company will add 100 
and i50-horse-power engines and two ico-horse-power generators to the 
electric light plant for railway service. A three-rail system to be used. 
William Fay, Elgin, is the authority. 



East St. Louis, III. — The East St. Louis Belt Suburban Dummy 
Electric Railroad; capital stock, $500,000. Incorporators, Louis Gross, 
John W. Renshaw, James P. Slade, M. F. Geary, Henry Voss and 
W. H. Bennett. 

East St. Louis, III. — The East St. Louis Electric & Dummy 
Company; capital stock, $500,000; incorporators, James P. Slade, 
William H. Bennett, John P. Renshau, Michael F. Geary, Henry Voss 
and Louis Gross; to construct an electric and connect the towns of 
Madison, East Carondalet and other vill.ages in the vicinity. 



El<;in, III. — The right-of-way of the Elgin, Aurora & Fox River 
Electric is progressing finely. 



Freeport, III. — Stockholders agree to ask Secretary W. G Barnes 
to get bids on electric equipment for Freeport. Heavy backing prom- 
ised for electricity. 



Pekin, III. — W. L. Piettyman, of this city, and Mr. Demange, of 
Bloomington, represent parties who desire to connect this place with 
Peoria by an electric line \ia Hollis and Bartonville. Franchise pend- 
ing. 

PoNTiAC, III. — J. E. Monroe, R. M.John, et al., organize the Pontiac 
Street Railway Company; $100,000 capital slock. 



RocKFORD, III. — West End road is to be extended. 



Indiana. 



Brazil, Ind. — N. Bails, of Rockford, 111., 
begin work on a $50,000 plant. 



and A. \'an Ginkle will 



Ft. Waynk, Ind — ^J. W. Hayden and W. S. O'Rourke are getting, 
capital for an electric line to New Haven, famecounty. Principals claim 
that capital is coming in. 

Hammond, Ind. — Wm. H. Fitzgerald, C. E. Loss, Chicago, et al., are 
organized as the Hammond Electric & Street Railway Company to 
acquire railway rights, and companies already organized at Hammond 
and in the vicinity. 



Indianapolis, Ind. — The Citizens' Street Railway will build a line 
on Virginia avenue as soon as spring opens, also one on Indiana avenue. 



Logansport, Ind. — Manager J. T. McNary and Architect Rhodes 
are preparing plans for a power house, 38 by 165 ; new boilers, engines 
and dynamos. This power is for intended extensions. 



Marion, Ind. — The Marion Street Railway has been granted fran- 
chise to Gas City, to be completed July 15. Probably the beginning of 
a system of transferring lines for the entire gas field. 



Marion, Ind.— Carroll and Brownlee are attorneys for the Marion 
Street Railway Company, and Lou Wallace, Jr., of Indianapolis, and 
Judge St John, of Marion, are attorneys for the Delafield Construction 
Company, in the franchise fight. 



JrlicHIGAN CiTY, Ind. — Lew Wallace, Jr., of New York, and Jas. S. 
Devor, of Indianapolis, are here to push work on the Lake Cities 
Electric, 



Terra Haute, Ind. — I. T. Dyer, president Chicago, Grand City & 
Terre Haute Railway Company, is in the city making arrangements for 
the new road incorporated in Illinois. Incorporators are W. B. Bass, C. 
I. Shomberg, A. S. McDonald, H. G. Leed, C. D. Hyndman, all of 
Chicago. Road electric. 

Iowa. 

Cou.N'CiL Bluffs, Ia. — The Courtland Beach Association is granted 
right to build a street railway and bridge over Cut-off Lake. W. D. 
Lawrence, mayor, A J. Stephenson, city clerk. 



Davenport, Ia. — Vice-president Lardner and Superintendent Schnit- 
zer recommended $30,000 im.provements and extensions. It will probab- 
ly be granted. D. H. Louderbeck, Chicago, president of the Davenport 
lines. 



Des Moines, Ia.— The City Railway will erect at once a $25,000 
waiting room and depot. 

Dubuque, Ia. — March i is the date set by Judge Shiras for selling the 
Allen & .Swiney lines. Major D. C. Cram is appointed master of sale, 
which will be at 10 a. m., at the court house. Curtis and Matley, Bos- 
ton, are said to be likely purchasers, with a prospect of expending 
$50,000 in new equipment and machinery. 



Dubuque, Ia. — ^Judge Shiras has ordered the receiver to sell the Allen 
& Swiney Electric Railway & Light Company. Liabilities, $400,000. 



Sioux Citv, Ia. — A. M. Coffman, the local representative of the 
Chicago syndicate, headed by J. Francis Lee, that recently purchased 
the Riverside Park property and electric line here for $600,000, has pur- 
chased the Sioux City & Leeds Electric Line, running from this city to 
Leeds. It is thought he represents the Chicago syndicate in this mat- 
ter. This would give the company twelve miles of electric line passing 
through the center of the city. Coffman is now in Chicago. 

Sioux City, Iowa. — Sioux City & Leeds Railway has been sold to J. 
Francis Lee, of Chicago, who is supposed to represent the Canadian 
Pacific. 

Kansas. 

Atchison, Kas — Dr. L. W. Challiss, president of the Atchison 
Street Railway Company files deeds and mortgages to cover $135,060 
indebtedness. 



Topeka, Kas. — The Chicago, Topeka Light, Heat & Power Company 
is to bi ild a new dam over the Kaw river. It will be for general power 
business. J. B. Bartholemew represents the company. The Citizens' 
Committee is P. S. Noel, J. B. McAfee, S. T. Howe, T. J. Kellam, 
T. E. Bowman, et al. 



Wichita, Kan. — The Wichita Electric Railway has been sold by the 
sheriff under a mortgage of $300,000, and was bought in by the bond- 
holders, capitalists of Boston and Keene and Nashua, N. H. There will 
he a reorganization, but the management \\ ill remain in the same hands. 



^gefc^to^< t<g,VU*>> 



113 



Kentucky. 



Covington, Ky. — ^J. J. Shipherd, of Cleveland, says the companv 
will spend $1,500,000 on the Covington.Newport road with 3,000 horse- 
power at Newport. 

Louisville, Kv. — Ben B. Gilniian, for a long time superintendent of 
the Louisville Citv Railway, has accepted the superintendence of the 
New Orleans Consolidation. 



Louisiana. 

Baton Rouge, La.— The council has granted additional streets to 
the electric railway. Councilnien Powers, Weis and Stewart are com- 
mittee on police fire alarms. 

New Orleans, La.— Maurice J. Hart, for Judah Hart, has bought 
the 50 years' extension of the Crescent City franchise for $25,000. 



Maine. 



Auburn. Me.— J. R. Learned, B. F. Biggs, H. Wesley Hutchins, 
Ara Cushman and George G. Gifford are a committee to push the elec- 
tric railway scheine between Mechanic Falls and Turner. 



New Castle, Me. — The Pema-quid, Damariscotta & New Castle 
Street Railway is incorporated by W. E. Lewis, W. S. Bromerd, W. S. 
Fuller, Geo. W. Ellis, Eugene Sproul, Augustus Fossett, Arad Fossett, 
H. M. Heath. O. A. Mill, H. H. Chambelain, F. H. Boynton, J. E. 
Nichols, and W. F. Sawyer. Some of these presumably of Lewiston. 
Capital, $300,000; horse or electricity. 



Maryland. 



Cumberland, Md.— The Lonaconing & Cumberland Railway and 
Power Company incorporated at $250,000 The incorporators are Geo. 
W. Clark and J. J. Bell, of Lonaconing, Jas. B. Stewart and Frank V. 
L. Turner, of Washington, D. C, and Wm. Pearre, of Cumberland. 
Road to connect Barton, Phoenix and Franklin. 



Massachusetts. 

Athol, Mass, — W. W. Kimball, president Fourth National Bank 
Boston; N.J. Rust, president Lincoln National Bank, N. Sumner Myrick, 
vice-president of the Middlesex Trust Company, file petition for franchise 
for electric with stock at $100,000. Citizens not asked to subscribe. 
Figures show that traffic to Orange is heavy enough to warrant the road. 
It is said S. H. Barrett inay also apply for franchise. J. Granville Young, 
Jr., manufacturer of Bents water crackers, is interested in the first named 
franchise. 

Boston, Mass. — Hon. E. P. Shaw andj. F. Shaw, his son, have 
formed a partnership under the name J. F. Shaw & Co., to do business at 
1026 Exchange Building, Boston, as dealers in street r. ilway securities, 
stocks and bonds. 

Gloucester, Mass. — The RocKport Street Railway Company is 
organized by David S. Presson, A. R Hallowell, Gloucester; Henri N. 
Woods, Summer D. York, Rockport; W. B. Ferguson, Maiden; Albert 
D. Bosson, Chelsea; Edward P. Shaw, Newbury port, et al. 



HoLvoKE, Mass. — The Springfield Street Railway Company has 
elected officers and appointed a committee to consummate arrangements 
for interurban extensions. The Springfield and Holyoke roads will then 
consolidate. 

MiLLBURY, Mass.— C. D. Morse has let contracts for building his 
new car factory. There is $150,000 reported back of the enterprise. 



Newton, Mass. — The Newton 4: Brighton Street Railway Company 
will apply for charter. Capital, |ioo,ooo; length, 5 miles. The Welles- 
ley & Boston road, $100,000, will unite with the above. The present 
owners of the Newton Street Railway Company are at the back of the 
chemc. 

Newton, Mass — H. B. Parker, George W. Morse, Frederick Johnson 
and others are the directors of a new electric road, to be built between 
Wellesbury and the Brighton terminus of the West End. 

New Bedford, Mass. — Citizens of the Bedford and Dartmouth have 
signed articles of agreement to build a railway between these towns to 
be called the New Bedford & Padanaram Railway. Capital, $60,000. 



New Bedford. — The Union Street Railway Company will entirely 
rebuild its lines in the spring. 



New Bedford, Mass.— Abbott P. Smith, of this place, representing 
J. O. Warden, of Boston, and A. E. Perry, of New Bedford, has petition 
for the New Bedford and Fall River line before council ; guarantee con- 
struction. 

Northampton, Mass.— J. C. Hammond, of the horse railroad, files 
petition for extension to Bay State, Leeds and other points. Outside 
parties are trying to buy and electrify the road. The present company 
will probably electrify. 



Springfield, Mass.— G. Hodges and Wm. Damon, of Boston, have 
had consultation with President Olmsted, with the result that the rail- 
way will build its own power house in the spring. This work will 
require 1500-horse-power steam plant and four dynamos. Track exten- 
sions on several lines will be made. 



Worcester, Mass. — The gigantic combination of all the city and 
suburban roads including Marlboro, Spencer, Leicester, Grafton, Sutton, 
Auburn, Webster, Rockdale and others, to the amount of twenty-six, asks 
for forty-four miles of new right of way. The combination will be known 
as the Central Massachusetts Traction Company. Marlboro, North- 
bridge and Webster will be termini and power stations. Building will 
begin early in the spring. Samuel Winslow, of the Worcester, Spencer 
& Leicester; T. T. Robinson, of Dedham; W. B. Ferguson, of Maiden, 
are interested. 



Michigan. 



Detroit, Mich. — The E. W. Cottrell franchise has been granted. 



Detroit, Mich.— The Suburban Street Railway Company has aban- 
doned its franchise on Gratiot avenue. 



Detroit, Mich.— The Highland Park council gave a franchise to 
J. W. Sincock and Charles Wright, of Detroit, any motive power and 
iS months' limit to build and equip. 



Grand Rapids, Mich.— F. W. Stephens is making survey of route 
for the Percy T. Cook line. It is said E. Crofton Fox .and Chas. Fox 
are with Cook in the deal. 



Grand Rapids, Mich.- The Consolidated asks franchises on Fifth 
avenue and other streets. 



Mt. Clemens, Mich.— Mathew Slush, owner of the street 'railway 
line, wants more streets for extension and equipment with electricity 
Will probably be allowed. 



Saginaw, Mich.— The Saginaw Street Railway intends expending 
$100,000 in electric equipment in the early summer. 



Minnesota. 



DuLUTH, Minn.— Reported that the Phoenix Electric Company is to 
buy out the Peoria Electric Company and Manufacture supplies. 



Mississippi. 



Natchez, Miss.— City council authorizes company to equip with 
electricity. Address Natchez Street Railroad Company; Abe Moses, 
secretary, Maurice Moses, president. 



Missouri. 

JoPLiN, Mo.— The Joplin Electric Railway & Motor Company con- 
template extensive improvements in the spring. 



Platte CrTY, Mo.— Henry A. Roster, A. D. Burnes, F. Burnes sign 
bond to carry out conditions of franchise between Platte City and Tracy. 
Six months' limit of time; double track. Town of Platte, Soo. 



Kansas City, Mo.— The Metropolitan elected following directors: 
C. F. Morse, Geo. F. Nettleton, Wallace Pratt and S. B. Armour, of 
Kansas City, and Charles E. Cotling, N. H. Emmons and T. J. Coolidge, 
Jr., of Boston, The new loop will in all probability be built. 



114 



St. Louis, Mo. — Incorporated : St. Louis & Kirkwood Rapid Transit 
Company; capital stoclc, $10,000. Incorporators: Edward P.Dickson, 
of Glendale, George M. Keeley, Henry Sylvester and George M. 
Voeleker, of St. Louis. 



St. Loui^, Mo. — Plans of the Baden-St. Louis line which has been 
absorbed bv the Broadway system, are ready. 



St. Louis, Mo — St. Louis & Kirkwood, Ed. P. Dickson, G. M. 
iCeeley, H. Sylvester and George Voelker, incorporators, proposes to 
accept its franchise and issue first mortgage bonds in sum of $200,000 
to assist in buikiing this road. 



St. Louis, Mo. — The Cas.^ Avenue Ai Fair Grounds Railway Com- 
pany has taken out a permit for a $15,000 power-house 100x155 feet on 
the east side of Prairie avenue, at North Market and Lincoln streets. R. 
W. Morrison, contractor. 



St. Louis, Mo. — ^^lolin Scuilin will prob.ibly build a new line to 
Jefferson Barracks. 

St. Louis, Mo. — Incorporated: Southern Electric Railway Com- 
pany. The incorporators are Tom L. Johnson, of Cleveland, O., 9,970 
shares of preferred stock and 4,885 shares of common stock; J. Clifford 
Richardson, twenty-four preferred and twelve common; Edward S. 
Lovejoy, two preferred and one common; Hugo Muench, two preferred 
and one common. Attorney, Judge Luebke; stock, $1,500,000. 

The Fourth street and Arsenal road asks extensions; single track. 

The Missouri System asks extensions on Forest Park and Laclede 
avenue and Fourth street. 

The Lindel! asks for several franchises. One on Taylor avenue is the 
longest. 

Nebraska. 

Omah.v, Neu. — Omaha Railway, Bridge & Terminal Companv pro- 
pose a new electric in South Omaha, and have bought a tract of land 
for f 300,000 for town lots. 

New Hampshire. 

Concord, N. H. — Adverse action of the legislature does not discourage 
the Merrimac Valley electric promoters. The Messabeaic road asks 
extensions and can probably supply the missing link of right of way. 
Steam road'^ fight the scheme. 



New Jersey. 

AsBURY Park, N. J. — The Asbury Park i: Belmar Street Railwav 
Company incorporated at $75,000 by Nelson E. Buchanon, Township 
Collector John Hubbard, Assessor L. E. Watson, John Rockafeller, 
treasurer of the Electric Light Company; Henry C. Winsor, president 
of Asbury Park and Ocean Grove Bank; George Potts, a railroad con- 
tractor, and Chas. McDermott, a real estate iigent of Belmar. 



HonoKEN, N J.— The Passaic, Rutherford & Carlstadt Railway Com- 
pany has been incorporated at :f 300,000; J. A. Morrissev, F. C. Van 
Dyk, J. R. Lee, of Paterson ; J. V. Morrisse, of Passaic, and Raymond 
C.Johnson and C. H. Russell, of Brooklyn, N. Y.,are the incorporators. 



I.M connection with this road the Jersey City, Hoboken ii Rutherford 
Electric Railway is incorporated at $300,000 to run 999 years, by Thos. 
D. Jordan, Passaic, Chas. H. Russell and Chas. A. Johnson, of Brook- 
lyn, W. N. Ince, F. K. Irving, O. H. Lohsen, et al., of Jersey Citv; C. 
A. Currie, Brooklyn, H. P. Hyde and Louis Fitzgerald, both of New 
York, are large holders. 

Paterson, N. J.— John R. Lee, A. A. VanVoorhies, A. H. Post, et 
al, this city, will build a line on Grand street as a loop for the Central 
Electric Railway. 

Woodbury, N. J.— The Woodbury Electric Railroad & Power Com- 
pany organized. Capital, $150,000. W. H. Livermore, president; Dr. 
H. H. Clark, secretary; Dr. McGeorge, treasurer. 



Orange, N. J. — A. Z. Ma»on, of Boston, George Spottiswoode, 
Charles A. Lindsley, F. W. Child, A. W. Kissam, James S. Holmes and 
Stephen D. Day incorporate the Orange Valley Street Railroad to build 
one mile electric to connect the Highland avenue depot of the Lacka- 
wanna road with the Orange Mountain Cable. Capital, $10,000. 



New York. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. — The Lewis & Fowler Manufacturing Company 
has elected for 1893, Albert H. Dollard, president; D. F. Lewis, treas- 
urer; Geo. W. Myers, secretary. 



Brooklyn, N. Y.— President Lewis says the Long Island Traction 
Company, which has gained the Brooklyn City, is not the company 
acquiring the Atlantic Avenue line. The new company guarantees 10 per 
cent to owners of B. C. stock and will have to earn interest on 
^42,000,000 stock. He says there is no change in the management. 



Brooklyn, N. Y.— Organized: The Twenty -third Street Ferry & 
Newton Railroad; six miles long; capital stock, $750,000; directors are 
Moses May, John G. Jenkins, Peter Wyckoff, John J. Coonev, H. B. 
Scharman, Theodore F Jackson, John E. Van Nostrand, Frank Jenkins, 
and Marshall S. Driggs. 

Buffalo, N. Y — The Buffalo di: Tonawanda Electric Railway organ- 
ized at $100,000. The directors for the first year are Frederick Swift 
and Wrendell Goodwin, New York; G. H. Wirth, Brooklyn; W. P. 
Whitlock, Elizabeth, N. J.; L. P. Mey, New York; Francis Gilbert, 
East Orange, N. J.; the Hon. W. Caryl Ely and Frank A. Dudley 
Niagara Falls, and Charles A. Leh, New York. The road is heavily 
backed and will be twenty-eight miles long. 

Buffalo, N. Y. — Chairman Louis. F. \V. Arend and Secretary L. L. 
Grove have filed a certificate of an increase to $75,000 in capital stock of 
the Buffalo & Williamsville Electric Railway Company. 



Peekskill, N. Y. — The Peekskill Surface Railroad Company ask for 
eletric rights. The franchise has been granted for horse line. 



Schenectady, N. Y. — The Schneclady Street Railway Company has 
applied for extension rights. 

Stillwater, N. Y. — The Stillwater i; Mechanicsville horse railway 
are seeking authority to change to electricity with hopes to have line 
completed May 1st. 

Syracuse, N. Y. — W. R. Kimball, of Cincinnati, and W. P. Gannon, 
of Syracuse, are new directors of the Syndicate lines. No changes in 
direct management will be made at present. 



Waverlv, N. Y. — The Susquehanna Valley Traction Companv lias 
been organized at $20,000, to build in Tioga county. The directors are 
Almet N. Broadhead, Chas. McDow, Sheldon B. Broadhead, William 
Broadhead, Orisino E. Jones, Jamestown ; F. M. Stephens, Savre; W. L 
Watrous, and Michael Quiglcy, Waverly. 



Ohio. 



Akron, O — H. A. Robinson, H.J. Stambaugh, Cyrus Bailey, E. M. 
Buel and Alfred Akers are incorporated to huiltl an electric line 27 miles 
long from Barberton to Ravenna. 



Akron, O — The Peoples' Electric Company, H. A. Robinson, H.J. 
Stambaugh, Cyrus Bailey, E. M. Buel, et al., at $25,000, have taken steps 
to locate and equip their power houses and lines. 



Canton, Ohio. — The Canton-Massillion electric railway is about to 
build lines to Louisville, Navarre, New Berlin and Osnaburg, and rep- 
resentatives of the company are soliciting {'or right of way. The Can- 
ton-Massillion line has succeeded beyond expectation, and this leads to 
the contemplated extensions. 



Cincinnati, O. — Ths new Fairmont road has opened for business. 
John H. Kilgour, president. 



Columbus, O. — The Columbus A: Harrisburg Electric Railway has 
been incorporated by J. M. Briggs, A. G. Grant, G. D. Martin, J, S. 
Young, J. H. Chenoweth, Levi Hite and G. M Stark; capital, $1,500; 
light and power. 

Hubbard, O. — An electric street railroad from Hubbard to Youngs- 
town would be a good paying piece of property. Capitalists who have 
money to invest should investigate. 



Dayton, Ohio.— Judge Dwyer and O. B. Brown, et al., are working 
up a new line for tliis city and suburbs. 

Kent, O— W. H. Davis, M. G. Garrison, N. J. A. Minnich, C. L. 
Howard, E. E. France and F. L. Allen ask for right for an electric Belt 
Line. 



Toledo, O.— The Robinson lines will institute light, heat and power 
renting on a considerable scale. 



Troy, O.— E. II. McKnight, a Troy man, has been given the fran- 
c.iise here. 



Oregon. 



Salem, Ore.— Salem Consolidated, articles of incorporation filed by 
G. B. Markle, S. Z. Michell and E. P. McCornac, at $500,000. The 
new organization does not take in the Salem Motor Company. Five 
new branches are contemplated and the company is a solid one. 



Portland, Ore.— Business men on First street are subscribing money 
to buy the horse line there in order to electrify it. Chas. Hegele, Day- 
ton & Hall, Oregon Furniture Company, et al., are signers of the agree- 
ments. 



Portland, Ore. — The Portland & Vancouver railway is to be elec- 
trified within six months. The company is seeking to secure a franchise 
for a double track on Union avenue to Hawthorne avenue. The cars 
have been ordered. 



Pennsylvania. 

Allentown, Pa. — AUentown & Bethlehem road votes increase of 
debt to $700,000 and stock to $1,400,000. 



Ashland, Pa.— Organized: Ashland, Locust Dale & Centralia Elec- 
tric Railroad. Oflicers, Joshua F. Bailey, Philadelphia, president; direc- 
tors, C. E. Winters, Springfield, J. H. Cofrode, F. E. Bailey, both of 
Philadelphia. 

Bedford, Pa. — Congressman John B. Robinson, of Media; Congress- 
man W. A. Stone, Senator John Neeb and James B. Oliver, of Pittburg, 
S. R. Longnecker, Geo. M. Harris and John S. Wells, of Bedford, have 
gained their franchise here after hard fight. Road two and one-half 
miles long. 

Doylestovvn, Pa.— John Scliwartz, of Perkasie, A. T. Meyers, of 
Bloomington, John Yardsley, of Doylestown, et al, are inspecting elec- 
tric roads with a view of using electricity on the proposed road from 
Perkasie to Doylestown. 



Harrisburg, Pa. — The' Lancaster Si Middletown Electric Railway 
incorporated by Luther S. Bent, J. Q. Denny, John A. Cayl?, et al. 
Capital stock, $500,000. 



Jenkintown, Pa. — Organized: The Jenkintown Electric Railway 
Company; capital, $150,000; by Seth W. Wilson, John W. Henderson 
William 9. Watson, Joseph W. Tilton and Oscar H. Weidman. 



Lancaster, Pa. — An electric is chartered to build to Reading, thirty 
miles, passing through Oregon, Farmersville and other towns. Capital, 
$600,000; John A. Coyle, this city, is a leading promoter. 



Lancaster, Pa — Chartered, the Lancaster & Marietta Street Rail- 
way, capital, $90,000, 

Lancaster,' Pa. — Lancaster & Philadelphia incorporated at 
$1,500,000. Ex-Senator J. D. Pallerson, of MifBintown, projector. 



Lancaster, Pa. — Chartered; The Lancaster & Terre Hill Street 
Railway Company, the line of which will run from Lancaster to the 
villages of Oregon, Brownstown, Farmersville and Martindale. Capi- 
tal, $200,000. 



Luzerne, Pa. — Organized: The Luzerne & Carbon Electric; capi- 
talized at $50,000. John F. Finney, president; O. A. Kcim, secretary ; 
S. W. Yost, treasurer; John Grant, R. J. Yost and H. C. Boyer, incor- 
porators. Capital to build the road has already been assured. 



115 



Mahanoy City, Pa. — Chartered: Lakindi Street Railway Company, 
of Mahanoy City ; capital, $50,000. 

Lancaster, Pa.— John A. Coyle has incorporated the Lancaster & 
Manheim Railway at $250,000. 

Marietta, Pa. — The Marietta and May town ordinance will be passed, 
out the company must run cars in three months. Hon. William B. 
Givin attorney for the company. 



NoRRisTowN, Pa. — The Royersford town council has been asked 
for electric light and railway rights by L. K. Perot, of the Schuylkill 
Valley Electric Company. The Phoenixville council has granted light 
privileges and has railway rights under consideration. 



Northu.mberland, Pa.— Granted charter, the Northumberland & 
AUentown Street Railway ; capital, $180,000. 



Olvphant, Pa. — The Olyphant & Wiaton Traction Company has 
been chartered to build a line six miles long. The directors are Joseph 
A. Dolphin, Olyphant; Julius Moses, Carbondale; Thos. Grier, Dickson 
City; John N. Lillibridge, Blakley, and Richard J. Gallagher, Olyphant. 
Capital, 136,000. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — The West Girard Avenue Passenger Railway 
Company, of Philadelphia, capital $24,000, and the Erie Avenue Railway 
Company, Philadelphia, capital $52,000, has been granted charters at the 
State Department. 



Philadelphia, Pa.— The Fifth & Sixth Streets Passenger Railway 
Company applies for trolley rights to Frankfort, throwing the dummy 
line out. 



Pittsburg, Pa.— The Highland Park & Morningside Railway Com- 
pany has been given right of waj' by select council. 



Pittsburg, Pa. — The Charleroi, Monongahela City and West 
Brownsville Electric Company organized at $700,000. The road will 
be partly new lines and partly consolidation, and will be 5S miles long. 
Local capitalists are in the deal and Jesse Y. Ruggles, of West Virginia 



Reading, Pa.— An electric road will be built from Terre Hill to 
Mohnsville. Supposed to be controlled by the Reading & Southwestern 
Railroad in the hands of Philadelphia men. Capital $600,000. 



Reading, Pa.— Mayor Merritt has signed the franchise giving per- 
mission for the Reading City Passenger Railway to operate 20 miles of 
trolley. Change will cost $400,000. 

Scranton, Pa.— Chartered : The Scranton Rapid Transit Company; 
capital, $60,000, and directors, P. J. Horan, A. Frothingham, M. J. 
Wightman, A. L. Johnson, and E. G. Wightman. 



Scranton, Pa. — The Traction Company has purchased for $15,000 
the "Boulevard," the principal driveway to Carbondale, and will build an 
electric thereon. 

We.stchester, Pa. — The trolley ordinance which has been pending 
two years has been passed. 



Woodbury, Pa.— The Woodbury & Camden Electric is organized. 
The capital stock has been placed at $150,000, part of which has been 
subscribed, and the oflncers are W, H. Livermore, president; Dr. H. H. 
Clark, secretary; Dr. Wallace McGeorge, treasurer, and James Sickler, 
solicitor. 



Tennessee. 



Chattanooga, Tknn. — Herbert C. Ilulse and President Divine, of 
the street railway, plan a short line to the National Cemetery ; an S20- 
foot bridge is contemplated and the road runs to Highland Park. 



Texas. 



Dallas, Te.\.— Franchise given to A. W. Childress and associates to 
construct, operate and maintain an electric street railway. About 15 
miles of street railw,ay will be built before July i. The Thomson- 
Houston are said to be people behind the enterprise. 



116 



San Antonio, Tex. — The Alamo Railway has been granted parallel 
rights with the San Antonio line. 



THE CARS WERE 'TENDING A FUNERAL. 



Tyler, Tex. — The road here has voted to put in electricity and has 
the capital back of it to do so. 

San Antonio, Tex. — Council has granted four new routes to the 
Alamo Electric. 



Tyler, Tex. — Major J. P. Douglass is in Kansas City making 
arrangements for the electric road. Council votes to buy for 50 addi- 
tional street lights. 



Waco, Tex.— Bill granting Waco Water Power & Electric Company 
is before legislature. James I. More is interested. 



Utah. 



Salt Lake City, Utah. — The S. L. City Railway has authorized 
an issue of bonds not exceeding ^1,500,000, of which $650,000 are to be 
issued immediately. Trust deed to N. Y. Guaranty & Indemnity 
Association and Rollins & Sons, New York, will place the bonds. 



Vermont. 



Bellows Falls, Vt. — The charter of the contemplated electric rail- 
way between Bellows Falls and Saxtons River has been disposed of to 
Boston capitalists, they guaranteeing that the road shall be built within 
two years. 



Brattleboro, Vt. — New road organizes: S. H. Herrick, president; 
E. C. Crosbey, vice; S, H. Barrett, 1S2 No, Main street, Springlield, 
Mass., secretary. 

Burllnqtox, Vt. — ^Jos. A. Powers, of JLansenburg, N. Y., has bought 
controlling interest in the Winooski & Burlington Horse Railway and 
will equip with electricity. Possibility of water power. 



Washington. 

OLVMrniA, Wash. — The North West General Electric has contract 
for the West Side Railway Company's new line. Extensions are con- 
templated. 

Seattle, Wash. — The Consolidated elects an entirely new board, 
with exception of V. Hugo Smith, who remains. New officers are; 
President, F. T. Blunck; vice-president, Jacob Furth; secretary, V. Hugo 
Smith; treasurer, R. R. Spencer; auditor, A. Dunn ; general superinten- 
dent, C. S. Clark. The office of genera! manager has been abolished. 
Mr. Blunck, the new president, is a wealthy capitalist of Davenport, la., 
and the largest individual stockholder in the company. 

Spokane, Wash. — A. A. Newberry is in the East to place $250,000 
in bonds for the Courd'Alene Electric. 



Spokane, Wash. — The Liberty Park Electric, and John I. Booge, a 
real estate man, are to make a new settlement. The syndicate is wealthy, 
and the railway will be a tive-mile line of the best construction. 



Tacoma, Wash.— E. E. B^ir, P. Metzler and S B. Feder have incor- 
porated the Ocosta, Westport, North Cove & Toke Point Railway and 
Motor Company. Ihey say the subsidy of $50,000 will be soon 
granted and work begun. Steam motors at first to be used and tlien 
electricity. 

Wisconsin. 

Beloit, Wis. — C. H. Morse, Chicago, has bought out the Williams 
Engine and Eclipse Clutch Works of M. H. Wheeler. 



Fond DU Lac, Wis. — Incorporated: Fond du Lac Light, Power & 
Railway Company; capital stock, $100,000. 



Janesville, Wis.— Geo. W. Blabou, of Philadelphia, has bought the 
railway. W. R. Proudfoot remains as superintendent. Guard wires 
and iron poles to be bought; also additional cars. 



Sparta, Wis.— J. B. Canterbury, of LaCrosse, asks franchise here. 



Superior, Wis.— Organized: The Belt Line Electric Company, of 
Superior, capital $600,000; incorporators, R. C. Pope, G. R. Smith and 
W. B. Perry. 



THERE'S a town in California that has a street car 
line with three cars. The transportation facilities 
are rather limited and the sad-eyed mules are a 
little slow. A stranger alighting from a railroad train one 
day waited in grim silence for the vehicle, the advent of 
which seemed assured by the well scoured tracks. After 
a while he turned to a native and said:— r 

''Where's the cars in this bloody town?" 

"Yez'il get no car thti da}^" saidthe native. 

"Why ain't they running?" 

"Faith they'll be running, but the're all at th' funeral, 
yez see, sor, the line runs to the cimitery and the mourn- 
ers like 'em because they is more hand}' than kerriges." 

In this same happy town the president of the road 
takes one of the cars while the men eat their dinner. 



The vice-president of the Eighth avenue railway com- 
pany of New York city, denies the rumor of consolida- 
tion with the Metropolitan traction company. 



Among the half-dozen cities in the United States that 
claim the first electric car is Hornellsvilie, N. Y. Their 
claim is that Dr. J. H. Lillie, of that place, ran an electric 
traction motor on a twelve-foot track as early as 1846 
In iS5othe doctor patented his car and constructed one 
for P. T. Barnum. 



Abraham Lincoln 

When leaving his home at Springfield, 111., to be inaugurated President 
of the United States, tnade a farewell address to his old friends and 
neighbors, in which he said, "neighbors give your boys a chance." 

These words come with as much force to day as they did thirty years 
ago. 

How give them this chance.' 

Up in the Northwest is a great empire waiting for young, and sturdy 
fellows to come and develope it and "grow up with the country." All 
over thi^; land are the young fellows, the boys that Lincoln referred to 
seeking to better their condition and get on in life. 

Here is their chance! 

The country referred to lies along the Northern Pacific R. R. Here 
vou can find almost anything you want. In Minnesota and in the Red 
River Valley of North Dakota, the finest of prairie lands fitted for wheat 
and grain, or as well as for diversified farming. In Western North 
Dakota, and Montana, are stock ranges limitless in extent, clotted with 
the most nulrious of grasses. 

If a fruit farming region is wanted there is the whole State of Wash- 
ington to select from. 

As for scenic delights the Northern Pacific Railroad passes through 
a country unparalleled. In crossing the Rocky, Bitter Root, and Cascade 
Mountains, the greatest mountain scenery to be seen in the United 
States from car windows is to be found. The wonderful bad lands, 
wonderful in graceful form and glowing color, are a poem. Lakes 
Pend d'Oreille and Ca?ur d'AIene, are alone worth a trans-continental 
trip, while they are the fisherman's Ultima Thule. The ride along 
Clark's Fork of the Columbia River is a daylight dream. To cap the 
climax this U the only way to. reach the far-famed Yellowstone Park. 

To reach and see all this the Northern Pacific Railroad furnish trains 
and service of unsurpassed excellence. The most approved and com- 
fortable Palace Sleeping cars; the best Dining cars that can be made; 
Pullman Tourist cars good for both first and second class passengers; 
easy riding Day Coaches, with Baggage, Express, and Postal cars, all 
drawn by powerful Baldwin locomotives, make a train fit for royalty itself. 
Those seeking for new homes should take this train and go and spy 
out the land. To be prepared, write to 

Chas. S. Fee, 

G. P. & T. A. 
St Paul, Minn. 



11T 



AN ARGUMENT IN FAVOR OF GROUND PLATES AS AGAINST A CONTINUOUS 

COPPER-, RETURN. 



BY J. F. 



AVERY unusual and singular occurrence took 
place on an extensive electric railway system in 
the northwest last month during a spell of 
unusually cold weather, which has attracted con- 
siderable attention in the electrical field. 

The question of the proper method of bonding the 
rails of an electric railway, or otherwise providing a 
"return circuit," seems from current practice to admit of 
a great diversity of opinion, but latterly this part of elec- 
tric railway construction has been given more attention, 
with a view to providing a "return circuit," more consist- 
ent with the known laws of electricity and economical 
operation of the system. 

The unusual occurrences on the road referred to bear 
so directly upon this subject as to present a very favorable 
illustrative argument for a method of providing a "return 
circuit," such as is described hereafter. The essential feat- 
ures of the various occurrences which happened on this 
road were as follows: 

In the middle of the day, while apparently everything 
was operating to the best of satisfaction, suddenly every 
car throughout the system stopped, and horses in various 
localities about the city, coming in contact with the rails, 
were knocked down from the shock received, and the 
main ampere meter in the station registered no current, 
although all the dynamos were in operation. 

The first thing that was done to try to remedy the 
trouble after ascertaining that all fuses, switches, dynamo 
connections, etc., etc., were in proper condition, was to 
run from the negative line bar in the station a cable into 
an adjacent river bed, thus providing an excellent ground 
for the dynamos. But this did not obviate the difficulty ; 
the ampere meters still registered no current, and cars 
refused to move; this proved conclusively that it was not 
lack of dynamo grounds that caused the trouble. 

Attention was next directed to the track feeders, which 
were buried in the ground and connected the track with 
the negative sides of the dynamos. They, upon inspec- 
tion, were found with their soldered connections melted. 
the wire itself very hot and burned for a length of two 
feet. A new cable was immediately provided in place of 
the burned one, and the road then started up in as good 
order as before. 

That the earth was in a condition offering great resist- 
ance to the flow of electricity through its surface, either 
on account of its being in a dry frozen condition or for 
.some other peculiar local condition, or that the rails 
themselves were practically insulated from the earth, 
which, when it is considered that ice is a very good 
insulator, it can easily be imagined possible to occur in 
cold weather, is very evident from the fact that the sol- 
dered connections in the track feeders were melted. 

This melting of the connections would only have 
occurred by reason of excessive current passing through 
them, which being the fact, occurred because the rails 



alone were conducting approximately the entire amount 
of current necessary to operate the system back to the 
station. This could only occur when the earth was in a 
condition offering great resistance, as compared with the 
rails, or when the rails were insulated from the earth, for 
usually under normal conditions the "return circuit" 
offered by the rails is gieatly supplemented by the earth 
itself. 

On account of the exceedingly low resistance of damp 
earth as an electric conductor, it being in fact infinitesimal, 
and as electricity in flowing back to the dynamos chooses 
the path of least resistance, and as the return circuit pre- 
sented by the rails is of enormous resistance as compared 
with the earth, the greater part of the current chooses the 
earth as a means of returning to the station in preference to 
the rails, as offering infinitely less resistance. Thus with 
most of the current returning through the earth and very 
little through the rails, and as the only current that con- 
cerns the track feeder is that returning through rails 
alone, if this wire is of moderate size under ordinary con- 
ditions the current returning through it is not sufficient to 
heat it, much less to melt its connections. 

Now if the rails through abnormal conditions become 
insulated, or partially so, from the earth, or the surface of 
the; ground which is in immediate contact with the rails 
is in a condition offering great resistance to the flow of 
electricity, there is then no means by which it can reach 
moist earth, and the entire current will then be compelled 
to return through the rails, as offering the only available 
path, in which case the track feeders will have an amount 
of current to carry far in excess of normal, the wires will 
heat, due to the excessive current, and the soldered con- 
nections melt. 

How it was possible for the rails to be thus practically 
insulated from the earth it is not the purpose to discuss 
in this paper, but that such was the case is conclusively 
proven from results that could not have occurred other- 
wise. 

When these track feeders melted, then even this path 
for the return was shut off, there then being no metallic 
connection between the rails and dynamos, and as the 
rails, as is shown, must have been practically insulated 
from the earth, there is then no place for the current to 
flow to or dissipate itself, and the rails immediately 
become a charged conductor at the same, or practically 
the same, potential as the trolley wire. In fact, the rails 
under these conditions are made part of the trolley wire. 
The fact that horses standing partly on the rails and 
partly on the ground were knocked down from the shock 
received, proves that a difference of potential existed 
between the rails and the ground, and the same result 
occurs when the circuit is completed through the body of 
a horse or other animal between a broken trolley wire 
and the ground. 

In the case of the horses being knocked down by 



118 



coming in contact with the rails, their respective bodies 
formed the connecting link between the rails and the 
earth, which rails were heavily charged. Now if there 
had been some sort of conductor provided between the 
rails and the moist earth to which the current could have 
been conducted and thus drained off the charge held on 
the rails, this difference of potential would not have 
existed, and such accidents could not have occurred. 
Ordinarily the earth itself is this conductor, but when it 
is in a state offering great resistance, when it is very dry, 
for instance, it fails to perform its functions as a conduc- 
tor. Thus it becomes necessary to provide an artificial 
one, such as a copper wire. 

The effect upon the horses, showing that no difference 
of potential existed between the trolley wire and the rails 
e.xplains why the cars refused to move. 

In order to operate a motor it is essential to have a flow 
of electricity, and as electricity always flows from a 
higher to a lower potential, it becomes necessary to 
create this difference of potential, which is the function 
of the dynamo, in order to gain a flow; but if the element 
of difference of potential is lacking between the trolley 
wire and rails it is very obvious why the motors refused 
to operate. 

From the above facts the following conclusions are 
logically deduced, which shut down the road and 
occasioned accidents: (i) The rails were insulated or 
partially so from the earth, (2) which prevented a flow of 
electricity from the rails to the earth; (3) thus the rails 
and trolley wire were at practically the same potential, 
being connected together through the motors, etc. 

If it is imagined that the trolley wire and rails consti- 
tute a continuous pipe, that the dynamo is a centrifugal 
pump, pumping water into this pipe, it is very evident 
that if the end of this pipe is closed so that no water can 
flow therefrom, the pipe will soon become filled and 
there will be no flow of water. This is the exact state 
of conditions that existed in the case at hand. If, on the 
other hand, holes be drilled at frequent intervals along 
the length of this pipe, water would escape, and a flow 
in the pipe be induced by this means. The holes in this 
case are analogous to connecting the rails at frequent 
inter\als to the moist earth beneath the frost line, by 
means of a copper wire. Thus a flow of current is 
always an absolute certainty; no condition could arise, 
such as in the case cited, that could prevent. 

The facts of this case being thus brought to view, pre- 
sent in themselves a strong argument in fa\or of provid- 
ing suitable grounds along the line of an electric railway, 
by connecting the rails at frequent intervals to the moist 
earth beneath the frost line. Besides preventing such 
mishaps occuiing as shutting down an entire railway sys- 
tem, it would furthermore prove a valuable adjunct "in the 
economical operaliin of a railway, for it would very 
materially decrease the total resistance of the circuit. In 
this manner dry earth is a very poor conductor. The 
e.irlh in actual contact with the rails is dry during the 
greater part of the year, particularly in summer; thas the 
path offered by the dry earth for the current to find its 



way to the moist earth underneath is one of considerable 
resistance. Now if copper wires are connected between 
the rails and the moist earth an easy path of very little 
resistance is immediately provided, and as it is desirable 
to have as much current return through the moist earth 
as possible, as being a medium offering the least resist, 
ance, infinitely less than the rails, the advantages of this 
method of construction are very apparent. 

These grounds should be provided at least every tenth 
of a mile, or as much oftener as circumstances will admit. 
The wire should be as large as No. o B. & S., and con- 
nected to both rails if a single track, and to all four rails 
if a double track road. 

If without these track grounds there is any advantage 
in running a copper return wire the whole length of^a 
railway, a method of construction the economy of which 
is verj- much to be doubted, with these track grounds it 
is only a useless expense, for in providing a conductor of 
no resistance for "the return," as is the case in using the 
moist earth, why supplement this by another one of 
infinitely greater resistance, as would be the case in a 
copper return wire.? Another difficulty overcome by pro- 
viding these track grounds is the complaints made by 
telephone companies, where they themselves use the 
ground as a return, that at certain periods adjacent elec- 
tric railways cause all their annuciators to drop in the 
central office. This is due to the railway not having 
efficient track grounds, in which case the current 
seeking to "return" through the dry surface of the 
earth, runs across a grounded telephone wire. This offer- 
ing a path of less resistance than the dry earth, it 
immediately chooses this wire upon which to return. 
Thus passing through the telephone central office, it 
drops all their annuciators, as can be shown to be the 
case. This fault can be ob\'iated by providing efficient 
track grounds in manner as abo\e described. 

A LARGE FLAT CAR. 

TO enable the shipment of more than one street car 
on a flat, the American Car Company, St. Louis, 
have had built a number of extra long flats. 
These cars are 60 feet long, with 20-inch sill stiffened by 
eight I '/^-inch tru.ss rods. 




ri.AT CAK I'OK Sllll'PlNI,; STRKET (JSiRS, 



110 



ECHOES FROM THE TRADE. 



The traffic of the Central Electric line, at Baltimore, 
has increased So per cent since the advent of the trolley. 

The Esmond Street Rah. Company, io6 Broadway, 
New York, will supply considerable of rail for use in 
Chicago. 

The American Car Company, St. Louis, has orders 
at present for 500 cars, and is rushing things at full 
capacity. 

J. A. Trimble, of New York, furnished the storage 
battery cars for the Metropolitan Company, of Washing- 
ton, D. C. 



The Mark Railway Equipment Company, oi 
Cleveland, with Mr. Mark as manager, are successors to 
Mark & Sterling. 



Robert Spencer and Carter H. Fitz-Hugh will 
represent the Baldwin Locomotive at 1013 Monadnock 
Block, Chicago. 

The Bates M.\chine Company, Joliet, Illinois, still 
continues to pay special attention to the power wants of 
street railway plants. 



The Ohio Construction Company is now ready for 
business at 54 Franklin street, Cleveland, with H. L. 
Browning at the head. 



The Northern Car Company, of Minneapolis, will 
reorganize and buUd a new plant in the spring. Minne- 
apolis capital is interested. 



Fremont Williams has opened an office at 153 
Times building. New York, as consulting electrician and 
street railway insurance expert. 



The Electric Railw.\y Switch Comp.vny, of Port- 
land, Maine, will manufacture and handle all kinds of 
electrical and mechanical devices. 



The New England Engineering Comp.vny is the 
successor to the Electric Railway Engineering Company. 
Address still 180 Summer street, Boston. 



The Ellis Car Company, of Amesbury, Mass., has 
a large stock ready for delivery, and also a number of 
bodies that can be made up to order to suit customers. 



The Stirling water tube boilers will be installed to 
the amount of 400-horse -power for the Bay City Rail- 
way, and 600-horse-power for the Toledo Consolidated. 



Dewey Electric Heaters are used on 98 street 
railroads in the United Stales. A Canadian branch com- 
pany will be established soon, with W. H. Harvey as 
manager. 



The Purity Oil Filter Manuf.\ctui<ing Company 
have been exceptionally prosperous during the last two 
months, the number of orders booked being something 
enormous. 

Taylor, Goodhue & Ames, of Monadnock Building, 
this city, are doing so good a business, especiallj' with 
the Burton heater, that an enlargement of quarters is con- 
templated. 

The Car Truck Supply Comp.\ny, Chicago, has 
made a fine record in the street railway field, and the 
Schuttler Track Drill keeps up its reputation as a time 
and labor saver. 

The Kuhlman Company, of Cleveland, are success- 
fully introducing a new car, which is said to be free from 
the old mistakes in car building handed down from for- 
mer generations. 

The Eddy Electric Motor Company, Windsor 
Conn., is doing good business with their generators, the 
records of which on various roads make their best 
recommendation. 

Benj.\min Norton, the new president of the Brooklyn 
Traction Company, has taken to the service of his new 
connection, Henry R. Newkirk, formerly superintendent 
of the Long Island railroad. 

B. W. P.\YNE & Sons, makers of Corliss and high 
speed engines, at 41 Dey street. New York, will install 
two 200-horse-power high speed Corliss engines for the 
Kingston, N. Y., electric railway. 

Genett An< Brake Company is working day and 
night to keep up with their orders and the cry is, "Still 
they come." The brake has a fine record for positive 
action and is almost indestructible. 



The Lewis & Fowler Manuf.\cturing Company, of 
Brooklyn, have been purchasing additional land on which 
to place their factories, and hope to be able to keep up 
with orders in spite of great increase. 



Ralston & Henry, street railway contractors and 
dealers in new and second hand machinery, at Philadel- 
phia, are having a great call for their " Dynamo " waste, 
which is made especially for electrical work. 



Bates Machine Company, Joliet, 111., has appointed 
W. L. Lee & Co., 275 South Canal street as their 
Chicago agent. Mr. Lee is a competent and genial man, 
and the company has made no mistake in the choice. 



The Chicago Metropolitan Elevated has secured 
practically all of its right-of-waj' between Ashland and 
Western avenues. Between Halsted street and Ashland 
avenue about one-third is secured. About one-half 
between Western avenue and Forty-eighth street has 
been condemned and the balance is on trial now. 



120 



The Graham Manufacturing Company is the suc- 
cessor of the Consolidated Railway Supply Company 
in the building of the well-known Graham trucks. The 
new company has a good article and will push its sale. 



The Terra Haute Car & Manufacturing Com- 
pany contribute to our collection a strikingly attractive 
multi-colored calendar, in which their Barr contracting 
chilled wheels is shown, and illustrating its many advan- 
tages. 

The Brunswick Steel Tired Wheels made by 
Page, Newell & Company, of Boston, have been tried 
with satisfaction on a number of the trunk lines of the 
country. The company now make a wheel especially for 
electric cars. 

■ The Abendroth & Root Manufacturing Com- 
pany, 28 Cliff street. New York, will furnish that city 
with Root Improved Water Tube Steam Boilers and Root 
Spiral Riveted Pipe, for the aquarium at Castle Garden, 
Battery Park. 

The Lvnn & Boston Electric, when they receive 
the expected permission of the Beverly authorities, will 
carry a passenger from Scolley square, Boston, to 
Hamilton camp ground, a distance of twenty-seven miles, 
without change. 

McGuire trucks are in such demand in Canada that 
it has been resolved by the manufacturing company to 
establish a branch factory at St. Catharines, Ontario. A 
recent order of fifty trucks came McGuire-ward from 
the new Niagara electric. 



J. C. Welles," secretary and treasurer of the LaFay- 
ette, Ind., Electric Railway Company, has resigned to 
take a position with a Chicago railway supply house. 
We extend our sympathy to LaFaj'ette and our congrat- 
ulations to the supply house. 



The E. H. Sedgwick Manukacturinc; Company 
of Poughkeepsie, have purchased the business of the S 
Wilke Manufacturing Company, 113-123 Clinton street 
Chicago. The new company will enlarge and push the 
sale of steam generators and heaters. 



The Detroit Electrical Works will invite the 
attention of World's Fair visitors to the electrical equip- 
ment of the Calumet electric railways' new station at 
Burnside. The electrical features will be very fine. Eight 
loo-kilowatt dynamos will be installed. 



Washburn & Moen have had such an enormous in- 
crease in the business of making wires for electrical purT 
poses that they are building three immense factories for 
that class of work at Worcester, Mass., and expect to 
have then going inside of three months. 



building, of which the largest belts are 35-inch; the Gas 
& Electric Company, of Wichita, Kansas, and the Electric 
Light & Power Company, of Lima, Ohio. 



The Lewis & Fowler Manufacturing Company, 
of Brooklj'n, N. Y., has furnished six elegant cars with 
heaters for the Quinsigamond line of the Worcester Con- 
solidated. They are mounted on Brill trucks and sup- 
phed with 50-horse-power motor equipment. 



Captain Chas. H. Smith, of Wilmington, Del., who 
recently retired from the superintendency of the City 
Passenger, of that city, was presented with a handsome 
parlor suit by the employes of the road. Captain Smith 
assumes the same office with the Scranton, Pa., Traction 
Company. 

The Schultz Belting Company has sold a double 
leather belt, 80 inches wide and 100 feet long, to the 
Toledo Electric light Company. Previous to this order 
the St. Louis & Suburban bought two belts 72 inches by 
154 feet. These were considered big belts but the latest 
is also the biggest. 

C. D. Morse has let contracts for building a car factory 
at Millbury, Mass. The company is backed by $150,000, 
and Mr. Morse's former business, that of sash, door and 
woodworking, gives him a first rate experience for his 
new venture. We predict for the new firm a good pat- 
ronage and a growing business. 

The Goubert Manufacturini; Company, of 618 
John Hancock Building, Boston, Alfred A. Hunting, man- 
ager, have recently sold over 1,000 horse-power of their 
popular heaters, 300 of which go to the Puget Reduc- 
tion Company, Seattle, Wash., and 300 to the Washing- 
ton, D. C, Brewery Company. 



The Fulton Foundry Company, of Cleveland, has 
sold eight more trucks to the East Cleveland road. Mr. 
Wason, vice-president, is greatly pleased with the action 
of the trucks. The wheels, turn tables, switches, and 
other car house specialties, are rewarded for their excel- 
lence with a large number of new orders. 



Recent orders of Chas. A. Schieren & Company 
include a full equipment for the New York "Herald" 



Albert & J. M. Anderson, of Boston, keeps still 
in the front rank of manufacturers of overhead material. 
Their new Brooklyn strain insulators have recently been 
subjected to the most rigid tests of the Massachusetts 
Electrical Engineering Company, with astonishing results. 
The insulators in question were submerged 12 days in 
the wreck of the steamer H. M. Whitney. 

The Risdon Iron Works, San Francisco, have taken 
the contract to supply the Oakland, Alameda & Pied- 
mont Electric Railway with all their power plant equip- 
ment. Paul Heck is the agent of the company and should 
be justly proud of his capture. This is the twelfth large 
order of the kind for the Risdon Works, and indications 
point to a much larger business in the next few months. 



121 



The American Railway Construction Company 
is the successor to the well-known and popular firm of 
Wright & Meysenburg, engineers and contractors for all 
kinds of street railway work. A. S. Littlefield is presi- 
dent of the new company, E. F. Carry, vice-president, 
and Edw. A. Meysenburg, secretary and treasurer. The 
new company cannot fail to succeed to the full prosperity 
and large business of the former firm. 

Providence Corliss. — A great engine order from the 
Lake Roland Elevated, of Baltimore, has just been fur- 
nished by the Corliss Steam Engine Company, of Provi- 
dence, R. I. The order asked for two tandem com- 
pound engines, 20 and 36 by 60 inches, connected by 
counter shaft 52 feet by 17 inches. The fly wheels are 
of 40-inch face, 20 feet in diameter and weigh 36,000 
pounds. The General Electric furnished the generators. 



The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company held a reception for the week beginning Jan- 
uary 16, at their Allegheny City factory, for the intro- 
duction of the new lighting dynamos for the World's 
Fair. The machines weigh 150,000 pounds each and the 
armature 42,000, The attendants showing these products 
of Westinghouse skill, were prompt, courteous and intelli- 
gent in their explanations, and the affair was altogether a 
great success. 

The Campbell Electric Supply Company, 104 
High Street, Boston, are now manufacturing the Cen- 
tury wires, formerly made under roj'alty by the Simplex- 
company, and the former are now in the market 
with the various grades of feeder, underground, sub- 
marine cables and line wires of the Centurj^ patent> 
The Campbells are using the original formulas for the 
celebrated " T. R. R.'" with important improvements by 
the inventor, Henry F. Campbell. 



The Goubert Manufacturing Company, located at 
32 Courtland street. New York City, makers of the Gou- 
bert Feed-Water Heater, have purchased the patents 
stock and business of the Stratton Separator Company 
and are now the sole manufacturers of the well-known 
Stratton Separator. This device for extracting entrained 
water and grease from steam, that it may be furnished 
dry to engine, is one of the most popular inventions of the 
kind on the market, and its manufacturers have enjoyed 
a substantial increase of business yearly. 



The Electrical Supply Company, of Chicago, is 
receiving many warm compliments on the success of the 
Carpenter electric heater, of which the company is agent. 
The successful tests of the Carpenter device under the 
strain of our late cold weather is gratifying in the extreme, 
A letter from Mr, Charles Smith, of the Findlay Street 
Railway Company, says: " The past three days were ter- 
ribly cold here, but our cars were comfortably warm. 
We have all our cars equipped with the Carpenter Elec- 
taic Heaters and are well pleased with them." The com- 
pany has recently changed its name to the Ansonia Elec- 
tric Company, 



OUR DICTIONARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS. 




'A Hammered Joint." 




"The Down Trip.' 





' Ringing up a Fare.' 




Called a Miss.' 




• A Rope Transmission.'* 



" Ahead of Time." 
(also behind time) 



122 



The finest specimen of photography which has ever 
ever come into the Review office is the handsomely 
frammed mammoth picture showing the three big 
bays in the extensive works of the Walker Manu- 
facturing Company, Cleveland. The artist has sue. 
ceeded in catching even the smallest details, while the 
massive structural work of the buildings and the long 
lines of machinery in operation are all perfect. The pic- 
ture is nearly 3 feet wide by 6 long and is one of the 
attractions of the Review office. Gen. Walker has spared 
no expense in securing one of the finest results in interior 
photography we have ever seen. 



The Lamokin Car Works, at Philadelphia, have, 
since the introduction of their late improved construction, 
been in receipt of numerous letters of inquiry for prices, 
congratulations and recommendations, with a large 
increase in orders. Lately orders have come from the 
Philadelphia Traction Company for 40, 29-foot open and 
closed; East Harrisburg Passenger Railway, ten closed 
vestibuled car bodies; Wilmington, Del., City Passenger, 
15 open cars; Schuylkill Traction. Ashland, Pa., four 18- 
foot closed vestibuled; East End Railway. WilHamsport, 
Pa., two 16-foot closed vestibuled ;Greensburgh & Hemp- 
field Railway, one 16-foot closed. Late deliveries count 
in an order for the Schuylkill Company. 



W. W. A1.LEN, Red Wing, Minn., whose double acting 
safety brake will make a quick stop and hold a car on any 
grade an electric car can climb, has still further improved 
it by the substitution of a cast iron adjustable shoe in 
place of the rubber shoe. The iron -shoe is said to work 
perfectly. Mr. Allen has also done away v\'ith all chains 
and uses a piece of 3/j;-inch gas pipe for a connection 
between the shaft and brake staff, which has severa 
advantages and is less expensive. The Bemis Car Box 
Company, which is now equipping quite a large order 
with these brakes, made a test of the brake, and after 
doing so wrote Mr. Allen as follows: — 

"We have received the sample brake sent us and find it satisfactory in 
all respects. Please make us six (6) more sets all complete and forward 
to us at the very earliest possible date." 



One of the largest contracts for road bed construction 
for an electric line has just been closed in St. Louis. 
The Chicago & St. Louis Electric Road, about which so 
much has been written of late, have closed the contract 
for the entire road-bed including grading, bridge-work 
and track-laying. The contractors are Bagnall Bros., of 
St. Louis, Mo., and Givens Bros., of Memphis, Tenn. 
Both of these firms are well and favorably known and 
have laid more than a thousand miles of road and track 
work for various western and southern railroads. The 
contract price is $5,500,000, of which $2,750,000 is to 
be taken in bonds of the company at par. The true 
limit of the contract is one year, but it is very probable 
that by fall the road-bed will be completed, as it is pro- 
posed to start work immediately at several different 
points and work in both directions. 



The Ball Engine Company, of Erie, Penn.,has placed 
through its Chicago agency, the following equipments: 
Calumet Electric Railway, four 300-horse-power cross- 
compound electric railway engines; Hammond Electric 
Street Railway Company, Hammond, Ind., a 150-horse- 
power steam plant; Western Light & Power Company, 
Chicago, one 300-horse-power; Englewood Electric Light 
Company, Chicago, one 500 cross-compound; Marengo, 
Iowa, Electric Light Company, a loo-horse-power steam 
plant; Elm wood. III, Electric Light Company, one 300- 
horse-power, together with smaller orders at other west- 
ern points. Frank R. Chinnock, at iS Cortlandt street, 
New York, reports the eastern sales of the Ball Com- 
pany including: Main & Tonawanda Street Railwa)', 
Tonawanda, N. Y., engines; Ithaca Street Railway 
Company, Ithaca,' N. Y., complete steam plant; Seabury 
& Johnson, East Orange, N. J., engines; Hahne & Co., 
Newbury, N. J., engines; Dowes Stores, Brooklyn, N. 
Y., engines. 

The wisdom of the Railwaj' Equipment Company, 
Chicago, in confining its business to the specialt}' of 
electric railway supplies only, has been acknowledged 
b}- all contractors and street railway managers. The 
certainty of finding everything needed for the complete 
equipment and maintenance of electric roads of all sys- 
tems, ready for immediate shipment, has resulted in 
making customers for the company throughout the 
entire world and wherever an electric road is in opera- 
tion. The policy of the company has always been to 
furnish the best material obtainable, and the present 
standing of the company, as well as its constantly increas- . 
ing business, would seem to indicate that it has been suc- 
cessful in furnishing such material. 

Already large orders have been received for roads to 
be equipped in the spring, and undoubtedly a large share 
of this business has been on account of the new type "G" 
material brought out by the company the last season. 
It is claimed that this material is superior in point of 
strength, insulation, and ease of adjustment to any other 
like material manufactured. The company has greatly 
increased its facilities for the manufacture, and announces 
that it will be able to fill orders promptly for the coming 
season. 

Among the specialties of this company is the agency for 
Brand's Patent Steel Wire Track Brooms. These 
brooms have a large sale throughout the country and 
Canada, and are a great convenience, if not an absolute 
necessity, on all electric roads. The Ahearn Electric 
Heater is perhaps the most important agency of the many 
handled b}' the company. Electric car heaters have been 
placed on some seventy-five roads this season, while the 
trade in electric stoves and other heating and cooking 
devices is constantly increasing. 

The company can rightly be called the pioneer house in 
its exclusive line, and the long and practical experience of 
its manager in catering to the wants of electric roads, is 
sufficient guarantee of satisfactory dealings, and the men 
are too well known to require commendation. 



123 



J. G. Brii.l Company, Philadelphia, has just closed a 
contract for thirteen cars for the West Side Street Rail- 
way Company, Elmira, N. Y. 

A. S. Partridge, St. Louis, is doing a fine business 
in railway supplies. His second-hand rail bargains make 
numerous customers. 

The Peckha.m Motor, Truck & Wheel Company, 
of Kingston, N. Y., is getting its share of the spring 
delivery orders. They will be pleased to send plans and 
blue prints to prospective buyers. 



The Pittsburg Steel Hollow Ware Company 
is making music for a number of cities on their famous 
rolled steel gong. The tone of these bells is loud and 
continuous, and the wear of the best. 



Hill & Welles, LaFayette, Ind., recently sold three 
of their elegant tower wagons to J. G. White & Com- 
pany, for the equipment of roads built by the White 
people. 

T. C. White & Company, St. Louis, the western 
agents for R. D. Nuttall, are as ever prepared to furnish 
anything and everything a street railway can ask in the 
way of gears, pinions, trolley specialties and other sup- 
plies. 

THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY CHANGES ITS 

NAME TO "THE ANSONIA ELECTRIC 

COMPANY." 



JUST as we are going to press we learn of an impor- 
tant change which has been made by one of the 
largest electrical companies. Wherever electrical 
merchandise has found its waj', the name of the 
Electrical Supply Company has been known also: in fact, 
so well known has the name become, in the fifteen years 
that they have been doing business, that smaller concerns 
all over the country have adopted and adapted the name, 
or part of it, to their own use. This has led to a confu- 
sion in the minds of the general public that has been of 
no little annoyance to the companj- originating the name. 
A new name for the same old company has been under 
consideration for several months, in fact for a year or 
more. They could not but hesitate in relinquishing a 
name that has cost them thousands of dollars to make a 
familiar one everywhere, but in so doing they have been 
actuated by reasons that seem good and sufficient. 
There is no doubt that the new name, The Ansonia 
Electric Company, will become as well and familiarly 
known as the old; it will certainly have the advantage of 
being unlike any other name, and cannot be traded upon 
by those w ho have not the energy or capital to establish 
names of their own. 

We understand from F. S. Terry, manager of the 
western department of the company, that there has been 
no change whatever in the organization, character or 
personel of the company. He says: "the business will 
be conducted as heretofore, following the same methods 



of popularizing our goods, and observing the same funda- 
mental principle of making them the best that is possible 
with expensive and improved machinerj' and expert 
mechanical ingenuit}'. 

We have found it necessary to enlarge the capacity of 
the factories at Ansonia, which are undergoing additions 
and changes that will enable us to materially increase our 
output. 

It is not the intention to drop our old name immedi- 
diately and entirely, but the two names will appear 
together for some time in our advertisement and printed 
matter; we can in this way more thoroughly establish the 
identit)^ of the new name." 



FOLGER'S IMPROVED FARE REGISTER 
PUNCH. 



ANEW fare register has just been brought out by 
the Cincinnati Novelty Manufacturing Company. 
Its advantages will readily be understood from 
an examination of the cuts. In the form Fig. i, the regis- 
try movement is covered b^- cover permanently sealed 




and which can only be opened by the manufacturer. The 
registry wheels show through the opening " a" and record 
to 9999, then automatically return to 0000: these wheels 
are permanently locked by screw " d." The combina- 
tion lock "b" only releases the wad receptacle " c," and 
as there are five wheels in the combination it is impossible 
for an expert even to discover it. 

The opening lever " e " is protected by guard " g '' 
and cannot catch on clothing or in any other way. If the 
user desires to distinguish between full and half fares reg- 
istered, a cash slip may be inserted in slot " h," the wad 
dropping into proper receptacle to be checked against 
total register at end of day. 

There is another form of this punch, differing in shape 
and with different location for combination lock " b." 
Both forms carry alarm bell which sounds with every 
register. The register can be suspended from the neck 
by strap, or at the side by chain. Is light, cannot get out 
of order and is of positive action and has much to com- 
mend its use. 



It is reported that Mr. Yerkes and Chicago associates 
have bought in considerable Washington City stock. 



1-24 



HALF FARES. 



Interesting Facts from all Parts of the Country 
Boiled down for Busy Readers. 



The Hoskins Motor is now being tried on the 
Powell street line, San Francisco. 



The New London and Norwich street railroads have 
been consolidated under one management. 

Eight hundred men were required to clean the tracks 
of the Montreal street railway lines after one of the regu- 
lation snow storms incident to that city. 



Russell Harrison and the sheriff have taken pos- 
session of the Queen City road, of Marion, Ind. The 
Delafield Construction Company held the road. 



The legal war over the Los Angeles Cable Railway 
is being waged in that city, and is proving one of the 
most complicated legal controversies in many years. 



The New York Sun states the cost of a system of 
underground roads in that cit)-, such as would solve the 
rapid transit problem, could not be built for less than 
$300,000,000. 

The Joplin Electric Street Railway & Motor Company 
now rents its power from the Southwestern Electric Light 
& Power Company, having a water power station at 
Grand Falls. 

The Lebanon & Annville road, after 16 months' ser- 
vice, declares a 6 per cent dividend. There is a popula- 
tion of only 16,000 to draw from, but the road is a mag- 
nificent success. 



On Monday, January 23, the alley elevated road 
in Chicago, was turned over by the constructing com- 
pany to the operating department of the Chicago & 
S6uth Side Rapid Transit Company. 



The Brooklyn, Bath and West End road has been 
bought by the Philadelphia syndicate, owning the Alantic 
avenue line. This gives a quick and direct route to 
Coney Island from the heart of Brooklyn. 



General Slocum, of Brooklyn, is elated over his 
victory in the courts over a man who claimed to have 
been shocked bj- the current from one of the Coney 
Island cars. Experts proved the action groundless. 



Toy Wing Sang, of Canton, China, has gone into 
the syndicate business, and interested English and Amer- 
ican capital to the extent of $14,000,000 for the purpose 
of building electric railway and light plants in Canton. 



Akron, O., has just recovered from a small pox 
scare. The street railway thoroughly fumigated its 
cars twice each day, and won much commendation for 
the vigorous manner in which they protected the public. 



The Twin Cities Rapid Transit Company has 
moved its accounting department from St. Paul to Minne- 
apolis. 

A ten days' strike has been on at Wheeling, W. Va., 
over the discharge of a driver and conductor whom a 
patron makes affidavit refused to stop for him. Car ser- 
vice maintained in fairly good condition. 



Among the recent idiotic attempts at legislation in 
Ohio it is refreshing to find a bill introduced by Dodge, 
of Cuyahoga, proposing to sell the now entirel}- use- 
less Hocking canal and build with the proceeds an 
electric road the entire length of the course. 



The National Railway Company, owning five lines in 
St. Lous, has re-elected its old officers with D. G. Hamilton, 
Chicago, president, and Capt. Robert McCulloch, gen- 
eral manager. Last year's dividend was 7 per cent. 
The company resolved to electrify three horse lines. 

The Brooklyn Traction Company, the successor of 
the Atlantic Avenue Railroad Company, has been pub- 
licly organized. The directors are: E. D. Phillips, 
Albert Strauss, Henry S. Glazier, E. J. Kavanaugh, of 
New York and P. J. Vaughan and J. H. Lockman, of 
Brooklyn. 

The Tacoma Railway & Motor Company, of Tacoma, 
Wash., is making its own cars, using McGuire trucks, 
and President Paul Schulze says that hereafter the com- 
pany will do all its own car building. A car factory 
on the coast ought to be a paying institution. Who will 
be the first? 

The fortieth annual meeting of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers opened its session in New York, 
January 19. A committee was appointed to frame a code 
of ethics and officers elected as follows: President, Wil- 
liam Metcalf, of Pittsburg; Vice-President, Elmer L. 
Corthell, of Chicago, and Charles McDonald, of New 
York. The next meeting will be held next July in Chicago. 



The East Cleveland Railroad Company will put thirty 
new cars in commission, and considerably enlarge the 
power house at Second street and Fifth avenue. Presi- 
dent Henry A. Everett will have control, acting through 
Secretary Beilstein, while attending to his Canadian 
business. Superintendent Duty will remain. The list of 
officers reads as follows: President, H. A. Everett; vice- 
president, C. W. Wason; secretary and treasurer, L. E. 
Beilstein. 

A Milwaukee plumber went out to plumb. And as he 
plumbed by the electric roadside he digged a deep hole. 
And some of the hole fell upon the track. And as the 
electric car passed that way there was a great shaking of 
the car and the conductor thereof was cast into the ditch. 
And his raiment and his spirit were rent. And so it 
came to pass that the conductor sues the plumber for 
$1,000, with the which to make himself whole for having 
been in the hole. 



1 LT) 



PICTORIAL EVENTS OF A MONTH. 



A NEW system of rapid transit was exhibited on the Cicero & Proviso 
electric in the western part of Chicago. A passenger left the car at the 
bluS overlooking the Desplaines river and after divesting himself of his 
outer clothing got into a big sack he carried and drawing a cord from 
the inside completely overlapped his head and body. He then cast him- 
self down into the river where he was rescued by the p.'.ssengers, who 
pulled the sack out of the river and cut it open. As they did so a pair of 
wild eyes snapped while a husky voice inquired, "Am I Dead.'" 



A FUN-NY and rather significant feature of the inclosed platform bill is 
that the men for whom the act is ostensibly introduced were neither 
instrumental in seeking it, and^lo not now urge its passage. To a man 
up a trolley the whole scheme smells strongly of sand bag legislation. 



At Fonda, N. Y., while a gang of Italian laborers were thawing 20 
sticks of dynamite, for blasting on the Fonda & Gloversville Electric 
Road, an explosion occurred, killing one and wounding many. 




The Union Depot Street Railway, St. Louis, suffered a rather unus- 
ual accident recently in the bursting of a small fly wheel at their Jeffer- 
son avenue power house. In its tangential flight a segment of the wheel 
landed a block away, destroying the wall of the building, a picket fence 
and the equanimity of several pedestrians. The loss was about $i,ooo- 
Half an hour before the accident the street was crowded with people. 



At Provo, Utah, the entire rolling stock of the Provo City Railway 
was sold for $127 50 to S. B. Thurman, for payment of taxes amounting 
to $248. As the company promise to pass the hat and raise the balance 
the sale of the track has been postponed a few days 



At Birmingham, Eng , the traffic manager, T. Goodyear, presided 




There are people in plenty, as the experience of every manager 
shows, who in case of a 3-cent standing fare being established, would 
swear by their great-grandfathers' thumbs that it did not agree with them 
to sit. In the absence of any standing room on the floor these people 
would not hesitate to stand on the seats. At present these are the no 
seat-no fare howlers. 



over the seventy employes of the Bristol Road Tramway, who held 
their annual dinner. Car service was entirely suspended during this 
enjoyable event, and passengers walked while the bovs ate. 



The Arctic road is the latest crazy transportation scheme which 
Erastus Craw, New York, proposes. It contemplates tracks of iron 




Two thousand unemployed laborers of Montreal recently invaded the 
city hall demanding that the street cars be allowed to run as it gave them 
employment. The demonstration was occasioned by a petition of 
carters and others to stop the cars, as it was ruinous to their business. 
• The alderman were hissed and hooted, and the city government in gen- 
eral made very uncomfortable. 






pipes filled with a freezing mixture on which the moisture of the air 
will congeal, forming a sheet of ice on which a car propelled by 
hydraulic jets will skate. He promises eighty miles an hour, but we 
predict^^that if anybody buys stock in the scheme it will stick in his 
' craw. " Anotlier advantage of this system is free ice water for patrons 
of the line. 



126 



NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



BREVITIES, 



A Treatise on the Law of Street Railways, by Henry J 
Booth, of the Columbus, O., bar, 6x91^, XV, 749, law sheep, published 
bv T. & J. W. Johnson & Company, Philadelphia; price, $6. 

Without investigating the natural rights of man, without anj' long 
dissertation on the socialogical questions incident to rapid transit Mr" 
Booth has prepared a text book on that branch of private corporation 
law in which our readers are solely interested. Without doubt the 
courts of our country have had their most difficult cases, the least prece- 
dent, and the most obscure analogies in street railway litigation, a branch 
of legal proceedings born of the most rapid mechanical progress of thi^ 
rapid century. The many excellent text-books on the law of steam rail- 
roads have touched lightly or not at all this field embracing so many new 
and important questions. 

Mr. Booth had thus a most difficult, although a most intensely interest 
in", subject for discussion, a subject without perspicious definitions, with, 
out aid from the greater writers on American law and with only the con- 
temporaneous law literature to guide. 

How well the learned author has succeeded in covering the variety of 
correlated subjects can be understood only by a perusal of the table of 
contents. 

Steam street railways, horse lines, electric and cable traction and ele- 
vated railways ha\e each their appropriate head and discussion. Fran- 
chises are discussed in all points of view. The minor particulars of 
removal of snow from the streets, smoking on cars, gongs, bells and fend- 
ers are examined carefully and a complete table of cases referred to sec- 
tions makes the work complete and accurate. 

The book is prepared for the use of the bench, the bar, the corporation 
and the general public, to whose consideration we recommend it. 



The New England Magazine for this month has a very attractive 
menu, including "Fayal," "Literary Chicago," "Prophets," "The Pil- 
grim's Church in Plymouth," "Tacoma," and "The Story of a New 
England Parish in the Days of the Province. The illustrations are fully 
up to the high standard of this publication. 

We acknowledge the receipt of the report of President Adams on the 
University of Wisconsin, in which Dr. Adams asks for 133,850 for im- 
provements in the mechanical and electrical departments of the Univer- 
sity. This appropriation will put in a complete electrical plant. 



The "Technic, ' the annual of the Engineering Societies of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, is just published, and shows that "good works," in 
the wav of original investigation on scientific subjects, have not been 
wanting in that institution during the past year. Among articles of 
special interest to railway men are "Transmission of Power," by A. R 
Frantzen, and "Relative Cost of Prime Movers," by J. R. Allen. H_' 
George Field is the corresponding secretary of the society. 

A NEAT little pamphlet has just been published by Taylor, Goodhue 
& Ames, on the subject of transformers, with special reference to the 
Diamond Transformer. There is much of general interest to elec- 
tricians in its contents. 



Cassell's Family Magazine for February contains a very interest- 
ing and full account of the United Stales Weather Bureau, a subject that 
has never been enlarged upoji before to any great extent. A paper o 
practical value in the same issue is on "Getting on in Business." 



LiPPINLOTT's Magazine this month prints a complete novel by 
Julien Gordon, under the title "The First Flight," Herman F. Wolf 
gives an account of "Wrestling," for the athletic series. "Seventh Com- 
mandment Novels" are criticised by Miriam Coles Harris. 



It is said that $20,000 has been raised in Fairfax county 
to aid L. W. Spear's Ale.xandria city and suburban road 
of Washington city. 

By April i the inhabitants of Snohomish and Everett, 
Washington, will be exchanging afternoon calls by means 
of the new electric railway. A power house is in build- 
ing at East Everett, and the Land & River Iinprovement 
Company, of Snohomish, expects to rush the affair. 



L. E. Myers, who, as Chicago agent of the railway 
department of the Detroit Electrical Works, has done 
so much to advance the interests of his company, has been 
rewarded by the appointment to district manager. His 
offices are Nos. 917 and 918 Monadnock building, Chi- 
cago, and he will have entire charge of the railway, 
power and lighting departments in this vicinity. The 
appointment is a justl}' merited one, and Mr. Myers' 
numerous friends will learn with pleasure of his success. 



The Bay State Trust Company has been granted 
its application for trustees' sale of the Allen & Swiney 
lines at Dubuque. The total indebtedness is $350,000, 
and the sale will take place during the last week in 
March. The Trust Company holds a $200,000 lien, the 
General Electric is a judgment creditor for $23,000 and 
inferior liens make up the balance. It will take from 
$40,000 to $50,000 to put in the necessary new equip- 
ment. 



The long suffering Atlanta Traction Company has 
changed hands again. This time northern capital buj's 
the stock and either Judge Rosser or Judge Hines will 
become president, vice J. W. English, Jr., who has sold 
out his stock and retired. The road is four years old, 
doing a good business, and owning 6y{. miles of track 
and eighteen cars. Besides the Judges mentioned, Mr. 
Woodward and the northern unknown are in the new 
company. E. E. Holcombe will remain as general 
manager. ' 



W. R. Mason, general manager of the Railway 
Equipment Company, Chicago, has just sent out a circu- 
lar to the eastern trade, calling attention to the unequalled 
facilities of the company for furnishing everything neces- 
sary for the complete equipment and maintenance of elec- 
tric roads, and also calling particular attention to the merits 
of the type " G " overhead material manufactured by his 
compan}'. This material has been specified on a major- 
ity of the leading roads during the last season. He also 
informs the trade that he expects to be in New York the 
latter part of this month, and will call on the leading con- 
tractors and street railroads in the east. 



The Glastrow town council committee has decided that 
electricity is not the thing for Glasgow. Cable traction 
will next have an examination, but a horse system will 
probably be the ultimatum. 



Laborers rejoicing in the names of Jesus Chacon and 
Frank Moraga recently unearthed $2,000 in gold and 
silver Spanish coin while digging on the Alemeda railway 
bed at Oakland, Cal. 

A DISGUSTED passenger rushes into an English paper 
to remark that it makes him tired and swearful "to run 
100 yards after a tram car only to find the lawful capacity- 
taken," and then have to wait for the next car. 








PUBLISHERS AND PROPRIETORS, 

269 DEARBORN ST., - - - CHICAGO. 

Pnbli!>»hed on the 15th of each month. 



SUBSCRIPTION, - 
FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTION, 



TWO DOLLARS. 

20 SHILLINGS. 



Address all Commnnieathns and Remtttmnces to The Street Railway Review 
2bg Dearborn Street, Cktceg*. 

H. H. WINDSOR, F. S. KENFIELD, 

Editor. Business Manaeer. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

We cordially iovife correspondence on all subjects of interest to those engag-ed 
in any branch of Street Railway work, and will gratefully appreciate any marked 
copies of papers ornews items our street railway friends may send us, pertaining 
eiUier to companies or officers. Address: 

THE STREET RAILWAY REVIEW, 

269 Dearborn Street, Chicago. 



Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 



This paper member Chicago Publishers' Association. 



VOL. 3. 



MARCH 15, 1893. 



NO. 3 



MANY of our readers who find it difficult to spare 
any time at their office for the perusal of even a 
street railwaj' publication, have directed us to send the 
Review to their residence, where they can pick it up at 
leisure. The plan has worked very satisfactorily. 



WHAT have you decided on in the waj- of attrac- 
tions to create pleasure riding, this summer.'^ 
Those roads which maintained skating parks the past 
winter report a very profitable business. If you have 
never tried the experiment of out-door attractions, arrange 
to do so this season and note the surprising results. 



ELECTRICITY a.s applied to the operation of ele- 
vated roads will now have a large and practical 
demonstration. We have already described the line in 
Kansas City, and this month relate the details of a still 
larger system, that of the Liverpool, England, Overhead 
Railway. The English installation is very complete, but 
is simple in both arrangement and construction. Stations, 
platforms and cars are of course electrically lighted, and 
air brakes, and electric block signals — the first of their 
kind on elevated roads — insure safety in operation. The 
elevated road within the World's Fair grounds will short- 
ly afford another exhibition of electric transportation of 
this type. 



127 



THE street railway company at Wheeling, W. Va., 
has been made a spectacle during the last six- 
weeks. Apparently the cit}' officials have not raised a 
hand to suppress the mob element which has endeavored 
to prevent the operation of the cars. At any rate the 
authorities have lacked sadly in moral courage some- 
where, or such disgraceful proceedings could never have 
occurred day after day. 

INDICATIONS point to an early spring, which means 
an early start to a multitude of new railway enter- 
prises only awaiting the advent of good weather. Reports 
from all directions indicate an enormous volume of new 
work for this year. Probably a much greater amount of 
old track will be relaid this season than last, while exten- 
sions and new lines will consume a large amount of 
material. Power house work in new plants and additions 
to old will be a prominent feature. 



OHIO is rapidly becoming as prominent as Pennsyl- 
vania in electric traction. Columbiana county is 
said to have 15 miles of road, Mahoning county 37, and 
Stark county 31. These counties are in the new districts. 
Trumbull county has 60 miles of franchises pending and 
about lY^ miles of road in operation. The number of inter- 
dependent small manufacturing and mining centers in the 
two grand states mentioned make them inviting fields 
for interurban electric enterprise. 



AS stated in these columns frequently, the tendency on 
the part of legislators to the creation of state boards 
of commissions, and similar bodies is a bad one for the 
interests of the people. An effective illustration of this 
comes from Massachusetts, where the people of Beverly, 
by an overwhelming majority at the polls, gave the right 
to construct an electric road, which the selectmen steadily- 
refused to sanction for the past four years. The announce- 
ment was the occasion of a popular demonstration. 



THE public mind of New Orleans is at present con- 
siderably exercised over the question of separate street 
cars for the negro and white population. The street rail- 
way companies have nothing to do with the case, as it is 
confined principally to letters printed in the city papers. A 
similar question has troubled several other southern cities 
without coming to any definite conclusion. The question 
is still before the jury of the people, and the street rail- 
way, a third and so far neutral party. 



ONCE more the rapid transit fever has broken out in 
all its fury in good old Boston; again committees 
report, mayors speak and preside at public gatherings 
and the local newspapers are sure of several columns a 
day. The problem is pureh' a local one and will have to 
be worked out on the ground. It certainlj- is one of the 
most difficult matters to consummate, owing to the widely 
different individual interests. Which e\er way the com- 
mission turn their eyes a host of business men arise and 
object, pleading "not here." They all want rapid transit 
but at the expense of someone else. The blessed old 



128 



^grt^^a»^ %r u » ^ 



common, which in the eyes of the unregenei-ate westener 
approaches at certain seasons of the year to a close resem- 
blance to a frog pond, seems to rise before the well made 
plans of engineers like a dead line. The proposal to 
slice off sufficient for sidewalk purposes is deemed the 
entering wedge to preemption, while the prospect to cut 
a street or so across its sacred limits is nothing less 
than sacrilege, pure and simple. As stated in these 
columns, widen the streets and rapid transit alread)' in 
operation will assert itself. 



IN the Boston Traveler a contributor states: "Boston 
and Massachusetts will never have fast, safe and con- 
venient traveling facilities b}' steam or electricity until all 
cars propelled by these powe.s are compelled b}? the 
people, through their agent, the Legislature, to pass all 
streets and roads above or below grade." If this be the 
case, then Boston will celebrate its three hundredth anni- 
versary before the accomplishment of the desired end. 
Underground roads will not be built in Boston. Elevated 
roads would for the most part have to occupy the streets, 
and even then would be obliged to cut through manj' 
valuable business blocks. This can be accomplished, but 
it will be a slow, difficult and enormously expensive 
undertaking. 

IN street railway management, as in the operation of 
steam roads, it is largely the small details that must be 
watched to prerent accident. It is all in vain to maintain 
the most careful inspection of machinery and wheels of 
locomotive and train if the same care is not taken of 
switches and an hundred other places. The manager 
may equip his car with the most approved brakes and 
fenders, and yet overlook the steps over which every 
passenger must pass twice during every ride. The num- 
ber of accidents occurring to passengers while boarding or 
leaving a car will undoubtedly outnumber those arising 
from all other causes combined. Hence to carefully make 
a study of step and hand rails is one which may well 
engage the time of the busiest superintendent. We 
have seen steps on street cars wliich the directors would 
consider a constant source of danger if built into a flight 
of stairs in their residence. Such roads are, of course 
exceptions, nevertheless it can do no harm to watch your 
steps and determine as to whether or not you are as 
fully protected as may be. 



A FRANCHISE is being sought from the commission- 
ers of a certain county in a neighboring state, for 
an interurban line. The commissioners, undoubtedly in 
the endeavor to do their whole duty to their constituents, 
thought to err on the safe side and threw around the pro- 
posed franchise so many and unnecessarily severe restric- 
tions that the promoters of the enterprise are about ready 
to give up in dismay and disgust. We cannot but be 
convinced from the reports repeatedly brought us, that 
this class of public servants is sadly in need of a better 
understanding of what is fair and just; of the extreme 
difficulty of enlisting capital where the terms are made so 
exacting; and the untold advantage and benefit such 



lines have been and will prove to the entire community. It 
enables the farmer and all his family to get to town in the 
worst weather, quickly, cheaply and comfortablj-, and 
encourages and makes possible intercourse between the 
various villages and cities so connected. The facilities 
for transporting light freight, express and mail is invalu- 
able to the public. As an illustration of the granger ideas 
of the board referred to it is only necessary to mention 
that one clause bound the railway company to build a 
switch track into every farm yard along the entire route 
whenever the owner requested. A better knowledge of 
these matters, such as can be gained from a progressive 
publication devoted exclusively to street railway problems 
would work a change of heart and ideas. 



OF the subjects for discussion at the next convention 
there are two which possess more of newness than 
the others. One is the use of the T rail on a paved 
street; the other, storage batteries at central stations. 
With the improvements made in the manufacture of vitri- 
tied brick for street pavement, and the ease with which 
it can be turned out by machinery in any desired shape 
or length, it is a matter of surprise that the rail men have 
not paid more attention to its developement. As for the 
brick makers, they already seem to be overrun with 
orders, and doubtless, knowing very little of street rail- 
way wants, have ignored this branch. This certainly 
will prove a most interesting subject, full of practical 
interest, and it is to be hoped may be the means of bring- 
ing out much useful information. If it is practical to pave 
to a T rail, street railway men ought to know it. If, on 
the contrary, it is not a satisfactory combination, tliey are 
just as interested to be assured of that fact. As to stor- 
age batteries at central power stations, we are convinced 
that is to be the great field for the battery in railway 
work. As a reservoir of energy on a car it has been a 
dismal failure, as witnessed at Dubuque, and within the 
past month at Washington, D. C. But for station work 
we predict a large demand for the storage battery as soon 
as American managers become more familiar with its 
possibilities for usefulness and the results already attained 
in similar work in Europe. 



WE believe in operating a business, whatever it may 
be, for all there is in it. While in the very largest 
cities the transportation of passengers may afford all the 
work the company can profitably handle, in hundreds of 
smaller cities and larger towns the avenues to good rev- 
enue which may be opened up in various directions, and 
leading out from the power station are numerous. The 
sale of electric power for the operation of small stationary 
motors, and even larger ones, naturally comes first on the 
list, and the wonder is more managers have not secured 
this field to their companies. In some cases it ma}- require 
personal effort to introduce and popularize this system of 
power, but once started it becomes self-advertising. Also, 
when a new enterprise is contemplated, the local manager 
can easily influence a decision in favor of using electric 
power from the start. Then there are an endless variety 



of purposes where the electric heater has a place, and 
electric lighting has almost no limit. Exhaust steam, 
even in comparatively small plants, if within a reasonable 
distance of stores, residences and public buildings, has a 
commercial value far be_yond the realization of most peo- 
ple. Already in several railway plants the sale of e.xhaust 
steam has gone a long way toward reducing the fuel 
account to a surprisingly low figure. In at least an hun- 
dred railway plants enough exhaust steam is allowed to 
go to waste to pay a good, fat dividend. We can see 
little difference between needless waste at the exhaust head 
and a careless collection of fares, where a large portion 
of the passengers are overlooked. A manager who 
would install his plant without putting in a feed water 
heater would be looked upon with suspicion; oil filters 
are acknowledged to save their cost every few months, a 
daily record is kept of the oil used; coal is weighed into 
the fire-room, and any unusual consumption calls out an 
immediate explanation. Why not carry out the economy 
to its utmost practical limit? 



129 



will then return to institute a series of reforms based on 
American methods of operation which will surprise even 
themselves. 



WHILE cab and carriage hire is lower in Europe 
than here, the street car fares are not, despite 
the frequent assertions to the contrary by people who do 
not know. True, one can ride a half mile tliere for less 
than any American line will haul him, but the vastly 
greater important fact is overlooked in that there are no 
cheap rapid transit facilities for clerks, working men and 
the vast army of moderate wage earners. With us a 
three to five mile ride for the five cent fare is found every- 
where, and in this city and elsewhere it extends to even 
eight and ten miles. In other words the long hauls abroad 
cost more than here. The result is the poorer classes 
are compelled to make their homes in down town districts, 
crowding in like ants and deprived of the room, air and 
cheaper rents of the suburbs. The construction of cable 
and electric lines have revolutionized values in outlying 
and previously unoccupied properties, but great as has 
been the good work in this respect, the untold moral and 
sanitary advantages which have resulted from this spread- 
ing of population are vastly greater. The long hauls, as 
on some lines in Chicago, are made at a loss, and are 
only possible in proportion to the volume of short riders 
paying the same fare as the others. To reduce fares for 
short distances would necessitate an increase for the long 
distances, which in view of the manifold benefits to the 
community already suggested would prove a most unfor- 
tunate and unwise step. If some of the one-idea theorists 
who profess to have carefully studied the foreign trans- 
portation problem, only would or could comprehend the 
widely separated existing conditions, and the magnificent 
service furnished in America they would, if honest, put 
off their waiped old blue-glass goggles when further 
attempting to write on a subject at present little under- 
stood by them. We confidently predict that of all the 
astonishments in store for our tramway brothers across 
the water on the occasion of their prospective visit to 
Chicago and the states, the street railway systems will 
occasion tlie largest attention and surprise. Our friends 



ASSIGNMENTS of subjects and committees for 
report at the next street railway convention has just 
been announced by the secretary. It is to be hoped the 
executive committee will limit the preparation of papers 
to the six topics chosen, as the convention this year will 
need more time than ever before for discussion. A few 
timely questions carefully reported and freely discussed 
are of more value than twice that number read only by 
title. Then, too, this year we shall have a large attend- 
ance of the fraternity from across the water and botli 
courtesy and personal interest demand the giving up of 
considerable time to them. Outside of regular sessions 
there will be more than ever to occupy the time of all in 
attendance. The exhibit will be much larger than that 
in the street railway department at the World's Fair, and 
the regulation three days will hardly suffice for the accom- 
plishment of the attractive programme Mr. Payne will pro- 
vide. The committee have certainly made a most commend- 
able selection of subjects, while the assignment is specially 
well placed. Four of the topics are exclusively electric; 
another is largely so, while the other one applies to any 
system. Horses and cables are entirely ignored, but of 
the former nothing new worth the time of the convention 
has been developed in the past several years, and the 
cable system has been long since perfected. The list of 
subjects is as follows: 

1. Best Method of Lighting and Heating Street Railway Cars. 

G. F. Greenwood, General .Manager Pittsburg, Allegheny & Man- 
chester Traction Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 

2. Can the T Rail be Satisfactorily Used in Paved Streets.' 

C. Uensmore Wyman, Vice-President Central Park, North & East 
River Railroad, New York City, N. Y. 

3. Direct Driven Generators. 

C. J. Field, Electrical Engineer, New Jersey Traction Company, 
Newark, N. J. 

4. Power House Engines. 

E. G. Connette, Superintendent United Electric Railway, Nashville 
Tenn. 

L. H. Mclntire, Electrical Engineer, Atlantic Avenue Railroad 
Company, Brooklyn, N. Y, 

K. S. Pearson, Electrical Superintendent West End Railroad Com- 
pany, Boston, Mass. 

5. Standards for Electric Street Railways. 

O. T. Crosby, Boston, Mass. 
Charles W. Wason, Cleveland, Ohio 
L. H. Mclntire, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Thos, H. McLean, .New York City. 
C. G. Goodrich, Minneapolis, Minn. 

6. Storage Batteries in Connection with Central Stations for Utilizing 
Surplus Energy for Lighting or Power. 

C. O. Mailloux, Electrical Engineer, Metropolitan Railroad Com- 
pany, Washington, D C. 



ONE of the most important and far reaching measures 
which ever passed a city council, has become a 
municipal law in Chicago. It calls for a practical abolish- 
ment of the several thousand grade crossings, and the 
steam roads are allowed six years in which to complete 
the work. To carry out the order will involve the 
expenditure of many millions, but will be a grand thing 
for the public and the surface car companies. 



130 



RACINE'S STREET RAILWAY. 



HISTORY says that horse lines in Racine were 
not blessed with quiet, uneventful Hves. On 
the contrar}' from August, 1878, when the first 
street railway was organized as the Racine 
Horse Railway Company, until 1892, when the last horse 
retired from service, the records shows four changes in 
management, two failures to lay track and other vicissir 
tudes until, in 1S83, the Belle City Railway Company, of 
which Charles Hathaway was manager, began to work. 



there are in contemplation several extensions. The road- 
bed is mainly earth with five miles paved, divided between 
macadam, stone and wooden block. Brick paving is con- 
templated for the remainder of the line. The rail is 52- 
pound girder and 45-pound T, made by the Johnson Com- 
pany and spiked to ties spaced 16 inches, center to center. 
All bonding is double, number 0000 wire being used. 
The return is through the rail. 

The overhead construction was put up by the Detroit 




COLLES FEEn WATER HEATER. 

ALLEN SHEWMAN'S OFFICE. 



EXTERIOR OF POWER HOUSE. 

PRESIDENT HOLMES' OFFICE. 



The horse lines thus finally built were very successful but 
the demand for the "latest," to which the people of 
Racine are partial, brought C. H. Holmes and Allen 
Shewman, of St. Lous, to Racine to spy out the land. 
The change of ownership ensued and in June, 1892, the 
re-organization was effected. A franchise for 50 years 
was obtained a little later and in July last the company 
commenced the system which to-day gives Racine's ped- 
estrians such a satisfactory service. 

The Belle Citj' Street Railway Company now owns 
13 miles of track, of which three miles are double and 



Electrical Works and is well done. Wooden side poles 
are most extensively used but a mile and a half of center 
pole construction may also be seen. A change soon to 
be made is the cutting in of the feeders in six sections. 
This will serve a double purpose in supplying small power 
users with electricity for commercial purposes. Already 
a large number of applications have been made. The 
Main street line crosses a bridge over the river and the 
connecting device, designed by H. B, Niles, of Sargent 
& Lundy, is worthy of more extended notice. A sub- 
marine feeder will.be used on the bridge section as soon 



131 



as a dredge is obtainable. A temporary wire suffices for 
this winter. Sargent & Lundy, of Chicago, were con- 
tractors for the roadbed and the work was superintended 
by W. J. McCord. The bridge above referred to is built 
on a three and one-half per cent grade and is 150 feet 
long on the draw. 

Situated on the main street line at the center of the 
system is 

THE POWER PLANT, 

offices and car barn. The power house is 1,200 feet from 
Lake Michigan with a tunnel to that sheet of water 
emptying into an S-foot condensing well supplied with a 
Worthington condenser. The work cost one dollar a 
foot but pays for itself every nine months. 

The big engine that is responsible for the well-being of 
the Racine plant was made by the M. C. Bullock Manu- 



The dynamos are five 80-kilowatt "Detroit" machines, 
to which will be added three 225-horse-power of the 
same make when the station unit is increased as above 
related. The station is 60 by 120 feet in dimension, and 
contains also in a room next to the engines a CoUes feed 
water heater and purifier, herewith illustrated. The 
heater is an important adjunct to the economy of the 
plant and saves its cost several times over during the 
year. 

The Tracy oil filter is another economizer that is 
worthy of mention. The Phoenix Automatic Filter 
Company, of Racine, is the manufacturer and guarantees 
a large saving in oil. Mr. Shewman recommends the 
device heartily. 

The boilers are three in number, en banque. They 
are 66 inches in diameter, 16 feet long and each contain 
64 inch tubes. The domes are 40 inches high and 36 




M. C. BULLOCK-CORLISS ENGINE, RACINE. 



facturing Company, which company, it is well to remark, 
was contractor for the entire steam plant. 

The engine in question is one of their well-known Cor- 
liss type, with cyHnder 22 inches in diameter by 42 inch 
stroke, driving the three 80 kilowatt Detroit generators. 

The engine carries an 18-foot wheel, weighing 30,000 
pounds. The action of the engine is smooth and the 
government very sensitive, giving two of the most essen- 
tial requisites of street railway service, and Manager 
Shewman is well satisfied with the entire installation. 

The engine is belted to a 34 by 66 inch driving 
l)ulley, and the power distributed from an 8-inch jack 
shaft 29 feet long, on which are three clutch pulleys 
16 by 66 inches. The shaft is broken near the driving 
pulley and coupled with a clutch coupling. Two Mun- 
son double leather belts transmit the power. One is 120 
feet long and 32 inches wide and the other belt 200 feet 
in length and 14 inches in breadth. 



inches in diameter. The shells are of 'g-inch pure steel, 
and the heads >^-inch steel. The smoke stack is 60 feet 
high, 54 inches in diameter and made by the S. Freeman 
& Sons Manufacturing Company, of Racine, who also 
built and installed the boilers under sub-contract of the 
Bullock Engine Company. 

THE ROLLING STOCK 

consists of ten St. Louis Car Company's motor cars and 
four of Lamokin's make. All are 25 feet over all and 
mounted on Brill trucks. Six more cars are under way 
at the American Car Factory, to be mounted on McGuire 
trucks and Cushion car wheels. The motors under the 
cars are of the Detroit Standard .system, double reduction, 
furnished with the Detroit Company's new patent con- 
trolling switches, by the use of which it is impossible for 
motornien to "get switched" between points, thereby pre- 
venting the burning of switches. The motors run 



182 



^g^ ^lt; ,' (i)^ ^^v^ 



smoothly and quieth' and have given no occasion for 
repairs; in fact, so firm is the Racine people's faith in the 
equipment that no repair shop is contemplated. 

The fine offices of the company are herewith illustra- 
ted. Beneath the offices are located the neatly appointed 
waiting station and a compact cashier's office and a large 
vault. 

The officers of the company are : C. H. Holmes, pres- 
ident: J. E. Dodge, secretary, and Allen Shewman, gen- 
eral manager. 

DR. C. H. HOLMES 

is about 40 years of age and a native of Anderson, Ind. 
His education was acquired at the Indiana State Univer- 
sity and his medical degree in Rush Medical, Chicago. 
After practicing his profession four vears, electricity 
became so attractive to him that he turned from the 
scalpel to the dj-namo, going to St. Louis, where he was 
chief organizer of the Municipal Electric Light & Power 
Compan)'. After setting this company on the high road 
to success he retired, taking up the electrical supply- 
business at St. Louis, furnishing the above named com- 
pany. Going to Racine in 1890 with Mr. Hathaway, he 
then became a fullv reformed doctor and is able to cor- 
rectly diagnose the sj'mptoms of non-dividend-paying 
roads and apply the proper remedies, as his successful 
career shows. 

ALl.EN SHEW.M.\N 

was formerly a lawyer, born at Kokomo, Ind., in 1S64. 
After studying at the Terre Haute Normal he was grad- 
uated from the law department at Ann Arbor in 1885. 
After practicing four years at his home, and after a large 
experience in Te.xas real estate, he became associated 
with Dr. Holmes in the electrical suppl}' business. Find- 
ing his vocation in railway work, he spends his time in 
exemplif3'ing the new but true maxim that railway man- 
airers are both born and made. 



THE CHICAGO AND EVANSTON ELECTRIC 
RAILWAY. 



CONNECTICUT'S COMPETITION. 



THE consolidation known as the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford is making a light against the 
extensive electric sj-stems that bid fair to become 
strong rivals. A bill is before the legislature asking for 
a street railway commission to supervise this line of busi- 
ness, and a joint committee of steam and electric men will 
trj' to prepare a mutuall\- satisfactory arrangement which 
will also be submitted to the same body of law makers. 
The consolidated does not oppose local lines, but rises in 
earnest protest against the long paralleling of steam lines. 
The steam people will therefore vigorously oppose the 
longer interurban lines. It might be well for the steam 
men to reflect that all the legislation possible will not pre- 
vent the inevitable. Know all men by these svmptoms 
that there is a new era in electric traction now beginning. 



THE long fought battle for a franchise has been 
ended by the city of Evanston's recent grant of 
extensive rights to the Chicago & North Shore 
Street Railway Company-. 

The hne which will connect the beautiful suburb to the 
metropoHs must needs be of the most modern and beauti- 
ful construction and a glance at the list of contracts 
already let will show that no details will be left unfin- 
nished. The line will make connection with the North 
Chicago cable. 

Iron poles, both center and side, will carry the trolley 
wire and 27 miles of 0000 and 000 feeder will be used. 

The American Construction Companv, of Chicago, 
has the contract for the track construction, using Johnson 
85-pound girder rail on electrically welded chairs. 

The power station will be 100 feet front by 230 feet 
deep, situated on Evanston avenue near Ardmore. The 
style of the construction is Italian Renaissance. 

The General Electric Company has the contract for 
the electrical equipment, which will consist of two, 450- 
horse-power generators, switch boards and wiring. The 
California Construction Company will furnish their well- 
known rope transmission and three 250-horse-power 
Heine boilers will furnish steam for 450-horse-power 
Wheelock engines. 

The rolling stock now under contract will consist of 26 
closed iS-foot cars and 16 open cars 24 feet in length. 
All mounted on McGuire trucks. 

It is expected that the city end of the line will be in 
operation b}' April 25 and the remainder of the system 
by June 15. The American Construction Companv has 
all the necessar_v hustle to do this big contract on short 
notice and will have a large army of workmen on the 
tield. 

Geo. W. Maher, of Chicago, is llie architect of the 
power house. B. J. Arnold, of the General Electric, has 
charge of the engineering and Mr. McLimont is superin- 
tendent of construction. 



THE INDIANAPOLIS FROG AND SWITCH 
COMPANY. 



'• Youk'e OIF THE trolley" is a classical expression 
occurring in one of the plays now being presented in this 
city. 



THIS enterprising compan)-, so well known to all 
street railway as well as to steam road men, has 
just completed their new factory at Springfield, 
O. The new shop is a tremendous affair, 60 by 800 feet 
in dimensions, built of brick and fitted with all the im- 
proved machinery for e.xecuting the largest orders for 
street railway switches and crossings. 

The great increase in their trade during the last year 
necessitated this addition to their facilities. Among 
several large street railway orders now in the hands of 
the workmen are extensive contracts for the Memphis, 
Tenn., Street Railway Compan}- and the Chicago City 
Railway. 



133 



HALF FARES. 



Interesting Facts from all parts of the Country 
Boiled down for Busy Readers. 



President B. F. Ghen, of the City Passenger, Read- 
ing, Pa., has applied for new charter under title of the 
Reading Traction Company. 



Ex-Mayor Grant has sent out his circulars as presi- 
dent of the Railway Advertising Company. They will 
advertise in Broadway surface cars. 



The tramways company of Sheffield, England, received 
$96,340 last year and spent $71,330, leaving a net profit 
of $25,010. A 4 per cent dividend was paid. 



An automatic street indicator geared to the car axle 
has been testing in San Francisco, and is reported a suc- 
cess. Such devices heretofore have all proved failures. 



The big storm recently in Ottawa, Canada, required 
the electric railway to use 1,000 horse-power to keep the 
equipment in motion. Thirty teams were also at work 
removing snow from the down town districts. 



Southern enterprise at Florence, S. C, will soon have 
an electric railway. The entire plant of the Columbia 
Street Railway has been bought by the Florence & 
Suburban. The plant consists of 4^4 miles good, new 
track and six cars. 

President C. T. Yerkes, of the North and the West 
Chicago cables has rejected the design of Sculptor Kelly, 
of New York, for an heroic representation of " Sheridan's 
Ride," for Union Park, Chicago, and has decided to open 
the design to competition. 



Dr. Mary Walker has boldly and equivocably gone 
on record as an opponent of crinoline on the grounds that 
it interferes with rapid transit. Dr. Mary has just cele- 
brated the silver anniversary of her enfranchisement to 
'pants' and she ought to know. 



The Lowell & Suburban Street Railway Company 
used a harrow with good effect during the winter to 
loosen ice and snow between the tracks. The harrow 
was to all appearances the ordinary agricultural imple- 
ment, but equipped with a dozen 18-inch teeth. 



An extensive plan for a net work of interurban lines in 
Northern Ohio will embrace Youngstown and other 
larger cities. The Canton-Massillon line will be extended 
to Alliance. The Warren-Niles line and the Youngs- 
town-Niles line will probably be built this summer. 



The mendacity of mean men on the line of the Staten 
Island Rapid Transit Company, of New York, will prob- 
ably cost honest people their commutation privileges. 
The company sells fifty-four tickets for $3.00 to those 
who earn less than $7.00 a week. Some higher salaried 
people have made poverty affidavits and the company 
threatens to withdraw the privilege. 



The proposed high speed line between Buda-Pesth 
and Vienna has recently been severely criticised by J. 
Kareis, a well known Austrian engineer. Mr. Kareis 
sa\'s that the mechanical details are not wanting, but that 
the traffic, 200,000 annually, will not warrant the outlay. 



Anthony N. Brady, the New York millionaire and 
street railway magnate, began life 48 years ago. He was 
the son of poor parents and made the greater part of his 
fortune in the last five years. He recently put down his 
check for a cool million for the purchase of the Lexington 
a\-enue line, New York. 

Snow, cold weather, and want of fuel has played havoc 
with the expenses all over the country for the past month. 
On February 8, the Grand Rapids Railway had fifty 
miles of track without a car on account of the coal famine. 
Nearly all the large factories in the town were shut down 
and the domestic supply itself was in danger of exhaus- 
tion. 

Hicii Kicking has been severely condemned by many 
good people, and now the Nebraska courts have held a 
street railway in that state responsible for the death of a 
driver who was killed by aright-hand-back-foot shot from 
an ugly broncho which rebelled at drawing an overloaded 
street car. The deadly trolley will have to look to its 
laurels now. 

C. F. Holmes, general manager of the Kansas City 
cable, has received merited praise from the citizens and 
press for his active services during the recent hard storms. 
The cable line was kept open during the most severe 
weather. Once Mr. Holmes appeared in rubber boots, 
leggings, macintosh and cap, driving a pair of mules to 
the sweeper. It is gratifying to know that his efforts 
were appreciated. 

Albert I. Fay, of Minneapolis, has invented a con- 
duit system of electric railway not unlike many which 
have gone before. Across a shallow conduit are placed 
the ties, and on these the copper conductor. Two slot 
rails over the conductor form a second and smaller con- 
duit. The difficulty, amounting practically to inability of 
cleaning his lower conduit, would alone seem to make the 
method a failure. 

Cold as is cold. — Wallace D. Dickinson, superinten- 
dent of the Great Falls, Montana, Street Railway, when 
calling at the Review office, laughed at the reported cold 
in the eastern states the past winter. At one time the 
thermometer fell to 54 degrees below zero, and for a time 
made no effort to get up again. For two weeks the 
highest register at any time was 10 below, while during 
several days the warmest was 20 degrees below zero. 
At one time Mr. Dickinson found it necessary to use two 
drivers to a car, working them in lo-minute shifts. His 
cars are equipped with Carpenter electric heaters, and 
while on the coldest days it was not found necessary to 
leave the front door open, still the results were very satis- 
factory. 



134 



The Boynton Bicvcle system of transit makes a 
proposal to New York City to introduce this method of 
traction on an elevated plan. In 1891 the Street Rail- 
way Review illustrated Mr. Boynton's patent and the 
contributor of an article on "Rapid Transit in New York" 
spoke of the advantages of this method on certain lines. 
Mr. Boynton's will probably not lighten the surface tran- 
sit to any serious degree. 

Over 5,000 shares of stock in the lines operated 
by the Belt Line Company, of Washington City, were 
sold recently at $55 for $50 shares. Some stock brokers 
say that the sale was made in the interests of the Phila- 
delphia syndicate. It is also rumored that a controlling 
interest has been secured in the Metropolitan and in the 
Columbia roads. These interests will be placed under one 
management. It is thought that these lines will soon be 
equipped electrically. 

Hon. S. W. Fordyce, a prominent steam road man of 
St. Louis, has been elected president of the Little Rock 
Electric Railway Company. Since the road is again in 
the hands of the stockholders, it is hoped that it may be 
placed on a firm footing. The road is a good property, 
well constructed, economically and mechanically, and 
ought to be able to live until the public is educated to its 
advantages. A consolidation of the town lighting inter- 
ests is being financed. 

The Gener.\l Electric Co:\ip.\ny are again the 
victors in the lamp patent litigation. The remarkable 
evidence brought in by the Beacon Company at the 
eleventh hour, claiming the invention and use of the incan. 
descent lamp twenty years prior to the Edison patent was 
overruled by Judge Colt, of Boston, who says in his 
decision: "The presumption of novelty arising from the 
tyrant of the patent is not to be overcome except upon the 
most clear and convincing proof." 



WooNsocKET, R. I., has granted the Woonsocket 
Street Railway Company an exclusive franchise for co 
years. The street railway in return will pay i per cent 
of its gross earnings to the city for the grst year, 2 per 
cent for the next year and 3 per cent for the remainder 
of the time. Legislative consent is already obtained for 
an increase of stock to $400,000 with permission to issue 
$400,000 in bonds. It is proposed to extend the line to 
Uxbridge. Mass., taking in a number of villages and 
towns. 

A POWER house 89 by 125 feet in dimension with 
double pitch roof, is to be built by the Berlin Bridge Com- 
pany, of East Berlin, Conn., for the Worcester, Mass., 
Traction Company. The boiler room will contain nine 
6-foot boilers, made by the Stewart Boiler Works, of 
Worcester. The Lake Erie Engine Company, of 
Buffalo, will put in five high speed compound condensing 
engines of 500-horse-power each, direct coupled. Five 
500-horse-power General Electric generators. The Fi^:ld 
Engineering Company has the contract. 



R. B. PiERi'ONT, well known as the former manager 
of the Gould & Watson Company, Chicago, and now a 
member of the banking firm of Longstreet, Pierpont & 
Company, and Jas. W. Longstreet, nephew of President 
Longstreet, of the American Street Railway Association, 
will establish a restaurant at the corner of Sixty-third 
street and Madison avenue. It will be called the Boston 
Cafe. Mr. Pierpont will be manager. It will be opened 
April 18, and all street railway men will find the warmest 
welcome and the best fare. 



A R.\THER difficult situation confronts the street rail- 
way men of Montreal, resulting from the passage, after a 
stormy meeting of the city council, of the by law award- 
ing the contract for an electric railway from the city to 
St. Louis de Mile-end, to the Montreal Street Railway 
Company, throwing out the grant to A. J. Corriveau. 
Notwithstanding this Mr. Corriveau will proceed with 
the road under a former contract and carry the matter to 
court. Ground has been bought for a power house, and 
engines and boilers of 1,000-horse-power will be put in. 



We can't swear to the veracity of the story, but it is 
said that a long-suffering conductor in Cleveland recently 
cured a certain man of a bad habit. The man in question 
always appeared with a $10 bill on the early morning 
trip, and the conductor not being able to change it paid 
the fare. The fifth morning the worm turned and when 
the bill was offered the conductor said, "Certainly, sir," 
and pulled out a heavy bag from under the seat. "Here's 
yer change, sir. It's all right; I counted it." And before 
he knew it the astonished traveler was the happy possessor 
of $9.75 in pennies! 

An interview, published in the New York World, con- 
tains the news that the patents "secured by Geo. F. Green, 
of Kalamazoo, Michigan, who died last year, have been 
bought by the General Electric Company, of O. S. 
Kelley, of Springfield, O., the assignee of Green. These 
patents were filed in 1879, but rejected on technicalities, 
but finally secured to Green, December 15, 1892. F. B. 
Fish, of Boston, is said to have been the counsel for the 
buyers. S. D. Greene, assistant manager of the General 
Electric, is reported as the informant of the World, and is 
quoted as saying that the " patents cover broadly the 
overhead trolley system as used by all electric roads." 



The 250 miles of track operated by the Twin City 
Rapid Transit Company were buried under from two to 
ten feet of solidly packed snow during the storm the last 
of February. In some places the cuts were above the 
car roofs. The blockade cost the company in the neigh- 
borhood of $10,000. 

The Nationalist Club, of Indianapolis, has settled the 
rapid transit question again. They would rent the streets 
at $1,000 a mile per annum. After 1901 the city 
would then buy back the plant and operate by means of 
ward politicians. 



135 



LIVERPOOL OVERHEAD RAILWAY. 



The first Elevated Railway to use Electricity in Europe — The Largest of its kind in the World— A Mag- 
nificent Structure with Splendid Construction and Perfect in all its details — Tilting 
Bridge Spans— Automatic Electric Block System of Signals. 



BV J. H. WOODWARD, C. 



THE most noted electrical event which has occurred 
in Europe in a long time was the opening, 
on February 4, of the electric elevated rail- 
way in Liverpool, locally known as the Liver- 
pool Overhead Railwaj'.* A large attendance of notables 
graced the occasion, and the machinery was set in motion 
by the Marquis of Salisbury, who delivered an appropri- 



rapid communication between all the docks lying along 
the river. The railway is carried overhead for its whole 
length, with the exception of about 270 yards, where it 
passes on an embankment under an already existing line 
belonging to the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Com- 
pany. The structure is built up almost entirely of steel, 
several novel features having been introduced, both in the 




SCENES FROM THE LIVERPOOL OVERHEAD RAILWAY. 
BOGIE TRUCK. SECTION OF ELEVATED TRACK, 

TWO CLASS COMPARTME.VT CAR. COLLECTOR SHOE AS ATTACHED TO TRUCK. 



ate address. Among other speakers were the mayor of 
Liverpool and .Sir William Forwood. The inaugural trip 
passed off successfully and was witnessed by thousands. 

The railway as at present completed, consists of a 
double line of rails of the ordinary 4-feet 8'^-inch gauge, 
extending for a distance of six miles over the Mersej' 
Dock Board's Estate, and intended to give a means of 



*A full description of construction will be found in The Street 
Railway Review for August, 1891. In 18S7 parliament authorized 
the Dock Board to construct the line, which for the nio&t part is over 
their own property. In January, iS88, the Dock Board agreed to build 
the road and lease it for 999 years to the Liverpool Overhead Railway 
Company. Construction began July, 1890; line was formally opened 
February 4, 1893. Structure contains 25,000 tons of metal, and cost 
complete $3,500,000, 



design itself and in the method of erection employed. 

Special mention should be made of the tilting bridge, 
by which two spans' lengths of the railway can be tilted 
to allow the passage below of very large boilers, etc. 

The whole works have been carried out under the 
direction of Sir Douglas Fox and J. H. Greathead, the 
consulting engineers to the Liverpool Overhead Railway 
Companj'. 

Throughout the greater part of the line the gradients 
are easy, though where it comes to the embankments to 
pass under the other line there is a dip having a gradient 
of I in 40. The smallest curve has a radius of six chains. 
Fourteen stations give ample provision for taking up and 
setting down passengers; the maximum distance between 



136 



any two stations being 1,200 yards. The stations in the 
citj-, at the center of the line, are more frequent, those at 
Pier Head and Jarvis street being only 300 yards apart. 

After very careful investigation on the part of the direc- 
tors and engineers it was decided to adopt electricity as the 
motive power, and also for working the signals and light- 
ing the stations. 

The contract for the whole of the generating plant, 
conductors, rolling stock, signals, etc., was placed with the 
Electric Construction Corporation. Ltd., of London and 
Wolverhampton, and has been carried out by them under 
the personal direction of Thomas Parker, their chief engi- 



which is brought in trucks over the boiler house and dis- 
charged directly into the hoppers feeding the stokers. 
The engines are four in number, of the horizontal coupled 
compound t3-pe, each capable of indicating 400 horse- 
power with 120 pounds steam pressure, at 100 revolu- 
tions per minute. The cylinders are i5J^ and 31 inches 
diameter, 36 inch stroke. Corliss valve gear is fitted to 
both cylinders, securing good regulation in speed with 
the rapidly varying loads which all engines are subject to 
when used for driving electric railways. The flywheels are 
14 feet diameter, grooved for nineteen i^ inch diameter 
ropes. The exhaust steam from the engines is taken to 




INTERIOR POWER STATION LIVERPOOL OVERHEAD RAILWAY. 



neer. The constructors have supplied a generating plant 
and conductors capable of running a three minute service 
of trains throughout the whole line, each train weighing, 
with passengers and motors, about forty tons. The six 
miles has to be run, including stoppages at each station, 
in thirty minutes, this necessitating a maximum speed of 
twenty-five to thirty miles per hour. 

The generating station supplying power for working 
the whole line is erected at the Bramley-Moor dock, the 
site being close to the railway and about the center of its 
length. Steam is provided by six Lancashire boilers 
eight feet in diameter and thirty feet in length. These 
are fitted with mechanical stokers, conveyer, and all 
appliances for the economical use and handling of coal, 



a separate surface condensing plant, the circulating water 
for which is obtained from the dock adjoining the station. 
Two sets of condensers are installed, each capable of 
dealing with the steam from three of the main engines 
working under full load. Auxiliary engines are employed 
for driving the boiler feed pumps, stokers, conveyer and 
scrapers of fuel economiser fixed in the main flue. All 
steam and feed pipes are arranged to give a duplicate 
service between the engines, boilers and pumps. 

Each of the main engines drives by means of cotton 
ropes, an Elwell-Parker continuous current dynamo, giv- 
ing 500 volts, 475 amperes, at 400 revolutions per min- 
ute. The magnets are two pole, of the double horse-shoe 
type, fixed vertically, divided on the horizontal line, so 



g^Kfe^^Mlt^ ^yuiw? 



137 



that the top half can be lifted off to allow of examination 
or removal of the armature. The pulleys are carried 
between two bearings, and a coupling inserted between 
the pulley and armature shafts allows the latter to be 
taken out without taking off the ropes, dismounting the 
pulley, or interfering with the set of the bearings. 

The current is carried from the dynamos by under- 
ground cables to a switch board, where all the machines 
couple in parallel onto omnibus bars. An ammeter, 
voltmeter, double-pole automatic magnetic cut-out, main 
switch, and regulating switch with resistance coils is pro- 
vided for each machine. The main current on its way 
to the line passes through another automatic magnetic 
cut-out. The conductor along the line from which 
motors draw their supply consists of a steel channel car- 
ried upon porcelain insulators in between the ordinary 
raUs. The steel was specially made so as to secure a 
high conductivity, and has a section of four square inches. 
The surface of the channel is about one inch higher than 
the tops of the ordinary rails, and the lengths are jointed 
together by copper fish plates. The return circuit is 
completed through the ordinary rails, which are electric- 
ally joined across the fish plates. 




ELECTRIC BLOCK SIGNAL. 



The carriages are mounted upon two 4-wheel bogies. 
The length over end pillars is 45 feet, and width over side 
pillars 8 feet 6 inches; centers of bogies, 32 feet; wheel 
base of bogies, 7 feet; diameter of wheels, 2 feet 9 inches. 
They seat 56 passengers. Each is provided with a 
driver's box at one end, in which are fitted all the driving 
switches and brake controlling levers. One of the bogies 
carries the motor, the armature of which is mounted 
directly upon the a.xle. The magnets are of the double 



horse-shoe type, series wound. In addition to the bear- 
ings on the axle they are supported at the ends by a 
special arrangement of springs from the bogie's frame. 
Ten revolutions of the motor armature are equivalent to 
a car speed of one mile per hour, so that the maximum 
speed attained is 250 to 300 revolutions per minute. The 




ONE OF THE BOILERS. 



motors when tested in the shops gave when at rest the 
following torque efforts at the rim of the wheel (2 feet 9 
inches in diameter) : — 

With 30 amperes, 170 pounds. 
With 50 amperes, 450 pounds. 
With 60 amperes, 650 pounds. 
With So amperes, 1060 pounds. 

The brakes are of the Westinghouse pattern, supplied 
with compressed air from a large receiver carried under 
each car, this being charged at the terminal station, 
where a compressing plant is installed. 

The trains consist of two of the above carriages, con- 
nected so that there is a driver's box at each end and a 
motor on the leading bogie of the last car. There is no 
shunting at the terminal stations, the driver simply chang- 
ing ends. A gangway between the two cars affords a 
clear passage through the train for the conductor. The 
carriages are lighted by incandescent lamps, supplied with 
current from the center rail. 

The bodies are constructed with a gangway down the 
center of the carriage, and the seiffs arranged on each 
side, the entrance to the carriages being through side 
doors. The interior is divided into three large compart- 
ments and one small compartment for the driver. The 
first-class compartment at one end provided with seat ac- 
commodations for sixteen passengers is divided from the 
second-class compartment by a sliding door. The second- 
class compartments are divided by a partition with open 
doorway, the seats arranged to accommodate forty pass- 
engers. 



138 



The collectors consist of hinged cast iron shoes sup- 
ported by, but insulated from the bogie frames, one to 
each carriage. These shoes are made very much wider 
than the conductor so that at the cross over roads they 
will bridge across from the conductor on one side of the 
ordinary rail to that on the other side. 

At each of the stations along the line an accumulator of 

, r~i , r-i ^^/^^ n r-i , 



^y^=^=^ 



CONDUCTOR RAIL COKNECTION. 



54 cells is erected. A number of these are connected in 
series and charged by current at 500 volts from the main 
dynamo at the generating station. These batteries sup- 
pi}^ current for lighting the stations and also for working 
the signals. This is the first line of its kind upon which 
a complete line of automatic electric signals has been 
adopted. They are entirely automatic in action, each 




MANNER OF INSULATING CONDUCTOR. 

train blocking the section in the rear as it passes along. 

To carry out the work several firms have been employed 
as sub-contractors. The boilers, engines and other por- 
tions of the steam plant having been supplied by John 
Musgrove & Sons, Ltd., of Bolton; the carriages by 
Brown-Marshall Companj-, Ltd., of Birmingham ; the 
steel channel by the Shelton Iron & Steel Companj', Ltd., 




CROSS SUPPORT OF CONDUCTOR. 



of Stoke-on-Trent. The whole of the electrical plant has 
been manufactured under Thomas Parker's supervision 
at the works of the Electric Construction Corporation, 
Ltd., Wolverhampton. They also being responsible as 
contractors for the complete plant. 

The construction and equipment are all first-class, and 
the work has been carried out to a most successful com- 
pletion, reflecting great credit on all connected with the 
enterprise. It has entered at the start upon a large and 



profitable business, and is literally on the "high road to 
success." As the volume of business to be carried will 















ly 




Oi^ 


■bp^.. 






1 




^^kSS^ ^j^S^jst^ 


^^ ■ 





ONE OF THE STATIONS. 



be large throughout the day, the results will command 
unusual interest from elevated roads in this country. 



Induced traffic in New Jersey is becoming a feature 
of traction policy since the introduction of the trolley. 
The Newark and South Orange Company has placed 
under the distinguished consideration of the city fathers 
of Newark a plan for the extension of several lines, one 
of which will touch the new summer pavilion at the 
" Neck." Here Sunday schools and social dancers will 
picnic, and far from the maddening crowd Newark will 
disport itself. The electric wishes to carry the crowd 
and will probably get the privilege. 




UNDER VIEW OF STRUCTURE. 



" If this doesn't end soon I am going to go out and 
lose myself," observed Rapid Transit Commissioner 
Bushe of New York city, recently. 

" In my dreams I see swarms of cranks displaying 
plans for roads ploughing under the city; others built 
on all the high church steeples; tunnels, viaducts, de- 
pressed roads, 'L' roads, surface roads, transverse roads, 
cables, trolleys and electric motors, all in a fearful jumble. 
No wonder I look pale." 



139 



ELECTRIC TRACTION IN 1850. 



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t 



s 



"llllireras 



IT 



.Jn^aic'itt/it itt 'EUitef-mmpxsrU 



NOT many men have seen the toys of their youth 
grow into useful products and blossom out into 
world wide reaching industries, as has Dr. 
John H. Lillie, of Los Angeles, California, 
who, as far as we are able to investigate the annals of 
what now is ancient history, seems to be the pioneer elec- 
tric railway inventor in America. Contemporary with 
the experiments of Morse in telegraph. Dr. John H. 
Lillie, then residing at Joliet, 111., was deeply engaged in 
electrical experiment, the most satisfactory of which was 
an electric traction mo- 
tor, the subject of the I 
present sketch. 

It was not until 1850, 
however, that the patent 
office issued the papers 
which recorded as No. 
7,287 the allegation of 
an improvement in 
" electro - magnetic en- 
gines." The title page 
of this interesting docu- 
ment is reproduced here, 
and may be the subject 
of curiosity to the holder 
of patent number four- 
hundred- thousand- and- 
something,if for nothing 
else, to show the tre- 
mendous strides of Am- 
erican electrical industry 
since this yellow and 
faded sheepskin, No. 
7,287, grew on the back 
of a frisky spring lamb 
of 1850. 

The text of the patent 
proclaims that the said 
Lillie has invented a 
new and useful machine 
for electro- magnetic 
power. 

In brief, the invention 
consists in the employment of a number of permanent 
horse shoe magnets, compound or simple, revolving 
on a wheel in front of an electro -magnet fixed sta- 
tionary to a frame. Around the outside of the electro- 
magnet was a helix of fine wire, " producing other 
electro-magnets and destroying secondary currents in the 
first magnet." The construction of the machine was 
very simple, being a series of permanent compound U 
magnets placed in a wheel in a radial position, the poles 
projecting beyond the periphery of the wheel. On one 
end of the axis of this wheel there was a larger spur 
wheel driving two pinions. Break pieces, or commuta- 
tors, were attached. The frame supporting the wheel 
held two U-form electro-magnets, which were on a line 



s^: 



<,f^^^^>i, 




TO ALL TO WHOIl THCSt LETTERS PATENT fH«U COUE 






/'^•'^i^'iimuria^.^y^.l.il^ 



•'MMIS.HIQJIIIH .j^ 






>?; 







J. A' / 









-^* 






'/- //.i^/// 



I— ^.* 



radial from the shaft, one on each side. Around the 
coils on the magnet were fine wires which secondary 
coils were connected to the electro-magnets "to be mag- 
netized by means of, and for the purpose of also destroy- 
ing the secondary currents." The magnets were placed 
to aid in the propulsion of the wheel. The break piece 
was in two parts, one half being a conductor and the 
other a non-conductor. The conductor half was con- 
nected b}' means of a spring with the opposite cut off 
shaft so as to be thrown alternately onto one or the other 

of two insulated break 
pieces, by which the 
current was made to 
pass in one direction or 
the other through either 
of the coils. One break 
piece was connected 
with the battery by 
means of a spring 
through a binding 
screw. The other break 
piece was connected 
with the opposite bind- 
ing screw b)' another 
spring. One end of 
each of the two prima- . 
ry coils was connected 
by a wire with the break 
piece, or "current 
changer," by means of 
a spring. The other 
end of these coils were 
alternately connected 
with the spring to close 
the circuit by means of 
a spring device. In the 
quaint phrase of the let- 
ters patent it is stated: 
" By this arrangement 
it will be seen that the 
electro-magnets are 
charged with opposite 
poles to the permanent 
magnets, and when the magnets are opposite their cen- 
ters the poles are changed by the revolution of the brake 
piece and the permanent magnets are repelled. It is 
necessary to have the permanent magnets long, other- 
wise their poles will be changed by a powerful current 
in the electro-magnets." 

The claim of "newness" made is, first, the employment 
of induced electricity, inducing electricity in the second- 
ary electro-magnets to be used as motive power in con- 
nection with the prime mover, and to neutralize the sec- 
ondary currents of the principal magnets formed by the 
direct current from the battery. 

The venerable inventor of this old-timer is now a resi- 
dent of Los Angeles, Cal., at the age of So years. His 



^,//. 
























,v.. A 



LILLIE'S patent of APRIL, iS^O. 



140 






birth place was Montrose, Pa., and his medical degree 
acquired at Cincinnati, O., in 1838, where his first inter- 
est in electricity was aroused. His electrical work began 
with some interesting designs in testing instruments, 
making a delicate electrometer with which he substanti- 
ated his belief in the electrical origin of cyclones. He 
besides dipped into electro-therapeutics. Electric lighting 
and insulation also claimed a part of his interests, although 
he prosecuted none to commercial usefulness. The elec- 
tro-magnetic engine above sketched, however, was the 
most interesting of these affairs. In 1850 a 12-foot cir- 
cular track was built at Hornellsville, N. Y., his then 
residence, and upon it one of his engines was placed. 
Later he built another and much larger one for P. T. 
Barnum, the great showman, which was exhibited in 
many places and attracted much attention. A Httle later 
another on a larger scale was built at the request of Pro- 



ON THE GRIP. 



CHAPTER I. 




DR. JOHN H. LILLIE, 

fessor Henry, the famous curator of the Smithsonian 
Institute, and exhibited in that collection. The last pub- 
lic appearance of this early motor was at the late New 
Orleans exposition about eight years ago, since which 
time the tremendous strides of commercial electricity 
have overshadowed it. 

We take pleasure in showing an engraving of Dr. 
Lillie, from a photograph taken especially for the 
Review, and faithfully presenting the doctor's kindly 
features as he appears in his old age, justly honored. 

The good pastor of the first Baptist church of Min- 
nepolis. Dr. Wayland Hoyt, recently preached a sermon 
on the efficacy of prayer, and among other things said 
that he thought a sad lack of the spirit of prayer perva- 
ded the Twin Cities' Rapid Transit Company. Verily, 
Doctor, there is as little prayerfulness on the part of the 
company as there is in the remarks of the Minneapolis 
kicker, and heaven knows the fearful lack there. 



OF all students of human nature that study that 
class of beings " a Httle lower than the angels," 
the street railway man on the back or front 
platform has the most abundant opportunities. The 
book agent's chance of seeing fifty people a day fades 
into insignificance before the hundreds that touch thumbs 
with the conductor or hail the driver several thousand 
times each year. 

To the street railway employe the fair sex has the 
greatest possibilities for observation, and at a late meeting 
of the literary club of the Chicago City Railway, A. D. 
Perry, a gripman on the Wabash line, gave the assem- 
bled brethren the benefit of his wide experience. Among 
other things Mr. Perry observed: 

We find, with the rest of mankind, that it is next to 
impossible for a man to argue with a woman to show her 
the error of her way. After all the logic, all the reason, 
and all the examples in the category are exhausted she 
will close the debate by remarking, " I kno-u/ it is so be- 
cause I i-itow it's so." On this point she will stand out 
against Webster's dictionary and the powers that be, and 
the wisest course for a man to take is to drop the subject. 

I think the reason for this is that a woman has an 
inborn idea that a man is her natural and hereditary enemy 
and thinks that any display of the guiding hand or neces- 
sary authority is nothing more or less than an attempt at 
tyranny. This is one of our most serious troubles, for no 
explanation can smooth the ruffled feathers of wounded 
pride. Next on the hst is a woman's superior knowledge. 
It may be due to the century in which we live, or to the 
higher education of women, but one thing is sure; any 
woman that ever lived knows better how to do any par- 
ticular thing than any man, or body of men, that ever 
dared to breathe. These are the general characteristics 
that cause women to be that which they are just because 
they are so. 

The first noticeable peculiarity of women in connection 
with street car riding is the rear door attraction. Why a 
woman persists in making a short-cut for the rear plat- 
form to mount a car, I can't see, but she will do it. The 
women in the car, of course, get out through the rear 
door where, of course, there stand a half-dozen of other 
women trying to get on. The conductor may plead, 
" wait a minute, please, and let these people off." He 
may at his peril recommend the front door as an avenue 
into the car. The driver may try to assist the conductor 
in directing their attention to the forward platform, but 
the thought of every woman in the crowd is " that horrid 
man is trying to order us." " Shall he tell us what to doP" 
So we wait. Oh! that the female mind could grasp the 
idea that the front door of a car was made for use and 
not ornament. Oh ! that the female intellect could be sud- 
denly enlightened on the old philosophical maxim that 
two bodies cannot occupy the same place at the same 
time and still be happy. It would beat Ayer's Hair 
Renewer in taking the gray locks from our hair. 



141 



It is an old tale that no woman can mount or descend 
from a street car properly, but why a woman who can be 
so graceful in the drawing-room or at a ball should be so 
awkward when attempting to get off a car is a puzzle to 
me. If she attempt to gain time by getting off before 
the car stops, nine chances out of ten she will swing off 
backwards on the ground. Of course, she never gets 
hurt badly in this original ground and lofty tumbling 
act, but she musses her clothes and her temper, and, oh, 
what a look at the man who says, "Just like a woman." 
Having been reared in the country and being familiar 
with rural affairs, I can only compare a woman's perform- 
ance as she takes hold of a post on a grip car to a dog's 
gyrations just before lying down. The dog makes sev- 
eral turns and twists and finally settles, just as the woman 
does, but with less force. As to jumping off the car, I 
never saw a man yet who did not gaze with admiration 
on one of the opposite sex who had learned this feat. 

Down near Thirty-fifth street, one day, a young woman 
rose from her seat on my grip just before the car stopped 
and swinging out a little moved as if to jump. Four or 
live men stretched out their hands to stop her as if she 
had been an escaped lunatic, I yelled, as usual, " Wait a 
moment, lady," but she was gone; gracefully, and with 
not a little triumph in her eye she turned towards the car 
as much as to say, " There, now, just say you saw a wo- 
man get off a street car right, once in your lives." 

No other accomplishment raises a woman in a man's 
estimation as quickly as knowing how to get off a car 

Many theories have been advanced for this inability of 
women to retire from a car with grace and safety, but I 
affirm the reason is that a woman starts for her destina- 
tion regardless of everything exxept getting there. If the 
car would stop so that she would face her destination as 
well as the grip car she would not get off backwards, but 
let the car go past her destination but one yard and she 
turns her face in that direction, with fatal results to her 
drapery and temper. Then her trail is in her way, and to 
manage this portion of her clothing takes at least one 
hand. When they begin to wear crinoline what will be- 
come of us? The conductors will be continually reported 
for crushing dresses, and " to sit closer, please," will be 
a physical impossibility. There might be a volume writ- 
ten on the subject of getting off a car, but our time is too 
short. 

A man's ability to get off a car is his particular pride, 
but every woman that travels on a street car has a faculty 
that not one young man in a thousand can boast — -but that 
must go over until next month. 



A BRAKE PROBLEM. 



The University of Minnesota course in electrical en- 
gineering is coming to be considered as among the best 
in the country. This is owing, mainly, to the efforts of 
Professor George D. Shepardson, whose name is not 
unfamiliar to street railway men, and who is making 
his institution, favorably situated as it is with a great sys- 
tem near at hand, one of the centers of street railway 
electrical engineering. 



A READER of the Street Railway Review asks 
the following question : 

How many pounds are necessary to stop a 30-inch diameter steel 
street car wlieel having three quarters of an inch flange and two inch 
tread; brake shoe 12 inches long. 

J. Archy Smith, mathematician at Chicago University, 
sends us at our request the following solution : 

If the wheel is to be stopped instantaneously, the speed 
of the car is practically not a factor of the force necessary 
to stop the wheel, nor is the shape or size of the brake 
shoe. The friction at the brake must be equal to or 
greater than the friction on^the rail, plus, of course, the 
momentum of the wheel itself, which is, of course, insig- 
nificant. 

If the brake shoe and the rail are of the same material 
and smoothness, the force applied to the brake must equal 
the weight of the car. 

The distance (in feet) that a car will slide on dry steel 
rails after the wheels are stopped dead is obtained 
approximately by taking ^ of the speed in miles per 
hour; or a car traveling six miles an hour will slide about 
15 inches, if the wheels are stopped dead. 

If the wheels are not stopped dead, the distance that 
the car will travel after the brakes are put on is obtained 
from the following formula:— 



Distance in feet = \\ -n. 



Weight of car x speed in miles per hour. 



Or weight on brake : 



Weight on brake. 
Weight of car x speed in miles per hour. 
Distance in feet the car will travel. 

These formula* are approximately correct only when 
the car is stopped in short distances. They do not con- 
sider the friction of the car's own machinery. 



AN ELECTRIC CAR GRAND STAND. 



A COMPANY has been formed at Madison, Wis., 
with a totally unique object. The scheme is the 
pet child of Grant Lariber's inventive genius, and 
proposes an electrical grand stand for race courses. 

The stand is to be built with a seating capacity of 
5,000 and will be modelled after an electric car. A 
straight-away track, with as much dip as is allowed by 
the racing association, will be constructed, and parallel to 
it the car grand stand will run on three tracks. It will be 
connected with the starters' stand so that at the fall of the 
flag, horses, grand stand and all will begin the race sim- 
ultaneously. Racing will be conducted by night as well 
as by day. The company which has been formed, it is 
said, includes some of the most wealthy men in Wiscon- 
sin, and $100,000 in stock has been subscribed. The 
track is promised to be in operation by July i, after 
which Guttenburg, Roby, Hawthorne and Garfield might 
as well shut up business. All that is lacking is a tele- 
phone connection with Chicago to hear the shouts of the 
traveling grand stand, a set of electrically operated pup- 
pets to represent the horses, and an electric pool seller, to 
make the plan, one to interest a monopoljs and racing 
interests of the world will be syndicated and settled. 



142 



AN EXCEPTIONALLY GOOD RECORD. 



WE are permitted this month to give our read- 
ers that which the manager will most fully 
appreciate, and what he is seldom able to 
secure — a detailed statement of the earnings and expenses 
of an electric line which has been in operation between 
two and three years. As will be noted from the average 
number of cars dail}', it is neither a large nor one of the 
smaller lines. The system of accounts is carried out to a 



ji 




Coal Used pee Month. 




1! 

PS 
6" 





-■a 
1" 


1i 


o 


ill 
gas 




H 


II 


January --. 
February -- 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October... 
November. 
December . 


22 
23 
23 
24 

a 

24 
24 
24 
24 
29 
31 
31 


710000 
707000 
67!M0O 
717500 
505900 
359500 
486900 
624900 
513300 
723800 
765050 
761300 


179000 
2:i2300 
113900 
130200 
181800 
222700 
130000 
296100 


710000 

70rooo 

072400 
717500 
684900 
691800 
600800 
75S100 
695100 
94B500 
893050 
1057600 


22903 
24379 
216*0 
23916 
22093 
19726 
19380 
24353 
23170 
30532 
29835 
34116 


1041.04 

1108.13 
943.04 
996.50 
920.54 
821.70 
807.50 

1014.91 
965.41 

1052,52 
962,41 

1100.51 


9.33 
8.99 

8 39 
8,20 
7.54 
6.70 
6.41 
7.36 
6.56 
7.S9 
7.57 
8.37 


$800.49 
779.19 
735.67 
809.38 
6!2.49 
465,59 
591.(10 
724.10 
696,30 
950,07 
971.46 

101180 


.01064 
.00991 
.00919 
.00925 
.00685 
.00327 
.00630 
.00706 
.00588 
.00709 
.00822 
.00801 


Average for ( .,, 
12 months ) "" 






762812 


24692 


987.28 


7.76 


754.79 


.00779 



STATEMENT OF COAL USED IN 1S92. 

very satisfactory distribution and the statement shows a 
road operated with great care of details and results 
which are highly commendable to the manager. The per- 
centage of expense is certainly very low, especially when 
it is known that the service is even better than the size of 
the town warrants. Of course the cost per passenger of 
.0288 covers only the actual transportation and does not 
include anything for interest on bonds or dividends. 
Who can show a better record? 



WILL MOVE MOUNTAINS YET. 



BOILER moving by electricity is a new feature of 
power house building at Buffalo, N. Y. The 
boilers in question, which were intended for the 
new power house, weighed twenty-seven tons, and two 
electric cars furnished the power. Two pair of trucks 
were placed on the track beside the boiler and upon them 
a timber frame work was built. On this the boiler was 
rolled and blocked and the electrics coupled thereunto. 
When the Main street bridge was reached the coupling 
to the cars was released and a 50-foot rope substituted, 
so that the weight of the boilers and cars should not be 
on the bridge at the same time. After this plain sailing 
to the power house landed the boiler safely. The boiler 
was built by Farrar & Trefts, of Buffalo. 



It was snow and frost; now it will be rain, summer 
cars and kids — that will furnish the kicker with food. 






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15 to 13 



Months— 1892. 



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Average 

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Car MUe. 



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CD Ot OD 



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8 8 8 
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^ & ■»■ 



S S 2 I 

CO bi CO S 



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Average 

per 
Car MUe. 



Average 

per 
Car Mile. 



Average 

per 
Car Mile. 



Amount. 



Average 

per 
Car MUe. 



Amoant. 



Average 

Per 
Car Mile. 



to cc a* 



I § 






2 2! 



-- O O Q 
O OD S JS 

S i g I 



:3 2 



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Average 

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Average 

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Car Mile. 



a 2 



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m 



^p 





til 
i> 

H 

\i 
ffl 



5 58 

a n 



Total Cost of Each Fare, 



Percentage of Operating 
Expense to Gross Earnings, 



Number, 



Average 
Per Car. 



O ce 



He was a new conductor on the Georgetown and 
Tenalley railway and wasn't on to the method of catch- 
ing all the fares. But fearful lest the company should 
carry any of the Americanship for nothing, he turned 
about at the car door and shouted, " All yez as hasn't 
paid yer fares, plaze hold up yer hands." The passen- 
gers grinned, the motor man yelled and the pocket books 
kept their mouths shut. 



143 



AT THE WORLD'S FAIR GROUNDS. 



THE BIGGEST BOILER PLANT IN THE WORLD. 

In common with all the other biggest things in the 
world that will appear on the World's Fair grounds, the 
boiler plant situated in Machinery Hall gathers about it 
the full quota of interest due such a magnificent under- 
taking. 

This plant utterly eclipses anything ever seen before in 
the mechanical world as an aggregation of power produc- 
ers. The boiler room itself is a well lighted annex to the 
hall proper. It is lighted from above by a double sky 
light and has a visitors' gallery running the entire length 
of the room. Beneath this gallery is space for piping and 
storage. The length of the room is 850 feet and its 
width is about 30 feet. 

Our perspective view gives a good representation of 
the batteries as they appear to the eye from a point in the 
west end of the pit. The other two engravings show 



water an hour. Now, turning to the other half of the 
plant as represented in our engraving, part of the 
National display is joined by five batteries of Campbell 
& Zell boilers of Baltimore. Nine of them aggregate 
3,750 horse-power and evaporate 112,500 pounds of 
water an hour. Babcock & Wilcox here join the pro- 
cession with five batteries of two each, giving 3,000- 
horse-power and evaporating 90,000 pounds of water 
per hour. Farther to the west and ending the plant are 
two batteries of two each of the Sterling boilers of 1,600- 
horse-power, evaporating 54,000 pounds of water an 
hour. 

The basis of contract made by the exposition manag- 
ers is not commercial horse-power but evaporation, the 
price being $1 77-75 pc thousand pounds evaporating 
capacity per hour. 

The magnificent showing which this immense power 




PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF BOILER PLANT SHOWING PIPING SYSTEM. 



more clearly the position of each battery together with 
the details of the piping. Both the latter views are 
taken from the center of the plant, one looking east and 
the other westward along this Chinese wall of steel 
fronts. 

All of the boilers are of the water tube type and will 
be run under a uniform pressure of 125 pounds to the 
square inch. Fartherest to the east are located two bat- 
teries of two Root boilers aggregating 1,500-horse-power. 
These will evaporate 45,000 pounds of water an hour. 
Ne.xt are stationed two batteries of two each of the Gill 
type, aggregating 1,500-horse-power, intended to evap- 
orate 45,000 pounds of water an hour. Heine's two bat- 
teries of four boilers each come next. They will aggre- 
gate 3,750-horse-power and will evaporate 112,500 
pounds of water every sixty minutes. Near the middle 
of the plant and abutting Heine's boilers stand two bat- 
teries of two boilers each of the National type, aggre- 
gate power 1,500 and evaporating 45,000 pounds of 



plant will place before the mechanically-inclined visitors 
at the Fair will undoubtedly make it one of the most 
attractive points on the grounds. 

THE OIL FUEL SYSTEM 

in use is also on the largest scale, and several burners 
have been invited to attend this heating jubilee. 

The Standard Oil Company agrees to furnish all the 
oil required at 72 J^ cents a barrel, delivered each day. 
All arrangements for the tanks and pipes have been made 
agreeable to the rules of the Underwriters' Association. 
The storage tanks are twelve in number and hold 11 2,500 
gallons. Every possible precaution has been taken to 
prevent accidents, and no trouble is even remotely hinted 
at by even the most obtuse kicker. All the pumps are 
located very close to the tanks. From the storage tanks 
the oil is pumped into a stand-pipe 30 feet high and 30 
inches diameter, connecting direct to the boiler, thus 
maintaining an equalized pressure of from se\en to eight 



144 



pounds. A feed pump, feed water heater, two 40-horse- 
power engines, two vertical boilers and two Snow oil 
pumps are used, one always in reserve. Double suction 
connections enable one pump to deliver oil to the stand- 
pipe or boilers while the other is reversing the operation, 
or in case of accident empt3'ing the storage tank or stand- 
pipe. 

A single 5-inch wrought iron pipe connects the stand- 
pipe with the boiler house. This is laid in a straight Hne 
3,200 feet, between the oil-pump house and the center of 
the boiler house. A 2-inch steam pipe parallels the 5- 
inch oil pipe to the boiler house, for the purpose of keep- 



piping and connections are behind the boiler fronts. The 
Nationals have a new design in setting the burner, inclin- 
ing it a little downward, so that the flame is directed well 
into the arch. A header of 2-inch pipe is run over each 
battery of boilers, from which the burner connections are 
taken off. These headers are provided with separate 
i}^-inch connections, with the boilers independent of the 
main steam connections, and the headers over each bat- 
tery are cross connected by a 2j4-inch pipe running the 
entire length of the boiler room, so that if any boiler has 
been shut down it can be started from any other in the 
plant. 




EAST HALF OF BOILER PLANT. 



ng the oil liquid during the severest weather. A small 
steam coil is also placed in the storage tank. 

At the boiler house the supply pipe branches, running 
in both directions, with off shoots to reach battery of 
boilers. The main is laid in a wooden box, covered with 
removable iron plates. Each boiler maker has the right 
to select his oil burning system, with the approval of the 
engineer. So far, it is known that the Root, the National 
and two of the Heine boilers will be supplied b}' the Reed 
burner. The Armstrong burner will be put on all of the 
four Gill boilers (Stearns Mfg. Co.) and the International 
on two of the Heines'. The Hydro-Carbon burner will 
probably be represented. On the National and Gill boil- 
ers the burners are placed inside the fire door, and all 



THE PIPING SYSTEM 

is now already finished, and is as mighty as befits this 
mammoth plant. 

EXHIBITS AT THE TRANSPORTATION BUILDING. 

Exhibits now qualified and ready to come out of dur- 
ance vile in the warehouses are more numerous than 
last month, and include the following firms, together with 
the nature of their displays, as corrected to date by T. 
Hacksworth Young, of the railway department. 

J. L. Pope, Cleveland, pressed steel elevated railway 
tackle block; Porter Tramway Switch Company, Cleve- 
land, switch, track and motor; Rehable. Manufacturing 
Company, Boston, patent sand box; Standard Fireless 



146 



Engine Company, Chicago, ammonia motor; Genett Air 
Brake Company, air brake; International Register Com- 
pany, fare register; Johnson & Co., Johnstown, Pa., rail 
and appliances; J. M. Jones' Sons, West Troy, N. Y., 
two electric street cars; Geo. M. Ludlow, Elgin, 111., 
model of electric railway car; McGuire Manufacturing 
Company, motor truck; Morton Steam Heating Com- 
pany, Baltimore, Md., storage steamheaterfor street cars; 
Jasper Murray, Cleveland, O., anti-friction street car 
brake; A. O. Norton, Boston, screw jacks for street car 
shops and barns; Pullman Palace Car Company, street 
cars; Robert A. Parke, New York, compressed air street 
car; Peckham Motor Truck & Wheel Company, Kingston, 
N. Y., electric motor truck; Price Railway Appliance 
Company, Philadelphia, track construction; Snider Com- 
bination Car Company, Chicago, car; Steel Motor Truck 



Naptha Motor Company, Englewood, 111., street motor 
Geo. Craddock & Company, Wakefield, England 
samples of new and worn cable; Duplex Track Company, 
New York, track; Elevated Suspension Electric Railway 
Company, Chicago, model; the Frost Veneer Seating 
Company, New York, seats. The list is rather shortened 
by a division of display with the electricity department 
and the number of displays made in connection with 
rapid transit specialties on the grounds. 

Germany and France are the only foreign nations ask- 
ing admission to this department and their exhibit consists 
mainly of various types of steam motors. 

THE MACKAYE SPECTATORIUM. 

It was many years ago that Wagner attempted to 
stage his operas on a scale of magnificence never before 




WEST HALl- OF BOILER PLANT. 



Company, Cleveland, motor and gear; John Stephenson 
& Co., Ltd., New York, one cable, one electric car and 
appliances, historical photographs; St. Louis Car Com- 
pany, St. Louis, car and car wheels; Thomas & William 
Smith, Newcastle-on-the-Tyne, England, cables; Taylor 
Electric Truck Company, Troy, N. Y., electric car truck; 
B. E. Tilden & Co., Chicago, motor replacer and wreck- 
ing outfit; Harris A. Wheeler, Chicago, street car seats; 
E. H. Wilson Co., Philadelphia, two street cars, gates 
and equipment; Wm. Wharton, Jr., & Co., Philadelphia, 
street rail material and track. 

Albert & J. M. Anderson, Boston, electric railway, fix- 
tures and specialties; Bass Foundry & Machine Works, 
electric motor castings and machinery; Brownell Car 
Company, St. Louis, cars and appliances; Cushion Car 
Wheel Company, electric motor car wheels; Chicago 



attempted. His partial success was due principally to the 
insufficiency of the mechanical arrangements. In the 
Columbian year, however, science, art and mechanics 
has so far advanced that the most stupendous illusions 
are attempted without the slightest misgivings. 

The McKaye Spectatorium will be without doubt, next 
to the Fair itself, the greatest drawing card near Jackson 
Park. This marvellous attempt is thoroughly backed 
by Chicago's solidest men, planned by Steele MacKaye 
and finished in the mechanical details by the Hill Clutch 
Works, of Cleveland, under the direct supervision of H. 
W. Hill, with his extensive theatrical knowledge coupled 
with a complete knowledge of mechanics. 

The spectatorium proper will be a series of revolving 
views, representing among other things the Columbian 
panorama. No ordinary stage "business" will suffice for 



146 



this greatest show on earth. The winds are real pneu- 
matic wonders, the rain descends in aqueous torrents, the 
mountains are So feet high. The companion ships of 
Columbus are life size models and Columbus plants real 
corn in real ground. Sunlight, twilight and starlight, in 
their succession grow on the gazer's mind and eye. To 
come down to cold facts the idea will cause the invest- 
ment of $1,000,000. The seating capacity of the con- 
struction will be 9,000, with a building frontage of 480 
feet. The stage is the sector of a circle 700 by 130 feet. 
The scenes will be driven on cars over 14 tracks at a 
slow speed, as over 600 tons of scenery must be moved 




SOUTH ENTRANCE — ELECTRICAL UUILDING. 

at one time. Some of the moving scenes will carry as 
high as 240 people and 40 horses. The governing 
arrangements will be controlled by one man seated 
before a number of levers contained in a space about two 
feet square. The shafting and transmission machinery, 
of which there will be about 300 tons, will be furnished 
by the Hill Clutch Works as well as 300 feet of shafting, 
the most of which will be eight inches in diameter. Thirty- 
six Hill friction clutches and a car load of cut gears will 
be required. A 300-horse-power Hamilton-Corliss will 
furnish the power. 



THE MOSHER LAMP. 



ONE of the most interesting exhibits at the late 
Electric Light Convention at St. Louis, and a 
particularly attractive display for the street rail- 
way men present, was that of the new Mosher clock feed 
arc lamp, style c, 12. This lamp is adopted for use on 



direct current circuits, and excited the greatest interest 
of those believing in the future of the arc lamp under 
such conditions. 

The Mosher Company, whose factory and offices are 
at 125-127 E. Ontario street, Chicago, have received 
flattering testimonials as to the substantiation of their 
claims. 

The lamp is provided with a compound rheostat and 
cut out. The rheostat is mounted on the lamp, one wind- 
ing being a very low resistance and in circuit continu- 
ously. The other is equal to the resistance of the arc of 
the lamp when burning, and is automatically cut in cir- 
cuit, when for any reason the arc is broken. 

G. L. Reiman, president, and John A. Mosher, inventor, 
were at the convention with this new and attractive light. 



STREET RAILWAY PATENTS. 



Selected list of patents relating to Street Railway Inventions, granted 
during the past thirty days, reported especially for the Street Railway 
Review, by Munn & Co., Patent Attorneys, 361 Broadway, New 
York, N. Y. 

ISSUE OK FEBRUARY, I4, 1S93. 

Removable caps for street railway rails, J. A. Eno, Newark, N.J 491, 53S 

Train car, John Stephenson, New York, N. Y 491,608 

Electric Locomotive, S. H. Short, Cleveland, O 491,666 

Directly connected motor'for cars, S. H. Short, Cleveland, O.. 491,667 

Series system for railways, G. L. Thomas, Brooklyn, N. Y 491,691 

Electric locomotive, T. B. Rae, Detroit, Mich 491,857 

Compressed air motor for propelling wheeled vehicles, J. Karnes 

Philadelphia, Pa 491,892 

Cable grip, A. O. Babendrier & F. P. Davis, Baltimore, Md 491,934 

Car brake handle, C. D. Lyon, Lynn, Mass 491,969 

ISSUE OK KEBRUARY 21, 1893. 

Electric motor and controlling apparatus for cars, J. V. Capek, 

New York, N. Y 491,982 

Electric railway trolley, A. Dickinson, Darbaston, England 491,988 

Turn table, G. Van Wagenen, New York, N. Y ., 492,069 

Apparatus for shipping and unshipping cable car grippers, J. H. 

Pendleton & C. Tiers, Brooklyn, N. Y 492,103 

Conduit railway, F. B. Rae, Detroit, Mich 492,106 

Supplementary truck for street cars, B. Price, Brooklyn, N. Y. 492,230 

Cable gripper, J. Walsh, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 492,248 

Conduit electric railway, F. VV. Brann, Oakland, Cal 492,265 

Street car motor, J. A. Currie, Springfield, 492,274 

Steel rails for use on common roads, G. M. Ramsey, Clokey, Pa 492,365 

ISSUE OF FEBRUARY 28, 1893. 

Closed electric conduit for railways, A. Ileiser, Chicago, Ills... 492,398 

Car fender, ]. Nagle, Clarendon, Ark 492,423 

Electric railway block system, F. O. Blackwell, Boston, Mass.. 492,547 

Interlocking rail chair, W. M. Brown, Johnstown, Pa 4y^i45S 

Railroad rail and chair, H, C. Evans, Brooklyn, N. Y 492,4''4 

Tramway switch, J. Y. Porter, Cleveland, 49-'472 

Multiple switch for overhead trolley lines, W. H. Brodie, Brook. 

lyn, N. Y 492,5=6 

Cable support, G. P. Wern, Brooklyn, N. Y 49^.648 

Conduit electric railway, J. H. Bates, Hoboken, N. J 49^.737 

ISSUE OF march 7, 1893. 

Street car, J. O. Adsit, Hornellsville, N. Y 492,882 

Joint box for the joints of street railways, E. O. Evans, Cincin- 
nati, 492.8S5 

Safety guard for cars, N. C. Bassett, Lynn, Mass 492.93= 

Truck for electric locomotive, J. C; Henry, New York, N. Y... 493,089 
Electric railroad danger signal and bell, P. Seeler, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal 493.125 

Elevated railway, J. G. D. Tucker, Perrysville, 493.14= 

Trolley wire support, T. E. Head, Toledo, O 493.= '= 



147 



THE INVENTION OF THE CABLE RAILWAY. 



Suggested by an Accident — Early Discouragements and Trials— The Trial Trip made at 4 O'clock in the 

Morning in a Dense Fog— Nearly 700 Miles in Operation in this Country at the 

Present Time— Portrait of Andrew S. Hallidie, the Inventor. 



IT was during the winter months of 1S69, that a young 
man with a kind but determined face paused in his 
rapid walk to watch an overloaded street car start 
up one of the steep hills of San Francisco. A cold 
rain had been falling all the day, and impatient men and 
women had crowded the little car to its fullest capacity, 
until there did not seem room even for the proverbial 
"one more." Slowly and with the unmost difficulty did 
the five horses start the car, and inch by inch ascend the 
steep incline — so steep one could with difficulty mount it 
on foot. When half a block had been covered, one horse 
slipped on the smooth cobbles with which the street was 



He at once set to work to adapt the same system to 
the propulsion of street cars up the scarcely less steep 
hills of his city. The proposition called for an endless 
wire rope, carried underground, but to which a car could 
be attached or disconnected at will. In one year Mr. 
Hallidie had worked out the problem to his own complete 
satisfaction. The next step was to secure the necessary 
capital to demonstrate that system. As with so many 
other great inventions, people laughed at the scheme, and 
nobody could be found who would put a dollar into it. 
These discouragements only served to made Mr. Hallidie 
more determined than ever, and at his own expense a 




THE FIRST CABLE TUAIN — TAKEN A FEW DAYS AFTER THE OPEKING OF THE ROAD. 



paved. The driver instantly applied his brake, but with 
such force as to snap the chain. The car at once began 
to slide backwards, down the hill, dragging the bodies of 
the unfortunate horses over the stones, until the car 
reached one of the "levels" of a cross street, where citi- 
zens succeeded in stopping it. As the young man 
assisted in releasing the bleeding, mutilated animals from 
their traces, he decided that he would not rest until he 
should have worked out a means which would render a 
repetition of such distressing scenes impossible. 

Mr. Hallidie, for he it was, had already successfully 
installed a number af "ropeways" in the mining districts 
of California, by means of which great iron buckets of 
rock and ore were carried across deep chasms and up 
steep mountain sides where it was impossible to build 
bridges or roads. 



survey was made for a line up California street between 
Kearney and Powell, a distance of 1,386 feet, and with 
the gentle rise of 193 feet. The construction of the line 
called for a much larger outlay of money than our inven- 
tor possessed, and as he could get no financial assistance, 
the plan was temporarily abandoned. 

During the following twelve months Mr. Hallidie suc- 
ceeded in interesting three men, who alone of his friends 
and business associates could be induced to lend a hand 
and even they were full of doubts, and were almost forced 
into the scheme under the pressure of a strong personal 
friendship for the hopeful young man. Their names are 
Joseph Britton, Henry L. Davis and James Moffitt, all of 
San Francisco. Under their advice a company was 
organized and Clay street was selected as offering a less 
e.xpensive opportunity to " try the thing" than California 



148 



street. Accordingly a franchise was obtained, a survey 
made, and the public invited to purchase stock, which 
they did to the cordial extent of 120 shares, and even 
these were soon surrendered and thrown back, so great 
was the force of public opinion, which included the very 
best engineering talent in the west. Periodical and 
frequent attacks of fear and discouragement would 
seize the three gentlemen, and Mr. Hallidie would 
have to spend hours in convincing argument that 
the plan would actually work. The property owners 
on the hill were solicited to subscribe to a bonus 
conditional on the successful completion of the -road 
and. $40,000 was thus pledged, of which only. $28,000 
was ever paid in. Mr. Hallidie, put $20,000 in the enter- 
prise, every dollar he had in the world, and the three 
other gentlemen subscribed altogether $40,000. To 



that had to be surmounted, because they have all been 
surmounted; but, at that time, twenty-two years ago, they 
seemed quite large, and I do not doubt if I had been less 
familiar with the problem than I was, and had had less 
confidence than I did, it might have been many years 
before the cable system would have received a practical 
application." 

The story of the patient builder forms a most interest- 
ing chapter of persevering industry, which we reluct- 
antl}' pass, with its wealth of historic incident and episode. 
Suffice it to say the road "Vvas a double track, of tee rail 
laid in cast iron yokes set at intervals of four feet, while 
the spaces between the bottom and part way up the sides 
were incased in sheet iron; the upper portion and surface 
being protected by timbers and forming a tube 22 inches 
deep and 14 inches wide. 




LOOKING DOWN CALIFORNIA STREET, 1S93. 



this $60,000 thus raised an additional $30,000 was secured 
on a ten year loan bearing 10 per cent per annum. 

Meanwhile the franchise, already once extended, was 
well advanced in its second term, and the cable road still 
existed "only in the fertile mind of its inventor," and as 
everybody assured everybody else, there it would ever 
be. But in May, 1872, the money matters had been fin- 
ally arranged, and with a light heart and no encourage- 
ment, Mr, Hallidie began his great work. Each day 
brought a new difficulty to solve. Undreamed of details 
swarmed up out of that hole in the ground until a less 
courageous man would have been literally buried in that 
hole. Patterns had to be made for all the machinery, 
and a hundred other parts, and upon one man rested all 
the responsibility of ultimate success or failure. 

In a recent letter Mr. Hallidie, very modestly writes: 
"I cannot recount here, to-day, what the obstacles were 



Timber protected the slot, which had an opening of 
seven-eighths of an inch, and was placed on one side of 
a center line about two inches? The grip was made so 
that the center of the gripping jaws which took the cable 
was in the center of the tube, and the slides holding the 
jaws worked horizontally by means of a wedge attached to 
a vertical rod worked up and down by means of a screw 
and nut in a hand-wheel. The heel of the grip had a 
smooth surface on top, and along the crown of the tube 
infeide a longitudinal timber ran its entire length, and was 
intended to be used as a safety brake by pressing the 
heel of the grip up against it, in case all the other pro- 
visions for safety failed. 

At changes of the grade of the street where the cable 
was inclined to raise above the surface of the street or 
strike the crown of the tube, depression pulleys were 
placed to take the cable. The shank of the grip which 



149 



passes through the slot being set off on one side, enabled 
the heel and gripping jaws to pass under the depression 
pulleys. The slot being two inches off on one side of the 
cable, all the grit, dirt and water which dropped through 
the slot into the tube were prevented from coming in con- 
tact with the cable. 

The gripping Jaws were provided with guide pulleys 
which were grooved to fit the cable and were placed at 
an angle so as to lead the cable fairly in between the 
gripping jaws; and by means of rubber springs these 
guide pulleys were pressed forward sufficiently to throw 
the cable off from contact with the gripping jaws when 
they were temporarily opened for the purpose of stop- 
ping the car. These provisions, of course, added much 
to the life of the cable. 



power station at the corner of Leavenworth and Clay 
streets. They had been up all night watching with fev- 
erish anxiety the final hurried efforts of the workmen. 
Without, the fog was unusually thick, and came rolling 
in great banks from off the sea. The street lamps 
were visible for only a few yards, and then faded into 
the darkness that could almost be felt. Within the 
power house, furnace fires roared under the boilers, which 
were already blowing their overload of steam with a spite- 
ful hiss, as though angered at being harnessed to such 
work. 

At last all was ready; the engine mo\ied; very slowly 
at first, then regularl}', and as the tension took up the 
slack cable the steady hum of the gliding, endless rope 
was heard. Not a moment was to be lost and the part)- 



;,.»!= LJ 




A DAILY SCENE AT THE FERRIES — THE TERMl.XUS OF NEARLY EVERY LINE IN SAN FRANCISCO. 



From the above it will readily be seen how perfectly 
the cable system of to-day was e.xemplified in this the 
first one ever constructed. Even in these early da3's, the 
sworn enemies of the cable engineer asserted themselves, 
and two sets of gas and water mains had to be moved. 
Also several water cisterns used in early days by the fire 
department had to be filled up. But the track work was 
completed in 60 days, and the contractors, Martin & 
Ballard, made their final settlement in July, 1873. In the ' 
meantime work at the power house had been as activelj' 
pushed, and the cable rope, made especiallj' for the pur- 
pose, was in readiness. 

But the first day of August was near at hand, on which 
day if no cable cars were run all rights would expire 
and everything be lost. Desperate efforts were made, 
and a little past midnight, on the morning of August i, 
1873, a little party of tired, nervous workers met at the 



hastened to the street. The grip car was brought out 
and long ropes attached to it, the other ends of which 
were given one turn around a telegraph pole. This 
was to test the brakes, and after letting the car down 
a short distance the brakes, which were simply straight 
levers pressing on the wheels, were found sufficient, 
with great care, to hold the car. 

The moment of final failure or success was now at 
hand. It was four o'clock, and while the darkness had 
yielded somewhat the fog was still up to the standard. 
The party consisting of Mr. Hallidie, his three partners, 
and a Mr. Campbell, with no little trepidation, boarded 
the little car. It was crude as compared with the palace 
cable cars of to-day, but it was the father of them all.' 
One of the most careful employes had been selected to 
handle the levers. As he peered down into that bank 
of fog and thought of the unbroken descent of 307 



150 



feet in that half mile his courage fled and he trem- 
bhngly refused to make the trip. The other members 
now began to show visible signs of uneasiness. Mr. 
Hallidie immediately assured them all there was no 
cause for alarm and quickly springing to the levers picked 
up the cable, ordered the ropes cast off, and in a twinkle 
the car and its human freight had dropped out of sight 
in the clouds below before any of the party were scarcely 
aware of the start. Steadily but surely that rope let the 
car down the steep incline; stopped and started at the 
will of its driver, and altogether behaved in a most gentle 
and satisfactory manner. Of the event Mr. Hallidie says: 

"The operation was an earnest one; there was no 
frivolity. The while affair was serious; and, when it 
was done, there was simply a mutual handshaking, and 
nothing but cold water drank. 

"The people were asleep, and, with the exception of 
one enthusiastic Frenchman, who thrust his red night- 
capped head out of the window as we went by on the 
down trip and threw us a faded boquet, there was no 
demonstration. 

"It was decided to make a public trip in the afternoon 
with grip and passenger car, and as the morning experi- 
ment had demonstrated the necessity of carrying the car 
as far as the engine house by the cable, we determined 
to extend the cable line one block further west from Jones 
to Leavenworth street; and for this purpose to shut down 
for thirty days immediately after the afternoon trip was 
completed. 

"In the afternoon the public trip was made — grip and 
passenger car — the down trip without incident except to 
test the working of the grip and brakes. A vast num- 
ber of people was assembled at Clay and Kearney streets, 
and it was difficult to run on to the turn table from the 
densit} of the crowd. 

"The method was the same as is now practiced on the 
Clay street line — of switching the grip car and running 
it past the passenger car on to the turn table, transferring 
it to the up track, then running the passenger cars past 
the dummy and bringing it into position in rear of the 
grip car and coupling it on to it. 

"In running the grip car, too many willing hands 
helped and swung it around with such impetus as to 
break a bolt connecting the grip to the frame. This 
occupied about twenty minutes to repair, during which 
time many expressed regret that the "thing has proved 
a failure;" but as soon as it was repaired the people piled 
into the car and on to the dummy, and hung to the guard 
strip and windows outside of the car; some actually climb- 
ing on top of the car. The car, which was intended to 
seat fourteen, and the grip car without seats, held on that 
trip ninety passengers, all anxious to make the first trip. 

"Everything went well until the steep pitch above 
Powell street, of one in five, was encountered, when the 
car stopped. Feeling confident that I knew the cause of 
the trouble, I left the grip, and, through the kindness of 
a friend who drove me up the steep hill in his wagon, I 
soon reached the engine house and found that the grip 
pulley, through which power was transmitted from the 



engine to the rope, was slipping under the rope, which 
had been freshly covered with tar and which acted as a 
good lubricator. Some lime and sawdust were fortun- 
ately near at hand, and throwing these on the rope, the 
car and its load were safely hauled to the top of the 
hill." 

On September i, 1S73, the line was again started up 
and continued to run precisely as originally constructed 
imtil July, 1891, when the road was sold to the Ferries & 
Cliff House Railway Company, who extended it two 
miles. 

Cable lines followed rapidly on other hill streets until 
to-day San Francisco absolutely could not part with them. 
They have made the city and added millions to its wealth 
and realty. 

Chicago was the next to supplant her horses with an 
iron rope, then Kansas City and Cleveland, Cincinnati, Den- 
ver, Pittsburg, Washington, St. Paul, Philadelphia, Omaha, 
Portland, Tacoma, St. Louis and many others, and more 
recently Baltimore and New York City. The develop- 
ment of electric traction has undoubtedly forestalled a 
large amount of what would otherwise have been cable 
lines, but where there is an enormous volume of traffic, or 
where the grades are exceptionally severe the cable still 
holds an undisputed sway and will in all human proba- 
bility continue to do so as long as any present system lasts. 

And how about the father of the cable S3Stem? Did he 
live to enjoy the benefits of his energy and study? He did. 
and those people who threw up certain one hundred and 
twenty shares of cable stock lost a fortune. No citizen of San 
Francisco is more honored and respected than he ; and none 
has done more for that city. As president of the Pacific 
Cable Railway Company and the California Wire Works, 
which manufacture steel cables, his time is well occupied, 
while his name appears as director of a large number of 
important business enterprises. The Mechanic's Insti- 
tute of San Francisco on March 3rd 1891, passed very 
handsome resolutions, expressing recognition of his great 
services as inventor of the cable system. 

And now in the full enjoyment of health and the grati- 
tude of his fellow citizens, and in the prime of life; with a 
bank account in which his "all" of 20 years ago is but a 
drop, Mr. Hallidie looks back with just pride and satisfac- 
tion on his early struggles, and smiles a kindly expressive 
smile when he recalls the expressions of well-wishing but 
incredulous friends who "never thought he could do it." 

The original grip and grip car, together with other 
interesting exhibits pertaining to the cable system, will be 
exhibited by Mr. Hallidie at the World's Fair. 



Superintendent Hummell, of the Milwaukee Street 
Railway Company, has entirely recovered from his recent 
attack of pneumonia. His many friends will be glad to 
learn of his returned health. 



During the World's Fair, it is reported, the inventors 
of car starters and car couplers will hold a convention. 
Eighteen of the largest hotels have been subsidized to hold 
the crowd. 




ANDREW S. HALLIDIE, 

San Francisco. 
Inventor of the Cable Railway. 



V 



151 



RAIL BONDING AND THE GROUND RETURN. 



CONTINUING our investigation in near and 
remote parts of the country, the question of 
the bond wire and a satisfactory return is 
found to be much discussed and studied on. 
In our own immediate territory let us first glance at 

MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

The old Cream City line was obliged to abandon 
copper bond wire and use iron. The copper return 
feeders and supplementary wires which were used had 
to be placed in a trough and imbedded in pitch. Mil- 
waukee is built on sand. 

CHIC.\GO. 

The Calumet Electric Railway, although having a com 
paratively light traffic, has had a little trouble with its 
return. The road as first constructed had tram rails 
bonded with copper. No ground plates or supplementary 
wires were used. There was a continual trouble with the 
bond wires eating off in the middle. Since the enlarge- 
ment of the road last summer the present electrician, W. 
D. McDonald, has been installing a thorough system of 
ground plates. A car wheel is sunk every i,ooo feet and 
a galvanized iron rod driven every block. Permanent 
moisture is found a few feet below the surface, so that the 
road has now one of the best returns in the country. At 
the station six car wheels are sunk. Before the putting 
in of these plates the fall of voltage at distant points on 
the line sometimes amounted to 150 \olts. The ground 
plates have reduced this to simply that which can be 
accounted for by the resistance of the overhead lines. 
The bonding now being put in is double No. 4 galvan- 
ized iron wire connected to the rails with rivets, with fre- 
quent cross connections between the rails. So far there 
have been no signs of corrosion. It would be interesting 
to know how the copper bonds would last after the installa- 
tion of the ground plates. However, it seems very prob- 
able that there is some element in the soil in that region 
which is especially hard on copper. Electrician Mc- 
Donald favors ground plates as against numerous 
buried copper conductors for a return, unless there is 
difficulty in reaching permanent moisture. He also pre- 
fers rivet to channel pin connection, because a channel 
pin joint is scarcely ever free from corrosion. 

The Cicero and Proviso Electric Railway has been in 
operation about two years and has had no trouble, though 
the fall of voltage through the ground return is consider- 
able, amounting at times. Electrician Fuchs says, to fif- 
teen volts. They use single galvanized iron No. 6 riveted 
bonds, with cross connections between the rails and 
ground rods of galvanized iron pipe every 1,000 feet. 
Besides this a car wheel is sunk every mile. At the sta- 
tion, connections to the artesian well furnish a good 
ground. There have been no complaints from corrosion 
of water pipes. 



BIR.MI.MillA.M, ALABA.M.\. 

J . B. McClary, superintendent of the Railway and Elec- 
tric Company says: — 

" We have had no trouble with our ground return, 
which is by means of o soft copper (bonded to rail with 
No. 4 soft copper) connected with negative side of gen- 
erator. We have old car wheels buried in several moist 
places and at the station. We have had no complaint 
from water or gas companies. Have been using electricity 
about eighteen months. 

PORTLAND, OREGON. 

J. W. Campbell, superintendent of the City and Sub- 
urban, says they have used electricity about three years. 
They bond with No. 4 wire channel pin fastening and use 
a supplementary wire besides. They found that track 
bonding alone would not suffice, and are firm believers in 
supplementary wires, having never tried ground plates. 
No complaint from electroh'sis of pipes. 

LOS ANGELES. 

The following is from Manager E. P. Clark, of the 
Consolidated : — 

"In reply will ^state that in our systems we have a 
ground wire for each track, a majority of which is gal- 
vanized iron. On our first line we used iron bond wires 
and were compelled to renew them within six months, 
doing so with copper bonds. On portions of this line the 
ground wire wasted completely and had to be replaced. 
Upon other portions it appeared to be as perfect as when 
put in. 

"One line of five miles has been simply bonded without 
any ground wire. From the point at which all lines con- 
verge to the power house we were obliged to substitute 
copper ground wire. We used no ground plates. 

"Along the line traversed by the copper ground wire the 
water mains of the Water Company have given them 
much trouble in springing a leak, caused by wasted away 
water pipes; the point giving the most trouble being at 
the point opposite the power house, where the return 
wires leave the track. 

" We are inclined to believe bond wires made of large 
copper wire and connected from track to track at inter- 
vals are quite sufficient for a return ground, dispensing with 
the return wire. 

" Bonds made of single o copper, well riveted through 
the rails, seem to give excellent results." 

CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Vice President C. W. Wasson, of the East Cleveland 
Railroad Company, gives the following satisfactory 
reply : — 

"Our road started to use electricity four years ago this 
present month. We have not had any trouble with track 
bonding in ground return since we had our road relaid 
with girder rail; with the strap rail the contact of course 



U-2 



was poor, owing to the fact that the stringers underneath 
the rail were badly crushed and broke the ground wire, 
which was laid under the rail. In laying new work where 
girder rail is used, we first use a copper bond, with }4 
inch iron rivet; this is riveted in a hole in the end of each 
rail; to this bond is soldered a continuous wire, running 
along inside of each rail. 

" These two ground wires are also tied together by a 
diagonal No. 4 Stubbs gauge copper untinned wire of 
the same size, which runs zigzag to every other joint- 
Where there is a double track, every ninth rail the ground 
wire in each track is bonded together by two or three 
No. 4 wires run across and soldered thoroughly together. 
I think it is essential to have the same amount of copper 
in the ground as is overhead. Some of our lines have no 
ground plates whatever, only at the power house; their 
utility depends upon the character of the ^soil in which 
they are placed. We have not had any complaints from 
the gas or water companies as to the oxidization of their 
mains. 

"I believe that the telephone company complained that 
their lead conduits suffered; this is where the terra cotta 
conduits are used, but I have been informed that this 
trouble does not take place when this lead pipe is turned 
into an iron tube." 



J. W. McNamara, of the Albany Railway, who seems 
to have a very satisfactory return system on that road 

says : — 

"We have used electricity as a motive power since the 
28th day of April, i8qo. 

"We have never had any trouble in bonding our rails or 
in securing a good ground return. We discovered that 
the early methods of bonding were defective, and thdt the 
wires connecting the rails were liable to break. We 
have kept pace, however, with the inventors of bonding 
wires, and believe that we are now using the best device 
for connecting ends of rails in use. 

"In addition to connecting the ends of rails, we use what 
is known as the Sabold system of ground rods. It is a 
system invented by F. W. Sabold, formerly manager of 
the Western Union Telegraph Company, at this city, and 
now of Yonkers, N. Y. We drive a galvanized iron rod 
7/^ of an inch in diameter and about 7 feet long, every 30 
feet between the rails of our track. Every rail is drilled 
at a point opposite a rod, and connection is made between 
each rail and a rod. We find that this is the best method 
of securing ground return which we have tried. We 
have on our new lines entirely dispensed with supplemen- 
tary wires, relying entirely upon the proper bonding of 
rails and their connection with ground rods, as above 
described. 

"We have no opinion as to what will be the ultimate so- 
lution of the problem of securing a perfect ground return. 

" We have never had any complaints from water com- 
panies or other persons using water mains or gas mains, 
as to their injury by oxidization or otherwise, by our 
current." 



The following extract from a letter written by Mr. 
Sabold in answer to the Review's inquiries, reveals several 
theories that are radically different from some now in 
vogue, as to what are the various elements necessary to 
a good return, and for that reason has interest not only in 
itself but because in some places where the Sabold system 
has come into use it has cured telephone troubles and in 
some cases beaten the return feeder system "at its own 
game." 

Mr. Sabold says: — 

"It is an established theorj- that electrolvtic action 
takes place only where resistance is offered to the pas- 
sage of the electric current, but at such points the process 
of disintegration and decomposition of substances is liable 
to be rapid, especially where the quantity of current is 
large as in the case of electric railway service, hence the 
rapid deterioration of wires laid underground and connec- 
tions with the track rails to form the return circuit. The 
current, in escaping to the earth through the medium of 
gas and water pipes and other objects wjiich tend to con- 
duct into the lower strata, creates havoc, rapidly reducing 
the diameter of the wires and consuming objects encoun- 
tered in its passage. 

"The earth is the natural reservoir to which all free 
electricity tends, and a current conducted into it will not 
rise to follow other conductors, but the upper surface or 
crust of the earth being, at best, a poor conductor, and in 
some conditions a non-conductor, the current scatters over 
a large area, seeking, by means of mineral substances, 
metal pipes, telephone and telegraph wires and cables, to 
reach the lower earth. Early in the history of electric 
railways, almost in the very start, these difficulties devel- 
oped on some roads, and they have increased and become 
quite general where lines have been in operation for some 
time. From the point of economj' in operation of electric 
railways this has been a serious matter, as an imperfect 
return circuit reduces the energy at the car and tells 
directly on the coal pile. 

"The principle of electric railway systems dependent 
upon the track rails or conductors laid under or alongside 
the rails connected with one pole of the generator, is 
wrong and is responsible for the interference with tele- 
phone and telegraph wires, the terminals of which are 
connected with the earth, as well as the injurious effect, 
by electrolytic action, on underground cables, gas, water 
and other pipes, as well as for a great portion of the 
imperfect and unsatisfactory service experienced by the 
railway companies themselves. The metallic circuit 
thus formed is defective in that one-half of it rests on the 
earth and the current is allowed, nay cannot be prevented 
from so doing, to leak into the earth along the entire 
length of the railway escaping, bj' means of damp earth, 
minerals, pipes and other conducting substances leading 
into the lower earth. The resistance of the circuit and, 
consequent])' the strength of current available at the car, 
varies as these leaks increase or decrease. The extent to 
which this current will scatter is probably best shown by 
its effect on telephone wires, which it will follow for a 
mile or more to reach the earth at the distant end. There 



153 



are, plainlj-, but two ways of avoiding these troubles; one, 
by completing the metallic circuit overhead, requiring a 
double trolley, and the other, with a single trolle\' line, to 
secure perfect contact with the earth immediately under 
the car, that is by a path offering no resistance, so that all 
the electricity set free at that point will be absorbed by 
the earth. The resistance of the entire circuit will then 
depend only on the overhead portion, insuring the maxi- 
mum energy at the car. The track rails should never be 
connected direct with the generator." 




The accompanying cut shows the manner of connecting 
in the Sabold system. 

HOSTON. 

Some experiments in this field have been tried by 
Chas. H. Morse, the superintendent of the fire alarm and 
police telegraph systems of Cambridge, Mass. Mr. 
Morse had found that in various parts of Cambridge the 
power currents of the West End Railway Company, 
escaping from the return wires to the water and gas 
pipes, have prematurely corroded these pipes. 

In a recent interview upon the subject Mr. Morse has 
said: "When I took charge of the Cambridge fire alarm 
and police telegraph system, some time ago, I found that 
men under me were having a good deal of trouble in dis- 
covering grounds, that is, contact of the fire alarm wires 
with other wires. Upon investigation I soon learned that 
the railway currents did not have a low enough resist- 
ance path upon which to return to the power station. 
Accordingly in April, 1S92, I notified the West End com- 
pany that its return wires were not sufficiently large to 
prevent leakage into the earth, and interference with the 
electric currents on other wires. The company then 
began to put in overhead return wires upon its principal 
lines. 

"About two months ago water pipes near the com- 
pan3-'s power house in East Cambridge began to show 
leaks, and the ofHce of the water board received constant 
complaints of the rapid decay and loss of these pipes. 
The matter was investigated, and the pipes showed elec- 
trolytic action. It appeared that galvanized iron, rustless 
iron, brass, and even lead pipes had all been tried in vain. 
Pipes would last only from one to three months, irrespec- 
tive of the kind. Since then chip-stone and drain pipe 
have been successfully used to protect the metal pipes 
from the action of the electric currents. 

"Regarding the actual escape of the electric current 
from the return circuit into the ground, we made some 
discoveries which ma}' be thought surprising. For 
example, a number of tests which we made with suitable 
instruments showed a difference of potential of over 40 
volts between water pipes in East Cambridge and Cam- 
bridgeport. Gas pipes showed practically the same dif- 
ference of potential between these two sections of our city. 



In some parts of the city water and gas pipes on the 
same premises, even, showed from Sto 10 volts difference 
in voltage. Workmen relaying pipes have also seen arcs 
formed at the joints, and in some instances the electric 
current has actually set fire to the hemp packing used in 
the joints. 

"To remedy these troubles the West End Company is 
now running many overhead return wires; and it is hoped 
that when the overhead system of returns is completed 
the injurious effects of the electric currents upon the pipes 
will not be noticeable." 

If, as is represented, a difference of forty volts was 
found between one locaUty and another, the reason for 
the action of the current on the pipes is manifest. Forty 
volts represent a loss of energy in the return amounting 
to 8 per cent. This means a high resistance between 
points on the track and the station, and it is not strange 
that a large amount of current should take to the pipes 
along the line. Mr. Morse's tests are valuable as clearing 
up much of the mystery that often hangs around elec- 
trolysis of return conductors, and shows that what is often 
blamed to the soil is really due to a poor return. 

THE MORAL. 

One lesson thoroughly taught by this compilation of 
experience is the necessity of thoroughly studying the con- 
ditions of soil and climate before installing a system of 
ground returns. What is a good return in a wet region is 
absolutely worthless in a dry, and a metal that will last 
years in one soil will soon disappear in another. The ex- 
perience of a few roads in the locahty is worth more to 
the installing engineer than the experience of hundreds 
in another part of the country. 

TESTS AS TO RESISTANCE. 

As electrolysis by the return current in any given soil is 
in direct proportion to the energy wasted in the ground 
return, it is expedient, both on account of the coal pile and 
the life of the return conductors to make the resistance of 
the return as low as possible. 

After determining by observation on neighboring 
roads the metal best suited to the soil, it is in order to 
consider what method, if any, in addition to the rail bond- 
ing, is to be used to provide the lowest possible resistance 
befween points on the track and station. So then, unless 
it is considered expedient on account of electrolysis, to 
run overhead or insulated feeders, the a\-ailable methods 
are reduced to the ground plate and the bare continuous 
metallic buried return. In this connection the results of 
tests are interesting. Of course in a dry rocky soil the 
ground plate method is practically out of the race, but in 
other places the questioil is still open. Unfortunately many 
of those who have made tests on the return resistance have 
kept them to themselves, so that the profession is still in 
a state of comparative ignorance on the subject. One 
rough test that shows the absence of any appreciable re- 
turn resistance is the non-disturbance of local grounded 
telephone lines. 

At Troy, N. Y., and other places where the ground 
rod system is used, we understand that the telephones 



154 



give a silent testimony to the practical absence of resist- 
ance in the return circuit of the railways. 

In reply to a letter asking for tests on the resistance 
of wet earth, F. W. Sabold, from whom we quoted before, 
says: " There is no question as to the conductivity of 
the earth. All electrical tests and measurements made 
since Prof. Morse, fifty years ago, discovered that his 
second or return overhead wire was superfluous, show 
that any resistance encountered in the ground portion of 
a circuit is at the points of contact with the earth. Tele- 
graph circuits are operated altogether on this principle, 
and it matters not whether the terminals of the wire are 
connected with the earth one mile or a thousand miles 
apart, the total resistance of the circuit depends only on 
the resistance of the wire or overhead portion. Galva- 
nometer tests made by the Albany Railway Company, 
Albany, N. Y., showed that there was no resistance in 
the ground portion of their circuit between the power 
house and various points along their line distant from the 
power house: this proved simply that they had formed a 
perfect connection with the earth and, I am pleased to 
say. through the medium of the ground rod. Such a test, 
I remember, was made at one time when their power 
house was a mile away from their road at the nearest 
point, with no connection between but the earth." 

WATER PIPE CONNECTIO.NS. 

There is also apparently a great difference in opinion 
on the practice of connecting to water pipes. In one case 
which recently came under the Re\iew's notice, a con- 
nection was made to water mains at a single place by a 
small road having no ground plates and depending on the 
rails and bonding for a return. The pipe was eaten off 
near the connection. The cause in this case was not fa 
to seek. The pipe connection acted as a ground plater 
and as it was the onl}- one on the line the escape to earth 
through it was considerable. Water and gas pipes mani- 
festly act in two ways. They serve as ground plates if 
the soil is wet, and as simple conductors from one point 
to another if it is dry. Thus we hear it said by some 
that such connections eat off the pipes and b\- others that 
it tends to produce loose joints. Corrosion of pipes where 
there is no metallic connection to them has been before 
shown to be the result of a return of too high resistance. 
The conductivity of water pipes cannot be high, as the 
actual sectional area of the metal is not great. 

ELECTROLYSIS AND BONDS. 

Several chemists with whom we have had conversation 
agree in the opinion that in the case of copper bonds 
there are probably two kinds of. action; one due to the 
flow of current from the bonds to the ground, which is 
always caused by more or less resistance and consequent 
loss of energy- in the return ; the other caused by the 
formation of a galvanic couple or element between the 
iron and copper in which the moisture of the soil acts as 
the solution and the iron and copper as the plates of a bat- 
tery. Unfortunatel}' there seems to be no conclusive 
proof as to whether the latter action by itself ever causes 
gerious resultsi. 



The lines having the trouble from copper bonds are 
frequently those having a return of high resistance, and 
consequently one in which the railway current would 
have considerable action on the bonds. Neither is it fully 
proved that copper will not under any conditions last long 
enough to pay for putting in, even in the most trouble- 
some soils. That iron bonds are not worth much in salty 
soils may be considered as settled, and as iron is but a 
poor conductor, this fact is not to be seriously regretted. 
That copper has undoubtedly given more trouble in some 
soils than others cannot be denied, but as far as the evi- 
dence goes at present it is yet to be shown that copper 
will suffer seriously in any soil provided there is a thor- 
oughly good return. Additional evidence may, however, 
prove that copper is absolutely unfit for use in some soils. 

CONDUCTIVITY OF RAILS AND BONDS. 

A point which has been touched on before, but which 
is, nevertheless, one that does not seem to be sufficiently 
realized, is the conductivity of the rails in comparison with 
supplementary copper wires. A 70-pound rail has a sec- 
tional area of about 6,000,000 square mils, making its 
conductivity equal to approximately 1,000,000 square 
mils of copper conductor. In other words, it would 
take ten No. 00 copper wires to have a conductivity 
equal to a 70-pound rail. The efficiency of heavy bond- 
ing as against supplementary wiring is easily calculated. 
Suppose a mile of single track with 70-pound, 30-foot 
rails, to be bonded with No. 00 copper wire, each bond 
three feet long and the connections perfectly made. This 
is supposing a verj' favorable case, as we think most elec- 
tricians will admit. The resistance of the rails alone 
allowing nothing for joints will be about .02 ohm, and 
that of the bond .018 ohm, or nearly equal to that of the 
rails. If such a track were insulated from the ground, so 
that all the current had to return through the rails, nearly 
one-half the energy lost in the return would be lost in the 
short bonds connecting the rail ends. 

IN CONCLUSION. 

At this poit:t it may not be amiss to comment briefly on 
the methods used and the lines along which different 
roads are working at present. It seems rather strange at 
first thought that the experience of those who have been 
wrestling with this problem should lead them to such oppo- 
site conclusions, as to the way out of the difficulty. On the 
one hand we find a large number advocating the use of a 
large amount of copper underground, or in some cases 
overhead. There ought to be as much copper in the 
return as in the trolley feeders, they say. On the other 
hand there are those who say that we have in wet ground 
an infiniteU' better conductor than any that can be other- 
wise provided. All that is necessary then, they assert, is 
to make a thorough contact between points along the 
track and permanent moisture. As the ground has infi- 
nite conductivity, it is useless to supplement it by a 
metallic conductor. As upholders of this idea may be 
cited, the author of the article entitled, "An Argument for 
Ground Plates as Against a Continuous Copper Return," 
in our February issue, and F. W. Sabold quoted above, 



1.-..-) 



Now the question arises as to the cause of this differ- 
ence of opinion. The argument of the ground plate or 
rod advocate is unquestionably sound as far as it goes, for 
the resistance of wet earth is without doubt as low as is 
claimed. The experience of several roads depending on 
the ground entirely for a return has proved this unques- 
tionably. From the evidence at liand now there are 
apparently two reasons why the latter theorj- is not more 
universally accepted and acted upon. One is that there 
are certain regions having a dry rocky soil where fre- 
quent connections to permanent moisture are either im- 
possible or so difficult to obtain that expense prohibits 
them. Those operating in such soil, are perfectly justified 
in advocating plenty of metallic return conductors. The 
other reason as to why the ground is not more popular at 
a conductor appears to us to be the insufficiency of 
ground connections in places where it has been tried and 
condemned. We say it appears so from the evidence as 
hand, and are open to any new information on the subject, 
and would be glad if this statement would stir up enough 
opposition from some quarter to bring about a more 
thorough discussion of the matter. Permanent moisture 
is so short a distance below the surface in the majority of 
American cities, and wet earth has proved such an efficient 
conductor in some places where it has been thoroughly 
tried, that there is apparently justification in giving it a 
much more universal trial than it has had as yet. It 
seems to have been the practice in some cities to put in a 
few ground plates, and as the traffic increased, and they 
proved insufficient, to condemn them and to begin to put in 
copper feeders, instead of increasing the ground connec- 
tions, as would seem to be the more reasonable proceed- 
ing. As electrolysis of the bond wires (in so far as it is 
caused by the return current, and not by the formation of 
a galvanic element between the bond and rail) is the result 
of the flow of current from the bond to the earth, the 
most rational way to prevent it is to make another and 
better path whereby the current may get to earth. The 
more frequent the ground connections the better. The 
Review does not wish to pose as the champion of any 
particular system against all others, but with the present 
light on the question it simply wishes to say, give the 
ground plate and the ground rod a good, fair chance. A 
system half tried is not tried at all. If, with a return of 
exceedingly low resistance, there is still trouble with the 
bond wires, it is then, and not until then, time to blame 
the soil with it. Whatever the soil it is manifestly 
unreasonable to expect good results in the way of freedom 
from electrolysis until the return resistance is made very 
low. The accomplishment of this end has open to it two 
means, the continuous metallic conductor and the wet 
earth, and it is for the installing engineer to consider as 
to which is the most economical and reliable of the two. 
If it is found that it is impossible to maintain ground plates, 
even when a large area is exposed, on account of elec- 
trolysis, the only way out of the difficulty known at 
present is to run insulated return feeders to points along 
the line, though even then there will be a slight action on 



the bonds. Bare underground feeders will fare no better 
than ground plates in such a soil. 

The Review hopes to present its readers with more 
information on the question in the near future, and mean- 
while would be glad to receive from its friends any new 
ideas on the subject, provided such ideas are backed by 
facts or by actual experience. 



ANOTHER SUSPENDED CAR SCHEME. 

A COMPANY of Chicago capitalists aie reported 
as having taken hold, in good faith, of the L. 
Johnston elevated road, a model of which was seen 
last summer at Wentworth avenue and Sixtj'-fifth streets, 
and adverted to by the Re\iew. The system is of the 
suspended car pattern, a plan that has so far been found 
entirely wanting in practical uses. In the first place the 
structure must be as strong in proportion to the weight 
as that of an ordinary elevated. Secondly, the structure 
must be higher to admit of the under running car and the 
danger of derailment and breakage of support will be 
much greater. The power to drive the cars will be 
every pound as great as in usual elevated line, of the same 
capacity. The Johnson system claims to be able to build 
at a cost of $40,000 a mile. This includes wire cable 
bents with the posts 150 feet apart. The very dismal 
failure of St. John V. Day, an accomplished English engi- 
neer, backed by the best money in Chicago, to build a 
similar project, is still in mind. The route proposed is to 
the northern suburbs, and a speed of So to 100 miles an 
hour is promised with a 12-inch wheel. If our readers 
will kindly imagine the size of the beam necessary- to 
sustain the weight of elevated trains on the south side, 
and couple that with a speed of 100 miles an hour, some 
idea of the impracticability of the scheme may be gained. 
The simple matter of reversing the position of the car 
does not change a single strain or principle, while the 
added height of the structure and the speed proposed are 
two additional bars. It is to be hoped that Chicago cap- 
ital can be better occupied. 

- ^^»n- — - 

OPERATING'OFFICERS of THE NORTH 
HUDSON COUNTY ROAD. 

THE new general manager of the North Hudson 
County Street Railway Company, of Hoboken, 
N. J., William H. Starr, has made final arrange- 
ments for his staff and promulgated his first general 
order, which took effect February 15. The superinten- 
dency of motive power goes to A. Debevoise, who has 
charged of all repairs, inspection of cars and cleaning, 
giving duplicate reports to the electrical engineer, A. K. 
Bonta. The electrical engineer will also furnish daily 
reports, examine applicants for electric service and sup- 
erintend the over head construction and rail bonding. 
The superintendents of horse lines and the trainmaster 
have their duties carefully assigned, reporting to tiie 
general manager. 



156 



SOUTH CHICAGO ELECTRIC RAILWAY. 



FOR the past few months work has been going 
quietlj' on in South Chicago that has resulted in 
one of the best designed systems of electric trac- 
tion in the country. Besides having a model 
plant the South Chicago Citj' Railway has a number of 
features of special interest. No expense has been spared 
to make everything first class, and the details have been 
worked out with great care. 

THE LINE. 

The track is all 75-pound girder rail. The route covers 
fifteen miles of street, all of it being double track. In 
connection with the track laj'ing the company has put 
down a lirst-class brick pavement on Ninet\'-second street 
for a distance of over 2,000 feet in the business portion of 
the town. On part of the road on Commercial avenue 
they repaved along and between the tracks with cedar 
blocks. 

Rails are single bonded with No. o copper, channel 
pin fastening. From Ninety-second street north to 



used onlj' on this road. The line is sectioned off accord- 
ing to its Hability to injury, the shortest sections being, of 
course, in the business part of the town. 




SUBMARINE CABLE — ACTUAL SIZE. 

Each section has a separate feeder, and so is inde- 
pendent of all other sections, insuring safety in case of 
fire. The overhead feeders are calculated to give a max- 




I'OWER HOUSE AND OFFICES — SOUTH CHICAGO CITY RAILWAY. 



Sixty-eighth street everj- eighth of a mile an old car 
wheel is sunk seven feet below the surface (this being 
under water) and connected to the four nearest rails b}- 
No. o wire. At the station twelve 15-foot rails heavily 
connected with copper are sunk below water level fur- 
nishing an effective dynamo ground. The sand is so 
loose along the line that all side poles had to be breasted 
by putting a railroad tie at right angles to the pole, near 
the surface, and tamping slag and broken stone around 
the opposite side near the base. Besides this the\' are 
set with a 3-foot rake. Eye bolts are used exclusively to 
hold the span wires, which latter are on(;-fourth inch 
stranded, made by Washburn & Moen. The trolley 
wire is No. i copper, held by fixtures of special design 



imum loss of about fifteen per cent. At Ewing avenue 
and Ninety-second street the Calumet river is crossed by 
a drawbridge. To get its feeders across the company 
had to resort to 

TWO .SUBMARINE CABLES. 

This sounds simple enough, but when it is stated that 
there had to be four feeders of No. 000 copper wire in 
each cable, insulated from each other and from the out- 
side the aspect changes. The cables used are Siemens 
submarine steel armored made by the Edison Machine 
Works. When finished they were three and one-half 
inches in diameter and naturally rather stiff to handle, 
but they were finally laid to rest in trenches ten feet 



l0( 



deep and four hundred feet long, dredged for that pur- 
pose across the river bottom. This was done to get 
them beyond all possible reach of injury. The trolley 
line is abundantly supplied with strain plates to admit the 
taking down of small sections \%'ithout disturbing the line. 
The route as now laid out furnishes two lines from Jack- 
son Park to One Hundred and Sixth street, one from 
Sixty-fourth street b^- way of Stony Island avenue, Seven- 
ty-ninth street and Commercial avenue, the other from 
Yates avenue and Sixty-seventh street by way of Superior, 



THE STATION, 

situated as it is at the junction of Ninetj'-second street and 
Ewing avenue, with a switch from all the principal roads, 
running coal in front of its boilers, with the possibility of 
unloading coal and crude petroleum from lake boats, and 
with the Calumet river water for condensing purposes, 
furnishes as good an example of carefully considered 
location as can be found. 

The power station and offices are under the same roof. 




Buffalo and Ewing avenues, with cross lines at Seventy- 
ninth and Ninety-second streets, and on One Hundred 
and Sixth street from the Calumet Iron & Steel Com- 
pany's works to the state line at Indiana, the proposed 
terminus of the Hammond, East Chicago & Whiting 
Electric Railway. 

CARS. 

The present car equipment consists of twenty-five St. 
Louis Car Company's 1 8-foot bodies (closed), mounted 
on McGuire 7-foot trucks, with Griffin 33-inch wheels. 



and the car barn is separated from the main buildings bj' 
a 17-inch fire wall. This barn is 228x75, with a capacity 
of sixty-five cars. Tracks are all on trestles four feet 
high. The offices front on Ewing avenue, as will be seen 
from the ground plan, and occupy two stories. The 
power room, behind the offices, at present contains three 
AUis 22x48 simple condensirig Corliss engines, of verj- 
heavy pattern. These are belted direct to three Edison 
bi-polar, 200 kilo-watt generators, by means of Schieren 
27-inch perforated belts. The dynamo pulleys are 44- 




ELEVATION — SOUTH CHICAGO POWER HOUSE 



These are fitted with two 25-horse-power, single reduc- 
tion, Westinghouse motors. In addition, contracts have 
been let for twenty open motor cars (21-foot bodies) to 
the Brownell Car Company, and twenty-five open trailers 
with 25-foot bodies to another well-known company. 
Trolleys will be the Nuttall with steel poles. Lewis & 
Fowler stoves will furnish the heat. 



inch and run at 450 revolutions. One feature of these units 
that we firmly believe is in the line of future progress is 
the use of very heavy built-up engine fly wheels. These 
are made in eight sections and weigh 45,000 pounds, or 
22,000 pounds more than the regular fly wheels for such 
engines. They are twenty feet in diameter with 30-inch 
face, running at seventy-eight revolutions per minute. It 



158 



will be seen that the engine room has an ultimate capac- 
ity of five units. The engine foundations are set on a bed 
of concrete 100x40 by 5 thick, reaching the whole width 
of the engine room. On this bed, which is probably the 
largest one of the kind in the west, the foundations of 
sewer brick eleven feet high are built. This leaves room 
for three independent belt driven condensers under the 
floor. 

The boiler room contains three Stirling water tube 
boilers, each supplied with a live steam purifier. Behind 
the track in front of 
the boilers is room 
for coal storage. 
The stranded cables 
from the generators 
are led off in shallow 
conduits made acces- 
sible by raising sec- 
tions of the floor. 
The feeder distribu- 
tion board, and dyna- 
mo controlling board 
are separate, both 
being of white Italian 
marble set five feet 
from the wall. Every 
feeder and every ma- 
chine has a fuse, 
ammeter, switch and 
Westinghouse circuit 
breaker. B e si d e s 
the station light- 
ning arresters there 
is a Westinghouse 
type K arrester 
every mile along the 
trolley line. Ar- 
rangements are made 
to reverse the polar- 
ity of circuits every 
three months on ac- 
count of electroysis. 
The general arrange- 
ment of the station 
can be seen by a 
glance at the ground 

plan. The difficulties of construction were very great, 
both on account of the quicksands on which the plant 
was built, and because it was originally much below the 
city grade. The architectural features of the buildings 
are due to S. S. Benian and need no commendation 
from us. 

The company is also erecting adjacent to their power 
house, a large and fully equipped repair shop, paint shop 
and stable. 



ICE AS AN INSULATOR. 




A SECOND case has come to our notice within the 
last month in which the freezing of the ground has 
acted to insulate the rails from the earth and con- 
sequenily to overload the track feeders. In this case the 
road was a new one, using of course no ground plates. 
The man in charge of the station noticed that there was 
an abnormal amount of current flowing. Suspecting the 
cause he dug down to the track feeders and found them 

red hot. A few min- 
utes more and they 
might have melted, 
causing a shut-down ; 
all of which goes to 
prove that if a road 
is dependent on its 
track and feeders for 
a return it should 
calculate its feeders 
to carry the maxi- 
mum current ever 
demanded, and noth- 
ing but ground plates 
will obviate this ne- 
cessity. It is not 
generally known that 
ice is a good insula- 
tor, but those who 
have tried to get cur- 
rent from a sleet- 
covered trolley wire, 
or those who saw the 
bare arc light wires 
at the St. Paul ice 
palace fastened to 
the walls by freezing, 
have no reason to 
doubt its insulating 
qualities. 



A N Englishman 
has one resource for 
wounded feelings. 
He can rush into 
print. The English 
papers contain in each issue, column after column of 
kicks, suggestions, prayers and supplications from their 
various subscribers. The Birmingham Daily Post 
recently contained a few remarks signed, " Douse that 
Glim," complaining that the fashion of passengers light- 
ing candles was becoming dangerous to the safety of the 
other passengers, who could wait until their arrival at 
home to read the papers. 



"The storage battery is making the singing trolley 
tremble for its very existence," say the Los Angeles Times. 
Yes. Tremble with audible mirth. 



Historic Balch Gro\e at Haverhill will be made 
into a picnic and pleasure ground by the Haverhill & 
Groveland Electric. The grounds have a history dating 
from 1730. 



159 



ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



By Professor George D. Shepardson, of the University of Minnesota. 



PART II. 



A CONTINUOUS record of the amount of electri- 
cal energy passing over a given line is often 
desirable, and much ingenuity and money have 
been spent in this direction.. The chemical 
meter has been developed by the Edison company. 
Forbes has used with success the currents of air rising 
from a heated wire, by causing them to rotate a minia- 
ture windmill which is connected to a train of wheels 
that register the quantity of current passed. The clock 
has attracted many minds and has been used in many 
ways, in connection with ammeters or their equivalent. 
Several of the recording meters that have proved success- 
ful consist of small motors, the speed of the armature 
being governed by the current flowing. The armature 
operates a train of wheels which register the number of 
its revolutions and so register the quantitj- of current 
passed. This has taken a number of forms, the best 
known being the Shallenberger meter of the Westing- 
house company for alternate currents and the Thompson 
recording watt-meter for either direct or alternate cur- 
rents. By having part of the motor in the main circuit 
and part connected as a shunt between the mains, the 
speed of the motor is influenced both by the current pass- 
ing in the main circuit, and also by the voltage at its ter- 
minals. The instrument thus measures the product of 
the volts and amperes and so measures and records the 
watts. 

Motor and clock meters are subject to external mag- 
netic influences, and cases have been known of the chem- 
ical meter being "influenced" by interested parties. It 
seems almost superfluous to note that all recording meters 
should be kept locked and so placed as not to tempt 
designing meddlers. 

Having considered the various classes of instruments, 
it will be in order to compare them. Some instruments 
are portable, while others must be carefully set up in a 
fixed position. Some may be used in any position, while 
others must be carefully leveled and adjusted before use. 
Some have the scale equally spaced so that readings may 
be taken accurately to a fraction of a scale division. In- 
struments having heavy moving parts are apt to become 
sluggish in responding to sudden variations. Those hav- 
ing large masses of solid iron also are slow to respond to 
changes, and, on account of residual magnetism, give too 
high readings with decreasing current. Those having 
hght moving parts are more sensitive to disturbances 
from static electricity and to draughts of air^ although all 
instruments should be shielded. Some instruments remain 
quite constant for a long time after leaving the factory, 
while others should be tested and have a new scale made 
at longer or shorter intervals of time. 

Instruments using permanent magnets are not suitable 
for alternate currents. The " permanent " magnets 
gradually get weaker by age, and are also weakened by 



any hard knocks. When so weakened the instrument 
gives too large readings. Some makers have succeeded 
in " aging " their magnets artificiallj' to such an extent 
that the weakening by age is negligible unless subjected 
to rough usage. 

Electromagnetic instruments are suitable for direct or 
alternate currents if they have no iron parts, or if the iron 
core is small, thin, or made of a bundle of wires or plates. 
The spools of the coils and other metallic parts should 
be slit so as to avoid closed circuits for induced currents. 
This class of instruments is somewhat objectionable for 
use with alternate currents, on account of self-induction, 
which, however, may be made quite small b}- having 
only a small number of turns of wire and a small amount 
of iron. • 

Magnetic instruments are liable to be affected so as to 
give false readings (which may be either too high or too 
low) when near heavy currents, magnets, dynamos, or 
large masses of iron, especially if in motion. Such expos- 
ure is liable to have even permanent effect upon instru- 
ments using " permanent " magnets. 

Some voltmeters have so high resistance that they may 
be left in circuit continuously without undue heating, 
while others must not be left in circuit longer than is 
actually necessary to take the readings or they will heat, 
and so give too low readings. 

Electrostatic and electrodynamometer (or balance) in- 
struments, also those based on the heating effect, are used 
for both direct and alternating currents. 

Instruments should be tested occasionally for alterations 
in the zero point, in sensitiveness and in their calibration. 
Change of the zero point is detected by shutting off the 
current from the instrument and may usually be adjusted, 
when necessarj-, by some simple device upon the instru- 
ment. Changes in the sensitiveness to fluctuations usu- 
ally indicate themselves, and may be due to parts getting 
loose or to friction. Changes in the calibration may be 
caused by either of the other changes, by weakening of 
a controlling permanent magnet, or by the action of out- 
side influences, and may be detected by comparing with 
instruments known to be correct. 

Special devices are sent out with some instruments for 
checking the calibration. Thus some of the Weston volt- 
meters have a second scale and ex-tra coil which may be 
used with standard battery cells of known e. m. f. When 
so ordered the Brush spring balance instruments are 
provided with a weight which, when placed on the sol- 
enoid core, will move the pointer to a check mark if the 
spring has not altered, and if required, the spring may 
be adjusted until the weight does give the proper read- 
ing. The Howell lamp indicators are provided with two 
lamps, one to be used only as a standard, while the other 
is used in regular work. 

Measuring instruments may be tested by comparing 



160 



^fiW^^^^ ^ylCM^ : 



with some original standard; the ammeter by the chemi- 
cal voltmeter; the voltmeter by standard cells of known 
e. m. f. Such tests require great care and skill. It is 
much more usual and convenient to calibrate instruments 
by some secondary standard, which is known to be cor- 
rect from having been previously compared with an 
original standard. 

In making cahbration tests some general precautions 
need to be taken. Instruments should be kept at some 
distance from heavy currents, dynamos or other magnets 
which would affect the magnetic field in the instrument. 
If the construction of the instrument under test allows it, 
the current should be sent first in one direction and then 
in the other; also tests should be made both with increas- 
ing and decreasing currents in order to detect any errors 
caused by residual magnetism or otherwise. If the instru- 
ment being tested does not agree with the standard the 
current or voltage should be varied, and simultaneous 
readings taken from both instruments for each different 
value. Then either the correct readings may be marked 
upon the scale or a new scale may be constructed, or a 
curve may be plotted to show the relation between the 
observed and the true value. The method of construct- 
ing such a curve is as follows: A series of readings are 
taken simultaneously on the two instruments, the results 
being arranged in parallel columns. Two lines are drawn 
at right angles on section or squared paper, as "axes of 
reference." Distances in one direction are taken to rep- 
resent readings in one instrument, distances at right 
angles representing readings on the other, any convenient 
scale being adopted. "Points" are obtained by taking on 
either axes distances from the "origin," or crossing of 
axes, corresponding to the readings of one instrument, 
and erecting at those places "ordinates," or lines perpen- 
dicular to the axes, whose lengths i-epresent the readings 
at the same time upon the other instrument, the ends of 
the ordinates being the points on the curve correspond- 
ing to the several values of current. When all the read- 
ings have been thus plotted it will be found that a more 
or less regularly curved line may be drawn through or 
near most of the points, and this curve represents with 
great accuracy the relation between the observed and 
correct values of the readings. After one has had some 
practice it is easier to omit drawing the perpendicular 
lines, simply taking points whose distance from the axes of 
reference represent the corresponding readings on the two 
instruments and drawing the curve through these points. 

The fact that some points do not fall exactly on the 
curve indicates that either the readings were inaccurate, 
that one scale was incorrect at that part, or that the read- 
ings on the two instruments represent different values of 
current or voltage. The curve must be carefully laid out 
so as to strike a fair average path among different points. 
Curves so constructed are of great use in scientific work, 
as they represent facts much more clearlj- than tables, 
since slight inaccuracies of individual readings are cor- 
rected by the curve, and since intermediate values may 
be estimated more easily and accurately than by inter- 
polating between the values in the tables. 



For these reasons it is better in re-calibrating an instru- 
ment, to construct a curve from the corresponding read- 
ings on the two instruments, and correct the old scale or 
make a new one by reference to the curve, than to mark 
the points on the old scale directly while comparing the 
two instruments. 

In testing an ammeter it is connected in series with the 
standard ammeter, and currents of different strength are 
sent through both. The method of doing this will vary 
according to the circumstances. When the source of the 
current is a secondary battery, or constant potential 
dynamo, the instruments are placed in series with a vari- 
able resistance, which can be changed so as to allow 
more or less current to pass. In man}^ cases this can be 
easily done by putting the instruments in the main circuit 
and turning on more or less incandescent lamps, so as to 
vary the current as desired. The instruments may be 
tested on constant current circuits by connecting a 
"jumper" or shunt of variable resistance around the 
instruments. By making the resistance of this shunt 
comparatively low, the current through the instrument 
may be changed from almost nothing up to full strength 
of current. 

In testing a voltmeter it is placed in parallel with the 
standard, the corresponding terminals of the instruments 
being connected together so that each is subjected to 
the same voltage. 

The keys of both instruments should be closed at the 
same time, and it should be noted whether the readings 
are the same after the current has been on for some time. 
The voltage may be varied by altering the potential of 
the dynamo or batteries, or by having a \ariable resist- 
ance in series with the two instruments. This lesistance 
must be high, and in some cases may be conveniently 
made by a heavy lead pencil mark on a piece of paper, 
the resistance of which may be changed by varying the 
length and width of the pencil mark. A simpler method 
is to connect the terminals of the djnamo by a resistance 
that will not pass too much current. In the case of arc 
light dynamos, or other high potential circuits, this may 
consist of a number of incandescent lamps connected in 
series, enough of them being used so that they will not 
pass more than will bring them up to full candle power. 
If one side of the voltmeter is connected to one end of 
this row of lamps and the other side is connected succes- 
sively to different points, we may obtain any difference 
of potential desired, ranging from zero up to the limit of 
the dynamo circuit. 

If Secretary of State Foster has a fad, it is rapid tran- 
sit. His particular admiration is electric traction in the 
future of which he has the greatest faith. In a recent 
communication to the New York Advertiser he pro- 
claims his belief that the motor will supercede steam as it 
has left horses in the rear of the procession. The gen- 
tleman is not an electrician, but nevertheless he is a far 
seeing diplomat and financier, and we doubt not that on 
retiring from office he will devote some of his energy 
and capital to furthering rapid transit. 



y 



iS^Uit^'^^ Ui W 



101 



THE CAR STEP AND ACCIDENTS. 



UNTIL recently, little or no attention, has been 
paid to one of the most important features in 
car construction. We say "most important," for 
the reason that the essential part referred to is necessarily 
used by every patron of the street railway company and 
undoubtedly is the cause of many of the numerous acci- 
dents which possibly might be avoided. During the 
recent cold weather we noticed that the step treads of 
most of the cars of this city were completely covered with 
ice, making it exceedingly dangerous to board a car, and 
especially so as many will try to board the car while in 
motion. 

In Chicago a large proportion of male passengers have 
long indulged in the habit of swinging on to a car when 
under full speed, prefering to take their chances of injury 
rather than lose the fraction of a minute required to stop 
and start a train. This and the desire to "make time" 
has educated many drivers to a point where they are often 
careless about stopping even on signal. The same con- 
ditions prevail in many cities. 

While it may throw the responsibility of an accident 
upon the party who attemps to board a car while in 
motion, is it not good business polic)- to provide passen- 
gers with a secure foot-hold when boarding a car? In 
our travels about the country we have noticed cars fur- 
nished with steps having treads varying in width from 
six to twelve inches, and the riser or distance from the 
tread to the top of the platform, would vary from nine to 
sixteen. Some high truck cars noticed in particular, were 
provided with double-tread wooded steps of narrow tread 
and high riser, prejecting from the platform, that looked 
as if a section of a step ladder had been made to do ser- 
vice as car steps. Much time is unnecessarily lost each 
day per car, by using steps of such dimensions, as it com- 
pels passengers to use care and time getting on or off 
the car. Another instance was noted in a large city, of 
cars equipped with steps having risers of sixteen inches, 
and every time ladies desired to board the car, the con- 
ductor was obliged to alight and assist them on to the step 
and then upon the platform, and go through a similar 
operation when they left the car. This was no doubt 
very pleasing to the conductor in some cases. 

How many car miles were lost each day by this road 
could easily be computed, if we only knew how many 
lady passengers they carried. We would suggest that 
managers of street railways give more attention to 
the matter of steps when ordering cars, and are sur- 
prised that this important feature has been so long over- 
looked. 

When taken into consideration that it is by means of 
the step that all passengers must either board or alight 
from the car, it is quite evident that the step is of no 
small moment in car construction, and that such benefit 
will acrue from using steps of proper dimensions, one 
that possesses the advantages of a secure foot-hold 
in all seasons and conduces to cleaner car platforms and 
car floors. 



THE LITTLE GIRL WHO STARTED THE 
CABLE. 



THE ceremonies that attend the launching of big 
ships, opening of great enterprises and the com- 
pletion of grand engineering feats, usually center 
around the figure of some little woman or some little girl 
who breaks a bottle of wine over the ship's prow and 
baptizes man's big work of many weary months. Or, as 
in the great harbor engineering masterpiece, when Hell 
Gate reef in New York Harbor had been honeycombed 
by bold divers who risked their lives and limbs, and the 
many thousands of dollars in making ready the charge, 
the chief engineer's little daughter pressed the electric 
button that did the rest. So with many other instances, 
and why not? Do not men labor in these great achieve- 
ments for the little women and little girls of the world? 



"TJT 








MISS CONSTANCE CRIMMINS. 



It is not strange, then, that the ponderous machinery 
of the Broadway cable railway in New York City should 
receive its first marching orders on January 31, 1893, 
from the hands of Constance Crimmins, the ten-year-old 
daughter of President John D. Crimmins, of the Met- 
ropolitan Traction Company. Litde Constance, dressed 
as she appears in our engraving and accompanied by her 
elder sister and in the presence of many representatives 
of the company and city press, turned with her own 
hands the wheel that for the first time started Broadway's 
cable on its endless and tireless trip. The test was 
highly satisfactory and before many days both power 
houses will be ready to begin operations. The complete 
subjugation of gigantic mechanical forces was scarcely 
ever better illustrated. 



162 



A FARE FREAK. 



THE Islington Gazette funny man in his own dear, 
drear)', English, funny way, says: "That tram-cars 
should be provided with money-boxes for passen- 
gers to put their pence in. The other night — conscience 
makes me write this — I boarded a car whilst the conduc- 
tor was on top collecting fares. He had a crowd up 
there to deal with, and did not come down again by the 
time I had reached my destination. Not wanting to be 
carried further I got off, and went away owing the com- 
pany a penny. Nobody shouted 'Police!' or 'Stop him!' 
If the money-box was tacked on to the car the passenger 
would be able to pay without waiting for the conductor 
to come down. Or, better, it should not be the duty of 
the conductor to go an inch beyond his platform." 

Oh, for just one or two specimens of this new variety 
traveler who will not rob a corporation ! We will exhibit 
him at the World's Fair, or chain him in a North Side 
cable car as an example of honest men that really live 
outside of story books. 



COMBINATION CAR FOR INTERURBAN 
SERVICE. 



INTERURBAN electric lines are in their infancy, 
nothwistanding the large number already in success- 
ful operation. As the Review has maintained from 
the first, the development and possibilities in this depart- 
ment of street railway work will rapidly grow into pro- 
portions little dreamed of even by those who believe 
themselves fully in touch with the times. The rolling 
stock for these hnes will necessarily require some radical 
changes from the ordinary day car on city lines. We con- 
sider the cars now being delivered the Cayadutta Electric 
Railroad, Gloversville, N. Y., the best arranged for this 
interurban service of any we have yet seen. They are 
four in number and built by the Gilbert Car Manufactur- 
ing Compan)-, Troy, N. Y. 

The Hne on which they are to run, and which will open 
in a few days, is lO^/i miles long, connecting Glovers- 
ville and Johnstown, and passes through Fonda and Ful- 
tonville. Branch lines in the first two mentioned cities 



Po r JohnstMMpBfilWflpBilU 




COMBINED BAGGAGE, SMOKING AND PASSENGER CAR. 



SORROW TURNED TO JOY. 



THE trolley line on Bainbridge and Catherine streets 
has defied the snow storms without interruption. 
The continued snow storms and severe cold 
weather have been very hard on the horse car lines and 
the scenes of struggling beasts trying to haul overcrowded 
cars has been truly touching and the opponents of the 
trolley are now as scarce as flies. — Philadelphia Taggert's 
Times. 

A CITIZEN of Atlanta, Ga., sues the electric line for 
having run over his pig, causing spinal troubles, which 
resulted in the untimely demise of the porker. This, 
however, is by no means the first time railways have 
been called on to contribute lucre to a hog. 



Alfred Dickinson, the inventor of the Staffordshire, 
England, trolley system, has just been granted a patent 
on the same in the United States. 



bring the total mileage of the interurban system up to 
eighteen miles. 

General Manager T. C. Frenyear is a most progres- 
sive man, and is determined to leave no stone unturned 
to demonstrate the splendid earning qualities of his com- 
bined "Freight and Passenger Line," as the letter head of 
his company reads. The equipment at the start will num- 
ber eleven motor cars, four trailers and one 35-foot bag- 
gage car specially constructed to transport theatrical bag- 
gage and scenery. Eight miles of the line are built on the 
company's private right of way purchased for the pur- 
pose, and the grading, blasting and filling have made con- 
struction a no small undertaking. The whole system, 
however, has been planned with a view to a large freight 
traffic, and already an order has been placed for two 
heavy electric locomotives for the freight business, each 
locomotive guaranteed to handle a load of 300,000 
pounds on a 3.5 per cent grade. 

But to return to the passenger and express service. 
The illustrations convey a good idea of the appearance 



103 



and plan of the car which, as stated, was made by the 
Gilbert Car Company, and is mounted on McGuire max- 
imum traction trucks with Griffin machined wheels. 

Each truck is equipped with a 30-horse-power Short 
single reduction motor, making 6o-horse-power to each 
car. The guaranteed speed is twenty-five miles an hour, 
on a level, and it is expected to make the run between 
Gloversville and Fonda in less than half an hour and the 
i-eturn trip (up grade) in thirty-five minutes. Rate of 
fare not yet determined, nor charges for express and 
baggage. 

The car is 35 feet 6 inches over all and 8 feet wide. 
The motorman occupies an inclosed platform opening 
back into the baggage room, 7x8 feet. This room has 
on each side sliding doors 3^ feet wide- The smoking 
room is 6'/,xS feet, with stationary seats on three sides, 
four large windows and a sliding door opening into the 
passenger room. A movable seat permits access to bag- 
gage room if desired. The passenger room has six 
cross seats accommodating twelve persons, and two long- 
itudinal seats seating ten more, which, with the smoker, 
gives seats for thirty-one passengers. The rear platform 



think that it is not advisable to build one large power 
station, but rather to have two, three, or four small ones. 
At each of these I propose to build furnaces on the incin- 
erator or crematory principle, and inform the municipality 
that we are prepared to take four to six hundred cart- 
loads of rubbish every day. The initial expense of the 
furnaces will be offset by the saving in fuel. We shall 
mix with the rubbish a cheap combustible which I have 
lately discovered, which will raise the heat unit." 

Mr. Digby's venture will be watched with interest, and 
if the increased number of stations does not unproportion- 
ately increase the cost, economy ought to result. 



A PROPHECY. 



FM. SMITH, of East Oakland, Cal, is the new 
luminary in the horizon of occidental rapid 
• transit. He is many times a millionaire, abso- 
lutely controlls the borax market of the United States and 
has his eye on Europe. His income is estimated at 
$20,000 a month. Recent franchises asked by him and 
his agents in Oakland and its suburbs, coupled with the 




~T^u5>Ntr»5o^ r~ 



mii^M.- 



stw 



t suDiHCi yw\ 




PLAN OF COMBINATION BAGGAGE, SMOKING AND PASSENGER CAR. 



is also vestibuled. The interior finish is quartered oak 
with polished bronze trimmings, and ceilings in quartered 
oak decorated in gold. The cars are painted black and 
ornamented and lettered in silver, altogether presenting 
within and without a very neat and attractive appearance. 

Manager Frenyear will establish three or more baggage 
stations in Gloversville, where express parcels may be 
left, and also depots in the other towns. 

The Review predicts that this service will grow into a 
business the proportions of which will be a genuine sur- 
prise to people who are little aware of the coming possi- 
bilities of the electric freight and passenger business. 



A NEW FUEL. 



INDIA, with its proposed electric railway at Madras, 
brings about a series of new conditions to be met 
by the power user. Fuel there, of a quality proper 
for such extensive use as is necessary in street railway 
practice, is expensive and limited in supply. 

Mr. Digby, the engineer sent from London to Madras, 
proposes to make both ends meet in dividends by utiliz- 
ing what has heretofore been not only an unproductive 
element but a public nuisance as well, namely, the street 
refuse of the Indian metropolis. Mr. Digby says: "I 



fact that a number of old franchises have been bought by 
him, point to a magnificent scheme of consolidated electric 
lines. The line will skirt the foot hills to Ilaywards, out 
from West Oakland, after touching North Oakland. 
Turning south it will reach San Jose and go on to the 
base of the Santa Cruz mountains at Saratoga. Other 
feeders ramifying to the surrounding villages and planta- 
tions will bring every commercial interest to a head at 
the most convenient commercial points. It is not a rash 
prophesy to say that the time will come when the magnif- 
icent, but still unused water power of the Sierra will be 
harnessed in the service of civihzation and commerce, 
making all the beautiful country one vast interdependent 
system of the country and city. 

Subsidary operations in real estate are already maturing 
and the millions of acres now without adequate trans- 
portation facilities will before many years teem with life 
and prosperity. 

Cobden said once, in reply to a friend who hoped 
to see the day when all Englishmen would read 
Bacon, "And I, sir, shall hail the day when every 
man shall eat Bacon." So we look forward to the 
time when the poetry of the future will be the hum 
of the trolley translated into a more satisfactory life for 
the ruralist. 



164 



THE BALTIMORE-WASHINGTON ELECTRIC. 



THE MEHLING CAR. 



£**■ VIDENCE begins to crystalize that the Philadel- 
I phia S3'ndicate is preparing for the completion of 
> the idea published last 3-ear of putting in an 
electric railway service between the city of Baltimore and 
the capital of the United States. Recently the Belt line 
in Washington was bought by the syndicate and the Bal- 
timore lines have been well in hand for some time. This 
gives first class terminal facilities in both cities. All of 
these incidents point to the earlj^ realization of the scheme. 
The suburban realties of Baltimore have risen already in 
expectation of the buOding of the line. 



The recent decision in the Philadelphia trolley cases 
will save 8,500 quaker horses from some verj' hard work. 
Of this number the Traction Company owns 4,672. 



CLEVELAND is fast becoming a leading center 
for the manufacture of street railway supplies, 
and among the more recent of the industries de- 
voted to such products is that of car building. The G. C. 
Kuhlman Company, among other types of street cars, 
have the exclusive manufacture of the " Mehling Car," 
which has proved so popular on the East Cleveland road, 
and one of which cars is illustrated herewith, showing 
both sides and the interior. As will be noticed from the 
car illustrated, one platform is fitted up for the exclusive 
use of the driver, and the rear platform made specially 
large to better accommodate the exit of passengers, and 
standing loads. To compensate for the closing of the 
front door to passengers, a sliding side door is placed 
midwaj- in the body of the car, made accessible by a 




IKTERIOR OF MEHLING CAR. 



THE SITUATION IN INDIANAPOLIS. 



THE street railway situation in Indianapolis is becom- 
ing more intricate the more it is analyzed. The 
latest phase is the point brought up claiming that 
the Citizens' Company has no rights because the sale by 
the Johnsons was illegal. The new owners in turn 
claim a perpetual franchise in the city. This position 
tends to shut out the new "unknown" company from 
any city rights. The new owners of the Citizens' 
have made prompt payments on the property, and 
took possession the first of March. Mr. Mason, the 
company's attorney, says that the unvalidity of the 
Johnson sale is an old story and does not cause him 
anjr uneasiness. 



running footboard. This door opens into the aisle, 22 
inches wide, and extending the entire length of the car. 
By this means passengers can easily depart without pass- 
ing out over the rear platform and those in the forward 
seats have only the car length to walk. The use 
of the side door in winter also is pronounced a great 
advantage in preventing strong draughts through the car. 
The body is 22 feet 6 inches long, 8 feet 2 inches wide, 
and the length of car over all 32 feet; wheel base is 7 
feet 6 inches and wheels 33 inch diameter. Although the 
Mehling patents cover removable sides, the car illustrated 
has stationary panels, but the side windows are large, 
using glass 34 inches square, and sash drops to lower 
edge of sills, making practically an open car. The 
windows in the doors also drop. Curtains are hung on 



165 



Hartshorn rollers and fringed with Dutch leather. Inter- 
ior trimmings are curly white maple for ceilings and cherry 
for sash and door: metal 
trimmings are of polished 
bronze, and all the glass is 
polished plate. Eight cross 
seats are provided, each com- 
fortably seating 4 adults, giv- 
ing a total seating capacity 
of 32, while the standing 
load which can be carried 
without inconvenient crowd- 
ing brings the load up to 90 
or 95. 

A feature passengers 
appreciate, and which saves 
much uncomfortable twist- 
ing of necks, is the electric 
buttons opposite each seat 
which indicate on the rear 
platform. The conductor 
also has push button con- 
nection with his driver, and 
the use of bell cords is en- 
tirely done away with. The 
advantages of this where 
stationary registers are used 

will be obvious. The truck under our illustrated car 
will be recognized as the familiar type manufactured by 



the Stanwood steel type. Taken altogether the car 
presents a most attractive appearance and is proving 





ENTRAN'CE SIDE MEHLINO CAic. 

highly satisfactory both to the railway people and the 
public on account of the facility with which passengers 

can be received and the com- 
fort of travelers and increase 
of revenue consequent 
thereon. 



CLOSED SIDE MEHLING CAR. 



the Fulton Foundry of Cleveland, in which city so many 
of these trucks are in daily service. The steps are of 



A MAN whose principal 
feature was very red hair 
recently mounted a Philadel- 
phia street car with a 'cute 
little pup tucked under his 
arm. He was hardly seated 
when a young lady exclaim- 
ed, "Oh George, isn't he too 
sweet. What kind is he 'i 
George 'lowed in a loud 
voice that the pup was setter. 
Another j'oung lad}' was in- 
formed by her escort that the 
dog was a fox terrier. An- 
other called his sisters atten- 
tion to that "pretty deer 
hound." Several other sug- 
gestions called the animal a 
beagle, a pointer, and a New- 
foundland. Finally the red 
headed man arose, a little 
unsteadily and remarked, 
"ladies and gentlemen, this 
yer dawg is a Scotch collie, 
and he haint never been no setter, fox terrier, deer 
hound, pointer, beagle, nor other kind of dawg!" 



166 



SHE TALKS BACK.', 



HOW A PATENT PROTECTS. 



WE have been expecting it a long time. Now 
it h?s come. So much has been said of the 
ungratefulness of women, and the legal and 
moral ownership of a street car seat, that evidently one 
straw too many has at last fallen — and our spine is frac- 
tured. She's a Wisconsin woman, too, and her name is 
Harriet Forrester. She analyzes the terrible question 
with a cold, impartial analysis, Harriet does, and in such 
a pointed, undeniable way as to almost make one feel 
she is right. 

Still Harriet never was a man, probably never gave 
up her seat to a woman no older than herself, and — take 
special note — she positivel)' avoids anj- mention of the 
female who with her bundles occupies the space intended 
for three grown persons, or the one who holds a load five 
minutes on the rush trip to be informed her car heads the 
other way. But what did Hattie say? Just listen at this: 

"I think it about time for some woman to defend her 
sex from the attacks made upon her behavior in the street 
cars by the man of to-daj-. It seems to be a recent griev- 
ance, and, if one is to judge from the articles written 
upon the subject, a serious one. I am a patron of the 
street car (and, needless to say, a woman). Leaving the 
question of the aged, and the woman with the babe out 
of the subject, I think it right and proper for all to be on 
an equal footing (We object; Chicago girls have small 
feet — Editor) in a public conveyance, and I am sure 
there is not a woman but agrees with me, and would 
much rather stand than to deprive the man of the place 
for which he has paid. 

'•But it is the actions of the men that make the women 
uncomfortable. The man who takes refuge behind his 
paper is a blessing. It is the one that glares at the poor, 
unoffending, swaying creature, and begins to fidget. Of 
course he attracts the attention of the woman standing 
before him, and she no doubt glances at him, when up 
he leaps, points to the seat with the look of a martyr, and 
turns his back before the woman has a chance to thank 
him or smile an acceptance. I read, not long ago, of a 
man who made the assertion that he would be 'almost 
willing to marry the first woman who thanked him for 
giving her his place in a car.' All I say is, 'Give her a 
chance to thank you.' 

"Now my poor, abused man, keep your seat in a car, 
unless, as I said before, an aged person, or the woman 
with the babe — and, I forgot, a beautiful woman — comes 
in, and do not think every woman standing who glances 
at you wants your place. But when j'ou are kind enough 
to get up and give her your seat, give her a chance to 
thank you, and remember, 

"Sometimes not to see anything is right; 
By being blind 'tis thus we Iteep our site." 



WITH pointed good sense the Railway Review 
of this city says in a recent issue; Speak- 
ing of the value of patents, a business 
man interested in such things asserts that a patent does 
not patent in this country. "All that the patent office does 
is to give you a paper with some writing on it, and 
if another man steals your idea, and goes to manufac- 
turing your invention, the patent office will not lift a 
finger to protect you or to stand by its own decision. The 
fact that j'ou've got a patent is a point in your favor, but 
you've got to hire lawyers and fight the thief in the courts, 
and if he can stand it to hire lawyers longer than you, 
that settles you, and you might as well make him a pres- 
ent of your invention. There are lots of men in the coun- 
trj' getting rich on the discoveries, of other people. All 
they had to do was to take 'em and fight the real dis- 
coverers into poverty. The patent office, to be respected 
and to be of any use, ought to have the power to cause 
the stealer of a patent to be sent to prison." 



FOREVER AND FOREVER. 



The constant drop of water 
Wears away the hardest stone ; 
The constant gnaw of Towser 
Masticates the_toughest bone; 
The constant cooing lover 
Carries oft' the blushing maid, 
And the constant advertiser 
Is the one that gets the trade. 
— Titbits. 



ELECTRICITY FOR STEAM ROADS. 



The street railway company at Boone, la., is contem- 
plating an extensive summer resort system on the park 
plan. Gravelled walks, dancing pavillions, a race track and 
other features are in view. The railway is not yet built. 



CALIFORNIA is the first state to begin legisla- 
tion tending toward the inevitable ultimate, 
interurban connection by electricity instead of 
steam. Assembly bill 697 is so drafted as to provide that 
every railroad operating in California by steam motive 
power may use electricity in the place of steam or elec- 
tricity and steam in conjunction for propelling cars on 
such railroads or parts thereof. This will give the steam 
roads power to use their road bed already laid in the 
interests of electric service and establish what has long 
been advocated by the Review, namely, the inaug- 
uration of longer interurban electric lines than have yet 
been attempted. This project brings forcibly to mind the 
prophecy of Frank J. Sprague, that the revolution of 
steam traffic will be effected, not by long lines built out of 
hand, but by the gradual extension and union of inter- 
urban lines. 

"Taken insane in a street car at Buffalo the Rev. 
Theodore Lyman, of Cold Springs, N. Y., began preach- 
ing to the passengers." Great numbers of people have 
been taken insane and have begun preaching to the com- 
panies, but this is the first instance of the tables turned. 
We hope it is a symptom of better times coming. 



^gB^ % iiti;(i^^ % it » ? 



107 



FT. WAYNE'S ELECTRIC SYSTEM. 



A Brilliant Success— The Men Who Made It, and How They Did It. 



THE histoiy of the Fort Wayne Electric Street 
Raihvaj- Companj- extends back tvventj^ years, 
when kerosene and horse cars were regarded 
au fait. At that time, however, Fort Wayne 
was not prepared physically or financially for much 
greater things, and the rising generation in Fort Wayne 
should not look down on their pa's and ma's for patroniz- 
ing these primitive institutions. This pioneer railway was 
operated by the Citizen's Railroad Company, which insti- 
tution later was fortunate enough to fall into the hands 
of its present owners, John H. Bass, F. DeH. Robison 
and S. B. Bond. This happened in 1SS7. 

With the change in ownership came material, improve- 
ments which amounted to the re-equipment of the horse 
lines with all the latest idea in that style of traction. 
In these days, however, it became evident to the owners 
of the road that Fort Wayne was becoming too large 
and progressive a city for such things as slow-going 
horse cars, and another re-equipment, this time electrical. 



in this way, and says that although it is not so theatrical 
a method as the other, it is far more satisfactory in the 
long run. The same method was employed in the intro- 
duction of the cable into Cleveland, O. The result of the 
efforts of the company is most gratifying, and to-day the 
rapid transit system of Fort Wayne has no superior in 
cities of its class. 

The Fort Wayne Electric Railway system now con- 
sists of five lines; one belts the principal business portion 
of the city while the other four run through the main 
arteries of traffic. Of the through lines one opens com- 
munication north and south, the other three traversing the 
lines of greatest travel east and west. All lines meet for 
starting and transfer at the corner of Main and Calhoun 
streets, near the company's otlice. This corner is the 
busiest in all the lively city, presenting a verj' metropoli- 
tan appearance. 

The road bed for the main part is over brick and wood 
block paved streets. The companj' paves the space 




EXTERIOR OF POWER IIUUSK. 



GAS METER, 



THE SWITCH BOARD. 



was proposed. After the usual preliminaries of argu- 
ment with the city fathers, the new regime began, and 
in May, 1892, M. S. Robison, Jr., of Cleveland, Ohio, 
commenced the good work, with his accustomed energy 
and foresight. The most sanguine outsider, judging by 
comparison of like enterprises, did not hope for the com- 
pletion'bf the change within a year, but on the eighth 
day of July, 1892, the first line was run with motors, and 
b)^ the first of the succeeding September the entire trans- 
formation from horses to electricity was accomplished, 
the doubting pedestrians of Fort Wayne's population were 
galvanized into a succession of electric surprises, and the 
road was opened. The term "succession of surprises" is 
used guardedly, as it is Mr. Robison's practice to teach 
his patrons rapid transit in a series of easy lessons. This 
is accomplished by retiring the horse cars one by one and 
introducing the cars propelled by the new motive power 
in the increasing ratio. This plan accomplished two 
desired effects; first, it accustomed women, children and 
horses to the new order of things by degrees, and second, 
it gave ne'w motormen the necessary practice at horse car 
speed. Mr. Robison retained all his horse car drivers 



between the tracks and unreservedly endorses brick pav- 
ing. Their method is to lay a foundation of broken 
stone eight inches deep. Over this is spread four inches 
of gravel, on which the brick is laid. The cost is in the 
neighborhood of $2.00 per yard, and the results uni- 
formly excellent. One stretch of T rail track is worthy 
of special note, as the careless observer would declare 
that girder rail had been laid. The method is this: 
Foundations of broken stone and gravel are laid, as above 
described, and upon this are laid 6x8 inch white oak 
cross ties, spaced two feet from centers. The brick is 
then laid, with special "o" shaped brick next the rails. 
This gives almost as easy driving surface and turning out 
facilities to teams as girder, and all the advantages of T 
rail track at the same time. The rail used is the Illinois 
Steel Company's 60-lb. T, $}{ inches deep. Johnston 
66-lb. girder is used on the principal lines. This con- 
struction brings the pavement on a level with the car 
wheel, at the same time suspended joints obtain altogether, 
and two rail bonds are used. 

The overhead construction was designed by the Short 
Company. No. "o" trolley and oooo feeders is the rule. 



168 



and the result shows a saving of two-thirds in wire, with 
a considerable salvage in power. The system is divided 
into eight separately fed sections, managed from the 
power house. These sections are again provided with 
cut-outs. Wooden poles are used, with the exception of 
a mile and a half of Van Dorn iron poles. 

The rolling stock consists of fifty-nine handsome cars 
made by J. M. Jones' Sons, West Troy, N. Y., with eight 
more under contract, from the same firm. All are lighted 
by ten i6-candle power electric lights, and present a beau- 
tiful appearance at night as well as by day. Lewis & 
Fowler stoves and headlights, and Meaker's registers, 
equip the cars. All motor cars carry two 20-horse-power 
Short's single reduction motors. Dorner & Button trucks, 
and Bass Foundry wheels, are under the cars. 



lines loop out of this house, requiring no transfer table. 
The cars are all inspected at the house, no inspectors 
being required on the road. 

The power house is an elegant structure 75 by 150 
feet. It is built of brick with stone trimmings, with a 
steel trussed roof covered with slate, and is as near abso- 
lutely fire-proof as could be made. It consists of a boiler- 
room 50 by 75 feet, and an engine room 75 by 100 feet. 
Here the floor is as clean as an office, no ashes are observ- 
able, no shovels, no pokers, no stokers, and the enquiring 
visitor's questions are solved by two words — natural gas. 
The gas comes into a meter or reservoir at 60 lbs. pres- 
sure, from a 6-inch pipe. Here this is reduced to enter 
the furnaces at ten ounces, and, mixed with air, burns 
fiercely. The lone man who manages the battery of six 




ENGINE ROOM. 



BOILER PLANT. 



The car house and repair shop, at the corner of Main 
and Glasgow avenues, is built expresslj' for use. The 
building fronts 120 feet and is 160 feet deep. The east 
end is literally one great window, 52S panes of glass 
admitting sunlight. Here are seven tracks and pits for 
car inspection capable of holding thirty-five cars. The 
repair shops have had so little work that the name is 
scarcely deserved. Seven men, including blacksmiths 
and painters, are all the work needs. In six months only 
one armature has required attention, and that but little, 
only a part of the winding having been burned. Mr. 
Robinson requires each car to be varnished annuall)', 
and states that this custom keeps the paint in good condi- 
tion for a period of years. A Hathaway transfer table 
gives the best of satisfaction. Everywhere 2^^ -inch cot- 
ton fire hose is convenient and affords ample protection, 
nozzles being always attached. The two big Lewis & 
Fowler sweepers have here their lair, and to their credit, 
and to the credit of the efficient superintendent, L. D. 
McNutt, be it said, that during the late fall of sixteen 
inches of snow, at no time was Fort Wayne deprived of 
street cars "on time." It required work and worry, but it 
paid in gold dollars and golden opinions of the public. 

The car house at the corner of Railroad and Clinton 
streets is an iron structure 130 by 150 feet in size. Two 



ISO-horse-power boilers, wears a clean face and hands, 
and could attire himself in a boiled shirt. The boilers, 
as represented in our engraving, are 16 feet long, 72 
inches diameter. Three are kept in reserve. They 
were built bv the Bass Foundrv & Machine Works, of 




-I — ' — 1~ 

BASS WATER HEATER AND PURIFIER. 

that city. Four flames of natural gas feed each furnace, 
which altogether require 250,000 feet per diem. The 
gas is piped forty-eight miles, entering the city with a 
12-inch main. The piping, made by the Bass Works, 



KiO 



consists of a 20-inch header back of the boilers, with a 
12-inch pipe to a Stratton separator. The feed water is 
purified in a Bass purifier, which takes out from 660 to 
700 lbs. of lime weekly from the very hard spring water 
used. An illustration of this excellent feed water heater 
and purifier is given herewith. Duplex pumps feed the 
boilers. The engines, a detailed description of which is 
given below, were made by the same extensive firm, and 
are housed in an adjoining room 100x75 f^t^t- They are 
belted direct by 24-inch Munson belts to three 200 kilo- 
watt, 275-horse-power, Thomson-Houston multipolar gen- 
erators. One engine and generator is kept in reserve. 
There is space left in the engine room for double the 
amount of power and if present symptoms may be diag- 
nosed the waste places will 
be made glad before long. 
The three ponderous en- 
gines are very quiet in 
their action, and conversa- 
tion ma)' be carried on in 
the ordinarj' tone of voice 
anj' place in the room. 
Immediately in front of the 
elegant switch board the 
visitor sees a trap door, the 
myster)- of which is easily 
explained bv raising the 
same and descending a 
flight of stairs, at the same 
time manipulating an elec- 
tric light switch. After 
these two actions, the 
stranger finds himself in a 
well lighted, dry, cemented 
vault 60 feet long, 7 feet 
high and 4J4 feet wide. 
On the ceiling of the vault 
may be seen at a glance 
every feeder and return 
wire that comes in or goes 
out of the station. The 
switch board is of light, 
open construction six feet away from the wall. The 
electric equipment is from the General Electric Com- 
pany, and consists of three multipolar 200 kilowatt 
generators, one always in reserve. The switch board 
was put in by the same compan)'*. As one of the side 
tracks of the P., F. W. & C. Ry. runs alongside of the 
boiler room, every facility for receiving coal is afforded if 
at any time the natural gas supply gives out, which catas- 
trophe is not anticipated. 

The three engines, which are of the Corliss type, were 
made and erected by the Bass Foundry & Machine 
Works, Fort Wayne, Ind. The cylinders of these engines 
are 20-inch diameter by 48-inch stroke. The driving 
pulleys are 16 feet in diameter, 29-inch face and weigh 
28,000 pounds each. Each engine is rated at 270-horse- 
power, with 90 pounds steam pressure. 

These engines are specially designed for street railway 




JOHN H. BASS 



work, which is, as all experienced builders know, the 
most trying service to which an engine can be subjected. 
At the street railway power house we have seen one of 
these engines developing 400 horse-power when not cut- 
ting off at all, owing to a momentary excessive demand 
for current, when suddenly, the electrical apparatus being 
overloaded, the current breaker would " fly out " instantlj' 
reducing the load to nothing, while the variation in the 
speed of the engine was not noticeable to the eye. Under 
ordmary conditions the extreme variations of load will 
come within one per cent of the speed. 

This excellent regulation is due to the delicate action 
of the governor which is of the Porter high speed type. 
Very light balls are used, running at high speed, making 

the governor quickly re- 
sponsive to the slightest 
change in load. The gov- 
ernor is highly finished, 
and previous to use is rig- 
orously tested on a testing 
block in the shop. 

One of the most prom- 
inent features of the im- 
proved Bass - Corliss en- 
gine, next to the delicate 
governing mechanism, is 
the noiseless valve trear. 
The releasing gear is so 
quiet in action, owing to 
its special design, ihat 
when in proper adjustment 
it can ■ scarcely be heard. 
The dash pots are also of 
improved construction, 
noiseless and prompt m 
action, and are not affected 
by any extreme variations 
in load. 

The guides are cast solid 
with the girder or frame, 
forming a part of it, and 
are bored in actual align- 
ment with the cylinder, the top and bottom guides being 
connected with a heavy cast ring directly over the center 
foot, thus carrying the strains from the top guide direct 
to the foundation. The cross-head has adjustable gibs 
turned to fit the bore of the guides, and has ample wear- 
ing surface. The steam cylinders are jacketed in a neat 
and substantial manner with quartered oak tastily trim- 
med with nickeled mountings. The general appearance 
of the engines pleases the artistic taste as much as the 
details appeal to the mechanical mind; in fact a more 
quiet and tasty engine room than the one described would 
be difficult to findjanywhere. 

A desire to know the origin of these engines took the 
Review representative to the extensive works of the Bass 
Company, where the mechanical superintendent, F. A. 
Rider, said: 

" Yes, we are proud of our engines. This design is 



170 



new, has but recently been put on the market, and com- 
bines the best points of existing engines with our original 
improvements affer careful investigation with the special 
object of meeting the demands of electric street railway 
work. We believe we are producing an engine that will 
satisfactorily fill the most exacting requirements of this 
severe and tr3'ing service." 

A glimpse of the erecting floor showed numerous en- 
gines in process of construction, among which were 
noticed a compound condensing engine i6 and 30 by 42 
inches for the World's Fair, where it will be an opera- 
tive and competitive exhibit, its location being in the 
machinery hall; also two 30 by 60 inch for use in the 
manufacture of tin plate by the New Castle Steel & Tin 
Plate Company, of New Castle, Pa. These latter 




M. S. ROBISON, JR. 

engines have each a 40,000-pound fly-wheel and a shaft 
20 inches in diameter by 20 feet long. The total weight 
of each of these monsters is 190,000 pounds exclusive 
of the gearing arrangement for driving the roll trains. In 
addition there were a large number of other engines of 
all sizes, in various stages of completion. These works 
are having a large demand for their engines, their shops 
being operated to their fullest capacity day and night. 

JOHN II. B.\SS 

has, perhaps, more than any one man, made the beauti- 
ful and prosperous city of Fort Wayne what it is to-day. 
Mr. Bass comes of a fine old southern family, originally 
from Virginia and the CaroJinas; his father removed to 
Kentuck)- when onlj' two years old, where J. H. Bass, 
the subject of this sketch, was born at Salem, in 1S35, 
was educated in the- state, removed to Fort Wayne when 
seventeen years old, and soon became the book-keeper 
of Jones, Bass & Company, founders and machinists, in 
which his brother, the gallant soldier. Col. Sion S. Bass, 



who fell on the bloody field of Shiloh, was a partner. 
In 1858 formed a co-partnership with Edward L. Force, 
under the firm name of Bass & Force, the business being 
carried on in that name and the Fort Wayne Machine 
Works until 1863, when the firm of Bass & Hanna was 
created and carried on by them until 1869, when Mr. Bass 
became the soleownerby the purchase of the property after 
the death of his partner. In the same year he established 
the St. Louis Car Wheel Company, still owned and oper- 
ated by him. In 1873, in the face of the greatest finan- 
cial panic this country has ever known, he had faith 
enough in Chicago to place there another branch of his 
business, which is now in successful operation. 

In 1880 the Bass Foundry & Machine Works and allied 
interests became so large that it was thought expedient 
to establish iron furnaces in Alabama, where, under his 
supervision, greater care could be taken in the production 
of a portion of the iron used in the manufacture of car 
wheels, which have since become so famous. 

Mr. Bass' chief interest in the street railroad was to 
aid in building up the city of his adoption, and enhance 
the value of his real estate there; but his interests do not 
stop here for he is also the owner of the famous Brook- 
side farm, situated near Fort Wayne, renowned for its 
Clydesdale horses and Galloway cattle, president of the 
First National Bank of Fort Wayne, and a director of 
the Old National Bank. 

!\I. .S. ROBISON, JR., 

the vice-president and treasurer of the Fort Wayne Elec- 
tric Railway Company, has had the most thorough and 
comprehensive street railway and engineering education 
and experience although still on the sunny side of middle 
age. 

The foundation for hi.s present successful career was 
laid in the engineering department of the Northwestern 
University, from which he was graduated in 1877. After 
several years of miscellaneous work in his profession 
he entered the corps of the Cleveland Street Railvva}' 
Company in 1888 as office secretary. After a 
year and a half in this capacity he became super- ' 
intendent and treasurer of this extensive horse 
line, and on its change to mechanical traction as 
the Cleveland City Cable, accepted a like office with the 
new corporation. The most onerous and trying work of 
the change of system fell upon Mr. Robison. In fact, 
after a long period of labor day and night in this cause 
he found his health so much impaired that rest was im- 
perative. Resigning March, 1891, Mr. Robison began 
an extensive tour, which included all that was worth see- 
ing in the United States, Mexico and Canada. Idleness, 
however, was not to the taste of Mr. Robison, and with 
the return of health, he became interested in the proposed 
electric fine at Fort Wayne, in January, 1892. The suc- 
cess of his new venture needs no further compliment than 
the above account of the line. 

Mr. Robison has a happy social disposition evinced in 
his prominent connection with the Fort Waye Club, the 
Civil Engineers' Society, of Cleveland, and the small club 
which owns an island in Georgian Bay on the great lakes 



171 



A NEW ELECTRIC HEADLIGHT. 



THE superiority of electric light over oil lamps where- 
ever it is possible to use the former goes without 
saying. The American Reflector & Lighting 
Company, So Jackson street, Chicago, however, goes a 
step further, and claims that an electric headlight when 
practicable is a long step in advance over the ordinary 
methods of track illumination and light warning. With 
this end in view they have coupled to the foregoing im- 
provements a new method of route signs. 

Their electric headlight shown in our engraving is a 
durable, efficient and powerful illuminator, besides bear- 
ing in full view on its glowing face the route or destina- 
tion of the car in strongly marked letters. These signs 
are revolving, so that two, three or four can be shown at 
various times as the route of the car or train requires. 
The light is as easil}' transferable from one to the other 
end of the car as an oil headlight, besides enjoying the ad- 
vantages above enumerated. The route signs are changed 
by rotating a disc by means of the button catch shown at 
the left of the engraving and turning the disc. No mis- 
takes can be made b}' a passenger, and the amount of 
satisfaction to the public more than pays for the change. 
On small lines where a car is compelled to travel several 
routes the advantages are easily seen, and on longer lines 
the. exact termini of every train can be shown without 
the possibility of a mistake. 

Recognizing the fact that man_y roads not electric, and 
even many electric roads maj- not find this headlight expe- 




ELECTRIC HEAD LIGHT WITH REVOLVING SIGN. 

dient, an improved form of oil headlight is made by the 
same company and illustrated above. Its catalog num- 
ber is 167, and it combines all the superior features of the 
electric headlight with the oil luminant. It is easily trans- 
ferable to either end of the car and gives a steady pene- 
trating light. A cheaper article without the revolving 
.signs is numbered as 166, but is fitted with the mirror 
plate or parabolic metal reflector, as is desired. The 
wick turns down easily and is not affected by the jolting 
of the car. Its clear light and freedom from objec- 



tionable odor gives it great advantage over ordinary 
cheap headlights. It is six dollars cheaper than the fore- 
going. The American Reflector Company is not new in 
the business, as their e.xtensive factories at 215, 217, 219 
South Clinton street testify. The railway headlight 




OIL HEAD LICHI WITH RE\'OLVIXG SIGN. 



branch, however, is a later venture, which their wide ex- 
perience and large facilities justify. Their goods have 
the backing of a fair fame and fortune and deserve a warm 
reception from the trade. Catalogs and information on 
application. 

THE COMBINED RAILWAY AND LIGHT 
PLANT AT ASHLAND. 

ANOTHER consolidation of electric light and rail- 
way work is found in a new plant at Ashland, 
Wisconsin. It is said to be one of the finest in the 
northwest. About 200-horse-power capacity is devoted 
to the railway department and 300 to the electric light. 
Ideal high speed engines are used with General Electric 
Company's electrical machinery. The question of plants 
for supplying both light and railway power has been from 
time to time discussed in conventions and in the technical 
press, but has never been agitated at length. If there is 
economy in large plants against small ones, there ought 
to be economy in such combined plants. 



CONCORD'S CASE. 



A BIG dam enterprise is on foot in and about Con- 
cord, N. H. A syndicate of New York and local 
capitalists have already bought considerable land 
outlying Concord and West Concord village and along 
the Merrimac river. Across the river at Sewall's Falls a 
dam is to be built which will furnish the power for an 
electric plant, which will be utilized for manufacturing 
purposes, and in connection an electric belt line will be 
built from the city proper to West Concord, thence to the 
Falls, where the river will be crossed, and then through 
the valley to East Concord. 



172 



A RAPID SAND DRYING MACHINE. 



ELECTRICS AND THE SNOW 



SAND may well be used to typify the virtuous 
qualities in a street railway manager, which in 
other good people is described as salt full of 
savor. He must have sand and lots of it. Sand in his 
backbone and sand on his track. 

Increase in speed has developed a rapidly increasing 
necessity for the employment of methods for overcoming 
that speed not necessary under the horse regime. Sand 
also comes handj- in starting a motor car on an icy track. 
In fact, sand has been permanently added to the long and 
varied list of supplies needed in the operation of a street 
car. 

George Carlson, of 112 Oak street, Chicago, and for 
several years connected with the City Railway, has just 
invented a machine intended to rapidly, effectively and 
economically, dry sand for car use. The illustration is in 
itself a verjr fair description of the device. From a hop- 
per, at the elevated end of the dryer, the sand passes into 



THE heaviest storm of the season visited south-cen- 
tral Pennsylvania and Ohio, beginning February 
21. The Reading and the Pennsylvania lines 
were badly blockaded by the snow and all trains were 
delayed from twenty minutes to an hour and a half. The 
electric roads, however, were kept in good running order 
throughout the section of the country, and unquestionably 
demonstrated the ability of this subtile force to do all that 
is required of any steam lines. It is true that the mileage 
of the electric lines was not so extensive, but the condi- 
tions were ranch more trying, in that the snow from the 
tracks had to be entirely removed, so as not to interfere 
with teaming. Besides this the sweepers and snow plows 
on the electric lines are necessarily lighter in construction 
and less effective than the mammoth rotaries which plow 
their elephantine path over the roadway of the steam 
brethren. 

There are few places even in the most northerly dis- 




carlson's sand dryer 



a cylinder and while passing through to be discharged at 
the lower end is carried around and tossed about so as to 
expose every particle to the heating influences of the hol- 
low shaft which is filled with steam. The cylinder is 
revolved by means of a worm gear at the lower end. A 
current of air can also be forced into the lower end of the 
cylinder to carr^- out at the farther end, all moisture and 
steam as fast as generated. When the sand reaches the 
escape holes it has traveled 300 feet, and when discharged 
is perfectly dried and ready for use, or may be stored 
under cover. The old method of drying occupies several 
times as much room, and is not nearly as rapid and 
economical as b}' the machine. The device is equally 
well adapted for the drying of grain and other com- 
modities, as the distance traveled in the cylinder may be 
decreased or increased to any length required. 



tricts, where street car traffic has been interrupted bj' this 
severest of "old fashioned" winters, and we know of no 
line that has suspended operations on account of the snow. 
Numerous managers have everlastingly earned the respect 
and gratitude of their fellow citizens b}' their heoric fight 
for open traffic. The public is proverbially ungrateful 
and the hard work and great expense of this winter will 
probably be forgotten before the spring rains set in, but 
in such case the manager will be able to solace himself 
with a re-reading of his winteVs' compliments. 



Thk mules of the New Orleans & Carrolton Railway 
are now being sold in lots to suit purchaser at the lowest 
prices. Such is the import of the big advertisements 
displayed by the railway Company. 



The Fulton Foundry Company, of Cleveland, is hav- 
ing great success with their electric trucks No. i A and 
No. I B. Within the last thirty- days they have received 
orders for thirty-five or forty trucks and are receiving 
additional orders from companies that have tried them. 
There was a sharp competition with well known makers 
at Springfield, O., and since the first order was given they 
have received additional orders twice. These trucks are 
now among the well known and standard trucks of this 
country. 



173 



ELECTRICS POPULAR IN NEW ORLEANS. 



IN no city in the country has the introduction of elec- 
tric cars occasioned as much public interest as in New 
Orleans. To sa}' all classes of citizens are delighted 
does not do the subject justice. For the first few days 
people crowded the cars, remaining on several trips, simply 
to enjoy the novelty, and it will be some time before all 
the strictly pleasure riders will have had an opportunity 
to say they have gone over the line. 

Out illustration shows a special party, consisting of the 
major of New Orleans, Hon. John Fitzpatrick and his 
family and friends, enjoying a trip of inspection in a 
private car, accompanied bv Superintendent Haile and 
Chief Engineer Johnston. The car is the finest on the 
road, is handsomely decorated within and has been named 



gained his franchises and let his contracts for the immedi- 
ate building of the road. The system will accommodate 
that great and growing section of Chicago's metropolitan 
area near the Indiana state line, north to South Chicago, 
and toward the lake to East Chicago. A line direct 
from Hammond to East Chicago will furnish transit 
between these two centers, with another line between 
East Chicago and Roby, the Mecca of horsemen, con- 
necting with the South Chicago electric railway and the 
Calumet. A cut off line gives a direct passage between 
Lakes George and Wolf from Hammond to Roby. The 
distance to the state line, including Hammond, is lo'-^ 
miles, with a total of 13 miles to South Chicago. 

The contracts let, go to the following firms: Electric 
equipment, Westinghouse, eight car equipments of two 
20-horse-power motors and one 200-horse-power multi- 




THE INSPECTION TRIP OF THE CARROLLTON LINE. 



in honor of the mayor, who is a strong advocate of the 
new system and who takes great interest in a still further 
extension of electrics in the Crescent Cit}-. 



HAMMOND AND EAST CHICAGO STREET 
RAILWAY. 



ONE of the most enterprising firms of railway- 
builders and contractors in the country is lodged 
in the Pullman Building as C. E. Loss & Co. 
Mr. Loss, the head of the firm, is too well known to 
need any introduction to the street railway public, as his 
name has been connected for the past few years with so 
many enterprises in Illinois. One of his most commend- 
able and successful ventures is to be known as the Ham- 
mond & East Chicago Street Railway Company, which 
will furnish rapid transit to fully 70,000 people who have 
heretofore walked, drove or stayed at home. These 
undesirable and expensive performances will soon be a 
thing of the past, as Mr. Loss has perfected his plans, 



polar generator; Wharton will furnish 63-pound girder 
rail for the track; Pullman will build eight 28-foot motor 
cars; the Railway Equipment Company will furnish the 
overhead material and Ed. Ayer, Owings building, the 
poles; J. A. Roebling & Sons will supply No. o trolley 
wire and 000 feeder. The Ball Engine Company put in 
the steam plant complete, which consists of one 175- 
horse-power engine, duplicate battery of loo-horse-power 
with steam piping and fittings. The power house will be 
of brick, 150 by 80 feet, situated in East Chicago, mid- 
way between termini. It will cost $25,000. 

The company which is the last and successful owner 
of the franchise is a strong one, composed of Wm. Fitz- 
gerald, president, Chicago; Chas. F. Grifiin, of Ham- 
mond, vice-president, ex-secretary of state of Indiana; S. 
F. Minzesheimer, secretary; Lazarus Silverman, Chicago, 
treasurer, and C. E. Loss, general manager. Mr. Loss 
has financed the company, obtained the franchises, and 
retains his interest in it by building the line. 



174 



MULTIPHASE CURRENTS FOR TRACTION 
WORK. 



ELECTRICAL development in the line of light 
and power distribution has gone through an 
evolution brought about by the necessities of the 
case. For distribution within a limited area direct cur- 
rents at low pressure were and are still the most economi- 
cal means. When the demand came for distribution over 
large areas the electrical engineer finally responded 
with the system of alternating currents .sent out at high 
pressure and "converted" to a lower pressure by trans- 
formers near the place of consumption. This was a great 
step in advance, as the use of high pressure greatly 
decreased the amount of copper necessary in the lines. 
The plain alternating current has not yet been commer- 
cially applied to small motors and for supplying the 
demand for power distribution at a distance the three- 
phase alternating current is coming into use at present. 
This current will admit of transformation from one pres- 
sure to another and is admirably suited to motor work, 
though as it requires three leads, is not so convenient for 
lighting as could be desired. However, the three-phase 
system has now gained a foothold and its use for trans- 
mitting power to a distance may be considered as assured 
for sometime to come. There are two reasons why the 
multiphase current has not come into use on electric rail- 
ways. In the first place there have been practical diffi- 
culties in the way of making three electrical connections 
with a moving car. In the second place the railway's 
now in use are so short that there has not been an 
excessive demand for an economical means of supplying 
power at a distance from the generating plant. We think, 
however, that the majority of electricians will agree with 
the ideas recenth' expressed b\- Professor F. B. B'adt to a 
representative of the Review. In his opinion the ten- 
dency of thought and invention among electrical engineers 
is toward the use of multiphase currents and transform- 
ers for supplying power to electric railways. Indeed 
with long distance lines this seems almost a necessity and 
it might be a great economy in shorter ones. Multiphase 
currents for railway work have not been tried, but their 
use is an implied necessity in nearl}' every scheme in- 
volving the transmission of the power from a distance. 
From the present outlook in the electrical field the multi- 
phase motor is a most promising candidate for future use 
and there are good reasons for thinking that electric rail- 
way work will follow the same lines of development as 
electric light and stationary power. 

As is well-known, Professor Badt has recently re- 
ceived patents on a multiphase railway system, and 
although he has worked out many details as to the possi- 
ble ways of making connection with the car, he does not 
claim that the system as patented will necessarily be 
a commercial success, but it is to be taken simply as a 
step in the line of future progress and as indicating 
"which way the wind blows." In regard to the sj'stem, 
he suggests a few points of interest, showing the advan- 
tage such a method would have if put in operation. The 



current is sent out from the station at high pressure, say 
at 5,000 volts. The amount of copper required would 
be then onl}' .j-i of that necessary on the 500 volt sys- 
tem. At intervals along the line are transformers, which 
reduce the pressure to any very low voltage desirable. At 
this low pressure the current is led to the conductor rails, 
three in number, which can be on the surface of the 
ground, as the low pressure is easily insulated again. 
These rails are in sections, shorter than the car length, 
and all sections are out of circuit except the one under the 
car. The patent includes several devices for cutting in 
the section under each car. The advantages of such a 
system would be, (i) no live conductors overhead or under 
foot, (2) transmission of power from a distance with little 
loss, (3) applicability of the current to all kinds of work — 
both light and power, and (4) the use of a commutatorless 
fire and water-proof motor. The advantage of this latter 
characteristic will be especially- appreciated by men that 
are in practical work at the present time. The patent 
also covers the two-phase alternating system which, 
although having the advantage of requiring only two 
leads, has as yet no practical motor. 

George Von Siemens has also taken out a patent 
workin<r toward the same end as Professor Badt. "So 
you will see," said the professor, "that the best talent of 
Europe is fighting along the same line. I have great 
hopes of the final issues. My patents may have no 
commercial importance. The ne.xt days' paper mav 
contain news of something further along the fine of the 
same idea, but I am sure that the electrical world is 
progressing towards the achievement of the ideal. Just 
when or how the ideal will be reached maj' not come 
for some years, but our thoughts and purposes are, per- 
haps, in advance of our skill." 

WANTS HIS SCALP. 



THE fascination which a blue coat and brass buttons 
has for the female heart is an old storj-. In Cin- 
cinnati it is said to be epidemic. Recently on a 
fasliionable line a pretty servant girl and a certain motor- 
man carried on a desperate and heart rending flirtation. 
Never did car 717 pass the house but as if automatically 
a curly head appeared from a lower window and a 
feather duster or a towel swung greeting to the hand- 
some possessor of badge 210. But alas! One day Mrs. 
Brown, who is neither young nor flirtatious but whose hair 
is curly, was standing accidentally at the window usually 
occupied by the chamber-lady. She was astonished at 
the actions of a motor man. She turned up her nose, 
but the reckless, nearsighted motor man deftlj- threw a 
kiss. It fell with a cold dull thud on the side of the 
house, for Mrs. Brown had disappeared. The next day 
Mr. Brown appeared at the street railway office. He 
was angry, oh very, and said with many swears that the 
motor man must be discharged. The next day he came 
with a new threat that if the offending electricit}' twister 
was not discharged that suit at law would be entered. 
An order is now promulgated that no conductor or motor- 
man shall flirt even under the most trying circumstances. 



175 



CAUGHT ON THE RUSH TRIP. 



American Street Railway Association. 

D. F. LONGSTREET, Pbesident, Denver, Col. 

DR. A. EVERETT, First Vice-Pbesident. Cleveland, O. 

JOEL HURT, Seoond Vice-President. Atlanta. Ga. 

W. WORTH BEAN, Thibd Vice-President, St. Josepli, Midi. 

WM. J. RICHARDSON, Seobetabv and Teeasubeb, Brooklj-n, N. Y. 

Executive Committee— The Pbesident, Vice-Presidents, and John G. 
Holmes, Pittsburg, Pa ; J. D. Cbimmins, New York City; Thos. Minary, Louis- 
ville, Kv.; Jas. R- t'HAPMAN, Grand Rapiils. Mich., and Henj. E. Charlton- 
Hamilton. Ont. 

Next meeting, Expoyition Bailding, Milwaukee, third Wednesday in October. 

Massachusetts Street Railway Association. 

President, Chables B. Pbatt, Salem; Vice-presidents, H. M. Whitney, Boston, 
Amos F. Breed, Lynn, Frank S. Stevens; Secretary and Treasurer, J H. Eaton, 
Lawrence. 

Meet* first Wednesday of each month 

Ohio State Tramway Association. 

President A. E. Lang, Toledo; Vice-preeident. W. J. Kelly, Columbus; Secretary 
and Treasurer, J. B. Hanna, Cleveland; Chairman Executive Committee, M\ A. 
Lynch, Canton, O. 

Meets at Cincinnati on the fourth Wednesday in September, 1893. 



The Street Railway Association of the State of 
New Jersey. 



President, John H. Bon»i, Hoboken; Vice-president, Thos. C. Bark. Newark, 
Secretary and Treasurer, Charles Y. Bamford, Trenton; Executive Committee, 
Officers and C. B Thlrston, Jersey City; H. Romaine, Paterson; 
RiNE, Jr., Trenton. 



, Lewis Per- 



The 



Street Railway Association of the State of 
New York. 

C. DENSMORE WVMAN, President, New York. 

D. B. HA8BR0UCK, Fiest Vioe-pbesident, New York. 
JAS. i. POWERS, Second Vice-president, Glen Falls. 

W. J. RICHARDSON, Secretary and Treasurer, Brooklyn. 

ExEODTTVE Committee.— D. F. Lewis, Brooklyn; John N. Beckley, Rochester, 

J. W. MoNam.\ba, Albany. 

Thu next meeting will be held at Rochester. September 19, 1893. 



Pennsylvania Street Railway Association. 

JOHN A. COYLE, President, Lancaster. 

JOHN G. HOLMES, Vice president, Pittsburg. 

H. R. RHODES, Second Vice-president, Williamsport. 

L. B. REIF8NEIDER, Secretary, Altoona. 

WM. H. LANIONS, Teeasuher, York. 

Next meeting, Harrisburg, September 6, 1893. 



Alabama. 

Mobile, Ala.— The council extends limit of new Mobile street railway 
company and grants electric rights under conditions. 



Arkansas. 

Little Rock, Ark.— The sheriff has released the street railway 
under bond. The Atlantic Trust Company has no cause for action 
unless interest is defaulted. 

California. 

Oakland, Cal.— Work has begun on the I2th street line, known as 
the Grossmeyer franchise. It is backed by F, M. Smith, the borax king. 



Oakland, Cal— A. A. Moore and W. F. Rudolph petition for street 
railway, electric or otherwise, along the county highway. 



Saratog.\, Cal.— C. W. Wooska and G. Henry, of .San Jose, propose 
a road from San Jose to Saratoga. Asked of local residents to give 
$50,000. Road ultimately to reach Los Gatos. 



Canada 

Berlin, Ont.— The Berlin & Waterloo Railway Company decides to 
put in electricity for railway purposes and supply light, heat and power. 



Kalso, B. C— Application is in the local legislature for tramway 
rights here 

Kingston, Ont.— The street railway committee has recommended 
that a 40-year franchise be granted the company on streets now occupied. 



Montreal, Can. — A. J. Corriveau, loca!, and W. S. Williams, of 
New York, hold several valuable franchises, which they will begin to 
build on early in the spring. 

Montreal, Can. — The Montreal Street Railway Company has been 
awarded the contract in St. Louis de Mile-End. Nevertheless A. J. 
Corriveau will proceed with the building of the road under previous 
contract and trust to a law suit. Construction of power house at once. 



St. Catherine's, Ont. — The St. Catherine's-Meniton & Thorwold 
Street Railwav desires proposals for ties, poles, rails, steam plant, over- 
head and electrical construction. 



Windsor, Ont. — The consolidation of the Boomer line and the Sand- 
wich, Windsor & Amherstburg line has been effected. W. Hendrie, G. 
Hendrie, John Davis, et al., are the members of the company. Large 
extensions to be made. 

Chicago. 

Chicago. — Organized: The Chicago, Niles & Norwood Rapid Tran- 
sit Company, Chicago; capital stock, $500,000 ; incorporators, F. A. Bing- 
ham, 112 Clark street, Robert Leeder and John P. Maes. Road to be 9 
miles long. ^ 

Chicago — The Evanston council grants the Evanston Si North Shore 
franchise, D. H. Londerbeck, president. Pullman will build the cars 
The Ogden street railway will soon make application for franchise, to be 
an extension of the Cicero & Proviso line. 



Chicago.— Alderman Kent has sent in an ordinance to enfranchise 
the Midland Rapid Transit Company. Jas. R. Keene, of New York, is 
at present financial head. 

Chicago.— The Elwell-Parker Electric Construction Company has 
organized with a capital of $500,000, by F. C. Phillips, Robt. L. Tatham. 
and Chas. R. Webster. Tatham and Webster are lawyers at 45 Met- 
ropolitan block. It is rumored that the corporation is a branch of the 
great English house of like name. 

Colorado. 

BowiK, Montague County, Col.— Head & Co. have been granted 
rights for street railway here. Company formed by Messrs. Head, Dry- 
den and Tidb.ill. Probablv a "go." 



Denver, Col.— The City Park Railway Company asks for cable; 
horse or electric rights on several outlying streets and avenues. 

Denver, Col.— The Arapahoe Railway Company has secured the 
right of w;iy and increased its capital to $250,000. 

Denver, Col.— Thos. A. Drake is chairman of committee to secure 
extensions of the Tramway Company into South Denver. Tramway 
companv wants $10,000 bonus and will probably get it. 



Denver, Col —The Twenty fifth avenue line will be built by the 
Tramway Company and operated by April i. 

Florence, Col.— The Florence Electric Light & Rapid Transit 
Company has been organized by J. A. McCandless, H, C. Topping, J. M. 
Hanks, J. F Collins, J. W. Work and J. M Turner, of Florence; J. D. 
Phillips and J. H. Gillen, of Rockvale ; R. S. Easton and George Wilson, 
of Coal Creek; William McNeil and A. P. Easton, of Williamsburg. 
Capital, $100,000. 

Pueblo, Col.— H. E. Chubbuck has been elected general manager of 
the street railway. 

Pueblo, Col— J. Parker Whitney, of Boston, has secured options on 
the street railway plant, the light, heat and power plant, and the gas 
plant; total selling price, $1,600,000 

Connecticut. 

New Haven, Conn.— The Fairhaven & Westville Horse Railway 
will probably pass into the hands of a local syndicate and be equipped 
with electricity before spring. 



lie. 



Delaware. 

Wilmington, Del. — Five hundred employes of Edge Moor Bridge 
Works asks the Wilmington City to cx'end to tiiat factory. 



Wilmington, Del. — Notice has been given in the legislature at 
Dover that the Chester & Wilmington Electric Railway will incorpor- 
ate. Representative Day introduces the bill. The road runs to the 
State line near Claymont and connects with the Chester system. 



Georgia. 

Atlanta, Ga. — G. H. Mountain, of the Atlantic Traction Company, 
is at the head of a new company which will build an electric railway on 
several streets. The Traction Company will extend its lines. 



Augusta, Ga.— Six mile electric line is contemplated to Murrav Hill . 
Malone Wheeless, Washington, D. C, president; Peter F. McAnnally, 
secretary; Eugene J. O'Conor, treasurer, of this city. Iron is said to be 
already purchased. 



Idaho. 

PocATELLO, Idaho. — A. A. Courlier, L. S. Keller, et al., 
franchise and are to begin work before May i. 



have their 



Illinois. 

Centralia, III — S. N. Pierce. V. L. Joy and O. V. Parkinson are 
interested in the Odin-Centralia line with L. Summerville, et al., of 
Odin. 

Centralia, III — Incorporated: The Marion County Rapid Transit 
Company, capital stock, $75,000, to build and operate an electric railway 
and to furnish light, heat and power; incorporators, S. N. Pierce, O. V. 
Parkinson, C. B. Ellis, L. Sonnerville, John F. Sugg, S, J. Smith and J. 
D. Telford. 

Centralia, III. — The Central City line is to be operated by elec- 
tricity and extended via Sandoval and Odin to Salem. 



Freeport, III.— Chas. D. Haines, of Kinderhook, N. Y., says that 
Haines Brothers will install an electric railway system if Freeport will 
take $20,000 in stock. The General Electric system will be used. J. B. 
Taylor, of the car line, thinks the matter will be consummated success- 
fully. The provisional contract has been signed. 



Nashville, III.— Nashville Mineral Springs Company extend char- 
ter to authorize building of street railways and increases capital stock t 
$'5.°oo- 

Peoria, III.— Incorporated ; The South Peoria Street Railway Com 
pany; stock, $100,000; electricity, horse or dummy. Incorporators, 
Chas. A. North, I. M Hornbacker, and John W. Culbertson. 



Peoria, III. — F. W. Home, of the General Electric, is superintend- 
ing the survey of the electric line to Pekin. 



Peoria, III. — The Central railway has closed a $50,000 contract with 
the General Electric. 

PoNTiAC, III.— The reorganized Pontiac Street Railway Company 
is capitalized at $100,000, by J. E. Morrow, D. M. Lyon, R. M. John and 
C. C. Strawn. 



RocKFORD, III. — It is reported that the street railway is about to 
increase its stock and rebuild parts of the line. The report is regarded 
as trustworthy. 



Rock Island, III.— It is proposed to extend the Red Line and 
lengthen five switches a quarter of a mile each. 



Indiana. 



Ander.son, Ind.— Anderson and Alexandria will be connected by an 
electric line. A. C. Carver and Lant Runyon are right-of-way agents. 
Russell Harrison & Co. are backing the scheme. 

Crawfordsville, Ind.— Powell & Hatch, of the Kankakee, III, 
Street Railway Construction Company, offer to put electric light and 
railway plant .»or $60,000. Not accepted as yet, but the parties will 
return again. 



MuNCiE, Ind. — The Muncie Street Railway has been sold to Russell 
B. Harrison, through Walker Brothers & Co., of 35 Broadway, N. Y. 



New Haven, Ind.— W. S. O'Rourke and J. W. Hayden, of Ft. 
Wayne, with C. W. Cook, A. M. Hartzell, M. Hellswarth, et al., of this 
place, are trying to secure stock and interest capital in a road to connect 
Ft. Wayne with this place. Incorporation will be made April i. Line 
estimated to cost $225,000 

Winchester, Ind.— L H. Prentice, Richmond, Ind., W. D. Riddell, 
Xenia, Ohio., and W. C. Hartwell, C. E. of Covington, Ky., are looking 
up route for electric from here to Munice. 



Iowa. 

Dubuque, Ia — Allen & Swiney lines sold to tlie Old Colony Trust 
Company for $225,000 to satisfy first mortgage. Probably consolidate 
with Rhomberg now. 

Ida Grove, Ia.— F. A. Lusk, Wm. Bendse, J. W. Reed, J. T. 
Hallam, John Weiser, et. al,, of this place, are associated to build an 
electric light and power plant 



Sioux City, Ia. — The new combine, it is said, will put electricity on 
the L road. 



Kansas. 

Atchison, Kan.— President Challiss says that New York capitalists 
have thirty day's operation on the street railway. 



Kansas City, Kan. — William J. Buckley, of Ft. Wayne Electric 
Light Company, has introduced ordinance granting him extensive fran- 
chises. The city attorney has been ordered to begin proceeding for 
annulling the West Side franchises. 



Kansas City,-Kas. — The West Side Street Railway Company ceases 
operations March i. President W. N. Coler, Jr., of New York, asks for 
a receiver^ and it may be abandoned unless sold. Will sell cheap. 
Taps desirable territory ; eight miles, electric. 



Leavenworth, Kan. — The franchise troubles are now adjusted by 
compromise. Tlie new company elected Henry L Turner, of Chicago, 
F. G. Jones, of Burlington, la , director. Electric power will be intro- 
duced and compressed air I'etired. 



Wichita, Kas. — -The electric light and railway companies have con- 
solidated ; officers : president, C. E. Dustin, Hartford, Conn.; secretary 
and manager, J. W. O'Neil, of Wichita. 



Kentucky. 

Louis\'iLLE, Ky. — The Paikland, Jefferson county, trustees granted 
a franchise to T. H. Hayes, R. P. Gregory, M. McDonald, et al.; to build 
an electric from Catalpa and Dumesnil streets fifteen miles to West 
Point. 

Maryland. 

Baltimore, Md. — Reor»anized: The Baltimore, Catonville & Elli- 
cott Mills Passenger Railway Company, by Geo. C. Jenkins, Michael 
Jenkins, Nelson Perin, J. K. Cowan, J. D. Cross, Geo. D. Pennyman 
and W. P. Harvey ; capital stock, $200,000. 



Massachusetts. 

Danvers, Mass. — The incorporators of the Haverhill-Danvers Elec- 
tric are Warren W. Potter, Hamilton L. Perkins, William H. Floyd, 
Charles E. Wood, Charles H. Davis, Sherman Nelson, Joseph B. Poor, 
M. B. Bailey and W. B. Brewster. 



New Bedford, Mass.— W. M. Trafford, R. A. Soule, F. O. Dodge, 
S. C, Hathaway and E. S. Lewis are associated as the Fall River tS; New 
Bedford Street Railway Company. The company applies for charter. 



Northampton, Mass. — John C. Hammond, of the Northampton 
street railway, wishes to extend into other towns of Hampshire county. 
J. A. Sullivan, a director, says that with twenty miles of road thousands 
of people would be given rapid transit. All the outlying villages are 
manufacturing with no communication except by team. 



177 



Reading, Mass. — C. F. Woodward, of the Wakefield & Stoneham 
Electric Railway Company, has good prospects of extending the road to 
this town. 

Stoneham, Mass — The Melrose, Maiden & Stoneham street railway 
is making a gallant fight for rights and charter. F. K. Sweetser, of 
Stoneham, principal director. 

Taunton, Mass. — All the directors of the Street Railway Company 
have resigned, John N. Beckley, of Rochester, was elected president. 
S. M. Thomas, Geo. A. Washburn, and Henry M. Lovering are com- 
mittee on extensions and changes. 



Worcester, Mass. — The recently organized Blackstone Valley Rail- 
way Company is the last link in the great Worcester combine, called the 
state Central Street Railway Company. Hon. Samuel Winslow and T. 
M. Rogers, ot" Worcester; L. L. Whitney and C. D. Morse, Millbury ; A. 
A. Pond, Boston, et al. are the chief movers. 



Michi£:an. 



Big Rapids, Mich. — Campbell &. Flvnn, of this place, are securing 
right of way between Royal Royal Oak and Big Beaver for an electric. 



Detroit, Mich. — Fred H. Cozzjns, president of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway Company, says that arrangements are perfected for 
seven miles of line to the county limits and also possess franchises on 
Ft. Wayne street. Several extensions are planned and loops proposed. 
Chas. W. Walton, secretary. 

Flint, Mich. — ^Judge Cochran, of Toledo, is canvassing the street 
railway question here. VV. F. Davidson, of Port Huron, representing 
the General Electric Company, is working in conjunction with the 
judge. 

Grand Ratids, Mtch. — Incorporated: The Michigan Electric Com- 
pany, by John E. More, E. F. Sweet, A. C. Sekell, of this city; Charles 
J. Church, of Greenville, and Dr. O. C. Mc Daniel and Charles A 
Church, of Lowell; capital, $60,000; to devclope water power at Lowell 
for light and power. Will begin soon lo build. 



Minnesota. 

St. Paul, Minn ---The St. Paul City Railway Company propose to 
the city council: i. To work double track line to Lake Como 2. 
Change East Seventh street to electric. 3. Use open cars during 
summer. 4. Transfer. 5. Put safety device on Selby Hill. 6. Boule- 
vard University avenue and lay curb 7. Extend Merriam Park exten- 
sion. 



Missouri. 

St. Louis, Mo.— The Manchester Road Electric, under the new name 
of the St. Louis, Kirkwood & Meremec River Railroad Company, has 
filed its papers. Length of the road is 11 miles. The directors of the 
company are Thomas Harvard, James Daniels, Thomas M. Gallaher and 
Alex B. Shaw, of St. Louis, and Matthew Orton, of Chicago. Fran- 
chise granted. 

Carthage, Mo. — The original Rapid Transit Company will meet 
Feb. 10 to consider turning over charter and right of way to new com- 
pany. Willard E. Winner, principal, from the East, will be here. 



New Hampshire. 

Manchester, N. H. — Senator Higgins is the father of a bill to incor- 
porate the Manchester Street Railway Company. 



New Jersey. 



Asbury Park, N. J. — The Asbury Park & Belmar will get its fran- 
chise from the Neptune township committee. It is reported that the 
Patton motor is to be investigated for use. 



MiLLViLLK, N'. J. — Camden capitalists, W. S. Scull, G. Genge Brown 
and F. R. Fithian, of Bridgelon, Frank Allen, of Millville, et al., organ- 
ized at $20,000, wish to build .electric two miles long in Millville and 
extend ten miles to Bridgeton. 



Newark, N. J. — As predicted by the Dailv the control of the elec- 
tric light interests will probably go to the Philadeljihia syndicate owning 
the street railwavs. 



Newark, N.J. — The United Traction A: Electric Company has filed 
articles of corporation by Henry W. Calhoun, of New York, Adrian H. 
Larkin, of Nutley, N. J , and Thorwold Stallknecht, of Orange. Princi- 
pal office to be in Jersey City with branches elsewhere. Little known 
about it. No connection with New Jersey Traction Company. 



Nebraska. 

Grand Island, Neb. — Street car barn burned. 
S. Lamon, superintendent. 



Ten cais lost. W. 



New York. 

Binghampton, N. Y. — Court Street & East End Railway Company 
will change from horse to electricity. 



Buffalo, N. Y. — A new road will be built in the northern part of 
tlie cit>' from the terminus of the Buffalo Street Railway tracKs. This is 
the beginning of a new, large system and moneyed men, so far unknown, 
are back of it. 



MiDDLETOWN, N. Y. — Chartered: The Middletown Street Railway 
^: Power Company, at $50,000, by C. Macardell, W. F. O'Niel, W. D. 
Stratton, et. al., of Middletown. Population, 12,000. 



Newburg, N. Y.— The Ncwburg, New Windsor & Balniville Street 
Railway Company is incorporated by B. B. Odell, Jr., J. M. Dickey, W. 
H. Weston, H. S. Ramsdell, C. T. Goodrich, W. T. Hilton, L. W. Y 
McCroskery, W. H. Dickey, Howard Thornton, et al., at $100000. 
Electricity will be used and operations will begin this spring. 



New York City. — ^J. A. McCall, president New York Life Insur- 
ance Company ; Gen. Lewis Fitzgerald, of the Merchantile Trust Com 
pany, and Superintendent F. K. Hain, of the Elevated, are incorporated 
to build, buy and operate street railways; capital, $5,500. President 
McCall says New Jersey will be the scene of their operations, owning 
the Paterson road and two horse lines. The company is strongly organ- 
ized and will be big operators. 



New York City. — The Third Avenue Street Railway Companv 
petitions for a nine-mile extension. The Union Railway Company sub- 
mits agreement to conditions imposed by city council for lines in the 
annexed district. 

NiAciARA Falls, N. Y. — The Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge & 
Railway Company will vote on March 1 to increase stock from $250,000 
to $750,000. The line is to be extended and improved to the extent of 
the increase. President Gaskill will increase the plant 125-horse-power. 



Poughkeepsie, N. Y. — H. J. Hinckley, of this place, bought the citv 
railway franchises and will begin to change to electric immediatelv. 



Rochester, N. Y. — Glen Haven Railroad bought for $( by holders 
of second mortgage. John D. Lynn, Edward W. Mauer, F. S. Minges 
E. W. Huntington, James Palmer, Jr., Frank P. Crouch, Herman Behn, 
George Arnoldt, Leo A. Schlitzer, Thomas Rhodes, Edward J. Esler, 
Frank Ritter, Nicholas Brayer, George M. Glasser will re incorporate 
the line. 

Rochester, N. Y. — The capitalists buying the Rochester & Glen 
Haven road met with E. W, Maurer, organized and decided to equip 
with electricity, new rolling stock and standard gauge. 



Rochester, N. Y. — The Rochester syndicate, John N. Beckley, A. 
G. Yates, E. M Upton, et al., has bought the Taunton, Mass., lines with 
15 miles of track. Electricity immediately to be put in. 



Schenectady, N. Y. — The Schenectady Street Railway Company 
asks for rights to supply light, huat and power to the city. Probably be 
granted. 

Syracuse, N. Y. — W. W. Hazard, president; W. R. Kimball, Cincin- 
nati, and L. Flick, Wilkesbarre, Pa., with others of the syndicate, will 
meet here February 25. 

Troy, N. Y. — The city railway accepts franchises given by citv. |. 
J. Hagen, secretary. 

North Dakota. 

Dkvil's Lake, N. P. — Prominent citizens organize at $50,000 to put 
in light and lailway plant; railway to rim to Chautauqua grounds. 



178 



Nova Scotia. 

Halifax, N. S.— The Old Colony Trust Company, of Boston, Mass., 
acquired the Nova Scotia Power Company— plant and all. The new 
people will put in an electric railway. 

Ohio. 

Bridgeport, O.— Parties said to represent the Westinghouse have 
bought the Bellaire horse line to electrify ; freight and passenger and to 
extend to this place and ^Etnaville. 

Canton, O.— The Canton-Massilloii road has increased its stock from 
$200,000 to $300,000. 

Caledonia, O —John Hunter says that Morrow, Marion and Knox 
counties want an electric road and can support it. 



Cleveland, O.— G. O. Ford, Geo lloyt, L. Allen, et al , ask to run 
a double track street railway on Willson avenue from Woodland to the 
lake. Ford-Washbi rn storage batteries to be used. The East Cleveland 
asks to double track parts of their line. 



Cleveland, O.— W. C. Scofield and G. F. .Scofield want to run a 
double track street railway to Gordon Park. 

Cleveland, O. — It is understood tliat the consolidation of the East 
Cleveland and the Broadway will be announced shortly. E. C. enters at 
$5,600,000 and the Broadway at .$2,400,000. 

Cleveland, O. — A. L. Johnson applies for right to build the much 
needed line to Gordon Park. Mr. Johnson is requested by the board of 
control to secure the right of way. 



Cleveland, O.— The Cleveland City Cable has gained its trolley 
rights on St. Clair street over the mayor's veto. 

Cleveland, O — H. A. Blood, J. VV. Wardwell, H. R. Moore incor- 
porate the Cleveland Transfer Railway Company; road four miles long; 
capital, $1,000; steam or other power. 

Cincinnati, O.— John and Chas. Kilgour, who have acquired the 
stock of the Mt. Lookout Dummy System, will change it to electricity 
this summer. The Cincinnati Street Railway Company will make 
many extensions. 

Columbus, O— The Westerville extension lias passed the council. 

CoLUMKUS, O.— Crosstown Street Railway Company organized by 
Cotton H. Allen, Wm. F. Burdell, W. D. Park, F. W. Prentiss and N 
O. Sims at $i,ooo,ooo. Fred Prentiss, of the Clinton National Bank, 
says it is a "go " Two thousand dollars incorporation fees paid. Con- 
sidered as a branch of the Consolidated; denied by that corporation, 
which says it will work in unison. 



CoNNEAUT, O.— E. M. Comstock is trying to get franchise for street 
railway on several 'Streets for Blair, Comstock & Co. Horse or electric. 
Conneaut has 4,000 people. 

Dayton, O — The Dayton-Springfield-Cincinnati electric is said to be 
a solid enterprise, with Ex-Governor Foraker, Gen. A. Hickenlooper, 
Col. L. C. Wier, W. A. Goodman and S. M. Felton at the head. 



Dayton, O.— Incorporated at $10,000; the Dayton, Germantown & 
Middletown Electric Railway. Incorporators, A. E. Boone, Chas. L. 
Du.iham, F. B. Lilly, J. B. Yates and M. T. McGregor. 



FiNDLAY, O. — The proposed e\tension of the Findlay street railway 
to Fostoria and other points employs Wm. Norris as right-of-way agent 



Liverpool, O. — The Liverpool & Wellsville line will extend iS miles 
to New Lisbon and then 10 miles to Salem. 



Martin's Ferry, O. — Jolly Bros, of Pittsburg, A. R. Lyde, Beaver 
Falls, Pa., and associates will build an interurban line in this section to 
Bellaire. Mining region. 

NoRWALK, O. — Norwalk Liglit i<i: Power Company reorganizes at 
$i5,ooo with directors W. R. Huntington, of Cleveland, D. W. Vail, 
A. L. Osborn, Charles Sulir and Fred Colson. Increased power plant 
wanted. 



NiLES, O. — The Mineral Ridge & Niles Company looses one car in a 
car barn fire; insured. 

Toledo, O. — Park^commisjioners have agreed to allow all necessary 
switching and side track facilities for park terminals, and both the Con- 
solidated and the Robinson will extend their lines to Ottawa Park. 



Toledo, O. — A. L. Backu, confesses that Eastern and local capital 
seeks to consolidate electric interests here. 



Toledo, O. — David Robison, Jr. & Sons have been granted ordi- 
nance on several streets. 



WoosTER, O. — B. M. Barr, of the Central Electric Company, has 
given bond of $5,000 for the construction of the electric here. 



Oregon. 

Eugene, Ore. — Petition in circulation asking the county court to 
grant electric road rights across steel bridge at Springfield. This means 
the furtherance of the Eugene-Springfield road. 



Portland, Ore. — ^J. B Meham.a, of Sunnyside, proposes to put an 
elevated car line on Taylor street. The single track railway, an inven- 
tion of Mehama, is to be used. 



Portland, Ore — Portland Consolidated asks franchises on several 
streets. Ordinance passed. Sale of the East Side Electric Light plant 
to the Portland General Electric authorized by council. 



Portland, Ore. — The San Francisco b3ndholders of the Portland 
Cable have been investigating the road through Prentiss Smith, of Sac- 
ramento, and F. L. Brown, of the Washburn-Moen Company, of San 
Francisco, with a view of foreclosing the mortgages and reorganizing 
the company. 

Pennsylvania. 

Ashland, Pa — W. F. Harrity and Dallas Sanders, of Philadelphia, 
buy the Schuylkill Traction Company. 



Bridgeport, Pa. — Chartered: The Montgomery County Passenger 
Railway Company. Capital $50,000. Incorporators, Cornelius Gallagher 
New York; Edward S. Perot, Yonkers;John W. Dettera, Norristown ; 
James A Grath and Phillip J. Crimen, Conshohocken. 



Drifton, Pa. — Chartered: The Union Electric Street Railway Com-. 
pany, of Drifton, Freeland and Lehigh. The directorate is Harry E. 
Sweeney, of Drifton, president; Horace E. Hand, Fred W. Bleckley, W. 
H. Jessup, Jr., and E. D. Wightnian, Scranton. 



Easton, Pa. — It is now known that Uie Lehigh Valley Traction Com- 
pany is headed by A. L. Johnson, of Cleveland, J. K. and Howard Page, 
of New York, Charles H. Edwards, Allentown, Pa., et. al. Road to 
begin soon to construct through a number of towns in the valley. The 
plans seems to be a general network of several recently organized lines. 
Mayor Grace, of New York, and J. F. Gwinner, of Easton, president 
and treasurer of another line which will join. The latter road is known 
as the Allentown & Philadelphia. C. J. Erdman, Allentown, and 
George Ross, Doylestown, are solicitors. 



East Monongehela City, Pa — Incorporated: The Monongehela 
City Street Railway Company, capital $15,000; to build two and one- 
half miles electric. Directors: Harry Higenbotham, Charles Hinds, W . 
K. Law and D. A. Cameron, of Pittsburgh. 



Erie, Pa. — The Erie Motor will double track and make extensions. 



Harrisburg, Pa. — Incorporated: I'he Citizens 'Railway Company, 
of Chester county, by W. P. Snyder, T. L. Eyre, VV. G. Pennypacker 
and Jos. H. Baldwin, at $80,000. 



Hummelstown, Pa. — E. M. Hoffer, of this place, has the contract for 
the building of the Gettysburg electric line. It is understood that the 
Philadelphia & Reading R. R. is an active promoter of the scheme. 



Lewisuurg, Pa — The Union coimty road, from here to Mifllintown, 
is an assured success. Silas Patterson, of Mifflintown, H. E. Gatelins 
and B. K. Focht, of Lewisburg, and E. W. Tool, of Freeburg, are tha 
directors; stock, $100,000. Building will begin in the spring. 



175) 



McKkesport, Pa. — The Citizen's Company will extend to Port View 
bridge. The electric light Company furnishes power until the power 
house is completed. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — The Frankfort & Southwark Passenger Rail- 
way has practically gained control of the Second and Third streets sys- 
tems. The consolidated system will have seventy-nine miles of track. 
Jermiah J. Sullivan is president of the F. & S. 



Philadelphia, Pa. — Inter-State Traction Company to do business in 
Gettysburg and Philadelphia, is incorporated; capital, f6o,ooo, by Pat- 
ricius McManus, Jas. B. Reilley, I. T. Reiter, C. Aiken Jones, H. L. 
Chandler, Alex Sims, of Philadelphia, and E. H. Chandler and Chas. F. 
French, of Kansas City. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Chartered: The Powelton Avenue Sc Thirty - 
fourth Street Passenger Railway, organized at $20,000; G. A. Aldride, 
Audubon, N. J , president. 

Philadelphia, Pa.— Federal Street Passenger Railway; capital, 
$20,000. Organized: J. A. Rigg, president; Thomas B. Foot, Nelson 
Satler, et al., incorporators. ■ 

Philadelphia, Pa. — The Philadelphia & Delaware County Electric 
has organized. President, James S. Austin; secretary and treasurer, E. 
M. Sayen. These, togetiier with Congressman Joiin B. Robinson, of 
Media; W. I. Shaffer, of Chester; Dr. J. W. Phillips, of Primos; Samuel 
L. Kent, of Cliffton Heights, and Edward V. Kane, of Lansdowne, are 
directors. The line is to be five miles long. 

Pittsburg, Pa. — Geo. B. Hill says that the Pittsburg, Allegheny & 
Manchester will buy fifteen summer cars. 



Pittsburg, Pa — Organized: The Sewickley Valley Passenger Rail- 
way Company, at $100,000, by F. J. Tener, of Osborne; W. B. Rommel, 
Pittsburg. 

PiiOKNixsviLLE, Pa. — Phoei 1 ixriile Electric Street Railway Com- 
pany, from here to Harveyville, capital, f6o,ooo. President, Francis 
Fleming; directors, C. K. Perot, C. P. Perot, W. C. Hannis, Philadel- 
phia, R. W. Davis, Lower Merion. 



Scranton, Pa. — The Northumberland, Bloomsburg & Scranton 
Street Railway Company will aim to connect 39 Pennsylvania towns in 
the route named. S. R. Coyle, of Shennadoah, is president, but rumor 
says the Philadelphia syndicate is behind the deal. 



Scranton, Pa.— Organized: Scranton & Carbondale Traction Com- 
pany, $10,000, by Alfred N. Chandler, Philadelphia; William W. May- 
field, J. W. Noles, S. D. Pettit and H. H. Sivelly. 



Scranton, Pa. — Chas. Smith, of Wilmington, Del., is to be Superin- 
tendent of the Traction Company; Vice W. S. Mears resigned. 



West Chester, Pa. — The new street railway elects T. Pennypacker 
of Marshalton, president. Line to be seven miles long. 



Rhode Island. 

Woonsocket, R. I. — A 20-year franchise has been granted the Woon- 
socket Street Railway Company, Extensions will be made into Massa- 
chusetts. 

Providence, R. I. — It is reported tliat the Metropolitan Traction 
Company, of New York, has bought the controlling interest in the 
Union City Company, which has trolley rights. 



Tennessee. 

MttMPHis, Tknn. — The East End Dummy Line will probably be 
absorbed by the Citizens' Railway and made an electric. Manager 
Bunch is here from the East. 

Texas. 

Dallas, Tex. — Chartered: The Queen City Railway Company, of 
Dallas, to procure franchises, construct, equip, buy, etc., street railways in 
Texas, especially in Dallas. Capital stock, $40,000; directors, A. W. 
Childress, J. S. Armstrong, of Dallas, and B. E. Sunny and C. L. 
Wakefield. 



Utah. 

Provo, Utah. — C. E. Luse, S. R. Thurman and V. L. Halliday ask 
for a franchise, as the old franchise of the U. N. & C. Railway has been 
annulled. 



Salt Lake City, Utah. — Nearly half a million is to be expended 
by the city railway in betterments. A. W. McCune has sold $1,500,000 
of bonds in New York. New rolling stock will be ordered soon and 
more electrical equipment is asked for. 



Vermont. 



Bennington, Vt. — Galen Moses and F. H. Twitchell, of Bath, Me , 
will form company under New York law and build an electric to 
Hoosick Falls and other near-by places. 



Virginia. 

Richmond, Va — W. H. Palmer, T..W. Pemberton, T. M. R. Talcott 
are granted right to build electric street railway from Manchester to 
Petersburg. 

Richmond, Va. — The Richmond & Manchester's two lines have 
passed into the hands of the Richmond Railway & Electric Company. 
Consideration f 400,000, in 5 per cent gold bonds. 



West Virginia. 

Wellsburg, W. Va. — Prominent local capitalists, Sam George, 
Mayor McCleary and ex-Sheriff Curtis will build a street railway to con- 
nect several small towns, whose present communication is by hacks. 



Elkins, W. Va. — Davis, Elkins & Keren's Electric Light Company 
has been organized to light railroad shops and town. 



Wellsburg, W. Va. — Sam George and others here form company at 
$35,000 to build road to Lazearville; total population about 4,000. 



Washington. 



Seattle, Wash. — Franchise extended tor the Grant street line of the 
Ranier Electric & Power Companv. 



Wisconsin. 

Milwaukee, Wis — Capt. Fred Pabst has an elevated railway scheme 
on foot for his brewery and vicinity. To cost $350,000 and use dummies 



Milwaukee, Wis. — The Standard Car Company, incorporated by F. 
N. Merrill, Ezra Dedrick, and N. Merrill, will put a noiseless, smokeless 
steam motor on the market. 



Milwaukee, Wis. — A. B. Myers, Richard Thomas and H.J. West 
incorporate Milwaukee West End Company at $2,500,000, to quarry, 
make brick and build street railwa}' line. 



Wausau, Wis. — B. E Jones, J. D. Ross, W. Alexander and H. Dun- 
field have been granted street railway franchise here, to begin work June 
I and finish in 18 months; population lo.oao. 



Winter Resorts of the South. 

Jacksonville and Tampa, Fla., and other South Atlantic and Gulf 
Coast resorts can be reached with but one change of cars from Chicago, 
and that at Louisuille or Cincinnati, where the Monon makes close con- 
nection with the L, & N. and Q. & C. Vestibule trains, running through 
to Florida. 

The Monon's day trains are now all equipped with beautiful new Par- 
lor and ining Cars, while its night trains are made up of Smoking 
Cacs, Day Coaches, and Pullman and Compartment Sleepers, lighted by 
electricity from headlight to hindermost sleeper. 

The Monon has gradually fought its way to the front, making extens- 
ive improvements in its road-bed and service, until to-day it is the best 
equipped line from Chicago to the South, ofiering its patrons facilities 
and accommodations second to none in the world, and at rates lower than 
ever before. 



180 



^ 1 u cl ^ l ti/ (l^^ ^S£.N rui » ^ 



LARGE HIGH SPEED TANDEM COMPOUND 
ENGINE. 



IN the engine shown in our engraving the Ball Engine 
Company believe they have a winning competitor of 
the slow speed Corliss running, at 60 revolutions per 
minute and doing railway work. The engine in question 
is a 400-horse-power tandem compound, and is intended 
to run at about 210 revolutions per minute, with a piston 
speed of 600 to 700 feet and a steam pressure of 100 to 
115 pounds. By having the rotar\- speed high the dynamo 
and engine pullers are made nearer the same size and a 
larger belt contact on the pulley faces made possible. 
Great care has been taken to balance the parts and the 
long experience of the builders in making smaller engines 
of similar design has helped them greatly in this work. 
The high pressure valve is worked from the governor; 



The two ninety-six inch flj- wheels running at the high 
speed they do are equivalent to twice their weight made 
into a twenty foot fly wheel running at 60 revolutions per 
minute. These engines have been in use in a number of 
places over the country for a year past and have given 
the best of satisfaction. 



THE BEST MEN KNOW IT. 



A DELEGATION of the best business men in Mil- 
waukee, composed of Patrick Cudahv, C. M. Cot- 
trill, C. C. Rogers, T. L. Kelly and B. B. Hop- 
kins, have made an inspection of the Villard lines at Mil- 
waukee and make a bold and manly report on affairs, to 
the effect that it will be detrimental to the city's interests 
to adopt any harsh or restrictive legislation. This report 
will be formallv delivered to the council at its next meet- 




BALL HIGH SPEED TANDEM ENGINE. 



and the low pressure by a direct connected eccentric on 
the other end of the shaft. This latter eccentric is intended 
to be adjusted after the engine has been run and the best 
position is ascertained by actual conditions. The makers 
consider the practice of putting the low pressure cylinder 
behind the high pressure, on account of the difficulties in 
the way of getting the valve motion to the high pressure 
cj'linder, as analagous to putting the small piers in a bridge 
far out in the river and the large ones near the shore. 
The load m a compound engine is taken by the high pres- 
sure cylinder when hght, and distributed between the low 
and high when heavy. These being the conditions, it is 
claimed that the low pressure cylinder should be put first, 
thereby affording a better supported and more rigid con- 
struction. The engine shown in the engraving has 18 
inches low pressure and 30-inch high pressure cyhnders, 
with 18 inch stroke. The stroke is purposely made short 
to give a higher rotation. 



ing, when the committee will appear, urging fair treat- 
ment of the corporation. This is only one case among a 
hundred of the best business men, knowing the exigen- 
cies of business relations, interests and risks; appreciating 
a street railway. If j-ou want to find a real genuine 
kicker don't go to a business man but talk it over with 
some sandbagging legislator, some ward-heeler, some fel- 
low that hasn't much more than his nickel, or a sensa- 
tional newspaper. There you'll find your genuine 
kicker. 

A NEW use for electric cars has been discovered at 
Evansville, bj- a teamster, whose paraphanalia stuck in 
the Indiana mud and immediately across the tracks of the 
street railway. To remove the obstruction a motor 
man gently ran his car against the wagon, gradually- 
increasing the power until team, wagon and teamster 
were pressed onto hard ground. 



181 



CHICAGO CABLES REPORT. 



THE reports for the past year, the plans and offi- 
cers for the coming twelvemonth, and the annual 
meeting routine have been disposed of to the fol- 
lowing effect b)' the different Chicago street railway lines. 

THE CHICAGO CITY RAILWAY 

showed a most encouraging balance sheet for the year 
1892, with receipts aggregating $4,400,943 and cost of 
operating $2,309,431, giving gross profits of $1,591,- 
511, less dividends, $840,000, interest $230,873, less 
depreciation $29,500 giving a balance of $491,137. The 
total number of passengers carried was 88,018,861. 

To the rolling stock 130 box and 150 open cars have 
been added giving a total present equipment of 1,7 39 
cars. Only 36 horses have been added giving 2,611 
on hand. The cable mileage has been increased by .5 
on the Michigan avenue loop, 2 miles on Forty-seventh 
street, 1.75 on Sixty-first, 4 on Thirty-fifth, loops on 
Stony Island and Sixty -third, .75 and .30 on Thirty- 
fifth, making a total of 9.3. Paving was laid to the 
amount of 37,056 square yards of granite, and 27,058 
square yards of wood block. 

There were laid 16.25 miles single track for the elec- 
tric lines, equipped with poles and cross wires. The 
power plant at Wabash and Fifty-second is now one- 
third complete and the line will be in running order by 
May I. The directors for the ensuing year are as fol- 
lows: L. Z. Leiter, Jas. C. King, E. M. Phelps, D. 
C. Pearson, S. W. Allerton, W. B. Walker, Geo. H. 
Wheeler, with no change in the officers. 

WEST CHICAGO STREET RAILROAD COMPANY. 

At the meeting since our last issue the annual report 
of the West Chicago states that the receipts of the com- 
pany for 1892 were $4,620,225.30, with operating 
expenses of $2,687,310, the earning being $1,932,914. 
The leased roads rental equalled $490,500, coupon inter- 
est $253,496 and interest taxes $151,078, leaving $1,037,- 
839.25 applicable to dividends, from which $725,000 were 
paid out in dividends, leaving a balance to the surplus fund 
of $312,839.25. 

There were carried 94,518,474 passengers during 
the year, and 151 box and So open and one grip car 
added to the equipment, making a total equipment of 
1,485 at the year's end. One hundred and twelve horses 
were added, giving 4,025 animals on hand. The year's 
construction work includes a new power house and six- 
story office building at Blue Island avenue and Tweflth 
street, a new power house at Van Buren and Jefferson 
streets, a new car house and horse barn at Odgen 
avenue and Twenty-second street, new machinery doub- 
ling the capacity of the Washington street plant, new 
cable loop on Franklin, Van Buren, Dearborn and Adams 
streets, with new tracks on Ashland avenue and Paulina 
street from Milwaukee avenue to Twenty-second street, 
on Western avenue, on Kedzie avenue, on Ogden avenue, 
on Chicago avenue, on Grand avenue, on Crawford 
avenue, on Colorado avenue, on Milwaukee avenue, and 



on Lake, Eighteenth and Fourteenth streets, making a 
total of 185 miles of track controlled by the West 
Chicago Company. 

The large construction work and new loop facilities 
give grand promise for future traffic in districts on the 
great west side which have not yet been afforded rapid 
transit facilities. 

THE NORTH CHICAGO COMPANY 

gathered in $2,521,511 from passengers during 1892, 
and added $89,748 to this sum from rentals and advertis- 
ing, making a total earnings of $1,277,207. The first 
charges were: Rental, $263,154; interest, $183,683; in- 
surance, taxes, etc., $77,822, making a total of $524,660, 
and leaving a credit to the income account of $752,546, 
with $629,864 from 1892, making a total of $1,382,411, 
from which $575,000 was paid in 11 per cent dividends, 
leaving $807,411 to the good of 1893, from which liabili- 
ties not heretofore charged out, amounting to $79,001.96, 
eave a balance credited to income of $728,409. With 
this magnificent showing it may be noted that 50,419,457 
passengers were carried, with a total of 8,547,791 miles 
traveled. The betterments included the herculean task of 
relaying Clark street with Johnson girder, and car barns 
at Center street, Lill avenue, Limits Station and La Salle 
avenue. 



SACRAMENTO'S SYSTEM. 



THE recent changes of managements of various 
street railway lines have left in more or less 
chaotic condition the ideas of easterners as to the 
exact state of affairs on the Pacific coast. 

One system at least has come to a thorough understand- 
ing of itself by the recent purchase of the Central Elec- 
tric railway of Sacramento, by Albert Gallatin and 
Horatio T. Livermore, in behalf of the Sacramento Elec- 
tric Power & Light Company, whose officers are at 320 
Sansome street, San Francisco. 

The road consists at present of 16 miles of 40 and 52 
pound girder rail track, operating 24 electric cars by 
power furnished by the Capital Gas Company and using 
Thomson-Houston equipment. There is in prospect four 
miles more of road in the city and a large suburban exten- 
sion. 

The new company has in view also an unique power 
plant, to be situated on the American river, 20 miles dis- 
tant and operated from the water-power of the Folsom 
Water Power Company. This will require a 20-mile 
transmission, for which franchises are already granted. 
This power will not only furnish the street railway but 
will light the city and give small power users the benefit 
of stationary motor equipment. 

The officers of the company are: President, Albert 
Gallatin; secretary, Joshua Barker; treasurer and general 
manager, Horatio T. Livermore. 

OsHOKNK & Company, of Kansas City, agents for the 
Eddy motors, are also agents for the Crown shade made 
by Mclntirc & Company, of Philadelphia. 



182 



A NEW STREET CAR BRAKE. 



A COMPANY has just been formed at Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, to do business under the name 
of the Automatic Car Brake Company. It owns 
the Stillwell patents, which are considered about as strong 
and original as can be obtained. The action of this brake 
is governed by a lever on the motorman's platform and 
can be applied to trailers so as to be efficient on the whole 
train. The insufficiency of the brakes on electric motor 
cars has been often criticised, and it has been said that 
the progress in brakes has not kept pace with the pro- 
gress in motive power. This brake, however, seems to 
be a step in the right direction. The Stockwell acts 
instantaneously, and does not require the time-costly pro- 
cess of "winding and unwinding" a crank handle, as does 
the common brake. Another point in favor of this 
improvement is the flexible connection between motor 
car and trailers, making a very easy starting train, besides 
greatly lessening the starting strain on the motor. The 
brake is as delicately adjustable in application and quick 
in action as the Westinghouse air brake, of world wide 
reputation. It has been tried on a number of cars on the 
Grand Rapids line, and orders have been placed for more 
equipments. Andy Beaver, formerly manager of the 
railway at Grand Rapids, will push the sale throughout 
the country. The reputation of the stockholders of the 
company, who are among the substantial and level headed 
business men and manufacturers of Grand Rapids, is a 
guarantee that the enterprise is not without promise of 
good practical results. The officers of the company are. 



tion from electric roads. Cable roads, it is true, have 
pretty generally fitted themselves with powerful and quick 
acting brakes, but partly owing to the difficulty in getting 




DOUBLE ACTION MOTOR BRAKES. 



suitable levers on the platform of a motor car, "deadly 
electricity" has been blamed with accidents from collisions 




Automatic Car Brake Co. 



m 



Grand Rapids, Mich. 



i 




PAT OCT 18 1892 



AUTOMATIC BRAKE 




S. W. Peregrine, president; C. B. Judd, vice-president; 
L. W. Wolcott. treasurer; C. V. C. Ganson, secretary, 
and M. E. Stockwell, manager. 

The brake problem has not yet received enough atten- 



that do not belong to it, and should not have occurred 
with powerful brakes. The control of trailers is another 
subject that is worthy of consideration by every careful 
manager who values time. 



183 



ECHOES^ FROM THE TRADE. 



W. E. Haycox, of the Fulton Foundry Company, 
recently sold 234 draw-bars in two days. 

The American Car Company, St. Louis, are still 
having trouble to keep up with orders. 



J. M. Jones' Sons, Troy, N. Y., has sold five lo-bench 
open cars for spring delivery to the Springfield, Mass., 
street raiUva}- company. 

The Graham Equipment Company will furnish 
Graham trucks, numbers 32 and 10, to the Consolidated 
Railway Supply Company. 



The E. p. Allis Company, of Milwaukee, are at work 
on .$400,000 worth of additions. The company's con- 
tracts at present mount up to the little sum of $2,500,000. 



J. E. Rhoaus & Sons, of Philadelphia, have made 
arrangements for the increasing of their power and floor 
space, owing to the large amount of belts being ordered 
for electrical work. 

The Standard Paint Company, of New York, is 
sending out a handsome porcelain plate for use on desks. 
It sets forth its preservative paints, insulating varnishes, 
etc. 

George Cutter, 329 Rookery, Chicago, has just 
issued his 1893 catalog of supplies and specialties. It is 
very complete as well as being an elegant specimen of 
the printer's art. 

J. P. SjOBERG & C0MP.A.NY, of 155 and 157 Eleventh 
avenue, New York, are crowded with orders for cars and 
car supplies, owing no doubt to the care with which they 
fill orders to the smallest detail. 



Taylor Goodhue & Ames are the recently appoint- 
ed agents of the Campbell Electrical Supply Company', of 
Boston, for whom they will handle insulating points, feed 
wires and the Shaw radial trucks. 



The Hammond Electric Street Railway, Ham- 
mond, Ind., is approaching completion. The steam plant 
was furnished by the Chicago office of the Ball Engine 
Company, 506 The Rookery. 



J. W. Parker & Company-, Philadelphia, represen- 
tatives of the Ball Engine Company, Erie, Pa., are install- 
ing an 80-horse-power Ball engine at Maiden, W. Va., 
for experimental mining hauling. 



The Bates Machine Company, Joliet, 111., have 
increased their capital .stock to $100,000, and will con- 
tinue to enlarge their facilities, which press of work has 
compelled them to do with most satisfactory regularity. 



The Dodge Manufacturing Company, of Misha- 
waka, Indiana, have secured the contract for over a mile 
of steel shafting for Machinery Hall at the World's Fair. 
The sizes range from 3 to 6 inches. 



The Ford- Washburn Storelectro Company have 
established a branch office at 206 Temple Court, this city, 
with Frank D. Rustling as manager. They handle bat- 
teries for traction and lighting purposes. 

The Blakely & Dickson Traction Company, of 
Scranton, will use three 300-horse-power Ball engines; 
and the Tampa Street Railwaj' & Power Company have 
ordered a 200-horse-power cross compound. 

Stern & Silverman, previously well known as con- 
nected with the Pennsylvania offices of the General Elec- 
tric Company, have started out for themselves at 707 
Arch street, Philadelphia, and will do a general engineer- 
ing and construction business. 



The Garton-Daniels Electric Company, of Keo- 
kuk, Iowa, report that the demand for the Garton Light- 
ning Arrester is larger than expectations, and they have 
been obliged to increase their force to supply' orders. 
The demand seems greatest for street railway circuits. 



The Brownell Car Co.mpany, St. Louis, has a 
very flattering letter from President Yerkes on the satis- 
faction the Accelerator cars are giving on the North 
Chicago road. It states that all new closed cars on that 
line will be of the Accelerator pattern. 



The Railway Equipment Company, this place, is 
calling the attention of eastern roads to its ability to fur- 
nish everything needed on electric roads. Their type G 
overhead material is now a standard construction, recosr- 
nized by contracting parties as of the highest grade. 



Eugene Munsell & Company, of New York, hand- 
ling micanite, to which so much attention has recently 
been called through a discussion of its qualities at the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, are having a 
great demand for that valuable insulator. 



The power station being built by the Calumet Elec- 
tric Street Railway Company, Chicago, III, is approach- 
ing completion. The engines to be used are four 300- 
horse-power Cross Compound Ball engines, manufactured 
by the Ball Engine Company, Erie, Pa. 

George Cutter has brought two suits against the 
Carpenter Electric Heating Manufacturing Company, of 
St. Paul, on account of their car heaters and similar 
devices. One suit is to set aside the Carpenter patent, 
while the other asks for an injunction, with accounting. 



The Westinghouse Electric & Manuf'acturing 
Company has taken the contract for the equipment of the 
Catherine & Bainbridge line at Philadelphia. The order 
calls for 600 motors and eight 500-horse-povver direct 
coupled generators and engines. This is one of the largest 
orders ever placed, and is a telling compliment to the high 
standard of the Westinghouse apparatus. 



184 



The Phillips Insulated Wire Company, of Paw- 
tucket, R. I., has opened headquarters at 39 and 41 Court- 
land street, New York. The new president of the com- 
pany is H. C. Adams, who has a large circle of friends in 
the electrical field. 

The New American Turbine made b^^ the Day- 
ton Globe & Iron Works Company, is showing the 
increasing use of water power for dynamo driving for 
power transmission. A number of street railway and 
electric plants are on the order books of the company. 



The Lamokin Car Works are running night and day 
to take care of their orders. They have over one hun- 
dred and fifty cars on their order books and have refused 
orders on account of not being able to make deliveries as 
wanted. They will soon, however, be in a position to 
deliver large orders for September. 



Stromberg, Allen* & Comp.\nv, so well-known as 
street railway and railroad printers, have added to their 
already extensive business a department which promises 
to grow to magnificent proportions, in opening a general 
stationery store at 335 Dearborn street. The new depar- 
ture adjoins their printing establishment and will carry a 
complete line of office material. On account of their 
manufacturing facilities all orders, large and small, can be 
filled promptly. Street railway officials in need of office 
supplies, special forms and blanks and general work will 
do well to correspond with the firm. 



The McGuire Company's truck orders for the last 
thirty daj's mount up to a handsome figure. They are 
as follows: Consolidated Light & Power Company, 
Huntington, West Virginia, .4.; White Line Street Rail- 
waj' Company, Daj-ton, Ohio, 7 ; Cedar Rapids & Marion 
Street Railway Company, 4; Hot Springs (Arkansas) 
Street Railway Compan)-, 10; Rochester (New York) 
Street Railway Company, 72; Bay City (Michigan) Con- 
solidated Street Railway, 2 ; Central Railway Company, 
Peoria, Illinois, 9; Chicago & North Shore Railway 
Company, 42 ; City Electric Street Railway Company, 
Mansfield, Ohio, 2 ; South Chicago City Railway Com- 
pany, 26; Consolidated Street Railway Company, Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, 4; Toledo Consolidated Street Rail- 
way Company, 20; Hamilton (Ontario) Street Railway 




OUR PKOl'O^fcl-i I.Lhcll^le 1<.\IL»\- 



ACRUSS THE SAHARA. 



Insullac has met with such universal favor that elec- 
tric railway plants find it a valuable adjunct to the repair 
shop. Its fame has spread abroad and the Massachusetts 
Chemical Company are in receipt of many orders from 
foreign countries. The company have four times 
increased their plant. 

The Ball Engine Company, Erie, Pa., have made 
some unusually large shipments for this time of year, and 
report that they are crowded with orders. The following 
are some of their recent shipments: Calumet Street 
Railway Conipan}-, Chicago, 111., four 300-horse-power 
Cross Compounds; Wheeling Street Railway Company, 
Wheeling, W. V^a., three 250-horse-power Cross Com- 
pounds; Western Light & Power Company-, Chicago, 111., 
one 300-horse-power engine; Risdon Iron Works, San 
Francisco, Cal., three 150-horse-power Tandem Com- 
pounds; Hammond Electric Street Railway Company^ 
Hammond, Ind., one 150-horse-power steam plant; 
Logansport Electric Light Company, Logansport, Ind., 
one 130-horse-power engine; besides many others too 
numerous to mention. 



Company, 5 ; Austin (Te.xas) Rapid Transit Compan}', 2 ' 
Jamestown (New York) Street Railway Company, 4; La 
Crosse (Wisconsin) City Railway Company, 6; Sandusky, 
Milan & Huron Street Railway Compan)', 15; Twin City 
Railway Company, Webb City, Missouri, 4; Denver 
Tramway Company, 28. 



The Ansonia Electric Company (formerly the Elec- 
trical Supply Company) have contracted for the west- 
ern selling agency of the Helios Arc Lamp. It is a 
focusing lamp, and is said to be the only arc lamp 
that has been constructed to successfully operate on 
an alternating circuit. It is the same lamp that was 
officially adopted by the German government, and 
although its introduction into this country dates back 
scarcely ninety days, its reception has been marked 
with evident approval, as over five thousand have 
already been sold. With the celebrated Stanley Trans- 
formers, and the Helios Arc Lamp, the Ansonia Electric 
Company certainly have a combination to win friends 
with every central station operating an alternating 
machine. 



185 



Among contracts secured recently from prominent 
companies are those placed by the Standard Railway 
Supply Company, of Chicago, for delivery during sum- 
mer season of large quantities of Standard car stoves. 
These companies will put the stoves in their winter cars 
while the}' have ample time to do so, and without losing 
the use of a car, and when again required for winter service 
the cars will be ready at once with stoves. The Stand- 
ard car stove is conceded by practical street railway men as 
one of the most desirable street car heaters made. The 
entire structure is arranged to be placed upon the seat, 
and requiring space otherwise occupied b}' one passenger. 



THE BALLAD OF THE CRINOLINE. 



The Louisville, New Albany & Chicago has just 
added to its rolling stock two new sleeping and boudoir 
cars, costing nearly $45,000 each. These cars are said 
to be the finest ever placed on an}' road in this country, 
and are specially designed for use during the World's 
Columbian Exposition. These cars are models of ele- 
gance and beauty, each compartment or boudoir being 
fitted with a complete toilet set, cleverly hidden from 
view when not in use. They are in daily service between 
Chicago and Cincinnati, and should be seen and used to 
be fully appreciated. All of the Monon's through day 
trains are made up of smoking cars, new coaches and 
parlor and dining cars. 

The numerous orders which the Ansonia Electric 
Company, formerly the Electrical Supply Company, are 
receiving for their heating and cooking apparatus, 
goes to show that these articles are being met with 
great favor by the Central Station as well as by the user. 
The articles can be operated both on 50 and no volts, 
and require scarcely any attention. The list comprises 
flat irons, goose irons, disc heaters, curling tong heaters; 
also broilers, tea pots, coffee pots, ovens and numerous 
other articles adapted for cooking purposes. It will pay 
street railway managers desirous of extending their busi- 
ness in the direction of rented power, to secure the publi- 
cation in their home papers, of what the possibilities are 
in the line of electric heatinar. 



The Indiana Rubber and Insulated Wire Com- 
pany announce the removal of their office from 242 
Madison street, Chicago, to Marion, Indiana, from which 
point they will hereafter transact all business and receive 
all communications, and where, with telephonic communi- 
cation with their factory in Jonesboro, a few miles distant, 
they will be better able to do justice to their rapidly 
increasing business. About a year ago this company 
opened its sales offices in Chicago for the introduction of 
its paranite insulations, then but comparatively unknown 
to the trade. Being the only manufacturers of rubber- 
covered wires west of the Allegheny Mountains, they 
found a convenient and ready market for their product, 
which is now sold extensively throughout all the middle 
and western states, and is in the hands of the best supply 
houses in all the large cities. The Electric Appliance 
Company, of Chicago, their general western agents, will 
continue to carry a large and complete stock of all sizes, 
as heretofore. 




Great shades of Susan Anthony 

And Bernhardt's form divine 

How would they look if they were dressed 

In hoops and crinoline! 



'T will ruin the poor street car man, 
Cold chills creep up his spine 
At thoughts of increased rolling stock 
"On acc't of crinoline.'' 





Then double doors, too, must be made 
To accoinmodate the spread 
Of skirts, and the conductors 
Will wish that they were dead. 



Oh, sad this doleful prophesy 

Of decreased dividend; 

May some kind stroke of Providence 

Their awful fate forefend. 



Come, brethern, let's bold counsel take, 
Put up a bold, big sign : 




The Gazette, of Terre Haute, waxeth sarcastic as fol- 
follows: The Chicago, Grand City and Terre Haute 
Electric Railroad will connect at this place with a balloon 
line to the moon. It will cross the Wabash Ship canal, 
connecting the north pole and the equator, on a cranki- 
lever bridge. 

A professional kicker is a character of London 
His name is the Rev. W. J. Johnson and he carries on 
a perpetual petty crusade against the tram omnibus and 
railway lines by showing contempt for all the rules and 
regulations of the various companies. The courts have 
not hitherto smiled on his efforts. 



St. Peter (on a summer vacation, but looking after 
business on the side) — See here! Why haven't you been 
up my way? 

Surprised Denizen of Earth — Why, I'm not dead 
yet! 

St. Petkr — You deceive yourself; you've been dead 
some time, and you are very much in the way here. 

Surprised Denizen — I'll call in the neighbors to 
prove I'm alive and in business. 

St. Petkr — That's too much trouble. Here's your 
local paper; show me your advertisement. 



186 



0lm^^^u^^^ii^ 



PERSONALS. 



L. F. Cook, a rapid transit man of Tacoma, Wash., is 
in the city intending to stay through the World's Fair. 



B. F. Meek Jr., formerly secretary of the Northwest 
General Electric, has been promoted to the vice presi- 
dency' of the company. 



Don M. Dickinson has been engaged as attorney for 
the Brooklyn Traction Company at a salary reported to 
be in the neighborhood of $25,000 per annum. 



W. E. Haycox, of the Fulton Foundry Company, 
made a welcome call at our office during a recent visit to 
Chicago. He is on a very successful trip as is usual with 
him. 

J. T. Voss, general manager of the Athens, Ga., Street 
Railway Company, is making many improvements in his 
system, bringing it to the front of southern street railway 
practice. 

J. B. Smith, special correspondent of the Boston 

Herald, accompanying the visit of the Rapid Transit 

Commission to Chicago, made a pleasant call on the 
Review. 



President Beckley, of the Rochester Street Rail- 
way Company, is receiving universal praise from press 
and public for the maintenance a superior of car service 
during the past severe winter. 

General Manager Ryder, of the Bass Foundry & 
Machine Company, Indianapolis", favored our office with 
a call, and was accompanied by Harry M. Hayes, who 
will have charge of their exhibit at the Fair. 



Albion Pe.wev, late superintendent of the Sioux City 
Street Railway Company, has been presented with a 
gold watch by his former emploj-es, as a token of their 
esteem. Mr. Peavey is at present on crutches, recover- 
ing from a broken leg. 



The death of Col. Wm. McCrory is announced at 
Mansfield, O. Col. McCrory was one of the best known 
citizens of Minneapolis, Minn., and built the old motor 
line there in 1S79. He was 51 years of age and served 
through the war on General Sherman's staff. 



S. M. Carpenter, president of the Fulton Foundry 
Company, of Cleveland, O., one of the oldest street rail- 
way supply men in the country, is now convalescent from 
a severe illness. The Review in common with his many 
other friends, is glad to hear of his improvement. 



Tho.mas Baker, honorary representative of the Irish 
Railway Companies, Dublin, with his wife, has taken 
rooms at the Auditorium, and will remain until the end of 
the year. Mr. Baker will study American systems of 
street railway practice and make an extended report on 
his return. 



A. J. B.mrd, formerly auditor of the Chattanooga Elec- 
tric Railway Company and later of the San Antonio com- 
pany, has severed his connection with the latter to accept 
the general superintendency of the Charlston, N. C, 
road and has removed to that city. Mr. Baird is a rising 
man and we watch his advancement with interest. 



The death of Geo. B. Prescott, Jr., occurred on Feb- 
ruary 12, 1893. He was well known as an electrical 
engineer and author, having been prominently connected 
at different times with the Weston labratory, Newark, N. 
J., Electrical Accumulator Companj' and the Stanley lab- 
ratory at Pittsfield. He designed and operated the first 
electric car on the West End line of Boston. 



Captain John A. Grier, whose familiar face has 
long been known in western electrical circles, has recent- 
ly become associated with the Ansonia Electric Company, 
(formerly the Electrical Supply Company), and is at 
present at their factory in Philadelphia, where he is 
familiarizing himself with the details of the Helios Arc 
Lamp for alternating circuits, with a view of introducing 
it to the western trade. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



The wonderful fireproof qualities of "SaKiniander*' wire, as siiown by 
tests recently described in the Review, lias induced the makers, Wash- 
burn & Moen, to publisli a pamphlet on insulated wire, giving the results 
of numerous tests on the "Salainander." 



The New England Magazine for March contains able articles on "Pro- 
portional Representation," by Stoughton Cooley ; "The Mass.ichusetts 
Prison System,'' by Rev. Samuel J. Barrows, and "The Importance of 
the Study of Local History," by Winfield S. Kevins. 



The Cutter Electrical & Manufacturing Companv, of 27 
South Eleventh street, Philadelphia, has just issued an attractive circu- 
lar on its "C. S.'' specialties. These include a number of flush and lock 
wall switches that will be of value in electric car fitting. 



The American Florist, of this city, recently gave an illustration of 
what enterprising trade journalism is like. A two days' convention was 
held in Pittsburgh, which did not close its sessions until one o'clock in 
the morning. In less than thirty-six hours our friends had their edition 
in the mails, containing a full report of eighteen pages with over thirty 
illustrations. 

The Electrical Review recently celebrated its twelfth birthday. 
February 25th being the fateful day, it published a large edition of 
seventy pages, and among other good things it contained a very com- 
plete review of the progress in electiicity for a year past. Tliis enter- 
prising journal has in the last year published much valu.ible matter in 
the line of electrical development. 



Johnson's Electrical and Street Railway Directory for 
1S92 is the fourth one of the series published by the W.Johnson Company 
Ltd., 41 Park Row, New York. The special features commending the 
present volume is its completeness, its legible typography and its com. 
plete indexes. The Street Railway Directory is only as complete as 
necessary in a work of this scope, but the telephone, electric light, min- 
ing, telegraph and trade lists leave little to be asked for. Price, $5.00, 
of the publishers. 

An amusing instance of the intelligence of the average 
reporter comes from the LaCrosse, Wis., Press, which 
says that the street railway company has purchased "a 
battery, two generators and boilers from E. P. Allis, of 
Milwaukee." 



187 



THE TOLEDO TOWER WAGON. 



THE tower wagon illustrated in our engravings is 
the design of L. H. Lincoln, the electrical engineer 
of the Toledo Consolidated Street Railway- Com- 
pany, and is the result of a long experience in practical 
work. It is intended both for use in the construction of 
lines and as a '-wrecking" wagon. That it is well suited 
for the latter class of work is seen from the illustration 
showing the wagon with the tower closed. This tower 
is raised by a rope running over the end of the pole, at 
the base of which is a windlass. The rear ladder or sup- 
port of the platform is free to swing, and at the different 
heights can be placed in the different positions shown — 
in the lowest position on the ground; in higher positions 
on different places on the wagon bottom. When neces- 
sary in heavy construction work stay rods are put on the • 
ladders as shown. The wagons are made in two sizes — 
for one or two horses. The two-horse wagons have 
platforms 6 by 12 feet. Tool boxes are hung underneath 
and a gong under the footboard, making a very service- 







CLOSED — READY FOR A RUN. 



able outfit both for emergencies and regular work. The 
old lumbering forms of tower wagon, with the tower 
built on the wagon without means for adjustment, are 
becoming obsolete and their places are being taken by 
something that is of more general use and quicker in 
operation. A tower wagon like that described affords a 
very simple solution of the question of quickly arriving 
at places of accident, and when there, being provided 
with apparatus for all classes of work likely to be 
required. Indeed, on electric roads it is as necessary to 
be prepared to make overhead repairs quickly as it is to 
be ready to clear obstructions on the track, while for 
regular construction work on the lines tower wagons are 
now among the indispensibles. The Milburn Wagon 
Company, of Toledo, is engaged in their manufacture, 
and has received a large number of orders. Mr. Lincoln, 
the inventor, is acknowledged as one of the brightest 
young men in the electric railway service, as all who have 
ever met him will gladly testify, and his friends in the 
fraternity have a right to expect something extra good 
when it bears his name. The editor of this paper has 



personally witnessed an exhibition run and platform 
mount, and the small space of time required never fails to 
excite surprise and admiration. 



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SET FOR LOW WORK. 



Cecil Sydney Scutts, of England, is a recent writer 
on car heating and ventilation. Cecil says his treatise is 
the "Alexipharmic Treatment Required for Impure Atmos 
in Subterranean Railways"! 



Bernard M. Sh.vnley, a Newark man of undoubted 
business capacity and energy, is reported to be chief of 
the executive committee of the New Jersey Traction 
Compan}'. 




si-l' l-'il^ UK 



A PLAN is submitted by C. C. Cramp, of the Contract 
Construction Company, of London, to furnish the pro- 
posed Colombo, Ceylon, roads with the Mekarski com- 
pressed air system. 

A NEW line has been opened by the West Chicago 
Company on Grand avenue. 



188 



^iit%fe^^#t*^ 



ST. LOUIS BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS. 



THE Relief Association of the Citizens' Railway 
Compan)', of St. Louis, is one of the most flour- 
ishing in the country. The organization is com- 
monly known as the Broadway Cable Relief Association, 
and it may be extended to all the employes of the 
McCulloch system. The society has paid out $600 in 
sick benefits in the seven months of its existence. It has 
200 members and pays $10 a week to sick associates, and 
$100 to his family in case of death. On March 10 the 
association presented a successful dramatic effort, "Three 
Glasses," at the club rooms over the Broadway cable 
power house. The affair was entirely in the hands of 
the men, who built the stage and set the scenery. The 
members worked hard to make a success of the play and 
it is needless to sav, accomplished their end. The super- 
iority of these associations lies in their peaceful existence 
and fulfillment of function. 



CLEVELAND'S COMBINE. 



IT is with no little interest that the street railway 
fraternity has watched the recent changes in the 
status of Cleveland, O., systems. The election of 
H. A. Everett to the presidency augured well for some 
bold strokes in policy and the explanation is read in the 
recent pooling of the interests of the East Cleveland and 
the Broadway Company. 

The consolidation was brought about by President 
Henry A. Everett, Directors C. W. Wason, C. L. Pack, 
and M. A. Bradley of the East Cleveland, and President 
Horace Andrews of the Broadway Compan3^ The wise- 
acres are confidant that the Woodland & West Side will 
soon enter, as J. H. Wade is a heavy holder of Wood- 
land securities. From the fact that Tom L. Johnson is a 
holder of both stocks above mentioned it is thought that 
the Brooklyn lines will also enter the fold. These, how- 
ever, are simply conjectures, but one thing is sure that 
Cleveland's systems are coming to an understanding with 
each other. 

NEW JERSEY'S TROLLEY PROSPECTS. 



IF the month of February, 1893, is famous for noth- 
ing else, the big traction deals consummated in its 
twenty-eight days ought to give it a place in history. 
The Metropolitan Traction Company, of New York, of 
which John D. Crimminsis the head, led off the procession 
by making what is said to be the biggest street railway 
transaction ever consummated. By the terms of this com- 
mercial trealy, 140 miles of New Jersey track went into 
the syndicate's hands, including the lines in Elizabeth and 
Newark. The scheme is now to unite Newark, Elizabeth, 
Bloomfield, Montclair and the Oranges with a system of 
electric roads, which will all run to one or more landings 
on the North River. The transfer of the lines of the Jer- 
sey City & Bergen railroad in Hudson county, which 
have been leased by the Pennsylvania railroad and the 
lines leased by the New Jersey Traction Company are 



included in the deal. There were transferred in all 90 
miles of horse railway, 35 miles of electric and 15 miles 
unoperated. All of this will now be operated as one sys- 
tem and the present animal power and unoperated lines 
changed to electric. 

AS USUAL. 



JUST because human nature is human nature, and the 
men who stand on the platforms differ in degree and 
not kind from the men who sit in the offices, labor 
organizations have no more uneventful lives than is 
accorded to other corporations. The dissolution of the 
Cleveland street railway employes' union, which died 
from apathy of its leaders, who would not serve their 
cause for glory and humanit}' alone, is a fine, large object 
lesson for similar organizations. Men are only men. 

Just now a veritable hornet's nest is under the eaves of 
the Amalgamated Society of Street Railway Employes 
recently formed at Indianapolis and having its chief office 
in Detroit. Two factions have appeared already, and the 
supporters of the rival heads of the association are ready 
to morally knife each other whenever occasion permits. 

The quarrel is the result of internal dissentions and 
jealousies on the part of the men who are suppose to con- 
serve the peace of the concern. Taking the motto that 
"all is fair in war" the recalcitrant, and, it is needless to 
say, unpopular party to the trouble, is using any and all 
means to break up the organization. Recriminations, 
threats and bad language are the principal weapons so 
far used, but if the thing continues the courts may take a 
hand. Money supposed to have been misappropriated 
has added to the flames. 

At the same time with this war of words and ink a 
most disgraceful strike has been in progress at Wheeling, 
West Virginia, where the entire city has been left at 
times at the mercy of a few hundred angry and unreason- 
able men. Not content with withdrawing from service, 
the employes have vigorously and forcibly resisted the 
attempts made by other workingmen to gain a Hvelihood 
on the Wheeling Consolidated. The most dastardlv and 
cowardly deeds of violence have here been enacted. The 
strikers took one non-union man and literally wrapped 
him to a pole with wire. Greased tracks and tight wires 
strung across the track chin-high are other methods used 
to fcrsiiade the company to make terms with them. A 
number of non-union men were coerced into the union 
and compelled to take enforced idleness with the rest. 
To add to the general anarchy, the city and county 
authorities have not done their duty, and assumed the 
usual role of the "powerless." 

The company which spent a good million of dollars in 
Wheeling's transportation deserves better treatment than 
that accorded, and if shame cannot make them cognizant 
of their duty other means of protection should be taken. 



"I'd like a pass on your father's road," said Mr. Slim- 
purse to Miss Coupons. "Well," replied Miss Coupons, 
"I don't believe you'l^ get it. I heard papa say they 
didn't pass anything but dividends." 



189 



RICHMOND & MANCHESTER CONSOLI- 
DATIONS. 



THE union that is strength has been consummated by 
the Richmond & Manchester and the Richmond 
Railway & Electric Company, by the purchase of 
the former by the latter named road. This deal gives the 
entire control of transportation in the two cities and 
suburbs to the buying company, including the two lines to 
the popular resort, Forest-Hill park. 

Under the terms of the deal $400,000 of 40-year five 
per cent gold bonds are to be issued in lieu of the $500,- 
000 in 6 per cents now in existence. Of this sum, 
$250,000 is to be put into betterments immediately. 

The new officers have been elected as follows: Geo. 
E. Fisher, president; vice, John S. Williams; directors, 
Geo. E. Fisher, B. H. Nash, F.J. Craigie, Dr. J. P. Munn, 
J. S. Williams, S. W. Middendorf and W. C. Seddon. 

The changes give possession of 60 miles of track to 
one company, with all its attendant advantages of trans- 
fer and centralization of expenses. 



SOME NEW DEVICES. 



A TROLLEY switch, designed by G. W. Merkins, 
of Denver, Colorado, known as the "M and D," 
has been used on the Tramway Company's lines 
at Denver and on the West End road at Boston for about 
a year. The movable part of this switch consists of the 
end of the wire with flanges on each side. The trolley 
wheel in approaching presses the flange, turning the 
switch "in the way it should go." This device is non- 
sparking and gives a continuous contact. The Dimon & 
Adams Manufacturing Company, of Denver, are making 
it. 

The Excelsior Track Switch, made by the Fitch Excel- 
sior Switch Company, of 45 Broadway, New York, can 
be operated by the motor or gripman on the moving car, 
thereby saving valuable time. A switch rod on the car 
is let down by the motorman from the car platform into 
a slot or channel. Into this channel the spokes of the 
switch operating wheel project and are caught and turned 
as the wheel passes through, thereby throwing the switch. 
The size of the switch box is onl}' 22x18x18. It has 
been in operation at Steinway, N. Y., with good results. 



A SASH supporter, made by W. Haskell King & Com- 
pany, of New Haven, Connecticut, is a step in the direc- 
tion of anti-rattle that is much needed on some cars. It 
acts simply as a wedge, normally held in place by springs, 
but when it is desired to raise or lower, the thumb lever, 
whicli is similar to that commonly seen on car windows, 
makes the springs of no avail. When the lever is again 
released the springs press the wedge or catch back into 
place, fastening the sash at any position desired. 



A VALUABLE idea and a valuable patent to fit it is the 
property of B. J. Parsons, of Omaha, Nebraska, assignor 
to F. W. Fitch of that place. It is called a trolley catcher, 
the idea being to catch the pole when the trolley runs off, 



so to keep it from striking the span and guard wires. 
The catcher is located in a box on the car roof. The 
rope from the pole is wound around a drum in the catcher. 
This drum has a spiral spring inside, with a ratchet ?nd 
two pawls. When the trolley jumps and the pole flies 
up it gives the rope a jerk that causes it to release the 
spring and pull the pole down near the roof. 



The Chicago agents for the Heine Safety Boiler Com- 
pany report the following sales of Heine boilers for the 
month: N. K. Fairbanks, Chicago, 1,000 horse-power; 
Chicago & North Shore Railway, 750 horse-power; 
South Side Rapid Transit Company, Chicago, 300 horse- 
power; H. D. Campbell & Sons, Traverse City, Michi- 
gan, 150 horse-power. 

A WELL dressed young female with all the outward 
appearance of a lady recently slapped a conductor in the 
face because he did not stop the car at a crossing which 
was impossible under the circumstances. The conductor 
attempted an apology with the above result, when the 
woman sprang from the car and took a tumble into the 
mud. The crowd in the car were greatly incensed at 
her treatment of the conductor. And jet ! 



J. A. Roebling's Sons report a crowded order book 
for all types of their wire. 

Abraham Lincoln 

When lea\'ing his home at Springfield, 111., to be inaugurated President 
of the United States, made a farewell address to his old friends and 
neighbors, in which he said, "neighbors give your boys a chance." 

These words come with as much force to da^" as thev did thirty years 
ago. 

How give them this chance? 

Up in the Northwest is a great empire waiting for young, and sturdy 
fellows to come and develope it and "grow up with the country." All 
over this land are the youn^ fellows, the boys that Lincoln referred to 
seeking to better their condition and get on in life. 

Here is their chance! 

The country referred to lies along the Northern Pacific R. R. Here 
you can find almost anything you want. In Minnesota and in the Red 
River Valley of North Dakota, the finest of prairie lands fitted for wheat 
and grain, or as well as for diversified farming. In Western North 
Dakota, and Montana, are stock ranges limitless in extent, clotted with 
the most nutrious of grasses. 

If a fruit farming region is wanted there is the whole State of Wash- 
ington to select from. 

As for scenic delights the Northern Pacific Railroad passes through 
a country unparalleled. In crossing the Rocky, Bitter Root, and Cascade 
Mountains, the greatest mountain scenery to be seen in the United 
States from car windows is to be found. The wonderful bad lands, 
wonderful in graceful form and glowing color, are a poem. Lakes 
Pend d'Oreille and Coeur d'Alene, are alone worth a trans-continental 
trip, while they are the fisherman's Ultima Thule. The ride along 
Clark's Fork of the Columbia River is a daylight dream. To cap the 
climax this is the only way to reach the far-famed Yellowstone Park. 

To reach and see all this the Northern Pacific Railroad furnish trains 
and service of unsurpassed excellence. The most approved and com- 
fortable Palace Sleeping cars; the best Dining cars that can be made; 
Pullman Tourist cars good for both first and second class passengers; 
easy riding Day Coaches, with Baggage, Express, and Postal cars, all 
drawn by powerful Baldwin locomotives, make a train fit for royalty itself. 

Those seeking for new homes should take this train and go and spy 
out the land. To be prepared, write to 

Chas. S. Fee, 

G. P. & T. A. 
St. Paul, Minn. 



190 



j^i^^^i^^i^^ 



THE NATIONAL ELECTRIC LIGHT 
CONVENTION. 



THE recent meeting of the National Electric Light 
Association was one of unusual interest to street 
railway men. The papers read were, with the 
exception of one or two, equally applicable to electric 
light and railway work. One noticeable feature of this 
event was the large amount of attention given to the ques- 
tion of the transmission of power to a distance. A year 
ago there was one paper on the subject and the matter 
was discussed in rather a general manner. This year, 
however, there were three papers on the subject, and the 
question was taken up in a way to lead an observer to 
think that the day of great power transmissions is not far 
away. One of the most practical of the papers was that 
of Dr. Louis Bell. He took up the question of supplying 
our present stations with power from a distance, and so 
doing away with the steam engines as now used. He 
suggested two plans especiallj' suitable for electric rail- 
way stations as they are at present. One was to employ 
three phase motors to drive the regular 500-volt railway 
generators — these motors, of course, to be supplied with 
current from the distant source through the medium of 
transformers. The other plan was to use three phase 
currents and transform them directly into continuous cur- 
rents by means of a transformer designed by C. S. 
Bradley. Dr. Bell had tried some of these transformers 
personally, and found them admirable. They were but 
a litde more complicated than the 500-volt generator, 
and had a very high efficiency. He favored three phase 
machines in the first case because the)' would not be 
pulled out of s3-nchronism with sudden changes of load, 
and so stopped. In regard to three phase motors, they 
were about as near indestructible as any machines in 
existence, the armatures being a mass of metal with no 
outside electrical connections. He had seen them sub- 
jected to terrible overload without a sign of burning out. 

C. S. Bradley said in his paper that a plant to trans- 
mit 500-horse-power from the coal fields to a city 
would cost $300,000. He thought that by the genera- 
tion of the power in large quantities at the mines it 
could be obtained most cheaply by converting the coal 
into gas to run gas engines. In this waj' we could get 
more energ)' from a pound of coal, besides selling the 
valuable by-products of gas manufacture. 

H. C. Myers read a paper on the "\'ulcanizing Process 
for Preserving Ties, Cross Arms, Etc." This new pro- 
cess consists in heating wood under great pressure, 
thereby changing the natural saps and oils in the wood 
into a preservative compound acting as an antiseptic to 
prevent decay. This was claimed to be the best pro- 
cess for preserving wood known. 

William H. Brown gave an historical sketch of the 
New York subways, and the results that were being 
obtained from them. There occurred, during 1892, 49 
faults on 750 miles of underground cable operated. 

Prof. Geo. Forbes was present and treated the sub- 
ject of thermal storage for central stations, which has 



attracted so much attention abroad lately. This idea is 
to put in boilers of average capacity and put in hot 
water tanks for the storing of surplus energy during 
light loads. In the discussion which followed the ques- 
tion of storing water power during the entire day to 
do service for a few hours only, was brought up. The 
advantage of this plan would be that a small motive 
power could store up energy enough in this way to do 
a large amount of work for a short period. 

The officers of the association for next year are: 
President, E. A. Armstrong, Camden, N. J.; first vice- 
president, M. J. Francisco, Rutland, Vt.; second vice- 
president, C. H. Wilmerding, Chicago, 111.; secretary, 
George F. Porter, New York. The place of meeting 
was referred to the executive committee. 



SEARCHING FOR A SOLUTION. 



THIRTY members of the Massachusetts senate and 
house of representatives arrived in Chicago Feb- 
ruarj' 25, to investigate rapid transit in Chicago, 
for the benefit of the assembled solons of the Bay state, 
and the edification of Boston in particular. The delega- 
tion found the straight parallel streets of the World's Fair 
city ver}' confusing and could with difficulty be kept from 
going down every alley they could find. After getting 
acclimated and overcoming the idea of ciooked ways, the 
party visited the World's Fair grounds and saw Libby 
Prison and War Museum in the afternoon Monday. The 
Chicago Fire Cyclorama entertained them in the evening. 
Tuesday was spent in hard work. The city's system of 
cable roads was thoroughly and admiringly investigated 
and the South Side L came in for its fair share of praise. 
The tunnels of the West and the North Chicago roads 
were studied and the mayor and other city officers cate- 
chised on probabilities, possibilities and plans. One 
amusing feature of the trip was the fact that the gentle- 
tlemen were surprised to find that a journey to 
Chicago was necessary to find the original deed for Bos- 
ton Common, over the preservation of which eye sore, so 
mucli good breath and valuable petition has been wasted. 
The document now adorns the gallery of C. F. Gunther, 
the candv man and curio collector. 

Rapid Transit Committee was composed of : Senators 
Kittridge, Baker, Leary and Horton; Representatives 
Bliss, Charles, Nutting, Graham, Garfield, Dodge, Bar- 
num, McCarthy, Newhall and Quinn. 

Committee on Merchantile Affairs: Senators Rats- 
hesky. Carter and Merrill; Representatives Brewer, 
Moriarty, Coakley, Richardson, Bryant and Darling. 

Capt. J. G. B. Adams, Sergeant-at-Arms, and J. B. 
Smith, of the Boston Herald, accompanied the committee. 



The •' Paterson Call " abuses our good friend Lawless 
as follows: ^ "The success and popularity of the electric 
car service is very largely due to the wisdom, experience 
and skill of the genial and popular Manager Lawless. 
He is the right man in the right place." 



191 



STREET RAILWAY LAW. 



EDITED BY MR. FRANK HUMBOLDT CLARK, ATTORNEY AT LAW, CHICAGO. 



Street Railway Company Using Bridge Belonging- to 
State. 

A street railroad which lays its track across;|a bridge constructed and 
maintained by the state, and constituting a part of the highway on 
\vhich the railroad line runs, does not adopt the bridge as one of it^ 
appliances so as to become liable for an injury to a passenger, caused 
by- delects therein, to the same extent as if the bridge had been built 
by the Company. 

Peckham, J. : — The defendant owns and operates a 
street railroad in the city of Rochester. The Erie canal 
intersects Main street in that cit}', and at the intersection 
the canal is crossed by a bridge built, owned and main- 
tained by the state, and in effect the bridge forms a con- 
tinuation of the highwaj' of West Main street. The 
bridge was so constructed as to lift vertically by hydraulic 
' power, when boats were to pass. In order to act as a 
counterbalance and thus to reduce the amount of power 
necessary to lift the bridge, heavy weights made of iron 
troughs filled with pig iron ^were suspended in the 
upper part of the framework of the bridge. They 
were suspended by cables fastened to the floor of 
the bridge, and passing through pulleys in the upper 
framework. The troughs were fastened by means of 
stirrups which were made of iron. The plaintiff was a 
passenger on one of defendant's cars, and while the car 
was slowly crossing the bridge in question, one of the 
stirrups gave way and let one of the troughs drop, so 
that the pieces of pig iron slid out, and some of them 
fell upon the car beneath and broke through, and one 
of them struck and severely injured the plaintiff. 

The evidence as to the defect in the welding of the 
stirrup and how it was discoverable, and the plan and 
method of the construction of the bridge, was uncontra- 
dicted. Upon such evidence the trial judge refused to 
submit the question of defendant's negligence to the jury. 
and held that the defendant was liable, and only the ques- 
tion of damages was left to the jury. The court charged 
the jury that the defendant was bound to precisely the 
same liabihty with regard to any defects in the bridge 
as though it had built the bridge originally to serve as 
part of its railroad, and it was bound by the same rules 
which the law applies to every other carrier of passen- 
gers with reference to the means it adopts as part of its 
roadway and part of the appliances which it may have 
occasion to use in the transaction of its business as a 
common carrier. 

We do not think the defendant rested under such 
extreme liability. It may be assumed that the defendant 
is a corporation organized under the general railroad act 
for the purpose of building a street railroad through cer- 
tain streets in the City of Rochester. Under that Act it 
acquired no right to cross the canal on any bridge it 
might build; it acquired no right to build any bridge; 
and although it may possibly have the power of emi- 
nent domain to acquire land for some purposes, it could 



acquire none to build a bridge over the canal. And its 
organization under the general Railroad Act for the pur- 
poses of a street railroad required it to keep to the pub- 
lic streets or highways, and gave it no right to lay its 
tracks elsewhere. The bridge mentioned was nothing 
more than the continuation of the city street which it 
connected; and although it might have been necessary 
for the defendant to have obtained permission of the 
state authorities before laying its rails and running its 
cars over the bridge, yet we are of the opinion that in 
crossing such bridge it did not thereby make it an appli- 
ance of its own to the extent stated in the charge of the 
court below. 

We do not criticise the rule, or assume here to ques- 
tion it, as to the extent of liability ordinaril}^ attaching to 
a carrier of passengers, including perfect roadbed and all 
proper appliances. We simply say that this case is not 
one in which to make the application of such extreme 
liability. We say the bridge is not such an appliance as 
is contemplated by the rule alluded to, and that the liabil- 
ity of the defendant was no greater than while pursuing. 
its route along the public street. 

(N. Y. Ct. of Appeals. Birmingham vs. Rochester 
City & B. R. Co. 32 N. E. Rep. 995.) 

Person Driving- Team in Track — Attempting- to Turn 

Out — Injury by being- struck by Car. 

In an action for damages against defendant street rail- 
way company, plaintiff's evidence showed that while 
driving a team with a heavily loaded wagon on defend- 
ant's track, he saw one of its electric cars approaching 
two or three blocks away, and at once turned the team 
off the track and tried to have them pull the wagon off 
also, but owing to the snow the rail was slippery and the 
team was unable to draw the wagon from the track. 
The conductor of the approaching car made no effort to 
lessen its speed, and it collided with a corner of the loaded 
wagon, and plaintiff was injured. Held, That the evi- 
dence made a good prima facie case for plamtiff, and it 
was error for the court to direct a verdict for defendant. 

(Sup. Ct. Wis. Will vs. West Side R. Co. 54 N. W. 
Rep. 30.) 

Failure to keep Track in Repair — Upturned Rail — 
Personal Injury. 

In an action against a street railway company for 
personal injuries caused by an upturned rail, to a person 
driving on the street, an instruction that it was the duty 
of the defendant to keep its track in proper repair, that 
this is a condition attendant on the grant of the franchise, 
and if defendant neglected to do so, by reason whereof 
the plaintiff sustained injuries, it was negligent and is 
liable to plaintiff therefor if he did not in any way con- 
tribute by his own negligence to the injuries sustained, is 
not erroneous. 



192 



Where the court instructs the jury that even if plaintiff 
did not see the obstruction, if it was plain to be seen, and was 
such an object as should have been observed b}- him had he 
exercised ordinary care and watchfulness, he was guilt}- of 
contributor}' negligence and can not recover "if he failed to 
exercise ordinary care and watchfulness," defendant has no 
ground of complaint. 

Where it also appears that the upturned rail was loose the 
night before and was nailed down again, and that defend- 
ant's trackman passed over the hne twice on the da}- of and 
before the accident, an instruction to return a verdict for 
defendant is properly refused. 

(Sun. Ct. Pa. Bradwell vs. Pittsburgh & W. E. Pass. 
Ry. Co. 25 Atl. Rep. 623. 

Care Required as lo Infirin Passenger — Time to Reach 
Seat — IVegligence. 

In an action against a street railway company for 
injury to a passenger, the evidence showed that plaintiff, 
an elderly lady, entered the car by the front platform, and 
that, before she reached her seat, the car started and she 
fell down. Jleld, That whether plaintiff's conduct in 
entering the car from the front platform and going 
towards a seat with her back to the horses without assist- 
ing herself by the use of the straps pl.tced in the car for 
that purpose, constituted contributory negligence, was 
for the jury. 

The driver of a street car is bound to take more care 
of an old person than of one in full vigor, and whether 
starting a car in the usual and ordinary manner after an 
elderly lady has entered it, is negligence, is a question for 
the jury. 

(Sup. Ct. Pa. Holmes vs. Allegheny Traction Co. 
25 Atl. Rep. 640.) 

Master and Servant — Injury to Car-Driicr — Vicious 
Horse. 

It is the duty of the master to furnish his servant 
with such appliances for his work as are suitable and 
may be used with safety; and if a servant is injured 
by reason of defective appliances furnished by his 
master, the latter will be liable for damages unless 
he can show that he has used due care in the selection 
of the same. 

The driver of a street car was given a span of horses 
to propel the car, one of which was a broncho that would 
kick when struck — which fact was known to the master, 
and of which the driver was not aware and was not 
informed by the master. The car was under the care of 
a conductor, who permitted the same to be overcrowded, 
every available foot of space both in the car and on the 
platform being filled. On attempting to start the car the 
broncho refused to pull, whereupon the dri\-er slapped it 
with the lines, when it kicked him, causing death in a few 
hours. Held, That there was sufficient testimony to sub- 
mil the questions of fact to the jury. 

(Sup. Ct. Xeb. Leigh vs. Omaha St. Rv. Co. 54 N. 
W. Rep. 54.) 



Electric Railways — Negligence in Running Cars Rapidly 
at Night — Contributory Negligence in Leaving Wagon 
on Track. 

It is negligence in an electric street car company to run 
a car in a narrow and unlighted alley, on a dark night, so 
fast that it cannot be stopped within the distance covered 
by its own headlight. 

But the plaintiff's driver, by his own testimony, was 
equally negligent. He left his horse and wagon standing 
unguarded upon the track, and went into a stable near 
by. It was his duty to exercise the same watchful care 
when upon the track that the law exacts of the railway 
company in running its cars. The judgment for the 
plaintiff is reversed. 

(Sup. Ct. Pa. Gilmore vs. Federal St. & P. V. Pass 
R. Co. 25 Atl. Rep. 650.) 

Passenger Riding on Car Platform — Insujicicncy of Rail- 
ing — J^iestio)! for "jury. 

Standing on the rear platform of a moving street car 
even when there is room inside, is not, under ordinary 
circumstance, negligence per se, at least in the absence of 
any prescribed rule of the carrier forbidding it. 

It is quite clear that the question of defendant's negli- 
gence was one for the jury. Permitting and inviting, as 
it did, passengers to ride on the platform, ij was its duty 
lo use all reasonable precautions to insure their safety. 
Under the circumstances disclosed by the evidence, it was 
to be anticipated that passengers might, by reason of the 
joking or rocking of the car or of some other cause, 
lose their balance, especially when the platform was 
crowded; and it was a fair question for the jury to say 
.vhether in the exercise of that high degree of care 
required of carriers of passengers, the defendant ought 
not lo have guarded the platform with rails or gates 
of sufficient height lo have prevented just such accidents 
as occurred in this instance. The evidence as to 
decedent's conlribulorv negligence was also a question 
for the jury. Neither the standing on the platform, nor 
the failure lo take hold of the rail amounted to negligence 
per sc; nor did the two facts combined constitute such 
negligence. 

Whether, under ordinary circumstances, the dash and 
gate were of a safe and proper height for the protection 
of passengers, was not a subject for expert testimony, but 
was a question for the jury to pass upon. 

(Sup. Ct. Minn. Matz vs. St. Paul City Ry. Co. 8 
N. Y. L. Jour, iioo.j 

One-Horse Cars for Sale. 

We have for 8ale flfty-oue (51) oiie-hoi-NO cats Iu eood order 
and eoiidttioii. TlieHe varn wi-re built liy Stcplienson A .lones 
Tvell-kiioiTii maiinfaetiirerN. 

They are lO feet loiij; and Neat 1:6 paMNengNrs. Each car 
in provided with a fare box. 

The^c cai'N ran be neen at the i'onipanyV barn, eorner Flor- 
ida Avenue and Elevenlb Street. Xorfhtvepiit Washington D. C. 
3E»rloo, ^lOO.OO 

CAI»ITOI. \OHTH O ST. & SO. WASHIX<iTOX R"V <'0. 



<^ic£tlf\ailw&v9\£yic\/ 




.A 



193 




PUBLfSHERS AND PROPRIETORS, 

269 DEARBORN ST., - - - CHICAGO. 

Pahlished on the 15th of each month. 



SUBSCRIPTION, - 
FOREIGN SUBSCRIPTION, 



TWO DOLLARS. 

20 SHILLINGS. 



Address ail Communications and Rgmttlancfs to The Street Railway Review 

26g Dearbtrn Street, Chiceffo. 
H. H. WINDSOH. r.S. KENPIELD, 

Editor. Buainess Manager. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

We cordi.iIly invite correspondence on all subjects of interest to those eng.iecd 
in any branch of Street Railway work, and will gratefully appreciate any marked 
copies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send us, pertaining 
either to companies or officers. Address: 





THE STREET RAILWAY REVIEW, 

269 Dearborn Street, Chicago. 




Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Seeond Class Matter. 


This paper member Chicago Publishers' Association. 




VOL. 3. 


APRIL 15, 1893. NO. 4 





IN New York State the courts have ruled that the false 
punching of transfer checks, and subsequent turning 
in of the same as cash fares, constitutes the crime of 
forgery, and a Buffalo conductor has recently been sen- 
tenced to a term in jail for doing so. 



THE Supreme Court of Louisiana has ruled that 
power given by a city charter to authorize the use 
of its streets for horse or steam railroads, before elec- 
tricity came into use as a motive power, authorizes the 
city to grant franchises to operate cars by the trolley 
system. 

THE United States Circuit Court in the District of 
Columbia decides that it is unreasonable for a city 
to construct sewers in that part of a street occupied by 
a street railway under a prior ordinance if the construc- 
tion causes a suspension of the car service, or inflicts 
fher damage to the company, provided the sewers could 
be laid in another part of the street. 



AN important transfer ticket decision is cited in our 
Law Reports this month, wherein the Michigan 
court rules that a passenger who neglects to secure the 
proper transfer ticket is not entitled to transportation ex- 
cept upon paj'ment of an additional fare. Conductors are 
not bound to accept passenger's statement that he paid on 
first car and is therefore entitled to a ride on the transfer 
car. 



COMPANIES whose ordinances include a contract 
with the city to keep in repair that portion of the 
street occupied by its tracks, should look well to their 
repair. Recent court decisions are that it is not negli- 
gence per se for an able-bodied person to alight from a 
slowly moving car; but the company is liable for damafe 
if a passenger alighting under such circumstances is 
injured by reason of holes in the track. 



WILL there be hotel accommodations for all who 
visit the World's Fair City ? Yes, in abundance. 
The hotels which will be opened for guests May i will 
accommodate nearly 150,000 people, and others nearly 
completed, and which will open May 15 will increase this 
number to nearly 200.000. In addition are the thousands 
of residences which will entertain relatives and friends, 
and thousands more which will have part or whole of 
their homes to spare during a good portion of the season. 
There will be a big crowd, but it is coming to a city 
accustomed to doing things in a big wav. 



THE car fender is a subject which may well enlist the 
consideration of the thoughtful manager. In sev- 
eral cities already, council committees have been appoint- 
ed to investigate the matter with a view to the passage 
of municipal regulations requiring some such protection. 
For mechanicall}' operated cars the fender is almost in- 
dispensible and companies will further their own interests 
by looking after the fender business before they are 
forced to do so on terms which mi\y not be specially 
favorably. As a matter of economy in self-protection 
alone the fender would seem to admit of little argument 
in most cities and towns. 



THAT over-much legislated city, Washington, again 
confronts the problem of street railway motive 
power. The governing forces have issued the edict that 
on the first da}^ of August the overhead trolley must bite 
the dust. As the operation of storage battery cars has 
at last been abandoned on the Eckington & Soldiers' 
Home lines, after a most persevering and desperate 
effort to operate them for less than the earnings of the 
road, a relapse seems probable to the good old horse cars, 
so dear to the old school aristocrat of the Capital City. 
This will leave the cable as the only surviving mechani- 
cal power there, unless the various underground electric 
systems develop a much greater success than has been 
thus far shown. It is strange that the overhead .system 
now operating in five hundred of our cities, from ocean 
to ocean, including every large metropolis in the nation, 
should develop such dangerous and unsightly proclivi- 
ties as the Senate and other committees would have us 
believe e.xist in Washington. We would not entertain 
even the idea that promoters of underground electrics 
which are struggling to enlist capital in their little Wash- 
ington lines, could have lent any influence in the accom- 
plishment of this discrimination; but there are people who 
will think so, nevertheless. 



194 



^kcd.l?^ailw^U^ym/ 



OUTSIDERS are still asking about the transporta- 
tion facilities between the different districts of Chi- 
cago and the Exposition grounds. In answer we are 
glad to be able to say that the transportation facilities 
both in quantity, quality and speed will be unequalled by 
any great gathering in the world's histor}-. The com- 
bined systems will transport 100,000 persons each way 
each hour, and on certain lines the trip from the business 
center of the city to the Exposition gates, eight milesj 
will be made in fifteen minutes. As fully described else- 
where the terminal facilities are the most perfect ever 
worked out by railroad and railway men. 

WE cannot refrain from again calling attention to the 
broad and inviting field, ready and waiting, in the 
sale of electric power for operating machinery requiring 
few horse power. The statement in this issue of two 
well known managers are at once interesting and con- 
vincing. At Sioux City it has been found profitable to 
run an extra feed wire exclusively for this work. At 
Omaha power is furnished for a great variety of purposes 
from the running of fans to printing presses. As Presi- 
dent Peavey tersely says: "The matter of stationarj' 
power is certainly one of great importance to any railway 
company, and a source of considerable revenue, and it is 
surprising to me that more companies do not give atten- 
tion to this important feature." 



WE illustrate, this month, an entirely new system for 
high speed electric elevated railway. Its sim- 
plicity is as surprising as are its practical, effective results, 
as demonstrated on a line 800 feet long. Indeed, there 
seems no reason why a speed of from 100 to 200 miles 
an hour should not be easily maintained. For elevated 
service in cities it offers particular attractions. The struc- 
ture is very light, but very strong; the cars likewise; and 
neither obstruct hght or air, and the entire operation of 
the road is secured by a combination of appliances already 
in daily use, and the utility of which there can be no ques- 
tion. We believe the high speed passenger service 
of the future will lie in a suspended car, the body of 
which shall be light and narrow, and offering little atmos- 
pheric resistance. Also in shorter trains, but operating 
at frequent intervals. We believe Mr. Cook has success- 
fully worked out all of these requirements. 



AS a sequel to the long drawn and disgraceful strike 
on the Wheeling, W. Va., road, the verdict of the 
jury before which several of the strikers were tried, 
affords opportunity for congratulation. The criminal 
acts of the leaders were established beyond any question, 
and already four of them have been found guilt}'. Indict- 
ments have been returned against fifteen others and by 
the time the}' are tried and sentenced, the strike business 
as conducted on the Wheeling principle will prove that it 
is indeed "a big wheel that never turns around." Rail- 
way managers in dealing with the troubles fomented by 
professional agitators should exercise the greatest caution 
to deal fairly and justly, and when the first overtact against 



the company is made, lose no time in instituting legal 
proceedings, and not only institute such proceedings but 
follow the arrest with prosecution. It requires backbone 
to do this sort of thing but the lesson taught will be apt 
to be a lasting one. The Wheeling people deserve 
credit'for standing firm in their demand for the enforce- 
ment of the law. 

A STRIKE was indulged in by the, until that time, 
employes of the CarroUton line in New Orleans. 
It was founded on the most ridiculous claims, and as far 
as the company was concerned, lasted about three hours. 
For most of the strikers it will probably last several 
years. One of the surprising features of the case, not 
only to the ex-employes but to the company as well, was 
the astonishing revelation that it was not only possible, 
but practical, to operate electric cars, and at fairly high 
speed, with a crew of green men, who until that moment, 
had not only never been in street railway work an hour 
in all their lives, but who until that time, knew absolutely 
nothing of the modus operandi of operating an electric 
car. At 2 :30, Friday afternoon, the first 'car was aban- 
doned, and two hours later the entire service of forty- 
three cars had been deserted. Next morning, Saturday, 
fifteen cars were run out with new drivers, and increased 
to twenty-seven by afternoon. Sunday the eritire equip- 
ment of fifty cars were in service. Another quite as sur- 
prising fact is that not a motor was burned out, and the 
few trifling accidents, such as broken headlights, etc., 
amounted to but little more than one hundred dollars. 



STEAM roads find it necessary to make a distinctive 
department of its motive power, presided over by a 
man who makes a constant study of how power may be 
produced at the lowest possible cost, and who maintains a 
close survelience on all the motor machinery. Already 
many electric roads are finding it advisable to enlarge 
their operating department by the appointment of an ex- 
perienced man as superintendent of motive power. Even 
now too many railways are run without that detailed 
knowledge of cost. In a general way the manager 
knows the lump amount each month that represents the 
cost of fuel, water, power house help and repairs and in- 
spection of motors and machinery, but when it comes to 
an intelligent idea of the many branches of this expense 
he is at sea. On a small road it is conceded the super- 
intendent can keep a personal watch and carry in his 
head what would be impossible on a larger line. But 
on any road however small the saving to be effected by 
knowing the division of expenses for comparison with 
previous months will prove of great value. Many a road 
can increase its dividends without increasing its earnings 
one dollar, simply by a more intelligent knowledge of 
expenses. 

BEFORE another issue of the Re\iew the opening 
ceremonies inaugurating the World's Columbian 
Exposition will have passed into history. It is human 
nature to anticipate so much of a widely-heralded attrac- 



(^txcctlf^iWay'j^Vm/ 



195 



tion that the realization of actual inspection is apt to fall 
far short of the ideal and result in more or less of disap- 
pointment. But in the present instance no such regret 
will be expressed, for the simple reason that it does not 
lie within the power of writer and artist to convey any- 
thing like an adequate conception of the beauty, extent 
and grandeur of the World's Fair. From its inception the 
work has been prosecuted with that tremendous energy 
which has built up a city of a million-and-a-half in half a 
century, and whose citizens from the multi-millionaire 
down to the day laborer have gladly contributed accord- 
ing to their means and expended fifteen millions of money 
in providing an aggregation whose equal the sun has never 
shone upon before. It is but truth, and in no measure 
exceeding the bounds of modesty to say that what Chi- 
cago has done in this great enterprise would not, and, 
indeed, could not have been accomplished by any other 
city on the continent; nor by any city on the globe within 
the same time. While priding itself on all the city has 
done in providing a suitable home for the exhibits, Chi- 
cago fully recognizes that she is but working out the will 
of the whole great country in which all true Americans 
take as strong personal interest in the success of the enter- 
prise. It is enough to say the Fair will be a credit to our 
country. But the feast is almost ready, when all car taste 
for themselves. 

WE learn with surprise that in a good sized town in 
Ohio the patrons of the theater there were 
obliged to walk home after one of the performances 
because the entertainment chanced to run ten minutes 
past II o'clock, the time when the last car was scheduled 
to leave. There may have been some excuse somewhere, 
but it certainly could not be accepted as a good one, and 
it will be hard to offer any explanation why the patrons 
of the road who used the cars in going were not accom- 
modated for the return trip to their homes. The man- 
ager may be able even to show that in this special case the 
available traffic would not pay the running expenses of 
that one trip. But in our judgment this is no argument at 
all. The hour was not unreasonably late, and certainly 
theater riding will never be encouraged and built up if 
people are assured they will have to walk home, or if 
they are not assured that they will not be compelled to 
walk. On a well managed road the superintendent keeps 
informed of the special gatherings and meetings, and 
not only ascertains the time when they will separate, but 
details some one to see that, if possible, sufficient number 
of cars are in waiting to provide for the business when 
the regular service would be inadequate. The enterpris- 
ing superintendent will go further and secure an announce- 
ment to the audience that he will have ample supply of 
cars. This, of course, as stated, where the usual service 
at that hour of the night is not sufficient. This makes 
extra work for the superintendent, but it also makes good 
friends of the patrons of the road, and will inevitably 
result in increasing travel to a point, where if not profit- 
able at first, soon will become so. There are many roads 
paralleled today which might have continued in the 



enjoyment of their original exclusive business had not 
some moss-back stockholder or director sat down on the 
efforts of his more far sighted manager. We do not 
believe in running an owl car for one passenger, but that 
is a very different matter from the topic under considera- 
tion. 

DURING a recent trip through the Gulf States, we 
were greatly impressed with the field for light elec- 
tric traction in the sugar plantations. The cane ripens 
late in the fall, and is cut in November, December and 
January. At present this cane is in most cases hauled in 
wagons to the crushers, which during the season are kept 
running both day and night — the latter by the aid of electric 
light. The soil, which is favorable to the raising of cane, 
is at all times, and especially during the season named, 
particularly favorable to raising Cain with the wagons 
loaded with the saccharine stalks. From three to five 
pair of mules or oxen find it a slow and toilsome process 
to haul the broad-tired wagons through the moist, yield- 
ing'soil. The more the road is used the worse it becomes, 
and the lighter becomes the load which can be hauled 
and longer the time required in transit. Indeed, so 
serious is this problem, one of the oldest planters in the 
South, a gentleman who has upward of 2,000 acres in all, 
informed us that there was no profit in raising sugar 
where the cane had to be hauled to exceed one and a 
half miles. As one solution of the trouble, some planters 
are installing smaller crushing mills, at convenient dis- 
tances scattered over their fields, and thus reducing the 
haul. The juice, however, is pumped through a pipe 
line from these crushers to the main plant, where it is 
boiled or converted into suger or molasses. While the 
pipe line promises relief in some respects, it is less desir- 
able on many accounts than to have the entire process of 
manufacture conducted at one central point. While the 
crushers are expensive, the cost of the sugar houses with 
their machinery runs from $30,000 to $300,000, hence 
the explanation why they cannot be multipHed and scat- 
tered. We believe the large planters will find their solu- 
tion of the question in the introduction of light railways, 
narrow gauge, on which small cars can be drawn by 
electric motors by the trolley system. As there are prac- 
tically no grades and a high speed is not desired, the 
motors need not be of heavy construction. An abund- 
ance of tie material is always at hand in the neighboring 
swamps, where it can be cut from cypress, pine or white 
oak. Tracks can be built in sections the length of rails, 
with rails spiked to longitudinal stringers, and these in 
turn resting on the cross ties, so that the tracks could be 
quickly taken up, transported, and again relaid in another 
section of the plantation as occasion required. As labor 
is cheap this w^ould not incur much expense of either 
money or time. For a ground return rails could be cross 
bonded to a short galvanized iron pipe driven into the 
moist earth, or bonded to a return wire. As the track 
would be single, and probably not more than two loaded 
trains moving at one time, the return current offers no 
serious problem. In short, the entire construction and 



196 



(^1jQjd'j{aAWjayJ^ 



equipment would involve comparatively small outlay. The 
power would be generated at the mill, where already an 
electrician is required to operate the lighting plant. 
Indeed, both railway and lights could be supplied from 
the same generator. In short, the plan seems at once to 
offer radical rehef for a most pressing evil, and a magni- 
ficent field for the constructing engineer. The Review 
confidently looks forward to the near future, when all the 
cane of the large plantations will be transported in this 
way, and again when manufactured and in barrels and 
hogsheads delivered by the same method to railroad and 
docks where distance will permit. 



A SOLUTION OF THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE 
PROBLEM. 



SOME changes will certainly become absoluteh' 
necesssry in the near future in the matter of 
transportation acrosss the Brooklyn bridge. The 
several ferries are doing as large a business as ever, 
and additional boats are building now, to further increase 
the service. The bridge cable handles upwards of 125,- 
000 daily. 

As a substitute we believe the system of endless move- 
able sidewalk operated for several months experimentall)- 
in this city, and previously fully illustrated in these col- 
umns, is worthy the closest investigation of the bridge 
commissioners. A section 4,300 feet long will be in opera- 
tion at the Fair. This sj-stem consists of three paralell 
and close fitting platforms. The first stationary, the sec- 
ond moving at three miles an hour, and the the third, 
which is fitted with comfortable cross seats accommodat- 
ing three persons each, at six miles an hour. The line 
here is operated by electric motors, but for use on the 
bridge it would be an easy matter to retain the cable sys- 
tem just as it is and use ordinary cable grips fastened to 
the platforms at suitable intervals, and which would auto- 
matically release the cable at the proper " throw offs," 
and take it again in the same manner at the "pick up." 
But one cable is required, as one of the two moving plat- 
forms ride on the periphery of the wheels which carry 
the other. The speed could be fixed at any rate desired. 
It would be necessary to enclose the platforms in a sta- 
tionary wooden or light metal structure about the size of 
a car and reaching all the way across the bridge, but 
this is neither expensive or difTicult. 

The installation of this system should be accomplished 
with less than a week's delay in traffic; will not require 
any disturbance whatever of the present tracks, except 
slight changes at termini; and absolutely without change 
or one dollar of additional expense in the present power 
plant. A most important feature, and only possible with 
this sj^stem. 

With this system operating at a six mile speed 31,680 
people could be transported each way every hour, and 
every one would have a seat. 

The question of safet}' will naturally first arise, but on 
this point the record of the thousands carried last j'ear 
at the World's Fair grounds including people of all ages 



from children to the infirm, and without a suggestion 
of an accident is sufficient answer. In fact it is difficult 
to imagine how an accident could possibly occur. While 
the moveable sidewalk is not intended to supercede sur- 
face or elevated roads, it has a wide field all its own, and 
in which, as on the Brooklyn bridge, it offers a service 
which has no equal. For a down-town loop in Chicago 
connecting the termini of our elevated roads and the 
various depots it offers a positive solution. The facilities 
are indeed those of cars operating on a headway of about 
two seconds. The moveable sidewalk at the World's 
Fair will constitute, we believe, the most unique and inter- 
esting exhibit in all the wide range of transportation, but 
unlike some others is not built for show onl)', but for the 
transportation of 40,000 passengers per hour, during the 
entire da)', from May i to November ist. 

We especiall}' commend to our New York andBrook- 
Ivn friends visiting Chicago, a careful study of this inter- 
esting, simple, comparatively inexpensive and most prac- 
tical system. The highest engineering authorities in 
America and Europe have given it their indorsement, but 
to the ordinary citizen the actual and successful operation 
as will be witnessed on the Casino pier, will be the 
more satisfactory evidence of merit, and all-convincing. 



UNITED STATES TIMBER TEST WORK. 



ALTHOUGH all the leading railroad engineers, 
architects, professors of engineering and others 
interested in the timber tests had flooded with 
hundreds of letters their representatives and senators, and 
the committee on manufacturing, in whose hands the 
special appropriation was pigeon-holed, neither tlie com- 
mittee nor the house paid any attention to this expression 
of public interest. The senate, however, increased the 
appropriations for the Forestry division by $8,000, that 
is, 20 per cent of the amount asked. 

Under the circumstances, the testing will be discon- 
tinued until after July, when the new appropriations 
become available. 

Those interested in the investigation should not fail to 
move again when the new Congress assembles. 

The first compilation of test results will probably be 
issued within six or eight weeks as Bulletin 8, Timber 
Physics, Part II. It will contain the results obtained on 
Longleaf pine, and will discuss in detail the results of 
tests and examinations of bled and unbled timber, results 
which in themselves justify the expenditure. 

The Forestry Division will exhibit the methods pur- 
sued in this work at the World's Fair. 

Another exhibit of interest to railroad engineers and 
those interested in reducing forest waste, will be a collec- 
tion of the most approved types of metal railroad ties. 



The New York Commercial Advertiser sayS that, "the 
Rapid Transit Commission fully justifies its title in the 
rapidity which it causes Manhattan stock to fluctuate — 
but in nothing else particularly." 



(^ ttcct j^iWay-U^eVm/ 



197 



COOKS ELEVATED RAILWAY SYSTEM. 




L. F. COOK. 



THE days of the stage coach for the extensive trans- 
portation of passengers have long since faded into 
an illustrious past ; but with all our evolution which 
has developed to annihilate time we have persistently 
clung to some of the salient features of the stage. 

Addressing the Engineer's Club of Philadelphia 
recently, John C. Trautwine, Jr., remarked : "We may 
well believe that so radical an increase in speed as is now 

contemplated will de- 
mand a similarly radical 
departure from our pres- 
ent methods. When 
we have come to regard 
80 or 100 miles per hour 
as an everyday affair, I 
believe we shall have 
abandoned the imitation 
of the stage coach, with 
its center of gravity 
several feet above its 
base, and our vehicles 
will be suspended from, 
rather than supported 
by, the rails, h is safe, 
too, I think, to predict 
that instead of heav}' 
trains dispatched daily 
or hourlj', single and light vehicles will follow each other 
at comparatively very short intervals." 

Oberlin Smith, in the Engineering Magazine, predicts 
the advent of high speed cars as operating on elevated 
structures, so built as to make derailment impossible, 
driven by electricity and with light, narrow cars, which 
shall cut the air like a bird. 

So expectant is the civilized world to-day of the speedy 
solution of the rapid transit problem, both as applied to 
long distance and to city travel, that every new method 
is scrutinized in the hope that the solution has been 
reached. The requirements as laid down by Trautwine 
and Smith, above quoted, have all apparently been worked 
out by Lucien F. Cook, of Taconia, Washington, who 
has spent twelve years in perfecting his system. Not 
only is it adapted for long distance high speed lines, but 
affords rapid service along the streets of even the 
largest cities. It is, of course, an elevated structure, but 
of such construction as to practically offer no objection in 
the matter of obstructing light and air. 

The Cook S3'stem is simplicity itself, both in construc- 
tion and manner of operation, and he does what no other 
inventor has ever done, namely, operates two trains in 
opposite directions on the same track. The entire ele- 
vated construction is light but being made of angle iron and 
truss girders affords maximum strength with a minimum 
weight. The supporting pillars are spaced from 30 to 60 
feet and rest upon foundations below the frost line. These 
pillar.s may be carried to almost any desired height but 
preferably to 18 feet above the surface. Upon and 



securely riveted to them rests the longitudinal girder with 
the upper surface curved in a concave form. Fastened 
to the bottom of the girder on either side are the beveled 
rails. The cars which are narrow and very light, but of 
any desired length, are carried on either side the girder 
and of course move in opposite directions. These cars 
operated single or in trains are suspended from an arm at 
the upper corner extending the length of the car. This 
arm is of angle iron of great strength, in which are anti- 
friction wheels which take the bearing. These wheels 
travel in the concave track resting on the girder. Should 
by any accident even all the wheels be broken the arm 
would still support the car. The driving wheel is mounted 
on the armature axle, and its perphery is beveled to run 
on the beveled rail. A guide wheel carried to run on the 
under side of the beveled rail renders it utterly impossi- 
ble for the car to jump the track under any conditions 
that could possibly arise. This guide wheel can be tightly 
pressed against the rail by a hand lever to increase the 
traction. An iron shoe also travels against the rail for 
braking purposes and is applied with a hand lever. The 
driving wheel is of small diameter and actual demonstra- 
tion has developed the fact that it need not have a face of 
more than one-quarter inch. As the speed increases this 
driving wheel gradually climbs the beveled rail, thereby 
transferring the load from the suspending wheels to itself, 
but is limited in its play by the guide wheel below. 

The trolley wire is carried on the under side of the 
upper rail, where it is perfectly insulated and is rigidly 
attached. An ordinary' trolley wheel or brush takes the 
current, which is led to the motor on the car floor in the 
usual manner. The return current is grounded through 
the contact of the driving wheel on the lower rail. While 
it may be as long as required, the car body ranges in 
width from 26 to 40 inches, and in height from 4^^ to 7 
feet, according to speed desired. For high speed it 
should be pointed fore and aft. While extremely strong 
it is very light, in fact, weighs no more than the passen- 
gers it carries. Seats may be either longitudinal or cross, 
and passengers enter and depart from side doors placed 
on the outside only, affording unequalled facilities for 
loading and unloading. The car heaters are, of course, 
electric, and at night light comes from the same source. 
A surprising feature of the system as actually proved by 
demonstration is that no car springs are required. 

Until the present Mr. Cook has given his plans no 
publicity through the press. However, to demonstrate 
the practicability of his system he built in the city of 
Tacoma a line elliptical in shape and 800 feet long, rang- 
ing from 7 to 16 feet high, combining all the ditHculties 
of construction to be found under all conditions. Two 
grades of five and ten per cent were also made as part of 
its features. Notwithstanding the fact that the structure 
was wholly of wood, with the pillars set only twelve 
inches in the ground, and the rail at the top was simply 
wood lined; with light strap iron, as was also the beveled 
rail below, he found no dilliculty in operating at a speed 
of forty-two miles an hour, starting and stopping quickly 
and at will; and carrying twelve passengers, although the 



198 



(^St/wdrJ^aAWayj^ii^ 



seating capacity of the car was but eight. The curves 
in the experimental line would rarely if ever be found in 
actual practice; and on reasonably straight track, there 
seems to be no question that he can maintain a speed of 
from lOO to 200 miles per hour. A representative of the 
Review, who participated in several of the tests 
on the Tacoma line, testifies to the high speed, 
the perfect ease with which the car traveled, and 
is fully convinced that with a longer and less 
crooked track 100 miles an hour will be an easy 
matter. The same car ran equally well on either 
side of the track, making both the in and outer 
curves. 

The reader will naturally first ask 
himself why the track structure does 
not tip or lean to one side or the 
other. While to all appearances this 
would be the natural result, in fact 
the car weight is so distributed that 
it becomes comparatively center 
bearing, and the resultant is a down- 
ward thrust. 

In making high speed one great 
obstacle has always been vibration. 
This has been overcome in this sys- 
tem by the contradictory forces (the 
outward bearing at the top and the 



least expensive of any system of elevated roads yet 
devised ; the same may be said of the equipment, and the 
time required to build a line is also very short. Further, 
and in conclusion, Mr. Cook calls attention to the follow- 
ing points of advantage: — 






SIDE VIEW or CAR AND SOLID GIRDER. 



He meets all contingencies; he builds his structure 
on the angle iron principle; takes up the least room; 
shuts out the least light; has at all times the combined 
strength of his tracks and by suspending his car from 




CROSS SECTION GIRDER. 



CROSS SECTION STRUCTURE. 



CROSS SECTION CAR — DETAILS AND MANNER OF SUSPENSION. 



inward bearing at the bottom), thereby having a tendency 
to deaden vibration. 

As will be strikingly noticed by reference to the illust- 
rations the s}'stem throughout is marked by the utmost 
simplicity. The parts are all strong, extremely light and 
few in number. It is difficult to see where the present 
plans are to be bettered. Construction is by far the 



the top carries less dead load; and by carrying from an 
upper corner is enabled to concentrate his tracks. He has 
greater strength in proportion to load carried than any 
system yet devised. Upper and lower rails compensate 
at all times; and the perfect gauge between upper and 
lower tracks is always preserved. The structure offers 
little resistance to air pressure. Supports may be 



(^IJicctl^iWay-S^VlfiW' 



199- 



placed thirty to sixty feet apart. In crowded streets supr 
ports may be placed on either side of the street at the 
curbs and arched to the center, as in the illustration, 
where one or more lines may be suspended having 



'mm2i 




32iX 



^, 



^v:-ig3iO 



LATTICE GIRDER CONSTRUCTION. 



various speeds. Narrow sidewalks may also be placed 
along the tracks, and second story fronts may be con- 
verted into retail establishments. Blockades or any of 
the other disadvantages of surface traction could not 
operate to disarrange the schedule and speed. 

Light loads with great speed and frequency have always 




METHOD OF FOUR TRACK SUSPENSION. 

been Mr. Cook's theory in pursuing this subject, thus 
dispensing with great strain on track, cars or machinery, 
and affording more convenient and profitable service. 
A company in which some of the best known capitalists 
in Chicago are included has been organized to build a 
line in Chicago, and as soon as the material can be made 
will have it on exhibition here. 



The General Electric Company are building at Lynn, 
a portable electric welder, suited for taking out on the 
track and welding the rail ends. Current is supplied 
from the trolley wire. 



POSTAL STREET CARS. 




CINCINNATI is not behind the times in any 
respect, and Cincinnati railways and their man- 
agers are in the fore front of every enterprising 

movement. 

The latest plan to make both ends of the car pay divi- 
dends is that now in operation on the Cincinnati Inclined 

Plane Railway Company, of becoming 

a mail route and bona fide government 

contractors. There are five post offices 

on the line of the railway, and the mail 

destined for the stations at Corryville, 

known as station "E," Ludlow Grove, 

(St. Bernard), Elmwood Place and Car- 
thage is loaded on the front platform of 

the cars and whirled to its destination, 

via the C. I. P. Ry. Company's track. 

Other lines in Cincinnati also handle 

mail. 

H. M. Littell began overtures last 

year towards this end, but the matters 

were closed up and contracts made by 

H. P. Bradford, the present general 

manager. The mail delivery is fre- 
quent, the cars carrying five times a 
day each way, and the company regards it as a success- 
ful venture. 

In this same great state of Ohio there are two more 
progressive towns Massillon and Canton. Both are 
manufacturing centers and have a large migratory pop- 
ulation, drifting from one town to the other to work, or on 
pleasure bent. Eight miles of good electric wire bring 
the towns into communion, transporting not only passen- 
gers, but freight, baggage, express and mail. To accom- 
modate this latter traffic, the management has built a 
special car, designed as a counterpart of the regular steam 
postal cars, only smaller. The Canton-Massillon car is i8 
feet long, 6 feet wide, with vestibule platforms. No 
passengers are carried on this car, which is an independ- 
ent motor and runs in a train by itself. 

Wells-Fargo express is carried from Massilon into Can- 
ton, where a new office has just been opened. Local 
transferring is left to the transfer companies. The mail 
service is from post office to post office, carrying four 
mails each way a day. For the mail service, the govern- 
ment pays the company $43-75 a month. No extra men 
are required, so that the bonus is all gain. The express 
and baggage business is a paying service and .worthy of 
trial on a number of the numerous interurban roads which 
are now webbing small towns together. 

The most extensive street railway mail service is, how- 
ever, found in St. Louis. Postmaster Harlow, an 
enthusiast in this work, is the author of the street railway 
mail service in St. Louis. 

This system of mail distribution is made on the St. 
Louis & Suburban Electric Railway with a special car con- 
structed for the purpose. 

This car has the regular motor and trolley pole equip- 



200 



(^^ijwd'j{aiyh^U\^^ 



ment, but otherwise resembles the railway post offices of 
steam roads. Inside it is fitted with mail boxes, hooks 
for pouches and sorting desk. It is 44 feet in length, 7 
feet 10 inches wide, 11 feet 4 inches high; car body 
length 36 feet, inside hcighth at center 7 feet 9 inches, 
with a side door opening 4 feet. The working force con- 
sists of one stamper, one distributor and a motor man. 

The car travels over a system embracing 19 miles, 
receiving and distributing mail en route to and from the 
post office building, past which it runs. The aggregate 
run of the car in its three round trips is 114 miles, and 
the time occupied in each trip is 3 hours 12 minutes. 

Way stations are established at irregular intervals 
along the line where carriers congregate to receive or 
deliver their mail bags. The first trip is started at 6:25 



New~York and Brooklyn are considering the advis- 
ability of a like arrangement and, no doubt the cities of 
Baltimore, Philadelphia and Chicago will find out its 
advantages later. 

The street railways of our cities have advantages 
more than one, and enterprise and pluck is all that is 
required to develop them. 



The Edison Illuminating Company, Philadelphia, 
have increased their boiler plant and installed the Babcock 
& Wilcox boilers, which have been selected after the 
most careful investigation. The new boilers aggregate 
1,700 horse-power and are built entirely of steel to carry 
225 pounds pressure. 




ST. LOUIS POSTAL CAR. 



a. m. from the post office, and arrives at Cabanne at 7 
o'clock. It is met at the ten or twelve stations bj' the 
carriers throughout the adjacent districts. Leaving 
Cabanne at 9 o'clock the mail is delivered at the post 
office at 9:33, and the car lies over until 9:50 when the 
next trip is made. 

The system obviates the delay, expense and trouble of 
bringing local mail to the post office, distributing, cancel- 
ing and receiving all along the line. City letters thus can 
be delivered in 30 minutes. 

The amount of mail handled by the street railway pos- 
tal system amounts to 5,000 letters a day. Forty-nine car- 
riers are supplied and relieved of their post office trips and, 
as above narrated, three round trips are made each day. 

Postmaster Harlow reports to the Postmaster General 
that the S3'stem is entirely satisfactory and meets the 
requirements of the local service to a degree of perfection 
unobtainable by any other method. 



The General Committee of Engineering Societies for 
the Exposition have made arrangements to have recep- 
tion rooms at 10 Van Buren street and in the Mines build- 
ing on the Fair grounds. At both of these places engi- 
neers will find a comfortable retreat with surroundings 
corresponding to their profession. 

Distant mutterings are heard of a scheme to connect 
Brookville,Md., with Baltimore, by an electric road. Inter- 
urban roads know not the word "can't" in the year 1893. 

Hon. Geo. B. Shaw, Congressman-elect and well 
known in electrical circles by reason of his connection 
with the National Electric Manufacturing Company as 
its general manager, has assumed charge of the World's 
Fair Bureau of the Ansonia Electric Company. This 
bureau will have for its sole end the entertainment and 
assistance of the friends of the Ansonia Company at the 
World's Fair. 



^ tied/ J^aiWay-li^Vlcv/ 



201 



HALF FARES. 



Interesting Facts from all Parts of the Country 
Boiled Down for Busy Readers. 



Siemens & Halske, of Berlin, have just finished an 
electric road for Gross-Lichterfields which is now open 
for traffic. Thej^ are constructing one at Hanover. 



The Ashtabula case has now reached the Supreme 
court of Ohio. Eight years ago the citj' authorities tore 
up four miles of track, and J. N. Stewart has been after 
them ever since. 

The Tuscaraws Rapid Transit Company is the name 
of a road to be built this summer from New Philadelphia 
to Ulrichsville, O. The right of way is secured and 
work will be pushed. 

The Broadway (New York) cable is being operated 
above Fifteenth street. In this way an opportunity will 
be given to educate gripmen preparatory to opening the 
downtown line for traffic. 



The Ansonia Electric Company has in preparation a 
book of tables and other information for use in electrical 
work. Rumor says that some very valuable tables have 
been obtained at considerable cost. 



Electrical Engineer Fredericks, of the Daven- 
port & Rock Island Railway, is engaged in construction 
work on the Chicago & North Shore. He will probably 
serve as electrical engineer for both roads. Work on 
the latter line is progressing finely. 



A COMPANY is being organized to build a road between 
populous factor)' districts in South Waukegan, a suburb 
of Chicago. F. W. Ganse, Calvin Dickey and Byron 
Y. Craig are incorporators. Mr. Ganse's office is in 
Chamber of Commerce, this city. 



In Wheeling, West Virginia, there is a city ordinance 
visiting the offenses of children against city laws on the 
heads of their parents and guardians. This was made use of 
in the recent strike when the strikers' children interfered 
with traffic by putting obstructions on the tracks. 



The farmers of Contra Costa county, Cal., are becom- 
ing interested in a scheme to build a network of electric 
roads to connect their region with Oakland, and the plan 
now seems reasonably sure of success. It will be a 
farmers' road rather than a suburban passenger line. 



Sir Frederick Bramwell, the umpire appointed to 
put a valuation on the property of the London Street 
Tiamways Company, which is to be purchased by the 
citj- of London, has decided that .$31 •^664 is a proper 
estimate, not taking into account the compulsory pur- 
chase. 



A NEW use for the electric car was found at Spring- 
field, Mass., recently. A fire engine got stalled going 
up grade on the way to a fire. A motor car came up 
behind and helped it up the hill on a double quick. And 
yet some people claim that the trolley is a hindrance to 
firemen! 

Three-fourths of a mile of underground trolley road, 
designed by Malone Wheless, is being experimented 
with at Washington, D. C. The trolley wire which is run 
in a conduit is divided into sections 200 feet long. These 
sections are automatically connected with the feeder cable 
as the car goes along, being dead at all other times. 



The franchises have been granted for the Gait & 
Preston, Ontario, Street Railwa}', to operate by steam or 
electricit)'; to be built this year. R. G. Cox, St. Cath- 
erines; Thos. Todd, Gait; Fred Clare, Preston, and T. 
M. Bent, of the Berlin & Waterloo Street Railwa}', are 
interested. The names mentioned insure the success of 
the enterprise. 

Considerable interest is being excited in Chicago by 
the passage through the council of an ordinance granting 
the Midland Rapid Transit Company a franchise for 
either an elevated or underground road between Jackson 
and Madison streets, from Franklin street to the city 
limits, with several branches. An air of mystery hangs 
around the backing of the scheme that is the food for 
much newspaper speculation. 



The Twin City Rapid Transit Company, St. Paul and 
Minneapolis, ha\'e given notice that it will, on June, i, in- 
crease the wages of motormen and conductors that have 
been in service more than a year fi'om 17 to 20 cents per 
hour. New hands will be advanced from 17 to 18 cents. 
This is a fair sample of Mr. Lowry's generous and far- 
seeing policy. The company announces that the object of 
this move is to recognize the efficiency of the men and to 
stimulate them to further care in the observance of rules. 
The change gladdens the hearts of 1,000 men and 
increases the annual expenditure $75,000. 



The Safety Brake Shoe Company, of Boston, manu- 
facturers of the Composite Brake Shoe, have secured the 
services of George C. Ewing as their superintendent. 
Mr. Ewing has been connected with the railway depart- 
ment of the General Electric Company, and accepts this 
position because of the encouraging developments in the 
sale and use of this brake shoe. He will visit Chicago 
soon, and other intermediate cities, in the interests of the 
company. They have also engaged the services of James 
J. Sides, who comes to them from the electrical and 
mechanical department of the West End Street Railway, 
who will travel in other parts of the country. As both of 
these gentlemen are practically familiar with street rail- 
way work, they will undoubtedly meet with favor from 
street railway officials. 



202 



(^tiectlF\aiWa)'j\^^ 



PERSONAL. 



E. F. Seixas is traveling in Italy and will be absent 
two months. 

Charles Hathaway, Cleveland, was a recent visitor 
at the Review office. 



C. McL. Paine has assumed business management of 
the Architect's Electrical Bulletin. 



Geo. W. Peirce retires from the superintendency of 
the Concord, N. H., Street Railway Company. 



Harry P. Barr has resigned the position of secre- 
tary and general manager of the Sperry Electric Com- 
pany. 

John S . Pugh, while successfully representing the 
merits of the Baltimore Car Wheel, called at the Review 
office during March. 

Elmer P. Morris, special agent of the General Elec- 
tric Company, is located for the present in the Lombard 
building, Indianapolis. 

Jas. J. Sides has resigned his position with the West 
End Street Railway Company to accept one as traveling 
salesman for the Safety Brake Shoe Company, of Bos- 
ton. 

Nelson W. Perry, of the Electrical World, recently 
suffered the loss of his father, who was a prominent 
member of the Cincinnati bar and at one time member 
of Congress. 

A. I. Jones, formerly superintendent of the Great Falls, 
Montana, Iron Works, has assumed the selling agency of 
the M. C. Bullock engines and mining machinery, at 39 
South Canal street. 

A. M. Young, the well known electric railway builder, 
of Connecticut, was one of the first in the field of electric 
railway work, and has achieved the success which is the 
just due of all pioneers. 



The venerable Henry Hanna, of Cincinnati, has 
resigned from the directory of the Cincinnati Street 
Railway Company on account of ill health. Mr. Hanna 
s past 79 and has earned his rest. 



Geo. C. Ewing, formerly connected with the railway 
department of the General Electric Company, has resigned 
to accept the position as superintendent of the Safety 
Brake Shoe Company, 620 Atlantic avenue, Boston, 
Mass. 

Recent visitors at this office include W. W. Bean 
president St. Joe Electric Railway; A. E. Hay, president 
Robison Truck Compan)', Altoona; John J. Hoppes, pres- 
ident Hoppes Manufacturing Company', Springfield, O.; 
A. W. Lynn, of the Milwaukee City Railway. 



W. S. Nelson, of Kansas City, well known in rapid 
transit circles of that metropolis, and builder of the West 
Side Electric Railway, nearly lost his life recently in a 
heroic and successful attempt to save the lives of two 
ladies who became panic stricken in front of a cable car. 



W. J. Johnston, publisher of the Electrical World, has 
been spending several days in Chicago, and was a wel- 
come caller at the Review office. The wonderful suc- 
cess of the Electrical World is fully deserved, while its 
constant improvement and progress reflects the highest 
credit on its management. 



Frank X. Cicott, who has been managing director 
of the Railway World, London, since its inception, has 
severed his official position to engage in other business. 
During Mr. Cicott's connection with the World it has 
taken a foremost place among European publications. 
A. M. Wilcox, formerly of this city, who has been editor, 
will now add to his present duties those of managing 
director. 

President Albert J. Elias, of the Third Avenue 
Railway Company, New York City, J. H. Robertson, 
the well known and popular superintendent of the same 
line, and C. Frederick Kohl, vice-president of the Penn- 
sylvania Iron Works, were visitors in Chicago during the 
month. Chicago's street railway lines occupied their 
attention, and a visit to the Street Railway Review 
office was an incident to the visit. 



Daniel F. Lewis, president of the Brooklyn City 
Railway, and whose name stands so prominent as the 
head of the great Lewis & Fowler Manufacturing Com- 
pany's interests, was married on March 22 to Miss Mary 
VanVleck, of Plainfield, N. J., formerly of Brooklyn. 
Mr. Lewis and his bride has the best wishes of his nu- 
merous friends and acquaintances, and the felicitation of 
the Street Railway Review in particular. 



The car was going down the st. 

She stepped off backwards witli both ft. 
But wliat slie said is hardly mt., 

To print in the Revikw. 



C. J. Swift, of the Ford- Washburn Storelectro Com- 
pany, of Cleveland, has contracted for five 30-horse- 
power equipments for the Woodland Avenue and West 
Side Road of Cleveland. 



W. Haskell Kin(; & Company, of New Haven, 
Conn., are in the market with an anti-rattler car window 
fastener, described in the Review last month. 



The Johnson Engineering & Foundry Company, 
of New York, has bought the frog and switch business 
of Abram Ayres and will hereafter carry on that busi- 
ness, 



(^tx£d/li\aUvv^j^yie\v^ 



203 



AN INDIANAPOLIS RAILWAY GROUP. 



BEFORE resigning from the presidency of tlie 
Citizens' road at Indianapolis, Mr. Frenzel called 
his executive force together and expressed his 
desire to have the photographer secure a picture of the 
group. The rest in turn consented, on condition that 
Mr. Frenzel would himself constitute one of the number. 
The engraving is from a photo 20 by 24 inches, and the 
various portraits will be recognized by many of our read- 
ers, owing to the large acquaintance of the Indianapolis 
officers. 



A New York syndicate which is already operating 
several large systems in the east, are making strenuous 
efforts to secure franchises in the suburbs of Montreal, 
and are also reported as trying to secure the right to use 
the tracks of the City Passenger within the city limits. 

The Toronto & Scarboro Electric Railway is another 
one of the numerous proposed inter-urban roads. The 
plan is to construct an extensive network of lines between 
the towns mentioned and to sell current for power and 
light along the line. The management have issued a 
handsome prospectus. 




S. F. BAZELRIGG, 

Pur. Aet. 
K. W. MADISON, 

Collector. 



H. POPENHOUSK, W. S. JEWELL, A. A. ANDHR50N, 

Clerk. Elec. Supt. Sec. and Treas 

W. T. LEWIS, J. P. FRENZKL, R. G. SWAIN, 

Asst. Supt President, clerk. 

W. F. MILHOLLAND, T. DONAHUE, MBS. SALTMAR&H, 

Cashier. Clerk. Stenoerapher. 



J. J. MAHONHY, R. F. SALTMARSH, W.E.JONES, 

Paymaster Asst. Book Kpr. Clerk. 

G. H. HERPICK, F. BRUNER, 

Koadmaster. Collector. 

" GOVERNOR.' 



The Clapham Junction & Paddington Underground 
Railway, of London, has struck a novel kind of a "stump" 
in attempting to get its bill through parliament. The 
professors of the City Guild's Institute and the Royal 
College of Surgeons objected to the proposed road 
because of the alleged magnetic and mechanical disturb- 
ances that would be caused by its operation near their 
institutions. They claimed that it would render impossi- 
ble all delicate experiments. To an American the most 
natural answer would be for the institutions to move el.se- 
where, but the IJritish committee of parliament thought 
otherwise and rejected the bill. 



The annual report of the General Electric Company 
made to the stockholders April 11, showed a net profit of 
$3i3S6,S93 for eight months. 



The Lake Street Elevated of this city is prepar- 
ing to e.xtend their structure east to Market street, to 
which point their franchise extends. There has been 
some controversy between the company and the com- 
missioner of public works in regard to placing piers in 
the middle of Canal street. The company's engineer 
claims that a span across the entire width of the street 
would be unsafe. 



204 



(^ Ked.lF^aJM^j^yW' 



CHICAGO. 




THE old world has its legends of gnomes and giants, 
heroes and prophets, of Aladdin's lamp and song-set 
stones of Thebes. Beautiful they are and their 
shadows and secrets come down to the present day as an 
incense and a restful memory. 

We westerners have no burdens 
of legends to carry and our minds are 
free to grasp where we wiU, and plant 
while we may, the wild fruit or the 
cultured grain, untrammeled by an- 
cestry or ancients. 

For this reason, growth to the west 
and enterprise to its citizenship, must 
take the place of fancies and cold 
hard figures must decorate our liter- 
ary monuments. 

The Columbian year and the Co- 
lumbian prize poet, and the prize- 
statue must bow before the Colum- 
bian prize hog and the Columbian prize 
packer pays the bills. 

Little is left our Columbian poet but the shadowy 
figures of Father Marquette and Pere Joliet and more of 
our Chicagoans know the hotels and towns named after 
these worthies than of the holy zeal that brought them 
from France. 

We glory in our utiUtarianism. 

We rejoice in railways, our hogs and our men — real 
men who do and plan. 

Chicago's history can be written only in figures and 
dates. Nothing else can unfold so rapid a growth. In 
rSiS Illinois became a state bv virtue of a rather original 
method of counting the population. Eleven years later 
the town of Chicago was platted and in 1830 the first map 
was drawn showing a little strip of what is now the North 
Side and a generous slice of the West Town. About this 
time Cook county was organized and a thorough search 
found a dozen families as the total population. Old stories 
of the Fort Dearborn massacre have no place here, but 
the massacre and packing of a party of cattle in 1S32 was 
an event big with promise. 
So we grew. 

The first census was taken in 1837 with this result : 
Males and females over 21 years of age, 2,645; under 21 
and above five, 831 ; children, 513; total, 3,989 white per- 
sons and 77 colored brothers. There were 39S dwellings, 
100 business houses and five churches complete the list. 

Fifteen years later there were 60,000 people in Chi- 
cago. In 1865, 178,900; in 1875, 400,000; and in '85, 
1,000,000. 1893 counts 1,500,000, and estimates of con- 
servative men give 1930 as the time when the mayor of 
Chicago will preside over 4,000,000 inhabitants. 

Thus it was not until 1S37 that Chicago began its com- 
mercial history. Then no factory sent its smoke into the 
pure prairie air. Now thousands upon thousands of souls 
depend upon the causes of e smoke nuisance for their 
daily bread. 



In 1857 fire ravished the incipient city of many of its 
early buildings; 1859 gave another scorch, 1866 followed 
and 1 868 helped remove land-marks and frame disgraces. 
October 9, 1871, is the onlj' day Chicago celebrates for 
Chicago, is in remembrance of Mrs. Leary's cow's 
pas suel, which sent $300,000,000 in smoke and left 
thousands homeless. The Garden Citj' became the Phce- 
nix City, and to-day it is yours, gentlemen, to inspect, 
wonder at and admire. 

Our railway sj'stems we particularly celebrate. In 1S53 
S. B. & M. O. Walker and Parker & Co., controlled the 
street traffic, which consisted of eight lines of omnibus, 
running 18 vehicles a total of 408 trips per diem on 223^ 
miles of streets with 802 omnibus miles a day. Now 500 
miles of street railway operate 4,000 cars and carry 300,- 
000,000 a year. 

Great is Chicago. Selah. 

THE CHICAGO CITY RAILWAY. 

August 16, 185S, the council granted franchises on 
State and Madison streets and Cottage Grove avenue to 
Frank Parmlee, Liberty Bigelow and Henry Fuller. 
A previous attempt had been made in 1856 to start a 
street railroad, but this was the first one destined to suc- 
ceed. An act of legislature in February, 1S59, approved 
the City Railway, but 
with the condition that 
nothing but a single 
track, with necessary 
turnouts, was to be con- 
structed, and onl}- on 
condition that the con- 
sent of the owners of 
two-thirds of the prop- 
erty in lineal feet along 
the line of the road 
could be obtained. As 
many property owners 
were opposed to the pro- 
ject, it was necessary to 
buy the consent of a 
large number. The first 
cars were run in April, 
1859, on State street, 

between Madison and Twelfth streets, and a month 
later the Madison street line, between State and Hal- 
sted streets, was opened. From this on the lines were 
extended rapidly in all directions, and consent to lay 
double track was obtained. The United States Fair at 
Ft. Douglas, in 1859, induced the laying of a track to that 
point. The Streets below Twelfth were simply planked 
and the rails were spiked directly on top of the planks. 

During the times of poor money in '61 the tickets issued 
by the City Railway played an important part in the mone- 
tary affairs of Chicago. Their face value being unques- 
tioned, they were by all odds the most convenient small 
change available. Large numbers of them were hurriedly 
issued, until counterfeiters began to get in their work, when 
the tickets were recalled and better ones substituted. 




GEO. H. WHEKI.ER, PRESIDENT C. C. RY. 



(^l/ieetj\aUw!a^9^yieW' 



205 



About 1867 the use of "bob-tailed" cars was inaugur- 
ated in order to cut down the running expenses. Their 
use continued until 1874, when the fastidious public 
refused to pay fare except through a conductor. 

In 1S75 the line on Wabash avenue was built, not, 
however, without the usual objections of the property 
owners along the line — so great was the objection, indeed, 
that it was found expedient to lay the track on Sunday. 

From this until 18S0 matters went on in a quiet way 
with the usual number of extensions ^and the natural 
increase in business. In this year, however, an incident 
occured that was destined to have a tremendous influence 
not only on street railway work in Chicago, but in the 
entire United States. Appreciating the future demands 
of the company and with a firm belief in the possibilities 
of the cable, but in the face of the strongest opposition C. B. 
Holmes, then superintendent and afterwards president, 
made a thorough investigation of the San Francisco cable 
system and it was finally decided on as a motive power. 
Ground was broken June, 1881. Arrangements were made 
to equip the entire line on State to Thirty-ninth street and 



The offices and principal power house are at the 
corner of State and Twenty-first streets, this power house 
being the largest in the city. Another is located at Cot- 
tage Grove avenue and Fifty-fifth street. South State 
street is supplied from one at State and Fifty-second, 
near which is the new electric plant. The company 
has 35 miles cable track, 114 of horse lines, 1,740 cars, 
2,700 horses, and employs 3,820 men. 

THE NORTH CHICAGO STREET RAILROAD. 

In 1859, the same year that saw the City Railway 
started, W. B. Ogden, Jno. B. Turner, Carlos V. Dyer, 
Jas. H. Rees and Volney C. Turner, incorporated the 
North Chicago City Railway, and in August, 1859, the 
first cars were run between North Water street and Ful- 
lerton avenue on Clark street. Clark street was at that time 
planked and the rails which were center bearing, were 
spiked directly to the plank roadway, a simplicity of con- 
struction that will doubtless be envied by many of the 
roads of to-day. Another interesting feature of this primi- 
tive Clark street line was the cars. Their bodies were 






R. GREENE, 
SecretarN. 



C. PENINGTON, 
Treasurer. 



M. K. BOWEN, 
SuperintendcDl. 



on Cottage Grove avenue to Thirty-ninth. It was not 
entered into as an experiment, but as if success was a 
matter of course, although it was the first road of the 
kind designed for heavy traffic and cold winters. Both 
the City Railway and the street railway fraternity have 
reason to be thankful for this bold step. The first cable 
train in Chicago was run on the occasion of the opening 
of the road in January, 1882. It consisted of ten cars 
drawn by a single grip and carrying 1,000 passengers. 
So opened a new era in Chicago's local transportation. 
Since the original lines were started they have been 
extended — the State street to Sixty-third and the Cottage 
Grove to Jackson Park and Oakwoods. The most 
important change recently made by the City Railway is 
the adoption of electricity on its feeder lines, which 
change is now being completed. The officers are: 
President, Geo. II. Wheeler; vice-president James C. 
King; treasurer, Thomas C. Penington; secretary F. R. 
Greene; superintendent, M. K. Bowen. 



shaped very much like an omnibus. The driver sat "on 
the roof." When the end of the line was reached the 
whole car did not turn around. The truck remained sta- 
tionary and the car body turned using the truck for a 
turn-table. Whether the truck got tired of always facing 
one way history does not relate. 

However, as was natural with a city of 90,000 popula- 
tion, the road soon outgrew such methods and rapidly 
extended its lines. The history of the North Side road 
was particularly uneventful until in 1886, the North Chi- 
cago City Railway became the North Chicago Street 
Railroad and passed in the hands of the Philadelphia syn- 
dicate, at which C. T. Yerkes is the head. The new 
management soon began to plan for cable construction 
and in the latter part of '86 the necessary franchises, 
together with the use of the LaSalle street tunnel were 
granted and the work was begun. In March, '88, the 
lines were opened for trafiic. Lincoln avenue has since 
been changed to cable. About a month after the open- 



206 



^ftlwdrji\ai{\^\}\^^ 



ing of the cable lines occurred one of the most serious 
strikes in the history of Chicago, involving as it did the 
daily transportation of the many thou- 
sands of people living on the North and 
West Sides. The North Side conductors 
and drivers were the first to go out. They 
were soon followed by those on the West 
Side. Then followed a time of the great- 
est confusion. Every available vehicle 




J. B. PARSONS, 
Generiil Manager West Chicago Street 




CH.\S. NAGL, 
Superintendent West Chicago Street Railroad. 

was brought out and made to do service 
in carrying the crowds to and from their 
homes. There was some mob violence 
on the part of the strikers, but in time 
matters quieted down and the company 
came out victorious. The company at 
present is under the care of President C. 
T. Yerkes; Secretary and Treasurer J. 
Wm. Helm; General Manager Fred L. 
Threedy; Superintendent John M. Roach. 




The power houses are three in number. The princi- 
pal one being at the corner of Clark and Elm streets and 
the others at Illinois street and La Salle 
avenue and Lincoln avenue and Sheffield 
avenue. The Connelly gas motor is also 
used on some of the feeder lines. The 
company has 19 miles of cable track; 62 
miles horse lines; a total of 796 cars and 
employ 1,400 men. 



CHAS. T. YERKES, 

President North Chicago Street Railroad; 
West Chicago Street R.iilroad. 




^ ^ 



R. C. CRAWFORD, 

Secretary and Assistant General Manager 
West Chicago Street Railroad. 





J. WM. HELM, 
Secretary and Treasurer North Chicago Street 




J. M. ROACH, 
Vice-President North Chicago Street Railroad. 



F. L