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INDEX TO CONTENTS OF VOLUME I. 



The Street Railway Review. 



i89i. 



A 

Accident, A Peculiar.. - -....398 

Accidents, Reporting 117-11S 

Aetna Insulator Material, illus 459 

Aid Association, Atlantic - 331 

Air Brake, Genett, illus - 47'4^ 

Air Motor, Compressed, illus 335 

Allen's Safety Brake, illus. _ 2S9 

Aluminium Shades - 232 

Alone, Will go it ---45- 

American Car Company's Plant, illus 470 

Appleyard Safety Fender, illus 530 

Ark Street Car as 125 

Ashtabula, the Horror -138 i39 

Ashtabula Again 357 

Association, Ohio State, 

President's Address 490-500 

Street Cars, F. B. Brownell 50'-503 

Banijuet 503 

Delegates -- 503 

Atkinson Gas Engine, illus 231 

Aurora Flashes -- - 305 

Aurora Street Railway, The, illus 81-S4 

Augusta, Ga., The Electric City, illus ...305-308 

B 

Ball Engine, In a Coal Mine 235 

Ball & Wood Plant. - - 244 

Baltimore, The Cable Line 210 

Baldwin Locomotive Works 27S 

Baragwanath's Pump, illus -- 202 

Bargion Compound Rail, illus 141 

Barnum, P.T., on Electric System 59 

Bates' Electrical Conduit With Closed Slot, illus -.537 

Berlin Rapid Transit In, T. Graham Gribble, illus. .215-219- 

- -265-271 

Belts, Buying - 45^ 

Bell, New Departure, illus ... 4" 

Bickford Radial Truck, illus - 33^ 

Bill Railroading A.. - -- 3 

Bogie Man, The - 45° 

Bonds, Street Railway-- 5^5 

Boston, Big Power Plant 5'0 

Boston, Fire in 4^2 

Boston Letter - - - - ^o 

Boston, Statement of West End --S^S 

Bracket, Double Curved, illus - '44 



Brake, A New Lever 21 

Bridgeport, An Important Change For 4 

Bristol Enterprise 308 

Broad vva}'. Booming of 51S 

Brownell's Accelerator Car, illus 458 

Brownell Fender 493 

Brooklyn, The Trolley in 20S 

Brother-in-law, Had A 163 

Brushburg . 504 

Burned, Car House 108 

Burton Electric Heater, illus 225 

c 

Cable, ACatskill 532 

Cable Road Largest in the World 6 

Cable Plant, A Model, St. Louis, illus 8.12 

Cable, A Long Lived ...224 

Cable Line, New Cly bourn, illus 1 89- 191 

Cable Traction, 202 

Cable Railway, Sidewalk, illus_ 119 

Cable Crossing, A 92 

Cabling Broadway, 271 

Cable in England, The 275 

Cables, Denver Tramways, 257 

Cable, Brooklyn Bridge, --05 

Cables, More at Denver, 332 

Calorific \'entilating Heater, illus 28 1 

Canadian Capital, Electrics in, illus 453 

Capacious Car House, A, 470 

Car Brakes, Screw Safety, illus 590 

Car Painting, Hints on 593 

Car Seat, Handsome, illus 97 

Car Mat, A Good --- 91 

Cars, Large Electric, - 3 

Car Lighting, B. & G. System, illus 534 

Car Order, Largest, - 463 

Car, A Double, Baumhoffs', illus 399 

Car Spring, Ohlsons', illus - 2 78 

Car Replacer, illus — 283 

Canton Pole, The, illus •. 597 

Carette, The Open, illus 54 

Casing for Steam Pipes, An Improved, illus 147 

Census Oflice, Bulletin of 200-201 

Chair, A Boltless, illus 19 

Chattanooga, Mission Ridge, illus .516-517 

Chicago City Railway, Annual Report of '4' '7 

Chicago New Cable Work in, 355 

Chicago Notes, 336 



55583 



Chicago, New Cables in - - 233 

Cicero & Proviso Electric Railway, illus 57 

Cincinnati, New Norwood Line in, illus 504 

Cincinnati Line, A New 3S 

Cincinnati, East End Electric 400 

Clutch Pulley, A New, illus.. 55 

Chicago City Railway, Election 24 

Collision, Avoiding at Corners, illus.. — . 357 

Columbian Coach, illus 349 

Columbian Movable Sidewalk, The 5^8-573 

Double Reduction System, A — 561 

Duplex Street Railway Track, illus 595 

Code, Wants a --230 

Company With Sand, A 3 

Condition of the Horse Market 559 

Conduit, Love's Electric, illus _ 279 

Congratulations, (A. W. Wright) 24 

Contract, Important Railway So 

Convention, The Providence — S7-SS 

Convention City, Pittsburg, illus 3S3-391 

Columbus, Ohio, New Plant of the Consolidated, illus... 2S6 
Conduit for Railway Wires, illus 335 

COXVEXTIOX, NEW YORK STATE. 

President Lewis' Report... 361-362 

Executive Committee's Report, 362-363 

Electric Motive Power for Street Surface Rail- 
ways, Hon. J. N. Beckley, 363-366 

Banquet ---367 

Delegates 367 

Convention, The Tenth Annual, illus 396-397 

CoxvENTioN, A Great, (ioth Annual) 

President Watson's Address 419 421 

Executive Committee's Report 421 -423 

A Perfect Motor, H. A. Everett 423-426 

Progress of Cable Motive Power, J. C. Robinson, 

- .--- 427-43'.5'9 529 

The Dependent, Overhead or Underground Sys- 
tem of Electric Motive Power, Geo. W. Mans- 
field 43'-436 

Wednesday Afternoon 437 

Thursday Morning 437 

State Treatment of Corporate Property, G. Hil- 
ton Scribner 438-47 ' -47^ 

The Independent, Storage or Primary Battery 
System of Electric Motive Power, Knight Nef- 

tel 473-474 

Standards in Electric Street Railway Practice, 

O. T. Crosby 475-48° 

Election of officers 481 

Banquet - 482 

Excursion ..482 

The Exhibits 4S2-488 

Delegates in Attendance 4SS-490 

Convention Echoes -- 530 

Creagehead Insulator The, illus 458 

Crosstie, Metal 236 

Crowther's Cable Pulley, illus 2S2 

Correspondence, (New Orleans) 224 

Cushion Car Wheel, illus -.236 

Cutshaw's Cable System, illus 2S6 

Danville, War At 347 

Day Elevated Railroad 469 

Decision, A Most Important -- 207 



Detroit City Railway Sold --354-355 

Detroit Doings 261 

Denver Doings 490 

Detroit, East Electric .3S0 

Details, The burdens of — 72 

Dublin United Tramway Company, illus. — 76-78 

editorial. 

Abnormal Traffic, The Unprofitable 416 

Accidents 34 

Accidents, Prevention of by Headlights 495 

Activity in Construction 162 

Announcement i 

Announcement of Convention, National 69 

Arbitrators at Toronto ,.. 161 

Bill to Facilitate Construction of Elevated Roads 34 

Bonus for Construction 2 

Bonds and Stocks 495 

Care of Cars 496 

Cable Traction — — 415 

California Calamity, A 38 

Census Report.. — 161 

City Inspectors 'Ji 

City Parks, Track in... 162 

City & South London Underground Line 71 

City & vSouth London Railway 2 

Citizen's Street Car Company, Decatur 69 

Convention, National, loth Annual 415 

Convention, Place of the i ith National 415 

Convention, loth Annual, Massing of Exhibits, 417 

Convention, loth Annual, Division of Exhibits --4i7 

Convention, N. Y. State _ 359 

Convention, Attending Value of... 302 

Convention, loth Annual, Admission to Exhibit by Pass-416 

Companies, How Swindled 498 

Crossing Other Tracks 162 

Dela}' of Cable Construction 360 

Democracy of Street Cars '-205 

Disposition of Snow 35. 

Double Brake Chain, Preventing Accidents, 34 

Draughts in Cars — — 163 

Edison's Latest 497 

Elevated, vs. Underground Roads. 253 

Elevated Road Refused ---253 

Electric Cars Assisting at Fires 207 

Electric Cars in Snow Storms .34 

Electric Railway Crossing, Steam Roads, — i 

Electric Traction in England... — i 

Electric Traction in Europe. 301-254 

Electoral Power of Street Railways ---359 

English Storage Battery, Omnibuses, — i 

Enchantment of City Property, ...33-1 13- 161 -416 

Exasperating, Ver}'. — 207 

Exemption from Taxation, 34 

Express and Freight 70-206-301 

Exhibition of Supplies 301 

Fares for Park Maintainance — 2 

Franchises 3°' 

Free Tickets for School Children 35 

Funeral Cars 206-301-302-360 

Fuel Oil, Explosion of ...162 

Full Stop in Passing Stationary Cars. 304 

Hitching on — - 7' 

Hostile Legislation at Washington 2 

Interurban Lines 7° 



EDiroKiAi, — (continued). 

Limitation of Speed, o^ 

Leave to Withdraw 70 

Objection to Electric Traction 70 

Metropolitan Institution, A 69 

Municipal Control 253-301 

Municipal Meddling ,10^ 

Municipal Outrages 360 

Municipal Ownership 3 

Multiplication of Roads 34 

Newspaper Injustice -496 

No Seat no Fare Fallacy 35 

Obstacles to Improvement 69 

Opposition to Trolley 163-206 

Ownership, Duty of 303 

Pantabiblion 205 

Paying for Franchise 253 

Peculiar Damage Suit, A 206 

Pleasant Valley Railway, Pittsburgh 33 

Plows on Broadway 253 

Popularity of Summer Cars _.i6i 

Prizes for Employes 161-495 

Presidential Condecension 359 

Prohibitory Ordinance, A i 

Progressive Institution, A 37 

Progress in Pennsylvania 162 

Postal Cars -- 161-206-355-496 

Power, Home Made 303 

Rapid Transit in Boston .... 303 

Rapid Transit in New Orleans 360 

Rapid Transit in New York 161 

State Control Unfortunate.. --'63 

Stops at Street Crossings „ 35 

Storage batteries ..33-415 

Strikes - 205 254-301 

Street Railway Attorneys 417 

Strike for a Cap. - 206 

Stopping foi Passeng&rs - 253 

Street Waiting Rooms — 303 

Sunday Cars -- 415 

Taxation Unjust 415 

Thannless People, Ehe >- 496 

Thirteenth National Electric Light Association 33 

Three Cent Fares... - 207 

Tracks, Next Sidewalk 416 

Trolley, Opposition to 4'5 

Trolley Wins the Telephone Case 206 

Two Cent Fares in Europe 359 

Underground Railway 253 

Underground Transportation — 7*^ 

Uniforms 4 

Viaducts System in Berlin, The 205 

Wagon Wear of Rails - 2 

Yearly Tickets 34 

Reduction in Fares 37^ 

Reservation of Streets — 254 

Retail Trade Increased by Rapid Transit - 161 

Rights of Railways - — 4^5 

Sale in Detroit 30^ 

Salt on Tracks - 69 

Separated Oil Houses - i^i 

Sprague, F. J., Prediction of 69 

Speed Objection to.. "9 

Street Car Benefit, A 253 



Eclipse Clutch Works, Clutches, 399 

Edco Company, The -. 148 

Edison Motor, The New, illus 185 

Edison's Explanation of Ampere and Volt 73 

Electrical Supply Company's New Home, illus 353 

Electric Railway Company, New Underground, illus 1S6 

Electrician, The World's Fair, Portrait, 57 

Electrical Supply Company's, Pole Ratchet, illus 146 

Electric Railways, American English Engineers' Re- 
port of 3 '2-3 '3 

Elevated Railway, The Liverpool, illus 309-313 

Elevated Road, Chicago's First, illus 1 20- 1 24 

Elevated Road, Victory of 330 

Ellis Car Company's Electric Plow 400 

Ellis, W. G. & Sons, illus ---59S 

E .■nployes, Brotherhood of - 549 

Engine, High Speed Vertical Compound, illus 276-277 

Engine, The Everest Rotary, illus 100 

England. Operating Expensive in 398 

Europe, Read in 235 

Express, An Electric, illus 260 

Express, Parcel in Dublin 260 

Express Lines 119 

Express Street Car — 30S 

F 

Faithfulness Rewarded 54^ 

Fair, The World's - 241 

Fast Riding, Want 212 

Feed Water Purifier, A Mechanical, illus 326-327 

Fender, A New, illus 232 

Finest in the Land, The, (Chicago City Railway 

Offices) illus 345-347 

Findley, Electric Line at 34S 

Fire, Sixth Avenue, N. Y 287 

Fires of the Month - 5S9 

Flegel's Pipe Covering Company 13 

Flesh to Fuel, From 450 

Foreign Facts, 35^-457 

Found Out, He 51S 

Franchise No, Motors No 305 

Funeral Cars, Street Railway, Chapter I, illus 3'4-3'7 

Funeral Cars, Chapter II, illus 392-393 

Funeral Cars, Chapter III, illus 447-44S 

G 

Gear, Wooden Toothed, illus 146 

German Electric Companies at World's Fair 575 

Gibbon Duplex Tracks, illus - 96 

Gill Water Tube Steam Boiler, illus. 530-53' 

Girder Jolmt, Johnson Standard, illus 233 

Gold for the Golden, 529 

Gold, Good as - - -454 

Golden Electric Wins, The 4°° 

Graham's Door Stop, illus — - 459 

Griffin Plant, The New So 

Gust, Gone in a.. 212 

H 

Harper's Street Railway Tickets, illus 455 

Hathaway Transfer Table, illus 93 

Helena Motor Line Sale. - 369 

Heating Case, Cars 246 



Heals's Happiness 510 

Heath Rail Joint, illus 246 

Highly Honored, T. C. Lowry - - - 60 

Hill Stop, Automatic Electric, illus . . _ 402 

Harper's Sand Box, illus 333 

Horse, The Street Car, of To-Day --. ---569 

Hosehridge for Protection, illus — 38 1 

Hustlers Can do Anything... 510 

Hydraulic Wheel Press, Belt Power, illus .. -. .593 

I 

Incline Plane Railway in Duluth — 579 

Interurban, Another 446 

Interurban Connections 531 

Interurban, St. Paul-Minneapolis, illus 223 

Inter State Electric Road... --. 39S 

Ireland, The Only Electric Line in, illus.. -42-44 

Insurance and the Trolley 209-210 

J 

Jacobs' Elevated Railway, illus 1S4 

Jamestown, Joyous, illus .- 450-451 

Jewell Filters, The, illus --- 5SS 

Johnson's Life Guard, illus. --33" 

K 

Kankakee Electric - 325 

Keokuk, la., Opens Electric Lines, illus 213-214 

Kid-Catcher, California, illus 292 ■ 

L 

LaClede Car Company 356 

LaClede Car Company. 261 

Lamp, A Handsome, illus 19 

La Salle Electric Line, The,. ---S'? 

Law, Street Railway~F. H. Clark ..49, 50, 85, S6, 130, 131 
133, iSo, iSi, 220,321,272,273,318,319,370,371,445 

---- ------ 446, 5i4>5i5 

League, Electrie Railway — 72 

Leeds and the Over Head - 536 

Lee's Self Cleaning Switch, illus. .-- 337 

Lee's Registering Fare Box, illus... 144 

Leffman Pole, The, illus 97 

Life After Death, The, R. W. Snowdon 560-561 

Likes the Differential - 232 

Lincoln Lines -, 320 

Littell, H. H., Goes to Buffalo.. iSS 

Liverpool & Wellsville Electric 561 

London, In Deepest, illus 5"^ 

Lone Star State, Electric Lines in, illus 321-323 

Love's Electric .. . .400 

Lowry, Thomas - 574 

Low's Adjustable Car, illus 333 

Lowell (S: Suburban ..' 232 

M 

Mail, The Electric... • 257 

McKeesport's Pride.. — 5' 5 

McGuire Electric Motor Truck, illus, 235 

Meaker Manufacturing Co 21 

Memphis Matters 147 

^lechanical & Horse Traction, Conr.parative Popularity of 

H. A. Everett 7 

Milwaukee, Mixture A 510 

Minnc-Paul, The Horseless System of 391 

Moffett Journal Bearing, The 592 

Missionary Ridge 5'^-'5^'3 



Motor Operating Automatically at Any Desired Speed 
or Torque and With Maximum Efficiency Under 

all Conditions. H. Ward Leonard 575-57S 

Mortgage, A Large 73 

Montreal at Pittsburg --518 

Motor, A Noiseless 3 

Motor, A New, illus _ — --- 21 

Move, A Bold - 187 

Mule Went, The 532 

Municipal Railway, A 235 

N 

Newark Sale, The - 323 

Newburyport, Fire at, illus 287 

Newsboy, The Festive 39-41 

New England Notes 589 

New Orleans, Condition of Rapid Transit in 75 

New York, Horse Cars of 460 

New York City Rapid Transit, illus. . 133-13S, 167-173,208 
New York Third Avenue Road 567 

Nickle Foundry Cadturep.. 518 

Notes from Cities 25-31, 61-6S, 101-107, 149-156,193- 

199, 247-253, 295-300, 340-344, 406-410,464-467, 538-541, 

601-606. 
Nutlock, Jones Positive, illus 93 

o 

OBITUARIES. 

Baird, J ohn - - - - 550 

Buch, John - - 550 

Dukehart, G. C 201 

Dodd, H. P ---- ---550 

Fowler, T. W. Mrs 455 

Payne, Col. W. H 32 

Kemble, W. H 455 

Lewis, A. . - - 20 1 

Lyon, Lewis -- -550 

Moen, P. L - -201 

Munsan, Chas — 160 

Nelson H. A.. 201 

Payne, W. H - --- - 32 

Wright, J. B - 160 

Sherman, Wm. F 32 

Object Lesson, An , - - 54 

Oil as Fuel,illus. - - - 535-546 

Okonite Go's., Acme Lead Cable 403 

Open Cars, A Chance in, illus... ---238 

Open Cars, the Season of 211-215 

Outlook, The.. --- 24 

Over the Bay 576 



Painter's Naptha Motor, illus 334 

Paper Wheel, The Latest, illus .-. 20 

Parcel Delivery, Prize Essay, Geo. L. Fowler, illus. .25S-159 

Patton Motor, The 330 

Passenger, Not a 7^ 

Patent System, American Centennial of. S9-90 

Patents, Street Railway 6S-io7-i4Si9i-23S-388-344-4i2 

- ---- 459-542 

Pay Them, It Will - 280 

Peckham's Perfect Cantalever Truck --49I 

Personals 34-59-90-159- 161-245-394-354 

-- - ---369-4S7-543 

Portland Pointers.. 5^2 



l(j^Wft^-^A^«wL- 



Philatlelphia, Plan A, Elevated Roail, illus 179 

Pickets from the Golden Gate 325 

Pole, A Stalwart Steel 32S 

Pole, A turned Wood, illus 237 

Policy, Our 32 

Poole, Robt. Son's Co 293 

Portland Pointers 255-412 

Portland Paragraph^ 1S7 

Portland's Power 533 

Post, A Bent Car-, illus. 20 

Practical Letter, A, J. B. Hanna 7 

President Elect, J. G. Holmes 41S 

Presidential, The Car, illus 239 

Prices' Composite Girder, illus 192 

Prices' Improved Construction, illus 46 

Proctor Steel Co 275 

Publications, New 352-3 "jS 

Puget Sound Notes 544 

Puget Sound, Echoes from 33^-339 

Pullman's Double Deck Car, illus 461-462 

PORTAITS. 

Anderson, Wm 88 

Barret, J. P - .- 56 

Becklcy, J. N .... 36S 

Callerj'.J.D 3S8 

Dalzell,J. H... 390 

Dyer, D. B_. 320 

Everett, A iSS 

Hanna, J. B -. _- 510 

Henry, D. F.. .-- .-388 

Hill, G. B 391 

Holmes, C. B 16 

Holmes, J. G 432 

Lewis, D. F -'3- 

Littell, H. H .52 

Lowry, Thos 574 

Mage'e, C. L 386 

Munson, Chas 160 

M. C. of S. A., (Group).. ..340 

Richardson, W.J — -37S 

R-ugg,J. E .386 

Short, S. H - - 454 

Verner, M. A 3S7 

Walker John 2S0 

Watson, IL M - 370 

Whitney, G. I 389 

R 

Raised the Record 470 

Rapid Transit, Boston Scheme --595 

Rapid Transit, Jersey City 5S2 

Rapid Transit, Twin City 23S 

Rapid Transit Commission, N. Y 543 

Railroad Shops, East Cleveland 533 

Railway Record, A Remarkable, C. B. Holmes 14-17-1S 

Reading Rooms, Employees 529 

Register, The Lima, illus 25 

Review of the Year With Our Advertisers 605-614 

Robbed 543 

Rochester Railway Wrinkle, illus.. }49 

Room, The Oil and Lamp, L. P. Fingst 257 

Rope Driving Wheel, illus 92 

Rule Book, A Model, illus 401 

Ryan's Convertable Car, illus 145 

Rapid Transit Rarities 549 



Safe Investment, A 533 

Salt Lake City Plan, illus 135 

Salt Lake Railway 74 

San Jose, Electric,- 03 

Savannah, Georgia 566-567 

Schuylkill, The Electric Railway 44 

Scotl's Electric Motor, illus 463 

Seattle, Railway System c^f. Part I, illus 372-37^ 

Seattle, Railway System of. Part II, illus J39-444 

Seattle Letter 334 

Selling Agents, Memphis Convention of, illus... 240-241 

Semi- Centennial, A, John Harris gi 

Separate Coach Bill igy 

Sioux City Sayings cyS 

Street Railway Patents 604 

S;oiage Battery Cars at the Hague, illus 591 

Such is Life ego 

Stages Not Profitable 5S7 

Smoking Car Season, The 5S7 

St. Louis, More Electrics for 561 

Street Railway Law. T. H. Clark, 564-565 

Sessions' Side Seat Cars, illus 98-99 

Storage Battery Cars, Dubuque So 

Storage Battery, Suit The 340 

Storage Battery Volts 336 

Short's Gearless Motor, Tests of 403 

Short Gearless Motor, illus 1 36-1 27-1 S3 

Short's Railway Generator, illus 394 

Short Slow Speed Motor 97 

Short's Railway Motors, The Three, illus 45^-457 

Short Circuited 



--179 

Shortest Road, The 246 

Shoe <t Stocking, Street Car 5r 

Shock, Received A .. 139 

Shaffer, President, Resigned .201 

Shaws Steel Spring Motor _. 395 

Side, The Other 53 

Sieberling's Truck, illus ._ 469 

Sioux City Corliss Engine, illus 234 

Sioux Citj-, Electric, illus 356 

Sioux City Elevated Road, illus 363-263 

Schneider's Combination Car, illus 101 

Snowstorm, Electric in 4 

Smoke-Stack, Steel 323 

South, Street Railways in the --73 

Speed, Increased, as Related to Accidents 74 

Spike, A Screw, illus 33S 

Spring, An Ode to 293 

Sprinkler, A Railway ■ 226 

Storage Batteries 237 

Stedman Foundry & Machine Works 13 

Stevenson's New Car Shops. 237 

Stuts Cable Grip 403 

Stock, Shall New Issue of, be sold at Public Auction, 165- 166 

Style. Don't Like Our 164 

Strike, in Galveston 261 

Superior, Road A ..463 

Suspended Cable Railway 91 

Taper Sleeve Clutch, illus 533 

Then and Now _. --73 

Three Cities, Tale of, illus 174-1 78 

Thrown up by the Sweeper 34-S4- 100-308-253-302-360 

Toboggan Rapid Transit 2 28 

Tonawanda, Ton\' _. 444 



Toronto, Situation in - - - 453 

Toronto, The Trade... .- 374 

Torrence Terminal, The 563 

Town, It Made the 20S 

Track Brush Adjustable Holder, illus 395 

Track Cleaners 400 

Trans-Missouri Company _ 127 

Transfer Tickets, Tricks with - 449 

Transfer Ticket, Iron Clad, illus __ 532 

Tramway Rail Co's, System, illus 53 

Tricycle Elevated Railway, illus 140 

Tripp's Truck, illus 594 

Trolley, Changed to 244 

Trolley Device, illus _ - 2S2 

Trolley, England's First - ..224 

Trolley Hanger, The Latest, illus .88 

Trolley Wheel, Aluminium, illus 47 

Trolley Wire Clamp, illus 55 

Truck, Equalizing Motor, illus : 59^ 

Turn-outs Single Tracked 212 

Tunnel, Largest in the World, illus 5' ''5 '3 

u 

Universal Electric Co., Mechanical Electric Clutch, 

illus 329-330 

Up a Mountain on a Wire, illus 3-4'325 

V 

Veterinary, Hygiene 50- 79- 12S- 129-1 82- 183-222 

323-264-337-338-379-380 

Villard Syndicate, The 3^8 

Vogel Cable Connection Co., The, illus iS-19 



w 

Wakes Them Up _ 224 

Walker Manufacturing Co . loS 

Walker Manufacturing Company, New Plant of 5S3-587 

Water Power, New SS3 

Wheels, Machined, illus 45 

Wheel, Rubber Cushioned, illus 334 

White's Cable & Conduit System, illus 229- 230 

White's Eureka Construction, illus 3i 

Westinghouse Automatic Circuit Breaker, illus 145 

Westinghouse Co., Plant of Pittsburgh, illus 505-509 

Westinghouse Iron Clad Gearless Motor, illus 142-143 

Westinghouse Multipolar Generators, illus 227-228 

Westinghouse Slow Speed Motor, illus . 94"95 

Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., Direct Coupled 

Multipolar Generator, illus 460 

Westrom Electric Works 2 

Wightman Railway Motor, illus 274-375 

William's Radial Truck, illus 536 

Williamsport Improvement. --581 

Will Stay at Home Now.. 531 

Wind, Short of „.— 331 

Woodland Avenue Electric 369 

WEDDINGS. 

Dean-Sisson 490 

Greene-Thompson --49° 

Johnson-Hathaway.. 60 

Rhomberg-Meuser 239 

Robinson-Lowry 490 

Wright-Jordan 24 



g>h**t ^^M^&y' %/y4t9»»?- 




1 II ^ llll 1 , I II or KAlll MONTH BY 

THE STREET RAILWAY REVIEW PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

218 LA SALLE ST., - - CHICAGO. 

H. H. WINDSOR, President. F. L. KENl'IKLD, Secretary. 



SUBSCRIPTION, 



ONE DOLLAR. 



AdJress aii Communications and Remittances to The Street Railway Review, 
ziS La Salle Street, Chicago. 

H. H. "WINDSOR, F. L. KENFIELD, 

Editor. Business Manager. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

We cordially invite corresponilcnce on all subjects of interest to those cngae;eil 
in any branch of Street Railway work, and will gratefully appreciate any marked 
copies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send us, pertaining 
either to companies or officers. Address: 

THE STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 

2x3 La Salle Street Chicago. 

Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 



N0.1. 



JANUARY. 



VOL. 1 



Announcement. 

THIS is the first issue of the Strki;t Railway 
Ri-:\iEW. It comes not with the expectation or 
desire to in any way supplant or diminish the use- 
fulness of other publications already in the work, and to 
whom the street railwav interests are so much indebted 
for splendid ser\ice in the past. 

It does come to occupy a place now open by reason of 
a most wonderful and rapid development in tiie street 
railwav world. While our contemporaries will continue 
to bring to vou nuich which we ma\' not, we likewise 
shall reach avenues and work along lines not touched by 
them. 

Above all we shall be actuated bv none but honest, 
earnest purposes to give our readers a thoroughly live, 
practical publication, for which we have special facilities; 
and our location in the heart of this great center of the 
United States, brings us very close to an extensive terri- 
tory expanding in a hitherto unparalleled degree both in 
commercial importance and population. 



Our English friends have got the start of us, or expect 
to have, for omnibusses propelled by storage batteries will 
be put in service in London in a few weeks. Tlie driver 
sits in front and steers, and the out tit is promised to cast 
dust in the eyes of all competitors. 



Ax interesting case, said to be the tirst one, with 
reference to the rights of electric railways to cross steam 
railways, is in the courts at Newark, N. J. The Rapid 
Transit Co. endeavored to cross the Delaware, Lack- 
awanna & Western, at Orange, and were enjoined. 



TiiK street railsvay is a great "evener" in society, for 
here is one place in which all fare alike; where the bulls 
and bears of commerce sit down with the lambs of trade, 
and the millionaire shares the seat with the humblest son 
of toil, unless perchance the latter gets the only vacant 
place, in which event the nabob stands and pulls on a 
strap. Tills, by the way, is said to be a most excellent 
exercise and de\elops the arm and chest. 

.\ MAij-: citizen in Johnstown, N. Y., a few days ago, lost 
his pocket book, containing $65, in one of the street cars. 
When the honest driver hunted him up after his day's 
work and restored it to the owner, he received the muni- 
ficent reward of ten cents, on which to "go out and en- 
joy himself." Yet it is just such contemptible people who 
are always ready to ring in a report of some fancied short 
coming on the part of the company's servant. 



The Newark, N. J., Ca/I, which knows more about 
running the street car busine.ss of that city than the com- 
pain . complains because the conductors on Belleville Ave. 
line have been put in uniforms and brass buttons at an 
expense per man of $13. Probably gunny-sack would 
suit the Cull man better. The men surely must wear a 
certain amount of clothing, and there is no reason why 
the\- should not wear it of a uniform character. 

Down in Reading, Pa., what is officially known as "the 
select council*' of the cit\-, refuses an ordinance for an e.x- 
tension of present lines, unless the company will agree to 
pay 5 per cent on its gross earnings. This amounts to a 
positive prohibition in this case, as the business in sight 
will not warrant it, and so the city is hampered in its de- 
velopment by this fool polic}-. Out west citizens are 
mighty glad to turn in and donate large sums to encour- 
age new lines and build .up their town. 



The Electric Engineer, of London, says: "Electric 
traction must expand and gather strength as time goes on. 
For a long time England has had to take a back seat in 
instalation work, whether for lighting or power. Assisted 
b}- peculiar conditions, America has gone ahead, but after 
all, there is a solidity about the English way of going to 
work, which, when carefully considered must be admired 
by all." It would seem as though the success of the city 
and South London enterprise .should stimulate the con- 
struction of the tunnel under the British channel. 



W^E desire to call the attention of our readers and ad- 
vertisers to the announcement on our outside cover. This 
plan has been adopted at the request of a number who 
desired the favored space, and gives everybody an equal 
chance to secure it at the price which they consider it 
worth to them. No figures except the successful one 
will be di\ulged. That will be announced next month. 
If any who have already taken other locations desire to 
change, they can do so and the amount of their contract 
will count on the price of the last page. 



The opening" of the cit\- and South London Raihvav 
recently created quite a commotion, in that, while its cars 
are run in trains, there is no class; all passengers paving 
before they enter the train; and all given the same ac- 
commodations at a uniform price. The so called " com- 
mon people" hail the new department with delight, and 
while Sir John Bull turns up his roval nose perhaps, the 
superior facilities of the road will overcome his pride and 
he will tind himself none the worse. The occasion pro- 
babh" marks an important era, and once more the street 
railway figures as a great social factor. 



The Jamestown, N. Y., ^^'f-t'5, wants that city to own 
and operate the street railroad, and expresses the fear that 
perchance the men who 3ears ago put their money into 
a road there, and operated it doubtless at a loss for a long 
time, are now making a little something, having succeed- 
ed in getting their business on a paying basis. Now, if 
the said A'cws wants something really sensible to talk 
about, why does it not advocate having the city run the 
newspapers there. That might be a really pious change 
for the better. Sounds as if the monthly supply of dead 
head tickets had been dela}-ed in reaching somebody. 



The opening of the new underground electrical road in 
London, attended with all the pomp and ceremoo}- that 
the presence of nobility affords, has awakened a well- 
spent interest in the application of electricity to street 
railway purposes in Great Britain and throughout all 
Europe. The daily press for days was'filled with details 
of the work, and the scientific and technical magazines have 
devoted columns in its praise. A great and wide-spread 
interest has been suddenly awakened on the subject and 
its progress will be watched with hope and interest by all 
friends of electrical advancement on this side of the water. 



Companies that think they are in hard lines in en- 
deavoring to defend themselves from hostile city councils, 
had better take a run down' to Washington, D. C, the 
great national headquarters for all that is hard on the 
mourners. The latest appeared a few daj's ago, when 
the House passed a bill forbidding the companies there 
to use the same ticket a second time "lest they became 
dirt}-." No one ever suspected the members of the House 
of having such immaculately clean hands before. Not 
satisfied with this the}' generously instructed the roads to 
reduce their fare to 314 cents. This is specially unap- 
preciative, as it was not generally supposed these solons 
ever paid for anything, and they might at least ha\e 
allowed the plebeians to pay a respectable first class fare, 
for accommodations which are most modern and excel- 
lent. 



The city council in Louisville, Ky., have suggested a 
curious proposition, which is to have the Street Railway 
company make a change of six cents on all passengers to 
and from the city park, and turn the extra cent fare over 
to the park commissioners for its maintenance. This 
scheme is more nervy than just, for it would be a matter 
of impossibility to ever determine just how man}- people 



who took the park car reached it, for few passengers 
could be found a second time, who were " going to the 
Park," but would if necessary get off a block or two be- 
fore reaching it. Again, could a railway company having 
collected five cents and accepted the passenger as such 
eject him when within one block of the Park if he refused 
to pay the extra cent. On the return trip the cars would 
be boarded a short distance from the Park by hundreds 
who would insist they had never been there. But the 
greater injustice would be that it places a tax on a class 
of people whose limited means makes the street car their 
only carriage and on whom the extra cent would rest like 
the McKinley bill on a righteous Democrat. 



The communication from Secretary J. B. Hanna, of 
Cleveland, expresses a conviction that is daily growing 
among the street railway men of the country; — the wis- 
dom and economy of the heavy and permanent track 
construction. Time was when the light tram rail on the 
wood stringer yielded from ten to twenty years service, 
but the constant development of traffic, especially with 
in the past five years, the accompanying enlargement of 
rolling stock to take care of it, the adoption of rapid 
transit methods, have all united to revolutionize the old 
time rules of track building. Another element, and a 
most important one, is the growth in every city of manu- 
facturing interests, which are using large trucks and 
carrying double the loads of merchandise formerly employ- 
ed. These uniformly seek the smooth even surface of our 
tracks as a roadway, preferring to turn out once in every 
block if necessary, to hauling on the street pavement. It is 
this constant turning in and out of heavily loaded wagons 
that wrenches and turns the best constructed track. In 
many cities the railway men complain that fully three- 
fourths the wear upon their track comes from this source. 
As it is an evil that cannot be prevented, the only alterna- 
tive is a substantial track, and we cannot but feel that most 
lines will save money, and in no great length of time 
either, by spending a little more for the extra ten or fifteen 
pounds per yard in rail. The cost of laying is no greater 
for a seventy-eight pound than a sixty pound rail, and 
once down it should contain the elements of wear. 



The property owners in Astoria, Oregon, evidently 
know what is good for them, for they got together 
recently and voluntarily agreed to assess themselves from 
$50 to $300 per lot, as a subsidy to encourage the con- 
struction of an electric line. There was but one prop- 
ert\- owner on the entire road who refused to join in this 
public-spirited measure. This offers a striking contrast 
to the short-sighted policy pursued in many cities. We 
once knew a man who objected to the construction of a 
rapid transit line on a part of his property, on the ground 
that it would increase its value and he would be obliged 
to pay more taxes. The Astoria people e^-idently were 
not built that way, but, on the contrary, exhibit a spirit 
that is sure to win. The progressive policy pursued by 
street railways, if uifiversall}- adopted, would make cities of 
many a village. 



^Xmd^^Jiif^^m»^ 



A Company with Sand. 

SOME of llic Knic-kerbockcrs coiH(,-i\Tcl llir idea of 
Sf curing tiie interference by tiie city witii the 4th 
A\enue surface road, from sprinkling sand upon the 
track on the steep grade on Madison ave., and elsewhere. 
liut they were niceh- lefi, as tiie law in that state permits 
any surface road in cities ha\ing a jiopulation of 5,000 or 
more, to place sand between their tracks in suHicient quan- 
tities to pre\ent horses from slipping. 

A Noiseless Motor. 

ONE of the ollicers of the I'leasant \'alley Electric 
road in Pittsburgh, speaks as follows, of the new 
Westinghouse motor, now in operation on their 
lines: "There is above all a woiulerful ease and quietness 
of operation that causes the cars to run along with a remark- 
able smoothness and silence, making the car itself conspic- 
uous on our line, and people are enabled to converse in an 
ordinary tone of voice in the cars. We have now the 
rawhide pinions on our motors, but even then, the\' are 
not nearly so noiseless as the Westinghouse motor. 



M 



Wenstrom Electrical Works. 

WORK is acti\elv under wav for the erection of the 
large shops of the Wenstrom Electrical Com- 
pany at Gvvynn's Falls, a suburb of I^allitnore. 
The building is four stories high and has a water power of 
750 horse power. More fixtures have also been placed, to 
be used in case of an emergency-. The compan}' will de- 
vote the^most of its space to the manufacture of their street 
railway motors and will also furnish power to the North 
Avenue Railway Company, whose lines they have 
eijuipped. Six hundred men will be employed and the 
facilities of the concern taxed to its utmost. 



Large Electric Cars. 

AIvTIIOUGII the introduction of the modern rapid 
transit methods enables the owners to secure an 
increased mileage per car, whicii is in actua 
results an increase of cars on the street, in proportion of 
the shortened time: still the returns in business carried 
do not stop there, but in\ariably the riding is enlarged 
to such an extent as to soon require additional cars. 

The West End Company of Boston is a shining illustra- 
tion of this, and has already put in use part of an order 
for 150 new cars. The balance will be ready soon. 
Each car is thirt3--five feet long over all, the body being 
twenty-five feet and is capable of seating comfortablj' 
thirty-four people. They are seven feet three inches 
wide and nine feet from the floor to the top of the deck. 
On either side are nine large windows. The interior 
finish is mahogany, with oak ceiling, and lighted at night 
with incandescent lamps. The cars are carried on two 
iron trucks of four wheels each, and one extra step is 
required, as the box is that much higher than the old style 
car, in order to permit the trucks to take the curves. 
Each car is equipped with two fifteen horse power Thom- 
son-Houston electric motors, and will require about the 
same amount of power as the common box car and one 
small trailer. 



Railroading a Bill. 

R. J. C. RCJi;i.\SO\, of San Francisco, who 
was General Manager of the Ilighgate Cable 
road, London, tells an amusing incident in the 
historv of the underground electric road. At 
the time the bill was before Parliament, it was intended 
to operate the proposed road b}- cable power. For a 
long time the franchise hung fire, and Mr. Robinson was 
called in to testify on cable matters. Finally, during one 
session, he suggested the committee could better judge 
for themselves from actual inspection. He proposed 
that they adjourn and make a personal inspection of the 
system. The Highgate road, though completed, had not 
yet been formally opened for travel. He relates his ex- 
perience as follows: 

"The idea seemed to strike the commitee as a good one, and, after a 
little discussion, I had the satisfaction of seeing, for probably the first 
time on record, a committee of the House of Commons, whilst in full 
session, adjourn for such a purpose. 

Carriages were immediately provided, and from the palace yard of 
Westminster we hied to the ancient hill of Highgate. Everything, in- 
eluding the inevitable chicken and champagne, was in readiness. The 
cable was started, the train ran out and loaded with honorable members 
of the committee, legal luminaries, engineering experts and directors 
of the corporation. Fifty lords and gentlemen of high degree took their 
seats. I took charge of the grip, and hooking in the rope began the 
descent of one of the steepest gradient, one in eight. The intention was 
to illustrate to the distinguished guests the charming ease, simplicity 
and safety with which a cable road could be operated. The brake eflfi- 
cency attracted considerable attention, and whilst traveling down the 
hill at some ten miles per hour the word was given to run for a distance 
by gravity, then toappl}- the brakes quickly, and while still on the grade 
bring the train smartly under control. With every confidence in my 
brake power, I let go the rope, and away we sailed in a most exhilarating 
manner. From ten to fifteen miles an hour was but a momentary tran- 
sition; from fifteen to twenty miles was '?ken with a rush, and them 
with a gasp, as the wind whistled past his ears, the chairman managed^ 
to whisper, "For the Lord's and Common's sake, ease up." 

Having frequently experienced this sort of thing before, when train- 
ing my gripmen, I of course anticipated no difficulty whatever in stop- 
ping the train how and when I pleased, so with an air of cheerful con- 
fidence I applied the wheel brakes, and found to my dismay they failed 
to act; the speed continued to increase; houses, trees, etc., seemed to f\y 
past us as I again jerked on both tracks and wheel brakes — but no! they 
failed to catch on, and we continued to descend; then it was that I be- 
came really cognizant of the peril of the situation. If I failed to stop 
that train within the next half minute, probably death stared not only 
myseli but the illustrious passengers in the face; ruin to the prospects, 
not onlv of the Cable Corporation, but the City and South London Bill, 
seemed inevitable. These thoughts and a thousand others flashed 
through my mind; by a great effort I contrived to exhibit no symptoms 
of my inner consciousness; glancing at Sir Michael Kennedy 
who was beside me, I saw that he alone on the train had the faintest 
inkling of real danger, and even he felt that I was perhaps only taking 
too great chances by not stopping quicker. Xo one ever knew, nor till 
now have I ever divulged the fact, that I had absolutely lost all control 
of that train. 

The whole thing occupied only a few moments. As the train ap- 
proached the foot of the incline I braced myself up, and gritting my 
teeth firmly together, with all the strength of dispair, I grasped the brakes 
and at the risk of rending them asunder, swung them on and on again, 
until to my joy I found them bite and acting directly upon both rails 
and wheels, brought the train up with 'a jerk never to be forgotten. 
Without allowing the passengers time for a moment's thought, as we 
stopped, I. jumped off and invited the engineers to measure the ground, 
ostensibly to determine not only the speed al»which we had been gravi- ■ 
tating, but the distance (not less than thirty feet) within which, in the 
midst of its mad career, I had stopped the train. This coolness and 
presence of mind fortunately did the business. The cable system was 
voted admirably, and the brake efficiency, particularly, all that could be 
desired. The committee returned to Westminster, impressed with the 
success of the experiment at Highgate, and passed the City and South 
London Railwav bill the same afternoon." 



4 



An Important Change for Bridgeport. 

THE Bridgeport Horse Railway Co., which has been 
in existence since 1864, has just been sold for 
$350,000, to a s3-ndicate composed of A. G. 
Yates; Fred Cook; W. S. Turnbull, the tobacco man -.Ar- 
thur Luetchford ; A. E. Perkins; Chas. Everest and J. N. 
Beckley, of Rochester, N. Y.; E. M. Gibbs, of Norwich, 
and Chas. A. Hotchkiss, of Bridgeport, Conn. The pur- 
chasers are also owners in railway lines in Rochester, and 
Buffalo, N. Y., Newark and Patterson N. J., and will 
increase the mileage in their latest purchase to twenty miles, 
.operating bv electricity. They promise to spend $1,500,000 
in the plant and S3Stem. 

The syndicate have selected the Short Trolley system, 
which they are using in other cities. Material is already 
arriving and work will be crowded as soon as frost is out 
of the ground. Double track will replace the old single 
and turn-out method, and altogether the Bridgeport peo- 
ple are to be congratulated. 



Uniforms. 

THE recent large additions by many companies has 
correspondingly increased the number of em- 
ployees, and with this change has been suggested 
the question of uniform. 

There can be no argument as to the appearance of a 
well uniformed conductor and driver, but more especiallj' 
the former, as compared with men engaged in the same 
work and wearing citizen's clothes. 

Companies, by placing contracts, can secure for their 
men better made garments and of material superior to that 
which the men individually could possibl}- purchase. So 
that in point of enconomy for the men there is effected a 
considerable saving. In most places it is practical to have 
the garments made to order from actual measurement, and 
while such may possibly cost a few dollars more at the 
start, will prove cheaper by a greater service rendered. 

But the uniform is a great help to the men. People 
who are most inclined to be troublesome are just the ones 
for whom a uniform has a certain amount of authoritj', 
and the conductor so equipped has a decided advantage 
over a non-uniformed man. 

In companies where a uniform is worn, it is found that 
as long as a man appears in citizen's dress he is spotted 
as a new man, and the public will endeavor to take advan- 
tage of him in the way of spurious coin and the like. 
But the moment he dons his uniform he linds its protection 
a very noticeable one. 

The advantage to the passenger in locating the con- 
ductor is considerable more than where only a cap and 
badge are worn; and even in those places where the men 
were inclined to murmer when notified to procure uni- 
forms, the feeling has wholly changed before the suit has 
been worn long enough to take the shine from the brass 
buttons. Uniform the men. 



Electricity in the Snow Storms. 

WE have watched with much interest reports 
from all parts of the country as to how the elec- 
tric lines have behaved themselves in the snow 
storms, which already have far out-numbered in fall and 
vigor those of the entire last winter. The results are 
very generally gratifying. Where blockades have oc- 
curred as they have in some localities, the trouble has 
been found to be not in the lack of power, so much as 
the proper application of it. 

No system of artificial power can ever hope to success- 
fully cope with a snow storm in other than one way. 
That is to take the storm by the ears. The minute ' the 
fall commences plows must be on the street. Very often 
a ten or fifteen minutes delay in plowing loses the battle ; 
for after the fall has once got the upper hand it can be 
removed only at a great loss of power. To do this every 
road should have ample plow equipment, and to this 
should be added the no less valuable auxiliary of scrapers 
on every car. Then put out enough plows and cars to 
make a short headway, proportioned to the fall, and en- 
deavor to keep a clean rail. Of course, in storms of long 
duration accompanied b}- high winds, this is easier said 
than done; but it will be found cheaper every time to 
spend more money in keeping up with the storm than 
trying to overtake it later on. 

Most electric companies are this year experiencing 
their first encounter with snow and it is not to be won- 
dered at if many meet with difficulty at first. But time 
was, and not many months since, when people said the 
system could not work in snow; — so great allowance 
should be made the present winter until this difficulty has 
a chance to work itself out, as it surely will in time. 

Since the above was put in type, a splendid illustration 
has come to us, in the case of the Electric Railway, of Al- 
bany, N. Y. About the middle of December a storm of 
unusual severity raged during the day, followed by a 
sleet storm from 8 to 10 p. m., which literally covered 
everything with a thick coating of ice. Pedestrians were 
unable to walk along the sidewalks and it was an absolute 
impossibility for horses to climb the steep hills of that hilly 
cit\-. But the company kept its cars out all night on short 
headway and experienced no difficulty in skimming up 
the hills which other people were sliding down. Any 
one who is familiar with the severe grades in Albany will 
appreciate the above. It was the first time cars were 
ever run all nii^ht there. 



The case of Daniel Stewart vs. the Sixth A\enue Rail- 
road Company, for $35,000, for the loss of his arm, was 
decided in favor of the company. 



A FRANCHISE was granted by the Board of Aldermen 
for another street railway to be sold at auction. The 
proposed route is from the East River, through East Fifty- 
fourth street, up Avenue A., single track through East 
Eighty-fourth and Eighty-fifth streets, thence across Cen- 
tral Park by the transverse railroad already constructed, 
to West Eighty-si.xth street, to Ninth Avenue, to Seventy- 
ninth street, to the North River. This route was named 
on application of the East River, Central Park and 
North River Railroad Company, and the controller is 
authorized to sell the franchise to the highest bidder. 



IN DEEPEST LONDON. 



THE ONLY ROAD OK THE KIMD IN THE WORLD A PER i-ECT INSILATED RAIL. 



EARLY in No\embei" last a most brilliant compain' 
of nobility and engineers of rank, accepted the 
invitation of the City & South London Railway 
L"()ni]ian\' to assist in the official inauguratifjii of 
a work which has occupied four years. Contrary to the 
•general impression in this country the road was not then 
thrown open to the public, that event occurring more 
recently, the management wisely preferring to wait until 
every detail had been finished and the entire undertak- 
ing complete. 

Stretching to the south from the Thames River at 
London Bridge, is one of the most densely populated 
districts in all the great city: and not onl\- this territorj-, 
but much tributary to it, have for \ears struggled 
through a single street, congested with a chaotic mass of 
vehicles and foot passengers, in their efforts to cross the 
river and reach the city. The only relief thus far has 
been a street railway which conveniently came to an end 
one-half mile from the bridge, leaving the passenger to 
the tender mercies of omnibusses and cabs, or a most 
fatiguing walk, as the only means of completing the trip. 
As time went on the increasing volume of population, 
growth of business and the army of visiting foreigners, 
made this Jordan more and more a hard river to cross. 

In 1886, the above mentioned company was incorpor- 
ated by act of Parliament, and authorized to construct an 
underground line from King street, a short distance north 
of London Bridge, crossing the river a little to the west 
and extending to the "Elephant and Castle," at Newing- 
ton, a distance of nearly one and a half miles. Li this, 
as in the subsequent enlargement of the original plan, the 
route employed followed the line of the thoroughfare to 
more fully accommodate travel, with the tunnel laid at a 
sutHcient depth so as to avoid all interference with sewers 
and underground structures. After work had been in 
progress three years, its magnitude becoming more 
apparent daily, the company \vas induced to accept a 
further concession from Parliament, which in 1887 was 
granted, and the route extended to Stockwell, opposite 
"The Swan," and at the last session still further extension 
was granted, from the present terminus at Binfield street 
to the commencement of Clapham Common. Work on 
this last named portion of the line has not at this writing 
been commenced, but soon will be. 

There are seven stations, which on reference to the map 
will be found at convenient intervals and located on King 
William street. Great Dower street. The Elephant and 
Castle, New street, Kensington Park, Kensington Oval 
and the last at Stockwell. Construction on the great 
work was commenced in October, 1886, when the tun- 
nels were dri\-en from the Old Swan Pier, in the River 
Thames. The tunnel work has been carried on bj^ 
means of a specially designed shield, the invention of J. 
H. Greathead, the company's chief engineer, and the only 
difEculty encountered was the wet bed of sand and gravel. 



near the end of the line at Stockwell. The details of this 
ingenious machine have already been published. One 
point of special importance, and unusual in an undertak- 
ing of this kind, especially of this magnitude, is that it has 
been brought through to completion without the loss of a 
single life. This is the more remarkable when it is 
remembered that this method of driving under com- 
pressed air, when the wet bed of gravel was encountered. 




- I SURREY If 



was a feat of engineering which had never been accom- 
plished before, and has attracted general attention and 
praise from engineers all over the world, and is now in use 
in tunnel work in this country. The tunneling has been 
made without affecting any building, nor can its course be 
detected an3where along the surface of the route. 

The tunnels are fifty feet below the street, and pas- 
sengers pay when passing through a turn-stile, a plan 
similar to the elevated roads in this countn,-. They then 
enter a commodious room, which rests upon a hydraulic 
lift, which quickly discharges its load on the platform. 




JTui. co-iffi/cro" I 



INSCLATED STEEL CONDfClOR RAIL. 

where the train of three cars is in waiting. The cars are 
cylindrical, seat thirty-four passengers and are elegantly 
furnished and lighted with incandescent lamps. The 
motor car is used for that exclusi\-e purpose, and will 



develope one hundred effecti\-e horse power. The car 
axles are made the shafts of the armatures, each working 
independenth' and up to twentj'-six miles per hour. The 
current is obtained through collecting shoes which fit and 
slide on the third rail placed mid way in the track. This 
rail is of high conductivity, rolled for the purpose. 

The insulation obtained is extraordinarily high, so that 
when the full pressure of 500 volts is on the entire S3'stem, 
the leakage of working and feeding conductors is but 
one ampere: which is but a small fraction of one 
per cent, of the total power required. This remark- 
able econom\- is worthv of careful investigation. The 
power is located at one central station, and cleri\ed from 



three generators, each driven bj- a 375 horse power 
vertical compound engine. These engines work under 
140 pounds of steam, make 100 revolutions, which gives 
a piston speed of 450 feet per minute. The flywheels are 
14 ft. diameter, 28 in. face, and drive the dynamos at 500 
re\olutions per minute, by means of 26 in. leather chain 
belting. The generators are the Edison-Hopkinson type, 
and the armature alone weighs two tons — the entire 
machine seventeen tons. It can be run as shunt or com- 
pound only, as desired; and is expected to deliver 95 per 
cent, efficiency. The construction cost was $3,850,000, 
or about $1,000,000 per mile of double tunnel for the 
exca\'ation and shell. 



THE LARGEST CABLE ROAD IN THE WORLD. 



EIGHTVFIVE MILKS IN OPERATION. 



THE enterprising citj* of Melbourne, Australia, with 
its half million of people proudly boasts of the 
largest and one of the best, cable roads in the 
whole world. The Melbourne Tramway Com- 
pany was formerly an omnibus company, employing 1,500 
horses, at that time there was not a mile of street railway 
in the city. Three years ago work was commenced to 
cable the routes formerly covered by busses, until now 
there is in most successful operation eighty-five miles of 
cable railway. 

When the company first opened its lines, some 1,600 
"wagonettes," which carried six passengers within and 
two outside, a four wheeled vehicle drawn by one horse, 
did a thriving business, running on the same streets and 
in regular routes, although owned by the drivers. They 
carried for the same fare and were then quite popular. 
But the grip car gong sounded their death knell, and now 
there is less than one third as many in use, and these chiefly 
to hire by the hour, as Hansom cabs are in this country. 

The change in motive power was accompanied by an in- 
crease in traffic which in twelve months reached an amount 
four times what it had been under the old method, although 
the busses ran on two minute headway. The cable system 
comprises sixteen traffic lines, on which the cars move at 
from nine to ten miles per hour, a singular provision in the 
franchise pro\iding that the "cars must not make less than 
six miles per hour." The total length of the 24 ropes is 
456,448 feet, in sections 11,000 to 30,000 feet each. There 
are ten power stations, the larger driving three lines; and 
equipped with engines of 375 H. P. and 750 H. P. The 
engines are all in duplicate. The car equipment consists 
of 433 closed cars, each seating twenty-six passengers; 
and 430 grip cars, built on the San Francisco style, with 
side seats. Open cars are not popular in Melbourne, and 
the two put in service the past year were all the company 
will build. Onh' once or twice during the season, on some 
very hot night, do the public go out to cool off, and then 
two or three grip cars, minus the grips, are coupled 



together and fully meet all demands for open cars, which 
in this country- are so verj- popular. Each car a\'erages 
a run of one hundred miles daily. 

The barn foreman has charge not only of the car house 
and its men, but includes also the making of the time tables 
for the lines whose cars run out of his depot. The 
time tables are made in conjunction with the General Man- 
ager, and must be very exact, as a troublesome muni- 
cipal regulation prevents the using of a man one minute 
beyond a certain number of hours. This works the utmost 
hardship to a street railway service, and is very unpopular 
with the men, who are thus deprived of earning the larger 
wages which most of them would gladly do if permitted. 

The system of line or street inspectors is most excellent. 
Two men, selected by promotion from the ranks, and re- 
ceiving a higher compensation, are assigned each line, 
their hours being so arranged that one is always on duty 
and both during the evening rush. These men spend all 
their time on the street, and are held responsible for cars 
mo\ing on time, and being properlj' run, stopping for pas- 
sengers, and the like; and the}' also look after extra crowds 
at special places. 

The new men are taught b}- special instructors, and are 
required to pass the examination on every division of the 
road, including the Division Inspectors, before accepted 
by the compan}-. They do not receive compensation 
while working as "students." 

One of the best features of the management is the "No 
Free List," except to the company's own employes. 
Policemen pay their fare or walk. Firemen do the same. 
Ditto cit};^ officials and e\erybody else. The fare is six 
cents of our money. 

The managing director, is Mr. F. B. Clapp, in which he 
is abl}' assisted by Mr. H. A. Wilcox, General Manager. 

Newsboys are not allowed on the cars, and the plan 
works to the satisfaction of all — except the newsboy. The 
compan}' employs 1,630 men, exclusive of office force, and 
the track construction cost $50,000 per single mile. 



A Practical Letter. 
WooDi.AM) A\i:. cS: V\'i;st Sidi'. R. R. Co., 

Ci.KVKLANi), O., Jan. io, 1S90. 
Editor Street liailivax J^fviczv : 

Your k'tter of tlie 14th was received. I am happ\- to 
congratulate you upon the advent of the Strkkt Rail- 
way Rkvikw, and Chicago a.s the birthplace of your new 
enterprise, and I am sure you cannot fail to give to those 
interested with us throughout the country a journal that 
all will appreciate. 

I do not know at this time that I can say anything of 
interest to vour readers, and I am hardly clear that I 
should attempt it, as mv experience has been contined to 
horses as a motive power. 

On returning to mv otBce this afternoon, from a trip 
over our extensions of lines, built the past season, and also 
over territory where the old tracks have been replaced with 
heavv girder rail, I was more hrmlv impressed than ever 
before with the importance of building a substantial track 
as a foundation upon which to do our buiness daily. 

With the remarkable rapidity with which electric mo- 
tors ha\e been displacing horses throughout the countr}- 
within the past two years, it was perhaps not possible to 
rela\' all tracks with a heav\- girder rail, many ha\e 
thought thev could have one or two years' more service 
from their tram rails, and ran a motor many times heavier 
than the horse car over the light construction. As a re- 
sult of this working over a poor foundation, the repair 
bills for electric motors have been ver}^ large, so much so, 
that we are inclined to believe it has been very detrimen- 
tal to the adoption of electricit}- on our large roads in cities. 

If we were constructing a large building instead of a 
track, we naturally would estimate carefully what the 
weight of our structure would be when completed, and 
lav a foundation to support it: we need a stronger bed to 
rest our tracks, on in proportion, than a building, as the 
strain is in more directions and not so evenly divided. 
From our observations we are of the opinion that even in 
small cities and towns, nothing but a heavy girder rail 
should be laid. We think it economy, whatever motors 
are used, to lay nothing lighter than seventy eight pound 
girder rail to the yard. We have laid about 1,900 tons 
of this, and a section weighing eighty two pounds to the 
\ard, on ties of oak seven feet long, 5x8 in., three feet 
from centers; three tie rods to the rail, with a fish plate 
eighteen inches in length, three bolts in each end giving 
us six bolts to the joint, laid in some localities, on Johnson 
Co.'s chairs and in other on Wharton's, and several miles 
without chairs of any description, spiking the rails direct 
to the ties, which in this instance we laid two feet from 
centres. The only fault we anticipate with the latter con- 
struction is the depth between the head of the rail and 
top of the tie, being six inches, rather too shallow to lay 
pa\-ing blocks. If a rail was rolled on the principle of 
building girders, sa}' nine itiches deep, the increased 
space of three inches would admit of paving well with- 
out the use of chains; with sutlicient number of tierods 
we believe there would be no tendency to tip outward. 



We ought also to he careful if la\ing double track, cars 
operating constantly in one direction on each track,'to 
jilace the tie at the farther rail joints, within six inches of 
the tie that supports the joint direct, as this part of the 
joint always receives the blow of the car wheel, and is 
always the first half of the joint to go down. Of course, 
when it is but a single track, cars ojierating each way, it 
would prohahh' he equalized on the wear of each part of 
the joint. 

Ueing tenants in the streets and subject to so manv ex- 
cavations under our property, as sewer, gas and water 
connections, paving and repaying streets, it is not to be 
wondered at that we should hesitate on the first cost of 
our track construction, but we should remember that if we 
are to adopt electricity — and I say electricity because, if 
cable, we are necessarily called upon, without choice, to 
put in a more permanent con.struction — that we are oper- 
ating with very delicate machinery that is very susceptible 
to jolts and jarring, and the heavy weight of our cars, to- 
gether with their high speed and tlie friction between 
wheel and rail, are all very important factors to the ulti- 
mate financial success of our roads. 

J. 15. Wx^^.K, Sec. 

Comparative Popularity of Mechanical and Horse 
Traction. 

BY II. A. EVERETT, SEC. EAST CLE\I;EAND R. R. CO. 

STATISTICS of earnings on street railway lines, 
changed from horse traction to mechanical traction, 
are invariably in favor of mechanical traction. The 
writer has had considerable experience in changing of 
four routes, and the percentage of increase has varied from 
25 per cent to 100 percent increase, with no shrinkage, taken 
in comparison with routes still operated by horse power, 
the horse power lines hardly show the same aggregate of 
earnings as the former j'ear, and in all events, the per- 
centage of increase on horse lines is almost nil. It is now 
clearly demonstrated, we think, that horses must go, on 
large, compact routes, carrying upwards of 20,000 pas- 
sengers daily, there is no question but that the cable is 
the cheapest and best; whereas ,on longer routes, with less 
patronage, we think the overhead wire has come to stay, 
and firmly believe that overhead wire electricity and cable 
are the onl\- t\\ o methods of propulsion that at the pres- 
ent lime are worth considering. We have chased after 
the "will 'o the wisp" of storage batteries, compressed 
air motors, "concentrated, smokeless steam motors," soda 
engines, etc., without number, and at the present wxiting, 
none of them are worth exploiting. To say that they 
never will be would be folly, as the marvelous progress 
in all branches of mechanics in the past few years has as- 
tounded the world. We firmly believe that in places too 
small to operate two-horse cars the cheapest present plan 
is to still continue to use horses, but if electric force can 
be purchased without the expense of a separate power 
plant, we are confident that the increase in earnings will 
satisfy any small company that the right thing was done 
in chantjintr their system to electric. 



A MODEL CABLE PLANT. 



THE BROADWAY LINE, ST. LOUIS. PECULIAR CONSTRUCTION NECESSITATED BY UNUSUAL OBSTACLES. 



IN 1 889, the Chicago syndicate, of which Mr. Charles 
B. Hohnes was President, added the St. Louis 
Railroad, or Broadway line as it is more generally 
known, to the list of street railways owned by them 
in St. Louis. The demand for rapid transit was at once 
recognized by them, and in April, 1890, they closed a 
contract with Wright & Meysenburg, the well known 
engineers of St. Louis and Chicago, to build a first-class 
cable railway the entire length of the line, making the 
longest continuous cable line in the country. Wright & 
Meysenburg having already built three cable lines in 
St. Louis, were familiar with the road and at once pro- 
ceeded with preparationsfor the work. The enterprise 
was begun about May ist, on the street, and notwithstand- 



forty-two pounds per yard and the Johnson girder track 
rails, weighing seventy-eight pounds per yard, are bolted 
with three-quarter inch bolts. After these are bolted on 
and lined and surfaced, the conduit is formed between the 
yokes, with Portland cement concrete, in the usual way 
used in the construction of first-class roads. The carrying 
sheaves on this line are filled with babbitt in the rim, mak- 
ing the cable run noiselessly. The bearings are babbitt 
blocks, dropped loosely into cast iron boxes which are 
filled with grease. These are keyed to cast iron frames 
with bolts which are anchored to concrete blocks built into 
the sides of the conduit. The curves on this line, fifty-four 
in number, are all of large radius, two and three hundred 
feet. The yokes for curves are heavier than for straight 




MAIN POWER STATION, BROADWAY CABLE LINE, ST. LOUIS. 



ing the difficulties generally met with in this class of 
work, the roadbed was practically completed on the 20th 
of September and the horse cars were back on the entire 
line on the 3d of October. This we believe is about the 
quickest time on record for cable construction East of the 
Rocky Mountains. 

ROADWAY. 

The roadbed is built in about the same style and man- 
ner used in the construction of the well known Olive 
Street line in St. Louis, by these same contractors, being 
composed of a cast iron yoke, weighing about 370 
pounds, every four feet to which the slot rails, weighing 



track and the curve pulleys, twenty-two inches in diameter 
and three and a half inches deep, are fitted into wrought 
iron frames which rest on brackets bolted directly to the 
yoke. These frames and pulleys are light and very con- 
venient, making it an easy matter to renew them when 
necessary. 

Tiii<; (iKii>. 
The grips used on this line are what is known as the 
bottom grip, the same as used on several roads in San 
Francisco, Los Angeles, Portland and other places, with 
some improvements suggested by experience elsewhere. 
The cable is clamped by this grip on the sides and comes 



^hwi^^n^ ^Vte*^- 



into lliL- grip from llu- liotlom. The griji jaws arc tiflfcn 
inches in length. Om- hundred and sixty of these grips, 
made entirely of steel, wei'e furnished by the MeMurray 

& Juilge Architectural Iron Works, of St. Louis. 



These are a radical departure from those seen in most 
cities. The\- are \er\- light and strong, being built of 
t\vel\ e incli steel I beams and cast iron yokes bolted to 
the top. The space between the I beams is tilled with 
brick arches. This gives the maximum of strength for 
carrying the street tratlic and takes up very little room, 
the distance from the top of rail to the bottom of beams 
beintr only twenty-three and one-half inches. This allows 



I'here are .seven different cable tracks crossing it at 
about right angles. Each of these tracks takes two 
crossings, which are made of one casting, representing 
eight yokes cast together, the whole weighing about 
three tons, this makes a homogeneous mass which can 
not get out of shape being no bolts or rivets to get loose. 
There are also two steam rail- roads and several horse 
and electric roads crossing this line. These latter on 
account of the great weight of the electric motors had 
necessarily to be built very strong. This was done by 
boiling cast iron girders between special heavy yokes, one 
girder on each side of the slot rail and one under each 
track rail. These girders carry the crossing rail and 
thus relieve the slot and track rails of the cable line of the 




the twelve foot turning sheaves to be kept up within 
twenty-four inches of the surface, thus doing away with 
the objectionable angle in the cable where it comes into 
and leaves the pits over the four feet elevating sheaves. 
There are five of these pits on this line, one at each 
power house, one at each terminal and one in the center 
of town, where the two center cables come together. 
One very great advantage we noticed in these pits was 
the ease with which a person could get around in any 
part of them without any danger of coming in contact 
with cables or sheaves. 



SIDE ELEVATION OF PIT IN FRONT OF POWER STATION. 

weight which would soon break them down if the cros- 
sings were built as the ordinary steel rail crossings. 

There is also a combination of circumstances on this 
line which we do not remember ha\ing seen anywhere 
outside of St. Louis. There is a double brick arch rail 
road tunnel running along Washington Avenue from the 
Eads bridge to the Union Depot. The backing over the 
arches on this tunnel comes within twenty-one inches of 
the surface, thus leaving \ery little room for the cable 
road crossing it. There is also a crossing of the Lindell 
electric line immediately over this tunnel. The cable 




SIDE ELEVATION OF CABLE TRACK 

The large twelve foot sheaves on this line are carried 
in cast iron U frames, with bronze bearings, these are 
anchored down to concrete blocks with one and one-half 
inch anchor bolts. These U frames and sheaves were 
furnished by the Fulton Iron Works of St. Louis. The 
carrying sheaves and cur\e pulleys were furnished b_\- the 
Stedman Foundry and >Lichine Works of Aurora, 
Indiana. 

CROS.SINGS. 

This line has undoubtedly more cables crossing it than 
any other in the countr}- except one line in San Francisco. 



CROSSING STEA.M ROAD TINNEL. 

construction and this crossing are carried over the tunnel 
on twelve inch steel I beams and special yokes bolted to 
them very much like those used for the pits. 

These pits and crossings were designed by Mr. II. M. 
Kebbv, Chief Assistant Engineer of Wright & Meysen- 
burg, who has been with them since they built their first 
cable road in St. Louis. He also had charge of the plans 
and construction of the power houses, machinery, etc. 

POWER STATIONS. 

There are two power houses on the line which while 
not exactly alike in outside appearance are yet near 



enough alike inside so that one description will do for 
both of them. The engine room is ninety feet by se\- 
entv. To the rear of this on the left as -sou enter is the 
tension room, one hundred seventy-tive feet deep by 
thirtv-four feet wide. Root's double tension carriage 
is employed. To the rear of this is the spool 
room, fort\- b\- thirt}'-four feet, with room for four cable 
spools, which are unloaded directly into it from the cars. 
To the right of the tension room is the boiler room, one 
hundred twentv-four by thirtj'-five feet and in the rear of 
this is the coal room. Running along the rear of the 



tlie genial manager and vice-president. This lirm also 
furnished the machiner\- for the Olive St. and Citizens' 
Railways of St. Louis. The machinery consists of a cen- 
ter driving shaft i8 inches in diameter, which is connected 
to the two crank shafts by face couplings. This shaft carries 
two 24-inch face cast iron pinions, which mesh into a mor- 
tise gear, 24-inch face and 15 ft. diameter, on each drum 
shaft, thus making all four of the drums drivers. The 
teeth on the pinions and mortise gears are staggered so 
that great strength and steadiness are gained. There is 
a pair of gears and pinions for each pair of drums and a 




•zsrtr. je^yiut^t 



DEPRESSIUX IN TRACK FOR PICK-UP. 



building is a private switch, owned by the company, on 
which they receive their cables, coal, etc. This track is 
supplied with a pair of fifty ton Fairbank scales. In con- 
nection with the coal room is a very elaborate system of 
coal handling machinery which was supphed by the 
jNIcQuire Machinery Company, of Chicago. The coal is 
shoveled from the cars into a conveyor, which takes it to 
an elevator, this drops it into a bin which shoots it both 
ways to two other conveyors, these take it directly to the 
immense sheet iron tanks, holding twenty-tive tons each, 
from which it drops directly into the mechanical stokers, of 
which there are two to each boiler, supplied bj- Westing- 
house, Church, Kerr & Company. 



coupling between them on the main shaft, so that each 
cable can be run independently of the other if necessary. 
The crank shafts were also furnished by this lirm, the 
cranks being sent to them to be pressed on. They also 
furnished a 24 foot diameter 60 ton fly wheel for each 
crank shaft. These wheels, considering their size and 
enormous weight are models of their kind. The driving 
machinery weighs 400 tons. There are five grooves on 
each drum, and the cable will be given two wraps. The 
machinery and engine foundations are 14 feet of concrete. 
Drums are 14 and 16 feet diameter. 

The tension carriages and drums were furnished by 
the Walker Manufacturing Company of Cleveland, Ohio. 




CR055 Section OF Crossing Jroadway AND Washington AyE 



The front of the building is composed of Missouri red 
granite, Lake Superior red sand stone and St. Louis 
pressed brick. The sides are of pressed brick with lime 
stone trimmings. The buildings are very handsome, airy 
and light. The roof of engine room is carried on a row 
of tru-sses of the Finck type, with steel channel purtins 
bolted to the trusses. These purtins are filled with hard 
wood and the two inch sheathing is fastened direct to 
them, thus doing away with the rafters generally used, 
and making a very strong and neat appearing roof. To 
this sheathing the slate is fastened. As a matter of fact 
we believe these power houses are the most complete and 
imposing of their kind in the country. The buildings 
were erected by R. W. Morrison & Co. 



The Walker Differential Drum, which has given such 
surprising results, and which is acknowledged by all 
cablemen as one of the greatest discoveries yet made, is 
of course adopted as necessary to make a perfect plant. 



The engines, two of which are in place in each power 
house, are 36x72 Wheelock improved variable cut off. 
Each is 700 nominal horse power. These engines have 
been found specially adapted for cable work, and com- 
bine greatest economy of operation with simplicity of con- 
struction and are exceedingly sensitive, a requirement 
that is needed in street railway work more than in any 
otJier business. 



MACIIIMCK^-. 



The winding machinery for both power plants, which 
IS very substantial and complete, was built by the Fulton 
Iron Works of St Louis, of which Mr. Geo. W. Fisher is 



Two 500 horse power llazleton tripod boilers are in 
place in each house, supplied with llazleton \acuum 
heaters and purifiers. They are bricked in and are each 



siinnoimtcd witli a \(.t\' liaiulsoiiu' liritk stack lOO fi'i't 
h\'^]]. liacli l^oilur is suppliL-d witli Iwo furnaci's ci|uip|Hjd 
with Ronev mechanical stokers. 

STKAM I'll'KS, I'L'Ml'S, ETC. 

Ail this work, which is one of the most conijilctc anil 
substantial in the c<)untr\', was done by the firm of Ku])- 
perlc IJros., of St. Louis. The steam pipe from boilers to 
entwines is 14-inch lap- welded pipe, with aluminum cast 
iron rtany;es. Between the boilers is a copper corrui^ated 
expansion joint, and in placi' of elbows whei'i' the Jiipe 
drops down to the ent;"ines there is a copjier bend of live 
feel radius. I'his is to take care of the expansion 
between the enifines. The exhaust, 16 inches where 
it lea\es the engines at each end of cslinders and ^4 
inches from where these come together, is made of No. 8 



one of each is used for lu)t and cold water and the third 
can be used for either. The feed pipes are so connected 
that an)' part of the boiler room equipment can be cut 
out for rej^airs or cleaning without interfering with the 
operation of the plant. All vahes used on this work, 
gate, globe, chronometer, etc., are the genuine Jenkins 
Bros, valves. The sizes running from J^ inch to 24 
inches. 

The floor of the engine room is of granitoid, no wood 
being in use \\hale\er, and the exhaust pipes, where they 
are under the floor are either arched over or covered 
with iron plates so that any part of it can be readily got 
at without disturbing the floor. 

A \-er\- unique and economical feature of these plants 
is the means used for sa\ing and piu'if\ing the water for 




■^IXTY TON FI.Y WIIEKL AM) DKI\ING MACHINERY, BROADWAY CAllLE I.INE, ST. Lulls 



steel ri\-ited pijie. This runs under the tloor from the 
engines to where it enters the boiler room. After reach- 
ing the boiler room it rises straight up to the roof, being 
connected on the way to the vacuum heater and just 
above this having a 24-inch back pressure valve. This 
valve- is the largest of its kind ever made by Jenkins 
Bros. It is used here in connection with the exhaust 
steam heating apparatus. On the top of this pipe is a 
condensing exhaust head which returns the water from 
the exhaust steam direct to the heater and it is then again 
used for steam. The pumps are Hooker No. 7, three of 
which are in each boiler room, and are connected so that 



the boilers. A large cistern about 4 ft. deep and capable 
of holding 50,000 gallons of water is constructed between 
the tension pits. The water runs directly into this cistern 
from the street mains until it is about half full when the 
water is shut off by a float valve. The other half of 
the cistern is reserved for rain water from the roof. All 
the roofs of power house and car houses being drained 
into it. The water is settled in this tank and then 
pumped into two wooden tanks, 6 ft. by 20 ft., which are 
raised above the floor of boiler room so that the water 
runs from them bv gravity into the heater. The hot 
water is pumped from the heater into a pumper above 



the top of the boilers from where it drops to a second 
purifier standing on the floor of boiler room, after passing 




gECTION OF I^OAOBED THf?OUGH YOKE. 

through which it enters the boilers near the bottom. 
These purifiers are filled with coke and are connected 




Section of F^oadbed 

BETWEEN TWO YOKES. 

directly with the boilers with Cincii pipes. The power for 
driving the coal handling machinery is transmitted from a 
50 H. P. vertical engine by i-inch manilla ropes. This 




tONGTITUDINAL £l_E YATION . 

engine will also drive a 400 light incandescent dynamo, 
which will light the car house, power house and offices. 
The electric lighting plant is the Thomson Houston 
system. 



The grip cars and coaches are very neat and are fur- 
nished by the Brownell Car Co., of St. Louis. Grip cars 




CROSSING OF 



are 20 feet long and boxes 26 feet, and are very hand- 
some specimens of the car builder's handiwork, while 
strength has not been sacrificed to looks. Both wheel 
and track brakes have been put on, thus insuring every 
possible precaution. Fifty trains of two or three cars 




3 JPlan. 

SLKFACE CONSTRLCTION AT CROSSING OF BROADWAY ANB 



STRFET CAKLK LINES, 



each will be put in service from the start, and operate 
from 5 a. m. until midnight. 

The cables, of which there are four, are i % inches in 
diameter and 11,300 ft., 28,250 ft., 20,500 ft., 21,000 ft. 
in length, are nrade by the Broderick & Bascom Rope 
Co. of St. Louis. The proposed speed of ropes is 10 
and 1 2 miles per hour. 

Great praise is due Capt. Robt. McCulloch, the ener- 
getic manager of the syndicates lines in St. Louis, for the 
way in which the cars were kept running over this line 
all summer notwithstanding the way in which the street 
was blocked by the work of laying the cable track. He 
is now breaking in the gripmen on the north end and 
expects to be operating the entire line by cable about the 
1st of February. 



|yh«et§^ttlM;&^ ^vie*^ 



13 



Stedman Foundry and Machine Works. 

TI IE entire equipment of street pulle\s for the IJroad- 
w av cable svstem was furnished by the Stedman 
Fouiuh\ and Machine Works, of Aurora, Indiana. 
Tiicse pulle\s are ground perfectly true and smooth witli 
emer\- wheels traveling at high speed. Then lined with 
babitt metal, which gives great wearing qualities without 
injuring the cable. Other roads supplied by the com- 
pany are the Vine Street Cable, at Cincinnati. Denver 
Tramway Co., Denver, Providence Cable Co., Pros i- 
dence, where thev are gi\ing excellent service. 



Flegles Pipe Covering Co. 

THE entire steam Japing system in the Broadway 
Cable Plant is covered with a wrapper made by the 
above named companv, and composed of lavers of 
sheet asbestos and paper felt, half an inch thick, and cov- 
ered with canvass, and painted. Such a perfect covering 
is it that with a temperature of 365 degrees on the e.xterior 
surface of the pipe, the heat outside the covering is so 
slight that a ]ierson can hold his hand on the pipes 
without disc(jnifort. The econom\- in heat from this 
source is considerable. 



The severe snow- 
storms during the past 
few weeks which in 
manv places, have been 
the heaviest in the 
countrv since the adop- 
tion of electric lines, 
have given the mana- 
gers the desired oppor- 
tunity of determining 
the e.xtra power re- 
quired on such occa- 
sions. 

This must necessar- 
ily be a matter of exper- 
iment, which actual ex- 
perience alone can de- 
termine, and the fact 
that a few companies 
in some cities have met 
with more or less dela}- 
in this, their present 
combat with hea\\- 
snowfalls, is no argu- 
ment against the ability 
of the electric svstem 
to cope with it. It shows 
the necessity for the 
adoption of plows, or 
cars with scrapers on 
at short intervals, and 
the need of an ample 
surplus power at the 
generators. With man\' 
Companies the busi- 
ness incident to the 
change from Horse to Electric power has grown so rapidly 
as to use up, in a large degree, the reserved power which 
they had counted on in this emergencv, and the public 
should be patient and consider the fact that an increase in 
power plant cannot be accomplished in a day. 




Those of our read- 
ers who attended the 
national convention in 
Washington, will be 
inti'rested in a special 
act of the legislature 
of \'irginia, which has 
just incorporated the 
Alexandria Railway 
Company, with author- 
ity to build from Ar- 
lington to Mt. \'ernon. 
At present this resting 
place of the father of 
our country is accessi- 
ble only by boat or 
carriage, and the con- 
struction of this line 
most certainly ought 
to meet with very grat- 
ifs-in<r results. 



The Street Railwav 
Company at T\ler, 
Texas, are piouslv in- 
clined, having donated 
a lot to the Presbvter- 
ian Church of that citv. 



An accident occurred 
to a lady in a Boston 
Street Car. resulting 
from a runawav horse 
colliding with the car; 
the shafts penetrated 
both the side of the 

;RLE BK09. J , 

car and the passenger. 

Because it was an elevated road, from the station 

of which one O. T. Jarvis fell and broke his thumb and 

jaw, etc., he places his damages high, and would like 

$55,000 from the Brooklyn Elevated Road. 



ROADWAY CAHLE PLANT ST. I.OfIS, SHOWING : 
SYSTEM OF KUFFERLE BK09. 



Those companies who have leased their power from 
other companies, seem to have fared the worst, and with 
hardly any exception are fullv realizing the necessity of 
owning their own plant and being in a position to increase 
their power at will. 



A DESTRUCTUE tire occurred on the mornmg of Januarv 
20th, consuming the large manufacturing plants of the 
Standard Metal and Belding Electric Moter Companv, 
at Hermosa, a suburb of Chicago. Loss $225,000, insur- 
ance $200,000. 



14 



A REMARKABLE RAILWAY RECORD. 

After Eighteen Years as President and Superintendent, C. B. Holmes Resigns. — His Last Annual 

Report a Most Interesting Document. — A Splendid Tribute from 

Two Thousand Employees. 



IN 1873, C. B. Holmes was elected superintendent of 
the Chicago City Railway. At that time it had onh' 
twents'-two miles of road, sixty bob tail cars, and few 
facilities. The road was badlv-run down, and on last 
trips drivers frequently drove into the barn with a load of 
passengers, leaving them to walk home as best thev 
could. There was no discipline among the men and the 
accommodations given the public were verv inferior, when 
viewed from to-dav. 

Steadil)' and earnesth- he applied himself to the work, 
and by incessant and intelligent labor, brought s\-stem out 
of chaos. The first radical change was in abolishing the 
bob-tails. Then came double tracks, and in 1881 the 
first twenty miles of the cable system, for the introduction 
and adaptation of which Chicago is unquestionablv in- 
debted to Mr. Holmes. Other improvements and better- 
ments have been added almost daih', until the plant to-day 
is second to none in the world. His policy has alvva^'S 
been a liberal one in a marked degree, both with em- 
ployees and the public. A most progressive man, he 
read with unerring eye the trend of the future and laid 
extensions here and cross lines there, long in advance of 
any riding population, securing not only franchises, now 
of inestimable value, but inviting settlement in the south 
di\ision of the cit\' by thousands. This one man by his 
persistent extensions of lines, rapid transit facilities and 
transfer privileges, has done more than any other one 
cause to enhance the value of south side property twenty 
minions of dollars and add to its population one hundred 
thousand residents from the other divisions of the city. 
Few companies have expanded with such rapidity that in 
eighteen years their track increased from 22 to 154 miles: 
their cars from 60 to 1,250; and the daily business from 
30,000 to 200,000 passengers. 

Mr. Holmes is acknowledged the leading street railwa\- 
manager in America. 

Mr. Holmes has kindly furnished the Street Rail- 
way Review with a cop}- of his last report, made Janu- 
arj' 15th, 1891, and from this most comprehensi\e docu- 
ment we extract the follo\Ning: 

To THE Stockholders of the Chicago City Rail- 
way Company. 
Gcntlcmoi : — 

In order to present an intelligent statement regard- 
ing the condition of your property and the operations 
of the past j-ear it may be necessary to review some- 
what matters that have been presented in former reports, 
but bespeaking your patience, the statement will be con- 
densed as much as shall be consistent. 

earnings and expenses. 

During the past year the number of passengers carried 
was 68,734,969, producing a revenue to the company of 



$3,436,748.46; of this $2,311,455.14 was earned by the 
cable cars, and $1,125,293.32 by the horse cars. The 
cost of operating the road was $2,297,651.43, leaving for 
net earnings $1,139,097.03. Out of this has been paid 
for interest $220,270.88, and four dividends of 3 per cent, 
each on a capital of $5,000,000, amounting to $600,000.00 
— total, $820,270.88; leaving a surplus, $318,826.15. 

The net earnings, after pa3'ing interest, amount to 
18 37-100 per cent, on the capital. 

The year was the most prosperous in the history of the 
compan}-, as the gross earnings of the road exceeded 
those of 1889 by $564,246.70. The average earnings 
per day were $9,415.75; the average dail}- earnings ex- 
ceeded those of 1889 by $1,545.88, showing that an 
average of 30,917 passengers \vere carried every da}- in 
1890 more than the previous \ear. 

The per centage of expenses to earnings was 66 85-100 
— a decrease of 3 72-100 over 1889. 

The cost of operating per mile per car was, by cable, 
9 650-1000 cents; by horses, 21 985-1000 cents. 

Number of miles run by cable, 12,740,480; number of 
miles run b\' horses, 4,859,200. 

The net earnings of the road for the last five years 
were as follows: 1886, $619,253.85; 1887, $686,259.85; 
1888, $683,338.53: 1889, $845,339.37; 1890, $1,139,- 
897.83. 

equipment. 

The present equipment consists of 60 40-ft. box cars, 
76 i6-ft. box cars, 472 21-ft. box cars, 450 open cars, 
222 grip cars, 47 snow plows, and 7 sweepers; exclusive 
of the 100 grip cars not yet completed. 

The total number of cars now owned by the company 
is 1.250. 

rep.\ir department. 

During the year there has passed into the shop for 
repairs, of greater or less magnitude, 2479 cars. 
The cost of car repairs for the year was $108,876.95. 



During the year there have been added 4.21 miles of 
track, making a total of 152.95 miles; of which 34.19 are 
cable, and 118.76 horse lines. 

During the year there have been laid 73,676 square 
yards of granite paving. In doing the work there have 
been consumed 1720 car loads of material, an equivalent 
of 9382 days work of teams, and 66,300 }-ards of filling. 



At the beginning of the year the company owned 2273 
head of horses. During the year there were purchased 
635 horses, at a cost of $79,460.00, an average of $125.13 
per head. The number that died was 132, entailing a 
loss of $17,230; 268 horses were sold for $34,854.38, 



i|jh«el%U»#^ ^v\e«^- 



15 



wliich was $24,257.38 less than llu-y cost: niakiiin- a total 
loss of horses that died and were sold, of $41,487.38; 
leavinir on hand at the close of the year 2508 horses. 

At one time durin<,^ the year ij,rave apprehension was 
felt lest a contagious and dangerous disease, which broke 
out among the team horses, should e.xtend to the \arions 
stables of car horses; but fortunately, through the untiring 
efforts of the \'eterinary Surgeon and barn foremen and 
assistants, the disease was confined to the one stable. The 
number of horses lost from this cause was 31. 

The daily cost for each horse has been : For hostlers, 
193^ cents; feed, i^}i cents; loss by death or deprecia- 
tion, 4^ cents; shoeing, 3^ cents; miscellaneous stalile 
expenses, 2}'^ cents; bedding, ^ cents; repairs of har- 
ness, I cent; a total of 47 65-100 cents per day. 

I'RIXTINi; DEPARTMENT. 

The printing of transfer tickets, trip sheets, and other 
matter is performed in the printing department, at a sav- 
ing of fully $4,000 during the J'ear, over what the same 
would have cost if done in any other way, and it has the 
further advantage of having the work done under the 
company's close supervision. The amount of paper con- 
sumed was forty-three tons. 

CABLE SYSTEM. 

The company's cable system is composed of thirteen 
cables, aggregating 205,040 feet in length. The loop 
cables are operated at a speed of 7^ miles per hour; the 
cables north of Twenty-First street, at 10 miles per hour; 
the cables from Twentv-First street to Thirty-Ninth 
street, at 1 1 miles an hour, and south of Thirtv-Ninth 
street, at 14 miles per hour. 

The power to move the cables is furnished b\' three 
power plants — one at Twenty-First and State streets, 
another at Fifty-Second and State streets, and the third at 
Fifty-Fifth street and Cottage Grove avenue. The latter 
is equipped with two engines of 1,000 horse power each, 
and three boilers of 500 horse power each; one engine 
and one boiler being always held in reserve. 

On some of the days, when the travel was the heaviest, 
the amount of power actually generated by the 1,000 h. p. 
engine was 1,375 h- P- ^'^s the heaviest daws this 
year in a short time be the average power consumed, 
arrangements have been made to provide for increasing 
demands by contracting for two engines, each 44x72 
inches, to be placed on the same foundations now occu- 
pied by the present engines. The cost of these engines 
will be $26,500, and will be capable of transmitting 1,800 
h. p. each. The displaced engines will be removed to 
Twenty-First and State streets, and used as additional 
power to the four 500 h. p. engines now in use. At the 
latter place no change will be made in the present 
machinery, e.xcept the main shaft will be extended suf- 
ficiently for these two engines to be connected with it. 
The machiner\- now in use is ample for doing the work, 
but the rapid growth of the business will soon consume 
all the power, hence the two 36x72 engines will be added 
for reserve. 



On the 13th of Octcjber last a 9-inch shaft in the ])it at 
Madison and State streets broke, when it was discovered 
that the shaft was imperfect, having a large flaw in the 
very center, although it had been in use for over three 
vears. This required the use of horses for a part of the 
(la\-. This was the lirst accident of any kind to cables or 
machiner\- in three years and three months which made it 
necessary to use horses on the main lines. 

The power at Fifty-Second and State streets is ample 
for all present necessities, and s<j far as we are able now 
to judge, will be equal to even to the demands upon the 
company during the World's Exposition. The boiler 
capacity in all the plants, including reserve power, at 80 
lbs. pressure to the square inch, is 5,000 h. p., and all the 
engines, boilers and other machiner\- are in lirst-class 
condition. 

ACCIDENT DEPARTMENT. 

Where accidents have occurred through the careless- 
ness of employees, the same has, as far as possible, been 
collected from the parties at fault, and in this way 
$4,222.08 has been paid into the treasury. The effect of 
this is very salutary in causing employees to be extremeh' 
careful in the handling of the cars. 

Settlement has been made in four cases for $7,939.50, 
in which judgment has been rendered for $1,000 in ex- 
cess of that amount besides interest. In these cases the 
amount sued for was $70,000. 

There has been paid during the year the sum of 
$10,768 for the settlement of fortA'-six cases, in which the 
aggregate amount for which the company was sued was 
$515,000. The sum of $12,102.35 has been paid for the 
settlement of 2_},2 cases, upon which suit had not been 
brought. The total expenditure was $30,809.85. There 
are now 112 cases pending in the various courts, a less 
number than at any time for several years, and the 
amount claimed in these suits is $1,288,600. 

In almost every instance your agent has been shown by 
the party injured, the cards of from eight to ten law firms, 
who had solicited the case, representing to the prospective 
client that a fortune could be gained for him by suing the 
company. One attorney has gone so far as to carry with 
him a scrap-book containing clippings from the daily 
papers showing the verdicts that he has from time to time 
obtained in such cases; and the agents of these firms daily 
search through the police records and make inquiries in 
the drug stores and saloons along the lines of the road to 
learn, if possible, if any accidents have happened during 
the day, and the whereabouts of the party who met with 
the misfortune. A considerable portion of the suits 
brought against this company are frauds of the most 
amazing character, and in these cases the claimants and 
their abettors do not hesitate to take anj- steps, however 
disreputable, to accomplish their aims. To expose these 
schemes requires untiring energy and the expenditure of 
large sums of money, because so many different clues 
must be followed, so many different interests placated, so 
many new friendships cultivated, and so many avenues of 
fraud explored before the facts can be absolutely deter- 
mined; for in this class of cases it is impossible, as fre- 



i6 



quentlv no accident occurred, to meet the matter in any 
other way than by breaking down the testimony of the 
plaintiff and his abettors by exposing him. 

In one case a verdict was rendered of $6,000, for a 
plaintiff whose case rested solely upon her own perjury, 
backed up bv that of a professional witness. Immediately 
afterwards such evidence was obtained as showed con- 
clusivelv how bare-faced had been the fraud, and the 
plaintiff's attorneys were very glad to consent to a new 
trial. 

In another case a witness who had made a very favora- 
ble statement, showing no fault b}- the company, was so 
manipulated that his testimony was exceedingly hurtful: 
but this was shown up in its true light, resulting in a \ er- 
dict for the company and holding of the witness hv the 
Judge, of his own motion, to the Criminal Court. 

In one case a judgment was secured against the com- 
pany simply because the plaintiff was such a violent and 
outrageous intimidator that witnesses were afraid to testify 
against him, although he had cut the coat almost entirely 
off from the conductor of the car and inflicted injuries 
upon him. 

EMPLOYEES. 

It is no easy problem to secure thorough discipline and 
■\et retain lo3'alt\' and heart\- good will, without which a 
corporation must have a disastrous career. Wages are an 
important factor, but not an all-controling one. In this 
direction the policy of your board and executive officers 
has been to be liberal in compensation, exact in require- 
ments, to exercise justice to all, and freedom to every man 
to make known his grievances, and persistently endeavor 
to make every employee feel and know that permanency 
and promotion depend solely upon fidelity and skill. 
Prompt recognition and manifested appreciation of faith- 
ful service is as potent as regular pay. That this course 
has been reasonably successful is shown by the fact that 
during eighteen years, including very turbulent periods, 
the company has not had a single strike, and every em- 
ployee is loyal and earnest in his devotion to the compan^■. 
This is worth many thousands of dollars a year to any 
large horse-raihva}- enterprise, and much more to a cable 
line, where machinery covering thirty-live miles is wholly 
in the hands of the employees, and its quicker speed ren- 
ders accidents more liable to occur and more serious in 
result. Loyalty for which mere wages do not pay and 
cannot secure, is proven when a furious and protracted 
snow storm, attended by intense cold, must be encountered. 
On a cable line, any negligence or lack of skill which per- 
mits a blockade, even for a short time, may so encumber 
the track that machinery and cable may be seriously im- 
paired and $50,000 of damages easily result. The writer 
has himself battled with such a storm for sixty hours in 
succession, with only five intervals of thirty minutes each, 
and knows whereof he speaks touching the heroic loyalty 
of the men who staid with him. 

The fact that while street railways are proverbially and 
almost universally the safety valve for the iU humor of an 
entire community, in the case of this compan}', the cor- 
poration possesses the hearty good will of the public and 



its employees — an asset of vast proportions — for public 
sentiment is the atmosphere in which a street railway must 
live and operate. If roses will not thrive in the snows of 
Labrador, neither will a street railway prosper in an an- 
tagonistic public sentiment. 

In eighteen \-ears your property has grown from 22 1-2 
miles of track to 152 miles, and from 60 bobtail cars to 
1,250 of the largest and best; its revenue has increased 
from $600,000 a year to nearly three and one-half mil- 
lions; its patronage from 30,000 passengers a day to 200,- 
000: the speed of its cars from five miles an hour to an 
average of ten miles an hour. The company has devel- 
oped a cable system second to none in the world in ex- 
tent, efliciency and public regard. 

During all this period not a new car has been built or 
bought, not a new horse added, not a rod of track con- 
structed, not a building erected or enlarged, until the same 
was duly considered and authorized by jour Board of Di- 
rectors. It has been the constant study of your Board to 
keep pace with the tremendous growth of the city, to 
stimulate and guide it. While caring for the present and 
seeing that every quarter a dividend was paid to the share- 
holders, your Board has studied carefully and patiently 
the ever growing and widening demands of the future up- 
on this corporation, for which it is morally and legally 
bound to provide. In so doing, both in your interest and 
equalh' in the interest of the public, it has been called up- 
on to check some ambitious enterprises and earnestly fos- 
ter others. Such competition as would cripple this com- 
pany and thereby injure the public, it has sought to fore- 
stall and prevent, and in place thereof has reached out in 
magnanimous spirit and broad policy, to give the people 
unexampled facilities which would have been impossible 
for any others to furnish. 

With a consciousness of having done what they could 
and ha\ing earnestly endeavored for many years to de- 
velope and protect your interests, the Board of Directors 
return to 30U the trust committed to them, with the prop- 
erty in better physical condition than at an}^ former date 
in the Company's history; with the most marked good 
will of your patrons; with a thoroughly organized and 
efficient corps of employees; and with the earnings of the 
road at the highest mark ever attained, and with pros- 
pects the most encouraging. 

If a word personal to the writer is permissible, he would 
like to say that having tendered his resignation from all 
connection \\ ith the Company at the close of nearh- twen- 
ty years' association, and having done so in the interest 
of harmony and that no obstacles should interfere with 
the introduction and operation of any new policy or meth- 
ods, the shareholders in their wisdom should deem desir- 
able to inaugurate, he retires from a position which has 
been attended every hour by grave responsibilities and 
deeply felt anxieties. It has fallen to his lot to hold the 
helm through crises when the most precious interests of 
the Company were at stake and guidance was ditlicult. 
Prominent among these were: — 

I. The change from animal to cable power, a pioneer 
movement involving new and untried forces, under condi- 



ialoiil ^^»^)' ^JsTitA^- 




C. b. HOLMtb. 



^Vml^{^vi^^>^«^ 



17 



tions nL'\oi" hi'forc (.■tHoiiiUcrccl, in wliiili a inislakc lmiIkt 
in failing to act or in actin;,^ wronglv would lia\i' Ijccn 
fatal. 

2. In securing sucli an arrangement with the City of 
Chicago, at the expiration of the Hrst twenty-hve years 
of this company's life, as should he heneticial to the com- 
pany; rendered dithcult b}' popular clamor and an imper- 
fect understanding of vested rights. 

3. In securing the construction of so many tracks and 
so locating them as to make your lines worthy the name 
of a system, and by binding them together by methods of 
transfer, the broadest, most popular and profitable known 
to the street railway world; and in all these and all other 
matters he graceful!}- acknowledges the endorsement and 
co-operation of the directors and unqualified support of 
the great body of stockholders, but looking back from the 
standpoint of to-day, one almost trembles to feel how dif- 
ferent might ha^■e been the outcome had these and other 
matters been prematurely pushed or not pushed at all. 

It is seldom permitted any man to impress his individu- 
ality so largely on an\- semi-public enterprise, extending 
through so many years and invoking such weighty issues. 
For your partiality in permitting him to be identified, 
either in large or little measure, with \our interests, to 
which he has devoted the best years of his life, he is 
heartily grateful. 

To the members of the board and the stockholders, 
with whom his relations have always been the most pleas- 
ant and harmonious; to his fellow officers, who have la- 
bored unceasingly to carry out the policy of the company; 
to the heads of departments and all the employees, whose 
expressions of friendship are pathetic; and to the public, 
whose rights and comforts he has endeavored to study 
and promote, and who have been wonderfully forbearing 
and considerate towards his faults, he desires, while re- 
gretting mistakes and short comings, to return his sincere 
thanks and most hearty wishes for enlarged prosperity. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. B. Holmes, 

President. 

When it became known among the employees that 
there was a possibility of Mr. Holmes not being on the 
new board, there was great sorrow among them and the 
following evidence of affectionate respect is a striking tes- 
timonial of the high regard in which he is held by the 
men. It was signed by two thousand employees and 
reads as follows : 

Chicago, January 9th, 1S91. 
To Mr. C. B. Holmes, President and Suferinlendent. 

It is with deepest regret, amounting to a sense of personal misfor. 
tune to us, that we, the employees of the Chicago City Railway Com- 
pany, have read in the daily papers the announcement of your resigna- 
tion as President and Superintendent of the company which we have so 
long served in common. 

Permit us to avail ourselves of this occasion, not simplv as a bodv 
but each for himself and for his family to thank you, again and again, 
for the just and considerate treatment we liave alwavs experienced at 
your hands. While there have arisen situations in which your action 
was not in accordance with our views at the time, we recognize now 
that it was for the best good of all concerned. You alwavs found a way 



to maintain the rights and conserve the interests of the owners of the 
road without prejudice to the rights and interests of their employees 
and have thus advanced the prosperity of both. 

When we needed a friend, you were a friend, were we in distress 
you succored us, were we misjudged you righted us with an even tem- 
pered justice that recognized the rights of all. 

We know lo how large an extent you have been the architect of 
success in this great corporation, not only in the harmony which distin-' 
guishes the relations existing in its service, but also and especially in the 
exceptional popularity which it enjoys with the public. To such a de- 
gree has your management created and cultivated this popularity that 
every one of us has felt a personal pride in his connection with the 
comjiany. 

Should you persist in severing your connection with this company, 
you take with you our sincere admiration as a manager; our deepest re- 
spect as a man and our warmest gratitude as a friend. 

To which Mr. Holmes replied in the following: 

January 13th, 1891. 
To THE Employees or the Chicago City Railway Co. 

Gentlemen :- Your committee, through its chairman, Mr. D. Martin, 
presented to me to-day your testimonial of friendship, accompanied 
by very kindly expressions of regard by himself and members of the 
committee. 

In all the years of my connection with this company nothing has 
so touched my heart as this assurance of your esteem and attachment. 
For eighteen years we have labored together and have come into closer 
relations than is usual in business affairs, but during all that time no em- 
ployee of the company has ever spoken a disrespectful word to inc or 
treated me with discourtesy. To sever connections so pleasant, of such 
long duration, and so strongly cemented, is very painful to me, but your 
candid and appreciative review of our relations and the assurance of your 
friendship will always be to me a priceless treasure, enshrined in affec- 
tionate memory. 

Permit me to assure each of 30U personally of my regard and esteem, 
and my gratitude and respect for your loyal devotion to duty, for what- 
ever measure of success has attended the operations of the road is large- 
ly due to your fidelity and skill. 

That each of you and your families may be highly prospered is the 
earnest wish of Your Friend, 

C. B. Holmes. 

The stock of the Chicago City Railway is practically 
held by a very few individuals. These gentlemen a few 
w-eeks ago met in secret session, and then issued a circu- 
lar to the other shareholders, stating that President 
Holmes was so largely interested in other roads that the 
City Railroad was being neglected in consequence. As 
a matter of fact the road has at no period of its existence 
been in as good condition as to-day, and furthermore, Mr. 
Holmes states in all his eighteen years connection with the 
company he has been absent from his office from all rea- 
sons combined but eighty-five working days, and only 
five days during the past year. The real reason wh\- 
these gentlemen desired a change in the head, undoubt- 
edly is not apparent on the surface, and only time will re- 
veal. A claim that the road has been poorly managed is 
worse than wasted on any street railway man. Notwith- 
standing the alleged neglect the new board elected Mr. 
Holmes superintendent, which however, he prompth' de- 
clined in the following letter : 

Chicago, January 17, 1S91. 
To THE Directors of the Chicago City Railway Co., 

Gentlemen: The secretary of your company has notified me of your 
action in electing me superintendent for the company, with request to 
attend your meeting to-day, and for such action you will please accept 
my thanks. 

Many friends, including gentlemen on your board, and other stock- 
holders, whose judgment I respect and friendship prize, and many well 
known citizens not interested in the property, have urged me to accept 
the position; petitions signed by patrons of the road and a commitiee of 



i8 



the employees, speaking for two thousand families, have also had great 
weight with me; my own disinclination to sunder the ties of a lifetime) 
and the fact that my long connection with the company has necessarily 
put me in possession of knowledge on many matters unknown to others, 
have conspired to make it difficult to discover the path of duty, and 
make it proper to state why I cannot accept your offer. 

The subject of salary has not been mentioned and does not enter into 

■ the question. I have never raised that point with the company, but have 

always cheerfully accepted what was offered, although for many years, 

and until recently, less than half the amount tendered in other quarters. 

In my connection heretofore with the company, it was my duty and 
privilege to study and plan for its present needs and future develop- 
ment; to submit my plans to the Directory, and by such arguments as 1 
could present, secure their adoption with such modifications as other 
members of the board would suggest; to be, in a word, the moving 
and guiding spirit of the enterprise. I assumed this responsibility and 
bent my energies to the work, grandly supported by a united and har- 
monious directory. 

I am now asked to assume a position in the same Company with the 
guiding, shaping, and controlling power of the corporation vested in 
another. This resolves my work into dull routine, with the romance 
and enthusiasm expunged. It means a life w ith such narrow boundaries 
it cannot fail to degenerate into the sordid and mercenary. Were I to 
enter into this relation, under e.\isting conditions, it might be impertinent 



for me to suggest a line of policy, and if not, my motive would almost 
certainly be misunderstood and impugned; and though I might do all 
in my power honestly and earnestly to carry out the plans adopted, the 
inevitable might prevent, leaving ground for suspicion of disloyaltv, a 
state worse than death to one of my temperament and constitution. 

In the tremendous labors which must be performed by the Chicago 
City Railway Company in preparing for and discharging its duties dur- 
ing the next three years, in my humble judgment, success cannot be 
attained except some one man shall put his own shoulder beneath the 
load and carry it, and this he cannot do except as he has the full con- 
fidence of every member of the Board and is one around whom every 
member can rally with enthusiastic and unqualified support, and this 
must be supplemented by the hearty and loyal co-operation of his sub- 
ordinates, down to the humblest employe. The good name of our 
beloved city will be involved and the Company will be honored or dis- 
graced before the world. 

Under these conditions my acceptance of your offer might be dis- 
astrous to the Company. Moreover, there have recently come to me 
proposals from other institutions in this and other cities, where the posi- 
tions tendered would give scope for personal development and public 
benefit, always precious to every earnest man. 

For these reasons, I must respectfully decline your offer, with sincere 
thanks for its tender. Very^truly yours, 

C. B. Holmes. 



CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT NOTES. 



The Vogel Cable Construction Company. 

OLIR readers will notice in this issue the adver- 
tisement of the Vogel Cable Construction Com- 
pany-, a corporation recently organized to pro- 
mote the construction of cable railways. The patents 
which were the principal assets of the late Vogel & Whe- 
lan Cable Company have been acquired by the new com- 
pany, which also controls all the more recent inventions of 
Mr. Charles Vogel, who was the originator of the valu- 
able improvements developed by himself and Mr. Frank 
Whelan. 



of such width as to leave the proper slot opening at the 
top. The sides are braced at suitable inter\als by side 
and bottom angle bars, riveted to the conduit sections 
while the latter are being manufactured. This form of 
conduit is greatly superior to the old form used by the 
Vogel & Whelan Company, in two respects — first, the 
constant width of the slot opening is preserved, without 
bracing to the ties or rails; and, second, the tight bottom 
of the conduit carries the drainage at once to the pulley 
pockets, dispensing with the former concrete sub-drain 
beneath the ties. 







The principal new devices offered by the company are 
an improved form of cable conduit and road-bed, designed 
by Mr. Geo. S. Morison, C. E., and Mr. Vogel, and a 
duplex grip, and other details of a duple.x cable s^'stem, 
recently perfected by the latter. 

The new form of road-bed has many advantages, and 
is a radical departure in cable road construction, the rails 
and conduit being supported on cross ties, which is, in the 
opinion of the engineers of the company, the only rational 
method of railway construction. 

The conduit is made of rolled iron or steel in sections of 
about thirty feet each. The sides, which are of special 
Z-bar section, are riveted to a flat or curved bottom plate, 



The Vogel grip, which, for the common i ^ inch cable, 
is a cylinder 4^ inches in diameter, is so compact that it 
requires a conduit only ten inches deep; the ties are placed 
ten inches below the street surface, which is about the 
depth usual in the construction of first-class horse railroads, 
and which is necessary in order to clear the paving stones. 
Ordinarily no excavation is necessary below the ties except 
at the pulley pockets. In cases where the pa\enient is 
laid on concrete, the ties, whether of wood or metal, 
may be bedded in the same. 

At every joint the Z-bars are ctit away on one side 
so that free access mav be had to the pulle\', the cover 
of the pulley pocket being so arranged as to take tlie 



^twl%\il**&^' ^i#^- 



19 



place of llu' Z-liar and pr(.'.st'r\-e tlu" C()ntiiuiil\- of the 
slot openiiii^'. The pro]X)sed pullev pocket is of cast iron 
of suitable size ami shape, and provided with a drainaj^e 
outlet. Full details of this and other features are shown 
in the accompanying drawings. 

An experience of nearly two years on the road built by 
Mr. Vogel, at Butte Citw Montana, h;is proved that a small 
conduit, e\en when built of wood, is easih kept clean, and 



iiidi\idual lamjis, has just been perfected. It is strongly 
constructed, attractive in appearance, and by means of 
a canopy reflector effectually throws a soft yet strong 
light to every part of the car, and obviates the necessity 
of the objectionable end lamps. 

Josephine D. Smith, of 350 and 352 Pearl street, New 
^'ork, is the iinentor and manufacturer. 




considerations of public health demand the use of a conduit 
which is frequently cleaned, rather than one in w hich the 
street tilth is allowed to accumulate for some time. 

The great advantage of the system offered by the 
Vogel Cable Construction Company lies in the rapidity 
and cheapness with which it can be constructed. The 
ties being once in position, the conduit sections, of the 
same length as the rails and weighing but litde over one 
ton each, can be placed on the ties and bolted together and 
to the intervening pulley pockets almost as rapidly as the 
rails can be laid. 

The Vogel Cable Construction Company is prepared 
to license such companies as prefer to construct their 
own roads, and to form sub-companies to undertake con- 
struction if desired. The organization of the company 
includes men of such high standing as Mr. George S. 
Morrison, the eminent civil engineer, Mr. J. F. Barnard. 
President of the Ohio & Mississippi Railway, and Mr. 
Edwards Whitaker, a well-known banker of St. Louis. 
These gendemen, together with Mr. D. D. Bush, C. E. 
who will act as manager of the company, and Mr. \V. C. 
Pratt, Secretary and Treasurer, will form the Board of 
Directors. 

A Handsome Lamp, 

WITH the advent of electricity as motive power, 
and its accompanying application for interior 
lighting purposes, the advantages of a well 
lighted car have become more and more apparent. The 
electric roads almost uni\ersally employ the incandescent 




light, but the large number of companies still operating 
horse cars are just as desirous of furnishing as good, 
with oil. The lamp manufactiwers ha\e displayed very 
commendable zeal in their efforts to work out this prob- 
lem for the railwa\- men. and a new center li"ht. of three 



A Boltiess Chair. 

THE Patent Dublex Chair, shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration, exemplifies a new idea in chairs for 
supporting girder or T rails. The manufacturer, 
Geo. W. Wells, of Worcester, Mass., claims for it, ease 




of application, no nuts to screw up. a firm grip on the rail 
and great strength and durability. Its great feature is its 
simplicity, there being but two parts — both identically 
alike, so that the laying can be accomplished rapidh", and 
all parts adjusted without the use of wrenches, bolts or 




nuts. It is particularly applicable to electric roads, as 
there is nothing to jar loose under the heavy service of 
motor cars. The vertical strength of the device is verj' 
great, as the disposition of the metal is such as to provide 
an ample support, and the rail is grasped so firml)- as to 
leave no question as to its alignment and guage, and also 



assures a veiy substantial support. Mr. Geo. W. Wells 
is a civil engineer and street railway contractor, and he 
invented this chair to meet requirements which, in his long 
and varied experience, he has found necessary to a per- 
fect road-bed. Although the invention is of recent date, 
it has been adopted by two prominent roads of the coun- 
try, to one of which, the Worcester Consolidated Street 
Railway, the manufacturer refers by permission. Those 
who contemplate making extensions or alterations during 
the spring will do well to investigate the merits of this 
new device. 



Nine of these cars are being built for the Union Electric 
Company, of Boston, for their stortige battery cars. Three 
will be run on the Beverly & Danvers road, at Beverly, 



The Latest Paper Wheel. 

IN October, 1890, the Allen Paper Car Wheel Co., 
of Chicago, brought out a filled car wheel for street 
cars, designed to be the same to the street car ser- 
vice that their large wheels are in the steam railroad 
service. In point of fact, in street cars running on only 




four wheels, as most of them do, the wheels are so rigidly 
fastened to the car sill that the noise when in motion is 
directly transmitted to the interior of the car; and in winter 
when the ground is frozen is often almost unbearable. 
Recently the Allen Company have made a great improve- 
ment in their street car wheel, and now make a spoke- 
filled wheel which is a great improvement even on the 
first brought out. 

A Bent Post. 

THESE posts are bent by steam and will never 
straighten out if bent properly, being put on a mould 
and pressed into shape, making the post much 
stronger than a post that is sawed to shape, as there is no 
cross grain. 

The frame of the panel as shown in the smaller cut is 
also bent to shape and the panel let into a grove in the 
same, and these panels will never split when put in in this 
waj'. 




Mass. Six cars are also being built on this pattern for the 
Hopedale & Milford, Mass., road, of solid mahogany 
throughout; all of the wood that shows on both the out- 
side and inside of the car is of this material, making a re- 




markably handsome car. These cars are wired for elec- 
tric bells, and electric registers will be used. 

The lower panel of these cars are hung on a hinge to 
let down when changing the batteries. They are also 
building a lot of large open cars for the West End Street 



Rail\va\- Conipain-, of Boston, ami arc \tT\- hus\- at pres- 
ent getting out a lot of open cars for the sunnner season 
for other roads. 

A large store house has just been finished, to be used 
for storing cars only, as they build cars ahead and keep 
all styles of standard sizes in stock ready for the color. 
Their capacity this year will be fulh' double what it was 
last year, and all orders will receive prompt attention. 

Street railway men will be always welcome and given 
e\er-s- faciiit\' for inspecting cars in all stages of construc- 
tion. 



A New Motor. 

TllIC Baxter Electric Motor Compan\- ha\e brought 
out a new motor, which was tried at Baltimore 
recenth', and is said to ha\e worked \'ery satisfac- 
toritv. The in\entor claims to give increased power with 
a great reduction in speed, the motor making but lOO rev- 
olutions per minute, and also to have lessened the weight 
about one ton. The motor is connected directlv with the 
axle of the car and the gearing is enclosed in a cast iron 
box filled with oil. Mr. Robert G. Grifiin is Secretary- 
and Treasurer of the works, and David E. Evans, Super- 
intendent. Their developments will be watched with 
interest. 



White's Eureka Construction. 

THE latest from R. T. White, the prolific inventor, 
is his Eureka Construction, in which he adopts 
some of the points now so well known in his Daisy 
Chair. In this new rail the lower edges of the pendent 
sides of the rail rest upon the projections on either side of 




the chair, and are held to it, by the same system of clamps 
that are used in the Daisy Chair. This facilitates con- 
struction work, and the paving on settling cannot work 
under the head and flange of the rail, and also allows the 
replacement of a new rail with the least possible labor, 
and without disturbinjj the chair. 



For joint construction the rail ends are held by two or 
more bolts, which pass through the clamps and chair, and 
as the rail has a greater bearing on the chair, than the top 
of it, rolling or canting is prevented. A feature of the 




Eureka Construction is also, that the rail is drawn down 
solid on the chair as well as so held as to withstand the 
lateral strain. 

Mr. White claims the only patent issued on channel iron 
rail with clamp fastenings, and guarantees to j^rotect all 
purchasers against suits for infringements. 



Meaker Manufacturing Company. 

ELECTRIC lines in Terre Haute, Ind., have been 
equipped b}- the Meaker Manufacturing Company 
with their portable fare registers, of which a daily 
paper in that city saj's: "The conductor pulls a string 
and the register does the rest. The company has sup- 
plied registers to remove all worry on the part of con- 
ductors in the way of securing a cash balance at the end 
of the day's business." 



A New Lever Brake. 

FOR a long time the McGuire Manufacturing Com- 
pany, of Chicago, have been at work on a new 
brake for motor cars, and have fully satisfied 
themselves of what they now offer to railway managers. 
It is at once simple and efficient, two vital principles in 
every street car appliance. It can be worked from either 
end of the car, and leaves the center of the truck open 
for the motor or grip. The brake shoes are made to 
act as the fulcrum of the rock-shaped brake beams, 
and will, therefore, always receive more pressure than 
is on the brake-rods. As the proportion of the levers 
is as six to one, it gives almost 17 per cent, more pressure 
on the shoe than on the connecting rods. It is so ar- 
ranged that the giving out of any one of the brake 
connections will not diminish the effectiveness of the brake 
a most important factor in the operation of electric aiu 
cable cars especially. 



iiggei^^*^%Ai^^ 



ECHOES FROM THE TRADE. 



The RiTssELL Carette Company have something de- 
cidedly unique in carettes, which will fill a demand ne\ei" 
before supplied. We shall fully describe it next month 
with suitable illustrations. 



The Baltimore Car Wheel Company are unusually 
crowded for this season of the year with orders for their 
well known wheels and duplex car gear, both of which are 
so widely adopted and give such splendid ser\ice. 



Lewis & Fowler Girder Rail Company are now 
well under way with the manufacture of their new rail, 
and among others, are rolling the iron with which to re- 
lay the old lines of the Albany Railway Companies. 



The Standard Register and Index Coipany, of 
New York, report a very prosperous year, especially 
through the large Western companies who have adopted 
a stationar}^ register, and from whom they have recei\ed 
their share of trade. 

The Dorner & Button Co., of Cle\eland, report a 
continued strong demand for their trucks and wheels, 
and electrical road pinions, which ha\e yielded such ex- 
cellent returns. The Hathaway Patent Transfer Table is 
also made by them. 

Smith, of New York, seems rather vague, as there 
are several families of that name in town : but when the 
street railway men remember that this yer\- same Smith 
family are the oldest builders in the country of head- 
lights, lamps and all styles of lighting apparatus for street 
cars, it is very plain to discern to ■which Smith family the\- 
belong. 

The St. Louis Car Co., saj' of the year's business, 
" We have been obliged to double our capacity the past 
year, it having been a far better year than we even ex- 
pected, and we still find ourselves lacking in room, but 
expect with our additional facilities to handle our large 
and increasing business, and deliver cars as promptly as 
first-class work will permit." 



The Fulton Iron Works, of St. Louis, have every 
reason to feel proud of their splendid work in the Broad- 
way Cable Power Plant, especially as it is the third com- 
plete plant they have furnished for that cit3\ Capt. Mc- 
Cullough says : "We have yet to find a flaw in the con- 
struction, \vhich speaks volumes for Wright & Me^sen- 
burg, the contractors, and the Fulton Iron Works. 



American Casualty Insurance Security Co., of 
Baltimore, who through their General Agents, Beecher 
Schenck & Benedict, at 120 Broadway, N. Y., are mak- 
ing a specialty of insuring .street railway companies 
against all liability, either to employees, the public, or 
any property belonging to the public, resulting from the 
operation of the road. This method of insuring is 
meeting with favor with many of the leading companies. 



The Carette Lines. — Mr. Brickwood, President and 
General Manager of the Russell Street Carette Co., of 
Chicago, has just returned from a trip to New York, 
Philadelphia, Washington, Buffalo, Cleveland and Detroit, 
taking orders and inspecting the operation of this popular 
style of street car, as they already have a line running in 
each of those cities; all of which are making preparations 
to place their new open cars on their lines in the early 
spring. 

Illinois Steel Company. — Mr. Yale, the General 
Sales Agent, says: "Although we have been rolling 
girder rails for nearly a 3-ear we were not able to push 
this part of our industry on account of all our mills being 
crowded to their full capacity with orders for T rails and 
other work; but we shall hereafter be so situated that we 
can fully care for this branch of our business, and will be 
able to deliver all kinds of street railwa}- rails upon short 
notice." 

The Gibbon Duplex Track is attracting careful in- 
vestigation, not only from new companies who are to 
decide on what track they will adopt, but older ones 
who contemplate renewals the coming season. Mr. Gib- 
bon has just returned from a western trip, where he placed 
contracts with two of the largest steel mills in the country 
to make their rails, besides making complete surveys and 
preparations for equipping several roads in different 
western cities. 



The Price Railway Appliance Co., of Philadelphia, 
have just brought out several very interesting devices for 
track work, comprising a new form of flat rail and chair 
and sleeper construction, which utilizes a much larger 
proportion of the weight for actual wearing purposes than 
has been heretofore obtained, and especially adapted for 
electrical track. Our February issue will contain full de- 
tails and illustrations of these, which are well worthy of 
careful study by all managers. 



The Electric Merchandise Company, of Chicago. 
— In reply to the interrogatory of " How are you pleased 
with last year's business?" Manager Mason replied with a 
self-satisfied smile' "As this is our first year we hardly 
knew what to expect when we came to strike our first 
balance : but the results were not only surprisingly grati- 
f}ing, but far beyond our most rosy expectations. Al- 
though young, we feel old in the business, and the outlook 
for the present year is in every way satisfactorw" 



The Walker Manufacturing Company, of Cleve- 
land, have been obliged to greatly enlarge their manu- 
facturing quarters, and their new building, almost com- 
pleted, will be ver}' extensive and one of the finest in the 
country. The Cleveland Cable Company's entire plant 
was furnished by the Walker Manufacturing Company, 
and is one to which the builders may point with great 
pride. This cable road has been just opened and com- 
bines all the latest improxements. 



^rt«<i^UM^ ^\ri€M^ 



SiiuLTZ Bi:i,TiNt; C().Ml'\^^■, <ii- St. Loitis. — Mr. 
Shultz said: '• Sliould aiiyoiK- lia\i' toUl nu' live years aij;-() 
there would be such a (Lan ui,l loi" my <,f()ods in liliini;- an 
important part in transjiortiiig the weary people in our 
streets, no doubt I would ha\e smiled. Yes. we lia\ e 
had our share of the street rail\va\ trade, ami in a i;'ieal 
many cases hnd that nothini;- will liU the bill for dynamo 
belting but mv jialent leather link bL-lting, which we 
recommend specialh' for that piu'pose."' 



The Electric 'Supply Co.mpany, of Chicago. -- 
Both Mr. Terr}', Gen'l Manager, and Mr. Taylor, Manager 
of the street railway department, report a very large trade 
in every branch of their business. Mr. Taylor said : " On 
account of many delavs in getting goods for my depart- 
ment, many of which are our own designs, we ha\e had 
to disappoint a few: but we are now past all annoyances 
from that source, and are in shape to push our street 
railway department, and anticipate a very large trade." 



The Short Electric Railway Co. — Probably no 
compan}' in the field has ever had such a successful busi- 
ness in so short a time. It is said that this company has 
contracted for equipping over 150 motor cars during the 
last half of the year, and has more than twenty-four 
separate roads equipped wholly or in part with their sys- 
tem. Among the latest orders are those to equip the 
Jamestown Street Railway Co., of Jamestown, N.Y., and 
the Broadway and Newburg Street Railway Co., of 
Cle\eland. 



Sawyer Mann"in(; & Co. — Mr. C. L. Bowler, who 
has charge of the uniform cloth department of this tirm, 
and who has h:id m mv years expsrience in furnishing 
uniform goods to both street and steam railroads, and who 
knows exactly what the peculiar demands for each are, — 
has brought out a new gray cloth, which is dark enough 
to ba popular and has splendid wearing qualities. The 
trouble with the blue tricots has always been that the 
dyes killed the strength, and where severe wear, such as 
in street cars, was required, it gave out quickly. This 
has been obviated in the gray and makes it wear like iron. 



The Lewis & Fowler Manufactlrinc; Co. — Mr. 
Fowler says : "Although we had a set back, caused by 
the burning of one of our buildings in the spring, I can 
say that this has been by far the most successful year 
our compam' has ever had, as we have been full of 
orders in every department; the car shops having been 
rushed and working over-time for the past year, while our 
many other departments never did as much. The regis- 
ter, on account of its popularity, ha\ing had a steady sale, 
an order for 200 for the new Broadway cable line in St. 
Louis being one of our recent large ones: while the snow 
sweeper and stoxes have come in for their share." 



United States on a siher dollar. Their immense facilities 
are constantly taxed to the utmost, and the orders alread\- 
placed for delivery the present year are far in advance of 
any pre\ious one in the history of this veteran company. 
The demand in foreign quarters continues good, and 
American built cars having been fully tried on many 
foreign lines, and given such unqualified satisfaction, the 
market in that direction is very inviting. No one has 
contributed as largely to this as the John Stephenson Co. 



The Ellis Car Company, Amesbury, Mass. — Mr. 
Ellis says: "Yes, we are now nicely established in the 
street car industries, and the past year has far exceeded 
our most sanguine expectations. We find a strong de- 
mand in all parts of the country, and managers are more 
and more coming to realize the economy of adopting the 
most improved appliances throughout, and want them in 
their cars. We shall pride ourselves on the wearing qual- 
ities of our cars, while not slighting those points which 
make them attractive. Our bent post is eliciting the most 
favorable comments from railway men, and we believe it 
will be universally adopted in the near future. We have 
just filled large orders for the West End in Boston, Grand 
Rapids, Mich., Lansing, Mich., Toledo, Ohio, and a num- 
ber of other Western cities." 



Tiui John Stei'iienson Company, Limited, when read 
on a street car, is as much a guarantee of its superior 
qualities, and sound workmanship, as the stamp of the 



The McGuire ManufacturiN(; Company, of Chi- 
cago, ha\'e the new addition to their alread\- extensive 
works completed. The new building is a three story 
brick, 1 10x115 i^^U which gives them ample and much 
needed room for manufacturing purposes, made necessary 
b\- the rapid increase in the demand for their very popu- 
lar truck. Among recent orders received by them for 
these trucks, are from Seattle Electric Railway and 
Power Compan}-, 10 cars; Davenport, Iowa, City Electric 
Railway, 50 cars; Toledo, Ohio, Electric Street Railway 
Compan}-, 28 cars; Tacoma, Wash., Electric Railway & 
Motor Compan}', for 24 double trucks, on which have 
been placed three motors for each car, made necessary 
by a grade of 16 per cent, part of the distance. They are 
also sending some of their new seven feet steel trucks to 
be run on the new electric line connecting St. Paul and 
Minneapolis. 

The United States Electric R.\IL^v.\Ys Co., at 10 
Wall street. New York, under the general manage- 
ment of the well-known mechanical engineer, L. W. Ser- 
rell, has made a new departure in the street railway 
tield. Besides contracting for all kinds of electric railway 
work, they reorganize roads, now in operation, and which 
desire to change their method of motive power. In this 
they have exceptionally good facilities, and experience, for 
placing securities, having already successfully worked out 
the problem for a number of roads, which of themselves 
never could have accomplished the desired results. Com- 
panies desiring to introduce electricity and not having the 
necessary capital to command locally, will be glad to in- 
vestigate this question, and take up the matter at least for 
consideration. 



24 



PERSONALS. 



Mr. Dutton, of Dorner & Button, Cleveland, called 
upon us to kindly express his good wishes for the new 
paper. * 

W. E. Havcox, who has been the efficient Superin- 
tendent of the Belt Line in Utica, N. Y., has accepted a 
responsible position in Cleveland. 



W. W. Bean, General Manager of the St. Joe and Ben- 
ton Harbor, Mich., lines, returned from Georgetown, N. Y., 
a few days since where he went to attend the funeral of 
his mother. 



Mrs. Thos. Lowry has returned after a year's absence 
in Paris, where her daughters have been completing 
their education. Mr. Lowry accompanied them from 
New York. 

Mr. Geo. C. Belden, of East St. Louis, has accepted 
the position of General Superintendent of the Electric 
Railway at Joplin, Mo., where he has just entered upon 
his new duties. 

E. E. Cornell has entered upon his duties as Superin- 
tendent of the South Bend and Mishawaka Electric Street 
Railway at South Bend, Ind. The plant is a very exten- 
sive one and one of the best in the State, and the public 
have every reason to expect a first-class service from this 
time on. 

Mr. F. D. Russell, recently assistant editor of the 
Street Railway Journal^ has accepted the appointment as 
General Agent for the Rochester Car Wheel Works, 
with office at Room 53 Stewart Building, New York 
City, where his many friends will be pleased to call, and 
are sure of a most hearty reception. 



The appointment by President Wheeler, of the for- 
mer track-master of the Chicago City Railway to the 
office of superintendent, was received with great disfavor 
by the employes, who threatened to strike. The trouble 
was averted by the resignation of the objectionable party 
and for the present Mr. Wheeler will himself discharge 
the double duties of president and superintendent. 



Mr. S. Z. Colllns, who has been with the C. M. & 
St. P. R. R. for twenty-nine years, and the past ten as 
Superintendent, has entered the Meaker Manufacturing 
Co., as Secretary and General Manager, with headquar- 
ters at 502 PhcEnix Building, Chicago. He is a pleasant 
gentleman, as well as a very capable business man, and 
the street railway fraternity will not only enjoy making his 
acquaintance but welcome him to our ranks. 



Norman Mc Crawford has resigned as General Man- 
ager of the Electric Railway of Rochester, N. Y., to 
accept a position elsewhere, and Mr. Chas. K. Minarv of 
Louisville, Ky., has been elected to that office. Mr. 
Crawford is very highly spoken of, and had entire charge 
of the work of changing the service from horse power to 



electricity, while Mr. Minary is a son of President Minary 
of the Louisville City Railway Company, and has grown 
up ill the work. He is a most etficient and a rising young 
man. 

Mr. II. H. Windsor, who has held the otlice of sec- 
retary of the Chicago City Railway Company for the 
past eight years, was unanimously re-elected by the new 
administration. He has now resigned that position to 
devote all his time to the Street Railway Review. 
He was educated for a journaHst and served for two 
years as city editor of a western daily, and now brings 
to his new work the practical experience growing out 
of a long service as officer of one of the best known 
railwa}' systems in the world. 



Chicago City Railway Election. 

AT the election of officers for the ensuing year 
the following were elected bj- the new Board: 
President, Geo. H. Wheeler; ist Vice President, 
J. C. King; 2d Vice President, E. M. Phelps; Secretary, 
H. H. Windsor, and Treasurer, T. C. Penington. 

Mr. Wheeler is accounted a millionaire, is about 45 
years of age, and has never before engaged in railway 
work. He will devote his entire time to the position. 
Mr. Wheeler is also President of the Washington Driv- 
ing Park. 

The Outlook. 

REPORTS from supph' men and manufacturers of 
street railway materials, from all parts of the 
country, indicate a most healthful and prosperous 
condition of business. The results of last year's work 
are now generally known, and in every quarter have 
proved very gratifying surprises in the amount of business 
done — being far in excess of any previous year. 

Everything points to even a greater output in 1891, and 
on all sides preparations are acttively under way to pro- 
vide for and take care of these enormous and varied 
demands. 

Congratulations. 

PROBABLY among all the street railway fraternity 
there is no one more generally known, or with a 
larger number of friends than Mr. Augustus W. 
Wright. As Chief Engineer of the North Chicago Rail- 
way for many years, as the author of the first complete 
work on street railroads published in this country, as a 
most welcome speaker at the annual conventions, and re- 
cently as a builder of cable roads in Los Angeles, Chi- 
cago and St. Louis, Mr. Wright's acquaintances are found 
from ocean to ocean. They will all most heartily unite 
in warmest congratulations and expressions of good will, 
as they learn of his marriage which occurred in St. Lou- 
is, January 2nd, to Miss Natalie O. Jordan, daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. F. G. Jordan. The bride is well known in 
social circles in that city where she has hosts of friends. 
Mr. and Mrs. Wright are now in California on their wed- 
ding trip, and intend to make St. Louis their home on 
their return. 



FOUND ON THE RUSH TRIP. 



25 



American Street Railway Association. 

IlKNIiV M. WATSON, I'iiksh.knt, Hullnlo. N. Y. 

W. A. SMITH. First Vice-Prfhidest. Oniiiliii, N.'b. 

('HAKLK8 ODKLti, Sf<ond Vice-Pre»idknt, Ni-wbnrjport, Mhbh. 

A. 1). KODGEltS, TuiBD VicB-rRF.siDENT, (^olnnihuH, Ohio. 

WM. J. RICHARDSON, Secretary and Treasurer, Urooklyn, N. Y. 

EXECCTIVE f'oMMITTEE-TllE I'HESIDE.NT, VlOE I'RESIDESTH, and TlIOMAS 

LowBV, MinnenpoliB, Minn.; D. F. Henry, PittoliiirKli, I'n.; Ai.brbt E. Thorn- 
ton, AtlanU, G».; H. M. Littell, Cincinuuti, (). nnd Tuomah (;. Keeker- 
Ottawa, Can. 
Next meeting will be helil in Pittsburgh, Pa., October 2l8t, 1891. 

Massachusetts Street Railway Association. 

President, Coas. H. Pratt, Sahara; Vico-Presidenta. H. M. Whitney, Boeton; 
Amos F. Breed, Lynn; Frank S. Stevens; Secretary and Treasurer. J. il. Eaton, 
Lawrence. 

Meets first Wednesday of each month. 

New York Street Railway Association. 

President, Daniel' F. Lewis, Brooklyn; Vice Presidents, Jno. N. Hetklky, 
Rochester, .loHN S. FOSTER, New York; Secretary and Treasurer. William J. Ricu- 
.\nDSON, Brooklyn; Kxeculivo rominittee, John N. Pahtbidoe, Brooklyn; CnARLES 
Clemenshaw, Troy; C. Densmobe Wyman, New York. 

Next meeting, Hotel Metropole, New York City, Sept. 15th, I8111. 

Ohio State Tramway Association. 

John NStewaut, .Vshtnbola, President; John Habbis, Cincinnati, Vice Presi- 
dent; J. B. Hanna, Cleveland, Secretary and Treasurer; E. K. Stewabt, Colombus, 
Chairman Executive Committee. 

The Street Railway Association of the State of 
New Jersey. 

President, JouN H. Bonn. Hoboken, Vice Presiiient. Taos. C. Baru. Newark, 
Secretiiry and Trea.surer, Chables Y'. B.^mfobd. Trenton; Executive Committee; 
Officebs and C. B. Thubston, Jersey City; H. Rom.une, Paterson: Lewis Peb- 
bine.Jb., Trenton. 

Anniston Ala. — The City Street Raihvav Compan}- 
are making arrangements for the re-organization and 
equipping with electric cars a large porlioii of the old 
street railway system. 

Dkc.vtur, Al.-\.— A new street railway company calling 
itself the People's Railway Company has been organized 
at Decatur. 

Mobile, Al.v. — ^The Daily Register now operates its 
presses by an electric motor, and it is very sanguine that 
a change will be made in the motive power in the street 
railwav to that svstem in the near future. 



TiiEKi-; is a strong prospect of the street raihvav com- 
panv here adopting storage batterv instead of the cable 
svstem as thev had intended doing. 



The Mobile Street Railwav Company are making ar- 
rangements to displace the mule system by the overhead 
electric, the change to go into effect June i. 

Hot Springs, Ark. — Wiley Jones, colored, the owner 
of the Jones Street Railway System of Pine Hluff, has 
purchased the Citizens' Street Car Line, paying $35,000 
in cash and $90,000 in 7 per cent bonds of the consoli- 
dated lines for the same. Jones owns now fourteen miles 
of track, which, with its equipments is valued at $250,000 
and is the only colored man in the world who is the sole 
owner of a street raihvav. 



Valu.\ble franchises for extensions have just been 
granted to the Hot Springs Street Railway Company for 
a period of 64 years. 



Bakersi-ieli), Cal., is to have a new street railroad. 



Alamicija, Cal.— A syndicate, headed by G. W. Mc- 
Near of Oakland, is making plans for putting an e.vten- 
sive line here. 



Fruitvale, Cal. — Construction work on the hor.se 
lines will be finished in about two weeks. It is intended to 
change to storage battery in the course of a few months. 



Oakland, Cal. — Still another franchi.se has been 
granted for an electric road which will run from 8th and 
Piroadwav into East Oakland. 



H. W. Meek has commenced the construction of the 
street railroad, to be operated as a part of the electric road 
from Oakland to Ha\word. 



Still another electric franchise has been asked for. 
This one by E. P. Vandercook and others, who propose 
to construct quite an expensive system, and are said to 
have an abundance of capital. 



VisALii), Cal. — It is expected that the West Side Road 
will be in operation bv March i. 



Sacra.mento, Cal. — The Central Electric Street Rail- 
way Company have received ten car-loads of material 
and the construction necessaiy to change their lines from 
horse to electric system is being rapidly accomplished. 



S.^x DiEtjo, Cal. — If the citizens will give a bonus of 
$75,000 a companv will construct an electric line there. 
Prospect good. 

Ottawa, C.\n. — Tw elve new cars have been received 
from the Patterson and Corbin Car Company of St. Cath- 
erines. 



Quebec, C.W. — The St John's Street Railway Com- 
pany recently lost by fire one of their stables including 
twenty horses and all the other contents of the building. 



Winnipeg, C.vn. — One electric car is being operated 
here this winter, and if the experiment proves successful 
as it has thus far, the system will undoubtedly be gener- 
allv adopted in the spring. 



Toronto, C.vn. — The city engineer is desirous, on be- 
half of the city of Toronto, for bids for the purchase or 
lease of the street railwaj^ system in that city, the fran- 
chise for which will expire in March. The successful 
bidder will probably be required to equip a considerable 
portion of the .system with cable or electricity. 



Aspen, Col. — The street railwav here is shut down 
for the winter. 



Denver, Col. — The University Park Electric Road 
has been sold to the Tramway Company for $32,000. 
A single five cent fare will be made to the business por- 
tion and the line extended to the center of the park. 



26 



Denver, Col. — The Berkely Motor line has been 
granted necessary authority' to change the lines from 
steam dummies to electricity: a chan<re for the better. 



The City Council has granted the Highland Street 
Railroad permission to use steam motors on condition 
that they will employ electricity thereafter. 



The Tramway Company has added to its present ser- 
vice of cable systems, a five-mile extension of electric 
line and is to have an all night service on its main lines. 



The Eastern Capita] Hill electric road has been finished 
and is meeting with a splendid business. Mr. Milo A. 
Smith is the man who is responsible for the extension of 
this line. 

FuLLV a million dollars will be expended in this citj- in 
1891, in the extension and improvement of our street 
railway lines. The greater part of this amount will go 
for electrical appliances. 

A scheme is now on foot to connect E. Denver with 
Eh'ria. The plan includes a tunnel under the Union 
Pacific Railway. A bonus of $25,000 has alreadj- been 
offered as an inducement to build the line. 



An English syndicate, with $3,000,000 capital, has been 
organized to operate in this city, and as a part of their 
plans intend to build a number of suburban electric lines 
to improve the property already owned by them. 



Cannon City, Col. — A franchise has been granted 
Ennis Black, and associates, to construct an electric, cable, 
horse or compressed air street car line. $100,000 is 
pledged to the enterprise and $1,000 has been put up 
with the cit}- as a guarantee that the line will be com- 
pleted. Work will commence April ist. 



The Montclaire Railway Companj' have contracted 
with the Edison Electric Company for $27,000 worth of 
material. Fifteen new cars are being constructed at the 
Woeber Works, which altogether involves an expenditure 
of $50,000. A four-mile additional line is contemplated. 

Leadville, Col. — Within ten months the electric cars 
will be running through our principal streets and west a 
distance of seven miles to Soda Springs and the National 
Fish Hatchery. The line will be driven by water power. 
The compan}- also proposes to construct a number of 
four roomed cottages at Evergreen Lakes, which is one 
of the most delightful summer resorts in the state of 
Colorado. 



Dr. John Law is one of the promoters of an 
electric railway which it is proposed to build to Ever- 
green Lakes, at which point the company will erect log 
cottages each containing four rooms. The medicinal 
virtues of an air loaded with the perfume from balsam 
trees, together with the iron and other springs which 
abound at this place, unite to make it one of the most 
popular resorts in the .state. 



DanI&ury, Conn. — Through the negligence of the 
gate attendant, a street car was struck by an express 
train on the New England road and portions of the street 
car were strewn along the track a distance of 300 feet. 
No one was killed, although the driver, who pluckily held 
to his horses, was badly injured. 



The syndicate who recently purchased the entire 
street railway interests of the city, is treated to a recep- 
tion in the form of petitions from four new companies for 
pretty much every street in town. The latest is the 
Beardslev Park Street Railroad Company, of which Mr. 
Jas. B. Beardsley is the moving spirit. 



New Britain, Conn. — Efforts are being made to 
extend the street railway system to the surrounding 
towns of Plainville, Bei'lin and Farmington. 



West Haven, Conn. — The West Haven Horse Road 
will equip an electric line soon. 



New Haven, Conn. — A company composed partly of 
local capitalists has petitioned for a charter for a new 
electric system for this cit}-. They are very modest in 
their request and only ask for 62 streets. 



Windsor Locks, Conn. — H. C. Douglas of this place 
has organized a company to build a horse railroad to 
Pequonnock and to Windsor, a distance of five miles. 



New London, Conn. — The company here has 
petitioned the Legislature to change its corporate name 
and charter so it will be in a position to construct its lines 
soon to be operated by electricity. At present the 
storage battery has the best chance. 



Stratford, Conn. — A Bridgeport syndicate has per- 
fected the long hoped for plan for a line which should 
connect the two places. It will be built in the spring and 
operated by horses at present. 



Meridan, Conn. — The United Electric Traction 
Company are already at work substituting a single wire 
in place of the two overhead wires although the single 
wire system will not be completed until spring. Supt. 
Watts is experimenting with an electric heater which he 
has great hopes will •• till the bill " for the electric cars. 



A newsboy darted in front of one car to catch another 
going in an opposite direction, fell under the wheels and 
was instantly killed. No blame attached to the company. 
Still people want papers delivered on the cars. 



Norwich, Conn. — At the annual meeting of the Nor- 
wich Horse Railway Company, Wm. A. Shields was 
elected president, and Tracy Waller secretary and treas- 
urer. True West, who has for many years been 
manager of the road, was re-elected superintendent. 



Fargo, Dak. — The Fargo Street Railway Company 
are contemplating an e.xtension across the Red River to 
Moorhead, Minn. 



^hwi^ulnM' j^V4««^- 



27 



Wii.min<;t()n, I)i:i.. — Tin- City l<ail\v;iy Company arc 
preparinjf to a\ail tlicinselves of ihc francliiscs recently 
granted for a number of extensions in that city. 



Anacostia, I). C". — The new line is tinished and about 
ready for operation. The eoinpaiiy has purchased 100 
horses and will employ fifty men. 

Alicxandki A, I). C — The plan of conneclin^r this city 
with Washin<,rt()n b\- an electric line has again been re- 
vived and work will be begun at an earlv date. 



Wasiiinijton, I). C. — A bill has been introduced 
amending the charter of the Rock Creek R. R. Co., au- 
thorizing that company to issue bonds for the construction 
of an electric line. 

Prksidknt IIurd has petitioned the commissioners for 
permission to use gongs on its cable cars, which are not 
now allowed. 

A NivW company, known as the East & West Wash- 
ington Traction Railroad is petitioning the District com- 
missioners for an extensive route in the city. 



TiiK Metropolitan Street Railway Compan}-, which is 
ably managed by Mr. J. W. Pearson, have been experi- 
menting for several months past with the storage battery 
system, and have decided to generally adopt the same. 
Work will be pushed as rapidly as possible. They will 
give Washington the four systems of street car moti\e 
power, horse, cable, overhead and storage electric and offer 
a splendid opportunity for comparative results. 



J.vcKsoNyii.i.E, Fl.\. — The Florida Town & Improve- 
ment Company of this city has incorporated over $500,000, 
for the purpose of constructing street railways, to be ope- 
rated by horse, steam or electric power, in several of the 
great cities of this state. 



Oran(;ic Riixii-:, Fla. — The Orange Ridge Manufac- 
turing Company has been incorporated for the purpose of 
building street railways in this place. Sidney S. Teson 
is to be secretary. 

Gas Motors, capable of a speed of twelve miles per 
hour, will be placed on the lines here, and the frisky- 
mules will be a thing of the past. The Jacksonville 
Electric Railway Co. has been incorporated with a capital 
stock of $100,000. 

St. Au(;cstink, Fi.a. — .\n electric belt line has been 
incorporated, with a capital stock of $75,000, to build a 
road six miles in len<fth. 



Atiikns, Ga. — Mr. Jas. T. \'oss. general manager of 
the street railway company, is erecting one of the finest 
residences in the city. It is on an eminence which over- 
looks two lakes and from which position the entire street 
car system can be seen. Mr. Voss has received 15 car 
loads of material for his Electric railway, and construction 
is now well under way. 



Au<;l;sta, Ga. — The Augusta Street Railway Com- 
pany has added to its pa.s.senger service that of a baggage 
car. It is doing a profitable business in that line. 



A. E. Thornton has been elected president of the 
Atlanta .Street Railway Company. 



Sa\annaii, Ga., "rejoices over its first electric car, 
which made a successful trial trip on the Belt line. 



'I'm-: operation of the Electric Line which was recently 
(jpened in this city, has been watched with great interest 
by all classes. The colored people especially have mani- 
fested great curiosity and are willing to spend their last 
nickle for a ride, many of them remaining on the car for 
several trips. On the opening day 5,000 passengers 
were carried on 4 cars. The former horse car drivers 
have been used as motor men. 



Strkator, Ills. — Mr. Walker Miller, formerly of 
Keokuk, has been appointed ."Superintendent of the 
Electric street car company. 



Kankakkk, Ills. — The city council and the Electric 
street railway company have at last agreed on terms, and 
an ordinance has been pa.ssed that will enable the con- 
struction of 5 miles of track and which must be complet- 
ed by July 1st, 1891. 

Si'RiNiiFiKLi), Ills. — The city railway have opened a 
new electric line on X(,)rth CJrand Ave. 



Ottaava, Ills. — Tiik .street car conductors who 
"struck" because their pay was reduced from $2.00 to 
$1.50 per da}-, have had their places promptly filled with 
other men, notwithstanding the fact that a few of the 
"older citizens" resolved in a Mass Meeting to apparent- 
ly hoof it unless the company allowed its men to operate 
the road. Walking is poor in Ottawa this winter and 
the business of the company never was better. 



East St. Louis, Ills. — The right of way for the East 
St. Louis, Venice and Madison Electric railway has been 
granted to the town of Brooklyn. There is every pros- 
pect the line will be built. 

Elgin, Ills. — The Electric railway here has proved 
so successful that extensive additions will be made early 
in the spring. 

Ckntralia. Ills. — The city council has granted a 20 
years franchise to the street railway which is composed 
of home capitalists. 

Jolii-.t. Ills.— J. A. Henry, President of the Elec- 
tric road is planning extensive additions to South Joliet, 
which will be put in early in the spring. 

Frf.eport. Ills. — Capitalists from Bloomington are 
figuring on the purchase of the horse lines here, with the 
intention of changing to electricity. 



28 



ifeg^^iU*;^^^^^ 



Danville, Ills.— The street railroad system, gas 
plant and electric company have been consolidated into 
one company. 

RocKFORD, Ills. — Snow plows for the electric line 
here are being built at the Rockford Electric Company's 
factory. 

La Salle, Ills. — Track is being laid for an extension 
of the electric svstem. 



The electric road to Peru has been opened and is do- 
inir a <rood business. 



A FRANCHISE has been granted for an electric street 
railway and electric light plant. 



Lincoln, Ills. — Is trying to get an electric car system. 

Urbana, Ills. — The City Council has granted an 
ordinance for an electric railwa}-. The project has every 
indication of success. 



Springfield, Ills. — The City Railway Company pro- 
poses to erect suitable buildings in Oak Ridge Park in 
which first class amusements will be given. 



Richmond, Ind. — The Richmond Street Railway 
Company has given a mortgage to the Union Trust 
Company, of St. Louis, for $200,000, to secure the 6 per 
cent, bonds which are issued for the purpose of making 
an extension of the electric road. President Shaffer, of 
Indianapolis, and Russell Harrison, son of President 
Harrison, are officers, and largel}- interested in thecom- 
pany. 

Fort Wayne, Ind., is experimenting with storage bat- 
tery cars. 

Anderson, Ind. — President Williams has decided to 
change his lines to electricity in the spring and add other 
improvements to the service. 



Elkhart, Ind. — The street railway and electric light 
companies which have previously been operated as separ- 
ate concerns, have been merged into one organization. 
Mr. W. A. Jackson, of Detroit, who is general manager 
of the Detroit Electric Compan)', has been elected direc- 
tor of the new consolidation. 



KoKOMO, Ind. — Messrs. Avery & Snow, of Detroit, 
Michigan, have secured their ordinance for an electric 
railway and will put construction work under way at 
once. 

President Bond says his company will spend $10,000 
in extendin<£ its lines to Walton avenue. 



La Porte, Ind. — Snow & Avery, of Detroit, have 
secured an ordinance and will build an electric road, 
which next spring will be extended to the summer re- 
sorts on Pine and Stone lakes and to the Baptist assembly 
grounds. 



La Porte, Ind. — The La Porte County Transporta- 
tion Company have petitioned for authority to construct 
an electric line from La Porte to Michigan City, a distance 
of twelve miles. 

Dubuque, Ia. — The electric street cars are to be 
heated by electricity. A syndicate has platted 65 acres in 
West Dubuque and the electric people will doubtless ex- 
tend their lines to reach this territorv in the near future. 



Muscatine, Ia. — The street railway company here has 
an ordinance in the Council for permission to operate by 
electricity. 

Ames, Ia. — A street railway has been incorporated 
here and the capital stock is $20,000. 



Burlington, Ia. — Construction of the power-house for 
the electric street railway is well under way, and as much 
of the street work as possible will be done this winter. 



Cedar Rapids, Ia. — The street railway system of this 
city, including the line to Marion, has been sold to an 
Eastern syndicate headed b}- John Ti\y. Work will begin 
soon to change the svstem from horse to electric. 



Clinton, Ia. — The city council has granted an exclu- 
sive franchise for live years to the Baldwin Electric Street 
Railway Company. 

The city authorities have granted the Belt Street Car 
Company exclusive right to operate by electricity over 
the territory now occupied by the Clinton & L3'ons Com- 
pany, and the expectation is that they will extend their 
lines to cover the city of Lyons. 



Davenport, Ia. — The syndicate controlling the street 
railway lines in this city. Rock Island and Moline, have 
voted to increase the capital stock from $500,000 to 
$750,000. 

Dubuque, Ia., is to have its cars heated by electricit}^ 



Creston, Ia. — It is probable that an electric system 
will be constructed here this year. 



Georgetown, Ky. — Work has been begun on the 
street railway here. 

.Street cars have begun operations and the line has 
been leased to a Mr. Powell at 6 per cent per annum on 
the cost of construction. 



Whitman, Mass. — A franchise has been granted to 
the Hatherly Street Rjlilway Company of Rockland for 
the construction of a new electric road to Aubunn-ille. 



Danvers, Mass. — The Company have received nine 
cars from the Ellis Car Works. 



Haverhill, Mass. — The Haverhill and Groveland 
Street Railway have increased their equipment b}' new 
cars from the factory of E. P. Shaw, Newburyport. 



i»twl 5^«li)^ %)^e«^ 



29 



Metiiuen, Mass. — Permission has been giaiilL-cl llic 
Merrimack Valley Horse Railroad to erect poles for the 
purpose of running cars by electricity. 

Brockton, Mass. — The East Side Electric v^treet 
Railway carried 259,000 passengers during the jKist }ear 
with an equipment of three box and four open cars. 



New Bedford, Mass. — Over 95 per cent, of the stock 
of the Union Street Railway Company has been pledged 
for sale to a syndicate who desire to introduce electricity. 

IIoLVOKE, Mass. —The Company here have decided 
to change their lines to electricity and will use the single 
trolly s}-stem. 

Essex, Mass. — The Esse.x Electric Street Railroad 
Company has received the necessary authority- from the 
Board of Railroad Commissioners to issue coupon bonds 
to the amount of $100,000. Must be going to build some 
lines in Essex. 

Springfield, Mass. — The granting of a franchise for 
an electric line over Maple street has aroused the indigna- 
tion of the nabobs residing thereon, but the common peo- 
ple, who are in fa\or of electric ser\ice, turned out in 
mass to save it. 

Amesburg, Mass. — E. P. Shaw, of this city, who 
recently purchased the railway lines at Norwich, Conn., 
has just bought tiie street railway system of Dallas, 
Texas, and has gone there to spend the winter. 

Randolph, Mass. — The franchise has been granted, 
and the Brockton Street Railway will at once prepare to 
construct lines here. 

Whitman, Mass. — The electric line has opened with 
great success and the cars are crowded to the utmost 
capacity. Thomson-Houston system is employed. 

Boston, Mass. — Wm. H. Clark, superintendent of 
routes and time tables of the West End Road, has been 
missing for some time. He probably tried to lind his 
wav across the citv. 

Salem, Mass. — A few days' circulation secured 4,000 
petitioners to have the Essex Electric Railwav extend to 
Willows. Salem people know what is good for them. 



Bradford, Mass. — A company here is trving to get a 
franchise for an electric railwav. 



Chicopee, Mass. — An extension of time to 1892 has 
been granted the companv in which to complete their work. 



North Easton, Mass. — -Several public meetings have 
been held urging the granting of the necessarv permission 
to the East Side Company to instal an electric system. 
The enhanced value of real estate which will result is 
urged as one of the great advantages. 



Attlehoro, Mass.— The People's Street Railway Co. 
have the people with them in their plan to put in a 
road there. 

Baltim(jri;, Md.— Work has been begun on the ex- 
tension of the Columbia avenue and John street line of 
the Union Passenger Railway. One-third of the Balti- 
more & Powhattan Railway has been purchased bv the 
North Baltimore Street Railway and will hereafter be 
operated by that company. The City Council recently 
made an excursion to Boston for the purpose of inspect- 
ing the Thomson- Houston .system as operated bv the 
West End company. They were very favorably im- 
pressed with the service which is being rendered in Bos- 
ton. A syndicate representing the interests of the Union 
Passenger Railway have purchased the franchises and 
outfit of the Baltimore, Cantonsville & Ellicott Mills Rail- 
way, which was sold by auction for $95,340, $90,000 of 
which was paid for the franchises and real estate. The 
company had 12 cars and 30 horses and was operating 6 
miles of track. President Perrin, of the Union companv, 
is laying the ground wire in his new extension in the hope 
that he will be allowed to use electricit\- before verv long. 

Cumberland, Mo.^Mr. C. I. Duncan, of Johnstown, 
Pa., will make his home here and be superintendent of 
the electric road which he has been largely instrumental 
in organizing. Work has been already commenced. 



Rockland. Me. — A sur\ev is being made for an elec- 
'tric line to Thomaston, which will be built in the spring. 



Bangor, Me. — The electric compan}- have met with 
splendid success in the operation of their line during the 
heavy snows last month. 



Camden, Me. — Hon. Geo. E. Macomber, of Augusta, 
is engineering a deal to put in an electric line from this 
city to Rockport and Rockland. There is plent}' of 
money back of the road, which is sure of a large passen- 
ger and light freight business. 



Lewiston, Me. — The Lewiston & Auburn Horse 
Railroad Company have leased an island at the head of 
the falls on the Androscoggin and will establish a very 
attractive summer resort. 

CiTy OF Mexico. — A Denver syndicate, headed by 
Samuel Lessem, has secured an exclusive franchise for an 
electric street railway, and it is expected that construction 
\\ork will be begun at an early date. An extensive sys- 
tem is contemplated. 

Cheboygan, Mich. — It h'as been decided to build an 
electric line here. 



NEwrBURVPORT, Mass. — -The electric 
ing finely. 



•oad 



IS progress- 



Detroit, Mich. — The Fort Wayne & Elmwood Ry. 
are experimenting with a new street car motor, using 
compressd air as a motive power. It was made by the 
Jarves Pneumatic Ry. Co. of Lansing. Its working will 
be watched with much interest. 



Detroit. Mich. — Permission lias been granted for an 
extension of the street railway from Mt. Elliott to Belle- 
vue avenue. 



Flint. Mich. — Messrs. Delano & Carlton, of Detroit, 
have permission to commennce work upon the street 
railwav here as soon as the frost is off the ground and 
will push it rapidh' to completion. 



Grand Rapids, Mich. — Reed's Lake Electric Railway 
people are meeting with good success in their endeavors 
to build into the city. 

The Valley Cit\- Cable Railway have accepted an ordi- 
nance for an extension on East street and Fifth avenue. 



Ann Arbor, Mich. — The street car line over the sub- 
urban road to Ypsilanti is now in operation and trains 
running at frequent intervals. 



The electric line here is almost completed to Ypsilanti, 
and cars will be in operation in a few davs. 



EscANABA, Mich. — Jas. Lilley is at the head of a syn- 
dicate which has secured an ordinance for the construction 
of an electric road, to be strictly first-class, and thev have 
offered to give the company over $5,000 for the prompt 
completion and operation of the line. 



Jackson, Mich. — Jackson's Electric Street Railway is 
an assured fact. 

Cheboygan, Mich., is to have electric street cars. 



The Citv Railway Company contemplate the erection of 
a bridge to carry their tracks over the East Fovirth street 
railroad crossing. 

St. Paul, Minx. — The electric line to Minneapolis has 
met with so much popularity that another line is talked of 
between the two cities, to run bj' way of Fort Snelling. 

This city is at last connected by a street railway with 
Minneapolis, cars running through in 45 minutes. This 
makes one of the longest electric railway's in existence. 
As soon as the time is reduced to 30 minutes the companv 
will make serious inroads upon the business of the steam 
lines, which charge a 25-cent fare, while the Electric car- 
ries for 10 cents, with transfer privileges. 



Winona, Minn. — Arrangements have all been made, 
and the existing difficulties harmoniously settled, whereby 
the railway line here will be changed from horse to elec- 
tric power. The Thomson-Houston system will be used. 

Sprin"(;field, Mo. — The trial trip of the Metropolitan 
Electric Railway, recently installed, proved a success. 
The compan}' has completed sixteen miles of track and 
has one of the best equipped power honses in the 
countrv. The whole cost $500,000. Frank B. Smith is 
general manager. 

The Springfield Railway Company has lately con- 
tracted for change of power to electricit)'. Altogether 
this city has twenty-five miles of street railway. 



Carthage, Mo. — The Carthage & Twin Cities Elec- 
tric Railwa}- & Power Companj- has been incorporated 
with a capital of $150,000, one half of which is already 
paid up. The object is to operate street railways in the 
city and extend an electric road to Webb City and Car- 
terville, nine miles southwest. The incorporators are 
headed by Ma^or W. R. Myers of this city. They ex- 
pect to commence work without delav. 



Cuiniberland, Mo., will have its electric road after all. 
Construction will be commenced Mav i. 



JopLiN, Mo. — The electric street railway line was open- 
ed here "with bursting enthusiasm." 



Kansas City, Mo. — The West Side Electric Line will 
be equipped with the Rae overhead system, on which 
work is under wav. 



Work is being crowded as fast as possible on the 
West Side Electric Line. 



Springfield, Mo. — The Metropolitan Street Railway 
Compan}^ who have been at work for several months 
changing their lines from horse to the Westinghouse 
Electric Motor System, have opened it with great suc- 
cess. The improvement has cost $300,000. The com- 
pany now have seventeen miles of track. 



St. Louis, Mo. — The new electric cars on the Mound 
Cit}- Line have greatly increased the running time, and is 
received bv the public as an immense improvement. 



.\ company is now preparing to build an electric road 
from the Broadway and Elm to the southwestern suburb 
known as Bamber Grove. Real estate in that locality has 
more than doubled in value. 



Anosinda, Mont. — Work is progressing rapidly on 
the extension of the electric line. It is expected cars will 
be running within two weeks. 



Philipsburg, Mont. — A project is under way to build 
a cable road from this city to Granite, which in a direct 
line is two miles with an ascent of 1,700 feet. 

A good strong syndicate has formed for the purpose of 
building a cable road to Granite. Mr. Joseph A Hyde is 
at the head of the concern, and I. N. Smith as general 
airent. 



Helena, Mont. — The Union Electric Railway now 
operates nine miles, which may be traversed without 
chan<re of cars. 



Lincoln, Neb. — Track has been laid for the construc- 
tion of a street railway to Union College. It is to be an 
electric system. 

The Capital Heights Street Railw ay has been sold to 
G. A. Bush, Geo. E. Bigelow and the City Electric 
Street Railway Company is four miles in length. It is 
proposed to have the new road transferred into an electric 
.system at the earliest possible moment. 



ilWwtlS^iU^^j^Mfe^ 



31 



Kkaknkv, Nhh. TliL' new stroi-t car line to West 
Beatrice has been opened with a ear service for the pres- 
ent of every 15 minutes. 

BicA TRici;, Ni:h. The Beatrice Rapid Transit & 
Power Co. has been incorporated to construct a street 
raihvay. 

Lincoln, Ni-;h. — Tlie lines of the Stanilard Street 
Rail\\a\' C'ompan\-, cosering some six miles, have passed 
into the management of the Lincoln Street Railway 
Company, consideration $60,000. This line will be 
made an electric one. 

Till', Rajiid Transit Co.. stole a march on their neigh- 
bors by taking possession of Twelfth street on a Sunda\'. 
A double track was laid and the work finished before an 
injunction could be served. While it is not the most 
beautiful piece of work imaginable, it is there. 

Omaha. Neb. — Track has been laid for the construc- 
tion of a street railwa\' to Union College. It is to be an 
electric system. 

Within two hours $800,000 of stock was subscribed 
for the Interstate Electric Company. 



The Motor Line to Park street has been opened and 
is a great boon to the citizens of that portion of the cit\ . 
When the Company desired to build this line a year ago 
there was a great howl raised against it, but they have 
since seen the error of their way and are glad it has 
come. 

The mayor of this city and Council Bluffs have signed 
the ordinances necessary to authorize the construction of 
an electric line to unite the business center of the two 
cities over the Union Passenger Railway Bridge. It is 
rumored that the Union Passenger Railway is at the back 
of the scheme, but in any event the work, which has 
already been commenced, will be pushed rapidly, and 
another hnk be added between the two cities. The line 
will be double track, with the best and most modern 
equipment, and the fare will be reduced to 5 cents. 



The Missouri River at this point seems at present a 
specially desirable tield for the construction of electric 
railways. The latest scheme is that of the Twin City 
Railway Company, which proposes to join the two States 
with an electric road to run over the new steel bridge to 
cost $800,000, in addition to $500,000 which they pro- 
mise to spend in building and equipping the road. 



N.'VSSAU, N. H. — The Concord street extension to 
Greeley is now open for travel. 



PiTTSFiELD, N. M. — The new electric road works to 
perfection, and everxbodv is happy. 



Bergen, N. J. — People here are pressing President 
Thurston, of the Jersey City Company, to place electric 
motors on the belt line. Horse cars are too slow for 
them. 



Atlantic City, N. J. — The compan}- here did not 
escape damage from the severe wind which accompanied 
the great snowstorm. Over 150 feet of their street car 
depot on Main Avenue was blown down and wreckage 
was scattered over their track to such an extent that 
tra\el was impeded most of one day. 

Coi.i.iNGSWOOD, N. J. — Edward C. Knight, of Phila- 
delpiiia, has guaranteed the necessary capital for the con- 
struction and equipment of an electric road from this city 
to Camden. 

Bavonne City, N. J. — President Thurston of the 
Horse Railroad Company, has promised the Greenville 
Citizens' Association that all cars on his line between the 
Jersey City ferries and Bergen Point will be run by elec- 
tricity next spring. 

Elizabeth, N. J. — The new belt railwa\- operated by 
the Philadelphia syndicate, has been completed. Cars 
are in operation. 

Mt. Holly. N. J. — The street railway company here 
have purchased a lot and will erect a new barn and car 
house. 

The new street railway here is nearly completed. 
Two new cars have already been purchased from the 
Harrisburg Raihvay Compan}-. 



Long Branch, N. J. — Long Branch will have an 
electric line on Broadway and up the coast to Seabright, 
and south to Elberon and Asbury Park. It should be 
very profitable. 

Newark, N. J. — The Passenger Railway has recently- 
equipped one of its old horse cars with electric machineiy 
with a view of rebuilding all its small cars in a similar 
manner. 

The Lnited Electric Traction Company have secured 
their bonds for a chattle mortgage for $700,000.00 on 
plants in various cities; also the same amount on real 
estate. 

Raleigh. N. C. — .The Company here has ceased the 
operation of its cars and torn up its tracks to prepare for 
the electric svstem. Work will be pushed rapidh' as 
possible, and the effect on real estate is already quite 
marked. 

Raleigh is to have an electric street railway. Work 
will be commenced immediately. 



East Cleveland Street Railway'. — At the annual 
meeting of the East Cleveland Street Railway, an 
appraisment of the property was made which shows it 
to be valued at $3,000,000. During the year the com- 
pany has expended $160,000 in paving and carried 
8,CK)0,ooo passengers. The prospects for the coming 
year were never better. The entire management reflects 
great credit upon its officers. 



32 



Newark, N. J. — The Essex Passenger Railway has 
just discovered the scheme whereb}^ its conductors were 
fleecing the road, viz., b}- using transfer tickets which 
were printed in New York. They have very promptlv 
taken care of these unregenerate employes, who will be 
placed beyond the reach of temptation for a while. 



The Passenger Railway Company has made an appli- 
cation for franchises to construct a line to Arlington, and 
to lav tracks on a number of other streets. 



The Passenger Railway Company have decided to 
adopt a transfer system, which will be issued to all inter- 
secting lines, good for one half hour. 



Orange, X. J. — Another Street Railway Compan}- has 
come into existence under the title of the Suburban Street 
Company. They ask for a number of streets and are 
making a hard fight for the franchises. 



Trenton, N. J.^The Traction Companj' here, of 
which H. Thompson is president, have filed a certificate 
with the Secretary of State, increasing the capital stock 
from ten to twenty millions. 



Our Policy. 

WE take occasion in this, our first issue, to state 
that it will always be the unvarving policy of 
this paper to conduct its advertising department 
on the strictest business principles and earnestlv desire to 
assure our patrons of an absolute impartiality. Different 
locations in the paper may var\- in rates, but every space 
has a fixed price which will be the same to all. We shall 
not vary from this just rule in a single instance. If any 
of our friends do not feel as though a special page was 
worth $400 to them — we have others at $300. And if 
any feel as if that was more than they desire to pay, we 
can only suggest a space proportionate to the amount 
desired to spend in advertising. 

We, therefore, cannot make a rate one cent under the 
schedule price, already we have been obliged to decline no 
small amount of business, and from personal friends, rather 
than deviate from this established rule. But we cannot 
honestly charge one man $300 for a page and allow a 
discount from another opposite. It is unfair to both, and 
we trust our friends will join us in our policv and not 
disappoint themselves by writmg for a cut rate. 

OBITUARIES. 



The death of Col. William H. Payne, the engineer of 
more than national reputation, is a great loss to the street 
railway fraternity. He was a man of sterling qualities 
and indomitable will, and one whose works are his own 
best monument. His death, which was from heart failure, 
was the re.sult of a cold contracted from overwork in 
completing the Cleveland Cable Railway, of which he was 
the engineer. He had pushed the work to almost a com- 
pletion, and while putting on the finishing touches, worked 
all night for seven days in succession, during weather 
which was bitter cold. One very cold morning he was found 



asleep in awheel pit with the lighted lantern still burning 
in his hand, while the flame of life was almost expiring, 
completel}- overcome bj- ph3-sical exhaustion. He was 
taken to his room on Christmas morning, and died of 
heart failure after a brief illness. When he died, twenty 
of the twenty-nine miles of cable were in operation, and 
the rest were running on New Year's da}'. 

Col. Paj-ne was born in 1828, and while yet a mere boy 
joined a surveying expedition that surveyed through 
northern Wisconsin, then an uninhabited wilderness. In 
1852 he contributed valuable engineering methods for 
improved gold mining on the Pacific Coast; and in 1853 
made a survey across the Nevada mountains from Sac- 
ramento to Utah, for the Pacific Railway. 

When the war broke out he returned to Wisconsin, 
raised several regiments, which he accompanied to Wash- 
ington, and then entered the service, where he rendered 
most valuable aid as engineeer, securing information and 
making routes under the most dangerous circumstances. 
It was in this connection that he used a basket of different 
colored dresses which he had a negro woman hang on a 
line, and thus telegraphed his messages from the very 
heart of the enemy's camp. 

His connection throughout the construction of the Brook- 
lyn Bridge are well known, and on its completion it was 
he who adapted the cable sj'stem thereon. Col Payne 
was the inventor of rubber type, which he used in making 
figures on the steel tape for surveying. 

His was a most kindly and gentle disposition, but firm as 
a rock on questions of principle. At one time during the 
\\'ar he was court-martialed for refusing to work on Sun- 
day, but before the trial was ended, it was shown that 
had the bridge been built that day, it would ha\e been 
captured, and so the trial was declared off. 

He has been taken away in the noon-day of experience 
and usefulness. His loss will be keenly felt in many circles. 

Wm. F. Sherman, an inventor well known in connection 
with street railwa}* rapid transit, died recently at Lowell, 
Mass., at the age of 65. He was the incorporator of the 
Sherman Electric Railway Company, of Chicago, the 
Denver Mine RailwaA", the Overhead Electric Power 
Company, and several others. 

THEHALE&KILBURNMFG.GO. 

F ^A^ T E IsTT? E ID 

STREET CAR SEATS, 

Made with or without Springs. Covered in CAHPET. PLUSH or 
HATTAN. 

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THE BEST i 



|jhi*l ti^wm^lf^v'tt^ 




PriiLisHi I) lis nil I :; I II oi i. \i ii mos i ii ni 

THE STREET RAILWAY REVIEW PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

- CHICAGO. 

1-. I.. KENIIELD, Sucnlary. 



334 DEARBORN ST. 



11. 11. WINUSOU, rrcsidunl. 



SUBSCRIPTION, - - - ONE DOLLAR. 



Address all CommiinieaHom and Remillauces to TheStkekt Railway Rivibw, 
334 Dearborn Street^ Chicago, 
H.H.WINDSOR. P. L. KENFIELD, 

Editor. Business Manager. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

\V*c conlially invite corrcsponilcnce on all suhjects of interest to those cniragretl 
in any branch of Street Railway work, and will gratefully appreciate any marked 
copies of papers or news items our street r.iitway friends may send us, pertaining 
either to companies or ofTicers. Address: 





THE STREET RAU-WAV REVIEW. 

.^,^j Dearborn Street, Chicago. 




Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 




NO. 2. 


FEBRUARY VOL. 1. 





With thi.s numbtT we add several new departments, 
wliich will be al\va\s maintained in the highest order. 
Mr. Frank II. Clark, the well known attorney, who has 
not onlv had a lar<re experience in conductinij street rail- 
wa\' litii^alion, but who also is fa\orablv known as a 
writer on these subjects, will hereafter edit our depart- 
ment devoted to street railway law. As far as possible 
decisions of value to street railwa\s will be published in 
advance of their regular appearance in the law reports. 

Our Patent Department will include not onlv a complete 
list of all patents issued pertaining to street railway inter- 
ests, witli address of patentees, but also important patent 
decisions from higliest courts. Mr. II. 1 laiijit. Jr., who is 
an expert patent la\v\er of reputation, will coiuluct this 
department. 

While we tlrmly belie\e the days of the street ear 
horse are numbered, still so long as thousands of miles of 
lines continue for anv reason to be operated b\' this faith- 
ful animal we shall feel he is entitled to the best that the 
experienced veterinary can suggest, and our llvgiene 
of \'etei"inar\ will be editeil h\ one wlio has had \ ears of 
experience in caring for street car horses and who dur- 
ing the great epizootic brought his 6,ooo horses, belong- 
ing to a single company, through with the astonishing 
death loss of only five. Joseph H. Tuthill, M. 1)., V. S., 
who has written on veterinary subjects for many years and 
who needs but little introduction to owners of large sta- 
bles, will edit tliis department. 



Thirteenth Annual Convention of the National 
Electric Light Association. 

THE annual session of tlie National Electric Eight 
Association which convenes in Providence, R. I., 
I'\bruary 17, iS and 19, will be in man\- respects 
llu- iiiMst notable gathering that will be called togetiier in 
all tiiis ci)untr\' the ]iresent \-ear. 

There will be jMisent in the very noonda\' of \ igor 
and usefulness the giants whose ripening vears of expe- 
rience are a marvel even to themselves. No .science to- 
day, or indeed in the history of the world, has ever com- 
bined so closely so much that is magical and weird with 
so great a degree of practical \alue and e\er\ da\ iiule- 
spensible service. 

It is indeed startling to look liack and remember tiiat 
these great advances have been made, and these tre- 
mendous forces bound and tamed, to the service of the 
world, within scarcely half a generation. While it is 
exhilerating to look back from the exalted pinacle of to- 
day on the diverse lines which lead out through the past 
twenty years, each ending in rude efforts now so ridicul- 
ously small — then great; there also comes a shade of dis- 
appointment that we cannot gaze upon this same battle- 
ground a hundred years from now, wlien the greatest 
achievements of to-day, of which we are all so justly 
proud, will Jiave been eclipsed and surpassed b\- the 
efforts of future genius. But those who have labored at 
the oars and who with toilsome strokes by night and day 
have brought the vessel to its moorings in the harbor at 
Providence, can dwell with pride on the thought that no 
development in the great America was po.ssible until a 
Columbus had first discovered it — so whatever the future 
may create, will be but the broadening circles which 
these brave discoverers have made when exploring the 
ocean of an unknown world. 



Presidknt Lewis, of Brooklyn, says the general 
adoption of the electric .system in that citv would enhance 
the value of property fully $50,000,000. 



The Lehigh A\enue Railway Co., of Philadelphia, 
w hich has been operating with storage batteries for some 
time, ha\ e abandoned that system and gone back to 
horses, the reason given being that the electric cars did 
not pay. 

The Pleasant Valley Railway Co., of Pittsburg, car- 
ried 6,612,913 passengers last year. This makes a start- 
ling contrast with the best year the company ever had 
while operating with mule power w hich was but 3,000,- 
000. Their receipts averaged twenty-eight dollars per 
car in 1890. 

One of President Hurt's cable cars recently collided 
with a hook and ladder truck, belonging to the Washing- 
ton Fire Department. The commissioners sent him a 
bill for $96.31 damages to the truck, but Mr. Hurt went 
them one better and sent in his bill for ;in even one huur 
dred dollars. 



34 



The ]\ as/iiiii(/oii Star in speaking of prospecti\e new 
companies in that city says : "If one railroad is good for a 
city, more are better in the proper proportion." This 
may be true and it may not. As a rule it will be found 
that where new lines are built by the old companies in- 
stead of some new organization greater benefits will 
accrue to the public, by reason of the fact that the old 
company has all the facilities of the new, and its other and 
former facilities as well. Especially is this true where the 
old company is in position to offer transfer privileges 
which the new rarely can. 



In the Illinois legislature, Senator O'Malley introduced 
a bill providing that elevated railroads shall not be con- 
structed except by consent of the city councils. The 
passage of this would very greath' simplify and facilitate 
the construction of L roads, as it would change the 
law w hich now provides that franchises can be granted 
only to roads having a majority of the frontage in each 
mile, signed to their petition. Under the proposed 
change, five miles of frontage in the swamps or cornfields 
can overbalance four miles of solidlv built business houses, 
who ma\' not want the road in front of their doors. 



The action of the city council of Independence, Iowa, in 
granting a twenty-five year franchise to the street railway 
company therje, and exempting it from taxation for the 
first ten years, is in striking contrast to the sand bag 
methods employed in many places. The citizens of 
Independence wanted a street railway- and wanted a good 
one, and very sensibly reasoned that the lighter they 
made the burdens on the new companv, the more the 
company would have to in\est in equipment, and im- 
pro\einents, and the better served thev would be, and 
many a larger and older city might learn wisdom of the 
bright IIawke\e town. 



In many of the smaller cities, where the people have 
not had an opportunity to witness the operation of electric 
lines, there generalh- prevails a fear that their introduc- 
tion will be attended by more or less dangers, one of 
which is that horses will be frightened. At Saginaw, 
Mich., this was the great claim urged against the use 
of electricity, but a gentleman from there said a few 
days ago: "Before the electric road was in operation, 
our people expected there would be a hundred accidents 
a day from horses running away, but I ha\ e not heard of 
any bad accidents from this cause. Horses become used 
to them in a short time, and pay no more attention to the 
motor than thev do to a milk wagon." 



The Electric Street Car Company, of Joliet, 111., 
after having gone to very considerable expense to pro- 
vide a good and frequent car service were disap- 
pointed to find that the people of that city had not been 
properly educated up to the proper standard of street car 
patronage. Some months ago, they adopted the plan of 
offering for sale a ticket at a specified price which would 
entitle the party to whom it was issued to ride as often as 



he desired for the life of the ticket. The plan worked 
so well that this year the company offers such individual 
tickets for sale at $25 each, so that with one of these the 
happy owner — by taking his lunch with him every morn- 
ing — can board a car at sunrise and ride for eighteen 
hours a day and 365 da3S in the year. 



Managers of lines operated by horses, especially 
where those lines run on grades or cross bridges or rail- 
road tracks, \\\\\ find \ery great additional security in 
stopping their cars by use of a double brake chain, both 
to be attached to the beam and brake staff, but one chain 
a few links longer than the other, so that in event of one 
chain breaking at an inopportune moment, an extra turn 
or two of the brake handle by the driver will set the shoe 
up tight without any loss of time. In Chicago, a few 
months ago, a car went into the river, the bridge being 
turned, and the brake chain parting at a most of all un- 
fortunate moment, the driver thereb}- losing all control of 
his car; and the recent accident in Philadelphia, where 
the brake chain broke at the top of a hill and caused the 
team to run down and collide with a car standing at the 
foot — are two illustrations of this. 



A very stupid ordinance has been introduced into the 
Milwaukee council, providing that cars shall not exceed a 
speed of three miles per hour at street crossings. This is 
a restriction which has about as much merit to commend 
it as the law which governed the first steam cars in Eng- 
land and made it an offense to run at a greater speed than 
eight miles per hour. The process of moving at three 
miles an hour across thirty streets would mean that in 
co\ering a trip of three miles more than one-sixth of the 
distance must be limited to a speed considerably less than 
than half that which should be made by an ordinary horse 
car, and to apph' it to an electric motor would simply be 
to have rapid transit, but not be allowed to use it. The 
government of motor trains at street crossings may safely 
and should be left to the manager, who, if prompted by 
no other motive than that of economy, w'ill not allow his 
car to operate at a dangerous speed at such places: and 
at streets little used or vacant at the time, there is no 
advantage to anvone to reduce speed. This is one of 
man}' instances where officious city fathers imdertake to 
legislate on something the lirst principles of which they 
do not understand. 



The extraordinary snow and sleet storms which re- 
cently worked such havoc in the Eastern cities caused no 
small delay and annoj'ance to the electric lines. But 
investigation has proven that with but one or two excep- 
tions the delays were caused not through any defect in 
the construction of the trolley wire system, but almost 
wholly from telegraph and telephone poles, which in fall- 
ing as they did would have effectually blocked even a 
steam road. The trolley wires were substantially hung 
and never fiinched an inch until some giant pole with its 
hundreds of telephone wires, snapped and fell across the 
track. The problem has been successfully worked out 



ifet^U^S^A^: 



35 



for jilaciiij;' umlcij^roiiml all liif ami police alarm, Iclu- 
phoiu' and telcjfraph wires ami thai is where they should 
all hi'. 'I'liis would rcnioNr ihr <]lij(.'c'liims to the trolley 
wires, \\liii.'li laimol at the ]ireseiit tiiiic he pLux'd any- 
where iiut overhead. All attempts so far to use the con- 
duit wire have not been successful. Witliout doubt the 
problem will e\'entuallv be worked out, and when it is, the 
railway companies will only too <;ladlv avail themselves of 
it, but until then the trolle\' wire should be a privilejfed 
character and be allowed to sit up while all other wires 
are sent to bed. There is nothini^ unrea.sonablc in this 
for large cities. Of course in smaller ones and towns the 
conditions are very differi'nt and moie latitude ma\- be 
Lri\en all. 



The Ihuiokh'ii Ihiilv Citizen is much wrought uj) o\er 
the fact that school ihildn-ii have to ]ia\' fare on the street 
cars of that citw and intimates that somewhere in Aus- 
tralia (he puts it as far awa\' as possible) the iiu|iils of 
schools ride wilhoul moiuN and without price. We 
lirml\' believe too man\ imlucemenls cannot be thrown 
arountl the attendance of the rising generation upon the 
public schools; and that if necessary to secure such 
attendance, that school children should be carried without 
expense to their parents; but we do not belie\e the street 
railway companx' is under any obligation, or should be 
asked to contribute' the whole of such a public spirited 
mo\ t'. Suih a grand and nobU- work shoidd be shared 
b\ all, and as childri'U ride at reduced rates an\\\a\', let 
the cit\', out of public taxes, toward which the street rail- 
road has contributt'd a goodK' share, purchase such 
reduci'd I'ate tiikets and furnish a necessars number 
weekly through the teachers. Hut in most cities, schools 
are so plentifully scattered, that it is only the few attend- 
ing the higher courses antl who can generally well afford 
the expense that are obliged to use the cars. We do 
think it might be an excellent thing if the daily papers 
were fiu-nished free to each school child, in order that 
they may be well informed; and we think wc lia\e luard 
that .somewhere in Australia the daily papers are reijuirt-d 
to furnish a cop\' of both moi'ning and (.•\(.'ning edition 
gratuitousK' to iMch child within the \ ears of tlu' school 
aire. 



In a number of cities there has been considerable con- 
flict this winter with the city olhcials in charge of streets 
as to the disposition of snow which has been plougiietl 
from railway tracks. In one or two instances the city 
authorities have even gone so far as to prohibit the 
remo\al of snow from the tracks, which means the closing 
of the road. A noticeable instance of this is in London, 
Can., where the position taken is that it destroys the 
sleighing on that portion of the street, which, it must be 
admitted, is a pretty hard fact to get around. But there 
should be the utmost harmony on matters of this kind 
between managers and ollicials of the municipality, and it 
will generally be found that both will be the gainers by a 
little concession on the part of each. A company prima- 
rily should have the unrestricted privilege of ploughing 



its tracks without let or hindrance, for delaj' in this 
work is fatal. Even a light fall will soon pile up quite a 
wall of snow on either side of the track, which not only is 
f)bjectionable, but is liable to be carried back on the track 
by street trallic. The best solution of this problem would 
seem to be in the use of "levelers" drawn by horses and 
which should be put out at intervals soon after the plows 
begin work and which will distribute the plowed snow to 
an equal depth all the way from the outside edge of the 
track to the curb, thereby greatly improving the sledding 
on that part of the street, effectually removing it from the 
tracks, which are left clean and dry, and preventing any 
ridges or mounds on which to overturn sleighs. This 
plan has been in use in Chicago for several years, to the 
greatest satisfaction of the street inspector, the compan- 
ies and the public. 



Stop at Street Intersections Only. 

NO .S^■.S■^^^^I of operating street cars, or steam cars 
either, can e\er be devised which will absolutely 
suit e\ ervbody any more than it would be possible 
to furnish at the same moment a i|ualit\' of weather to 
please all. I'eojile exprt'ss their wants in these matters 
as the momentarx whim or tiesire prompts thein, and 
one of the rocks on which the public and car companies 
split is as to w here cars shall stop to receive and let off pas- 
sengers. In man\' cities and more generally in the smaller 
towns the cars stop anywhere and seven times in one 
block if there chance to be that number of people living 
within that distance on the car at once. -Iiut in most of 
the larger cities and in many of the smaller ones which 
are growing rapidh', the plan has been adopted of making 
stops only at the farther crossing of street intersections or 
in the middle of long blocks, at which points the company 
erects at small, neat sign, bearing the words, "Cars stop 
here." There ought to be no argument as to this method 
giving the greatest accommodation to the greatest number 
of people, and of this the management of the company 
are the best qualilied to judge. The walk for anv passen- 
ger in such cases could not exceed one-half block, while 
the saving to a car full of people by this greatly lessened 
lo.ss of time for stops is a valuable consideration. Where- 
ever the ]ilan has been tried it has within a very short 
time fully demonstrated its advantages, and on a two or 
three-mile trip enables a reduction in running time of 
from li\e to fifteen minutes. Every street railroad man 
knows that it is the time consumed in starting which 
throws a car back and that a driver can easily make from 
one to two hundred feet of street in the time required to 
start and get a car under headway. Particularly is this 
true where horse power is the motor, while the expense 
of strength in his team is as much to make a start as to 
run a whole block. In many places the stops at cross 
streets only are made imperative by order of the cit)' 
council, exceptions, of course, being made in the ca.se of 
churches, theatres and similar places of public assem- 
blage, and such places are so well known that the public 
become familiar with the system. 



36 



THE NO SEAT— NO FARE FALICY. 



WOULD BE LEGISLATION FRAMED FROM IGNORANCE AND AIMED TO SECURE THE IMPOSSIIiLE. 



E\'ER and anon this nemesis arises from its 
gra\e, and urged bv a few chronic kickers, and 
a desire on the part of local papers to poise as 
great moral reformers and protectors, has to be 
met and silenced by the manager. 

It is not the policy of this paper to in the least excuse 
or condone the shortcomings on the part of any company 
to comply with those reasonable accommodations which 
unquestionably are due the public. When a company 
accepts a franchise it should also accept in good faith 
those duties which the future maj- bring with its develop- 
ment in wants and the corresponding development in the 
means of tilling them. Foremost among such moral, 
though not strictly legal, duties, is that of affording a 
suitable means of rapid transit the very day the business 
of the road will warrant it; also to furnish cars of such 
size, character and equipment as will keep pace with the 
class of business to be carried warrants; and likewise a 
sufficient number of these cars to perform its business as 
a common carrier with a reasonable degree of satisfac- 
tion to its patrons, during the eighteen or entire twenty- 
four hours. But in judging of how well this duty is ful- 
lilled the public and press are almost sure to fall into error 
either because they do not give the question any thought 
or else reason from a mistaken basis. 

From five o'clock in the morning until four in the after- 
noon there is a constant stream of passengers to the 
business centre of the city. A small proportion of them 
only return during the day. Between four and five p. m. 
the tide turns and the succeeding two hours witness an 
outpouring of people from office, store and workshop. 
This great army now seeks facilities which shall aggre- 
gate a capacitN' to return in two hours what was brought 
down in fifteen hours; and the inevitable result is, and 
always will be in American cities, a tremendous conges- 
tion of travel. There is no company which in a large 
city can furnish a seat to every indi\idual that wishes to 
ride within the entire limits of the period mentioned. 
The rapid transit facilities of the electric and cable lines 
have very greatly mitigated this evil, for by those systems 
extra cars can be added during the morning and evening 
■•rush" at vastly less expense than a horse line compan}- 
whose extra stock if maintained for only two such extra 
trips per day would eat their heads off in no time. But 
even with the system of street cars in trains which is the 
ideal method on heavy lines, no company could even then 
possibl}- afford the extra cars, and the extra men, who 
must receive at least fair pay, (though idle all day except 
the one trip mornings and the one in the eveningj 
necessity to -provide every passenger ivith a seat. Every 
company is glad to come as near to it as possible; for 
aside from the desire to furnish a satisfactory service the 
loss in fares missed and injury to car from overcrowding 
generally offset what the public really believes to be an 
extraordinaril}- prolltable load. Elevated and under- 
ground roads may offer a temporary relief, but it can 



only be temporary, as superior facilities always beget 
population. The universal history of cable, electric and 
elevated roads, or as we term them rapid transit, has 
been to draw population as a magnet draws bits of iron, 
and the elevated roads in New York city are now 'as 
completely deluged morning and evening as were the 
old slow going horse cars which were all the people had 
in the ante-elevated days. 

If the companies were allowed a higher rate of fare 
they could then afford to buy extra cars, build additional 
barns and store them, pay interest, insurance thereon and 
pa}' the full da^-'s wage to a small standing army for only 
two hours labor; all of which would be necessary to 
insure a seat to every passenger during the evening rush. 
But even then the American idea would never submit to 
the exclusion of other passengers when the seats were 
tilled. Have you ever noticed an American man or 
woman approaching a street crossing? Apparently in 
no unusual haste, but just as surely as a team is seen 
approaching that crossmg will they in ninety-nine times 
out of one hundred make a frantic rush to pass over in 
advance of the team. There was no good reason for the 
haste and risk; the person could not have explained to 
himself why he did so; but it seems to be an inherent, 
inborn natural instinct of the American. Now with such 
characteristics are they going to patiently wait while 30 
people enter a car and then be satisfied to complacently 
read: "This car filled. Do not trespass here." The 
man who would succeed in getting his wife on and then 
be denied the privilege of riding even on the platform, 
but must wait and take the next car — how well would he 
be suited? The young man going to the theatre: — how 
much of smiles and tender words would accrue to him with 
his lady love in car 206 while he secures a seat in about 211? 
The writer witnessed an excellent illustration of this 
only a few weeks ago. It was on Sundaj' and two ad- 
joining and decidedly aristocratic churches were dis- 
missed at the same moment. Full}- 50 people went to 
the same corner to take the same line of cars, and going 
the same way. There must have been some blockade 
down town for there came along a procession of four 
large cars not twenty feet apart from each other. 
The first car was fulh' seated and perhaps twenty people 
standing. In vain the conductor entreated them to take 
the car behind; but no, on they climbed until there was 
absolutely not standing or clinging space for one more; 
and in this impetuous boarding of the car the ladies far 
surpassed the men, most of whom were thus obliged to 
follow. At last the car started. About a dozen people 
were left and obliged to take the second car which ihey 
did a moment later, and in which there were just four 
passengers. The third car followed with one solitarj- 
occupant who looked as though he might be a dead- 
head, and the fourth car was absolutely empty, and yet 
all four of these cars were halted one behind the other, 
all went over the same route to the same destination in 



mtd^^^JQ^.^ifWfh- 



37 



till' same lime, one ear was llie exaet eouiilerjiarl of tlu- 
others and still the people who thus insisted on literall_\ 
swarming on the lirst car, in a manner scarcely decent, 
all belonged to the best circles of intelligence and societ\-. 

We wonder if the legislators ever stopped to ponder on 
how many cars, each seating 30 people, it would 
require to remove 100,000 people and ha\e them 
all sealed. To accomplisii this would require ,v.i.v> cars 
(and then one passenger would he left,) and if a car was 
started every ten seconds over nine hours would he con- 
sumed in the operation. And yet more than one com- 
pany performs this feat six days in the week of getting 
this vast army home on time for supper. 

We have yet to find the first American who hav- 
ing visited the Continent, from whence these "ever\- pas- 
senger a seat" ideas eminate, who desires the i)lan 
adopted in his own cit}', or who considers it either pratic- 
able or possible here. In slow going Europe where the 
business and professional man spend about four hours per 
day at his occupation, and people have time and an 
abundance of cheap cabs, the plan is made to work, just 
as e\er\' voung man is forced to ser\e three \'ears in the 



(jermaii army; but it does not fcjllow by an\' means that 
he enjoys what he is compelled to do. In countries 
where the above drawing room etiquette is observed 
w ill) reference to seats on cars, the working people can- 
not alford to use the cars, hence the case is in no sense a 
parallel one to the conditions here. 

To return to our lirst proposition — we emphatically 
state that that company which, working under such priv- 
ik'ges as permits it to keep abreast of the times and fails 
to do so, is not worthy the name of good management 
and deserves to be buried in the ruins of their unfullilled 
responsibilities; while other and more progressive institu- 
tions rise to the emergency and meet public demands. 
But this is also true, most companies are using their 
best energies to provide the most and best po.ssible 
service, and such iniquitous bills as were introduced a 
few days ago in the Minnesota state senate, are pointed 
with malice and aimed at the accomplishment of the 
impossible. 

It is no fault of the public that they must all go home 
in a deluge, neither is it meet to legi.slate the car com- 
jianv for something no power can control. 



THE STREET RAILWAY A PROGRESSIVE INSTITUTION. 



PliOPLK used to complain that street railwavs 
were slow to adopt new ideas. The fact is that 
only within the last few years have there been but 
few new ideas to adopt that were of value to any- 
body except the inventor. Now, how ever, all is changed. 
Steam roads have never made as many radical changes in 
so short a time as the street railways of this countrv have, 
and are now doing. Still the public in many places con- 
tinue to chant the same dolores, unmindful of the fact that 
they are better served every day. The street railwav 
manager of the present time, with comparatively few ex- 
ceptions, is the most progressive man in his communitv, 
and is racking his brain and laying iuvake of nights, devis- 
ing means to accomplish plans to give his city the best facili- 
ties that are obtainable. And j'et in everv move he 
makes he is confronted with objections from people and 
city authorities who want new things, and yet who while 
raising up their voice with one accord, just as unanimouslv 
tie his hands and stand in the way of improvements when 
they are offered. One of the best known street railway 
men in the country said recently: "Street railways are 
proverbially and most universallv the safety valve for the 
ill-humor of an entire communitv." W^hile cases un- 
doubtedly exist where such condition of public sentiment 
is deserved, it is the exception and not the rule that street 
raihvays fail to do their share, and generally even more; 
to keep not only abreast of the times but generally away 
in advance of the procession. The public, before com- 
plaining should have at least the fairness to ask if thev 
could do any better, and make sure before they censure, 
that the company is not filling its obligations in a spirit 
and to an extent commensurate with its opportunities. 
It is the tendeiuv of human nature to envv the success of 



others. Not because it makes their income anv less; not 
that they could if they would perform a service that is both 
necessary and it maj- be profitable; but the sentiment is 
simply the lines of character on the face of jealousv. It 
is the exemplification of the dog in the manger policv. 

The street railwav comes in for a larger share of 
this than any other organization, by reason of its semi- 
public character. Some people seem to think it is sinful 
for a street railwav to pay a dividend, and vet these same 
people expect the company to pay the highest price for 
anything they may have to sell to it. No undertaking 
that requires large capital, can secure it unless it does pay 
at least fair returns. A street railway system can never 
render the service it should unless it can command large 
amounts of money. Tracks, cars and equipment can 
only be seciu'cd at the outhi}- of large sums, and the 
history of great undertakings in this line proves that 
adequate returns are almost never realized until after 
several \ears; and in many cities a long term of years. 

The public for instance want open cars that must dis- 
place an equal number of winter cars, which meanwhile 
must lay idle in the barns, not only unproductive of 
a single cent of revenue, but carried there at an expense 
of extra car houses, insurance, and the depreciation of 
disuse. And so with man\- another branch of the service. 
The street car gives more in return for its fee than anv 
other institution unless it be a minister, who is reputed to 
labor for little else than the hope of future reward: and 
the citizen who will but take the time to think the subject 
over, cannot, in all fairness but experience a change of 
heart and admit that while few things are perfect, their 
street railwaA- companv is more nearl}' so than the)' 
realized. 



38 



A CALIFORNIA CALAMITY. 



THE latest idioc}' comes from the far West, and 
doubtless the California street railways wish the 
author of the trouble, Senator W. H. Williams, 
would move on still further west and grow' up with 
some other country. This alleged purveyor to the people ; 
this, in a dav, reformer of all ills laid to the street car door, 
girds on his armor and enters the legislature of their state 
with a bill in each hand. 

The first manifesto reads as follows : 

Sec. 501. The rate of fare on the cars must not exceed 3 1-3 cents 
for one fare for anv distance under two miles, 4 cents for anv distance 
under four miles, and 5 cents for any greater distance than four miles. 
Every street railroad company must return to passengers their fares 
\vhen,yor any reason, the cars are delayed, and they are unable, by rea- 
son of said delay, to convey passengers to their destination. Any 
stoppage of over five minutes shall be considered a delay within the 
meaning of this section. The passenger must demand the return of 
his fare before leaving the car. The rate of speed on any street railro.id 
must not exceed eight miles an hour. A violation of any of the pro- 
visions of this section subjects the corporation to a fine of $100 for each 
offense. 

There is not the first redeeming feature to commend 
the above, which is at once as unjust as it is short 
sighted. The local conditions are the same in no 
two cities. Street railroads, like the postal department, 
can only live under a system that permits the averaging of 
a distance carried on the basis of a uniform fare. The 
great majoritv take the short ride, in which at the five cent 
fare there is generally a fair profit, but the longer hauls 
are made almost universallv, the country over, at bare 
cost of operation, or in many instances at a positive loss. 
This would force a long haul service to a loss, and 
the short haul at bare cost. Where, in the nature of 
things, can any profit accrue to the operators? 

It might be said in this connection, that one of the very 
worst things that can befall a city, is to have a street rail- 
way, which is not profitable. The street railway does 
more than anv other factor to build up, broaden out and 
develop a citj'. A company which loses money can not 
thus attain to its highest mission, however strong may be 
the desire of its management. A company which is mak- 
ing money is recognized in the money market, can 
command increased investment from capitalists, and is in 
position to introduce some of the wonderful inventions of 
this line; but which, while most desirable and advanta- 
geous, being good things, cost money and lots of it. The 
Williams' bill would thus choke out the life of nine out 
of every ten companies in that state. 

Another feature of its injustice is this: In man}- 
places, the short haul which he would have furnished for 
three and one-third cents will be found to be on hea\\' 
grades, which vastly increases the cost of operation. 
Extra horses and men are required at such points, more 
cars are required than on a level, and the time paid con- 
ductor and driver is as much mounting a half mile grade 
as for a full mile on level ground. But this modern 
genius makes no allowance for that, unmistakably prov- 
ing his utter lack of knowledge of the subject he would 
ha\e legislated on. 



Still another: Any delay of five minutes entitles the 
passenger to a return of the full amount of fare paid. 
The fact that the company may have performed nine- 
tenths of its contract, and have brought the passenger to 
a point within one or two blocks of his destination cuts 
no figure; funerals, processions, fires and kindred delays 
make no difference. The senator himself can even drive 
an old wagon load of stone en the track, and let it acci- 
dentally break down there, easily delajing the car more 
than the five minutes, and the companj-, though in no 
possible measure at fault, is made to suffer a loss of all 
fares earned, and a fine of $100 as a bonus. And why 
all this? Because it is a corporation running street cars, 
instead of a ring of politicians electing senators. 

The second bill is like unto the first only more so. 
After paying ta.xes for state, city and county purposes, 
on an assessment which was never known to be too 
small, the companj' must pay to the city in addition, three 
per cent, of its annual gross earnings. Either bill alone 
would cripple inost roads, but the two combined cannot 
fail to simply murder them. In the city of Melbourne, 
fares are based on various sections, and work a positive 
injury to the company and compels the conductor to pass 
through his car and make a fresh collection of fares every 
few blocks. Any American would rather pay five cents 
for a short ride than be compelled to make change for a 
penny to be paid five times in going five miles. 

To a disinterested reader there can be but one of two 
conclusions: either that the author of the bill is wholly in 
ignorance of its effects, or is actuated by selfish or 
revetigeful motives. It is devoutly to be hoped that the 
legislative body of California has but one such member, 
and that the rest will promptly vote him and his sand-lots 
bill to a place where the woodbine twineth among the 
big tree valleys. Such ideas do not belong to nineteenth 
century progress and public spirited policy. 



A New Cincinnati Line. 

ON the last day of the year the St. Bernard 
extension of the Mt. Auburn Electric Road was 
formally opened for travel, and the citizens of 
that thriving suburb indulged in great festivit}-. At 
eight o'clock in the evening a special train, under the 
personal direction of General Manager H. M. Littell was 
made up, and seven hundred invited guests boarded it 
and were whirled away to the centre of the city, amid 
the booming of cannon, a fine dispLi}- of fireworks, ring- 
ing of bells, etc. Fireworks were sent up along the 
entire route, and the brass band seated in the first car left 
a trail of music all the way. The round trip was made 
in about ninety minutes and on the return to St. Bernard 
a banquet was served, during which the mayor surprised 
Mr. Littell with a magnificent floral piece, an exact coun- 
terpart of one of his electric cars, and accompanied by a 
happy little speech. 



^Iinn\ tj^jiUniiy' l>^V4fW> 



39 



THE FESTIVE NEWSBOY. 



\NI> llrtW 




-afSF^N^- 



paper wall 
front ildor 



1 \i I riciiil . mil patrol) llic passenger, 
witli all (luu respect and yet sin- 
leritv, eertainlv displays a most 
I lianniiig coiisisleiKN in his jiidg- 
iiuiil as to how lu' should hv siT\(.'d 
willi the (laii\ paper on ihe cars. 
Shoiikl he chance to proxide him- 
self hefore entering he looks up 
from the middle or rear over a 
nid scowls at the freipient opening of the 
mil its accompaning gust of cold air that 
sweeps from the car all the comfort the conijiany 
ma\' ha\i' pro\idi-(l at innsiilerable expense in the 
shape of a car heater. The man sealed ne.\t the iloor 
and the old lady opposite him both growl as the icy blast 
wraps around their limbs and side-tracks uji behind the 
seat and down the back of their necks. The delicate 
passenger gets out his look of martyrdom and wears it 
the rest of the trip. Meanwhile young America has stood 
in the aforesaid doorw.ay shouting at the top of his yoice 
as if to some one a mile or more distant. Seeing no one 
\vants a paper, he plunges through the car, leaving the 
door partly open for some passenger to close, and after 
carefully spotting the man with corns and walking o\ er 
him once or twice, he reaches the rear door only to go 
back to the middle of the car again to inform the young 
man with glasses and an infant mustache that he has only 
the ,^ o'clock edition and the 5 o'clock will not be out un- 
til 4:60. In the meantime, ladies have had one or more 
parcels knocked from their laps to the floor, people who 
were trying to read, suddenly found the paper jammed 
Hat against their nose and various others have contributed 
their share of furnishing new overcoats as mats on which 
to wipe the mud and blacking with which the youngster's 
••shine-em-up-kit" is decorated. Finally the young cy- 
clone blows out the rear door, and the forty or more well 
disposed people. lr\- to calm themselves, to regain their 
patience anil suppress the general desire to profane the 
second commandment by breaking it. Forty adults put 
to unspeakable annoyance and discomfort that one small 
bov may sell a cents worth of newspaper; which same 
paper might just as well have been purchased on any 
corner, from the self-same boy, for the same identical 
cent. .\nd still some people talk about a free country. 
.\s the purvexor of "extras" drops off the rear step 
another springs into existence on the front and linds a 
purchaser there who has just got on. The quarter prof- 
fered breaks the bank, and again the door remains 
open w hile through the car he goes to "git change" from 
the conductor, who slowly counts out twenty-tive pennies 
which are promptly transferred to the small boy's mouth : 
from thence to the buyer of the news. The above pro- 
cess is repeated at regular intervals of each block, w ith 
the exception that at more prominent crossings or cross 



town intersections the \andals come in swjuiiis, each en- 
deavoring to out-climb and over climb the other in 
ministering to the wants of the public. 

"^I'he man who has a paper or does not want one, re- 
marks to his next neighbor on tiie imbecility of a street 
railroad compan\' which will tolerate such an unmitigated 
nuisance. The neighbor being a sensible man fully and 
emphatically agrees with him. On the return trip both 
will allow a whole car-full to be inconvenienced that they 
may be served with .something to read, and all thoughts 
of its troubling a living soul will be the chief thing farth- 
est from their mind. Such is life in a street car. 

This is the winter picture. In summer when the 
schools are out (lhe\' ought to keep iS hours a day for 
365 dajs in a year) the entire small boy population en 
mass, arm themselves with old dailies or supplements, and 
spend most of the day hitching on, shrilly crying "papers" 
and the conductor drives them off the front platform 
onh- to llnd them ensconced on the rear one when he 
reaches it. 

EspecialK' is this true of open cars and those operated 
in trains of two or more. The w riter has personally 
known of a no small number of the above cited cases: and 
still others who daily beat their way down in the morning 
and back at night by purchasing a penny paper, and rid- 
ing on the platform or foot-board. If the conductor asked 
a fare he would yell "papier" and w hen driven off wait for 
the ne.xt car and get home on the installment plan w ith the 
original paper to sell or read as a tontine premium when 
he got there. 

Thus far we have examined the question from the stand- 
point of the passenger, where does the company come in r 
Unfortunately it all too frequently comes out. These boys 
are not only reckless in taking and leaving the car while 
in motion but frequently jump off on the other track di- 
rectly in front of an approaching car or motor train. 
Others who are stealing the ride, constantly watch for 
the approach of the conductor and if he chances to come 
upon them suddenly, unintentional although it may have 
been on the part of this agent of the company, the lad for- 
gets all other things but that of getting off, and frequently 
falls on a slippery pavement or is struck by an approach- 
ing vehicle or car and injured. The boy represents to his 
parents that "the conductor pushed" or "threw him off." 
The incensed father promptly brings suit for damages 
large enough to support one hundred bovs for a century; 
or that dear and "next friend" the shyster lawyer, often 
steps in to see justice done though the heavens fall and the 
company goes up. No matter how clear a case for the 
defense, the shyster will always represent to people 
ignorant of the law that a suit means /<•;• .sr a remuner- 
ative return at no expense and with everything to gain and 
nothing to lose. The company is summoned into court, is 
forced to appear with attorneys, employes and witnesses. 



all of whom must be paid for their time, and when at last 
the corporation is exonerated, as it deserved to be, who is 
the loser r In but a very few states must the plaintiff give 
cost bonds in case of defeat, and the above process with 
large companies costs them largel}' each \ear. All that 
the passenger may purchase on the car what he should do 
before entering. 

Now what is the remedy for all thisr The company 
gladly desires to make the line and its advantages as at- 
tractive as possible. There are two ways. The first is 
practiced by a few companies and works most admirably. 

Newsboys are not allowed on the cars. A printed no- 
tice to this effect, coupled with the information that such 
an attempted act is a trespass, not only where enforced, 
rid the cars of the conceded nuisance, but gives the 
defendant a more nearly equal fighting chance against at- 
tempted blood-money litigation. 

Where tried the plan works admirably. Passengers 
secure their papers before entering the car, and being 
forced to do so find it is less trouble to make the purchase 
in that way, at the street corner — the stopping place for 
most lines — then after having taken a seat and settled for 
the ride. No hardship is done the newsboy for whom we 
wish all success so long as he conducts his avocation legit- 
imately and with reasonable regard for the rights of others: 
as he sells just as many papers as before. 

Many companies are deterred from taking this radical 
action for the reason that they fear to incur the hostility 
and not always fair treatment of the local press. One of 
the largest companies in the country a few months ago 
had a verdict for several thousand dollars returned against 
them, in the case of a newsbo}- who without any know- 
ledge of either the conductor or driver jumped off a trail 
car moving at full speed, slipped, fell, and broke his leg. 
The company rendered every humane assistance to the 
boy and was rewarded with a big damage bill. It imme- 
diately posted in every car a notice prohibiting the sale of 
papers on the cars. The daily papers howled about the 
meanness of a soul-less corporation, which would deprive 
the street gamins of a livelihood. Letters was published 
by the yard from passengers who could not secure a daily 
paper, which apparently had never been for sale any- 
where but on a street car. But the company- said nothing 
and strictly enforced its rule. In less than a week the 
storm passed — passengers found they could more con- 
veniently purchase on the street what they formerly did in 
the car — the publishers did not go into bankruptcy — the 
boys did not starve, everybody was as well served and 
better pleased. 

Those companies which have prohibited paper selling, 
nearly, if not in every instance, have been forced into it in 
self-defense. 

The celebrated Philadelphia case is still fresli in all our 
minds; where a newsboy through his own negligence 
was injured by one of the Traction Company's cars of 
that city, and in which the jurj- awarded the outrageous 
amount of $20,000, which the unfortunate company had 
to pay. It probably never received at any time a single 
fare from that boy; it certainly was not a penny bene- 



fitted from his using their cars as a portable news-stand, 
and they very promptly and properly prohibited the sale 
of papers, "not allowing newsboys on the cars, other 
than as ordinary passengers, paying their fare and not 
vending papers." 

The North Chicago Street Railroad Company experi- 
enced a similar defeat on a very similar case, though in 
not quite so large an amount, and now both that com- 
pany and the West Chicago company have posted in 
every car a notice that makes it a trespass for newsboys 
to use the cars for the sale of papers, and no ditliculty is 
experienced in enforcing the rule. This order has also 
had a salutary effect upon the "hitchers" on, who have 
been notably decreased in numbers. 

In San Francisco some of the companies tried to limit 
the evil by a system of permits. A well known general 
manager there writes : 

"For many years it was our custom to grant permits 
to a limited number of newsboys representing the differ- 
ent daily papers. This worked very well until about a 
year ago when they became very troublesome in various 
ways, which resulted in our taking the permits from all 
the newsboys, since which no papers have been sold on 
our cars. 

There are but few if an}' boys as old as 16 engaged in 
selling papers, most of them being little rats from five to ten 
years old, and one hardly ten years old recently obtained 
judgment against our company for $10,000 in consequence 
of his jumping from a car when approached by the con- 
ductor and being injured in falling. The case is now on 
appeal to the Supreme Court. 

Some of the papers made a great howl over our action 
in discontinuing the privilege, but we cotild stand it in 
view of the judgment wliich had been rendered against 
the company. 

I therefore join the manj' in the opinion that the sale 
of newspapers on the cars is a great nuisance." 

The following is an ordinance adopted by the cit\' 

coimcil there, which very thoroughly covers the ground. 

It shall be unlawful of any child, under the age of sixteen years, 
within the city and county of San Francisco, to get on or attempt to get 
on, or to get off or attempt to get off any street car, train of street cars, 
grip car or dummy, propelled by wire ropes attached to stationary steam 
engines or by a locomotive engine, electric motor, horse or horses, or 
an}' wagon or truck drawn by one or more horses, while the same or 
either of them are in motion. And any child under the age of sixteen 
years who shall violate any of the provisions of this section shall be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall on conviction be punislied 
by a fine not to exceed fifty dollars or by imprisoment not to exceed one 
month, or by both such fine and imprisonment." 

Baltimore has no city ordinance and the company's 
rule there is to allow but one newsboy on a car at a time, 
and only long enough to pass through the car. 

A Kansas City manager says : 

"I am sorry to state that there are no city ordinances 
prohibiting newsboys from jumping on and selling papers 
on street cars in this city. 

These boys are a great nuisance to passengers and to 
the companies, which we have tried to abate and have 
failed for the reason that our attempts have increased the 
trouble." 



')^€*^- 



41 



It would .scL-in in lliis case tlial a total prohibition was 
the only solution of tiic qufslion there. 

Cleveland has no cit\- regulations but some of tiie com- 
panies there will not allow the sale of papers on their 
cars and find the plan works very satisfactorily. 

General Monks of the West ImkI Street Railway, 
Boston, says : 

"The matter of boys selling newspapers ii]ion our ears 
is to-da\, and aKva\s has been, a very objectionable 
feature. We ha\e no city ordinance bearing upon the 
subject but there is a statute of the state which imposes 
a tine upon a street railway company allowing boys less 
than 1 1 years of age to get onto the cars for the purpose 
of selling newspapers. This, as you can yery readily 
see, is a law ver\' difficult to enforce, in fact there haye 
been no prosecutions, that we know of, under it. 

We haye a contract by which, for a nominal sum, we 
give to a local news company the exclusive right to sell 
newspapers on our cars. They adopt a peculiar form of 
badge with a number with which each one of their boys 
is provided. They agree to hold us harmless from all 
liability or loss from claims arising from the fact that any 
of their boys ma\ he injured. As the bo\s are carefully 
selected by the news compan\', and as we hold said com- 
pany to a strict accountability as to the conduct of boys, 
this system has given a reasonable degree of satisfaction 
up to the present time. It is very much better than the 
previous system by which all the cars were free to all 
comers for the sale of papers." 

From personal knowledge the writer knows the Boston 
newsboy to be a comparatively inoffensive object. But 
one takes a car at a time, he does not enter unless called 
by a passenger, does not shout, and remains no longer 
than necessary. But the cultured atmosphere of ethical 
Boston accounts for these angelic qualities. They cer- 
tainly do not exist in the \vooly west. 

New York has no municipal aid for the street car com- 
pany, and they must get along as best they can. A well 
known president there writes as follows : 

'• Indirectly the Truant Act and the societies for juve- 
nile delinquents and that for the prevention of cruelty to 
children are all which are corrective. Public sentiment 
and llie one and two cent papers are all in favor of this 
peddling and any radical move to abate the nuisance 
would create a howl. 

Our rules forbid all peddling on our cars and we are 
beseiged by such a horde of newsboys as to render it 
almost impossible to keep them off our lines." 

This would suggest as the only salvation there being 
the purchase at the publishing ollice of the entire 
edition. 

Some lines grant exclusi\e privilege of sale, and try 
to limit the trouble. 

Mr. William J. Richardson, secretary of the American 
Street Railway Association, thus paints the picture of 
the Brooklyn boy : 

Mv De.\r Sir: — In reply to yours of 14th, relative 
to newsboys, would say, that the newsboj- is an everlast- 
ing nuisance, but still an incident to the operation of a 



street railway. You cannot get rid of him short of 
blowing him up with d\naniite. "Iliere are many of 
them who have no parents, and work hard selling news- 
pajiers in order to get money enough for a seat in the 
gallery of a poor theatre almost every night of their 
lives. 

They are a nuisance so far as jumping on and off the 
cars is concerned; yet passengers will call them on, when 
they are prohibited by rule from going there. We ha\e 
spasmodically tried from time to time to limit or restrict 
their operations on cars. W^e have furnished them with 
a badge, the property of the company, on which appears- 
the word "Newsboy — A. A. R. R. Co.," with the num- 
ber in the middle. We required the boy to leave a 
deposit on the badge, covering its cost, returnable at any 
time upon demand, on the return of the badge. We 
require from him a statement that he will behave himself 
at all times on the cars, and that he will not go through 
the front door; that he will be civil to conductor and pas- 
sengers; that he will not be boisterous in his language or 
otherwise misbehave himself, and that he will not sell or 
otherwise dispose of the badge, but will return it 
promptly to the office whenever requested to do so. W'e 
limit the wearing of these badges to boys over 14 years 
of age. W^e have no city ordinance governing the ques- 
tion of the sale of newspapers on street cars. 



OUT OF TOWN. 

AS usual, Chicago will be well represented at the elec- 
tric light convention at Providence, and w'e must 
sa}- that she will make up in quality what is lack- 
ing in quantity. On account of many having business 
which made it necessary for them to stop, it was impossi- 
ble to make up a car. Among those that have gone are 
W^. R. Mason, manager Electric Merchandise Co.; W. 
A. Kridler and J. B. O. Hana, of the Western Electrician; 

E. L. Powers, of Electrical Industries; Geo. Cutter, E. 
L. Clark, of the 111. Elec. Material Co. ; Chas. Wirt and 

F. S. Terry, of the Electrical Supply Co.: H. K. Gillman, 
manager Great W^estern Electrical Supply Co.: F. L. 
Kenfield, business manager of The Review; and last of 
all, W. J. Cooke, of the McGuire Manufacturing Co., 
who could not be hired to stay awa\' from the good things 
to eat and "smoke." 

The advantages of these gatherings are being the bet- 
ter appreciated every year, as the regularly increasing 
attendance indicates. Each convention is also larger than 
its predecessor by reason of the expansion of the bu.siness 
and the multiplying branches of it. The value of acquaint- 
ances thus formed are worth many times the time spent 
in going and returning and friendships there formed can- 
not be measured in dollars and cents. 



A New York assemblyman has studied out a great 
scheme, as he thinks, of having a " local transit inspector " 
appointed in all large cities to prod the railway compan- 
ies. If the inspector really understood his business he 
might tind the aforesaid assembhman needed a little sense 
prodded into him. 



42 



THE ONLY ELECTRIC LINE IN IRELAND. 

THE INITIAL ROAU TO USE AN INSULATED RAIL FOR ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION. 



AWAY up on the north coast of Ireland, in the 
county of Antrim, is that remarkable freak of 
nature known as the Giant's Causeway, which 
consists of basaltic formations of hexagonal pil- 
lars that stretch out in a platform six hundred feet in 
length, about three hundred and fifty feet in width and 
rising to a height of twenty-five feet. No work of man 




could be more regularly defined, and the ancient tradition 
from whence its name is derived — that the giants in the 
dim past started to build a stone causeway to Scotland, 
across the Irish Sea — is not to be wondered at. 

But now that modern giant of the nine- 
teenth centurj- has indeed taken up a work 
greater than any of tradition and reached out 
its iron arms and built not only a causeway, 
but a tramway as well. 

When the steam cars reached Portrush 
the causeway became much more accessible, 
as tourists could take carriages from that 
point. But this was necessarily a slow and 
tiresome journey, and in 1880 construction 
work was commenced and continued during 
that and the following year and the road 
finally completed and perfected in 1882. 

To W. A. Traill, C. E., who is the paten- 
tee, president and general manager of the 
Giant's Causeway and Portrush Electric 
Tramway, belongs the credit not onh' of 
devising a most ingenious plan but of adopt- 
ing it to the peculiar circumstances of its 
location. And so highly was the work con- 
sidered from a scientific standpoint that at 
the International Inventor's Exhibition in 
London in 1885, Mr. Traill was awarded a 
silver medal. 

The line starts from Portrush from a depot which it 
uses in common with the steam road, and following the 
shore line for a considerable part of the distance, offers a 
most enchanting ride of eight miles, with alternate views 
of fields, ruined castles and the ocean. 



The track is of 3olb. T rail, laid on wooden ties, to a 
30-inch gauge. The grades are generally easy, though 
there is one of a rise of one foot in twenty-five for a 
distance of a mile, and another of one foot ascent in 
thirty extending for two miles. The curves which are 
quite numerous average a fiftj'-foot radius. 

Itw as from this road that the great citv and South 
London Compan}' received their idea of adopting a con- 
ductor rail for use in their underground road. It will be 
seen at a glance that however satisfactory and economical 
may be its operation, in the country and in tunnels, it 
would not be practicable elsewhere, except on elevated 
roads. 

The generating station is situated at Bush Mills, on the 
Bush River, which is nearly midway between the ter- 
mini of the line. The power is derived from two Amer- 
ican Turbine Water Wheels, made by Allcott, and are of 
80 HP. each. The dynamos are of English make, from 
the works of Elwell & Parker, and easily deliver 250 am- 
peres with 500 volts. Six cars operate on the line, which 
is eight miles long, and the motor cars are equipped each 
with two 10 HP. motors furnished by Siemans Bros. & 
Co., London. 

The expense for power and labor for a train of two 
cars is but seven cents of our money per mile — for the 
motor and trail car combined. 

A rather amusing incident developed at the causeway 




Hotel where the current from llie electric railway is let 
into the building and stored in batteries. It is then util- 
ized to warm and light an incubator, which regularly 
turns out its hundred little chicks, so that while a train 
load of passengers are being impelled toward their 



kmd^^>AJa,Y^»^f}^ 



43 




44 



journey's end, the same unseen force has preceded tliem 
and arranged food for them to eat on arrival. 

During the harvest season, on a large farm near the 
hotel, a wire is run from the electric tramway and carried 
out into the fields and there harnessed to a dynamo, and 
the railroad is made to do duty and operate a threshing 
machine, which turns out twenty-five hundred pounds of 
grain per hour with a Sieman's Bros. & Co. motor and 
two men and one small boy. This is probably the only 
street raiUvaj- in the world that is so closely allied to agri- 
cultural pursuits and the dear people. The following 
illustration is taken from the line of the electric road. 




At present six trains are run each way daily, leaving 
Portrush on the arrival of the express trains. There are 
two classes of fare and two grades of cars on the tram- 
way and the fare each way is one shilling, first class. 

The interesting feature of the construction is the use 
of a third rail as the conductor rail for the electric cur- 
rent. It is a light T rail, set outside the track, and at a 
distance of twenty inches from it, and supported on 




Where the line crosses wagon roads the conductor rail 
is depressed, covered from any exposure, and carried be- 
neath the ground, while the train crosses such places on 
its own momentum and secures contact with the con- 
ductor as soon as the road or street is passed. 

The means by which the current is communicated from 
the conductor rail to the motors under the car is extremely 
unique. At each end of the motor car, and extending out 
on the side next the current rail, extend two arms, sus- 
pended from the car floor, and protruding quite like the 
gang plank of a river steamboat. These two arms each 
carry at the end a light steel spring (c), which is quite 
flexible, and to the bottom of which is fastened the slipper 
or friction shoe (d), which rests on the conductor rail, and 
slides easily upon it. There appears to be no wear from 
this source, upon the conductor rail and the iron shoes, 
which developing no special friction, lasts all the way from 
five weeks to three months, but is inexpensive. 



wooden posts extending eighteen inches above the road 
bed. Upon this wooden post, rest two porcelain insu- 
lators (d), and on these rest the conductor rail (a) as 
shown in the illustration. 



The Schuylkill Electric Railway. 

POTTSVILLE, PEXN. has a new electric road, 
which consists at present of two miles of single 
track, laid with 50 lb. Johnson girder rail, to 4 feet, 
8 1-2 in. gauge. For the present, three motors will run, 
each drawing one trail car. 

The power is derived from two ninety-five horse power 
generators, and one Ball engine of 150 horse power. 
The motors and generators were furnished by the 
Short Electric Railway Co. 

The peculiar feature of the line lies in the fact that for 
its entire distance, it is an almost continuous grade, vary- 
ing from two to ten per cent. As soon as weather will 
permit, ground will be broken for an extension which will 
require at once seven additional motors, and two extra 
80,000 Watt (125 H. P.) generators. Nearh' fifteen 
miles of new track will be laid, and a new enlarged power 
house will be required. 

The traffic since the opening of the road Dec. 22, 
1890, has averaged 1,200 passengers per day for the 
three cars, which is much better than the projectors had 
counted on. It is but proof, however, that a good thing 
always deserves success. 

The contract for the new motors and generators has been 
placed with the Short Electric Company of Cleveland. 

The offices of the companj- are Gen. J. K. Sigfield, 
President; F. G. Yuengling, Vice President; J. H. Zerbey, 
Secretary; John F. Zerbey, Treasurer; B. S. Patterson, 
Solicitor, and Charles G. Swan, Superintendent. 

Mr. Lee H. Parker, Superintendent of construction 
for the Short Electric Co., has given the installation of 
the plant his personal attention, and the good people of 
Pottsville, Pa., are verj- naturally well pleased with the 
auspicious opening and bright future of the Schuvlkill 
Electric Railway'. 

Recently an ordinance was passed by the citj' coun- 
cil of Chicago, making it an offense punishable with a fine 
of $25 for failure to heat the street cars. Some one dis- 
covered a Westside car not over-warm, entered suit and 
the company concluded to pay the fine without appearing. 



45 



CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT NOTES. 



"Machined" Wheels For Street Railway Service. 

A MOST \ aluable improvement in car wheels has 
within the past two years been developed by the 
\ew ^'<.^k Car Wheel Works, of Buffalo, N. 
^'. It t'ctiisisls of treatinj^ wheels in suitable machines 
to make them mechanical!}' perfect in e\ery re- 
spect. This company spent much time and money 
investigatintj machinery for the purpose and concluded 
that none had as yet been desi^jned to do the necessary 
work at a cost sufficiently low to make it practical. They 
then turned their attention to the designing of machinery 
themselves, their efforts being finally crowned with suc- 
cess, for they now control by patent the only machine 
which will grind cliilled car wheels absolutelv round at a 
rate fast enough to make the work economical. 

Their wheels are first bored very carefully on extra 
heavy boring mills, tiien placed in the grinding machines 
on self centering mandrels and turned to an absolute cir- 




cle on the tread. They are then tested for balance and 
made correct in that respect. The operation of the grind- 
ing machine will be readily understood by the cut pre- 
sented herewith. 

Every mechanic knows the benetits to be deri\ed from 
the use of perfect tools and machinery. In the use of 
street car wheels as ordinarily made, the disadvantages 
are not so clearK' thrown into relief on account of the fact 
that no other practice has been generally known, but the 
benefits arising from the use of wheels absolutely true 
stand boldly out in comparison with existing practices. 

The results, stated briefly, are : Smoother riding cars, 
less wear on roadbed and cars, loads hauled with greater 
ease by the horses and longer life of wheels. The use of 
these wheels under cars equipped with electric motors is 
particularly advisable. There is more perfect contact 
with the rails for the passage of the return current. Poor 
contact simply means checks to the motor and a racking 
of the entire mechanism and trucks. Quicker stops can 
also be made, which is most desirable in view of the 
higher speeds attained in electric service. 

The company has issued a very interesting pamphlet 
giving full particulars in regard to their wheels, and meth- 
ods of manufacture, and we are sure will be pleased to 
send one to any person interested in having the best 
thing procurable in their line, upon application. 



The Lima Register. 

S()iMICTllIX(» new in the way of a fare register is 
what the Lima (O.) Register Company have 
brought out. The gentlemen who are manufac- 
turing this new device are Dr. E. Ashton and J. II. Rose. 

They claim for their invention not only accurac}' and 
simplicity, but an arrangement which will give at an\- 
time a printed statement on a card of the number of fares 
recorded. '^Fhis enables as frequent changes in conduc- 
tors at the end of any half trip or trip, or, indeed, at an\ 
special point as may be desired, as the man who is 
relieved "touches a button" and the register gives him a 
printed statement which he turns in with his trip or day's 
report. 

The construction is such that it is not liable to get out 
of order. There is no glass to break and no friction 
hand to be manipulated b\- conductors. It cannot be 




made to gi\e an alarm without registering and does awav 
with the extra help necessary- to take statements. The 
register records from zero to ten thousand and the trip 
hand can be set to zero at the end of each trip, but does 
not affect the permanent count, which goes on to the 
highest number, when it automatically returns to zero. 

To take a statement of the register, insert a card in .slot, 
depress a lever and the number is embossed thereon and 
cannot be changed or tampered with. 



Every good thing has its drawbacks. Down in St. Louis 
the other day a passenger leaned against the stove, when 
a box of matches in his pocket caught fire, which was not 
extinguished until the passenger was put out. It would 
naturalK- put an^"one out. 



Price's Railway Appliance Company's Improved 
Street Railway Construction. 

THE Philadelphia rail has been not only well known 
for a long time, but very generalh' used, especialh' 
in the east, and now an entirely new system of 
track building is offered to the street railwa\' 
^vorld from this same city and is the inyention of the 
Price Railway Appliance Company. The disadvantages 
of the old tram rail which like horse cars were kept in 
use so long because of the absence of anything better are 
too well understood to require any extended notice here. 
The chief objections being decay of the wooden stringer 




PRICES "LIGHT 



on which they are laid, causing the spikes to loosen and 
pull out or the rail to turn on its side owing to the wear- 
ing away bv street traffic of the heads of the spikes, and 
broken joints which can never be kept up: all of the 
above causes unite to shorten the life of the rail. Neces- 
sity was the mother of the girder rail. To secure a bet- 
ter joint bv permitting the use of splice-bars, but particu- 
larly to meet the demand which then became most urgent 
for a track which could carry not only the weight of 




f/ W // //M W^/A 




NO. 1. PRICE "CHAIR AND SLEEPER." 

heavier cars which increased travel had made necessarj-, 
but also to provide something, which would be better 
able to withstand the terrible wear of street traffic. Even 
with the girder rail the joint problem has by no means 
been fully solved and is more or less at the disadvantage 
of torsional strain upon the web or stem of the rail. A 
greatl}' increased service in the rail itself is an important 
gain to the company, while the public gains b}' reducing 
the frequency of relaying. 



The Price Railwa\- Appliance Co. have endeavored to 
remedy these defects in their new devices, which are 
illustrated herewith. All of them use what is practically 
the same rail. It will be observed that this rail is similar 
in its body to the old side bearing rail, but differs in hav- 
ing at each edge of its base a thin flange, nearl}- vertical 
through which, with whatever supports it may be laid 
connection can be had to the support. These holes, 
oblong oval allow for expansion, number 45 to the rail, 
and are placed eight inches apart. 

One of the great advantages of the Price light rail is 
its economy of wear, as the 
portion which must event- 
ually go into the "scrap pile" 
is very small in proportion 
to the entire weight. It is 
aimed in this to insure the 
greatest possible amount of 
wear. 

Systems No. i and 3 in- 
volve the use of a wooden 
stringer roofed over b}- the 
rail itself but without anj' 
vertical holes for any pur- 
pose. Price's chair and 
sleeper system No. i will be 
fully understood b}' reference 
to the cut. At joints, chairs 
of double width underlie the 
ends of the rail, and are spaced 
either 24, 32, or 40 inches 
apart, according to weight of , , „ 

r ' t> O NO. 3. PKICE .1 "c-HANNEL KAIL 

traffic. In Price''s channel system, 

rail system No. 3 the rail rests upon a channel bar of 
steel astride of a wooden stringer and is held in place to- 
gether with the rail bj' horizontal spikes eight inches 
apart. Occasional tie rods maintain guage. The rail in 
this case breaks joint with the channel bar. Construction 
No. 6 is entirely of metal and consists of three chief 





Stringer 




elements interbound In' metalic straps, each of the three 
rolled in lengths of 30 feet or less as desired. On 
this system the rail sits upon a p\ramidal stringer of thin 
steel and braced bv the flanij;es of the rail. The steel 



^V»«l%«^&f %M^ 



47 



striiijfiT is SL-alccl u]i()ii a sliallow i.hamK'1 liar vr tlat plait' 
somewhat wider than the strinj^er aiui the two are 
fastened h\' nietalic straps, the ends of which are ham- 
mered down upon the feet of the strinf^er. The com- 
hined weight of sleeper and strini^er is but little more 
than diu' hall that of ihr rail. Thi-ir ends should be con- 
lenninous, but this strutlure should break joint with the 
rail resting upon it. Tlu' whole should rest upon a 




NO. '1. 1'Mle's \LL MET\LI0 "kail and STHINttEK." 

mixture of crushed stone and cement. This gi\es a con- 
struction in which no wood is used and no bolts or nuts 
except an occasional tie rod. It is practically a Howe 
truss laid longitudinally through the street. It is claimed 
that this system is unequaled for elasticity without lever- 
age or sagging and with less of ultimate waste in scrap 
than by any other system, and for electrical purposes 
offers a most perfect conductor. Detailed information as 
to construction and cost will be furnished on application 
to either James M. Price, 409 Chestnut street, or Joseph 
II. Burroughs, Secretary, 125 South 5th street, Phila- 
delphia. 

Aluminum Trolley Wheel. 

ARI'.C'l'-XT novelty is the trolley wheel manufac- 
tured by the Great Western Supply Co., of Chi- 
cago. It is of pure aluminum, weighs only one- 
third as much as those made of brass and transmits per- 




fectly. It will not oxidize nor corrode and is another 
evidence of the wonderful and varied purposes to which 
this new metal mav be put. 



TnK Brooks Works at Dunkirk, have completed anew 
motor which is said to gi\e a high speed and carry si.x 
hundred pouiuls pressiue. which is obtained by forcing 
air through an upright drum filled with hot water. Eight 
cylinders beneath the car drive the w heels. It is claimed 
to be economical in operation. 



The Genett Patent Air Brake For Cable and 
Electric Cars. 

WE jiix-sent U> our ri'aders a new and important 
invention lateh' patented by Louis J. Genett, 
of Chicago, and which solves the problem of a 
perfect brake for cable and electric trains. The old-fash- 
ioned hand brake will not answer to control fast running 
cable or electric cars, and e\en all the improved friction 
brakes have faults which only a perfect air brake can 
remeds'. One that gives the gripman the same control 
o\er his train of cable cars as the locomotive engineer has 
w ith his Westinghouse brake, and this the Genett air 
brake has accomplished without the use of steam or elec- 
tricity for power. This brake is simple in construction, 
as shown by the following illustration, and will act as 
effectually on a train of four or more cars as on a single 
car. The apparatus is small, not weighing over 250 
pounds for an entire train, and is placed under the cars, 
out of sight, with the exception of a pressure gauge and 
three way valves, with which the driver sets and releases 
brakes, and this is placed conveniently in motor cars. 

A train of three cars equipped with the Genett air 
brake has been running for the past four months on the 
Chicago City Railway Company's Cottage Grove avenue 
line, and the men and officers of the company are very 
much delighted with its working. Several other cable 
and electric lines have applied to the compans' for exper- 
imental trains on their lines, which the Genett Air Brake 
Company will furnish as soon as possible. The accom- 
panying illustration gives two views of this brake, one as 
the same appears under a grip car and trailer and also the 
different parts enlarged. It w ill be seen that the appara- 
tus consists of an automatically governed patent air com- 
pressor taking motion from the axle of the car, the motion 
being transmitted by an eccentric attached to axle, 
and can be attached to any car when there is a four-inch 
axle space to spare and about ten inches square space for 
compression. The compressor is piped to a reservoir 
where the air is stored, the reservoir having a capacity of 
about three cubic feet, and can be built of such dimensions 
as will suit the space it may be placed in, or the reservoir 
may be placed under the seat inside the car when space 
is limited under car. From the reservoir the pipe is led 
to a three-way valve, which is placed at the most conve- 
nient point for the man in charge to handle, and this valve 
is also connected with the train pipe, which couples with 
the different jam cylinders on the train. The jam cylin- 
ders are air tight cyhnders six inches in diameter and con- 
tain a piston having a twelve-inch stroke, and this is 
attached to a brake rod, one jam being placed under each 
car. 

The main feature in the Genett air brake system lies in 
the compressor, which is of a novel, compact and effec- 
tive design, handling the air automatically in the reser- 
voir, thus keeping it at an}- pressure desired to be carried, 
independent of employe in charge. To get these results 
it has been designed with two small suction valves work- 
ing in ports covered on one side of the cylinder, one being 
placed at each end and a small governor cylinder work- 



48 



ing between. On the other side are two discharge 
valves, which discharge into a single covered passage 
leading to the governor cylinder. If the air has not 
reached the pressure desired to be carried, the com- 
pressor works direct to the reser\oir until the pressure is 
reached. Then the suction valves are automatically 
raised from their seats, thus leaving the compressor pis- 
ton to work in the free air till the brakes are applied and 
the pressure reduced, causing the suction valves to return 



den jerk and holding back of the train incident to other 
brakes. During the four months in which the train of 
three large cars were running on the City Railway the 
train did not lose a single trip nor was it necessary to 
make any repairs whatever. An occasional oiling was 
all the attention given. So simple and positive is it that 
any ten year old boy can operate it without an}- other in- 
structions than "when you want to stop turn the handle," 
for the brake will surely do the rest. 



Geaett Gt.^ Brak, a.,,.,l,.it,C,^,;,/Tr„CU, 




to their seats, and the compressor is ready to increase 
the pressure again. In this manner the compressor is 
always furnishing the desired pressure and it is impossible 
to exceed the amount the compressor is set to be carried. 
The train running on Chicago Citv Railway line 
consists of grip car and two trail cars and carrying a 
pressure of 35 pounds in reservoir and this is attained as 
soon as train starts. When a stop is made onlv one sixth 



The action of the brake is as follows: To apply the 
brake to the train, simply turn the handle of three way 
valves to the right : this connects the pipe from reservoir 
with train pipe and releases the air which travels through 
the train pipe and hose connection to the jam cylinders, 
forcing out piston rods and setting brakes intsantly and 
»ill cars alike. The air, can be put on gradually or full 
pressure by turning valve on only partially or fully as 




E ^^. 



lu | UJ| — or 



--^. 



nrj- 



of the reservoirs storage capacity is used, which is com- 
pressed again before train has run si.xty feet, although 
train can be stopped six times within the sixt}' feet and 
still have pressure left. The air supply in reservoir is 
practically inexhaustable. 

The great feature of the brake is the ease and prompt- 
ness with which it works, and there is none of that sud- 



desired. By turning the handle of vah'e to the left the 
air in reservoir is held in check again and at same time 
brakes are released. 

The office of the Genett Air Brake Co. is 236 Monroe 
street, Chicago, and Mr. M. L. Ratschilds is secretary of 
the company, and who will be glad to furnish more de- 
tailed information. 



fel^ul»^%^4^^ 



49 



STREET RAILWAY LAW. 



EDITEn 1!V MK. IKANK 1 1, t I, A U K, A TTOK N E Y AT I. AW, (J HIC ACJO. 



Where one hails a street car, the conductor and driver have a right to 
assume that he desires the car stopped to enable him to get on, and that 
he does not intend to enter the car while it is in motion. Even if they 
believe that he intends attempting to board the car while in motion, 
they owe him no duty to warn him off; he is the best judge of the 
risk of such an act, and the responsibility for it rests solely upon him. 

THIS was an action on the case brought to recover 
damages for an injury alleged to have been 
causL'd b\- the negligence of the defendant com- 
pany. At the trial evidence was offered that 
plaintiff hailed the street car while it was crossing a 
street; that the conductor pulled the bell, but the driver, 
mindful of the regulation prohibiting the stopping of the 
car at a crossing, proceeded at a very slow rate of speed, 
walking his horses across the street; that the plaintiff did 
not wait for the car to stop, and, while it was in motion, 
he seized one of the uprights, it being an open or summer 
car, and by the motion of the car he was thrown down in 
the street; and that the plaintiff was a cripple, having one 
wooden leg. 

Mr. Justice Bradley, in delivering the opinion of the 
court, said: 

In the case at bar the instruction is that if the defend- 
ant's servants saw the plaintiff approaching a moving car 
and about to get on and they did nothing to warn him 
off, or if they did not stop when they saw what he was 
about to do, or was doing, understanding his peril and 
the injury- resulted, the plaintiff could recover. This is 
clearly erroneous for several reasons. 

It makes no distinction between the dutv of the 
defendant to the plaintiff approaching the car and to the 
plaintiff having hold of the car and attempting to get on, 
but attributes peril and corresponding dutv to both. 

It assumes that the defendant knew, or must have 
known from the mere act of the plaintiff in approaching 
the car that he entertained the purpose of getting upon it 
while it was in motion and that he was therefore in peril. 
But the defendant could not be required to anticipate the 
negligence of the plaintiff. Its servants had the right to 
assume under such circumstances that the plaintiff being 
sui Juris and in possession of all his faculties, desired to 
stop the car and intended not to get on the car whilst it 
was in motion, but to wait until it stopped. 

Had they believed that he entertained the purpose of 
getting on the car whilst it was in motion and thev doubt- 
ed his abilitj' so to do, they owed him no such duty as to 
warn him off, for he was the best judge of the risk or 
danger of such an act and the responsibility for it rested 
solely upon him. 

If such duty of warning existed,' the failure to give it 
would not relieve the plaintiff of the necessitv of taking 
care of himself, or making the resulting injury any the 



less the proximate cause of his own act, for which an ac- 
tion would not lie. Under conditions somewhat similar in 
Railroad vs. Houston. 95 U. S. at page 702, the court 
says: 

"The failure of the engineer to sound the whistle or 
ring the bell, if such were the facts, did not relieve the de- 
fendant from the necessity of taking ordinary precautions 
for her safety. Negligence of the Company's employes 
in these particulars w^as no excuse for negligence on her 
part. She was bound to listen and to look before at- 
tempting to cross the railroad track in order to avoid an 
approaching train and not to walk carelessly into the place 
of possible danger. Had she used her senses she could 
not have failed to hear and to see the train which was 
coming. If she omitted to use them and walked thought- 
lesslv upon the track she was guiltv of culpable negli- 
gence and so far contributed to her injuries as to deprive 
her of any right to complain of others. # * * 

No railroad company can be held for a failure of experi- 
ments of that kind. If one chooses in such a position to 
take risks he must bear the possible consequences of 
failure." 

The instruction does not leave the question of peril in 
what he "was about to do or was doing" as a fact to be 
determined bv the jur\', but it assumes the peril as matter 
of law and thereupon bases the dutv. 

The lueasure of the duty required is left entirely indefi- 
nite. The juiy are not enlightened or directed as to what 
the defendants reasonably should have done to avert the 
injurv and they are left wholly to conjecture and specu- 
lation. The existence of an undetined duty was sug- 
gested and the probable result was that the jury were 
misled. 

Upon the facts disclosed by the evidence to which these 
portions of the charge related there appeared to have been 
no ground for the recovery by the plaintiff, and under 
these circumstances the court would not have erred if it 
had excluded this theory of the case from the considera- 
tion of the jur\-. 

These instructions, however, assumed as established 
matters not in proof, viz., actions on tlie part of the plain- 
tiff in approaching the car, from which an intention to 
board the car while in motion could be inferred, that the 
plaintiff was in peril in so approaching and that the 
defendant's servants had time to become aware of the sit- 
uation of the plaintiff and to provide for it. 

"To instruct a jury upon assumed facts, to which no 
evidence applied, was error. Such instructions tended to 
mislead them by withdrawing their attention from the 
proper points involved in the issue. Juries are sufficiently 
prone to indulge in conjecture without having possible 
facts not in evidence suggested for their consideration. In 



5° 



no respect could the instructions mentioned ha\e aided 
them in reaching a first conclusion." Railroad Companj- 
vs. Houston, 95 U. S., 703. 

(Sup. Ct. D. C. Holahan vs. Washington & George- 
town R. Co., 18 Wash. Law Rep., 751-) 
Change of Motive Power — Injiiuetiou Agaiuit Use of 

Eleetrteitx; 

Plaintiff owns a piece of ground lying along a street 
extending across the square so as to front upon the cross 
streets. It is chieflv valuable for residence purposes and 
he intended to build a residence thereon. Without objec- 
tion from him defendant company constructed and oper- 
ated an electric railway with an overhead wire along one 
of the cross streets and is about to put in operation a sim- 
ilar road upon the side street upon a track long used for 
horse cars, fastening its cross wires to electric light poles 
already erected, so that no poles or tracks are placed in 
front of the premises. Defendant has expended about 
seventv thousand dollars in constructing its system 
of electric railways in the city. There was evidence 
that there would be some danger to men and an- 
imals from the electric current and [from the more 
rapid running of cars, and that the current w^ould in- 
terfere with the telephone wires in the same street. 
Held, that no present injurv is shown: the apprehended 
injurv is too remote; and, under all the circumstances, 
plaintiff is not entitled to an injunction against the 
operation of the road. 

(Sup. Ct. Mich. Potter vs. Saginaw Union St. R. Co., 
9 R}". and Corp. L. Jour., 34. ) 
Agj-eement zvith Condtietor — Forfeiture of Wages — 

Certificate of Comfanx's Manager. 



The plaintiff became a conductor of the defendant 
companv on the terms, among others, that for a breach 
by him of the rules of the company, the company's 
manager might decide that wages owing to him might 
be retained bj- tiie company as damages for the breach. 
The plaintiff, having been dismissed by the manager for 
a breach of the rules, brought an action in the counts- 
court to recover wages due him. After the action was 
brought, the manager, without hearing anything the 
plaintiff might wish to say, signed a printed form of 
certificate, which he filled in with the plaintiff's name and 
the amount of wages due, and which declared the wages 
forfeited. On appeal to the Queen's Bench Division the 
Divisional Court gave judgment for the defendant com- 
pany, considering themselves bound by the London 
Tramway Company vs. Bailey, 37 L. T. Rep. N. S. 
499; 3 Q. B. Div. 217. Held, that the certificate was 
no defense to the action, as the manager had not given 
the plaintiff any opportunity of being heard on the ques- 
tion of forfeiture. 

(English Court of Appeal, Armstrong vs. the South 
London Tramway Company, 9 Ry. & Corp. L. Jour. 19. 
Passengers alighting — Duty of Driver. 

It is the dut\' of the driver of a horse car, when sig- 
naled to stop, to ascertain w^hat passengers intend to 
alight at that place, to wait a sufficient time to enable 
them to alight in safety, and to sep and know^ that no 
passenger is in the act of alighting or is otherwise in a 
position which would be rendered perilous by starting 
the car. 

(Sup. Ct. Ala. Birmingham U. R. Co. \-s. Smith, 8 So. 
Rep. 86. 



HYGIENE AND VETERINARY. 

HV JOSEPH D. TUTHILL, M. D., V. S. 



THE wonderful achievements which have been 
made in the various branches of science and art, 
during the last decade, makes it apparent to 
all, who have given this matter any thought, that 
we live in a progressive age, and rapid transit through 
our public thoroughfares — when it proves practicable — 
appears to be one of the absolute necessities of this fast 
age. This is more particularly demanded in our large 
and overcrowded cities, which no doubt is to be attributed 
to the rapid increase of population, the natural desire of 
the people to settle in suburban towns, and the imperative 
public demand for the means necessary to facilitate trans- 
portation. We have no doubt at all that this is what first 
stimulated the ingenuity of our American inventors 
(which by the way have a national reputation) to devise 
some means of rapid transit, and probably explains why 
elevated roads, cable plants and electric motors are be- 
coming more and more popular every year. They have 
already to a great extent taken the place of the old 
tedious method of transportation by horse power and 
though it must be admitted that the new system of motor 
power is comparatively a matter of luxury, convenience 
and economj- to the people, we at the same time can not 



afford to ignore the old system of transportation b}- horse 
power. It is a well known fact that many of the street 
railroad lines — especiall}' those which are popularl}' 
known as crosstoivn-roads — are operated solely by horse 
power. This is also the case in many of our smaller 
towns, where the population is comparatively small, and 
the number of miles of travel so proportionately small 
that rapid transit is not desired by the people, or if 
actually needed, will not pay a sufficient percentage on 
the money invested to make it a financial success. For 
these reasons and many others, horses as a motor power 
for street cars will have to be used more or less for all 
time to come. This is the motive which has prompted 
the Street Railway Review to devote ample space 
in each issue of this monthly for the diffusion of Veter- 
inary SciEN'CE. The object in having a \eterinar}- de- 
partment as one of the special features of this work is: 

First, to instruct all interested parties according to the 
most improved rules of modern veterinary science how to 
protect the noble horse in health and disease. 

Second, to give all subscribers an opportunit}- to ask any 
question in relation to the management or medical or sur- 
gical treatment of disease, which they may require ad- 



\ict' about, ihrmii^li these columns, all of which will be 
promptly answered free of charge. It is hardly necessarj- 
for us to call the attention of our readers to the many ad- 
vantages of our 1 I\<;ii:m', and \'i;ti:rinak\- Di.I'Akt- 
MKNT to men w ho are operating street railroads by horse 
power. Those w ho have had experience, know much 
better than we can tell them, that horse power is b\- far 
the mo.st e.xpensive of any yet known. 

The a\erage life of the unfortunate railroad horse is 
comparatively a short and miserable one. Many die a 
premature death, from some of the prevailing diseases. 
Of these perhaps ilatulant colic is the most fatal. Next 
is the so-called " lung fever," and then comes influenza 
and the epizootic diseases. I^ut the great financial loss 
in this business is to be attributed to lameness in the feet. 
This is what causes the great drain on the company's 
treasur)-. The cripples, which are innumerable, are usu- 
all}- sold for a song, and their ranks have to be promptly 
filled by sound animals, or there will be soon nothing left 
to keep the rolling stock in motion. 

The question now arises what if anvthing can be done 
to prolong the usefulness of horses as motor power for 
street car service. In discussing this part of our subject, 
we must be particular to give the superintendents of rail- 
roads generally, and their assistants, many of whom are 
painstaking, energetic and faithful in the discharge of 
their duties, due credit for much that they know from 
practical experience. At the same time we hope to be 
able to give the readers of the Street Railroad Re- 
view, some valuable hints on Hygiene and the sanitarv 
care of horses — which if followed up will pre\ent many 
of the diseases incidental to railroad horses. This will in- 
clude ventilation, cleanliness, dieting, watering, working, 
etc. Our next duty will be to give particular attention to 
the causes of disease — their nature, and the medical and 
surgical treatment of the same. In connection with this 
part of our subject perhaps it will not be considered ego- 
tistic for the writer to state that he has been engaged in 
the practice of veterinary medicine and surgery for over 
thirty years. During much of this time he has had great 
personal experience in the treatment of the diseases of 
railroad horses. This statement is made to let the read- 
ers of the Street Railway Ri;\i];w' know that the 
writer is no novice in this matter, and that what he knows 
and intends to communicate to the readers of the Review 
from month to month in the Hygiene and Veterinary 
department, is based on a practical and theoretical knowl- 
edge from personal attention in the discharge of his pro- 
fessional duties. 

A'ENTILATION. 

Ventilation and cleanliness are as a rule \ery strictly 
attended to in street railroad stables, but this does not 
prove that it is not sometimes neglected, neither does it 
prove that some important feature in this important branch 
of sanitary science is often overlooked. Proper ventila- 
tion is most important for the maintenance of health, 
strength and endurance, and improper ventilation and 
neglect of cleanliness is one of the most prolific causes of 



disease. This has been demonstated time and again dur- 
ing the prevalence of some epizootic. The horses kept 
in clean, well \entilated stables invariablv escape with a 
\ery mild form of the disease, and w ith proper medical 
treatment no deaths will occur, e.xcept in cases which 
become complicated. Prompt recovery is another marked 
feature in tho.se cases which are scientifically cared for. 
During convalescence they seldom manifest any symptoms 
of debility, and for this reason they usually are ready to 
resume work. How different it is with horses that are 
kept in a stable where ventilation and cleanliness is neg- 
lected, the death rate is in\ariably large, and those who 
recover are so debilitated and emaciated from their pro- 
tracted illness, that it requires weeks and months to re- 
cuperate them. This is an expense which by proper 
management might be avoided — the loss of the animals 
labor — if a dozen or more are on the sick list, doctor's 
fees and medicine, eat up much of the profits which 
should go into the company's treasur\-. It proves that 
ventilation is one of the most important features connected 
with the successful management of horses. The man 
who wilfully neglects these very important rules of sani- 
tary science, cannot expect to make the management of 
work horses a financial success. 



The Cincinnati Inclined Plane Railway Co. some time 
ago built an extension which the}- equipped with elec- 
tricity. The telephone people claimed the operation of 
the road interfered with their service, and secured an in- 
junction. The case has gone from the lower to the 
supreme court, and meanwhile the road is operatino-, 
having been allo\\ed to file a $5,000 bond. 



The Street Railway Re\iew takes this occasion 
to most sincerely acknowledge its sense of obligation and 
gratitude to its many friends, both of the press and indi- 
viduals, who have so generously spoken in kindly words 
of encouragement of the new enterprise. We not onlv 
deeply appreciate the good will so pleasanth" extended ' 
but shall labor incessantly to fulfill their expectations. 



Years ago when the New Orleans roads secured the 
franchises something was said about pa\ing the streets, 
as a part of the trade with the city. This however has 
never been done, and was forgotten by most people. 
Now it has been agitated again, and the city officials 
want the roads to put down a plank pa\ing, and it looks 
very much as if the companies there would have "to walk 
the plank." 

We present our readers this month the second por- 
trait in our series of prominent street railway men, and 
have selected one who was the prime mover in the 
organization of the American Street Railwa}- Association 
and its first president, Mr. H. H. Littell, manager of the 
Louisville City Railway and President of the Cincinnati 
Inclined Plane Railway. We suggest to our readers that 
b}- framing these portraits month by month they will 
soon have quite a collection of the leading street railwa}- 
managers with which to adorn their offices. 



A WELL KNOWN MANAGER. 

NO man is better and more favorably known 
in street railway circles throughout the United 
States than Mr. Hardin H. Littell of Louis- 
ville, Ky. At his home city he is regarded as 
one of the most progressive and wide awake business 
men, and he, to-day, has under his management and con- 
trol what is considered as one of the best, if not in many 
respects the very best, system of street car service in the 
country. Mr. H. H. Littell, although yet a young man, 
has spent more years in active street railway service than 
anj- person known to the writer. In 1864, at the age of 
nineteen, he entered the service of the Louisville City 
Railwa}- Company of Louisville, Ky., as receiving clerk. 
In less than one year he was made assistant superin- 
tendent, and in 1867, three years after taking employ- 
ment, he was elected superintendent and continued to 
hold this position until 1889, when the two street railway 
companies of Louisville (^the Louisville City and Central 
Passenger) were leased by the Louisville Railway Com- 
pany, and he was made manager of the consolidated 
lines. His success in the street railway business can best 
be judged by seeing the excellent street railway systems 
under his charge in Louisville, Ky., and Cincinnati, Ohio. 
In 1888, in the latter city, Mr. Littell and a party of 
friends purchased the Cincinnati Inclined Plane Railway 
Company and he was elected its president, which position 
he continues to hold, as well as manager of the Louis- 
\ille street railway lines. 

In 1882 he issued the first call for a meeting of street 
railway companies, each company to be represented by 
some one of its officers, for the purpose of organizing a 
Street Railway Association, and this meeting was held in 
Boston, December 13th, 1882. Mr. Littell called the 
meeting to order and the Hon. Moody Merrill was made 
chairman. At this meeting the American Street Rail- 
way Association was organized and Mr. Littell was 
elected president. He presided at the next meeting held 
in Chicago the following November and at this meeting, 
although electricity then was but little thought of as a 
motive power, he spoke of it in his address as a solution 
of the rapid transit problem. 

His interest in the Street Railway Association has 
never flagged, and he has continued to serve it each year 
in some official capacity, as well as through a strong per- 
sonal effort at all times to have its aims and purposes 
high and its strength increased and maintained. He is a 
welcome speaker in session or around the banquet table 
and is one to whom many a new member recalls with 
grateful appreciation his gentle courtesy in the way of 
introduction to others and encouragement to take part. 

The future before Mr. Littell is one of brightest prom- 
ise, both to himself and to the interest of the important 
branch of industry in which he deservedly ranks so high. 

Mr. Little's record is a special example of what a man 
with brains and energy can accomplish, and a feature of 
no small account in this connection is the pleasure his friends 
take in his success. He has had numerous invitations 
to go elsewhere and assume management of other roads. 



THE OTHER SIDE. 

THE company at Indianapolis, Ind., desiring to make 
extensive improvements, has asked for an exten- 
sion of its franchises, which have yet several years 
to run. The local press and a few short sighted people, 
who would doubtless term themselves public spirited 
have joined in a great cry against any concession to 
the company unless it carries with it several very onerous 
burdens, one of which is a large amount of street paving. 
The company at the same time is termed slow unless it 
proceeds to spend large sums in giving that city the larg- 
est and latest and best that modern invention has devised. 
The inconsistency of expecting capitalists to tie their 
mone}' up where the returns at first will not be propor- 
tionate with a similar investment in other directions and 
then hampering their public spirited willingness to do so 
with restrictions amounting almost to a prohibition is 
neither just nor business-like. 

A street railway derives certain benefits from its occu- 
pancy of the street, it is true, but it in return affords bene- 
fits and fills the demands of actual public necessity, in a 
measure unequalled by any other organization. It does 
not monopolize the thoroughfare to the exclusion of the 
rights of other vehicles, and even if it did and cars were 
run at distances of every hundred feet, it would then be 
more than justified in so doing, for one car accommodates 
at least thirty people, while the carriage or truck, which 
it would displace, could not serve more than two or three. 
The twenty or thirty feet of street occupied by a street 
car gives greater returns in convenience to a greater 
number of persons than an}- use to which a similar amount 
of the street can be put. 

A company cannot in the very nature of things give 
more than it receives. In these days it is the honest 
endeavor of almost every street railway corporation to 
give for a fare the longest and best ride that can be fur- 
nished. But they can only spend a fixed proportion of 
receipts in improvements that go to make what might be 
termed the luxuries of street car travel. If they are 
obliged to stagger under heavy burdens and carry expenses 
belonging to the maintainance of the municipalit}', they 
have not the money to spend as otherwise they would. It 
is the middle and poorer classes who suffer by such enact- 
ments, for they cannot afford a more expensive vehicle 
than the street car, The rich, who pay large taxes, would, 
no doubt, be mightily pleased to shirk a part of their 
duties and let the street railroad pay their bills for streets 
in which their carriages can roll, but care little that the 
mone}' so saved to them means that much less to be 
expended in additional cars and comforts of riding. Time 
was when street railroads, in common with other semi- 
public corporations, traveled in a rut from year to year, 
but it was largely due to the fact that inventive genius, 
which of late has been so prolific in this direction, had 
not offered but few improvements to adopt. 

Mr. Shaffer, President of the Indianapolis lines has had 
several issues with the city fathers on other matters per- 
taining to his road, and has always come out ahead, and it 
is to be presumed will win his point this time. 




H. H. LITTELL. 



[Vi¥^'^»^(^- 



53 



The Tramway Rail Co.'s System. 
/^^EVERAL iH'W fualurcs in hiying ^nrdiT rails arc 
^S^ offcifd by tliL- Tramway Rail Company, of I'itts- 
^^ Inirjrh. Their rail has a w ide htad and r\tra w idc- 
liolloni llanges, while the tram is thrown 
down sullicienlly lo rlear the llanj^e of 
the wheel, even after ioni^ wear on the 
rail. 

The -splice bars at the joint are one- 




IT r- 




half inch thick .mil lH)ltLil with a three-quarter inch bolt 
with large head and nut. both having plenty of bearing 
surface. The channel bar is deep and the plain bar 

II '" 



under tin- ti'am as hea\v as can be made. 'I'he splice bars 
will bend double without breaking. 

The bolt is known as the patent grip bolt, which has a 
ratchet thread cut on the bearing side or about five degrees 
i 3'. " 2 V&" 





less than a right angle to the axis of the bolt, and the apex 
of the thread is cut to a knife edge. When the nut is 
screwed up tight against the splice bar the strain forces 
the thin bolt threads out into the nut 
threads, completely filling them. The 
body of the chair is made of soft forged 
steel 5-16 inch in thickness and the tongues 
of one and a quarter by one-half inch rolled 
steel. In the manufacture the clip bar is 
thrust while red hot clear through the 
chair, after which the ends are bent up 
and then cooling shrinks and fits the chair 
tightly. This chair, it ^vill be seen, re- 
quires no bolts and is easily and quickly 
fitted to the rail. 

The joint box is a plate of tough steel 

bent to shape and bolted to the rail outside 

the joint and is intended to be filled %vith 

whatever paving material the track is 

paved. When it is desired to tighten the 

splice bar bohs, all that is necessary is to 

lift the paving block that fills the joint 

" \ box, thus exposing the boh head, after 

B tightening which the single paving block 

j; is replaced without loss of time or any ex- 

:^ pense. On steam roads the exposed joints 

J make it an easy matter to tighten the splice- 

S bars at any time, but with street car track 

^^""^^^ it is a costly matter. 



54 



The Open Carette. 

Wl lEN the curette first made its appearance on 
the streets of Chicago everyone was inter- 
ested to know more about it. and as the route 
on which they ran included two dixisions of the city, 
between which there was no through connection by street 
cars, man}' were led to patronize them who did not want 
to make the change from the cars of one company to 
those of another, with the incident trouble and delay and 
the payment of additional fare. And so from the day of 
its start the carette has steadily gained in popularity and 
business, and as it is not confined to any one street, is 
able to establish detour routes and land passengers at 
their doorstep who formerly were obliged to walk some 
distance to a street car. Not only were the through lines 
successful, but as fast as they could be made, additional 
carettes were built and put into short ser\ice, running 
exclusively in one division of the city and at such frequent 
intervals as to win great popularity. 



amply lighted, is pro\ided with drop curtains in case of a 
sudden shower and comfortably seats twenty-nine persons. 

Easy steps extend along both sides, like the footboard 
of an open car, and the two steps on the rear platform 
afford ample accommodations for entry or exit. 

The Russell Street Carette Co. are pushing to the 
front and already operate in many of the large cities. 
Among the Western cities who have adopted this system 
recently are Milwaukee and Saginaw. 

In the city of Washington where a line of Carettes has 
just been put on, they are meeting with great favor and 
promise to supplant the old herdic system ; with the mag- 
nificent smooth streets in that metropolis, the Carettes 
glide along as smoothly as any carriage, and the outlook 
is ^-ery promising. 

The company there has organized under the name of 
the People's Carette Co., and the plan has been to place 
the stock in small amounts among as large a number of 
share holders as possible. 




During the past few months the compan\', of which Mr. 
A. W. Brickwood is manager, has had in contemplation a 
novelty for summer travel. While the original carette, bv 
lowering the windows, could be made cool and airy, still, 
in summer, people, riding more, desire easier access. To 
meet this demand the open carette has been designed and a 
full complement are building to operate in Chicago witli 
the advent of warm weather. The body can be carried on 
the same running gear if so desired, and, as shown by the 
illustration, is as accessible as an open car and in many re- 
spects more so. Plenty of room is provided, so that one 
passenger does not crowd another in getting in or out. 
At each end the occupants sit facing across the car. 
Then there are in the center three rows of cross seats as 
in a steam car, while a main center aisle extends the 
entire length, through which the conductor passes for col- 
lections and without going outside as on open cars, 
thereby keeping him within easy reach of the passengers 
at all times, which is a decided advantage. The vehicle is 



An Object Lesson. 

THE city council of Lancaster, Pa., was all torn up 
last month over the question of whether the railway 
people should use a single or continue the double 
trolley wire, and being electrical experts in their own 
judgment, were about to compel the double overhead 
wire system. 

Mr. Crane of the United Electric Traction System 
secured a day's delay in the decision and when the august 
fathers gathered in the council chamber they found a full 
fledged .system of the single overhead wire and steel rail 
for return current, all properly connected with a working 
dynamo, and sufficient power on tap to run a whole line 
of loaded cars. With this practical object lesson to illus- 
trate the claims made, the railway people prompth' scored 
their points and the desired ordinance was quickh' 
passed, where the da\' prexious almost certain defeat 
stared them in the face. Its a pretty deep hole out of 
which an electric railway man cannot find a way. 



'^je¥^i^0^ 



55 



A New Clutch Pulley. 

''1^1 lie illustratiDii oi\i.'s a \cr\- i^oocl ick-a of tin- m-w 
I l''rii.ti()ii C'lutcli Pulli'w iIk- iiuciition of A. C 
I'liif. supiTinlrnilLMii of ihc Stilwcll & Bierce 
Manufacturiiiij; Co.. Davton. Oliio. Tlu' ilutch may be 
operated from above or below by a siiaft w liich, a.s seen 
in tlie cut. terminali's in a pinion engaging in the rack 
lUl in the side of llie shifter sleeve e.xtension. When 
preferred tlie clutch luay be operated by the horizontal 
lever and fork, l^he clutch acts by means of four metal 
friction slioes, working simultaneously, each operated by 
a crookitl shifted arm, fulcruiued on an eccentric bolt, of 
wliich onl\ liie mil is seen. The center of each friction 
shoe is (UU of centri' with its corresponding eccentric 




bolt, so that when the friction shoe is forced out and 
against the friction rim. the shoe is made to act as a 
wedije, and in proportion with the increased load the 
friction of the two surfaces increases and a slip is impos- 
sible. An anti-friction roll running in the inclined slots 
in the shifter sleeve of each shifter arm, makes the 
operation an ea.sy one. The clutch will not scatter oil 
when running, has a powerful and positive grip in action, 
is not complicated and all parts easily accessable. The 
wearing parts are few. can be readily replaced, as all 
parts are interchangeable and will be found both satis- 
factory and durable. 

RecivNTI.v one of the officers of one of the largest roads 
in the country entered one of his cars late in the evening 
and occupied the one vacant seat. Later a woman en- 
tered who attracted the attention of all by her phenominal 
weight. The officer being very tired kept his seat where- 
upon she sat down in his lap, and he being a very small 
man was nearly crushed. lie started in to "sit it out," 
but after riding two blocks politely said in a whisper " I 
guess you better take this seat " — to which she replied in 
a .shout that was heard a block, " I thought vou would 
come to it," and in the .iilarity w hich ensued the conduc- 
tor felt so good he rang up eighteen fares on himself. 



New Trolley Wire Clamp. 

O.NE of the principal features in the installation of 
an electric road is the proper construction of the 
a]>pliances for connecting the trolley wire, to the 
span wire. Objections have been made to the present 
means of holding the trolley wire, for the reason that it 
has been necessary in most cases to either solder the con- 
nections, which necessarily weakens the wire, or else to 





hammer together the sides of clamp, which causes trouble 
and delay in adjusting the position of the insulator. To 
obviate these and other disadvantages the Electric Mer- 
chandise Company, Chicago, have just placed on the 
market the "Brewster clamp," w hich we illustrate. Fig- 
vux's I and i show the clamp, which is made of two .sec- 
tions of hard and tough brass rivetted together with a 




No ,;. No. 4. 

steel pin. After the clamp has been placed upon the trol- 
ley wire and closed, the insulator is screwed down upon 
it, tirmh' holding the wire without .soldering or hammer- 
ing and presenting a perfectly- smooth surface to the trol- 
ley. Figures 3 and 4 show the clamp attached to the 
standard trolley wire insulator, but the clamp can be used 
on any trolley hanger and will be sold either separate or 
in connection with any other style of insulator. 

A Shoe and Stocking Street Car. 

A CORRESPONDENT to the Washington S/cir 
thus writes from the city of Rio de Janeiro, on the 
social rank of shoes and stockings as denoting 
rank of the wearer and necessary to attain unto the best 
in street car privileges : 

There is a most excellent street car service. There are three kinds 
of street cars — the open ones, nicely painted and appointed, in which 
one p.\vs 10 cents (or a ride and must have shoes and stockings on. 
The second-class or barefoot cars, which are closed, have a tariflf of 5 
cents for a ride. These cars run on regular routes and follow the rails 
laid down in the streets. The horses and mules are good and there are 
enough of them to draw the cars, so it is notj necessary for the drivers 
to beat them and the company does not allow the men to have whips. 
Crowding is not allowed and when a car is full it will not stop for any 
one. The third class is a kind of open car mounted on big wheels, and 
they all seem to start from the large market dow n on the wharves. 
They have a destination, which is announced on a little board which the 
conductor hangs on to the roof before starting. They also seem to have 
regular routes, but leave them at the request of any passenger. These 
carry the lowest classes, chiefly slaves and street venders with their 
heavy packages or baskets. 



>6 



WORLD'S FAIR ELECTRICIAN. 

JOHN P. BARRETT, so well known in this and 
other countries for the many electrical improve- 
ments and adaptations in his capacity as electrician 
of the city of Chicago, has been elected to the above 
named office. Now that the appointment has formally 
been made and accepted, Mr. Barrett's friends are avail- 
ino' themselves of the desired opportunity to congratulate 
him. 

His life has included noi a little of the romantic, of 
which the ]Vestern Elecln'cian, — to whose kindness we 
are indebted for the portrait of Mr. Barrett, — has the 
following : 

Born near Auburn, N. Y., in 1S37, he removed with 
his parents to Chicago when only seven years of age. It 
was not his privilege to enjoy an extended education. 



ment of the city of Chicago has been greatly benefitted 
by his connection with it. In fact, the whole world is 
indebted to him for de\eloping the fire alarm telegraph 
system which is now in general use."' 

The accident which unfitted him for following his 
original occupation gave him an opportunit\' to prepare 
himself for his new field of labor. During his confine- 
ment at the San Francisco hospital he studied diligently, 
and made remarkable improvement. He continued his 
studies while in the service of the city, and when his 
faithful performance of duty had won the confidence of 
his superiors he was prepared to perform the duties of a 
higher office, the promotion to which his intelligent 
service had entitled him." 

To his many improvements in the fire department, are 
to be added achievements in the police patrol system, a 




though he was fond of books and made excellent use of 
his time at school. At the age of twelve years he went 
to sea, entering as a ship's boy and rising to the position 
of an able seaman. In a storm off the coast of Chili he 
met with an accident, which it was feared would cost him 
his life. He was flung from a masthead and crippled for 
life. Two other sailors who were with him were killed, 
but after nearly two year's suffering in a San Francisco 
hospital. Prof. Barrett regained his health, returning to 
his home in Chicago in 1865. This was the turning 
point in his life. Shortly after his arrival he was 
appointed fire watchman in the glass tower on the city 
hall, which commanded a view of every housetop in the 
city, and it was his duty to sound the alarm at the first 
indication of a conflagration. This was his first public 
service. It proved satisfactory and he has since dis- 
charged his duties most conscientiously. The fire depart- 



S3Stem of lighting the Chicago river by arc lights, of in- 
augerating a system b\' which the bridges are opened 
and closed from the harbor master's office very much as 
a train dispatcher controls the movements of trains: — and 
b_\- no means least, his persistent and intelligent efforts 
which placed under ground all wires in the business 
district of Chicago, and the foundation for a complete 
system of public lighting of the streets by electricit}'. 

A better selection could not have been made to secure 
a man of energy, good judgment and thoroughly pro- 
gressive. 

The electrical department of the great exposition can 
not fail to be the chief attraction of all the exhibits in 
science or mechanics and it is an honor of no small order 
which accrues to the man who must stand at the head and 
direct this important branch. Provision must not onl\- be 
made for present exhibits, but future ones as well. 



^\m\ %uIm(&^ ^A^«^ 



57 



CICERO AND PROVISO ELECTRIC CO. 

AS this iiuml)er readies ourreaders the Cicero and Pro- 
viso Electric Railway is being opened for busi- 
ness. It extends through a territory rajiidly being 
settled, aiul is the result of a demand from tiu- enter]irising 
I'iti/.ens of lliat disti'irt who ha\e joined hands and built 
the road. Starting from the terminus of the Madisori St. 
cable line, at 40th street, four miles from the center of the 
eil\ , it runs directly west on Madison street for four miles 
to I larlem avenue, which is the west line of Oak Park 
and the dividing line between that suburb, River Forest 
and Harlem. Thence north on Harlem avenue to Lake 
street, east on Lake street, through the \iliages of Oak 



chises are seciu'ed for extending the line west to the Des 
Plaines river and south to Wakiheim cemeterv along the 
east bank of thi' Des Plaines ri\-er. 

The liiu' at present has I'ight miles of double track. 

The belting, a most important matter in electric railway 
service, is furnisht-d b\- tlu' Chas. Munson Helting Co., 
and includes one 30 in. 100 ft. driving belt frcjm the en- 
gine to the line shaft, and two dynamo belts. 

I5y the use of two Beloit Wind Engine Co"s. clutch pul- 
leys either or both dynamos may be disconnected without 
stopjiing the engine. 

The boiler room is madt' complete by each boilei" being 
etpiijijK'd with the Roney Mechanical stoker, which feeds 




Park, Ridgeland, Austin, l^inden Park and Moreland to 
4Sth street, thence south on 4Sth street to Madison, which 
completes the loop. 

The road is laid with 60 lb. Johnson Girder rail and 
steel chairs, and equipped b\- the Edison General Electric 
Co. Twehe motor cars f.om the Pullman Co. are al- 
ready in service, each fitted with two 15 H. P. motors, and 
carried on the McGuire double trucks, making as eas\- a 
riding car as any palace sleeper. The power house is lo- 
cated about the center of the system at Ridgeland, and 
contains two 80,000 Watt Dynamos and one 250 H. P. 
Corliss, with three boilers, both furnished by the Hamson 
Co. The driving jiower will soon be doubled. Fran- 



ihe fuel automaticalh' from a hopper, without opening tlie 
lire door, which effects a great saving both in handling 
and heat. 

The officers are: President, D. J. Kennedy, of Oak 
Park; Vice President, Taylor A. Snow, of Austin; Treas- 
urer, George Eckhart, of Oak Park; Secretary, Frank E. 
liallard, and Superintendent, P. H. Quade, formerly with 
the Passenger Railway Co., of Chicago. 

The line is a most promising one and is a splendid start 
tow ards the electric lines which Chicago ought to have, 
and is to be hoped soon will own. 

The investment is sure to be a remunerative one, as the 
already large settlement is increasing very fast. 



.v^ 



ECHOES FROM THE TRADE. 



The Buffalo Raila\ay Supply Co. has increased its 
capital from $100,000 to $200,000. 



The Illinois Electric Material Co., of Chicago, 
have issued a very neat catalogue, showing their electric 
light and street railway goods. It reflects credit on the 
compilers. 

D. H. Bates, general manager of the Accumulator 
Company, has closed a contract for equipping the street 
line of Mt. Eckington and Soldiers" Heme Railway with 
six of his storage battery cars. 



The Street Railway Review's nevy Electrical Air 
Ship, for raising blockades on street car lines. By means 




of this device delays of all kinds may be avoided, thus 
affecting a great saving in time over former methods. 



The St. Louis Car Co. keep full of orders as usual, 
thev having just delivered the last of a very large order 
for the Union Depot Line in that citw and they report a 
lart'^e business for the far west. 



G. A. E. KoHLER, manager of the western office of 
the Eddy Electric Motor Co., reports a growing demand 
for that popular motor, having sold more than t\\ eiity- 
tive horse powers in \arious sizes in the past month. 



The Thompson-Houston Co. are putting in a verv 
complete line at Columbus, O., their order calling for the 
equippment of twenty cars, all to be of their new patent 
slow speed motor, also for the generators, which consist 
of six of 200 horse power, and six of 100 horse power 
each. 

The Columbian Engravin(; Co. of Chicago, have 
special facilities for all kinds of wood and photo process 
engraving, and as one of the artists has had long ex- 
perience in preparing plans for cable road construction 
work, knows exactly how to design sketches for street 
railwaj' appliances. 

Lewis & Fowler Manufacturin(j Co. Among tlie 
orders received by this company are those from the 
Lynchburg Street Railway Co., Lynchburg, Va., Water- 
bury Consolidated Street Railway Compan\-, and large 
orders from Brooklyn, and report being crowded in their 
many other departments. 



Price & Thomas, New York agents for the Mcintosh, 
Seymour & Co. engine, report among their recent orders 
one from the Consolidated Street Railwa}- Company at 
Columbus, O., for six compound condensing engines, 
three of which are to be 250 horse power each, and three 
of 450 horse power each, requiring each engine to run 
two dynamos. 

Phoenix Iron Works Co., Meadville, Pa., report a 
very large business from the street railway companies. 
Among the recent orders being a 300 horse power steam 
plant for the Savannah and Rural Resort Railroad Co., 
Savannah, Ga., a 300 horse power plant for Lancaster, 
and three 150 horse power compound condensing engines 
for a new short line at Jamestown, N. Y. 



A New Railway Lamp. A new railway lamp is 
about to be put on the market by the Great Western 
Electric Supply Co. of Chicago, which possesses the 
highest ethciency, and is so constructed as to completely 
eliminate the possibility of breakage of the carbon from 
the jar of the car. It is novel in design and finish, 
and is, in fact, a departure from anything yet seen in the 
market. 

The Bemis C.a,r Bo.x Co.'s shops are \ery full, being 
obliged to run over time on account of large orders to 
build the Robinson Radial Truck for that company in 
Boston, on which they are putting their patent gears and 
attachments. Mr. Bird, their western salesman, at 45 
Lakeside Building, reports the outlook good for an ex- 
tensive trade for his company throughout the west this 
season. 




Figure 2.— riu- Air Ship under full sail. 

Till': Thomson-Houston Electric Company has just is- 
sued a no page book, containing valuable statistics, show- 
ing the number, system and geographical location of eve- 
ry electric lighting station and street railway in the United 
States. It makes a good sized volume, shows great la- 
bor in compilation, and reminds one of a phj'sical geogra- 
phy. The T-II people lead the list with 666 lighting 
jilanls and 103 electric railways. 



m^*\ %uIm;&i1^ ^4e«^- 



59 



^I'lii'; iMc'GuiRic MANUi-AcrrKiNi; Co. ri'itort a \L'ry 
large nidiitirs Inisiness for Jaiuiai\ . ;\.mong the orders 
reCL'iv (.(1 In tluin for trucks wcw Iroin the Grand \'ie\\ 
]ieach Railway, and Rochester Street Railway, Roches- 
ter, the Galveston Street Railway, Gaheston, Texas, the 
Newark and GrancKille Electric Street Railw;n', New- 
ark, O., and a number of others. This company have 
just jirinted a new cataloijue showinij; tht'ir j^oods. 

Till-; John Siici'imcnson Co., (limiti'di, as usual are 
lnis\- in all their de|iartments. havini^ orders tor a lari^e 
luuiiber of cars, not onl\ from llu' honu- market, hut 
from Mexico and Brazil. Among the large orders being 
completed b\' them are those from the Cleveland cable 
line, for grip cars, also Fourth avenue line in New York, 
and they have recently shipped a large consignment to 
Salt Lake Cit\-, Vhah. 



The New Process R.vwiiinE Co., Syracuse, N. Y., 
report a very large trade in their goods and are showing 
some \ er\- flattering recommendations from street railw ay 
men. Mr. J. H. Vanderveer, general manager of the 
People's Street Railway Co., writes of them "that he has 
tried most everything in the market in the way of motor 
pinions and found none so satisfactorN "' and is thorouglih- 
satisfied that the rawhide pinions are tlie best, and that 
he has equipped all oi his cars with them, and will not 
look at any other kind. 




!• ii.'ure ,;.— Two Bells: the country ^avcj. 



P. T. Barnum on the Electric System. 

TIIE proposition to change the Bridgeport, Conn., 
lines from horse to electric power elicits the follow- 
ing sentiments from this well known man. From 
a personal inspection in his travels on more electric rail- 
ways than almost any other person, he sa\s: 

•■.\s a friend to that noblest companion and aid to man 
among dumb animal.s — the horse- I wish to declare 
myself emphatically in favor of the new scheme for 
street railways, which shoukl be of double tracks, and I 
am distinctly in favor of the single trolly system. Mv 
public interest in this matter is actuated by the desire to 
promote the growth of our city and the comfort and well- 
fare of its citizens, w hich ] believe can be best accom- 
plished by the transition from our present inadequate 
system of street railroad to the best know n to science and 
the public." 



Edison Cjicneuai, Im.ixtkic Co. are progressing 
nicely with their work at Raleigh, N. C., the construc- 
ticiii JH'ing ill charge of I'rank P. Lewis, who formerly 
ii'sided in that cit\'. 

Tin; Okomti', Co., so well known among wire men, 
have made a special department for the street railway 
work and lind this new branch a very large one, as they 
ai'e full of orders from this source. 



Tin; Pi LI. MAN Co. have furnished the car equipment 
for the West Sujierior electric line, both motors and trail 
cars, tweKe in all. and the new Cicero & Proviso Co., of 
West Chicago, have just started twehe of their latest 
st\le of vestibule cars. 



PERSONALS. 

B. J. Wi:i-:ks, of Boston, has been elected sui>erintend- 
eiit of the Boston & Quincv Electric Railwaw 



Mk. Gace, of the Baldwin Motor Co., has just returned 
from Provo City, Utah, where he has furnished a Bald- 
win motor to the line there. 



Gi;ok(;e B. Hatiiaw.w, president of the Belle City 
Street Railway, Racine, called at our othce when return- 
ing from the wedding of his sister. 



J. F. IIi-:vwAKi), general manager of the Montgomery, 
Ala. Terminal and Street Railway system, has resigned 
and will remove to New York. 

John Pugh, of the Baltimore Car Wheel Co., while 
looking after his company's interests in Chicago, kindly 
found time to call on the Review and cheer us up. 



Mr. Upright has been elected superintendent of the 
Horse Railroad Company, and has entered upon his new 
duties. He should make a model superintendent. 



Dr. AtsriN. of the Electric Street Railway .\dver- 
tiser, was in Chicago a few days since, called here by 
the serious illness of his father, and made us a pleaeant 
call. 



Walter H. Holmes, President Grand Ave. Cable 
Company, Kansas City, his wife and two children, and 
two guests, were almost suffocated from the furnace set- 
ting tire to the mansion. 



Gico. W. Wells, general manager of the Duplex Rail- 
w a\' Chair Co., of Worcester, Mass., made this office a 
pleasant call the first of the week. Mr. Wells is calling 
on the Western street railway men in the interest of his 
chair. 



B. E. Sunny, the General Western Manager of the 
Thompson-Houston Company, is the proud father of a 
bright little son, who will never want for a splendid 
example of executive ability and friends, so long as he 
follows in his father's footsteps. 



6o 



J. C. Robinson, President of the California Contract 
Corporation, paid this office a visit on his way to New 
York, where he sailed for England on January 31st. 
Mrs. Robinson has had a long and dangerous illness, and 
it is hoped a change of climate will benefit her. 

l^ROWNELL Car Co., of St. Louis, have remembered 
their friends during the past few days with a handsome 
little match box of vulcanized rubber. Mr. Brownell 
alwavs takes time from the conduct of a large and fast 
increasin"- business to remember his many friends. 



C. Densmore Wyman, Vice President of the Central 
Park, North and East River Railroad Co., New York, and 
who will be remembered as having so happily presided at 
the last annual banquet of the association, has sailed for 
Cuba, where he will spend a month. Overwork during 
the past fall and w inter, has made a rest imperative. 

The LaClede Car Co. are now working under their 
new organization, which is composed of the following well 
known men: Wm. Sutton, president: Emil Alexander, 
secretary: and Thomas F. Calfer, vice-president and 
treasurer. This makes a strong working force of officers. 



Mr. Charles Hathaway, accompanied by his son- 
in-law, Mr. H. H. Johnson, also of Cleveland, paid the 
Review a most welcome visit. Mr. Hathaway reports 
the new cable road there as doing a surprisingly large 
business, which exceeded their highest expectations. 



James R. Chapen, of Kansas City, late superiniendent 
of bridge construction of the Denver & Rio Grande R. R. 
and a street railwa}- manager of large experience, has ac- 
cepted the general management of all the street railway 
lines in Grand Rapids, Mich., and is alread}' making plans 
to convert the whole system into electricit}'. 

D. B. De.a.n, who has so abl}- represented the Electri- 
cal Review, of New York, as western general agent, has 
resigned to accept a position as traveling general agent 
for the Electric Merchandise Co. Mr. Dean has made a 
large circle of friends, all of whom will be pleased to 
learn of his adxancement. 



Hon. Julius S. Grinnell, who attained such promi- 
nence as the judge before whom the famous boodler 
cases were tried, has resigned, to take the office of coun- 
sel for the Chicago City Railway Co. Judge Grinnell is 
a most popular man, an able jurist, and was the prosecut- 
ing attorney during the celebrated anarchist trial in this 
city a few vears ago. 



T. N. Van Dyne, who for many years has been the 
popular superintendent of the Chattanooga, Tenn., Street 
Railway, was ma!Tied on February 4th, to Miss Maude 
Farquhor, the occasion being quite a society event. 
Among the five hundred presents was a very hand.sonu- 
one from the employees of the Electric Co. who availed 
themselves of this occasion to express their regard for 
their superintendent. 



Great Western Electric Supply Co., Chicago, 
report a phenomenal business. Even in January, which 
was supposed to be a dull month, they report a fine busi- 
ness. This company certainly deserves the generous sup- 
port which they are receiving. They have an enormous 
business, which is conducted with great ability, and the 
wants of their customers receive most careful attention. 

HIGHLY HONORED. 

THE name of Thomas C. Lowry is being verv favor- 
ably mentioned as one well qualified and not un- 
likely to receive the appointment as Secretary' 
of the Treasury. Mr. Lowry is a man of large and lib- 
eral ideas, a most successful financier, and one whose 
natural abilities are fully equal to the trying demands of the 
position. Senator Pierce has taken the matter up with the 
President, who is said to consider it with evident favor. 



JOHNSON-HATHAWAY. 

ON Tuesday, the loth of February, at Cle\'eland, 
Mr. Henry H. Johnson was united in marriage 
to Miss Helen Adal3^n Hathaway, daughter 
of Mr. Charles Hathaway. The entire steeet railway 
fraternity, to whom Mr. Hathaway is so widely known, 
will feel an interest in the success of the young people 
and join in wishing them happiness and prosperit}'. 

Mr. Johnson is one of the prominent young men in 
Cleveland, and conducts an extensive and important real 
estate business, and both young people are great favor- 
ites among a large circle of acquaintances. 

A part of the wedding trip included several days in 
Chicago, at the Auditorium, on their return to Cleve- 
land, Mr. and Mrs. Johnson will be at home at the 
Hollenden. 

BOSTON LETTER. 

Boston, Mass., Feby. 12. 
R. R. T. WHITE has returned from an extensive 
southern trip in the interest of his new patent 
rails. Mr. White reports a very successful trip, 
and is very much flattered by the report received from 
the Washington Street Railway men, who have been 
making a careful e.xamination of this ty'pe of rail. 

The Robinson Radial Car Truck Co. have removed 
their office from 95 Milk street to 18S Summer street, in 
a more convenient location for this business, that being 
the location of the electrical houses and most of the street 
railwa}' supply men of Boston. The company are now 
tilling large contracts for Eastern roads, and are soon to 
open a Western office at Chicago, so the\' will be better 
able to care for their Western trade. 

The Office of The Electric Street Railway Advertiser 
has been moved to larger and more convenient quarters 
in the same building, and have yiul in a new line of type, 
so that they can do their own typesetting hereafter. 

Dr. Austin, of the Electric Railway Advertiser, has 
been called to Chicago on account of the illness of his 
father, who resides in that citN'. 

There will be a large delegation from this city to the 
Electrical Convention at Providence. 



M' 



6i 



FOUND ON THE RUSH TRIP. 



American Street Railway Association. 

HENRY M. WATSON. President, ButTalo, N. Y. 

\V. A. SMITH, First Vice-President, Oiuiilm, Neb. 

CHAKLES ODELL, Second Vice-President, Newbnryport, Mnxs. 

A. D. RODGEKS. Third Vhe-I'resident, Colnmbiis, Ohio. 

WM. J. RICHARDSON, Secretary and Treasurer, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

ExEGUTtvE roMMiTTEE -The I'besident. Vice PRESIDENTS, and Thomas 
LowRV, Minneapolis, Minn.; D. F. Henry. Pittebargh, Pa.; Albert E. Thorn- 
ton. Atlanta, Ga. ; H. M. Littell, Cincinnati, O. and Thomas C. Keefer. 
Ottawa. Can. 

Next meeting will be lieM in Piltsbiiruli, Pa., October 2l8t, 1891. 



Massachusetts Street Railway Association. 

President. Cbas. H. Pratt. Salem; Vice Presidents. H. M. Whitney, Boston, 
Amos F. Breed, Lynn, Frank 8. Stevens; Secretary and Treasurer, J. H. Eaton, 
Lawrence. 

MeetA first Wednesday of each month. 



New York Street Railway Association. 

President. Daniel F. Lewis, Brooklyn; Vice President.n, Jno. N. Beckley, 
Rocheoter. John S Foster, New Y<irk; Secretary and Treasurer. William J. Rich- 
ardson. Brooklyn; Executive Committee. John N. Partridge. Brooklyn; Charles 
Clemenshaw. Troy; C. Densmore Wyman. New York. 

Next meeting. Hotel Metropole, New York City. Sept. 15th, 18H1. 



Ohio State Tramway Association. 

John N.Stewart, Awhtabula, President; John Habeis, Cincinnati, Vice Presi- 
dent; J. B. Hanna, Cleveland, Secretary ami Treasurer; E. K. .Stewart. Columbus, 
Chairman Eseculive Ciimmittee. 

The Street Railway Association of the State of 
New Jersey. 

President, John H. Bonn, Hoboken; Vice President, Thos. C. Barh, Newark; 
8e<'ret«ry and Trea-^urer, Charles Y. Bamfobd, Trenton; Executive Committee, 
Officers and C. B. Thcbston, Jersey City; H. Rom.une, Paterson: Lewis Per- 
BINE. Jr.. Trenton. 



ALABAMA. 

G.\DSDEN'. — The dummy line will be extended, and the 
new portion of the system operated by horse cars for the 
present. Work is under the direction of Capt. Elliott. 



TisciMBi.x. — A street car line is projected to connect 
this place with ShefHeld. 



CALIFORNIA. 
Los Angeles. — The San Gabriel Valley Rapid Tran- 
sit Co. have signed a contract for the survey of a line up 
Wilson, and there is every indication that the line will be 
built. 

0.\KL.\ND. — The Consolidated Piedmont Cable Co., 
will proceed at once to cable Fourteenth street, some of 
the machiner\- having already been placed. As soon as 
this line is finished they will cable to the cemeterv'. 



S.\cRAMENTO. — The electric road here which has been 
changed from horse power, is nearly completed and will be 
opened this month. 

S.\N Bern.\ri)ino. — Louis Jacobs has applied for a 
franchise to operate a street railroad on several streets. 
It will probably be granted. 



S.\N Fr.\n"cisco. — George Ross, the shipright, and E. 
Fraley, th^ electrician, have united on a scheme to run a 



ferr}- from the city to Sau.salito, to connect with electric 
lines which they will build there, for which the franchise 
has been already granted. 



C. E. M.WNK & Co. have secured a franchise to build 
an electric road south of the park, and property is ad- 
vancing rapid!}'. 



Although the legislature has not passed a bill permit- 
ing the use of overhead wires in large cities, the San 
Francisco Syndicate & Trust Co. have commenced oper- 
ations for the construction of such a line. The directors 
are very confident the bill will become a law. 



The San Francisco & San Mateo Railway Co. has in- 
corporated for $2,000,000, with the following directors: 
Behrend Joost, J. H. Gilmore, J. W. Hartzell, Fabian 
Joost and W. F. Thomas. Their object is to construct 
and operate street railways in this and San Mateo coun- 
ties, but particularly to construct a large amount of cable 
road in this city, aggregating nearly fort\- miles. 



CANADA. 

Ott.\w.\. — The city council are all torn up over the 
question of allowing the Electric Railway Company to 
construct and operate electric lines in Ottawa. The 
mayor, especially, has been hostile to the new departure. 



COLORADO. 

Boulder. — Dr. D. C. Brace, of this city, has asked for 
a franchise to operate, by either electricity, cable or 
horse power, for fift\- years, the first ten of which are to 
be exclusive to his company. He agrees to build three 
miles at once, and has associated with him in the enter- 
prise, Henry Stevens and George Orr, of Boulder, and a 
Mr. McLean of New York ; the latter named, being the 
promotor of the Denver, Salt Lake & Pacific R\'. 

Colorado Springs. — The Electric Line here struck a 
short circuit recently, in reducing the wages to motor 
men from $55 to $49.50 per month. The prospect is, 
however, that the companv will come out best. 



Denver. — The suburb of Harmon is thoroughly waked 
up over the proposed extension of the Suburban Electric 
Road, and have nearly finished the raising of a bonus of 
$15,000 to secure the same. 



A coNTR.\cT has just been made between the Golden 
Electric road, and the Lookout Mountain Resort Co., 
whereby the electric company are to extend their line up 
Apex gulch, and land passengers at a new hotel which is 
building there. The entire schenie involves an expendi- 
ture of $300,000. 



62 



^liggt§^*^%^^ 



Golden. — Local capital, headed b}' C. W. Little, F. 
Buder, Chas. T. Clark, A. Towhsend, S. A. Cunning- 
ham and J. G. Hartzel, have secured right of way and 
franchise from the city for lines here. 



Lead\-ille. — An electric line will be built through 
Graham Park to Oro. 



Trinidad. — Boston capitalists have made a proposi- 
tion to build an electric line here, on condition of a cer- 
tain bonus being given by the city. At a meeting of 
citizens the matter was very favorably received, and 
there is good prospects of the deal being consummated. 



Swansea. — A committee of citizens have petitioned 
the electric company to extend their line to the cemetery 
and put in service a funeral train. The route will yield 
good returns from other sources and there seems little 
doubt but that it will be put through. 



The franchise for the Denver, Lakewood & Golden 
Electric has been passed, and provides that cars must be 
in operation by March i, next, for the accomplishment of 
which the company has given a bond of $10,000. A fif- 
teen minute service and a five cent fare to the city are 
required. The company may also operate its electric 
freight trains for express business, from the hours be- 
tween the hours of 6 p. m. and 6 a. m. Electric motors 
of forty horse power will be used, and the company are 
erecting a very handsome depot. 



DELEWARE. 

Wilmington — The Wilmington City Passenger Rail- 
way Co. has been granted permission to erect poles and 
overhead wires on Market streeet. 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Washington. — The Survey for the Washington and 
Marlborough electric road is completed. 



GEORGIA. 

Athens. — Work is progressing quite satisfactorily on 
the electric line here; one mile is already completed. 



Griffin. — The Griffin street railway is now an assured 
fact, the surveys having been completed, ties and track 
material ordered, and work commenced. The line 
will be about two miles long, and is to be in operation 
June 1st. 

LaGrange. — A number of gentlemen here ha\e 
offered to build a street car line, and it is likely the appli- 
cation will be granted. 

ILLINOIS. 

Centralia. — The stock has all been subscribed for 
the street car line here and everything is favorable to sub- 
stantial improvements. 

Collinsville. — A franchise has been granted to 
Luthtjr Robinson and J. h- P. Gordon to build and oper- 



ate an electric road to East St. Louis. The permit runs 
for thirty years and the road must be in operation by 
July I, 1892. 

Decatur. — The Citizen's Company expect to add 
about two miles to present system the coming summer. 



Fulton. — The Fulton and East Clinton Street Rail- 
way and Power Co. has been incorporated, with a capital 
of $20,000, to build a short electric line. Incorporators: 
T. A. Hard, G. S. Sardham and Clarence Green. 



JoNESBORO. — Parties from DuQuoin have been here 
inspecting the prospects for a line to be run by electricity 
to connect the place with Anna. 



Kankakee. — The franchise has been granted for the 
electric road hei-e, and work will be commenced as soon 
as material can be secured. It will be the single trolley 
system. 

A franchise has been granted the Illinois Illumination 
Company to construct an electric line. The franchise runs 
twent}^ years, but the road must be completed within 
one year. 

Moline. — The Holmes syndicate have accepted the 
ordinance for an electric line on Third avenue. 



Peoria. — The Peoria and Mt. Hawley Street Railway 
Co. has been incorporated, with a capital of $250,000, to 
construct and operate street railways in this and adjacent 
cities. 

Streator. — The electric road here suffered a $5,000 
loss by fire in its power house recently. 

Sullivan. — Franchises have been granted for an elec- 
tric street railway and light company at this place. 

Urbana. — The electric line has been extended to the 
Big Four depot in Champaign and will make an excellent 
property. 

INDIANA. 
Brazil. — Now the plan is to extend the electric line 
here to the town of Harmony, a distance of four miles, 
and involving an expenditure of $60,000. A company 
that can operate in Harmony ought to be happy. A syn- 
dicate from Terre Haute are interested. 



Elkhart. — Capitalists of this city and Detroit have 
purchased the Elkhart Street Railway and have changed 
its name to the Elkhart Electric and Street Railway Co. 
Mr. Jackson, manager of the Detroit Electrical Works, is 
one of the directors and extensions are already planned 
to the present seven miles of track and new cars and 
other inyirovements will follow. 



Indianapolis. — The proposition to connect Knights- 
town with the Soldier's Orphan Home, by an electric line, 
is receiving great encouragement. 



The Broad Ripple project is progressing nicely and 
$30,000 has already been paid in. 



^)|*^^iM^^^^^e»^ 



63 



Michigan City. — The Citizen's Street Railway has 
been purchased by a Chicaj^o syndicate represented by E. 
D. Cummings. Consideration, $22,500. The line is to 
be extended and equipped with electricity soon. 



New Albany. — A syndicate is figuring on an electric 
line here. 



Terre Haute. — The Terre Haute Electric Street 
Railvva}-, which recently purchased the Blake street line, 
have not yet decided what electric system they will adopt 
on their new branch. 

IOWA. 

Council Bluffs. — The route of the new Inter-State 
Street Railway, between this city and Omaha is announced 
as follows: from the bridge approach to Avenue B, thence 
to Eighth St., thence to Washington Avenue, thence to 
Si.xth St., and from there to Pearl St., making a loop with 
the present motor line. 

Arrangements are well under way for a motor line 
to the grounds of the Chatauqua Assembly, which has 
been so popular here for the past few years. The at- 
tendance the coming summer has every indication of be- 
ing verj' large. 

Davenport. — The Central Railway has petitioned for 
right to extend to the grounds of the Davenport Fair and 
Exposition. 

Work is progressing most satisfactorily on the Holmes 
electric svstem here, and the machinery is being placed 
and motor cars have alreadv arrived. The date for the 
opening has not vet been fixed. 



Independence. — C. W. Williams stands at 
the enterprise which will give this city a first- 
car system. The plan is to build from the 
through the city to the Q. road, and thence 
Park to the State Hospital for the Insane. It 
have it in running order bv June ist. Mr. 
well known as a famous breeder, and the one 
Axtell. 



the head of 
•class street 
I. C. R. R. 
past Rush 
is hoped to 
Williams is 
who raised 



Keokuk. — The city council passed b}- unanimous vote 
the franchise for electric lines on several streets, as peti- 
tioned by the Electric Street Railway Company. 



Marion.— The Cedar Rapids & Marion St. R. R. Co. 
have secured an ordinance for twenty-five years and will 
probably equip the line with electric power. 



Sioux City — is getting to be a very completely rail- 
roaded city. What with horse lines, elevatt^d, electric 
and cable, its growth has been rapid and substantial. But 
its companies are not contented with a good past record, 
and are now before the council, each with petitions for ex- 
tensions to be commenced as soon as weather will per- 
mit. The Leeds Electric Railway has suffered a heavy 
blow in the death of Mr. Knight, but arrangements are 
under way to push it at once. 



Des Moines. — President Polk says, "We expect to 
make extensive improvements on our road this spring. 
We have ordered new cars and shall build the Sevasta- 
pool line this spring. Shall put in a large number of im- 
proved crossings at steam roads, and broaden our guage 
on that portion of the road which is old style. We intend 
to make the Des Moines the best system in the west." 

Arr.\ngements have been made to unite the Belt Line, 
a steam railroad some four miles in length, with the elec- 
tric system, thus giving the city one complete system of 
electric street railroad. 



The Des Moines Street Railroad Company, at their 
special meeting of stockholders, February 21st, will auth- 
orize the increase of their capital stock to $2,000,000, and 
impower their directors to purchase any railways or fran- 
chises in the adjoining suburbs. The Des Moines com- 
pany is the strongest in the state. 



KANSAS. 

Lyons and Sterling are to be connected with an elec- 
tric line. 

Sterling. — The Sterling & Lyons Electric Railway 
has filed its articles of incorporation, with the following 
directory: H. M. Max"\vell, P. Hackett, J. A. Hackett, 
of Sterling, and A. Jones, A. W^. Hoyt and J. A. Blair. 
The plan is to connect the two towns by electric line. 



KENTUCKY. 
Louisville. — Boston capitalists have organized, and 
the contract has been let for an electric line to Jacob 
Park, a southern suburb. The line is to be handsomely 
equipped, and must be in operating order by April 15. 



MAINE. 
Portland. — The Portland & Rumford Falls Railway 
Company have petitioned for extension of its lines. 



Portland. — The officers of the Portland Railroad Co., 
for the year, are: A. Libby, President: E. E. Newman, 
Treasurer and General Manager. The directors were 
authorized to equip the Deering line with electricity, with 
a view to its general adoption on all the lines. The com- 
pany carried nearly 3,000,000 passengers in 1890, an in- 
crease of 400,000 over the previous year. 



W^.\terville. — The Waterville & Fairfield Street 
Railroad Co. have applied for permission to use elec- 
tricity and to extend their lines through Winslow to North 
\'assalboro; and will increase their capital stock. 



MARYLAND. 
B.\LTiMORE. — The Union Passenger Railway are mak- 
ing a hard fight for permission to use electricity, and 
agree to erect ornamental poles. 



The Traction Companj- have also obtained permission 
to extend several of their present lines. 



64 



MASSACHUSETTS. 

Brockton. — The East Side Street Railway are desir- 
ous of adopting a motor on the lines there and are inves- 
tigating in several cities with a view of determining their 
choice. 

Cottage City. — The City Street Railway Company 
have petitioned for a franchise to construct lines on eight 
streets and avenues in that place. 



Fall River. — There will soon be an electric railway 
here, but used exclusively for a freight business. 



HoLBROOK. — President Thompson, of the Brockton 
East Side Electric Railway, has inspected the streets here 
and secured permission to extend his lines to this place. 



Lowell. — It has cost the street railway company here 
over $7,000 so far this year to take care of the snow on 
its tracks. Last year the entire expense was but $1,500. 



W. R. ScoTT, of New York, is here in charge of the 
placing of additional feed wires which will be needed on 
the extensions which are to be made in the spring. The 
electric station of the Lowell & Dracut road is being 
changed to Belvidere street. 



Lynn. — Employes of the Lynn & Boston Horse Rail- 
road Co. held a banquet, which was largely attended and 
everybody had a good time. 

L.wvrence. — The capital stock of the Lawrence Street 
Railway has been increased to $300,000 and electric lines 
to Andover are a part of the coming summer's work. At 
the election of officers Mr. Morton was re-elected super- 
intendent and A. E. Butler treasurer. 



New Bedford. — It is said a bond of $10,000 has been 
put up for the purchase by a Boston syndicate of the 
lines of the Union Street Railway Co., in this city and 
Fairhaven. 

Newton. — The Newton street railway has made 
application to increase its capital in the sum of $300,000. 
The company has some big plants which include lines in 
Watertown, Natick and other localities. 



Pittsfield. — The Street Railway Co. have petitioned 
for authority to erect poles and string overhead wires. It 
will probably be granted. 

Springfield. — The Street Railway Co. have peti- 
tioned the legislature for authority to increase its capital 
stock $300,000. 

Weymouth. — Permit has been granted to Hatherly 
Street Railway Co., of Rockland, to construct lines in 
this place. 

WoBURN. — The East Middlesex Railway are consider- 
ing the matter of using electricity for the road between 
Woburn and Melrose, with a strong probability of its 
adoption this spring. 



MICHIGAN. 
Ann Arbor. — Mr. H. P. Glover, of Ypsilanti, who 
now holds a controlling interest in the electric line 
between the two cities, assumed control Jan. 31, and the 
event was made the occasion of a banquet to city officials 
and directors of the old and new companies. 



Charlotte. — Charlotte and Eaton Rapids will prob- 
ably be connected by electric railway. Capital stock, 
$75,600. . William Smith is the leading promotor. 

Manistee. — Gen. Geo. A. Hart has petitioned for 
franchises to construct several electric lines here, with 
extensions to two suburbs. 



Pequaming. — It is said Marquette capitalists are figur- 
ing on a line from this place to Baraga via L'Anse. The 
plan is considered a feasible one. 



Saginaw. — The electric street railway company has 
secured a verdict of $993 in its famous suit against the 
Michigan Central Railroad for cutting wires that crossed 
their track. 

MINNESOTA. 

DuLUTH. — Supt. Chase has returned from the east 
having been successful in placing the desired amount 
of bonds. He also purchased new cars to increase his 
equipment. 

Minneapolis. — It seems quite definitely settled that 
an electric line will be built to Medicine Lake, although 
the route is not yet fully determined on. 



The street railway company is credited with the in- 
tention to extend the St. Louis Park Road with elec- 
tricity to Lake Minnetonka, that famous summer resort 
near the city. It is one of the most largely patronized 
summer resorts in the whole west, and the steam roads 
do a large business all summer. The line ought to be 
very profitable. 

St. Paul. — By the ist of March it is probable that the 
last street car horse, for that work, will be removed from 
the streets, and the entire passenger service of the city be 
supplied by electricity and cable. 



MISSOURI. 

Cape Girardeau. — A company composed of Maj. C. 
C. Rainwater, of St. Louis, Jas. Hallen of Williamsville, 
S. P. Cullen, of Illinois, and Dr. S. S. Harris, of this 
place, have secured a charter to construct a street rail- 
way here, and will begin work earl}- in the spring. 



East St. Louis. — The poles have all been set, the 
wires strung and work is nearly completed on the electric 
line here. 

Kansas City. — The Metropolitan Cable Co., have 
purchased the slot rail of the old cable line owned by the 
Elevated, and will use it in extensions which they will 
make, commencing March i, and which will reach the 



il>t««t §^i*^%H4<^- 



65 



park w liich tlie compatn' lias purcliasfd, ami w liiih tlu'\- 
will make verj^ attractive with arlitieial lakes, landscape 
gardening and other attractions. 

T. J. Enrkhit, president of the projiosecl Se\ enth 
Street Electric Ry., states that his company will ask no 
extension of time in which to hiiild, but will proceed at 
once. The tightness of the money market had delayed 
them somewhat, but all arrangements are now completed. 

Tini Tenth St. Cable Line, which is being operated by 
the bondholders, and which has never been a very [irolil- 
able piece of property, for the reason that it runs through 
an unpopulated district with nothing at each end, is ask- 
ing to be released from complying with the promise made 
to add certain extensions. There is some talk of the road 
beinix absorbed bv the Kansas City Cable Co. 



St. Ch.\ri.es. — The street railway compimy are before 
the council for electric franchises, which they ask to run 
for fortv years. 

St. Joseph. — The Union Street Railway Co. have pur- 
chased the Wyott Park St. Car Co. for $250,000, and 
hereafter will operate both companies under one 
management. 

St. Louis. — Gen. Man. Robt. McCullock, of the 
Broadway Cable Line has been petitioned by the resi- 
dents to extend his line ^vith electricity, and make a single 
fare to business centres. 



The ditflcultv between the Southern Railroad Co. and 
the Union Depot Railroad Co., growing out of the desire 
on the part of both companies to use the same track on 
Ninth street, has been adjusted by Congressman Johnson, 
of Cleveland, who is a large owner in the first named 
company. Both will use the same track and trolly wire. 



Webb City. — The electric line between this city and 
Carthage is being surveyed. The line will parallel the 
Missouri Pacific between these two points. 



NEBRASKA. 

Nebr.vska City.-— The L'ity Railway is very favor- 
ably inclined to the storage battery system and hope to 
adopt it before long. 

South Omaha. — The election on the ordinance of the 
Metropolitan Street Railwa}- for right to lay tracks on all 
the streets of South Omaha, resulted in a victory for the 
company. Edward A. Cudah}- of the Cudahy Packing 
Co., is one of the prime movers in the new railwa}-. 



NEW JERSEY. 
Bridgeton. — Local capitalists have organized and ap- 
plied for rights to \ay electric track lines on a number of 
streets. 

Camden. — The electric cars which were discontinued 
some time ago owing to certain difHculties between the 



company and the Daft Electric Company, have again 
o-one into operation, the difficulties between the two com- 
panies having been adjusted. 



TKi:NroN. — Mr. C. T. Hughes, one of the experts of 
the Edison Co., has finished his examination here and 
work will now progress rapidly in changing the Trenton 
I lorse "R-ailway Co. lines to electricity. 



E(;<; Harbor. — The Egg Harbor Land Co. has re- 
ceived its permit for lines here. The proposed system is 
to extend to Gloucester Lake, a distance of four miles. 



Ni:w.\RK — It is finally settled that the South Orange 
Horse Line will be equipped with a first class electric sys- 
tem, which it is hoped to have in operation bj- May ist. 
The road is now o\\ ned by John Ratidell and his sons. 

NEW YORK. 

BuFF.\LO. — Certificates of the surrender of the capital 
stock of the Buffalo East Side Street Railroad and the 
Buffalo Street Railroad Company to the Buffalo Railway 
Company were filed with the Secretary of State on Jan. 
3ist- 

Dunkirk. — It is intended by the Dunkirk & Fredonia 
Rapid Transit Co. to operate nine miles of road. Capi- 
tal, $90,000. Incorporators are Wm. Martin, O. W. 
Johnson, R. B. Day and others. 

Glens Falls. — The railroad commissioners have 
granted the application of the Glens Falls, Sandy Hill & 
Fort Edward Horse Railroad Company to change its 
power to electricity. 

Gloversville. — The Gloversville Electric Cf)mpany 
has been incorporated, with a capital of $40,000, and 
intend to build three miles as a starter. 



Ole.\n. — Cady Silsby, of Seneca Falls, has nearly 
completed arrangements for an electric line here. 

Rochester. — The directors of the Manitou Beach 
Railway have decided to adopt the Rae system of electric 
motors. Each car will be equipped with 40 h. p. and 
draw in one train sufficient cars to carr\- three hundred 
passengers. 

Troy. — The railroad commissioners have authorized an 
increase in the capital of the Troy and Albia Horse Rail- 
road Co. from $50,000 to $400,cx)0, made necessary by 
the change to electric power. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

Asinii.LE. — An electric line between this place and 
Rutherfornton is being talked of. 

OHIO. 

Akron. — The Akron City Street Railway Co. has 
applied for an extension of its franchise with a view to 
constructinji two miles of track. 



AsHT.\BUL.\. — The construction work on the new 
electric line from this city to the harbor will be com- 
menced shortly. 



66 



Cincinnati. — The Mt. Auburn Cable Railway have 
applied for an extension of their line. 



Denison. — There is good prospect of an electric line 
from here through Uhrichville to Edgeville. 



Mansfield. — The electric lines here will soon be 
changed, and the single wire, Sprague system, substituted 
instead. The line will also extend to the new peniten- 
tiary which will necessitate the purchase of ten new 
cars. 



Massilon. — An electric line to Canton is one of the 
things which ought to be and is receiving considerable 
attention from citizens of both places. 



Toledo. — A plan is well under way to construct an 
electric line to Maumee, to come into the city over the 
lines of the Consolidated. The road will pass the Chil- 
dren's Home, and in summer do a large e.xcursion busi- 
ness that has heretofore gone by water. 



The Robinson's were granted an ordinance to extend 
their electric railway on Ontario street to Jefferson and 
also to Summit. 

OREGON. 

Albina. — Articles of incorporation have been filed to 
form a company with capital stock of $300,000, and it is 
expected that street cars will be running here within 
sixty days. Among the promoters of the enterprise are 
John Parke, Peter Lynch and W. N. Carter. 



Beaver. — The Beaver Valley Street Railroad Co. has 
been granted authority to change from horses to elec- 
tricity, and the transformation will be undertaken at once. 



Braddock. — The contract for the Braddock & Turtle 
Creek Street Railway has been let to the Duquesne 
Forge Co. 

NoRRisTOwN. — The Norristown Traction Company 
has been organized with a capital of $10,000. Electric 
power will be the motive force. 



Pittsburg. — The Squirrel Hill Electric Railway has 
again changed hands after having been sold several times, 
and is now known as the Schenley Park & Highlands 
Railway Co., with capital stock of $100,000. The line 
is three and one half miles in length, and one and a half 
miles remains to be completed. It was originally started 
by residents of Squirrel Hill, who found street railway 
construction more expensive than they imagined, and 
gave it up, and the road has had a checkered career ever 
since. 

PoTTsviLLE. — The Schuylkill Electric road will in- 
crease its capital $50,000 in order to make extensions. 



ScoTTDALE. — James Cochran, the millionaire coke 
operator, and Col. A. J. Hill, of Dawson, propose to build 
an electric line from Dawson to Juniata, taking in the 
towns of Liberty and Vanderbilt. Capital stock, $200,000. 



York. — The York Street Railroad Co. have applied 
for rights to use electricity. 

TENNESSEE. 

Chattanooga. — The electric railway has started out 
with a commendable policy this year and have called in 
all the passes to aldermen, policemen and other members 
of the free list aristocracy. The newspapers are also 
rewarded in a similar manner for their ungallant treatment 
of the company of late. 



Kno.wille. — At the annual meeting of the West End 
Street Railway R. M. Rhea was elected president and T. 
J. Thomas secretary and treasurer. It was also voted to 
make a number of extensions. 



There is a great boom here in street railway charters 
and a number of lines will surely be built, though proba- 
bh' not all for which franchises have been given. The 
Knoxville Street Railway' Co. will make extensions to its 
old lines. The West End Street Railway, the North 
Knoxville, South Kno.xville, the City and Suburban, the 
Rapid Transit Company and the Lonsdale Land Co. all 
promise to construct lines. 



Nashville. — T. W. Wrenne, of the United Electric 
Railway, is after the steam roads with a long trolley pole 
and has brought charges of discrimination for charging 
him more freight on his coal than other people. 



South Pittsburgh. — All of the stock of the Deptford 
& South Pittsburgh Street Railroad has been taken and 
the line will be constructed at once. The power has not 
yet been decided upon, but a majority' of the stockholders 
favor steam. Louis Baringer, of Philadelphia, and Wil- 
liam Duncan, of Nashville, Tenn., are among the leading 
stockholders. 

TEXAS. 

Brownwood. — An electric belt Hne is one of the things 
about which the Board of Trade has been stirring itself, 
and it is now' in a very fair way to be built. 



Dallas. — The North Dallas Electric road has been 
successfully opened. It is equipped by the Thomson- 
Houston Co. Iron has been ordered for a cable line to 
connect the business center wath the State fair grounds. 



Galveston. — President Sinclair gave a formal open- 
ing of his new electric lines on February 2nd, on which 
occasion a large number of guests, including distinguished 
gentlemen, were present from different parts of the state. 
The banquet was served at the Beech Hotel, and cars are 
now running regularly. 

Houston — The street railway company, under the lead- 
ership of President Allen, have commenced actively 
the change to electric power. Street work is well under 
way, the power house has been commenced, and the sys- 
tem, which is the Edison-Sprague, will be completed in 
about two months. 



'^^^>^l^ 



67 



Henrietta. — Work has coiiinu'iufcl on the street rail- 
road, and it is hoped to have the same finished within 100 
da}'s. 

Oak Clikf. — The crosstown electric line will have 
numerous scenic attractions, including two parks, which it 
crosses, several lakes and deep ravines. 



Oktinc;. — A syndicate headed h\- Geo. W. Cornw'all 
has secured franchises for electric lines in this citv- 



San Antonio. — The City Railway while constructing 
for the use of horses for the present, are putting in a track 
which can be used for electric cars, as soon as the}- can 
get around to making the change. 



Waco. — The dummy line just opened to Alta Vista is 
a great novelty and is doing a big business. The dis- 
tance is four miles. 

Five miles of posts, and the span w-ires are already in 
position for the trolley system of the lilectric Street Car 
Company. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Newport. — The Newport Street Railway Company 
have taken out an insurance for one year which covers 
all damages which may arise to passengers, vehicles or 
employees arising from accidents of all kinds. It ought 
to be a very desirable risk for an insurance companj-, 
however, as the president's report shows that in 1890 out 
of 781,000 passengers carried, not one received any 
serious injuries. 

The Electric Street Railroad Company has been 
offered $33,000 by the association composed of summer 
residents, if the company will construct their line on other 
than the main drivinij street to the beach. 



Providence. — Great preparations are being made to 
make the convention of the Electric Light Association a 
great event, and our people are anticipating the occasion 
with unusual interest. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 
Columbia. — The organization has been completed of 
the Columbia Electric Power and Suburban Railway Co., 
with the following officers: President, Col. J. Q. Mar- 
shall; treasurer, W. G. Childs; secretary, J. S. Verner; 
solicitor, B. L. Abnev. Negotiations are already pro- 
gressing for the purchase of material and equipment and 
there seems every prospect that this enterprising citv will 
have a finely established system in a short time. 

Spartanburg. — A dummy line will be built here and 
work commenced in a week or two. 



VIRGINIA. 

Newport News. — Col. C. M. Braxton is engineering 
a street railway system for this place and promises to 
have it in operation within ninety days. 



WASHINGTON. 
Olvmpia. — Plans are under consideration for a railway 
on the West Side, to be operated at first by steam, but 
electricity substituted jn the near future. 



Rainier. — "JVack work is nearly completed on the 
electric line to Latona and the bridge across Lake Union 
at the latter city is finished. 



Seattle. — The new motor line to Brooklyn will be 
completed in about 30 days and will have been one of 
the most rapid street car constructions ever made on the 
Pacific coast. The line runs along some of the finest 
streets and terminates at the entrance to a park. 



The Commercial Street Motor Railway Co. have com- 
pleted a second track to the southern limits of the citv, but 
during the spring it will be extended several miles up 
the Duwamish River. 

Eastern parties have made a proposition to the Seat- 
tle Electric Railway and Power Co. for their lines. The 
company invested $720,000 at the start, have added all 
the net earnings for two years and a half and also have 
$100,000 worth of real estate that is clear profit. Offi- 
cers just elected are: President, L. H. Griffith; vice- 
president, J. F. Hale; secretary-, V. Hugo Smith. 



Spokane Falls. — Tlte motor line has been surveyed 
to Granite Lake, and may possibly be extended to Med- 
ical Lake. R. Abernethy is at the head. 



Tacoma. — It is said the Tacoma Railway & Motor Co. 
has made its final placing of bonds, and that its cable and 
electric system will be fully completed b}- April. 



The cable road here has met with another unavoidable 
delay in opening its line. The driving pulley, which was 
en route, was demolished in an accident which occurred in 
the Cascade mountains, and the compan}- ordered anoth- 
er b}- wire, from the Walker Manufacturing Co. It was 
valued at $3,000. The boilers, which are Babcock & 
Wilcox, are all in place, and the car houses and other aux- 
ilaries ready. 

An effort will be made to operate the Point Defiance 
R. R. b\- electricity in the spring. It was intended at 
first to operate this line by storage batteries but that has 
now been abandoned. 



WEST VIRGINIA. 
Clarksburg. — It is now an assured fact that at a street 
railway will be completed and in operation by early sum- 
mer. 

Wheeling. — A bill has been introduced in the legisla- 
ture to consolidate the local street railway companies here. 
As each possesses certain valuable privileges not common 
to both, the union of the two would give advantages of 
the highest commercial value, and place the new company 
beyond the reach of the city council in man\- important 
matters. It is believed the passage of the bill will mean 
important improvernents and extensions to Wheeling. 



68 



UTAH. 

Eureka. — A committee of business men has been ap- 
pointed to work with a similar committee from Provo, 
with a view to uniting the two by an electric line. 



Ogden. — Work is now progressing nicely on the elec- 
tric line, having been dela3'ed owing to the difficulty in 
getting material. 

Provo. — The Provo Street Raihva}- Co. do a flourish- 
ing business during winter months in hauling ice. A 
number of other companies scattered through the countr}- 
likewise do the same. It is a subject that is at least worth 
the careful investigation of many managers, and who it 
may be will find that another year they can realize a 
handsome revenue from this source, where their lines are 
near enough to any suitable body of water to make the 
plan feasible. 

Salt Lake City. — The City Railroad Company has 
completed its line to Fort Douglass. 



The Silver Lake Rapid Transit Co. has incorporated 
with $15,000, and hope to do some building. J. M. Nel- 
son and J. M. Lawrence are among the promotors. 



Another Electric line is being planned, and known as 
the Second, South and West Jordon Rapid Transit Rail- 
way Company. If the road is as long as its name it ought 
to reach a good ways. 

L. C. Hamilton has been granted a franchise for what 
will probabl}' be a dummy road, but which may by the 
terms of the ordinance be operated by either dummy, ca- 
ble or electricity. 

STREET CAR PATENTS. 

GRANTED DURING JAN'UARV 1S9I, BY THE UNITED STATES. 
JANUARY 6, 1S9I. 

Axle Boxes, Du<t Guard for Cir..F. J. Cole .lul E W Grieves 444, >^i 

Anti-Friction Bearing P. Arnold 444,3:1 

Anti-Friction Bearing E. Stempel 444,2^4 

Brake Beam J. Pearce 444,159 

Brake Beam W. A. Pungs 444,017 

Car Brakes W. T. Bothnell 444,145 

Car Brakes, Elastic B. L. Randall 444,110 

Car Brakes H. M. Elliott 444,168 

Cable Car for Street Railways W. Robinson 444,184 

Car Indicator P' !■ Boris 440,040 

Tightening Device for Suspending Electric Conductors, 

D. Mason 444,005 

Tightening Device for Suspending Electric Conductors, 

_ D. Mason 444,006 

Fare- Recording Register ..J. Dane, Jr. 443,988 

Elastic-Wire Insulating Cleat, J. S. Patten and D. J. Cartwright 444,317 

Railway, Current-CoUecting Device for, Electric. .R. M. Hunter 444,397 

JANUARY 13, 1891. 

Car Axles, Rolls for Ma.iufacturing D. L. Evans 444746 

Controlling Device for Electric Car E. M. Bentley 444,479 

Electric Railway Car ..E. M. Bentley 444,480 

Electric Railway Car L. A. McCarthy 444,539 

Electric Motor W. A. Anthony 444,416 

Cable Railway P. Noble 444581 

Cable Street Railway L. Heynemann 444,437 

Electric Railway E. M. Bentley 444,740 

{Railway, Current-Collecting Device for, Electric, R, M. Hunter 444,566 



JANUARY 20, 1891. 

Car Axle, Bearing W. B. Smith 444,943 

Car, Electric Railway R. M. Hunter 444,144 

Car Heating Appar-itus J. H. Sewall 444,090 

Mounting for Electric Car Motor E. W. Rice, Jr. 444,922 

Fare Collector M. D. Greengard and F. Harris 444,882 

Apparatus for Recording Fare for Omnibus, etc., A. Carrara 445,042 

Electric Railway Trolly H. H. BLides 444,893 

Support for Electric Railway Trolley-Wire_ J. S. Hughes 445,142 

Registering and Recording Apparatus for Tram Cars and 

Omnibuses ..T. Gregory 444,883 

Trolley. Wire Clamp and Support W. Vogel 445,103 

JANUARY 27, 1S91. 

Car Axle .H. N. Pomeroy 445,199 

Street Railway Car Guard .F. W. Wood and J. Fowler 445,236 

Machinery for forming Car Wheels C. B. Beach 445,238 

Electric Connection for Track-Wiring S. H. Short 445,479 

Cable Railway G. W. Bowman 445,157 

Switch for Electric Railway Conductor 

F. j. Sprague and J. F. S. Branth 445,515 

Turn-Out for Electric Railways R. M. Hunter 445,409 

The above list of patents is Prepared for The Street 
Railway Review each month at the Patent Lazv Office of 
Haitft Bros., 606 Rialto Building, Chicago, 111., where 
yur readers and others can procure all the information 
they desire upon the subject of patents and patent law, 
either by mail or personal interview. 




THEHALE&KILBURNMFG.GO. 

EXTENSn-E MAKEKS OF 

STREET CAR SEATS, 

Made with or without Springs. Covered in ARPBT. PLUSH or 
RATTAN. 

OUR NEW ELASTIC SLAT SPRING SEAT IS THE CHEAPEST AND 
MOST COMFORTABLE WOODEN SEAT EVER MADE. 

Our <'el<-l>ratcil Steel Top Siirins Sections used in I'lihoistering 



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^felffc^^*iHr'^^WI^ 




THE STREET RAILWAY REVIEW PUBLISHING COMPANr, 



334. DEARBORN ST. 

H. II. \VIND:mJR. ?.-.i ii:.-_ 



CHICAGO. 

L. KKNFIELD. Secrctarr. 



SUBSCRIPTION, - - - ONE DOLLAR. 

AJJr.a all Commamkatioms amd R^milianc^s io Thk Street Railway Review, 
Caxlom Buildimg^ 3J4 Dearborn Street^ Ckicago. 
H. H. WINDSOR, F. L. KEHFIELD. 

Edi'or. Busmess Manager. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

We cordLUly iorice correspondeace 00 alt subjects o£ interest to those en^a^ed 
in anv branch of Street Railway work, and will gr.itefally appreciate any marked 
copies of papers or news items oar street railway friends may send us, pertaining 
cither to companies or officers. Address: 

THE STREET R.AILW.W REVIEW. 







5U Dearborn Street, Clilcagt). 






Entered a 


t the P(»t Office at Chicago as Second Class flatter. 


VOL. 1, 




MARCH NO. 3. 



■T^HE Inventors' Centennial Anniversan-, which will be 
' held in the cA\ of Washington, April Sth, 9th and loth, 
^annot fail to have great attractions for all interested in 
mechanics. The inventors and manufacturers of railway 
appliances, especially in electrical lines, «"ill not onlv form 
a large representation but their exhibits will be among the 
most practical and interesting. 



TT would be difficult to suggest any improvement either 
' in topics for discussion or their assignment, on the 
selection announced by the Executive Committee of the 
American Street Railway Association, for the next meet- 
ing. The subjects are eminently suitable and practical, 
and the well known ability and experience of the wxiters 
is alone sufficient to create an interest never equalled in 
the histon." of the Association. 
A Perfect Electric Motor, 

H. A. Everett, Secretarv East Cleveland Railroad Companv, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

A Year's Progress of Cable Motive Power, 

J. C. Robinson, formerly Vice-President Los .\ngeles Railway Co., 
L03 Angeles, Cal. 

Public and State Treatment of Corporations, 

G. Hilton Scribner, President Central Park, North and East River 
Railroad Companr, New York Citv. 

The Dependent — Overhead or Underground — Svstem of 
Electric Motive Power, 

George \V. Mansfield, Director Attieboro, North .Attleboro and 
Wrentham Street Railwav, Attieboro, Mass. 

The Independent— Storage or Primani- Batters- — System 

of Electric Motive Power, 

Knijht Neftel, Electrician. Lancaster Cily Railwav Companv, 
Lancaster, Pa. 

Ne.vt meeting Pittsburg, Wednesday, Oct. 21, 1S91. 



A 



T^iiK Quincy, ^111., paper bears evidence of the 
^ influence of their electric road, and says: "The electric 
lines have done more to give Quincy a metropolitan ap- 
pearance than any enterprise we have had for many a year." 

J.vcKsoNyiLLP:, Florida, paper sums up in as few terse 
words as are often seen the whole question of bet- 
terment of old systems and encouragement of the new. 
It says: "Throw no obstacle in the way of improving 
our street railways. Gas and electric motive power is 
much better than mules, which writhe under the contin- 
ued application of the lash. Those who see so many ob- 
jections to e\ery enterprise here already, see some to this 
contemplated improvement of street car ser\ice." 

'yHE authorities of Syracuse, N. Y., object to the use of 
* salt on street railway tracks, claiming that the practice 
is injurious to horses feet and an obstruction to sleigh 
traffic. If they will take the trouble to inform them- 
selves, they will find that salt is verA- generally used and 
is not at all objectionable, although it may be conceded 
that it does not improve the sleighing on the eight feet 
of street occupied by the railway tracks. 



A 



s AN illustration of rapid and satisfactory development fii 
one of the smaller cities The Citizens" Street Car Co., 
of Decatur, Illinois, is a good e.xample. Seven years ago 
the plant consisted of one mile of track and two mule 
cars, the whole equipment of the company costing $17,- 
000. Now the company has seventeen miles of track, 
nineteen cars, is operated by electricit}-, and represents an 
investment of $150,000. The tracks have been paved at 
an expense of $30,000 and the road is a splendid property. 

A T the recent Providence Convention Mr. F. J. Sprague 
^ made the following prediction : •• The gearing of the 
present motor will disappear from the electric motor of 
the future, and it is a very- near future. It will be an 
electric motor driving direct without any reduction what- 
ever. Its revolutions will be coincident with the revolu- 
tions of the wheel. The day of the gearing is fast ap- 
proaching an end, and surely those who have had ex- 
perience with gears of electric motors can feel encouraged 
by that fact." 



A N Iowa country- paper has the chills and shudders at 
^~»- the mention of rapid transit in its town, thusly : 

••And still the cry is faster: though death follows in 
the wake of increase of speed, it is heeded not, and everj- 
body is eager to take the fast train, limited." 

As a matter of fact the fast trains are the safest and 
experience less accidents than the slower ones : and street 
railway service operating imder a high speed has more 
safeguards thrown around it than are used on horse cars. 
It will be found to-day the proportion of death accidents 
on the basis of numbers carried is yer\- gready in favor of 
the electric and cable roads and against the horse lines, 
unlikely as this may seem to people who don't know. 

We should not hesitate a minute as to the safety- of 
rapid transit when compared to the danger of conducting 
a country- newspaper. 



70 



THE Philadelphia Telegraph whose name suggests more 
modern ideas than its editor seems to possess, be- 
longs not to this age but to another, whose moss covered 
memories have long since faded and whose bones have 
turned to dust and blown away even as men's ashes are 
scattered to the winds from Liberty's Statue top. 

Forgotten and unspoken are the names of those who 
laughed at Fulton and ridiculed steam cars, and made it 
both a sin and a penal offense to eat mince pie on Sun- 
day. But not even the charity due a weak minded and 
credulous one, can be extended the Telegraph, for the 
electrical car has so long since passed out of its experi- 
mental stage and put on man's garments, that like the 
telephone we almost cease to remember when it was not. 

This exponent of bob-tail-car ideas, sticks his head in 
the sand and indtilges in this wise : 

"There is no one who can give a single reason for the setting up of 
the trolley nuisance except tliat of cheapness, and that falls to pieces as 
soon as the light is turned upon it. It is cheap only to those who own 
and operate it, and what they save is paid a hundred fold by the public 
in the unsightliness of the poles and wires, in the inconvenience of the 
obstruction they make, and in the danger the system carries with it lo 
life and property. The experience of the people of Boston with the 
trolley poles and wires should be sufficient to exclude this public nui- 
sance from every other city. It has been particularly objectionable and 
costlv to the community because of its interference with the operations 
of the fire department, and it has been the cause of death in the cases of 
persons and animals. There is no one who does not know that as a 
means of propulsion it is a dangerous makeshift, and that it is but one 
of many better devices of propulsion. A great city cannot afford to put 
life and property at stake solely that a handful of railway speculators 
may get rich quickly by using cheap and perilous machinery in the 
streets. The nuisance should have an injunction issued against it every- 
where, and if that is not possible, public opinion should render the ex- 
tension of the trolley system impossible in cities and towns. It is not 
only the cheapest of motors it is the worst of them.'' 

As a curiosity of a voice from the tombs, of an old Rip 
awakened after we don't know how manj- years of sleep, 
the above is interesting; as in the slightest degree repre- 
senting a public sentiment of the nineteenth century it is 
simplv pitiful, and an insult to the memory of that noble 
old man who caught the lightning with a kite and dying 
in this same town a full century since had more of com- 
mon sense and progress than this modern printer, whose 
bald-headed notions would indicate a time long since past 
in which he and them should have been gathered unto the 
grand-fathers. 

We are not called to rise in defense of the electric sys- 
tem, which stands for itself, and whose trolley poles even 
have to be held down with ropes. Life is too short to 
blow out our breath against such a wind as this: but as a 
first lesson in easy steps, suitably weakened to the abilities 
of the Telegraph man to understand, we suggest the " nuis- 
ance" will dart to and fro bv day and night in city and in 
vale long after the Telegraph has ceased its click, and its 
owner has been safelv planted " under green bed-clothes." 



MANY papers and people throughout the country are very 
enthusiastic at present over the future of the under- 
ground system of city transportation, and base their argu- 
ments largely on the fact that the perfection of the electric 
motor, operating as it does without smoke, has removed 
the chief barrier which has hitherto blocked the way. 

The electric motor part of it is certainly all right, and 
stands ready to do its work underground, on the surface 
or even in the air, but few people who so lightly speak 
of underground roads have any reasonable conception of 
the cost. The modern methods of tunnel-driving by the 
use of the h^'draulic shield have made this work feasible 
from a mechanical standpoint ; but under the most favor- 
able circumstances is attended with such enormous first 
cost as to make it impossible except in a very few of the 
largest cities of the world. 

The City and South London Line, from whence this 
idea has spread, cost over a million dollars a mile, and it 
is doubtful if such a road could be constructed in this 
country for anything like that amount, labor being higher. 
Then, too, Americans would always prefer the light and 
air of an elevated road to riding in a tunnel under the 
most favorable circumstances. For New York, whose 
geographical confines are so closely drawn, it would seem 
the only salvation, and possibly for some portions of one 
or two other eastern cities. Aside from these, nearly 
every other large city is laid out with greater uniformity 
and has more avenues of exit, which permit of emptying 
the business center in every direction, and to accomplish 
this, rapid transit surface systems, with perhaps an occa- 
sional elevated road, can do the work quicklj'. 



T~\OWN in New England they have a most charming and 
^-^ polite way of declining to grant a petition from some 
aspiring street railway. When the committee desires to 
render an adverse decision it does not in so many words 
refuse the application but wraps its answer in an oil-skin 
sarcasm and smilingly gives the petitioner " leave to with- 
draw," all of which must be a balm to the wounds of defeat. 



BEFORE half of the cities in the country have put in elec- 
tric railways, the application of the same principle is 
being apphed to short lines to connect neighboring towns. 
This is in marked contrast to the general belief three or 
four years ago that the sj-stem was possible in the nature 
of a curious experiment, but impracticable from a com- 
mercial standpoint. Already a number of inter-urban 
lines are in successful operation, and the indications are 
that the number will be rapidly and largely augmented. 
Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti visit back and forth on an 
electric line ten miles in length; Macon and Athens, 
Georgia, are being connected by a five mile line ; St. Paul 
and Minneapolis, twelve miles, are bound with the same 
electric belt, and Denver and Golden, fourteen miles be- 
tween, are building a line. 

All of these, except the St. Paul road, have added to 
the usual passenger traffic an express and freight depart- 
ment, which is found to be not only of the greatest con- 
venience to the public, but will in time, with sj'stematic 
management, prove a good investment to the Company. 

The day when the fast mails and limiteds shall be 
hurled from ocean to ocean by the unseen force may not 
be as far removed as people of to-day imagine: and we 
predict that when it does come, the change will be a 
rapid and general one. It would seem as though many 
harder problems had been worked out than the adapting 
of electricit}' to long and rapid hauls. 



71 



PROPOSED STREET RAILWAY INSPECTOR 
FOR NEW YORK STATE CITIES. 

THP^ liill reCL-ntly introduced in the New \'()ik lenis- 
lalure for street railway inspectors for surface, uii- 
der<fround and elexated railroads provides that 
such otlicer shall be appointed by the mayor of each city, 
and shall draw a salary of from $2,500 to $5,000 per an- 
num. His proposed duties are to enforce all state laws 
and city ordinances relating to street railway companies 
and to prosecute companies not complying with the same 
after not less than three or more than five days written 
notice served upon any of its officers or directors. Fail- 
ure to comply with the inspector's demands invoKes a 
penalty of from $100 to $500 with $100 daily added for 
each day succeeding the first. I5riefl\' his duties are 
named as follows: 

1. He shall have power to serve written notices and 
demand at least 24 hours in advance that the corporation 
furnish the public with sufficient cars to acconmiodate the 
public as in his judgment are required. 

2. To compel them to ventilate and heat their cars. 

3. To examine books of the company at least twice a 
year withcnii advance notice to the compan}-. 

There ma}- bd" cities where some company is short- 
sighted enough to warrant a portion of the above insp c- 
tion, but in these days of improvements most companies 
find a personal pride and the competition of other means 
of conveyance sufficient to keep them watchful of the 
comforts of their patrons. 

The bad feature in the bill is the danger, and a well 
founded one too, that the position becomes a part of a 
spoils system, and the mayor has it in his power to ap- 
point a man unscrupulous and incompetent who can use 
his authority to harass and annoy the almost helpless com- 
panies. The first paragraph above cited delegates alto- 
gether too much authority when it attempts to base the 
needs of the public and the inspector's action on what "/« 
kisjiidgnient are required" 

What this one man's judgment may require is altogeth- 
er too uncertain a court to pass on matters of so great 
moment. There is no provision made and no guarantee 
that a mayor would appoint to the office a man who had 
ever had actual experience in the first elementary princi- 
ples of practical street railroad work. On the contrary, 
the office would unquestionably be filled from personal 
choice, and presumably as a return for political service in 
the preceding municipal campaign. 

The local ordinances already contain ample of regula- 
tion and restriction to fully protect the public where it is 
needed, and to appoint an inspector is to pass a law to en- 
force a law already in force. There are times of special- 
ly large and unusual assemblies where the entire car ser- 
vice of a city falls far short of what is necessary to carry 
all who desire to ride — just as there are occasional gath- 
erings that the largest place of pubHc resort is unable to 
contain. But neither of these circumstances are the eve- 
ry day order of affairs; they are exceptions. However, 
under the law, an unprincipled inspector could take ad- 
vantage of such occurrences to harass the companies. 



none of whom could in twenty-four hours comply with his 
requirements for extra cars; and could better afford to pay 
an occasional fine, heavy even as proposed, than carry the 
extra etjuipment an entire year for use once or twice dur- 
ing that time. It is granted in this article that the law 
df)es not intend to work an injustice such as this would 
be; but what protection would the companies have from 
the hruids of some ignorant vindictive inspecto. ? 



Traffic has so rapidly increased in the City and South 
London Electric Ry. that the original schedule by which 
trains ceased running at 10 p. m. will be lengthened to 
12.30 a. m. There will be no night cars. 

The average rate of speed, including all stoppages 
from terminus to terminus, is twelve miles per hour. The 
maximum speed at which motors will draw a loaded 
train is thirty-two miles, but it is not usual for them to 
exceed twenty-five miles an hour. For the present there 
will be no advertisements displayed in the cars. The 
men work in shifts, which allows them one day off in 
each se\en. Trains as no\v run consist of the motor car 
and three passenger cars, and carry one hundred passen- 
gers. During the first three weeks the road carried 
250,000 with an equipment of 21 passenger cars. 



One of the greatest banes in the unhappy existence of 
the street railway manager is that arising from his almost 
helplessness in small boys "hitching on." It was bad 
enough with the old horse cars, but infinitely worse when 
electric or cable trains are operated, for they move at 
higher speed and at more- frequent intervals, which en- 
hances the sport for the small boy. A conductor cannot 
be allow'ed discretionary powers in this matter, with 
authority to use such means as his judgment or desire 
may prompt to rid himself of their presence. The little 
rascals know this, and take advantage of the rule which 
thus binds his hands, to ridicule him while they continue 
in their dangerous pastime. About once in so often 
some one is seriously injured or killed, when the aggrieved 
parents promptly avail themselves of an opportunity to 
make the company stand the costs of the criminal care- 
lessness of their children. 

In many cities there exists a remarkable laxity in law 
governing such matters, but parents are and ought to be 
as vitall}- interested as are the companies in making it a 
trespass subjecting the offender to arrest and fine, to 
steal rides on the cars. The steam roads have such pro- 
tection — the street railways should have the same. Sev- 
eral of the large companies who can afford it employ a 
private policeman who spends his entire time gathering 
in these youthful offenders and leading them home for 
parental chastisement ; but too often the parent resents 
this curtailing of the enjoyments of young America, and 
refuses either to punish or reprimand. The poHce pow- 
ers of a city which protect the helpless at street crossings 
or rescue them from other dangers, are the ones to pro- 
tect these thoughtless, careless boys who are daily maimed 
for life, and wholly through their own needless, heedless 
and senseless folly. 



72 



THE BURDEN OF DETAILS. 



THE street railway manager who has achieved 
success in this many varied work, cannot but say 
that it was largely due to close and persevering 
attention to details. Day after day the same 
unflaging scrutiny co\ered every department, and the 
feed boxes were known to be sweet and clean and the 
shoes properly set, from personal examination. With in- 
creasing mileage and new lines, more cars to run and a 
corresponding enlargement of office cares, many a man- 
ager to-day is overworked and has barely time to eat, to 
sav nothing of keeping up an acquaintance with his 
family. 

When to these increasing duties are added, to many 
men, the new ones incident to the installation of electric 
or cable powers, and the necessity for a complete know- 
ledge of all their minuta?, it becomes a physical impossi- 
bilitv to personallv attend to the thousand little details 
that once occupied much time. And right here is the 
point where man}' a manager is overtaxing his strength 
and actually lessening his usefulness to his company. In 
his zeal to manage economically he still carries the 
burden of hundreds of petty matters which he should rid 
himself of and delegate to others. 

By placing a part of the responsibility on your assist- 
ants you will develop in them capabilities you never sus- 
pected; for there is none so high or experienced but may 
learn at least something from his employee even lowest 
in the ranks. It is the part of wisdom and not an exhibi- 
tion of weakness to encourage every employee to report 
what he may discover as an improvement or saving. 
While much will come to you that is impracticable and 
useless, a great deal also will appear that is valuable. 
When you have delegated certain responsibilities to 
assistants make them feel that responsibility, and also 
have them realize that j'ou have not relaxed your watch- 
fulness one iota and that you are "always at the door" ; — 
but let them actually perform the mechanical part of it. 
With judicious selection the result will be a gratifying 
surprise, and will stimulate in those men the very best of 
their energy and talent, which aggregated and carefully 
directed yield a tremendous working power. 

It is a harder matter than at first thought would seem 
possible, for one who has exercised government in details 
to part with even the slightest portion of his authoritj'; 
but is nevertheless the part of wisdom to do it, and the 
result cannot but be a stronger arm at the helm, a clearer 
eye to guide into the future, and a mind filled with the 
practical experience of years, free to exert its greatest 
usefulness. 

There must be generalship and a central governing 
and shaping power, but no general could win a battle 
without good captains and lieutenants, as well as 
troopers. 

Only recentlv a gentleman who had built up an enor- 
mous mercantile business in a few vears, who had made a 
great deal of monev, and while still a \()ung man is 



almost a wreck physicall}', said to the writer: " Slavery 
to details has done it. I endeavored to do as much of 
my office work with vast interests on my hands, as for- 
merlv when I had barely enough to keep me busy. 
But the habit of doing everything myself became so 
firmlv fixed, I simply wore myself out doing work 
much of which could doubtless have been as well done bj' 
a ten dollar a week clerk." 

It is true that what a man does himself he knows 
is surely done; but it is also true that with reasonable 
selection of assistants, and the feeling instilled that they 
are strictly accountable for what is in their immediate 
charge, just as the manager is to his company, that they 
will take to heart the responsibility that is placed with 
them, and make it the object of their best efforts and 
concern. 



NOT A PASSENGER. 

A DAMAGE case quite unusual in its character 
was decided in Ireland last month. A lady, who 
was among the survivors of the disastrous Ar- 
magh railway accident and received £800 damages for 
the injuries she sustained, brought further action against 
the railway company in respect to her infant, which was 
born prematurely after the accident, and so malformed 
that it will probably be an incumbrance for life. 

The Judge held the company had entered into no con- 
tract to carry the unborn babe. They had issued no 
ticket for it and had no knowledge of its being in the 
train. In the eye of the law the mother was the carrier 
of the babe, and not the railway company, and she must 
bear the responsibility. The mother was non-suited, 
accordingly-. 



THE ELECTRIC RAILWAY LEAGUE. 

THE employes of the Electric Motor Company in 
Newark, N. J., have organized a Mutual Benefit 
and Aid Association, which they will invite all of 
the employees of the electric roads throughout the coun- 
try to join. 

By the plan proposed, a member paj-s $2.50 to join, 
$1.00 as quarterly dues, and a death assessment of from 50 
cents to one dollar. Disabled and sick members will be 
entitled to draw $6.00 per week, and in case of death, 
$250 will be paid to the family, with which to defray fun- 
eral expenses. Members must be at least twenty-one 
years old and not over fifty, and must have worked on 
some electric railroad and understand the electric system. 
The badge will have engraved upon it an electric motor 
car which will be used as a travelling card by the mem- 
bers, who will be assisted in case of discharge, but will 
not be allowed to take part in any strike or labor unions. 

The object of the order will be for the mutual benefit 
and impro\'ement of the emplojes of the various roads 
throuiriiout the country. 



73 



EDISON'S EXPLANATION OF THE AMPERE 
AND THE VOLT. 

D I RING a recent examination a lawyer put the 
following question to Thomas A. Edison: 
•• Explain what is meant hv the number of ^•olts 
in an electric current:" To which he replied: 

"I will have to use the analogy of a waterfall to ex- 
plain. Sav we liave a current of water and a turbine 
wheel. If I have a turbine wheel and allow a thousand 
gallons per second to fall from a height of one foot on 
the turbine, I get a certain power; we will say one horse 
power. Now one foot of fall will represent one volt of 
pressure in electricity, and the thousand gallons will rep- 
resent the ampere or the amount of current. We will 
call that one ampere. Thus we have a thousand gallons 
of water or one ampere falling one foot or one volt or 
under one volt of pressure, and the water working the 
turbine gives one horse power. If, now, we go a thou- 
sand feet high and take one gallon of water and let it fall 
on the turbine wheel, we get the same power as we had 
before, namely, one horse power. We have got a thou- 
sand times less current or less water, and we will have a 
thousandth of an ampere in place of one ampere, and we 
will have a thousand volts in place of one volt, and we 
will have a fall of water a thousand feet as against one 
foot. 

Now the fall of water or the height from which it falls 
is the pressure or volts in electricity, and the amount of 
water is the amperes. It will be seen that a thousand 
gallons a minute falling on a man from a height of only- 
one foot would be no danger to the man, and that if we 
had one gallon and took it up a thousand feet and let it 
fall it would crush him. So it is not the quantity or cur- 
rent of water that does the damage, but it is the velocity 
or the pressure that produces the effect." 



THEN AND NOW. 

THE Railway Manager of a very large electrical 
company, in speaking of the ad\ance made in 
electrical railwaj^ construction equipment in the 
last two or three years, said to us a few days ago: 
'• Doubtless there is no better illustration of this fact than 
is shown in the attitude of those contemplating the adop- 
tion of electricity for railway work. Formerly, managers 
would come in with a list of questions a yard long involv- 
ing details as foreign to the subject as you could imagine. 
But now all that is changed, and when a purchaser enters 
he has just two questions after stating how many miles 
he desires to equip; they are, ' How soon can you have it 
in operation?' and 'How much will it cost?'" 

The over cautious ones, who would want St. Peter to 
show his credentials at the door, and who have been 
waiting to see whether or not the " thing would really 
go," are left away behind, and the sagacious and keen- 
sighted men who recognize merit have availed themselves 
of what invention has provided and are rolling finely 
along the highway of success. It is a good thing to be 
sure, but progress does not wait. 



STREET RAILWAYS IN THE SOUTH. 

THE great South, is at, present undergoing a devel- 
opment and growth that is phenominal, and to- 
ward it is more and more Northern and Eastern 
and foreign capital being attracted. This is a good 
thing for the South, and it should not fail to be a good 
thing also for capital, just as the large cities in the West 
drew their strength from the Atlantic seaboard for many 
years, and in return sent back great revenues of dividends 
and interest coupons. Without this financial aid the West 
would still be a blooming prairie, and the South while not 
so sparsely settled still is in its infancy when the conditions 
of to-day are compared with the possibilities of to-morrow. 

No one other factor can do more to metropolize and 
quicken into life at one leap, resources and opportunities 
now dormant, than the modern electric railway for the 
operation of which the natural advantages of climate far 
exceed the most favorable conditions in the north. 

Chicago, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, St. Paul 
and all the rest, had to begin with the bob-tailed car whose 
progress was uncertain and fuU of weariness to spirit and 
bones, but it was the best those days afforded, and did its 
work after a fashion, and was better than none. But to- 
day the growing towns of the South, hundreds of which 
have not yet laid a street car rail of any kind have the 
advantage of eastern experience and experiment, and can 
commence with as good as that unto which older cities are 
just attaining. 

We predict the installation of electric lines in the South 
wiU be one of the greatest features of electrical industry 
in the nexl five years, and then for everj- year an electric 
road operates in a southern city it will mean five years of 
ordinary progress which otherwise would ha\e been the 
result. Many of the larger cities along the Gulf, are al- 
ready enjoying the immediate fruits of rapid transit, and 
in others we observe that there is a most inviting crop of 
ripe and juicy dividend persimmons that are only waiting 
to be brought down by a trolley pole in the hands of out- 
side capital. 

There are any number of places that ha\e not as yet 
been counted as cities that are destined soon to be, and if 
these same towns join in proper inducements and bring 
their opportunities to a proper hearing, and supplement 
this with franchises on liberal terms, there is no reason 
why the South should not press to the front with its street 
railways and bring up fully abreast of older cities which 
are now enjoying the benefits of an almost perfect rapid 
transit. 



A Large Mortgage. 



The Villard syndicate, which has secured control of the 
Milwaukee Street Railway Company and the electric 
light plants in that city, has just gi\en a mortgage on all 
its property to the Central Trust Company, of New 
York. Bonds may be issued from time to time, as needed, 
not to exceed in all $10,000,000, although it is not likely 
that more than $5,000,000 of the bonds will be issued in 
the immediate future. 



74 



INCREASED SPEED AS RELATED TO ACCIDENTS. 



THE demand, which is daily becoming more clamor- 
ous of the street car riding public, for greater 
speed in transit, is one involving many phases, 
w hich, while the}- are not understood by the pub- 
lic, must all be carefully foreseen and considered by the 
manager. In this, as in most other questions regarding 
the transportation problem, this same public usually con- 
sider the}- know better as to how and where it should 
be done than those men who ha\e made it the care- 
ful study of }-ears and who, while endeavtiring to 
grant the demands of patrons, must at the same time 
throw around these new means, a cloak of safety to 
wliich the impetuous public ne\er stops to gi\-e a 
moment's thought in their requests. Something strikes 
them as new and novel, no matter how impracticable. 
All they know is that they want to get somewhere and 
get there quick. In many instances the call for better 
facilities in point of time, is well founded, and the saga- 
cious manager gladly hails the day which enables him to 
achie\e this much desired result. 

The rapid strides in this direction which the application 
of electricity has made possible, are most gratif}ing. 
Greater progress has been made in the past twelve 
months than in almost as many previous years. 

An interesting and vitally important feature of this 
new departure, and one which has caused no little anxiety 
was, — would an increase in speed from the six-mile 
horse car to the twelve-mile electric or cable car double 
the accident record and the accompanying claims for 
damage ? 

Many have claimed that doubling the speed of a car 
through the busy streets of a city would necessaril}- 
cause such loss of life and limb as to work a practical 
prohibition. In some cities municipal authority fixes the 
rate, beyond which the operation of a car involves heavy 
fine and in some cases the imprisonment of the driver. 

It is conceded that the handling of such vast volumes 
of business, amounting in all cities to millions of people 
every year, is and always will be attended with more or 
less accident. It is naturally the strenuous effort of com- 
panies to keep this as small as possible, though it often 
seems as if the sole object in life of many people is to 
make it as great as circumstances will permit. An oppor- 
tunity to alight backward directly in front of a rapidh- 
moving car coming from the opposite direction is appar- 
ently hailed with delight by some persons. 

But the records for many years past show that in pro- 
portion to the people handled, the street railwa\s are 
operated with a \astly less per cent of danger than the 
steam roads. Hence the advent of rapid transit has 
developed the question "Can increased speed be attained 
with reasonable safety r" 

The answer to this is every day becoming more and 
more apparent. It unquestionably can. 

When a road first increases its speed from the plodding 
horse car, off which the hurried passenger jumps at any 



point which sudden inclination may suggest, to more 
modern operating methods where the car running as 
smoothly seems to be going no faster than before, there 
is usually a slight increase in injuries caused by the pas- 
senger slipping on the pavement. But in a very few 
days the public becomes educated to the new order of 
affairs and are willing to ask the conductor to stop when 
they alight where formerly they ignored him. This is 
more particularly the case in western cities than in the 
East, where people have more time and patience. 

But with the improved brake facilities which have 
come with the advent of speed, there can no longer be 
any doubt that as a rule a ten mile rate can be maintained 
with far greater safety than six, and that instead of an 
increase in accidents they are largely diminished. Passen- 
gers are forced to use more care, and exercise it. Drivers 
realize they will reach an obstruction on the track sooner 
than formerly, and are much more careful and take no 
chances. 

Except in the very heart of cities where the jam of 
vehicles and pedestrians, in the nature of things, precludes 
anything but a low speed, high speed is far safer, and 
in most cities this densely crowded district is quite 
limited. Higher speed will from this time on be the 
order of the day and when uni\ersally established will be 
hailed with delight by all. 



SALT LAKE RAILWAY. 

FEW of our readers would expect in asking if they 
had "street cars in Salt Lake City to be informed 
that thev most assuredly did, and sixty-tive miles 
of them, and best of all, every car operated by electricity. 
But such is the fact. 

Two years ago the railway service was nothing to be 
particularly proud of, and the managers of one of the 
roads visited the east, saw, were convinced, and gave an 
initial order for six miles of electrical equipment. Since 
then there has not been one week, winter or summer, in 
which construction work has not been under way on the 
Salt Lake City Railway, until to-day its lines embrace 
thirty-two miles and forty electric cars. The change from 
mules to lightning had its immediate effect on the city 
and greatly added new life and infused a fresh animation 
to a by no means slow town. 

There are two other companies — The Rapid Transit 
and the Great Salt Lake; and three new ones not yet in 
operation. The West Side Rapid Transit, The Beck Hot 
Springs R. R. and the East Beach Railway. 

From bob-tailed cars drawn by bob-tailed mules to mod- 
ern electric cars with all their conveniences, in two years 
is rapid development: and again goes to show the street 
railway is a progressive institution and is making strides 
in these days that set the pace for nearly every other en- 
terprise in the cities which they are so largely aiding in 
rapid growth. 



ilj^iet^aM;&^^«#^^ 



75 



THE CONDITION OF RAPID TRANSIT IN NEW ORLEANS. 



THE quL-stioii for rapid transit lias striak Nuw Or- 
leans and is taking hold in earnest there, liver 
since the first lines were huilt the "swan necked 
mule" has had the cars, and we ha\e \et to iu-ar of 
an\- of them getting to the end of the route ahead of time. 

A local paper recently interviewed the Street Railway 
Presidents on the subject. Col. Walker, president of the 
New Orleans City & Lake Railroad Co., which embraces 
a majority of the largest roads operating in the cit}' stated 
that the ordinance limiting the companies to a speed of 
six miles per hour stood in the wa^■ of any immediate re- 
lief in this direction and that the necessitj' of stopping be- 
tween blocks to receive and let off passengers consumed 
a great deal of unnecessary time. 

Gen. W. J. Behan, president of the Crescent Citv road 
said: "If the people want rapid transit the}' can get it by 
exchanging the motive power now in use for electricity. 
What we want is to give a quick service to the public." 

President E. J. Hart, of the Canal & Claiborne road 
comes out with a most astounding policy for a railroad 
manager, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety-one. He not only believes in stop- 
ping as many times in a block as passengers maj' desire, 
and believes that a car cannot be so heavily loaded that a 
mule would be unable to start and draw it. Just how fast 
time is possible under these conditions is not gi\en, but 
evidently Mr. Hart has great loyaltv for his mules for. he 
paj's them the following tribute which will not be agreed 
in by many people. He says: "I do not know of any 
'possible improvement on the present s\stem. Tlie six 
miles an hour, which is about the maximum speed that a 
short-winded animal like the mule can be run, is quite fast 
enough for safety through the crowded streets of a city. 
If your visit to me and your request for an interview on 
the subject of rapid transit has anything to do with 
electricity as the motive power of cars in New Orleans, I 
have to say that I am, have always been, and always will 
be opposed to any other motor than the mule. I do not 
think that the destruction of human life is compensated by 
any saving of time. Electric motor cars should not be al- 
lowed here. In Chicago, statistics show that 300 lives 
have paid the forfeit of rapid transit. You can go faster 
than you do at present, but you will grind up people. 
That is the price you pay for electricit}' on streets of a citw 
The killing that is done by steam and electric roads will 
not be confined to the drunken sots of the city, but will in- 
clude our wives and children. They will be the sufferers 
for rapid transit, if reached by the adoption of electric mo- 
tor cars. I would not trade off my wife or one of m^• 
children for all the railroads of the state. We ha\e not 
been placed here to make money simplj-, and we should 
not attempt to do so when the price of our wealth is the life 
of a human being. If rapid transit is had and electric mo- 
tors are put in use, a man might just as well tell his chil- 
dren good-by when he leaves his home in the morning, 
for he is not sure that he will see them again when he 
returns to his house." 



The abo\e would be a serious argument against rapid 
transit and in favor of his docile mules, if it was based on 
truth, but the facts are as far from his statements as the 
east is from the west. In Chicago, which he quotes, there 
are more people killed every year on the horse car lines 
of that city than by the cable roads, which operate into the 
very heart of the business centre where the streets are 
certainly as crowded as in New Orleans, at a speed of 
nearly ten miles per hour. The record of the Chicago 
lines for years past show an accident ratio of three acci- 
dents on horse lines to one on the cable lines, and this too, 
in spite of the fact that the cable roads carry nearly sev- 
enty-five per cent, of the total number carried by the two 
.S3-stems. Mr. Hart has confounded the accidents by steam 
lines to persons crossing such roads at grade crossings 
where the mortality is admitted to be frightful. 

Cleveland has both cable and electric lines which start 
from the centre of the city, operate at a high speed and to 
the entire satisfaction of public and city officials. The 
electric system there has increased until the several lines 
so propelled have in daily service one hundred and fifty 
cars, and any attempted return to animal power would be 
the signal for a general uprising of indignant citizens, and 
would not be permitted. 

Boston makes j'et a better illustration where the rapid 
transit is by the trolley system entirely. The West End 
road there during the great gathering of the Grand Ami}- 
of the Republic last fall was taxed as few s^-stems have 
ever been in an}' city. During that week the companj- 
transported oxer three millions of passengers, and through 
streets whose narrow confines and tortuous windings are 
one of the seven wonders of this country, and yet this 
feat was accomplished by the electric motor without a 
single attending death accident and only one injur}- that 
could be considered at all serious. It would surely seem 
that a man who was open to conviction could not fail to 
be convinced from such undisputed facts as these. Rap- 
id transit if managed with any kind of judgment is far 
safer than the slower going animal power cars, for rea- 
sons which are stated elsewhere in this issue; and a rail- 
wav manager who so far lacks in progress and public 
spirit as to go on record with mules as good enough for 
him and his patrons cannot be a man who is \er}' far in 
advance of the times. If his company cannot afford to 
make the change to rapid transit they should say so, but 
not drag the enterprising electric motor on behind a four- 
mile an hour mule whose only lively feature is a retro- 
•gressive one, as a phenominal kicker. 

New Orleans can never take its proper place as chief of 
southern cities until the mule has been displaced by electric 
or cable power, and in this she can well learn of other and 
smaller cities on the gulf whose enterprising citizens are 
alreadv enjoving the vivifving influences that are set in 
motion at the sound of the gong and flash of the electric 
headlight as the motor car swiftlv glides from centre to 
suburb and quickens and unites all parts of the city in 
which it is working out its great problems of rapid transit. 



76 



THE DUBLIN UNITED TRAMWAYS COMPANY. 



BY FRANK X. CICOTT. 



DUBLIN, the chief cit}- in Ireland, is situated on 
the eastern side of the island and contains a 
quarter of a million of inhabitants. The river 
Liffev, running from west to east, divides the 
city into two nearly equal parts. Tradition speaks of this 
city in A. D. 279, and many of the public buildings still 
in use bear the historv of more than six hundred years. 



The general offices of the Dublin United Tramwa3S 
Co. will be seen on the right in the view, which is look- 
ing down Sackville street, in the business center of the 

city. 

PARCEL DELIVERY. 

An interesting feature in the operation of the Dublin 
Tramway Co. is its organized system for the delivery of 




SACKVILLE STREET, SHOWING CARS CROSSING O'CONNELL BRIDGE OVER THE LIFFEV RIVER. 

parcels and light express packages. The municipal 



Dublin owes the inception of its now very complete 
and well conducted tramway service to an American. In 
1859 George Francis Train visited both Dublin and Glas- 
gow and agitated and advocated the subject. While he 
did not succeed in completing the organization as he 
desired, he may fairly be considered the original promoter 
of the scheme, which was some time later taken up by 
capitalists who worked it out and carried the plans to a 
successful hnish. 

The Dublin Tramway Co. was established in 1871, the 
North Dublin Co. in 1876, and the Central Dublin Co. 
in 1878. The three companies operated separately until 
1881, when a plan was consummated wherebj- they were 
consolidated iiito what is now the 

DUBLIN UNITED TRAMWAYS CO., 

with a capital of £750,000, and an issue of bonds amount- 
ing to £76,600. The Secretary and General Manager is 
Mr. William Anderson, one of the most thoroughly in- 
formed men in the tramway service in the United King- 
dom. A sketch of his railway career and a full page 
portrait appear elsewhere in this number. 



authorities grant the company the privilege of operating 
an express department, which is not only a great con- 
venience, but is likewise a source of no small revenue to 
the stockholders. A central .station or depot is located in 
the heart of the business district. 

On receipt of a telephone message a messenger boj' is 
sent to bring the parcel to the forwarding station; and 
also from 8:30 A. m. to 5:30 r. m. packages may be 
handed conductors, who take them to the general office, 
where they are sorted and sent out in large quantities to 
the sub-station neare.st the destination, to which it is 
finally carried by a messenger boy. Stamps are sold bj- 
the company and special rates made to business men. 
From the main distributing office parcels are dispatched 
to the sub-stations once each hour. A printed tariff and 
time card enables senders to know just how manj' stamps 
to affix and when the package will reach its destination. 
The Tramway Company also delivers to express com- 
panies who forward to other cities. The charges for 
ordinary distances in the city are for 7 lbs. weight 4 



77 



tents (of our money), 14 lbs. require 6 cents, and 2S llis. 
8 cents. The revenue from thi.s branch of tlie business 
the past year was about $7,500 and the expenses $4,000. 




The liaiik of h'cland in front of whicli pass nearh' all of 
the lines of street cars, was fornierh' the I'arliament 
House, and was built in 1540. It cost £95,000. In 1S02 
when the seat of government was removed to England, it 
was purchased bv the bank, and still contains man\- relics 
of historical value. 

CARS. 

The cars are of the class known in this country as 
double-deckers, or as termed abroad " Garden Seat Cars." 
The genial climate of the Emerald Isle permitting of out- 
side riding the year round. The car seats twenty-one 
passengers within and thirty outside, giving a total seating 
capacity of fiftv-one. They are twenty-six feet in length, 
seven feet in width, and twelve feet high and weigh four 
tons. They are carried on four wheels the life of which 
is about 40,000 miles. Where there are double tracks 
cars run on the left hand track, and on single track lines 
the turnout is always made to the left. 

GO\ERNMENT SUBSIDY FOR HORSES. 

A system that has certain advantages to the compan\ , 
but which might not meet with favor here, is the subsid\' 
by government of the live stock. This includes all the 
tramways in the United Kingdom, whereby the crown 
pays an annual subsid}' of 10 shillings on each horse be- 
longing to the railway companies that is up to a certain 
standard of excellence in size, weight, age and general 
good qualities. The inspection is made as often as de- 
sired, by an army officer detailed for that purpose. In 
return the government assumes the privilege in case of 
war of purchasing all of the horses so subsidized, by 
paying the compan}- £40 per horse. This enables gov- 
ernment on a few hours notice to mass an enormous 
number of splendid horses, alread}' inspected and accept- 
ed, for use in equipping a cavalry force, without main- 
taining them in idleness perhaps through a long term of 
years. The revenue to the Dublin Company from this 
source last year was £250. Of course, if anj- company 
desires to evade this arrangement, it can easily do so by 
taking less pains in the selection and care of its stock ; 
and in no event would they be called upon to furnish all 
their live stock. But the companies generallv are very 



glad to secure the acceptance by the inspector of as large 
a luimber as possible ; and as the average cost per horse 
in nine of the larger cities in the Kingdom is less than 
£30 per head, the companies would, in event of compul- 
sory sale to the government, realize a profit of upwards 
of £10 per horse. In Dublin, horses suitable for street 
car service are bought at an average of £28 per head. 
The horses used in England and Ireland for car service 
are greatly .superior to those employed in the same work 
in America. 

Hi:i)I)IN(; AND I-ICICD. 

In this citv tlie bedding used cou-sists in summer of a 
mixture in equal proportions of sea-sand and sawdust; a 
greater amount of sawdust being added for the .winter 
months. This furnishes a very sweet, clean and healthful 
bed, and is also inexpensive, and gives excellent satisfac- 
tion. 




O'CONNELL MONUMENT — STARTING POINT FOR CARS. 

The feed is composed of cut hay and grain, this method 
having been in use for many years, and is similar to the 
method employed bv man}- companies in this country, 
though a larger proportion of grain is fed than is u.sual 
here. 

The greatest care is taken to keep the stables neat and 
clean. They are floored with brick, which is constantly 
swept, and the whole interior whitewashed at frequent in- 
tervals. The \entilation is also vastly superior to Ameri- 
can stables. The cheapness of labor for this work en- 
ables them to afford a large amount of labor, which while 
most desirable could hardlv be afforded here. 



78 



For the last six months of 1890, the car mileage was 
1,198,284, at a cost for all operating expenses of every 
nature, of 17.59 ^-'ents of our money per car per mile. 
Advertisements in the cars yielded a revenue of $7,53°. 
The parcel delivery earned $4,240; sale of manure $730, 
and for carrying the mails $130. The entire revenue for 
six months was $328,000, showing a good increase over 
the same months of the preceding year. The par value 
of the stock is £10, and pays a dividend of 5 percent, per 
annum in addition to setting apart a sinking fund for new 
construction. One million passengers were carried in 
1890 in excess of 1889. 

FARES. 

When a person enters a car the conductor inquires how 
far the passenger wishes to go, and collects according to 
a fixed scale of distances, and gives a ticket punched in 



DUBLIN UNITED TRAMWAYS CO. 

Ay 3482 

NORTH QU AYS LINE. 

TO o» rROM 



2d 



2d 



O'ConneU 

Bridge 

This Ticket fs available for a 
NGLB journey only — on the 
Car where issued. It must be 
produced for inspection 00 
and of the Conductor or 
r official of the Company. 
Any passenger aiiempting la 
ise this Ticket for 3 second 
ourney, or oiherwise defraud- 
ng ihe Company, will be liable 



DUBLIN UNITEDTRAMWAYSCO. 

Bu 6612 

INCHICORE LINE. 

TO OR FROM 
College rirecn & 

Janies-B-eCreet 

Ciroular-road, 



2cl 
2d 


2d 


2d 


2d 



Anv PflS8enf:erfttt€mptii.g 
Ticket (-irswcoNDiournev. or uim 
Ri*;e djfraoJiiigth? Company, will _ 
liablo to Prosoeiition and a 6ne of 



' (See i^.vfr 



accordance with the amount of fare paid. This precious 
ticket must be ready for the watchful inspector's exam- 
ination as often as that dignitary may desire, and when 
you leave the car, it is destroyed. 

WAGES. 

The subject of wages is always an important one, as it 
involves the greatest of all operating expenses. The men 
in all departments work an average of twelve hours daily. 

Time-keepers receive an equivalent in American money 
of $1.25 per day; drivers, 87 cents to $1.00 per day; 
conductors, 75 to 87 cents per day: stablemen, $4.25 to 
$4.75 per week. 

An excellent class of employes is secured at these 
rates, and as a rule remam in the same employ for a long 
term of years unless discharged for cause. There is 
much less changing than in the United States. 

TRACK CONSTRUCTION. 

One of the most celebrated Eng- 
lish tramway managers, when 
making a tour of inspection 
among the American street rail- 
ways a few weeks ago, \\hile in 
the otTice of the Street Railway 
Review, said to the writer : " We 
across the water are con- 
sidered slow by vou Americans, 



but the fact is we let you do the experimenting and then 
adopt what you have demonstrated as the best. Another 
reason, too, whv we move less rapidly is owing to the 

SECT/ON Of STEEL /f/f/l 

ONE H/Jur s/z£ 




fact that it is an exceedingly slow and laborious matter to 
secure the necessary legislative authoritv for an)' changes, 
so that when we do build we are forced to be absolutely 
sure of both its efficiency and durability." 

In laying the Dublin tracks an excavation was first 
made to the depth of 12 inches and a layer of the best 
concrete laid and tamped to a uniform thickness of 6 
inches, making a solid foundation 8 ft. 6 in. wide for 
each track. This is then allowed to set. Next the rails 
are laid resting directlj- on the concrete and the tie-bars 
placed and the track brought to a guage which is 5 ft. 3 
in. A half inch of sand follows the concrete, and in this 
are set the paving blocks, which are 6 in. high, making a 
solid construction, and all of lasting materials. 

The rails are flush with the pavement, and make a per- 
fectly smooth crossing for carriages. The paving is thor- 
oughly tarred and made impervious to water. Of recent 
years the average cost of construction has been about 
$10,000 per mile of single track; which amount varies 
somewhat according to local conditions of ground and cost 
of labor. 




79 



HYGIENE AND VETERINARY. 



BY JOSEPH D. TUTIIII.I., M. D., V. S. 



IN our Ih<iii;M', and \'i:tkhin.\k'\' I)i;i'.\i<'imi;.\t 
of last month's issue of tlic Stkhkt Railway 
RiAiKW we called attention to the fact that a pure 
uncontaminated atmosphere is essential for the main- 
tenance of health, strength and endurance, and that a 
vitiated atmosphere is one of the prolific causes of dis- 
ease. These facts are worthy of the most careful obser\a- 
tion by all horse owners, because they call special atten- 
tion to a most important sanitary law, ^■iz. : that of the 
proper ventilation of stables. The popular idea, 
however, of ventilation and its relation to the health of 
animals is so very indehnite that it is no wonder at all 
that it is so often neglected. Very few men outside of 
the medical profession care to know anything about the 
functions of the lungs, the properties of the atmosphere 
and the chemical changes which takes place in the blood 
through the interchange of carbonic acid and oxygen, and 
this we claim is a matter which every horseman should 
give more or less attention to, so as to be able to com- 
prehend the absolute necessity of having a pure uncon- 
taminated atmosphere circulating at all times through 
every part of stables where horses are kept — especialh- 
where large numbers are congregated together. The 
organs of respiration are the larynx, the trachea or wind- 
pipe and the bronchial tubes and their minute ramitica- 
tions — the air cclh. The air is displaced out of the lungs 
by the action of the nmscles of respiration, and when 
these relax the lungs expand to a certain calibre b}- their 
elasticity. This may be exemplified by means of a sponge 
which may be compressed into a small bulk by the hand, 
but upon opening the same, the sponge returns to its 
natural size and all its cavities become filled with air. 
The function of respiration is the conversion of venous 
into arterial blood ; this arterialization of the venous blood 
is a process highly essential to the well-being of all ani- 
mals. More important is it than the assimulation of the 
food, for a horse may live several days without food, vet 
cannot exist many minutes if deprived of air. Food and 
air are the chief supporters of animal existence — the 
former furnishes the blood with its chief constituents and 
the latter gives it vitality. It is therefore to the food we 
eat and the air we breathe we must look for the main- 
tenance of health, life, strength and endurance. Ever\- 
muscular action, thought, act or deed performed by the 
living animal is attended with more or less waste of tissue, 
and this constant wear and tear of the system calls for a 
corresponding amount of repair. If this had not been 
wisely provided for, the living being would soon cease to 
exist. This great work of recuperating and building up 
the worn out tissues of the body is performed b}- the cir- 
culating fluid — the blood. At every pulsation of the 
heart and great blood-vessels the blood is forced through 
the arterioles and capillaries to ever}- part of the animal 
fabric. This is known as the arterial circulation, and at 
the extreme end of the arterial capillaries the venous 



circulation commences in capillaries, gradualh' becoming 
larger and finall}- diverging into two large blood vessels — 
namely, the anterior and posterior vena cava, which 
terminates b}' one common trunk in the right auricle of 
the heart. By the contraction of the walls of this im- 
portant organ the blood is forced into the right \'entricle, 
and from thence into the pulmonary artery. The latter 
is the main channel through which the xenons blood is 
propelled to the lungs to become decarbonized. It divides 
and subdivides until its branches may be counted by thou- 
sands — the ramifications of which are found entwined 
around the innumerable air cells of the lungs. It is in 
this way the venous blood is brought in direct contact 
with the atmosphere through the attenuated walls of 
the delicate air cells (by a process termed endosmos). 
The interchange which takes place in the air cells of 
lungs, between the carbon and ox^-gen, causes chemical 
combustion by which carbonic acid gas is liberated and 
oxygen is absorbed. This illustrates in a brief way how 
the blood becomes dccarlwnized — it is thus changed from 
venous into arterial blood. It is then carried back to 
the left auricle of the great fountain of life — the heart, to 
be distributed to all parts of the body. Chemical com- 
bustion from an interchange of carbon and oxygen takes 
place in all parts of the body as well as in the lungs. Were 
this not the fact it would not be an easy matter to ex- 
nlain how the heat of the body is kept up. As the blood 
circulated through the lungs the globules are impreg- 
nated with oxygen. These same globules are carried in 
the circulating fluid to all parts of the bodv, and wherever 
they come in contact with venous blood decarbonization 
takes place to a certain extent in the same way that it 
does in the lungs. The theory of the decarbonization of 
the blood, though very briefly described, illustrates the 
free access the atmosphere has to the lungs and how its 
chief component part oxygen enters the blood and is thus 
carried to all parts of the s\stem. It not onlv calls to 
mind the great importance of having the air we breathe 
pure and sweet, but at the same time explains how aerial 
faiious find their way into the animal system. This ac- 
counts for malarial and tvphoid fevers, fever and ague, 
and the various epidemics and epizootics which so often 
prove fatal to men as well as the lower animals. Scientific 
research has so far failed to discover the true nature of 
this aerial poison. All we pretend to know about it is that 
it enters the blood through the medium of the lungs — 
giving rise to a low typhoid condition which the medical 
profession find it diflicult to overcome. We, however, know 
of other aerial poisons, the nature and causes of which are 
well understood. We also know that the}- are very injurious 
to the lower animals, and are solel}' to be attributed to 
ignorance and wilful neglect. We refer to the gaseous 
vapors which are constantly given off from the lungs, the 
skin, the kidneys and the bowels of horses which are kept 
in unventilated stables. Think for a moment of horses 



So 



that are conipellen to breathe the same air over and over 
again, which is invariabl}- the case in all stables that are 
crowded and badly ventilated. The failure of the lungs 
to perform their natural functions, viz. : that of the decar- 
bonization of the blood, by the neglect of the individuals 
in charge to enforce one of our most important sanitary 
laws. This leaves the blood in a vitiated condition, the 
animal in a weak and debilitated state, and of course more 
susceptible to the prevailing diseases. Under such adverse 
circumstances — with the vital forces enfeebled — is it any 
wonder that the unfortunate animals, which are made 
victims of disease through ignorance and wilful neglect, 
die a premature death often in spite of the most skillful 
medical treatment known to modern veterinary science. 



AN IMPORTANT RAILWAY CONTRACT. 
ESSRS. Chadbourne, Hazelton. & Co., general 



M 



agents of the Wenstrom Consolidated Dynamo 
& Motor Co., of Baltimore, have just closed a 
contract with the Denver, Lakewood & Golden Rail- 
wa}' Co., of Denver, Colorado, for an extensive electric 
railway. This road runs from the heart of Denver 
directly across the country- to the city of Golden, a dis- 
tance of fourteen miles, passing through several smaller 
towns on the way. The grading on this road is com- 
pleted, and the work of laying the rails is about com- 
menced. 60 lb. T rail will be used. This road is the 
only direct communication between these two cities, and 
Mr. Starkweather, vice president and general manager 
of the road, claims that the freight business alone on this 
Hne will pay a ten per cent, dividend on the investment. 

The equipment at first will consist of two 100 H. P. motor 
cars, designed by Mr. Leonard Atwood, the mechanical 
expert employed by Messrs. Chadbourne, Hazelton & 
Co. These motor cars will be fitted with special Wen- 
strom slow speed direct geared motors, designed by 
Mr. IL F. Parshall, on the same general lines as the reg- 
ular Wenstrom-Parshall slow speed street car motor. 
These are guaranteed to run 25 to 30 miles an hour, and 
haul loaded freight cars. 

For the passenger traffic, long eight wheel cars with 
the pivotal trucks will be used. These cars will be hand- 
somely fitted up and have a seating capacity of about 
forty people. The standard Wenstrom slow speed, direct 
geared motors, 30 H. P. each, will be put on these cars. 
They are calculated to run fifteen or twenty miles an hour, 
hauling two other trail cars. 

The power plant will be divided in two sections; one 
station being in Golden, the other near Denver. Each 
one will be fitted up with four 80,000 Watt-Wenstrom 
street car generators, of the newest and most approved 
design, together with the necessary steam plant to oper- 
ate them. No money will be spared to make this road 
complete in every detail. 

Chadbourne, Hazelton & Co. have had their expert, 
Mr. Atwood, in Denver for some weeks, going over this 
work and laying out necessary plans for the successful 
equipment of the entire line. It is intended to have the 
road open for traffic near the first of Maj-. 



THE NEW GRIFFIN PLANT. 

ON the first of December last, the Griltin Wheel 
and Foundry Co. began operating their new 
foundry located on Sacramento avenue between 
the C. & N. W. and C. M. & St. P. tracks. They have 
purchased thirt}-two acres, erecting thereon a most com- 
plete plant, giving them a capacity of about 800 car 
wheels per day, or more than double the capacity of their 
old works. 

The main foundr}- building is 200 x 488. Adjoining 
this building, are the engine and boiler houses, 50 x 80, 
containing the boilers and Corliss engine, which operate 
the machinery in the foundry and machine shop, the latter 
being 75 x 150 feet, containing all the latest machinery 
and tools for fitting car wheels for locomotives, cars, elec- 
tric motors, etc., also the company's special appliances for 
grinding and balancing car wheels. All the buildings are 
constructed of brick and iron. 

The }'ards are arranged with a system of standard and 
narrow gauge tracks, for the economical handling of mate- 
rial, and their switching facilities are of the best, enabling 
them to reach all roads entering Chicago. 

The output is confined wholly to chilled iron car 
wheels, of which the}' make every kind and variety which 
can be used. This company makes a specialty of their 
'' machined " wheels for electric roads. These wheels are 
first bored in the hub, and then ground on the tread 
with a true relation to the centre, being guaranteed true 
to 1-64 of an inch, thus insuring more perfect contact with 
the rails for the return current, thereby saving power and 
giving an easier riding car. The company also have 
adequate facilities for turning axles for electric motors. 



ADDITIONAL STORAGE BATTERY CARS 
ORDERED FOR DUBUQUE. 

THE Dubuque Street Railway Company is so well 
pleased with the operation of the experimental 
storage battery car operated on the Edco system, 
and which has been running in regular dail}- service since 
last August, that it has concluded to order from the Ac- 
cumulator Company three additional cars of the same 
kind, work on which we are advised has already been 
started; delivery to be made in April. 

This will make nine Edco cars in all which the Dubuque 
Company will have in operation; the first six of which 
are about ready for delivery, and will be installed in 
March. 

We are informed also that the Accumulator Company 
has arranged with the Eckington & Soldiers Home Rail- 
way Company to rent them two Edco cars, which are 
about ready for delivery, and which are to be operated 
by the Eckington & Soldiers Home Railway Company 
upon the G Street Branch of that road between the 
Treasury Department and the Pension Office, thence to 
the corner of New York avenue and Fifth street, pend- 
ing the delivery of the six new cars recently contracted 
for which will not be read}- for delivery till about May or 
June. 



'i#^ 



THE AURORA STREET RAILWAY. 



A PLANT FNTIRFI.Y NEV 



FROM CROSS TIKS TO CROSS WIRF.S. 



AL'RORA, Illinois, is an enterprising little city of 
upwards of 20,000: has four lines of railway 
running into it, the principal one of which is the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, which has its 
main car shops at this point antl einplo\'S some 3,000 
men. It is quite a manufacturing centre, including a 
large cotton mill, a corset factory, a watch factory, a 
number of large iron industries, manufactories of wind- 
mills, road carts and siher-plate, each of which em- 
ploys all the way from 200 to 1,500 hands. Its street 
railway facilities until the present time haye been of the 
most ordinary 
character, and con- 
sisted of six miles 
of single track, laid 
with a light T rail 
on which were ope- 
rated some ten cars 
without conductors 
and drawn by not 
oyer speedy mules. 
The greater por- 
tion of the equip- 
m e n t throughout 
had been purchas- 
ed second-hand, 
after haying been 
discarded by some 
of the Chicago 
companies. In 
spite of these dis- 
ad\antages the 
company had done 
fairly well, but the 
rapid increase in 
the growth of the 
place and the large 
number of new 
manufacturinff in- 




POWER HOCStt AS SEEN FROM OPPOSITE BANK OF FOX RIVER. 



dustries which are now coming in ha\e"made'it necessan,- 
that the street railway of Aurora should be changed to 
electricity to keep pace "with the other improyements 
of the city. In July, 1890, the old company transferred 
all its rights and property to a New York syndicate, of 
which Mr. Dobson is the president, and after some delay, 
additional franchises \yere secured, and early in September 
the work of reconstruction was begun. The old tracks 
were torn up and replaced by new ties, chairs and a 
67-lb. girder rail on all streets which were payed, and 
with a T rail of the same weight on the remaining lines. 
The rail was all furnished by the Illinois Steel Co., and 
is one of the heayiest rails they haye yet furnished, for 
street railway purposes, to any but the largest cities. 



'l^he Johnson Company, of Johnstown, Pa., haye fur- 
nished all the curyes, of which there are a large number, 
some of 40ft. radius; but the cars glide around them as 
smoothh- as on straight track, and haye no difficulty 
whate\'er in starting with their heayiest loads from a dead 
.stop in the centre of the curye. 

As will be seen from the cut, the arrangement of tiie 
buildings, one of which contains the shops and car house, 
the other offices, engine and boiler rooms, is mo.st con- 
yenient. To lessen the fire risk the two are separated, 
except at the rear, by a 11 ft. pa.ssage-vvay. The ofiices 

and waiting-rooms 
for employes are 
finished in Georgia 
pine and present a 
most inyiting ap- 
pearance. Special 
accommodations 
haye been pro\ided 
for the men, includ- 
ing waiting-room, 
reading-room and 
toilet-room on the 
first fl o o r and 
above that a large 
room containing 
good sized lockers, 
with individual 
keys for each em- 
ploye, in which 
he may keep his 
citizen's clothes 
while on dut}- and 
such other person- 
al effects as he may 
desire. A wide en- 
trance leads from 
the hall between 
the Superintend- 
ent's room and the other offices, to the engine room, which 
is a large room 40 feet in height, well lighted by windows 
and sky-lights. Ample provision has been made for add- 
ing more than double the driving machinery which is at 
present in use, when that time shall come. 

Between the Superintendent's office and engine room 
is a store room devoted exclusiveh- to electrical supplies, 
which are conveniently placed upon divided shelves ex- 
tending around the room. A small truck in one corner 
bears an armature ready for immediate use in case of ac- 
cident. On the opposite side of the hall is a small repair 
shop devoted to repairs of driving machinery and boilers, 
while adjoining this are two commodious bed-rooms, 
nicely furnished, for the use of engineers and firemen. 



82 



The engines and dynamos rest on foundations 1 1 feet 
deep, which in turn rest upon a bed of solid rock which 
gently slopes toward the riyer. In the rear of the engine- 
room is the boiler-room, conyeniently arranged, permit- 
ting the storage of 500 tons of coal. Provision has 
been also made for the placing of extra boilers when re- 
quired. The water supply is drawn directly from the 
Fox riyer, on the banks of which and about 1 5 feet above 
the water line the building stands. The fuel is brought 
in on a private side-track, which extends the length of 
the building and between it 
and the river, and the coal 
is shovelled directly from 
the cars through windows 
into the boiler-room. The 
stack is one of the most 



The car house has a street frontage of 190 ft., and ex- 
tends to the river, a distance of 195 ft.; is one of the best 
lighted in the country, by windows on three sides and 
numerous sky-lights, and at night by 4 arc and no incan- 
descent lights. Reference to the accompanying sketch 
will show division of room, which has been made with a 
view to convenience and economy of time in handling 
cars. Ten tracks each 125 ft. long extend from the 
transfer track to the end of the building. Each track is 
provided \\ith a pit five feet deep, reached by easy steps, 
lighted by powerful incandescent lamps, and 
long enough to permit of working on two 
cars at once. Communication is also estab- 
lished between each pit, leaving little to be 
desired in this direction. Of course, cars are 
shifted in the house by one of the Hathaway 




FRONT VIEW OF POWER AND CAR HOUSE. 



shapely in the West : it is octagonal in shape, 155 feet in 
height, contains 358,000 brick, is lined with fire-brick for 
a distance of 60 feet. The flue is of a uniform diameter 
of 92 inches. The stack is surmounted bj- an iron cap 
weighing three tons, from which springs an iron flag-staff 
25 feet high. 

The power is derived from two 250-horse power 
straight line engines, built by Samuel L. Moore & Sons. 
One engine is more than sufficient at present to do the 
work, the other being held in reserve. The engine 
makes 200 strokes per minutes and drives two 80,000 
watt Edison dynamos which supply the current. 

The boilers are the well-known Babcock & Wilcox 
tubular, two in number and of 250-horse power each. The 
steam water entering the boilers passes through a purifier 
furnished byStilwell & Baj-ers, Dayton, O., and the steam 
fitting, which is very complete, by Crane Bros., Chicago. 



transfer tables, which is operated by a 5-horse power 
Edison motor located in a pit at end of transfer track, and 
which carries a car at a speed of 100 feet in 23 seconds. It 
is operated by levers at convenient intervals, so that one 
man can easily and quickly handle all the cars, which is 
done entirely by electricity, the trolley wires extending the 
lengtli of the room over each of the storage tracks. The 
car house will accommodate fifty cars. The paint room 
in one corner is separated by a brick partition from a 
good sized repair shop, capable of holding two cars and 
supplied with necessary machinery. Next to this is the 
wash-room, supplied with hot and cold water and steam 
pipes for drying purposes. Each of these rooms has 
large sliding doors extending to the ceiling, 23 feet 10 
inches high. The roof is carried on wooden posts which 
rest on a bed-rock foundation. The buildings are of 
brick, and present a very attractive appearance from 



lfegrf:%U#Vl%^««fe- 



83 



without, and money has not been spared to make tliem as 
convenient as possible in every respect. It certainly is 
one of the model plants of the country. 

The change from mules to electricity is scarcely less 
marked than the comparison of the old bob-tail cars with 
the new equipment, which has been furnished by the Gil- 
bert Car Co. of Trov, N. Y. The new cars are fifteen 
in number, of the double vestibule stvle, and are models 



wheels" from the New York Car Wheel Works of Buf- 
falo. The truck is of the Gilbert make, and has a pecul- 
iar arrangement of the springs which secures an extremely 
easy riding car, entirely free from all rocking, although 
the wheel base is but seven feel. The motor frame sus- 
pends directly from the axles. A second frame rests on 
four half-eliptical springs. At each of the four corners 
of this frame is placed one eliptical spring, which in turn 




sr fi^r j^friiiv 



GROl'ND PLAN" AVRORA CITY RAILWAY ELECTRIC PLANT. 



of beauty and convenience : twentv-eight feet o\er all, 
weigh eight tons complete, and seat thirty passengers. 
The motors are the Rae type, from the Detroit Electrical 
Works, each car being driven b}- one 30-horse power 
moter placed between the car axles and securely boxed 
against dust and water. The motor makes 900 revolu- 
tions per minute to secure a speed of 12 miles per hour. 
The wheels are thirty inches in diameter, weighing 350 
lbs. each, and are what are known as the " machined 



carries the car box. The longitudinal distance between 
the centres of these last named springs is 1 1 feet 6 inches. 
The interior of the car is very elaborately finished in 
brass and hard woods. The windows, six on each side, 
are 30 inches square, furnished with spring roller cur- 
tains, while at night the car is brilliantly illuminated by 
two chandeliers, which contain two lamps each, made b}' 
Josephine D. Smith. They are fitted with glass shades 
and suspended bv brass hangers, making a lighting fix- 



ture handsome enough for any parlor. At one end of 
the car is a Standard Register, of which eighteen are in 
use by the Aurora Compan}-, and midway is one of 
Lewis & Fowler's heaters, which insures comfort in cold 
weather. In summer the stove, which is a ver}' attract- 
ive piece of furniture, can be remo\ed and a section of 
seat substituted. 

The outside lighting is by 1 2-inch headlights furnished 
by the Adams & Westlake Co. Each platform is vesti- 
buled and entered by two side doors. The motor man 
can drive from either end, appliances for this purpose 
being so arranged that when in use he has the vestibule 
exclusively to himself, and the doors of the other plat- 
form swing back and hide the brake lever from view or 
interference b}- the passengers. There is one step from 
the ground to the platform, and a short step from plat- 
form to car floor, which avoids the use of the double 
step outside. An overhead sign b}' dav and a colored 
bulls-eve light at night at each end of the car designates 
its route. 



The contract for the entire construction work, includ- 
ing buildings, track, and overhead wires, was taken by 
Drake & Orton, of 45 Broadway, N. Y., the work being 
under the immediate supervision of Mr. Orton. Mr. Wm. 
MacQuesten has had charge of the electrical department 
of the w^ork. Both these gentlemen are entitled to great 
credit for the painstaking care and thorough supervision 
with which the}' have directed the construction. 

The city is built from the river banks along the \alley 
and up over and upon the hills which rise on either side. 
There is quite a rivalry between the "East" and "West" 
sides, and nature evidently anticipating these harmless 
hostilities, thoughtfully formed a large island in the middle 
of the river. On this are built the postoffice, public read- 
ing room, and such other public offices as are of a general 
nature. The power house of the Electric Railway finds 
its home very prettily on the east bank of the river, and 
while something of a card for the sectionalists on that 
side, the rival half on the western banks has its full share 
of the railway tracks. The whole city, however, is verj- 




AURORA CITY RAILWAY COMPANY — 'THE NEW AND THE flLn. 



There are twelve miles of track, several grades, one 
of which is 6.91, but at a recent trial a car loaded to its 
utmost capacit}' had no difficulty in mounting this grade 
at a speed of ten miles per hour, coming to a full stop 
when half way up and again starting and securing its 
speed in a distance of two car lengths. The work 
throughout is most perfect, and makes this one of the 
best as it is one of the latest plants in the countrv. Fif- 
teen motor cars w'ill go into service immediately, and a 
summer equipment is now building. The conductors will 
wear a blue uniform and motor men one of grav, cut 
double-breasted, with brass buttons bearing the words 
"Aurora City Railvvav." 

Mr. T. C. Oakman is in charge as General Manager, 
and the future of the Companj-, equipped as it is with 
every possible convenience, is verj- bright. Extensions 
are already being considered and doubtless will be made 
within a few months. 



much pleased with the i\e\\ order of tilings, and have 
e\er\- reason to feel proud of their road and its equip- 
ment which has cost $350,000, of which $50,000 was 
spent on the power and car house. 

A banquet was tendered the officers and contractors 
by the business men of Aurora and proved a suitable cel- 
ebration of the completion of a work that is liighlv satis- 
factory. 

Mr. McQuesten leaves in a few days to install the Con- 
solidated Companv's electric plant, at Syracuse, N. Y. 



Thk L}nn, Mass., Bee aptly saj's: "The cable and 
electric raihva^-s are playing havoc with the horse mar- 
ket. It is stated there has been a falling off of 50 per 
cent in the price of horses in New York since the intro- 
duction of these motive powers. The horse has been a 
faithful servant to man: it is time to gi\e him a well mer- 
ited rest." 



&S«i:^U^^»^ewfe^ 



85 



STREET RAILWAY LAW. 

KDITED BY MR. FRANK II. CLARK, ATTORNEY AT LAW, CHICAGO. 



Liability for Assault by Conductor. 

A street railroad company is responsible to a passenger for a battery 
bv the conductor committed first on the car, and repeated shortly 
afterwards at the office of the company whither the passenger had 
gone to make complaint to the superintendent. 

THE jury found for the plaintiff below, returning a 
\crclict for two thousand dollars. The motion for 
a new trial complains of no error by the court, but 
attacks the verdict as contrary to law, to evi- 
dence, etc., and as excessive in amount. The motion was 
overruled, and upon appeal, in deli\crin<j; the opinion, the 
court said: 

Treating the testimony of the plaintiff and his witnesses 
as reliable, and as presenting the whole truth of the case, 
there can be no doubt that the \erdict was warranted in 
all respects. The plaintiff, being a passenger on a street 
car, was called upon by the conductor for his fare. He 
had money in his pocket, and, telling the conductor to 
wait a minute, was feeling for a nickel, when he was 
seized bv the conductor and ordered off the car. A 
struggle ensued, and the conductor kicked him off the 
platform, the car being in rapid motion. The plaintiff 
then repaired immediatelv to the office of the compan\- 
for the purpose of making complaint to the superin- 
tendent. He reached the office in about 18 or 20 min- 
utes. The conductor arrived at or about the same time. 
The conductor cursed him, kicked him again twice, hit 
him with his fist, and shoved him away. Others present 
took part with the conductor, and plaintiff was badlv 
beaten. The conductor plunged a knife into him. His 
left arm was broken, and the cut with the knife was in 
the back of the head. He became unconscious, and was 
afterwards picked up b)' a policeman, some two blocks 
distant from the office. He could not say exactly where 
and at what time he was cut, but he saw the conductor, 
while on the platform of the office, draw a knife from his 
pocket and open it with his teeth. The evidence ad- 
duced by the company conflicted with this account in 
several material respects, but that conflict counts for 
nothing on this writ of error, the jury having found in 
favor of the plaintiff, and their finding having been ap- 
proved by the presiding judge. The company is respon- 
sible for the unlawful violence and misbehavior of its 
employes, both on the cars and at the office. Gasway 
v. Railroad Co., 58 Ga. 216: Peeples v. Railroad Co., 
60 Ga. 281; Railroad Co. v. Turner, 78 Ga. 292; Rail- 
way Co. V. Brauss, 70 Ga. 368; Christian v. Railway 
Co., 79 Ga. 460. There was no error in denying the 
motion for a new trial. 

(Sup. Ct. Ga.: Savannah St. R. Co. v. I5ryan, 9 Ry. 
& Corp. L. Jour. 136.) 

Electric Railroad — Frig-Jileiiinii- Horse — Contributory 
jYc<rlii>-eiice. 

It is not negligence on the part of an electric railway 
company not immediately to stop the train on seeing a 
frightened horse with its driver at its head near a crossing 
350 or 400 feet distant, where the speed of the train is 



decreased and there is nothing to indicate to the em- 
ploNes that there is any particular danger. 

One who deliberately drives his horse into a place of 
danger near a railroad track, with a full knowledge of 
the situation and danger, for the express purpose of test- 
ing the horse as to his disposition to become frightened, 
is guilty of such contributory negligence as will prevent 
a recovery, where the horse becomes frightened at a train 
and runs away. 
(Sup. Ct. Mich.; Cornell v. Detroit E. R. Co., 46 X. W. 

Rep. 791. 
Riding on Front Platform of Car — Care Ra/uircd of 

Conductor — Injury to Boy Alighting- front Car — 
Liability of Comfany. 

The front platform of a crowded street car is not a 
place of known danger so as to render it negligence fcr 
sc, either upon the part of the company or an adult pas- 
senger or one reasonabh' competent to care for himself, 
to permit him to occupy the platform when the car is in 
motion. 

A street car company is not liable for injuries to a boy 
eight j-ears of age, sustained by his stepping off the front 
platform where he was standing while the car was in 
motion without the knowledge of the conductor, where 
the interior, as well as both platforms, was crowded. 

A street car conductor is not required to exercise 
critical skill or judgment while in the performance of his 
ordinary duties in a crowded car, in observing closely 
the capacity or intelligence of a particular pa.ssenger, but 
is held only to that degree of discrimination which a 
reasonably prudent and observing man would exercise 
under the circumstances. 

(Sup. Ct. Pa.; Sandford v. Hestonville, M. & F. Pass. 
R. Co., 20 Atl. Rep. 799.) 
Injury to Person Stepping- into Depression Under Rail — 

Ordinance Requiring Maintenance of Drain — Liability 

of Company. 

The plaintiff, while attempting to cross a street rail- 
way, stepped into a depression in the pavement over 
which the rail passed, and, her feet having caught, she 
fell forward and sustained the injuries complained of. It 
appeared that this condition of the street was the result 
of a regulation of the city which required a drain to be 
maintained at that place to carry off the surface water 
into the sewer, but there was no evidence that the rail- 
way company was in default, either as to the construction 
or the maintenance of the drain. 

Held, that the company was not in any way liable, and 
that a verdict in its favor should have been directed. 

(Sup. Ct. Pa.; Campbell v. Frankford and Southwark 
R. W. Co., 48 Leg. Intel. 78.) 
Open Cars— Passenger Struck by Passing Car— Duty 

of Conductor to Warn. 

It is not negligence on the part of the conductor of an 
open street car not to warn a passenger standing on the 
platform of any possible danger of being struck bj- a 



86 



passing car, where the distance between the parallel 
tracks is such that no accident from that cause has occur- 
red in the twenty- years' use of open cars on such tracks. 

A street railway company is not bound to so construct 
its track that it will be impossible for a passenger stand- 
ing on the outside of an open car to reach or be struck 
by a car on a parallel track. 

(^Sup. Ct. N. Y. : Craighead v. Brooklyn City R. Co., 25 
N. E. Rep. 387. 

Elevated Railuay — Action to Enjoin Operation — Dam- 
ages to Abutter — Offset of Benefits. 

In an action b}- an abutting owner to enjoin the opera- 
tion of an elevated railroad in the street in front of his 
premises, the amount to be awarded plaintiff as the value 
of his easements of light, air and access, and to be paid 
in avoidance of the injunction, should be offset by the in- 
crease in value of the plaintiff's property derived from 
the railroad, which is not participated in b}' the public 
generallv, arising either from the proximitv of its stations 
or the facility of access it affords. 

Such increase in value is a special and peculiar benefit 
to the plaintiff's property with which the railroad com- 
pany should be credited, no matter what the number of 
properties upon which such special and peculiar benefit is 
also bestowed. 

Where the t'-ial court, b}- its rulings on defendant's 
request to find, distinctly rejected its claims to credit for 
such special and peculiar benefits conferred bj- the rail- 
way Tipon plaintiff's property, it cannot be assumed in 
support of the award made that the court allowed them 
in the computation of the amount, especially where the 
contrary inference may be drawn from the record. 

Although the error would be ineffectual to reverse the 
judgment, if it merely affected the amount to be paid in 
avoidance of the injunction, 5'et it is otherwise where the 
error goes to the foundation of the action, and involves 
the question whether the plaintiff would be entitled to 
injunctive relief, since it might be shown that the benefit 
preponderated over the injury. 

(Ct. of Appls. N. Y. Co.: Gray v. Manhattan R. Co., 
9 Ry. & Corp. L. Jour. 147. 
Improper Conduct of Passenger — Expulsion from Car. 

On the trial of an action against a street railway com- 
panv for ejecting the plaintiff from its car, the company- 
attempted to justify the expulsion on two grounds; the 
plaintiff's refusal to pay fare and his use of language cal- 
culated to disturb other passengers. The court instructed 
that even if the plaintiff did not pay his fare, or some one 
pav it for him, and the conductor in charge of the car did 
not undertak;.' to remove him in a peaceable manner, us- 
ing no more force than was necessary, but pu.shed or 
threw him off the car while in motion, etc., held, that the 
instruction could not have been understood as excluding 
from the jury the consideration of the testimony tending 
to show misconduct of the plaintiff calculated to disturb 
the other passengers, especially when the jurv were told 
by other instructions that the conductor would be justified 
in putting plaintiff off the car for using vulgar and inde- 
cent language loud enough to disturb other passengers. 



While a conductor of a street railwa}- is justified in ex- 
pelling a passenger for the use of vulgar and indecent 
language to the annoyance of other passengers, still 
the law does not justify unreasonable and excessive force, 
or permit the removal of such passenger from the car at a 
place or uuder circumstances dangerous to life or limb. 

A street railway conductor has no right to put a pass- 
enger off his car for the use of vulgar and indecent lan- 
guage in a tone loud enough to attract the attention of 
other passengers and refusing to desist, unless such lan- 
guage is calculated to annoy and disturb them. 

Railway companies are not conservators of the public 
or private morals. But they may and should adopt and 
enforce such reasonable rules as will protect their passen- 
gers from injury, insult, disturbance or annoyance. Their 
dut}' to pre\ent the use of offensive language on their cars 
is for the protection of their passengers and arises out of 
their duty to passengers. 

(Sup. Ct. 111.; The Chicago City Ry. Co. vs. Pelletier, 
23 Chi. Leg. News 15.) 

Consolidation of Street Eaihvays. — Injunction. — Pennsyl- 
vania Constitution. 

Although the term " railroad " and " railway" are gen- 
erally sjnonvmous and interchangeable, yet it is evident 
from the way in which these terms are used in Const. 
Pa. art. 17, that " railroads " is applied to steam railroads, 
and " railway " to street railwaj-s, and therefore section 4 
thereof, which forbids the consolidation bj' purchase or 
lease of an}- " railroad, canal, or other transportation " 
companies owning, or having under their control, parallel 
or competing lines, does not apply to street railway com- 
panies owning, and the latter, though parallel, will not be 
enjoined from consolidating. Street railways, though par- 
allel, cannot be " competing " in the sense of the mischief 
intended to be prevented and the prohibition does not ap- 
ply to them. 

(Sup. Ct. Pa. ; Appeal of Montgomery, 8 Ry. & Corp. 
L. Jour, 462.) 

Collision hctzveen Street Car and Railway Car. — Negli- 
gence. — Injurv to Passenger. — Remote and Pro.ximate 

Cause. — Damages. 

A passenger on a street car ha\ing been injured by a col- 
lision with a railroad car through the concurrent negligence 
of the two companies, neither can recover against the other. 

A railroad car had been left close to a street car track, 
but not so near as to interfere with passing street cars 
driven at the usual speed. The position of the railroad 
car being known to the driver of the street car, he at- 
tempted to pass it at a rapid and unusual speed. A col- 
lision resulted, and a passenger on the street car was in- 
jured. Held, that the negligence of the railroad com- 
pany was only the remote cause of the accident, and it 
w-as not liable to the passenger. 

The only injury received by the passenger was a cut on 
his lip, for treating which his physician charged $5. He 
lost a part of one day, and suffered no other loss of time 
or monev. Held, that a verdict of $200 was excessive. 

(Ct. of Appls., Tex.: Texas & Pac. R. Co. v, Doher- 
ty, 15 S. W. Rep. 44. 



®^et:^ttilM!&^-^)^^ 



87 



THE PROVIDENCE CONVENTION. 



THE tliirtcciith (.onvcntiDn of the National Eluctri 
Light Association was held in Providence, com-J|l| 
niencing Tuesday morning, February 17. The at- ' 
tendance was very large, and the exercises and 
papers read were intensely interesting. Its deliberations 
were governed bv President Perry and the sessions w'ere 
held in the large room of the tine Masonic Temple. The 
President, in his opening address, established a new epoch, 
based on Franklin's kite of 1752, and dates the great 
electrical discoveries which ha\e since been made as so 
many years "A. F." (after Franklinj. The first paper 
was by W. H. Markland, of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Co., who fully discussed the question of lighting in rail- 
wav depots, and predicted the coming of the day when 
all trunk lines will light their tracks between stations. 
For out-door lighting he much preferred the arc light on 
account of the constant deposit of soot and smoke b}- 
locomotives. At the second session the report of the 
committee on underground conduits and conductors was 
somewhat meagre, owing to the failure to receive replies 
to questions which had been sent out. E. R. Weeks, of 
Kansas Citv, followed with a report on the "Relations 
between Manufacturing Companies and Central Stations." 
A paper bv F. H. Prentiss w'as read by Judge Arm- 
strong in the absence of the writer, on " The Distribu- 
tion of Steam from the Central Station," and included a 
detailed report of the New York Steam Co. In the dis- 
cussion which followed, Dr. R. S. Bishop, Mr. A. L. Ide, 
Mr. Porter and Mr. Weeks took part. 

The third session opened Wednesday morning and 
was set apart as Pioneer's Day. President Perry shared 
the honors of the platform with Prof. Elihu Thompson, 
Mr. Thos. D. Lockwood, Mr. J. H. Herrick and Prof. J. 
Elfreth Watkins, Secretary of the United States Museum. 
Letters of regret were read from Dr. Norvin Green, the 
venerable presfdent of the Western Union Telegraph 
Co., Cyrus W. Field, Mr. G. D. Ward, manager of the 
Commercial Cable Co., Alexander Graham Bell, Gen. 
Francis A. Walker, president Minnesota Institute of 
Technologv, and Benjamin F. Butterworth. 

Dr. Green was to have spoken on Overland Construc- 
tion, but in his absence Mr. T. D. Lockwood discussed 
"The Telephone." 

Upon the subject of Electrical Traction, General Man- 
ager Monks, of the West End, Boston, uas the first 
speaker, and in the course of his remarks said : The busi- 
ness of electric railroading is vet in its infancv. The tirst 
electric car was started in Boston on Jan. i, 1889, at first 
with the Sprague svstem and later on with the Thomson- 
Houston. There has been a continued and renewed ex- 
pression of conJidence on the part of the people in the use 
of electrically propelled street cars. At present \\ e ha\e 
sixty miles operated by electricit\-, on which are run three 
hundred cars, making a daily mileage of eighteen thou- 
sand miles, and carrying on an average of 125.000 pas- 
sengers a day. This entirely by electricity. During the 
week in which the Grand Arnu' was in session in Boston 



L . we carried on the electric lines one millicn pa.ssengers, 
1' without the loss of a single trip or the inconvenience of 
any delays. What was formerly called " the experi- 
ment" has passed to a stage where the people not only 
consent, but insi.st upon it. In fact, the demand comes 
from so many quarters we find it impossible to meet them 
all at once. 

I am of the opinion that the motor of the electric sys- 
tem of the future will be placed elsewhere than under the 
car. for I do not believe in that location the motor can 
have the life and durability which the extremely hard and 
constant wear of street railway work requires. 

Prof. Watkins read a paper entitled " The place of 
Electrical Industries in History," which was replete with 
interesting data in condensed form. 

A resolution was adopted recommending the jiroposed 
action of Congress to recompense the friends of Joseph 
Henrv for the discoveries made by him. 

The " Organization of the National Electric Light As- 
sociation" was assigned to C. W. Price, who presented 
the subject in an attractive manner, and was followed by 
J. H. Herrick, of the Edison General Electric Company, 
and E. Wilbur Rice, of the Thompson-Houston Company. 

Mr. G. M. Phelps introduced a resolution con\eying 
the sympathy of the Association to Mr. Geo. Worthing- 
ton, who through serious illness was unable to be present. 
Mr. Frank Sprague, whose name is so familiar to street 
railwav men, was called for and following the line of re- 
miniscenses as the subject had been presented he cited 
some in his own experience. In 1878 and 1889 while in 
Japan and Asia in the service of the United States 
Naw, he was even then working on an electric 
motor. A little later he was fortunately ordered home, 
and visiting the works of Wallace & Sons in Ansonia, 
Conn., saw there a crude attempt at transmission of elec- 
trical power. In 1880 Mr. Sprague set up a machine 
and made his tirst actual experiments in building a dyna- 
mo. He also gave a racy account of his labors at Rich- 
mond, Va., whose electric railway being one of the 
first, necessarily had many very trying experimental 
experiences, in the working out of which the cause 
and the company suffered to a considerable extent. But 
that has alwavs been the history of in\entions. On the 
occasion of their first trip up a ten per cent, grade, with 
motors altogether too light for such work, and with which 
it would not be attempted in these days; the motor became 
overheated, and of the incident Mr. Sprague humorously 
says : " As we approached the grade I said to the super- 
intendent, 'We cannot mount it.*" "Well," he said, " it 
will go up, and I will bet you $5 I will take you up." 
We started and we mounted the hill. When we had got 
to the top it had setded the question of traction on a ten 
per cent, grade: it had also setded the fact that the mo- 
tors we had were altogether too small and too light, be- 
cause they were hotter than perhaps the furnace in an 
electric welding apparatus. Getting to the top, we thought 
the best thin<r we could do was to stand still a little while. 



One of mv assistants, Mr. Green, was with me. I said to 
him. " Green, I think we had better send for some instru- 
ments; I think a little accident has happened to one of the 
machines." So we laid down in the bottom of the car 
until he got those instruments, which were four strong 
mules, for it was necessary to get that car back into the 
car-shed that night." 

The fourth session was held Wednesday- afternoon and 
was marked b}- a paper on "The Electric Arc and its uses 
in Lighting" by Prof. Elihu Thomson, and illustrated by 
numerous diagrams. Dr. Lewis Bell reported for com- 
mittee on '• Proper Classification of the Lighting Power 
of Incandescent Lamps." 

Thursday- morning the fifth session listened to a paper 
bv Caryl D. Haskins, entitled "The Terranti System, 
which was followed b}- Distribution and care of Alternat- 
ing Currents," by T. Carpenter Smith. The next paper 
was "Mutual Insurance of Accounts," b}- Frederick 
A. C. Perrine, and the report of the committee on data. 

Election of officers resulted in C. R. Huntley, Buffalo, 
President; J. I. Aver, St. Louis, First Vice-president. 

Montreal was designated as the place of the next meet- 
ing, date to be hereafter named by Executive Committee. 



Latest Trolley Hanger. 

THE Electrical Supply Co., of Chicago, have just 
brought out a new hanger from which to suspend 
trolley wires. The hanger is composed of two 
jaws which are held in place by a clamp bolt and securel\- 
grasps the wire. This form of hanger is \ery easy to 
apply, its hold upon the wire is positive, and admits of 
easy removal when desired. As seen in the cut, the wire 
is not entirely covered, its under surface being exposed 




and admitting of perfect contact with the trolley wheel. 
The insulating material is of hard rubber, and the whole 
is covered by a metal canopy. The hanger is very sim- 
ple in construction, is made of the best materials, and is 
very strong, and it is impossible for the wire to become 
released from the clamp. The attachment of the span 
wire to the hanger is a form generally adopted, and one 
which experience has proved to be very satisfactory. 
The hanger is so arranged as to fully clear the trolley 
wheel in passing and is very durable. 



A PROMINENT EUROPEAN MANAGER. 

THE subject of this sketch, Mr. Wm. Anderson, is 
a native of Dublin. At the age of thirteen he 
entered as a junior office assistant in an omnibus 
establishment which was being run b)- a relative of his, 
a Mr. Anderson. 

A few months later the concern was purchased b}- a Mr. 
Wilson, one of the well-known London omnibus proprie- 
tors, to whom "Wm. Anderson" was transferred, and is 
indebted for the earlj' business training which extended 
o\er many years, and fitted him for the important posi- 
tions he afterwards filled. 

After the introduction of tramways, in 1872, the omni- 
bus system ceased to exist. It was bought by the Dublin 
Tramway's Co., who retained Wm. Anderson's services 
and appointed him Manager in 1873, a position he filled 
until 1 88 1, when an amalgamation of the then existing 
tramwaj's took place and the present Dublin United 
Tramways Co. was established with a capital of £600,000 
and Wm. Anderson as Secretary and Manager. 

The manner in which he discharged his duties is best 
described in the resolutions passed by the Directors 
prior to their joining the Board of the new company : 

'■'■Resolved, That Wm. Anderson, having been appoint- 
ed Secretary and Manager of the Dublin United Tram- 
ways Company, the Directors hereof desire to place on 
record their high appreciation of his services since the 
formation of the Company in 1872. To his upright con- 
duct and able management they attribute much of the 
success which the Company has attained, while his cour- 
teous demeanor made it a pleasure to be associated with 
him in conducting its affairs." 

Since 1881 Wm. Anderson has managed the Dublin 
United Tramways Co. with much credit, and how he has 
helped to bring it to its present useful position is shown 
in the chairman's acknowledgment of his services at the 
recent stockholders' meeting, and which was so cordially 
endorsed by the proprietors. In pursuance of tramway 
knowledge, and in the belief that there is always some- 
thing to be learned, he takes advantage of his annual 
holiday to visit tramway centres. 

In this way he has been to the chief tramways in Great 
Britain and to many on the continent, to keep himself in 
touch with what is going on all around. 

In furtherance of this object we would be glad if Mr. 
Anderson came westward and took a holiday run across 
the Atlantic to the States, where, with a couple of weeks 
at his disposal he would see much to interest and to 
invite his thoughtful investigation in electrical and cable 
railwa3'S, while in the way of horse traction he would 
find the managers of such roads here would gratefully 
Jisten to his views, the careful result of a long service as 
manager of one of the largest, and certainly one of the 
best conducted, horse car systems in the world. 



The receipts of the St. Paul Street Railway Co. for 
1890 were $590,802.57, which will be very largely in- 
creased the present year as the company is operating en- 
tirely without the use of horses. 



humd ^^v^r^f^v^ 




WM. ANDERSON, 

Secretary and General Manager, 

UNITED TRAMWAYS COMPANY. DUBLIN. 



THE CENTENNIAL OF THE AMERICAN PATENT SYSTEM. 



89 



THE following call has been issued to the inventors 
and niaiiufaclurers of America, to join in a pro- 
per celebration of the completion of the first 
cenlurv of our patent system, and to further 
commemorate the e\ent hv the formation of a national 
association of inventors: 
To the Inventory aini Maiiiijactiircrs of' America : 

" The completion of the first century of the American 
Patent Sj^stem marks so important an epoch in the history 
of the nation, that it is eminently proper that the bej,nn- 
ning of the second shall not pass unnoticed. 

The centennial anniversaries of other important na- 
tional events have been celebrated in a manner \vorth\- of 
a people proud of their country and its growth. Surely 
the system that has aided the agriculturist in the field, the 
mechanic in the shop, and the toiler in the mine: that has 
stimulated invention and helped everj- branch of modern 
industry has pla\ed no small part in a history so full of 
the triumphs of human achievement. 

lielieving that the American inventor and manufactu- 
rer of inventions will regard it a privilege as well as a 
dutv to co-operate in making due recognition of these 
facts, it is proposed to hold a celebration at the National 
Capital, in April, 1891, which shall, in a fitting manner, 
commemorate the important event, and place on record 
the Nation's appreciation of the labors of those whose in- 
ingenuitv, patience and tireless efforts have exercised such 
a potent influence in accelerating the prosperous growth 
of the nation, and in aiding the progress of our civilization. 

The necessity for a national association of inventors, 
organized for mutual benefit, has been frequently dis- 
cussed in the technical and other journals. No time could 
be more opportune for the formation of such an associa- 
tion than when men from ever\- part of the countr}- meet 
to celebrate so important an anniversary. Surely the 
occasion is most inspiring." 

This announcement b}- the secretary, Mr. J. Elfreth 
Watkins, of the central committee, is a clear index of w hat 
is to be expected on this occasion. 

The central committee is composed of Messrs. John \V. 
Babson, Robt. W. Fenwick, B. H. Warner, Prof. OtisT. 
Mason, M. M. Parker, Hon. John Lynch, M. C. Stone 
and J. Elfreth Watkins, of Washington, and has the earnest 
co-operation of Senators Piatt and Teller, Representative 
Butterworth and other members of the congressional pat- 
ent committee, and Hon. C. E. Mitchell, Commissioner 
of Patents, Dr. G. Brown Goode, Curator at the National 
Museum, Hon. A. R. Spofford, Congressional Librarian, 
and many other officials of the governmental departments. 

Commodious rooms for the meetings of the various 
committees, with telephone service, have been provided, 
and clerks are busily engaged sending out communica- 
tions to inventors, manufacturers and members of congress, 
with a view of obtaining information as to the most suit- 
able men to be appointed from the different States of the 
Union as delegates or representatives to the Centennial 
celebration. 



The responses are indicative of great interest being man- 
ifested by leading inventors of the country, as well as 
manufacturers of patented articles. Among the many 
letters of approval received by the committee is one from 
Mr. Thomas A. Edison, the great electrical inventor, say- 
ing: "I am in hearty sympathy with the movement." 
Prof. Alex. Graham Bell, inventor and patentee of the 
telephone, has signified his willingness to preside at one 
of the meetings of the centennial celebration. The Presi- 
dent of the United States w ill preside at the opening 
exercises; Hon. John W. Noble, Secretary of the Inte- 
rior; Hon. Frederick Fraley, LL. D., and Prof. S. P. 
Langley, LL. D., will also preside at different meetings. 

The committee on literature, consisting of Ur. G. 
Brown Goode, chairman, Hon. A. R. Spofford, and L. 
Deane, Esq., have arranged the following order of e.xer- 
cises, w hich would be \ery difficult to excel, and which 
will prove one of the greatest literary treats of the nine- 
teenth century. 

FIRST PUBLIC MEETING, AFTERNOON, APRIL 8tII, 189I, 

To be presided o\er by the President of the United States. 

SECOND PUBLIC MEETING, APRIL 8, 7 TO 8 :30 P. M. 

To be presided over by the Hon. J. W. Noble, Secretary 
of the Interior. 

SPECIAL RECEPTION TO INVENTORS .\ND MANUFACTURERS, 

and the ladies who accompany them, at the patent office, 
April 8th, 9 to 11:30?. m., by the Honorable John W. 
Noble, Secretary of the Interior, and the Hon. C. E. 
Mitchell, Commissioner of Patents. 

THIRD PUBLIC MEETING, AFTERNOON APRIL 9, 1 89 1. 

To be presided over by the Hon. Frederic Fraley, LL. D., 
president of the National Board of Trade and the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society, and charter member of the 
Franklin Institute. 

FOURTH PUBLIC MEETIXCi, EVENING APRIL 9TII, 189I, 

To be presided o\er b}' Prof. S. B. Langley, LL. D., 
secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

ANNIVERS.\RV DAY, APRIL lO, 189I. 

Anniversary of the signing of the first American Patent 
Law — "An act to Promote the Progress of the Useful 
Arts" — by George Washington. 

Excursion to Mt. Vernon, at lo a. m., where an address 
will be delivered by J. M. Toner, M. D., of Washington, 
upon " Washington as an Inventor and Promoter of 
Improvements." 

FIFTH PUBLIC MEETIN(;, APRIL lO, 189I, 

To be presided over by Prof. A. Graham Bell. 

Addresses upon the following subjects are promised at 
the public meetings. 

Edward Atkinson, Ph. D., LI . D., of Mass. — Invention in its Effects 
upon Houseliold Economy. 

Dr. John S. Billings, Curator U. S. Army Medical Museum. — Amer- 
ican Inventions and Discoveries in Medical Surgery and Practical 
Sanitation. 



90 



Hon. Samuel Blatchford, Justice of the Supreme Court of the United 
States. — A Century of Patent Law. 

Cvrus F. Brackett, M. D,, LL. D., of New Jersey, Henry Professor 
of Physics, College of New Jersey, Princeton — The Effect of Invention 
Upon the Progress of Electrical Science. 

Hon. Benj. Butterworth, Ohio, U. S. House of Representatives. — The 
Effect of Our Patent System on the material Development of the United 
States. 

Octave Chanute, of Illinois, President of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers. — The Eflect of Inventions upon the Railroad and 
other means of inter. communication. 

Prof F. W. Clarke, S. B., of Ohio, Chief Chemist, Geological Survey, 
— The Relation of Abstract Scientific Research to Practical Invention, 
with special reference to chemistry and physics. 

Hon. John W. Daniel, of Virginia, U. S. Senator. — The Ne\v South 
as an Outgrowth of Invention and the American Patent Law. 

Maj. C. E. Dutton, Ordnance Dept. U. S. A.— The Influence of In- 
vention upon the Implements and Munitions of Modern Warfare. 

Thomas Gray, C. E. B., Sec. F. R. S. E., of Indiana, Professor of 
Dynamic Engineering, Rose Polytechnic Institution, Terre Haute. — 
The Inventors of the Telegraph and Telephone. 

Prof. Otis T. Mason, Ph. D., of Virginia, Curator U. S. National Mu- 
seum. — The Birth of Invention. 

Hon. C. E. Mitchell, of Connecticut, Commissioner of Patents. — The 
Birth and Growth of the American Patent System. 

Hon. O. H. Piatt, of Connecticut, U. S. Senator — Invention and 
Advancement. 

Col. F. A. Seely, of Pennsylvania, Principal Examiner U. S. Patent 
Office. — InterniJonal Protection of Industrial Property. 

Hon. A. R. SpofVord, LL. D., Librarian U. S. Congress.— The Copy- 
right System of the United States: its Origin and Growth. 

Hon. Robert S. Taylor, of Indiana. — The Epoch Making Inventions 
of America. 

Robt. H. Thurston, A. M. LL. D., Doc. Eng., of New York, Direc- 
tor and Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Sibley College, Cornell 
University — The Inventors of the Steam Engine. 

W. P. Trowbridge, Ph. D., LL. D., of New York, Professor of En- 
gineering, School of Mines, Columbia College. — The Effect of Techno- 
logical Schools Upon the Progress of Inventions. 

Hon. Edwin Willits, of Michigan, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture. 
—The Relation of Invention to Agriculture. 

Hon, Carroll D. Wright, M. A., of Washington, Commissioner of 
Labor. — The Relation of Invention to Labor. 

Committees on reception, public comfort, transportation 
and finances have been appointed and are actively en- 
gaged making reasonable terms with the hotels, private 
boarding houses and railroad companies, and arranging for 
a right royal reception to visitors, and in obtaining contri- 
butions from the citizens of Washington and the country 
at large to defraj- the expenses attending the renting of 
committee rooms, public halls and the printing and circu- 
lation of information throughout the United States, but 
more especially are these funds solicited for the publica- 
tion of two or more handsomely printed volumes of 500 
pages each, which shall contain the addresses delivered 
by the eminent statesmen, political economists and scien- 
tists, together with biographies of the greatest American 
inventors and manufacturers of their inventions. The 
treasurer of the finance committee is the Hon. A. T. 
Britton, president of the American Security and Trust 
Co. Chairman of the reception committee is W. Cranch 
Mclntyre, Esq.: chairman committee on public comfort, 
W.C.Dodge, Esq., with sub-committees: on hotels, J. 
H. Whitaker, Esq., chairman: and on private boarding 
houses, E. T. Fenwick, Esq., chairman. 

We are indebted to Mr. Edward T. Fenwick, Patent 
Attorney, of Washington, for the list of speakers and 
subjects. 



PERSONALS. 



J. E. Goodwin has assumed management of the Mos- 
cow, Te.xas, Street Railway. 



J. B. Low, President of the Low Adjustable Car Co., 
was in the citv for a few dci\s. 



A. W. Wrkjiit has returned from his California wed- 
ding trip, and will remain in Chicago for the present. 



J.vcoH W.MiL, of Louisville, will be succeeded bv John 
Delour}- as Superintendent of the Rochester R'y Co. 



George P. Lkvy, President of the Weatherford, 
Texas Lines, has sailed for Paris, and will be absent 
sixtv davs. 



John REVNOt.us, who is as well and fa\orably known 
as his excellent paper, T//c Aafiomi/ Car and Locomotive 
Builder^ faxored us with a pleasant call a few days ago. 



Lk\"i D. Nel.son, Superintendent of the Fulton Count}- 
Electric Street Railroad Co., has resigned, and on the 
first of March went into business for himself. Mr. Nel- 
son has made a good record as railroad manager. 



Ja.mes Christy, who assisted in the construction of the 
electric road last summer, which the Cleveland Construc- 
tion Co. put in at Newark, Ohio, was recently married 
at the latter city to Miss Effie Tresize, of that place. 



W. A. E\ERHTT, Secretary of East Cleveland Ry., 
accompanied b\- his electrical engineer, C. W. Watson, 
called last week for the purpose of securing a picture 
of the editor, we presume, as he carried a big Kodak in 
one hand. 



S. H. Shaw, Superintendent of the Parkersburg, W. 
\"a.. Street Railway called last week. He was chief en- 
gineer under Genl. Sheridan on the Upper Potomac, and 
also on Genl. Crook's staff for a long time. Mr. Shaw 
conducted a government survey across Nebraska in 1857- 



Louis W.\field, recently connected w ith the mechanical 
department of the Pennsj'lvania R. R. Co., has accepted the 
position of General Manager and Treasurer of the Detroit 
Electrical Works. In Mr. Wafield they secure the services 
of one of the brightest engineers to be found in the coun- 
tr\', and a gentleman accustomed to managing large 
interests. 



John C. N. Gilbert, the enterprising Secretar\' of 
the Richard Vose Car Spring Co., was in Chicago a few 
days ago in the interests of his well known springs and 
his Swinging Hose Rack, of which more than 8,000 are 
already in use. While here he was the guest of the Chi- 
cago agent, Wm. P. Williams, and made his headquarters 
at the Union League Club. 



91 



A NEW CABLE ROAD. 

THE Atlanta Suspended L'able Railway Lo. is the 
name of a company recently organized in Adanta, 
Ga., with a paid up capital of $300,000, for the 
purpose of building in that city and elsew here suspended 
cable railways. Col. Samuel Goode, a wealthy gentle- 
man of Atlanta, who is at the head of the new company. 
The inventor is Mr. Alexander P. Xelms, who is also 
the inventor of a number of railway appliances. An ex- 
perimental track has been erected, which operates ver}' 
satisfactorily. The plan is adapted not only to passenger 
traffic through the streets of cities and towns, but can be 
utilized in the transportation of freight as well. .An ord- 
inance has been granted and construction already begim 
in the suburbs of .Adanta for lines, one of which will be 
used in transporting brick and the other stone from a 
large quarry. One line is a mile and one-half and the 
other about two miles long. Mr. T. H. McDowell, of 
New York, when in .Atlanta recendy. spent a day in 
examining the plans and models, and not only pronounced 
the scheme practicabje, but in his opinion the coming 
method of street car transit. The idea is by no means 
new, although the application of the overhead cable trac- 
tion system to passenger traffic is. 

The track upon which the w heels of the car run is a one 
and one-half inch stationar\- cable rope suspended from 
brackets or arms fastened to j)osts placed along or near 
the curb line, and at inter\als of not less than sixts" feet. 
Cars are suspended from this cable by two wheels, from 
which depend strong iron bands that encircle the body of 
the car. The cars are from six to eighteen inches above 
the ground, except at rail\vay crossings, where the main 
cable is necessarily placed at a greater elevation to allow" 
the steam cars to pass below. .Above the main or track 
cable are two smaller ^vire ropes, moving in opposite 
directions and forming an endless cable propelled bv 
drums and a stationary engine, in the same wav that the 
conduit cable roads are operated. This is for single 
track. Where double track is required, there is only the 
main suspending cable from w hich the car hangs and the 
tracUon cable from which it gets its motive power, being 
grasped by a grip on precisely the same principle as the 
cable roads now in use. 

Should it be desired to operate the cars along the 
center of the streets, the permanent or track cable 
may be suspended by posts or from cross cables stretched 
from posts on each side of the street, in the same 
manner that trolley wires are suspended bv their cross 
wires. 

To start the cars, the grip, w hich is specially designed 
for this purpose, is easily closed by a gende mo\ ement 
of the lever, and its speed may be that of the traction 
cable or as much less as desired, in proportion to the 
force w ith which the grip clutches the rope. Curves and 
grades are easily traveled. 

If desired to operate by electricity instead of bv cable 
power, the trolley wire can be suspended in place of the 
traction rope, the main suspending cable or track remain- 
ing the same. 



The advantages of this svstem are claimed to be econ- 
omy of operation and the absence of expense that attends 
the maintenance of surface tracks. 

The company have petitioned the City Council of 
Atlanta for extensive franchises, and great interest is 
being manifested in the enterprise by the people of that 
city. They are also contemplating a number of lines in 
adjoining places. 

Mr. Goode states that Mr. McDowell's firm is willing 
to guarantee the success of the system, the development 
of which will be watched with interest. 



A SEMI-CENTENNIAL. 

JOHN HARRIS, Superintendent of the Cincinnati 
Street Railway was surprised on the occasion of his 
riftieth birthday by a large company of neighbors, 
relatives and friends, who came in a body and quickly 
loaded a good sized table with their gifts. Before he 
could greet the tirst, a second partv", consisting of the 
officers and office force of the company arrived. .At the 
same instant the Glee Club, twenty strong, came around 
the comer. The finish of their serenade was the signal 
for the appearance of over tw o hundred conductors and 
drivers. The men brought with them a magnificent 
reclinincf chair, which somehow they forgot to take away 
with them when the festivities were over. Mr. Harris 
made a pleasant speech to his men, who responded with 
three cheers. But he was booked for still another speech, 
for the President of the Railway Men's Association there- 
upon produced a beautiful 3 2d degree masonic jewel set 
in diamonds, as a kindly reminder of friends in the .\sso- 
ciation. 

Mr. Harris entered the employ of the Cincinnati Street 
Railway in March. 1S66. and, as an instance of his grit, 
was married when on a salar}' of $5.00 a week, although 
he did not have to work at that figure verv" long, for he 
was steadily promoted until he became the well known 
superintendent. 

We hope Mr. Harris will live to enjoy a second semi- 
centennial characterized by the same success and popu- 
larity which so happily marked the first, w hich his railway 
friends would have supposed was still a good way off. 



GOOD CAR MAT. 

THE Brownell Car Co. make a car mat whose self- 
cleaning qualities are a sufficient guarantee of desira- 
bility". When in a neighboring town recentiy where 
the entire line had recentiy been equipped with these wood- 
en carpets, in response to the question as to how" he liked 
them the conductor replied : ■- Say, these mats are dan- 
dies. .All you have to do is to raise them up, and give 
them a shake, and the dirt falls out of them, and then put 
them back and they are clean. Why, I have not had to 
sweep out mv car vet." As the car had been on the 
road some time, probably three weeks, it gave even,- evi- 
dence that the parlA" told the truth, and while it did not 
speak very" well for the conductor certainly was a good 
send off for the mat. 



92 



CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT NOTES. 



New Cable Crossing. 

ANEW cable crossing has been patented by Dr. 
Jas. P. Orr, 638 Fifth Ave., Pittsburg, which is 
intended to reduce to a minimum the wear on 
ropes at such points. By the use of this device the cables 
are made to suffer only a slight deflection from natural 
lines, except at the moment when a grip is passing over 
the intersection, which it does by momentum after throw- 
ing out the cable from the grip jaws. 




Having passed the crossing, the grip strikes a lever 
b}' which the cable is lifted to a point directly opposite 
the open grip-jaws, and a slight curve in the track and 
slot rail brings the grip where the cable can be grasped. 
The cables then resume their normal position. One of the 
greatest disadvantages at cable crossings has been the 
extreme wear on the ropes at such points by reason of 
the sharp depression which bends the wire in one direc- 
tion, onl}- to be followed a few feet distant by another 
equal but reverse bend, as it presses over the rising pul- 
ley. The inventor claims to overcome this unusual wear 
b\' his device, which is here illustrated. 



T. P. Bailey, the large sighted manager of the rail- 
way department of the Thomson-Houston Electric Co., 
has an ofHce desk, built to order from his own design that 
for spacious compartments and elegance in material makes 
it a no small wonder. A few days ago a wealthy gen- 
tleman from Per land visited him and returning home 
wired — " I must have a desk like yours. Please have it 
built and forwarded as soon as possible." Friend Bailey 
better get a patent at once. 



Rope Driving Wheel. 

THE accompanying illustration gives a very good 
idea of the immense driving wheels which are 
made by Robt. Poole & Sons Co., of Baltimore. 
Four of these wheels were furnished for the new cable 
plant in Baltimore, and not only serve for the transmission 
of power b}' sixteen 2-inch ropes, but act as balance 




wheels also. They are 25 feet in diameter and weigh 
65,000 lbs. Two of these wheels are in service in the 
Los Angeles Cable Railway, and also one in a cable road 
at Providence. The}' are absoluteh' noiseless in opera- 
tion, and will transmit anv desired power. 



A Clarksville, Tenn., paper called the Tobacco 
Leaf, branches out of its proper vocation long enough to 
remark : " The street car company produces nothing and 
lives off the people." It may not produce many free 
rides for the editor who was the author of the sentiment, 
but it produces more for five cents than anj- other institu- 
tion, and as for living off the people its a little difficult to 
name the business that does not, certainh' the aforesaid 
editor tries to. 

As A sample of the ridiculously large amounts sued for 
by people who claim to have been injured on street cars, 
is the recent case against the Second Avenue Street Rail- 
way Co., of New York cit}-. The plaintiff, a woman, 
claimed $50,000 damages by being knocked down by one 
of the company's horses attached to a car, while she was 
crossing the street. Her own witnesses admitted that the 
accident was almost wholly due to her own stupiditj' and 
the jury awarded her $900. 



^^ 



93 



The Hathaway Patent Transfer Table. 

T I IIS tabic is ill use all ovvr tlic I 'iiiU'd Slatrs and 
Canada, and willi i1r- laic iniprovrincnts is i|uiu- a 
iHT(.'Ssar\' ihini;" for a ini)di-|-n cai" house. It is 
niadcwholK of iron and slccl, and tlic Ilalhaway im- 
proved .\nti-Friction ( uar will tiiahlu a man to transfer 
the heaviest cars. This table is equipped with 2 j-i iruh 
steel axles, 12 iiuh chilled wheels, and its construction is 
so simple that the manufacturer jjfuarantees it for four 
\ears. 

The double tables are made 20, 24, 25 and 26 feet 
lonif, and the 2^ fool table, which is used by must of tin- 



satisfaction on electric and cable roads, and is most highly 
endorsed by their engineers. Its advantage is the broad 
washer back of the nut, and being | — 
made of one jiiece of metal, makes a 
washer and lock condiini-d. It is a 
positix e lock for the nut in any position. 
With the use of heavy cars and higher 
speed, which has followed the adop- 
tion of cable and electric pow i-r, street 
railway managers ha\e been forced 
to meet a strain which was not so 
noticeable on horse lines, and the positi\e nut lock has 





HATHAWAY STANDARD TRANSFER TABLE. 



roads, is calli'd the Standard. During the past vear roads 
were etjuipped in the following places: Boston, Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Toledo, Chicago and 
Denver. Several steam railroads have these tables in 
use, and the\' are also used h\ quite a few ore docks, and 
all are iiiNiti"' the best of satisfaction. 



Jones' Positive Nut Locks. 

TWK e\tensi\e works of this successful companv' are 
now being removed from Syracuse to Chicago, 
where the manufacturing facilities will be very 
greallv extended to meet the demand alread\' large and 




now l)ecome a positive necessity. A spur lock is also 
made for the special use of car builders, and other varie- 
ties for every possible service where bolts are used. 
Thos. D. Jones is President and General Manager of the 
company. 

San Jose Electric. 

JACOB RICH, of San Jose, Cal., thinks his name 
expresses his feelings, as the owner of a whole 
electric railway- which was opened for travel Feb- 
ruary 24th, and is one of the best in the far West. The 
Thomson-Houston system was adopted, and on the trial 
trip everything was found to be in perfect working order. 
The opening ceremonies were attended by the mayor, 
city council and invited guests. 



Till'; foundry and machine department of the Harris- 
burg car w orks has been purchased by capitalists of that 
city, and the works will resume operation shortly. 



rapidly increasing. The general ofhces are in commo- 
dious quarters in the Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago. 

This nut lock, which has stood the most severe tests on 
nearly every railroatl in the country, is giving equal 



Dlkin(; the sixty years in which horse cars have been 
in operation in this country the capital invested amounted 
to $58,000,000. The electric system has been in oper- 
ation but five years and $50,000,000 are already invested 
in electric railways. 



94 



^Sigt%toi^§^^»2- 



The Westinghouse Slow Speed Motor. 

THE Westinghouse Company has recently brought 
out a new four pole, slow speed railway motor 
which will be of interest to our readers. In form 
C3-lindrical it gives the shortest possible magnetic current, 




and achieves the greatest possible strength with a compara- 
tively small expenditure of metal. The width of the motor 
is such that it >. in be used on a gauge of only 3 feet 6 inches. 
This motor is so designed that it can be 
completelv shutin without heating, thus 
most effectually boxing and protecting 
it against rain and snow, or water drip- 
ping from the car floor. Fig. i shows 
the motor thus encased. The cast iron 
frame which carries the motor is not 
unlike that already adopted by this 



and armature in perfect alignment. The gearing is close- 
ly mounted to the frame, thus preventing buckling. It is 
boxed as shown in fig. 6. 

Eas}' access to the fields and armature is attained b}' 
the metiiod of hinging the field castings as shown in 
*!&• 3- From the interior of the cylindrical shell 
the poles protrude radially and over them are slipped 
the field coils protected and held in position by a 
brass cap. Any field maj- easily be removed with- 
out disturbing the others. The armature is of the 
drum type, specially adapted to railway work. The 
armature coil is of laminated grooved iron plates, 
with slots to receive the wires. In the finished arma- 
ture the wires are completel}' imbedded in iron, and 
thus effectually protected against accident. 

The armature shaft is tapered at the end to re- 
ceive the pinion, the holes of which are also tapered 
to fit the shaft perfectly. This permits of ready re- 
moval. 
The oil cups are protected b}' being sunk in the frame. 
The brush holder. Fig. 5, consists of a square oak holder 
attached to the side of the frame and carrying the brush 





com])any, and is shown in Fig. 3. Tiie frame is made 
in one piece : the holes are bushed and maintain the axle 



holders proper, which are clamped so as to allow ready 
adjustment. The carbon brushes are placed in a sliding 
frame and held against the commutator by two springs, 
easily released bv a simple pressure of the finger when 
making renewals of carbons. 

The special mechanical points in this motor and which 
commend it are its simplicity as to parts which are prac- 
tically but two — the frame and the cylinder; its strength, 
every part being designed for a maximum strain, and 
so put together as to insure greatest possible durability, 
its high efficiency coupled with low speed: the absence 
of external magnetism ; the thorough protection of all 
working parts; and the hinged cylinder giving easy 
access to all parts, especially tlie free removal of the 
armature. 

The adx'antages of a slow speed motor drive, over 
high speed are evident to all. The periphery of the 



iS6ftlv^iU^''^i^e*^ 



95 



armatiirt' in this iiiDtor 


nioNcs at a s]ti'(.-ci cif but one- 


fourtli faster than [he 


,-ar wlu-i'l. and with but tiic one 


|iini()n is a \ ctv (lifoit 


application ot tiu' jiowtT. The 




Tiiic question of allowing street cars to run on Sunday, 
in the city of Toronto, Canada, has just been up for con- 
sideration again before llieir council, which has decided 

against it on the ground 
of morality. The " To- 
ronto \\ 'vrhV shows 
that Toronto, which has 
no Sunday cars, has a 
higher percentage of 
criminal convictions than 
five other Canadian 
cities in which there are Sunday cars. All of which 
goes to prove, what we shall alwavs maintain, that street 
cars are a great factor for good, for most ministers would 
have \er\- few sinners to preach to without them. 




electrical elliciencN' is said to be 95 per cent and the 
commercial etliciency 75 per cent, 
iorkm uiship throughout 



cireful and pains- 



The 
taking, and the relative mate- 
rials selected with a view to 
best possible results. 

Tlie wire used on the arma- 
ture is large, which reduces the 
number of turns, and therefore 
lessens the demagnetizing 
effect on the held. This oper- 
ates also to prevent sparking at 
the brushes and controlling 
switch. The large wire like- 
wise has less resistance and 
greater capacity and efficienc}-. 
Another most desirable advant- 
age is the abilit^• to remove the 
armature, which is ahva\s at- 
tended with more or less ditfi- 
' culty at the best, on account of 
the weight. The decreased 
wear on working parts is much 
less, as a high speed motion 
under the most favorable con- 
ditions of in-door service is ad- 
mitted to be considerable, and 
is largely increased when sub- 
jected to the hardships attendant 

on exposed work in daily car service. The boxing of the 
gears, as shown in Fig. 6, effectually suppresses the noise. 



That the street railways are ali\e to the wants of the 
community, and this too without an\' commissioner to whip 
them into line, is nicel}' illus- 
trated in what is said of the 
Boston West End road by 
the /Icra/d oi that cit\': " In 
all that relates to speed, com- 
fort and efficienc}- the street 
car system of Boston has 
been improved to a far greater 
extent than the urban and 
suburban steam railway sys- 
tems. I lardly a week passes, 
but that in answer to public de- 
mand, something is done to in- Fi.;. 6. 
crease the facilities for transportation offered b\ the street car 






company ; but the steam railwav services to the suburbs are 
little, if anv, better now than thev were several vears ago." 



96 



Gibbon Duplex Street Railway Tracks. 

THE Gibbon Duplex Street Railway Track Co. have- 
now completed arrangements with rolling mills in 
the East, West, South and on the Pacific Coast, 
which enables them to fill orders from the mill nearest 
the shipping point, with great saving in freight and with- 
out the delay incident to a long haul. 

The Gibbon rail is not only a girder rail; it is two of 
them, rolled in sections, which combine to form a lap joint 
and resting on metal chairs. The two sections, the head 
and flange rail, are laid so as to break joints, in what is 
in use one rail. The system of laying as shown in the 
cut readily admits of perfect guage; track is easily and 
cheaply laid, and a spring key not onl)' makes the connec- 
tion of the rails easy, but permits of expansion and con- 
traction. It is especially well adapted for electrical lines 
on account of its perfect and continuous contact through- 
out, thus rendering the wire connection at joints unecessarv. 



placed at intervals of fifteen feet, and intermediate chairs 
with tie-rods every five feet. Tie-rods are of steel, two 
inches wide by one-half inch thick. The wedge has 




harpoon 



JOINT CHAIR. 

points, and while binding the rail vertically per- 
mits free expansion. 

This system is whollj' 
of metal and follows the 
plan so generally adopted 
in England of discarding 
all wood in track con- 
struction. It likewise 
does awav with spikes, 
bolts and nuts, and sub- 
stitutes therefor the 
wedge key. Advantages 
claimed for this rail are 




The chairs constitute an important 
feature of this construction, and are 
of two forms. The joint chair is 
placed at each semi-joint of the rails. 

The vertical slots in the chairs re- 
ceive the web of the "head" and 
"flange" sections of the rails, and 
the tie bars and wedges pass through 
the T slots. The chairs ha\e broad 
bases, square, oblong or saucer shap- 
ed, as desired. They admit of easy 
renewal should occasion require, and 
having served their term of useful- 
ness, unlike wooden ties, still have a 
market value as scrap, quite an item. 






GIBBON DUPLEX TRACK. 



In track laying, only longitudinal trenches are neces- 
sary, except where lateral trenches are required for tie 
bars; and these are not large. Where the track is to be 
laid in a street already paved this is a great considera- 
tion. A pair of joint chairs connected by a tie-rod are 



its increased vertical and lateral strength with no increase 
in metal; increased wearing capacity of head rail; in 
renewals discarding only the worn porportion; simplicity 
of construction, with least possible disturbance of the 
street, and all at a reasonable cost. 



97 



A HANDSOME CAR SEAT. 

IN iIk- cafh' (la\ s of sti-ci't railroading' \\\c |iasscn;j;-L'rs 
(x\'upi(.-(l a scat upliolsU'i-ccl <)iii\ with tlif soft side- 
of some wooden slats: a little later some would-be 
aristocratic manajrers covered these seats with odd pieces 
of cheap carpet bought at job lot sales, and for a lon^;- 
time this was considered good enough. lUit to-day a 
car so furnished would be as incomplete as one without 
lamps, and the uni\ersal tendenc}' is to surround the ser\- 
ice with all possible con\eniences. Perhaps no one feature 
more tends to the popularity of a line than that of attract- 
i\e and comfortable seats, and to this end the Hale & 
Kilburn people l^ne spareil no expense to offer managers 
a line which in \arietv and ajipearance are all that any 
can desire. 

The illustration is an interior of one of a large order of 
new electric cars which the Northern Car Co. of Min- 



THE LATEST POLE. 

IF one of eat'h of the ]ioles that ha\e been de\ised for 
larrx ing electric wires for railway and lighting pur- 
]ioses were spaced out, they would be found sufficient 
to equip a goodly sized road. Each have merits which 
the latest aims to improve upon. 
A new iron pole for railway work, 
and one which will strongly com- 
mend itself for strength, appear- 
ance, and simplicity, is now offered 
b\ JuliusLefman, Fagin Building, 
St Ivouis. A cross section of the 

pole shown herewith will explain full\ its construction, 
whiih could scarct'h' be niort' simple, and utilizes the 
cylindrical sha])e so potent for strength, with the use of 
the least possible material. Specially de\ised machinery 
is used in rolling tin- two parts which are similar in shape 



o 




neapolis ha\e just shippeil to Tacoma. The interior 
finish is elaborate and really elegant, to which effect the 
seating equipment lends its full share. The center aisle 
with the reversible seats unite to make the car airy and 
spacious. These seats are made in special styles for 
electric and cable cars, though the Hale & Kilburn peo- 
ple make and carry a line of every possible desired stvle 
for any service. 

In the seat here illustrated the back is 20 inches wide 
and the cushion 13 '< inches. The distance from center 
to center of any two seats is 30 inches, and from floor to 
top of back 34 inches. Passengers can all face forward, 
or parties of four or less can directly face each other as 
desired. Seats may be made of rattan or upholstered in 
plush of any color and any qualil\-. of w Inch the\- carry a 
great variety. 



and size, and made from tough steel plate. These parts 
have straight edges on opposite sides projecting sullici- 
ently to secure strength, and fastened with rivets. The 
pole is sighth', cannot be broken, and will be placed on 
the market in a few days, and at a reasonable price. 



Short Slow Speed Motor. 

IT has been known for some time that the Short Elec- 
tric Co. ha\e been working on a slow speed motor 
and the results of their study and experiment are 
now to be made known. The conservatism which has 
always characterized this progressive company insures the 
abilities of their new departure when once they place it on 
the market, and the full particulars of this latest result of 
Prof. Short's stud\' and investigation w ill be awaited with 
jireat interest. 



98 



THE SESSIONS SIDE SEAT CAR. 



A FOL'RTEEN FOOT CAR, THAT WITHOUT INCREASE IX WEIGHT, AFFORDS A SEATING CAPACITY OF FORTY FOUR PASSENGERS. 



THE phenomenal growth in the past few years in 
modern cities has led not only to the introduc- 
tion of rapid transit, but also a car service largely 
increased with equipment in man}- cases fully 
double the size which was formerly employed. But the 
continued growth is fast and in many cases has already 
reached the limit of this extra accommodation, and espec- 
ially at the terminals in large cities it has become an 
absolute impossibility- to either increase the size of the 
cars or add to their number on account of the track space 
being already fully occupied. Additional turn-tables and 
loops would sohe the problem and permit of an increased 
car service, but this is im- 
possible in the heart of 
most cities where every 
available foot of street is 
now tracked. The under- 
ground and elevated roads 
are expensive and would 
hardly be attempted by 
surface lines, hence the 
only possible solution of 
the problem is in a car 
which without increase in 
length will afford addi- 
tional seating capacity. 

Mr. E. C. Sessions, a 
well known banker of Cal- 
ifornia, has carefull}' con- 
sidefed this question in all 
its phases, and has patent- 
ed and had constructed ai 
the Pullman works si\- 
eral of his side-seat cai 
In this he has carefui 
avoided every objection- 
able feature which has 
hitherto been raised 
against the use of what 
has been known in this 
country as the " double-deckers," and abroad as the 
"garden seat car." In fact, the Sessions car is in no 
sense a double deck car, as will be seen from the illus- 
tration and a further description. 

With a car 14 ft. in length he secures a seating capac- 
ity for twenty passengers within and twenty-four more 
outside, making a total seating capacity of fortj-four pass- 
engers. The construction is such that he has accom- 
plished this without any increase whatever in weight, an 
objection which heretofore has been a most serious one 
against cars built on this principle. 

The distance from the rail to the deck over all is only 
9 ft. 7 in., which makes the highest point in the Sessions 
car 13 inches below that of the ordinarv cars now in use 




THE SESSIONS CAR. 



while the step, platform, floor and roof are each placed on 
a much lower level than the same relative points in the 
old style cars. 

The distance from the ground to the top of a high hat 
worn b}- the tallest passenger seated on the outside is but 
II ft. 3 in., which is less than the height of most of the 
electric cars now in service. 

The car is entered by one easy step from the ground 
to the platform, and is so let into the platform that a pass- 
enger in boarding the car can by no possible means come 
in contact with the stairway, which winds around and over 
the rear platform. The interior of the car would not be 

observed by the majority 
of passengers to be of any 
different construction 
from those now in use, 
and is of ample propor- 
tions both laterally and 
vertically. The distance 
from the car floor to the 
ceiling is the same as in 
other cai^. The hood at 
the rear end of the car 
does not project quite as 
far as in the ordinary 
car. and permits of two 
iron stairways light and 
aiti-acti\e in appearance 
\et very strong, which 
gently wind with one turn 
and lead to the seats 
above. Only six steps are 
required in making the 
ascent, which is neither 
steep nor more difficult 
than mounting any ordi- 
nary stairway. 

.\bove, two rows of 
side seats, back to back, 
extend the entire length 
of the car, and are protected on the outside by an attract- 
ive iron railing, which is covered with a fine brass net, 
effectually shielding the occupants of the seats. These 
seats do not rest upon the top of the deck or lantern top, 
as in all cars heretofore built, but are placed upon the 
car roof, and the top of the back of the seat is on a level 
with the top of the deck, hence the name adopted by Mr. 
Sessions, of a " side seat car." It is by this means that 
the height of the car is so remarkably reduced, while 
comfort and room are in no way sacrificed. Suitable iron 
posts permit of the erection of a canopy of either Hght 
wood or canvas, should that be desired. This canopy can 
be removed or used at pleasure. 

By the use of a wheel of 22 inches diameter, which is 



^^£Mt> 



99 



as I;u"<''e as is usud hv niaiu' roails in tlu'ir four wheel 
trucks, the car box is carried \ ery low, and in this way 
the height of the car is kept wiliiin the limits stated, and 
oscillation is reduced to a niininuun. 

(Jne would naturally suppose that there would be inun- 
erous points in the construction of a car of this kind from 
the dimensions given, against which the passenger would 
strike his head, but this question has been so carefully 
and scientitically considered, that it is impossible for the 
highest hat worn by a tall man to come in contact any- 
where with either roof, door-frame or stairway. The 
stairway to the side seats may be placed at either or both 
ends of the car, as desired. 

The cars are equally well adapted to horse, cable or 
electric roads, and their adoption will not require any 
change in car lunise, in order to get them through the 
door. Thev may be used as motors or trailers the same 
as any other cars. 



w hich are being built for the Duquesne Traction Co. of 
Pittsburg, and gives a most striking illustration of the 
comparative heights of the two cars. 

Mr. 1 1, (j. Bird, who is so well and j^leasantly known to 
street railway men, having furnished supplies in their line 
for many years, has been secured as general agent for all 
territory east of the Rocky Mountains, and is alreatly in 
receipt of a large number of inquiries regarding this car 
which is constructed on entirely new yet mo.st .scientilic 
principles. 

It is now planned to construct four miles of elevated 
road, which w ill wind around the grounds of the World's 
Fair, with stopping points at all the principal buildings 
and points of interest. The present plan contemplates a 
single track, resting on single columns. It will ha\e a 
carr\ing capacity of 300,000 passengers per dav. 



The Detroit Electrical Works find it necessarv to work 




COMPARATIVE HEIGHT OF A 44 SEAT SESSION'S CAR WITH AN ORDINARY CAR. 



The Pullman people have already completed part of a 
large contract for these cars for the Brookl3'n & Fruitvale 
Railway, of Oakland, Cal., and the finishing of both the 
outside and interior is of the highest order, while the ap- 
pearance and capacity of the car and its application of sci- 
entific principles whereby the double seating capacity is se- 
cured without mcrease in size or weight, is such as to 
conmiend it to all. 

An important feature in connection with this car is that 
it can be constructed for an additional expense of about 
$200 over that required for the old style car of equal 
length. 

The interior is perfectly ventilated, and in such a way 
as to prevent the admission of dust and without disagree- 
able drafts. 

In the illustration herewith the Sessions car is shown 
as standinjr by the side of one of the new electric cars 



three nights in the week, being so crowded with orders. 
This company has made very rapid development within 
a very short time. Among their latest orders for equip- 
ment and special design is a forty' H.P. motor maintained 
upon a Three Rivers Truck for the Lake View cS: East 
Cleveland R'y of Cleveland, Ohio, which has been 
specially designed for drawing two trail cars heavily 
loaded. This also solves the problem of handling heavy 
traffic on excessive grades. They have also sent a thirty 
H.P. motor to be operated at Syracuse, with which the 
Syracuse management write they are much pleased, hav- 
ing given it a very severe test by loading both the motor 
and trail car and then running with the brakes fully set. 



The Electrical World devotes twenty-three pages to 
the account of the Electric Light Convention, its report 
of which is wonderful!}' accurate and complete. 



The Everest Rotary Engine. 

ANEW and improved rotary engine, whicli it is 
claimed is especially adapted for street rail\va\- 
purposes, has been patented by J. L. Everest, of 
Omaha, Neb. The accompanying cut will give 
a \erv correct idea of its construction. The piston is 
made in the shape of a wheel on a shaft turning in bear- 
ings in a " U" frame. This piston has recesses or buckets 
in its periphery against which the live steam is tangenti- 
ally directed through open ports, which are placed at 
regular distances, all of which are fed from a supply pipe 
which extends entireh' around the c\linder. A series of 




exhaust ports are also arranged in a similar manner and 
empty into a main exhaust pipe. By this arrangement 
all but one of the buckets of the piston are kept con- 
stantly filled with live steam, which discharges as it 
reaches its exhaust port. The piston is made steam tight 
by the use of packing rings which are held in the cylinder 
and pressed against the piston by means of side screws, 
permitting easy adjustment from the outer side of the 
cylinder. 

Reed & Sons, proprietors of the Tramway Rail Co. 
of Pittsburg, who have been having their rails tested for 
some months, report themselves much pleased with their 
success. Mr. Reed has had many years experience in 
the rolling-mill business, and has succeeded in studying 
out the points that are required for a perfect girder rail. 
They are meeting with great success in their line, having 
received orders for the entire equipment of a number of 
roads. 

Robert A. Ray, principal of the Hinsdale. N. II., 
high school, has, for the instruction of his jnipils in elec- 
trical science, constructed and put in oju'ration a miniature 
street railway, track, plant and all occupying one room in 
the builditiir. 




The Baltimore World says : You probably couldn't 
induce one of the anti-progress Park-ave. street car asso- 
ciations to ride on an electric car if each one had a 
reserved seat — the first day. After that the company 
won't need to win 'em over with free tickets. Not much, 
they won't ride on any other line. 



A Syracuse street car horse which got into the habit 
of kicking was tied in a stall and a bag arranged for him 
to practice on. He began at 7 in the morning and kicked 
until 11.35 without a let-up, and then, broken hearted, 
disgusted with man's ways, he fell on his side and yielded 
up his life. A good example for some people to follow. 



A Philadelphia car line in its route makes a sharp 
turn and runs alongside the Reading railroad for some 
distance. The other night the owl car was plodding 
along and contained among its motley load four young 
men asleep, who had taken more than a doctor would 
prescribe. As the car took the curve a train approached, 
and the glaring headlight a few feet distant shone directly 
across the car into the face of one of the sleepers. The 
whistle and bell also sounded at that instant. With a 
wild yell he rushed to the door, and, followed by the trio, 
cast themselves into the mud and darkness. When they 
again boarded the car their faces, hands and pretty clothes 
gave them the appearance of a gang of sewer cleaners, 
and the hilarity of the other passengers was by no means 
concealed or moderate. 



The Sweeper man was witnessing a trial the other day 
of a new motor. As it moved along, one after another 
of the horses standing b}' the roadside stood on their hind 
legs and pawed the air with their front feet after the 
most approved circus fashion. To our niild suggestion 
that some means might be found necessary to overcome 
the features of the propelling power which produced 
these interesting phenomena, the inventor replied: "Oh, 
these are all country horses, that have not become used 
to such things. Now, there is a horse that is city-bred, 
and I promise you won't mind it a bit." As the car ap- 
proached the handsome animal, we watched with increas- 
ing interest the results, for he was hitched to a nice 
carriage and was standing untied; but the demonstrations 
of the motor had no effect whatever, and the enthusiastic 
promoter was in raptures. "Didn't I tell you?" said he; 
and then, as the car went by, the horse raised his eyelids 
and disclosed — a pair of sightless eyes. 



FOUND ON THE RUSH TRIP. 



American Street Railway Association. 

IIENHY M. VVATHON, I'liEsiiiKNT, Hiiiralo, N. Y. 

\V. A. SMITH, FiiiHT Vice-Presiuknt, Oiimiia, N.'li. 

CHAUI.ICS (ll)KlJj, Second Vice-I'besident, Nnwburjport, Mans. 

A. D HODGKliS, TiiittD Vice-1'bksiuent, Columbus, Ohio. 

WM. J. KICHAKD.SON, Secbetakv and Treascher, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

ExEOCTivE Committee— The President, Vice Presidents, and Thomas 
LowRY, Minneiipolis, Minn.; D. F. Henry, PittsburKh, Pa.; Albert E. Thorn- 
ton, Atlniita, (Ja.; H. M. Littei.l, Cincinnnti, (). and Thomas V. Keefer, 
Ottawa, Can 

N.'it meotinK will be bi-M in PittsburKb, Pa.. October 2l8t. 1891. 

Massachusetts Street Railway Association. 

Prosident, Chas. H. Pratt, Salem; Vice Presidents, H. M. Whitney, Boston, 
Amos F. Bbeed, Lynn, Frank 8- Stevens; Secretary and Treasurer, J. H. Eaton, 
Lawrence. 

Meetjn first Wednesday of each month. 



New York Street Railway Association. 

President, Daniel F. Lewis, Brooklyn; Vice Presidents, Jno. N. Beckley. 
Rochester, John S. Foster, New York; Secretary and Treasurer, William J. Rich- 
ardson, Brooklyn; Executive Committee, John N. Partridge, Brookljn; ('harles 
Clejienshaw, Troy; C. Densmore Wyman, New York. 

Next raei'liuB, Hotel Metropole, New York City, Sept. I.lth. ISni. 

Ohio State Tramway Association. 

John N. Stewart, Ashtabula, President; John Harris, Cincinnati, Vice Presi- 
dent; J. B. Hanna, Cleveland, Secretary and Treasurer; E. K. Stewart, Columbus, 
Chairnmu Execulive Committee. 



The Street Railway Association of the State of 
New Jersey. 

President, John H. Bonn, Hoboken; Vice President, Thos. C. Bark, Newark 
Secretary and Treasurer, Charles Y'. Bamfobd, Trenton; Executive Committee, 
Officers and C. B. Thdrston, Jersey City; H, Romaine, Patterson; Lewis Peh- 
BINE, Jr., Trenton. 



ALABAMA. 

EuFAULA. — The company which organized a j'ear ago 
to build a street railway is again coming into life, and its 
prospects are fair for the construction of the road. 



ARKANSAS. 
Little Rock. — The erection of the power house and 
offices of the Electric Railway has greatly enhanced the 
value of property in that part of the city. 



CALIFORNIA. 

II.\vw.\Ri). — IIa,s a street railwa\- in operation for tiie 
lirst time in the history of this place. 



Sacramento. — The inauguration of the new trolley 
system here was witnessed by large crowds, and the test 
was in every way satisfactorj-. The cars were lighted by 
incandescent lamps, and attained a speed of twenty miles 
an hour. It is proposed to operate at twelve miles per 
hour. 



San Diego. — The San Diego Cable Railway has 
issued a very neat souvenir, containing twelve pages of 
handsome illustrations of points of interest in that citv. 



S.\NT.\ Cruz. — A capital stock of $100,000 has been 
subscribed for the construction of an electric road from 
Garfield Park to Capitola. The road is estimated to cost 
$60,000. 



Sant.\ RtjsA. — More than one half of the stock for the 
new street railway, in the northern part of the city, has 
been sub.scribed. The intention is to operate b\- the 
Hoskins' Motor. 



San Francisco. — The Metropolitan Rail\va\- Co., 
with a capital stock of $1,000,000, has been organ- 
ized to construct cable lines through a number of streets 
and into the suburbs. Among the directors are C. E. 
Mayne, H. A. Iddings, Nathan Crocker and J. I. Bailey. 



CANADA. 

Quebec. — J. W. Henry has been elected president of 
the Upper Town Street Railway Co. 



Windsor. — The Windsor & Canada Street R'y has 
been sold to Detroit capitalists for $25,000, the reason 
being the owners do not care to undertake the e.xtensive 
improvements which are now necessary. The new line 
will be built to Brighton Bridge and the old track will be 
relaid. New cars will be added to be operated by elec- 
tricity, and the entire plant put in first class shape. The 
purchasers are Willis C. Turner, Edward O. Gott, of 
Detroit, and IT. Clark, of Toledo. 



COLORADO. 

Denver. — The Suburban Electric Railway has se- 
cured its bonds b^- mortgage to the amount of $1,000,000. 
Track laying has already commenced. 



Denver is becoming so well supplied with street rail- 
roads that some people here desire the Legislature to 
pass a bill prohibiting the granting of franchises to build 
a street railway within two blocks of any of the existing 
lines. 

The University Park Electric Line will be extended a 
mile and one-half, making its entire length five miles. 
The extension will cost $15,000. 



Grand Junction. — The Street Railway Company 
considering plans for extension in the near future. 



Lead\illf.. — The Leadville & Evergreen Lakes R'y 
having completed its survey, is now purchasing material, 
and will commence construction April ist. Electricity 
will be generated by water power. 



Pueblo. — The Pueblo Street Railway has changed 
hands, the consideration being $250,000. The new offi- 
cers of the company are: President, J. E. Downey; vice- 
president, A. W. Chamberlin, of Denver: treasurer, 
Frank S. Pusey, of Denver: secretarv and general man- 
ager, J. E. Downey. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 
Fr.\nk U. Cl.\rk, of this city, is working up a com- 
pany to establish a street railroad plant in Petersburg, Va 



A Bill has been introduced incorporating the Mt. 
Pleasant «& Rock Creek Park RV Co., to construct 
double track lines, to be operated either by horse, electric 
or cable power. The capital stock is $200,000. 



The President has signed an Act incorporating the 
Washington & Arlington road; also one granting a right 
of wav to the Junction City & Fort Rilev R'y Co. 



FLORIDA. 



Clearwater Harbor. — The Arcadia Street R'y & 
Improvement Co. has been organized with a capital stock 
of $50,000, with F. C. Peters, president; Anthonj- Peters, 
treasurer and manager, and Paul A. Peters, general 
superintendent. 

Jacksonville. — Interested property owners are holding 
meetings with a view to perfecting- arrangements to build 
an electric line to Panama Park, a distance of three miles. 



GEORGIA. 

AuGU.STA. — It is proposed to make a boulevard of the 
center of Broad street and place the tracks of the Elec- 
tric Raihvav immediateh' next to the grass plot in the 
center of the street. 



Savannah. — Contract has been closed with the Edi- 
son General Electric Co. for the construction and equip- 
ment of three miles of road for the Electric Railway of 
this city. It is intended to extend the lines as soon as the 
first plant is fairly in operation. This will give Savannah 
thirteen miles of electric railway, and the proposed line, 
which will without doubt be built, will include about 
twehe miles more. 

IDAHO. 

Boise City. — An electric road will be built here under 
the name of Boise City Rapid Transit Co. The contract 
calls for two and one-half miles to be built June ist, and 
has already been let. 

ILLINOIS. 

Bloomington. — Messrs. Bailey & Patterson have ac- 
cepted the electric system installed by the Daft Co. with- 
out waiting for the expiration of the four months' trial. 
■Six miles of track will soon be relaid with heavy rails. 

Champaign. — The Champaign and Urbana Electric 
Co. made its trial trip into Urbana March 12th. The 
mayor vetoed their ordinance, but the company purchased 
a right of way. 

Elgin. — The Elgin Street Railwaj^ Co. is seeking an 
ordinance for the extension of their line on Bluff City 
Boulevard. The road here has been very successful, and 
has met with great popularity. 



East St. Louis. — The East St. Louis Electric Rail- 
way has opened one of its lines and is already doing a 
large business. Everything is working very nicely. 



Galesburg. — The directors of the College City Street 
Car Co. are soon to take action on the question of chang- 
ing their lines to electricit}-. 



Kankakee. — Contract has been made with the West- 
ern Electric Illuminating Co. to construct a street railway 
which must be in operation by the ist of July. The cars 
will be of the vestibule pattern. 



Lincoln. — An electric street railwa}- has been incor- 
porated by D. Blinn, A. Quissenberry and John F. Mun- 
day. The capital stock is $65,000. 



Monmouth. — The Monmouth Motor Street Railway 
Co. has been incorporated here, with a capital stock of 
$30,000, for the transportation of passengers, baggage, 
freight, fuel and mails by means of electricity. 



Peoria. — The Central Railway Co. have recentl}' 
secured authority for completing extensions on a number 
of streets. 



RocKFORD. — The Rockford Street Railway Co. has 
subscribed $2,600 toward a base ball club in this cit)'. 



Springfield. — The People's City Railway Co. have 
laid tracks to the State Fair Grounds, and will be able to 
land passengers at the gate. 

INDIANA. 

Anderson. — The City Railway of this place has been 
sold to a Buffalo sjndicate for $50,000, who intend to 
substitute electricity for mules. Possession was given 
March 9th. 

Brazil. — Eastern capitalists have inspected the streets 
here, and express their willingness to advance $100,000 
toward the construction of an electric line. 



Indianapolis. — The Indianapolis & Greenwood Sub- 
urban was incorporated for $150,000. 



KoKOMO. — The Kokomo Electric Street Railwaj- Co. 
has concluded to erect its own power house and generate 
their own current, which has hitherto been supplied bj^ 
the Electric Light Co. 



Marion. — Edward Care)-, of Chicago, representing 
the Johnson Company, has closed a contract for iive and 
one-half miles of steel rail. 



New Albany. — Negotiations are being made to oper- 
ate the lines here with electric motors. May ist is the 
date set for the completion of the S3'Stem. 



Terre Haute. — The Street Railway Co. has accept- 
ed the electric railway jtlant which the Westinghouse 
Company have installed. 



ViNCKNNKs. -George W. (jiralcr, jintpriutor of the 
Citizens' Street Riiilwu}', has sold the jiroperty, franchises 
and everything connected therewith, to a company com- 
posed of Capt. Allen Tindolph, B. G. IludnuU and 1). C. 
Greiner, of Terre Haute. 



IOWA. 

Clinton. — A moxement is on fool to induce the Cit\' 
Electric Co. of this city, to construct an electric line to 
Camanche, a distance of five miles. 



CouNcii- Bluffs. — The Interstate Company will ask 
the property owners of the two counties interested on 
each side of the river, to vote $500,000 of long time 
bridge bonds towards the construction of their bridge, on 
which it is desired to spend $1,300,000. If this should 
fail, the company will erect its own bridge, to cost $500,- 
000, for its exclusive use. In the meantime electric lines 
will be constructed in West Council Bluffs, to cost 
$1 so.ooo, which anK)unt has been paid in for that purpose. 



DuiiUQUi-:. — The Dubuque Street Railway Co. will 
issue $250,000 of first mortgage bonds for the purpose 
of enlarging and improving its plant. 



Iowa City. — An ordinance has been granted the Iowa 
City R'y Co. to construct an electric line, which it is intend- 
ed to operate by water power. i\mong those interested 
are O. A. Byington, Dr. Hobby, Mr. Gooch and Mr. 
McGuan. 

Kkokuk. — The company here are now operating five 
and one-quarter miles electrically, and will add two miles 
in the spring. 

Siou.x City. — The Sioux City & Highland Park R'j- 
expect to have their new electric line in operation by 
May 15th. 

W.VTERLoo. — There is some talk of connecting this 
city with Cedar Falls by an electric railway, to be ten 
and one-half miles in len<rth. 



KANSAS. 

Lk.wrnworth. — The Leavenworth Suburban Street 
Railway Co. is to be sold at Sheriff's sale March 31st. 
The bondholders expect to secure its control and place it 
in first class condition with the electric system. 



KENTUCKY. 

CoxiNcTON. — The Street Railway Co. has let the con- 
tract for a new car stable to cost $25,000. 

LOUISIANA. 

Alexandria. — The street car line is now in operation 
and equipped with cars which were made by the Cres- 
cent City R'y Co. of New Orleans. 



103 



New Orleans. — The Electric Traction Co. are equip- 
ping the Coliseum line with storage battery cars, several 
of which are already in operation and have proved very 
satisfactory. The contract calls for the equipment of 2 2 



Tuii city has advertised for the sale of a franchise for 
a period oi twenty-five years, covering a large number 
of streets. The successful bidder may use either animal 
power or the storage battery system. 



MAINE. 

Deerinc— Authority has been given the rortland 
R'y Co. to run a line between the two cities. It is pro- 
posed to put on cars seating 65 passengers. 



Gardiner. — The electric line here has commenced 
operations and is doing a good business. 



Lew'iston. — The Lewiston & Auburn Horse R'y Co. 
have let a contract for a suspension bridge to cost $5,000, 
connecting an island just above the falls with the main 
land, and will run their cars over it as soon as completed. 

Thomaston. — An electric railway company has been 
organized here under very favorable concessions from the 
town, and it is quite likely construction work will be com- 
menced soon. 

Westbrook.— The Pordand & Westbrook Street Rail- 
way Co. has been organized with a capital of $300,000. 
and is preparing to construct electric or horse lines from 
the village of Saccarappa, in the town of Westbrook, and 
through the village of Cumberland Mills, Deering and 
into tile city of Portland. The incorporators are Lemuel 
S. Lane, Frank Haskell Charles B. Woodman, Nathan 
Cleaves, Stephen R. Small, Prentiss Loring, George E. 
Macomber, J. Manchester Haynes, Orville D. Baker, 
Horace H. Shaw. James P. Baxter and John H. Fogg. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Essex.— The Essex Electric Street Railway Co. has 
issued $100,000 of bonds, secured by first mortgage on 
its entire plant, for the purpose of making desired im- 
provements. 

Lynn. The Belt Line Company have ordered six of 

the Robinson radial open cars. They have six wheels 
and two motors, and a larger seating capacity than the 
ordinary car. The Rae motor will also be given a trial. 



Lowell. It has been voted to consolidate the lines in 

this city with the Lowell & Dracut roads, with a view to 
rebuilding the same and equipping them with electricity. 



Worcester.— Property owners of Chandler street have 
pledged $6,000 bonus toward the extension of the rail- 
way line, and it undoubtedly will be made, together with 
several miles which the company expect to build in other 
directions. 



I04 



MICHIGAN. 

Anx Arbor. — The attempted injunction against the 
Ann Arbor Street Raihva}' has been denied, and the 
company is now proceeding with its extension. 



Bav City. — The electric raihvay companies of Bay 
City and West Bay City are contemplating a consolida- 
tion of the two companies. 



Grand Rapids. — Mr. Chapman, the new superintend- 
ent of the consolidated lines states that some of the roads 
will be abandoned on account of paralleling other lines 
and being unprofitable. The cable system, which has 
been the single track system, with turnouts, will be aban- 
doned, and electric power with overhead wires adopted 
on all lines. The reconstruction work was begun March 
1st, and is to be completed by June ist, at an estimated 
cost of $500,000. A transfer system will be adopted, by 
which a patron can ride from any point on the line to any 
other "ortion of the city for one fare. 



Jackson. — An electric railway has been incorporated 
here, with a capital stock of $150,000, divided into six- 
hundred shares. 

Kalamazoo. — An electric street railway has been 
started here for the purpose of operating with a new 
storage battery, the invention of Mr. White, of this city. 



Manistee. — The council has passed over the Mayor's 
veto the ordinance for electric road. The franchise is 
granted Gen. Geo. A. Hart and others, for thirty years. 



Maple Rapids. — There is strong talk of building an 
electric line to St. Johns. 



MINNESOTA. 

DuLUTH. — The Street Railway has decided to extend 
their line to Lester Park, the residents of which are very 
anxious for the line. 



Minneapolis. — The old depot at Minnehaha Falls used 
h\ the Motor Line has been destroyed by tire. 



St. Paul. — The extension of the electric lines which 
are planned for the present season are very extensive, 
and cannot be all completed before the first of November. 
Tracks will be extended to Fort Snelling, which has 
hitherto been reached only by steam road. 



The cashier of the University Ave. Cable was sur- 
prised recently at two o'clock in the morning by being 
confronted by a man who pointed a revolver at him with 
a view to taking the day's receipts. The cashier tired at 
him, whereupon the robber fled. 



MISSISSIPPI. 

Greenvilli:. — At the recent election of officers of the 
Street Railwav Co., J. M. Jayne was elected president, 



James E. Negus, secretary and treasurer, and John Gunn, 
of Memphis, general manager. The new organization 
will operate four miles and will give first-class service. 



Natchez. — The street railway has been disposed of 
at trustee's sale to satisfy a mortgage of $3,708.65. It 
was bid in by Messrs. A. & M. Moses and is considered 
a good purchase. It has a valuable franchise, no com- 
petition, but has not been a profitable undertaking hitherto. 



MISSOURI. 



Argentine. — Messrs. Enright & Thayer have been 
granted a franchise for an electric street railway line con- 
necting with Kansas City, Mo., and Kansas City, Kas. 
The right extends for twenty years, but in order to be 
valid must be complied with within a limited time. 

JoPLiN. — The Joplin Electric Railway has begun its 
extension to Blendeville, a distance of one and one-half 
miles. This line will also be extended to Webb City and 
Findlay to Grand Falls, for which purpose the company 
has increased its capital stock to $100,000. 

The Joplin & Grand Falls Electric Railway has also 
been organized, with a capital of $100,000, for the pur- 
pose of building an electric line between those places. 

Kansas City. — Work has commenced on the West 
Side Electric Line, and it is hoped to have the road in 

operation by May ist. 



The Metropolitan Company will extend its cable line 
from Tenth street and Minnesota avenue to the city 
limits. Material for that purpose having been already 
secured. 

St. Louis. — Application has been made to change the 
motor of the Cass Ave. and Fair Ground Line to elec- 
tricity, and extend the tracks. 



Ben}. VonPhul and associates have petitioned for a 
franchise to construct a double track electric line through 
a number of streets. 

MONTANA. 

Helena. — The first mortgage of the Helena Electric 
Railroad Co. to the Old Colony & Trust Co. of Massa- 
chusetts, for $50,000 has been filed. 



NEBRASKA. 

Lincoln. — A special election will be held April 7th, 
on the question of granting the Lincoln Park Association 
a franchise to construct street railway lines. 



The Lincoln Street Railway Company will assume 
control of the Standard line on April ist. 



S. W. Burnham was elected president and William 
Olier secretary and treasurer of the South Lincoln Street 
Railway Co. 



ia^twt^^wU^^n^c*^ 



'05 



Omaha. — The Strui't Railway Co. ha.s just purcha.sed 
twi) iH'vv dynamos of 107 II. P. eacii. 



Tiiic Henson & Halcyon Heights Co. has been organ- 
ized with a capital of $25,000, to construct an electric 
line in these suburbs. They expect to get their power 
from the Omaha Street Railway. 



NEW JERSEY. 
Newark. — The South Orange Company has let a 
contract for the equipping of its line with the Sprague 
system. The old cars will be rebuilt, and the entire 
change will inyolve an expense of $300,000. 



Plain KiKLD. — A company has been incorporated with 
a capital of $50,000, to construct five miles of track in 
this place. It will be owned by Essex county capitalists. 



QuiNTON. — The Building Syndicate has arranged for 
riii'ht of way and will construct an electric line to Salem. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Manchester. — The line here has received two new 
cars from the Ellis Car Co., of Amesburg, Mass. They 
are beauties, finished hand.somely with beveled glass. 



All but four of the street railway conductors have 
been dismissed to reduce expense, and the fare box sys- 
tem has been substituted in their stead. 



NEW YORK. 

Buffalo. — J. H. Prescott, of the firm of E. N. Cook 
& Co., is la.gely interested in the electric railway in Mead- 
ville. Pa., which is now an assured fact. 



The Buffalo City Railway Co. is securing consent for 
the trolley system on Main street. Property owners along 
the street are becoming very anxious for the change. 



Gloverville. — The council has granted permission 
for an electric belt railroad which will be built this spring. 



Newburc;. — ^John E. Adams and M. H. Huschberg, of 
this place, and John A. Mason of Harlem, have secured a 
controlling interest in the Newberg Street Railway Co., 
and operations have been resumed. 



Rochester. — Jacob Wahl, of Louisville, has been made 
superintendent of the horse car service of the city railway. 



Utica. — The troubles which have hovered over the 
Utica Belt Line Railway for so long have finally drawn to 
a close, and its affairs have been brought to a settlement. 
The road has changed hands and its charter has been se- 
cured by the Thomson-Houston Company-, who assume 
the floating debt of $70,000, first mortgage bond of $500,- 
000, and second mortgage bonds of $60,000. It is be- 
lieved that under the management of the T-H. people the 
operation will be what it should, and that it will soon be- 
come a valuable property. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 

Winston. — Manager Cooper, of the City Railway, 
is negotiating with the manufacturers of Waughtown with 
a view to extending his line to that place. 



WiLiNiiNCTON. — J. H. Burnard, of Asheville, and II. J. 
Crobv, of Atlanta, Ga., propose to purchase the street 
railway here, and change it to an electric line. 



OHIO. 

Hamilton. — The Hamilton Street Railway Co. has 
closed the contract for the construction of its new electric 
road. 



North Baltimore. — Dr. Henry and others have 
have secured a franchise for an electric line in this place 
and Welker, a mile and one-half distant. 



Sandusky. — Thomas Wood, Geo. H. DeWitt, A. J. 
Stoll and others, are interested with capitalists of Norwalk 
in the construction of an electric line to cost $40,000. 



St. Bernard. — The Council has voted to donate a 
site valued at $3,000 for a new power house for the Mt. 
Auburn Electric Road, and the company contemplates 
the erection of a building to cost $50,000. 



Toledo. — Wm. R. Haines, employed in the power 
house of the Consolidated Street R'y Co., took poison, 
and the physician was unable to save his life. He was 
for a lon<f time a veterinary surgeon. 



Maumee. — Right of way has been granted for an elec- 
tric line here, which must be built by 1892. 



Newark. — A new power house will be erected for 
the Electric Road, to be of brick, 50 x 150 feet. 



Warren. — Two different companies are seekin< 
franchise for an electric line here. 



Cleveland. — The Cleveland City Cable Railway Co. 
has asked permission to extend its lines on Woolsey street. 
The cable system is in great favor, and the receipts are 
increasing every day. 



The East Cleveland Co., which ordered some motor 
cars T,6 feet in length, from the East, has been delayed in 
their receipt of same on account of the inability of the 
railroad company to get the cars through the Hoosac 
Tunnel. 

The officers of the East Cleveland road propose to 
make a test case of the fine imposed by the city for neg- 
lecting the car-heating ordinance. 

East Liverpool. — Local capital has organized here 
to build a street railway. 



io6 



FiNDLAV. — The Findlay Street Railwa}- Co. has in- 
creased its capital stock from $150,000 to $200,000, for 
the purpose of changing the Main Street line to electric- 
ity. Contracts have been let, and the work must be 
completed within sixty daj'S. 



OREGON. 

Salem. — The Capital Street Railway is preparing to 
change its motive power from steam to water, by which 
a ifreat savinir will be effected. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 
Allentowx. — Our citizens are working with the In- 
dependent Improvement Co., of Boston, with a view to 
building an electric line. 



Chester. — The Union Raihva}- Co. desires to build a 
line on West Seventh street. 



MuRRY Verner, Gen. Supt. of the Birmingham Trac- 
tion Co. io in the city, superintending the construction of 
the i8th Street Electric Line. 



NoRRisTowN. — The Norristown Traction Co. has been 
organized, with a capital of $100,000. 



Pittsburg. — The Birmingham Co. has ordered motors 
from the Short, Edison, Thomson-Houston and Westing- 
house companies, and will trv them all. 



The power house of the Duquesne Traction Co., at 
Ben Ave. Station, was destroj-ed b}' fire on the night of 
February 17th, and the machinery, including both engines 
and dynamos was ruined. The fire was caused by the ex- 
plosion of a gasoline lamp. The loss amounts to $100,000. 



The Central Traction Co. held their tirst meeting since 
the operation of their cable road, and elected a new board 
of Directors. Since the line has been changed to cable 
power the business has trebled. President Hardin de- 
sires to make further extensions, but the stock holders 
object. However, it is probable an extension will be 
made during the summer. 



RHODE ISLAND. 

Newport. — At the annual meeting of the Newport 
Street Railway Co. the President reported a daily busi- 
ness of 2,000 passengers, which has been carried at an 
average cost of .043 cts. per passenger and that the re- 
ceipts averaged .048 cts. per passenger. The company 
uses eight motor and seven trail cars, and has 4.17 miles 
of track. There had not been a single accident during 
the year. A. C Titus was re-elected president and J. U. 
Bundick secretary and treasurer. 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Charleston. — Capt. J. A. Steinmeyer is president of 
a compan\- which intends to build a line exclusively for 
freight bu.siness. It will in no way interfere with the 
West End Electric Railway. 



The new West End Railroad Co. has elected its offic- 
ers as follows: Geo. B. Edwards, president; Michael Kel- 
ley, vice president ; Kirby S. Tupper, secretary and treas- 
urer. The company will apply at once for right of way. 



CoLUMBLV. — The Columbia Street Railway has been 
transferred to the Electric Companj- of this city, and is 
now in charge of Col. J. Q. Marshall. Electricity will be 
the motive power and the work commenced at once. 



TENNESSEE. 

Chatanooga. — The electric system is rapidly enlarg- 
ing here and within four months the Electric Street Rail- 
way Co's. lines have increased to thirty-five miles, and 
with the other companies electric lines will make an ag- 
gregate of fift}' miles. Additional franchises are being 
sought which may increase the lines still more. 



The Electric Street Railway will abandon two of its old 
lines and construct new ones in their places on more de- 
sirable streets. 

Memphis. — $100,000 has been deposited as a part of 
the contract between the city and the Street Railway Co. 
for the completion of the electric lines within a certain 
time. Work is to commence April ist. The Thomson- 
Houston system has been adopted. 



Nashville. — The Maplewood Electric Railway Co. 
has been incorporated by Wm. Duncan, Jere Baxter, T. 
W. Crutcher, G. W. Ehle, Peter Tamble, L. K. Hart 
and Sam Wene. Their plan is to construct a large 
amount of road. 

TEXAS. 

Austin. — The trial trip of the new electric railway- 
was in every way successful, and the line is already doing 
a large business. 

Aransas Pass. — Three street railways have been in- 
corporated here, all of which have received franchises 
from the city, and have gi\en bonds to complete four 
miles of track by June ist. One will be a belt line. 



Houston. — The City Street Railway Co. are connect- 
ing their rails with ground wires, so as to be ready for 
erection of overhead wires when that time shall come. 



Taylor. — The street railway will be completed and 
ready for use April ist. 



Uvalde. — G. E. Hardwick, of Sherman, is contem- 
plating putting in a street car line in this place. 

Vernon. — R. B. Grant has been granted a franchise 
for an electric railroad on Cumberland and Wilbarger 
streets. 



ro7 



Waco. — Tlic L'ouiKil has yranted a liberal franchise, 
extendinj^ for lift\ \cars, and including twenty-five miles 
of streets upon which the Waco Electric Railway & 
Light Co. maN' construct lines. Capital, $250,000. In- 
corporators, W. J. Ilobson, Bart Moore, John Sleeper 
and others. 

UTAH. 
Ogdkn. — The Ogden Street Railway has been sold at 
trustees sale for $85,000, and purchased by the bond 
holders, the Jarvin, Conklin Mortgage & Trust Co., of 
Kansas City. Improvements are contemplated at once, 
including a large power house. 

VIRGINIA. 
DAN^•II,I,K. — Capt. H. Robertson and Messrs. Hoffman 
& Lee, of Baltimore, who are the largest stockholders in 
the street railway here, are making plans for putting the 
lines in operation again, and also making several exten- 
sions, and will add a new car equipment. 



STREET CAR PATENTS. 



LvNcnr.URG. — It is expected that the electric line here 
will be in operation within sixty days. 



WASHINGTON. 

Seattle. — The Seattle Electric Railway proposes to ex- 
tend the Fremont Line to Ballard, a distance of one mile. 



Spokane Falls. — The Spokane University Heights 
Street R'y has been incorporated for $100,000 by the 
following persons : Allen Garrett, Robert Abernethy and 
Leonard B. Cornell. 



Vancouver. — The Vancouver Street Railway Co. 
have begun work on their new line leading from the 
railroad depots. 

WISCONSIN. 

Appleton. — The City Railway has been transferred 
to the Edison Co., and the plant will be equipped with the 
Edison-Sprague system, and Pullman cars by May ist, 
at an expense of $40,000. 



Milwaukee — The Hinsey Line has a quarrel between 
its two principal stockholders, and between them a receiver 
has been asked for. 



The Villard syndicate has obtained permission from the 
Government to extend its proposed line through the Park 
to the South Gate of the Soldiers' Home. The line will 
be completed Julv ist. 



The plans of the Villard Syndicate for the consolidation 
of the Cream City and the Milwaukee City railroads have 
now been fully consummated, and the contract let to the 
Edison Co. for the entire electric equipment. Bids have 
have been invited for furnishing six thousand tons of rails. 
As the railway company will be unable to build all its car 
equipment in its own shops, car builders will have an op- 
portunity to bid on a large number of new cars. 



GRANTED DURINti FEBRUARY 189I, IN THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA. 

The following list of street car patents is prepared for 
The Street Rah.way Review, at the Patent Law 
Offices of Haupt Bros., 606 Rialto Building, Chicago. 
We refer our readers to them on all matters relating to 
patents and patent law. 

FEBRUARY 3, 189I. 

NUMBER. 

Separating Cross-Head Tie Wires. Geo. B. Baer, Cloverdale, Cal. 445,828 
Electrode for Storage Battery. ..S. H. Barrett, Springfield, Mass. 445,872 
Contact Device for Electric Railway.. Ed. M. Bentley, New 

York, N. Y. 445,634 

Secondary Battery. .Henry T.Cheswright, Carcassonne, France 445,542 
Electric Motor Support Chas. Foster & W. H. Bevis, Cin- 

cinnati, O. 445,594 

Electric Wire Connector John W. Hoffman, Pullman, 111. 445,751 

Electric Switch John W. Hoffman, Pullman, 111. 445.752 

Electric Railway ..Rudolph M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 445,674 

Electric Railway Rudolph M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 445,952 

Electric Car Lighting. ..Linwood F. Jordon, Somerville, Mass. 545,954 

Fare-Register Thomas B. Lee, Toronto, Can. 445,669 

Streetcar Geo. Moot e, Boston, & J. E. Perfler, Everett, Mass. 445,661 

Electric Motor Francis J. Patten, New York, N. Y. 445,623 

Electric Motor Francis J. Patten, New York, N. Y. 445,624 

Motor for Street Cars Thomas Roberts, Baltimore, Md. 445,756 

Street Car John G. Schneider, Chicago, III. 445,941 

Starting Device for Electric Motor. Ed. P. Sharp, Boston, Mass. 445,907 

Trolley Wire Holder Edward P. Sharp, Boston, Mass. 445,908 

Regulator for Electrically-Propelled Vehicles Sidney H. 

Short, Cleveland, O. 445,656 

Coupling for the Trolley Wires of Electric Railway' Sidney 

H. Short, Cleveland, 6. 445,841 

Electric Motor Switch Franklin A. Weller, Boston, Mass. 445,741 

Rolling Stock for Tramways or Railways Chas. Zipenousky, 

Buda Pesth, Austria-Hungary 445,583 

FEBRUARY lO, 189I. 

Electric Locomotive Geo. R. Baldwin, Montreal, Can. 446,245 

Electric Railway and Contact Device Therefor.. Ed. M. 

Bentley, New York, N. Y. 446,376 

Insulating Coupling Block and Cut Out...Sigmund Bergmann' 

& C. J. Klein, New York, N. Y. 446,180 

Electric Insulator James R. Branch, Richmond, Va. 445,969 

Rail Joint Fastener James R. Burgess, Port Huron, Mich. 445,971 

Combined Support and Fastening for Railway Joints Thomas 

J. Bush, Lexington, Ky. 446,282 

Oscillating Car Track Cleaner.Jos. E. Chambers, St. Louis, Mo. 446,326 

Railway Track Lebbens Chilsen, Worcester, Mass. 446,161 

Cable Street Railway Lewis M. Clement, Oakland, Cal. 446,221 

Safety- Platform for RailwayCars. Spencer L. Davis,Chicago,Ill. 446,129 
Automatic Potential Regulator for Electric Currents A. L. 

Ellis, Kansas City, Mo. 446,284 

Automatic Cable-Lifter John B. French, St. Louis, Mo. 446.337 

Combined Street Car Fender and Brake Geo. T. Hall, 

Moravia, Cal. 446,227 

Dust-Guard for Car Axles Wm. McKenzie, Boston, Mass. 446,003 

Electrode for Secondary Battery. ..Marmaduke M. M. Slattery, 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 446,104 

Elevated Railway John N. Valley, Jersey City, N. J. 446,272 

Elevated Railway John N. Valley, Jersey City, N.J. 446,273 

Brake for Cable Car James F. Waits 446,305 

FEBRUARY I7, 189I. 

Electric Conductor Connection Heinrich Arid, Nuremberg, 

..Germany, 446,655 

Electric Line Switch Edward M. Bentley, Boston, Mass. 446,418 

Electric Railway Conduit. ..Edward M Bentley, Boston, Mass. 446,419 
Contact Device for Electric Railway... Ed. M. Bentley, Boston, 446,420 
Conduit Electric Railway ...Ed. M. Bentley, New York, N. Y. 446,417 
Electric Locomotive.. Eben M. Boynton, West Newbury, Mass. 446,821 
Contact Trolley for Electric Railway .James B. Cahoon & I. F. 

Baker, Lvnn, Mass. 446,428 

Streetcar Service Thos. H.J. Cruise, Toronto, Can. 446,731 

Locomotive for Electric Railway. Thomas A. Edison, New York 446,667 
Gate for Car Platforms Samuel B. Fuller, Pawtucket, R. I. 446,514 



to8 



Street Railway Track Thos. G. Gribble, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Electrically Propelled Car. Rudolph M. Hunter.Philadelphia, Pa. 

Electric Railway Rudolph M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Electric Railway Rudolph M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Secondary Battery. .A. M. F. Laurent, City Paris, France, & I. 

A. Tim in is, London, England, 

Car Wheel John Player, Topeka, Kan. 

Controlling Switch for Electric Railway F. B. Rae, Detroit, 

Electric Railway Nicholas Seibert, Maiden, Mass. 

Electric Railway Conductor Elihu Thomson, Lynn, Mass. 

Car Starter August Wilke, Brunswick, Germany, 

Rail for Street Railway Service and Chair for the Same.-Wm. 

...H. Wright, Buffalo, N. Y. 

FEBRUARY 24, 1S9I. 

Streetcar. Fred. Baier & D. R. Hart 

Current Controlling Device for Electric Railway Cars.. Jacob 

C. Chamberlain, New York, N. Y. 

Secondary Battery Stanley C. C. Currie 

Regulator for Electric Circuits Thomas M. Edwards, New 

London, Conn. 

Railway Axle Box Louis Ellert, New York, N. Y. 

Cut Out Stephen D. Field, Stockbridge, Mass 

Underground Railway Conduit Chas. C. Gilman, Eldora, la. 

Electric Motor Ludwig Gutniann, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Apparatus for Cleaning Railway Conduits Wm. Heckert, 

Yonkers, N. Y. 

Driving Device for Car Trucks Chas. W. Hunt, West New 

Brighton, N. Y. 

Electric Railway Randolph M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Trolley- Wire Hanger Chas. H. Macloskie & W. E. Baker, 

Boston, Mass. 

Electric Motor Mechanism. Sam'l E. Mower, New Haven, Conn. 
Trolley for Electric Railway ...Sidney H. Short, Cleveland, O. 

Automatic Cut Out Jacob B. Tirrell, Boston, Mass. 

Electric Railway System Chas. J. Van Depole, Lynn, Mass. 

Cable Railway Geo. O. Watris & C. J. Kaighin, San 

Francisco, Cal. 

Elevated Railway David B. Weaver, Hopewell, Pa. 

Railway Chair Spike Wm. O. Wood, Brooklyn, N. Y 



446,446 
446,817 
446,833 
446,834 

446,^27 
446,571 
446,': 13 
446,475 
446,485 

446,7^5 

446,589 

447,240 

447.230 
447--79 

447.177 
447,148 
447,966 
447,861 
446,864 

447,181 

447,114 
447,283 

446,985 
447,255 
447,2c8 
446,902 
447,215 

446905 

447.172 
447,268 



At the Walker Manufacturing Co. 

THE Walker Manufacturing Co., of Cle\eland, will 
get their magnificent new works completed none 
too soon to take care of the orders for heavy 
work for which contracts are being closed. 

Their Differential Drum is being more and more rec- 
ognized. Two sets have recently been placed in the Elm 
St. power house of the North Chicago Street Ry., and 
the four sets for the Chicago City Ry. have been in oper- 
tion several weeks, but have already demonstrated their 
value and advantages. The Cleveland City Cable Ry. 
have taken off two 12 foot drums and substituted in their 
stead two 14 foot Walker Differentials. This entire 
change was made in only five and one-half hours, com- 
mencing at midnight, when the machinery stopped, and 
completed thirty minutes before starting time in the morn- 
ing. As the individual rings had all to be reinoved 
before the drums were taken off and the new drums 
placed and keyed and their rings adjusted, it was a 
remarkable accomplishment, only made possible by accu- 
rate shop work. 

Among new orders are two differential drums for the 
Madison St. Cable Ry., Seattle, also the entire plant, 
including "U" frames and sheaves, for the Montague 
Construction Co.'s line in Brooklyn. Differential drums 
will be placed there, and as the transmission is by rope 
drive those wheels will be differential also. The Walker 
Co. will furnish engines, boilers, piping and in fact the 



power house plant complete. In other lines this company 
is making twelve 16-foot diameter wood-filled sheaves 
for the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., and a large amount 
of heavy work for the Standard Oil Co., to be used in 
their new method of vaporizing, recently adopted. The 
department for making hydraulic machines, presses, 
pumps, etc., of which they make a specialty, is also crowded. 

The new works nearing completion will be among the 
finest and largest in the country. The machine shop is 
165 feet wide, divided into three ba3's by iron columns, 
spaced 24 feet centers longitudinally; two bays being 288 
feet long and the third bay 430 feet long, with provision 
for extending all three bays to 500 feet each. Each bay 
will be provided with an improved 30-ton rope drive 
power traveling crane, and the shop will be equipped 
with the most modern tools and facilities for handling the 
heavy class of work they are making. 

The new foundry building is 118 feet wide by 300 feet 
long, equipped with two 30-ton, two 12-ton and two 
6-ton improved rope drive power traveling cranes and all 
the latest improvements in foundry equipment. The pres- 
ent foundry is 56 feet wide by 200 feet long, equipped 
with several lighter capacity cranes, and will be used for 
the lighter class of work. 

The cranes alone will require two and one-quarter 
iTiiles of rope to drive same. The buildings are all of 
brick, iron and glass, and equipped with all modern facili- 
ties. Ample provision has been provided for light by 
continuous skylights in the roofs, the glass alone costing 
in the neighborhood of $15,000. The new ofiice, which 
is now being finished in quarter-sawed oak, will be 
equipped, both in drawing office and in general offices, 
with the most modern improvements and conveniences, 
where they will be pleased to see their man}- friends. 



CAR HOUSE BURNED. 

THE electric road in Sioux City has just experienced 
two disasters which probably would not occur 
again in a generation. About three weeks ago 
both cylinder heads were blown out of their engine, and 
disabled their plant for several days while new ones were 
cast and shipped by express. Supt. Peavy, however, 
scoured the town and hired all the teams he could and 
had all his lines running by horses in less than sixty min- 
utes. In a week the new heads arrived, but that night, 
or rather at 3:30 in the morning, fire was discovered in 
the car house which is separated from the engine room 
by a fire wall. The city fire department, though at work 
elsewhere, quickly responded, but so rapid did the fire 
spread only two motor cars entirely escaped. All the 
rest of the winter equipinent was burned or disabled. By 
great exertions ten cars were pressed into service the first 
day, including several summer cars, and by working night 
and day repairs were made which enabled the company 
to operate seventeen, though presenting a sorry appear- 
ance. 

The loss on cars is $30,000, fully insured, but that of 
course does not represent the daily loss which lack of car 
service must entail while others can be built. 



I09 



ECHOES FROM THE TRADE. 



J. G. Brill & Co. are building ten cars for use on the 
electric line at Millersville, Pa. Two of them will be 
combination cars. 

Thr American Permanent Way Co., of New York, 
has been organized to promote the rapid transit system 
of which T. Graham Gribble is the inventor. 



Tjie Thomson-Houston Co. have delivered three 
large sweepers, the brushes of which are each run by a 
separate electric motor, to the Duquesne^Co., at Pittsburg. 

The Electrical Supply Co., of Chicago, have just 
put upon the market a new trolley wire hanger, a descrip- 
tion of which we give more fully in another part of this 
issue. 

The Pullman Company have just furnished twenty- 
four new open electric cars for the Tacoma Railway and 
Motor Co., which are marvels of beauty and thorough 
construction. 

The Haines Bros, are negotiating with parties in 
Brazil, with a view to constructing a street railroad in 
that country. They are the parties who built the Rut- 
land, \'t., road. 

Edison General Electric Co. has secured the con- 
tract for the Boise City electric railway, two and a half 
miles, and an order for a 400 horse power electric mining 
plant in the Coeur d'Alene camp. 



S. T. Brush, of No. 21 East 52d St., has organized 
the Robertson Electric Railway Construction Co., in 
which several New York and Brookh-n gentlemen are 
interested ; capital stock, $500,000. 

The Electric Railway Supply Co., 50 Broadway, 
New York, have taken the selling agency for the United 
States for the complete line of gearing and other supplies 
for R. D. Nuttall & Co. of Alleghany. 



The John Stephenson Co., Limited, have just deliv- 
ered a large order of new cars to the South Covington 
and Cincinnati Street Ry., which are the pride of the 
company operating them and the admiration of the public. 



The Gilbert Works at Troy have delivered the first 
five of its order for new vestibule street cars for Buffalo. 
They are vestibuled at each end, contain heaters, are of 
dark cherrj' for interiors, and will seat forty passengers. 

The Connelly gas motor has taken a southern trip 
and is very highlj- spoken of by the papers and citizens 
of Jacksonville, Florida, where its merits are being 
demonstrated. The car was built for them by the Lewis 
& Fowler Co. and is decidedly attractive. 



Russell Carette Co. — A company has been organ- 
ized in Newark, N. J., to operate a line of carettes on 
several streets. They will run at 12 minute headway, with 
a five-cent fare, and a transfer from one line to the other. 



Mr. Dutton, of the Dorner & Dutton Co., Cleveland, 
has just completed an extended southern trip, in which he 
closed a large • number of contracts. Their gears and 
pinions are making'an excellent record, and their sales in 
this line are rapidly increasing. 

The Standard Index and Register Co., of New 
York, report a very satisfactory business, having received 
a number of orders for that popular system during the 
past month, one of the large ones being for eighteen for 
the new electrical line at Aurora. 



Alfred G. Hathaway, of Cleveland, manufacturer 
of Hathaway's Transfer^Table, is busy shipping that pop- 
ular car mover to all parts of the country, receiving 
many orders for his new double truck table especially 
desifined for eiirht wheel cable and electric cars. 



The St. LouisXar Co. have been filling the order to 
equip the new electric line at Springfield, 111., and have 
done so in a manner which reflects . much credit on their 
work. President Schuck, of the electric road, says: 
" These cars are veritable palaces on wheels and will be 
the finest cars in'service in this State." 



The Hale-Kilburn Manufacturing Co. are send- 
ing a neat catalogue^to the street railway men, showing 
their many styles of side and cross seats for electric, 
cable, suburban and all kinds of steam and street cars. 
It also contains a cut of their immense six-story factorv', 
and attractive views of their various styles of seats. 

The Northern Car Co. made a shipment of combi- 
nation cars to Sioux City this month, and instead of placing 
them on fiat cars, they were hauled to their destination 
over the steam road track attached to the end of a freight 
train. They reached their destination safely, and were 
greatly admired, as well as the new method of shipment. 

Geo. W. Wells, General Manager of the Duplex 
Railway Chair Co., of Worcester, Mass., called on us 
on his way home frcm a western trip, in which he sold 
40,000 of his duplex chairs. He reports the prospects 
never better for a large trade in all kinds of street railway 
material throughout the entire country the coming summer. 



The Price Railway Appliance Co., of Philadelphia, 
have just issued a neat circular, setting forth the advant- 
ages of their rail and chairs. It is neatly gotten up, and 
clearly describes the many valuable points. President 
Garrett and Treasurer F. C. Hartshorne of that company 
have recently made a very successful trip through the 
southwest. 

The Eichlkmeyer Field Co. has been incorporated 
with a capital of $1,000,000 to manufacture electric rail- 
wav complements. Their principal place of busine-ss is 
Yonkers, N. Y., and the trustees are Samuel Shethan, of 
New Castle; S.D. Field, Stockbridge, Mass.; H. S. Teinel, 
E. A. Nichols and Prentice Shethan, New York City 



The Electric Merchandise Co. is spreading out like 
the branches of a green bay tree. Recently Manager 
Mason received orders for electrical street raihva}- sup- 
plies from Amsterdam, Switzerland, and another from 
Borneo, from some one who, if the order is delayed on 
the wa}-, will without question be one of the wild men 
of that country. 




iJUPT. — " Begone! Go, take your time and 
let me never see jour face again." 



The Western Sand Blast Co., of Chicago, whose ex- 
tensive works, at the corner of Jackson and Clinton streets, 
are among the most interesting industries in the city, have 
furnished ornamental and lettered colored glass to a large 
number of street railways. For this work they have 
every facility, and are constantly bringing out new and 
appropriate designs. 

The Star Headlight Company. The office of this 
compan}- at Rochester has been moved to 13 Allen st., 
where they are better prepared to care for their exten- 
sive trade. They have also established special agencies 
in the principal cities, and Mr. Glazier, their President, 
reports for January' and February the largest trade thej' 
have ever experienced. 



The McGuire Manufacturing Co., of Chicago, are 
very much pleased with the business of February. That 
being the best business the companj' has e\er done in 
one month. Vice President Cook reports sales for 256 
trucks made on his recent trip to Providence and other 
eastern cities. "Surely a record breaker." It speaks 
much for the popularity of this western truck. 



The Shultz Belting Co., of St. Louis, are as usual 
full of orders, especialh- for their new link-belts. Those 
being shown by Mr. Shultz at the Electric Light Con- 
vention recently held at Providence received the atten- 
tion of everj-one interested in belting, and the general 
expression was "I don't see how it can ever wear out." 
A letter herewith published will show the uses of these 
belts. 



The American Railway Register Co., of New 
York, are nicely settled once more after the fire in the 
Broadway Theatre some da3S ago. Luckily thej' were 
only damaged by water, and are now proud of their 
appearance, everything being re-placed by new. Luckily 
the factory adjoining the office was not harmed, causing 
them no delays, and they report to be full of orders for 
spring delivery. 

C. E. Loss & Co., electric railway contractors, at 113 
Monroe street, Chicago, have so improved their facihties 
for work in this line that the}' are prepared to negotiate 
for bonds and do the entire equipment work for new 
roads. Among the electric street railways recenth' built 
by them are those at Adrian, Mich., the Calumet Electric 
Street R'y at Chicago, and the Pullman Electric Street 
Railway, at Pullman, 111. 




He Goes — And changes his appearance. 



The Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Co. 
report the demand already very large for their new motor, 
a description of which we make in this issue. This 
new motor, it is said, is becoming \ery popular, and is 
receiving the hearty endorsement of all who see it. They 
are now sending them to many cities in which their old 
systems are in use, and are soon to commence equipping 
some new lines from which they have recently received 
orders. 

The Babcock & Wilcox Co., of New York have just 
finished equipping several large street railway companies 
with their tubular boilers, among which were 2,000 H. P. 
for the Minneapolis Street Railwa}' Co.; 600 H. P. for 
the Duluth Street Railway Co.; 12 H. P. for the St. 
Paul Street Railway Co.; 1,600 H. P. for the Consoli- 
dated Street Railway Co., of Cincinnati. This companj- 
anticipates a ver}' large business for street railwaj' work 
in the coming spring. 



tefe%u^%^^^ 



The Ei.ixTRic Mercuanijisic Co., of Chicago, have- 
now added another important department to their ah-eady 
complete lines of railway supplies. They are now the 
western sellinir agents of the Tramway Rail Co., of Pitts- 
burg, and have already forwarded several good orders. 
With Manager \V. R. Mason to push this rail, the railway 
men of the west will not be long in learning of its good 
qualities. 

Tiiic Ei.Lis C.\R Co., at Amesburg, Mass., are unusual- 
ly full of orders, a number of orders having been recei\ed 
from Western cities, besides large orders from the New 
England States, among the largest of which were from 
the West End Road in Boston ; and they also have under 
way a large number of open cars for stock, a plan which 
has proved itself ver}- advantageous. Oftentimes, when 
a company are in need of summer cars upon short notice, 
this company by so building in advance are able to deliver 
in less than a week's time. 



A.MONc; the many recent orders received for cars by 
the Pullman Car Company are those for Helena Electric 
Railway Co., of Helena, Mont. : twenty-four double truck 
open and close cars combined, for the Tacoma Street 
Railway Co., Tacoma, Wash.; five double-deck cars for 
E. C. Sessions, of Oakland, Cal. : forty double truck 
electric cars for the Pittsburg, Alleghanj-, Manchester 
Traction Co., of Pittsburg, Pa.: twenty-five closed motor 
cars for the West End Street Railwaj- of Boston, and a 
number of small orders in all parts of the countr\-. 



As USUAL, the St. Louis Car Co. are crowded with or- 
ders, having orders at present for over 300 cars on the books. 
Among their recent orders are those for 1 1 cars for the Ogf- 




SfPT. — "I rather like vour looks; 
report to the foreman for duty, we 
happen to need a man this morning." 

den City R'y of Ogden. Utah: 16 for Dallas, Texas; 
Little Rock; 6 for the Rapid Transit Co., Salt Lake 
25 for San Antonio, Texas; 12 for Houston, Texas: 
Richmond, Ind., and a number for Victoria, B. C 
being the second order from that place within a 
time, which speaks well for the quality of their wor 



28 for 
City: 
6 for 

,, this 
short 
k. 



The Fui/roN Founury of Cleveland report the sale o 
their new steel tire car wheel very large and gaining in 
popularity each day, having been adopted by many of 
the largest roads in the country. This compan}- is also 
making a full line of cast wheels besides gear and pin- 
ions of all sizes for the electric systems, of which the\- 
report a very large sale. It is stated that the East Cle\e- 
land R'}- Co. in their cit}- have recently adopted their 
new patent draw bar, and it is being used b\- other roads 
in the country. 

The Ball Engine Co. have greatly increased their facil- 
ities and are now better prepared to handle their large and 
increasing business than e^•er. Among the many orders 
received lately are those for five 60 H. P. engines to 
drive electric welding macliines for the Johnson Co., at 
Johnstown, Pa.; two 150 H. P. tandem compound engines 
for the Southern Car Co., at St. Louis, Mo., making the 
second order received from that company recently; four 
150 H. P. engines for the Central Passenger Co., of 
Louisville, Ky., besides many for electric roads and other 
purposes. 

Lamokin Car Works. — Through the courtesy of Mr. 
G. E. Pratt, Contracting Agent, we were escorted from 
Philadelphia to Chester, where are located the shops of 
the Lamokin Car W^orks, and were surprised to find there 
such an example of what energy and push will accom- 
plish. This new company, although only two 3-ears old, 
has made such advancement that it has become neces- 
sary to build large shops in addition to their already ex- 
tensive works, and it seems quite probable that they will 
soon be ranked in size among the largest, and the dupli- 
cate orders they are receiving speaks well for the quality 
of their work. J. B. M. Hirons, manager, and C. H. 
Cochran, superintendent, are both experienced car builders 
of many years, while Mr. Pratt, formerly with the Pull- 
man Co., is no novice at the business, and we predict for 
this company a prosperous future. 



The Calorific Ventilating and Heater Co., of 
Chicago, are full of work at their factory, having received 
orders for a large number of their heaters, several of which 
have been given with a view to having their heaters placed 
while the winter cars are being shopped during the 
summer. This heater has been adopted by the North 
Chicago and West Chicago Railwa\- Co.'s, and is being 
placed as fast as can be made. President Myers having 
had man}- years experience in the manufacturing of stoves 
gives his personal attention in looking after a large force 
of men whose work it is to place the heaters in the cars. 
The record of this heater has been equally satisfactory 
to both patrons of the line and the company. The well- 
known President writes as follows: 

COLL'MBUS CONSOLIDATED STREET RAILWAY CO. 

Columbus, Ohio, Jan. 29, 1S91. 
Calorific Ventilating and Heater Co., 79 Kinzie St., Chicago. 

Gextle.men: Replying to yours of the 20th inst. I take pleasure in 
saving that the heater has continued to give entire satisfaction. The 
winter so far has been very mild, but from the test we have made I believe 
they will heat the car sufficiently during the coldest weather. 

Yours truly, A. D. Rogers, Pres. 



i^iife^*^^^^^ 



PERSONALS. 



C. L. Bowler, manager uniform cloth department of 
Sawyer, Manning & Co., New York, made a pleasant 
call the past week. 

Col. Beecher, of Beecher, Schenck & Benedict, gen- 
eral managers of the American Casualty Insurance and 
Security Co. is in the city for a few days. 



C. G. Goodrich, general manager of the Minneapolis 
City Railway Co. has purchased the well known Kasota 
Block, in this city, for $168,000. The trade was closed 
in three days. 

A. G. Wellington, secretary' of the Grif^n Wheel 
and Foundry Co., has returned from an extended and 
successful business trip through the South, in the interests 
of his compan3\ 

Frederick Sargent has been appointed consulting 
electrician to the chief of construction of the World's 
Columbian Exposition, a position for which he is emin- 
ently qualified from long experience as an electrical en- 
gineer of high standmg. Mr. Sargent has been 
prominent!}- connected with large enterprises, and for 
the past few months has been established here as an inde- 
pendent electrical and mechanical engineer. His appoint- 
ment gives general satisfaction, and we join with others 
in congratulations. 

Mr. S. T. Pope, the new superintendent of the Chica- 
go Cit}- Railway, is a Bostonian and was educated as a 
mechanical engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology'. He came to Chicago in Juh', 1879, in the 
employ of the C. B. & Q. R. R., with which corporation 
he remained ten years, filling various positions in the en- 
gineer's mechanical and operating departments. When 
he left the road he occupied the position of Train Master 
at Chicago. He then became General Superintendent of 
the Duluth & Iron Range R. R. In January, 1890, he 
was appointed Assistant Manager of the Minnesota Iron 
Co., who operate the third largest of the Lake Superior 
iron mines. He resigned this last named position to ac- 
cept the superintendency of the City Railway, a field which 
will give abundant opportunity for the display of the fine 
executive ability with which his former connections com- 
plimented him. 



Koch's Lymph. 

DR. KOCH'S lymph will doubtless prove a great 
boon to suffering humanitj-, but it is yet in the 
experimental stage. The remedial value of the 
waters at Hot Springs, Ark., has been demonstrated. 
This great health and pleasure resort is reached directly 
via the Wabash road. Compartment sleepers, Chicago 
to St. Louis, where direct connection is made with a 
double daily line of sleepers for Hot Springs. Berths 
reserved through. 



Health vs. Fashion. 

TO be fashionable, one must frequently violate the 
laws of health. It is both fashionable and health- 
ful to go to Hot Springs, Ark. The Wabash road 
is the favorite line to that great winter resort. Compart- 
ment sleepers Chicago to St. Louis, where direct connec- 
tion is made morning and evening with a double daily 
line of sleepers to Hot Springs. Berths reserved through 
from Chicago. 

FOR SALE. 

ONE TWO HORSE SWEEPER— Almost new, but found 
to be a trifle short for our guage, which is 5 ft. 2J4 inches. 
Address, B. F. OWEN, Pres., 

Reading City Passenger Ry Co., 

Reading, Fa. 

HYDRAULIC WHEEL PRESS.— As good as new, and 
in perfect order. For sale at a bargain. 

DORNER & BUTTON, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

STREET RAILWAY FOR SALE.— In a live western 
manufacturing city of 25,000 people. Dividend paid in 
1890, six thousand dollars. The right to use electricity. 
Charter has 88 years to run. Price $75,000. 

Address H, care Street Railway Review OflBce. 



Electric Railways. 

C. E. LOSS & CO., 

11 3 lM[oxxz*oe Stx*eet, 

CHICAGO. 



Contract for the Building and Complete Equip- 
ment of Electric Railways. 

Correspondence Solicited. References Furnished. 

THE HALE & KILBUN MFG. CO. 



EXTENSIVE MA 



F ^^ rr E IsT T E ID 

STREET CAR SEATS. 

Made with or without Springs. Covered in CARPET, PLUSH or 
BATTAN. 

OUR NEW ELASTIC SLAT SPRING SEAT IS THE CHEAPEST AND 
MOST COMFORTABLE WOODEN SEAT EVER MADE. 



MoBERLY, Mo., expects to have ten miles of electric 
railway before the close of this year. 



Onr Celebrated Mteel Top Spring ii^eetlons nsetl in Vpholsterine 

I- OR COMFORT. 
KOR DURABILITY. 
FOR APPEARANCE. 
Hundreds o£ References. Thousands in Use. Estimates and 
Particulars cheerfully furnished. 



THE BEST E 




THE STREET RAILWAY REVIEW PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



334 DEARBORN ST., 

11. 11. Wl.NDSOU, rrcsidcnt. 



• CHICAGO. 

F. L. KEN MELD, Sc 



SUBSCRIPTION, 



ONE DOLLAR. 



Address all Communications attd Remittaitcfs to The Stkeet Railway Review, 
CaxtoH Building, 334 Dfarborn Street, Chicago. 

H.H.WINDSOR, F. L. KENPIELD, 

Editor. Business Manager. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

We cordiillly invite correspondence on all subjects of interest to those engag-ed 
in any branch of Street Railway work, and will grittefully appreciate any marked 
copies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send us, pertaining 
cither to companies or officers. Address: 

THE STKEET RAII.W.VY REVIEW. 





3,51 De: 


rborn Street, Chicago. 




Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Cla 


ss Matter. 




VOL. 1. 


APRIL 


NO. .4 





We will pay SIS.OA for the best artirle by any person en- 
eagcd iu IStreet Kailway AVork. on 

"The Best Melliod by wliieli aStieet ICailna.v may eondurt a 
I'arot'l Uelivery Service." 

.•\rti<-Ie niOHt not be leNM than 1.000 nor more than Si.iSOO words 
in length, and deeiHion will be rendereil in favor of the most 
prartieal and complete plan, rather than for literary <|ualities. 

Mannweript must reach this office on or before .lunc 15th. 



j\ TOUI1KR1-; liius rapid transit had greater obstacles to con- 
<■ ^ tend against than in Baltimore, but some few people 
are experiencing a change of ideas, for the values of prop- 
erty have advanced from 30 to 50 per cent iilong the line 
of the new cable road there. 



pRKsiDENT John W. McN.\mara, of the Albanv, N. Y., 
* lines, has had considerable e.xperience with snow- 
flakes this winter and after a careful analysis has come to 
the conclusion that snow-flakes contain a dividend reduc- 
tion as well as water — and not the kind of water that gilt 
edge stock is watered with, either. 



piTTSBUK(; may very properly be said to have been -all 
^ torn up " the past year, for the report of the super- 
intendent of highways states that at one time there were 
eighty-seven streets undergoing a change b\ construction 
work of the various street railways of that cit\-. 



T^iiE electric car has added years to the life of the people 
* of Hannibal, Mo., for the new^ system makes a trip 
in just eight minutes which one year ago mule power 
required thirty to accomplish. Moreover, the cars are 
lighted and heated by the same force, while the business 
is as far in excess of what it was as the accommodations 
are better than the old. 



•yiiE newsboy no longer is one of the institutions of 
the Boston street cars. For a long time a news com- 
pany had the exclusive sale of papers on the cars there, 



1 1.3 



and some three huiulred htns were einplo\ed for lluil 
purpose. OiH- of the conditions was that the news com- 
|iany should protect the railway company against all 
damage suits, that might be brought for accident to any 
one riding on the badge with which the boys are fur- 
nished. This arrangement it seems suited the news 
company well enough until the other day, when they 
were called upon to respond to the claims made by a boy 
injured through his own carelessne.ss while wearing their 
badge. Now the deal is off, and General Monks has 
petitioned the Board of Aldermen to pass an order pro- 
hibiting bovs boarding the cars for the sale of papers. 



Tiiic coin receipts of the New York Broadwa\- line last 
year amounted to 700 bushels. This is a ver\- f;iir 
acreage, and had it not been for the late rains and the 
appearance of that pest known as the dead-head the 
yield would certainly have been larger. The prospects, 
however, for a big passenger crop this year are now \ery 
promising, and if the legislators will only keep a\\a\- the 
chiuices are even that stjme of the mortgage on the old 
fiinn mav be wiped out in time for Thanksgiving. 



TIM-; Philistines are abroad in the land. Our proud 
State of Illinois, deferentially termed the •' Sucker 
State," now joins California, Massachusetts and Min- 
nesota in street railvva}' legislation. V>\ some strange 
p:u-adox our Philistine is named David. At the last elec- 
tion, one named David Hunter, was torn by a relentless 
constituenc\' from the pastoral scenes of his peaceful flocks 
and carrot plantation and sent up to the capital to make 
laws. Now when David arrived at the town where the 
irovernor resides, he found so many laws that needed 
making he was somewhat ;it a loss to know which crop 
to tackle first. 

(Jne morning David left the ta\ern ;ind indulged in 
the extravagance of ii street car ride to the State house. 
On the way he s;i\\ a gentleman rise and give his seat 
to a lady. He saw the man seize a strap and pull 
\igorously thereon. His loyal soul welled up within him 
with great big welds. He knew not that the man was 
consumptive and that the doctor had prescribed just such 
exercise. David remembered, however, that the very cows 
in his barn kicked at him when they stood, and he could 
not ^iill tt) mind an instance where his cows h:id kicked 
except w hen standing. This grand conception of human- 
ity and nature kicking only w hen they stood, sent a big 
tap-root deep into his heart. David called to mind also 
the time when as a boy, his father had taken him to 
the city, and how he was obliged to stand while an old 
fat woman occupied the seat where he wanted to look 
out of the window and see the big houses go by. This, 
then, was that dreadful microbe that gnawed and was 
getting in its work on the digestive organs of the body 
politic. Are not street cars iniquitous institutions any 
way? Should thev be tolerated at all in this once free 
country? thought David, and every time the clock struck 
he fancied he could hear the ring of the conductor's 
register as he extorted fares from the helpless victims, 
and then he remembered the vicious ends to which the 



114 



street railway people in Chicago had resorted to trap the 
public. There the passengers could ride nine miles for 
one base live cent fare, and even get a free transfer to a 
cross line extending two miles more. 

The cars have been made attractive within and with- 
out. They were comfortably warmed in winter, and 
nicelv lighted, and in summer an entirely different set of 
equipments was furnished; they were propelled by new 
mechanical powers costing millions of somebodv's money, 
and hurried the people home at ten and fifteen miles an 
hour, thus forcing them into the bosom of their families a 
full half hour earlier than in the old time dajs. Many, 
too, had been on this account beguiled into going out 
where there was grass and generous j'ards and where 
the}' were compelled to breathe fresh air. For all these 
sins a day of reckoning should now be set. The thistles 
should be burned and the burdocks grubbed out. The 
only way to prevent people riding in the cars was to make 
it impossible fc ■ the companies to operate. How should 
he do this.'' 

The Hunter street car bill ma\' be considered as includ- 
ing one big ring and five acts. The first act provides a 
maximum fare of five cents for one ride between termini 
of all surface and elevated roads. This is specially intended 
as a premium for extending present lines. The second 
provides a fine of from $200 to $500 recoverable in the 
courts, for the collection of more than a three cent fare 
from any passenger not provided with a seat. The third 
great act provides a $10 tine collectible from conductors 
for violation of item second. Section four allows the 
passenger the $500 noted abo\e if he can provt his case 
against the company. 

But it is reserved for act five to tassel out the silken 
threads that are intended to strangle. It provides that when 
a company has been convicted a fourth time of collecting 
more than three cents without furnishing the passenger a 
seat, that such company shall be deemed to have forfeited 
all its rights, franchises and privileges which it may have 
acquired from the city where it exists. 

Were any such provision constitutional, and could be 
enforced, it were an easj' matter to close out every street 
railway in the state in a few hours. Men can be found in 
plenty who would enter the employ of the company only 
to betray it, and intentionally violate the law, nor could it 
be proved against them. To furnish a seat to all who 
desire to leave the center of Chicago for only one hour 
following the close of business would require five thousand 
28 foot cars, seating thirty passengers each. These if 
placed end to end would make an unbroken line 26yi 
miles long, and would cost $7,500,000. 

In our February issue we showed the actual impossi- 
bility of providing seats for all in large cities during the 
rush, and to carry at three cents, would, in Chicago, with 
its immensely long hauls end in speedy bankruptcy. 
The measure would engender endless strife between 
passenger and conductor, and it would seem as though 
the author of the measure never could have left his calves 
and hens before. Instead of assisting the public it would 
have a positive effect in the opposite direction. 



Thk generall}' mild weather which has characterized 
the past winter has resulted, as was feared, in a large 
amount of sickness chiefly bordering on the " grip*' and 
tending to pneumonia. It seems to have been more 
severe in the cities bordering on the lakes than on the 
seaboard, but has been all too widespread and fatal. Street 
railway emplojes, by reason of their necessarily exposed 
work, have suffered in large numbers, but with a very 
much less per cent of fatalities than in almost any other 
occupation. In Chicago there have been the past month 
as many as five hundred street car men sick at one time. 
Clear, bright weather seems to be the only radical relief 
from the pre\ailing trouble. 



TN this issue are described and illustrated two improved 
A forms of street railway motors. The most cursory 
examination will show the great advance over what was 
the best available only a few months since, and is another 
fulfillment of confident expectations so firmly maintained 
b}' leading students. When we consider the years of 
railroading which were allowed to pass before the air- 
brake, the safety platform and the sleeping car were 
worked out, words almost fail to express the achieve- 
ments and practical advance made in electrical railway 
lines. Even discounting the facilities existing now which 
were wanting then, the comparison reveals an amount of 
earnest, intelligent effort unequaled in any other branch 
of modern science. 

'T~'iiE Massachusetts legislature was recently requested to 
' appoint a committee to report on a fixed schedule by 
which the various railw'ay companies should be governed 
in their car service; the object in view being to secure 
more cars at periods of heavy riding. A law could not 
be framed which would have elasticity enough to better 
either the public or companies in this respect. Of course 
all managers anticipate the morning and evening "rush" 
and as far as possible provide for it — but even this varies 
in \olume with different days in the week, and it also 
occurs earlier or later certain days in the week. For 
instance, in some cities there is heavy homeward riding on 
Saturday at one o'clock, in others at three, in others at 
four, five or six. Some cities experience heavy matinee 
riding, but the day for such attractions is not the same in 
all cities. The above are suggestions of a list that could 
be mentioned, of causes that go to make any attempted 
legislation of this character thoroughly impracticable. 
The public or the few who are always demanding the 
impossible, little know the difficulties surrounding the 
desire to give a good service. Best results will only and 
ever come from the constant watch of the manager him- 
self, who, to accomplish best results must watch the travel 
as an engineer watches a steam gauge, and check the 
number of cars here and increase there as necessity 
requires. An iron clad law would require a given number 
of cars on a certain street at a certain time, which if 
complied with would prevent the distribution of cars to 
meet daily requirements. There are many local conditions 
that general legislation cannot improve, and this is one 
of them. 



#tt«l^^iU^ ^i^^^ 



115 



Till' \\'(iKi,i)"s I'"aiiv will hrnf ^iTiil \aliu' to street rail- 
was (.-ntcrprises all through this wi-stt-rn (.oiintry, for 
it will draw in'oplu from tlie ICast who have iu-\(.-r before 
\ isiteil this seelion. Thex' will then see for the first time 
its wonderful resources and phenominal growth, and 
realize, as is impossible sa\e from personal inspection, the 
present and future possibilities of this great section. The 
western manager who goes East to place his securities 
finds a most disheartening, and to him almost incompre- 
hensible lack of appreciation of what the West has and 
is. The many wildcat schemes that eastern investors 
have followed to their sorrow have worked an undeserved 
hardship on many really legitimate anil jirotitable enter- 
prises, and this lack of confidence can ne\ er be fully o\ er- 
come until capitalists shall ha\e \isited the West, and by 
bv so doing realize what it is. 



CAi'iTAi. which formerly sought in\ estment in railroad 
securities is more and more being diverted into street 
railway bonds. There is comparatively little speculation 
in street railway stocks, and the mone}- which goes into 
them does so as a permanent in\estment. The reduced 
profits that have attended the operation of most steam 
roads, and their enormous indebtedness when compared 
to the property which a street road has to show for its 
securities, coupled with the fact that the business of the 
latter is much more uniform and certain, has attracted 
capital as never before. The abnormal growth of cities, 
wliich has been greatly accelerated b\' modern rapid 
transit, has also been a prominent factor in bringing about 
this favorable opinion which has stimulated investment. 

CREATED TRAVEL. 

THE trallic managers of all steam roads freely 
admit the profit accruing to their lines from what 
is termed created travel, and are ever on the 
alert to devise schemes and a\ail themsehes of 
every opportunity to foster it. To this end they spend 
largely, advertising the attraction of e\er\- new feature of 
interest reached by their road. Winter excursions to the 
south and sunmier trips north, special rates on certain 
days to lakes and picnic grounds and other rates to 
special parties. They go farther and lay out attractive 
grounds on river bank or charming lake and the revenue 
derived in return is very largely a profitable one. 

.\lready many street railroads have seen the possibili- 
ties in this branch of their service; others are content 
with the natural Saturday and Sunday riding to parks. 
But almost every road can greatly further enlarge this 
class of travel by a very small outlay if intelligently and 
judiciously expended. If there are band concerts on cer- 
tain days in the public parks, print small dodgers or "dia- 
mond" cards and hang them in all the cars, for a day or 
two previous, giving the hour at which the concert begins: 
publish the programme to be rendered on the occasion, 
and in every possible way set forth the attractions. Many 
people would be glad to go if they are thus reminded of 
the event, who would otherwise have forgotten all about 
it. If there are no such musical attractions furnished 



by the city, caiuass llu- ipiestion with the confectioner\- 
and ice ireani nun in the neighborhood adjoining the 
place of resort and join them in a sub.scription which will 
defray the expense of the attraction. It is \erv eas\ to 
raise a surprisingly large amount in this manner for such 
purposes, and musical organizations are glad to make 
favorable terms for a season's contract. If there is no 
local band available lielp to get one organized. " Local 
attractions are always strong ones, and will often draw a 
crowd where outsiders fail. Vary the performances 
occasionally. For a few dollars a stereopticon exhibition 
can be secured and the views cast upon a large screen in a 
park afford a delightful summer evening entertainment. 
The views can embrace as wide a range as may be desired; 
travels abroad and at home, and the entire expense 
be brought within fifteen dollars an evening. In connec- 
tion with this secure a few advertisements to be thrown 
in occasionally between other views and the revenue from 
these will often be sufficient to defray the entire expense. 
If desired, a lecture descriptive of the scenes maj' accom- 
pany them although the public does not as a rule care much 
for lectures in an outdoor entertainment, preferring to 
enjoy refreshments or engage in conversation than listen 
attentivel}-. There are in all good sized cities parties who 
can be secured to give such views, and when their own 
are exhausted can readily rent new and fresh ones from 
supply houses who carry an unlimited \ariet\- in stock for 
that purpose. The suggestion in this is not to in\ ite the 
public to a worthless, cheap and uninteresting entertain- 
ment, for that would be fatal to the accomplishment of 
what is aimed at. But let the attraction be in ever\- sense 
good and each succeeding one w ill draw more and more. 
A good idea would be to occasionally \ary the band con- 
certs and views with a chorus of as man}- voices as can be 
secured, to render popular airs, selections from the latest 
operas, and if possible secure one or more pieces of a local 
nature that will tend to further increase public interest. 
In some places it will be found diflicult to secure necessary 
consent from park commissioners for the use of the 
grounds. But this is only in a few of the largest cities, 
for in most places it will be found that the ollicials will 
not only welcome such offers, but co-ojierate in promoting 
and making the plan successful. Where no ]>ark is a\ail- 
able some suitable ground located at the end of a line, 
may' be rented and fitted with board seats at slight ex- 
pense. The returns from the sale of privileges sold to 
refreshment stands should offset this item: and the ride 
o\er the line in a warm summer afternoon or evening is 
in itself pleasing, particularly if the motive power be other 
than animal. The entertainment comes at a time of the da\- 
when cars can be drawn from other lines and made to do 
extra service. 

We know of a few railway companies who have 
already found it \ery profitable to lease or purchase grounds 
at the end of some line, and have there laid out walks, 
seats, refreshment stands, swings, and where water of 
sufficient size is available furnish boats which are rented 
at so small a charge as to place them within the reach of 
the poorest. 



ii6 



In an entorprise of this kind one important feature must 
not be lost sight of: and that is on no account to allow 
the prices charged for refreshments and such other 
accommodations as must be charged for, to bj such that 
thev will act as a practical prohibition. Make just as 
much as possible free and for what a charge must be 
made fix it as near a self sustaining price as can be safely 
done. In this w^av will a large travel be built up, and look 
for the main returns from this alone. 

We have but touched on this question, and as the forego- 
ing is merely suggestive, every energetic manager can 
better work out the details to suit his own cit}- and public : 
but a very little careful investigation of the subject 
will pro\e both interesting and surprising, and its pos- 
sibilities much wider than at first thought would be 
expected. 

Another feature of summer car service that can profit- 
ably be encouraged is that of chartered cars for Sunday 
schools. Public schools and special parties. Make a rate 
on the basis of so much a mile for the round trip for the 
car, and a sliding scale where a larger number of cars are 
required. It can easih' be arranged to move such parties 
at an hour which will utilize the extra cars as they turn in 
from' the morning extra runs, and thus secure their use at 
a time when they usualh' go into the barn. A good plan 
is to take picnic parties out in a bod\', and as it is difiicult 
to furnish the same number of extra cars all at once for 
the return in the evening, sell a sufficient number of tickets 
to the managers with which to supply the members of the 
party. This will be found very advantageous to all; as 
the company' can perform the service necessar}' to return 
the party with a small number of extra cars, and also does 
not compel all to return at a set hour. There are alwajs 
many who desire an early return, and others who prefer 
to remain out until nine or ten in the evening. By this 
ticket arrangement all are allowed their own choice in the 
matter and the regular car service is made to take care of 
a large proportion of the crowd. 



PERSONALS. 



EyEN the staid old city of Washington, D. C, has 
experienced quite a boom in real estate from the con- 
struction of the new street railways in that city. A 
single instance of this may be cited in the case of the cor- 
ner of F. and Thirteenth streets, which a few days ago 
was sold at an advance of $125,000 over the purchase 
price of six months ago, and still some people there want 
to reduce the price of the street car fare. 



A Balti.mokk paper bewails the fact that on certain 
lines in that city standing room on the cars is at a premium, 
and not always available at that. And yet Baltimore has 
made a long and vigorous struggle against rapid transit, 
and made it almost impossible for the companies there to 
move hand or foot towards better service. A change of 
sentiment is working and the cable road there will 
quicken matters wonderfully, and if anything is left of the 
electric ordinance as it struggles through the city coun- 
cil it may even be that in the future there will not only 
be standing room, but seats and plent\' of them on their 
cars. 



W. H. Shaffer, general manager of the City Railway, 
Richmond, Ind., favored us with a call. lie has been 
increasing his rolling stock to meet the increasing travel. 

A. H. Allen, formerly district engineer of the southern 
office of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. 
has accepted the position of superintendent of the Char- 
lotte, (S. C.) Electric Street Railway. 



W. P. R AVLAND, who has been superintendent of the 
Rome, New York City R'y for the last four years, has 
been appointed superintendent of the Newburgh Street 
RA" and will have charge of both lines. 

Thos. II. Gibbon, president of the Gibbon Compound 
Rail Co., when in Chicago made our office his head- 
quarters. He appointed Avery & West of this city western 
agents, and reports a very successful trip. 



Edward E. Higgins, of Buffalo, N. Y., formerly of the 
Thomson-Houston Co., and G. W. Atterbury of Litch- 
field, 111., recently of the Westinghouse Co., are now with 
the Short Electric Co., and will prove valuable acquisitions 
to that enterprising institution. 

II. C. Whitney, the well known and able journalist, 
and recently engaged in electric lines, has joined the Elec- 
trical Age, and will represent that paper between New 
York and the Rocky Mountains. His headquarters will 
be at 1,001 Opera House Block, Chicago. 



Menard K. Bowen, who has been superintendent of the 
Kansas Cit}- Cable R'y, for four years, has resigned, to 
take effect April 15th. He has been connected with the 
road for six years, and during his superintendency the 
mileage has been increased from five to twenty miles, and 
the road takes a place among the best known cable lines 
in the country. Close application to his office has resulted 
in poor health, and for the present he will rest and travel 
through the south. He has an offer from a large com- 
pany in the east, but will probabl}- decline it and shortly 
engage in manufacturing. Mr. Bowen is counted among 
the most capable cable men in the country, and has not 
had a vacation in seventeen years. 

Frank X. Cicott, who has had many years experience 
as general agent for electric railway supplies on the 
Pacific coast, and who has been largely interested in 
street railway matters for a long time, has assumed the 
management of the rail department for the Electric Mer- 
chandise Co., of Chicago. Mr. Cicott brings to his work 
a long and practical experience with the wants of street 
railway men, supplemented by a recent and thorough in- 
spection of the tramway systems of Europe. His articles 
in the Street Railway Review on foreign tramways 
have been read with much interest, and our readers will 
find Mr. Cicott a very delightful gentleman to meet, and 
the Tramway Rail Co., of Pittsburg cannot but be- 
come well known to the western trade through the efforts 
of their active western agent. 



REPORTING ACCIDENTS. 



117 



OXIC. Ilciwr, of C'aiiiliri(li;\% has an (irdfi- nnw in 
the liaruls of a iMassachusctts lt.-<;islati\t' coni- 
iniuce for a report on a bill which, should it be- 
come a law , w oulcl require a street railway com- 
pan\ to promptly report in writing every accident that may 
occur in connection with the operation of its cars. Just w by 
this bill does not go further and in the interest of reci- 
procity require the citizen to report in writing to the Health 
Department every time he ma\' indulge in unripe fruit 
and by so doing perchance get a colic; or stub lis toe on 
a protruding nail and accidently embrace the sidewalk, is 
not stated. Certain howexer, is it, this Howe is no true 
friend of either the public or the corporation. If his 
nu'asure be liorn through ignorance a \er\' little exer- 
tion on his part to enlighten it could not fail to declare 
to him the error of his ways yet would this not make 
him a true friend but rather a well meaning though mis- 
guided one. 

The Boston Post admits its lack of enterprise, by stating 
that only a small portion of the accidents that occur ever 
get into the papers, and lays great stress on the better 
protection the public would receive by the passage of the 
bill. In just what wa\' a column article describing in 
detail the fact that Mrs. So and So insanely jumped off 
backwards in the middle of the block from a car moving 
at full speed; and without giving an\' signal to any one 
on the car: and that the result was attended with the usual 
disturbance of garments and perturbation of mind which 
all females experience when endeavoring to point at the 
sun with both feet: — we say in just what way the public 
is thereby benefitted and protected is not entirely self- 
evident. Such accidents, and there are dozens of them 
daily in every large city, might for a while prove interest- 
ing reading, but as to haying any restraining effect on 
the other sisters when a similar fit seized them is absurd. 
Even the publication of accidents of more serious nature 
could scarcely be seen to afford additional safety to an\- 
one. 

+ -f; ^(; 

That accidents occur in the operation of street railwa\s, 
whether by horse, cable or electricit\-, none will dispute. 
That more or less painful experiences to certain persons 
will always attend the operation of vehicles of any kind 
is likewise not to be denied. In fact some people cannot 
travel alone in a forty acre lot w ithout coming to grief, 
and to get hurt seems to be the chief end of some men. 
Frequently the agents of the railway grossh \ iolate orders 
and the company becomes criminally negligent thereb\ , 
though wholly blameless morally as to any such intent. 
That managers court such undesirable circumstances as a 
part of their administration is not true, even though some 
people feign to belie\e it. Neither is he a cold-blooded 
and untamed individual whose greatest ambition is to show 
a greater damage account than his competitor on the 
next street. He does not revel in gore although the 
idiotic actions of some law-makers make him want to. 
He is not "at home" to every person who claims to have 



barked their shins on one of his car steps, simpK' because 
such jiersons are aKva\s the most desirable and agreeable 
ornaments of society. His faith in man, and w onian too, 
is seldom strengthened as the claims of nine out of every 
ten cases are found on investigation to be lione\'-combed 
through and through with e\idences of the most delib- 
erate fraud. 

jf. .If 

The bill as proposed could be of service to but one 
person, and that one is the shyster lawyer, an individual in 
man's clothing, but inw'ardly a ravening shark, devoid of 
either conscience or manhood. The Judas of his profession, 
despised b\' none more than by judges and reputable 
members of the bar. His is the one class which would 
be benefitted by such a law. As it is now he arises early 
in the morning, scans the paper for reports of every kind 
of accident and is at the bedside of the unfortunate often 
before the surgeon has finished dressing the wounds. 
Here his fine work appears, posing as one who witnessed 
the accident and has come to see justice done. His 
indignation against the company knows no bounds, and 
his arguments are freely supported by accounts of cases 
won, and large damages secured to his clients. The 
patient though honest is perhaps weak and half unconcious 
and signs the papers bringing suit before he knows it; or 
if dishonest gladly seizes the opportunity. In other cases, 
the shyster poses as a dear friend of the deceased and 
invades the sanctity of death itself and the frightened and 
helpless widow is dragged into bringing suit with .scarcely 
any knowledge of having done so. In Chicago, one of these 
knaves goes so far as to carry with him a scrap book 
showing cases he has had. They also take such cases 
on shares, themselves advancing, where necessary, the 
usual court fees. By these means, the client where he 
has an equitable case, is at the outset kept away from any 
fair offer which the company may desire to make. 
* * + 

The impression, so widely accepted, that street railw ays 
are not disposed to act in an honorable manner tow ards 
those injured on their cars has long prevailed and been 
fostered by a careless press. The actual facts are, that 
where a company is plainly liable or where the\' are partially 
so, they are always ready and glad to do the right thing and 
much prefer that the claimant in such case should receive 
the entire amount rather than have it wasted in court costs 
or divided with some rascally lawyer. The records of 
every large railway corporation shows that fully 90 per 
cent of suits brought have no foundation whatever, either 
being cases where the company is in no po.ssible particular 
liable, or not unfrequentlv never existed at all. 

As a sample of these infamous schemes to bleed the coni- 
jiany, the follow ing, known to the writer, may answer to 
illustrate others little better, that could be named by the 
score. When the cable road was opened in Chicago and 
the speed changed from four to ten miles an hour those 



iiS 



at that time opposed to tlie system said it would be highly 
dangerous. Taking ad\antage of this, a tailor sent his 
attorney to the company's claim agent, stating he had been 
struck bv a grip car and dangerously injured. The claim 
agent called and found the sufferer groaning in bed from 
bruises which had completely covered his entire side with 
black and blue marks. He could scarcely speak, and 
largely excited the agent's sympathy. The offer to 
send the company's doctor was vigorously declined, 
nor could the patient tell the name of his physician, but 
was able to suggest a sum for which settlement could be 
made. As it amounted to se\eral thousand dollars, how- 
ever, the agent not having that amount loose in his pocket 
was unable to close the trade. The man w ould take no 
less and should enter suit as soon as he could get about 
again, though he ne\er expected to be a well man. 
The agent left, promising to call the next day. He then 
hastened to the company's surgeon and directed him to 
go at once and 1 possible make an examination, stating 
the case was a ver\- serious one. When the doctor 
unexpectedly arrived and inquired for the patient, a vigor- 
ous bustle in the next room was heard, and after a few 
moment's delay the doctor's suspicions were aroused. He 
forced his way into the bedroom. The patient was 
breathing hard and moaning in evident pain, but would 
not allow the doctor to touch him. Glancing on the floor, 
one shoe only was to be seen with the patient's clothes, 
and with one sweep the doctor stripped the clothes from 
the bed. The other shoe was on the injured man's foot, 
but the collection of discolorations which covered his side 
astonished the doctor and for a moment phased him. 
Whenever the patient was touched he fairlj- howled with 
pain, while his good wife talked in a threatening manner 
about cruelty and sending for somebody to cast somebody 
else out. Nothing daunted the doctor proceeded to 
bathe the zebra-looking object with a sponge dipped in 
alcohol, whereupon a sort of grand transformation scene 
ensued, during which the doctor succeeded by active work 
in removing fully one-half the results of the alleged battle 
with the grip, and would have made a clean sweep and 
permanent cure had the patient not jumped to his feet 
and burst into a fit of rage. The doctor suggested a 
year or two in an institution supported by the state, where 
the inmates wear striped clothes, and the tables turned 
and the rascal was on his knees begging for merc\- and 
pleading not to be exposed. 

* * * 

Another and still more desperate case was that of 
apparently a very nice married lady, who sent to the stock 
yards and secured a quart of beef-blood, with which she 
covered her body and the bed-clothes and having done so 
sent a messenger in great haste to the company, claiming 
a hemorrhage resulting from being thrown from a car. 
It required several day's active detective work to ferret 
out the whole plot, which was eventually laid bare, where- 
upon the party suddenly left town. 

* * H- 

These cases from actual record are given merely to show 
to what extreme people will go who have no case at all. 



Some, who receive injuries other than from t!ie cars, 
make claims for injuries which do exist but ha\e not the 
remotest connection with the conipan\-. Others are 
insignificant until fanned into flame by some designing 
lawyer. Suit was recently brought in a Chicago court 
for $10,000 damages for the loss of a leg which had 
been already twice paid for by two steam roads, and in 
which a doctor, a lawyer and the owner of this amputated 
limb were in league to defraud. Strange as it may seem, 
it was only after long and indefatigable search that the 
plot was discovered, and then after the company had 
offered to settle for a sum, which though large was less 
than the amount sued for. From experience the writer 
knows that this fraudulent litigation is attempted to an 
extent almost be^'ond belief, and now, to add to it and stim- 
ulate the same b}' requiring companies to report every 
accident, which means publish it broadcast, is unjust, as 
it simply encourages and makes easy a nefarious and 
infamous practice which has assumed alarming proportions. 

If a person has been injured on a car it is a matter 
between him and the company alone. 

No institution in a city is as well known as tlie street 
railway, and it is the easiest of matters to get in com- 
munication with the proper officers and enter claim in a 
proper method: but to make people unfamiliar with such 
operations, the victim of the merciless schemes of these 
legal pirates is not "for the better protection" of the 
public but rather "for the better robbery" of both the 
public and the corporation. 



In striking contrast to the statements of those people 
who not only do not know what they are talking about 
but wilfull}' misrepresent the facts when they do know, as 
regards the safet\' of the electric system, comes the report 
from the Albany (X. Y.) Electric Railwa}'. President 
Prujn recently stated that of the three million people 
who had been carried since that road started, the\' had 
yet to have a single accident to an\' passenger. The 
daily press of Philadelphia ha\e worked unmeasured 
mischief by their columns of untruths which have set 
the pace for a large following of papers in the smaller 
towns of that State, who seem to get the most of their 
ideas from the Quaker city. The result has been that 
in several such places the citizens are to-day plodding along 
the same old gait that has been the rule for years, while the 
street railway companies have been prevented from mak- 
ing improvements so greatly to be desired. In not a few 
instances has there been altogether too likel}' a probabil- 
ity that the onh- arguments lacking to con\ince some 
people of the real truth as to the merits of the electric 
rapid transit have been arguments the chief points of which 
very much resemble a dollar sign. There was a time 
when many an objection now raised was an honest one, 
but the experience of operation has made such objec- 
tions pointless, and some people seem to have gained 
their ad\icf on electrical matters on the famous Josh Bill- 
ings plan. Josh said, "When a man comes to me for 
advice I first find out what kind of advice he wants — and 
then I give it to him." 



ilt«i4;^i^il«^ ^i^(te»^ 



119 



PROPOSED SIDEWALK CABLE RAILWAY. 

IN tlicsc (la\ s c\LT\ hiv^c eily in tlu' coiiiUry lias from 
(iiK- to a (lox.cti iK'W silu'iiR's for transit rangiiijr all 
till- wav from two or tliri-c stories undL-rj^rouiul to 
more- than as main overhead. While many of them 
are inten.si'h impraetieable, others are both inlerestinn" and 
meritorious. 

One of the latest in Chieai^o is a eomjiany whose ol-.jeet 
is to secure a rit;'ht of way for a eabU' road to extend 
under the sidew alk and on either side of the street, in this 
citv the streets are so rej^iilarly laid out and so wide, and 
the sidewallcs of suflicient w idth to make the plan mueh 
more easy of accomplislmient than in man}- older cities. 

P]ent\- of capital is said to back the sclienie, and a sur- 
vey has already been made for a line to start north, west 
and south from the business centre. An ordinance has 
been drafted, but probably u ill not be presented until the 
new council is elected. 

'I'he sulnvax w ill ha\ e a roof of girders and stone, or 
iron oratinns |illi-d with glass, and will have a depth 
of 8 feet from sidewalk to floor. The subway will be 12 




feet w ide. and as the cars are onl\- to occup}' 8 feet, a 
passage-wav of four feet will be left along one side. It 
will not be necessary to incur the usual heavy expense for 
conduit work, as the carrying pulleys can rest upon the 
floor and the cable remain exposed at all points. T rails 
would be used, and paving repairs, snow cleaning and 
obstructions on the track would be all absent, the three 
greatest disadvantages probably that surface roads experi- 
ence in their track department. It is intended to make 
the cars from Hoor to ceiling 6 ft. 2 in., anil of ordinary 
length. 

There is no occasion to make the exterior of the cars 
other than very plain, but the interiors should be the best 
that can be secured and lighted with incandescent lamps, 
while the sub-way itself would be brilliantly lighted 
throughout its entire length. In summer the ride would 
be much cooler and in winter warmer than on the surface. 

It is proposed to have cars stop at every street inter- 
section as desired, same as surface lines, and a comfortable 
waiting room is to occupy space under the sidewalk of the 
cross street. Passengers enter the cars at the end on plat- 
forms as on other cable cars. 



^riieri' are a great many \er\- connnendable features 
attending the scheme, the only reall\' serious objection 
being, pro\idingfor water, gas pipes and electrical conduits 
which cross the propo.sed i:oute at a less depth than the 8 
feet. It is claimed, however, that these can all be de- 
pressed at the meeting points and while involving some 
considerable expense the entire construction would have 
all the advantages of a tunnel and could be constructed at 
one-fourth the cost. This plan would have one feature 
which a tunnel road could not ha\e, and that is the 
basements at station corners would become almost as \alu- 
abk' for business purposes as those on the surface, and in 
time it would be an eas\- matter to protect the four foot 
w alk w ith an iron lattice railing and thus afford a second 
sidewalk which though narrow w(juld accommodate a 
large number. 

Cars would pass upon one side of the street and return 
on the other, and could easil}- be brought to the surface 
w hen well out from business, if desired. 



STREET CAR EXPRESS LINES. 



M 



.VXAGERS whose lines are ahead} or soon to be 
operated by' electricity, especially those whicli 
reach the outskirts of cities, or tap suburbs, will 
do well to consider the problem of introducing a 
light freight service. We have referred to this question 
in a former issue and particularly of its successful and 
profitable working in Dublin, where the s\stem has been in 
vogue several years. Many of our American companies 
would have to secure a change in their charter; others 
only the necessary permit from municipal authorities, and 
some already have the opportunity open to their reach. 
The expense would be by no means large to give the plan 
at least a trial, as an old passenger car could easily be 
con\erted into an express car, or one better suited to the 
]nnpose built at sHght outlay. We have great expecta- 
tions for the future of this branch of railway service and 
belie\e that when it is once fully appreciated, it w ill be- 
come general in a short time : and when that time comes, 
stockholders will regret having been so long blind to a 
profitable re\enue that has been lost to them through the 
press of other matters. The express car can certainly be 
hauled at less expense than an express wagon, and as 
surel}" in one-half to one-fourth the time. There are no 
serious difficulties in the w a\- and the system once estab- 
lished would doubtless grow rapidly, A central receiv- 
ing station down tow'n and distributing ones midway and 
at terminals of lines, would completly cover the city. For 
the purpose of bringing out the advantages and objec- 
tions incident to this problem, we offer this month a prize 
of fifteen dollars for the article by anyone in street rail- 
way employ which will enumerate the best and most 
complete system of managing this trafHc in large towns 
and cities. See offer elsewhere. 



BuRGL.VRS broke into the cable car house of the Haight 
street line, San Francisco. The vigilance of the watchman 
prevented the probable loss of the $4,000 which \vere in 
the safe. Fifteen bullet holes were found in the building. 



CHICAGO'S FIRST ELEVATED RAILROAD. 



A MAGNIFICENT STRUCTLRE — fNQL ESTI ON'ABLY THE I- INEST IN" THE COUNTRY. 



CHICAGO has been so laid out with wide streets 
that cross each other at right angles, and its 
topographical divisions are such that as the city 
spread out and increased in size it did so on all 
sides save only that touching the lake. Street railway 
lines lead out in every direction, and increased travel was 
at first provided for with additional lines and cars from 
time to time. Later, cable roads starting from the business 
center formed trunk lines south, west, and north which 
drew trains of cars of the horse lines that branched from 
the cable line at intervals, and thoroughly distributed the 
people. The manv steam roads put in a. surburban service 
in all directions and thus good accommodations were 
afforded. But since the borders of the city were extended 
until there is now rapidly filling with population a district 
twenty-four miles long and fifteen in width, all embraced 
within its limits, the necessit)- arises for elevated transit 
which can furnish the long haul riders coming from points 
far out, a quick service and fewer stops than is forced on 
the surface lines. 

The Chicago & South Side Rapid Transit R"y Co., has 
been at work on its plans since 1888, and pushing active con- 
struction work during the past few months. Its plan was 
radically different from other roads, for it incorporated 
under the general railroad act of the state and proceeded 
to secure a right of waj- by purchase where possible, and 
condemnation where necessary, of a strip twenty-five feet 
wide extending from Congress street, to the old city limits 
at Thirty-ninth street, a distance of a little less than four 
miles. This strip is on the rear of lots and next the alley 



settlements h\ the company. This occupation of the 
premises on which the road is built furnishes a perpetual 
right of way, and what is fully as important, removes the 
cause for damage suits attendant on the erection and 
operation of an elevated road along a thoroughfare. 





THE COMCI.ETE STKICTLK E. 

which extends the whole disT:ance in a straight line. In 
connection with the condemnations, which have occupied 
nearly two jears, it is interesting to note that the awards 
by juries have averaged less than the price offered for 



Several large buildings of four and five stories were across 
the path, but these were cut through, and the line so far 
as completed presents a most attractive appearance, and 
its opening is awaited with impatience. Propertj' abut- 
ting this alley has largely increased in value, and eventu- 
ally a street forty feet wide will take 
the place of what would have other 
wise ever remained a comparativelv 
unused passageway. 

, FOUNDATIONS. 

The foundations generally are about 
ten feet in depth and rest on a clay 
bank. The bed is of concrete and 
sf\en feet square and one foot thick, 
on w hich rest two stones 2 '2x5)2 feet, 
w hich hold the anchor bolts and dis- 
tribute the weight over the concrete. 
From these stones a brick pier rises, 
live feet square at the base, four feet 
at the top, and three and one-half feet 
JHgli. A blue-stone cap ^'j feet 
square and one foot thick completes 
the foundation work and supports a 
cast iron base weighing 1,800 pounds, 
in whicii the columns stand and are held in place by the 
anchor holts, which are one and one-fourth inches in dia- 
meter and live feet long. There are two sockets t\\ enty- 
one and one-half inches deep in this iron bed plate w hich 



receive tlu- two chaniu'ls that eoniiiosr tin- sides ot 
the eoluniii. and all reniaiiiint;' spaee is tilled with a mix- 
ture (if iron tilings and sal-aninioniae. The lateral dis- 
tanee from eeiitei' to eeiiter of columns is tweKe feet, 
exci'pl at stations, wheie they are spri'ad to 19 feet 9 
inches, to allow the longitiulinal girders to rest on trans- 
verse girders and to make room for the station building. 
The longitudinal s]iace between columns varies from thir- 
ty-liNX' to si,\t\- feet, but in most causes is fort^'-five feet. 
The girders ;u"e plate girders anil the chords are made of 
angle iron 4x6,',, in., and the chords of the long span 



more in (U-pth than those on the Eastern roads. The 
foundations are so constructed that there will not he more 
than i.Soo to 2,000 lbs. per square foot on the soil under 
the concrete, and the cla}' bed, which has been foiuid 
at a depth of onl\- ten feet, is excellent and hard. 

'i^he bottom of the girders i.s not less than 16 ft. and 
the rails are 20 ft. above the alley grade. At Sixteenth 
street the road cro.sses a steam line, and here the bottom 
of the girders is 20 ft. above the street. A \iaduct is 
also crossed at Twelfth street, and to accomplish this a 
grade commences at a point one thousand feet distant on 




ILW SHOWING OIRDERS AND LATERAL 



girders are 6x6xl,\ in. The wi'b plate is ni in. to ,",.. in. 
thick and united to the chord angles b\- r^ in. lixets 
placed from four to six inches apart. 
<;ii.!i)i;i<s. 
The girders are strong enough to sustain a mo\ing or 
live load of 1,000 lbs. per lineal foot per girder and a dead 
load of 270 lbs., which gi\es a sustaining abilit\- of about 
1,300 lbs. per lineal foot per girder, w ith a large factor 
of safety. The chords will not be strained more than 
10,000 lbs. per square inch bv the equipment to be used, 
but all the material has been actually tested to upwards 
of 30,000 lbs. per square inch as the elastic liiuit before 
being accepted, while the tests show an ultimate or break- 
ing strength of fully 30,000 lbs. per square inch. This 
leaves the very large margm of 40,000 lbs. surplus 
strength per square inch. The girders are six inches 



either side, b\- an ascent of twent\-six feet to the mile. 

The girders vary from thirty-five to sixty feet in length, 
according to the spacing of the posts. A thirty-tive foot 
girder is fortA-two inches deep and weighs 7,000 pounds. 
A tiftv foot girder is forty-eight inches deep. A sixty 
foot girder .is fifty-four inches deep and will weigh about 
9,000 pounds. Girders are secured to the top of the 
posts b\ bolts and rivets of J4 inch diameter, and at e\ery 
other span there are slotted holes in the lower chord of the 
longitudinal girder which permits of free expansion and 
contraction. The girders are braced by a system of 
laterals riveted to the chords, both at the top and bottom 
of girders, and connecting the two chords themselves in 
order to resist any swaying motion from the engine. 
Angle irons 4x4 in., at intervals of five feet, also stiffen the 
girders verticalh- and pre\ent buckling. A proper 



qualit}- of iron, when not strained beyond a certain limit, 
is practically enduring for all time if protected against 

rust. 

COLUMNS. 

The columns are composed of 15 in. channel bars, 150 
lbs. to the ^yard, braced b}- a sj'stem of 4x1^ in. flat iron 
braces, the same as in use on Third avenue in New York, 
only heavier. The columns are 15 in. square, until within 
3 feet of the top, at which point they gradually broaden 
out and form the spread top column, sustaining the ends 
of the loncritudinal irirders. 



On the top of the longitudinal girder rests the track 
superstructure, which consists of hardwood ties 6yS in. 
placed t\vent\- inches from center to center, and are held 
to the girders by hook bolts, instead of being rigidh- 
bolted to the girder, so as to permit the expansion of the 
girders independe .t of the track system. On these ties 
rest the steel rails, which weigh ninet^■ pounds to the 
yard, and were made by the Illinois Steel Co. The rail 
joints are what is known as the Fisher bridge joint, which 
tru.sses the base of the rail and gives a uniformly e\en 
surface to the tread of the wheel as the joint is passed. 
Both rail ends deflect the same di.stance at the same time, 




THE PERSPECTIVE— FROM BELOW. 



which prevents pounding. Joints are broken and the 
ends of the rails rest on an arched beam between ties. 
It is therefore a supported joint: the load comes upon the 
two .shoulder ties, and they act together as one. directly 
imder the rail ends. Rails are spiked to the ties with 
Sl4^A in- spike. 



On each side of the steel rail is a guard timber six 
inches wide and eight inches high bolted to the ties, and 
which would effectualh' prevent derailment should wheel 




IHE PERSPECTIVE— FROM ABOVE. 



or axle break by any chance. It also assists in bracing 
the structure longitudinally, and takes up all the thrusting 
force which comes upon the rails by the application of 
the brakes, and distributes this force oxer a long series of 
spans, and is the ideal method of stiffening a road of this 
character, as it is not practical to have any bracing under 
the girders as in ordinary trestle work. 

Between the tracks are placed ties six inches square 
and forty inches apart, on which are laid four 2 in. planks 
6 in. wide, and which forms a foot-walk for the pa.ssage 
of employes and to permit engineers to make examina- 
tion of machinery between stations should occasion require. 
This walk extends the entire length of the road, and in 
case of possible delay or blockade passengers could easil\- 
reach the nearest station without difficulty. 

The structural iron received one coat of metallic paint 
when it left the mills, and two coats of white lead and 
linseed oil when finally placed in position. This not only 
preserves the iron, but adds to the appearance of the 
structure. 

ST.VTIONS. 

The stations depart from the well known jtlan of other 
roads in several particulars. Tiie\' are built on the ground 
and are convenient and at the same time attractive in 
appearance. The}' are on the company's own property, 
have a base of stone, and rise with terra-cotta ornaments 
and walls of Roman and pressed brick; making a struc- 
ture in cost and appearance the finest in the country. 
Each station has one entrance and one exit. Pa.ssengers 
enter the waiting room and procure their tickets, and 
when the train is within 500 feet an electric bell sounds 
automaticalh', indicating in which direction it is going. 



123 



The passenger first deposits his ticket at the foot of the 
stairway, which leads by easy steps to the platform abovi-. 
One stairwa\' leads to north-bound trains, the other to tin- 
south-bound. The platforms arc on the outside of 
both tracks, are 200 feet long and light feet wide, and 
will accommodate a five or six car train. x\rc lights will 
illuminate the platform at niglit. 

The waiting room is pro\ idcd with a toilet room for 
o'cntlemcn antl one for ladies, is finished in light wood, 
heated bj' furnaces and lighted with electricity. News- 
papers may be had from the .station news room, but will 
not be sold on the train. 

The platforms are C()\ered with a corrugated iron 
canopy, and the girders which carry the platform are 
made stiff and strong, to overcome the unpleasant vibra- 
tion felt while a train is starting or coming to a stop, as 
on the New York roads. 



assisted by Mr. R. I. Sloan as chief engineer, who is also 
a veteran in all that pertains to elevated voads, and who 
left the Manhattan road, where he had been chief 
engineer for eight years, and with which company he 
has been connected for fifteen years, to take up this 
work here. 

The road will soon be open for tra\ el, and has already 
had a marked effect on \alues of realty along the entire 
line, ^riu' t'xtension will soon be commenced, extend- 
ing four nfiles further south, and branching to the World's 
Fair and the populous district of Englewood. Trains 
will be run on short headway and fare will be t\ve cents. 

The structural work was all furnished under contract 
with the Keystone Bridge Co. of Pitt.sburgh, and the 
foundation masonry by Michael McDormott, a well known 
Chicago contractor, and competent engineers who have 
examined the finished work pronounce it in e\ery res- 




35th street station -CHICAGO AND SOUTH 

Stations are now completed or building at Congress 
street. Twelfth street. Eighteenth street. Twenty-second 
street, Twenty-sixth street, Twenty-ninth street, Thirt\ - 
first street, Thirtv-third street. Thirt\--fifth street and 
Thirty-ninth street. 

The road has scarcely a deflection from a straight line 
throughout its entire length, and no more handsome and 
substantial structure can be found anywhere. With the 
surveys, constant care has had to be exercised, as the 
street and alle\- lines used b\ the cit\- were frequenth' 
found to be erroneous. The entire management and 
direction of the work has rested on Col. C. Goddard. 
whose reputation as engineer and builder of elevated 
roads is second to none, and who has abundantlv deserved 
the compHments which every engineer who has inspected 
the structure has expressed. In his work he has been 



SIDE RAPID TRANSIT AND ELEVATED R. R. CO. 

pect superior to any thus far constructed, both in ac- 
curacv and tensile strength. 

KQUIPMENT 

will be similar in general design to that on the New York 
and Brooklyn roads, with many improvements suggested 
b\- their experience, and will be constructed and finished 
in the best possible manner to avoid unnecessarv noise 
and secure the greatest possible comfort and con\enience 
of passengers. 

It is not expected that the operation of this road will 
ha\e any disastrous effect on the earnings of the surface 
lines, as the "L" will take the bulk of the long-haul 
tra\el in which, bv reason of the endless stops, there is 
practicallv no profit for a surface road. It is already 
building up a large and heretofore unoccupied territorj-, 
which will yield a good business of short riders for cros.s- 



124 



^iife^a**^^^^^ 



town surface lines. It enables residents to go further out 
and still reach and leave their offices the same as before, 
and the road will at once enter on a business almost 
unparalleled in the history of new lines. The streets and 
alleys of Chicago are so long and wide, and laid out with 
such uniformity, that elevated roads can be built by the 
dozen, and it is hardh' to be expected that the occasion 



The street railways of the United Kingdom have art 
aggregate of 948 miles, with 27,719 horses, 515 locomo- 
tives, and 3.801 cars. 



The electric railroad between St. Paul and Minneap- 
olis ought to be a great success, as the two cities are 
negative and positive poles. 




SIDE VIEW OF ELEVATED EAILEOAD STATION. 



will e\er require the building of under-ground lines, 
involving such enormous expense and difficult of access: 
not to sav less desirable than riding in free air and natural 

lio-ht. 



F. J. Pe.vrsox, general manager of the Trans-Missouri 
Electrical Construction Co., has duplicated, on a somewhat 
smaller scale, the famous wind-mill storage battery system 
of lighting, at his residence in Lincoln, Nebraska. In 
that State there is always a good breeze summer and 



It is required of street car hnes in Chicago to pave the 
sixteen feet occupied by their tracks at the time the cit}^ 
paves the balance of the street. Recentl}* President 
Yerkes desired an extension, which was granted, and the 
order passed in which the city agreed to pave eighteen 
feet of the street. Now the laugh is on the city, for the 
street is only wide enough for two tracks, and when the 
city has paved its eighteen feet there won't be any left 
for the compan}- to improve, but they do not seem to be 
greatly cast down at the prospect. 




PLAN VIEW OF ELltTATED EAILEOAD STATION. 



winter, and Mr. Pearson has a dynamo dri\en by a large 
wind-mill in his back j'ard, which stores in a series of 
storage batteries, and which affords an inexhaustable 
supply for lighting his entire residence and running fans, 
sewing machines and other like conveniences. 



When the Milwaukee Electric Railway Co. secured 
its franchises the residents along the street where the line 
is to pass were anxious to have the poles along the side of 
the street, but they have now changed their minds, and 
have petitioned that they be placed in the centre of the 
roadway. 



A New Steam Motor. 
C. E. Healey has constructed a steam motor, which 
is now being experimentally operated in Detroit. At a 
trial a day or two ago, two loaded trailers were stopped 
in a sharp curve on a heavy grade, and although the rails 
were very slippery, the motor started and drew the train, 
and without the use of sand. Mr. Healey claims to have 
entirei\' suppressed both the visible and audable exhaust 
steam. The engine is said to weigh only 190 pounds, 
and with all gearing is placed below the car floor. The 
upright boiler rests upon the floor at one end of the car, 
and is not at all unsighth'. 



^^&t%ttmtv^^^^^»^ 



125 



A SALT LAKE CITY PLAN. 

Tl IE ideal iiiclliod t)f j)laciii<^ tclc<fraph and IcluphoiKj 
wires in large cities is underground, but the enor- 
mous expense incident to the accomplishment of 
this greath' to he desired result is such that it will he a 
long time hefori' it can be generall} attained. 

Hence it is obvious that while llu' wires nuist he 
stretched along or over public streets, any method that will 
tend to le.ssen the objections to their presence will be con- 
sidered with interest. 

Mr. W. A. Stanton, Chief of the Fire Department of 
Salt Lake Cit\', is urging adoption of a plan for his city 
which would certainh- lessen the unsightly appearance of 
a set of poles along both sides of a thoroughfare, and 
would reduce to a mininuun tlie dithculties under which 
the tire denai'tment have so often labored in their efforts 




to raise ladders and gain entrance to the upper stories of 
those buildings in front of w hich a net work of wires of 
various kinds are stretched. It is equally suggesti\e that 
the loss suffered by companies to whom the wires belong 
would be far less from fire if their lines were in the centre 
of the street, than when occupying the more exposed 
position only a few feet from a burning building. 

While the line of poles along the middle of the street 
may not be claimed to be in themselves any special orna- 
ment, and it is conceded would be somewhat of an obstruc- 
tion, still it is claimed in such position the\' w ould lie much 
less objectionable than along the curb. 

Chief Stanton has presented his plan to his city council, 
who are considering it with great fa\ or, and other citj- 
officials speak in the highest terms of the scheme. In 
exceptionally narrow streets it would perhaps be imprac- 
ticable, but certainly in wide streets where two car tracks 
are laid, the poles could be placed between the tracks, 
where their uniformity of size and location would form a 
not unpleasant picture in perspective. The lowest cross 
arms extend one over each track and carry the trolley 
wires. 

In the cross section of street shown here\\ ith, the entire 
height of pole is 55 ft., and the distance from rail to trolley 
wire arm is 20 ft. Abo\e are a series of cross arms for 
the use of lighting, telephone, and telegraph wires respec- 
tively. The latter class to include hre and police alarm 
wires also. 

There can be no doubt that a uniform system of poles, 
either owned by the city and rented to users, or erected 
and maintained jointly by the several companies in interest, 
allowinji the city the free use of a reasonable number of 



its wirrs would in \ ury many cities prove a most satisfac- 
tory arrangement. And in many places the distance from 
the trolley wires to the telephone wires abo\ e would In 
this arrangement actually exceed the distance from centre 
of track to location of telephone wires along the curb. 

By this plan no wires would cross the .street below the 
top of any building, as the various wires needed in it would 
be carried direct to the roof and thence distributed in the 
usual manner, and in no way hinder the free access of the 
fire department, while the damage from fallitig ]ioli's 
during a storm would be \ery slight. 

The decision of the Salt Lake Cit\' fathers will be 
watched with interest. 



THE STREET CAR AS AN ARK. 

THERE are two ladies and three childnn in .San 
Antonio, Texas, who enjoy the distinction of 
having explored the murk\ depths of the San 
Antonio river, and gazed through a car window at the 
clams and eels which grace the bed of that stream. A 
bob-tailed car, drawn by a mule, wliile coming down the 
grade, was derailed by a stoni' upon the track, and tlu- 
motor becoming frisk}- undertook to make a short circuit 
around the bridge and across the somewhat trackless 
bosom of the river, fifteen feet below-. The accident was 
so sudden and unexpected, that the occupants of the car 
had no warning, and the driver barely managed to save 
himself as the car crashed through the railing and went 
down. In its fall it turned completely over and struck the 
water on its roof, and sunk w ith the trucks parth- out of 
water. It then turned slowly o\er, the cause of all the 
mischief managing to get beneath the car, where his demise, 
took place. Meanwhile the passengers were not suffering 
from any dust. One Wm. Ni.xon, who was fortunatelv 
passing, took in the situation at a glance, and plunging 
into the river swam to the car and diving through the 
car door, one by one rescued the occupants, one of whom 
was a small babe. Some fishermen in a boat near by 
came to their assistance, and as the brave rescuer brought 
them out. more dead than alive, they were siezed by the 
men in the boat and so towed ashore, where prompt med- 
ical assistance sa\ed their lives. The line is one but 
little used, only one car being operated thereon, and the 
escape was as remarkable as the accident is unusual, and 
the bravery of the rescuer commendable. 



The New York Dispa/rk is somewhat of an oasis to 
an electric railway man among the vast desert of New- 
York and Philadelphia dailies who profess an enclyclo- 
pedical knowledge of street railway matters, for it says: 

"Tlius far no svstem of running street cars has been devised that is as 
practical, as safe, as satisfactory and as desirable from a public point of 
view as that of overhead electric wires. The storage idea may be perfected 
some time in the future to answer the requirements, but at present it is 
a decided failure, having been tried in a score of cases and found wanting. 

The overhead wires are not placed in such a position as to be either 
dangerous or in the wav in case of fire. The objections to the system 
have been in all cases fictitious and inspired either by rival companies 
who have difTerent systems to introduce if possible, or by that conser- 
vatism which like Joshua would have the sun stand still if possible." 



126 



Short Gearless Slow Speed Railway Motor. 

IX our last issue reference was made to a new gearless 
motor which the "Short Electrical Co." were perfect- 
ing, and which has now been fully developed, and of 
the construction of which our readers can obtain an excel- 
lent idea from the accompanying cuts. This motor com- 
bines not only the advant- 
age of doing awa}' with 
the expensive and noisy 
gears which have char- 
acterized the operation of 
electric railways hereto- 
fore, but has secured also 
a number of valuable im- 
provements, any one of 
which would strongly com- 
mend it to an intelligent 
railway man. 

This motor is the direct 
fulrtllment of all promises 
made by the electrical 
companies at the time 
when electrical motors 
were first adopted for rail- 
way work, namely, reduc- 
ing the expenses for repairs, \\hich until now, as has been 
conceded by all, have been very considerable. Not only 
are the gears with their consequent wear and noise done 
away with, but the motor is enabled to do its work with 
three shafts less than heretofore. The frame which 
carries the motor is made of two specially shaped castings 
of steel, with arms which project for an equal distance on 



.V remarkable feature of its operation lies in the fact 
that a speed of thirty miles per hour can be obtained for 
the car, with no greater speed for the motor than was 
formerly possible when the car was mo\ing at the rate of 
only ten miles per hour. 

The armature shaft is hollow, made of steel, six inches in 





either side of the car axle, and which support the motor 
on rubber cushions. The entire weight of motor and frame 
is carried by channel bars placed outside the wheels and 
resting on the ends of the car axles. This not only relieves 
the motor proper from any seinous jar, but pre\ents 
cry.stalization of motor frame. 



diameter on the outside, with an opening" of fully five 
inches on the inside. This permits of an air space of 
one inch between the car axle and the inside of the hollow 
shaft. The armature and commutator are placed midwa^• 
between the wheels, and together with their boxing are 
scarcely noticeable from the street. 

The armature is of the well known "Short type" with 
separate bobbins and laminated ring. On each end 
of the armature shaft is keyed a heavy crank disc 
made with iron hub and rim and wooden web, which 
thoroughly insulates the armature shaft from the 
rim of the crank wheel. The crank wheel rim has 
a crank pin on one side, and the car wheel has a 
crank pin also, the two being connected b}- a heavy 
coil spring capable of pulling under slight tension 
2,500 pounds. 

The power of the motor in the turning wheel is 
transmitted through these springs, and the car wheel 
turned readily in which e\er direction the armature 
is made to rotate. This arrangement will be readily 
understood b}- reference to the illustration. 

The sheet iron casing which covers the entire 
machine thoroughly protects it from mud and water, 
and being hinged, an opening from the underside 
permits of ready access to the motor by running the 
car over a pit. The casing has an opening on the 
upper side for the purpose of ventilation. When it 
■^ is desired to make repairs to the motor the car body 
can be jacked up, when the armature field magnet 
and the wheels can be easily rolled out. This obviates 
the necessity of taking the motor to pieces and can all be 
done by one man. The noise caused bj' the contact of 
the brushes with the commutator is greatly lessened bj- 
the slow speed, and as both commutator and brushes are 
securely cased they cannot bi' injured or tlieir efficiency 



127 



impairt'd h\ w atiT or mud. 'I'lu- wi-i^ht of llio niolor is 
is t:()iiie\vhal loss than 2.000 pounds. li\LT\ jiossibk' part 
wliich cf)uld be eliminated has been doiu- away with, 
resultin<f not onl\- in an increased ethfiency, especially 
undei- normal loads, but in a lessened cost of maintenance. 




The car starts without jerk and mo\es off easily and 
quieth'. The casing is hung so as to clear high cross- 
ings and ordinar\- obstructions on the street, and the new- 
Short Gearless mav fairly be said to liave already entered 
upon a long and useful future. 



are in I^incoln, Nebraska, and is olhcered with Cj. W. 
Enslow. pri'sident: (j. W. Hartman, secrt'tar\' and 
treasurer, and F. J. Pearson as general manager and 
electrician. 

The comiiaiu' have the contract for furnishing all the 
ecjuipment, and building 
the power car houses, and 
furnishing and installing 
the entire plant for the 
electric road at Heatriee, 
Nebraska. 

Thev are also western 
agents for the Baxter Mf)- 
tor Co., of Baltimore, and 
will use that motor in 
equipping the Beatrice 
road, in which no expense 
will be spared in an\' 
respect to make it tirst 
class in e\erN- wa\'. 

Contracts for this road 
are now being let. and llu- 
work will be crowded to 
the utmost, and will, w hen 
finished, be a source of great pride to the enterprising 
citizens of that energetic young city of the west. There 
is a splendid held throughout the west for construction 
work, and one which will continue to expand rapidly for 
a lono- time. 




in nulHLE GEARLIiSS MOTORS. 



Trans-Missouri Electrical Construction and Heating 
Company. 

THE live construction companies are by no means all 
confined to the territory east of the Mississippi 
river, and no small amount of the new work is be- 
ing taken and installed by western corporations. 

A new but decidedly progressive institution of this kind 
is the Trans-Missouri Electrical Construction and Heating- 
Company, which is incorporated under the laws of the 
State of Nebraska, for the purpose of contracting for the 
entire equipment and construction of railway, lighting, 
heating, and power plants. The company's headquarters 



TiiK Rapid Transit City Railway Co.. of Newark, N. J. 
\ erv generously donated to the hospitals of that fity the 
entire receipts of all its lines on Easter Sunday. An- 
nouncement had been made in the papers of its intention 
to do so. and the cars w ere crowded throughout the da}-, 
and man\- passengers paid their fare with coins which 
were a <jrreat deal larger than a nickel. 



Detroit. Mich., has seventy-eight miles of its streets 
laid w ith single or double track street car lines. Of this, 
the City Railway fifty-six miles, the Grand River twelve 
miles, and the Fort Wayne & Elmwood twelve miles. 



128 



HYGIENE AND VETERINARY. 



BV JOSRPH D. TUTHILL, M. D., V. S. 



The Food of Street Car Horses. 

E\'ER siiicf hor.ses were first used to propel street 
cars tlirough the public thoroughfares of our 
large cities up to the present time, we believe 
that no change has been made in the food fed to 
them, or in the method of feeding the same. It consists 
of a mixture of ground Indian corn, ground oats, bran 
and cut prairie hay — in the proportion of one part of the 
oat to three parts of corn. This mixed with a sufficient 
quantity of water and seasoned with salt constitutes the 
food of all street car horses. It no doubt must be con- 
sidered the most economical kind of food for this class of 
horses or it is to b_ presumed it would not have been so 
universally adopted and so strictly adhered to b\- the 
many different railway corporations of this great countrw 
However, it has always been a question with the writer 
whether this peculiar method of feeding is consistent with 
the best interests of said corporations and it is for the 
purpose of calling the attention of the readers of Tiik 
Street Railway Review to this fact, that we have 
made it a special subject for this issue. 

It has been demonstrated over and over again by the 
wonderful feats of endurance and speed which have been 
performed time and again on our public race tracks, that 
horses can be brought to the highest state of physical 
development by prudent training and the proper selection 
of food: and perhaps it may be as well to stop long- 
enough to inquire uhat the latter consists of: Simply — 
good sound oats and timothy hav. And we would like 
to ask right here, what class of horses are more over 
taxed than the unfortunate railroad slave? The constant 
stopping and starting of our overloaded street cars to let 
on and off passengers. The exhaustive pull to reach the 
top of some up grade. The number of miles traveled 
da_v in and day out, Sundays not excepted, is an over 
tax on the nervous system of these unfortunates that calls 
for a more substantial diet, and the question arises will it 
pay to feed it ! In discussing this part of our subject we 
will not take up valuable space and time bv entering into 
any argument in regard to the relative value of the differ- 
ent articles of food which constitutes the diet of horses. 
Everyone is supposed to know that oats so far as the 
actual.cost is concerned always command a higher price 
than an}- of the other cereals used for horse food. This 
probably explains why it is so sparingly fed to street car 
horses. As Indian corn is the cheapest horse food we have 
that can be used as a substitute for oats, it constitutes 
the greater part of the food of this class of horses. It is, 
however, very inferior in the essential elements of nutrition 
to that of oats, and this is one of the reasons whv it is not 
the proper food for street car horses. So far as the actual 
cost is concerned it is extremely doubtful if any improve- 
ment can be made in the present .system of feeding. How- 
e\-er considered from a scitMitilic standjioint thi' (|ut'sti()ii 



at issue presents quite a different aspect, but whether it 
will pay to experimentalize or not, we must leave our 
leaders to decide. It should not be a question with the 
owner as to the comparative \alue of the food fed so 
much as the advantages to be derived from feeding a 
more substantial diet. 

The following pertinent questions may be of interest to 
some of our readers just now : 

1st. Will a radical change in the feeding of street car 
horses prolong their lives and render them more active 
and efficient for service and better able to endure the 
trials and hardships of railroad life? 

2d. Will more highly developed nervous and mus- 
cular systems, brought about by a more judicious S3Stem 
of feeding, enable them to resist to a certain extent the 
prexailing diseases? 

:;d. Will the contemplated change of diet render 
horses less susceptible to diseases which under the present 
system of feeding are very fatal? 

One of the great disadvantages of feeding cut feed is 
the great tendency it has to produce " Tympanitic colic" 
and " Laminites.'" The former too often proves fatal, 
and the latter, as a rule, leaves the patient a useless 
cripple for life. We contend that water taken with l,he 
food always retards digestion. Not only this, but when 
dry food highly charged with water enters the stomach 
the temperature of that organ causes the food to swell, 
increase in bulk, and distends that organ, and lays the 
foundation for an attack of '-acute indigestion"' and its 
too often fatal consequences. Another great objection 
to feeding "ground feed" is the chance given unscrupulous 
dealers to mix in spurious articles of grain, and it will be 
well to bear in mind that there is nothing so injurious to 
the health of horses as daniaurd food. 

We will now call the attention of our readers to the 
relati\e proportion of nutriti\'e matter contained in "oats" 
and " Indian corn." The former contains comparatively 
larger quantities of the nitrogenous elements known as 
albuminoids. Of these, albumen and gluten, flesh form- 
ing principles, are the chief elements of nutrition found in 
oats, which at once explains why it constitutes such an 
excellent article of diet for all horses used for speed and 
endurance: it gives them bone, muscle and nerve. On the 
other hand, Indian corn belongs to the class of foods 
known as non-nitrogenous compounds — carbo-hydrates. 
They are called carbo-hydrates because they are com- 
posed simply of rarhoii and the elements of water. Indian 
corn contains about 70 or 80 per cent, of starch, n'lini and 
siio-(ir, and comparatively but little albumen. It is there- 
fore used in the chemical laboratory of the animal body 
chiefly in storing up fat and the support of respiration 
and animal heat. It is, however, devoid of the elements 
of nutrition so essential for the development of muscular 
and iier\ous power. Horses fed on corn meal ari' soon 



ilh««i ^UMi&y' ^aM»^ 



129 



ONX-rburdftifcl from llir lapid accuniulalion ot adiposi- 
tissue (fall. 'I"1k- musilcs of tlic both' ol tlic coin fi-d 
horse haxc a tlahb\ fi^'cl. CtJiitrasl thcni it \<)u will with 
the firm, hard, fully dc\clopcd muscles of ihr oat fed 
horse, what does it mean r It simph' illustrates the 
superiority of the oat o\er corn for physical development. 

Let each interested reader of the Stkekt Railway 
Rkvikw ask. himself the question which of these subjects 
— the horse fed according to the present system — or one 
fed on two feeds of oats and one of cut feed per day is 
best able to endure the hardships and trials of propelling 
over crowded street cars through our pul)lic thorough- 
fares. 

Which of the two are conslitulionalh' predisposed to all 
prevailing diseases; which of the two are best able to 
perform work with less evidence of fatigue. Finalh', 
will not the extra cost of feeding a greater quantity of 
oats and less corn be more than compensated for by the 
superior condition of the horses thus fed and their com- 
parati\e freedom from disease. 

In conclusion, we will offer some suggestions as to 
what in our opinion the food of street car horses should 
consist. Oats morning and evening and cut feed at night. 
However, instead of cut prairie ha\-. \\e advise that wheat, 
oat or barley straw be substituted, and we w ill explain 
why. No article of fodder known in the family of grasses 
contains such a large quantity of phosphorus; it is not 
stricth' speaking nutritious, yet it is actually necessary for 
the support of life. It is an element of both vegetable 
and animal organization; the former absorbs it from the 
soil and in turn yields it to animals for the promotion of 
their health and longe\ity. It serves to develop bone, 
muscle and nerve. Animals require phosphorus just as 
much as they do meat or oats: the latter we admit are 
highly nutritious, yet deficient in the former very important 
requisite. 

We would not be doing justice to the many subscribers 
of the Stri-:et Railway Review if we allowed this 
subject to go to press without calling attention to the 
danger to be apprehended from a sudden change of diet. 
Horses fed on one kind of food for any great length of 
time and suddenly changed to some other kind of food are 
very liable to become dangerously sick from acute indiges- 
tion and its fatal consequences. The chauiic should he made 
il^nidualh' and zc/'/h all due preeaiilioiif. The writer of this 
article remembers \ery well the great mortality which 
occurred a number of years ago among the horses of a 
New York City street railroad line from a sudden change 
of food. It happened in this w a\' : A large fire occurred, 
which destroyed a large portion of the compan\"*s build- 
ings: also the machinery for cutting the hay. In con- 
sequence of this disaster they were obliged to go to feed- 
ing oats, and the sudden change from "wet cut feed" to 
"dry oats" was attended, as might well be expected, with 
great mortality among the horses from acute indigestion, 
fermentation of the food and the liberation of gasses. We 
hope, how ever, that the very important action of our New 
York friends which ended so disastrously to their horses 
will not prevent the readers of this article from gixing 



our s\stem of feeding street car horses a fair and impar- 
tial trial. We are very sanguine as to its success, and 
can assure all that there is no danger whatever, providing 
due care is exercised in making the change. We will 
he glad to hear from an\ one w ho has enterprise enough 
to gi\e the experiment a fair test. Any report made 
on the results we will be pleased to notice in our 
colunnis. 



Till'; following from the Elerlriral En<j;i)icer, London, 
we print not so nuich on account of its kind mention of 
this paper as indicating the interest with which electrical 
progress in this country is watched by our neighbors 
across the water: 

" While we are pottering along with one or two street electric rail- 
ways — we reserve credit for I he subways — the Americans are still forg- 
ing ahead with unexampled rapidity. One of the best indications of 
this is the appearance of another new journal hailing from Chicago — 334 
Dearborn street — entitled the Street Railway Review, the first 
number of which is before us, a large thick journal of 100 pages, beauti- 
fully printed and got up generally as is their wont, and containing arti- 
cles on noiseless motors, Wenstrom's electric works, large electric cars, 
electricity in snow storms, electric railways of No-tli America, besides 
a description entitled ' In Deepest London,' of our own success in elec- 
tric traction — the Southwark Subwav.'' 



Shall a man surrender his seat to a woman in street 
cars or ele\ated and surburban trains is a question that 
has been as often asked as it has been unsatisfactorily 
answered. The fact that a man finds the necessity for 
asking himself the question would seem to be somewhat 
of an admission that he is not entirely convinced that he 
should not do so. 

Considered onl\- from a purely abstract standpoint, it 
may be argued that tirst come, tirst served, and that a 
man having paid his fare and selected the best available 
seat in the car at the time, is under no more moral and 
legal obligations to yield his seat to another, simply be- 
cause that other passenger may be a woman, than he is 
obligated to give up to her his ticket to a theatre when 
the house is tilled and no more seats are for sale. That 
there is less inclination on the part of the men to relinquish 
a comfortable seat than existed a few years ago is un- 
questionably true. This may be considered one of the 
concomitants that attend the doing of man's work bj- 
woman. When she enters the office and store to compete 
w ith him, he naturally feels that it is no more than just 
that sharing its privileges she should also expect to share 
its chances in other respects. Then, too, when a man has 
politely offered his seat and it has been accepted without 
any sign of acknowlgment, it has its influence with him 
when the opportunity next occurs. We have seen with 
indignation strong women allow feeble old men to stand 
while they did not: and strong, able-bodied men buried 
behind their paper while sick and tired women stood. 
And vet it would be equally unfair to expect men never 
to sit while one woman remained standing in the car. 
The individual circumstances must furnish the basis of 
action in these matters, but it should not, per se be 
accounted either ungallant or discourteous in a man 
w ho for reasons known only to himself, perhaps refrains 
from jumping to his feet every time a lady enters the car. 



I30 



STREET RAILWAY LAW. 



EDITKl) HV -MK. 1 RANK H. CLARK, ATTOKNEV AT LAW, CHICAUO. 



/^ig/il of S/rccI Juiilz.av Conifiaiiv tu Coiidcnin Property. 

The statute of Oregon which provides that 'a corporation organized for 
the construction of any railway " may appropriate land for a right of 
wav, has little or no reference to corporations operated as street rail- 
ways propelled by electricity or horse-power for local convenience 
and the transportation of passengers, and does not authorize such a 
company to condemn private property for a right of way. 

LORD J., in delivering the opinion of the Court, 
said : This is an action to condemn a right of wa\ 
for a street and suburban railway operated for the 
carrying of passengers. A demurrer was tiled 
to the complaint, which was sustained by the Court 
below, and the plaintiff refusing to proceed, judgment was 
rendered therein from which this appeal is taken. The 
contention of the plaintiff is that our statute authorizing 
the condemnation of land for a right of way. contemplates 
the exercise of such power as much b}- street and subur- 
ban railways propelled by horse power or electricity as 
railroads where cars are propelled by steam. 

While it is true that the word "railway," may include 
railroads operated b^• steam as well as those whose cars 
are propelled bv some other power, yet it is common 
knowledge that such corporations as belong to the latter 
class, are usually operated as street railways for local 
convenience. The plaintiff is an electric company and as 
such we know belongs to the class of corporations 
operated as street railways for the benefit of the local 
public. It was so understood at the argument, and the 
action is described as one to condemn "a right of way for 
a street and surburban railway for the carrjing of passen- 
gers." I take it, then, that we are to consider the plaintiff 
as belonging to this class in determining whether it is such 
a corporation for the construction of a railway as is 
intended bv the statute to be invested with the power to 
exercise the right of eminent domain. The statute pro- 
vides {section 3239) that "a corporation organized for the 
construction of any railway," etc., (Id. sec. 3240), "may 
appropriate so much of said land as ma}' be necessarj' for 
the line of such road, not exceeding sixty feet in width, 
besides a sufficient quantity for work-shops," etc., and in 
case of a railway a sufficient quantity of such land in 
addition to that before specified in this section for neces- 
sary side tracks, depots, water-stations, cuttings, embank- 
ments," etc., " and any such railway company shall have 
the right to cut down any standing timber in danger of 
falling upon its road," " may cross, intersect, join and 
unite with any other railway," etc., " and may make the 
necessary turnouts, sidings and switches and other con- 
veniences," etc., (Id. sec. 3246) "and all streams and other 
waters on the line of such road shall be safelv and secureh" 
bridged except," etc., and (Id. sec. 32541 "e\eiy corpora- 
tion formed under this act for the construction of a 
railroad as to such road shall be deemed a common 
carrier," etc. 

Few, if an\'. of these pro\ isions ha\e any reference to 
the class of corporations to which the plaintiff belongs, 



and were scarcely intended to apph' to them. The\- con- 
template and authorize a railway to be constructed where 
none was built before through the country, requiring 
bridges, cuttings, fillings and embankments, and some- 
times tunnels through hills and mountains, and also the 
building of depots and stations for the accommodation of 
freight and passengers, or engine-houses, repair-shops, 
switches and turnouts to enable the corporation to properly 
conduct its business. It is plain that the provisions of such 
a law can have little or no reference to corporations 
organized and operated as street railways, propelled by 
electricity or horse-power, and intended to accommodate 
local convenience for the transportation of passengers. 
They contemplate a track laid upon an established street 
or highway, and are usually restricted to the bounds of 
the cit}-, its vicinitj- or adjacent towns, and generally 
derive their authority to Vw their tracks upon such street 
or highways, from the municipality or count}', and their 
construction is regarded by many adjudications as a legiti- 
mate use of such streets and highways, and an e.xercise 
of the right of public travel. It is not enough that a rail- 
way is for a public use to authorize the taking of private 
property, but the taking must be for a public use within 
the scope of its undertaking and the object which it is to 
subserve. To authorize railroads operated for such 
purposes to take the private property of the citizen, and 
appropriate it to its use without his consent, the statutory 
authority for it must be plainly given; otherwise the right 
does not exist. In view of these considerations, we do 
not think the provisions of the statute for the condemna- 
tion of a right of way apply to the plaintiff, so as 
to authorize it to take the private property without 
the consent of the owner for its own use as a right 
of wa}'. 

(Sup. Ct. Ore. Thompson-Houston Electric Co., \'. 
Simon, 10 L. R. A., 251.) 

Care Reijuired of Driver of Street Car — Iiijurx to Per- 
son Attempting to Cross Tracl: — Contritit/tory Aeg/i- 
genee. 

It is not negligence for the dri\er of a street car w hen 
there is no one on the track in front of him and no one 
apparently about to cross it, to look up and down a street 
which intersects the one upon which his railroad is laid, 
if he does not withdraw his attention from his car an 
undue length of time. 

A person who attempts to dri\e across a street railwa}' 
track directl}- in front of an approaching car, is guilty of 
contributor}' negligence even though it appears that by 
the exercise of extraordinary effort the car might have 
been stopped in time. The company cannot be held to a 
higher degree of care or diligence b}- reason of the 
carelessness of another. 

(Sup. Ct., Pa. Citizens' Passenger R. Co. w Thomas, 
20 Pitts. Leg. Jour. 437.) 



131 



M(i.</cr and Sciiaiit — H't/i^rs — Exlra Tlnic -Afir/ii^dii 

Staliilc. 

Ai'l Midi. 1SS5, No. IJ7, inaki's Icii liour.s a Icj^al 
day's work in factories, work.shop.s, etc. Plaintiff, after 
working nine months as a night watclinian in defendant's 
stable, under a contract for $i..i5 ]ier night, and after 
having been paid each half month at that rate, sued for 
pav for extra time over ten hours per daw Prior to this 
service lie had worked for defendant under a written con- 
tract In which he \\ai\fd all claim for extra time. The 
second contract was \ erhal, was made with the barn fore- 
man to whom plaintiff had been directed bv defendant's 
supermlendent. and no mention of extra hours had been 
made in connection with it. But plaintiff, the superin- 
tendent and the foreman knew that it was the absolute 
custom antl inxarialjle rule that defendant's employes 
should work as man\- hours as the business demanded for 
the pay agreed on as a day's pay. Ever}- time plaintiff 
was paid he signed a receipt acknowledging the amount 
recei\ed "in full of all demands for work done during the 
regular and irregular working hours in the ser\ice of said 
compaiiN' I defendant! up to and including the date of this 
pay roll." This part was read o\er to him before he 
signed his last receipt, and he said he understood it. 
Held, that even if the act covered such an em'knment, 
plaintiff having contracted with knowledge of the custom 
and rule and of the limited authority of the superintendent 
and foreman, and having made no claim for extra time, but 
acknowledged full satisfaction therefor, could not recover. 

(Sup. Ct. INIich. Bartlett v. Grand Rapids Street R. 
Co., 46 X. W. Rep. 1034.) 

Street Kailwa\ — Consent of Cit\ Authorities to Construc- 
tion of Road — Contesting Rii(lits of Sul>scijuentl\ Incor- 

f orated Conipaiix. 

The consent of the city is a condition precedent to the 
exercise of rights under a charter to a street railwa\' com- 
pany. 

If a municipal ordinance is obnoxious to the prohibition 
against local or special legislation, it is simply void; it 
cannot nierel}-, in order to give it validity, be held to ha\e 
a general operation upon the whole class to which the 
subject specifically mentioned belongs, or any other or 
more extensive effect than was intended by the body 
which enacted it. 

Although the unauthorized occupation of a public street 
b\ a railwa\' track may be regarded as a nuisance fer se 
which will be enjoined. Chancery w ill not restrain such 
an act which affects the whole community, at the suit of 
a pri\ ate citizen or a corporation, unless the plaintiff can 
make out a case of special damage. 

A passenger railway corporation which has failed to 
obtain the consent of the local authorities to the construc- 
tion of its road cannot be said to be injured in contempla- 
tion of law by a subsequent ordinance which authorizes 
another compan\- to build on the same route, and there- 
fore has no standing in a court of equit\- to complain of 
the illegality of the ordinance. 

(Sup. Ct. Pa. Larimer and L. Street R. Co.'s Appeal, 
20 Atl. Rep. 570.) 



Personal In/nrx — Coiitriliutorv .Vegtigenre t/v Minor — 

Lialiilitv of Company. 

A lad, aged ten, attempted to cross defendant's horse 
railroad track by running in front of a car which was 
approaching at the rate of about six miles an hour. 1 le 
fell on the track, not tiiore than twenty feet in front of 
the horses. There was a conflict of evidence as to 
whether or not the driver made diligent effort to stop 
after the lad's fall. Held, that under the facts shown Xis 
plaintiff's witnesses it would have been physically impo.s- 
sible to stop the car in time to a\ ert the accident, and 
that the intestate had. as matter of law, been guilty of 
contributory negligence, which would bar a reco\cr\- by 
his personal representatives. 

(N. Y. Ct. Appls. Fenton v. Second Ave. R. Co., 4 
N. V. L. Jour. 509.1 
Master and Sena id — JJise/iargc of Eniploxe — What a 

Sufficient Cause. 

The employer has the right to terminate the contract 
of employment for any disobedience of orders, neglect of 
duty or disrespectful conduct on the jiart of the employe, 
or for quarreling with other employes, regardless of the 
merits of the quarrel. 

Where a servant is discharged and there exists cause 
for discharge, such cause will justify the discharge, even 
though other motives than the legal cause induced the 
employer's act. 

Excuse for discharge of servant need not be specially 
pleaded, but may be given in evidence under the general 
issue. 

(Appellate Ct. First Dist. 111. Sterling Emery Wheel 
Co. v. Magee, 23 Chi. Leg. News 247.1 
Street Railzi'ays — Construction — Rio/its of Al)u Iters — 

JF'rancliisc. 

A street railway company may use a street for its 
track w ithout compensating the owners of the fee. 

In Civil Code Cal. s. 49B, requiring street railway 
tracks to be placed as "nearly as possible" in the middle 
of the street, the words "as nearly as possible'' are equi- 
valent to "as nearly as practicable." 

Where the only evidence that it is impracticable to 
place the track in the middle of the street is the testimon\- 
of two witnesses that to so place it would interfere with 
traffic somewhat, because the street being only forty feet 
wide, there would not be room for teams to pass on either 
side of the track, but who do not state that there is an 
extensive traffic on the street, nor that it would not be 
practicable to put the track in the middle, it is insufficient 
to support a finding that it was not ■■ practicable" to locate 
the track in the middle of the street. 

Where a member of the board of cit}- trustees is a sub- 
scriber to the stock of a corporation obtaining the fran- 
chise for a street railway, and is himself one of the com- 
mittee to whom the application for the franchise is referred, 
which committee reports favorably, the franchise is void, 
notwithstanding that no corporation was formed at the 
lime the stock was subscribed for, and that the franchise 
w as granted to individuals, a committee of the subscribers, 
w ho conveyed it to the company. 



132 



(Sup. Ct. Cal. Finch v. Riverside & A R. Co., 9 
Ry. and Corp. L. Jour. 250.) 

Pav/i/g Ordinance — Wilidity — Cousliliitional Lcnc- -Obli- 
gation of Contract — Franchise. 

The fact that a street railway compan\ constructed its 
track under a franchise granted by a cit}- does not exempt 
tile company from the power reserved to the general 
assembly b}' Code Iowa, s. 1090, of imposing any condi- 
tions oh the franchise of a corporation which it deems 
necessary for the public good: and hence, though the 
original franchise granted by the city required the com- 
pany to pave only the space inside the rails, the obliga- 
tion of the contract is not impaired within the meaning of 
the federal constitution, bv a subsequent ordinance passed 
by the city in pursuance of the Act Iowa, March 15, 
1 884, requiring the company to pave, in addition, one 
foot outside of each of the rails. 

(U. S. Sup. Ct. Sioux City St. R. Co. v. City of Sioux 
City, 9 Ry. and Corp. L. Jour. 251.)' 



A BUSY PRESIDENT. 

THE well known features on the opposite page are 
those of one of the brightest men in the stree*- 
railway world, and needs introduction to but very 
few of our readers of the fraternit}', while the 
name accompanying could scarcely be more widely known 
within our own domain and extends across the waters to 
the farthest end of the most distant tramway. 

The history of Mr. Daniel F. Lewis, from the time he 
tirst entered the service of the Brooklyn City Railway as 
ticket agent, until he reached its highest office and 
occupied the president's chair, is not only interesting but 
full of inspiration to every young man entering life with 
its open future yet unwritten. 

Mr. Lewis was born in Brooklyn, March 28, 1849, and 
although yet a young man may properly be said to be 
one of the "old settlers." His early education was 
received at the public schools of his city, where he made 
rapid progress; but so strong an inclination did he ha\e 
for business pursuits that his father yielded to his requests, 
and at the age of only thirteen he entered the ofHce of 
his father, who was Treasurer of State under Governor 
Horatio Sej mour. His father had fully intended that 
young Lewis should return to school after a year or two 
of business experience, but his progress was so earnest 
and gratif3ing that the plan was finally abandoned. At 
the end of one year he left Albany and returned home 
and entered a wholesale drug establishment in New York, 
where he remained four years. During all this time he 
carefully devoted his spare minutes to study and acquired 
a far more practical education than many a young man 
who had entire days for study and attendance on lectures. 
The confinement of the drug establishment proved too 
much for his health, and when he left, it was to enter the 
service of the Brooklyn City Railroad as ticket agent. 
At the end of one year he entered the office of the 
secretary of the road and in 1880 was made- assistant 
secretary, and two years later was elected treasurer. 



In 1883 Mr. Lewis was still further honored by election 
to the directory, and in 1884 had added to his duties that 
of secretary. In 1886, when Mr. Hazard resigned the 
presidency, Mr. Lewis was gladly chosen to fill that ofiice, 
and then became the head of the largest unconsolidated 
street railwaj' m the world. 

A strike occurred on the da\" following his election, and 
his executive abilities were put to a sudden test, but were 
fully equal to the trying demands and the troubles were 
all harmoniousl}- and satisfactorily settled within twent}-- 
four hours following their inception, and so thoroughly 
settled that while every railway in both Brooklyn and 
New York has been "tied up" once or more since 1886, 
the lines of the Brooklyn City R"v Co. have remained 
open without interruption. On more than one occasion 
the employes of the company were urged to "tie up" to 
strengthen the situation elsewhere, but in every instance 
they proved loyal to the compan}-; a condition of affairs 
appreciated by no one more than their president. 

Since Mr. Lewis assumed the presidenc}', the road has 
made rapid strides and more than doubled its mileage, 
which has increased from 80 to 175 miles of track. But 
the exacting duties of the Brooklyn City Road are only a 
part of the varied interests in which he is a moving power. 
He is president of the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Co. 
and one of the trustees and a member of the executive 
committee of the Peoples' Trust Co. He is also director 
and member of the executive committee in the Long 
Island Bank, and trustee and treasurer of the Lewis & 
Fowler Manufacturing Co., whose fame has spread 
wherever street cars run; trustee of the Brooklyn 
Savings Bank; president of the Knickerbocker Steam 
Boat Co., which is the famous Rockaway Line; president 
of the Bay Ridge Park Improvement Co.; also the 
treasurer of the United States Projectile Co., of Brooklyn. 

He is a member of the Hamilton, Carleton, Marine and 
Field Clubs of the city of Brooklyn, and Engineers' Club 
of New York City, and since the death of Mrs. Lewis 
has resided at the St. George hotel. He is the president 
of the Street Railway Association of the State of New 
York, of which the Brooklyn City R. R. Co. has been a 
member since the organization of the association. 

At the convention of the American Street Railway 
Association none is more welcome than he, and his views 
on railway interests and policy ever receive the attention 
and consideration that attach to the words of one whose 
experience and success has been so marked. 



A MiscHiEVious boy was the cause of the stopping of 
cars on the Broadway and Newberg Street Railway for 
nearlv an hour the other dav. He threw a thin wire 
over the trolley wire in the power-house and then 
"grounded" it by laying it on one of the rails and holding 
it there with a short piece of a two-inch plank. When 
the electric current was suddenly destroyed a force of men 
were sent along the line to find the supposed break. The 
power-house was not thought of, and it was only when 
the men found that the wires along the line were all 
connected the trick was discovered. — Cleveland Leader. 



ftV'^J^vW- 




DANIEL F. LEWIS, 

President Brooklyn City Railway Co., Brooklyn 



^Ilm\ ^^i/i^^t^^ 



133 



RAPID TRANSIT IN NEW YORK CITY. 



IIY T. <;. (iRIIlHI.K, <()NSl I.I INc; EN(;l \ K KK I'o IME AMKRICAN I'KR M AXES T WAY CO.MI'ANY, AND AUTHOR OF 
" I'RKI.IMINARY SURVEY AND ESTIMATES.'' 



TI 1 1" pul)lic sessions of the Commission have come 
III :in end and the delilierations of that most 
important quinti'tte of citizens an- continlied in 
tiie seclusion of their oliict- in the Farmers' Loan 
and Trust Building, aided In the experienced ad\ice of 
their en<fineer, Mr. William K. Wdrthen, jiast ]iresident 
of the Societ\' of Ci\il ICnjrineers. Thex ha\e t'xtended 
the utmost courtes\ to all the promoters who have laid 
their schemes before them and thev have had no lack of 
schemes to choose from. One of the leading" New ^'ork 
papers has already blossomed into prophecy as to the 



spanning it with his steamers until the time comes for the 
great cantile\er bridge to be thrown across the estuar\-, 
and it will jirobably In- a long wiiile before he goes out 
of business on that account. Mr. Samuel Spencer is an 
engineer and practical railroad man, well known on 
Engineering Commissions as one of the lirst e.xperts; he 
was, before joining the commission, a director of the 
Suburban Rapid Transit Co., which was acquired bv the 
Wall Street Napoleon, during the first stage of the 
discussion, to form henceforth an integral part of the 
ele\ated sy.stem. He is a member of the firm of Drexel, 




NEW VOBK INDEEGBOUND 

decision, and has been roundly rated for it bv its con- 
temporaries. We shall probably hear from the onl\- 
reliable source within the next two or three weeks. 

The commissioners are men of such wide reputation, 
that it is hardly necessary to make more than a passing 
reference to their personalit\-. 

Mr. William Steinway's name vibrates a chord through- 
out this continent, but he is more than musical, for he is a 
railroad man with \ ery large interests in Long Island 
City. Mr. Starin is the admiral of the North ri\er, 



AILWAT CAR SYSTEM. 

Morgan & Co. Mr. Eugene Burke, the well-known 
lawver, and Mr. John 1 1. Inman, president of the Richmond 
and Danville, complete the board. 

The dutv of the commission is, in few words, to select 
one or more routes and determine the class of construction. 
If their line runs through pri\ate propertv or otherwise 
affects it, thev must obtain the consent of one-half the 
owners, failing which thev must be heard before a com- 
mission of three: nominated bv the general term of the 
supreme court and the representatives of the propertv 



34 



owners to be heard likewise. Interference with pipe-lines 
is not considered in the same categor\' as with real estate, 
but all such alterations or deviatures must be subject to 
the supervision and reasonable regulations of the com- 
missioner of public works. 

The plans are then to be submitted to the common 
council and approved by \ote. 

Finally the franchise is to be sold at public auction, the 
usual precautions being taken to ensure the reliability of 
the purchasing corporation and the immediate commence- 
ment of the work. 

The act forms a tract of twentv-seven pages and contains 
some provisions for the organization of the compaiu'. which 
are generall}' left to by-laws. 

There are se\-eral points of reference to the existing 
elevated railway system, which have been jealoulsy 
watched b}- the New York citizens. One verj^ important 
clause prohibits any level crossings of elevated roads. 

If they had been empowered to take retrospective action 
with regard to such crossings as that at Chatham Square, 
it w ould ha\e been still more to the point. Crossings of 



worse cases of disregard of public safety in crossings of 
crowded thoroughfare by steam railwa3's on the le\'el, and 
one of the worst on this continent is in the city of Oakland, 
California, where the train traverses the whole of one of 
the main avenues at high speed, without the least protection 
to pedestrians or carriages. 

The clause providing for the sale of the rapid transit 
franchise has occasioned nuich controversy, many seeing 
in it a surrender of the city to the Manhattan Railway 
Compan}', who hold the golden key. They do not ask 
for more a\enues, but it is in the power of the commission 
to indicate as much of the rest of the cit}' as they choose, 
with a few small exceptions, for that or any other type of 
construction they may approve. 

The following is an approximate summar\- of the \-arious 
schemes submitted to the Commissioners : 

DAYLIGHT SYSTEMS. 

1. Extensions of the Manhattan railwaj'. 

2. The Boynton bicycle railwa}'. 

i. Chittenden's four track hiirh viaduct. 




MAP OF MANHATTAN ISLAND, SHOWING EOUTE AND CONNECTION WITH 

that kind with several facing points and long fouling dis- 
tances are immeasurabh- more dangerous than st|uari' 
crossings on the level. 

The last clause but two reads: "No railroad shall be 
constructed or operated upon the surface of any street, 
avenue or highway, under the provisions or authority of 
this act." This is an evident prohibition to fast speed on 
the surface. When the first proposals were made for 
cabling I5roadwa\- and Third avenue, it was suggested that 
here was a means of supplying rapid transit, because in 
Chicago the suburban traffic was carried at fifteen miles 
an hour, but New York has set the speed limit for the 
cable car at six miles per hour, and w ill have to get lier 
rapid transit by some other me<)ns. 

There is a growing feeling in the larger cities of this 
continent for protection to the citizens against^ the selfisli- 
ness of railroad corporations. The recent accident in the 
Fourth avenue tunnel, although occurring under the ar- 
rangements and regulations, which have handled an enor- 
mous traffic safely for many j-ears, and in\olving, as the 
accident did, only the death of employes of the compan\-, 
has nevertheless produced the indictment of tlie chief offi- 
cials, including the president. There are still rising mucii 



BROOKLYN AND JEESET CITY OF THE DEEP UNDEKOKOUND SYSTEM. 

4. Thorpe's six track embanked railwa\' on land re- 
claimed from the North and East rivers. 

5. Wegman & Bates six track, three decker metallic 
\iaduct. 

6. Speer's endless train. 

7. Collett's suspended railway. 

8. Wenigmann's archway tunnel schemes. 

9. Austin Corbin's deep tuimel. 

10. Louis Sterne's Greathead system of metallic tunnel. 

11. Jesse W. Reed's four track subway with columns. 

12. Knut Forsburg's four track underground railwa}' 
with \'entilators in the form of flower gardens in the street. 

13. Dr. Sheffield's elevated tunnel through the blocks. 

14. Major Henning's gravity system. 

15. J. Coleman Drayton and Col. Hazard's city railway. 

16. R. W. Gibbon's two track and four track under- 
ground railway. 

17. Frank Sprague's four track tubular system. 

1 8. William Walter's underground railway. 

19. The Writer's combination surface and subway 
railway. 

It would be manifestly impossible to explain and criti- 
cise all these schemes and we shall therefore confine 



2)h«< ^J^iU«<i>M%^^- 



135 



ourselves to a few of those w liieli lia\ (.■ been liroiiL;lil more 
proinineiitlv before tlic public than others ami we will 
be<nti with the Manhattan railway extensions. 

It has alreach' been remarked that this company are 
not asking power for occupying another a\enui\ Tlu' 
Suburban Rajiicl Transit Co.'s line which lluy lia\i' jus^ 
acquired will carr\ thcni across the ri\er to the new dis- 
trict of Monisania. 




BOYNTON BICYCLE LOCOMOTIVK. 



Thev ask further for powers to build a road along the 
south bank of Harlem ri\er between Third and Eighth 
Avenues, and a continuation of the Eighth Avenue line 
from Sixty-tifth Street along the boulevard to Washing- 
ton Heights and King's Bridge. These extensions if 
sanctioned will form the Manhattan into 
a complete belt line having two spurs, 
one into Morrisania and the other to 
Washington Heights. The latter will 
be a stiff climb but as a whole the im- 
provement to the system will be a very 
decided one and will bring an extended 
area w ithin reach of the raihva\ . The 
thorn in the side of this great and use- 
ful undertaking is that the structure is 
not adapted for heavy trains and could 
nt)t safely be burdened witli extra 
tracks. Some attempts have been made 
to increase its carrying power. One 
very costly piece of work was carried 
out upon the Third Avenue line, in 
altering the original Warren girders to 
lattice girders by introducing fresh w eb 
members during the running of the 
trains. It is very doubtful whether 
this operation has increased the supporting power of the 
structure. The locomoti\es have been much increased 
in weight, so much so as to produce unpleasant, not to 
say. injurious vibration upon the stations, but still the trains 
are not long enough to carry the people. It has been 
proposed to operate the road by cable and it has been 



clearK shown Irom the IJrookK 11 bridge that cable traction 
can be performed more cheaply than the steam traction, 
but the installation of a cable sxstem upon a structure not 
originally intended for it would involve considerable dith- 
culty, especially on the cur\ es. Experiments have also 
Ihcii made with electric traction on the Daft system, but 
the result showed a largely increased cost. It would 
ajipear. ihert'fore. that the Manhattan railway has reached 
the limit of its capacil\', and although 
't w ill be sure to get power to make its 
imjiros ements, it can afford to endure 
(Hie or two competitors. There is, 
however, one ver\' novel method which 
has been proposed for extending its use- 
fulness to which a brief allusion will be 
made. 

I'lllC B<)\ NTON ISICS'cl.i: KAII-WA'S', 

One of the most original and ingeniously 
simple schemes brought before the com- 
missioners, is the Bicycle railway pat- 
ented by Mr. E. M. Boynton. and first 
exhibited- at Graxesend, L. I., in Sep- 
tember, 1 888. Since then it has been 
operated on Coney Island in the summer 
time, transporting large numbers of 
people at great speed and with very 
small consumption of fuel. The cars are 
very narrow in order to keep the center of gravity as near 
the axis of the cars as possible, consequently without altering 
the gauge, a Bo3'nton train could be run on each rail of 
an ordinary standard gauge track. The inxentor claims 
that by using double-decked cars on his plan he could 




1> Ci vrC.E COMPARED WITH BOYNTON BICYCLE SYSTEM. 



more than double the capacit\" of the Manhattan railway. 
His theory is sound enough, and there may be a wide 
held for his in\ ention. Tractive force, especially on short 
curves, should be vtv\ much reduced, but the draw- 
back remains that as his locomoti\e weighs twenty 
tons, a double track ele\ ated road would by his system 



136 



be liable to come under a siimiltanet)U.s load of eight\- 
tons, which would be likeh to knock the frame work 
to pieces. 

THK AUSTIN COKBIN TUNNEL SCHEME. 

There are three classes of travel for which present 
facilities are needed, and the development of the city is 
proceeding at so rapid a rate that it will tax both the 
ingenuity and the financial resources at her command to 
keep pace with the requirements of the traveling public. 
The deep tunnel scheme of Mr. Austin Corbin is in the 
first place a means of external communication between 
Manhattan Island, Long Island and New Jersey, and as 
such will doubtless, if sanctioned and carried out, become 



first and the other two classes of tra\ei, and the aim 
should be to separate them as much as possible; not a 
separation of distance, but a distinction by means of which 
people traveling with baggage and requiring to spend 
time at depots in making their arrangements should not 
come in the way of those who are tra\eling to and fro 
regularly and without baggage. 

Mr. Corbin's tunnel would be more than a hundred 
feet underground, and access would be obtained by ele- 
vators of very large size. 

As regards the furnishing of facilities for external 
communication Mr. Corbin's scheme is onh' one of se\eral 
proposals for effecting the same thing. Bridges and 
tunnels for each of the rivers are before the Legislature 




AUSTIN CORBIN S DKEP ICNNEL SCHEME, NEW YOBK TO BROOKLYN. 



a great boon to the communit\'. If a spare track is added 
to the Grand Central station it will make a valuable and 
effectual connection between the various trunk lines for 
the transportation of passengers and their baggage to 
any part of the country. The rapid elevator connection 
between the surface and under- 
ground depots would enable pass- 
engers from the Hudson villages 
to get down town much more 
quickly than by the present shuttle 
train on Forty-second street and 
the Third avenue elevated. A 
resident in Tarrvtown would then 



'/ '^''WM,. 




CROSS SECTION OF TUNNEL. 

get to Wall street in less than an hour, and the effect 
would be to build up all the Hudson districts. The tim- 
nel across the East ri\er would be altogether in rock, 
that across the North river would be partlv in silt. A 
large sum of money is said to ha\e been spent in trial 



involving the expenditure of vast sums of mone\-, but thev 
are not within the scope of the Rapid Transit Commission. 
It is to the point, however, to allude to them as having 
in all probability a striking effect upon the internal travel. 
The Brooklyn Bridge has practically made its own travel, 
and is now unable to carr\- the 
crowds who flock to it. Jersey 
City and Newark are to-day more 
cut off from New York than 
Brooklyn was before the bridge 
was built. Good facilities will 
make them like one city, and 
there will be an enormous rush 
of population into New York City either for business or 
amusement. 

• The present congestion of traffic on the elevated roads 
is all between South Ferr\- and 125th street. The longer 
haul to Morrisania, King's Bridge and Yonkers is handled 



"fv^ 




AUSTIN corbin's DEEP TUNNEL SCHEME, NEW YOBK TO JBRSEY CITY. 



borings both on the island and in the estuaries, and a 
complete plan has been formed not merely to make the 
aforesaid tunnels, but also to carry the same class of con- 
struction entirely round the island and far out into the 
suburbs. The complete scheme would involve about 
thirty miles of tunnel; truly a gigantic enterprise, beside 
which the Mont Cenis and St. Gotthard tunnels shrink 
into insignificance. The object of the extension of the 
SN'stem round the island is to handle the other two classes 
of travel which are the lung and short haul of the internal 
city traffic. There is a natural distinction between the 



\ery comfortably by the New York Central and New 
York and Northern, but the effect of all increase of 
external facilities with Brooklyn and Jersey Cit}- will tend 
to increase the congestion on the elevated road and horse 
cars, so that the crying want of the hour is for the best, 
most rapid and tinanciall}' most eligible scheme for reliev- 
ing the elevated road. 

The deep tunnel is more applicable to lung than to 
short haul, principally on account of the inaccessibility of 
the wa}- stations. The tunnel of the New York and 
Harlem on Fourth a\enue is an illustration of this. The 



IWmt S^8ii«;&^ ■ %i^€*^- 



137 



li-;illir natu)-all\ .^m's In tlic i'li-\ ati'd road in |ii\-f(.M-i'iK't.-. 
W'lu'ii in additinii lo tlu' distance in'twrcn stations an 
(.■i(.'\ atoi' trip has to in' niadr people will prrler the horse 
or cable ear e\ fn thou^li they may In- a minute or two 
longer on the jouinex . One of the lirst requisites of a 
rapid transit scheme to supply internal transit is that it 
should advertise itself as the ele- 
vated railway does. When people 
have to turn about in their minds 
as to where the station is and then 
how far it is to walk to it, the 
]i|-iiHi|ial point is missed. The 
sum and substance of what the 
people want is accessibility com- .^^^^g 
bined with dispatch, and the more 
comfort that can be added to these s^ 

two cardinal jioints the better for 
the scheme. 

TiiK i'i';oi'i,i;"s KAll.\\A^. 

This article ha\ini;- alreadx' 
o\erste}iped its limits a few words 



cities such as IJei'lin and London liie lesult of \iaduct 
railways has been to increase tlie \ alue of adjacent prop- 
erty, and therefore that lots under or contij^uous to the 
railway would have a rise in value. There should be 
some qualification to the .statement as regards Berlin and 
London. In IJerlin the Ringbahn or Belt line girdles 
the outskirts of the citv, forming 
an external connection with the 
radial lines of trunk railway. 
The Stadtbaim or city railway is 
a diagonal line forming connec- 
tions at its extremities with the 
Ringbahn and traversing the 
leart of the city, but the greater 
lart of it was through suburb 
when it was built. 

In I^ondon the viaduct rail- 
ways are all of them with the ex- 
ception of the lines from Charing- 
cross to L'aiuion street radial lines 
laving termini a short di.stance 
from the heart of the cit\-. The 




AUSTIN CORBIN'S 8CHE.ME-SECTIONAL VIEW OK ELEVATORS AND GROUND PLAN OF WHITEHALL STREET CNDERGROUND STATION. 



luust suffice to mention a scheme of very great im- 
portance, and one which until lately appeared the onh 
one likely to satisfy the requirements of the city. It is a 
proposal to purchase a right of way through the middle 
of the blocks from end to end of the island and to con- 
.struct upon the cleared space a high viaduct, at the top of 
which four tracks of railway should run: under which 
should be warehouses and stores and possibly dwelling 
houses, and in the basement of which there should be 
pipe lines supplying the city. The promoters expect a 
revenue of $500,000 per annum from the pipe lines alone. 
This scheme possesses some advantageous features. 
It docs not disfigure the streets like the elevated road: it 
would give very rapid transit froin end to end of the 
island, and it affords an asylum to the troublesome pipe- 
lines. It is more: much more of a real estate specula- 
lion than a railway scheme. Those who are posted in 
valuations of property are best qualified to judge of its 
financial prospects. It is claimed that as in European 



rise in the value of propert}- has been due in all cases to 
the development of the district by inducing builders to 
lay out new estates into terrace and street propertv. In 
contrast to this the city of New York is already built 
o\er, almost lo the end of the island, w ith expensive prop- 
erty. To jilan a railway to run through the blocks in 
London would not enter the wildest dreams of a raihvay 
promoter. He could no more obtain a financial backing 
for such a scheme than if he laid .out his line through 
Buckingham Palace. 

It is hardly correct to .say that ]ieople prefer to be 
contiguous to the railway. Clerks and that class of peo- 
ple who cannot afford expensive residences and desire to 
be close lo a station will sometimes live adjacent to 
the railway. They get used to the noise which is cer- 
tainly objectionable to those who can afford to li\e else- 
where. 

It is claimed further that such a scheme might be con- 
structed \er}' rapidly, and so it might, because everv 



138 



^feill $^U#^^)#€*^ 



block niiylit be bandk'd simultaneously. Tbal is to say 
if there were no litigation and no injunctions. It is found, 
however, that in man\- cases even an act of the Legis- 
lature is not sufficient to prevent organized obstruction 
with a view to blackmail, and the railroad company 
often meets with its greatest delays from the smallest of 
the property owners so that it has to choose betv\een 



a serious extension on the appraisers estimates or 
a more serious extension on the contract time oi com- 
pletion, together with the '• glorious uncertainty of 
law." 

(Continuation in our next will contain descriptions of 
Greathead system of underground railway and Gribbles' 
combination svstem.) 




g f f g frg ffi 
§ § § § ; 0[ijait 

§18 ai'BBB BBS' 



THE " PEOPLES RAPID TRANSIT COMPANY'S " VIADUCT SYSTEM. 



THE ASHTABULA HORROR. 



TIIK readers of the Strkht Railway Riaikw 
are perhaps all familiar with the extraordinary- 
proceedings indulged in at Ashtabula in July, 
1890, on the part of the municipal authorities, 
authorized bv act of city council, in dispossessing Captain 
John N. Stewart of his street railroad tracks, franchises, 
and all, without any adjudication at the hands of a court. 
Simply the whim of the cit}- council, with whom Stewart 
had not been in accord for some time — a council said to 
be susceptible of what is known as " boodle," and whose 
members have accused each other in open meeting, one 
of having received more money than the other for their 
\otes on pending ordinances and resolutions — a council 
who. for some years, were permitted to enjoy the benefits 
of complimentary tickets on the street railroad, but wh(j, 
after constant and increasing abuses of the privileges, had 
been refused the same, and on account of an " anti and 
malignant feeling " sought to make and encourage a sen- 
timent of discord and discontent in the community, and 
while none of the patrons of the road ever made any 
objection to its operation for the past seven years, this 
august body themselves resolved and re-resolved several 
times to tear up and remox'e the tracks from the streets 
for what the\- termed to be a violation of franchise. This 
sentiment seemed to be increasing among the members 
of the council to .such an extent that at the instigation 
of friends Captain Stewart obtained an injunction from 
one of the judges of the court and the cit\' was kept there- 
under for some months: but on July 19, 1890, one Judge 
Sherman, the fallier of the city solicitor, appears upon the 
scene in the dual capacity of judge and party at interest. 
and, at the request of his son, hears a motion to dismiss 
or vacate the injunction, and against Mr. Stewart's pro- 
tests to his hearing the case as an inli'rested part\', he 
forces on the hearing and dismisses the case. 'I'his being 
late Saturday afternoon. JuK' 19, Mr. Stewart protestetl 
again against such ■■ high handed " ]iroceedings and the 



\er\- audacit\' of the thing induced the judge to retract 
and continue the. case until Monday, July 21. 1890, and 
then adjourned his court but Again, bending to the 
demands of the conspirators. Judge Sherman returns half 
an hour after and, without any knowledge or information 
to the plaintiffs or their attornej'S, pre-emptorilv dismisses 
them from the court by subscribing to an entry of disso- 
lution or vacation of injunction, and with this in their pos- 
session the council are privately convened, and at 8 o'clock 
that night they pass an ordinance declaring the franchise 
under which Captain Stewart built his railroad in 1883, 
and given for the term of twenty-live years, to be null 
and void — forfeited — and ordering the mayor and street 
conmiissioner to remove the tracks from the streets, which 
they proceeded to do within an hour thereafter, and at 9 
o'clock that Saturday night, with from si.\ to seven hun- 
dred men, and under cover of the darkness, they pro- 
ceeded to tear up and remove the street railroad tracks, 
and the work of destruction continued through Sunday 
and Sunday night, and not until da\light on Monday 
morning did these vandals complete their work, done 
under the guise of law. There is no law justif\-ing any 
such action: it was simply superior force, and induced b\- 
preconcerted conspiracy, and Judge Sherman was made 
intentionally, or otherwise, to co-operate in the scheme. 
The very audacit\' of the thing seems appalling. 

That there could beany number of men gotten together 
as councilmen who would rush into such a bare-faced 
attempt of confiscation seems almost be3'ond compre- 
hension, but such is really the case at Ashtabula — and on 
account of the consort of action and unaminity of purpose 
and by this fiendish act. Captain Stewart is temporarily 
depri\ed of any tracks upon which to operate his cars, 
and a street railroad plant thai he had been offered 
se\ enty-five thousand dollars for made completely value- 
less: and that is now the condition of the street railroad of 
Ashtabula. The former patrons of the .street railroad are 



!Sls«* S^UmIi^ ^i^^e«^ 



139 



conipi'lcd now to i-illuT \\ alk tlirou^h llu- miuldirst strL-fts 
in:m cxcr saw in aiiv uiipav ihI town, or [latroiii/i' some of 
llu- niL-ani-st. hrokrn-ilow n old staLjc coaihrs anyone- was 
fver conipt'llfd to cliinl) into, and such means of transit is 
verv apt to be the only means of reachiii<^ tlie •• Harbor" 
for some time to come, for the reason that the city appears 
to court all kinds of dilatory methods at the hands of the 
old judge who lul]icd them into the scrape. While Capt- 
Stewart and his able attorneys are endeavoring to push 
matters along in the courts as fast as possible the attorneys 
for the city, who seem to control the actions of the judge 
on the bench, are alert to all methods for delay. Meantime 
Capt. Stewart who knows and feels his deep wrongs and 
grievances has ••memoralized" the Ohio State Legislature 
to hear Judge -Sheiiuan's excuses for such "high handed" 
interferance and Ircacherx', \iolating his official oath and 
obligation by such unheard of conduct, and asks the legis- 
lature to impeach him and cause his removal from the 
bench. The Judiciary Committee of the House are now- 
considering the matter and unless the judge's lieutenants 
succeed in the artistic application of the whitewash brush 
as they are all attempting to do, the old fellow will prob- 
.tblv hear his dismissal read to him before very long. The 
charges are of such a serious character as to give him and 
his " faithful pals," a great deal of uneasiness and at the 
last meeting of the committee at Columbus, the judge 
felt it necessary to be represented by three able practi- 
tioners from his court who were expected to settle Capt. 
."^tewart in the most appro\ed manner, and although the 
Captain is doing all his own attorney work in the impeach- 
ment matter, it is conceded by all familiar with the facts 
and acquainted with the Captain that in a case of this kind 
he is a fearless and aggressive tighter, and having right, 
justice, and honor u|K)n his side, there can be no question 
as to the tinale. 

Meantime public opinion is dixided upon the Council's 
actions, but unanimous that there should be a street rail- 
road reconstructed over the former streets occupied b\- 
Captain Stewart, and he has made several attempts to 
do so, but is pre\ ented by the police force, and his men 
arrested and the reconstructed parts again torn up: and 
the Council appreciating the demands of the people and 
fearing the pressure of public sentiment have granted a 
••Hazardous" adventurer an ordinance to construct a road 
conditioned on his paying into the public treasury a per- 
centage of the gross receipts of his road. Thinking 
perhaps such concessions may appease tlic wrath of the 
people at the delay made consequent upon such litigation 
and expense as will eventually fall flat upon their heads, 
Captain Stewart has been urged strongly to prepare a 
complete statement of his seven j-ears' of street railroad 
experience at Ashtabula, as in all probability no other 
half dozen promotors of street railroads or an\- other 
roads ever met with any such opposition and conspiracy 
on the part of the malcontents as has fallen to the lot of 
Captain Stewart. Such a publication would afford 
interesting reading, but when the Captain was asked 
about such a work he aptly replied that the success 
of all literary works depended upon the proper christen- 



ing, and in the absence of any fitting name for such a 
book as would describe his persecutions for the past 
se\ en years in Ashtabula, he thought his friends would 
have to be content for the present with what thev read 
in the Strkk'I' Raii.w \v Ri-:vii':w. 

The Captain is as full of light as a gatling gun, and 
somebody is liable to get hurt before the war is over. 

Till', opening of the Twin City Electric Line and its 
consequent nihu lion in fare between Minneapolis and St. 
Paul, has had an effect upon the steam roads, who until 
now. ha\ e had e\ erything their own way, so much so 
that a conference of railroad officials was held here 
recently w ith a \ iew to improve the railroad crossings by 
raising or lowering the tracks so as to reduce their 
running time. 

A I'AKTV of street railwa\- men who were making a 
tour of inspection among the large cities finally brought 
up at Cle\eland. when one of the party said to a reporter: 
Cleveland owes a debt of gratitude to Mr. Frank De H. 
Robison for the splendid cable line which he has done so 
much towards introducing in Cleveland. Different mem- 
bers of our party have seen all of the principal cable lines 
in the United States and we are unanimous in our opinion 
that Cle\'eland has the best cable ser\ice of any city in 
America. 

In the car heating case which the West Chicago Street 
R. R. appealed from a justice court, the company's attor- 
ney, Judge Jamieson, closed his argument with: '-You 
can require us to number our cars for convenience of 
identitication in case of accident, and you can compel us 
to grade in conformity with the street grade, but you 
can't compel us to put curtains in our cars, or cushioned 
seats, or to peddle ice water, or put in stoves. You might 
as well compel us to put fans in the cars in summer as 
sto\es in winter." The case is not yet decided, and it is 
belie\ed the ordinance is in\alid, because it does not 
include carettes. omnibuses, etc. Meanwhile we ha\e 
balmy summer weather, and stoves are at a discount. 

CiiAiNCEV M. Depew in an interview a few daws 
since said, in speaking of the future of electricity in its 
relation to steam roads: " W^hile it would not surprise me 
to see electricity rushing our railroad trains along at the 
rate of fifty or si.xty miles an hour, I recognize there must 
be more great secrets of the my.stic power revealed before 
we accept it. When we can get electricity so cheap that 
we can produce it as we go at the same cost as we now 
generate steam, we can talk about electricity as a motive 
power. Many railroad men are of the opinion that the 
steam locomotive, as a means of propelling cars, is doomed. 
They say its use involves too great a waste, and that 
electricity is already successfully emploved for the pro- 
pulsion of street and suburban cars. That is all well 
enough and I glory in the inventi\'eness of our Americans, 
but electricity will need to be juggled a great deal more 
before we can run a through express train to Chicago 
with it." 



140 



THE TRICYCLE ELEVATED RAILWAY. 

THE inventors of elevated railwaj's have of late been 
ven- numerous, and each new inventor has en- 
deavored to obviate the objections which ha\e 
been brought against those which have preceded it and 
embodv such improvements as would make the construc- 
tion at once strong, sightly, and if possible, less expensixe. 




Tlie latest candidate for favor in this direction is J. G. 
Chandler, an architect of Racine, Wisconsin. His is 
called the "Tricycle Road." It runs on a single rail, 
with two guide rails two feet above and parallel with 
the main rail. This with the di\erging trusses make 
a '-X'" shaped trough for the truck to run in. The 
structure is made entirely of iron and has compara- 
tivelv little weight. It is supported on a single line 
of posts, which it is intended should be placed along 
the curb line on business streets, and in the centre 
of the roadwav in residence districts: by reason of 
the fact that no heavy girders are used, it does not 
obstruct the light to any great extent. 

The truck consists of two main bearing wheels 
of equal size, which are grooxed, and placed one 
behind the other the sanie as the Safety bicycle, t 
Two guide wheels on either side run flat-wise ; 
against and under a flange rail, by which arrange- 1 
ment it is impossible for the car to jump the track. : 
Strong springs allow the guide wheel a lateral 
motion, and at the same time insure perfect contact 
with the flange rail. 

Each car is carried on two of the trucks, each 
having a frame in which is placed a 30-horse power 
motor, and the arrangement is such that one or 
both of these motors can be used as may be desired. 

The cars are 45 feet in length, of a standard width 
and height, and rest upon the trucks with a double swivel. 

The most interesting and striking feature of this con- 
structive .sy.stem is its ability to move a 45 ft. car around 
a curve of 20 ft. radius. It not only does this, but at full 
speed, without any jerk whatever, and the adaption of the 
truck to the rails is such that a minimum of power is 
required to move the car on a cur\ e, whether at full speed 
or from a dead .stop. Instead of a conductor wire a 
conductor rail is used, which is placed conveniently on one 



side, and a little above the main centre rail, and from 
which the current is easily taken. 

In connection with this system theinventor has designed 
a supplemental method for an ele\ated sidewalk, by which 
it is intended to make the second stories of stores equally 
as valuable for business purposes as those upon the first 
floor. To do this he would take out the front of the 
buildings on the second floor and make an en- 
trance recessed back six or eight feet, while the 
glass of the show windows below extends two 
feet above the elevated sidewalk, with a slanting 
top also of glass. In this wav people on the 
elevated walk can view not only the show win- 
dows of the second story, but those of the floor 
below with equal ease. 

The inventor also proposes to secure a vevy 
high speed for his truck and rail s\stem, and to 
displace the steam locomotive and cars by the 
same three rail construction placed upon the 
ground. It is practicall}- the same as his elevated 
load minus the posts, and will be readily under- 
stood by the accompanying illustration. 
The weight of the trucks are no greater than the car 
box with passengers, making the center of gravity low. 




A DARING thief in New York in broad daylight the 
other dav grabbed a valuable watch from a gentleman 
walking down Broadway, and dashed across the street. 
But retributive justice was near at hand, for in his rude 
haste he tried to run over a car horse, which promptly 
resented the insult, and, knocking down the thief, stepped 
on his ear, and so he was held until the surprised police 
arrested the bleeding offender. That horse deserves to 
draw the feed-box in the largest barn the comjiaiiy has, 
and should promptly receive the promotion. 



EQUIPMENT NOTES. 



141 



Bargion Compound Rail. 

OUR illustrations show the new form of rail intio- 
(luced on the Pacitic coast In the IJarLjiiin Com- 
pound Rail Company. For the last 12 months, 
the Southern Pacitie Railroad Compaiu have had llu' 
15ar<fion Compound Rail under ti-st on their steam road 
in Oakland, Cal., on both curves and straij^ht track. 
Fort\-li\e passenger trains, consisting of a forty-four ton 
locomotive and ten heavy suburban cars, well lilled, ha\ e 
passed o\er it dailv. The test has shown some remark- 
able results, and the Bargion Compound Rail Co. claim 
that the joint problem has tinallv been sohed. The entire 
absence oi low joints has jirevented hannnering \\ith tlie 



on the two upright webs, the tongue of the upper part 
lacking a quarter of an incli or more of touching the bottom 
of the groove. The two parts are made of steel, but the 
head can be carbonized to a \ery high percentage, 
increasing its life without endangering the safetv of the 
rail. The low er half is made of soft steel, and is a part 
of the permanent rcnid-bed when laid. In case of renew- 
ing or repairing the rail it is onU' necessary to remove a 
block from the ends of the rail. A ratchet wrench is 
used for removing blocks. Then the head can be taken 
out and a new head inserted without delaying traffic or 
disturbing the street. While the tinst cost of the rail is 
the same as ordinar\- girder rails, the saving on renewals 





attendant noise, lUul breaking up of the road-bed. During 
nine months not a bolt was touched or a moment's work 
done on the track, greatly surprising the railroad men 
and others cognizant of the fact, that with the ordinary T 
rail the section men were compelled to tamp up all the 
joints every two weeks, and screw tish-plates and bolts 
very frequentl}'. 

The question of joints has been under discussion in 
railwa}- journals for years, but up to the present, no device 
has been in\ented which secures a uniform rail surface, 
and prexents low or high joints. The California in\ention 



is one-half, and the co--t ol niainleiuuKe is reduced to the 
minimum. 

Rapidity of construction; perfect alignment; uniform 
elasticity and smoothness: no hammering or n(jise: no 
raising or lowering of joints, are among the many claims 
made for this rail. 

The Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company have 
now laid about 800 feet of the Bargion rail designed for 
steam roads and the test will be watched with interest by 
eastern railroad men and w ill go far toward the introduc- 
tion of the rail on steam and street roads if satisfactory. 





would seem to meet the issue by making the rail in t\\ o 
sections, the upper section breaking joints in the center of 
the lower, thus forming a solid support the entire length 
of the rail and making to all practical purposes a 
continuous rail. Its simplicity causes one to wonder wh\ 
it was not thought of before. 

-\ny of the prevailing shapes of head can be rolled to 
lit the lower section. The full weight of a load is carried 



The officers of the rail compan\' ha\ e e\ ery confidence 
that the rail will prove all they have claimed for it, and 
are looking forward for large orders in the near future. 
The company is backed up by men of capital and they 
intend to push the rail until its merits are recognized by 
all railroads. The offices of the Bargion Compound 
Rail Company are at 19 Montgomery street, San Fran- 
cisco. 



t42 



The Westinghouse "Ironclad Gearless " Railway 
Motor. 

THE Sinyle Reduction Motor lately put on the 
market bv the Westinghouse Electric and Manu- 
facturing Company has given such excellent results 
tiiat this company has decided to go a step further and 
build a direct acting gearless raihva\- motor. Two of 




makes it dust-proof and possible to operate the motor on 
inundated tracks. The armature, which is of the drum 
type, is built upon the car axle. The sheet iron discs 
being solid and keyed to the axle, give the axle an addi- 
tional strength which precludes any possibility of its 
bending. This arrangement of course, eliminates all 
gearing. The car wheels are fastened to the shaft by a 
new and novel arrangement, which 
makes it possible to quickly and 
easily replace them without any 
special tools or skilled labor. The 
armature is but i6 inches in diam- 
eter with a grooved periphery for 
the wires, which not only increases 
the ethciency, but holds the wires 
absolutely rigid. This construc- 
tion has been found to be of great 
\alue for railwa\' work, as the 
severe strain upon the armature 
in starting the car, has a tendency 
to displace the wires. The drum 
type armature was selected by the 
Westinghouse Company for this 



these motors have been built in their Pittsburg factory 
and after careful tests, have been found to exceed the 
most sanguine expectations. In the accompanj-ing cuts. 
Fig. I shows a diagonal view of the motor mounted on 
the wheels. Fig. 2 is a side view of the same and Fig. 3 
is a view from the front. Fig. 4 shows a completely 
equipped car with two motors, and in Fig. 5 we have 
represented the car body raised at one end in order to 
remove or replace the motor. Fig. 6 shows the method 
of opening the fields to exchange the armature or field 
coils. This motor the Westinghouse Company has 
termed the "Ironclad Gearless," for, as will be seen in the 
accompanying cut, it is completely surrounded and pro- 
tected b}- the field frame, which forms a natural casing of 
sufficient strength to withstand all shocks and obstructions 
of the roadbed. The field consists of two symmetiical 
castings of special iron slee\ed upon the armature shaft 





or axle, hinged on top and secured together by bolts. 
The joints are made watertight and the bearings are 
provided with leather cups for the same purpose, which 



motor, as it is more efficient electric- 
ally, and mechanically much superior 
to the gramme or disc armatures. No 
extra care being required to prevent 
lateral motion, which, in a disc arma- 
ture, is a constant source of danger. 
The sudden stops and reversals of the 
cars have a tendency also to loosen 
the spiders which are essential to tiie 
construction of both the gramme and 
disc types. Special attention has been 
given to the design of a commutator of 
great solidit}' and durabilit^•. It is 
securely fastened to the shaft, and 
connections with the armature are made bv short, 
heavy wires which will overcome the trouble which 
has been experienced from broken connections. The 



'43 



hnisli-linkicT, \\ liic'li is rii;icll\ tastt'iinl to tlii' m;iif|R-l 
frame is of wr\ simple design, well insulated and easih 
accessible In' openings provided with water-tight lids. 
It will be seen from the cuts that the weight of the 
magnet frame is counterbalanced and cushioned upon two 
powerful spiral springs which rest upon the cross bars of 
the truck. These sjirings prevent the field from rotating 
and give tlu' motor the neci'ssarv llexibilitx- for easy 
starling. 'I'lu' total depth of the •■ Ironclad (jearless" 



working etliciency of o\c-r 90 jier cent. It is also pro\en 
by the tact that, after two hours' run with a load of over 
JO II. P. the ri.se in the temperature of the armature and 
field coils was only jjo degrees centigrade above t"he .sur- 
rounding air. All sparking is avoided bv the excellent 
I'^lectrical design. This form of motor is naturallv entireh- 
free from leakage and external magnetism. On account 
of the absent of gears, it mav safeK' he stated that at 
least 5 11. P. ]ier tar is saved o\er the double reduction 



^ motors, thereby diminish- 



^ 



DDnun 



a 




motor is but 20 inches. gi\ing 5 inches clearance between 
the bottom of the motor and the rail, with a 30-inch wheel. 
One point of great importance is the ease and rapidity 
with which these motors can be changed. In case of 
accident, one end of the car body may be raised by means 
of jacks and b}* simply unscrewing two nuts, the motor 
can be tolled out on its wheels, and a complete motor. 
which may be kept tested in the car-house for that pur- 
pose, can be rolled into its place. The fields of the moloi; 



ing coal bills, or allowing 
more cars to be operated 
b\' the same generating 
capacity; or in other 
words, requiring less gen- 
erating capacity for a 
gixen number of cars. 
The wear and tear and 
m a i n t e n a n c e on c a rs 
equipped with the.se mo- 
tors will be enormously 
reduced on account of the 
low speed of the wearing 
parts, small inertia of the 

_ armature and the low" 

peripheral speed of com- 
mutator. The comparati\ely light weight of the 
equipment, dispensing with the weight of an elaborate 
truck, is a point that should be carefully considered. 
The "Ironclad Gearless" can be adopted for an\' and 
ever}- gauge from 3 ft. 6 in. up. This practically, is the 
limit of improvement in electric motors for street car 
work, and the railway presidents who have been waiting 
for this point to be reached before equipping their roads, 
should hesitate no lontrer. 




.an then be opened by one man, as shown in the engrav- 
ing, which will at once liberate the armature. For all 
this no pit is required and the work can be done intel- 
ligently and con\eniently. This point we are sure, will 
be appreciated by e\ery railw a\- man who has experienced 
the inconvenience and delay of making repairs on the 
high speed motors. The Westinghouse Company claim 
that their "Ironclad Gearless" is the most efficient railway 
motor now on the market, actual tests haxinir shown a 



Even base-ball cannot flourish without street railwa\s, 
for when the Terre Haute Street Railway Co. declined to 
subscribe a great big lump to a base-ball fund the Terre 
llauters decided not to join the inter-State ball league. 



Residents of Third street, Kansas City, who ha(1 
signed the petition for an electric line to use side poles, 
ha\e changed their request and now desire that the poles 
be jilaced in the centre of the street. 



144 



Lee's Registering Fare Box. 

IT is not to be expected that a conductor will turn in 
more fares than his register calls for, even if the same 
have been collected and the registration of them 
omitted either accidentia or intentionally. 

Thomas B. Lee, of Toronto, Canada, has invented a 
combination portable register and fare box, bv the use of 
which companies receive all the money collected whether 
the same has been registered or not. Lee's fare box is 
illustrated herewith, but mav be made of anv desired size 
or pattern or used as a fixture on bob-tail cars. 

The box is operated with the thumb of the hand by 
which it is held, the other hand remaining free to make 
change. When not in use the box mav be suspended by 
a strap leaving both hands free. 




When the fare is put into the mouth of the box it falls 
on a platform or leaf of a revolving disc, so that when the 
conductor presses the button, it causes the disc to turn and 
drop the fare into the inner receptacle or bottom portion 
of the box, at the same time it rings a bell inside to signify 
that the button has been pressed, and also causes a paper 
ribbon inside to be marked or punctured, making the 
record of the tran.saction complete in every waj'. 

It has put the fare out of the reach of the conductor, it 
has registered it for his employer, and it has informed the 
pas.senger that this has been done. 

If ten cents is paid for two fares, the conductor presses 
the button twice, which consequently rings and registers 
twice. 

Now, when the box is handed in by the conductor the 
amount in same must correspond with the number of fares 
registered, unless the conductor has failed to do his duty 



in not pressing the button for every fare he took. But 
here the company get the benefit, as thev have the 
money, while with other registers the monev remains in 
the conductor's pocket. 

The slip or paper ribbon is not more than a quarter of 
an inch wide and is marked in such a wav that there is a 
clear space at both the beginning and end of each when 
same is taken out of the box, which prevents the possi- 
bilit}' of cutting off of an}' of the fares, supposing the 
receiver wished to be dishonest; and the marking being at 
regular distances can be counted instantly by a rule or scale. 

The conductor's name, date, etc., are entered on the 
slip which may be pasted in a book, preserving for refer- 
ence the record of the trip or day. This system is also a 
positive check on the receiver, as his failure to report any 
excess of fares registered, permits of easy detection. 
Neither conductor or receiver can tamper with the printed 
slip, ;md when a fare is deposited in the box it is impos- 
sible to extract the same until opened at the office. The 
boxes cannot possibly get out of order and are light, 
strong, and handsomely nickel plated. 



Double Curve Bracket. 

THE Electric Merchandise Company-, Chicago, who 
ha\e just placed on the market the double curve 
bracket, illustrated, have had such a long expe- 
rience in equipping electric roads that they are continually 
figuring on material which will simplify the work to be 
done as well as secure the best results when in use. 

This bracket is to be used on outside wire in double 
cur\e construction. It is made with malleable iron yoke. 




insulated at either end with a speciall}' prepared haril 
rubber composition. The clamp holding the wire is the 
new Brewster clamp, which has met with such phenomenal 
success, and which can be attached to the wire without 
solder and which can be adjusted in a moment's time to 
meet the varying conditions of the trolley wire. It can 
also be adjusted to any angle to tit the curve of the trolley 
wire. The advantages of this bracket will be readily 
imderstood by practical men. 



The Falls River Manufacturincj Co., who have 
for some time past been located at 46 South Canal street, 
are now nicely settled in their new double store, at 8 and 
ro South Canal street. This gi\es them one of the finest 
show rooms on the street, and more ample accommoda- 
tions for caring for their large and increasing business. 
This company is making a specialtj' of electric light and 
street car plants, and are having very large sales for their 
popular clutches. 

The Campbell & Zell Co., of Baltimore, have 
opened an office in the Rookery building, this city, under 
the management of Mr. Ross, who will look after the 
\'cr\' rapidlv increasing business of this company. 



M5 



The Westinghouse Automatic Circuit Breaker. 

Tl 1 IC railway men who ha\f operatfd slrt-fl cars and 
ha\ c used in their station the ordinar\' fusible block, 
and the make-and-break switch, know how ditlicult 
it is to keep their switch-board looking well, especialh' 
when they have had a number of short circuits on the 
line. Not only are the safet3--fuse blocks burned antl 
discolored, but also the portion of the switch-board near 
the safety fuse is injured, and in addition to the abo\ i'. the 
jaws of the switch ari' partly melted or fused, and the 
whole presents anything but a neat appearance. In order 
to pre\ ent this, the Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co. 
have an automatic circuit breaker, which breaks the cur- 
rent automaticalh' wheiK-\"er there is a short circuit on 
the line, without burning or in any way disfiguring the 
breaker itself. It has been tested on as high a current as 
900 amperes and 500 yolts, or a total of 450.000 watts, 
without in any way affecting or burning the breaker. 
There should be one of these automatic breakers upon 
each feeder, and a trial will readih' pro\e its numerous 
advantages. 

In the accoiiipan\ing cuts. Fig. i is a \ie\\ of the 
breaker when open, and Fig. 2 represents it closed. 




Fi(». 1. Fm. 2 

In the following descrijition the letters refer to the cor- 
responding jiarts in these cuts: 

1 he Automatic Circuit Hreaker consists of an electro- 
magnet. A. in series with a double break switch. !>. 
Hi and B2. 

If a .short circuit occurs on the line, the electro-magnet 
will attract its armature, C, and with it the trigger, D, 
which holds the switch closed, and thereby allows the 
spring, E. to throw the lever arm out of the contacts. 
This, however, does not yet open the circuit as the car- 
bon contacts, F and Fi, carried by the lever arm still 
touch the carbon plates, G and Gi, at the sides of the 
switch, and at these carbon points the circuit is finally 



brokiMi w ithout injuring in the least the metal parts of the 
switch. The feeder sw-itch should always be opened 
before the lircuit breaker is closed again. 

The point at which these circuit breakers will cut out, 
can be regulated b\- changing the weight, H, attached to 
armatiuH'. The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Co. make two styles of circuit breakers, viz.: one to work 
on feedi'rs up to 400 ampere capacity (type A), and one 
to work on feeders from 400 ampere to Soo ampere 
capacity ityjie B|. These can be used in connection with 
any street railway system. 



Ryan's Convertible Car. 

THE Ryan Convertible Car Co. have just brought 
out a new stj^le car, the first order of which has 
been manufactured at the works of the St. Louis 
Car Co. Its object is to enable a single equipment of 
cars to do the double service for summer and winter 
work, and they have succeeded in overcoming a number of 
serious objections which have existed in former attempts 
to accomplish this result. 

This car has stationar}- ends, as in an ordinary closed 
car. The space between the posts is tilled h\ a remov- 
able section, the outer edge of which overlaps half way 
on each post, and is supplied with neatly fitting rubber 
tubing, so that when the section is firmly pressed in posi- 
tion, the rubber flattens against the outer edge of the 
post. This makes a joint at once wind and dust proof, 
and prevents any rattling. Each section is provided with 
sash and sun curtains and neatly shaped panels within and 
without. The windows may be let down as in the regu- 
lation winter car. For the winter car the passenger 
enters from either end and passes through a single aisle to 
seats which are placed on either side, which accommodate 
two passengers, and for a car 16 ft. 6 in. in length, a 
seating capacitj- is thus afforded for twenty-eight persons. 
To remove the sections and transform the box into an 
open car requires the work of but two men for five min- 
utes, and a reverse change from summer to winter car 
ma\- be made in the same time, as there are no bolts or 
screws required. The seats are reversible, except those 
at the end. This permits of a space in the center of the 
car, 24 inches wide and as long as the width of the car, 
to allow of the armature being lifted out or replaced on 
electric lines. A running board on both sides of the car, 
when it is used as an open car is secureh' held b\- neat 
iron braces, which are easily removed when the car is 
closed. 

The in\entor claims for his new style a car that is 
entirely water proof, that will not rattle, and which com- 
liining all the advantages of an open and closed car can 
be built for but from 10 to 15 per cent, more than the 
ordinary closed car. B}- this means a great saving can 
be made in equipment and in the storage room required, 
and shop work, such as varnishing and re-painting, may 
be done on the sections while the car is on the street, and 
to that extent reducing the time which otherwise the car 
would lose when being shopped. 



Wooden Tooth Gear. 

FOR many years the desirabk- qualities of wood in a 
gear wheel has been fully established, both as 
regards wearing qualities and noiseless operation; 
and the greatest objection to its use in street car seryice 
has been the enormous 
price at which gearing of 
this description has been 
held. 

To deyise a plan \yhich 
should place a wooden 
tooth gear for electric 
motor service within the 
reach of all, has been the 
aim of R. IX Nuttall & 
Co., of Allegheny, Pa., 
and in doing this thej' haye 
considered maintenance as 
well as first cost. 

The body of the wheel 
is composed of a special 
grade of cast iron with 
the receptacles for teeth 
milled accuratel}' in its 
periphery in the form of a 
wedge, thus accomplishing 

a two fold purpose. It enables the production of a 
wooden tooth exactly correct, with equal amounts of wood 
on each side of receptacle, thus ayoiding the splitting of 
teeth to be met with in other forms of wooden toothed 
wheels, and it almost enables any ordinary carpenter to 
insert the teeth without an\- special tools, other than 




vears. They use in connection with the wooden toothed 
wheel a hardened steel pinion, hardened h\ a ne\y process, 
which makes the life of the pinion yery much longer than 
the forms of pinions now in use. The wooden tooth, how- 
e\er, will wear longer than the pinion. The teeth can be 

remoyed and placed with- 
without remoying the 
wheel from the motor, a 
\ery great saying oyer the 
old way. These wheels 
are guaranteed to be finst- 
class in eyery particular, 
making yery little noise 
and on account of their 
elasticity the}' have proved 
to be specially adapted to 
street car service. These 
wheels are in use on 
several prominent roads, 
among which are the Erie 
Electric Motor Co., of 
Erie, Penn., the Atlantic 
City Railway, Atlantic 
City, N. J., and the Fede- 
ral Street & Pleasant Val- 
ley Line, Pittsburg, Pa. 
The manufacturers will send one set of wheels on 30 
days trial to an\' responsible parties ordering same, and 
if not what is claimed for them they can be returned 
without expense. The cuts on this page convey an 
excellent idea of the construction of the wooden-toothed 
"■ear. 




SECTiONAL 



usually used on ordinary work, thus reducing the cost of 
maintainance to a minimum. The main body of the wheel 
with ordinar}- care will wear indefinitely, the teeth ha\e 
known to wear six to eight months in severe street car 
service, and in mills, etc., have been known to last for 



TiiK authorities of San .\ntonia, Texas, are sensible in 
naming speeds for its street car companies, and allows ten 
miles an hour for the district within one mile of business 
centre, fifteen miles an hour from one to two miles radius, 
and twent\' miles per hour beyond the three-mile radius. 



te* S^iU^^^^ife- 



147 



Electrical Supply Co.'s Pole Ratchet. 

THE Electrical Supply Co., nf Chicago, lia\c a new 
pole ratchet, which though simplicity itself, as will 
he seen from the illustration herewith, i.s hij^^hly 
effectix e in results. The ratchet itself i.s not particularly 
new in <,a'neral characteristics, but is uinisually well made, 
and th()Uj,rh lij^ht does not sacrifice strength. The ratchet 
admits of two methods of application, as shown in the 
cut: the old method, with the use of a bolt passinjjj 
through the jiole, and the improxed method suggested by 




An Improved Casing for Steam Pipes. 

Ti lie \V\ckolf patent steam pipe casing shown in the 
acconijianying illustrations is made of double thick- 
ness of eight thoroughly seasoned one inch white 
pine staves to each section. The staves of the inner 
course are jointed together and wound with galvanized 
steel wire, then wrapped witii two thicknesses of heavy 
corrugated paper, after which another casing of staves is 
put on the outside and wound with galvanized steel wire. 
The outer casing is tiien coated with asphaltum. Fig. i 
represents a section of such casing complete, 
there being two slaves removed from the 
casing as shown in Fig. 2, to disclose the 



the Electrical Supply Co., by which the .span wire is 
|iassed through the pole and is wound on the ratchet on 
the farther side. This, it will be seen, entirely obviates 
the use of the bolt, for the greater the strain from the 
span wire the tighter the ratchet hugs the pole. There 
are several advantages in this ratchet, whicli a casual 
examination will readih' discern. 

Memphis Matters. 

Aftei" main' wear\- months of discussion, objection and 
uncertaint\-, contracts are being let with the various supply 
houses for the equipment of the electric road here. 
Every effort will be made to have the Main street line in 
operation by Sept. ist, and the others to follow as fast as 
jiossible. Scarcity of brick has delayed the letting of the 
contract for the power house, but it is hoped to have the 
building completed within four months. This station, 
with its steam and electric equipment, will cost $175,000, 
and contains 1,500 horse power. A part of the old car 
equipment will be rebuilt to be used as trailers behind the 
motor cars. The mules, of which the compan\' have 
about three hundred, will be sold. 

The contract for power plant and motors was let on 
Saturday, April iith, and was secured hv the Edison 
Company. Sixty motor cars w ill be equipped at the start 
and additions made as nccessarv. This is a large order 
and has been the object of strong competition from all sides. 



Thk Great Western Electric Slim'lv Co. has 
received the western agency for W. S. HilFs switches, cut- 
outs, etc. They are to be congratulated on securing this 
agency, as these switches are known from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific as first class in everv particular. 




lining between the inner and outer courses. 
To cut the casing lengthwise, where this is 
necessarj- in putting it around the pipes in 
position, the binding wires are cut by a file 
or otherwise, and their ends fastened clown by a common 
blind staple. This allows the outside casing to be laid 
open, as shown in Fig. 3, a similar process being 




followed in opening the inner casing. In calculating the 
size of casing required proper allow ance should be made 
for the pipe couplings. 

It is said in comparative tests of this casing with one 
of solid wood, both round and square, in the same line, 
the sectional casing has proved great!}- superior. The 
solid wood casing rapidly became checked, and so heated 




throughout as to cause material loss of heat, w hile the 
sectional casing, owing to the interposed non-conducting 
layers, remained perfectly cool on the outside. 

This improved steam pipe casing is made by Messrs. 
A. Wvckoff & Son, Elmira, N. Y. 



148 



The Edco Company. 

THE storage battery cars equipped by the Accum- 
uhitor Company, and instaDed according to tlie 
" Edco" system, invented by Mr. W. W. Griscom, 
have been in continuous operation upon the tracks of the 
Dubuque Street Railway Company in Dubuque, Iowa, 
and of the Eckington & Soldiers Home Railway Com- 
pany in Washington, D. C, and this fact has, we are 
informed, given such an impetus to the street car busi- 
ness of the Accumulator Co. and the Electro Dynamic 
Co., of Philadelphia, (the latter company making the 
motors, gearing switches and other apparatus, except 
accumulators embraced in the Edco S3Stem), as to make 
it necessary to consolidate in Philadelphia the general 
offices of the two companies named, so that the othcers 
and heads of departments of both companies shall be in 
constant communication with each other. 

New and commodious otfices have been secured, front- 
ing on Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Nos. 224 and 226, 
and extending back to Carter street, upon which the six 
story factory of the Electro Dynamic Company is located. 
These offices will be fitted up so as to accommodate the 
executive officers, the superintendent and the technical 
departments of both companies, and the same time 
enabling the factory facifities to be increased to the extent 
now covered b^- the Electro Dynamic Company's offices. 

The Eckington & Soldiers Home Railway Company, 
in addition to its contract for a full equipment of Edco 
storage battery cars for its " G" street and Fifth street 
branches, has recently ordered from the Electro Dynamic 
Company two 40 H. P. Edco slow speed dynamos, with 
self-oiling bronze bearings and tempered copper com- 
mutators, work on which is being pushed forward as 
rapidly as possible. The factor}' of the compan\- is being 
worked to its full capacity, including three nights service 
a week. 

Mr. D. H. Bates, vice-president and general manager 
of the two companies, has resigned these positions to date 
from May ist, in order to take a general selling agenc^• 
for street car equipments upon the Edco system, with 
headquarters in New York, in the same offices which the 
two companies named have occupied for the past five 
years. 

The electrical fraternity and the street railwa\- olllcials 
and public have now an opportunity of satisf\ing them- 
selves whether the storage battery system of street car 
propulsion is economical, in view of the fact that the 
system is in practical every day operation in Dubuque 
and Washington, on the roads above named. 

Messrs. Truex & Vail, also located at 44 J^roadwav, 
New York City, are the general selling agents for New 
York and New Jersej^ for accumulators and Edco 
apparatus for other than street car work. 



STREET CAR PATENTS. 



The St. Louis Car Co. are finishing ten open cars for 
the Salt Lake Rapid Transit Co., in which the seats ex- 
tend across the car with aisle reaching the full length of 
the car. The cars are of the latest pattern and very hand- 
some. 



The following list of street car patents is prepared for The Sireei 
Railway Review, at the Patent Lazv Office of Haiip Brothers, 606 
Rialto building, Chicago. We refer our readers to them on all matters 
relating to patents and patent law. 

MARCH 3, 1S91. 
Trolley for Electric Railway Wm J. Calvert, Albany, and 

...W. P. Nishall, West Troy, N. Y. 447,632 

Axle Bearing D. \V. Copeland, Syracuse, N. Y. 447,;;98 

Step for Cars Elias E. Fashion, Emporia, Kan. 447,304 

Electric Subway John C. Reilly, Brooklyn, N. Y. 447,350 

Electric Heater Chas. C. Rich, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 447,353 

Turnout and Crossing for Line Conductors Sidney H. Short, 

Cleveland, O. 447,495 

Safety Brake Apparatus.John H. Hoechstatten, Vienna, Austria, 447,710 

Electric Motor Robt. W. Taylor, Richmond, Va. 447,704 

MARCH 10, 1S91. 

Street Railway Tie „Chas. A. Beach, Albany, N. Y. 448,005 

Registering Apparatus for Street Cars Horace G. Canfield, 

- Akron, O. 447,806 

Cable Grip Clement Hagard, San Francisco, Cal. 448,035 

Car Brake and Starter Chas. J. Luce, Niantic, Conn. 447,780 

Trolley Carriage and Conductor.. Chas. J. Luce, Niantic, Conn. 447,885 
Overhead Railway Jonah W. Moyer & G. F.Jackson, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 44S 157 

Trdlley for Electric Railways. Merle J. Wightman, Scranton, Pa 448,17: 
Trolley for Electric Railways. Merle J. Wightman, Scranton, Pa, 448,173 

.MARCH 17, 1S91. 
Electric Motor Truck. .Francis O. Blackwell. New York, N. Y. 448,199 
Trolley Support for Electric Cars.Benj. F. Crow, St. Louis, Mo. 448,505 

Electric Railway Justus B. Entz, New York, N. Y. 448,328 

Electric Railway ..Rudolph M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Patents 448,523, 448,618 and 448,653 

Elevated Railway .Marion Jacobs, Chicago, 111. 448571 

Brake for Street Cars John H. King, Cincinnati,©. 448,438 

Underground Conduit for Electric Railways. Robert A. Stewart, 

_ Alleghany, Pa. 448,461 

Electric Railway Motor Chas. J. Van Depoele, Lynn, Mass. 448,561 

Electric Railway System Chas. J. Van Depoele, L^nn, Mass. 448,563 

Gripping Machine for Cable Roads Fred W. Wood & J. 

Fowler, LosAngeles, Cal. 448,287 

MARCH 24, 1S91. 
Electric Street Car Driving.Gear Conrad M.Conradsen, 

Madison, Wis. 448,910 

Electric Railway Thos. A. Edison, Menlo Park, N.J. 448,778 

Trolley for Electric Railways Rudolph Eickemeyer, 

Yonkers, N. Y. 448,831 

Overhead Crossing Appliance for Electric Railways Isaiah 

H. Farnham, Wellesly, Mass. 448,711 

Link for Cable Grips Vernon T. Lynch, Chicago, III. 448,973 

Speed Regulators for Electric Motors Sidney H. Short, 

Cleveland, O. 448,681 

Protecting Motor Mechanism of Electric Cars. Sidney H. Short, 

Cleveland, O. 448,840 

Lamp for Electric Railway Cars Chas. G. Smith, 

Brooklyn, N. Y., and L. Pfingst, Boston, Mass. 448,865 

MARCH 31, 1891. 

Street Railway Crossing Victor Angerer, Philadelphia, Pa. 449,433 

Electric Railway Conduit. Francis O. Blackwell, New York.N.Y. 449,196 
Electric Motor Truck.. Francis O. Blackwell, New York, N. Y. 449,197 

System for Cable Railwa3S Leonard Cutshaw, Denver, Colo. 449,466 

Car Starter and Brake Wm. Giffard, Salford, England, 449,285 

Constructing Street Railway Tracks ..Theo. G. Gribble, 

, London, England, 449,117 

Guard for Electric Railway Trolleys A. W. Mitchell, 

Boston, Mass., Patents 449,226 and 449,490 

Hand-Support for Cars Fred'k A. Morley, Brooklyn, N. Y. 449,262 

Electric Railway System..Sam'l F. B. Morse, Brooklyn, N. Y. 449,569 
Automatic Trolley catcher for Electric Railways Byron J. 

Parsons, Omaha, Neb. 449,569 

Method and Apparatus for Propelling Street Cars Wm. E. 

._ Prall and W. E, Jr., Washington, D. C. 449,588 

Cable Grip .^ Emil Schalk, Piermont, N. Y. 449,139 

Pneumatic Railway Eliel L. Sharpneck and J. W. Baily, 

Denver, Colo. 449,594 

Reversible Sign for Horse Cars.. Fred. E. Webb, Boston, Mass. 449,506 



149 



FOUND ON THE RUSH TRIP. 



American Street Railway Association. 

HKNliY M. WATSON, President, Hulfiilo, N. Y. 

W. A. SMITH, First Vice-President, Omaha, Noli. 

CHAIILES ODKLL, Second Vice-President, Ni'whiiryiinrt. Mass. 

A. D. KODGKUS, Third Vice-President, Columhus, Ohio. 

WM. J. RICHARDSON, Secretary and Tkeasureu, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Kxecutive i'om.ihttee— The President, Vk^e Presidents, and Thomas 
LowRY, Minneapolie, Minn.; D. F. Henry, Pittsburfih, Pa.; Albert E. Thorn- 
ton, Atlanta, Ga.; H. M. Littell, Cincinnati, O. and Thomas C. Keefeb, 
Ottjiwa, ("an. 

Ni'Xt meeting will be held in Pittsburg, Pa., October 2l8t, 1891. 



Massachusetts Street Railw^ay Association. 

President, ('has. H. Pratt, Salem; Vice Presidents. H. M. Whitney, Boston, 
Amos F. Ureed, Lynn, Frank 8. Stevens; Secretary and Treasurer, J.H.Eaton, 
Lawrence. 

Meets first Wednesday of each month. 

New York Street Railway Association. 

President, Daniel F. Lewis, Brooklyn; Vice Presidents, Jno. N. Beckley, 
Kochester. .John S. Foster, New York; Secretary and Treasurer, William J. BicH- 
ARDSON, Brooklyn; Executive Committee, John N. Pahteidge, Brooklyn; Charles 
Clemenshaw, Troy; C. Densmobe Wyman, New York. 

Next meeting. Hotel Metropole, New York City, Sept. 15th, 18!ll. 

Ohio State Tramway Association. 

John N.Stewart, .\shtabula. President; John Harris, Cincinnati, Vice Presi- 
dent; J. B. Hanna, Cleveland, Secretary and Treasurer; E. K. Stewart, Columbus, 
Executive Committee. 



The Street Railway Association of the State of 
New Jersey. 

President. John H. Bonn. Hoboken; Vice President, Taos. C. Bark, Newark; 
Secretary and Treasurer, Charles Y'. Bamford. Trenton; Executive Committee, 
Officers and C. B. Thurston, Jersey City; H. Romaine, Patterson: Lewis Peh- 
RINE, Jr., Trenton. 

ALABAMA. 

Ski.^i.v. — The street car line here is to be converted 
into an electric line. Arrangements are being made now 
to put in the plant. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Los An<;eles. — Grading is well under wa}' and a con- 
siderable of the material on the ground for the construc- 
tion of the Los Angeles Electric Belt Railway. The pro- 
jected system will consist of thirty miles, of which it is 
e.xpected no less than twelve miles will be completed this 
year. 



(l\i<i..\xi). — E. M. Green, T. D. Ilo-skins, and others, 
have petitioned for a franchise on se\eral streets. It is 
proposed to operate the same b\' the Iloskins motor. 



Tim-: Oakland and Berkely Rapid Transit Co. has peti- 
tioned for a franchise for an electric road, it will 
undoubtedly be built. The following othcers were 
elected: Geo. \V. McNear, president: J. E. McElrath, 
vice-president: H. S. Hunt, secretary. 

Mi;ssRs. Meek, L.\nders & P.yl.mek ha\e secured a 
franchise for an electric road extending from the cit\- 
limits to Thirteenth avenue. It will enter the city 
through the Eighth street bridge. It does not in any 
way interfere with the proposed line which E. C. Ses- 
sions and E. B. \'andercook intend to build. 



electric road on \arious streets. Walter 1". Beck, of 
(Oakland, and John F. English, of San h'rancisco, are 
among the promoters. 

S.\CKAMENTo. — Trathc on the electric road has so 
rapidly increased that it has been found necessar\- to 
order additional equipment. Cars will be built b\- Cali- 
fornia parties. 

S.\N Francisco. — The California Street Cable Co. now 
operates from the new power station on California and Ide 
streets. The transfer was made from one station to the 
other with a loss of but a few hours in the operation of the 
cars. The old cable which was taken out of service at 
the time had been in use for sixteen months. 



COLORADO. 

Denver. — The Denver City Cable Co. will build a 
new car house 125.X300 feet, to cost not less than $20,{X)0. 
The companvha\e other improvements in contemplation, 
notably the conversion of their horse car lines into electric 
roads. 



The entire road-bed of the Lakewood & Golden elec- 
tric R'y. has been graded, and it is now hoped to have the 
line in operation by May ist. There will be three power 
houses : one at each terminus, and the third midway. The 
entire cost of the road will amount to $600,000. 



Franklvn, Morey & Co. report they have $50,000 
subscribed to build an extension electric road through 
their property at Sherwood place. 



The Suburban, City Cable, and the Tramway Co. have 
each sought to lay tracks on the same street, and the at- 
tempt at the same time of all three to do so, recently last- 
ed all day, and entertained a crowd of more than three 
thousand people. As fast as one company would complete 
any portion of track work the others would tear it u]). 
This lasted all day, when finally a truce was declared, and 
matters are at a standstill for the present. 



Greelv. — The proposed electric street car line has 
not 3'et been fulh- organized, but steps are being taken to 
do so at once. 

Trinid.vd. — There is a disposition on the part of local 
capitalists to take the franchise granted to Mr. Frank A. 
Miller, of Denver, for an electric street railway, as Mr. 
Miller decided to let it drop after securing the franchise 
from the city. A company is being formed by Captain 
John Conkie and indications are good for raising the 
necessary amount of money. 



The Central Avenue Railwa}' Co. has incorporated for 
$1,000,000, for the purpose of operating a cross-town 



CONNECTICUT. 

Bridoepokt. — The East End Railway has decided to 
adopt electricity- when their tracks shall have been extend- 
ed to Stratford, work on which has already been com- 
menced. The new cars have been ordered built in such 
a way that they can be operated either by horse power, 
storage battery, or trolley system. 



15° 



Norwich. — The Norwich Street Railway C'onipan}- is 
extending its tracks on the West Side: also in Taftville, 
and is to rebuild all of its tracks and furnish them with 
new equipment. 

DELAWARE. 
Wilmington. — The Front and Union Street Railway 
Co. will begin work the first of May on an extension of 
its tracks to Silver Brook. 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Washington. — The power plant of the Metropolitan 
Street Railv^'ay Co. will be built adjoining their present 
stable on P street. It will be 122x250 ft. and two stories 
in height. 

Everything is in readiness to commence work on the 
extension of the cable track of the Washington & George- 
town System. When it is completed it will give the city 
of Washington twenty-two miles of cable railway. One 
of the best in the countrv. 



FLORIDA. 

Jack.sonvii.le. — C. B. Rogers and others are talking 
of an electric line from Riverside, to e.xtend a consider- 
alile distance north. 

GEORGIA. 

Atlanta. — The Adanta West End & McPherson 
Barracks Co. have alread}' completed live miles of track, 
and a large portion of the equipment is in place or on 
hand. As soon as this is finished other extensions are 
planned, which it is hoped will be finished this year. 



At the election of the officers of the Atlantic Street 
Railway, Alfred Glazier, of New York, was elected 
secretary and treasurer, and L. Blood worth, Jr., of this 
city, assistant secretary and treasurer. 



The Capital City RV Co. are receiving bids for the 
construction of about fi\e miles of single track, electric 
system. 

Macon. — The Macon City R'y affairs are in a some- 
what tangled shape, owing to the difficulty which the 
owner, Geo. F. Work, has gotten into by re-h\'pothecating 
securities, and the road will undoubtedly be sold, probabh- 
under a foreclosure. 

IDAHO. 

Boise City. — Hon. Ben. Wilson, one of the directors 
of the Boise City Electric road, states that the proposed 
line has not been abandoned, but that the road will be 
completed by the first of June. It will be two and one- 
half miles in length. 

ILLINOIS. 

Aurora. — The Evans-Winslow syndicate are securing 
bids on an electric line to their new sub-division and are 
strongly inclined to the storage batterv .system. 



Centralia. — The laying of the first rails of the city 
railway here, on April 6th, was witnessed by a large and 
interested concourse of citizens. The line will be pushed 
as fast as possible. 

Kankakee. — Work has begun on the electric road 
here, for which all contracts have been let. It will be 
finished in sixt}- days, and for the present, power will be 
furnished by the Electric Light Co. 



Peoria. — Capt. John Hall is still fighting for an ordi- 
nance under which to construct another railway. It has 
not 3'et been granted. 

RocKFORD. — The West End Street Railway has closed 
a contract for additional construction, which must be com- 
pleted within thirty days. 



Waukegan. — The Waukegan Street Railway Co. is 
preparing to make extensive additions to its line, one of 
which will extend to the site of the new Washburn- 
Moen works. 

INDIANA. 

Columbus. — Another company is being organized here 
to build a street railway on a route which will be east and 
w est through the city. It is said sufficient capital has 
already been subscribed. 



Elkhart. — The Citizens' Railway and the Elkhart 
Electric Co. have been purchased by the Elkhart and 
Electric Railway Co. 

Ft. Wayne. — T. R. McDonald has completed the 
survey for his proposed electric line to the Catholic cem- 
etery. 

Indian.\i'Olis. — The board of public works have just 
made a contract with the Indianapolis and Broad Ripple 
Rapid Transit (electric) Company, by which the latter, in 
consideration of a twenty' 3'ears' franchise, agrees to pay 
one-fourth of one cent for each passenger — that is, five 
percent of the gross receipts — to pave the tracks; to keep 
the same in repair; to charge but five cents fare; to keep 
cars warm in winter, and lighted with electric lamps all 
the year round. 

Marion. — George L. Mason, of this city, and W. T. 
Adams, of Buffalo, have fully decided to push the construc- 
tion of the electric line to completion at the earliest possi- 
ble moment. When finished they intend to build a belt 
line twelve miles in length, reaching entirely round the 
city. 

The Halberman, McHinney Electric Street Railway 
Co. has commenced work, and it will be a race as to 
whether this company or the Mason Electric Co. will 
complete their line first. 



Bloominc;ton. — A large portion of the tracks of the 
Bloomington Street Railway will be relaid this spring 
with new iron. 



New Albany. — Work has been resumed on the street 
railwa\-, and the indications are that we shall have one of 
the best street car systems of any city of this size in the 
State. 



•^»A^ 



15^ 



Seymour. — The Seymour Street R"y w itli a cash caji- 
ital of $30,000, contributed by home Inisiness men, has 
been or<^anized and incorporated, with A. M. Batey, presi- 
dent, and B. F. Price, secretary and treasurer. Work 
will be commenced at once. 

IOWA. 

BuRLiNfi'roN.- The Burlinylon Electric Street Kailw a\- 
hn.s riled a mortaj^e with the American Loan & Trust 
Co. of IWton, in the amount of $120,000, to be used in 
the construction of their line here. 

CouNcii. Bluffs. — At the election of otHcers of the 
Lake Manawa Motor Co., the following were elected: 
president, Col. F. C. Reed; vice-president, S. P. Mac- 
Connell: .secretary, W. F. Sapp; trea.surer, C. R. Ilannan. 

Iowa City. — The organization of the electric street 
railway has been finally perfected, and everything is favor- 
able now to an early completion of the road. The fran- 
chise has not yet been granted for an electric road here, 
but the prospects are good that it will be very soon. 

M.V.SON City. — There is ever}- prospect that a franchise 
will be granted for the construction of an electric .street 
railway. The electric light and gas companies are asking 
for the permit. 

Sioux City. — The Riverside Electric Railway Co. has 
begun the erection of its power house. Most of the poles 
iia\ e lieen set, and track laying will be commenced soon. 



KANSAS. 
Salina. — -There is a good prospect of an electric road 
being built here, and the intention is to have it in oper- 
ation by July 4th next. 

Wanetiia. — A freight and passenger line is projected 
from this place to St. Joseph. It is thought it can be made 
verv profitable. 

KENTUCKY. 

CoviNOTON. — The Highland Lot Company are getting 
figures for the construction of a Dumm\' line to thei,- 
suburban property-. 

Louis\iLLE. — The Fall City Real Estate Co., which is 
the name of the new street railway company here, is 
pushing vigorously for an ordinance for an electric road. 
It is proposed to use center poles, which will carry electric 
light, and the equipment will be of the \estibule pattern. 
Contracts have not yet been closed. John H. .Sutcliff is 
the president. 

Newport. — It is understood that a new electric street 
railway will apply to the cit\- council for franchises along 
Columbia street. Park avenue and Fourth street, 



LOUISIANA. 
Xew Orleans. — The Electric Traction & Manu- 
facturing Co. of this city has shut down, and two hun- 
dred men have been thrown out of employment. The 
company had been operating a line of storage battery 
cars over the tracks of the Crescent City Road, and it is 



claimed the shut-down was partly the result of a disagree- 
ment between the two tompanies. As the overhead 
.system has been jirohihiti'd thus far in this cit\- there are 
at jiri'si'nl nci t'U'Ctrii' cars in operatif)n. 

MAINE. 

Belfast. — Tlu' Belfast Street R"v Co. has been 
I'haiit'ii'd for the purpose of building an electric road 
three and one-half miles in length. Among the incor- 
porators are: R. F. Price, C. H. Field, W. R. Marshall. 
Joseph Williamson. 

BiDDicioui). — The Biddeford & Saco Horse R'y Co. 
are making a strong fight for the necessary permit to 
change its system to electricity, and the prospect is a little 
more favorable, although the matter is not vet settled. 



Portland. — The Portland Horse R'y Co. is erectinj. 
a stable and car house which will cost $23,000. 



MARYLAND. 

BALTI^roRE. — On April 6th the first cable was drawn 
into the channel of the new cable road, and it is hoped to 
ha\e the line in operation within a day or two. 



After many weary weeks of discussion and one of 
the longest and hardest fights which has been made in 
the Cit}' Council here, an ordinance has been passed 
which will enable the North Avenue Electric R'y to 
construct electric lines, and it is now probable that this 
victory will be followed by others of a similar nature. 



MASSACHUSETTS. 

Attleboro. — The street railway here has been sold. 
It is six miles in length and extends to Wenthram. It is 
said to be very valuable property. 



Boston. — The We.st End Co. have decided on the 
erection of a new car house, the dimensions of which will 
be 285x350. Their car house for the storage of electric 
cars at Eggleston Square will be increased by an addition 
of 96x220 ft. 

The project to connect Boston and Lynn with an elec- 
tric line passing through East Boston, Crescent BeacJL and 
Oak Island is working favorably and has every indication 
of success. 

Fall River. — New York City men ha\e bought tlie 
Globe Street R'y for $600,000, and it is now projiosed to 
put in electricity. 

KiNcsTON. — The Plymouth and Kingston Street R'y. 
have been petitioned for a line to this place. There is 
every indication that the line will be built. 



PiTTSFiELD. — Contracts have been let for equipping 
the lines here with electricity, and it is hoped to have the 
system in running order by June ist. Power will be 
furnished for the present by- the Edison Electric Co. 

Plymouth. — The Plymouth & Kingston Street Rail- 
way Co. has acquired a route to the shore. The well- 



152 



known Clifford house has been purchased by the directors 
of the railway company and they will open it as a hrst- 
dass house about June ist. 



RocKLAXD. — A franchise for this place has been granted 
to the Hatherly Street Railway Co., and as the company 
has already received charters from all the other towns, 
work will be commenced shortly. 



MICHIGAN. 

Bay Citv. — The Union Street Railway, of this city, 
has arranged to exchange passengers with the City Elec- 
tric Co., of West Bay City, which will be a great accom- 
modation to both places. Construction of the West Bay 
Citv Electric line will be commenced immediately. 



Detroit. — The Fort Wayne & Elmwood Street Rail- 
way Co. are seriously considering a change to electricit}', 
and have about decided to abandon the proposed method 
of operating by. compressed air. 



The Detroit City Railway Co. has notified its men that 
hereafter its employes will be paid by the hour, at the rate 
of 15 cents for conductors, and 14 cents for drivers. 



Fknton. — Strong efforts are being made to work up a 
company to build a line to Long Lake, a popular summer 
resort, which is attracting a great man}- people. 



Fi.iNT. — A street railway with a capital of $50,000 has 
been organized here. 

IsiiPEMiNG. — There is every indication that the pro- 
posed electric railway to connect this place with Menomi- 
nee will be built this spring. 

Manistee. — Gen. Geo. A. Hart, of this citj-, is engin- 
eering the proposed electric line here, and states that he 
will build eight miles this season, connecting Filer City, 
Eastlock and Stumack with this place. 



Menominee. — Of the $90,000 capital required to build 
the electric railway here, $75,000 has already been sub- 
scribed. Mr. Carpenter, of the Kirby, Carpenter Co., is 
one of the prime movers, and the road will undoubtedh' 
be built, as it is greatly needed, and the cit\' is growing 
very fast. 

MINNESOTA. 

DuLUTii. — The extension of the electric line to West 
Duluth will be commenced in a few days, and if no delays 
occur, will be opened for travel June ist. 



The City Railway Co. have just put in an e.xtra en- 
gine of 250-horse power, and will soon purchase another 
of 800-horse power. The Power House is to be enlarged 
to three times its present size and other improvements 
made. New cars will be added shortly. The company 
has liled a trust deed for $2,000,000 to cover an issue of 
bonds to that amount. 



The Minneapolis City Railway have won their suit in 
which it was sought to enjoin the construction of an elec- 
tric railway on Hennepin boulevard. This will enable 
the company to proceed with its construction work. 

The coming summer will be another acti\e one in the 
construction of electric lines here. Contracts have been 
already let for twenty miles of steel rails, which will be 
furnished by the Illinois Steel Co. One thousand centre 
poles will be furnished bj' the Brownell Co., of Detroit: 
and one hundred and twenty new cars, of which the 
Northern Car Co. of this citj- furnish twentj'; Jones & Co. 
of Troy, sixt\', and John Stephenson Co. of New York, 
forty. 

The second 1,000-horse power triple expansion engine 
has been placed in the main power house, and is working 
beautifully. It was built by the Allis Works at Milwaukee. 

St. Paul. — The operation of the electric line between 
St. Paul and MinneapoHs is working ver^' successfullj', 
and new cars have been ordered which will have a speed 
of twenty-five miles per hour. 



MISSOURI. 

Kansas City. — One of the post office officials in this 
city has been instrumental in securing the passage of a 
bill in the State Legislature, providing for the carrying 
of mails by the street railways run in the large cities of 
the State. The electric and cable cars can make so much 
better time than the government mail wagons between 
post office and depot that it is believed the arrangement 
will prove a very satisfactory one. 



St. Joseph. — The Bell City R'3- at its recent annual 
meeting decided to issue monthlj- commutation tickets of 
120 fares, to be sold for $40.00 per year. Books of 100 
tickets will be sold for $4.00; $15,000 was voted for new 
cars and motors. Officers elected were : James W. Hed- 
dens, president; W. T. Van Brunt, vice-president and 
general manager; A. J. Moulton, secretary- and treasurer. 

St. Louis. — The brake S3'stem as applied to cars run 
in trains is not entirely satisfactory to some of the com- 
panies here on account of the noise it makes. Two of 
the electric lines, the Lindell and the Union Depot, are 
now trying experiments with the pneumatic brake. These 
are worked by storage tanks of air, which are pumped 
full by automatic mechanism applied (jn down grades. 
In conjunction with the brake they are also using an air 
whistle instead of the gong. 



Minneapolis. — The through electric service between 
this citv and Minnehaha Falls has been established. 



Some difficulty has been experienced at the Broadway 
and Olive streets crossing by the two cable roads. At 
that point the Olive street cable runs at its normal le\el, 
but the firoadway cable goes under; when an Olive 
street car has hold of the cable it is raised several inches 
off the pulleys, so that when an Olive street train is within 
a few feet of the Broadway crossing it raises the rope 
high enough for the jaws of the Broadway grip to strike 
it in passing. 



^«*«< 5^ttU»^^^^t^ 



153 



Till'. Clavton li Forest I'aik Railway Co.'s railway 
project is heiiif,' vigorously pushed. Nearly all of the 
,f 100,000 of capita! stock has been sub.scrihed. 

MONTANA. 
Bi'TTK. — Gen. Manager Woolston has announced that 
his company will make an extension of lines to the Parrot 

.Vdditioii. 'i'he line will be built this summer. 

Tiiic Metropolitan Railway Co. has been sold to the 
liutte Consolidated Street Railway Co. This gives to 
the Consolidated Company control of all the street car 
lines in this cit\'. 

It is now proposed to build a new line, independent of 
the Consolidated Compan\-, to be operated bj- electricity. 
The road is to be on Plain St., Park St., and Montana 
St.. extending to South Butte. It does not parallel the 
existing lines, except in the centre of the city for a short 
distance. It is now understood that Regan & \'aughn of 
Omaha ha\e also asked for another franchise. 



PuoMiNKNT citizens have petitioned for franchises for 
a new street railway here, which will probably be oper- 
ated by electricit\'. Among the promoters are Mantle & 
W'arien and R. M. Cobban. 



Grk.vt F.vli.s. — The electric line has been opened here, 
and is working splendidly. 



l^ozEM.\N". — E. M. Ferris, who is at the head of the 
electric street car project here is now east, perfecting 
arrangements for the completion of the line. 



NEBRASKA. 

Beatrice. — Contract has been let the Trans MissoiuM 
Construction Co. of Lincoln, for the entire equipment of 
the new line here. 



Lincoln. — The Lincoln Street Railway Co. has leased 
a ten acre tract of land for a term of years, on which 
they will locate a mammoth base ball park, to which 
they are now laying track. For the present the exten- 
tion will be a horse car service, but will be con\ erted into 
an electric line as soon as possible. 



Omaii.v. — The Metropolitan Street Railway has been 
granted a charter to build from the business portion of 
.South Omaha to the corner of Farnam and Eitrhteenth Sts. 



Till; Omaha Street Railway will spend $,^00,000 this 
year in improvements and extensions. The work of ex- 
tending the Farnam Street Motor line to Dundee Place 
will be commenced at once. The company suffered a 
most annoying accident a few days by the breaking of 
the cylinder head in one of their 400-horse ])ower engines. 

Property owners are desirous that the City Railwa\ 
extend its Eleventh Street Motor line so as to connect 
with the south Omaha line. It w ill probably be done. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 
Nassau. — The action of the cit\- council the past win- 
ter in compelling the street railway here to operate its 



cars on runners simjih' that thosi' who (K'sired to ride in 
sleighs might be pleased, has resulted in the railroad com- 
pan\- canceling its orders for rails, and foi- the present de- 
ferring the extensions which tlu-v inlendi'd to make. 

NEW JERSEY. 

Camden.— The differences between the llmse Kailw ax- 
Co. and the Daft Motor Co. have been settled, and elec- 
tric cars on Market St. have resumed operations. 



Kevi'Ort. -The Keyport & Mattawan Street Rail- 
way has passed into new hands, and I'hoiiias .S. R. Brown 
has been elected President and ,\itluir L. Iiiown. .Sec"v. 
and Treas. Capital stock is $50,000. 



Jersey City. — The Jersey City & Bergen Railway has 
secured consent for the extension of its over-head wires 
to Cortlandt Ferry. It is a very much needed improve- 
ment. 

Trenton. — The Trenton Morse Railway Co. has 
been granted an extension of time to April ist, 1893, in 
which to build their electric railway, which the\- ha\e 
not been able to do thus far owing to injunctions. 



The Trenton Street Railway has been purchased by 
Boston and New York capitalists, on the basis of $125 
per share. The old company has been in exi.stencc for 
fifteen years and has never yet paid a dividend. The 
same syndicate will probabh' secure control of the Tren- 
ton Horse Railway Co., and the intention is to place elec- 
tricit\- upon the consolidated lines. 



NEW MEXICO. 

Aeberquerqite. — A company was organized lu'ie. 
April Sth, for the construction of an electric railwa\ . 



NEW YORK. 

Cortland. — A belt line four miles in length, to be 
iperated by horses, is being discussed. 



Jamestown. — Work on power house, car station and 
otlice building for the Jamestown Street Railwa\- has pro- 
gressed nicety, and it is now hoped to ha\e the line slartetl 
by the first of May. 

LocKi'ORT. — The scheme to connect Niagara Falls 
and Rochester with this city has more merit and backing 
than is generally supposed. The consent of farmers 
owning land along the road is being secured and already 
a very large proportion has been obtained. The road 
will do both freight and passenger business. 



Mt. Vernon. — The board of trustees have granted a 
franchise to the Vonkers, Mt. \'ernon. Pelham & New 
Rochelle Electric Railway. 



Ni.vgara Falls. — The Falls Surface Railway Co., of 
Niagara Falls and Suspension Bridge, has been incorpo- 
rated for $60,000. The road will be si.x miles long and 
connect the two towns. Among the directors are: John 
Mackay, James F. Murphev and Peter Porter, of Niagara 
Falls: O. E. Dunla^■. Konrad Fink and Wm. A. Frazer, 
of Suspension Bridge: and James F. Gluck, of Buffalo. 



154 



OuEAN. — The Street Railway Co. here has decided to 
chan<je to electricity. 



Syracuse. — The Consolidated Street Railway has 
made application for a franchise to extend its Fifth Ward 
line, which is greatly desired by the citizens residing in 
that district. 



Syracuse. — The People's Railway Co. of this city 
haye made application for a permit to use electricity as 
its motiye power. 

Troy. — Track work is progressing nicely on the line 
to Albia. It has now been fulh' determined to make the 
line an electric one. 



Ransomyille. — It has been decided to haye the elec- 
tric railway from Rochester to Lewiston run along the 
ridge road to Wright's Corners, thence to this place, to 
Youngstown and Lewiston. Work on the Lewiston 
and Youngstown branch will begin immediately. 



West Chester. — The Harlem Bridge, Morrisianna 
& Fordham Railway Co., haye been granted consent to 
substitute electricity for horses. It is considered a great 
yictory, and no time will be lost pushing the work, and 
it is hoped to haye the cars in operation within ninety 
days. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

Wilmington. — The City Railway Co. haye resumed 
the construction of their new line on Monroe street, and 
the prospect is that this cit}- will be yery thoroughl\- 
coyered within a year by the yarious lines which are now- 
planned. 

OHIO. 

Canton. — The Electric Street R"y Syndicate of Toledo 
will undoubtedly purchase the lines in this cit\-. The 
company here has been yery successful, and since last 
May haye paid $13,000 interest and $6,000 in diyidends. 



A SCHEME is on foot to connect this place with Massi- 
lon by an electric railway. 



Cincinnati. — George Horgung, consulting engineer of 
the Mt. Auburn Electric R'}-., is preparing plans for an 
extensiye power plant to be erected at St. Bernard, 



The Mt. Adams & Eden Park Inclined R'y. will relay 
a large amount of track this summer and also construct 
seyeral new lines. 

Dayton. — The City Council haye granted an extension 
of twenty-fiye years to the franchise of the Oakwood 
Street R'y. 

East Liyerpool. — The construction of an electric 
street railwa}- here is an assured fact. It cannot fail to 
proye a yery profitable investment. 

Sandusky. — The Citizens' Street Railway Co. has 
increased its capital stock to $150,000. 



The Consolidated Co. has in contemplation a number 
of lines with double track. The electric line on the east 
side will be extended to Ironville, and the Oak Street line 
to the works of the Smith Bridge Co. 

The Toledo Electric Street Railway has increased its 
capital stock from $600,000 to $800,000. 

Youngstown. — The Electric line here is nearly com- 
peted, and will be opened about the first of May. 
Construction work will then commence on the line to 
Haselton, material for which is already contracted. It 
is now intended to build a line to the fair grounds this 
summer. 

OREGON. 

Portland. — A company has been formed to build an 
electric line to connect this city with Oregon City, which 
is fifteen miles distant. 

Wa\erly. — J. W. Campbell and others have filled 
articles of incorporation for the Waverly, Woodstock 
Electric Railway Co. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Allentown. — An ordinance giving the street railway 
permission to dispense with horses and substitute electric- 
ity passed the City Council unanimously. The road now 
passes into the hands of Boston parties, and contracts are 
being let. This road will be connected with the proposed 
line to Bethlehem. 

Ashland. — All the right of waj- has been obtained 
for an electric line, which is unanimously endorsed by the 
citizens. It has not yet been fully decided that the line 
will be built. 



Bethlehem. — Contracts for an electric road to Allen- 
town have been let, and most of the material is already on 
the ground. There will be a power plant in Bethlehem 
and another in Allentown. Cars will be run at the rate 
of twenty miles per hour. 

Br.\ddock. — The Braddock Electric Railwaj- Co. are 
erecting a handsome power house for their new line from 
North Braddock to Copeland Station. 

Du Bois. — The Council has granted an ordinance for 
the proposed electric railwa\', which has ever\- indication 
of success. 

Greenburg. — The Electric Line is being extended to 
Iloff Station and later on will o-o still farther. 



East Harrisburg. — The East Harrisburg Passenger 
Railwaj^ Co. is now letting contracts for the con\ersion of 
its tracks into an electric one. 



Toledo. — The Toledo Electric Railwav has been 
petitioned to extend its i>ancroft line to Auburn avenue. 



Harrisburg. — The East Harrisburg Railway Co. b\- 
a vote of 1,697 out of the 2,500 shares has been leased to 
the Harrisburg Street Passenger Co. As soon as the 
consolidation has been completed the question of extension 
and equipping of both lines with electricity will be taken up. 

Lancaster. — The West End Street Railway Co. has 
just filed a mortgage for $225,000 with the Atlantic 
Trust Co. of New York, for the purpose of raising money 
to make extensions. 



.^- 



155 



MivDiA.- AVork i)ri till' iki'tric linr to (.omiecl this 
cilv with Chester will he coniiiK'iicccl in a few days. 
Most of the hids have now been placed. 

Mi;.\i)\ii,i,i';.— The organization of the Mead\ille h^lee- 
tiie Street Railwa\' has been ^lerfeeted with the election 
of the following olHccrs: F. V. Ray, president; Cyrus 
Kitihen, \ iee-president; '!'. A. McFarland, .secretary; J. 
.^. llotchkiss, treasurer. The outlook for liie plant seems 
ver\' hopeful. 

XoKKisTowN. — The company formed to operate the 
Citi/.en.s' Passenger Railway Co. by electricity, have 
secured control of the same. 



I'iTi"SBUR<;. — The Citizens' Traction Co. recently 
suffered the loss by fire of their East Liberty power 
house, including also a dozen cable cars. Loss $50,000. 

TiiK Duquesne Traction Co. ha\e nio\ ed their offices 
from the Freehold bank to the car house on Neville 
street. It is now believed the road will not be in opera- 
tion until July ist. 

RiCADiNc;. — The Street Passenger Railway has obtained 
jiermi.ssion to extend its tracks on Sixth street and on 
iiern street. 



Rkvnoi.dton. — The power house will be placed here 
between the river and the railroad b\- the McKeesport 
Street Railway Co. 



Wii.KKSBARRE. — Morgan B. Williams has been elected 
president of the Suburban road, to fill the vacancy caused 
In the resi<fnation of Mr. Hollenbeck. 



WicsTciiESTER. — The Electric Street Railwa} wil 
shortly commence the erection of a nice dejiot hiulding 
lis car house is nearly completed. 



^ oRK. — The York Street Railway Co. has moved 
llu'ir otlice to 27 East Market street, in the Trust Com- 
pan\"s building. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Pr()\ IDK.NCE. — The railroad committee of the city 
council have approved the ti;olle3' system of street car 
ser\ice, and the Union Railroad Co. will undoubtedly 
secure their franchise for the construction of four miles. 
The light has been a long and bitter one, and the com- 
jiany are to be congratulated on their \ictory. 

Watch IIii.i,. — The Ocean View Railway will he built 
-some time this summer. Electricity is proposed. The 
road will be idle winters. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 
Charleston.— The West End R'y which is chartered 
to operate both freight and passenger cars by almost any 
kind of a motor, has petitioned the city council for 
franchise covering a large number of streets. 



TENNESSEE. 
CiiATTANOOcjA. -A petition which was circulated a part 
of (jne day, was signed by more than two-thirds of all the 
business men on Market street, asking the Chattanooga 
Electric Railway Co to build a line on that street. 

Business has increased so rapidly w ilh the Chaltatiooga 
Street Railway Co. that it has been obliged to order 
engines and boilers of 250-horse power, and a generator. 
They are expected to be deli\ered in sixty days. 

NASHyiLLE. — The differences between the United 
Electric Co. and the Maplewood Electric Co. have Iieen 
adjusted, and the last named company will proceed in the 
construction of an electric line to Maplewood. 

The Nashville Electric Railway & Power Co. have 
petitioned for additional franchises on a number of streets 
w hich they desire to build as extensions to their present 
system. 



TEXAS. 
Austin. — At a mass meeting in South Austin it was 
decided to construct an electric line to connect the two 
places. 

GALyESTON. — Col. Sinclair has granted the recpiest of 
a large number of his patrons and has abolished the sy.s- 
tem of street car tickets. 



Houston. — Work has been commenced on the new 
power liou.se of the Houston Cit}- Street Railw ay, and 
it is promised to be a very fine structure. 



TiiiiRi'; is e\ery indication that the electric line here, 
which includes 15 miles, will be in operation by May lolh. 



Victoria. — The street car line in the northern part 
of the city will be extended to Evergreen cemeter}-, a 
distance of a little less than one mile. 

UTAH. 

Eni)Er.son. — It is expected that work w ill commence 
in a few days on the electric railway. 



0(;i)EN. — The Ogden Street Railway Co. has been 
incorporated with a capital stock of $250,000, divided into 
2,500 shares, of which H. M. Beard.sley owns 2,496. 

Salt Lake City. — The Rapid Transit Railway Co. 
are now making an extension of their line of two and 
one-quarter miles. When it is finished it is claimed it 
will be the longest straight electric car line in the 
country. 



The Salt Lake City Railway Co. has now invested in 
its power house, tracks, cars, etc., $800,000, and now 
propose adding improvements which Avill cost $600,000. 

VIRGINIA. 

Bristol. — The directors of the horse railroad here are 
strongly inclined to change to electricity. 



•56 



WASHINGTON. 

CiiNTRAi.iA. — Mr. Xi\L-ns lia.s i;i\ lmi a bond for 
$10,000 for the faithful performance of the requirements 
of an ordinance under which he is to bu!!d a street rail- 
\va^•. 

Mii/roN. — The motor Hne between this place and 
Walla Walla is apparenth- an assured fact; $25,000 of 
local capital \\ ill join with New York parties to construct 
a line. 



talists are now negotiating with the lielt Line people for 
this road, and it is likelv the deal will be effected. 



(3lv.mi'ia. — A dummy or electric line is proposed to 
run to West Olvmpia. 

W. L. Russell, of Seattle, has petitioned for a fran- 
chise for a motor line for the West Side. Their intention 
is to put in a plant which will give a live minute ser\ice 
on three miles of road, and cost $250,000. 



The West Ohmpia Railway has been incorporated 
for the purpose of constructing an electric line to Butlers' 
Co\e. 



Spok.vne Falls. — The Spokane & University Heights 
Railway Co., of which Allen B. Garrett is president and 
general manager, will proceed to the construction of their 
lines immediately. They will use the over-head system. 
Mr. Garrett is a practical electrical engineer, one of the 
best known in the country, and, it is needless to say, will 
have a tirst-class line in all respects. 



Seattle. — The James Street Cable line, which was 
put in operation a few days ago, was completed in just 
se\en months. An electric wire is stretched in the con- 
duit and is used to light the cable cars. From the same 
power house power is also secured to operate the electric 
lines of the same company. Cable is used on the hill and 
electric lines bejond. It is intended to make further 
extensions soon. 

Tacoma. — The Tacoma Railwa}- & Motor Co. expect 
to have their new cable line in operation about June ist. 
It will require a rcjpe 10,000 feet long. J. II. Cummings, 
general manager of this company, has been in receipt of a 
number of letters threatening him with assassination. He 
was commander of a company of militia in Chicago at the 
time of the anarchists riots. The letters are supposed to 
be the work of some crank. 

Frank C. Ross of this city has secured what all others 
have hitherto failed to get, a right of way through the 
I'uyallup reservation. From this city to Puyallup a 
space 200 feet wide has been leased of the Indians, upon 
which an electric line will be built. This will be a strong 
competitor of the steam roads. 

AKK.XNCEMicN'rs have been made to lay one mile of the 
Wheeless Underground Electric Track in this city for the 
purpose of exhibiting the merits of the s\stem. 



An ordinance has been passed granting the Bell 
Line Electric Street Railway Company three months 
more time in which to complete its road. Tacoma capi- 



Whatco.nl — The electric street cars are now in success- 
ful operation, running the entire length of the line through 
the city, on Elk, 1 lolly and Thirteenth streets. The system 
is owned by Cornwall, Stenger & Co. 



WISCONSIN. 

R.vciNE. — The Belle City Railway Co. has petitioned 
the council for thirty days extension of time in which to 
accept its franchise. 

Milwaukee. — Henry Villard who is now en route to 
Europe will place a loan of $10,000,000 on his Milwaukee 
Street Railway property. 



Washington Becker promises to push his electric 
lines to the present city limits and Athletic Park, and 
may also extend his line into the heart of Williamsburg. 
His Washington avenue line will be extended to North 



On Ma}' ist the offices of the Milwaukee City and 
Cream City Railway companies will be transferred to the 
general offices of the Villard syndicate in the Colby and 
Abbott building. 

George Kuechle, cashier of the Cream City Railway 
Co. for a number years, has resigned. 



The West Side Railroad Co., which is known as tiie 
Becker Lines, has filed a trust deed securing one million 
dollars of bonds, one-half of which it is proposed to use in 
the construction work in the near future. 



In the fight for the possession of the Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railway Co., the court has issued a temporary 
injunction restraining Messrs. Vogel & Pfister from dis- 
posing of their stock. 



" Laugh and Grow Fat " 

IS a wise old saw; yei the close confinement of winter 
tells even on the merriest. For an agreeable change 
go to Hot Springs, Ark. The Wabash is the Hot 
Springs Line. Compartment sleepers Chicago to St. 
Louis, where direct connection is made morning and 
evening with through sleepers to Hot Springs. Sleeping 
car berths through from Chicago reserved in advance. 



"The Broomstick System " may be an intensely humor- 
ous term in the ears of some people, but it's a sort of 
sweepei' that seems to have made a pretty clean and 
thorough job of it wherever it has gone. 



The question of placing electric poles in the centre of 
the street is receiving considerable attention in a number 
of large cities throughout the country. There are many 
advantages in favor of the change. 



157 



ECHOES FROM THE TRADE. 



Pullman Co. have received the order for cars to ^\\u\\^ 
the new electric line at Kankakee, 111. 



Tmk Illinois Stkkl Co. ha.s secured a lar^^e contract 
for 54-]i()und rails for the iSrilwaukec Slret'l Kailway, ol 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 



Till'. L'mon Dkhknturk Co. of 'i'renton, M. J., has 
been incorporated, with a capital stock of $100,000, for 
the purpose of constructing a street railway. 

Wi;sriN(;iioisic Electric Mfg. Co. have secured the 
order for the motors and generators for the Kankakee, 
111., electric line, and the equipment of sixty cars on the 
Memphis line. 

C. K. Sakcent, general selling agent for the Ide 
eiiginis, w ith office at 89 Lake street, Chicago, reports a 
\ er\' large demand for their engines, especially in Chicago, 
in which city alone thev have now sevent\'-six engines in 
operation. 

\V.\L I). ^VILLL\.^r.s, western agent of the \'ose Com- 
jianv, has remembered us with a handsome nickel plated 
jiaper weight, which is a minature spring complete. In 
fact it has such a good spring we have hard work to keep 
it on our desk when visitors call. 



TiiK Illinois Electric Material Co. are now 
nicelv located at their new store, 15S Fifth avenue. Thev 
have \er\' elegant quarters on the ground floor. Thev 
ha\e equipped with an unusually large stock and are 
giving special attention to street railway work. 



The Tuu;mi'ii Compound Engine Co., of Cincinnati, 
report business for electric work increasing with them. 
This engine has just been specified for the new electric 
line at Beatrice, Neb., and is being carefully examined 
by a great many street railway men wanting high speed 
enifines. 



The Ellis Car Co. of Amesbury, Mass., are very 
full of orders, having recently received orders from Grand 
Rapids, Mich., Newton, Ilolyoke, Salem, Mass., and 
West End R'y Co. of Boston. This being the second 
order recei\ed from the last named compan\' within a 
short time. 



C. E. Loss & Co., contractors for construction and equip- 
ment of electric roads, at 113 Monroe street, Chicago, have 
closed a contract with the Kankakee Electric R"y Co., for 
the construction and furnishing of all material for their 
new track. Work will begin April :5th. and be pushed 
as fast as possible. 

TiiK (iRKAT Western Electric Sli'I'lv Co., 190 
Fifth avenue, Chicago, have just issued catalogue Xo. 4, 
devoted exclusively to their electric and combination fixt- 
ures and shades, of which they have an exhaustless and 
endless variety, suited to every purpose from a car house 
to general otlice or mansion. 



Till-: Stanwooi) Manukacturing Co., of Chicago, is 
mailing to its friends among the street railway men a very 
handsome catalogue, printed on heavy enameled paper 
and containing abundant illustrations of the many styles 
of car steps and devices for fasti-ning the same to ]ilat- 
forms, which they manufacture. 



Till': Hazard Manufacturing Co., of Wilkes Barre, 
Pa., have just furnished a cable for the Metrojiolitan 
Street Railway, of Kansas City, of ij\ inches in diameter 
and 32,300 feet in length. This is the longest cable ever 
made in this country, of that diameter, for cable service, 
and w ill be put in use on the Eighteenth Street line. 



The Milliken Patent Pole, manufactured b\- the 
Milliken Bros., 59 Dearborn street, Chicago, and 55 I^ib- 
erty' street, New York, is handsomely* illustrated in a \ery 
attractive thirty^-two page catalogue, which shows the 
various applications of their poles, both at the side and in 
the centre of the street. It makes a prett\' souvenir for 
office desk or table. 

Trans-Missouri Electrical Construction and 
Heating Comp.\ny, of Lincoln, Neb., are stirring in the 
West in the interest of the Baxter Motor Co., for which 
they are agents, in addition to contracting for the entire 
construction and equipment of electric roads. They are 
now building a road in Beatrice, that State, which will be 
a model road in every respect. 

The McGuire Mfg. Co. are as full of orders as ever, 
having received orders for their trucks from two lines at 
Lincoln, Neb.; two lines at Rockford, 111.: for those at 
Sandusky, Ohio, Hamilton, Ohio, Denver & Suburban 
R'y, Denver, Colo., Kankakee, 111., and also equipped the 
New Thompson & Houston line at Springfield, 111., be- 
sides numerous other orders from different parts of the 
country. 



The Electrical Supply Co., of Chicago, is handling 
the "Anderson " devices for electric railway overhead con- 
struction. These goods are substantially made and their 
insulating qualities are of a high order. In the " trolley 
wire hanger '' and the " curve pull off '" contact with the 
trolley wire is made by mechanical means, and the use of 
solder is avoided. These goods are worth investigation 
by those contemplating railroad construction, or who 
already have lines in operation. 



Till-; GoiLD & W.VTSON Co., who ha\e recently opened 
a salesroom at 170 Washington street, Chicago, under 
the management of Mr. R. B. Pierpont, have found this 
a very important field for them, and find their quarters 
entirely too small to properly display their \ery large 
line of goods manufactured for electric street railways: 
so have leased new otfices in the Northern Building, at 
the corner of La Salle and Lake streets, where the}' will 
be glad to receive all western street railway men when 
in this cit\". 



158 



The Ball Engine Co., at Erie, Pa., report business 
as active as usual, having had inquiries from street rail- 
way companies from all parts of the country, for their 
high speed engines, and the outlook is that this will be 
the largest year for business that they have yet had. 
They have shipped a 300 H. P. triple expansion engine 
to the Rochester Street R'y, at Rochester, N. Y., and a 
200 H. P. compound condensing engine to the Buffalo 
Street R'v Co., and have many orders under way. 



The Meaker Manufacturing Co. whose registers 
are so well known, have decided to move their extensive 
manufacturing plant to Chicago. Thej- have secured 
two entire floors in the large building at the corner of 
Union and Washington streets, where they will have 
ample,facilities. They will bring their workmen with them 
and will find this citj- a more central distributing point, 
especiallv for their far west business. The general office 
of the company will on Maj- ist occupy commodious 
rooms in the new factory and the work of removing the 
machinerv from the East will be commence about June i . 



Burton Heater Co. — This company at its annual 
meeting at Richmond, Va., a few days since, made a 
splendid showing for the year, and reported a large num- 
ber of orders already received for ne\-t winter. It also 
made a most wise selection in electing as president, Mr. 
W. R. Mason, the well-known general manager of the 
Electric Merchandise Co. of this city, and under his direc- 
tion the street railwa}' men maj' expect to become fully 
informed of the merits of this excellent heater. The 
other officers are : W. J. Johnson, who is president of a 
Cincinnati bank, as vice-president; C. E. Wings, treas- 
urer: A. Pizzini, secretary, and W. Leigh Burton, super- 
intendent, Richmond. 

R. T. White, of Boston, of "Daisy Chair" fame, re- 
ports trade veiy good with his chair as well as the rails, 
lie has recentlv made preparations wherebj- he may give 
his extensive trade throughout the country more care, by 
appointing agents in a number of different cities. Those 
who have already taken the general selling agency of 
these chairs are, W. D. Thomas, 141 Byran street, Savan- 
nah, Ga., southern agents; D. E. Garrison, Laclede 
building, St. Louis, southwestern agent: Great Western 
Supplv Co. of Chicago, northwestern agents. With a 
force of representatives so well known to the street 
railwa\' people as these men are, Mr. White may look 
for a verv large and increasing business. 



The Lamokin C.\r Works, Chester, Pa., are busier 
than ever, and, among recent shipments made, report the 
following: To the Derby, Birmingham & Ansonia Electric 
Railwav, two handsome z/s-a-r/s open car bodies for 
motors: to the Chester Street RaiUvaj-, Chester, Pa., two 
elegant, closed, 16-foot horse cars; to the Citj- Passenger 
Railway, Trenton, N. J., six vestibule car bodies. Among 
orders received during the past week are : Two open trail 
cars for the Salem (Ohio) Electric Street Railway, being 
a supplemental order: also six 26-foot electric cars to be 



mounted on Robinson Radial Trucks: six 16-foot closed 
cars and six open motor cars for the Rock Creek Rail- 
w a\- Co., of Washington, D. C. They are also building 
thirty 16-foot closed cars for the Lincoln Electric Street 
Railwav, Lincoln, Neb.; twenty cars for the Denver 
Suburban Electric Railway, Denver, Colo.; six vestibule 
cars for the Wilmington Electric Railway, Wilmington. 



A Possibility in Street Cars. 




Conductor. — "Move forward.' 



The Electrical Supply Co. of this citj- have, on 
account of the large increase in their business, found it 
necessarv to move to more commodious quarters. There- 
fore have leased a large double building on Randolph 
street, at the corner of Michigan avenue, where they will 
fit up a very fine line of offices and have more room for 
their large and increasing trade. At their present quar- 
ters their street car department, which has become a 
large part of their business, has been partially side- 
tracked for want of more office and show room. At the 
new headquarters this department will have a prominent 
part, and make one of the finest displa3-s seen in this 
countrv. They expect to be located in their new quarters 
bv July I St. 




"Please." — Puck. 

The Short Electric Co., have recently closed a 
contract with the Lincoln Street Railway Co., Lincoln, 
Nebraska, for twenty car equipments and forty standard 
motors, and this order will be followed by an installment 
of a large number of the new gearless motors. The}- 
have also closed a contract with the West End Street 
Railwa}-, of Rockford, 111., for three car equipments, six 
standard motors, and one 8o-horse-power generator, and 
for the overhead construction work for four and one-half 
miles. A third order from the South Covington & Cin- 
cinnati Street Railway is for eight car equipments, sixteen 
standard motors and two 125-horse-power generators, 
and is a strong illustration of the satisfaction the Short 
equipment is giving there. 



ilihwl ^«i»^ %^^»^ 



159 



Tiiic WooDHKiixji'. & Tium:r En(;ini;i:i{im; Co. is 
the name of the new or<r;mizatioii to succeed Woodhridj^e 
and Turner, well-known engineers and contractors of New 
\'()rk. The otllcers of the new company will be: Win. 
S. 'I'urner, president, Geo. A. Bell, vice-president, (t. 1>. 




Had Grip, eh.' Well they say il does nip folks mighty sudden. 15ut 
I know how to take care of myself, — never yet had an attack — 

Woodbridge, secretary and treasurer. The company are 
now nicely located in the Times building, and are pre- 
pared to do all kinds of con.struction and equipping of 
fleclrie rail\\a\s. This company has long been in the 
electric contracting business, and are well known among 




— But he had one then, and the symptoms all appeared at once. 

the electric street railways of the East. They have also 
opened another otlice in the Rookerv building at Chicago. 
under the management of F. D. Turner, who will look 
after their increasing business throughout the West. 

Ei.MER Morton has been elected superintendent of the 
Gloucester (Ma.ss.) Street Railwav. 



Good Enough for Street Railway Magnates. 
When a street railway man travels the best is none too 
good for him. Among the man\' desirable advantages 
which the Chicago, Milwaukee & .St. Paul R"\- offer, are 
the following: 

Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled Trains, with West- 
inghouse Air Signals, between Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis, 
daily. Through Parlor Cars on day trains between Chicago. St. Puul 
and Minneapolis. Electric Lighted and Steam Heated Vestibuled 
Trains between Chicago, Council Bluffs and Omaha, daily. 

Through Vestibuled .Sleeping Cars, Daily, between Chicago, Butte, 
Tacotna, Seattle, and Portland, Ore. 

irolid Trains between Chicago and principal points in Northern 
Wisconsin and the P.-ninsula of Michigan. 

Daily trains between St. Paul, Minneapolis and Kansas City via the 
Iledrick Route. Through Sleeping Cars daily between St. Louis, St. 
Paul and Minneapolis. 

The finest Dining Cars in the World. The Best Sleeping Cars_ 
Electric Reading Lamps in Berths. 

6,100 miles of road in Illinois, Wisconsin, Northern Michigan, Iowa, 
Minnesota, Missouri, South Dakota and North Dakota. 

Everything First-Class. First-Class People patronize First-Class 
Lines. 

Tickets Agents everywhere sell Tickets over the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee and St. Paul Railway. 

PERSONALS. 

R. T. Garth has been appointed purchasing agent 
and A. J. Hough, auditor of the Chicago Cit\- R'v. Co. 

J. E. Morris, secretaiy of the Bargion Rail Co. of San 
Francisco, is in the citv and has fa\ ored us with se\eral 
calls. 



Edward Siikpard has been elected general manager 
of the Madison Street and Front Street cable railways, 
Seattle. 

F. H. SoDEN, the electrical engineer of this citv, is 
recovering from a four week's attack of la grippe and 
iineumonia that was almost fatal. 



C. A. HoAGL.VND, general agent of John II. (jrahani dt 
Co., New York, was a caller at our ollice. He is here in 
the interests of their new departure bell. 



Cii.vs. N.\(;l, Superintendent West Chicago Street I^'v 
has been dangerouslv ill with the grippe, and has barelv 
succeeeed in pulling through though still quite weak. 



F Ai'i. W. I)Os.s.\RT, recentlv of Kansas Citv has 
accepted the western agencv of the Short Electric Com- 
|ianv, and will make his headquarters at Denver. 



John C. Bridcjem.an, of the Hazard Manufacturing Co., 
whose wire ropes for cable roads are .so generalh' used, 
was a welcome visitor at our office while on his western 

trip. 

James F. Pe.wv, president, and James E. Bogg, 
director of the Sioux City Railway Co., are in the citv. 
Yesterda\' they ordered twentv new cars from the Pull- 
mans, and steel girder rails from the Johnson Co., for 
twelve miles of track. Thev are accompanied h\ J. X. 
I5rand.s, a well-known newspaper man of that cit\-, who 
completes a trio most agreeable to meet. 



i6o 



OBITUARY. 



CHARLES MUNSON. 

ON March 2ist, at his residence, No. 46 Park avenue, 
in this cit}-, occurred the death of Charles Munson 
w ho, as the head and founder of the Munson Belting Com- 
pan}- was known throughout the countrj-. He had been 
unwell several weeks, and though confined to his house 
was thought to be in no great danger, until heart trouble 
suddenly set in with fatal results. He leaves two sons, and 
one daughter, Miss Clara Munson, who has been studj'ing 
music in Berlin for two years past, and who was called 
honu' durintr her father's illness. 




Mr. Munson came here in i860 and had lived to see 
the city grow from 150,000 inhabitants to almost ten times 
that numbsr. In 1S64 he established in a small beginning 
the belting company which is now second to none in the 
country. Two years ago he formed a stock company, 
and though president, did not endeavor to devote an}' con- 
siderable amount of time to it, traveling considerablv, a 
portion of which was abroad. 

His associates in the conduct of the business were 
E. A. Groetzinger, secretary, and B. F. Horsting. 
treasurer. He was a member of the Illinois Club, an 
attendant on the Methodist church in Evanston, where he 
resided for many years, a far sighted business man of the 
most unquestioned integrity, and a man possessing an 
unusually large circle of friends. lie lea\es an estate of 
$500,000. 

JAMES 1$. WUICHT. 

ON April 5th, in Chicago, James B. Wright, who for 
five vears has been the master mechanic of the 
Chicago City Railway Co., died from the prevailing la 
grippe, which has been so fatal of late. He was a superior 
car builder, and during his connection with the comjianv 



had devised a number of impro\ements in car building. 
His parents were both dead, his father ha\ing been for 
many years a Presbyterian clergyman in Scotland. He 
had no relatives on this side of the water, and it is not 
known whether his only brother is living. Mr. Wright 
was fiftv ^■ears of age, and the burial was at Rose 1 lill 
cemetery. 



WANTED. A position as Superintendent or General 
Manager, by a man thoroughly experienced in the running 
and management of Electric roads. Can furnish satisfac- 
tory references. Address, C. J. W., care Street Railway 
Beview. 

STREET RAILWAY FOR SALE.— In a live western 
manufacturing city of 25,000 people. Dividend paid in 
18yO, six thousand dollars. The right to use electricity. 
Charter has 88 years to run. Price $75,000. 

Address H, care Street Railway Review Oflace. 

rOR SALE. On account of having adopted Electricity, 
we offer for sale, 80 tons, 16 lb. to the yard Rail, 6 Cars, 
30 Horses. Will sell cheap. 

Charlotte Consolidated Street Railway, 

Charlotte, N. C. 

WANTED. An Electric Street R'y Co., who are newly 
equipped or extending their lines, can secure the services 
of a gentleman with several years experience with horse 
and cable companies; experienced in outside as well as 
office work. Best of references. Address, Engineer, care 
this office. 

Electric Railways. 

C. E. LOSS & CO., 

11 3 3\ff orxroe Stx*eet, 

CHICAGO. 



Contract for the T^uilding and Complete Equip- 
ment of Electric Railways. 

Correspondence Solicited. References Furnished. 

THE HALE &KILBURNMFG.GO. 



STREET CAR SEATS, 

Made with or without Springs. Covered in CARPET, PLtJSH or 
HATTAN. 

OUR NEW ELASTIC SLAT SPRING SEAT IS THE CHEAPEST AND 
MOST COMFORTABLE WOODEN SEAT EVER MADE. 

Our C'elobrated Steel Top ^tpi-ing; jiiieetions used in Upholstering 



THE BEST I 



lOR COMFORT. 
FOIl DURABILITY. 
FOR APPEARANCE. 
Hundreds of References. Thousands in Use. Estimates and 
Particulars chcerfiillv furnished. 




i6i 




II OF KAfll MONTH BY 



THE STREET RAILWAY REVIEW PUBLISHING COMPANY, 



334 DEARBORN ST., 

, II. WINDSOR, President. 



■ CHICAGO. 

F. L. KENFIELD, Secretary. 



SUBSCRIPTION, 



- ONE DOLLAR. 



A,Ur,ss nil Commiinicalions and Remillancis to The Street Railway Review, 
L'axton Buildiiiff, 334 Dearborn Street, Chicatro. 

H. H. WINDSOR, F- L. KENFIELD, 

Editor. Business Manager. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

We coriliallv invite correspondence on all suljjeits of interest to tliose ens.igcd 
in :iny bninch of Street Railway work, and will gratefully appreciate any marked 
copies of papers ornews items our street railway friends may send us, pertaining 
either to companies or officers. Address: 

THE STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 

334 Dearborn Street, Chicago 

Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 



VOL. 1. 



MAY. 



NO. .5 



We will pay •I.'i.OO for the best article by any person 
nt'caffeU in Street Kiiil\\'a,>' ^\'ork. on 

"The IteNt Method bj- nil i<-li ai^treet Itailway may conduct a 
r«reel Melivery Serviee." 

Artiele nioHt not be less than 1,000 nor more than SS.300 n'ords 
in lensth. and decision n-ill be rendered in favor of tlie most 
prartioal and complete plan, ratlier than for literary qoalities. 

Manuscript most reach this office on or before June 13th. 



SUM.MER cars which are something new on the lines of 
the Pittsburg Traction Company are proviiii^ very 
poinilar. C^n a recent Sunday one car carried o\er 1,200 
passengers. 

'T^iirc arbitrators who were appointed to fix the value (jf 
• the Toronto Street Railway Company's property, 
which has now reverted to the city, named the sum of 
$1,500,000, whicii is $4,000,000 less than the company 
asked. 



|V|i;w York and Brooklyn are about as full of street 
' ' railway plans as they can hold. What w ith some 
twenty rapid transit schemes, a half dozen projected cable 
roiids and the trolley knocking at the city gates, people 
do not lack for hopes of great things in the near future. 



'piii': owners of the electric railway in Augusta, Ga., 
wisely made a large purchase of outlying real estate 
before they built their road. Of course the property has 
greatly increased in value, and by this sagacious mo\e 
the company will receive a considerable return of the cost 
of the road. President Dyer now offers free transporta- 
tion for two years to parties who purchase lots of the 
company ;ind build thereon within a limited time. 



/^iK eastern readers especially, will better understand the 
^^ allusion in our last number when in referring to "Mr. 
bugene Burke, the well-known law} er," as a member of 
the Rapid Transit commission, thev read this correction. 



The gentleniim who has rendered such faithful and valued 
service as comnii.ssioner is Mr. Eugene Bu.she, and having 
said this, it is iilmost unnecessary to add the uiime of his 
profession. 

"T^mi: ad\antages of electric cars are by no means conlined 

* to the question of rapid transit alone. One of the 
latest departures is the plan now under consideration by 
the post-ottice department for placing boxes for the 
collection of mail on all the electric cars in the city of 
Buffalo. Tile postmaster there has strongly urged the 
adoption of the plan, which is now in general use in 
Berlin, where the street railwiiy .system centers near the 
post-otlice. 

PRESIDENT Yerkes, of the Chicago West Side Street 
^ Car Companv-, has offered prizes to the conductors and 
drivers who make the best show in personal appearance 
and uniforms from May ist to September ist. One prize 
is ten days parole with full pay and railroad fare to anv 
part of the country and return for the winner and famih . 
The other a five day's parole with the same transporta- 
tion privileges. There will be some active competition 
on the part of the boys to secure these valuable prizes. 

•-pHE conflagration at Scranton, Pa., which in three hours 

* wiped out the entire motor car equipment and the 
car house in which it was stored, should be taken home 
by eveiy street railway manager. A careless employe 
entering the oil house at midnight allowed his cap-lamp 
to touch off the dames that entailed a loss to his company 
of some $200,000. No amount of care will give the 
security offered by a strictly fire proof oil house. If it 
cannot be a seperate building of lire proof material, then 
it should at least be thoroughly protected. 



T-iHi census othce has issued a bulletin show ing the rela- 
* ti\e economy of cable, electric and animal motive 
power for street railways. The statement is prepared by 
Mr. Charles H. Cooley, under the super\ ision of Henry 
C. Adams, special agent for transportation. The bulletin 
covers statistics of fifty roads, of which ten are operated 
b\- cable, ten by electricity and thirty by animal power. 
The operative expense per car per mile varies on cable 
roads, from 9.39 cents to 21.91 cents; on electric roads, 
from 8.34 cents to 36.04 cents; and on animal roads, from 
9.10 cents to 27.02 cents. 

IN Scranton, Pa., they delight to call their city "The 
1 Electric City." The extension of the electric railway 
lines to adjoining towns and settlements has iTad a 
most astonishing effect in enlarging the volume of busi- 
ness. Where formerly people came in to trade once in 
four weeks, now they come regularly twice every \yeek. 
This practicall}- gives the residents of outlying and cheap 
property the advantages of the city for trade and amuse- 
ment. So profitable have the merchants found the addi- 
tional trade that man}- of them furnish the transportation 
both ways for those who come in to trade: while the 
delivery of goods to neighboring towns by the electric 
lines has proved a great advance over the old method of 
horses and delivery wagons. 



l62 



PENNSYLVANIA shows good progress in street railway 
construction during the last two years. At the pre- 
sent time there are i6o companies with a total mileage of 
over 600 miles. On the horse lines 10,712 horses are 
employed, which is practicaDy the same number which 
were in use a year ago. This taken in connection with 
the fact that there has been a large increase in track 
building shows that horses, as a motive power are being 
rapidly superceeded by electric and cable systems. Dur- 
ing the year 225,000,000 passengers were carried, an in- 
crease of 29,000,000 over the year previous. 



\ 1 nxH the view, probabh^ of removing all doubts as to 
" ' the power of the provincial government to authorize 
tiie Ottawa Electric Street Railway Company to lay tracks 
across the lines of the existing company, Mr. Robillard 
has introduced in the Ontario assembly an act providing 
that the tracks of any street railway company incorpor- 
ated before February 1883 may be crossed by the line of 
railway of any other street railway company, if authority 
therefore is given by order of the lieutenant-governor- 
in-councih such order to fix and determine the terms 
and conditions upon which the railwav may be so crossed. 



A \"ERY disasterous explosion occurred recently in St. 
^ Paul by which the fuel oil tanks of the Street Railway 
Company were destro^-ed. The accident was due to the 
carlessness of a steam fitter who was repairing a leak, 
and contrary to orders carried a lighted candle to aid him 
in discovering it. The burning oil shot into the air to a 
height of 150 feet, carrying with it several tons of brick 
and iron platings. The fire burned for several hours 
consuming some 15,000 gallons of oil. The unfortunate 
workman whose carelessness was the cause of the disaster 
was killed by the explosion and his bod}- burned in the 
flames. Travel on the electric lines was suspended for 
several hours. 

'T^HE electric road in San Francisco has traveled on a 
* stony road ever since it started, and recently its con- 
struction along a certain street was stopped by injunction. 
The legal battle lasted several hours and toward night 
the decision was in favor of the company. Profiting by 
past experiences, they waited not for another sun to shine, 
but putting on a force of several hundred men, worked 
all night and by daylight "the rapids were above them," 
and a well built road over which was suspended the 
trolley wire inviting the tired pedestrian to ride. The 
workmen were divided into thirty gangs and an armv of 
boys held lanterns, and the way the pavement came up 
and the rails went down was a great object lesson in 
"hustUng" to the rising generation. 



\i niiLE comparatively little is doing in construction 
' » work among steam roads, the activity continues with 
scared}- any abatement in street railway work. There 
are perhaps a less number of extraordinary large con- 
tracts on account of so many large companies having 
already been equipped, but the aggregated mileage of 
smaller cities is very large, and an even greater amount 
is pending the action of city councils. Added to this are 



the orders placed by companies which installed electricity 
last year who are now sorely in need of additional rolling 
stock by reason of increased business; and the more than 
usual amount of track to be relaid will unite to make the 
coming summer an intensely busv one for manufacturers 
and dealers in street railway supplies. 

FRO.M time to time there arises in one cit\- and another 
the question of allowing street railways the right to 
lay tracks into cit}' parks, and almost universall}^ the 
matter is settled b}' the companies being allowed to remain 
outside. It is just and proper to throw around public 
propertv all reasonable precautions against the occupation 
of public lands and buildings by persons or corporations 
who would use the same for private gain. But in very 
many cases the refusal to allow car tracks to enter the 
borders of a city park, seems to be actuated more by a 
strict and sometimes a strained construction of the law 
than sound judgment that the policy of the greatest good to 
the greatest number would dictate. The parks are for 
the people and the street railwavs more than all means 
combined makes possible the use of these oases in the 
dreary dust and noise of our modern citv life. It is not as 
though the railway company was a great personal gainer 
financially b}- the granting of the privilege asked, for it is 
not. It can and will bring the people to the edge of Jor- 
dan where thev must cross over for themselves, when they 
might just as well, and with great additional comfort, be 
landed a short distance within the grounds. In the case 
of the aged and infirm man}- are absolutely prevented 
from going at aU because they are unable to endure the 
walk from the terminus of a car line to the easy seat be- 
neath the trees, and we believe that greater liberaHty in 
this respect from the Park Commissioners, or those in 
whose hands the power is vested, toward the railway com- 
panies w'ould not be an abuse of public trust and would 
prove a blessing to the people. 

The companies do not ask permission to girdle the park, 
although it is a question open to discussion whether that 
even might not in many places be desirable, but it does 
seem as though the point might be strained a little, or the 
governing rules if necessary revised so the street railway 
might be allowed to fully complete its good service in this 
direction, and take its patrons, the public, not only to the 
park, but into it. 

THE New York Tribune mourns that at a recent session 
of the State Railroad Commissioners to consider 
the trolley system — "the opposition to this method of 
propelling street cars was not as strong and vigorous as 
w-as to be hoped," — and then truthfully confesses "It is 
hard to arouse public feeling in such a matter." It does 
seem a pity that the people should be so generally pleased 
with new- methods and impro\ed appliances, when such a 
gra\- headed old paper as the Tribune does not see fit for 
some reasons best known to itself to approve of such 
things. It is sad that the great indignant populace should 
have been conspicuous in masses by their absence at such 
a time. It is hard too, to have such a pronounced and 
unmistakable approval of its readers set upon the policy 
of a paper which has opposed this modern enterprise. It 



1 63 



sliows llic [lower of Uic press ;is a jfrcat moral failor to 
lead llie people as a victorious general leads his armies. 
Of course it cannot be tluit tlie Tribune has counted its 
own ]>ulse beat in mistake for tiuit of the public. No, it 
must liave been tiiat elevated trains were full, and the 
horse cars slow , and therefore llie populace did not arri\ e 
in time to lift u]i its \oice and weep according to the 
Triluinc formula. 

Till': New York Call thus reads the riot act to the 
young man who opened a window in a street car, and 
thereb\' caused the wind to blow through the dignified 
whiskers of its editor; and dubs the object of its wrath, 
"The window Hend." He says: "This is the time of 
the year when the fool-killer shouuld be sent out upon 
his rounds. The fool goes into the horse car, and raises 
the wiixlows, letting the draft blow upon passengers 
who ma\- be recovering from a severe cold. It never 
enters the head of this sort of an a.ss, that the death rate 
is just now remarkably high from colds and pulmonary 
diseases, and that extreme care is necessary to those 
who ma\' be recovering. Swine and cattle are 
not subject to illness from drafts, and consequenth- 
the window tiend is in no danger. But human 
beings are not draft proof and suffer in conse- 
quence of the hoggishness of these foolish ones. The 
horse railroad otlicials also, with brains dominated by the 
idea of large dividends, put out in service the open cars 
about three weeks before they should. Then the suffer- 
ing public is compelled to sit in them, shiver and become 
ill, and all because the managers will not use common 
sense." 

T^iii'; argument of President Whitney of Boston, before 
* the legislative committee on cities, which appears else- 
where in this issue, is worthy the careful perusal of all 
interested in street railway enterprises: and not only such, 
but those as w'ell who through a misunderstanding of the 
elements which are necessary to the be.st welfare of a 
city, believe the}' are serving its interests in their oppo- 
sition to corporate privileges. Mr. Whitney takes his 
te.xt from a few short words which, however, express a 
policy on which all true success of ever\' kind must rest: 
"If you lake away from indi\idual enterprise the just 
rewards of its labor, vou will discourage enterprise." 
And he makes a personal application of the doctrine 
when he says: "There would be nothing so unfortunate 
for this commonwealth as to discourage the spirit of 
enterprise to which the state of Massachusetts is indebted 
in tile past; and it is this upon which she must hereafter 
rely to .sustain herself in competition with industries in 
more favored localities and climates." We have in mind 
a bright little city in the West, to which eastern capitalists 
recently made overtures to equip it with a first class 
electric, street railway system. It was greatly needed, 
though generally conceded the investors could hope for 
no adequate returns for several years at least. But a few 
influential citizens who. though they could not furnish 
their city with rapid transit from their own resources, 
raised a great cry and created a public sentiment which 



resulted in the franchise, when linally granted, being so 
loaded with burdens that it sunk the sliip, and the men who 
would have invested $100,000 in the place, left in disgust 
and placed their investment in another town. The 
citizens now see their fatal mistake, but too late, and 
having rejected overtures which were only fair and eijuit- 
able, the\- will wait a long time before others can be 
interested in a place which works along such selfish, 
narrow lines. Combined capital can bring to successful 
achievement that which unorganized money and effort can- 
not even undertake. That man in the communit\- who 
talks the loudest about what the company should be 
required to give the town for the privilege of investing 
its money there, is the very one of all in that same place 
who will do the least for others, unless he is paid for it. 
lie is like the doctor who refused to move his hand to 
stay the flow of blood for a patient who was bleeding to 
death, until his fee was guaranteed: or the man who cut 
off all the branches of a fruit tree on the side next his 
neighbor's fence, for fear some limb might overhang the 
line and be plucked by other hands than his. The world 
is full of narrow-minded, selfish men, and the manager of 
a railway often feels as though they existed in an over- 
whelming majority. Such men are usually self appointed 
leaders, and fair minded people are too apt to be led into 
their path of error and injustice more through want of 
thought than through any real intention. 



HAD A BROTHER-IN-LAW. 

SEVERAL months ago the Metropolitan road in 
Kansas City, was obliged to discharge a number 
of conductors for "nickling," and at the same time 
an assistant superintendent named Patrick Kellum, who 
went to Den\er. There he succeeded in securing four- 
teen registers for the " Denver Quick Transit Co." The 
company never had an existence outside the vivid imagi- 
nation of Kellum, and the "quick transit" part of the 
performance was Kellum's speedy conviction and sentence 
for two years in the penitentiary, where he now resides. 

A number of the "brothers" found their wa}^ to Kan- 
sas City and were recovered. Recently Supt. McCarth\- 
suspected that the same scheme was again being worked, 
and put on a detective, who soon located the troublesome 
relative on conductor George O. Journey, who claimed to 
have received it from one Curtis, (supposed to be James 
H. Curtis, an ex-conductor of the Kansas City Cable.) 
When Journey was arrested, he handed over not only his 
" brother," but also his private account book, showing his 
receipts from that source to have been about $150, since 
November 5th, last. His method was to use the "brother" 
on his first round trip, which was early in the morning, 
and then deduct from all subsequent trips during the day 
a sufficient number of fares to show fairly good receipts 
for the first trip. A marked register was given him one 
morning, when it was easily discovered he was using 
another of the same make, and which proved to have been 
one stolen from the Kansas City Cable Road more than 
a year ago. The brother-in-law has caused more trouble 
in the railwa\' family than any mother-in-law ever did. 



164 



DON'T LIKE OUR STYLE. 

THIS paper is not given to sounding its own praises^ 
but when such kindly words of coir.mcndation as 
the following are received, we cannot refrain from 
ringing up a couple of fares or so on our private register. 
Here they are: — 

CALLI.Nc; NAMES. 

J. N. Stewart seems to have abandoned all hope of 
getting satisfaction for his wrongs ( .'l by way of the law, 
and has now^ taken to calling names. He has an article 
in the current number of the Street Railway Review 
that is a shameful slander on Judge Sherman and our 
council. Only in one w ay can Mr. Stewart's actions be 
accounted for. A commission in lunacv should investi- 
gate his case. — Evening yoitriuil, Ashtabula, O. 

A LIBELOUS ARTICLE. 

An article in the April number of the Street Rail- 
way Review slanders Judge Sherman and the council 
at Ashtabula most outrageousl}'. It is headed, " The 
'Ashtabula Horror,'" and reviews the J. N. Stewart street 
railway difficulties from the "street railway" side of the 
case. Attornevs say there is no question but that it is an 
out and out libel, and the publishers can be made to 
answer for it. There is no doubt of the source from 
which it originated. — Daily Beacon, Ashtabula, O. 

We are much obliged to our printer friends for their 
evidently well meant intentions, and which was doubtless 
the best they could do, though some folks might take 
exception and consider their remarks rather unpretty. 
However, we shall keep right on and when the time comes 
will give a sequel to this charming tale of injustice that 
may prove a big, double-geerless, high-speed pointer to 
the bob-tail glimmering of the Beacon and its companion, 
both of whom seem to have fallen into bad company and 
joined the party of injustice. 

Now is the time to subscribe — $1.00 per annum in 
advance. 



PERSONALS. 



The alarming extent of pneumonia in New York and. 
Brooklyn the latter part of April, and the early portion of 
this month, led to a request from the Health departments 
of those cities that the railway companies operate open 
cars only on days when the temperature stood at not less 
than 70 degrees in the shade, and on such days onlv, 
between the hours of 9 a. m. and 6 p. m., until May 15th. 
Warm weather will unquestionably solve the problem. 



We avail ourselves of the invitation extended to its 
friends, in a recent editorial of the Electrical Age, to 
e.xpress our modest opinion that once a month is quite 
frequent enough for a display of chromatic pyrotechnics. 
A chemical analysis of the stock from which their carmine 
ink is made, possibly might not prove it to be of the juice 
of the red sugar beet, and the blue, other than family 
blueing, such as is used on Mondays, but an inexperienced 
person should not be censured if he thought they were. 
It strikes us our friends in "getting out of a rut," have 
fallen into the tomato soup. 



T. A. Roberts has been made superintendent of the 
Augusta, Ga., Electric Railway. 

Henry Schnidler has been elected superintendent of 
the Newark and Granville, Ohio, electric road. 



Wm. p. Rayland, of Rome, New York, has been 
appointed manager of the Newburgh Street Railw;ij% 



A. H. Chadbourne, has taken the general agency of 
the Railway Department of the Westinghouse Company, 
at Philadelphia. 

George Poole, of Robert Poole & Son Company, 
Baltimore, the well known builders of cable plants, was a 
recent caller at our office. m 



President Brownell, of the Brovvnell Car Company 
spent several days in Chicago recently, making the 
Review office headquarters. 



C. E. Healy, inventor of the motor bearing his name, 
has been confined to his home in New London, Ohio, 
with illness for the past month. 



Geor(;e E. Pratt, general selling agent of the Lamo- 
kin Car Works, favored us with a call when in the city 
capturing the big Memphis order. 



O. W. Bronson, who has been president of the Mohawk 
& Ilion Street Railway for the past ten years, has resiged, 
and J. B. Rafter has been elected in his place. 



Thomas A. Edison is in the city in the interests of his 
exhibit for the World's Fair, and is having a decidedly 
busy time of it, between business and an arm\' of visitors. 



R. C. Garhart, well and favorably known as a former 
representative of the Westinghouse Electric Company, 
will represant the Short Company in general Eastern 
territory for the present. 



H. L. Norton has again accepted the position of 
secretaiT and general manager of the Meaker Manufac- 
turing Company and may be found at their new office. 
The railwaj' men will be pleased to see the genial features 
of the fjood natured secretary as once more. 



C. P. Jones, president of the Northern Car Company, 
at Minneapolis, has been in this city on business con- 
nected with his company. While here he made us a 
pleasant call. Mr. Jones reports their works over-run 
with orders that will carry them through the fall. 



S. D. Greene, formerly of the Edison General Electric 
Company, has been elected, and has accepted the position 
as consulting electrician of the Burton Electric Company. 
Mr. Greene has for a number of years taken a great 
interest in the heating of street cars by electricit)', and the 
company deems itself fortunate in having secured his 
services. 



^^I^ilw^^^ft^^ 



165 



SHALL NEW ISSUES OF STREET RAILWAY STOCK BE SOLD AT PUBLIC AUCTION? 



PRESIDENT HENRY M. WHITNEY, of the 
West End Road, IJoston, recenth- addressed the 
Massachusetts Legislative committee on cities; 
discussing the provisions of the hill from a stand- 
point ofpuhlic policy, Mr. Whitney said: 

hi the lirst part of the present session of the Legisla- 
ture, wearied with having continually to tight for the 
rights of our corporation, being met before every board 
and in every legislature with men who were seeking to 
prevent what I considered to be for the best interests of 
this community, I believed that perhaps the onl)' way to 
secure peace was to comply with the suggestion that 
slock should be sold at auction. I3ut, upon further con- 
sideration of this question, being brought face to face with 
it, in the actual results, which, as it seems to my mind, 
must follow, I am now opposed to it as a matter of public 
policv. And, being so opposed, I desire the time of this 
committee to state what I conceive to be the real public 
interest in question. 

And first, I desire to call vour attention to sec. 20 of 
chap. 116 of the Public Statutes of Massachusetts, page 
661, in reference to permitting investments of savings 
banks and institutions for sa\ings. Describing what 
investments they maj' make, it provides: 

"Third, in the first mortage bonds of anj- railroad 
company incorporated under the authority of tiny of the 
New England States, and whose road is located whollv 
or in part in the same, and which is in possession of and 
operating its own road, and has earned and paid regular 
dividends for the two years next preceding such invest- 
ment; or in the first mortage bonds, guaranteed by anv 
such railroad company or anv railroad company so incor- 
jiorated whose road is thus located: or in the bonds or 
notes of any railroad companv incorporated under the 
laws of the Commonwealth, and whose road is located 
wholly or in part therein, and is unincumbered bv mort- 
gage, and which has paid a dividend of not less than 5 per 
cent per annum for two years next preceding such invest- 
ment; or in the notes of an}- citizen of this Commonwealth, 
with a pledge as collateral of any of the aforesaid securities 
at no more than 80 per cent of the par \alue thereof; 
hut street railwav companies shall not be considered 
railroad companies within the meaning of this section." 

Now, it appears that the savings banks of this common- 
wealth are not permitted to invest even in the bonds of 
street railway companies: The state itself so far dis- 
credits e\ery security of the street railway, that they saj' 
that savings banks may not even loan mone)- on them. 

The same is true, so far as it relates to the stock of 
steam railroads. There is no savings banks in this com- 
monwealth which is permitted to invest in the stock of 
steam railroads, and only 80 per cent, is allowed if the 
bonds of the corporation are used as collateral. 

Now my proposition is this: if the state shall undertake 
to say how the stocks of these different corporations shall 
be disposed of. the y ought at least to remove the discredit 
which now hangs over themT'~ If thev' are not prepared 



to make these securities so safe that they will be willing 
that their own institutions shall invest in them, it seems to 
me that they ought not to insi.st upon the manner in which 
they shall be disposed of. 

Now, I had been content, as I said, in the earl\- part of 
the session, to accept the condition of things and to say 
that if this Commonwealth will permit .savings banks to 
invest in this propert}-, or will make them so secure that 
they can safely become an investment for savings banks, 
I, for one, wearied with all this struggle and contest that 
I am continuou.sU- compelled to wage, would be content 
to accept it for my people and let this be done. 

But, upon further consideration, I see how it is against 
public interest and public policy that it should be done. 
And I do not know that I can illustrate this point better 
than to tell j'ou exactly the history of the West End 
Street Railway Company, the corporation again.st which 
this is aimed. 

In 1 886, as Mr. Mellen has kindly informed vou, about 
15 men, ha\ing purchased a large tract of land in Brook- 
line which they desired to develop, organized the West 
End Street Railway Company. It was organized on a 
capital of $80,000. 

The West End Land Company had bought about five 
million and odd feet of land, and then the}- went to the 
town of Brookline and gave them 700,000 feet of land 
and $150,000 and laid out and widened Beacon street. 

Was any injustice done to anj- individual in the town of 
Brookline b}- it.' Did we not pa}- the full market value 
of the property? And because, by our enterprise and 
operations, we multiplied the value of that property five 
or ten fold, was any indi\idual wronged? 

Go to Brookline and ask the owners of property all 
along the line if they have suffered anything. Go to the 
town of Brookline itself, whose taxes collected along that 
line have been multiplied at least threefold, and ask them 
what is their opinion of that operation. 

We opened that territory to transportation. We 
took the real estate, which we bought at low prices, 
and we dedicated it to the uses of the street railway 
companw We took the property, that cost us what- 
ever you ma\- please, and we placed it behind this 
corporation at the time when it was absolutely neces- 
sar\- that some such propert}- should be there, in order 
to carry it through. 

What did this corporation then do? Seeing that it was 
advisable that these different railroad corporations should 
be consolidated, we bought sufhcient amounts of their 
stock to compel this consolidation. 

Now, this consolidation was in the interest of the city 
of Boston; and the owners of the West End Land Com- 
pany paid upwards of $5,000,000 for the stock of the old 
companies and lost on it from $1,000,000 to $1,500,000 
clean cash. 

I have charged in m\- own account to profit and loss 
for the purpose of bringing about this consolidation, a 
loss of $653,458.18. 



i66 



We bought the stocks at the market price, because we 
were compelled to do that in order to complete this con- 
solidation, and every man who was associated with me 
in that enterprise has borne his share of loss. The stocks 
cost us at the time of the consolidation about 105 or no, 
including interest and commissions and one thing and 
another, and to-da}- they are selling for 85. 

This consolidation could have been brought about in no 
other way, except b}' compulsory act of the Legislature 
and after innumerable years of delay and trial. 

I am not here complaining that either m3' friends or 
myself have suffered loss as the sum total of all these 
operations, but I say that it was to the enterprise of these 
fifteen men that this city is indebted, if it is indebted at 
all, for this consolidation, and if there had been upon 
j-our statute books at that time any such provision as it is 
now proposed to incorporate, that the stock should be 
sold at auction, it could never have been done. 

Now, the theor}' that the wider the stock is distributed 
the better the community are served, is a mistaken notion. 
Wherever a man's treasure is, there his heart is also. 
And I would prefer to have stock in a corporation that 
was managed b}- a few men with large interests, who 
give their attention to the business, than in one managed 
by men of small interest scattered throughout all this state. 

And that is the secret of the success of the manage- 
ment of any individual enterprise or corporation. 

The moral that I desire to point in this illustration is 
this: That, if j'ou take away from individual enterprise 
the just rewards of its labor, j'ou will discourage enter- 
prise. And, in my judgment, there would be nothing so 
unfortunate for this commonwealth as to discourage the 
spirit of enterprise to which the state of Massachusetts is 
indebted for her prosperity in the past; and it is this upon 
which she must hereafter rely to sustain herself in com- 
petition with industries in more favored localities and 
climates. 

I know from the manner in which these electric roads 
are being built throughout all this commonwealth that 
sooner or later these different corporations will be 
brought face to face with this same problem, and it is in 
the interest of this community that they should be encour- 
aged to consolidate, that they should be encouraged to 
spend money in the development of these transportation 
interests, and that they should ha\e the fullest scope and 
invitation to do it. 

The way in which this electric business is growing pre- 
supposes to my mind that the day is not far distant when, 
if one chooses to do so, he can travel almost from Boston 
to Portland by the electric system, and I do not know 
but clear through. And I can see how, if they are com- 
pelled to sell this stock at auction, it would discourace 
men who would otherwise work out this problem. 

Now what has been the result of this consolidation? 
What has been the result of the issue of stock as the law 
now is.'' Has any individual of this city suffered? 

What has the city done for us? Why, it has simplj- 
given us the opportunity to spend our money for the 
convenience and the benefit of the people. We give 



them better cars and better lighted cars; we carry them 
comfortably and farther. We pay greater taxes. In 
1885 the total tax paid by all these companies to the com- 
monwealth was $103,000. In the year 1890 it was 
$222,000. 

So it seems to me that it is unwise for the state to put 
upon its statute books a provision which will tend to dis- 
courage men of enterprise engaging in this or anj- other 
kindred undertaking. 

I do not believe that capitalists, even if they let j-ou 
have the money at 4 and 5 and 6 per cent will supply 
the place of enterprise. There is nothing that will supply- 
the place of that. And, mind you, capitalists do not 
come in and engage in these undertakings until the thing 
is an assured success. The men of enterprise come in 
and take all these chances for the purpose of carrying out 
their plans; and now that ours is made a success we are 
asked to forego a large part of the benefits. 

I sa}- that, in justice to the men that have stood bj- us 
from the beginning, and have brought about this consoli- 
dation, and have relieved the blockades, and have placed 
the street railway system of Boston and vicinity in the 
only position by which it could improve the ti'ansit — I say 
that those things, it seems to me, are entitled to recognition. 

And now one thing more, if the committee will pardon 
me, not directly addressed to this question. 

I am perfectly willing, so far as I am individual!}- con- 
cerned, that the stock should be scattered. 

The stock, I can assure you, gentlemen, is going out 
into the communitj-, and will not be retained for a verj- 
long time in the hands of the West End Land Company, 
whatever may be the result of this bill. 

But I desire to say to the committee this: That the 
time has come, in mj- judgment, when it is absolutely 
necessary for this committee and this Legislature to give 
permanenc)' of tenure to the street railway business in 
in order that it ma}' go on. The responsibility for carry- 
ing this burden has shifted from my shoulders to yours. 
If this Legislature and this community are not content that 
the investments made in the street railway business shall 
be secure and permanent, then no more investments will 
be made and the development must stop. 

It is for you, gentlemen, sitting in your capacity, who 
have heard this discussion from beginning to end, to decide 
what shall be done. We are endeavoring to improve the 
transit facilities as rapidly as possible, and have spent, and 
are spending, large sums of money to this end; but, if in 
high places it is claimed that we have no rights that can- 
not at any time be taken away, if we are to have no 
security for these investments, I can do nothing more. 

I, therefore, appeal to this committee, as they desire to 
have these privileges extended quickly, that they shall 
report some bill under which the investments made in this 
property can be felt to be secure. That is the first step. 
And I think that I have asked only what is reasonable, 
that you shall give us a period of fifty }ears within which 
we shall not be disturbed. 

And I ask it not more in the interest of my corporation 
than in the interest of the comMUlnit^■. 



167 



RAPID TRANSIT IN NEW YORK CITY. 

(concluded.) 

BY T. G. GRIUULE, CONSULTING ENGINEER TO THE AMERICAN PERMANENT WAY COMPANY, AND AUTHOR OF 

"PRELIMINARY SURVEY AND ESTIMATES." 



AS already stated in our previous article, the com- 
mission is empowered to settle upon a route or 
routes and the best method of construction for 
one or more lines of railway through the city. 
The whole problem naturally divides itself into external 
and internal means of communication. It is only by treat- 
ing the matter with the comprehensiveness which is 
demanded by the future development of the city, that an 
adequate solution can be reached. If the municipal 



meeting at Whitehall street, and a third tunnel taking as 
nearly as possible a bee line for the Grand Central, and 
ha\ing an elevator and exchange gallery in the tunnel to 
connect the arrival and departure platforms. The New 
York Central depot is arranged in the opposite way to 
ordinary American depots, and the exchange gallery 
would have to be arranged so that the arrival of the one 
line could cross the departure platform of the other and 
vice versa. 




± 






BROADWAY AS PROPOSED BY NEW YORK 

authorities of lifty years ago had been able to foresee the 
present extension of the city, they would have reserved a 
right of way traversing the whole of the island and on 
each side of it from end to end. The present difficulty 
arises from the enormous expense of cutting through 
about ten miles of substantial town property. If the New 
York Central had been originally carried down to South 
Ferry in tunnel or viaduct, it would have provided the 
Westchester county with rapid transit facilities along three 
different lines of development, besides wonderfully sim- 
plifying the connection of the neighboring cities of Brook- 
lyn and Jersey City with New York. At present the 
double change at 4 2d street with two flights of stairs 
renders the journey to and from Wall street, too tedious 
to be popular with business men. 

The only way now to bring forward the tratlic from 
the Grand Central station would appear to be by a three- 
way link of tunnels such has ha\e been proposed by Mr. 
Corbin. Two tunnels across the North and East rivers 



SCIENTIFIC STREET COMPANY'S SYSTEM. 



In spite of minor difficulties a system such as this would 
be extremely valuable, not only for passenger traffic, but 
also for a freight connection. As regards the motive 
power, the promoters expect to use electricity, but it is 
not clear from the state of the art whether they will be 
able to handle heavy trafTic by that means. Steam 
although objectionable, would not be impracticable. 

Notwithstanding its value this system would scarcely 
touch the question of internal transit. The two classes of 
travel are so distinct that they require to be treated in a 
different manner. Other cities, such as London, Paris or 
Berlin, are able to combine the two classes to a greater 
extent. They have their center of business in the middle, 
with trunk lines radiating from it, which reach the 
suburbs sooner and handle a large proportion of surburban 
travel. These lines are also connected by belt lines with 
an outer and inner circle. 

New York on the other hand is like a tongue with the 
center of business at its tip. She cannot afford to cut 



1 68 



through in all directions with trunk lines, but she has 
nevertheless to traverse the whole length of the island 
before she gets to the surburbs, and here is the essential 
difficulty of the problem. It is feared by many that the 
numerous obstacles in the way will prevent an ideal 
solution, but the various points to be aimed at with the 
two classes of travel may be summed up as follows: 

FOR EXTERNAL ?\\CILITIES. CONNECTING THE ISLAND 

WITH THE MAINLAND. 

1. A comprehensive connection with existing trunk 
lines having termini in Brooklyn, Jersey City and New 
York. 

2. The expeditious transfer of freight and baggage. 

3. A high rate of speed, from forty to sixty miles 
per hour. 

4. Comfortable traveling. 

5. Completion within a reasonable period, not more 
than three years. 

6. A cost which will have a fair showing of profit. 

FOR INTERNAL FACILITIES. WITHIN THE ISLAND. 

1. The utmost possible rapidity of construction. 
Not more than twelve months to complete it. 

2. A constant service, accessibility and conspicuous- 
ness. 

I 









It is a weak point in any single scheme for sohing this 
problem if it professes to deal with both external and 
internal facilities at once. For instance, some of the sub- 
surface schemes which are suitable to internal transit also 





VAULTS FOR WIRES AND I>IPE.S. NEW YORK SCIENTIFIC STREET CO. 

3. Adaptability to any or all of the city's lines of travel. 

4. A speed of from twenty to twenty-five miles per 
hour, /. c. to traverse the length of the island within half 
an hour. 

5. Comfortable traveling. 

6. A cost which will have a fair showing of profit. 



EXIT tROM CARS NEW YORK SCIENlIFifC STREET CO. 

propose to operate freight trains. On the other hand 
some of the high speed deep tunnel schemes which are 
well adapted to make through connections also propose 
to handle the short haul by means of way stations. 

It is evident from a glance at the time table of the New 
York & Harlem Railroad that this latter attempt would 
not be likely to be successful. Short haul traffic will not 
be diverted to and congested into trunk lines if it can find 
vent some other way. Both the magnitude and the con- 
figuration of New York City demand a dual treatment 
of the problem. 

The question as to whether the road should be abo\e 
or underground is condensed into a few alternatives. If 
above ground, the commission may choose between more 
elevated roads; a colossal viaduct like that of the People's 
Railway Company, described in the last issue of Street 
Railw'av Review, or an equally colossal viaduct on land 
reclaimed from the North and East river, as proposed by 
Mr. Thorp. If underground, there are a few more alter- 
ations, and we will now refer to some of those schemes 
which have been before the commission. 

.SUB-.SURFACE RAILWAYS. 

There are quite a number oi proposals before the com- 
mission for railways wholl}- or in part imder the surface of 
one of the main avenues. 

Some include a surface road, worked in conjunction 
with a rapid transit road underneath; others run through 
the blocks on their down town section, and afterwards 
follow a main avenue. Perhaps the most important and 
likely of them, is the city railwa}-, promoted b}- Mr. Cole- 
man Drayton, Col. Rowland Hazard and others; the case 
for which was argued by Professor Trowbridge, profes.sor 
of engineering at Columbia College. The line starts from 
the \'icinit3' of South Ferry and passing at the back of 



^jte^;^tU^^l^i^- 



169 



liroad street, irosscs 15r()iul\va\' and parallels it on the 
west, joins Hroaihva}- near thirt}- fourth street; follows 
that avenue to Washington Heights as a subway road and 
crosses the Harlem river by a high bridge. Such a road 
as this would interfere much less with real estate than a 
masonry viaduct through the blocks. The profitable use 
of the purchased property would be much more feasible, 
since with suitable construction, there w ould be very little 
\'ibration, and the buildings might be turned into ware- 
houses or even residential property. 

As compared with a deep tunnel, a subway road has 
the decided advantage of 
being more accessible, 
e V e n m o r e s o t h a n t h e 
present elevated road. As 
compared with the latter, 
it lacks the comfort of a 
daylight route, but the 
chief objection to a tunnel 
on that score, arises from 
the use of steam. The 
horse car tunnel along 
Park a\enue is pleasant to 
ride in, both in winter and 
summer. 

A subway railway has 
a costly problem to solve 
in the diversion of the 
numerous pipe lines which 
are immediately under the 
surface. It is a task which 
is now being undertaken 
by the Broadway and 
Third avenue Cable Con- 
st r u c t i o n, u n d e r m u c h 
more difficult conditions 
than would obtain in the 
construction of a subwa\-. 
On the other hand, the 
interference with the 
l^ijies would be a perma- 
nent benefit if they were 
placed in an accessible 
subway of their own, as proposed by the City Railway 
Company. 

The route proposed by Mr. Drayton's company is to 
start from South Ferry and follow the we.st side of the 
city, partly underneath the houses on a purchased right of 
way, and partly under the Boulevard to Washington 
Heights, where it would cross the Harlem river by a high 
bridge and penetrate the annexed district in Westchester 
county as far as New Rochelle. 

Amongst the points upon which special stress is laid, 
as favoring the scheme are, ist. — The shallow^ness of 
the excavation, so that it becomes more of a coyered way 
than a subterranean line, a minimum -interference with 
pipe Hnes and sewer, electric motive power, a noiseless 
and smooth track and good ventilation. 

The plans both for the construction and equipment have 










CITY RAILWAY COMPANY'S PLAN. — BY J. COLEMAN D. DAYTON. 



occupied the promoters time and ingenuity for a con.sider- 
able period. The s\stem has been discussed by Col. 
Rowland Hazard before the British Association at Bath 
and is supported b\- Gen. Trowbridge, Mr. Barclay 
Parsons and a number of engineers of high standing. 
The estimate including the real estate which would remain 
as an asset of the company is $57,623,811. 

THE WKITEHS DUl'LliX SYSTEM. 

It hardly requires argument to show the advantage 
which would accrue from a combined surface and subwa\' 
system. The surface road 
would give accessibility, 
and the subway road the 
speed. The latter could 
have its stations about a 
mile apart, so as to allow 
time to get up speed, whilst 
the former would be avail- 
able any where. The pas- 
senger would not have any 
walk to the stations, he 
would join his cable or 
electric surface car wher- 
ever he might be, and ob- 
tain a transfer at the near- 
est subway station. This 
idea has been simultane- 
ously but independently 
supported by several other 
engineers, but the peculiar 
feature of the writers con- 
struction, is a continuous 
metallic flooring resembl- 
ing corrugated iron sliced 
in two. It is claimed that 
this flooring can be laid 
down at night and form 
both road bed for the sur- 
face railway and roof for 
the subway. The whole 
of the excavations would 
then proceed from under- 









^;^ 



neath by the ordinary processes of mining. It is further 
claimed for this method, that it does not necessarily 
involve disturbing any of the pipes. After underpinning 
the steel floor, the pipes could be slung on suspension rods, 
furnished with turn-buckles. They could then be (grad- 
ually raised, lowered or traversed laterally in long lengths, 
or left in their present position. This would be effected 
by guides in the street flooring about everj' ten. feet apart 
in which the heads of the suspension rods would slide. 
Finally when the side walls were carried up, transoms 
would be built into the masonrj-, which would perma- 
nently support the pipes and leave them in a gallery 
above the railway, accessable at all times to the line-men. 
Some pipes and electric subways could be easily- and 
inexpensi\ely diverted, but the remo\al of the heavier ones 
would entail an immense outlay, which need not be 



170 



S^grt:%to^-^>^^ 



incurred at all. Even the house connections might remain 
absolutely intact. There would be room between the 
steel floor for either a cable or an electric conductor, for 
operating the surface road, and space could be left for a 
lineman's gangway in order to maintain the conduit always 
under inspection. 



whole line would be under construction simultaneoush', 
and be finished in the time required for one block. 
The division of labor would thus avoid the ditHculties 
inseparable from the organization of a very large body of 
men. Each sub-contractor having to look out for his 
own men. 




CRIBBLES SYSTEM. 

Showing present pipes and underground wires undisturbed. 
(i gas, 3 water, 17 pneumatic tubes, iS steam pipes, 1 1 electric wires, 22 return steam pipe. 




GKIBBLt'S METHOD. 

Of supporting mains and pipes during construction 
of subway. 



This process is a simplification of the method adopted 
in the construction of the London underground railway 
along Cannon street, where a temporary roof-floor of 
timbers was laid down at night and afterwards replaced 
by a metallic one. The corrugated 
steel floor would have sufficient bearing 
surface on the soil to enable the miner 
to drive his heading under it with 
safety, and so perform in one opera- 
tion what was done in London in two. 



THE BROADW.W AM) THIRD .UENUE C.\BLE RO.\D. 

Although not under the consideration of the commission, 
these roads form an important factor in the present 
problem. They ha\e made the first plunge into the 
pipe difficulty, and both they and the 
public have begun to realize what it is. 
Broadway is a net work of pipe lines, 
and the cable construction being shal- 
ow, all the excavations and diversions 
have to be performed from the surface. 




T. GRAHAM GRIBBLe's DUPLEX SYSTEM AS COMPLETED. 



The estimate for a ten mile length of this system is 
$17,000,000 It is worthy of notice that when under- 
taking a subway- system, the construction of a mechan- 
ically operated surface road is obtainable at little extra 
cost over and above the rails, so that a four track system 
would, according to these figures, be obtained for about 
the same outlay as a double track elevated road. 

Lastly, this type of construction could be completed 
very rapidly. Adits could be driven from every cross 
street, so that each block might have four points of 
attack. It would be let to a sub-contractor, so that the 



Thei e is no room for men to work at the pipes so as to 
sling and divert them in long lengths, under cover, and 
what the blockade will be, when the down town end of 
Broadway is taken up twenty feet wide is as'difficult to 
be imagined as the cost to be estimated. 

In addition to this, the work done upon the pipes will be 
no help in the improvement of the street construction. 
The pipes will be covered up again with the sand and 
when any trouble takes place with the joints, they will 
have to be got at. The pavement being replaced upon 
the sand without a [rood substratum of concrete will be 



171 



as short-lived as now. There is no use in putting down 
a good bed of concrete as long as the pipes are liable to 
require its being broken up again. 

Coming to the cost of these alterations, it is dillicull to 
see where the prnlit is to come from. The Xi'w \'()rk 
Times, staled on the jSth ult., that the Broadwa\- Cable 
Co. had offered the New York Steam Co. $100,000 
to remove one 15 inch main out of their way. Such a 
proposition does not seem improbable, and is suggestive, 
if true, of w hat the total cost is likeh' to be. It is ]iresum- 




FORSllURG S UNDERGROUND SVSTEM WITH SKYLIGHT AND SUMMER GARDEN 

able that the compan\' do not anticipate ha\ing to reduce 
their 4 per cent dividend, therefore the amount of cap- 
ital created for this present purpose, would warrant the 
supposition that they expect to carry about three times 
as many passengers. 

The horse cars on Broadway and Se\enth avenue 
carried in 1SS9 according to Poor's Manual of August, 
1890, nearly 32,000,000 passengers. The Third Avenue 
Elevated road carried about 70,000,000, 
handling as it did long haul and short 
haul and transportmg its human freight 
huddled together in a manner scarceh- tit 
for sheep or oxen. 

The Cable road will be limited to a 
speed of about six miles per hour so that 
it cannot expect much long haul traffic. 
On the down town section, what with 
normal stoppages and abnormal obstruc- 
tions, the cars will hardly make better 
time than they do now, and consequently 
they will not do much more business, for 
people will not long ride on cable cars for 
the pleasure of doing so. Econom\- of 
operation under mechanical traction as against horses 
will help the dividend, but on the whole the undertaking 
has the appearance of a very costly affair for a very small 
gain to the company-. 

The benelit to the public w ill be doubtless great upon 
the uptown section, and the takings will be much 
increased, but the fact of its being a surface road circum- 
scribes for ever the rate of speed, the consequent capacity 
and the commercial value of the undertaking. 

If in addition, the commissioners sanction a rapid transit 
line on Broadwav either above or below <nound : a con- 



tingency not at all improbable; a good deal more gilt will 
be taken off the edges of the cable-ioad paper. 

THE GREATIIEAU SYSTEM. 

One of the schemes most prominently before the com- 
mission and the public has been the Greathead system. 

Amongst manj- immature schemes brought forward 
with much assurance as being "just the thing" for New 
York, the (jreathead .system stands out in contrast as a 
method of constructing underground railways which has 
jirin ed successful in I.ondon. It is supported by Sir Ben- 
jamin Baker of Forth Bridge celebrit}-, 
as a solution of the rapid transit problem 
in the English metropolis, and the ener- 
getic representative in New York, Mr. 
Louis Sterne, has been able to give the 
commissioners favorable accounts of the 
efficient and economical operation of the 
first railway constructed in this manner; 
the London & Southwark Subwa}'. Mr. 
Sterne has furthermore been able to 
testif}- to the satisfactory progress of the 
Hudson Ri\'er Tunnel, which is being 
pushed forward at the rate of ten feet per 
day by means of the Greathead shield. 
It is probable that this s\stem will be 
further developed in London subwa}- construction, where 
the strata are first a very deep impervious bed of blue 
clay o\ erlying chalk and green sand, termed the London 
basin. All the railways running south have had to pierce 
the line of clay hills upon which the Ciystal Palace is 
built, and have experienced considerable difficulty in 
getting a brick lining to stand. The clay in swelling 



produces enormous pressure, deforming the arch or even 




ALFRED H. TIIORP'S SIX TRACK RIVERSIDE RAILWAY. 

crushing in some cases a brick of ordinary composition. 
In the Sydenham tunnel, after trying six rings of ordinary 
brick, recourse was had to a blue vitrified brick of great 
hardness procurable only in the Midland counties. 

The Greathead shield is a method of tunneling bj- 
means of a lining composed of a metallic CN'linder in place 
of masonry. It is not a novelt}'. The famous engineer 
Brunei was the first to achieve the subaqueous connection 
of London and Southwark, and he must be credited with 
the first conception, half a century ago. The tunnel was 
built by a shield in rectangular segments. 



172 



Twenty-two j^ears ago, the second Thames tunnel was 
driven b)- Mr. Barlow with a circular shield of simplihed 
construction, almost identical in principle with the present 
Greathead shield. The work was performed rapidly and 
safely. Scarcely any trouble being experienced with 
water. 

About three years ago Mr. Greathead commenced the 
construction of the London & Southwark Subway and 
opened the line, a distance oi 2>% miles last autumn. 




WEGMAN & BATES' ELEVATED SYSTEM. 

The shield consists of a circular iron frame furnished 
with a cutting edge which is protruded horizontally into 
the place excavated for it. The miners obtain access to 
the workings through a trap door in the shield, and are, 
if necessar}-, protected by air pressure from irruption of 
the water. The shield on the second Thames tunnel was 
driven by screw jacks, whereas Mr. Greathead uses 
hydraulic jacks. 

As the shield is protruded it is replaced b}- cast or 
wrought iron segments which are bolted together to form 
a complete tube, having \<^y\ much greater resistance 
than a lining of masonry to deformation by external 
pressure. The tube can, moreover, be rendered water- 
tight to an extent impossible with brick or stone. 

Mr. Greathead has introduced an ingenious device for 
filling up the space between the rough surface of the 
excavation and the iron tube. The segments are fur- 
nished with perforations into which, when bolted in place, 
he inserts the nozzle of a hose pipe and then forces semi- 
liquid cement mortar, termed grout, through the holes, so 
as completely to fill the space. This operation performs 
the threefold duty of distributing the pressure of the clay, 
preventing leakage and preserving the iron. 

In the application of this system to a railwaj' for city 
or suburban transit there is the great advantage of free- 
dom from obstruction on the part of vested interests. It 



is carried forward at a depth which does not entail asking 
anybod\'s leave, and access is obtained when in operation 
by means of elevators, the stations being on the surface. 

It has the disadvantage of having no side shelters for 
linemen, and if operated by electricity the conductors are 
in dangerous proximity. The London & Southwark 
Subway is operated by electric motors at a cost, accord- 
ing to the company's figures, of 7 cents per train mile for 
motive power alone, the train having a capacity of 100. 

At this early stage we may be excused if we receive 
such figures with extreme reserve. Thej- do not at all 
correspond with the results of a much more extended 
experience with electric traction in this countrj-. 

The consideration which would more than any other 
militate against the application of the Greathead sj'stem 
to New York rapid transit is the fact that about four- 
fifths of the construction of a deep tunnel under this island 
would be in gneiss rock, which can be driven without 
any shield as has been demonstrated on the New Croton 
aqueduct. To adopt a small bore metallic tunnel at one 
end, thus limiting the size of the entire rolling stock, would 
not be so good a policy as to go deep enough to build a 
capacious rock tunnel throughout. 




'^</^ 



DR. L. T. Sheffield's elevated system. 

Mr. Sterne is of opinion that a double track tunnel of 
10 ft. 6 inch diameter could be constructed on Manhattan 
Island for about $1,000,000 per mile. 

A few words must suffice to conclude this article with 
some reference to two other schemes which ha\e been 
brought forward. 

DR. SUKFFIEI.d's ELEVATED TUNNEL. 

This proposal is a compromise between a high viaduct 
with a railwav on top and running in da\light as described 
in our last article and a subway under the houses like that 
of the city railway. 



I^^iet llr^tU^'1^^^^ 



173 



Dr. Slu-tiicld proposes lHi\ini;" up property from Uic 
J{aUcr\- to tlif north (.'lul of the city and reconstructing a 
l)elt of i-esi(ienlial projUTtw cari-\ini;' tiie railroad on the 
second and third floors. lie pro\ ides for an express and 
local service. Ihe niasonry would not reijuire to he as 
substantial as tliat for a high \iaduct, and the buildings 
could be designed in a more attracti\c form. It would 
he open to question whether the sacrifice of the thnlight 
mereK' for the sake of having the rail\\a\ half way clown 
would he compensated for either in econonu or con- 
venience. 'I'he cost of right of wa\ would be about the 
same as for the viaduct. 

MK. si'kkk's iiM)Li;ss iii<iiH;i;. 

This is a phase of elevated railwav construction having 
a loop at the end to enable the tr.iins to run round and so 
avoid switching. If _^^ . 



st)me such method 
could be introduced 
into the operation of 
the Manhattan Rail- 
way, it would greatly 
help the handling of 
the trains. The Man- 
hattan havt' applied 
for powers to put two 
more tracks on their 
Itre.sent structure in 
Battery park, without 
tixing any more coi- 
unuis. This reason- 
able application has 
created so much out- 
cry, that it is improb- 
able any form of 
loop with fresh col- 
umns would be tolerated in any part of the city. 

It is with some regret that we close this article without 
reference to many other schemes whose merits deserve at 
least a description, and it is possible that the commission 
may distinguish with their favor some one which has not 
been dwelt upon at all. The decision cannot now be long 
delayed, and many promoters will necessarily be greatly 
disappointed : but there can be no question as to the com- 
petence and determination of the commission to do their 
best for the cit\-. 

A DETROIT SCHEME. 

ONE of the aldermen in Detroit has recently intro- 
duced a resolution in the city council there to 
compel the street railway comjianies to use a 
street rail, the surface of which shall be flush with the 
pavement. The rail, a cross section of which is here given, 
IS similar to that in use in England and P^iropean cities. 
i he groove in the rail in which the flange is to run, is 
but one-half inch wide and about one inch deep, and is 
intended to be .so small that no wheel of any ordinarv 
street vehicle could enter in. The space between rails is 
paved clo.se to the rail and lev el with its top. making a 
smooth crossing. This is ver\- nice in theorv . but in 



]iractiee in latitudes where snow and ice are found, would 
so nil with frozen matter, as to make it impos.sible for a 
car to keep the track. Brushes would not do it in this 
country, and any sjiot which chanced to be a fraction of 





SI'EER'S ENDLESS TRAIN SYSTEM. 



an inch out of grade, would till with water and freeze 
solid. In European citiie.s, also, ihe numicipal authorities 
are more particular in keeping their portion of the .streets 
clean, so there is nothing like the amount of dirt to get in 
that there is here. 

A N()\i:i, use of aluminum will be made by the River- 

.side Park Rail way- 
Co., of Sioux City, 
who have ordered a 
large supply of street 
car tickets made from 
it. This ought to be 
a profitable move on 
(he part of the com- 
pany, as nearly everv 
one will want a few of 
these tickets to keep 
or send to friends as 
curiosities, and the 
probability is the com- 
panv- will never be 
called upon to redeem 
a large share of them. 
The new material is 
lighter and stronger 
than celluloid. 



sr/fr^/di'/^'fy' 



T 



FIRE AT SCRANTON. 

HE I'eople's Street Railway Co., of Scranton, Pa., 
has suffered a severe loss in the burning of their main 
car house on the night of May i. One of the car 
cleaners had occasion to replenish his oil can and entered the 
oil house at midnight, when in some unknown manner the 
little oil lamp fastened in his cap caught in some waste 
and in an instant the room was one mass of flames. 
Despite the prompt efforts of the fire department the 
entire car house was destroyed, including twenty-nine 
motor cars, three trail cars, two horses and two mules. 
The loss on cars and house is $170,000, on which there 
was an insurance of $125,000. The handsome building 
of the Scranton Republican, to whom we are indebted for 
favors, adjoined the car house and also suffered a loss of 
$20,000. President McCabe, who was in New York, left 
his bed and reached the scene before the ashes had cooled, 
and immediately telegraphed an order to Philadelphia and 
vSpringlield, Ma.ss.. for seventeen motors. Fifteen open 
cars which were .stored elsewhere are left the company to 
operate by horses. Street railwa)- men will regret to 
learn of this disaster, and will wish their Scranton friends 
no delay in getting under way again. 



'74 



A TALE OF THREE CITIES 



AND THE ELECTRIC BAXPS WHICH UNITE 

SHELTERED between the high bluffs which rise 
on either side of the far famed old daddy of 
waters, with neat blocks of business houses on the 
level valle\' divided bj- the river, and wide shaded 
streets lined with handsome residences rising in magnifi- 
cent terraces upon the hillsides, are the enterprising cities 
of Davenport, Rock Island and Moline. All possess more 
than national reputation, and each is prominent in the 
pages of histor}- as the location of stirring scenes in the 
days of earlv settlement or during the Civil War. Before 
the railroads had reached beyond the Mississippi, Daven- 
port and Rock Island were great distributing points for 
supplies which were brought on river steamers which 



I)A\ENPORT, ROCK ISLAND AND MOLINE. 

and the first hotel, built the following jear, still stands. 
During the war large numbers of troops were massed 
here for organization and distribution, and large hospitals 
were maintained for the care of wounded soldiers who 
were brought up the river on boats. 

The river at this point takes a course almost due west, 
and Rock Island lies on the opposite bank directly south, 
while Moline is situated at a point directh- east of Rock 
Island, where the river makes a bend from the north. 

In the middle of the river and connected bv three 
bridges, one leading to each city, is the famous Rock 
Island, than which no more beautiful spot is to be found in 
tra\eling from the Alleghanies to the Rocky Mountains. 




DAVENPORT AND BRIDGE OVER MISSISMTFI RIVER AS SEEN FROM GOVERNMENT ISLAND. 



crowded the levees by the score. This has practicalh' 
ceased, though a large wholesale business is still main- 
tained. Manufactures have come in to take the place of 
the ri\er activity of former days, and the famous water 
power at Moline is too well known to warrant detailed 
mention here. There is an earnest rivalrv among the cities, 
and the population of any one loses several thousand 
when mentioned by a resident across the stream, but a 
man on the i.sland in the middle of the river imparted the 
intelligence that Davenport numbers 25,000 souls, Rock 
Island 20,000, while Moline marched up some 15,000 
strong. The three are now so closely united b\- the 
electric lines of the Chicago syndicate operating under 
the name of the Davenport & Rock Island Railwa\- 
Company, that they are now practically one tine citNof 
60,000 inhabitants. 

Davenport was founded in 1835, or three \ears after 
the Black Hawk war, h\ the man whose name it Hears, 



This island is one of the largest in the Mississippi river, 
and is nearlv three miles long. In width it varies from 
one-fourth to three-fourths of a mile, and contains 970 
acres. The surface of the island is generalh' rolling, and 
at no point is more than twentv-tive feet above low water 
line. Its surface is co\ered for the most part with mag- 
nihcent trees, and the broad drives and stone walks built 
b\ the government afford excellent facilities for visitors. 
The I'nited States acquired this \aluable property through 
a treat\' made by William Henr}- Harrison, governor of 
Indian affairs, with the Sacs and Fo.xes, in 1804, but it 
was not occupied b\' white men until the war of 181 2. 
I'ntil this time it was a great resort for the Indians, not 
onlv for hunting and tishing purposes, but was also the 
scene of religious celebrations and war councils. In 1816 
Fort Armstrong was erected at the north-east corner of 
the island, and had an interior of 400 feet scpiare. In 
1862 an ajipropiiation (jf .$100,000 was made hv congress 



I 



175 



fof tlu' tTfflidii of an arsenal, uliifli is an inmu-nsr stone 
hiii!(lin<^. situated iit-ar thf hridj^x- loniu-itin;;- I )a\ fn]iorl 
and Rock Island, and is siu-inoiinted by a lofty tower 
hearing' a clock, the dials of which afe tweKe feel in 
diameter. Tlie building-. h()\\e\er, is at present but little 
u.sc'd, thou<fh the dials can easily be read from the two 
cities, and the sound of its (,rri-at bell is also heard. Xear 
the centre of the island are the ten ^reat shops of stone. 
each of which covers one acre and is three stories hij^h. 
Five are u.sed for the ar.senal and ti\ e lor the armorx . 
and if crowded to their utmost capacity in time of war 
would be able to arm. equip, and supply an army of 750.- 
t)Oci men. The <^un \ards contain many trophies, some 
captiu"ed from the Mexicans, others in 1S12 and man\" in 



Chicago. Rock Island & Pacific Railwav. Tlu' bridi^e 
on the Iowa side is I,S_|.8 feet in length, di\ided into five 
spans and one draw, which is 368 feet long. It was an 
interesting matter as to how the trolle\ and feed wires 
should be carried across the draw, but this was at last 
soKed In the erection f)f three towers, one at the piers at 
eitlu'r end of the draw and a third in the centre of the 
draw itself. The draw tower is 125 feet alio\e the 
water, and has a fixed frame, on which the wires rest, 
the frame being stationary and hung on a swivel which 
turns with the draw. This height is ample to keep the 
wires out of reach of the stacks of the highest steamboats. 
.\ feed wire is brought down from the draw tower and 
supplies the tr()lle\- wires which extend to cither end of 




l>0\VKR STAllON. — DAXENPCRT A ROCK ISLAND RA[L\V\V 



the civil war. During the war tliere was a great militarv 
|irison on the island, which frequentl\- contaiiu'd upwards 
of 10,000 prisoners of war. 

The Davenport & Rock Island Railwa\- Conipan\" in 
its consolidation accomplished what was ne\er before 
possible, namely, the connecting of the two cities by a 
street railway line, and the patience and perseverence 
which was necessary to bring about this concession and 
secure from the government authority to lay its tracks 
and operate its cars across the island and over the govern- 
ment bridges, required no small amount of tact and 
endeavor. The advantages, however, are invaluable. 
Formerly a passenger in Davenport was obliged to take 
a car to the ferry, another line in Rock Island, and still 
another in Moline. making three transfers and four fares 
to reach Moline. Now, however, the resident of an\- one 
of these cities can take a car and go through without 
change to any of the others and for only one live cent fare. 

The electric road crosses the river on two bridges, both 
of which belonir to I'ncle Sam. who shares it w ith the 



the draw on both tracks, so that when an eleitric car 
passes from the draw to the main spans, the trolkw wires 
are practically continuous. 

The electric railway tracks pass across the island 
almost at the water's edge, and reach the Illinois bank by 
a second bridge which is 600 feet long. Armed sentinels 
are always on guard at the bridge entrance to the island, 
and no one is allowed to leave the roadway and enter the 
grounds unless bearing proper passes from the Com- 
mandant of the island. 

The bridge is double-decked, the steam road occupying 
the upper portion, and the electric cars and other vehicles 
and pedestrians use the subway. The bridge cost 
$1,000,000, and is at present being rebuilt and the wooden 
timbers replaced hv iron girders. This too. without any 
dela\' in tratlic. 

ni.ACK hawk's toavkr. 

Three miles south of Rock Island, and situated on a 
commanding bluff which overlooks the Rock river and 



176 



the surroundinj^ country from a height of 225 feet, is the 
famous Black Ha\vk"s Tower. Here that intelligent 
and sagacious Indian located his watch, and now from 
this spot may be seen the cities of Moline, Rock Island, 
Davenport, and Muscatine, together with a view extend- 
ing over the surrounding country for 25 miles in one 
direction, through which the Mississippi and Rock ri\ers 
run, presenting a scene of surpassing beauty. Here a 
magnificent park and picnic grounds ha\e been laid 
out, and commodious buildings erected for the use of 
visitors, and to it come tourists and excursionists by thous- 
ands from all the adjoining country. Americans who 
have traveled t^urope through and through pronounce it 
unsurpassed. 

A few da3's ago the sj-ndicate secured control of the 
dummy line, about 6 miles in length, leading to these 
grounds, and will now put the same in first class order, 
and make it a division of the tri-citj- system. This will 



Tower, has a splendid water power, the ri\er at this point 
having a fall of 12 feet, with three times the volume of 
\\ ater that the Merrimac has at the citj- of Lowell. The 
illustrations are views taken from the edge of the bluff 
225 feet above the water. 

DA^■K^■P0RT CAR IIOUSK. 

Although the company manufactures its lightning in 
Illinois, it finds the necessity for ample car house facilities 
in Iowa, and has therefore erected a handsome brick 
structure at the corner of Second and Rock Island streets 
in Davenport. This building is 128 feet front by 150 
deep: 16 feet high in first story and 13 feet in second. 
In the front corner of the building and on the first floor 
are the new general offices of the company, attractively 
finished in light woods, and comfortable and commodious. 
The remainder of the first story is tracked, and has a 
storing capacity for sixt\' cars. A large elevator quickly 




VIEW FROM BLACK IIAWk's TOWF.R, DAVENPORT A ROCK ISLAND 



prove the greatest possible advantage to the cities, as cars 
can now be run through without change, from any point 
in Davenport, Rock Island or Moline, to the hotel on the 
grounds. It is doubtful if another more attractive spot is 
controlled by any other street railway system in the 
country, and as the grounds have also been purchased 
with the line, which has heretofore been known as the 
Rock Island & Milan Street Railwa}-, they will have 
absolute control of both. It is quite likeh- the line will be 
equipped with electricit\-, but if not this summer, then 
additional motors will be purchased to take care of the 
business. 

Mr. Louderback, a Chicago gentleman who is at 
present managing director of the Davenport & Rock 
Island Railway Company, has certainly made a wise and 
progressive mo\e in securing this property. The town 
of Milan, through w liich tlu' line passes in goin<r to the 



raises a car to the second stor\-, where is still more storage 
room. On this floor and extending the entire length of the 
building on the Rock Island Street side, are paint, repair 
and machine shops. Power for operating the ele\ator 
and machine shop is furnished h\ an electric motor which 
takes its supply from the same wire which feeds the trolley 
wires. A most con^•enient and somewhat novel feature 
of this car house, is an elevated platform, under which a 
car is run for examination or repair of the trolley. This 
platform is so placed as to clear the roof of the car h\ 
several inches, and is divided lengthwise to allow the pole 
to maintain contact with the o\erhead wire. It has con- 
\enient receptacles for tools, and thus avoids much loss of 
time in placing ladders and climbing up and down with 
tools. It al.so saves all the wear which otherwise would 
come upon the car roof from workman engaged in making 
the repairs. 



■11 



'Vh^^ Moliiic Car House is one sloiy liij;li, io6 x i6S 
fi-ft. and is located on Fifth Ave. and Tliirty-tirst St. It 
lias storage room for eiirht\-ll\e ears, wash room, oil 
rf)oms. ete. 

Till': I^Ql'irMICNT. 

'I'he old horse ears whieh iia\e i;ro\\ii nra\' in the si-r- 
\ iee. are now replaced bv a hand.sonie, modern equipment, 
in every respect first-class. It consists of lifty motor cars 
and seventy trail cars. Thev are from the car shops of 
the St. Louis Car Company, and some from the LaCIede 
shops. The\' are sixteen foot box. and splendidly finished 
within, while the exterior luiish has been done in a super- 
ior nianner. 

Tiiree incandescent lamps in the centre, and one at 
each end brightly illuminate the car at night, while 14 in. 
Star I leadlights lighten up the gloom without. The seats 
are prettih' upholstered, floors are covered with wooden 



of the I)a\i-nport & Rotk Island Railwax Compain . 
The building is on Second avenue, and is 105x115 feet, 
divided into two sections which extend its entire length, 
by a tire-wall reaching to the roof. On oni- side is tin' 
boiler room, 54 feet from floor to roof. 



^riu' steam ]ilant consists of a batter\- of three Ila/.elton 
tripod boilers arranged in a row, and ecjuip]H'd with a 
Roney mechanical stoker. 

This boiler is manufactured by the Hazelton T'ripod 
Iioiler Compain, ol Chicago, and has had an immense 
sale throughout the United States and Mexico within the 
last few years. It consists of an upright center column fif 
steel, resting on a solid base-plate of ca.st iron, and con- 
taining for almost its entire length parallel rows f>f liok's 
in which are expanded short lengths of wrought iron 
boiler tubes, the outer ends of which are closed. The 




VIEW FROM IlLACK IIAWK'S TOWER.- 

mals, and the car makes a commodious and staunch con- 
\eyance. Adjustable wire gates enclose the platforms 
and wooden fenders guard the wheels. These wheels 
are from the well known Griffin Car Wheel Company, 
and are .;6 in. diameter, with patent chilled rim. The 
trucks are of forged steel, unusally strong and were all 
built for this order by the McGuire Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Chicago, whose trucks are now to be found in 
almost every city. Of the motor cars, twenty-two carrj- 
one 20-horsc-power motor each, and eighteen are equipped 
with 30-horse-power motors, the latter to be used in draw- 
ing trains. The heaviest grade on the entire .system is in 
navenjiort and is a 10 per cent. 

Having crossed the bridge we come to a pretty city, 
w ith broad, straight streets, and busy with manufactories. 
A short distance from the river, and facing it, is seen an 
imposing structure of brick, which is tiie power plant 



-DAVENPORT A ROCK ISLAND RAILWAY. 



\\ ater is inside of the shell and tubes, and the flames and 
gas coming from the furnaces pass up and between the 
tubes, coming inio right angle contact with each one, and 
then out of the chimney. 

Because of its appearance it is often called the " porcu- 
pine " boiler. It is encased by a circular wall of brick, 
which forms also the chimney, and the addition of a few- 
feet above the top of the shell insures a powerful draft. 
Thus no separate stack is required, and one of the largest 
items of expense in connection with steam plants of ordi- 
nary construction is obviated. 

The cheapest grade of Illinois slack is used for fuel, and 
the combustion is so perfect there is little or no smoke, a 
most important feature. 

The engine and dynamo room occupy the other portion 
and convenient offices for the men in charge are placed at 
the front. There arc se\en 125 H. P. Ideal engines. 



178 



built li\' Ide. Sprinytleld. 111., resting on a brick founda- 
tion of four feet, which in turn rests on bed rock. Each 
engine drixes one generator, resting on a six foot founda- 
tion. Five engines will furnish the maximum power 
required at present, leaving two engines and two genera- 
tors ahvaj'S in reserve. The generators are multipolar 
75,000 Watt machines, built and installed bv the Thomson 
Houston Compain . who had the entire contract foi" all 
the electrical work throughout, including motors, and 
who have made the installation in a most satisfactory 
manner. The detail work has been left to their Mr. 
Willard, who has put in operation a large number of their 
railwav plants, and who is a very bright j-oung man. 

Each engine has two driving pulleys, 72 inches diame- 
ter; only one is belted, the other serving as additional 
balance wheel. The dynamo pulleys are 23 inches 
diameter, and the distance centre to centre of engine and 
dvnamo pulleys is 18 feet. Engines make 240 strokes 
per minute and generators 750 strokes. The belting is 
3-ply cotton, leather face, and made by Underwood. A 
10,000 Watt exciter is run b}' an independent 7x10 engine 
running at 270 strokes per minute. 

The engines are compound condensing, the high pres- 
sure cylinders being 12x20 inches, and the low pressure 
i_l.x20, and when all are in operation, give the room an 
appearance of intense actixitA'. and present a \er\' atlrac- 
ti\e picture. 

The generators are each furnished with a line switch. 
an ampere meter and an atitomatic circuit breaker. 

All the electrical power required to operate the cars of 
this company in the three cities is sup]ilied from this one 




ELEVATED PLATFORM IN CAR HOUSE — DAVENPORT it ROCK ISLAND KY. 

central power station, the current being conducted on five 
main circuits. The one to Davenport crosses the bridge, 
but it is not made to feed until it reaches the Iowa side. 
Here it has branch feed wires like the fingers of a hand. 
The feed wire which supplies Moline is also carried intact 
and not tapped along the route. Each feed wire has its 
switch and ampere meter. 

The main switch board is a handsome study in oak and 
brass, 14 feet high and 25 feet long. The feeder switch 
board is the same height, but onl\- 10 feel lonjr. Each of 



the five circuits is fed independent of all the others, so 
that any disarrangement to one line has no effect upon 
any of the others. Okonite wire of three-quarter incli 
diameter carries the current from the machines to the 
switch board, and braided Okonite is used for the back of 
the board. 

CONSOLIDATION. 

The street railway systems of the three cities had been in 
operation a number of years, but had not made an\- con- 
siderable ad\ance, being operated by animal power. The 
cars, too, were small and of the old style and decidedly 
unattractive. When the Chicago syndicate, under 




the direction of C". H. Holmes, purchased these companies, 
an amalgamation of interest became possible which other- 
wise could ne\er ha\e been brought about, as all former 
attempts to seciu-e a line across the bridge by any one 
comj-ianN- was the signal for e\ery possible obstruction 
from all the others: but when an outside syndicate came 
in and merged the whole into one, the Rubicon w as 
crossed. Beyond question this inter-urban operation of 
the street cars will work an era in the de\elopment of 
these cities which will exceed an^•thing in man\' \ears. 
and it is quite e\ident to an outsider that the majority of 
the people most interested do not begin to have an appre- 
ciable comprehension of the benefits in store for them. 
The company is officered as follows : 

Wm. B. Walker, president: J. J. Mitchell, \ice-presi- 
dent: D. H. Louderback, managing director: Geo. H. 
Hulbert, treasurer: C. Buckingham, secretary: IIenr\' 
Schnitger, superintendent. 

The present mileage is di\ided as follows: 

Mn.i-s. 

Davenport, .... 

Rock Island, .... 

Moline. ..... 

Bridge, ..... 

Milan Line, .... 



IS 



Total, 



The ride o\ er any of the lines makes a delightful 
recreation, but the one across the Mississippi and the 
Government Island, or the trip to Black Hawk's Tower, 
is exceedingly' pleasant and enjo\able, and it is not 
unfair to presume that the good people of these cities 
\\ ill spend the most of their spare time in the comfortable 
seats of the electric cars while the\' are swiftly rolled from 
state to state and water to water. 



yj£i£lC) 



179 



o 



A PHILADELPHIA PLAN. 

\ 1'^ of the latest srlirim's loi' an I'lcx ati'd railroad^ 
has huLMi tk'xisi'cl h\ a Mr. J. 1>. Chapman of 
I'hilaclflphia. who jiroposfs to hid for lotistruc- 
lion of the flr\atf(l road, tlif fraiichisc-s forwhiili n.'Ci,'ntl\ 
was j;i-anti'd and placed at the disposal of the eity. The 
now s\steni is a somewhat novel one. althoiii^ii it is not 
unlike in nianv respect.s, other plans for suspended rail- 
\\a\s. 

The new niethotl provides tor hea\ \ iron jiosls set 
;o feel apart in the center of the street, and rising to a 
heijfht of 35 feet above the pavement. Tfiese posts 
are intended to be built of Huted metal and will be 
stronj;' enouirh to support the weight and strain of a train 
of two ears running on either side. Heavx steel girders 
extend from post to post, which are ]ilaced at intervals of 
lhirt\ feet. Across the body of each post a steel girder 




& 



.&r/f?r/f? ,r\ 



will be jilaced. liolled to the post, and receiving additioTial 
siipi^ort from brackets, upon which it rests, and which are 
also fastened to the post. On thei-e cros.s girders are 
placed the longitudinal girders which extend from jiost to 
l^ost. and on the top of which is placed the rail, which is 
intended to be a heavy one, and securelv bolted to the 
cross girders. The box of an ordinarv car would be 
adapted for use on a road of this kind. T\v o heavy iron 
bands, one at each end of the car extend entirely around 
It, and are fastened to the trucks of two wheels each. 
These wheels have a double flange to prevent derailment. 
.\ strong hook extends from the truck over and partly 
around the rail, so that should by anv accident the wheel 
break or leave the track, this hook w ould prevent the car 
from falling. The iron bands are made to stand a .strain 
<.>{ twenty tons each, which would enable the construction 
with safety of a car. which with its k)ad. could easily 
weigh thirty tons. A horizontal guide wheel is placed at 
either end of the car on a le\el with the floor, and runs 
along a rail extending from post to post, at the proper 
height. This is intended to prevent anv swa\ing or 
swinging motion, caused by the rapid passage of the car 
or by sudden stops. This rail does not in any wav support 
the car. but acts simply as a guide to keep it steadv. 
1 he cars are intended to be 24 feet in length, and it is 
estimated that a road of this kind can lie built for 
-fi J 5.000 per mile. 

-Mthough the posts occupy the center of the street, it 
IS believed they would not seriousK interfere w ith street 



trallic. as there would be but a single row of them. The 
great objection lo an elevated road, in that it darkens the 
street, could hariUy be raised against a construction of 
this kind, as there would be v er\ little material t(j cast a 
shadow . 




The motiv f pow er coukl be either cable or eleclricitv 
as desired. There would be no snow to block the yomI. 
and the w heels would always be sure of a clear rail on 
which to run. 



Short Circuited. 

THE American Car Equipment Co., which operated 
at No. 10 Wall street, though incorporated under 
the laws of the state of West Virginia, has endea\ - 
ored to do a larger business than its capital of $75,000 
fully warranted, and will probably pass into a receiver's 
hands. It is believed that if the settlement is judiciously 
made, not only all debts can be paid in full, but the stock- 
holders can also receive par on their holdings. The com- 
pany was organized about three years ago, and bought 
second hand engines and cars, and repaired and sold them. 
Among street railway purchases of this class was the 
entire bob-tail equipment of the Seventh avenue line, 
New ^'ork. at the time that company changed to two- 
horse cars. The .\merican Equipment Storage Ware- 
house Company, which was organized one year ago, 
with a capital of $100,000 belonged to this concern, but 
was sold out March ist. The Storage Company has 
works at Lake \'ievv. X. J., and it was there the repairs 
were made. 



Till", strike of the drivers and conductors of the Detroit 
City Railway Companv was of short duration, and was 
settled by a conmiittee of arbitration, one member of 
w hich was selected by the company, one by the men and 
the third bv the mayor of the city. 



STREET RAILWAY LAW. 



EDITED HY MK FKANK H. CI.AHK, ATTORNEY Ar LAW, eTIRA(;0. 



Iiijiirx to Minor by Sudden Starlinij; of Car. 

The fact that a passenger is evidently very joung is a circumstance that 
must be taken into consideration b_v a carrier in the discliarge of its 
duty, to stop the car a sufficient length of time to give the passenger 
reasonable opportunity to alight in safety. 

BARCLAY, J., in delivering the opinion of the 
Court, said : At the time of his injury the plain- 
tiff was but nine years old. He was a passenger 
on a street-car operated by the defendant as part 
of a cable railway line. His evidence tended to prove 
that he notified the conductor to stop at a certain street. 
As the car approached it, the conductor rung the bell. 
Plaintiff left the interior of the grip-car, where he had 
been seated, and got upon the step of the platform, hold- 
ing the handrail. The conductor was on the platform. 
The car slackened speed and, while plaintiff with one foot 
off the step stood read}- to descend, it suddenl}- started 
forward with a jerk and ran some twenty or thirty yards. 
The jerk threw plaintiff off, and he fell in such a manner 
that his arm was run over by the wheels of the following 
car, inflicting serious injuries. It was the duty of the 
defendant to plaintiff as its passenger, in the circumstances 
described, to stop the car a sufficient length of time to 
give him reasonable opportunity to alight in safety- at the 
point of his destination. That he appeared to be of 
tender vears, was, moreover, a fact to be considered b}- 
defendant in discharging that dutv. If a passenger is 
evidenth' crippled, intirm. or verv vouiig, the dut\' of the 
carrier towards him while alighting must be performed 
with due regard to such apparent condition. The testi- 
mon\- strongU- tended to show a breach of the dtitv 
referred to. Defendant's instruction in the nature of a 
demurrer to the evidence was therefore properly refused. 
unless plaintiff be pronounced guilt\- of contributor\' neg- 
ligence as a matter of law. 

There was no such variance between the petition and 
the proofs as would preclude the submission of the cause 
to the jury. The allegation in the petition that defend- 
ant "stopped" the cars to permit plaintiff to alight, is 
merelv matter of inducement. The actual negligence of 
defendant charged, is in permitting the car on which the 
]ilaintiff was a passenger "to be put in motion while plain- 
tiff was in the act of leaving the car, without giving him 
a reasonable time to alight safely therefrom, whereby he 
was thrown under the car," etc. There certainly was no 
failure of proof of these facts and, we think, no substan- 
tial variance from the pleading. 

The chief contention of the defendant is that there is 
error in the rulings of the trial court upon the instruc- 
tions. The fir.st one given at plaintiff's instance, it is 
claimed, submitted to the jur\- a theorx for recovery- 
predicated on an actual stoppage of the car for an insuf- 
ficient time, whereas the testimony di.sclosed that no stop 
at all was made. This criticism depends on a construc- 
tion of the language of the Court which, we think, cU^es 



not correcth interpret its meaning. The fact submitted 
to be found was, that the defendant's servants "did not 
stop a sufficient length of time to permit the plaintiff, act- 
ing with reasonable care and diligence for one of his 
years, to alight in safety-."' This was supported b}- evi- 
dence that, though the car after the conductor's signal 
came suthcientlv near to a rest to induce plaintiff to get 
into position to step off, it did not in fact stop at all, but 
just then shot awav with such violence as to throw him 
off. The instruction does not require the jury to find 
that the car stopped, but merely that, when it reached 
plaintiff's destination, it did not stop a sufficient time as 
described. The rule of law it stated was entirely correct 
and abundantly sustained by the evidence. 

It is next asserted that the second instruction for ]ilain- 
tiff should not have been given. In considering its 
language, however, as part of the law in the case, it should 
not be isolated, but read in conjunction with the other 
instructions. The question which is declared to be one 
for the jury ■■ under all the facts and circumstances in 
proof " was " whether plaintiff had at the time sufhc- 
ient capaciti,' and discretion to understand " that the stejis 
w ere a more dangerous place than inside the car. But 
this was not all. In connection therewith, the jury were 
told by the first instruction that to entitle plaintiff to 
recover, they must, among other things, find plaintiff 
" acting with reasonable care and diligence for one of his 
\ears''. Reading these instructions together, they declare 
the principles of law quite as fa\'orabh- for defendant as 
the case allows. Although plaintiff was a boy aged nine 
years, he was not absolved from the exercise of all care. 
It is true, a remark was dropped in Dowling v. Allen, 88 
Mo. 298, to the effect that "no negligence is imputable to 
a child," but that case was not ruled on such a theory, and 
and it was obviously too broad a statement. While the 
law makes due allowance for the thoughtlessness and 
indiscretion of ^outh, it does not hold it necessarily irre- 
sponsible. A child must be very much younger than 
plaintiff to warrant the Court in declaring as a conclusion 
of law that he is incapable of negligence. To the extent 
tliat a child has knowledge and understanding of a danger, 
or w here it is of such a nature as to be necessarily obvious 
e\ en to one of his years, he is under a legal duty to avoid 
it. So, in the case at hand, plaintiff was certainly bound 
to use some degree of prudence and foresight to avert 
injury in the circumstances of his situation. The standard 
of his duty was such reasonable care and diligence as 
characterized the average boy of his age. He would be 
legally responsible for a failm^e to exercise such care. 
Railroad Co. v. Gladmon 15 Wall. 401: Moynihan \. 
Whidden 143 Mass. 287, 9 N. E. Rep. 645: Ostertag v. 
Railroad "Co. 64 Mo. 424. In the light of the facts, it is 
rather favorable than otherwise to defendant to suggest, 
in the second instruction ) the possible inference that 



I 



sl>hid%iin&^ ^imk- 



i8i 



plaiiUill ;i.ssiiiiK-(l a claiigt,'r(>u,s po.sitioii in i;L'Uiiij;' uii the 
sUp. Tlic proof was that he remained inside the car 
until the conductor gave the bell signal to halt; then went 
out to the platform and got upon the step, awaiting the 
moment when the car would come to a full stop. His 
entire conduct in the premises was entitled to consider- 
ation in determining whether he exercised ordinary care, 
liven if he were aware that a position on the step was 
more dangerous than inside, it would not necessarily fol- 
low a.s an inference of law or fact that he was guilty of 
negligence in getting on the step when he did, in the 
circumstances. But if there were any error in the instruct- 
ion in this regard, it was not to the prejudice of defendant. 
Taking these instructions conjointly, we think they con- 
tained no material error to the detriment of defendant's 
substantial rights. 

(^Sup. Ct. Mo. Ridenhour V. Kansas City R. Co. 14 S. 
W. Rep. 760.) 

Elevated Raihvay — Forfeiture of Charter — Const nietion 
— Nezv York Statute. 

Where the charter of a railwa}- company (Laws N. Y. 
1S74, c. 585,) provides that upon failure to commence or 
complete the road as therein provided, the company " is 
to forfeit the rights acquired b\- it under this act," a cause 
of forfeiture does not fer sc divest the company of the 
franchise without suit brought for that purpose, and the 
company cannot be attacked for its default in condemna- 
tion proceedings instituted by it. 

Laws N. Y. 1874, c. 585, chartered the Brooklyn 
Elevated Railway Company and prescribed the time 
within which the road must be commenced and com- 
l^leted, and provided for a forfeiture of its rights in case 
of default in this regard. Section 10 provided that the 
corporation should be subject to all the provisions of the 
general railroad act of 1850 and the several acts amen- 
datory thereof, except so far as they are inconsistent with 
the provisions of this act. One of such amendatory acts 
(Laws N. Y. 1867, c. 775,) provides that if any railroad 
shall not begin its road within five years and complete it 
within ten years after its incorporation, " its corporate 
existence and powers shall cease." //e/ct, that this, being 
inconsistent with the provisions of the act of 1874, does 
not apply to the road chartered thereby. 

The charter of the Brooklyn Elevated Railway Com- 
pany (Laws N. Y. 1874, c. 585,) required that iron 
columns should be placed on each side of the streets, etc., 
"on a line with the curb stone," their location to be sub- 
ject to the approval of the city engineer; and that iron 
girders, not more than 36 feet in length, should be placed 
"across" the streets, and be properly attached to said 
columns. An amendatory act (Laws N. Y. 1875, c. 422,) 
required that iron columns should be placed on each side 
of the streets, " as near as practicable on a line w ith the 
curb stone," subject to the approval of the city engineer, 
and that iron girders should be placed "above" the 
streets and be properly attached to said columns. The 
road, as constructed, had its line of columns in the street, 
there being a space of eight feet eight inches between the 



curb and the foundation, and eight feet four inches between 
the foundation of the two lines of columns. Held, that 
the location was such as the act of 1875 authorized the 
company to adopt, and, haxing been approved by the city 
engineer, was lawful. 

(Ct. Appls. N. Y. Matter of Brooklyn Elevated R. 
Co., 9 Rv. and Corp. L. Jour. 264.) 

Street Railroad — Couneeting Lines of Road — Charter — 

City Ordinanec — Keeping Street in Repair — Assessment 

—Estoppel. 

The connection by a street railway company of two 
distinct lines of road which it maintains in one city and 
the transportation of passengers over such lines to any 
part of the city for one fare, and its building at the city's 
request additional lines of road, are a sufficient considera- 
tion for the passage of an ordinance relieving the company 
from paving the street to a given distance outside its rails 
and imposing in lieu thereof, the duty to simply keep 
certain portions of the street in good repair, and when the 
ordinance is accepted and the conditions complied with 
the original duty ceases. 

A company operating a street railroad under a charter 
which requires it to keep certain portions of the streets 
through which its tracks run in good repair, cannot with- 
out its consent be required to re-pave any portion of such 
streets. 

Parol evidence is not admissible to show that a com- 
pan}' agreed to be bound by the terms of a certain city 
ordinance relating to the duties of street railroad com- 
panies, in consideration that the city council would pass 
an ordinance permitting it to acquire and exercise the 
rights and franchises of an existing street railway com- 
pany which was not bound by such ordinance, where the 
enabling ordinance grants the new company all the rights, 
privileges and franchises of the old one, for the stated 
consideration that the new company shall assume all the 
obligations and duties resting on the old one. 

A street railway company' whose property is not sub- 
ject to assessment for paving the streets through which 
its tracks run, is not estopped from disputing an alleged 
liability for such paving by remaining silent and allowing 
the paving to proceed to completion without protest. 

(Sup. Ct. Ind. Western Paving and Supply Co., v. 
Citizens' Street Railway Co. 10 L. R. A. 770.) 

(Note — In tlie case of Sioux City Street Railway Coiiipanv v. City 
of Sioux City, 9 Railway & Corporation L. Jour. 251, i Street Rail- 
way Review 13J, the t.inited States Supreme Court decided that 
though the original franchise granted by a city to a street railway com- 
pany required the company to pave only the space inside the rails, a 
subsequent ordinance passed by the city in pursuance of Act Iowa, 
March 15, 1SS4, requiring the company to pave, in addition, one foot 
outside of each of the rails, was constitutional. — Ed ) 



Om-; of the aldermen in Memphis, during the electric 
controv ersy there was heard to say, "It's a good thing to 
have rapid transit and all that sort of thing, but when I 
think of those darned electric cars as the electro-execu- 
tioners of the poor street car mules, there is a certain 
something which almost moves me to tears. What will 
the mules do with their job goner" 



l82 



HYGIENE AND VETERINARY. 



BV JOSEPH D. TUTHILL, M. D., V. S. 



THE readers of the Street Railway Review 
are doubtless very well aware that the diseases 
incidental to street-car horses — sofaras Eteology 
and Pathog\' is concerned, are precisely similar 
to that of all other horses used for domestic purposes. 
However, it will no doubt prove interesting to some of 
our readers to know that many of the diseases peculiar 
to the former are decidedly more frequent and fatal than 
that of the latter. This fact explains the reason why we 
have thought it necessary to call attention to the matter. 
The frequency of some of those diseases and their fatality 
among street-car horses is no doubt verj' much to be 
attributed to the exhaustive nature of the work and the 
peculiar method of feeding and shoeing, adopted by the 
managers of street car institutions, all of which we expect 
to prove have more or less to do in cutting short the life 
and usefulness of this noble animal. All persons who 
have had much to do with street-car horses do not need 
to be told that "colic" is one of the most frequent dis- 
eases peculiar to this class of horses, and all the employes 
— from the superintendent down to the hostler claim to 
have an infallablc remedy for this disease, and of course 
everyone thinks his own is the best. We must say, how- 
ever, that some of the remedies used prove equal to the 
emergency. A number are, however, inert, while the 
majority are positively injurious, and no doubt the cause 
of many of the premature deaths which occur. Whether 
the majority of deaths are really due to imprudent medi- 
cal treatment or to mismanagement in feeding and shoeing, 
or to the nature of the work or to a combination of those 
circumstances we must leave our readers to decide. We 
have reason, however, to believe that the naiiirc, causes 
and medical treatment of this — -the most common of all 
diseases peculiar to this class of horses is not very defi- 
nitely understood — so much so that the Street Rail- 
way Review takes the present opportunity to discuss 
this matter, from a scientific standpoint, for the benefit of 
all who may feel disposed to adopt our advice. There 
are supposed to be two different kinds of colic in horses, 
namely: "spasmodic" and "flatulent." The first form is 
recognized by horsemen as spasms, gripes, cramps and 
stoppage. The term stoppage has been applied from the 
fact that in some cases the patient passes neither Fecus, 
Flatus or urine, and these stablemen infer, and the infer- 
ence in some cases is probably correct, that the bowels in 
this disease are spasmodically contracted. The second 
form of this disease, and by far the most common, espec- 
ially among street-car horses, is characterized by bloating 
of the stomach or intestines, or both, with gas, often 
accompanied with eructations of gas from the mouth and 
the frequent escape of gas from the anus. This condition 
is due to "acute indigestion," fermentation of the food and 
the liberation of gasses. Some writers on veterinary 
science have made it a point to be very particular in 
explaining the distinguishing symptoms which charac- 



terize those two diseases, but the writer, who has had, 
perhaps, as good an opportunity as anvone to study these 
diseases in their various phases of developement, during a 
practice of thirty years, does not hesitate to state that in 
his opinion one of those diseases never exists independent 
of the other. But we will not stop to argue this question, 
for practical purposes it is immaterial. In fact we believe 
that the greatest success in the medical treatment of colic 
is most certain to be attained by the individual who 
regards those two diseases as a complication one of the 
other, and prescribes accordingly; simpl}- because he is 
sure to combine the therapeutic (curative) agents neces- 
sary for both pathological conditions. 



The causes of colic are predisposing and erecting. In 
regard to the former it is well known to physiologists and 
I presume many of our readers have observed that both men 
and animals inherit peculiar idiocyncrasies; each are pre- 
disposed either through parental defect, temperament, or 
conformation to certain forms of disease. This peculiarity 
or predisposition, is said to lurk in breed, and those con- 
versant with the horse's structure and temperament, can 
readily determine whether he is pre-disposed to certain 
forms of disease or not ; for example, a horse predisposed to 
flatulent colic is often observed to ha\e a capacious bell}-, 
voracious appetite, and does not proper!}- masticate his 
food, and he is not over particular as to the kind of diet 
he eats, for we often tind him devouring with apparent 
relish the filthy straw that has served as bedding. We 
contend therefore, that some horses are predisposed to 
colic, and this explains the reason why the ordinary excit- 
ing causes, such as exposure, fatigue, irritating food, 
change of diet, damaged food, etc., are operative on the 
system of one horse and inoperative on that of another. 
In regard to the exciting causes of this disease we will 
confine our remarks to those which excite the disease in 
street car horses. They are as follows : 

1st. The peculiar nature of the food fed and its ten- 
dency to cause " acute indigestion " and its dangerous 
consequences. 

2d. Exhaustion of the nervous system from over 
exertion. 

3d. Damaged food, etc., etc. 

It is a well known fact that water taken with food 
always retards digestion. The proper solvents of the 
food are the gastric fluids, and the horse has abundant 
facilities for supplying the requisite quantity. An ordinary 
horse is said to secrete (while feeding) fluid of salival and 
gastric characters at the rate of one gallon per hour — enough 
we should judge to saturate a common meal — therefore the 
water is not needed. Nor do we think it was ever intended 
by nature that it should be taken with the food. When 
dry food highly charged with water enters the stomach, 
the gastric fluids which are composed of antiseptic as well 



^l«<i^^*#J^r^A^^ 



183 



as iohriil iiroptTtics, have very little ehance to )ii-(Hhue 
ail)- chemical change on tlie food, for the simple reason 
that it is already saturated with water, and this of course 
lavs the foundation for an attack of." acute indigestion." — 
llu' common result of which is fermentation of the food 
and the liberation of gases. Turn a cow into a luxuriant 
|iasturi' of grass or clover, and after partaking of one or 
the other, she is liable to become bloated; the abdomen 
enormousK- distended with gas (either carbonic acid gas, 
or sulphuretted hydrogen), and unless the same can be 
contlensed or evacuated, rupture and death are sure to 
follow. This imperfect digestion and consequent genera- 
tion of gas, is due to the presence of such large quantities 
of lluids as are found in green fodder. This proves very 
conclusiveh' that large quantities of fluids taken into the 
stomach with the food, are as dangerous to the life of 
cattle as horses, and therefore medically wrong. We 
contend however, that the life of the latter is far more 
jeopardized by this method of feeding than that of the 
former, more particularly street car horses. This is 
probablv due to the many influences tending to produce 
exhaustion of the vital forces in this class of horses. We 
claim that exhaustion of the nervous system is one of the 
imiircct causes of the most dangerous forms of colic in all 
horses, but especiallj' horses used for street car service. 

1st. Iiecause the phjsical condition of those horses is 
not what it might be if they were fed on a more substan- 
tial diet. 

2d. On account of the peculiar character of the work 
which is exhausti\e. 

3d. The method of showing which we believe to be 
contrar\- to the laws of science and art. A menace to 
the cause of humanitv, and directly opposed to the interests 
of street railwa\' institutions. 

The inefliciency of the food and the exhaustive nature 
of the work as prolific causes of disease have been so 
freely discussed in recent issues of this paper that it is 
only necessary now to call attention to this fact. The 
method of shoeing as adopted by many companies has 
largely to do with the promotion of disease, and to an 
extent little suspected sometimes. All persons who ha\e had 
a chance to observe know very well that it requires great 
muscular power to start a loaded car, and the constant 
stopping and .starting to let on and off passengers is a 
source of con.stant nervous tension — not to speak of the 
worry and excitement it produces in some horses. On 
streets paved with wooden blocks and all approaches to 
bridges and viaducts — which are invariably laid with 
plank — the horses labor under much greater disadvan- 
tages. All of the locomotive muscles have to be kept in 
a rigid slate of contraction so as to enable the animal to 
maintain a foot hold, and at the .same time perhaps reach 
the top of some up grade: especiallv is this feat most 
trying after a shower of rain or in frosty weather, or on 
streets where the city compels the company to use 
sprinklers to lay the dust. That such work produces 
physical exhaustion and thus lays the foundation for dis- 
ease no rational being will attempt to deny. In the over- 
worked horse the muscles that aid in jierforming the 



function of digestion as well as the locomotive muscles 
are always more or less impaired, and according to this 
theor}- the tired overworked animal is incapable of per- 
forming the function of digestion normally. This explains 
why over-exhaustion is one of the indirect causes of acute 
indigestion and its dangerous consequences. The tired 
o\erworki'd horse as a rule is a hungrj- creature; he 
devours his food too quickly. It is easily swallowed 
because it is already moistened in the water, consequently 
it is liable not to be duly masticated and sufFiciently 
insalivated with the salivary secretions from the mouth. 
This -per sc is sufficient to cause an attack of acute indiges- 
tion. According to the theorj- of .scientists, cut feed, such 
as is fed to street car horses, is the most diflicult food 
known to digest, and if all of these facts are carefully 
and collecti\ely considered it is not a very difficult matter 
to comprehend why colic in street car horses is much 
more frequent and dangerous to life than in all other 
horses used for domestic purposes. 



The Short New Gearless Motor, 

THE " Gearless Motor," the sole invention of The 
Short Electric Railwa}' Companj-, is meeting with 
imivcrsal commendation. Already the tirst factory 
order is completel)- pledged, and The Short Company is 
on the point of closing large orders, which will tax the 
capacity of their shops for a long time to come. The 
first gearless motor has now merrily entered on its eleventh 
week of ser\ice with a remarkable record. Although 
subjected to the severest tests — tests which can never 
come upon it in ordinarj- street railway service, there has 
not been one particle of trouble with it from beginning to 
end; neither armature or field coil has burned out; the 
motor runs perfectly cold with very high efficiency and 
pulls heav}- loads over severe grades with entire ease. 
The motor has enormous reser\e power, and it is practi- 
callv impossible to burn it out. Motors of the first factory 
order are beginning to come out and will be placed in 
regular service by May 15th, when the Short Company 
proposes to demonstrate to the world its ability to make 
an absolutelv successful gearless motor, simple, etVicient 
and strong, perfectly protected, thoroughly reliable and 
" Standard" in street railway service. 

A recent test of the gearless motor made on the private 
track of the Short Electric Railwa}- Company and also 
on the streets of Cleveland has demonstrated its high 
elllciencv. Although the E. M. F. of the line was low 
the current taken was very small considering the service 
to which the motor was put. On a level and at a voltage 
of 400 to 450, the ampere readings ranged from y to 15. 
On severe grade and cur\e work the amperes ranged 
from 35 to 50, but with a voltage at times of less than 300, 
showing that the true ampere readings should not have 
exceeded 20 to 30. .\t the end of the long and rapid 
run, the motor was almost stone cold. The remarkable 
current etTiciency of the gearless motor is due to the fact 
that the wire on both fields and armature is large and the 
counter E. M. F. is obtained by working up the intensity 
of the magnetic field to a \ery high point. 



1 84 



CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT NOTES. 



The Jacobs' Elevated Railroad System. 

THE tremendous growth of cities during the past 
five years has attracted more attention than ever 
before to improved methods of city transportation 
which should adequately pro\ide for the rapidly increas- 
ing number of passengers. For the very large cities, 
transit on the surface has been supplemented with elevated 
roads or plans for underground service. Among the 
various methods for elevated roads nearly all employ the 
same principal in the system of supporting the structure, 
which is by means of vertical iron posts either single or 
in pairs. The Jacobs' system makes a radical departure 
from the others in this respect as will be seen in the 
illustration. 

In all localities where elevated railroads are constructed 
or desired for safe and rapid transit the ground upon 
which the same are or would be erected is possessed of 
great value. The un- 
sightly appearance of 
most structures in use 
renders them in many 
respects objection- 
able — that is to say 
they shut out the 
light, obstruct travel, 
and in many other 
-waj^s thus materialh- 
affect the business 
interests and depreci- 
ate the value of abut- 
ting real estate. It 
is the endeavor of 
this system to over- 
come these objec- 
tions, first, by con- 
structing two or more 
elevated tracks upon 
a new and novel plan 
that will not be re- 
quired to occupy more than 5 feet of space; second, by fur- 
nishing a superstructure of iron and steel, the leading feat- 
ure of which will enable the placing of one track above the 
other in a substantial manner and do away with cross-ties or 
floor-beams, and therefore more readily admit the light; 
third, on one side of the superstructure and adjacent to 
the business property to construct a walk or elevated 
roadway for pedestrians, which would not onl}' relieve 
the street, but render the upper rooms of business prop- 
erty in close proximitj^ more desirable and in like manner 
add to the value of adjacent real estate. 

The accompan3-ing illustration will give a good idea of 
the structure. 

Suitable standards or .supports are provided as shown, 
which carry the superstructure. The lower ends of these 
standards project into the ground and are anchored to 
blocks or sills of stone imbedded in the ground some dis- 




tance below the surface. The superstructure is inde- 
pendent of these uprights or supports, but is firmlj^ bolted 
to their upper ends, a construction and arrangement which 
permits of the space or distance between the standards or 
uprights being varied as desired or rendered necessary. 
The superstructure comprises an approximatelj- rectan- 
gular frame supporting two tracks, one directly above the 
other. One of the leading features of the superstruct- 
ure is the longitudinal Z form beams, girders or chords 
of the frame. The inwardly projecting flanges of the 
girders supporting the rails of the tracks. The outwardl}- 
projecting flanges of the lower girders rests upon the 
ends of the uprights or standards, to which latter they are 
securely bolted. Resting upon the upper face of, and 
securely bolted to the outwardly projecting flanges of the 
girders or beams, are upright posts or columns; the 
upper ends of the same being similarly bolted to the under 

faces of the outwardly 
projecting flanges of 
the upper girders or 
beams. 

These posts or up- 
rights are braced by 
suitable rods or braces 
as shown. The longi- 
tudinal beams, cross 
beams and the upright 
posts and their braces 
form a tubular struct- 
ure at once light, and 
capable of sustaining 
a great crushing 
strain or weight. 
The form of longi- 
tudinal beam (which 
form is now so gen- 
erally used in columns 
and upright work) 
will be made up of 
sections of suitable length and bolted together, and when 
thus made up form continuous girders extending through- 
out the entire length of the structure, a feature deemed of 
vast importance in structures of this character, as it not 
only adds to the strength but enables variation in the 
form, construction and arrangement of the supports for 
the superstructure which can not well be done under other 
plans. 

Another very important feature in connection with 
the Z form is that it renders the derailment of a train impos- 
sible, and its use is not confined to elevated railroads con- 
structed after this double deck plan exclusively, but 
equally applicable to all others as well. 

Projecting from side of the superstructure, about on a 
line with the lower track, are brackets or supports which 
carry a walk as shown. This walk may or may not be 
extended throughout the entire length of the superstruc- 



t85 



tun-. Uranch walks are also pro\ icU'd wliieii fxtend from 
llu' main walk or platform directl}' to tlif window or door 
of tlu- Iniildinj; upon either side of the street and enable 
passengers to pass directl}- from the elevated structure 
into stores without having to go down stairs and walk 
along the crowded pavements. 

At the ends of the structure there will be suitable 
elevators or hoisting apparatus bj' means of which trains 
may be raised and lowered from one track to the other. 
From the foregoing description it will be seen this is a 
structure that is strong, compact and comparatively cheap, 
and one that possesses novel features not attainable with 
the constructions now in use. This system was patented 
March 17, 1891, b)- M.Jacobs, of 19S South Water street, 
Chicago. 

The New Edison Motor. 

THE Edison General Electric Company, are bringing 
out a new style street car motor which conveys its 
power to the car axle by means of a single reduc- 
tion gear. The machine is tightly incased in a water 
proof jacket and complete weighs but 2,200 pounds. The 
motor while rated at 25 h. p., will develop fully 30 h. p. 
For double truck cars, it is intended to use two motors, 
one on each truck, but one motor will be ample for 
smaller cars. 




The company also intend building a 15 h. p. motor of 
the same style for light street railway work. To secure 
a car speed of twelve miles per hour, the armature makes 
460 revolutions per minute. The armature has a diam- 
eter of 18 inches and is 13 inches long, carried on a 
3 inch shaft, which has a pinion mounted at either end. 
These mesh with the large gears mounted on the car axle. 

The use of a rheostat is avoided by the system of arma- 
ture winding, the armature being wound in 140 sections, 
using one continuous wire and each section having a tap 
wire of german silver leading to the commutator. This 
very largely reduces the current induced by the short 
circuit caused when the brush passes from one commu- 
tator segment to another, and prevents the usual accom- 
panying sparking. 

Thii Electric Engineer says: The machine is of the 
four-pole type and practically iron-clad. Only two poles, 
those in the horizontal plane, are wound, the two in the 
vertical plane being magnetized by induction from the 
same spools and forming, as it were, consequi'nt poles of 



opposite polarity. The entire field, consisting of special 
soft cast-steel, is made in one casting, with the exception 
of the pole pieces, which are attached by screw bolts after 
the spools have been slipped on over the straight cores at 
the sides. These pole pieces, it will be noted, extend for 
a short distance beyond the field coils, and practicallj- 80 
per cent, of the whole spool is surrounded bj- iron. As a 
result of this construction and the employment of cast- 
steel, the magnetizing force required to attain the proper 
degree of magnetization is small, and from the nature of 
the construction there is very little stray magnetism. 

The magnetizing coils are wound in three sections on 
\ulcabeston spools, which, as stated above, are slipped on 
over the cores. In the construction of the machine the 
facing of the armature bearing and the cylindrical arma- 
ture space are bored out at one boring, and by loosening 
two bolts the armature can be slipped out completely, so 
that inspection can be effected with great facility. The 




armature, which is of the Gramme tvpe, is built up of 
punched soft iron rings insulated from each other, and with 
the end plates of wrought iron and bevelled. On the in- 
terior diameter of the hollow cylinder built up in this 
manner, there are four grooves placed, 90 deg. from each 
other, and into these grooves the aluminum-bronze spiders 
are pressed b}' hydraulic pressure, two spiders being 
emplo3'ed and bolted together. In this wa\' a firm 
mechanical connection is made between the armature 
shaft and the ring. 



The Baltimore World comes pretty near guessing the 
dimensions of some people, who unfortunately are not 
confined to that citv. Speaking of the final passage of an 
ordinance for the electric street railway there it sa3-s: — 
"The blank space at the bottom of the North avenue 
electric railwav ordinance has been filled bj- the mayor's 
name. The obstructionists are downed and the move of 
progress can keep right along its flowery way in this 
citv. The anti-progressives can now insert themselves 
in a hole and pull the aperture after them. The}- can 
then be secluded and away from the noise and bustle of 
bus\-, jirogressive life. The)' can gambol on the soft 
beds of moss unmolested and without fear of any such a 
thing as a progressive disturbance. 



Some people thinks the storage batter}- street car is a 
good deal of a cell. 



i86 



New Electric Railway Company. 

ANEW method for constructing a conduit for elec- 
tric railwaj's has been patented by R. A. Stewart, 
of Alleghany, Pa., and is illustrated herewith. 
Mr. Stewart departs from the regulation cable-electric 
conduit, in that he makes his slot opening sidewise instead 




under the track rail. This is to prevent water which may 
Bow along the flat rail from so readilj' passing into the 
conduit. The liability of horses catching their toe-calks 
in the slot is also by this means made almost impossible. 
The advantages of doing away with construction in the 
middle of track is also desirable on many accounts. The 
trolley is introduced into the conduit through a trap or at 
the end of the line, and is bent in the shape illustrated. 
Thetrolle}' wire is held in place by insulated screws. The 
chief objection which this system would have to contend 
with in large cities where there is a great volume of heavy 
street traffic, would be the tendency of the slot to close, 
especially at street intersections where teams cross the 
track at right angles. We .suggest he could greatly 
improve his construction by having the supplementary 
or slot rail made in one solid piece instead of combinations 
as illustrated. The fewer pieces of iron that serve in 
railway construction, the better. 

The advantages of a simple, thoroughly practical and 
reasonabl}- cheap conduit for electric railways, 'in the 
larger cities, admit of little argument. 



The cit}' council of Milwaukee has definitely settled 
the location of electric railway poles by an ordinance which 
requires, that, hereafter they shall be placed in the centre 
of the street, and not at the curbs, except the corners. 



of \ertical, thereby very greatly reducing the amount of 
water and dirt which unavoidabh' enters the conduit 
through this opening, and unless cleaned would in time fill 
the space. His conduit is placed at the side of the track 




next to and parallel with the rail, which is preferabh- of the 
girder type. This rail may be laid and fastened in the 
usual manner. A shallow conduit below is drained at 
convenient points into the sewer,, and the cross ties offer 
no obstacle as in other systems, but extend across the 
conduit. A .supplementarj- rail to form the other side, and 
part of the top of the conduit, is laid parallel to the track 
rail, and ma^' be formed by any one of several combina- 
tions which the inventor suggests. That shown herewitii 
in an I beam fastened at the bottom to the same tie and 
in a similar manner as the track rail, and supporting an 
almost flat strip of iron, which is bent downwards where 
it passes under the top of the girder rail. A small ridge 
will be seen in the cut, on the flat rail where it ccmes 



The overliead system of electrical railwa}- has reached 
Bremen, and there is e\er}- prospect that the Bremen 
Tramwa\- Co. will do away entirely with horses and sub- 
stitute the electric motor on all their lines. Some oppo- 
sition was raised by the Postal telegraph and Telephone 
department, but the police authorities reported favorably 
and the bill passed the Senate. The operation will be 
watched with interest by hundreds of continental cities, ^H 
and American manufacturers of electric railway materials ^H 
may soon expect a large demand from across the water. 



The .suit of $5,000 against the Brooklyn City Railroad 
did not result in making Theodore Rich much richer as 
the jury awarded him only $50. 



i 



|>gi«l%l*^%#e«fe- 



187 



The "Clutch" Insulator. 

Tl IIS Trolley wire insulator has many distinct advan- 
la;,a-s, which has w on for it the unqualilied approval 
of every practical man who has run it. The 
insulatini; material is comb stock rubber, the stem and 
yoke are of mallcablized iron, and the pin of brass. The 
strains on the insolatinj; material are solely tho.se of com- 
jiression. There .u-e no screw threads or other parts 




subject to deterioration from exposure. It is claimed the 
wire pin is more perfect in its details than any other pins 
that have heretofore been introduced. The objects aimed 
at in the design of this insulator, are great strength, high 
insulation, small size, convenience, durability and cheap- 
ness. This insulator is manufactured b^' Messrs Emmet 
Bros. & Griswold, 150 Broadway, New York, who will 
send samples free to any one wishing to examine it. 

A BOLD MOVE. 

THE Electric Merchandise Company, of Chicago, is 
nothing if not progressive, and it is a constant 
source of expectancy as to what general manager 
Mason will do next. His latest is no less than a bold 
march on Europe, and to this end Mr. F. X. Cicott, who 
recently joined the company, sailed on the Servia on the 
9th inst. Mr. Cicott made extensive travels through 
England and the continent last fall and winter, and visited 
all the leading railways there, gathering data for the 
Stkkkt Railway Re\iew, and now returns to take up 
the matter of electric railways with the tramway compan- 
ies abroad. This venture has been partly due to the 
daily inquiries which they have received from managers 
across the water, and which clearly indicate that what is 
now needed more than anything else, is a practical 
acquaintance on the part of tramway managers, with the 
practical operation of electric railways here. It is believed 
that w'hen the actual workings and merits are fully 
explained, there will be rapid advance in this method of 
construction. 

Great interest is being manifested there in the electric 



propulsion of street cars, and tiie Electric .Merchandise 
Co., w hich already has a long line of customers abroad, is 
determined to be early in the field. The enterprise can- 
not fail to hasten electric railway building abroad, and 
while reflecting great credit on the enterprise of the com- 
pany, will result in largely increasing their business in that 
direction. As the great European cities will now soon 
enter the market for electric railway supplies, this move 
will not only benefit the company making it, but will also 
attract attention to electrical interests generally. We 
wish the Electrical Merchandise Co. all the success their 
enterprise deserves and which we feel sure they will 
attain. 

PORTLAND PARAGRAPHS. 

PouTi.AM), (Jri;<;on, May i, 1S91. 
Editor Street Raihvay Rcviczo : 

The Union Power Company is a new corporation that 
will furnish power to all the roads here, having a capacity 
of 3,500 h. p. electrically. The officers are I. B. Ham- 
mond of Chicago, president H. C. Campbell, president of 
the Willamette Bridge Railway Company, of Portland, 
vice-president I. F. Sherman, secretary of the Multnomah 
Street Railway Company is secretary and treasurer. 
The power house will be located on the Willamette river 
at the North Pacific Mills and work has already begun. 
Power will be supplied to motors for commercial use. 

The Willamette Bridge Railway Company has already 
begun the work of equipping the Trans Continental line 
with electricity. The distance will be about twenty miles. 
They have ordered 25 cars from Pullman, 24 foot body, 
double trucks, McGuire pattern, and will use the new 
T and H system, single reduction gear. The work is 
expected to be finished by October i. 

The Metropolitan Railway Company is extending its 
line about i J^ miles south to River View Cemetery. 

The Portland Cable Railway Company has begun an 
extension to Fairmount Park on the heights. 

The Multnomah Street Railway Company has com- 
pleted their Eleventh Street and Twenty-first Street lines 
and will run electric cars on as soon as the equipment 
arrives. 

The Willamette Bridge Railroad Company has com- 
pleted a double track of i >< miles through East Portland, 
on the Waxerly Woodstock Division. This makes a five 
minute service over Morrison Street Bridge. 



Tin-; separate coach bill recently passed in the Texas 
Legislature, requires the railroads in that state to pro- 
\ide seperate cars or compartments for white and black 
passengers. The master mechanics have devised a mov- 
able partition, with a door in the aisle, which admits of 
dividing the coach into two compartments, of which one 
may be of any required size, according to the amount of 
car space required. The bill was so framed as to include 
.street cars, but the impracticability of this feature of the 
act became so apparent that an amendment was passed, 
exempting street railroads. 



1 88 



THIRTY YEARS A PRESIDENT. 

ONE of the most familiar faces at the annual 
assemblage of the American Street Railway 
Association is that of President A. Everett. The 
young man who has just commenced a railway career, 
together with those who have grown gray in the service, 
count themselves fortunate when they can secure the 
coveted opportunity and in some quiet corner listen to 
the Doctor's kindly counsel, and gather wisdom from the 
rich experiences which have come to him during more 
than a generation of active railway service. 

Born in Liberty Township, Trumbull Count}', Ohio, 
on November 24th, 182 1, he has always lived in the 
State of which he is so ardent an admirer ; and during 
his life as railway manager has witnessed and promoted 
a series of improvements in street railway methods that 
form a contrast scarcel}' greater in' any other business. 

In i860 Dr. Everett became largely interested in street 
railway matters, and foreseeing the development in pro- 
gress in the city of Cleveland, and the prominent factor 
which the railway must be in that work, bought a con- 
trolling interest in the East Cleveland Rail Road Com- 
pany, and became its president, which office he has ever 
since and now holds. At that time Cleveland was not 
the magnificent city it is to-day, and his road, though one 
of the institutions at that time would scarcely make him 
adequate switching facilities for his present needs. Two 
miles of track, and four very small cars drawn by one 
horse each, and a small shed into which the " equipment " 
went at sun-down, comprised the road. The track was 
not paved, nor the rails spliced, and the cars are not 
referred to in the records of the company as being of the 
vestibule pattern. The entire outfit including franchises 
was stocked for only $49,000. But the doctor set vigor- 
ously at work, and has been at it ever since and can still 
set the pace on a day's work that will weary many a 
young man. He built extensions, introduced improve- 
ments and kept pressing to the front, until to-day he 
proudly points to an electric system second in extent to 
only one in the world, and unsurpassed by any in excel- 
lence and management. The two miles have expanded 
into forty miles of electric lines, with eighty-five Edison 
motor cars. Thirty miles of feed wire distribute the cur- 
rent to forty miles of trolley wires, and all operated from 
one-power house of ijioo-horse power capacity, to which 
on July 1st will be added a completed plant, furnishing 
1,400-horse power more. When the doctor thinks of 
his original four little arks, and then remembers how he 
carried only a few less than ten million passengers last 
year, he is not altogether disappointed, and as the pros- 
pect shows a certainty of a good twelve million fares this 
year, one is not surprised to learn that as the result of over 
thirty years consecutive service as head of the company, 
he has brought the stock up to $2,000,000, and that it 
could not be purchased for several times that sum. 

The doctor has a warm spot in his heart for young 
men and loves to encourage them to strive for large 
accomplishments, and we cannot wish a better hope for 
the city and company he has so long and wisely served, 



than that he ma\' continue to iill the president's chair for 
man}' 3'ears to come. To fill that chair in i860 meant to 
stand up and put forth every possible effort, and now 
when the great question of rapid transit has been worked 
out and he has given his city a model service, his friends 
will delight in seeing that president's chair a big easy one, 
from which he can direct his heads of departments and 
keep the ship which has voyaged so prosperously still on 
her successful course before a favored wind. 



H. H. LITTELL GOES TO BUFFALO. 

AT a recent meeting of the directors of the Buffalo 
Street Railway Company, Murry A. Verner, who 
has been the general manager, resigned on account 
of ill health, and will leave in a few weeks for a year's 
rest and travel in Europe. 

To the position thus vacant, the board unanimously 
elected Mr. H. H. Littell, who is so well known through- 
out the country as one of the ablest and most successful 
managers. Mr. Littell has been in active street railway 
work since 1864. In 1867 he became superintendent of 
the Louisville City Railway, and in 1889, of the consoli- 
dation growing out of the union of that company and the 
Central Passenger Co. Mr. Littell has been in frequent 
receipt of flattering offers from other large cities, includ- 
ing one from Chicago, but has heretofore positively 
declined all invitations to leave Louisville. That he is a 
most valued acquisition to the Buffalo system will be 
realized by all street railway men, and Col. Watson and 
citizens of that city certainly are to be congratulated. 
Mr. Littell leaves a record with the Louisville Company 
to which any man can point with pride, and the rapidly 
developing s\'stem in Buffalo will afford him larger scope 
and possibilities than ever before, and we wish him every 
possible success in entering this new and broader field. 
Mr. Littell will enter on his duties June ist. 



The clerk of the State Industrial School, at Buffalo, 
was driving with his wife in the outskirts of the city the 
other day, when he recognized two escaped inmates in a 
large crowd of roughs. Jumping from his carriage, 
followed by his wife; whereupon the horse became fright- 
ened and ran away; he undertook to arrest them, when 
the crowd attacked him with stones, shouting, " kill him," 
and were making short work of the officer when an 
electric car came in sight. The lady frantically beckoned 
to the driver, who turned on " full steam " and in a 
twinkling had reached the field of battle. The conductor 
and driver armed with brake handles, sailed in vigorously, 
and after an exciting struggle, not only saved the officer's 
life, but captured the two escaped ruffians, and taking 
them on the car, lost no time in delivering the prisoners 
at the door of the Institution, which is on the line of the 
road. As no other help was at hand, there are now some 
people who will never forget the way that the electric 
car and its brave crew "got there," and the company 
which desires to build a trolley line across their yard, or 
up and down their front steps, w-ill not have to call twice 
for signatures to the petition. 



satittt ^^^th^ • ^^e*^ 




A. EVERETT, 

President The East Cleveland Rallioad Co 



P%grt:^il*^^A^«^ 



189 



THE NEW CLYBOURN AVENUE CABLE LINE 

OK THE XORTll CHITAGO STRKET RAILROAD COMPANY. 



TIIIC Norlli C'liicaoo Street Railroad Compain, of 
Cliicago, has just inaclc an addition to their 
system which, althou<;h a eoniparatively small 
part of the entire ]ilant. is in itself of such size 
as to warrant mention. 

When the North Chicago Street Railway Co. was 
acquired hv the Philadelphia syndicate and Mr. C. T. 
^'erkes was installed as president, active steps were at 
once taken towards the construction of an extensive cable 
svsteni, to replace that which had been operated by horses 



But there was only a very deaf ear to their communica- 
tions. Steadily the dissatisfaction increased, until alonfr 
the entire length of the street there were demands made 
for the cable. They wanted it and would ha\e it. So 
the problem having worked itself out, it transpired that 
in May there was great rejoicing on Clybourn avenue, and 
city officials attended and the street was filled from one 
end to the other with people anxious to celebrate the 
inaugural of the new cable road. 

The track construction on the Chbourn a\emie line is of 




or nearly thirty years. Among the lines so proposed to 
change, was Clybourn a\enue, a business street with some 
manufacturing in the upper stories, but occupied for the 
most part as flats and tenements above the first floor. 
The population is almost entirely foreign and very 
densely packed, and as the line was one largely patron- 
ized, the company were glad to substitute mechanical 
power for horses. But one old fossil stirred up a strong- 
sentiment and in a few days had worked up such a feel- 
ing in this Western Europe that Mr. Yerkes changed the 
plans as originally proposed and cabled another street 
instead. As time went on and the people on the street 
watched the business increase, and noted the great advan- 
tages reaped by the occupants of property where the 
cable leached, they began to repent, and to send word to 
the company they would withdraw their opposition. 



the same general character as formerly built by this com- 
panv, but has two new features, one of which is speciallv 
novel. At Division and Wells streets the new line inter- 
sects the Wells street cable line and from this point the cars 
of the new line continue their down town trip o\er the 
Wells street line. 

The problem of switching a cable train from one line 
to another, at a right angle intersection was not so ditli- 
cult, but at this point there is an immense vault and here 
it is that three cables are brought to the surface, having 
been conducted through a closed tunnel from the power 
house six blocks distant. One set of ropes extends to the 
north, another to the south on the Wells street line, while 
the third pair continues on west and operates the Cly- 
bourn line. Hence it resulted that the Wells street cars 
in both directions dropped their cable and crossed the 



190 



vault and street, a distance of over one hundred feet, by 
nionientum. The Clybourn ave. cars are also brought 
around a curve and use the same Wells St. pick up in 
going down, town. On the return they also drop the 
Wells St. rope, same as Wells St. cars, and a combined 
slot and rail switch turns them west into the Clybourn 
cable. The Clybourn cable is dropped going east before 
reaching the curve and returning is not picked up until 
on straight track. To provide for this, the curve leading 
to Wells St. has a sufficient down grade in that direction 
to enable the train to make it by momentum and gravity. 



the table, to which it is geared by a series of wheels and 
shafts and thrown into action by means of a friction 
clutch. There is a slot in the table which permits the 
car to run across the table without lifting the grip. The 
car runs on to the table by momentum from the cable, 
and when the table has turned delivers the car to the 
other track. The table is so inclined that the car leaves 
it and rides to the pick up by gravity. Three levers con- 
trol the table ; one for forward motion, one to reverse, 
and one operates the brake. 

The table is built of steel girders, weighs 21 tons, is 




On leaving Wells street and passing to the Clybourn rope 
on Division street that track has a down grade, but in the 
opposite direction, giving the unusual construction of a 
double track curve with an opposite grade for each track. 
This was worked out by the chief engineer of the com- 
pany, Mr. S. Potis, Jr., who also occupies the same posi- 
tion for the West Chicago Cable road, and under whose 
personal direction this work, as well as the installing of 
the new machinery in the power house, was done. 



20 ft. in diameter, has two cable tracks and will re\erse, 
something not accomplished in other cable car tables. It 
makes four complete revolutions per minute. All the 
driving machiner}' was devised by Mr. Potis. The table 
itself was built bj- the Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa. 
A second table is provided, as shown in the plan, by 




LOCATIONfoF TURN TABLF S IN CAR HOUSE 

TURN TABLK. 



At the end of the line there are no facilities for making 
a loop and as the cars are built with the driver's room at 
one end, cannot be "switched back." To provide for 
this a turn table has been built in the car house at the 
terminal of the line, and the main cable is conducted into 
the building and around a 14 foot sheave placed under 



TURN TABLE SHOWING MAIN CABLE. 

means of which the trail cars are turned at the same 
time, and this double arrangement permits of handling a 
very large number of cars without confusion and witli the 
greatest pos.sible dispatch. 



191 



i>o\\i;i< ii()i:si;. 

To (Irivi- tliis new (.able, whiili is 27,760 feel in length, 
witli a diameter of i ,\ inches, additional power was 
letiuired at the Elm and Clark street power house, which 
is one of tlie finest and largest in the country. The 
new en<Mne which is a handsome giant of 1,000 horse 
l>()wer, as well as the new driving machinery, was 
built by Fraser & Chalmers, Chicago, who have also 
furnished a large portion of the engines and machinery 
used b\- both the .North Chicago and West Chicago 
Cable roads. These engines each have 36 in. cylinder, 
w ith 60 in. stroke, making 63 revolutions per minute, and 
weii^hs complete 90 tons; the engine crank shaft is a 
pretty little affair of 21 tons, of eighteen inches diameter. 
Foundations of crushed stone and concrete in equal pro- 
portions, of the most solid character, go down 1 1 feet and 
rest on hard clay. Two cables measuring 50,600 ft. are 
driven by this pair on drums also made by Fraser & 
Chalmers; one set with a diameter of twelve feet, the 
other 13 feet, the latter weighing 18 tons each. The 
drum shafts are 18 inches diameter between journals and 
12 inches at journals. The Clybourn cable runs 10 J^ 
miles per hour. This plant, of which a view is given, 
comprises 4 engines having a total of 3,000 horse power, 
and drives 4 lines of cable having a total length of 85,460 
feel. The boilers are 8 in number and are heated by 
oil which is stored in underground tanks made of steel 
and placed at some distance from the building. It is 
found a much more uniform fuel than coal, and is more 
economical, two barrels of oil producing the same results 
as one ton of the best coal, on the basis of four pounds of 
coal per horse power per hour. 

In the engine room are signal wires leading out through 
all the cable conduits and tunnels, with boxes at frequent 
intervals by means of which conductors can communicate 
with the power house bv a simple .system of signals. 

The entire plant in this station which, is one of the 
three operating the North Chicago system, has been 
rebuilt and heavier engines and machinery and shafting 
introduced. This too, without an hour's dela}' in the 
operation of the cars, and is another illustration of what 
most cable roads experience, viz, — that the volume of 
traffic that is created by this popular method of propulsion 
increases far bevond the expectation of owners and 
engineers. 

President Yerkes and his company, as well as the 
patrons who are thus favored, are to be congratulated on 
the successful completion and auspicious opening of the 
Clybourn a\enue cable line. 



STREET CAR PATENTS. 



WiiKN the electric cars made their debut in Sacramen- 
to, Cal., the other evening, the whole populace turned 
out to witness the event. Among them a Chinaman who 
had intended to ride, but when the motor car dashed 
round the corner and sparked a little as it struck some 
dirt covered track, the affrighted rice-eater took but one 
look and shouting, "Gues 'em, me walk," gave one jump 
and disappeared in the darkness. 



The following list of street car patents is prepared for 
the Stui-:kt R.mlvvay Revkiw, at the Patent Law Office 
of Haupt Brothers, 606 Rialto building, Chicago. We 
refer our readers to them on all matters relating to 
patents and patent law. 

APRIL 7, 1S91. 

Electric Railw.iy. Edw. M. Bentley, New York, N. Y. 449,792 

Electric Car-Stopping Device. .Geo. Blanchard, Waterville, Me. 449,843 

Electric Motor Car H. P. Brown, New York, N. Y. 449,752 

Pole for Overliead Systems of Electric Railways. Jno. L. 

Brownlee, Detroit, Mich. 449,753 

Electric Railway Rudolph M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa, 449,797 

Electric Railway Rudolph M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 450,074 

Trolley Support for Electric Cars Frank Robinson and P. 

_ W. P. Lander, Bangor, Me. 449,886 

Propelling Mechanism for Electric Motor Cars Sidney 

H. Short, Cleveland, O. 449,709 

Three Rail Track for Cable Railways Chas. Vogel, San 

Francisco, Cal. 450,116 

Cable Railway Crossing Chas. Vogel, San Francisco, Cal. 450,117 

Curve for Cable Railways Chas. Vogel, San Francisco, Cal. 450,118 

Apparatus on Cable Crossings,. Emil Werner, Philadelphia, Pa. 449,985 
APRIL 14, 1891. 

Safety Gate for Street Cars Francis C. Cash, Lynn, Mass. 450,556 

Fare- Registering Apparatus Ferdinand D. Deneker and 

F. Erhard, Hamburg, Germany, 450,602 

Trolley for Electric Railways Arthur S. Hickley, 

Richmond, Ind. 450,153 

Fender or Safety Attachment for Electric or other Cars.. David 

Hines, Cambridge, Mass. 450,460 

Electric Railway Rud. M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 450,586 

Non-Sparking Clamp for Trolley Wires Chas. A. Lieb, 

New York, N. Y. 450,163 

Electric Railway Wire Support Chas. A. Lieb, New York, 450,164 

Trolley Wire Support Chas. A. Lieb, New York, 450,242 

Electric Switch for Electric Railways Frederick Mansfield, 

New York, 450,172 

Electric Switch for Electric Railways Frederick Mansfield, 

New York, 450,173 

Trolley Device Alexander Palmros, Lynn, Mass. 450,184 

Electric Motor Cars Francis A. Pocock, Scranton, Pa. 450,189 

Reciprocating Electric Railway Motor System Chas. J. Van 

Depoele, Lynn, Mass. 450,542 

Switch Device for Street Cars.. Jeremiah Young, Boston, Mass. 450,549 

APRIL 21, 1891. 
Gripping Mechanism for Cars or Vehicles. H. Bowman, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 450,661 

Tramway Switch Chas. A. Beach, Albany, N. Y. 450,607 

Electric Railway Frank S. Culver, Eau Claire, Wis. 450,613 

Fare Register Silas E. Haskins, Denver, Colo. 450,936 

Electrical Propulsion of Vehicles. Edw. H. Johnson, New York, 450,742 
Power Transmitting Device for Electric Railways. . Edward H. 

Johnson, New York, 450,744 

Trolley or Traveler for Electric Railways Sidney H. Short, 

Cleveland, O. 450,683 

Vestibule Street Car Jno. Stephenson, New York, N. Y. 450,848 

Wheel Brake Jno. Stephenson, New York, N. Y. 450,850 

Railway Gate Crossing for Overhead Lines Elihu 

Thompson, Lynn, Mass. 450,687 

Elevated Railroad... Jno. N. Valley, Jersey City, N.J. (reissue) 11,158 
Trolley Wheel Support for Electric Cars.. .Harold A. Webber, 

Passaic, N.J. 450,853 

Electric Locomotive Geo. Westinghouse, Jr., Pittsburg, Pa. 450,652 

APRIL 28, 1891. 
Electrically Propelled Car.. Rud. M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 451,155 

Electric Railway Rud. M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 45'. '54 

Electric Railway Rud. M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 451,402 

Tension and Cut-Out Device for Electric Railways Byron 

Jennings, San Jose, Cal. 451,326 

Trolley Roderic Macrae, Baltimore, Md. 451,211 

Street Railway Switch Claude A. Ward and M. M. Martin, 

Kansas City, Kas. 451,093 



192 



"Composite Girders" for Street Railways. 

WE liave examined with much interest tlie "Com- 
posite Girders" illustrated below, which seem 
well calculated not onty to o\'ercome man}- of 
the weak points in girder rails, but also, by reason of the 




shape of the rail used with them, to afford special 
advantages for wheel service. 

The two constructions, 4 and 5, are alike, in 
consisting of a wooden sleeper embraced at its 
top by a long metallic plate on each side 
pierced by a double series of oblong, oval 
holes. Through the lower series spikes with 
central cutting edge placed \ertically to avoid 
splitting are driven, securing the plates hrmh' 
to the sleepers, preferably before bringing 
these out upon the street. These plates are 
7^ feet long, and cover the entire side of the 
sleeper in length, but not in width. 

Construction number 4 rests upon ballast, 
tamped firmly in a narrow longitudinal trench, 
and the opposite sleepers are maintained at 
guage by occasiomil tie rods across the road- 
way. The elasticity of a deep wooden sleeper 
W'iU contribute much to the smoothness of tiie 
track. 

The rail for both constructions is a heavv 
rail, 55 J^ lbs. to the yard, with a broad, flat 
base between deeply depending flangse. 
Through these holes are punched or drilled, concident 
JSule. vtew e^Comtmction.?fo:^,- 



broad base, supported its whole width and its whole 
length by a wide, vertical support, faced each side witli 
metal. 

Construction number 5 has .sleepers of less depth than 
for number 4, seated upon cross ties, to which they are 
attached by embracing chairs spiked to both 
and maintaining gauge. An interval between 
the bottoms of the plates and the tops of the 
chairs precludes concussion or jars as the 
wheels pass above them. 

It will be observed in both these construc- 
tions that the rails and plates assure a com- 
plete water shed for the sleepers, and that 
these are thoroughly protected alike from 
alternations of wet and dry, without vertical 
holes from above, admitting decay to the heart 
of the timber. 

The mveterate knocking at the joints which 
has given so much trouble in all constructions 
when a few months laid, seems at last to ha\e 
been met and mastered by the plate and sleeper 
joint. In this device, abandoning hope from splice bars, 
tile in\entor seems to have secured an arrangement with- 



ConatructioTi 
:N'o:^. 




-ga-^ , 7-"-°W- Cr\r. -A--(i- 




of ^O tnche,s teith. oblong-ouol 
?to7e^ <Z,€t^ — to a.llot^Jbriiontnxtiii 




in shape and position with those of the upper series, and 
.spikes through them attach the rail to the substructure; a 



out leverage and accumulating in its power upon the 

ends of the rails as the center of the plates is 

^ reached. The average interval for these holes 

~^ \ through body of the rail is but 10 inches. So 
" numerous, therefore are the spikes attachinjr 

the rail to its more elastic support, that the 
longitudinal vibration of the rail is absorbed 
or annulled; and at the end of the rails they 
accumulate rapidl}-, binding the rail on each 
side to a vertical metallic plate, thoroughly 
supported its whole length, several times as 
long as any splice bar. The above outline of 
the construction, which is the invention of the 

Price Railway Appliance Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 

will be explained in detail bv addressing the compan\-. 



193 



FOUND ON THE RUSH TRIP. 



ALABAMA. 

]5iKMiN<;ii.\.M.— -The l)irmiii<rliaiii Railway & Electric 
Co. will at once proceed to construct a line b\- the over- 
head s\stem. 

SiiKKFiKiJ). — Messrs. Reed and Roberts, of this place 
have leased tlie dummy line to Tuscunibia, and will 
operate it for the next year. 

ARKANSAS. 

LiTTi,!-; Rock. — An electric line is now talked of to 
run from Fort Smith to Van Buren o\er the tieu railroad 
bridj,^'. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Ai.AMEDA. — Permission has been granted Theo. Metz 
to change his motor line to electricity any time within the 
next three years. 

Ukrkelev. — The Claremont, Universitv & Ferries 
Street Railway has been purchased by a new companv ; 
the olllcers are as follows : President, Louis Gottshall ; 
Sccretarv, S. G. Siebert ; Treasurer, W. E. Sell. 



Sacramento. — The Central Railway Co. has been 
reorganized under the name of the Central Electric Rail- 
way Co., with a new board of directors which includes 
L. L. Lewis and Gen. J. G. Martine, of this citv. New 
tracks will be laid and additional cars purchased. 



San Francisco. — The Consolidated Piedmont Cable 
Co. will .shortly commence the construction of an addi- 
tional line from Clay to Fourteenth street to the Sixteenth 
street depot. 

COLORADO. 

1)i:nver. — About fifty miles of street railway will be 
built in this city this summer. Electricity will be the 
motive power for the most part. The City Cable and 
Tramway companies are doing most of the building. 

Till'; real estate tirm of Merritt, Gommer & Winne 
ha\e petitioned for right of way for a street car line on 
the Stale lands immediately north of the Citv Park. The 
petition will probably be granted. 



The Rapid Transit Co. is changing its tracks from 
single to double, between Colorado Springs and Manitou. 
1 he company has ordered a Wenstrom motors, trong 
enough to draw a train of three cars. 



Leadnieee. — Sur\eys are being made for the pro- 
posed extensions of the electric road. 



CONNECTICUT. 

Hriihjei'ort.— The close of the State Legislature has 
rendered it impossible to construct the electric line here 
this year. The company will, however, improve its 
service this summer by the addition of a large number of 
open cars. 



DELAWARE. 

Saeisbury. — The Salisbury Street Passenger Railway 
has been incorporated, with Thomas Perry as President; 
C. C. Waller, V^ice-President ; L. E. Williams, Secretary, 
and W. H. McConkey, Treasurer. Franchises have been 
asked for. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 
Washin<;ton. — The Belt Line road of this city have 
just closed a contract with the Johnson Co., of Johnstown, 
Pa., for ten miles of eighty pound rails which thev will 
use in re-laying the present lines. 



The District Commissioners of the Washington & 
Georgetown Railway Co. have reached a satisfactorv un- 
derstanding as to the conditions upon which the extension 
of his cable road on Pennsylvania avenue and Fourteenth 
street is to be laid, and the permission has been granted. 
President Hunt is entitled to great credit for his untiring 
efforts to secure a good cable road for this citv, to accom- 
plish which he has given his most constant effort during 
the past four years, and already has one of the finest sys- 
tems in the countrv. 



FLORIDA. 

Arcadia. — The Arcadia Street Railwa\- & Inipro\e- 
ment Co. has been incorporated, with a capital stock of 
$100,000, by Anthony Peters of Boston, Homer Rogers 
of Boston and Frederick C. Peters of Arcadia. 



Jacksonnieee. — Survey has been comjileted for an 
electric line to connect this citv with Panama. The con- 
struction of the road has not vet been fullv decided on. 



St. Au(;ustine. — The North Beach Railway Co. is 
asking for franchises for a number of extensions and 
expects to spend $15,000 in construction work this sum- 
mer. 

GEORGIA. 

Americus. — By next fall the street railway of this 
jilace will be extended around the town, making a belt 
line which will connect nearly all the factories. 



Ateanta. — Horace I. Bettis of Salem, has been elected 
superintendent of the street railway here. 



Augusta.- -The electric road recently carried 30,000 
passengers in two days with an equipment of 28 cars. 
The company have put on sale special tickets for school 
children at half price. 

Cedartown. — A franchise for a street railroad has 
been granted to Messrs. Allen & Co. of Rome, this state. 
Work will be commenced very soon. 



Tiiomas\teee. — A survey has been completed for a 
street car line in this city. The indications are that it 
will be built at once. 



194 



ILLINOIS. 
Alton. — The business men are endeavoring to organ- 
ize a company to construct a street rail\va\-, and have 
offered bonus bonds of $10,000 towards the road. 



CoLLiNsviLLE. — John S. Gordon is constructing a 
dummy line, which is well under way towards completion. 



Peoria. — The Central Street Railway Co. are making 
a number of extensions, which will very greatly improve 
the facilities of their excellent system. 



Waukecan. — The city council has rejected the ordi- 
nance for the proposed street railway, on the ground that 
it grants the company too much power. A new ordin- 
ance will be asked for. 



Chicago. — President Yerkes, of the West Side Street 
Railway, has refused the ordinance for the right to lav 
track upon North avenue, on account of the clauses which 
require the pa3-ment to the city of $800 per mile per 
\ear. 

Superintendent Pope of the Chicago City Railway, 
has issued an order prohibiting newsboys from selling 
papers on the cars of that company. This has been 
rendered necessaiy from the fact that a number of suits 
have been brought for injuries suffered from newsboys 
jumping on moving trains. 



The first suit against the Lake St. elevated R'y- has 
been filed by a property owner at 315 Lake Street, ask- 
ing $10,000 for damage done his property by shutting 
out light and air. 

The Cicero and Proviso Electric Railway is meeting 
with great success, and on a recent Sunday carried 
10,000 people with an equipment of only twelve cars. 



It is rumored that the North Side Cable system will 
extend its down town loop on Clark street as far south a 
Polk street, east on Polk, turning north at the Polk 
street depot, and continuing on Dearborn and Monroe, 
where it reaches the present termmus. The extension 
will be about a mile in length, and it is understood that 
the South Side Cable Road have given their consent to 
the use of their tracks on Clark street for this purpose. 



A Permit has been granted to The Equitable Trans- 
portation Co. for an elevated road on a number of streets, 
to connect that portion of the city as far south as ninetieth 
street, with the Alley Elevated Railway, whose present 
terminus is now at Thirty-ninth street. 



Be(;inning with May 25th, the gripmen and starters of 
the West Chicago Street Railway will appear in uniform 
of blue caps and suits. 



The Chicago City Railway have withdrawn the special 
three cent fare ticket for the letter carriers on duty, and 
now they put up fi\e cents or walk. 



INDIANA. 
Anderson. — A new company has been organized, 
which has purchased the old horse car system, and if it 
can secure an extention of the franchise for twenty years, 
will put in a $250,00 electric road. 



Elkhart. — The Electric Street Railway Co. have 
moved their oilices into more comfortable quarters at 113 
Main street. 

Koko:mo. — Elmer Haines, formerly of Sault Ste Marie 
has arrived and will have charge of the electric street 
railway here. 



Terre Haute. — The street railwa}' company ha\e 
ordered a new 250 H. P. compound Westinghouse engine 
and an additional dynamo, which are made necessary by 
the rapid increase in the company's business. 



IOWA. 

Cedar Rapids. — The franchise for an electric railwa}' 
has at last been granted to the Thomson-Houston Electric 
Co. It extends for fifty years and is exclusive for five. 
The company has sixty da3-s in which to accept the fran- 
chise, but must have the road in operation within sLx 
months from such date. It is intended to build ten miles 
at the start. 

Cedar F.\lls. — A company is being organized to build 
an electric road. 



Davenport. — The consolidation has been effected of 
the Brady street & West Davenport lines, under the name 
of the Davenport Electric Railway, Light & Power Co., 
with Dr. W. L. iMlen as president. As both companies 
were owned practically by the same stockholders the 
consolidation will make but little change. 



Dubuque. — Creditors representing claims of nearly 
$20,000 have filled liens against the Key City Electric 
Railwa}', and it is possible the road will be consolidated 
with the Allen & Swiney System. J. K. Deming has 
been appointed receiver. 



Waterloo. — A franchise has been granted to Super- 
intendent Angell of the Eighth street line, Dubuque, and 
his assistants, for the construction of an electric line here. 
Work must begin by August ist, and be completed 
within one year. 

KANSAS. 

Atchison. — Dr. W. L. Challis has purchased a con- 
trolling interest in the Atchison Street Railwa}- Co. 



Lea\enworth. — A charter has been filed for the 
Suburban Street Railway Co.; capital $250,000. It is 
the intention to build from this city to the Fort and Sol- 
diers' Home. The incorporators are : Geo. A. Baker, 
Wm. Dill, George Barrows, Laurens Haun, of Leaven- 
worth ; J. C. Lutle, of Exeter, New Hampshire, and W. 
A. Patton, Kingston, New Hampshire. 



195 



KENTUCKY. 

L|';.\iN(;T()N. — Sincf llio intiodiKtion of electricity the 
receiiits of the line have been doubled. 

L()iris\ii.i-E. — The street car stables at Twenty-sixth 
and Market streets caught tire recently, but the tire was 
e.\tin.i,niislu(l with hut small loss. 



LOUISIANA. 

SiiUKVKi'ORT. — At a special tneetiii<;' of the City Coun- 
cil a franchise was granted extending the term of the 
rights of the Shreveport Railway Co. and the Shreveport 
Railway & Land Improvement Co. thirty years. The 
extension is for the purpose of securing valuable im- 
provements which both companies desire to make. 

MAINE. 
Cjaudnku. — The Augusta, Ilallowel &Gardner Electric 
Rail\va\' has proved one of the best investments of the 
kind ever made in the city. The road has been in opera- 
tion but one year and the stock has already reached par. 



MARYLAND. 
Ann.xpoi.is. — The Edison Electric Light Co., has been 
granted permission to lay tracks for an electric railroad 
between this city and Bay Ridge, the same being 
exempted from the payment of any rovalt}- for twenty- 
tive years. 



TiiF. cable railway on Howard street has been injured 
by the sinking of the street from the excavations of the 
IJelt Railroad Co., who have been putting a tunnel across 
thi.s part of the street. It will delay the completion of the 
road about two weeks. 



[ S.VLisBURY.— J. A. Perry, C. C. Waller, L. E. Williams, 
and others have petitioned the Cit\- Council to build a 
street railway here. 

MANITOBA. 
WiNMPEc;. — The City Council has granted a franchise 
for twenty-tive years for an electric street railway. It is 
hoped to ha\e the line in operation this summer. 



MISSISSIPPI. 
\ icKSBURG. — The street railway company here is 
planning an extension of its line on Washington street, 
South .street and Cherry street. 



MASSACHUSETTS. 
Boston. — In the Superior Court a jur\- ordered the 
West End Street Railway Company to pa\- the sum of 
$17,000 to John Brown Smith, a nine-year-old colored 
boy, who met with an acccident on one of their cars. 
The case will probably be re-heard, as the amount is 
excessive. 

Brockton. — Patrick Mahone}-, who was eighty \ears 
of age, was found dead on a Clifton avenue car, on which 
he was a passenger. 

Gloucester. — W. A. Strangeman, superintendent of 
the street railway here, has been presented with an ele- 
gant gold watch by the employes of the road. 



Lowell.— The Lowell and Dracut Street Railway 
Companies have been consolidated and will be equipped 
with electricity. 

Onset. — It is stated that the owners of the East 
Wareham, Onset Bay and Point Independence Street 
Railway have secured control of the Dummy Road, run- 
ninu from Onset Station to Onset Grove. 



QuiNCV. — The Railroad Committee reported a bill to 
incorporate John Q. Adams, Henry L. Higginson, 
Charles H.Porter, W. G. A. Pattee,P. L. Saltonstall. G. E. 
Armstrong and J. R. Graham, as the Quincy Electric 
Freight Railway Company. The location is to be fifty 
feet wide and the gauge is of standard width. The capi- 
tal is to be $300,000, and $150,000 in bonds maybe 
issued. 

Worcester. — The street railway companies of this city 
have been petitioned to extend their lines through 
Shrewsberry and Belmont streets to the lake, and it will 
undoubtedly be built. 



MICHIGAN. 

Detroit. — The Trilmne of this city is advocating the 
cable line for Woodward avenue. 



The Detroit & Suburban Street Railway Co. has peti- 
tioned for franchises from Griswold street to Wyandotte. 



Gi{.\Nn RArins. — The employes of the Consolidated 
Road have asked for an increase in their wages of 25 
cents per day, the present rate being $1.25. 

Contracts amounting to $180,000 have already been 
let for the equipment of the consolidated lines with elec- 
tricity. Work is progressing rapidly. 

The \'alley City Street Cable Railway Co. have 
succeeded in securing the right to occupy a number of 
streets for thirty years. This has been a hard fight, and 
was finally passed by a vote of 15 to 5. 

The Reed's Lake Electric Railway was opened on 
April 27th, and carried 2,000 people with one motor and 
a trail car. 

The Consolidated Company have closed a contract 
with the Edison Electric Light Company of this city to 
furnish power for the electric line until the company's 
additional power house is completed. 

S.\GiNA\y. — The stockholders of the Union Electric 
street Railway have voted to spend $100,000 at once, in 
extending their system. A new power .station will be 
erected and an equipment of twenty new cars ordered. 
A considerable portion of the main line will be double- 
tracked. 

Sandwich. — The Street Railway Co. of this city have 
purchased property, and will at once commence the erec- 
tion of a large stone building for their electric plant. 

Sailt Ste. Marie. — Geo. Cody has been elected 
superintendent of the electric street railway in this city. 



196 



MINNESOTA. 

Minneapolis. — The City Railwa}- Co. propose build- 
ing a large dock, to be anchored in Lake Harriet, which 
is at the end of one of their electric lines. A large band 
has been secured and concerts will be given everj- night. 
The 30 H. P. motors which have been used on the 
electric line between this city and St. Paul, have been 
found inadequate, and new ones are being built, with a 
capacity of 50 H. P., which it is believed will not onlv 
take care of the business, but enable a considerably higher 
speed. It is now proposed to build an electric line to 
Medicine Lake. The electric line to Minnehaha Falls, 
which is now a single track will shortly be double-tracked 
its entire length, and the service increased to a car every 
five minutes, instead of one in fort^•-five minutes, as at 
present. 

St. Paul. — A party of capitalists from New York 
were here a few days since, looking over the prospects 
for the construction of an elevated railwa}' between this 
city and Minneapolis to be operated b}- electricity. 



The first experiment in electric railways in Minnesota 
outside the city lines is to be made between Stillwater and 
St. Paul, a distance of 24 miles. The Commissioners of 
Washington County have granted a right of way to 
Chauncey F. Gregory, of Stillwater. It is intended to 
have the road in operation by October ist, for both 
freight and passenger traffic. 



Winona. — The Council has passed the ordinance per- 
mitting the substitution of electricit}- for steam power, 
and extended the limit of the franchise to fifty years from 
1883. Work will commence June ist. of changing the 
horse road to an electric line, which is expected to be 
completed in about two months. 



MISSOURI. 

Kansas City. — On May nth, the cable railway 
station at the Union Depot was destro3'ed by tire, also the 
connecting station at the elevated railwa}-. The stations 
were at the' bottom of the steep incline, which is the chief 
means of reaching the bluffs. The Union Depot had a 
very narrow escape and the loss will amount to $20,000. 



The West Side Street Railway Co. has commenced 
the erection of a new power house. 



St. Louis. — Work has commenced in the re-construc- 
tion of the Benton-Bellefontaine Railway from animal to 
electric power. The expectation is that the line will be in 
operation within four months. The Jefferson A\enue 
line will also be changed during Jul\-. 



MONTANA. 

Butte. — The Cit}- Council took advantage of the non- 
operation of the Park Street line, which was formerly a 
dummy line and is now being converted into electricity, 
to declare the ordinance under which the dummies were 
operated, as forfeited. 



Granite. — A syndicate of eastern capitalists is to build 
and operate a cable road between Phillipsburg and Gran- 
ite, Mont. It is estimated that it will cost $250,000 to 
build and equip the road, and the projectors expect to 
have it in operation by the latter part of August. 



NEBRASKA. 

Lincoln. — The Lincoln Street Electric Railway has 
secured an ordinance which allows them to erect over- 
head wires for both lighting and railway purposes, on an\- 
street or alley in the city not alread}' occupied bj' some 
other company. 

The Lincoln Street Railway has purchased a piece of 
ground 100x316 feet, and will proceed to erect at the 
earliest possible moment a fire proof car house of brick, 
capable of storing 200 cars. The company's offices will 
be located in it, and a portion of the building will be de- 
voted to repair and manufacturing purposes, as the com- 
pan}' intend to experiment with the building of cars on 
their own account. 

Beatrice. — Work is going forward nicely and a con- 
siderable portion of the track is now down. 



NEW JERSEY. 

Camden. — The Camden Horse Railway Co. has con- 
tracted with the Johnson Company for the relaying of a 
laree amount of its tracks with their rails. 



East Orange. — A franchise has been granted the 
Rapid Transit Street Railway Co., of Newark, to operate 
an electric line in East Orange. This is a franchise over 
which there has been a long controversy, and the com- 
pany is to be congratulated on its success. 



Jersey City. — President Thurston has succeeded in 
overcoming the objections of the property owners in the 
vicinity of Van Vorst Park, and the completion of the 
line will be made at once. 



Newark. — The transfer system between the Rapid 
Transit Co. and the Essex Passenger Street Railway Co. 
is proving v-ery successful and is rapidly increasing. Up- 
wards of twenty- five thousand passengers per week are 
thus exchanged between the companies. 



Patterson. — The Patterson Railway Co. has absorbed 
the Passaic, Garfield & Clifton Electric Railway Co., 
which runs a line of electric cars through Passaic. There 
is no change in offices. The electric railway will be 
extended to Clifton. Electricity will eventuall}- be made 
the moti\e power of the Patterson lines. 



Trenton. — Under the consolidation of the City Pas- 
senger Railway and the Trenton Horse Railway Co., 
Col. Louis Perrine becomes president and general mana- 
ger of both roads. The new syndicate has ordered a 
reduction in wages, by which drivers are reduced from 
$1.75 to $1.25; conductors from $2 to $1.50; stablemen 
from $1.50 to $1.20, and other emj^loyes in proportion. 



197 



'I'm; lilit,fati()ii in the Supri'inc L'ourt, by which llic 
'i'nntdii Horse Railroad Co. desires to substitute elec- 
Uieiu on some of its horse line has again been postponed. 
'I'he delay is most vexatious, as the company have already 
ordered a large number of electric cars which they will 
not now lie able to use until the court renders its decision. 

I'l.AiNriKM). — The city council has granted to the 
riainlield Citv Railway Co. a franchise to operate in the 
citv an electric railwav by the overhead system. 



NEW MEXICO. 
Mk.xico Crrv.- The \'alley Railway Co. has con- 
tracted with the Secretary of War to connect all the 
militar\ barracks in and around tlie city by rail. 

NEW YORK. 

.\[.ii.\NV. —The Capitol Railw.iy, with a capital stock 
of $10,000, has been incorporated for the purpose of 
building a surface road on Eagle street and Washington 
avenue. 

Hkooklyn. — Almost two-thirds of the 600.000 shares 
of stock of the Brooklyn City Railway w ere represented 
at the meeting held to act on the issue of $6,000,000 of 
new bonds, and e\erv \ ote was in favor of the increase. 



lUii -VIA). -The Central Labor Union is making a 
vigorous protest against having mail boxes placed in the 
street cars. Their reason being that it would prevent the 
street car men from striking, if they desire to do so; as 
the cars w ould then become common carriers of the mail, 
and it would be an offense against the government to 
delay them. 



Lom; Island L'itv. — The strike which has been brew 
ing for man\- weeks on the Steinway & Hunters' Point 
Railwa} came to a head on May 3d. and the road was 
tied up one day, but the advice of Mavor Gleason induced 
the men to iro to work. 



'I'kov. — The Troy & Lansingburg Railway Co. has 
increased their capital from $100,000 to $200,000 for the 
purpose of electric equipment. 



Rkconstruction of the old lines and extension of new 
ones in the city w ill involve an expenditure this year of 
fully $200,000. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 

R vi.KiGH. — The troublesome delays which have pre- 
\ented the completion of the electric line here, have been 
settled. Work will be continued, and the entire system 
not only completed but extended further than it was origi- 
nally intended. 



\\ INSTON — The Winston-Salem Land and In\ estment 
Co., have closed their contract w ith the Electric Light 
Motor & Power Co. by which the latter agrees to build a 
system of street railway over its land, which embraces 
518 acres. A tine park has been laid out at the terminus 
which will cover eighteen acres. 



Wii,.mini;ton. — Maj. Chas. M. Stedman, representing 
the syndicate who has the option for the purchase of the 
horse railway here, has secured an ordinance from the city 
which permits the construction of an electric line on any 
street or alley in the city, with the exception of three 
streets. This i>ri\ilege extends for a space of eighteen 
months, and placed the syndicate in a position to carry out 
the improvements and extensions, which are said to be 
ipiite extensive. 

OHIO. 

Hkkka. — Permission was granted the Berea Street 
Railwav Co. to extend its lines to the city limits of Cleve- 
land. This grant is for twenty-five years and the electric 
s\ stem will be used. The distance is eight miles, and 
work will commence at once. 



Coi.u.MBUS. — The County Commissioners have granted 
the (jlenwood & Greenlawn Street Railway Co. the 
right to lay tracks to Greenlawn Cemetery. 

MansI'Ikij). — Clark Rude, who is the principal stock- 
holder in the new company, promises to put in an electric 
system this summer. 

Obeki.in. The question of building a street railway 
here is again being agitated, but no definite steps have yet 
been taken. 

Painksvii.lk. — A company has been formed to build 
an electric line to Fairport. 



ToLKDO. — The employes of the street railways here 
ha\e organized an association called The Brotherhood of 
Street Railway Employes. 

The Consolidated Company has been granted permis- 
sion to extend its Metropolitan Street line to the Post 
Ottice in West Toledo. 



Canton. — The Akron syndicate, who purchased the 
Canton and Lakeside Street Railway of this city a year 
ago, has now sold it to local capitalists, the consideration 
being in the neighborhood of $100,000. Mr. Lynch will 
serve as president and treasurer and R. A. Miller will 
be vice-president. 

Zanksvili.e. — Col. A. L. Conger and party, of Akron, 
w ho own the electric line here, are still in possession of 
the road, the trade with the local capitalists ha\ ing fallen 
through. The company- intend now to bond the road. 



OREGON. 

Ahekdekn. Work on the electric road is progressing, 
and the entire line of four miles must be completed this 
year. 

PoKTLANo. — At the annual election of the Cable Rail- 
way Co., of this city, Eugene B. White and J. H. Page 
were elected directors to till vacancies caused by resigna- 
tions in the Board. 

The Portland Cable Co. is considering the construc- 
tion of a line from the incline of the company's property 
near Mt. Zion. 



198 



The Portland & Vancomer Railway has commenced 
electric service and is already doing a large business. 



The Washington Electric line will soon begin laving 
track on Twenty-second street, power for which will be 
furnished by the Union Power Co. 



Salem. — The Chicago syndicate that has purchased 
the Salem street car line is here completing, the transfer 
of the property. It is rumored that the new management 
will electrif}- the entire road and extend the svstem some 
three or four miles. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Braddock. — The Braddock & Turtle Creek Passen- 
ger Railway Co. had an interesting time in trying to lay 
its tracks on Eighth street, which was already occupied 
b}' the rails of a ri\al road, the Braddock Electric Co. 
When the old tracks were torn up at midnight, the police 
arrested the employes, but the new company secured 
the discharge of their men, and succeeded in having a 
constable arrest the police. A fire alarm was sounded 
which attracted a great crowd, but before the police 
succeeded in getting bail the new company- had completed 
the construction of their Hnes across the territory in 
question. 

DuRYEA. — There is a great scheme on foot to connect 
all the towns in this valley, from Duryea to Nanticoke, bv 
a system of electric roads, for which a company has 
already been formed and a large capital subscribed. The 
proposed line is to commence at Duryea and pass through 
the towns of Pittston, Wyoming, Kingston, WilkesBarre, 
Plains, Parsons and Pleasant V" alley. The intention is to 
furnish cheap and rapid transportation, and thus bring 
the several communities into closer relationship. The 
most an}- passenger will be required to pav even if he 
rides over the entire line will not be over 10 cents, while 
most distances will be but 5 cents. 



Erh-:. — The \ery excellent electric system here is 
adding further improvements by additional dynamos at 
the power house, and extra cai's which will be put in 
service at once. 



Harrlsburc;. — Within ten hours after the papers were 
signed for consolidating the two street railways, a large 
force of men were at work on the foundations for the new 
power house, which will be 54 x 135 feet. 

Lebanon. — The Lebanon & Annville Electric Street 
Railway Co., has ordered six cars from the John 
Stephenson Co., to be delivered at the earliest possible 
moment. 

Pittsbur<;h.— The Central Electric Railway has 
commenced work on their line, contracts ha\ing been let. 
The line will be opened October ist. 



SiHCNANDOAH. — The directors of the Mahano\- Cit}', 
Shenandoah, Girardville & Ashland Electric Railway Co. 
have contracted with the Edison Company for the con- 
struction and equipment of ten miles of road, to cost 
$160,000, and to be completed within iiinetj- days. 



ScRANTON. — G. Mortimer Lewis, of Wilkes Barre, is 
president of the company known as the Scranton & Car- 
bondale Street Railway Co., which has been incorporated 
for the purpose of connecting the two cities by an electric 
line. 



Waverlv. — The Waverly Street Railway Co. has j 
been organized with a capital of $35,000. Among the 
directors are Walter II. Baldwin and W. A. Watrous, of 
this city. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Gaffrev City. — Good progress is being made in tlie 
construction of the street railway line from this place to 
Limestone. 



TENNESSEE. 

Bristol. — Work is progressing niceh' on the electric 
road here, and when completed it will be one of the best 
systems in the South. 



Chattanooga. — Coffin & Stanton, of New York, who 
own Cameron Hill, a famous fort in war times, are build- 
ing an electric line which will make the property much 
more accessible. The present incline will be abandoned. 



Memphis. — The Main street tracks ha\'e been changed 
to standard guage, for the new electric cars, which will be 
operated by mules until the electric wires are ready for 
service. 



Nashville. — One of the leading merchants in this city 
recently chartered an electric car, which was handsomely 
decorated and displayed a few attractive advertisements, 
and had it run over all the lines in the cit}- during the da}^ 



TEXAS. 

El Paso. — The unusually high water in the Rio Grande 
river has washed away considerable track for the Inter- 
national Street Car Co., and the company's stables are 
also inundated. 



Galveston. — Conductors and motor men of the City 
Street Railway Co. have all been placed in uniforms, 
which are of the regulation blue, made into a straight 
front sack coat with rolling collar, and brass buttons bear- 
ing the monogram of the company. The caps are blue 
with brass badges. 

Houston. — A Denver Syndicate headed b}- Judge T. 
B. Stuart are endeavoring to secure a franchise for the 
construction of fifteen miles of an electric railway in this 
city. The new construction will cost with equipment not 
less than $10,000 per mile. 



The Houston Rapid Transit Railway Co. has filed 
their charter, with a capital of $300,000, the incorporators 
being James T. D. Wilson, Harvey J. Wilson and James 
A. Baton. 



Lampasas. — Denver capitalists are here looking into 
the matter of building an electric line between the two 
principal springs, which are a mile apart. 



199 



San Antonio. — The charter for the San Antonio Street 
Raihvay Co. has heen granted, increasinif the capital 
stock to $800,000. 

FoKT WoKTii. On the morning of April i^d. tiie 
'l\'iitli street car stahles of the Ciiy vStreel Railv\'a\' Com- 
pany, of thi.s city, were hurned, atid .se\enteen mules and 
six cars were destroyed. The emploj'es asleep in the 
harii hareK escapt'd with their liyes. Loss $5,000. 



UTAH. 

Salt Lakk Cit's . J. N. Keniiech has applied to tlu' 
Count}' Court for a franchise for a street railvva}- in the 
suburbs just he3'ond the city limits. Eastern capitalists 
are pledged to the scheme b}' the sum of $200,000. It 
will |irobably he known as the Ea.st Boule\ard Railway 
and w ill he two and one-half miles long. 

The East Side Rapid Transit Co. has been absorbed by 
the Salt Lake Rapid Transit Co., and an electric line will 
soon be in operation between Salt Lake Cit}' and the 
Penitentiary. 

Prksidknt Ih'MAN, of the Rapid Transit Co., is in the 
East on business connected with his road. 

TiiK Street Railroad Electric Car Line on South 
Second street \yill shortly be extended a distance of t\yo 
miles further west. It also has in contemplation the ex- 
tension of one of its lines reaching to the north. 

The annual meeting of the stockholders of the West 
Side Rapid Transit Compan}- was held this morning. 
The following is the board of directors elected: J. G. 
Jacobs, E. W. Senior, B. A. M. Froi-sett, J. F. Beyle, T. 
A. Davis, C. E. Wantland, A. J. Dutton. This is the old 
board of directors excepting Messrs. Wantland and Dutton. 



VIRGINIA. 
Norfolk. — The stock has all been taken for the build- 
ing of the electric railway, and work will commence as 
soon as the charter has been approved. 



Staunton. — Permission has been granted the railwa^■ 
.ompany to extend their lines to the Park Addition. 



SuKi'OLK. — Work is moving along nicely with the 
construction of the street car line in this cit\-. It w ill be 
a little more than two miles in length. 

WASHINGTON. 

Akkrdkicn. The Pacific & Wheless Electric Raihvay 
Co., has let the contract for the construction of its road, 
and asked the City Council for franchises over three 
other streets. 



LvNOEN. — At a recent meeting of citizens $2 5,000 was 
.subscribed toward a motor line between this place and 
Whatcom. It is expected that a bonus of $10,000 will be 
pledged. 

Spokane Falls.— The City Park Transit Co. expects 
to build to Union Park, and another line to a jioint three 
miles from Lidgerwood. 



Seattle. — The Yesler Avenue Cable Line is putting in 
a new engine, two new boilers, and a million gallon pump. 
It is also laying out and improving its grounds, and when 
completed will have a very pretty little park. 

Till'; Rainier Power & Electric Co.. have received their 
hanchise for the construction of the electric and cable 
line, which must be completed within twenty-two months 
from date. The franchi.se runs for twenty-li\e years 
and is to be a live foot guage. If electricity is used the 
poles nuLst be painted black to a height of eight feet 
above the ground, and lights mu.st be carried on pole.s, 
not to exceed four hundred feet apart. 



WISCONSIN. 

Baraboo. — The company which was organized recent- 
ly to construct an electric line from this place to De\irs 
Lake is getting well under way, and has elected the 
following officers: President and Treasurer, F. T. 
Wrewster: Vice President, J. P. Witwen: Secretary, (j. 
A. Kartack; General Manager, II. J. Irwin. 



West Superior. — The street railway company intend 
to build a large car house for the storage of their new 
motor cars. It will be of brick and \'ery complete. 
Contracts amounting to over $500,000 ha\ e been let by 
the Electric Raihvay Co., and a \erA- large force of men 
are now at work. 

Racine. — The Belle City Street Car Co.. expect to 
relay their entire east track and put in a (irst-class 
electric plant. 



Through Seven States. 

Commencing March 29th, the Northern Pacific resumed its double 
daily passenger train service between St. Paul and Minneapolis on the 
east, and Helena, Bulte, Spokane Falls, Tacoma, Seattle and Portland 
on the west. 

West bound trains will leave St. Paul at 9:00 A. m. and 4:15 p. m., 
respectively, carrying complete service of Pullman First Class and 
Tourist Sleeping Cars, First and Second Class Day Coaches, Free 
Colonist Sleeper and Elegant Dining Cars. The morning train out ol 
St. Paul [No. 3j will carry First Class Vestibuled Sleeper from Chicago, 
leaving that point at 5:30 i\ m. daily, over the C, M. & St. P. Rv., 
reaching the Pacific Coast, via the line through Butte. 

Train No. i, leaving St. Paul at 4:15 p. M., will carry both Pullman 
First Class and Pullman Tourist Sleeping Cars from Chicago, via the 
Wisconsin Central Line, leaving the latter point at 10:41; p. m. daily 
running via Helena to Spokane Falls, Tacoma and Portland. 

Passengers from the east leaving St. Louis in the forenoon and Chi- 
cago in the afternoon will make close connections wilh the morning 
train out of St. Paul the following day; leaving Chicago at night, con- 
nection will be made with Train No. i out of St. Paul the next afternoon. 

With two transcontinental passenger trains running daily between 

eastern and western terminals, the Northern Pacific Raili'oad the 

Yellowstone Park Route — offers the best possible service to the tourist 
business man or settler. The equipment on this line is unsurpassed in 
point of beauty and convenience, while the service is first-class. It is 
the short and direct line to Montana and all North Pacific Coast points 
and passes through the grandest, most productive and richest sections 
of seven States, viz: Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana 
Idaho, Oregon and Washington. 

District Passenger Agents of the Northern Pacific Railroad will take 
pleasure in supplying information, rates, maps, time tables, etc., or 
application can be made to Ch.\s. S. Fee, G. P. & T. A , St. Paul 
Minn. 

Write to above address for the latest and best map yet published of 
Alaska — just out. 



CENSUS OFFICE BULLETIN. 



AN advance report has been issued by the Census 
Office, prepared by Mr. Charles H. Cooley 
under the direction of Mr. Henry C. Adams. 
It represents a h\rge amount of persevering 
labor in gathering and compiling. The Bulletin embraces 
statistics of tiftv lines of street railway, ten of which are 



From the foregoing the following is deduced. Operat- 
ing expense per car per mile — cable 14.12 cents; electric 
13.21 cents; animal 18.16 cents. Operating expense per 
passenger carried, cable 3.22 cents; electric 3.82 cents; 
animal 3.67 cents. These tables are the first of the kind 
prepared in this country. 



ANIMAL POWER LINES.— I. DESCRIPTION AND COST. 





DKSCBIPTION. 






DE8CEIPTI0N. 








Number of cars. 


Len 


gth. 


Number of cars. 




Number. 










Total cost of road 
and equipment. 


Number. 










Total rost of roa( 


LeDgth of 

line— Street 

length. 

(Miles.) 


Length of 
all tracks 
including 

sidings. 

(Miles.) 


Total. 


Average 
operated 
at once. 


Length of 

line— street 

length. 

(Miles.) 


Length of 
all tracks, 
including 

sidings. 

(Miles.) 


Total. 


Average 
operated 
at once. 




Total- 


319.22 


552.43 


3,398- 


1,494 


$22,788,277.90 


15 


6.48 


12.96 


33 


20 


)tl09,318.21 














16 


2.50 


2.75 


9 


« 


. 49, 000. 00 


i 


7.00 


14.00 


115 


06 


974,720.44 


18 


13.34 


16.13 


72 


30 


383, 454. 63 


2 


7.92 


23.15 


181 


76 


3,063,587.67 














3 


9.58 


19.16 


190 


110 


2,779,369.47 


19 


11.31 


14.60 


51 


25 


293,8.36.87 


4 


78.35 


164.25 


1,509 


600 


4,861,246.75 


20 


29.25 


46.00 


90 


73 


1,6»,949.47 




22.50 


46. 75 


106 


127 


1,462,616.77 


21 


12.17 


12.94 


66 


21 


280,410.<i7 














22 


4.17 


6.00 


20 


11 


96,000.00 


c 


11.40 


21.35 


218 


88 


2,197,774.43 














7 


11.09 


23.04 


204 


82 


874,272.98 


23 


4.35 


4.83 


13 


7 


89,678.08 


8 


8.00 


16.00 


60 


24 


594,500.00 


24 


12.75 


13.60 


39 


J7 


313, 333 44 


9 


1.57 


3.14 


10 


C 


331,299.63 


2.5 


5.03 


6.38 


18 . 


7 


100,3(a22 


10 


5.12 


10.25 


67 


34 


320,063.54 


26 


5.90 


6.60 


18 





S2,314.«7 


U 


8.00 


13.00 


65 


30 


281,394.00 


27 


1.88 


1.94 


6 


5 


04,361.22 


12 


0.27 


10.90 


37 


26 


424,286 83 


28 


4.50 


6.34 


13 


9 


70,471.82 


U 


7.83 


17.00 


57 


30 


448,932.77 


29 


3.37 


4.34 


13 


8 


61,690.90 


14 


4.79 


4.94 


23 


17 


221,739.00 


30 


6.30 


6. 09 


13 


8 


93,e98.9« 



operated by cable, ten by electricity and thirty b}' animal 
power. In the accompanving tables that road is placed 
first which carries the greatest number of passengers per 
mile per year. This is obtained bv dividing the total 
number of passengers carried bj- the length of the line. 
The tables of cable and animal roads require no 
explanation. In the table of electric lines No. 
10 is storage batterj' system, but the data is 
small as only one car is reported on. The 
other nine lines are overhead wire s^-stems. 
The comparisons in electric lines are also less 
complete, from the fact that four of the ten lines 
had been in operation less than one vear, while 
the cable and animal lines all report a full 
twelve months. There is one road which 
used all three systems, and is No. 5 of cable 
railway, No. 2 of electric and No. 12 of animal 
power. 

The columns giving the operating expense 
per car mile and per passenger carried, also 
show by the greater variations the exhibit in 
the case of electric railwavs, that the statistics 
of these railways are less uniform than those of 
the animal and cable lines. For example, the 
expense per car mile of operating electric cars 
is seen to vary from 8.34 to 36.04 cents, the latter 
being over four times the former. In the case 
of cable railways, the variation is from 9.39 
cents per car mile to 21.91 cents, or but little 
more than 100 per cent. For railways oper- 
ated by animal power the variation is from from 9.10 
to 27.02 cents. 



The West Jersey Railroad Company have decided to 
run their motor cars from Ocean City to Townsend's 
Inlet, a distance of fifteen miles, during the coming sum- 
mer. They will commence to run about May ist. 
This is intended to furni.sh a day's outing to Atlantic City 



ANIMAL POWER LINES. - 



STATISTICS OF OPERATIONS. 



















Num- 
ber. 


Length of 
time 

covered by 
operating 
statistics. 
(Months.) 








Car mileage. 


Total. 


Per mile 
operated. 


ToUI. 


Per car 
mile. 
(Cents.) 


Per passen- 
ger carried. 
(Cents.) 


Total.. 




38,466,414 


190,434,783 


596,563 


$6,986,019.96 


18.16 


3.67 


1 




12 


2, 168, 100 


14, 688, 551 


2, 098, 364 


466,775.30 


21.48 


3.17 


2 


12 


1,973,627 


16,609,996 


1, 970, 959 


509,496.60 


25.82 


3.26 


3 


12 


2,356,667 


15,432,194 


1,610,876 


5.57,>U.81 


23.68 


3.62 


4 


12 


13,570,000 


66,500,000 


848,756 


2,505,535.86 


18.46 


3.77 


5 


12 


3,373,038 


18,926,520 


841,134 


616, 506. 53 


18. 38 


3.26 


6 


12 


1, 494, 962 


8,954,675 


785,498 


292,002.16 


19.53 


3.26 


7 


12 


1,666,490 


7,327,220 


660, 705 


288,598.64 


17.32 


3.94 


8 


12 


995,000 


4,900,000 


612,500 


229,074.20 


23.02 


4.67 


9 


12 


126, 276 


838, 086 


533,813 


32, 570. 32 


25.79 


3.89 


10 


12 


1,169,416 


2,613,976 


510,542 


129,155.02 


11.04 


4.94 


11 


12 


925,640 


3,746,274 


468,169 


186,908.91 


20 19 


■4.99 


12 


12 


851,017 


2,245,293 


358,101 


78, 397. 98 


9.21 


3.49 


13 


12 


696,620 


2,744,536 


350,616 


99, 480. 39 


14.30 


3.62 


14 


12 


417,560 


1,366,203 


286.220 


55, 858. 94 


13.38 


4.09 


15 


12 


737, 837 


1, 793,.806 


276, 822 


70, 803. 43 


9.60 


3.95 


10 


12 


162,240 


677,070 


270,828 


18, 167. 00 


li.20 


2.68 


17 


12 


632,340 


1,723,420 


266, 142 


57, 553. 61 


9.10 


3.34 






538, »29 


3,236,116 


242,612 


112,198.96 


20.82 


3.47 


19 


12 


432, 603 


2,728,935 


241,286 


108, 667. 44 


25. 12 


3.98 


20 


12 


2, 305, 146 


.5,824,614 


199, 129 


224, 523. 06 


9.74 


3.86 


21 


12 


536,213 


2,287,084 


187, 928 


103,742.14 


19.35 


4.54 


22 


12 


121, 180 


754, 983 


181,051 


32,588.91 


26.89 


4.32 


23 


12 


178, 798 


711,805 


16.3,633 


24, 837. 21 


13. 89 


3.49 


24 


12 


342, 613 


1,951,197 


153, 036 


66,093.48 


19.30 


3.39 


26 


12 


132,322 


6.00, 692 


129,362 


30, 827. 93 


23.30 


4.74 


26 


12 


126,182 


693,419 


117,529 


26,891.53 


21.48 


3.88 


27 


12 


40,000 


214,060 


113,862 


10,806 51. 


27.02 


5.05 


28 


12 


197, 100 


500,000 


111,111 


18, 243. 30. 


9.26 


3.65 


29 


12 


74, 460 


288,015 


86,464 


8,742.04 


11.74 


3.04 


30 


la 


126,338 


509, 143 


80,816 


23,911.95 


18.93 


4.70 



parties through Ocean City, Sea Isle City and A\alon. 
Camden, (N. J.) Pos/. 



C.MlLE R AII.WAY.S. — I. DESCRIPTION .\XD COST. 



PRESIDENT SHAFFER RESIGNS. 



Num- 
ber. 


DESCaXPTlOM. 


Total cost of 

road and ei)uip- 

raent. 


Length. 


Steepest grade. 


Number of care. 


Indicated 

horse 
power of 
engines. 


Length of 
line— etreet 

length. 

(Miles.) 


Length of 
all tracks, 
including 

'si.lings. 

(Miles.) 


Pet cent. 


Length 
in feet. 


Grip. 


Trail. 


Average 
tot&lueed 
at once. 


ToUl. 

i 


75.22 1 142,92 








601 


832 


5«3 


13,300 


$26,351,416.62 


8.60 
5.75 
5.^0 
3.20 
11.69 

10.15 

8.86 
8.57 
2.72 
10.28 


17.00 
ll;50 
11.00 
6.40 
23.38 

20.40 
10.10 
17.15 
5.4« 


10.00 
10.40 
70.00 
4.00 
13.94 

18.63 
80.00 
4.00 
2.16 
16.50 


1,300 
412 
500 

2,250 
666 

1,000 
413 

1,600 
200 
160 


116 
65 
46 
26 
76 

71 
68 
81 
12 
60 


380 
76 
10 
47 

141 


118 
60 
32 
40 

106 

.77 
48 
36 
10 
60 


1,450 
500 
1, 175 
1,500 
3,400 

1,300 

426 

1,250 

2(10 
2, UK) 


6,812,693.77 
1, 467, noo. 00 
2, 628, 686. .^9 
1,219,615.63 
4,028,7:15.37 

2, 649, 735. 84 
1,510,495.84 
2,257,860.34 
433,(t97.71 
4, 343, 595. 53 



2. STATISTICS OF OPERATION. 



Num- 
ber. 


Length of 

time 
covered by 
operating 
eutietics. 
(Months.) 


Car mileage. 


HVHBEB OF PASSENOEBS 
CAEailU. 


OPER&TIMt] EXPENSES. 


ToUl. 


Per mile 
operated. 


Total. 


Per car 

mile. 

(Cents.) 


Per passenger 
carried. 
(Cents.) 


Total. 

I 

3 
4 

5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 




23,272,654 


101, 99.5, 695 


1,355,965 


$3,286,461.64 


14.12 


3.22 


12 
12 
12 
12 
12 

12 
12 
12 
12 
12 


6,290,172 
1,653,303 
1,413,280 
1,404,000 
4, 698, 120 

3,355,4.15 
1,244,760 
1,595,650 
310,331 
1, 307, 613 


36,218,807 
10,030,491 
8, 229, 809 
4,607,687 
12,662,044 

9, .606, 979 
8,113,655 
6,781,683 
1,346,820 
4,498,820 


4,261,036 
1,744,433 
1,496,329 
1,439,871 
1,083,162 

936,560 
915, 762 
791,328 
495, 154 
437, 628 


1,063, 834. .69 
3.'>5.415. 13 
200,093.65 
145.299.39 
441,151.59 

344,229.99 
272,721.43 
225,069.39 
57, 697. 94 
180, 948. 54 


16.91 
21.60 
14.16 
10.36 
9.39 

10.26 
21.91 
14.11 
18.59 
13.84 


2.94 
3.54 
2.43 
3.15 
3.48 

3.62 
3.36 
3.32 
4.28 
4.02 



F-I.ECTRIC R.MUVAYS. — I. DESCRIPTION AND COST. 



Nora- 
ber. 








DE8CK1PT10N. 








Total cost of 
road and equip- 
ment. 


Length. 


Steepest gi-ade. 


Number of 


cars. 


Indicated 

horse 
power of 
engines. 


Length of 
line— street 

length. 

(Miles.) 


Length of 
all tracks, 
including 

sidings. 

(Miles.) 


Per cent. 


Length 
in feet. 


Motor. 


Tow. 


Average 
total used 
at once. 


Total. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

C 

7 

10 


55. 5€ 


67.22 





.__'__ 


118 


34 


78 


2,370 


$2,426,285.12. 


11.71 
4.11 
5.00 

10.00 
C.OO 

3.00 
4.25 
2.80 
4.25 
4.44 


16.35 
7.54 
5.22 

12.13 
G.36 

3.26 
4.50 
2.80 
4.50 
4.56 


12.50 
.5.20 
6.50 
8.00 
G.OO 

7.50 
4.00 
6. .60 
3.00 
7.00 


7,920 
475 

1,200 
800 
500 

300 
500 
250 
300 
300 


47 
12 
12 
21 

7, 

4 
6 
3 

t 


4 
6 

4 

-~" 
3 


32 
9 
6 

14 

4 

3 
5 
2 
2 

1 


1,060 
125 
80 
450 
300 

100 
80 


1,156,354.28 
266,730.10 
125,801.27 
382,600.00 
115, 694. 20 

95,228.16 
73,000.00 
106,407.15 
66,368.44 
39, 104. 62 


160 
35 



2. STATISTICS OF OPERATION. 



Num- 
l)«r. 


Length of 


Car 
mileage. 


MMBEE OF PASSBN0EH8 CARSIED. 


OPEEATINO EXPESSES. 


op«'ratiiig 
statistics. 


Total. 


Per mile operated. 


Total. 


Per car 
mile. 
(Cents.) 


Per 
passenger 
carried. 
(Cents.) 


For period pe,„„_ 
covered. .1 '^y J"^- 


Mo. 


Days. 


Total. 

1 
2 
3 
4 . 

fi 

8 
9 
lU 






2,442,106 


8,031,214 






0I3.2I 


a3.82 








6 

9 

12- 
12 

C 

12 
12 
12 
12 
11 


"23"' 


702, 720 
317,056 
267,793 
634, OIX) 
92,400 

86,668 
186,400 
71,375 
74,340 
19,75* 


2,7.62,382 

826, 7.T« 

1,041,978 

1,680,000 

405,713 

323,244 
400,000 
221,415 
259,509 
60,217 


235,045 
201.167 
208,3% 
168,000 
77,619 

107, 748 
94,118 
79,077 
61,061 
13,562 


470,090 1 95,109.48 
248,047 1 31,030.30 
208,396 ' 28,531.04 
168,000 1 94,700.00 
155,238 , 12,040.57 

107,748 19,694.47 
94,118 15,550.00 
79,077 10,114.76 
CI, 061 i, 12,470.87 
14,795 h 7,119.77 


13.53 
9.77 
11.07 
14.94 
13.68 

22.99 
8.34 
14.17 
16.78 
36.0* 


3.46 
3.75 
2.74 
5.64 
2.71 

6.09 
3.89 
4.57 
4.81 
11.82 



M -'^ 



L'. .'^IIAl-'FER, wlu) lia.s been president of 
Citizens' Street Railway of Indianapolis for the 
past two years has resigned and \V. 11. Fowler, of 
Chicago, has been elected to till his place. During Mr. 
.Shaffer's presidency, thirty miles of new track and one 
luiiulred and fifty new cars were added. The Indianapo- 
lis lines are owned by a Chicago syndicate. Mr. .Sliaffer 
owns the street railway at Richmond, Indiana. 

.\ Stkikk is on at Grand Rapids, Michigan, and the 
company is operating with difliculty. A piece of gas pipe 
eight inches long, and rilled with nitro-ghcerine was found 
on the track.s. 



TiiK W.\LKKK M.\NUFACTimiN(; Co. received a few 
days ago, an order from England for two of their ]vileiit 
Differential Cable drums, which are to be used in a haul- 
age plant there. This is a recognition from a .source 
which will shortly place a large additional order for the 
same kind. The success of the Differential drum has 
been phenominal. and this indication of its acceptance b\ 
engineers abroad, who are veiy slow to depart from old 
systems is especially gratifying. 



OBITUARY. 



Hon. Homer A. Nelson, a director in a number of 

street railway companies, died .\pril 25th, at his home 
near Poughkeepsie, X. ^^ lie liad been for many years 
a prominent office holder. 

Mr. Geor(;e D. Dlkkiiart, for a long time superin- 
tendent of the Citizen's Passengar Railway Company, of 
Baltimore, died recently in that city from the results of a 

fall four months ago. 1 lis la.st illne.ss lasted oniv one week 

The young popular secretary of the New Orleans City 
& Lake Street Railway Company, committed suicide 
April 24th. at the residence of his parents, by shooting 
himself through the head, death resulting in.stantly. Mr. 
Lewis has liad his position only a little while, and his 
desire to make a strong reconl. coupled with poor liealth 
had so worried him that for two months past he had been 
haunted with insomnia. 

He seemed to labor under the impression that he could 
not do justice to himself or the company. He evidently 
was temporarly insane at the time, as $12,000 of the 
company's money was found in a band box in his room, 
although no effort had been made to conceal it. His 
books and accounts at the company's oHice were found to 
be all right. 

r. I.. MOEN. 

This well known member of the Washburn & Moen 
Manufacturing Co., died April 23rd, at his residence 
in Worcester. Mass. He suffered a stroke of para- 
lyses, one week before his death and grew constantly 
weaker. The works at Worcester were established in 
1847 and had grown to immense proportions, and until 
at the present time 3.000 were employed. 



Power Feed Pump. 

THE splendid record of the water heaters of Wm. 
Baragwanath & Son, Chicago, is so well estab- 
lished that all users of steam will be interested in 
their latest manufacture, which is a triple-acting Power 
Boiler Feed Pump. As a power feed pump can be 
operated at from one-sixth to one-third the expenditure 
of fuel that would be required to do the same work by 
the ordinary steam fed pump, the great saving in fuel will 
be at once recognized. The Baragwanath power pump 




illustrated herewith is strong and compact and built for 
continuous heavy service, and is geared tive to one. The 
crank shaft is of steel, operating three alternating plun- 
gers, one of which is alwajs lifting and another forcing 
water. There is no intermission between the strokes, 
which follow each other constantly, thereby attaining the 
maximum evenness of delivery and steadiness of flow. 
The valves are plain metal easil}- re-ground, and the 
whole apparatus is a model of simplicity, strength, and 
accessibilitv. 



aiE 



Cable Traction. 

able is attracting a good deal of attention in 



I New York City these days. Among the compan- 
ies who are seriously considering its adoption are 
the Sixth Avenue, who have a petition now circulating 
among the property owners; and the Forty-second Street, 
and Manhattanville and St. Nicholas Avenue Com]ian\ 
are .stronglv inclined to adopt cable power. 

The Westingiiousk people are equipping a road at 
Ottawa, Canada. 



ECHOES FROM THE TRADE. 

The Pullman Company, have received the order for 
new electric cars for the new line in Plaintield, New 
Jersey. 

The Edison General Electric Co., have secured 
the contract for motors for the Indianapolis & Broadripple 
Rapid Transit Company. 



The Portland, Maine Street Railway Co., have 
ordered the McGuire trucks for the new cars which are 
buiklin<r for their electric line. 



The Woodbridce & Turner Company, of New 
York, have the contract for the construction work for the 
electric railwav at Portland, Maine. 



The Baltimore American relieves itself as follows: 
Those who say that the car horse must go, have evidently 
not been progressing behind that unobtrusive animal 
lately. 

The Shultz Belting Co., St. Louis, have closed a 
contract for over 900 feet of their double leather cement- 
ed belting. Two are 160 feet long and 72 inches 
wide and the balance are 16 inch belts. 



The Ball Engine Co., have recently issued a neat 
little book of about 40 pages entirely filled with testimonial 
letters from the many users of their engines; it is nicely 
gotten up and bespeaks volumes for that company. 

C. E. Loss & Co., Chicago street railroad contractors, 
have moved their office from No. 113 Monroe Street to 
larger and attractive quarters in Room 219 First National 
Bank Building, where thev will be happv to recei\e their 

friends. 

From sworn reports made to the city register of St 
Louis, it appears that during the first _three months of this 
year, the street railway in that city carried 17,546,415 
passengers, which is an increase over the same period last 
year, of 3,680,074 passengers. 



The Fulton Foundry Co., of Cleveland, report the 
sales for their steel-tired wheel rapidly increasing, the 
tests which have been made proving very satisfactory. 
They also report receiving orders from all parts of the 
country for gears and pinions for electric cars. 



The Shultz Belting Co., of St. Louis, ha\e recentl\- 
closed a contract with the St. Louis & Suburban R. R. 
Co. for two 72 inch belts, each 154 feet long. _ Also ten 
belts 16 inches wide aggregating 700 feet. All belts to 
be double leather and cemented only, no rivets or pegs to 
be used. 

A Boom Town out We.st that wants to appear in line 
with modern improvements, advertises at great length the 
advantages of its electric line, and then in a small t3'pe foot 
note adds: "Pending the perfection of the storage bat- 
tery svstem, the motive for the electric cars will be fur- 
nished by mules." 



203 



The extensiun of llic ."^l. I'aul line in llic adoption of 
electricity has rendered necessary the appointment of two 
superintendents. A. P. Wilkes will have charge of ail 
the electric lines, and C. P. Morgan will act as superin- 
tendent of the two cable lines under the direction of 
General Manager Scott. 



TiiK Wp:kms Ei.KCTKic Railway system has been 
organized in New York City with a capital of $2,500,000 
for purchasing the Electro Automatic Transit Co. of 
Baltimore. The object of the company is to demonstrate 
the practicability of using electricity as a motixe j^ower 
for railroads now operated by steam. 

TiiK Mkakkr Manukacturinc Company are now 
comfortably settled in their elegant offices at 134W. Wash- 
ington St., and the machinery for the manufacture of 
their fare registers will be forwarded from the East in a 
few weeks. No delay, however, will be experienced in 
tilling orders during the time occupied in mo\ing. 



TiiK McGlirk Manufacturim; Co., certainly de- 
serve the title of "record breakers,"' having received in 
twenty days recently, orders for 189 trucks, among them 
were 80 for Milwaukee, 28 for Lawrence, Mass., 28 for 
Toledo, O., and 30 for Harrisburg, Pa. The last named 
to be placed under bodies built by the J. G. Brill Co. 

The St. Lotus Car Co., of St. Louis, recently took 
an order from the St. Louis & Suburban Ry. Co.. of that 
city, for 120 cars. This is a very satisfactory order and 
speaks well for the ability of that company, who, how- 
ever, on account of a large number of orders received 
from all parts of the country, tind their shops full, which 
causes them to run nights. 



The Superintendent of the Quincy & Boston Electric 
Line was riding on one of his lines one day, when an express 
wagon accidentall}- collided with the car with considerable 
force. Rushing to the front platform he grabbed the motor 
man rather savagely by the arm, at the same time asking his 
name. The employee turned, saw who the speaker was 
and replied : '-Well, I guess its Dennis, now." 

The Chicacjo City Rah. way Co. has prepared plans 
and commenced the erection of a tine oflice building 
for their exclusi\e use, to be located next to and north 
of their main power station at 2020 State street. The 
building will be 53x80 feet, three stories in height, and will 
cost not less than $25,000. The entire building and floors 
will all be of hard wood, and finished in elegant st\le. 



Geor(;e Cutter, of Chicago, has lately received se\- 
eral carloads of simplex wire, much of which will be 
used for railw ay feeders. To this he is adding an assort- 
ment of incandescent lamps and of magnet wires. He 
reports large sales of the rubber bells, two-part and three- 
part insulators, made by the Revere Rubber Co., and 
continues to decorate all new lines with the Morris 
poletops. 



'I'liic SiioRi- JM.iaiKK' KAll.wA^• Co., of Cleveland, 
lind the demand for their new gearless motor is fully 
eijual to all expectations, as they are receiving inquiries 
from all parts of the country, and its success has been so 
proven that no company contemplating buying new or 
adding to their old equipment can afford to deal before 
seeing this new motor. 

The La.mokin Car Co., at Chester, have appointed 
Buss & Weston, with otlice in the Phojnix building, 
Chicago, as selling agents for their street cars. This 
company haVe for some time been selling coaches, and 
all cars built by them have given great satisfaction. The 
company's business in the West is rapidly increasing, in 
consequence of which agerfts will be kept constantly on 
the ground. 

The Wightman Motor Co., were called on to 
furnish a car to the People's Street Railway, of Scranton, 
when the company lost all its cars by fire a few days ago. 
The new motor proved such a success, that the Scanton 
road after using the Wightman a few days, immediately 
placed an order for ten double 15 h. p. motors and pro- 
nounce the motor 'about as simple and practical a 
machine as it is possible to get in the line of electric street 
railwa}' apparatus." 

Dn)N"r Mori:. — The Belding Motor & Manufacturing 
Co., have made an assignment. The company was organ- 
ized three years ago with a capital of $100,000, and when 
fairly started in their factory at Hermosa, were burned 
out last January and lost everything. A new building 
was erected from the insurance money, but the losses on 
machinery proved heavier than was expected; until the 
assignee can make an inventory it will not be known 
whether a reorganization will be attempted or not. 



The Stanwood Manufacturing Company are now 
nicely located at their new factory which is at the S. E. 
corner of 17th and Clark Sts., Chicago. Although their 
step for strett cars has not been on the market but a little 
over a year, too much can not be said in its praise, having 
be\;n the first and only step of the kind to be had. Their 
sales have taxed their former shop to its upmost. Mr. 
Stanwood, their general manager, states that their new- 
shops are much larger and everj^ way better prepared to 
care for their verj- large increasing business. 



The Bali. Engine Comp.\ny, of Erie, Pennsylvania, 
are now represented in New York by the enterprising 
firm of E. T. Copeland & Company, 106 Liberty Street, 
w ho will look after the interests of this very popular 
engine in New^ York and New England. The manu- 
facturers ha\e ver\- greatly increased their facilities by 
large additions to their works, and the equipment of special 
tools insuring absolutely perfect construction in their 
work. They can furnish promptly Simple, Tandem, Com- 
pound. Cross Compound and Triple Expansion engines 
up to 500 h. p. and the splendid record which these 
engines ha\e made in electric railway work entitles them 
to a careful investigation by all railway managers. 



204 



TiiK Lamokin Car Works, Chcsler, Pa., liavc .shipjifd 
six vestibule cars to tiie electric road at Newark, Ohio, 
all of elegant tinisli. This is the line belonging to Judge 
Altgelt, of Chicago. Also 4 16 ft. closed car bodies to 
the Danvillle Street Car Co., Danville, Va. Orders were 
received from the Williamsport, Pa., Passenger Railway 
Co., for 4 16 ft. cars and 2 vestibule cars. The delivery- 
was also made to the Lincoln. Neb., Street Railway Co., 
of 30 16 ft. closed cars, and 2. 6 seat open cars to the 
Salem, Ohio, Electric Railway. The works are crowded 
with orders and will run on extra time until October ist. 



The Allen- Papkr Car Wheel Co., with factories 
at Hudson, N. Y., and Pullman, 111., which have for so 
manj' years been making paper-tilled wheels for passen- 
ger coaches and the tinest sleeping cars, have combined 
their long experience and very valuable patents, and are 
now- making their new steel-tired wheel, especially 
adapted for cable and electric cars. The wheels are 
made with a cast-iron centre, the hollow spokes being 
filled with paper pulp, oakum, or mineral wool, which 
deadens the sound and makes them comparativelv noise- 
less, l^pon these spokes the steel tire is shrunk, which 
enables them to replace the tire at an\- time. 

Beeche:r, Schneck & Be:nedict, general managers 
of the American Casuality and Insurance and Security 
Co., have added a department to their already very com- 
plete lines of insurance, which will be of special advantage 
and interest to all employes in the street railway service. 
By the payment of only a few cents weekly the employe 
can be insured in case of accident or death, or both. In 
case of accident he receives each week a sum equal to 
his wages and the payment of his doctor bill, and in case 
of death his funeral expenses are paid by the insurance 
company. To accommodate those who are drawing 
small wages the company, for a less charge, will gi\e 
one-half the above benefits, and for a \ery small addi- 
tional charge will pa}- in addition to the above as high as 
$3,000 in case of death. Managers can render their men 
a genuine benefit by examining the plan offered, and 
taking steps to bring it to their attention. 

The Siorx City En(;in-e Works have been so crowd- 
ded w itii orders tiiey are now obliged to work extra shifts, 
and are running their shop twenty-three hours out of the 
twent}--four. Their facilities are the very best, and a 
specially gratifying feature of their sales is that every sale 
brings a new order. All the electric roads who have or- 
dered of them have returned a second order, where they 
have increased the original power. Among such dupli- 
clate orders was one last week from the Lincoln, (Neb.) 
Electric R'y., who purchased a 250 H. P. last fall and 
now ordered a second engine — a 22x42 Corli.ss, of same 
power as the first. Visitors to Chicago may see a Sioux 
City Engine Co."s 16 x 42 engine running in the new- pipe 
mill of the Crane Manufacturing Co.. or may call on Mr. 
S. W. Gregg, 327 The Rookery, who is the manager 
of the branch house here. 



Westlngiiouse, Church, K];rr & Co., reports busi- 
ness active at their Boston otiice. Their recent sales of 
the larger sizes of engines include one 250 horse power, 
compound, to the Fairchild Paper Co.; one 100 horse 
power to Frank Jones, president of the B. & M. Railroad: 
two 75 horse power to the Olcott Falls Paper Co.: three 
80 horse power, compounds, to Howland & Ellis for an 
electric railway in Burlington, Iowa, and five, 5 horse 
power, six 10 horse power, four 15 horse power, one 25 
horse power, one 35 horse power, one 45 horse power, 
one 60 horse power, one lOO horse power, one 125 horse 
power, two 150 horse power, and one 200 horse power 
for a complete subdivided power plant in the Bleachery 
and Print Works of the Dunnell Manufacturing Co., at 
Pawtucket. They are meetiiig an active demand for 
their new specialty, known as the Steam Loop, having 
entered orders for a large number of systems from the 
Dunnell Manufacturing Co.: Flint and Pocasset Mills at 
Fall River; Forest Paper Co. of Yarmouthx'ille, Me.; 
the Grosvenor Dale and Peace Dale Mills; Woonsocket 
Rubber Co. and others. 



WANTED. An Electric Street R'y Co., who are newly 
equipped or extending their lines, can secure the services 
of a gentleman -with several years experience with horse 
and cable companies; experienced in outside as well as 
office work. Best of references. Address, Engineer, care 
this office. 

Electric Railways. 

C. E. LOSS & CO., 

113 T^oxxxroG Stx>eet, 

CHICAGO. 



Contract for the Building and Complete Equip- 
ment of Electric Railways. 



Correspondence Solicited. 



References Furnished. 



THEHALE&KILBURNMFG.GO. 



EXTENSIVE MAKE 



STREET CAR SEATS, 

Made with or without Springs. Covered in CARPET, PLUSH or 



RATTAN. 



OUR NEW ELASTIC SLAT SPRING SEAT IS THE CHEAPEST AND 
MOST COMFORTABLE WOODEN SEAT EVER MADE. 

Our Celebrated steel Top Hprins Sections used in Upholstering 



THE BEST 



lOR COMFORT. 
KOU DURABILrrV. 
FOR APPEARANCE, 
lluiidrucis of RlIVilihxs. Tlious.inds in Use. Estimates and 
Particulars cheerfully rurnished. 



i»tiwv>u. r a 



|FEEELIBil48J, 



\Azr 



.„ ^%r> 



"/ 



'rt^UM;&^^)^^a*^ 



205 




PUBLISHERS AND PROPRIETORS, 

334 DEARBORN ST., ... CHICAGO. 
PnbliHiied on the IStli of each niontli. 



SUBSCRIPTION, 



- ONE DOLLAR. 



AtfJrtss all Commitnicatiniis and Remittances to TiiRSTKBEr Railway R(.vikw, 
CaxloH Building, 3J4 Dearbot n Sti . el, C/iii ago. 

H.H.WINDSOR. y.L. KEN FIELD, 

Editor. Business Manager. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Wecii 111 : :i. 1 ii-s|)()n.lciu-coti all sulijucH of interest to those cn);:lEeil 

ill .uiv hr.m. I I ^ I 1; iil\v:ly work, and will gr.itefiilly apprcei.ite uny ni.irketl 
c.i|>ii-s of |.i|. - .1 . 1 nn liiir street r.iil\v,iy Iricnili inay send us, pertainin- 

eithertoc ;>,„,,..,. tlir.rs. Address: 

Tllb: SrUKET RAILWAY KEVIICW. 







35 (. Dearborn Strci 


t, Chicago, 






Entered at the Post Office at Chicago a 


s Second Class Matter. 






VOL.1 


JUNE. 




NO, 6 





M.Y four months until convention. 



O 

I I'.KDs lead.s out in building the Hist overhead sjstem 
*-' in the United Kinirdom. 



I ARK travel is a month .late in many Northern cities 
(111 account of tlie late spring. 



A 1,1. tile riglits iiave been obtained, the contracts closed 
'* and work is even now commencing on the lirst electric 
road in England to be operated by the trolley system. 
Tlie line is a suburban one at Leeds, and will 
ilo iin)re to demonstrate the actual merits of the sys- 
tem than all the papers which could be read before con- 
ventions of scientitic and professional men in a genei-ation. 
Seeiii"' is belie\ iiiii'. 



N 



oT many of our readers are subscribers of "Panto- 
biblian," and doubtless wonder what it is. It is a 
monthly magazine of nearly 300 pages, published in St. 
Petersburg and edited by a Russian engineer. It is a sort 
of i-eview of mechanical reviews and at present its articles 
are written in only eight languages, but others are 
promised soon. It treats of almost everything from 
agricultural to marine arts. 



pviCKv street I'ailroad man will feel a certain sense of 
*-' pardonable pride when he remembers the president of 
the United States found a street car a welcome and pleas- 
ant feature of his visit to a certain southern city recently. 
A man who belongs to a fraternity which can entertain 
presidents and postmasters-general has a right to spread 
himself. Probably Buffalo and Boston will now get 
those letter boxes on their street cars. 



C ViCN with its niagnilicenl viaduct .system, described 
*~^ in this i.ssue, Berlin is considering the cotistruc