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January i. gg 

February 61-118 

Alarch iig-ioi 

April I83-34J 

May 242-302 

^""c 303-364 

July 365-420 

August 421-482 

September 483-5+4 

October 545-624 

November ....-■ „ 625-696 

December '. -697, 758 

Accident: Adjuster ". 205 

Cincinnati 419 

Cleveland 157 

Grade Crossing 50 

See also Law. 

Hutchinson Kan 401 

Operator, 1-akc (Lieblang) e483, •497 

JVculiar 519 

l^rovidcncc 354 

Kewards for Freedom from 529 

Shelton (Conn.) 8 

Some July 470 

Tacoma, Wash 415 

Utica, N. Y 78 

Webb City, Mo 41S 

Accountants Association: 

Announcements 531, C483 

Itlankb and Forms 43S 

(-(fticcrs (.pons) 586 

Kepori Kansas City Meeting 657, 713 

Recognition of Work of £304, 318 

Standard System, Connecticut to Use ci 

Status of 231 

Accounting: Blanks and Forms '683 

Bookkeeping and e626 

Departmental Accounts (Wilson) 678 

Gas, Light and Ky. (Simpson) 665 

General Manager and (Beggs) 660 

Importance of 6303, 327 

Indiana Ky "430 

Material and Supplies (Barnaby) 679 

Standard Unit ot Comparison (Mackay)... 669 

Standard System ei, 664 

Uniform, (Cahoon) 6304, 337 

Accumulators. See Storage Batteries. 

Advertising 236, 276, '402, "413 

Attractive '533 

In Street Cars (.Kissam) 615 

Is it Profitable (.Derrah) 3^ 

Mentioning Paper When Answering 6304 

Street Railway (.Beach) e484, '495 

Folders, Toledo 380 

Air as a Lubricant ^23 

Air Brakes. See Brakes, Air. 

Air Cars. See Compressed Air Co. 

Akron, O., Southern Ohio Traction, Right of 

Way 505 

Albany: Changes at 468 

& Hudson Ry. & Power Co 198 

Cars for 614 

Opening of 745 

Grease '474 

Allen, C. Loomis 56 

Allentown, Pa., Schuylkill Traction Exten- 
sions 414 

Alternating Currents for Tramways e2, 20 

Aluminum : Protecting 603 

Use of (Perrine) 335 

American Blower Co., Blower System '40 

American District Steam Co log 

American Electrical Works 357 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers.... 461 

American Steel & Wire Co. at Paris 684 

American Street Railway Association: 

Announcements '69, 161, 0483, 531, 584 

t/onvention Hall '69, 238, "290, 530 

Exhibits 531 

Report of Kansas City Meeting 641 

I'nsatisfactory Discussions e626 

\'aluc of ei20 

Annual Reports. See Reports, Arrual. 

Anderson, A. A. (port) 4 

Anderson, Ind., Union Traction Co '66 

Animals for Exhibition Purpospc ,.., 37 

Annoyances ...v« ....«^..Vj36 

.\rbitration in Detroit .„ ;,>,>.'394 

Armatures : Baking '\'c'^-*f. -N • •■ •' '4»o 

Coils, Press for ri-^-fc ^...•264 

Arnold's: European Trip, B. J-'.-.c, 685 

Magnetic Clutch '.:.'.'.\ ^.'.f; *72 

Arrester, Lightning : (Central) . , : ;.".', ; ^ . .'527 

(Garton) ■.....■. .■.'.;;^277 

Asbury Park, N. J., Convertible Cars....;.-. ,'266 
Ash, E. W. (port). 
Bei " 


Associations, Benefit ...-.,...., 

................25. 67, 141, i6q..33<\ 379. -s'lprou 

See also Clubs. ' ' t * * » 

Atlanta : Consolidation ". . . . . t .'i . U<r 161 

Crossings in ^•.<(<46i 

Atlas Rail Joint *..'//.; .". f'f'594 

Attractions: July 4th \ .*357 

Park '.ti4S, ^S9, 29Si .321 

Augusta, Ga.: Employes A5soc)at^<i(» .'...'. 519 

Improvements at ..:..■ ^.'.' 1 '235 

Jim Crow Cars w..-.i i;.>353 

Aurora & Geneva, Another Vic'lDTj .for.. ^; .'.'.• 414 
Yorkville & Morris Ry ..t,-. i..V'7i7 

Austin, Tex.: Dam, Failure of.i..'. —.,.•.275 

Steam Plant for '.' v<*m /**9 

Austria, Long Line in '..'.l.', .'209 

Automobile: Emergency Wagon' '..'.'. •724 

vs. Street Railways '.:.„.. c6i, 98 

Bacbman Method of Water Purification... 
Bakersficld, Cal., High Tension Switch at.. 


Balance Weight System at Palermo *257 

Baltimore Car Wheel Co., Trucks 220 

Baltimore: School for Employes '261 

Funeral Car '703 

Transfers, Abuse of 18 

Bancroft, W. A., (port.) 129 

Band: Hartford 343, "460 

Toledo 38, 70 

Bangor, Me., Snow Plow '153 

iiar, Boring (Flukes) '235 

Barcelona, Spain, Tramway in 478 

llarmcn. Suspension Ry. in *155, '216 

Barnard Sell-Cooling Towor "454 

Barschall Rail Joint *394 

Batavia, Java, Electric Tramway at "91 

Bales Fans 238, *34S 

Baumhotf, G. W., (port.) 236 

Bay City, Mich.: Contracts at 15 

Power Station at •162 

Beach, H. L., (port) 495 

Bearings: Casting at South Bend '427 

Metals 266 

Becker, J. W. G., (port) 576 

Belt Lines vs. Single Track Roads 329 

Benefit Associations. Sec Association. 

Berg, Max A., (port) 175 

Bethlehem Steel Co., Taylor-White Tools 465 

Bicycles in Tacoma 745 

Bill, Insuring a 148 

Binary-V'apor Engine 279 

Birmingham, Ala.; Employes' Club 256 

Improvements at 276 

Kewards for Employes 65 

Boat, Car as House •714 

Boilers: Cleaning 415 

Compound, (Lord) 342 

Sight Feeder for "289 

Feeder (International) "413 

Oil in 520 

Room, Removing Dust from '222 

Scale 9, 223 

Boise City, Conductorless Cars 357 

Bombay Tramway, , 158, 414 

Bonds; Losses Due to Removal of 154 

f'ipe 343 

See also Electrolysis. 

Bonner Wagons in England "77 

Boothman Feed-Water I'ilter '737 

Bostoi^: to New York via Trolley.... 209, e244, 283 

Joint Use of Tracks in 281 

Minutes of Division Meeting 713 

Municipal Wiring in 6183, 210, €421 

Transit Commission "96 

Elevated R. R. : Annual Report 49 

Air Brakes for 510 

Distribution of Tickets e483 

System of (Fairchild) *i2i, *i8s, '246 

Test of Controlling System '286 

Transition Curves 394 

Boycott. See Strike. 

Brackets, Pole (O. B.) ^99 

Brakes : Air, (Christ ensen) 510 

(Knell) -618 

(Magann) 594 

Geared (Beverly) "613 

(Monmerque) ....^...... .^., 720 

Shoes, Effect of Temperature on (Smart).. 606 

Tests in New York *422, '462, 498, 609 

Bridges: Overhead Wires on "318 

Specifications for '704 

Tacoma 515 

Weight of Steel *704 

Brill, G. M 227, 419 

Brill, J. G. Co.: 

Cars: California Type "99, '466 

Cape Town "750 

Combination '174 

Convertible "507 

C;uba "23 

Freight "380 

Locomotive and Crane '221 

Paris Exhibit 519 

Truck for Paris *268, '344 

British Guiana, Railway at Georgetown (Swan 

& Rankin) *705 

British. See Great Britain. 

Brockway, W. B 56, '587 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit: Changes in 198 

Commutation Tickets 1 478 

Freight Ser\'ice 49 

Oper.iting Problems in 215 

Reward Offered by 21 

Special Cars in .-. '204 

lo-cent Fare Case 459 

Transit Stock Case 169, 368 

Brown, F. L 472 

Brush : Carbon 357 

Electrical Engineering Co., Cars '343 

("are of 465 

Euckland Paving Block *i6, '603 

Bucyrus, O. , Interurban at "so* 

Buffalo: Bills for 215 

Pan-American Exposition / *45 

Snow Plow 746 

Track Construction *26 

Buildings, Cost of Erecting I5t 

Burch, Edw. P 56 

BurgdorfThun Ry '499 

Burnham Track Drill *io7 

Burt Exhaust Head " "223 

Butte, Mont.: Fares at 156 

Park •437 

Butts, E. (port) 576 

Cable: Lines, Cost of Changing •284 

Cable Work (Lawless) "sSa 

Cahoon, J. B 355 

Calderwood, J. F., (port) 587 

Calendar 46 

Camden, N. J., Club Rooms 393 

Canadian: Electrical Association 532 

Electric Railways 459 

,, ^;«»« 621. 694. 731 

Lanals, Operated by Electricity in Ohio... 441, 461 

Canficld, M. C. (port) 35 

Cape Town Tramways, Cars for ^750 

Carbondale, Pa., Burglars Convicted at 19 

Card Parly on Car 156 

Car-Hour Unit 542 

Car Houses: Burn 50 

Chester, Pa •267 

Chicago Union Traction Co 640 

Cleveland City Ry •264 

Doors for (Kinnear) •235 

Layout at Lisbon "465 

Manchester, Eng "717 

Quincy, HI -385 

Reading, Pa '267 

Sparrows in 306 

Carnival at New Orleans •134, 237 

Car Wheel. Sec \Vheel. 
Cars : 

Albany & Hudson (Wason) '614 

Asbury Park 266 

Brill: California Type '99, *466, "619 

Cape Town "750 

Combination "174 

Convertible 507 

Cuba *23 

Standard (Brill) "619 

Cleaning and Painting. See Painting, 

Crowded 6365, 403. 637 

Decorated •134, '*3S7, -420 

Denver •500 

Double Truck (Heft) 650 

Elevated, for Chicago 602 

Funeral. See Funeral Cars. 

Gallery •148 

Home-Made: Chicago 152, *233 

Cincinnati *346 

Portland, Ore '330 

House Boat, from '714 

Jim Crow 245,358 

London, ( Brush) *^^ 

Los Angeles *yA-i 

Mail. See Mail. 

Maintenance of jfia 

Observation: Detroit 441 

Cleveland 358 

Pittsburg 4^ 

Power Required (Harrington) 653 

Sanitation (Hurty) 723 

South Side Elevated 171 

spliced 160, *S36, *6os 

Standardizing ei2o, 209 

Waterloo (Eng.) & City Ry "350 

Casino, Butte, Mont •437 

Cement- Conduit Ducts *ica 

Ttsts on 47 

Central Station. See Power Station. 

Chambly Water & Power Co 358 

(Change, Making 6698 

Charleston, S. C, Annual Report from 209 

Chattanooga: Changes at 161 

Extension at 640. 

Fire at *^^^ 

Chester, Pa., Car House '267 

Chicago: Calumet, Receiver for (port) 177 

Assessments of Street Railways 741 

City Ry. : Annual Report fo 

Mail Car •^36 

Strikes 236 

Transfers, Abuse of 34, 109, 344 

Consolidated Traction Co., Inventor and 

the 71 

Electrolysis in J30 

Electric Traction Co.: Receiver 360 

Trolley for 231 

Elevated Roads 597 

Reports of ^q 

Car for •602 

Lake Street Elevated Litigation.... 158, 225, 349 

Metropolitan Elevated Extra Trains *723 

Northwestern Elevated R. R.: Extension.. 358 

Opened for Traffic 8, 336 

Power Station *^^ 

Conveyor •456 

South Side Elevated 84,171 

Union Elevated R. R.. No Payments by... 79 

General Electric Road Wins 133 

General Ry 237, 448 

Harvard & Geneva Lake, Ice Cutter '154 

Milwaukee Electric Line, 276, 357 

Mayor on Franchises 738 

New Lines for 293, 617 

South Chicago City Ry 50 

Street Railway Commission 6484 

Subway "239, •474 

Tunnels and Franchises in 157, 221 

Union Traction Co.: Advertising Pleasure 

g'^e? 6484. *49S 

Earnings 112, 379, 467 

Formation of 50, 178, 237 

Cars, Home-Made 152, "233 

Mail Cars 535 

Roach's Letter 416, 459 

Transfers •104, 298 

Visionary Scheme for 4 

Children's Fares 498, 603 

China, Engineering in 258 

Chisholm & Moore Mfg. Co.: Collection of 

Rail Sections 49 

Exhibit 22c 

Christensen Air Brakes ."510 

Christmas Presents to Employes 50 

Cincinnati: Accident 419 

Newport & Covington Ry., Reports 

....108, 158, 222, 268, 419, 461, 515,722 

No Strike at 367 

Notes from -339, 345 

Prizes at 49 

Settling Basins 317 

Southern Ohio Traction C0..65, 289, 699, 745', 754 

Taxes at 405 

Clambake, American Electrical Works 357 

Cleaning Cars. See .Painting. 

♦Articles marked with an asterisk are accompanied by maps or other illustrations; e, editorial. 



Clcvc-land: Accidents in iS7 

Cnr I louse '264 

Chagrin Falls, Freight Service 21 

Club Rooms at '262 

Consolidation 401 

I'lxpcrt Investigation at 171, 348 

l-)xt elisions 112 

I-'r.-iiu-liisc l-Ixtcnsion A^kcd 415 

I''ri.iKlit and Express at *2oi 

IntcrurhnnH, Earnings 130 

New Park at 23S 

Overhead Work '393 

Parlor Car 35H 

Switch Tower in 83 

Clinton, Mass., New Road at 277 

Clubs ei, '37, 256, •262, 393, 6625, "713 

Sec also Associations. 

Clutch (Arnold) '72 

Coffin, C. F.. (port) 321 

Collinsvillc, 111.. New Road 473, 754 

Colors o( Jlcatcil Steel 40 

Columbus, ()., Franchise Controversy 209 

Interurbans at 105,164, 178,287. 699 

Commissioners, Convention of 318 

Commul.Ttioii Tickets, Abuse of 478 

Competition, Results of C119, C303, C483, C48.( 

Compound, Boiler : (Lord) 342 

Sight Feeder for "289 

Compressed Air Co 47, 236, 612, 637 

Concrete Mixer at Washington "313 

Condensing Tower (Barnard) '454 

Conductors. Sec Employes. 

Conductorlcss Cars: for Boise City 357 

Montgomery 474 

Conduit: Plant for Making •105 

Ducts .*io8 

System, New (McGill) 77 

Paris *5i9 

Connecticut: Adopts Standard System of Ac- 
counts ei 

Conso-lid^tion ' 245 

Express, War in 344 

Operating Expenses 144 

Reform in 348 

Street Railway Association 4 

Connecting Roads, Transfers from C421 

Connector : Trailer, (Garton) *Z32 

Wire (K. I.) '277 

Connette, E. G. (port) 227 

Consolidations: Effect of (Holmes) 644 

Atlanta 161 

Chicago 178 

Cleveland 401 

Connecticut 245 

Massachusetts I57» 198 

Nashville 158 

Pennsylvania 738 

Pi ttsburg 179. >98, 307. 527 

St. Louis 232 

Seattle. Wash 299 

Voungstown-Sharon 707 

Construction Work. New for 1000 e2 

Contributions to Entertainments €588 

Controller. Saving at the (Cravath) 24 

Controlling Systems. Test of. at Boston *286 

Convention Hall, Kansas City, See Kansas 

Conveyor, Coal (Mead) 456 

Copper Thieves. See Thieves. 

Corporations for Profit, Street Railways Are .. 609 

Cost of: 

Building Construction 151 

Changing Cable Lines to Electricity in 

Denver 284 

Operating : in Cincinnati 224 

On Connecticut Roads i44 

Taxes as ^244 

Power Consumption 466 

Power for Electric Railways. 11, 223, 399. 

$21, 735 

Country Districts, Railways for (Tratman) . . . . 97 

Couplers. Van Dorn *i95. *6i2 

Coventry. England, Electric Tramways in .. 137 

Crane Co. at Paris '685 

Crane. Electric 221 

Creosoted Wood Blocks in Indianapolis 92 

Crickets, About 5^9 

Cripple Creek, New Roads at 4 

Crossing, Home Made ; 498 

Crossings, Grade. See Grade Crossings. 

Cuba, Cars for (Brill) '23 

Cunningham, G. C 5^ 

Curtain: Fixtures (Patterson) •693 

(Curtain Supply Co 754 

Novel Arrangement o{ 208 

Dallas Strike e42i, 54i 

Dam. Austin. Failure of ^75 

Dantzel Merry-Go-Rounds 54 

Davenport. la.. Improvements at 704 

Dayton : Express Service at 494 

Freight Service at 204 

Strike 353 

& Troy Electric Ry 7«3 

& Western Traction Co., Excursions on 


Deal Beach. N. J.. Parks at 282 

Deaths: from Third Rail 68?; 

List of 58€ 

Trollev Circuit »2 

Decatur. 111.. Improvement at 337 

Decisions. Recent Street Railway. See Law. 
Decorated Cars. See Cars. Decorated. 

Delaware General Electric Rv 179 

Delaware. L. &- W. R. R 300 

Denison. Tex., New Line at 520 

Denver, Boulder iS: Northern Rv 16 

C:\rji •509 

Changing Cable to Electric Traction 'a&i 

Employes* Club at '37 

New Franchise at 

Tax Case 7^4 

Derbv. Conn., Street Ry 38» 

De Rondc, Paint 108 

Detroit: Arbitration in 21, 394 

Ideas from *^$ 

Low FarcM Invalid 218 

& Northwcfltcrn Ry 35,1 

( observation Car at 441 

Rapid Ry. Extenftion 133 

Standard v«. I^ocal Time 757 

'J^ix Deci«if>n 403 

Vfisilanii & Ann Arbor Electric Ry *5 

Dim mock, W. S 56 

Dispatching C.irs , 'sio 

Dixon Crucible Co., Jos 466 

Dodging Trolley Cars e483 

Doors (Kinncar) "235 

Dozicr, D. W. (port) 576 

Drill. Burn ham "107 

Driver, Electric Pile 'isi 

Dromedary Concrete Mixer "313 

Dry Scat Prizes 221 

Ducts Cement Conduit •108 

Duffy. C. N. (port) 587 

I )iilulli Sujierior Traction Co 508 

Dnrliiri, C. K. (port) 38, 285.585 

Dust. Removing from Boiler Rooms '222 

Dynamite, Carried a Bag of 15 

Ear, Trolley (l'"aulkner) '299 

Early* Cable Work (Lawless) *s»2 

Electric Work (Henry) •581 

Installations *322 

East Side Electric Ry (St. Louis) '578 

Eave Troughs 535 

Kci)nomies: in Central Stations (Abbjott) '314 

Operating Central Stations aoo 

Eden, Garden of 699 

Editorial i, 61, iig, 183, 243, '303. 365. 421, 

483. 588. 625. 697 

Edison-Tohnson Trolley Harp "237 

Egan Co: Band Rip Saw "348 

Planer anti Matcher •106 

Elberfeld, Suspension Ry in 'iSS, •216 

Elections 56, in, 228, 295. 405. 472, 689 

Electric Traction, Status of, in Europe 

(Thompson^ ei, 20 

Electrolysis: Alleged Form (H €183 

Bonding Pipes to Prevent 343 

Chicago 130 

Indianapolis 702 

(Tenkins) 260 

Maury €422, "433 

Opinion on 33° 

Preventing, at Bristol, Eng 413 

Rockford, III 448 

Testing for (Nissley) "149. I97 

Elevator (Reno) 716 

Elmira & Seneca Lake Ry '515 

Emploves: Advice on Hiring 11 

Ball at Oakland. Cal '225 

Band. See Band 

Benefit .\ssociations. See Associations. 

Clubs. See Clubs. 

Old. What to Do With e24S 

Punished in Detroit 21 

Rewards to. See Rewards. 

Rules for at Worcester 104 

School for at Baltimore '261 

Service Stripes e698, 75.'? 

Suggestions to (Roach) 416. 4s;9 

Technical Tournals for ei84 

Training of 327 

Wages. See Waees 

Endless Chain Swindle 3^8 

Engine: Binary- Vapor 279 

Gas. See Gas Engine. 

fide) l^ 

Indicator : 72 

(Ripper") 'Sso 

Reheaters for 3^7 

Relative Efficiency of Various Types 

(Richter> 16s 

Strandardizing 454 

England: Tramway Conditions in 506 

See also Great Britain. 

English View of American Tramways 443 

Equitv. Plea for 100 

Evolution of Citv Streets (Fish) €422. dd$ 

Ewing Single Rail Tramways '81 

Excursions Dayton Se Western "t57 

Exeter, Hampton & Amesbury St. Ry "630 

Exhaust Head (Burt) ., ••- 223 

Expansion Toints. See Joints. 

Express Service: Carrying Flowers ....€623, 637 

Dayton ^494 

Los Angeles 729 

Methods of «483 

War in Connecticut 344 

See Also Freight 

Falk Co 

Joints (Fisher & Dick) 

Fans. (Bates) 


Fares : Children 

Detroit Ordinance Invalid .... 

Evils of Graduated 


Increased in Ohio 

Rates of at Butte 

Reduced: Attempts to Have. 


Ft. Wayne 

Hamilton. O 

Maryland 4-cent Bill 

Milwaukee to Have 

Petition Against 

San Francisco 



228, '348 


498, 601 




!!!!!!!!!!' iSs 




ei83, 206 




iia. 699 

Tcrrc Hiiulc 37 

Wafthington - 103 

Rehlricling Law 330 

lo-ccnl, in Brooklyn 379, 459 

Workingmcn, England 380 

Fare RcgiMer, .Sec Kcgiitcr 

Fat Man, Diingeruun in Street Cart ejoj 

l'*aulkner Trolley Ear *JW 

Fay & Co. ; Borer •234 

I'laner '464 

Surfacing M achinc "aS; 

Feeders, Calculating 696 

J-eed- Water Filter * Boothman> '737 

Feist Trolley Head •476 

Fences : Snow, on Electric Katlwayi '4^ 

Woven Wire (American) 61 1 

Fender Prizes 221 

Providence, Movch to New York 741 

FilerStowcll Engines at Providence../... '278, 532 

Filter, (Boothman> '737 

Fire-Proof Paint loH 

Fires: Chattanooga •453 

Frcdonia, N. Y 76 

Mt. Tom 637 

Muncie, Ind , 105 

Ottawa, Can 'jgi 

Paige Iron Works 637 

Firemen and Patrolmen Ride Free 54 

P'ish, Willistun, (port J 446 

Flat Wheels 307 

Floats, Electric at New Orleans •134, J37 

Florence, Ala., New Road at 407 

I'lowers, Express Service eftiS, 637 

Flukes Boring Bar '^35 

Flynn, Chas E 56 

Fly Wheels 317 

Ford, A. II. (pwrl) i^ 

Foreign: Facts 44, 114, 159, 229, a88, 341, 408. 

477, 538. 6H7, 75' 

Trade, Solicitmg e365, 3H6 

Fort Lee, N. J., Sec New Jersey. 

Fort Wayne, Reduced Fares at 154 

Fort Worth-Dallas Road 51S 

Foster, E. C. (port) 475 

Fowler & Robert 360 

France, Steep Grades in 4 

Franchises: Columbus 209 

Chicago Mayor on 738 

Galcsburg, III 38 

Guthrie, O. T 63 

Ideal 715 

Milwaukee ca, 43, 107, 133. 236 

New York 231.289,436, 732 

Sale of for $1 730 

See Also Fares. 

Franklin, (Pa.) Road Sold 164 

Fredonia, N. Y., Fire at 76 

Freight Car on Maximum Traction Trucks 

(Brill) '380 

Freight Carrying: Advantages of 268 

Brooklyn 49 

Cleveland & Chagrin Falls Electric R. R.. 21 

Indianapolis Interurbans 67 

Isle of Man Tramways (Bonner) •77 

Massachusetts 158 

Right to Carry, See Law 

Theory and Practice of Carrying •199 

Toronto 16 

Sec also Express. 

Fuel, Oxy^n for e698 

Funerals, Trolley C698 

Baltimore *703 

Mexico '640 

Milwaukee 2S 

St. Louis 49 

Furbeck & Co. W. F. (ports) 41 

Fuses, Noark ^ 46 


Gage, Narrow. Road? (Gundcrloch 1 ,-iS 

Galesburg, III.: Franchises at 38 

Good Record at 473 

Galion, O.. Intcrurban at •305 

Galveston. Tex.: Sale of Road 45 

Storm at *6io 

Garton : Lightning Arresters '277 

Trailer Connector '232 

Gas Engine, Test of 9 

Oil Citv, Pa '337 

Gates Platform (Gold) •174 

General Electric Co., Buys Siemens- Halske 

Generators : Standardizing 454 

Toledo (W^est) •280 

Geneva. Electric Railway in 232 

Georgetown. British Guiana. Railway at (Swan 

& Rankin) ^TOS 

Georgia, Special Tax in 73' 

Germany: Suspension Ry in *ISS. *2i6 

Asphalt Paving .' 74* 

Mail Service in 745 

Tramwavs in ^2 

Gilbert Trolley Wheel •it2 

Glasgow: Functions of Modem Tramways and 
WTiat Glasgow is Doing to Fulfill Them 

) Young) ^39* 

THuminated Car *420 

Large Shaft for *232 

Tramwav. Annual Report 47^ 

Gold Car Heaters and Gates '174 

Goldschmidt Welding Process 505 

Gong, Double-Signal *8* 

Goundie. W. T 5* 

(irade Crossing: Accidents S<* 

Decisions on. See Law. 

(Mordecai) 80 

Ohio 753 

Police at -••-• _» 

Question of ear, €588. 

Grades. Steep in France 4 

Graham. J. R. (port) 585 

Grand Rapids, Mich.: Improved by Interur- 
bans 438 

New Line at 3<» 

875e i t 



Patrolmen at Crossings zS 

Service at ^S 

Graphite Facing 466 

Great Britain: Tramway Statistics 15, 130 

Electric Tramways in C484 

Horse Roads Appreciating 70a 

LiRlit Railways in 721 

Greene, S. Dana. Deatli of 41 

Griffin Wheel Plant. Kansas City 597 

Grovcr, Charles (port) 575 

Guard Wires 448 

Guthrie, O. T. Franchise at 63 


Half Fares 51, 115, 172, 239, 296, 359, 418, 479, 

539i 623, 694, 747 

Halifax Tramway Report 160 

Hallidie, A. S e243, 294 

Ham. U'm. F 56 

HamburK, Regulations at 78 

Hamilton, O.: Fares Reduced at ei83, 206 

Southern Ohio Traction C^o.6s, 289, 699, 745, 754 

Hamilton, Ont., New Roads at 475 

Hammond Sanding Device "746 

Hands, \V. O. (port) 580 

Harden. J. A. (port) 575 

Harp, See Trolley Harp. 

Hartford: Band 343, *46o 

Benefits of Widened Street at 26 

Mail Service at 37 

Water Famine Averted 133 

Havana, Electric Railway in 312 

Haverhill (Mass). Salem & Hudson Ry 707 

Haycox. W. E. (port) 306 

Hazard Mfg. Co 342 

Heath & Milligan Mfg. Co 356 

Headlight (Multiplex) 613 

,, (Lea) -754 

Heat, Latent 398 

Specific, of Steam 398 

Heating: (Bayley) '606 

Blower System of (American) '40 

Cars in Detroit *265 

(de Burlet) •719 

By Exhaust Steam 109 

Heaters: (Baker) ^403 

(Gold) 174 

(National) '541 

(Smith) '416 

When to Turn on 238 

Hcavv Electric Rys. : Electric Traction on 

(fleft.) 524 

See Steam vs. Electricity. 

Hcim, J. J. (port) 580 

Heim, M. G. (port) 580 

Henry, C. L.. (port) 67 

Henry, J. C. (port) 581 

Highways, Oil on ^697, 710 

Hoe, Weeding *448 

Hoguc, A. B. (port) 321 

Holmes, W. H. (port) 575 

Holmes, C. F. (port) 575 

Hold-up in New Jersey 158 

Honolulu Tramways 609 

Horse Roads Appreciating in Value 702 

House Boat. Car as •714 

Huddersfield, Eng., Letter Boxes on Cars.. '206 

Hughes, T. C. (port) 577 

Hull. C. L. (port) 226 

Hutchinson, Kan., Accident 401 


Ice: Cutting Trolley Wheel •112, i6o 

Removing from Wire *I54 

Skating Facilities 100, 160 

Ide Engines 164 

India : Notes from 47 

Single-Rail Tramway in *53, *8i 

Tramways in 130 

Indiana: New Interurban for 196 

Ry •424 

Indianapolis: Greenwood & Franklin Inter- 
urban *3t9 

Electrolysis Suit 702 

New Work at *4ii 

l^nion at 225 

Wood Pavements in 92 

Indicator : Continuous Mean Pressure '72 

Engine *S2o 

TnidtkiT System 508 

Installations, Some Early Electric Railway ..•322 

Instruments Electrical : (Jewell) 55 

(Stevens) 383, 439 

Insulation. Micsnite Plate 753 

Insulators: (Locke) "28 

Third Rail •171 

Insuring a Bill 148 

International : Correspondence Schools 143 

Tramways: Exhibition 221, 238, 342, *376. 441 
Union, Paris Meeting 106,718 

Interurban Rys.: Ohio Association of 63 

Michigan 754 

War on 26 

What They Do 438 

Ireland, See Great Britain. 

Isle-of-Man Tramways '443 

Bonner Wagons on "t? 

Ithaca, N. Y.: Car Tests at (West) •sog 

Street Railway (Cooper) 308 

Italy; Three Phase Line 405 

Tramway at Terni 397 

Jacks: (Boyer Sc Radford) •ego 

Union •ija 

Japan. Tokyo, Conditions in 140 

Odd Car in •720 

Java. Electric Tramway at Batavia '91 

Jewell Electrical Instruments 55 

Jewett Co., Extension of Plant of 'go 

Jim Crow Cars .....245,358 

Joint, See Rail Joint, Pipe Joint, etc. 

Jones Stoker •300 

Journals, Technical ei84, e304, 326 

July 4th, Attractions for •357 


Kansas City, Mo "545 

Conventions at, See American St. Ry, 

Convention Hall *69. 238* •290, S30, 584 

Leavenworth Electric Ry '35 

Metropolitan St. Ry "555 

New IJnes for 130 

.Strike 293, 353 

Tickets instead of Annuals 28 

Kennedy, .\rthur (port) 433 

Kennedy. H. Milton 177 

Kenosha, Wis.. Street Railway for 459 

Key>tane Car Wheel Plant 340 

Ktmbcriey. Cars in 164 

Kinnear Rolling Doors '235 

Kirkpatrick. \V. E. (port) 575 

KisinRer- 1 sun Wire Connector '277 

Knell Air Brake •fiiS 

Knox. G. W'. (port) 210 

Kokoino, Ind., Accident Suit at 25 

Korea, Electric Railway at 474 

Kw.-H. Per Car Mile 466 


Lake Manawa and Manhattan Beach R. R... 27 

Lamps. Breakage of 741 

Law : 

Accident Adjuster 513 

Negligence with Unexplained 5g<; 

Agreements, Assumption by New (Com- 
pany 89 

AliKlUing, Delay in 166 

Duties When 29 

Protection After 214 

Ambulance, Collision with 213 

Arrest Procured bv Conductor 635 

Assessments for hewers 511 

Assignment. Party to Sue Under 449 

Attorney's Fee^^Assumed on Compromise. 390 

Lien and Settlement 213 

Bell and Cord, Presence of 32 

Bell Rope, Injuries Attributed to 331 

Bicyclist, Duty of 595 

Duty to 8s 

Blood Poisoning. Death from 30 

Boarding Car, Should Have Time 331 

Bonds and Acceptance of Ordinance 214 

Boy Jumpinc on Car 271 

Boys on Sidewalk, Warning 269 

Brake, Sufficiency of 511 

Bridge, Control of by Authorities 450 

Tolls 512 

Use of 459 

Broken Wheel 387 

Broker's Commission 595 

Brooklyn Fare Case 379 

Care, Must Show Facts to Prove 32 

Required in Stopping 167 

of Pedestrians 331 

of Woman 269 

with Mule Cars 212 

Cars, Disabled 270 

Failure to Run as Required 635 

Hidden by Trees 387 

Injury from Defective 389 

Meeting of 212 

Need Not Check Up at Crossings 16S 

Should Give Time to Board 331 

Starting 167 

Stopping Slowly Moving 213 

Turning Out for 727 

Changes, Power of City to Order 273 

Children, Assisting 269 

Duty of 449 

in Road Near School 513 

City, Power of, to Make Changes 273 

Coal. May Not Burn Soft 212 

Coin, Passing Suspicious 450 

(Collision 86 

Exemplary Damages for 333 

Presumption in 513 

Rear End 168 

Responsibility for 167 

with Ambulance 213 

with Fire Truck 27a 

with Truck 269 

with Wagon 168 

Colored Passengers. Separating 725 

Condemnation of Private Property. . . .414, 452 

Reserved Right of 727 

Conductor. See Employe. 

Connecting with Other Roads 273 

Consent of City Sufficient 88 

Consents Duty to File 30 

For Moving Track 726 

Proof of Required 214 

Validity of 726 

Consolidated Company, Property of 449 

Consolidations 389 

Contract May Not be Impaired 449 

to Keep Highway Safe 512 

Crossing Appeals in Wisconsin 86 

Case, Instruction in 165 

Collision at 165 

Conditions of Grant 167 

in Front of Cars 212, 271, 451 

Track 331 

Courts Cannot Examine Legislative Mo- 
tive 165 

Crossings, Duty at 85 

Rights Between 29 

Right to M.ike 461 

with Steam Roads, Regulating 32 

Right of Way at 89 

Settlement of 333 

Curve, Injury at ,50 

Working on Inside of ] 31 

Damages, Duty to Keep Down ...'. 168 

Exemplary, for Collision.. 333 

For Location of Turnpike 725 

Stipulation for 85 

Defects, Legislature Can Cure 165 

Delay in Alighting 166 

of ID Years is Laches 213 

Depreciation. Need Not Pay 167 

Detroit Ordinance Invalid 218 

Dogs, Liability for Killing 596 

Drainage. Street 271 

Driving Across Tracks 212 

Duty as to Street Repairs 88 

of Children 449 

of Employes to Know 514 

Ejected by Employe 212 

Ejection of Passengers 450 

on Wrong Transfer 452 

Trespasser, Care Required 725 

Electricity, Liability of Company Fumish- 

infir ...^ 451 

Employe Conductor Running Cars With- 
out 30 

Admissions of 725 

Conductor's Place on Platform 635 

Declaration of, Not Evidence 29, 214 

Duty to Assist Passengers 269 

Injury to 514 

Insulting Language of 211 

Must Know, What 514 

Name of 30 

Not Called as Witness 334 

Proof of Unfitness 269 

When Two Required on (Tar 211 

Evidence, Declaration of Employe Not..., 214 

Admissions of Employe 7^5 

Inadmissible 270 

Photographs as 211 

Trip Sheets Not 511 

Excavation. Guarding 45: 

Express Matter. See Freight. 

Extensions Beyond Leased Tracks 440 

Filing Map of 30 

Power of City to Order 273 

No Public Policy Against 29 

Facts Inferring Care 32 

Fare, effect of Charter Limit 332 

Evading Pavnient 90 

Right to Ride at Local ^j 

Detroit 3-Cent. Invalid 218 

Fender. Rear, Iniury from 596 

Fire Truck, Collision with 270 

Foreclosure of Trust Deed on Default 389 

Freight and Express, Right to Carry 31 

Freight Decision in New York 3(58 

Franchise, Assignment of 449 

Exclusive 636 

Grant, Disguised 513 

Milwaukee. Valid 637 

Not Property in Trust 3R8 

Removing Tracks 269 

Tax in New York. 231, 289, 436. 732 

(>rade Crossings, New Jersey 77 

Grading Required 270 

Gong, Failure to Sound 166, 3^1 

Guarantor, Release of t6.s 

Guarding Excavations 4i;2 

Guy Wires. Strength of 451 

Horse, Frightening 167 

Unhitched. Near Track 514 

3n Hose Across Track 419 

Infirm Passengers, Injury to 166 

Injunction for Injury to Property 511 

to Prevent Construction 331 

Injury at Curve 450 

Because of Bell Rope 311 

by Falling Pole 269 

by Motorman Throwing Stones 89 

from Rear Fender 506 

of Trespassing Boy 165 

to Person Crossing Track 167, 331 

to Person on Running Board 168, 272 

to Property. Injunction for 511 

Instructions in Crossing Case 16^ 

Insulting Language of Employe 211 

Passengers. Rights of 273 

Interest, Reasonable, to be Charged 167 

Intoxicated Passenger, Where Left 332 

Intoxication, Proof of 332 

Joining Railwav and Gas Companies 511 

Joint IJse of Tracks 727 

Richmond. Va 750 

Lake Street Elevated Litigation 225, 3J0 

Land Damage Claims in Chicago n8 

Leasing Railway to Power Company 86 

I-icen se Fees 272 

Lien. Attorney's, and Settlement 213 

Limitations. Construction of 85- 

Location of Street Railways e24i 

Looking and Listening 333 

Back by Driver of Wagon 33*3- 

for Sagging Wire 334 

Map of Extension Duty to File 30 

Maryland 4-cent Bill 151; 

Milwaukee Franchise Case 133, 236 

Montreal Tax Case 245 

Mortgage Prior to Rebuilding 3^2 

Motorman, Throwing Stones by 89 

Move Forward. Not Necessary to 290 

Mule Car. Care Required 2x2 

Municipality Removing Track 260 

May Not Renuire Vestibules 727 

Power of to Prescribe Rails 727 

tTnreasonab'e Orders of 727 

Necessity for Road. Deciding 30 

Negligence to Rescue Child. Not 213 

New Jersev Grade Crossings 77 

Newsboy. Not a Passenger 726 

New York Franchise Tax Case j.^fi 

Noise at Switch 166 

of Power Plant 212 

Notice as to Street Repairs 88 

Required to Bind Purchasers 725 



Nuisance, VVnilingronin Obstructing View 

Not a SS 

Oliio Legislation 7^ 

War on Jntcnirbaiis ^o 

OiniBSjnn of Words "In Value" 595 

Drilinancf, Acccjitance of 214 

AllcKcd Invalid 33" 

May Not Impair Contract M^ 

OvcrcrowilinK Cars is Negligence 89 

Overhead Work. i<isk in Krecting 3> 

Ownership, Proof of ifift 

I'arties to Suit of Mortgagee .WS 

Passenger Carried I'ast Destination 370 

Kjection of 45o 

NeWBl)oy as 7.^0 

Separating Colored 7^5 

Passes, Agreements for 89 

Paving Obligation Affects Security 270 

I'lil. sliians. Care Required of 331, 333 

I'.iiiiKsion to Do Work 33' 

rii.M.iKia|»hs as I-'vidcnce 211 

I'hvical Kxaniinalions in Federal Court.. 390 

Pofe, Pulling Down 269 

Polyphase Motor Decision 607 

Power House, Soft Coal at 212 

Kind of 269 

Plant. Noise of 212 

Profit, Street Railways are for 699 

Property, Injunction for Injury to 511 

Protection After Alighting 214 

Presumption as to Negligence 595 

Private Right of Way 505 

Promotors, Consents Given to 7^ 

I'roof of Intoxication 332 

of Ownership iljo 

of Speed 33" 

U.Tilroad, Street Railway is a 88 

Rails, Power of City to Prescribe 727 

Rates. .See Fares. 

Release of Ciuarantying Company lOS 

Report, Acting on Divided 30 

Rescue of Child Not Negligence 213 

Revocation. Reserved Right 636 

Right of Way at Crossing 89 

Ring Cong, Failure to 166, 331 

Road. Damages for Location of 725 

Roadbed, Defects in 727 

Rule Nonobservance of 30 

Rules as to Carrying .\rticles 27' 

Running Hoard, Getting on 30 

Injured on '68, 213, 272, 387, 389 

Riding on 32 

Safe Pl.ace, Stopping at 167 

Schedules, Regulating 285 

School Children in Road 5'3 

Seattle Case S™ 

Seeing Wagon. Presumption as to 8S 

Security Affected by Paving Obligation... 270 

Settlement, Attorneys' Lien 213 

Right to Plead 725 

Sewers, Assessments for 5'' 

Shclton Accident Claims Settled 8 

Shock, Injuries from 25 

Signal, Failure to Give 388 

Law in Ohio '7' 

Slowing Up at Crossings 168 

Snow Piled at Side of Streets 29 

Sweeper, Care in Operating 513 Flection Suit at Ottumwa 238 

Speed, High 167 

Limit, Acceptance of 212 

Not Limited as to 5" 

Testimony as to 33'. 387. 5". 595 

Starting Cars '07 

Stations. Transfer Points Are 272 

Steam Road Building Extension Across.. 30 

Stopping at Sate Places 167 

at Transfer Points 272 

Slowlv Moving Car 213 

Storage Battery Decision 208 

Street Drainage 271 

Improved, Using 30 

Obstruction of. by Wagon 725 

Repairs, Duty and Notice 88 

Widened. Benefits of 26 

Subway, No Injunction Against 89 

Sweeper, Care m Operating 5'3 

Switch, Noise at '66 

Tax Decision, Detroit 403 

Denver Case 754 

Ontario "2 

Special in Georgia 73' 

See also Franchise under Law. 

Taxpayer's Contest of Franchise Grant 513 

Tickets, S.ile and Use of ,t90 

"Time Limit Less than Statute 214 

Tolls, When Citv Owns Bridge Stock 512 

Track, Wet, Brake on 5'' 

Consent for Moving 720 

Driving Across ,. 212 

Horse Left Unhitched Near S'4 

Hose Across 449 

Joint Use of. Boston 281 

Obstruction Seen on 334 

Removal of, by Municipality 269 

Temporary Location 449 

Transfer Points. Stopping at 272 

Right to Ride Without 63s 

Suit at Detroit '7' 

When Required 332 

Wrongly Punched 87, 452 

Transfer. California Decision 406 

Selling, in Chicago 344 

Transportation Company, Railway is a 8S 

Trespassing Boy, Injury of 165 

Care in Electing 725 

Trip Sheets Not Evidence 5" 

Trollev Harps Decision 54' 

Ofl : '68. 270 

Truck P.atents 4«t, 54' 

Tunnel. Power of State to Have City 

Build 5'2 

Turning Toward Track After Gong is 

Out for Cars 727 

Sounded 388 

Unusual Manner of Operating 387 

Vestibules, City May Not Require 727 

View, Olistriiclin^ 85 

Vise Risk in Ummik 3' 

Wagon, Duly of Driver lo Look 333 

Wagon ObHtructing Street 725 

on Track, Leaving... M 

Warning Hoys on Sidewalk 2(19 

Wire Broken ( annol Cause Shock 29 

Looking for Known S.iRging 314 

on Street 388 

Strength of tluy 45' 

Workmen on Tr.'ick 388 

Woman, C'are Heouircd of 2/19 

Dragging b^ ,Skirt '65 

Women, .Assisting 269 

Witness, limpl.iye Not Called 334 

Lawless, E. J., (port) 582 

Lawrence, Mass., New Koad at 3S8, 5'o 

Leadville, Col., New Road 367 

League of American Municipalities e6i 

Lea Headlight YM 

Lcg.ll Department, Our e484 

Lewis, K. C .56, Frank (port) e483, '497 

I.iglit Railways: 

Great Britain 721 

(ZilTer) ,;••••■,• '■' 

And Tramways Exhibition, See Interna- 
Lightning Arresti-r. See Arrester. 

Damage by Lightning 40' 

Lisbon, Portugal, Car House at 465 

Linklielt Stair-Lift 74* 

I.ittic Rock, Ark.: Reorganization 35* 

Strikes 3«>. 353 

Liverpool, .Statistics from 209 

Locke Insulators 28 

Locomotive, Electric (Brill) 221 

Logansport, Ind., New Road at ... 339 

London, Eng. : Central London Ry., Cars lor 

_ *2A3 

Electricity on Metropolitan Ry 692 

Nortli Metropolitan Ry '5* 

Third-Rail Road at ,.....•349 

Tramway Exhibit at, See International 

Ycrkes' 1<oad 732 

London, Onl.: Letter from M4 

Kiolors Punished 65 

Street Rv., Report '02 

Londrigan, The Copper King (port) 7' 

Lord's Boiler Compound ...^ 342 

Los Angeles: Improvements at ^693 

ICxpress Service 729 

Sale of Mt. Lowe Road 338 

Special Cars 743 

Louisville, Ky.: No Strike at 78 

Report .'56 

Lubricating: System, Gravity 59H 

Air for ,323 

Albany Grease 474 

Lumen Bronze 602 


M.acAfee, John Blair (port) 405 

McDole, W. G 356 

McGill, Porter & Berg (ports) ■■■■■ '75 

McGuire Manufacturing Co.: Exhibit at Kan- 
sas City «9' 

Factory ^57 

Products of ,47 

Trucks for France 34° 

McNulta, Gen. John '77 

Machinerv. Rating Electrical 7'9 

Magann .\ir Brakes f94 

Magnetic: Clutch (Arnold) 72 

Disturbances • •--- '30 

Mahoning Valley Railway System, See 
Youngstown. O. - ^ • 

Mail Service:Cars for Chicago 236, .535 

Development of "< «4&4 

Germanv 2*15 

Grand Rapids ,<S 

Hartford. Conn 37 

Huddersfield, Eng 206 

Minneapolis 3^7 

Ottumwa, (la.) Service 231 

Right lo Carry. See Law. 

Syracuse. N. 'V '" 

Maine: Commissioners Decision 140 

Street Railwavs •^- •.;••• ',■- "" 

Main Rys., See Heavy Electric Railroading. 

Maintenance: of Cars 262 

Street Railways (MacGregor) 243, 259, 321 

Tramways ,5'9 

Manchester. Eng., Car House 7'7 

Manila, Street Cars in 55 

Manufacturers' Exhibit at New York 208 

Maps: Chicago Subway 239 

Detroit. Y. &• A. A. Electric Ry *5 

Indiana Rv ■• *^ 

Indianapolis, Interurbans About 3'9 

Nassau Co., Lines in 221 

St Louis & Suburban R. R 'O' 

Sheffield (Eng.) Tramways '7 

Union Traction Co.. Anderson, Ind 66 

Maryland 4cent Bill '55 

Massachusetts: Consolidations '57. '98 

Electric Companies 7'4 

Freight Question in '5» 

Street Railway Report 328 

Vestibules in 745 

Matthews, W. G.. (port) 285 

Maver & Englund Catalog 754 

Mechanical Department 

.39. 75. '5'. 233. 264. 351. 409. 462, 535. 

..:...'..... *°s. 739 

Meeting. Division, at Boston 7'3 

^temphis. Univers.ll Transfer at » 

Menu. Street Railway 344 

Merrv-Go Rounds (Dantiel) , 54 

Merrvmeeting Park. Theater for 327 

Mexico: Funeral Cars....... .640 

Opening of Electric Line '7» 

.Mica, Priparing *lo3 

InkuL-itor Co 7S3 

.Michigan: .Municipal <Jwnrrship in es 

Interurbans in 7.54 

Roa.l Wanted in 35" 

Milford, Aiilcboro He WcKjnsockct St. Ry "638 

MillerKnobloek Co.. Kccirganiwtion of 47] 

.Nlllwaukee: .Accident at 519 

Annual Reports - 67 

Break Down in 393 

Car-liour Unit 542 

i-cent Tickris ajo 

Franchise Situation C2, 43, 107, 13J, 236 

i-'unerals by Trolley 38 

.Minncapolii: LfTicicncy of Water Power Su- 

lion 3'3 

Mail Service 307 

Twin Cily Annual Report 207 

.Missouri, History of *M5 

.Vfoney, I^sy 5'9 

Montgomery: Conductorless Cars in 474 

New Line at 3^6 

Montreal: Electric I'ower for aw 

Extension at o37 

Fined at 397 

Percentage Case at t 245 

Regulating Schedules in 385 

Removing Snow in 16 

Moore, J. t-lias. (port) 4' 

Mount Lowe Road, Sale of 338 

Morgan, W. W. (port) 5» 

Morris Electric Co., Hydraulic Preii *344 

Motors: Slurtevant Enclosed '690 

Best Number per car 651 

Muncic, Ind. Fire at ; 105 

Municipal Ownership: Accounting and, (Ca- 

boon) ej04, 337 

Argument Against C183, 310, £421 

Chicago Commission €484 

Discussed at Chicago 738 

(Dohcrly on) 82 

Ideal Franchise 7'5 

Michigan's Experiment in ea 

Ohio's Bill lor (Foote) ei, 19 

Seattle, Wash 55 

Street Railways, Too Large for 376, €303 

To Investigate Benefits of ««i 

Toledo Out of Gas Business so 

Vreeland on 3'* 

Why Plants Do Not Pay 45s 

Name of Street, Changing 28 

Na.shua, N. H., New Inlerurban 707 

Nashville: Consolidation in 'S^ 

Park at 7«. 'aSB 

Nassau Co., N. Y., Lines in ........321 

National: (Convention of Railroad Commission- 
ers 3'8 

Electric Light Association eoi,^344 

Heaters 54t 

Negroes, Cars for. See Jim Crow. 

Nelson, S. L 5« 

New England Street Railway Oub 473 

New Hampshire Commissioners* Report aoB 

New Haven, F. H. & W. R. R. 3So 

New Jersey: Hold-up in 'So 

& Hudson River Ry., Advertisement '533 

System of *7<» 

New Orleans: Advertising Folder ^107 

Carnival at '34 

Power Houses at 532 

Relief Association at 141 

Newport. Settling Basins 3«7 

New Publications 

57, III. 177. 228,298, 356, 405. 473. 543, 

". 620, 689. 733 

Newton (Pa.) Electric St. Ry ''3' 

News Notes 60. 117, 182, 363.757 

New York City: to Boston via Trolley 

209, e244. 283 

Compressed Air in -- *7'-^'i 

Manhattan Elevated, ConUct Kails "708 

Reno Elevator 7'6 

Report of 704 

Trial Trips «g 

Manufacturers' Exhibit at 3oe 

Rapid Transit Road 107, 133, 125, 398 

Third Avenue R. R.: Cars for 43 

Receivership >70 

S.ile of .....230. 3g,343 

New York. New Haven & Hartford R. K. 

Electricity on 46. '97 

Snow Plow 277 

New York State: Brake Tests. •422, •462. 498. 609 

Commissioners, Report of «, 41 

Franchise Tax 231,289.436. 732 

.Association S4'. 602 

Niagara: Gorge Road. Building the 21 

St. Catherines & Toronto ; ^ 

Noark Fuses 46 

Norfolk. Va.. Tim Crow Cars 245 

Northwestern: Electrical Association 77, 4.5? 

Elevated. See Chicago. 
Nottingham, Eng., Tramway m 2>i 


Oakland. Cal.. Employes' Ball at '225 

Obituary. .57, III. '77. 227.294, 35*. 404. 473- 

586.620, 7=3 

Ohio: Brass Co.. Poic Brackets '99 

Central Traction Co., See Bucyrus. 

Electric Towing in 44'- 4*' 

Fares in 7-55 

Grade Crossings in TJ' 

Interurban Association "3 

Legislation " ;--- ~' 

OwTiership of Public Utilities in (Foote)e2. 19 

Signal Law in '71 

War on Interurban Roads 26 

Oil Citv. Pa. Gas Engine at 337 



Oil on Highways e6o7, 710 

0*K«fe. f. J. (port) 577 

Oklahoma Territory Franchises in 63 

Omaha, Neb.. Lake M. & M, II. Ry j; 

Omnihus, Electric in Berlin '274 

Operating Expenses, Sec Cost of Operating. 
Operation: of Tramways *$ig 

and Maintenance of Street Railways (Mac- 

Grcgor) €243, 259, 321 

Oshkosh. Wis.: Card Party at 156 

Sleet Wheel 160 

Ottawa Electric Ry. : Annual Report 99 

Fire "291 

Otiumwa. la.: Mail Service 231 

Special Election Suit 238 

Overhead Work: Cleveland Electric Ry *393 

Hangers (Ohio Brass) 6w 

Kansas City *s^ 

Owsley, L. S. (port) 419 

Oxygen for Fuel C698 

Paige Iron Works 637 

Paint: Fire Proof 108 

(Iraphitc (Detroit) 601 

Painting and Cleaning Cars: 411 

( Brydgcs) 648 

(Coffin) 352 

(Harringion) 649 

(Williams) 409 

IVushes, Care of 465 

Kinks *35i 

I'hiladelphia 739 

.'sanitation (Hiirty) 723 

Washington 739 

Wood Stains and Colors 740 

Palermo, Electric Railway at *257 

Pan-American Exposition, See BuflFalo. 

Para. Brazil. Elevated Ry. for 268 

Paris: Conduit Construction in *Si9 

Exposition: Notes on "469 

Monumental Chimneys 222 

Orleans Terminal R. R 90 

Suspended Ry *640 

Tramway Congress at 106 


Advertising: 236 

Cleveland 276 

Attractions: 295 

Sea Serpent for •738 

Wild Animals 37 

Butte. Mont '437 

Cleveland. Berea, Elyrla & Oberlin 238 

Indiana Ry '429 

Kansas City *S73, 579 

M errymceting Park "327 

Nashville. Tenn 76. •368 

New Jersey.... 282 

Portland, Me '485 

Sans Sonci 363 

Theater, See Theater. 
Traffic, See Pleasure Traffic. 

Passes Abolished in Kansas City 28 

Patent Office, More Room Needed at eirg 

Patrolmen: and Firemen Ride Free 54 

Paying Crossing 28 

Paving: Block. (Buckland) 'le, •603 

Asphalt in Germany 746 

Indianapolis, Wood Blocks 92 

See also Track Construction, 

Peckham Co '622 

Peekskill, N. Y., Storage Battery at 263 

Pennsylvania: State Association 656 

Consolidation in 738 

Street Railways of e6i, 79 

Penstock, Protecting 350 

Peoria, Electrolysis at 6422, '433 

Persona! 56, no, 176, 226, 204, 355. 404, 472, 534, 

575. 688, 752- 

Philionines. Trolley in the 711 

Pickpockets: on Electric Cars 287 

Game in Detroit 160 

Piles; Driver for •151 

Worm Eaten •■ 53 

Pintsch Light %& 

Pipes: Bonding 343 

Toint, Expansion *g 

Laying in England 515 

Piping and Accessories. (Ennis) '12, "93. *i3S 

Pittsburg: Cars for (American) 432 

Changes at 300 

Consolidated Traction Co,. Annual Report. 438 

Cnnsolidation 179, 198, 307, 527 

Employes' Association 25, 141 

Policemen at Crossings 313 

Service Strioes 75S 

Signs on Poles 437 

3-cent Fare Road 55 

Planer (Fav) , •464 

Platform. Novel in Detroit '266 

Plea for Equity too 

Pleasure Traffic: 6243, •402. ^412 

Advertising for (Beach) ^484, *405 

Hints on Creating 367 

Resorts, See Parks. 
TMows, Snow. See Snow Plows. 

Pules: Brackets (O. B.) '99 

Cedar 200 

Setting. Kansas City *S68 

Signs on 437 

To Preserve..^.. 515 

Policemen at Crossings 31H 

Politeness. Dancrer in 78 

Politics. Street Railway Men in 586 

Polvpha-^c Electric Traction (Carus Wilson).... 499 

Porter. J. W. ('port> 175 

Portland. Mc., Street Railways of '485 

Portland, Ore., Home-Made Car af '330 

Portsmouth, 0.,Home-Madc Crossing '498 

Poster, Advertising Excursions '157 

Potis, Salvator 294 

Potomac Terra Cotta Co 'ros 

Potter, Edwin A., (port) 177 

Power: Cost of. Sec Cost of Power. 

Consumption: of Cars (Harrington) 653 

Per Car-Mile 466 

Distribution (Bancroft) 645 

I Van Vloten) 719 

Power House: Department 9, 72, 162, 222, 278, 

314. 398. 453. 520, 598, 733- 

Bay City 162 

• Design (Dawson) 521 

Detroit Y. & A. A *5 

English Records *523 

Exeter, Hampton & Amcsbury ^632 

Kaw River, Kansas City "560 

M ilford, Attlcboro & Woonsocket *638 

Minneapolis, Efficiency of (Burch) 313 

Northwestern Elevated 369 

Operating Economies in C303, *3i4, 400 

Piping for. See Piping. 

Production, Statistics on, (Dawson) 39^ 

i Thonet) ;i8 

Transmission European Methods (Thomp- 
son) 20 

Preserving: Poles 515 

Timber 324 

Press: Armature Coils '264 

Errors of the English e303 

From the Daily ; 38 

Welding, (Morris). ._. "344 

Prices, High Itlock Jioads 175 

Prizes, See Rewards. 

Profit, Street Railways Are for 699 

Providence: Accident at 354 

Fender Moves to New York 741 

New Unit at *-78, 532 

Relief Association at 142 

Pulley, Test of Wooden (Dodge) 741 

Pullman (?o 95 

Pump, Air, (Dean) "600 

Push Buttons, Not Appreciated 6422 

Q. &. C. Saw Grinder ^ii 

Quebec, Operating Street Cars in "590 

Ouincy, 111.: Car Barns "385 

Novel Tickets at *494 

Quotations, Track 358, 417, 478, 621,757 

Rail Bonds: Crown "617 

Tests 608 

(Nissley) " J49, 197 

Rait Joints: Atlas '594 

Barschall 6394 

Falk (Fisher-Dick) 719 

Goldschmidt Welding Process 639 

Staggering Bolts 743 

Rails: Deterioration of 509 

by Express 348 

Contact, Manhattan Elevated "708 

(Demerbe) "709 

Iron and Steel, (Hunt) 456 

Long, Handling *I09 

Machine for Breaking *39 

Officials Inspect 712 

Old, Steel Ties from •755 

Price of 300, 358, 417, 478, 621 

Sections, Collection of 49 

Rain. See Storm. 

Rapid Transit; Scheme for 4 

See New York City, 

Rate War 505 

Rating Electrical Machinery (Macloskie). . . , 719 

Reading, Pa.. Car House , "267 

Reconstructed Granite Insulators "171 

Records, See Tests. 

Register, (Monarch) '532 

Keheaters in Multiple Cylinder Engines 317 

Reno, Inclined Elevator 716 

Repair Shops: Exeter, Hampton & Amesbury.*634 

Handling Scrap 740 

Keeping Records at Covington •339 

Notes from: Cincinnati '347 

South Bend "428 

Reports, Annual : 

Boston Elevated R. R 49 

Charleston. S. C 209 

Chicago City Ry 82 

Chicago Elevated Roads 49, 84 

Chicago Union Traction Co. ... 112, 3^9, 467 
Cincinnati. Newport & Covington, See Cin- 

Cleveland Tntcrurbans 130 

Glasgow Tramway , 476 

Halifax Tramway 160 

London (Out.) Street Ry 102 

Louisville Ry 156 

Maine Street Railways 112 

Massachusetts Street Railways 328 

Milwaukee Companies 67 

Montreal St. Ry 692 

New Hampshire Street Railways 208 

North Metropolitan, London 156 

Ottawa Electric Ry 99 

Pennsylvania Street Railways 79 

Pittsburg, Consolidated Traction 438 

Rhode Island Roads 258 

Rockford Ry., Lght. & Pwr. Co 74 

St. Louis Companies 287 

Southern Ohio Traction Co 74S 

Toronto (Ont.) Railway 106 

Tramways in Great Britain 130 

Twin City Rapid Transit 207 

Union Traction, "Philadelphia 617 

Reprimands 6588 

Return Circuits. Testing (Nissley)^ *i40, '97 

See also Electrolysis. 

Review Daily 6421 

Rewards 50 

Birmingham 65 

Cincinnati 49 

Freedom from Accidents 529 

San Francisco 177 

Transfer Station Designs 76 

Reynoldsvillc (Pa.) Traction Co 104 

Rhode Island, Street Railways of 258 

Richmond, Va., Joint Use of Tracks 750 

Riding, Effects of 535 

Roach. J. M. (port) 307, 583 

Robertson, J. U 227 

Rochester & Sodus Bay K. R 508 

Spliced Cars "536 

Rockford, 111.: Electrolysis at 448 

Ry., Light & Power Co 74 

Koebling's Co. at Paris 686 

Rolling Stock, See Cars. 

Russia, Electric Railway Development in. .. . 229 


Safety: Car Heating & Lighting Co., Pintsch 

(ias *46 

Devices esSS 

Gate, Kansas City "569 

St. Joseph River, Power from 289 

St. Louis: Consolidation 232 

Crowded Cars in 459 

Employes Club "713 

Funeral Cars for 49 

Improvements on St. Louis & Surburban. 380 

.Machine for Breaking Tracks at '39 

Operating Companies 'loi 

Ouarterly Reports from 287 

Strike at 

209, 292, e304, 353, e366, 375, 6421, 468, 505, 509 

Sand, Furnace for Drying 76 

Sanding Device (Hammond) •746 

San Francisco: Low Fares 112, 699 

Market St. Ry., Rewards to Employes,... 177 

Sanitation. Car (Hurty) 723 

Sans Souci Park 362 

Santa Claus What He Brought 50 

Saratoga (N. Y.) Traction Co "64 

Satterlee, W. A., (port) 575 

Saw: Band Rip (Egan) ^348 

Grinder Q. & C ^ii 

Saxony, Electric Railways of ^30 

Scale, See Boiler Scale. 

Schaffer Mf^. Co., J. T., Wheel Press "235 

Schedule: Fined for Defective 307 

Regulating 285 

Scheme. A Visionary 4 

Schoepi, W. K. (port) 290 

School for Employes at Baltimore *26i 

Schuykill Valley Co., Suit 533 

Schwitzgebel, H. C. (port) 577 

Scrap, Handling 740 

Sea Serpent for Pleasure Resorts "738 

Searles, C. M. (port) 38 

Seat, How He Got A 282 

Seattle : Case. 508 

Consolidations at 299 

Municipal Ownership Wanted at 55 

Tacoma Electric Line 276 

Sergeant, C. S. (port) 129 

Serrated Wheels 195 

Settling Basins at Newport 317 

Shaft for Glasgow "232 

Quick Work on Hollow (Bethlehem) .... 737 

Sharon, Pa., New Interurban 707 

Sheboygan. Wis., Extensions at 8 

Sheffield, Eng., Tramway System of •17 

Shelton (Conn.) Accident Claims Settled 8 

Shop, See Repair Shop. 

Siam Tramway in 16 

Side Doors es88 

Siemens-Halske Co, Sold to General Electric 

Co 236 

Signal: Automatic Block (U. S. Electric) "690 

Electric (Taylor) 604 

Law in Ohio 171 

System (Bancroft) "444 

Sills Mica Co *ioz 

Silver, Free 0366 

Single: Rail Tramway "53, 'Si, "349 

Track Jioads vs. Belt Lines 329 

Sleeping Cars for Street Railways 6244, 283 

Small Roads, Operation of C243, 259, 321 

Smith, T. McM. (port) *432 

Snow: Fences on Electric Railways 48 

Plow : at Bangor, Me 'iss 

Buffalo '746 

4-motor ^75 

N. Y., N. H. & H "277 

Removing: in Montreal 16 

Worcester 83 

See Also Storm. 

South Bend, Ind.: Indiana Ry *424 

Power Co 289 

Southern Ohio Traction Co., See Cincinnati, O. 
Southwestern Association, Waco Meeting.... 

.- 259, 321, 327 

Sparrows in Car Houses 306 

Specifications, Bridge '704 

Speed, High...^ e303, 414 

Speer Carbon Co 357 

Spliced Cars 160 

Spokane. Premiums at 529 

Springfield, 111., Strike at e2, 108, 156 

Stair-Life. (Link-Belt) "742 

Standard Paint Co 683 

Standardization : Cars 299 

on Street Railways 262, ei20 

Units 454 

Star Lubricating Oil Co 179 

Station, Plan of at Cincinnati "345 

Statistics: Canadian Electric Ry 459 

Electric Railway 724 

Steam Road 437 

Steam: Heating by Exhaust log 

Road Statistics 437 

Turbines (Thurston) 736 

vs. Electricity in Connecticut 197 

Wet f Edgar) 453 

Steel: Colors of Heated 40 

Track for Roadway '46 

Stephenson Works, Sale of 228, 380 

Steubenville, O., New Road at 287 



Stoker, Under- Feed (Jones) ' 

Stops Frequency of 

Storage Battery : Decision (Hatch) . . . ; 

Accvimulalor Traction (Uroca & Johunnct) 

I'cekskill, N. Y 

Power Stations (Norris) 

Small Stativjn • 

Taken oil in Clucago 

'J'ruck in India ' 

Weight oi 

Storm: Damages X-Vom 169, ' 

Galveston ' 

Street: Evolution of (Fish) 04^2, 

Railway Acccnnitants Association, See Ac- 
cuinitants Association. 

Kaitway Law 39 

85i i6Si 2"i 269, 331, 38;, 449, 511, 595. 

635. 7^5 


Chicago City Ry 336 

Cincinnati, No 367 

Dallas C421, 541 

Dayton 353 

Indianapolis 325 

Kansas City 293, 353 

Little Rock 300, 353 

Louisville, No, at 78 

St. Louis 209 

292, e3o4. 353, C366, 375, C421, 468. 505. 509 

Springfield, 111 108, 156 

Troy, N. Y 114 

Wichita, Kan 238 

Sturtevant Co.: Electrical Dcpt *io8 

Fans "413 

Ventilating Wheel •310 

Subway: Chicago *239, *474 

Hoston, See Uoslon. 

Sunday Cars 600 

Sunderland, Eng., Tramways at 274 

Supply men's Association 626 

Surface Contact System "55 

Surfacing Machine, (Fay) •387 

Suspension Ky.: in Germany "tSS, *3i6 

Paris "640 

Sweden, lilcctrical Machinery in 40 

Switch : High Tensi,on *34 

New (Sleight) *io6 

Tower in Cleveland *83 

Syracuse: Benefit Association 379 

Contracts To Be Let at 282 

Franchise Sells for $1 720 

I^ast Horse Car '609 

Mail Service at 18 

Relief Association at 141 

Theater at '478 

Tacoma, Wash. : Accident 415, •471 

Bicycles in 745 

Bridges at 515 

Tamping Ties, Machine for *722 

Tank, Water, Tile ^36 

Taxes: Cincuinati 405 

Decision, Detroit 403 

Denver 754 

as Operating Expenses ^344 

Special in Georgia 731 

Street Railways 532 

Texas Corporations 723 

See also Law. 

Taylor- White Tools 465 

Telephone: (Couch & Seely) "686 

Interurbans '510 

Temperature, Effect of on Wire 130 

Terra Cotta, Plant for Making *ios 

Terre Haute: New Road at 494 

Reduced Fare at 37 

Tests: Capital Traction Power House, Wash- 
ington II 

Car, at Ithaca, (West) 309 

Controlling Systems at Boston *286 

English Power •523 

(•as Engines *9 

New York Brake *42z, •462, 498, 609 

Rail Bonds 608 

Return Circuits, (Nissley) ...*i49, 197 

Truck Frame 40J 

Wooden Pulley (Dodge) 741 

Texas Corporations, Taxing 723 

Theater: Merrymeeting Park •337 

Movable Stage *43S 

Syracuse '478 

Thieves, Wire 45, 109, 215, 289, •401, 612, 753 

Londrigan, The Copper King (port) 71 

Losses by 154 

Third Rail Installation at London ••••*349 

Three-Ph ase Road: at Newton, Pa. ....*i3i 

Italy 405 

|Tickets: Free Distributtun in Boston C4B3 

Checking Book '707 

Commutation, AbuHc of 478 

Indiana Uy '430 

It-iund Trip '494 

Selling, by Endless Chain Swindle 31H 

Ties : Cheaper (I'crrizo) 604 

Plugging 743 

i'rcberving 743 

Ouotations 358, 478, 621, 757 

Steel, from Old Rails VSS 

Tamping Machine *y2i 

TilVin, O., loo-milc line at 104 

Tile VVater Tank •36 

Timber: Preserving i'olcs 515 

Treatment of 324 

Woodiline for Preserving 287 

Time, Standard vs. Local 757 

Tokyo, Sec Japan. 

Toledo: & Adrain ICIectric Ry 479 

Advertising Folder 380 

Gas Business Unprofitable 50 

Monroe Electric Ry 153 

New Unit at '280 

Spliced Cars '605 

Traction Band 38 

Toronto: Canadian Interurban 612 

Crowded Cars at O37 

Freight in 16 

Railway Co., Report of 106 

Tower, Scif-Cooling, (Barnard) "454 

'J'rack : Construction 0588 

Buffalo '36 

Demerbe Construction "709 

Drill (Stow) *6oi 

Joint Use of 750 

Machine for Breaking up 39 

Material Quotations .358* 417, 478, 541, 621, 757 

Notes on 743 

Oil on C697, 710 

Steel for Roadway 46 

Sec also Law. 

Trade : Catalogs 420 

Journals C184, £304, 326 


58, 113, 180, 243, 301, 36I1 4^. 481* 543> 
624, 756 

Travel, Created 621 

Tramway: & Light Railways Exhibitioni See 
& Railway World i 474, 656 

Transfer: Abuse of Baltimore 18 

California Decision on 406 

Cautions on 398 

Connecting Roads e43i 

Counterfeit 515 

New in Chicago "104 

Selling in Chicago 109, 344 

Station Designs, Prizes for 76 

Suit at Detroit 171 

Universal, at Memphis 8 

Use and Abuse of 402 

Transition Curves, Boston 394 

Transmission, Joint, of Direct and Alternating 

Currents ; 36S 

Trolley: Catcher '417 

Base (Montreal) '741 

Ear (Faulkner) ^399 

Harp (Edison Johnson) '^37 

Excelsior *6i6 

Head: (Feist) '476 

Spring for (McMahan) '686 

Wheel, (Feist) •476 

Ice Cutting •ii3 

Troy, N. Y., Strike at 114 

Dayton (O.) &, Electric Ry 713 

Truck: Brill, Forged Side •692 

Paris •268, •344 

Decision on 461 

Double Equipment (Heft) 650 

. Lord Baltimore 220 

McGuire, for France •340 

Kansas City 'egi 

Peckham, Kansas City Special *622 

Test of Frame 402 

Storage Battery, in India '349 

Tunnels: Chicago 221 

New York-Brooklyn 686 

Turbines, Steam (Thurston) 736 

Typewriting Machine (Chicago) *389 


Union Track Jack '152 

United Kingdom, See Great Britain. 

University of Illinois zS, 164 

Utica, N. Y., Accidents at 78 


Valencia, Tramways at 307 468 

Valve, Automatic Shut ofl ' 600 

Van Dorn Couplers *I95, •6ia 

Vcniilalion: Blower Syitcm of (American)... •40 

(Perry) •fog 

Wheel (Sturtevant; 'jio 

Vestibules in Ma^iiachutetts 7^* 

Viaduct at Wilkcsbarre '.\ \A 

Views, Interchting European •^a 


Waddcll, C. W. (port) 5,, 

Wages. Increased 362, 402. 416, 459. 479. 601 

Wagons, Automobile Emergency •724 

Wainwnght Expanbion Joints V'iu 

Washington, D. C. : Capital Traction Co., An- 
nual Meeting 5^ 

X'owcr llousc, Test of ',] n 

Automobile Emergency Wagon *7a4 

Concrete Mixer at •n. 

Low Fare Bill for 7o3 

Relief Association j^j 

Waterloo (Eng.) fie City Ry., Cars •350 

Waterloo^ la., Exprebs Service at *xt3 

Water: Famine Averted in New Haven 133 

Power Station. Sec Power Station- 
Purification, Bachman Method •382 

Wheels, Protecting 350 

Wattmeters, Recording, on Switchboards «a8 

Way. Gave Her Her Own []\^ 

Webb City, Mo.. Accident 418 

Weeding Hoe '^^g 

Welding Process, (Goldschmidt) 505 

Western Electrical Supply Co. Catalog 395 

Weslinghousc Generators •280 

West Virginia New Company 236 

Wet Steam (Edgar) 4C« 

Wharton, Wm.. jr., & Co -465 

Wheels, Car: Flat, Due to Skidding 207 

Griffin Plant at Kansas City "597 

New Plant, (Keystone) 340 

Noiseless 541 

Press for Car Shop •235 

Serrated igs 

Trolley. Sec Trolley Wheel. 

Whisk Brooms on Cars 203 

Why Don't They Get On Vso 

Wichita, Kan.: Improvements at 174 

Injunction at 474 

Strike at jjg 

Street Railway System ^749 

Wilkesbarre, Viaduct at iaH 

Wilcutt j. L ^ 

Wire: Effect of Temperature on 130 

Guard 448 

(Hazard) 34^ 

Low, Costs $4,000 746 

Machine for Cleaning and Re-Insulating.. *i75 

Phono-Electric 607 

Thieves. See Thieves. 
Wisconsin Valley Advancement Association.. 178 

VVolcott, H. W. (port) 35 

Wood, F. W 3^6 

Wood. See Timber. 

Wofldiline for Preserving Timber 387 

Worcester, Mass.: Removing Snow in 83 

Rules for Conductors at 104 

Worthington. Thomas (port) 576 

Write LJps, Fake 390 

Wyman, C. D 418, 472 

Xenia, O.: Effect of Electric Road 336 

New Road at 343 

Verkes, C. T 541 

Yokohama. Electric Railway at 4S2 

Y/)ungstown, O. : Freight and Express Service*302 

Mahoning Valley Railway System '3 

New Interurban 707 

ZanesvillCf O., New Road at 134 







Foreign Subscription, Four Dollars American Money. 

AJJrex.s all Commuuications ami liemiiidvres to Windsor & Ktuficld Ptiblisbing Co,. 
MoHon liuiiding, i'hicngo. 




Business Manager. 




We cordially invito correspondence on all subjects of interest to those 
eng-a^red in any branch of street railway work, and will gratefully appreciate 
any marked copies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send 
us, pertainiug either to companies or officers. 


If you contemplate the purchaseof any supplies or material, we can save 
you much time and troulile. Drop a line to The Review, statinp what you are 
in the market for, and you will promptly receive bids and estimates from all the 
best dealers in that line. We make no charge for publishing' such notices in our 
Bulletin of Advance News, which is sent to all manufacturers. 

This paper is a member of the Chicago Trade Press Association. 
ISntered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 

VOL. X. 

JANUARY 15, 1900. 

NO. 1 

The usual winter troubles seem this season to be found in ex- 
tremes. In such portions of the country as have had snow they 
have had it in abundance, even to the extent of three feet on the 
level; while in other sections the plows have not yet left the barns. 
In the central western states the winter thus far has been a phe- 
nnnicnal one fur niiUl and clear weather. 

The Railroad Commissioners of Connecticut have issued instruc- 
tions to the effect that the street railways of that state shall after 
June 30, igoo, keep their accounts according to the "Standard Sys- 
tem" developed by the Street Railway Accountants' Association 
of .\mcrica and approved by the Convention of Railroad Cominis- 
sioners. The intention of the Connecticut commissioners to issue 
such instructions was announced at the Chicago convention of the 
Accountants' Association, but their formal action may be taken as 
the real beginning of that long desired era when the reports shall 
lie uniform. 

Mention was made in our editorial columns last month of the 
positiini taken by an appellate division of the New York supreme 
court on the question of a street railway operating special cars for 
the transportation of freight only, and those interested in this sub- 
ject will find an abstract of the decision in the legal department of 
this issue. This ruling to the effect that cars for freight only are 
permissible on street railways so long as they do not increase the 
burden of use of the street is a decided gain for such roads as 
have broad franchises and desire to engage in the express business. 

Two other cases on this subject were decided in favor of the rail- 
way companies by lower courts last month, one in Connecticut 
and one in Ohio, In the former case the city of Hartford sought 
to enjoin the Hartford Street Ry, from the transportation of freight, 
but the court lield that cities had no power to regulate the property 

to be carried on street railways. The laws of Connecticut provide 
that street railways may carry bundles and small parcels belonginn 
to passengers, but in the transportation of any other merchandise 
lliey shall be subject at all times to the regulations prescribed J)y 
ihe superior court or by a judne thereof. The same applies to 
"all steam and horse railroads or those run by other motive pow- 
ers." The clear inference would seem to be that the Kegislature 
intended that the street railway^ should be permitted to ennane 
in freight trafTic under proper regulations, and that this should not 
he ilependent upon the city. 

In the Ohio case the court held a provision in the franchise that 
freight should not be carried was void, because repugnant to the 
principal thing granted, that is, the right to use the streets. This 
ruling will be very important, ff sustafneo by the higher courts. 

Another indication that the freight business of electric roads is 
daily becoming of more importance is the (act that there is now 
pending in the Detroit common council a general suburban freight 

We have always believed that this part of Ihe street railway fielil 
would well repay cultivation, and are gratified to nr)te the increasing 
numl)er of roads engaged in handling freight. 

,\( the Boston convention of the American Street Railway Asso- 
ciation in 1898. a report on carrying United States mail on street 
railways was presented; both the report and discussion brought out 
Ihe facts the compensation offered by the government for this serv- 
ice was in nearly every case grossly inadequate. Elsewhere we give 
a statement showing that in Syracuse. X. Y.. the posloffice paid 
28 cents per mile to a wagon mail route contractor in the city and 
,1.1 cents per mile to the street railway company for interurban 
mail service. 

It is possibly true that the postoffice department would not be 
justified in giving the same service to the suburban towns were it 
obliged to pay at the same rate per mile as for the wagon route to 
the city depots. The latter is a necessity and must be had at any 
cost. Nevertheless it is scarcely fair to pay the electric railway 
onlv one-ninth as much as the contractor. 

In his presidential address before the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers (England), Professor Silvanus P. Thompson gave an 
interesting account of the present status of electric traction in Eu- 
rope. He believes that the world must now look to Switzerland for 
guidance in the e(|uipnient of heavy (steam) railroads for electric 
working, the inauguration in July last of the three-phase system on 
the Burgdorf-Thun railway displacing America as leader in this 
branch of the traction field. He regards the question of whether. 
where there is a long distance to transmit current, a simple three- 
I)hase system throughout is, or is not, more economical than direct 
current or a mixed system with three-phase transmission and rotary 
converters, as the only important question in electric railway work 
that is not yet settled. Professor Thompson is a warm advocate 
of surface contact systems for urban roads and has great hopes of 
the lines trow being tried in Paris. 

Employes' clubs, such as that at Denver, which is described on 
another page, are becoming more numerous and we believe that 
all street railway companies should encourage their formation. The 
first step in the case of all such organizations that have come to 
our notice is for the company to provide at its operating barn or 
station suitable rooms, and light, heat and janitor serx'ice are also 
furnished free of charge, so that the cost of maintenance to the men 
is reduced to a minimum. This is as it should be. since while the 
club is for the men it is also solely for employes of the company, 
and on leaving the service a man loses his membership in the club, 
and under these circumstances the men could not be expected to 
bear the heavier dues that would be reasonable were membership 
independent of occupation. 

The cost to the company in providing the quarters is insignificant. 
as it would in any case be necessary to have waiting rooms for the 
extras and other men awaiting their turns to go on duty. In the 
case of the Denver club the company met the men half way in con- 
tributing funds to furnish the club rooms, and the result was some- 
thing more elabor,ite than is ordinarily found. But the furnishings 
need not be costly, and with the rooms provided there is no danger 
but that the club will make them attractive. 

The advantages to the ser\ice resulting from the club are that 
the men spend their leisure hours in the rooms when off duty and 


[Vol. X, No. i. 

can always be louiid when needed for an ciiicrgcncy, they arc not 
tempted to spend their time at the "workingmen's resorts" usually 
found in the neighborhood of a car barn or large shop, and above all 
their general condition, mental and physical, is improved by means 
of the healthful recreation found at the club. The men also find in 
the club far more pleasant surroundings than in the regulation wail- 
ing room. 

Governor Pingree and his large following who favor the munici- 
pal ownership and operation of the so-called public utilities are 
making strong efforts to have an amendment to the state constitu- 
tion adopted, which will permit the cities so desiring to embark in 
these enterprises. The League of Michigan Municipalities, which 
met in Grand Rapids in September last, strongly endorsed the plan, 
and an active campaign is in progress. The lower house of the 
Legislature, however, recently tabled a resolution asking the gov- 
ernor to submit a special message on the subject, and the conserva- 
tive element may prevail and the municipalities of Michigan be 
spared the bitter experience similar to that the state had in its 
building and operating of railroads and canals. 

The experience of the state of Michigan as a railroad owner be- 
tween l8.?5 and 1850 w^as epitomized in the opinion of the Supreme 
Court of Michigan in the case against the Detroit Railway Com- 
missioners. The state enterprises for internal improvements which 
had been specially commended in the constitution of 1835 were ex- 
pressly i)rohibited in that of 1850. but now the cycle is complete and 
in igoo it is proposed to give public ownership of improvements 
another trial. This time, however, it is not the Legislature which 
is to be given power to bond and tax. but those notoriously incom- 
petent administrators — the municipalities the most glaringly faulty 
of our political institutions. 

One element that is very active in promoting the cause of munici- 
pal ownership of electrical enterprise comprises certain promoters 
and bond brokers, who will agree to build a plant with almost any 
desired guaranty as to cost and performance, and take their pay in 
bonds. By the time that plant needs repairs or rebuilding, and the 
absence of a sinking fund confronts the city as a really serious con- 
dition, the bonds have all been disposed of. The city has nothing to 
do but pay interest and mayhap issue some more bonds to rebuild. 

In Ohio there is a most startling plan to be placed before the 
Legislature for approval, whereby municipalities are to be author- 
ized to issue bonds without limit for the purpose of buying street 
railway, electric lighting, gas and water properties, and, further, 
given the power to levy taxes to pay any deficits that may occur 
under municipal management. On another page there is a dis- 
cussion of this subject by Mr. A. R. Foote, who points out the 
dangers in thus encouraging the wild speculation which all experi- 
ence shows would surely follow. 

The most serious difficulty in the way of making such schemes 
financially successful is, that with universal sufifrage the majority of 
the voters are not tax-payers, and hence are very liberal when it 
is a question of spending other peoples' money. 

During the last sixty days a portion of the employes of the street 
railway at Springfield, 111., have been upon a strike, and as in nearly 
all of these unfortunate controversies, of which there were so many 
during i8gg, between managers and employes the issue was the 
formal recognition of the employes' union. There was no grievance 
on the part of the men save that they were not permitted to pass 
upon the sufficiency of the company's reasons for discharging of 
some of their number. 

The strike was begun November loth and after a settlement had 
been agreed upon December 20th was at once renewed for insuffi- 
cient and trivial reasons. As at Cleveland, London and elsewhere 
attempts were made to intimidate employes and patrons and on four 
occasions explosives were placed on the tracks. 

The situation in Milwaukee at the present time is peculiar, in that 
the officials in charge of the city government are the allies, and 
not the opponents, of the street railway company, and both are de- 
fending suits in equity brought by two citizens who do not ap- 
prove of the new ordinance passed on January 2d. The essential 
features of this compromise, which was accepted by the company 
as better than a continuation of the controversy so long pending. 
are: Special tickets. 6 for 25 cents and 25 for $1, good for two 
hours in the mornings and evenings until 1905. and good at all 
hours of the day after that date; a ten-year extension of certain 

franchises, with the proivso that all franchises shall expire in 1934; 
a provision for sale to the city in 1934, if it shall so elect; an agree- 
ment on the part of the company to extend its main lines to the 
city limits as the latter shall be from time to time established. 

The mayor and council were twice enjoined, but the dilatory tac- 
tics of the comijlainants convinced them that the suits were not 
begun in good faith, but with the object of delaying action on the 
street railway question till after the next city election. Accordingly 
the orders of court were ignored and the ordinance passed. If the 
council is correct in its contention that being a legislative body the 
courts have no jurisdiction to enjoin it, the longstanding dispute 
may be considered as settled for 35 years to come, a result on which 
all parties are to be con.gratulated. 

The report of the New York Railroad Commisioners for the year 
ending June 30, 1899, has just been issued, and elsewhere in this 
issue will be found extracts from those portions dealing with the 
elevated roads in Greater New York and the street surface railways 
throughout the state. The number of passengers carried on the 
elevated roads of Brooklyn is given as nearly 7 per cent less than 
for the preceding year, but this decrease in traffic is explained in 
large part by the fact that the returns of the Brooklyn Elevated 
Railroad are given for only nine months of the year, the returns of 
this company for the other three months being included in those of 
the Brooklyn Heights Rapid Transit Co. In the case of the Man- 
hattan Elevated there is a decrease of over 5 per cent in the num- 
ber of passengers carried. The street surface roads, on the other 
hand, show gains in traffic; the total for the entire state is nearly 
7.7 per cent in excess of the preceding year, and of this over five- 
sevenths was on the lines in the boroughs of Manhattan and Bron.x. 
New York City. The lines in these boroughs carried 55 per cent of 
the total of pasengers in the state, and showed an increase amount- 
ing to nearly 74 per cent of the total increase of the state. In this 
connection it must be noted that the number of passengers as re- 
ported includes "transfers." The table of gross receipts and total 
expenses per passenger and per car -mile will be found very in- 

The board dwells at length on the accidents, such as were 
formerly regarded as incidents alone of steam railroading, that have 
occurred on street railways. This class of accidents includes head-on 
and rear-end collisions, derailments and crossing accidents. In con- 
clusion the Board restates its recommendations, made in previous 
reports, for the precautions which it is believed will prevent acci- 
dents of this nature. 

The probable amount of new construction work to be done the 
coming season is very uncertain. Last year contract letting was left 
until late in many instances, and then it was found impossible to se- 
cure delivery at any but remote dates. This difficulty in securing 
material resulted in a very considerable amount of proposed work 
going over to this season. In the meantime the demands upon our 
manufacturers, many of whom have other interests to supply and 
which have been and are also very active, have steadily increased 
until prices have been advanced from 25 to 100 per cent and in some 
exceptional cases even more. The advance has been especially 
strong in those construction items which are always the heavy ac- 
counts. Rails, cars, engines and boilers, and all copper manufac- 
tures are now so high and the time of delivery on new contracts so 
uncertain for some of them, that much contemplated work will be 
forced over for another year. There will be a very respectable 
amount of work in the aggregate, but it will be confined to such lines 
as come w-ithin the limits of being a positive necessity. Scarcely a 
manager who is going to build a few miles but would have con- 
structed twice as much could he have done so at last year's prices. 
The result is not. how-ever. without its wholesome features. It is 
well to curb the ambitions of some promoters who think that once 
a line is built the balance sheet is bound to take care of itself. We 
want no repetition of the wild cat roads which came into existence 
by the score 10 years ago. Some of these are just now beginning to 
get upon a good paying basis. There are legitimate enterprises in 
abundance, and such are having a very fair degree of success in dis- 
posing of their securities, and at good prices, hence it is no great 
cause of regret that much other legitimate work is to be carried over 
another 12 months. 

New city work is largely that of rebuilding worn out tracks, con- 
structing extensions to care for the spread of population, and in- 
creasing the capacity of stations. The year will be an extremely 
busy one for contractors and manufacturers. 

Jan. is, i'jix). 


^^-^^^ /iA/iON/r^G \ALLnY 


Yoiinyytoi^ It 

fliiifral Kiili/e^ 

J^A/L yyA yS y3 mrr 

This sysliMii I'Miljiaco 4.( iiiilcs nl ti:icl< ami cmiiK'Cts Vouiins- 
town willi a mmibcr uf iicigliburiiiK villaj^cs, as shown by llie 
nccompanyiiiK (hagram. To the northwest of Youngstown the 
places, in order, include Girard, Niles, Warren and as an adjnnct 
of Nilcs. Mineral Ridge. To the southeast are Slruthers and Low- 
cllville. The line connecting the two last named villages is to be 
built in the early spring and will be about four miles in length. 
Other extensions in Youngstown will also be built early in IQOO, and 
part of the material is already on hand and the work of grading 

The service is both passenger and freight and is well patronized in 
both departments. A fast passenger service is maintained between 
Youngstown and Warren, which passes through the intervening 
villages, two large cars being used. These cars leave the respective 
cities every hour and niaUe stops only at certain designated points; 
the trip each way is made in about .S7 minutes, the distance being i6 
■ nilcs. 

The package and freight cars make two round trips each day 
between Warren and Struthers, and the indications from the growth 
of the patronage are that an additional car will soon be required. 
In the ^'ollngsto^vn division, which includes Struthers on the east 

This is designed to be equal in strength to the work usually em- 
ployed on steam roads. Heavy oak timbers compose the bents, 
and the structure is thoroughly braced to avoid any surging move- 
ment due to the starting and .stopping of cars. Heavy guard beams 
are provided a.-, shown, and the trolley wire i< supported by span 
wires attached to arches composed of .3-in. iron pipe and thoroughly 
braced by wire guys having turnbucklcs for adjustment. Other 
sections of trestle work and of the steel bridge arc shown in the 

In the suburban track construction a 70-lb. T-rail of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers section, rolled by the Pennsylvania Stci-I 
Co., is used. The roadbed consists of a foundation of 6 in. of 
furnace slag, which is procured from the neighboring furnaces; on 
this the ties are placed 2 ft. c. to c. The space between the tics is 
then filled aiid tann>td with gravel, but left to slant each way from 
the center for drainage. The rail joints are made with 6-hole splice 
bars and bonded with "Crown Fig. 8" bonds made by the American 
Steel h Wire Co. On a part of the old construction near Youngs- 
town cast-welded joints are employed. 

On the rear platform of some of the large c?rs is placed a guard 
rail composed of i-in iron pipe, which is attached just to one side of 


and Niles on the west. 19 cars are operated, and on the Trumbull 
division, which includes Warren and Niles. 4 cars are required, and 
between Niles and Mineral Ridge 2 cars, making 27 cars in all. 
Twelve of these are long cars, with double trucks, and on some of 
these air brakes are about to be installed. It is the intention of the 
company to add eight more long cars to the equipment in the near 
future. These will be of the same length (36 ft.) as the present cars. 
Considerable new track has been laid during the past season, and 
on some portions of the line trestle construction has been required. 

the inside door post about 3 ft. above the platform. The door 
(accelerator type) is hung to one side of the end and the guard 
rails curve out toward the steps and are suported by an end post 
opposite the middle of the step. This serves to keep the passengers 
from obtruding the doorway when the platform is crowded, but 
gives room for the conductor to stand between the door and the 
rail without interfering with the entrance or exit of passengers. 

The company is planning to erect a large power station during 
the coming season, from which the entire system will be operated; 


[Vol. X, No. I. 

it is probable that a high tension alternating current will be gen- 
erated, which will be conchicted to transformer stations located at 
different points of the system. 

This is one of the most promising interurban street railway 
systems in the country, for the reason that this section of the 
Mahoning Valley is rapidly being filled up with manufacturing 
establishments, consisting mostly of blast furnaces and steel and 

iron mills for rolling structural 
shapes. Doubtless at no distant day 
the system will be one of the links 
in the chain of electrical railways 
thai is already projected to unite 
some of the larger Ohio cities with 
cities in Pennsylvania and possibly 
some iii New York. 

The affairs of the c()ini)any are in 
charge of M. A. Verner, of Pitts- 
burg, president, and A. A. Ander- 
son, general mana.ger and treasurer. 
Mr. Anderson lias now been con- 
nected with the system about six years, and it is largely due to his 
foresight and executive ability that the various systems above de- 
scribed have been brought under a single manageiiiont anil the in- 
tercommunicating system established. 


.■V. A. .VNDEKSdX, 

In our issue of October, 1898. page 707. we published a description 
of the Cripple Creek District Railway, which at that time com- 
prised 6J4 miles of track between Cripple Creek and Victor, 
opened for tratTic Jan. 2. 1898. The company was then making sur- 
veys for a line 26 miles long to connect the Cripple Creek district 
with Colorado Springs. Now the early completion of one road to 
connect these points is regarded as a certainty and a competing 
line is also proposed. 

The Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek District Railroad Co. is 
closely allied to the Cripple Creek District Railway Co. and will 
build a road from Colorado Springs to Cameron, formerly called 
Grassy. This road will be operated by steam at first but the 
branches and spurs will be equipped electrically. .\t Cam- 
eron connection will be made with the Cripple Creek District Ry., 
its lines having been extended to that point. The operation of the 
main line by steam is to be temporary only, electricity being the 
power ultimately contemplated. 

.\nother company, the Colorado Springs, Cripple Creek & 
Southern, proposes to apply for franchises for an electric line be- 
tween the two towns. In carry passengers, freight, mail and ex- 



How wild the man who wishes to improve present conditions can 
sometimes be is shown by the following extract from a letter to the 
Chicago Post: 

■'I would have the city government select a route 10 miles long, 
beginning at the business center, or as near it as practicable, and 
running in a nearly straight line either west or south, take the 
whole of this street and construct in it four tramways: make the 
rails grooved at street crossings, 60 ft. in length, electrically 
welded. 90 lb. to the yard, with steam pipes laid in the outside neck. 
These pipes would keep the rails dry at all times and in winter free 
from snow and ice. 

"The cars should be built with wheels at the ends; double floors 
with steam pipes bctw^een and a steam heater at one end. The un- 
der side of floors need not be more than 6 in. above the rails. .Ml 
three tracks at the right should be used in one direction during 
rush hours, and the cars on the two inside tracks should stop only 
once in four blocks, and not at all for the mile and one-half just 
outside of the business district. .\t certain hours the two inside 
tracks could be used for freight, to be delivered anywhere on the 
line of the road. Traffic teaming should not be allowed, but the line 
could accommodate residents with their supplies, and the sidewalk 
could be used for delivery purposes for less than one block. Chil- 
dren should be prohibited from making this street a playground, 
but if they did, the fenders are expected to pick them up." 

On December igtli the last rail of the Canon City & Cripple 
(.'reek Ry. (a steam line) was laid and several other steam roads 
are projected in the district to serve the new mines which are being 

« • » 


.\n electric railway recently opened at Laon, France, is remarka- 
ble for its steep gradients. The line is 1,479 ™- long and one por- 
tion has a rise of 81 mm. to the m. .Another section, about 860 m. 
long, has a grade of 10 per cent, and in a short run of 202 m. the 
rise is 130 mm. to the m, .\ rack and gear combination is provided 
as a safety measure to prevent cars from slipping, but it is stated 
this is seldom used as sufficient traction is secured between the 
rails and wheels under ordinary conditions. Combination baggage 
and passenger cars with capacity for 26 persons are in operation, 
each car having two G. E. 53 motors. Current at 120 volts is sup- 
plied from a generator of 1.200 amperes capacity. 


.\t a meeting of the Connecticut State Street Railway Associa- 
tion, held at New Haven December 6th, the following officers were 
elected: President, H. S. Parmelee, New Haven; vice-president. 
.■\. M. Young. Waterbury; secretary, B. W. Porter. Derby; treas- 
urer. }'.. S. Goodricli. Hartford. 

Jan. 15. I'loo. I 


The Detroit, Ypsilanti & Ann Arbor Electric Railway, 

An cxcfllcnl exampli' of niodiTii practice in the iTjiiipnu'iit <)( an 
intcniiban liacliim system is fiiinislieil Ijy the Detruil. Ypsilanti & 
Anil Arbor IClectric Ry. When the company was organized in 
1897 the promoters determined to iiitrodnce the very hiKliest types 
of machinery and eiiiiipment. to coiii|)lete every detail in the most 
rehahle manner, and to exercise a liberal policy toward the pnblic. 
'rile result of the lirst year's operation shows the wisdom f>f this 
broad-minded |io!iey, as a valuable freight and (jassenner trallic has 
been developed, and llu' properly is already earning; dividends for 
its stocldiolders. 


The length of the track is 50 miles. The main line from Detroit, 
passing throngh Wayne and Ypsilanti to Ann .Arbor, is 40 miles, 
and a branch from Y'psilanti to Salin is 10 miles in length. From the 
City Hall, in the center of Detroit, cars pass down Michigan .'\vc. 
for six miles, using the tracks of the Citizens' Street Railway Co. 
From the city limits a new track was laid throngh Dearborn and 
Wayne to Ypsilanti, and thence to Ann Arbor. The franchises 
of the former railway from Ypsilanti to Ann Arbor, and of five miles 
of track in Ann .Arbor City, were acquired by purchase, and the 
lines entirely rebuilt and rc-equippc<l. The Saline division is a new 

The route passes through a rich agricultural country and through 
several thriving towns and cities, from wdiich local and through 
traffic is drawn. Dearborn, 10 miles from Detroit, has about one 
thousand inhabitants. Inkster and Eloise are sinaller places. 
Wayne, 20 miles from Detroit, is the junction of the Plymouth & 
Northfield Electric Ry. Canton and Denton are passed before 
reaching Ypsilanti, a manufacturing town of 4,000 inhabitants. In 
addition to the ordinary population of Ypsilanti the State Normal 
School has from two to three thousand students. Ann Arbor, the 
terminus of the line, has a regular population of 15.000 and is the 
seat of the University of Michigan. 

The plans for the complete engineering equipment of this railway 

ini,. 1. I'uWliK LIOUSE .VND eAK L.XK.N.^. Vl'SILANTl. 

were prepared by Westinghouse. Church, Kerr & Co.. New York, 
and to the Detroit office of the same company was awarded the 
contract for furnishing the steam and electrical machinery for the 
two power houses and the motors and air brakes for the cars. The 
promoters of the railway stipulated for the most advaned type of 

machmery ami tin- introdiuiion of the latest ineelianieal devices for 
securing economy in operation. It is no secret that the engineers 
were given a free hand, and the contract was in the nature of a 
confidential one. 'I'his latitude has been justified, lor the Installation 
is a model in all respects, embodying great simplicity yet complete- 
ness of design, and is an excellent illustration of economical practice 
where direct current electricity only is used for operating a railroad 
f)f considerable length. These desirable results arc mainly tf> In- 
.illribtUed to concentrating the various branches of construction in 
the hands of capable engineers. 

Two power houses have been built, ig miles apart, one at Ypsi- 
lanti. 10 miles from the Ann Arbor terminus, and the other at 
Dearborn. 5 miles from the Detroit city limits. The equipment 


of both power houses is very similar, differing only in the feeders 
and in boiler feeding apparatus. .\ description of the Ypsilanti plant 
will therefore suffice (or both. 

The power house and car barns are attractive buildings and pre- 
sent a pleasing appearance upon the main road entering Ypsilanti 
from the east. They adjoin the Huron River, which affords an 
abundant supply of water for boilers and condensers at all seasons 
of the year. Facing the high road are the extensive car bams and 
repair shops, with the company's offices in front, a view of which 
is seen in Fig. I. At the back stands the power house, a substan- 
tial lire-proof building, constructed of brick, measuring 67 It. by 
72 ft. A heavy brick wall divides the spaces about equally between 


[Vol. X, No. i. 

the boiler and generating rooms. The appearance of the interior 
of the generating room is very attractive, it being lofty, well 
lighted and ventilated. .\ few palms add greatly to the cheerfulness, 
and emphasize the neatness of the siiroundings. The foundations 
are of concrete, the floors being cemented throughout. 

The equipment of the steam plant shown in Fig. 4 includes the 
latest improvements and secures the utmost economy in operation. 
Three Babcock & Wilcox water-tube boilers, rated at 225 h. p. 
each, carry a steam pressure of 150 lb., are equipped with Roney 
mechanical stokers, which aflford complete combustion of the fuel 
and enable the cheapest grades of coal to be burned with minimum 
labor in firing. Ohio slack coal, costing $1.45 a ton delivered at the 
railway, is used. Reference to Fig. i shows the stack, which extends 
only a few feet above the roof of the building. The ground plan 
and a section of the power house are shown in Fig. 2. 

The Westinghouse system of economizer mechanical draft has 
been introduced, with two vertical fans driven by an 8-h. p. West- 
inghouse steam engine. The blowers were furnished by the Fuller 
Co., of Detroit. The speed of the engine and therefore that of the 
fans is controlled by quick-acting regulators, so that as the steam 
pressure begins to rise upon the boilers a valve reduces the supply 
of steam. By this automatic arrangement the mechanical draft is 
regulated by the pressure in the boilers, as an increase of boiler 
l)rcssurc slows down the engine driving the fans. By combining 
fuel economizers with the mechanical draft, low temperature of the 
waste gases are secured and the heat is returned to the feed water. 

The watePforfeedingtheboilersand for the condensers is obtaine<l 
from the Huron River alongside the power house, as shown in 

engines are cross-connected, so that in llie event of one being dis- 
abled the other can be used to furnish a vacuum. 

The engine room shown in Fig. 3 contains three 450-I1. p. West- 
inghouse condensing compound engines running at 250 r. p. m. 
direct coupled to the generators. These engines are of the constant 
terminal compound type specially designed for the widely fluctuat- 
ing loads incidental to railroad work. They were built by the West- 
inghouse Machine Co., East Pittsburg, Pa. 

The usual load upon the engines is from 650 h. p. to 680 h. p., but 
it is very fluctuating in character, as the 9 to 12 cars operated upon 
the tracks meet at certain times in the turnouts, which causes the 
load as registered by the ammeter to vary from 100 amperes to 1,300 
amperes, equivalent to a variation of from 70 h. p. to 900 h. p. Two 
of the engines carry the usual load, the third being held as a reserve, 
two boilers only are habitually under steam. 

The electrical equipment comprises three 225-k.w. Westinghouse 
direct current generators. 575 volts, connected to the engines by 
flexible couplings. They are of the standard Westinghouse type, as 
shown in Fig. 3. There have also been installed in the power house 
two Westinghouse motor-driven boosters, one 135-kw. and one 
125-kw. The motor and booster armatures are mounted upon the 
same shaft. The fields of both machines are supported upon the same 
bedplate and are split in a vertical plane to permit the removal of 
either half horizontally from its armature. The motor receives 
power directly from the station bus bars and the booster is operated 
in series with the feeders. The full load voltage of the boosters is 
32;, making the voltage on the booster feeders at the station 900 
volts. .^ view of one of the two boosters in the Ypsilanti station is 

FIG. 3.-GENER.\T(lKS. 



Fig. 6. ."V crib has been carried into the river into which the water 
passes and then flows by an 18-in. pipe to a well 14 ft. deep. Feed 
water for the boilers is pumped from the well through a 4-in. pipe 
by two Worthington outside-packed pumps, each suflicient to care 
for the whole plant. The feed water passes through a Baragwanath 
exhaiKt heater, utilizing the heat of the exhaust steam from pumps, 
condensers and blower engine, and thence passes through a fuel 
economizer, where it takes up the heat of the waste gases from the 
boilers; the Iced water is heated to 275° F. before it enters the 
boilers. Any or all of this apparatus between the feed pumps and 
the boilers may be by-passed at will. The steam passes through 
large separators before going to the engines, and the water of 
condensation is returned to the boilers by a system of Westing- 
house steam loops. 

The steam piping throughout the plant is very heavily constructed 
to carry a working pressure of 175 lb. The arrangement is very 
carefully designed to secure the greatest freedom from internal 
strains due to expansion or contraction. It may be noted from the 
diagrams of the power house that the steam pipes from the boilers 
to engines are curved, avoiding elbows, and there are no pockets 
except those purposely provided for handling entrained water. The 
valves and piping were furnished by Roe, Stephens & Co., Detroit. 

Three Worthington compound condensers 6 and 9 x 12 .\ 10 are 
installed in the basement of the power house under the engine 
room. The independent condensers are so connected that the 
engines can be used either condensing or non-condensing. A lO-in. 
intake pipe from the well by the river supplies water for the con- 
densers, which is returned direct to the river. The condensers and 

shown in Fig. 5. One of the boosters supplies the line running 
westward to Ann Arbor, the feeder being tapped in at the Ann 
Arbor city limits, about 7J4 miles from the power house. The 
feeder from the other booster going east taps in at Sheldon Corners, 
an equal distance from the station. The three feeder wires running 
east and west from the Ypsilanti power house and the one running 
west from the Dearborn power house each consists of 39,600 ft. of 
copper wire. The Ann Arbor line has a section of 550,000 cm., and 
the other two wires 400,000 cm. 

The switchboard consists of 11 heavy marble panels mounted upon 
an iron frame work of very neat design, occupying one end of the 
generating room. The feed wires are carried from the bus bars 
through the side wall to brackets on the outside and thence to the 
overhead construction upon the tracks. There are three generator 
panels, following the standard Westinghouse practice. Upon the 
fourth panel is a voltmeter and wattmeter. Then follow the east and 
west feeder panels and four panels for the motors and tnotor-driven 
boosters. The eleventh panel controls the south feeder for the 
Saline division. Voltmeters upon swinging brackets at either end 
of the switchboard show the voltage upon the line. The panels are 
supplied with the usual meters, circuit breakers, switches and other 
apparatus for the complete control of the current under all condi- 

The stations at Ypsilanti and Dearborn are arranged to work in 
parallel, helping each other out in case of a very heavy load upon 
either station, but they can be separated in case of need. Either 
booster may be operated in series with either booster feeder. The 
switches are so arranged that the booster feeders may be used for 

Jan. is, iooo. 


siippli'iiu-ntiiiK till' direct fed feeders slii>idil it In- desiriilile lo bluil 
down tile boosters. 

The power lunise is C(iiiipi)ed with .in overhead 7,' j ton traveliiin 
crane for moving any part of the niacliinery. 

I'>om the city hmils of lOetroil to Ann Arbor a single track has 
been biid by the side of the high road of standard gage, with (re- 
i|iuiii turnouts; the contractors arc J. Griffin & Co., Detroit. I'ro- 
liles rif tlic country show a mainly level surface, with a few grades 
111) I'l 7!4 l«^r cent in approaching bridges and wlierc sudden dips 
occur. The track has been laid in the most substantial manner, with 
cedar ties upon a gravel bed. according to the best steam railroad 
practice. The Cleveland Frog & Crossing Co. furnished the special 
work. Upon the curves, which are few, the outer rail is elevated 
.111(1 I he strong, substantial ro.idbed enables a speed of 45 miles an 
hour to be readily maintained by the cars. The standard rail is a 
T section weighing 77 lb., but parts of tlte track are laid witli 70-lb. 
and 75-11). rails. The rails are bonded with No. 0000 cross bonds 
every 500 ft., with joint bonds of No. 0000 wire. The .Xtkinsoii 
bonds are used. 

The ovehcad construction was made by the Ohio Brass Co. and 
consists of two No. 000 figure 8 trolley wires, the two wires being 
used to avoid switches at the turnouts. The east bound cars run on 
one trolley wire and the west bound cars on the other. The two 
wires are in parallel, being tied together every 500 ft. Upon the 
Saline division a No. 000 figure 8 trolley wire is used, with a No. 
0000 feeder wire in parallel. There are 25 miles of span construction 
work, the trolleys being suspended from the poles on either side, 
and about 18 miles of bracket construction. 

The standard car used by the Detroit, Ypsilanti & .Ann Arbor 
Railway Co., shown in Fig. 7, is 50 ft. in length, with motonnan's 
cab at one end, the cars having a seating capacity for 56 passen- 
gers. The present equipment consists of 20 cars, built by the 
Harney & Smith Car Co., of Dayton, O. They are of extra width, 
the interior being handsomely finished and the cross seats upliol- 
stered with plush. Each car is warmed by Baker hot water heaters 
in the winter, and an ample supply of electric lights is provided. 
The cars are equipped with Westinghouse quick acting ail brakes 
of special design. .'\n air compressor driven by a direct connected 
motor is mounted in the cab of each car. The motor is automat- 
ically controlled by a pneumatic switch, so that it starts as soon as 
the air pressure in the reservoir falls below 70 lb. and stops when the 
pressure is raised to 100 lb. This automatic system of air brake 
a|)paratus is highly efficient and reliable in operation, working com- 
paratively noiselessly, being devoid of the usual hum of high speed 
gearing and the knocking of reciprocative parts. 

Each car is equipped with double trucks, upon which are mounted 
four 50-h. p. Westinghouse railway motors of the well known multi- 
polar type, with iron clad armature. Each car is also provided with 
a series of multiple controllers for operating the motors in com- 
bination of pairs in series multiple and all motors in multiple: the 
canopy switch is in the form of an automatic circuit breaker, thus 
enhancing the ease of operation when using the heavy currents 
required. The cars also carry hand brakes. The cars weigh 26 tons 
each when loaded. The Wilson trolley pole catchers are used and 
give satisfaction. 

A well equipped repair shop is in operation at the car barns at 
Ypsilanti, furnished with the necessary machinery for repairing 
breakdowns of the cars, for rewinding armatures, machinery car 
wheels and axles, and for genera! repairs of electrical machinery. 
Power is furnished for the repair shop by a lo-h. p. Westinghouse 
multipolar direct current motor. A regular half hour service is 
provided between Detroit and Ann Arbor, special cars for excursion 
parties being dispatched between the times of regular service. Occa- 
sionally the trafiic necessitates 15-minute service. An operator at 
the Ypsilanti office dispatches all cars by telephone, the conductors 
reporting their arrival and departure from each point: a complete 
control is thus maintained. .\ single car provides for the service 
upon the Saline division. 

The cash fare from Detroit to Ann Arbor, a distance of 40 miles, 
is 60 cents if paid upon the car, or 50 cents if a ticket is bought at 
the office before .starting. Mileage books are sold for miles at 
the rate of one cent a mile. The schedule time for the journey of 
40 miles is 2% hours. The ordinary train on the steam railroad 
occupies I h.'4,^ min. between Detroit and .\nn Arbor, the fare 
lieiiig $1.12. 

A very interesting calculation was made regarding the amount of 
local traffic upon the railroad between Ann .\rbor and Detroit, 

which is paralleled by the electric traction lines, it being found that 
iinmcdiately iirior lo the opening of the electric railway the local 
Iraffic averaged 200 passengers a day. The figures of the Detroit, 
^'I)silanti & .Ann .\rbor Railway Co. show that during the past year 
they have averaged 4,000 passengers a day and during the month 
of September the average fare per passenger was 15 g-io cents, ft 
is thus clearly shown that when the public is given facilities tor 
travel at an ecoufimical rair a valuable IraOic ran be developed. It 


must be borne in mind that the railway system under review has 
but just completed its first financial year. These excellent returns 
have enabled the company to earn a substantial dividend for the 

Fourteen cars have run 120,000 miles during one month. For 
such a service only the best materials, the strongest cars, the latest 
mechanical and electrical machinery and apparatus could make 
such continual strain possible. 

The advent of the electric road has been of untold value to the 
country through which it passes. Building operations have had a 
marked stimulus along the route. In Wayne, hitherto a small vil- 
lage, 50 houses have sprung up, and a similar impetus has been 
given to other places. A considerable tract of land is now devoted 
to market gardening, since the way is opened for a frequent and 
rapid delivery of fresh fruits and vegetables to Detroit and to other 
markets. Various industries have been initiated, and a new life 
poured into the veins of the inhabitants, stimulating a healtliy 
activity on all sides. 

The railroad passes through a richly productive country, partly 
agricultural and partly horticultural, which yields a large freight 
traffic. -At present only one freight car makes two round trips a 
day from Detroit to Ann Arbor, but so great is the demand (or 
increasing this freight service that the company is making arrange- 


-ST.\XD.\RD C.\R. 

ments for a central clearing house in Detroit, where an exchange 
can be made with all the interurban lines running into the city. It 
is proposed to secure a separate building, in connection with which 
there will be a regular service of wagons for collection and deliv- 
ery. .At present the company is in the anomalous position of curb- 
ing the development of this branch of its business by charging very 
high rates on account of the poor facilities it has for receiving and 
distributing in Detroit. In spite of charging two-thirds more than 
the steam railway company, it receives far more freight than the car 
can take care of. Two rates of charge are in vogue, for freight and 
express matter. Express packages are carried in the baggage 



fVoi.. X, No. I. 

dopartnicnt of the passenger cars. The rapid and prompt delivery 
of packages by electric cars is in itself sufticient to attract a large 
business. As soon as arrangements are completed at the Detroit 
end the company fully anticipates earning from $ to $5,000 a 
month in place of the $1,000 a month now received for freight. The 
country served by the railway produces a large quantity of rasp- 
berries, strawberries and other fresh fruits, as well as garden and 
dairy produce. Packages of merchandise can be picked up by the 
freight cars at all points along the line, and goods can be similarly 
delivered, affording the greatest facilities to shippers and receivers. 

The great success attendant upon the operation of this electric 
railroad has led to the commencement of several projects of a simi- 
lar nature. 

The orticers of the Detroit. Ypsilanti & .\nn .\rbor arc: Presi- 
dent, J. D. Hawks; vice-president. M. J. Griftin; treasurer, S. F. 
.-Vngus; secretary. F. A. Hinchman; manager. F. E. Merrill. 


Shortly after 2 p. m. on Dec. 30, 1899. the first train on the 
Northwestern Elevated R. R., of Chicago, comprising motor car 
No. I and two trailers, all three cars gayly decorated with flags 
and bunting, left the Lincoln Ave. station of the road for a trip 
over the line. The party on board consisted of D. H. Louderback, 
president; Howard .\bel. secretary and treasurer; George F. Jewett, 
auditor; Clarence A. Knight, general counsel; C. V. Weston, chief 
engineer; Frank Hedley, general superintendent of both, the Lake 
Street Elevated and Northwestern Elevated; J. H. L. Waddell. 
consulting engineer; R. B. Stearns, assistant engineer; O. E. Mor- 
gensen, assistant engineer in charge of the design; and W. W. 
Miller of New York, counsel for Blair & Co.; John B. Denniss of 
Blair & Co., Caleb H. Marshall, ex-Mayor Washburne, T. G. 
Milstead of New York, Ben Marshall, Clarence Buckingham, F. C. 
Wheeler of London, W. A. Patterson, J. L. Cochran, A. P. Rich- 
ardson, Mr. Angus of the Angus & Gindele Co., and a few other 
guests, among whom was a representative of the "Review." 

When the train reached the bridge over the Chicago River it 
was welcomed by blasts from the whistles of tugboats and by 
cheers from the workmen along the line. On the trip around 
the loop President Louderback and Chief Engineer Weston occu- 
pied the front platform. The train completed the circuit of the 
loop at a few minutes before 3 o'clock and then ran to the 
northern end of the structure and back to Lincoln Ave. again. 

Twenty-seven fares were collected on this trip. Chief Engineer 
Weston paid the first nickel to Superintendent Hedley. who acted 
as conductor till this formality was over. 

It had not been the intention of the company to begin the opera- 
tion of the road until March next, but when in December it became 
evident that the city council would not consent to a further exten- 
sion of time and would seek to have the company's $100,000 bond 
forfeited were the road not in operation before the close of the 
year, the company decided to have trains running before the time 
limit expired. At that time there was practically nothing done 
between Chicago Ave. and Lake St.. a distance of 4,100 ft., except 
the foundations; by far the greater portion of the metal work of 
the structure had not reached Chicago, and over half of it had to 
be shipped from the mills by special trains. Forces of from 400 
to 700 men were put on and the work pushed day and night; the 
company's men erected the metal work and the North American 
Railway Construction Co. laid the track, the track layers being 
followed close by the electrical force under the direction of J. R. 
Chapman, electrical engineer for the road. Power was taken from 
the stations of the Union and Consolidated Traction companies. 

By noon of December 30th a single track to the loop was ready 
for trains and before midnight a run was made to Wilson Ave., 
the northern terminus; the structure at present stops 2,000 ft. 
south of that point and the incline to the surface was not com- 
pleted till late that night. An enormous amount of work was 
done in two weeks and the men responsible for it received hearty 
congratulations when the task was accomplished. 

Trains were run on the 31st, and on New Year's day over 500 
fares were collected. The second track will be completed with all 
the expedition possible. 

January 1st the commissioner of public works directed that work 
be stopped on the Northwestern Elevated, as he claimed the road 
had not been completed as required by the ordinance. 

The daily trip on January 2d was the source of some entertain- 
ment to some 25 passengers and numerous spectators. The train 
started from the northern terminus and at Lincoln Ave. was met 
by four policemen who acted under orders from the city and 
.irrested the train crew, taking the men to the police station, firm 
in the belief that the train would not pull out without motorman 
or conductor. There chanced to be a man on board who had both 
the necessary knowledge and authority :iiul lie promptly took the 
motorman's cab and started for the loop. 

When Lake St. was reached the structure was found crowded 
with so or 60 policemen who had orders to stop the train. The 
acting motorman smiled and increased the speed, whereupon the 
patrolmen scrambled out of the way and watched the train enter 
the loop. Having been foiled in the attempt to hold up the train 
on the down trip the representatives of the city proceeded to block 
the track by piling timbers and ties across it so that the train 
would have to stop on the return trip. 

Being advised as to what was happening, llie Northwestern 
officials got the right of way over the Lake Street road and instead 
of stopping at the obstructions the Northwestern train proceeded 
out Lake St. to a nearby siding. Here it was finally overhauled 
by the police force and a detail spent the night in a cold car to 
be sure that it did not get away. 

When the cases against the trainmen, against whom charges of 
criminal carelessness had been made, came before the court it was 
decided that the police had exceeded their authority in making the 
arrests. Following this the city officials agreed not to further 
molest the company in running its trains. 

A new ordinance which the company and the city officials agreed 
upon is now under consideration. 


It has been announced that the Shelton Street Railway Co. last 
month settled the last of the claims for damages arising out of 
the accident near Bridgeport (Conn.), Aug. 6, 1899, when 29 per- 
sons were killed and 12 seriously injured. The terms of the set- 
tlements have not been made public, and the money cost to the 
company cannot, therefore, be stated; it is reported, however, that 
the amounts paid have been greatly underestimated by the general 

■ « • » 


The Sheboygan (Wis.) Light, Power & Railway Co. has re- 
cently completed a six-mile line from Sheboygan to Sheboygan 
Falls over a toll road, over which long double truck cars will be 
operated giving a 30-minute service. The line was opened No- 
vember 30th, and last month was operated with the single truck 
cars used on the urban lines. The business has been very good 
from the start and will increase in the future. Sheboygan Falls is 
a manufacturing town of some 1,500 people, and a large bath tub 
factory has been located on the line, which gives employment to 
several hundred men. In addition to passenger traffic, the inter- 
urban road will carry mail, express, milk and light freight. 

The line was built under the personal supervision of Mr. John 
M. Saemann, vice-president and manager of the company. 


In 1895 the city council of Memphis. Tenn.. passed an ordinance 
under which franchise rights were granted to a street railway com- 
pany to be formed by the consolidation of the four companies then 
operating in the city and suburbs. All of these four were con- 
trolled by A. M. Billings, of Chicago, and his associates, and they 
were promptly consolidated as the Memphis Street Railway Co.; 
the consolidation had only been prevented by the terms of the 
franchises to the several companies. 

Under the ordinance which was agreed upon between Mr. Bill- 
ings and the council a limited transfer system was to go into effect 
on Jan. i, 1896, and a continuous ride between any two points in the 
city was to be given for 5 cents after Jan. i, 1900, at all hours of the 

In accordance with this agreement the universal transfer system 
was put in effect Dec. 25. 1899. 

Jan. 15, 1900.1 


This rlep.Trtment is devoted to the construction and operation of electric railway 
power houses. Correspondence from practical men is specially invited. Both the 
users ,ind makers of power house appliances are expected to give their views and 
experiences on subjects within the range of the department. 


Tlic Hartford .Slcaiii HoikT Inspcclioii & Insurance Co. is ait- 
tliority for llir statenuiU llial tluTc is a direcl relation between the 
aniouiil of rainfall in any locality and the formation of scale in boil- 
ers depending for llu-ir feed water upon rivers, ponds or wells 
afTccled by the rainfall. The e.xample is cited that the unsual lack 
of rain during llie past season in many sections of the country is 
a matter of noU', and llir rrpiuts lunu-il in by boiler inspectors in 
regions so affected slmu Ihal niore than the usual amount of scale 
has been found. 

The explanation is advanced that the larger depo.sits of scale are 
due 111 the increased liardness of the water alter a long dry spell. 
In times of drouglil the water is drawn necessarily from the lower 
levels, in re.-iching which it has become impregnated with lime, 
magnesia and other soluble substances contained in the overlying 
strata. Periods of dry weather, therefore, call for more freiiuent 
examination and ilcaniug of boilers than is necessary at other 


The expansion joint for steam pipes, shown in the accompany- 
ing illustrations, designed to admit of all-round play as well as of 
a sli<ling movement was recently described by lingineering of Lou- 

ring may be used \\ necessary, I'ig. j shows the joint disniantleil 
for repacking. This tyjic of joint is reported as being in successful 
use on ships where boiler pressures up to 220 lb. arc carriei! with 
only one packing •■ing. 


.\t the recent meeting of the American .Society ol .Mechanical 
I'-ngineers, Mr, C. H. Robertson, of Purdue University, presented 
a paper giving the results of a test made upon a 125-h. p. VVcsting- 
lu use gas engine in the plant of the Merchants' Electric Lighting 
Co.. LaFayette, Ind. The engine tested is of the 3-cylindcr Wcst- 
inghouse type, using natural gas as fuel, running at about ?70 r. 
p. m. and belted to a 60-kw, two-phase alternator of 2,000 volts with 
60 cycles; the engine is one of the first lot of five 01 this type turned 
out for commercial service by the makers. The test was from 
7:05 p, m., March 22d to 12:05 a- m., March 23d, one engine carry- 
ing the entire load of the station. 

We rejiroduce herewith the graphical log of the test, together 
with other diagrams and portions of the paper explaining them. 
The beating value of i cu. ft. of "standard" natural gas is taken as 
1,000 B. t. u. By "standard" is meant at a temperature of 62" F. 
and atnu-spheric pressure. 

The distribution of the heat during each hour of the test was as 


^ .. ■ ... .^ — i£|PSi ■; 

don. The assendiled joint is shown in section in Fig. i, from which 
it will be noted that the packing consists of a single ring of metal 
covered with asbestos; this is arranged in a conical box so that the 
steam itself does the setting up. Of course more than one packing 




B. t. u. 


into work 


per cent. 

by jacket, 
per ceul. 

In exbaust, 
per cent. 

Heal per 

i. h. p. per 


B. 1. a. 

1 St 

4 til 







The author states that the whole sequence of events, from the 
gas meter to the engine and generator in a plant like this, follow 
each other so rapidly that it is entirely possible to run a satisfactory 
and reliable test of but a few minutes' duration. With this point in 

i_^ ' '■ 


















1 »• 










y/iy i M i 1 



I 1 





» I _^___ 

B jl 

\ - \ \ I - 

1 ^flp i 

I » Sl ; 

kk;. 1. 

FIG. 2. 

mind, the whole collection of data (consisting of five hours of five- 
minute observation?) was divided up into a series cf tests of ten 
minutes' duration, in each of which an obseiration was had at the 



[Vol. X, No. i. 

beginning, in the middle, and al the end oi the ten-minute period 
under consideration. 

The best performance, in cubic feet of standard gas, occurs at 
10:00, and is per indicated horse-power-hour, 11.87; per brake 
horse-powcr-hour. 14.71; per electrical horse-power-hour, 16.52. 
The highest consumption (under ;, mi.xture of 1:12) comes at 11:50. 
and is per indicated horse-power-hour, 18.42; per brake horse- 
power-hour, 29.65; per electrical horse-powcr-hour, 40.59. By plot- 
ting the total gas per hour against the different horse-powers (Fig. 
i), a very interesting law seems apparent. It is nothing more nor 
less than the parallel of the well-known Willans law for steam 
engines, namely, that the total steam per hour plotted against the 
indicated horse-power is a straight line. This has been stated to be 
true for at least one type of the steam turbine as well. (Trans. .A.. S. 
M. E., vol. xvii, "Tests of a lo-h. p. Steam Turbine.") 

Referring to Fig. i. the solid circles show the relation between 
total gas per hour and the indicated hrrse-powcr. The points up 
to 100 horse-power fall within a reasonable distance of the straight 
line drawn to represent their average. There are, beside these, 
two points near the top of the sheet, which should not be consid- 
ered in drawing the line, because they came from tha; part of the 

figure show gas consumption per brake horsepower-hour and per 
electrical horse-powcr-hour. 

In conclusion, the author gives the following miscellaneous notes: 
It should be borne in niinu in considering the data here pre- 
sented that engine No. 1 was the first of this make and size in- 
stalled for commercial service in this country, and that engine No. 
2 (the one tested) was of the same lot of five engines, and was put 
in a short time after No. I. Since they were installed, gas en- 
ginery has made a considerable advance, and the performance of 
this machine is probably not as good as an up-to-date engine would 
give. It is expected that the engine will be thoroughly overhauled 
and brought up to date during the coming winter. In case this is 
done, anothtr test will be run in the spring, whence will be possi- 
ble some interesting comparisons. 

Chief among the changes expected to give greater economy will 
be the substitution of solid oil in the crank case instead of oil and 
water, as at present. It is stated on good authority that the pres- 
ence of water in the oil when exposed to the conditions met with m 
the cylinder, very much injures its lubricating eflfect, whence comes 
rapid wear of cylinders and bearings and, consequently, low me- 
chanical efficicncv. Care must be exercised in the amount of oil 

(;R.\PHICAL log of tests ok 125-H. p. CAS ENGINE. 

test (between 8:30 and 9:10) when the mixing valve was acci- 
dentally changed. Between these two prints and the upper end 
of the straight line is anothtr group, made up of a considerable 
number of points, which, without exception, are from the observa- 
tion taken before 9:15, when the ratio of mixture was i:ii, which, 
consequently, are not comparable with those points where the mix- 
ture was 1:12. The crosses represent the same relation for the 
brake horse-power, while the hollow circles are the points for the 
gas per hour against electrical horse-power; and the same general 
observation may be made for these as for the indicated horse-power 
line. Three quite important conclusions seem to be warranted by 
this comparison: 

1. That the proportion of gas to air is a very important factor 
in fuel economy. 

2. That one test at a light and one test at a heavy load would 
serve to locate the line, from which a quite approximate prediction 
could be made of the gas consumption under intermediate loads. 

% That these considerations hold for the fuel consumption per 
brake horse-power-hour and per electrical horse-power-hour. 

By Fig. 2 is shown the relation between standard gas per indi- 
cated horse-power-hour and the indicated horse-power based upon 
observations when the mixture was 1:12. The other curves on this 

permitted in the crank case, lest so much reach the cylinders as to 
carry flame over an exhaust stroke and ignite the next succeeding 
charge and with it the mixture in the distribution pipe. Any con- 
siderable amount of this "back firing" has a very detrimental effect 
on the engine in general, and seriously interferes with good gov- 
erning. Back firing may also be caused by a leaky admission valve 
or a leak in the caging en which the admission valve is seated. 

Cases have been reported where engines are running on gaso- 
line in which a coating of burnt oil has collected on the end of the 
piston. This, it is thought, may come to high enough a tempera- 
ture to ignite the incoming charge. At any rate, the "back firing" 
ceased with its removal. 

The red glow of the exhaust pipe at night, or the red-hot condi- 
tion of the copper ball used in determining the exhaust tempera- 
ture, bore convincing evidence of the high temperature within the 
cylinder. This high temperature gives some trouble with the ex- 
haust valves, making it necessary to watch them quite closely lest 
a little leak soon burns out into a hole of considerable dimension. 
This intense heat sometimes has caused the breaking oflf of the 
exhaust-valve stem. The use of more metal in the valves has prac- 
tically ended these troubles. 

In a gas-engine plant the certainty of action depends upon a 

Jan. is, iooo. ] 





5. Metri>|jiiUtail Kir 
valed, Clilcaffo. . . 




10 cViilial Ave. Sla- 
lioii, Metrnjnolilaii 
St. Hv., Kansa:. 

citv, Mil 



**Cost of Oil per Barrel. 


Output McaKurcd by Wattmeter in Kach Case. 

Cost of EI 





















Re- , 



Waste, etc. 



















Oil per 

k. w. h. 




in{^ Oil 



k. w. h. 












Price of 

perTon Kindof Fuel 
of 2,(XJ0 


2.51 $2.10 





nuinluT 111 (k'lails sucli as i|ualily and tinii' nl ignilinn. pinpt-r cum 
pression, rinlil prnportioii of gas to air, control of cylinder teni- 
peralures, etc. .\ny one of these defective to any considerable de- 
gree is cpiite sure to stop or prevent the starting of the engine. In 
one of the preliminary tests on this engine an observer accidentally 
struck one of the incandescent lamps in the igniting circuit. Tlu- 
lamp was apparently uninjured, but the engine at once slowed down. 
An examination of the lamp showed that just the tip end of the 
bulb had been broken oflf, thus destroying the vacuum within and. 
consequently, the igniting circuit. 

On another occasion sand was deposited in the jacket from the 
cooling water, making it inipi ssible to cool the cylinder properly. 
The result was that the heat of compression furnished a high enough 
temperature to ignite the charge, and the engine was run for some 
lime without the igniters in operation. 

.'\t various times the gas supply for the city has been shut otif. 
Under such circumstances the engine (acting as a pump) has ci n- 
tinued to draw gas from the mains, and to run through such shul- 
ofFs of thirty minutes' duration. 

Soon after the gasoline vapor generator was installed, artificial 
gas was piped to the plant, and proved so much mere convenient 
for emergency runs that the vapor generator was not used, and at 
the present writing has been removed. 

In the warm months of summer some trouble has been experi- 
enced in cooling the jacket water in the coding tower. .\s a re- 
sult, a motor and pump was installed at the river bank some dis- 
tance away, and the jacket water secured from that source. As 
soon as the warm months are over the cooling tower is used again. 
When the engine was first installed, cast steel gears were used 
which, en giving trouble, were replaced by steel cut gears. This 
change has ended the trouble from source. 

Natural gas is sold to the company by meter at the rate of $.07 
per cu. ft. 


Before a recent meeting of the Ohio Electric Light Association 
of Cleveland, Mr. Geo, Hayler. jr., read a paper on "Some Sug- 
gestions to the Managers of Small Electric Light Central Stations," 
in the course of which occurred the following paragraph which is 
equally applicable to small street railway plants. 

"It is a mistake to suppose that anyone who is fatiiiliar with 
steam machinery will be the man to operate an electric plant. It 
is hard to teach an old dog new tricks, and it will probably cost 
you more to teach an erstwhile engineer of a threshing machine 
or a sawmill how not to do things, than it would be to take a green 
man and teach him how things ought to be done. Don't make 
the mistake of employing one of those men who know it all and 
who has had his pockets full of credentials from plants where he 
has been employed. A letter of recommendation is often a mighty 
cheap price to pay for the privilege of dispensing with a man's 
services. Shun, also, as you would the Cld Nick himself, the man 
who ,is continually and eternally skipping around with a monkey 
wrench in one hand and an oil can in the other, adjusting every- 
thing in sight. He will make you nervous, and eventually cause 

yini mure irouhle and expense than a man who sits down and de- 
liberately neglects things iinlll they will run no longer. Get good. 
sober, cool, reliable men, and then keep them; and if you can't 
tind the men you want, get some good, yiung raw material anil 
make them. It will take tiine and patience, and you will get your 
hands dirty, but in the end you will have men whose reliability, 
carefulness and loyalty will pay you a thousand times over for the 
time and patience spent in developing them." 


The power plant of the Capital Traction Co., of Washington. D. 
C, which was built to replace that destroyed by fire in September, 
1897, was recently tested by Messrs. William R. Miller, Nelson E. 
Oiterson. Frank H. Eastman and H. Worthington Talbot and the 
results presented in their graduation theses at Cornell University. 

The main equipment of this station comprises eight 350-h. p. 
Babcock & Wilcox boilers arranged in batteries of two. and fitted 
with Roney stokers, and five units in the engine room, each con- 
sisting of an 8(X)-h. p. Reynolds-Corliss tandem compound engine, 
with cylinders 20 and 40 by 48 in. direct connected to a General 
Electric generator. Hartwell horizontal, exhaust feed heaters and 
Dean jet condensers are used. 

The test was to find the efficiency of the main plant under ordi- 
nary working conditions during the whole 24 hours. The first of 
the main units is started at 5 a. m. and the last one shut down at 
I :j^o a. m. : the variation is of course great between these hours, 
the maximtmi loads occurring between 8 and 9:30 a. in. and 4:30 
and 6 p. m. 

The coal used during the test contained 2.16 per cent moisture, 
16.85 per cent volatile matter. 72.23 per cent fixed carbon and 8.76 
per cent ash: the heating value per pound was 14.708 B. t u. and 
per pound of combustible 16.51 1 B. t. u. 
Data from the test are as follows: 

Dry coal per sq. ft. of grate per hour n.4 lb. 

-Actual evaporation per lb. coal 10.44 "'■ 

Equivalent evaporation per lb. coal 12.37 lb. 

Average horse power per boiler. 218.8 

Water per i. h. p. per hour 22.78 lb. 

Coal per i. h. p. per hour 2.18 lb. 

Coal per e. h. p. per hour 2.21 lb. 

Cost of coal per i. h. p. hour 204 cent. 

Cost of coal per e. h. p. hour 207 cent. 

♦ » » 

The Toledo Traction Co. has closed a contract with the E. P. 
.Mlis Co. for a 2,8oo-h. p. engine and with the General Electric Co. 
for a generator of the same capacity. These machines will be de- 
livered next winter by which time the Traction company will have 
further increased the capacity of its power house by extending the 
addition built last vear. 

The Sioux City (la.) Traction Co. is installing a 600-h. p. engine 
and gcner.itor unit in its power house. 



Power Plant Piping and Accessories, 

l!Y \V1I,I,1.\M n. ENNIS. M. E. 


The cost oi the piping in a power plant is apt to be underesti- 
inated by a prospective investor. The piping contract i.s often 
as large an item as the boilers, and in some cases is greater than 
the amount paid for the engines to which it is auxiliary. Proper 
design and construction in this direction are, therefore, entitled to 
consideration, and from an engineering standpoint, as well as 
from that view which is purely commercial, there is no part of 
a plant of greater interest than that oi steam and water connections 
an<l auxiliaries. 

In live electric or power plants recently installed the relative 
costs of the three items mentioned were as follows: 


Character uf Plant. 






Simple Condensing. 
Comp. " 







•Trans. A. S. M. E., dccci. 
tSwitctiboard included. 

■ Not tbe entire cost, as some of tlif exhaust connections were included in an- 
other contract. 

It is diliicult to base reliable comparisons on such data as these, 
for the reason that the "piping contract" does not in every case 
embody the same portions of a plant. In A, for instance, feed 
pumps, but not condensers, were included; in C both pumps and 
condensers were covered in the contract price; in D neither are 
included. Separators and heaters are included in each of the 
five cases, and in B, C, D and E, covering the pipes with heat in- 
sulating material as well. It should be noted that the "cost" of 
the piping includes erection, while the other apparatus is usually 
purchased f. o. b., excepting that expert superintendence is fur- 

Two general tendencies prevail at the present time among en- 
gineers, in drawing up specifications for pipe work. One is to 
leave as little as possible of the auxiliary apparatus in the hands 
of the steam fitter, excepting that he may be called upon to set it 
on its foundations. The other practice is radically different. The 
piping contractor is required to furnish practically all of the steam 
plant, engines and boilers excepted; and instances are known in 
which not only the piping and condensing apparatus, but also the 
stack, flue, blower, blower engine and the completion of a build- 

items in the construction of a plant, it is iiatur:il that they, as 
well as their clients and those engineers whose work lies in this 
direction, should appreciate the importance of a thorough under- 
standing of the details of design and erection in their work. 

Piping is expensive, and from all points of view the first essen- 
tial in any system of piping is careful and intelligent design. There 
is no more delicate and ditificult problem to solve in the entire 
planning of a power station, than the arrangement of pipe, with 
the separators, condensers and heating apparatus to secure econ- 
omy, flexibility, durability and convenience. No part of a plant 
can give more trouble than badly planned piping. Engines may 
be in duplicate, boilers are seldom worked to their full capacity, 
and when trouble comes there is a reserve to fall back upon; but, 
in this country at least, where duplicate-piped plants are rare, a 
single break or failure in the steam main or connections may close 
an entire mill for days. Mr. Bryan errs, if at all, on the side of 
moderation, when he says (Trans. A. S. M. E.. dccci), "The general 
arrangement of this work (piping) and the selection of proper 
apparatus, demand the most careful study." 

The substance of the above is well stated by Mr. E. A. Darling in 
Iiis paper in the power plant of Columbia University. (Trans. A. 
S. M. E., dcccxxii): 

"Simplicity, brevity and elasticity are of the very essence of good 
practice in this line, and we believe that these ends should be 
sought before all others in laying down a plant. It is better 
to make the engines and boilers fit the piping than to go the other 
way about it. .'\n unnecessary turn or length of pipe occasions a 
never-ceasing waste from friction and radiation." 

Mr. Darling goes on to enunciate the following maxims in piping 
design, considering a pipe system as "just so much machinery": 

"Put it up so that it may adjust itself freely under the strains 
imposed by expansion and contraction. 

"Consider the human element involved in its operation, by 
setting all valves where they can be easily and quickly handled 
without making undue calls on the heroism of the engine-room 
force in case of an emergency. 

"Put the piping together in the way you would any other ma- 
chinery, with bolted joints that can be easily made and unm.ide 
without destroying or damaging either pipe or fittings. 

"Provide especially for free straight passages with exhaust steam 
and water pipes, on account of the less energy which they possess 
to overcome obstacles, as compared with live steam." 



ing that had been partially erected by day work in charge of the 
owner, were merged into one contract with a firm of steam fitters. 

Such work demands more engineering ability than the old time 
steam heating contractors manifested, and as more responsibility 
has been involved in pipe work, firms of general steam contractors 
have come into existence. With full charge of one of the largest 

To these rules additional maxims might be laid down, such as 
the following: 

a. Provide intelligently for the disposition of condensation, rely- 
ing as little as possible on special devices, which in the case of 
live steam, should be used rather as safety apparatus than as ordi- 
narv necessaries. 

Jan. 15, ii/K). 



1). Miikr tile Inbscs dill' lo ci iii(lin-..(l ini; .inil friction ,is blil.'ill 
as possible by conipiilink' fi"iii b<iili ^iMiidiioiiUs ibc .-Klvimtageous 
sizes of pipes lo use, 

c, Coiislriiet the system so as to be scH-resistiiiK and sclf-a<l- 
jnstiiiK aKiiinst vibratory strains due to the mention of steam and 
niacliinery, depcndinn on hatiRers, brackets and supports only 
where their purpose cannot be fulfilled by the elements of the sys- 
tem themselves. 

d. Obey everywhere the inviolable law o( c,\|)ansion. As an 
engineer remarked, llie two Ini.linK characteristics of pipe arc its 
expensiveness and its^ivvness. 

wine li the in.Tin steam pipe may run. Horizontal water tube boilers 
have one or two nozzles. A common method of conneclini? the 
latter type of steam generator to the main pipe is that shown in 
Fig. 1, in which the boiler has two longituflinal drums with a nozzle 
in each. Two-nozzle fire tube boilers furuishing steam lo the main 
at either end have the safely valve attached to the free nozzle. It 
is customary to extend a pipe the size o( the nozzle upward some 
six feet from the Tpop) valve outlet, and to drip the exhaust head 
thus formed. Doilers are occasionally built with four nozzles; two 
for steam connections and two tor pop and lever safety valves. 
The choice as to which nozzle shall be used for the main steam 

9 f-igi S 


riq 3. 

tfCpi tfi 

pit:^ I c 

Fig 45 


Fig 4 

Fig. 2 



Maivj' other more or less familiar precepts might be enjoined 
at this point in connection with the engineering features of an 
efficient pipe system. It will be of greater value, however, to con- 
sider first the elements which enter into such a system, treating 
in this connection the principles which may be induced as appli- 
cable to an entire plant, made up of combinations of those elements. 


Adopting the foregoing characterization of a piping system as 
"so much machinery," there are certain principles governing its 
design and construction and, so to speak, its operation, apart from 
the properties and (pialities of the elements of which it is com- 
posed. Some of these principles have been briefly mentioned. 
and we have now to consider the theories involved and their prac- 
tical consequences. 

In a steam plant, there are several distinct piping systems serv- 
ing particular purposes and co-ordinating toward a definite object 

connection is usually made with regard to the position of the 
engines. It is best, of course, to have all steam lines as short as 
possible, to avoid radiation and condensation. Sometimes the 
main steam is taken from one nozzle and the auxiliaries from the 
other. .\ plant wl>erc this system was adapted is shown in 
Fig. 2. 

Starting from the main steam nozzle, the most important line of 
pipe in the plant runs in as direct a manner as possible to the en- 
gine. But in the case of steam, at least, it fails to be true that a 
straight line is the shortest distance between two points. The pipe 
should at first be run upward. making the header just below the high- 
est point the steam reaches in its entire course. This run may be a 
piece of straight pipe terminating in an elbow, which in turn leads 
horizontally to the header (Fig. 3). from which steam is led to the 
engines, or it may be a bend like those shown in Fig. 2. which 
combine in one piece the two lengths of pipe and the elbow, avoid- 


— the economical transmission of the fluids used to and from their 
respective points of operation, 


First is the main steam line and branches, carrying steam from 
the boilers to the engines, pumps, condensers, etc. Ordinary fire 
tube boilers are made with two nozzles, from either or both of 

ing in this case two joints and consequent increased risk of leakage. 
The bend has other advantages. In Fig. 3, supposing the points 
C and A to be fixed, the four joints shown are subjected to a strain 
which forms one of the most important factors in all piping de- 
sign. When high pressure steam is turned into these pipes an ir- 
resistible expansion takes place in both lengths, the amount of 



[Vol. X. No. i. 

expansion depending upon the pressure (.and temperature) of the 
steam. If the horizontal pipe is 6 tt. long, and the temperature 
at which the joints were made tight is 70° F., the increase in length 
at a pressure of 150 lb. is over % in. This increase tends to throw 
back the elbow and the upper end of the vertical pipe, as shown in 
Fig. 4, and if the flange. A, remains rigid one of the joints, a or d, 
is sure to be impaired. 

This effect is counteracted to some extent, though not perfectly, 
by the elasticity of the vertical pipe, which may take the shape 
shown in Fig. 4B. There is, even in this case, however, a destruc- 
tive strain on the two joints. A bend, such as is shown in Fig, j, 
simpl)' a piece of ordinary pipe formed on rolls to the re(|uire<l 
radius, possesses a shape better adapted to withstand expansive 
and distortive strains, and is almost universally used tor high pres- 
sure piping of large size in this part of the plant. 

the latter be used the thickness should be liberal, and all corners 
should have large fillets, not less than 2 in. radius. 

A cast-metal header of this kind is shown in Fig. 7. This was 
made up with the thickness M in. for the section, 7 in. inside diam- 
eter; (8 '"■ for the S '"■; ''i >". for ''"" 9 '"■• and i in. for the 10 in. 

It was designed tor a working pressure of i(x) lb. The construc- 
tion is open to criticism, bec.uise of the absence of any main valve in 
the header, but as steam tor the engines was taken from the end 
of the run instead of midway along the boiler line, this objection 
is of less force than it otherwise would be. The complete set of 
castings cost $275. Their equivalent in standard wrought 
pipe and heavy cast iron fittings would have cost $185. The 
expense of making up and erecting the wrought iron header would 
have been somewhat greater than that nf the cast iron. 

/"/ff. /J. 

Fy /<? 

Bends are sometimes made of copper, in rare instances of brass, 
but this latter practice is not to be recommended in any case. Cop- 
per bends should be made with brass or copper flanges and the ends 
of the pipe should be brazed into the flange, then peened over 
and faced. Even with this form ot construction, there are several 
objections to the use of copper bends. They are expensive, as 
compared with iron. It is impcssible to judge on inspection, 
whether the brazed joint has been properly made or not. .'\ 
method of connecting mains to a header, which in the writer's 
opinion, is the best practiced, is shown in Fig. 5. With a system of 
this kind, a steam separator becomes almost superfluous. It re- 
quires considerable head room, however, and for pressures above 
1.35 lb. the large number of joints necessary forms a drawback. 

The main steam header, into which the boiler mains run and from 
which the supply is furnished to the engines, is made usually of 
wrought iron pipe or of a good quality of gray iron casting. If 

Another form of cast iron metal header is shown in Fig. 6. This 
was cast of gun iron, in two pieces, the shell being i in. thick, 
and cost $75. The working pressure was 140 lb. 

The material and dimensions ot the header being fixed, the next 
question is that of support. Where there is a trussed root over- 
head, the common method is to hang the pipe from the trusses 
in some such manner as is shown in Fig. 8. 

If the header is close to a stout wall, it may rest on brackets, one 
form of which is shown in Fig. 9. These should be made adjust- 
able in every direction, and should be bolted clear through the 
wall, the bolt heads or nuts resting on plates or very large wash- 
ers. A third method of supporting a header is shown in Fig. 10. 

When the boiler plant consists of a large number of units, and 
the header is of any considerable length, it should be anchored at 
some point, to divide the expansion. This may be done by fixing 
strong clamps upon the pipe and guying them to the root trusses 

Jan. 15, [>)(K>.\ 



or walls. Tilt best I'unii ni anchor is one bolted clirtct lo the wall 
or floor, such as that shown in Fin ii- 

The ni.nin supply from the header to the eUKines should he taken 
from llii' side, end, or (preferably) from the top of the header, 
and shr)Uld bo made up of pipe bends in preference to straiKlU pipe 
and cast fittings. It is usually necessary to support this line of 
pipe from above, and provision should hi' ma<le for liKhteniuK 
the lianK'trs. 

The pipe used for ImkIi pressure steam (100 lb. ai\d above) should 
be of full standard weiulU, and the fittings should be of the "extra 
heavy" pattern. Valves should also be "extra heavy." These three 
grades of material are suitable for any pressure up lo 140 lb., ex- 
cepting in cases where the vibration is excessive. "ICxtra heavy" 
stock is built for a working pressure up to 200 lb. The standard 
weight pipes should never be used for pressures above 150 lb. per s<|. 
in. Pipes larger than 3 in. are usually put together with flanges and 
flange fittings, those smaller than that size with unions or union 
flanges and screwed fittings. Valves for high pressure pipes, es- 
pecially the larger sizes, should be of the "outside screw" type, 
which can be repacked under pressure. (Fig. 12) Valves larger 
than 7 in. should have a bypass in order to admit of a gradually 
opening passage for the steam. It is customary when valves are 
some distance above the floor, to set them with their sijindles hori- 
zontal, and to provide a sprocket wheel and chain so that they 
can be operated froin the floor. 

Flanged joints on high pressure steam pipes should be made 
with corrugated copper gaskets, and the flanges should be screwed 
to bottom on the pipe thread, then faced off square with the axis 
of the pipe. The bolt holes on flanges arc drilled 1-16 in. larger 
than the diameter <if the bolts, and the gaskets should be cut so as 
to bear from the inside of the pipe to the inside of the bolt holes. 
The best form of flange for this purpose is shown in Fig. 13. a pro- 
jecting ring of sufficient area being left on the inside of the bolt 
circle of the flange. This, when faced with the pipe on centers, 
forms the bearing surface for the gasket. 

All high pressure pipe and fittings should be covered with a good 
non-conductor, and where the best economy is desired, valves and 
pipe flanges should also be covered. It is sometimes claimed that 
flanges should be left exposed in order that ready access may be 
had in case of leakage, but the sectional coverings now in use are 
readily removed, and the sharp corners of flanges present an 
outlet for thermal units that ought not to be neglected. 

In determining the sizes of steam pipes it is custoinary to allow a 
velocity for live steam of 6,000 ft. per minute. Having determined 
the steam pressure and the number of pounds of steam required 
to flow through given pipes in that time, the volume of steam 
corresponding to the required weight can be found from the steam 
table, and this divided by the permissible velocity gives the area 
of the pipe required. The nearest commercial size of pipe to this 
should be chosen. A smaller size throttles the steam and diinin- 
ishes the pressure at the outlet, and a larger size results in in- 
creased radiation and loss. 



An Italian employed to do blasting, boarded a trolley car of the 
Union Railway Co.. of New York City, recently, bound for Mount 
Vernon. He had a large feed bag. which he held in his lap until 
he reached Mount Vernon, where he went into the crowded wait- 
ing-room and dropped it carelessly on the floor. 

A patrolman seeing the Italian get off the car and thinking that 
he might be one of the lead pipe thieves who have been at work 
in Westchester County, tapped the bag to see what it contained. 
There was a suspicious rattle and as the man appeared to be badly 
friglitened the officer arrested him and took him to the police sta- 
tion, where it was found the bag held nearly 75 lb. of dynamite with 
caps and other explosives. The Italian was fined $100 or 100 days 
ill jail for carrying dangerous chemicals in the public streets. 

Boston has again taken the lead in religious affairs. Two motor- 
nien in the employ of the Boston Elevated R. R. have been sus- 
pended from the congregation of the Broadw'ay Tabernacle church 
of that city for running their cars on Sunday. When the young 
men got their jobs they were warned by the pastor not to work on 

I'roni the list o( "Electric Tramways and Railways in the United 
Kingdom," now in operation, under construction, or for which the 
contracts arc let, published by the Flectrical Review, l,ondoii, un- 
der date of Dec. i, i8g<j, the following data are taken: 

The overhead trolley lines owned by municipal corporations are 
located as follows: Aberdeen, 2% miles double, % mile single; 
Blackburn, 4 miles; Blackpool, u'/i miles single track running and 
arranged for; Bolton, 31 miles single; Bradford, 5 miles; Darwcn, 
2.84 miles double; Dover. 3 miles single. I'/, miles double; Dundee. 
3^ miles double; East Ham, I'/j miles double. 2'/i miles single; 
Glasgow, 3J4 miles double running. 1^ miles double ready, 35 miles 
double under construction. i<) miles double to be constructed; Hali- 
fax, ll!4 miles, 24 miles under construction; Hull, <j miles double, 
I mile single; Leeds, 7 miles double running. 22 miles under con- 
struction, 36 miles i)rojected; Liverpool, 20.6 miles; Manchester; 
Nottingham. I4!4 miles double, 4 miles single; Oldham. 25 miles; 
Plymouth, 3.1 miles single w<jrking, 2.7 miles to fjc equipped; St. 
Helen (Lancashire), 6 miles running, 13 miles building; SaKord, 
40 miles single; Sheftield, 2 miles single, 9 miles double; South- 
ampton. 7 miles single; Southport, 3 2-3 miles single, i mile double; 
Sunderland, i3'/i miles single. 

The overhead trolley lines owned by companies or individuals 
are located as fallows: Blackpool and Fleetwood, 6'/i miles en- 
closed road, 2 miles trainway; Brighton and Rotlingdean, 3 miles; 
Bristol. S'/i miles; Carlisle. 7^4 miles; Cork, 5 miles double, 2 miles 
single; Coventry. 5V> miles double, 5 miles single; Devonport, 4V2 
miles double. % mile single; Dublin and District. 39 miles, mostly 
double; Dublin and Lucan. 6^1 miles single. '/> mile double; Dud- 
ley. 5'A miles: Giant's Causeway. Port Rush & Bush Valley. 8'/i 
miles single; Hartlepool. 4'/i miles single; Isle of Man (three lines 
each with one accumulator sub-station). 46 miles single; Kidder- 
minster & Stourport, 4!^ miles; London, 20 miles; Middlesbrough, 
Stockton and Thornaby, 15 miles; Norwich, 13 miles single, 3 miles 
double; Oldham, Ashton and Hyde. 8 miles; Potteries (JCorth Staf- 
fordshire), 33 miles; South Staffordshire. 8 miles; Swansea, 3 miles 
single, 2"/^ iniles double. 

The only accumulator line is owned by the City of Birmingham 
Tramways Co.. and comprises 3 miles of double track. 

The 'electric railways" in the United Kingdom comprise: Bess- 
brook & Newry Tramway. 3 miles double track, third rail sys- 
tem: Brighton, i mile single track owned by Magnus Volk, third 
rail; Heme Bay Pier Electric Ry.. M miles; Liverpool Overhead 
Electric Ry.. d'A miles double track: Ryde Pier Electric Ry., 'A 
mile, third rail; Southend-on-Sea Pier Electric Ry.. i]4 miles, third 
rail, owned by town council: Walton-on-the-Kaze Pier Electric 
liy.. 'A mile: and the following underground roads in London: 

Baker Street & Waterloo Electric Ry., 3J? miles, to be completed 
in about three years. 

Central London Ry., 13 miles, nearing completion. 

City & South London Electric Ry., twin tunnels. 3'A miles. 

Great Northern & City Electric Ry., to be completed June. 1902. 

Metropolitan Underground Ry.. experimental section equipped 
for electricity by the Metropolitan and the Metropolitan District 
Railway coiupanies. 

Waterloo & City Electric Ry.. line opened August. 1898, 


Mr. E. S. Dimmock. general manager of the Bay Cities Consoli- 
dated Railway Co.. of Bay City. Mich., writes us that his company 
has given out contracts lor the construction of a new power house 
that it is believed will be one of the most attractive and economical 
stations in that part of the country. Arbuckle Ryan Co. will have 
general charge of construction work, and J. J. Thorne. of Bay City. 
will supply the switchboard: the Stirling Co.. of Chicago, the boil- 
ers: Russell & Co.. of Massillon. O.. the engines, and the Westing- 
house Co. the dynamos, which will be of 550 kw. capacity. 

The powder station will be 115 x 75 ft., built of pressed brick and 
finished on the inside in cream enamel brick. Mechanical draft, 
with blower attachment, will be employed, doing away with the 
necessity of erecting a stack. The plant is to be in operation by 
May 15 or June 1. 1900. 



[Vol. X. No. i. 


In our issue- oi October, 1899, page 725, we illuslraUd the Buck- 
land paving block, which is the invention of S. J. Buckland, of 
Springfield, Mass.. and was laid as an experiment on about 2.000 
ft. of double track of the Springfield Street Ry. in the late fall of 
1898. The block is of cast iron, 12 in. long, with a V-shaped slot in 
one edge, and when slipped over the inner Hange of a tram head 
transforms it so far as the exposed surface is concerned into a full 
groove rail. 

The result of this experiment is referred to in the report of the 
city engineer, Charles M. Slocum. for 1899. from which we take 
the following extracts: 

"The use of the tram head girder rail on Dwight and lower 
Main Sts. as laid in i8tX) and the roadway paved with vitrified brick 
has been a source of much dissatisfaction; complaints have been 


constant as to the discomfort and danger attending the use of these 
streets, owing to the form of rail head and the manner of paving 
between rails of each track, the paving inside of each track being an 
inch or more lower than outside. 

"The Buckland device (designed to remedy this objection) has 
now withstood the action of the traffic for more than a year and 
shows no defect whatever and is evidently in every way a most 
satisfactory device, affording the public all the advantages of a 
street having a full groved rail. It can be used at a great money 
saving over and above what would be required to take up the pave- 
ment and substitute a new full grooved rail." 

A contract has lately been made for the relaying of the pave- 
ments between car tracks in the same manner on Main St.. between 
William and Marble Sts., as soon as settled weather in the spring 
time will permit. 


The Denver. Boulder & Northern Railway Co. has not as yet 
made formal api)lication for a franchise from the city of Denver, 
but will undoubtedly do so within a short time. A party is now in 
the field, and an office force at work preparing plans and specifica- 
tions. T. J. Milner. formerly chief engineer of the Denver Board 
of Public Works, is chief engineer for the road. 

The plan is to connect Denver with the northern Colorado coal 
fields, which are distant about 15 miles from this city. The present 
railroad transportation charges arc 80 cents per short ton, which, 
for a down-hill pull, is very profitable. There is also considerable 
traffic, passenger and otherwise, between Denver and Lafayette, 
Louisville, Boulder, Longmont and Fort Collins, which it Is pro- 
posed to compete for. The main business, however, is expected to 

come from the transportation of coal. The present retail price ui 
coal in Denver of $4.00 per ton. will undoubtedly be lowered 
to $3.00. 

The line is not intended in any way to compete with the system 
of the Denver City Tramway Co. and traffic arrangements may be 
made with that company to enter the city over its tracks by laying 
a third rail, the gage of the City Tramway tracks being 3 ft. 6 in., 
while the gage of the new road will be 4 ft. 8'/2 in. The rail will 
be the 75-lb. .\ S. C. E. standard, and will be rolled by the Colo- 
rado Fuel & Iron Co. at Bessemer, Col. 

In connection with the railway a large electric power plant will 
be erected at Lafayette or Louisville, in the center of the lignite 
coal district, 16 miles northwest of Denver. Current will be trans- 
mitted to Denver by means of the three phase system and supplied 
for lighting and power purposes. 

The general manager of the road is L. L. Bevington. 


The iiuestion of removing snow is now under discussion at 
Montreal. Under its franchises the Montreal Street Railway Co. is 
required to keep its tracks free from ice and snow and the city 
may at its option remove all or a part of the snow and ice in the 
street from curb to curb and recover one-half of the cost from 'he 
company. In 1894 the company agreed to pay $1,650 per mile of 
street per annum for five years in lieu of its half of the cost for 
removing snow. During the next five years this sum proved to 
be 58 per cent, 61 per cent, 72 per cent, 94 per cent and 50 per cent, 
respectively, of the total cost. In the five years the company paid 
over $255,000 for this service, the amount being nearly $59,000 
more than one-half the total cost. 

The five-year agreement having now expired, the Montreal Street 
Ry. makes the following proposition: 

"First, to pay the city monthly one-half of the cost of removing 
snow from the streets from curb to curb, without prejudice to 
the city's rights to recover any greater sum in the courts, if it can 
establish its rights thereto; secondly, or the company is prepared 
to submit article 16 of the contract to the courts, as a special case 
fur immediate decision, and to facilitate the immediate decision of 
the case in every way; thirdly, or the company is prepared to enter 
into a contract that the city shall do the removing of the snow, for a 
period of five years, and shall receive $1,125 per mile of street per 
annum as the company's contribution, that being estimated as one- 
half of the cost, based upon the experience of the last five years, 
with a proviso that a special case may be submitted if the city so 
desire, or the city may take such legal proceedings as it likes to get 
an interpretation of the contract, and it the courts interpret the con- 
tract as compelling the company not only to clear the snow from 
its tracks, but also to remove itself the snow so cleared, the com- 
pany will pay an additional sum so as to bring this contrilnitioii up 
to $1,650 per mile." 

This will serve to explain a resolution of the road committee of 
the city approving of a notarial protest being served on the com- 
pany to prevent it using snow sweepers on its tracks. 


Mr. Hamilton King. U. S. consul-general :it Bangkok, Siam, 
writes the State Department as follows concerning the Bangkok 
Tramway Co., of which W. F. Jacobson is manager: 

".■\ private syndicate in 1887 obtained a concession for street rail- 
way lines in Bangkok. These were built for horse cars in 1889 and 
changed to an electric trolley system in 1892. This line is crowded 
with passengers all day long and pays I2 per cent on the invest- 
ment. The rolling stock, machinery and wire for this road have 
all been bought in .\mcrica; the rails in Europe. 

"It is probable that this line will be extended in the near future, 
and that another similar system will be built." 
» « » 


The question of whether street railways shall be permitted to 
carry freight is a live one in Canada, the attorney general having 
asked for an injunction to restrain the Metropolitan Railway Co., 
Toronto. Ont., from making connection with the Canadian Pacific 
R. R., and from carrying freight into the city. 

Jan. is, 1900.J 




(From Our Own Correspondcnl.) 

Till- wnrld-faiiioiis ciUlcry producing city of Slicflicld is now 
actively ciiKiigod in cxtcndinR its tramway system and in adopting 
electrical jiower for traction. The lines were originally constructed 
by the municipality and leased to a company. The term expired in 
1896, and the Town Council then began to operate the system. 
There were nine miles of double track worked by horses, and the 
corporation soon saw that in such an important town the system 
was capable of much development. The result of a delegation sent 
to inspect tramways in different parts of the country was a report 
strongly in favor of the overhead trolley system. Powers were ob- 
tained from Parliament to extend tramways to ,36 miles — about 
three-fourths of which is to be double track — at an estimated cost 
of .£600,000. When these extensions have been completed there 
will be about one mile of tramway to every ten miles of street in 
the city, and to every 10,000 of the population. The accompanying 
map shows the system clearly, but powers arc now being sought lor 
further extensions. 

Some of the routes, especially those known as the Walkley, arc 
very hilly, presenting gradients as steep as one in ten. A section is 
here given of the Walkley route, as it is believed to be one of the 
most severe not worked by cable traction in the United Kingdom. 

Reconstruction was started in January last year on the Nether- 
edge & Tinsley route. Steel girder rails weighing 108 lb. per yd. 
supplied by the Barrow Hematite Steel Co. were laid, and the joints 
were made with fish-plates 3 ft. long and weighing 80 lb. per pair. 
The rails were laid direct on a concrete foundation after the usual 
British practice. The accompanying drawings show the very 
strong track construction which has been carried out. The paving 
for the most part is granite sets, and the laying of the permanent 
way was done by the corporations own workmen. 

The first contract for the boilers, engines, dynamos, poles, cars, 
and electric cables was let to the British Thomson-Houston Co., 
the specifications and designs having been supplied by Mr. C. F. 
Wike, M. I. C. E., who also directed the permanent way construc- 
tion. Both side and center poles are employed, and a good idea of 
the general appearance of the street design may be obtained from 
the photographic views here reproduced. 

Other lines are now in hand, and the total lengtli of the exten- 
sions so far constructed is equal to 24 miles of single track. 

tract, including three boilers, engines and dynamos, pumps, con- 
densers, switchboard, overhead crane, etc. The boilers arc of ma- 
rine type, 10 ft, X 10 ft., and the working steam pressure is 160 lb. 
The engines are landem compound condensing Corliss, made by the 
E. P. Allis Co.. of Milwaukee. The cylinders are 12 in. and 22 in. 




diameter with a 30-in. stroke. The variation in speed allowed is 2 
per cent. The flywheels are 12 ft. in diameter and weigh 15.000 lb. 
The generators are of the six-pole type of British Thomson-Hous- 
ton Co., 2.iS kw. each. 

Each car is provided with two G. E. 52 motors, wound for 500 
volts, and the controllers are of the Thomson-Houston B. 13 type. 
The gear is so proportioned that with a 30-in. wheel each motor will 



The power station is situated on Kelham Island, and a continu- 
ous supply of condensing water is at hand. The contract for the 
building was let to Eshelby & Son, Sheffield, for £7,900. The 
building including boiler house, engine room and coal bunkers, is 
183 ft. long by 109 ft. wide, and the general disposition of the ma- 
chinery may be gathered from the plan and elevation here shown. 
The British Thomson-Houston Co. secured the first machinery con- 

develop a horizontal effort of 1.000 lb. at 8.4 miles per hour. The 
trolley arms and heads are of the swivelling type, so as to obviate 
the necessity of keeping the trolley wire over the center of the track. 
In many cases it is several feet away from the center. 

On account of the gradients the brake arrangements are of an un- 
usually thorough nature. Beside the usual hand brake there is a 
trailing slipper brake, by means of which the weight of the car is 



[Vol. X, No. i. 

taken almost entirely off the wheels and transferred to the wooden 
brake blocks which slide along the rails. This brake is operated 
by turning a wheel immediately under the handle for the hand 
brake. There is also an electric brake operated by the same handle 
that starts and controls the inotors. Trailing wedge blocks arc a 
further provision. In addition to the above the driver can, in a 
case of great pniergency, reverse his motors. 

The cars already in use number 39, 25 being double-decked and 
14 single-decked. The total number of cars ordered up to the pres- 


The Syracuse (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Railway Co. last year made 
7.g<)7.48 miles in carrying United States mail between Syracuse, East 
Onondaga, Onondaga Valley and Elmwood Park, receiving there- 
for $250. A wagon route in Syracuse 1.27 miles long made 6,42.?.04 
miles during the same period and for this service the contractor re- 
ceived $1,795. 

"^'^-^ — T*-? — \ — liTT — E — 5 — 5~T^ i '" k. 

y— .i^^jr -f f 


fft^i/>f ^Wjc 

Bc.,^, f„. 

pn n ogpg — "-- 


/i Sq hole 

BO tb^ pti. paiV L V 

^' /•*". i%" Ov/oil Hole 

■ Hole li dia 
s* (punched) 




1»' Space ) 3-^' 


■> - B^ 

LAND "T^C em en T -".",0 O^NCR E^f E ;V'>(e TO I X-'. 'l^l4[ 



cut is about 100, and if the traffic continues to increase at the pres- 
ent rate, there is no doubt the first estimate of the number of cars 
required, viz., 150, will be greatly exceeded. 

The engines at present installed are barely sufficient to work the 
present number of cars, and in a few weeks new boilers, engine, 
and dynamo will be at work. Another unit is on order, and will 
be fixed as soon as the extension of the power station will permit. 

.\lthough the trolley has only been at work since the middle of 
September, the receipts have already shown an increase of about 80 
I>er cent over the corresponding period of last year. 


Iced trolley wires interfered with trafiic on the Louisville (Ky.) 
road on December 14th. 

The United Railways & lUectric Co., of Baltimore, is endeavor- 
ing to restrict the issue of transfers to those cases where it is neces- 
sary for a passenger to make use of two lines to reach his destina- 
tion, and as an experiment has begun on one line by refusing to 
issue the transfers except when the passenger's fare is received and 
refusing to issue transfers on transfers. The company has assented 
to the proposed legislation removing the privilege of charging for 
transfers and is willing to encourage their legitimate use, but pro- 
tests against abuse of them. 

General Manager House estimates the loss of one fare for each 
half trip to amount to $307,476 per year. 

Jan. 15. Kino, 




(Kxiract friini ;i Irclutf (III " Kt'oiinitiiL- Aspiu:tH of Miiilii:ip.-il Kraitcliihch" by 
AlliMl Ripley Foiitc, (Iclivi-n'il al llii- olii<i Stale IJiii verHily. C!(iliitiit>iis, [>cc. 
10, 1H9'). 

Tilt Ohio Municipal Code Coimnission (a coiniiiission api)oin(c<! 
by llic governor to prepare a "Revised Municipal Code of Ohio") 
proposes lo Rive nntnicipalilics power to own and operate the fol- 
lowinK public service industries: In Sec. 2073 a municipal RarbaKe 
plant. In Sec. 2137 municipal gasworks, waterworks and lighting 
works. In Sec. 2165 to "levy and assess, upon the general tax list, 
an assessment on all taxable real and personal property in the 
corporation, for the payment of cost and repairs of the following 
improvements, including the cost of the necessary real estate there- 
for, waterworks, gasworks, and public lighting works." In Sees. 
2277, 2278, 2279 and 2280, to buy waterworks by an issue of bonds 
at rate of interest not to exceed 6 per cent per annum and to run 
not more than 20 years, and to "levy a tax of siifTicicnt amount to 
pay the interest of such bonds, and to provide for the redemption 
of the same." In Sees. 2383, 2384, 2385, 2386, to cities of 50,000 
inhabitants and over to buy existing street railways, to issue 6 per 
cent, 20-ycar bonds therefor, and to "levy a tax of sufficient amount 
to pay the interest on such bonds, and to provide for the redemp- 
tion of the same." In Sees. 2388, 2389, 2390, 2391, 2392, 2393, 2394. 
2395, 2396, 2397, to cities of 50,000 inhabitants and over to con- 
struct and operate street railways, issue 6 per cent, 20-year bonds 
therefor, "and the council shall annually, after such street railway 
shall have been put into operation, if necessary, levy and assess 
such a tax, as, TOGETHER WITH THE RECEIPTS from the 
street railway and other moneys applicable to the purpose, shall 
be suflicient to provide for said interest and sinking fund, the same 
to be assessed and levied upon the entire taxable property of the 
corporation." In Sees. 2401. 2402, 2403, 2404. 2406, 2407. 2408, 2409, 
2410, 241 1, 2412, 2413, 2414, to buy or construct a telephone system, 
to issue 6 per cent, 20-year bonds therefor, and, "if necessary levy 
and assess such a tax, as, together with the receipts from the tele 
phone service and other moneys applicable to the purpose, shall 
be sufficient to provide for said interest and a sinking fund, the 
same to be assessed and levied upon the entire taxable property 
of the corporation." In Sec. 2652, in addition to taxes specified 
in Sec. 2651, by sub-Sec. 26, "the council in each city and village 
may levy taxes, annually, for waterworks, gas plants, electric lig^it- 
ing plants, telephone plants, street railways or any of them, owned, 
operated and controlled by any municipal corporation, when the 
proceeds derived from the operation of such works, plant or plants 
or such street railway are found to be insufficient to pay the ex- 
penses of operating and conducting the same, respectively, and the 
council of such municipal corporation may levy the taxes on each 
dollar valuation of all the taxable property listed for taxation in 
the corporation, both real and personal, to pay the amount found 
to be due on the operating expenses thereof after applying them 
to the proceeds of such works or plant or plants and street rail- 
ways." In Sec. 2683, "in determining the city's power to incur in- 
debtedness there shall not be included the ftjllowing classes of in- 
debtedness: Bonds issued for the purpose of erecting or purchasing 
waterworks and supplying water to any city and the inhabitants 
thereof, for the purpose of erecting or purchasing gasworks, or 
electric light works, for supplying light to the city and its inhabi- 
tants, or for the purpose of constructing, erecting or providing any 
public service which shall permanently produce a revenue to the 
city, owned and operated by the city." 

Here is a complete destruction of every barrier in existing law, 
placed there as the result of a bitter experience for the protection 
of property owners from the evils of excessive municipal indebted- 
ness and taxation. 

The theory upon wliich the Code Commission bases its proposed 
grant of powers is that public service industries are producers of 
revenue and therefore will provide for themselves. Would it not 
be wise in putting this theory into practice to provide that they 
shall do so, instead of destroying all inducement to hold them to 
a correct test by providing that taxpayers shall make good all 
failures to pay operating expenses, interest on bonds and provision 
for sinking fund? With a constituency taught to expect great re- 
ductions in prices for services as a result of municipal ownership 

and opcralioii, in which there is from ten to fifty voters who think 
they pay no taxes for every one who knows he does, how long will 
a city council be able lo protect taxpayers by holding prices suffi- 
ciently high ill pay all costs of ownership and operation and capital 
charges? Add to the deficit protlucing power of selling these serv- 
ices at less than cost, inefficient management by a committee of the 
council and the prospect for the taxpayers is truly appalling. 

When a city has issued its bonds for the purpose of a garbage 
jdanl, waterworks, gasworks, electric lighting works, street car 
and telephone systems, and is operating all of these industries with 
no check on the prices it shall charge for the services rendered, but 
with special power to levy taxes to make good all deficiencies to 
cover cost of operation, interest and sinking fund provisions, can 
anyone tell what property in that city will be worth? Clear-headed 
business men can regard with complacency the proposals on this 
subject contained in the reports of the National .Municipal League 
and the Ohio Municipal Code Commission only because they do 
not understand them. 

A danger that cannot well be overestimated is found in the grow- 
ing discontent with existing conditions. A mistake made now by 
adopting the proposals under consideration will do the municipali- 
ties of this country an injury from which they cannot recover in a 
generation. We have heard much about the crime of voting away 
the rights of unborn generations through granting long term fran- 
chises to corporations. What about the crime of placing a mort- 
gage on unborn generations to satisfy a theoretical demand for 
the municipal ownership and operation of all public service Indus- 
tries? The vitality of the crime, in cither case, is in the fact that 
such procedure is absolutely unnecessary to the attainment of the 
desired result, which is the best service at the lowest practicable 

The lowest practicable price under municipal ownership and op- 
eration is one that will provide ffir all costs of ownership and opera- 
tion and for a sinking fund to redeem the bonds issued on account 
of the industry. If a municipality having an absolute and perpetual 
monopoly, and the power to fix prices for the services it may render 
at any rate it pleases, cannot secure a sufficient revenue from the 
industry fully to pay all cost of ownership and operation and to 
provide for the redemption of the bonds issued for the purchase 
or construction of the works, it has no business to be in the 

Municipalities should be prohibited from placing a mortgage 
upon taxpayers' property, and from raising any money whatever 
by taxation for the purchase or construction and operation of any 
public service industry. They should be authorized to secure funds 
for such industries only by mortgaging the property and franchise, 
and a pledge of revenue sufficient fully to pay all costs of owner- 
ship and operation and to provide for the redemption of the bonds 
issued in behalf of the industry. 

With no possibility of competition, and absolute power to so fix 
prices that they will produce the revenue required, there is no 
necessary reason why any municipality cannot secure all the funds 
it may require for public service purposes on these conditions, and 
protect the property from foreclosure. If it cannot do this, that 
fact, or the fear of it, is sufficient reason why a municipality should 
not be given power to involve taxpayers in an inevitable disaster 
by mortgaging their property for such a purpose. 


In our issue of .\pr. 15, 1899, was published an account of a dar- 
ing burglary at Carbondale. Pa., six men entering the power house 
of the Carbondale Traction Co. early on the morning of March 27th 
and securing $75. The six men were pursued, one killed and four 
of the other five captured: S60 of the money was recovered. 

Indictments were returned against the prisoners, and they were 
put on trial in December and all were convicted. December pth 
they were each sentenced to 3 years and 10 months in the peniten- 
tiary and fined $500. which is the maximum penalty for burglary 
where the house entered is not a dwelling house. 

Mr. C. E. Flynn. superintendent of the Carbondale Traction Co.. 
has as a souvenir the revolver carried by one of the men. 

Mr. P. A. B. Widener has given $2,000,000 for a Home for Crip- 
pled Children in Philadelphia. 



[Vol. X. No. i. 


Extr.ict fruiii the presideniial address (if Prt>i. Silvaiius P. Thompson, before 
the Institution of Electrical Engineers ((ireat Britain . 

Passing from the generation of current to its untilization for 
electric traction, the most notable evolution now in progress is that 
of the application of electric power to heavy railways. The appli- 
cation to street railroads — in other words, to mere tramways — has 
been an accomplished fact for to years on the other side of the 
.Atlantic, where there are now thousands of miles of electric tram- 
ways, mostly operated from overhead lines from which the cur- 
rent is taken by a contact trolley wheel. If in this country the de- 
velopment of electric tramways has been slower, wc have at least 
the advantage that our cities are not disfigured by networks of 
overhead trolley lines. No such objections hold good for rural 
districts, and slowly but surely both the industrial and agricultural 
districts of England are being furnished with electric intercommu- 
nication with its many attendant advantages. It may come as a 
surprise to many who think England behindhand in this respect, 
when they learn that while the total subscribed capital invested in 
this country in 1899 for public electric supply is about £ 17,800,000. 
no less than .£20,800,000 is already invested in electric traction. Of 
the eflfect of the introduction of electric traction as a social and 
economic factor I have spoken elsewhere. There can be no ques- 
tion of the immense social benefit, particularly to the artisan 
population, afTorded by this means. But the electrical engineer is 
now engaged on the still greater problem of operating heavy rail- 
ways, and the development in this branch is being watched with 
keen interest. The two deep level railways in London, the City & 
South London Ry. and the Waterloo & City Ry.. both of which 
have amply justified their promoters, are shortly to be supple- 
mented by the Central London Electric Ry., an undertaking of 
nutch greater magnitude, while several other similar schemes arc 
either under construction or authorized. In the City & South 
London Ry., the rolling stock is designed for separate electric loco- 
motives, each drawing three passenger cars. The gage is 4 ft. S'/i 
in. On the Waterloo & City line the trains consist each of four 
cars, of which the two end ones are fitted with motors, four motors 
on each terminal car, so that the train can be driven by either set 
of four motors. Each train can carry 204 passengers. The gage 
is 4 ft. S'A in., but owing to the size of the tunnel, ordinary rail- 
way rolling stock could not be used. In the Central London line 
the gage is also 4 ft. Syi in. The locomotives, each with four gear- 
less motors, weigh 35 tons each. Each will draw a train of seven 
cars, with a seating capacity of 336 persons per train. The total 
length, including sidings and cross-over hues, exceeds eight miles 
of double track. 

In all three of these railways the current is taken from a third 
rail on the surface, and the return current is through the ordinary 
rails, which, for this purpose, are bonded with copper bonds. All 
these lines are operated by continuous currents at 400 to 500 volts. 
In the case of the Central London line, part of the feeding is ef- 
fected through rotary converters which receive three-phase cur- 
rents from step-down transformers. 

In sharp contrast to these three London undertakings is the 
Burgdorf-Thun railway in Switzerland, which was opened in July 
last. It is in every sense of the word a full-gage railway. Not only 
is its rolling stock full gage (the full gage of Switzerland is 4 ft. 
&V2 in.), but the railway admits of use by ordinary steam locomo- 
tives, drawing ordinary trains. The electric rolling stock is of 
two kinds — automobile cars carrying 66 passengers each, for use 
singly or in pairs, and locomotives of 300 h. p. each, for drawing 
trains of ordinary carriages or goods wagons. This railway is 
worked by alternating currents supplied in three phases, at 750 
volts, the feeding being effected through stationary transformers 
at 16,000 volts. The currents are taken from two overhead con- 
ducting wires, the rails serving as the third conductor. The length 
of line thus electrically equipped is 40 kilometers, or 26 miles. The 
arrangements were designed, and the electrical equipment con- 
structed, by Messrs. Brown, Boveri & Co., of Baden, who were 
the first to apply three-phase currents to traction. In the Lugano 
tramways as a commencement, then in the steep mountain light 
railways of Engelberg, of the Gornergrat, and lastly of the Jung- 
frau. they gained experience in this method, which now stands 
triumphantly demonstrated in its adaptability to the service of 

heavy lines. In the United States heavy railways have been, to a 
very limited extent, operated by electric locomotives. Some built 
for the Baltimore & Ohio R. R., weighing about 90 tons, are em- 
ployed to draw ordinary trains over a short line around part of the 
city of Baltimore. They work with continuous currents from over- 
head trolley lines. 

There can be little doubt, however, that to Switzerland rather 
than to .America we must look when desiring guidance as to the 
future development of this problem. All necessary data now exist 
for the exact working out of the necessary equipment of any given 
line, actual or projected. No experiments are needed to enable the 
constructor to proceed, so soon as it shall have been determined 
which kind of current is to be used. Already it has been found in 
the designing of the Central London line that continuous current 
methods, however suitable for light and short railways, and for 
tramways where frequent stoppages occur, fail when the current 
has to be supplied from a distance of several miles, alternating cur- 
rents being brought in because of their greater economy in trans- 
mission. The extraordinary thing is, that this having been so far 
grasped, the whole of the rest of the equipment was not designed 
to match with three-phase motors, instead of introducing the com- 
plication of rotary converters to work continuous current motors. 
Time alone can show how the mixed system adopted will work in 
practice. To me the choice of the mixed system appears of doubt- 
ful wisdom. Perhaps the distinguished engineers who are under- 
stood to be spending £30,000 on experiments for the Metropolitan 
Ry. to enable them to recommend the best system for our inner 
circle underground line will shortly be able to report whether a 
simple three-phase system throughout is, or is not, more economi- 
cal than either a continuous current system throughout or than a 
mixed system with converters. If they do not settle this question, 
which is today the one important question in electric railway work 
not yet settled, we must regard the expenditure as pure waste. 

Returning to the question of electric tramways, the problem n[ 
the hour is the equipment of busy city thoroughfares, where, for 
obvious reasons, overhead wires are inadmissible. To all the three 
possible methods that dispense with overhead construction, viz.. 
by accumulators carried on the car, by use of slot conduits in the 
road, and by use of surface contacts, objections are not wanting. 
Accumulators are found too heavy and too short-lived to be satis- 
factory. Conduit constructions are objected to as too costly, and 
as interfering too much with the roadway, while to surface con- 
tacts there is brought the terrible indictment — worse than any 
against the conduit — that nobody has had experience of them. You 
are aware that in this question of surface contact systems of tram- 
ways I am an interested party, and cannot be expected, even in a 
presidential address, to speak dispassionately. Yet you have never 
expected your president to banish from his inaugural address the 
topics to which he has devoted his thoughts, his energies, his time, 
or his resources. And with the e-xamples before me of other 
presidents who have spoken of their own work, I take the liberty 
of speaking of mine. A paper dealing with some aspects of surface 
contact working was read by me at the Bristol meeting of the 
British Association, and in January last you listened here to a 
paper on some other points by Mr. Miles Walker, my former as- 
sistant, and partner in this matter. We have, indeed, worked out 
several different sj'stems, of which the earlier only have yet been 
publicly described. We are at work on modified plans, the result 
of our experience gained on our short experimental line at Willes- 
den; and before long we expect to demonstrate the advances we 
have in hand. Meantime we are not alone in the field. Since the 
time when the late Dr. Hopkinson proposed his original plan, 
many others, including Mr. Wynne, Mr. Holroyd Smith, Mr. Es- 
mond, and Messrs. Johnson and Lundell, have suggested various 
new methods. Three years ago Dr. Hopkinson wrote of one of 
these methods that he "would not hesitate to approve its adoption 
in any town in which overhead conductors were inadmissible"; 
adding that he had "not the least doubt that it would work thor- 
oughly, effectively, and safely." A good deal has happened since 
then, and much experience has been gained. But there remains 
not only in London, but in many provincial cities, crowded thor- 
oughfares where overhead construction is absolutely out of the 
question, and where a slot-conduit would be almost equally objec- 
tionable. It is some years since Mr. J. Love equipped slot-conduit 
lines in Washington and Chicago. It is now most significant that 
in three great capitals — New York, Berlin, and Paris — the electric 

Jan. is, 1900.' 



Iraniways arc being largely cxteiuled willioiit overhead wires. New 
Yorlc and Berlin are putting down ,slot-conduils; New Yorl<, most 
expensively, as if the object were to put as much east iron as possi- 
ble into the roads; and the conduit at every 15 ft. is furnished with 
pairs of hand-holes, the covers of which interfere with the surface 
(luite as much as any surface cfMilact system, to say nothing of the 
interference of the central slot or of trouble about drainage. In 
Paris, on the other hand, where a tentative surface contact system 
has for about a couple of years been tried with moderate success, 
no fewer than 63 kilometers — about 48 miles — arc now being equip- 
ped by Mr. Diatto on his surface contact plan which has been 
in successful operation on a small scale at Tours. Surely, then, 
if a method of surface contact can be shown which is at once sim- 
ple, safe, and not too expensive, there is every reason to urge its 
adoption on engineers and municipal authorities. Thanks to the 
criticisms — some of them passed in this place — with res|)ect to pos- 
sible difficulties likely to arise from the use of underground coils, 
from mercury switches, and from surface leakage around the con- 
tact studs, improvements have been worked out which largely, if 
not wholly, remove the fears that have been expressed on these 
grounds. As contrasted with the conduit, a surface contact system 
has the advantages of much lower prime cost, of less interference 
with the roadway, and of not requiring any drainage arrangements. 
On long lines that run out into the country it can be operated 
with the same cars that carry trolley poles for use in the suburban 
part of the track. Those cities and towns which, like London, 
Birmingham, and Cambridge, have waited before erecting over- 
head lines, will have justified their waiting attitude when they can 
point to examples of the successful surface contact roads at 
IVIonaco, at Tours, and, lastly, at Paris. 



The Detroit Citizens' Street Railway Co. has recently found it 
necessary to discharge a number of its conductors for care- 
lessness in handling fares. Such cases are tried before a board 
of arbitrators. Dcccm"bcr 18th the cases of 13 conductors were in- 
vestigated by the board and the findings were all against the men. 

Mr. Dohany. representing the union on the board, said con- 
cerning the verdict: 

"This result must teach the public one lesson at least, and that is 
when they escape from paying their fares they are not only beat- 
ing a 'corporation' but they are robbing innocent conductors of 
the opportunity of earning for themselves and families a liveli- 
hood. Let those passengers feel that they are largely the ones who 
have brought this pitiable condition upon these unfortunate men 

* ' » 


As noted in the "Review" for December 15th, page 825, the 
Cleveland & Chagrin Falls Electric R. R., has succeeded in proving 
in court its full right to carry heavy freight. We are in receipt of a 
letter from Mr. R. L. Palmer, general manager of the road, stating 
that his company is now hauling stone regularly from quarries 
about eight miles from the city, using for this service special lo-ton 
flat cars, 16 ft. in length and having about one-half the capacity of 
an ordinary steam freight car. This freight service is carried on at 
night between the closing of the passenger traffic and the starting 
up of the same in the morning, although it is believed it could be 
sandwiched in between the regular cars if necessary. The company 
has been getting $5 per car for hauling stone. 

$25,000 REWARD. 

Under date of Dec. 22, 1899, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. 
published an advertisement offering $25,000 reward for information 
furnished to the company's counsel, Sheehan & Collin. 32 Nassau 
St., New York, which will lead to the discovery and conviction of 
any of the persons who have circulated false statements or rumors 
concerning the company, with intent to affect the stock market. 

The Brooklyn Rapid Transit stock suffered severely in the slump 
of last month, and the company's officers believe it was largely due 
to libelous statements and rumors. 

In June last Mr. (jcorge A. Kicker, chief engineer of the Niagara 
George Railroad Co. (formerly the Niagara l-'alls & Lcwiston Kail- Co.; read a paper before the Engineers Club, of i'hilailelphia. 
on the building of this road, in which arc presented interesting 
facts connected with the enterprise not heretofore generally known. 

Benjamin Eenton and Ensign Bennett first proposed to build a 
steam railroad, with a gage of 30 in., from Prospect Park to the 
Whirlpool, and the Niagara Falls & Whirlpool Co. was organized. 
The com|)any failed in its efforts to purchase a right of way and 
on instituting condemnation proceedings the courts held that it 
did not meet the requirements of the railroad law so as to en- 
title it to exercise the right of eminent domain. 

In 1889, Capt. J. M. Brinker, of Buffalo, organized the Niagara 
Falls & Lcwiston Railroad Co., which purchased the stock of the 
old company. It decided to build a double track standard gage 
road to connect with the electric and steam railroads entering 
Niagara Falls and with the ferry at Lcwiston. A survey was com- 
pleted in September, 1890, and the right of way bought, the com- 
pany securing the fee of the land. 

Mr. Schoellkopf, of the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power & Man- 
ufacturing Co., opposed the plan to carry the road along the bank 
in front of his mills, but was defeated in the courts. He then sug- 
gested carrying the line up the high bank into the town, which 
plan was adopted and the location in front of the mills aban- 

The right of way was very expensive; the total cost is not given, 
but $1 19.000 was paid for Buttery Elevator and $90,000 for the Van 
Horn and Grand View Elevators. 

Mr. Ricker describes the construction of the road as follows: 

"In order that we may better understand the actual operation of 
building, I will refer briefly to the geology of the Gorge. For 
our purpose the Gorge may be best considered as made up ot 
three distinct sections; the upper or newly made channel excavated 
by the constantly receding falls; the middle or original channel, 
which is of preglacial origin, and the lower or postglacial channel. 
The characteristics of the typical cross sections of these three 
channels are widely different. The preglacial section is of least 
width, and has nearly vertical walls extending almost to the water 
on the .American side. The postglacial section is wider and has 
vertical walls to about one-third the depth of the Gorge, and 
steps down to the water which are covered with debris that has 
accumulated by regular contribution from the exposed walls above. 
The new system, which extends southerly from the railroad 
bridges, is much wider than the preglacial channel and has slopes 
01 tali reaching nearly to the tops of the cliffs. This debris is much 
deeper than that restinij on the steps of the lower channel, and no 
excavation has as yet been made of sufficient depth to disclose 
the steps. 

"The river is now flowing through the Medina sandstone, which 
underlies all western New York. The railroad at frequent inter- 
vals passes through sections of sandstone, and practically all the 
rock excavation was made in the quartzose belt of this stratum. 
Above the sandstone lies the Clinton limestone, over the Niagara 
shale, and at the top of the cliff, the Niagara limestone. While 
the railroad follows the irregular line of the foot of the talus 
from the whirlpool to Lcwiston. the directions of the entire chan- 
nel form, roughly speaking, four tagents. The new channel is about 
two miles long and extends, approximately, northeasterly from 
the present fall to the railroad bridges. The preglacial channel 
is about one mile in length from the bridges northwesterly to 
the Whirlpool. The waters leave the Whirlpool in a direction 
nearly at right angles to that at which they enter, and continue 
northeasterly to the Devil's Hole, a distance of about two miles, 
and from Devil's Hole to Lewiston, about two miles more, running 
almost due north. The continuation of the preglacial channel. 
known as St. David's, lies directly to the northward in the ex- 
tension of the line of the Whirlpool Rapids, and is plainly marked, 
but is nearly filled with glacial drift. 

"About the ist of April. 1893. an agreement was entered into 
with Messrs. Crage & Tench, contractors of Buffalo, to build the 
Gorge railroad, in which the contractors were to secure the men, 
furnish all necessary tools, and their ser»'ices for 10 per cent of the 
force account. After five tedious years of waiting the company 
suddenly decided to proceed with construction, and I received a 



[Vol. X, No. i. 

telephone message from President Brinker to the effect that "the 
graders would be at Lewiston to start work tomorrow morning," 
and asking me to be on hand to give necessary directions. Con- 
struction was begun at Lewiston on April nth, and a few weeks 
later at several points along the line between Lewiston and the But- 
tery Elevator. Beyond a profile, which it was afterward found im- 
practicable to follow, no plans were made as the result of the 
original survey. 

"I am now confronted with a task more difficult than that of 
Iniilding the railroad — how to tell you in engineering terms of tlu' 
construction of this road that was built in a most unscientific 
manner. My orders were to put a railroad in this unpromising 
place, and I proceeded forthwith to obey. Before stakes were set 
a path was graded, following, as nearly as possible, a few feet above 
the proposed grade-line, and gangs of laborers were placed at fre- 
quent intervals. No reliance could be put upon any slope made 
outside of the natural slope. Had classification been attempted, 
but two kinds of material would have been named: loose and 
solid rock, as the talus is made up of large and small stones with 
not sufficient earth to fill the interstices, and with no cementing 
material, although the roots of dense vegetation tend to hold it 
in place and maintain a much stronger slope than would other- 
wise be possible. The deep channel of the river afforded the 
very best place for wasting the material excavated and work pro- 
ceeded rapidly. From 600 to 1,000 men were employed, and the 
first five miles to Buttery Elevator roughly completed, and one 
track laid, and the first train entered this temporary southern 
terminus August 2Sth. On the inner side of the road-bed such a 
slope was formed as would stand for the time being, which, of 
course, meant that the heavy rains and the frost in the coming 
spring would bring down large quantities of material left on the 
steps above. Cross-overs were placed at such points as seemed 
to threaten most, and from time to time, as slide occurred, the road 
was operated with single track in that section, and large numbers 
of men quickly removed the encroaching talus. Several slides 
took place in the early spring of 1896 and again in the spring of 
1897. The quantities decreased each year. .\ view of the slide of 
this spring, at the same point where occurred the greatest en- 
croachment in '96 and '97, shows how surely the slopes are being 
reduced to an angle of repose and are taking on the appearance of 
stability. New vegetation adds greatly to their permanence and 
more agreeable appearance. 

"Coming out of Lewiston at the south line of the village is a 
timber trestle 104 ft. in ler.gth and 42 ft. high, crossing a small 
stream flowing into the river from the foot of the Lewiston escarp- 
ment. A little further up the line is a timber trestle carrying the 
tracks over a deep gully formed by another lateral stream, into 
which for many years the New York Central R. R. has wasted its 
surplus earth and rock. It was my intention to use 8o-ft. girders 
at this point, but owing to the crowded condition of the bridge 
shops, delivery could not be secured in several months, and as 
the company was extremely anxious to open the road to catch the 
summer traffic, installation of the permanent structure was de- 
ferred. In the expectation that a large amount of water would 
filler through the talus, a great many open culverts were put in, but 
four years' experience has proved that the danger from this cause 
was overestimated. These culverts, to be effective, should be mov- 
able, as a boulder or other obstacle falling in the path of a stream 
high up on the talus will often divert the stream many feet from 
its former bed, and leave the culvert high and dry. The track is 
ballasted with rock borrowed from the talus over most of the 
line. The ties sre of cedar, except on steep grades, where oak was 
used, and the rails, rolled by the Carnegie Steel Co., weigh 60 lb. 
to the yard. No attempt was made at mathematical alinement, as 
the roadbed followed the irregular outline of the natural slope. 

"Construction from the Buttery Elevator to the city of Niagara 
Falls was much more diHicult than upon the lower five miles of the 
road. South of the elevator began almost vertical cliffs, extend- 
ing from the top of the escarpment to the rspids below and con- 
tinuing for a distance of about one-half of a mile to the Railroad 
Suspension Bridge. Drills and men were lowered over the cliff 
to the first ledge, about 100 feet above the grade line, and blasting 
operations carried on mostly by hand, as it was difficult to get 
steam drills into position. The blasts were fired usually at noon, 
and huge quantities of rock were thrown into the river, disappear- 
ing beneath the tumbling waters of the rapids below, without ap- 
pearing in any way to obstruct the stream or to change in the 

slightest degree the form of the waves. The vertical cuttings 
averaged nearly 100 ft., and, estimated roughly, fully 100,000 cu. yd. 
of rock were thrown into the river from this section. 

"At the site of the Van Horn Elevator a deep recess in the 
cliff formed a bay across which an attempt was made to con- 
struct a roadbed in the swift current of the rapids. This experi- 
ment I believed would be futile, as a powerful stream of water was 
constantly discharged upon the embankment, diverted from the 
main current by a high boulder of Niagara limestone resting 
in tlie channel about 50 ft. from the cliff. It was evident that this 
bay had been excavated by the same powerful hydraulic agency, 
and it was useless to attempt to place in its way any structure less 
substantial than the cliff which it had cut out. During a period 
of extreme high water in the spring of 1897, when the river rose 
19 ft. above its ordinary level, most of this embankment was 









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washed away. In its place rough, but heavy, longitudinal walls 
were built to resist the encroachment of the current; spaces between 
the walls were refilled with stone and a stout timber trestle built 
to carry the tracks. In the spring of 1898 this structure was 
swept away, after which the company determined to do what it 
might have profitably done at first, and the old elevator-shaft 
was removed, (he cliff blasted away, and a shelf made of sufficient 
width for a single track. Three timber cribs, each about 60 ft. in 
length, protect the roadbed at critical points above this bay. 

"Beneath the railroad bridges a combination of difficulties was 
met. A small water-wheel under the Suspension Bridge, which 
furnished power for a flour-mill at the top of the bank, was rear- 
ranged to permit building the roadbed, the transmitting cable 
raised, and a portion of the tailrace changed and a retaining wall 
built to hold the embankment. Near this point is an inclined rail- 
way, the floor of which, resting directly over the center line, was 
raised vertically about 15 ft. Between the incline and the cantilever 
bridge heavy walls were put in to hold back the loose rock on the 
inner side of the track, and retaining walls built on the outer side 
to prevent encroachment upon the head race. 

Jan. 15. 1000. 1 



"Permission was oblaincd tioiii the Michigan Central Kailroad 
to build abutments on botli sides of the cantilever briil^e iiiers and 
a central pier in front of and between their piers. The underlying 
material at this point is composed of very large boulders, upon 
which rest the foundations of the cantilever bridge, between which 
and the deep waters of the river there were but 13 ft. in which 
to pass. To prevent possible danger to the bridge foundations, 
blasting was prohibited within 100 ft. on the south side and 50 ft. 
on the north. No soundings could be oblaincd on account of the 
swiftness and great depth of the curreiU. Within this limited 
area, hedged about by restrictions, construction was made doubly 

"From the bridges to the top of the higli cliff, a distance of 
nearly a mile, the tracks arc laid on a slowly ascending grade up 
the talus for about 3,500 ft.; thence entering the cliflf and passing 
through a thorough cut 60 ft. deep at the lower section, rising con- 
tinually until the top of the bank is reached. The average gradient 
is 4.7, the inaxiiuum 6.4 per cent, and the total elevation overcome, 
from the bridges to the top, is just 200 ft. Passing beneath the 
New York Central tracks, the line swings sharply to the right and, 
paralleling the Central for a few hundred feet, reaches Second St. 
in Niagara Falls. At the southern end of Second St. connection is 
made with the Niagara Falls Street Ry. and thence over the tracks 
of the latter company to Prospect Park. The under-crossing of 
the Central is made at an angle of 55"; the bridge is of trough- 
girder type and carries at present five tracks. 

"I think you will grant that it was not practicable to make de- 
tailed plans for construction of this peculiar road. It was not 
possible to detGrminc, with evci approximate accuracy, how the 
unseen conditions might alter proposed methods. I cannot say that 
any very serious engineering difficulties were met with, and I 
think there arc no problems to be solved that will not be success- 
fully met. The same vigor and energy which characterized the at- 
tack upon the ground were exhibited later in the eflfort to put the 
road in operation, and as gangs of men and construction tools 
would have been unsightly, work was suspended as suddenly as 
it was begun. You will recall the fact that wooden trestles and 
bridges had been put in place because the company was not willing 
to wait for permanent structures. The work was, therefore, left 
unfinished, but I was su.stained by the vain hope that in the coming 
spring I should be permitted to scale down the slopes and replace 
the temporary structures. 

"When 1896 arrived all our efforts were concentrated upon con- 
struction above the Buttery Elevator, and this section, too, when 
nearly completed, was given over to operation in much the same 
incomplete form as was the lower. It was expected that im- 
mediate earnings would be so great that a goodly portion of them 
could be applied to completion of the work, but receipts proved 
disappointing, and all further work was suspended, excepting such 
as was necessary to clear the track of slides and to provide for 
maintenance. As the outcome of business complications the own- 
ers of the road were obliged to relinquish it a few months ago, 
and it passed into the hands of a receiver. Reorganization of the 
company is now being undertaken, and I am engaged in making 
the necessary repairs, which amount to a reconstruction of the road, 
as considerable damage had been sustained by the track from 
slides and by the roadbed from the action of the river. 

"A fall of rock that occurred some weeks ago (March) — accounts 
of which have appeared in the technical journals and in the daily 
papers, and called an avalanche — was greatly exaggerated. Before 
the road passed into the hands of the receiver I had recommended 
that some of the overhanging Niagara limestone just above the 
Buttery Elevator be removed by blasting, as it seemed to be in- 
secure. The railroad was shut down; all people were warned not 
to walk upon the tracks, as it was intended before beginning op- 
erations to remove all overhanging rock which appeared to be 
dangerous. By reason of some blasting that was going on near by, 
within 100 ft. of the point in question, where the city was excavat- 
ing for a sewer, two large pieces of limestone were dislodged, fall- 
ing between the tracks and the clifif without doing damage. A 
few days later our superintendent blasted and threw off into the 
river the large boulders, which now rest in the margin of the rapids 
just outside of the tracks. A considerable amount of loose mate- 
rial, of course, fell with the boulders and covered the road for a dis- 
tance of about two hundred feet, a depth of from three to five feet. 
This was easily removed, and when taken away it was found that the 
rails were cut in several places, but that no great damage had 

been done, except to the lower portion o( the shaft o( the elevator, 
the casting of which had been carried away. Where these large 
rocks now stand in the river some difficulty had previously been 
found in maintaining the embankment, owing to the heavy cur- 
rent thrown against it, and a retaining wall about 400 ft. long had 
been resorted to for protection. With great good fortune these 
large rocks now stand directly in the way of the heaviest attack 
of this current, and the retaining wall is no longer necessary. In 
general it may be said in regard to falling rock that it comes 
down only in the early spring months, when, under the new man- 
agement, it is not intended to operate the railroad. 

"Since the opening of the road in 1895 to the present time no 
passenger or employee has ever received injury from falling rock. 
I was daily over the road during the construction, and have since 
been frequently from the Falls to Lewiston and return, both 
on cars and on foot, and have never seen a rock fall. It is my 
opinion that, with due care, the maintenance of this railroad need 
not be excessively expensive, and that the same safety of operation 
can be obtained as is secured on any mountain road." 

The "Review" has at different times published illu£trations 
showing scenes of this road and particular reference may be made 
to the issues of August, 1896, page 47K, an<l October, 1897. pa»<e 651. 


The first electric railway in Cuba is now building from Rcgia, 
on the bay opposite Havana, to Guanabacoa. a distance of five 
miles, and the first shipment of cars for it was made a few weeks 
ago by the J. G. Brill Co. The cars are of the type shown in the 
illustration. The body is a slight modification of one of the standard 
American types that has been successfully used between Buffalo 
and Niagara Falls. The body is 28 ft. long with two 4-ft. platforms, 
making the length over the vestibules 36 ft.; the width at the 
sills is 7 ft. S in., and at the belt rails 8 ft. The inside finish is ash 
and cherry with three-ply brick veneer ceiling. The seating capac- 
ity is 40, 10 double cane seats being placed on either side of a cen- 
ter aisle. 

liKlLI. >- .\K HlK criiA. 

The car is mounted on "Eureka" maximum traction trucks, with 
33-in wheels; the wheels have 2'/^ in. treads and Jj-in. flanges. 
The gage is 4 ft. 8'/2 in. .\mong the details may be noted Brill fold- 
ing gates, Brill patent angle iron bumpers, Hovey-Brill radial 
draw bars, a pair of Brill sand boxes, two Dedenda gongs, one on 
each platform, and inside each car at diagonally opposite comers, 
under the corner seats, are good sized tool boxes. These cars 
are built complete as shown in the engraving, and then knocked 
down so as to pack in the smallest possible space. The motors for 
these cars are two Westinghouse No. 38 B. This equipment, 
mounted upon the maximum-traction trucks, will enable the cars 
to be run at a very high rate of speed with safety. At the same 
time the platforms are carried so low as to make access to them 
quite easy. 

» > » 

The suit of the Birmingham Traction Co., of Pittsburg, against 
H. Sellers McKec and others, for an accounting, which came to 
trial last month, was discontinued. No details of the compromise 
are made public. 

The Woman's Club, of Chicago, recommended that persons using 
the street cars on December 23d remember the season and give the 
conductor 6 cents instead of the regular fare, but this plan for 
Christmas gifts was not a success. 



[Vol. X, No. i. 


BY J. K. CR.\V.\TH. 

In view of all that has been written in the past few years 
about the saving- possible by proper handling of the con- 
troller and the way for motormen to operate cars with the 
maximum economy, this article may seem out of jilace. It 
is nevertheless true than many of the articles written have 
not come under the notice of practical railway operators, 
while some were too technical in their nature to be in most 
helpful form for the busy street railway man. It has come 
to my notice that many popular misconceptions exist as to 
how current is usually wasted in operating cars and it is 
the purpose of this article to correct some of these if possi- 
ble, and also to make some practical suggestions as to the 
instructions that should be given motormen where the man- 
agement of a road has a desire to effect a "saving at the 

Saving at the controller, to accomplish any extensive re- 
sult, involves a saving by the majority of motormer on 
the road. For this reason many managers have been in- 
clined to make all their attempts at economy in other direc- 
tions, and let the motormen go on operating cars in the old 
way, rather than try to effect any economy by a reform in 
method of handling cars, because the latter attempt involves 
the reforming of a number of men, and hence involves ques- 
tions of discipline and niangement of men. Many superin- 
tendents are loath to undertake this, even with the demon- 
strated fact before them that 20 to 40 per cent saving in 
power may result from properly directed efforts to make 
men save power at the front platform. When more eco- 
nomical power house machinery is put in or money is in- 
vested in copper to reduce line losses the management feels 
that it has a "lead pipe cinch" on the saving that results, 
while if the saving depends on a lot of motormen the man- 
agement naturally has a feeling that its executive labor will 
be somewhat increased by the constant watchfulness neces- 
sary to produce economics where the results are dependent 
on the actions of so many men. The writer has always 
felt that questions of this kind, like most others around 
a street railway system, should be looked at purely from a 
dollars and cents point of view. The clerk hire necessary 
with any system of motormen's records so far put in opera- 
tion effecting a saving of power by motormen is so very 
small that it is hardly to be considered at the side of the sav- 
ing made. The main question, then, remaining is as to 
whether the time of the manager or of some competent 
member of his staff is so immensely valuable as to make the 
few minutes spent daily on this matter more than offset a 
saving of 20 to 40 per cent in power. However, a discus- 
sion of whether it is advisable or feasible to try to make 
motormen economize in power is somewhat aside from the 
main purpose of this article. The main questions to be taken 
up are the technical ones as to how power can be saved 
or wasted at the controller. The business question as to 
whether attempts to save power in this way pay (provided 
such attempts are properly directed) has been already settled 
by practical demonstrations, which amount to more than 
anyone's theory to the contrary. 

In the first place it must be kept closely in mind that any 
real saving in power by proper controller handling must be 
made without interfering with the schedule. The faster the 
schedule the more power required to maintain it per car- 

mile. It is not, therefore, fair to consider the question of 
controller economy, except with the assumption that the 
schedule is the same "before and after taking." In city 
street railway practice the greater part of the energy re- 
quired by a car is used in getting the car up to speed or ac- 
celerating after each stop. At least 75 per cent of the en- 
ergy used per car-mile is so consumed, the remainder being 
used to keep the car in motion after it has been brought up 
to speed. The greater part of the energy is, therefore, 
stored up in the car, getting it up to speed. Part of this en- 
ergy must be destroyed or wasted by the brakes as soon as 
the car has to slow down. Part of it may be utilized to pro- 
pel the car by motormen by drifting with the current off. 
The proportion that is used or wasted rests with the motor- 
man. The economy with which a man handles a car de- 
pends mainly on two things, namely, on the way he gets his 
car up to speed and on the way he utilizes the momentum of 
the car to propel it after it is up to speed. In order to make 
this plain in a practical way, suppose we take an imaginary 
trip over the road with two motormen, one of whom is mak- 
ing an effort to operate his car as economically as possible 
as regards power and repairs consistently with maintaining 
schedule time, and the other of whom, being an average 
man, aims simply to get over the road on time, without 
regard to power or repairs. The difference between these 
men in the way they handle their cars is so marked to an 
experienced man that there is no wonder to him that there 
is a difference of 20 to 40 per cent between them in power 
used, to say nothing of repairs. The difference begins to show 
itself even before they are fairly away from the barn. The 
uneconomical man (we will call him A for convenience) 
after leaving the barn has a switch a few feet ahead before 
running onto the main line. Although he has such a short 
distance to run and is not behind or greatly pressed for time 
he throws the controller around to the top notch and al- 
most before he has time to get it there has to jam the brakes 
on hard, to avoid taking the switch too fast. The econom- 
ical man (we will call him B) would have not run his car up 
to more than quarter the sjjeed that A did, and would have 
been therefore able to drift easily over the switch without 
using the brakes at all, so saving all the energy that A had 
to waste at the brake shoes. When A reaches the switch 
the probability is that he has applied the brakes so hard and 
carelessly that he has to use current again to get over the 
switch instead of drifting over as B would, so some more 
wasted energy is to be charged up against A. Once out on 
the street and under full speed A sees a team ahead on the 
track, which he knows very well he will overtake before it 
gets off the track. Nevertheless he keeps current full on 
until the last minute, and then turns off power and jams on 
brakes as hard as he can. Now this may furnish some ex- 
citement and amusement for the motorman and those on 
the front platform, but it increases the liability to accident 
and wastes a lot of energy which our friend B would have 
saved by shutting off the current some distance back from 
the wagon and letting the momentum carry him along until 
the wagon is reached. By that time perhaps the wagon 
will have had time to clear the track and in any case B has 
made as good time as A, and has not wasted nearly as 
much of his own or the company's energy in the brakes. 
Then, too, it may often happen that by giving the team a 
little more time it will get out of the way before the car 
reaches it, so that instead of having to start the car up 
from almost a standstill, as A does, B only has to reduce his 

Jan. is, 1900.] 



speed to five or six miles an hour, so that B gains both in 
powci and in time in getting the car under way after pass- 
ing tiie wagon. 

Going on a httlc farther A begins to pick up passengers, 
lie invariably i<ecps tlic power on until the iasl niinute be- 
fore applying the brakes, and Ihcn applies lluin hard, but 
usually makes up for the small lime he gains in this way 
by making a long drawn out stop after he has first checked 
the speed of the car. B, on the other hand, hardly ever 
keeps the current on after the car is brought up to speed, 
but mdess there is a considerable distance to be run without 
a stop, shuts off power and drifts with current ofif. He has 
cultivated good judgment of stopping distances and makes 
"prompt" stops. That is he lets the car drift until a compar- 
atively short distance from a stopping place, and then ap- 
plies the brakes moderately hard. He does not apply them 
very hard and then be obliged to release and drift along at 
slow speed for a considerable distance before making the 
final stop, as A would do. B realizes that the less be has 
to use the brakes the easier time he will have physically, 
and the easier he will be on the company's coal pile, while 
A gives it no thought. 

And now a few notes as to the way tiiese two men start 
their cars ; a subject upon which there is perhaps more mis- 
understanding than any other connected with electric car 
operation. A good many who read this article may think 
that B, being an economical man, starts his car with a slow 
"tar in January" advancement of the controller handle from 
point to point, waiting several seconds on each notch. Such 
is far from the case. Such a method is wasteful in time, for 
obvious reasons, and wasteful in current because with such 
slow starts drifting can not be practiced and maintain 
schedule time, and higher momentum speeds are necessary 
to maintain the schedule. The start should be a "prompt" 
one, that no time may be wasted, just as the stop should 
be prompt for the same reason. With prompt stops and 
starts more drifting with current off after speed is attained 
can be indulged in and moreover the motors are worked by 
this method for short periods at heavy load and consequent- 
ly high efificiency, instead of being worked a greater per 
centage of the time at lighter loads and a poorer efificiency, 
as is the case when the starts are slow and the current has to 
be kept on much of the time after maxiinum speed is at- 
tained, at which time they work very inefificiently, as they 
are working on the very light load of overcoming car fric- 
tion only. However, when we look at A when he starts his 
car we find that the word "prompt" is entirely too slow to 
define the way he moves his controller handle ahead. He 
is around to the top notch in an incredibly short space of 
time. The wheels slip and power wdiich should go into ac- 
celeration heats the car wheels instead. The economy of 
series-parallel control becomes a myth, because he does not 
stop long enough on the series points to get any benefit 
from them. The field shunts are cut in so soon that the 
motors have to do much of their acceleration on a weak, 
inefificient field, and the motors are unduly heated and 
strained. Prompt acceleration is a good thing, but when it 
is run into the ground, as it commonly is on large city 
systems, it is quite another matter. It would be a good 
thing if the rate of acceleration could be regulated auto- 
matically and taken out of the motorman's hands entirely, 
for there is a happy medium which is neither too fast nor too 
slow, which might better be left to an automatic device than 
to the caprice of a motorman. no matter how conscientious 
that motorman may be. 

To sum up the economical motorman differs from the 
wasteful one in the following respects : 

He utilizes the momentum of his car to get him over the 
road as far as practicable by drifting with current off. 

He never wastes energy by running his car up to a high 
speed when a slower (jnc would do just as well. 

He uses the brakes as little as possible, but when he does 
use them he does not do it in a dilatory way or make long 
drawn out, time consuming stops (I do not reler to the time 
the car is at a standstill), but brings the car speed down 

He is neither dilatory or too rapid in advancing the con- 
troller, but turns from notch to notch promptly, which in 
the case of most light cars in crowded city service means 
about one second to each notch. 

He always remembers that having once made a proper 
start the greater per cent of the time he can keep current 
out of the motors and still maintain scherlule time the better. 


I}y the courtesy of Mr. C. L. Harry, general manager of the 
Knkomo (Ind.) Railway & Light Co., we have been advised of the 
result of a suit for damages recently decided in favor of the com- 
pany. The facts are as follows: 

Mrs. Jessie K. Jackson, of Kokonio. claimed to have been in- 
jured Mar. 29, 1898, and sued for $[0,ooo damages. She alleged that 
because of the shock received when the front wheels left the track 
she was permanently injured internally so that a delicate surgical 
operation was necessary. The case was hotly contested and the 
verdict was for the defendant company, which established at the 
trial that the plaintifT had prior to the injury suffered from the 
same disease, which was claimed was produced by the injury, and 
also that while the track of the railway company was in bad condi- 
tion at certain other points, and certain cars not in first class or- 
der, that the track at the point of the accident was in good condi- 
tion, and that the injury was not caused by reason of the bad con- 
dition of the track or the car; and further, that the company had 
exercised the highest degree of practical care in maintaining and 
operating its railway system. The case was one of great impor- 
tance, as the husband of the plaintiff also had a $5,000 suit pend- 
ing against the company for medical ser\'ices and the loss of service 
of his wife. The verdict is one of great value to the company, as 
it tends to discourage litigation against the company on account 
of alleged pergonal injuries. 


.\t the annual meeting, held in December, of the Consolidated 
Traction Relief Association, the employes' association of the Con- 
solidated Traction Co., of Pittsburg, the treasurer's report showed 
the follriwing details: 

Balance in bank, Dec. 14. 1898, $1,438.84; receipts from all 
sources for year ending Dec. 12. 1899. $10,083.31; total funds, $11,- 
523.15; paid out in death benefits. $1,200; on sick benefits. S7.404; 
other expenses, $471.30: balance in bank Dec. 12. 1899. $2,447.85. 
Secretary William G. Gish reported 122 members admitted during 
the year; total, 635. Four members died; 120 resigned after leaving 
the service of the company. The present membership is 511. 
Forty-one applicants were rejected. 

C. L. Magee was elected president. 

The Columbus (O.) Street Railway Co.. in accordance with its 
custom, last month issued new uniforms to 63 employes who have 
been in the ser\ice more than five years. All the men received 
Christmas turkeys with the compliments of the company. 

A temporary injunction has been issued to restrain the United 
Railways & Electric Co.. of Baltimore, from discontinuing an 
old line between Mt. Washington and Pikesville. The suit was 
brought by an owner of abutting property. 



An interesting legal point is involved in a suit now pending be- 
tween the city of Hartford, Conn., and the Hartford Street Rail- 
way Co. One of the streets occupied by the company's tracks was 
widened and the company was assessed for benefits to the amount 
of $.?,ioo. The assessment was based on the alleged fact that the 
ties and rails of the company would be much benefited by such 
action. .Mso that the liability for accident would be much de- 
creased; that if the railroad should put in double tracks, as it would 
be then able to. it would be a great convenience; it would be able 
to carry more passengers and its tracks would be much loss liable 
to obstruction than formerly. 

An appeal was taken and the matter was left to a committee con- 
sisting of Judge Loomis, of Hartford. After a hearing the assess- 

The International Traction Co., of Buffalo, has adopted as 
its standards for track construction with Q-in. rails the two types 
shown in the accompanying illustrations. That shown in Figs. I 
and 2 is called the "trench" construction, and is used in all streets 
having common stone paving between the tracks, and either as- 
phalt or conmion stone on the sides. The second type. Figs. 3 
and 4, is called the smooth excavation construction, and is used 
where first-class block paving is between the rails and in tlie devil 
strip. The rails are 94-lb. 9-in. semi-grooved girders. 

For this type two longitudinal trenches 17 in. deep and the 
width of a shovel at the bottom were dug out at a distance of 4 ft. 


']• ■'■ ' ;• f' rt »,^^-' ,;>' 

Hoff Section at Tte Ho/^ Secfion bettveen Tlfs. 


mcnt was cut to $1,550 on the physical property of the company 
in the street, and a pecuniary benefit was found, but the question 
of whether the latter is a special benefit on which the company 
can be assessed, was reserved. 

This decission of Judge Loomis, acting as a committee, was 
reversed by Judge Case, in the Court of Common Pleas, the court 
holding that the benefit because the widened street would lessen 
the company's liabilities to accident is purely speculative and 
its cash value cannot be assessed. Without considering the other 
elements of benefit the assessment was set aside and judgment 
for the cimipany to recover its costs was entered. 

The company would willingly pay the assessment as a donation, 
but objects to making a precedent. 

g in. between centers. Afterwards, cross trenches S ft. c. to c. were 
cut out; half of these were 20 in. deep below grade, and the alter- 
nate ones 17 in. below grade. The ties, of hard oak 5 x 7 in. x 7 ft., 
were then put in the cross trenches and the rails laid upon them, 
spiked and gaged, and held together by the regular 9-in. plates 
secured by only two bolts. The track was then surfaced, and the 
ties in the shallow cross trenches tamped up with dry stone, each 
joint tie being blocked up; after this the track was alined. 

The concrete gang, comprising 25 men to a board, then filled 
in the trenches under the rail and ties as shown in Figs, i and 2, 
and the concrete was allowed to set for 72 hours, after which the 
plates were taken off and the joints welded. The old sand between 
the ties which had been disturbed in ripping up the old track was 


Cane^e^r famprff 




A number of suits have recently been instituted by the attorney 
general of Ohio against interurban electric lines in that state. The 
attorney general brings the suits because the state is nominally the 
plaintilT, but the parties really interested are the steam railroads. 

December 12th, the first of these suits was decided in favor of 
the electric interurban; it was sought to enjoin the commissioners 
of Sandusky County from giving the Toledo, Fremont & Norwalk 
Electric Ry. a right of way over one of the state roads, but the 
supreme court dismissed the petition. 

On the same day a suit was begun against the Dayton & Xenia 
Traction Co., alleging that the company has no charter rights to 
carry freight and baggage through city streets. 

Other cases pending are against the Dayton Traction Co. and 
the Cincinnati & INliami Valley Traction Co. 

The extensions to the'Escanaba (Mich.^ Electric Street Ry. were 
completed in December, and a four-train service to the "Soo" 
put on. 

next dug out and pounded with heavy sand pounders, as a paving 
base for the common stone. 

If the paving on the outside of the track was asphalt, toothing 
stones were set next the rails, long and short stones being placed 
alternately, in a gravel mortar, which was made of one part com- 
mon cement and two parts gravel. The space between the tooth- 
ing and the old concrete was then filled in with concrete for paving 
base and then sheeted. 


In first-class block construction, a trench was dug 7 ft. 8 in. wide 
and 15 in. deep, then cross trenches spaced at 10 ft. c. to c. were 
dug 5 in. deeper for the concreted ties, and the rails were spiked, 
gaged, surfaced and alined as before. The trench was then filled 
in solid with concrete, not only affording support to the track, but 
acting as a paving base. A cushion of about four inches of gravel 
was then laid on a concrete base, and a first-class paving was 
laid. This was grouted with a mixture of one part Lehigh cement 
and two parts sand. K special device was designed for handling this 
part of the work in the shape of a small grouting box on wheels, 

Jan. 15, IQOO.I 



and it was found thai it decreased llie cost of Krouting at least 
onc-Iialf. This is shown in Figs. 3 and 4. 


The organization of the conslniclion force was as follows: There 
were five distinct departments or divisions, namely, track gang, 
concrete gang, paving gang, welding gang, cleaning up gang, each 
of them under (he direct charge of a boss foreman who reported 
directly to the engineer in charge. 

The boss IracUnian had charge of tearing up ihe old irack and 
paving, excavating, laying the ties and rails, spiking, gaging, bolt- 
ing, surfacing, alining and cleaning out the trenches tor the cr)n- 
cretc gang, lli- had under his charge about so men and about 10 

The concrete gang consisted of si.x boards, and was uiuler the 
charge of a boss concrete foreman and si.x sub-foremen. It was 
found that a great saving in mixing the concrete was accomplished 
by using hoes oidy and no shovels, the concrete being turned three 

On page K19 of the December issue, the maximum pressure 
used in electrical wehling is given as 35 tons; this should read 
.^S.oocj lb. 


The Lake Manawa & Manhattan Beach Railway Co. is a new 
corporation which is to be operated in connection with the fJnia- 
ha & Council KlulTs Railway & Bridge Co., between Omaha and 
Lake Manawa, Iowa. The directors arc K. VV. Wells, J. J. Brown, 
J. H. Millard and Guy C. Barton, of Omaha, and C. T. Stewart, 
Geo. F. Wright and W. S. Dimmock, of Council Bluffs. The offi- 
cers are: N. W. Wells, president; J. J. Brown, vicc-prcsidcnl; 
Charles T. Stewart, secretary; J. H. Millard, treasurer, and W. S. 
Dimmock, general manager. These gentlemen arc connected with 
the Omaha & Council Bluffs Railway & Bridge Co. in similar ca- 

4\*' Befi^een froeJij 


No/r SecrfOn of T/as Ha/f Sec f /on betwevn Tf'es . 


times, and then into the trenches by these hoes. The boss con- 
crete man had under his charge about 150 men. 

The concrete gang was followed by the paving gang, a boss 
paver with 6 foremen under him, 60 pavers and about 150 laborers. 

The welding was under the direct supervision of a welder fore- 
man, who took off the joint plates and excavated around the joints 
to a space of 40 in. square. The latter part of the season, two 
welders were employed. 

Finally, the cleaning up division followed the welders under the 
charge of a boss cleaner, who had two large motor flat cars and six 
trail dump cars under his control. Cleaning up was carried on night 
and (lay, entirely by cars. 

The company has various other types of track construction 
which were put in by the old companies before the consolidation, 
but those illustrated here are much preferred for the advantage of 
quick construction. 

The largest number of feet of track laid by this department, 
through the summer just passed, was 2.760 ft. in a day of 10 hours, 
except in Utica St. This record was made on North Main St., 
an asphalt street. During the entire season, the rate of track laying 

This new road will start from the foot of Main St. in Council 
Bluffs, which is the terminus of the present Pearl and Main Sts. line, 
of the Omaha & Council Bluffs Co., and run south to Lake Man- 
awa, a distance of some four miles. It will then run around the lake 
to Manhattan Beach, another mile, making the line about five miles 

The company expects to spend $200,000 on this line and lake im- 
provements. The company controls the entire south shore of the 
lake and 400 acres of land, which will be put in the best shape possi- 
ble to attract the public as an amusement resort. A line of small 
steamers will be placed on the lake as well as electric launches and 
numerous row boats. The lake will be dredged and a summer 
theater will be erected. A beautiful club house will be set out in 
the lake, having dancing floors and the finest of restaurants. N'ew 
bath houses will be built, and in fact everything done that per- 
tains to a first-class summer resort. It will be similar in scope to 
Sans Souci Park, of Chicago, though the main attraction will be 
the bathing facilities, and the company controls the only real bath- 
ing beach upon the shores of the lake. 

Some 15 new car bodies, 50 ft. long, with double trucks and high 


per day averaged i,ioo ft., without taking out Sundays and rainy 
days. In the Utica St. job mentioned above 7,000 ft. were laid in 
10 hours. 

In our article on the International Traction Co. in the "Re- 
view" for December last the names of two of the officers were inad- 
vertently omitted. The complete list of the managing officers of the 
allied companies controlled by the International Traction Co. are: 
President, W. Caryl Ely; vice-president, Daniel S. Lamont; chair- 
man executive committee, Charles H. Coster; treasurer. R. F. 
Rankine; general manager, Burt Van Horn; superintendent Buf- 
falo Ry., R. E. Danforth; passenger agent. J. E. Stephenson; elec- 
trical engineer, C. K. Marshall; engineer of way, C. C. Lewis; 
master mechanic, Robert Dunning. 

The main office of the company is 178 Main St., Buffalo. 

speed motors will be purchased to operate the road, and a new 
800-kw. direct connected generator as well as additional boilers will 
be placed in the power house of the Omaha & Council Bluffs 
Railway & Bridge Co. to furnish power. The tracks will be laid 
with 65-lb. steel rails. 60 ft. long and will be well ballasted. The 
company owns its private right of way from Council Bluffs to Man- 
hattan Beach, on the south shore of the lake, and is not compelled 
to ask lor anything in the way of franchises, except permission 
from the city council to cross some six or seven avenues in the 
lower part of the city of Council Bluflts. which will undoubtedly 
be granted by the time it is ready to lay the steel at this point, as 
the public is very much in favor of the road being extended to the 
With Omaha. South Omaha and Council Bluffs, and the sur- 



[Vol.. X, No. I. 

rounding suburban towns, the enterprise will have 200,000 or more 
people to support it; and, as it is the only lake of any prominence 
within 200 miles, and there are no other resorts in the cities men- 
tioned, the road will undoubtedly be a success as well as the con- 
cessions that will be granted at the lake. The finest music availa- 
ble will be engaged for the grounds, and everything possible will 
be done to make the resort worthy of public patronage. 

< » » 



Editor "Review": We have noted in your issue of December 
15th last, page 848, the valuable comment on training for the elec- 
trical engineering profession as embodying a number of suggestions 
that the foundation should be thoroughly laid in mechanical engi- 
neering. Permit us to bring to your attention the course in elec- 
trical engineering which we have recently organized here and which 
has been in operation since the opening of this college year. 

The distinctive feature of this course is the recognition of the 
growing specialization in electrical engineering as in other branches 
of work; and the University of Illinois therefore offers three 
groups of elective studies, after the satisfactory completion of the 
first two and one-half years of work, in electrical engineering 
courses. These groups of electives are: i. Regular electrical 
course; 2. Electro-physical course; 3. Electro-chemical course; 
and comprise the remaining one and one-half years of work of the 
four years' undergraduate course leading to the degree of B. S. 
in electrical engineering. 

For the full professional degree of E. E., a further year of ad- 
vanced graduate study and work is required, with still further pro- 
vision for specialization, according to the direction of the student's 
activities and work in his undergraduate course. 

The University of Illinois is, in its Group i, the regular elec- 
trical engineering course, oflfering a very large amount of mechani- 
cal engineering that, of course, is not taken in the other two groups 
to such an extent. We might add that all of the courses in elec- 
trical and mechanical engineering have the same schedule of studies 
and work for the first two years of the four years' undergraduate 
course, so that the prospective mechanical and electrical engineer- 
ing students all work together in all branches during their early 
formative period. Very truly yours, 

Professor of Electrical Engineering. 

Urbana, Dec. 19. iSqq. 


The ordinance of the Consolidated Street Railway Co., of 
Grand Rapids, Mich., provides that the company shall pay the 
cost of maintaining patrolmen at such crossings as the common 
council shall designate, and of late the council seems disposed to 
designate too many crossings. The company claims that the clause 
is intended merely to indemnify the city against the cost of main- 
taining those patrolmen who are rendered necessary by reason of 
the street railway company being in the streets, and that in nearly 
all cases the patrolmen woidd be needed just as much if there were 
no street cars. As a compromise the company proposes to pay 
a portion, not exceeding one-fourth, of the cost of patrolling four 
street crossings. 

* • » 


The experiment of trolley funeral trains is reported to be con- 
templated by the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. Perhaps 
it is scarcely proper to say experiment in referring to such a service. 
but as conditions vary so much in different cities, each road must 
make the trial for itself. 

As our readers know, the funeral service provided on the street 
railways in San Francisco. Denver. Chicago and elsewhere is 
greatly appreciated. 

The Benton Power & Traction Co., of St. Cloud, Minn., was 
unable to complete its power plant by December isth as planned 
and was obliged to shut down its street railway service because the 
company from which it had formerly rented power could no longer 
supply current. 

The street railway company which is seeking to build through 
the town of Lemont, 111., desired a right of way over a street which 
had two names; it had more frontage consents than were neces- 
sary on one end, and the combined totals exceeded the majority, 
but by reason of the two names could not get the right of way on 
one end of the street. The ditVicuIty was surmounted by securing 
an ordinance giving the street the same name throughout its entire 


The group of porcelain and glass insulators shown in the ac- 
companying illustration exhibits a few of the most important types 
of these goods as made at the establishment of Fred. M. Locke, 
at Victor, N. Y. The capacity tor resisting high pressures is stated 
in connection with the different types. This petticoat type of in- 
sulator was designed and patented by Mr. Locke, and is in use on 
many high tension lines in this country, including the 
transmission line between Niagara Falls and Buffalo. 

Mr. Locke claims to produce only high class goods, and from 
observations made on several different occasions, it would seem 
difficult to suggest any additional precautions, facilities or methods 

1. For 25,0011 Volls. 
4. For JO.OOO Volts. 



Glass, for 50,000 Volts. 

For 25,000 Volts. 
Street Railway Cable. 

that would be necessary to sustain this claim. Mr. Locke being an 
expert chemist, makes a chemical test of every batch of clay bought, 
so that he is sure of his mixtures, and sure that the goods when 
they leave the kiln are of a uniform and safe grade. For the pur- 
pose of making these tests he has fitted up a large room in his 
dwelling house with an elaborate chemical outfit, and here samples 
of all clays and kaolins required, both native and foreign, are 
brought, so that no clay dealer is able to palm off upon this estab- 
lishment an inferior material. Mr. Locke's new catalog. No. 4. 
describes in detail his high insulation line material. 


The Metropolitan Street Railway Co., of Kansas City, Mo., has 
decided to abolish annual passes and issue instead books of coupons. 
There are two reasons for the change, to prevent people who have 
no passes from getting on the cars and calling some number to the 
conductor with the expectation that he will not ask to see the 
pass, and also to protect the conductors, who have the habit of 
merely nodding to passengers who they know have annuals, from 
being reported for missing fares. 

December 15th. a trolley car in Cincinnati was struck by a Penn- 
sylvania train; the car was demolished and a number of passengers 
stunned, though none was seriously injured. 

Jan. is, lyoo.J 






Citizens' Street Co. v. Howard (Tenn.), 52 S. W. Rep. 
864. May 18, 1899. 

Willi reference to the |irefereiili.'il ri^lit wliicli a street railway 
company has between crossings, the supreme eonrt ol Tennessee 
says that the rule is well established that street railways have the 
superior, iIiiiukIi not the e.xclusive, right of way between street 

The court turllur holds that it was error to admit statements 
of the motorman made to a witness after probably fifteen minutes 
had been consumed in extricating a man from under the car, etc., 
as that "he saw plaintiff, but thought he would get off the track." 
this being deemed merely a narrative of a past occurrence. 


State V. I.indcll Railway Co. (Mo.). 52 S. W. Rep. 248. June 30. 

There is, and can be, the supreme court of Missouri holds, no 
public policy which would prohibit a street railway from extending 
its termini, and thereby carrying the public a greater distance for 
the same price it was formerly authorized to charge for carrying 
them a shorter distance. Neither does public policy prohibit one 
street railway from acquiring another street railway, and making 
the two one contimious route, and charging the traveler one fare, 
where he had formerly been obliged to pay two fares to travel 
the same distance. 

Moreover, the court declares that it can see no reason for making 
"fish of one and flesh of the other," where a street railway company 
has been granted the right by the city to make various extensions. 
which it has accepted and acted upon, and the attorney general 
challenges, and intends to challenge only, a part of them, whereas, 
if his contentions are correct, the company had no more right to 
accept any of the other of the grants than it had to accept those 


Huck V. Rochester Railway Co. (N. Y.). 59 N. Y. Supp. 1107. July 
18, 1899. 
The plaintiff alleged in her complaint that by reason of the negli- 
gence of the defendant, while the plaintiff was riding in one of its 
cars, the car suddenly stopped, and the wires conducting the elec- 
tricity used for the propulsion of the car. and the guy wires used 
to keep the trolley wire in proper position, were so disturbed and 
broken that the plaintiff received a severe electrical shock, and her 
legs, feet, and back were burned, and the plaintiflF was otherwise 
severely injured. It seems that she was at the time the only pas- 
senger, and was sitting down, nearly in the middle of the car, but 
nearest the conductor's door, on the side nearest the roadway, and 
facing the sidewalk. The car was going fast, and did not slow up 
as it approached a sharp curve, .^s it passed the curve there came 
a crash, the car stopped right there, and the lights went out. In 
other words, the car jumped off at the curve, and broke the first 
guy wire, carrying along with it 30 or 50 feet of the broken guy 
wire, 20 feet from the first. The plaintiff testified that she received 
the injuries alleged to have been sustained while seated, and by 
being thrown from side to side of the car — caused, as it seemed to 
her. by the electric disturbances. The only effect of the breaking 
of the guy wire was to cause the end of the broken wire to hang 
over the doorway of the car; the end hanging down part way or 
touching the ground. The trolley wire did not touch the car, or 
fall. The car. constructed in the ordinary manner of electric cars 
used on the street railways, was in perfect condition and order, and 
uninjured. No proof was ofTered by the plaintiff as to the way. or 
in what manner, an electrical current could, under such conditions. 

have entered the car from the guy or trolley wires. The evidence 
of electrical experts called by the defendant fully explained the 
impossibility ol such an occurrence from such a cause. Under 
these circumstances, the fourth appellate division of the supreme 
court of New York denies the plaintiff's motion for a new trial 
after a direction of a verdict in favor of the defendant. In doing 
so, it declares that the testimony of these experts just mentioned 
is in accordance with common experience that it is perfectly safe 
to ride in electric cars on the streets of our cities and towns, and 
that the electricity for their propulsion cannot enter into the car, 
to the injury of the passenger, either from the operation of the 
trolley or from a broken guy wire hanging over outside the end of 
a car. 


Douyctte v. Nashua Street Railway (N. H.), 44 Atl. Rep. 104. 
July 28, 1899. 
The plaintiff was a passenger upon one of the defendant's cars, 
and in attempting to alight after the car had started was caught 
by the coat, and dragged some distance. There was evidence tend- 
ing to show that his coat was caught beneath the outside door of 
the vestibule. There was no evidence that the car was defective. 
The jury was instructed that, "if he fthe plaintiff) got off of a mov- 
ing car. knowing or having reason to know that it was in motion, 
he took the chance of any injury that might result from such 
action, and cannot recover therefor." A verdict was returned for 
the defendant. In overruling the exceptions thereto, the supreme 
court of New Hampshire says that it only appeared that the plaintiff 
was injured in attempting to alight after the car had started. It 
might be that the evidence showed that he had arrived at the age 
of discretion, was of ordinary intelligence, and was not under the 
influence of intoxication or other infirmity, and that he voluntarily. 
without any request by the defendant, or special occasion for so 
doing, attempted to alight from the car while it was in motion. If 
such was the evidence, it holds, he certainly would have no reason 
to complain of the instruction given. The act would be wholly his, 
and he alone would be responsible for its consequences. 


Smith V. Nashua Street Railway (N. H.). 44 Atl. Rep. 133. Mar. 

17. 1899 

.\side from the common law liability of any person who places 
an obstruction in the highway, or causes any defect in it, in conse- 
quence of which another suffers a special damage, the supreme 
court of New Hampshire calls attention to the fact that section i 
of chapter 59 of the laws of that state of 1893 provides that "any 
person or corporation except municipal corporations through whose 
negligence or carelessness any obstruction, defect, insufficiency, or 
want of repair in a highway is caused, shall be liable to any person 
injured by reason thereof." An "obstruction, detect, insufficiency, 
or want of repair." when used in this connection, it holds, is such 
as renders a highway unsuitable for the public travel thereon. 

Although the defendant's charter does not expressly authorize it 
to remove the snow from its tracks, the court further holds, it has 
the right, by implication, to do so sufficiently to operate its road 
for the accommodation of the public. But. in the exercise of this 
right, it is bound to consider the rights of the public generally to 
the use of the streets, including those portions occupied by the 
defendants' tracks. 

Travelers while driving from one side of the street to the other, 
the court goes on to say. are entitled to find the passage reasonably 
safe. If. after storms, the tracks are cleared, so that steep banks 
of snow are left on either side, the use of a portion of the street 
may be attended with great danger. Should the character of the 
banks be such as to make the street unsuitable for public travel, 
the banks would be obstructions, and the street would be defective 
and insufficient. 



[Vol. X. No. i. 

In the removal of .snow, the court declares, ordinary care must 
be used to avoid so changing the general surface of the street as 
to render it unsuitable for the public to travel thereon. 

This was an action brought to recover damages for injuries to 
the plaintiflf's intestate, who, while attempting to cross the defend- 
ants' track was thrown from his sleigh and injured. The evidence 
tended to prove that the cause of the accident was the existence of 
a hard, steep bank of snow and ice in the street, on the side of the 
street railway track, running from the rail to the height of from 
10 to 20 inches, made by the defendants in plowing out their tracks. 
The court holds that there was evidence proper for the jury to 
consider upon the question of the defendants' negligence. It says 
that it tended to prove that in plowing out the tracks, some 10 days 
before the intestate received his injuries, the company made a dan- 
gerous bank of snow and ice where the accident occurred, and that, 
even if this unsafe condition of the street was unavoidable when 
the track was cleared, a reasonable length of time had elapsed 
before the accident in question occurred in which its dangerous 
character might have been removed. 

There w-as a verdict for the plaintiff, and the supreme court over- 
rules the defendants' exceptions. 



In re Port Chester Street Railway Co. (N. Y.). 60 N. Y. Supp. 160. 
Oct. 3, 1899. 

The second appellate division of the supreme court of New York 
is of the opinion that the state constitution contemplates that the 
determination to be reached is that of the court as well as that of 
the commissioners, where the court is authorized to appoint com- 
missioners to determine whether a street railroad ought to be con- 
structed when the consent of the abutting owners cannot be obtained 
therefor. .Ml of the purposes of the commission, it says, have been 
fulfilled when the commissioners, after notice to all parties, have 
heard the evidence and have made their report to the court, whether 
that report shall be unanimous, or by a majority of such commis- 
sioners. The determination of the commissioners is without force 
or effect until it has received the sanction of the court, and the 
fact that it is necessary for the court to confirm the report devolves 
upon it the duty of determining for itself whether the facts dis- 
closed to the commissioners are sufficient to justify the granting of 
the petition, .^nd so the court holds that it is authorized to act on 
a report of a majority of the commission. This report here was in 
favor of the construction of the proposed road. But the court, 
having considered the evidence before the commissioners and 
reached the conclusion that no considerations of a public nature 
demanded the construction of the road over the particular route 
selected by the projectors of the enterprise, it holds that the report 
ought therefore not to be confirmed, and denies the motion to con- 
firm it. 

The roadways over which the proposed street railroad was to 
pass, it says, had been improved at private expense; large sums of 
money had been expended by individuals to make a high-grade 
driveway leading out to the summer homes of a large number of 
people, who had made investments and fitted up handsome resi- 
dences, greatly to the advantage of that particular section, .^nd 
while the highways are the common property of the people, and 
considerations of a private nature must yield to public necessity 
or convenience, the court declares that there was no good reason 
why these particular roadways, improved at private expense, should 
be appropriated by a corporation, when there were other ways 
which would answer equally as well every purpose of a public 

Moreover, while the only question before the commissioners was 
whether the street railroad should be constructed over the particu- 
lar route selected by the company, it was proper, in determining this 
question, the court holds, to consider whether there were other 
routes equally available, and which were calculated to accommo- 
date the public in an equal degree, if there was a necessity for the 
construction of the street railroad at all. 

Considerations of public policy, in view of the generally poor 
highways in rural districts, the court goes on to say, forbid that it 
should permit the work of individuals in improving driveways to 
be appropriated by corporations, when no public necessity calls for 
such a sacrifice of quasi private rights. 

.\rmstrong v. Montgomery Street Railway Co. (.-Ma.) 26 So. Rep. 
349. June 30, 1899. 

A passenger, from his casual and temporary relations to the car- 
rier's employes, the supreme court of -Mabama says, is not in a 
position to be better informed than the employer as to the name of 
an alleged negligent employe, so that it has never been held or 
supposed, and is not the law, that when he is injured through the 
negligence of an employe, and sues to recover damages therefor, he 
sliould. under the employers' liability act, aver the name of the 
employe, or his ignorance of it. 

The operation of the defendant's street cars without conductors, 
the court holds, cannot be said, as matter of law, was or was not 
negligence. Consequently, it having been averred that the failure 
10 have a conductor on a certain car was negligence, the court 
holds that the averment should have been allowed to stand, so that 
evidence might be adduced upon it for the jury's consideration in 
determining — first, whether such failure was negligence; and, sec- 
ond, if it was, whether the negligence combined with the other 
alleged acts and omissions to produce the passenger's death, the 
plaintiff having undertaken to show that the passenger's injury 
resulted not from one or more of the negligent acts and omissions 
alleged, but from all of them operating together to the disaster 
complained of. 

Surely, the court further holds, the passenger could not be held 
to have been guilty of contributory negligence upon the mere fact 
of the presence of a cord and bell, and that, of course, if he was 
not negligent in respect of these appliances, the fact that the car 
was equipped with them was of no pertinency in the case. 

A rule of a street railway company that passengers must not leave 
its cars while they are in motion, the court holds, is a reasonable 
rule: but. it also insists, a passenger cannot be charged with negli- 
gence for its nonobservance unless he knew of it, though conduct 
in violation of the rule might be negligent without reference to it. 

.^nd the court holds that whether the passenger was guilty of 
negligence in getting upon the running board, preparatory to alight- 
ing, while the car was in motion, was a question for the jury. 

Last of all, the court holds that one guilty of negligence should 
be held responsible for all the consequences which a prudent and 
experienced man. fully acquainted with all the circumstances which 
in fact existed, whether they could have been ascertained by reason- 
able diligence or not. would, at the time of the negligent act, have 
thought reasonably possible to follow, if they had occurred to his 
mind. Applying that rule to this case, the court holds that, there 
being 3 reasonable possibility of blood poisoning being developed 
or produced by the wounds to the fingers which the passenger 
received, and blood poisoning having resulted from the wounds 
and produced death, death was therefore within the range of respon- 
sibility for the negligent act which inflicted the wounds. 




Delaware. Lackawanna & Western Railroad Co. v. Syracuse. Lake- 
side & Baldwinsvillc Railroad Co. (N. Y.). 59 N. Y. Supp. I035- 
July, 1899. 
The provision of section 90 of the railroad law, as amended by 
laws of 1895, which says that every street surface railroad corpora- 
tion before constructing any part of its road upon or through any 
private property described in its statement, and before instituting 
any proceedings for the condemnation of any real property, shall 
make a map and profile of the route adopted by it upon or through 
any private property, etc., a special term of the supreme court of 
New York, Onondaga County, says, was doubtless mainly intended 
to apply to cases in which resort might be had to condemnation 
proceedings to acquire right of way over ordinary private lands. 
But notwithstanding this, and that in some respects its requirements 
are not especially appropriate to a case of building an extension 
of a street surface railroad across a steam railroad, the court holds 

Jan. is, lyoo.J 



thai, as the sladite, in(U'])cn(lcnt of conilcjiiiialioii iirocccdiiiKS, calls 
for the filitiK of a ma|). etc., before eiUcrinH uiioii [irivate prop- 
erly, the steam railroad proi)erty to be so crossed is within the 
nieatiing of this provision. The court is of the opinion, however, I he benefits of this ])rovision are to be invoked by each owner 
as to his own property, and that he cannot complain because a 
map has iml lieni I'llcil nl the proposed rovMc tbroiinh the lands of 
some other person. .And certainly, it .says, one property owner 
cannot enjoin the construction of a road because the builder thereof 
has not filed a map of its jirnposcd course IhrouKh l)rivatc lands 
where a riKhl of w.iy has been amicably secured. Ajjain, it says il is to be observed that this i)rovision does not require a map 
;in.l piofile of the entire route which miKht be of general use to 
all |)rciperty owners, but only of the route through private prop- 
erly, which, naturally, will be a matter of interest in each case to 
the individual owner. 

The court further licdds tliat. before crossing the railroad, 
the consent of the local authorities must not only be obtained, but 
filed in the office of the county clerk, as required by sections gi and 
92 of the railroad law. 

The contingency of the street surface railroad company being 
compelled by a final decision to make "compensation," the court 
hr)!ds, can be safely provided for liy the giving of a sufficient under- 

Finally, the papers in the case before the court failing to establish 
that the company was attempting in bad faith to evade the pro- 
visions of the statute by constructing a street surface railroad un- 
der the guise of a branch or extension, the court says that it sees 
no adequate reason for treating the construction as other than an 
"extension," exempted from the requirements of a certificate of 
p\dilic necessity. 


De.grauw v. Long Island Electric Railway Co. (N. Y.), 60 N. Y. 
Supp. 16,^. Oct. 3, 1899. 

Street surface railway companies, authorized by the general rail- 
road law of New York, the second appellate division of the supreme 
court of that state holds, can operate cars designed and intended 
exclusively for carrying express matter, freight, or property, and 
used exclusively for such purpose. 

It is not doubted, says the court, but that the legislature has 
authority to charter a street surface railroad company, and grant 
the power to carry freight exclusively or passengers exclusively, 
or unite the authority to carry both. But the company that as- 
sumes to exercise the power in question, it also maintains, must 
justify the right to do so by the terms of some grant of power as 
broad as the acts themselves. 

The statutory grant of authority in question being to convey 
"persons and property in cars for compensation," the court does 
not think it reasonably conceivable that the legislature intended 
that it should be cut down as though it said "passengers with prop- 
erty." In the ordinary carriage of passengers upon street railroads, 
the court goes on to say. it has never been thought that passengers 
carryin.g small articles, or such baggage as may be carried by hand, 
was the occasion for the use of the word "property" as used in the 
statute. The regulation for the carriage of such property, that 
which accompanies the passenger, even upon commercial roads, is 
usually by rule of the company, and not by statutes. It stands 
upon a different footing from the carriage of other property, and 
by common acceptation is usually denominated "baggage." or, to 
adopt the English expression, "luggage." meaning, in popular 
l)hrase. that which is carried by the person. No such limited 
meaning is to be ascribed to language deliberately used in a stat- 
ute, where the interpretation placed upon it is as discriminating 
freight, quite independent of passage by its owner. Again, in the 
use of the word "compensation." the court sees an indication of an 
intent upon the part of the legislature to embrace the subject of 
the transportation of passengers and of property. 

Nor is the court at all sure that the transportation in single cars 
of such property as must be transported throughout the city in 
cars or upon wagons will increase the burden of use of the street. 
Time, it says, will demonstrate whether the use of cars is more 
burdensome than that of wagons. 

And the court does not apprehend that its present construction 
of the statute will entail all of the evils which it was argued must 
follow in the train thereof. While, in the struggle which is going 
on for the iransp>>rlation of persons and properly, il must be con- 
fes.ied that street surface railroads are not backward in the asser- 
tion of all the rights which the grant of power confers, and ad- 
milling that, ill whatever right they have acquired to transport pas- 
sengers or freight or property, they have a vested right, which may 
ii()t be defeated or impaired by legislation, still, the court declares, 
the law is — and the courts may be relied upon to enforce the law — 
that the righl of the street by the public is first and primary; and 
when the right of the public or an individual member of it requires 
the use of the street for a proper purprjse. the rights of the rail- 
road company must yield thereto, even though the effect be, lor the 
lime, to stop the operation of its cars thereon. 


Shadford v. Ann Arbrjr Street Railway Co. fMich.^ 80 N. W. Rep. 
30. Sept. 19. 1899. 

A vise of which complaint was here made, the street railway 
company contended was in general use by railway companies in the 
same or similar lines of work, and that the proof offered by it es- 
tablished this contention. Now, if this contention was uncontro- 
vcrlcd. the supreme court of Michigan says, that would be a com- 
plete defense, to this action for personal injuries. But the conten- 
tion was controverted. 

The plaintiff insisted that the tool was not a reasonably safe one 
for the kind of work in question; that, while it was in general use 
by electric railways, telephone and telegraph companies for many 
purposes which did not subject it to much strain, it was not in 
general use for drawing up trolley wires upon a curve, under the 
conditions which obtained when the accident in question happened. 
And there being many witnesses produced to show the truth of 
this contention, and the testimony for and against it being very 
contradictory, the supreme court holds that the question of whether 
the instrument was in common use in the same or similar lines of 
work became a controverted fact — a question not competent for the 
court to decide as a matter of law, but a question of fact very 
proper to be left to a jury under proper instructions. 

The court goes on to state that the rule is too well settled to be 
longer open to discussion that when a servant enters upon employ- 
ment which is. from its nature, dangerous, he assumes the usual 
risks and perils of the service, and this is equally so as to those 
risks which require only the exercise of ordinary observation to 
make them apparent. But here, again, the plaintiff maintaining 
that he was not acquainted with the dangers of the employment, 
and was not familiar with the tools used in the work of this char- 
acter; that he was told that the vise was a suitable tool for this 
work, and that it would hold anything: that he relied upon this 
statement; and that the danger attending the use of this vise con- 
sisted of its treacherous nature, of which there was nothing in its 
construction to give indication, the court holds that, if such were 
the facts, the doctrine of assumption of risks did not apply, and 
the question of fact was a proper one for the jury. 

Then, the company insisted that, as a matter of law. the plaintiff 
was guilty of contributory negligence when he undertook to do 
this work from the inside of a curve. It argued that he was bound 
to know the workings of natural laws, and that any person of ordi- 
nary intelligence would know there was danger in being on the 
wrong side of a trolley wire stretched upon a curve and held in 
place by the grip of an instrument; and that the trial judge should 
have directed a verdict upon the ground of contributory negligence. 
But the plaintiff replied that he was not familiar with the fact that 
to work on the inside of the cune was more dangerous than to 
work on the outside; that, if the vise held fast to the guy wire. 
as he was told by the foreman it would do. which statement he 
believed to be true, it would not be more dangerous to work on 
the inside of the curve than on the outside, while the necessities 
of the business frequently made it necessarj- for the men to work 
on the inside of the curve, etc. In this situation, the court thinks 
that it was proper to allow the jury to say whether the plaintiff 
was guilty of contributory negligence. 

Judgment for the plaintiff affirmed. 



[Vol. X, No. i. 


Ill re Trenton Street Railway Co. (N. J.), 44 Atl. Rep. 177. Oct. 9, 
In an application, under the New Jersey act of Mar. 22, 1895, to 
regulate the mode of crossing a steam railroad by a street railway, 
authority being given to the chancellor, under specified conditions, 
to direct the mode of crossing, the court of errors and appeals of 
New Jersey holds that the petitioner must show, by due proof, that 
his application is within the terms of the statute. More expressly 
does the court hold that the petition, verified by affidavit and 
served is not sufficient proof to establish jurisdictional facts as to 
which the oath of the affiant is not competent evidence, although it 
may be a rule of the court of chancery that "affidavits and petitions 
duly sworn to, on which orders to show cause may be granted, if 
served as affidavits, may be used on the hearing of the order to 
show cause." In other words, the court declares that legal proof 
cannot be dispensed with, under this statute, by the rule of court. 
Such affidavits as those mentioned cannot be accepted as competent 
proof of the corporate existence of the street railway, or of a grant 
by a turnpike company to the street railway. Those are basic facts, 
and until they are made to appear by legal proof the chancellor is 
without authority to act. 



Kissane v. Detroit. Ypsilanti & Ann Arbor Railway (Mich.), 79 
N. W. Rep. 1104. Sept. 12, 1899. 

On Apr. ID, iSgg, the plaintiff boarded one of the defendant's 
cars at a point in the township of Canton, with the intention of 
going through to Detroit. He did not communicate this intention 
to the conductor. The through fare was 35 cents. He offered the 
conductor 10 cents, as a fare to Inkster. The conductor demanded 
IS cents, and the 5 cents was paid under protest. On arriving at 
Inkster, the plaintiff tendered the conductor a ticket, costing 13 
cents, when bought in a strip of five tickets, which ticket the con- 
ductor refused, demanding a cash fare of 20 cents, which the plain- 
tiff paid to prevent being put off the car. This suit was 
then brought to recover the S cents which the plaintiff claimed was 
an overcharge for his fare to Inkster, and 7 cents, the excess of his 
cash fare over the ticket from Inkster to Detroit. 

The case was tried before the court without a jury. The court 
found (i) that the plaintiff was entitled to ride from the point 
where he boarded said car in the township of Canton to the village 
of Inkster for the sum of 10 cents, and that the additional sum of 
5 cents was wrongfully exacted, and for which he was entitled to 
recover; (2) that the ticket tendered at Inkster entitled the plaintiff 
to ride from Inkster to the city hall in Detroit, and that, therefore, 
the 20 cents demanded and paid was illegally and wrongfully ex- 
acted, and the plaintiff was entitled to recover the difference between 
13 cents, which he had paid for his ticket, and the 20 cents exacted, 
or 7 cents for that part of the route, making 12 cents in all, with 
his costs of suit, not exceeding $23. 

The supreme court of Michigan holds that the judgment of the 
circuit court must be affirmed. It holds that the Canton township 
franchise, which fixed the maximum fare at 5 cents, entitled the 
plaintiff to the right to be carried through that township for 5 
cents, though he may have intended at the time of taking passage 
to go beyond the limits of the township, and that this limit of 
fare in the franchise could not be held to apply to local passengers 
alone, but must apply to all who desired passage, even if going 
beyond the limits of the township. The company had no right to 
make such a discrimination. So, when the other township which 
he must go through to reach Inkster limited the maximum fare 
therein to s cents, that made the maximum fare through the two 
to Inkster 10 cents. Another franchise not only limited the fare 
- from Inkster, but the court says that the ticket produced was itself 
a contract binding upon the company to accept it for one fare from 
Inkster, as it was unrestricted and unlimited. 

The statute under which the defendant company was organized 
provides that "any company organized under the provisions of this 
act may construct, use, maintain and own a street railway for the 
transportation of passengers in and along the streets and highways 

of any township, upon such terms and conditions as may be agreed 
upon by the company and the township board of the township, 
which agreement and acceptance by the company of the terms 
thereof shall be recorded by the township clerk in the records of the 

Street railways, the supreme court declares, are bound by such 
agreements, and the defendant could not release itself from the 
obligation to comply with these agreements in the townships 
through which it passed because the passenger intended to take 
passage to some other place. 

Nor does the court consider that an extra 5 cents could be 
charged, besides what a township franchise authorized, for fare 
through a village, so long as the latter was wholly within the town- 
ship, although a franchise obtained from the village provided that 
no passenger should be carried for a less fare than 5 cents for any 
distance. This the court construes as authorizing merely a charge 
of 5 cents for any short trip which would otherwise, on a prescribed 
mileage basis, amount to less than that sum, and not as authorizing 
a charge of S cents extra for riding through the village. 


Bertram v. People's Railway Co. (Mo.), 52 S. W. Rep. 11 19. 
"Memorandum decision." .\pril Term, 1899. 
The plaintiff obtained a judgment for $3,500, upon a petition 
bottomed upon an avermept that the train was slowed up, coming 
nearly to a stop, when, upon the invitation of the defendant's agents 
and servants in charge of said train, he stepped upon the running 
board of the grip car, and before he had time to take a seat the 
car was started with a violent lurch, so that it threw his body out- 
ward, and brought it into contact with a wagon standing near the 
track, and which the defendant's agents saw, or could have seen 
by the exercise of reasonable care, but which the plaintiff did not 
see because his back was turned towards it, whereby he was injured. 
Admitting that, measured by rules which he deduces from the 
adjudicated cases, the petition stated a good cause of action, never- 
theless, of law and fact set forth at some length, including a belief 
that the evidence did not tend to support the petition in some 
vital points, Mr. Justice Marshall says that he thinks the judgment 
of the circuit court ought to be reversed; but, the court (division 
No. I of the supreme court of Missouri) not concurring, the case 
was transferred to the court in banc. 


Lorickio v. Brooklyn Heights Railroad Co. (N. Y.), 60 N. Y. Supp. 
247. Oct. 10, 1899. 

While it is not necessary to produce direct evidence of lack of 
contributory negligence in every instance, the second appellate 
division of the supreme court of New York holds, it is necessary 
to show facts and circumstances from which the jury might reason- 
ably infer that the deceased was exercising proper care. There are 
no presumptions in favor of the plaintiff. The burden of proving 
the case is upon the one who seeks to recover. 

Here was an action brought by the plaintiff, as administratrix, to 
recover dainages sustained by the death of her son, due to an acci- 
dent on a line of street railway, at a street crossing, where he had 
been seen just before the accident — according to one witness — leav- 
ing the curb not more than 20 feet in front of the car. The entire 
evidence in support of the plaintiff's case established no more than 
that her son, a bright boy, in good health, who discharged his 
duties as barber well, was run over and killed at the intersection of 
two streets, by a car which was being operated at a rate of speed 
which one witness testified was too high to permit him to get off, 
and which was sufficient to carry the car 75 feet after striking the 
boy before it came to a standstill. The court remarks that, so far 
as shown, the speed might have been two miles an hour or ten, and 
that there was no evidence as to the grade at the point of collision, 
nor as to the distance within which the car might have been stopped 
under the circumstances, nor of the conduct of the motorman. 

Under these circumstances, it insists that no end of justice could 
have been promoted by submitting the case to the jury, and affirms 
a judgment against the plaintiff, for costs, with costs. 

Jan. is, i<)<x).; 




Abslracl iif ail .-uliIn'Ks before llii* MaHHacIiltHcttH Street Hallway AHsocialion liy 
Kiilicrl H. Derrall, Dec. II, I8'W. 

KviTy prcsidcnl, iiiaiiaijcr, and fvcn llic employe is, or should 
be interested in the matter of increasing the revenue of his road. 
and the general talk which I shall make, may Rive yon some sug- 
gestions as 1(1 hdw this may be done thrnnKb thr means of 

Ten years ago, here in eastern Massacluisetis, there were 2S street 
railways, operating 6ao miles of tracks, in 48 cities and towns. All 
the roads, with the exception of the West End (now the Br)slon 
Elevated), the Lynn & Boston and the North Woburn street rail- 
ways, were isolated. Ten years ago the street railways were built 
for the business man who wished to go to or from his work, or the 
woman who wished to go down town to do her shopping and re- 
Inni cm the cars afterwards; it was purely a business man's insti- 
tnlion. The roads were built in the thickly populated sections of 
the different cities and towns because there was a revenue to be 
derived from the traffic to be picked up along the line. There were 
no opportunities afforded the people who wished to take a ride 
in the country for an afternoon's outing. The street railways did 
not consider it advantageous to extend their lines into the suburbs 
unless there were a suburban population to be brought into town 
(■r the connecting of large centers such as Boston, Lynn and Salem. 

Since that time, however, these cities and towns have been con- 
nected by electric lines, running in most cases, over the old coun- 
try turnpikes, until today we have some 75 street railways in 
eastern, central and southern Massachusetts, directly connected 
with Boston, operating some 1,400 miles of tracks in 130 odd cities 
and towns, and forming a great network between the centers of 
population. There are figures to show that within 50 miles of the 
Boston City Hall there are 2,392,394 people, while within the same 
distance from Philadelphia there are 2,361,041 and within 50 miles 
of the Chicago City Hall 1,915.716. It is a fact that only a small 
proportion of these 2,300,000 people around Boston understand 
that there are so many places directly connected with Boston by the 
trolley cars, and it may be news to some of you to know that there 
is not a town in this state with a population of more than 3,000 
that has not a street railway in operation or under construction. 

Now a great many of these railroads run through country dis- 
tricts where there is very little traffic to be picked up on the line, and 
some of them connect places where there is not sufficient travel 
between their termini to pay operating expenses. Why have they 
been built? Look over the figures for their year's business and you 
will see that in the summer months they carry a very large volume 
of traffic which is able to make up any losses which they may sus- 
tain in the winter. The truth is that the extension of the street 
railways of eastern Massachusetts has led to the growth of a new 
kind of business — the pleasure travel. A business man will take a 
car to go to or from his work. The man who has no occasion to 
use the car for business will take the trolley car that passes his door 
for it affords him an afternoon's outing in the country at a small 
expense and places within easy reach hundreds of places which he 
has intended to visit, but which have heretofore been difficult of 

Looking back to the time when the street railways were all lo- 
cated in the cities and were disconnected, you w-ill find that the 
population then served was less than 1,170,000. Taking the popula- 
tion and the number of passengers carried, you will find that each 
person rode on an average of 123 times within the year. Since 
then, although the mileage of the electric lines has increased some- 
thing like 125 per cent, and the population served has increased 
50 per cent, the individual riding has more than kept pace with the 
growth of facilities and the advance in population, so that each per- 
son now rides on an average of 160 times within the year. Now we 
all know that this increase of mileage, as I have said, has largely 
been through the country districts, where there was not the addi- 
tional population to be picked up, and all this goes to show that the 
increase in travel is very largely pleasure travel. 

About IS years ago the steam railroads of the country found 
that there were these two classes of travel to be catered to. one 
the regulars, and the others what they called the "floaters." The 

regulars were interested in the railroad only so far as changes in 
the rates of fare, running time and schedules were concerned. The 
floaters were that class of people who had no regular route to fol- 
low, but were looking for information as to where Ihcy might 
spend a holiday or a vacation, the places of interest on the different 
steam railroad lines, the possible points they were able to reach, 
the cost of getting there, etc. The railroads fouml that a man in 
Cfjiorado might wish to spend his vacation in Boston and a man in 
Boston might wish to go to Colorado. The receipts from this class 
of travel began to be such that the different lines all began to make 
an effort to secure it, and the man in Boston who did not know 
where he would go was invited by one company to go to Yellow- 
stone Park, by another to visit California, by another to go to the 
White Mountains, and so on. To reach the regular patrons of the 
railroads a notice posted up in the stations was sufTicicnt. To reach 
the (loalers, it was found necessary to appeal to them in a variety 
of ways. The railroads advertised their varying attractions in the 
newspapers and the magazines, sent out letters and circulars, a:id 
within the last 10 years have generally issued booklets which they 
have distributed free all over the country. Some of the railroads 
not only distributed these booklets, but they sent out competent 
lecturers to different sections of the country from which they 
thought they might draw travel, giving illustrated lectures upon the 
points of interest reached by their system. The Santa Fc company 
issues a handsome book of 125 pages, finely illustrated, describing 
the scenery to California and back. Nothing in the nature of a 
railroad advertisement is inserted in the book, but there is a slip 
enclosed giving the location of the Santa Fe offices in different 
parts of the country. Does this pay? The answer is that the road 
has just issued the 124th thousand of these books, which are given 
away. People see the book, become interested in the reading mat- 
ter and pictures, keep it because it is handsomely gotten up and 
is in no sense a cheap thing, and after they get interested in the 
West, write to the ticket agents for further information. The 
Boston & Maine R. R. issues many handsome books, and every 
year in greater quantities. They help a man in planning his vaca- 
tion, and get him interested in that line, and there is no question 
that they pay, or the railroad company would soon stop issuing 

To get up such booklets successfully, one must be familiar with 
the country through which the lines pass, the location of historic 
places, the picturesque scenery, and this must be put up in an at- 
tractive form, so that people will not throw the book aside as a 
cheap thing unworthy of their attention. The succeeding issues 
from year to year must have new matter and new pictures, and 
come to the readers as new attractions for their attention. One 
might think that ten years of persistent advertising of the attrac- 
tions along the Boston & Maine, for instance, would have familiar- 
ized almost everybody who travels, with the places along that line, 
but the fact is that the amount of pleasure travel is constantly in- 
creasing and that people who have taken a single trip one year take 
two trips the next year. The different lines have their own individ- 
ual features and advantages to offer the public and these illustrated 
booklets can be made so interesting and so artistic that they are 
not only worth reading, but worth preserving. On account of the 
different features and advantages of different lines, no set rules or 
forms can be followed, which adds to their attractiveness. Not 
every man will accept the first invitation to travel which comes to 
him in these publications, but if you keep putting the subject into 
his mind, he will come to travel sooner or later. It is this persistent 
advertising of the steam railroads which takes so many travelers in 
summer to all parts of the country. 

I think I have said enough to show you that the steam railroad 
managers, who are generally pretty wide-awake business men, con- 
sider this advertising for pleasure travel as one of the best means 
of earning revenue for their roads. Now, I would like to ask you 
what the street railways of central, eastern and southern Massachu- 
setts arc doing in the way of impressing upon the minds of not only 
the two or three millions of people reached by their lines, but the 
million of people who visit these cities and towns annually, that 
their lines aflford the best and cheapest means of visiting points of 
interest, seashore resorts, historic places, etc.. from the city of Bos- 
ton. Travelers who have come home from long journeys on the 
steam roads are well informed about these distant places, but there 
are many of them who know nothing of the historic and interesting 
places which may be reached by trolley from their own doors. I 



[Vol. X, No. i. 

think you will all agree with me when I say that there is no part 
of the United States richer in diversity of scenery, in historic asso- 
ciations and points of varied interest than this very section of east- 
ern Massachusetts which is so well covered by electric lines. What 
the steam railroads of this country have done in securing addi- 
tional revenue through people making long pleasure trips may be 
done by the street railways among the people who would take the 
shorter and cheaper trips which are within the reach of everybody, 
and many of whom cannot afiford the time or money for long trips. 
The street railways of this section, represented in this Association 
have not only the material to describe and illustrate in order to at- 
tract travel, but they have the people who are ready and willing to 
take advantage of the opportunity if it is brought before them in the 
right way. 

Now it seems to me that it is time for the electric railways of 
Massachusetts to take a leaf from the book of the steam railway 
passenger agents. It is more perplexing, today, to find out how to 
reach various points within a few miles of Boston by the electric 
cars than it is to find out how to go to points in any section of the 
country traversed by the steam railroads. If a traveler to a distant 
section of the country wants information about some point he goes 
to the agent of the local line, and not only finds out about that line, 
but all its connections, and often has a choice of routes on con- 
necting lines in getting to his destination. The man who wishes to 
take his family for a couple of days' riding on the trolley cars must 
have some special means of getting information, or he is obliged to 
communicate with the various companies over whose lines he will 
pass in order to find out about running time, rates of fare and con- 
nections. A great many people, knowing of the work which the 
steam roads have done in issuing illustrated booklets, for free dis- 
tribution, naturally imagine that the trolley lines have done some- 
thing in the same direction, and I may say that you gentlemen are 
not in a position to know how great is the demand for such publi- 
cations. The street railways in this section of the country do not 
advertise in the newspapers, magazines or illustrated booklets except 
in a limited way. One might say that they have done practically 
nothing in the way of building up pleasure travel. It seems to me 
that you should see that the present is a most opportune time to 
take advantage of your opportunities, and educate the people to 
taking these pleasure trips by trolley. It is not a matter of spend- 
ing a few dollars to help somebody to get up an advertising circular 
which will be looked through for information and thrown away 
when the traveler finds that it contains plenty of advertising, but 
little of the information wanted. It is the time to set forth the ad- 
vantages, points of interest, routes, rates of fare, parks and attrac- 
tions of the street railways of eastern Massachusetts in attractive 
booklets which will give people a desire to travel on these street 
railways. Such publications would not only be in great demand 
by the traveling public, but I think you would soon find that they 
resulted in an increase of travel in pleasant weather which might 
be directly attributed to their influence, and which the trolley lines 
would not get otherwise. 

About four years ago it occurred to me that the public had no 
idea of the magnitude of the street railway system of eastern Massa- 
chusetts, nor of the places that could be visited by trolley at a small 
expense. I believed that there would be a great deal more of 
pleasure riding on the street cars if the public knew where to go, 
what to see, how to get there, and what it would cost. I published 
a book for two years giving general information, with a map of the 
street railways of eastern Massachusetts. The third year I was con- 
vinced, by many requests I had received, that a great many of the 
people who used my book wanted more information as to the points 
of interest, and I added a large amount of descriptive matter, to- 
gether with some half-tone illustrations, making an attractive pub- 
lication which would make a favorable impression upon the con- 
stantly growing number of pleasure excursionists. This was not a 
book to be given away. Every purchaser — ^^and there were no un- 
sold copies left over from year to year — felt that he was getting 
something of value. 

There is no street railway man in Massachusetts qualified to give 
the public the information they desire in reference to the net-work 
of electric lines, and it therefore seems to me that one of the best 
paying investments for the street railways is to have them all com- 
bine and pay their proportionate share towards maintaining an of- 
fice in Boston for giving the public this information. I am sure that 
if a sufficient amount of money were appropriated to publish in the 
different papers the fact that an office of this kind has been estab- 

lished for the benefit of the general public, it would be a very pop- 
ular office and a great benefit to the mass of people asking for such 

Should we go into any steam railroad office, we would find elab- 
orate pictures illustrating some beautiful scenery through which 
the lines pass in the south, or west, or wherever it may be. If an 
office for the street railways were opened in Boston with photo- 
graphs of historical places, seashore resorts, inland scenery, etc. it 
would be most interesting. 


The Power Development Co., of Bakersfield, Cal., employs an 
ingenious combination fuse and switch on its high voltage trans- 
mission line for cutting out sub-stations for purposes of inspection 
or cleaning. As will be seen from the illustration, the device con- 
sists of a frame, supporting on insulators the terminals of the line 
wires and the wires leading to the sub-station. Within the frame 
is pinioned a 4 x 4 in. timber carrying arms provided at their ends 
with switch clips, designed to engage the wire terminals when the 
switch is closed and cotnplete the connection. On turning the 


central timber, which is done by means of cords attached to one 
arm and leading to the ground, the station is entirely isolated from 
the line. The switch clips form the terminals of a copper wire 
fuse 28 in. in length. 

The switch is supported on two poles just outside the station 
and has handled successfully for some time a current of between 
10,000 and 11,000 volts. It is the invention of Frank T. Whorff, 
superintendent of the Power Development Co. 


One of the discouraging things met by street railway managers 
who would fain have a good opinion of patrons of their roads is 
the dishonesty in the use of free transfers. There is a general feel- 
ing that to outwit a corporation is a praiseworthy action, and men 
who would scorn to steal a nickel from the company's till were 
they to visit the treasurer's oflSce have no scruples in buying a 
transfer from a newsboy for 3 cents and by riding on it beating the 
railway out of a fare. 

The Chicago City Ry. has for a long time suffered from the news- 
boy-passenger combination, its very liberal transfer system making 
it particularly vulnerable. -The company's policy heretofore has 
been to issue transfers at the time the fare is paid, the ticket being 
good on all intersecting lines, but quite recently it was decided to 
issue the transfers at the transfer point, making them good at that 
point and tor 15 minutes only. 

By a vote of 51,855 to 25.331 the question of replacing the street 
railway tracks on Tremont and Boylston Sts. in Boston, which 
were removed when the subway was completed, was decided in the 
negative, it having been submitted to a popular vote at the last 

Jan. 15, lyoo.] 





One of llic lalcsl intcnirban roads to go into operation is tlic 
24-MiiIc line from Kansas Cily to Leavenworth, Kan., known as tlic 
Kansas City-I,eavenworlh I'.leclric Ry. The line runs parallel to 
the Kansas Cily & Northwestern R. R. from Kansas City, Kan., to 
Vance, a distance of eight miles. It then crosses that line and 
strikes across the country to a point just south of the village of Con- 
ner, whose name has been changed to Wolcott, in honor of Herbert 
W. Wolcott, secretary and general manager of the company, who 
was largely instrumental in bringing about the successful comple- 
tion of the road. From Wolcott the route runs parallel to the main 
line of the Missouri Pacific R. R. almost to Leavenworth Junction; 
it then passes westward to Lansing and through that city to the Sol- 
diers' Home, Leavenworth and Fort Leavenworth. The new line 
therefore comes into direct competition with two steam roads. 

Kansas City has a population of 250,000 and its position as a rail- 
road center for receiving and shipping freight will be of great value 
to the new company, as it is the intention to carry freight between 
Kansas City and Leavenworth at night, providing an outlet cheaper 
than over the steam lines for the Leavenworth factories, of which 
there are several, notably the Great Western Stove Works, the 
Great Western Milling Machinery Works, three large furniture 
factories, a shoe factory, mattress factory, etc. Beside these and 
some jobbing houses there arc three coal mines in operation, willi a 
prospect for a fourth, and when the freight rate is cheapened much 
of the coal tralTic is expected. As a rich farming and fruit growing 
country is traversed, it is believed much patronage will come from 
the farmers. 

Leavenworth is a growing and prosperous city of about 25,000 
people, with a large military post at the north and a Soldiers' Home 
at the south, both beautiful suburban excursion points, made more 
interesting because of the fact that the federal prison containing 
nearly 1,000 military and other prisoners is located at the military 
post, and the Kansas state prison, with 900 convicts, is situated if/$ 
miles from the Soldiers' Home and within 100 ft. of the track of the 
new line. It is believed by the proper use of advertising these will 
attract profitable passenger traffic from among people arriving at 
Kansas City with a few days to spare for sightseeing. 

of the trolley board 12 ft. 4</2 in. The weight of the car complete 
is about 42,000 lb. 

The inside is furnished in plain cherry rubbed to a high polish; 
the ceiling is of birch veneer. There arc twin doors at the ends and 
between the two compartments; the vestibules arc semicircular in 
form and have drop sash and folding doors. Plate glass is used 
throughout the car. 

F.lectric heaters made by the Consolidated Car Heating Co. are 
in all compartments and in the motorman's cab. The seats are rat- 

id. \V. WDLCOTT. 


tan covered, with corner grab handles; five reversible and two 
stationary seats are placed in the large compartment and two 
reversible and two stationary seats in the smoker; folding seats for 
smokers are in the baggage compartments of cars of that type. 

The cars are mounted on Peckham No. 14 A double trucks and 
equipped with four 50-h. p. motors made by the Lorain Steel Co. 

The company's principal buildings are located at Wolcott, which 
is 13 miles from Leavenworth, and comprise the power house and 
car barn, which are completed, and repair shops that are as yet un- 
finished. All of the structures arc of brick on stone foundations. 
The smoke stack, which is also of brick, is 14.5 ft. high. 


The line consists of a single track, with 62-lb. steel T-rails, with 
rock ballast for the roadbed. The majority of the grades are less 
than 3 per cent, with two short stretches, one of 4 per cent and the 
other 5 per cent. There are two curves of 18°; all other curves are 
12° or less. The track joints were made by the American Rail Joint 
Co. The company owns six combination coaches, with smoking 
compartments; 4 combination express and passenger coaches; 15 
freight cars and one 3S-ton locomotive. The cars were built by 
the American Car Co., of St. Louis, and the company will soon 
put on 20 more cars of the same type. The bodies are 31 ft. 8 in. 
long over the corner posts, the cars being 41 ft. over the bumpers. 
The width over the sill plates is 8 ft. S in., and the height to the top 

In the power station is a 32 x 56 in. Hamilton-Corliss engine, 
belted to two 300-kw. General Electric generators. The switch- 
board is also of the General Electric make. 

The boiler room contains two batteries of two 400-h. p. Stirling 
water tube boilers each. 

The car barn is complete in each detail. It has a capacity of 12 
coaches and has an excellent system of pits. 

The overhead line is single pole and bracket construction, cedar 
poles 35 ft. long being used, together with the Ohio Brass Co's. hne 
material and figure 8 trolley wire. As the double trolley system 
is used, no overhead switches are required. The feeders are alumi- 
num cables of 350,000 cm. section. 



[Vol. X, No. 

The plant line ami track were built by the Cleveland Construc- 
hon Co. ami were turned over to the Kansas City-Leavenworth 
Electric Railway Co. this month. The latter corporation has an 
authorized capital of $1,000,000. 

The officers of the company arc as follows: President. David H. 
Kinilierly; vice-president, II. C. Ellison; treasurer, Charles O. 


Evarts; secretary and general manager. Herbert W. Wolcolt; super- 
intendent and electrician, M. C. Canfield; civil engineer, Z. P. 


The accompanying illustrations show a water tank lately com- 
pleted by the H. B. Camp Co. for the Pittsburg & Western Rail- 
way Co., at Hazelton, O., which is quite interesting, being built of 
tile. The tank has not yet been tested, and will probably not be 
in regular service for a month or two. 

cross walls, thus providing supports for the floor of the tank proper. 
The compartments thus formed arc utilized for various purposes, 
one for the pumps, one for the boiler, one for tools, one for a hand 
car house, and one for a telegraph operator's ofTice (yard busi- 

The tank proper is 23 ft. 6 in. internal diameter, and 16 ft. deep; 
the vertical wall is constructed of tiles 6 x 6 x 12 in., '/^ in. web, 
curved to the proper radius, assembled after a method patented by 
Mr. H. B. Camp, of the H. B. Camp Co., Akron, O. A section of 
the wall is shown in Fig. 3 from which the con.struction is readily 


apparent. The tile has grooves on two opposite edges, the object 
of which is to form circumferential cavities in which bands or hoops 
of steel or iron are placed. All the joints are laid in cement. The 
hoop in this tank is J^ x 3 in. for the bottom course, the section 
being reduced for the upper courses where the bursting stress is 

Not less interesting than the vertical wall is the bottom of the 
tank, which serves also as the roof for tlie first story, and is made 

of hollow tiles 12 in. deep. 10 in. wide and 24 in. long, with two 
longitudinal webs; all the walls and webs are Ys in. thick. The 
construction is known as the Johnson patent floor, tile and steel 
fabric, the latter forming the tension member of the beam. We 
shall give a more complete description of this floor in another con- 

The weight to be. sustained by the floor is 1,200 lb. per sq. ft. 
when the tank is full. 

The ground being soft the foundation was made of a heavy bed of 
concrete laid on top of piling. On this concrete bed the square 
portion of the structure (see Fig. i) was built of what are known 
among building block makers as "corner brick," 8 x 8 x 16 in., y, in. 
shell, placed end to end with the hollows vertical. A sample of 
these bricks (see Fig. 2) was tested at the Watertown .Arsenal and 
showed an ultimate strength in compression of 241,000 lb., which 
was equivalent to 1,775 'b. per sq. in. of gross area, or 4,465 lb. per 
sq. in. of net bearing area. 

The lower portion of the tank structure is 25 ft. square and 20 ft. 
high. It is divided into three sections by walls; the outer sections 
are again subdivided by cross walls, and the middle section by two 

.A section of this type of floor 20 ft. 4 in. between supports was 
recently tested (see Fig. 4) by subjecting it to the equivalent of a 
uniformly distributed load of 500 lb. per sq. ft. The deflection at the 
center was 9-16 in. and the permanent set 3-16 in. 

The Lynn & Boston road has opened a new line into Boston to 
accommodate what is known as the County Park dictrict of Chelsea. 

A petition has been filed asking the Massachusetts Legislature 
to authorize the carriage of freight by street railways. 




A corrcspumkiU in the .Sciciilific Ainciitan gives a nuiiiljtr of 
[acts that will he of interest to street railway managers owning or 
eontcniplaling a collection o( animals for street railway parks. The 
writer stales that the demand for wild animals for small parks in 
summer is rapi<lly increasing and owners of and dealers in wild 
crcattn-cs make quite a fair profit in renting them out during the 
warm weather. As winter approaches most of the animals are 
returned to the city for exhibition in their regular quarters, where 
the public is always willing to pay a small fee to gaze at them. 

In spite of the brisk demand, however, prices instead of advanc- 
ing for most of the animals have fallen; the reason for this is attrib- 
uted to the tact that expeditions for capturing wild beasts in their 
natural lupuics are more numerous and arc better equipped than 
ever before, and also that breeding in captivity is now possible with 
nearly all of the birds and animals. 

This success of breeding in captivity is noticeable among lions 
in particular, and from present indications tlicre is little danger of 
these felines becoming extinct. Formerly an importer of fine lions 
could calculate upon getting $5,000 for a good specimen, but to- 
day young lions bred in captivity are almost a drug in the market. 
Tigers do not take as kindly to cage life as the lions, and they do 
not breed so satisfactorily in captivity, and considerable numbers 
are imported every year. Elephants do not breed well in cap- 
tivity, not more than two or three ever having been born in this 
country, but the importations of these animals is so large that the 
prices obtained for them have dropped from $10,000 to $1,500 to 
$2,500 each. 

Monkeys do not breed well in cages. They are so easily obtained 
in the country south of us, however, that prices are merely nominal, 
and there is little danger of their immediate extinction. Among the 
highest priced animals of today arc the rhinocerous and hiiipopot- 
anuis, specimens of the former, of which there is only about a 
half dozen in the country, having sold for $7,000 and $7,250. 

Snakes and birds form a large part of the animal importer's busi- 
ness. These creatures come in great nuinbers from India, Africa 
and South America. The public is peculiarly fascinated by snakes, 
and they are among the most popular creatures exhibited. The 
best specimens of reptiles come from India, and a snake 20 ft. or 
more in length is worth considerable money. In a cage it is the 
size of the snake more than its venomous qualities that attract, and 
a large boa constrictor or python is worth more than a more 
deadly reptile of smaller size. 


The Terre Haute (Ind.) Electric Co. on December 15th com- 
menced the sale of 25 tickets for $1.00. These reduced rate tickets 
are bound in small books 2;4 ^ I'A '"■■ 24 in a book, and the cover 
is good for the last ride. Tickets must be detached in the presence 
of the conductor to be valid. 

Mr. C. B. Kidder, manager of the company, writes us these 
books have been well received by the public and promise to become 
very popular. 

< » » 


The postofTice at Hartford, Conn., where the street cars were 
recently provided with mail boxes, finds that while this service is 
_ very popular, it does not have the effect that was predicted for it. 
One of the strong arguments urged in favor of the trolley car mail 
boxes was that they would relieve the mail carriers from collecting 
a large portion of the mail and enable the trips to street boxes to be 
made in shorter time. At the present time, however, the carriers 
are collecting just as much mail from street boxes, although the 
cars carry thousands and thousands of letters per month. The only 
explanation offered is that the people are writing more letters than 

An electric car at Piqua, C, was struck by a westbound pas- 
senger train on the Panhandle R. R. on December 24th and entirely 
demolished. The car became stalled at the crossing and all the 
passengers had time to jump before the collision. No one was 

The employes of the Denver City Tramway Co. not long since 
organized the Tramway Athletic and Literary Club, and on De- 
cember 27lh the club rooms in the Tramway Building at the 
North Denver loop were christened. The rooms were crowded and 
a good vaudeville entertainment presented; the performers were for 
the most members of the club or their immediate relatives. 

The suite occupied by the club consists of three rooms not in- 
cluding the smalli-r <lri-.sing rooms auxiliary to ihc stage. The 

E.\S'r KXl) OK M.\1N ROOM. 

main room is 40 ft. long, 22 ft. wide and 14 ft. high and has been 
furnished so that men with the most widely differing tastes can all 
find something to interest them. One of the accompanying illus- 
trations is from a photograph taken the morning after a club 
smoker; it shows the west end of the room which is fitted up as a 
gymnasium, horizontal ladder, parallel bars, trapeze, vaulting horse, 
punching bag, Indian clubs, wrestling mat, etc., all being in evi- 

On the north side of this room is the stage which is shown in 
another view; it is 16 ft. wide, 12 ft. deep and 22 ft. high, the floor 



iNWy ,' ' ifijflii^' 


being 2jj ft. above that of the main room. The stage is up to 
date in all its appointments, and is supplied with both gas and elec- 
tric lights which are all manipulated from the wings. 

The third view of this room is taken looking east. On this wall 
is a life sized portrait of Mr. C. K. Durbin, general superintendent 



[Vol. X, No. i. 

of the Denver City Tramway Co., to whose hearty co-operation the 
success of the club is very largely due. East of this room is the 
reading room in which is already the nucleus of a library ot stand- 
ard works; for those who care for cards, draughts or chess, tables 
are provided. 


"This present distress" falls on small and great alike. Galesburg 
likewise has its street railway question. The old company is seek- 
ing an extension of its franchise from eleven to twenty years, to- 


West ot the main room is a bath room, 12 .x 12 ft. The music 
corner is shown in another view. 

The association, which has a membership of nearly lOQ, takes 
great pride in its handsome quarters, and the indications are all for 
a most successful club. Outsiders also have shown interest in the 
association, merchants of the city having made donations of books 
and chairs. But the warmest friend of the association is the Den- 
ver City Tramway Co. which provides the rooms and heat, light 
and janitor service free of charge and also subscribed a sum equal 
to that raised by the members toward furnishing the club. Nearly 
$1,300 has been spent in fitting up the rooms. 

K. DURinx. 


The Tramway baseball team is auxiliary to the association. 
Members with special talents have formed a string band of six 
pieces and there is also a male quartette. 

The officers of the association are: C. M. Searles, president; Eli 
Adams, vice-president; H. M. Dikeman, secretary, and E. D. Bon- 
ham, treasurer. It costs an employe of the company 50 cents to 
secure a membership and the monthly charge for dues is 25 cents. 
Mr. Searles, who was largely instrumental in organizing the club 
was formerly connected with one of the Chicago roads and had ex- 
perience in similar work in that city. 

At the suggestion of Senator Hanna, president of the Cleve- 
land City Railway Co., and its heaviest stockholder, the directors 
set apart $5,000 to be distributed among the employes as a Christ- 
mas gift. It was given to show the company's "appreciation of the 
manly course taken by its employes during the late strike," on the 
Cleveland Electric, when the Cleveland City men refused to go out 
on a sympathetic strike. 

gether with certain new lines, and a new company is also in the 
field asking for a system of streets. Street railway experience in 
the larger towns thus far has developed two or three conclusions 
which ought to be of service by way of counsel to Galesburg. The 
first is that security through competing companies is pretty sure 
to prove an illusive dream, since it is bound to give place to con- 
solidation in one form or another. The second is that a town, if it 
retains proper control over the business, is better oft with all lines 
owned by one company, so that the best paying lines may help out 
those which pay less, and so that there may be universal transfers. 
The third is that it is not prudent or necessary to fix lares beyond 
revision for long periods in advance. And the fourth is that all 
blackmailing schemes against existing companies and all grants 
made to "unknown" parties, and merely intended for sale, are as 
inimical to the public interests as they are to the immediate cor- 
porations against which they are practiced. These four conclu- 
sions are not longer open to debate. — Chicago Tribune Editorial. 

The use of electric traction promises to become the most impor- 
tant economic development of the immediate future. It is destined 
to eflfect a complete revolution in the methods of travel and freight 
carriage between the cities and country districts. Internal trade 
is generally more important though less discussed than commerce 
with foreign nations, and any change materially affecting local 
traffic must have far-reaching consequences. It would be most 
unfortunate if a few legislative errors should deprive this genera- 
tion of the chief benefits to be derived from the coming change. 
It is well that the Provincial Ministry have acted promptly, and 
we trust they may be successful in framing legislation that will 
adequately protect the public interest. — Toronto Globe. 


On the 2ist of December the Toledo Traction Centennial Band 
entertained its friends. The band concert was the principal feature 
of the evening, but in addition there were a number of vocal and 
instrumental solos and recitations. The entertainment was fol- 
lowed by a banquet, and when the regular toast list was finished a 
number of short speeches were made; among those who spoke were 
President Lang and General Manager McLean of the Toledo 
Traction Co. 

« ■ » 

An English contemporary last month announced that a "wind- 
ing-up order" had been made against the British Gas Traction Co., 
Ltd., and this fact may be taken as an indication that the gas motor 
at present is not a success for the purposes of street traction. 

Jan. is, 1900.] 




TIic accoiiiiJanyiiiK illiisUatiuns show a very novel and successful 
niacliiiic designed for breaking up street railway tracks, which 
has been patented by Geo. W. Haunihoff, superintendent of the 
I.indell Division of the United Railways Co., of St. I.ouis, and Otto 
Schniid, of the same road. The two half-tone reproductions from 
photographs show the machine in operation and a view of the 
street after the car has passed through it on a working trip, while 
the line drawings will make clear the construction. 

The machine, as shown in side elevation in Fig. i, consists of 
a car mounted on an ordinary truck. The side sills are made up of 
two steel channels enclosing wooden filling pieces, and at the 
front end are bent down towards the track; from the toe of the 

tion of lifting the car is prevented from tillijig forward, by clamps 

c hooked under the rails and over the side sills as shown in Fig. i. 

In some instances the rail is not broken when bent up the first 


projecting sill a horizontal piece, b, is carried back towards the 
car. The object of the piece will be explained later. Chains run- 
ning over suitable pulleys and pulled by a winding drum driven by 
an electric motor have tongs at the ends which grip the rails. 
When power is applied the rails and ties are lifted, the rail being 


time and in this case a wire cable is attached to the chain, carried 
around a pulley at the nose of the side sill and the rail bent down 
as shown in Fig. 2. When bending rails down the clamps c are 
placed at the fulcrum as in Fig. 2. Bending the rails is continued 
till they are broken. 

When it is desirable to nick the rails this is done by striking 
with sledges on two cold chisels d d, mounted on the fulcrum 

This machine is especially designed to tear up track having 
welded joints and for this purpose has proved to be a great labor 
saving device. Mr. Baumhoff reports that this machine with a crew 
of three men will tear up nearly two miles of track in a day, break- 

FIG. 3. 

bent over the fulcrum a. As the rails are lifted the ties come, one 
by one, in contact with the horizontal piece b. and are forced 
free from the rails. The fulcrum a is a pointed block which when 
the machine is not in use is swung upward on a hinge at the front 
side and thus held out of contact with the track. When in opera- 

ing the rails into short lengths as desired, usually 4 or 8 ft. Old 
rails when so broken command about $1 per ton more as scrap, and 
are cheaper to load and haul. 

The United Railways Co., of St. Louis, has been using 
the machine in breaking up its old track preparatory to rebuilding. 



[Vol. X, No. i. 

The rails shown in illustration arc 6-in. grooved girders weighing 
78 lb.; 7-in. rails have been broken and the machine is heavy enough 
to break 9-in. or even larger sections. 




A paper before tlie American Society of Meclianical Engineers by Mauiiset 
White and P. \V. Taylor, Bethlehem, Pa. 

There is, perhaps, nothing more indefinite in the industrial 
treatment of steel, than the so-called color temperatures, and as 
they are daily used by thousands of steel workers, it would seem 
that a few notes on the subject would prove of general interest. 

The temperatures corresponding to the colors commonly used 
to express ditTerent heats, as published in various text books, hand 
books, etc., are so widely different as given by diflfercnt authori- 
ties, it is impossible to draw any definite or reliable conclusion. 
The main trouble seems to have been in the defective apparatus 
used for determining the higher temperatures. The introduction 
of the Le Cliatelicr pyrometer within the last few years, has 
placed in the hands of the scientific investigator, an instrument of 
extreme delicacy and accuracy, which has enabled him to deter- 
mine the temperatures through the whole practical range of influ- 
ence, and led to the establishment of new melting and freezing 
points of various metals and salts, which are now accepted as the 
standard in all scientific investigation. There has not. however, 
been published any results with the Le Chatelier pyrometer seek- 
ing to establish a correspondence of temperatures with color heats. 

The first work done in this line, of which we are aware, is that 
of Dr. H. M. Howe, some eight or nine years ago. His results, 
however, have not been published, and with his kind permission we 
arc enabled to give them here: 

Dull red 625 to 550 C, 1,022 to 1,157 F. 

Full cherry 700 1,292 

Light red 850 1,562 

Full yellow 950(01.000 1,74210 1.832 

Light yellow 1.050 1,922 

Very light yellow ... . 1,100 2,012 

White 1,150 2,102 

The nomenclature used for color heats diflfers with different 
operators, but in our investigation we have adopted that which 
seems more nearly to represent the actual color corresponding to 
the heat sought to be represented. We have found that different 
observers have quite a different eye for color, which leads to quite 
a range of temperatures covering the same color. Further, we 
have found that the quality or intensity of light in which color 
heats arc observed — that is, a bright sunny day, or cloudy day, or 
the time of day, such as morning, afternoon, or evening, with their 
varying light — influence to a greater or less degree the determina- 
tion of temperatures by eye. 

After many tests with the Le Chatelier pyrometer, and different 
skilled observers working in all kinds of intensity of light, we 
have adopted the following nomenclature of color scale with the 
corresponding determined values in degrees Fahr. as best suited 
to the ordinary conditions met with in the inajority of smith 

Dark blood red. black red .' - 990 

Dark red, blood red, low red 1,050 

Dark cherry red 1. 175 

Mediuin cherry red 1.250 

Cherry, full red 1,375 

Light cherry, bright cherry, scaling heat, light red. . 1,550 

Salmon, orange, free scaling heat 1.650 

Light salmon, light orange 1,725 

Yellow 1,825 

T-ight yellow 1,975 

White 2,200 

With the advancing knowledge of, and interest in, the heat treat- 
ment of steel, the foregoing notes, it is hoped, may prove of some 
value to those engaged in the handling of steel at various tempera- 
tures, and lead to further and wider discussion of the subject, with 
a view to the better understanding and more accurate knowledge 
of the correct temperatures. The importance of knowing with 

close approximation the temperatures used in the treatment of 
steel, cannot be over-estimated, as it holds out the surest promise 
of success in obtaining desired results. 

This demand for more accurate temperatures must eventually 
lead to the use of accurate pyromctric instruments; but at present 
the only available instruments do not lend themselves readily to 
ordinary uses, and the eye of the operator must be largely de- 
pended upon; therefore, the training of the eye, by observing ac- 
curately determined temperatures, will prove of much material 
assistance in the regulation of temperatures which cannot be other- 
wise controlled. 

< • » 


The fan system of heating and ventilation has grown rapidly into 
favor in the last few years. As is generally known, the apparatus 
used in connection with this system consists of a fan which draws 
or forces air over a bank of steam coils, the air then being blown 
through conduits to the various apartments. To none of the many 
and varied classes of buildings to which it is applied is it better 
adapted than to the shops and car houses connected with street 
railway systems. 


One of the features which makes the system valuable for such 
application is the possibility of forcing a current of heated air into 
the car pits, rendering it easy to thaw out cars that are frozen up, 
and to dry out "grounded" cars in wet weather. While furnishing 
a uniform degree of heat, the system also provides perfect ventila- 
tion. This is an important feature in shops where a large number 
of men are employed, as comfortable surroundings and pure air 
are conducive to the best work. 

The American Blower Co., of Detroit, Mich., with offices in 
New York and Chicago and London, England, makes a complete 
line of apparatus for use in connection with heating and ventilating 
plants, and has had large experience in designing the system for 
use in street railway plants. 

What is recommended as a very convenient method for testing 
whether an armature is in balance and correcting defects is as fol- 
lows: Mount the armature in bearings which are free to move 
horizontally and then, as the armature will tend to rotate on its 
center of gravity, if the center of gravity does not lie in the axis 
of the shaft, the lateral motion of the bearings will indicate the fact. 
The heavy side can be marked on the shaft with a piece of chalk 
and counterweights added until the balance is perfect, as shown 
by the end bearings not moving. 


Robert S. S. Bergh, U. S. consul at Gothenburg, Sweden, writes 
the State Department as follows: 

"Another thing of importance in this country is electrical ma- 
chinery in general, which will be in great demand as soon as the 
people have fully learned the value of their nuinerous waterfalls. 
A large electric power plant will soon be built at TroUhattan; 
electric railways and tramways are being planned for Gothenburg. 
Lund Bjerrod and Jonkoping. In this line, as in everything else, 
the Gennans are always watchful; they pay close attention to 
details, and if necessary send experts here to study plans, etc., 
whereby they greatly increase their chances to introduce machin- 
ery. If it is not practical for Americans to do likewise they could 
possibly employ active agents to represent them here." 

Jan. is, lyoo.] 

STRF.KT RAliAVAY kl':Vll-:VV. 



A now banking and brokerage house was formed under this 
name on Nov. i, 1899, and has opened extensive offices at N03. 149 
to 153 Washington St., Chicago, for the purpose of carrying on a 
general business of this kind. The senior partner of the firm is 
Mr. W. F. Furbeck who was formerly connected with the north 
and west sides street railway systems of Chicago. 

Mr. Furbeck was born in 1848 in Schenectady County, N. Y. He 
came to Chicago in 1861 and entered the employ of the First Na- 
tional Bank of Chicago, in 1863, at tlic age of 15 years. He re- 
mained in this bank for 19 years and in 1882 accepted the position 
of cashier in the brokerage firm of Chas. T. Ycrkes, jr. & Co. In 
1887 he became private secretary to Mr. Yerkes who was then 
president of the street railway lines. In 1892 Mr. Furbeck was 
elected vice-president of the North Chicago Street Railroad Co., 
and continued in this office until the sale of that road to the Chi- 
cago Union Traction Co. 




The stock department of W. F. Furbeck & Co., is under the man- 
agement of Mr. J. Charles Moore who has also been identified with 
the work of Mr. Yerkes for 21 years, first in the banking and bro- 
kerage business tor eight years and later with the Yerkes' street 
railway lines of Chicago for 13 years. Mr. Moore's last position 
was that of secretary of the Chicago Union Traction Co. The ex- 
tensive experience of both Mr. Furbeck and Mr. Moore and their 
wide acquaintance insures a large and select clientage for the new 

The junior member of the firm, Mr. R. J. Furbeck, represents 
the house in New York and is a member of the New York stock 
exchange. He was formerly associated with the brokerage firm of 
A. L. Dewar & Co. 



Lieutenant S. Dana Greene, general sales manager of the 
General Electric Co., and his wife were drowned on January 8th 
while skating on the Mowhawk River at Schenectady, N. Y. About 
5:45 p. m. men working at an ice house some distance below the 
town heard screams proceeding from a point where a cut in the 
ice some 300 ft. wide had been made clear across the river; putting 
ofif in a small boat they picked up Mrs. Greene, who was in an 
unconscious condition and died shortly after. Not until some time 
later was it learned that Mr. Greene had been with his wife; then a 
search was made and after several hours his body was also re- 

S. Dana Greene was 35 years old, and was a son of Samuel Dana 
Greene, who was finst lieutenant and executive officer of the Moni- 
tor in the fight with the Merrimac, and a grandson of General 
George S. Greene, who died about a year ago at an advanced age. 
He was a graduate of the naval academy at Annapolis and stood 
at the head of his class. About eight years ago he resigned from 
the navy to go into the electrical business, and was one of the 
managers of the General Electric Co. at Schenectady. 

Four years ago he married Miss Cornelia Chandler, daughter 
of Admiral Chandler of the navy. Mr. Greene was a member of 
the Century and University clubs, was in the naval reserve and 
was naval aid on Governor Roosevelt's stafi". 

The Board of Railroad Commissioners oi the Slate oi New York, 
consisting of Ashley VV. Cole, Frank M. Baker and George W. 
Dunn, under date of Jan. 8, 1900, presented its 17th annual report 
to the Legislature. From this report we extract the following: 


The most notable circumstance, from the point of view of the 
public, during the past year, in connection with elevated railroads 
of the state (which arc all in New York City>, is that to a con- 
siderable extent the motive power of those in the borough of 
Brooklyn has been changed from steam to the third rail system. 
The work of equipping the remainder of the lines in Brooklyn is 
progressing, and it is expected that in the coming summer all of 
the elevated lines there will be operated by electricity. 

Several of the railroads in Brooklyn which in past years have 
been operated by steam have been converted to the overhead elec- 
trical trolley system, and three of them have been operated in con- 
nection with the elevated railroads through the construction of 
inclined planes at the points oi junction. The result has been that 
a passenger could enter an elevated railroad car at the entrance to 
the Brooklyn bridge, at New York City, and ride to Coney Island, 
without change of cars, for a single fare of s cents. 

The Manhattan Ry. in New York, is preparing to change 
its motive power from steam to electricity, third rail system. 

It is likely that operation by electricity will benefit the companies 
through economics which such operation will render possible; 
people living along the routes of these railroads will be benefited 
hy the removal of the annoyances caused by the operation of loco- 
motive steam engines; and it is probable that the traveling public 
will be better satisfied with the accommodations enabled to be 
offered through such operation. 

Several accidents, causing a stoppage of cars on that part of the 
Brooklyn system operated by electricity, have occurred. In one 
case on the Brooklyn Union Co's. line, passengers started to 
walk from the cars to a station, along a foot path which was not 
protected by a handrail. The cars started in the meantime, and a 
person who had tried to board the last car and was clinging to 
the gate, brushed against several of those on the footway, hurling 
them to the street, resulting in the death of two and the injury of 
several others. As the result of an investigation of this occurrence 
by its electrical expert, the Board recommended that the entire line 
of the Brooklyn Union Elevated R. R. be equipped with hand- 
rails on the sides of the structure. The company notified the Board 
that it would comply with this recommendation. 

.'\t the time of writing this report, the matter of the complaint 
of residents of the borough of the Bron.x. New York City, against 
the Manhattan Railway Co., as to its failure to construct its railroad 
from the present terminus at 177th St. and Tremont Ave. northward 
to Bedford Park and vicinity, is pending before the Board. 

The total number of passengers carried by the elevated railroads 
during the year ending June 30, 1899, was 213,248,419, a decrease 
of 14.528,133, as compared with 1898. This decrease is in large 
part accounted for by the fact that the returns of the Brooklyn 
Elevated Railroad Co. and its successor the Brooklyn Union Ele- 
vated Railroad Co. cover a period of but nine months, the other 
three months' statistics being included in the report of the Brook- 
lyn Heights Surface R. R. The number carried by the Man- 
hattan Ry. was 174.324.575. a decrease of 9.036,271, as compared 
with 1S98. 

The following accidents occurred on elevated railroads during 
the year ending June 30, 1899; Total killed, 19. of whom 5 were 
passengers and 8 were employes; total injured, 20, of whom 8 were 
passengers and 12 were employes. 


The percentage of dividends to capital stock of street surface 
railroad companies for the year ending June 30, 1899, was 4.67. 
The number of passengers carried on all the street surface rail- 
roads of the state, including the few remaining horse railroads, 
during the year ending June 30. 1899. including "transfers," was 
920,365.560. an increase over 1898 of 71.054.890. The number 
carried in the boroughs of the Bronx and Manhattan, New York 
City, including "transfers." was 509.314,816. an increase over 1898 
of 52.351.063. The number carried in the borough of Brooklyn 
(including some carried in the borough of Queens) including 



[Vol. X, No. i. 

"transfers," and including those carried during the last three 
months of the year by the Brooklyn Union Elevated R. R., was 
338,721,051. The table gives statistics relative to the operation of 
some of the more important street surface railroads during the year 
ending June 30, 1899. 

The following is a comparative statement of totals compiled from 
the reports of the street surface railroads for the years ending June 
30. 1898, and June 30, 1899: 

For year ending 
JaueSO, 1898. 

For year eDdiog 
Jooe 30. 1899. 

Capful iiock 

FttDded J*bt... 

UDfuDdiMl d«bt 

IU?.84I,303 33 

130,179.186 90 

3l.80ti,5l2 42 

233.635.3M SI 

31.84(4.384 20 

1».I53.716 5i 

12^130,661 65 

I,4&I.S0I 55 

11,18^.169 ?U 

l,4S0.f8fl 5« 

6.02Z.776 79 

5.799,359 32 

a. 631,007 34 

>IS1. 477,128 33 

J29 5:'l.a73 63 

S7.089,;j02 02 

26T,3fiC.036 05 

35.460,822 71 

21,:4-.>,563 63 

14.31K1S9 08 

1.636.006 43 

15.9.S4.::C5 51 

l,J79.rJ7 78 

6,711, lOS 76 

7.07B.219 50 

i). 14,003 30 

Cost of road BDd fqalpaieot 

lorotn* from ntberdoU'CM. 

Gro*» incoBie from »tt sourcM 

TaiMand n)ii>cellaaoona 

* I)ivid«nd« -. 

* iDcIuiles retipectively ffiterest. aod divideotJs paid by li-ssors from reulals received from 
leweM us fulloir^: 

!"<««" $1.6C«.I)C8 34 

DirideDds *2.7-J9,89l 32 

$}.3;o,oi)o a 

2,82S.«9J 60 

a. Snrplos. d. D«Qeit 

The total number of passengers killed during the year ending 
June 30, 1899, on the street railways using other than animal tractive 
power was 23, not including the IS persons killed in the grade 
crossing accident at Troy; employes, 12; other persons, 88; total, 
123, The injured were: Passengers, 287 (not including 17 at Troy); 
employes, 62; other persons, 215; total, 564. On the animal power 
roads 14 passengers were injured, 3 other persons killed and 11 

During the past year, in other states as well as in this state, 
many kinds of accidents which have until lately been considered 
incidents alone of the operation of steam railroads, have occurred 
on street railroads. Head-on collisions of motor cars have not 
been infrequent. Cars have left track. Rear-end collisions have 
occurred. Motor cars have struck wagons as well as other motor 
cars at crossings. Cars have been struck at crossings of steam 
railroads. Nearly all of these accidents have resulted in loss of 
life or injury. ' Many of them in this state, would have been 
avoided, if the companies had complied with the recommendations 
of this Board, repeatedly made, which are again repeated here at the 
end of this title. The Board has endeavored to see that its recom- 

mendations are compiled with, but co-operation of managers is nec- 
essary. Tliat some managers are not awakened to the dangers inci- 
dent to the operation by the new systems of power, seems to the 
Board to be proved by the accidents which have occurred. 

The electrical expert of the Board has made inspections of many 
crossings of electrical and steam railroads. His recommendations 
as to switch and signal devices to be installed at these crossings 
have been made the requirements of this Board, under section 36 
of the Railroad Law. The inspection of these crossings is proceed- 
ing, and it is the intention of the Board that each such crossing 
in the state shall have been inspected and recommendations in re- 
gard thereto, where necessary, made before its next annual report. 

In several instances in Brooklyn during the past year electric 
cars have been operated on the tracks of steam railroads. This 
method of operation has been investigated by the Board, and a re- 
port by the electrical expert on the subject will be found in the 
report. It is the intention in these instances that, ultimately, the 
railroads involved will be entirely operated by electricity. 

During the year the Board conducted a test of improved brakes 
for street surface cars. These tests covered a considerable period 
of time. At the time of writing this report the necessary com- 
pilations have not been made and the report as to the result is not 

Inspections and reports are constantly made by the electrical ex- 
pert and members of the Board as to the accommodations, in 
general, furnished the public by street surface railroad companies. 

The Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, Second Depart- 
ment, has decided that freight may be carried on street surface 
railroads. This is being done in several instances in the state at 
present, especially express business, the number of tons of freight 
carried during the year being 129,040. 

The average number of persons, including officials, employed 
during the year ending June 30, 1899. on all the street surface 
railroads of the state was 25.729. The aggregate amount of sal- 
aries and wages paid them was $14,447,573.82. The companies 
owned or operated on June 30, 1899, 4.743 electric and cable bo.x 
cars, 3.681 electric and cable open cars, 139 electric mail cars, 631 
electric and cable freight, express and service cars. Of these 
8,302 were reported as equipped with fenders. There were 1,406 
horse cars in operation. 

The Board renews its former recommendations as to the opera- 
tion of street surface railroads, especially in the following par- 

First. — Every street car which crosses a steam railroad at grade 

S&M Bur/aee Bailvay {Principal Companies) Receipts and Expenditures per Passenger and Cost 0/ Operation per Car Mile/or Tear Ending June 30, 1899. 


Central Crosslown, New York 

Dry Dock. East Broadway and Battery !.!.!!.!.!!!..!. 

Forty-second Street, Manhattanviiie and St. Nicholas Avenue. 




I 15 





3. 68 






Number of 

car mileage. 

Based upon Gross 

Earnings From 

Opkratios and 



Based upon Receipts 
From ALL Sources 
and Total Expend- 
itures, INCLUDINO 
Fi.ved Charges. 



7:: a- 









ct,st of 












U, 137,017 




































421. 9<5 



















3 45 


4 78 


2 J6 

6 40 

3 91 





12 94 
























>5 15 

Auburn . .... 

Brook ly n HelK'hts (0 ) 

Bufr,,lo and Ltjckport 

21 57 


Crosslown Street (Buffalo) ... 

Geneva, Waterloo, Sei,eca Falls and Cayuga Lake 


Glens Falls, Sandy Hill and Fort Edward 




14 98 


25 85 

Metropolitan, New York (b) 




23 03 

Niagara Falls and Suspension Bridge 


New York and Queens County 




Syracuse and Suburban . . 



Third Avenue, New York 


Troy City .... .... 


Union, New York 


Utlca Belt Line 





(rt) lucludes all lines controlled by Brooklyn Heights not making separate reports, ib) Includes all lines controlled by Metropolitan not making separate jeporta. 
(c) For nine months only. 

Jan. 15, 1900,] 



shall be equipped with a red flag for use during Ihc day and a red 
lantern for use at night. When approching such crossings the 
car shall come to a full stop at least 30 ft. from crossing, and shall 
not proceed until the conductor has gone upon the steam railroad, 
carrying the flag or lantern, and after ascertaining that the way is 
clear, given the proper signal for the car to proceed. At crossings 
protected by a system of derailing switches interlocked with signals 
on the steam railroad, and operated by a man stationed at the cross- 
ing, this recommendation docs not apply. The Board also recom- 
mends that at all grade crossings, on overhead trolley railroads, 
a V-shaped trough (perferably of metal) be constructed over the 
Iriilloy wire or wires to insure the mutor retaining the current, while 
the crossing is being made. 

Second. — That where two or more street car lines cross, or where 
they merge, an agreement shall be made as to which line shall 
have the right of way. The car that has not the right of way 
shall come to a full stop before crossing over the tracks of the 
other line, or entering on the joint track. 

Third.. — That cars passing in opposite directions shall not meet 
on street crossings. 

Fourth. — That the speed of the cars be reduced to a niiniiuum 
on all curves where the view is obstructed. 

Fifth. — That passengers be prohibited from riding on the run- 
ning boards or side steps of open cars. 

Sixth.. — That the passengers be^ not permitted to stand on the 
front platforms of open cars, and that only as many passengers be 
permitted on such platforms as can be conveniently seated. In 
the case of open cars that have no seats on the front platform, 
passengers shall not be permitted to ride on the platform, and the 
side gates shall at all times be kept closed. Under no circum- 
stances should passengers be permitted to ride on the front plat- 
forms of closed cars. 


The period covered by this report has been an exceedingly busy 
and prosperous one for the railroads of the state, and it may 
reasonably be expected that such conditions will continue to exist 
for some time to come. Experience teaches, however, that times 
of depression occur. Prudence requires that the directors and 
managers of railroad companies shall, during the prosperous period, 
endeavor to place the properties in their charge in such physical 
condition that they may, on the score of safety and convenience 
of the public, view with little alarm, if not with equanimity, the 
approach of less prosperous times. 

The Legislature at its last session passed the bill recommended 
by the Board providing that mortgages made by the railroad com- 
panies must be approved by this Board before issue, and bills 
amending the Grade Crossing Law in certain particulars. 



The new electric cars adopted as standard by the Third Avenue 
Railroad Co., of New York, are among the longest in use on any 
street railway in the United States. They were built after designs by 
John H. Robertson, superintendent of the company, are 41 ft. long 
over all and the bodies are 32 ft. in length. The platforms are large 
and with the extra wide doors make ingress and egress unusually 
easy, even when the car is crowded to its full capacity. There are 12 
cross seats on each side, giving a seating capacity of 48 passengers. 
The seats are provided with grab handles at the corners nearest the 
aisle for the convenience of passengers forced to stand. 

The car can be converted into practically an open car by drop- 
ping the windows into the sides. 

Each car is fitted with Standard air brakes. Four sets of cylinders 
and brake mechanism, one for each pair of wheels, are furnished, so 
that the breaking down of one would not impair the efficiency of 
the system. The cars weigh 40,000 lb., are mounted on Peckhani 
trucks and are driven by four 30-h. p. motors. 

James McGrath, a juror in a personal injury case against the 
Chicago City Ry., who was accused of soliciting a bribe from the 
company, was fined $50 for contempt of court. 

The controversy over street railway franchises in Milwaukee 
still goes merrily on, though now the company and the council arc 
in accord. 

While the ordinance was before the council both parties were 
active in debating the question. On December i8th Ihc council, 
by a vote of 25 to 17, ordered the ordinance to a third reading, 
after amending it so as to provide for tickets at the rate of 6 for 25 
cents, 25 for $1, good between 5:30 and 8 a. m. and 5 and 7 p. m., 
and for carrying firemen in uniform free. Otherwise the provisions 
were as given on page 866 of the "Review" for December last. The 
low-fare hours as amended are 30 minutes longer than in the orig- 
inal draft, which also provided for the free transportation of police- 
men and detectives oi^Iy. 

On December 21st an injunction was issued on the petition of 
Mr. H. A. Schwartburg, restraining the mayor, the 25 aldermen, 
llie city clerk, the street railway company, and others from taking 
any further steps looking to the passage, publication or acceptance 
of the ordinance; in this petition conspiracy was alleged. 

The answers denied any conspiracy and alleged that a legislative 
body cannot be enjoined, whereupon the petitioner was directed to 
show cause why the injunction should not be dissolved. The case 
was continued until January 2d. 

December 30th a second injunction was secured by Cassius M. 
Paine on behalf of the state, the allegation of the petition being 
that the council had no power to grant franchises to a company 
organized to carry freight, mail and express. 

January 2d, the mayor and council decided to ignore the injunc- 
tions, and the ordinance was passed by a vote 01 23 to I and signed 
by the mayor. Mayor Rose, in answer to an inquiry, made the 
following statement: 

"We became satisfied that the opponents of the ordinance in- 
tended to resort to every expedient to prevent the passage of the 
ordinance. The opposition from the beginning was unfair, and 
even dishonest. There seemed to be a deliberate attempt to mis- 
lead the people and to misrepresent the ordinance. 

"If the second injunction had not been served, the council would 
have waited for the decision upon the first injunction, but when 
the second was served and we received information that applica- 
tions for more were in process of preparation, we knew that it 
would avail nothing to wait for a final determination in the courts. 

"We were firmly convinced that the opposition was not prose- 
cuted in good faith, but solely for the purpose of delaying action 
upon the ordinance with the hope of defeating its passage by post- 
poning action upon it until after the next election. Its opponents 
calculated, beyond question, that if they could go to the people 
before they became familiar with the provisions of the ordinance 
by a practical demonstration that it would be defeated. 

"I am perfectly confident that the injunctions served are void: 
that they were secured merely for the purpose of delay and were 
not expected to be ultimately upheld by the courts, and when we 
became convinced of these facts and became satisfied that new in- 
junctions would be secured as fast as others were dissolved, we 
determined to exercise the power that is vested in legislative bod- 
ies and their executive under the organic law ;.nd constitution of 
the state and insist upon our right to proceed in the execution of 
powers which w-e claim the courts have no right to interfere with. 

"The ordinance is now in force and our people will speedily be- 
come familiar with the benefits it secures to them." 

January 3d the company began the sale of tickets according to 
the terms of the new franchise, and it is stated nearly every pas- 
senger bought tickets, so that the conductors' supplies were quickly 
exhausted. The company has not yet filed its acceptance of the 
ordinance and so is not in contempt. 

The court whose orders were ignored by the council has not yet 
taken action to punish the council for contempt, the hearing of 
the case on its merits not having been concluded. 

The TifBn, Fostoria & Eastern Electric Ry. has a boycott on its 
hands because fares were increased 50 per cent. 

There is now pending in the Detroit Common Council a general 
ordinance providing for the carrying of freight by the suburban 
and interurban electric lines entering that city. 

The employes of the Springfield (Mass.) Street Ry. are devoted 
to the game of whist and at stated intervals tournaments are held at 
the club rooms in the car barns, the conductors being pitted against 
the motormen. 



[Vol. X, No. i. 


The Leeds (Eng.) Tramways are being extended. 

The Idawara (Japan) Tramway Co. began running electric cars 
last November. 

It is stated Serpollet steam motors may be introduced on tram- 
ways at Tokyo, Japan. 

The City oi Birmingham (Eng.) Tramways Co. has reduced fares 
on its cable lines from 3d. to id. 

The street railway at Morelia, Mexico, is being extended two 
miles to the penitentiary at San Pedro. 

As soon as Government permission is given an electric line will 
be built between Yumoto and Kojiri, Japan. 

It has been decided by the city council oi Worcester, Eng., to 
lease the municipal tramways to a private company. 

It is proposed to build an electric tramway from Dundee to Car- 
noustie. Mr. Hopkins is electrical engineer for the former town. 

Dresden. Germany is to have a new electric line, which will be 
built by the A. G. Elektricitaetswerke, formerly O. I.. Kummer & 

The United Kingdom has exported coal during the past year 
at the rate of 1,000,000 tons per week according to a late compila- 

The British Government is purchasing hundreds of horses from 
various tramway companies for use in the Transvaal during the 

Mr. Alfred Dickinson of Birmingham, Eng., is said to have been 
granted important tramway concessions in Cape Town, South 

A Paris company is arranging to construct an electric road at 
Calais, France. United States Consul Milner, of Calais, can give 
further information. 

An electric railway will be built between Shiogama and Sendal, 
Japan, by the Rikuu Electric Railway Co. Eizo Konishi of Sendal, 
Japan, is said to be interested. 

The sanitary committee of the Thornaby (Eng.) Town Council 
has served notice on the tramway company that it must abate the 
nuisance caused by watering its lines. 

It is stated the St. Etienne (France) R. R. will be equipped elec- 
trically by the Societe Hydro-Electrique Roussillonnaise, 7 Rue 
Lafayette, Paris, which was recently formed for the purpose. 

In Dublin (Ireland) the Palmerston Park tramways are now 
running by electricity. The Dublin Tramway Co. has secured per- 
mission to build a number of new electric lines in Cork County. 

A company has been formed at Paris, known as La Compagnie 
des Tramways Electriques de Vanves a Paris et Extensions to 
construct and operate an electric tramway from Paris to Vanves 
on the Diatto system. 

In response to petitions from the workingmen of the city, the 
Dover (Eng.) Tramways Co. will run special cars at certain hours 
for working people at a fare of J^.d. for the distance of three miles, 
instead of id. — the regular rate. 

The City & South London Ry., one of the underground roads of 
London, has escaped paying city taxes this year by reason of a 
decision to the eflfect that as the line does not pass under any site 
previously occupied by a building, no assessment csn be made. 

The parliamentary committee of the Hull (Eng.) Town Council 
has decided to recommend the council to apply for a provisional 
order to construct a double line of tramways in Great Union St. 
and on the Hcdon Road, and to extend a number of existing tram- 
way lines. 

A bureau ol iniurmation has been established by the Italian gov- 
ernment at Rome lor the use of importers and exporters. All 
<|uestious dealing with trade with Italy will be answered. Address 
"Oft'icio d' Informazioni Commerciali. Ministero di Agricoltura, 
Indnstria e Commercio, Rome, Italia." 

The Huddersficld Corporation Tramways Co. reports total trafific 
receipts for last year of £32,372, an increase of £1,775 over the 
previous year; number of passengers carried 5,077,936, equal to 
the entire population of the city carried 50 times. Number of let- 
ters posted in the tramcar letter boxes 456,092. 

There is so great a scarcity of tramway cars in Great Britain 
that a number of town corporations are seriously considering the 
advisibility of erecting car building plants of their own. All of 
the regular car building works have orders enough nn hand to 
keep them busy for from one to two years to come. 

One little incident of the present war in South Africa is re- 
llected in the following cablegram from the Johannesburg City & 
Suburban Tramway Co. to the London office of the company. It 
reads: "All horses commandeered; hold Government receipts. 
Works entirely suspended; depot occupied as police barracks." 

Serious mob demonstrations occurred at Limerick, Ireland, re- 
cently in connection with the granting of a tramway franchise for 
the town. The citizens opposed the scheme and went to the coun- 
cil hall in a body hooting and jeering and threatening the members 
of the council with personal injury. Policemen succeeded in dis- 
persing the crowd. 

A disputed halfpenny has cost the South London Tramways Co. 
£150 in damages. A lady traveled on one of the company's trains 
from Chelsea Bridge to Clapham Junction and refused to pay more 
than lyid., the authorized fare for the journey, although the conduc- 
tor demanded 2d. The court has granted the lady £150 damages 
for her injured feelings. 

A large portion of the tramway lines in Liverpool has been 
equipped with the overhead electric system, but about 40 miles 
of track are still worked by horse haulage. A bill has been in- 
troduced in the city council providing for the reconstruction of all 
of these lines for electric traction, as well as for the construction 
of a number of new lines at a cost of over £270,000. 

Electric tramways are made responsible for a curious phenome- 
non at Brussels, states a contemporary. It has been noticed that 
since the running of electric cars in that city the trees along the 
route begin to turn brown and drop their leaves early in August 
and bud and even blossom again in October, while trees in other 
parts of the city retain their regular custom of dropping thear 
foliage late in the fall and do not put forth fresh blossoms until 
spring. It is believed the extraordinary state of affairs is due to the 
effects of leakage currents acting on the roots of the trees. Next! 

All the street railway interests in the city of Havana have been 
consolidated. These include the franchises owned by the Harvey 
syndicate, comprising the International Bank of Paris, Hanson 
Brothers of Montreal, G. B. M. Harvey, F. S. Pearson and others 
of New York City, and the concession known as the Torre Pla 
concession, covering 12 miles of streets and owned by the Ameri- 
can Indies Co., composed of Thomas F. Ryan, P. A. B. Widener. 
R. A. C. Smith, Sir William C. Van Home, William McKenzie 
and others. Construction work has been commenced, and it is 
expected a complete system of electric traction will be in operation 
by June 1st. 

Jan. 15, 1900. 




Very salisfadoiy progress has been made in preparing (or Ihc 
I'an-Anicrican Exposition to be held in I'.nffrilo (hiring the summer 
inonlhs of lyoi and the plans for the buildings are practically com- 
pleted. The accompanying illustration shows the Machinery and 
Transportation Building, in which our readers will be most inter- 
ested, which is SCO x 350 ft. It is designed in a type of Spanish 
Renaissance, the best examples of which on this continent arc 
found in the old mission buildings in California and Mexico. The 
Machinery and Transportation building forms a hollow square 


Copyright. 1899, by PAN-AMCRrcAN Exposition Co. 


with arcades on all sides, tin: interior court being 100 x 
court is adorned with a fountain surrounded by flowers 
The facades present an arcaded effect corresponding in 
to mission cloisters; the eaves with great overhangs 
picturesque. Each facade is broken by an important a 
feature, and each corner flanked with low pavilions, 
giving large plain surfaces for color, while the eaves 
shadows. The color sclieme is made up in reds and ye 
in tint. 

« ■ » 


200 ft. The 
and shrubs, 
add to the 
the design 
give deep 
Hows, light 

The night of December 23d over 2,000 lb. of trolley wire was 
taken from the lines of the Chicago Union Traction Co. in Ridge- 
land Ave., south of 22d St. 

The night of December loth, 1,300 ft. of trolley wire was taken 
from the lines of the Detroit & Northwestern road near Farming- 
ton, Mich. 

On December 14th two attempts were made to wreck a car on 
Hackensack and Ft. Lee line of the Bergen County (N. J.) Trac- 
tion Co.; it is believed that the motive was revenge for the arrest 
of a trolley wire thief some weeks since. 

On December 20th. 2,100 ft. of bond wire was taken from the 
tracks of the electric line between Burlington and Mt. Holly, N. J. 

On December 13th. the Delaware & Atlantic Telephone Co. suf- 
fered the loss of eight copper wires from its lines in Delaware 
County, Pa. The wires were cut down for a distance of two miles. 
This is the fifth theft of wire in this county within three months. 


The property of the Galveston (Tex.) City Railway Co. will again 
be sold on February 6th, the terms of the sale made. last Sep- 
tember not having been complied with. The road was first placed 
in the hands of a receiver on Oct. 13, 1897. when R. B. Baer was 
appointed receiver by the federal court. On Sept. 5th. 1899. the 
property was sold to Julius Run,gc for $905,000, who was formerly 
president of the company. On November loth the sale was con- 
firmed and the purchaser was given until December 20th to pay the 
balance of the purchase price. -\s this requirement has not been 
fulfilled the sale is declared void and a new one ordered. 

Last month the Consolidated Street Railway Co., of Grand Rap- 
ids, Mich., through the efforts of G. S. Johnson, president and 
general manager, inaugurated a mail collecting system that will 
nearly double the cfl'iciency of Ihc postal department in the city 
and suburbs. Two mail boxes of medium size and of the standard 
type such as are now used on street corners, arc placed on each 
car, one at each end. The box is placed inside the vestilnilc by 
the controller stand; an opening is made in the front of the car 
large enough to slip letters through. The side of the box from 
which the carriers remove mail is next the vestibule door, enabling 
collections to be made without entering the car. 

The instructions issued by the company to its employes for the 
care of the mail, explains fully the details of the system. These 
instructions, for a copy of which wc arc indebted to Mr. Johnson, 
are as follows: 

"You are expected to exercise proper care and diligence regard- 
ing the mail boxes, giving them as much attention as you would 
any other attachment to the cars, and at all times being careful 
to prevent breakages of the boxes. 

"Conductors will please see that all boxes arc open for the recep- 
tion of mail matter when they take their cars out in the morning. 
At night, the boxes will be closed by an employe of the postal de- 
partment, and the employes of this company will be careful to sec 
that they are kept closed until the cars are again ready for use. 

"There is likely to be confusion and misunderstanding for some 
time regarding the boxes. For that reason, I ask you to be espe- 
cially careful in your replies to questions regarding the mail service, 
being at all times courteous and gentlemanly, giving as much in- 
formation as possible. 

"You are not required to stop at a crossing or anywhere else 
for the purpose of allowing mail to be deposited only, except for 
mail carriers. It is expected that people who wish to deposit mail 
will be at the proper street crossings, and will take their chances as 
to whether or not cars will stop. If you have no passengers to get 
off and there are no persons to get on the car at any landing, you 
are not obliged to stop for mail matter. At the same time, you 
are expected to exercise judgment regarding it. If you find you 
have time to stop for the purpose of picking up mail, you must do 

A peculiar accident occurred on one of the cable lines of the 
Chicago LTnion Traction Co. on December 20th, a grip car being 
pulled in two; no one was injured. 


so, but your first duty and obligation is to keep on your schedule 
time and to carry out the instructions and desire of the company. 
It will be agreeable to the company to extend to the public every 
courtesy possible which will not impair the regular service, and it 
is expected by a combination of judgment and a desire to accom- 
modate that the public" can be very thoroughly served in the mat- 
ter of these mail boxes. 

"You will stop at any regular stopping place, at any time, when 
signaled by a mail carrier, and give him ample opportunitj- to de- 
posit what mail he desires. 

"Employes of the postoffice will be stationed in or about Campau 
Place and on Lyon St.. opposite the postofSce, and possibly at 
other locations, for the collecting of mail from the boxes. You 
will please give them time and opportunity to do this, assisting 
them if need be, so as to save as much time as possible. 



[Vol. X, No. i. 

"If any trouble arises oi any kind or character, regarding tliis 
service, if any breakages occur, or if anything happens out of the 
ordinary, ym will please report them immediately by telephone or 
messenger to the superintendent. 

"If a car is disabled, its number, the point where it is, and the 
place (shop or car house) to which it is being taken, must be im- 
mediately reported to the superintendent. This is of the utmost 
importance, because there may be mail in the boxes which must 
be taken out by the postal authorities, and not permitted to remain 
in the boxes while the car is in a car house or shop." 

President Johnson, writing on December 22d, says: "The system 
has been in operation since December i8th, and it is wonderful tn 
see what use has alreadly been made of the bo.xes. The number 
of letters coming in in this way is very large, and is constantly 
growing, and the public seems to appreciate the convenience 
greatly. Mail formerly deposited in street boxes at the outskirts 
of the city and which had to await the rounds of the carriers to be 
brought down to the main post office, now gets to the office from 
two to five hours sooner than before the new plan was adopted. 
So far, we have not experienced any inconvenience to speak of in 
stopping for mail or for the collectors." 



I piMtsch light 

The accompanying illustration shows a scene with which most 
travelers arc familiar [or much to the general public's delight, the 
Pintsch gas lamps can now be seen on almost every railroad car in 
the country, and also on the majority of the cable surface roads 
of the various American cities, and on some electrically propelled 
cars also. 

The rapid progress of this car-lighting system tells better than 
anything else could of the merits which the Pintsch light possesses. 
There are now in this country nearly 14.000 cars equipped with 
this system of illumination, which means a total of 70,000 Pintsch 
gas lamps in service. These 14.000 cars that are distributed over 

I IS railroads that have 
adopted this as the 
standard method of car 
lighting; the gas is made 
at 50 Pintsch gas works, 
located at various cities 
throughout this country. 
Pintsch supply stations 
are now established at 
necessary points all the 
way from Portland, 
Ore., and Montreal, 
Can., in the north, to 
Jacksonville, Fla., and 
Houston, Tex., in the 
south, and there is now 
no trip in which a pas- 
senger car might be em- 
ployed, where Pintsch 
gas cannot be supplied. 
The Safety Car Heat- 
ing & Lighting Co. that 
controls the Pintsch pa- 
tents in the United 
States, is also the owner 
of patents covering six standard heating systems that are employed 
by most of the principal railroads of this country. Some of these 
systems simply employ straight steam taken directly from the loco- 
motive; others are hot water circulating systems, operated either 
by steam from the locomotive or in conjunction with the Baker 
heater. The latter system is the standard that has been adopted by 
the Pullman and Wagner Palace Car companies. There are about 
80 railroads that are now using the steam system of the Safety Car 
Heating & Lighting Co. This company also controls a hot water 
circulating system for street railways, as well as electric heaters 
for surface cars. 

The general offices of the company are af 160 Broadway, New 
York, with a branch office in the Monadnock building, Chicago, 
and another in the Union Trust building, St. Louis. 

A fuse that will not arc or flash under any circumstances is sold 
by the Manville Covering Co., western representative for the H. 
W. Johns Manufacturing Co. The device consists of a fusible con- 
ductor enclosed in a tube with a peculiarly arranged filling en- 
tirely surrounding the conductor. The blowing of the "Noark" 
fuse under overload is a definite action occurring in a certain time 
interval for each definite increment of excess current, as deter- 
mined by the character of the service for which it is intended. Ow- 
ing to the arrangement of the surrounding material, the blowing 
lime interval at any period during the life of the fuse remains prac- 
tically constant, and simply varies in an inverse ratio to the amount 
of excess current above its rated capacity. 

The condition of the fuse is shown at all times by means of a 
tine wire extending along the outside of the case, and which breaks 
the instant the fuse blows. 


One of the handsomest calendars that has appeared for the new 
year represents children playing on the broad beach of one of our 
Atlantic coast resorts. The youngest, a little tot, is defying the 
approaching tide of the ocean, and in a spirit of bravado calls out 
to his companions who are eagerly watching him. "Who's 

Copy of this calendar carefully mailed in strawboard to protect 
in transmitting, will be mailed on receipt of 10 cents in postage 
stamps by W. B. Kniskern, G. P. & T. A., Chicago & North- West- 
ern Ry., Chicago, 111. 

Early application should be made as the edition is limited. 


The Niagara, St. Catharines & Toronto Railway Co., of St. 
Catharines, Ont., is rebuilding its steam road and equipping it with 
electricity. This company is a reorganization of the St. Cathar- 
ines & Niagara Central Railway Co. The officers are: President, 
J. A. Powers; secretary and treasurer, A. B. Colvin; general man- 
ager. F. A. Cheney. 

■» » » 


Mr. Horace L. Washington, U. S. consul at Valencia, Spain, in a 
recent report described a steel track laid for a distance of two miles 
on the road between Valencia and Groo and which has been in use 
for seven years. The road is nearly 40 ft. wide, with double tracks 


26.76 ft., center to center. The tracks are a trifle over 4 ft. gage. 
The rails consist of two flaring channels fastened together by bolts 
spaced 4 in. apart. The rails are held to gage by flat tie bars 
9-16 X 5 in X s'A ft., with slots cut into the upper edge, into which 
the flanges of rails fit, and the outer ones held by keys. 


The Homer, Mich., street railway was opened January ist. 

There are six of the branch lines of the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford R. R. which are now operated by electric power. These 
are the Nantasket Beach branch, 8 miles in length and which is op- 
erated by the third rail system; the Nantasket Junction to Pember- 
ton branch, 7 miles, which is operated by the overhead trolley; the 
Nantasket to Cohasset, 3'/> miles, operated by the third rail sys- 
tem; Berlin to New Britain, 3 miles, by third rail; Hartford to Bris- 
tol, 9 miles, third rail; New Britain to Bristol, 9 miles, third rail; 
Stamford to New Canaan, 8 miles, by the overhead trolley. 

Jan. is, 1900.] 




The McGuirc ManufacUiriiig company rcporls tlie year 1899 as 
one of the best it has ever had, and notwithstanding the enormous 
rise in the cost of material the year has been a very profitalilc one. 
Two orders of the same amoimts, placed just one year apart, 
explains the advance in iron clearly. In December, iSy8, the com- 
pany bought 1,000 tons of bar iron at $20 per ton. Kxactly the 
same date in 1899 the company ordered 1,000 tons of bar iron at 
$48 per ton. It is therefore enabled to make a good showing for 
1899 because .of purchases made in 1898 and early in 1899, that 
participated in the advance in the first half of the year 1899, and, 
while the business of the last half of the year was very much in 
excess of the first half, the prices of material had advanced so that 
everything equalized. The firm was therefore entirely satisfied with 
the year's business and anticii)ates for 1900 one of the best years 
it has ever known. 

While this company has always been busy in the truck department 
for the home market, during the year 1899 it sent its product to 
foreign markets which nearly encircle the globe. It has just com- 
pleted a large order for San Francisco, and other large orders for 
Havana, Cuba, Brooklyn Elevated, New South Wales, Australia, 
and has shipped to Gcrnrany, Kngland and France during the 

The new truck wliicli has been placed on the greatest number 
of lines is the No. 39. The general result of the use of this truck 
is best explained by one of the users. Mr. Cummings, of the 
Indiana Railway Co., South Bend, Ind., which is using these 
trucks on large inlerurban cars and where the schedule time is 
40 miles an hour, writes as follows: 
"These trucks for our high speed inter- 
urban service are highly satisfactory. 
They ride like a sleeping car. It is the 
simplest in its construction, and we do 
not hesitate to say that it is the best 
truck we ever saw. It has so many good 
points that it must be seen and used to 
be appreciated. Come down and see us 
and bring your friends and we will show 
you the very best equipped high speed 
service in the country." 

After the closest competition of all the 
truck makers of the country, this truck 
McGUiRE H.\NC.ER. 1,^5 ^j^^„ accepted by the Brooklyn Ele- 
vated R. R. Certainly, a simpler construction can hardly be imag- 
ined. It is not of more than ordinary weight, but the distribution 
of metal is such that it has been demonstrated to have the maximum 
of strength and durability, while its riding qualities are all Mr. 
Cummings says. 

A very important feature of the McGuire company's business has 
developed strongly within the last year; that is, the elastic brake 
hanger. It has been behind in filling these orders, a whole year, 
and it has been discovered that the different railway lines are put- 
ting them on all makes of trucks as well as those made by the 
McGuire company. The accompanying cut shows the elastic 
hanger as used. A feature that recommends this hanger is the fact 
that it automatically takes up its own wear and absolutely prevents 
kicking, and contains its own release spring. 

In the year 1899 the company did the heaviest snow sweeper 
business in all its history, bringing the total number of these 
machines in use throughout the country to about 500. The stove 
business has also been quite large and the company is so satisfied 
with the year's work in the stove line that it is preparing for an 
immense business in 1900. It claims that the public preference for 
cars heated by stoves is being felt; that the electric heaters arranged 
as they have been — concentrating the heat at six different points 
under the seats — are very oflfensive to passengers as well as being 
decidedly dangerous to the health of passengers wKo use the seats 
over these heaters. In cold weather there is call for such a strong 
heat at these points that the persons sitting over them are over- 
heated, and then leaving the car when it is possibly below zero, 
endanger health and life. The company calls attention to the com- 
mon scene of passengers looking under the seat to locate the heater 
so as to avoid the heat, while in the car heated by a stove, with the 
glowing coals seen through the isinglass, the passenger is com- 
fortable and satisfied, and runs no risk of catching cold therefrom. 
Besides this feature, the company claims that it is very much 

cheaper for railway companies to heat their cars by coal stoves 
than by current. For this reason it will not be caught another year 
as it was this — unable to supply the demand. 


Mr. Joseph Iloadlcy, of the American Air Power Co., advises 
us that the statement printed in the December "Review" that the 
compressed air cars had been withdrawn from the 28th and zgtii Si. 
crosstown lines of the Metropolitan Street Ry. in New York is 
in error. It appears that these cars have not been withdrawn yet. 


Kashmir, a slate oi India, is to have an tkciric railway 180 
miles long, so it is said. The line will connect Tumu and Srinagar, 
and will be operated by water power obtained from the Chenab 

The Bombay Tramway Co. is urging as one reason why it should 
be given permission to equip its road for electric traction, the 
fact that it is constantly having its horses drop dead in the street 
from heat. 

Mr. F. J. E. Spring, consulting engineer to the Government of 
India, for railways, has prepared a note on the subject of tramways 
in the province of Assam, India, in which he points out the neces- 
sity for such lines. 

Madras is said to be the only city in India having electric tram- 
ways. The lines in this city are owned by the New Madras Electric 
Tramways Co., which is a reorganization of the Madras Electric 
Tramways Co., whose property was foreclosed by the bondholders. 
It is stated a proposition has been made to the Madras munici- 
pality to operate the road as a municipal concern. 

The annual report of the Calcutta Tramway Co. for 1899 states 
that negotiations for the introduction of electric traction on its 
lines have been satisfactorily settled. The principal condition of 
the new agreement is. the company shall remain in possession of 
the lines for 30 years from Jan. i, 1901, in consideration of its con- 
verting the system from horse to electric traction within three 
years. Preliminary surveys are in progress and within a short 
time the directors will be in a position to let contracts for the 
construction of the power station, etc. 


In a paper on "Cement" read before the Franklin Institute by A. 
S. Cooper, the author gave the results of various tests on portland 
cement mortar to determine the effect of time on that material. It 
is the opinion of many engineers that a portland cement mortar 
which has stood an hour or two has lost some of its strength, but 
this was proved to be erroneous. 

Four large batches of mortar were mixed and briquettes were 
made by hand from each pile at intervals ranging up to eight and 
one-half hours after mixing. These were all carefully marked, 
stored away, and broken after one year. The results showed that 
the loss of strength after the eight and one-half hours' standing is 
practically nothing. In practical working with most portland ce- 
ment, if it becomes necessary for the mortar to stand for half a day 
even, no injury will result, according to Mr. Cooper, provided the 
precaution is taken to keep the mortar wet. 

In a recent decision Judge John Goodland. of Appleton, Wis.. 
holds that a street railway company or any company that has a 
franchise for the erection of poles on the highway, is not responsi- 
ble for accidents occurring in consequence of the poles being in the 
streets. He decides the city granting the franchise for the placing 
of the poles is the responsible party in all accidents arising there- 

The borough of West Pittston. Pa., has imposed license fees of 
$15 per car on the Wilkes-Barre & Wyoming Valley Traction Co. 



[Vol. X, No. i. 


In the "Review" for December last, page 821, was illustrated a 
type of temporary snow fence of which the International Traction 
Co., of Buffalo, has some 16 miles in use. This fence is made up in 
i6-ft. panels sl-i to 8 ft. high, and is set as shown in the engraving 
which we reproduce here. The fence is put out in the fall and re- 
moved in the spring. 

In order to get the experience of other roads with snow fences 
a number of letters of inquiry were addressed to interurban com- 
panies, but by far the greater number of answers stated that such 
fences were not used. 

Last winter the Boston Elevated RaiKvay Co. for the first time 
in its history made use of snow fences, placing them on private 
lands adjoining the highway at exposed points. The results were 


fairly satisfactory but the mistake had been made of setting the 
snow fences too near the tracks. This winter the company placed 
out considerably more snow fence than last year and set it about 
100 ft. from the tracks. The fence is portable and abutting owners 
give their consent to its use for a small or nominal consideration; 
it is indeed a benefit to the property owner as it assists in keeping 
drifts from the sidewalks. 

The details of construction of the Boston Elevated's snow fence 
and the manner of assembling the panels are shown in the accom- 
panying illustration. Fig. i. The sections are 16 ft. long, each made 
of three i x 6-in. boards nailed to 4 x 4-in. pieces at the ends and 
stiffened at the center by a I x 6-in. piece. The bottom board is 
placed 6 in. from the ground. 

The Lynn & Boston R. R. has less than 1-3 inile of snow fence 
on its system. Mr. E. C. Foster, general manager of the company, 
states that the fence has thus far proved of but little advantage, 
though the benefits of such a device where the surroundings favor 
the formation of drifts is recognized. 

The Dunkirk & Fredonia (N. Y.) R. R., the electric line con- 
necting these towns, has '/i mile of snow fence protecting a stretch 
of the interurban track. This fence is made by nailing three 1x6- 
in. hemlock planks, 16 ft. long to V-shaped supports made of pieces 

Concerning the benefits of this fence Mr. M. M. Fenner, manager 
of the Dunkirk & Fredonia, writes as follows: 

"We have had the worst snows this year that we ever knew, and 
have opened our road with the least trouble, on account of having 
extended the snow fences. Where wc had heretofore been com- 
pelled to keep 100 men shoveling for a week, we can now open the 
road w'ith half the number of men in a day, which feat we accom- 
plished January 3d. and have done the same thing twice before dur- 
ing the present season. This season has been a record breaker in 
this particular locality along the lake shore in the state of New York, 
taking in Dunkirk and Fredonia as a center, the snow being about 
3 ft. deep on the level. It has been so cold the snow has been very 
light and it has also been windy so that the drifts have been im- 

"We still need about a quarter of mile of fence, having about 
14 mile at this time, and will be able to get most of it as residents, 
as a general thing, do not refuse permission to have the fence put 
up late in the season and removed in March, after the period of 
heavy snows. We have used the fences about five years and at an 
early period had much trouble in getting a fence that would do the 
work, but after much experience in the use of it we have now what 
we think gives the best possible results." 

The Duluth (Minn.) Street Railway Co. has I'/j miles of the port- 
able snow fence shown in Fig. 2, which, during the winter months, 
is placed from 60 to 80 ft. from the exposed tracks, depending on 
the location. The company finds little difficulty in securing permis- 
sion from abutting owners to erect the fence on their land. The 
fence is made up in 12-ft. panels, with the supporting legs and 
braces designed to be folded up for handling; it will be noted that 
the longitudinal planks on this fence are more numerous and spaced 
closer than in the fences previously mentioned. When built in 1894 
the following was the itemized cost per mile: 

51,000 ft. lumber @ $7.50 per M $382.50 

2,640 machine bolts, yi-in., @ 85 cents per 100 22.44 

70 lb. ^-in. cut washers @ 3 cents 2.10 

300 lb. wire nails @ i3<2 cents 4.50 

51 days labor @ $2.00 102.00 

Total $513-54 

Mr. Herbert Warren, general manager of the company, in send- 
ing us the figures adds that at the present time the same quality 
of lumber would cost $13 per M and labor would cost $2.25 per 






2 .X 4 in, and 6 ft. long and spaced 8 ft. apart. When in place the 
legs of the V are nailed to stakes 2 ft. long driven in the ground. 
In placing this fence the company's practice differs frotn that of the 
Buffalo and Boston roads in that the longitudinal planks are all on 
the leeward side of the fence instead of the sections alternating as 
shown in the illustrations. The inclination is such that the top of 
the fence is from 4 to 4!/ ft. high. It is placed i-io ft. from the 


The company also has about Y^ mile of fence of a similar pattern, 
but not so high, and some brush fence upon the lines of the Lake- 
side Ry., which it operates. 

The Eastern Maintenance of Way Association at its meeting in 
September last received a report on the subject of wire and snow 
fences and for the latter it was recommended that when the right 
of way is sufficiently wide to permit, close board fences of suffi- 
cient height should be built. Where such is not practicable porta- 
ble fences in 12-ft. lengths to be fastened together with bolts were 
recommended. When permission can be secured from abutting 
property owners, these fences should be placed parallel to and 
about 100 ft. from the track. 

If the prevailing winds are approximately parallel to the track it 
is seldom that cuts will be filled with drifts. In some instances, 
however, it is well to build so-called wing fences; these are placed 
along the sides of the cuts, at about right angles with the track and 
at such distances apart as experience shows to be necessary. 

Jan. 15, 1900.] 




Il is aiinoiiiiccd that contracts liavc Imc 11 iiiadc Ijctwccn the 
.St. I.miis FiiiuTal Car Association ami llii- Si. I.oiiis Transit Co. 
and United Railways Co. for the operation of funeral cars over the 
street railway lines of the city. The tracks at present pass within 
a block of nearly all the churches and hospitals in St. I.ouis and 
temporary switches arc to be provided for the cars so that rcRular 
trallic will not be delayed by reason of the funeral service. 

Switches arc to be laid into all the ceinetcrics and chapels for use 
in inclement weather built. A novel feature contemplated is the 
building of four chapels in different parts of the city at which the 
funeral services can be held instead of at the late residence of the 
deceased, as is customary. 

< • » 


The traffic report of the South Side Klevated shows a daily avcr- 
age of 6i,gq4 passengers in 1899 as against 51,777 in i8g8. an increase 
01 ig.7 per cent. Tlic average daily traffic by months is as follows: 

* 1899. i8g8. Inc. 

January .s8.7')^ 5^-i>7 6,615 

February 60,292 52,682 7.610 

March 63.909 54,827 9.082 

April 63.878 54, 148 9.730 

May 59.588 4y,45y 10,128 

June 56.117 45.427 10,090 

July 52,644 44.148 8,496 

August 52,599 41,770 10,829 

September 52.599 41.77° 10,829 

October 73-793 .';8.i98 15.595 

November 69,972 59.257 10,715 

December 72,683 62,735 9,948 

The report presented at the annual meeting of the Metropolitan 
Elevated. January 4th, covered the period from July 1st to Decem- 
ber 30th. The traffic shows an increase of 22.37 per cent in the 
daily average as compared with the returns for 1898. The daily 
averages by months are: 

1899. 1898. Inc. 

July 67,498 53.878 13,620 

August 68,070 55.925 12,145 

September 76.184 60.702 15.482 

October 94.430 74.490 19.940 

November 88,820 74,745 i4,075 

December 90,682 77.168 13.514 

Average six months 80,930 66.134 14,796 

The figures on operation from July ist to November 30th are; 
Gross earnings, $624,158.10: gross operating expenses, $270,717.64; 
surplus applicable to stock, $99,078.33. 

This company has 13. 11 miles of double track. 1.67 miles of four 
track road and leases 4.38 miles of track from the Union Consoli- 
dated and loop companies. 

The Lake Street Elevated had a daily passenger average of 
37,266 in 1899 as against 33.948 for 1898. The gross earnings were 
$697,513.27; operating expenses. $,?3l. 552.87; interest, taxes and 
rentals of surface lines and loop, $372,318.82: surplus for the year. 
$3,639.58. It was announced that the company would complete 
two miles of three-track line this year, from 52d .\ve. to Rockwell 
St., whereby express service would be provided for the western 
traffic of the road. This, with the natural expansion of business 
from the Oak Park extension, would greatly increase the income 
of the road. From the three-track system the company expects an 
increase of about 5.000 passengers a day. 


The annual distribution of cash prizes to motormen and con- 
ductors was made by the Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Street 
Railway Co. early in January. The awards are made for clean cars, 
freedom froiu accident and attention to duty. Seventeen motor- 
men received $25 each, one motorman received $10, one conductor 
received $25. five conductors received $10 each and II conductors 
received $5 each. 


The second annual report of the Boston Elevated Railway Co., 
for an advance copy of which we are indebted to .Mr. II. L. Wilson, 
auditor, gives the following summary of the company's business for 
the year eniling Sept. 30, 1899: 

Gross earnings from operation $9,671,441 

Operating expenses 6,827,150 

Earnings from operation $2,844,291 

Payments under lease of West End St. Ry 2,357.968 

$ 486,323 
.'\dd interest on special deposits 84,696 

$ S7',oi9 
Taxes. Boston Elevated 257,420 

Balance $ 313.599 

Interest paid to holders of B. E. receipts 262,500 

Surplus for the year $ SI.099 

Operating Expenses. 

General expenses .....$ 835.OOO 

Maintenance of roadway and buildings 1,309,198 

Maintenance of equipment 602,521 

Transportation expenses 4,080,431 

Total $6,827,150 

Revenue Miles. 

Run by electric passenger cars 34.542,520 

Run by horse passenger cars Si.704 

Run by electric U. S. mail cars 174.294 

Total 34.768,518 

Passengers Carried. 

Revenue passengers on electric cars 190.898.995 

Revenue passengers on horse cars 124,229 

Total revenue passengers 191.023.224 

Free transfer passengers on electric cars 42,113,715 

Total passengers carried 233,136,939 

Plant and Equipment. 
Miles of track completely equipped with electric overhead sys- 
tem, 327; partially equipped. 3.9; miles of overhead electric feeder 
lines. 468. Number of horse cars, 248; of electric cars, 2,710; of 
mail cars. 11; of snow plows. 244: of snow sleds, 391; of miscel- 
laneous vehicles, 515. 

« ■ » 


The catalog of the Chisholm & Moore Manufacturing Co. for 
1900 contains a collection of drawings to scale, showing every sec- 
tion of rail rolled by the six leading rolling mills in this country, 
with the American standard rail joint as applied to each pattern. 
It will be remembered this company published a similar collection 
of drawings last year and these have been in such demand that it 
was decided to republish them this year with numerous additions. 
Copies of the catalog may be had on application to Chisholm & 
Moore Manufacturing Co.. Cleveland. O.. and no railway official's 
reference library will be complete without one. 


It is understood that the Xational Express Co. is interested in 
a plan to operate a night freight and express seirice on the lines 
of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. A year ago a similar scheme 
was discussed, but nothing came of it. The present plan is for a 
regular freight service to and from all parts of the city, with large 
receiving and distributing depots. A ferry ser\-ice connecting with 
Manhattan and Jersey City railroad stations is included in the 


» ■ » 

The Toledo Traction Co. has made a donation of $250 to the 
Toledo Public Library. 



[Vol. X, No. i. 


On January lotli ihe annual meeting of the stockholders of the 
Capital Traction Co., of Washington, D. C, was held at the offices 
of the company, 91,705 shares being represented out of the total of 
of 120,000. 

The following were unanimously chosen directors: George T. 
Dunlop. Charles C. Glover, Henry Hurt, John G. Parke. Edward J. 
Stellwagen, Wm. Manice, Maurice J. Adler. 

It was voted to authorize $1,500,000 of bonds dated Apr. 2, 1900, 
payable in 20 years and bearing interest at the rate of 4 per cent, 
payable semi-annually; the company retains the option to redeem 
the whole or a part after three years at 5 per cent premium. Of the 
total, $1,080,000 will be offered to stockholders at par and $420,000 
held in the treasury. 

The proceeds will be used to retire an issue of 5 per cent bonds 
authorized Jan. 12, 1898, amounting to $1,000,000; to funding the 
present floating indebtedness of about $80,000, and to providing a 
fund from which there can be restored to the earnings account the 
sum of $150,670 nsed for improvements, and further sums used for 
extensions and additions to the equipment. The cost of installing 
the underground system was in excess of $1,500,000. 

The directors met on the same day. January loth, and re-elected 
the officers, who are as follows: 

Geo. T. Dunlop, president; C. C. Glover, vice-president; C. M. 
Koones. secretary and treasurer; David S. Carll, chief engineer and 


On December 21st Secretary Marlowe sent the following circular 
to stockholders of the Chicago Consolidated Traction Co. explain- 
ing the plan for amalgamating that company with the Chicago 
Union Traction Co. : "Arrangements have been made so that the 
holders of the stock of the Chicago Consolidated Traction Co. 
will receive for each share of stock the sum of $45, payable in 454 
per cent 40-year gold bonds of a kind to be decided by the counsel 
for the company, and which bonds are to be guaranteed, principal 
and interest, by the Chicago Union Traction Co. The stock shall 
be held in such manner as to be additional security. The bonds 
will be of the denomination of $1,000. .Any of the holders of the 
stock of the Chicago Consolidated Traction Co. who may desire 
to accept this offer will please notify me on or before Dec. 31, 1899, 
and deposit their stock with the undersigned." 


The barns of the South Chicago City Ry. at Hammond, Ind., 
were destroyed by fire early on the morning of January 9th. The 
barn was a brick building 72 x 225 ft.; the rolling stock destroyed 
included 32 cars, sweepers and sprinklers. No serious delay in 
traffic was occasioned as by the time cars were scheduled to leave 
temporary repairs had been made of the line connections destroyed. 



The Cleveland City Railway Co. distributed $5,000 to its employes 
on Christmas. 

The London (Ont.) Street Ry. distributed $500 among its em- 
ployes on Christmas. 

The Consolidated Street Ry., of Seattle, Wash., announced a 10 
per cent advance in wages on Christmas. 

The Savannah (Ga.) Thunderbolt & Isle of Hope Ry. presented 
each of its employes with a turkey or its cash equivalent. 

Each employe of the Union Elevated Railroad Co., of Chicago, 
received a gift of $10 on reporting for duty Christmas day. 

The Galveston (Tex.) City Railroad Co., by its receiver. Major 
Baer, made all of its employes the present of an extra day's pay. 

The Columbus (O.) Street Ry. presented 400 turkeys to the mar- 
ried men and 97 silver dollars to the single men in its employ on 

The Nashville (Tenn.) Street Ry. served coffee and hot rolls at 
the transfer stations from s to 8 a. m. and a Christmas dinner was 
provided at restaurants for all employes. 

The Chicago Consolidated Traction Co. served Christmas dinners 
from 10 a. m. to midnight at its car barns and all the employes 
who had to work that day had from one to three meals as the 
company's guests. 

For some time past the Cincinnati Street Ry. has been fitting up 
a portion of its old cable power station for the use of its employes 
as club rooms, and they wore opened to the men on Christmas day. 
President Kilgour and other officials of the company were present 
at the opening. Rooms are to be fitted up at the other power 
houses and stations. 

In some cities Santa Claus by reason of press of other business 
was unable to get around until a week later. 

The Topeka (Kan.) Ry. increased wages 20 per cent dating from 
January ist. 

The Lexington (Ky.) Street Ry. announced on New Years that 
wages would be increased 25 per cent. 

The Franklin (Pa.) Electric Street Ry. suspended traffic from 12 
to 1:30 on New Years day and entertained its employes at dinner. 

The Zanesville (O.) Electric Ry. announced that beginning Janu- 
ary 1st wages would be increased 10 per cent. The company also 
offers premiums of $10 to the motormen and $5 to the conductors 
operating cars for six months without accident. 

The Cleveland Electric Ry. gave a dinner to its employes and 
their wives on the night of January ist; the dinner was served in 
the club rooms at one of the barns. President Everett and Super- 
intendent Douglass were present and made short speeches. 

The New Orleans & Carrollton Railroad Co. added extra time to 
the pay roll of its men as follows: Those continuously in the serv- 
ice of the company from Jan. i, 1899, to Dec. 20, 1899, three days' 
extra pay; from July i, 1899, to Dec. 20, 1899, two days' extra pay; 
all other employes, one day's extra pay. President Newman in 
announcing the order added: "The efficient and satisfactory serv- 
ices rendered and the marked interest displayed at all times by its 
employes is a guarantee of its success, and its success is that of 
those employed by the company." 


The city of Toledo, O., has sold its gas plant to private parties 
for $228,000. This is the plant which cost the city $1,500,000 (paid 
by a bond issue) and from which it has received a gross total reve- 
nue of $100,000. Those interested in further details should refer to 
our issue of December last, page 845. 


One oi our readers sends in the following, a copy of a report 
turned in recently by one of his men. For brevity it rivals Dewey. 

"Car going south at Third St., bicycle coming north, boy kick- 
ing at dog. When most to car turned in front car. Boy not 
hurt, bicvclc damaged." 


December 30th a Panhandle train struck a Chicago City Ry. car, 
injuring three persons. 

On December 23d a St. Louis trolley car was struck by a freight 
train, the motorman being killed and three of the six passengers 

December 20th an Illinois Central engine moving at slow speed 
struck a car of the Urbana & Champaign Railway, Gas & Electric 
Co. at a grade crossing and seven persons on board the trolley car 
were slightly injured. 

An express train on the Pennsylvania R. R. ran into an elec- 
tric car at Delta Ave., Cincinnati, on December 15th. demolish- 
ing the .car and damaging the locomotive. The car was filled with 
passengers, but none were badly hurt. 

December 28th a car on the Cleveland (O.) Electric Ry. ran into 
a freight train at a grade crossing; there were 15 passengers on 
board, but only two or three were injured slightly. The collision 
was due to the rails being wet and it is alleged a defective brake on 
the trolley car. 

Jan. 15, 1900.] 




Tin D.iyidii & Xc-iiia l''.lc-clric Uy. is in operation. 

Tlic I'coria iSi I'ckiii Co,, of I'coria, 111., lias been form- 
ally opnu'd. 

The govirmncnt pays 1.2 cents a mile for all mails carried by llie 
liroolilyn Rapid Transit Co. 

Tile Greenwood ICleclric Ry., connecting Greenwood and Indian- 
apolis, Iiid., is open for traffic. 

The Reading (Pa.) Traction Co. declared a dividend of 50 cents 
per share payable January ist. 

A mail si'rvice has been established between (joshen and ElUliart, 
Ind., over the Indiana Electric Ry. 

Tlie Metropolitan .Street Ry., of New York, lias declared its reg- 
ular i|U.irlerly dividend of i.)4 per cent. 

All the conductors and molormen of the Toledo Traction Co. 
will hereafter wear a regulation uniform. 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Co., of Kansas City, Mo., spent 
nearly $2,000,000 in improvements last year. 

The Chattanooga Rapid Transit Co. has completed a 9-mile ex- 
tension from Chattanooga to Chickamauga Park. 

The recently completed Carnegie (Pa.) Heidelberg & Bridgeville 
Electric Ry. was placed in operation January 6th. 

The College Hills & Park Line Ry., of Sherman, Tex., was sold 
last month to satisfy a deed of trust, to J. P. Harrison. 

The city of Chicago has sued the Union Loop Co., alleging that 
the latter sweeps dirt from the structure into the streets. 

Ray C. Logan, who is held responsible for several hold-ups on 
street cars in Chicago, has been sentenced to the penitentiary. 

An injunction restraining the city of Dallas from selling the prop- 
erty of the Dallas Consolidated Electric Street Ry. has been se- 

Power from tlie Mechanicville (N. Y.) water power plant is used 
on the Albany and Troy branches of the United Traction Co., of 

The North Milwaukee line of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Co. was formally opened on the evening of Saturday, Decem- 
ber i6tli. 

A steam heating system for supplying heat to the residences and 
business houses in the city is contemplated by the Findlay (O.) 
Street Ry. 

A new company will be torined to operate the new Paltz (N. 
Y.) & Walkill Valley Electric R. R.. which has been sold at re- 
ceiver's sale. 

Over 1,600.000 passengers were carried last year by the Leaven- 
worth (,Kan.) Electric Ry.. an increase of 550,000 as compared with 
the previous year. 

A car on the Detroit (Mich.1 Rapid Ry. was derailed on Janu- 
ary 7th by a misplaced switch, evidently the work of some one 
with malicious intent. 

Combination opened and closed cars will be operated all winter 
by the Metropolitan Street Railway Co, of New York City, no mat- 
ter how cold the weather. It is stated smokers demand the open 

The llavcrford St. repair shops of the Union Traction Co., o( 
Philadelphia, were partially dcslroye<l by fire on January 2(1. The 
loss is placed at $15,000. 

Four non-union men accused of taking pan in a riot, the oiil- 
growlh of the recent street railway strike at Bcliiiilli- V Y wire 
lined from $25 to $50 each. 

A ((uarlcrly dividend of 60 cents per share on its capital stock 
was declared by the Market Street Railway Co., of San Francisco, 
payable after January lolh. 

The British Institute of Electrical Engineers and the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers will probably hold a joint meeting 
(luring the Paris Exposition. 

The Evansvillc (Ind.) Street Railroad Co, lias paid into (lie 
city treasury the sum of $2,940, representing 2 per cent of the road's 
earnings for the past year. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R, R. has decided to re- 
duce passenger rates between Syracuse and Balwinsville, N. Y., to 
compete with the electric line. 

The offices of the New York & Queens County Electric Rail- 
road Co. have been moved into a new building at Nos. 5 and 7 
Borden Ave., Long Island City. 

A breakdawn in the power house of the Santa Barbara CCal.) 
Consolidated Electric Co. recently necessitated the running of an 
old mule car on State St. for several days. 

The Circuit Court of Cook County has ruled that the repeal of 
the Allen law at the last session of the Illinois Legislature did not 
abolish the necessity for frontage consents. 

It has been decided to consolidate the Gardner (Mass.) Street 
Railway Co. and the Gardner, Westminster & Fitchburg Street 
Railway Co., under the name of the latter. 

The Muskegon (Mich.) Street Railway Co. has placed on sale 
working people's tickets at the rate of six for a quarter. The tickets 
are good until 8 a. m., and from 5 to 7 p. m. 

The council of Kirkwood. a suburb of St. Louis, has passed an 
ordinance prohibiting any street railways operating within its limits 
from carrying any mail, baggage or express matter. 

The residents of South Omaha, Neb., have petitioned the mayor 
and city council of Omaha to ask the Omaha Street Railway Co. 
to extend its lines and improve its service to that suburb. 

The Haverhill (Mass.) Georgetown & Danvcrs Street Railway 
reports gross earnings for the year ending Sept. 30, 1899. of $23,299. 
Under the excise tax law the company pays the city $96.30. 

The Denver City Tramway Co. is to be prosecuted for not com- 
plying with the car heating ordinance. It is believed that the com- 
pany has not been given a reasonable time in which to comply. 

Boston experienced the first heavy snow storm of the season on 
January 1st. and all of the snow fighting facilities of the Boston 
Elevated R. R. had to be called into use to keep the cars moving. 

The Dotz Third-Rail Electrical Co. was incorporated in Delaware 
last month, with an authorized capital of $2,500,000. W. W. Dotz 
and William Reinhart. of New York, are among the incorporators. 

A consolidation of the Virginia Electric Co.. Norfolk Street Ry. 
and the Norfolk & Ocean View Railway Co.. of Norfolk. Va.. has 
been completed, under the name of the Norfolk Railway & Light 

The property of the Phoenix City (Arizona'i Railway Co. was 
sold on December 28th by the receiver for $33..Vt2. The purchaser 
is the Phoenix Railway Co., a California corporation, and it is be- 
lieved that Gen. M. H. Sherman who was at the head of the old 



[Vol. X, No. i. 

company is interested in the new one. The sale was ordered on 
account o( a judgment for $354,000 secured by the Valley Bank ot 
Phoenix as trustee for the bondholders. 

■■\n application of the .Vtlanta (Ga.) Railway & Power Co. for the 
privilege of laying underground pipes for the purpose of supply- 
ing steam heat to the public has been held up by the Board of 

By the deposit on December 27th of $4,500,000 with the Conti- 
nental National Bank, of St. Louis, the final step in the transfer of 
all the consolidating lines in St. Louis to the United Railways Co. 
is completed. 

.■\ gang of pickpockets is successfully working the street cars in 
Baltimore, as shown by the large number of losses reported by pas- 
sengers. The holiday season, with its crowded cars, offered great 

The Chicago City Council has passed an ordinance requiring all 
street raiUvay companies in the city to replace all flanged rails with 
grooved rails within five years. From this time on new track must 
be laid with grooved rails. 

.•\niong recent petitions to the Massachusetts Legislature was 
one from the Boston & Suburban Express Co. for authority to per- 
mit street railway companies to furnish it facilities for transporting 
mails, parcels and express matter. 

The Newark (N. J.) Tax Board has announced that it intends 
to tax as real estate, the franchises of street railway, electric light 
and other companies enjoying public grants of this nature. The 
matter will be taken into the courts. 

The Union Traction Co., of .'\nderson, Ind., will probably make 
arrangements for entering Indianapolis over the tracks of the 
Indianapolis Street Railway Co. It is stated very friendly relations 
exist between the two corporations. 

Owl cars on the Broadway cable road in St. Louis are now 
operated by electricity instead of mules as heretofore. It is an- 
nounced within a few months the Broadway line will have been 
entirely converted to electric traction. 

The Berlin power station that supplies current for the third rail 
section of the New York. New Haven & Hartford R. R. was 
forced to shut down recently for several hours owing to the failure 
of the water supply due to the severe drought. 

It is stated in Spokane (Wash.) papers that President Hill, of the 
Great Northern R. R., ex-Senator Warner Miller, of New York, 
and others are to build an electric road to connect the Republic min- 
ing camp with the Spokane & Northern road. 

The statement is made that the company owning the union loop 
in Chicago is about to make application for permission to buifd 
elevated railways in .^dams and Monroe Sts., from Fifth Ave. to 
Wabash .Ave., thus changing the present loop into two smaller ones. 

The Monongahela Traction Co., of Pittsburg, is about to lay out 
a new ball park at Kennywood. The athletic grounds will be a 
level field 450 ft. long and 350 ft. wide, with a grand stand having 
a capacity of 2.200. and two extensive bleachers at the side of the 

The litigation in the supreme court over the consolidation of the 
Cincinnati & Hamilton Electric Street Ry. and the Cincinnati & 
Miami Valley Traction lines into a through line from Cincinnati to 
Dayton has been compromised and through cars will soon be in 

The Bay Cities Consolidated Ry. has effected a settlement with 
the bridge cominissioners of Bay County which puts an end to a 
controversy which has been pending for some time, and gives it 
the right to use the bridge and approaches on the payment of $500 
per annum. 

The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. on January ist made a 5 per 
cent advance in the wages of employes who had been continuously 
in the service for two years, 10 per cent for those in the service for 
three years, and 15 per cent for those who have been with the com- 
pany five years or longer. 

.Vbutting proi)erty owners have brouglu a number of suits against 
the Union Elevated R. R.. Chicago, alleging damages by reason of 
the shutting out of light and by the vibrations. Similar suits filed 
some time ago have been decided in favor of the company and arc 
now pending in the upper courts. 

The gross receipts of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Co., for the year ending Dec. ,^i. iSgg, were $1,977,193, on which 
the company will pay taxes of $79,088 to the city. The gross earn- 
ings of the Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Co., were $232,500 
on which city ta.xes of $4,650 will be paid. 

The attorneys of the city of Columbus, O.. have advised the 
council that the resolutions passed recently declaring sundry street 
railway franchises forfeited and directing the clerk to advertise 
them for sale, are void, as the council had no authority to take such 
action; it must originate with the board of public works. 

As the result of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co's. new transfer 
system whereby all the through travel from the suburbs is carried 
on the elevated roads, the traffic over the Bridge has increased to 
190,000 passengers a day. The greatest number of passengers car- 
ried when this railroad was controlled by the municipality was 
from 145.000 to 150,000 a day. 

The Tri-City Railway Co., of Davenport. la., has opened its new 
line to the Arsenal at Rock Island for the accommodation of the 
Government employes at that place. Special .'\rsenal cars will be 
run for this purpose morning and evening, and specTal employes' 
tickets entitling the holder to one round trip ride each working day 
in the month will be sold at $2 per month. 

.'\n attempt to hold up a street car in Seattle, Wash., on Decem- 
ber 28th, resulted in the death of one of the would-be robbers and 
the wounding of several of the passengers. Two masked men entered 
the car, which carried eight people, at II o'clock p. m., and ordered 
the occupants to throw up their hands. Instead of doing so several 
of the passengers opened fire on the highwaymen with the above 

A deliberate attempt to wreck an electric car belonging to the 
United Railways & Electric Co., of Baltimore, was made last 
month on the elevated trestle over North St. An unknown 
person placed a large paving stone on the track between the rail 
and the wooden guard, but fortunately the first car that struck the 
stone was moving slowly and no damage aside from derailing the 
car was done. 

Acting on the report of the fire chief of New York City that an 
unusual number of collisions between cars and fire apparatus had 
occurred recently, both the Metropolitan Street Railway Co. and 
the Third Avenue Railroad Co. have issued instruction to all 
the motormen and gripmen to stop their cars before crossing 
streets in which fire companies are stationed, to see if a fire engine 
or truck is approaching. 

,\n authority states that the first-class passenger fares on the 
steam roads of the United States last year averaged 2.14 cents per 
mile. In England the first-class fare is 4 cents per mile; the third- 
class fare is 2 cents per mile; in Prussia the fare is 2.99 cents per 
mile; in Austria 3.05 cents per mile, and in France 3. ,36 cents per 
mile. These figures were compiled by George H. Daniels, of the 
New York Central R. R. 

.•\ new price list of leather belting has been adopted by tlie 
Leather Belting Manufacturers' Association. The following prices 
from this list will give an idea of the revised schedule: Single belt- 
ing, Vz in. wide, 8 cents a ft.; i in. wide, 14 cents a ft.; 2 in., 34 
cents: 4 in., 72 cents; 6 in., $1.11; 8 in.. $1.48; i ft. wide, $2.22; 2 ft., 
$4.44; 3 ft., $6.66; 4 ft.. $8.88; 5 ft., $11.10; 6 ft., $13.32. Double belt- 
ing is twice the price of single belts. 

Jan. is, 1900.] 



A suit for foreclosure of mortgage has been filcil against the 
Astoria (Ore.) Street Railway Co., and Judge Mc Bride lias been 
ai)i)oinlcd receiver of the property. The mortgage is a first lien 
and lIuTc is now due the principal of $25,000 and $4,S(X) accrued 
interest. The company owns three miles of electric road, five 
motor cars and two trail cars, and one 80-kw. generator, one 
IJ5-I1, p. engine and one 200-h. p. boiler. 

The Ke(jl<ul< & Hamilton Water Power Co. lias been incor- 
porated in Iowa by capitalists of Keokuk, la., and flamilton. 111., 
to develop the water power of the Des Moines rapids of the Mis- 
sis.sippi River, and transmit it electrically to various cities and 
towns of the two .states. The officers of the company are: Charles 
P. Hirge. Keokuk, president; R. R. Wallace, flamilton, vice-pres- 
idinl : I'.dw.uil Jarger, Keokuk, secretary and lre;isurer. 

Piesidenl W. Caryl ICIy of tile Intern.ilional Traction Co., of 
BufTalo, in a recent interview regarding the street railway trans- 
portation facilities at the coming Pan-.\merican Exposition said 
in i)art: "We will have five lines of street cars running to and 
from the exposition grounds and will be in a position to care for 
from 75,000 to 100,000 persons an hour. North of the grounds 
we will have terminal tracks with room for between 400 and 500 

The city council of Buffalo, N. \' , has passed a resolution requir- 
ing the Butifalo Traction Co. to begin the building of a few new 
lines next spring, allowing an extension of time on several other 
lines, relea.sing the company from its obligation to build a number 
of lines lliat were originally intended to parallel the routes of the 
BulTalo Railway Co.. and removfiig the legal obstacles in the way 
of an actual consolidation of the Buffalo Traction Co. and the Buf- 
falo Railway Co. 


At the recent meeting of the Fairmount Park Transportation Co., 
of Philadelphia, the president stated that Woodside Park, in which 
the company had invested $,100,000, was in fine condition. The 
Transportation Co., during the year ending October ist last, ad- 
vanced the Woodside Park Co. $45,000, and in addition expended 
$20,000 in improvements. The number of passengers carried for 
the year was 2,552.562. an increase of 309.408 over the previous year. 
Net receipts were $70,952. 

The bitter feeling in consequence of the recent strike in Cleve- 
land has not entirely disappeared, as is evidenced by the number 
of arrests that have been made of persons willfully annoying the 
new conductors and injuring the company's property. The chief 
amusement of the rowdies who caused the trouble was the ringing 
up of fares, for which the conductors would have to account. An- 
other pastime was the cutting of the trolley rope and annoying 
peaceably disposed passengers. 

The report of the Board of Railroad Commissioners of Maine 
for the year ending June 30, 1899, states there are 240 miles of street 
railways in the state, three of which are horse and the rest electric. 
The total gross earnings for all the roads is given at $1,090,418: 
operating expenses. $686,420; net earnings. $403,998. There were 
two passengers killed and seven injured. Total number of passen- 
gers carried was 18.496.374. Motormen and conductors on street 
railways of Maine arc paid from $1.43 to $1.60 per day. 

The State Board of Equalization of Connecticut has completed 
the work of auditing the returns of the steam and street railway 
companies of the state for calculating the ta.xes. The largest 
amount of tax paid by any electric road is by the Fair Haven &. 
Westville Ry., which pays $36,728.73, the stock being valued by 
the board of equalization at $25 per share. The next highest trolley 
taxpayer is the Hartford Street Railway Co.. $30,296.47, the stock 
being valued at $125 per share. The smallest amount of tax is 
paid by the Newington Tramway Co.. which has an existence 
practically in name only. The amount is 8 centK 

The superior court at New Haven, Conn., has awarded judgment 
for $3,000 damages to the parents of a child killed by a car of the 
Derby (Conn.) Street Ry. The defendant at the trial made the fol- 

lowing argument, that "as the statute authorizes the Railroad Com- 
misioners tti require street railways to place fenders on their cars 
svhenever public safety requires it, this authority in\csted in the 
commissioners is exclusive and deprives the court of the power to 
find negligence from their absence in cases where the commission- 
ers have failed to order their use." It is held, however, by the Hart- 
ford court that this is not goorl law 


The accompanying illustration is from Indian Engineering, in a 
recent issue of which is reprinted a letter, dated Nov. 2, 1891. from 
the invent(jr, W. J. Addis. The tramway consists of a single rail; 
the vehicles are any of those in ordinary use with the addition of 


one or more centrally located wheels to bear on the rail. -Mr. 
Addis states that the road has been worked in Europe, India and 
Burma, and recommends it for feeder lines and famine roads. 


Mr. Onward Bates, engineer and superintendent of bridges and 
buildings of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, recently presented 
before the Western Society of Engineers, of which he is president, 
an account of the experience of his road with worm eaten piles. 
The company uses Wisconsin oak for piling when this timber can 
be secured, but on one occasion was obliged to get a lot of Ar- 
kansas oak piles. These were driven in various bridges on the 
company's lines; two years later it was discovered that worms were 
eating the Arkansas piles in one of the bridges and 60 of them 
had to be replaced. Within four years after being driven all of 
this lot of piles were found alive with worms. The worms attacked 
the pile near the surface of the ground and worked downward, being 
most destructive in sandy soils and during dry seasons; they con- 
fined themselves to the Arkansas timber and did not molest north- 
ern oak piles driven in the same bent. 

In answer to an inquiry, the Forestry Division of the Department 
of .Agriculture gave the following information concerning these 

"If an oak is felled in Arkansas in May and left only a week on 
the ground and unbarkcd. the boring insects, like green flies on a 
dead animal, will have deposited their eggs bj' the thousands. Even 
if peeled and taken away, young larvae will continue their mischief. 
If the bark is pushed off. the logs at first do not show any con- 
spicuous signs of the presence of these borers and thus may easily 
pass muster. From the fact that the piles decayed so readily it 
seems plausible that: 

"I. They were left in the bark for some time before peeling. 

"2. That they became infested by fungi (causing decay) as well as 
the borers. 

"3. That they remained in the wood for sometime and thus fa- 
cilitated the progress of both. 

"Any after-treatment except impregnation or subjection to dry 
kiln seasoning could not benefit these timbers. 

"Had they been cut in winter (any time after September I5th>. 
peeled and at once taken out of the woods to some dry yarding 
ground, they would have lasted as well as Wisconsin oak. Oak 
sapwood is generally not durable and it might be well to cut it 
away whenever the exposure requires great durability." 

Mr. Bates stated the life of Wisconsin oak piles was from 12 to 
18 years. 



[Vol. X, No. i. 



There is one valuable service rendered by street railway compa- 
nies to the municipalities in which they are located that is seldom 
taken into consideration when the questions of remuneration for 
franchises, rates of fares, etc., are up for discussion. This is the 
carrying of city employes, as policemen and firemen, without 
charge, and in a number of cities this free transportation, if paid 
for at regiilar cash fare rates would amount in the aggregate to 
several thousand dollars per year. The greater portion of this sum 
is virtually a gift to the community, as it costs the company as much 
to carry a policeman or fireman as any other passenger. Most of 
the roads have of their own accord offered free transportation to 
these public servants although they were under no more obligation 
to do so than they were to carry without charge, doctors, school 
teachers or in fact any other class of citizens. 

To ascertain what the custom is in this regard and to determine 
something of the cash value of this free riding the "Review" re- 
cently sent out a list of questions to a few prominent roads picked 
at random from different sections of the country. Of the 29 com- 
panies addressed only 2 do not carry cither policemen or firemen 
without charge; 6 carry policemen but not firemen; and 21 carry 
both policemen and firemen. In nearly all cases the stipulation is 
made that these officers must be in uniform or a fare will be col- 

Twenty of the companies reporting do not keep records of free 
riders and 9 do. 

The Albany Ry., and the Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Light Co. 
carry neither policemen nor firemen free. 

The following companies carry policemen only and not firemen: 
Portland (Me.) R. R., Cleveland Electric Ry., Cincinnati Street 
Ry., Binghamton R. R., Ithaca (N. Y.) Street Ry., and Duluth 
(Minn.) Street Ry. 

The following companies carry both policemen and firemen but 
are not able to estimate the total number that ride per annum: St. 
Louis & Suburban Ry. ; Twin City Rapid Transit Co., of Minneap- 
olis, Minn.; Omaha Street Ry. ; Metropolitan Street Ry., of New 
York City; Union Traction Co., of Philadelphia; Wilmington 
(Del.) City Ry. ; United Railways & Electric Co., of Baltimore, 
Washington (D. C.) Traction & Electric Co., and Louisville (Ky.) 


T. M. Jenkins, general manager of the St. Louis & Suburban 
Ry., writes as follows: "We carry both policemen and firemen free 
of charge — that is the policemen when they may desire to ride, and 
firemen going to or coining from their meals. (Of course this 
clause is merely one of form, as we have no means of telling when 
any particular firemen is going to or coming from his meals.) 
Both policemen and firemen are required to be in uniform to entitle 
them to free transportation." 

The Cincinnati Street Ry. has a rule that not more than two 
officers are to ride on a car at any one time. 

Willard J. Hield, general manager of the Twin City Rapid Tran- 
sit Co., of Minneapolis, writes: "We permit police and firemen 
when in full uniform, to ride free on all our cars. We receive com- 
pensation from the government for the transportation of mail car- 
riers and postofificc special delivery boys, but this is paid in a lump 
sum, and they are allowed to ride on their uniforms and are con- 
sequently regarded by the conductor as free riders. The conduc- 
tors report all free riders, but do not separate the different classes." 

The following companies report the estimated number of police 
and firemen carried free each year and the value of this service if 
it were paid for at regular cash fare rates as follows: 

Boston Elevated Ry., number carried 3,285,000; value, $164,250. 

Denver (Col.) City Tramway Co., number carried, 81,000; value, 

Columbus (O.) Ry., number carried, 264,000; value, $13,200. 

Buffalo Ry., number carried, 1,280.936; value, $64,046. 

Chicago Union Traction Co. number carried, 1,600,000; value, 

Birmingham (Ala.) Ry. & Electric Co., number carried, 50.000; 
value, $2,500. 

Detroit Citizens' Street Ry., number carried. 800,000; value, 

New Orleans City R. R., number carried, 530,000; value $26,500. 

Market Street Ry., of San Francisco, number carried, 360.000; 
value, $18,000. 

Consolidated Traction Co., of Pittsburg, number carried, 365,000; 
value, $18,250. 

Indianapolis Street Ry., number carried, 521,950; value, $26,- 

Rochester Ry.. number carried, 150,000; value $7,500. 

The Ithaca Street Ry. does not carry firemen free but estimates 
the number of police at from 5,000 to 6,000 per year, and the value 
of the service at $250 to $300. 

The Duluth Street Ry. carries 73,000 policemen per annum; value 
of service, $3,650. 

< > » 


One of the most interesting manufacturing establishments that one 
can visit is found at 3635 Germantown Ave., Philadelphia, where 
the proprietor, Mr. G. E. Dantzel will explain to the visitor the 
method of constructing the mechanical details of one of these 
child fascinating amusement appliances, and what is still more in- 
teresting will describe the method of constructing the various 
wooden animals, and chariots on which the children are mounted 
for a ride. The animals provided with the carousels, which are 
tiM'ned out from this establishment are not mere graven images, 
stiff and ugly, but animals designed true to life, and graceful in 
form and poise, and in fact highly artistic as to form and coloring. 
In the process of manufacture, seasoned planks 3 in. thick, of pop- 
lar or other white woods are cut into peculiar shapes by a band 
saw, and then glued firmly together making a hollow box with 
various irregular attachments. These then go to the carving room 
and are carved by hand by skilled artists into the desired forms. 
The horses have glass eyes, genuine horse tails, and the saddles 
and saddle-cloths are carved in the wood. For models the de- 
signers go to the illustraed animal books or zoological gardens where 
they study animal life and draw and design in the most natural 
manner possible. If it be a horse that is being constructed, the 
head and mane are carefully formed and carved as if for a bronze 
statue, and the pose of the limbs and that of the whole body is 
oftimes that of an animal running or galloping, and the detail 
designs are so accurate that even the shoes on the feet are carved 
and colored so as to imitate a real iron shoe. The favorite animals 
imitated include horses, donkeys, camels, oxens, deers, giraffes, 
buffaloes, ostriches, lions, dogs and almost all the animals familiar 
to child life, both domestic and wild. Not only is the carving 
carefully and artistically done, but the painting and decorating is 
in pleasing and durable colors. Two or four rows of animals are 
usually mounted on the large machines, and in some cases, the in- 
dividual animals of the inside rows are mounted on ingeniously ar- 
ranged movable pedestals which give to the animals an automatic 
rocking or galloping motion independent of the whirling motion 
of the entire device. Outfits are sold complete including motors 
or two-cylinder vertical or horizontal engines for operating the 
carousel, and also imported organ orchestrions, concertinos and 
trunipetinos for furnishing the music that is usually provided with 
these machines. The organ cylinders are made in the works and 
are so designed that they are interchangeable, so that a change can 
be made every year in the tunes played. The carousels are made in 
eight sizes and range from 36 ft. in diameter to 48 ft. and one size 
is a double deck machine 44 ft. in diameter. The different machines 
carry from 24 to 60 animals and from 2 to 6 double seated chariots 
which are also carved and beautifully upholstered and frescoed. 
The double deck machines carry 68 animals and 6 double seated 

The carousels are sold at prices ranging from $3,000 to $7,000, 
depending upon size and finish. In one case an outfit was sold and 
put up with a tent at the Pittsburg Exposition for $14,000 which 
paid for itself the first year. 

Mr. Dantzel has been engaged in the manufacture of carousels, 
swings and other amusement appliances in this country since 1867. 
His father before him was engaged in constructing similar appli- 
ances for amusement more than 70 years ago in Germany. Mr. 
Dantzel claims that his products are the finest in the world, a re- 
sult of long experience in this line of work, and from the fact that 
only the best and most skillful artists and carvers are employed for 
designing and shaping the animals, while the mechanical appliances 
are up-to-date in every particular. It is claimed that demand for 
amusement appliances of this character is increasing from year to 

Jan. is, 1900.] 



yc;ir, Inil llic orders Uial roiuc tn lliis establishment arc not con- 
fined lo this conntry merely, but sliii>mcn(s are made lo .Sontli 
America and olbcr foreiKn countries. 


The following description ot a new surface contact system was 
recently given by Mr. W. H. Mcrriman, in the London I'^lcctrical 

Fig. I shows details of the cross section of this system. As a 
car travels along the road the flanges of the wheels press the treadle 
A, and with it the short plunger, B, thereby depressing the shorter 
arm of the lever. The treadle, A, may be either a rigid bar of a 
length equal to the wheel base of the car, or, preferably, a contin- 
uous flexible strip of steel as shown in Fig. 2. It is held in its 

normal position by the studs, B, which are placed along the groove 
of the rails at intervals equal to the wheel-base of the car. When 
the short arm of the lever is depressed the long arm rises, carrying 
with it by means of the flexible coupling, f, the contact stud, C. C, 
which when raised makes electrical contact between D and E, 
the latter being in direct connection througli a fuse with the main 
feeder. The contact stud when raised presses against the collecting 
bar fixed on the bottom of the car, a firm contact being secured by 
the spiral spring. Si. At the end of the long lever a weight is 
fixed which is sufficiently heavy to prevent anything less than the 
weight of the car from depressing the treadles and raising the 
contact stud. This weight also insures the contact stud falling 
back promptly into its normal position. As soon as the car wheels 
leave the treadle the weight falls, and it will be seen from this 
arrangement that the stud is raised only when the car is directly 
over it and only is "alive" at such times as it is raised. Fig. 2 


Collecting SKate 



Diagram of Electrical Connections 

Hail Level 

Is ~A fa^ 

Action of Rigid Treadles 


Action 0/ fletiOle Treadles 

shows a diagram of the electrical connections with the alternative 
systems of rigid and flexible treadles, two of the plungers, B, 
being shown depressed as the car wheels pass over them, the con- 
tact studs consequently being raised. 

The system appears to be extremely complicated on account of 
the number of moving parts and the ease with which dirt, stones, 
etc., would be able to work into the treadle and eventually pre- 
vent its being depressed. While the general idea of contact rising 
from the road, making connections with the collector and falling 
back "dead" again after the car passes, has long been an attractive 

problem to inventors, the advisability of such a system is doubtful, 
and experience has proved that it is almost impossible to obtain 
a smooth working device which contains any great number of 
moving parts. 

• ■♦ 


\ private in Co. C, Thirteenth United States Infantry, stationed 

in the Philippines, writes as follows concerning the transportation 
facilities in Manila: 

"The street cars in Manila are fearfully and wonderfully made, 
but not more so than some of the other conveniences for hire in the 
streets. You hear nothing but the whistle of the driver of the ap- 
liroaching street car, who uses an old trumpet with a squeaky and 
ear-splitting note, playing a weird tunc for the purpose of clearing 
ihc tracks, which, however, never seem to want clearing." 


There is in Seattle, Wash., a considerable party which strongly 
favors the municipal ownership of street railways and i.s conduct- 
ing its campaign through a committee of 100. The committee has 
applied for a writ of mandamus to compel the city council to sub- 
mit lo popular vote at the election in March next a proposed 
amendment lo the city charter. It is claimed that the council has 
disregarded a petition praying that such an amendment be sub- 


The complete line of portable and switchboard ammeters, milli- 
ammeters and volt meters, made by the Jewell Electrical Instru- 
ment Co., of Chicago, has been on the market for two years and is 
giving perfect satisfaction, as is proved by the fact that the busi- 
ness of the company has so increased within the past six months 
that it has been necessary to secure larger factory floor space. This 
has been obtained at the corner of Randolph and Canal Sts., Chi- 
cago, and the works will be moved from the present location on 
February ist, thus starting out the new year with a quadrupled 
factory capacity to meet the requirements of the rapidly growing 

In the company's 1900 price list just received special attention is 
drawn to the following strong features of these instruments; rigidity 
of construction, especially noticeable in the movements; "deadbeat" 
qualities; constant temperature co-efficient; hand drawn scales, so 
that readings are as correct as the human eye can read; scale 
divisions are uniformly spaced; scale readings all begin at zero and 
the scale is adjustable; no magnetic lag, as the instruments have no 
iron in the moving parts; the device for eliminating effects due to 
static electricity. 


In order to get a connecting link for its line from Braddock, 
Homestead and other towns east of Pittsburg to the city, the 
Monongahela Street Railway Co. was obliged to accept a franchise 
from the town of Wilkinsburg which provided for 3-cent fares. 

The 3-cent fare will be strictly confined to the limits of Wilkins- 
burg, so that town will now have the distinction of being the only 
one in America where the street railway rates are so low. 

Several officials of the ."Mlentown & Kutztown Traction Co., of 
Allentown, Pa., were severely injured recently while testing a new 
gasoline engine for driving street cars. The tank containing the 
gasoline was carried beneath the forward part of the car and by 
proper mechanism when the motorman turned a crank the vapor 
would ignite and the car start. On the first trial when the lever was 
turned a terrific explosion occurred and the occupants of the car. 
consisting of officers of the company, were thrown in all directions. 
It is announced that all experiments with gasoline as a motive 
power will be abandoned on this road. 

The Birmingham (.\la.) Railway & Electric Co. has ordered 30 
new summer cars. 



[Vol. X, No. i. 


MR. .1. F. T.WLOR has accepied the position of general manager of the 
.Madras Tramway:>. 

MR. THOMAS LEES has been appointed superintendent uf the Nashua 
(N. 11.) Street Ry. 

MR. IIOKACE E. ANDREWS has succeeded Mr. S. T. Everett as director 
ot the Little Consolidated, ot (.Icveland. 

MR. .\LI1ERT S. RICHEV has assumed the duties of electrical engineer for 
the Union Traction Co., of Anderson, Ind. 

MR. W. 11. LONGYEAR succeeds Mr. \V. E. Ham as auditor of the Brook yn 
Rapid Transit Co., with all its allied properties. 

MR. C. li. WILMERDI N't;, of Chicago, has been appointid supt-rintcndent 
of stations for the Third Avenue R. R., of New York. 

MR. R. H. IiA\'IS has resigned his position as superintendent of track 
department of the Syracuse (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Co. 

MK. 11. M. LYNN, of Milwaukee, is in charge of the extensions the Fond 
du Lac (Wis.) Street Railway & Light Co. is now building. 

MR. JAMES R. CARRIER, superintendent of transportation of the Syracuse 
(N. Y.) Rapid Transit Co., has been succeeded by Mr. Harry J. Clark. 

MR. MORRIS M. N.\SH will take the office of superintendent of the Lowell 
(Mass.) & Suburban Street Ry., made vacant by the death of Mr. Philip T. 
Beg ley. 

MR. L. A. SCOVIIv. superintendent of the Ouincy (111.) Horse Railway & 
Carrying Co., has resigned to take a position with the street railway lines at 
Kansas City, Mo. 

MR. EDGAR F. FASSETT will be superintendent of the new United Trac- 
tion Co.. of Albany, N. Y. Mr. Fassett was formerly assistant superintendent 
of the Albany Ry. 

MR. .\LFRED GIBBINGS, until recently engineer to the Bradford (Eng.) 
Corporation, has been made consulting engineer to the borough, and a new 
engineer will be appointed. 

MR.WILLARD R. KIMHALL, a director and large stockholder in the Syra- 
cuse (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Ry., has sold all his holdings in that company and 
resigned from the directorate. 

MR. JAMES \VALL.\CE, formerly road-master of the Toronto (Ont.) Ry., 
has taken a responsible position in connection with the management of the 
Winnipeg (Manitoba) Street Ry. 

MR. CHARLES E. FLYNN, superintendent of the Carbondale (Pa.) Trac- 
tion Co., on Chrtsttnas eve received a midnight call from his employes and was 
presented with a handsome opal ring. 

MR. ROBERT F. CARR, vict president and general manager of the Dear- 
born Drug & Chemical Woi ks, ol Chicago, is making a two months' business 
trip to the Pacific Coast and is now at Los Angeles. 

MR. H. B. WESTCOTT, general manager of the Cortland & Homer Traction 
Co., of Cortland, N. Y., has accepted the position of general manager of the 
Sidney & Louisburg R. R., a steam line in Nova Scotia. 

MR. W. G. MELOON, formerly superintendent of the Portsmouth, Kittery 
& York Street Railway Co., of Portsmouth, Me., has been made general man- 
ager of the road, succeeding Mr. A. F. Gerald, resigned. 

MR. \W. T. GOUNDIE, who has been for many years general manager of the 
Kings County Elevated R. R. of Brooklyn, has been made general superintend 
ent of all the elevated lines of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. 

MR. E. H. MATHER, assistant general manager of the street railway sys- 
tems owned by the Connecticut Lighting & Power Co., has resigned to accept 
the position of treasurer of the Portland (Me.) Electric Light Co. 

MR. BROWN CALDWELL, recently secretary of the Peerless Rubber Co., 
has assumed the position of general eastern representative of the Sargent Co.. 
of Chicago, and will have offices in Pittsburg and New York City. 

MR. W. G. WAGENH.\LS. formerly superintendent of the Miami Valley 
Traction Co., now manager of the Millcreek Electric Street Ry., of Cincinnati. 
received a Christmas present from the employes of his road in the shape of an 
elegant leather upholstered chair. 

GEN. MGR. E. C. HATHAWAY and Supt. R. T. Gunn. of the 
Lexington (Ky.) Railway Co., received handsome Christmas remembrances 
from the employes of the road on Christmas morning. Mr. Hathaway was pre- 
sented with a leather upholstered chair and Mr^Gunn with a gold watch. 

MR. W. S. DIM.M(JCK was Inst month ;i|»(iointcd general manager of the 
Omaha & Council BlutTs Railway & Bridge C"o.. of Council lllulTs, la., a newly 
created ofticc. Mr. DimnK)ck fv)r ilu- .dst si.\ years has had the virtual position 
and authority of general manager under the title of general superintendent; the 
latter office will remain vacant. 

MR. GRANVILLE C. CUNNINGHAM, who is known in street railway cir- 
cles in this country through his connection with the electric railway interests 
of Toronto and Montreal, has resigned his position as managing director of the 
City of Birmingham Tramways Co., Ltd.. of Birmingham, Eng., to accept the 
post of general manager ol the Central London Ry. 

MR. C. LOO.MIS .\LLE.\. who succeeded Mr. John H. Moffitt as general 
manager of the Syracuse iN. V.) Rapid Transit Co., has left Syracuse to take 
up the duties of general manager of the street railway system at Lorain, ( ). 
Mr. Allen was presented with a handsome gold watch by the employes uf the 
ivapid Transit Co. the day he left for his new work. 

MR. S. L. NELSON resigned as general manager of the Springfield (O.) 
Railway Co. on December 31st, and it is stated will take a similar position 
with the Wichita properties recently purchased by Mr. W. B. McKinlcy, of 
Joliet and Champaign, 111. Mr. Nelson left Springfield with the best wishes 
of every man connected with the railway, and of his many friends among the 
citizens of Springfield. 

.MR. WILLIAM F. HAM auditor of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., has 
severed liis connection with that system to accept the office of comptroller of 
the Washington (I). C.) Traction & Electric Co. Mr. Ham's work in connec- 
tion with the Accountants' Association has made him one of the best-known 
street railway men in this country and be will take with liim into his new labors 
the best wishes of his host of friends. 

MR. W. B. BROCKWAV. secretary of the Toledo, Bowling Green & Fre- 
mont Ry.. and secretary of the Street Railway .-\ccountants' Association of 
America, has resigned his position with the Toledo road to accept a flattering 
oflfer from the New Orleans & Carrollton R. R. , lie will enter on his new 
duties in New Orleans this montli. and carry with him to his new work the 
best wishes of a large circle of friends. 

MR. WALTER H. WILSON, who lately resigned as first vice-president of 
the Chicago Union Traction Co. and was succeeded by Mr. John M. Roach. 
was last month chosen third vice-president of the company, a newly created 
office. At the same meeting four directors were added to the board, Messrs. 
William Dickenson and John \'. Clarke, of Chicago, and Walter S. Johnson 
and Henry B. Hollins, of New York. 

MAJ. E. C. LEWIS on December 14th resigned as vice-president and director 
of the Nashville Street Railway Co. and the three subsidiary companies, the 
Nashville & Suburban Street Railway Co., the Citizens' Rapid Transit Co. and 
the Cumberland Electric Liglit & Power Co., with which he has been connected. 
Mr. T. J. Felder succeeds him as vice-president of the latter companies and 
Mr. S. M. Murphy as vice-president of the Nashville Street Ry. 

MR. EDWARD P. BURCH, electrical engineer for the Twin City Rapid 
Transit Co., has resigned his position witli that company to become a consult- 
ing engineer. Mr. Burch has been the company's chief electrician for nearly 
eight years. Among more recent work, he has installed and has supervised the 
operation of the electrical apparatus at the new 10,000 h. p. water power plant 
of the Pillsbury-Washburn Co., in Minneapolis, and has had entire charge of 
the Twin City Rapid Transit sub-stations in Minneapolis and St. Paul. The 
power plant lias ten i,ooo-h. p. direct connected units. Power is trans- 
mitted from 3 to 10 miles through paper insulated underground cables by three 
phase alternating currents at 3,500 and 12,000 volts and is transformed and con- 
verted at sub-stations into direct current at 600 volts for the entire railway 
system of Minneapolis and St. Paul. This was the first large installation of 
the kind. The system has been in operation over two years. 


THE OUAKERTOWN (PA.) TRACTION CO. has passed into the control 
of C. Taylor Leland. The new directors are S. R. Kramer, Perkasie, Pa.; W. 11. 
Davis, Quakertown, Pa.; C. Taylor Leland, Quakertown. Pa. 

meeting, elected the following officers^ President, S. C. Dunham; vice-presi- 
dent. Leonard Peck; secretary, V. L. Highland; treasurer, F. B. Haymaker. 

the following board of directors: Gen. Samuel Thomas, W. G. Oakman, W. E. 
Findley. H. W. Poor, J. H. Swinarton, T. F. Ryan, Charles R. Flint, H. U. 
Rogers and Col. G. B. M. Harvey. 

all the street railway franchises and concessions in Havana, has elected new 
officers as follows: President, Edwin Hanson; vice-presidents, William L. Bull 
and R. A. C. Smith; secretary and treasurer, Arnold Marcus. Directors in 
addition to those above named are P. A. B. Widener, T. F. Ryan, Sir William 
C. Van Home, William McKenzie, Frederic Nichols, H. M. Perkins, Thomas 
P. Fowler, E. H. Androni. William M. Doull, N. Gelats and G. B. M. Harvey. 

The Michigan Traction Co., of Kalamazoo. Mich., is now con- 
trolled and operated by the Railways Co., General, whose offices 
are in the Harrison Building, Philadelphia. 

Jan. is, 1900.] 







"MAYLUND" Philadelphia. 
A B. C. Code, 4th Ed, 



Electric Railway Material and Supplies of Every Description. 

We are exclusive Territorial Representatives of the following leading Manufacturers of Railway Materials: 

R. D. Niittall Co., Allegheny, Pa. 

GearR, PinionR, Deariiliffi. TrnlleyK, Etc. 

Van Wagoner & Williams Hardware Co., Cleveland, O. 

Drop Kor(fed Copjwr Coniiiiutatnr SeffmeiitH. 

The Protected Rail Bond Co., Philadelphia. 

•' Pnilected " Flexible Rail Iloiids. 
American Electric Heating Corporation, Boston, Mass. 

Electric Car Heaters i»f Every DeHifrn* 

Chisholm & Moore Manfg. Co.. Cleveland, O. 

Muore's Chain UoiHts. 

New York ,& Ohio Co., Warren, O. 

" Packard " Iiicaildetceiit Lattips. 

The International Reginter Co., Chicago. 111. 

Sinirle and Unable Fare Roriiter*. 

W. T. C. Macallen Co., Boitton, Ma»K. 

Standard Overhead InHulatinif Material. 

Bradford Belting Co., Cincinnati, O. 

" Miinarcb" InHulaiinir Paint. 
Sterling Varnish Co., Pitt»burg, Pa. 

Sierlinif New Prncenii Innulalinir Varni»h. 
Garton-Daniels Electric Co., Keokuk. la. 

<;:irti>n Liifhtilinj; Arresler*. 

D. & W. Fuse Co.. Providence. R I. 

Enclinvd Non-Arcinir Fu«e<>. 

Special Agents: Amkkic.^n Ei.ECTkic.m, Works. Providence, R. I. 

We carry the largest stock in this country of Strictly Electric Railway Material. 

We are now occupying our entire building, five floors and basement. 

Special Attention given to Export Business. 



MR. PHILIP T. BEGLEY, superintendent of the Lowell (Mass.) & Sub- 
urban Street Ry., died recently. 

DR. E. J. FINNEY, the well-known inventor of numerous electrical devices, 
died at bis borne in Fox Lake, Wis., December igtb. 

MR. JOHN D. OXNER, who was for many years connected with the street 
railways of New York City, died at his home in Rome, N. \'., on December 

MR. PAUL BEDFORD ELWELL, electrical engineer for the Government 
Railways in New South Wales, died at Double Bay, N. S. \V. on Septem- 
ber 10th. 

THK EMI'lkli Ui-' Hit SUUTU i-, Ihe royai iitic oi --.>j p..«i-> ju>i pul^- 
lished by the general passenger department of the Southern Railway Company, 
of Washington, D. C. It is certainly one of the largest, as well as one of the 
most handsome railroad publications we have ever seen. Each of the Southern 
states is taken in turn, and the hundreds of beautiful half-lone illustrations arc 
accompanied by a description as interesting as a novel. No one who has ever 
traveled the South but will find the utmost pleasure in making the trip again 
as he peruses this book. Those who have never visited the southland cannot 
scan its pages without a strong resolution to see the cotton fields and mossy 
live oaks for himself, while to the young man starting out in life the "go west" 
may well be paraphrased to "go south and grow up with the country." Copies 
of the book may be had by sending the amount of the postage, 15 cents, to 
\V. A. Smith, general passenger agent, Washington. D, C, or J. C. Beam, Jr., 
80 Adams St., Chicago. 

CAPT. THOMAS H. BROWNE died last month of yellow fever. Capt 
Browne at his death was secretary and treasurer of the Havana Street Railway 
t'o., and has been connected with the street railway system at Boston and with 
the Metropolitan Street Railway Co., of New York, leaving the latter position to 
go to H.Tvana in September last. 


A SECOND EDITION of the lecture by Walter B. Snow on "The Influence 
of Mechanical Draft Upon the Ultimate Efficiency of Steam Boilers" has just 
been issued by the B. F. Sturtevant Co., of Boston. Mass., by whom copies will 
be sent upon application. 

ENGINEERING COURSE." read before the last meeting of the Society for 
the Promotion of Engineering Education by Frank W. Springer, instructor in 
electrical engineering. University of Minnesota, has been reprinted in pamphlet 
form and copies may be obtained by those interested on application to the 

"WIRE ROPE" is the title of an 80-page pamphlet just issued by the Hazard 
Manufacturing Co., which describes the steel, iron and galvanized wire ropes 
made by this company and, more particularly, illustrates some of the many uses 
to which these materials are put. For the latter purpose there are handsome 
half-fone engravings of mining, railroad and manufacturing plants, inclined rail- 
ways, bridges, yachts, ships, etc. Tliis company's works were established in 
1S4S, and it has recently extended the plant and engaged in making insulated 
electric wires and cables. 

LES MOTEURS A EXPLOSION, by George Morcau, just published by 
Charles Berangcr, of Paris, successor to Baudry et Cic., is a treatise on explo- 
sive engines prepared with particular reference to the application to automo- 
biles, and comprises a full exposition of the principles underlying the design, 
construction and operation of motors for vehicles of this type. The development 
of the practicable automobile has been entirely in recent years, making this 
work very timely in its appearance. The plan followed by the author was to 
begin with the elements of the subject and give a complete analysis; the reader 
who has some knowledge of mathematics as applied in mechanics and physics 
will easily follow him. 

The introductory chapters deal with general considerations and fundamcnul 
principles of thermodynamics and the theory of explosive motors. Following 
the ideal cycle is a discussion of the imperfections of the actual c>'cle and the 
causes of them; this chapter is admirable in its completeness. The problems in 
design resulting from the conditions imposed by the automobile are next fully 
treated and there is a chapter on the resistance of materials with formulas for 
the design of different parts of the apparatus. The calculations of capacity are 
based upon a consideration of what the author terms passive resistances, under 
which are friction, air resistance, the efifect of the iocnia of the moving parts 
of the mechanism. Chapters on the properties of difierent combustibles suitable 
for this type of motors and on the proper method of conducting comparative 
tests of automobiles conclude the subject. "Les ifoteurs a Explosion" com- 
prises 435 octavo pages; the typographical work is excellent. 

The motorman of a car belonging to the Bridgeton & Millville 
Traction Co.. while making his last nin for the night recently dis- 
covered a farm house in an unfrequented locality near Bridgeton, 
N. J., to be on fire, and with the aid of the conductor succeeded 
in rescuing the three inmates, who had been overcome with smoke. 



[Vol. X, No. i. 






THE GRIFFIN WHKF.L CD'S, products are popular. The Chicago works 
are turning out 1,500 car wheels a day. 

THE GEiXERAL ELECTRIC CO. has declared its regular quarterly divi- 
dend of i>4 per cent on common stock. 

a quarterly dividend of ij4 per cent payable January 2. 

THE ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION CO., of ^hicago, is finishing up the 
work of what has been the busiest year in its history. 

THE STERLING VARNISH CO. announces its removal from 3-M Water St., 
Pittsburg, Pa., to the Times Building, 4th Ave., Pittsburg. 

EXPORT BUSINESS is worth having— the "Review" advertisers are getting 
is because our foreign issue reaches every buyer each month. 

THE VAN DORN & BUTTON CO., general machinery and engineering, of 
Cleveland, O.. was early in the mails with a handsome wall calendar for 1900. 

THE WESTERN ELECTRIC CO'S. calendar for igoo bears a fine halftone 
engraving of the company's New York factory looking from the Hudson River. 

THE CRANE CO., of Cliicago, is furnishing all the steam piping, valves and 
accessories for two tramways at London, England, and one at Bristol, England. 

EUGENE MUNSELL & CO., of New York and Chicago, report a larger 
business during the past few months than ever before in the history of the com- 

THE OKONITE CO., of New York, is presenting its friends with an artistic 
calendar, on which are engraved views of Westminster Abbey and Windsor 

THE W. T. VAN DORN CO., of Chicago, sold twice as many couplers dur- 
ing 1899 as have been sold in any one year since these have been placed on the 

an extensive business in the West, and has offices at Los Angeles and San 

THE RAIL BONDS made by the American Steel & Wire Co., of Chicago. 
are in greater demand than ever before, necessitating the factory working night 
and day to keep up with orders. 

ALFRED F. MOORE, 200-218 N. Third St., Philadelphia, maker of insulated 
electric wire, is distributing a large wall calendar. 22 x 14 in., bearing several 
early colonial views of historical interest. 

THE SWARTS METAL REFINING CO., of Chicago, is preparing for an 
unusually large trade in castings during igoo. The demand has nearly doubled 
during the past year and prices are high. 

THE MORRIS ELECTRIC CO. is the agent for Eastern states of the Spiral 
Journal Bearing Co., of St. Louis. This company's bearings are in use on a 
number of St. Louis roads and are highly recommended by them. 

contains practical and valuable articles on the growth and development of 
various trades in the South, written by experts in the lines treated. 

E. G. JOHNSON & CO.. 1135 Broadway. New York City, state they are pre- 
pared to furnish at short notice experienced street railway superintendents, 
general managers, engineers, etc., to railway companies having vacancies. 

THE TESLA ELECTRIC CO. on Dec. 9. 1899, secured a permanent injunc- 
tion against the Scott & Janney Electric & Manufacturing Co., to prevent in- 
fringement of the Tesla patents Nos. 5ii9>5 and 555190 on polyphase motors. 

RAILS AND ROLLING STOCK for the San Paulo (Brazil) Electric L'ight 
& Power Co. were shipped from Philadelphia on December 14th. The J. G. 
Brill Co. sent 13 cars and trucks and the Pennsylvania Steel Co. 7259 steel rails. 

THE CONSOLIDATED CAR FENDER CO.. of Providence. R. I., sent to 
its many friends at Christmas a small card bearing a "slight token" of its re- 
membrance and best wishes. The token consisted of a bright new penny of the 
coinage of 1899. 

THE GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. on Christmas sent to each of its railway 
friends a handsome souvenir of the Chicago Convention in the shape of a minia- 
ture oar controller which on investigation proves to be a combined cigar cutter 
' and match safe. 

EXPORT BUSINESS is worth having— the "Review" advertisers are getting 
is because our foreign issue reaches every buyer each month. 

was "at home" to visitors on December 15th, from 2 to 5 p. m., the occasion 
being the test of three alternating generators the company had just completed 
for the lighting plant of Armour & Co., at the Chicago Stock Yards. 

THE Q & C CO'S. Stanwood step is being shipped to every part of the 
civilized wor.d where street railways have been built. Managers that are par- 
ticular about "the details of their rolling stock equipment and desire to have 
their cars strictly modern and up-to-date should specify the Stanwood step. 

MAYER & ENGLUND, of Philadelphia and New York City, are sending out 
one of the finest desk calendars of the season. Supported on a red back- 
ground is a mcdalion portrait of a young woman finished in c(»lors and en- 
closed in a gilt frame. The date pad is fastened in the lower right hand corner. 

■J HE BABCOCK & WILCOX CO'S. business for 1899 was nearly double that 
of the previous year. New works are being erected at Bayonne, W. J., having a 
greater capacity than the company's present factory at Elizabethport, N. J. The 
Chicago ofiice is at 1215 Marquette Building, and is in charge of S. P. Wells, jr., 

porated in New Jersey by Matthias Plum, Alexander Beach and William M. 
Keepers of Newark, Charles T. Hayman of Cincinnati, and George H. Carey, 
John B. Renwick and Lauron Ingles of New York. The capital stock is 

THE GARL ELECTRIC CO., of Akron, O., has sold its portable telephone 
and other electrical supply business to the Standard Silver Plating Co., of 
Akron, but these specialties will be handled under the name of the Garl Elec- 
tric Co., as formerly. Mr. Garl w^ill still have the management of the works. 
The president of the company is Hugo Schumacher. 

THE WESTERN ELECTRIC SUPPLY CO., of St. Louis, sent to the trade 
as Christmas remembrances aluminum pocket cigar cases filled with cigars, 
which made a welcome and useful present. This company has built up an 
enormous business in electrical supplies and its success is largely due to the 
policy of giving all orders the promptest attention possible. 

THE BETHLEHEM STEEL CO.. of South Bethlehem, Pa., made its friends 
a New Year's gift of a handsome wall calendar consisting of a heavy cardboard 
back on which are mounted twelve leaflets, one for each month of the year. 
Printed on the card-board sheet is the company's valuable reference table of 
weights and on each leaflet is shown a typical Bethlehem steel forging. 

THE EDWARD P. ALLIS CO.. of Milwaukee, has enjoyed during the past 
year the largest trade it has ever had before in any one year, and to aid in 
meeting the demand for its engines has found it necessary to build a new shop 
60 X 250 ft., and has also acquired the works of the Lake Erie Engineering Co., 
at Bufltalo. A large extension to its Milwaukee plant will be built in the spring. 

THE CONSOLIDATED CAR HEATING CO., of Albany. N. Y.. has just 
finished delivering electric heaters for 147 cars for the new Northwestern Ele- 
vated of Chicago. These heaters are of a special type and 18 will be placed in 
each car. making 2,646 on the entire order. Richmond P. Scales is general 
agent for the Consolidated heaters, with offices in the Western Union Building, 

EXPORT BUSINESS is worth having — the "Review" advertisers are getting 
is because our foreign issue reaches every buyer each month. 

THE CHRISTENSEN ENGINEERING CO.. of Milwaukee. Wis., is out 
with a new catalog for 1900. entitled illustrated catalog A. It describes the 
Christensen system of air brakes with axle driven compressor, and also con- 
tains direction for equipment and instruction for motormen and care takers. 
A valuable feature is a four-page inset diagram complete, of a quick acting au- 
tomatic air brake equipment. 

THE WESTERN ELECTRIC CO.. of Chicago, has recently issued bulletin 
No. 3003. descriptive of power and lighting machines. It contains illustra- 
tions of the different types of belt connected generators, and gives a full de- 
scription of the general details and construction of the machines, a complete 
list of slow speed multipolar motors from 3 up to 300 h. p., for no, 220 and 500 
volts, and a list of slow speed belt driven multipolar dynamos from 3 to 250 kw. 

Jan. is, lyoo. 



THK Die VVi I'J" SAND BOX CO. is a new company organized in New York 
by 12. F. De Witt, for the purpose of m.iking the I)c Witt common-sense sand 
box. TIic new company will assume Ibe busincMS of tbe E. F. Dc Wilt Co., of 
LansiuRburg, N. Y., and has ofTiccs at 36 Wall St. The officers of the company 
arc; President, CI. S. J-ewis; vice-president, K. F. De Witt; secretary and trcas- 
nrt-r, D.init-l 1''. Wing, 

THK Sn^iVlKNS ."« J1A1>SKK KLI-XTRIC CO. OF AMERICA, with hcad- 
(luartcrs at Chicago, has elected tbe following directors: Samuel Insult, M. J. 
lludlong, O. S. Lyford, jr., C. B. Kockhill, Levy Mayer, T. A. Moran, jr., Mar- 
tin Moloney, Isaac L. Rice and U. McA. Lloyd. The ofticcrs of the company 
are: President, K. McA. Lloyd; vice-president, O. S. Lyford, jr.; secretary, 
Willard T. lilock; treasurer, F. Viewcg; assistant secretary and treasurer, M. J. 

EXPORT BUSINESS is worth having— the "Review" advertisers are getting 
is because our foreign issue reaches every buyer each month. 

PIERCE & RICHARDSON, electrical and mechanical engineers, of Manhat- 
tan lluilding, Cliicago, during the year just closed have completed power sta- 
tions for Adams iS. Wcstlakc, Armour & Co., Kansas City Electric Light Co. 
and Kansas City Edison Co., for the Chicago City Railway Co., and many oth- 
ers. Tbe work for the Chicago City Ry. included tbe remodeling of the 21st 
St. station and changing it from a cable to an electric plant. They arc now 
at work on a number of important installations. 

THE JAPAN-AMERICAN ASSOCIATION, of Tokyo, Japan, announces 
that it has cslablisbed American ofTices in the Singer lUiilding, New York City, 
for the purpos-c of furnishing practical assistance to manufacturers, shippers and 
others of the United States desiring to make reliable business connections for 
the sale of their products in Japan. China, Korea, Straits Settlements, Philippine 
Islands and Hawaii. The association does not buy or sell, nor does it accept 
commissions. An annual registration fee of $25 is charged. 

THE ELECTRIC STORAGE liATTERY CO.. of Philadelphia, Pa., during 
Ihc year just passed has closed many important contracts. Among tbe largest 
in the West m:iy be mentioned a .:,3oo-anipcre-hour battery for the Chicago 
Edison Co., this being a duplicate of one installed for this company some time 
ago; also a smaller battery for the Chicago Edison Co., at its 27th St. sub- 
station. The company has also furnished a 4,ooo-ampere-hour battery for tbe 
Columbia Edison Co., Columbup, O., one of 8,000-amperehour capacity for a 
station at Minneapolis, and battel ics for Waterloo, la., and Rockford, Ind. 
Tbe works at Philadelphia are now turning out tbe batteries for tbe nine sub- 
stations of the Lfnion Traction Co. at Anderson, Ind. 

J. J. RYAN & CO., brass founders and machinists, Chicago, report that tbe 
sales in brass, bronze and aluminum castings during the past year has been 
something more than 300 per cent greater than that of any year since 1893, and 
the company has had to increase its foundry facilities three times during the 
year in order to keep up with orders. Its trade in babbitt metals has increased 
in the same ratio as castnigs. In tbe machine shop every tool has been in use 
for the first time since 1893. The equipment in this department ha? been in- 
creased by the addition of milling machines and a number of other tools. Tbe 
polishing, electroplating and metal pattern departments have been running up 
to full capacity. The company is looking for a continuation of these conditions 
for 1900. 

THE B. F. STURTEVANT CO., of Boston, Mass., reports an increase of 
nearly 40 per cent in the volume of its business for 1899 over that of the previous 
year. Tbe shipments, both foreign and domestic, included fan blowers for all 
purposes, beating, ventilating, drying and mechanical draft apparatus, engines, 
electrical apparatus, etc. During tbe past year an addition covering 20,000 sq. ft. 
has been made for tbe use of the electrical department, which has shown the 
most rapid growth, the output having more than doubled during the year, and 
covering principally electric fans and special generating sets. The sale of 
mechanical draft apparatus has been practically quadrupled, while the output of 
engines has increased one-third over that of the preceding year, and has included 
many special designs. 

THE STAR BRASS WORKS, of Kalamazoo, Mich., has recently made a 
change in the management and some of tbe stock has changed hands. The 
officers now are: Horace B. Peck, president; H. P. Schutt, vice-president; 
O. P. Johnson, secretary; A. B. Connable, treasurer; Fred P. Crockett, general 
manager. The officers and Wm. S. Dewing and Charles A. Peck constitute the 
directors. The company was incorporated in 189S and engaged in the manu- 
facture of brass and aluminum and similar castings and hardware specialties. 
On the trolley wheel and harp of its make the works has gained a deservedly 
high name throughout the country. The harps and wheel are reported to be in 
use on almost all the principal trolley lines of the country. The works has 
heavy orders booked and the trade is growing rapidly. 

EXPORT BUSINESS is worth having— the "Review" advertisers are getting 
is because our foreign issue reaches every buyer each month. 

announce the termination in their favor of the suit against the Billings & 
Spencer Co., which is more fully explained in the following extract from the 
opinion rendered by Judge Taft, in the United States circuit court for the 
northern district of Ohio, eastern division: 

"The parallelism of the fiber with the longitudinal axes of the arms is some- 
thing which has been dwelt upon at great length in the expert evidence for the 
complainant, but the result of the experiments of the expert, when subjected to 
cross-examination, shows that the increase in conductivity of the commutator, 


►700 7l2\\CSTCRtiL'fllOMDLDG. 







[Vol. X, No. i. 

due to this parallelism, is practically unworthy of note. * " After reading 
the voluminous record carefully, 1 am clearly of opinion that the use of the 
drop-forging for the commutator bars does not produce an article which, in 
view of rhe prior art, entitles its first discoverer and user to a patent and 

THE SARGENT CO.. of Chicago, manufacturer of iron and steel castings, 
has increased its facihties and has placed an order with tlie Western Electric 
Co. for one 150-kw. 125 volt belted generator. 

ARTIILK W. FIELD, of Boston, agent for street railway specialties, is pre- 
senting to his many friends in the trade a small calendar, the upper half of 
which bears a reproduction of a photograph showing Echo Bridge, at Newton, 

THE W. R. CARTON CO.. of Chicago, is prepared to supply very nearly 
everything in the way of street railway material for which a manager may have 
a call. Its long list of A-No. i agencies enables it to ship at short notice rail 
bonds, commutator bars, circuit breakers, reflectors, trolley wheels, tape, wire, 
incandescent lamps, insulating compounds, mica, street car gongs, motor supply 
and repair parts, gears, pinions, bearings, trolley poles, carbon brushes, etc. 
The company's motto is "Honorable dealings in business." 


ALLENTOWN. PA.— The Lehigh Valley Traction Co. is preparing for the 
construction of a nine-mile line from Catasauqua, via Nazareth, to BatV 
Rights of way through Bath have been applied for. A. F. Walter, secretar> 
AUentown ^: Lehigh Valley Traction Co. 

ALLIANCE, ().— The Alliance, Sebring &: Salem Electric Railway has been 
granted an increase of capital stock from $100,000 to $300,000. 

ATLANTA, GA.— The Atlanta & Western Railway & Power Co. will procure 
a franchise for the construction of an electric railway between Atlanta, Austell 
and Marietta. Petitioners for the franchise are M. B. Earnhardt. Eli West. 
L. C. Lull. A. E. Childs. W. S. Hays. S. A. Collins, J. S. Schman. W. T. 
Northen, T. B. Xeal, E. P. Black and A. H. Cox. The application is filed by 
Abbott, Cox & Abbott, attorneys. 

ANACONDA, MONT.— The Electric Light & Railway Co. is preparing to 
build a new power house. The best equipment procurable will be purchased. 
J. A. Dunlap, purchasing agent. 

ASHVILLE, N. C— It is reported that L B. Wilford, of Bowling Green. Ky., 
will build an electric line from Asbville to Weaverville, eight miles distant. A 
charter has been applied for. 

ATTLEBORO, MASS.— A franchise has been granted to the Bristol County 
Elpriric Knilwuy Co. for a line that will be constructed in the early spring. 
H. E. Swazey and D. A. Brooks, Attleboro. 

BALTIMORE, MD.— The Patapsco Park Electric Railway Co. is authorized 
ot extend its line from the city to Patapsco park. John Grason, attorney for 
the company. Baltimore. Surveys have been made for a railway to connect 
with the United Railways & Electric Co's. system from a point near the Pataps- 
co river. E. A, Howell, Chester, Pa., chief engineer. 

BANGOR. ME.— The Penobscot Central R. R.. 26 miles in length, connecting 
Bangor and Charlestown, may be purchased by Philadelphia and Boston capi- 
talists and extended to Corinth. Inspections of the road with a view to de- 
termining the cost of extension are being made by G. D. Howell, Philadelphia, 
and L. Tillinghast, Boston. 

BRATTLEBORO, VT.— B. J. Weeks, of Quincy, Mass.. and others, propose 
an electric line to connect Brattleboro and Keene, N. H. 

BROCKTON, MASS.— The Boston. Milton & Brockton Street Railway Co. 
has petitioned tlie General Court for authority to construct an electric line over 
the Blue Hills Parkway. B. Hamilton, secretary. 

BUTTE, MONT.— The Butte Electric Railway Co.. with a capital stock of 
$100,000, has been incorporated to build and operate an electric line in Butte. 
Incorporators: W. A. Clark, Butte; J. A. McDonald, New York; and H. Gat- 
water, East Orange, N. J. 

COLUMBUS, O.— The Worthington, Clintonville & Columbus Street Rail- 
way Co. has applied for a franchise for the extension of its line. T. A. Simons. 

CHILLICOTHE, O.— The Chillicothe, Clarksburg & Columbus Electric Rail- 
way Co. is making surveys of its proposed line, 52 miles in length. Isaac S. 
Cook, president, writes the "Review" that estimates are being made, and the 
work of construction will continue through the winter. 

COLUMBIA, TENN.— D. F. Carpenter, of Cleveland, O., has a proposition 
before the Chamber of Commerce 01 Columbia for the construction of an elec- 
tric railway between Columbia and Mount Pleasant. 

CORSICANA, TEX.— S. W. Bogy, of this place, desires propositions for the 
construction of a street railway from any persons who may be interested in 
the project. Mr. Bogy reports Corsicana as a most promising field for such an 

COLORvXDO SPRINGS. COL.— The contract for grading the first 23 miles 
of the projected Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek District R. R. has been 
awarded to Orman. Crook & Co., Pueblo. Bids for grading the remaining dis- 
tance will be received and contracts awarded later. The hne will be 38 miles 
in length, connecting with the Cripple Creek Electric line at Cameron. 

COFFEYVILLE, KAN.— C. L. Long, of Coffeyville. represents an eastern 
company in application for a franchise to build a street railway in this city. 
The city is disposed to grant the franchise, in which case it is promised that 
the road will be at once constructed. 

COLORADO. SPRINGS, COL.— C. M. Coleman has applied for a franchise 
for an electric street railway to be built in this city and suburbs. 

CANTON, O.— Fire in the barns of the Canton-Massillon Electric Railway 
Co., December J4th, damaged tlie barn and cars to the extent of $15,000. The 
loss is covered by insurance. H. C. Fogle, manager. 

The Canton-Massillon Electric Railway Co. has announced its purpose of 
reconstructing all its lines in the spring, and changing to standard gage. The 
Massillon branch will be extended to Navarre, five miles distant. H. C. Fogle, 

CAMBRID(;E.(X— The Cambridge & Byersville Electric Railway Co. has 
obtained a franchise through Cambridge for the projected eight mile line from 
Cambridge to Bversville, via Necolson. Franchises in Byersville have been 
applied for. Address A. E. Townsend, Doylestown, O. 

CLEVELAND. O. — A Canton syndicate is promoting an electric railway to 
be built from Canton to Akron, connecting with the Alir 

kron. Bedford & t'leve- 
ouie to Cleveland. Henry Kve?ett and 
others wlio control the A. fS. & C. line are believed to support the project. 

The t'nited States Construction Co. has been awarded the contract for the 
construction of the Massillon, Akron & Cleveland Ry. The contract calls for 
60 miles of road, to be completed within a year. The estimated cost is $i,ooi),ooo. 
A power house will be built between Akron :in<l Mas*;illon. 


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Fender Received Highest Award, over all other Fenders, at American In- 
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Fender is operated by the Motorman , or by the Person being- rescued, at the 
same time; doing away with the old excuse, " I did not see Person," or could 
not slop in time," or "Person came from behind a Car, or Vehicle." 

Fender is Reliable, Durable, and Ornamental, and cannot be damaged 
through Collisions, or unnecessarily Weather-beaten, thereby saving quite an 
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Address all Cmtnnjiviratwns nftif l^fmiltntirrs ti' Wiiufsor .p Kciifirhi PiihUshing Co, 

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We cordially itivite correspondence oti all sutijecls of interest to those 
enyaijcd in aiiv branch i>f street railway work, and will yratefully appreciate 
any marked copies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send 
us, pertaiiiiu^ cUlicr tu companies or oflicci's. 


If vou coiiteiuplale the purcha'iei>f any siipidies or material, w<' can save 
you much time and trouble. Drop a line to Tin-: Rkvikav. statiiip what you are 
in the market for, and you will promptly receive bids and estimates from all the 
best dealers in that line. We make no charge for publishintr such notices ia our 
Bulletin of Advance News, which is sent to all manufacturers. 

This paper is a member of the Chicag^o Trade Press Association. 
Entered at the Post Office at Chica^ro as Second Class Matter. 

VOL. X. 

FEBRDARY 15, 1900. 

NO. 2 

At the convention of the League of American Municipalities, 
which warmly advocates the municipal operation of public utilities, 
a proposition was made in behalf of the Northwestern Electrical 
Association and the National Electric Light Association to bear 
one-half of the expense of an investigation of 20 municipal electric 
plants, to be selected by the president of the League, in order to 
determine the true cost of service for comparison with the rates 
charged by private companies. President Doherty of the North- 
western Electrical Association stated in his annual address that 
the League would only accept this offer upon the condition of being 
able to raise the necessary funds, and that so far as he could learn 
no efforts to raise money for the purpose had been made. 

If those active in the councils of the League of .\merican Munic- 
ipalities are favoring the principles they advocate from purely 
selfish motives it is not surprising that they should look coldly 
upon this offer to get at the facts, though the action should place 
them in a bad light with the public. No unprejudiced persons 
ever attempted to investigate the cost of an undertaking of this 
nature as operated by an American city who did not put on record 
a protest against the methods of municipal bookkeeping. 

In December, 1897, page 831. we published data taken from the 
annual message of the mayor of Chicago, which showed that in 
1896 the cost of operating the city lighting plant was $96.40 per 
year for each street lamp. Interest at 5 per cent and depreciation 
at 10 per cent for machinery and 5 per cent for poles, cables and 
conduits, brought this figure to $172 per lamp. During 1896 private 
companies furnished the 517 street lamps by contract at a cost of 
$110.24 per lamp; the contract lamps were required to burn the 
same number of hours per year as the city lamps. We repeat these 
figures because the subsequent annual reports do not contain data 
on the cost of investment from which fixed charges can be esti- 
mated. The report for 1898 says that the cost of the city lamps was 

$68.52 per year and it is naively added, "I'"ornicrly the cily paid 
$137.50 for rented lamps." It is not apparent why comparisons 
should be made with that "former" period rather than with 1896, 
when the cost of rented lamps was only $110. The annual message 
for 1898 does not give llic cost of rented lamps per lamp. nor the 
number of such lamps; only the gross rental is shown. 

A number of interesting questions are briefly discussed in the in- 
Iroduclion lo th- annual report of Maj. I. 1i. Brown, superintendent 
of the Hureau of Railroads of the Commonwealth of F'ennsylvania. 
for the year ending June ,30, 1899, an abstract of which will be found 
on another page. It appears the street railways of the slate arc in 
a fairly prosperous condition, the receipts from passengers showing 
an increase of about $1,900,000 over the previous year. The 161 
operating and subsidiary companies paid in dividends $9,133,647 
and the 90 operating companies have a surplus of $780,593 from the 
year's operations. The report calls attention to the wonderful ad- 
vances made in the last 10 years with reference lo the convenience, 
the speed and the comf<jrt in the local transportation of passengers 
on street railways and notes the entire disappearance of every ves- 
tige of the old horse railways. Mention is also made of the many 
consolidations and merging of interests that have taken place, the 
roads -in Pennsylvania having been particularly active in this re- 

The report urges legislation for abolishing grade crossings at 
the points of intersection of steam and street railways, the state- 
ment being made that probably one-half of the accidents that 
occur in the operation of street railways in Pennsylvania are due 
to crossings at grade. 

What seems to be almost an anomaly is presented by the statistics 
referring to employes. Although the mileage and number of cars 
have considerably increased, the total number of street railway em- 
ployes on all lines has decreased from 12.680 on June 30. 1898. to 
12,506 at the same time in 1899. the decrease undoubtedly being due 
in large part to consolidations. But the total wages paid to em- 
ployes has increased from $6,542,840 in 1898 to $6,569.04 in 1899. so 
that it would appear that while consolidations enable fewer men to 
care for and operate a greater number of cars and miles of track, it 
is necessary to increase the actual total compensation to employes. 

Another very interesting feature of the report is the observations 
made on the percentage of pedestrians and bicycle riders to the 
number of passengers on the cars, which will be found in the 
resume of the report printed on another page. Of 19.791 persons 
passing a given point during a given period in the city of Harris- 
burg. 66.02 per cent were pedestrians. 19.12 per cent were on wheels 
and 14.86 per cent were in cars. The percentage of wheel riders 
is considerably lower than for the two previous years, and the 
figures would seem to indicate that the number of wheels in use 
had dropped to a nearly permanent level, so that, as is pointed out. 
the problem now before the manager is not so much how to over- 
come the competition of the bicycle as it is to make it advantageous 
for a large portion of the 66 per cent of pedestrians to patronize 
the cars. 

Some of the publications devoted to the growing interests of the 
horseless carriage are using considerable space in exploiting the 
possibilities of their various vehicles as active competitors of 
street railways in the transportation of passengers in cities, and 
passengers and express in country districts. 

The street railway interest has nothing to fear, in our judgment. 
from competition of the horseless carriage. .\t the present time 
its use is more of a pastime for a few wealthy persons who are 
forming automobile clubs, and for transient senice in two or three 
large cities, than any well organized system of passenger transpor- 
tation. By this we do not mean to be understood as in any way 
underestimating the desirability of supplanting the horse for city 
work in carriage and cab service. But there is a long way. and it 
is full of obstacles, between this transient ser\-ice and the transpor- 
tation of any considerable number of people at fixed hours, and 
under all conditions of weather, such as enter into the street car 
problem. The various vapor motors have not yet been brought to 
any such degree of perfection as to warrant the establishment of 
large numbers of these vehicles on certain routes with specified 
schedules. The electrical storage battery carriages and delivery 
wagons operate quite satisfactorily, but the character of their work 
thus far has been of such a nature that no particular harm results 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 

when tliiy run out of curroni or [ail lo work, as they somclinics do. 

To transport any considerable number of people the carriage 
must be of large size, and with the necessary battery storage, of 
considerable weight. The heavier this becomes the greater the 
disparity between the auto with its wheels resting on pavement 
and the street car which runs upon rails. The auto, possibly, can 
make even better time in cities than the car, when built to carry 
say two to four people; but such a service cannot be rendered for 
loss than five to ten times the usual street car fare. To carry 
at five cents per passenger there must be large carrying capacity to 
reduce the cost per passenger, of the crew in charge. 

The auto would have some advantage over the car in that it has 
no expensive tracks and paving to maintain, and can run on boule- 
vards and such residence streets as have no car tracks, or where 
it is impossible to get rights to lay tracks. This w^ould land pas- 
sengers residing on such streets practically at their own doors; 
on the other hand, when the auto gets down into the business 
district it is doubtful if it could make as good time threading its 
way among other vehicles as the car which has a definite right of 
way, from which it can not turn out. thus forcing other vehicles to 
turn out for it. 

The cities where omnibus lines and carcttes are in service are 
found to show that the business carried by them is no considerable 
factor in competition with surface car lines. 

In country districts the auto comes under the head of fair weather 
carriers. They might do good service during certain seasons of 
the year, and in such districts as have good hard gravel roads could 
make pretty fair time; but their operation even then must be in the 
nature of furnishing a service where the traffic would not warrant 
an electric line. The intcrurban would easily average from two to 
four times the speed of the auto. 

It would seem then that the auto service cannot expect to' com- 
pete with the street car. either in time or carrying rates. It should, 
however, find a field of usefulness in supplying outlying districts 
which have not yet grown up to the ability to support a street 
car line, and where some kind of feeder service is desired. For this 
the auto is adaptable, as the number can be increased morning and 
night without much trouble, and the day service cut down with a 
minimum of investment lying idle. It may be that street railways 
will come to use them in this way, as the batteries could be charged 
at comparatively slight expense during the late and early hours 
when the station load is light. 

The question of abolishing grade crossing of railroads and high- 
ways is one that is attracting more interest and discussion each 
year, and one of the reasons for this is the increase in the num- 
ber of highways occupied by interurban electric lines; in cities the 
grade crossing problem increases in importance as traffic 
grows in volume, but here. also, the most dangerous crossings 
are in the streets occupied by street railways. In a series of articles 
published in the "Review" in October and December, 1897, and 
February, 1898. an attempt was made to summarize the laws gov- 
erning crossings of steam and electric roads and the general policy 
of the states and railroad commissioners concerning crossings. The 
tendency generally manifested by state legislatures is to prevent so 
far as possible any new crossings of railroads being made at grade 
unless interlocking or othei" safety devices are provided, leaving 
to the future plans for removing grade crossings now in existence. 
In New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and some of the smaller 
of the Eastern states, the work of abolishing the existing crossings 
has been undertaken with considerable success. 

The report of the Massachusetts Railroad Commissioners for 
1899 showed the total expenditures of the state, imder a general 
law passed in 1890 and other special laws applying to Boston, for 
abolishing grade crossings up to Jan. i, 1899, to be over $3,370,000. 
Under the general law mentioned the state bears 25 per cent, the 
city or town 10 per cent and the railroad 65 per cent of the cost; 
under the special laws mentioned the share of the state was 31.5 per 
cent and of the company 55 per cent. The total cost of the work in 
the eight years was over $12,415,500. Some idea of the progress 
made is had from the statement that there were 2,070 grade cross- 
ings in the state; 27 had been abolished during the year, 14 were 
in process of abolition and petitions concerning 155 more were 
pending. ' • f 

In New York a law was passed in 1897 providing for the abolition 
of grade crossings on the motion of the city, the railroad or the 

commissioners, the cost being assessed between the state, the city 
and the railroads concerned in the proportion of i, i and 2. The 
commissioners in their annual report for the year 1899 gave the 
number of crossings actually abolished under this act as 19; work 
is in progress on 25 others, determinations have been made in 13 
cases and 44 petitions are now pending. 

In Ohio when a city and a railroad comiiany agree upon the 
elimination of a grade crossing the railroad company is required to 
pay not less than 65 per cent of the cost and the city not more 
than 3$ per cent. The city of Cleveland has recently taken up this 
question and is now discussing the abolition of grade crossings of 
electric and steam tracks within the city limits. The city's por- 
tion of the cost of making the changes is estimated at $400,000, and 
it asks that this expense be borne by the street railways which use 
the crossings in question. The steam railroads either own their 
rights of way in fee or have a perpetual easement; on the other 
hand the street railways in Ohio arc limited to short terms of years 
in their occupancy of the streets, and this difference in charter or 
franchise rights does not admit of the same reasoning being applied 
when discussing what is an equitable division of cost. This was 
clearly recognized by the city of Cleveland when it asked the street 
railways to pay its share, as the proposition included an agreement 
to reimburse the companies in case they do not succeed in securing 
renewals of their franchises. 

As pointed out in a paper on grade crossings elsewhere in this 
issue, the advantages to the street railway of abolishing a grade 
crossing are a slight saving in time and in the decreased liability 
to accidents. The first is not important and the sectind Is problem- 
atical in amount and is a benefit which cannot be assigned a 
money value and which is shared by every other user of the street. 

In discussing the problem it is only fair to consider that the steam 
railroad is the source from which the danger emanates. An elec- 
tric car might, it is true, run into a steam car standing on the 
crossing, but it would be with a minimum of damage to the steain 
car and a maximum danger to itself. A steam train or car, on 
the other hand, could not fail to injure the street car or occupants 
when in collision. We fail to recall a single instances where the 
steam train has been derailed when in collision at any of the 
recorded grade crossing accidents. This being the case, it would 
seem to us that the percentage of cost of abolishing grade cross- 
ings, which the city of Cleveland wishes allotted to the street rail- 
ways as their share, is somewhat larger than the conditions war- 
rant, even after admitting certain advantages of time and safety 
which the street railway gains by the change. 

Owing to the extraordinary rapidity with which street railways 
have been built and developed and the fact that the constructing 
engineers in many cases had no long term of experience such as 
prevails in steam road construction, a condition has been created 
involving a great lack of uniformity. This is not so much a matter 
of surprise although none the less unfortunate, and is discerned as 
never before now consolidations are being made. 

The electric railway developing with such tremendous energy, and 
being itself a new engineering problem, there arose the necessity 
not only of calling in engineers who had never built such roads be- 
fore, but even using those who had never constructed any street 
railway whatever. Many of these men were bright, resourceful, en- 
ergetic fellows, fresh from the engineering schools, but without any 
previous practical experience. Others had been in the employ of 
horse roads, and commanding the confidence of the directors were 
retained to plan and execute the transformation to electric power. 
That so large a number succeeded as well as they did. and with no 
greater losses in experimental work is indeed the wonder, rather 
than that mistakes were frequently made. 

The companies manufacturing electric apparatus and machinery 
were freely drawn on for information as to engineering rules re- 
garding which in the first few years they knew almost as little as 
those they counseled. Thus the blind tried to lead the blind, and 
as we look back it seems little short of a miracle that both did not 
perish in the ditch together. 

At the end of 10 years a fairly established practice was reached as 
to many features; that is. a generally accepted theory was adopted 
as to certain things which were not to be. But all this time the 
growing and expansion and extension policy was at work in all our 
cities. Instead of inspecting carefully a series of roads in as many 
cities anc\ carefully discarding the weak features and copying the 

Fun. IS, IfJOO.J 



slmiig ones, the ciiKincer seemed possesse<l of an irrcsistable desire 
lo slainp liis own individuality upon his roail, and to do this he de- 
vised new ways and means. The same experienee marked the in- 
stallation of cahle roads, no two of whieh were exactly alike, and 
most of the later liiiill were by no means .in im|)rovement on the 
earlier types. 

Not only was tin's great dissimilarity between roads in cities east 
and cities west; bnt of two, three or five roads in the same city, no 
two were alike to any considerable extent , Perhaps each had a 
(lifTercnl rail section; a dilTerent system of feeder wires was usnal; 
as to the power honsc ci|nipment, one road had Iiiuh speed belt 
connected cniiines; another had simple engines, and a third was 
running condensing. Ami wlun it came lo rolling stock! Not only 
woidd each company in the same city build a different type of car 
from that in use on the other roads there, bnt in many instances 
there would be such a variety of trucks, motors, and cars on a single 
road, as would make it a working exposition of electric railway 
apparatus. We call to mind a road which oticc ordered one car 
from each of all the various car builders, and placed under this Ba- 
bel of car bodies a polyglot of trucks. The idea was to have a 
personal demonstration of the good or bad qualities of each, letting 
the fittest smvivc. These equipments have not yet worn out, and 
already fully one-third of the building concerns have either gone 
out of business entirely, or abandoned street railway work. 

Wc should not, however, wholly condemn the engineer, con- 
tractor, or manager who has several mitigating circumstances to 
plead. There was the evolution of the art, and his desire, and fre- 
([Uenlly the necessity in many directions, to advance with the tiines 
and in buying for additions and extensions to purchase the im- 
provements which came with such bewildering rapidity. Some of 
these new departures proved to be improvements and sonic proved 
otherwise. If the engineer guessed right, he took due credit to 
himself for his perspicuity; if it turned out a disappointment he laid 
the failure on the builder and comforted himself — and so far as pos- 
sible his directors — by pointing out others whose condition was 
such as to be really deplorable. 

Nor was the energetic manufacturer, builder and sales agent al- 
together an unknown quantity in producing this growing chaos of 
property. The sellers called to their aid scores of bright young men 
against whose persuasive arguments the bewildered manager was 
no match. This season one company secured the order for new 
cars: the next another carried off the prize. And the steady de- 
pression in business for five years greatly accentuated this distribu- 
tion of orders, for the manager felt a strong obligation to purchase 
from low bidders even if the plans and specifications were by no 
means similar to those of the previous year. Stockholders and di- 
rectors also did their full share by putting pressure on the manager 
to buy cheap even against his better judgment ami earnest protest. 
And thus has come about, by what may fairly be termed natural 
conditions, this lack of uniformity which, as intimated in the out- 
set, is now brought forcibly to view since con.solidations of several 
lines in the same city are being consummated every month. The 
corporation taking over the properties finds itself in possession of a 
little of everything in the way of track, overhead equipment, power 
plants and rolling stock. Motors of all types and sizes, trucks and 
car bodies of varying lengths: wheels of assorted sizes, weights, 
treads and llanges; axles long, short, small and large diameters. 
The gates of the Avenue A line will not interchange with a single 
car on any of the other avenues all the way down to Z; brasses and 
journal trimmings in variety to keep a small foundry working over- 
time: curtains on the open cars are found to possess a remarkable 
individuality; in fact the combined properties bring together a cos- 
nnipolitan collection wdiich enables the company's store keeper to 
fill three stories with thousand of dollars worth of "parts" and keep 
busy a force of clerks sufficient to conduct a small wholesale estab- 

The picture is anything but an exaggerated one: we only wish it 
were, for we have visited not a few of these museums of supplies, 
and many of our readers will not have to go ofT their own premises 
to find a well developed example. The drain from this source is 
often enormous. There must necessarily be always with electric 
traction a long list of repair parts and supplies greatly in excess of 
what was necessary under cable operation, which in turn multiplied 
the wants which were unknown when the motive power was ex- 
clusively animal: but the increase has been beyond the fondest 
dream of any company's store keeper lo years ago. 

We are now beginning to enter the reconstruction period. Al- 
ready we have scrapped millions of dollars worth of machinery and 
apparatus displaced by improved <lesif{ns which offered such econ- 
omy of operation that the change was taken bodily out of the realm 
of the debatable. In this motors, generators and engines figure 
most prominently, although each carried with it quite a train of at- 
tendants in foundations, bells, gears, etc. The power house prob- 
lem has been fairly well settled and unless some radically new force, 
such as liijuid air would be, comes in to revolutionize the plant, wc 
may reasonably expect to wear out the machinery now going into 
our new stations. Experience also has demonstrated what arc the 
economical units, although improved transmission will continue 
to shut down branch stations and open large central plants in many 
cities. Wc have now secured data which could only come from ex- 
perience and are better qualified to anticipate the future than was 
possible a decade ago. 

Track construction also has settled down to a firmer basis, and 
there will be more wearing out of rails, and less relaying of the 
light weights to be taken up and practically thrown away as has 
been the case thus far. 

But the rolling stock is something to vigorously tackle next. 
Public demand and utility of service are bringing greater stress to 
bear each year, and this department of operation will have to be 
taken up and brought to the same degree of exactness which has 
been attained at the power station. Larger and better cars are be- 
coming a necessity. In our opinion here is now the weak point in 
our operations. It has been impossible to reach it earlier but the 
evils hidden in that large item "repairs cars" demand just as critical 
study and reform on the majority of roads as the power house ever 
did. «"■-< 

How to get at this and what remedy to apply will furnish a subject 
for next month. 


On January 161I1 a meeting was held at Columbus, and the Ohio 
Intcrurban Street Railway Association organized. The objects are 
"for mutual co-operation in everything tending to the welfare of 
interurban street railroads in the state of Ohio, and to fully pre- 
sent and keep before the people of the state the advantages of sucli 
companies as common carriers of passengers, express matter, 
United States mails and light freight." 

It is understood that this association will lake no part in the 
negotiations now pending with the Columbus Street Ry. 

The officers of the association are: President, O. W. Aldrich, 
Columbus; first vice-president, J. S. Harshman, Springfield; second 
vice-president, V. Winters, Dayton; secretary. L. P. Stephens. Co- 
lumbus; treasurer, I. N. Cook, Chillicothc; executive committee, 
D. J. Ryan and A. G. Grant, of Columbus; O. B. Brown, of Day- 
ton, and Eugene Rawdon. of Windsor. 


The common council of Guthrie has recently passed a street rail- 
way ordinance which shows the attitude in Oklahoma Territory 
toward such undertakings. The grant is to Mrs. A. C. Beckwith, 
of San Francisco, Cal., and others, but the road is to be known 
as the Guthrie Electric Street Ry. The principal provisions of 
the ordinance, which became a law without the mayor's approval, 
afe as follows: 

The franchise grant is lor 40 years; overhead trolley system, with 
iron poles, is contemplated, but any practicable system of traction 
may be used; company to pave tracks between rails and 2 ft. on 
each side; maximum fare. 5 cents; fine provided for obstructing 
tracks by driving teams thereon after a warning from motorman 
by ringing bell; limits of speed fixed at from 5 to 8 miles per hour 
in business districts, and from 8 to 12 miles per hour in residence 
districts; distance of 300 ft. required between cars running in same 
direction; conductors to announce names of streets and use "proper 
diligence to prevent women and children from leaving the cars 
while in motion"; cars not to remain standing at stations for more 
than 10 minutes: headway to be 10 minutes or less on all principal 
lines between 6 a. m. and 11 p. m.; right to adopt reasonable regu- 
lations reserved bv council. 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 

System of the Saratoga Traction Co, 

The Saratoga Traction Co., of Saratoga, N. Y., which has for 
several years operated an electric railway between Saratoga Springs 
and Saratoga Lake, has recently completed a line to Ballston Spa, 
aggregating with its race track line already built, 14 miles of 
single track. All of this, with the exception of about two miles 
within the city limits, is on private right of way and is fenced. 

Ballston Spa, the county seat of Saratoga County, has a popula- 
tion of about 4,500, and is quite a manufacturing center, a paper 
mill, one of the largest tanneries in the world, a wrapper and other 
factories being situated here. The summer population, owing to 


several fine mineral springs, is quite large and the people as a 
rule are a class to patronize street railways. 

Saratoga Springs, in which is located the main offices of the 
company, has a winter population of 10,000. In the summer this 
is increased to about 35,000, for two months and a half, owing to 
the racing at the Saratoga Racing Association's Park, situated 
just out of the town, and also to the numerous mineral springs 
and beautiful drives. Through the opposition of the Hackmen's 
Associations, the company has found it impossible to obtain a very 
suitable entrance into Saratoga, and it has been permitted only 
on the back streets in the poorest locality and then only for short 
distances. Despite these hard conditions, the road is gaining 
ground with the public, and will eventually have a better entrance. 

At the close of cacli season Saratoga has a Flora Fete, which 
is being arranged on a larger scale each year. This season it lasted 
three days and in the grand parade of the last day there were over 
100 floats, which were fitted up at an expense of more than $15,000. 
This feature is very popular with the summer visitors, and during 
the three days it was estimated there were 60,000 tourists in the 

The line to Ballston Spa runs through the Geysers, where are 
located several carbonic acid gas wells from which thousands of 
cylinders are charged each year and shipped to all parts of the 
country. There are also five mineral springs. 

The road runs through a farming country from the wells to 
Ballston, and is some distance from the highway. The grading has 
been done in a very thorough manner and arranged on a 2 per cent 
grade basis, although the land is quite rolling. The roadbed is 
14 ft. wide, all fills are sloped Ij4 to i, cuts are r6 ft. at the base 
and regular steam road construction practice has been followed. 
There are two bridges on the Ballston line, one 384 ft. long rests 
on piling, and the other, made of steel, is 240 ft. long, and was 
erected by the Berlin Iron Bridge Co. The steel bridge has piers 
52 ft. high, resting on concrete and crushed stone mixed in the 
proportion of 1 of cement, 3 of sand and 6 of crushed rock. The 
l)est of Portland cement was used. A plank form was made and the 
cement and rocks poured in, in layers, and then tamped. There 
are 16 of these piers from 12 to 6 ft. deep, resting on the solid 

rock, which was blasted out to make even foundation. On butli 
of these bridges the ties are 6x8 in., every fourth tie being 18 ft. 
long and the others 10 ft. Along the ends of these are laid side 
guards, 8x8 in., placed lengthwise two on each side, 3 ft. apar' 
and supporting a plank sidewalk. This with a 5 ft. railing prevents 
passengers or cars from being thrown from the bridge. This con- 
struction makes tlie bridges as safe as any point on the line. 

The road is laid with Wharton 56-lb. T-rails, 60 ft. in length, on 
ties 6x7 in. x 7 ft., placed 2 ft. c. to c. The joints are bonded with 
figure 8 flexible bonds of No. 0000 wire. The foundation ior the 
roadbed is gravel and sand. In the city the company is compelled 
to put in crushed rock in the center and for 2 ft. each side of the 

The overhead construction is supported upon chestnut poles, 
35 ft. long, 6 ft. in the ground and set with 10 in. rake on bracket 
construction and 18 in. rake on cross suspension. These poles are 
100 ft. apart, and have tin tops. In the city cross suspension is 
used and on all curves of the cross country work. The remainder 
is bracket construction. Creaghead Engineering Go's, standard 
flexible brackets being used. All poles are painted with two coats 
in two colors, the upper portion of colonial yellow and the bottom 
golden ocher to match the cars. The trolley wire is No. 00 B. & 
S. gage. The trolley hangers and insulators were made by the 
Ohio Brass Co. 

The company owns 24 cars, of which four are short trailers, 
eight are 14-bench open Pullman cars, three are side door double 
deck Pullman ears, having capacity for 120 passengers, three are 
closed Laconia cars, one of which is used for baggage and one is a 
small closed car. All of these closed equipments have vestibules 
and are heated with H. W. John's electric heaters. One construc- 
tion car, a Taunton snow plow and two flat cars complete the 
rolling stock. Brill, Bemis, Taylor and Pullman trucks are used 
with 3-)4-in. and 4-in. axles; the wheels are 33-in. with zlA-'m. thread 
and %-in. flange. For the closed cars "Walkover" seats are pro- 
vided, finished with plush, and each car is fitted with Van Dorn 
track scrapers. The company has adopted the G. E. 1,000 motor 
and K 10 controller as standard, although a few W. P. 50 motors 
are used. 

There are two wooden car barns situated at Saratoga, but these 
will be replaced soon by larger and better ones. The power sta- 
tion is located at the Geysers near a small pond, suitable for con- 
densing water, and is a 50 x loo-ft. building with a brick stack 90 

^.CUMi.s o.\ 1 IJli LI.Ni; (Jl TUK S,\kATOl..V XK.VCT10N_C0. 

ft. high with 5 ft. flue. The station contains two 125-h. p. West- 
inghouse and one 250-h. p. Ball & Wood engine, with M. P. 90 and 
M. P. 300 generators. The wiring is all done in a substantial 
manner; the instruments are mounted on a skeleton switchboard 
made of quartered oak, finished in the natural wood, and resting 
on a foundation entirely separate from the building. It is so ar- 
ranged as to be accessible at all points without danger. 

In the boiler room there are two horizontal tubular boilers 125 
h. p. each, and one 250-h. p. Stirling water tube boiler. The boil- 

Feb. 15, i()o(i. I 



ers arc fcil iIiiiiukIi a (' liralcr which laisrs tlio temperature 
to 210". 

The seven miles ot new work helween lialUlmi ami Saratoga 
was finished and in operati<jn in six weeks fruni the time it was 
eonimeneed. This line will be extended to Mechanicsville in the 
spring of 1900. At present the eonipany is Ijuilding a two-mile 
extension to the Saratoga Lake line in the same general manner 
and creating a fine park in wliieh will be a rnstic theater, casino 
bnilding, pleasure boats, band stands and everything necessary 
to a first-class railway park. There arc in this park 120 acres, all 
of which will be laid out, under the supervision of E. A. Blaisdell, 
of Brunswick, Me., an expert park designer, in walks and fiower 
beds, with rustic summer bouses. Tlie grounds are located on the 
slun'cs of Saratoga l.nke ami cnmniaml one ni ihe finest views in 


the vicinity. The population at tliis point is entirely of a summer 
nature, and no attempt will l)u made to operate this branch in 
the winter. 

On the main system, during the summer, cars run on a 30 minute 
schedule from 6 a. m. to 12:30 p. m., and in special cases each car 
draws from two to four trailers. In the winter the cars run on a 
40 minute headway, the motors on the closed cars being geared so 
as to run the seven miles from Ballston to Saratoga in 20 minutes. 
On some portions of the line a speed of 50 miles an hour is made. 

The Saratoga Traction Co. was organized and the lake and race 
track lines built in 1890. The capital stock of the company is 
$500,000. The ofiicers are: President, E. A. Noyes; secretary, F. 
H. Lang; general manager, Geo. E. Macomber; superintendent, F. 
B. Lee. The construction work was all done by Geo. E. Macomber, 
of Augusta, Mo., under the supervision of Superintendent Lee. 


Mr. J. B. McClary, general manager of the Birmingham (Ala.) 
Railway & Electric Co., advises us that the plan instituted some 
time ago in Birmingham of giving rewards to employes for clean 
cars and freedom from accidents has been a great success, the in- 
creased cleanliness of the cars and the reduction in the number 
of accidents more than balancing the cost of maintaining the prize 
system. The plan finally adopted and the one found to give the best 
results is as follows: 

On the cars operated without conductors the motormen are given 
a reward of $1,662-3 per month for clean cars, and if they have had 
no accidents during the month for which the company has had to 
pay out money they receive an additional reward of $3.33 1-3, mak- 
ing a possible total of $5.00 a month or $60.00 a year over their 
regular wages. On cars having both motormen and conductors 
the motormen participate in the no accident reward and the con- 
ductors in the clean car reward. Inspectors examine the cars every 
day, and if a man has as many as three reports for dirty cars in 
any one month he fails to receive a reward for that month. A 
man who has cost the company any amount, no matter how small, 
for accidents, also fails of a prize. The company keeps a book 
properly 'udexcd, and every morning the reports of the inspectors 
are gone over and all charges entered against the man responsi- 

ble. All names against which there is nothing entered at the end 
of the month arc credited with the extra reward on the pay roll. 
About 90 per cent of the men secured prizes last month. 

The company pays its motormen 13 cents an hour the first year 
and 14 cents thereafter. 

Sample pages of the record book have been sent us by Mr. Mc- 
Clary. They read as follows: 


S*^!" $3-33 

Oct. Killed cow at Red Bank 0.00 

Nov. I'ulled down wire at liig Cut 

Hit Jones' dray al jlh Ave 0.00 

'^"" 3-33 


Sept $1.66 

Oct. 7 D. C. (Dirty car) 

II D. C 

17 D. C 0.00 

Nov. 12 D. C 1.66 

I^c 1.66 

4 ■ > 


We fear that our people have nmch to learn from the other 
"branches of the English speaking race" when it comes to en- 
forcing the laws, and particularly in punishing mob violence at- 
tendant upon strikes. In our issue of August last we gave a brief 
account of the riot in London, Ont., July 8, 1899, when a mob 
attacked the cars of the London Street Railway Co., damaging 10 of 
them and injuring a number of the non-union employes of the com- 
pany. Martial law was declared and order restored by troops. 

Some 20 indictments were returned against persons participating 
in the riot and these cases reached trial late in January. At the 
first day's session of the court four of the men pleaded guilty to 
rioting or stone throwing and were sentenced to pay fines of $25 to 
$50 or as an alternative undergo imprisonment in jail for from 30 
to 60 days. Three others were temporarily granted bail and are 
to receive sentence later. One of the defendants pleaded not guilty 
and was acquitted. 

January 31st, three others pleaded guilty to stone throwing, and 
were fined $25 with option of serving jail sentences of two months. 
A fourth man who preferred a jury trial was convicted, and was 
sentenced to imprisonment for nine months. The heaviest sen- 
tence imposed was two years' imprisonment in the Central prison 
at Toronto, which was for assisting in the destruction of a car. 


January 22d the directors of the Cincinnati & Hamilton Electric 
Street Railway Co., the Cincinnati & Miami Valley Traction Co. 
and the Dayton Traction Co. (whose property is leased to the Cin- 
cinnati & Miami Valley) met at Cleveland and completed the 
formal consolidation of those companies. 

The consolidated company is to be known as the Southern Ohio 
Traction Co. and have a capital stock of $2,000,000, with an author- 
ized bond issue of $2,000,000. Temporary officers were chosen 
as follows: President, Will Christy, .\kron; vice-president. H. C. 
Ford, Cleveland; secretary and treasurer, F. T. Pomeroy, Cleve- 
land. The directors are: James Christy. Jr., and Will Christy. 01 
.Vkron; Peter Schwab, of Hamilton, and H. Clark Ford. M. J. 
Mandelbaum. H. R. Newcomb, D. H. Kimberley. .\mos B. Mc- 
Nairy, A. E. Akins, H. A. Sherwin. -R. A. Harman and R. M. 
Parmely. of Cleveland. 

The Cincinnati & Hamilton line is 15 miles long, the Cincinnati & 
Miami Valley 26 miles, and the Dayton Traction 15 miles long. 
This gives a 56-mile road connecting Dayton with the urban 
system of Cincinnati. 

Superintendent H. A. Xicholl. of the Rochester (N. Y.) Railway 
Co.. and the Rochester & Sodus Bay Electric Ry.. has moved his 
oflice from the office building of the Rochester Ry., on State St.. 
to the station on Main St.. East, formerly used by the Glen Haven 



[Vol.. X, No. 2. 


The forerunner of the extensive electric railway sjstem centering 
at Anderson, Ind., was a one-mile mule line built in ."Anderson in 
September, 1888, the charter for which was granted to Seldon R. 
Williams and D. C. Williams, of Lebanon, Tenn., on Aug. 19, 1887, 
for 12 years. Branches were subsequently constructed from this 
line and m 1892 the Anderson Electric Street Railway Co. was 
organized by Chas. L. Henry, of Anderson, and Philip Matter, 
of Marion, for the purpose of purchasing the stock of the old street 
railway company and reconstructing the system for electric trac- 
tion. This was done, heavier rails were laid, the old lines were 
extended and the best electrical equipment known at the time was 

purchased. On Sept. 3, 1897, the property and franchises were ac- 
quired by the Union Traction Co., of Anderson, which in turn, 
on June 28, 1899, was consolidated with the Muncie, Anderson & 
Indianapolis Street Railway Co., of Muncie, under the name of 
the Union Traction Co., of Indiana, which now owns and 
operates the city lines of Anderson, Alexandria and Marion, the 
interurban roads connecting Anderson with Marion and Elwood, 
and the new line under construction from Muncie via Anderson 
to Indianapolis, with branches to Middletown and Frankton, The 
latter branch will connect with the Indianapolis Street Ry. lines 
at the State Fair Grounds, north of Indianapolis, and cars will run 
into the city over the lines of that company. It is estimated when 

this branch is in operation the Union Traction Co. will serve a 
population of nearly 200,000 people. 

The completed system will comprise 165 miles of track, and there 
is now in process of erection at Anderson, a central station from 
which power will be furnished on the three-phase distributing sys- 
tem to all lines owned by the company. This station will be 164 ft. 
,3 in. long X 1 16 ft. 3 in. wide, and 59 ft. high, front elevation. The 
structure will be fireproof, with brick walls and steel trusses sup- 
porting the roof. In the engine room, which will be 160 ft. 9 in. 
long X 70 ft. wide x 30 ft. high, will be erected three r.5oo-li. ji. 
horizontal cross-compound Rice & Sargent engines, built by tin- 
Providence Engineering Works, direct connected to three 1,000- 
k\v. Westinghouse generators built to carry 50 per cent overload. 

Babcock & Wilcox boilers 
of 400 h. p. each will be placed 
in the boiler room, which will 
be 160 ft. 9 in. long x 42 ft. 
wide X 60 ft, high. Stillwell- 
Bierce & Smith Vaile feed- 
water heaters and Blake- 
Knowles condensers have been 
contracted for. 

The furnaces will be ar- 
ranged for natural gas fuel, but 
to meet the contingency of a 
shortage in the gas supply, 
coal bins, with John A. Mead 
coal conveyers and stokers will 
be provided. The smokestack 
will stand a few feet from the 
boiler room to the south of the 
main building. It will have a 
diameter of 19^2 ft. at the base 
and will be 180 ft. high. 

Current will be generated 
at 370 volts, alternating, and by 
means of 15 Westinghouse 
static transformers of 250-kw. 
each, will be raised to 15,000 
volts for transmission. At 
sub-stations, of which there 
will be eight, located at suita- 
ble places along the line, cur- 
rent will be stepped down to 
370 volts and changed to 550- 
volt direct current through ro- 
tary converters. For this work 
twelve 175-kw. and twenty 87.5 
static transformers and twelve 
250-kw. converters will be in- 
stalled. Nine storage batteries, 
supplied by the Electric Stor- 
age Battery Co., aggregating 
1,100 kw. h. capacity, will regu- 
late the voltage, one battery 
being placed at each sub-sta- 
tion and one at the central sta- 

The main switchboard will 
consist of three generator 
panels, one storage battery, 
three alternating current syn- 
chronous converter, three di- 
rect current converter, and five 
direct current feeder panels. 
A switch will be laid from the P., C C. & St. L. R. R. direct to 
the power house, to be used for hauling coal, building supplies 
and heavy machinery, for which service an electric locomotive will 
probably be used. 

Work on the new road from Muncie to Indianapolis is being 
pushed with vigor. The abutments and piers are nearly completed 
for four bridges, one across White River at Anderson, one across 
the same river at Chesterfield, near the famous Indiana mounds, 
one across Fall Creek at Pendleton, and one across Lick Creek 
at Ingalls. All culverts, piers and abutments of these bridges are 
being constructed of heavy stone masonry laid in hydraulic ce- 

Frii. 15, iQfK), ' 


... ^'7 

'I'lk- roadbed conslriiclion 011 lliis branch will follow slcam ro;id 
praclici', the tracks being 70-lb. steel rails, in 60-ft. lengths, laid on 
6 in. X 8 in. X 8 ft. tics. Rails arc being rolled by the Cambria Iron 
Co., (if Johnstown, Pa. A niaxinunn speed of 4-' miles per hoiw 
will Ijc n-ai'lu-cl in the rini lo Inrlianapolis. 

The Union Traction Co. car- 
ries on an extensive express 
business. Two express cans 
are at present employed, one 
maUing three trips per day 
from Anderson lo Alexandria, 
thence two trips to Summit- 
ville and one trip to Orestes. 
I lie express cars have regular 
tune schedules for collecting 
merchandise from the local 
merchants, commission houses 
and wholesale houses and car- 
rying lo destination. All of 
I he passengers coaches have 
liaggage compartments and 
take trunks, bicycles, parcels, 
etc., at the ame rate as the 
special express cars. 

The officers of the company are: President, Philip Matter; first 
vice-president, Jas. A. Van Osdal; second vice-president, Frank M. 
Ritcr; secretary and general manager, Chas. L. Henry; treasurer, 
Geo. F. McCnllough; superintendent, Chas. Berry, The general 
ol'lices are in the Masonic Temple, .'\nderson. 


C. h. HENKV. 


The reports of the Milwaukee street railway companies exhibit 
the business of the year iSyo, and extracts show the following: 

The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. operates 140.29 
miles of track (63.45 double and ij-.w single) in the city, and gives 
this data. 

.•\niount of preferred stock $3,500,000.00 

.■\mount of common stock 3.500.000.OO 

Bonded indebtedness 8,000,000.00 

Indebtedness of the company 932,074.07 

Receipts from railway business 1,668,962.87 

Disbursements 1.095.445.63 

Construction 701,981.17 

General expense operating railway system 75.378.62 

Legal expense operating railway system 25,034.38 

Injury claims and damages 50,068.88 

Rentals 2,462.42 

Conducting transportation 527,174.47 

Maintenance of ways and structure 92,300.48 

Maintenance of rolling stock 73,943.05 

For producing power 324,000.00 

The Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Co., which is controlled 
by the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., and has the same 
ofliccrs, controls the companies owning the interurban lines to 
Waukesha, North Milwaukee. Wauwatosa, Racine and Kenosha, 
and the Belle City road in Racine. It operates 73.18 miles of track, 
and makes the following statement: 

Common stock $ 500.000.00 

Bonded indebtedness 1.500.000.00 

Other indebtedness 244,o84.,!o 

Total receipts 170.545.03 

Total disbursements, exclusive of interest 124,274.65 

Charged to construction 1,028.984.00 

Charged to operating expenses 120.261. 13 



The three interurban electric roads reaching Indianapolis arc 
now negotiating with the authorities of that city for franchises al- 
lowing a freight and express traffic. Arrangements will be made 
with the Indianapolis Street Ry. lo use its lines within the city. 
The three roads are the Union Traction Co., with headquarters at 
Andcrsori, the Indianapolis, Greenwood & Franklin, and the In- 
dianapolis S: Greenfield. 

An inquiry recently received from the manager of a street rail- 
way who wished lo organize a mutual benefit association among the 
employes of his company, led us to send letter!, to the benefit 
associations of which wc have any record in our files, asking for 
the latest data concerning them. The replies so far received are 
given herewith and will be found of interest by all those interested 
in such organizations. 

It is our wish to secure similar information concerning all such 
associations among street railway men, and it is earnestly requested 
that the secretaries or other rjflicers will send us data for their re- 
spective associations covering the following points: Name of as- 
sociation. Date of organization. Number of members when organ- 
ized. How the management is chosen. Initiation fees and dues. 
Sick benefits allowed. Death benefits. Total sick benefits paid 
since organization. Total death benefits paid since organization. 
Sick benefits paid in 1899. Death benefits paid in 1899. Number 
of members at the present time. Officers. Interesting facts as 
10 the growth of the association. 

The employes of the Cincinnati Street Railway Co. organized 
(he Street Railway Employes' Mutual Protective Association, Nov. 
14, 1887, having at that lime 57 members. Any employe of the 
company between the ages of 21 and 45 is eligible for membership, 
after being in the company's service for three months. The initia- 
tion fee is $r. Formerly dues of 25 cents per week were paid, but 
on Sept. 5, 1899, the Cincinnati Street Ry. appropriated ?S,ooo for 
the Protective Association, so that the monthly dues might be re- 
mitted; it is expected that a similar appropriation will be made" 
each year. On the death of a member there is an assessment of 
$1 per capita. The sick benefit is $7.50 per week. Since the organi- 
zation the association has paid $6,572.87 in sick benefits and $6,081 
in death benefits. In 1899 the totals were $2,622.87 for sick and $781 
for death benefits. 

The present membership is 762. Officers are chosen by ballot 
of the membership, and are: President, two vice-presidents, treas- 
urer, financial secretary and corresponding secretary. George At- 
ti,g is president, and C. C. King, corresponding secretary. 

The Columbus (O.) Street Railway Employes' Beneficial Asso- 
ciation was organized in October, 1893, with about 200 members, 
and now has 325 members. The management is chosen by a vote 
of the membership; besides the president, vice-president and secre- 
tary and treasurer, there is a trustee for each division of the road 
and shops. The dues are $2 initiation, 50 cents per month and $1 
death assessment. The sick benefits allowed arc $3 for the first 
week and $5 thereafter; the death benefit is the result of an assess- 
ment of $1 on each member. Since the organization, the total 
death benefits paid have amounted lo $2,652, while the sick benefits 
paid aggregated $9,017. For 1899 tlic sick benefits paid were $1,458, 
and the death benefits $303. 

The following statement is sent us by Mr. H. R. Beeson, sec- 
retary of the association: "The association has been helped finan- 
cially by the Columbus Street Railway Co., by donations, and 
today we have a cash balance of $1,200. The men are all greatly 
interested in it and the membership continues to grow. One of 
ihe best features is the payment of $50 immediately upon the death 
of a member, this amount to be deducted from a later settlement 
with the beneficiary, thus afTording relief when it is most needed. 
The cish collections are made through the division foreman, and 
turned over to the secretary and treasurer. Sick benefits are paid 
upon a certificate of the attending physician and trustee of the 
division to w-hich the member may belong. There is no doubt it 
has benefited both employer and employe by bringing them closer 
together in a friendly manner." 

The employes of the Chicago City Railway Co. organized the 
Chicago City Railway Employes' Mutual Aid Association, Sept. 
26, 1894, with a membership of about Sept. 20, 1898, the as- 
sociation was reorganized and incorporated under the laws of 
Illinois. The objects of the association is "to establish and main- 
tain a benefit fund out of which shall be paid on the death of a 
member in good standing a sum not exceeding $500," to the per- 
sons .designated by the deceased. It pays no sick benefits. 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 

All employes of the Chicago City Ry. of good moral character, 
not over 50 years of age, are eligible for membership upon passing 
the requisite medical examination. 

The initiation fee is $1, the annual dues 50 cents, and the assess- 
ments 50 cents per capita, levied as often as may be necessary to 
pay death claims. Membership in the association is not forfeited 
upon leaving the employ of the company unless one engage in the 
manufacture or sale of into.\icating liquors; non-employes who are 
suspended for non-payment of dues are not eligible to reinstate- 
ment, however. 

The death benefit is the amount produced by a 50-cent assess- 
ment providing it shall not exceed $500. Since organization the 
association lias paid $ in death claims, and during the year 
ending Oct. i. 1899, paid $8,500. The present membership is 2,600. 

The nine directors, the secretary and the treasurer are chosen 
by the members, and the president and vice-president by the di- 
rectors. The present olViccrs are: President, A. Christ, jr.; vice- 
president, M. P. McDonald; treasurer. T. C. Penington; secretary, 
C. R. Penington. 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Association (New York) was 
organized among the employes of that company, Feb. i, 1897, with 
100 members. Dues were $1 initiation and 50 cents per month, 
and the benefits $1 per day in sickness (limited to 90 days in any 
one year) and $150 on death. Membership is voluntary, all male 
employes of the company being eligible. Since its organization the 
association has paid $21,791 in sick benefits and $7,650 on account 
of deaths. In 1899 the sick benefits paid were $10,870 and the 
death benefits, $3,600. The association now has a membership of 
3,014. H. H. Vreeland, general manager of the Metropolitan Street 
Ry., is ex-officio president of the association; H. S. Beattie, treas- 
urer of the company, is ex-officio treasurer; the other officers are 
chosen by ballot, E. J. O'Connell being vice-president, and D. J. 
Purfield, secretary. 

Feb. 18, 1897, the Middletown (Conn.) Street Railway Co. ar- 
ranged for a benefit association among its employes, membership 
being compulsory. The dues were 25 cents per week, and the sick 
benefit 50 cents per day for employes who had been in the service 
three months. The superintendent of the street railway is e.x- 
officio president of the relief association, and the clerk to the su- 
perintendent is ex-officio secretary and treasurer of the association. 
Three members are chosen by ballot, and with the officers con- 
stitute the executive committee. 

The organization is known as the Street Railway Employes' 
Benefit Association, and had originally 21 members. Since its or- 
ganization it has paid out $381.50 in sick benefits (it has no death 
benefits) ; last year the sick benefits were $195.50. The present 
membership is 24. 

The secretary, Mr. C. H, Chapman, has sent us a copy of the 
by-laws, from which we learn that the weekly dues are 15 cents 
and the sick benefit $r per day (limited to 5 weeks in every 12 con- 
secutive months) the dues having been reduced from 25 cents and 
the benefit increased from 50 cents. As a safeguard against tem- 
porary insolvency, the by-laws provide for an assessment of 25 
cents per member in event of sickness at a time when there is 
no money in the treasury. 

The history of this association, which is now three years old. 
shows that it is not necessary that the company be a large one 
in order to make an employes' mutual benefit association a success, 
and for this reason the Middletown association is of particular in- 
terest to small roads. The superintendent of the company and e.x- 
officio president of the association, is E. W. Goss, who efifected the 
original organization in 1897. 

The Third Avenue Railroad Employes' Relief Association, New 
York, was organized Mar. i, 1890, with a membership of 650. All 
employes of the Third Avenue R. R., in good health, are eligible 
to membership. The dues are $1 initiation, 50 cents per month, 
and a special assessment of 25 cents for the death fund levied on 
new members when joining the association. The sick benefit al- 
lowed is $1 per day beginning on the eighth day, and the total 
for one year is limited to $84. The death benefit is $130. 

Since the organization the total sum paid out for sick benefits 
is $32,593, and for death benefits. $18,670. In 1899, the sick bene- 

fits amounted to $3,407, and the death benefits to $2,150. The mem- 
bership at present is 1,000. 

The officers of the association arc a president, a vice-president, 
a secretary, a treasurer, a sergeant-at-arms and a physician. The 
president is the superintendent of the company, and the treasurer, 
the treasurer of the company; other officers are chosen by ballot. 

Mr. C. C. Swertfager, secretary, writes us as follows: "Our as- 
sociation was started by Pres. Louis Lyons, of the Third Avenue 
R. R., who is now deceased. He presented the men with $100, 
which, together with $200 more realized from a "chowder party," 
given by the employes on Oct. 9, 1889, formed the financial nucleus 
of the organization. The good done in the last 10 years can best 
be judged by the total of benefits paid. At this time we have 
$9,000 in the treasury. 

"During the first two years we had an assessment of 25 cents 
upon the death of a member, but for the last eight years there has 
been no assessment. We give an entertainment sometime during 
the winter, and a picnic in the summer, and all sums realized from 
this source, over expenses, are placed in the Death Fund, also all 
assessments from new members, who pay 25 cents assessment 
when they become members. Our dues are 50 cents per month; 
this sum pays sick benefits and other expenses. 

"All of the officers of the road are members of the association, 
from Pres. A. J. Elias down. Supt. J. H. Robertson is the presi- 
dent. Mr. John Beaver, treasurer of the road, is our treasurer. 

"A strict account of all money received and disbursed is ren- 
dered at every monthly meeting. There are eleven trustees and an 
advisory board (consisting of the president, vice-president and 
treasurer), to whom are referred all bills, and no money can be 
paid out without their orders, except sick benefits, which are paid 
on the order of the association physician. 

"The secretary devotes his whole time to the association, and is 
paid a salary. ."Vmong his duties is that of visiting the sick at least 
twice a week." 

Mr, A. A. Anderson, general manager of the Mahoning Valley 
Railway Co., of Youngstown, O., in answer to our inquiry, says: 
"Our employes have no organization or association. I believe a 
nuitual benefit association of street railway employes is a good 
feature, and we have discussed the matter a number of times. At 
one time the employes among themselves attempted to perfect 
such an organization, but for some reason they failed to carry out 
their plans. I have delayed giving the matter my personal attention 
for the reason that in starting it of? I desired to furnish them 
with good quarters for their meetings, entertainment during hours 
when oflf duly, etc., provision for which I expect to make in the 
near future." 

The Montreal Street Railway Co., Montreal, Can., has no bene- 
fit association among its employes, but all permanent employes are 
insured under contract with the Ocean Accident & Guarantee 
Corporation. In answering our inquiry, Mr. F. L. Wanklyn, the 
general manager of the company, did not enter into the details of 
this arrangement, but we quote the following from a general order 
of the management, announcing an increase in wages, issued in 
June last and published in the "Review" for July, 1899, page 475: 
"On and after July l6th, all permanent employes in the operating 
department and workshops will be insured in an accident insurance 
company of good standing, and the premium will be paid by the 
Montreal Street Railway Co. The insurance will amount to $1,000 
in event of death from accident either on or off duty, one-half of 
this amount for total disablement, and $5 per week indemnity for 
loss of time through injuries or diseases specified in the policy." 

According to press reports, flat cars running over the tracks of 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. are to be used for removing all 
the snow from streets in the down-town districts. These cars 
will be run in the night only, when they will not interfere with 
the regular service. Wagons will collect the snow in the side streets 
during the day and will deposit it at convenient dumps along the 
line, from which it will be removed at night by the flat cars drawn 
by motor cars. The city contractor receives 21 J^ cents per cu. yd. 
for removing snow. 

l''];ii. IS, lyrx).) 




The executive commitlcc of ihc American Street Railway Asso- 
ciation met in Kansas City on Feliruary stii and 6lli, accepted the 
liiiildings offered for exhibits and set the dale for the next conven- 
tion, which will be held on October i6th, 17th, i8th and lylh of 
this year. Members present included President John M. Koach; 
t'hicaKo; Secretary T. C. Penington, Chicago; Frank G. Jones, 
Menipliis; Nicholas S. Hill, Charleston; Chas. W. VVason, Cleve- 
land; and John R. Grahani, Quincy, Mass. Mrs. Jones and Mrs. 
Hill accompanied their husbands. 

The business transacted included the report of the secretary and 
treasurer, which showed financial conditions to be better than at 
any time since organization; the selection of subjects and the ap- 
pointment of committees to prepare the papers; confirming the 
^election of Kansas City as the meeting place; and fixing ibe dates 
for the convention. 

The building to accomiiKiilaif the sessions .-iiul e.\liil)its is always 
a point of vital importance, and the conimillec wire delighted with 
what they fcniiid. The convention hall is a new and mammoth 
structure erected by the public spirited citizens of Kansas City 
more for the credit of the city than with a special view to being a 
money nial<ing institution. It has, however, proved to be both. 
The building is convcnit^ntly situated relative to the leading hotels, 
and seats 25,000 people. Our illustrations of exterior and interior 
will convey a very intelligent idea of the structure, which is roomy 
and attractive and ccpiipped with every modern convenience re- 
quired in such a place. The lighting and heating arrangements 
are perfect. 

The building is 314 ft. long by 198 ft. wide. In addition to the 
main floor, there is a row of small stalls extending from entrance 
to the stage, oti the main floor, which will make ideaf space for 
the smaller exhibitors who will have no carpenter work to do. The 
land and the building cost $225,000, two years ago. It is altogether 
the best suited to the requirements of the association of any ever 
occupied for convention purposes. Tiers of galleries rise one above 
another until the roof garden is reached by gentle inclines with- 

Gorc, of Boston, and II. II. Windsor, of the "Street Railway Re- 
view." On Tuesday afternoon the party made a trip over some 
of the city lines and visited the new power house, which is being 
largely increased in capacity with very large units, and which 
presents one of the best examples of the modern station to be 
found in this country. Fire Chief While also entertained the parly 
at his headquarters wilh fire drill and a demonstration of his re- 
cent invention by which the phonograph is to instantly an- 


riii:-j tiliuniii 



nounce to telephone exchanges the breaking out of a fire in any 
rMcim of buildings containing a city telephone. This invention, 
by the way, has just been sold for $50,000, and is destined to revo- 
lutionize the present system of private watchmen. 

The selection of the headquarters hotel will be announced later. 
In the question of hotels, the committee were very agreeably sur- 
prised at the number and quality of good hotels, all convenient to 
the Convention Hall, and if the entertainment tendered the visit- 
ing party is any indication of what is in store next October, — an<I 
President Holmes savs it was only the index to the book — the Asso- 


out a single stair. The acoustic properties are remarkable. For the 
sessions there are abundant meeting rooms, well lighted and ven- 

On Monday evening. President Holmes, of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway, gave a theater party to the visiting guests, followed 
by a banquet at the Midland Hotel. In addition to the members 
of the committee named above, there were present Gen. Mgr. C. 
F. Holmes, Secretary Kirkpatrick. Superintendent Satterly, and 
Purchasing .^Xgent H. C. Schwitzgcbel, all of the Metropolitan; F. 
J. Taggcrt and John Brown, of Kansas City; Latham Karnes, of 
the legal department of the Metropolitan Street Railway Co.; Mr. 

ciation will not only have a highly delightful and instructive time, 
but an occasion in no degree less memorable than any conventions 
which have preceded the one lor 1000. 

A check for $69,150 has been sent to the comptroller of Balti- 
more by the United Railways & Electric Co.. in payment of the 
park tax for the quarter ending Dec. 31, 1899. This is 9 per cent 
of the gross earnings of the system within the city limits. The 
amount for the same period of the previous year, which was be- 
fore the consolidation, was $68,265. 



[Vol. X, No. 


In the "Review" for February, 1899, was published an announce- 
ment of the formation of the Traction Company Centennial Band 
among the employes of the Toledo Traction Co., and a half-tone 
engraving of the members. Through the courtesy of Mr. Thomas 
H. McLean, general manager of the company, we have received 
a copy of the constitution of the band association, which is repro- 
duced below for the information of managers who may wish to 
encourage the formation of similar organizations among the em- 
ployes of their roads. 

Eighteen months ago Mr. McLean learned that a number of the 
Traction company's men had at various times been members of 
band organizations, and with his customary energy soon had the 
Toledo Traction band an accomplished fact. 

From the very first the idea was enthusiastically received by 
its members, by the other employes of the Traction company, 
who regard it with growing pride, by the officers and sharehold- 
ers of the company, and by the citizens of the city, and today it is 
the most popular musical organization in Toledo. Under its 
constitution, the band can accept no paid commissions; it re- 
ceives no outside compensation for its services, playing only for 
philanthropic movements, municipal affairs, social mass meetings, 
and entertainment functions of employes, and company matters. 

as shall be hereinafter stipulated; and all members of the band 
either individually or collectively agree not to play for any enter- 
tainment, function, parade or gathering of any kind whatsoever, 
without first obtaining the permission and approval of the secretary 
and manager. 

in. The officers of this society or band shall be a president, 
a vice-president, a secretary and manager, a treasurer, a librarian. 
and an executive committee of three, of which the president sliall 
be a member e.\-ol'ficio. 

IV. The president, vice-president, secretary and manager and 
treasurer shall be elected annually by ballot and shall hold their 
respective offices until successors are elected and installed. 

The librarian shall be appointed by the manager, and shall serve 
lor such a period as he shall elect. 

The executive committee (of which the president sliall be chair- 
man ex-oliicio) shall be appointed by the president and shall serve 
at his discretion. 

V. It shall be the duty of the president or vice-president to pre- 
side at all meetings. 

The treasurer shall take charge of all funds of the band and shall 
render an accounting of same to the executive committee when- 
ever required so to do. 

The secretary, who shall also be the inanagcr, shall take the 
minutes of each meeting, spreading same upon a minute book pro- 


^Vs^^^^ ^V *^l 't^^ 





At this writing the band numbers 36 members. Twelve months 
ago the Traction company presented them with full uniforms of 
the Gilmore pattern, and equipped them with a complete set of 
the C. G. Conn & Besson silver instruments. Two rehearsals are 
held each week in comfortable club rooms, also furnished by the 

The officers are: President, J. F. Collins, superintendent of the 
Traction company; vice-president, F. D. Brooks; treasurer, C. L. 
Wight, auditor of the company; secretary and manager, A. A. At- 
kinson, contracting agent of the lighting department of the com- 

The accompanying illustration shows the band in its new uni- 
forms. The face of Mr. McLean, who forms the center of the 
group, is well known to most of our readers; seated at his right 
is President Collins, of the band, and standing immediately behind 
them is Manager Atkinson. 


I. The title and name of this .organization or body shall be "The 
Traction Company Centennial Band." 

II. The object of this organization shall be the formation of a 
selected number into an association for the purpose of study and 
practice in the use of brass band instruments for the purpose of 
furnishing music for such occasions and under such arrangements 

vided for such purpose; shall collect all accounts, including money 
due for professional services rendered, membership fees, dues, 
fines, assessments and all other accounts receivable, and shall turn 
the same over to the treasurer, taking his receipt therefor upon 
blanks provided, and shall give attention to all correspondence and 
other duties pertaining to his oflice. He shall also be the manager 
of the band, and all matters of business, of finances, and the making 
of all contracts shall be attended to by him. 


The regular meetings of the band shall be held at 7:30 o'clock 
each Thursday evening. The business meeting to precede the 
practice or rehearsal. 

The director or teacher shall be hired by the secretary, after first 
being voted upon by the band in business meeting, and shall be 
hired for no specified time, and can be retired at any time by a 
vote of the. band. 

.'\n admission fee of one dollar shall be assessed each member at 
the time he is enrolled. 

Monthly dues of 50 cents per capita shall be assessed each nionlh, 
payable the first of each month, in advance. 

.\ fine of 25 cents shall be charged for tardiness' or absence of 
a member at rehearsals. 

Each member shall be held responsible lor uniforms, instru- 

15, I'joo.] 



mciUs nr music lu'lougiiig to llic orgaiiiz.-ilinii. nml shall take pniper 
care of the same. 

The regular order ol Inisim-ss of each uiccliiiK ■■liall he as fol- 
lows: Call to order; roll call; reading (j1 niiiuiles; report of com- 
mittee; new business; good of the order; adjotniinient; rehearsal. 

'I'his constitution and hy-laws may he amendec) or changi-cl hy 
a two-thirds vote of the hand in business session. 


The i|Uestion of mban track riglits for inlerurb,-in lines is one that 
promises to be <inile important in Ohio. A bill has been intro- 
duced in the Legislature which provides that iiuernrban 
shall have power to condemn rights of way over urban lines, which 
is as f(-)llo\vs: 

Section I. Any railway company incorporated and organized 
under tlie laws of this state for the purpose of building, acquiring, 
owning, leasing, operating and maintaining a railroad or railroads, 
to be operated by electricity or other motive power, otlier than 
steam, from one iiuinicipal corporation or point in this state to 
any other municipal corporation, municipal corporations, point 
or points, may appropriate, by proceedings in the probate court 
of the proper county, which shall be governed by the provisions 
of chapter eight of part third, title two, of the Revised Statutes, 
for its joint and equal use and occupancy with any existing street 
railway, the tracks and property of such existing street railway in 
any such municipal corporation or corporations, and the right of 
way of any such existing street railway upon streets upon which 
its tracks have not been laid and its road constructed, for not more 
than the entire distance between the termini of the route as actually 
constructed, operated and run over of the appropriating company 
at the time appropriation proceedings are commenced, not to ex- 
ceed five miles, whether such termini be wholly without or partly 
within and partly without such municipal corporation or corpora- 
tions; but no such right to use and occupy such tracks or property 
shall be exercised until the owner thereof shall have been first com- 
pensated therefor in money. Such appropriation proceedings and 
jjayments shall vest in such appropriating company all the rights 
and privileges, subject to the same regulations, as to those streets 
jointly occupied, for the unexpired term of the franchise that may 
have been granted to the company whose tracks and property or 
right of way have been so appropriated, and for the term of any 
renewals or extensions of such franchise, without the previous 
consent of any of the owners of property abutting upon such 
streets, and without the right to use the same having been granted 
to such appropriating company by council or other municipal au- 
thority; provided, that when there is a difference in the gage in 
the tracks of the existing company and the appropriating company, 
the latter may also appropriate the right to lay and construct 
along the line so appropriated an additional rail to conform to its 

Sec. 2. That in ascertaining the measure of compensation to be 
paid in a proceeding under this act, there shall be taken into con- 
sideration the value of so much of the railway structure and mate- 
rials in place as is sought to be appropriated, including the cost 
of any paving constructed in conformity witli city ordinance; also 
the damages which such structure will sustain in adapting it to 
the uses of the appropriating company, and the reasonable cost 
of keeping the structure in repair; but the amount of compensation 
to be awarded for such use shall be limited to the value of such 
use during the unexpired term of the franchise of the company 
whose tracks are sought to be appropriated, and no compensation 
shall be allowed for any depreciation in the value of any franchise, 
nor for any loss of fares, nor for any inconvenience or interruption 
to business, nor for any consequential diminution in the value of 
other portions of the line forming part of such street railway sys- 
tem, caused by the joint use and occupancy of its tracks and prop- 
erty or right of way. 

To enact this bill would be to innovate a policy almost cer- 
tain to work grave injustice to the city roads. The matter can 
much better be left to various companies concerned to be arranged 
by contract, as has been done in various cities. 

Other bills now pending in the Ohio Legislature are on the 
following stibjccts: 

Requiring conductors on all cars in Dayton. 

Rt.'quirinK all grants, renewal and extensions in municipalities to 
be ai)|iroved by vole of people before becoming operative, and 
preventing renewals more than eighteen months prirjr lo expiration. 

Requiring all interurban railways securing right of way over 
highways to pay one-fourth cost of macadam roads, pikes, etc., in 
cash, before construction, and to keep in repair twenty inches on 
outside of rail. 

I'ermitting trustees al slate institutions to grant consent (or 

Granting use of hemic bank Ohio Canal, Newark to Buckeye 
I-akc, to C, B. L. & N. Traction Co. 

I'roviding that electric railways shall not charge a passenger 
rate exceeding 2 cents per mile, single (arcs s cents. 

Bills being prepared for introduction prohibit county commis- 
sioners from granting franchise on the public highways; to estab- 
lish a standard gage, and to require electric roads to report to 
state department and pay per cent to maintenance of commissioner 
of railroads. 


By the courtesy of Mr. John K. Akarman, superintendent of the 
Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Railway Co., we have re- 
ceived a photograph of William Londrigan, whom the police have 
named the Copper King. He was caught in the act of stealing 
bonds from the track of the Worcester Consolidated, and has been 
bound over to the grand jury. I.ondrigan had been operating 


for some time, stealing from 25 to 100 lb. of bonds each night 
He used an axe for removing the bonds and when detected turned 
his weapon on the police. 

The man's description is as follows: Age, 39 years; shoemaker; 
married; stout build; 6 ft. tall; weight, 190 lb.; brown hair; hazel 
eyes; dark complexion; can read and write. 


The Chicago Consolidated Traction Co. lor several days last 
month unwittingly supplied an ambitious inventor with power free 
of cost for carrying on his experiments with a new electric sys- 
tem. The would-be revolutionist of existing methods selected an 
infrequently used section of track in a secluded suburb, and after 
familiarizing himself with the running schedule, took possession 
of the tracks for the purpose of trying a small motor car. running 
on the rails and taking current from the line. When one of the 
company's cars hove in sight he would remove his vehicle and wait 
imtil the car had passed, when he would resume his trips. A mo- 
torman running oflf of schedule discovered the inventor and his 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 

This departr.cnt is devoted to the construction and operation of electric railway 
power houses. Correspondence from practical men is specially invited. Both the 
users and makers of power house appliances are expected to give their views and 
experiences on subjects within the range of the department. 


In connection with the "Arnold system" of power station con- 
struction, its inventor, Mr. Bion J. Arnold, developed magnet 
clutches designed to meet the requirement for a ready means of 
connecting or disconnecting the electrical generating units with 
their prime movers. While the clutches are friction clutches, the 
friction between the contact surfaces is due to magnetic attraction. 

The energizing circuit is controlled by means of a switch placed 
at a convenient point, which is quite a decided advantage over the 
ordinary friction clutch. It is thus possible in throwing a genera- 
tor in or out of service to control it entirely from the switch- 
board, where all the regulating devices and measuring instruments 
arc within the reach of one attendant. These magnetic clutches are 
neat in appearance and compact in design. Even in the larger 
sizes the amount of space occupied upon the shaft is not much 
more than twice the diameter of the shaft, and by using a flange 
forged solid on the end of the shaft, they can be made to occupy 
even less space when used as cut-ofT couplings. Having no pro- 
jecting surface or parts to catch the air when in operation, the 
windage resistance is negligablc. The greatest advantage claimed 
of this form of clutch over others is that it is self contained — the 
"action and reaction" being within the clutch itself, and conse- 
quently there is no resulting end thrust upon the shaft bearings 
and no additional friction load due to the operation of the clutch. 

It has been suggested that in many instances a clutch of this de- 
sign could be substituted for the fly-wheel," thus permitting the use 
of magnetic clutches without great increase in the cost or weight 
of the engine units. 

Fig. I shows what is believed to be the largest magnetic clutch 
ever built. It is 100 in. in diameter, and is designed to transmit 

The current is carried to the clutch coils through coiUact rings 
upon the side of the clutch, and carbon brushes held by insulated 
brush holders, the electrical connections being simple and easily 

Fir,. 1— 100-IX. MAGNETIC CLI:TCH. 

3,000 h. p. at 150 r. p. m. This is one of three clutches now in 
use connecting the engines and generators in the central station 
of the Imperial Electric Light, Heat & Power Co., at St. Louis, a 
view of the equipment of which is shown in Fig. 2. The experience 
with this plant demonstrates that this form of clutch is applicable 
to the large size units now being installed for power station pur- 
poses, whereas the ordinary friction clutch becomes unwieldy and 
unsightly after passing the 500-h. p. size. 


accessible for inspection. The loss in the clutch, due to the con- 
tinuous use of current while the clutch is in operation, is given as 
one-ten thousandth of its power transmitting capacity. 


A paper on this subject was presented before the Institute of Me- 
chanical Engineers (England) by Prof. William Ripper, in 
which the author described the construction and operation of in- 
struments by which the mean pressures in an engine cylinder can 
be read directly from steam gages. 

Originally the mean pressure gage was designed for engines of 
high rotative speeds, but it was found possible to use it for engines 
running at any speed. The apparatus consists of a valve chest 
with a valve of the four-way-cock type driven from the moving 
parts of the engine so that steam from the driving or working 
end of the cylinder is directed to one steam gage and steam from 
the exhaust or back pressure end of the cylinder is carried to an- 
other steam gage. The valves are of various designs; on long 
stroke engines there are two valves, one close to each end of the 
cylinder to avoid long connecting pipes; for very high rotative 
speeds a rotary valve is used. 

The effect of the arrangement is that a series of impulses is 
directed to each of the two steam gages employed, and by throttling 
the flow the vibrations of the gage pointers are reduced to any 
desired reasonable range without, it is stated, affecting the accuracy 
of the indications; the difference between the readings of the two 
gages is the difference between the mean forward pressure and 
the mean back pressure measured on a time basis. 

The ordinary indicator diagram is measured on a distance basis, 
so that its area is proportional to the work done in the cylinder. 
By reason of the reciprocating motion of the piston and the uni- 

Feb. is, lyoo.] 



foriii speed (if riil^ilinii of the eriKiiie llii- |)isli)n does nut Iiiivc a 
iitiifnrni speed, and llurefure llie iiieaii-liinc pressure will ill KCii- 
eral lie difTereiU fidiii the iiiean-distaiice pressure as measured from 
,111 hidiealor diagram. 

'I'lie ilifTereiiee between llie imau lime nage reading .iiid llir 
mean jiressiire from an indieatur diajjrani will vary willi eaeli 
eliangc in tlie cut-ofT. l>ut Professor Ripiier stales that it is quite 

SEC'I'KlNS OK l''(Hl|< W.W VAL,VK. 

practicable to use an average correction factor, and gives the dif- 
ference between the two nietliods in per cent of the mean absolute 
forward pressure as follows; 

Cut-off. Difference, per cent. 

• 2 +2.9 

•3 —1-4 

•4 : —3-5 

• 5 —3-9 

.6 —3.4 

.7 — 2.6 

.8 —2.1 

•9 —II 

Below .1 cut-off the difference is niueli greater, but so early a 
cut-off being quite rare this does not matter. 

In using the mean-pressure indicator it is reeoniniended that 
comparisons be made between it and indicator diagrams, and so 
determine the proper correction ratio for the given engine or type 
of engine. 

The concluding sections of Professor Ripiier's paper ,ire given 
below: 'I 


In order to obtain a reading of the mean pressure acting upon 
the gage, the writer employs two throttling cocks, one close to 
the instrunient and one more or less close to gage. By the use 
of these regulating cocUs the oscillations of the finger of the gage 
may be reduced to any desired degree of steadiness without inter- 


feriiig with the accuracy of the reading of the mean pressure. 

It is not unlikely that some engineers will object ab initio to the 
arrangement described in this paper, seeing that it is proposed to 
obtain such an important value" as the mean effective pressure in 
an engine cylinder by means of an appliance so unreliable as the 
pressure gage is said to be, by some authorities, ami still more so 
when it is proposed to throttle the steam supply to the gage, as 
has just been described. 

But in answer to these objections, llie writer desires to give the 
results of bis own experience, as having himself been in doubt as 
to the accuracy of gages and the effect of throttling, he has made 

many hundreds of experiments in order to test the extent of (he 
error to be expected, and he has conic to the conclusion that read- 
ings by a pressure Kagc may be obtained which arc as accurate 
as consistent and as rchablc as by any known instrument for the 
measurement of pressure, not excepting the best of indicators; also 
that the throttling, when properly applied, docs not endanger the 
accuracy of the reading, but, on the contrary, gives the true mean 
effect of the regular successions of momentary variations of pres- 
sures acting on the gage. 

In order to obtain accurate readings by means of a pressure gage, 
such gage must Cl) be properly constructed; (2) be properly used. 
That a large number of the pressure gages in ordinary use in prac- 
tice are more or less unreliable is well known, but it will be ad- 
milled that such gages, of the unreliable class, have not been con- 
structed for the purpose of extremely accurate measurements, and 
have not received that care in the process of manufacture which is 
necessary to enable them to be classed as "instruments of preci- 
sion." Their deficiencies are usually not due to defect in the prin- 
ciple upon which they arc constructed, but arc rather a question of 
ipialily of manufacture. But however perfectly constructed a gage 
may be, it is of coufse necessary that it should be carefully .used, if 
it is expected to give uniformly accurate readings. Probably no 
instrument used by engineers receives such scant attention as the 
I>ressure gage; and while some of our measuring instruments must 
be carefully cleaned, oiled and set, before we may have a single 
measurement, the pressure gage may be dirty or rusty, or hot or 
cold, or its syphon may be empty or full, but under all these 
conditions it is expected to be equally accurate. 


The importance is admitted of maintaining a column of water in 
the syphon of the pressure gage to keep the gage cool, so that 
its readings may be consistent, and so as not to subject the gage to 
high or variable temperatures. It is generally supposed that if the 
gage has a syphon there is always water in it. and that when the 
syphon is once full of water, the water is easily retained therein. 
but these assumptions are not warranted by the facts of the case. 
The water will disappear from the syphon from various causes: d) 
If there is the smallest leak in the gage end of the syphon, then 
the water is all gone in a minute or two by being blown out 1)y 
the steam, though the leak may be almost imperceptible. (2) If 
the pressure to which the gage is subjected is a variable one. as is 
the case when the gage is attached by its syphon to the valve chest 
of an engine regulated by a throttling governor, then the water will 
disappear from the syphon as usually constructed in a few minutes, 
especially on a sudden reduction of load and consequent fall of 
pressure, in the same way that water in the engine cylinder disap- 
pears during expansion and exhaust, (jf) When the gage is liable 
to be subjected to a vacuum, as is the case when it is attached 
anywhere on the engine side of the throttle valve, then if the throt- 
tle valve is closed by the governor, or by hand, while the engine 
continues running, especially if it is a condensing engine, the 
engine becomes an air pump and the water in the syphon is dis- 
placed by the expanding air initially contained in the spring tube 
of the gage and its connections. Thus if the pressure in the 
engine falls to 3 lb. absolute, the volume of water displaced in the 
syphon equals 15^3=5 times the volume of air in the gage. If now 
the steam is again suddenly turned on the engine, it is certain that 
the gage readings will be different from what they were when the 
syphons were full of water. When there is water in the s^-phon. 
the syphon pipe is practically cold with a steady pressure. When 
the pipe is very hot. the water has probably gone from the syphon. 
unless it happens that the pipe is in contact with some hot metal. 
(4) If the gage is subjected to a vacuum, and there is the smallest 
leak in the fitting at the gage end of the syphon, then the wafer 
in the syphon is displaced by the air which enters the syphon 
through the leak. 

When the cause is due to the variable nature of the pressure 
acting on the gage, the water may be retained in the syphon by the 
method of double throttling already mentioned. When the mean- 
pressure instrument was first constructed, only a single cock was 
fitted to the syphon of each pressure gage, and great difficulty 
was found to keep the water in the syphon. Many devices were 
tried to overcome this difficulty, hut without avail. A second cock 
would have been fitted at an early period of the experiments, at 
the end of the syphon farthest from the gage — which, when throt- 
tled, would instantly have stopped the trouble — but for the fact that 


[Vol.. X, No. 2. 

the writer set out with the notion that if the throtthng o[ the 
syphon cock was a throttling of water the pressure would be 
transmitted to the gage undiminished, but that if the throttling 
took place in the steam a loss of pressure would follow, and the 
reading of the gage would be low. This erroneous notion cost 
about twelve months" experimenting to try to discover how to do 
without the use of water in a syphon. 

Fig. 4 shows the arrangement employed for experimenting on 
the effect of double throttling. A short waler-gage glass A is 
secured between two plates B and C held together by bolts. The 
glass is connected at the top with the engine cylinder D by the 
pipe as shown, and at the bottom of the glass the gage pipe is at- 
tached. There are regulating cocks at E and F. When the cock E 
is opened wide and the engine is running, the change or pressure 
in the cylinder between the driving and the exhaust stroke caused 
a more or less violent agitation of the water in A, being the more 
violent as the range of pressure was greater. When the range 
of pressure was not more than about lO lb., the water in the glass 
was quiet; but when the range of pressure exceeded this (by in- 
creasing the load on the engine) agitation again began. The action 
appeared to be due first to the heating of the water in the tube 
by the rush of steam, mi.xed with globules of hot water, into the 
tube; and secondly, to the re-evaporation of the heated water when 
the pressure fell during expansion and exhaust in the cylinder. 
It is not possible to give numerical data as to the effect of difTer- 
ent ranges of pressure, because the behavior of the water was most 

erratic. Sometimes, with a given range of pressure in the engine, 
the water was violently agitated and would disappear from the glass 
in a few minutes; in other cases it would remain quiescent in the 
glass for hours, though the conditions appear to be unchanged. 
Then it would suddenly commence to boil and to disappear without 
any apparent cause. But in all cases of agitation of the water in 
the tube A, when the cock E was throttled down the agftation 
immediately ceased. 

The amount of throttling of the cock E wliich was necessary to 
stop the agitation still left a 4airly large movement of the gage 
finger across the scale, and the final adjustment for steadying the 
figure to the smallest possible movement was obtained by throttling 
the cock F. Throttling the cock E had no effect on the pressure 
reading by the gage unless the throttling was carried too far. It 
was not necessary in order to stop the ebullition to throttle the 
cock E so far as to reduce the pressure. If any doubt remained 
as to whether the cock E was throttled too much, a little more 
opening of E would show at once whether such was the case. But 
it is only necessary to move E sufficiently to stop the ebullition and 
consequent disappearance of the water, and this leaves a good 
margin before the throttling of E is excessive. 

With such an arrangement the effect of suitably throttling the 
cock E is to automatically fill up the syphon, if partly empty from 
any cause, and the water in the syphon will thus reach as far as the 
cock E when the apparatus has been at work a short time. In this 
way the problem of keeping the water in the syphon continuously 
and free from agitation was solved, and there is now practically no 
difficulty in obtaining a constant and accurate reading of the mean 
pressure by gages subjected to variable pressures. 

When the cause of loss of water in the syphon is due to the gage 
being subjected to a vacuum, a type of gage is preferable from which 
the air in the Bourdon tube has been excluded, and the tube filled 
with liquid to its extremity; there is then no air to expand in the 
tube to expel the water from the syphon. 

To sum up: (i) The instrument here described gives a cor- 
rect record of the mean-time pressure. (2) The mean-time pres- 
sure bears a definite ratio to the mean pressure as given by an 
ordinary indicator. (3) The correction may be made by the use 
of a factor, or by a corrected scale on the gage dial. (4) Pressure 
gages when projierly made and properly used may lie relied upon 
to give accurate readings. 

« » » 


Mr. T. M. Ellis, general manager of the Rockford (111.) Rail- 
way, Light & Power Co., has sent us a copy of the report of the 
operation of the company's electric railway for the months of De- 
cember, i8gg. The company operates 22 miles of track. 

In connection with the data for December, we reprint the corre- 
sponding figures for July, 1899. 


July. Dec. 

Cash from passengers $6,346.40 $5,226.07 

Ticket sales 1,055.00 1,695.00 

Received from carrying mail 50.00 

$7,401.40 $6,971.07 
Operating expenses 3715-03 3.5/8.30 

Net earnings $3,686.37 $3,392.77 


Passengers carried 163,222 148,225 

Average earnings per day $238.75 $224.87 

Average cars operated per day. . . . 11)^ 10 2-3 

Earnings per car per day $20.32 $21.07 

Operating expenses per day $119.84 $115.42 

Operating expenses per car per day $10.20 $10.82 

Total motor car-mileage 54,457-5 48,832.6 

Mileage per day 1,756-7 i, 575-2 

Mileage per car per day 149.5 147-7 

Earnings per car-mile 13-59 cents 14.28 cents 

Operating expense per car-mile... 6.82 cents 7.33 cents 

Net earnings per car-mile 6.77 cents 6.95 cents 

This is a particularly good showing, as, notwithstanding the de- 
crease in the number of passengers, due to the season, of 9.2 per 
cent, the decrease in net earnings was only 8 per cent and the net 
earnings per car-mile show a gain. The operating expenses, 7.33 
cents per car-mile, is a particularly good showing. 

The total energy for the month, including that required for mo- 
tors in the repair shops and lights in the car house, was 55, no kw. 
h., or 1. 13 kw. h. per car-mile. 

For the whole year the gross earnings were $71,096; the operating 
expenses, $43,921; bond interest and other charges, $17,446; sur- 
plus $9,729. The number of passengers carried was 1,554,058, an 
increase of about one-third over the preceding year. The business 
for January, igoo. shows an increase of 20 per cent over January, 

The Rockford Railway, Light & Power Co. now has all of the 
street railway lines in Rockford and is making numerous improve- 
ments. Loops are being put in at all the terminals where practica- 
ble and in the business dictriet a loop two blocks each way is to 
be provided, which will greatly facilitate the handling of cars and 
improve the service. A new waiting room for passengers has been 
arranged at the company's offices and also a club room for em- 

This company has a beautiful park about three miles from the 
city, at which is a summer theater having a seating capacity for 
2.000 persons; there are also other amusement features, such as 
bowling alleys, dancing pavilions, merry-go-rounds, etc. 

One interesting feature of the road is that while it owns a power 
plant, it has been found cheaper to keep that plant closed and buy 
power, which it gets at the rate of 1.5 cents per kw. h. 

Fiiii. IS, lyoo.^ 








A wc'll-kiiown railway t-lcclricinn once made llic slatenu'iil thai 
if lie could put a nose on the front of one of his four-motor cars, 
he could push all the snow that would come in fninl of Iiim, and 
it was mainly because of this suggestion that tlie Interstate Con- 
solidated Street Railway Co., of North Attleborough, Mass., deter- 
mined to have a four-motor snow plow. 

During the severe winter of 1898-OQ. wlu-n so many railway com- 
panies met such hard storms as to completely tie up their systems, 
on two different occasions the value of a first-class plow, some- 
thing better than had been put out as yet, was easily seen. Though 
the Interstate Consolidated had its cars in operation several hours 
before any other road in the state, still the management, with cus- 
tomary enterprise, was not satisfied to have its lines tied up at all. 
So it was decided to spare no time or expense to place the road 
in such a condition as to be equal to any emergency. 

The value of a snow plow lies in the weight available for ad- 
hesion and in its power; these two factors have been carefully ob- 
served in the cpnstruction of this plow. The total weight of this 
plow is 20 tons, distributed as follows:^ the body, 4 tons; noses, 
J tons; trucks and motors, 14 tons. Adding to this 10 barrels 
of salt and sand that will be carried, 3 tons more, gives a total 
weight of 23 tons on the wheels. There being eight driving wheels, 
the weight on each wheel will be 5.750 lb. The etiuipment consists 
of four G. E. 1,000 motors with 4-turn armatures; the shaft of 
each armature carries a 22-tooth pinion which meshes into a 62- 
tooth gear, giving a speed reduction of 2.8r. 

The plow, including the trucks, was built by Polard & Grothe, 
o( VVohurn, Mass., who arc to be congratulated upon the 
thoroughness of their vvtirk. The trucks were designed especially 


for this work and combine strength and durability with the mini- 
mum number of parts. The body rests upon a stationary bolster 
with the usual circle and recess at the center, chafing plates at the 
ends of the bolster and at the corners of the trucks. There are 
no springs used except those on top of the journal boxes and in the 
suspension. The truck is enclosed by a steel frame which completely 

envelopes (he motor wheels and brake rigKi'>K. thu^ preventing any 
snow from falling back in between the wheels. The trucks have 
Ik'niis wheels on a 3K-in. axle,' kcy-scated for G. K. 1,000 r)r W. 
P. 50 motors. 

Ice cutters or iliggers are fastened directly to the truck, en- 
suring a gooil '^roniul ronl.-ul nl :dl linn- and also allowing ihcm 


to be on the rail when going around a curve, which would not be 
the case if they were suspended from the body. 

The digger post is of steel s'A in. square, with a changeable cast 
shoe. A sleeve about 8 in. long keeps it in position, and a helical 
spring acts upon the sleeve and returns it to its normal position 
should it strike a high joint or any other obstruction. This pre- 
vents it from getting bent or knocked out of shape in any manner. 

It was a matter of great difficulty to arrange the diggers so that 
tliey could be fastened to the truck and controlled inside the body 
and still not interfere with the truck swinging. A clasp with a 
projecting stud is fastened to the upper end of the digger-post; 
this stud engages with a lever, the other end of which is moved 
by a rod running horizontally to the other post; another rod is 
fastened i)crpcndicularly to this one and projects about 4 in. above 
the top of the truck. The lever inside presses down a plate upon 

A Four Motor SaoTPtov 


Sbowing Arraagemeat of Tnolu uid Kowe 
FIG. 1. 

the end of this rod and raises the posts and they come down by 
their own weight when the lever is released. In swinging around 
a curve the perpendicular rod slides on the face of the plate which 
moves with the body. 

Fig. I shows the arrangement of the trucks and noses. A cast 
iron roller 5 in. in diameter and 18 in. long is set at each end of 
each truck and opposite to these are concave plates on which the 
rollers bear. At the ends these bearing plates are on the nose, 
while in center they are on a centerboard which is fastened to the 
body. This brings the force of both trucks directly on the for- 
ward nose, so there is no stress on the body. 

The nose is made of l4-m. steel and is of the moldboard type, 
with a heavy cast-iron point. From this point to the end, along 
the side, the nose is 10 ft. long, and 4'/i ft. high. It is raised by 



[Vol. X. No. 2. 

a \vln.-t.-l which turns a worm and gear. .A wing 4'/- ft. long is set 
at each corner. With these set down, the plow will cut a path ij 
ft. 8 in. wide through the snow. 

From point to point the length is 39 ft. 8 in. Tlic body inside is 
27 ft. 8 in. long and " ft. wide. Windows at each end give all the 
light necessary by day, and six lamps arranged around the walls 
serve at night. Each headlight contains three i6-c. p. lamps and a 
red light burns in the rear as ■a danger signal. 

The controller is set at the extreme end directly under one of the 
windows. A little back and to the left is the brake wheel and on 
the right is the wheel for raising the nose and the digger lever. 
.Ml the wiring is exposed, being merely cleatcd to the ribs on 
the ceiling. This prevents any water from resting around it, and 

one of the features for the coming season. Arrangements have 
been made with a theatrical agency for a first-class light opera 
troupe of 35 members to play from May I5lh until July 1st, and 
longer, if the patronage warrants it. No pains or expense will be 
spared to make this a first-class up-to-date place of amusement. 


The New York Municipal Art Society has ottered prizes of 
$300, $200 and $100 for the best three designs for a public transfer 
station for street railway passengers at Seventh Ave. and 59th St., 
New York. The society does not promise that the building will be 

To Motor No. 3 

To Motor No. 1 






To Motor No.4 


To Motor No. 2 

makes it easy to locate the cause of trouble, should any occur. Fig. 
2 shows the wiring in detail; the center wires are No. 2 B. & S.. 
while the others are No. 6. 

A 2-in. steel pipe set flush with the floor on each side opposite 
the door allows enough sand and salt to strike the rail to keep 
it in good condition. 

On account of the length of the body, it was necessary to put 
on two trolley poles. This arrangement has the advantage of hav- 
ing a spare pole to fall back on in an emergency, and if there is 
ice on the wire they can be run in tandem, the first one to clear 
I he way for the second. 

Though at the present writing the opportunity has not yet arrived 
to test this land-battleship, yet every confidence is placed in her 
to perform her duty to the best satisfaction. 


The officials of the Nashville (Tenn.) & Suburban Railway Co. 
have definitely decided upon the character of improvements to be 
made at the resort known as Glendale Park, and in the line run- 
ning thereto. This branch is single track, but 3V2 miles of addi- 
tional track will be built from the park back to the city by an- 
other route, forming a loop and making it possible to go out to 
the grounds one way and return another, giving pleasure passen- 
gers the advantages of varying scenery and a longer ride in the 

At the park a large force of men is at work improving and beau- 
tifying the grounds in a number of ways. Wires have been run from 
the power house for the purpose of illuminating the place at night 
and a number of arc lamps have been placed at frequent internals 
Ihroughont the grounds. Florists have been engaged, and at least 
two acres of land will be laid out in large fiowcr beds. The casino 
will be enlarged and repaired and an excellent restaurant made 

erected, but agrees to submit the successful plans to the city and 
to the Metropolitan Street Ry., and to use its influence to have 
the best design accepted. The proposed structure is not to cost 
over $5,000. The competition was to have closed February 15th. 


We are indebted to F. L. Wanklyn, manager of the Montreal 
Street Railway Co., for the particulars of a sand drying oven that 
has been erected by his company and which appears to answer ad- 
mirably the purpose for which it was constructed. It consists of 
a rectangular brick chamber, about s x 10 ft. inside, with a "V" 
shaped boiler plate bottom, which is placed immediately over the 
fire-grate. To prevent undue warping and buckling of this plate, 
it is stiffened with T irons and protected inside by a firebrick arch, 
in which there are openings at intervals to permit the heated gases 
to reach the plate. The sand as it dries falls by gravity through 
openings in the outside of the brick wall into screens, on which it 
is sifted and prepared for use. The furnace is large enough to per- 
mit old waste wood to be used as fuel. 


A serious fire at Fredonia, N. Y., on the morning of January 
25th, destroyed, among other property, the electric power house 
of the Dunkirk & Fredonia Railroad Co.. compelling a suspension 
of the traffic between those points. The loss to the railroad com- 
pany is estimated at $6o,000; the total loss was reported at $200,000. 

A dividend of Jl4 per cent has been declared upon the common 
stock of the Twin City Rapid Transit Co., of Minneapolis, payable 
February isth. 

Fun. IS, iyo(j.] 

strI':I':t railway rI'-VIKW. 



Tlic ciglilli annual inc-cliiiK uf the Nurtlivvcsleni KU;clrical As- 
sociatiun was livid al Milwaiikic on January I7lh and i8th. Tlic 
papers iinsciiUil in .iddilioii In lln- president's address were as fol- 

"Modirn Develiipnunt in Alternating-current Series Arc 
Lamps," by K. I'leiniuK. GiMnral Electric Co., Lynn, Mass. 

"Fundamental Ideas of Alternating Currents," by Professor Du- 
gald C. Jackson, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

"Central-station Heating in Connection with Electric-lighting 
Plants," by W. 11. Scholt, Chicago. 

"Central-station Economics," by II. W. Fnnul, Vincennes Elec- 
tric Light and Power Co., Vincennes. Ind. 

"The Polyphase Induction Motor," by Ralph D. Mcrshon, West- 
ingliouse Electric and Manufacturing Co., New York. ■ 

"Relative Elliciency and Desirability of Various Types of En- 
gines in Central-station Loads," by Prof. A. W. Kichter, Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, Madison. 

"A Life Test of Incandescent Lamps," by Prof. George D. Shcp- 
ardson, University of Minnesota. 

"A Canadian Plant," by L. G. Van Ness, Quebec. 

Officers were chosen as follows: President, Pliny Norcross, Janes- 
ville. Wis.; vice-presidents, H. W. Frund, Vincennes, Ind., and 
H. J. Gille, St. Paul, Minn.; secretary and treasurer, Thomas R. 
Merccin, Milwaukee; directors, W. H. Schott, Chicago; G D. 
Westover, Cadillac, Mich.; Mr. Inncs, Eagle Grove, la. 

It was decided to hold the summer meeting of the association at 
Waupaca, Wis., which lovely spot one of its friends described as 
"the center of the world, bounded on the east by the rising sun, on 
the west l>y eternity, and on the north and south by woods." 



In New Jersey the conditions under which a new railroad, electric 
or steam, may cross the track of an older road are very largely in 
the discretion of the chancellor of the state, who is charged with 
the duty of protecting the public and equitably apportioning costs 
between the two companies. Last month the vice-chancellor ren- 
dered a descision which will require the West Jersey Traction Co. 
(which is controlled by the Camden & Suburban Ry.) to tunnel 
under the tracks of the Pennsylvania R. R. at Haddonfield, the 
estimated cost of the crossing being nearly $13,000. The traffic of 
the steam road over this crossing is 72 regular and often as many 
as 30 special trains daily in the summer season. In his opinion tlu 
vice-chancellor said concerning grade crossings in general: 

"It cannot be denied that there is an element of danger in every 
grade crossing of a steam railroad. If all persons were constantly 
vigilant danger would disappear or be reduced to an infinitesimal 
proportion. So long, however, as men are careless, as they always 
will be, the instances of collision on grade crossings will engage the 
atteijtion of courts and create the wish that grade crossings may be 


We have had tunnel roads operating entirely underground, con- 
duit systems and surface contact systems, but here is a new one. 
.■\ndrew McGill, of Dunedin, New Zealand, has invented a system in 
which half of the car is underground and half above. It is pro- 
posed to construct a conduit of sufficient capacity to receive the 
truck and running-gear of an electric or cable car. Attached to 
the truck and passing up through the slot, are thin wide bars, of 
sufficient cross section, to support the body of the car. Special 
provision is made to facilitate passage around curves. 

A committee appointed by the Franklin Institute to investigate 
the invention reports that in its opinion, "the disadvantages of 
inaccessibility to the truck mechanism, especially in the case of 
electric railways where prompt access to the motors and their 
connections is of the highest importance, would more than offset 
the advantages claimed for the system." We think they would. 

The Isle of Tramways Co., in addition to its regular pas- 
senger traffic, has developed an extensive freight and heavy goods 
haulage business, the receipts from which form a considerable part 
of the road's net income. To handle this traffic with the least ex- 
pense and with the smallest possible interruption to the ordinary 
service, three Bonner rail wagons, made by the Bonner Rail Wagon 

TK.M.N (Jl' liiPN.N'KR k.MI, WAI.O.Ns. 

Co., of Toledo, 0., have been aciiuired and are in daily operation 
with very satisfactory results. The Isle of Man Tramway is about 
25 miles long, with a number of severe grades, some as steep as 
I in 58, and numerous sharp curves, the conditions under which 
the wagons are used being unusually hard in this respect. 

The Bonner rail wagon is more or less familiar in the United 
States. It is in successful operation at Toledo, C, at Detroit, Mich., 
and at other points and has satisfactorily demonstrated its useful- 
ness in the hauling of heavy goods, as stone and ores, farm pro- 
ducts and general merchandise. As the adaptability of the electric 
railway to the carrying of this class of freight becomes more widely 

The Chicago & Northwestern Ry. has reduced the fare from 
Milwaukee to Waukesha to 60 cents in order to meet the competi- 
tion of the electric railway running to that town. 


recognized, these wagons will undoubtedly come into more general 

In the Isle of Man, a large part of the freight business consists 
of hauling granite from quarries owned by the tramway company 



(Vol, X, No. 2. 

to the sliii)i)ing dock. This was loriiKTly carried on by one-horse, 
two-whcelcd carts of 1,700 lb. capacity, which hauled the stone 
a long distance to the railway, when it was unloaded from the carts, 
and loaded into the cars. On reaching the coast it had to again 
be loaded into carts and taken to the docks. With the present sys- 
tem the stone is loaded into Bonner wagons at the quarries, drawn 
by a two-horse team to the street railway tracks, and without un- 
loading, the wagons are attached to a motor car in trains, of two 
or three and taken directly to the nearest point to the docks, where 
horses are again hitched on. and the wagons driven to the side 
of the ships. The saving in time, convenience and expense over 
the old way is evident. 

The wagons are very strongly built and otherwise but little 
different from the ordinary road vehicles. The bodies are 13 ft. 
long. 6 ft. wide and 2 ft. 6 in. deep, and are capable of carrying 
from 4 to 6 tons. The four sides are hinged, and can be lowered, 
so that they can be loaded with facility. The bodies are mounted 
on four strong, wide-tired wheels. When it is desired to go by 
rail the wagon is drawn by horses on to four specially constructed, 
inclined planes, which are placed two on each side of the rails, and 
which raise the wagon to the required height. These planes are 


The employes of the Louisville Railway Co. began the new year 
w'ith threats of a strike unless certain demands should be granted. 
These demands were recognition of the union, an increase in wages 
from i6yi to 20 cents per hour, the right to arbitrate cases of the 
removal of employes for various oflfenses, and the right to buy uni- 
forms in the open market. 

January 17th the company made its answer, which was a refusal 
to recognize the union or make any agreement as to arbitration. 
Concerning uniforms, it was pointed out that the demand was 
misleading, as all the company requires is tITat all the men shall 
get uniforms from the same firm, which is chosen at suitable in- 
tervals by a committee of the employes. The prices now paid arc 
$12.35 for winter and $9.50 for summer uniforms. 

As to .wages, the company announced it could not pay the 20 
cents asked, but that it would on February ist put the following 
schedule in effect, having decided upon the increase before the 
demands were made by the men: For motormen, 16 cents per hour 
for the first 100 days, 17 cents per hour for the next 265 days, 17'/^ 
cents after the first year's service. For conductors, 17 cents per hour 


shown in one of the accompanying illustrstions. A low bogie truck 
of the same gage as the tracks and consisting of a stout and well 
braced frame carried upon two axles is run under the wagon, and 
fastened thereto by means of cast iron stops, which are raised to 
receive the axles of the wagon, by small hand levers. The bogie 
truck is then coupled to the motor car and taken to any desired 
point on the line. In removing the wagon from the truck, the 
former operation is, of course, simply reversed. The bogie is 
stopped over the inclined planes, the engaging stops lowered, and 
the wagon drawn off by horses. 

♦ » » 


At 10 p. m. on January 19th there was a head-on collision between 
a work car and a regular car of the Belt Line Street Railroad Co., 
Utica, N. Y., which resulted in the death of one person and slight 
injuries to seven others. The work car was returning from Oris- 
kany, where it had been summoned to extricate a horse from a 
bridge, and a dense fog prevented the lights of the regular car 
being seen in time to avoid the collision. 

The platform of the work car being some inches higher than that 
of the other and strongly built, it cut through the vestibule of the 
passenger car and into the body. The motornian of the passenger 
car had both legs cut off and died from the injuries received. 
» ■ » 

A general order issued by Superintendent W. P. Read, of the 
Salt Lake City (Utah) R. R., requests all the employes of the 
system to undergo vaccination. 

for the first year, 17V2 cents per hour thereafter. Other employes, 
an increase of s per cent. 

This was considered satisfactory, and on January 24th the men 
decided not to strike. 


A returned traveler has given the public a rather amusing account 
of how his ideas of courtesy towards women passengers and the 
rules of the street railway company failed to mi.x satisfactorily in 
Hamburg. The European street car is full when a given number 
of passengers are on board and the law strictly forbids the con- 
ductor from making room "for one more," as is the accepted rule 
in this country. 

Sometimes, while the conductor is in front collecting fares, a 
lady will step on the car, which is alt-eady "occupied." As there 
is no conductor on hand to prevent her, the lady steps inside, and 
the gentleman who may offer her a seat comes out and takes his 
stand on the platform. When the conductor, after going his rounds, 
returns to his post, he promptly requests the gentleman to step off 
the car, as he has forfeited his seat, and the car is fully "occupied." 
Should he refuse to leave the car he is put off. The policemen on 
the streets are instructed to watch the cars sharply, and if they 
find a car carries even one more passenger than its proper com- 
plement the conductor is fined 72 cents. 


The extension of the Fond du Lac (Wis.) Street Ry. to North 
Fond du Lac was formally opened January 20th. 

'Ml. 15. I91")- 




That sccliim n( iln- miiiiii.iI n|i'iii .,1 the Sccrutai-y of IiUurnal 
Affairs of IIil- Cuiniiuiiiwcallli nl I'Liiiisylvania for the year ending 
June ,30, 1899, wliich contains the report of Maj. I. H. Brown, su- 
perintendent of tlic rUire;iu of Kailroads. gives an interesting re- 
sume of the sdeel railway siln.ilinn in that stale, from which we 
take tlie foMowing extracts: 

The street railways of Pennsylvania have been in a process of 
financial change to a greater degree than perhaps any other class 
of corporations that have existed under the laws of the cornnion- 
wcalth. The number of charters taken out, especially since the in- 
troduction of electricity as a motive power, has been remarkably 
large, and yet there are comparatively few lines being operated 
under these chartered rights. In many cases the charters have died 
Ihrtnigh non-usage, or the powers and rights conferred by the 
granting of such charters have been merged into other similar cor- 

So far as the public is concerned in the growth of street railway 
interests in the state, there can bo liul one opinion expressed, and 
that is that Ihe means of local transportation liave been greatly im- 
proved and the cost to the passenger has been greatly reduced on 
account of the centralization of managements in the development 
of these interests. 

From the returns received it appears that of the 324 street rail- 
way corporations making reports, 90 are operating companies, 71 
are subsidiary companies and 163 are corporations whose lines were 
not so far constructed as to be in whole or in part in operation 
at the close of the fiscal year, to wit, June 30th. In addition to 
these, there arc 56 street railway corporations, whose capital stock, 
rights and franchises have been acquired by operating companies, 
and whose reports are included in the statements made by such 
operating companies. 

The total capital stock outstanding of operating companies is 
$103,122,319; funded debt outstanding, $31,309,425; total current lia- 
bilities. $13,139,149; total capitalization and liabilities, $147,570,893. 
Compared witli the year ending June 30, 1898, the capital stock 
for 1899 shows an increase of $2,212,984; the funded debt a decrease 
of $1,131,425. 

Of the $103,122,319 capital stock outstanding, six companies, i. e., 
the Consolidated, of Pittsburg, the Pennsylvania Traction, the Union 
Traction, of Philadelphia, the United Traction, of Pittsburg, the 
West End Traction, of Pittsburg, and the Wilkes-Barre & Wyo- 
ming Valley Traction, together have $73,909,380, or 71 per cent of 
the total. 

In addition to the capitalization reported by operating companies, 
there is reported by subsidiary or lesser companies capital stock 
outstanding of $53,407,639; funded and unfunded indebtedness of 
$41,649,487; which, added to the total capitalization of operating 
companies, $147,570,893. makes a total capitalization of operating 
and subsidiary companies of $242,628,019. In considering this total, 
however, it must be taken into account that there is some duplica- 
tion, as many of the corporations have purchased the stock of sub- 
sidiary companies out of the capital which has been secured by 
the disposal of their own stocks. 

The total cost of road and equipment as reported by all com- 
panies is $197,161,214. 

The operating companies report as receipts from operation, $21,- 
646.808; from other sources, $922,448; total receipts, $22,569,256. 
The total receipts from operating companies for the previous year 
was $19,745,706. The volume of business done by street railways 
in the state has. therefore, greatly increased, but not in proportion 
to the increase of business in other enterprises, as, for instance, the 
business done by steel and iron companies. 

From the total receipts from operations, $10,519,810 was paid 
in operating expenses, or substantially 46 per cent. The amount 
of taxes paid was $1,314,470; interest on funded debt. $2,257,765; 
rentals, $6,237,691; other expenses. $279,453; dividends paid, $1,179,- 
474; total, including dividends. $21,788,663. The surplus for the 
year is therefore $780,593. In 'addition to the dividends paid by 
the operating companies, there has been paid as dividends by the 
subsidiary companies the amount of $7,954,173. or a total, with the 
dividends paid by the operating companies, of $9,133,647. This, 
however, if considered as a disbursement, produces a duplication, 
as tlie amount of dividends paid by subsidiary companies is largely 

derived from llic $6,237,691 received by subsidiary companies in 
the way of rentals from operating companies. 

The total mileage of street railways operated in the stale is given 
at 1,812.94; ill 1898 it was 1,708.32. The total number of cars owned 
is 5,864; in 1898 Ihe number was 5,616. The total number of em- 
ployes for 1899 was 12,506; the previous year Ihe number was I2,08o. 
TIk' total compensation of employes in 1899 was $6,569,904; in 1898 
it was $6,542,840. The number of passengers carried in 1899 was 
473.313.258; in 1898 the number was 432,779.314, an increase of 40,- 


The total number of passengers killed during the year was 17; 
injured, 484; the total number of employes killed was 3; injured, 
1,39; the trital number of other persons than passengers and em- 
ployes killed was 77; injured, 504; or a total of fatal casualties of 
97, and of non-fatal, 1,127. For the previous year the number of 
passengers killed was 15, injured 506; employes killed, 11; injured, 
86; other persons killed, 80; injured, 409; total killed, 106; injured, 

In the report fi;r the year ending June 30, 1898, as well as that 
for the year ending June ,30, 1897, an account was given of observa- 
tions made on the use of bicycles, or, more particularly, of the 
number of persons who passed a given point on Third St., in the 
city of llarrisburg, on wheels and of those who patronized the cars 
of the Harrisburg Traction Co. In the investigation for the year 
1897 it was found that the number of persons passing the given 
point during the given twenty-four hours, both on wheels and in 
cars, was 6,078. Of this number. 1.962 were on the cars and 4.1 16 
were on wheels. That is, 67.7 per cent were on bicycles and 32.3 
per cent on the cars. In the report for 1898 the number of per- 
sons passing the same point on a certain day was given as S.819. 
Of this number. 3.449 were on wheels and 2,370 in cars, or a per- 
centage of 59.3 on wheels and 40.7 on the cars. In the investigation 
made for the 1899 report, during the same length of time and on 
a day when the conditions for traveling were substantially the same 
as on the days selected tor the observations of the two previous 
years, the total number of persons passing on wheels was 3.784. in 
cars, 2,941, or a total of 6,725, the percentage on wheels being 56.27, 
and on cars, 43.73. 

There is evidence in these figures to indicate that while the wheel 
is still in constant use by a large number of people, yet the per- 
centage of those who ride on wheels as compared with those who 
ride in cars has considerably decreased during the period covered 
by these observations. A feature of the observations made for the 
1899 report is the counting of the number of pedestrians who passed 
a given point during the same hours that the observations were 
made of those riding on cars or on wheels. The total number of 
such pedestrians was found to be 13.066, or 6.341 more than the 
combined number on wheels and in cars. From the above figures 
it will be seen that the total number of pedestrians, bicyclists and 
passengers on cars is 19,791, of which 66.02 per cent were pedes- 
trians, 19.12 per cent on wheels and 14.86 per cent in cars. 

The report adds: "These observations probably are not of much 
weight, and yet they present a problem for all street railway com- 
panies to solve, and that is to make it advantageous for this large 
number of pedestrians to ride in the cars, rather than walk." 


When the Chicago Union Elevated Railroad Co. was granted a 
franchise to build the Union Loop, the mayor would not sign the 
ordinance until the company agreed to pay the city a portion of 
its gross receipts in excess of $2,500,000. increasing from 5 per cent 
for the first five years to 25 per cent for the last 15 years. One 
of the provisions of the original ordinance was that private passage- 
ways might be built from buildings to the loop, but after a few 
such passages had been erected the city refused to permit any new 
ones. On this ground the company considered itself released from 
the contract, and the present city administration has decided to 
make no attempt to compel the payments by the company. 

The Toledo (O.) Traction Co's. employes' band has tendered its 
services to the Playground Association, a charitable institution of 
the city. The band recently gave the sixth of a series of concerts 
that have been very much appreciated by the people of Toledo. 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 


Read befttre the En^'iiiecrs' Club of Cleveland by Augustus Mordecai, and pub- 
lished id the " Journal of the Association of En^'inee^in^^ Societies.'' 

Ill the discussion of the question of eliminating grade crossings 
of liighways with railroads we must be careful to avoid prejudice. 
It is hard to overcome the natural impulse to make the corporation 
bear as much of the burden as possible, whether it is right or 
wrong to do so. "The corporation can afford it," we say. It is 
hard even for an employe to divest himself of this feeling, and still 
more so for one not so employed. Often we notice an employe 
throwing away as worthless a bolt, for example, that has lost a nut; 
but if the bolt belongs to his bicycle, how carefully he preserves it 
for future use. 

Even to the most wealthy, the expenditure of millions of dollars 
must be a matter of careful and judicious thought, not lightly to 
be entered into. 

Let us sec what are the rights of the parties, the public and the 
railroads, in the highway. They are equal as far as occupancy is 
concerned, and both can go their ways, provided that in so doing 
neither interferes unreasonably with the other. All are obliged to 
use caution in the use of the common highway. The individual 
must be careful he does not take any unnecessary chances in cross- 
ing the tracks of the railroad. The electric company, if there is 
one, must see that its conductor knows that the way is clear before 
he allows its car to cross; and the railroad company must, by 
watchmen and gates, or by bell and whistle, warn the public, and 
use every precaution to have the way clear before its train crosses 
the highway. Neither of the parties must obstruct the crossing 
for an unreasonable length of time, consequently all would be bene- 
fited equally by the elimination of the grade crossing if it were 
not for certain conditions not common to both. By the abolition 
of the grade crossing the public saves time, annoyance due to de- 
lays or to precautions necessary for the prevention of accident, and 
damage caused by the accident itself. A very large proportion of 
accidents (judging from the records of the Erie R. R., as high 
as 60 per cent) is due to the contributory negligence of the individ- 
ual. The street car company saves time — not a large item, as the 
men are paid by the trip — and the liability of accident, which is a 
much more important consideration with them than with the steam 
railroad, as its car is weaker and the passenger much more liable 
to injury. The steam railroad saves the expense incident to watch- 
ing the crossing, an expense which legally, but perhaps not justly, 
it is forced exclusively to bear; the time which would be lost in 
taking precaution against accident (a larger item than in the case 
of an electric railroad, as the steam road generally has many high- 
ways to cross) and the liability of injury in case of accident, which, 
as shown, is lower in the case of the steam railroad than with the 
electric road or with the public. The laws of New York make it 
obligatory on the part of the parties interested to abolish the cross- 
ing if the Board of Railroad Commissioners says it should be 
abolished; the railroad company paying one-half, the city or vil- 
lage one-quarter and the state one-quarter of the cost. In Ohio, 
if the railroad company and the municipal authorities agree that 
the crossing may be abolished, not more than 35 per cent of the 
cost is paid by the municipality, and not less than 65 per cent by 
the railroad company. This is certainly not burdensome on the 
municipality, especially when we remember that the railroad com- 
pany, being a large ta.xpayer, eventually pays no mean proportion 
of the 35 per cent charged to the municipality. 

In the design for the work, if the railroad is put under the 
highway, there should be not less than 18 ft. headroom and 2 ft. 
for floor of bridge. In Ohio there is a statute obliging an obstruc- 
tion over a railroad track to be at least 2: ft. above the top of rail, 
but I think this should be amended so as to give the Railroad Com- 
missioner some discretion in the matter. Out on the open road. 
where trains run fast, and in the days before the nearly universal 
use of air brakes had greatly diminished the brakeman's duties in 
running from one car to another to set the brake, it might have 
been proper to require such headroom; but in these days and in 
cities, where there is slow movement and where the locomotives 
and cars are equipped with air brakes, it does not seem necessary in 
all cases; and in fact other cities are adopting less headroom, and 
the Erie R. R. has been running for years in this city under 

bridges of very much less headroom, properly protected, without 
accident. I think the headroom should not be less than 18 ft., 
however; first to allow for the future probable increase in height 
of locomotives and cars which are constantly growing higher and 
higher, and also to allow a brakeman if he is on top of a car, to 
sit down without being struck. If it were impressed on him that 
he could not stand, but might sit down, on going through a city, 
the liability to accident would be much reduced. 

If the highway is put under the railroad there should be at least 
13 ft. headroom allowed, with 2 ft. for floor of bridge at highways 
where there is or may be an electric railroad, and 12 ft., with 2 
ft. for floor of bridge, at highways where no electric railway is 
likely to be built. This will not allow the use of a double-decked 
electric car, but I think it is not unreasonable to make this re- 
striction. In fact, it must be remembered that the placing of the 
highway under the railroad immediately restricts materially the 
height of the vehicle and its load that can pass under the bridge, a 
restriction that, except for the trolley wires, which I hope are but 
temporary, is not encountered in any other part of the highway. 
The gorgeous band-wagon of the circus, for instance, or the floats 
of an industrial parade will have to take another route, whereas the 
railroad equipment is restricted just as much by other things, such 
as the heights of the top bracing on bridges or the cross-section 
of the tunnels, etc. This is one of the strong arguments in favor 
of placing the highways above the railroad. 

The width of the highway should not be restricted unless under 
exceptional circumstances. It is true that London bridge, with 
its enormous traffic, is but 56 ft. wide, and that Chestnut St. bridge, 
in Philadelphia, is but 40 ft. wide; yet room seems to be necessary 
in this bustling life of ours, and the people are entitled to it. The 
grades on the highway approaches should be not more than s per 
cent. This is the grade used in Chicago, and many cities have 
steeper natural ones; certainly Cleveland has. I mention Chestnut 
St. bridge because it is on one of the main thoroughfares between 
populations nearly twice as large as in Cleveland, and carries two 
street railroad tracks. 

Nor should the width of the railroad be curtailed. It is hard to 
foresee what conditions may arise, and allowance must be made 
for future growth. If a highway becomes congested there are other 
highways, but to obtain other railroad tracks is another matter; 
always expensive, often impossible. The grades on the railroad 
should not be changed to make them a burden at the time or 
in the event of any possible future improvement to the railroad 
property, and for this reason great care must be taken in raising 
the elevation of the railroad tracks or in increasing their grade, as 
such change might involve a very serious burden on the property. 
There may be very little, if any, reserve power in a locomotive. 
It is usually loaded to its capacity; whereas, in the individual and 
electric car, within certain limits, there is ample reserve power, and 
the same is true of most horses. The railroad is an essential and 
admirable instrument in the growth and development of a city. 
It is a tool not to be abused and knocked about, but, like all other 
good tools, to be handled somewhat affectionately; to be kept 
always neat and clean and in through working order. 

Other things being equal, it is certainly lighter, pleasantcr, in 
every way better, to raise the highway. This may or may not in- 
volve the depression of the railroad tracks. If the tracks can re- 
main as they are, well and good. In that case we have only to see 
that the structure and its supports are so constructed that they 
shall not interfere with the railroad and its operation; and, although 
the railroad authorities are seemingly actuated by selfish motives, 
it is pretty safe to conclude that they are fairly good guides to 
follow in these and in similar cases. If the tracks must be raised 
or lowered in order to avoid steep approaches or excessive prop- 
erty damage, it may be wise to lower them, the depth depending on 
circumstances. Through the residence district of a great city it 
may be well to lower the tracks the full distance required. An 
elevated track is an eyesore, noisy, extremely ugly and altogether 
horrid. Through the manufacturing districts of the same city it is 
better to elevate them, other things being equal; or, at most, to 
depress them but a few feet, so that existing manufactories can 
meet the changed conditions without excessive expenditure, and 
that adjoining unimproved property owners may not be deprived 
of the use of their property for the best purpose to which it can 
be put, as might be the case if the railroad tracks were depressed 

Fun. i.S, igno. ] 



the lull (lisUmcc n'qiiirod. It is also true that, especially with rail- 
mad tracks, it is iiuuli iasi( r .iiid rlu'apcr to raise- tliuiii than to 
depress them. 

The diriictillies incident to the location of sewers, water mains, 
etc., in the depression o[ the tracks have no terrors for the engineer 
who is familiar with the work done by llie cable car company in 
New York City, or with that proposed to be done by the Rapid 
Transit Co. 

The question of damage to aliutling property on the liinliway is 
always comparatively an important one where conditions are 
changed ever so slightly, and is always very thoroughly considered 
in cases of (his kind; but it should not be given undue importance. 
Granted an e(|uilablc division, the cost is a secondary consideration, 
as the work is for all time and should be done in the best inanncr. 
Then again, the damage is only the cost of changing the buildings 
and other improvements to meet the changed conditions. The 
value of the land itself is rarely changed, for that depends upon the 
ease of access to and from a more or less crowded thoroughfare. 
For instance, the most valuable land in the world is at the intersec- 
tion of F'leet St. and the Strand in T.on<lon, because of the crowds 
passing it. The corner of I'.road and Wall St., in New York, is 
possibly equally valuable, and es|)ocially in a raised highway this 
condition is not changed. Wlial, llien, is the damage to the im- 
provements? If, for instance, all the buildings at the corner of 
F.uclid and Willson Aves. and 200 ft. each side were wiped out by 
fire in a night, the most sensational report would not put the loss 
on the buildings alone at any enormous figure. The insurance com- 
panies would certainly pay much less, and I do not doubt that the 
owners' sworn estimates of their value made to the tax assessor 
would show a very much further reduction from the amount the 
insurance companies would be called upon to pay; and again, the 
buildings in the aggregate would be damaged much less than half 
their value. Looked at in this way, the damage is reduced to a 
less formidable proposition. The trouble consists in arousing the 
antagonism of the owners themselves, who generally, and by the 
very nature of things, are men of influence and standing, and of 
much more power in the community than is the intangible stock- 
holder of the railroad company, for instance; so that it is easy for 
them to obtain excessive judgments, especially when municipalities 
and corporations are to pay them. The process of awarding dam- 
ages is human, therefore fallible. It might be better to appoint one 
or a few good men as commissioners to award them in place of the 
ordinary jury, as has been done in New York; but this may seem 
arbitrary to many accustomed to the old way. 

In the actual performance of the work, that party who is in posi- 
tion to do any part of it best and most cheaply should do it. The 
municipality should settle the damages with abutting owners; and. 
as it can borrow money more cheaply than can the railroad com- 
panies, it might, if desired, lend its credit to the latter under well- 
considered conditions. The railroad companies might build part 
or the whole of the structure. The general principles being agreed 
upon, the details can easily be arranged. 

As far as the maintenance is concerned, each party should main- 
tain that part worn or used by it exclusively, and those parts where 
failure would render it liable in damages to others; where several 
parties use the same part, or where several would be liable, the ex- 
pense should be divided proportionately. 


This paper is of interest at this time by reason of the fact that 
the city of Cleveland is desirous of abolishing railroad grade cross- 
ings over the streets used by street railways, but seeks to have the 
street railways bear the city's share of the cost, 35 per cent. 

Storage battery automobile 'busses may make regular trips in 
Denver, Col., in competition with the street railway lines, as it is 
announced that a company is soon to be incorporated for that 

It is said the first Bessemer rails ever made were rolled in 1856, 
and analysis shows they contained the following: Carbon. 0.08 per 
cent; silicon, traces; sulphur, 0.162 per cent; phosphorus. 0.428 per 
cent; arsenic, traces; manganese, traces; iron, 99.33 per cent. Owing 
to the effects of the sulphur and phosphorus, the rails were not 
satisfactory and their manufacture was .ibandoncd and not re- 
sumed till 1864. 

The accompanying illuslrations are reproduced from an article 
in the Electrical Review, of London, descriptive of a single-rail 
tramway invented by Charles Kwing, C. E., ot Adyar, Madras. 
This system was the subject of a paper before the United Service 
Institution of India by Ll.-Col. F. F. R. Uiirgess, who sairl in part: 

"On a level road one pair of bullocks can, on a single line, draw 
a train of trucks, carrying a net load of from six to seven Ions, a 
distance of 15 miles in a day with case; it rcfjuircs from 16 lo 18 


l)airs of bullocks to draw this load in ordinary carts carrying the 
military regulation 800 lb. load. 

"The trucks run on a single line of rail laid on the ground or 
roadway and arc mounted on two or three double-flanged wheels 
placed under their center. These wheels arc of small diameter, 
varying from 15 to 30 in., according to the size and weight of the 
trucks and rails, the flanges being twice as far apart as the width 
of the rail on which the wheels run. 

"The whole weight of the truck is thus borne on two or three 
double flanged wheels which run on the single rail, so that, unless 
it were supported in some way, it must fall over. The necessary 
support is afforded by a lightly constructed iron 'balance' wheel 
of comparatively large diameter, from 4 to 5 ft., with a 4-in. wide 
tire, placed at the ;ide of the truck. 

"This balance wheel runs on the surface of the- ground or road- 
way about 4^/2 or 5 ft. away from the rail. It runs on an axle 


which is pivoted at right angles to the center of the truck and is 
kept in position by a horn plate fixed to the frame of the truck. The 
axle is also furnished with a double helical spring which eases the 
jolting of the balance wheel when going over any inequalities. The 
platform of the truck, which carries the load, extends to an equal 
distance on each side of the central line of the truck over the rail 
and flanged wheels, and the load would usually be evenly distrib- 
uted on it, but should it not be so. there would be no risk of the 



[Vol. X. No. 

truck upsetting, as the balance wheel provides for an excess of 
several hundredweight." 

The rails used \ary with the loads it is desired to haul. Colonel 
Burgess mentions one with 22 miles of track which has rails weigh- 
ing 14 lb. per yd., it being designed for loads of three-quarter ton 
per wheel. The rails may be laid along the edge of the roadway 
except at bridges, where they would have to be carried out far 
enough to permit the carts to clear the sides. 

Our contemporary suggests that electricity could readily be 
adapted as the motive power for such a system, and furnish a cheap 
equipment lor light work. 

In a letter to the Electrical Review the inventor states that pat- 
ents were secured on the system in many countries in 1895. He also 
states that as early as 1881 he exhibited a single-rail tramway 
worked on the same principle as that of the system patented by M. 
Cailletet (sec St. Ry. Rev., Mar. 1897, p. 169). In this system the 
draft animal was harnessed at the side of the car and it was 
abandoned by Mr. Ewing because of the width of road occupied, 
the fact that the animal was necessary to balance the car, and that 
one team could not draw a train of cars. The cheapest motive 
power suggested by Mr. Ewing is that of a traction engine running 
on the roadway and drawing a train of these cars. 


From the address of Presidcm Duherty before llie Northwestern Electrical 


The annual meeting of tlie Chicago City Railway Co. was held 
on January X5th, when the following directors were elected: S. W. 
Allerton, D. G. Hamilton, Joseph Leiter, Arthur Orr, G. T. Smith. 
\V. B. Walker. Otto Young. 

The president's report showed the passenger receipts for the year 
to be $5,162,665. an increase of $363,059.27; receipts from other 
sources were $31,774.40, making the total $5,194,439.40 an increase 
of $361,633.59. 

Operating expenses were $3,325,677.27, an increase of $399,186.90. 
The operating expenses were 64.42 per cent of the passenger re- 
ceipts and 64.02 per cent of the gross earnings; for 1898 the corre- 
sponding figures w-ere 60.97 and 60.55 P^r cent. 

Interest on bonds was $207,877.50, leavmg the net income $r,66o,- 
884.63, which was 13.287 per cent on the capital. Dividends of 12 
per cent were declared, leaving a surplus of $160,887.63. 

The car-miles during the year were: Electric (55.1 per cent of 
the total), 14,517,690, an increase of 1,954,310. Cable (44.5 per cent 
of the total), 11,741,840, an increase of 63,820. Horse (0.4 per cent 
of the total), 11,470, a decrease of 32,430. Total, 26,371,000, an in- 
crease of 1,985.700, or 8.1 per cent more than last year. 

The company now has 169,005 miles of electric track, 34.75 miles 
of cable and 1,731 miles of horse track. During the year 9.63s miles 
of new track were built and 21,158 miles rebuilt. It has 195 horses 
and 1,946 passenger cars. 

During the year paving was done as follows; 

Sq. Yd. 

Granite 58,671 

Cedar blocks 38.573 

Brick and asphalt 1.113 

Granite and asph.ilt 496 

Brick 3,192 

Total 102,045 

The otificers elected by the board were: President D. G. Hamil- 
ton; vice-presidents, Joseph. Leiter and VV. B. Walker; secretary, 
Frank R. Greene; treasurer, T. C. Penington; auditor, C. N. Duffy; 
general manager, Robert McCulloch. 

At the annual meeting the following resigned from the operating 
stal?: George O. Nagle, assistant general manager and superin- 
tendent; A. C. Heidelberg, assistant superintendent; C. E. Moore, 
master mechanic; Frederick Stevens, track master; J. J. O'Keefe, 
chief supervisor. 

Michael O'Brien was appointed master mechanic and H. B. 
Fleming, track master. Both of these gentlemen were formerly 
with the National lines of St. Louis. 

< « » 

The city fathers of Kansas City, Mo., are said to be much dis- 
satisfied with the action of the Metropolitan Street Railway Co. in 
withdrawing annual passes and issuing books of tickets, as an- 
noMuccd in our last issue. 

The agitation about "municipal ownership" seems to be as active 
as ever; and, to be frank, I think it is increasing rather than di- 
minishing. Without commenting on the motives of many of the 
leaders, it nuist be admitted that others of them are sincere and 
honest in their advocacy of this cause. If this craze is allowed to 
run its course, popular opinion will, in time, desert it; but, in the 
meantime, many of our properties will be injured, and the cities 
adopting it will reap a harvest of disappointment fi>r their failure 
to give the matter proper consideration. 

One of my political friends once wrote me as follows: "They 
(the people) want it, and I am on recortTas favoring it. I am no 
longer so sure I am right, but there are other reforms that I 
know I am right about. Were I to experience a change of heart 
on this question, it would remove all chances for my election and 
would elect my opponent, who knows less about this subject than I, 
and who has but this one plan in mind. Even should our electrical 
venture not prove thoroughly successful, I can manipulate other 
reforms that will more than compensate for this. No matter what 
my personal views may be, my election will make me their servant, 
and I can but do as 90 per cent of the people want me to do. Even 
if I admit that most municipal electrical plants have been failures, 
it does not follow that ours will also be a failure. J think you will 
grant that it will be honestly run during my administration." There 
is a lesson for all of us in this letter. Here is a man that, to my 
personal knowledge, is as honest as the average man; in fact, 
even more so. To his mind 90 per cent of the people want a mu- 
nicipal plant; and no sane man would express opposite views to 
go per cent of the people and expect to receive an election at their 
hands. I fear we are wasting our breath in trying to educate the 
municipal officers. A majority of them already know tliat munici- 
pal ownership is a rank fallacy, but they are too wise to express 
views contrary to the people they must look to for re-election. By 
championing the views of the people — even though they know 
them to be wrong — ofTers an easy road to office. We must educate 
the people. 

"You can't fool all the people all the time," and more than one 
community has awakened to the fact that municipal ownership did 
not yield what was promised. I challenge any one to cite a single 
instance where a municipal plant cost no more than was antici- 
pated and yielded all that was promised. 

I attended the convention of the League of American Munici- 
palities by invitation from them, as the representative of the North- 
western Electrical Association and the National Electric Light 
Association. Other representatives and myself contended that mu- 
nicipal ownership had not been a success in the past, and we could 
not see how they could expect to make it a success in tlie future. 
We offered, on behalf of the National Electric Light Association, 
to bear half the cost of an investigation of 20 municipal electric 
plants, selected by the president of the league, to determine the 
true cost of service, for comparison with the rates charged by 
private plants. 

We made this offer in good faith, believing that an investigation 
would vindicate our position. I regret to state that the league 
failed to accept our proposition in a manner insuring its execution. 
Their acceptance on any terms was only secured by a great effort, 
and their final acceptance was promised conditional upon their 
ability to provide funds, and, as far as I know, they are making 
no effort to raise them. I would recommend, if they cannot other- 
wise be induced to make this effort, that our association solicit sub- 
scriptions and notify them that if they will make an earnest effort 
to solicit funds among the advocates of municipal ownership, wc 
will guarantee them enough more to make the necessary amount 
of $2,500. I promise $100 toward this subscription, and recommend 
that this matter be placed in the hands of a suitable committee. 

Governmental and municipal ownership, if carried to their rea- 
sonable ultimatum, would include every form of industry, and the 
undesirable result of this is too apparent to call for comment. Un- 
consciously, or otherwise, the advocates of municipal ownership 
seek to thrust upon us a bad foreign policy, and the best examples 
they can cite are among those nations that are "traveling toward 
the night." We have enough municipally operated plants in this 

Ff.I1. 15, IQOO-l 



country frnni wliii'li l<i seek our cxaniplrs; but llifsc t-xamplcs fail 
to strcUKllien tlic llioory of these people, and they, therefore, seek 
examples in countries where workmen are jiractically serfs and their 
rate of pay is such as to maintain ihem in an ignorant and depend- 
ent slate. 

America's greatness is not due to imitation or adaptations of 
foreign policies. Let us think and act for ourselves. Individual- 
ism has made us a great and prosperous nation; and even if indi 
vidualism is open to criticism, let us be sure that paternalism is bel- 
ter before it is adopted, even in the slightest degree. 



A new agreement has been made between the Worcester (Mass.) 
Consolidated Street Railway Co. and the Worcester city oftieials 
as to the pcirtion of the cost of removing snow each party should 
pay. b'nr the purpose of having a definite basis upon which to 

The Cleveland hllectric Railway Co. has a very complicated cross- 
ing at Euclid and Willson Aves., the nature of which is shown in 
the accompanying diagram. At this point the Kuclid and Willson 
Ave. lines intersect and three diflferent sets of crossovers arc laid 
connecting the luiclid line with the Willson line. In addition the 
Cleveland & I'ittslnirg R. R., which is a part of the Pennsylvania 
system, diagonally intersects both of these lines a few feet away 
from the crossing of the two avenues. To more fully protect this 
point there has rcceiuly been erected at the spot marked "tower" 
in the diagram a three-story switching tower which is shown in the 
accompanying half-lone illustration. 

Up to the middle of last summer the safety devices at this place 
consisted of the regulation gates operated by a gateman in a small 
tower near the site of the new one. l-'rom this were operated the 
gates on Euclid Ave. alone and another tower and gateman oper- 
ated the gates on Willson Ave. In addition there was a flagman 


work, the city eitginccr had prepared a table containing the area 
of every street in which a street railway track is laid, and also 
the areas included between the tracks in those streets. From this 
it was found the area covered by the tracks was about 40 per cent 
of the total, and an agreement was immediately signed by which 
the company is to pay 40 per cent and the city the remainder of 
the cost of removing snow from all streets occupied by rails. In 
making up the table the width of the adjoining sidewalks was also 
included as well as the space between curbs, as snow that falls on 
sidewalks is thrown into the streets and enters largely into the 
question of snow removal. This method of settling this vexatious 
question seems entirely fair to both sides. 

Orders have been issued by the Board of Railroad Commission- 
ers to the Manhattan Elevated Ry., of New York, directing the lat- 
ter to e.\lcnd its structure from 177th St. and Third Ave. to Bed- 
ford Park, and from 145th St. to West Farms, a distance of 4^> 
miles, or forfeit franchises granted for these extensions several 
years ago. 

on the ground to look out for the safety of teams and pedestrians 
on Euclid Ave. These men were in the employ of the Pennsyl- 
vania R. R., and the same policy will be continued, the top story 
of the tower being for the Pennsylvania's gateman and the lower 
one for its flagman. 

The Cleveland Electric Railway Co. formerlj' had derails on each 
side of the track on both streets operated by a lever on a pole set 
in a position to control a view of the steam railroad in both direc- 
tions. The street cars were obliged to come to a full stop at the 
derailing switch and stand while the conductor ran ahead to the 
pole and set the switch in position by pulling the lever. This not 
only took valuable time, but it was noticed the people took advant- 
age of the conductor's absence from the car and would get on and 
crowd in among the other passengers, where it would be next to 
impossible to find them and get their fare, even if they were ob- 
served getting on. 

To overcome these difficulties a change was made in the oper- 
ating device on Euclid .\ve. and both levers were put on one pole 
and a man stationed there to operate them, thus allowing the 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 

conductor to remain on his car. This plan worked so well that 
it was decided to adopt it permanently and also connect up the 
derails on Willson Ave. and let one man look after both crossings. 
To protect him from rain and cold some kind of a shelter was 
needed, and an arrangement was entered into with the Pennsyl- 
vania company for the present tower. After some investigation 
it was found that the pneumatic derailing switches could be put in 
cheaper than the change could be made on the old ones, and, as 
they were considered better, were adopted. These switches are 
to be operated from a compressor located in the second story of the 
lower, except from 11 p. m. to S a. m., while the night cars are 
running, at which time the der.iil will be thrown by the conductor, 


by means of an auxiliary compressor Ijocated on the ground on 
each street. 

It will be noticed that the route of the Belt line cars takes them 
around the southwest corner of Euclid and Willson Aves., the 
right hand Belt switching ofi Euclid and the left hand off Willson. 
Should it be found that one man can manage it, these switches will 
also be attached to the main compressor and operated from the 
tower. These various derails operate for 1,340 cars each day. 

It will be seen that this improvement saves both time and reve- 
nue and also insures greater safety. The arrangement was con- 
ceived and put into effect by Mr. R. M. Douglass, the general 
superintendent of the Cleveland Electric Ry. 


There is a certain class of accidents whose frequency could un- 
doubtedly be greatly reduced if the conductor had some simple yet 
positive way of signaling the motorman to stop instantly, and it 
is a little surprising that some device for this purpose has not 
been forthcoming before this. As it now is the best way for giving 
the motorman an emergency signal is by means of three taps of 
the bell, this method being recommended in the report made in 
October, 1898, by the Committee on Standard Rules and Regu- 
lations for the Guidance and Government of Employes appointed 
by the American Street Railway Association. In this report under 
rules for bell signals from conductor to moterman, Rule 4 reads, 
"Three quick taps of the bell, when car is running, is the signal 
to stop immediately. This signal should be used to prevent acci- 
dents or when trolley is off the wire." But this rule is not en- 
tirely satisfactory. It is too complicated for an emergency signal 
and takes too long to give, especially as the conductor is apt to be 
laboring under excitement at the moment the signal is most re- 
quired. Furthermore the code is not usually known to the pas- 
sengers who may be aware of the impending accident before the 
conductor, and had they some means of communication at once 
with the motorman the mishap in a number of cases could be 

The double action signal gong shown herewith is designed to 
provide a simple and unmistakable signal for an immediate stop 

and one that can be operated by the same cord or strap used for 
the ordinary starting and stopping signal. Fig. I is a side view 
of a gong fitted with the improvement and Fig. 2 is an elevation of 
the same with the cap of the bell removed. The bell cord is bifur- 
cated at its one end, one of the branches connecting with tlic regu- 
lar bell-clapper for producing the usual starting and stopping 
signal. an<l the iither, which does not come into action until a 

FIG. 1. 

FIG. 2. 

greatly increased tension is put on the cord, controlling the emer- 
gency signal, which in the case shown in Fig. 2 is the well-known 
ratchet-lever mechai\ism with meshes and small revolving knock- 
ers, that fly out 'against the bell by centrifugal force and produce 
a continuous ring. Almost any form of bell-ringing mechanism 
may be utilized, but the gong should be in two sections, the regu- 
larly used clapper acting on the cap and tlie emergency knocker 
on the base section. 

It will be seen that an ordinary pull on the cord will operate the 
usual signal only, while an extra hard pull will cause both mechan- 
isms to come into action, giving a combination signal that cannot 
possibly be misunderstood by the man at the controller. As shown 
in Fig. I a small spiral spring is interposed in the cord to the ordi- 
narily used knocker, necessitating an abnormal pull before the 
other cord will become taut enough to actuate the ratchet signal. 
The device is the invention of H. S. Rodgers of 190 E. Second St.. 
Covington, Ky. 

■» « » 


In our issue for January, page 49, we gave the average daily 
traffic by months of the South Side Elevated Ry. for the year 1899. 
The president's annual report was presented to the stockholders 
on January 25th and from it we take the following additional data: 


Passenger $1,131,403.70 

Other earnings 34,985.42 

Miscellaneous 3,991-56 


Maintenance of way~and structure $ 50,754.53 

Maintenance of equipment 79,489.50 

Conducting transportation 297,489.93 

General expenses 88.471.29 

Loop rental and expenses 153,727.12 


Net earnings $500,448.31 

Deduct interest on bonds $33.75o.oo 

Deduct dividends on capital stock.. 306.672.00 340,422.00 

Surplus for year 1899 160,026.31 

The ratio of operating expenses to gross earnings by months 

varied from .499 in October to .599 in June, the average of the 

figures for the 12 months being .572. 
The board of directors was unchanged. 

Steam was admitted for the first time to the engines in the 
power station of the Dayton (O.), Springfield & Urbana Ry. on 
January 14th, with appropriate ceremonies. Mrs. J. S. Harshman, 
wife of the president of the company, opened the throttle valve. 

I'-jcii. IS. if)0(). 









I.oiiisvillc Railway Co. v. I'.hiydos (Ky.), 52 S. \V. Rep. '/lo. Oct. 7, 

The cvkleiicc .showed lliat the phiintilT in the coiiit Indow was on 
a street, trying to ride a wheel, and beinK unaccustomed to riding, 
and liy reason of a grade in the street, she lost control of the wheel, 
and ran into another street, and, in trying to turn, the wheels of her 
vehicle were caught in a street railway track, between the rails ami 
rocks. While in this condition, and without warning of any kind, 
a car ran over, and seriously injured, her. She sued the street rail- 
way company, and obtained a judgment for $^,500. The company 
appealed, seeking to obtain a reversal on the ground that it was 
error to refuse a peremptory instruction to find for it, and that the 
verdict was llagraiUly against the evidence. But the court of appeals 
of Kentucky allirms the judgment of the lower court. 

The street railway company insisted that the plaintiff in the court 
below was shown, by her own testimony, to have been guilty of 
such contributory negligence as precluded a recovery of damages. 
It cannot, however, be held, as a matter of law, the court of appeals 
maintains, that she was so guilty in being on the streets of the 
city trying to ride a wheel. But, if it might be said that she was 
guilty of negligence on this occasion, the court holds, it was the 
duty of the company to keep a lookout for persons on the track, 
and to avoid injury to them. 

The proof, the court goes on to state, conduced to show that the 
motornian could have seen this plaintiff in ample time, after she 
was caught on the track, to have avoided the injury. At least, there 
was sufficient proof to that effect to go To the jury. The place of 
injury was a public street. It was the duty of the operator to use 
the highest degree of care in avoiding injury, after discovering the 
perilous position of the plaintifTf. So the court holds that, if her 
testimony as to Iiow the accident occurred was true, the company 
was liable. 


Atlanta Consolidated Street Railway Co. v. Jackson (Ga.), 34 S. E. 
Rep. 184. Aug. 2, iSgg. 

A deed conveying to a street railroad company the title to the 
right of way over the land of the grantor contained a recital that 
the grantee was to run its cars over the right of way a specified 
number of times during the day, perpetually, and the habendum 
clause, as it is called, was as follows: "To hold and to have so 
long as the party of the second part * * * uses the said right 
of way * * * for all legitimate railroad purposes as herein set 
forth, and no other." The successor to this company abandoned 
the right of way, and an action was brought against it for breach 
of the alleged covenant. Taken to the supreme court of Georgia, 
the latter, however, holds that the above does not constitute a 
covenant, but is a conditional limitation, and that the land reverted 
to the grantor at the same instant when the company abandoned 
the right of way. 

To constitute a covenant running with the land, the supreme 
court goes on to say, the covenant must have relation to the inter- 
est or estate granted, and the act to be done must concern the 
interest or estate created or conveyed." Hence, when such an 
habendum clause further provides, as it did in this instance, that 
"in case the party of the second part or their assigns default in com- 
plying with the covenants herein set forth, in whole or in part, all 
the rights and perquisites thereof shall revert to the party of the 
first part and his assigns, together with lawful damages as shall be 
awarded by due process or otherwise," the court holds that the 
stipulation for damages is not such a covenant running with the 
land, under the above definition, as would render the successor to 
the grantee, who purchased at judicial sale, liable for a breach of 
covenant, although it abandoned the land after its purchase. 

Cummins v. Sunimimduwot Lodge (Kan.), 58 Pac. Rep. 4X6. Oct 6, 

Where a wailing room is erected in the streets of a city by the 
.Hiihorily of the council thereof, the court of afipcals of Kansas 
liolrls, it cannot be abated as a nuisance, on the complaint of an 
.ibutting lot owner, for the rca'son that said buildini; partially 
obstructs the view of his business house by persons passing over a 
liarticular portion of the street. 

The plaintiff in the court below was the lodge. The defendant 
was a party who had entered into an arrangement with a strcel 
railway company for the erection of the building complained of, 
whereby he was to erect said building and maintain a portion thereof 
as a waiting rorjm for passengers on said railway; sai<l defendant 
in consideration of the erection and maintenance of said building 
to also use and occupy the same for the sale of cigars, fruit, news- 
papers, periodicals, and other similar articles. 

In consideration of this case, the court of appeals ignores the 
fact that a part of the uses for which the building in controversy 
was erected was of a private nature, and considers it from the stand- 
point of a waiting room alone. It does this, it says, for the reason 
that, if the defendant had a right to erect and maintain the building 
as a waiting room, its erection could not be enjoined, or its removal 
as a nuisance ordered, although a portion of it was used for other 

That a waiting room at or near the point where this building was 
located was a public convenience was apparent, and the court of 
appeals quotes the supreme court of the state as holding that "the 
city corporation may make every use of a street which reasonably 
conduces to the public convenience and enjoyment." So the court 
of appeals thinks that the city had the right to authorize the erection 
of the building, and did so authorize it by the franchise ordinance 
providing that "said grantees may construct and maintain at such 
points along the line of said railway such depots and waiting rooms, 
with stairways leading thereto, as may be necessary and requisite for 
the accommodation of the public." 

Then, on the nuisance question, it holds as first stated, reversing 
the judgment of the district court. 


Towner v. Brooklyn Heights Railroad Co. (N. Y.), 60 N. Y. Supp. 
289. Oct. 17, 1899. 

The second appellate division of the supreme court of New York 
declares here that the Hickman case, reported on page 467 of the 
'Street Railway Review" for July, 1899. 56 N. Y. Supp. 751. 
was not intended to lay down any new rule of law in negligence 
cases, and that that decision is not to be extended to cases in which 
the same circumstances are not present. 

This case was similar to that one only in that the plaintiff in this 
case testified that he looked in both directions before leaving the 
curb, and that he saw no car or other vehicle approaching, and that 
he then stepped down, and started across the street, and that he was 
just leaving the track when he heard the gong of an approaching 
car, and simultaneously he was struck and thrown a distance of 20 
feet, the car running 50 to 75 feet before it was stopped. Then, 
the court goes on to point out that in the Hickman case the streets 
did not cross the avenue on which the cars ran, and that the cars 
had the paramount right to the use of the tracks, while in this case 
the accident occurred at a street crossing, where the rights of the 
parties were equal, and where the defendant owed the plaintifif the 
duty of having its car in control, or at least of giving warning of 
its approach. 

The defendant, in this case, the court goes on to say, had no right 
to rely upon people getting out of the way of its cars at crossings. 
It was charged with the duty of operating them with reasonable 
care, and the plaintiff had a right to rely, in some degree, upon the 



[Vol.. X, No. 

discharge of this duty on the part of the defendant. The plaintift', 
having looked in both directions before starting to cross, and seeing 
no car, the court here holds, was justified in walking across the 
street at a point where the rights of both parties were equal, and 
in assuming that a car running at a rate of speed calculated to make 
the crossing dangerous would give some notice of its approach, or 
that it would be in the control of the motorman sulliciently to pre- 
vent his being run down. 

And, declaring that there was certainly nothing in the Hickman 
case which justified the conclusion that the plaintiff in this case 
was guilty of contributory negligence as a matter of law, the court 
holds that it was error to dismiss the complaint, and grants a new 
trial, after also stating that there was evidence in the case from 
which the jury might reach the conclusion that the defendant was 
guilty of negligence, and that the plaintiff was free from negligence 
contributing to the accident. 




Todd V. Second Avenue Traction Co. (Pa.), 44 Atl. Rep. 337. 
Oct. 6, 1899. 

The plaintiff alleged that while standing in the rear car of a 
railroad train he was injured by being thrown against the radiator 
or stove through a street car which had been standing about 20 feet 
from the railroad crossing starting suddenly forward, breaking 
through the safety gate, and colliding with said rear car. 

Of course, says the supreme court of Pennsylvania, it devolved 
on the plaintiff to establish by competent evidence the negligence 
he imputed to the street railway company, and, failing in this, he 
could not maintain an action against it for damages. He obtained 
a judgment in the court of common pleas. But it was difficult to 
determine from the evidence whether the starting of the car was 
caused by improper management of the company's employes in 
charge of it, or by defects in the machinery discoverable by them, 
or, if discoverable, not within their power to remedy or control. 
However, it was too clear for argument that the employes charged 
with the operation of the car did not intend to start it while the 
safety gates were down and a train- was on the crossing, and that 
they exercised their best skill and judgment in the discharge of their 
duty as they understood it. 

Under these circumstances, the supreme court discovers no sub 
stantial ground for complaint or criticism in a charge to the jury 
that it was the duty of the street railway company "to furnish 
reasonably skilled and competent men to operate the cars and the 
machinery and appliances," and in the judge saying, in immediate 
connection therewith," That is just where the plaintiff claims the 
defendant failed in its duty." And it holds that certainly the instruc- 
tion that it was for the jury to determine whether the defendant 
exercised proper care under the circumstances was unobjectionable. 

But the court reverses the judgment rendered in the plaintiff's 
favor, because, in view of the evidence, and the circumstances sur- 
rounding it, it considers inadequate, and especially so in that part 
of it relating to the plaintiff's loss of earning power, a charge 
relating to the measure of damages which was exceedingly brief 
and nothing more than a perfunctory specification of the items 
constituting the damage claimed as the result of the negligence 
attributed to the defendant. These items consisted of expenses 
incurred as a consequence of the injury received, the inconvenience 
and suffering naturally resulting from it, and the abridgement or 
loss of earning power, whether temporary or permanent, consequent 
upon the character of the injury. No reference to or explanation 
of the evidence or law applicable to either item was made. Thus, 
the jury was left without such aid or guidance to a conclusion, the 
supreme court thinks, as it was fairly entitled to. 


Pinkerton v. Pennsylvania Traction Co. (Pa.), 44 .\tl. Rep. 284. 
Oct. 6, 1899. 
By a clause in the Pennsylvania act of March 22, 1887, motor 
power companies are authoriEed "to lease the property and fran- 
chises of passenger railway companies which they may desire to 
operate, and to operate such railways." The title of the act is "An 

act to provide for the incorporation and regulation of motor power 
companies for operating passenger railways by cables, electrical or 
other means." It was argued that the clause mentioned was uncon- 
stitutional, because it contained a subject not indicated in the title, 
to wit, the lease of their roads by passenger railway companies. 
But this objection to the constitutionality of the clause in question 
the supreme court of Pennsylvania pronounces wholly untenable. 

The supreme court says that as the very object of the incorpora- 
tion of the motor power companies indicated by this title was to 
operate passenger railways, they must have some means of obtain- 
ing such railways to operate. It was clearly not intended that they 
should build, nor necessarily to buy, for in either case they would 
become not merely operators, but passenger railway companies 
themselves. The most obvious, if not the only other, way in which 
they could operate roads was to lease them. The title of the act 
gave notice that they were incorporated with power to operate 
passenger railways, and an obvious way to do so was by lease of 
already existing roads. 

Nor does the court consider tliat there was any weight in the 
objection that the passenger railways had no power to lease their 
roads. The power to take leases is expressly given to the motor 
companies, and the corresponding power in the passenger rail- 
way companies, as owners, to give leases, is necessarily implied. 
Without it the grant in the act would be nugatory. 

The objection that the powers of passenger railways cannot be 
indirectly enlarged, the court holds, is answered by the established 
principle that the constitutional mandate as to revival, amendment, 
extension, etc., of acts by re-enactment at length applies only to 
express amendments, etc., and does not affect those which are 
merely incidental to the passage of other acts, complete and valid 
in themselves. 

The Pennsylvania act of May 14, 1889, contains no express pro- 
hibition of the power to lease, and as such power was already 
granted by necessary implication, so far as concerns motor power 
companies as lessees, under the act of 1B87, the court holds that 
the later act cannot be construed as an implied repeal of a power 
already existing, and not necessarily inconsistent with the act's own 

Last of all, the court declares itself of the opinion that the settled 
principles of law and the decided weight of authority are in favor of 
the rule that, where a lease is duly authorized by law, as under the 
act of 1887, there is no further liability of the lessor for negligence 
of the lessee in the operation of the road. 


State ex rel. Oshkosh, Algoma & Black Wolf Railroad Co. v. Bur- 
nell, circuit judge (Wis.), 80 N. W. Rep. 460. Oct. 20, 1899. 

This was a mandamus action brought in the supreme court of 
Wisconsin to compel a judge of the circuit court to enter an order 
directing a writ of assistance to be issued to put the relator, a 
railway company incorporated for the purpose of carrying persons 
only, and endeavoring to condemn a right of way for a trolley elec- 
tric line across the right of way of the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railway Company, in possession of a crossing 16 feet wide across 
said latter company's right of way. The condemnation proceedings 
had been carried successfully through the circuit court, the amount 
awarded by the commissioners had been deposited in court, and 
judgment entered dismissing the appeal of the Chicago & North- 
western Railway Company from the award, to the circuit court. 
From this judgment an appeal had been taken to the supreme court. 
.\nd thereupon the street railway company instituted this action, 
contending that it had then an absolute right to a writ of assistance, 
under the Wisconsin statute. 

The Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company opposed these 
mandamus proceedings on the ground that if they were of any 
validity at all, they were proceedings by one railway company to 
condemn lands of another, and that, under section 1854 of the 
Revised Statutes, in such cases the question of the necessity of 
taking the land is open for retrial in the circuit court, and no cross- 
ing should be forced, by means of which a street railway will cross 
a steam railway on grade, until the question of the right to cross it 
is finally settled. In this view, the supreme court seems to concur. 

FjCJI. 15, 10')'). I 



111 uiikr lu jiislil'y m.iiul.iiiiiis in siifli a case as lliis, the court says 
that it must appear that the duly of the court below was plain, the 
refusal to perform such tluty clear, the result of the refusal prejudi- 
cial, and the remedy by writ of error or appeal utterly inadequate. 
The Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company having given a suf- 
ficient undertaking to protect the street railway company from loss 
in case it should be finally determined that it was eiililled to a cross- 
ing, it not appearing plain that it was the ihily nf ilie court to award 
a writ of assistance, nor that there was any emergency calling for 
iinniediate action, nor that the remedy by appeal or writ of error 
was not entirely sufficient, and the questions involved being deemed 
very important and deserving of that careful consideration which 
they are promised to receive upon the hearing of the appeal upon the 
merits, the supreme court denies the peremptory writ sought, adding 
that, if it were to taUe up the questions and decide ihcm in this 
action, it would be causing the writ of mandamus to serve the pur- 
pose of a wril nt error or appeal. 


O'Rourke v. Citizens' Street Railway Co. CTenn.), 52 .S. W. Rep. 
872. Sept. 6, 1899. 

As to the conclusiveness of the face of a ticket, the authorities 
are in irreconcilable conflict. Many of them treat the face of the 
ticket as the sole criterion of the holder's right of passage, justify 
Ills ejection in case of detective ticket and refusal to pay fare, and 
allow him, as his only remedy therefor, an action of damages for 
the negligent mistake of the agent, or tor breach of contract, and 
not for expulsion. Others, on the contrary, deny the ticket such 
conclusive force and dignity, and rule that the passenger has the 
right to rely upon the acts and statements of the ticket agent or 
conductor, and that, if he be expelled on account of a defective 
ticket when he has acted in good faith and is without fault, the 
carrier is liable in damages for such expulsion. 

The supreme court of Tennessee takes the latter view, and holds 
here, where a conductor, through mistake, punched a transfer 
ticket to indicate its i.ssuance at i :40 p. m., when, as a matter of 
tact, it was issued nearly an hour later, that a person who makes 
a valid contract is entitled to passage according to its terms, though 
the face of the ticket furnished him may not in any true sense 
express the contract. It is the contract, it says, and not the ticket, 
that gives the right to transportation. The ticket is but an evidence 
of the contract, made out and furnished by the carrier; and, if it 
fail to disclose the true contract, the fault is with the carrier, and 
it is responsible tor the natural consequences of the variance. 

The passenger, the court goes on to say. is not required in law, 
nor allowed in fact, to print or write or stamp the ticket. The 
carrier alone has that right, and the passenger is authorized to 
believe and presume that it will be properly exercised, and that 
the ticket, when delivered, is a faithful expression of the contract 
as made. The ticket, whether tor transfer, as in the present case, 
or for original passage, may well be called the carrier's written 
direction by one agent to another concerning the particular trans- 
portation in hand; and it the direction be contrary to the contract, 
and expulsion follow as a consequence, the carrier must be answer- 
able for all proximate damages ensuing therefrom, just as any prin- 
cipal is liable for the injurious result of misdirection to his agent. 
The legal result, in such a case, cannot be influenced by the fact 
that the carrier has conducted the transaction through two agents 
instead of one; for the combined acts of the two agents constitute 
but one continuous act of the carrier. Each agent is the alter ego 
(another self) of the carrier. The issuance of the void ticket is 
the fault of the first agent, the expulsion is the fault of the second 
agent, and both faults are those of the principal, which stands 
before the court as if it had made'the contract, issued the ticket, and 
expelled the passenger through one and the same agent. 

Beyond question, continues the court, carriers have the legal 
right to require passengers to procure and present tickets; but that 
does not imply that passengers who have done their part in the mat- 
ter may be rightfully expelled from the car because the tickets 
they offer chance to be defective or void. Before the rule of 
expulsion for want of proper tickets can be made absolute and 
universal in its application, the carriers must discharge the recipro- 
cal duty of absolute and universal accuracy in the issuance of 

the tickets. The latter would be impossible; the former harsh ami 
unreasonable. To require a passenger who has made a valid con- 
tract for transportation and paid the requisite (arc, as did the 
plainlilT, to retire trnin the car, ami suspend his journey, because of 
an original defect in the ticket furnished him by the company's 
agent, is to visit the wrong of the offender upon the offended. It 
is to make the rightful passenger suffer for the fault of the carrier, 
and that, too, in the lalter's interest. The court will not yield its 
assent to a result so unjust and oppressive. 

The plainlifT, the court holds, had a right to believe the transfer 
ticket all that it should be. With it He diligently sought and 
Ijromplly entered the first transfer car, and, upon being challenged 
by the conductor of that car as too late to use the ticket, he made 
a fair and reasonable statement, showing that he had just left the 
first car. and that th<- first conductor must have wrongfully indicated 
the hour ot issuance on the face of the ticket. On that stalemcnl, 
the court maintains, the plaintilT should have been allowed to pursue 
his own journey to its end. He, the court adds, owed the company 
no other duty, and his expulsion, under such circumstances, was a 
tortious breach of the contract, for which he became entitled lo 
recover all proximately resulting damages, including those for 
humiliation and mortification, if they were in fact sustained. 

Nor does the court consider it an answer to the legal right of the 
bona fide passenger lo say that the carrier's general interest is 
better subserved by his expulsion than by his carriage; by the 
violation ot his contract than by its observance. His right is not lo 
be afTected by the mistakes of ticket agents, or the attempted frauds 
of impostors. These are to be met, if met at all, otherwise than 
through a rule that excludes innocent as well as fraudulent passen- 
gers. It is not allowable to punish the innocent with the guilty, to 
prevent the escape of the guilty. 

Every expulsion of a rightful passenger is wrongful. 

Over against the testimony of the conductor that he was respect- 
ful, and used no more force than was necessary, the court holds 
that testimony of the plaintilT, who was accompanied by his little 
boy and little girl, that both cried and he thought that the little 
girl would go into spasms, was admissible, as possibly shedding 
some light on the real demeanor of the conductor. 

Again, the court says that no explanation the conductor might 
make could affect the plaintiff's legal right as a passenger. 
right depended upon the contract, and not upon the face of the 
ticket; and it was incumbent on the conductor to heed the plaintiff's 
explanation, and observe the contract, rather than upon the plaintiff 
to accept the conductor's explanation as final, and abandon his 
contract. The disclosure of the fault ot one agent by another agent 
could not absolve their principal from the obligation of the contract, 
and render the plaintiff a trespasser. Such a result cannot be justi- 
fied in law, whatever the rule of the company may be. 

On the face of the transfer check were printed the following 
words: "Transfer. Passenger, in accepting this transfer, agrees 
to read and be governed by the conditions on the back hereof, 
subject to the rules of the company. F. G. Jones, V. P. & G. M." 
Among the conditions printed on the back of the transfer check 
was one in this language: "Part of the conditions upon which this 
transfer is given and accepted are that the passenger examine date, 
time, and direction, and sees that the same are correct, and complies 
with all its conditions." This condition, the supreme court holds, 
is unreasonable, because no passenger can be bound to verity the 
act ot the conductor in issuing a transfer check; and also because 
no inexperienced passenger, however intelligent, could, in the lime 
at his command on so brief a trip, "examine date. time, and direc- 
tion" indicated by the punch marks, and. without an explanation, 
see "that the same are correct." 

Another condition on the back ot the check was expressed thus: 
"In accepting this transfer, passenger agrees that in case of contro- 
versy with conductor about this ticket, and its refusal, to pay regular 
fare charged, and apply at the office of the company for refund of 
same within three days." This condition, the court holds, is un- 
reasonable, in that it makes the conductor, for the time, the sole 
judge of the sufficiency of the ticket, and requires the passenger to 
pay additional fare, though his ticket may be refused without suffi- 
cient cause; and. further, in that it requires the wronged passenger, 
who so pays, to apply for refund at the office of the company, 
which must be remote from the houses and business places of most 
passengers, and then limits the amount to be received by such 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 

person to that wrongtuUy exacted. It puts, declares the court, all 
of the burden of the "controversy" upon the wronged passenger, 
and none upon the wrongdoing company, and thereby makes the 
just .'iufTcr for the unjust. 


.McFarland v. Third .Vvenue Railroad Co. (N. Y.), 60 N. Y. Supp. 
273. Oct. 4. 1899- 
In reversing a judgment for damages to a wagon from a collision 
at about 11:30 p. m., the appellate term of the supreme court of 
New York holds that, if the plaintilT, who was driving, looked and 
did not observe the approach of the car, no inference could lie 
drawn that the servants of the defendant in charge of the car 
observed the plaintiflf in time, and neglected to stop the car before 
it struck the wagon. No greater duty in that respect, the court 
insists, was imposed upon the defendant than was required of the 
plaintiff, especially in view of the fact that the collision occurred 
at 3 point where the defendant had a paramount right to the use 
of that portion of the roadway upon which its tracks were located. 


Old Colony Trust Co. v. Allentown & Bethlehem Rapid Transit Co. 
(Pa.), 44 Atl. Rep. 319. Oct. 6, 1899. 
Under statutes respectively conferring upon courts of common 
pleas general power to entertain bills for the foreclosure of mort- 
gages given by railroad companies and in cases of mortgages of 
the property and franchises of transportation companies, the supreme 
court of Pennsylvania declares itself very clearly of the opinion 
that jurisdiction can be maintained under both acts to foreclose a 
mortgage given by a street railway company, for the plain reason 
that the mortgagor company is both a railroad and a transportation 
company, within the plain meaning of both acts. The attempted 
distinction between "railroad" and "railway" companies, the court 
insists, has long since been exploded, and, indeed, it adds, never 
received its sanction in this class of cases. 


Simon v. Metropolitan Street Railway Co. (N. Y.), 60 N. Y. Supp. 
251. Oct. 4, 1899. 
This action was brought to recover damages for an injury to a 
horse that stepped into a hole contiguous to one of the rails of a 
street railway track. The defendant contended that it was not 
liable because section 98 of the New York railroad law only makes 
it the duty of a street surface railroad company to keep in perma- 
nent repair the street between and two feet in width outside of its 
tracks "under the supervision of the proper local authorities and 
whenever required by them to do," whereas there was no evidence 
in this case that any local authority had given the company notice 
of the condition of the pavement. But the appellate term of the 
supreme court of New York holds that such notice is not a condi- 
tion precedent to the performance by the company of the duty 
assumed by it of keeping the public thoroughfare in repair, neglect 
of which renders it liable in a civil action to any one of the public 
sustaining special damage from such neglect. And it calls attention 
to the fact that the defendant was aware anyhow, through its 
oflRcers, of the bad condition of the street, as further settling the 
question of the necessity of notice. 


New York Condensed Milk Co. v. Nassau Electric Railroad Co. 
(N. Y.), 60 N. Y. Supp. 234. Oct. 4, 1899. 
A milk wagon was left standing upon a street railway track a little 
before sunrise, while the driver went down a side street to deliver 
milk to three customers, h.alfway down the block. As stated by the 
driver, the wagon was painted white, and without lights. The snow 
was piled up on cither side of the railway track, and there had been 
a fall of snow during the preceding night, so that the side street 

was covered to the depth of 12 or 14 inches — so deep that he thought 
he could not drive through it. The superintendent of the company 
admitted that, though difficult, it was possible to drive through the 
snow upon the side street, and a truckman, called as a witness by 
the plaintiff, testified that he had driven just before the accident 
through the next side street, which was in the same condition as 
the one upon which the customers lived. As the driver knew, cars 
were constantly passing and to be expected, yet he left his wagon 
upon the track, where it was not likely to be seen; for, although 
there may have been bright moonlight that morning, the place of 
the collision was dark, because it was covered over by the structure 
of an elevated railway. This, the appellate term of the supreme 
court of New York holds, was gross carelessness, contributing to 
the accident, and, therefore, a judgment for damages for the injury 
done by an electric car to the wagon and its contents should be 


Almand v. Atlanta Consolidated Street Railway Co. (Ga.), 34 S. E. 
Rep. 6. July 25, 1899. 

The authorities, the supreme court of Georgia says, are conflict- 
ing as to whether the powers over streets usually granted to munici- 
pal corporaticms are sufficient to authorize them to permit street 
railways to use the streets longitudinally, but, without deeming it 
necessary in this case for it definitely to decide whether or not such 
powers are sufficient, the court states that the weight of authority 
seems to be that they are not. 

However, when a street railway company has power, under its 
charter, to lay its track along the streets of a city, the court holds 
that the city authorities may consent to such use of its streets by 
the street railway company, although there may be no express 
power in the charter of the city authorizing it to grant such a 
privilege. It says that if the street railway company had no charter 
authority to use the streets of the town, consent by the authorities 
of the town would be ineffectual to confer such power; but the 
railway company having such charter power, and the constitution 
impliedly recognizing that any city may consent to such use of its 
streets, it has the power to do so. The authority to construct a 
railway along a street may therefore, it declares, be derived either 
from the charter of the city or from the charter of the railway 
company that is applying for the use of the city's streets. 

Moreover, the court holds that the general rule is that, when a 
municipal corporation is created, it becomes vested with jurisdic- 
tion over the territory embraced within its corporate limits, and the 
mere fact that there has been a valuable improvement made by the 
county authorities on one of the streets of an incorporated city 
does not oust the municipality of its jurisdiction over such street. 
.And the above, it holds, is true, notwithstanding the street improved 
was before the incorporation of the city a part of an established 
public road of the county. 

The court says that if the authorities of a municipal corporation 
see fit to permit individuals, private corporations, or even the 
authorities of the county in whiclT such municipality is located, to 
expend money in improving one of the streets of the municipality, 
this will not have the effect of relinquishing control over such 
street, and placing the same under the jurisdiction of those who 
have made the improvements upon it. When the improvement 
is completed, although the street may be radically changed, it is 
still a street of the city, and under its control. It goes almost with- 
out saying, adds the court, that any municipality would grant per- 
mission to any person or corporation so disposed to voluntarily 
and gratuitously pave and improve one of the streets of the munici- 
pality; and the mere fact that the authorities take advantage of an 
offer of this character, and allow the improvement to be made, 
would not amount to a relinquishment of control over the street 
thus improved. 

Then, it was contended, in this case, that an injunction should 
have been granted because it did not appear that the county author- 
ities had given their consent for the railway company to appropriate 
that part of the public road of the county between the city in ques- 
tion and a certain other city, and that therefore it would be impossi- 
ble for the railway company to construct and operate a continuous 
line as contemplated, and the city street ought not to be disturbed 

Fkh. is, 1900.) 



when il could never be used for the purpose (or whieli it was 
intended by tlie company. But this contenlicjii, the court holds, was 
disposed of Ijy evidence, properly admitted, to the elTect that, if 
there should be any difficulty in obtaining the consent of the county 
authorities to use that part of the road necessary to make the line 
continuous, the railway company could and would acquire the neces- 
sary property contiguous to the road in question. 


Rceni V. St. Paul City Railway Co. (Minn,), «o N, \V. Kep. 638. 
Oct. 26, i8yy. 
The exposure of a passenger to danger which the exercise of 
reasonable foresight would have anlicipiiled, and due care have 
avoided, the supreme court of Minnesota holds, is negligence on 
the part of the carrier. And more particularly does it insist here 
that, when a street railway company undertakes to carry large 
numbers of people, vastly in excess of the seating and standing 
capacity of its cars, apd permits passengers to ride on the plat- 
forms, stops its cars when in such crowded condition that other 
persons may get upon them, and. because of the crowd, a passenger 
who has boarded a car before it was crowded is pushed off a plat- 
form and injured, the company is guilty of negligence. 


Wallace v. Ann Arbiu- & Ypsilanti Electric Railway Co. (Mich.), 
80 N. W. Rep. 572. Oct. 24, 1899. 
It is undoubtedly the rule, says the supreme court of Michigan, 
that such an agreement as one to give a land owner and members 
of his family passes until the premises arc transferred in consider- 
ation of an encroachment thereon docs not run with the land, and is 
not binding upon the purchaser of the rights, franchises, etc., of 
the old company, in the absence of a statute or contract making 
such purchaser liable. But where the bill of sale contained nothing 
inconsistent with the assumption by the new company of contracts 
for the right of way, and the vice-president of the old company 
testified that the purchase was subject to all the conditions attached 
to the old company as well as told the landowner that the trans- 
action was nothing more than a consolidation of the old and new 
companies, the supreme court thinks that this made out a prima 
facie case of consolidation, under which the consolidated company 
succeeded to all the rights and obligations of the old company. 
Yet the fact that a connecting line had also for several years hon- 
ored the old company's pass would not bind the new company to 
furnish transportation beyond its line extending only to city limits. 


Dolan V. Hnbingcr and others (la.), 80 N. W. Rep. 514. Oct. 19, 

The petition in this case contained allegations that a certain 
motorman on being employed had been instructed to use special 
diligence to prevent the further mischief of boys who had for a 
long time been placing obstructions on the tracks at a point where 
there was a steep grade; that, one day, observing some boys run- 
ning away from the track and finding at the place obstructions left 
there by them, he stopped his car, got off to remove the obstruc- 
tions, discovered the boys biding about fifteen feet away, and, 
believing them to be in waiting to do more mischief, sought to 
frighten and drive them away as he believed it to be his duty to his 
employer to do; that, to do this, he picked up a small stone, and 
threw it violently at the walk, near the boys, but not intending to 
hit them; that the stone struck the plaintiff in and over his right 
eye, severely injuring him, etc. 

The question was raised by demurrer whether this petition stated 
a cause of action. The lower court sustained the demurrer. But 
its judgment is reversed by the supreme court of Iowa. 

First, however, the supreme court says that the facts stated did 
not show that the motorman had authority to bind the street rail- 
way company by the act of which complaint was made; that is, 
it did not appear that in throwing the stone he was acting within 
the scope of his employment. Nor was it shown that the motor- 

nran was authorized to resist trespassers. What was anirmalivcly 
charged in the pclitifjn was that a trespass had been committed, 
and those engaged in it had retreated, when the stone was thrown 
that caused the injury to the plaintifT. In such an event, declares 
the court, it cannot be said that the act done was within the scope 
of the servant's employment. 

The reversal is explained to be because of the error of the trial 
court in sustaining the demurrer when the latter necessitated it to 
thereby hold that the act, as done, constituted a crime, and there- 
fore could not be ratified. The supreme court says that it will he 
noticed that the petitiiin aflirmatively alleged that the motorman, 
when he threw the stone, had no intention of hitting either of the 
boys. As charged, the act was a tort, but not a crime. Any act 
of the motorman which might have been previously authorized 
by the company could be ratified by it so far as to incur civil liabil- 
ity therefor. Surely, adds the supreme courf^ the corporatism might 
have made itself responsible in this case by authorizing the motor- 
man to use force against trespassers. 

The test applied in order to determine whether the master is 
liable is not the character of the servant's act, but whether it was 
done within the scope of his duty. When it is said that the master 
is not responsible for the willful wrong of the servant, the state- 
ment must be understood as referring to an act done outside the 
line of employment. The general rule is that, if the act done is 
in the execution of the authority given by the master, the master 
will be liable, whether the wrong be occasioned by negligence or 
by a wanton, reckless purpose to accomplish the master's business 
in an unlawful manner. 


Chicago General Railway Co. v. Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad Co. (III.), 54 N. E. Rep. 1026. Oct. 19, 1899. 
Neither a city alone, nor a city in conjunction with a railroad 
company, has a right, the supreme court of Illinois holds, to build 
or erect over a public highway any permanent obstruction which 
will interfere with the passage of such persons and vehicles, in- 
cluding street cars, as have the right to use such highway. But, 
the court goes on to say, when the tracks of a steam railroad com- 
jiany are raised, the city is not obliged to make the subway there- 
under high enough for the passage of vehicles of an extraordinary 
and unnecessarily great height. It is only obliged to make such 
a subway as will permit the passage of such cars, or cars of such 
height, as are customarily run upon street railway tracks. And 
an injunction, it holds, will not be granted at the instance of a 
street railway company, to prevent the construction of a subway 
of say less than 16 feet headroom where the allegations of the 
injury it will suffer if the subway is built as proposed are indefi- 
nite and do not show that such injury will be irreparable, as that 
it will thereby be prevented from using "a portion of its equip- 
ment," damages for which there is nothing to indicate could not 
be recovered in an action at law. 


Becker v. Detroit Citizens' Street Railway Co. (Mich.), 80 N. W. 
Rep. 581. Oct. 24, 1899. 
The supreme court of Michigan states that it does not think 
that it can be said, as a matter of law, that a motorman. who has 
already made the stop required at a crossing of street railways by 
a city ordinance, is guilty of contributory negligence in attempting 
to cross with his car when the approaching car on the other railway 
is 150 or 200 feet away, and is also yet required, by the ordinance, 
to stop before reaching the crossing. The reason given is that 
if he must wait before he goes forward until he knows that the 
approaching car will stop, he will fail to meet the demands of mod- 
ern street railway traffic. Nor does the court consider that this 
ruling is changed by a state statute which provides that, at all 
crossings of the tracks of two street railways, when a car on each 
road approaches such crossing at substantially the same time, the 
car on the track first laid shall have precedence and be entitled 
to the right of way, even if this would under other circumstances 
give the approaching car the right of way. The statute, the court 
holds, does not authorize a street railway company in a city to 



I Vol.. X. N< 

iyiKTc the provisions of an ordinance rciiniring a car to cunie to a 
lull stop before making a street railway crossing, and so it main- 
tains that the second car here referred to did not have the right 
of way until it made the stoji 


Commonwealth v. Jones (Mass.), 54 N. E. Rep. 86g. Oct. 19, iSyg. 

A street railway company owning electric railway lines over differ- 
ent streets and required by law to give transfers from one line to 
another in such a way as to make the rale of fare not more than 
five cents for a continuous ride over one or more of its lines made 
a rule than transfers would be given from a certain one of its lines 
to another which ran parallel with it for a short distance in the 
heart of the city only at the point where they diverged. The de- 
fendant took a car on the "first mentioned line and on tendering 
his fare demanded a transfer right away, his purpose apparently 
being to thereby be able to take a car on the other line sooner 
than he otherwise could. The conductor refused to give the trans- 
fer then, and the man refused to pay his fare without he got it. 
At the earliest possible transfer point he got out, took the other 
car, and paid the usual fare of five cents for riding on tliat. Sub- 
sequently he was prosecuted for, and convicted of, evading payment 
of fare on a street railway, in which the supreme judicial court oi 
Massachusetts finds no error. 

The court says that there was nothing to show that the rule uf 
the corporation was not a reasonable one, and holds that the 
defendant was bound by it. He argued that the statute did not 
contemplate a conviction unless there was moral turpitude in the 
evasion or attempt to evade. The court thinks that it goes further, 
specifying acts, the commission of either of which shall constitute 
an offense, and that one is guilty who evades or attempts to evade 
"either by giving a false answer to the collector of the toll or fares, 
or by traveling beyond the point to which he has paid the same, 
or by leaving the train or car without having paid the toll or fare 
established for the distance traveled or otherwise." One who will- 
fully or intentionally does either of these things, it maintains, is 
within the meaning as well as the language of the statute. That 
the defendant, after he left the car, entered another car, and paid 
the fare prescribed for his ride upon that, and that if he had con-' 
formed to the rules of the corporation he could have obtained a 
continuous ride over the route covered by both cars on payment of 
a single fare, the court pronounces facts which were immaterial. 
■» » » 


Wc take pleasure in showing herewith the ground plan of the 
new shops of the Jewctt Car Co., at Newark, O. This company 
was formerly located at Jewett, O., and under the old management 
met with very little success. The company was reorganized in 
i<Sg4. and then went into a receiver's hands, the shop being closed, 
but in the fall of 1895 it was opened and business was conducted 
by the receiver. In 1897 it was sold by the receiver to Howard 
Hazzlett, of Wheeling, W. Va., and immediately purchased by Sis- 
son & Krebs, general contractors and builders, of Wheeling. The 
factory then was opened and business was solicited under the name 
of the Jewett Car & Planing Mill Co., with the following acting 
officers. A. H. Sisson, manager; C. E. Krebs, secretary and treas- 
urer, and N. Paulson, superintendent. Under this management 
business rapidly increased and it was only a short time before it 
was found that the company was handicapped on account of loca- 
tion and poor shipping facilities, and would be obliged to either 
build a larger shop at Jewett or seek new quarters. 

In December, 1899. the company was incorporated under the 
old name of the Jewett Car Co., and located at Newark, O., in the 
new shops. Part of the plant was built and at the time of the re- 
moval in December, 1899, it was thought that more shop room 
would not be needed, but during the month of January the company 
received a great many orders and found it would be obliged to build 
large additions. It now has one of the most complete shops in 
the country, and has taken orders from some of the largest roads. 
It makes a specialty of interurban cars, and now in 'this particular 

line is filling a great many orders. The simps and hnnber slieds 
cover about five acres. 

The shops are adjacent to the tracks of tiie ijalliniorc & Ohio 
and the Pennsylvania railroads, with switches to all the buildings. 
The main erecting shops, three in number, are of pressed brick 
with slate roof. Two of them arc 50 x 200 ft. and the other 50 x 
150 ft. The wood working shop and the paint shop is 200 x 
100 ft., and is separated from the erecting shop by a 70-ft. yard, 
in which there is a transfer table for handling the cars in moving 
them from one shop to another. Back of the wood working shop 
is a dry kiln with a capacity of 50,000 ft. The company have built 
several lumber sheds so that all of its lumber will be kept under 


The present officers are; W. S. Wright, Wheeling, W. Va., presi- 
dent; H. S. Hands, Wheeling, W. Va., vice-president; A. H. Sisson, 
Newark, O., general manager and treasurer; N. Paulson, general 
superintendent. Mr. Sisson will also act as general sales agent. 
Mr. Paulson was for many years connected with the sleeping car 
department of the Pullman company, and is thoroughly acquainted 
with car construction, and is giving special attention to the con- 
struction of heavy cars. 


In the '"Review" for June, 1898, we gave tlio preliminary plans of 
the Orleans Railroad of France for building an underground ex- 
tension of 2j4 miles in order to secure a more central terminus in 
Paris, and in February, 1899, announced that a three-phase trans- 
mission line with transformer substations wovild be used. 

Considerable progress has been made in the construction of this 
line which follows the River Siene. partly in tunnels 
proper and partly as a covered subway with arched open- 
ings in the wall towards the river. The new station 
on the Quai d'Orsay is to be a large building with 15 tracks, 
all of which connect with the double track underground road. Elec- 
tric locomotives similar to those of the Hobokcn Shore road will 
be used for handling the trains between the old and the new ter- 
minals. These locomotives will have four axles to each motor 
driven. Current will be taken from a third rail laid on the same 
ties as the track rail; the plans contemplate placing the third rail 
in different positions relative to the track rails and therefore the 
locomotives will have three contact shoes at each end. The locomo- 
tives are to have two controllers and will not be turned at the 

l'"]cii. 15, lycK). I 




One (j( llic lirst electric railways to be Ijuilt in the ICast linlies 
is now nearing conii>Iction at Balavia, a city of al)ont inliab- 
ilants, sitnated on tlie norlli coast of the island o( Java, This sys- 
tem may properly be called a suburban road, as it is constructed for 
a considerable distance throuKh ripen stretches of country and 
for a portion of the route on private riKlit of way. The construc- 
tion work would do credit to an American town and the service is 
e.Ncelleut, a five minute schedule being (d)served on market days 


and a ten-minute headway on other days. The cars often reach 
a speed of 15K' niiles an hour and average from 7 to 10 miles. 

Owing to the climatic and social conditions the work of install- 
ing the system was necessarily slow and attended with exceptional 
difllculties. Native Malay labor was relied upon almost exclu- 
sively and most of the foremen were educated natives. The trans- 
portation of heavy boiler and engine sections was particularly 
difficult and at times even dangerous. As an example of the pecu- 
liarities of the help employed it is stated that before each trolley 


pole was placed in position it was necessary to offer up a prayer for 
the safety of the erection gang. 

At present three lines are in operation, aggregating 8.6 miles 
of track. The gage is 3 ft. 11 in., and grooved rails laid on wooden 
ties are employed. The ties are cut from the Djatti tree or Indian 
oak, as it has been found this material successfully resists the cli- 
matic conditions and the attacks of tropical boring insects. The 

lines at present are single track with turn out-,, but 11 is expecleil 
that eventually dfiuble tracks will be built throughout, and this fact 
has been kept in mind while completing the road. The trolley 
poles were designed to facilitate double tracking when this should 
become necessary, and a double lrr>IUy wire has been erected the 
entire distance, this latter feature making unnecessary the use of 
overhead crossovers and also cfTecling a saving in feeder cables. 
Hard drawn copper wire of .082 sq. in. sectional area was adopted 
for the trolley wire. The overhead construction is divided into 
sections, 550 yd. long, in order to localize disturbances of the sys- 
tem, each switch serving as a feeding point, and each section being 
protected by a lightning arrester. The rails arc bonded with cop- 
per bonds of .166 sq. in. sectional area and in addition arc con- 
nected every 55 yards with wire of the same capacity. 

The arrangement of the various buildings belonging to the com- 
pany is shown in Fig. i. In the engine room arc three generating 
units, each consisting o( an horizontal tandem compouiul en- 
gine rated at 150 h. p. at 2.35 r. p. m., belted to a six-pole con- 
tinuous current soo-volt generator. The generators were supplied 
by the Union I^lektricitats-Gesellschaft. of Berlin. Each engine 
has two fly-wheels, one carrying the generator belt, and the other 
the governor belt, and the machines are arranged to run con- 
densing or non-condensing as desired. A surface condenser of the 
Worthington type has been installed. The pumping system is in 
a separate room adjoining the boiler room as shown in Fig. i. 
There arc two Worthington feed pumps each having a capacity 
of 2,500 gallons per hour, two injectors having a capacity of 800 


gallons per hour, with a lift of 20 ft., and a storage tank, into 
which condenser pumps discharge fresh condensing water in addi- 
tion to the water returned by the surface condenser. The boiler 
feed pumps draw directly from this tank, forcing the water through 
a Green economizer before it reaches the boilers. 

In the boiler room are three boilers as shown in Fig. 2. These 
arc of the double drum type, and have a heating surface of 1,030 
sq. ft., and a normal evaporating capacity of 3.300 lb. per hour. 
The drums are 6 ft. 11 in. in diameter, the upper drum being 20 
ft. long and the lower one 23 ft. long. The two water and steam 
spaces arc directly connected by enclosed tubes. Both drums may 
be separately fed, and any section of the feed pipes between the 
boilers and pumps may be cut off. The fuel employed is .•^ustralian 
coal, although it is proposed to utilize petroleum waste for this 
purpose at an early date, as this material can be secured on the 
grounds at low cost. 

file furnaces are so arranged as to enable the hot waste gases to 
be passed either through the economizer or through an unob- 
structed flue direct to the chimney, which is 150 ft. high and built 
of iron plates riveted together. The chimney stands isolated from 
the power house building, the flue connections being underground. 

The Colorado Springs (Colo.) City Council has passed an or- 
dinance requiring all cars in the city to be vestibuled during the 
winter months. 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 


Koad bcfure Ihc Aiiicricaii Society for Municipal Improveuieuts Itv M. .\. I>t>\vn- 
ine, President BuartI of Public Works, nf Indianapolis, Ind. 

Before, and when, I became a member of the Board of Public 
works a nnmber of years ago we often had property owners say, 
"Why can't we have such wood pavements as we see in Paris, Lon- 
don and other European cities? They seem to be so much cleaner 
and quieter than asphalt or stone." They insisted that there was a 
fine dust, a glare, a noise and heat that were positive discomforts, 
which they could escape to a great extent if they could have a 
wood pavement, and if we could give them a durable wood pave- 
ment they wanted it, and many wanted the wood without condi- 
tions, and many petitions for it were presented. 

A careful study of wood pavements in this country and Europe 
followed. There can be no doubt that the consensus of opinion in 
this country is that the wood block pavement as commonly known 
has not been a success. It seems strange that the glaring defects — 
one might almost say the kindergarten defects — of those pavements 
had not been noted and eliminated, but they were not, and millions 
of square yards of wooden block pavement have been laid and are 
yet being laid, the only foundation for which is plank laid on sand. 
The blocks were cut from round, green cedar posts, with the sap- 
wood left on, and in some instances the bark. These blocks, with- 
out further preparation, were laid on boards, some gravel tamped 
into the joints and covered with coal tar. It would seem almost 
absurd to call such a structure a pavement. In saying this, I am 
not forgetting the Nicholson pavement, the principal defect of 
which was the lack of suitable wood. It seems to me that all the 
ingenuity and inventive genius of that time was exercised along the 
line of discovering some odd or novel way to cut and lay the 
blocks, or to bind and lock them together. As far as I have been 
able to discover, these things were of little avail. The cardinal de- 
tects were: 

First. Failure to select wood with sufficient strength and tough- 
ness to withstand the loads and abrasion, and 

Second. The total absence of any attempt to create conditions to 
prevent the rotting of the blocks. 

Just why it was considered necessary to select white pine and 
cedar when the country abounded in the harder and stronger 
woods it would be difficult to conjecture, but the fact remains. 

And why no adequate eflfort was made to properly season and 
treat the wood I leave to engineers to answer. It may have been 
because it was a new field and explorers are scarce. Certain it is 
that if any architect had attempted to build a house of such material 
treated in the same way he would have been severely criticized by 
his professional brethren, to say the least. 

As a result of our studies of wood pavements, we decided to re- 
quire the concrete foundation in every instance. We first laid 
Washington red cedar, reatangular blocks without treatment of any 
kind. This wood was very soft and porous. It was practically the 
Nicholson pavement. The blocks were laid close together on a 
i-in. cushion of sand over the concrete. Two heavy traffic resident 
streets were laid in this way and they are now in their fifth year; 
both are considerably vv'Orn on account of the softness of the blocks. 
while here and there rotted blocks are visible. Washington red 
cedar was still in the specifications when I became a member of the 
Board of Public Works. A provision was inserted providing for 
creosoting, but the specifications were indefinite. The following 
spring and summer, 1896, four streets were paved with creosoted 
(about three pounds of oil to the cubic foot of wood) Washington 
red cedar. These blocks were 4 in. wide and S in. with the 
grain of the wood. The blocks were lajd in rows at^n angle of 45'' 
with the curb. All of these pavements are in excellent conditional 
this time, and on parts of them the traffic is heavy. No provision 
was made for expansion, the blocks were driven as close togeth«r as 
could be with a sledge and the joints filled as far as could be 
with *paving pitch. We have had some trouble caused 
by the blocks bulging. Most of this was where the blocks 
were not creosoted; in a few cases blocks bulged on other 
streets, but nothing serious. The specifications were then 
changed, providing for the heartwood of the long leaf southern 
yellov pine, -vith the blocks 4 in. wide, 4 in. deep with the grain 
of the wood, and impregnated with ten pounds of the best quality 
of creosote oil. These blocks were laid in the manner above de- 

scribed, except that a space of from 1 to 2 in. (according to the 
width of the streets) was 1-eft between the curb and the blocks for 
expansion. This space was filled with dry sand and covered over 
with heated paving pitch. The interstices were partly filled with 
fine, dry sand and the street surface rolled to a smooth surface be- 
fore covering with heated paving pitch and top dressing with fine 
gravel ov screenings. In no instance have we had any trouble on 
any of these streets from the blocks bulging. The surface of these 
streets is as smooth as a floor, and has a soft brown color that is 
restful to the eye. Under the heaviest traffic no wear is as yet 
noticeable and the streets are in perfect condition. The oldest is 
aboJt three years old. It appears that the dirt on these pavements 
docs not grind into such fine dust as it does on the asphalt and 
consequently is not as unsanitary nor annoying. The cost of 
cleaning is less than brick or asphalt, tor the reason that we do not 
have to clean as often. We often hear complaints of the heat that 
comes from the asphalt on hot days. This does not seem to be 
common to the wood, but the one quality that seems to be pre- 
eminent is noiselessncss. I think that people pay more attention 
to this quality, of late years, than they used to; in fact, they now 
often demand it, whereas, when I was a younger man, people would 
speak of it as desirable, but were not willing to be assessed anything 
extra on that account. We feel that the creosoted wood block 
pavement is a success from every point of view. We believe that, 
constructed of the material we are using (or other strong woods, 
like beech, tamarack, red or yellow fir), properly creosoted, using 
first-class quality of creosote without adulteration, that the pave- 
ment is more durable than asphalt and brick and nearly as durable 
as granite. It certainly has met with an enthusiastic reception in 
this city, as is testified to by the great demand for it. We have 
contracted for about three times as much of it this year as we have 
for asphalt. There is practically no demand for stone or brick in 
this city except for alleys. 

We have not adopted the European method of spacing the blocks 
from a quarter to a half inch apart and filling them with portland ce- 
ment grout, but I am not sure that their practice is not preferable. 
We have found up to this time that our present practice is good, 
and our engineer hesitates to depart from it, although I must say 
that when the blocks are driven so close together it is next to im- 
possible to get any filled in the joints. This may cause swelling 
later, although I hardly think so. 

We have thus far not followed the common European practice of 
making the surface of the concrete perfectly smooth and laying the 
blocks directly thereon, but have introduced the i-in. cushion of 
sand. But if we are called upon to pave heavy traffic streets we will 
probably do so, as experience in both London and Paris has shown 
that the practice has been successful, as the Rue de Rivoli, over 
which passes 42,000 vehicles per day and King William St., the 
heaviest in London, are both paved with wood in that way. Few 
people understand the efficacy of creosoting; why the wood seems 
harder, tougher and more durable. It is simple. Wood dried to 10 
per cent moisture has about double the power to resist crushing 
and abrasion that it has if very wet. In creosoting, the sap and 
moisture are removed and the heavy oil (creosote) which repels 
moisture becomes encysted in the fiber of the wood. When snow 
and rain lie on the pavement, they may get to some extent into the 
cells, but not to any great extent into the fiber, because they cannot 
displace the oil; hence the fiber remains dry, and, of course, retains 
its strength. The uncreosoted wood pavements wear doubly as 
much in wet weather as they do in dry weather. This is not true of 
the creosoted wood pavements for the reasons above given. 

I might say a word in regard to cost. This would probably vary 
according to the distance the blocks would have to be freighted. 
The pavement laid with long leaf yellow pine blocks, 4 in. deep, 
treated with 10 lb. of the best quality of creosote oil per 
cubic foot of wood, laid on a concrete foundation complete, and 
guaranteed for from five to nine years, has cost us from $2.10 to 
$2.50 per square yard. 

The Greenwich & Schuylerville (N. Y.) Electric R. R. is open 
for traffic. The company is having several electric locomotives 
built for hauling freight cars. 

A system of electric haulage for canals, employing two over- 
head wires, will be tested on the canal at Tonowanda, N. Y. Philip 
Perew, of North Tonowanda, is the inventor of the system. 

Feu. is, 1900.] 


Power Plant Piping and Accessories. 





AiKJllar .'ij'.sUiii (if piping with which Ihc sloaiii engineer is con- 
eerned is llial comprising the exhaust mains and 1)ranches rnnning 
from the exhaust outlets of engines, condensers and pumps to the 
hrators and condensers and by-passing tlie latter through a relief 
valve to the atmosphere. This system is of equal importance with 
that first considered; it is often fully as prolific of trouble and 
olTers even greater facilities for economizing ste.ini production 
through iutelliReiU arrangement. 

It is beyond the province of this paper to discuss the theories 
and eflieiencies of condensing and heating apjjaratus; but, whatever 
system or systems may bo selected, there is always opportunity for 

To Main Exhaust 

♦■Copper Flange ■ Removable 

combining it and the piping so as to increase the productiveness, 
so to spcaU-, of that part of the plant. 

With a non-condensing engine, heating the feed water from its 
own exhaust, the combination is simple, a tubular or open heater 
being placed in the horizontal or vertical portions of the exhaust 
pipe. It is best that this should be by-passed, as shown in Fig. 14. 

When two or more such engines arc used the exhaust from one is 

Main Exhaust 

usually snl'licii-nt to heat all the feed water the boiler requires to 
or near the boiling point. If the boilers require more than this 
an)ount of feed, all the engines may supply exhaust steam for heat- 
ing it. either separately or in a single heater. (~)ne way of arrang- 
ing the latter is shown in Fig. 15. 

With this construction, one or both of the exhausts can by-pass 
the healer, and in case it becomes necessary to remove it, this can 
be (|uicl<ly done by taking apart the flanges at A and B, after which 
the engines can go on rnnning. 

With condensing engines, the exhaust pipe system increases in 
interest. Again the engine exhausts may pass through a feed water 
heater l)efore complete condensation, or the exhausts from pumps 
and condenser alone may be suflicient for heating purpose. The 
latter is seldom the case. If the engine exhausts are used for heat- 
ing a building it is advisable to place an oil separator between the 
engines and the heating pipes. Usually separate heaters arc pro- 
vided for main and auxiliary exhausts, and the latter arc carried to 
the main free exhaust after passing through the heater. All valves 
on exhaust systems should be placed so as to be operated from the 
engine room floor. This necessitates their being set with vertical 
spindles, when the bodies are below the floor line. A cast iron stand 

Opre« Exhaust !Ui««r 

:H K 




Auxiliary BuUr 

S h 

■O 1=^ 



Fewl Pomp 

is bolted to the floor, and the valve spinale extended through it is 
operated from the top. It is best to use stands of the indicator 
pattern, in which a marker rises and falls along a scale fastened to 
the side of the stand, showing at all times the position of tne gate. 
It is absolutely necessary to have a free passage for the exhaust, 
independent of the condenser, and for this purpose an automatic 
relief valve should be placed on a by-pass around the condenser. 
This valve consists essentially of a disk bearing on a flat surface, the 
latter having in it an opening the size of the exhaust pipe. When 
the condenser is in operation, the vacuum under the disk holds it 
down, and the e-xhaust steam is condensed continuously. If for 
any reason, as a failure of water supply in the condenser, the pres- 
sure on the exhaust pipe increases, the relief valve opens, and the 
engine runs non-condensing. Upon starting condensation again, 
the disk falls and holds the vacuum. As pumps and condensers are 
not ordinarily planned to operate as condensing engines, their ex- 
hausts should be piped into the main exhaust, if at all, on the free 
side of the relief valve. Condenser pumps are sometimes connected 
with their own condensing chambers. 

■ Fig. 16 shows diagrammatically an arrangement of exhaust con- 
nections in accordance with the foregoing principles. 

The exhaust pipe .\ is from a 350-h. p. compound condensing 
engine. B and C connect to engines, which are planned to run 
either condensing or non-condensing. In laying out this plant, the 
data given were, first, the size and location of the three engines, 
with the diameters of their steam and exhaust pipes. The 
crowded condition of the basement made the arrangement of 
heater and condenser shown imperative. The main exhaust valves 
of the three engines are above the floor line. A 5-in. pipe runs 
downward from the low pressure cylinder of the right hand en- 
gine, turning at right angles to rest upon the floor level. This 
terminates in a 5 x 7 x 5-in. tee to which the exhaust from the 
middle engine is brought. From the 7-in. exhaust line thus created, 
connections arc made with both the exhaust from the large en- 
,gine and with the outboard free line. Both of these connections 
have valves, but as these valves will be only occasionally used, 
ihey are not arranged to be operated from above. 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 

The lo-in. exhaust from tlie main engine, into which the smaller 
exhausts are carried, runs to the 10 x 12 x 7-in. tee to the heater, 
thence 12 in. to the condenser, with a side outlet through a rehef 
valve to the atmosphere. The spindle on the exhaust inlet valve to 
the condenser extends through the floor. The injection and dis- 
charge pipes to and from the condenser both have valves, and the 
valve on the former is also operated from the floor above. 

When a condenser of the injector type is used, it is placed 
vertically near the wall of the engine or pump room, and guyed 
to the walls or roof. The exhaust pipe from the engine runs up- 
ward to the condenser inlet, which is usually at the top, and the 
relief valve opens from the upper flange of the condenser. The 
injection pipe from the pump also enters near the top of the 
condenser, and the discharge pipe is led from the hot well at the 

Wrought iron pipe used for exhaust or low pressure steam may 
be made with either flanged or screwed joints, composition gaskets 
being used in the former case. Cast iron pipe for this purpose 
should be flanged. 

Fig. 17 shows the arrangement of injector condensers for the 
electric power plant of the Boston Navy Yard. 

The sizes of exhaust pipes are determined in the same way as 
explained for steam pipes, the permissible velocity being assumed 
at 4,000 ft. per minute instead of 6,000. 

From a standpoint of economy, the only covering necessary 
on exhaust piping is from the engines and auxiliary apparatus to 
the heaters. Heaters also should be covered and all exhaust cov- 
ering should be of good quality, put on by experienced mechanics. 
The entire exhaust system is frequently covered, to add to the 
workmanlike appearance of the plant. 

The noise of an escaping exhaust, at least in cities, is a decided 
nuisance, and to obviate this and also to prevent the deposit of 
condensed steam on roofs and neighboring buildings, an exhaust 
head is usually placed on top of the vertical free exhaust. This 
muffles and partially condenses the escaping steam. 


The water piping in a power plant consists of injection and 
discharge connections for the condenser, pump suction, hot and 
cold feed water lines, individual boiler feed pipes, cold and hot 
water fire and washing service, etc. 

Water piping for the condenser is of cast iron. The injection 
pipe is usually flanged, the joints being made with some 
form of rubber or composition gasket. As this line of 
pipe must hold a vacuum, it should be carefully made tight 
and tested at a hydrostatic pressure of not less than 30 lb. 
The injection inlet to the condenser should always have a 
valve, and it is preferable to have this valve arranged so that it 
can be operated from the engine room floor. It is well, also, to put 
a check valve on the discharge pipe. To protect the condenser from 
debris, floating billets, etc., which may be contained in the con- 
densing water, a strainer should be placed on the injection pipe 
at its inlet, and it is preferable also to use a foot valve at this 
point. These are made in various forms, plain disk, multiple, shaft, 
and spring. Whatever form is used, the bearing parts should be 
of brass. 

Should the condenser be stopped suddenly, it often happens that 
the foot valve closes, holding a column of water above it, and in 
case of a prolonged shut down, the pressure of this water is ob- 
jectionable. A simple method of providing for its removal is to 
tap the injection pipe just above the foot valve and to run a small 
pipe from the opening thus made. The overflow valve on this pipe 
should have a long stem so as to be readily operated from the 
ground. If the suction well is very deep this long stem can be 
braced at the top of the uptake by iron straps bolted to the main 

Injection pipes should have a vertical length for their inlets, and 
the foot valve should be placed within a foot or two of the bottom 
of the well. 

Condenser discharge lines, which are subject to no pressure, are 
made up of bell and spigot pipe, caulked with hemp and lead. This 
construction admits of a slight variation in direction, and is there- 
fore convenient where the pipe is placed underground. If the dis- 
charge is carried into a running stream, the outlet may be a hori- 
zontal pipe; but if into a well, the outlet should be vertical. 

A hot well is sometimes placed in the discharge, so that hot feed 
water may be taken independently from this source before passing 

to the heaters. A simple way of arranging this is shown in Fig. 18. 

Hither cold or hot water may be taken, respectively, from the 
hot well or main suction, by the pump or injector. The heater 
can be by-passed if desired. Where there is danger from high 
water, a check valve should be placed on the discharge pipe of the 

The suction lines to the feed pumps and injectors are usu.illy 
of galvanized iron, sometimes of cast iron. In the former case, 
they are put together with ordinary screwed joints, galvanized fit- 
tings also being used. They should run underground, outside the 
building, and they, as should all water and drip pipes, arc pre- 
ferably run in a trench inside the building. Trenches for pipe are 
built with 8-in, brick walls, and are covered with cast iron plates, 
projierly drilled to allow connections to be made. The inside of 

Jltiiff fa/yf 

fiehefya/ye , 


\fioomFloor-^ ii^':^ 

PIG. 17. 

the trench sliould be smeared with portland cement on the sides 
and bottom. Avoid placing valves in trenches. 

From the feed pump, wrought iron pipe carries the feed water 
to the heater — or, it cold water is used, direct to the boiler. It is 
customary in large plants to use both systems, so that the heater 
can be cut out of service, if necessary. Feed pipes for hot water 
should always be of brass, with brass valves and fittings. Very long 
runs are sometimes made of cast iron, as far as the economizers, 

but this is only commendable in extreme cases. Brass pipe should 
be made up with screwed joints for all ordinary sizes: if larger 
than 4 in. in size, however, special brass flanges and brass 
flanged fittings should be used. A relief valve should be placed 
on the main feed line to guard against excessive pressure. It is 
of importance to make the feed system as direct and simple as 
possible, avoiding sharp bends, and in fact all bends that can be 
avoided, as every one adds to the work of the pump and increases 

Feb. 15, lyoo, ] 



llic aniouiU of steam rcqiiircil by it. It is always bad practice to 
have brass and iron in contact with each other when conncclion.1 
may require breaking. 

The main feed lines, running across the boiler fronts, branch 
out into the individual feed pipes. If an injector is used as an 
anxiliavy to the pumps, it may be connected to the feed either on 
the nuiin line or at each boiler feed. The cold water feed line, if 
any, can be connected in the latter way, or can branch o(T into 
individual cold feed pipes, entering the boiler independently. This 
practice seems to be an unjustifiable expense. 

Individual branches to Ihc boilers should be each provided willi 
a check valve and stop valve, the latter arrani,'ed so as to oi)erate 
from the boiler room floor. 

In certain localities kerosene is used as a resolvent in boilers, and 
where this is the case, the boiler lubricators should be attached to 
the individual feed pipes. Internal feed pipes, when used, arc always 
furnished by the boiler maker. 

Other water piping about the power plant consists of connec- 
tions to faucets and fire hose. Hose should be mounted on racks, 
out 01 harm's way, and should be provided with quick opening 

Rules for determining the sizes of water pi])es are plentiful, and 
recourse should be had to some good handl)0ok in planning such 
parts of a plant. The injection and discharge inlets on the con- 
denser will usually be found right for its rated capacity, but the 
length of pipe, number of bends, etc., should always be given careful 

'To be continued. 


iFroni Our London Correspondent.} 

It is iiuite probable that American street railway men have often 
dilificulty in grasping the meaning of news items concerning the 
promotion of tramways in Great Britain because the procedure to 
secure charters and franchises is so different in the two countries. 

In England and Scotland the main statute on the subject is the 
Tramways Act of i8"o, which contained a clause empowering the 
municipality or other local authority to purchase the road after 
21 years at a price to be found by deducting from the original cost 
an allowance for depreciation. This is the so-called "old iron" 
purchase clause, and its application practically paralyzed tramway 
building for years after this meaning of the act had been decided 
upon by the courts. Ireland has its own Tramway Act, with a less 
stringent purchase clause. 

The second important statiUe is the Light Railways Act of 1896, 
which originally contemplated the building of light railways in 
agricultural and fishing districts where the traffic would not be 
sulticicnt to render a steam railway profitable. This act has been 
taken advantage of for the building of tramways in streets and 

It will be well to premise the description of the methods of pro- 
motion by a few words concerning the Board of Trade. The Brit- 
ish Board of Trade is a permanent department of the government, 
entrusted with the powers to regulate shipping, railroads, tram- 
ways, electric lighting, etc., and has an army of officials. Its stat- 
utory powers are practically absolute, though if its acts are attacked 
the president of the Board, who is always a member of Parliament, 
and one of the Government of the day, must defend its action in 

When a company or a municipality wishes to build a tramway 
three methods are open: 

I. It may promote a private bill in Parliament. Under the 
parliamentary standing orders thi's involves much work and ex- 
pense. Elaborate plans and books of reference must be prepared 
long before the session of Parliament begins; notices must be 
served on all parties interested, including land owners whose prop- 
erty may be desired; long detailed notices must be advertised in the 
official gazettes and in local newspapers; the bill must be prepared 
and lodged in the private bill offices of both houses of Parliament; 
estimates of cost and copies of the documents must be filed with 
the Board of Trade and other departments concerned. 

Next follows a preliminary inquiry to determine wdiether all 

the parliamentary standing orders have been complied with, and a 
bill may be thrown out at this stage before receiving any considera- 
tion on its merits. 

Passing this inquiry safely Ihc bill is introduced in one house 
and read a first time; a few days later it is read a second time; 
occasionally there. is opposition at the second reading and bills 
are sometimes, though rarely, thrown out at this stage. On scc- 
f)nd reading the bill is referred to a select committee of four or 
five members, which hears all evidence for and against the bill; 
promoters and objectors arc represented by counsel and the fight 
may last for weeks. If the committee rejects the bill it is prac- 
tically a final decision, as the house will not readily overturn a 
conmiittce's findings. If the committee's report is favorable the 
bill is read a third time and sent to the other house, where it 
must run the same gauntlet. Bills sometimes fail of passage in the 
second house. After passing both houses the assent of the crown 
makes the bill an act. 

All this, it can be readily seen, involves great expense, as the 
parliamentary fees are heavy, besides the engineering and legal 
expense incurred. 

2. It may proceed by provisional order, a cheaper method, but 
seldoin resorted to for large schemes. In this case the promoters 
apply to the Board of Trade for an order to construct the lines. 
The Board holds an inquiry, hears all parlies, and if it thinks proper 
grants an order, which is provisional until confirmed by Parlia- 
ment. This order is similar in form to a private bill. The Board 
groups a number of these orders and then introduces a bill to 
confirm them. 

3. It may apply for a Light Railway order. The Light Railways 
Act provides for three commissioners to whom application must 
be made for the construction of proposed light railways. The 
proposal is accompanied with plans and estimates and after notices 
are given to the parties affected the commissioners hold an in- 
quiry and if, after hearing the evidence, they approve of the scheme. 
an order is issued and sent to the Board of Trade for confirmation 
Objectors may be again heard before the Board, which cither 
confirms or rejects the order. When confirmed by the Board the 
order has the effect of an act of Parliament. 

One main ground of rejection is that the proposed line will com- 
pete with an existing steam railway. It is especially provided in 
the Light Railways Act that if a proposed light railway will ma- 
terially affect an existing railroad the Board shall not confirm the 
order, but refer the promoters to Parliament. Such 3 case is hard 
upon the promoters, as they must then incur all the expense of 
promoting a private bill. 

It is now clearly determined that \vhen proposed tramway lines 
lie in the jurisdiction of more than one local authority they may 
be sanctioned as light railways, but if all in one jurisdiction the 
promoters must proceed by private bill. 

A number of light railways are now under construction under 
orders which provide for longer tenures than would be the case 
under the Tramways Act and with a provision that if the local 
authorities buy the lines, the price shall not be the "old iron" 
value, but the value as a going concern. 

In any case a company can scearcely hope to get a bill or order 
which is strongly opposed by the local authorities. 


It was last month announced that Pullinan's Palace Car Co. had 
decided to abandon its street car shops. It is understood that this 
department has not been profitable during the last five years, and 
the company considered that the space and equipment could be 
used to best advantage by increasing the capacity of the other 
departments, which are now overtaxed. A new building. 140 x 192 
ft., is in course of erection, and it, with the old street car shops, 
will be used exclusively for the repair of railroad coaches. 

The Report of the Board of Directors of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers for the year 1899 shows a substantial growth in 
the society's membership, and a very satisfactory condition in its 
financial affairs. The net increase in membership during the year 
was 103. The total number of applications received was 259. 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 


The Boston Transit Commission on January 25th made its fifth 
annual report, covering the year ending Aug. 15, 1899, and from 
it we take some interesting data. Up to that date the net 
cost of the subway was $4,141,900, and the total ct)st was estimated 
at not to exceed $4,200,000. The net cost lias since been reduced 
$616,000 by a credit given by the city for certain property taken 
by the Commission and released to the city, it not having been 
needed in the construction of the subway. 

In 1897 the utmost limit of capacity of tlie Tremont St. surface 
iracks was 200 cars each way per hour, and the rate of progress 
was often not more than two miles per hour. In October, 1898, 
the number of cars passing in the subway at the hours of greatest 
traffic was 282 per hour, the speed, including stops, being from 
seven to eight miles per hour. 

At the date of this report the subway as a whole has been in 
use a little over 11 months. Statistics for the full year cannot, there- 
fore, be given. It is, however, believed to be .a safe estimate that 
the use of the subway for the first 11 months has been at the rate 
of at least 50.000.000 passengers per year. The Boston Elevated 
and the Lynn & Boston together operate in Boston and vicinity 
over 400 miles of track, reckoned as single track, and in the year 
1897 to 1898 carried in round numbers 200,000,000 passengers. The 
trackage in the subway is one-eightieth of this total trackage (5 
miles out of 400), and yet it appears as above that of the total num- 
ber of passengers carried on all the 400 miles of track of these two 
great roads, about one out of four passes through some portion 
of the subway. 

The traffic at the Park St. Station was expected to be, and is, 
greater than that at any other station within the subway. The 
number of people who pass up and down the stairways to this sta- 
tion is about twice as great as that using the ScoUay Sq. Station, 
which is the next largest in point of traffic. The Park St. Station, 
moreover, is used as the general transfer station for the subway. 
This transfer traffic does not use the stairways, but it increases the 
use of the platforms by about 42 per cent. From statistics fur- 
nished by the elevated railway company, it appears that during the 
first II months of the operation of the subway as a whole the pas- 
senger traffic on the two island at this station, which 
platforms have together an area of IS. 197 sq. ft., a little over 
one-third of an acre, has been at the rate of 27,400,000 per year. In 
amount of passenger traffic the Park St. Station ranks among the 
largest in the world. 

St. Louis Union Station 8,000,000 

Grand Central Station, New York 14,000,000 

South Union Station, Boston 21,000,000 

North Union Station, Boston 23.108,384 

Broad St. Station, North London R. R 27,000,000 

Park St. Station, Boston Subway 27,400,000 

Waterloo Station, London 28,659,118 

St. Lazare Station, Western Ry., Paris 43,062,688 

Liverpool St. Station, Great Eastern R. R., Lon- 
don 44,377,000 

At first there was well-grounded complaint as to crowding, 
hustling and confusion on the easterly side of the westerly plat- 
form between 4:30 and 6 p. m. This side of the platform at the 





*:■': HUM 



>ifiiti aiiui iiai Hi^^^' '• -i.t'JI^^HBl 

i «atK uiiiBi 1 1' ■ ffWiM 











^ i«H 

1 j 



time of ma.xinnim traffic was served by about 108 cars per hour. 
They ran on more than 20 different routes, and came to the station 
platform without fixed order. The passengers did not know what 
cars were coming nor where they were to stop. They crowded to 
the edge of the platform in order to get the first view of the in- 
coming car, and those whose car had not arrived blocked the way 
ol those attempting to get on board. The conclusion was reached, 
that the only satisfactory remedy lay in the use of indicators show- 
ing before the arrival of each car to what line it belonged, and the 
point in the platform opposite to which it would stop. Electrically 



Had it been permissible to lay out the station without limitations 
as to its size and shape, it could have been so planned as to ac- 
commodate the traffic more conveniently; but in spite of the enor- 
mous amount of traffic and the limited space available for handling 
it, the business is now being conducted without serious crowding 
or discomfort. The limit of capacity has not been reached. There 
has never been any complaint of crowding on the easterly plat- 
form, nor on the westerly side of the westerly platform. 

Other great stations with the total number of passengers per 
annum are: 

illuminated indicators were, at the request of the commission, in- 
stalled by the Elevated Railway Co., and have been operated during 
the hours of largest outgoing trafiic, namely, from 3 to 6 o'clock 
in the afternoon. 

When they are in operation, a passenger can wait in the central 
part of the platform till his car is announced, and he then has 
half a minute to walk to the berth. As shown in the illustration, 
the indicators have the names of the routes on which the cars run 
arranged in parallel columns. At one side of the name of each route 
is a set of five pigeon holes, each with an incandescent lamp, which, 

I'"nii. IS, ri)i«i. 




wlicn liglilccl, ilisplays a fiKuri' fnnii i to 5, inrlii-.iliii^; llic l)crlli al 
wliicli llic car will arrive. 

Counts of traffic taken in 'frenicmt St. in I)eccnil)cr, li^M, ami 
in Deccm])cr, 1898, the l.itlir date being three months after llic 
surface tracks had been removed showed tliat the vehicle traffic, 
exclusive of cars, had incrca.scd 29.4 per cent, the number of per- 
sons in vehielos, exclusive of cars, had increased 36.2 per cent, the 
number of peileslrians had increased ia.6 per cent, and the total 
of persons in vehicles and on foot had increased 12.2 per cent. 

Analyses of the air in various parts of the subway show from 
7.8 to 9.5 parts (if carbonic acid k'is in 10.000 volumes. On the 


street in the central part of the city at about the same time of the 
year the proportion of carbon dioxide was from 4.5 to 5.9 parts in 
10,000; while in various public halls and theaters it was found to 
be from 10 to 49 parts in 10,000. 

During the year the engineering department has been engaged 
in making borings and preparing plans and drawings for the tun- 
nel under Boston Harbor, which is to connect East Boston and the 

The act providing for the Boston Subway required the Transit 
Commission to build a new bridge over the Charles River and in 
1897 the Boston Elevated Ry. was authorized to construct its tracks 
over this bridge. The permit from the secretary of war authorizing 
the new bridge required the removal of the old Charles River 
bridge, which work has been contracted for. 

Work on the Charlestown bridge was begun in .\ugust, 1896, 
and was under way for a little more than three years. The draw- 
span was first moved by band July 6. 1899; on .\ug. 8, 1899, it was 
operated by electric motors. 

The bridge with its approaches has a total length of 1,920 ft., 1,090 
ft. being over water. It is of steel on stone piers. The width is 

llic grades tor the approaches of tlii.s bridge do not exceed 3 
per cent. 

The Boston Transit Commission consists o( George G. Crocker, 
chairman; Cliarles S. IJallon, Thomas J. Gargan, George F. Swain, 
Horace G. Allen. R. I.cighton Hell is secretary, and Howard A. 
Carson, chief CTigincer. William Jackson is chief engineer (or the 
Charlestown Bridge. 


I-'rom a [aiKir t»y K. K. KiisspII Tr.itman, awHociali^ wlilor *»( Knt(inc<:riii|f Ncwb, 
read before the lnini>iN Society of Eiiifincertt and Survcyom. 

Where cheap railways for light IrafTic are to be built, and es 
pecially when they are to be operated as independent enterprises, 
it is important that good engineering skill, good business judgment 
and good executive ability should be combined in their promotion. 
Great pains must be taken to adopt the most advantageous location 
for securing traflic and for operation, while in construction the 
lowest possible cost must be aimed at. Care must be exercised, 
however, that the construction is not of such a cheap and flimsy 
character as to impair the operating capacity of the road at mod- 
crate speeds (with due regard to the expected train loads), or to 
impose heavy maintenance expenses. 

About ten years ago, an interesting paper on "The Cheapest 
Railway in the World" was presented to the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, by Mr. Arthur Pew. The conditions were to 
build the very cheapest road that could be built, very little money 
being available. The line was Dublin to Wrightsvillc, Ga., 19 
miles, passing through moderately rough country and crossing two 
rivers and several smaller streams. Convict labor was employed, 
clearing the forest for a width sufficient for the roadbed, then 
doing the grading, and then clearing the right of way and making 
ties froiTi the trees. The contract price for this labor was $1 per 
day per man. The grading was light, averaging about 4.000 cu. yd. 
per mile, and cost about 9 cents per cu. yd. The tics cost about 10 
cents each. The cost for the first 11^ miles, all ready for the rails. 
was$i,oos per mile for clearing, grubbing, grading.ditching.ties and 
trestles. Adding the expenses for right of way and for engineering, 
the average cost was $1,164 per mile. With the 19 miles all built 
and ready for traffic, with track, stations, water tanks, etc., the cost 
was $3,441 per mile. It is to be noted that the company did not 
make the mistake of trying to economize in the engineering, and 
Mr. Pew stated it was generally considered that the care with which 
the location was made was an important clement in assuring the 
construction of the road. Another reason for the low cost was that 
there were no middlemen to divide the profit. The management 
did not pride themselves so much on building a cheap road as on 
doing so much good work at such small expense. 

Mr. Pew informs me that he has since built other roads even more 
cheaply, owing to the following conditions: (i) A smoother coun- 
try: f2l the lower price of rails; and (3) the use of lichter rails. The 

FOR j=^ — 

East Boston Tunnel 

100 ft., which is divided into two footways lo ft. wide, two roadways 
29 ft. wide, and a central space for street car tracks 22 ft. wide. 
The central space may be used by teams except so far as the posts 
of the elevated railway structure act as a barrier. The fi.xed spans 
are 85 ft. each, and the draw span 240 ft. The draw has a clear 
height of 23 ft. above mean high water; it rests on a central pier. 
The circular track on which the span turns is S4 f'- in diameter. 
The weight of the draw span is 1,200 tons. The A. & P. Roberts 
Co. furnish the steel for eight of the fixed spans, and the Pennsyl- 
vania Steel Co. that for the other two fixed spans and for the draw. 

very cheapest road that has come under his observation (and which 
was built under his supervision), cost about $2,300 per mile, all 
ready for the rolling stock. 

Railways of this character have been built in the South Atlantic 
states, in broken and undulating country, at a cost of $2,500 to 
$3,000 per inile, the cheaper ones being mainly for hauling lumber. 
The maximum grades are from 2 to 2.6 per cent in the direction of 
the heaviest traffic, and 2.75 to 3.25 per cent in the opposite direc- 
tion, while the curves are from 6 to 10 degrees. Earthwork is kept 
as light as possible, and rock cuts are avoided when practicable by 



[Vol. X, No. 

shifting llie location. The width at sub-grade is usually 12 ft. in 
cuts and 10 ft. on banks. The grading is done by small local con- 
tractors or by men employed by the railway company and directed 
by a good foreman. State convicts are also employed. The con- 
tractors usually bid on the work at about 6 to 9 cents per cu. yd. 
for aggregate excavation and filling, without taking haul, waste or 
barrow into account. The grading on the lighter lines costs about 
$100 to $200. On a heavier line, with elevations of 200 ft. in Ij4 
miles, and 300 ft. in 3 miles, with some extensive cuts and fills, and 
some rock work, the cost was $650 per mile for grading, with a 
total of $goo per mile for grading, pipe drainage, trestles, etc. 
Wooden box culverts are used in light fills, and pipe culverts in 
larger fills, while for creeks and small streams the grade is kept 
as low as possible and low trestles are put in. For spans of 30 to 45 
ft., the abutments consist of double trestle bents on cribs, these 
cribs having sheet piling inside and outside. 

The- engineers for such railways are usually employed by the week 
or month to locate the line, establish grades;, furnish plans for 
trestles, etc. They sometimes set the center stakes only, but on 
heavy work or on work done by contract they usually stake out the 
work in the ordinary way. 

For lines of this character the ordinary standard gage should be 
adopted, although there are some cases where narrow-gage lines 
have been used with fair success, though they involve break of bulk 
for all freight. As a rule, little is to be gained by the adoption of a 
narrow gage, but if it is adopted, then the gage should be really 
narrow, say 24 in., and in no case exceeding 36 in. In Maine there 
arc seven lines of 24-in. gage, aggregating 150 miles in length, the 
longest being 44 miles and the shortest 4 miles in length. 

This paper would not be complete without some reference to the 
electric railways for country districts, although these are built 
mainly for passenger traflRc, and accommodate freight traffic as a 
side issue. The Philadelphia & Westchester Electric Ry. is 20 miles 
long, and passes from the city's suburbs through a rich farming 
country. The grades are 4 to 6 per cent, some of them 3,500 ft. long. 
The track consists of 58-lb. T-rails on ties 7 ft. long, 5x7 in., 
spaced 2 ft. c. to c. For carrying milk and farm produce, there are 
double-truck cars 36 ft. long in the body and 46 ft. over the vesti- 
liuled platforms. This road cost about $23,000 per mile, exclusive of 
buildings and power plant. 

The Dayton & Western Traction Co., extending 25 miles from 
Dayton, O., to Eaton, passes through a number of small villages 
and towns in a farming district, in which carriages and wagons 
were the only means of transportation until this line was built. The 
track is laid at the side of the National Turnpike Road, and in 22 
miles there is but one curve. The maximum grade is 4 per cent, 
and there are also grades of 3.85 per cent for 2,600 ft., and 3.5 per 
cent for 1,700 ft. on a long grade six miles in length. There are 19 
steel bridges of 10 to 154 ft. span; all built alongside the county 
highway bridges on independent abutments. One is a through truss 
bridge, all the others are deck plate girder bridges. The track is 
laid with 70-lb. T-rails, with girder rails in the streets of Dayton 
and Eaton, all rails being 60 ft. long. The ties are 7 ft. 6 in. long, 
5 X 7 in. section, about 80 per cent being white oak and 20 per cent 
chestnut. The gravel ballast is 6 in. deep under the ties. The pass- 
ing sidings are 200 ft. long, and there are two railway grade cross- 
ings, both fitted with derailing devices. The power plant comprises 
two Buckeye tandem compound engines of 250 h. p. each coupled 
directly to a Siemens & Halske dynamo of 250 kw. There are also 
two Babcock & Wilcox water tube boilers of 250 h. p. Double 
truck cars are used, and the traffic includes passengers, packages, 
light freight and general freight. 

These electric railways are- usually built wholly or mainly along 
existing roads, and the earthworks are therefore very light. Wood- 
en trestles, occasional steel or stone bridges (when highway bridges 
are of insufficient strength), subways under steam railways, and the 
necessary power houses, are the principal structures. These electric 
railways, however, represent a considerably higher cost than the 
cheap style of railways above noted, for while they have usually 
but little earthwork, yet the poles and wires represent a consider- 
able expense, and a power plant is a necessity and its first cost is 
large. Such a plant, too. is often worked uneconomically under the 
conditions of service, although the economy may be greater in cases 
where the plant can be utilized for lighting and for general power 
purposes, as well as for railway service. A low estimate for a line 
of this character is $12,000 per mile. The cost of the Dayton & 

Western Electric Ry., already mentioned, was about $16,000 per 
mile, all complete. This includes the grading, track, overhead 
work, power plant, buildings, etc., in fact for the road complete 
and ready for traflfic, but exclusive of rolling stock. 

For purposes of comparison, it may be noted that a double track 
electric line substantially built for fast traffic and having its own 
right of way, masonry culverts, and a third of a mile of trestle, cost 
about $31,500 per mile. 

Where conditions are such il is essential to reach the very 
lowest point of first cost, the steam railway has a more favorable 
show-ing, and this is especially the case where the line is built 
across country. There is, however, a third and intermediate char- 
acter of railway that may be adopted to advantage where the exist- 
ing highway affords an ea.'iy route with a small amount of grading, 
bridging and trestling. In this case the line could be built practi- 
cally the same as the light electric railways, but without poles, 
wires, or power plant. The power would be furnished by gasoline, 
oil or other engines, with suitable gearing and connections, 
mounted in a car and driving one of the trucks or axles. In such a 
line, probably the very lowest figure for construction could be 
reached, while the cost of rolling stock and its operation would be 
materially less than for ordinary steam locomotives and cars. 

.Appended to this paper is a general estimate of cost per mile for 
a light country electric railway five miles in length, with a limited 
amount of traffic: 

80 tons of so-lb. rails, at $35 $2,800 

.360 angle bar joints, at 85 cents 306 

2,640 ties, at 35 cents 924 

30 kegs of spikes, at $5.10 153 

360 rail joint bonds 144 

Miscellaneous material 150 

(trading : . . . . 300 

Tracklaying. surfacing and bonding 1,320 

Teaming and incidental expenses and labor 300 

45 cedar poles, at $2.40 108 

45 pole arms, at $2.00 90 

Overhead wire and material 445 

Labor 200 

Special work 300 

Total cost of construction per mile $7,540 

Power plant, at $10,000 2,000 

Power station and car house, at $5.000 1,000 

Total cost per mile $10,540 

* < » 


In a paper on the advantages of automobiles, read before the 
English Automobile Club, Mr. R. E. Crompton, a prominent elec- 
trical engineer of unquestionabU standing in the profession, makes 
the startling statement "that a line of motor omnibuses running 
at an average rate of 10 miles an hour, following each other in the 
same direction at intervals of 100 ft., would be able to transport 
past a given point no less than 14,080 passengers per hour, whereas 
the maximum capacity of an electric tramway is stated by experi- 
enced tramway managers not to exceed 3,000 passengers per hour; 
and the Metropolitan Ry. of London, worked to its maximum 
capacity, cannot carry more than passengers per hour in one 

We cannot tell where the gentleman obtained his figures, but can 
see no very good reason — and the paper does not enlighten us upon 
the subject — why street cars of the same carrying capacity as the 
above mentioned motor omnibuses could not be run at an average 
speed of 10 miles an hour and 100 ft. apart, if the possible traffic in 
any particular locality would warrant such a service, and if in addi- 
tion, as is pointed out in another column of this issue, the tram 
cars could be operated much more cheaply, we cannot conceive 
just where the advantage of the automobile 'busses comes in. 

A conductor on the Toronto (Otit.) Ry. has been granted $1,200 
damages in a suit against the company for injuries received by 
being struck by a wagon as he was standing on the running board 
of an open car while in the discharge of his duties. 

i,s, io™">- 




The acconipuiiyint; illiislralinii sliinvs dir- iif a lot of cars Imill 
by llic J. G. Brill Co. for .shipment to Gciit-va, Switzt-rlaiul; it is 
quite similar to a number built at the same time for the Ucdlands 
Electric Light & Power Co., Kedlands, Cal. The Geneva car is a 
modification of the California type; among the changes may be 
noted the single reversible seat on each plallorm and the omission 
of the bulkhead. The car is 1$ ft. 5'A in. long in the body, .^S ft. 
7'/j in. long over the dashes, a trifle over 5 ft. wide at the sills. The 
truck is the Hrill No. 21 E, with a wheel base of 6 ft., and .30-iii. 
wheels; the gage is I m. (39.37 in.). Tliere .ire two motors, and 
ibe weight complete is 8,450 lb. 

The seats inside arc longitudinal, of spring cane, and the plat- 
form seats cherry and maple slats. The inside finish is of white ash 
willi birch veneer headlinings; the blinds are cherry and maple 
.slats. The platforms of ihcsc cars are protected at the sides by 
curtains in the usual way! In front of the seat, however, a curtain 
of llie old f.isbiiined type not mounted on a roller is fitted to come 

CALirORNl.\ 1 1 11. i-AK l''lJK SWITZERLAND. 

down to the dasher. This leaves the whole front of the car open 
so that in bad weather the forward seat will be practically unused. 
These changes seem to be ill-advised. 

The Redlands car is 13 ft. 6 in. long in the body and 28 ft. 7 in. 
over the dashers. Though considerably shorter than the Geneva 
cars, this car having bulkheads and two seats on each platfonn 
accommodates 10 more persons on the platform seats, while the 
interior seating capacity is only two less. The wheel base of this 
car is 7 ft. 6 in. The introduction of the bulkhead with sash drop- 
ping between the backs of the platfonn seats enables one seat on 
each platform to be completely enclosed in case of stormy weather, 
and from an American standpoint, therefore, this car is much better 
suited for an all round winter and summer service than the other. 

There is little reason to doubt that when the California type 
once gains a foothold in Europe it will become quite as popular 
there as it has on the Pacific Coast in the United States. The 
monetary advantages of having all the passengers on the lower 
deck will no doubt influence the railway companies more strongly 
than the prejudices of the people. That they must have open cars 
on the other side is a well recognized fact, and to dispose of the 
open seats on the top of the car is too costly a proceeding for the 
tramway companies to tolerate. 


At the last annual meeting of the shareholders of the Ottawa 
(Out.) Electric Railway Co., Pres. T. Ahearn submitted the annual 
report of the company for the year ending Dec. 31, 1899. In 
transmitting his statement, he called attention to the good state 
of repair in which everything connected with the system has been 
kept, and also made the following statement: "In order to provide 
against the disablement which an accident to the power house would 
probably cause, a duplicate power plant, consisting of a set of hori- 
zontal water wheels of 1,800 h. p. capacity, directly connected to a 
generator of a similar capacity, is now being installed and will be 
ready for operation within a few weeks. The new plant will be 
housed in fire-proof buildings. 

"In September last a contract was made for the building of 
a 4;i-mile extension to the company's lines from Holland Ave., 

in Ilintonburgli, to Brilannia-on-lhc-Bay, the only safe bcacli for 
bathing in the neighborhood of Ottawa. This line is double 
tracked, with 72 lb. rail. A Sunday car service was inaugurated on 
the entire system on July 23d last." 
The financial report (or the year is as follows: 

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TO KKCKirra 1 



A demand has long been felt for a suitable pole bracket com- 
bining strength and perfect flexibility, as the old type of a rigid 
pole bracket has in many cases proved unsuitable on account of the 
constant pounding effect of the trolley wheel in passing under the 
hanger. To meet this demand for a flexible support for the trolley 
wire the Richmond flexible pole brackets have been placed on the 
market by the Ohio Brass Co., of Mansfield, O. 

These brackets are furnished in styles designated respectively as 
"A" and "B"; style A is supported from beneath with a brace arm 
(see Fig. i), while style "B" is suspended from above by means of 
an iron rod support (see Eig. 2). Both styles are furnished for use 


with iron and wood poles and also arranged for single and double 
suspension. These brackets are made exclusively of malleable iron 
castings of the best quality and either standard weight of wrought 
iron, gas and water pipe or, in some cases, of structural steel tubing. 
The design is such as to secure the utmost strength in all parts, at 
the same time preserving a symmetrical form, so that when the 
brackets are set up they present a very neat appearance. 

These brackets are proving popular, and are now in use on many 
of the most important systems throughout the country; among 
these may be mentioned the Michigan Traction Co., Kalamazoo. 
Mich.; the Chicago, Harvard & Geneva Lake Ry., Chicago, III.; 
the Saratoga Traction Co., Saratoga Springs. N. Y. ; the Syracuse 
(N. Y.), Lakeside & Baldwinsville Railway Co.; the Compania de 
Ferrocarriles del Distrito Federal de Mexico, City of Mexico. 

» ■ » 

The Oaklan I (Cal.) Transit Co. has been petitioned by its em- 
ployes to raise wages from 20 cents to 2i cents an hour. 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 

P- WW WVWWV WW WW W W W W WW v\ w w wv« ■> 



A Plea for Equity. 


Editor "Review": The following was suggested by reading in 
the "Street Railway Review" the remarks of Mr. G. T. Rogers, at 
the late convention held in Itliica, N. Y. He referred to the treat- 
ment and success of employes. His words are well worthy of being 
repeated, but it would be superfluous, as expressions so clean and 
talented as those were, must have made an impression on those 
who read or were fortunate enough to have heard them, which 
was so deep, that to refer to them is to call them back. Since 
reading the able address referred to, the writer (a working man) 
has been thinking of men and their relative positions, and in this 
light sends these lines, hoping that a closer and more perfect 
knowledge may be had between the men who give the orders and 
those who execute them, and that this may help to open the way 
for a still greater success. Let me say that in this instance the 
term manhood does not imply either blue overalls or a high collar, 
nor, in fact, any particular uniform, but the term will be used sim- 
ply in its best and highest sense, regardless of position or ap- 
parel. As men, we are not all good, nor all bad, but are so placed 
in this world that we form a certain average. It is concerning this 
average 1 would write. 

There are characteristics in each individual which neither educa- 
tion, financial standing, or position change, and a trouble seems 
to be that one person is not willing to accept from others what 
he practices himself. To illustrate: Does it not seem strange that 
the more greed a man has in his nature the less he wants to see 
it in those around him? If he should occupy a position of authority 
his greed is only measured by his zeal in striving to make those 
under him particularly generous in his service, even to the extent 
of forgetting that his motives are seen about as plainly as his face. 
"Like begets like." The manager or superintendent whose charac- 
ter is selfish, with very few exceptions will have careless, lazy men 
to work under him. If there is not a spirit of justice on the one 
side it will not be shown on the other. To expect any other re- 
sult is folly. It is a case of cause and effect, and is as legitimate 
as one link following another in a chain. On the other hand, 
what is more justly provoking or disgusting than to see a man 
who has received all that could be done for him by an employer, 
remain unfaithful anl lazy, even to the extent of thinking that be- 
cause he may have been favored he has an assumed right to imagine 
that he is indispensable and makes his kind treatment a license to 
trample on forbearance. In either condition this spirit is liable to 
pass the limit and so recoil upon itself. Should we not try to learn 
the lesson that "whatsover a man soweth that shall he also reap." 

It is to be regretted that the sentiment of distrust has taken pos- 
session of rnankind and made every man suspicious of his fellow. 
This tendency is degrading. There is probably nothing so produc- 
tive of crime and dishonor as to place a man in a position where 
he is continually compelled to realize that he is looked upon as 
dishonest. Should this occur in such a relation as etnployer and 
employe on a street railway system it makes a gap which nothing on 
earth can bridge. 

Employes may receive many tokens of kindness or respect as a 
body or singly, but there remains a condition of feeling that is 
not spoken and could not be expressed in language. It must not 
be mentioned, particularly by the workman, as he learns in a sense 
to feel dependent on his employer to feed the little ones at home. 
So he retires within himself and becomes a sort of man-machine. 
It is impossible to conceive how there can be any feeling of inter- 
est in favor of the person or company from whom he draws a 
salary. The service becomes a compulsion and a study how the 
least can be done to hold a position and draw the pay. There is 
also a dangerous sentiment which is falsely called socialism; on the 
contrary it is anarchism and is productive of very much harm, not 
only to workingmen themselves, but to the community where they 
live. One particular tendency of this sentiment is to assume that 
all accumulated wealth is a robbery of workingmen and a crime; 
this is wrong. And a spirit ol hate and envy is also engendered 
by this theory. 

We will admit that there arc crimes committed in the name 

ui buMiiesb at which a highway man might blush with shame. But 
to indiscriminately charge that all success in business is robbery is 
as lamentable as it is false. It is a fact not to be questioned that 
many of the wealthy men are among the best in the Union. An 
exhibition of ability and ambition is not measured simply by abil- 
ty to make money. On the contrary, where the mental caliber 
is large and natural impulses are high, success will surely crown 
the effort. There is a vast difference between simply scheming to 
get money, and being filled with a noble impulse to be, and make 
the world, better. Less capable men do themselves a great injus- 
tice by attempting to lower the standard of the best. The watch- 
word of every American should be "Upward," not "Downward." 

We cannot afford to retrograde in any degree from our high 
position among the nations. Fellow workmen, let us be true, 
rather than allow jealousy to control our thoughts. It is quite 
natural that persons holding inferior places should to some extent 
look to superiors for a pattern. Custom has made it almost a 
law and officials should not so far forget themselves in pushing 
affairs entrusted to them that equity is in any case forgotten or 
placed on file. But, remember they are dealing with men exactly 
like themselves, who, although they may not remind them, are 
taking note and are very quick to read between lines and see the 
motives that govern all notices which may be posted. And where 
injustice is intended, a reward will surely be meted out in some 
way. It is quite possible that a president or general manager may 
issue an order in the best of faith that all under him shall have 
good wages and just treatment, and yet have his orders basely mis- 
represented by some person in office under him who is incom- 
petent and who seeks to shield himself by treachery and unjust 
actions, thereby defeating plans and bringing discord where peace 
and full success would have reigned. 

"Then let us pray that come it may, 

As come is will for a' that. 
That sense and worth o'er all the earth. 

May bear the gree and a' that 
For a' that and a' that, 

It's coming yet for a' that 
That man to man the warld o'er 

Shall brothers be for a' that." 

o » > 


Concerning the advisability of furnishing places along street rail- 
way lines where ice skating can be enjoyed during suitable weather, 
and the increased traffic that comes from the skaters, J. P. E. Clark, 
general manager of the Binghamton (N. Y.) Railroad Co., writes 
as follows: 

"We have had no experience in maintaining an ice skating rink 
and have never considered the question seriously for the reason 
that we have two rivers that intersect our city, besides numerous 
small ponds and lakes in close proximity to the town, affording 
unlimited resources to those desiring to indulge in the winter pas- 
time. However, we carry a great many passengers to and from the 
various bodies of water where the sport is indulged in, as is evinced 
by the large number of people who carry skates while riding upon 
our cars. I will state unreservedly that if the natural facilities for 
skating were not so numerous in this vicinity we should provide 
skating facilities, as I am positive it would prove an excellent 
stimulant for street railway traffic." 

A company is New England serving a large lake at the end of 
one of its branches writes, under date of January 23d: 

"Our first skating was on December 30th, and since that date 
we have had skating on 17 days, and the receipts have been much 
greater than the expenditures. We have to pay the ice company 
$75 for the season for the privilege of using the ice for skating. We 
maintain some arc lights on the lake, and our other expenses are 
for clearing the lake of snow, which this season has been very small, 
owing to our not having over 2 in. during the winter. If we have 
much snow the expense of removing it from the lake would very 
rapidly decrease the profits. We make no charge for entrance on 
the ice." 

The Duluth (Minn.) Street Railway Co. has for several seasons 
rented an abandoned car house to outside parties, who utilize it 
as a public ice rink. The company carries banners advertising the 
place, free of cost, on its cars. 

Fkii. 15, igoo.] 




I'ruiii linu: to liiiu' diiriiij; ihe last year wc liavc published notes 
coiiccriiiiiK the consolidation of the street railways of St. Louis, 
the final result of which was to reduce the number of opcratinn 
companies to three, or, more properly, two, as the I'"ourtli Street & 
Arsenal K. R. is not now operating. 

The most extensive of these is the St. Louis Transit Co., which 
began operating the properties of the United Railways Co., under a 
lease, on Scpteiuber ist last; this company oi)erales all the street 
railroads in the city of .St. Louis, with the exception of the St. 
Louis & Suburban Hy. and the h'ourth Street & Arsenal K. R. (not 
in operation). 

When the St. I^ouis Transit Co. took charge of these properties 
the mileage was as follows: 

Electric. Cable-. Total. 

Union Depot 7,S-8- 75-87 

Liiidell 7.S11 -75-11 

Missouri R. R 16, Cu (j.6o 26.21 

People's Ry 1J.50 y.So 

National Ry 62.97 iA-f>-i 77-59 

Southern Klcctric Ry 22.50 22.50 

Jefferson ,^ve^^^e Ry 6.70 6.70 

Total 259.76 3372 293.48 

The Lindcll had also built 12. i miles and the National 2 miles 
not yet in operation, and if to this is added the track now under 
construction by the St. Louis Transit Co., 22 miles, the total track- 
age of the company is 329.58 miles. During the coming season the 
cable roads are to be changed for overhead electric operation, and 
within the next two years the company expects to increase its 

The otVicers and operating staff of the St. Louis Transit Co. are; 
President, Edwards Whitaker; vice-president, Murray Carleton; 
general inanager, Jilson J. Coleinan; superintendents, G. W. Baum- 
hoff, G. W. Hunter, Joe S. Minary, Jas. F. Davidson, John Ma- 
honey; secretary and treasurer, James Adkins; auditor, Frank R. 
Heni-y; purchasing agent, J. Boyle Price; chief engineer, W. Jens; 
master mechanic, F. S. Drake; superintendent of overhead lines. 
John J. Lichter; engineer of power stations, S. G. Hill. 

The lines are divided into five divisions, each under a superin- 
tendent. The divisions are: Lindell, including the lines formerly 
operated by that company; G. W. Baumhoff, superintendent. 
Southern, including the Southern Electric and the southern lines 
of the Union Depot; G. W. Hunter, superintendent. Northern, 
including the northern lines of the Union Depot, the Cass Avenue, 
the Northern Central, the Citizens and the Union; Joe S. Minary, 
superintendent. Central, including the Missouri and the JefTerson 
Avenue; Jas. F. Davidson, superintendent. Eastern, including the 
St. Louis Traction Co., the St. Louis R. R., the Baden & St. Louis 
and the Southwestern; John Mahoney, superintendent. 

"The Suburban" operates the St. Louis & Suburban Electric 
Ry., the St. Louis & Meramec River R. R., and the St. Louis & 
Kirkwood R. R., and is closely allied to, and will operate, when 
completed, the Brentwood, Clayton & St. Louis R. R., which is to 
build this year. 

The officers and staff of the St. Louis & Suburban are: Presi- 
dent, Chas. H. Turner; vice-president, Samuel M. Kennard; general 
manager, Thoinas M. Jenkins; secretary and treasurer, Thomas C. 
Kimber; chief of departments, W. C. Jenkins; auditor, L. C. Ship- 
herd; division superintendents, Jas. A. McCabe, D. R, Redden, 
and Chas. J. Crane; master mechanic, G. J. Smith; engineer of 
maintenance of way, Chas. S. Butts; superintendent of lines. Nathan 
Smith; superintendent of power stations, H. W. Tingley. 

The officers of the St. Louis & Meramec are the same, with the 
exception of the vice-president, J. B. Chase. The St. Louis & 
Kirkwood has the same officers, excepting the president, James 
P. Dawson. Hunt Turner is president of the Brentwood. Clay- 
ton & St. Louis R. R., otherwise the officers are the same. 

The Suburban system comprises a total of 91.68 miles (measured 
as single track), and the territory covered is shown in the ac- 
companying map. The St. Louis & Suburban proper has a loop 
for a down-town terminus and extends beyond the city limits to 
the towns Normandy Heights, Ramona, Carsonville, Kinloch and 
Florissant. The St. Louis & Meramec road connects Meramec 

Highlands and Kirkwood, and from Kirkwood extends to and 
through the city, passing the Fair Grounds (St. Louis race course) 
and terminating at O'Fallon Park. The St. Louis & Kirkwood 
extends from Kirkwood to the city limits of St. Louis. The northern 
portion of the Si. Louis & Meramec River road was built in 1899. 
An addition to the St. Louis & Suburban road (the Union Ave. 
line;, extending from the Forest Park to two large cemeteries in 
the northern part of the city is almost complclcd, Ihc greater por- 
tion of the work having been done last year. The Brentwood, 
Clayton & St. Louis road (13 miles) is to be built during the com- 
ing year, and, as will be seen from the map. will make a valuable 
addition to the property. 

The management is now extending every effort to improve the 
physical condition of the road and its equipment and increase Ihc 
economy of operation. Wc understand that the cost of operating 
for 1899 was about 25 per cent less than for the preceding year, 
and further reductions are expected. 

The track is laiil with Cambria and Johnson rails, weighing 
from 40 to 60 lb. per yd., laid on 6 x 8-in. oak ties, spaced 2 ft. c. 


to c. The trolley wires are No. o and No. 00, and over a considera- 
ble portion of the route are carried on iron poles. 

The rolling stock comprises 24 convertible and 130 closed cars, 
which were made by the St. Louis Car Co.; they are all mounted 
on maximum traction trucks and equipped with G. E. 1200, G. E. 
57, and Westinghouse No. 38 motors. Electric heaters made by the 
Consolidated Car Heating Co. are used. The company operates 
two power stations. One is at DeHodiamont Station, and is a 
brick building 232 x 129 ft.; its equipment comprises five Hamilton- 
Corliss (Hooven, Owens & Rentschlcr Co.) engines aggregating 
6.000 h. p., belt connected to 14. and direct connected to G. E. gen- 
erators, having a total rated capacity of 2.950 kw.. and 18 boilers oi 
250 h. p. each. The second station is at Brentwood: it is 72 x 60 
ft. equipped with three engines (Porter-.-\llen and St. Louis Cor- 
liss), aggregating 1,500 h. p.. three Westinghouse generators of a 
total capacity of 725 kw. and eight 200-h. p. boilers. Current is 
generated at from 565 to 575 volts. 

Car houses are located at DeHodiamont. Benton, and Brent- 
wood, having capacities of 85. 85 and 15 cars, respectively; all are 
brick buildings. The shops are at DeHodiamont. 

« ■ > 

READERS who note errors in our "Directory of Street Rail- 
ways" will confer a favor by sending us corrections. 



[Vol, X, No. 2. 




.As a result of the rcci.iit .strike, the report of the London (Out.) 
Street Railway Co. for the past year, shows, as compared with the 
year previous, a decrease in gross revenues amounting to 5;53,- 
864.19. -MI shareholders were present at the 25th annual meeting of 
the company, held in London, January 24th, on which occasion the 
following report was rendered by Prcs. H. A. Everett: 

Mica, popularly called isinglass, is the name given to a group 
of minerals characterized by highly perfect clearage, so that they 
readily separate into very thin leaves, more or less elastic. The dif- 
ferent grades vary widely in composition and range in color from 
pale brown or yellow to green or black. This material is found 
in various parts of the world, but is mined in largest quantities 
in India, although good deposits are found in the United States 


"Your directors beg to submit statement of the past year's busi- 
ness, showing gross revenue of $59,947.58, as against $113,81175 for 
the previous year. Operating expenses were $66,872.10. as against 
$65,665.23, an increase of 1.8 per cent. It is notable that the reve- 
nue increased during the first quarter of the year (when no strike 
was on) 10.2 per cent." 

In previous issues of the "Review" we have given accounts of 
the strike which began May 22d, and culminated in a serious riot 
on July 8, 1899. The earnings of the company have long since re- 
turned to a normal figure, and show satisfactory increases over the 


earnings of a year ago. The line is now operated with favorable 
prospects, and it has been decided to double track a portion of the 
system. At the meeting in London, January 24th, the old board 
of directors was re-elected. The board chose officers as follows: 
H. A. Everett, president; Mr. Smallman, vice-president; Mr. Carr, 
general manager and secretary-treasurer, and Messrs. Moore, Was- 
son, Spencer and Broderick, directors. 


and in Canada. The mineral is usually discovered in veins com- 
mencing at the surface of the earth and running down diagonally 
between lime rock walls, the vein occasionally spreading out into 
pockets. The mining operations are simple, although the mines 
are often found in remote and mountainous regions, necessitating 
long hauls in wagons. A vein is worked by drilling holes with 
steam drills and blasting away sections at a time, the chunks of 
mica being raised to the surface by derricks and packed in jute bags 
for shipment. North Carolina furnishes a goodly quantity of this' 
material, it being one of the occupations of the mountain farmers 
of that state to "go prospecting" between crops. In fact, in some 
sections of the state mica forms the principal circulating medium 
between the farmers and the storekeepers. When the former re- 
quire supplies they pay for them in mica, which is found in small 
quantities on the hill-side farms, and dry groceries, meat and cloth- 
ing arc quoted at so many pounds of mica. 

For British Section, Paris Exposition. 

One of the largest dealers in this material in the world is the 
W. H. Sills Mica Co., and all the various processes of cutting, 
trimming and molding mica for its many commercial uses, are 
carried out at this establishment, located at 64 Michigan Ave., Chi- 
cago. This business was founded in 1885 by W. H. Sills, who is 
still at the .head of the concern, so that he has been furnishing 

Fnii. IS, 1900.] 



mica to tlic liadi' for 15 years. In 1897, Clarence B. Wisncr be- 
came interested in the company as its secretary and treasurer, hav- 
ing in charge the financial management of the concern. The com- 
pany has a factory at Ottawa, Can., and owns a rich mica mine 
.11 llraccfieUI, Que., views of which are shown herewith. In addi- 
tion to tlic supply received from its own dcjiosit.s, it lias agencies 
in several parts of the world, through which 
large qilaiililies of llu' foreign pro<hKt are 

The first step in preparing the material to 
fill the requirements of the electrical industries 
is the splitting of the chunUs into the ihinest 
sections possible. When the last sub-division 
is made, the pieces are little thicker than tissue 
paper. These are spread over a specially 
treated clolli to a depth of perhaps an eighth 
of an inch and are glued to the cloth and to 
lai'h other by a composition paste. This 
makes a flexible sheet of insulating material, 
and in this form, with the addition of a layer 
of paper, it is used in the winding of arma- 
tures, etc. In making commutator segments 
and rings, alternating layers of mica and clolb 
are placed in a powerful hydraulic press, from 
which they come in the form of compact but 
pliable sheets, capable of being cut and molded 
into the various shapes employed in the con- 
struction of electrical machinery. The pro- 
ducts of the W. H. Sills Mica Co. are sold 
under the trade name of "Micabeston," 

In one of the accompanying views is shown 
a shipment of mica of which the company is 
justly proud, as it is probably the largest sin- 
gle shipment of this material ever made. The 
total weight of this consignment was 400,- 
000 lb., requiring nine freight cars, run- 
ning as a special train to carry it from the company's St. .'Vnthony 
mine, at Gracefield, to Ottawa. 

Two of the illustrations herewith show samples of mica jjropared 
for exhibit .it the Paris Exposition. 


A bill regulating the operating conditions of street railways in 
the District of Columbia was introduced last month in the House 
of He|n-esentatives, and will shortly be brought up for action. 

'I'hc bill provides that the rate of fare for a single ride for a 

1 ^ ^^ggi^^^i^^ 

W.H.IILLS MICA CO. ]i^_ ., 


For Mines and Mining Section, Paris Exposition. 

The Supreme Court of New York has decided that the New 
York, Westchester & Connecticut Traction Co.. has no rights, 
in East Chester and Bronxvillc, and can, therefore, not prevent 
the Union Railway Co. from completing its road from Mount \"cr- 
non to While Plains. 


continuous trip any distance in one direction over any 01 the street 
railway routes in the city of Washington, shall be five cents, and the 
passenger shall also be entitled to a transfer ticket, good for a ride 
over any other line or route operated or controlled by the same 
company, provided that such transfer is 
presented on the next regular car of such 
other route within 15 minutes after the 
passenger has left the first car. It is also 
provided that there shall be kept on sale 
on all street cars in service, between the 
hours of 5:45 a. m. and 8 p. m. of each 
day. tickets to be sold in strips or packages 
of eight tickets for 25 cents, each of which 
tickets shall be accepted the same as a 5- 
cent cash fare, between the hours named, 
and such ticket shall carry the same trans- 
fer privileges as a cash fare. In addition, 
the street railway companies must keep on 
sale on their cars in service between the 
hours of 8 p. m. and 5:45 a. m., tickets to 
be sold in strips or packages of six tickets 
for 25 cents, such tickets to be good only 
during the hours last named and to entitle 
the passenger to a transfer as in the other 

The bill orders that all street cars owned 
and operated in the city of Washington 
shall be properly vestibuled to protect the 
motorman from unreasonable exposure to 
the weather, and a failure on the part of 
any company to so protect the motorman 
shall be punished by a fine of $50 per day 
for each car unfitted with vestibules. All 
lines in the city must run cars in both 
directions after midnight at intervals of 15 minutes until 5:45 
a. m. 

The act is to take eflfect Mar. i, 1900. and the failure of any com- 
pany to comply with the provisions as to rates of fare, will cause 
a forfeiture of its charter and franchises. 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 


On February isl the Chicago Union Traction Co. commenced 
using a new transfer ticket that is something of a departure in its 
line. Prior to the consolidation of the North and West Chicago 
companies each of these systems had been employing a number of 
different forms of transfer tickets and after the merger no change 
was made in this respect. The complicated arrangement of the 
lines and the number of interesting routes, required the giving of 
from 200,000 to 250,000 transfers a day, or about 50 per cent of all 
the passenger* using the cars of the Union Traction Co. The 
systein in force necessitated the keeping of 10 or 12 separate 
plates and required the attention of a large force of clerks to over- 
see the printing, and distribution of each kind to the proper line. 
The checking up after the tickets had been turned in to the receiver 
was also an enormous task, as in each bunch returned by each 
conductor would be several of the different forms, requiring a great 
deal of work to sort and trace each form back to the issuing con- 

The new tickets, one of which is shown herewith reduced in 
size, arc 5 .\ iJ4 'i-, and will greatly simplify the labor of the trans- 
fer department, as well as reducing the work of the conductor. 
Fiitt two plates will be needed for the entire system owned by the 




i 5 

; 1 






1 >f 

• 8 























NOT A STOP-OVER CMECK.-Not Truutenbte. Thi. Trw.fa a^d «ir r*r it>. 

1 ? 








it si 









Chicago Union Traction Co., one for all the West Side lines and 
one tor the North Side lines. The ticket shown is the form for 
the West Side. The North Side ticket is the same in principle, but 
has a different set of transfer points. On each ticket is printed the 
names of all the routes, although transfers are not given from each 
route to all the others. In each car is posted a notice setting 
forth the lines to which transfers will be given from that car, and 
from what routes they will be accepted, and on the ticket itself is 
printed a notice calling the attention of the passenger to these regu- 
lations; this does away with the necessity of printing a long list 
of the possible transfer points on each ticket. The conductor giv- 
ing the transfer stamps his badge number in the blank space in 
the lower right hand corner next to the date, and designates the 
line on which he is running by a double punch at the proper name, 
ant; the line to which the passenger wishes to transfer by a single 
punch mark. The stamping and double punching can be done at 
the barn before he takes his car out. Each conductor is provided 
with a self-inking rubber stamp on the end ol his lead pencil for 
stamping his badge number. 

The time of day is designated in the usual manner by punching 
shaded figures at the left for p. m. time and the light column at 
ri'ght for a. m. The day of the month is printed when the original 
impression is made. Tickets must be used on the first connecting 
car, but are good for an hour after time punched. Transfers are 
not given on transfers except at two or three specially designated 

When the ticket is intended to be good in either direction on 
tiie iniersecting line, no direction is indicated, but when it is to 
be used in one direction only, the conductor punches out one of 
the words. North, South, East or West, as the case requires. 

In one of the columns of names will be noticed the words, "On 
Account Delay," "Car to Car," and "To Extension." These are 
punched with a single punch mark in addition to the other punches 
in special cases only. For instance, if a line is blocked and it is 
desired to transfer passengers to a nearby parallel line, the words 
"On Account Delay" are punched out. If a car cannot finish a 
trip and passengers are to be changed to a following car, a mark 
at "Car to Car" is made. "To Extension" is used when it is neces- 

sary for passengers to walk around some obstruction on the track 
or break in the overhead work. 

Before turning the transfers collected for the day into the office, 
the conductor stamps on the back of each his badge number and 
places a rubber band around the bundle. The number turned in 
must agree with the number entered on his trip sheets. 
- From this explanation, it will be seen what a* saving in the work 
of printing and checking has been effected, as there are but two 
forms, and each ticket bears its own complete record of line from 
which and to which it is given, badge number of issuing and re- 
ceiving conductor, and whether or not it has been issued for some 
special cause. It is thought, also, that the posting of the possible 
transfer points in each car will be a convenience to the public, as 
it will enable a passenger to decide the best way to reach his des- 
tination for a single fare. 


The latest "gigantic electric line," as it is termed by the daily 
press, to make its appearance, runs — on paper — from Tiffin, O., to 
Sandusky, O., and will be over 100 miles in length. After leaving 
Tiffin the road will pass through Old Fort, Fremont, Port Clinton 
and Toledo, thence along the shore of Lake Erie to Sandusky, by 
way of Lakeside and Marblehead. The Tiffin. Toledo & Sandusky 
Electric Railway Co. has been organized with a capital stock of 
$3,000,000, to build the road, and the capitalists interested are said 
to include S. B. Hege, of the Baltimore & Ohio R. R., Washing- 
ton, D. C. ; R. W. Brown and Richard Young, of Washington, 
D. C. ; S. B. Calef, of Middletown, Conn.; H. S. Frye. of Windsor, 
Conn., and F. A. Anderson, of Alexandria, Va. 


The following rules for the guidance of conductors were issued 
last month by Supt. John N. Akarman, of the Worcester (Mass.) 
Consolidated Street Railway Co.: 

"On and after this date conductors will be required to strictly 
observe the following rules: Remain on the rear platform when 
not collecting fares. Keep the car doors shut. Do not turn the 
signs until the car reaches the end of the route. Do not push in 
the front fender or pull out the rear fender until the car reaches 
the end of the route. See that every passenger gets a seat when- 
ever there is any vacant space by asking those seated to make room. 
Do not talk to passengefs, except to answer questions, then be 
polite, and make no unnecessary conversation. Keep a sharp look- 
out for passengers; see everybody who inay wish to ride. Do not 
start your car from the inside; step to the platform, so you 
can sec that everything is safe, before you give the bell to start. 
Collect your fare as soon as the passenger has had time to enter 
the car and take a seat. Ring up each fare separately, as collecting 
fares from several passengers and then ringing them all in at once 
IS not allowed. Be on the rear platform when leaving the ends of 
the route, so you can see anyone who may wish to ride. 

"Any conductor reported for failure to comply with the above 
will be suspended for two days for the first offense and discharged 
for continued neglect of duty." 


E. A. Ferrin, president of the Reynoldsville (Pa.) 'Traction Co., 
writes us that surveys for the line have been completed and maps, 
profiles, plans and specifications are being prepared by F. H. 
Loomis, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for Vandegrift & Co., of Philadelphia. 
The company will be ready to receive bids for material at an 
early date. 


A bill has been introduced in the New York Legislature requir- 
ing street railway companies operating in New York City to em- 
ploy three persons, a gripman, or motorman, a fare collector and a 
conductor, on all cars exceeding 30 ft. in length, during rush 
hours. The duty of the conductor is to stay on the rear platform 
to stop and start the car, and he is prohibited from collecting fares 
or going inside the car. 

Imcm. is, 1900.] 




'I'lu' lirsl ]ilaiil in lliis country to make conduits for electric wires 
inim Icna cotta, or baked clay, was the eslablislinient owned by 
the Potomac Terra Cotta Co., and located at Terra Cotta, a sta- 
tion on the Baltimore & Ohio R. R., about four miles from Wash- 
ington, D. C. The company was organized about 25 years ago, 
and for a long lime was engaged exclusively in the making of sewer 
pipe, of which it was and still is one of the largest producers. About 
12 years ago the company turned its attention to developing 
earthen or clay electric conductor conduits, aiul finding the de- 
posits of clay upon which its plant was built was adapted to this 


class of work, it commenced at once to turn out terra cotta ducts 
in large quantities. Its products are called the "Mason," after Mr. 
George Mason, the general manager, and differ materially from 
other conduits both in the nature of clay from which they are made 
and in their shape. The principal feature, and one on which letters 
patent were obtained, is the arrangement of small openings and iron 
dowels fitting into them, securing perfect registration and align- 
ment of the ducts in the process of laying, and preventing joints 
from becoming displaced by ramming concrete or in other ways. 
The dowel pins are about Vi in. in diameter, and are 
made with a barb on one side, which prevents them from 
settling too far into the openings. When the conduits come 
from the kiln they are glazed inside as well as out, and offer little 
resistance to the wires when the latter are drawn into place, and 
hence there is no danger of damaging the cable sheath. 

One claim of superiority is that of absolute vitrifaction, due to 
the use of a clay that vitrifies at a high temperature, rendering it 


non-absorbent, while it is practically indestructible by the elements 
when properly baked. The ducts are made in standard lengths 
of 30 in., which size has been found the most suitable to insure 
perfect vitrifaction and glazing, is most easily handled, least liable 
to breakage in handling, and consequently the most economical. 
One, two and four-duct sections are the usual p.itterns made. 

The processes of mining and preparing the material from which 
these products are formed, are interesting, and while not com- 

plicated, require great care and skill at every stage to obtain satis- 
factory results. 

The clay deposits, the supply at the disposal of the company be- 
ing seemingly inexhaustible, arc found in irregular veins, located 
from a few to several feet below the surface, and usually in a hard 
and dry condition. The earth is broken from the face of the vein 
with picks and wedges and shoveled into carts which take it to a 
hopper at the side of the main building and dump it directly into 
the first grinding mill. In their passage through this, the lumps of 
clay are reduced in size and arc then taken by a belt conveyor to a 
second mill and through crushing rolls, from which the material 
comes as a fine powder. This is carried, again by a belt conveyor, 
to the basement, where it is thoroughly soaked and allowed to 
"temper" for from five to seven days. After this period the clay is 
again passed through a grinding mill, when it is ready to be molded 
into the various shapes, in a vertical steam press, which forces the 
material into suitable dies. When the molds have dried sufRciently 
in a drying room heated by steam, the sections are ready to be 
burned or bakc<l in kilns, which are circular in shape and from 22 
ft. to 30 ft. in diameter. The fire is started gradually and increased 
until the contents of the kiln are brought to a white heat, and is 
kept at this point from five to seven days, when the fire is re- 
moved, the kiln sealed up and the contents allowed to cool, which 
process takes several days. Just before the firing about a wheel- 
barrow load of salt is thrown into each kiln, and the fumes from 
this, uniting with the heated clay, causes the glazed surface which 
is characteristic of these conduits. 


There are a number of interurban electric lines whose promoters 
wish to secure an entry into the city of Columbus, O., with termini 
in the central part of the city where the streets are already occupied 
by the tracks of the Columbus Street Railway Co. Robert E. Shel- 
don, president of Uie Columbus Street Ry., recently took advantage 
of a mass meeting of citizens to make an address outlining the 
policy of his company. He stated that his company would enter 
into agreements with interurban roads for handling their cars upon 
terms mutually satisfactory. 

In Dayton the City Ry. has made contracts with three interurban 
lines for track rights; the compensation paid the City Ry. is 3 cents 
for each passenger carried over its lines by the interurban. As 
yet the Dayton & Western Traction Co. is the only one actually 
operating under such an agreement; it runs over two miles of the 
urban company's tracks. Concerning this, D. B. Corwin, president 
of the City Ry., says: 

"We have found the arrangement entirely satisfactory to the city 
company, as we receive from six to seven hundred dollars per 
month from the D. & W. Traction Co. for the use of our tracks 
and power, and this is almost all new business, as we find that 
very few, if any, local passengers use the interurban company's cars. 
The Traction company has placed in its cars registers on which are 
registered all passengers carried over any part of our lines and 
this register is solely used for registering passengers carried on our 
lines, and is open to the inspection of our employes at all times. 
and the plan has proved entirely satisfactory. We furnish simply 
power and tracks. The employes operating the cars are the em- 
ployes of the D. & W. Traction Co." 


On January J2<i, the power house, shops, barns and offices of the 
Union Traction Co., at Muncie. Ind.. were totally destroyed by 
fire, with their contents, including engines, dynamos and boilers 
and 16 cars. The loss is partially covered by insurance. The serv- 
ice was temporarily resumed with horse cars until other arrange- 
ments can be made. It is charged that the fire was of incendiary 
origin and this view is rendered more probable by reason of the 
discovery that brick dust had been placed in the bearings of a new 
generator temporarily installed by the street railway company in a 
local power plant. 

« ■ » 

.^ movement is on foot looking to a consolidation of the three 
street railway companies centering at Kutztown, Pa. 



We have just received from Mr. F. Nonnenberg, secretary ot 
the Union Internationale Permancnte de Tramways, the announce- 
ments relative to the International Tramway Congress, which is to 
be held at Paris, -Sept. 10-13, I'joo- Tl'c Minister of Commerce, In- 
dustry, Posts and Telegraphs has placed the organization of the 
congress, under the auspices of the Union Internationale Perma- 
ncnte de Tramways, in the hands of a commission of 17 members 
under the presidency of Mr. Leon Janssen, of Brussels; Mr. J. M. 
Roach, president of the American Street Railway .Association, is a 
member of this commission. Mr. Nonnenberg is secretary gen- 
eral of the commission and Mr. .\lbert Janssen is secretary. 

The members of the congress will be: 

1. The members of the Union Internationale rermanenlc de 

2. Companies and individuals who apply for admission and arc 
accepted by the bureau of the commission. 

Companies who wish to be represented abroad should apply to 
Mr. F. Nonnenberg, 85 Rue Potagere, Brussels, giving name of 
company, name of delegate, title or profession of delegate and the 
complete postoffice address. Individuals making application should 
give name, title or position, and address. K fee of 20 fr. ($4) is 

This will be the nth meeting ot the International Tramway 
Union, the last one having been held at Geneva in 1898. 

The following reports will be presented: 

"Tariflfs of Urban Tramways," by Mr. GerOn, of Cologne. 

"Results of the Adoption of Electric Traction," by Mr. Pirch, of 
Barmen-Elberfeld Tramway. 

•■Relative Advantages of Narrow and of Standard Gages for 
Electric Railways," by Mr. Gunderlocli, of Elberfeld. 

"Design of Central Stations," by Mr. d'Hoop, of Brussels. 

"Systems of Distributing Current," by Mr. Xm Vloten, of Brus- 

"The Falk Cast-Welded Joint," by Mr. Fischer-Dick, of Berlin. 

"Storage Batteries," by Messrs. Broca and Johannet, of Paris. 

"Heating Cars," by Mr. C. de Burlet, of Brussels. 

"E.xploitation of Branch and Feeder Lines," by Mr. Zififer, of 

"Adoption of Standard Ratings for Electric Motors and Genera- 
tors," by Mr. Macloskie, of Tours. 

"Brakes for Tramways Using Mechanical Traction," by Mr. 
.Monmerque, of Paris. 

American street railway men who contemplate attending the 
Exposition would do well to time their visits so as to be present 
during this congress, as we believe that they would receive a warm 
welcome from their European brethren. 


William E. Sleight, of Lansing, Mich., has invented a switch ap- 
paratus for use on street railways which is designed for setting 
switches without stopping the cars. The device is reported to have 
been in use, experimentally, on the Lansing Street Ry., and to have 
given satisfaction. 

The method of operation will be readily understood from the 
accompanying sketch. A rocker bar is mounted on suitable bear- 
ings at a point about 40 ft. from the switch, and so arranged that 
one end will be depressed when it is struck by a movable foot lever 
on the car and actuated by the motorman. An arrangement of bell 
cranks and levers connects the rocker bar with the switch point. 

The accompanying illustration shows one of the latest designs in 
woodworking machinery which has been developed by the Egan 
Co., of 322 to 342 West Front St.^ Cincinnati. This company 
makes everything in the machinery line that is used in the manu- 
facture of wood, and exerts every effort to keep fully abreast of 
the natural evolution that goes on steadily in the mechanical world. 
The Government requested the Egan Co. to exhibit at the Paris 
Exposition, and the company is going to make a display that will 
uphold the prestige of .America for high-grade machinery. 


The No. S planer and matcher shown herewith is designed for 
small mills, and is capable of doing both light and heavy work. 
It planes one side up to 24H in. wide and up to 6 in. thick, and 
matches up to 12 in. wide; being fitted with adjustable pressure 
bars and slotted cylinders, it is particularly adapted for molding, 
casing, base boards, etc. The details have all been worked out to 
insure durability and convenience in operation. 


The eighth annual report of Pres. Wm. Mackenzie, of the To- 
ronto (Ont.) Railway Co., for the year ending Dec. 31, 1899, was 
submitted to the stockholders on January 17th. The results of 




ia EAaHra&i | 

Hjji;S9 6,1. ,7(1098 





$997. »7 J J« 


5»S.8oi »S 





so 3.886*4 




a.! 1^1.6 M 








the operation of the road for the last eight years are shown in the 
accompanying table. 

During the year the rolling stock was increased by 80 cars and 2 
electric sweepers built in the company's shops; 20 open cars are 
now building. Two new car sheds each with capacity for 100 cars 
have been built, and a brass foundry erected and equipped. 

During the year the company paid taxes as follows: Percentage 
on earnings to city, $111,426; pavement charges, $64,000; city taxes 
on poles, rails and wires, $2,641; taxes on real estate, $9,366; pro- 
vincial taxes, $4,748; total, $192,181. This is over 14.4 per cent of 
the gross earnings and over 28.1 per cent of the net earnings. Divi- 
dends of 4 per cent were paid on the capital stock of $6,000,000. 
* « » 

One of the strong arguments in favor of another bridge over the 
East River between New York and Brooklyn, is the fact that on 
foggy mornings, when the ferries are always delayed, the usual 
ferry passengers all rush for the cars on the bridge, sometimes in 
this way demoralizing the service on that structure as well. 

Feii. is, lyoo.] 





Nov. 14, iHi;i). till Kapid Transit Coiniiiissiuiu-rs o( New V'urk 
City advcrliscil for bids 011 the conslriiclion, i-(|iiii)iiiciil and oper- 
ation for a li'rni of 50 years (willi ri^lit to a lease for a f\irthcr 
term of 25 years) of an underKronnd r.jpid transit road in New 
York City over the following route: 

Section I. — From the City Hall ihrounh Center St., Kim St., 
LaFayette I'lace, Fourth Ave. to the Grand Central Station, west in 
42d St. to I'roadway and thence to $(){h St. 

Section II. — North through Broadway Boulevard to 103d St., 
where the route divides, extending on the west side in Broadway 
Boulevard tn 137th St., and on the east side from the 103d St. 
junction In (' Park, under the corner of the park to Lenox 
Ave. and out Lenox Ave. to r35th St. 

Section III. — On the west side from I37tli St. along nth Ave. 
to Ft. George; and on the east side from 135th St. east under the 
Harlem River to Melrose A\q. 

Section IV. — On the west side from Ft. George along the Har- 
lem River to Kingsbridge; and on the east side, out Westchester 
Ave. and Boston Road to Bronx Park. 

January 15th the bids were opened and it was found there were 
only two bidders, .Andrew Ondcrdonk, whose bid for the whole 
was $39,300,000, and John B. McDonald. Mr. McDonald's bid 
was as follows: 

Section I $15,000,000 

Sections I and II 26,000,000 

Sections I, II and III 32,000,000 

Sections I, II. Ill and IV 35,ocx),ooo 

On January i6th the board awarded Mr. McDonald the contract 
subject to his complying with the terms of the contract and de- 
positing $1,000,000 in approved securities, and giving bonds for 
$1,000,000 to secure the construction, operation and payment of 
rentals, and for $5,000,000 to secure the construction and equip- 

The following are interesting statistics concerning the enterprise: 
Length in all sections of the tunnel, as surveyed, 109,570 ft., nearly 
21 miles; total excavation of earth, 1,700,228 cu. yd.; earth to be 
tilled back. 773.093 cu. yd.; rock excavated. 921,128 cu. yd.; rock 

When we went l« press last month the city council of Milwaukee 
had passed the street railway ordinance and while a formal accept- 
ance had not been filed, the company was acting under it; the 
court had under advisement the question of punishing for contempt 
the city oflicials who had ignored its orders. 

January I7tli, Judge Ludwig held that Mayor Rose, the cily clerk 
and the 24 aldermen who voted for the franchise were in contempt, 
but suspended further proceeilings on this rjuestion till after the 
motion to dissolve the injunctions had been decided. 

The following day the Supreme Court issued an alternative writ 
of prohibition, citing Judge Ludwig to show cause why he should 
go further in the contempt proceedings. 

January 19th, the trial of the injunction cases on their merits 
was begun, and on January aglh Judge Ludwig dissolved both the 
.Scliwartzburg and the Paine injunctions. On the same day the 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. filed its acceptance of 
the ordinance. 

A third injunction to prevent the acceptance of the ordinance. 
secured by J. G. Trcntlage in behalf of himself and other abutting 
owners, was still in force, however. The plaintifT wished to dismiss 
this suit but th> court would not hear him for that purpose, and 
another abutting owner, the Linden Land Co., was substituted as 
plaintifT. February 2d, the Supreme Court ordered Judge Ludwig 
to show cause why he should not be restrained from proceeding 
with the Trentlage case. 

Pending the decision of the Supreme Court, the new ordinance 
is now in effect. 

The street railway company was convinced that the opponents 
of the ordinance intended to keep a few injunction suits always 
pending, and to secure a short respite on January 26th got an in- 
junction restraining all citizens, property owners, etc., from suing 
the company. 



tunneled, 3()8,6o6 cu. yd.; steel used in structures, 65,044 net tons; 
cast iron used, 7.901 net tons; concrete, 489,122 cu. yd.; brick, 
18,519 cu. yd.; waterproofing, 775.795 yd.; vault lights, 6,640 sq. 
yd.; local stations, 43; express stations, s; station elevators, 10; 
lineal feet of track, 305.380; lineal feet of track underground. 
245.514; lineal feet of track elevated, 59.766. 

John B. McDonald was born in Cork. Ireland, in 1846. coming 
to this country when 15 years old. He is widely known as a con- 
tractor, having done work for the New Jersey Central, the Cana- 
dian Pacific, the Boston & Hoosic Tunnel, the Delaw-are. Lacka- 
wanna & Western, the West Shore and the Baltimore & Ohio rail- 
roads. For the last named road he built the Belt Line Tunnel. 

The accompanying illustration shows a machine for drilling 
rails which has some improvements over the ordinary drills used 
for this purpose. The frame consists of a bar 
or piece of pipe having at one end a Y-shaped 
casting with two depending lugs, and at the 
other a casting with a single lug; both of these 
pieces are readily adjustable for different gages. 
The drill has two extension cranks, enabling the 
leverage to be adjusted to the work. The two 
cranks are used for heavy work, the gearing be- 
ing arranged as shown in the illustration, and 
giving the ratio of i to I between the crank and 
the drill. For light work the top yoke is re- 
moved and one of th(f cranks placed on the 
vertical shaft; this change makes the gear ratio 
2 to I. and enables such work as drilling holes 
for bond wires on electric roads to be done with 
convenience and dispatch. 

The machine weighs 85 lb. and is designed 
to be amply strong in all parts. It is made by 
the George Burnham Co.. of 21 Herman St.. 
Worcester, Mass. 


We have received from the New Orleans & CarroUton Railroad 
Co. a copy of an advertising folder which is one of the best we have 
seen. The sheet is about 15 in. square;. on one side are the sched- 
ules on which cars are run on all the lines operated by the com- 
pany, and on the other side is the graphical directory. This is 
a map of the city showing the company's lines and the location 
of public buildings and principal points of interest, with an index. 
The sheet folds to 2!'2 x 5 in., vest-pocket size. 

The last trip of the steam dummy formerly used on the Lakeview 
line of the Birmingham (Ala.) Railway & Electric Co., was made 
on February ist. The first trolley car on this line was run the 
same day. 

Suit has been commenced to wind up the aflfairs of the Chester- 
field Transit Co. This was not a railway, as might be supposed 
from the name, but a scheme for transporting ground coal from 
Virginian fields to the seaboard by means of a pipe line. 



IVOL, X, No. 2. 



The National Telcplioiic Co., of London, Eng., in all its under- 
ground work is now using ducts made of cement, experiments in 
Sweden having shown them to be perfectly satisfactory. The com- 
pany has itself engaged in the manufacture of the ducts; it has 
used blocks with as few as 3 and as many as 30 ducts. The sec- 
tions are in general of the type shown in the illustration, which is 
taken from the Electrician. In the trench the sections of conduit 
arc placed with the ends resting on bearers which serve to bring 
thcni to the proper level for the joints. The alinement is kept true 


by means of iron bars i in. square laid in the three grooves, the 
bars being of such length that only one joint comes on any one 
section. The joint is wrapped w-ith a strip of canvas steeped in 
boiling pitch and applied while hot; there are two layers of the 
sacking on the top of the joint. The circumferential groove made 
by the junction of the recessed ends is then filled flush with neat 
cement after cement grout has been run in between the bearer and 
the packing along the lower side of the joint. The longitudinal 
grooves are also filled with neat cement. 

Sections with only three ducts have spigot and socket ends and 
no canvas binding at the joints; iron bars for alinement, but no 
bearing blocks are used. 


The Frank S. De Ronde Co., of 54 John St.. New York City, 
is making a specialty of its "Lythite" cold water paints for the 
use of street railway companies, which are well adapted for coating 
walls of car barns, repair shops, power houses, etc. These coatings 
arc strictly fireproof, come in powder form and simply require 
mi.xing with water, wfien they are ready for use. They come in 
white and colors. The white gives a very brilliant surface and the 
"pole green," for trolley poles, gives a fine, glossy, durable fin- 
ish that retains its color under all climatic conditions and changes 
in temperature. 

This company has a branch store and warehouse at 48 N. Fourth 
St., Philadelphia, where it handles all its own lines, which include 
"Lythite." waterproof lining paper, roofing, varnishes, pipe cover- 
ing, deadening felt, insulating papers, preservative paint, water- 
proof flooring, etc., and also all the products made by the Standard 
Paint Co., its Philadelphia branch acting as general distributing 
agent for P. & B. compounds, armature varnish, tape, ruberoid 
motor cloth, etc., in Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey and Dela- 

* • » 


The strike of the street railway employes at Springfield, III., 
which was begun Nov. 10, 1899, continues. January 19th for the 
fifth time explosives were placed on the tracks and a car damaged. 
This last explosion occurred on one of the main streets of the 
city within one square of the police station. 

President Jarvis oflfered to put the strikers back at work, but 
they hold out for a recognition of the union, which the company 
refuses to grant. 

ilr. James C. Ernst, i>rcsident of the Cincinnati. Newport & Cov- 
ington Railway Co., sends us the following condensed statement 
of the company for December, 1899, and the year 1899. The ratio 
of expenses to earnings for the year was 52.3 per cent, while the 
same ratio for the first six months of 1899, as published in our issue 
of August last, p. 566, was 56.7 per cent. 


FOK THK Yl-: \K. 









Operaliii^r expenses 





Tolls, taxes, damages, etc 

Net prolit 





Ratio of expenses to earningrs: 








The B. F. Sturtevant Co. has made a large addition to its works 
to better accommodate the electrical department of the business, 
which has developed with the use of electricity for driving auxiliary 
apparatus. Just as- in the 70's the demand for its blowers to be 
engine driven led the company to take up the design and manufac- 
ture of special engines for direct attachment to the blowers, the 
use of motors in place of the engines led to the development of the 
electrical department which now covers over 20,000 sq. ft. of the 
shops. Prominent among the company's late products is an elec- 


trie fan of the propeller type having the motor entirely enclosed. 

The accompanying illustration is from a view of one corner ol 
the erecting tioor at the Sturtevant works and shows a variety ol 
motor driven fans. The product of the company includes fans up 
to IS ft. in diameter, a line of electric motors and generators rang- 
ing in size from 1-6 h. p. to 125 h. p., and a line of engines covering 
the same range of capacity. 

March ist, the Collins Park & Bell line, Atlanta, Ga., will in- 
augurate a 15-minute service on its river line, putting on 10 new 

There has been considerable complaint in Minneapolis and St. 
Paul in regard to high steps with which the street cars are equipped, 
the distance from the ground to the first step being 19 inches. A 
change is to be made by the company by lowering the car bodies 
and adding another step to the car. 

Fi:n. 15, 1900.] 




Mr. S. ]'. Haird, Asso. Mem. Am. Soc. C. E., has kindly sent us 
(lie pliologiaphs from which the accompanying engravitiKs were 
made and a description of the metliod of handling long rails which 
was employed by the Portsmonlh (().) Street Railroad d Light Cu,, 
(if which he is superintendent. 

The rails are 7-in., 70-lb., T-section in 60-ft. lengths atiil si.x men 
unloaded 80 of tliem in a day besides putting up and taking down 


llie gin poles, and also loading the rails on wagons. The rails were 
hauled by ordinary short coupled, two horse, lumber wagons, the 
rail being first laid on its side, then raised up at one end by the six 
men and the wagon backed under until it supported from 1-3 to 2-5 
of the weight of the rail; the chain was then passed several times 
around the rail and the rear axle, the team hauling about half the 
rail on the wagon and dragging the remainder. Of the total of 
over 500 handled in this manner there was not a rail injured. In 
unloading from the wagons the driver merely unhooked his chain 
from around the rail and drove the wagon out from under the rail, 
thus requiring no help in unloading. 


The apparatus required comprised two. pair oi tongs, similar to 
ice hooks, two poles 6 in. square by 12 ft. long, two pair of double 
blf)cks large enough to carry Js-in. rope, and five guy lines as shown 
in the illustration. 

.■\nother point in connection with this method of handling long 
rails, which is worth considering is the -reduced liability of injuring 
any of the workinen. In the entire season's work at Portsmouth 
there was not a man injured by this system. 


The Chicago City Railway Co., in order to put a stop to the abuse 
of transfers on its lines, has issued the following: 


When a jjassenger to whom a transfer has been issued, (hsposcs 
of that transfer and remains on the car, the conductor will deny him 
the right of further transportation, unless he pays anotlier cash 
fare, and will STOP his car and eject him from it. 

When newsboys board the cars and sell papers to persons who 
have not yet paid their (are, and with the paper give a transfer, or 
sell or give a transfer without the paper, the conductor shall de- 
cline to accept such transfer in payment of fare. 

Do not allow newsboys on your cars when it is possible to keep 
them off without using violence. 

When it becomes necessary to eject a person from a car, STOP 
THE CAR TO A STANDSTILL, do not put any one off a mov- 
ing car, call the motorman or gripman to your assistance and get 
the offender off without injuring or tearing of clothing. 

The ejectment of a person from a car is a serious matter UN- 
LESS WE ARE RIGHT, consequently the conductor must know 
from his own observation that the person tendering transfer is not 
entitled to passage therefor before he takes action, and when possi- 
ble procure names and addresses of passengers as witnesses. If 
the conductor is in doubt as to the absolute certainty of the at- 
tempted fraud, allow it to pass and neither say nor do anything con- 
cerning it. 

Conductors taking any action whatever under these instructions 
will make immediate and full report of it. 


Feb. 5. 1900. General Manager. 
♦ « » 


The American District Steam Co. of Lockport, N. Y., under- 
takes by contract and guarantees to place in successful operation 
in connection with a central power station, a plant for supplying 
neighboring stores, offices, residences, churches, theaters and pub- 
lic buildings with heat, utilizing exhaust steam by means of an un- 
derground system of mains. In comparing its exhaust steam 
method with hot water circulating systems, the company makes the 
following statement: 

"Several attempts have been made during the past 10 or 12 
years to install successful heat distributing plants, using hot water, 
the most notable of which was that of the Boston (Mass.) Healing 
Co., which, about the year 1887. put down pipes to convey hot 
water for heating over quite a large district in the heart of the 
city of Boston. More than half a million dollars was expended 
in this venture. Its customers were satisfied with the heat, but the 
expense of the service precluded all possibility of profit. 
Another serious and unlocked for difficulty was developed 
as the experiment proceeded. At the end of a year and a half or 
less it was found that the return pipes were in a precarious condi- 
tion, and leaks developed all along the line, and an examination 
showed that these lines were beyond repair, and as a consequence, 
at the end of two years, the company had to abandon its plant. 

"We are not prepared to explain fully this destruction of pipes 
used to return the water to the station, but certain it is that between 
the distilled water and the iron pipes a chemical action takes place 
that is destructive to the metal." 


RE.\DERS who note errors in our "Directory of Street Rail- 
ways" will confer a favor by sending us corrections. 

A particularly bold theft of trolley wire was made one night re- 
cently at Darby, Pa., from the Philadelphia, Morton & Swarthmore 
Street Ry., a new road not yet in operation. About 2.500 ft. of 
the wire was cut down, and to prevent themselves from being seen 
while at work, the thieves broke all the incandescent light globes 
for some distance along the road. 

Three boys were caught last month by the Cincinnati & Miami 
Valley Traction Co. officials, and convicted for stealing copper 
bonds. The boys when captured had $200 worth of bonds in a bag. 

James Price, colored, was arraigned in the police court at Atlantic 
City. N. J., on Februarj' 2d, charged with stealing $100 worth of 
copper wire from one of the trolley lines. 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 


MR. EUGENE CHAMBERL.-\IN has bi'cn made sniKiimcmlem 
of equipment of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. 

MR. C. D. SHEP.VRD, on February I5tli. resigned as supcrin- 
lendenl ol the I'ahner (.Mass.) & Monscn I'^lcctric Ry. 

.\1K. J.A.MES .ATKINSON and his wife have just returned frn 
\i trip ihroHjih Cuba, where tliey had a very pleasant time. 

.\1K. S. T. NOR\ EL, president and general manager uf the 
Superior Rapid Transit Railway Co.. of West Superior. Wis., was 
a "Review" ealler last month. 

MR. A. E. LANG, president of the Toledo Traction Co., has 
been very sueccssiul in securing subscriptions to the Toledo Cen- 
tennial fund. 

MR. L. D. ROSS has returned from his trip abroad and may be 
aildressed the next few weeks, care the Elpaso Club, Colorado 
Springs, Col. 

MR. F. N. MANN, JR., was last month elected vice-president oi 
the United Traction Co.. tif .Mbaiiy. N. ^' . in place of Mr. Charles 
Cleniinshaw, resigned. 

MR. FREDERICK H. TIDMAN. receiver for the Oswego (N. 
Y.) Traction Co., has transferred the property to ihe company by 
direction of the courts. 

MR. CHARLES ALDINGTON, a representative ol the London 
Central Ry., one of the underground lines, has been in Chicago 
making a study of the transportation systems. 

.MR. J.\MES W. BROWN has been appointed manager of the 
Rome (N. V.) City Electric Ry. He has had ch.irge of the recon- 
struction of the line during the past summer. 

MR. ROBERT BLACK, for many years roadmaster of the Man- 
hattan Elevated, of New York, has resigned to become general 
superintendent of the Dressel Railway Lamp Works. 

MR. CHARLES H. SMITH, general superintendent of the Le- 
banon (Pa.) Valley Street Ry., has been appointed to a responsible 
position with the Edison Illuminating Co., of that city. 

MR. GEO. M. KUEMMERLEIN. superintendent of transporta- 
tion oi the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., has assumed 
in addition, the duties of superintendent of the Racine division. 

MR. CHARLES BLIZARD, formerly manager of the New 
York office of the Electric Storage Battery Co., is now manager of 
the sales department of that company, with office at Philadelphia. 

PRES. JOHN B. PARSONS, of the Union Traction Co.. Phila- 
delphia, has received a handsomely engrossed resolution from the 
men expressing their appreciation of his action in increasing wages. 

MR. E. W. GOSS, of Middletown. Conn., will hereafter manage 
both the Middletown Street Ry. and the Milford (Mass.), Hollis- 
ton iSi Framingbam Street R. R., spending part of his time in each 

MR. CH.^RLES H. CHAPMAN, on February ist. assumed the 
duties of assistant superintendent of the Middletown (Conn.) Street 
Raihvay Co., and will have full charge of the road in the absence 
of Mr. E. W. Goss. 

MR. \VILLI.-\M ELMER, JR.. of the Pennsylvania R. R., with 
headquarters at Altoona, Pa., has been appointed superintendent oi 
the Atlantic City (N. J.) Street Ry.. which is owned by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Co. 

MR. C. E. FLYNN. who has for three years been general nian- 
ager of the Carbondale (Pa.) Traction Co., resigned on February 

1st to become general manager of the Easton Consolidated Electric 
Co., at Easton, Pa. II is work at Carbondale has been attended 
with great success and won deserved praise from both the com- 
\iany and its patrons. Easton offers a larger field to Mr. Flynn, 
which !u> enters with the best wishes of his former associates. 

MR. T. K. GLENN, formerly secretary and assistant treasurer 
of the Atlanta (.Ga.) Railway & Power Co., has been elected first 
vice-president of the company. Mr. A. J. Chapman, former auditor, 
has been made secretary and assistant treasurer. 

MR. JOHN g. BROWN, at one time assistant engineer oi the 
Columbus (O.) Street Ry., and more recently acting manager of 
the Columbus Electric Co., has accepted a position with the San 
.\nlonio (Tex.) Street Railway Co. 

BONNEY, treasurer and vice-president, respectively, of the Chi- 
cago General Ry.. have resigned those offices; both remain on the 
board of directors, and .Mr. C, L. Bonncy will continue as general 
counsel for the company. 

MR. R. .A. H.\K.\1.\N. succeeds Mr. Charles L. Pack as vice- 
president of the Cleveland Electric Railway Co., and the office of 
secretary which he has formerly held, will be filled by Fred S. Bor- 
ton, until now assistant secretary. 

MR. JOHN T. WHEELER, formerly in the purchasing depart- 
ment of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railway Co.. at Grand Rap- 
ids. Mich., has been appointed purchasing agent of the Sargent Co., 
of Chicago, with oflice at 675 Old Colony Building. 

MR. IRA A. M'COR.MACK has tendered his resignation as vice- 
president and managing director of the Syracuse (N. Y.) Rapid 
Transit Co., to take effect April 1st, and will then assume the duties 
of genera! superintendent of the Cleveland (O.) Electric Railway 

HON. MARTIN A. KNAPP, chairman of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, Washington, on January 30th addressed the 
faculty and students of Purdue L'niversity. LaFayette, Ind., on the 
subject. "The Interstate Commerce Laws and Their Relation to the 

MR. C. E. HOOVEN. secretary of the Cincinnati & Hamilton 
Electric Street Railway Co. since its organization, last month pre- 
sented his resignation in order to accept the office of treasurer and 
general manayer of the Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & .\nrora R. R.. 
a new line in course of construction. 

MR. H. J. SOMERSET, superintendent of the Winnipeg (Mani- 
toba) Street Railway Co., resigned that position on February ist, 
and has left for Perth, West Australia, where he will manage the 
new electric railway system. Mr. Somerset was presented with an 
address and a handsome watch charm by the employes. 

MR. IRVING P. LORD, president and counsel of the Waupaca 
I'^lectric Light & Railway Co., of Waupaca, Wis., is largely responsi- 
ble for having his city selected for the place to hold the next con- 
vention of the Northwestern Electrical Association. A report of 
the recent meeting of this society will be found elsewhere in this 

MR. H. J. CLARK, as announced last monlh, has been ap- 
pointed chief engineer and superintendent of the Syracuse (N. Y.) 
Rapid Transit Co.. and in addition will take charge of the trans- 
portation department. Mr. M. J. French, jr.. has been made engi- 
neer of maintenance of way of the system, and T. C. Cherry has 
been appointed track superintendent. 

GEN. WILLIAM A. BANCROFT, president of the Boston Ele- 
vated Ry.. on January 26th delivered a lecture on the "Boston Ele- 
\ ated Railway," before the Men's League of the Second Congre- 
gational Church, at North Chelmsford. The amount paid to the 
public by this company, in taxes and other contributions, amounts 
to about 12 per cent of the gross receipts. 

Feu. 15, rc;(x). 



MK. (',. 'I". I<(JGIC]<S, who is wi-ll knnuii l.i ihe street railway 
nun 111 llu' cnunlry as prcsidenl iit llic HniKliamloii (N. Y.) Rail- 
road Co., and president of the New York State Street Railway As- 
sociation, has become interested in the firm of Kllingwood & Cun- 
ningham, bankers and brokers. 41 and 4.1 Wall St., New York. Mr. 
Rogers will be a special partner only. ,ind will remain at the head of 
llie Hinghaniton Railrond Co, wliieli he is condncling with such 
marked success. 


MR. C[-iARI.l':S II. SMITH, the retiring superintendent of the 
Troy (N. Y.) City Ry., now consolidated with the United Traction 
Co., of Albany, was given a testimonial banqnet and reception on 
the evening of January 16th, by his former employes. Mr. Chas. 
Clcminshaw, formerly president, and Mr. Joseph J. Hagen, secre- 
tary and treasurer, also shared the honors of the occasion. Mr. 
Smith was presented with a gold walch. and Mr. Cleminshaw and 
Mr. Hagen with gold-beaded umbrellas. 


TRIC RAILWAY CO. has elected the following ofticers: Presi- 
dent, John H. Harshman; vice-president, Frederick Colburn; secre- 
tary, John Ci. Webb. Mr. CoUmrn. the retiring president, refused 

THE COLUMBUS (O.) RAILWAY CO., at a recent meeting 
elected the following board of directors: Robert V.. Sheldon, E. 
K. Stewart, Clarence M. Clark, George W. .Sinks and Theodore 
Rhoads. The executive committee consists of Robert E. Sheldon, 
v.. K. Stewart and G. W. Sinks. The ofticers remain the same. 

THE NEW ORLEANS CITY R. R. re-elected the old board of 
directors on February 5th, and on the same day the following 
ofticers were re-elected by the board: President, R. M. Walmsley; 
vice-president, Albert Baldwin; secretary and treasurer, A. H. 
Ford; general manager, C. D. Wyman; surgeon, Dr. R. W. 
Walmsley; attorneys, Dengree, Blair & Dengree, and Lawrence 

its annual meeting, made one or two changes in its list of officers 
and directors: The ofticials as elected are: President, Joseph S. 
Harris; board of directors, R. T. Cornwell, A. G. McCausland, M. 
H. Matlack, J. Carroll Hayes. Mr. William M. Hayes retires from 
the presidential chair, which he has occupied for several years. He 
was not a candidate for re-election. 

CO., last month voted to increase the number of directors from 10 
to 20 members. The new directors are: John Joy Edson. S. W. 
Woodward. .Albert .\. Wilson, George H. Harris, and E. Southard 
Parker, all of Washington; G. B. N. Harvey, of New York, editor 
of the North American Review: Luther Kountze, of the New York 
banking firm of that name; John N. Dennis. New Y''ork. and 
Charles D. Dickey, of the banking firm of Brown Bros.. Baltimore. 

changes in its directorate at its annual meeting last month. The 
following directors were elected: Clinton L. Rossiter, Timothy 
S. Williams. Henry Seibert, John G. Jenkins, Horace C. Du Val. 
David H. Valentine, Anthony N. Brady. August Belmont, H. II. 
Porter, E. H. Herriman, Walter G. Oakman. .Anson R. 
Flower. Frederic P. Olcott. The last six are new men. and they 
succeeded John M. Keiley. Seth'L. Keeney. William C. Bryant. 
John Englis. Charles D. Meneely and Theodore F. Jackson. .Ml 
of the directors retired were Brooklvn men. 

READERS who note errors in our "Directory of Street Rail- 
ways" will confer a favor by sending us corrections. 

The Oakland (Cal.'). San Leandro & Hay ward Electric Railway 
Co. pays its conductors and motormeii. 19 cents for the first year. 
20 cents for the second. 21 cents for the third year, and 22 cents 

MR. JOHN M'LEOD, receiver of the New Albany (Ind.) Street 
Ry., died January 22d, at Louisville, Ky. 

MR. FRANK TRYON, JR., supcrinlendcnt of Ihc Huntington 
I N. Y.; Street R. R.. di<d last month, at the age of 20 years. 

MR. W. K. MALfJSTER, formerly of Camden. N. J., super- 
intendent of Ihe Atlantic City (N. J.) Ry., died suddenly last month. 

MR. EDWaRD a. DURBIN. brother of Mr. C. K. Durbin. 
superintendent of the Denver CCol.; City Tramway, died January 
22d. He was president and secretary of the E. A. Durhin Surgical & 
Dental .Supply Co. 

MR. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS HOYT, who was one of the 
promoters of the elevated railway system of New York, and promi- 
nent in business in Chicago and New York, died in the latter city, 
January 12th, aged 7.1 years. 

MR. GICtJRGE C. IIERSCHELL. treasurer of the Armitagc- 
llerschell Co.. North Tonawanda, N. Y., died on January iilh 
after an illness of four days. He was taken ill with a severe cold, 
which was followed by complications, causing his death. 

Mr. HERBERT A. REEVES, of the Manvillc Covering Co.. of 
Chicago, died last month, in California, after a short illness. Mr. 
Reeves fontierly had charge of the western branch of the H. W. 
Johns Co. for over eight years, and when the Manvillc Covering 
Co. became the Western representative of that concern in April 
last, he was continued as manager of the business. 


tains a number of valuable papers on technical subjects written by 
professors and graduates of the University of Tennessee, at Knox- 
ville. The leading article is a description of the application of elec- 
tric power in the shops of the university. 

THE COLLEGE QUARTERLY" is a new publication issued 
every three months by the students of the Working Men's College. 
at Melbourne. .Australia. It is intended to be the official organ 
of this school, and contains articles on the value of a technical edu- 
cation, announcements and general college news. All the typeset- 
ting, press work. etc.. is done by the students. 

THE WORLD have been compiled by William Harper, chief of 
the Bureau of Information of the Philadelphia Commercial Mu- 
seum, and published by the museum in a 6 x 9 in. pamphlet of about 
50 pages. The charts are printed in colors, and give the compari- 
sons sought in a very vivid manner. 

THE CORNICE WORK MANUAL is an exposition of cornice 
work in all its branches, compiled from the files of the American 
.\rlisan. by Sidney P. Johnson, and published by the .American Ar- 
tisan Press. Chicago. This work has been issued in book form to 
meet a wide demand for a practical treatise on the working of sheet 
metal for architectural purposes: it is the first book on the subject 
published in 20 years and cannot fail of a hearty reception by the 

"CONDENSERS," by F. R. Low, has recently been issued by 
the Power Publishing Co.. of New York. It is a reprint 01 a 
series of lectures and articles upon this subject which have appeared 
in the columns of Power, and comprises 80 pages. .After a general 
discussion of the principles underlying all condensing apparatus, 
the author takes up the various types of jet condensers, surface 
condensers, injector or siphon condensers, and exhaust steam in- 
duction condensers, and concludes with a chapter on condenser 
capacities which comprises various rules and data for designing 
such apparatus. Tables of data concerning the principal makes of 
condensers increase the value of the work, which well deser\-es a 



[Vol. X, No. 2. 

place in the library ot every engineer. The book is bound in paper; 
price, 50 cents. 


title of a collection of line drawings showing the evolution of 
the modern steam locomotive, commencing with the earliest model 
of Cugnot, of France, built in 1771, and illustrating the develop- 
ments made by Watt, Murdock, VVm. Symington, Oliver Evpns, 
Trevethick, Murray, Hedley, Stephenson and Hackworth, and the 
leading types built by more recent designers, including M. W. Bald- 
win, of Philadelphia; Rogers, Ketchum & Grosvcnor, of Patterson, 
N. J.; William Norris and Garrett & Eastwick, of Philadelphia, 
and others. The collection was made by William Wright, and is 
now published in book form, with valuable data, by the Chicago 
Pneumatic Tool Co., Monadnock Block, Chicago. 


On December nth, last, two orders were introduced in the Board 
of Supervisors of San Francisco, in reference to street railway fares, 
one calling for the sale of 8 tickets for 25 cents for the use of school 
children between the ages of 5 and 17 years, when going to or re- 
turning from school and available between the hours of 8 a. m. 
and 5 p. m., but not on Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays, and 
the second order providing for the sale of tickets at the rate of 7 
tickets for 25 cents, available between 6 and 8 a. m. and s and 7 p. 
m. on each and every day except Sundays. Any person, company 
or corporation operating street car lines in San Francisco and neg- 
lecting or refusing to comply with either of the orders to be deemed 
guilty of a misdemeanoi", and on conviction to be punished by a 
fine of not less than $100 and not more than $500. or imprison- 
ment in the county jail for not more than six months, or by both 
such fine and imprisonment. 

The orders were passed to print and referred to the judiciary 
committee. Several meetings of the judiciary committee were held. 
The only railway companies to make an appearance were the San 
Francisco & San Mateo Electric Ry., represented by Mr. W. Clay- 
ton, its secretary, the Presidio & Ferries Ry., represented by Mr. 
Geo. A. Newhall, its president, and the Sutter Street Ry., repre- 
sented by its secretary, Mr. A. K. Stevens. All but the first meet- 
ing of this committee was attended by a large number of con- 
ductors and motormen ffom all the roads in the city. The men 
made their own fight, realizing that reduced fares would inevitably 
result in lower wages. They introduced a petition containing 4,000 
signatures of street car employes, protesting against the reduction, 
and this probably had more weight with the judiciary committee 
than any argument advanced by the railway companies themselves. 

Finally, the passage of the orders was indefinitely postponed in 
committee by two votes to one, mainly on the grounds that the re- 
duction would probably lead to a lower scale of wages for street 
car employes. 

On January 8th the new charter took elTect, and the mayor, in his 
address, suggested that the new board take the question up again, 
and it is probable the controversy w'ill be renewed. 


The 41st annual report of the Railroad Commissioners of the 
State of Maine, just issued, contains a financial report from each 
street and steam railroad in the state for the year ending June 30, 
1899. There are 20 street railway companies doing business in 
Maine, and these operate 240 miles of track. The total receipts for 
all roads for the year named were $1,090,418; operating expenses, 
$686,420; net earnings, $403,998; passengers carried, 18,496,374. 

A scheme for the consolidation of the Monorigahela (Pa.) Street 
Railway Co., the Wilkinsburg & East Pittsburg Railway Co., and 
the Wilmerding & East Pittsburg Railway Co., is under way. 

A car belonging to the Peoples Electric Street Railway Co., of 
Rochester, Pa., on January 25th ran away down a steep grade, left 
the tracks at the foot and crashed into the front of a barber shop, 
killing a boy who was playing in front of the building. 

The Chicago Union Traction Co. will publish no complete report 
until the end of its fiscal year, June 30th. The gross earnings for 
the seven months this company has controlled the property and for 
the corresponding months of the previous year are: 

1899-1900. 1898-9. Increase. 

July $653,811.60 $612,392.19 $41,483.41 

August 672,049.55 612,764.02 59.285.53 

September 633,253.80 605,900.28 27,353.52 

October 679,039.80 623,194.15 55.845 65 

November 608,836.45 563,710.43 45,126.02 

December 621,614.90 587,979.11 33.635.79 

January 587,020.70 531,657.71 55.362.99 

Seven months . .$4,455,626.80 $4,137,53489 $318,091.91 
Percentage increase seven months 7-68 


The Cleveland City Ry., generally known in Cleveland as the 
Little Consolidated, on January 22d made a proposition to the city 
which has only recently been given to the public. The principal 
points are: The company asks that its franchises be extended so 
that they will all expire in 1925, instead of at various dates between 
1908 and 1918; it will assume the duty of paving 16 ft. of the streets 
where it has double tracks; it will pay 17^ per cent (one-half the 
city's share) of the cost of abolishing certain grade crossings, and 
contribute in cash a sum sufficient to make its total cash payments 
$200,000; beginning with 1908 the company will pay the city 2 per 
cent of its gross receipts for the first five years, 3 per cent for the 
second five years, 4 per cent for the third five years and s per cent 
for the remainder of the term; the fare to be 5 cents cash or 6 tickets 
for 25 cents. 


A device for removing ice and sleet from the trolley wire is 
shown herewith. The essential features are a ribbed skeleton wheel 
of ordinary size carried on a short arm, which is so mounted on 
the main trolley pole as to cause this sleet cutting skeleton wheel 
to travel a little in advance of the regular trolley wheel, thus se- 
curing good electrical contact for the latter. A two-part clamp is 
permanently attached to the trolley pole, and is provided with a 
swiveled socket and lug, so that the short arm with its wheel can 
be readily adjusted in case of a storm; it is carried when not in 

use under the car seat. A 
spiral spring serves to hold 
the cutting wheel firmly 
against the wire, as shown in 
the engraving. 

The wheel is cast in two 
parts, with staggered ribs on 
the inner surfaces, and is pro- 
vided with openings to allow 
the ice to escape. This wheel 
is attached to a harp in the 
ordinary manner, which in 
turn is securely fastened to the 
short arm, which may be of 
wood or metal, ar.d does not add materially to the weight of the 
pole. The device is the invention of P. H. Gilbert, Scranton, Pa. 


The Court of Appeals of Ontario has rendered an important de- 
cision in which it is held that the roadbed of a street railway is 
not for the exclusive use of the railway and is therefore not assessa- 
ble for taxation. 

« ■ > 

The Boston Elevated Ry. has secured locations in Brookline for 
four new lines which will enable it to take passengers from the 
Newton line and carry them to practically any part of the metro- 
politan district for 5 cents. The Boston & Worcester road was 
a rival applicant for locations in Brookline. 

Feb. is, 1900.] 





READERS who iiod' triors in oiir "Dircrlory c 
ways" will confer a favur by sending us corrcclions. 

.t Street Rail 

THE BARNICV & SMITH CAR CO. has recently completed 
10 cars for the Dayton, Springfield & Urbana (O.) interurban line. 

SARGENT & I.UNDY, Monadnock HlocU, Chicago, arc me- 
chanical and electrical engineers for the Union Traction Co. of In- 
diana, whose system is described on page 66 of this issue. 

THE CO-PARTNERSHIP of Gates & Randolph, of Chicago, 
was dissolved on January 23d, and W. E. Mack has been appointed 
to close up the business and will pay all bills and receive all money 
due the firm. 

THE NATIONAL CARBON CO., of Cleveland, O., is out with 
a wall calendar bearing a view of the company's works, and calling 
attention to its various products. A lighting schedule appears on the 
sheet for each month. 

ANOTHER SHIPMENT of supplies for the San Paulo (Brazil) 
Tramway, Light it. Power Co. was made on January 19th. The 
Lorain Steel Co. had sent a lot of special work and the Walworth 
Manufacturing Co., pipe and bracket fittings. 

phasizes the fact that Partridge carbons arc "always on top" with 
a calendar for 1900, on which is a large view of Niagara Falls, 
with Partridge motor brushes floating on the water. 

THE LEADING ARTICLE in Graphite for January is on the 
protection of galvanized ironwork and the relative value for this 
purpose of Dixon's silica-graphite paint and red lead. Some strong 
testimonials from users of paints for exposed iron work are given. 

THE DUFF MANUFACTURING CO., of Allegheny. Pa., has 
been successful in suits brought against a number of jack makers, 
for infringement of patents, and now owns well sustained ground 
patents for jacks of all styles made on the general principle em- 

cently issued an interesting folder showing nine half-tone illustra- 
tions of power plants where this popular compound is in use. each 
view is accompanied by a strong letter of recommendation from the 
engineer in charge. 

Block, Chicago, has published a second edition of its catalog No. 6. 
containing reproductions from photographs showing its various 
pneumatic riveters, hammers and drills each doing the work for 
which it was designed. 

THE CENTRAL ELECTRIC CO. reports an increased trade 
in all lines of electrical goods. Two classes of articles for which the 
demand has been particularly strong are circular looms and electro 
carbons, and the company has laid in large supplies of both lines 
and is prepared to fill all orders promptly. 

M'KEE. FULLER & CO.. of Catasauqua, Pa., owners of the 
Lehigh Car, Wheel & Axle Works, report an increasing demand for 
their products, which include car wheels, both steel tired and cast 
iron with chilled tread, for all kinds of railway service, axles, ham- 
mered or rolled, of both iron and steel, also all kinds of cars for 
freight or mining purposes. 

THE ARMITAGE-HERSCHELL CO.. of North Tonawanda. 
N. Y., is fully prepared to meet the early spring demand for its 
park attractions, consisting of riding galleries, mountain valley rail- 

ways and other amusement novelties. The same policy will be 
pursued by this company as in the past, o( furnishing goods that 
arc thoroughly first class, both as to material and workmanship. 

THE IIRM OE I.itlltfield & Meyscnburg, of Chicago, has been 
dissolved. Mr. Andrew S. Littlcfield has been appointed Western 
selling agent of the Lorain Steel Co., of Lorain, C, and Johnstown, 
Pa., and will be pleased to receive inquiries and orders for girder 
and high T-rails, track special work, du Pont trucks and electric 
motors. He will have offices in the Monadnock Block, Chicago. 

been organized to take over the property at Pittsficld, Mass., of a 
company with the same name. The Stanley plant, which was re- 
cently purchased by the John A. Rocbling's Sons Co. will be greatly 
extended, and the business carried on, on a much larger scale than 
formerly. The new company is composed of officials of the Roeb- 
ling company. 

THE AMERICAN STEEL & WIRE CO. has published a bal- 
ance sheet showing profits for the year 1899 to be $13,362,529. Of 
this $1,000,000 has been written off for depreciation, and deducting 
7 per cent on the $40,000,000 of preferred stock leaves $9,362,529, 
which is 18.7 per cent on the common stock. A dividend of 7 per 
cent on the common stock was declared on January 29th, payable 
in quarterly installments. 

THE SIEGRIST LUBRICATOR CO., of St. Louis, advises us 
that the McCormick Harvesting Machine Co., of Chicago, III., af- 
ter a personal inspection of the Siegrist automatic oiling system at 
the power house of the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway 
Co., of Chicago, and a thorough investigation of all other oiling de- 
vices has awarded the Siegrist Lubricator Co. the contract to equip 
its two new power houses with the latter's automatic oiling sys- 

THE BURT MANUFACTURING CO.. of Akron. O.. has re- 
cently received an order for four 90-gallon Cross oil filters from 
the Metropolitan Electric Supply Co.. of London. England, one 
of the largest electrical concerns in the British Empire. The Brit- 
ish Government has also been a large buyer of these goods during 
the past year. Among home orders received by the Burt com- 
pany recently is a large duplicate order for filters from Thos. A. 

THE G.A,TES & M.^CKCO.has openedan automobile emporium 
at 394 and 396 Wabash Ave.. Chicago, where a number of Waverly 
electric carriages, steam locomotives. Haynes-Appcrson automo- 
biles, gasoline and other styles of motor vehicles are on exhibi- 
tion. Visitors will be made cordially welcome. J. Holt Gates & 
Co.. at 15 Monadnock Block, are carrying on the railway generator 
business of the Triumph Electric Co.. of Cincinnati, C and the 
alternating current business of the Warren Electric Co.. of San- 
dusky. O. 

E. W. SELKIRK. 849 North Kedzie Ave.. Chicago, is serving 
many street railways in a very important matter, which has troubled 
the sni.nller roads a great deal. He is an experienced car painter, and 
has a trained force of assistants. Such medium sized roads as cannot 
aflford to operate a paint shop of their own the year round, are 
obliged to call in local painters once or twice a year, and while 
such may be first class in painting houses and buildings, every rail- 
way man knows what an entirely different proposition car painting 
is. It is not so much in the first appearance when the work is 
finished that local painters fail, as in the knowledge of what to use 
and how to apply it for the severe service on cars. Mr. Selkirk 
already serves a, fine line of roads around Chicago, whose cars he 
keeps protected and presentable. Managers can secure this work 



(Vol. X, No. 2. 

by the ilay, or by contract by the year; also fiiriiishiiig their own 
material if so desired. 


liilldwing electric car lighting; and equipment companies were made 
on January JSth: Electric Axle Light & Power Co.. Columbian 
ICIectric Car Lighting & Brake Co., American Railway Electric Co., 
United Electric Co.. Lindstrom Brake Co., and Railway Triplex 
Ticket Co. The new company is incorporated under the law of 
New Jersey, with a capital stock of $16,000,000, and will be known 
as the Consolidated Railway, Electric Lighting & Equipment Co. 
Isaac L. Rice is president. 

.\D.\M COOK'S .SON'S, of New York, have received the f.'l- 
lowing letter from Chas. IC. Waddell. superintendent of the street 
railway lines at .Ashcville. X. C. which speaks for itself: "In reply 
to your iminiry about the result of the .\lbany grease, will repeat 
that 1 tt>ld you I was ho stranger to .Mbany grease and liked it very 
lunch; the grease was put in one of the motors on its arrival and 
the boxes have only required replenishing about every 15 days, and 
I find that it efTects a great saving in lubricants, at the same lime 
giving satisfaction." 

falo, N. Y.. has just been incorporated under the laws of the state 
of New York, retaining the same name as heretofore, with .Mbert 
B. Young as president and general manager and Wni. D. Young, 
vice-president and secretary. The past year has been the most pros- 
perous in the history of the company and the denian<l for "Cling- 
Surface" is reported to be increasing steadily. The company has 
now three branches, one each in Boston, New York and Chicago, 
with others just opening in St. Louis and New Orleans, while the 
well-known importing house of W. J. Moxham & Co., of Sidney, 
Australia, has ordered a large shipment of "Cling-Surface" with the 
exclusive right to handle it in Australia. 

THE SCARRITT FURNITURE CO., of St. Louis, is now fill- 
ing an order for 2.800 Scarritt reversible-back rattan covered double 
seats to be placed in 140 cars built for the St. Louis Transit Co. by 
the St. Louis and the Laclede car companies. Within the past few 
months the Scarritt company has received a great many smaller or- 
ders for both steam and street railways. There are two features of 
the Scarritt seat which particularly commend it to passengers, the 
resilient cushions and the three-ply veneer covering rear of the 
seat back and eflfectually preventing the person occupying the seat 
from being discommoded by the knees of -the person in the seat 
behind. This discomfort is one that is too often met with in cars 
not equipped with this company's seats. 

THE B. F. STURTEVANT CO.. of Boston, is receiving daily 
testimonial letters from its customers expressing satisfaction with 
the apparatus which it has supplied. One from the Frost & 'Wood 
Co.. of Smith's Falls, Ont., in reference to a Sturtevant exhaust 
head reads: ".\IIow us to add that we have never paid with greater 
satisfaction an account for an article of this description, than we 
paid for your steam exhaust head. It has given us great satisfac- 
tion, and we would not be without it for several times what it cost. 
It should prove invaluable to steam users in a cold climate. Pre- 
vious to using this we were greatly bothered with an accumulation 
of ice from the exhaust spray. This has now been entirely over- 


On January 21st about 250 men employed on the Troy division of 
the United Traction Co., operating the street railways in Albany 
and Troy, went out on a strike, causing a total suspension of 
traffic on the Troy lines. 

.•\ settlement was efifected January acjlh on the following basis: 
Committees of employes always to be heard touching any griev- 
ance. Employes of the Troy division to be allowed to ride free on 
showing their badges. Wages to be 20 cents an hour for regular 
car crews and :8J4 cents for other trainmen. In cases of suspen- 
sion, an appeal is to lie to the executive committee of the company. 

The wage scale is a compromise. 

The Light Railways .Act of iSy<> will expire in icjt)i. 

A system o( electric trams may be built at Karachi. India. 

The .Madras t India I ICIectric Tramways will piubably lie inn- 
chased by the cily corporation. 

The new electric tramway system on the Woodside route at Aber- 
deen was opened recently. 

.Speed indicators are to be placed on the cars of the Diililin (Ire- 
land ) United Tramways. 

The Rock<lale (ICng.) Corpor.ilion lia^ asked I'arlianunl li>r per- 
ii-.sioii to build iS miles of new electric lines. 

Tramways for Warrington. England, h.ive been proposed and ihe 
Town Council is applying for powers. 

The Yarmouth (Eng.) Town Council wishes to purchase 800 tons 
jf steel rails and other tramway supplies. 

The .St. Helens Tramways, of St. Helens, Lancashire, England, 
uill borrow ,t 45,000 to spend in tramway extensions. 

The Garston (Eng.) & District Tramways Co. ha^ been lornied 
to l)uild an electric tramway in the village of Garston and \ icinity. 

Automobile 'buses have made their appearance in London. They 
run from Kennington to Victoria, and carry 12 passengers inside 
and 14 outside. 

Experiments are being carried on at Antwerp, Belgium, to deter- 
mine the economy of equipping railroad lines centering in that 
city with electricity. 

Tramways at Berlin report having considerable trouble with snow 
and ice last month, and had to employ 1,000 extra men to get the 
lines into running order. 

The Acton (Eng.) City Council objects to the plans of the Lon- 
don United Tramways Co. for tramway extensions in the district, on 
the ground that the streets are too narrow. 

The Manchester (Eng.) & Liverpool Electric Express Ry. has 
been organized to build electric tramways 34 miles in length be- 
tween the two cities nained in title. 

There has been a hitch in the negotiations for an electric rail- 
way to run from Manchester (Eng.) to Liverpool, owing to the 
attitude of the Irlani District Council. 

.A concession has been asked for by La Societa delle Tramvice 
Ferrovie Elettrichi de Roma, of Rome, Italy, for an electric railway 
to run between Taranto, Manduria ;Ind Lecce, Italy. 

District Councils of Guisely, Horsforth, Rawdon and Yeadon, 
England, have opened negotiations with the Leeds Corporation 
looking to the extensions of the electric tramways in those districts. 

Press dispatches from Berlin announce that the Berlin Elevated 
Railroad Co. intends to provide Berlin with an electric elevated 
railway similar to that in operation in Chicago. The cost will be 
4,!. 000. 000 marks. 

It is proposed to build a continuous line of electric railways to 
connect the states of Tabasco. Y'ucutan. Chiapas and Campeche, in 
Mexico, with the railroad system of Central Mexico. The states 
through which the line will run. will be asked to give subsidies, in 
addition to the $6,000,000 said to have been promised by the federal 
government, to defray the cost, which is estimated will be about 
$14,000,000. The road will be known as the Southern National & 
International, and, if built, will be about 400 miles long. 

SI ki'j':! KAir.vv.'W kicview. 



,jtam V* imt m south tenth street. "^ 



"MAYLUND" Philadelphia. 
A B. C. Code, 4th Ed. 




Electric Railway Material and Supplies of Every Description . 

We are exclusive Territorial Representatives of the following leading Manufacturers of Railway Materials: 

R. D. Nuttall Co., Allegheny, Pa. 

Gears, Pinions, Bearin^fs, Trolleys, Etc. 

Van Wagoner & Williams Hardware Co.. Cleveland, O. 

Drop Forged Cop|)er Coiuninlator SetfmcntM. 

The Protected Rail Bond Co., Philadelphia. 

■' Prolecled " Flexible Rail Hoiuls. 

American Electric Heating Corporation, noston, Mass. 

Electric Car Heaters «>f Every Desiffii. 

Chisholm & Moore Manfg. Co., Cleveland, O. 

Moore's Clifiin Hnlstft. 

New York & Ohio Co., Warren, O. 

"Packard" Iiicnndctceiit Lamps, 

The International Register Co., Chicago, III. 

Sintrle and Double Fare ReifUterti. 

W. T. C. Macallen Co.. BoHton. Mass. 

St:iiiilard Overhead InNuIatinir Material. 

Ilradford Delting Co.. Cincinnati, (). 

" Miinarcli " Insulaiinir Paint. 
Sterling Varnish Co.. Pittsburg. Pa. 

Sterlini; New ProcesK Insulalintf Varnish, 
Gartoii-Daniels Electric Co., Keokuk. la. 

(.artoii Litfhtniii:,' Arrester*. 
I), & W. Fuse Co.. Providence. R I. 

Knclosrd Noil-Arciilt; Fuses. 

Special Agents: Amekican Ki.kctkicai, Wokks. Providence. R. I. 

We carry the largest stock in this country of Strictly Electric Railway Material. 

We arc now occupyinjj^ our entire buililin<f, five floors and basement. 

Special Attention given to Export Buslne.u. 



Ice on the trolley wire badly c;ippled the service of the Roches- 
ter (N. Y.) Railway Co, for a day !ast month. 

The snow and sleet storm on February 3d compelled the Lake 
Street Elevated, Chicago, to suspend traffic at 11 p, m. 

The Rome (N. Y.) City Electric Ry. last year operated at a gross 
loss ol ?5.lS: fixed charges increased this amount, making the net 
loss, $614. 

Three motornicn on llie Cleveland Electric Ry. were arrested last 
month for violating the speed ordinance, and were fined $5 each 
and costs. 

The Negaunee (Mich.) & Ishpeming Street Railway & Elec- 
tric Lighting Co. has declared its first dividend; it is at the rate 
of 4 per cent per annum. 

Owing to the smallpox scare in Missouri, the electric cars run- 
ning from Independence to Kansas City, and the cars in Kansas 
City are being thoroughly fumigated. 

On January 30th, a runaway car on the Dayton (O.) & Xenia 
Traction Co. jumped the track and was hurled several feet. Two 
passengers were killed and four injured. 

The Union Traction Co., of Philadelphia, voluntarily increased 
the pay of motormen and conductors from 16 2-3 cents per hour 
to 18 cents per hour, to take effect February 1st. 

Mayor Hayes, of Baltimore, has drafted a bill for the Legisla- 
ture providing for the appointment of a franchise commission, 
which is to keep the state advised as to the ri.ghts of corporate 
bodies, especially street railway companies, and is to have super- 

vision of the rates of fare charged by street railways. The mayor 
has staled he will favor a bill providing for six tickets for a 


Through errors of clerks in the tax office, the street railway 
companies of Chicago were assessed for 1900, several hundred 
thousand dollars more than they should have been. 

Sam Jones, the evangelist, has been invited to speak at a park 
owned by the street railway company at Columbus, O. Other noted 
revivalists will hold services at the park from time to time. 

The Birmingham (.•Ma.) Railway & Electric Co. will at once 
rebuild its car shops and barn recently destroyed by fire. J. M. 
Morgan & Co., local contractors, will construct the new buildings. 

.\11 the trainmen on the Cedar Falls division of the Waterloo 
(la.) & Cedar Falls Rapid Transit Co. went on strike last month. 
when the company appointed a new superintendent for the division. 

A contract for the erection of new car barns and repair shops 
at Bowlin.g Green. O.. has been given to James Turnbull. of Toledo, 
by the Toledo, Fremont & Bowling Green Electric Ry. This will 
cost about $5,500. 

During the intensely cold weather at the beginning of this month 
the Toledo (O.) Traction Co., at its own expense, established sta- 
tions along its lines where its employes could stop and obtain hot 
coffee and sandwiches. 

The receiver of the Duluth (Minn.) Street Railway Co. has filed 
his statement concerning the company for the quarter ending Dec. 
31. 1899. It shows receipts from all sources of $73,376.38. and to- 
tal disbursements, including fixed charges, of $95,916.76. which, with 
the surplus of $31,612.59 carried forward from the previous quarter, 
leaves a surplus of $9,072.21. .\mong the disbursements are no- 



(Vol. X, No. 2. 

liccil ihc tollowins iti'iiis: Strike, $3ja90; -bridge- tolls, $2,712.22; 
necidenis, $1,122.18; fuel, $6,433.59; legal, $165; detective service, 

were injured, one of the mcitormcn perhaps fatally; in addition to 
these, a passenger was slightly injured. 

In response to a petition from its employes, the Elgin (111.), Car- 
pentersville & Aurora Railway Co. has increased wages of regular 
motormen to $1.75 per day, regular conductors to $1.65 per day, and 
extras to $1.55 per day. 

The Ft. Wayne (Ind.) Traction Co. has issued laboring men's 
ticket books of 100 rides for $3.50, good between the horns of 6 
and 7 a. m. and 5:30 and 6:30 p. m., and citizens' ticket books of 
100 rides for $4., good at all hours. 

The Central Labor Union, of Louisville, Ky., has undertaken to 
strengthen the position of the street railway employes' union, by 
resolving that no member of any labor organization should ride on 
a street car not manned by a union crew. 

A coiupany has been formed to generate electricity at the falls 
of the River Ccllina and River Piave. Italy, and transmit the same 
to Venice. The prime movers in the enterprise are Counts N. and 
A. Papadopoli, of Venice, and Commendatore Giusseppe Da Zara, 
of Padua. 

The mail cars which have heretofore run on the North Side 
cable lines of Chicago are to be replaced in the near future by hand- 
some cars on the electric lines which it is expected will make a great 
improvement in the local mail transportation between the post 
ofhce and the sub-stations. 

The Union Traction Co., of Philadelphia, pays a car tax of $50 
for each car it owns, and in addition $50 for each car that crosses 
city bridges over the Schuylkill River. The company, January 
27th, sent a check for $82,500 to the collector of taxes, covering the 
licenses on 1.500 regular cars and 155 bridge cars for 1900. 

Mrs. Mary T. Leiter has filed a petition for an accounting by 
the Metropolitan Street Railway Co., of Washington, in which she 
is a stockholder. The control of the Metropolitan was acquired by 
the Washington Traction & Electric Co. last year, and the peti- 
tioner asks that the relations between the two companies be made 

The United Traction Co., of Albany, N. Y., has taken up all 
passes on the lines formerly owned by the Troy City Ry., and not 
even policemen will be allowed to ride fret. The Albany Ry. never 
issued passes. A new rule has also gone into efifect on the entire 
system prohibiting passengers from riding on the front platforms 
of closed cars. 

The Union Traction Co., of .Anderson, Ind., has purchased 160 
acres of ground near Fortville and will probably lay out a pleasure 
park. The property is said to contain large deposits of good gravel. 
It is also stated the company is negotiating for the purchase of a 
prominent corner lot in the city and will erect a building for depot 
and other purposes. 

Ninety-four employes of the Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated 
Street Railway Co., that have served the company for five years 
or more, received an increase of 10 per cent in their wages com- 
mencing January 17th. The increase is from 20 cents to 22 cents 
per hour. The car crews work from nine hours to nine hours and 
twenty minutes a day. 

Complaints have been made against the Metropolitan and Third 
Avenue roads and the Manhattan Elevated, of New York City, for 
violation of the ordinance requiring all cars to be heated when 
the temperature is below 40° F. Inspectors of the Board of Health 
found an occasional car on each of the systeins that was not heated 
according to requirements. 

A head-end collision occurred on January 19th between two cars 
on the Lockport division of the International Traction Co., of Buf- 
falo, N. Y.; the time was 10:30 a. m., the cars being invisible be- 
cause of a dense fog. All four of the men constituting the crews 

The conductor on a car belonging to the Second Avenue Traction 
Co., of Pittsburg, was held up at the point of a revolver on the 
night of January 25th. He had gone ahead of the car to inspect 
a steam road crossing, as required by the rules of the company, 
when a burly negro stepped from the shadow and demanded money. 
The conductor called for help and succeeded in frightening the 
highwayman away. 

The McKeesport (Pa.) City Council has been asked for a cer- 
tain right of way by the McKeesport, Duquesnc & Wilmerding 
Street Ry. The Council will pass the ordinance providing the 
coiupany will give 33 tickets for a dollar, a tax of $25 a year per 
car for the first five years, and $50 a year thereafter, a bonus of 
$5,000, and will protuise to clean and repair the streets through 
which its tracks run. 

Mayor Hayes, of Baltiinore, has written the United Railways & 
Electric Co., stating that the treasury efiicials are greatly annoyed 
by the constantly recurring bills for car fare charged against the 
city by its employes who use the street cars in riding to and from 
work at distant points. He suggests that the company honor tickets 
prepared and issued by the city, and which could be paid for by the 
city at the end of every quarter, or at any time agreed upon. 

An ordinance has been introduced in the city council at Louis- 
ville, Ky., making it unlawful to employ any motonuan who has 
not had three weeks' training on cars in tlie city. For employing 
one not trained, the employer is subject to a fine of $10 to $20 for 
each offense, and the employed motornian is to be fined from $5 
to $ro. The avowed object of the framcr of the bill.. is to prevent 
the importation of green men should there be a strike on the local 

Under a contract made last month between the Metropolitan 
Street Ry., of Kansas City, Mo., and the Kansas City & Leaven- 
worth Electric Ry., passengers will be transferred from the cars of 
either road, to the cars of the other without extra expense, and 
the two companies will .build a joint depot in Kansas City, Kan. 
As transfer arrangements have been made with the local system 
in Leavenworth, it is possible to ride from any point in Leaven- 
worth to any point in Kansas City for one fare — but this is not a 
S-cent fare. 

Slippery rails were given as the cause of a slight accident. Janu- 
ary 20th, on the Druid Hill Ave. line of the United Railways & 
Electric Co., Baltimore. A north bound car and a west bound car 
had stopped at the near crossing of two intersecting streets to 
discharge passengers, and both started forward at the same moment, 
the condition of the rails preventing either motorman from stop- 
ping after he had seen the other's action. The north bound car 
was struck in the center and thrown over on its side. No one was 
seriously injured. 

It is believed that miscreants deliberately threw open a switch 
on the Detroit Rapid Ry. last month, with the intention of causing 
a wreck. A car running from Detroit to Mt. Clemens at high speed 
struck the switch and was hurled against a tree at the side of the 
track, injuring several passengers, but killing no one. Some time 
ago, near this same point, it was discovered that someone had 
thrown a heavy wire over the trolley wire, and attached the other 
end to a trolley pole, grounding the line in such a way as to inakc 
it very difficult to discover the trouble. 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Co., of Kansas City, has been 
carrying letter carrers on its cars for six months without receiving 
compensation for the service owing to the delay on the part of 
the postal authorities in signing a contract. In former years the 
United States Government has paid the company $3,000 a year for 
transportation for the carriers, but the system having been greatly 
extended and the number of carriers increased, at the expiration 
of the contract last year the company asked $4,000 for the service. 
No contract was concluded, however, and carriers have been riding 
free ever since, through the courtesy of the company. 

Feb. is, 1900.] 




Ar.HANY, N. Y.— It is reported that the United Traction Co. will purcltanc 
jt; new ()[)cn cars and 35 box cars. Improvements of the Troy car house and 
linwcr house and the tracks of the Troy division will he cfTectcd. K. C 
rniyii. Alliany, president. 

AM.KNTOVVN, PA.— The I.chiKh Valley Traction Co. (A. K. 
secretary,) has purchased the licihlehcm & Nazareth Passenger 
miles long) and the Hcthlchcm electric liKli* plant. 

Ky. (u> 

AMSTKRDAM, N. Y. Preliminary surveys arc bcinti ni.idc fur (he pro 
ijr)scd line to connect Amsterdam with Saratoga and Hallston. A. B. Paine, uf 
New York, is at the licad of the engineering corps. 

ASTAIUILA, O.— The Fairport & Youngstown Railway Co., of Astahula. 
has been incorporated with a capita! stock of $30,000 to build an intcrurban 
road. J. McCrea. U. K Smith and C. T. Ilrookcs are among the promotors. 

ATLANTA, t;A.— The Collins Park Sc licit Railroad Co. has purchased land 
on which a new car house will be erected. 'l"hc car house will accommodate 
25 cars, an(i a portion of the building will be reserved for repair shops. Address 
A, M. Atkinson. 

H]':AVI':R falls, pa.— Tlarry W. Reeves, of Itcavcr Falls. H. C. F,agle, 
Henry Fitzpatrick and Cliarles II. A. Deems arc promoting a line to be con- 
structed between Vanport, Pa., and Fast Liverpool, C). Charters have been 
applied for in both stales, and when Rrants shall have been secured construc- 
tion will begin without delay. 

llKLVmKRF. ILL-It is 
pvuchascd by Edwin Mag ill 
U'c Kalb) and two others, 
railway perhaps extended frn 

■epnrted that the Pclviderc electric plant has been 
of the Sycamore & DeKalb Street Railway Co. 
Improvements will be made in the plant and a 

ni I)e Kalb to Belvidcre. 

I1L< )()M INCiTON, INI). Contracts will be awarded in the early summer 
for the construction of the Columbus, Bloomington & Tcrre Haute Ky. Sur- 
veys for the line, wbicli will he 91 miles long, have been completed, and com- 
petitive bids will soon be in ortler. Edwin S. Brodix, Bloomington, president. 

CATONSVILI.F., MD.— The Baltimore, llalclborpc & St. Denis Railway 
Co. has secured a franchise to build a railway from Catonsville to a point 
near St. Denis. A bond of $10,000 has been filed with the comity commis- 
sioners as an earnest that the construction of the line will lie commenced in 
one year and completed in two years. Oregon K. Benson, Catonsville, presi- 

CHARLOTTE. MICH.— VV. P. Engel, for the past five years in control of 
the Cliarlottc Electric Railway Co.. hae sold the line to Hugh A. Holmes, of 
Detroit, and John C. Farrcr, of Brighton, for $40,000. The new owners have 
tiled articles of incorporation, and will be known as the Charlotte General Elec- 
tric Co., with a capital of $50,000. 

CHICACO, ILL.— The South Side Elevated R. R. will within six weeks 
order 30 new passenger coaches or make arrangements for building tbem 

CLEVELAND, C— An extension of the Cleveland, Bcrea, Elyria & Oberlin 
Railway Co's. line will be constructed from Elyria to Amherst, and later to 
Wellington. When the extensions shall be built the railway will aggregate 65 
miles. Jt is also reported that a new power house will be built at Elyria. F. 
T. Pomcroy, manager. Office, Cleveland. 

CLINTON, MASS.— The Railroad Commissioners have approved of an 
increase of $100,000 in the capital stock of the Clinton & Hudson Street Rail- 
way Co. for the purpose of building and equipping the proposed railway. 
Alexander S. Paton. of Leominster, W. R. Dame, of Clinton, and William H. 
Tyl^ee, Worcester, directors. 

COLUMBUS, O. — The Lancaster & Newark Traction Co., of Columbus, has 
been incorporated by E. Rowles, F. S. Monnette, E. Kibler, W. D. Guilbert 
and S. B. Campbell. 

DANIELSON. CONN.— The Providence & Danielson Railway Co.. with a 
capital stock of $3W,ooo, has been incorporated to build an electric line between 
the cities named in its title. F. P. Owen, Geo. W. Prentice and Joel Hay arc 
promoters of the enterprise. 

DAYTON. O. — The Dayton & Xenia Traction Co. will issue 1,000 bonds of 
$300 each. The proceeds will be used for tbe purchase of new equipment. C. 
J. Eerneding, president. 

DAYTON, O. — The Dayton & Troy Street Railway Co. has been incorporated 
with a capital stock of $30,000 by J. M. Wilson. W. L. Caten, R. L. Worrell. 
L. G. Reynolds and Thomas B. Hcrrman, and will build a line between Dayton 
and Troy. 

DAYTON, O.— It is reported that tbe Dayton & Western Traction Co. is 
considering the improvement of its rolling stock. Cars equipped with four 35- 
h. p. motors and automatic air brakes are wanted. Purchases to amount to 
$12,000 will be made. V. Winters, president. 

DE KALB. ILL.— Tbe Sycamore & De Kalb Electric Railway Co. has ob- 
tained a franchise and will construct an interurban line within two years. 
Address Edwin Magill, Dc Kalb. 

DETROIT, MICH.— The Rochester & St. Clair Railway Co. has been incor- 
porated with a capital of $150,000, bv F. C. Andrews and E. H. Parker, of De- 
troit, and J. R. Whiting, of St. Clair. 

DI'-TROIT, MICH. — A third rail interurban line from Detroit to .\nn Arbor 
\ ia Pelleville and Ypsilanti is projected. Rights of way between Detroit and 
Belleville have been obtained, and the projectors have applied for further 
grants. Address Milton Carmichael, Detroit. 

TERRE HAUTE. IND.-The sale of the Brazil (Tnd.l Rapid Transit Ry. 
to the Tcrrc ILiute Street Railway Co. is reported. Tt is said that the purchase 
price was $50,000. and that the line will be improved and new equipment pur- 
chased. Supt. C. B. Kidder, of the Terre Haute company, may be addressed. 


Now is d Good Time to Get Ready for 
Spring Work. 






TO 45° 


PLACE ^^=^== 





Ttic Q & C CO. 




[Vol. X, No. 2. 

l>n\'KR, DEL.— The Delaware KIcclric Railway Co. lias been granted per 
iiiisstun to construct a line from Dover to Woodland Dcach. Address John 
1). Hawkins. It is also stated that the council has accepted tlie $io.oou bond 
of ihc Delaware tleneral Electric Kailway to. to begin the construction of the 
projected line throuf^h Dover within nine months. 

DOYLKSTOVVX, I'A.— Judge Yerkes his issued a decree for the sale of 
the liucks County Ky., operating between Doylestown and Willow tlrove. 
The Dovlestown Trust Co. has been acting as receiver for the railway com- 
pany. The sale will lake place at the rhiladelphia Itoursc March 14th, and the 
properly, including rolling stock, machinery, etc., will be sold to the highest 

EAGLE PASS, TEX.~A company has been organized and stock subscribed 
by capitalists of Eagle Pass for the construction of a ismile tramway from 
Nava to Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico. 

KLKTt-LN, MD. -It is stated that Senator Crothers will intiuduce a bill in 
the Senate to have the ?s8,ooo standing to the credit of Cecil County trans- 
ferred to the Elklon & Chesapeake City Electric Kailway Co. A line to connect 
Elkton and Chesapeake City will be constructed if the transfer be ctTccled. 

K.\LL RIVER, MASS.— The Eall River, Myricks & Middleboro Air Line 
Street l<ailway Co. has been organized with a capital slock of $50,000 to build 
an interurban line in southern Massachusetts. The directors are liyrou li. Crin- 
nell, I'Tank A. Rouse and Albert M. Field, of Taunton, Mass., and Silas 1'. 
Richmond, .\. W. Davis, G. M. Nichols and Charles A. Uriggs, of Freetown. 

FINDLAY. C). The Findlay Street Railway Co. is considering the ques- 
tion of installing a beating system to enable it to sell steam heat lo otHccs and 
residences near the power station. Chas. Smith, superintendent, will be glad 
to receive information as to the cost of building and operating such a plant. 

FOXD DC LAC, WIS.— W. E. Cole, secretary of the Fond du Lac Street 
Railway & Light Co.. has purchased suburban property which will be improved 
for a park. 'I he railway will be extended to connect with the park. 

FORT WOR'ITI, TEX.— Col. J. T. Voss, president of the CIcnwood & Poly- 
technic College Street Railway Co. and Pres. G. Van Ginkel. of the Dallas 
Consolidated Street Railway, project an electric line to be built between Dallas 
and Fori Worth, 30 miles distant. Construction will soon begin. Some of the 
e«iuipinenl is already ordered. 

FR. \XKLIX, PA.— lion. W . II. Forbes is reported to have consummated 
the long pending sale of the Franklin electric railway to the Citizens' Traction 
Co., (Jil City. The line will be extended to Oil City and Rocky Grove, in the 

GALESRUUG, ILL.— The franchise contest in Galesburg is ended, the 
(.lalcsburg & Monmouth Rapid Transit Co. accepting the franchise ordinance 
as finally passed by the council. A bond of $10,000 will be fded by the company 
to assure the construction of the line during the present year. Fred Seacord, 

GLOUCESTER, MASS.— The Gloucester Street Railway, the Gloucester, Es- 
sex & Beverly, the Rockport Street Ry. and the Gloucester & Rockport Street 
Kys. have been merged into one corporation known as the Gloucester Street 
Railway Co. Address W'. A. Larrabee, Essex. 

GRAND RAPIDS. MICH.— Ben S. Hanchette, of the Grand Rapids Con- 
solidated Street Railway Co., is said to be associated with Messrs. Strong, 
Campbell, Law and Barrett, of Detroit, in promoting the line that will be con- 
structed between Grand Rapids and Holland, in the spring. The Grand Rap- 
ids, Holland & Lake Michigan Rapid Railway Co. has been formed with a 
capital of $500,000. Mr. Hanchette is en route for Detroit to confer with the 
other promoters concerning the purchase of material. 

GREENVILLE, S. C. — The Greenville Traction Co. is considering the build- 
ing of a new car house. J. H. Dawes, manager. 

HAMILTON, ONT.— The Hamilton Radial electric railway; will be extended 
to Oakville. This line is operated by the Cataract Power Co. Address John 
Patterson, Hamilton. i 

HEMPSTEAD. N. Y'.^The New York & Nassau County Railway Co., cap- 
italized at $150,000, has been incorporated at Albany, and will build a seven- 
mile electric line from Hempstead to the village of Queens. It is understood 
that the company is backed by New York & Ou'eens County R. R.. the 
New York & North Shore R. R. companies and tne Whitney-ElkinsAVidener 

HOLLAND, MICH. — A recent fire destroyed the entire rolling stock, com- 
prising II cars and a freight motor and the car barn of the Holland & Lake 
Michigan Electric Railway Co. The loss is estimated to approximate $40,000. 
M. J. Kinch, superintendent. 

HOOSICK FALLS, N. Y.— The Bennington & ?Ioosick Valley Electric Rail- 
way Co. will erect a new power house. G. E. Green, president. 

HUNTINGTON, IND.— An electric line to be built between Huntiligton 
and Portland is being promoted by Mayor Z. T. Dungan. City Attorney J. Fred 
France, Isaac F. Beard of Huntington, and others. Bonds for $500,000 will be 
issued to provide for construction and equipment. 

ITHACA, N. Y.— The Ithaca Street Railway Co. is in the market for a 
good sized merry-go-round, either new or second hand, with a good organ. 
This company would also like to correspond with the manufacturers and agents 
of penny and nickcl-in-the-slot machines, and vending machines, with a view to 
purchasing. J. A. Mortimer, secretary. 

JEFFERSON VI LLE, TND.— The JefTersonville City & Suburban Railway 
Co. has been incorporated with a capital stock of $25,000. The directors are 
Thos. W. Scott, Charles W. McGuire, Oscar C. Barth, Robert W. Morris, Hen- 
ry F. Elosse, Earl S. Gwin and Harry W. Heath. 

KANSAS CITY, MO.— The East Side Electric Railway Co. is the market 
for 10 new or second hand open summer cars. The cars should be in ser- 
viceable condition, have single trucks and be equipped with two motors or 
should have trucks on wliich could be mounted two motors. The company 
desires to know the price f. o. b. point of shipment. Terms will be cash. 
Address W. O. Hands, manager. 

JACKSONVILLE, FLA.— The Jacksonville Street Railway Co. and a new 
company of which Walter C. Nelson and George W. Riggs, of Chicago, are the 
princiiial stockholders, arc competing before tite council for the street railw;iy 
lights in Jacksonville. It, is said that the council will probably favor the 
Jacksonville Street Railway Co. I). F. Jack, Savannah, Ga., president. 

JOI'LIN, MO.— F. W. lilees, of Macon, Mo., is promoting a line in Joplin, 
which he may later extend to Galena, Baxter and neighbormg town>. J. i'". 
Schafer represents Mr. Blees. A franchise will be applied for. 

KXOXVILLE. PA.— A charter has been issued to the Summit Sireet Kail- 
way Co. to build a line in Knoxville. William Grinun, R. R. Grimes and 
C. D. Lockwood, directors. 

LA CROSSE, WIS. — The La Crosse Street Kailway Co. is considering 
lie extension of its system within the city. I'eter Valier, manager. 

LANCASTER, PA.-The Lancaster, Mechaivicsburg & New Holland Elec- 
tric Kailway Co. has been granted a charter and will proceed to construct a 
14-mile line. The comijany lias a capital stock of $150,000. William B. Given, 
L<,>lunibia, president. 

LEXt^X. MASS. -It is understood that an electric third rail extension will 
be made by the New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. from Pittslield 
Iln\>ugh Lenox, Lee and Stockbridge to Great Barrington. The project is in 
ojiposition to that of the Pittslield Electric Street Kailway Co. to extend its 
lines to Lenox. N. II. Heft, electrical engineer of the N. V., N. 11. & H. may 
be addressed at Hartford. 

LEWTSBURG, P.\.- J. W. Zellcrs. of Lewisburg, is reported to be seeking 
a franchise for an electric line to be built through Ilughesville, Picture Rocks 
and other towns to Eaglesmere and ultimately to Wilkesbarre. 

LIMA, N. Y. — The property of the Lima ix. Honeoye Falls Electric Light & 
Railroad Co. was recently sold at receiver's sale, bid in for $35,000 by Frank 
Williams of Buffalo, representing capitalists of that city. C. T. Whiting will 
remain as superintendent. 

MARyi'ETTE. MU^H. — The papers announce that the Marquette City & 
Presque Isle Kailway C"o. will float bonds for $70,000, half of winch sum, it is 
said, will be used for the construction of new lines. F. O. Clark, president. 

MECHANICSVILLE,Mp.— The Washington.Mcchanicsville.Leonardtown & 
Point Lookout Electric Railway Co. has been incorporated by Messrs. Conily 
R. Jones and Frank R. Tenney, of Philadelphia, and John T. Ballenger, Giles 
F. Dyer, I>. Harris Camailier and Jos. F. Morgan of Maryland. The capital 
stock is $1,000,000. A line will be built from Washington to Point Lookout via 
Median icsville and Leonardtown. 

MESSENA, N. Y. — It is reported that the Massena Electric Street Railway 
Co. will increase its capital stock from $100,000 to $125,000, and that the line will 
be built without further delay. 

MILAN. M ICH. ^Albert A. Graves, of Ypsilanti. is a new contestant in the 
leld for a franchise to build a line from Ypsilanti to Milan and Dundee. 

MILLVILLE, N. J.— It is reported that the Millville Traction Co. has ap- 
plied for permission to extend its line to Vineland. G. B. Langley, president. 

MOBIfcE, ALA. — A franchise for a belt line railway around the city of Mo- 
bile has been applied for. Messrs. D. R. Burgess, J. C. Rich or George Ober 
may be addressed. 

NEWARK. N. J.— Col. E. L. Price, of Newark, is preparing a bill to be 
introduced in the Legislature, authorizing the construction of an elevated rail- 
way from Jersey City to Newark and adjacent towns. 

NEW ALB.\NY, IND.— Louis Hartman, of New Albany, has been ap- 
pointed receiver of the New Albany Railway Co. He succeeds John McLeod 
who died January J4th. 

NEW PLATZ. N. Y.— The 
italized at $100,000, has been 

New Platz & Puuglikeepsi'e Traction Co., cap- 
incorporated to operate a nine-mile railway in 

Ulster county. The directors include William L. Suplee and Harry J. Verncr, 
Philadelphia, and Charles W. Dayton and Oliver S. Carter, New York. 

NEW BRUNSWICK. N. J. — A meeting to consider the consolidation of 
the Brunswick Traction Co.. of New Brunswick, the New York & Philadelphia 
Traction Co. and the New Brunswick City Railway Co. to complete a trolley 
system from Jersey City to Philadelphia will be held in New Brunswick 
February lotli. G. Krueger is president of the Brunswick Traction Co. 


is Prolonged by Using 





Has never faili-d to re- 
duce a hot journal where 
used. Cost of expense us- 
ing oil.s, ^^^^^^^HIBB 
Cost of e xpense using 
Albany Grease, ^^■■B 
Every Engineer and 
Machinist ought to send 
for a free catalogue and 
^aniple, as the use of 
Albany Grease saves oil, 
time and trouble. 

Oni.\ Madk hv 


313 WEST ST., 
N. V. CITY, U.S. A. 


Remember— A sample can 
of (Urease with an Albany 
<".reaseCup, freeof charjfe 
or expense f<)r testing. 

Branch, 3< S. Canal St.. 







Foreign Subscription, Four Dollars American Money. 

AJdrtss nil CoitimuuicatioHs titiii R^mittiiticfs /(> Windsor & Ktiiftehi PiihlisUing Co. 
Monon Buitdiitg^ L'hiatgo. 




Business Manager. 




We cordially invitp corresp.iiideiico on all subjects of inti?rest to those 
engaged in anv branch of street raiUvav work, and will (jrati-fully appreciate 
any marked copies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send 
us, pertaining either to companies or officers. 


If von contemplate the purchase of anv supplies or material, we can save 
you much time and trouble. Drop a line to The Review, slating what you are 
in the market for, and vou will promptly receive bids and estimates from all the 
best dealers in that line. We make no ch.trge (or publishing such notices in our 
Bulletin of Advance News, which is sent to all manufacturers. 

This paper is a member of the Chicago Trade Press Association. 
Kntered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 

VOL. X. 

MARCH 15, 1900. 

NO. 3 

The announcement by the management of the Chattanooga 
Rapid Transit Co. that it will build a line up Lookout Mountain 
and institute a carriage service through Chickamauga Park is one 
that should be welcomed by all tourists who intend making a visit 
to Chattanooga, and the example of this company will doubtless 
be followed by others where the surroundings are such as to render 
such a policy practicable. 

It is gratifying to note that managers are at last exerting them- 
selves to follow up copper bond thieves and push the case against 
them to conviction and punishment. In doing this we believe they 
have not fully realized, nor brought to the attention of the court, the 
consequential damages which result from these depredations. It 
by no means covers the whole loss when the engineer has testified 
to what an etiual number of new bonds can be purchased for and 
installed. There is the very serious loss of power and the inci- 
dental annoyance to passengers who may also suiTer pecuniary loss 
through inability to operate the car on time or even at all. 

Every manager who suffers from stolen bonds owes it to himself 
and the fraternity to relentlessly follow up and secure the convic- 
tion of the bond thief. 

The transportation of freight on street railway lines is now 
attracting attention in Massachusetts, particularly between Brock- 
ton and Boston, application having been made for the incorporation 
of a company for hauling freight which shall have power to use 
the tracks of the street railway companies. It is not believed that 
the Legislature will authorize such a condemnation of the property 
of existing companies and the solution adopted will probably be 
the passage of an act permitting the street railways to carry freight 
where the service is demanded by the ptiblic. The street railways 

would gladly accept such powers, though the passenger trafTic has 
been so satisfactory that Ihey have not cared to take the initiative. 

Legislators both city and slate are constantly misled into un- 
doubtedly an honest though none the less mistaken belief as to 
the results to be obtained from a compulsorily lowered rale of fare. 
They assume that a reduction of one or two cents per fare cannot 
fail to procure more net revenue to a company. Even where they 
make comparisons they do not do it logically and ignore the local 
conditions which are alike in scarcely any two cities. Without 
reflection one would think that what is done in Washington cer- 
tainly could be duplicated in Baltimore, on account of the close 
proximity of the two cities. 

On another page we quote from the address of General Manager 
House, of the United Railway & Electric Co., of Baltimore, before 
the legislative committee. It is a remarkably concise and con- 
vincing proof, in which figures tell the story, of why Baltimore is 
not Washington. 

The work of the United States Patent Office is greatly hampered 
by reason of the inadequate space assigned to it, and the condition 
of aflfairs is steadily becoming worse as the business of the office 
increases, and more storage room must be found for documents 
and records by encroaching on the working space. Already in 
soine departments the weight of papers has become such that 
furth..'r storage on the floors is forbidden by the building inspec- 
tors, and the records which constitute the title to valuable manu- 
facturing properties are stacked in halls and passageways, where 
tney are exposed and sure to be destroyed in case of accidental fire. 

Up to Jan. I, 1899, the number of patents granted was 693,979 and 
the number of trade marks, labels, etc., registered 41,422. Last year 
25.527 patents were granted and 2,260 trade marks registered. This 
accumulation has resulted in crowding the halls originally intended 
for models with record matter, rendering exhibitions of the models 
practically impossible and has forced different departments of the 
ofSce to be separated and located on diflferent floors with great 
increase in the labor of routine business. 

In no respect is the Patent Office more cramped than for money 
and space for its Scientific and Law Libraries. Less than $1,500 
was this year available for the Scientific Library and nothing what- 
ever for the Law Library. To permit these departments to grow 
as they should competent judges say that at least $6,000 per annum 
should be made available for the purchase of books. 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers at its Washing- 
ton meeting in May last resolved to urge upon Congress the neces- 
sity for action which will provide safe storage for valuable records, 
make a suitable provision for the library upon which the efficiency 
and accuracy of all the bureau's work is dependent, and secure 
adequate office room for the force. Every one who is interested in 
this reform, and none can be more so than the electrical manu- 
facturers, should do his share in bringing the matter before Con- 
gress by personal letters to the member from his district and the 
senators from his state. 

There can be no greater folly than to e.xpect public benefits to 
flow from the "competition" of transportation and other public 
service companies. If the enterprises are in fact competing ones 
the result must be either consolidation or the driving of one of 
the competitors into insolvency; the latter contingency means 
ruin for the solvent company and in the end. consolidation. 

Gen. John McNulta, who won an enviable reputation as a 
financier and administrator of large properties, said the basic 
doctrine of all receiverships is that "a solvent corporation cannot 
successfully compete with an insolvent corporation in the hands 
of a solvent receivership." When asked how he could afford to 
make the rate of iYt cents from 63d St. to South Chicago over the 
Calumet road, of which he was receiver, he said: 

"It is as plain as day. See here. This reduction affects only 
one-tenth of our traffic. It affects nine-tenths of the traffic of our 
competitor. He is a solvent corporation and must pay fixed 
charges. We are an insolvent corporation in the hands of a solvent 
receivership. We have no fixed charges to worry us. We can 
afford to suffer a small loss on 10 per cent of our total traflSc. Our 
competitor cannot. He cannot afford to come to our 2'<-cent fare 
because it would reduce 90 per cent of his income just one-half. If 
he does not come to our fare he will lose his traflSc and we will 



[Vol. X, No. 3- 

gain it. In the end he will be willing to consider a fair offer for 
his property. That will mean a consolidation of all the now com- 
peting lines south of 63d i>t." 

That the work of the American Street Railway Association is 
appreciated by the street railway men of this country is shown by 
the large number- who make it a point to attend the annual con- 
ventions, though identified with non-member companies. As the 
membcrsliip is vested in companies, not individuals, the expense 
to any one road is small, as it may send as many representatives 
as it desires. That the .Association has proved itself of great value 
to the street railway interests of the country is without question. 
That at no time since its organization has there e.Kisted a greater 
need for its work is equally true. It deserves and should receive 
the moral and financial support of every street railway in this 
country. The strength and influence of association work are meas- 
ured largely by numbers. In these days the large bodies and 
undertakings are the influential ones. 

The management of the association has decided to lend a helping 
hand to membership to the several hundred smaller roads to some 
of whom the first year's payment of dues and initiation might seem 
burdensome. The secretary announces the decision to waive the 
inititation fee of $25 for the next few months making the entire 
cost for new members only the regular $25 yearly dues. 

It is greatly to be hoped a large number will take advantage of 
this opportunity and send in their applications promptly. "Now is 
the time to subscribe." 

Last month we took a hasty glance at conditions prevailing to 
a greater or less extent on every road in the country; some were 
found to be greatly handicapped by a diversity of rolling stock 
and allied appliances. In no respect, however, did there appear to 
be a greater lack of uniformity than in the cars, and the question 
forces itself upon every thinking manager as to how much longer 
this thing will continue and what is going to be the practical 

Men who are capable of developing such magnificent properties 
and operating them successfully certainly will find a way to eradi- 
cate the existing evils which confront us. Some have already 
started in to standardize their rolling stock, and where a few years 
ago it was deemed essential to letter each car permanently with 
its street or avenue or route, making it impractical for use on other 
lines of the same company, now the only prominent lettering is the 
name of the company, and revolving or movable signs are placed 
to indicate the route. This has naturally led to a greater uniformity 
of color in the car painting and the passenger no longer watches 
for a red or blue car, but for the sign board which indicates its 
destination. The advantage of this is apparent in the greater num- 
ber of available cars for service at all times. It is precisely this 
same theory which has not been carried out in car building. The 
improvements recommended by the car builders, however, are by 
no means responsible for the great variety of rolling stock, which 
variety as we mentioned last month is not confined to different 
cities only, but is to be found among the several companies in the 
same city. 

Managers have been largely to blame for this. They have in- 
sisted on making their own specifications, even where the one doing 
so had had no special experience or qualifications for so important 
a decision. Some men, moreover, seem determined to stamp their 
own individuality on everything they can, and with some of these 
individuality proved nothing more nor less than being different 
from other people. A car which has no greater excuse for its 
unusual dimensions and construction than that it is different from 
others, has a very doubtful claim to improvement, and yet hun- 
dreds of cars have been built along precisely just such lines with the 
inevitable result that the time came when somebody devoutly 
wished that he or somebody else had done differently. 

The following has often been the case: The car builder who is 
called in to bid on an order is confronted first of all with a set of 
plans and specifications which represent the ideas of the manager. 
As like as not the former is not asked if he approves of the plans, 
or could suggest any changes, for to do so would be to admit they 
were not perfect (which of course they are!); and besides might 
give the car builder a chance to work in some scheme to his own 
advantage. The builder quickly sizes up the situation and reasons 
that while these cars are not what they might be, or even ought 
to be, that the buyers know what they want, are determined to 

have it so, and have the money to pay for what they want, hence 
why should he jeopardize his chances of securing the order by 
volunteering a lot of advice which however sound and good is 
almost sure to be unwelcome and rejected? 

We do not mean to be understood as saying that all managers, 
or even the majority, buy cars in the manner described; at the 
same time scores of them have done so, and we can point to the 
cars in evidence thereof. 

Is there any good reason why the car builders and managers 
cannot get together and agree upon a certain standardization in 
car construction and dimensions? This does not necessarily mean 
that we should all agree to say a 24 ft. car for city use, for in many 
places the 30 ft. and more, are deemed best suited to the work. 
But is there any good, sensible reason why the general work on a 
30-ft. car should not be equally applicable to the car intended for 
Cleveland as the one for Chicago or Omaha? 

Steam roads have already found a standardization for all kinds of 
rolling stock from four-wheel cabooses to longest sleepers, and 
have effected a saving of thousands of dollars. There are many 
old style cars still in use, but as fast as they are rebuilt they are 
brought into line as far as possible. With the street railway the 
problem is vastly more simple and can be put into operation with 
comparatively little trouble. It is not contemplated in this sugges- 
tion, that all the cars in the country should hereafter be cast in the 
same mold like so many bullets, b-'t that the American Street 
Railway Association ought to take up vigorously the question of 
standardizing rolling stock. This would still leave to each buyer 
the opportunity to carry out his own artistic ideas of exterior color 
and interior finish; the desired symmetrical curvature of grab 
handles or the texture of window curtains. But is there any reason 
to prevent the standardization of what are really the vital parts 
of the car; and when this has been agreed upon why go on ex- 
perimenting? Or, if experiments are still desirable and necessary, 
let some one experiment for the benefit of the association, at the 
association's expense, and not have a harvest of failures where a 
smaller example would amply sufifice. For example, if a car builder 
had a generally accepted standard of car decks to go by, he could 
buy material and make up parts, or if he had a little spare time — 
which none of them have just now — he could as safely go ahead and 
stock up on 24-ft. and 30-ft. decks, as he can now lay in nails and 
screws and floor lumber. 

Under such conditions the car builders could do a great deal of 
their work to much better advantage, and even if buyers did not 
noticeably benefit in the way of direct saving in price, they certainly 
would gain something in time of delivery under ordinary condi- 

Three years ago managers smiled when one suggested a standard 
system of accounts, while admitting its great desirability. The 
energy and promptness with which the young men of the Account- 
ants' Association grappled with the problem and worked it out, is 
something of which we are all proud. Not only do we know they 
have succeeded, but the voluntary commendation of state railroad 
commissioners places their stamp of approval on the work. 

What has been done in the accounting department can be done 
in the shop. Whether the manager is best qualified to decide on 
car standards; or whether he should allow his master mechanic in 
conference with other master mechanics to do this; or whether 
the managers and the master mechanics and the car builders all 
together, is something to think about. It would seem that the car 
builders and the street railway master mechanics could very profit- 
ably confer and submit a report to the managerial association for 
its adoption. 

There is probably such a thing as overdoing the association- 
convention business, but as long as we have so much to learn in 
the shop department it cannot be an unprofitable thing for the 
tnanager to bring his shop superintendent or master mechanic, or 
whatever his title, with him to the annual convention. If these 
men after an exchange of methods and experiences cannot bring 
home with them ideas worth to their company many times the 
expense of sending them to such a meeting, it must be because 
they are not the right men for the place. 

The shop department is bound to receive more careful attention 
and greater recognition from this time on, than it has been awarded 
in the past. The American Association has already recognized 
this fact to the extent of deciding on a report at the ne.xt meeting 
on the supply department, and if the subject receives the careful 
study and fearless treatment it deserves we predict the paper will 
be one of the most valuable and suggestive on the program. 

Mar. 15, lyoo.' 



The System of the Boston Elevated Railway Co, 

The New Elevated Line 

The Subway The Organization The Mechanical and Electrical Features and 
Methods in Vogue in the Different Departments. 

UY C. B. KAlKtllll.I), 


rill' iKiiiu- iif ilif West ImuI .SUi'it Kailway Co., of Hoslon, is iikjic 
familiar lo llie readers of street railway literature than that of the 
Boston I'-levated Railway Co., but the latter company having leased 
all the lines and property of the first-named comi)any, now controls 
all the street railway lines in Boston except those of the Lynn & 
Boston Railroad Co. This company, however, has a traffic ar- 
rangement with the BosIdm F.lev.iled and enters Boston over its 

It is proper to note in the introduction of this article that the 
credit for having made electricity available as a motive power, on a 
commercial scale, is largely due to the West End company because 
of its early adoption of this power and the liberal manner in which 
the company set about experimenting, and its financial ability to 
meet the great experimental outlays that have marked the introduc- 
tion of electricity as a motive power for street railways. Probably, if 
names are to be mentioned in connection with the adoption of elec- 
tric power for traction purposes, no one deserves more credit for 
foresight, faith and courage in the future of this subtle power than 
Mr. Henry M. Whitney, former president of the West End com- 
pany. Whatever may be said, however, in the way of credit about 
the pioneer work that was done on these lines, no less is due to the 
principal olUcers now responsible for the operation of this extensive 
system and the admirable manner in which the operating 
forces have been organized and the methods of control that arc 
now in vogue. These names include those of William A. Bancroft, 
who was made president of the company in October last, and 
Charles S. Sergeant, vice-president. Other names will appear in 
order in connection with the description of the different depart- 
ments, nearly all of which will have attention in this article. 


The erection of the elevated structure which has given its name 
to the entire system, is now well under way, and it is expected that 
the elevated lines will be in full operation, by electric power, in 
about a year. The accompanying diagram. Fig. i, shows the loca- 



-6 ;; 


I I 


-t S <r- 






- - lO'- 

^ -I 1 — 1 










PL An 

FIG. 2. 


^ r^ S V 

r, ,'^ -•-. f~. 









'i, ;i; ■!■ a. 




,il>o the IraMic In and from the South Union Station, locally known 
as the Terminal Station and which is said to be the largest steam 
railway station in the world. The main line of the structure in 

'cfiar/es nit'ti- 

FIG. 1. 

Dudley St. to Castle St., Villairc Si. elevated) 

Castle St. to Surface between Corning and Pleasant Sts., (incline 

Surface, etc., to Pleasant St.. (inclined 

Subwav— Pleasant St. to Old Boston & Maine Station isnbwa.\ 

Old B.'& M. Station to Travers St., (incline) 

Travers St. to Causeway St., (incline) 

Causeway St. to Sullivan Squ.. (elevated) 

Atlantic Ave. Loop, (elevatc<l 





- .05 

1 2U 



1 T<i 



From Dudley St., Roxbury, 

To Sullivan Sij., Char'lestown, via Subway ^-I 

To " " " " Atlantic Ave. Loop. . ^ " 

Round trip I " ' 

To North Union Station, via Subway •* 

To " " " ** Atlantic Ave. Loop.. ^ . 

Round trip " '■ 

From Sullivan Sq., 

To Castle and Wasliinpion Sts., via Subway 3.4 

To *' " •* " Atlantic Ave. Lm-tp 3.^ 

Round trip ~ 5 

Loop, via Subway and Atlantic Ave.. ■* ' 

Boston is located on Washington St. and in Charlestown. on Main 
St., and crosses the Charles River on the upper deck of a large 
draw bridge which with the approaches constitutes an irterestinj 

Fit;. 4. 

tion and direction of the elevated structure. It will be noted that 
the main line from each end terminates at the portals of the sub-way 
<','hich is a prominent feature in connection with the Boston system 
of street railways. A loop passing around the subway connects the 
inner terminals and provides for the patrons on .\tlantic .\ve. and 

feature of the system. The cars are to enter the subway by 
means of inclines and the bore of the subway is being en- 
larged where necessary to provide for the passage of the elevated 
trains. .\\\ through traffic in the subway is to be by elevated train 
only, while certain of the surface cars will enter the subway and loop 



[Vol. X, No. 3. 

-,,'it .lie 

IVlAK. IS, 1900.] 



at a station, as is luiw dciiie l)y sonic of llic linos, in a maimer to \>c 
described later on. The main line o( the elevated slrnctiire termin- 
ates in a loop at each end and in conneelion with this inclines arc 
provided for bringing the cars of certain of the surface lines to the 

RUsset plates, cutting away unnecessary material from the central 

h'lK- II is a plan and elevation of the longitudinal trusses for 
spans from 29 to 37 ft. On the Charlcstown Bridge, plate conslruc- 


same level as the elevated cars, to and from which, free transfers 
are to be given. 

The total length of the elevated strnctmc is 6 miles, the m.iin 
line inclnding the subway, is 5.1 miles; the .\llantic Ave. loop is 2.3 
and the subway 1.2 miles. 

The character of this structure which provides for a double track 
line throughout the entire length is shown in the accompanying dia- 
grams and half-tone illustrations. 

Fig. 2 shows a typical concrete foundation for the columns where 
the soil was found to be sufficiently firm to sustain the load witli- 
out piling. 

The foundations are of portland cement concrete mixed in pro- 
portions of I, 2j4 and S for the first five courses and of i, 2 and 4 for 
the top course. Fig. 3 illustrates a foundation where piling was 
required to support the concrete, as was the case on nearly all of the 
Atlantic Ave. loop. The pile foundations are supported on 22 piles 
and are in tour courses of portland cement concrete, the top course 
being i, 2 and 4 and the otiifrs i, 2^/ and 5. The bottom of the 
first course is placed below ground water level. 

Fig. 4 shows a base with anchor bolts and Fig. 5 the base of a 
column and fenders. 

The columns and cross trusses are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. This 
form of construction is used only where the streets are wide and 
where the tracks are located above the column. Should it be found 
necessary in the future to provide for a third track these cross 
trusses will be replaced with plate or lattice girders. The clear 
headway under the girders on the main line is 14 ft., while on At- 
lantic Ave. where steam freight cars also operate, the height is 15 
ft. S in. Typical cross girders are shown in Figs. 8 and 9. The 
former is of the lattice type and is employed where the shadows of 
the plate girders would be objectionable. The latter type, how- 
ever, is generally used at the south end of the line on Washington 
St., Fig. 10, and on the Charlestown Bridge. Where plate 
girders are used on the main structure, a group of round 3-in. holes 
are provided in some of the plates to provide for locating the feeder 
cables. The lengths and other dimensions of the cross girders are 
shown on the diagram. Fig. 9 also shows the design of the expan- 
sion pockets which are placed at least every 200 ft. 

It will be noted on inspecting the drawings of these trusses that 
contrary to the usual practice an eflfort has been made to improve 
the appearance of the structure by giving curved outlines to the 

tion is also used for the longitudinal spans. The same diagram 
shows the sway frames that are placed at suitable intervals. Figs. 
12 and 13 illustrate the hoists employed for erecting purposes. 


Fig. 14 illustrates the draw span of the Charlestown Bridge, one 
of the most interesting structures of its class in the world. The 
bridge proper was finished last year and was built by the city, but 
the elevated structure w-as built by the railway company. 

The draw span is 240 ft. long, resting on a center pier, 


with a passage for vessels on each side 50 ft. wide. The draw 
is 100 ft. wide and 23 ft. above mean high water. The indi- 
vidual trusses, of which there are four, are 24 ft. deep at the end 
and 43 ft. at the highest point of the center. The bridge provides 



[Vol. X, No. 3. 

for a double line of surface car tracks, two roadways 29 ft. wide for 
vehicle traffic and two side paths to ft. wide for pedestrians. The 
revolving mechanism is contained in the circular base which is 54 
ft. in diameter and the load is supported on solid steel wheels which 
are placed very close together. Two electric motors, mounted on 

niannor as that described for the Charlestown Station. Fig. 17 is a 
cross section of the elevated station on .Atlantic .'\ve. at the South 
Union or Terminal Depot, showing the approaches; it is noted 
that on one side a bridge leads from the elevated station through 
the side wall of the passenger statinTi. 



brackets, on either side of the base, provide the power for operating 
the draw and are connected by suitable shafts and reducing gear to 
a spur wheel which meshes into a gear extending entirely around 
the base. Suitable hydraulic lifts at the ends of the structure serve 
to lock and help support the ends of the draw when closed. 

The surface construction of the elevated structure is illustrated in 
Fig. 15 and shows the location of the track and conductor rails. 
The conductor rail is partially housed and guarded by means of two 
plank stringers which are supported by iron brackets spiked to the 
cross ties. The conductor rail will probably be mounted on insulat- 
ing blocks. All of the rails, including the conductor rails, are to be 
of the A. S. C. E. standard section weighing 85 lb. per yd., and the 
track rails are connected by "Continuous joints." The rails are 
laid on tie plates. All timber work shown -in the 'llustration is cf 
long leaf southern pine. A tubular guard rail or fence is pro\id.?d 
for the protection of the employes while on the structure and this 
is shown in the same illustratinn. 

FIG. 14 I)KAW-SP.\N, CllART.I'.slnwX 1:K11h;e. 

Fig. 16 is a layout of the south terminal loop on Dudley St. 
known as the Ro.xbury Station. Here it will be noted that two lines 
of surface cars come up to the elevated level and loop on each side 
of the elevated track, but at diflfcrent levels. The platform of the 
surface cars is 13 in. above the rail, while that of the elevated cars is 
4 ft. above the rail. The dotted lines shows the surface tracks that 
pass beneath the structure. The structure is roofed in the same 

The different levels are indicated by the elevation above datum, 
and are required to meet the peculiar conditions in the station. The 
stairs leading to the elevated structure from the street are also 
shown in the same connection. 

Fig. 18 shows the arrangement of the ticket offices, waiting rooms, 
and platforms, and is a typical layout for all the stations on the Hne. 
The others, however, are designed to suit tlie local condition. The 
exterior walls and roof of this station are of copper, painted, while 
the inside is finished in oak panelling, hard pine flooring, both for 
the station rooms and platform, and in the toilet rooms open plumb- 
ing is employed. The whole station is made as light and airy as 

Fig. 20 shows the general layout of the elevated and surface 
tracks at the Sullivan Square Station at the Charlestown Ter- 
minal. Here is also located the repair shop for the elevated system 
and the tracks leading ofif to the right enter the repair shop. As 
noted above the elevated tracks make a loop and the surface cars 
come up to a level with the structure over inclines which have a 
grade of about 5 per cent. Some of these inclines lead to the inside 
of the loop, others outside, and passengers are delivered and re- 

r/ai 7>e/k6—i6 croc. 
Lreri^fourTtiTie 7'ie"j(/a' 


2^ c to c 0; Ttochi 


ceived from the elevated platform. A double elevated track is 
shown around part of the loop and on one side. This is designed for 
storing trains after they are made up and waiting for their schedule 

Fig. 19 shows the ground plan of the station, the ticket ofSces 
and waiting room, and also the tracks of the surface line which loop 
here and pass the station on (he ground level. The main lloor is 

Mar. is, 1900.] 



1 { 

Warren ir. 






[Vol. X, No. 3. 

nkm Sr 

iOlLIV/IA/ So. 


Mak. 15, iy(X).] 


12 7 





[Vol. X, No. 3- 

railed off, so that access can be had to the inner waiting room only 
by the passengers that come in on the surface cars. Stairs from this 
waiting room and also from the main ticket office lead up to the 
elevated platform. On the inside of the building, concessions are 
sold or rented for refreshment room, billiard parlors, and stores on 
a portion of the ground floor. The third floor layout is shown in 
Fig. 21 and here are the executive offices of the Elevated company 
Fig. 22 is another layout of the second floor, showing waiting room 
with porters' closets and toilet rooms and also shows the terminal 

ciding on the make of the electrical equipment three trains of four 
cars each will be equipped with three ditTcrent electric systems. 
Three cars of the type described have been built for the company by 
the Wasson Car Co., of Springfield, Mass., and each of these will 
be equipped as a motor and will each haul a train of loaded flat cars 
equipped with suitable donlrolling mechanism. 

With these, experimental trips in the subway, at night, will soon 
be begun after the surface car traffic is withdrawn. The three ex- 
perimental motor cars are mounted on trucks of the engine, swing 

EIG. 24. 

FIG. 25. 

track of the surface lines on the elevated platform. The platform 
and part of the loop arc roofed in and the roof is supported on steel 
arches that span the entire space of 175 ft. The return and storage 
tracks of the Elevated are outside the structure. Fig. 23 is an ex- 
terior view of this station. The walls are of brick and the interior 
finish of waiting rooms and station is of enamel brick of various 
shades. The station is light and airy and contains all the conven- 
iences that can be suggested for the accommodation of the patrons 
and employes. 


The cars to be operated on the elevated structure are of about 
the same general pattern as those employed on the Manhattan Ele- 
vated Ry., of New York. The bodies are 46 ft. 2 in. over all, and 8 
ft. 6 in. wide, and have side as well as end doors. 

Kio. 26. 

Side seats only are provided. The trains are to be run with froin 
two to five cars and are to be controlled by a "multiple unit system" 
so that the motors can be operated from each platform. Before de- 

bolster type, which were made by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
of Philadelphia. 

Each car will be equipped with two 150-h. p. motors both mounted 
on one truck. One of the cars will be equipped with the General 
Electric motors and the G. E. system of multiple control. A second 
will be equipped with Westinghouse motors and method of control 
and the third will be fitted on the Sprague system. 

Automatic air brakes are to be used and one train will have the 
Westinghouse system, another the New York Air Brake systein and 
the third the Christensen system. The experimental trains will be 
equipped with difTerent types of electrical car heaters including the 
Gold system, the American Heating Corporation fystem, the Con- 
solidated and a new system making use of a blower designed by 
Boston parties. The cars will be coupled by means of the Van Dorn 
draw bar and couplers and are provided with platform gates which 
will be fitted with the Gold locking and operating device the 
same as is universally employed on elevated and suburban trains. 


A new plant from which the elevated line will be operated is being 
erected on Lincoln Wharf to which coal can be delivered direct from 
barges without having to pass any draw bridges. The preliminary 
power equipment of the station will consist of two vertical cross 
compound condensing engines with cylinders 44 and 88 .x 60 in. and 
rated at 4,000 h. p. each; they will have a maximum of about 7,000 
h. p. each. These machines are each direct coupled to a 500-volt 
direct current generator of 2.700 kw. capacity. The generators have 
been ordered, one from the General Electric Co., and one from 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. 

The first equipment of boilers consist of four batteries of Babcock 
& Wilcox boilers, each rated at 3,800 h. p. Included in the auxil- 
iary equipment is a Green economizer with 1,152 tubes. The con- 
densers are of the Blake type with vertical twin pumps. 

The stack is of brick and is 260 ft. in height with a 13 ft. flue. 
Foundation and room are provided for a second stack of the same 
iliniension. An elaborate coal storage and coal handling system 
will be established consisting of cars and conveyors both for han- 
dling coal and ashes. Roney stokers will be used. 

The steel for the elevated structure was bought for the most part 
from the Pencoyd Steel Co., although considerable was furnished 
by the Carnegie Steel Co. and the Pennsylvania Steel Co. The 
design and erection of the elevated structure and equipment have 
been under the direction of Mr. Geo. A. Kimball, chief engineer of 
the elevated lines. 

Mar, is, 1900.] 



rilK liOSTdN sunvvAY. 

'J'liis is a proniiiiriit aiul intcri-sliiiK fualuro lA llic liostim I'^lc- 
v;.ted system. Tlic subway was built by tlic city and was desiKUcil 
to relieve llic couKestcd condition of Treniont and WasIiinKlon Sis. 
near the center of tlie city where the surface traflic liad lieeomc too 
Kreat for the narrow streets. The work of construction was beKun 
ill March, 1895, and was finished in 29 months. The tunnel projjer 
is 9,498 ft. long and runs under the public Rardeiis and under several 
of the principal streets. On being finished it was leased by the 
street railway company for a period of 20 years, and the electrical 
eiiuipmeiU, tracks, etc., installed by the company. The subway is 
lint a low-level tunnel but is built as near the surface as possible. 
One section is designed for a four-track railway and here it is 48 ft. 
across with roof supported in the middle by a row of steel columns. 
The two track section is 24 ft. wide and has a flat roof which is sup- 
ported by brick arches turned between I-beams with diagonal 
stringers connecting the vertical and horizontal beam across the 
corners. One section is divided into two separate single track sub- 
ways, which afterwards converge into a <louble barrel subway. 
Leading to the portals, are open inclines, protected by retaining 
walls on ciiiKTctc louiidatioii. The grades range from 5 to 8 per 

Sections of the subway and one of the approaches are shown in 
Figs. 24, 25 and 26. 

The layout of the tracks at the five principal stations in the sub 
way and the passenger platforms are shown in Fig. 27. It will be 
noted that some of the tracks loop at three of the stations while the 
other continues through and provides for a continuous trip to and 
from any part of the city. Entrance to the platforms is had through 
stations which arc built of granite with flights of steps leading to 
the ticket otliccs and platforms. The roofs of these stations are 
principally of glass and the stations were made as complete as the 
ciiiulitions would allow. The platforms are of artificial stone with 
suitable guard rails and wire fences for the protection and guidance 
of the passengers. Ticket offices are provided at each station and all 
subway passengers entering by the station are required to purchase 
tickets which the conductors collect before the cars emerge from the 
subway. At the stations the lining of the tube is of white enam- 
eled brick, and the stations are brilliantly lighted by arc and incan- 
descent lamps. 

Bott^ston street C>tation 

Adam:, ^guare Station 

Ma^ntarMef Square -5 fat /on 


At the Boylston St. Station is a cross sul.)-subway. so that the 
southbound passengers after purchasing their tickets can pass under 
the tracks to the platform of the southbound cars. Uniformed attend- 
ants are stationed at the platforms to direct and care for passengers. 
The subway is lighted throughout by electric lamps and electric 
heaters are provided for warming the ticket offices. There is also 
an elaborate lock signal system. Perfect ventilation is secured by 
means of fans driven by electric motors with flues leading to venti- 
lating chambers that communicate with the external air. 

The Park St. Station of the subway is said to rank third among 
the busy railway stations of the world, although one of the smallest 
in platform capacity, having only 15.197 sq. ft. of available surface. 
This station is used as the general transfer point of the subway and 
it is estimated that in busy hcurs 2.500 people transfer at this point 

while the number of tickets sold between the hours of s and 6 at 
night lias been as high as 8,0.31, and the maximum number o( cars 
passing ill one hour is 204 including those that pass on the inside 
loop, and 124 in each direction on the through tracks. 

The number of tickets sold daily at this station is about 25,- 
000 and the inaxiiiium for any one day was 40,000. It is estimated 



that as many people leave the station during the day of 18 hours as 
enter it, so that it is safe to say that as many as 100,000 people are 
daily accommodated at this station. Electrically operated indicators 
are in use during the hours of largest out-going traffic. These in- 
dicators have the names of the routes arranged in parallel columns 
and between these are illuminated numbers to indicate the berth at 
which the car will stop. This prevents the passengers from crowd- 
ing to the edge of the platform to watch for their car. The subway 
fully meets the requirements for wdiich it was designed and is a 
Iironounced success both in construction and operation. About the 
only objection that can be named from the standpoint of the pas- 
senger is the excessive noise due to the echo from the walls and 
is caused chiefly, one would think, from the action of the trolley 
wheels on the wire. 


The executive offices of the company and of most of the depart- 
ments occupy eight floors of a large building at 101 Milk St. The 
space includes the drafting room for both the elevated lines and for 
the civil engineer's department of the surface line. Each floor is 
cut up into oflices suitable to the requirements of the different de- 
partments and all are supplied with the latest designs of office furni- 
ture, and are as completely organized as the latest office practice 
can suggest. Three of the departments have headquarters in other 
buildings. On the roof of this building, two blue print rooms have 
been constructed of sheet metal, one for the engineering department 
of the elevated lines and the other for the civil engineer's depart- 
ment of surface lines. 

The equipment of these rooms is very complete and the glass 
with its frame and table is mounted on a truck by means of 
which it is run out or in over a suitable track. The layout of rooms 
also includes a small tool room, a track museum for samples of rail 
and track equipment and a store room for telephone supplies and 

A private telephone exchange is maintained in the building vhich 
connects all the offices, not only those in the building, but the car 
houses and car stations of the whole system. 


With one exception the system of the Boston Elevated Railway 
Co. is the largest under one management in the country. The 
length of the surface lines aggregate 338 miles, nearly all of which 
is operated by electric power, and for generating the current, seven 
power houses have been erected with a total capacity of 26.144 l=w. 

The number of uniformed employes ordinarily on the pay rolls 
is 4-+2I- The number of closed cars is 1.381, and of open cars. 1.392. 
The number of passengers including free transfers as reported for 
the last fiscal year was 233,136.939, of which 191,023,224 were revenue 



[Vol. X, No. 3. 

passengers. The earnings were $9,671,441, and the operating ex- 
penses were $6,827,150. 

In order to operate a property of such vast magnitude econom- 
ically and satisfactorily, to both the patrons and the investors, it is 
evident that a complete organization of the forces and a wise system 
of discipline must be primary requirements and that each must be 
done to a scientific nicety. That the responsible parties have mas- 
tered the situation admirably so as to meet the many difTicult prob- 
lems, due both to the geographical situation and public demands is 
evident to one who will inform himself and compare the work with 
that which prevails in other cities. If there is one thing more than 
another to be quoted in evidence of the wisdom of the plans fol- 
lowed it is that of the universal harmony and good-will that is ap- 
parent among the heads of the diflfcrcnt departments in their rela- 
tions to each other. 

The bureau of surface lines was established by the directors, and 
placed in charge of the vice-president, Mr. Charlts S. Ser- 
geant and by him organized into 10 departments with a head for 
each department who is responsible directly to him. The depart- 
ments having been organized, a pamphlet was issued and supplied 
to the head of each department naming the department and briefly 
outlining the duties of each head and defining his relations to each 
of the other departments. In this pamphlet the names of the differ- 
ent departments appear as follows: 

That of Transportation; of Motive Power and Machinery; of 
Wires and Conduits; of Maintenance of Way; of Civil Engineering; 
of Electrical Engineering; of Buildings; of Employment; of Inspec- 
tion; of Stores. 

The head of the auditing department is responsible directly to the 
president and board of directors. 

(To he continued.) 



Some time in 1898 the District Board of Saran, India, reached 
the conclusion that a tramway or light railway should be built to 
carry the very heavy trafific over the Chapra-Satter-Ghat Road, one 
of the principal roads of the district. In pursuance of this de- 
cision an advertisement was published, and several replies were re- 
ceived; but since then little or nothing has been done in the matter, 
e.xcept that the board decided, at one of its recent meetings, to ofTer 
to any firm or company willing to undertake the scheme, a subsidy 
of 8,000 rupees per year for eight years. The engineering diffi- 
culties connected with the building of the tramway would be small. 

According to Indian Engineering the native merchants of Chapra 
are very enthusiastic over the tramway scheme, and would afTord 
considerable support, as, by its existence, the existing high charges 
for cartage would be vastly decreased, and where now it takes them 
two to three days to obtain their goods from the northern ghat, 
the "tram" would deliver them in 12 hours or less. 

It is a scheme well worthy of the notice of capitalists, more 
especially as it will be the pioneer tramway of northern Behar, and 
the company taking it in hand will naturally reap all the advantages 
obtainable by the opening up of a hitherto untouched country, and 
one where, owing to population, the trafific is constant and heavy. 


The Metropolitan Street Railway Co., of Kansas City, Mo., and 
its allied companies, the Central Electric Co. and the Home Elec- 
tric Co., have asked the city council for street railway franchises 
on II additional streets. The proposed franchise ordinance 
provides that the construction of the new lines must begin within 
six months after the acceptance of the franchise, and must be 
finished within 18 months thereafter; for the payment to the city 
of 2 per cent per annum of the entire gross earnings of these lines; 
the average rate of speed of cars to be 12 miles an hour and the 
fare to be s cents. 

It is the intention of the company to make Main St., Walnut St. 
and Grand Ave. the three trunk lines of the city's entire car sys- 
tem, and every car will have one of these three streets on its route. 
Pres. W. H. Holmes is quoted as saying that the contemplated 
improvements will cost nearly $2,000,000. 

The report of the Board of Trade to the House of Commons, 
on the street and road tramways of the United Kingdom for the 
year ending June 30, 1899, shows that on that date there were 1,122 
miles of line open for traffic, of which 88i miles were in England 
and Wales, 106 miles in Scotland and 135 miles in Ireland. The 
total paid-up capital represented by these lines was £18,052,773, 
of which about £8,500.000 was share capital. Out of the 169 under- 
takings, 61 are owned by local authorities. 

The number of passengers carried on all lines for the year was 
924.820,247, as against 146,001,223 for 1878, and 858,485.542 for 
1898. Gross receipts for the year were £4.879.^)02. working ex- 
penses £3.675.559, net receipts £1,204,043. equivalent to about 6;/2 
per cent on the total capital. 


ihe question of the magnetic disturbances caused by electric 
street railways was discussed recently in a paper by Mr. Mariani 
before the Institute of the University of Rome, Italy. The author 
reaches the conclusion that the magnetic materials on a street rail- 
way directly affect the compass up to a distance of 150 yd. from 
the line, and the further disturbances such as are felt by magnetic 
observatories are due to the leakage currents from the earth return, 
the range over which these are felt being about 2,000 yd. 


A formula for computing the stresses in trolley wires caused by 
variations in temperature has been worked out by Mr. M. Essig 
and published in the Electrotechnicher Zeitung. Assuming a span 
of 40 meters (131^ ft.), a wire of 50 sq. mm. area (equal to .316 in. 
in diameter), and a working tension of 400 kg. (880 lb.), the addi- 
tional pull per degree Fahrenheit is as follows: 

Temperature, degrees F. Extra pull. lb. 

From 86 to 79 3.7 

79 to 68 4.9 

" 68 to 54 6.1 

" 54 to 46 7.3 

" 46 to 32 8.6 

" 32 to 14 9.8 

" 14 to 4 ii.o 

« ■ » 

Mr. Edward B. Ellicott, city electrician of Chicago, states that 
after a careful study of the conditions for over two years and mak- 
ing tests which extended throughout the city, he recommends to 
the council that in electric railway ordinances the company be re- 
quired to provide and maintain a return circuit of such conductivity 
that the maximum potential difference between the rails and water 
pipes in the street shall not exceed i volt, and such that the maxi- 
mum difference in potential between points on the rails 300 ft. apart 
shall not exceed y2 volt. This will not prevent flow of current to 
and from water pipes, but it is claimed will reduce the liability of 
serious damage to a minimum. 


The earnings of the Cleveland interurban electric railways for 
the year 1899 show substantial increases over those of the preceding 
year. They are: Cleveland, Berea, Elyria & Oberlin, $67,377; 
Lorain & Cleveland, $53.,sos; Northern Ohio Traction (A. B. & C), 
$124,300; Cleveland & Chagrin Falls, $15,355; Cleveland, Paines- 
ville & Eastern, $55,441. 

Mar. 15, H/K).] 



Three-phase Installation of the Newtown (Pa.) Electric Street Railway. 

In the closing years of tlic scvciikciilli ccndiry llic illustrious 
William Pcnn, founder of the present city of riiiladclpliia, drew up 
his famous contract with the I.enni I.cnape tribe of Indians, who, 
by its wordiuK, were to release to William Penn and his successors 
as much land layiuR between the Delaware and Susquehanna Riv- 
ers, as could be stepped olT in 24 hours, commencing at a point 
indicated by a rough stone monunieitt, a view of which is shown 

I'"rc)m this place it passes through Forrest Grove and Bushing- 
ton to Doylestown, the county scat, making a total distance of 
28 miles. 

The rail in the boroughs is 7-in. girder and on the other portions 
of the road 60-lb. Trail has been used, laid on ties 6 in. x 8 in. 
.\ 8 ft., spaced 2,112 tics to the mile, laid with suspended joints, the 
rails being bonded together with No. 0000 copper bond, placed un- 


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in Fig. I. From that time the people of Bucks County have had 
no better methods than were then in use, for traveling across from 
difTerent towns to the county scat, until the construction of the 
present lines of the Newtown Electric Street Railway Co. This 
company absorbed the Bristol & Langhorne Railway Co., and by 
the construction of an extension of 14 miles from Newtown to 
Doylestown, completed one of the longest continuous suburban trol- 
ley lines at present operating. Starting at Bristol, Pa., on the New 
York Division of the Pennsylvania R. R., the road runs continu- 
ously on its own private right-of-way parallel to and adjacent to 
the turnpike, through the village of Hulmeville to Langhorne, 
crossing the New York Division of the Philadelphia & Reading 
R. R. on an overhead bridge at the above-named station, and con- 
tinuing thence through Langhorne Manor, crossing under the 
Trenton cut-off branch of the Pennsylvania R. R. This crossing 
was accomplished after several years of legal battle, waged by the 
electric company against its steam road antagonist. The line con- 


der the plates. The rail and special work was furnished by William 
Wharton, jr., & Co., of Philadelphia; the ties by Kirby & Haw- 
kins, of Philadelphia. 

When the extension of the line from Newtown to Doylestown 
was first considered, the principal question that arose was the one 
of supplying power to the continuous line from Bristol to Doyles- 

I'-ir,. A-BRincK AND TRESTLE .\T WYcclMBE. 


tinues to Newtown, crosses at grade the Newtown branch of the 
Philadelphia & Reading R. R., and thence through Main St. of 
Newtown, to and through the village of Wrightstown, crossing 
over the New Hope branch of the Philadelphia & Reading R. R. 
at Wycombe, Pa., on a trestle and iron bridge, shown in Fig. 3. 

town. It was finally concluded to install a power plant at Newtown, 
which is the center of the line, putting two transforming sub-sta- 
tions, one seven miles to the south of power plant and one 11 miles 
to the north. The contract for construction was awarded to the 
American Engineering Co., of Philadelphia, and was by it carried 



[Vol. X, No. 3, 

FK;. 5™R0T.VKV TK.\.NS1-'«iK-MKKN. 

to successful completion, its able and efficient corps of engineers 
having entire charge of the work. 

The power house, the exterior of which is shown in Fig. 2, is 
situated at Newtown, on the Philadelphia & Newtown R. R., with 
coal siding connecting therewith. Its equipment consists of two 
Ridgeway simple engines of 300 and 400 h. p. each, belt connected 
to one 225-kw. direct current generator and one alternating cur- 
rent generator. The switchboard consists of one direct current 
feeder panel, three alternating current feeder panels and one ex- 


rotary transformers, and three stationary transformers. The al- 
ternating current enters the transformers at 6,000 volts, and is fed 
to the line at 550 volts, direct current. The transformer stations 
are also equipped with marble switchboard, consisting of alternat- 
ing current and direct current panels, with necessary fixtures, the 
electrical equipment being furnished throughout by the General 
Electric Co. 



citer panel mounted on Tennessee and black marble, the alter- 
nating current panels being of the light marble, and the direct 
current of the black. Interior views of the power station are given 
in Figs. 8 and 9. 

The overhead material consists of No. 00 trolley wire, suspended 
from brackets supported by wooden poles with cross arm attached, 
upon which is strung the feeder wire, consisting of three No. 6 
wires, hung on triple petticoated porcelain insulators, the direct 

00 Trollei) Wire 550 Volts 


Siih %tafinn HQwet house 'iubStatio/i 

^ I I ■ I ^ K ft i^^i^r I 1 c *: n i/nlts li I I ' 


3 Ho 6 wire 

550 yoits 

3 lio6 Wire 

6000 Uoit3 


6000 Volts 

sn 00 Mre 

There are two sub-stations, one located at Hulmeville, 7^4 miles 
from the power house, and the other at Bushington, 11 miles from 
the power house. The e.xterior of the sub-stations is shown in 
Fig. 6, the interior in Fig. 5. The sub-stations are equipped with 

current feeder being hung on glass insulators. The feeder system 
is shown in Fig. 7. 

The car barn is of wood, on stone foundation, with two tracks 
of sufficient capacity to hold 10 cars, which are of the type illus- 

Mar. 15, 1900.] 



Iratid in Fi^. 4. '1 lu' closed ciirs were [uijii^licd Ijy llu- S(. I.fiiiis 
C.Tr Co., and arr ciiiiippi'd vvilh (wn (]. K. 1,000 motors, K-2 con- 
trollers, Syracuse cliaiiKcable headlights and New Haven illumi- 
nated face registers, and rattan walkover seals. They are mounted 
on St. Louis No. 1.3 double trucks. That the road has filled a 
long felt want is attested by the travel since its opening. 

The officers of the company are: President, Thos. P. Chambers; 
vice-president, G. C. Worstall; secretary, A. Chambers; treasurer, 
general manager and purchasing agent, W. J. Keener; superintend- 
ent, B. F. Knabb. 

We were supplied with the above information and the accom- 
panying illustrations through the courtesy of D. A. Ilegarty, general 
su|)erinlondriil nf llic Railways Company General, of Philadelphia. 


The Kapid Transit Subway Construction Co., of New York, was 
incorporated on February 19th with a capital stock of $6,000,000. 
The object is "to construct or aid in constructing and equipment 
of rapid transit railroad in New York City authorized by Chapter 
4, Laws of 1891, and its amendments, the putting of same in opera- 
tion and use, maintenance and operation thereof, also to manufac- 
ture, purchase, sell and deal in all supplies, etc., useful in con- 
nection therewith; also to deal in stock and bonds of any other 
corporations organized to construct or operate said railroad." 

The directors of the company are: August Belmont; James 
Jourdan, president of the Brooklyn Union Gas Co. and the Am- 
sterdam Gas Co.; W. H. Baldwin, jr., president of the Long Island 
Railroad Co.; Walter G. Oakman, director of the Long Island and 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit companies; Charles T. Barney, president 
of the Knickerbocker Trust Co.; George CoppcU, president of the 
Wisconsin Central R. R.; Andrew Freedman, vice-president of the 
United Stales Fidelity & Guaranty Co.; John Pierce, contractor 
for the new Hall of Records; William A. Read, of Vermilye & Co.; 
George W. Young, president of the United States Mortgage & 
Trust Co.; Cornelius Vanderbilt; John B. McDonald; Gardiner M. 
Lane, formerly of Lee, Higginson & Co., Boston, and E. Mora 
Davison, of August Belmont & Co. 

The officers are: President, August Belmont; vice-president. 
Walter G. Oakman; secretary, Frederick Evans; treasurer, W. C' 
Emmet. The offices will be in the Park Row Building. 

February 24th the contract for building and operating the road 
was signed at the office of the New York Board of Rapid Transit 



The Supreme Court of Wisconsin, on February 27th, issued a 
peremptory writ of prohibition restraining further proceedings 
against Mayor Rose, of Milwaukee, the city clerk, and the 23 
aldermen whom Judge Ludwig had held to be in contempt of court 
for disregarding the injunction against passing the street railway 

While this decision is in the Schwartzburg case only, the attor- 
neys for the street railway believe that the other injunction cases 
have now no standing. 

The court, which was imanimous, said in part: 

"The theory of Schwartzburg's complaint is that the corporate 
rights and franchises in question were owned by the city and 
were held u\ trust for its citizens and taxpayers and the public, and 
that the same were the subject of barter and sale to the highest bid- 
der. Such corporate rights and franchises in this country are 
special privileges conferred by the sovereign power of the state 
or nation, and do not belong to the citizens of the state or county 
by common right. This brings us to the question whether the 
common council has the power to pass the ordinance. No one 
doubts the power of the Legislature to create cities and give them 
the general powers pojsessed by municipal corporations at com- 
mon law, and 'in addition thereto such powers pertaining to munic- 
ipalities as may be specifically granted, as in the case of the city of 

"The statute expressly authorizes the formation of 'corporations 
for constructing, maintaining and operating street railways,' un- 
der chapter 86, R. S.. and provides that they 'shall have powers and 

be governed accordingly.' That section also expressly provides 
I hat 'any municipal corporation or county may grant to any such 
corporation the use, upon such terms as the proper authorities 
shall determine, of any streets or bridges within its limits, for the 
Ijurpose of laying single or double tracks and running cars thereon. 
"The authority of the Legislature to delegate to municipal cor- 
Ijorations the power to so grant such corporate rights and fran- 
chises cannot be seriously doubted. In fact, this court, constru- 
ing that section, has expressly held that a municipal ordinance 
granting such corporate rights and franchises 'has the force and 
elTect of a statute of the state.' " 


In our issue for November, 1898, page 847, we described the at- 
tempts made by the General Electric Railway Co., of Chicago, lo 
build its line in Dearborn St. and cross the tracks of the Chicago & 
Western Indiana R. R. at isth St. Work was stopped, an injunc- 
tion being secured by the steam road. 

On February 19th, the Illinois Supreme Court dissolved the in- 
junction and a large force of men was put at work to build the 
coveted crossing. The Chicago & Western Indiana men wrecked 
a number of cars on the crossing, seriously injuring two men who 
could not get out of the way in time. After a brisk fight between 
the opposing forces had been stopped by the police, the wreck was 
cleared and the street railway completed from 14th St. to 17th St., 
where tracks had been laid when the injunction was secured in 1898. 

It is understood that work will proceed and the road be built in 
Custom House and Plymouth Places as soon as possible. The 
men controlling this company are friendly to the Chicago City 
Ry., and it is thought that eventually the latter will absorb it and 
thus secure another electric line which will relieve the Clark St. 


Early in January, the engine which drives the water works pump 
from which the city of Hartford, Conn., receives its water supply. 
broke down. The engine being of an ancient type, it was found 
that it would require from four to six weeks to have it repaired, 
so that a water famine seemed imminent. In their extremity, the 
members of the water works board appealed to the directors of the 
Hartford Street Railway Co. for advice and help in the matter. The 
directors referred the matter to their general manager, Mr. Nor- 
man McD. Crawford. Mr. Crawford informed them that he could 
take one of the generators from the company's power station, in- 
stall it as a motor in the water works station and have the pumps 
running in 24 hours, provided a suitable countershaft and pulleys 
could be secured. The water board accepted the proposition of the 
street railway company to provide motor and current up to 400 
h. p. The necessary shafting was promptly ordered from New 
York, and in a few days the pump was running with better satis- 
faction to the water works engineer than the engine had given. 
The generator was a G. E. M. P. machine 4-200-425. As the speed 
of the pump could not exceed 12 r. p. m., it was necessaiTr to re- 
duce the generator (motor) speed 425 through a countershaft. This 
was successfully accomplished, and the machine ran perfectly, with- 
out sparking and at constant speed, and up to February 8th had 
run continuously and pumped over 68.000.000 gallons. It speaks 
well for the street railway company that it had machinery and 
power to spare in such abundance in mid-winter, that it could take 
the city on its shoulders and lift it out of its plight in so creditable 
a fashion. 


February 26th the Rapid Railway Co., of Detroit, ran its first car 
from Mt. Clemens to Marine City, operating its new three-phase 
power house at New Baltimore. Regular service will be started 
about April 1st and the extension from Marine City to Port Huron 
will be completed and ready to operate before June ist. The new 
power house equipment, which was constructed by Westinghouse, 
Church. Kerr & Co., operated to perfection. 



[Vol. X, No. 3. 


On the occasion of the opening parade of the New Orleans Car- 
nival, on Febrnary 21st, the floats were all mounted on electric 
trucks and were driven by the overhead trolley system. While the 
feasibility of thus employing electricity for light and motive power 
in the Carnival parades has often been discussed, it has never be- 
fore been attempted. 

The pioneer was Prince Nereus, and he and his Krewe scored a 
great success. The pageant was run on the street car tracks, and 
the motive power and light derived from the trolley wires over- 
head. But to the spectator the tableaux moved along without any 
apparent motive force. The tableaux, several of which are shown 
in our engraving, were built upon specially constructed platforms, 
placed upon McGuire car trucks. The controller and brake were 
in the forward part, and the trolley post and pole towards the rear. 
Each car was equipped with a switch to control the lights and the 
current for the motive power. It tested the ingenuity of the de- 
signer to devise a plan to completely conceal both the niotorman and 
Irolleyman, and to so disguise the trolley pole that it would not 
be recognized. It was a difficult piece of work, especially on ac- 
count of the radical difference of all the tableaux, but it was ac- 
complished admirably. Due regard had to be exercised as well to 
give both men ample room to work in, and to see ahead. Though 
each tableau had a cave in front, and a larger one to the rear, the 
design comprehended this so cleverly that its purpose was alto- 

The New Orleans City Railroad Co. donated to the Nereus or- 
ganization the use of two car barns to build and store the parade, 
the use of 20 trucks complete with motors, controllers, trolleys, etc., 
and in addition furnished the skilled labor to operate them in the 
parade. Over 4,000 incandescent lamps were employed in the deco- 
rations. The muvcment of the parade was in charge of Mr. II. J. 
Dressel, superintendent of the company. 

The use of the car tracks and power for the purpose was largely 
due to the recommendation of General Manager Wyman, whose 
predictions for a grand success were more than realized. 

The company also handled an enormous traffic witlidul accident. 


The Zanesville, Adamsville & Coshocton Electric Railway Co. 
has been organized to connect a number of Ohio towns by an 
electric line. We are in receipt of the following letter from Mr. 
H. E. Buker, secretary of the company, concerning the project: 

"Our proposed electric railway will be about 40 miles in length, 
and will traverse a section of country that has absolutely no outlet, 
except the common country roads, and being well acquainted with 
these roads, I am forced to say that they are very common indeed. 
In fact, for about five months in the year, people living along the 
proposed route of our road, are mud bound. We will pass through 
a country rich in agriculture, and a country that is also supplied 
with rich mineral fields. We have already been assured that we will 


gather lost in the general eflfect. Take, for instance, the first car, 
Nereus. The motorman was concealed in the head of the fish, and 
a small, inconspicuous aperture gave him full opportunity to see 
ahead. The trolleyman was concealed in the tail of the fish, while 
the trolley pole was hidden by several seagulls in flight. In the car 
showing the burning of the Templars, the motorman and trolley- 
man were concealed in the flames, while the trolley pole was a huge 
tongue of flame which swayed to and fro with the vacillation of the 

be granted a free right of way, and we have already been ofifered a 
considerable sum of money by way of a cash bonus, conditioned 
upon the construction of this road. All this has been ofifered with- 
out any solicitation on our part. Our road will not be difficult to 
construct, as we will encounter but few hills of any consequence." 

The officers of the new company are: President, J. B. Wilson; 
vice-president, E. G. Abbott; secretary, H. E. Buker; treasurer, W. 
O. Littick. The general offices are at 47 North 4th St., Zanes- 
ville, O. 

M,\)(. 15. ii)0().| 



Power Plant Piping and Accessories, 

l!V WIM.IAM l>. KNNIS. M. K. 


DKir rii'KS. 

Tile ilrip |ii|iiiiK ■■i"il accessories form ni ilu-inselves a sysltm. 
f)iilU(', Inr w:ikr c.l loiKlensalion imisl l)c iiroviilcd at the header, 
and in lon^ linis of pipe, al several points. Engine cylinders must 
l)e dripped, as must also vertical exhaust pipes, 
separators, exhaust heads, heaters, receivers, and the like. 
The invariable rules ai)plicable to every drip connection are Ivyo: 
first, tap into the lowest part or pocket ot the section of pipe to be 
drained; secon<l, tap in such a position that the current of steam 
as it Hows from boiler to engine will carry the con<lensation to the 
drip opening. To illustrate, suppose, in Fig. 19, that a single header 
delivers at opposite ends the steam for two engines. The boiler 
mains are carried into the sides of the header. The drip connections 
for the section of pijiing represented, in accordance with tlie first 
rule, are tapped in llu- bnllnni of the header. To properly observe 
the second rule, it is necessary tliat the header should be tapped in 

two places as sliown. If either engine be stopped, the current of 
steam will be entirely toward the other engine. In case the left 
hand boiler and the left hand engine should be shut down, the cur- 
rent would carry the condensation away from the main body of the 
header and the left hand drip opening. Perfect security can only be 
obtained by dripping as shown. Connections are made to both boil- 
ers, so that in case one of them is not operating, all the hot water 
can be returned to the other boiler, where only it can be of use. 
Each connection to tlie boilers must be provided with a check value 
and stop valve. 

This is the method of dripping ordinarily used for elevated head- 
ers. It is of course applicable only where the lowest part of the 
header is above the water line in the boilers. Separators, if suffi- 
ciently high, can be dripped in the same manner. 

High pressure drips cai\ also be disposed of by using a gravity 
return system or return steam traps. Most of these are patented 

when taken from the outboard side of the relief or back pressure 
valve, as from an exhaust head. Engine drips arc often disposed 
of in the same way, but it is most economical to free the water from 
animal and vegetable oil and return it to the boiler. High 
lircssure drips not returned to the boilers are taken care of by 
traps. The most essential quality of a steam trap is its durabil- 
ity. It must be depended on to keep working steadily under all 
conditions. Eor intermittent service, the writer prefers a gravity or 
lloat trap of the simplest possible construction; for constant, high 
pressure work, expansion traps have given good results. 

The disastrous phenomenon known as a "water hammer" is 
caused by accumulated condensation hurling itself with immense 
momentum under the action of live steam. For instance, if at the 
foot of a vertical pipe, the direction of supply being downward, a 
valve is placed, and no drip connection made, a gradual accumula- 
tion of water may take place in the pipe above the valve. Let this 
go on for some time, and then let the valve be opened. The live 
steam behind the water column will force it along the pipe with in- 
creasing momentum, until it reaches a sharp turn, when something 
is sure to break. 

There is no definite rule for determining the sizes of drip pipes. 
A bare steam pipe will condense from 3 lb. of steam at 125 lb. pres- 
sure per sq. ft. per hour. The efficiency of the covering, dimen- 
sions of the section of pipe it is proposed to drain, and steam pres- 
sure, being known, it is easy to calculate the amount of condensa- 
tion and the size of drip pipe for that amount. This however would 
give sizes very much below those adopted in practice, for the reason 
that such a formula takes no account of the possibility of a sudden 
accumulation of condensation. The size must be selected with due 
reference to the location of the drip. Separator drips are usually 
fixed with reference to the size of the drip outlet on the separator. 
Engine drips are planned in the same way. For high pressure 
steam headers the formula D"L -=- 200 ^ d may be found of use, in 
which D equals diameter of the header in inches. L equals length 
in feet, and d equals drip area required, in square inches. In every 
case, it is best to err on the side of liberality, and above all, to make 
the trap, basin, or whatever device is used to dispose of the drips, 
of a capacity fully equal to any work that may reasonably be given it 
to take care of. This rule sounds almost like a truism, but in every 
jiart of steam pipe design it must be kept constantly in mind. 


The scientific side of pipe design is largely comprised in attention 
to three points; expansion, vibration, and drainage. Let these be 
provided for, and the rest is merely a question of sizes and stand- 

In laying out a piping plant for the estimates of prospective build- 
ers, the engines and boilers must usually be taken for granted, and 









devices, dependent fur their action on the vacuum formed in closed 
chambers by condensing steam. The piping in connection with the 
special apparatus is usually very simple, consisting of a main drip 
line to the point where the apparatus is located, and a return line to 
the boilers. This return line is preferably of brass. 

Low pressure drips can be carried into the blow-off tank or sewer, 

the piping made to fit them. The first step is to determine the 
sizes of condensers, feed pumps, heaters, separators, and pipes nec- 
essary. This done, the entire sj-stem should be drawn to scale — 
quarter-inch to the foot being customan,-, and the piping arranged. 
not only with a view to the three factors mentioned above, but also 
with due regard to coinpactness, elasticity and convenience. The 



[Vol.. X, No. 3- 

finished plans, however, should be less crowded than this sketch 
must of necessity be. For plants of any size a general plan of the 
building and machinery should first be made. To this should be 
appended separate plans for the live steam, exhaust, and water pip- 
ing, unless these systems can be combined without impairing the 
clearness and simplicity of the diagram. Various methods of rep- 
resenting the pipes and fittings are in use, but for plants of any im- 
portance the following conventionalisms are convenient. 

Represent flanged pipe, fittings and valves with their flanges, as 
in A. Screwed fittings may be shown with beaded edges, B, thus 
being readily distinguished from flanges. All pipes 4 in. in size and 
above, are represented with two lines, C. Pipes below this size are 
shown with a single heavy line, fittings with heavy lines and beads, 
as in t). Spiral riveted pipe should be shown as in E. Bell and 
spigot, as in F; cast iron flanged, as in G. Large valves should be 
drawn in detail as in H. Small valves, on double lined pipe, as in 
I. Still smaller sizes of valves as in J. Hangers should be omitted, 
they being best shown by details and mention in the specifications. 

Specifications for piping vary in intelligence, force, and rigor, to 
an almost infinite degree. Each consulting engineer has his own 
preferred form, but for the outside engineer who casually finds him 
self called upon to draw up a set of specifications for competitive 
bids for piping a plant, a few suggestions may be of value. The 
arrangement of items should be somewhat as follows: 
(i. Advertisement and invitation to bidders.) 

2. General scope of the work. 

3. Description of the boilers, engines, and apparatus to be piped. 
(4. Auxiliaries to be furnished by the contractor.) 

(5. .Auxiliaries to be furnished by the owner.) 

6. Pipe — grades of each size for various purposes. 

7. Fittings — weights, qualities, standards. 

8. Valves — kinds, maker, special details. 

9. Joints — flanged or screwed, for various sizes of steam and ex- 
haust pipes. 

(10. Pipe covering.) 

(II. Hangers and supports.) 

12. Bolts, nuts and gaskets. 

(13. Time of completion.) 

(14. Miscellaneous.) 

(15. Tests.-) 

(16. Guarantee.) 

(17. Payments.) 

(18. Extras and deductions.) 

The items enclosed in parenthesis in certain cases would be un- 
necessary. Under 2 should be stated the size and location of the 
plant, the facilities for teaming, freightage, etc., and the different 
systems of piping to be fvrnished. Under 3 the size and types of 
boilers, engines, condensers, pumps, heaters, separators, etc., should 
be stated, and where apparatus furnished by the owner is to connect 
with that furnished by the contractor, the standard of drilling nec- 
essary should be described, in order that the latter party may not be 
delayed in getting out his stock. This paragraph should also de- 
scribe in a general way the plan of the piping, mentioning all the 
special apparatus, stating clearly the exhaust arrangement, whether 
simple-condensing, compound-condensing, or non-condensing, and 
describing the headers, bypasses, etc., required. 

Paragraphs 4 and 5 should settle whether such work as excava- 
tion, foundations, cutting of walls, floors, and the like, is to be done 
by the owner or by the contractor. 

Paragraph 10 should specify the makes and grades of pipe cover- 
ing that will be accepted if this work is to be included in the piping 
contract. As nearly all steam fitters sub-let the pipe covering, and 
as it is a distinct and separate kind of work, it is not to be recom- 
mended that it be combined with the piping contract. 

Paragraph 11 should describe the location, spacing, and charac- 
ter of the various pipe hangers, brackets, and other supports, refer- 
ring to the plans for details. Under 12 the bolts, nuts and gaskets 
should be specified, — the amount of machining necessary on the 
two former — whether the heads and nuts are hexagonal or square — 
and the kind, diameter, and thickness of gasket for various sizes and 
grades of pipe. 

Under 13 should be stated the forfeiture for non-completion of 
the work in the specified time, if any is required. 

Under 14 may be specified such small piping and accessories as 
cannot be conveniently shown on the plan. 

Paragraph 15 should state at whose expense the tests are to be 
made, what they are to consist of. when they are to be made, what 

requirements are to be fulfilled, and what penalties are to be en- 
forced if the requirements are not met. 

Paragraph 18 should arrange for the amicable adjustment of ques- 
tions as to extra work and deductions from the work in the con- 
tract; stating whether the decision of the engineer is to be final, or 
whether an appeal to a mixed board of arbitration may be made. If 
the latter, the composition of such board should be specified. 

A methodical arrangement of procedure is vastly preferable to 
the haphazard way in which some managers who possess the 
requisite knowledge and skill for planning their own pipe systems 
often express their wishes on paper. Such a method the writer has 
endeavored to set forth. Even for a small addition to an existing 
plant, it pays to draw up a regular specification, and the time spent 
in doing so will never be wasted. 


BY G. J. A. P. 

The lot of a superintendent of a road, where he must be a "little 
of everything" is not a very happy one and this is particularly true 
when his equipment is insufficient and he is obliged to hustle 
through repair works when a car is disabled, in order to get it out 
and keep up the service. Many of his experiences are exasperating 
yet the mishaps have their amusing sides. 

An annoying occurrence came up some time since, in which an F. 
30 armature newly rewound at the factory was the cause of the 
writer's righteous anger. The motorman — a careful one — reported 
that the commutator would "flash fire" all the time while coming 
towards the house. Careful examination showed the brushes, yoke 
and commutator to be in perfect order and tight. No signs of 
sparking were noticeable until a curve was reached, when the flash 
was very pronounced. On reversing the motor and going back 
over the line there was no sign of sparking. A chalk mark was 
made on the armature hood and down over the shaft, and the run 
back continued; when the first curve was reached, a "squeak" came 
from the armature and the flash was there. The reader can imagine 
my sentiments when on inspecting the chalk marks it was discov- 
ered that the wire had turned one-third way round on the core! 

An occurrence, as interesting as it is rare, took place in the power 
house during a day of heavy travel. The pull became so hard 
toward evening that the voltage died down to where the lights rep- 
resented mere "red strings in bottles." The night man stated that 
the needle in the ammeter went clear out of sight. The car, sup- 
posed to be the oiTender, was brought in and thoroughly examined, 
but found in fine shape and returned to the line. Another car was 
brought in, and it was then noticed that bringing in any one car 
overcame.the trouble to some extent. Changing engines and gen- 
erators showed the load was only normal for the number of cars 
running. Examination of the first generator failed to disclose any 
trouble. Starting up again, the voltage built up as usual, but, as 
soon as the load was thrown on the same trouble appeared. Plac- 
ing a speed indicator on the engine showed that it was running at 
the regulation speed, but placing it on the generator it was found 
that as soon as the load exceeded 100 amperes the armature slowed 
down to half speed. The trouble was only a new belt slipping so 
nicely and quietly that the most sensitive ear could not hear it. 

One rainy, cold afternoon, when all hands (that meant two) were 
taking life easy, the following telephone message came from a mo- 
torman: "The commutator on car 13 exploded, and is scattered all 
over the street." The car was brought in and another armature 
substituted, first examining the commutator very closely and find- 
ing it to be sound. The motorman had gone only a half mile when 
he sent in the same message as before concerning the same car! 
Still another commutator was put on that night by a faithful young 
man who volunteered to "sit up and repair the leads of the corpse." 
The car went out the next morning and is still in service. 

Perhaps some of your readers have experienced the delightful 
sensation of being on a car when a motor broke from the nose beam, 
bringing the car to a stand still, quicker than if it had been 
"plugged." The motorman made a quick "ground" — over the dasher 
— and the only passenger, a young lady, was uninjured but she did 
not like the way the car stopped. To quote the motorman: "She 
just roasted me good and plenty, for stopping so quick. I tried to 
explain what had happened, but no use; she would have it. that I 
had no business to stop so quick as that." 

Mar. is, iqoo.1 



Electric Tramways of Coventry, England, 

Tlie Covcnlry Electric Tramway Co. lias been operating sonic 
seven miles o( road, including turn-outs, for about three years and 
has recently completed extensions which make its total trackage 
l2}/2 miles, of which S'/i is single track. There was at first some 
prejudice against the electric cars, and especially to the overhead 
trolley system, but the steam tram had become quite unbearable, so 
the people finally became venturesome enough to permit the electric 
tram on one of the streets. When once the electric tram had been 
thoroughly tried, the fair minded citizen said, "I scarcely see how 
we ever got on without them." So when application was made for 
an extension of the system, the officials were encouraged and re- 
ceived the support of those who had to travel on the line. 

The new extension necessitated a change in the location of the 
power house which was too far from the center of the system, and 
not near any good water supply. The new power plant is situalc<l 
on the bank of the canal, from which water is secured and by which 
coal can be placed at the very door of the coal shed. It is also much 
nearer the center of the system than the old one. 

The general arrangement of the power plant, shops, and yards is 
apparent from an inspection of Fig. i. The boiler room is 40 x 60 ft. 

sure cylinders 13 x 13 in. added when the present station was built. 
These two engines arc belt connected while the other two are direct 
connected to their generators. All four generators arc of the Wcst- 
inghousc make, of 100 kw. capacity and give 500 volts at no load 
and 550 volts at full load. The two generators that were in the old 
station have four poles and run at 650 r. p. m. ; the two new ones 
have six poles and run at 250 r. p. m. 

In addition to this main equipment, there is a small lighting unit 
consisting of a Westinghouse single acting engine and generator. 
This generator is of 17 kw. capacity and furnishes current at 500 
volts, so that it can be used to drive the shop motors in case night 
work is necessary. . . 

The condensing plant is located in a pit in the engine room floor 
and comprises two surface condensers with 450 sq. ft. of surface 
each, two vertical air pumps 12^ x 8 in., making 100 double strokes 
per minute when the driving engine runs at 300 r. p. m., and a cen- 
trifugal circulating pump belted to the engine. 

The switchboard was also furnished by the Westinghouse com- 
pany. It is of marble and consists of eight panels, four for the 
generators, two for feeders, one for Board of Trade instruments 

I — View on Line. 
4— Coal Conveyor. 


2 — Interior of Engine Room. 
5— Stokers. 

?— Tlie Trial Trip. 
6— Furnace Front. 

and is equipped with four Babcock & Wilcox boilers, two rated at 
172 h. p. and two rated at 106 h. p., all of which are fitted with patent 
mechanical stokers and grates and endless chain conveyors made 
by Bcnnis & Co., of Bolton. The grates have open ash-pits and 
steam-jet fire bars. In one of our illustrations there are shown three 
views of the conveyor and stokers; the conveyor takes coal from the 
store house, which has a capacity for 500 tons, and delivers it to the 
stokers. In this connection it should be stated that the company has 
a market for its ashes which not only cost nothing for removal but 
are paid for. 

There are three Worthington feed pumps with 3-in. plungers. 
Adjoining the boiler room is a Green economizer of 240 tubes; the 
scrapers for this are driven from a small steam engine used in the 
old plant. 

The engine room adjoins the boiler room, being separated by a 
brick wall. It is 25 .x 80 ft. and covered with slate. The slates are 
nailed to three inches of coke breeze laid on sheet iron, supported 
by steel framework. The floor is asphalt on concrete. The founda- 
tions for the engines and generators arc constructed of 2 ft. of con- 
crete and 4 ft. of brick laid in concrete. 

There are four tandem compound condensing engines each rated 
at 150 h. p. Two of these were originally installed as simple non- 
condensing engines with cylinders 13 x 19 in,, and had high pres- 

and one for the lighting circuits of station. There are two Weston 
voltmeters, seven Westinghouse ammeters and four Thompson 

The station, car shed, shops and office may be lighted by the small 
lighting unit mentioned, which is run only after the rest of the 
plant is shut down, generally from about I o'clock until daylight. 

The engine room is furnished with a 3-ton crane. It is worked 
by hand power and is heavy enough to handle any piece of ma- 
chinery in the room. 

The stack is of brick, circular above the base, and lined with 
fire brick to a point 6 ft. above where the flue enters. The base is 
of concrete, 22 ft, square and extends down 12 ft to solid rock. 
The stack is 100 ft. high and 6 ft. 4 in. in diameter at the top. 

The building for the car shed and shops is 60 ft. wide, and 93 ft. 
long; s8 ft. of it is used for the car shed, and 35 ft. for the shops. 
There are six tracks, three of which have pits and run the whole 
length of the building, while the other three run the length of the 
car shed only, and have no pits. 

The shops arc divided into three parts, known as the paint shop, 
carpenter shop and general repair shop. They are equipped with 
modern conveniences and the necessary machines. In the car- 
penter shop is a band saw, a universal planer and circular saw. 



[Vol. X, No. 3. 

and a wheel grinder, all of which arc driven by a lo-h. p. Westing- 
house motor. In the machine shop are several lathes, a wheel- 
press, power hack-saw, two drilling machines, and a tool grinder, 
all driven by a 5-h. p. Westinghouse motor, whicli also drives the 
blower for the smithy just outside the shop. 
The ofticcs are located just in front of the car shed. All these 

brackets being designed by Mr. I. E. Winslow, chief engineer. 
Kig. 5 shows the details of these bracket arms. No. i is the arm 
used for double tracks, while Nos. 2 and 3 are the arms used for 
single track; it will be noted that they are designed for the use 
of double trolley wires. As will be seen the suspension wire is run 
between the prongs of the bracket which are sufficiently wide apart 

Canal Ban/i 


buildings arc of brick. They are substantial in appearance; the 
architecture is pleasing, and the plan is excellent. 

The track, 3 ft. 6]/^ in. gage, is laid with grooved rails weighing 
65!^ lb. per yd. The groove is iJ4 in. deep and the tread is ]/& in. 
higher than the lip of the groove; the tread projects above the 
pavement and allows considerable wear before it gets below the 
street level. The rails are clamped to steel cross-ties spaced 10 ft. 
c. to c. The ties are S ft. long, and like an inverted trough in sec- 
tion; width of the tie at the top is 3 in. and at the bottom, meas- 
ured over the flanges, 6 in.; the depth is 2% in. and the thickness 
of the metal J4 in. Half way between the ties are iron tie-rods V/^ 
X ^ in. in section. The foundation for the roadbed is a layer of 
concrete 6 in. deep, in which the ties are imbedded so as to have 
the tops flush and thus let the rails bear on the concrete through- 
out their entire length. The rails are 6 in. high and the paving 


stones used 5 in. deep, thus giving space for a bedding of con- 
crete I in. thick. Concrete is placed between the paving and the 
rail webs, as appears from Fig. 2. 

The joints are all cast-welded by the Falk process. The dimen- 
sions of the joint and molds are given in Fig. 3. The special work 
is of 85-lb. rails, all welded; at the switches all portions below the 
tongue are welded together. 

Fig. 4 shows the long arm trolley pole used; the poles are of 
steel in three sections and are 30 ft. long. The bracket arm is un- 
usually long from an American point of view, the center of the 
trolley line being 12 ft. from the pole. This distance, of course, 
varies with the width of the street. The bracket is afti.xed to the 
pole at a point 2 ft. from the top and the pole is set 6 ft. in the 
ground, which brings the wires 22 ft. above grade. The feeders are 
laid underground in the city and where connection is made with 
the trolley wires they are carried up the interior of the poles; the 
detail drawings in Fig. 4 show the construction where the feeders 
enter and leave the poles. 

The insulators are supported by two wires fixed in harps, the 

to allow the trolley car to rise between them. In case of a loose 
suspension, to prevent the trolley wire from coming in contact with 
the bracket and being short-circuited, a guard is placed above each 
suspension. Guard wires are placed above the line where there 
are telephone or telegraph wires crossing it. 


The trolley lines are divided into half-mile sections, which is re- 
quired by the Board of Trade regulations. A switch is placed on 
the pole at each of these section insulators which is normally closed 
and carries the current around the insulator to the next section. 

Mau. is, lyoo/ 



riuTc are fmir dislribuliiig boxes placeil at iiiipiirlaiit fccdiiiK 
lioiiits along the line, cacli being supplied by one of the four feed- 
ers; three of the feeders arc of .24 srj. in. cross section and 900 ft., 
,1.Qoo ft. and 5,700 ft. long respectively; the fourth one is of .5 srj. in. 
section and 3,600 ft. long. In the distributing boxes there arc 

fectivc radius at each point bears a constant ratio to the sine of 
the angle the trolley arm makes with the axis of the standard. 
The tension of the springs being transmitted to the trolley arm 
by a wire cable which runs over the cam, it Is evident that the up- 
ward thrust at the trolley wheel is always the same. The sec- 

■,:.•.f•:•^'^•'^^.^•^.>■:■■■V•.^::^•.•.^.^.•••...•.^;•..•.■i^•■.V••.'.■•■.^" .■;■■<: onct\e>e •;: -.^ :■:■;•. ■.■.i'/\:-y'--i::!:'--t-M:r.,x:\'-y/::^ 


switches for controlling the feed to the line. Running parallel to 
the whole track are test wire which connect the station directly 
with any point on the line where testing may be desirable. 

There arc no insulated return feeders, but the rail return from 
llu- old line, five miles long, is supplcincnteii l)y old rails laid 
four in parallel with (ilastic bonds at the joints. 

While, as stated before, the trolley poles are designed to carry the 
wires 22 ft. above the street, there are a number of points on the 
line where by reason of bridges the clearance had to be reduced 
to 16 ft. To nu'cf this variation and yet maintain a luiifonn prcs.sure 

tional view of the standard shows the hood which prevents water 
from entering the interior. 

The company has 10 old motor cars, 10 new motor cars and 5 
trailers; all the motor cars are equipped with two 20-h. p. West- 
iTighouse motors, and the secies-parallel controllers. They are all 
double decked and mounted on Pcckhani single trucks. The ca- 
pacity of the new motor cars is 26 persons inside and 26 out- 
side. The trailers carry 20 outside and 20 inside. The old cars are 
very narrow, being only 6 ft. over all. The new ones are 6 ft. 6 in. 
The extra 6 in. adds a great deal to the convenience of the cars. 

no I 
Ooubfe Trach BrocheT Arfti 
rSj "Rod ^z*.. 

G^KDt^ ! J 

no J 
iinale JracH dracHet Arm for Currei 


=4^ ^^'^^^^^ 


■^ „ ^ fferMo/D r^'if"" 

^4B0lt^ : - >r-r ^ ::}--■ 


Derail of Ai and As, for Ai\^\ . ~- 
Uit Bolt tor Ouom Wire - iC"?^ ■ 
Oi 6IJ0i*'n for A^ 




of the trolley wheel on the wire. ^[r. Winslow designed a special 
standard which is shown in Fig. 6. The springs are placed ver- 
tically within the standard; the swivel head of the standard and the 
pivot of the trolley arm are both provided with ball bearings. The 
trolley arm on the short end has a cam so designed that the ef- 

The car bodies were all furnished by the Brush Electric Co. The 
cars having reversible back seats are much more popular than 
those which have one long double seat running the whole length 
of the top of the car. The passengers much prefer facing the direc- 
tion the car is moving. 



[Vol. X, No. 3. 

Fig. 7 is a section of llio wlu-cls used, and shows the shallow 
(langes used. 

Coventry has been fortunate in having its tramway lines placed 
in such good hands as the New General Traction Co.. Ltd., and 



Mr. I. E. Winslow deserves much credit for the pioneer work he 
has done in constructing this road. He is one of the engineers in 
England who does not befriend side trolley wire and the swivel 


trolley wheel and stand, and if the reports that come from some 
roads using the swivel trolley and side wire system are true, he 
certainly has good grounds for the position he takes. Mr. R. T. 
Whitehead is resident engineer and manager of the system. 

The Cleveland Electric Ry. has let the contract for an addition 
to its Cedar Ave. power house and will install a l,6oo-kw. unit. 

The Consolidated Street Railway Co., of Worcester, Mass., takes 
an active interest in the welfare of its men and has arranged a 
number of pleasant concerts and entertainments for their benefit. 
It also permits sacred services to be held Sunday mornings, at 
the car barn, and which are conducted by pastors from the diflferent 
churches in the city. 

Mr. A\'. H. Holmes, president of the Metropolitan Street Railway 
Co., of Kansas City, is making preparations for handling the 
crowds which will be at the city during the Democratic convention 
in July next. The company has had much experience with crowds 
during the carnival weeks and Mr. Holmes e.xpccts tliat with the 
sundry improvements, which will be conipleted before July, lie can 
show visitors a model transportation system. 


At a recent hearing the Railroad Commissioners of Maine re- 
fused to approve the aiiplication of the Biddeford, Kennebunk & 
Wells Electric Railroad Co., of which the promoters are William 
.'\. Roberts, Edgar A. Hubbard, Ex-Mayor Chas. S. Hamilton, 
E.>c-Mayor Jas. O. Bradbury of Saco. Me., and others, for jiower 
to build an electric railway from Biddeford to Wells, through the 
towns of Kennebunk and Kennebunkport, on the ground that the 
route of the proposed road was in part over Main St. in Kenne- 
bunk, where the tracks of another company are already laid. An 
appeal will probably be made to the courts from this ruling. 

Referring to the "good faith" required by the statutes of pro- 
moters applying for permission to construct, maintain and operate 
an electric railway the Commissioners said: "Of course the high 
standard of faith, which is defined as 'the substance of things hoped 
for, and the evidence of things not seen,' cannot be expected in 
street railway affidavits, yet those who make them should not be 
wholly satisfied with mere form, when the substance may be en- 
tirely lacking." 

The Board also makes the ruling tliat under the public laws of 
the state the charter of any electric railroad company becomes 
null and void if the road is not built within two years. According 
to this, it is stated the charter of the Saco River Electric Railway 
Co., whose road is not completed, expired last July. 

The present commissioners since they have been in office have 
approved the articles of association of 10 electric railway companies. 
* » » 


From the Japan-American Commercial Journal, published at 
Tokyo, Japan, we take the following information concerning the 
conditions under which the Council of Aldermen in that city has 
granted franchises to a new tramway company. 

The total length of the routes shall be 200 miles. When the city 
deems it necessary, for the purpose of improving, relaying or re- 
constructing roads, sewers or water pipes, it may remove the 
street railway tracks without paying compensation. The motive 
power is to be compressed air, storage batteries or the single or 
double overhead trolley system. In case the single overhead sys- 
tem is used, the concession shall be granted only when all possible 
precautions have been provided to prevent leakage currents from 
the return circuit. 

After paying a dividend of 7 per cent in any one year, and the 
necessary charges to sinking fund, the company shall pay to the 
city one-third of the remaining surplus. 

Other conditions are: Where streets are not wide enough to 
permit tracks to be laid the company shall widen such streets at its 
own expense; the company shall keep in good repair a strip of the 
street 18 in. wide on both sides of its tracks; it must sprinkle the 
streets in summer and remove snow in winter: it shall bear a share 
of the expense incidental to the repairing, widening or building of 
bridges and drains on its route; when altering or fixing the- rates 
of fares the company shall first secure the consent of the city; on 
the expiration of the term of charter the city may buy up the whole 
concern at current valuation; the city reserves the privilege of 
appointing an official supervisor for the company when it deems 
such a step necessary, and also of examining its books at any time. 

The Grand Rapids (Mich.), Holland & Lake Michigan Rapid 
Ky. hopes to have its cars running by May. 

The services of a wife are valued at $12 a week according to a 
suit brought against the Harrisburg (Pa.) Traction Co., by the 
husband of a woman injured by one of defendant's cars. 

MaH. 15. IIJDO, ) 



Street Railway Mutual Benefit Associations, 

'JMic Uiiilcd Traction Relief Associalioii, of Allegheny City, Pa., 
llu II known as llie Pleasant Valley Ueneficial Society, of Allegheny, 
Pa., anil composed of employes and ex-employes of the l-Y'dcral 
Street & Pleasant Valley Passenger Railway Co., was organized in 
May, 1893, with 50 members. The name was changed in June, 1897, 
because of changes in the street railway company. Up to Dec. 31, 
1895, the total receipts of the association w-cre $3,904, and $2,376 had 
been paid for side benefits and $600 for death benefits. 

Later figures are not at hand except for the year 1899, 
when the death claims paid amounted to $600 and the sick benefits 
to $1,860. The present membership is 310. 

From a copy of the cons