Skip to main content

Full text of "The street railway review"

See other formats







^, ±^S 


.r,JN. l^y 





Class^^H^S Boo! 











Abutting ProinTly Owners' Easements 957 

Accident. An Kcho of an 36*3 

at Niagara Power Plant (Dunlap) 107 

The Newarlt e723 

To prevent (G. J. A. P.) 984 

Accidents ....115. 174. 319, 120. 530. 763. SS5, 935 
Accountant. The Province of the Street 

Railway ^Brooks) 749 

Accounting. Materials and Supplies (Dim- 

mocic) •970 

Supplies and Matt-rials e959 

Acoustics. Architectural 85 

Aquatic Attractions for Parks *Si 

Adams. Alton D. lEquipment of Railways 

with Converter Sub-stations) SO 

(Fuses and Circuit Breakers in 

Transmission lines) S95 

H. H. (Shop Kinks) 'SS? 

Advertising el& 

Agency, New Street Car 425 

Electric Railways 333 

Uterature. Jan., 120. 1S3: April. 306. 370. 

435. 547. Sept. S70. 940. Dec. 

.\lr Brake Business. Remarkable Growth 

of (tjhristensen) 546 

Large Order for (Chrlstensen) .. 60 
for New York Subway (Westing- 
house) 117 

System. New (National Air Brake 

Co.) 544 

Compressors for New York Subway.. 113 
Albany. N. Y.— 

& Hudson. Railroad Co.. Third Rail 

System of the (Leavltt) 505 

Methods of Car Painting at Shops of 

United Traction Co. (BuUer) MTS 

System of the United Traction Co., of. '502 
"Album. A Ruberold." (Standard Paint 

Co.) 544 

Allegheny Valley Railway Co., Pitts- 
burg & 38 

Alliance. O.. Power Plant of the Stark 

Electric Railroad Co "525 

Allis-(rhalmers Co. Annual Report 425 

New Works of the *10S 

to Make Gas Engines 303 

Alternating Current for I-arge City Sys- 
tems — The Production and Distribution 

of (McCulloch) '672 

versus Direct Current Traction 

Systems e959 

American Car Co 51 

Institute of Electrical Engineers, An- 
nual Convention of 333 

Society of Electrical Engineers. Stu- 
dents of the 220 

Amusements. Street Railway Park (Wad- 
dell) 21 

Armatures. Rapid Method of Testing. .. .♦987 
Armstrong, A. H, (High Speed Electric 

Railway Problems) '421 

Arnold. B. J.. Report on Chicago Street 

Railways '29 

Magnetic Coverings 769 

Traction Report for Chicago el9 

Arthur Rail Block In Service 932 

Associations — 

Accountants' e722 

Convention 623. 6)1. 695 

Announcement for 284 

Program 510 

New M'-mliers of the 199 

Officers of the 512 

American Railway. Mechanical & 

Electrical 70. el35. e'.'68. 6386 

Constitution of 606 

and By-Laws of 70 

Convention of 561, 017. 648 

Program 510 

Executive Committee Meeting .... 96<p 

Field of eS84 

Hand Book of the 865 

Offlcers of the 513 

Prospectus of 969 

American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers 923 

Street Railway. Convention.... pI35. 

602. 643. 6S4. e723 

Accommodations 300 

Announcements ....127. 198, 263, 316 

Program fill 

Souvenir e264 

List of Exhibitors 316 

Name of the (Correspondence).. 199 
Onicers and Executive Committee 

of the 511 

Colorado Electric Light, Power & 

Railway B« 

lyoulsvllle Railway Relief 82 

New Englnnd Street Railway Club. 

Annual Dinner of lOT 

New Stale e472 

.V.-w York Slate Street Railway..,.^ 

ronv.-nllon of the 790 

Report of Commit tee on Rules 819 

North Jersey Benevolent 16 

Pennsylvania Street Railway. Conven- 

tlon of W» 

Prosperous Employes 7»' 

Southwesu-m Electrical. First Con- 

ventlon of • — ^ 

Oas. Electric * Street Knilway..., 268 
Auburn A Syr:i< .i«<- lritiri;rhan M"'' • ^5 
Aurorii, Eldln A ciij.iK., Hv , Cars f"r •'''J 

Rv., Th« J<ill<t. I'liilnfleld & "JIZ 

Austin, Tex., Cars for (American Car 

Co.) ^"■' 

Auslralla^The Section Fare System as 

•ArtlclM marked with an anKrltk are accom 

Used in (Badgerl •473 

Automatic Signals at Syracuse 770 

Automobile Tower Wagon In France 112 

.-Vutomotoneer. Service Tests for the •eoo 

Babbitting Armature Boxes, A Method 

of 'see 

Babbitt Metal, Formula for 329 

Badger. C. E. (The Section Fare System 

as Used in Australia) ^473 

Bag System and Receiver System, Ad- 
vantages and Disadvantages of (Hen- 
ry) '637 

Baird. Addison W.. M. D. (Sanitation and 

Disinfection of Electric Railway Cars).*463 
Baker. C. F. (t^are and Maintenance of 

Car Bodies) 563 

Heater Patents 300 

Ballasting (Maintenance of Way Associa- 
tion Report) 21S 

Ball Bearing Door Hanger '20 

for Railway Cars 178 

Ballston Terminal R. R. CXi.. The... 609. •988 

Baltimore. Md., Conspiracy (7ase at *11 

New Mail Cars in '424 

Washington & Annapolis Electric Ry. 
A New Single-Phase System of Elec- 
tric Traction ^447 

Barham, Seth (What a Street Railway 

Park Should Be) 8C 

Barnes. Charles R.. Crossings of Steam 

and Electric Railways 812 

Barrett Jacks 116 

Bearings. Devices for Boring •415 

Bellamy. C. R. ((^leaning and Disinfect- 
ing Tramway Cars) •471 

Berkshire Street Railway Co 516 

Berlin. High Speed Electric Traction at.. 922 
Billings & Spencer Co.. Overhead Mate- 
rial 'ISl 

Biloxi. Miss.. Electric Railway for 409 

Binghamton, N. Y., Bridge Collapses at..^331 

Railway Co. Pays Dividend 126 

Birmingham, Ala.— 

Dog Tickets at •414 

Emergencv Station at 211 

KaJlwav. Light &• Power Co., New Car 

House & Repair Shops for •.19 

Bituminized Fiber Conduit 17S 

Block Signals (American Automatic 

Switch & Signal Co.) 303. '601 

.. I'l.iiii.Dio. Wareham & Buzzard's 

Bay Street Ry '* 

System. A New (Eureka i '930 

Boiler Feed. Regulation of (Correspond- 
ence) P^ 

Robb-Mumtord •''■'" 

Tube Cleaner (CJencral Specialty Co.).^6.'!0 
Bonded Rail Joints, , Conditions which 

Affect the Resistance of a (Sturdevantl.975 
Boone. la.. New Cars for (American Car 

Co.) •S67 

Boston— ,.„ 

Elevated Ry.. Increase In Pay on 103 

Massachusetts Electric Companies. 
New Steam Turbine Power Plant 

of the 'Si'l 

Speed Regulations In 822 

Vestibules, Reg\ilations In Regard to.. 37 
Bournemouth (Eng.) Tramways, Opening 

of 20 

Brake, A New Power (Sterling-Meaker 

Co.) 933 

I>argo Order for (Chrlstensen) 60 

Fresh Emergency •US 

Car 'SSS 

in St. Louis, Power 730 

National (National Air Brake Co.). .•Sag 

Brantford. Ont.. (Jrnnd Valley Ry 17 

Street Railways of 17 

Brennan. Michael (Maintenance and 
Champerty in Personal Injury Cases).. 663 

Bridges. Electric Ry 3t'' 

Brill (Sirs for Argentine Republic MBS 

Camden Interstate Ry 865 

Macon. Ga •I"? 

New Jersey & Hudson River Rnll- 

wnv & Ferry Co •9M 

Rapid Rv.. Detroit. Mich •531 

Tama<iua * LanHford Ry '9X1 

Convertible Car for Virginia ♦76H 

Snow Plows for Philadelphia 'Ill 

British Westlnghouse Co 51 

Brockwny. W. B. (Conductors' Car Earn- 
ings IteporlMi '462 

Brooklyn, N. T.— _ 

Eh^vaied Hallway Co., Electro-Mag- 
netic ("ontrol for 69 

Rapid Trarsll Co., Fen<lerB for 

(Eclipse Car l-Vnch-r (,'o.) 940 

Employes' Club House 382 

Brooks, jr.. Henry W. (Comparallvi- 

Stalemenis) 137 

(The Province of the Street Kail- 
way Accounlant) 749 

Brown Corliss Engine Co. Increases 

(;npltal 160 

Brush Electrical Engineering Co.. Ltd.. 

Heavy Service Trucks 'Mu 

Brushes, Concerning l.^'Valley-Vltao Car- 
bon 646 

Budapest, Electric Railways of (Kn«lor)..*7tl 
noffalo. N. Y- „ 

by Trolley. Chicago to i» 

Dunkirk A Weslern Railroad Co MJ 

Opened • j74 

Progress on the 867 

Inlernallonnl Kiillway Co., Claim Ad- 

pinliil l>« tiiap» or mhfr illusiralloBo: c. udllorlal. 

justing Department (Mitten) •151 

Track Construction of the (Wil- 
son) •129, '213 

Parcel Checks at •343 

Building Material, A New 67 

Bullock Apparatus •ytjii 

Burch. Edwarii P. (Design of New Power 
Plant and System of the Everett Rail- 
way & Electric Co.) •267 

Burden on the Fee. ..\ Now !.'.' e7''3 

, Is an Interurban an .Additional.'.'.'. 515 
Birmingham & Steel Cities Railway & 

Power Co 771 

Business Outlook for 1903 .'. oj 

Butler. J. E. (Methods of Car Painting 
at Shops. of United Traction Co.. Al- 
bany. N. Y.) .47s 

Hulte Electric Ry,. Some Features of ■ 

the (Wharton) .897 

Buzzard's Bay Philosophy '.'.'.'."" 609 

Street Railway Co.. Middieboro &.. ' •! 


Calcutta. Electric Cars in.... 14 

Tramways Co., The 14 

Caldwell. F. C. (Recent Developments "I'ri 

Electric Railways) 75.: 

Callery, J. D, (port) 197 

Cameron, II. P.. Electrical Manufac't'ui-- 

Ing Co 3(^j 

Canadian Notes g^ 923 

Westlnghouse Co .'.'.'.". ' 300 

Canal Propulsion. Electric el35 

Car. Best Form of for Average City 

Service (Nicholl) '.•lOO 

Bodies. Care and Maintenance of 

(Baker) 553 

Hart Convertible Construction and 
Gondola (Rodger Ballast Car Co.)..^632 

Heaters, Consolidated 580 

Heating Problem, The (Wm. C. Ba- 
lder) 932 

Holland Sleeping (Holland Palace C^ar 

Co.) .530 

Maintenance Records (Stivers) •OSO 

New Emergencv Line (Creedon) •259 

Painting, Methods of at Shops of 
United Traction Co., Albany. N. Y. 

(Butler) •478 

Repairs (Partridge) 901 

Shop I'ractico eSSR 

Shops of the St. Louis Transit Co..., '907 
Car Bodies. The Care and Maintenance 

of ( Baker) .' 6(i;i 

Can-er. D. F. (Use and Abuse of Control- 
ling Mechanism) 648 

Casino Technical Night School 8S) 

"Ceco" Machinery in Chicago 57 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa City & Southern Rv. 412 

Uy 617 

Census Slatislics antl the Standard Form 
of Electric Railway Accoimting (Stu- 
art) 631 

Chattannf)ga Electric Railway Co., Greet- 
ing to Employes 768 

Reimrled Consolidation at .146 

Chautauqua Tracllnn Co., The 400 

Arnold Report on Street Railways of ^29 

Car Barn Murderers Caught 984 

Citv Railway Report 157 

Strike 913 

Elevated Tralllc In 271. 381, 616. 863. 912 

Engineering and Conalructlng Co. .299. •35S 

First Package Freight Line In 331 

Franchises e34. e75. e387. 615 

Oeneral Railway Transfers 266 

Lake Street Elevated. Reorganization 

of 926 

New Elevateil Road for 268 

!in-year Act Valid 413 

Nonniiimi Men Arrested 985 

Sltuallon In c264 

10 Buffalo bv Trolley 76 

to Toledo. Freight line from 220 

■I'raclion Affairs eS21 

1 te])orl 619 

Tunnel Syslem In 981 

rnlon lyoiip. Improvements on the — 772 

Traction Co 805, 926. 957 

Heielvi'rs for the '206 

Chllds. S. W. (Thi' Electric Tramways of 

Kalgoorlie. Western Australia) 'SSS 

Chrlstensen Agency. Eastern 61 

Air Brake Agencies 418 

Engineering Co,, CIiIcuko Offlce of,., 3itn 
Cincinnati. <).— 

Car Co.. The 172 

l~)iiyton * Toledo Traction Co., 
CllnnKe In (he Mail,'iKemenl of Ihc. 721 

(li'i.rgetoMn * I'orlMm.Milh II, H •L'il 

llamlllon & Daylrui Hy . New UfllcerH 

for 864 

Interurban Railway Terminal Co 

136, •871 

SlalliHi al •72 

Toledo Through Syslem 133 

Trucllon Kulliling 730 

Circuit Breaker, Electrically Operated 

Oil 108 

(*lalm Adjusting Pepartmenl, The Ma- 
chinery of Ihe (Milieu) 'm 

Agent, Tlie HijeceMsfiil and the Unsuo- 

ci'Hsful (Hockwelll 480 

Clark, Chris (Marnuuiy of Color in Fin- 
ishing and Furnishing the Modern Pas- 
senger Cfia eh ) 725 




CIcunliiK nnci OlHlnCscllnB Tramway Curs 

(Bellamy) 'it* 

Ri'liovutlnfc Cur Svuts (Hlllur) Mi5 


Car UuriiH Burned ut MO 

ConKnlldutlon In 334 

Klfflrlr l>f|Mit Co •7'ju 

New TinirillK Ciir for ! 41J 

I'liliii'Bvlllf * ^VMhlabula Ry.. New 

earn for iJfWtIt Car Co.) •»3u 

& StiultuviBlirii Trarllon Co IK; 

lo Cohimhua. Thrtrntdi Uno from.... !Si 

Climax Fiiiif PohIb •HO 

CloslllK Down (VaniliTburK) 387 

Coal KfiilInK DItnrnlilcH In Hoppers and 

Spoiils (MnrrlH) •Kjtl 

Coleman, JIlHon J UO 

Colora. Scleiling Car Body " ' 09 

Columbia Kli-ciric Street Ry.. Lt. & 

Pwr. Co U, 

Trolli'y Pole. The «■> 

• ■olumbux. CtrcinsburK & Richmond Trac- 
tion Co ;,-,j 

l.i.ndoii At SprlnKMclil and tile SprillK.! " 
Held. & I'rbana KallwuyB 

< KinK I n I .-j5 

Steel KollInK l)oor« 'iK 

lo Clevehmd. Through Line from .... ae 

Combination Car. New ll.aconlH) -us 

Combined Service. Keononiv of e2IS 

Commutator for city of I>indon Electric 

IJght Co .770 

To prevent Flat »ts 

Trulnit rh'vlce (Akron BIccIrlcal Mun- 

ufacturlnK Co.) 'HXKi 

Compnrailv.' Siatementa (Brooks) 'IS 

Conant TisiinK Instrument I7j 

Concrete M()o 

Condemn Property, Seeking Power to., isii 
Conductors' Car Earnings Reports 

(Brockway ) ; M62 

Earnings. Handling of ( Henry).. . ..'.'.•KI7 
t-ondult, Rliumlnlzed Klher (Amerlcin 

Conduit Co.) 'a43 

Eureka Flexible (Riltenhouse-Mlller 

^. Co-) ISO 

Conestoga Traction Co.. Financial State- 
ment 4] 

New Plans for iKershum) i:i 

Congress Hall. Saratoga Springs. N. Y..*362 
Connecticut Street Railwavs. Statistics 

of ;i;i 

(Vnsolidatcd He:itel's. Large Orders for 

(Consolidated Car Healing Co.) 939 

Consolidations and HeorganUations 322 

Conspiracy Case at Kaltimore 'IT 

Contact Device for Trolleys 359 

Continuous Rail Bond Co.. New Plant 

for 302 

Controlling Mechanism. I'se and Abuse 

of (Carverl 648 

Convention Exhibits e32i.i 

Report. (,)ur e722 

Converter Sub-stations. I'^iuipment of 

Railways with (Adams) SO 

Coons. Chas. A. (Train Orders and Train 

Signals for Inlerurban Roads) •6(!3 

Co-operation Between Steam and Electric 

Railways e884 

of Employes e201 

Corporations. Protection of e201 

Coltrell. S. B. (The Relative Advantages 
of Overhead. Dee|)-I.<'vel and Shallow 
Subway Lines for the Accommodation 

of Urban Railway Traffic) 41(5 

Council Bluffs Street Railway Co.. Omaha 

& 16 

Courtesy to Patrons e789 

Crane for Kansas City Power House 51 

Crawfordsvllle Interurban Case 855 

Rival Interurbans at 415 

Roads. Litigation Over 761 

Suit Settled SXH 

Creedon. Jas. H. (New Emergency Line 

Car •269 

Crocker- Wheeler Railway Generators 180 

Crossings of Steam and Electric Lines 

(Barnes) 812 

Curtis Steam Turbines e201 

(Emmet) '236 

Daily Street Railway U.viiw e264 

Damage by Flood and llcavv Rains 267 

Dams Burst in Street Railway Parks 409 

Danville. III.. Electrl.- Railwavs of 'KM 

* Rockvllle Traction Co 3S2 

I'rbana *t Champaign Railroad Co 126 

Davlon * Muncle Traction (.'o. Enjoined.. 721 

Decatur Traction & Electric Co 97. 535 

Delaware (O.) & Magnetic Springs Ry. 

Co 104 

Denver. Colo.— 

CItv Tramway. Pension System for... 341 

Private Car for •353 

Dei)recla tlon er24 

Derrah's Street Railway Guide 364 

Des Moines. Interesting Cars for (Amer- 
ican Car Co.) •534 

Omaha Interurban Proposed 97 

Detroit Car Barns Burned tvi 

Funeral Car Service at "68 

Improvements at "TIS 

Monroe & Toledo Short Une 44 

LTnlted Rv. Advertising Contest "385 

Trade Mark for •220 

De Wolf. J. O. (The Apnlicallon of Mill 

Construction to Car Houses) •457 

DIbbs. W. A. (Physical Examinations In 

.\ccldent Cases) 79S 

Dictionary, A Universal Technical 331 

Dimmock. W. S. (Materials & Supplies 

Accounting) "STo 

Discipline. Elllclent (Whmticy) 13 

Dlnputcher's Duties and Electric Signals 

(llartl 811 

DiHpaichIng, Interurban Train (Wll- 

coxili I 815 

on Double Track Roads (Hurt) 967 

Dog Tickets at Hartford. Conn •aiS 

Door Hanger. Ball Hearing •2(1 

Duffy, C. .N. (A i'omiiarl.-<im of ihe Slaml- 

ard ClasalMcallon of Aicciunls and Form 

"f Ri-porl I'ropoHed by the Municipal 

Tnimways .VsHoclailon "t Great Britain 

and Ihe .\merlcan .Standard) 769 

(Joes lo New York 4TJ 

John E. (Transfers, Their Use and 

Abuse) 793 

IXiniap, O. E. (Accident at Niagara 

Power Plant) 107 

IXirabllily In Car Palming 52 

Dust (iiiaril. ^>onomy Lubricator and 

(Railway Journal Ltd>rlcatlng Co.) •544 

East River Bridge, Transit Plan for HM 

Eaton, Ind., Muncle, Hartford & Ft. 

Wayne Ry •941 

"Eclipse" Car Fenders •117 

Demonstration of •sei 

l';<'i>nomy (<i. J. A. P.) 2S9 

Edllorial IS. 74, 134. 2M. 320, 3SC. 470, S84, 95S 

Electric Haulage on the Miami & Erie 

Canal 'Ul 

Railroad Securities Co 425 

Railway Construction in 1903 cl35 

for 1903, Plans of 161. 239 

Growth of ;..290 

Recent Developments In (Cald- 
well) 75(i 

Traction, A New Single-Phase System 

of ^447 

Welded Joints (Pestell) •ffjg 

lOlectrlcal Transportalliui Feutures of the 

I»uisluna Purchase Exposition •43S 

Klectrose Insulation •57 

Kmergency Line Car, New (Creedon).. .^259 
lOmmet. W. L. R. (Recent Steam Turbine 

Developments) tHS 

(The Curlis Steam Turbine) •236 

Employes, Keeping Records of ^16 

England. Competilion In 886 

Rntertalnmenis at Svracuse Convention. . 820 

Erie Canal, Electric Towing on 932 

ICureka .\utomatlc Electric Signal Co.... •930 
European Tramways, Notes on (Mccul- 
loch) 4(17 

Everett. Wash.— 

Improvements at 914 

Hjillwav & Electric Co.. Power Plant 

and System of (Burch)., ^267 

Evansvllle & Princeton Traction Co 867 

Express, See Freight 

Fare and Fare Protection (Ohmer) S30 

Farm Values. Interurban l^ands and 71 

Far or Near (.'r<»ssing e78S 

Farson, John (How the Trolley Raises 

Ruial Tastes) 772 

Federal Manufacturing Co, Railroad De- 
partment (ports) 244 

Fender and the Bear (Consolidated Car 

Fender Co.) Mi 

"Eclipse" •in 

Providence 580 

vs. Life Guards (Forward) 543 

Feiguson Oil Furnace (Railway Mate- 
rials Co.) '68:! 

Financial 118, 299, 428. 765, S59, 9.37. 981 

Finish, Interior, of Modern Passenger 
Cars. Best Method and Material for 

tho (Pauhisl 935 

Fire Hazard of Electrical Apparatus.. 60 
Protection in Power Plants and Car 

I louses 853 

Stream Nozzles, Electric Shocks 

Through 867 

Firemen, A Reward for the 956 

Fltchburg Engines (Fltchburg Steam En- 
gine Co.) '363 

Flood Damage in New Jersey 855 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Rail- 
road. The Electric Division of the 

( Rockwell ) 'iSo 

Fond du l^ac-Oshkosh Electric Ry ^229 

Opened 117 

Forestrv Station at Purdue ITnlversIty. 865 

Ft. Scott Ccnsolidated Supply Co 44 

Ft. Wayne & Southwcslcrn's Clean Acci- 
dent Record 456 

Time Table 933 

Ic on 974 

Forward. Dr. Chauncey B. (Fenders vs. 

Life Guards) 643 

Foster Steam Valves •56 

Franchise Declared Void 44 

to Corpor.atlons Only 49 

Frnuds. Convicted of Transfer 999 

Freight Development by Interurban 

Roads (Selxas) 818 

& Express Accounts (Fullerton) •591 

Accounting (Hvman> 627 

on Electric Railways (McLary) •667 

on Ma.«on Cltv & Clear Lake Rv.. 10 

on Rockford & Interurban Rv 2S 

Fresh Emergency Brake •113. •535 

Fullerton. Irwin (Freight & Express Ac- 
counts) 'SSI 

Funeral Car Service at Detroit. Exten- 
sion of *63 

L'ndertaKers Endorse the 216 

Fuses and Circuit Breakers In Trans- 
mission Lines (Adams) 8S6 

Gage Cock That Can He Closed Tight, A 

( Morris) •Dj)]> 

Galveston. Ti x.. 81 I.<iuls Cars for •«) 

Garbage Handling in Savannah, Ga •856 

Gas Engines, The Westlnghouse Hori- 
zontal •175 

Gate and Step Guard, Combination Safe- 
ty "99 '1 

for Car Platforms. Folding •»« 

Gold's Folding "Sk 

(ieneral Electric Co.. Annual Rciiort of.. 20 

German High Speed Experiments e788 

Goiil's Folding Cale •58 

Gonzenhach. lOrmHt (Third Rail for High 

Speed Eleclrie Service) 2S3 

Gore Tra.k Drill 'US 

Gould. L. E. (The Third Rail System)... 468 

Storage Kaiieries. Orders for 183 

(irade Crossings, .Vtxdltlon of In Massa- 
chusetts 9 

Grate, Martin Rocking •IK 

Great Britain, Proitress of Electric Trac- 
tion In 9S 

Green. Alfred. Shori Practice "SSB 

Bay-Kaukauna Interurban Line 812 

Trad Ion Co 9iS 

Growth of Electric Railways 2ilO 

Street Railways e387 

Guards for Car Tracks "848 

Half Fares 517 

Hamburg & Lewlsburg Street Railway 

Co 366 

Germany, Suspended Railway Project 

for "933 

Harmony of Color In Finishing and Fur- 
nishing the Modern Passenger Coach 

(Clark) 725 

Hartford. Conn., Dog Tickets at •SIS 

New Track Construction at ^202 

Street Railway Co •373 

Hart, Orlando W. (Dispatcher's Duties 

and Electric Signals) 811 

(Dispatching on Double Track 

Roads) 9i" 

Haycox Electric Car Signal Ki 

Headlight Lamps (Gonernl Electric). ...^245 
Heater for Cross Seals (Consolidated Car 

Heating Co.) '363, •!»> 

and Line Materials (Johns-Manvllle)..^545 
Healing and Ventilation of Railroad 

Shops (Lyie) •2!>1 

Hell Company Busy 234 

Henry. Frank R. (The Advantages and 
DIsadvanlages of the Bag S.vstem as 
Compared with the Receiver System 
when Handling Conductors' Earnings). •637 

Herschell. Spillman ^r Cos. Outing .'vi'i 

High Tension Conductors Into Buildings. 

Methods of Bringinir (Skinner) ...^742 

Engineer, The Training of the 

(Lincoln! 354 

S|)eed Electric Railway Problems 

(.■\ rinst rong) ^421 

llighway.s. Steel Tracks for ^0 

Hoffman-Powers Trolley Retractor •lU 

Hoist. Electric Trsivellng Coal (Pawling 

& Harnisehfeger I •985 

Holland Sletping Cars (Holland Palace 

Car Co.) •536 

lloosac Valley Street Railway Co 514 

Hope Webbing Co 60 

Hoppers & Spouts. Coal Feeding Dlf- 

Hcultles In (Morris) 'SSI 

Hudson River Trolley Tunnel 69 

Water Power Co ^479, 730 

Valley Railway System 'riOS 

IIiintlngl<in System. Extensions of the 308 

Hunt Simplex Switch ^304 

Hydraulics In Connection with Street 

Railway Operation (Parsons) 80O 

Hydrocarbon Motor Cars 108 

llynian. E. H. (Freight & Express Ac- 
counting) 627 


Illin<il» Telephone and Telegraph System 

to Carry Frelnht 721 

Improvemf-nts In Street Car Motors 

(Olds) 556 

Indian Territory Traction Co.. New 

Power House for 12 

Indiana Coal F'lelds. Electric Railroad? 

In 382 ' 

Mnes Consolidating 241 

Northern Traction Co 72i> 

Railways "87 

I'nlon Traction Co 388 

Indianapolis. Columbus & Southern 786 

& Martinsville Rapid Transit Co 382 

N"i)rthern Traction Co 133 

& Northwestern Traction Co 49 

Trade Mark for the •242 

Notes 478 

to Newark. From 530 

Traction A- Terminal Co 'ISS 

Infrlngemfnt Si'lt Aonealed (Peckham 

Motor Truck & Wheel Co.) 940 

TnsDeclnr. Blcvcle Street Car 996 

Instructions for Passengers •34f) 

Regarding Track Work 349 


Interborough Rapid Transit Co.. Car 

Contracts for 14 

Jewett Cars for the •541 

International Brake Shoe Co 302 

Railway Co.. Bultalo. N. T.. Track 

Construction of the '213 

New Poster of the •34S 

Register Co 234. 306 

Interurban Eltn-lric R-i!''-oau« and Their 

Relation to Steam Railroads 78 

R.tilway Operation 725 

Lands and Farm Values "1 

Railway & Terminal Co "STl 

Station at Cincinnati *72 

Traftic <i^^S 

Cincinnati, Georgetown & Ports- 
mouth Railroad '241 

Columbia (Pa.) * Donegal Ry 12 

& Ironville Ry 12 

(S. C.) Street Railways Bl 

Fond du Lac & Oshkosh Interur- 
ban '229 

Green Bav-Kaukauna 821 

Interurban Railway & Terminal 

Co S'l 

Jollet. Plainfleld & Aurora Rv....«342 
Lancaster iPa.l & Columbia Ry.. 12 

& I.ltitz Ry 12 

&• Manheim Ry 1- 

Mechanlcsburtr & New Holland 

Ry J2 

& Mlllersvllle Ry 12 

& Stra.sburB Ry 12 

Ma.ssachusetts Electric Companies. 'SBl 
Mlddleboro. Wareham & Buzzard's 

Bav Street Railway Co *! 

Muncie. Hartford & Ft. Wayne 

Rv •941 

Pacific Electric Railway Co '247 

PlttsburK & -Allegheny Valley Rall- 

wav Co ' 38 

Providence & Danielson Railway.. 15:1 
Pueblo & Suburban Traction & 

Lighting Co 44 

Rockford & Interurban Railway 

Co '803 

Wilkes Barre & Hazleton Ry "SST 

Senice 814 

Train Dispatching (Wllcoxen) 815 

Intramural Railway for the World's Fair, 

The (Phillips! •441 

Design of the (Weston) '442 

Inverted Third Rail System *36» 


Jacks, Barrett 361 

Simplex •607 

Jennings & Northern R. R 771 

Jewett Cam for the Interborough Co •541 

Jln» Crow Laws e74 

Invalid (Tenn.) 366 

Johns-Manvllle Co's. Chicago Store. H. 

W 533 

Heatt-ra and Line Materials •545 

Johnson, To James M 76 

Jointing and Supporting Tram Ralls. Pat- 
en t for •832 

Jollet, Plalnfield & Aiirr^ra Ry •342 


Kalgoorlie. Australia, Electric Tramways 

of (Chlldfl) •823 

Kansas City. Bridge Destroyed at ...'.!! 617 

Elcvatf-d, To Rebuild 719 

Notps f9. 24(;. 9*Vi 

Power House. I-arge Crane for 51 

Kdlpy. John D. (Some Recommendations 
Conrcrnlng Kloctrlral and Mechanical 
SperlflcHrlonn of Trolley Insulators) ... •74.1 
Kershum. Jfff<-rHon K. (New Power Gen- 
erating & Distributing System for the 

Con«'«tog:i Traction Co.) 12 

Keystone Traveler 113 

Kimble Oinvertlble Car •869 

Knox Knglneering Co. Contracts 425 

Knutson Trollev Retriever •243 

Koster. Franz (Electric Railways of Bud- 
apest) •711 

Kuhlman Cara for Toledo Railways A 
Light Co 22rt 


I.Aconla Cam for New Hampshire Trac- 
tion Co •I7i) 

for Blue Orass Traetlon Co •IrtW 

I.adder. f;erm«n fonslnictlon •104 

Lakft Shore KlTtrlc Reorganization 240 

I^mp Ounrd and Holder. Portable •IH 

Lang. A K.. Tribute to Mr 14 

l^w..4&. 91. 149. 225, 29r,. 335. 401. 521, 731. 

MO. iKO. 977 

AlMitters Cannot Enjoin ConHlrueijori 
of Rfifld on Portion of Street not 
TJf'Slgnited In <'barler- Remedy In 
narnHgen for Imuroper fViruitnietlon 

or OfH-niilon of Ro;id 4o| 

Have Drdlnanee H<-t Aside for 
Inexpediency, but Is Entitled 
lo f^'onnpenH'itlon R*'fore t'un- 
St met ion of ('ommere|;il 

Street Rjillway 977 

With no Title to I>and Hnder 
Highway Cannot Rnjnin Con- 
st met Ion of Street Railway 
Therein or Recover Damages 

Therefor 1*1 

Allegjitt( n of Failure m Olve W'lirnlng 

or Keep Proper Lookout at Crossing 
Sufficient— Duty to Sound Gong— Care 
Required of Motorman at Street 
Crossing— Statement of Motorman 

After Accident 5-4 

Act Authorizing Taking o{ Part of 
Road by Another Company I'ncon- 

stltutional 91 

Additional Care Required When Cars 
Overcrowded and Passengers on 

Platforms S49 

Adverse Report of Committee No Im- 
pairment of Franchise Riga's Giv- 
ing Federal Court Jurisdiction 335 

Allowing Platform to Become So 
Crowded as to Render Passenger Li- 
able to Be Pushed Off in Operating 

Car 402 

Application of Doctrine of Res Ipsa 
Loquitur to Derailment of Cars Op- 
erated by Modern Power — Para- 
mount Right Between Crossings- 
Duty in Furnishing and Maintaining 
Track, Cars and Appliances — Bur- 
den of Proof 337 

Fall of Trolley Wires— The Fre- 
quent Slipping of Trolley 
Poles Off Wires No Defense... Sol 
Assault by Motorman Off Car After 
Termination of Passage— Provoca- 
tion to Assault Mitigates Damages.. 91 
Boarding Crowded Our— Stopping Car 
Implied Invitation to Take Same- 
Notice to be Given when Stopping 
Not Intended as Invitation- Duty to 
Give Passenger Chance to Gel Safe 
Place Before Starting Car— What 
Constitutes a Passenger— Burden of 
Proof as to Trespasser— Care Re- 
quired in Construction and Opera- 
tion of Road 9S0 

Boy Thrown or Kicked Off Car by 
Motorman— Killed Going on Other 
Track— Duty of Looking and Listen- 
ing '. 335 

Building Platform Around Stump in 
Street— No Duty to Remove Nuis- 
ance Not Responsible for 523 

Can Be Compelled to Extend Transfer 
Svstem to Subordinate Lines Used 
as Feeders— Duty of Real or Bene- 
ficial Owner to Give Transfers— Pre- 
rump'.i'-n as to Company Organized 
to Build and Operate Extensions— 
Presumption of Reasonableness of 
Prescribed Fare — Profit Allowed— 
What Must Be Shown to Prove Rate 

Unreasonable l^S 

Cannot Take Part of Location Con- 
sented to and Reject Balance 91 

Care Required for Protection of Pas- 
sengers— Injurv to One by Stone 

Thrown bv Strike Sympathizer 295 

For Safety of Passengers and Duty 
to Give Them an Opportunitv to 
Alight After C:ir Stops - Not 
Bound to Know Without Notice 
That Anv One Will Atlemi)t or Is 
in Act of Getting Off While Car 

Is in Motion 225 

!n Looking and Ustcnlng for Car- 
Right to Rely on Upiial Signals 
Being Given in Operating Car ... 295 
In Operating Street Railway— D\ity 
of Motorman to Be on I^ookout- 
Duty lo Infant Seen on or Ap- 
proaching Track — Sounding of 
Gong No Defense— Duty to See 
That Track Is Clear— Presump- 
tion as to Adult Approaching 

Track 297 

Of Common Carrier as to Cam. 
Appliances and Servants Wheth- 
er Motive Power Is Steam (U- 
Electricity— Not an Insurer— Duty 
of Passenger- Failure to Dlscuv- 

er Closing of Snap Switch 731 

Of Lineman in Rem<tval of Wires 
from Wooden to Iron Poles— Duty 

of Company— Inspection 103 

Of One Crossing Tracks— Dot, \' of 
IxiokluK and Listening and Some- 
times Taking othej- Prc^-autlons 
— Rule as to <'roHslng Steam Rail- 
way Tracks Applied 290 

Of Pedestrian in Crossing Tracks- 
Dutv of One Seeing lights In the 

Distance K50 

Of Persons Crossing Tracks Ordi- 
nary Care Defined— What I*lir.'ise 

"Look and Listen" " Means IH 

When Horse Frightened and to 

Prevent c.dllslon 402 

With Reference to I>edge or Em- 
bankmenl In Highway (»r In Own 
Land -With Reference lo the 
Equli)ment jind Management rjf 
Cars and the Const ruction (t( 

Tracks 92 

Case for Injunction Against Transfer 
of Property to Corporation of An- 
other State 402 

Cltv Cannr)t <'omr)eI Removal of 
Heavier Ralls l>nld Without Permis- 
sion on Track Having Lighter Ones 
Than Those on the Olher C'uidl- 
(lons as to Paving and Repairs Ab- 
rrtitaled by Massfichuset Is Act of 1S9S 

-Nature of I/Octilliui 4R 

may Bind Kself in do nil Paving 
Extending to the Ropnlrlng of 
the Foundation Cnder a Street 

Railway fl7« 

Common Currier of Passengers— Bur- 
den of Proof In personal Injury 

Cases 7S1 

Condemnation by Natural Person in 
Interest of Corporation — No Two 
Different Rules as to Allowances for 

Benefits 227 

Not Authorized to Secure Water 
Power to Generate Electricity lo 

Be Furnished Railroad 401 

Proceedings Nt»t Affected by Con- 
veyance t)f Land 401 

Conductor's Dut\' to Make Passengers 
Standing on Steps Get Off or Re- 
turn Into Car 45 

Construction of Iowa Statute as to 

Taxation of Street Railways S52 

Contributory Negligence a Defense 
Where Injury Is Caused by One Con- 
tinuous Act of Negligence as bv 
Driver Nr>t Looking Forward at All. 29S 
Crossing of Steam Railroad Tracks in 
Street— Who to Hear Expense of 
( 'onstrueting and Maintaining Cross- 
ing—Street Railway No Additional 
Hur,den— Authority of Engineer of 
Steam Road with Regard to Repairs 
—Steam Road Must Supply Safety 

Gates 92 

Cutting Off Access to Private Prop- 
erty by Raising Tracks Above Grade 
of Highway— Measure of Damages— 
Abutter's Right of Access to Prop- 
erty Inviolable 906 

Damages for Breach of Warrantry of 
Engine Bought to Drive Electric 

Generator 220 

Demanding Second Fare of Person 
Asking for a Certain Car and Board- 
ing It Before It Reaches Its Ter- 
minus—Sign on Car Not to Be Taken 
as Showing Which Way It Is Going 
— Show of Resist aiu-e Authorizing 

Use of Force in Ejection 94 

Derailment from Collision with Ob- 
stacle — No (*ontributory Negligence 
on Part of Passenger Seated in Car.. 226 
Driving Onto Track Immediately in 

Front of Moving Car S49 

Duty as to Furnishing a Safe Place to 

Take Car or Alight 731 

Keeping Tracks in Repair- 
Paving and Repaying— Ordi- 
nance Requiring Repair of 
Pavement Confers No Right 
of Ac-tion on Injured Traveler 
—Ordinance Not Supported 

Under Police Powers 149 

Obtaining Control of Car to 
Avoid Injuring Pedestrian- 
Duty to Absent-Minded Per- 
sons-Deafness No Excuse for 
Not Taking Care— Pedestrian 
Not to Be Expected to Stop 
or Turn Rnund cm Track—De- 
gree of Care Reiiuired to 
Avoid Injuring Peopl^--Things 

a Motorman May Assume 850 

Restoring Street Closed to 

Former Condition and of 

Knowing It Has Been Done.. R49 

of Conductor at Places Where It 

Is Customary for Passengers to 

Get On and Off Cars Without 

Any Signal 336 

Getting on Moving Car to 
Avohl Coming In Contact 

with Passenger on Steps 905 

of Deaf Person Walking on Track 
to I.^)ok Back— Right of Motor- 
man to Assume That Person on 
Track Will Hear Warning Bell 
and Step Aside— Duty of Person 
Oblivious of Danger or Unable to 

Save Illmsi-If 904 

of Motorman in Charge of Car to 
Mslen for Signals to Stop— Evi- 
dence of Motorman Being Angry 

Willi PasH^'UKef Admissible 9li;i 

on ( 'ar Descending Gradei In 
City In Look Ont U>r Young 
Chlldn-n -Child Running Inl.i 
PassluK Car--Ortli nance Re- 
quirluK Car tr> Be Stopped In 
Shortest Tlm«- IN.ssihb- <in 
Appearance of ( tbs true Hon. . . 45 
Where Horse Balks or Is 
Stalled on Track— Remaining 
In Wagtm Not Necessarily 

Contributory Negligence 621 

of Passenger as to Stopping of 
Cur to Prevent C(dllHlon-High- 
est (Tare tmi Always Recpilred— 
Insufilcbuii Signals c(f Danger... 851 
of Ti-amsler to Lot>k and Listen 
for Car until Past I'^urther Track 

— lUHlrucllon of Jury 29« 

of Traveler on Sired to Turn 
Aside to Let Cars Pass- Errone- 
ous Instruction as to Insuf- 
lleienl lleiKlllKlll uud (*iHilrlbu- 

tory Negligence 295 

Ifi Ascf-rlaln and Remove Causes 
Which MlKlil l)4-rail Cars 903 

lo Check Speed or Stop Car to 

Preyriit ( -.dltHlon With Person on 
or Near Tni<-k Limit to Rapld- 

Tninslt Rights of Public 905 

to Cons! run Lines Notwithstand- 
ing Proviso as (o prhu- Orndlng 
of Streets and After Nlro' Years., 225 

lo Employe of Teleplione Com- 

panlcH aiul to Olhers lr> Insulate 
Span Wires, Delect and Remedy 
T^enknifcK Frequent Inspections 
no Deretise Prima r> n\,\>-tt of 



luuululluit— Kngugliig 111 Duiigvr- 
uufl UcciipuUun nut Cuntrlbuiury 

iNCKliKuncf 7JJ 

lu Huvc' t. ur t nuiT Cuiitrul uiid 
Sluw Uuwii at rruHMliiK—Nul Nu- 
licu Tnal Car will Mop or Invi- 
tulJun tu iioaiu lt-t*uliurc to 
Stuji to I aKt' on I'uhsvuhvt nut 
Nvk1Ik*'|i>'*' iK-fU not 8top Alter 
Bluckuiit' S|n-fa at CruflttlnKtt— 
No Ubllgutlon to Tukt^ Tcntlmony 
of Foreign Kmpioyv (Jul of 

State 85;; 

to Keep AUupted t'latfurm In Sufc 
Condition— Contact with Cur Not 
Nece80ury to Constitute i'usscn- 

ger 336 

to Look Both Ways Before Start- 
ing to Cross Street— Whul Mo- 
torman Muy Ajjsume of Person 
Who Has Crossed His Track and 
Is Confronted by Car on Further 

One 337 

to Pedestrians- Failure to Give 
Customary Signals and to Have 
Car ih Control— Evidence not lo- 
cating Collision Just ul the 

Point Alleged 296 

to Prevent Collision of Rear End 

ir with Truck 3.10 

Where Road Is Built Through An- 
other's Land and In Private 

St reet 225 

Ejection not Warranted by Mere Hon- 
est Belief of Conductor that Coin 

Is not Good 335 

of Passenger Presenting Wrongly 
Punched Transfer Ticket— Pas- 
senger not Requlretl to Inspect 
Ticket, to Know Meaning of 
Symbols on Same, or to Know 
Rules Promulgated for Employes 
—Duty to Accept Explanations 
of Passenger and to Correct Mis- 
takes of One Conductor Through 

Another 622 

Electric Hallway not an Additional 
Ser\ltude— Abutter not Entithd to 
Compensutinn Because of I*«iwt'rlng 
of Gnide— Tracks Miiv be Placed at 
Side of Highway— Ownership of 
niRhway by Plank Road Company 
Immaterial — Smoothness Between 
R.ills ami Adjoining Tracks not Re- 
quired— Crossings Most Abutter, can 
Ask— Consent of Authorities may be 

Assumed 980 

Equal Rights of Railway and Pedes- 
trians at Street Crossings— W*hen one 
May Cross In Front of an Approach- 
ing Car 849 

Extra Care Required Approaching 
Street Crossings in Crowded Cities- 
Rate of Speed-Dim Headlight— Cir- 
cumstances May Excuse from Look- 
ing and Listening 47 

Failure of Person In Vehicle to Look 
and Listen for Car not Necesssirlly 

Negligence 977 

to call Passengers or Others us 

Witnesses 9l 

to Look and Listen Contributory 
Negligence— Molorman May As- 
sume that Persons Stopping Near 

Track Will let Car Pass 7;il 

to Sound Gong for Person W'ork- 
ing Near Track- Latter not 
Bound to Look Continuously for 

Car 402 

Falling Out of Open Car of Passenger 
Standing up to get Fare from Pock- 
et-No Warning Required— Speed of 
16 Miles an Hour Not Gross Negli- 
gence 336 

Fall of Car Elevator— Deflect in Gear 

Wheel— Inadequate Inspection 336 

Foreign Corporation Not Complving 
with State L.iw (Tannot Maintain 

Action for Construction of Road 110 

Form of Action for W*rongful Ejection 
for Wrongly Punched Transfer 

Ticket 850 

Franchise Acquired Prior to Vesting 
of Right of Actual Construction Un- 
der the Statute 149 

RequlremenLs as to Fare May 

Have Extraterritorial Effect 977 

Getting on or off Moving Electric Car 
—Slowing up on Signal not Invita- 
tion to Board Car Before it Stops- 
Duty to Person Once nn— Starting 

Up with Jerk 402 

Granting of Franchise a Legislative 
Function— Sufficient Notice of Appli- 
cation for Franchise 849 

Gratuitous and Invalid Town Votes as 
to Conditions to be Inserted in 
Franchises and to Borrow Money to 

Carry Out Scheme 522 

Having no Headlight or Sounding 
Gong on Foggy Morning— Dulv as to 
Stopping. l^)oking and Listening 

Before Oosslng Track 521 

Holder of Prior Mortgage from Lessor 
has no Lien on Feed Wire Furnished 

by Ijcssee 45 

How a Consolidation is Effected— Li- 
ability upon Judgment Rendered Af- 
ter Consolidation Against Old Com- 
pany 731 

Illinois Statute Construed to Confer 
no Authority to Grant Franchises to 

Indlvlduultt— Franchise Dellncd ZH 

Implied Authority to Ac<|ulre Elec- 
tricity lu t>i>erate hcreel Kiillways 
and v'uliolty ui tfutKoniruct by City 

to Furnlsn Suinu li^ 

Injury tu Boy ilidlng on Side Step of 
I' reight * ar on x'ruck Close to 
Street Hallway — Failure of Moior- 
mun Court tinted by Sudden Danger 

to Follow Wisest Course IKH 

Running into Cur When L«t 
Ixjose Alter Being Held and 

Lectured 45 

who Being Ordered Off Car, 
Jumps on Pile of Sund that 
Gives Way. Causing Him to 

Slide I'nder Car 4U1 

to Conductor by Another Car 
While Trying to Open Gate After 
Changing Trolley at Crossover- 
Sufficient Looking for Car— Mo- 
torman Seeing Person Near 
Track or In Place of Danger- 
Street Railways Included in 
•'Railroad*' Fellow-Servants Act. 290 
while Reversing Trolley by 
Starting of Car Tlirough Neg- 
ligence of Motorman— Car 
Starter Fellow Servant of 
Conductor and Motorman— 
Railroad Fellow-Servant Act 
not Applicable to Street or 
Other Railroad Company Op- 
erating a Street Railway ...524 
to Lineman in Removing Spindle 
Used to Pull Out Trolley Wire 
—Giving of Orders Not Alone 
Enough to Make Superintendent. 22n 
to Motorman from Car Ahead 
Running Ha<kward on Account 
of Derailment of Another Car- 
Want of Necessary Rule Must 
be Shown— Risk from Known 
Methods Assumed— Absence of 
Red Lights from Rear of Car and 
Telephone Connection with Y— 
Conductor Jumping off Before 
Collision— Incompetent Servant 

and Fellow-Servant Rule 7^ 

to Newsboy Remaining <m Car 
After Being Ordered off When 
He Could Have Got off with 

Safety— Injury to Trespasser -ir. 

to Passenger After Alighting by 
Catching Foot in Rope Attached 

' Car by Some Boy 93 

on Running Board by Being 
Struck by Girder of Bridge- 
Duty to Passengers — Duty to 
Passenger and Employes In 
Construction of Track— In- 
spection not Required of Pas- 

spngers or Employes 150 

Kidiim on Running Board 
Through Timnel. Close t' 
W'all— Duty of Company Us- 
ing City Tunnel— Risk As- 
sumed by Passenger— Latter 
not Bound to Use Highest 
Care— Negligence a Relative 

Term 7:^2 

to Pedestrian Attempting to Es- 
cape from Automobile 91 

Between Cars on Crossing due 

to T^ateral Movement of one 

From Curve — Duty not to 

Permit Cars to Meet There — 977 

to Person Running to Take Car 

and From Stumbling Falling TTp- 

on Track— No Absolute Duty to 

Stoi^ Car on Signal of Intended 

Passenger 92 

Slumt)ling Over Fender of Sta- 
tionary Unlighted Car— Right 
to Have Car Stand on Track 

a Reasonable Time 523 

tn Woman From Falling into 
Trench After Alighting From 
Car— One Having Alighj-ed no 

linger a Passenger 226 

Insufficient Evidence of Amount of 
ProlUs Ix>st bv Suspension of Opera- 
lion of Road 977 

Location of Rallwav to Give Au- 
thority for Occupation of Street 

for Construction Purposes 9i>4 

Insulting and Threatening of Passen- 
ger by Employe— Person Carried by 
Street Still a Passenger— $100 Dam- 
ages 226 

Judgment in Action Against Lessor 
for Injuries Bar to Action Against 
IjTssee- Lessor Liable for Negligence 

of Lessee 150 

Jurisdiction to Determine Submitted 
Question of Mode of Crossing at 

Grade 225 

I^eglslatlve Authority Required— Elec- 
tric Road not an Additional Servi- 
tude—Changing System when First 
Authorized by Private Contract 

Only 238 

T..essee of Road Subject to Debts not 

Liable for Accrued License Fees 225 

Liability for Attorneys Fees After 
Settlement of Claim with Client- 
How Lien for Same Mav be En- 
forced 337 

for Ejection of Passenger Given 

Wrong Transfer by Mistake 47 

for Giving Wrong Transfer— Ticket 
a Mere Token— Passenger not 

RcHiulrud to Verify Ada of Con- 
ductor 979 

for Injury to Employe Kldtng 
Jiome on Puw* Due to Opened 
Hwltch — Maintalnlng Full Speed- 
Divided Opinion on Duly to Placu 

Target ur LIgni on Switch TM 

to Feelings and Sensibilities of 
Passenger by Wrongful Ex- 
pulsion from Cam 22S 

to Pussengers from Rotten 
Plunk In Platform Built by 
Third Parties— tinu May As- 
sume Olllcluls liuve Taken 
i'recuu lions to Insure Sufei> 
—Burden of Proof where in- 
Jury Occurs from Breaking of 
Appliance— Duty to Know 
Effect of Time and Weather 
on Appliances and to Inspect 

and Renew Same 906 

Jumping or Pulled off Car 
or Jumped Upon. A Collls- 
slon of Cars Appearing 

Imminent 149 

on Slippery Step of Short- 
Run Car 22"; 

for "Railway Spine"— Company 
not I>labte for Punitory Dam- 
ages Afier Criminal Prosecution 

of Negligent Employes 97s 

of Railroad for Injury to Con- 
ductor Getting on Car Without 
Looking Again After Signaling It 

to Advance at Crossing 48 

of Trustee for Negligence of Mo- 
torman 46 

Measure of Damages for Breach of 
Contract by Refusal to Accept 

Right of Way 403 

Mortgage Covering After-Acquired 
Property a Prior Lien on Poles and 
Wires Erected on Another's Land.. 401 
Municipality Cannot Question Valid- 
ity of I>ease by Company Authorized 
to Lay Tracks Without its Consent. 90:i 
Nature of Consents of Abutters and 

Their Rights to Sell Same 298 

Negligence in Jerking or Moving Car 
While Passengers are Alighting.... 227 
in Riding on Platform of Interur- 
ban Ca r i n <\t pen Cou n t ry Same 
as on Steam Railroad— No Recov- 
ery in Case of Derailment— Rule 
not Allowing Passengers on Plat- 
form Reasonable— No Liability 
for Injury to Passenger Purpose- 
ly Violating Rule 906 

Negligent Starting of Car by Con- 
ductor After His Charge Thereof 
Has Been Terminated by Change 
of Crews— Test of Liability for 

Negligent Act of Employe 228 

of Employing too Young and In- 
experienced Motormen— Duty of 
Motormen Seeing a Person Near 
Track— Inference from Failure lo 
Stop Car In Short Space as Pos- 
sible 979 

No Authority to Condemn Longitudi- 
nal Strips of Railroad Right of Way. 978 
Consideration for New Conditions 
•After Contracting to Furnish 
Transportation— Insufficient Re- 
lease to Cover Negligence 402 

Inference as to Looking or of 
Freedom from Contributory Neg- 
ligence^Failure to Stop In Ac- 
cordance with Rule— Duty of Mo- 
torman at Cross-Street Contain- 
ing Other Tracks B21 

Reversal for Error in Submission 

of Case Where Passenger W^as 

Thrown from Car Running at 

High Speed. Breaking Wires 

and Being Wrapped in Them...33o 

Not an Attempt to Condemn and 

Appropriate a Public Street or to 

Build an Elevated Railroad therein 45 

Obligations of Merged Company— 

I*essee Only Liable for License Fee 

for Cars TTsed 227 

Opening of Front Gate by Motorman 
Not Invitation to Alight from Mov- 
ing Car and not of Itself Negligence 
—Passengers Take Obvious Risks... 401 
Ordinance Authorizing a Roadbed 
AlK>ve Grade Subject to Repeal- 
Tracks Taken in by Extension of 
City Limits May be Ordered Re- 
moved to Center of Street and 
Placed at Grade— Ground Occupied 
May be Required to be Paved— 
Construction Presumed to be Intend- 
ed 94 

Imposing Duties on Motormen 

Binding on Company 149 

Passenger Alighting from Car at Once 
Becomes Traveler on Public Thor- 
oughfare—Care Required in Passing 
Behind Car and Over Other Track- 
Duty of Looking and Listening 97S 

Permitting Permanent Obstructions 
Near Track— Riding on Footboard- 
Loaning Back Crossing Bridge— Ab- 
sence of Accidents for 11 Years- 
Overloading Cars 404 

power of City to Prescribe Maximum 
Rate of Fare— Occupation Classed 
with that of Hackmen. Omnibus 
Drivers and Cabmen— Validity of 
Ordinance Regulating Fares and 
Providing for Transfers— Power to 



Provide for Transfer Tickets- 
Waiver by Lessors— Company Or- 
ganized to Lease Roads Must Corn- 
apply for Permission to Construct 
of Court to Urder Reduction oi 

Speed Near Court Houses USo 

of Municipality to Provide for 
Rails to be l-aid Within a Speci- 
tied Time— Liability of Surety on 
Bond for Failure to L;iv Them 

Within Such Time 849 

to Buy Existing Lines to Extend 

System— Validity of Mortgage— 

:segotiabiIity of Bonds— Priority 

of Lien— When Lien for Paving 

Taxes Superior— Assessment fur 

Paving one Foot Outside of Rails 338 

Presumption After Municipal Action 

that Consents Covered Requisite 

Number of Feel— Consents Required 

to be Sealed and Acknowledged SoO 

Prohibited Sounding of Gong in Hear- 
ing of Jury 226 

Prohibition Against Digging Along 
Edge of Highway no Restriction on 
Construction of Street Railwav 

Therein D" 

Real Owner in Possession of Land 
Without Legal Title May Give Con- 
sent—Sufficient Public Hearing— Ad- 
journment of Advertised Meeting- 
Valid Reservation and Provision in 
Ordinance— Lessor Company May 
apply for Permission to Construct 

E>xtension 33S 

Reasonableness of Regulation Limit- 
ing Time for Use of Transfers- 
Transfer Void After Expiration of 
Time Limit l^inched and I^are Must 
be Paid Although there has Been 
no Opportunity to use Transfer- 
Remedy of Passenger in Action- 
Ejection Once Begun may be Com- 
pleted Notwithstanding Subsequent 

Tender of Fare 979 

Refusal to Stop to Take on Passen- 
ger—No Duty to Prevent People 
Boarding Car Crossing Railroad 
Tracks— Boarding Moving Car— Sig- 
nal Unnecessary When Intention 
Known— Intoxication of Person In- 
jured Attempting to Board Car 297 

Relation of Street and Steam Rail- 
roads to Street— Power of State to 
Regulate Management of Road- 
Requiring Safeguards at Railroad 
Crossing— Apportioning Expense- 
Difference Between Electric Cars 

and Ordinary Vehicles 522 

Refusing to Accept Fare and Order- 
ing Arrest of Passenger Evidence of 

Malice 731 

Relative Rights and Duties of Street 
Cars and Vehicles or Pedestrians on 
Tracks— Duty of Motormen to Avoid 

Collisions and Injuring People 732 

Requiring Separate Accommodations 

for White and Colored Passengers.. 0«i 
Riding on Front Platform of Car 
Containing Notice that Passengers 
Do So at Thffir Own Risk- Reason- 
ableness of Rule— Taking Passengers 
on Crowded Cars— No Evidence of 

Waiver of Rule 4<tt 

Right of Conductor to Refuse to Re- 
ceive More Passengers— Duty to 
Warn Those Waiting to Board Car 
When It Stops— What one Signaling 
by Standing by Track May Assume 
when Car Stops— Sufficiency of 

Warning— Starting Car 92 

of Newsboys Permitted to Board 
<^'ar»— Requirements of Conductor 
Ordering or Compelling one to 

Get Off— Unlawful Ejection Sol 

to Erect and Maintain Poles and 
Wlrea Not Transferrable from 

Road 149 

Risk Assumed by One Emerging Rap- 
Idly from Sid*- Stre*'t and Attempt- 
ing to CroHH Double Tracks Behind 

PasHing Car 33ft 

by Paflsenger PasHing Along 
Running Board on BUU- •'"•■vi 
to PasHlng Cars— Duty of Pas- 
»enger to Place HImHelf In 
Poiiltlon of Safety— Evidence 
of ArtH on F'revIouH Occa- 
iilonH. Width of Cam and ITbc 
of Rail on Inidde of New 

One.H Kxrludfd 150 

from Proximity of Trees to TrackH 

AsHumed by Conductor S3ft 

of Falling Account of WeakneHH 
of Old Poleit Afinumed by Lln**- 
m<*n— No Duty of Iniipectlon of 

Company 903 

Rulen for AsiieHHlnR a Company's 

Real Kmato for Paving »M 

Running Down Blr-ydlst with North- 

tKiund Car on Br.uth-bound Track... 733 
Hal<* lo Another *"ompany Partly for 
B**n*'nt of DlrcciOTM Fraudulent and 
V'old SIM Agalniit f^reditofM- I'T'^Hldent 
Takinir Tionu" HoUIm Same In Trout 
— ProvlMlon Agninnt ConHoHdatlon 
of Comi»e!|nif RiillrondK not Applica- 
ble lo Htre-t Rftllwayn OW 

B«-IzlnK of Running Board by One 

Thrown Down by Btnrtlng of Car.. <04 
BfM'ilal Franchliie Tax Art ITnconntl- 

tuHonal Zns 

Btartlnff of Car by Molorman With- 

out Signal or Looking to See if Any 

One is Getting On or Off 404 

on Signal of Stranger While 
Passenger is Alighting— Ab- 
sence of Care and Foresight 
Necessary to Liability— No 
Liability for Acts of Stran- 
gers 29S 

Statute Authorizing Reservation of 
Space for Electric Railways near 
Side of Way not Unconstitutional 
as Imposing an Additituial Servitude. UTT 
Detining Liability of Railroad 
Companies Applicable lu Street 
Railroads— Ordinarv and Reason- 
able Care Delined— What Mav be 
Presumed as to Pedestrians- 
Duty to Persons on or Approach- 
ing Crossings— No Right to Run 

into Crowd 47 

Making Judgment Against "Any 
Railroad Corporation" for In- 
juries a Prior Lien not Applica- 
ble to Street Railway Company 
—Sufficiency of Incorporation 
Under Industrial Act— Giving of 
Mortgage not Prohibited— Aliena- 
tion of Franchise in Avoidance 

of Liabilities 732 

Stepping from Behind Obstacle onto 
Track— Doctrine of Presumption 
from Instinct of Self-Preservation.. 9(13 
off from Moving Car— Risk of In- 
jury Assumed 225 

Stopping of Bicyclist in Front of a 
Car Without Looking Back— Motor- 
man Should Warn of Approach of 

Car 977 

Street Dedicated but not Accepted to 
be Treated as Private Property Sub- 
ject to Condemnation 521 

Railway Within Railroad Fellow- 
Servant Act 401 

Liability Law 401 

Strict Compliance with Statute Re- 
quired in Disposing of Franchise- 
Effect of Fraudulent Bid 227 

Striking of Person Near Track by 
Body of Conductor Passing Along 

Footboard of Moving Car 45 

Suddenly Increasing Speed to Get 
Out of W'ay of Suddenly Appearing 

Train not Negligence 621 

Sufficient Compliance with Statute 
Giving Right to Take Possession of 
Land Needed to Cross Railroad- 
Right not Suspended by Appeal 97S 

Suspension of Operation of Fender 
Law by Commisssion Invalid— Fail- 
ure to Provide Fenders or Other 
Violation of Statute or Ordinance 

Evidence of Negligence 904 

Ten-Hour Law Constitutional 521 

Turning to Right onto Another Track 

of Vehicle Meeting Car 978 

Validity of Agreement to Pave Street 
for I'Yontage Consents— Stipulation 
of Liquidated Damages for Failure. 338 
of City Ordinance Requiring Com- 
panies to Remove All Dirt and 
Snow from Between the Two 
Outermost Rails of Their Tracks 94 
of Conditioning Grant on Building 
of Branch— Power to Impose 
Reasonable Conditions I m piled- 
Delay on Commencing Proceed- 
ings for Forfeiture no Bar 

Thereto 906 

"Vigilant Watch Ordinance." A Po- 
lice Regulation \\Tilch Confers 
Rltiht of Action- Provision as to 
Stopping in Shortest Time ■mil 
Space Possible Bad In Instruction. . 404 
Village has Power to Anthorl/..- Hiilld- 
Ing of Trestle in Street fm- Viaduct 
—Ordinance Therefor not Necessary 849 
Violation of Statute or f)nllnance 
Regulating Speed Evidence of Neg- 
llgence- Exiiert Evidence Admissi- 
ble to Show Space In Which Car 

May be Stopped 91 

What the Law Means by Eepial 
Rights at Streot InferHcctlons and 
Having Cars TTnder Control— $in.- 

8R5.r,2 for Injuries 92 

When Contributory Negligence no De- 
fence 621 

to Action for Injury- Duty to 
Person in Danger- Implied 
Knowledge of Danger- Motor- 
man Spellbound with Fright. 29H 

Street Ratlwa V e3R7 

I.eavltt R. P. (Third Rail SvHtem of the 

Alhanv A Hndsnn Railroad Co.) •5^> 

Ixgal Advice for EmpIoyeB e722 

Free 701 

lyeglMtntlon. Coming Street Railway .... o75 
for lIKffl. Street Railway. .. .7ri7. 867, 913. 993 

Re-trictlon on Onintlng of Fran- 

chlKCH 9W 


Reri u I ten Scpn ra to Accommoda- 
tlonN for White and Colored Per- 

Hons Wi7 

Connect Irut. 

r>lfferent Kind "f Paving not to bp 

Require*! 991 

Htreii HiiilwavH not Running on 
Public HtreelH or HlKhwnyH to hv 

Fenei'd • 9W 

Title by AdverHe poNHeNHlon no( 
Arqull*ed to !.Jind UHed bv Fl'*c* 
trie Rflllwny Co Wl3 


Railway Trains and Street Cars to 
Stop at Crossings of Tracks and 
to Slow Down Crossing Draw 

Bridges 993 


Deduction on Franchise Taxes 993 

Street Railroad Companies Author- 
ized to Furnish Steam Heat and 

Power 99J 


Authority Conferred on Villages to 

Grant i-^ranchises 993 


Electric Light Plants may Operate 
Street Railways in Cities of lO.OuO 

or Less 99st 

Where and How Rt-muval of More 
than Two Tracks in Street may 

be Required 993 


Screens or Vestibules Required 
for Motormen and Conductors... 858 

Authority for Certain Towns to 

Aid Electric Railways 757 

Required for Construction of 

Road Upon State Property ... 757 
to Cross Railroads and Re- 
quirements Therefor 758 

to Issue Stock to be Preferred 
in Division of Assets as well 

as in Dividends 757 

to Sell, Lease or Transfer 
Property and Mode of Doing 

Same 758 

Extension of Powers 757 

Fencing and Farm Crossings Re- 
quired 758 

Limit of Charges on Excess Bag- 
gage 757 

Must Provide Drinking Water and 

Closets 757 

Put on an Equality with Other 

Roads 757 

Requiring Disinfection of Cars and 
Observance of Quarantine Or- 
ders 757 


Requirements as to Height of 
Wires and Stopping of Cars at 

Railroad Crossing 857 


An Act to Prohibit Spitting Upon 

the Floors of Street Cars 915 

to Enlarge the Powers of Street 
Railroads in Taking Lands... 915 
Cancellation and Changing of Lo- 
cation 915 

Enlargement of Powers of Rail- 
road Commissioners 915 

Extension of Sundry Provisions of 
Railroad Law to Street Rall- 

wa y s 915 


As to Equipment of Cars 915 

Authority to Carry Baggage and 

Freight 91fi 

to Take Land to Avoid Danger- 
ous Curves or Grades 916 

Speed anil Mode of TTse of Tracks 

to be RenMlaled 916 

To Give Notice of Accidents 910 


Authority to Consolidate and Ac- 
quire Certain Powers 857 

Extensive Powers Conferred on 

Commissioner of Railroads 857 


Liabilitv for Damages to Em- 
ployes 991 

New Hampshire. 

Coiiceriilng Care of Highway 91(J 

U.-porls and Inereuse of Stock 
an<i Bonds of ( 'ori»uatinna 
Owning Stock in Hallways. .. 916 
Restrictions on Sale of Bonds and 

AppUeallon irf proei-eds 91fi 

Spitting Pr()blblled 91fi 

New York. 

I'laHfums to be Enclosed for Pro- 
lection of lOmployes 091 

North Dakota. 

Authorizes Trolley Line to Capltcil. 
Convicts to be Employed In Con- 
structing Same 994 

North Carolina. 

Street Hallway Companies Defined. 994 
( iklalionia. 

.\uilinrltv for Incorporation of 

Street llallwayH 994 


,\uthr)rllv for Consolldallon with 

Corprirallons of Adjoining States 868 
Drinking Tanks and Tf)llel Rooms 
Required on Interurban (^losed 

Cars sr.S 

Property Made Subject lo Special 
AsHeHsmcntH f<ir Local Imprnve- 

nienlH 868 

Provision for Referendum 858 

LeglHlntlon. Proposed Pennsylvania 00 

Ijchlgh Valley Traction Co.. RecelverH 

for 268 

Lelpslg. RfgnliitJonH for Electric Car and 

Aiitf)moblleM In "Ill* 

Street ItallwayM of 765 

Le Vallev-Vitne Carbon Brunhes 103 

Concerning ^HR 

Life Saving Devices for Rlectrlo CnrH. 

Tho Wn t Bon *^i^ 

Lincoln, P. M. (The Trnlnlnjt of tho High 

TeuHlon Engineer) ^"'4 

Line Materia iH, .TfihuH-MnnvlII'- MeiiterH 



and •645 

l,lv»'rpool Corpomllon TnimwayB 27B 

MLiru'hcHlrr MonnraM •IW 

l^ickfrH, Stet'l (NurniKunHett Machine 

Co. » •atw 

I..ockwood. Jamea D. (ReportlnK Power 

House Data) IGO 

I^H'omotlve. Electric. General Electric 

Co •SSS 

I^jndon. EnKlneerlnK Hxposltlon at 100 

Subway SyHtem 2S8 

T.OH AiiKolos. Cttl.— 

Another Interurban foi* 91-1 

Electric Sy«lem« e2(J5 

Notes 7W. 927 

& Pnclt\r Electric Syatems •347. •323 

Schoni fur Cnmluetors and Motoi- 

mt'ti •932 

Sli-ruKe BatterleH for 243 

I*uH Vrgas & Hot SprlnKs Ry.. Electric 
KtK'oinotlvc for (American (""nr Co.) — •939 

Llmii. Ptru. Street Kallway!* In •9<>2 

IvoulHiaiiH FurchuMc Exposition, Elec- 
trical Trunaporiiitlon Features of lhe..»43R 
I-oul8vlll<* Kallwiiv Relief Association.... K2 

1-owe. Houston (i*alnti 2S1 

Lubricant for Railway Bearings. A New. 24fi 

I'sea of and Their Manufacture 4<«' 

Lubricator and Dust Guard. Economy. .•544 
Luten. Daniel B. (Pavement Adjoining 

Rallst 'SS; 

Lvle. J. I. (HeatInK and Ventilation of 
Ra llroad Shops ) •291 


Muintenanct* alid Chumperty iu Personal 

Injury Cases (Brt*nnan) 663 

of Way Convfiillon 217 

Records, Car (Stivers) •659 

Manchester-Uverpool Monorail •% 

Map. The Right of Way (Warren) '67 

Maps — 

Australia. The Section Fare System 

as L'sed In (Badger) 473 

Columbia (S. C.) Railways 61 

Ijiuiville. 111., Klectric Railways of... 1(M 
Fonda. Johnstown & Gloversvllle R. 
K., The Klectric Division of the 

(Uocknell) 485 

Fond du Uic-Oshkosh Electric Ry... 230 

Hudson River Water Power Co 479 

Valley Railway System 508 

Indianapolis N'orthirn Traction Co 133 

Interurban Rallwav & Terminal Co.. 871 

Jollet. Plalnlleld & Aurora Ry 342 

Los Angeles & Pacltic Electric Rail- 
way Systems 21S 

Massachusetts Klectric Companies Sfil 

Miami & Erie Canal 121 

.Mlddleboro. Wareham & Ruzzard's 

nay Street Railway Co •! 

I'arls Metroi)olit:in Accident 516 

Philadelphia to New Vork hv Trolley. '272 

Pittsburg Street Rjillwa.vs !».< 

Providence & Danlelson Ry 153 

Rockford & Interurban Railway Co. 

—1 803 

Street Railway Accountants' Member- 
ship r-u 

l.'nion Traction Co. of Indiana 133 

United Traction Co.. Svstem of tne..;j02 
Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry.. The.... 773 

Wllkesbarre & Hazello-i Ry 8!>" 

Worcester & Connecticut Eastern Rv. 

Co 2911 

World's Fair. The Intramural Rail- 
way for the (Phllll,isi 441 

Marginal Protecting Strip (American 

Brake Shoe & Foundry Co.) "629 

Marion-Wabash Interurban I..lne 72.T 

Martin Rocking Orate •116 

Mason City & Clear I-ike Ry 10 

Massachusetts — 

Abolition of Grade Crossings in 9 

Klectric Comijanies. Quincy Point 

I'ower Plant of the •961 

Steam Turbines of the ^77 

Systematic Increase In Wages. 139 

Notes 73. 292. 4' ■ 

Street Railways. Report of 419 

MoAlester. I. T.. New Power House at 

South 12 

McCulloch. Richard (Production and Dis- 
tribution of .\lternatlng Current for 

I..arge City Systems) •672 

(Notes on European Tramways) .. 407 
McCreary Electric Co. Lamp Cleaners. .^243 
McGuire Manufacturing Co.. New Appar- 
atus 534 

Pneumatic Sprinklers 117 

Rheostat Business Sold 179 

Sweepers and Sprinklers •gsi 

Mcintosh. Combination Heating and Wa- 
ter Arch "244 

McLary. J. B. (Freight and Express on 

Electric Railways) '6C7 

Meriden. Conn.. Transfer Check l^sed in. •355 
Merit System. Brooklyn Heights Road 

Adopts 786 

Metropolitan Railway Co.. Oklahoma 

City 617 

Earnings 241 

Street Railway Co.. Attempt to De- 
fraud the 82 

Miami & Erie Canal. Electric Haulage 

on the '121 

Michigan & Indiana Tr.ictinn Co. The. 926 
Mlddleboro. Wareham & Buzzard's Bay 

Street Rallwav Co 1 

Mile Posts on Electric Railways 933 

Millar. E. T. (Cleaning and Renovating 

Car Seats) •476 

Mill ConBtructlon, The Application of to 

Car Hou»cs-(DeWolf) •457 

Milwaukee Klectric Railway & Light Co. 

Insures Itself 136 

Miniature Railways 300 

Mirror. The Moiorman's ISi 

.Mitten. T. K. (The M:ichlnery of the 

I'lalm .\djustlng IJeiiarlment) ^451 

Mohair PluMli as a Seat Covering (Massa- 
chusetts Mohair Plush Co.) 529 

Mohan Patent RjUlway Ticket •3B3 

.Monarch Motor Stop •360 

Monor.ill. The Manchester-Liverpool •SB 

Monterey Electric Railway Co 44 

Montreal. Removal of Snow In 516 

Monroe & Toledo Short Line. The Detroit 41 
Miiorehead. Dr. J. J. (Physical Examina- 
tions from the Physicians' Standpoint). 79« 
Morris. William i.. (.\ Gage Cock that 

.•an be Closed Tight) *992 

(Coal Fe.'dlng Difflcultles In Hop- 
pers and Spouts) •SSI 

Molorman, Hut One Preferred In Cab 95C. 

Motors. Improvements In Street Car 

(Olds) 550 

Mountnev. L. H. (The Small Road) •986 

Mud Guards for Car Trucks...... •348 

Multiple Svstem of Street Car AVIrlng. 

The (PemberKm) '128 

Munde. Hartford H Ft. Wayne Ry ^941 

Mundv. W, O. (Type-M Control) 599 

Municipal Ownership e300. 8W 

and Public Franchises 136 

Plants. Cost of Operating 212 


Narrow Gage Lines e74 

Nashville. Tenn.— 

Interurbans in (?' 

Rallwav &• Light Co 463. 863 

Power House of the 7(>4 

New Tiansfer Station at ^283 

Railway Improvements & Reorganiza- 
tion Plans 'SSg 

Standard Gage for 49 

National Electric Co.. Organization of. 306 

Newark Air Sand Box (Newark Air Sand 

Box Co.l "sse 

to Indianapolis. From 530 

New England Street Railway Club. An- 

nual Dinner of i(*( 

Haven. Line Completed Between New _ 

York and 51 1 

I>>gislation ^'22 

Lines Opened In Traffic. .. .263. 3f9. 939. 989 

Orleans Notes — 92i 

Railway Cos. New Plant 9«9 

Strikers Convicted at 344 

Publlcat ions Jan.. 

119. 172. 2.35. 305. 357. 428. 514. 710. 865. 991 

New-sboys, Regulation Cap for ^821 

News Notes 371 

New York. N. T.— 

Central Railroad. Early History of... 371 

Electrical Equipment of the 71 

Subway Stations In ^729 

Consolidation of Roads in. 57 

Extension of Transit F.lcllitles 133 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co.. Car 

Contracts for 14 

Manhattan Railway Co.. Heaters for. 179 

Increase in Traffic 128 

Lease Ratifled 103 

Shops Burned 381 

Metrooolitan Street Railway. Attempt 

to Defraud the 82 

and New Haven. Line Completed Be- 
tween 517 

New Third-Rail System In 231 

Pennsylvania Railroad's Terminal In. 20 
Subway. Cars for the (St. Louis Car 

Co. ) 'ses 

Contact Rail Bonds for (Mayer & 

Englundl .531 

Electric Heaters for (Consolidated 

Car Heating Co.) 301 

Westinghotjse Motors for 224 

to Philadellihla bv Trollev •272 

Street Railway Traffic for 332 

Tunnels Proposed for 38 

Niagara Falls Power House. Recent Im- 
lirovements in the Street Rallwav Plant 

of (Weeks) •3.33 

Transmission Lines (Weeks) ^410 

Power Plant. Accident at (Dun- 
lap) 107 

NIcholl. T. J. (Street Railways and the 

Y. M. C. A.) 284 

(The Best Form of Car for Aver- 
age City Service) ^460 

Nlleg C^i^. Large Orders for 181 

Noark Branch Blocks •SS 

Northeastern Rv. Electrical Installation 

for Suburban Traffic on the 354 

North Jer.sev Street Railway Co.. In- 
crease in Wages on 160 

Notes. Some (Bv W. A. B.) 752 

Nuttall Co.. The R. D...: 540 


Oakland. CTal.. New Cars for (St. Louis 

Car Co.) T78 

Oberg & Co.. r. O. In New Factory 939 

Obituary. lin. 171. 234. 2fi2. 427. 520. !S4, 924. 991 

Arnold. Everton Burrltt 174 

Bliss. Eliphalet W 520 

Card. W. W 234 

Caissel. Simond D 174 

Chalmers. Thomas 428 

Clark. Alex 8M 

Cooke, Geo. A SSD 

Daniels, John C M4 

De Coursey. Samuel 110 

Draijer. I<'rank A 991 

Eikins. William L (M 

Kllloit. Miller 8E6 

Farrlngton, Jeremiah A 202 

Hathaway, Charles 427 

iliwett, Abram Stevens UO 

Kei.ijcl, Samuel U 2(2 

KIttredge, A. () 262 

McCard.ll, James R 262 

Miller, John Graham (24 

Mills. John E 620 

Ohmer. Michael DZI 

Penlngton. Mrs. T. C 2CS 

Reynolds. L. W 520 

.Scales. Richmond 8S5 

Stewart, James A 234 

Williams, E. P 262 

Wright, Frank A DM 

Yerrick, Clark 991 

Ohio Notes 38 

Ohmer. John F. (Fare and Fare Protec- 
tion) 830 

Oil Circuit Breaker. Electrically Oper- 
ated 108 

for Dusty Roadbeds e3«7 

Fuel •265 

Tall Lights and Street Car Control- 
lers. Discussion on 814 

Oklahoma Traction Co.. Guthrie. Okla. .. 517 

Olds. W. E. (Improvements In Street Car 
Motors) 556 

Olean (N. Y.) Street Railway Co.. Power 

Stations of the •383 

New Power House of 107 

Omaha & Council BlufTs Stieet Rallwav 

Co ,-. 16 

-Des Moines Interurban Proposed 97 

Oshkosh— Fond du Ijic Electric Rv ^229 

Road Opened 117 

Outings. Street Riiilwav 53S 

Overhead. Deeii-I^vel & Subway Lines. 
Relative Advantages of (Cottrell) 416 

Pacific Electric Rv. and the Los Angeles 

Ry. Systems •247. '323 

Notes 416 

Systematic Robbery of 399 

Paint (Lowe) 281 

& Varnish Removers, a Test of 330 

Painting. Durability in Car 52 

Technology of .\rtlstic *c IndustHal 

(Sabln) 342 

Paris Tunnel Accident. The e4?2. "516 

Park Advertising (Waddell) 83 

Amusements 532 

Aquatic Attractions for •84 

Attractions (Waddell) 141 

.\utumn Work In the (Partridge) .... 714 

Designing Terminal Facilities for ••>73 

Development, Street Rallwav 

'-21. 'Ki. '141. 'aOo. ^273. •SSI 

How to A<lvertlse Street Railway. .208. 277 
Should Be. What a Street Rallwav 

(Barham) gK 

Descriptions of •22. ^87. ^142. ^209. ^279 

Street Railway— 

Aiken Park. Amsterdam. N. Y 148 

Athletic Park. New Orleans. La... 27 
Auditorium Park. Eureka Springs. 

Ark 209 

Base Ball Park. New Orleans. La.. 27 
Battlefield Park. Hoosick Falls, 

N. Y 89 

Bluff Side Park, Winona. Minn 280 

Boyd Park. Wabash. Ind 280 

Braddock Heights. Frederick, Md.. 280 
Britannia - on - the - Bay. Ottawa, 

Kan 281 

Calder Park. Salt Lake City. Utah. 280 

Canemah Park. Portland. Ore 147 

Cape Cottage Park. Cape Eliza- 
beth. Me 146 

Cascade Park. Berlin. N. H 26 

Casino Park. Binghamton. N. Y. .. 24 

Savannah. Ga 148 

Terre Haute, Ind 148 

Cedar River Park. Waterloo. la... 90 

Chickies Park. I^ancaster. Pa 209 

Chllhowee Park. Knoxvllle. Tenn. 146 
Cheyenne Park. Colorado Springs. 

Colo ^147 

City Railway Park. Muscatine. la.. 148 
Cleveland Grove. Ishpeming. Mich.. 2«* 
Columbia Gardens. Butte, Mont. ...•897 

Concord Park. Natchez. Miss .S9 

Cortland Park. Cortland. N. T. ... 88 
Crouch's Electric Park. lola. Kan.. 209 

Dorney Park. Reading. Pa 88 

Electric Park. Kankakee. Ill 23 

Kansas City. Mo 90 

Oshkosh, Wis •210 

Fair Grounds. Durango. Col 280 

Fairmount Park. Woodstock. Ont.. 27 

Falrvlew Gmve, Reading. Pa 88 

Forest Park, Atchison. Kan 209 

Pittsburg. Kas 87 

Glenmarv Park, Worthlngton, O. .. 146 
Gwvnn Oak Park. Ballimore. Md... 27 

Harlem Park. Rockford. Ill ^392 

Highland I^ke Park. Burrvllle. 

Conn 211 

Park. York. Pa 209 

Hoosac Valley Park. North Adams. 

Mass 280 

Hyatt Park, Columbia. S, C 64 

Hvde Park, Austin, Tex 27 

Idlewllde Park, Newark, 211 

Indiana .\miisement Co.. Cvans- 



ville. Ind 26 

Irvindale Park Warren, Pa U 

John Ball Park, Grand Rapids, 

Mich •24 

La Belle Park. Paducah. Ky 210 

l^ke Grove Park. Brunswick. Me.. 211 
Lake Hiawatha Park. Mt. Vernon. 

O '279 

Lake Manawa Park. Council 

Bluffs. lOWTl 24 

Lake Nipmuo Park. Mendon. Mass. 1^2 
Lake Ontario Park. Kingston. Ont. 147 

Lake Park. Manstield. 88 

S.vracuse. N. Y 89 

View Park. Middlelon. Mass 27 

Lakeside Park. Baltimore, Md 27 

St. Catherines. Ont 211 

Lincoln Park. New Bedford. Mass.. 23 

Lindenwald Park. Hamilton. 147 

Litltz Springs. Utncaster. Pa 209 

Merrymeeting Park. Brunswick, 

Me 211 

Meyers Lake, Canton, 88, 211 

Minerva Park. Columbus. 210 

Mission Cliff Park. San Diego. Cal. 147 

Mohawk Park. Brantford. Ont IT 

Monarch Park. Oil City. Pa •351 

Monroe Park. Mobile. Ala 89 

Monte Sano Pavilion, .\ugusta. Ga. 22 

Mountain Park. Roanoke. Va 211 

Mount Hollv Park. Carlisle. Pa. ... 23 
North Park. Grand Rapids. Mich.. '24 
Norumbega Park. Xewton. Mass. ..•142 

Oakford Park. Greensburg. Pa 148 

Olentangie Park. Columbus. 210 

Orchard Beach Park. Manistee, 

Mich. 211 

Pickett Springs. Montgomery. Ala.. 280 
PresQue Isle Park. Marquette. 

Mich 148 

Race Park. San Bernardino. Cal. .. 87 
Reed's Lake Park. Grand Rapids, 

Mich ^24 

Renwick Beach, Ithaca, N. Y 210 

Riverside Park. Bangor. Me 23 

Rivermont Park. Lynchburg. Va... 209 

Riverside Park. Sioux City, la 281 

Riverton Park. Portland. Me 146 

Rock Spring Park. Alton. Ill 88 

Rockv Springs Park. Lancaster, 

Pa 209 

Rorleke Glenn Park. Elmlra. N. Y.. 148 

Ross Park. BInghamton. N. Y 24 

Sacandaga Park, GloversvlUe, N. 

Y 493 

Sans SoucI Park. Waterloo. la 'gO 

Spring Lake Park, Greenfield, Ind.. 209 

Stratford Park, folumbus. 22 

Stratford. O •145 

Suburban Garden. St. I^ouis, Mo... 27 

Summit Park. L'tica, N. Y 279 

Terrapin Park. Parkersburg. W. 

Va 280 

Underwood Park. Falmouth. Me... 146 

Union Park. Ishpemlng. Mich 209 

Urblta Hot Springs Park. San Ber- 
nardino. Cal •g? 

rtica Park, Utica, N. Y 279 

Valley Theater. Syracuse. N. Y 89 

Washington Park. El Paso. Tex... 27 
Washington Park. Rockford. 111. ..•392 
Wenona Beach Park. Bay City. 

Mich '23 

West End Park. New Orleans. La.. 27 
Whalom Park. Kitchburg. Mass. .. 148 
White Oak Park. New Britain. 

Conn 211 

Whittlngton Park, Hot Springs, 

Ark 147 

Wlldwood Park. Putnam, Conn 280 

Willow Grove Park, Philadelphia, 

Pa 87 

Parsons. C. E. (Hydraulics In Connection 

with Street Railway Operation) 800 

Partridge. W. E. (Amusement Park Thea- 
ters) •20S 

(Autumn Work In the Park) 714 

(Car Repairs) 901 

(Terminal Facllltl<«) "SM 

Paul. G. J. A.. Tribnt'- to Mr 38 

PsuluB. D. L. (HoHi Method and Material 
for the Interior Finish of Modern Pas- 
senger Cars) 935 

Pavement Ailjolnlng Ralls (Luten) ^287 

Paving Block Kail (Arthur's) •434 

Pawling & Harnlschfeger Electric Crane 

Ordem IKI 

.New Factor>' for 240 

Pemb«rton. L. H. (The .Multiple System of 

Street Car Wiring) •128 

Pennsylvania Interurban, Western 117 

State Report 132 

Pensions for Employes e74 

System In Denver e320 

Peoples Rapid Transit Railway Co 394 

Peoria Car Co. Organization 309 

New Car Works at 359 

Perry Roller Side Bearings (Midland 

Railway Supply Co.) *9M 

Pers/jnal 54, 

!(«. 173. ZJl'. Z<». .'£«, i26. 618. '63, 884, 024. 990 

Albln. 11. A. 1(» 

Alexander. E W 232 

AMIS. Albert K 2>Z 

Ar.deraon. A. A IK4, 9(0 

.\fjrlr' ws. Wm. C 2(2 

.\roold. Klon J ,,. 232 

,\frhls»n, James R 618 

Hi.'lg-r. J. B 2«2 

liiik.r. Clifford f," 426 

Baldwin. 8t<'phen R 42( 

liaro's. w J 1J3 

Hamhard. I'hillp 222 

Haylles, Judge R. N. (port) IH 

Bearw, A, M. <p'»rU • 

Beggs, John 1 232, 924 

Belden, D. A 174, 356, 427 

Bellamy. C. R 232 

Benham. John 518 

Bergenthal. V. W 762 

Bertrand, P. S 109 

Bigelow, Charles H , 54 

Bishop. Charles T 924 

Bishop. George T 426 

Blair. Edward 232 

Bolles. Frank G 990 

Borders. M. W 233 

Bracket!, Dr. Byron Briggs 763 

Bradford. H. P 518 

Bramhal. Frank J 109 

Brine. George W. 109 

Brown, .\rthur 518 

Frederick 518 

R. N 54 

William W 54 

W. Milton 332 

Bruce. H. P 762 

Brush. Matthew C 519 

Bryan. E. P 233 

Bryant. E. .\ 260 

Bucknell. J. A 619 

Hudd. Jus H 54 

Bullen. Harry 42G, 991 

Bullls. G. P 924 

Burlingham. Wm 426 

Bushnell. John H 99'J 

Buxton. Guv W 173 

BvUesbv, Henry M 356, 427 

Cain. J. E 854 

Calderwood. John F 262 

Caldwell. John A 261 

Campbell. A. D 232 

John A 356. 

Carter. John W. (port) 232 

Carver. D. F 427 

Cassatt. A. J 854 

Chamberlain. F. H 261 

Chandler. E. W 518 

Cherr>-, T. C 990 

Childs. S. W. (port) 828 

Clark. E. B. (port) 65 

John 924 

J. Peyton 54, 854, 924 

Clay. Charles F 618 

Cole. George M 262 

Coleman. Jilson J 110 

Collinge. Neal u\ 518 

Collins. C. E 356 

Colvin. A. B. (port) 679 

Connette. E. G. 261 

Conry. W, H 763 

Cox. Charles H. (port) 8, 924 

Crawford. W. W 518 

Crosby. James W 991 

Cuyler. E. B 990 

Dame. F. L 518 

Damon. George A 262 

Davies. Henry J. (port) 577 

Davis. II. A 991 

Dawson. W. J 519 

Denman. C. A. 426 

Diener. John V 356 

Dietz. E. J. W 109 

Dill. Samuel J 991 

Dimmock. E. S 426, 762 

W. S 54 

Dolph. John 260 

Donnatln, C. E 762 

Donoran. John 260 

Dow. F. Irving 260 

Downs. E. E ; 201 

Drum, A. L ITS 

Duffy, C. N 570 

Eade. W. J 924 

Eastman. Albert 261 

Edwards. Allan F 260 

George K 261 

Ellis, T. M. (port) 393 

Ely, W. Carj'l (port) 577 

Emmons, C. D 261 

Esselstyn. H. H 861 

Everett. H. A 233 

Faber. E. C, (port) K9, 427 

Farmer, Thomas (port) 575 

Felt. T. E 2Si 

Fir.-. CharlcH E .924 

Fischer. Frank C 26) 

Fisher, George E 233 

H. A 854 

I.*e D 854 

Fitch. C. 173 

H. D 256 

Fitzgerald. F. E 232 

Fleck. Charles M 64 

Flynn. C E. (port) 356 

Folds. George R 356 

Folsom. E. C I 426 

Forward. Chauncey B 232 

FoHler, E. C 366 

Fowler. F. M 762 

Frazer, II. A 762 

Frost. A. C 64 

Flill.r. W. 1 232 

(Jabel. ThOB. K, 763 

Gannon. Frank 8 357 

Gates. E. E. (port) 1I9J 

Gay, Charles F 426 

Jas, II 990 

Gentry. Henry F 869 

Gerdon. Frank J 291 

Gibson. Geo. |{ lO, 61( 

Ollberl. A. B 64 

E. H 426 

Given. Frank 8 109 

Olvney. John W 84 

Glenn. T, K. (port) 173, 260 

Glld.len. John 618 

Goff. Robert 8 366 

Gonzenhach. Ernest 618 

Goss, E. W 664 

Gould, E. F 762 

Grampp. Harry G 232 

Grant. Howard F 55 

Groneman. J. H 54 

Gunn. E. B 426 

Hackett, Charles H 233 

Hackney. J. J 356 

Haller. Frederick 54 

Hamner. R. B 366 

Hancock. J. W 109 

Hansen. Thomas G 232 

Harrington. A. C 99) 

Harris. Charles E 356 

Geo. H 99l 

John 233 

Samuel 232 

Harvell, John E 109 

Hathaway. A. G 260 

Hedlev. Frank 54 

Henrv. Oliver D 261 

Herelv. Millard B 924 

Hillier. W. J 261 

Hisgen. Thomas L 260 

Holcomb. W. H 232 

Holman. J. W 261 

Howard George K 356 

Hunt. R. E 233 

Huntington. Howard E. (port) ....173, 328 

Huntress, Frederick A 990 

Hutchlns. Jere C 266 

Ingersoll, J. B. (port) 260 

Jackson. James U 261 

William P 99i) 

Jenkins. Thomas M 991 

William 173, 518 

Jones. W. J 618 

Josselyn, B. S 173 

Keating. E. H 173 

Kennedy. M. J 173, 256 

Kennard, Samuel M 426 

Kerr, T. N. (port) 762 

Kinmouth. Fred W 109 

Kochersperger, H. M 519 

Konger. Charles 109 

Kurz. W. D 762 

Laffln, Richard T 854 

Larrabee. Geo. B 233, 261 

l^tlmer, F. W 109 

Law, L. T 427 

Lee. R. E 263 

Leonard. H. Ward 262 

Lincoln. H. F 260 

Lintern. William 233 

Littell. H. M 427 

Lottus. W. J 864 

Longyear. W. B 854 

Lowrv. Horace 426 

I.ugar. Joseph C 990 

Lyman. T. L 54 

Mat-Donald. Duncan 426 

MaKlltnn. John J 260 

Mahonv. Jolin 924 

Mruiifolii. S. M 991 

Mansfield, W. H 854 

Manvllle, Hiram Edward 109 

T. F 426, 762 

Mapledoram. Blake A 262 

Marshall. Cloyd 173 

Martin, J. M 924 

Marvin, J. B 426 

Mauck. Joseph W 260 

Mavsilles. J. H 864 

McCarter. Thomas M 262, 350 

McClary. J. H. (pnrt) i'9 ' 

Mct^ormack. Ira A 924 

McKee. H. S IfW 

Melxoll. A. E 426 

Miller. W. W 21)0 

Moore. W. E --232, 260 

W. H 260 

Morley, W. K 2." 

Morrison, W. R. Jis 

Mulr. J. A. (port) 328 

Murphy, John (port) 198 

Mvers. E. C 260 

Nagle. Geo. 427 

Nash. Maxham E 356 

Neereamer. A. L 261 

Nelson. S. 1 356, 762 

Nlcholl, Frank M 619 

H. A 854 

Nipper. A. M 51S 

Noe. Elzer C. (port) 64 

O'Connor. W. J 262 

O'llnra. Edward 990 

01d«. E. W. (port) 662 

(.VMare. B. F 260 

Page. Henrv C. (port) 173 

Parker. J. W 260 

Parsons. John B 426 

I'alten. Albi-rl 426 

Joseph M 618 

Pallon. G.-orge 8 260 

Perkins. George 8 518 

Perrlne. F. A. C 991 

Peslell. William 619 

I'hlnni-y. M. M 864 

I'icree. Ulchnrd H 231 

I'luml). Glen K filK 

romerov. .\. II 7M 

I'orler. II. F. J 619, 990 

Post, U, 1. 924 

Powell. Charles 8 .' 173 

ITHlt. George re 618 

I'rout. Col. Henry Ooslee 100 

IJiiinev. ('. F 864 

l<andi>l|ih. Eiies. (port) 328 

Heagan. II. C 762. 990 

Ream. Norman B ....42(1 

Itetirdeti. Horace 8 261 

Iti-dmond. T. B 1211 

KemelluK. Charles W> 

HevnoldH. C. C 261 

Irving. H M4 

Hire. Calvin W MS 



. U4 
. SM 

. tu 

. 7(2 
. 5U 
. 426 
. IN 


ItU'hurdD. Joseph T 

Itiibltinon. llulil»'ll 

ItUlKir.lwin. W. .;•••• 

Ro,kw.-ll. l>r. II. B. iporl).... 

KoHH. JanifH 

Uoin. K. N 

Orcii, Jr ~ 

Uiulcl, AU-xiiiider Holley J™ 

SuiUTli'f. W. A ;jj 

Siiw.v»T. 11. K ^1 

Schurf UroB 

Sehmlill. Oco. 8 (port) 

Kmll G 

8chwllZK<'lx'l. H. C 

Si-olt. A. 1. .-• 

Seymour. \V. W 

Sluiw. Ci. II. T 

Shelilon. RnlHMi E 

Shcplcy. George B 

Simpson. <". O 

Smith. K. E (port) 

Iliirold B 

II. E 

H. 1 

J. W 

-VVhaley. W. B 

Snow. WIlllBm H ^ 

Spoor. John ■■ SS 

SiK-llmlro. Walter B »« 

Stanley. A. H »1 

Stebblns. Theodore ■-■ J?' 

Stephens. B. R. <26. 518 

Stout. K. J '■^ 

Stroul. M. D 

Sullivan. J. J 

Sutherland. D 





... 762 
... 173 
... 232 

Swift. H. S IJ' 

SymlnKlon. E. E •■■ • ■• ■ Jl" 

TarklnKton. \V. B. (port) 234. .61 

Taylor. J. W. E ™2 

Tcnnv. Chas. 11 ^ 

Thomas. E. P .%i 

Thrasher. Charles P Jsi 

Tone. S. Ui Uue (i>ort) JSj 

Tucker. F. A -°; 

TutwellUr. J. H ^ 

Tyrrell. H. O 924 

VanderKrItt. J. N — ■ j^ 

Vreeland. H. H 2a6. 4S6 

WalbrlilKe. II. D *-< 

Walker. Guy M J''» 

Walter. Alonzo F J" 

Wasiin. Charles W 261 

Waterman. I.yman 

Weaver. John C *. ■ 

Weeks. Benjamin J 

Wentz. Theodore 

Weston. C. V 

Wlicatlcy. Walter W 





..2i3, 990 

Wheclock. U N 8o4 

Whipple. F. G ffj 

T. H. Bailey °J? 

White. Edward C -"' 

T Q iW 

Whiteside. WaiterH f^ 

Whysall. George ??] 

Williams. James »?J 

Williams. M. E..^ ir;' it! 

Wilson, Chester P I"' ;*; 

Winter. E. W... 
Winters. E. E... 
Woirt. Augustus 
Woodward. A. H 
Wustenfeld. C, 


Wyatt. W. 1 ■■ 1^ 

Yerkes. Charles T ^ 

Young. David |* 

J s 004 

Zlmirier. E. J ii" iS 

Zimmerman. F. M 'JSK 

Personal Injury Claims vV^L-.y-l"'^ 

Pestell. William (Electric Welded 

Joints) t'L 

I'hlladelphla Co.. The Ig 

Subway. Machinery for J»» 

to New York by Trolley 'Zii 

L'nlon Traction Co.. Kensington Shops 

of the •,221 

Phillips. Richard H. (The Intramural 
Railway for the World's Fair)......... '441 

Physical Examination from the Physl- 

clans' Standpoint (Moorehead) ijb 

In Accident Cases (Dlbbs) i98 

Piece Work *"• oS 

Pierce. Richard H..... v-.-.'; JS 

Pit Table. A Convenient (Smith)..... •zss 

Pittsburg & Allegheny Valley Railway 

Co •» 

& Charlerol Une Opened 786 

McKeesport & ConnellsvlUe Ry 9i 

Completed J» 

Parks 19? 

Street Railway Supply House 57 

Systems of 185 

Plalnfield & Aurora Ry.. The Jollet....*342 
Plans of Electric Plallways for 1903.. 161, 239 
Plush Coverings on Pennsylvania R. R" 

Specltlcatloms for ^ 

Pneumatic Tools 179 

Porter & Berg Incorporated «1 

Porto Rico. Railway Project f or. . . . .^. . . . 108 

"Positive" Railway Sander WO. 932 

Power House Data el34 

Transmission and Distribution In 

Utah '^ 

for Interurban Lines iStorer) 808 

Press. The Railway 15 

Private Electric Car. A Handsome (St. 

Louis Car Co.) 'MJ 

Way, Trolley Rights on 9i>6 

Protection of Corporations e201 

Production and Distribution of Alterna- 
ting Current for iJtrge City Systems, _ 
iMcCulIoch) '612 

I'roul. Henry Oosleo ■.•■ JW 

Providence & Danielnon Ry., The '163 

Province of the Street Railway Account- 

ant. The (Bnioksl '<» 

Publications. Street Railway 11 

Public 8er\lee Coriioratlon of New Jcr- 

sev. (irganizallon of 534 

Pueblo * Suburban Tniction & Light- 

Ing Co " 

Purchasing and Accounting for 8u|i|)lle8 

on Electric Railway Systems (Staubl. .'JM 
Purdue fnlvemlty. Forestry Station at.. 866 
Pushover Seats (American Car Seat Co.).. 654 

Uuestlon Box of the Pennsylvania ..Vaso- 

clatlon IBl. S'J 

The <'i'«9 

""Racing" Engines, A Remedy for 

(Small) •!« 

Rail Bonds, "All Wire" (Ohio Brass 

Co.) '^^ 

Patent Void 3"2 

Testing ^ 

Joints. "Continuous" .* t»1 

g. & C. Bonzano (Railway Appli- 
ance Co.) 'fSI 

Sanding Device (John C. Dunerl '039 

Railway Generators. Crocker-Wheeler.. 546 

Motor. Alternating Current 896 

.Raleigh, X. C.. Notes from '216 

Rnmlon Sclf-t'ieanlng Switch 'X 

Rapid Hv.. Detroit, .New Cars for the 

(Brill) 'm 

Reading, Pa.. Brill Cars for '03 

Recent Developments In Electric Rail- 
ways (Caldwell) 756 

Records of Employes 'IG 

Reagan, H. C. (Columbus. London & 
Sprlnglleld & Dayton. Springfield & Vr- 

bana Railways) "T"** 

Removing Boiler Scale (Vradenburg). .. . 913 
Reports. Conductors" Car Earnings 

(Brockway) '462 

for Electric Railways. Form of 611 

Reporting Power House Data (Lock- 
wood) 160 

Richmond. Va.. Labor Situation in 318 

Right of Way Map (W'arren) •67 

The (Vreeland) 664 

in San Francisco 766 

on Private Wav. Trolley 956 

Roads Under Construction In 1902 42 

Roanoke, (Va.) Railway & Electric Co. 

Sold lOS 

Robberies on Street Cars 38o 

Robbers, Conductor Killed by 330 

Robberv of Pacific Electric Co 399 

Roberts. E, P.. & Co.. New York Of- 

lice for 302 

Rochester Railway Reunion 71 

Rockford. Ill,— 

& Freeport Electric Ry •389 

-Freeport I,ine, Quick Work Done.. 730 

Freight & Express Traffic 2R 

& Interurban Railway Co...e321. •307. •SSg 
Rockwell. Dr. H. B. (The Successful and 

the Unsuccessful Claim Agent) 455 

II. O. (The Electric Division of the 
Fonda. Johjistown & GloversvUle 

R. R.) ^485 

W. B. (Track Construction) 477 

Rodger Ballast Cars 177 

Roeblings Sons Co., John A., New Sub- 
marine Cable Plant 1000 

Rome. Italy. International Exposition 

at 355 

Root Track Scraper Co •585 

Rules for the Government of Employes.. 703 
Discussion of 753 

Sabln. A. H. (The Technology of Ar- 
tistic & Industrial Painting) ^342 

St. Joseph. Mo.. Conductor Killed In 263 

Railway. Light. Heat & Power Co.. 

New Plant for 5" 

St. Louis Car Co, Cars for Cincinnati. .'180 
and Trucks for Intcrborough 

Rapid Transit Co 431 

tor St. Louis & Suburban Rail- 
way Co. ^112 

Intcrborough Special Trucks 99) 

Specialties •SSS 

Elevated-Subwav Railway for 984 

& Suburban Railway Co.. Car House 

Burned 160 

Improvements 38 

Transit Co.. Car Shops of the "907 

Electrical Congresses e471 

Transportation Features of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition.. 438 

Fair Dedication 305 

Transit Co. and United Railways Co.. 

Financial Report 235 

Rents. Power 516 

Salt Lake CItv. Consolidation at 725 

Sand Boxes (Rldlonl for Boston Ele- 

vated 183 

Drier (Howe Manufacturing Co.).... 684 

Sander. Positive Railway 932 

San Francisco. No Municipal Lines for..e788 

Rights of Way in 766 

Sanitation and Disinfection of Electric 

Railway Cars (Baird) •463 

Santa Claus In 1902 49 

Saratoga. Its Environs ..'oil 

Springs. Congre»» Hall .,♦530 

Tho Convention Cliy '437 

Savannah. <ia.. Handling (iarbago In... •888 

Scalfe Co, In Mexico 988 

SehedulcB. Hoard for Announcing 'lO 

Chart for .Vnnounclng '4 

Scheneeladv. New ("lub Rooms at . 866 

Ry., Power Supply and Dlatrlbu- 

tion for tho (Sykea) •600 

Svstem of the '497 

Hihoianihlps, Two Vacant 466 

School for Ctuiductiirs and Motiirmen, A,.*^2 
Section Fare Svstem as Usi-d In Austra- 
lia. The (Badgerl '473 

Selecting Car Body Colors 69 

Self-Conialned Street Railway Car* (Chi- 
cago Motor Vehicle Co.) 4S2 

Service. The Value of Frequent 215 

Selxas, E. F. (Freight Development by 

Interurban Itoa<lsl 818 

Sheldon. Srimuel (Some Recommendations 
Concerning EIe<'trleal and Mechanical 
Speclrlcations of Trolley Insulators) ...,•743 

Shop Kinks (Adamsi •5.17 

Practice (Green) "Sib 

Sign, Millen Illuminated Reversible Car 
(Columbian Machine Works & Mallea- 
ble Iron Co,) "IWi 

Signal. Haycox Electric Car 66 

New Electric Trolley 51 

The Unl (Uni Signal Co.) ^542 

to Stop Cars at Night (O. E. Painter), "SS" 

Single Phase Railway Motors e471 

Svstem of Electric Traction. A 

New '447 

Skinner. C. E. (Methods of Bringing High 
Tension Conductors into Buildings) .. ..'742 

Sleeping Cars for Electric Lines 346. eSW 

Sleeping Cars. Holland (Holland Palace 

Car Co.) 'SSe 

Small. J. W. (A Remedy for Racing En- 
gines) *148 

Road. The (Mountney) "SSO 

Smith, James H. (A Convenient Pit Ta- 
ble) •282 

Societies, see Associations. 

Socletv. Mansfield Technical 20 

Solidified Oil MS 

(Bruck) •;.... 112 

Something for Nothing e266. c388 

Special Work (lndiana|iolls Switch & 

Frog Co.) 'Jl; 

Spokane Southern Traction Co 399 

SiHitting from Outside of Car 998 

Springfield & Central Illinois Railway 

Co 107 

Consolidated Railway Co. Sold 107 

& Xenla Traction Co.. Receiver for.... 927 
Standard Classinealion of Acounts and 

Form of Report (Duffy) , 759 

Conduit Exhibit 3« 

Paint Co.. Housewarming 301 

Pole & Tie Co., Notice of Removal... 116 

Vitrified Conduit Co 54« 

Stanley High Tension Railway System.. 110 
Stark Electric Railroad Co.. Power Plant 

of the "625 

Injunction Modified 866 

Star Street Railway Co 366 

Starting and Stopping Condensing En- 
gines 286 

Staub. "W. H. (Purchasing and Account- 
ing for Supplies on Electric Railway 

Systems) '464 

Steam and Trolley Competition e75 

Turbine Developments. Recent (Em- 
met) 643 

for l^ng Island R. R 868 

of the Massachusetts Electric 

Companie.s ^77. •96) 

The Curtis e20I 

(Emmet I •236 

\'alves. Foster "Be 

Steel Tracks for Highways •BO 

Stephenson. J. E.. Interurban Ticketing.. '816 
Sterling Blower & Pipe Manufacturing 

CO. '581 

Exhaust Pipe Head •248 

-Meaker (_*o. •582 

Trolley Base •301 

Stewart, John A. Electric Co 869 

Stivers, S. C. (Car Maintenance Records). •659 
Stoker, Automailc Mechanical (Under- 
Feed Stoker Co.) '432 

Stone & \\'ebster 762 

Stop for Motors. Safety •Seo 

Stupi>ing at Near Crossing 822 

Storage Batteries for Los Angeles 243 

Storer. J. B. (Power Transmission for 

Interurban Lines) 808 

Stieet Railway Review of London. The..e95S 

Railways. Growth of i.e387 

and the Y. M. C. A. (Nicholl) 284 

Men and the Y. M. C. A e26o 

Strikers Convicted at New Orleans 344 

Strikes e32» 

Chicago City Ky 913 

of the Month.. 114, 174. 234, 266. 367, 430, 

530, 763, 862. 923. 976 

Stuart-Howland Co. 305 

Sturdevant. Charles R. (Conditions which 
Affect the Resistance of a Bonded Rail 

Joint) 975 

Sturtevant Co.. B. F.. Engines and Mo- 

tors 999 

Sub-stations. Equipment of Railways 

with Converter (Adams) 80 

Suggestions from Employes, Prizes for.. 331 

Sunburv. Pa.. Water Power Plant In 869 

Suspended Railway Project for Ham- 
burg, Germany. '9. 


Suspension Bridge Built In Five Days 

(John A. Roebllng's Sons Co.) '932 

Sweeper and Water Car Combined 246 



Switch. Cornell Trolley (Cornell Mfg. 

Co.) '868 

for Eleclrio Roatls. .\ New Automatic 
Track (American .\ulomatic Switch 

Co.) '998 

Hunt Simplex "SM 

Ramion Self Cleaning •68 

Svdnev. X. S. \V.. The Tramways of •745 

Sikes.' F. G. (Pnwer Supply and Distribu- 
tion for the Siheneelady Ry» •500 

Syracuse. Automatic Signals at 770 

Conyention. The e7S9 

Taxable Value of Tracks. Suit to Deter- 
mine 9S>S 

Taxation of Street Railways e7S9 

Telephone Operator Assists the Electri- 
cian. How the (Weeks) •727 

Tennessee Notes 'SSI. 976 

Terminal Facilitie.*! (Partridge) •395 

Testing Armatures. Rapid Method of — •987 

Rail Bonds 'SSi; 

Theaters. Amusement Park (Partridge).. •205 
Thefts. Conductors Indicted for Trans- 
fer 770 

Third Rail Electrical Insulator (Mayer 

&. England) 178 

Electric Railways. A System for 

Protecting the Conductor Rail on. •537 
for High Speed Electric Service 

(Gonzenbach) 293 

Protected eS85 

System •364 

in New Tork 231 

The e472 

(Gould) 46S 

Three- Phase Electric Locomotive '125 

Ticketing. Interurban •816 

Ticket. Mohan Patent Ry •362 

Special Privilege e3S6 

that Helps Earnings (National Ticket 

Co.) 546 

Ties (Maintenance of Way Association 

Report) 219 

Toledo-Cincinnati Through System 133 

Short IJne. The Detroit. Monroe &... 44 

to (L'hicago. Freight Line from 22tr 

Two New Interurban Roads out of.. 347 
Tower Wagon. Automobile in France — 112 

Track Construction e201 

and Maintenance (Wilson) 801 

at Hartford. Conn '202 

of the International Railway Co.. 

Buffalo. N. Y.— I. (Wilson) •129 

(Rockwell) 477 

Drill. Cleveland 180 

Drilling Machine (Cleveland) •36.i 

(Maintenance of Way Association 

Report) 217 

for Highways. Steel •SO 

Work. Instructions Regarding 349 

Trade Names. Protection of 140 

Notes.. Jan.. 120. 1S4. 246. 309. 370. 435. 

54S. Sept.. Oct.. Nov.. Dec. 

Training Motormen and Conductors — 148 
Train (Srdcrs and Train Signals for In- 
terurban Roads (Coons) •efiS 

Resistance Formula. A Rational 417 

Transfer Boxes. Conductors' %2 

<"'heck used in Merlden. Conn '.Io-t 

Their Use and Abuse (Duffy) 793 

Ticket. New •347 

Transformers. Method of Drying 361 

WestlnghouHp Self-Cnoling •SCO 

Trolley Base (Detroit Trolley & Manu- 
facturing Co.) ^584 

Sterling Roller Bearing '301 

(Catcher. A New 300 

Johnson & Morton •SSS 

Greenaraeyer l*neumatic '249 

Insulators. Some Reeuinmendatioiis 
Concerning the Electrii-al ami Me- 
chanical Recommendations of (Shel- 
don & Keilev) 743 

Pole. The Columbia 642 

Raises Rural Tastes (Farson) 772 

Retractor. Dick Ham •537 

(Hoffman-Powers) •113 

Retriever. The Knutson ^243 

Trips in New England 329 

Wheel and Harp. New Form of (Rail- 
way Appliance Co.) •302 

Troy & New England Ry B09 

Trucks. Brush Heavy Service •535 

Interurban (Peckham Manufacturing 

Co.) <SS6 

(Trdcr for Peckham 60 

St. Louis No. 47 •682 

Tunnel. Hudson River Trolley 69 

Turbines and Electric Locomotives for 

New York Central 999 

Steam e75 

Type-M Control (Mundy) 699 

Underground Electric Railways Co.. of 

London. Power Stations of the ^397 

Union Traction Co.. New Cars for 764 

Philadelphia. Kensington Shops of 

the •221 

to Mine Coal 770 

United Kingdom, Electric Railways In 

fjjg _ «gQ 

States Railroads, Statistics of......... 412 

Track Gage •244 

(■niversal Drawing Machine •59 

University of Pennsylvania, New Engi- 
neering Building for 300 

Utah Light & Power Co 'aSS 

Utlca (N. T.) & Mohawk Valley Ry., 

Concrete Culverts on ^95 

The ^773 

Van Dorn Couplers. Large Orders for 51 

& Dutton Co 683 

Ventilation of Street Cars 101 

Vermont. Rutland Street Railway Co., 

New Cars for (Laconia Car Co.) ^931 

Vestibules. Regulations in Regard to 37 

Vibration of Machinery. To Prevent 140 

Vradenburg. A. K. (Closing Down) 307 

Vreeland. H. H. (The Right of Wav) 664 


Waddell. C. W. (Park Advertising) 83 

(Park Attractions) 141 

Street Railway Amusements 21 

Wages. Advance in 55 

Increased 2.34. 263. 388 

Warren. John B., C. B. (The Right of 

Way Map) •67 

W.ashington. D. C. Observation Cars 98 

Watchman's Clock. Wagonner •Ill 

Water Car & Sweeper Combined 245 

W.atson Automatic Fender 683 

Life Saving Devices for Electric 

Cars ^540 

Weatherproof Telephone (Connecticut 

Telephone & Electric Co.) •SOS 

Weekly. The Detroit United 11 

Weeks. A. B. (How the Telephone Opera- 
Uir Assists the Electrician) ^727 

(Niagara Falls Transmission 

Lines) 410 

(Recent Improvements in Street 
Railway Plant of Niagara Falls 

Power House) 'SSS 

Welding. Electric 129 

Welded Joints, Electric (Pestell) 697 

Western Electrical Supply Co. Catalog.. 245 

Reorganization of 76.S 

Illinois Railway Co 72S 

Society of Engineers 126 

Wheeled Scraper Co. Grader '176 

Westinghouse Companies Publishing De- 
partment 546 

Horizontal Gas Engines ^175 

Sales Department 770 

Traction Brake CJo 55 

Weston. C. V. (Design of the Intramural 
Rv. tor the St. Louis World's Fair).... •442 

Electrical Instrument Co 177 

West Virginia Companies at Odds 538 

Wharton. J. R. (Some Features of the 

Butte Electric Ry) '897 

Wheatley. W. W. (Efficient Discipline).... 13 
Wheeling Traction Co. Pays Dividends.. 53 

Whistle Signs 399 

White, J. G.. & Co 304 

Wilcoxen. E. B. (Interurban Train Dls- 

IXJtching) 815 

Wilkesbarre & Hazleton Ry., Some 

Operating Data on (Wallace) •SS7 

Wilkinson. Reckitt. Williams & Co 303 

Wilson. C. E (Track Construction and 

Maintenance) 801 

Wilson. T. W. (Track Construction of the 
International Railway Co., Buffalo, 

N. Y.) •M. '213 

Windstorm at Pleasantville. N. J *8G6 

Wireless Light Cluster (Benjamin Elec. 

Mfg. Co.) 'seg 

Wiring. The Multiple System of Street 

Car (Pemberton) •128 

Worcester & Connecticut Eastern Ry. 

Co '290 

& Holden Street Railway Co 15 

World's Fair. St. I^ouis. Congresses, A 

Week of Electrical 439 

Design of the Intramural Ry. for 

the (Weston) '442 

Electric Railways and Electrical 

Congress at 929 

Intramural Railway for the (Phil- 
lips) ^441 

New Cars for 725 

Transportation Exhibits at the... 334 
Woven Rattan as a Seat Covering Mate- 
rial (Hey wood Bros. & Wakefield Co.).. 529 


Tear. The Past el8 

Y. M. C. A. Street Railway Work 806 

York County Traction Co.. Annual Meet- 
ing of 108 


January 1—60 

February ^ 81—120 

March 121-184 

April 186—246 

Mav 247-S06 

June 307-S72 

July 373— (.in 

August 437-550 

September 651—77:; 

October : 773—870 

November 871—940 

December 941—1000 


Vol. XIII 

JANVARY 20, 1903 

No. 1 

Middleboro, Wareham & Buzzards Bay Street Ry. 

Some Operating Features of the Road— Employing Car Service Men— Block Signal System — General Inspec- 
tion — Chart System of Posting Schedules. 

So miicli is printed nowadays in the proceedings of the technical 
societies, associations and the trade press in general concerning the 
larger electric railway installations of the country that a thousand 
and one bothersome questions confronting the management of the 
medium size and smaller electric railway properties are often neg- 
lected and do not receive their share of discussion. Inasmuch as 
the problem arising in the larger installations are of practical in- 
terest to but a small minority of the electric railway fraternity, it 
would seem that more data ought to be forthcoming on numerous 
questions of practical interest to the constructing engineers and 
operating officials who are responsible for the success of what are 
frequently but indefinitely termed the smaller roads. It has always 
l>een the aim of the "Review" to give especial attention to the de- 
mand for this class of information. 

On the Middleboro, Wareham & Buzzards Bay Street Ry.. in the 
Cape Cod region in southeastern Massachusetts,- will be found a 

Mr, Charles 11. Cox, resident general manager of the company, 
holds it as self-evident that the old, hard and fast methods of deal- 
ing with men, which were more or less prevalent in the early days 
of the art, have no place in modern economic conditions. The re- 
quirements of the service demand that men of higher mental attain- 
ment be secured to take charge of cars, that they be paid good 
wages, and that such rules and regulations be formulated as shall 
appeal to the intelligence of the men and secure their good will 
and hearty co-operation in the jnanagement of the company's busi- 
ness. The men are no longer mere machines, and cannot be so 
treated. This does not mean that the manager must subserve the 
interest of the company to the interests of the men, but it does 
mean that both interests must be considered and harmonized if the 
company's business is to go. forward with that vim and snap that 
always characterizes the successful business enterprise. 

Mr. Cnx believes in penniltincr (lie men to express ideas and 


number of original schemes and ways of doing things that cannot 
fail to be of interest. Physically, the system comprises 26 miles of 
track and is a typical New England road, similar to any one of a 
dozen intcrurban roads in Massachusetts. Of the total 18 miles is 
built with 60-II). T-rails in 60-ft. lengths, and 4 miles is 75-lb. 
T-rails in 30-ft. lengths. The rest of the mileage is over tracks of 
another company. The system is single track throughout with turn- 
outs at intervals averaging two miles. The overhead construction 
emtjodies a single line of 30-ft. round chestnut poles with flexible 
bracket suspension, supporting No. 00 lound trolley wire. The 
rolling stock includes twelve 12-bench double truck open cars; five 
13-bench double truck open cars; eight double truck veslibuled 
closed cars; one box freight car; one flat car; and four single 
truck nose snow plows. The physical cliaractcrislics will be de- 
scribed in greater detail later. The company at present has no power 
house of its own, but rents power from the Wareham power house 
of the New Bedford & Onset Street Ry., which was described in 
the "Review" for Dec. 15, igoi. 

Perhaps in view of the present widespread discussion of vital 
latxjr isiucs, the feature of chief interest will be the company's 
attitude towards its men and the efforts of the management to fiiul 
a common ground upon which the men and the management can 
meet and stand. 

suggestions concerning any detail of the service, provided of course 
that those suggestions be made in a dignified way and through 
proper channels. In the employes' waiting room at the car barn 
Mr. Cox has placed a wooden box with a slot in the lop lo which 
is attached a placard reading: "For the improvement of the serv- 
ice. Put your ideas in writing and drop them in this lx)x," and at 
regular intervals these notes are taken out aiul carefully looked 
over by the management, a record of them being taken. Twice a 
year the men otfering the best suggestions are awarded suitable re- 
wards for their iiUerest showO. When an employe, no matter what 
his grade, drops a suggestion in the box he is asked to come to 
the general manager's office to talk the matter over. The manager 
meets the man in his private onice and after making Ihe employe 
feel at home and at ease goes over the whole subject, asks questions 
and encourages Ihe man to enlarge upon his suggestion and slate his 
ideas in the minutest detail. The manager never ridicules a sug- 
gestion, no matter how impracticable it may be, but if necessary he 
explains to the man just why it is impossible lo carry the idea into 
execution. Many of the suggestions that come in this w.iy, how- 
ever, are found lo be of unquestionable practical value, and many 
of Ihem placed in execution have resulted in distinct iniprovenunl. 
Asked if he had found any tendency on Ihe pari of I he men lo 
take advantage of this freedom and become "ihnniy " wilh the 


(Vol. XIII. N(i I 

manager, Mr. Co.\ rcplicil lliat he liad had no difRciilty along that 
hnc. A proper atlitnde of ihgnily and self-control on the part of 
the manager seemed to engender a similar attitude on the part of 
the men, and while they appreciated the confidence and freedom 
they have there is no inclination to overstep proper In muds, and 
the relation is one of mntiial confidence and respect. This feeling 
cannot fail but redoinid to the good of all concerned. 

As an instance of the efforts of the management to foster the 
spirit of gix)d will, Mr. Cox at op|x>rtnne intervals endeavors to 
get little notices into the reading columns of the local papers com- 
mending the service of the company's employes. Copies of the paper 
containing such notices arc always posted on the bulletin iHiard 
where the men will see them. As an example of a newspaper item 
of this nature the following is quoted: "Many are the compli- 
ments paid daily to the conductors and molormen of the Middlc- 
lx>ro, Wareham & Buzzards Hay Street Railway Co. for their polite 
acts and courteous treatment of passengers. The employes all 
.seem to have but one desire, and that is to be obliging. It is their 
custom to assist women and children and aged men on and off the 
cars, and they do it with a pleasure that is almost invariably rec- 
ognized with 'I thank you, sir.'" Notices of this kind are good 
in many ways. They bring about a feeling of good will between 
the public and the employes; they show the employes that their 
efforts are appreciated by both the company and the public, and 
they also set a high standard of reputation to which each man irie- 
to do justice. 

The following arc a few pointers as laid down by Mr. Cox: Make 
your road popular with the men and with the public. Never repri- 
mand a man in presence of any one else. If the reprimand is 
necessary do it in private. When it can possibly be avoided do 
not lay off men, as the loss of pay punishes the man's family worse 
than it docs the wrongdoer, and engenders hard feeling. During 
snowstorms and other trying times when tin- men arc doing extra 
service provide for their comfort. Supply sandwiches and hot 
coffee when the men are fighting snow, even if it is necessary to 
drive with a team along the line to do this. Be liberal in the pay- 
ment for overtime, as a few extra dollars invested in this way is 
money well spent. Issue all important orders in writing, and do 
not be surprised if employes fail to obey instructions hurled at them 
verbally on the spur of the moment. It is the custom on this road 
when a special order is issued to have every employe sign a blank 
certifying that he has read the order, that he thoroughly under- 
stands it. and that he is immediately prepared to carry it into 
effect. These signatures are certified to by the foreman in writing. 


A comfortable room is provided win re the men can stay when 
they arc off duty. The room is provided with rockers, chairs and 
tables, games of various sorts, copies of the "Street Railway Re- 
view" and other high class technical papers, together with all local 
daily and weekly papers. 

The company employs about ,!5 men, including conductors and 
motormen and car barn men. Conductors and motorinen are paid 
20 cents an hour. 

Employing Car Service Men. 

When a man applies to the company for cmploynient he is made 
to fill out a blank application of the form shown herewith. .Appli- 
cants for position of motormen must be at least 5 ft. 8 in. tall and 
must weigh at least 165 lb. Applicants for position of conductor 
must he young, active men. The company prefers motormen who 
have had previous experience, but in the case of conductors gives 

the prefernce to inc.xperinced applicants. For either position the 
company prefers married men. .\t the time the applicant signs 
the application he gives at least three references, covering a period 
of five years previous to the date of his application, which are 





Dear Sir: — 1 hereby make application for a jiosition as 

in the service of the Company. Believins that 1 am pliyslcally (|Uall- 
fied an<) competent to diseharse the duties of said position and with 
till- full understandinK that in the event of my securing employment 
I ;on to abide liy such rules and regulations KoverninR its emjdoyces 
.IS the management may from time to time establish. 

If employed I promise to loyally and faithfully serve the Company, 
and to do 'all in my power to further its interests. To conduct myselr 
honestly, soberly, and with proper obedience and respect to its ofti- 
eials. and courtesy to passengers and the public. 

Age years. Where tjorn? Height Weight 

lbs. Color of eyes Color of hair Married or single 

General condition of health 

Employed the past live years as fol- 

(Give date as near as possible.) 


Have you ever been employed by a 
Railway Company, other than stated 
above? If so give name of Com- 
pany, loeatlon. In what capacity and 
length of time employed. 



Have you ever been convicted of a misdemeanor or felony?. 
Do you use Intoxicating liquors? 

(Full name of applicant) 

( Residence ) 

(P. O. Address) 

Jan. 20, 1903] 


always looked up by eithtr a personal caller or by correspondence. 
The blank used in this connection is also shown. If the applicant 
passes a superficial examination made by the manager, he is sent 
10 a local doctor for a physical examination, for which a charge 
of $1.00 is made. The form of the physician's report is also repro- 
duced. It may be said that all of these forms are printed on 
standard letter size sheets, 11 .\ 8;4 in., which give uniformity and 




Dear Sir:— In applying to this Company for a position as 

Mr Age Height ft. in.. Eyes, 

Hair Complexion Born in refers 

us to you. Will you favor us with your opinion of his honesty, char- 
acter, habits and ability, etc. Please state definitely as to honesty 
and habits. Has he ever to your knowledge been employed by any 
Railroad or Railway Company? It is ver>' essential to applicant thai 
this letter be answt-red promptly, also if ever in your employ that the 
dates of entering and leaving your service be given. The information 
that you give us will be thankfully received and considered conti- 
dential. Very truly yours. 

X. B.— Employed as. 

from to. 

greater convenience in filing and handling. If the physician's 
report is satisfactory, all the papers referring to the .ipplicant. 
including the replies from references, etc., are bound together and 
placed on file for the time when the company needs a new man. 

When new men are to be taken on the applicants standing at 
the head of the list are notified. When a man reports he is 
given a chance to show what he can do — that is, he is put on a car 
in charge of an experienced man and is told to familiarize himself 
with the conditions. 

If he gives promise of becoming a reliable employe he is sent 
to the shops, where he puts on a pair of overalls, and goes through 


Physical examination of for the position of 

Date of examination Place of examination 

Analysis of urine reaction Sp G albumen 

sugar Have you had gall stone or gravel? 

Have you ever had any difficulty In urinating? Is the gait 

(irm and elastic? Any deformities? Age 

Weight Height Hearing Color of eyes 

Color of hair Complexion Is the sight good? 

Vision Color blindness Have you ever been vaccinated 

or had Small Pox? Have you ever received an injury or a 

wound upon the head? When were you last attended by a 

physician For what complaint? Name of physi- 
cian Are you subject to fits? Are you sub- 
ject to dizziness? Have you ever had fainting attacks? 

Chest measurements. Forced inspiration ; Forced expiration 

Lung examination. Percussion ; Auscultation 

Measurement of abdomen Examination of al>domen 

Are you ruptured? Have you a chronic cough? Have 

you catarrh? Have you any chronic disease? Rate of 

respiratory action Heart Pulse (rate and character) 

Have you varicose veins Is there freedom from the 

swelling of the feet? Are you subject to rheumatism? 

Do you use intoxicating liquor? Do you use tobacco? 

After having carefully examined the applicant I am of the opinion 

that he is physically qualified for the position of 

and should be rated at per cent. Cause of rejection 



Dated this day of 190.. 

ail the details of cleaning and making general repairs to cars and 
cqinpment. He works in the shops for from one to Iwo weeks, 
and receives a portion of his regular wages during this time. 
During this time his uniform is being made, and is ready for 
him by the lime he has passed through the shops. For supplying 
uniforms the company has made arrangements with a local fur- 
nisher, who acts as agent for a custom-made uniform house located 
at Boston. Ihe local agent lakes this work for the sake of the 
extra trade it brings to his place. 

By this time the prospective employe is supposed lo be fully 
competent lo enter into his regular duties, and is placed on the list 
for a regular run. 

The uniform of the men differs slightly from the regulation 
uniform used on most roads in that the coat is five biillon, single 
brea%tcd, those of the conductors having lapels and the necessary 
p'Krkels for cliangc, etc., and there is worked in gold thread in 
half-inch block letters M. W. & 15. B. on cither side of the collar. 
Those of the motormen arc also five button, single breasted, 
having M. W. & B. B. worked with silver thread on each side of 
the collar, the letters Uing made the same size and style as on 
the conductors' coats. Ihc coat, however, has no outside pockets 
and is always worn buttoned, giving a miliUry appearance. 

The caps worn arc the regulation kind, with small, drooping 
\isors having the monogram M. W. & B. B. worked in the front 
and center of the bell. The conductors' caps are worked with 
gold thread, and the niolormen's in silver. The badge is of the 
small shield type and is pinned to the left breast of the coat half- 
way between the arm pit and the edge of the coat. 

Posting Schedules. 

A modification of the "chart" system is u:ed for announcing 
runs and schedules for the information of the employes. The 


■ :k 






different runs are all plotted on cross section paper, the horizontal 
rulings representing turnouts, and the vertical rulings representing 
intervals of time. When crews are to swing at any meeting point, 
that fact is indicated on the chart by a small circle at the junction 
point of the lines representing the two runs. The running chart 
for a half-hour schedule for an entire day and the scheme for 
posting the runs are shown herewith. 

The following is a sample "running schedule" for crew No. I, 
each crew receiving one corresponding lo his run, as shown on the 

Sample Running Order. 

Run No. I. Snow and Balkani. 10 hours. 

"Take car from Middleboro car barn in time to leave Middle- 
boro Four Corners at 5:15 a. m. for Monument Beach, passing 
cars as follows: Crew No. 11 at Tremont, No. 10 at the double 
iron. No. 12 at Ellis turnout. 

"Leave Monument Beach at 7:15 for Middleboro, passing crew 
No. 2 at Ellis's, No, 3 at Ranisdcll's, No. ir at the double iron, 



No. 4 at Chapel St., No. 10 al I reiUDUl, N(p. 5 at South Middle- 
boro, No. 12 at Stale road. 

"Leave Middleboro at ().i^, sign car for .Mcmuincnt Heach, yon 
going as far as llie double iron, pass crew No. 2 at State road, 
No. 3 at South Middklxiro, No. 11 al Tremont, No. 4 at Chapel 
St., and on the double iron change cars with No. 10, you coming 
to Middleboro, passing No. 6 al Chapel St., No, 8 al Tremont, 
No. II at South Middklxiro, No. 7 at .State road, relieved al 
Middleboro at 1 1 :45 a. in. by crew No. 2. 

"At I :4s p. m, relieve crew No, 6 al Middicliuro, you signing 


(V.ii. XIII. No. I. 

your (or Moiuiiiu-iu lU-acli :iikI passing al ihc following turn- 
outs: Crew No. 8 at the State road. No. 14 at South Miilillelioro, 
No. 7 at Trenioni, No. j at Chapel St., No. 3 at the double iron, 
No. 10 at Kainsdell's. and at KIlis tnriii.ut you will change ears 
with crew No. 11, you coming to Mid<llelK)ro, passing crew No. 3 
at Ramsdell's, No. 13 al the dnuhle iron. No. 5 at Chapel St., 
No. 2 at Treniont. No. 7 at .South Middleboro, No. 10 at State 
"Relieved for night at 5:15 by crew No. 4." 

Block Signal System 

The block signal u.sed on this system fur the purpose of blocking 
single track sections between lurnouls was invented by .\lr. Cox 
and was installed under his personal supervision. It comprised 
fix boxes for each block, there being three boxes at each end of 
each block. There is only one lamp in each of the six boxes, and 
these are connected in sciies by a single wire. The middle 1k>x of 
each group of three is known as the switch box (No. I on the 
sketch). The switch box has a single lamp, and has a 5 in. 
opening covered with glass. This middle box in each case is 
located 7 ft. above the rail on the track side of the first pole 
nearest the beginning of the turnout switch at each end of the 
block. The light in this box indicates to the conductor that he 
has blocked or cleared the section, as the case may be. 

Box No. 2 (as per sketch) is knowr as the indicator box. It is 
located 15 ft. aliovc Ihc rail on the track side of the second pole 
from the turnout. It has a 5-in. opening on the side of the box 
facing the turnout and contains a single lamp. The object of this 
box is to indicate to the crews going on to the turnout whether' 
or not the section ahead is occupied by another car, and also to 
show to the motorman when going on to the single track that the 
conductor has blocked the section, by the lamp in this box light- 
ing. The motorman is held equally responsible with the con- 
ductor for the blocking and clearing of each section. 

Box No. 3. as shown in the sketch, is called the tell-tale box 
and is located 15 ft. above the rail on the side of the first pole 
on the turnout from the switch. It has a 5 in. opening covered 
with glass and facing the switch, and contains a single lamp. 
This box is to indicate to the motorman that the conductor ha? 
cleared the .section which be has just 'eft before he proceeds 
through the turnout, by the lamp in the box being extingui.'^hcd. 

To illustrate more fully the working of the system, let it be 
assumed that a car is starting from ihe end of the line. The 
lamps in the three boxes at the beginning of the first block not 
being lighted, the crew knows that the block is clear. Just as lie 
starts the coiuluctor throws the switch in box No. I, thus closing 
the circuit and lighting the lamp in each box on the circuit, i. c.. 
in the three Ixixes at the entrance, and the three at the distant 
end. The light in l)ox No. i at the entrance to the block indicates 
to the conductor that he has lighted all six lamps, and blocked 
the section into which he is going to enter, for if the integrity of 
this circuit is destroyed in any way, of course, the lamp will not 
light. The lighting of the lamp in the indi;ator box No. 2 shows 
to the motorman from his postion on the front platform that 
the conductor has properly blocked the section, and it is safe for 
Ijim to enter. The lamps at the distant end of the block close the 
block at that end. 

After the first car has proceeded through the section to the 
distant end of the block the conductor as he enters the turnout 
at that end throws the switch in the switch lx)x or box No. i. 
thus extinguishing all the lights in that series of boxes, i. e., in 
the three boxes that he has just reached and also in the three 
boxes at the other end of the block from which he has just coiv.c. 
As the lamp in box No. i goes out the conductor knows he has 
cleared the section over which he has just passed. The extin- 
guishing of the lamp in the tell-tale box, or box No. 3, indicates 
to the motorman that the conductor has done his duty, and he 
therefore proceeds on to the turnout. 

It will be assumed that as the motorman is about to leave this 
turnout^ and enter the next section be sees by the indicator box 
of the series of boxes protecting that section that the lamp is 
lighted, which shows him that his section is blocked, and he has 
to remain there until the section is cleared by the conductor of 
the car occupying that section, or, in other words, until the 
opposing car has arrived at the turnout. 


















J . \ 

455 ill! of 

S Ji (O K O O IE lU S 



-I m H (o u 

9 "°5 

-gici 0-5 Ji| 
^ € 3 5 » 3 t . 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 


It will thus be evidiiU that each conductor as he enters a 
section throws on the lights, thus protecting himself from both 
front ■ and rear, and as he leaves the section extinguishes the 
lights, thus clearing that section for the next car, and by means 
of the indicator and tell-tale boxes the motorman knows just what 
the conductor has done in each case. The simplicity of the system 
is striking, and by placing equal respcnsibility on the conductor 
and motorman, each of whom takes his information from different 

will step to the telephone and communicate the orders to tlic 
oftiee as he understands them, from having heard the conductor 
repeat them. 

"When two or more cars are running as double headers, or in 
one section at the same time, the conductor of each car nuui 
receive orders as to the number of ears in the section and the 
conductor of the first car will be held responsible for the block, 
cutting the switch in before entering the same and stopping his 


boxes, a high degree of safely is obtained. The system has the 
advantage of always indicating its condition, for if the integrity 
of the circuit is lost through any cause, tlie first conductor who 
throws the switch is aware of the condition, as the lamps will 
not light. 

The signal system has been in operation =ince the opening of 
the road in .■\ugust, 1901. .Mr. Cox applied fi>r patent rights 
covering the chief features. 

As supplementary to the block signal system, a private teleplione 
system has been installed, .with telephone boxes at each turnout. 
In further explanation of the workings of the system the following 
extract is made from the company's rules on this subject : 

Special Notice to Conductors and Moformen. 

The following rules and regulations nuist be observed in the 
operation of the block signal system : 

"The block must be used by all cars, snow plows, construction 
trains, etc., in operating over the line or any part thereof, to block 
each section through which they are moving. 

"The conductor will in all cases throw the switch, observing that 
the lamp in the switch lx)x lights. 

"The motorman must also note whether or not the lamp in the 

ear at the other end until all the cars following arc in sight and 
close behind, before throwing the switch clearing the block. 

"The conductor will not under any circumstances allow any 
employe or any other person to operate any signal switch for him, 
and he will not use a switch stick or anything other than his 
hand to throw the same. Motormen must slow the cars down 
10 such a rate of speed while passing the switch box that will 
enable the conductor to operate the same while standing on his 
ear, excepting in such places as the conductor will be obliged lo 
get ofT his car, in which case the motorman will «Iow up. or stop 
if necessary, and then must receive two bells from the conductor 
before proceeding. .\t boxes where the conductor can reach the 
switches from the car the motorman will proceed without two bells 
when ihc lamp in the tell-lalc box ahead is lighted. 

"When the lamps are lighted they indicate that there is a car 
in the section in which they are located, and should the lights be 
burning at the point where a car is not due, the approaching car 
"uist be stopped and the conductor ring up the office, advising the 
line in charge of the facts, and from him receive Ihc necessary 

"Upon the arrival of a car at a liu-nout whore another car is 
: ) be passed upon the regular seliedule, and there is no indication 


. I \ N ; 1 A k 1 1 


signal Ikjx lights, and in case of failure lo light in either box 
the car must not under any circumstances proceed into the block 
without specific orders to do so from the superinlendenl's office. 

"In case of a signal circuit being out of order or otherwise 
failing to work, the conductor will immediately go to the tele- 
(ihoiic at the turnout, ring up the office, and in as few words as 
po<isiblc advise the dispatcher or the one in charge of the facts, 
who will Issue Ihc nece«sary orders re(|uired in the case. The 
conductor will repeat the orders back lo llie office, word for word. 
The motorman mu«l 'land by Ihc side of the conduclor while he 
is repealing these orders, and when the conduclor is finished ho 

iif the other car arriving there, within a niiinile or two, tlie con- 
duclor nuisl ring up the oflice for orders. 

"As the signal system is a [jrecautinn .-igainst aeeideiM, it is 
aiufily |)ri>lecteil by law, and it is the duty of ,niy employe to 
make known lo the siipcrintendenl the full name and ;idilress of 
anyone known lo in any way tamper wilh or operate any signal, 
whelhcr the same be done maliciously or otherwise. 

"Uiwler no circumstances will any extra car, conslruclioii train, 
snow plow, elc, lie run out on the line wilhoul first advising the 
despalchcr of the full inlcnlions regarding the movements and 
distance lo be run, etc. 


[Vol. XIII, No. i. 

"The motornian will In all cases be held equally responsible with 
the conductor in the observance of this rule or any part thereof. 

".•\ny violation of the same by the conductor or moturman will 
be considered sufficient cause for suspension or discharge from 
the service of this company." 

Indicating Danger Points. 
In line with the general system of precautionary methods, the 
approach to all dangerous points, blind curves and unusual grades 
are indicated to the motornian by a system of striping the pole.s. 
On the fourth pole from the dangerous point in both directions 
arc painted four broad stripes diagonally across the side of the 
pole where the headlight will shine on ihcni as the car approaches. 
On the third pole from the danger point arc painted three .stripes ; 
on the .second, two; and on the first, one. The molorinen are 
hereby enabled to compute the distance to the danger point, and 
arc instructed to bring the speed of their car> down tn four miles 

lime the cars enter and leave a block, but it is believed to be the 
only safe way to operate cars on a single track road. 

General Inspection. 

.Ml cars on the system arc inspected at the car Iwrns twice a 
day, that is, there is always one car more than is called for by 
the schedule, so that there is always one car in the liarn being 
inspected. This inspection includes examination of trucks, motors, 
bearings etc., and when the car leav-s the Iwrn for its next trip 
it is practically in perfect condition, lliis method requires that 
each car will lose two trips a day, but the greater security and 
freedom from breakdown are believed to justify this course of 
procedure. The company pays the car inspector $10.50 a week, 
and the manager makes the statement that this is one of the most 
satisfactory investments the company is called upon to make. 

A secret inspection of all the men on the system is made once 
a month, at which time a report is made on the work of every 


°"'" a^ tl 


CavaccTty^s /PiooH • 

^CCOA^O flOOA P^A^ oy^/f Sr/ia^£ 


T»ACX Ab/ 


H<a»M- T/TACA /»4> <? 

hf^3H /?M7/7 

P^//^7- S/fO^ 

^ — ^ 

T/?/iCK A^a'^ 



an hour as soon as the four stripes become visible. This idea is 
original with Mr. Co.\ and has proved very beneficial, particularly 
during foggy weather and snowstorms, as well as at night. 

Car Following Signs. 

Whenever necessary to run double or triple headers, all the 
cars following are run on the schedule time of the first car, and 
the first car has displayed on its front dash a large metal tag 
bearing a number corresponding to the number of cars that are 
following. The second car carries a sign indicating the number of 
cars that follow it, and so on until the last car. which bears no 
sign. For instance, if there are three cars running on the same 
time, the first car would l)ear a number 2 ; the second, a number i ; 
and the last car would have no tag. These tags indicate to the 
crews of all opposing cars that other cars are following the reg- 
ular, and by means of the number the opposing crews are able to 
count off the cars correctly and there is no excuse for anyone 
failing to know whether or not all the cars following have passed. 
The metal signs or tags bearing the designating minibcrs are 
10 X 14 in. with the figures in white. These signs are put on the 
cars at the car barn by the dispatcher or some other one in 

The conductor of the first car blocks and clears the sections for 
all the following cars before he leaves each section, but Ijefore 
throwing the switch he must assure himself that all the other 
following cars are in sight. This procedure necessarily takes a 
time, and will result in throwing the schedule back a little each 

conductor and motornian, and any lapse of attention to duty is 
noted and rectified by proper means. 

Keeping Good Time. 

Another safety precaution is the care emphasized in keeping 
the watches of all employes in good repair and accurately reg- 
ulated. Each man is required to have with him constantly wfien 
on duty a watch of some standard make. This must not be 
necessarily an expensive timepiece, but must be guaranteed. The 
company has made arrangements with a local watchmaker to take 
general oversight of all the watches and clocks on the system, and 
each employe must submit his timepiece for examination every two 
weeks. For this purpose a watch certificate is issued to each 
man, and on this is entered the date examined, the condition of 
the watch, whether fast, slow or out of repair, and notation is 
made of the fact that it has been regulated and put in shape on the 
date examined. The time record or watch certificate is reproduced 

Cleaning Cars. 

In line with the inspection of cars is the matter of car cleaning. 
On this road soap and water are never used for washing varnished 
surfaces. In lieu a preparation compounded by Mr. Cox, having 
as its foundation raw linseed oil, is applied twice a week, and 
rubbed in with cotton waste. In between .semi-weekly applica- 
tions the cars are merely rubbed down with a dry cloth. This is 
found to preserve the varnish, and gives the cars a bright, clean 
appearance at all times. 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 


Physical Characteristics. 

As previously stated, the road has no power house of its own, 
but rents power from a connecting road on a kilowatt basis, meas- 
ured at the switchboard. 

The cars of this company run over llie tracks of the New Bed- 
ford & Onset Street Ry. from Wareham to Onset Bay at the 










TKoM ^^"^ 

190 M 

This is to certify OiMthe umtch of . ,/r. 6. /^t-CLC/do^A-ty 


employed as ^^^ --.r^ — -,— . 

Moi^ement ^o €1"] IO6 Brand /3.^iV.ltjMo!U,^n*^U'.r£likl*i^ 
has been inspected and is up to the standard of emellence required ay the 
M. W. (£• B. B. St. Ry. Co., and w perjonninn as per record on the back 
of thia certificaU. ^j ^ "-f . . Jt 

... CXt4^..'^,.*&t!H<fy^Aa**4/.hspecto\^ 

AAdr,s,.7lCJLaLur/roni, hlcuJ^ 


southern end, and at the northern end connect with the tracks of 
the Old Colony system in the town of Middleboro. Extensions 
are contemplated from Middleboro to Plymouth, a distance of 
16 miles, and from Buzzard's Bay to Wood's Hole, a distance 
of 22 miles, and from Sandwich to Chatham, ifi miles. These 
extensions may be built by separate companies, hut will all act 
as feeders to the Middlclxiro, W'areham & Buzzard's Bay Street 









TKo^ J5- 












la " 





























































IMSTKUCTIONS.-Tba •mplor* u wbtm IhU carUllcUa It Innad 
•bonU nport t» hU wKtfh tDip*ctor trarr two w««ka, ftnd ofUD«r wh«D 
MaT«Dl4ol, ID 'tfitt tb^ th* oadlUxn of hta w»trh m»y ba Dotod aad a 
taao f I af Ita Uma nada In tha rau Thii oartlflcau will be eallad 
|a mtxl laapa^Uoo— praaaraa It carafallj. 


Ry, The road is lK>nded wiih Morris and "Crown" protected 
bonds, with joints of the Weber lypc. Rails arc laid on 5x6 in. 
X 7 ft. chestnut tics, laid 2,Hoo to the mile. 

The single No. 00 round trolley wire is supported from flexible 
brackets of the Crcanluad type. The pfilcs arc .10 ft. round, 
chestnut, except in vilb-iK*-'*. wl'erc s<|uare poles were specifier!. 
Anderson overhcarl material is used throUKboul. The feeder 
system is simple, and comprises .15 miles of ni. cable 
and one mile of No. 0000 solid copper wire. 

The rolling stock, which was all Iniilt by the Wason company, 
comprises twelve 38-ft. 12-bench open cars mourned on Bemis 
double trucks, with two Westinghouse No. 38- .A motors per car; 
live 15-bench open cars mounted on Wason double trucks, with 
four Westinghouse l2-.'V-25 motors per car ; eight 38-ft. vestibuled 
closed cars mounted on Bemis double trucks, with two Westing- 
house 38- A motors per car; one freight car 39 ft. over all, mounted 
on Wason double trucks with four Westinghouse i2-.'K-30 motors; 
one flat car 33 ft. over all, mounted on Wason double trucks 
and used as a trailer; four single truck Wason nose .snow plows, 
which arc equipped in winter with the motors taken from the open 


cars. The cars arc equipped with Christcnsen air brakes. The 
following materials and appliances are standard : General Electric 
trolley wheels, Nutlall gears and pinions, Wilson trolley catchers, 
Hunter car springs. Pfingst fenders. New Haven car registers, 
Heywood Brothers & Wakefield car seats finished in red plush. 
Consolidated heaters, Pantasotc curtains on Curtain Supply Go's, 
fixtures, Kilburne sand boxes, Mosher headlights, made by the 
Dayton Manufacturnig Co., double trolleys. .'\t tlie car barn is a 
safe of the Morris-Ireland design for receiving conductors' receipts 
and reports. 

The Middleboro, Warcliam & Buzzard's Hay Street Railway 
Co. has a capital .slock of $150,000 and is bonded for $75,000. It 
owns franchises granted in perpetuity. The territory traversed is 
known as the "Summer Garden" of Massachusetts, all of the 
towns along the route being prominent suiunicr resorts. Buzzard's 
Bay, is particularly noted for its palatial summer residences, 
which include (iray Gables, famous as the home of ex-President 
Cleveland; the picturesque mansion where Joseph Jeflferson makes 
his home when not touring; the estates of General Taylor of the 
Boston GIciIpc, and others ahiiosl equally a^; iiniminent. The route 



1 ' ^^Bi 


SNdW I'l.flW. 

parallels the New York, New Haven & Hartford U. K. for its 
entire length, ami passes within a stone's throw of every station 
on the steam road in this vicinity. The electric road is therefore 
able lo reach exactly the same points as arc accessible by the sloam 
road, with all the advantages of frequent schedule and lower 
rales made possible by electric traction. The business of the road 



[VuL. XIII, No. 

is not confined lo summer touring, as prosperous towns which it 
serves provide a good, substantial traftic all the year round. 
Middlcboro is the hub for the Cape Cod country. It is the 
junction {or steam connections to Fall River, Providence, Boston, 
Plymouth and Taunton, and has direct connection to New York- 
by way of the boats on the Providence and Fall River lines. 
Middleboro has a population of 7,500, Wareham about 4,000, 
Onset has 2.000 in winter and li.oco in summer and there is a 
large suburban population scattered between the towns. The 
total summer population in the territory served is estimated at 
about 20,000. During the heavy summer traffic through service 
is given from Monument Beach to Taunton. The company has 
carried on a small package freight business with satisfactory 

Mr. .'\. M. Bcarsc is president of the Middlelxjro, Wareham & 
Buzzard's Bay Street Ry. Mr. Bcarse is a life-long resident of 
the cape territory, and was interested in the building of the New 
Bedford, Middleboro & Brockton Hlcctric Ry., as he early recog- 
nized the possibilities of electric railw.iy developments in this 
locality. Thiough his connection with the early roads in the 
vicinity he conceived the idea of a through line that would give 
continuous service from Boston to the extreme southern points 
on the cape. Recognizing that one of the most important links in 
this connection would run from Middleboro south, he devoted 
all his energies to overcoming such obstacles as presented them- 
selves. Late in 1900 he interested Colonel M. B. Parker, Thomas 
F. Carey and other capitalists of Boston in the project, and in 
1900 a franchise was secured for an electric railway forming con- 
nection at Middlelwro with the Old Colony system, and running 
south through Wareham to Bourne, the present route of the 
Middleboro, Wareham & Buzzard's Bay Street Ry. Construction 
was commenced in the spring of 1901, and the road was opened 
for a portion of the distance in August, 1901. Mr. Bearse is 
postmaster of the town of Middleboro, and is a prominent capitalist, 
politician and man of affairs in this locality. 

Mr. Lawrence H. Parker, son of Colonel H. B. Parker, one of 
the promoters of the road, holds the office of superintendent of the 
Middlelmro, Wareham & Buzzard's Bay Street Ry. 

Mr. Charles H. Cox was made resident general manager of 
the Middleboro. Wareham & Buzzard's B.iy Street Ry. in October, 
1902. hiving held the position of superinloiident of the road since 


the company was organized. The promotion was well earned 
and came as a recognition of the good work Mr. Cox had accom- 
plished. Under his guidance and management the entire road 
was built, and many of the features as outlined in the foregoing 
article are original with Mr. Cox. From his early youth Mr. Cox 
has been a railroader. In 1874 he obtained a position with the 
old Metropolitan Horse Railway Co. in Boston, which was one of 
the forerunners of the present Boston Elevated system. Mr. Cox's 
first duty was turning a switch point. He soon outgrew this posi- 
tion, and in quick succession was made messenger, conductor, 
starter, superintendent's clerk, and finally superintendent of con- 
struction. When the Metropolitan company was merged into the 
West End Street Railw.iy Co. he retained his position and remained 
in the company's employ until 1890, making sixteen years of con- 

tinuous service. Resigning this office, he liecame superintendent 
of construction for the Worcester Construction Co., which was 
building and operating street railways all over New England and 
in many of the middle and central slates, fie was with this firm 
for several year.s, and was engaged on work in a number of 


states, particularly at Dayton, 0., where he built the Dayton & 
Xcnia Transit Co. He severed this connection to accept tlu- 
superintendency of the Middleboro, Wareham & Buzzard's Bay 
Street Ry. Mr. Cox is a member of the New England Street 
Railway Club and other technical and social organizations. 


Following the example of a number of other steam railroads the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Co. put in operation a pension system 
January 1st. A committee consisting of the president, the vice- 
presidents and the chief solicitor of the company directs the admin- 
istration of the department. 

The benefit of the system applies to each officer and employe who 
has been in continuous service of the company or its leased lines 
for a period of ten years or more and has attained the age of 65 
years, at which age he shall be retired with a monthly allowance 
equal to one per cent of his average monthly pay for each year of 
service. Thus, an employe in service for 30 years will receive 30 
per cent of his usual wages. His average monthly pay is based upon 
that received during the ten years previous to retirement. 

Retirement is effective on the first day of January and July of 
each year, a period of less than six months being neglected and a 
greater one counting as a year. Leave of absence, suspension, dis- 
missal followed by reinstatement within one year, or temporary 
layoff on account of reduction of forces, need not necessarily be 
treated by the committee as constituting a breach in the continuity 
of service so long as the employe has not entered into employment 
elsewhere during his absence. Under special circumstances the 
committee m.iy retire with a pension, an employe who has not 
reached the age of 65 years or may allow him to continue in ser- 
vice above that age if it incets with the approval of the board. A 
pensioner may engage in other business only with the consent of 
ihe committee without forfeiting his allowance. 

The establishment of the system was entirely voluntary on the 
part of the company, and as the employes do not contribute in any 
way toward it, no employe has a legal right to be retained by the 
company in order to claim a pension allowance when the interests 
of the company, in its judgment, may require his dismissal. 

.•V 3-ccnt fare for school children is being discussed by the school 
directors of New Haven. Conn. 

The commissioners of Erie County, C, who refused two years 
ago to grant a franchise to the Lake Shore Electric Railway Co. 
to cross the county bridge at Huron, have finally agreed to a new 
proposition and granted a franchise for 18 months. This will es- 
tablish through service between Cleveland and Sandusky and avoid 
the necessity of passengers walking over the bridge as they have 
previously done. 

Jan. 20. 1903; 



A paper on this subject was read by Mr. Edmund K. Turner at 
the October. 1902, meeting of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers 
and printed in the November issue of the Journal of the Association 
of Engineering Societies, in which the author gives the history of 
the movement toivards the abolition of giade crossings in Massa- 
chusetts and a number of statistics on the subject. In 1890 the state 
adopted the policy of a gradual abolition of existing grade crossings, 
and the sum of $5,000,000 was appropriated by the legislature to be 
spent in ten years towards this object. The proportion of expense 
of the change of grade in every case was fi.xed by this act as 65 
per cent for the steam railroad company and 35 per cent for the 
commonwealth. In regard to street railway crossings the author 
states as follow s : 

"There is one element which has not as yet, except in two iu- 
stan(:es, been brought into the grade crossing cases as a contributor 
to the expense; that is, the street railway companies. When the 
law of 1890 was passed, and, in fact, until several years later, the 
street railways did not fill so important a place as they do now. 
With the application of electricity to railway traction and the great 
increase in the number and mileage of railways, great additional 
danger has been introduced at the crossings where the railways exist 
and the necessity for the separation of grades has been made much 
more urgent than when the comparatively small number of horse 
railways was to be considered. 

"The danger of crossing railroad tracks by electric railway 
tracks at the same grade has been fully appreciated by the railroad 
commissioners. No such crossing can be established without their 
consent, and they have not given consent without very weighty 
reasons. Many projected railways have consequently been obliged 
to wait until the public way upon which they were located and to 
be built could be carried over or under the railroad. In a few cases 
the railways have built bridges over the railroads, with trestle ap- 
proaches, at or near the public way. rather than wait for the aboli- 
tion of the grade crossing. In quite a number of cases the railroad 
commission has given consent for the crossing of a railroad by a 
railway at grade for a limited period, fixing a time within which 
the abolition of the crossing may reasonably be expected to be car- 
ried out. 

"The existence of a railway or the proposed construction of one 
has been the cause of quite a proportion of the petitions for the aboli- 
tion of grade crossings. 

"It has been fell by many that the railways should contribute 
toward the expense of abolishing grade crossings, and bills have 
been introduced into the legislature having this object, but until 
the last session of the legislature nothing definite was reached to- 
ward a general law covering this subject. 

"In their report 10 the legislature the railroad commissioners rec- 
ommended that the street railway should be required to pay part 
of the expense of alxjlishing a grade crossing on which its tracks 
existed; that the special commissioners should decide the amount 
to be paid by the railway, and the remainder of the expense should 
i)c paid by the other parties in the same proportion as they now- 
pay the whole cost. This seems to he fail to all parties. 

"It has been found difficult to establish a basis for so dividing 
the expense that all parties in interest shall be treated fairly. The 
conditions vary greatly in the various cases, and possibly each of 
ihc parlies heretofore in interest desires that its share of the expense 
■^hall be lessened by the contribution of the newcomer. The condi- 
tions vary so much thai il would be difficult lo fix percentage of the 
whole cost which would \tc fair in all cases for the railway's propor- 

"It would in many cass be a decided advantage lo the railway 
10 be made a party in interest and have regular standing before the 
special commission. If il should Ik required to pay part of the cost, 
it would have a right to be heard concerning the work lo be de- 
cided upon by the commission. 

"Several street railway companies have wilhin the last few years 
located their lines partly upon their own land outside the limits of 
public ways. Uy so building, il has Iweonie necessary in some in- 
stances lo cross public ways from one pari of their private right of 
v/ay lo another, thus establishing grade crossings difTering but little 
from those of railroads. 'ITic conditions leading In danger arc 
nearly the same in Ixjih cases, and il will probably !»• found nccc» 

sary to place by legal enactment the same safeguards around rail 
way crossings of tliis nature as have been applied to railroad cross- 

I he writer has been pleased to note that in some recent loca- 
tions the railway companies have recognized this clement of danger 
and have provided for carrying their lines ever or under public ways. 

"According to the railroad commissioners' report for 1902, there 
were, on Sept. 30, igoi, 312 crossings at grade of street railways 
with railroads. Quite a number of these crossings were, however, 
railway tracks crossing spur tracks of railroads away from the 
main lines. 

"In consequence of the expenditure of all funds available under 
previous acts, the legislature during its last session passed addi- 
tional acts providing means for continuing the work of abolishing 
grade crossings and dealing with some fc.itures of the work not 
previously provided fur. 

"Chapter 440, Acts 1902, approved June 4, 1902, makes several 
iinpotaut changes in the provisions of the Act of 1890 and the acts 
passed at later dates amending the same. 

" 'The directors of a street railway company having a location in 
that part of the public way where such crossing exists' are given the 
same rights of petition as the city or town authorities and directors 
of railroads have heretofore had. 'Upon all petitions hereafter filed 
and upon all now pending on which no commission has been ap- 
pointed * * * such street railway company shall be made a 

"The actual cost to the street railway of changing its railway 
and location to conform to the decree of the court is made part of 
the cost of abolishing the crossing. The commission may assess 
upon any street railway company duly made a party to the proceed- 
ings such percentage of said total cost not exceeding fifteen per 
cent thereof, as may in the judgment of the commission be just 
and equitable. The proportions to be paid by the railroad and city 
(H- town remain the same as in the previous acts, thus relieving the 
commonwealth of the part assessed upon the railway. Provision is 
also madi' for the repayment by the commonwealth to the railway 
company of tlie amount so paid by it if in the future its location is 
revoked without its consent, the railroad commissioners to decide 
whether such repayment shall bo made. The special commission 
may change the location of a street railway. 

"Chapter 440 also authorizes the expenditure of $5,000,000 by the 
commonwealth, the amount to he paid in any one year not to ex- 
ceed $500,000; but if in any one year the amount expended shall 
not be $500,000, the unexpended remainder shall be added to tlie 
amount to be paid in any subsequent year. 

" 'No final decree shall be made by said Superior Court upon 
any report of commissioners setting forth a plan for the abolition, 
discontinuance or alteration of a grade crossing, adopting or con- 
tinuing such plan or authorizing any expense to be charged against 
the commonwealth, until the board of railroad commissioners, after 
a hearing, shall have certified in writing that in their opinion the 
•idoption of such plan and the expenditure lo be incurred there- 
under are consistent with the public interests, and are reasonably 
requisite lo secure a fair disiribution between the difTercnt cities, 
towns and railroads of the conununwealth. of the public money ap- 
propriated in the preceding section for the abolition of grade cross- 
ings, and that such expenditure will not, in the judgmenl of said 
board, exceed Ihc amount proviiled under llie preceding section to 
be paid by the commonwealth.' 

"The work of abolishing grade crossings in this state has pro- 
ceeded in a manner which promises to remove, within' a few years, 
a large proportion of those most dangerous to public travel. The 
large expense involved has made it necessary to move with some 
degree of deliberation. The interests of both taxpayer and stock- 
holder require thai care be used lo avoid undue expense in carrying 
int the work. The decreased mimber of casualties at crossings 
already shows that the work done is i>rodueiiig llu' results hoped 


riic formal opi-ning of the Oneida (N. Y.) electric railway oc- 
curred December 15th. 

The Supreme Court of Illinois refused a rehearing of the Irans- 
fer case of the Chicago Union Traction Co. and the Cliicago Con 
solidaled Traclioii Co. This assures the contimiancc of the transfer 
system put in operation by the companies November i6th. 



(V.ii. XIII. Nil I. 



Tlic freight business done by the Mason City (lii.) & Clear Lake 
Railway Co. demonstrates ihc variety and extent of the service 
which an interiirbnn electric line may perform for prosperous farm- 
ing and stock-raising conniuinities of the middle west. Mason City 
is an industrial town of some 8,000 inhabitants, and the country 
tributary to it is exceptionally rich in agricultural products. Clear 
Lake, a town of 2,500 winter population, is peopled in the summer 
by a large number who take advantage of the excellent fishing in 
Clear Lake, a sheet of water some seven miles long and five miles 
wide. These two towns, which are 12 miles apart, are connected 
by the single-track electric line of the Mason City & Clear Lake Ry. 
In summer 16 trips in cither direction are made each day by the 
passenger cars ; and nine trips arc made daily in winter. But large 
as the passenger traffic over the interurlKin may be, it is in some 
measure subordinate to the freight service. The latter business is 
in the hands of the company's agents and .solicitors, and consign- 
ments of stock, grain, coal, farm produce, etc., are billed through to 
their destination over the lines of the Chicago & Northwestern, the 
Chicago Great Western and the Iowa Central railroads, the inter- 
urban company receiving a proportion of the through rate. This is 
arranged by special traffic agreement with the management of the 
steam roads, and at regular intervals settlements are made by a 
kind of clearing-house system. The freight cars are, of course, those 
in regular service over the steain railroads, and are propelled over 
the interurban from the company's yards to the three points of con- 
nection with the steam roads by motor cars used especially for the 
purpose, each having an equipment of two 75-h. p. motors. The 
Mason City & Clear Lake Railway Co. has two stockyard quarters, 
one located at Clear Lake and the other at Emery, a village half-way 
between the termini, where the power house and car house are also 
located. From the stock yards the consignments are transported to 
either of the three separate freight connection stations of the steam 
lines, which latter are located at distances of from a mile to a mile 
and a half from Mason City. Twenty cars of live slock are no 
unusual single consignment for the electric road to handle, and the 
coal and grain hauled are in proportionate quantities. Switches con- 
nect the interurban with the local lumber yards, and this aflfords an- 
other constituent of traffic. 

The physical system of the Mason City & Clear Lake Ry. is not 
especially remarkable, though it may be cited as a good example of 
modern road construction and equipment for its class. Inclusive of 
the lines within the limits of Mason City, the road has 17 miles of 
track. It is of standard construction, laid with 6o-lb. T-rail. Cedar 
poles and white oak ties are used. The power house at Emery, equi- 
distant between Mason City and Clear Lake, is equipped with two 
Walker generators of 150 kw., and the other of 250 kw. There are 
four boilers of 125 h. p., and two Allis engines, one nf 200 h. p. and 
one of 250 h. p. 

The car house, adjacent to the power plant, is a structure 40 x 148 
ft., with a capacity for storing 20 cars. Three tracks enter the 
building, and there is but one pit. Only light repair work is con- 
ducted at the company's shops at Emery, such as painting and refit- 
ting with minor equipment. All supplies are purchased, and me- 
chanical repairs are hired done at the machine shops in Mason City 
But two men are employed in the company's repair department. 

Of the 16 cars on the line, nine arc motor cars, and all but one are 
mounted on double trucks. They are of Pullman manufacture, and 
range in length from 24 to 30 ft. over all. The equipments vary, 
some of the cars having two 25-h. p. motor equipments; some two 
7S-h. p. ; some four 50-h. p., and some four 38-h. p. equipments, fur- 
nished by the Walker and the General Electric companies, and 
geared to a uniform speed of 35 miles per hour. The trailers are 
45 ft. over all, and all but one are open. They are of the center 
aisle type. The one baggage car in the service was formerly oper- 
ated as a trailer, but has been recently equipped with four 38-h. p. 
motors. It is 34 ft. over all and is mounted on double trucks. The 
company handles mails, but has no special cars for this service. 

The company employs a total of between 40 and 50 men. It owns 
a private right of way Iwtween Mason City and Clear Lake, and 25- 
year franchises in the terminal towns. The road has been running 
for five years. Its officers are: W. E. Brice, president, treasurer 
and general manager; F. J. Ilanlon. vice-president, secretary and 
auditor, and G. A. Emery, general freight and passenger agent. 

The accompanying suggestion has been made for an elTective way 
of announcing schedules. The device is particularly applicable for 
use in cities and towns where all the routes converge at a common 
point or station. 'I'he board can be made any size desired, and as 
elaborate as fancy may dictate. Preferably, it is to be hinig in the 
waiting room or may be placed oiUside at any point most convenient 
for patrons. 

The clock dials may be painted on the board, and should be at 
least a foot in diameter, or the dials may be cut out from some 
suitable material and nailed or glued to the baseboard. The hands 
are made of tin or thin sheet metal, and should be painted black. 

The clock dials should be painted white with the numbers in black. 

The hands are attached to the dials by a small bolt and nut with 
suitable washers, and the hands should be adjusted so they will turn 












easily, but will not move uf tlieir own weight. The small sign for 
designating the number of minutes intervening between cars can be 
made of tliin metal about 6 or 8 in. square, painted black with the 
figures in white. These signs are hung on small hooks and of 
course can be changed to suit changes in the schedule. This whole 
scheme adopts itself very readily to the general movement of cars, 
and winter, summer or special schedules can be announced to the 
public, plainly and with no other work than the moving of the dial 
hands and the changing of the small signs. The value of the board 
is enhanced by arranging one or more banks of incandescent lamps 
so that the lettering and dials will be illuminated at night. The 
board makes an excellent advertising medium for local merchants, 
and by arranging advertising spaces around the edge of the board 
or somewhere on the face so as not to interfere with the dials or 
lettering, the board can be made a source of considerable revenue 
from local advertisers. 


The Manhattan Railway Co., of New York, the property of 
which was leased to the Interborough Rapid Transit Co. last month, 
will run 6-car trains on the Sixth Avenue line during the rush 
hours. The station platforms along the line have been lengthened 
to correspond to the increased train length. 

Jan. 20, 1903] 




Mention has been made in the "Review" of the Detroit United 
Weekly, a small publication issued by the Detroit United Ry., for 
the purpose of advertising its lines and bringing the public and the 
company into a more close and friendly relation. Through the 
courtesy of Mr. J. H. Frj-, assistant General passenger agent for 
the Detroit United Ry., we are able to give complete data regard- 
ing the cost of getting out this publication, and we also give the 
views of the management as to the results secured. 

The first issue of the Detroit United Weekly appeared on June 
26, 19Q2, and the paper has been issued regularly every week since 
that time. The Weekly is issued under the general suprvision of 
the assistant general passenger agent, and takes the form of a four- 
page folder, each page of which is 4 in. wide x 6 in. high. 

The company is now having printed 50,000 copies of the Weekly 
each week. Mr. Fry gives the cost per week of getting out the lit- 
tle paper as follows : The printers print, do the folding, put the 
papers up in packages, each package properly marked with addresses 
furnished by the company, and deliver the edition to the company's 
general office at a total cost of $32 per week. In addition to the 
cost of printing, the salaries for editorial writers and other expenses 
come to $20 per week, making a total cost of $52 per week for the 
edition of 50,000. The company employes two editorial writers who 
are connected with local daily papers. The assistant general pas- 
senger agent furnishes the subjects and suggestions, and the edi- 
torial writers compile the matter and supervise the printing. A 
proof is submited of each issue for the management's inspection 
before finally going to press. 

The Detroit United Weeklies are sent out from the general office 
of the railway company each Thursday (the same day as received 
from printers) to the various car houses in numbers proportioned 
to the number of cars operated on each line. The cars are provided 
with small bo.xes to be used as receptacles for the paper. The car 
house men see that the bo.xes are filled and keep them supplied 
from time to time during the week. On the front of Ih^ box is 
painted "Detroit United Weekly. Take one." 

The distribution, therefore, is of no expense to the company, ex- 
cept a very small amount paid for having the Weeklies placed in the 
advertising racks in the hotels, restaurants, etc With each new is- 
sue, any of the old numbers left over are destroyed. On the aver- 
age about 95 per cent of the entire issue for each week is placed in 
the hands of the company's patrons. 

Of the objects and results, Mr. Fry writes as follows : 

"The aim of the paper is not strictly an advertising medium al- 
though we publish in each issue our interurban time tables, things 
doing, and usually good local notices of important events such as 
State Fair. Summer Assembly Meetings, County Fairs, and special 
attractions which continue for a number of consecutive days. The 
paper is designed more as a means of educating the people in refer- 
ence to the workings of the company along lines that they cannot 
be reached by other methods. Through its pages, we talk to our 
patrons about the efforts of the company to provide proper men to 
man the cars. We tell of the work of a conductor or motorman. 
What the company expects him to do. We explain why it is neces- 
sary to have certain rules, and to see that they are enforced. Special 
emphasis is laid on the safety of passengers, what is required of 
them by the company, and what part the company takes in avoiding 
accidents. The transfer system is explained in detail. Wc keep 
Itefore the public our interurban properties with their attractive 
features and so on. Whatever is said is brief and written in a pleas- 
ing and attractive form. We can easily refer over and over again 
10 any points wc wish to establish in the minds of (he people by so 
changing the form as to make it fresh and newsy to them with each 

"It is difficult to determine just how far (lie ilistrilmtion of the 
Weekly has increased riding, but we do know it has elicited a great 
deal of interest and favorable comment among our people. The 
management has frequently expressed satisfaction at the results so 
far attained." 

A definite plan of "make-up" is followed each week. The first 
page of the Weekly is devoted entirely to an editorial apropos of 
•ome event of local interest. The editorials for the last few weeks 
have been as follows: "The Suburbs in Autumn," (H-jinting out the 

autumn charms and beauties of the country, tributary to the inter- 
urban lines ; "The Hunting Season," speaking of the game to be 
found along the lines; "The Party We Are Giving," referring to the 
American Street Railway Convention ; "The Street Railway Behind 
the Scenes," giving interesting information about the inside work- 
ings of the street railway company ; "Au Revoir Yolande," comment- 
ing on the discontinuance of the special excursion car Yolande, and 
pointing out that the service will again be resumed in the spring; 
"The Democracy of the Street Car"; "The All-Night Service"; 
"The Modern Thanksgiving"; and others of a similar nature. These 
editorials are written in an entertaining way, and always develop 
some lesson regarding the advantages of the electric railway cars. 
At the top of the second page are printed the tiiue tables for all the 
lines and divisions of the system. The bottom of the second page 
is usually devoted to a short pithy editorial, and oftentimes to spe- 
cial notices, printed in black face type, dealing with such subjects as 
getting off and on cars, transfers, collections of fares, etc., all of 
these being educational in spirit, and aimed to educate the public as 
to the best ways of using the company's facilities, with the end in 
view of making the service of still greater value to the public. 

At the top of the third page are "Things Doing," including the 
week's attractions at all the theaters, and notices of any special at- 
tractions, conventions, etc., that may be going on in the city or 
vicinity. On this page is a!«o printed a short installation of a serial 
novel which is cleverly written in a somewhat facetious style. This 
idea of the serial novel undoubtedly adds interest to the paper, and 
gets the public into the habit of looking for the ne.xt issue, in order 
to discover the probable fate of the hero or heroine, who, at the 
end of each chapter, arc usually left in some highly precarious 
predicament. Each chapter of this continued novel contains only 
about 150 words, but this is sufficient to arouse interest and inquiry. 
The bottom of the third page and all of the fourth page are usually 
given over to quotations, poetry, humorous sketches, epigrams and 
pithy sayings. The atteiupt is usually made to select for the last 
page, a short quotation or verse of poetry that has some higher 
ideal for its motive, and will appeal to the poetical sentiments of 
the readers. 

It will thus be seen that the conception is to give in concise form, 
a little paper that will at once interest, amuse and instruct the 
patrons of the lines and the public in general. 

To give a better idea of the nature of the matter used, we append 
some quotations from recent issues of the Weekly : 

What we are can be more easily explained by telling what we 
are not. It is unnecessary to say that the Detroit United Weekly is 
not a pretentious publication. Our purpose is not lofty, for our 
space is limited. This is not a political organ. We have no en- 
tangling alliances. We putter with no issues and mold no senti- 
ment. This is not a medium of general advertising. Wc respect 
the field allotteil to the daily newspapers and wc have not the space, 
time nor inclination to compete. The mission of the Detroit United 
Weekly is first to amuse, and second to attempt to bring to the 
attention of Detroit and her sunnner guests the beauties of our lake 
and river roads, of the little sylvan glens and nooks that hide in 
the shadows of the hundred inland lakes, of smi-hathed fields where 
the harvest hay is being cut. of our steel-ribbed course which takes 
you through the shadows of primeval woods, beside stately suburban 
villas and the lowly shanty of the lake-shore fisherman. We want 
very nuich to show you what we here in Detroit have right about us. 

Importance is the only excuse for repetition, and as the of 
llie holid.'iys is near at hand, we repeat rules of safety. The season 
always brings out the women and children in force, the care of the 
latter by the former being a task even uniler the most favorable cir- 
cumstances. Attempt to get them tm iir off the car only when it 
is .standing still. Do not permit them In run ahead or lag behind, 
for a second's absence may mean danger. Look before yon cross 
the tracks and take no chances by attempting to oulfoot an approach- 
ing car. If you ride past your street do not alletnpt to get ofl until 
(he next slop is reached. Above all things, keep your mind on your- 
self and the little ones, for the traffic is continuous, and constant 
vigilance is the price of safety. 



[V(Pi. XIII. Si< I 

I hat there may be no misapprehension npon a subject that all of 
our patrons dp not seem to nmlcrstand, we publish onr rates for 
little ones less than si.x years old, all beyond that age being re- 
quired to pay full fare. Rich fare entitles the person paying the 
same to be accompanied by one child under si.x. One older person 
with two such children calls for two fares; with three, two fares; 
with four, three fares, and with live, three fares. These are the 
rules of the company, and the comluctor cannot be expected to de- 
part from them. 


This is a handy hint that you will tind useful, even from your own 
point of view. If you go forward, away forward, when you enter 
the car you will escape being jostled and trodden upon by later 
comers. Moreover, you will be more apt to find a seat up forward 
there, because you will be among the first to "be let in on a good 
thing." There are really lots of good seats up there. But when 
the conductor says so, you feel that his remarks are wholly pro- 

THE RIGll r OF W.W. 

The people getting off a car take precedence over people getting 
on. That is well recognized in theory, but in practice it is fre- 
quently disregarded This is particularly apparent at the crowded 
corners of the city, at Hudson's and the intersections of Woodward 
Ave. and State St. It is often difficult to sec that people arc about 
to alight and there is the fear that the conductor will start the car. 
But we say authoritatively that the prospective passenger is safe in 
waiting to see that all have disembarked. When in-going and out- 
going passengers meet on the back platform, there is much unneces- 
sary delay. 

Please wait until all have disembarked. 



Chapter HI. 

Truly it was not a nice situation in which F.lhelbert Van Bibulous 
found himself. He had had nothing to eat for three days but a 
silver case full of trix. But by far the most sinister of all his priva- 
tions was the inevitable doom of being found dead in evening dress 
before 6 p. m. It was this hideous fate which haunted him while 
he played solitaire, pool and ping-pong, for there was no one in this 
parvenu hostelry with whom Ethelbert Van Bibulous could associate 
without danger to his social prestige. 

In his wanderings he chanced to pass an open door, through 
which he could see a number of draperies in muslins and silks and 
tulle, which he knew could not belong to the wardrobe of a pugilist. 
Cautiously he entered and looked about. On the dresser was a col- 
ored photograph. Ethelbert examined it hurriedly. Then with a 
gasp he sank down in a morocco easy chair. 

"I have stumbled," he said, striving to be calm, "into the dressing 
room of Lillian Florodoorlets, the leading lady who draws $500 a 
week for burlesquing my romantic dramas. But my life is at stake." 
He said "me lafT," but that makes trouble for the compositors. 

To drape himself in a $10 shirt waist, a rainv-dav skirt and a 
picture hat was the work of six minutes. Then he snatched up a 
pair of white opera gloves, a pair of lorgnettes and a parasol, and 
made a bolt for the door, which had previously been secured with 
nothing more stable than a Yale lock. 

Cautiously he pulled his skirt about him and had descended six 
fights of the fire escape, when a shrill feminine scream ripped to 
ribbons the air behind him. 

He drew his trusty fountain pen as a voice at his elbow shouted: — 
(To be conlittiied.) 

An Evanston man has it published that he caught a mosquito an 
inch long, having pink eyes and covered with hair; weight not given. 
If the animal was not a bird, the story is. 


The Concsloga Traction Co. is enlarging its power plant by 
installing two Rice-Sargent engines of 1,500 b. p. each. The first 
engine is in position and the foundations for the second engine are 
now being built. The main feature about these engines is that 
they are built for the use of superheated steam. There will be 
two superheaters installed as close to the engines as possible, so 
that the piping from the engines to the superheater will be rela- 
tively short, not over .10 ft. In this way it is hoped that the super- 
heated steam may be carried to the engines with but little loss. 
The engines are provided with poppet valves, operated by a special 
valve gear designed by the engineers o' the Providence Engineering 
Works. The valves on the low-pressure cylinder arc of the usual 
oscillating corliss type. 

The superheaters are known as the Schmidt system. They are 
not yet installed, but it is hoped they will be working in the near 
future. This part of the work has been luuch delayed since it is 
necessary gradually to release from service, old boilers and gener- 
ating units before the new ones can be installed. 

The generators are i,ooo-kw.. 2,200-volt, three-phase Westing- 
house machines. The 2,200-volt current was adopted because 60 
per cent of the current has to be transmitted through the city and 
will be used in sub-stations from one to two miles from the power 
station. These generators will furnish current for lighting as well 
as for power. This design is probably somewhat new and may 
be considered questionable. It i.s, however, probable that the ex- 
periment will be entirely successful, for although the load varies alt 
the way from 200 to 800 kw. in a short time, the voltmeters remain 
very constant, and do not appear to vary more than one per cent. 
No doubt the lighting load will have a steadying effect, so this 
part of the undertaking, as far as tried, looks very feasible. 

At present the generators deliver three-phase current to four sub- 
stations, but three or more sub-stations will be opened up in the 
near future, making six sub-stations for railway work and one for 

The sub-stations are of different capacities, and are located at 
varying distances from the main generating station. The sub-sta- 
tion for the city lines will have two rotaries and transformers of 
300 kw. each. This station is about two miles from the main gen- 
erating power house. Another sub-station within the city is for the 
lighting work. This will contain two 300-kw. rotaries to do the 
direct-current lighting on a three-wire system. The neutral is 
taken from the alternating current converters direct, and the out- 
side wires from the commutators of the 200-225-volt rotaries. 

The railway rotaries are of three sizes. 200, 250 and 300 kw. The 
most distant sub-station is 20 miles from the generating station. 
Since the system is not yet completed, no actual data as to economy 
are at hand. The main power house is near Conestoga Creek, 
where an abundance of water can be secured for steam and con- 
densing purposes. 

The Conestoga Traction Co. operates the following roads : Lan- 
caster City Street Ry. ; Lancaster & Lititz Ry. ; Lancaster, Mechan- 
isburg & New Holland Ry. ; Lancaster & Millersville Ry.; Lancas- 
ter & Columbia Ry. ; Columbia & Ironville Ry. ; Columbia & Done- 
gal Ry. ; Lancaster & Strasburg Ry. ; Lancaster & Manheim Ry. 

TER, I. T. 

Now Winter comes with shadows to enfold 
The earth's bright foliage of red and gold ; 
The bird's last songs are sung; the night is here; 
Fades now the gorgeous Sunset of the year ! 

The Indian Territory Traction Co. has purchased a block between 
Ninth, Tenth, Lincoln and Johnson Sts., South Mc.Mcster, as a site 
for the company's new power house and car barns. It has been de- 
cided to install three 200-kw. generators and one converter. There 
will be four or five boilers aggregating 1,100 h. p. The barns will 
be 50 X 150 ft. Plans of the buildings are now being made. The 
company contemplates a much improved service in South McAlester 
and also on its suburban line as soon as the power house is com- 
pleted. Mr. L. P. Boyle of Chicago is president of the company 
and L. W. Bryan, of South McAlester, is vice-president. 

Jan. 20. 1903.] 




BY W. \V. WHE.\TLY. 

"Order is heavens first law." Permanence and stability depend 
npon law and order. The proper management of large enterprises, 
such as armies and railway systems, requires the united action of a 
large number of individuals. It is essential that the individual 
units work with one common purpose and that individual energies 
be concentrated. This is usually done by focusing power and au- 
thority in one individual, be his title president, general manager or 
superintendent. He secures united action by asking obedience to 
certain regulations or laws which are intended to restrain action 
within certain bounds and direct its course. .\s the cars are 
guided by the rails upon the permanent way, so do rules and regu- 
lations guide the action and energy of railway employes within 
certain limits. 'ITie ability of the manager is reflected in the skill 
with which he makes the laws and enforces them and in the facility 
with which he brings into harmonious relations the component 
parts of his organization so that, while each will perform its proper 
functions independently of the other, there will be a time and place 
where the energy and action of all will unite and work together for 
a common purpose. 

The existence of rules and regulations presupposes the authority 
and power to enforce them. Unless the power goes with the 
authority the very best rules are imperfect and impotent. In the 
army and navy the power to enforce the rules and regulations is 
embedded in the law of the land, but in the railway service it must 
depend upon the voluntary consent of the parties concerned. For 
the purposes of this paper efficient railway discipline will be con- 
sidered, first, as synonymous with instruction and training in ac- 
cordance with established rules, and second, as synonymous with 
punishment inflicted by way of correction and training. 

Instruction and Training. 

The generally accepted idea of discipline, that it is entirely puni- 
tive, is wrong. The railway officer who proceeds upon the theory 
that punishing the offender is the beginning and the end of disci- 
pline, is making a seriou.s mistake. Discipline is or should be pri- 
marily educational and the railway officer must be the teacher — 
upon him must rest the responsibility of educating and training his 
men. The instruction and training of railway employes, especially 
those engaged in the train, station or car service, has not been 
given the attention its importance demands. After a long and varied 
experience in steam and electric railway operation the writer has 
become greatly impressed with the lack of systematic methods of 
instruction and training. New and untried men come into the serv- 
ice as apprentices and graduate into responsible positions under the 
guidance of some older man. The instructor may not himself have 
been properly in.structed or trained, or if properly trained he may 
not have the faculty of teaching others. Later, these new men 
undertake to instruct others, llie new man without any special 
attention upon the part of anyone becomes part of the great ma- 
chine. Proper training depends not alone npon a thorough ar 
quaintance with the rules and regulations and ihe general or spe 
cific rcquiremcnis of the service, although this is a primary requi- 
site; it depends largely upon a methodical and systematic course of 
inspection to determine whether there is proper observance of the 
rules and an honest pride in the service. To know the rules is one 
thing, to habitually observe them is another. Furthermore, the 
strict observance of rules is not the end of training— no code of 
rules can cover all the varied requiremeiiLs of a perfect railway 
service; good judgment and discretion must begin where the rules 
end, and these things can only be instilled into the apprentice by 
continual inspection of his work and Ihe correction of his faults. 

The admirable discipline in the army and navy comes from con- 
stant and persistent training and inspection. The inslriiction i-. 
given by men selected and educated for Ihe purpose and frequent 
inspection is made by Ihe higher officers. This training kept up 
through a long i>eriod of lime enables the apprentice lo secure an 
assignment lo active service. Then when ihe supreme emergency 
arrives for which he and his companions have long been preparing 
ihry go into action as one man, guided by one mind, and become a 
mighty force. In railway service Ihe inslruclion and Iraining of Ihe 
apprentice is more often a mailer of chance Ihan of system; left to 

•Hni beff.rr llic NVw V<irk Rallt..:i.l < IkIp. .N<.v 21. I'm:. 

pick up wlial lu- can he (iocs not always gel what he slunild have. 
To know just enough of the rules and of the business in general 
to pass an imperfect examination and get to work as quickly as 
possible is the controlling idea in his mind. Too often he expects 
only to use his position as a stepping stone to something that tem- 
porarily pays belter, and he is filled with a restless craving for 
change. He does not expect to become a careful, earnest worker 
in this field, nobody makes him do it, and therefore he does not do 
good work. This lack of inspection and instruction permits luany 
poorly trained men of this stamp to pass into and out of the railway 
service and their presence is inimical to good discipline. 

Some of the electric railroads have established schools of in- 
struction and nearly all of them have more or less effective methods 
of inspection. The schools of instruction are equipped with skele- 
ton cars exposing to view the operations of motors, controllers, 
trucks, brakes and showing clearly the wiring and all the mechani- 
cal and electrical details of the cars. Competent instructors are 
present and here the older men as well as the apprentices are given 
instruction concerning their routine duties. Lectures on technical 
subjects by experts are given periodically and there are occasional 
talks before large numbers of the men by one or more officers of the 
company. The steam railroads have maintained for many years 
air brake inslruclion schools, but Ihcir efforts as a rule have gone 
no further. 

If it is e-xpected that those who arc in the service today and 
those who enter it hereafter are to make it their life work Ihe ques- 
tion of proper methods of instruction and Iraining is an important 
one to Ihe men as well as lo the company. It is due to the men 
that they should be filled for advancement, that their work should 
be watched and. wliencver ilicy fall short, that ihey be advised and 

Punislmienl lullicUd by Way of Correction aiul Training. 

To enforce laws, rules or regulations there must be a recognized 
authority with power lo fix penalties for infringemcnl. The re- 
sponsible officer of a railroad must become the judge ,iiul jury, lake 
the evidence in every case, establish ihe facts and render judgment. 
It is belter lo prevent disobedience by careful training and sys- 
tematic inspection than it is to punish the offender. Bui there will 
always Ijc those who will shirk iheir duly or who will lake chances, 
as well as those who may unwillingly err. Il should become gen- 
erally known that each and every infringement will be taken up 
;ind punished without fear or favor. 

That is generally the best governuiciil which is suppnrttd and 
upheld by the governed, and which accomplishes the end of ils 
organization with the least friction and the least display of arbitrary 
authority. While il requires great executive ability lo carry large 
enterprises forward lo successful issues, it also requires the rarest 
kind of executive ability lo administer punishment for wrongdoing 
in a manner thai will be considered by all men as fair, jusl, right- 
eous and honorable. In deleiniiniug what Ihe system oi luelhod of 
punishment shall be we nuist consider what purposes are sought in 
inflicling ibe penally. They are Iwo-fold, viz.: (i). lo vindicate 
ilie law and secure obedience lo il, and (2), to set an example lo 
Milierv, In lniielil lliem as well as the subject. I lu- innsi merciful 
and righteous penally which will secure these ends would appear lo 
be the heller one. The old method of punishment by means of sus- 
pensions and fines appears lo be giving way lo a more enlightened 
and merciful nuihod which not only answers the same purpose 
but has a greater educali'Mial value. ICvery occurrence for which 
punishment may be administered oughl lo be liirned to the benefit 
of the transgressor and be so handled that he may look upon it as 
an objecl lesson and a stimulus lo belter things. The system or 
method of punishment, whatever il may be, shoidd encourage rather 
lhan discourage Ihe subject. Its effect should be inslruclive. Il 
should have a tendency lo increase the efficiency and loyally of llir 
subject rather ihan the reverse. 

Many of Ihe large roads of ihe country have within recent years 
adopted one or another modificalion of the system known as Ihe 
"Hrown or hall Hrook system" of disciplijie wilhoul suspension, 
and have reported ils good results. Volumes have been wrillen in 
ils advocacy and we shall probably hear much of ils workings from 
those who lake pari in Ibis discussion. Without going into its de- 
tails, il is evident that the best-managed railroads of the country 
arc coinmillcd lo the principle involved and il may be concluiled 
therefore thai Ihe argumenlalive stage has been passed. The writer 
believes thoroughly in Ihe unilerlying principle and thinks that all 



[Vol XIII. No. 

roads should adopt some modification of the essential idea. Its 
adoption will not, however, alone bring successful results; some- 
thing more is required than to inaugurate the principle. To secure 
the l>cst restdls the men must become willing and earnest workers 
and l)c induced to lake pride in their vocation. They must become 
attached to it. Show me a road or a business where the tenure 
of position is secure, where the wages are satisfactory, where pro- 
motion for merit is certain and where there is ample provision for 
sickness, disability, old age and death, and I will show you a serv- 
ice where the administration of discipline is easy and the results sat- 
isfactory. In such a service men gladly become earnest and loyal 
workers and take an honest pride in the successful conduct of the 


Returning now to the idea of the concentration of individual 
energies as expressed in the l>eginning of this paper, you arc' re- 
quested to look around and say whether it is not apparent in every 
department of business and of labor. Is it not true that the one 
thing which forces itself strongly upon our notice is the supersed- 
ing of individuality by concentration? Have not the great aggrega- 
tions of capital and the aggregations of labor grown greater and 
stronger? Is not authority' and power to act concentrated in fewer 
hands? Have they not for many years been strengthening them- 
selves, extending their organizations, perfecting their discipline, and 
trying by every means within their power to attach men to them 
and to increase the earnestness and loyalty of every unit of the 
great combinations? We are just beginning to comprehend that ir- 
resistible economic forces are at work, and that the universal desire 
for a more compact and better disciplined organization is in re- 
sponse to the instinct of self-aggrandizement or self-preservation. 
Recent troubles in the industrial world have shown that mixed with 
our boasted national supremacy and material prosperity there arc 
throbs of discontent and the conflict of opposing elements. Or- 
ganized boards of conciliation and arbitration may for a time plas- 
ter over the breach, but the crack in the wall remains an element of 
weakness and of danger. If such is the condition now when times 
are prosperous, what may happen when the times are bad, compe- 
tition keen and profits disappearing? 

The opposing elements arc not irreconcilable but the danger is 
greater than ever Ix'fore. because of the combined power and 
strength of the contestants. There will be no halt in the march of 
intelligence and progress, but there may be a re-alignment of the 
opposing forces. It is a time when employers and employed should 
understand one another better and cultivate a spirit of frankness 
'and concilition. The master and man idea should be dispelled; in 
its stead there should come a higher idea of the relation of the 
employer and employe and its foundation stone should be co-opera- 
tion. The manager of every large institution should not meet his 
men only when trouble arises; he should met them, as does President 
Vreeland, at regular intervals, touch elbows with them, talk with 
them about their routine work and show them by his actions that 
he has an interest in them and a genuine regard for their welfare. 
By such means, doubt and distrust are overcome and a more per- 
fect confidence is encouraged. These are the fundamental princi- 
ples of efficient discipline. 



The Calcutta Tramways Co., Calcutta, India, referred to in the 
"Review" of May. 1.S97, page J87, reopened the Chitpur section of 
its line Nov. 20, 1902, with electric power. The road has hitherto 
been operated by steam locomotives and horses. Duncan's Manual 
for 1901 reports that at the beginning of that year the company 
operated 19 miles of road with to locomotives, 1,071 horses and 
186 cars. The conversion oT the motive power from equine and 
steam to electric power has been completed within the time speci- 
fied in the agreement between the company and the corporation 
which is noteworthy, considering the innumerable difficulties in the 
way. Each train consists of first and second class cars and a trailer. 
A first-class fare is two annas (s cents) ; a through fare on sec- 
ond-class cars or trailers is five pice (3% cents) and a six or nine 
pice fare will transfer a passenger to another section. There are 
no transfer fares for first-class cars. The whole of the line is now 
operated by electricity. 

On the (Kcasion of the retirement of Mr. .\. IC. Lang, president of 
Ihc Toledo Railways & I-igbt Co., a delegation of some 50 of the 
officials and employes of the company, acting on behalf of the whole 
of their number, presented Mr. Lang with a handsome gold watch 
and chain, accompanied by a brief address signed by every employe 
of the company. The presentation speech was made by Thomas 
McMahon, a conductor who has been in the service for 13 years. 
Mr. McMahon's address was a glowing tribute to Mr. Lang, and 
was as follows: 

"We meet today at the close of your long service, to express to 
you, in some degree, our appreciation of all your kindness to us and 
our sorrow that the lies of friendship which have so long bound 
us together are soon to be severecl. .Ml the men who work for the 
company have asked me to tell you how s<irry they are to see you go. 
When you came, bob-tail cars were running, and bells on the col- 
lars of the mules were jingling through the quiet streets; now as 
you are going away, the streets are filled with long processions of 
trolley cars, clanging their heavy gongs. Some of the men who are 
running these big modern cars were driving the little cars that were 
running when you came. They who have known you the longest 
may think that they are the most sorry to see you go. but those who 
have been here even for a little while will not wish to admit this. 
We don't lose a Lang every day and we don't want to. 

"To us you have l>ecn more than a president. You have been a 
personal friend, ever ready to give a helping hand to one, an en- 
couraging word to another and at all times we have felt that to ask 
was to receive. The future may bring you more pleasure and hap- 
piness, but I doubt if it will bring you truer hearts or warmer 
friends than those jou leave behind. The triumphs and successes 
which the coming years ntay bring you will be watched with great 
interest by all of us. perhaps, with a little regret that we can no 
longer share them with you. but surely with a great deal of pride 
that our lives have formed a part of what you have done in the past. 
Some of us have passed through the stormy days with you and 
know that you are to be relied upon in the hours of difficulty, yet. 
while we shall miss your kind help and encouraging words in times 
of trouble and your genial smile in the rarer times of peace, we 
cannot but congratulate you on your coming rest and well earned 

"We hope that while you will be relieved from the burdens of 
the daily cares which come with your duties as president of the 
Toledo Railways & Light Co.. you will still have an interest in us 
and in all that pertains to the business which you have built up 
with such great ability and unceasing labor. You surely can not but 
look with pride and satisfaction on the result of your years of care. 

"As a body of men, employes, officers and directors, we are proud 
of you. proud of tlie innnense railw.iy system you have built up in 
Toledo, many limes against the bitterest public sentiment, when the 
strongest heart might well have failed ; proud of your personal 
honesty and integrity and proud to have .served and worked with 
you. Now that you are going, they would like to feel that you will 
always remember them and think of them sometimes as they will 
always remendier you and think of you. 

"They ask me to give you this ; not that it is necessary to give 
you something to make you remember them ; but they would like 
lo put their feelings for you in some form that will last as a sub- 
stantial symbol long after they have passed aw;iy. We hope that 
the coming years will bring both to you and your loving wife all 
the joy and happiness that life has lo offer, and that you will now 
receive our token of love and friendship with as much pleasure as 
we have each taken in helping to give it." 


The Interborough Rapid Transit Co., which is to operate the New 
York rapid transit subw.iy road, has let contracts for S(» cars, which 
will be built by the following concerns: 200 by the St. Louis Car 
Co., of St. Louis; 100 by the John Stephenson Co., of Elizabeth, N. 
J. ; 100 by the Jewett Car Co., of Newark, O., and 100 by the Wason 
Manufacturing Co., of Springfield, Mass. Contracts have been let 
for ()6o trial trucks, the order having been equally divided between 
the St. Louis and Wason companies. The contract for motor trucks 
has not yet been placed. 

Jan. 20. 1903.) 




We give here some extracts from an article on this subject by 
Col. H. G. Prout, editor of the Railroad Gazette, which was pub- 
lished in the English railroad journal Transport. What Colonel 
Prout says of the necessity for railroad men wishing to keep abreast 
of the times to read the railroad periodicals applies with equal, if 
not greater, force to the electric raijway field, and some of the points 
he mentions are of application to all journals, as well as the railwa* 
and the electric railway press. 

"The iTian who would be at all familiar with the present state of 
the art must read the special periodicals devoted to it. This he must 
also do in medicine and surgery, but it is not quite so important 
there as in railroading. For, in medicine and surgery, the changes 
are not so rapid, and they proceed along channels more closely con- 
fined. In law the changes are still slower, and still more restricted 
m scope. The new statutes and the decisions that establish new 
principles get themselves promptly embodied in the stout volumes 
that stand on the shelves ready to hand when the brief is to be made 
up. It is not so with railroading. 

"For instance, let us consider the fundamental matter of the rail. 
There is not a book in the world that will tell us the lessons to be 
drawn from the St. Neot's accident ; or the most approved practice 
in various countries, as to chemical composition, as to mill treat- 
ment, and as to specifications and tests. Only nine years ago a set 
of standard rail sections was approved by the .\merican Society of 
Civil Engineers, and these have come to be well-nigh universal in 
the United States. Now a committee has been appointed by that 
society to study a possible revision of those sections. But outside of 
the Transactions' of the society I do not know of a book in the 
world which states what those sections are, or how they were 
evolved (a most interesting scientific development), and even in the 
'Transactions' of the society we can find no statement of the reasons 
which have led up to the appointment of the new committee. Yet, 
these reasons are a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of 
an engineer if he wishes to take a place in the first rank among the 
men charged with the responsibility of the construction and upkeep 
of track. This important history can only be found in the files of 
one or two periodicals. 

"Again, there does not exist in the world today a book which 
comes anywhere near giving an adequate picture of the state of the 
art in locomotive practice. At the end of 1900 a costly and elabo- 
rate volume of 490 quarto pages, entitled 'Modern Locomotives,' was 
put on the press. Today that book is valuable history, but it does 
not give us present practice. In 1898 a French treatise on the loco- 
motive engine was brought out, in four large octavo volumes. It 
is an encyclopedia of the locomotive practice of that day, quite com- 
plete and admirable ; but it has never been made available to the 
man who does not read French, and it is still less abreast of the 
times than 'Modern Locomotives.' Present practice can only be 
known to the student who has constant access to the files of three 
or four good periodicals. Last year a very good little book on block 
signaling was published. We find that already it is defective in 
some important points, and within two years it will need serious 

"Or, take certain recent discussions and doings in England in the 
important matters of transportation statistics, of the rcorganzation 
of traffic departments, and of the big wagons and heavy train loads. 
Surely, an intelligent railroad officer, responsible for the best admin- 
istration of the trust developed upon him by his shareholders 
through their directors, must be informed as to these matters. Rut 
he can only Ih: informed in one or two ways: lie must read the 
railway press or he must talk much with men who do read. If he 
is wise and enterprising he will do tioth. * » * 

"Minor chronicles of changes and of personal doings arc of proper 
interest to many among those tens of thousands, and they arc fre- 
quently of direct business interest. Hut such chronicles are very 
imperfectly published in the daily newspapers available to any one 
man, and, what is worse, a great deal printed in the daily news- 
papers is not true. The editor of the railroad journal must collect, 
verify and classify this news. No one else will do it. 

"Building new railroads, building branch lines, revisions of line 
and grades, changes in permanent structures, are all mailers of impor 
lani interest to engineers, coiilraclors and investors in slocks and 
nonds. This is another class of news which must be gathered, das- 

>ified, scrutinized, veriticd. and, in brief, edited, with the skill and 
judgment that can only come with long and careful training. 

'***♦! cannot, however, refrain from suggesting one 
function of the railway press more important than all the rest. We 
all recognize that, in the individual, character is mort important 
than special knowledge and skill. This is precisely as true of groups 
of individuals, and a courageous, able and high-minded press has 
done much, and may do more, to give character to the body of 
men who make up what we may now call the young railroad pro- 
fession. The thirst for knowledge, the zeal in service, the devotion 
to duty, the sense of trusteeship, which must lie at the foundation 
of a profession, do not spring up by chance and do not thrive with- 
out cultivation. In the last thirty years these attributes of the pro- 
fessional man have been developed fast in the railroad service, until 
now we may say with confidence that we have a railroad profession. 
In this development a small group of editors have had some hand. 
They have helped to supply the place of special schools, and of 
professional organizations, and have helped to build up, not only a 
body of knowledge but a body of traditions. 

"The development of the railway press of the United States has 
been more important than anywhere else in the world, for two main 
reasons. First, the journals have always been conducted as private 
commercial enterprises, and their owners have been under constant 
pressure to make them valuable to increasing lists of subscribers and 
advertisers. Second, they have been supported by their advertisers 
with quite wonderful liberality. The volume of their advertising 
and the rates paid are sufficient to enable the owners of the journals 
to spend considerable money in payment for editorial service, for 
manuscripts purcliased. and for engraving. Probably the reader of 
a technical journal seldom stops to think how much he owes to the 
advertising. Generally speaking, such a journal cannot he supported 
by its subscription list, which is small in the nature of things. It 
would be quite impossible to pay the cost of manufacture without 
the help of advertising revenue, and any net profit to the owners 
must come from advertising. Having these facts in mind, one who 
looks over the advertising pages of the most important railroad 
journals in the United Stales will understand how it is possible to 
spend so much money in producing the other pages. 

"This necessary dependence of the journal upon its advertising 
"evenue, when it is conducted as a commercial enterprise, has some 
serious drawbacks, as will be understood by one who thinks a little 
about the' matter. It is obvious that if a paper is to be produced 
which shall cover the field adequately, and beyond that, yield in- 
comes that will attract men of energy and ability, the advertising 
must be somewhat large. It follows that the men charged with the 
responsibility of producing that part of the revenue are always 
tempted to try to get quick results by the use of the 'reading pages.' 

"This is only ordinary short-sighted human nature. The editor is 
thus under constant assaults from within his own house, and from 
long habit in protecting the paper from its own friends his judgment 
sometimes becomes unreasonably exacting. This shows how impor- 
tant it is to have a nice balance between the business department and 
llie editorial dcparlmenl resting In the editor himself. 

"Finally, looking over the railway press of the world, it is a sur- 
prisingly small group of journals. There are not more than twenty 
of real importance; indeed, if 1 were disposed to be strict, I .should 
say there were not more than a dozen. Bui, in ability, dignity, 
enterprise and moral sense they compare well with any oilier body 
of class journals with which I am at all familiar." 


Ihe Worcester & llolden Si reel Kailw.iy Co., with headquarters 
at Worcester, Mass., is building a new line from Worcester to Jef- 
ferson through llolden. The road will be 8 miles long and thne 
cars will be operated. This, hoewvcr, is but one link in a proposed 
chain of electric roads to this section. 

Hie equipment at Ihe power house comprises Mcintosh & Sey- 
mour engines, liabcock & Wilcox boilers, General Electric ap- 
paratus. Bradley cars equipped with four .^8 li, p. nioli>rs to each 
car will he used. 

The officers arc: President, A. R. B. .Spragite, of Worcester; 
treasurer, E. S. Douglas; directors, Stephen Salisbury, Gen. 
Spraguc, Otis E. Putnam, C. C. Milton, J. V.. Fuller, II W War- 
ren. The capital stock is $100,000, all paid in. 



(Vol.. Xni, \n I 



Mi. a. 1. Poller, manager of the Union Railroad Co., Provi- 
dence, R. I., has devised a very simple little scheme for keeping a 
record of the conduct of every conductor who works for the road. 
It has been the practice of this company for a long time to keep 
strict account of cviry man's record, but heretofore the information 
has been entered in large books. These records have become so 
voluminous as to (ill three books. The very size of these has de- 
stroyed to some extent the usefulness of the data they contain as 
they arc unhandy and cumbersome for reference purposes. 

The records they contained have now been transferred to a card 
filing system. The record for each man is entered on a card about 
8 in, wide by lo in. high, having headings as reproduced in Fig. i. 
The conductor's name is placed at the top and on the card is re- 
corded every instance in which the conductor is reported by an 

The North Jersey Street Railway Employes' lUiuvoknt Asso- 
ciation, of Newark, N. J., is one of the oldest organizations of its 
kind among street railway men. It was organized as the Essex 
Passenger Railway Employes' tlenevolent Association July 23, 1887, 
with 100 members. Although the name has been changed several 
times to correspond with the name of the railway company, and the 
place of meeting has been changed several times, the organization 
has remained intact, several of the members holding office since 
the date of organization. The membership has grown to over 600. 
.•\ny employe of the North Jersey Street Railway Co. between the 
ages of 16 and 50 passing the physical examination, and having 
been in the service three months, may become a member. The 
mitiation fee is $2 and dues $4 a year The benefits are $7 per week, 
39 additional weeks of disability, and $100 in event of death. In 









inspector. The date of the report, the badge number of the inspector 
making the report, the route, and the car number are entered in 
the columns indicated. Under the heading "Passengers" the num- 
ber of passengers reported by the conductor for each particular trip 
recorded is given and also the number of passengers for the trip 
as reported by the inspector. If there is a discrepancy in the two 
reports the amount of the shortage is entered in red ink in the 
column "Shortage." When the manager thinks the entries in the 
shortage column are becoming too numerous he takes steps for 
calling the conductor to account. When the employe is called to 
the office the card is laid before him and he sees for himself of 
just what he is accused. The inspectors are changed about among the 
various routes so that no conductor can give as an excuse for un- 
favorable reports against him that he is being discriminated against 
by any individual inspector. The inspectors make their reports on 
a blank as shown in Fig. 2. which gives the line and the exact tim; 
at which the inspector got on and off the car, the car number, the 
conductor's number, and the numl^er of passengers on the car at 
the time. There is a space at the bottom of the sheet for any addi- 
tional remarks. The cards are kept in a large drawer in alpha- 
betical order. 

When a conductor leaves the service his card is placed on file 
in another drawer and can always be used as evidence for or 

order to meet the drain on the treasury without assessments a 
benefit is held every year. The benefit this year will be at the New- 
ark Tlieater in January, when "Way Down East" will be produced 
under the auspices of the association. The officers are : Charles 
Dunn, president ; Martin Shorter, vice-president ; John Healy, sec- 
retary ; John B, De Groot, financial secretary, and A. Frederick 
Hanson, treasurer. The latter two have held their respective offices 
for more than fifteen years. 


The Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway Co. filed articles of 
incorporation December 22 with a capital of $15,000,000. The in- 
corporation is in the form of an amendment 10 the articles ,of in- 
corporation of the Omaha & Florence Street Railway Co.. which 
never constructed any lines. The amended articles are signed for 
the old company by its officers, Gus C. Barton, president ; William 
S, Cox. secretary ; Frank Murphy. W, A, Smith, W. V. Morse and 
Luther Drake, directors. This was the final step in the consolida- 
tion of all the street railways in Omaha. South Omaha and Coun- 
cil Bluffs, which aggregate about 200 miles of track. The Council 

Providence, R. i. 







against him should he ever again apply for a position on the ?oad. 
The men do not object to being watched in this way and the very 
knowledge that their records are entered on a card that is con- 
stantly under the supervision of the manager has in itself a good 

Enraged because an electric car in Chicago failed to stop when 
signalled by two men they hoarded the next car and beat the motor- 
man into unconsciousness with the controller handle. 

A suggestion has been made by Mr. Percival Moore, vice-presi- 
dent of the Louisville, Anchorage & Pewee Valley Electric Rail- 
way Co., that the proposed coliseum building in Louisville. Ky.. be 
used as a terminal for all the new interurban railways. 

Bluffs' lines were acquired by a 99-year lease. The company pro- 
poses to build an extension from Council Bluffs to Griswold, a dis- 
tance of 26 miles, and may eventually reach Dcs Moines, as there 
is now under construction a line of the latter city which will 
extend to Spaulding, a distance of only 45 miles from Griswold. 
Extension will be made from Omaha to Blair, Plattsmouth, Wahoo 
and Lincoln, aggregating about 150 miles. A power house to cost 
$700,000 is contemplated but the location has not yet been deter- 
mined. The incorporation privileges include the operation of a 
telephone system. The company increased the wages of its con- 
ductors and motormcn January 1st by an amount equal to from 
five to ten per cent of their former wages. It is understood that 
ihe officers of existing lines, with few exceptions, will be retained. 
The entire project is said to be financed by J. & W. Selignian of 
\ew York. 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 




Lewis S. Finklesiciii was convicted in ilie criminal court ot Balti- 
more. Dec. 17. 1902. of conspiracy to defraud the United Railways 
& Electric Co.. of Baltimore, of $800. The plan under which 
Finklestein and his confederates operated was to board a car to- 
gether with one or two friends as witnesses, the latter taking seats 
immediately behind Finklestein. When the car was stopped and 
just as it was about to start again. Finklestein would alight from 
the car and fall to the ground and roll over several times, pretend- 
ing that he was badly injured. The confederates would censure the 
conductor for his alleged negligence, but would take good care to 
give him their names and addresses, so that in making the investi- 
gation the inspector would be sure to find evidence to convict the 
company of negligence. 

May 31st. 1901. Finklestein fell from a car of the United Railways 
company at the corner of Fayette and Arch Sts., Baltimore. He re- 
fused to go to a hospital and gave his address as 717 W. German 
St. A confederate, Herman Max lilumenthal, was also on the car 
and gave his name to the conductor as a witness and his address 
as 721 W. German St. He volunteered to take Finklestein to his 
home. The company's surgeon was immediately sent to examine 
the injured man, but was not permitted to make the examination. 
On the following day a physician who happened to lie on the car 

way conijiany's o.^-ce and confessed the whole scheme. Finklestein 
and Kupfciburg weie both arrested and indicted in Washington, 
wlurc ihiy were tried and convicted in the early part of .-Vpril, 
IQCJ. He.'ore the trial Kupferburg was released on $2,000 bail, and 
duiing the trial he jumped his bail. Finklestein served six months 
in jail at Washington, and iiiMiicdiatcly upon his release was brought 
to Ballimcre and tried. Tlio jury convicted him without leaving 
tlie box and he has not yet been sentenced. He admits that he col- 
lected $50 from the Boston Elevated about a year and a half ago 
under the name of Samutl Fink, and that Kupferburg shared part 
of it. He has also collected money from the railways in Brooklyn 
and Philadelphia. He filed his claim in Ralliniorc under the name of 
Samuel Finklestein and in Washington uniler the name of Louis 
Scnnntl. He is believed to be one of a gang who have systemati- 
cally defrauded railway companies in a number of cities. 


The Quaiter CuUennial issue of the lirantford (Ont.) Expositor 
gives an interesting description of the Brantford street railways, 
which commenced operation in 1886 with four horse cars. In 1893 
the company equipped its road with electric power and added a num- 
ber of new cars to its equipment and inaugurated a much better 
service. The headquarters of the company are located in Toronto, 

Aire. 3i years. Hi-i(rht. S ft. 3^ In. Wiiirbt, 121 ll>. Build, iiieilniiii. Hmr, 
black. EjcA, hazfl. Coniplexiuo. dark. Occupalinn, peddler. 

when the alleged accident happened, put Finklestein's arm and body 
in a plaster paris cast and gave ont the statement that the man had 
his arm fractured in two places and had a probable fracture of the 
fourth rib. 

The two confederates then commenced to press the railroad com- 
pany for a settlement, Bliimenthal calling frequently at the office, 
and on one occasion stated that Finklestein was dying, requesting 
that the company send its physician at once, which was done. Upon 
the arrival of the physician Finklestein was found groaning and 
writhing in apparently great agony, but an examination showed his 
temperature, pulse and respiration to be normal. .N'o examination 
could be made of the alleged injuries, as the man was in a plaster 
cast. The railway declined to consider any sclllemcnl until the 
plaster cast was removed and the alleged injuries submitlcl to an 
X-ray examination. Finklestein then filed a suit in the Baltimore 
city court for $10,000 and in al>out four weeks left Baltimore. Both 
men were indicted in Baltimore in August, 1901, charged with con- 
spiracy to defraud the railway company out of $800. 

Finklestein was next heard of in Washington in August, 1901, 
at which time he and Simon Kupferburg attempted 10 repeat the 
same fake accident. A Baltimore man was taken in with them as 
a confederate, and the three boarded a car in Washington, and when 
the car made a stop Finklestein jumped oflf and rolled over several 
times and cried out, apparently in xreal agony. Kupferburg, as a 
witness, was standing behind him. I he new confederate, who had 
been taken into the game in Washington, went at oner to the rail 

.sl.MOX KllPl'KKlHIKci. 

At'.-. 4.i.v,-ars, H.-iulu.S fl. 4 ill. Wcit'lu. UK Mi. Iluilil. sl,-iiil,-r. H^iir, l.l:u-U. liazi-l. C<inipli'xiiiii. (IiirU. Ocfiipalinii. furrier. 

an<l the road prospered for a number of years under the nianage- 
lueui of Mr. William liarrnn, who was succeeded by Mr. John Mur- 
rode. who continued as manager until last suninier, when the road 
was purchased by the Von Kcha Co. 

In 1895 the company purchased Mohawk Park and extended one 
of iis lines to this resort, which has been a very popular one with 
ihe citizens of lirantford. On July 8, 1902, the Von Echa Co. as- 
sumed control of the road. Its present officers are: S. Rittcr Ickes, 
president; J. II. Armstrong, Ireasurer; A. Warfield, superintendent. 
This company is a construction company and it has already built 
and i*. nperaling an electric railway frotu Woodstock to Ingersoll. 
Il has also finished a section of ihe railway between Brantford and 

,\ccoriling to the I'lmililions luider which llns company assiuncd 
control of the Brantford Street Ry. it agreed to spend the sum of 
$25,000 in putting the line in thoroughly ellieient condilion. and this 
has been done. The com[)aiiy has also projected the Grand Valley 
Ky. between Bradford and Berlin, running through Paris, Blue 
I,ake, .St. George and other towns, to Berlin and Waterloo. Part of 
this line has been completed and the work will be vigorously prose- 
cuted during the coming season. A park site has been |iiircliascd by 
the I'ompany, on which a llualer with a seating capaciiy of 1.200 
will be erected this winler. 

— ♦<••• — ■ — — 

January I3lh the plant o( the Slenhcnvillc (Ohio) Traction & 
Light Co. was totally destroyed by fire. 



[Vol. XIII, No. t. 

ON THt 20th of bach MONTH. 






New York -39 CortUodt Street. Cleveland— 303 Electric Buildln£. 

Philadelphia The Bourse. 
Austria, Vienna Lehmann & Wcntzel, Karntnerstrasse. 
Prance, Paris Boyveau& Chevillet, Librairie Etrangere, Ruedela Banque. 
Italy, Milan— Ulrico Hoepli. Librairic Dalla Real Casa. 

New South Wales, Sydney Turner & Henderson, 16 and 18 Hunter Street. 
Queensland South,'. Brisbane Gordon & Cotch. 
Victoria, Melbourne— Gordon & Cotch, Limited, Queen Street. 

Foreign Subscription, 

Four Dollars American Money. 

Address all ComtnuHtcations and Remittances to Windsor d Kcnfitld Publishing Co. 
Chicago, III. 


We cordially invite corrfspondencc «n .ill subjects of iiileresl to those 
engrafted in any branch «f stretu railway work, an4i will gratefully appreciate 
any marked ct>pies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send 
ns, pertainintf either to cumpauies or officers. 


If Tou ctintemplatc the purchase of anv supniies or material, we can save 
you much time and trouble, broj* a line to The Kkview. stating^ what ynu are 
in the market for. and you will promptly receive bids and estimates from all the 
best dealers in that line. We make no charge for publishing such notices in our 
Bulletin of Advance News, which is sent to all manufacturers. 

This paper is a member of the Chicago Trade Press Association. 
Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 


JANUARY 20, 1903. 

NO. 1 


MuliUeliori). W'ariliai.i & Buzzards Bay Street Ry. Illustrated.. I 

Canadian Pacific Pension Plan 8 

Tile .Abolition of Grade Crossings in Massachusetts 9 

Mason City & Clear Lake Ry 10 

Board for .•\nnouncing Schedules 10 

Effective Means for Interesting the Public 11 

New Power Generating and Distributing Sy.stcni for the Cones- 
toga Traction Co. By JefTerson E. Ker.shum 12 

Efficient Discipline. By W. W. Wheatley \i 

Tribute to Mr. Lang 14 

The Railway Press 15 

Keeping Records of Employes 16 

Omaha & Council Bluflfs Street Railway Co 16 

Conspiracy Case at Buflfalo. Illustrated 17 

Editorial iX 

Pennsylvania Railroad Terminal in New York 20 

Street Railway Park Development — II. Illustrated 21 

Piece Work 2^ 

The .Xrnolil Report on Chicago Street Raihv.-iys. Illustrated 29 

Pittsburg & .Mleghany Valley Railway Co 38 

New Car House and Repair Shops of the Birmingham Railway. 

Light & Power Co., Birmingham, Ala. Illustrated y) 

Roads Under Construction 42 

Recent Street Railway Decisions 4.^ 

Steel Tracks for Highways. Illustrated 50 

Personal 54 


W lull- the <levelopiiient ill electric traction during the year 1903 
has been greater than during any previous year the most of the 
new systems proposed and installed have been built along lines 
which have been standard for a number of years; the past year, 
however, has been notable from the fact that the alternating cur- 
rent has begun to assume an important position in street railway 
work, and it is almost certain that 190J will see some important 
divelupnunts in this field. 

The high speed, long distance railw.iy is a feature of electric 
traction which seems to be coming to the front, and with the new 
systems of B. J. .Arnold, the Westinghouse company and H. Ward 
Leonard all under construction in diflferenl places, it will indeed be 
surprising if great pripgress in the direction of alternating current 
practice is not made in the near future. The advantages of alter- 
nating current in electric railway work would be innumerable should 
a praclicable alternating current street car motor be produced. It 
not only lends itself admirably to the operation of long distance 
trunk lines, but further, eliminates the question of rotary converter 
sub-stations with their high cost for installation and attendants, and 
with such a motor the alternating current would supersede the 
direct 500-volt current for railway work to as great a degree as it 
has already superseded the direct current for electric lighting. 

Another engineering feature which has come somewhat promi- 
nently forward during the past year is the development of the steam 
turbine for a central station prime mover. With the development 
of this machine it is probable that a considerable change may be 
expected in the design of central stations. The difTerence in size of 
the steam turbine and the steam engine of equal capacities will per- 
mit a great reduction in the engine room space required, and the 
high speed of tlie turbines will considerably alter the design of 
generators, greatly decreasing their size for a given output. The 
future may sec our central stations greatly reduced in size contain- 
ing small high speed units, the rotary converter sub-station aban- 
doned and its place taken by a transformer station without moving 
machinery and not requiring attendants, and the distribution sys- 
tem entirely on the alternating current plan with alternating current 
motors upon the cars. 

While the present SCM-volt system, which has beconie standard, 
will continue in use for many years on city systems, an alternating 
current system as described for suburban and long distance lines is 
the direction towards which many of our most prominent electrical 
engineers are working, and from the progress already made it secins 
probable that some of the many efforts in this direction will soon 
prove successful. 


F.KewluTe is printed a brief extract from a i)aper on "Piece 
Work," by Mr. Gus Girou.x, which brings out the essential points 
10 be considered in adopting this plan of paying for labor, and the 
subject is one of interest to street railways operating large repair 
shops as it has already been successfully introduced by some of the 
largest electric railways. Our readers will undoubtedly recall the 
description of the repair shops for the North Jersey Street Railway 
Co. published in the "Review" for .April, 1902, in which article were 
given complete lists of the piece prices paid for every operation in 
the repair shops of this company. 

There is no question but that the method of paying daily wages 
which are the same for all, offers no inducement to any one man to 
try to improve or do more than another, and under this system it is 
hard to make any workman sec why he should try to do more than 
just enough to hold his job; but no matter what efforts may be made 
at equalization there must always be a great difference in the quality 
and ([uantity of work done by different men. It is obvious, then, 
that if all are paid alike, some of them are not paid enough or others 
are paid too much. The premium plan and the bonus system of 
paying for labor have been introduced in many places with appar- 
ently satisfactory results but there can be little question that the 
piece work system is the fairest for both the employer and employe 
if the scale of prices is properly adjusted. The latter system also 
gives the workman the greatest opportunity to improve himself and 
increase his output, and while the premium system gives the work- 
man a certain increase of pay for all work performed above what 

.Tax. X. igo3.J 



i; accepted as a fair day's work ho does not, under this plan, receive 
pay in the same proportion for his extra work as he docs for the 
acceptable amount of work for a day. 

If a workman planes 20 castings a day for wliich lie received a 
certain daily remuneration there is no reason why, if he can in- 
crease the output of his machine to 25 castings per day that his 
wa.ges should not be increased by 25 per cent, making his remunera- 
tion on each piece turned out the same. That is, in fact, what is ac- 
complished by the piece work system, but by the premium or bonus 
plan he would receive a certain amount of extra pay, but not at a 
rate corrresponding to his pay for a regular day's work. It appears, 
therefore, that the piece work system is by far the most advantageous 
for the man, while at the same time it is entirely just to the em- 

An important point, however, in connection with the piece work 
system is that of establishing tlie rates for piece work on an equita- 
ble basis. This unquestionably entails very careful accounting meth- 
ods covering several months' experience, but when once established, 
there should be no subsequent cutting of rates. However difficult it 
may be to determine, there is a fair and equitable price for every 
pi'-.ri of work performed, and any extra work which is done by extra 
exertion should bring the same price as work done under less stren- 
uous circumstances. 


Every large city demands means for the local transportation of 
passengers that shall be efficient and adequate to the needs of the 
public, yet the municipal authorities too often fail to recognize, or 
at least refuse to act, on the fact that providing such a transporta- 
tion system is purely a business proposition. It is well recognized 
that in the larger American cities the traffic is generally greater 
than the facilities and physical problems encoutitcred in attempting 
to keep up with the demand are of themselves sufficiently great, 
without complicating the matter by permitting other than business 
considerations to govern. 

For the last six years the street railway companies of Chicago 
have been desirous of effecting improvements in their systems, but 
it was recognized by all that as a condition precedent lo making 
the necessary investments there would have to be some agreement 
with the city for franchise extensions. Successful negotiations with 
the city authorities have been made impossible because of the atti- 
tude of the mayor of Chicago, who has refused to consider the sub- 
ject until after the state legislature had passed a law which would 
permit municipal ownership. The first practical step towards pro- 
viding a basis on which negotiations could be conducted was made 
only six months ago when Mr. li. J. Arnold was retained by the 
council committee on local transportation, to pre|)are a report upon 
the situation, and advise concerning the engineering problems and 
the costs of various plans that might be deemed practical. 

Mr. .Arnold's report which was presented to the transportation 
committee Dec. .^o, 1902, is a voluminous one, comprising over 300 
printed pages, exclusive of inaps and drawings, and this work is 
considered the most complete engineering iiivesligation of urban 
transprjrtation problems that has ever been undertaken. F.lscwhcre 
in this issue we have presented a statement of what the report was 
intended to cover, the summary of conclusions and rccomtneiida- 
tions as made by Mr. Arnold, the general discussion of street rail- 
way problems constituting Part I of the report, and an abstr.-ict of 
the other portions, which it is believed will give the reader as good 
an idea of the plans recommended and the reasons for them as may 
l>c had without studying the whole report. 

Having been retained as an engineer, Mr. Arnold conrmed his 
report lo a discussion of the problems from engineering and trans- 
portation standpoints, avoiding excursions into branches of the sub- 
ject that would involve him in discussions as to the policy to be 
pursued by the city. Neither lime nor space was wasted in exploit- 
ing novel schemes, it being recognized that a large city is no place 
for trying experiments. 

Taking into consideration the fact that there is n wide difTercncc 
between the claims of the traction companies and the cily of Chicago 
in regard to the dates of expiration of existing franchise, and in 
their viewi an to what would be reasonable in the matter of new 
grants, it is not lo bo expected thai all of ihe conclusions of the 

report wi'.i be accepted without question. The most that can be 
hoped is that the opinion of the able and disinterested engineers 
who prepared this report on questions of fact will furnish a solid 
basis for future discussion between the parties in interest. 

According to the Arnold estimates, the cost of a new unified sys- 
tem comprising 745 miles of track would be $70,000,000, exclusive 
of subways which it is estimated would cost from $16,000,000 to 
$20,000,000 more. The cost to reproduce new an equally extensive 
system of the same construction as is now in operation is placed 
at about $56,000,000, while if depreciation be computed the present 
value of 745 miles of the existing systems is placed at practically 
SO per cent of the cost of the new unified system. Thus it is evi- 
dent that to adapt even the least expensive of the plans recom- 
mended would involve an expenditure of from $14,000,000 to $35,- 
000,000, exclusive of subways. 

No business man should need to be told that when investments 
of such magnitude arc involved, agreement can only be reached 
when those furnishing the capital are made secure, which is an- 
other way of saying that a long-term franchise is one of the condi- 
tions involved in an "ideal" transportation system for Chicago. 

We consider that time spent in trying to secure legislative action 
to enable the city of Chicago to own or operate street railways to 
be utterly wasted; aside from all economic questions we believe 
political party consideration will prevent such action. Were it not 
for the effect on the city itself it might be a good thing to try 
municipal ownership in Chicago, for the sake of the object lesson 
it would be to the rest of the country. 

Of the various plans outlined in Mr. Arnold's report our prefer- 
ence is for the "Subway Plan No. i" involving only Iiigli level sub- 
ways. Low level subways would require the use of olovalors, which 
we believe the experience of the London "lubes" has demonstrated 
lo be very costly. 

.\s to the action that will be taken on the Chicago situation it is 
perhaps idle to speculate. The mayor favors waiting for enabling 
legislation looking to municipal ownorsliip, .iml has been quoted 
recently as saying that in event such an act was not passed and 
the traction companies did not meet the city's terms, he would be 
ready lo demand receivers for the street railways. The mayor and 
the majority of the transportation committee of the council are not 
in accord as to their policy. At this writing the activity displayed 
by Chicago traction securities, both stocks and bonds, lends color to 
the persislenl rumors that negotiations are well under way for the 
consolidation of the existing companies. 


riio "Review" has always devoted oinsidcralilo space lo showing 
tho desirability of advertising street railway lines, and has at difFcr- 
ont limes described the methods of advertising used by various com- 
panies, reproducing striking illustrations and extracts from advertis- 
ing literature. We arc always glad to receive folders, pamphlets, 
and other matter of this naluro, and to learn the details of plans for 
increasing street railway traffic that have proved to be ofTeclivc. 

It is probably not a difficult matter to convince a street railway 
man of the value of advertising, because he generally has advertising 
space in his own cars and knows the worth of it. The controversy 
is more likely to arise over the methods to be adopted in securing 
the desired publicity. 

The local daily and weekly papers of a communily are powerful 
factors, either for good or bad, and il pays lo cultivale thoir 
acquaintance and good will. It is a mistake li> think that usually 
this is to be done by bribery. Courteous Iroalnionl in reporters 
seeking information will aconiplish a groat deal, oven if llie desired 
inforniallon cannot be given. Ac(|uainlance wilh llio editors, re- 
porters anil advertising solicitors is sure to promulo friendly rela- 
tions between the company and the newspaper. Hvory editor is 
lo'>king for news items, and a lillle care and Irouble in i)reparing 
and sending lo the newspapers aimoiincomonls and notices of in- 
terest regarding the company's business or plans, will be appreciated 
at every newspaper office. It is oflen a good investment for a rail- 
way company lo take advertising space at regular rates from time 
lo time, and this is coming lo be looked upon as an excellent Wciy 
of nccuring publicity. An inleresling and successful experiment in 
this direction, made by llie Chicago Union Traction Co. in nxx), was 



[Vol. XIII, No. i. 

described in an article in the "Review" for September, 1900, page 


Folders, pamphlets, booklets, illustrated time l.iblcs, etc., if well 
written and attractively prepared, arc always good and can be 
counted upon to show good returns on the money expended. This 
kind of literature need not be confined to advertising parks and 
pleasure resorts, where its value is well recognized, but may be used 
with advant.igc to give correct and interesting information regard- 
ing the whole territory served by the company's lines, pointing out 
the attractions of pleasure riding, the places to be reached, the time 
it will lake to go anywhere on the system, and the rates of fare. 

A very effective means, not only for gaining publicity but also for 
fostering a more kindly feeling on the part of the public towards 
the company, has been found in the form of a small weekly publica- 
tion, which can be isued under the supervision of the railway man- 
agement. This idea of a company publication wherever tried has 
been found very satisfactory in every way. In this issue will be 
found considerable information concerning <he "Weekly" published 
by the Detroit United Railway. The idea has been tried at Roches- 
ter, New Orleans and at other places, and in every instance the 
verdict has been that there is no better means of reaching and inter- 
esting the public. 




One of the most interesting undertakings in connection with 
transportation in New York City is that of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road for securing a terminal on Manhattan Island. In view of the 
engineering problem involved in the construction of a double tunnel 
under North River, four tunnels across Manhattan Island and under 
the East River to connect with the Long Island terminal at Long 
Island City, the use of electric power on certain of the divisions, and 
the equipment of power houses, the company created a commission 
of engineers to design and supervise the construction of the tunnels 
and appointed architects for the buildings and engineers for the 
electrical and mechanical equipment. The work of bringing the 
railroad into connection with the new terminal properties is being 
carried out by the chief engineer's department of the Pennsylvania. 

The commission in charge of the tunnel work comprises Col. 
Charles W. Raymond, U. S. A., engineer of the New York Harbor, 
chairman; Charles M. Jacobs, C. E., chief engineer North River 
section; Alfred Noble. C. E., chief engineer East River section; 
William H. Brown, chief engineer Pennsylvania Railroad in charge 
of tracks and terminal yard ; Gustave Lindenthal, C. E., bridge com- 
missioner of New York City; George Gibbs, M. E., first vice-presi- 
dent Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., in charge of mechanical en- 
gineering, electric locomotives andtraction. The architectural work 
is in charge of McKim, Mead & White. Westinghouse, Church, Kerr 
& Co. have been appointed mechanical and electrical engineers and 
constructors and have also been made engineers for the architects, 
and have been chosen by the Long Island Railroad to carry out the 
work of changing its Atlantic Ave. line for operation by electricity. 

Up to the present time the active engineering work has consisted 
chiefly of investigations and determinations concerning methods, 
quantities, and the feasibility of different plans. The commission 
has been at work since last spring, and the architects and engineers 
have had a large force of men actively employed since June last. 
The engineers have substantially completed plans for the Long 
Island power house, upon which work can be soon begun, this sta- 
tion being needed to provide electric power for the Atlantic Ave. 
division of the Long Island Railroad. This power plant, together 
with the one in New Jersey, will serve the entire terminal system. 

The terminal station in Manhattan is, in itself, a large undertak- 
ing, as it will cover a ground space of 1,800 x 500 ft. The founda- 
tions will have to be excavated some 40 ft. or 50 ft. deep. As the 
work progresses there will be ample opportunity for discussion of 
the technical features, but at the present time one of the most inter- 
esting points in connection with the undertaking is the thorough 
and efficient manner in which the work has been organized. 

The .accompanying illustration shows a door hanger in use at 
the shops of the Georgia Railway. Gas & Electric Co., Atlanta, 
Ga. The principal feature of the device is the use of a ball bear- 
ing in the sheave which reduces to a minimum the horizontal re- 
sistance in opening and closing. The hanger is made of '/i in. 
steel plate riveted to the channel iron forming the top of the 

l)I.\i;K.\iM ol' iiALL HEAKINi;. 

door. The sheave and cones are finished from tool steel. By 

having the slot in the hanger as shown at the right of the side 

view the sheave may be removed by slackening the nut. The 
cones are separated by a fiber washer. 


On Saturday, Dec. 20, 1902, the tramway system of Bournemouth, 
Eng., was placed in operation. The conduit system was adopted by 
the Bournemouth corporation for the principal section of the tram- 
way scheme and is the only system of its kind at present laid in 
England. It is known as the side slot system, it and the center 
slot as well, being perfected by Mr. A. N. Connett, who is now 
chief engineer for J. G. White & Co., Ltd.. the contractors for the 
Bournemouth system. 

While the road was opened for operation on December 20th, a 
trial trip was run on December i6th. At the official opening there 
were six cars, which were filled with invited guests. In speaking 
of the occasion of the opening the Mayor of Bournemouth said that 
he wished all those present to realize that the contractors, repre- 
sented by Mr. Ross Hopper, had done their work ably; that the job 
had been completed with the idea of lasting ; that it was a permanent 
job into which had been put not only the best workmanship, but the 
best thought and care, and that they were all proud of the under- 


The Mansfield Technical Society, of Mansfield, O., has been 
organized among the officers and employes of the Ohio Brass Co., 
of that city. The object of the society is the promotion of technical 
knowledge among its members. The regular meetings of the soci- 
ety are held on every third Tuesday, at which time papers pertain- 
ing to various branches of technical work are read and discussed. 
A reading and reference library has been established in connection 
with the society, and a number of technical papers, trade journals, 
etc., are kept on file for the use of the members. .-\ny contributions 
in the w,ay of scientific or trade papers will be thankfully received. 

An interurban railway is being promoted to connect Des Moines, 
la., and Omaha. 

The Georgia Railway & Electric Co.. of Atlanta, Ga., has placed 
orders for additional machinery and supplies which, it is expected, 
will be needed during the coming year. There was included an 
order for a 500-kw. steam turbine unit, and if this is satisfactory it 
is intended to install larger units of the same type in 1904. 

Jan. 20. igoj.] 



Street Railway Park Development. — IL 

A Discussion of Park Amusements 

Description of Street Railway Parks in Various Localities — Some 
Opinons from Park Managers. 



It is a difficult matter to discuss street railway amusements. Each 
locality has its own conditions. Even in cities of the same size 
conditions may materially differ. .-Kn accurate knowledge of these 
local circumstances is indispensable to the discussion of street rail- 
way amusements to be conducted in that locality. 

Of the persons who may be interested in this subject perhaps one 
may have an investment in a small conniiunity, it may be remote 
from or adjacent to a large city; another may be located in a large 
and prosperous city, he may have a very small enterprise or he may 
control all the lines in the city ; others may be interested in large 
commercial centers under a variety of conditions. For these rea- 
sons the subject can not be discussed in a general way. We shall, 
therefore, assume that we have under consideration a specific lo- 
cality, describe the locality and its peculiarities, and treat our sub- 
ject from the standpoint of the conditions we assume. Interested 
persons may then deduce from the analogies they may find some- 
thing that may apply to their own locality ; perhaps in many cases 
it may be found impossible to apply our ideas. 

Though local circumstances may require us to employ different 
methods in promoting street car travel, we have a common object — 
additional net revenue for our street car lines. This is the prin- 
cipal, almost the sole, reason that should actuate us. There may 
be also several more or less indirect advantages that may accrue. 
Good, clean entertainments if successfully conducted must have a 
tendency to improve the taste, elevate the standards and benefit the 
morals of a community. Credit for substantial benefits is worth 
seeking. The good opinions of the public have a cash value to 
street railway corporations. Successfully conducted anuisements of 
the kind under consideration might also become a ntatter of local 
pride, and figure as attractive features of the city. We will not men- 
tion other indirect advantages at this time. 

Small towns of from five to fifteen thousand inhabitants will 
seldom have more than one street car line and with so small a 
population to draw from must from necessity limit themselves to 
entertainments of small cost. It may be that the ideas that are 
applicable to larger cities can be trimmed to fit smaller ones, but 
we leave the application to those who may desire to employ them. 

For the purposes of this article wc will assume that we have 
under consideration a city of 200,000 inhabitants. It is growing 
and full of business enterprise and energy. It is strictly a business 
community. Its thoughts are of business and its dreams are of 
money. It has its full quota of churches and schools. Railroads 
radiate in every direction and it places no limit on its hope of future 
greatness. Its residence iX)rtions follow the street car lines in many 
directions. Its homes are beautiful and luxurious. It has a con- 
siderable amount of culture but no retired class. It has fine thea- 
ters, but those conducted on the plan of popular prices are the 
most prosperous. Its street railway business is conducted by one 
corporation. In this community we wish to conduct public enter- 
tainments for the purpose of increasing the net receipts of the Street 
Railway Co. How shall wc do it? The field is rich enough and 
big enough for a large harvest, but how shall we cultivate and 
reap it? Not, certainly, by blindly opening a park anywhere we 
may chance to find sufficient ground for the purpose; not without 
consulting the convenience or the desires of our patrons. On the 
contrary, wc should canvass the situation thoroughly and find some 
reasonable ground upon which to predicate our expectations. If 
imssililc wc should have a fixed policy to govern us. We should 
employ well considered Inisiness methods, that have first been rea- 
soned out, and then consistently follow them. We should discover. 
if we can, those human traits, propensities and weaknesses which 
underlie and govern the actions of the people. If we can find a 
weak spot or trait, especially one related to the ever-present love 
of money, we shoidd sei/c it and make it our servant. 

We will find in our oily many well-to-do people and a larger 

number of moderate means, aiid a still larger number who have 
small incomes. One trait at least belongs to all of them, every 
mother's son and daughter would like to get somclliing for nothing, 
or at least a great deal for a little, which is much the same thing. 
This is the bargain idea that enterprising merchants use to destroy 
female sanity. There is also another weakness common to all. No 
one places a high value on i-ccnt or s-cent pieces; if they did the 
postoffice department of the Government would be a failure, and 
street cars would have to go out of business. Even a dime is lightly 
treated, but a quarter of a dollar, when viewed in a lump, makes 
anyone think. Separate the quarter into five nickels and they glide 
away without a thought. 

Can we employ those traits in our business? If we do we shall 
have only s-cent car fares to our place of amusement, and we must 
not charge more than 10 cents admission. And we must give such 
high grade attractions that we will seem to give them away. 

In our case, if we create the impression of much for little, we 
will have to do it by actual and literal performance. This will 
mean a large outlay each season, and it will have to come back in 
nickels and dimes. Can we reasonably expect so nuich? Millions of 
dollars are invested in street railways and other millions are ex- 
pended annually in car service, maintenance, etc. The universal 
fare is 5 cents. We seem to do a great deal for a little. The 
public does not think much about so little, it is only 5 cents. We 
know the results of aggregating large numbers of these small sums 
and we have invested our millions because we have failli in the 
results of these s-cent transactions. 

Why not apply the same ideas to our amusement business that 
wc do to our street railway business and that the Government em- 
ploys in its postoffice department. We can, if wc regard the math- 
ematical necessity for large capacity to transact such a business, 
and follow the lines of human nature in entertaining our patrons. 

Our street railway lines must have ample capacity to transport 
as many persons as may be required to produce the results we ex- 
pect. Our place of amusement must also have capacity to accom- 
modate as many persons as arc necessary to make our schemes 
profitable. Next to capacity is comfort. Wc appeal to the love of 
pleasure. We cannot mix discomfort and enjoymeni, they are like 
oil and water. Discomfort is the oil and conies to the top and 
nothing else can be seen. Therefore comfort (physical ease) should 
have a principal place in our provisions for tiansporlation and en- 

A place of amusemcMt should be lucatcd at llu- convenient 
place for the largest number of peopU-. ami alsn ,it a point that is 
accessible from all parts of the city, and where it may he reached 
by as many direct lines as possible. Some regard should be paid 
to the topography of the site, the more fresh air the better The 
arrangement and construction of an amusement resort is very im- 
portant. As we have already observed, it should have very large 
capacity, it should also he compactly arranged, hut not so compati 
as to sacrifice comfort. There slioiilrl lie plcnly of nioni for a very 
large crowd to move freely. 

The seats should be arranged in aniphilhealer form, in order to 
facilitate the opportunity for every one to see and hear and to fake 
advantage of the natural property of sound to rise. 

The stage should be large and have a good sounding board be- 
hind it. Back of the stage there should be a large number of 
dressing rooms and two large storerooms and a music room. 
Every appliance that is ever likely to be needed on the stage should 
be provided and kept in the storerooms ready for use. A good shell 
sounding board is very iinporlanl. If it is properly conslriicled, a 
great audience of many thousands can hear aud understand a small 
child. A good pipe organ, lliongh not indispensable, would he a 
valuable perm.iiirnt fixture of the sl.igo. A good attraction must 
be well staged to get the value out of it, for that reason stage 
arrangement and appliances should be as good as they can be made. 

Such a place as we have in contemplation shotild aim at open air 
efTecIs and provide for the free circidation of ouldour .ili T'luTe 
should \x plenty of shelter from sun and rain. 



[Vol. XIII. No. i 

riic concessions should 1..- grouped in allractivc arrangement 
about and mar the amphitheater; they should lie on and in Mic 
midst of a broad promenade, paved with asphalt and well drained. 
The promenade should surround the amphitheater and be very 

l'"or the purpose o( ornanienlation, there should be scattered about 
in artistic design little patches of green sward, a few choice flowers 
and a fountain or two. This kind of ornamentation should not be 
overdone, otdy enough should be used to create a cool and cheer- 
ful appearance. Klcctric lights should be used for illumination and 
to ornament ihe stage and amphitheater. 

The hardest problem in arranging for such a large audience is 
lo get all of it seated within easy range of vision, so as not to lose, 
for instance, the facial expressions of an actor. Perfection in this 
regard may not Ik- attainable. 

The place we have described might be called a garden, lo give it 
an outdoor sound. 

The main Teatures of the park idea have been alKindoned. If an 
interested person will observe the patronage of many of the beau- 
tiful public parks ni our large cities he can form a correct Idea 
as to whether it would pay him to construct and maintain such a 
place lo promote car travel. He will fiivl that beer resorts and 
other amuscnienls far exceed the parks in drawing <iualitics. It 
is the amusement feature, therefore, that should be elaborated. 

We have descrilnrd a place of enterlaimncnt providing accommo- 
dation for many thousands at such a place, and we must produce 
such attractions as arc best suited to its dimensions and to pro- 
duce the revenue results we desire. There are a large number of 
attractions that might Iw employed. Large bands, like Sousa's and 
the Banda Rosa, are ideal entertainments for such a place. Any 
high class production in which music is a feature would be suitable. 
.\n all star vaudeville show would do for a change. We might even 
have a circus sometimes. Everything should be the best of its 
kind. Cleanliness, freshness, newness and variety should be culti- 
vated. With capacity and suitable facilities a high-priced show is 
a much more feasible proposition at lo cents a seat than in an ordi- 
nary theater or opera house at $1.50 a scJt. 

In selecting entertainments for so large a place regard should be 
paid to quantity as well as quality. The public has a sharp eye for 
relative proportions, for instance a great singer without a back- 
ground to give him prominence would seem insignificant in such 
a place. 

The concessions, if arranged as proposed, would be valuable and 
should produce a considerable revenue. 

We do not think that intoxicants should l>c sold at the place we 
have described. The attractions should furnish sufficient induce- 
ment for the attendance. There is always a large part of the 
substantial element of society who would oppose it. Everything 
should be conducted in such a manner as not to raise or suggest 
moral questions. 

Street railway corporations have lo ask many concessions from 
the public, and for that reason should avoid needless exposure to 
criticism from any part of it. 

In this connection a word alniut the amusement manager may 
not be out of place. He should be much more than an ordinary 
showman. He should combine with his knowledge of the show 
business all the qualities of a business man and a gentleman. He 
should have some artistic taste and understand the art of pleasing. 
He should understand the faults and follies of the public and know 
how to take advantage of them. Such a man may be Jiard to find, 
but he is essential lo the success of an amusement enterprise con- 
ducted to promote street car travel. 

The central ideas of this scheme for street car amusements may 
be summed up as follows: 

(1) Capacity to transport large numbers of people on street car 

(2) Capacity to acconmiodate large numbers of persons at place 
of amusement. 

(3) A location easy of access, one that can be reached conve- 
niently from all parts of the city. 

(4) High class attractions, judiciously selected, well staged and 
handled and intelligently advertised. 

(5) A 5-cent fare to the place of amusement. 

(6) An admission not exceeding 10 cents. 

{7) Ample provisions for comfort in transportation and at place 
of amusement. 

Unless the ideas we have advanced arc practical they are without 
value; as a test, we submit the fallowing questions: 

Would enough persons pay 10 cents to hear Smisa's band under 
such conditions as we propose lo cover the cost of employing it 
and presenting it? 

Would enough pay 10 cents to hear itanda Rosa to pay for it? 

Would an all star vaudeville show pay for itself at 10 cents a 

Would a Grand May festival produced by local talent and as- 
sisted by imported celebrities pay for the cost of production at 10 
cents a seat? 

If these questions and similar ones can be answered in the affirm- 
ative then our scheme is practical, for it would be self-sustaining 
and our car business would be free from amusement expense, cost- 
ing only Ihe usual train service, etc. 

As was at first remarked, our field is large enough and rich 
enough. We surely have plenty of room and enough material to 
insure success if we operate on right lines. 

Our views are strictly from a street car standpoint. Our chief 
aim is lo produce travel, lo extract enough money from the public 
to pay for the inducements, and lo cause Ihem lo patronize our cars 
lo the fullest extent possible. 

.An amusement resort might be made profitable, considered as a 
separate enterprise and eiiterlain a much smaller number of per- 
sons than we propose, but it would do so by selling beer. etc.. 
exacting, in other words, much larger amounts from the individual 
than we should. This last mentioned idea seems at present the 
prevailing one, but its limilalions cause it lo fall far short of the 
results we desire. 

In the managcmenl of so large an enler|)rise it is important to 
secure to every patron equal privileges. No seals should be re- 
served. A general admission should l)e the only enlrance charge. 
The seals should be free to all on equal terms. Inability for any 
part of the public lo draw exclusive or distinguishing lines is an 
absolutely necessary condition to the success of a great popular 

If we give the l>cst and most expensive entertainments obtainable 
no one will regard them as cheap or common; they will be good 
enough for anyone and not too good for anybody. Every element 
of the public will mingle in mass without complaint if they have 
common inducements and common rights and are under reasonable 
restraints that bear on all alike. 


AUGUST.^, G.\. 

The .-\ugusta Railway & Electric Co. owns and operates Monte 
Sano Pavilion, located live miles from .Augusta; this is under the 
management of Mr. G. H. Conklin. At this resort vaudeville is the 
only enlertainmcnt ever tried. The theater has a capacity of 900. 
During the season of 1901 the bill was changed each week with a 
company of six artists. .Admission to the pavilion is free; a 
charge of 10 cents for ihe bench seals and 15 cents for the opera 
chairs is made. Vaudeville has been tried for two seasons of I2 
weeks each, but Mr. Conklin stales that receipts from the door 
have barely paid running expenses. .As the extra cars, train hands 
and power consumed add to the cost of operating, the company 
has not been satisfied, and is conlemplaling using a repertoire show 
for next season, joining with another city like Charleston lo ex- 
change companies after playing six weeks. 


The Columbus. Delaware & Marion Electric Railroad Co.. of 
Columbus. O., will this winter open the theater building recently 
lOmplctcd at Stratford Park, which is 20 miles from Columbus and 
5 miles from Delaware. The altraction during the winter will be 
dancing. The park is operated by the company, the manager being 
Mr. 11. .A. Fisher, general manager of the railway company. 


Mr. F. L. Dame, general manager of the Union Electric Co., 
Dubuque la., advises us that the company contemplates operating 
a park next season. 

Jan. 20, 1903.) 




Kankakee Electric Railway Co. owns Electric Park, zH miles 
from the city, which is leased to Matthew Kursell. At the theater, 
which seats 800 people, melodrama with vaudeville acts interspersed 
has been the most satisfactory form of entertainment. Dancing 
and music have also proved attractive. 


The Carlisle & Mt. Holly Ry., of Carlisle, Pa., is the lessee of 
Mt. Holly Park, which is managed by Mr. C. Faller, superintendent 
and purcha.'iing agent of the company. The principal attractions at 
this resort are iK>aiing in summer and skating in winter. The park 
is located in a gap in the mountain, and no attempt has been made 
to improve upon the natural scenery. This is a very popular place 
for picnics in summer, mountain walks and spring water seeming 
to be all the inducements required. 


The Bangor, Hampden & Wintcrport Ry., of Bangor, Me., owns 
and operates Riverside Park, located four miles from Bangor, 
which is under the management of Mr. C. E. Stanford. A theater 
accommodating 900 people is located at the park, and the manage- 
ment reports vaudeville and Sunday band concerts as being the best 


The Bay Cities Consolidated Railway Co. operates a pleasure 
park situated on Saginaw Bay and known as Wenona Beach Park, 
located about s'A miles from Bay City. During the summer the run 
from the city is made in from 22^- to 25 minutes. The park is 
under the management of Mr. L. W. Richards. 

Mr. E. S. Dimmock, general manager of the railway company, 
writes us that for the past three years the company has operated a 
very attractive theater. In October last this building was struck by 
lightning and burned to the ground. The company is now building 
what it considers one of the largest and handsomest casinos in the 
country. The size of the building is 120 .\ 130 ft. and it provides 
for about 2,000 reserved seats and about 500 free scats. The order 
for opera chairs has just been placed with the Grand Rapids School 
Furniture Co. The seals will be mahogany finished and folding, 
with hat rack, cane rack and foot rest. The roof of the building 
is supported on trusses, giving an unobstructed view of the stage 
from the auditorium. The opening of the stage, or drop curtain, is 
50 ft. wide and 30 ft. high and every convenience for the performers 

mer, one each afternoon and one each evening. Sometimes there 
are three on Sunday, according to the allcndauce. The company 
provide a very high class performance and the salaries of the per- 
formers last season amouuled to about $12,000. The other attrac- 
tions are those usually found at summer parks, such as boating, 
Iiatliiug, fishing, dancing, balloon ascensions, aerial acts and baud 

Fig. I shows a view of the entrance to the park taken last Oc- 
tober. The band stand and the casino are at the left, the conccs- 

'^^Wi _ m ■ I It ^ If IM 


sion building is at the right, and the boat house and Bay arc shown 
in the distance. Fig. 2 shows the toboggan slide running into the 
water, but it will be noticed lliat the water was unusually low at the 
time the picture was taken. I'lie slide is 50 ft. high and there is an 
observatory at the top. 

The contracts for the new casino call for its completion by April 
iSth. One of the important features of the stage in this building is 
that all the scenery is to be worked from a gridiron and instead of 
sliding will be carried up to llie top of llic building.- 

The Dartmouth & Westport Street Railway Co., with headquar- 
ters at New Bedford, Mass.. owns and operates n resort known as 
Lincoln Park, in the town of Darlmoulh, seven miles from New 
Bedford. Last season the park was opened for three days. May 
301I1 and June 1st and 2d, before the regular park season, wbieli diil 

km;. I-IIAY city. MK 11. BNTKANCE to WENDNA llEAl II I'AUK 

in the way of dressing rooms, toilet and wash rooms have been 
provided. Mr. IJimmock considers this one of the imporlanl fea- 
tures of a theater for the summer paik, as it gives the park a good 
name among the performers and they advertise it well. 
There arc fourteen performances per week given during the lum- 

not commence nil June .)olh. The company has a theater witli 500 
seals and vaudeville and band concerts are reported as being the remuneralive entertaininenls. The minor attractions are 
(irst class orchestra concerts with free daneiiiK, carousal, riincb and 
Judy shows, and patent swings. 



(Vol. XIII. No. i. 

riic iiiaiKiKiT of Lincoln I'ark is Mr, I. W . Hliclps, who writes 
ns as follows on ihi- sniijcct of street railway parks: 

"riic atlvisabilily of street railway companies owning and oper- 
ating siinnncr parks is something that can not be governed by any 
Keneral rnle but by local conditions. There are many roads, both 
local and siibnrl>an, passing attractive spots where it would be 
profitable for the road to own and operate a summer park, but in 
a great many cases these parks are very i)oor assets. Especially is 
ills true when it is necessary to make any considerable outlay for 
developing or maintaining the park. 

"Crowded cars for a short time during park season is far from 
being a sure indication that a company is making money by oper- 
ating a summer park, as many roads have already learned. Where 
a road passes a spot which is a natural summer resort, such as a 
.shore front or attractive grove, and it is not necessary to make any 
considerable outlay for buildings or maintenance, it will generally 
be found profitable to encourage travel to that spot by some special 
attraction ; such as band concerts or other popular form of enter- 
tainment, where this can be done at limited expense, but in our 
Xew England climate where the park season is short and with 
the possibility of considerable cool and wet weather, parks arc apt 
lo prove 'a snare and delusion.' 

■■The first cost of such parks, logither with expense of develop- 
ing and improving to the point of being attractive, the expense of 
ii;aintenance which is always a considerable item in well managed 
parks, the additional rolling stock necessary to accommodate the in- 
creased travel for a brief period only, the necessity of using motor- 
men and conductors of limited experience or of overworking reg- 
ular men during rush travel and the additional liability to accidents 
on account of this necessity all make a combination which is worth 
considering before engaging in park business. 

■'If a road has a steady, profitable business, in the great majority 
of cases it will be found more profitable to confine the energies of 
the management to the subject of transportation and let the other 
fellow own and operate the summer parks." 

We believe that many of our readers will be interested in the 
■'conditions of every contract" made by Mr. Phelps, as park man- 
ager, with theatrical people. These conditions are printed on the 
park stationery with the injunction to "read conditions before read- 
ing letter." These conditions are as follows : 

"The management positively reserves the right to annul and 
terminate an engagement, with forfeiture of all claims for services, 
any time before or after a single performance of any incompe- 
tent person. 

"When writing for an engagement slate the last time you worked 
New Bedford or Fall River, and where. 

■■Two shows each day; possibly extra shows Saturday and 

".Ml performers engaged ojkti on .Monday and close Saturday 

"Clean photographs for lobby must be sent in lime to reach this 
otfice not later than Thursday before act opens. If photos are not 
received or a letter of explanation on or before Thursday before 
net is booked to open, act will be cancelled without further notice. 
"Performers must report in person at office of Dartmouth & 
Wcstport Street Railway Co. not later than 9 a. m. on the day 
act is Iwoked lo open or contract will be cancelled. 

"Baggage will be taken from depot to the park and returned to 

depot in New Bedford, provided check is left at office of Dartmouth 

&• Wcstport Street Ry. before 9 a. m. the day act is Ixioked to open. 

"Rehearsal at I p. m. on day act opens, if management so elects." 


The Omaha & Council Bluffs Railway & Bridge Co. has for sonic 
years operated Lake Manawa Park, a tract of some 700 acres with 
a shore line of nine miles; the park is three miles from Council 
BlufTs and eight miles from Omaha. The company has erected a 
theater with capacity for 2,600 persons, but has not obtained satis- 
factory results. Band music and water are better attractions than 
the theater, although nearly everything in the way of theatrical 
entertainments has been tried. The park is under the manage- 
ment of Mr. E. H. Odell. 

In the "Review" for July. lyoi, we published a brief description 
of this park with a view of the lake shore. In reply lo a recent 
inquiry Mr. W. B. Tarkinglon. general superintendent of the street 

railway company, has added .some further details to the information 
we have previously published. Mr. Tarkinglon says: 

'■The park has a very fine bathing beach and the lake is large 
eiiougli for yacht racing. We have had a series of races between 
yachts brought from St. Joseph, Mo., :.nd the yachts owned by 
the Council Bluffs Vachi Club, which has a lleet of 18 or 20 yachts. 
The Yacht Club and Rowing .\ssceiation has built a very attractive 
private boat club house where are kept private row Ijoats, racing 
shells and gasoline launches belonging to ils members. This com- 
pany owns two 42-ft. electric launches that will scat about 75 per- 
sons each, one steam launch about 30 it. long and one gasoline 
launch about 25 ft. 

"The Kursaal is on the s(juth side of the lake and the cars run 
to Manawa Park, which is situated on the north side. We use 
the launches to transport across the lake passengers who wish lo 
enjoy the bathing. A very fine table d'hote dinner is served at the 
Kursaal and music for dancing is furnished. The lower story of 
this building is given up lo the lath rooms and contains 200 large 
size rooms. It is complete in every particular, having shower 
baths and toilet facilities for l»th men and women, and is pro- 
nounced by those best able lo judge to be finer and more complete 
than any of the bath houses along the .Atlantic coast. Its cost was 
very close to $15,000. 

"Upon the north side of the lake at Lake .Manawa Park is main- 
tained during the months of June, July and .'Vugust a first class 
band, consisting of 35 to 40 members. When I say first class, I 
speak advisedly. This is not a cheap organization, but is composed 
of men of reputation brought from various points, and who are 
above the average in musical ability. W t also have a number of 
men who arc artists upon iheir particular instrument. 

"We have a large casino theater, seating capacily 2,600, given 
over to various entertainments. We also have a bowling alley, con- 
sisting of four regulation alleys, a shooting gallery and a large 
and very handsome merry-go-round. 

"F.very Saturday and Sunday afteniooii there is a game of base- 
ball between well known clubs. 

"At a large pavilion conducted by Omaha's most famous caterer 
everything in his line can be obtained, and all arc served in the 
very best style. The pavilion will scat several hundred people and 
the building is so situated upon the shore of the lake that its pa- 
trons have a view of the water and can also enjoy the music of 
the band. 

".\fler the close of the summer sea.son and during the football 
season we endeavor lo have a game of football at the lake every 
Saturday afternoon. These have proved an attraction and have 
lecn liberally patronized. The average attendance during the 
months of June, July and /Xugusl, 1901. was about 2,000 per day. 
The Sunday crowds of course arc larger, and during the past 
season we handled on our heaviest day aliout 20,000 people. This 
number was increased aliout 10,000 by those who went to the park 
by conveyance other than the cars, people from the surrounding 
country who drove and also a large minibcr from the cities who 
(trove in their carriages. 

■'We arc constantly improving the lake. .V large steam dredge 
is in operation, dredging new channels and protecting and beauti- 
fying this Ixidy of water, which is the only lake of any size situated 
near the tri-cities of Omaha. South Omaha and Council Bluffs. 

"Little effort has been made to have the place patronized during 
the winter months. In this country there are so many places where 
people can skate that we do not feel it would pay us lo run a service 
for this purpose. We have erected a large ice house of a capacity 
of 2,000 tons and put up ice for the use of the caterer during the 
summer months, and there is every prospect that the ice business 
at the lake can be made very remunerative. We have just com- 
pleted the erection of a large boat house for the protection of our 
flotilla during the winter months, .\fter the season closes we take 
all the fleet from the water, including rliout too row boats, and 
they are stored properly in the building and repaired and painted 
for next season's use." 

The liinghamton Railway Co. has for several years operated 
pleasure resorts and now has two parks on ils line: the Casino, at 
Endicott, eight miles from the cenler of Binghamton, and Ross 
Park, which is only one and one-half miles from the center of the 
city, both of which are under the management of Mr. J. P. E. Clark, 

Jan. 20. 1903.) 



general manager of the company. At these parks ihe most renuiner- 
alive class of entertainment has been vaudeville. Other attractions 
provided at the parks inclndc fireworks, daily band concerts, riding 
galleries and numerous special features. 

This company is, we believe, the pioneer in giving vaudeville en- 
tertainments in |>arks as a means of stimulating street railway 
traffic, having followed this practice since 1890. Mr. Clark, has 
always taken a deep interest in this subject, on which he is recog- 
nized as an authority; many will recall ihe article on "Parks and 
Free Entertainments as a Means of Stimulating Street Railway 
Traflic." by Mr. Clark, which was published in the "Review" for 
.\pril. i8q9, page 228, and has been frequently quoted. 

In that article the methods then pursued by the Hiughamton 
Railway Co. were outlined, and there has since been no change 
m policy. The company advocates parks for operation in con- 
junction with street railways, "and the management is firmly con- 
vinced that the park should be opera'.ed by the railway company. 
It is considered eminently imporlaut that .street railway parks shall 
be operated in a manner not to offend the most fastidious, catering 
especially to ladies and children; this necessitates the utmost re- 
spectability and the entire absence of all iiuoxicating drinks. 


The Grand Rapids Railway Co. operates two parks called Reed's 
Lake Park and North Park. The former is operated by the rail- 
»vay company under the supervision of Mr. G. S. Johnson, vice- 
president and general manager of the company, and North Park is 
leased to Messrs. Zindel & Hart. In regard to the operation of the 
parks Mr. Johnson says : 

"The two parks are entirely dilTerent in character and are located 
in opposite directions from the center of the city, each being about 
four miles from the center. Reed's Lake is southeast, and North 
Park is northwest of the city. The city also owns a park called the 
John Ball Park, covering 100 acres of timbered hills, laid out with 
flower gardens and drives and containing small streams, fish ponds, 
cages of animals and a large deer park. The railway company ad- 
vertises these places under the name of "The Big Three." An 
agent is kept traveling through the towns within a raJius of 100 
miles from Grand Rapids during Ihe whole summer, distributing 
pictures of the places of anuisement and other advertising matter. 
[Hisling bills for the theater at Reed's Lake and organizing excur- 
sions. The company finds this advertising service very satisfactory. 

"North Park comprises aboiu 16 acres and is located on ilie b:nil< 

Ireslimem stands, a handsome dining ruum, kitchens, etc. On the 
second fioor is one of the finest dancing floors to be found in use 
anywhere, with cloak rooms, promenades and every convenience re- 
quired. .\t the river a good boat livery is maintained and it is 
well patronized. This park also receives a good deal of benefit from 
the elk and deer parks of the Soldiers' Home, which adjoin the 
company's grove. 

"Reed's Lake is altoijelher a dilTereiil place and is operated on 
ililTerenI plans. Here :i l.ii'se tlie;iler is maiiilained during llie 

I'll.. A l.R.VN'l) K.M'IDS. MR II.. PU.NU (.KollNli 

.\oK in l'.\KI\. 

whole sunniKT. No admission is eluiiKed to the grounds or the 
theater, but a revenue is derived from the sale of seats in the 
theater and although people may stand and see the show nearly as 
well as in ihe seats, the seals are well occupied at prices of 10 cents 
for lun-eservcd to 25 cents for reserved seats. Seat tickets may be 
purchased at the box office in the theater or at an agency down town. 
The refreshment privileges arc leased and a fair rcveiuie obtained 
therefrom. No intoxicating liquor is sold by the company or al- 
lowed to he sold on its grounds cither at North Park or Reed's 
Lake. Beer gardens are operated by other parties at Reed's T-ake 
near ihe railw.iy company's resort. Iinl those who attend Ihe theater 

. .: -* " ., -■"■'"-,%l' 
■- . At' 

^ " "'"' '"•• 

^^^B ^^J^to.^ ^.» . rTn-..T-Kn ;tvI m 

SI I"^^^SS 

mif^mim ^}^m^^'^^ 

1^- . ^ __ B_ .^ 


of the Grand River near the Michigan Soldiert' Home and Ihe Stale 
Fair Grounds. 'Hie river Is very pretty at this point and is about 
600 fl. wide. The Grand Rapids Boat and Canoe Club has its club 
honie there and the Consolidaled Sportsmen's Association also has 
fine Kroiinds and a club house near by. The company owns a 
pavilion that cost about $15,000, which it leases to a firm of caterers. 
On the first floor of Ihe building are soda fountains, lunch and rc- 

or other ainusenienls or ride on the sleaniers lliat ply the lake need 
no! be afTected in any way by these placA or llieir patrons. 

"Of course ibis resorl being on the shore of a very prelly lake 
allows nnlimilrd facilities for the operation of small boats of all 
kinds anil there arc two large size steamers which run there all 
summer. On the company's grounds there arc merry-go-rounds, 
shooting galleries, photographic outfits, cane racks and similar 



[Vol. XIII, No. i. 

anitiscmciits in considerable iiiiiiiIkts. This winter a fignrc-8 roller 
tohogK=>'> slide is being con.strncted on tlie premises. 

"On account of a village of considerable size being located near 
the ends of the car lines which rnn to these resorts a lO-niinutc car 
service is maintained the year around and extra cars are used as 
the traffic requires. The company is so situated that it can send 
one cir a minute from the center of the city to either of these re- 
sorts and can operate the cars with or without trailers, thereby 
handling many thousands of people within a very short period. As 
many as 10,000 people have visited Reed's Lake Park at one time 
and 20.000 or more during a holiday. As many as 20,000 people 

swinging two hundred at one time. VVc have a check room for 
taking care of the baskets of picnickers and an attendant in charge 
of a large gasoline stove, with alxnit one and one-half dozen coffee 
pots of different sizes, who makes cofT<;c for the picnic parlies free 
of charge, the parties furnishing their own coffee and the attendant 
doing the rest. 

"The results of operating the park luring the season of 1Q02 
were entirely satisfactory, .md the indicitions are that the patron- 
age for the season of igoj will l>e materially larger than during 
the season of 1902. .\t the end of the same line where the com- 
pany's park is located the city has acquired 115 acres for a public 

1 11.. S-1;RAND rapids, MICH., roller To1Hph..\.\. KhtU'S LAKK. 

have been carried to North Park and the Fair Grounds in a day, 
and from 10,000 to 15,000 to John Ball Park. The summer resort 
business is consequently, during its season, a very important feature 
in the company's operations and everything possible within reason 
is being done to increase it. The company has found this branch of 
its business to be a very gratifying success." 

park, and wc anticipate that as the city makes improvements on 
its paiJ< wc will be able to derive a good revenue from that source 


Late in igoi the Evansville Electric Railway Co. built an ex- 
tension to some high land west of the city, the terminus of the 
new line being about four miles from the center of the city. At 
this point the Indiana .\mnsemcnt Co., a subsidiary company 
which the railway company controls through stock ownership, 
acquired to acres of rolling woodland and erected buildings suit- 
able for an outdoor pleasure resort. The manager of the Indiana 
Amusement Co. is Mr. H. D. Moran, general manager of the rail- 
way company. Concerning the equipment of the park, Mr. Moran 
writes as follows: 

"We have a covered stage, no roof over the auditorium, tlie nat- 
ural forest trees furnishing shade at any time 
of day the entertainments arc in progress. The 
slope of the land is about the same as the 
slope given the auditorium of a theater, and 
the stage and auditorium are surrounded by 
lattice work, so constructed as not to interfere 
with the free circulation of air, but to obstruct 
the view of persons outside the enclosure 
For admission to the vaudeville performances, 
which we give afternoon and night, we make 
a charge of 10 cents for an ordinary seat and 
15 cents for a reserved seat, the idea beinn 
to make the show pay for itself. We also 
operate a merry-go-round, for which we make 
the usual charge of 5 cents. We lease the 
privilege of selling light refreshments, such 
as soda water, ice cream, lemonade, popcorn, 
peanuts, etc. The sale of intoxicants upon the 
premises is prohibited, and owing to favorable conditions wc have 
been able to jirevent the sale of liquors at any point within the 
distance of a half mile from our park. The absence of intoxicants 
appeals very .strongly .to a certain class of people, and the park 
immediately became a favorite place for outdoor family gatherings. 

"In addition to the two paid attractions, we provide free two 
orchestrian concerts per day, and a free library and reading room, 
stocked with about two hundred books and magazines. We main- 
tain a small zoo and an aviary stocked with about one hundred 
foreign birds; also free swings for the children (which, by the 
way, are well patronized by the older people), having a capacity for 


The San .Vntonio Traction Co. has a base ball park, but does 
not operate any pleasure resort. There are two city parks on the 
lines of the company. 

BERLIN, X. il. 

The Berlin Street Railway Co. owns a park of some 40 acres 
ab<.Hit half of which is cleared and half wood land, and has at 
present a casino 45 x 70. ft. which it is the intention to keep open 
all winter. This resort is known as Cascade Park and is Ij-j miles 
from Berlin and four miles from Gorham. The road was only 
opened for operation fall, so that the company has been unable, 
as yet, to carry out all its plans for improving the park. Mr. W. J. 
Jones, manager of the company, writes us as follows concerning the 


plans for the park: "The park has a natural anii)hithcatcr which 
wc intend to utilize for a rustic theater and a grand stand for rac- 
ing and ball games and also to l.iy out tennis court, croquet grounds, 
which latter will be on a higher level than the ball ground and race 
course. W'e have at the present time a casino 45 x 70, and which 
wc intend to keep open this winter. We arc well equipped with afl 
the necssary utensils to .serve banquets, which will be served on 
the third floor, the second floor being used for a ball room and the 
basement for kitchen, lunch counters, toilets and Ixiiler room. There 
is a small sheet of- water which wc intend to open or clear off for 
skating purposes, and if this is not large enough we can flood the 

Jan. 20. 1903.] 



lower level and make a lake ot eight acres. This park is absolutely 
the only outlet for the people here unless they travel to Portland, 
a distance of 100 miles, and they are of a class that patronize such 
amusements as we can offer. The ride over the entire distance, 
eight miles, is one of the most attractive that I know of, as we 
are in view of the Androscoggin River for the entire distance and 
have the Presidential Range of mountains on our right and lesser 
mountains and hills on our left, going south." 

The St. Louis & Suburban Railway Co. has located on its line. 
"Suburban Garden, " some scenes in which were illustrated in thi- 
"Rcview" for March, 1902, page 157. This resort is owned ati<l 
operated by the Suburban Garden .\nuisement Co., of which Mr. 
T. M. Jenkins, general manager of the railway company, is presi- 
dent and general manager. The park is about 25 minutes' ride 
from the center of St. Louis and the improvements include a theater 
with a capacity for 2.000 persons, scenic railway, electric fountain, 
merry-go-round, ostrich farm, baby rack, shooting gallery, cane 
rack and band stand. In addition there is an excellent cafe and a 
point is made of band concerts. Mr. Jenkins advises us that higli 
class vaudeville has proved to be the most remunerative theatrical 
attraction. The road to the garden is along a private right of way 
which is known throughout the county for its picturesque scenery. 

The United Railways & Electric Co., of Baltimore. The com 
pany owns and operates two pleasure resorts, which were described 
al some length in the "Review" for .Xu.eiust, IQOI. They are both 
under the management of Col. Robert Hough. Lakeside Park is 
located four miles north of the city and Gwynn Oak Park si.^c miles 
northwest. .•\t the latter is an open-air theater and at Lakeside 
Park dancing, merry-go-rounds and similar attractions have been satisfactory. This is a popular resort for picnic parties. At 
Gwynn Oak there is what is considered the finest dancing pavillion 
in the state and free vaudeville entertainments, balloon ascensions, 
high wire performance, etc., have been most satisfactory in attract- 
ing crowds. 


The Woodstock. Thames Valley & Ingersoll Electric Railway Co.. 
of Woodstock. Onl., owns and operates Fairmount Park, located 
five miles from Woodstock. The resort is nudtr the management 

y\i..- (.KAMI KAIMDS. Ml( II.. KA.MON.X AlllilTnH II M. KKKK ^^ 

of Mr. Thomas Walsh, who reports that a stock company theater 
has l>een the mo-it remunerative anri sali'ifaclory park allraction. 
The theater at this park has a capacity for ftoo persons. 



Austin (Tex.) Electric Railway Co, owns and operates Hyde 
2'/, miles north of the city, which is managed by Mr. E. E. 

Scovill. supeiinuiulenl of ilic railway cunipany. The experience 
of the conipLiny with lliis park, at which there is a theater that 
will accommodate 1,100 people,, has been extremely unsatisfactory, 
and Mr. Scovill writes us that nearly everything in the way of 
attractions has been tried without results. No entertainments 
can be given at the park on Sunday because it is in close proximity 
to a church. It is very prulwble that the theater and other build- 
ings al Hyde Park will be removed to ibc grounds of the Austin 


Fair .Association, which would dluiaU- llu- diflicnlly diif u> Iho un- 
favorable local inn. 


The New Orleans Railways Co. has three pleasure parks known 
respectively as .'Xthlelic Park, Rase Ball Park and West End. wliicli 
last is a lake resort about six miles from the center of New Orleans, 
the other two each being about three miles from the center of the 
city. Athletic Park is leased to the Orpheum-Athletic Park Co., 
C. E. Bray, manager; Base Ball Park is leased to the Base Ball 
.Association, Abner Powell, manager; West End is operated by the 
Railways company and is in charge of Mr. John G. Woods, general 
manager of the railroad departmenl. The entertainments last sea- 
son were as follows: Light opera at .Athletic Park, which is tlie 
only one having a theater; Imse ball, foot ball and all other kinds 
of outdoor sports at Base Ball Park ; band concerts and variety 
specialties al West lind. West l''.nd is on the shore of Lake Pont- 
cbarlrain, which is some 25 miles wide, and has the best of facili- 
lies for boating, fishing and yachling. The resort is also made 
|iii| liy llie excellent vesl.-iurani accoinniodalions. 

la, I'A.'^O, ri'.N. 

Wasliinglnn I'ark, Icn-.iliil .ihcuil iliii-e miles Iroiu El Paso, nii 
llu- line of llie l'"l I'aso ICIeclric Railway Co., is opernled by the 
I'.unne .Athletic .Association, J, II. I'.oune being the manager of llie 
park. Last sinnnier Ihealrical ciiU rl.iiniiienis were given, a leiil 
serving as the auditorium. 

I 111 ,\liildUlown Street Railway Co. owns and operates Lake 
View Park, some three miles from the city, the park manager being 
Charles II, Chapman, superintendent of the railway company, .At 
ihe park is a ihealer which will accommodate 700 people, and Mr 
(hapman slates ihal vaudeville is the inosl reiniineralive atlraclion 
In Ibis connection he also slates thai Ihe company finds it greatly 
In its advantage lo be in a ihealrical park circnil which, by giving 
Ihe ihealrical performers a whole season's work under one manage- 
ment pcrmils Ihe difTerenI |iarks forming the circuit lo rcali/c large 
savings, the performers being willing lo accept smaller sal.irics when 
their contracts arc for 12 weeks instead of one. Billiard and pool 
tables, a half mile track, dancing pavillion and facililics for boating 
are also found at this resort. 


stri-:i:t railway review. 

[Vol. XIII, No. i. 


.■\ |Ki|Hi •'II iliis siilijoct was recently read before llic Canailiaii 
Electrical Ouli by Mr. tins Girotix, mechanical inspector of llie Can- 
adian Pacific Ry.. in which the antlior lakes the grounil that Ih'.' day 
system iloes not offer Mifticicnt incentive to the working man. So 
long as it is oidy a matter of pntting in a certain nnmher of hours 
daily at a fixeil rale it is easily seen that the average man will hardly 
he liktly to exert himself to become expert in any particular branch. 
The worker under the <lay system frequently does not care about 
I lie I'cxt job he is to get and will stand idle until the foreman gives 
him another job, for he reasons that this is the foreman's business 
1,1(1 is what he is paid for. Insomc instances a man will askfora job, 
and the foreman, not having one ready at the moment, will often, in 
ihe rush of work, give him something to do that will necessitate 
making a complete change that might have been avoided had this 
been planned beforehand and work been given the man that was 
idaoi'.d to his previous arrangements. 

The introduction of the piece work system frequently makes a 
complete change in the whole atmosphere of the shop for the reason 
that old practices arc hard to change when the workmen have been 
accustomed to the ^ay system. Most workmen are inclined to be 
more or^ less suspicious or prejudiced against any new or modern 
sy>'cm, and anything lacking in the proper management of the sys- 
tem will be at once charged .ngainst the- system instead of against 
the management. The. author, quotes some striking examples of 
nniliisJ merest which w«^c the <^Ucom-; of introducing the piece 
Work f\slem! One case mentioned was that in which a planer hand 
came to his foreman after working piece for a short time and 
showed that a certain casting had too much stock to plane off. 
He snsjsoslcd having the pattern altered so that it would make just 
as good a job and a larger number of castings could be put through 
the pUiner .iaily. The pattern was altered, the planing was done in 
less time and the man's w.agcs consequently increased. The com- 
pany bcncfiltd by the smaller cost in castings, the increase in the 
oiUpul of the machine and the largely reduced cost of production. 
The .luthor doubts if under the day .system the man would have 
said anyli.irg at out the mat' T. 

It is wry desirable that •, tbe piece work system is introduc-. i 
the preliminaries be carefully looked into so as to avoid further 
changes after it is in force. The system should not only have the 
suppo.i of the shop manager, but of the superior officers, and time 
and consideration should he given to study every operation in detail. 
It will frequently be necessary to instruct the men as to how to im- 
prove their manner of doing work, for men who have been accus- 
tomed to doing their work in their own way and time under the day 
system do not generally believe they can improve and do work in 
less time. 

A very important point is that of basing rates, not on what 
the job has cost under the day system, but on what it is worth, and 
it should not be forgotten" that those who have had experience at 
handling piece work on certain systems and have generally found 
that the time can be greatly reduced from what it was under the 
day system. When the shop changes from day to piece work system 
it shouldbe put into the hands of a thoroughly competent man who 
should devote his time to improve shop facilities and instruct and 
help the foreman and men, preparing all necessary data concerning 
ihc proper rate of pay for each operation so that it can be presented 
for approval to the proper authorities. To accomplish this the shop 
should be put on the slip system and checked up each day for three 
or four months so as to arrive at a fair average. Proper consider- 
ation must be given to men who do vise or erecting work and those 
running machines, for the reason that in the first case il is nmscular 
work, while in the latter, the greater part of the work is done by 
Ihe machine. 

The author believes that if rates were adopted after due consider- 
ation by a hoard, and this board were held responsible for the rates 
there should be little or no necessity for future cutting. If such 
necessity should arise full particulars should be submitted and the 
rate approved by higher authority. No foreman under the day 
...ysicm would think of raising the men's wages without giving full 
particulars and having it approved by higher authority, and the same 
rule should be followed in raising or lowering piece work prices, 
ihe method of time keeping should also be carefully considered and 

the time kepi in such a way that il can be easily checked. Il should 
be made uii iii harmony with Ihe piece work and show the total 
wages i.f r;it-li man at any time. 


I lie .Sew \ork .Sun at ihe beginning ol the new year submitted 
a number of questions lo many prominent business men inviting 
their opinions as to the coininercial and linanciel situation, the out- 
look for a continuation of the present condition of prosperity and 
the measures which should be adopted to prevent a recurrence of 
bad times. 

The Sun's questions were submitted to the Hon. W. Caryl Ely, 
presiilem of the Inlernational Railway Co.. of Buffalo, N. 'V., and 
his reply is of more than passing interest. Mr. Ely said: 

"I do not see any reason to apprehend that the prosperity of Ihe 
country in general or in the lines with which I am especially famil- 
iar is slackening, but in the fair consideration of this question due 
regard should be liad to t,hc results always flowing from over- 
building and over-production. If the present situation is wisely 
handled, the prosperity of the country in general should continue 
for a number of years. 

"I consider that the chief business danger immediately before us 
is the seemingly universal desire to get rich quick. This encourages 
the gambling instinct at the expense of painstaking labor and hon- 
est thrift. The consequent evils, speaking in a business sense, arc 
the general overdoing of things, over-building, over-production, 
over-capitalization and over-speculation, from which, if unchecked, 
must flow a long train of attendant evils. 

"The tendencies in business life at present most to be encouraged 
would seem to be the seeking of broader markets for better things 
more cheaply producc<l. 

"I consider the money supply of the country adequate lo its legiti- 
mate needs. 

"I consider the Canadian system of banking on the whole superior 
to our own, but one must admit that our own is at present very 
safe and very secure, and as it would- seem that all must concede 
that the system of branch banking along the Canadian lines is not 
possible in this country at this time, the changes to be made in our 
system should be few and conservative. Changes which would 
facilitate the actual doing of the business of banking, and tend to 
make government moneys available for the purposes of business, 
would seem most desirable. 

"The tariff, generally speaking, needs revision, but we want no 
horizontal reduction and no hasty, ill-conceived political attacks 
upon the tariff. .\ careful investigation should be made by a wisely 
selected commission, and such reductions should be made in over- 
protected industries as will bring customs receipts down to the level 
of government revenue requirements and remedy existing inequali- 
ties. It should always be remembered that the tariff is a business 
question, going deeper and deeper every day lo the root of business 
prosperity, and not to be permitted by the people to be tampered 
with by indiscreet and ill-advised persons for political purposes. 

"The export trade of the country should increase during the com- 
ing year over that of the present year.", 

* »» 


The freight and express business of the Rockford (111.) & Inter- 
urban Railway Co. on the line between Rockford and Relvidere is 
increasing at a rate that is exceedingly gratifying lo the company. 
The service was inaugurated several months ago under the direc- 
tion of Mr. J. II. Groneman. general passenger and express agent 
of the company. The express car makes two or three trips daily 
and handles a large amount of material for the Rockford Wood- 
working Co. consigned to the sewing machine factory at Belvi- 
dcre. An average of one ton of meat is carried into Belvidere 
daily besides a large amount of beer, apples, l>ananas, milk, etc. 
A freight house has been erected on Fourteenth .\ve., Rockford, 
where the factory shipments are received. 
. « I » 

The Georgetown & Lexington Railway Co., of Lexington, Ky., 
has put up waiting stations at convenient points along the lines. 

J.V.N. JO. 1903.] 



Report on Chicago Street Railways, 

Report of B. J. Arnold on the Engineering and Operating Features of the Chicago Transportation Problem 
Submitted to the Committee on Local Transportation of the Chicago City Council. 

May 26, 19OJ. the city council ot Cilicago passed an ordinance 
authorizing a contract with B. J. .Arnold for his services in advising 
the council committee on local transportation and July 19, 1902, a 
contract was executed in accordance with the ordinance. The serv- 
ices Mr. Arnold agreed to render were defined as follows : 

Such services as may be required by the local transportation com- 
mittee of the city council, as expert engineer so far as may be neces- 
sary in procuring information and furnishing estimates, designs, 
plans, appraisals and opinions in all matters connected with the 
e.xisting or possible traction companies, and in the preparation of a 
general report for said committee wi relation to the cost of operation 
and earnings of any traction company or traction companies, the 
capitalization of existing companies, all -financial and scientific facts, 
theoretical and practical matters and statistics in relation to the 
same for the accomplishment of the following results : 

(a) To make a valuation of present plants ; 

(b) To make estimate of cost of prodiiction of new system ade- 
quate to serve the public and designed along the lines of the best 
practice in vogue ; 

(c) To make estimate of net earnings to be derived from the 
operation of such new system based on present business, with esti- 
mate of probable increase in business in periods of five years formu- 
lated from past performances, from which rates of compensation or 
adjustment of rates of fares can be computed; 

(d) To make estimate of passengers carried during different 
hours of the day for the purpose of compiiting compensation; 

(e) To make a report, based upon the best information he can 
secure, on rates of wages paid and rules and regulations under which 
employes are at present working, with recommendations for changes 
or concessions which it would be practicable for the companies to 
make should a demand for changes or concessions be made and 
the matter be brought before the committee, and for the use of the 
committee should it desire to embody in its report lo the coinicil 
any material on this question ; 

(f) To submit a design for rails for future use which will best 
protect the street pavement, and which will be practicable for the 
operation of cars under Chicago conditions, presenting arguments 
supporting such design and also presenting draft of rails adopted 
in other cities after investigation by municipal authorities, such 
investigations being brought about from similar causes as obtain 
in Chicago; 

(g) To report on the feasibility and desirability of an under- 
ground conduit system in the down-town district, and on all trunk 
lines, within prescribed limits, with proper arrangements for trans- 
ferring from underground to overhead trolley and vice versa with- 
out any disarrangement of the required headway of cars in either 
trunk or branch lines ; 

(h) To estimate the cost of constructing and operating a conduit 
system : ■ 

(i) To re-route the present lines outside of the business district 
so as to obtain in the best manner the very best transportation facili- 
ties lo the patrons of such lines, maps to be prei>ared which will 
graphically display the re-routing ; 

(]) To make statements showing wherein the present system is 
inadequate, the causes for it, the maximum capacity of the present 
terminals in the business center ; 

(k) To furnish maps showing the present arrangements of ter- 
minal facilities in the business center and recommendations for a 
rearrangement of facilities to best serve the purposes, and showing 
tracks which it would be advisable lo abandon, and tracks necessary 
lo construct, eliminating grade crossings and provide for the 
operation of through lines between the north and south sides of the 
cily through the business center and in conjunction with the loop 
terminals from all divisions; 

fl) To furnish preliminary plans for a system of subways in the 
business center, which, coupled with the surface .system of terminal 
facilities or operated independently and without such surface sys- 
tem, will adequately accommodate the traveling public, provide for 

an increase of traflie in the years to come, relieve the congested 
condition and create a much larger area available for use by all lines 
of business ; these plans to show a feasible disposition of all exist- 
ing underground improvements, so disposed of as to permit of easy 
access for future repairs, renewals and reinforcements without dis- 
turbing the street surface ; 

(m) To show the necessity for and tlic entire practical>ility of the 
abandonment of the practice of operating cars in trains and sul)sli- 
tuting therefor single cars ; 

(n) To report on a universal system of transfers; 

(o) To stand in readiness to attend personally or by a conipctenl 
representative any meetings of the committee at all times ; 

(p) To verbally report on any question arising, not covered in 
the foregoing and pertaining to transportation and construction mat- 
ters, and to act as engineer in a consulting and advisory capacity 
when any question may come before the committee or be siibmitlcil 
to it during the continuance of this contract ; 

(<l) To make an estimate of the value of all lines the franchises 
of which do not expire in 1903; 

(r) To report on the relative merit of through routes as against 
downtown terminals ; ' 

(s) To report on joint use of tracks wlKuuver such joint use 
may be necessary in his judgment ; 

(t)- To report on the feasibility and cost of transforniiug the 
present cable lines into underground electric systems ; 

(u) To report on the rearrangement of the Union Loop; 

(v) To report on a plan for the prevention of electrolysis; 

(w) To provide an estimate for laying cement roadbed for street 
car tracks and report on the advisability thereof. 

In transmitting his report, Mr. .Arnold .said: 

"The situation has been thoroughly canvassed. The operating 
statistics of the Chicago City Kailvvay Co. and the Chicago Union 
Traction Co. have been willingly submitted, and an exhaustive study 
of them has been made. All facilities have been extended to nic by 
the officials and departmental heads of these companies, and the 
officials of the several elevated railroad companies, as well as the 
several companies controlling the underground utilities, all of whom 
have very kindly, and with considerable trouble to themselves, fur- 
nished me with the data required in my investigation. The officials 
of several railway companies operating roads in other cities have 
courteously furnished me with valuable statistics. 

"All recorded information contained in the several bureaus of the 
cily government and the personal knowledge on all subjects pertain- 
ing to the transportation matter possessed Iiy the several bureau 
chiefs has been freely placed at n-.y disposal, for all of which assist- 
ance rendered and courtesies extended 1 desire al ihis lime In 
express my thanks and appreciation. 

"I have not assumed it my place to lake sides in the reiiorl oiic 
way or the other on questions of municipal policy concerning which 
ihere may be difTcrences of opinion, except where the questions are 
in Iheir nature clearly engineering or transportation questions. The 
franchise policy of the city with reference to these mailers 1 have 
conceived lo be outside of my province. The plans for a compre 
hensivc system of street railways suited lo the needs of ihe cotu- 
munily as set forth in the report would he Ihe same whether the 
system be owned and operated by a private corporation, or owned 
and operated by the city, or owned by the cily and operated by a 
private corporation under lease. So far as engineering features 
alone arc concerned, it is immalrrial whether the subway systems 
as outlined be owned by the city <>r by a private corporation. 

"In connection with my investigation of this problem I have con- 
sidered many plans, such as movable sidewalks, elevated sidewalks, 
sub-sidewalk railways, and elevated structures for carrying railways, 
pedestrians, and Ihe present underground ulililies, some of whirh 
plans originated with me and some with others, but after a careful 
study of Ihe silnation the magriilude of the problem as evidenced 
by the great nimibcr of i)assengcrs which must be taken in and oul 
of Ihe business district in very short periods of lime, night and 

Jak. 20, 1903.] 



morning, has forced me to abandon some of my preconceived ideas, 
and it is my opinion that a full realization on the part of others of 
the exact conditions which must govern a comprehensive solution 
of this problem would show the advocates of the other plans the 
inadvisability of their adoption. It is possible, however, that some 
of the suggestions relating to super-surface structures may some 
day prove advisable to adopt in Chicago, but probably not until the 
capacities of the systems recommended in this report, or other 
similar systems, have been reached. 

"The question of the utilization of the water power of the Sanitary 
District Canal for generating electricity and transmitting it to Chi- 
cago for the operation of its street railways has also been considered, 
but inasmuch as a decision regarding it need not be r^ade at pres- 
ent, and from the further fact that the question was not involved in 
my commission, I have not submitted a discussion of it. 

"I have endeavored to outline not only one plan but several plans. 
some of which if adopted would give to the citizens of Chicago the 
best surface railway transportation facilities capable of attainment 
under the conditions. These facilities cannot be attained at once, 
and the transition will probably be gradual. In order to make it 
possible to get immediate relief a plan of surface tracks, which 
could ultimately become a part of a combined system, has been out- 
lined. This plan provides for ample facilities on the surface for 
the present needs, permits of through traffic between all divisions 
with the joint use of tracks, and makes it possible to immediately 
abandon the river tunnels for street car purposes, thereby permit- 
ting the river channel to be immediately deepened for the accom- 
modation of lake traffic, and portions of the tunnels to be still re- 
tained for future subway uses. 

"In closing, I desire to acknowledge the valuable assistance ren- 
dered me by Messrs. Charles V. Weston, C. E., .\ugu.stinc W. 
Wright, C. E., Oren Root. Jr., and George C. Sikcs in the prepara- 
tion of this report, and to thank the respective office forces of Mr. 
Weston and myself for faithful and efficient services rendered." 


I. The Onc-City-One-Fare Idea. 

Chicago, with respect to transportation as well as other things, 
should be regarded as one city, not three. Divisional lines ought to 
be obliterated, as far as possible. A street car passenger should be 
carried over the most direct route between any two points within 
the city limits for a single fare. Complete unification of ownership 
and management is the best plan for realizing the onc-city-one-farc 
idea. The same end can be accomplished, however, but in a less 
satisfactory manner, under divisional ownership, by a plan of through 
routing of cars, joint use of tracks and interchangeable transfers. 
To a still less satisfactory degree the same end can be accomplished 
by the interchange of transfers between companies without joint 
use of tracks. 

II. The Through Route Principle. 

Routes through the business district ought to be substituted for 
down-town terminals, wherever possible. Outside the business dis- 
trict, too, the best results would follow from connecting the de- 
tached lines now found on several streets, and operating cars over 
such lines from end to end on the through route principle. 

III. Subways. 

A system of subways should be, and eventually must be, built to 
accommodate the street car traffic of Chicago and relieve the street 
surface congestion in the business district. Galleries should be pro- 
vided in connection with such subways for the accommo<lation of 
present and future underground utilities. Two subway plans are 
outlined in the report. One plan, referred to as Subw.iy Plan No. 
I, shown on map No. 11, calls for three north and south subways, 
from 14th St. on the south to Indiana Si. on the north, anri two 
•iibways entering the business district from the West .Siilc, utiliz- 
ing the present Van Buren and Washington St. tunnels and looping 
back at Clark St. This is a system of high level subways throughout, 
with no dips. (The high level subway is shown in cross section in 
the upper part of Plate No. 9.) lis estimated cos» is $|6,000,(X)0. 
The other subway plan, known as Plan No. 2, shown on m.ip No. 5, 
calls for practically the same north and south high level subways in 
combination with three or more low level subways from the West 

Side passing under the north and south subways and reaching Mich- 
igan Ave., and should future developments warrent, under Lake 
Front Park as far as it may be extended. (The deep level subway 
is shown in transverse section on Plate No. 9.) The low level sub- 
ways would require the use of elevators. The estimated cost of 
subways built according to this plan is $20,000,000. Plan No. 2 is 
recommended as best for the city from an engineering and trans- 
portation point of view, but in case this plan is deemed inadvisable 
for business or other reasons a system of single-decked high level 
subways, as outlined in Plan No. i, can be constructed, which will 
to a large extent accomplish the results. No subways should bo 
built in such a manner as to preclude the operation of cars througli 
them on the through route principle. Under either of the plans as 
outlined, the whole system of- subways need not necessarily be con- 
structed at once. One or more of the subways could be built at a 
time, and utilized separately, but with a view to their ultimately 
forming a part of a comprehensive system. The subway plans as 
submitted do not necessarily call for the removel of all tracks from 
the street surface in the business district, and Subway Plan No. i 
necessitates some surface loops. Under either plan there could be a 
street surface system connecting the depots and designed to accom- 
modate short haul traffic in the business district. Under Plan No. 2 
there could also be a low level subway system for connecting all 
depots, and by using it in connection with this subway all tracks 
could be kept off from the surface of the streets in the business dis- 
trict for some years to come. 

IV. The Present River Tunnels. 

It is inadvisable to attempt to lower the present river tunnels and 
at the same time retain them for surface railway use, for the reason 
that lowering the tunnels to a sufficient depth to accommodate future 
river traffic would involve extending the tunnel approaches at least 
a block further into the business district. In the interest of naviga- 
tion, therefore, the tops of the tunnels ought to be promptly removed, 
leaving the lower parts of one or perhaps two of the tunnels for 
utilization later as parts of a future subway system. 

V. Plan for ,1 Unified Combined .Surface and Siilnvny Street Rail- 

way System. 
A plan is presented for a new, reorganized and unitied conibincd 
surface and subway street railway system, comprising the lines of 
the City Railway Co., the Union Traction Co., the Chicago General 
Railway Co. and the Chicago Consolidated Traction Co. within the 
city limits, the new lines necessary to properly connect the now dis- 
connected parts of the system. The total single Inick mileage of this 
system as outlined would be about "4.S miles, and its estimated 
cost, if constructed new, with everything first-class throughout, but 
' exclusive of subways, would lie $70,000,000. .'\(lding $20,000,000, the 
cost of the subw.ays constructed according to Plan No. 2. would 
make the total cost of the new system complete $90,000,000. Willi 
Subway Plan No. i, instead of Subway Plan No. 2, the cost 
of the new unified system would be $85,800,000. 

VI. Plans for Immediate Improvement of Terminals and Service. 
Plans arc presented for the re-routing of surface terminals in the 

business district, (i) under the present divisional ownership and 
operation, (2) under the joint use of tracks in the business district 
under divisional ownership, and (3) under unified ownership and 
management. Immediate improvement of Chicago's local trans- 
portation facilities may be effected by substituting electric for cable 
power and routing cars according to any of the plans outlined, all 
cars from the West and North sides to enter the business district 
over bridges until such time as subways shall be oon^tructed. 

VII. Electric Underground Conduit System. 

The operation of cars in Chicago by the electric unilergniund 
conduit system is practicable and feasible. Overhead trolley con 
siruclion should be prohibited within the area bounded by I2tli Si. 
on the south and the river on the north and west. Outside of llie 
district named Ihe objections to the overhead trolley are esthetic 
in nature, and it is for the city authorities to say,— after a balancing 
of financial against esthetic considerations, — how much, if any, 
imdergrouiid conduit construction shoultl lie reijiiired. The cost per- 
milc of single track firack alone, ii. eluding feeilers), of electric 
conduit ro;id conslrurlion would average $8i,.lofj for a system cover- 
ing the city at large, but exclusive of the cost of power, rolling 



(Vol. XIII, Nu. i. 

stock anil jiaviiig. Conduit construction, outside of the business 
district, should not exceed $70,000 per mile, but within the business 
district the cost would be about $100,000 per mile, due to the 
numerous curves, large amount of special work required and the 
extra cost of labor, due to the congestion within the district in 
which the work must be prosecuted. To either of the above figures 
should he added the cost of paving, as follows: Brick, $12,630; 
asphalt, $12,880; dressed granite, $18,400. Overhead trolley road 
construction would cost $28,000 per mile of single track, using the 
same weight of rail. It would ci>>t nearly as nuicli to convert the 
Chicago cible into electric conduit roads as to build new electric 
conduit roads. 

VIII. Grooved Rails. 

A grooved girder type of rail, of special design, is recommended 
for well-paved streets upon which cars operate often enough to 
properly clear the grove of dirt and ice. On outlying streets and 
on poorly paved and poorly maintained streets the girder type of 
rail should be maintained as lH>st for team traffic and the railway 

I.\. Electrolysis. 

The destruction of underground utilities from electrolysis is now 
well in hand by the city, and if the present ordinance governing the 
subject is enforced no serious difficulties may be anticipated from 
this SO' rce, and when the underground conduit system is adopted 
there should be no further injury from electrolysis in the area 
served by the conduit system, because this system uses a complete 
metallic circuit. 

X. The Financial .Aspect of the One-City-One-Kare Plan. 

A unified company could afford to conduct the transportation busi- 
ness of Chicago on the basis of a single fare for a continuous ride 
anywhere within the city limits. The present divisional companies, 
by the interchange of transfers, could aflford to do the same thing, 
provided they were properly protected against the fraudulent use of 
transfers, but it would be at a somewhat greater cost to them- 
selves, and with greater inconvenience to passengers, than would 
be the case under unified nianagement. 

XI. Growth of Population and Traffic in the Past and Estimates 

as to the Future Increase of Street Car Traffic. 
The population of Chicago has increased siiict its incorporation 
in 1837 to 1902 at the rate of 8.6 per cent per year compounded, and 
is now increasing at the rate of 7.7 per cent per year. For the 
nine years from 1892 to 1901. inclusive, the number of revenue 
passengers carried by the surface and elevated lines combined has 
increased at the rate of 5 per cent per annum compounded. The 
increase for the surface lines during the same period has been at 
the rate of 1.5 per cent per year compoimded. The increase for the 
combined surface and elevated lines from 1894 to 1901 inclusive, a 
■)eriod of seven years, has been at the rate of 6.3 per cent per year 
compounded. The increase for the surface lines alone during the 
same period has been at the rate ol 3.9 per cent per year com- 
pounded, and the increase for the elevated lines alone has been for 
the .same period at the rate of 26 per cent per year compounded. 
The population of Chicago has increased more rapidly than that of 
any other city in the world, but it is improbable that this rate of 
increase should continue indefinitely. Figures and curves are 
presented showing the past growth of Chicago as compared with 
other cities, also the future results if present rates of increase 
should be maintained, but as this is improbable curves are shown 
representing the increase in population and gross receipts that may 
reasonably be expected for the combine:! and elevated rail- 
ways during the next fifty years. 

Nil. Estimated Cost of Reproduction and Present \'ahie of Exist- 
ing Plants. 
The cost to reproduce the following properties complete with 
new -onstruclion and equipinent throughout would be: Chicago 
City Railway Co., about $17,200,000; Chicago Union Traction Co. 
(not including the Consolidated Traction Co.). about $22,200,000. 
The actual present v.J»e of the physical properties for electric rail- 
way purposes of the'fcllowing companies, taking into consideration 
the obsolete equipment and construction which must be discarded, 
hut not taking into account any franchise rights or earning capacity 
of the properties, is estiinated as follows: Chicago City Railway 

Co., about $12,000,000; Chicago Union Traction Co. inot including 
Consolidated Traction Co.), about $15,000,000. 
.\II1. Need for Regulation of Team Traffic. 

At the present time team traffic interferes with street cars to an 
unwarrantable extent. A reasonable regulation of team traffic is 
essential to the improvement of street car service. 
XIV. The Union Elevated Loop Problem. 

The junction points are the ultimate limiting factor of the 
caiKicity of the Union Elevated loop. .At the present time, how- 
ever, the platform stations are the limiting factor. The first and 
simplest way to increase the caapcity of the loop is to lengthen the 
platforms so that two trains can liiail and unload at a station at the 
same time. When the capacity of the junction points is reached, 
added facilities can be provided by building stub-end terminals just 
outside the loop. The terminal Capacity of the loop could be in- 
creased by dividing the loop into four smaller loops, but presumably 
there would be pulilic objection to such a plan, because it would 
involve encinnberiiig more down-town streets with elevated struc- 
tures, anil it is therefore, not recommended. The ideal solution nf 
the elevated loop problem would be to utilize the loop structure 
as sections of through routes between the different sections of the 


Nearly all of the large cities of the United States are laid out 
and developed on one of three distinctive plans, each plan requiring 
a different general system of transportation routes to serve its 

First. — The peninsula plan, with water front on both sides, such 
as that of New York City and San Francisco. 

Second. — The valley plaji, with a river running through the cen- 
ter, population and business district on both sides of the river, such 
as Pittsburg. 

Third. — The radiating plan, with terrilory on one side of the water 
front, such as St. Louis, Boston, Brooklyn, and many other cities. 
To the third plan Chicago belongs. 

The peninsula and valley plans usually call for comparatively 
small street railway track mileage, and great traffic density is found 
on that mileage, together with large gross earnings per capita served, 
per mile of track, and per car mile. For example, the elevated 
and surface transportation systems of New York City, serving a 
population of 2,050,000, earn about $13 per capita, with a track 
mileage of 393 miles, and .that of San Francisco nearly $14 per 
capita, with a mileage of 229 miles, serving a population of 350,000. 

The radiating plan means greater street railway inileage for the 
population served, with much smaller gross receipts per capita. 
The Chicago surface and elevated lines, for exaitiple, earn less than 
$10 per capita on a track mileage of 610 miles, serving a population 
of two million, and the surface lines of St. Louis hardly ?8 per 
capita on a track mileage of 361 miles, and serving a population of 

It can be easily seen how ditfercnt is the transfer problem in a 
peninsula and valley city than from that of a radiating city. In the 
former there may be a few long through lines with heavy traffic, 
with many short cross-town feeder lines. The transfers in such 
a city might mean no additional expense to the company, and little 
or no complications. In a radiating city, on the contrary, there is a 
large number of through trunk lines of great length, and many 
cross-town lines, increasing in length as they are farther removed 
from the point of radiation. On such a system long rides are 
granted, and dishonesty in the use of transfers is easily possible, 
with resultant great loss in earnings to the operating company. 

Population and population density have an enormous influence on 
street railway earnings and profits. 

A knowledge of these differences in city plans, and their bearing 
on the earnings of transportation companies, is so absolutely 
essential to the proper understanding of the theory of conducting 
transportation, that this brief explanation is deemed advisable. 

While Chicago has been classed among those cities laid out on 
the radiating plan, and, consequently, is one of those cities wherein 
an ideal .system of transportation is difficult of attainment, an added 
obstacle to such realization is found in the fact that the city is 
divided into three divisions by the unfortunate course of the Chicago 
River. From the earliest period in the developinent of the city 

Dec. 20, 1902.] 



down to the present time this water barrier has been the fixed con- 
dition that has been recognized and deferred to. Town governments 
were established on its lines ; it is the boundary line of wards 
throughout its course; the water, gas and sewerage systems are 
laid out with reference to it ; diagonal streets or avenues to the 
business center arc determined by its course, it is primarily re- 
sponsible for the congested condition of the business center, limit- 
ing, as it does, by its movable bridges, the area to a little more than 
a square mile; the manufacturing district has grown up along its 
course, and naturally all lines of business that can be more profitably 
conducted through contact with navigation have sought its frontage. 
— all of which growth has so increased the value of the dock 
frontage that the Chicago River, with its movable bridges, must 
he considered as a permanent and fixed condition, — e.specially so 
as the natural dockage of Chicago, the lake shore, is being con- 
tinually and continuously appropriated for park and pleasure pur- 
poses. Following out the divisional idea, forty-four years ago, when 
the city had grown to such proportions that some method of trans- 
portation was deemed necessary, street car companies were named, 
. chartered and received grants in divisions, and to this mistake, 
made in the infancy of the transportation business, can be traced the 
primary cause for the present demand for a cliange in transportation 
facilities. Chartering companies and granting privileges by divisions 
to separate ownership not only saddled upon tiie people a multiplied 
system of fares within the limits of the city, but made it impossible 
lo traverse the small area in which the divisions converged without 
payment of two fares. Ta this double fare in the business district 
can mainly be charged all the extraordinary congested condition not 
occasioned by the course of the river. 

As population increased and additional territory was annexed 
the owners of the divisional transportation companies were called 
upon to extend their lines for the acconnnodation of the increase. 
Naturally, each division ownership, not being in any manner inter- 
ested in the operation of any other division, guarded its territory 
jealously and laid out extensions and new lines with a view to 
perpetuating the travel in each division over that division's lines 
to the common center, there to take the lines of the other divisions. 
When cross-town lines were inaugurated they were only cross- 
division lines. As the diagonal avenues were laid out with reference 
to the course of the river, they were confined to soine one division, 
and when they were appropriated by the transportation companies 
it was only for the acceleration of the movement of the residents 
of each division to the common center. 

As in the case of all cities laid out on the radiating plan, Chicago 
has a common point where all lines of traffic concentrate and which 
is the objective point of its population, conunonly designated as the 
business center. This [joint was fixed and has grown up, by and 
from the causes outlined above, and must be considered in a large 
degree as governing the transportation situation. 

It is true that as the area of the city grows and population in- 
creases, new centers are created at different points in the separate 
divisions, around which centers population masses, and there is a 
growing demand for transportation between divisions without refer- 
ence to the general down-town business center. This demand, which 
did not exist in the infancy of 'he city when there was only one 
business center, will continue lo grow as the city grows, and as 
former residents of one division move to other divisions, and carry 
with them the desire for communication with their former neigh- 

Problems to Be Solved. 

The problems to be solved in relation to transportation facilities 
for the whole of Chicago and its suburbs are, thcrelore : 

Kjrst.— To devise some method of operation which will relieve the 
congestion of the overcrowded thoroughfares in the central portion, 
or tHnincs« district, of the city and tend lo render available an 
increased area in that district. 

Second,— To furnish a more ready means of intercourse between 
the separate divisions of the cily, through the business district and 
outside such district. 

Third.— To furnish a means of distributing passengers brought 
in at the several railroad stations, for transferring them from one 
station lo another, and to facilitate intercourse between diflTercnt 
IKirlions of the business center. 

Il is obvious lo the most casual observer that the primary cause 

lor the existing unsatisfactory condition aiul iiiultipliod fares is 
found in the diversity of ownership of the corporations ciiargcd 
with furnishing transportation facilities. 

A unification of ownership or a consolidation of management on 
some basis is a condition which must be precedent to any really 
satisfcictory and lasting solution of the problem, although an 
equitable arrangement for the joint use of tracks would effect a 
temporary solution, and probably result ultimately in unification. 
Each of the divisional companies has given due attention in the 
past to the securing of privileges to construct tracks in its own 
division and in the down-town district — every concession granted 
tending to perpetuate divisional operation. The idea has taken firm 
hold on a large proportion of our citizens that Chicago should be 
one large cily, in fact as well as in name, and rapid strides are 
being made tending in the direction of eliminating the separate 
town governments, taxing bodies, etc. It would scoiu, ihcrcforo, 
that now is the lime to eliminate the divisional lines in its surface 
transportation facilities, and all other considerations should be sub- 
servient to the accomplishnieiit of this one feature, viz. ; One fare 
within the city limits. Whether this be accomplished by universal 
transfers between the separate companies at all junction and con- 
necting points, or by the operation of through lines of cars routed 
over the tracks of the three divisions, is a question of expediency. 
There should be no difference of opinion as to the latter method 
suggested being the more desirable. It could be accomplished by 
a unification of ownership or management of the several companies 
interested, which would be the best way, or by the joint use of 
tracks by the separate companies. The same results could be ob- 
tained by the transfer iucIIuhI, but with considerable inconvenience 
to the traveling public and expense to the operating companies, but 
this method should be adopted in case unification of management or 
joint use of tracks cannot be effected. 

Existing Diversity of Ownership. 

The surface lines serving the city are cither owned or operated 
by eight companies, viz. : Chicago City Railway Co., Chicago Union 
Traction Co., Chicago General Railway Co., Chicago Consolidated 
Traction Co., South Chicago City Railway Co., Cahinict Electric 
Street Railway Co., Chicago Electric Traction Co., and .Suburban 
Railroad Co. The mileage of the three former companies is entirely 
within the city limits. The mileage of the remaining five companies 
is partly williin the cily limits and partly in adjoining territory. 
There are four companies operating elevated railroads, all of which 
roads operate to the business center and aniiiml one ciminion loop, 
controlled by a fifth company. 

It is claimed that a part of the ordinances of the Chicago City 
Railway Co. and of the North Chicago City Railway Co. and the 
Chicago West Division Co. (the two latter companies being sub- 
sidiary companies of the Chicago Union Traction Co.), expire in 
July, 1903. The ordinances and grants under which the remaining 
companies arc operating do not expire in the near future. 

The Chicago City Railway Co. serves that portion of the South 
Division contiguous to the business center, but has no afiilialion 
with or control of the conipanics serving the outlying southerly 
territory, although sonic of their lines are in close connection for 
easy transfer of passengers. None of the lines of the outlying 
companies have terminals north of 63d St. 

Tlic Chicago Union Traclion Co., by virtue of leases, controls 
the operation of the lines of the North Chicago Street Railroad 
Co. and the West Chicago Street Railroad Co., and their subsidiary 
companies, viz. : the Chicago Passengor Railway Co., the Chicago 
West Division Railway Co. and the North Chicago Cily Railway Co. 

The West and North divisions are served by these companies 
except where the lines of llic Chicago Consolidated Traction Co. 
are built through the territory contiguous to the business center 
and where operating privileges are exchanged between the Union 
and Consolidated companies. 'The Union 'Traction Co. nlso prac- 
tically controls ihe (i|)(rations of the Chicago Consolidated 'Twction 
Co. by virtue of an operating agreement and also by control of a 
majority of its capital slock. , 

The Chicago Consolidated 'Traclion Co is in possession of 
ordinances cuveiing a large number of slreoMAvhich are extensions 
lo streets on which the Union 'Traction Co.~ is now operating cars 
and also covering streets that arc section and half-section lines, 
wilhin the piescnt city limits, which condition precludes Ihe possibil- 



[Vou XIII, No. 1. 

ity of futiin- uxtcnsioiis of llic Union Traction Co. lines to the prcs- 

iiit city liniils or lo any cxlcnsions thereof. The Chicago Union 

Traction Co. cliargcs one faro of S cents am! the Chic:i(!o Consoh- 
ilated Traction Co. charges another fare. 

(Since the foregoing was written the Siipreiiu i ••mi ••i IMinoij 
has handed down a decision conlirniing the position taken by tlic 
city tliat liy the agreement existing between the two companies and 
by the control of the stock of the Consohdated company by the 
Union comiKiny. the two companies were one, and conseqnently one 
fare only must be charged by the two companies and transfers must 
be issued between the lines of both companies to enable a passenger 
to complete a continuous trip within the city limits for one fare. At 
the present time the comi>aiiies are attempting to comply with this 
decision, although it is understood that they intend to appeal to 
the federal courts, and since from this it seems that the question is 
not yet settled I have thought best to leave the discussion here as 
well as that in Part .' relating to transfers stand as originally 

The Consolidated Traction Co. is also in possession of ordi- 
nances covering some streets that traverse the inner territory of the 
Union Traction Co., and its cars reach a terminal in the business 
center by traffic agreements with the Union company, but there is no 
interchange of transfers on these streets between the two companies. 
While these two companies are separate and distinct and while the 
ordinances running to the Consolidated company do not expire at 
the present time, and consequently arc not under consideration, it 
would be very desirable— if such a thing were possible in the adjust- 
ment of the Union Traction Co.'s ordinances — to eliminate the 
double fare within the territory at present served by the Union 
company and also in the entire territory within the present city 
limits, served by both the Union and Consolidated companies. The 
North Western Elevated Railroad Co. is furnishing service to a few 
favorably located residents contiguous to its line on the last most 
northerly mile and to those clustered around its terminus, for one 
fare, while other residents further rctnovcd from the elevated line 
and served by the lines of the Consolidated Traction Co. arc com- 
pelled to pay 10 cents to reach the business center. 

The Lake Street Elevated Railroad Co. serves, with a s-ccnt 
fare, a small district outside of the present>city limits in the territory 
also served by the Consolidated company, thus giving those residents 
immediately contiguous to the elevated line a 5-ccnt fare, while 
others in the same territory, but not so fortunately located, are 
compelled to pay to cents to reach the business center. It is only 
a question of time — and that of very short duration — when Chicago, 
in its rapid growth, will absorb more territory to the North and 
West, and this seems to be the opportunity to secure for all of those 
prospective citizens the great benefits of a low fare to their objective 
point, which a few of them arc now in possession of. The desir- 
ability of such a concession cannot be overestimated, and it is 
equally desirable in the territory within the present city limits, south 
of the territory served by the lines of the Chicago City Railway Co. 
and also of the territory adjoining the city limits on the south ; but 
unfortunately the Chicago City Railway Co. has no affiliations with 
or control of the several companies serving that territory, and con- 
sequently the same vantage points arc not in possession of the city 
as exist with regard to the territory to the north and west. It might 
be argued that the nuich greater distance involved in reaching the 
southerly suburbs would preclude the possibility of securing a single 
fare for their residents ; but the argument would not hold good in 
reference to the northerly and westerly suburbs, as an elevated road 
is already furnishing service for 5 cents to a portion of the residents 
in the very center of the district. 

The Chicago General Railway Co.'s ordinances and leases cover, 
among other streets, one mile between 22d and 31st Sts., on both 
Kedzie Ave. and Ashland Ave. This company has no affiliation 
with either the Chicago City Railway Co. or the Chicago Union 
Traction Co., and its occupancy of the streets as above stated pre- 
cludes the possibility of connecting the trackage of the City Railway 
Co. and of the Union Traction Co., now being operated both north 
and south of the Chicago General Railway Co.'s tracks, for the pur- 
pose of connecting the West and South divisions across the south 
branch of the river, unless some arrangement is made to secure 
the trackage of the Chicago General company, or the right to 
operate over it. 

Underlying Ideas of Report. 
Viewing the situation from the stan<l|H>int of the best interests 
of the whole city of Chicago, these iileas should prevail at all times 
mil be guiding and determining factors in arriving at conclusions, 
viz. : 1 hat Chicago is one city, not three ; that there are no divisional 
lines traversing the district embraced within its boundaries; that 
the citizens have the right to expect and demand that they be trans- 
ported ill, through and about the whole district in one general 
direction for one fate and with as little inconvenience atlendanl 
upon the use of transfers as practicable. With these ruling ideas 
held firmly in mind, this report has been formulated. 

In my opinion, in the adjustment of this transportation question, 
the amount of cash compensation to be secured by the treasury 
from the street railways should be of secondary consideration to 
the attainment of one fare within the city limits and the very best 
transportation facilities known at the present time, with the guar- 
anteed assurance that the service be kept up to modern standards 
and that the citizens would receive all the benefits from all future 
developments of the art. 

The report is very voluminous, comprising with the appendices, . 
over 300 printed p.nges. and is accompanied by 15 plates and 14 maps. 
We have reproduced in full the summary of conclusions and the 
general discussion constituting Part I of the report, and abstracted 
the principal features of the other portions which arc as follows : 
Present Service. 
Part II deals with the present conditions which prevent the street 
railways from operating a sufficient number of cars during the rush 
hours. The reasons assigned are : 

First. — The present terminal facilities, as arranged, arc utterly 

Second. — The operation of cars by cable power prohibits the use 
to their maxinuim capacity of the terminal facilities that are 
Third. — The lack of electric power in the business district. 
There are now in operation during the hours of maximum traflic 
on the lines that enter the business district, 1,379 cars, consisting of: 
772 cable cars. 
97 electric motors trailed on c.ible trains. 
510 electric cars. 
The 869 cable cars and electric cars trailed on cable arc operated 
around five loops. 

The 510 electric cars are operated around one loop and on five 
stub end terminals — 34 of them being hauled by horses eight blocks 
each, every round trip. 

.'\ review of the conditions under which the cars are operated leads 
10 the conclusion that very little improvement can be made in sur- 
face transportation unless a radical change is made. 
The recommended changes are : 

First. — All cable operations should be abandoned and the cable 
trackage converted to either overhead trolley or underground con- 
duit for electrical propulsion of cars. 

Second. — The territory embraced by the river on the north and 
west, and 12th St. on the south should be used in common by all 
companies for the proper location of loop tracks for terminal facil- 
ities, all these business center tracks to be of the underground elec- 
tric conduit type. 

Third. — Cars should be routed, so far as practicable, via trunk, 
avenue, and cross-town lines combined, in such manner as to serve 
the maximum amount of travel with the minimum use of transfers. 
Fourth. — Sufficient cars of the double truck pattern, equipped with 
brakes operated by other than hand power, adequately heated dur- 
ing cold weather, and operated singly, should be provided for all 
through lines, although lighter cars could be used on the cross-town 
line service. 

Fifth. — On all well paved streets all rails on new track built and 
on all tracks when renewed, should be of the grooved type, de- 
signed on such lines that the groove will be cleaned by the passage 
of the wheel flange and presenting the least obstruction to crossing 
vehicles, and extending the least invitation to tracking vehicles. 
Where such rails are laid the pavement shoidd be kept clean. 

For terminal loops two plans are suggested. One constituting 
"Surface Plan No. 2" is for a rearrangement of the surface tracks 
in the business district which eliminates grade crossings of one loop 
with another but on eight of the eleven loops proposed the traffic on 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 



each loop crosses itself at the entrain.-i.- to the loop. These intersec- 
tions are preferred to the opposition to vehicle traffic that would re- 
sult from using a left-hand track in streets where there are portions 
of two loops. According to this scheme the south side lines have 
three loops, the west side lines five loops and the north side lines 
three loops, all of the loops being entirely within the area now 
liounded by the Union Loop, excepting that for the Wabash Ave. 
line of the Chicago City Ry. By the suggested arrangement only 
one of the loops is more than two blocks from the Post Office 
block, the exception being three blocks distant. 

The second scheme constituting "Surface Plan No. 3" is a rear- 
rangement of surface tracks in the business district recommended 
with the idea of providing for through service also, and several of 
the tracks being used jointly by the different companies. In this 
arrangement it was assumed that grade crossings would be permit- 
ted. The plan is presented as serving the largest street mileage by 
all lines of cars that could be devised, and making possible the de- 
livery of almost all passengers to State St.. and of all to Dearborn 
St. The plan leaves Michigan Ave. and La Salle St. free of tracks. 

"Surface Plan No. l" is a suggested arrangement of surface loops 
for the West Side lines in connection with "Subway Plan No. i." 
Seven loops are provided, each encircling a single block and occu- 
pying seven of the eight blocks between Madison and Adams Sts., 
Michigan Ave. and Clark St. 

.\n estimate based on the business of igoi and 1902 places the 
rush hour traffic to be carried into and out of the business district per 
hour for 90 minutes, morning and evening, at 48,135 for the south 
division, 23.346 for the north division and 40.821 for the west 
division. Assuming double truck cars carrying 60 passengers each 
would require headways as follows : Three south side loops, a 
little closer than 15 seconds. Five west side loops, 25 seconds. 
Three north side loops, about 25 seconds. 

A plan of routing cars under a unified system of roads is worked 
out and shown by maps and schedules, the idea in which is to elim- 
inate transfers so far as possible. 

Large double truck cars arc recommended for trunk lines, the 
smaller single truck cars being retained on the cross-town lines 
and for local distribution in the business center. 

Attention is called to the necessity of adopting and stringently 
enforcing ordinances for the better regulation of team traffic in the 
streets. The average schedule of all electric cars operated in the city 
is given as 8.22 miles per hour, as compared with an average sched 
ule of 6 miles per hour for the old horse-car lines. 

Part II of the report concludes with a recommendation as to ad- 
ditional tracks that should be laid in the near future. 


Part III comprises an extended discussion of population and 
traffic statistics leading to the following deductions and conclusions : 

"First. — That the normal increase in population up to and includ- 
ing 1892 was at the rate of about 11.2 per cent per annum com- 
p<junded, and that since and up to 1901 the increase has dropped to 
less than 5 per cent per annum, although the figures for 1901 and es- 
timated figures for 1902, bring the average for this last year up to 
7.7 per cent. 

"Second. — That the elevated competition, labor disturbances and 
depressions in the industrial world at the several periods during the 
past ten years, and the earnings of the mileage built by the Chicago 
Consolidated Traction Co., have practically ofTsel any benefits which 
might have accrued to the surface lines of the Union Traction com- 
pany in the north and west divisions from the increase in populat- 
tion, — its gross receipts during the past year being approximately 
e<|iial to what they were in 1892. 

"Third. — That the Oiicago City Railway Co. in the south divis- 
ion has met all competition and depression and shows an increase 
of passengers carried during the year of 1901 of thirty million pas- 
^engcr5 over the number carried during the year of 1892, or about 
34 per cent increase in nine years. 

"Fourth.— That in a city the size of Chicago the increase in popn 
lalion per year, as recorded since 1892 does not seem to have as 
much influence in increasing the earnings of the transportation busi- 
ness as do the depressed times in decreasing them, or prosperous 
limn in augmenting them." 

"For these reasons I caimot see my way clear to recommend any 
fixed percentage of increase for any great length of time, but have 

endeavored to give as complete an analysis of this subject and set 
forth the information derived form this analysis in as clear and 
scientific a manner as practicable, hoping thereby to form the basis 
for intelligent discussion of this subject, and that an equitable ad- 
justment of the matter can be reached, which adjustment must be 
based upon the judgment of past and future business and industrial 
conditions, rather than upon any scientific law which can safely be 
deduced from the figures of the past, for, as has been previously 
pointed out, a financial depression of the country has a greater ten 
dency to decrease the gross receipts of street railways than :iii in- 
crease in population has to raise them. 

"It is, however, clear to me that if money compensation is to lie 
required by the city for franchifc rights the only equitable and 
just basis of compensation to the city should he based upon a per- 
centage of the gross receipts, whatever they may be, of each of the 
companies, payable annually, owing to the fact that any general law, 
even though it might be correct, which was deduced from the past 
records of the combined receipts of the surface and elevated rail- 
ways of the city, could not equitably be applied to any individual 
road for the reason that industrial conditions, due to the loss of 
population from the territory of one road to another, or to com- 
petitive roads entering the territory of any given road, the gross re- 
ceipts of the road so affected might be greatly decreased, thereby 
preventing it from paying a fixed amount into the city treasury, 
which amout had been previously fixed and based upon a fixed per- 
centage of the past records during prosperous times. 

"In case the city should see fit to require a fixed amount per an- 
num, this amount being a certain percentage of some future prede- 
termined gross earnings based upon past earnings, it is clear to me 
that any such arrangement should be only for short intervals of time, 
and that readjustments should be made between the city and rail- 
roads in periods not over five years apart." 

Part IV discusses routes and transfer systems with a view o) se- 
curing one "fare within the limits of the territory served liy 
companies at present affected by llie fraiu'hise renewal iiucslioii. In 
conclusion Mr. Arnold says ; 

"It is my opinion, after a careful canvas of ihc mailer, thai a 
unified company could afford to furnish transportation facilities to 
the entire territory embraced by the lines of the Chicago City Rail- 
way Co., the Chicago Union Traction Co. and the Chicago Consoli- 
dated Traction Co. within the city limits for a single fare, and I am 
also of the opinion that companies operating under divisional owner- 
ship or management could, if properly protected against the fraudu- 
lent use oi transfers, grant the same privilege, but at a slightly in- 
creased expense to themselves over what it would be to a uiiitied 
company. Furthermore, I believe that no one thing that could be 
done for Chicago would tend more to enhance its growth and pres- 
tige than the securing of such concession in the seltleiiuiit of ilie 
transportation question." 

A I'liified System. 

Part V deals vvilh a unified system of street railways for Chicago 
which is considered a condition lliat must be precedent to any really 
satisfactory and permanent solution of the traiisporlalion problem. 

The plan submitted to meet the rctpiest of ihe comniiltee for a 
means to eliminate grade crossing> ;iiid provide for lliioiigli lines is 
as follows : 

"The north ami south tracks of the three divisions, at preseul 
built, including those west of the river, should be connected, and 
through north and south lines of cars be operated on each sireel. 
these lines to be designated as the 'Trunk System." 

"Upon the east and west tracks of the three divisions, at preseul 
built, through east an<l west lines of cars should be operated on each 
street, these lines to be designated the 'Cross-Town System.' 

"I'pon the diagonal avenues radiating from Ihe business center 
and paralleling llie north and south branches of llie Chicago River, 
there should be operated lines of cars between the northeast and 
southwest, an<l between the southeast and northwest sections of the 
cily, through the business center, — designated the 'Avenue System.'" 

Conforming to the fundamental principle that through traflic 
should be given the right of way and recognizing Ihat the grealer 
portion of throngli traflic will be between Ihe north and soiilh 
divisions, "Subway Plan No. i" is snluiiitted. This is described as 



[Vol. XIII. No. i. 

■' riiroiiKli llic liusincss center, the subway system of Chicago 
should consist of suliways lietwcen I4lh St. and Indiana St. — under 
the north and south streets best adapted to serve the north and south 
through irafl'ic, with east aiul west connections from the most west- 
erly subway, to the t»i> tunnels leading to the west division, for the 
accommodation of the avenue through tratlic. The avenue through 
traffic from the north and south division should he routcci — outside 
of the subway district— to the tracks leading into the most westerly 
subway. As quite a proportion of the traffic from the westerly por- 
tion of the south division and from the west division designed to 
terminate in the business center will naturally be brought in over 
Ihe avenue lines, and from lines leading into the avcnties, two 
subway loops for the joint use of this traffic terminating in the busi- 
ness center, should be constructed, using the most westerly north and 
south subway for the side of each loop. All other cars from the 
west division and from the westerly portions of the south division, 
should be brought into the business districts over the bridges, and 
returned via surface loops. To provide terminal facilities for the 
divisional traffic of the north division and that pt)rlion of the south 
division lying east of llalsled street, terminating in the business cen- 
ter, a cross subway should be constructed in the center of the busi- 
ness district, — with reference to the north and south, — connecting all 
the north and south subways. This lateral subway, in connection 
with the north and south subways, would provide six loops, three 
for the north division and three for the south division traffic. To 
carry out this general plan it will be necessary to construct two 
more tunnels to the north division to supply an outlet to the north 
for each transport,atioii highway, entering from the south. By this 
plan the following results will be obtained : 

"First. — The greatest possible capacity of the limited area in the 
business district would be utilized for terminal facilities. 

"Second. — .Ml through traffic via the business center would be 
taken through the congested district, undergroud, saving time to the 
passenger, and relieving the congestion in this district. 

"Third. — All subways would be on the high level without grade 
crossings, thus cheapening the construction and not interfering with 
existing low-level improvements. 

"Fourth. — All river tunnel approaches within the business center 
would be closed. 

"Fifth.^.As all traffic from the north and south divisions would 
he undcrgraund, if 'Surface Plan No. i' were used, grade crossings 
of surface loops would be eliminated, except those incident to the 
operation of the local distributing system." 

In connection with the subway an independent business center 
system would be needed, for which are recommended double tracks 
in three north and south streets, State St., Clark St. and Fifth Ave., 
with cast and west lines in the I2th St, viaduct and in a street north 
of the river. 

The estimate of the cost to provide a system of street railways as 
dcscibed in this part, involving 746 miles of single track, alternating- 
current power plant and sub-stations, 2,000 double truck cars 
seating 52 persons each, necessary shops, car houses and real estate. 
is $69,800,000. 

Estimated gross earnings are $14,763,000 per year, and net earn- 
ings Irased on past performance of existing companies, are $5,124,000. 
No fixed charges arc deducted in estimating net earnings, but a de- 
duction of $943,000 is made for taxes. 

In addition the subways in "Subway Plan No. i" are estimated to 
cost $16,000,000 exclusive of land damages. 


Part VI is devoted to discussion of technical problems, valuations 
and estimates. 

The "Subway Plan No. l" which is entirely a high level system 
located as shown in the upper part of Plate No. 9 is presented as the 
best to fulfill the conditions necessary for the successful operation of 
a combined surface and subway railway system which is practicable 
without interfering with existing low level improvements. 

Objections to the plan are: To eliminate grade crossings as in 
"Surface Plan No. i," all north and south traffic would be under- 
ground and almost all cars from the West Side would be on the sur- in the business district. If either of the other surface plans were 
adopted passengers arriving on West Side subway cars would have 
to transfer to surface cars if they desired to ride east of Clark St. 

This system creates conditions most favorable to the misuse of 

lo overcome these objections "Subway Plan No. 2" is submitted 
as an ideal solution of the problem. In this plan the high-level sub- 
ways of "Subway Plan No. i" are retained, and three or more low- 
level east and west loops added, the typical section of a station at an 
intersection being shown in Plate No. 9. 

The chief objections to this plan are: 

First. — Its cost of $20,000,000 as compared with $16,000,000 for 
Plan No. I. 

Second. — The passengers in the low level subways would l>e aliout 
40 ft. below the surface of the street, thus necessitating the use of 
elevators between low level and high level subways at station points, 
a distance of about 20 ft. 

Third. — The engineering difficulties and risks that would be en- 
countered in its construction. 

Fourth. — The fact that it would interfere, and to a large extent 
destroy, existing and contemplated low level improvements. This 
last is considered difficult to overcome, but it is believed tliat an 
arrangement with the Illinois Telephone & Telegraph Co. to use its 
subways as the low-level street car subways or to construct the two 
systems jointly and at the same time would to a large extent relieve 
these difficulties. 

The recommendations on the terminal problem in their order of 
merit from an engineering and transportation standpoint are: 

"First. — Subway Plan No. 2 in connection with 

(a) Surface Plan No. 3; or, 

(b) Surface Plan No. 2; or, 

(c) Surface Plan No. i, with suitable connections for ac- 

commodating through cars. 
"Second. — In case it is found for business reasons impracticable 
to construct Subway Plan No. 2, I reconmiend 
Subway Plan No. I in connection with 

(a) Surface Plan No. 3; or, 

(b) Surface Plan No. 2; or, 

(c) Surface Plan No. I, with suitable connections for ac- 

commodating through cars. 

"Third. — If for any reason it is found inadvisable to at present 
construct the entire subway system as outlined in Subway Plan No. 
2, or Subway Plan No. i, one north and south subway, and one 
low level east and west loop could be constructed at present, which,, 
if used in connection with any one of the surface plans, would largely 
relieve the present congestion, and leave the future subways to be 
constructed when needed, it being understood that whatever subway 
work is done should be done in such a manner that it follows one or 
the other of the general plans recommended. 

"Considering the surface terminal problciTi by itself, I recommend 
the adoption of Plan No. 3 and the immediate lowering of the tops 
of the tunnels to such an extent that marine traffic will no longer iie 
impaired, and the preserving of portions of the tunnels for use in 
connection with future subways." 

Electric Conduit Lines. 

Plans for an underground electric conduit system for the down- 
town district are included. The cost of building the conduit lines 
inclusive of feeder wire and exclusive of paving is estimated at 
$81,300 per mile of single track. It is consi<lered there would be little 
saving possible by trying to utilize existing cable construction. 

The Union Elevated Loop is briefly discussed and the following 
recommendations made for possible improvements to accommodate 
increased traffic on the Union Loop arc as follows: . , 

First. — The extension of the present platforms. 

Second. — The provision of stub end terminals for each indepen- 
dent company. 

Third. — That if further loop capacity is demanded after the above 
reconunendations have been put into execution, it could be secured by 
the extension of the Union Loop south on Fifth Ave. to Polk St.. 
thence cast on Polk St. to Wabash .\\e., and north on W'abash .Ave. 
to a connection with the present structure at Harrison St., and divid- 
ing it into four parts by means of a north and south line on Clark St. 

Fourth. — The ultimate utilization of the entire Union Loop, either 
as it is now constructed, or as it may hereafter be extended, as a 
part of a through line system for the combined operation ot through 
cars over all the elevated structures between all divisions of the city. 

The first and second methods are considered practicable and desir- 

Jan. X. 1903.] 



able under the present diversit}- of ownership, and the fourth is rec- 
ommended sliould it become possible bj' means of joint ownership or 
traffic agreement between the elevated companies. 

A 9-in., I20-Ib. girder rail the head being as shown in the line 
drawing is recommended for streets paved with asphalt, brick or 
granite, and kept clean ; the cost of this construction laid on con- 
crete beams is estimated at $24,000 per mile of single track. 


For unpaved or poorly maintained streets the present girder tram 
rail section is recommended. 


Estimates of cost arc made on two bases, concerning which it is 

"A. — The cost to reproduce the properties today. 

"The figures are based upon what it would cost lo furnish and 
install the materials entering into the construction of the properties 
today, and in considering these prices it should be borne in mind 
that the state of the art is now such that a large amount of the 
physical part of the properties, as they exist, could be built now 
much cheaper than was possible at the time they were built." 

"B. — Present value of the physical property for electrical railway 

"This gives the present values of the physical properties for elec- 
trical railway purposes so far as I am able to estimate them. In de- 
ducing this it has been necessary to take into consideration the fact 
that the cable systems complete, exclusive of track, real estate and 
buildings, must be considered as practically obsolete, and that, there- 
fore, the only amounts that they can be credited with is what salvage 
can be obtained from their disposition. I have, however, considered 
that some portions of the cable tracks, outside of the business center, 
where underground conduit construction would not be required, 
could be used to operate electric cars over, provided the tracks were 
surfaced up and brought into good physical condition. For these 
reasons I have credited the cable systems, in each case, with the es- 
timated value that it would cost to reproduce these cable tracks as 
new electric car tracks, taking into consideration the weight of the 
rail in each case, and allowing a suitable depreciation from the figure 
thus obtained, depending upon the condition in which the track and 
paving have been maintained by the respective companies, I have 
endeavored lo estimate this depreciation as fairly as possible, and 
while it may seem difficult to understand how it can have been so 
grc-al, it should be accepted as one of the conditions due to the ad- 
vancement of the art in street railways, and is illustrative of the con- 
ditions which must be faced by any corporation or municipality 
which engages in the transpfjrtalion business. The same statements 
arc largely true regarding a large part of the electrical equipment of 
some of the present companies, for the reason that the electrical art 
has so far advanced since some of the present properties were built 
that a part of their electrical and steam equipment is, from the stand- 
point of economical operation, obsolete today. In considering this 
valuation it must be understood that it does not in any sense purport 
to lie the actual value, from a business standpoint, of the properties 
estimated, for the reason that ordinarily from a business and finan- 



cial standpoint the value of all properties having franchise rights 
would be based largely upon their earning capacity, and not upon the 
mere physical value of the tangible property." 

The valuations for the two companies are : 


Chicago City Ry $17,172,425 

Chicago Union Traction Co.* 22,214,635 

* Not including Van Buren St. tunnel. 

Valuation Under Expiring Grants. 
.'\n attempt is made to value existing tracks subject to the contcn- 
lion of the city that franchises for certain lines expire on or before 
July 10, 1903, The dates of expiration are taken from the report of 
the Special Council Committee dated March 28, i8q8. The estimated 
value of the tracks for which grants are claimed to expire subtracted 
from the estimated value of all tracks gives the following: 

Chicago City Ry $4,045,443, 

Chicago Union Traction Co S,306,SS9- 

The appendices to the report include a list of the present routes, 
giving length of roimd trip, time of round trip and maximum num- 
ber of cars operated by both of the companies ; the routes recom- 
mended by Mr. Arnold for operation with the unified .system ; the 
routes recommended for the business district under divisional own- 
ership with joint use of tracks ; schedules of the transfer points 
under the present operation; lists of streets in which tracks are now 
laid, and a list of the tracks necessary for the system as recom- 
mended by Mr. Arnold, 


In view of the agitation for vestibnled cars now being carried on 
in certain localities it is instructive to note that the Boston Elevated 
Railway Co, has found it necessary to issue general orders instruct- 
ing motormen that they must lower the glass in the vestibule suffi- 
ciently to secure a clear vision whenever the glass Ijeconics clouded 
by fog, rain or snow. This evidence on the vestibule question is 
valuable as showing that much as the railway companies may desire 
10 cater lo the comfort of its employes, its duty to provide first for 
the safety of the public, and in fact for the safety of its employes 
lliemselves, will not permit it to operate cars with the vestibules 
entirely enclosed except in absolutely clear weather when there is 
no possibility of obscure glass obslrucling llio vision of the motor- 

The new order regarding vestibules reads as follows: 

"Motormen are instructed that at all times when owing to fog, 
rain or snow, the glass in the front vestibule obstructs the vision, 
Ihey must lower the glass sufficiently to secure a clear vision. No 
ixcuse will be accepted for accidents occurring inuler such circum- 
stances when this precaution has not been taken. 

"Under these conditions the front door may be closed, except al 
important stations and in the subway. 

"At all times after dark or during the uIkIiI inclnrMuii iiinsl kecii 
bolli doors of the vestibule of the front end of the car closed, ex- 
cept while cars are in the subway, at either level of the Dudley 
.Street or Sullivan S(|uare Terminal .Stations, or at times when con- 
siderable numbers of i)ersons wish lo enter or leave the car at once, 

"The general practice in Ihe evening and at night must be for 
[jassengers lo make use of the rear door for entrance and exit." 


A year ago ihe Michigan Electric Co. of Delmit innauguraled 
the practice of giving a dinner lo its employes, and Ihe secfind enter 
taintnent of Ibis company was given at the Cadillac Hotel on Janu 
ary 3d, Afler the diinier, which was allemled by 50 ein|)loyes of llu- 
company, the parly attended the theater. 

'Ihe Schuylkill Valley Traction Company's Enii)loye's Relief As- 
sociation recently engaged the Washburn Minstrel coni|iniiy lo give 
a performance in Ihe opera house at Norrislown, I'.i,. fnr llu- benefit 
of the association. 



[Vol. XIII, N... r. 


Mr. (i. J. A. I'aiil, in.iiKiKcr of the People's I.iglil & Railway Co., 
of Strcator, III., recently had an experience with the employes of 
the company which is descrihcd in the Strcator Daily Free Press 
as follows : 

"For a time last night things around the street car power Imiisi- 
had a deep bhic tinge streaked with red, hut the trouble was finally 
fixed up in a satisfactory manner. 

"When the molormen and conductors had finished their day s 
work they called a meeting in the office of Manager Paul. He was 
not present at the time, hut soon appeared after being notified of 
the meeting. 

"Then the men made a demand for a raise of wages, shorter 
hours of labor, no cars to start running before 7 o'clock in the 
morning, soapslones for the use of the motormcn, and a few other 
small concessions. 

"As each new proposition was presented Manager Paul's wrath 
arose, and after he had expressed himself in no uncertain terms 
and was near exploding with anger. Conductor Pool stepped to the 
front and said there was one more demand the men had to make, 
and that was that Mr. Paul would accept the handsome office chair 
which the men had purchased for him, and which was then 
brought in. 

"Then Mr. Paul caught on to what the 'demands' meant, and 
when he had composed himself he made an appropriate reply, and 
then there was 'something doing' for the next half hour. All of 
which shows that the utmost good feeling prevails between the 
manager and the employes of the company, which is as it should be 
with all corporations." 


This company was recently incorporated under the laws of Penn- 
sylvania and its charter covers practically every street and high- 
way in the Kiskiminctas Valley from .\polIo to Leechburg. It also 
owns all of the capital stock of the .Apollo Electric Light, Heat & 
Power Co., the Leechburg Electric Light & Power Co., the New 
Kensington Electric Light, Heat & Power Co.. and the Parnassus 
Electric Light & Power Co., and has retired all the indebtedness, 
both bonded and floating, of these corporations. The company also 
owns all of the capital stock of the Kiskiniinetas Bridge Co., a com- 
bined highway and railway bridge connecting Lechburg with Hyde 
Park. The company's railway line, except in towns, is located en- 
tirely upon private rights of way owned by the company, and the 
local franchises in the towns through which it passes are extremely 

The present population in the territory served by this coniiiaiiy 1- 
approximatcly 40,000 and is rapidly increasing. Al New Kensing- 
ton the line will meet the Tarcnluni Traction Passenger Railway 
Co., and the construction of six miles additional would connect New 
Kensington with the Pittsburg Railways Co., at Oakmont, giving 
a continuous trolley service to Pittsburg. The capital stock of the 
company is $1,500,000 and its authorized bonded mdebtedness is 
$1,100,000. Its stock has been deposited with the Public Trust Co., 
of Pittsburg, Pa., trustee, as security for the bonds, of which $250,- 
000 worth arc offered for sale. The bonds now offered constitute 
a portion of the $1,100,000 authorized and are secured by a first 
mortgage on all the property now owned or that may hereafter 
be acquired by the company, and the bonds can only be redeemed at 

Messrs. Sanderson & Porter, after examining the conditions, re- 
ported that the estimated gross earnings and net earnings under 
good management would be $214,000 and $100,000 respectively. 


During the past month three of the important tuimel projects for 
New York City, which were outlined in the "Review" for Feb. 15, 
!902, have received the necessary final sanction of the Board of 
.Aldermen, and there is stated to be now no legal obstacle to pre- 
vent their rapid completion. 

First in importance is the franchise granted to the Pennsylvania 

K. R. providing fur at least five iS','- fl. tubes, three under the 
North River for bringing the Pennsylvania lines into the heart of 
New York City, and two under the East River for giving direct 
New York connections with the Long Island R. R., which is owned 
by Pennsylvania interests. The five tunnels will converge at a 
central station in J2d St., between Seventh and Ninth Avcs., Man- 

Next is the ordinance passed early last month giving the New 
York & Jersey Railroad Co. permission to construct a tunnel under 
the North River, nnnting from the Jersey City Terminal station 
to a station at Greenwich and Christopher Sis., Manhattan. Tlie 
object of this project is to give physical connection between the 
electric lines converging in Jersey City and the surface electric lines 
if Manhattan. 

I he third tunnel will run under ICa^t River from Fourth St., 
Lung Island City, to 42d St., Manhattan, and will connect the lines 
iif the New York & Queens County Electric Ry. in Long Island 
City, with the Rapid Transit subway. Manhattan. 

We are assured by a high official of the Rapid Transit Subway 
Construction Co. that unless the entirely unexpected happens elec- 
tric trains will run through the rapid transit subway on Jan. i, 



Residents of towns near the Cincinnati. Georgetown & Portsmouth 
Railway, recently converted for operation by electricity, have asked 
the management to make an extension to Felicity. 

The lower court has pronounced invalid an ordinance passed by 
the City of Dayton, O., to prevent the traction companies from load- 
ing and unloading freight in certain streets. It is believed that this 
decision will result in the eight electric railway companies securing a 
larger share of freight traffic. 

The Columbus Street Railway Co. and several of the intcrurban 
companies entering Columbus, on Christmas presented each of the 
married men in their employ with turkeys, and each of the single 
men with $1 in lieu of the dinner. 

The Scioto Valley Traction Co. has been granted until July I, 
1903, for the completion of its lines. The difficulty in getting steel is 
the principal reason assigned for the delay. 

It is generally believed that the plans of the Cincinnati & Columbus 
Traction Co. which has a franchise from Washington Court House 
to Norwood will be carried out. The .Appleyard interests will ar- 
range for the connection from Washington to Columbus and arrange- 
ments have been made with the Cincinnati Traction Co. for entrance 
into Cincinnati. 


The St. Louis & Suburban Railway Co. has reconstructed its 
main line along its private right of way with 80-lb. T-rails and in 
the city with 94-lb. girder rails, and has purchased a large number 
of new cars which are equipped with four Westinghouse No. 49 
motors, Westinghouse standard traction air brakes, Hunter signs 
and fenders. The cars are 46 ft. in length with inside mahogany 
finish and are mounted on St. Louis Car Co's. No. 7 trucks; all 
other cars on the system are iK'ing reconstructed to meet the stand- 
ard of the new equipment. Some of these have been completed 
and are now in operation and all will be in operation by early 
spring. Extensive improvements are being made in the power sta- 
tions and car houses. 


In dcscribmg the new shops of the Chicago City Ry. on page 885 
of the "Review" for December, 1902, reference was made to the 
tools furnished by Bement-Milcs, and by an oversight Bement was 
made to read Bennett. 

United States mail service was established on January 1st on the 
Cleveland. Elyria & Western Electric Ry., between Oberlin, Flor- 
ence, Berlin Heights, Berlinville, East Norwalk and Norwalk. Two 
trips are made daily in each direction. 

Jan. 20, 1903] 



New Car House and Repair Shops of the Birmingham Railway, Light 

& Power Co,, Birmingham, Ala, 

The present system of the Birmingham Railway, Light & Power 
Co. is composed of several different lines, which from time to time 
have been absorbed by the present company, which now controls 
and owns all street car lines in Jefferson county. Each line before 
it was acquired, of course, had its respective car barn and repair 
shop, thus making five different places where cars were housed 
and repaired. This being the case, it is naturally a little incon- 
venient to have car repairs going on in so many different places 
and where all cannot receive the attention of the master mechanic. 

the edge of the street. There will be nine tracks running entirely 
through the building and one track half through, and there will be 
space enough to accommodate one hundred of the largest cars. The 
walls of the building are to be red pressed brick, with red mortar, 
and the roof, which is to be composition, is to be supported by steel 
roof trusses. The floor is to be rolled cinders, which, after the 
Irealnient it receives, makes it practically the same as concrete. 
The pit floor will be concrete. The pit space is eight tracks wide 
and 160 ft. long, and the track over this is built on pipe track sup- 


so it was decided by the mangement to erect a large car house and 
repair shop at one central point, to take care of all the cars and do 
all the repair work in one place. With this idea in view, work has 
been commenced on a mammoth car house and repair shop in the 
western extremity of the city. Some of the other barns will be 
kept up 10 store summer cars in winter and to leave a few cars in 
over night at the end of the long suburban lines, in order that they 
may start on the first trip in the morning without having to run a 
great many miles empty before reaching their scheduled starting 

Accordingly the engineering firm of Ford, Bacon & Davis, of 
New York, who have charge of the extensive improvements being 
made here, and of which Mr. J. A. Emery is the chief engineer of 
the local office, has prepared plans and is superintending the con- 

ports. The two tracks running half through the building and situ- 
ated on the side next the alley are designed especially for wash- 
ing cars, and the necessary appurtenances for same will be ar- 
ranged on this side, so that cars may be thoroughly and rapidly 
cleaned. The whole building will be well lighted by numerous win- 
dows on both the 4th Ave. and the alley side. 

A very desirable and altraclivc feature of the car house will be a 
set of fire doors situated in the center of the building, so that in the 
event of the cars in one end of the house getting on fire, by lowering 
these doors the cars in the other half would be as safe as if they 
were in some other place. In the corner of the barn on iilh St. 
and the alley will be located the office of the barn foreman. Just 
back of his office will be a very comfortable reporting room for 
the motormen and conductors. This room will be well heated and 

- ———-'- - - »'-"-ii»l 


struction of the new car house and shops. To Mr. D. O. Whildin, 
of this firm, wc arc indebted for the very complete drawings which 
arc shown herewith. 

The car house is situated on 4lh Ave. between loth and nth Sts,, 
and occupies the whole space back to the alley, half-way of the 
block. The dimensions are 140 ft. wide by .392 ft. 10 in. long, and 
il is to have entrance on both lOth and iilh Sis. Height to be 18 
ft. from head of rail to under side of roof trusses. 

The length of the block is 400 ft., to insure a straight track en- 
tering the liouse and to acommodale the special work leading from 
the main line, it was necessary to set the front back seven feet from 

lighted and thoroughly up-to-date toilet arrangenients will be pro- 
vided with complete and approved sanitary fixtures. 'Hie newest 
and most convenient transfer racks, boards showing runs, build in 
order boards and such other arrangements pertaining lo lliis ili- 
IKirlment as may be needed will be placed here. 

Just back of the men's reporting room will be situated the saml 
drier. A car loaded with wet sand may be brought into the barn, 
'hoveleil into a bin, and from this bin lit down iiUo the drier and 
turned out into the dry sand bin on the other side in a short lime. 
This arrangement is designed lo provide for five days' supply al a 



(Vol. XIII, No. I. 

A llioroiiRlily reliable fire system has been arranged for (he build- 
ing independent of the city fire department. This consists of a tank placed out to one side of the building, and dis- 

cu^O iwg 


tributed at frequent intervals throughout the building will be coils 
of with nozzles attached, so that in the event of a fire breaking 
out the fire doors may be lowered, the water turned on, and the car 
house employee can start fighting the fire immediately. 

The house is not to have any doors at present, but should it be 
desired in future to have them, ample provisions have been made 
for ihein. It is the belief at present (hat the barn will be ready 
for occupancy by the last of this month, at which time the cars of 
all divisions will go here when they finish their runs at night, ex- 
cept the few early-morning cars, which will be disposed of as alx)vc 

Immediately across 4th Ave. from the car house and occupying 
a space 114 x 400 ft. will be the repair shops. This building is prac- 
tically completed, and was expected to be ready for work by Jan. 
I, 1903. Like the car house, this building is to have a steel frame, 
composition roof and the walls arc to be red brick with red mortar. 
There is to be a second story 20 ft. wide and extending the full 
length of the building. This is reached by two outside staircases, 
which are provided with fire doors, so that in case the upper story 
should catch on fire and one stairway be cut off, the occupants of 
the second story could get down the other stairway. It has not 
been decided as yet just what will be done with this second story. 
Il is contemplated turning it into a club room for the motormen and 
conductors, but this will be decided on later. 

Near the loth St. end of the building will be located the office of 
the master mechanic, and all entrance to and from the shop will 
be made through a passageway by his office. Before closing time 
in the evening all doors leading to the streets will be closed and all 
shop employes will be obliged to ring out on a clock in the passage- 
way above named, and on going to work in the morning they will 
ring in in the same manner. The door leading from the passage- 
way to the main shop will be controlled by an automatic lock oper- 
ated by a push button from the office inside. To the left of the 
entrance to the shop will be located a window, where the men will 
report for their orders and for material. Just back of the master 
mechanic's office and extending all the way back to the lOth St. end 
will be the store-room, and il is the intention of the management to 
carry a 12-months supply of repair parts at all times. On the other 
side of the passage-way above mentioned is to be situated the arina- 
ture room, where all work necessary for the rewinding of armatures 
will be carried on. The armature baking will be a special feature 
and will be accomplished by electricity. This company has always 
had very great success with the repairing and rewinding of its arma- 
tures and is very proud of its success in this connection, which is 
largely due to the very careful attention and management of the 
same by Mr. George H. Harris, superintendent of equipment, and 
with all other facilities requisite for good work, flattering results 
are looked for. Adjoining the armature room arc the lavatories 
and lockers. This room is to be supplied with stationary marble 
washstands and the necessary sanitary closets. Next to this is the 
cleaning room, which is to be built with a sloping floor and con- 
necting with this is the drying room, which is practically dust proof 
and in which blinds and small parts will be placed, after being 
painted and varnished, to dry. Adjacent to the drying room is the 
paint room, which is made of brick with iron fire-proof doors. This 
was done so that if a fire should start in this room the door could 
be shut and the fire confined to this room alone. 

There will be three tracks running entirely through the building 
and four tracks running half through. The blacksmith shop is 
located at the loth St. end of the building and is to be supplied with 
down-draft forges and all the latest appliances identified with this 

The machine shop is located next to the blacksmith shop and is 
to be furnished with all the necessary tools requisite to carry on 
the work of this shop. Underneath the floor is a place in which 
wheels on axles will be kept. A jack for lifting car bodies clear of 
the trucks is also to be supplied. An areaway from the street to 
this shop has also been provided. Next to this shop is the carpen- 
ter shop, where all wood working machinery that is desired will be 
found, and this shop is designed to be one of the most complete 
in the United States, as no expense will be spared to put in the 
most modern machinery available. There will be plank floors in 
these shops, with rolled cinder floors in the cellars, and underneath 
the mill and carpenter shop will be placed all shafting for the ma- 
chines both in this shop and the machine shop, thus saving the 

Dec. 20, 1902.] 



space above the floor usually occupied by shafting for something 

Extending from the llth St. end back to the carpenter shop is 
the paint shop. This shop was located in this manner so that in 

one shop to the other, finally emerge from the 10th St. end practi- 
cally a new car. A traveling crane is to be erected, running from 
the carpenter shop to the blacksmith shop and capable of carrying 
the heaviest car. 

Half of the space over the tracks running by tlic mill and carpen- 
ter shop, the machine shop and the blacksmith shop will be plat- 
formed and half without. This is to permit work being done on 
any part of a car without the inconvenience of step ladders and 
temporary scaffolds. 

.•\11 the machinery in the building is to be operated by electric 
motors. Heavy wooden doors are to be provided for each end of 
the building. 

Heavy galvanized iron fire doors extending from the ceiling are 
to be put in, and should a fire break out in any one shop these 
doors may be lowered and the fire confined to the shop in which it 
originated. These doors will also be provided to shut off the office 
and store-room from the other part of the shop. 

For heating the building a boiler will be placed in the boiler 
room just back of the building, and is to be 18 ft. 4 in. x 37 ft. It 
is to be built of brick, with concrete floor and roof, which will be 
supported on steel latticed columns with eye beams. 

The building will be lighted with numerous windows and .sky- 
lights and well ventilated. The same perfect fire system prevailing 
in the car house will be found here, which consists of coils of hose 
distributed throughout the shop and water supplied from a 10,000- 
gallon tank situated independent of the building. The shop force 
will be drilled so that should a fire break out each man will know 
just what he is expected to do; one man will lower the fire doors, 
another turn the water on, and others will get out the hose line, and 
it is believed that much of the confusion incident to fires will be 

The idea of rendering fire proof as nearly as possible both the 
car house and the shops has been faithfully carried out, and with 
all the fire-proof doors separating one department from another 
and with a fire protection system as complete as can be, it is be- 
lieved that a fire, if not extinguished very soon after its discovery, 
can be confined to one room. Messrs. Ford, Bacon & Davis deserve 
special credit for the very carefully thought-out plans to further 
this end and for the very convenient arrangement of the ri|iair 
shops and car house. 

When these two buildings have been completed, the 14-milc elec- 
tric line to Bessemer finished and the other suburban and cross- 
town lines laid with heavy rails, the system of the Birmingham 
Railway, Light & Power Co. will be second to none in the United 
.Stales, and with the rapidly increasing population and the many 
new industries growing up in this district, this properly should be 
one of the best paying roads found anywhere. 



case a car only needed painliiix il could be run in from the nth 
St. cnil, painted and run out without having lo pass through the 
other part of the -ihop. Under the preseiil arraiiKement a car may 
be run in the lotli St. end in very Ijad shape, and after passing from 

The Conestoga Traction Co. and its subsidiary companies includ- 
ing both railway and lighting interests on January ist paid in inter- 
ests and dividends the sum of $74,840. Mr. Wm. B. Given, president 
of the company, slates that the allilialed companies have had a most 
prosperous year notwithstanding the many disappointments and 
delays of the various contractors in delivering machinery and e(|uip- 
ment for the company's new |)ower plant. Considerable trouble and 
ilelays have been experienced both in the electric railway and electric 
lighting departments caused by the inadequate amount of power, but 
these difficulties arc expected to be over within 60 days after the 
completion of the new station which the company is building. Not- 
withstanding the unfavorable conditions the company carried for the 
year ending Dec. i, 1902, 4,967,501 passengers, an increase over the 
12 months previous of 1,266,176, and the company is to be congrat- 
ulated upon the fact that notwithstanding this large passenger trafllc, 
not a single accident has occurreil throughout the year. 

The board of railway commissioners of Massachusetts has not 
been active in the matter of granting hearings and deciding cases 
before il, having been working on the annual report of the legis- 
lature. It is generally believed that the board will ask for legis- 
lation requiring .street railway companies to imnudialely report lo 
it all arciilenis thai occur, and will also ask for authority lo regu- 
late the speed of electric cars. 



[Vol. XIII, No. i. 

Roads Under Construction, 

The Latest Information Concerning the Roads Listed as Being Under Construction in igo2. 

Indian Territory Traction Co. proposes lo build M miles in the 
course of the next year connecting South McAlester, Krebs, Alder- 
son, Bache, Uow, llaileyville and llartslioriie. The grading has 
just been commenced. President, Lawrence P. Boyle, Chicago; 
secretary, M. M. Linley, South McAlester, I. T. ; treasurer, A. I'. 
Thomas, South McAlester, I. T. ; general manager, Samuel Grant, 
Kairbault, Minn. ; civil engineer, M. J. Smith ; general contractors, 
1). Grant & Co.; consulting engineers, 'Thomas flail & Co. 

Zanesville, Adanisville & Coshocton Electric Railway Co., of 
Zanesville, O., has made no progress in construction but is engaged 
in securing franchises. 

Florence Electric Street Railway Co., Florence, Col. President 
and general manager. Thomas Robinson, Florence, Col. ; secre- 
tary, Harry Robinson. Florence; vice-president and treasurer, Har- 
ley A. Cook, Florence; chief engineer, R. L. Kelly, Florence; elec- 
trical engineer, T. B. Wliitted, Denver. Twenty-seven miles of 
track are to be built and Mr. Robinson advises that construction 
work will commence in four months. 

Doylestown (Pa.) & Easton Street Railway Co. President, Isaac 
R. Rosenbergcr; secretary and treasurer, Harry J. Shoemaker; gen- 
eral manager, Lewis P. Mutliart ; electrical engineer, A. J. Weaver; 
general contractors, fl. M. Herbert & Co. Ten miles of this road 
was opened for traffic in June, 1902, and during the coming season 
the remaining portion, 22 miles, is to be built. 

The Toledo & Indiana Railway Co., Toledo, O., reports having 
30 miles open for operation Jan. 15. 1903. .'\ total of 55 miles is pro- 
posed, the rest of which is to be built during 1903. The officers are; 
Vice-president and treasurer. George G. Metzger; secretary, C. 11. 
Masters; general manager, H. C. Warren; chief engineer, Riggs & 
Sherman; electrical engineer, T. B. Perkins; general contractor, 
Toledo & Indiana Construction Co. 

Urbana, Mcchanicsburg & Columbus Electric Railway, Columbus, 
O. Officers: President and general manager, H. A. Axline; sec- 
retary, Colin McDonald; chief engineer, W. A. Ginn. The com- 
pany had one mile of double track in Columbus completed Jan. i, 
1903, and about six miles outside of Columbus graded. It is pro- 
posed to build 46 miles and expected to have the remainder in oper- 
ation by Oct. I, 1903. 

Columbus, London & Springfield Railway Co., Columbus, O. 
President J. A. Harshman; secretary, W. F. Merrick; treasurer, 
Arthur E. Appleyard ; general manager, Richard Emery ; superin- 
tendent, William W. Aires; chief engineer, C. A. Aldeman; elec- 
trical engineer, W. P. Hazen ; general contractor, Great Northern 
Construction Co. ; consulting engineers, Stene & Webster. Total 
mileage operated, 64.25. Completed and opened for tratlic Oct. 
22, 1902. 

People's Traction Co., Galcsbnrg, III. President, Lake W. 
born ; vice-president, E. B. Hardy ; secretary, M. A. Peterson ; 
eral manager, F. W. Latimer; chief engineer, George W. Knox, 
cago. This road was completed and opened for traffic Dec. i. 
12 miles of track being operated. The road is single track through- 
out, of which one-third is within the city. 

Wilkcsbarre & Hazleton Railway Co., Hazlcton, Pa. 
John B. Price; secretary, D. T. Evans; treasurer, N. C. 
eral manager, A. Markle ; superintendent, George W. 
chief engineer, F. M. Smith; electrical engineer, C. A. 
consulting engineer, L. B. Stillvvcll, of that city. The general con- 
tractor of this road is the Keystone Improvement Co. The road is 
25 miles long and operated on the third-rail system. The company 
expected to open the road for traffic about Jan. 15, 1903. It is also 
proposed to build about two miles additional, making a total of 27 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Electric Railroad Co. 'This com- 
pany is a consolidation of the Delaware Electric Street Railway Co., 
the Columbus, Delaware & Northern, the Worthington. Clintonville 
& Columbus and the Columbus. Delaware & Marion railways. Presi- 
dent, T. A. Simons; secretary, O. W. Aldrich ; treasurer and 
general manager, H. A. Fisher; electrical engineer, Lee D. Fisher. 
The general contractor for the road is John G. Webb and the total 


Yost ; gen- 
Thompson ; 
B. Houck; 

mileage now operated is jy miles, from Delaware City and Delaware 
to Columbus. For two-thirds of the distance from Delaware to 
Marion the road is completed and it is expected to be in operation 
to Marion by April I, 1903. 'There are seven miles of city track 
operated in Delaware; the total proposed length of this road is 61 

Newark & Marion Electric Railway Co., Newark, N. Y. Presi- 
dent, W. 11. Stansfield; secretary, F. D. Burgess; treasurer, E. V. 
Pierson; chief engineer, T. H. Mather; electrical engineer, J. E. 
Kelley; attorney, E. I. Edgcoinb. The Syracuse Railway Construc- 
tion Co, is the general contractor for this road and its total length 
will be 10 miles. 'The company expects to open the road for opera- 
tion by June, 1903. 

GreenficUl & Dcerfield Street Railway Co. and Greenfield, Deer- 
lield & Northampton Street Railway Co., Greenfield, Mass. The of- 
ficers of both companies are: President, F. E. Pierce; secretary 
and treasurer, D. B. Abcrcrombie, jr.; superintendent, J. A. Tag- 
gart ; chief engineer, C. W. Clapp. 'The Bay State Construction Co. 
is the general contractor for these roads, which have a total length 
of 23 miles. It was expected that both roads would open for traffic 
about Jan. 10, 1903. 

Scioto Valley Traction Co., Columbus, O. President, W. F. Bur- 
dell ; secretary and treasurer, E. R. Sharp ; general manager and 
chief engineer, A. W. Jones; consulting engineers, W. E. Baker & 
Co., of New York City. The total proposed mileage of this road is 
78, of which 57 miles is to be completed by August, 1903. The com- 
pany has already 55 miles graded and all the masonry has been built. 
The New Orleans & Southwestern Railway Co., of 'Thibodaux, 
La., is not yet under construction, but all rights of way have been 
secured and profile maps, the prospectus, specifications and draw- 
ings have been completed and the company expects to begin actual 
construction work in the early part of this year. Mr, C. P. Young, 
general manager of the company, states that the organization is at 
present being perfected. 

The Interurban Railway & Terminal Co., of Cincinnati, O., is 
a new company which effected a consolidation of the following 
properties on Nov. I, 1902: Cincinnati & Eastern Electric Ry., the 
Suburban Construction Co., the Rapid Railway, and the Interur- 
ban 'Terminal Co. The officers of the consolidated company are: 
President and general manager, G. R. Scrugham ; first vice-presi- 
dent, Lee H. Brooks; second vice-president and general counsel, 
Ellis G. Kinkead; secretary, B. E. Merwin, and electrical engineer, 
F. H. Talbot. The company now operates 96 miles of track opened 
for traffic Nov. 19, 1902. Of this 16 miles is double track and 12 
miles is city track. The company proposes to build 8 miles more 
of road, all of which will be completed by February, 1903. 

The Springfield & Xenia Traction Co., Springfield, O., operates 20 
miles of track, of which 3'j miles is located in the city. 'The road 
was opened for traffic June 17, 1902, and its construction work is 
entirely completed. 'The officers of the company are: President, 
J. R. Nntt ; secretary, R. E. Inskeep; treasurer. Will Christy; gen- 
eral manager, William Null; superintendent, J. M. Cotton; attor- 
neys. Martin & Martin, Springfield, O. 

Fond du Lac & Oshkosh Electric Railway Co.. Fond du Lac, Wis. 
This road is still under construction and is being built by the Co- 
lumbia Construction Co., general contractor. The officers of the 
company are: President, George Lines; secretary, Carl Gcilfuss, 
and the road is under the management of the Fond du Lac Street 
Railway & Light Co. 

La Fayette & Indianapolis Rapid Railway, Li Fayette, Ind. This 
road is not yet under construction, but the rights of way are being 
secured. President, William C. Mitchell; secretary, A. Orth Behm ; 
treasurer, Henry Taylor; superintendent, Robert A. Clark; chief 
engineer. J. R. Brown ; consulting engineer, B. J. Arnold, Chicago. 
'The Marlborough & Wcstborough Street Railway Co., Marlbor- 
ough, Mass. This road is consolidated with the Worcester & West- 
borough Street Railway Co. and operates 13.2 miles of track, which 
was built and opened for traffic May I, 1901. President, William 
N. Davenport; secretary and treasurer, W. R. Dame; superinten- 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 



dent, H. C. Garfield; chief engineer, J. B. Miller; electrical engi- 
neer, George Bannister: consulting engineer, C. R. Stearns, Boston. 
The general contractor for the road is M. A. Coolidge, Fitchhurg, 

Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark Traction Co., Newark, O. 
This company now operates 41 miles of track, which was opened 
for traffic June i, 1902. The road is completed between Columbus 
and Newark, and a branch has been built to Buckeye Lake. It has 
five miles of city track, which was completed Jan. i, 1902, and it 
will build 25 miles of road during the coming season, from New- 
ark to Zanesville. President. Reed .Anthony ; secretary and treas- 
urer, Chauncy Eldridge; general manager, J. R. Harrigan; chief 
engineer, Walter Casler; electrical engineer, .-\. C. Ralph. The gen- 
eral contractor for the road is the Great Northern Construction Co. 

Rochester & Eastern Rapid Railway Co.. Canandaigua, N. Y. 
This road is still under construction. There are 25 miles of the line 
graded, with the necessary bridge abutments in place, between Can- 
andaigua and Rochester, N. Y. The material for the construction 
is all on hand or under contract to be delivered during early spring, 
and it is the intention of the company to push the road to com- 
pletion at once. The power house building is completed and the 
shipments of machinery will start on March 1st. The company 
expects to be in operation between Rochester and Canandaigua by 
Aug. I, 1903. From Canandaigua to Geneva the line will be com- 
pleted and in operation by December, 1903. The officers of the 
company are: President. W. B. Comstock ; secretary, W. A. Com- 
stock ; treasurer, Henry A. Haigh; chief engineer, F. W. Walker. 
The total length of the line between Rochester and Geneva, N. Y., 
is 42 miles, and the general contractor for the road is the Comstock- 
Haigh-Walker Co. 

Monroe County Electric Belt Line Railway. Rochester, N. Y. 
President, ."Kudrew H. Brown; secretary, M. E. Lewis; treasurer, P. 
R. McPhail ; engineer, A. J. Grant. The company proposes to build 
about 10 miles of road, for which the location and surveys have 
been completed and the right of way is being purchased. No actual 
construction work has yet been done. It is expected the line will 
be completed in 1903 and the work will be done by the Syracuse 
Railway Construction Co., general contractor. 

Cumberland & Wcstport Electric Railway Co., Cumberland, Md. 
President, R. H. Kock ; secretary, L. P. Bane; treasurer, Walter II. 
Bryant ; superintendent, I. D. B. Spatz ; attorney, D. J. Blackeston, 
Cumberland, Md. This road was opened for traffic Apr. 24, 1902, 
with 16 miles in operation. The total proposed milcige of the road 
is 24 miles, and the remaining 8 miles will be built this season. 

The .Alton & East Alton Railway & Power Co., Alton, HI. This 
road is operated by the Alton Railway, Gas & Electric Co., and has, 
at the present time, one mile of track completed. The rest of the 
proposed four miles is now under construction. The section com- 
pleted was opened for traffic Jan. i, 1903. The president of the 
company is James Duncan, and secretary, J. F. Porter. 

Rockville, Broad Brook & East Windsor Railway Co., Broad 
Brook, Conn. This company, which has been organized to build 12 
miles of road between the places named in the title, is not yet under 
construction and contracts have not been let nor officers chosen. 

Joliel, Plainfield & Aurora Ry., Joliel, 111. This company has 
not done anything in the way of grading, but expects to begin con- 
struction work early in the spring. Il has completed all of the pre- 
liminary engineering work and secured franchises and private right 
of way where required. The arratigements for financing the road 
liavc also been completed and a basis agreed upon f'lr terminal 
tracks at Aurora and Joliet. The line when completed will be 22 
miles from Joliet to Aurora and will pass through the town of 
I'lainficid, located about half-way between these cities. From Joliet 
to Plainfield the line will be constructed on one side of an 8o-ft. 
highway, and from Plainfield to Aurora on private right of way 
paralleling the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Ry, The construction is to 
be first class in every respect and the road will be cf|uiped for high 
speed. If is cxpecled that the line will be completed and in opera- 
tion by Sept. I, 1903. The president and general manager of the 
company is F. E. Fisher; vice-president and general counsel, K. 
Mcers; secretary and treasurer, F, E. Stoddard; chief engineer, J. 
W. Rickey. 

Inter Urban Railway Co., Davenport, la. The company com- 
menced operation on Sept. 11, 1902, to Altoona, and on Nov. 8, 

u)02, to Mitchellvillo, iS miles from Des Moines. The line is also 
comiileted to Colfax and was expected to be in operation during 
this month. The officers of the company are: President and gen- 
eral manager. H. II. Polk; secretary, W. I. llaskit; treasurer, G. B. 
Ilippee; chief engineer, James Carss; electrical engineer, Edward 
Cunningluun ; consiilling engineers, Sargent & Limdy; attorney, N. 
T. Guernsey. 

Topeka & Vinewood I'.iik Railroad Co., Topeka, Kan. The 
company has under construction 7 miles of inlcrurban track and ij'j 
miles of city track, which will be completed within 30 days and put 
in operation .Apr. i, 1903. It has also secured a new franchise for 9 
miles of additional track in the city, which will be buill in 1903. 
President, E. W. Wilson ; secretary and general manager, F. G. 
Kellcy; treasurer, John Wilson; superintendent and electrical en- 
gineer, A. L. Ward ; chief engineer, V. R. Parkhurst. The general 
contractor for the company is the L. F.. Meyers Construction Co., 
of Chicago. 

Kansas City, Lawrence & Topeka Railway Co., Kansas City, Mo. 
This road is a consolidation of the Lawrence & Emporia Railway 
Co., the Lawrence Street Railway Co., the Kansas City, Bonner 
Springs & Topeka Railway and the East Side Circle Ry. The total 
mileage to be operated is 65 miles, which is now under construc- 
tion. The officers of the company are : President, Henry G. Pert ; 
secretary, C. H. Chapin ; treasurer, W. A. Baker; general manager 
and purchasing agent, Willard E. Winner; chief engineer, J. G. 
Hughes. The general cimlractor for llie cnmpany is Ihc Leaven- 
worth Construction Co. 

Moline, East Moline & Walertown Ry., Moline, 111. President, 
C. H. Deere; secretary, W. 11. Rank; treasurer, Joshua Hale; gen- 
eral manager and chief engineer. Blake A. Mapledoram ; electrical 
engineer, J. C. Hoffman ; attorneys. Wood & Peck. The general 
contractors of the road are Blood & Hale, of Boston. The com- 
pany opened 5 miles for operation Nov. 15, 1902, of which two miles 
is city track. The total propcsed length of the road is 25 miles, but 
the amount to bo built during the coming season has not yet been 

The Washington, Baltimore & .Annapolis Electric Railway Co. 
reports that its line is still under construction and that the work of 
grading was commenced about October ist. The company expects 
to have the line complete and in operation by November, 1903. The 
officers of the company are: President, H. W. Lamprecht ; vice- 
president and general manager, James Christy, jr.; assistant gen- 
eral manager, C. S. Gladfelter; secretary and Ireasurcr, Olio Mil- 
ler. Ihe general offices are in Cleveland, O. 

The Omaha & Council Bluffs Railway & Bridge Co., Council 
Bluffs, la., which controls the Lake Manawa Park & Manhattan 
Beach Railway Co., advises us that the latter road has not been con- 
structed. The company purchased the right of way, but before 
construction of the road was commenced negotiations were closed 
whereby the Omaha & Council Bluffs Railway & Bridge Co. se- 
cured control of the Omaha, Council Bluffs & Suburban Railway 
Co. running to Lake Manawa. The Lake Manawa & Manhattan 
Beach Ry. was to have been a parallel ro;id in opposition to the 

Southern Indi;iiia liUcmrban Railway Co., New .Albany, Ind. 
The line of this company, which is still under construction, extends 
from New Albany to Jeffersonville, a distance of about five luifes; 
the road is all graded and the contracts partially let. Most of the 
pole line is also erected. The company will secure ils power from 
the I'niled Gas & Electric Co., of New Albany, and ex|]ecls to be 
in operation abont Apr. i, t903. I'residenI, .Samuel Insull, Chicago; 
secretary, treasurer and general manager, R. W. Waile ; superin- 
tendent, C. Wuslenfeld ; consulting engineers, SargenI & Lundy. 
Chicago. The Tennis Constrnction Co. is conlraclor for 
the road, 

Indianapolis & Plainfield Electric Railway Co., Indianapolis. Iiid. 
The company operates 14 miles of track, of which u miles is cily 
track. The road was completed .Sept. 12 and opened for traflic 
.Sept. 16, 1902. The officers of the company are: Presidenl, Allien 
I.icvcr; secretary and treasurer, Henry L. Sinilli; snperiiiUiideiil. 
M. Bonner; chief engineer, H. A. Mansfield. 

'I'lic Internrban Railway & Power Co, n< llnl Springs. Ark, 
expeclcfl to have begun operation in October I.'isl, bill work has been 
unavoidably delayed and no further progress has been made up to 



[Vol. XIII, No i 

llif present time. I'lie officers of the company are: President, C. 
H. ICames; vice-president, II. Williams; secretary, F. D. Ward; 
treasurer, C. N. Rix. 

Jersey Shore Street Railway Co., Jersey Shore, Pa., reports that 
ahont two miles of track are hiiill and that the last proposed i>4 
miles will be completed during the coming season. J. H. Cochran 
is president of the company and Krncst II. Davis general manager. 

The Wallham (Mass.) Street Railway Co., under date of Jan. 
7, 11)03. reports that its line is still under construction. The officers 
arc: President. Fred C. Hinds; secretary, Henry S. Milton; treas- 
urer. Charles E. Dresser, and superintendent and general manager, 
II. G. Lowe. The general contractors for the coniirany are James 
I". Shaw & C". 

The Metropolitan Railw.iy Co., of Oklahoma City, Okla., reports 
that it will have eight miles of city track Iniilt and in operation 
Jan. 20, l<X>3. The officers of the company are: President, .\nton 
H. Classen; secretary, John W. Shartel; treasurer, George H. 
Ilrauer; superintendent and electrical engineer. Charles \V. Ford. 
The Knox Engineering Co., Chicago, is the consulting engineer. 



The Puchio & Suburban Traction & Lighting Co. on December 
I, 1902, took over the property of the Pueblo Traction & Lighting 
Co., a corporation organized Jan. i. 1901, to consolidate the street 
railway, light and power systems of Pueblo, which had been op- 
erated by the Pueblo Traction & Electric Co., the Pueblo Electric 
Street Railway Co., and the Pueblo Light & Power Co. During 
the last two years the greater part of the property of the consoli- 
dated company has been rebuilt and the whole is now in first-class 
physical condition. 

Current is furnished from a central power house which has five 
engines of a rated capacity in the aggregate of 1,700 kw. There 
are 26 miles of railw.iy track, and 26 new double truck cars built 
by the American Car Co. of St. Louis, and the Woeber Carriage 
Co., of Denver, all mounted on Brill trucks and equipped with Gen- 
eral Electric No. 58 and No. 60 motors, have been put in service. 
For extra service and summer travel to the parks and other resorts 
the older equipment consisting of 9 and lO-bcnch open cars is used. 

The company owns patented lands on and along Beaver, West 
and East Beaver Creeks, which drain an area of 70 square miles 
and on these several streams have located three power stations 
known as ".*\," "B," and "C," which, when completed, will furnish 
10.300 h. p. Station ".\" is now in operation and transmitting cur- 
rent for light and power to the Cripple Creek mining district. The 
dam and reservoir are located s'A miles east of Victor. Water is 
conveyed from the dam to station "A" through a 30-in. redwood 
pipe, 23.200 ft. long, a portion of which, 1,535 f'-. is 'aiJ through a 
bore in the rock known as Skaguay tunnel. The Pelton water 
wheels in the station are operated under an effective head of :,l6o 
ft., the output of the station being 2,700 h. p. The capacity of sta- 
tion "B" is to be 5,500 h. p. and of station "C" 2,100 h. p. 

Two high-tension transmission lines connecting station "A" with 
the steam plant in Pueblo via the sites of stations "B" and "C" are 
under construction. 

The officers of the company arc: President, M D. Thatcher. 
Pueblo, Col. ; vice-president, Warren Woods, Colorado Springs. 
Col.; secretary, F. M. Woods, Victor, Col.; treasurer. H. E. Woods, 
Pueblo; general manager, John F. Vail, Pueblo. 


The Supreme Court of Wisconsin on December 30lh rendered 
its decision declaring void the franchise granted by the Milwaukee 
Council to the Milwaukee. Burlington & Lake Geneva Railway Co.. 
which was incorporated in February, 1901, to build an elevated line 
in Milwaukee. The point involved in this case was that the road 
to be built was a commercial railroad and not a street railway. It 
is believed that the incorporators of the company will endeavor to 
secure a new franchise from the city which shall avoid this ob- 

The Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line Railway Co. was or- 
ganized Nov. 19, U)02, with a capitalization of |6,ooo,ooo, une-half 
stock and one-half bonds. This company is to take over the Toledo 
& Monroe Railw.iy, the Michigan & Ohio Railway and the Monroe 
Traction Co. and will extend the line from Monroe to Detroit ; 
$l,ixx),ooo of bonds and stock is to be retained in the treasury of 
the company for future extensions and improvements, such as dou- 
ble tracking. It is the intention of the company to have a private 
tijjht-of-way 66 ft. wide for the entire distance from Detroit to 
Toledo. There yet remains some 30 miles of the line to be con- 
structed. Work has been started and rights-of-way procured; stone 
work for the piers and abutments for bridges is under way and grad- 
ing will be started as soon as the frost is out of the ground. Con- 
tracts for rails, poles, wire and overhead material have been let. 
The directors of the company are Eldredge M. Fowler, Pasadena, 
Cal. ; Arthur Hill. Saginaw. Mich.; Chas. R. Ilannan, Council 
Bluffs, la.; S. J. Murphy, C. A. Black, J. M. Mulkey, A. E. F. 
White, E. A. Flinn, C. J. Really, Detroit, and Matthew Slush, Mt. 
Clemens, Mich. Matthew Slush is president, and Chas. R. Hannan, 
treasurer; Elisha A. Flinn, secretary. 


The Monterey Electric Railway Co. of Monterey, Mcx., has ac- 
quired the Compania Urbanos Fcrrocarriles de Monterey which 
operates about 13 miles by mule power, having 33 cars and 164 mules, 
and a franchise that runs for 66 years with a 6-cent fare authorized; 
the Monterey & Santa Calalina Railroad, commonly known as the 
Slaydcn lines which operates 15 miles having 29 cars and 130 mules, 
and has a franchise with 80 years to run and permitting a 6-cent fare, 
and the Mackin and Dillon concession for all the other streets of 
Monterey which is a 99-year franchise, permitting 10 cent first-class 
and five cent second-class fares within the city limits and double on 
outside lines. 

This last franchise exempts the company from taxation for 20 
years. After that period there is a tax of r per cent on the gross 
receipts for 10 years and 2 per cent thereafter for the next 20 years. 

It is the intention to electrically equip 30 miles of the best lines. 
The company also has a 20-year lease on the baths and park prop- 
erty at Topo Chico. Hot Springs, a famous health resort about three 
miles from Monterey. The company is also planning to give a 
freight service, which, it is estimated, will bring gross receipts of 
$79,000, as against $438,000 passenger receipts. The Monterey Elec- 
tric Railway Co. is represented in this country by Sperry. Jones & 
Co., bankers, of Baltiinore. 


The public utilities of Ft. Scott, Kan., arc all operated by the 
Ft. Scott Consolidated Supply Co.. which was organized Jan. I, 
1901, as a successor to the Ft. Scott Electric Light & Power Co., 
the Citizens' Electric Street Railway Co., the Ft. Scott Gas Co. 
and the Ft. Scott Steam Heating Co. The steam heating service is 
on the Holly system, installed by the American District Steam Co., 
of Lockport, N. Y., and about nine-tenths of the business houses 
along the lines installed use the heat. The street railway comprises 
nine miles of track. The gas plant furnishes an output of about 
20.000,000 cu. ft. per year, the company having 18 miles of mains. 
The officers of the company are: President, Grant Hornaday; vice- 
president, C. F. Martin; secretary, F. A. Hornaday; treasurer and 
superintendent, F. D. Martin. 

The snowstorm on December 29lh canscd a good deal of trouble 
to the Montreal Street Railway Co., and 300 extra men were put at 
work to keep the tracks clean. 

The Tri City Railway Co.. operating in Davenport, la., and Rock 
Island and Moline, III., has adopted the merit system of discipline. 

It is announced that the United States minister ,at Seoul, .^sia, 
has dciTiandcd the prompt payment of the $1,500,000 due the Amer- 
ican firm Colbrau & Bostwick for the construction of the Seoul 
Electric Co's. line. 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 






Kansas Loan & Trust Co. v. Electric Railway, Light & Power Co. 

of Sedalia, Mo. (U. S. C. C, Mo.), 116 Fed. Rep. 907. July 14, 


A feed wire furnished by a lessee of an electric railway may be 
removed by the latter where its only obligation is to take, maintain, 
and restore the leased property in the condition in which it found 
it, and a holder of a prior mortgage from the lessor, with a subse- 
quently acquired property provision, the L'nitcd States circuit court 
holds, does not acquire any lien thereon. 


Brace v. St. Paul City Railway Co. (Minn.), 91 N. W. Rep. 1099. 

Oct. 31, 1902. 

There was evidence in this case tending to show that the plaintiff 
was standing upon the steps, refusing to get off or go back into the 
car, and the supreme court of Minnesota says that it was proper for 
the court to instruct the jury that it was the conductor's duty to 
use such reasonable force as might be necessary to make him get 
off or return into the car. The conductor was charged with the 
duty of conserving the interests of the other passengers. It would 
be unreasonable for a person to take possession of the steps, thus 
preventing the closing of the gates, and hold the car in waiting, and 
the duty devolved upon the conductor in charge of the car to use 
reasonable means to prevent undue delays and interruptions. 


Palmisano v. New Orleans City Railroad Co. (La.), 32 So. Rep. 364. 

March 17, 1902. Rehearing denied June 30. 1902. 

Where urchins have been stealing rides by hanging onto the rear 
end of a gravel train or gravel car drawn by an electric street car 
on the street of a city, the supreme court of Louisana holds that the 
employe in charge of the train, as, for example, the motorman, who 
has in vain tried to make them desist by warnings and threats, is 
entirely justified in catching hold of one of them and lecturing him. 
If the employe's lecture has l>een temperate, and he has not rough- 
used the boy, but has merely held him, and no longer than was nec- 
essary for the purpose of the lecture, he or his employer is not re- 
sponsible if the l)oy (a child eight years, lacking three month, old), 
on being turned loose, runs blindly in a direction converging with 
that of a coming car, and collides with the car and is injured. 


United Railway & Electric Co. of Baltimore City v. Fletcher (Md.), 

52 Atl. Rep. 608. June 19, 1902. 

A city employe standing on the side of a ditch which was three 
feet from the railway track was injured by coming in contact with 
the body of a conductor who was parsing along the footboard at the 
^idc of a moving open summer car. The court of appeals of Mary- 
land holds that it was improper to let the case go to the jury to be 
determined l)y surmise and conjecture, in the absence of reasonable 
evidence of any act of negligence or failure of duty on the part of 
the conductor. It says that the evidence went only so far as to 
«how that the l»dy of the conductor, while passing along the foot- 
lioard of the moving car, struck and injured the man. The conduc- 
tor not only had the right to pass along the footlx)ard of the car 
when it was in motion, but the discharge of his duty required him to 
do so very frequently. It is a well-known f.ict that the footlioard is 
a narrow onf, and a conductor, in order to pass along it in safely, 
especially if he has to lean in iK'twecn the .successive scats lo col- 
lect fares, must, in passing by the upright standards of the car. 

give to his body a swaying or swinging motion. There was no evi- 
dence that the conductor in this case acted in a negligent or unlaw- 
ful manner when passing along the footboard. The entire space be- 
tween the railway track and the ditch was but three feet, a consid- 
erable part of which must have been occupied by the overhanging 
part of the car and the footboard. Under these circumstances the 
mere fact that the man, while standing in the narrow space between 
the car and the ditch, came in contact with the body of the conduc- 
tor, was not per se or in and of itself even prima facie evidence of 
negligence on the part of the latter. 


Gray v. St. Paul City Railway Co. (Minn.), 91 N. W. Rep. 1106. 

Oct. 31, 1902. 

Where street railway tracks occupy a street at the foot of an 
incline which, in conjunction with other streets, forms a system of 
crossings in a populous part of the city, the supreme court of Min- 
nesota holds that it is the duty of the motorman in charge of a 
car coming down the grade to keep a lookout for young children 
approaching the crossings or standing near the tracks, and to take 
reasonable precaution to prevent injury to them, by sounding the 
gong, checking the speed of the train, and holding it under con- 
trol. Moreover, it says that it could make no difference in this case 
that the front part of the car had passed the children, and that the 
boy, who was s years and 9 months of age, came in contact with 
the second part or rear of the train, for the evidence tended to 
show that they were either standing in close pro.ximity to the cars 
at the time the motorman passed them, or that they were approach- 
ing it with the intent of crossing the track, either upon a walk or 
running. It was for the jury to say whether it was reasonably to be 
apprehended that such young children might run into or come in 
collision with the car as it was passing. 

An ordinance providing that "No person having the control of the 
speed of a street railway car passing in a street shall, on the appear- 
ance of any obstruction to his car, fail to stop the car in the shortest 
time and space possible,'' the court holds is not unreasonable, in 
that it requires the stopping of the car without regard to the safely 
of the train and persons therein. It is no more than a declaration 
of the law, and only requires the person in cliarge of the car, upon 
the appearance of an obstruction, to slop the car as .soon as possible 
under the circumstances, with due regard for the safely of the pas- 




State v. Superior Court of King County (Wash.), 7 Pac. Rep. 484. 

Oct. IS, 1902. 

Where a dedicated and iii-'illi-r! street had never l)een improved 
and could not be used for the purposes of :i public street by reason 
of the fact that it was merely a vacant strip of tide land, 66 ft. 
in width, over which the tide regularly and freely ebbed and flowed, 
and it was sought to ascertain the amount of compensation which 
should he paid lo an abutting properly owner on accounl of building 
a railway line and roadway along said sircel. luuler a statute grant- 
ing the power of eminent domain lo electric railway corporalions, 
but providing that said right of eminent doman should not be ex- 
ercised with respect to any residence or business struclure or struc- 
tures, public road or street, it was argued that the company was 
endeavoring to appropriate m public street fur the purposes of its 
railway, in coiUravenlion of the slatiUc. or Ihal it was at least 
unrlertaking I'j bnilil an elevated railway in a public street of the 
city, which it had no right to do, in the absence of direct legislative 
sanction. But the supreme court of Washington does not tliijik that 



[Vol. XIII, No. i. 

the company was cillicr atlcmptiiig lo condemn and appropriate 
to its own use a street, or to construct an "elevated railroad" on a 
street, within the meaning of that phrase, as understood in localities 
where such r.iilwa>s are in common use. An elevated railroad, 
properly S|>cakiiig, it says, is one which is placed above the surface 
of the street which is used hy the general public ; but such was 
not the character of the structure which the company was required 
by the city to erect in this case, where the city, by ordinance, granted 
to the company the privilege of laying its tracks in this platted and 
dedicated street — as it was clearly empowered to do by law — and 
required the company, as compensation for such privileges, to con- 
struct a plank roadway or bridge (designated in the record as a 
"trestle and bridge") not less than 22 feet in width, and upon a 
grade at a height specified in the ordinance, and to maintain the 
same for the use of the public as a street as well as for its railroad 
tracks. It would seem, the court says, that what the company was 
really seeking to do, and what the city required it to do, under its 
franchise, was, not lo condemn and appropriate a street, but virtu- 
ally to make a street where none had theretofore existed. 


Beerman v. Union Railroad Co. (R. I.), 52 Atl. Rep. 1090. July 2, 


A railroad track, whether steam or electric, the supreme court 
of Rhode Island holds, is a place of danger, and a person crossing 
it, whether on foot or in a vehicle, must exercise ordinary care for 
his own safety to exonerate him from the charge of contributory 
negligence, and what is ordinary care under one set of circumstances 
might amount to negligence under a different set of circumstances. 
Ordinary care is such care as a person of ordinary prudence exer- 
cises under the circumstances of the danger to be apprehended. The 
greater the danger the higher the degree of care required to consti- 
tute ordinary care, the absence of which is negligence. It is a ques- 
tion of degree only. 

In this case, a one-horse carriage, going at a slow pace, so slow 
that it could be stopped within a distance of a very few feet, and a 
heavy electric street car, authorized to go at a speed not faster than 
nine miles an hour, collided when approaching one another through 
intersecting streets. The carriage reached the crossing first, and 
the court holds that it had the right of way if, proceeding at a rate 
of speed which, under the circumstances of the time and locality, 
was reasonable, it could safely go upon the tracks in advance of the 
approaching car, the latter being sufficiently distant to be checked, 
and, if need be, stopped, before it should reach the carriage. When 
the driver of the carriage approached the intersection of the streets, 
he was required to do for his own safely and protection what or- 
dinarily careful persons arc accustomed to do under like circum- 
stances. The exercise of ordinary care and prudence required him 
to look and listen for the approaching car before attempting to 
cross the track, and his failure to do so would be the result of his 
own thoughtless inattention, and must be regarded as negligence on 
his part. Whatever the fault of the molornian, it was the duty of 
the driver of the carriage to have looked both ways and to have lis- 
tened before attempting to cross the track, and to have done so 
immediately before crossing the track. One using a vehicle must 
use due care no less than a pedestrian, and the same is true of the 
motorman of an electric car, if each would be free from negligence. 

The phrase "look and listen," used in the books, is simply synony- 
mous with using one's senses to inform the mind of danger that, 
being liable to threaten, must be guarded against. 





Indianapolis Street Railway Co. v. Hockett (Ind. App.), 64 N. E. 

Rep. 633. June 24, 1902. 

A newsboy over 12 years old got on the running board of an open 
car while it was standing still. Me did this for the purpose of sell- 
ing a newspaper in accordance with what he claimed was the cus- 
tom of the company to allow passengers lo be supplied with news- 
papers by boys vending same upon the streets. The conductor was 

on the back platform, and ordered the boy to get off before the car 
started. He also ordered him lo get off just after the car started, 
when it had gone 25 or 30 ft., and was moving at the rate of 2 or 
3 miles an hour. Then the conductor in going toward the front 
end of the car, as it was necessary and as it was his duty lo do lo 
rolled the fares of passengers, went in the direction of the boy, 
and ordered him off. The boy fell and was injured so that his foot 
and ankle had lo be amputated. The appellate court of Indiana, 
division No. 2, reverses a judgment rendered in his favor, and orders 
that the company's motion fur judgment on the answers lo interro- 
gatories notwithstanding the general verdict be sustained. It says 
that if it be conceded that the boy was on the car by permission 
of the company, that permission was withdrawn when he was 
ordered to gel off, when he coulil have done so with safety, and 
thereafter remaining on the car he became a trespasser. The law 
protects a trespasser from willful injury only, and willful injury 
was not claimed or shown in this case. The special findings affirm- 
atively showed thai going in ihe direction of the boy to collect fares, 
as above stated, was all that the conductor did that could have influ- 
enced his actions. It could not be said as a matter of law to be 
negligence to order one who was sui juris or legally capable of 
acting in a matter in his own right and not a passenger to get off a 
car when that order might have been complied with with safety. 
Admitting that it was possible that it might have shown by a per- 
tinent question that the l)oy did not hear he order of the conductor, 
such finding would only go lo the question of his contributory neg- 
ligence, and the question lemained, did the facts show that the com- 
pany was guilty of negligence? The judgment, in view of the spe- 
cial findings, could only have been affirmed upon the ground that 
the company was guilty of negligence in ordering one who was in 
no sense a passenger, who remained upon the car in violation of an 
order, to get off, when such person might have obeyed the order 
with safely, or to hold that the conductor owed it as a duty to the 
boy to ignore his presence, or in silence to allow him to remain 
upon the car until he should choose to leave it. 


O'Toole v. Faulkner (Wash.), 70 Pac. Rep. 58. Sept. 2. 1902. 

This was an action for damages for personal injuries alleged to 
have been sustained through the negligent and careless handling 
of a street car by a motorman in charge of the same employed by 
the party sued, the alleged trustee and operator of the street car 
line. The latter contended that he was simply an agent and was 
therefore not responsible for the negligent acts of the motorman. 
Whatever connection he had with the operation of the street car 
line was under and by virtue of an agreement in writing whereby 
he acknowledged and declared that he bid for the purchase of the 
properly, plant and franchise and assets of a light and power com- 
pany at a sale thereof in pursuance of a decree of court as the agent 
of and in trust of a certain-named committee of Ixandholders of said 
company ; that the money and bonds paid for said property were the 
proper money and bonds of said committee ; and that in considera- 
tion of the terms and one dollar to him paid by the chairman of the 
commitee, he covenanted, promised and agreed lo hold said prop- 
erty as the agent of and in trust for said connnillec to manage, and 
administer the same and operate the plant exactly according to the 
orders and instructions of said committee, and without further or 
additional compensation than his salary as bookkeeper, and to deed, 
convey, transfer and relinquish the possession of all and singidar 
said property, plant, franchise and assets of every name and nature 
to such persons, firms or corporations as might be designated by said 
committee, immediately upon its written request, signed by its chair- 
man or a majority of the members, without any delay or evasion. 

From this agreement the supreme court of Washington thinks 
that he was in control of the operation of the street car line. It 
says that it was true that he was in no sense the real owner, as 
shown by the agreement. The committee was the owner ; but his 
purchase was in trust for the committee, and his agreement was to 
hold the property in trust for the committee, and to manage and 
administer the same. He was the legal owner of the property in 
possession, and was operating it for the benefit of the cestui que 
trust, or beneficiary. It seems to the court that this constitutes ex- 
actly under the law, a trustee. He was operating a public franchise 
as the legal owner. Street car companies must be operated by some 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 



one who is responsible. The committee was not responsible, and 
the responsibility must rest upon the operator, who is the legal 
owner of the property. Neither public policy nor the plainest prin- 
ciples of right will permit this responsibility to be evaded. Being 
the legal owner, and operating the road, he stood in relation of mas- 
ter to the niotorman. .-Knd it is well settled that a trustee is re- 
sponsible for tortious or wrongful acts of a servant, while the bene- 
ficiary of the trust is not. 


Lawshe v. Tacoma Railway & Power Co. (Wash.), 70 Pac. Rep. 

n8. Sept. IS, 1902. 

.\ passenger who requested a transfer to one line was by mistake 
of the conductor given instead a transfer to another line. Not no- 
ticing the mistake, he presented this transfer to the conductor of a 
car on the line to which he asked for the transfer, but the latter 
refused to accept it and demanded fare. He declined to pay fare, and 
was put off the car. Thereafter he brought this action for damages 
on account of the ejection. The supreme court of Washington says 
that an examination of the authorities satisfies it that not only is 
there an irreconcilable conflict in the authorities, but that the weight 
of authority and the better reason sustain the passenger's right to 
recover. It is true that the company has right 10 make regulations 
governing its traffic ; but those regulations are for the benefit of the 
company, they are to a certain extent technical, and are understood 
only by the officers of the company and by travelers who are exceed- 
ingly familiar with them. 

But outside of all authority, the court says it seems to it that in 
accordance with the general principles of law the party should re- 
cover. It is too plain for argument that only the right to sue for 
the recovery of the fare or portion of the fare received by the com- 
pany will be totally inadequate, and, through the plain, everyday 
law governing agency, the company is responsible for the acts of its 
agent and for his mistakes. This mistake it was the duty of the 
company to correct. It must necessarily correct it through its 
agents. It makes no difference, in reason, that the agent who was 
called upon to correct the mistake was another and different agent 
from the one who made the mistake. They were both agents of 
the company, and the act of the first conductor was in effect the 
act of the second conductor, because the acts of both were the acts 
of the company ; the company having, for its own convenience, in- 
trusted its business to two agents instead of one. The contract was 
made when the passenger paid the fare, and it was a contract not 
with any particular agent of the company, but with the company 
through its agents. The first conductor, who made the mistake, 
was not the agent of the passenger, but was the agent of the com- 
pany, and his mistake was, therefore, the mistake of the company. 
If any other rule prevailed, the result would be that the company 
would be allowed to deprive the passenger of part of the benefit of 
his contract on account of the mistake made by the company, and 
for which he was in no wise to blame, for he had a right to assume 
that the conductor furnished him with the transportation for which 
he asked and for which he paid ; it being absolutely impracticable 
for passengers to make technical examination of the transfer slips 
which they receive. And he ought to have redress for the company's 
violation of the obligation which it assumed. 


Consumers' Electric Light & Street Railroad Co. v. Pryor (Fla.), 

32 So. Rep. 797. Feb. 18, 1902. 

The supreme court of Florida .says that the act of 1891 defining 
the liability of railroad companies in certain cases (Rev. St. Append,, 
p, 1008. c. 4071) has \>ctn regarded by it, in unwritten opinions, as 
ap[>licahlc to street railroads; but it has not been considered as 
rhanginK the rule of alleging negligence in such cases to the extent 
of requiring only an allegation of injury or damage by the rinming 
of locomotives, cars or other machinery of the defendant company. 

The statute does not undertake to fi.x arbitrarily liability for an 
injury done, but there is a presumption of negligence under it, aris- 
nig from the injury or damage. 

The measure of duty under ihc act of i8yi is all ordinary and 
reasonable care and diligence, which means care proportionate to 
the dangers to be avoided, so that what will constitute the amoiuU 
or kind of diligence required will vary under different circum- 
stances, as the terms "ordinary" and "reasonable" are relative, and 
what under some conditions would be ordinary and reasonable dili- 
gence might under other conditions amount to even gross negligence. 
Street cars, regardless of the power by which they are impelled, 
have no superior rights to other vehicles or pedestrians at regular 
street crossings, in the absence of a specific legislative grant, but 
their rights are equal and in common, and impose correlative duties 
on the respective parties. 

The employes of a street car company in operating cars have the 
right to presume that a pedestrian will exercise ordinary and rea- 
.sonable care to avoid injury from moving cars, and they are not 
required to stop a car until it becomes evident to a person of ordi- 
nary and reasonable care and prudence that the pedestrian has 
failed in his duty, and has placed or is about to place himself in a 
perilous situation. The duty, however, devolves upon the employes 
to keep a vigilant lookout for persons on or approaching the track, 
especially at street crossings, and, when they are discovered to be in 
danger or going into danger on the track, to use every effort con- 
sistent with the safety of passengers to avoid injuring such per- 
sons. Where the employes could have seen by the exercise of ordi- 
nary care a crowd of people coming out of a church and crossing 
the track at a regular crossing, while the car was at least 200 feet 
away, it was their duty to see the crowd of people in a situation of 
danger, by approaching and going across the track in front of the 
car at a regular street crossing, and it then became the duty of the 
employes to use every effort consistent with the safety of passen- 
gers to avoid injuring the crowd of people. Conceding that the car 
could have approached the crossing under the assumption that the 
crowd would leave the track, still the presence of human beings 
I hereon, and the apparent situation of danger to them, imposed upon 
the agents of the company the duty to so approach the crowd as to 
avoid injury, if possible — even to the stopping of the car if neces- 
sary. The company has no right, of course, to run into a crowd of 
people, though they disregard their duty and do not leave the track. 


Chicago City Railway Co. v. Fennimore (111,), 64 N. E. Rep. 985. 

Oct. 25, 1902. 

A woman who started at a street corner in Chicago to cross the 
street diagonally to take a car looked twice for coming cars and 
after waiting for a cable train to pass on the nearer track started 
to cross behind it and was struck by the grip car of a train on the 
farther track. The evidence tended very strongly to show that what- 
ever headlight there was on this grip car was very dim in its char- 
acter, and insuflicient to enable a person at even a short distance 
ahead of the train to sec its approach upon a dark night. The su- 
preme court of Illinois affirms a judgment in the woman's favor. 

It is the doctrine of this court, it says, that drivers, gripmen, 
and motormen of street cars are obliged to exercise a more exact- 
ing attention when they approach street crossings in a crowded city, 
where vehicles and i)edestrians may always be expected in front 
of them. Although no ordinance limiting the speed at which cable 
cars were allowed to run in the streets of Chicago was introduced, 
yet in each case it must be a question for the jury to decide 
whether or not, under the facts and circumstances of that particu- 
lar case, the speed is or is not a dangerous or unrea.sonable rate of 
speed. A railroad company in the running of its trains is always 
required to use ordinary care and prudence to guard against injury 
10 the persons or property of those who may be rightfully traveling 
upon the public streets, and this is true whether there is a statutory 
regulation upon the subject or not. 

Where a cable train is running along the street in a city like 
Chicago on a dark and somewhat foggy night, with a headlight so 
small and dim as scarcely to be noticeable, or, if noticeable, likely 
to be mistaken for some other light, Ihc court is not prepared to 



[Vou XIII, No. I. 

say that it is error to submit to ilic jury the question whether the 
company propt-lliiig such train under such circumstances is or is 
not guilty of negligence. The question did not arise here whether 
the speed of the car might have been justilialile if the headlight had 
lieen in giwd condition, but uilh such a headlight as the evidence 
showed, it would seem to have Iwen the duly of the persons pro- 
pelling the car lo run it at a rctluced rate of speed. 

Ihe question whether or nut it was negligence nut to look a 
third time, after Ihe train on the nearer track had passed, was one 
for the jury to determine under the inslruclioiis of the court. An- 
ticipation of negligence in others is not a duty which the law im- 
poses. In this case the company owed il, as a duty to this woman 
and lo the public generally, to equip its trains with proper head- 
lights. When she started across the street she had the right to 
assume that it would perform this duty, and had a right to rely 
upon the belief that no train would approach without a proper 
headlight. If she saw no headlight, she had a right to assume that 
no train was approaching. It has twen held that the traveler is not 
at fault in failing to look and listen, if he is misled without his fault. 
There may be various circumstances which excuse him from stop- 
ping to look and listen, and, if the evidence tends to show that 
there was such an excuse, the existence of it is a matter for the 
determination of the jury, and to be submitted to them. 


City of Springfield v. Springfield Street Railway Co. (Mass.), 64 

N. E. Rep. 577. July 15, 1902. 

A grant of a location for the extension of tracks was conditioned, 
among other things, that all materials used and all the details of 
Ihe construction of the tracks, should be to the acceptance of the 
supervisors of highways and bridges, who, under the city ordi- 
nances, had general supervision of all public highways, streets, ave- 
nues, and bridges of the city. The tracks were constructed in 
accordance with the terms of the grant, T-rails being used, which 
were approved by the board of supervisors. Subsequently, on ac- 
count of the rails used on one track being of somewhat greater 
depth and weight than those used on the other track, the company 
took up the lighter rails, and laid some of the same type, size and 
weight as the others, these being rendered necessary to provide 
for the safety and comfort of the public, in consequence of in- 
creased travel. In making the change it expended a large sum of 
money and dug up a portion of the surface of the street, but re- 
stored it to the same condition in which it was before the change. 
It did not apply for or obtain permission from the board of super- 
vistors to dig up the surface of the street or substitute the new 
rails, but the omission to do so was accidental and without any 
purpose to evade or violate the law, and, for aught that appeared, 
the city authorities stood by and saw the work go on without objec- 
tion. Under these circumstances, the supreme judicial court of 
Massachusetts holds that the city was not entitled to have the rails 
removed. It says that the only reason urged why the company 
should be compelled to take up the rails because it did not obtain 
the permission of the supervisors was that, for the purpose of im- 
proving the avenue, the supervisors intended to harden its surface, 
and to require a grooved rail to be laid when the old rails were 
removed. But this does not seem to it to be an adequate reason. 
It says that if it assumes that the supervisors could have required 
a grooved rail to be laid, it is nevertheless of the opinion that, 
under the circumstances shown, the city was not entitled to an in- 
junction compelling the removal of the rails that were laid. 

Chapter 578 of the Statutes of 1898, which was intended to com- 
mute into money payments to cities and towns the burdens imposed 
upon street railways in regard to the care of streets, the court holds 
abrogates conditions in other than grants of original or first location 
with regard to paving and keeping in repair the surface material of 
streets. It holds this constitutional, because, for one thing, it seems 
to it that the locations given to street railway companies in public 
streets by cities and towns in Massachusetts do not constitute con- 
tracts, or, ff they do, that they are of such a nature that the legisla- 

ture can modify or annul them without tl'ereby violating the con- 
stitutional provosions. Except over private premises, they are, it 
seems to it, in the nature of a privilege or permit lo use the public 
ways given by cities and towns by virtue of authority from the 
legislature for the purpose of facilitating public travel and accom- 
modation. They arc analogous to licenses given to run omnibuses 
along certain routes, though, of course, to make the analogy com- 
plete, Ihe omnibuses would have to be built so as to run on rails 
laid in the streets. They convey no exclusive rights in the high- 
ways or streets in which they are granted, but are lo be used in 
common with others having occasion to use the public ways. The 
public authorities retain, in the main, full control over the streets 
or ways in which they exist, and may revoke the location, or alter 
or discontinue the ways, without liability to damages therefor, and 
subject only to such limitations, if any, as the legislature may see fit 
10 impose. 




Doud v. Delaware, Susquehanna & Schuylkill Railroad Co. (Pa.), 52 
All. Rep. 249. June 4, 1902. 
This action was brought to recover damages for injuries which a 
conductor on a street car sustained by a locomotive running into 
same just as he had got upon the car, after he had, according to his 
testimony, gone over to the railroad track, looked and listened, and 
neither hearing or seeing an engine, it being a wet, foggy, dark night, 
signaled the car to come forward. The supreme court of Pennsyl- 
vania affirms a judgment in his favor, against Ihe railroad company, 
on the opinion of the court below, which held that the evidence did 
not present a case of contributory negligence on his part in attempt- 
ing to cross the railroad company's tracks, so clear and unmistakable 
that, notwithstanding the verdict of the jury in his favor, the court 
must so pronounce it as a matter of law, and enter judgment for the 
company. The court below said that, after a thorough review of the 
testimony, it was satisfied that whether the conductor was negligent 
in attempting the crossing, under all the circumstances, was a ques- 
tion of fact for the jury. He had a right to assume that due notice 
would be given of the approach of the engine by whistle and bell, 
and, if necessity required the engine lo run backwards, that a suffi- 
cient light would be displayed lo warn him of its coming. While 
great responsibility rested upon him, as upon his care and vigilance 
depended the lives of forty or more passengers, still the court 
thought he was not so plainly chargeable with negligence as he 
would have been had he been a pedestrian, with his own safety 
alone to look out for, and no car to engage his attention. There 
could be no doubt that he would have saved himself had he turned 
and looked just before taking hold of his car and mounting the 
step. Was he bound to do this, or be charged with negligence? 
The court did not think so. He had a right to assume that the 
railroad company would do its duty, and give him notice of the ap- 
proach of a train in time for him 10 make the crossing in safety 
with his car, if he had before the warning signaled his motorman 
to come ahead, which signal was being promptly obeyed, and the car 
on its way across the tracks. If, therefore, he had the right to 
assume that his car loaded with passengers would get across in 
safety, he could not be charged with negligence in attempting to 
cross upon it without again looking up the track for an approaching 
engine. At the same time, the court said that it was not unmindful 
of the fact that the highest degree of care devolved upon the con- 
ductor when he approached the crossing, as upon his watchfulness 
depended the lives of a car full of passengers, and it intimated that, 
under the testimony, the jury would have been justified in finding 
hiin negligent, though it did not think the case was so clear that 
the doctrine of legal presumption be invoked to prevent his recov- 

An electric railway is to he built at an early date connecting 
Jonesboro and Johnson City, Tenn. The line will be eight miles 
in length and will be used for both passenger and freight traffic. 

In order to do away with annoyances resulting from car lights 
going out at street crossings, the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Rail- 
way Co. is installing overhead troli.ey wires for use in Wheaton. 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 




The Wheeling Traction Co., of Wheeling. W. Va., presented each 
of its employes on New Year's with a $5 gold piece. This inchided 
the trackmen and other employes as well as the inotonncn and con- 
ductors, so that about 400 men were recipients of the company's 

The Pittsburg Railways Co., of Pittsburg, Pa., distributed nearly 
$30,000 to 2.400 men on Christmas. This was the premium money 
promised si.\ months ago by the company to motormen and conduc- 
tors as rewards for care in avoiding accidents during the si.\ months 
ending November 30th. About 80 per cent of the motormen and 
conductors employed by the company participated in the premium 
distribution. About 300 of the 2,400 men had small accident charges 
which aggregated less than the amount of their premiums and these 
men were presented with this difference. There has been a remark- 
able freedom from serious accidents on the company's line during 
this period, and the result is considered highly creditable both to the 
management and to the employes. 

The St. Joseph Railway, Light, Heat & Power Co., of St. Joseph, 
Mo., gave a Christmas dinner to its employes and their families at 
the employes' club rooms at which 400 people were served. The 
dinner was served from II till 3 o'clock, and again from 5 to 8 
o'clock, the time being arranged so that every one of the employes 
might be able to participate. Open house was kept at the employes' 
club rooms all through the day, and many friends of the company 
participated in the festivities. 

The Connecticut Railway & Lighting Co., of Norwalk, Conn., had 
a unique Christmas celebration for its employes. A Christmas tree 
was fitted up at the company's barn in Meadow St., and a present 
approrpiate for each one was hung upon the tree. 

The conductors on the railways operating in Jersey City were 
generously remembered by the traveling public at Christmas time. 
A suggestion was made in one of the daily papers to remember the 
conductors and motormen on that day, and thousands of passengers 
paid double fares, while many persons who could afford to do so 
gave the conductors bills and took back no change. One of the con- 
ductors received as much as $14 from passengers, while, so far as 
known, %4 was the smallest amount received by any of the men. 

The Chester Traction Co., of Chester, Pa., gave a turkey dinner to 
nearly 200 of its employes on Christmas. The dinner took place 
from 10 in the morning till 4 in the afternoon and was held in the 
large rooms over the company's office. 

The employes of the Macon Railway & Light Co., of Macon, Ga., 
were presented, by order of the president of the company, with two 
days' extra wages as a Christmas gift. The gift was tendered to all 
of the company's employes, the average being about $3 to each man. 

The Dayton, Springfield & Urbana Electric Railway Co., and the 
Columbus, London & Springfield Electric Railway Co. remembered 
their employes at Christmas time in a substantial way. Married men 
each received a turkey and the single men $1 each. The employes 
of both companies numbered about 225 men. 

On the evening of January 6th the Lancaster County (Pa.) Rail- 
way & Light Co. gave its annual dinner to the employes of its vari- 
ous subsidiary companies. At 8:30 all traffic on the various lines 
of the company was suspended and all employes from President 
Given down were present at the dinner. After the serious work of 
the evening a number of speeches were made by officers of the 
company and invited guests. A report was made on the employes' 
relief association which now has a total membership of 190. Presi- 
dent Given announced that the company would donate $200 to the 
association and that he personally would pay the initiation fee of 100 
members, if that number could be secured by the association. 


'I he Indianapolis & Northwestern Traction Co. has incorporated 
with a capital stock of $2,500,000. It was incorporated last Febru- 
ary under the name of the Indianapolis, Lebanon & Frankfort Trac- 
tion Co. with $25,000 capital sKxk, but on December I7tli the name 
was changed to the Indiana|>olis & Northwestern and the capital 
stock increased to $2,500,000, with the privilege of increasing this 
to %3fiOOjooo by additional common or preferred stock. It has issued 

$3,000,000 of bonds, which entire issue was t.iken by Tucker, 
Anthony & Co. 

Ihe road is now under construction bftweiii Indian.ipolis and 
Frankfort and is e-xpected to be in operation to the latter place by 
July 1st. The Crawfordsville branch is to be put in operation by 
September ist. and by the following month it is expected to be 
oi)encd through from Indianapolis to La Fayette. Failure to estab- 
Isih service on the days named involves a heavy penalty. 

This line was promoted by Townsend, Reed & Co., and is financed 
by Tucker, Anthony & Co., of Boston. The officers of the company 
are: President, George Townsend, Indianapolis; vice-president, 
Phillip L. Saltonstall, Boston; secretatry, Winthrop Smith, Rostim ; 
treasurer, Chauncey Eldridge, Boston. Thomas Pettigrew, Bosinn, 
will be resident engineer of the system. 


The accompanying illustration shows the method of treating flat 
commutators which has been used by Mr. R. M. Howard, manager 
of the State Electric Co., of Clinton, la., which he states is par- 
ticularly effective for armatures of more than one coil per slot in 
case of any trouble from flattening or blackening. These difficulties 
are rectified by taking a common three-cornered file and filing out 
the mica between the bars until the file touches on both bars. Mr. 
Howard states that he has treated over 200 commutators in this way 
in a number of different shops and localities and the result has been 


extremely satisfactory in every instance. The mica should be filed 
out as far as a three-cornered file will reach until it touches the seg- 
ments on each side. 

The commutator treated in this way will wear true and bright 
and will give less trouble from short circuiting than one in which 
the mica is in the usual condition. The dust does not stay in the 
slot and as the surface of the mica will measure about twice as 
much as in the usual way the insulation is higher between bars. An 
explanation of this may be that many commutators are assembled 
with too hard a grade of mica and the copper will wear faster than 
the mica, making the surface uneven and causing flashing and buck- 
ing which will ultimately flat the commutator. This method of 
treating comniulaors is especially recommended in cases where 
motors or generators have more than one coil per slot in the arma- 


Mr. Percy Warner, president of the Nashville ( Icnn.) Railway 
Co., has announced that the company has decided to change from 
the present gage of 4 ft. 11^ in. to standard. This change will 
involve an expenditure of about $50,000 more than was contem- 
plated for the improvements intended, and is made with a view to 
permitting proposed inlerurban lines to enter the City of Nashville 
over the local company's tracks. 

Ground was broken January 71I1 for llie Tennessee Inlerurban 
Electric Railway Co., the occasion being celebrated in an appro- 
priate manner. 


In the case of Goddard against the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railroad Ihe appellate court of Illinois has deiided that cily 
councils or boards of supervisors may grant street railway fran 
chises to corporations only and not to indiviiluals. This ruling, if 
affirmed by the supreme court, may invalidate many franchises. 

The first car over the Wheeling & l'!lin Grove line was started 
over the road at noon December 31st. 



[Vol. XIII, No. i. 


The idea of laying broad slccl tr.icks on rails in public streets and 
highways for the nsc of all horse-drawn wagons and vehicles and 
automobiles has received a new impetus from experiments with steel 
roadways now iK-ing carried on in one of the busy down town 
streets of New York City. The subject is one of importance and 
quite as much so to the electric railway fraternity as to any other 
interests, inasmuch as the scheme is proposed as an efTcctive means 
of drawing all heavy trucking from the car tracks and thus remov- 
ing the pincipal obstacle to street car traOic, 

The idea of Unying steel trackways for expediting the movement 

rods placed ij ft. 4 in. apart, and which extend from the outer 
llange of one channel to the outer flange of the other, the holding 
iiuls being on the outside of the outer flanges, 'i'hesc rods keep the 
channels from spreading, and to keep them from narrowing from 
gage a piece of ^ in. standard gas pipe is slipped over each rod so 
the ends of the pipe will bear against the inner flanges of both 

1'he paving is laid flush with the top of the channels. In future 
work it is the intention to roll the plates with certain depressions 
ni the top face of the channels and also along the ridges to catch 
the toe-corks of horses and give them better footing. General 
Stone is authority for the statement that the steel trackway can be 

/2'Sf£f//>L. CHflfVNEL . 

J- ail s reCL. /^o 


,^"jr/ir^a')ffoaAS pips 

/£'SP'^C//>L C/y/?A/A/£L 

■ /i'MOLES //VBOr/^/=^/>/V0CA^ 



of general vehicular traftic in public streets is not altogether a new 
one, as experimental sections of track have been laid in various 
places in this country and abroad, notably at Valencia, Spain, in 
1892; at Pittsburg in 1897. and at Jolict, 111., in 1896. 

The present experiment in New York probably has a better back- 
ing than any similar attempt to determine all the advantages and 
disadvantages of the scheme. Gen. Roy Stone, U. S. A., first be- 
came interested and brought the matter to the attention of the 
Automobile Club of America, an organization of prominent automo- 
bile owners. The Automobile Club at once voted an appropriation 
to further experimental work in this direction, and General Stone 
and Mr. Selignian, the New Y'ork banker, were designated a sub- 
committee to procure the steel for the trial road and also to inter- 
view the city authorities in reference to locations. The sub-com- 
mittee found President Cantor of the Borough of Manhattan, and 
also City Engineer Olney favorably disposed toward the scheme, 
and it was arranged to lay three experimental sections of track : 
one section on Murray St. between Broadway and Church St., 
which is a heavy trucking thoroughfare; one section in the neigh- 
borhood of Central Park, where automobiles and light carriages 
would use it ; and a third section on one of the earth roads farther 
uptown, the idea being to test the scheme under varying conditions 
of pavement and traffic. 

Messrs. Stone and Selignian also called upon Charles M. Schwab, 
president of the United States Steel Corporation, who entered 
heartily into the project and not only agreed to have special rolls 
prepared for making the tracks, but volunteered to furnish one mile 
of material free of cost. 

After some delay a resolution was passed by the New York Board 
of Aldermen permitting the laying of the tracks in the Murray St. 
section. The work was commenced in last November and was fin- 
ished the following month. As laid in Murray St., New York, the 
track comprises two special shaped steel channels laid 5 ft. 6 in. 
centers. Each channel is 12 in. across the top, '4 '"■ i" thickness, 
and has two flanges 3 in. deep. The channels arc flat on top, except 
at either edge there is a ridge about l^ in. high lo act as. a slight 
wheel guide. The channels arc rolled in 40-ft. sections and the 
sections arc joined by two lo^sX3X*^-in. fish plates at each joint. 
These plates fit on the outside of each flange and are riveted in place. 
At each joint there is a third plate, pJ^XSX^-'i-. which fits against 
the under side of the broad face of the channels and is also riveted 
in place. 

In laying the steel trackway it is usual to dig a trench 17 in. 
wide by 17 in. deep along the line of each rail. In the bottom of 
each trench is laid a layer of cobble stones. The trench is then 
partly filled with broken stone, screening I'/i in., and the remainder 
is filled up to the top with gravel. The channels are laid in the 
jiravel and by means of tamping blocks are driven down flush with 
the street level. The channels arc held to gage by ^-\n. steel tie 

built for about $4,000 per mile of single track. From recent tests 
fl. is evident that vehicles of all descriptions can be hauled over 
these trackways with from 40 to 60 per cent less pulling force than 
on regulation stone paving or ordinary dirt roads. 

From consular reports it appears that the steel trackways at 
Valencia, Spain, have been a great success. The road between 
Valencia and Grao is 2 miles in length and the cost was as fol- 
lows: Steel construction, $6,890; transportation and laying steel 


construction, $507 ; binding stone construction between rails and 
lateral zones, $2,109; total, $9,506. The municipality of Valencia 
is of the opinion that the saving in cost of repairs for a road of 
this description, as compared with an ordinary flint stone road, 
pays for its construction in a short time, and other similar road- 
ways are in contemplation. 

Concerning the steel roadway at Joliet, Mr. Abel Bliss writes as 
follows: "The track was put down April 2, 1896, on a dirt road 
of typical Illinois soil, and consisted of <,teel rails, !4 in. thick, 8 
in. wide, with a flange 3 in. deep turned down on either side and 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 



a }i in. flange turned up on the outer edges to keep the wheels on 
the rails. These rails were let into the ground so the flat part 
rested on the earth and were fastened together at the ends by fish 
plates which are so constructed as to run the wheels on to the 
rails after passing a team. The earth between the rails was re- 
moved to a depth of 4 in. and the space filled with gravel for a 
tread for the horses. These roads have been tested with all kinds 
of loads, including traction engines, and have retained their posi- 
tion well. While the mud formerly made the road almost im- 
passable during the winter a team could have trotted on this road- 
way any day with a 2-ton load. About 50 tons of steel per mile 
is required, having the rails '/4 in. thick, which I think is ample." 

The accompanying drawings showing details of the steel roadway 
as laid in Murray St., New York, were furnished us through the 
courtesy of Gen. Roy Stone, 860 Broadway, New York. 



On Sept. 12, 1902, the plant of the American Car Co., at St. 
Louis, was sold by the trustees, the purchasers incorporating 
as the American Car & Truck Co. The old American Car Co. hav- 
ing been legally dissolved, its successor took the old name and is 
now operating the plant under the name of the American Car Co. 
The entire plant, assets and patterns are now owned by the new 
company, which has remodeled the plant with new machinery and 
greater facilities and a large stock of seasoned lumber. This com- 
pany has made an arrangement with the J. G. Brill Co., of Phila- 
delphia, for the use of its patents, drawings and patterns of all the 
different types of cars, both of the regular pattern and of the Brill 
patented convertible, semi-convertible and "Narragansett" types; 
also of the various Brill supplies, such as patented angle iron bump- 
ers, patented "Dedenda" gongs, patented ratchet brake handles, con- 
ductor gongs, gates, Littell & Brill track scrapers, and others. The 
company has also ascquired the Brownell car works at executor's 
sale, which puts it in possession of all the records, patterns and 
patents of the Brownell Car Co. The American Car Co. is now 
in a position to furnish cars of the Brill, Brownell or American Car 
Co's. types and also all supplies pertaining to any of these com- 
panies, and to bid on specification work of any kind of cars for 
street and interurban railways. 

The officers of the American Car Co. are: President, John A. 
Brill ; vice-president, Samuel A. Curwen ; treasurer, James Rawle. 


\Vc learn that a new corporation is about to be formed under the 
laws of Maine, to put on the market an automatic electric trolley 
signal. The officers and stockholders of this company are members 
of the firm of L. C. Chase & Co., of Boston, and of Sanford Mills, 
Sanford, Me., also several prominent railroad men, and some of 
the original promoters of the United States Electric Signal Co. The 
new signal is a single-wire system and is presented as cheaper to 
install than other systems now in use. The system involves the 
use of lights and semaphores working independently and thus dou- 
bling the security of the system. The company has taken out sev- 
eral broad patents covering the single-wire system, and has applied 
for numerous other patents covering details. 


Mr. N. A. Christenscn, of Milwaukee, has arranged for opening 
a branch in Philadelphia to handle his eastern business in air com- 
pressors. This office will be in charge of Mr. H. A. Pike, who will 
have headquarters at No. 906 Real Estate Trust BIdg., Phila- 
delphia. The increase in business which has made this arrange- 
ment necessary must be very gratifying to Mr. Christensen, and we 
congratulate him upon the expansion. 

Tlic Danville (III.) Street Railway and Light Co, will introduce 
express can on its line at an early dale. The company has secured 
a franchise (or a loop in the city and has purchased a lot for the 
erection of an express depot. 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Co., Kansas City, Mo., lately 
placed an order with Pawling & Harnischfeger, Milwaukee, Wis., 
for an electric traveling crane which has quite a number of unusual 

This machine will have a main hosting capacity of 60 tons, though 
to withstand a 75-ton test. In connection with the main trolley will 
be an auxiliary hoist of 10 tons' capacity, and the main trolley will 
have a lift of 58 ft. and the auxiliary hoist of 66 ft. The total span 
of bridge will be 70 ft. s in. 

From this it will be seen that- this crane is very large, indeed, for 
power-house purposes, yet in fact is strictly modern practice in giv- 
ing due consideration to future contingencies. The bridge will be of 
riveted bo.x section, with the cage attached to the left-hand side. 
The length of the runway will be 248 ft., and the weight of rails 
100 lb. per yard. 

The speeds per minute that will be supplied are as follows: Main 
hoist, full load, 10 ft. ; light, 25 ft. Auxiliary hoist, full load, 20 ft. ; 
light, 60 ft. Bridge travel, full load, 200 ft.; light, 250 ft. Trolley 
travel, full load, 100 ft.; light, 150 ft. The motors are: Main 
hoist, 60 h. p.; auxiliary hoist, 20 h. p.; bridge, 30 h. p.; trolley, 15 
h. p. The voltage to be used is that of the standard railway prac- 
tice, namely 500 volts. This crane is to be installed in the Missouri 
River power house of the Metropolitan Street Railway Co. and is 
to be used for the erection of machinery and repairs thereto. The 
approximate shipping weight of the crane complete in all respects 
will be 155,000 lb. 


The Third Annual Reports of the British Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Co., Ltd., London, Eng., shows a material increase 
in the company's business. Hereafter orders received by this com- 
pany will be executed at the Trafford Park plant, Manchester, Eng. 
A construction department has been organized to carry on building 
and general construction work. This will be under the manage- 
ment of Mr. James C. Stewart, of the firm of James C. Stewart & 
Co., whose record for quick and excellent work is well known. 
.^mong the important orders received by the British Westinghouse 
Co. during 1902 were those for the Metropolitan District Railway 
Co., the Metropolitan Railway Co., the Clyde Valley Electric Power 
Co., the London United Tramways Co., the Bath Tramways Co., 
the Exeter Corporation, the New Castle Corporation, and the Swan- 
sea Corporation. 

The preferred capital stock of the company is to be increased 
by $15,000,000, the bulk of the original capital having been absorbed 
in building and equipping the manufacturing works. 


W. T. Van Dorn, of Chicago, reports that tlic coupler business 
was never before in better shape, and states that all of the largest 
elevated, underground and surface electric roads of the world have 
now adopted or are on the point of adopting the Van Dorn system of 
coupling as standard. This is certainly a recommendation that has 
seldom, if ever, been equaled in any line of manufacturing activity. 
The latest of the larger transportation companies to adopt the Van 
Dorn coupling is the Intcrborough Rapid Transit Co., which com- 
pany will operate the Rapid Transit Suliway road of New York City. 
The order given by this company is for 1,000 of the latest improved 
Van Dorn couplings. 

Among other large orders received just at the close of 1902 or Ihe 
beginning of 1903 are the following: An order for 2(Jo draw-bars 
from the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., and 240 draw-bars from the 
John Stephenson Co., also for use in Brooklyn ; an order for 492 
additional equipments from the Manhattan Railway Co. of New 
York City; an order for 20 car equipments from the John Stephen- 
son Co. for the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Electric Ry. Mr. Van 
Dorn begins the New Year with orders on hand, or tenders for, 
something over 2,700 couplings for elevated roads alone in addition 
lij the matiy orders from interurban and city electric railway .systems. 



[Vol. XIII. No. i. 


While the beauty of perfect finish is one of the pleasing features 
of a newly painted street car and one which is likely to axcite ad- 
miration, it should be borne in mind that under this extreme sur- 
facing there lurks a danger, which is the absence of durability. Per- 
fect finish cannot be accepted as an excuse for ignoring well-known 
rules in regard to the application ol paint, or its action in conjunc- 
tion with that to which it is joined. Nor should it act as a mantle to 
conceal from view the improper assembling of oils and spirits eni- 
br.iccd in the paint. The uniting of successive coats of paint vir- 
tually into one body should be done with one paramount idea, name- 
ly, durability. In the matter of selecting the ingredients which con- 
stitute these coats it would certainly be folly to incorporate into any 
material used an element for the sole purpose of subsequently pro- 
ducing a hard, brittle surface which is positively necessary in cases 
where an absolutely level surface is demanded. This practice in 
no way warrants the cost of labor required to accomplish it, for 
owing to the comparatively brief life of the paint as a whole, re- 
sulting from this method of painting, the ultimate expense of re- 
painting would be excessive. The waste of time and material in 
repeatedly applying coats of varnish and then laboriously rubbing 
it partly off with pumice in the attempt to imitate the finish of a 
private carriage is not compensate<l for by the appreciation of the 
public. Admitting, as experience has taught, that to obtain the best 
results when applying one coat of varnish over another it is essen- 
tial that the gloss on the first coat should be removed, it does not 
follow that it is a wise policy to remove 50 per cent of the most val- 
uable protective portion of the painting material on the car in order 
to procure a mirror-like surface. This is indeed a most unwise pro- 
ceeding as the life of the varnish on the car when in service is there- 
by diminished in a corresponding degree. 

It is not the purpose of this article to speak disparagingly of perfect 
finish, for painters who have been long associated with car work 
delight in its attractive appearance and it should be the aim to se- 
cure this quality, as far as is possible consistent with its ultimate 
durability. In securing a perfect finish it must not be expected that 
it can be produced jointly with elasticity which is the well-known 
requisite for great permanence. One of these qualities must be sub- 
ordinated to the other as the case may be. The more brittle surface 
cannot be expected to compete with an clastic one in the matter of 
long life, nor can a tough rubber-like surface be leveled evenly, 
which perfect finish demands. 

Wood is constituted so that the least change in atmospheric con- 
ditions causes it to shrink or expand and it must therefore be appar- 
ent that where the car is exposed to zero temperature for three or 
four hours and is suddenly run into the pit room with the ther- 
mometer recording 70 deg., where it will often remain a number of 
days before it is sent out, perhaps during a spell of stormy weather, 
the wood must, in the meantime, have contracted and expanded con- 
siderably under the influence of these differnt conditions. 

And what about the paint during a disturbing period of this 
nature? It certainly cannot remain quiet during the time that its 
foundation, to which it is firmly fixed, is undergoing so many 
changes. If there has not been incorporated into the paint when pre- 
pared some vehicle which, when applied, would allow it to remain in 
an elastic state it cannot withstand the stretching to which it will 
be subjected under these circumstances. It has no alternative but 
to part in sections, thereby producing the small fissures which arc 
the precursors of an early decay of the paint in general. This crack- 
ing of the surface marks the time when the value of the paint as a 
protection begins to decrease. 

Much better results in painting might be gained if the study of the 
action of the surfaces to be treated were given more attention. Dif- 
ferent coats of paint applied successively, form as they dry, strata 
which arc closely united to each other, although not absolutely so. 
In view of this fact, for example, the result when a car is required 
to be quickly painted. Two coats of keg lead in oil are mixed with 
turpentine and applied. Over this, with the evident object of ac- 
celerating the work, two coals of Japan color are placed in quick 
succession. The whole is then finally finished with two coats of var- 
nish, presumably finishing varnish. The dry priming which 
forms an elastic film on the wood readily responds to every motion 
of the latter, but the middle coats being of a brittle nature cannot 

withstand the expansion they arc bound to receive sooner or later 
and break apart, disclosing through a multitude of minute fissures 
the color of the priming below. In this case the varnish and prim- 
ing will remain intact, and so would the color coat if in the begin- 
ning it had been mixed to produce a corresjwndingly elastic film. 
It would then have retained its original smooth appearance instead 
of being defaced by innumerable cracks the effect of which is to 
change its color in a marked degree due to the disclosure of the 
priming underneath. 

These conditions, which are quite prevalent, result undoubtedly in 
most cases from failure to study thoroughly the theory of the subject 
and forcibly illustrate the danger of applying any painting material 
which, when subsequently changed into a solid will become a fixed 
film adhering to an elastic body. The result of such a combination 
must be apparent. 

Practitioners of the old school of car painting who consumed a 
great amount of time in the completion of their work do not de- 
serve perhaps all the praise with which they are accredited for pro- 
ducing durable results. They failed to observe the conditions just 
explained by applying three and sometimes four coats of hard dry- 
ing varnish on panels for the specific purpose of developing an abso- 
lutely level surface. This is suflicient proof that they failed to grasp 
the possibilities in regard to extreme durability probably owing to 
the unlimited time which enabled them to make use of a maximum 
amount of oil in the preparation of their formulas. If they had used 
finishing varnish in connection with this work instead of extra time, 
and had been content with a reasonable amount of varnish on the 
work the possibilities of permanent results would have been as un- 
limited as the time they used so freely. 

It is not the object of a modern street railway company to main- 
tain at considerable expense a painting department for the exclusive 
purpose of embellishing its equipment to the highest degree. It is 
not the intent that all the energy of the painting department should 
be concentrated in the development of extreme display, but it is ex- 
pected that the company should receive adequate returns for the 
money it invests by giving to all of its rolling stock all the protec- 
tion that is possible under existing conditions. 

Very quick drying paint and hard drying varnish should have no 
place in the painting department of a street railway repair shop 
which is supposed to work upon a paying basis. Consequently there 
will be no material on hand necessary for the successful operation 
of producing perfect finish. With the best of finishing varnish that 
money can buy, together with choice pigments and pure vehicles as- 
sembled and ground under the supervision of the head of the depart- 
ment in a judicious manner, it is safe to say that after a lapse of a 
dozen years or more the results would more than justify the original 
expense of application and the cars would present during this time 
a continuously neat and dignified appearance which would be com- 
mended by all who criticize from the standpoint of a reasonable basis. 

No doubt the failure to produce better results in painting lies in 
the fact that cause and effect arc seldom taken into consideration, 
and it is a deplorable truth that unscrupulous people are selling dis- 
honest material under the name of pure paint. Still, we have not ab- 
solutely lost confidence in the paint producers to the extent that we 
believe this to be the rule. The ignorant use of the very best material 
to be had is often the cause of trouble subsequently appearing in 
some form which a practical analysis of the case would easily ex- 
plain, and this sometimes leads to unjust condemnation of the mate- 
rials used when in reality the fault is with the user. In seeking a 
remedy by using other material the painter will probably meet with 
still more discouraging results if he still persists in trusting to luck 
instead of probing for the cause. When the latter idea is more gen- 
erally considered it will obviate in a marked degree the many mys- 
terious conditions which frequently arise which are conveniently 
t'lmed "deviltries" and work will proceed on more rational lines, 
so as to insure the greatest durability and least possible cost. 

F. H. 

December 13th a collision occurred between a passenger car and 
an inspector's car on the Lake Shore Electric Ry., about six miles 
cast of Lorain, O. Both cars caught fire and were almost totally 
ilcslroyed. The loss is reported to be about $20,000. The motorman 
received cuts and burns which proved fatal. The wreck was caused 
by slippery rails. 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 




Within the last few weeks the United Traction Co., of Reading, 
Pa., has put in service ten semi-convertible cars built by the J. G. 
Brill Co., of Philadelphia. The cars are the regular Brill patented 
semi-convertible type with roof window pockets. The general di- 
mensions are: Length over end panels, 30 ft. 8 in.; length over ves- 

ing the sides but 2 in. thick. The seats are brought close to the 
sides, leaving the aisle 24 in. wide. In summer, when all the win- 
dows are raised into the roof pockets, the car has a remarkably open 
appearance. This is easily imagined when it is known that the top 
of the window rail is but 2 ft. 3?s i". from the floor, and the win- 
dow openings are 2S^i x 40 in. The interior finish is natural cherry, 
with ceiling of decor:iled liirch. 



tibules, 40 ft. 8 in.; width over sills, 8 ft. 2^- in.; width over posts 
at belt, 8 ft. 6 in. 

As these cars are for all-year use they are made stronger than 
ordinary, for instance, the side sills are of carefully selected yellow- 
pine 4 X 7J4 in., with yi x 12 in. steel plates on the inner side. The 
comer posts arc 3H x 5'A in. and the side posts 314 in. The side 
posts are secured to the sill plate, thus the sill plate is made to do 
double duty, giving vertical stiffness as well as longitudinal. The 
steel carlines arc nine in number, ^ x l'4 in., and are bolted to the 
top plate. The form of the side posts adds much to the firm sup- 

The Brill No. 27-G trucks, on which the cars are mounted, carry 
the cars considerably lower than usual with trucks having 33-in. 
wheels, as will be seen by the height of the steps : from rail-head to 
step, 17 in. ; step to platform, 14 in. ; platform to car floor, 9 in. The 
vestibules are furnished with folding doors and Brill folding gates. 
The platforms arc protected with Brill angle-iron bumpers, and the 
platform timbers are reinforced with angle-iron. Among the fit- 
tings of the cars are Brill "continuous-flow" sand boxes, "Dedenda" 
gongs, ratchet brake handles and radial draw bars. The cars 
weigh 27,200 lb. without the motors. 




'. 1; 'I ■! .11 ii U i, ii :, : : II :, ;■..■■].. II ). I! ii ,.1..-.. 

:'tn )■ ' 







I>rjrl of Ihc r'K>f. ,\l the \k>sI heads there is an inward sweep, to 
allow space for the roof pockets. The lining of the side roof follows 
Ihc sweep of the |K)sl», giving a very graceful appearance and en- 
tirely concealing the fact that llicru is a ilceper cross-section than 
iiiiial. I he r<K>( window pix-ketn do not lessen the width of llie 
monitor deck, the clear ^pacc being 4 ft. 7in,, full standard width. 

The seating ca|iacily of the cars i^ 44. The scats are of spring 
cane with rcversil)le lia.lts and arc 37 in. long. As llicro arc no 
wall window pockets, the side linings arc set within the posts, mak- 


Ihc Wheeling Traclinn Co., of Wheeling, \V. Va., has just de- 
clared a one per cent dividend on its capital slock of $J,ooo,(X)0. 
which is the first dividend declared since the reorganizalioii of llic 
company. The iminoved physical condition of Ihc company's lines, 
Ihc rapidly increasing travel resulling from extensions, bcUer 
accommod.-ilions and lower fare, il is expecled, will l>lace the slock 
perinanenlly on a rliviileiirl-paying basis. There has rcccnily been 
considerable activity in the stock on the local market. 



[Vol. XIll, No. 1. 


E. I.'. NmK, 

MK. Iv M. ZIMMERMAN on January i>t riMnmii as giniial 
nianaBiT o( ilic Elgin, Aurora. & Southern Traction Co. 

MK. I.VMA.N' WATERMAN lias nsigiifil as general manager of 
llie Creslon (la.) Electric Railway, l-iglit. Ilcat & I'ower Co. 

MU. A. C. FROST, vice-presiilcnt o( the Chicago & Milwaukee 
Electric Railroad Co., left Chicago January islh for a ihrec-inonths 
trip in Europe. 

MR. J. H. TUTTWEILLER, siiperirtterident of const ruclibn for 
Ford, Bacon & Davis, has licen transferred from Kansas City to 
Nashville, Tenn. 

MR. EI-ZER C. NOE. who has been connected with the General 
Electric Co. since its organization, was appointed to succeed Mr. 
Frank Medley as general s\iperintendent of the Lake Street Elevated 

and the Northwestern Elevated 
Railroads of Chicago, and as- 
sumed charge Jan. il, 1003, Mr. 
Noe was born at Western Star. 
Summit County, O., in 1862. lie 
crinnneiiced his business life with 
the Western Edison Light Co., of 
Chicago, in 1882, and was with 
this company and its successor, 
the United Edison Manufacturing 
Co., later reorganized as the Edi- 
son General Electric Co., for nine 
years, and with the Thoir\fon- 
1 louston Co. for one year prior to 
'10 consolidation of that company 
with the Edison General Electric 
Co. When the present General 
Electric Co. was formed Mr. Noe 
was appointed engineer for the district controlled by the Chicago 
office. Mr. Noe has had a particularly wide experience which has 
made him thoroughly conversant with all branches of electrical 
work, and in his business career has made a wide circle of friends 
and acquaintances in Chicago. 

J. H. GRONEM.*\N has been appointed general passenger and 
express agent of the Rockford & Interurban Railway Co. with head- 
quarters at Rockford, III. 

MR. CHAS. M. FLECK, of Franklin, Pa., has been appointed 
superintendent of transportation, electric maintenance and equip- 
ment of the Citizens Traction Co., Oil City, Pa. 

MR. T. L LYM.\N, manager of the asbestos department 01 11. 
W. Johns-Manville Co., New York, sailed for Havana December 
20th, where he remained several weeks for the benefit of his health. 
MR. C. WUSTENFELD, of Elgin, III., has been appointed 
superintendent of the New Albany Street Ry and of the Southern 
Indiana Interurban Railway Co., operating between New Albany 
and Jeflfersonville. 

MR. E. P. THOMAS, who for 12 years served as secretary or 
treasurer of the Terre Haute Electric Co., left Terre Haute on Jan- 
uary 1st for Dallas, Tex., where he will assist Mr. J. P. Clark in 
representing the Stone & Webster interests. 

HEAT & POWER CO. on January 7th elected officers for 1903 as 
follows : President, E. G. Barker ; vice-president, E. D. Arnold ; 
secretary, W. J. Dobbs; treasurer, W. C. Elliott. 

MR. JAMES H. Bl'DD was chosen president of the Stockton 
(Cal.) Electric Street Railway Co. at a stockholders' meeting held 
January 3d. The other officers elected were: Vice-President, H. 
E. Huntington; secretary. W. R. Clark, who will also act as man- 

MR. A. B. GILBERT has resigned as assistant business manager 
of the Engineering News Publishing Co. after a connection of it 
years with that company and will hereafter be business manager of 
the Good Roads Magazine, The Teller, Central Station Directory, 
Street Railway Directory and other publications of the E. L. 
Powers Co. 

MR. R. N. BROWN, who was formerly connected with the Co- 
hmibus, -Buckeye Lake & Newark Electric Railway Co., has been 

appointeil to succeed Mr. II. 'E. Sawyer, as superintendent of the 
Dayton, Springfield & Urbana Electric . Railway Co. Mr. Brown 
assumed his iluties January 7lh. , 

MR. JOHN W. GIVNEY has been appc^inted superintendent of 
the freight and express deiiartment of the United 'Traction Co., New 
•Mliany, N. Y., to succeed Mr. Charles W. Armatagc, resigned. Mr. 
Givney lias been in llic employ of the company for 10 years and he 
has served as conductor, i;ispector and assistant chief engineer. 

MR. WILLIAM W. SROWN, formerly master mechanic of the 
Twin City Railway Co,, who designed the large cars used by this 
company, has resigned that position to accept a position with a large 
lumber concern in Los .'\ngeles, Cal. Mr. Brown was employed for 
to years with the Twin City company, four years of which he was 
master mechanic. 

MR. J. PEY TON CLARK, general manager of the Terre Haute 
(Ind. ) Electric Co., has been appointed manager of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway Co., of Dallas, Tex. Both companies are controlled 
by Stone & Webster, of Boston. Mr. Clark is a Virginian by birth 
and has had 13 years' experience in street railway and electric lines 
in Kansas City, Tacoma, Seattle and 'Terre Haute. 

MR. FREDERICK IIALLER. who as assistant district attor- 
ney was identified with the prosecution of the street railway con- 
spiracy case at Buflfalo, <>( which an account was given in our last 
issue, has formed a partnership with Mr. Jfihn F. Patterson, and 
under the style of Haller & Patterson, for the practice of law. The 
offices of the firm are 705 Mutual Life Bldg., Buffalo. 

MR. H. C. SCHWITZGEBEL, who for the last five j-ears has 
been purchasing agent for the Metropolitan Street Railway Co., of 
Kansas City, resigned on January 15th to become treasurer of the 
Kansas City Trust Co., which is a new company controlled by 
Messrs. W. II. and C. F. Holmes. 'Ilie duties of purchasing agent 
will be assumed by Mr. E. Kirkpatrick, treasurer of the company. 

MR. W. S. DIMMOCK, general manager of the Tacoma Railway 
& Power Co.. has been appointed to succeed Mr. G. W. Dickinson 
as general manager of the Scattlc-Tacoma Interurban Railway Co. 
Since taking charge of the 'Tacoma lines Mr. Dimmock has been 
extremely successful in every way and is making a most enviable 
record, quite in keeping with his former work at Council Bluffs, la., 
and Richmond, Va. 

MR. CHARLES H. BIGELOW has been promoted to the posi- 
tion of chief mechanical draughtsman of the department of motive 
power and machinery of the Boston Elevated Railway Co. Mr. 
Bigelow has been connected with the Boston system since 1891, 
commencing with the old West End Street Railway Co. as inspec- 
tor of power stations and inspecting engineer. He was engaged on 
work at the old East Boston power station, which was the first 
power house to have direct connected units. He has had more or 
less to do with each of the four stations of the company built since 
that time and also with two other stations and several car 
houses. He is a graduate of the Masachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, class of '92, and spent about 18 months with Stone .& Web- 
ster installing electric plants. 

MR. FR.\NK IIEDLEY recently tendered his resignation as gen- 
eral superintendent of the Lake Street and Northwestern Elevated 
Railway companies, of Chicago, to become general superintendent 
of the Interborough Rapid Transit Co., of New York City. Mr. 
Iledley is a son of James Hcdiey, and is from an old English fam- 
ily that was one of the very first to be connected with steam railroad 
engineering. His grand-uncle was William Hedley, who designed 
and built the first locomotive engine ever constructed. ,\ model of 
this engine was exhibited in Chicago at the World's Fair. Mr. Hed- 
ley studied the profession of mechanical engineering, but came to 
this country in 1882, when he engaged with the Erie Railroad, at its 
Jersey shops, as a machinist. He was next employed with the Man- 
hattan Elevated Ry. as machinist engine inspector for the Third 
Ave. division and was later promoted to the position of assistant 
general foreman in the locomotive department. He remained with 
this company for over five years, after which he was appointed mas- 
ter mechanic for the Kings County Elevated Ry., in Brooklyn, N. 
Y., where he was located for three and a half years. He then took a 
position with the Lake Street Elevated, of Chicago, as superinten- 
dent of motive power and transportation in June, 1893. Here he 
had full charge of the construction of the cars and locomotives, and 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 



of the operation of the road. In 1894 the construction of the North- 
western Elevated and the Union Loop was commenced, and during 
all the period of construction Mr. Hedley was on the consulting 
engineering staff. In November, 1897, he had charge of equipping 
and starting the trains around the Union Loop, and he also organ- 
ized and started the Northwestern Elevated. Mr. Hedley has been 
awarded a number of United States patents; in 1897 he patented 
a railway track that is especially adapted for electrically operated 
railroads. This truck has been used exclusively on all the cars of 
the Northwestern Elevated, and has been adopted on all the new 
equipment of the Lake Street Elevated. He also patented a device 
for cleaning the third rail from snow and sleet, which is in use on 
the Lake Stret and Northwestern roads also. In his new position 
as general superintendent of the Interborough Rapid Transit Co. 
Mr. Hedley will have full supervision of the operation of the sys- 
tem. During his connection with the elevated railways of Chicago 
Mr. Hedley has made many business and personal friends who will 
regret his departure. 

MR. HO\V.\RD F. GR.-\NT, .■secretary to the vice-president of 
the Boston Elevated Railway Co., resigned his position on January 
loth to become general manager of the Seattle Electric Co., of 
Seattle, Wash. His service with the Boston Elevated and its prede- 
cessor, the West End Street Railway Co., covers a period of 10 
years, during which time his duties have been such as are usually 
assigned to an assistant general manager. The property which he 
is to manage at Seattle consists of upwards of a hundred miles of 
trolley and cable railway, an electric lighting and power plant and 
a coal mine. He goes to his new post of duty well grounded in 
the principles of operation, organization and discipline acquired in 
the service of the Boston company that has trained and developed 
so many successful railway operators. The Boston Elevated offi- 
cials were very loth to part with him, as he is recognized as one 
of the most capable men connected with that company. Mr. Grant 
began railroading as a watchman at Portsmouth, N. 11., for the 
Eastern R. R. His first promotion came in three years, when he 
was placed in charge of the company's kyanizing plant at that 
point. A year later he was appointed to a clerkship in the main- 
lenance-of-way department, and a little later rose to the position of 
chief clerk of the department. When the Eastern and the Boston 
& Maine roads were consolidated he was made chief clerk of the 
department of engineering and maintenance of way of the com- 
bined system, in which capacity he served for 10 years, when he 
left the Boston & Maine to become secretary to the general man- 
ager of the West End Street Railway Co. It was not long before 
the clerical duties of secretary gave way to the executive function 
of an assistant, although there was no change in title, and he was 
given a large amount of administrative responsibility and was act- 
ing vice-president in the absence of that official. In the afternoon 
of the day upon which his resignation took eflfect (Jan. 10) he was 
ushered into the president's office, where he found some 40 officials 
of the company assembled to say farewell to him. The vice-presi- 
dent, with whom he has served fi>r 10 years, acted as spokesman for 
the assembly and expressed the regret of the management and the 
members of the various dcparlmenls th;it he was alxjut to sever 
relations that had been so agreeable and satisfactory to those con- 
C£rncd in the welfare of the company, lie dwelt particularly upon 
the loyally and ability .Mr. Grant had shown while serving as his 
head assistant in operating the syslem, and of the strong friend"- 
ships that had been created. -At the conclusion of his remarks he 
presented Mr. Grant with a letter signed by the president and about 
SO other officers, congralnlating him upon hi^ well-merited success 
and expressing regret that he was about to leave them. A purse 
of gold was presented to him with the suggestion that it be used to 
supply in his new home some reminder of the friendship and good 
will that extended across the continent to him. 



Our readers will be interested in learning lliai ihc Ohio Brass Co. 
has secured exclusive righLs for the manufaclurc and sale of the 
electric car signal invented by Mr. A, J. Ilaycox, superintendent of 
the Citizens' Electric Railway Light & F'owcr Co., Mansfield, O., and 
which was illuslralcd in the "Review" for November, 1902, page 852. 
This device is for use in signaling inlcrurlian cars at night by those 
wishing to take passage. 

The Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Co., which lias been 
paying its men from 16 to 18 cents an hour, has put into effect a new 
schedule as follows: New men will begin on the Hamilton & Lin- 
denwald line at 16 cents an hour for the first year and receive an 
additional cent an hour for each of the two succeeding years, after 
which they will be transferred to the Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo 
line at 19 cents an hour, with an additional cent an hour each 
year until a maximum of 23 cents is reached. Thus it requires 
seven years' service to begin to receive the maximum wages. The 
aimouncement was received with enthusiasm, as many of the men 
now in service received only 13)^ cents an hour several years ago. 

The Pennsylvania & Ohio Railway Co., Ashtabula, O., has raised 
the wages of its conductors and motormen from 15 to 17 cents an 
linur with the promise of another increase in the spring. 

The Savannah (Ga.) Electric Co. increased the wages of its con- 
ductors an<I motormen one cent an hour January ist. 

The Lynchburg (Va.) Light & Traction Co. advanced the wages 
of all employes 5 per cent January ist. 

The Metropolitan .Street Railway Co., of Kansas City, Mo., has 
increased the wages of its motormen one cent an hour, which places 
them on an equal footing with gripmen, who receive from 17 to 20 
cents an hour according to length of service. 

The Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway Co., which is a con- 
solidation of all the street car lines in Council Bluffs, Omaha and 
South Oitiaha, has increased the wages of its motormen and con- 
ductors from a scale of 17, 18, 19 and 20 cents to one of 20, 21 and 
22 cents an hour. 

The arbitration board to which has been referred the question of 
wages for barns, shops and general employes of the Chicago Union 
Traction Co., reported on January ist in favor of an increase of 
10 per cent to date froin Sept. 15, 1902. 

I'he Northern Texas Traction Co., of Ft. Worth, Tex., has put 
in effect a new wage scale, the rate being 17 cents for the first year 
and an increase of one cent each year until the fourth year, when 
the amount is 20 cents. 

The Lake Street Elevated Railroad Co., of Chicago, on January 
1st increased the wages of motormen 10 per cent. 

Wilmington & New Castle Electric Railway Co. on January 1st 
increased the wages of employes from 15 cents to 16 2-3 cents per 

The Wichita (Kan.) Railroad & Light Co. last year adopted the 
plan of paying employes a percentage of wages earned by them 
analogous to the dividends drawn by the stockholders. The sec- 
ond semi-annual payment was made Jan. i, 1903, and was $ per cent 
on the wages for the preceeding six months. 

The Rockford & Interurban Railway Co.. Rockford, III., put a 
new wage scale in effect January 1st which is as follows : For the 
first year, 14 cents per hour; second year, 15 cents per hour; third 
year, 16 cents per hour; fourth and fifth years, 17 cents; after the 
fifth year, 18 cents. On New Year's Day awards of $25, $20 and $15 
were made to conductors as prizes for good service, and awards of 
$10 each were made to seven motormen who had had no accidents 
resulting in damage to property or injury to persons. 

January 1st the Middletovvn (Conn.) Street Railway Co. increased 
the wages of trainmen who had been in the service for from three 
to five years one cent per hour; those who had served more than 
five years were given an increase of two cents per hour. 

The Haverhill (Mass.) & .Southern New Hampshire Street Rail- 
way Co. has increased the wages of the employes to 18 cents per 
hour for the first year, and 20 cents per hour thereafter. 


The name of the .Standard Traction Brake Co., of 26 Cortland .St., 
New York City, has been changed to the Wcstinghouse Traction 
Brake Co. This company sells all power brakes for street rail- 
way service manufactured by the Wcstinghouse Air Brake Co., in- 
eluding straight or automatic air-operated brakes with axlc-drivcn 
or motor-driven compressors, the storage .system of air brakes, and 
Ihc Weslinghousc combined magnetic brake and electric rar-heating 



(Vol. XIII, No. i. 


The Kiisur Knginecring Co., of Newark, N. J., is one of the 
largest lnake^^ of ^teani engineering specialties in the ICast, and has 
a complete line of pressure regiil.itors and valves, and various kin- 
dred devices essential to the safe and ecuiioniical piping of steam, 
water, gas or air. The Foster valves arc installed in many of the 
largest manufacturing plants as well as light, power and traction 
power houses of this country, the list of prominent users including 
the Carnegie works, the Krupp works in Germany, the Edison Elec- 
tric Lighting Co., of New York City; the North Jersey Railway Co., 
the Cleveland Electric Railway Co., the Cleveland Electric Illnmin- 
ating Co., Cleveland water works, the General Electric Co., Metro- 
politan Street Railway Co., New York; Cambria Siccl Co., Penn- 
sylvania Iron Works Co., the Colorado Fuel & Iron Co., Denver; 
the Atlanta water works. These valves are also used in a number 
of large '.team pl.inls on the Pacific Coast, and it is believed that 90 
per cent of naval vessels built wilbiu the last five years are equipped 

fh;. 1-fkstek non-rettirn i'k 
stop valve. 


with the Foster goods. The demand for the company's specialties 
during iy02 taxed the capacity of the new plant, and it is probable 
that a further enlargement will be necessary this year. 

Special attention is being directed at this time to the Foster non- 
return stop valve, and the Foster combination valve, which combines 
with the non-return feature certain automatic emergency and hand- 
stop functions. The Foster valves of these types arc particularly 
designed for use in electric railway power stations. The non-return 
stop-valve is designed to absolutely prevent the flow of steam into 
the boiler from the header, as might occur when a boiler had been 
out of use temporarily and is cut into the line before the proper pres- 
sure had been reached. 

Reference to Fig. i will make clear the method of operation. 
When the pressure in the boiler at A is equal to i lb. greater than 
the pressure at B, the valve opens and is held open by the flow of 
steam through it. If from any cause the pressure at A should fall 
below that of B, the valve will close. 

The Foster combination valve shown in Fig. 2 combines with the 
non-return feature, the functions of an automatic emergency stop 
valve. It is designed to prevent pecuniary loss, or injury or death 
to power station attendants, through accidents caused by the rup- 
ture of a pipe or fitting, or other mishap which would make possi- 
ble the escape of steam into the boiler rooin, inasmuch as it provides 
a means for shutting the main steam valve from several diflfcrent 
points about the plant. This device includes a pilot valve which 
may be placed near the main valve or located at some distant or 
more accessible point. This pilot valve is connected by suitable 
small pipes to the boiler and to the chamber D of the large valve 
(Fig. 2), and there is also a pipe connection from the diaphragm 
chamber of the pilot valve to the outlet side of the main valve (as at 
7, Fig. 2), or to some more distant point on the main pipe line. The 

diaphragm of the pilot valve is normally held in place by a helical 
.spring, which may be adjusted to resist any desired pressure, say 
100 lb. Whenever from rupture or other cause the pressure in the 
main pipe line falls below too lb., the spring will operate the valve, 
allowing full pressure to flow from the boiler through the pilot 
valve into chamber I) of the main valve against piston 11. which 
being of greater area than valve 2, instantly closes the latter against 
its seat and prevents the flow of steam in either direction. Stop 
valve 2 having been closed, automatically or manually, will remain 
closed until the pressure in chamber IJ is relieved. A number of 
small pipes with plug cocks or quick-opening valves placed at ac- 
cessible points may be branched from the pipe leading to the dia- 
phragm chamber of the pilot valve and led to distant points in the 
plant, thereby providing means whereby the main steam valve may 
be instantly closed in case of accident or emergency from any part 
nf the station by the turning of a plug cock. As will be seen from 
Figs. I and 2, the Foster valves arc provided with dash-pot to pre- 
vent chattering or hammering. 

The Bureau of Steam Engineering at Washington, D. C, recog- 
nizing the value of a device of this character, recommended its use 
in the United States Navy. Many of the recent additions to the 
navy and all of the torpedo boats and destroyers (with possibly 
one exception) are equipped with the Foster combination valve. 
The New York Edison Co. is now installing sixteen lo-in. valves of 
this construction, in addition to a number of 8-in. valves installed 
in 1901 and 1902. 

The Foster Engineering Co. claims that many necent disastrous 
boiler explosions as well as scalding of attendants resulting from 
the blowing out of main headers and defective fittings could have 
been prevented had this device been installed. 


The electric switch illustrated herewith is the invention of P. J. 
Ramion, Syracuse, N. Y., and was recently given a test on the 
track of the Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway Co. The switch and 
a signal may be operated by the motorman while the car is in 
motion, or from a tower as desired. It will be observed that the 
switch consists of rails suitably curved, between which the point 
operates, and which are joined by a series of ribs. Beneath the 
switch is a sewer designed to catch the dirt, snow, ice or water 
vvbicli might otherwise interfere with tli' movement of the point. 


There is a small watertight compartment on the outside of the 
rail containing electric beaters for the purpose of melting snow or 
ice which, if allowed to .iccnmulate, would interfere with the action 
of the switch. A signal system connected with the device is con- 
trolled by the switch point and is designed to inform the motor- 
man of the position of the point before he reaches it, thus insuring 
safety. The principal features claimed by the inventor are: Econ- 
I niy of installation, independence of weather conditions, simplicity 
of construction and absolute certainty of the position of the switch 
point. A company has been organized to place the switch on the 

December 20th there was a grade crossing accident in Weehaw- 
kcn, N. J., where three cars, breaking loose from a freight train, 
collided with a trolley car. Three passengers were fatally injured. 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 





The increasing use of high potential currents in electric railway 
work has brought out a number of new forms of insulation to sup- 
ply the demand for this class of work. One of the newer materials 
is known as "Electrose," and is made by the Electrose Manufactur- 
ing Co., 127 North loth St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Electrose is a com- 
pound especially prepared to meet the requirements of electric rail- 
way light and power installations. It is a very hard, dense, tough 
and strong material of a uniform oak shade, and takes an ornamental 
polish and finish. The compound is easily molded into various 
forms in which it may be required, and requires no drilling or ma- 
chine work for special shapes. The company is now prepared to 
furnish "Electrose" in all forms of overhead line fi.xtures, high po- 
tential insulators, sheets of various thicknesses and special forms 
and shapes. Its moisture and water proof qualities arc claimed to be 
of the best, rendering it especially adaptable to all outside uses, es- 
pecially where climate conditions are severe. Samples that have 
been under test by the resident engineer of the Niagara Falls Power 


' y>mief I 


Co. at Niagara Falls, N. Y.. have shown remarkable insulating 
qualities, as set forth in the sketches reproduced herewith. These 
samples are regular stock, and the accuracy of the tests is vouched 
for by the engineering department of the Niagara Falls Power Co. 
In addition to the forms shown a sheet of "Electrose," 12 .\ 12 x i!4 
in. arced around at 80,000 volts and was not punctured. An 8-in. 
round column V/i in. in diameter arced around at 100,000 without 

In addition to the tests made by the Niagara Falls Power Co., 
tests have been made by Prof. Samuel Sheldon, consulting electrical 
engineer, Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn. In his report Professor 
Sheldon says: "On test on a 2-in. globe strain "Electrose" in- 
sulator, the insulation cracked under tensile stress of 4,850 lb. ; eye 
of bolt broke under tensile stress of 5,630 lb. On 25^-in. globe 
strain insulator, eye broke out at 6,890 lb. The tensile strength was 
determined by pulling the samples apart by means of a standar<l 
Richie 30,000-lb. testing machine. The insulation was not fractured 
in any case. On voltage tests, a 6-in. turn-buckle made of "Elec- 
trose" insulation, arced between metals at 30,000 volts. A terminal 
strain insulator made of electrose insulation, with tensile stress limit 
of 8,240 lb., on voltage lest arced between metals at 2,500 volts." 
Sample material of "Electrose" will be furnished on application. 

■»« » 

At a meeting of the directors of the Lake Shore Electric Railway 
Co., of Cleveland, plans for the reorganization were arranged, A 
meeting of the stockholders has been called for February I2th to 
pass upon this. 

December ^/h the stockholders of the Indianaixilis Street Rail- 
way Co. ratified the lease of the property of that company to the 
Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co., the terms of which were 
given in the "Review" for December last. 

The Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad Co., the Amster- 
dam Street Railroad Co. and the Cayadutta Electric Railroad Co. 
have been consolidated under the name of the Fonda, Johnstown & 
Gloversville Railroad Co. The capital is $1,950,000, and the officers 
and directors are : J. L. Hees, of Fonda, president ; Gustav Levor, 
of Gloversville, first vice-president; J. G. Ferris, of Johnstown, sec- 
ond vice-president; G. M. Place, of Gloversville, secretary and 
treasurer; S. H. Shotwell, Erastus Darling, Z. B. Whitney and A. J. 
Zimmcr, of Gloversville; G. F. Moore, of Fonda; J. G. Younglove 
ami Janics Stewart, of Johnstown; R. T. McKeever, of Houghton, 
Mich., and J. S. Friedman, of Albany; Chauncey M. Depew, of New 
York, and William Harris, of Northville. 


Owing to the trouble which has been experienced this winter by 
the St. Joseph (Mo.) Railway, Light, Heat & Power Co. in procuring 
coal the company has decided hereafter to own its own coal cars and 
about $25,000 will be expended in providing them. The plans of the 
company's new power house have been altered so that they now 
provide for the elevation of the tracks entering the house and lead- 
ing to the boiler room, where a dumping platform will be located, 
from which the hopper cars are to be unloaded and the coal dropped 
into the fires directly in front of the boilers. The cars are to be of 
steel, 36 ft. long, 91^ ft. wide and 4 ft. deep. They will have a 
capacity of 80,000 lb. each and will cost about $1,000. 


The il. W. Johns-Manville Co. has just issued a booklet descrip- 
tive of a new preparation that is being put on the market to meet 
the needs of present-day architecture and building for non-inflam- 
mable material suitable for decorating the interior of buildings, 
serving as a substitute for wood in such work. This material is 
known as "Salamanderite," and is said to permit of all the decorative 
features which are possible with wood or tiling, and to be abso- 
lutely fire proof. It comprises fire and waterproof sheets or panels 
in various thicknesses from y^ in. to }/2 in. finished on one side in 
fac simile wood as may be desired, and may be stamped in various 
forms, reproducing pictorial subjects or other designs. Moldings 
and trimmings of the .same material are also furnished. 


The Christenscn Engineering Co. has opened an office in the Mer- 
chants Loan & Trust Building, Chicago, for the sale of its "Ceco" 
eleclricaJ machinery. The manager of this office will be Mr. Chas. 
G. Burton who is well and favorably known in the electrical field 
thruugh his previous coiniection for several years with the Central 
Electric Co., and later for three years with the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Co. He left the latter company in the early part of 
i'/)2, to install a power and transmission system, resigning recently 
to acce|it liis ]iresenl position with the Christenscn company. 


Gellatly & Co., with headquarters in the Times BIdg., Pittsburg, 
I'a., have for .some time represented the Ohio Brass Co. in Pitts- 
burg territory along with other niannfaclurers of electric railway 
and mining supplies. One of llie agencies recently taken by this 
firm is that for the electrical clip.irliiuni of liu- Cliristensen En- 
gineering Co., of Milwaukee. 

The Somh Side Rapid Transit Co., of Chicago, has announced the 
following schedule of wages eflfeclive January isl: Conductors, zo 
cents; guards, 18 cents; station agents an<l platform men, l6Vv cents 
per hour. This is an increase of from 5 in to iht ceiii 



[Vol. XIII, No. i. 


Kdw.ird E. Gold, of New York, has recently placed upon the mar- 
ket a combination of gate or door with locking device which is re- 
|w,ri.,l to li.ivi- hcen most successful in operation, fully meeting the 

requirements of railway service. This type of gate is in use on the 
elevated roads in Brooklyn, where traffic is very heavy, and the ad- 
vantage of the gates requiring a very small space for (heir opera- 

forms for the purpose of operating folding gates, which obviously 
may be of diflercnt designs. 

The double gate illustrated in Figs. I and 2 consists of two leaves 
hinged together, the primary leaf being hinged to a support on the 
car platform. Ihe primary hinge is swung back by means of an 
arrangement of levers which is the same as has been for years ap- 
plied to the solid type of gate. The secondary leaf in the design 
illustrated is operated by an additional link. Fig. I shows the gate 
open, and Fig. 2 the gate closed. 

Other arrangements for manipulating the secondary leaf of the 
gate are lazy tongs placed either at the top or at the bottom. 

Fig. 3 shows Ihe arrangement of Ihe lazy tongs at the bottom. 

This new device is covered by very broad patents. 


To meet the demand for inclosed-fnse branch blocks, the H. W. 
Johns-Manvillc Co., too William St., New York City, has introduced 
the "Noark" line, which presents features of merit appealing to 
constructing engineers and other users of such devices. The en- 
graving herewith shows a 30-amperc 220-volt two-pole single branch 
block of this type, from which it will be seen that the makers have 
departed from the usual arrangement for branch block devices, in 
which Ihe fuses for the branch circuits abut at right angles to the 
outside of the two or three parallel main wires. This construction 
requires a block of some size, owing to the fact that it is necessary 
to give space for the main wires and branch fuses separately. In the 
"Noark" branch blocks the object has been to economize space and 


tion, IS apiiriiiaied. Mr. Gold is the owner of the well-known Gold 
gale lock, extensively used on tlevated, suburban and underground 
cars, where a solid gate has been adopted. The locking device on 

the improved gates, which are illustrated in the accompanying en- 
gravings, is the same as on the old types with the exception that 
the connecting rod between the slide and gate is made in several 

at the same time cITect an arrangement of the wires and fuses which 
must be absolutely safe, both in the operation and manipulation of 
the device. To obtain this result, llic branch fuses are so arranged 
that each of the terminals in which tliey are received and to which 
the branch wires are connected are separated from the adjoining 
terminals by heavy partition walls, high enough above the contacts 
to prevent anything being laid across from contact to contact and 
causing short circuiting. The main wires to which the branch block 
is connected, instead of passing across the block at the end of the 
branch fuses, arc arranged to traverse it in suitable grooves placed 
in the porcelain block between the terminals of the branch fuses. 
In this way a great economy of space is effected, while at the same 
time the block can be easily and readily installed and the manipula- 
tion of the fuse devices for a removal or insertion is entirely safe. 

Mr. C. J. Franklin, formerly of Brooklyn, N. Y., has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Tacoma Railway & Power Co., Ta- 
coma. Wash. 

There was such a demand for funeral cars in St. Louis last 
month, owing to the cab drivers' strike, that the street car com- 
panies were unable to supply the requisite number of cars. 

An eflfort is being made at St. Paul, Minn., to have an ordinance 
passed requiring the street car companies to establish an "owl-car" 
service by running at least one car an hour between midnight and 
5 a. ni. At present the last car leaves the center of the city at i a. m. 

Jan. 20, 1903.] 





On the morning of December 22nd .1 car in the barns of the ele- 
vated road, Kansas City. Kan., was discovered to be on fire. Serious 
damage was prevented by the night foreman in cliarge who coupled 
onto the burning car with a motor car and removed it from the 

On January ist the gripmen and motormen of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway Co. were put on tlw same basis as regards wages, the 
rates for both classes now being 17, 18. 19 and 20 cents for the first, 
second, third and fifth years respectively. 

Some time ago thermometers were placed in all Kansas City street 
cars. These have been removed, it being claimed that they by reason 
of the jarring of the cars, or some other cause, all registered from 
10 to 20 degress below the actual temperature. 

On Christmas Day most of the conductors of the Kansas City 
lines were the recipients of from $1 to $2 from passengers who told 
them to "keep the change." 

. ♦ « » 


The Brooklyn Elevated Railway Co. has recently ordered 210 
Weslinghousc multiple train control equipments which will be used 
to operate the electrically propelled trains on its lines. When the 
company, a few years ago, decided to discard steam locomotives and 
operate its trains electrically, an exhaustive test of the different 
methods of controlling electric trains was inaugurated. The com 
pany, therefore, had a number of trains equipped 
with the systems of the leading electrical manufac- 
turers, and these trains were placed in regular oper- 
ation on the road in its daily traffic. Careful rec- 
ords were kept of the number of miles run by each 
train, the number of accidents met with, cost and 
time required for repairs, the comparative conven- 
ience in operation and all other matters which might 
influence a decision between the different systems. 
These tests resulted in the placing of the present 
order and all steam locomotives now in use will be 
shortly replaced by the Westinghouse electro-mag- 
netic system of train control. This system involves 
the use of compressed air for moving the controlling 
apparatus, electro-magnetic valves governing the ad- 
mission of air to the controlling cylinders, and low 
voltage electric circuits running from car to car for 
controlling the action of the magnetic valves. 

The special requirement for each motor car con- 
sists of two or four electric motors, a controller 
very similar to those used on ordinary street cars 
and one or two motormen's controlling switches 
from cither of which all the car controllers on the 
train may be operated. One of the special features 
of this system is that the trolley circuit is isolated 
from the main power circuit and is therefore not affected by any 
momentary interruption of current due to ice or sleet on the third 
rail, or other causes. 

The motor circuits on any car are automatically opened in case 
of excess current and they may all be simultaneously closed at the 
will of the molorman. All controllers are automatically turned off 
by the application of the automatic air brakes which greatly reduces 
the possibility of accidents. With this system the trains may be 
cut up into two or more .smaller units, according to the fluctuations 
of the service. 

The Brooklyn Klcvatcd will equip all of its new cars with four 
motors each. The trains arc made up of S or 6 cars, 2 or 3 of 
which arc usually motor cars. When these trains reach the suburbs 
Ihcy arc broken up into smaller units of one or two cars and the 
smaller trains branch o(T on difTercnt divisions. Any proportion of 
motor cars desired can be used in a train making it possible to 
obtain any desired amount of power for starting the trains quickly. 

riie trolley tunnel which is being built by the New York & Jersey 
Railroad Co. under the Hudson River between Jersey City and New 
York City had reached its lowest point on January ist. This is 102 
ft. below the mean water level and only 12 ft. of mud separates the 
tiiiiiiel from the river bottom. Since the present company started 
operations, 240 ft. of the tunnel has been constructed. The company 
took up the work on the north tunnel only, and is building that one 
first and is working at present only from the Jersey side. Work on 
tlic second or south tunnel will be taken up after the coinpletion of 
the present one. It is expected that the trolley cars will be crossing 
under the river between Jersey City and New York some time in 


The rapid sketching device illustrated herewith has been 
designed to obviate much of the annoyance and drudgery necessi- 
tated by the constant placing and replacing of the scale, T- 
square and triangles, in making sketches and small drawings. The 
device consists of a scale joined to a protractor which is anchored 
to the upper left-hand corner of the board by means of an arm made 
up of two pivoted parallelograms. The scale has a free motion of 
90° between two stops, and it comes against either one or the other, 
depending upon whether a horizontal line or a vertical line is 
desired. These two stops are fastened to a protractor and may he 
turned to any angle with the horizontal or vertical, thus permitting 

December z'llh an express train on the line of the Union Tr.action 
Co. of Indiana collided with the president's private car, one of the 
motormen being fatally injured. 


the scale to come against a stop at the desired angle and also at 
right angles to it. The lower part of the protractor always lies in 
the same direction no matter where it is moved about the board, 
and hence when the protractor is once set at any desired angle the 
scale will give parallel lines anywhere on the drawing. This is 
accomplished by the two iiaralleliigrams which act similarly to a 
parallel ruler. 

The protractor may be clamped at any angle by means of a thumb 
screw. A spring slop is provided for the o, 30, 45, fio and (.K)" 
angles, and is operated by merely raising it and allowing it to drop 
into the hole for the angle desired. A screw is provided for adjust- 
ing the right-angle stops. The general use of this device is exactly 
the same as one would use a scale without any attachment. Either a 
triangular or flat scale may be used. The scales chuck into place 
and may be turned so that any edge may be used. The triangular 
scale has the advantage of giving a larger variety of graduations on 
one piece, while the flat scale has the adv.intagc of giving .i better 
ruling edge. 

It is claimed that there is a great saving in lime by the use of the 
rievice, which is made by the llniversal Drafting Machine Co., 
lilackstone Muilding, Cleveland, O. 



[Vol. XIII, No. I. 


Iht Bruoklvn llciKlits Railroad Co. lias just closed a contract 
with the ChrisIiMiscii Engineering Co. for 200 Cliristenscn No. 2 air 
compressors and other parts of air hrake e<inipineiits for the ele- 
vated division of the company's road. The llrooklyti Heights com- 
pany placed its first order for Christenscn air brakes in the early 
part of 189S, when 12 eqnipnienls were ordered, the company at 
this time having been experimenting with various types of air 
brakes. .\\ the time of giving this last order the Rrooklyn Heights 
company had in service 130 Christenscn equipments, the contract 
just awarded bringing the total up to 370. This order is particu, 
larly gratifying to the Christenscn company, as it is considered sub- 
stantial proof of the efficiency of its apparatus after actual service 
for nearly five years. 



The accompanying illustration shows one of the 20 closed cars 
which were recently built for the Galveston City Railway Co. by the 
St. Louis Car Co. The length of these cars over corner posts is 
20 ft. 9 in., the length over all 30 ft. 6 in. and the width 7 ft. 10 in. 
1 he cars were built for city service exclusively and were provided 


llecember 30th the two-story car barn of the Detroit United Ry. 
on Jefferson Ave. was entirely rieslroyed by fire caused by an explo- 
sion of gasoline. The fire started in the paint shop on the second 
floor and spread rapidly. An alarm was at once sent in and several 
engines responded, but considerable delay was occasioned on account 
of the ice and snow. The fire spread with great rapidity and the 
building, together with alioul 24 open cars, was completely de- 
stroyed. There are three car barns located close together at this 
point and the firemen succeeded in confining the fire to the central 
barn in which it broke out. The loss is estimated at about $60,000. 
During the fire traffic on the Jefferson Ave. line was completely at 
a standstill and it was several hours before the burned-down wires 
could be replaced and traffic resumed. Mr. Jere C. Hutchins, presi- 
dent, Mr. Brooks, general manager and Mr. Stanley, superintendent 
of the company were at the scene of the fire and succeeded in saving 
considerable of the rolling stock which was removed from the barn. 



with longitudinal rattan seats. The interiors are finished in cherry, 
and all the trimmings are nickle plate. The window sash arc in two 
sections, the upper one being stationary, and the lower one drops in 
sockets. Pantasote curtains are used. The cars arc vcstibuled at 
both ends, the vestibule being provided with folding gates and they 
are mounted on St. Louis Car Co's. du Pont trucks, having a 7 ft. 
6 in. wheel base. 

The Pennsylvania legislature will be asked to amend the act giv- 
ing elevated or underground railways the right of eminent domain 
and fixing the method of securing compensation for 
damages to property owners along their lines and 
put it on a more substantial legal footing. On ac- 
count of the contemplated elevated railway in Pitts- 
burg the piatter is considerably discussed in that 
city. The question at issue is whether any property 
owner whose property is not actually taken nor oc- 
cupied can collect damages, no matter to what extent 
he is injured, inconvenienced or annoyed by the 
proximity of elevated lines. Lawyers fail to agree, 
some claiming the act is unconstitutional because 
compensation is not adequately secured to persons 
who may be damaged. The supreme court has de- 
cided cases against property owners where danger- 
ous telegraph or telephone poles were planted on 
their sidewalks. A Philadelphian lost his case 
against the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., which com- 
pany had practically barricaded his house to the third story in build- 
ing the approach to the Broad St. station. 



The Hope Webbing Co., of Providence, K. 1., reports such an 
unprecedented era of activity that, in order to increase its facilities, 
it has had to erect a large addition to its mills at Woodlawn. The 
addition is of brick, mill construction, 223 x 84 ft., three stories 
and two basements. The basements .an hardly be called such. 
however, as, viewed from the street at the rear, the addition is five 
stories high, owing to the grade of the land. The addition is con- 
nected with the two original mill buildings, each of which is 500 
feet long, by arched passageways. By removing part of the ap- 
paratus into the addition room is made in the mills for 100 or more 
looms, bringing the total up to about 600. Two additional genera- 
tors have been installed by the General Electric Co. and extra help 
is required in addition to the 650 hands previously employed. The 
Hope Webbing Co's. tapes and webbings have a world-wide re- 
nown. Just now the looms are turning nut large quantities of elec- 
tric tape, while the output of elastic webbings is a large factor, 48 
looms being employed on this work alone. 

The Peckham Manufacturing Co., of New York and Kingston, 
has received an order from the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. for 480 
motor trucks of special M. C. B. construction. These will be used 
in elevated service in Brooklyn under cars fitted with the Westing- 
house system of multiple unit control. The Peckham company on 
January 1st had orders in hand for 750 M. C. B. trucks in addition 
to its other work. The company reports an unusually large busi- 
ness in snow plows, having sold during the season 18 large Ruggles 
rotary plows. 


The Danville (111.) Street Railway & Light Co. and the Danvillu 
Northern & Paxton Railroad Co. on the first of the year issued a 
i6-pagc pamphlet giving the routes and schedules of the railways 
and matter descriptive of the electric light and power and steam 
heating departments of the business. 

A fire occurred in the power house of the Helena Light & Trac- 
tion Co., Helena. Montana, October 20th, which completely demol- 
ished the building and nearly all the machinery. The building con- 
tained an abandoned steam plant, power being purchased from the 
Missouri River Power Co., which transmits an ll,000-volt current 
over a double wire from Canyon Ferry, 18 miles distant. In the 
building were six n,ooo-volt, 150-kw., oil insulated Wcstinghouse 
transformers, two of which were practically uninjured; the other 
four were upset by the burning away of the floor and poured out 
their oil. Two loo-h. p. induction motors were damaged only 50 
per cent while six direct-current arc-light machines were totally de- 
stroyed. Three oil insulated Wcstinghouse potential regulators were 
practically uninjured while the switchboard was completely de- 
stroyed. The result of the fire denionslrates the practical immunity 
from injury by fire of oil-insulated transformers in cases. 


Vol. XIII 

FEBRUARY 20, 1903 

No. 2 

Columbia Electric Street Railway, Light & Power Co,, of Columbia, S, C, 

Roadbed and Overhead Construction — 3, 300- Volt Power Distribution — Sub-Station Equipment - 

ment — Car Barn — Parks — Operating Features — Personnel. 

■ Car Equip- 

It has been said appropriately that within the past decade a new 
monarchy has sprung up within the confines of the little state of 
South Carolina, and of this monarchy Cotton is King; and it is in 
the bustling little city of Columbia that King Cotton holds his court. 
It is hard for the average northerner, and especially for a son of 
New England, to realize that this is anything more than fairy-land 
talk, told to children to lull them to sleep. If he gives the state- 
ment any credit at all, he dismisses the whole subject by concluding 

it were, and King Cotton is supreme. At the present time, power 
for operating the electric railway system of the city and current for 
the lighting system as well as current for power motors, is taken 
from the power plant of the Olympia Cotton Mill and from the plant 
of the Columbia Water Power Co. 

Geographically, Columbia stands approximately in the center of 
the state of South Carolina, whose boundary lines form an irregular 
triangle with one of the angles pointing directly south. Within the 


that the state of South Carolina raises considerable cotton, and that 
Columbia is merely a proniincnl shipping port for the raw material 
on its way to (he mills of New England to be made up into finished 
products. It will lake an actiial personal tour of inspection into this 
locality lo convince the doubling one thai in and about ihc city of 
Columl>ia, S. C, have been established within seven years a grouji 
of collon mills and villages, exceeding in point of output, engineer- 
ing design and economical operation any group of mills in New 
England, or in old England for that matter, and that included in 
this system of southern mills is the finest and largest collon mills 
under one roof in all the world. 

Though this is not an article on the cotton industry of the South, 
in order lo know and imdersland the street railway situation in the 
city of Columbia, it must be borne in mind thai Columbia lives by 
cotton — the commercial atmosphere is surcharged with colton as 

city limits proper and including mill villages which have grown up 
contiguous to Columbia, but in all ies|iects should be identified 
with the city itself, the population serve<l by the electric railway 
system of Columbia will apprnxiniale close lo 40,000. For instance, 
in the villages of the Olympia, Granby and Richland mills, all op- 
erateil by one company, there are fully io,oo(3 inhabitants. And 
Ibis little city has all come into being within the past seven years. 
1 lie mill towns as well as the mill properties are owned by the W. 
It. Sniilli-Whaley syndicate, which also controls Ihe Columbia Elec- 
tric Street Railway, Light & Power Co. 'lliese mill towns are equal 
to anything of like nature lo be found in Ihc country, and in their 
<vay arc models of philanlhropic ideas. The cottages for employes 
are well built detached dwellings, each with its individual architec- 
tural design, and each town has its electric ligluiiig system, complete 
sewerage, water works, fire rli-parlnunt, school houses, churches 



[Vol.. XIII, No. 2- 

niul liDspit.iN, for all of wliicli priMk-Kc^ llic null liaiuls pay llic 
niodcsi stipend of $1 per room per inonlli rein, a »ix-ro()m lionse 
for instance renting for $6 a month. Tlu're are no other taxes or 

There are of conrsc other activities anil lines of industry in and 
alK)Ht CoUimliia liesidc the mannfactnring of cotton goods, ami 
these arc all on the increase. Incident to the pro-perity of Columbia, 
and one potent cause of it, is the reniarkahle supply of water power 
available, and under the plans now beinf; carried oiu. the utilization 


of available water heads will give the city abundance of electric 
power at rates sufficiently low to assure unprecedented growth and 

The Columbia Klectric Street Kaihvay. Light & Power Co. was 
organize<l Jan. 6, 1892, by the consolidation of the Columbia Electric 
& Suburban Railway Co. and the Congaree Gas & Electric Co., 
under an act of the South Carolina Legislature approved Dec. 16, 
1891. By the consolidation, the company obtained the very valuable 
franchises of the two companies mentioned. On Sept. i, 1890. the 

Waverly and on to Shandon. Both of these suburbs arc rapidly 
growing, and the company now enjoys a good travel over all of these 


The company owns lo^i miles of .single track, if/j miles of double 
track and about '/• mile of turnouts, making a total of about 14 
miles of single track, covering the entire city. All of the road has 
been completely rebuilt during the past three years, new material 
being used throughout with the exception of six miles of rail which 
was found to be in first class condition. The track is built of 48-lb. 
T-rail, with Welier rail joints and 'Columbia" Ixinds. The lies 
used arc heart pine, 7 x 9 in. x 7^3 ft. The overhead construction 
is entirely new and has lieen built in the most thorough manner. 
The railway poles are octagon in section, 14 in. at the butt and 
9 in. at the top, 30 ft. long, thoroughly creosoted at the base and 
painted alxjve ground. The overhead work on single track is Ohio 
Brass bracket construction and on double track is span construc- 
tion. In setting poles each pole was braced laterally by two 4x4- 
in. timbers, 2 ft. long, one placed on one side of the pole at the bull, 
and the other placed below the surface on the opposite side. All 
of the special work, consisting of curves, cross-overs, switches and 
turn-outs, is new and conveniently arranged. The roadbed, track 
and overhead lines are new and in excellent condition. 


The company controls by lease from the state of South Carolina 
for a period of 30 years from Dec. 6, 1892, 500 h. p. of water power 
on the banks of the Columbia Canal. This property is within the 
corporate limits of the city of Columbia, and within one mile of 
the business center of the city. This plant at present is not in use. 
It contains, however, granite foundations for the water wheels built 
in the most .substantial manner. 

In the spring of 1900 it was decided to rebuild entirely all of the 
street railway track and overhead lines, and also all of the lighting 
lines both arc and incandescent. It was further decided to accept 
a proposition made by the Olympia Cotton Mills for furnishing 
current. On account of this decision the water power plant on the 
Canal was not improved willi the rc<t of the properly, as it was 


stock of the Columbia Electric Street Railway, Light & Power Co. 
was purchased by Mr. \V. B. Smilh-Whaley and his associates, and 
reorganized, acquiring the property and franchises of the Columbia 
& Eau Claire Electric Railway Co. 

The railway now occupies all the principal streets of the city, 
and reaches every railroad depot, l)oth freight and passenger. It 
extends two miles in a northerly direction to Hyatt park. The coun- 
try along this line during the past two years has been rapidly built 
up, and Ihc growth in this direction continues to such an extent that 
it is probable the line will have to be extended within the next year. 
In an easterly direction the railway runs through the suburb of 

thought to be to the company's interest to accept the proposition of 
the Olympia Cotton Mills. 

The power plant at the Olympia Mills consists of three Mcintosh 
& Seymour engines, each of a normal rating of l,6cx) h. p., capable 
of developing a maximum of 2,000 h. p. These engines are of the 
vertical cross compound condensing type with cylinders 20.\ 48 in. 
in diameter and a stroke of 42 in. The cylinders are steam jacketed 
and a reheating receiver is placed between them. Each of these 
engines is direct connnected to a General Electric alternating current 
generator rated at 1,300 kw., with 36 poles operated at 133 r. p. m., 
and delivering 40 cycle alternating current at 600 volts. The switch- 

Fee. 20, 1903.] 



board for controlling the various separate circuits to llie Columbia 
Electric Street Railway, Light & Power Co. and to the Granby, 
Richland and other mills, is 57 ft. 4 in. long, divided into 21 panels. 
Current for the Columbia company is first stepped up to 3.300 volts 
for transmission to the single sul>-.station two miles distant, in which 
station this current is transformed and converted for the various 
lighting, motor and electric railway circuits, all of which center on 
a single switch-board located in the main room of the 
sub-station. The transmission line from the Olympia 
mills to the sub-station is two miles long, and consists 
of six No. 2 wires, the line being equipped with all mod- 
ern safety devices and accessories. The sub-station 
building, which also includes the general office of the 
company, is located at the corner of Washington and 
Assembly Sts., very near the center of the city of Co- 
lumbia and incidentally very near the geographical cen- 
ter of the state of South Carolina. The building is two 
stories in height and is built of brick with terra cotta 
trimmings. The upper floor contains the general offices 
and sub-station apparatus ; the lower lloor the store 
rooms and testing rooms. The building is thoroughly 
fire-proofed with iron framing and floors of concrete 
with mosaic filling. .•Ml wires and connections to and 
from the switch-board are carried under the floor. 

From the sub-station four distinct lines of current are 
sent out, all of these being conversions or transforma- 
tions of the 3,300- volt, three-phase, 40-cycle alternating 
current which is delivered at the sub-station from the 
transmission line. 

The four circuits are as follows : 

For street railway purposes the current of reception 
is first stepped down by static transformers to 340 volts ; 
thence the current passes through rotary converters 
which change the 340-volt, three-phase alternating, to 
550-volt direct current for use in all street railway 

For incandescent, multiple arc lighting and motors up 
to I h. p., the current of reception is "split" into two 
single-phase currents of the same initial voltage, and 
carried direct to customers' premises and there trans- 
formed in static transformers. In sections where load 
is not scattered these transformers arc interconnected on 
a .secondary three-wire net work at 230-115 volts. In sparsely settled 
districts house to house transformers are used with 115-volt sec- 

For the motor circuit for motors over i h. p. the current of re- 
ception is not changed but is run direct to customers' premises where 
arc placed static transformers dflta connected for 550-volt, three- 
phase secondary to the motor. 

For scries arc lighting the current of reception is used without 
transformation in synchronous motors direct connected to Brush 
mulii-circuit arc machines located at the suli-stalion and giving 5- 
ampcre, 10,000-volt direct current. 

Si.x "S-lav. airblast transformers which receive the 3,300-volt al- 
ternating current at the primary terminals and deliver at the sec- 
ondary terminals 340-volt alternating curreiU. 

For electric railway work there are two 200-kw. rotary converters 
which take the 340-volt alternating current from the transformers 
and deliver 550-volt direct or continuous current to the electric rail- 
wav circuit. 







ro n n n nin 


Q^D D D D D D D 

□ □□□ 

n □ □ nn n 
n D n n n I 



[Bise-ss-e n D D n n D D D n 

'QfannnnnnDDDr / 
DDDnnnnnr J 


With the exception of the railway apparatus, which is standard 
design, the sub-station equipment was developed by Mr. W. U. 
Smith Whaley, president of the company, assisted by Mr. E. V. 
Lilly, electrician, and the engineers of the General Klectric Co., and 
the installation was made up especially for this company by the 
General Electric Co. 

The substation apparatus for supplying the various circuits com- 
prises the following : 


For the series arc lighting there are four motor-driven Brush 
generators with a capacity for each generator of about 118 series 
arc lamps. These machines are arranged in two sets, each being 
driven by a 200-h. p. three-phase synchronous motor using the 
3,30o-v()lt current. Each pair of machines is mounted with the 
driving motor between the two generators with flexible coupling, 
permitting either machine or both to be operated as desired. The 
machines are excited by two exciter sets, each comprising a 2K'-kw. 
125-voIt generator, driven by a 7.S-h. p. 3SO-volt induction motor. 

The lighting .system extends to all parts of the city. The company 
has a five-year contract with the city of Columbia to furnish 200 arc 
lights ; also contracts with the various railroads enter- 
ing the city for about .30 series arc lights. These arc 
lamps are of the enclosed pattern. 'J'lie incandesceiU 
lines cover both the city and the suburbs thoroughly, 
and contain 36.2 miles of single wire, Nos. 6 and 8. At 
Iiresenl, the company has about 11,000 incandescent 
IIkIus cut in for service. All of these lamps are on the 
iiKler .system. The number of incandescent lamps is 
steadily increasing. Both the incandescent and arc light- 
ing systems have been constructed with the utmost care 
.ind in the most thorough and approved manner. 

'J'he motor circuit, for driving small motors, consists 
of 6.7 miles of single wire. No. 8. This circuit is being 
used more and more in the various industries of llie 
city for driving motors in cslablishmenls like i]riiil 
ing plants, small manufacturing pl.Mils, |)laiiiiig 
mills, in groceries for running coffee mills, in meal markets for 
chopping meat, in drug stores, in confectionery stores for freezing 
ice cream, in jewelry stores for running small tools, etc. This busi- 
ness, which is one that affords a good profit, has been worked up 
liy llie nianagemenl, and is now a considerable source of revemielo 
the company. 

The switchboard comprises the following: Main output meter 
panel; two main street railway panels for current going to each 



[Vol. XIII, No. 2- 

converter; two main street railway generator panels; (our feeder 
panels; one panel (or incandescent lighting circuit; one panel (or 





motor circuit, and dmr panels for arc lighting circuit, or two for 

each set 


The car equipment o( the company consists o( (our double truck 
15-bench open cars built by the I.acnnia Car Co., mounted on I.a- 

I'cckham trucks, with two G. E. 1,000 motors to each car. The 
company has three construction or working cars, and one plat(orm 
car around which a railing is built, and which is used (or trolley 
parties. All cars arc equipped with Christenscn air brakes; Syra- 
cuse headlights; Wood folding gates; Wilson trolley catchers, and 
Kidlon fenders. The equipment, machines and material used on the 
entire system have been standardized and are of the best quality ob- 


The car barn is situated at the corner of Main and Rice Sts., 
Columbia. It is a two-story brick building of mill construction, 
and has a storage capacity of alwut 45 cars. The lower story con- 
tains storage tracks, store room, carpenter and paint shops. The 
upper floor is used entirely (or the storage of cars. The barn is of 
the most improved construction and is very complete in all of its 


Hyatt Park, owned by the company, is located about two miles 
from the city limits. It contains about 15 acres of land upon which 
have been built an auditorium and theater, and also a rustic or open- 
air theater. The grounds of the park have all been carefully laid 
out with terraces and flower beds. It is attratclively lighted with 
electric lights. During the sumtncr months vaudeville entertain- 
ments are carried on at the park, and (luring the last two summers 
the park has been a very popular resort. 

The park contains one of the finest collections of animals to be 
found in the South, many rare specimens having been secured 
Ihruogh the efforts of Mr. Clark and other officers of the company. 


conia trucks and fitted with G. E. 1,000 motors; 12 single truck 
lo-bench open cars built by the Laconia Car Co., mounted on Peck- 
ham trucks, with two G. E. 1,000 motors to each car; ten 30-ft. single 
truck closed cars built by the Laconia Car Co. and mounted on 

A charge of 5 cents is made to all visitors who enter the special 
enclosure devoted to the menagerie. A portion of the park is given 
over to the horticultural gardens, and the company employs an ex- 
pert gardener to take care of this feature of the park. Many rare 

Feb. 20, 1903.] 



and beautiful plants are to be found here, the display of roses being 
exceptionally fine and including over 160 distinct varieties of the 
rose family. 

Another unique feature of Hyatt Park is the elevated tank for 
supplying water to all parts of the grounds. This tank is a neces- 
sity, and ordinarily would be apt to mar the beauty of the place. 
But instead of permitting this elevated tank to become an eyesore, 
the management has changed it into one of the most attractive 
features of the place by arranging around the sides of the tank and 
the tower which supports it about 1,500 incandescent bulbs of vari- 
ous colors and tints, and when these are all lighted at night, they 
make a display at once unique and striking. The reflection from 
the tower can be seen from a long distance, and thus serves as some- 
thing in the nature of an advertisement for the park. This arrange- 
ment is also useful as well as ornatnenlal, inasmuch as the lights at 
this elevation flood the whole park with a soft illumination which 
adds to the charm of the place. 

The tank is supplied with water from a nearby spring by means 
of a small pump operated by a direct current motor, taking current 
from the trolley circuit. In addition to the water taken from the 
tank for drinking, washing and irrigation purposes, a pipe is led 
from the tank and feeds a small fountain located near the entrance 
of the park, thus gaining another attraction that is especially appre- 
ciated by the children. 

The company also owns one acre at Shandon, on which is built 
a dancing pavilion. During the summer months this is also a popu- 
lar place in the evenings. 


In the running of cars there is one fundamental rule on which 
special emphasis is laid and to which the attention of every employe 
on the system is continually directed, this rule being that the pre- 
scribed schedules must be adhered to, and it is the pride of the 
management that the citizens of the city are practically always safe 
in regulating their watches by the passing of cars, and if a car is 
scheduled to be at a certain corner at a certain moment, the chances 
are all in favor of that car being at the designated point at the time 
specified. Care is used in arranging the schedules, so that nothing 
unreasonable is asked of the men, but if a car fails to keep up to its 
schedule to the very minute, a satisfactory reason must be given for 
the delay. All molormen and conductors are required to carry re- 
liable watches which must be inspected and regulated by a desig- 
nated local watchmaker every month. To this end the company 
has made arrangements with the watchmaker for supplying the 
men with good watches at a reasonable price, and also for inspecting 
and regulating the timepieces. 

For announcing the schedules to the public, a large display board 
is mounted at the central depot somewhat similar to the board de- 
scribed in the "Review" for last month, page 10. The board has 
in the center a large clock which is regulated by the Western Union 
Telegraph Co. .Ground the edges of the board are advertising 
spaces which are sold to the local merchants. 

The conductors and motormcn work 10 hours a day, their work 
Ijeing arranged so that the day's work is performed witliin 12 con- 
secutive hours. The schedules are shifted each day, so that one set 
of men have the early runs one day and the late runs the following 
day, and vice versa. It is worthy of mention that the men are not 
paid on the hour basis but strictly on the car mileage basis, and in 
connection with this it should be stated that all the accounts of the 
company are kept on a car mileage basis throughout, so that it is 
possible to keep very close comparative records of passengers car- 
ried, car receipts, cost of operation, cost of management, cost of 
repairs, cost of fuel, etc., as every separate item, including as just 
mentioned cost of labor, is reduced to a per car mile basis. 

The company's instruction book was compiled by Mr. Clark, gen- 
eral manager, and contains a number of features that are entirely 
original. The Ijook is intended not only as a book of rules and 
regulations, the idea being 10 make it a Iwok of instructions as well. 
After every subject in which the conductors and molormen arc in- 
terested, are given first the rules and regulations which the employes 
arc required to observe, and then follows a set of special instruc- 
tions which explain the subject fully and give the reason for the 
preceding rules. This principle of instructing or educating the em- 
ployes has l^cn found very satisfactory and is worthy of emulation. 

A few extracts from the book are here given as being especially 
good, and illustrating the way in which care is laken not only to 

E. I!. CLARK. 

others must wait for a min- 

tell the employes what to do and what not lo do, but also telling 
them the reason for the rule. 

Rule 15. Ordinarily in stopping the car, always release the brake 
somewhat, just before the car comes to a dead stop. Do not let 
the brake fly, or kick the brake-dog off, for if you do the armature 
will take up the lost motion in the gears, and when starting again 
it will be with a jerk. This is unpleasant to passengers and hard 
on both motors and gears. 

Rule 22. If car won't start on dry or dirty rail, put controller 
arm on first or second notch and rock the car. If this fails to ac- 
complish the purpose, have conductor take a piece of wire or switch 
slick and rub one end of it against the rear tread of the wheel, 
while the other end is pressed against the rail. In case an insulated 
wire is used, break contact at the wheel first, keeping the other end 
against the track, else a shock will be received. 

Rule 25. In case current is shut off at station for any reason 
while car is running, bring con- 
troller to "off" position immedi- 
ately. Then turn on light current 
and wait tnitil lamps light up; 
when llicy have reached their 
usual brilliancy, but not before, 
start the car. The reason for this 
precaution is that, should you turn 
the controller far enough to start 
the car before the full current was 
on, there would be a little or no 
counter-electromotive force gen- 
crated to keep back the rush of 
current when it did come, and 
your armature might be injured 
either by heat or by the sudden 
jerk that would result. In starting 
after interruption of current, all 
with even numbers start immediately ; 
ute or two. 

Rule 36. The proper handling of a car on a curve is perhaps the 
most difficult task that the new motorman has to learn. A good 
rule is the following : In approaching a curve, cut off your con- 
troller and bring the car down to a slow speed before entering, and 
have your brake in hand, but free, unless it be down grade. This 
will let the car run info the curve easily and without shock. As 
soon as you feel that the car is fairly on the curve, apply sufficient 
current to carry the car around the curve at about the same rate of 
speed, cutting it off again just before leaving the curve. This will 
allow the car to swing out with the least possible shock. Always 
hear in mind that anything that causes the car to jerk is wrong. 


The officers and operating staff of the Columbia Electric Street 
Railway, Eight & Power Co. are as follows; President, W. B. 
.Smiih-Whaley ; vice-president, W. A. Clark; treasurer and general 
manager, E. B. Clark; secretary, W. H. Lyles; superintendent of 
transportation, A. Wallace; electrician. K. F. Lilly; master mechanic. 
C. D. Boling. 

Both Mr. Smith-Whaley and Mr. W. A. Clark are South Carolina 
men. Mr. Smith-Whaley is a Charlestonian, and Mr. Clark was 
born on James Island, near Charleston, where his family for gen- 
erations were engaged in growing the famous Sea Island cotton. 
Mr. .Smith-Whaley early in life went to Columbia with the firm 
belief that that city had a great future as a center of cotton mami- 
facluring. He formed a partnership with Mr. Gasden E. Shand 
under the firm name of W. B. .Smilh-Wlialey & Co., and at once 
opened offices as designing cotton mill engineers. Mr. Smith- 
Whaley soon took up a ))roader field of activity and in 1894-5 suc- 
ceeded in organizing the Richland Mills Co. This mill was followed 
by the Granby Mills and numerous others, the largest of which is 
the Olympia Cotton Mills, said to be the largest establishment for 
the manufacture of finished cotton products in the United States. 

Mr. E. B. Clark is also a commanding figure in the group of men 
whose energy and keen business foresight has resulted in the re- 
markable development of the territory in and about the city of 
Columbia. He is interested in several important financial and com- 
mercial interests, and the <levelopment of the various activities of 
the Columbia Electric Street Railway, Light & Power Co. has been 
very largely due to his energetic and efficient management. 



I Vol. XIII, No. 2- 

Feb. 20, 1903] 





In view of the renewed activity in the railroad world, especially 
in the projection and construction of new lines, a few words in 
regard to the scope and character of the right of way map will be 
of interest. 

Every engineer has his own ideas as to the proper construction 
and form of the map, but in the main these are matters of detail 
only. The map is the record of months of hard and painstaking 
labor on the part of every one connected with the construction en- 
gineer's office, from the chief to the chainmen. Weeks and some- 
times months are spent before the map is actually begun in its final 
shape, but it is first outlined, perhaps, in some real estate office. 

When a few men sit down with a map and say "We will build a 
road from A to B," the foundation is laid for a map that may be 
years in the making. It is an interesting thing to watch the growth 
of a railroad, from its conception, as illustrated, to its completion 
and operation. The process is the same in all cases. Beginning with 
a small map and a pencil line connecting a few towns, it grows by 
degrees from a small and easily lost or mislaid piece of paper, 
hardly worth the trouble of looking after, to a voluminous record 
that represents thousands of dollars and many a weary day's work 
and the needing of expensive cases and inde.x systems for its preser- 

The map starts with a pencil line drawn on, we will say, a pocket 
map, through a few towns that are without railroad facilities, or 
are considered large enough to support another road, then a larger 
map is obtained, and possibly a trip taken over the proposed route, 
and the route is moved slightly, as other vantage points are dis- 
covered. Then comes the investigation of terminal and other facili- 
ties, and maps on a larger scale are called for, and possibly county 
records and maps are consulted. Finally a route is decided upon 
and the first party is put in the field and a preliminary line is run 
and platted. Now something tangible can be seen, or in other words, 
"something is doing," but our map even now shows only a line 
across sections and townships. More discussion in the office and 
examination of the accompanying profile. "We must hit that hill, 
so as to get material to fill that low place." "We must clear that 
piece of property, as it costs too much." More line running and 
platting of notes, and more discussion. Finally the preliminaries 
are all disposed of and the location decided upon, and the locating 
parties put in the field. Now the w-ork on the right of way map 
begins in earnest, and soon the skeleton furnished by the first line, 
roughly drawn on the pocket map, is being filled in and the map 
begins to take form. 

The chief engineer follows the work of the locating parties and 
studies the ground carefully. The builders of the road have deter- 
mined roughly the width of right of way necessary. The chief 
engineer must keep to this as closely as may be, and he studies the 
problems of cuts and filLs, not only as concerning construction, but 
with due regard to operation. Grade and curve limits must be 
respected and deep cuts taken out wide to minimize the elTccts of 
snow. All these help to determine the width of right of way 

As fast as the information is recorded the right of way is laid on 
the map and the right of way man is put to work. His is no easy 
task, and he earns his money. With the patience of Job he labors 
with an old farmer of the old school, who can see nothing but the 
ruin of his farm and the destruction of his stock by the road. He is 
"agin" all corporations that apparently give him no adequate return. 
He sees some favorite animal ruthlessly slaughtered, or, in imagina- 
tion is kept awake by Ihc rumble and roar of the trains, and can- 
not see why, for the life of him, the road had to choose that par- 
ticular route and seems to consider it a piece of spite work on the 
part of the originators of the project. 

The work of the right of way men causes some changes on the 
map. John .Smith leases a strip across the corner of his farm, ami 
is cut ofT from an acre or two. Question, is it cheaper to buy the 
corner or furnish friend .Smith with a crossing? The land is not 
cheaper, perhaps, but Ihc crossing may prove costly to the opera- 
tion of the road, so the triangle is purchased, and the fact noted 

on the map. In another place a heavy bank must be built and there 
is no available hill to furnish the material. It is then necessary to 
buy a slice of Jones' farm and set it up on edge. All this goes on 
the map, which is beginning to grow and demand attention, but as 
yet it is still in its infancy and must undergo many changes before 
it shows what has been accomplished. 

Finally all the right of way is secured, ami the map, as it now 
stands, might be considered finished. It shows, however, but a part 
of the information that should be recorded. It now has but the width 
of right of way shown in addition to '.he location. The names of 
the owners of the land appear on it, and the intersection with prop- 
erty and section lines are noted. 

So far we have shown simply the real estate acquired, together 
with the various corporation lines. From the map as it now stands, 
a smaller map may be constructed for record at the county seat, 
giving only such information as may be necessary to enable a sur- 
veyor to accurately locate the line on the ground. More than this 
is unnecessary, and is a useless expenditure of money, as the cost 
of recording depends upon the time spent transferring the map to 
the recorder's plat book. 

During construction, the right of way map may be used to show 
progress of track laying as the profile shows the progress of the 

Beginning at points convenient to railroads already in operation, 
and from which the work may be pushed advantageously, yards are 
established for receiving and storing material. These are shown, 
together with the sidings and connections with other railroads and 
as track work is done it may be noted from day to day, or at other 
stated times, as may be decided upon, and the progress of tlie work 
may thus be seen at a glance. 

As usually laid out a railroad is ilividcd into sections of appro.xi- 
mately a mile in length, and from si.x to ten miles are assigned to 
a resident engineer. For convenience, the map may be made in 
sections corresponding to such residencies. In this shape the map 
is easier to handle and time is saved when a certain section is con- 

For office use in general, it is nicst convenient to have a copy of 
the map in short sections, from two to Ihree feet in length, and 
bound at one end. The map then lies Hat and any particular sec- 
tion may be turned to easily. This is easily done when the map is 
blue printed and will be found preferable to the long roll, especially 
when deskroom is limited. 

The utility of the right of way map to the engineer is generally 
understood ; it is the property of the engineering department and 
the preservation of the original falls upon that department also. 
Copies of it, either tracings or blue prints are used in other depart- 
ments, and information useful to them may willi propriety be record- 
ed on the original. In connection with the right of way, as noted 
above, the names of the different owner-s, together \\iili llu- loiiKtli 
and width of right of way, and acreage should be rmted un the 
respective properties and also the dimensions and acreage of land 
acquired outside of the right of way. Also, the location of farm 
crossings, cattle passes, culverts, bridges, etc., should be nnted. and 
information in regard to waterways that may not be clearly shown 
on the profile might also be put on the map. 

All departments have occasion to consult the map at various 
limes. Next to the engineering dcparlment conies what may be 
termed the real estate or land deparlment. The map is in constant 
use by the various employes of this deparlment, and a little of the 
draftsman's time spent on the map wdiile the notes arc "warm" will 
save hours and perhaps days in this department. Even in a com- 
paratively small .system, where there arc no outlying lands to mar- 
ket, information that is of no apparrent value to llu- engineers save 
as statistics will .save many a weary hom- r,f reseanh, ICspecially 
is this true when it becomes necessary to make relurns to the asses- 
sors of the various counties. The law requires not only a list of the 
various parcels of land held by the compiny or its trustees, Init also 
a detailed list of the tracks and sidings, station buildings, i)!alforms, 
yarils, shops, etc., and information of this characler may be shown 
on ihe map, making it available at a glance. These lists have to be 
turned in at a specified linre, and the lists can be checked and 
changes noted in a comparatively short lime, when the data arc pre- 
sented to the eye graphically. 



(Vol. XIII, No. 2- 

Another item that may appear on the map is the location of the 
road in the various school districts, and the length and width or 
widths o( the right of way, length of douhle and single track, sid- 
ings, etc. ; all that is essentially railroad property, and nsed for 
strictly railroad purposes, should be noted. 

For example, referring to the map shown, we will consider that 
portion lying between the two highways as entirely within one school 
district. For the convenience of those checking the school ta.\-list$ 
wc would make the following note : 

School District No. lo. 
Right of way 
across parts of sees. 

4. 8, and 9, Twp. 38-N — S'QS'x 'oo — i'-92 acs. 

R. 9 K. 3d P. M. 

Yards 2.12 acs. 

14.04 acs. 
Title in A. B. C. R. R. 

1 )i)nlilc track 5,090 ft. 

Side track 2.35°" 

Yard tracks i.SOO " 

Were there any parcels of land owned hy the company, but not 
used for railroad purposes, we would note them under the above as 

Lands — 

1 4.32 acs. 

1 1.07 acs. 

5-39 acs. 

Title in B. Blank, 

I'his gives at a glance, in addition to the information shown on 
the specimen, data that would require considerable time for one not 
familiar with scales and note books, to secure. 

Now, for all practical purposes, our map is complete. I he ne.\t 
thing in order is to preserve it in such form that we may readily 
find the portion we wish to consult. We will all admit that draw- 
ings filed flat, are much handier to use, and require less space than 
those in rolls. In the case of right of way maps, however, this is 
impracticable. I have suggested making right of way maps in sec- 
tions for convenience in handling. This is also an advantage when 
it comes to filing them, as each section can be indexed separately 
and its number used as a guide to all drawings of structures or 
track details within its limits. I will not attempt to give a com- 
plete system of indexing for I have not worked one out to my satis- 
faction. I believe that something of the kind will be worked out 
finally, that will give satisfaction. The card index, in one of its 
various forms, is without doubt the most satisfactory and elastic 
that has been devised. As for filing the maps themselves, I am in 
favor of using cardboard tubes and a system of pigeon holes with 
the number of the drawing and its title, condensed, on the cover. 
This protects the drawings and at the same time makes it easy to 
find, as it is not necessary to handle a number of drawings to find 
the one wanted. Time in the modern office is money, and the sim- 
plest method, easy of access and of comprehension, is always the 


For several years the Detroit United Ry. has been giving a funeral 
car service to cemeteries located on its city and suburban lines. In- 
asmuch as the car assigned to this service was a short, single truck 
car, some difficulty was experienced in operating it over the subur- 
ban and inlerurban tracks, and as the number of calls for the car to 
go out to the suburban cemeteries has constantly increased, the com- 
pany recently built a new double truck car intended exclusively for 
funeral purposes and suitable for city, suburban or interurbau serv- 
ice. The car went into service Nov. 12, 1902, and Mr. John H. Fry, 
assistant general passenger agent for the Detroit companies, writes 
us that it is in use on an average of four days a week. Frequently 
applications for the use of the car arc received from two different 
parties for the same day. 

The funeral car is 50 ft. in length over all. The interior is divided 
into tv\'0 parts, the forward com|>arlmcnt being for the reception of 
the casket ; the rear compartment is for the accommodation of the 
funeral party. 

The forward or casket compartment has a door on each side 
which drops down from the outside of the car to receive the casket 
which is put in sidcwise, there being small steel rollers sunk in the 
floor to facilitate the movement. The other portion of the car is 
fitted up with cross seals and center aisle. This arrangement is 



somewhat similar to the funeral car used at Baltimore and described 
in the "Review" for Dec. 15, 1900, page 703. 

The seats are upholstered in green plush and will accommodate 
comfortably 34 persons. The interior is finished in cherry. The ceil- 
ing and panels are pale green with gold borders and stenciling and 
the windows arc plate glass. There arc three clusters of incandes- 
cent lamps in the ceiling. Push buttons are provided at each seat 
and at all other parts of the car where necessary. The exterior is 
painted a deep black, ornamented with gold stripes. The car is 
equipped with four 50-h. p. steel motors. 

The rate charged for the funeral for round trip service to 
cemeteries reached by the city lines is $15. For round trip service 


to cemeteries in the immediate suburbs of Detroit, the charge is $20. 
For round trips to points on the interurban lines the charge varies 
from $25 to $60, according to distance. 

When the car was placed in service the company issued a cir- 
cular giving a full description of it, and quoting the rates for city 
and interurban service. This circular was sent to all undertakers in 
the city and also to towns located on the interurban lines. The sys- 
tem meets with the hearty approbation of the undertakers and is 
popular with the public. The car was designed and built under the 
supervision of Mr. Thomas Farmer, master mechanic. 

Americans have secured a franchise which calls for the construc- 
tion of 275 miles of electric road connecting Lille with Roubaix and 
Tourcoring, in the French coal region. The estimated cost of con- 
struction is $7,000,000. The power plant will be built in the vicinity 
of the coal mines. John Hayes Hammond and Henry A. Euttent, of 
San Francisco, arc prominently interested. 

Feb. 20, 1903 1 




U is grautyiiig to note ot late tile (Jisappearaiice of vi\i<l. gaiuly 
colors wliich have been idcnlificcl with street cars for so many 
years. This indicates the prevailing, sensible preference for quiet 
and effective colors and is in notable contrast to the vulgar gaiidi- 
ness and display which arc distasteful to the educated mind. It 
also shows that the subject of body colors has been recognized as 
worthy of consideration, a fact that has doubtless largely contrib- 
uted to the present improvements which have been inaugurated in 
many places. The relief aflforded by this change is very welcome, 
and it is safe to prophesy that the prevailing colors of car bodies 
in the future will never again present the vivid spectacle that would 
cause them to be mistaken for circus wagons. 

It is astonishing to what extent a grotesque style of painting will 
unwittingly increase in popularity as degenerate ideas arc allowed 
to gradually supplement those of good taste. Memory recalls the 
days when it was the height of the painter's ambition to produce 
the most startling effects on car bodies that could be designed. .At 
that time cars were gilded and then plaided with transparent green 
and carmine; some were colored w-ith fugitive lakes and cadmium, 
while others were lavishly decorated with designs including colors 
so nnmerous that it was difficult for one to determine the one in- 
tended for the body color. Considering the excessive cost of the 
methods employed to produce these effects when compared with the 
present manner of painting it is exceedingly strange that they re- 
mained in vogue as long as they did. In selecting color for car 
lx)dies fancy should be subordinate to reason. A preference for any 
particular color should not be shown until three important points 
have been considered upon which satisfactory results depend, namely. 
permanency, harmony of color and shape, and taste regarding hue. 
It is generally understood that color coats in car painting are not 
intended for protection, the prime object in selecting a pigment for 
this purpose being to secure one which will retain a maximum color 
fixedness, and in this connection it is well to remember that the re- 
lation existing between pigment and color is pertinently stated in 
the simile. "Pigment is the body, color is the soul." If the pigment 
is incapable of withstanding the attacks of the elements early disso- 
lution must be expected. The pigment in this case remains, but the 
fugitive color departs. To avoid the possibility of painting a num- 
ber of cars svith pigment of this nature it is wise to use only those 
pigments which are known to be lasting and to accept none without 
licing personally assured of the honesty of the goods. 

This may seem a lack of confidence, to regard all strange paint 
with suspicion, but it is justifiable considering the opportunities 
offered the unscrupulous makers to incorporate into paint spurious 
material which will reduce the color life of the pigment in propor- 
tion to the quantity of the adulterant used. For example, barytes 
can be compounded with chemically pure pigments in eciual parts 
without making any prcccptible change in the color, and in view of 
the fact that it would require the use of laboratory apparatus to de- 
termine the purity of the pigment it is manifestly proper that a 
painter, in order to protect himself, should be somewhat conserva- 
tive in his ideas when selecting color material for car work. 

The average life of color on street cars when properly prepared, 
applied and protected should be 10 or 12 years. This, however, only 
applies to a limited number of colors whose permanency has been 
tested and proved in actual service to be reasonably durable, while 
those whose extreme durability may be depended upon when sub- 
jected to extreme exposure are still limited to a very few, among 
which is one that may be mentioned wliich stands pre-eminent in 
its class. I allude to medium chrome green. From this pigment, 
or rather compound of pigments, may be produced hundreds of dif- 
ferent shades of green which are more or less permanent in propor- 
tion as the admixture of color recedes from the color which is gen- 
erally accepted as the standard. This offers an assortment from 
which may \>c selected many desirable body paints which will give 
perfect satisfaction as to the permanency of color. The Pullman 
car color is another desirable color which might be included in tin- 
extremely permanent list and out of which may be produced, by the 
aildition of green and golden ochre, many rich and soft shades that 
will still retain the lasting quality. The other colors that deserve 
notice are golden ochre, if a light color is desired, ultra-marine blue, 
and luscan red. These pigments will produce many hundreds of 

different shailcs of attractive body paints if judiciously assembled 
and properly mixed, and under normal conditions will successfully 
resist the moisture of the elements for a long period. 

riic rapidity with which the hue will depart from all lakes, ver- 
mlllioii, carmine or bright yellow pigments when exposed to the 
sun's rays should cause them to be avoided as far as possible for 
all car work. No practical and experienced painter would consider 
these for body coats unless forced to do so by the orders of his 

One very important point in the coloring of car bodies is the har- 
monizing of color and shape. Tlie consideration of this question is 
apparently often omitted, the mistake proceeding generally rather 
from inadvertence than ignorance. The consideration of this sub- 
ject, however, opens a broad field for improvement along these lines 
which would be productive of much improvement in the appearance 
of the promiscuous variety of models and types of cars that are 
generally included in the inventory of a modern street railway. A 
straight side. 50- ft. vestibule car painted in bright green would, in 
all ])robabilily. be an oliject of much criticism. Couip.irc Ibis willi 
one of the same type |iaiiilcd a quiet olive green, or rulhn.iii oar 
color and nole the great iiupro\-emcnl which the laller prescnls, 
t)n the other hand, it a 20-ft. open face car with coiive.\ and con- 
cave lower panels be painted Pullman color, it certainly would mark 
the absence of the fine appreciation of the harmony of color with 
the figure it was supposed to embellish. 

.-\s there is no fi.xed law that can be applied to determine what 
color is required for a specific shape, it remains for the painter to 
judiciously use the knowledge of this matter which he has derived 
from experience. 

To some fortunate people the gift of instantly conipreheudiiig 
this matter of harmony seems to be instinctive; this shows in their 
clever arrangement of color without apparent deliberation. lo 
others who are less favored the necessity of thorough study of color 
and form harmony is apparent. 

Certain unwritten laws of propriety and taste which regulate the 
appropriate use of color are without doubt recognized more fully 
by people of education and refinement than by those who have not 
had the chances of developing these qualities. The inherent inclina- 
tion of man in the savage state to be unduly attracted by exceed- 
ingly bright and vivid coloring is known, and these mysterious 
tastes can be traced across the void which divides the higher from 
the lower animals, exerting some mysterious influence over the lat- 
ter. Deer, for instance, have been known to lose their lives in order 
to gain a nearer view of the hunter's red blanket used for a decoy, 
while other cases can be cited where animals have been unnaturally 
excited at the appearance of unusually bright colors. Beginning at 
the lowest point of intelligence in the human family, there exists 
an uncontrollable eagerness for vivid colors which greatly dimin- 
ishes with advancing stages of civilization until it largely disap- 
pears when civilization reaches its highest development. This fact 
should be accepted as an indication at least that there is a natural 
law in regard to the proper use of color, and reason prompts that 
its precepts should be regarded. 

This natural law can nowhere bo bollor fultillod than in Us .ippli- 
calion lo the subject in hand. Nowhere is there more need ot its 
subtle or forceful iiiHuence than in the arrangement ot colors on 
the most conspicuous objects in our city streets. The indication' 
lliat these principles are being followed marks the intelligence of 
the designer, while the failure to meet the precepts of this law pro- 
duces an object of deservedly adverse criticism. V. II. 

It i^ ropoited from Springfield, Mass., that scarcity of coal has 
conipollod the ourlaihneiit of street car service. Similar reports 
coiiu- from .\^hl,ibu!.i, ( ).. am! .Mtoona, Pa. 

riie .■\ul)urn (N. Y.) City Railway Co. notified all its i-oiiduclors 
and molormen lo report lo the company's ofiice at 12 o'clock, on the 
night of January 19th. They were met there by Pres. C. D. Heche, 
who invited them across the way to a baiii|uol, wliioli had been pre- 
pared. After the banquet Mr. Heche announced that the company 

had decided to give the men an increase in pay, ranging froi lo 

20 per cent. The increase is to dale from January isl. Ilio nun 
extended a vole of thanks to Prosidout Hoelio ami tlio oIIut ofll 
cers of the company. 



IVoL. XIll. No. 2- 


'\\\v street aiul iiitcriirlKin railway interests of the country are to 
be heartily congratulated upon the work accomplished at the meet- 
ing held in Cleveland, l-'cbruary l6th, which resulted in the organ- 
ization of the American Railway Mechanical and Electrical Associ- 
ation. This association to a large extent owes its heing to the 
energy of Mr. Thomas Farmer, of the Detroit United Ry., who 
l*H>k the preliminary steps to effect such an organization at the 
A. S. R. A. convention in Detroit last October, and the new asso- 
ciation has fittingly honored Mr. Farmer in making him the first 

The dispatch with which the association effected its permanent 
organization, fornudated constitution and by-laws and elected offi- 
cers, augurs well for its success, and the wide extent of territory 
represented by the master mechanics, chief engineers and electrical 
engineers who answered the call for the organization meeting gives 
assurance that the need for such association is recognized in all 
l>arts of the country. It is certain to receive the hearty support of 
the street railway companies and of the parent association — the 
A. S. R. A., for the new association will develop a special field of 
its own just as the Accountants' Association has done, and permit 
discussion of engineering subjects to be transferred from the floor 
of the more general association to a forum where all instead of 
only a few are deeply interested in the subjects to be considered. 

Questions of slandardivcation. interchange of cars between steam 
and electric railroads, and between city and interurban electric lines, 
and similar matters peculiarly within the knowledge of the mechani- 
cal and electrical engineering departments, which were suggested by 
various speakers at the meeting, need only be mentioned to render 
evident the field that is open for such an association. 

The meeting was called to order at the Hotel Ilollenden, Cleve- 
land, February i6th, at lo a. m., Mr. Farmer being chosen chairman 
of the meeting and Mr. Mower, secretary. 

The companies represented at the organization meeting were : 

Detroit United Ry., by Thomas Farmer, superintendent of motive 
power, and S. W. Mower. 

Boston Elevated Ry.. by C. F. Baker, superintendent of motive 
|K>wer and machinery. 

Rochester (N. Y.) Railway Co., by Alfred Green, master me- 
chanic, and R. E. Danforth, superintendent. 

Cleveland Electric Ry.. by D. F. Carver, chief engineer. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., Akron, O., by W. Roberts, 
master mechanic. 

Grand Rapids (Mich.) Railway Co., by W. W. Annablo. master 

United Railways & Electric Co., Baltimore. Md.. by 11. H. .\dams. 
superintendent of shops. 

Toledo Railway & Light Co., by C. A. Brown, master mechanic. 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., by E. W. Olds, superin- 
tendent of rolling stock. 

International Railway Co., Buffalo, N. Y., by J. Millar, superin- 
tendent of rolling stock. 

St. Louis Transit Co., by W. O. Mundy. master mechanic. 

Scranton (Pa.) Railway Co., by T. J. Mullen, master mechanic. 

Lake Shore Electric Railway Co.. Toledo, by F. Heckler, master 

Afessrs. Adams. Carver. Green and Olds, with the chair as chair- 
man, were constituted a committe to draft a constitution and by- 
laws for the association, and the meeting then adjourned. 

The afternoon session was called to order at 2:30 p. m. and the 
committee on constitution and by-laws made its report, submitting 
a draft which was thoroughly discussed by the meeting. 

The constitution and by-laws as finally adopted arc as follows: 

Till' name of lltLs asHuriation .shall be "The American Railway Mc- 
chanlral and KleclrWal .\}«so<-ia)lon. an<l Its office shall be at the 
place where the Secrt'lary rt*si<l*i*. 

The object of this AHSociatUm will be the acquisition of experi- 
mental, statistical, sclentinc and practical knowledge relating to the 
construction, equipment and operation of street and Interurban rail- 
wa ys. 

1, The active Members of this .\ssoclatlon shall consist c)f Ameri- 
can railway companies, or lessees, or Individual owners of railways, 
and each member shall be entitled to one vole by delegates present- 
ing proper credentials. 

Ill di-piirlment of a nill< 
McmlMT of thiH Boclely 
p'f voting. 

*■■ rs may l»eronie 

I tlun of ill least 

ii|>loyt-d, and orif 

,^ lUges excfpt that 

::. Thr head «>f any mtrhaiihal *>r il)! iii< 
way i-ompuny may !«• i-l«t i<-d an Assoelali 
anil will tie enlltlid !•> all iMKIh-ges. •xcopt fh: 

:i. other rmployi's lutt cllglltle an Ass" " 
•*IIk1I<1<- tn Junlur mi-mherHhlp n|Min IIh* i 
lino nflhlat of the company by wblih 1 1 
AHHiH'laU- Menitier: and shall be entitled i<> 
nf voting. 

4. Tfi-hnleal iterlndlcals shall be eligible lo honorary memberohlp 
upon recommendation of the Execullve Committee. 

This constitution may l>c umended by (wu-thlrds vote of the mem- 
Ihth present ut a regular meeting after thirty days* notice thereof 
has l>een given to each member In writing by the Secretary. 

Every applicant for membership shall signify the same In writing 
to the Secretary, enclosing the reipilstte fee. and shall sign the Con- 
stitution and By-I<aws. 


The ortlcers shiill consist of n Pn'sldenl. three Vice-Presidents, a 
Secretar>' ami Treasurer, and fmir others, who shall constitute the 
Executive Committee. The Executive Committee shall have ihc en- 
tire charge and management of the affairs of the As.soclatlon. The 
officers and Exeiull\c <_'ommlttee shall be elected by ballot at each 
regular meellng of the Association, and shall hold office until their 
successors shall be elected. The duties of Secretary and Treasurer 
shall be i)erformed by the same i>erson. 


The officers of the Association shall assume their duties immedi- 
ately after the close of the meeting at which they are elected. They 
shall hold meetings at the call of the President or. In his absence, at 
the call of the Vice-Presidents. In their order, and make arrange- 
ments for carrying out the objects of the Association. 

The President. If present, or In his absence one of the Vice-Presi- 
dents. In their order. If present, shall preside at all meetings of the 
Association and of the Executive Committee. 

The duties of the Treasurer shall be to receive and safely keep all 
moneys of the Association: keep correct account of the same, aod 
pay all bills approved by the President, and he shall make an annual 
report to be submitted to the Association. He shall give a bond lo 
the President in such sum and with such sureties as shall be ap- 
proved by the Executive Committee. 


The duties of the Secretary shall be to take minutes of all proceed- 
ings of the Association and of the Executive Committee and enter 
them In proper books for the puri>ose. He sliall conduct the corre- 
spondence of the Association, read minutes and notices of all meet- 
ings, and also papers and communications. If the authors wish it. 
and perform whatever duties may be required in the Constitution and 
Ry-I-aws appertaining to his department. He shall I>e paid a salary 
to be fixed by the Executive Committee. 


The regular meetings of this Association shall convene at the same 
place as the American Street Railway Association, and one day In 
advance of the meeting of that ,\.ssoclation. Notice of every meeting 
shall be given by the Secretary In a circular addressed to each mem- 
ber at least thirty days before the time of meeting. Ten members 
shall constitute a quorum of anv meeting. 


At the regular meeting of the Association the order of business 
shall he: 

1. The reading of the minutes of the last meeting. 

2. The address of the President. 

Z. The report of the Executive Committee on the management of 
the Association during the previous year. 
•1. The report of the Treasurer. 
.V Report of special committees, 
fi. The election of officers. 

7. The reading and discussion of papers of wliich notice has been 
given to the Secretary at least thirty days prior to the meeting. 

8. General business. 


At other general meetings of the Association the order of business 
shall be the same, except as to the third, fourth and sixth clauses. 

The Secretary shall send notices to all members of the Association 
at least sixty days before each meeting, mentioning the papers to be 
read and any special business to ho brought before the meeting. 

The Executive Committee shall meet one day in advance of each 
annual meeting of the Association, and on other occasions when the 
President shall deem it necessary tipon svich reasonat>le notice speci- 
fying the business to lie attended to. as the committee shall by vot« 
determine. A vote of the Executive Committee may be taken by mall 
when deemed advisable. 

12. VOTING. 

All votes except as herein otherwise provided shall he by the up- 
lifted hand unless a ballot Is called for. and in case of a tie a presid- 
ing officer mav vote. 


All papers read at the meetings of the Association must relate to 
matters connected witli the objects of the Association and must 
have the approval of the Executive Committee before tielng read. 
Persons to whom subjects are assigned must signify in writing their 
intention to prepare the paper and forward it to the Secretary at 
least sixty days previous to the date of tiie meeting so that advance 
copies of the paper mav be jirinted and forw.Trded to the members. 

All papers, drawings and models submitted to the meeting of the 
Association shall remain the property of the Association at the 
option of the Executive Committee. 

ir,. FEES. 

Active members shall pay annual dues of $20.00. payable In advance. 
The Executive Committee shall have no power to expend for any 
purpose whatever, an amount exceeding that received as hereinbe- 
fore provided for. It shall be the duty of the members to pay such 
returns to the Secretary as shall be required by the Execullve Com- 

Associate Members will pay annual dues of $i».00. 

Junior Members will pav annual dues of $S.OO. 

No member whose annual dues shall he In arrears sliall be entitled 
to vote. 


Any member may retire from membership by giving written notice 
to that effect to the Secretary, and the payment of all annual dues, 
but shall remain a member and liable to the payment of annual dues 
until such payments are made except as hereinafter provided. 

Feb. 20, looj] 



A member may be expelled from the Association by ballot of two- 
thirds of the members voting at any regular meeting of the Associa- 
tion upon the written recommendation of the Executive Committee. 
All rules not provided for in these By-Laws shall be those found 
in Roberts" Rules of Order. 

Notice of all propositions for adding to or altering an>- of these 
By-l^aws shall be given to the members of the Association at least 
thirty days before the meeting at which they are to be acted upon. 
Each member of the Association shall be furnished by the Secre- 
tary with u copy of the Constitution and By-Laws of the Association 
and also a list of the members. 

The association then proceeded to the election of otiicei's, who 
were chosen as follows : 

President, Thomas Farmer, superimciident of motive power, De- 
troit United Ry., Detroit, Mich. 

First Vice-President, E. W. Olds, superintendent rolling stock, 
Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Light Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Second Vice-President, Alfred Green, master mechanic, Rochester 
& Sodus Bay Railway Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Third Vice-President, C. F. Baker, superintendent motive power 
and machinery, Boston Elevated Railway Co., Boston, Mass. 

Secretary and Treasurer, Walter Mower, Detroit United Ry., De- 
troit, Mich. 

Executive Committee : The officers and — 

W. O. Mundy, master mechanic, St. Louis Transit Co., St. Louis, 

T. J. Mullen, master mechanic, ScraiUon Railway Co., Scrantoii, 

H. H. Adams, master mechanic, United Railways & Electric Co., 
Baltimore, Md. 

D. F. Carver, chief electrician, Cleveland Electric Railway Co., 
Cleveland, O. 

The secretary then read applications for membership from the fol- 
lowing companies which were not represented at the meeting: 

Worcester Consolidated Street Railway Co., Worcester, Mass. 

Chicago City Railway Co. 

Santa Barbara (Cal.) Consolidated Street Railway Co. 

Mobile (Ala.) Light & Railway Co. 

After receiving applications for associate membership from the 
delegates of companies represented, the association adjourned to 
meet at the time of the next A. S. R. A. conventioil as specified in 
the by-laws. 

At a meeting of the executive committee immediately following 
the "Street Railway Review," the Street Railway Journal, and the 
Western Electrician were chosen honorary members of the .Ameri- 
can Railway Mchanical and Electrical Association. 

Extremely pleasant and heartily appreciated features of the meet- 
ing were the entertainments extended to the association by the sup- 
plymen. Lunch was served at the Century Club at i -.30 p. m., plates 
being laid for 32. At this the following gentlemen were hosts: 
II. N. Ransom, Christenscn Engineering Co., Cleveland ; W. R. 
Kerschner, Columbia Machine Works, Brooklyn; W. D. Ray, West- 
inghouse Traction Brake Co., Detroit ; J. E. Eldred, Jr., Christensen 
Engineering Co. ; M. S. F. Yates, New Haven Car Register Co. ; C. 
T. Smith, Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. ; George S. Hastings, Cleve- 
land; F. E. Green, Westinghousc Traction Brake Co.; D. B. Dean, 
J. G. Brill Co. ; F. A. Elmquist, Sherwin-Williams Co. ; E. F. Wick- 
wire, Sterling-Mcaker Co., New York; F. C. Randall, Christensen 
Engineering Co., New York ; C. N. Lcet, Christensen Engineering 
Co.; II. E. Ackerly, American Car Seat Co.; J. W. Paterson, Amer- 
ican Car & Ship Hardware Manufacturing Co., New Castle, Pa.; 
C. P. Tolman. 

In the evening the supplymen were hosts at a theater parly. 

The Cleveland Electric Railway Co. placed a special car at the 
disposal of delegates who wished to "sec Cleveland," a courtesy that 
was much appreciated. 

of an official coupon passbook and which was designed by Miss L. 
M. Taft, chairman of the entertainment committee. The pro- 
gramme included an address of welcome by Mr. T. J. NichoU and 
musical selections, both vocal and instrumental, after which a din- 
ner was served, followed by appropriate toasts. 


The sixth annual reunion of the olficcrs and clerks of the Roches- 
ter Railway Co. was held Jan. 30, IQ03. The occasion was in honor 
of the completion of Mr. T. J. Nicholl's seventh year as vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of the company, and a similar affair has 
Ijccn arranged each year by the employes. A unique feature of the 
occasion was the printing of the programme and menu in the form 


The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad Co. officially 
announces the electrical conversion of its lines in New York City and 
vicinity to electricity and the company has established an electrical 
commission which will be in charge of the electrical work to be 
undertaken. This commission consists of W. J. Wilgus, fifth vice- 
president of the company; Bion J. Arnold, Chicago, electrical en- 
gineer; Frank J. Sprague, New York, electrical engineer; George 
Gibbs, New York, electrical engineer, and A. M. Waitt, superin- 
tendent of motive power of the company. The force of electrical 
and mechanical engineers for carrying on the work will be in 
charge of Mr. Edward B. Catte. The company's plans provide for 
the electrical operation of trains from the Grand Central Station, 
35 miles out on the Hudson division to Crolon Landing, and 29 
miles out on the Harlem Division to North White Plains. On the 
Harlem division the electrical system will be installed from issth 
St. to Yonkers. These improvements are to be undertaken largely 
on the advice of Mr. B. J. Arnold, whose report on the feasibility 
of operating trains from the Grand Central Station to Mott Haven 
Junction was read last summer before the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, and published in the "Review" for July 20th, 
1902. It is estimated that over $20,000,000 will be expended on the 
new work, and an agreement between the city and the company has 
been made conditioned upon the railroad company procuring and 
aiding the city to procure necessary legislation to permit a change 
of motive power from steam to electricity in the Park Ave. tunnel. 
It also contains the provision that in case of emergency, or break- 
downs through trains only may be operated by steam and the 
emergency in each case to be determined by the Mayor of the city 
of New York. In case of break-downs steam may be used for 
three days, after which the railroad company must pay the city $500 
a day penalty, unless a certificate is obtained from the Mayor that 
the further use of steam is justified. The power house cannot be 
situated on Manhattan Island farther than two blocks from the 
water front except by the consent of the Board of Estimate. 


1 have been asked many times "how I liked the electric cars run- 
ning along the side of my farm," and did I consider them a benefit 
or a damage. I wish to say that no man who owns a farm and lives 
on it can realize the great advantage it is to have an interurban elec- 
tric road running along his farm every hour. It is without a doubt 
the greatest benefit he has ever known and practically places the 
farmer right in town. So well satisfied was I when the matter was 
first talked of regarding the Rockford, Beloit & Janesville inter- 
urban road, that when I was approached for the right of way along 
my farm, which would take a strip of land off the farm 33 ft. wide 
the length of the farm, that I said at once they could have the 
land for nothing and I would then be well paid. Yet I never real- 
ized till the road was built and cars running what a benefit it would 
be to me as a farmer. With my telephone and morning delivery of 
mail I am belter situated than if t lived in town, having al)out all 
llic benefits of the city and none of its disadvanl.ages. If one wishes 
to attend a lecture-in Rockford or Beloit, or go to the opera house 
or to church, he is but 20 to 30 minutes from the city. If one 
has sickness, a telephone message to Rockford brings a physician 
on the next car. Or a need from the shop, or store and a telephone 
message and the next car brings yon what you order. Yes, sir, the 
eleclric road is with us a necessity, and a check for $2,000 would be 
no temptation to have it taken away. To my farms it is worth $20 
per acre benefit, and one farm on this line has sold for $20 per acre 
iiieirr ilie man asked for it before llic mail w;i'. buill. This is 
my i)|iiiiion of the interurban railway. 
Koscoe, 111. A. J. Lovcjoy. 


(Vol. XI 11. No. 2 


dm- of ihc |{rtali~i .iilv;iiU.igcs of llic ckclric railway in com- 
pi'liiiK with tlu' 'ilt'ani railroa<ls for passi'ti^vr iralVic lii'« in tin- ability 
of till' I'liTtric railway to use for its passenger lerniinals the street 
railu.iy traeks of llie various cities and towns which it connects. 
Those inlereslecl in interurhan electric railway properties have al- 
w.iys fully appreciated the advantage, or even the necessity, of hav- 
ing working agreeinenls with the urhan coni)Kinies, and in niovt 
instances there has heen little diHiculty in making ainicahle arrange 
fucnts for the joint use of tracks in the terminal city. 

With the extension of interurhan electric systems the need foi 
terminal huildings has hccome greater, especially so since the inter- 
urhan lines have very generally un<lerlaken to handle light freight 
and express matter. Such a business demands freight houses and 
transfer stations, and in a ninnher of cities recognized as electric 
inlernrlian railway centers special terniinals, usually in the way of 
iniion stations for the use of all interurhan lines entering the city, 
have heen huill or planned. W'c have in mind, Detroit, Toledo, and 
Cleveland as being among the first to arrange for such terminals. 

In the "Review" for January aMuonncemenl was made concerning 
the plans of the Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co. for a union 
electric railway station, and in this article is described the terminal 
and freight handling system for the interurhan electric railways en- 
tering Cincinnati. This building is the idea of Mr. G. R. Scrugham. 
who is president and general manager of the Interurhan Railway & 
Terminal Co., of Cincinnati, which comprises the Cincinnati & East- 
ern Electric Ry., the Suburban Traction Co., the Rapid Railway Co.. 
and the Interurhan Terminal Co. 

Of the three railway properties consolidated to form the Inter- 
urhan Railway & Terminal Co.. the Cinciimati & Eastern connected 
Cincinnati and New Richiuond, O., 22 miles southeast; the Sub 
urban Traction coiuiected with Bethel and Balavia, 28 miles iioiih 
east, and the Rapid Railway with Lebanon. ,^2 miles north. Tlu 
total length of Hack outside of Cinciiniali is Sj miles, 14 miles being 
double track. 

The three railways which the interests of the Interurhan Rail- 
way & Terminal Co, are constructing (outside of the city and vil- 
lages) for the most part own their rights of way, which consist of 
turnpike and toll-roads, that have been purchased. In such cases 
a wagon road is left parallel with the_ tracks. The remaining por- 
tion of the right of way was purchased or condemned through town 
lots, farms, etc. 

The Cincinnati & Eastern division operates southeast from Cincin- 
nati, through the new Water Works grounds (on which the city of 
Cincinnati is expending about nine million dollars), through the 
town of California, to Coney Island, the largest pleasure resort in 
the west : thence throngli a number of villages, to New Richmond. 

The Rapid Railway division operates north from Cincinnati, 
through a contimious line of suburban villages, a large majority uf 
the population uf which are commuters, who have had to depend 
upon the steam railroa<l operated in this territory. 

Experience has been that an electric railway operating in such 


territory as this will not oidy carry the existing traffic, hut will also 
largely develop ami increase the traffic between suburban towns and 
the city, and belween the towns themselves. 

'The street railwav tracks of the Cinciimati 'Traction Co. have a 


This road follows very closely the line of the Ohio River, m.nking 
a very popular and picturesque pleasure ride. 

The Suburban Traction division operates northeast of Cincinnati. 
and serves a district largely cultivated as market gardens, the pro- 
duce of which has heretofore been hauled to the city by wagons, 
as there are no convenient railway facilities. 

gauge of s ft. 2^< in., and the interurhan roads mentioned, as well 
as the Mill Creek Valley Street Ry., which operates northwest to 
Hamilton, a distance of 18 miles, are constructed with the same 
gage. Other roads will use the same terminal later. The basis for 
payment for the use of the terminal station will be according to the 
number of cars operated and the amount of freight handled. 

Feb. 20, 1903.] 



The terminal station, which was opened for use the second week 
in February, but will not be entirely completed before .-Vpril ne.Nt, 
is without doubt the most elaborate structure of tins kind yet erected 
exclusively for electric railways. 

The station is situated on Sycamore Si. lietween Foiirtli and Fifth, 
being within one block of Government Square, which is practically 
the center of Cincinnati. The depot is a six-story building, 60 ft. 
front X 160 ft. deep, with a freight shed in the rear 60 x 60 ft., ex- 
tending to an alley. The first floor is for the cars, passenger waiting 
room, freight receiving room. etc. A single track will enter the 
building, but inside there will be a storage track connected by a 
cross-over for the handling of freight. 

Reference to the plans herewith will make plain the arrangcnuiU 
The general waiting room on the ground floor is 30 -x 60 ft.; in the 
rear is a ladies" waiting room, a4 x 40 ft. These waiting rooms are 
finished with tiled floors, marble wainscoting and all modern con- 
veniences. The upper floors are all arranged similarly to the second 
floor and arc intended to accommodate special offices of the railways 
using the station. Partitions can be changed, however, to suit the 
convenience of different companies. These offices are served by a 
passenger elevator at the front of ihe Imilding and a large freight 
elevator in the rear. 

The building is a brick and steel structure, with Bedford stone 
front abc:i\o the first fli:tiir. and a granite front on the ground floor. 


There are all .sorts i)f liills before the present legislature in regard 
lo the operations of street railways, so many in fact and all coming 
in at lino lime, ihal it is impossible to enumerate Iheni all. .'\t the 
present time the one that seems the most likely to receive favorable 
consideration is one lo give the necessary authority to the railroad 
commissioners to regulate the speed of trolley cars. This has back 
of it the endorsement of the governor and the commissioners them- 
selves, and back of all this, the accident lo the iiresidential party in 
Piltsfield last fall. 

rile law of last year liy \\liicii ihc railroad commissioners have 
lo aiiprovc all grams nt local Ijoards is attacked by a petition and 
hill to have this law repealed. There has been no hearing as yet 
on this matter and it is impossible to state how much force there 
is back of it. Its success is doubtful, however, for llie present ten- 
dency of Massachusetts legislation is towards cenlralization of mat- 
ter in the hands of state authorities. 

There are one or two cases where companies are seeking to get 
from the legislature grants in the way of location, etc., that the 
railroad commissioners have refused them. Some of the suburban 
towns in the metropolitan section have majority votes in favor of 
keeping their roads for their own pleasure driving rather than giving 
them to public use for trolley cars. 


and is to be equipped with an independent steam heating, eleclric 
light and elevator plant. 

This building was designed by Mr. Scrugham. The architects 
were Warner & .^dkins. The general contractors were L. P. Hazen 
& Co., of Cincinnati, and the sub-contractors as follows: Steam 
heating plant, John H. McGowan Co., Cincinnati; elevators, Werner 
Elevator Co., Cincinnati ; engines, Buckeye Engine Co., Salem, O. ; 
electric plant, Wcstinghouse Co., steel work, L. Schreiber Sons Co. ; 
plumbing, Wm. Hillenbrand & Co. 

It is the intention of the Railway & Terminal Co. to establish 
stations in many of the towns, with a man in charge to act as agent 
who will operate wagons to distribute and collect goods. The sys- 
tem of transporting these goods on the cars will be very similar 
to that now in use by express companies, way bills being used, and 
a regular tariff being established. 

To facilitate small shipments, the company will sell hooks (if 
tickets lo paste on the packages for prc-|>ayment. Small platforms 
arc being built along the land side of the tracks in front of the farm 
houses, so that packages, crates of vegetables, milk cans, etc., can 
be handled directly from each farm. For collecting and distribut- 
ing freight to and from the terminal station in Ciucinnali Ihe com 
pany will operate a number of express wagons. 

It is proposed to operate regular passenger cars on a schedule 
varying from 15 minutes to one hour, through combination cars 
which will liandle light freight every hour, and large double truck 
baggage cars to be run at night for the handling of heavy freight 
and large shipments to Ih; distributed from the depots in the towns 
through which the roads operate. 


The I'ilchburg & Leominster Street Railway C"., of Filchbnrg, 
Mass., is seeking permission to carry freight on its lines. 

I'here are one or two companies seeking charters with more privi- 
leges than the commissioners can give under the general law. These 
are lines in the hill towns of the western part of the stale and "down 
on Cape Cod." In these cases the claim is that the territory is so 
.sparsely settled that a road cannot live unless it can sell electricity 
for light and power, make physical connections with ihe railroads 
at each end of the line and handle freighl iiji and down, do an ex- 
press business, etc. The street railway commiltee has already given 
a hearing on one petition of this kind, and heard many earnest 
pleas from leading men of the hill towns communities lo "give them 
somelhing in the way of connection with the DUlside world and not 
make them travel 12 nr 14 miles in a .stage coach the way their 
grandfathers did." 

In fact the cominillee has taken a .^0 mile drive through a minilKT 
iif these communilie.s, has given a hearing in a central borough and 
has come hack with a prelly clear conviction that something ought 
lo be done to help llmse people who are .so eanieslly tryi"S '" l'<-''P 

Another impiirtaiil inalUr is a petilion ivmu nnc iif the impiirlani 
railroad lines of the slate that it be allowed to buy stock in street 
railw.'iy companies. This is supposed lo mean a consolidation. 


The Maiili.Lllaii Railway Co., of New York, paid Ihe cily 
$2,I4rt,.SOO in siltlement of claims fcir taxes amounling In 
$.^,000,000, thus ending a litigation which in 1894. 

The Winnebagn Traclion Co. of Oshkosh, Wis., has experienced 
considerable difficnlly in keeping ils inlerurban lines open, on ac- 
count of drifting snow. Storm fences may be creeled al Ihe worst 
points next winter. 



(Vol. XIII. No. 2- 






New York 3g Cortlaodt Street. Cleveland 302 Electric BuildinK 

Philadelphia The Bourse. 

Austria. Vieona Lehmann & Wentzel. Karntnerstrasse. 
France. Parts Boyveau& Chevillet, Librairie Etrangere, Rue dela Banque. 
Italy. Milan -Ulrico Hoepli, Librairie Delia Real Casa. 

New South Walea. Sydney Turner & Henderson. 16 and 18 Hunter Street. 
Queensland (South). Brisbane Gordon A Cotch. 
Victoria. Melt>ourne -Gordon & Cotch. Limited. Queen Street. 

The publihher u( the Strkrt Railway Krvikw issues each >-ear on the 
iKTcaHitMi of Ihtr nti>ulini; of the Anit-rican Street Railway Associaiion fouror more 
nuniNTH of the J*at/r Str/,t /lat/vny /it; irz'; which (•* published in the ctinvention 
city and contains the convention 'reiK>riM. The /tai'/y Strett iiailivny Hcvicvt is 
Hcparate from ihe Stkkkt Railway Rkvikw, but is'in its nature supplementary 


In the I'niteU States. C.inaila nr Moxioc 

Stkkkt Raii.wav Rkvikw (12 monthly issues) $2.75 

f)aily Street Raitzvay Revieiv (four ur more issues) 50 

Combined Subscription (RttViKW and Daily Review) 3.(K1 

In All Other Countries: 

Stkkk I Railway Rkvikw (12 monthly issues) 3.75 

/>aitr Street Railivay Review (four or more issues) 50 

Combineii Subscription (Rkvikw and Daily Review) 4.(»0 

Address alt CommHrntcations and Remittances to Windsor dc Keufield Publishing Co. 
Chicago, III. 


We cordially invite correspondence on all subjects of interest to those 
enpaired in any branch of street railway work, and will K^ratefuUy appreciate 
any marked copies of papers ur news items our street railway friends may send 
us, pertaining either to compaaies or officers. 


If you contemplate (he imrchiiseof anv sunplies or material, wo can save 
you much time and trouble. Drop a line to Tut Kkview, stating xvhat you are 
in the market for, and you will promptly receive bids and estimates from all the 
t>est dealers in that line. We make no charge for publishing such notices in our 
Bulletin of Advance News, which is sent to all manufacturers. 

This paper is a member of the Chicago Trade Press Association. 
Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 


FEBRUARY 20, 1903. 



Culumbla Kliciric Street Railway. Light & Power Co., of Colum- 
bia. S. <;. lllu.slrated 61 

The Right of Way Map. By John B. Warren, C. E. Illustrated.. 67 

Kxtension of Funeral Car Service In Detroit. Illustrated 68 

SiIeclliiK Car Body Colors b» 

The .American Railway Mechanical and Electrical Association... 70 

The Klectrical Kqulpment of the New York Central 71 

Inlerurban Railway & Terminal Station at Cincinnati 72 

l':«lltorlal 74 

Inlerurban Klectric Railroads and Their Relation to Steam Rail- 
roads 76 

Steam Turbines of the Massachusetts Electric Companies 77 

Kqulpment of Railways with Converter Sub-stations. By Alton 

1). Adams 80 

I.nulsvllle Railway Relief Association 82 

.\ttempl til Defraud the Metropolitan 82 

Slreil Rallwav Park Development- 1 1 1. Illustrated 83 

Park Advertising. By C. W. Waddell 83 

.\quatic Attractions for Parks. Illustrated 84 

.\ri-hHecturaI Acoustics 85 

Recent Street Railway Decisions 91 

( '(nu-rete Culverts on the Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Illustrated. 95 

The Manchester-Liverpool Monorail. Illustrated 9G 

Proposed Iowa Inlerurban 97 

I>ccatur Traction & Electric Co 97 

ProKress of Electric Traction In Great Britain 9R 

Connecticut Street Railways 99 

Ventilation of Street Cars 101 

Increa.-^e of Pay for Boston Elevated Employes 103 

(German Construction Ladder 104 

New Works of the Allls-Chalmers Co. Illustrated 105 

Accident at Niagara Power Plant. By O. E. Dunlap 107 


I here M'ciii^i to lie ilib|Kjsilion ill some quarters to lament the fact 
that in developing inlerurban railways in this country the so-called 
light railway has received scant altenlion. The term light railway 
must be understood as meaning narrow gage, since our engineers 
have had too much experience with rails of small section and the 
other features going to make up light construction, to seriously 
advocate a return to a practice which saves on the original cost but 
loses in mainlennnce and operation. 

We believe it would be a great mistake to introduce the narrow- 
gage in electric railway work except in district where the existing 
street railways laid to gages narrower than standard as is the case 
on the Pacific Coast and in some cities in Texas. Even in such 
cases varying from the standard practice appears of doubtful wis- 
dom, for it is impossible to predict either the time or direction of 
future developments which may render the interchange of cars with 
standard gage roads necessary or desirable. Soinc two years ago, 
in commenting on the existing variety in street railway gages, the 
opinion was expressed that sooner or later the companies must face 
the question of changing to standard gage. While Columbus, Cin- 
cinnati and Pittsburg are probably the cities where the greatest in- 
convenience because of non-standard gages has been felt, the Nash- 
ville (Tenn.) Railway Co. is the first to decide upon changing the 
old gage to standard, a work that will be undertaken this year. 


Notwithstanding the practical difficulties that have been met in 
attempting to enforce so-called Jim Crow laws in the states where 
they have been adopted, and the fact that in every instance the re- 
quirements for the segregation of white and colored passengers in 
street cars have resulted in greater inconvenience to the race it was 
altcmptcd to favor than to the one discriminated against, the state 
iif Tennessee has passed a law requiring the separation of the two 
races in the street cars operated in counties having more than 150,- 
000 inhabitants at the last federal census. This was aimed at Mem- 
phis, which is the only city affected by the act. The impossibility 
of so placing partitions in cars that the two classes of passengers 
shall at all times be suitably accommodated is apparent to any street 
railway man and it is needless to say that the passage of the Ten- 
nessee law was strenuously opposed by the company concerned. 


In coiiimcMtiiig. in the "Review" for December, upon some recent 
expressions by street railway managers on the subject of discipline, 
we called attention to the growing favor with which the idea of, 
pensions for superannuated employes is regarded. We believe that 
np to the present year but two street railway companies in this 
country had definitely adopted the policy of providing pensions for 
their employes, these being the United Traction & Electric Co., of 
Providence, R. I., now succeeded by the Rhode Island Co., which 
put its pension order in effect in November, 1901, and the Metro- 
politan Street Railway Co., of New York, which inaugurated a 
similar plan in March. 1902. The Boston Elevated Railway Co. is 
the third company to find itself in a position to institute old age 
pensions, an order to that effect having been published in January 
last. The Boston Elevated plan is to contribute to the support of 
superannuated "blue-uniformed" employes who have been contin- 
uously employed by the company for 25 years and who have reached 
the age of 60 years, to the extent of not more than $25 per month ; 
this differs from the scheme adopted by the two other companies 
mentioned, both of which fixed the pension at a percentage of the 
average wages received for the ten years next preceding retirement, 
. Ihe rate varying with the term of service. 

In the order issued by the Boston Elevated company, which is 
published in full on another page, another departure is made in 
that "extra" men are guaranteed a minimum wage for each day 
during which they have reported and are on hand awaiting work, 
regardless of whether work falls to them. The principle here in- 
volved is one which we know has engaged the attention of a num- 
ber of managers who have carefully studied discipline, and com- 
mended itself as being equitable and effective in removing a fre- 
quent cause of friction between the men and the management. 
There may well be a difference of opinion as to whether a man 

Feb. 20, 1903.) 



should receive compensation while learning his work, but when 
he has become competent to take a run, and has entered the service, 
the uncertainty incident to being on the "extra list" is generally a 
hardship. When transposition to the bottom of the e.xtra list is a 
recognized penalty for infraction of rules the case is of course dif- 
ferent, but the present tendency is towards the substitution of 
demerit marks on a record of conduct in lieu of suspension, and 
where such systems have been adopted a position on the e.xtra list 
without guarantee of a minimum wage places on the employe a 
burden for which he is not responsible, and as a rule is not in a 
lx5sition to bear. 


On another page wc give the plans and a general description of 
the new steam turbine power plant which is being installed by the 
Massachusetts Electric Companies. The first station to be installed 
will contain three p. turbines, although the three other sta- 
tions to be built later by this company will contain three 3.000-h. p. 
turbines. The station containing the smaller units is being installed 
first so that the company will have an opportunity of experimenting 
and deciding upon the minor engineering details of this type of sta- 
tion before going ahead with the installation of the 3,000 h. p. units. 

While the steam turbine is the oldest type of steam engine known, 
its commercial development so far as large units are concerned, has 
taken place only during the last few years, and in America this 
type of engine is practically new ; for w bile turbines have been in- 
stalled in a few power plants largely as a matter of experiment, the 
station under consideration is the first one using steam turbines 
exclusively. As has been previously pointed out in the "Review" 
the introduction of steam turbines to drive altertiating current ma- 
chinery will have a tendency to cause the design of the latter to 
revert in some particulars to types manufactured during the earlier 
period of electrical manufacturing. The high speed of the turbine 
seems particularly adapted for direct connected units as it will ma- 
terially reduce the weight and dimensions of these machines, which 
of late years have been vastly increased to meet the conditions im- 
posed by the general use of low speed engines of the corliss type. 
One difficulty in the introduction of turbines has probably been due 
to the rapid increase in the prevalent jizes of generators, which in 
point of capacity have kept ahead of the turbines. 

The various types of steam turbines on the market are designed 
upon one of two general principles. One of these types, of which 
the DeLaval turbine is an embodiment, is known as the impulse 
type, and the other, represented by the Parsons turbine, is the mul- 
tiple-expansion or parallel-flow type. The Rateau and Curtis tur- 
bines are both of the first type above mentioned. While at the 
present time there is a great paucity of data in regard to the economy 
of operation of steam turbines the few tests which have been pub- 
lished give promise of excellent results in this direction, and if the 
high efficiency claimed for the smaller units of this type of machine 
can be attained in the size common in the modern central station, 
turbines will undoubtedly become a standard feature of future 
generating plants. 


It is pretty generally recognized that the development of electric 
inlcrurban lines has resulted in the diminution of the local passen- 
ger traffic on the steam railroads with which the former are in 
competition, this being due largely to the more frequent trips and 
more convenient terminals of the "electrics." Some interesting 
figures as to the extent of this loss of local passenger traffic by 
steam roads to electric intcrurban lines have been published re- 
cently. On the I^kc Shore & Michigan Southern, the number of 
passengers carried between Cleveland and Paincsville, O., and in- 
termediate points, fell from an average of 16,600 per month in 180s 
10 an average of 2400 per month in 1902. Between Cleveland and 
Olicrlin, O., and intermediate points, from an average of 16,000 per 
month in 1895 to an average of 7,650 per month in igo2. 

The steam railroads have regarded the loss of the traffic thus 
taken from them with equanimity since it was a traffic that did not 
pay them, but it is doubtful whether the additional long haul pas- 
senger traffic due to the stimulating efTcct on the public of trolley 
facilities has been heretofore properly appreciated. So far as pas- 
senger traffic is concerned the two classes of roads are not at all 

antagonistic, except as the promoters of electric railway enterprise 
have had to meet the opposition of steam roads that preferred to 
control the paralleling trolley lines if any were to be built. Where 
electric railways have undertaken to handle express and freight as 
well as passengers there has been a more direct conflict of inter- 
est and by refusing to grant through rates express companies and 
railroads have in some instances succeeded in preventing substan- 
tial expansion in trolley freight traffic. The logical counter move 
is for the electric roads to establish a wagon collection and delivery 
service where such is necessary to meet similar facilities afforded 
by express companies, and the establishment of union stations or 
clearing houses for freight as for example has just been done by 
the Interurban Railway & Terminal Co., of Cincinnati. As electric 
interurban lines grow in number and length the competition for 
freight is certain to become stronger, and it is equally certain that 
the steam railroads will not regard the invasion with indifference. 


.•\ftcr a series of public conferences, beginning February 4th, be- 
tween the Chicago Council committee on local transportation and 
representatives of the street railway companies, formal statements 
were on February nth submitted as a basis for future negotiations. 
These statements were as follows: 

POSITION OF THE COMMITTEE-It is the sense ol the commit- 
tee that the grant be for a period of twenty years; that the city shall 
have the right to take over the properties after ten years, making 
allowance for the then values of the unexpired part of the grants as 
well as for the then value of the tangible properties. The committee 
will consider at this time the value of all unexpired franchises, in- 
cluding the value of the unexpired portion of the ninety-nine year 
act (it any) m eonneetion with the question of compensation In 
line with the foregoing, the city council will proceed with its endeav- 
ors to secure enabling legislation permitting municipal ownership. 

POSITION OF THE COMPANIES-The city to grant the right to 
operate the street railways for a period of twenty years, and lit the 
expiration of this period the city to have the o'pti'on to take them 
over upon paying the then value of the tangible or physical properties 
for street railway purposes and existing rights (it any) in the streets 
and alleys of the city under laws and ordinanres now in force- this 
without prejudice to the city's privilege of maintaining that no'sueh 
rights exist. The value of the properties and rights (if any) are to 
be determined by appraisement, in manner speeilifall,\- provided for 
in the ordinance. It the city does not exercise its oiition to take over 
the properties and rights at the expiration of twenty years it shall 
have the right to do so at any time thereafter and i'n the meantime 
the property shall be operated upon the same terms as during the 
twenty years. 

While there had been tentative agreements relative to a number 
of provisions that should be included in a proposed ordinance, noth- 
ing definite had been reached even on these points, and no agree- 
ment can be expected till the more important considerations as to the 
term of the grant, the present value of the companies' rights under 
the 99-year act, and the ownership of any subway that may be 
built, shall be determined. The "town meeting" method of discus- 
sion has not resulted in marked progress, and it is believed that to 
have the attorneys for the committee draft an ordinance, which will 
then be discussed, will greatly facilitate the negotiations by elimin- 
ating academic questions. 


This year the legislatures of a majority of the states hold their 
biennial sessions and it is safe to predict that there will be many 
new laws relative to street and electric railways placed on the stat- 
ute books. An important question which is of especial interest to 
the promoters of interurban lines is under consideration in several 
slates. This relates to the condemnation of rights of way, and it 
is extremely gratifying that the tendency of public sentiment is 
towards liberal provisions for roads of this character. It is be- 
ginning to be recognized that to permit individual properly owners 
loo much latitude in saying on which side of the road shall be 
located railways which arc built in the public highways is a posi- 
tive injury to the public as well as to the company. When the con- 
ditions arc such as to make a railway in any community desirable, 
there is nothing to be gained and much lo be lost, by permitting 
the prejudice of a few individuals to stand in the way of good en- 
gineering on the part of the railway. There arc some stales in 
which under present laws the owners of abutting property may 
dictate whether a railway shall he built on one side or the other, 
or in the middle of the highway, and in consequence we find elec- 
tric lines weaving back and forth over the road, needlessly multi- 
plying grade crossings and increasing the danger to the public 
using the highway. 



ivui.. xm, No. 2- 


Sii ri-iiiil ;iri' llic l;«lcr (tovi'lopiiimts in I'Irctric tniiisporlation 
facilities tlial llii' |>nl>lic has liarilly ycl roali/oil llio (act that the 
i-lcctric railroad is not still the light trnllcy line, with its sliiliby 
cars, fiillowiiiK the ontlim- of the lanilscapc. with hillowy motion 
and reaching ni nnccrtain time an nnccrlain di-siinalion. In cer- 
tain portions of llic country, where a condensed population and 
heavy traffic have demanded lietter things, may he seen examples 
of the new tyiH- of modem electric interurhau transportation, which 
has adopted the most efTective methods of steam railroad service in 
addition to the |K'cnliar advantages of the smokeless, noiseless and 
more easily controlled electric power. 

These electric lines, moreover, of the later or earlier type, 
have nmlouhtedly educated the puMic to travel. With lower fares and 
more frequent service and the ability to slop at a customer's door, 
they are distinctly the "people's railroad." and have hecn so adopted. 
They have thus performed an important part in bringing about the 
prosperity which is observed on all sides. In accomplishing this it 
is not loo much to say, although not generally admitted, that they 
have lieen of material benefit to the steam lines. It is true that 
with lower cost of working, and lower fares, they have taken from 
the steam railroads most of their suburban traffic, resulting in the 
withdrawal, in many cases, of suburban service by the steam lines. 
This, however, has not proved an unmixed evil. The usual subur- 
ban service by steam trains is ill-adapted nowadays to public con- 
venience and wilh its frequent stops, wear and tear of equipment 
and damage claims, is not missed in the final sum of net revenues 
of the steam lines and its loss or curtailment, carrying with it the 
long list of commuters' woes, is not nnfrequeiitly a source of relief 
to the railroail manager. 

On the other hand, the suburban .-(ml internrban roads have un- 
doubtedly stimulated travel— they have not only created for them- 
selves by reason of their frequent service, lower fares and more 
popular accommodations, a traffic not previously developed liy steam 
service, but have in addition, originated for the steam roads im- 
portant traffic on which they receive their long haul without the 
necessity of providing special accommodations, thereby creating 
the apparent parado.x of a demonstrable amount of business lost, 
with an equally certain, if less demonstrable, amount of revenue 
gained. In view of this, some systems have already acquired auxil- 
iary lines which they are developing in their own interest ; others 
are seriously considering the substitution of electricity as the motive 
power for suburban and branch roads in order to realize the incre- 
ment of profit arising from the new methods of transportation, 
while they arc relying upon the increased activity among business 
interests, especially among the suburban and rural population, 
brought about by electric traction, to add materially to the volume 
of iheir traffic. 

It is yet too soon to expect a complete understanding on the part 
of all railroad officers of the true relations of electric and steam 
transportation, and a similar lack of comprehension undoubtedly 
exists among the operators of electric lines. Time and the logic of 
events must Ik* relietl uixjii to work out this problem, as has been 
the case with others which have preceded it. 

In the meantime, the managements of the best types of electric 
roads have before them the work of so affiliating themselves with the 
steam lines as well as the public, as to produce the largest amount 
of lasting good to all concerned, a result which in the opinion of 
the writer, is the only permanent good to the electric roads and can 
only be secured by co-operative and friendly interchange of both 
traffic and ideas.— B. F. Wyly, Jr., Traffic Manager, Lackawanna & 
Wyoming Valley Railway Co., in the Railroad Gazette. 



.At the annual nieeling of the Western Railway Co., it developed 
that plans are under consiilcration for a liuffalo-Chicago electric 
line. To make a through line from Toledo to Chicago, there would 
be included the Toledo & Western, now- operating between Toledo 
and Pioneer; the Garrett & Northern, projected between Pioneer 
and Goshen, and the Chicago & Indiana projected between Goshen 
and Chicago. 

There is great aciiviiy in ilie inlerurban railway field in the vicinity 
of Nashville, Tenii., and there are four companies proposing to biiiUI 
lines in the near future. These are: 

The Tennessee Inlerurban Electric Ky.. which is a consolidation 
of the .Nashville & (iailatin Klectric Railway Co. and the Nashville 
& Columbia Railway Co . and projKises to build from Gallatin south 
to Nashville, and thence ihrough l-'ranklin, Columbia and smaller 
towns to Ml. Pleasinl, Tciin. It is expected to use Nashville Rail- 
way company's tracks in that city and the internrban line to be built j8 miles north of Nashville, and 63 miles south of that 
city. The ground was broken a few weeks ago for the first con- 
struction work. The officers arc: President, Frank Hassell, of 
Pittsburg; vice-president and treasurer, C W. Ruth, Piltsburg; sec- 
retary, Frank T. Bond, Nashville; general manager, J. II. Connor, 

The Nashville & Clarksville Ry. in which Mr. T. N. Watson, of 
Clarksville, is principally interested, proposes to build an electric 
line between the towns mentioned in the title and passing through 
Rudolphtown, F'leasant View, Sycamore Mills and Crocker Springs. 
.\ right of way has been secured from the Davidson County Court 
for the turnpikes in that county. 

The Nashville & Lewisburg Klectric Ry., in which Messrs. Edgar 
Jones and E. R. Richardson, of Nashville, are interested, proposes 
to build a 55-milc line ihrough Nolensville, Wrencoe, 'Triune, Kirk- 
land, Eagleville, Chapel Hill, Farmington and other smaller towns 
and villages that are at present without transportation facilities 
other than are given by the stage coach. 'The present route lies 
about midway between the lines of the Nashville, Chattanooga & 
St. Louis and the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. It is expected 
that the work of construction will commence in the early spring. 

The McMinnville. Woodbury & Nashville Electric Ry. has com- 
pleted a survey Ihrough the counties of Warren. Canon and Ruther- 
ford and is now at work in Davidson County. C. M. Henley, and 
others, of Columbus. O., have presented applications for a franchise 
in Davidson County. It is the intention of the company to arrange 
for an interchange of freight and passengers with the Nashville 
Railway Co. and not seek separate entrances to the city. The Nash- 
ville representative of the company is Mr. J. M. Grant. 


We are publishing the following pathetic appeal at the request of 
Mr. Peter Valier, superintendent of La Crosse City Railway Co.. of 
La Crosse, Wis., and beg that anyone having knowledge of the pres- 
ent location of Mr. Johnson, who was formerly employed by the 
La Crosse railway, will bring this letter to his attention and also 
communicate with Mr. Valier: 

"Dearest Papa : — O write to my mainiiia lor she is dying day by 
day. Nothing can rouse her but hearing from you. She cries for 
you night and day ; she don't sleep or eat any more to do any good. 
O papa, don't let our inamnia die. Von don't know how well she 
loves you ; she don't care what you have done — she forgives you 
everything and never will reproach you again for anything you have 
done. She says that she can't live without you. Nobody will ever 
love you as our mamma does. You can have all your money, but 
love mamma a little. O papa, don't rob us of onr mamma : let us 
come and live with you and we will be three of the best little girls 
a papa ever had. Save our mamma and make us all happy. Why 
didn't you come home Christmas. We had such a sad Christinas 
this year; we didn't have a Christmas tree or anything and mamma 
cried all day. Now, papa, your three little girls are going to pray 
to God every night that He may cause you l<i read this and write 
to mamma. 

"From your own little girl. Hazel Johnson." 

Mr. George Ti. Harrison, cashier of the Glasgow Savings Hank. 
Glasgow, Mo., advises us that the proposed Missouri Central Elec- 
tric Railroad has not yet been organized and that no persons arc 
authorized to make any conlracts on behalf of the company. A 
survey has been conipleled and a charter for the company will be 
secured as soon as the necessary stock has been subscribed. 


Steam Turbines of the Massachusetts Electric Companies, 


Announcement is made that the street railway systems controlled 
by the Massachusetts Electric Companies, approximating 900 miles 
of electric railway track covering a strip of territory comprising 
the extreme eastern portion of Massachusetts for a distance of about 
50 miles from the Atlantic coast and extending north from the city 
of Boston to and into the state of New Hampshire and south from 
the city of Boston to and into the state of Rhode Island, have en- 
tered into contracts with the General Electric Co. for 33,000 h. p. of 
steam turbines, direct connected to electric generators. Through the 
courtesy of the officials of the Massachusetts Electric Companies \vc 
are permitted to publish plans and descriptions of the Newport station 
which will be the first plant to receive the turbine equipment. 

.•\t this writing, the situation as regards turbines is defined by Mr. 
C. F. Bancroft, chief engineer of the Massachusetts Electric Com- 
panies, as follows: The companies have contracted for ten 3,000-h. 
p. and three p. steam turbines. The ten 3,000-h. p. turbines 
will be installed in three stations superseding 13 of the engine-driven 
stations now operated by the companies. .\t present the lines south 
of Boston, comprising about 380 miles of track and designated as 

25 cycles, and will pass at that voltage to the three-phase transmis- 
sion line. Sub-stations will be established at or near the sites of the 
present engine-driven power houses, where current will be stepped 
down to 360 volts, and converted to 600 volts direct current for the 
railway circuits. The sub-station apparatus will be of standard 
design with the exception that in place of three separate transform- 
ers, single three-phase transformers are to be used. There will be 
three rotary converter units in each sub-station, varying in size from 
jco kw. to -50 k\v., depending on the work to be performed. 

The makers have not yet made public the details of the lurbiue 
design, but each turbine will be 12 ft. in diameter at the base, 19 
ft. in height and weigh approximately 190,000 lb. All apparatus 
is guaranteed to stand a momentary overload of 100 per ceni, and 
50 per cent overload for two hours. 

Newport Station. 

The small combined electric lighting and railway station at New- 
port, R. I.„ is to be used to some extent as an experimental staticjn 
for the purpose of determining the best design for many of the 

3^ — ,s--o- — r^* 



the Old Colony Division, are operated from It separate stations, 
distributed irregularly over the territory served. Nine of these will 
be displaced by two steam turbine central stations, one aggregating 
9,000 h. p. located at Fall River, and one of 12,000 h. p. capacity at 
Quincy Point. The lines north of Boston, known as the Boston & 
Northern Division, comprise about 455 miles of electric railway track 
and are now operated from 10 separate power stations. Five of 
these power houses will be displaced by one steam turbine station, 
aggregating 9,000 h. p., located at Danvers, Mass. The three i,ooo- 
h. p. steam turbines mentioned arc intended for a small combined 
lighting and electric railway power house at Newport, R. I., which 
is also under the control of the Massachusetts Electric Companies. 

For the most part the power houses put out of service by the new 
arrangement contain engine-driven direct-current generating appa- 
ratus of accepted makes and design for ordinary electric railway 
work. Some of the apparatus is somewhat aniiqualed and part is 
comparatively new. 

The design for each of the three new steam turbine central sta- 
tions includes, as staled, turbine units of 3,000 h. p. each. The tur- 
bines arc of the Curtis vertical type and run at the exceedingly low 
speed of 750 r, p. m., taking steam at 175 lb. pressure at the turbine 
nozzle. In each unit the generator is mounted directly on the upper 
end of the turbine shaft without gears or reducing mechanism. The 
generators specified are rated at z,ooo kw. and arc very similar in 
form and design to the water-turbine driven generators built by the 
ficneral Electric Co. 

Alternating current will be generated at 13,000 volts, three-phase, 

minor details coimcctcd with the plaiU, and the experience gained 
here will be brought to bear in the work of designing the larger 

The old power house at this place contained a somewhat varied 
assortment of small belted Edison and Thompson-Houston units for 
supplying power to the Newport & Fall River Street Ry., and cm- 
niit for arc and incandescent lighting in Newport and vicinity. 

This entire plant and its boiler, engine and generating equipment 
wil be superseded by the new station which is built closely adjoin- 
ing the site of the old house, llic plans provide for four 1,000 h. 
p. steam turbine units, of which three are now in course of installa- 
tion. The arrangement of boilers, headers, turbines, condensers, and 
other apiiaratus for the new house is well set forth in the drawings 
accompanying this article. The boiler room is to be fitted with 
equipment for supplying superheated steam on the Schmidt .system. 
and the action of the steam turbines can therefore be watched and 
the results noted when using either superheated or saturated steam. 

The new building itself is a two-story brick structure about 101 
ft, square, divided by a single brick wall partition into a boiler room 
which is 57 ft. 2 in. wide, and a turbine room, about 44 fl. wide, 
both of these rooms extending the full lenglli of (he slructurc. 

The boiler equipment comprises four 350 h. p. AuUnian & Taylur 
water-tube boilers, arranged in two batteries of two each. Provision 
has been made for an additional battery if it is ever retiuired, llie 
boilers arc equipped with fireen fuel economizers. 

The separately fired superheater stands at one end of the line of 
Iwilcrs and the arraiigenieiU of steam headers pcrniils steam to be 



[Vol.. XIII. No. 2 

l:ikcii cillicr ihroiiKh ilic supiTlicilcr i>r frnm ilii- ImMits to the cii- 
KJiii'S direct. Steam rises (roni the Iniilers throUKh 8-in. lieiids .iml 
p.isscs tu .1 iJ-iii. hriider line c.irricd near the end wall at the rcir 
of the boilers. These headers lead in one direction to the superheater 
and in the other to a second i2-in. header line carried along the 
front of the boiler room near the partition wall. Ky the adjustment 
of valves, therefore, steam is taken either one way through the super- 
heater, or the other way in saturated form. From the second header 
mentioned the 8-in. turbine connections drop, then turn and pass 
through the partition wall direct to the turbines. 

The arrangement of feeder and condenser pump and connections, 
economizer cnnnections and by-passes, auxiliary header, etc., is well 
conceived to give the fullest measure of econnmy and llexibility in 
(he running of the plant, and follows Ataiulard approved engineering 

unit is 7 ft. 8 in. in diameter at the base, and 12 ft. 6V* in. from 
the bottom of the bed plate to the top of the governor cap on top 
of the generator. i he remarkable saving in tluor sp,icc and in 
height over either a vertical or horizontal steam engine of the same 
horse power capacity is at once evident. Each turbine unit rest-, 
upon a brick foundation which is g ft. at the top, ii ft. at the l>ot- 
limi and S'/a ft. high, the brick foundation resting in turn on an 
l8-in. bed of concrete. In this particular station, the basement door 
line is below tide level, and it was therefore necessary to build a 
waterproof wall around the engine room. This wall consists of a 
concrete retaining wall about 6 ft. thick at the base with a water- 
proof lining of tar paper. 

Steam enters the turbines near the top and leaves at the bottom. 
Each turbine is provided with a i2-in. free exhaust pipe, but uiidtr 


practice of the day. The details can be traced from the drawings. 
Teed water may be taken either from a hot well or from the city 
water main, or both. All piping is covered with the II. W. Johns 
magnesia steam pipe covering. All valves arc Chapman make. The 
feed water heaters arc of the Wainwright type. 

The coal and ash handling track, serving the line of boilers with 
all cars and apparatus, were furnished by the C. W. Hunt Co. The 
boiler room pumps arc of the Smith- Vaile type and condensers are 
the Wheeler make. 

The engine room contains three turbine generator units with room 
for a fourth unit. As stated, the turbines are i,ooo-h. p. units and 
arc of the vertical type. The generator in each case is mounted on 
top of the turbine and is direct connected to the turbine shaft. The 
generators are 500-kw. three-phase, 2,500-voIt General Electric ma- 
chines, and run at the turbine speed, 1,800 r. p. m. Each turbine 

ordinary conditions the steam after passing through the turbine 
ciitcrs immediately a surface condenser, which in this case is of the 
Wheeler "Admiralty" type. Salt water for these condensers is taken 
from the river through a brick sewer which leads from the river to 
a point beneath the engine room floor. Water is lifted from this 
sewer by a inotor-driven centrifugal pump, the lo-in. suction intake 
pipe of course going near to the bottom of the sewer in order to 
establish a perfect syphon. The condensers are so arranged as to 
permit condensing water to be run either way through the con- 
denser so that they can be freed from any seaweed that may be 
drawn up through the sewer. After passing through the condenser, 
the water is returned to a second sewer similar in all respects to the 
first. The hot water from the condenser is passed to a hot water 
lank located in one corner of the engine room by means of a 10. \ 10 
in. Edwards triplex motor-driven air pump. The details of this 

Feb. 20, 1903.] 



.irrangemcnt .iiid the rclalion between the several pieces of apparaHi> 
are clearly indicated on one of the accompanying drawings. 

The arrangement of intake and discharge sewers is somewhat 
unique. Each sewer is oval in shape with brick walls 9 in. thick 
The river end of the intake sewer is protected by a screen composed 
of %-in. iron rods, going down to about 7 ft. below mean low tide. 

from the condenser being drawn into the intake sewer. The dis- 
charge sewer empties into an open crib which insures protection 
from ice and other obstructions. 

The engine room floor line is 12 ft. 10 in. above the basement floor 
line so that no part of the generating iniit except the generator itself 
appears above the true floor line of the engine room. There is no 


I here arc two sluice gates, cither one of which can be closed in 
order to clean the screens, Hack of the sluice gales is a copper 
wreen of about '/j-in. mesh. Ilie river end of the discharge sewer 
is located some distance away frotn the intake sewer on the opposite 
side of a long stone wharf, so there is no danger of the hot water 

woodwork whatever in the conslrnction of the building, the engine 
room flooring being supported on 8-in, I-beams with "Columbian" 
fireproof flooring, covered with 1 in. of granolithic material. 

For supplying current for electric railway purposes ihere are lliree 
250-kw. nuitor generatftrs which t.'ikc cnrrcnl froni (he Iniltinc gen- 



(Vor. XIII, N'li 

trators at 2,500 volts allcrnntiiig current and deliver 600-volt direct 
current for the electric railway feeders. l'"or liKliting purposes the 
initial current will he sent out at 2,500 volts aUcrnating and will 
then l>c transformed and sent to customers at 125 volts alternating 
current in the usual way. I-'or exciting the turbine generator there 
arc two exciter sets, one of which is motor driven and one engine 
driven, either one of which may he used for exciting four units. 

arr.\nc.i:mf.nt ok ste.\m pipinc. 

The niotor-driven exciter unit comprises a 35-kw. 60-cycle 2,200- 
volf, induction motor, driving a 30-kw. 125-volt generator. The 
engine-driven exciter set comprises a marine type engine, driving a 
30-kw. i2S-volt General Electric generator. 

The plant is equipped with a 20-ton traveling crane and has a 
brick chimney 175 ft. high with an 8-ft. straight flue. For the con- 
venience of employes there is a toilet and wash room with shower 
hath, lavatory, etc. 



Cn|>yri|,'lil, l'>03, by Alton 1). Atl.iniv. 

Alternating current may be generated on one of four plans for a 
railway that extends beyond the limits of economical distribution 
with direct current from a single power station. On one plan gen- 
erators yielding direct current may be entirely discarded and alter- 
nators employed for the entire output, as was done in the 40,000-kw. 
station of the Manhattan Elevated railway. .'\n obvious advantage 
of this plan is the fact that all generators may be operated in multi- 
ple and that each generator may supply energy to any part of the 
railway line. On the other hand this uniform equipment of alter- 
nators carries with it a large investment in transformers and rotarj- 
converters. Thus the distribution system of the Manhattan Elevated 
includes 78 transformers with a total capacity of 42,900 kw., and 26 
rotary converters with a combined capacity of 39,000 kw. In other 
words, the alternating generators with their sub-station equipments 
represent three times the capacity of direct current generators neces- 
sary to deliver energy at an equal rate. The showing as to capacity 
of generating and sub-station equipments just stated is by no means 
peculiar to the Manhattan system. Lines of the New Hampshire 
Traction system have extremes 75 miles apart and are operated by 

a main station of 2,000 kw. capacity. 1 his system has nine sub-sta- 
tions containing 45 transformers with a condiincd capacity of 5,010 
kw., and 15 rotary converters with a combined capacity of 4,350 kw. 
rile total capacity of e<|uipnient at the main and sub-stations of this 
system is thus 11,360 kw., or 5.5 times the capacity of the main gen- 
erators. It is the intention to add a 2,000-kw. generator to this equip- 
ment, but if this is required to feed present sub-stations the total 
capacity of 13.360 kw. will still he 3.34 
times that of the main generators. 

Where the generating station is a long 
distance from any part of the electric rail- 
way line, the saving in the cost of conduc- 
tors efTectcd by a high voltage of transmis- 
sion may well warrant the exclusive use of 
alternating generators and a large invest- 
ment in transformers and rotary convert- 
ers. In the more common case the gener- 
ating station can be liKatcd close to some 
portion of the railway and often near a 
point midway of its length, and then the 
exclusive use of alternating generators is 
of questionable expediency unless the road 
is very long. 

One solution of the problem where the 
generating station is near the railway line 
lies in the use of both direct current gen- 
erators and alternators, the former to sup- 
ply that part of the railway nearer to the 
main station, and the latter that part which 
is more distant. This plan was followed in 
the generating station of the Brockton & 
Plymouth railway which contains an alter- 
nator of 300 kw. and direct current gener- 
ators of 500 kw. capacity. In length this 
railway is 22 miles, with the generating sta- 
tion close to the tracks and three miles 
from one end of the line. A single sub- 
station is located on the railway line and 
11.83 miles from the gemrating plant. This 
sub-station has a capacity of 400 kw. in transformers and 400 kw. 
in rotary converters, sa that the sub-station equipment has a capacity 
only as great as that of the main generators. A disadvantage in- 
cident to the plan of equipment just considered is the fact that the 
direct current generators cannot under ordinary conditions supply 
the more distant parts of the road, while the alternators cannot sup- 
ply that portion nearer the main sation. In a particular case, how- 
ever, this disadvantage may be a very small one. 

.'\nother plan for the equipment of a railway a part of which is 
quite distant from the generating plant includes the use of double 
current machines for a part or all of the generator capacit)'. If a 
part of the generators are of the double current type, delivering 
direct current at about 600 volts for that portion of the railway near 
the main station, a saving is made as to transformers and rotary 
converters in sub-stations, but these transformers are simply trans- 
ferred to the main station if the double current generators are to 
work at any time on the more distant parts of the railway. If, how- 
ever, the alternators and double current generators correspond in 
voltage phase and frequency, then the double current generators 
when used to supply distant parts of the line may operate through 
transformers used at other times to step up the voltage of the sim- 
ple alternators. In the same way, if the entire equipment of gen- 
erators is of the double current type, the transformer equipment at 
the main station need correspond in capacity to only that part of the 
generators which will be required to supply distant portions of the 
railway at any one time. The new power station of the Detroit, 
Ypsilanti, Ann .'Xrbor & Jackson Railway, which supplies 100 miles 
of line, contains simple alternators of 1,250 kw. combined capacity, 
and double current generators with a total capacity of 750 kw. All 
of these generators operate at an alternating voltage of 390 three- 
phase, and the transmission line is supplied by a bank of transform- 
ers rated at 1,200 kw., which raise the pressure from 390 to 21,000 
volts. Either the simple alternators or the double current machines 
may thus supply the transmission line and sub-stations through these 
transformers. Ordinarily the simple alternators work through the 

Feb. 20. 1903.] 



transformers, and the double current machines operate that portion 
of the railway nearest the power station. The sub-stations of this 
system contain 6 transformers rated at 1,200 kw., and 4 rotary con- 
verters rated at 1,000 kw., so that the sub-station capacity in both 
transformers and rotaries is l.l times that of the main generators. 
If the step-up transformers have their capacity added to that of the 
sub-station equipment tlie total is 3,400 kw., or l~ times that of the 
generators. It is to be observed that the 1,250 kw. of simple alter- 
nator capacity in this case cannot be applied to the operation of 
that portion of the railway nearer the power plant, as might be done 
if the simple alternators were changed into double current machines 
by the addition of commutators. 

In the power station of the Worcester & Souihbridge railway 
both generators are of the double current type and have a com- 
bined capacity of 800 kw. at the three-phase pressure of about 355 
or 550 volts on the commutators. Si.K transformers of 450 kw. 
capacity step up the generator voltage to 11,000 for transmission to 
the sub-stations which contain transformers of 450 kw. and rotary 
converters of 400 kw. total capacity. The total capacity of trans- 
formers and converters at the main and sub-stations is thus 2.300 
kw., or 2.87 times the generator capacity. This railway is about 20 
miles long with its generating station near the center and a sub- 
station near each end, so that a greater portion of the line can be 
operated with direct current from the main station than could be so 
operated on the Brockton & Plymouth railway. Nevertheless the 
latter system shows a lower ratio of transformer and converter 
capacity to that of generators. The Detroit, Ypsilanti. Ann .'Vrbor 
& Jackson road is so long that its ratio of combined transformer 
and rotary capacity to that of generators n>ust be large if only a 
single power station is operated. 

Still another type of equipment for long railways includes gene- 
rators all of the direct current type, plus rotary converters and trans- 
formers at both the main and the sub-stations. Such equipment has 
been used in some cases to extend previously existing railway sys- 
tems, but involves a large relative capacity in transformers and 
rotary converters. Take for example the Oley Valley railway, for 
which two rotaries of 800 kw. combined capacity are operated in the 
power station at Reading to supply iS^ miles of line running to 
Philadelphia. These rotaries take direct current at 550 volts from 
the main generators and change it to three-phase alternating for 
three transformers of 840 kw. total capacity where the voltage is 
raised to 16,000. Current at this voltage goes to two sub-stations 
which contain transformers of 600 kw., and rotaries of 600 kw. 
capacity, so that the entire rotary and transformer capacity for 
this line amounts to 2,840 kw. Taking the capacity of direct current 
generators required to operate the system at 800 kw., it appears 
that the transformers and converters employed represent 3.55 times 
this capacity. The use of an 8oo-kw. high voltage alternator in this 
case would have displaced 800 kw. in direct current generators, 800 
kw. in converters and 840 kw. in transformers. 

When direct current generators are abandoned for alternators 
the general practice is to pass at once to a line of voltage of ir,ooo to 
13,000, because alternators arc now regularly built for these pres- 
sures. If the voltage of alternators equals that required for the 
transmission line the expense of step-up transformers is avoided, and 
this is an advantage if the first cost and subsequent maintenance 
charges of the high voltage alternator arc not greater than the like 
cost and charges for a low voltage alternator and its step-up trans- 
formers. The tendency is to hold to a voltage of about ;3,ooo even 
on very long lines of railway, because this volbige represents the 
highest pressure for which alternators are regularly built, so that a 
higher line voltage would be apt to imply step-up transformers. This 
tendency may be noted on the New Hampshire Traction system, 
where one end of the railway is 50 miles from the power station 
and the transmission voltage is 13,200; also on the Albany & Hud- 
son line where one end of the tracks is 27 miles from the generating 
plant and the voltage of transmission is 12,000. In both the cases 
just named the line voltage is developed in the generator armature 
coils. There is a tendency to push the voltage of alternators to still 
higher figures, one instance being seen in the Washington, Dalli- 
morc & Anna|>oIis Electric Railway now under construction where 
the generators will develop a voltage of I5,(xx) in their armature 

In the relatively small number of cases where transformers are 
employed to give a voltage above that of standard generators, for 
transmission along railway lines, some rather high figures have been 
selected. Thus the transmission on the Detroit, Ypsilanti, .'\iiii 
.\rbor & Jackson Railway is carried out at 21,000 volts, on llic 
.Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railway at 26,000 volts, and on a line 
under construction in Indiana the voltage of transmission along the 
railway is said to be 32,000. 

.'\s a voltage of 50,000 is regularly employed on the power trans- 
mission lines between Canon Ferry and Butte, Montana, and a volt- 
age of 40,000 has been in use several years on other transmissions, 
it seems that the present voltages of railway lines may be materially 
increased where the length of the road makes it desirable. The neces- 
sity for using step-up transformers for a part of the output is per- 
haps the greatest objection to the exclusive employment of double 
current generators for a long railway. Where the greater part of the 
generating equipment consists of simple alternators without cor.iuiu- 
tators, as on the Detroit-Jackson road, there seems to be a disad- 
vantage in holding the voltage of the alternators down to thni of 
the double current machines. Thus in the system just named the 
1,200 kw. of transformers at the main station might have been 
avoided if the 1,250 kw. of alternators had been given a voltage of 
13,000. On the other hand it may be said that the voltage of 21,00c 
acutally employed made a saving in line conductors over their cost 
at 13,000 volts, and that it is an advantage to be able to work the 
750 kw. of double current generators on distant parts of the railway. 

With very slight exceptions three-phase rather than two-phase 
transmission and equipment has been adopted on electric railways. 
One instance of the use of two-phase generators for railway pur- 
poses is that of the Youngstown & Sharon system where their 
capacity is 2,000 kw., but these generators also furnish current for 
lighting. A frequency of 25 cycles per second is much the most 
common in railway generators, but there arc some variations on each 
side of this figure. Probably the lowest frequency applied in rail- 
way work is that of 162-3 cycles per second, which is to be used in 
the operation of the Washington and Baltimore line, where the cur- 
rent will be single phase. On the Detroit & Port Huron road the 
frequency is 28, and on the Detroit & Jackson 29 cycles per second. 
Where the same power plant operates an electric lighting as well as 
a railway system there is some inducement to adopt a frequency 
much higher than 25 cycles. Thirty cycles per second give fair results 
as to the absence of flicker in incandescent lamps, but for satisfac- 
tory arc lighting between 40 and 50 cycles are necessary. Gene- 
rators in the main stations of the Albany & Hudson, and also the 
Youngstown & Sharon railways work at 60 cycles, but so high a fig- 
ure increases the numbers of poles, armature slots and commutator 
segments in rotary converters to an undesirable extent. If as much 
as 60 cycles is desired on lighting circuits, it seems better to operate 
motor-generators with 25 cycle current from the main generators, 
and let these motor generators carry the lighting load. This is the 
practice at the generating station of tlie New Hampshire Traction 
system. If there is a large load of incandescent lamps as well as 
a railway to be operated it is a good plan to use main generators 
of 30 cycles per second and then it is only necessary to have motor 
generators for the arc lighting. 

Where step-up transformers at the main station are employed to 
raise the generator voltage, the number of these transformers is 
often only three and seldom more than six. In illustration of this 
difference in practice it may be noted that in the main station of the 
Houghton County railway the 600 kw. capacity of step-up trans- 
formers is divided into six units, while three Iransforiners furnish 
the 1,200 kw. capacity in the generating plant of the Detroit & Jack- 
son road. 

In view of present methods of transformer construction it may 
be doubled whether any greater reliability of two sets of transform- 
ers makes up for the lower cost and higher efiiciency of a single set, 
where moderate sizes arc under consideration. Transformers in sub- 
stations are limited in capacity to a certain extent by the sizes of 
rotary converters which they serve Three transformers 
usually be connected in a bank and the general practice is to provide 
a separate bank of transformers for each rotary converter. With 
this practice the size of converters must be comparatively large if 
the capacity of individual transformers is to be other than small. 



iv.ii.. xm, No. 2 

It is usually thoiiglit dcsiruhlc to have at least two rutary converters 
at each sub-station, but if the eapacily of individual nucbines is to 
be kept up to a high point tliis number can seldom be exceeded. It 
is seldom desirable to install converters of less than 250 kw. each, 
even if only one is placed in each sub-station. On the New Hamp- 
shire Traction system there are nine sub-stations including one in 
a box car. and the number of rotary converters is 15, three sub-sta- 
tions having one each and the remaining six sub-stations two ro- 
taries each. The smallest of these converters has a capacity of 25a 
kw. The total number of transformers in the nine sub-slalions is 
45, three being connected to each rolan,', and the transformers range 
from KW lo IJO kw. each in capacity. Sub-slalions on the .Manhat- 
tan Elevatod number eight and contain 26 converters of 1,500 kw. 
each, or 30,000 kw. so that the average capacity is nearly 5,000 kw. 
per sub-station, which is much greater than that on any other sys- 
tem. Three transformers of 500 kw. each are connected to each of 
these rotaries. 

It is not desirable to operate transformers at overloads to any 
great extent, and for this reason it is a common practice to give a 
bank of transformers a greater capacity than the rotary to which 
lliey are connecled. Thus at the snb-stations of the Worcester & 
Soutlibridge railway the total converter capacity is 800 kw. and the 




The annual report of the Louisville Railw.iy Kelief Association 
shows the association to be in a prosperous condition and to have 
accomplishe<i much good during the year. 

The report of the financial secretary shows that, during the year 
the receipts from all sources amoimted to 14,902.22. The amount 
IKiid in dues was $2,839. The Association received a handsome 
Christmas donation of $2,000 from the Louisville Railway Co. 
through the president, Mr. T. J. Minary. Prof. B. B. llnntoon, of 
the Kentucky Inslilute for the Blind, sent a check for $10 in appre- 
ciation of the kindness shown by the men on the Market-street line 
to the children of the school. Interest, etc., of $53.22 made the total 
receipts $4,902.22. The disburscmeiUs were $2,930.93. One hundred 
and twenly-lhree members drew sick benefits amounting to $1,807.40; 
death benefits paid were $750. The general expenses for the year 
were $373.53. The cash on hand Jan. i, 1903, amoimted to $4,395.04. 

The association adopted a resolution thanking Mr. Minary and 
(he directors of the company for the donation of $2,000 and for the 
many other indications of good will shown the employes during 
the year. 


Manhattan Elevated 

New H,imp^hire Traction. 

Auriira. EI»rin A Cbicaffo. 

Allianv ,lt: Uadson 

Detroil & Jackson 

Boston & Worcester.. 

Brockton & Plymouth 

Worcester Jc Soulhbritl^e. 

Oley Valle.v 

Detroit A Port Huron 

Washington A Baltimore. 

I 1 
I 1 




1,000 1 

.'00 ( 



a t 

I I 

1 1 



300 i 



















B O 



















J3 ac 

u a 
n d 

78 550 

16 ; 100 1 
12 120. 

27 ' 110 1 






I 3 

18 250 

I 1 
'1 2 

1 2 
"1 2 



300 f 


250 r 

200 1 



2 16 


total transformer capacity goo kw. .Again, on the Detroit & Jack- 
son road the sub-stations contain transformers of 1200 kw. and con- 
verters of 1000 kw. capacity. 

In a sub-station on the new Manchester & Concord railway an 
arrangement of transformers and rotaries has been made whicli 
seems to offer some advantages as to the first cost of transformers 
and their ability to give good residts under overload. At this sub- ' 
station there are two rotaries each rated at 300 kw. Under the 
ordinary practice these rotaries would require six transformers of, 
say, 120 kw. e.ich. Only three transformers have been installed at 
this sub-station, however, and each transformer is rated at 200 kw., 
or 600 kw. for the group. On each transformer the secondary wind- 
ing is in two electrically separate parts. One part of the secondary 
winding on each of the three transformers is connected with like 
parts on the other two transformers, and the group of windings 
thus formed is connecled to one of the rotary converters. Another 
like group of secondary windings is connected to the other con- 
verter. The cost of these three transformers of 600 kw. was 
no doubt less than of six transformers of s.iy 120 X 6 := 720 kw. 
would have been, and when only one rotary is working there is a 
large reserve of transformer capacity behind it. 

Considering all the factors that effect the c.ipacity of transformer 
and converter equipments on electric railways, it seems that this 
capacity may be made the lowest by using alternators of the line 
voltage, direct current generators for those parts of a railw.iy close 
to the power station, and transformers with double secondary wind- 
ings at snb-slations. 


The Norfolk Railway & Light Co., of Norfolk. Va., has opened its 
extension in Munlalant for tralVic. The cars run from Montalant to 
the stockyards. 


Luke D. Stapleton, attorney for the Metropolitan Street Railway 
Co., of New York, recently revealed what is believed to be a plot to 
exact from the railway company $50,000 on a fraudulent claim 
brought by Win. Kelley against the railw.ty company. 

The plaintiff was injured in a railroad freight yard some fifteen 
years ago. As a result he became afflicted with double vision, hys- 
terical tremors, and paralysis. His lower limbs arc crippled. Since 
that time he has been used as a clinic exhibit by physicians through- 
out the city. 

On .Apr. 8, 1901, Kelley was knocked down by one of the Metro- 
politan company's cars. He was taken to a hospital but was dis- 
charged the same day ; later he sued the company. In the trial 
several physicians testified as to Kellcy's condition previous to his 
alleged injury, and a policeman testified that he had been offered 
$25 to give evidence favorable to the plaintiff. .At this point the 
plaintiff's attorney withdrew from the case and the trial was con- 

ll is announced that the Manhattan Railway Co., of New York, is 
to install escalators, or moving stairways, at its 33rd St. and 42d St. 
stations; for both the uptown and downtown platforms. 

I lie inlerurban line between Seattle and Tacoma recently sus- 
lained considerable damage from high wialer, several large washouts 
occurring. Temporary repairs were soon made so that partial serv- 
ice is being maintained until such time as permanent repairs are 

Feb. 20. 1903.] 



Street Railway Park Development, IIL 

Park Advertising — Acoustics of Park Buildings — Aquatic Attractions for Parks — What a Street Railway Park 
Should Be — Descriptions ot Street Railway Parks— Opinons from Park Managers. 



Judicious advertising pays. 

L'suall.v a good business propiition is a good advertising proposi- 
tion. If we have an article or conunodity which we desire to sell, 
others must know it before we can sell it. If our commodity is mer- 
• itorious and is capable of supplying the want or of performing the 
service for which it was intended, others may buy it if we can con- 
vey the facts concerning it in such a manner as to inspire confidence 
in our statements. 

If we were obliagted to use our lips in publishing information, our 
business would, from necessity, be quite small. To extend our busi- 
ness, we would, therefore, seek some belter medium for the transmis- 
sion of our statements or desires. If for this purpose we should use 
a newspaper, print hand-bills, or placard the fences, we would call 
it advertising. 

.\n advertisement is a common carrier of business ideas. In trans- 
porting these ideas to the public it performs a function that is of 
primary importance to the commercial world. A majority of busi- 
ness men admit the value of advertising, and in some way advertise, 
but few of them advertise judiciously. To many it means a lavish 
outlay of money without much thought as to the manner of spend- 
ing it. 

The limitations of this article will not permit of a comprehensive 
discussion of the principles of advertising, in general, or of their 
application to parks in particular, but we shall endeavor to frame 
an outline of our views which we trust may he of some assistance 
to owners and managers of "Traction Parks." If our views cannot 
be accepted, we hope they may he useful in stimulating a more care- 
ful consideration of the subject we have in hand. 

It is essential that we should determine, as nearly as possible. 
the amount of money we intend to spend for advertising before the 
park season opens. In estimating this expenditure we should not 
overlook our mathematical limitations. The capacity of the car lines 
and the number of seats at the park will always limit our patronage. 
We cannot expect to entertain more persons than our maximum 
capacity will admit, and should not make an expense not justified 
by our possible maximum revenue. Inside these fixed boundaries, 
our policies should be as liberal as prudent economy will permit. 

However good our attractions may be, we will have to rely upon 
our advertising to bring out the people. Good attractions justify 
good advertising, and both are necessary to the production of good 
business. We think that a false idea of economy in expenditures 
often prevents the successful operation of a park enterprise. Economy 
is the wise expenditure of money. In the opinion of many, blind 
retrenchment is economy. This kind may reduce the expense ac- 
count, but if steadily pursued, is sure to result in a large reduction 
of income. There can be no exact rule for determining the precise 
sum that should be spent for park advertising, but we think we have 
suggested a basis on which good judgment may found an opinion. 

The patronage of parks and summer resorts is from tlic masses, 
and embraces persons in every condition of life. It includes the 
banker, the merchant, the professional man, the artisan, the laborer, 
and their wives, sisters, mothers and children. We must reach all 
of them when we advertise. 

If we were selling grain, live stock, agricultural implements, or 
steam engines, we should address a limited number of patrons and 
should select the medium best suited to convey advertising matter 
to each class. In advcrtisitig articles of large value, such as pianos 
or street cars, we might employ a medium that would reach a small 
number of persons, on the ground that one sale would justify a large 
exjiense in procuring it. In our park business it is quite different, 
we arc selling cnlcrtainnicnl to everybody at a small price, and each 
dollar expcndeil nuist bring to us many rnslomcrs. 

It is obvious that our conditions require the employment of a 

medium that will reach every man. woman and child. The daily 
newspapers, street car banners and bill hoards furnish the best op- 
portunity for widespread advertising, and we think they arc the best 
for our use. 

The newspapers not only reach the masses, but do it daily, thus 
affording the opportunity to keep live matter before the public all 
the time. This is the most expensive kind of advertising, but it is 
the best if properly handled. The methods of many of our laigvi 
daily papers, are often times new and startling to the uninitiated. 
Even the old advertiser is sometimes a little shocked. They charge 
a larger rate per agate line for amusement advertisements than for 
any other class. This charge is made on the theory that they will 
publish an indefinite amount of press comment or criticism. These 
so-called criticisms are really half-breed advertisements made to re- 
semble news. They are usually written by an employe of the ad- 
vertiser, and may be trimmed down, or cut out, according 10 the 
managing editor's views or policy. If the editor thinks that your 
company is not spending or does not intend to spend enough money 
for display space, or that you are otherwise delinquent in your duty, 
he mildly reminds you of your delinquency by an abridgment of your 
press notices. If he thinks you need shaking up, he may publish a 
real criticism not intended to benefit your business. You may be 
entitled to your opinion in this instance, but it 's not always wise 
to express them. This conduct on the part ol a newspaper may 
seem high-handed, arbitrary, and, as it sometimes is, but it 
is often occasioned by the attitude of the advertiser. Many mana- 
gers think that they have an arduous task in handling the papers, 
and that to procure good notices they must continually strive, beg 
and fight for special favors. If they adopt the doctrine that press 
notices are like kisses and go only by favor, they need not be sur- 
prised if the managing editor does not agree with them. There are 
good papers and bad ones. Some of the bad ones misuse their power, 
and maliciously injure those whom they dislike or desire to control. 
The public has no adequate protection from these. They need no 
further comment here. 

The average newspaper man is a good fellow. He loves his friends 
and hates his enemies, and seldom neglects either of them. His 
friendship often finds expression in substantial favors. He gives 
without grudging, but like other men, he expects reciprocal treat- 
ment. Managers too frequently misunderstand and fail to appreciate 
him. If they always insist upon being paid the full cash value of his 
friendship in good advertising, they will sometimes find him sullen 
and exacting, and that their "pull" has been exhausted. It is impos- 
sible for a newspaper to agree to deliver a specific amount of space 
in its reading columns, chiefly for the reason that the public reads 
the amusement notes for information as it docs other portions of 
the paper. For that reason the statements made must not only ap- 
proximate the truth, but must also contain an element of novelty 
or fact presented in an .interesting manner. It is therefore quite 
proper that the material presented for this department should not 
only be edited but controlled and restricted lest it should degenerate 
into bald advertising. Having lost its news features it would ]r\\\ 
no value as a part of the paper, and be of little benefit to amusement 

The advantage of having a capable press agent, one who can write 
readable and attractive stories, is obvious. The right kind of a 
man in this capacity will fill twice as much reading space as a poor 
one and save nearly all the Irnuble in prcpcurinn the inserlion of liiv 

Aninsenient advertisers could save much trouble and some money 
by a frank statement to the press as to the number of lines of dis- 
play they expect to use during the sea.son. They might even makv an 
agreement to this effect based upon assurances from the newspapers 
as to their general policy relative to press notices This understand- 
ing or agreement woidd disarm the susj)icicins of both [laities, and 
thus remove a large cause of trouble. 

Street car baimers are next in value to iiewspaiier adverlising. 



[Vol.. XIM. No. 2- 

Tlicy arc the least expensive fonii of advertising employed by park 
managers. Banners on the sides of the cars one yard wide and fonr 
yards long are the most effective. In wet weatlier Ihcy sometimes 
damage the varnish. This is the only objection to their nse. We 
think they will pay for a good deal of varnish. They niiglit be re- 
moved in stormy weather and save both banners and varnish. The 
banner and the billboard cover almost the same field. Billboards arc 
stationary and can only be seen by the persons who pass them, while 
each banner may be seen many times during the day throughout the 
entire length of the line over which the car parses. The board has 
one superior advantage in that it permits the use of pictorial matter. 
Good pictures are very useful in attracting attention and in convey- 
ing impressions. In cities where it is possible to put billing matter 
on the cars we think that the boards can be dispensed with for ihe 
reason that they perform a similar service and on account of the 
great expense that must be incurred in a thorough billiry on the 
Iwards. In case street cars cannot be used, the l>oards arc almost 
indispensable to supplement newspaper advertising. 

Advertisements in small local publications, score cards, hills of fare, 
etc., cost too much, circulation considered, for park purposes. The 
only justification for their use is that they sometimes ■'urnish an 
opportunity for a street railway corporation to express its friendship 
and good-will. 

Having discussed the various means of advertising we will con- 
sider the advertisemcntj The wording of an advertisement is very 
important. Common sense may suggest the best vehicle to convey our 

advertisements press notices have not been included, being in appear- 
ance and, to some extent in fact, news items, they requite diflferent 
treatment and difTerent talent for their creation. A good man with 
some newspaper training is best qualified to write them, 'ihe mai: 
ager can perform a valuable service if he is able to furnish good 
material and suggestions from which the press agent can construct 
interesting statements and stories. This duly is too important to be 
overlooked or underestimated. 

While it may be permissible to allow the imagination sonic latitude 
in writing press notices, or to use strong adjectives in display ad- 
vertisements, there should be no outrage to the truth. A lie in cold 
print admits of no excuse or explanation. A successful business must 
be founded upon public confidence. 


Fortunate is that park manager whose park properly includes 
within its area some sort of body of water, be it lake, river or only 
a frog pond in which water lilies can be grown. The summer the- 
ater, merry-go-round and the hundred and one other artificial park 
attractions have come to be indispensable adjuncts to the successful 
up-to-date "trolley park," but a lake or sheet of good clear water 
is one feature that attracts young and old alike, day in and day out. 
Given a suitable body of water there is scarcely a better investment 
that can be made than a small expenditure for row boats, launches, 
tiiboggan slide and bathing houses, for these not only draw patrons 


ideas, but the expression of these ideas requires tact, skill, inventive 
genius and a knowledge of huniaii nature. A good idea poorly ex- 
pressed may lose its force and importance. A poor idea, skillfully 
expressed may pass for more than its worth. The truth of these 
statements applied to advertisements will be apparent to any one who 
will recall at random any advertisement he may chance tn think of. 
He will usually find that the ideas of this particular advcrtiscinent 
arc clearly and tersely expressed and stand out so prominv.ntl/ ns to 
burn themselves into the memory, and that they have intruded upon 
his mind without his volition. There are few persons who can not 
remember instances when they have been influenced by these unbid- 
den guests. 

One idea or one dominant idea is enough for a car baiintr or a 
display advertisement. It is a happy circumstance that it is so, for 
it enables us to make more out of our material. 

An advertisement should be set up riglil. H left entirely to a 
printer or a sign writer its value may be lost by poor judgment as 
to display or arrangement. There is also danger that the style may 
be so nearly the same each day that notwithstanding the matter has 
been constantly changed, it appears the same to a casual observer. 
The individual soldier loses much of his individuality and identity in 
the uniform of the army, and so it will be with our advertisements, if 
all of them appear clothed in the same type. 

Specially designed letters and words both for display matter and 
banners can be made very eflfective. The slight addilionnl expense 
amounts to but little. 

In this brief view of the construction and wording of amusement 

to the park, but in themselves return sufficient revenue over the 
cost of operation to go a long way toward defraying the general 
park expenses. 

So effective is a body of water as a drawing card, that in nine 
cases out of ten it will be a good financial investment to create a 
lake by artificial means in a park where nature has not provided one, 
and it is surprising how much can be accomplished in this direction 
by the exercise of a little ingenuity. A small stream properly 
dammed or turned from its natural bed if need be, a natural spring, 
an artesian well or even connection with the city water mains, can 
be utilized for this purpose, and by leading the waters into a natural 
depression in the ground or if the case requires, into an artificial 
reservoir, the nuich-dcsired "lake" can be produced at insignificant 
cost. Perhaps it is not always expedient to create a large body of 
water, but even a pond is better than no water at all. 

I he reproductions from photographs herewith show good exam- 
ples of what can be accomplished in this direction. .■\t Audubon 
Park, formerly owned by the New Orleans & Carrollion Railroad, 
Light & Power Co., a small amount of money was spent in produc- 
ing the children's wading pool, the popularity of which is attested 
on almost any pleasant afternoon in the year by scores of youngsters 
with skirts or trousers turned high out of harm's way, splashing 
water over each other, sailing miniature fleets of sail boats, and 
getting about all the fun out of life that a warm sun-shiny after- 
noon can bring forth. The children are usually attended by nurses 
or guardians, all of which, be it noted, means increased riding. It 
is reasonably safe to say that a wading pool of this nature can be 

Feb. 20, 1903.] 



created in any locality at a cost not to exceed $25 and certainly not 
over $50, for it merely means the leading of a small supply of water 
to some slight depression in the ground. A few wagon loads of 
sand or small gravel dumped around the edges of the pond will add 
greatly to the charm of the pond, viewed from the children's stand- 

At Raleigh, N. C, the patronage at the suburban park has been 
very perceptibly increased by building a wooden bathing tank and 
suitable bathing houses. This tank is about 90 ft. square and was 
formed by making a suitable excavation and laying in the bottom 
a wooden flooring which was rendered sufficiently water-tight by 
laying the timbers close together on a bed of clay. The floor is laid 
sloping to give a graduated depth varying from 2 ft. near one side 
to 9 ft. at the other, so as to accommodate those who enjoy a good 
swim and also those who do not like to venture beyond their depth. 
The bathing houses are arranged along one side. Water for the 
tank is obtained from a nearby stream, and by regulating the flow, 
the water in the tank is kept fresh and clean. The charge for a bath 
house is 10 cents. It cost just about $700 to build the tank and bath- 

BATHINi, TANK ,\ T K .\ t.lKi .11. X. C. 

ing houses, and the financial returns on the investment can be 
judged when it is stated that on a single warm day, the receipts for 
rent of bathing houses has been as high as $300, to say nothing of 
the extra fares collected on the cars. This idea of the bathing tank 
is also applicable to practically any locality. By placing two or 
three arc lights about the tank, the place can be patronized in the 
evening as well as during the day. 


The subject of architectural acoustics, or the science of sound as 
applied to buildings, is a topic frequently arising for consideration 
in electric railway offices, in connection with the designing or re- 
modeling of employees' mutual benefit association rooms, casinos, 
pavilions, or theaters and other buildings for park or pleasure re- 
sort purposes. 

Although it is not feasible in this class of work to give the same 
attention to the details of acoustics as is demanded in more expen- 
sive buildings, there are a few general principles which if followed 
will give any room increased hearing and seeing properties with 
but slight additional cost. In designing a summer theater, for in- 
stance, the very idea to 1«; carried out precludes the building of 
side walls, for the circulation of air and outdoor effect comprise 
the chief charms of the structure. Necessarily, a building without 
side walls does not possess the acoustic properties of an enclosed 
room, but even in these cases better results can be secured by fol- 
lowing a few well-designed and easily imdcrslood principles that 
enter into the transmission of sound. 

Conceiving the simplest possible auditorium, we would have a 
level and open plain with the ground bare and hard, and a single 
person for an audience. It is clear that the srnmd spreads in a 
hemispherical wave, diminishing in intensity as it increases in size. 
If, instead of Ix-ing bare, ihe ground is occupied by a large audience, 
llic sound diminishes in intensity even more r;ipidly, being now 
absorlicd. 'ihe upper part of the sound wave escapes unaffected, 
but the lower edge— the only part that is of service to the audience, 

is rapidly lost. It will be observed that the audibility of a speaker's 
voice will be greatly increased, first, if the speaker be raised above 
the level of the audience; second, if the seats at the rear be 
slightly raised; third, if a wall be placed behind the speaker; fourth, 
if walls be built around the audience ; and, fifth, if a roof be added 
to prevent the sound from rising and being lost. 

Theoretically, the ideal shape for an auditorium or assembly hall 
of any kind is a perfect egg oval with the seating occupying the 
lower half of the room and the curved ceiling the top half. This 
ideal form is possible in but very rare cases, and practically never 
wlien commercial considerations enter into the case. 

The best of the practical forms for a meeting room is a rectangu- 
lar shape, but expert opinion differs as to the proper relations that 
should exist between the length and breadth, and between these 
two dimensions and the height. An e.xcellent authority states that 
Ihe dimensions should be in a proportion of one in height between 
the floor and ceiling, to one from rostrum to the rear walls to each 
two in width of room across the front of the stage, c. g., 50 ft. 
from front to rear ; 50 ft. between floor and ceiling by ico ft. wide. 
Other authorities assert, however, that the length and breadth 
should be the same or nearly so, and the height should be twice 
the length. As a matter of fact, it is probable that the size of a 
room is a very small factor in the problem of securing good acous- 
tics, granted of course that the room is a perfect rectangle with no 
irregularities or recesses. Inasmuch as the shape of the room in the 
class of work under discussion is usually influenced by other con- 
siderations, the actual ratio of the dimensions can probably be dis- 
regarded, bearing in mind however that a very low ceiling is always 
iibjectionable. Irregular shaped rooms with groined or arched ceil- 
ings are bad. 

Of much greater importance than the ratio of the general dimen- 
sions are certain phenomena observed in connection with the trans- 
mission of sound. The acoustics of a room will be influenced by 
any feature that tends to distort sound. This distortion may bo 
caused either by interference or resonance. These two phenomena 
are closely alike, and both occasion the same evil, the distortion 
of that nice adjustment of the relative intensities of the components 
of the complex sounds that constitute speech and music. The phe- 
nomenon of interference merely alters the distribution of sound in 
a room, causing the intensity of any one pure sustained note to be 
above or below the average intensity at near points. Resonance, on 
the other hand, alters the total amount of sound in a whole room 
and always increases it. This phenomenon is noticeable at times in 
using the voice in a small room or even in particular locations in 
a large room. 

These phenomena arc closely analogous to the action of water in 
a large basin or tank when the surface is ruffled by some disturb- 
ance, such as the introduction of the hand at certain regidar inter- 
vals at the center. It will be readily conceived that the intensity 
of the waves will depend largely on the time intervals at which the 
hand is introduced. If the disturbance is timed so that each out- 
going wave reinforces a wave returning from the sides of the tank, 
the waves will soon become very pronounced. If, however, the mo- 
tions of the hand be not so timed, it is obvious that the reinforce- 
ment will not be perfect, and, in fact, it is possible to so tiine it 
as exactly to oppose the returning waves. Conversely, it will be 
deduced that any interfering obstruction on the surface of the 
water, and also the shape of the basin, will influence the coincidence 
of elevations and depressions, the time interval of the disturbing in- 
fluence remaining constant. (The deduction is therefore plain that 
obstructions in a room, as posts, etc., and the presence of irregular 
recesses in the walls, tend to reduce the acoustic values in any 
room. Round posts present less interference than .square posts, 
posts placed at regular intervals less (ban posts placed irregularly, 
and one large recess than several smaller ones irregularly located.) 

These phenomena should not be confused with the more impor- 
lant phenomenon of reverberation. Reverberation is defined by 
Prof. Wallace C. Sabine, of Harvard University, as follows: 

"Reverbrralion may be regarded as a process of multiple reflec- 
lion from walls, from ceiling and from floor, first from one and 
then another, losing a little at each reflection until the soimd is 
ultimately inaudible. Sound being energy, (jnce produced will con- 
tinue inilil it is either transmitted by the boundary walls or is 
Iransfornied into some other kind of energy, generally luat. This 
process of decay is called absorption." 

In nine cases out of ten rooms are bad acoustically, because the 



[Vol. XIII. No. 2 

niati-rials usc<l in ihc interior finish, including seals and furnisliings, 
do not absorb the sound waves to a sufficient <leKrcc. Kacli smooth 
hard surface throws back the sound waves, and the sound vibra- 
tions thus tossed from surface to surface become confused, lose 
their integrity, and the result is a mass of sound, filling the whole 
room and incapable of analysis into its distinct reflections. If one 
chooses he can readily observe this in almost any medium size 
meeting room where the walls and ceiling are bare, and the seating 
composed of uncovered wood or metal seats. ICach syllable of the 
speaker or each note of music will be audible for a definite period 
of lime after the original sound has been uttered, and thus syllabic 
following syllable, or note following note before the previous sound 
has died away leads to confusion or indistinctness. Reverberation 
includes as a special case ibc echo, which may be defined as a 
short, sharp sound, distinctly repeated by reflection, either once 
from a single or several times from two or more surfaces. 

A room in which the reverberation is excessive usually can be 
ipiickly and definitely improved, and sometimes rendered perfect 
acoustically, by covering the seats and walls with sonic soft, dead 
or non-rcflecliiig material, corresponding in finish to velvet or car- 
pets. Only the walls that return the sound waves need be so treated. 
This added material can be supplied in the form of heavy curtains, 
draperies, cushions on the seats, and mats or carpets on the floor, 
Ihc general law being that the greater the amount of sound-absorb- 
ing material brought into the room the better will be the acoustics. 
Large, exposed surfaces of glass arc bad, and windows and heavy 
plate mirrors should be draped with curtain material. 

By experiments carried out by Professor Sabine it has been de- 
termined that of the more common materials have the fol- 
lowing relative absorbing power, all of them being referred to an 
arbitrary standard rated as i.oo: 

Wood sheathing (hard pine) 061 

Plaster on wood lath 034 

Plaster on wire lath 033 

Glass 027 

Plaster on tile 025 

Brick set in portland cement 025 

Oil paintings 28 

House plants II 

Carpet rugs 20 

Extra heavy oriental rugs 29 

Cheese cloth 019 

Cretonne cloth 15 

Shclia curtains 23 

Hair felt -8 

Linoleum (loose on floor) 12 

Plain ash settees (per single seat) ,. .077 

Plain ash chairs (bent wood) 0082 

Upholstered settees (per single seat) 28 

Upholstered chairs 30 

Hair cushions (per seat) 21 

Elastic felt cushions 20 

In addition to the materials in a room the audience itself is a 
sound-absorbing factor, and greatly improves the acoustics of a 
room. Professor Sabine has even gone so far after making several 
thousand tests as to prove that an audience composed entirely of 
women is a better absorbing medium than one entirely of men, and 
referring to the same standard he has determined that the absorbing 
power of an isolated woman is .54, and of an isolated man is .48. 

Common sawdust, sifted on the floor to a depth of Y2 in. will 
greatly improve the hearing properties of any room that abounds 
in echoes and reverberations, and this is an easy method of proving 
how greatly a room can be bettered acoustically by introducing 
absorbing non-reflecting materials. 

It is bad practice to plaster solid onto terra cotta, brick or stone 
walls, as this increases reverberation. In rooms where the wains- 
coting, paneled ceiling and doors and window finish have been 
covered with paint and varnish until the surface of the woodwork 
is covered with a thick glazed enamel coating that affords good 
sound reflection the room may be improved by first sandpapering 
the painted work until all the glos5 is removed and then repainting 
with flat colors or paint without gloss. 

Wires stretched across the ceiling arc generally conceded to be of 
no avail in preventing reverberation or echo, as the individual wires 
offer but little obstruction to the reflected sound waves. Wire gauze 

with the meshes not over ;4 in. square stretched a little distance 
below the ceiling will usually prove eflicacious. 

Sound waves are subject to various interruptions other than 
from actual material obstacles in a room; for instance, if Ihc air 
be overcharged with humidity it will impede the progress of IIk 
sound waves, the breath and heat and air occasioned by and ascend- 
ing from a crowd, carrying a much larger portion of sound upwards 
than apprciches horizontally. Sound follows and is carried by cur- 
cnts of air, hence an open hot-air register in the floor immediately 
in front of the stage or platform upon which the speaker or singer 
is standing will materially interfere with the audibility of the words 
or music. It is desirable that th<; beating, ventilating and lighting 
room to be devoid of all draughts or currents. Acoustics will be 
better if the lighting is not all done from cue large chandelier in the 
center of the room, or if the hot air is not supplied at one central 
point. It is belter to distribute the lights and heating registers 
around the sides of the room. 

Sounding boards are as a rule worse than useless, as they merely 
augment the reverberation. They are intended to be used only in 
rooms that are loo large for the voice, or where extraneous sounds, 
as nearby steam railroads, street cars, etc., require artificial rein- 
forcement of the sound waves at their point of origin. 

We are indebted to works published by Prof. Wallace C. Sabine, 
Eugene Henri Kelly, of Buffalo, and others for part of the data 
contained in this article. 



UY SETH i;.\Kll.\M. SUPT. Sl'RlNt;KIELl> TK.\(."nON CO., SPRING- 

The Springfield (Mo.) Traction Co. has on its lines two parks, 
Doling's Park of which Mr. R. L. Doling is manager, and Zoo 
Park, neither of which is owned by the Traction company. At 
Doling's Park is a theater capable of seating about 1,500 persons. 

Our experience with parks operated for the purpose of increasing 
street railway revenues, has been in a small city, and what would 
hold good in a city of this class might not be suitable in a larger 
place. Therefore, I limit what follows to cities of between 25,000 
and 50.000 inhabilants. 

The first thing, in order to make a street railway park a success, 
is to get the park before the people. You must have something, or 
do something to attract the first notice. If you have a nice, well- 
kept park, plenty of grass, shade trees, and natural water, with some 
natural or manufactured scenery effects thrown in, you will get the 
first visit, and the occasional visit of the pleasure seeker. This occa- 
sional trip to the park must be made a habit. 

The park must be made an attractive place in day-time, a place 
where anybody can rest and get recreation, a place where ladies can 
lake the children for an outing, and the first attractions should be 
for the children. What pleases the child pleases the mother. All 
children take interest in swings, hobby-horse-merry-go-rounds, 
ponies, donkeys and monkeys. Amusements of this kind are inex- 
pensive; get them first. 

Next, cater to all good people's picnics, lodge picnics, church pic- 
nics, private picnics and excursions. Give them rates on everything; 
please them. 

.After you have in this way got people in the way of going to the 
park, some daily and some "once in a while," give them evening 
attractions — make the park habit nightly. 

At night the park must always be kept well lighted and well 
policed. The moral tone must be kept high. Have some kind of 
attraction every night, so the habit will not be broken. One of the 
best drawing cards for this purpose is a slock company, dramatic or 
operatic show with vaudeville specialties between the acts. A theater 
show of this kind is better than straight vaudeville because it cre- 
ates a more fixed interest. To prove this, ask the average patron, 
leaving a good vaudeville show how he liked it. He will say "good." 
Ask him if he will come again tomorrow, his answer will be "I 
don't know." Ask the same patron when he has seen a good play 
of the other kind and his answer will be "yes" or "no." The idea 
is, the vaudeville creates uncertain results, either good or bad ; while 
with the "stock" show as the main feature the result is certain, cither 
success or failure, according to merit. 

FEa 20, 1903.] 



The charges for all amusements should be as fixed as the street 
car fare, and as near the same basis (5 cents each) as possible. Let 
the people know what they have to pay — make it fixed, and when 
traveling attractions are booked for special performances always 
make the charges conform to a usual custom. If the attraction can 
not be secured on that basis, do not take it. Nothing raises com- 
plaint so quickly as changing prices. All street car passengers 
should have a transfer ticket from the car to admit them to the park 
grounds. After they are inside treat everybody alike. 

On these theories this company has worked in connection with a 
park not owned by the company during the summer of 1902. The 
results to the company were satisfactory, and the owners of the park 
made net above all expenses 15 per cent on the valuation. 



I'orcst Park, about three-fourths of a mile from Pittsburg, Kan., 
is leased by W. \V. Bell, who has improved the park by erecting a 
theater of l.oco seating capacity, and other necessary buildings. Mr. 

located in a natural grove of large coltonwood and other varieties 
of trees where rambling walks are laid out and shady spots abound. 
In the center of these grounds is a large body of water upon which 
a well-equipped boat livery is maintained, including power launches, 
row boats, etc. Near the lake is a large building containing swim- 
ming pools which are among the largest in the country. These are 
filled with the constantly flowing hot sulphur water coming from 
llie earth at a depth of about 600 ft. and at a temperature of about 
110° F. .As this is running water, it always remains clean and re- 
freshing. This park is also used as a health resort, and in the same 
building with the swimming pools arc a number of private bath 
rooms equipped with porcelain tubs, reclining cots, etc., where hot 
sulphur tub baths arc provided. The accompanying illustrations 
show several views in Urbita licit Springs Park. 


One of the most widely-known attractions of Philadelphia is Wil- 
low Grove Park which is operated by the Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Co., but as an enterprise separate and distinct from any of the com- 
pany's railway properties. The park is located in Montgomery 

VIEWS IN IIKIUTA lliiT Sl'KlN(;s I'.VKK, S.\N liKR.N AKDl.Nn, lAL. 

Bell states that the park has been operated for three sunnners and 
has been very successful, with excellent prospects for 1903. The 
remunerative attractions have been theatrical entertainments by 
slock companies with vaudeville teams bclwccn acts. The park 
comprises 40 acres and includes a half-mile training track. 


i he San Bernardino Valley Traction Co., of .San Bernardino, 
al., owns a mile race track located three miles from the center of 
.San Bernardino and seven miles from Rcdiands, upon the com- 
pany's Rcdiands extension. This tr.ick is used for winter meets and 
training of horse.t, and a base ball and foot ball field is containe<l 
within the race course. This has proved to be a good feeder for 
the company's lints and a great attraction (o winter tourists. In 
addition to the race track a park called Urbita Hot Springs Park is 
imncd liy some of the rlircclors of the traction company, but is 
operated by a separate company caller! the Urbita Hot .Springs Co. 
This park is located iV4 miles from San Bernardino and is under 
the management of Mr. A. C. Denman, Jr. The hot springs arc 

County about 13 miles from the cily am! is nndur tlie management 
of Mr. C P. Weaver, special agent, with headquarters at No. 810 
Dauphin St., Philadelphia. Mr. Weaver is assisted by Mr. F. W. 

In regard to the allraclions and niellinds of operation Mr. Weaver 
has written us as follows : 

"We have a building known as the tlicaler in which we have 
moving pictures and also have had the Merry Manikins for the past 
two or three years as a side issue. In another building known as 
the Fairy Theater, in which thirty people arc employed, difTcrent 
plays for children arc given, the only way to view the performance 
being through lenses; this is a novelty in the theatrical line, and was 
first introduced last summer. We also have 'Ye Oldc Mill,' which 
consists of a waterway running through a building with many curves 
and corners, the length of which is about 1,000 feet. At busy times 
we operate as many as twenty boats, each boat being able to seat 
eight people. This has proved one of oiu' best attractions at the 
park. Last year wc carried .-500,000 people, the charge for each jier- 
son riding being ten cents. Wc also have a scenic railway, wliicli 
is in fact a scenic railway, inasmuch as it runs through tree tops. 



[Vol. XI II, No. 2 

l)n this aiiiU'iciiH'nt uv carried in (he iieigliborhood of 550,000 people 
diiriiig mir season of 95 days. We liavc two carrousels both of which 
arc very popular and profitable. We have also a new mirror majie, 
which is considered the best of its kind in the country, and has 
proved a very gix>d investment. The tolnggan chutes comprise a 
scenic railw.iy combined with a chute the chutes. This has done 
a very good business since it has been built. However, it Is our 
intention this year to substitute another scenic railway in its pLicc. 
We also have a large 'Candyland' building, photograph building, 
news stand, orangeade building, cigar .stand, soda water fountain, 
phonograph building, which do good business. 

"Our main attraction at Willow Grove is the music. No charge 
is made to hear the concerts, seats being free. Last year we had 
five difTerent bands during the season, the first being Sousa and his 
land; second, Victor Herbert and his orchestra; third, the Kilties, a 
Canadian organization; fourth, Clarke's .American Band of Provi- 
dence, and fifth, the Royal Marine Band of Italy. Tliis year it is 
more than likely that we will have seven or eight different organ- 

"The park itself operates a large casino and two smaller cafes. 
The trolley railway encircles the park and on busy days as many 
as 160 cars have been operated on that branch alone, making the 
headway of each car about a minute. In the park proper there arc 
no acres, included in which are three large picnic groves capable of 
accommodating about 40,000 picnickers. Swings, kitchens, etc., have 
been arranged in each grove. 

"The seating capacity of our music shell under the pavilion is 
about 4.500, and with the seats in and around the pavilion it will hold 
about 12,000. It is no very uncommon thing for us to have an audi- 
ence seated and standing in and around the music pavilion of twenty- 
live thousand people. Our largest day was July 4, 1902, at which 
time it was estimated that the attendance at the park was over 

"One of the most important features at the park is an electrical 
fountain, which stands in the middle of a large lake and which is 
operated at night with colors. It is said to be the finest one in the 
United States." 


The Citizens Electric Railway, Light & Power Co., of Mansfield, 
O., operates Lake Park Casino, situated about one mile from the 
center of Mansfield, which is under the management of E. R. End- 
ley. There is a theater large enough to seat 1,000 persons. Mr. 
Arthur J. Haycox, superintendent of the railway department of the 
company, writes as follows concerning entertainments and park 

"In speaking of sunimcr parks and casinos, after six years experi- 
ence, I must say that I am not very much taken with the c%sino 
as a money maker for street railway companies, largely on account 
of the kind of entertainments that we have to put up with. Vaude- 
ville people get about double the money they earn. Only about one 
act in every ten is new to the audience and worth the money paid 
by the railway company. Tlie park that pays is the park that draws 
picnic parties. .\ place out in the woods, where the fare is 15 cents 
one way, and 25 cents round trip. Let there be swings, and boating, 
golf and ball grounds, buildings where speaking can take place and 
where the people can be sheltered from a thunder shower. Let there 
be beautiful flowers, a few animals, etc., free telephone service to 
town, free lights, plenty of tables under the trees, in fact a place 
where tired people can go and get away from business two or three 
times a week in summer. It is not necessary to provide many extra 
men and cars and power for this kind of a park, but with a theater 
it is required to carry all the people out in alx)ut 30 minutes, with 
the same rush to get them home. The other kind of park may not 
have such large crowds, but it will draw some every day, and the 
'regulars' will take care of the business and the company not have 
to pay out several hundred dollars extra every Saturd.iy night," 


The Canton-Akron Railway Co. operates a resort called Meyers 
Lake, which is aliout iVi miles from Canton, O.. and has recently 
leased a property at Springfield Lake, which is some 15 miles north 
of Canton. At Meyers Lake a stage has been erected, also a I'"ig.-8 
toboggan, a merry-go-round and a Ferris wheel. The company owns 

here about 225 acres, 90 acres Iwing comprised in the lake, and is 
well e(|uipped for summer business. On the lake are a naphtha 
launch carrying 100 persons, and 50 row boats. There arc also two 
large hotels where excellent meals are served and dances may be 
held. At Springfield Lake a pavilion has been built and boats will 
be put on the lake with the expectation uf doing considerable busi- 
ness at the resort during the coming year. The manager of the rail- 
way company is Mr. George W. Rounds. 


The Cortland County Traction Co. owns and operates Cortland 
Park which is located about 2'/i miles east of the city on the Tiough- 
nioga River. The most successful attractions arc moving pictures, 
band concerts and fireworks. Dances are held twice each week and 
animals and a merry-go-round furnish amusement for children. 

The company sends us a copy of a circular letter that is sent to 
all parts of the state, which we reproduce here, believing that the 
form may be found useful to other companies desiring to secure 
picnic parties for their parks: 

"The management of the Cortland County Traction Co. desires 
to call your attention to the desirability of Cortland Park as an ideal 
place for excursions and picnics during the summer months. 

"The park is located on the banks of the Tioughnioga River, about 
2'/4 miles cast of the city of Cortland on a hill commanding a view 
of the city. The view is perfect ; standing on the hillside one sees 
the city resting in a valley with its churches, schools and factories 
the whole forming a beautiful picture not surpassed by the villages 
the traveler views as he climbs the lofty heights of the Alps. 

"The park itself consists of two large groves of elm, maple and 
hemlock excellently kept and bountifully supplied with tables, 
benches, etc., for picnics. This year the management has made a 
great effort to have the park attractive. It has secured and placed 
in the park a menagerie which includes monkeys, bears, deer, rab- 
bits, etc., and which will be especially attractive to the children as 
well as to the older people. A merry-go-round operated by elec- 
tricity has been placed in the park, also a large croquet ground, 
which is attracting no little attention ; numerous large sw ings have 
been added and nothing has been left undone to make the naturally 
beautiful place bright and attractive. 

"Surrounding the groves are beautiful woods with weH-kept walks 
running through them, and plentifully supplied with rustic seats for 
the weary, or those who desire to sit and drink in the delightfully 
cool air and enjoy the shade listening to the birds, or watching the 
antics of the squirrels and chipmunks. 

"In the lower grove is a large spacious pavilion in which refresh- 
ments arc served at a nominal cost. The pavilion will shelter a very 
large number of people in inclement weather, and can be utilized 
for dining for picnic parties whenever the weather will not permit of 
Ihe outside tables being used. 

"The park is supplied with plenty of good cold spring water. The 
privilege of the kitchen will be given free to picnic parties to make 
coffee, etc. Electric oars run frequently between the park and the 
city. The management desires particularly to solicit picnic parties 
and excursions bringing along their own eatables and picnic in the 
park. No admission or charge for the grounds. No intoxicating 
drinks sold. Write for further information and particulars." 


The .Minn Railway, Gas & Electric Co. owns a tract of 22 acres 
located llirco miles from .Mton, III., which has been very extensively 
]ialn>iiized by picnic and other outing parties. The resort is known as 
Rock Spring Park and has been improved with a lagoon, green 
houses and pavilion. 


The .Mlentown and Kutztown Traction Co. at Reading, Pa., owns 
and operates two pleasure resorts known as Dorney Park which is 
about four miles from the center of Reading and about four miles 
west of AUentown. Also Fairview Grove, about five miles west. 
The park manager is Mr. F. S. Kinsey, Reading. 

.\\. Dorney Park there is a theater of 3.000 capacity, a lake suitable 
for boating, and swimming pool, basket ball court, pavilion, merry- 
go-round, water toboggan, dancing pavilion, base ball grounds and a 
first class hotel and restaurant. Ponies are also kept for hire. 

Feb. 20, 1903.] 



Fairview Grove is used mainly liy private picnic parties and for 
camp meeting purposes. 

Mr. Kinsey writes ns as follows in regard to plans for 1903 and 
results in 1902 : 

"Our season this year will very probably begin a week or two 
earlier than last year, when we opened on May 24th. .^t Dorney 
Park we handled during the past season from 12,000 to 15,000 people 
on each of our big days, and the attendance throughout the entire 
season was very good, but during the month of June particularly 
the weather was e.xceptionally bad, which interfered greatly with 
what would have been otherwise an equally successful month. 

■'.•\t the theater' we find that high class entertainments pay the 
best, .\mong other attractions we had the Kilties Band for three 
days, Ricobono Brothers' .Animal Show, the latter coming to Dorney 
Park as the second stopping place in this country, we having en- 
gaged them while still in Europe. 

"The trout ponds at Dorney Park have made the park a famous 
picnicking place for the past 30 years, and we now have more than a 
dozen ponds stocked with exceptionally fine trout. In addition to 

pool room, bar room and restaurant. This park is located on the 
southeastern shore of Onondaga Lake, the properly being surround- 
ed by a i6-ft. board fence. To accommodate spectators of out-door 
games "bleachers" sealing 2.500 persons have been erected. On the 
lake shore is a large dock or harbor for steamboats and launches. 


this, we built, during the past fall, a liatchery, and e.xpect lo raise 
millions of trout this season. 

"Before the coming season opens we intend to enlarge our danc- 
ing pavilion and build an annex lo our theater so that at the latter 
place we can scat comfortably 3,000 people. 

"We have not only endeavored to secure absolutely first class com- 
panies (or our theater, but the musical portion of llie program, both 
as to orchestra and players themselves, has been given careful at- 
tention, and a special effort will be made during ihe coming season 
to improve this part of the entertainment still more. We find that 
absolutely high grade music is appreciated throughout the entire sea- 
son, whether from singers or instrumentalists. In short we shall en- 
deavor to secure the very best that can be had, preferring to have 
an entertainment marked by its good quality rather than its quantity." 


The .Syracuse Rapid Transit Co. owns two pleasure resorts. Valley 
Theater, four miles from the center of Syracuse, and Lake Park 
(formerly Iron Pier), two miles from the city. Valley Theater is 
operated by the railway company, while Lake Park is leased. There 
is also a new summer park not owned by the railway, known as 
Rockwell .Springs, which is on the company's line; this resort is 
most used for dancing and picnics. Valley Theater was illustrated 
in the "Review" for August, 1900, page 478; at this park light opera 
has iK'en a most p^jpular and remunerative attraction. At Lake 
Park vaudeville has l>een the principal entertainment ; the building 
here is 580 ft. long and contains besides the stage, a b<'jwling alley, 


The Bennington & Hoosick Falls Railway Co., of Hoosick Falls, 
N. Y., operates Battlefield Park, which is located about nine miles 
from Hoosick Falls and seven miles from Bennington. Mr. George 
E. Greene, president of the company, writes as follows concerning 
this resort : 

"We have quite a beautiful park; the place is naturally attractive 
and we have not spent a very great amount of money on it. The 
park is part of the main battlefield of the battle of Bennington. The 
Hoosick River runs close to a heavily wooded forest which is 
reached by a bridge across the river from two or three acres of nice 
lawn upon which we have trees, flower beds and a fountain, with 
swings, seats and a platform for band concerts. We have 
some boats on the river. The park is well patronized by 
picnic parties and small parties during the summer and in 
the afternoons there are a greater or less number of people 
there all the while. We also have croquet and other 
games. Two years ago we gave six weeks vaudeville but 
found it did not pay. A year ago last summer we gave 
two weeks. Last summer we did not give any. We had 
hand concert* Sunday afternoons, which was about the 
only attraction for which we expended any money. We 
found that there was more in it for us to simply keep a 
clean, attractive place, free to our patrons, where they 
could go into tlie country and into the woods and on the 
river without expense and without trespassing on private 
land, than to give vaudeville entertainments or to pay for 
attractions, because the revenue was not sufficient to make 
it an object for all the extra work and running the extra 
equipment and the extra chances of accident." 

The Natchez (Miss.) Electric Street Railway & Power 
Co. operates Concord Park which is under the manage- 
ment of Mr. W. B. Moorman, secretary and treasurer of 
the railway company. The park is attractively situated at 
Ihe end of the street railway line and is about I'/z 
miles from the center of the city. At the park are 
a half-mile race track, first-class baseball and 
football grounds, large stable room for stock, 
and ample grand stand and bleacher seating 
capacity with an exposition hall, theater Iniildiiig and other con- 

Mr. Moorman writes as follows: 

"We had several theatrical companies playing here last summer 
and the greater number of the games played in the Cotton States 
League are played at this park. We are gaining for the park quite 
a reputation as a pleasure resort and last year, the first season, was 
well patronized. The entire park and buildings are under improve- 
ment and by spring we expect lo open in strictly modern shape with 
a number of additional attractions. We are adding several miles of 
track lo our line Ibis winter, all of which will be in full operation by 
spring anil will draw greater patronage than ever for the park." 


The Mobile Light & Railroad Co., of Mobile, Ala., which now in- 
cludes the Mobile Street Railroad Co., operates Monroe Park lo- 
cated about three miles from the city. The park comprises alxxil 
40 acres and is reached by two street railway lines. The locaticm 
is particularly favorable, the constant breezes from the Gulf mak- 
ing the park a most desirable resort during the liealcd term, and 
citizens freely utilize it for picnics, horse shows, (lower parades, 
tournaments and summer outings generally. What is generally ad- 
ntitled to be the finest baseball grounds in the South are within 
Ihe park enclosure. A theater with ample stage room and sealing 
750 persons, is one of Ihe park attractiuns, and crowds arc nightly 
entertaine<l during the snnnner with light opera and high-class 
vaudeville performances. A small zoo annises tlu' little ones, and a 



[V..1 \III V, 

c.i$iiin priiMilfS r< Ircsliiiiiiils. l)iiriii(; tlu' ci'iiiiiig srason (h« bay 
froiil will litf lK-:iulilicil and .-itlditiDiia! iniprovciiiciits lie made to llic 


The nifclric Park & Anni^iMiiciit Co., of which M. G. llcini, of 
the Ileiiii Brewing Co., is president, operates Klectric Park, which 
was described in the "Keview" for October, igoo, page 578. The at- 
tractions include vaudeville entertainments, a German village, small 
I'Vrris wheel, electric fotmlain, bowling alley, shooting gallery, "loop 
llie loop," etc. The manager of the park is Mr. Samuel Benjamin. 

cottages are always occn|iie>l, 11 licing :llnlll^t imiwisMliic ti run nnc 
after the first of May. 

.■\cro5s the river from Cedar River Park is Sans Soiici, owned by 
the Waterloo & Cedar Falls Kapid Transit Co., where has been built 
a snmnier hotel which will accomnuMlatc 130 guests. The company 
has 15 acres in this park, and the hotel season is from June ist to 
.September 1st. .\ great many transient guests arc accommodateil 
here, and the Chautauqua .\sseinbly, across the river, has found it a 
great convenience for their entertainments to stop close to the Chau- 
lau(|ua auditorium. Near the hotel has been erected a band stand, 
and a shelter with seating capacity for 1,200 people. Two band con- 
certs a week are given during the summer season; also moving pic- 

SANS SOl'Cl HiiTl',1, -\N1> l'.\KK. \V.\TERLO(l. lA. 

Take a Delightful 
Steamboat Ride! 

LtiJii* lh« "U.v>, jod confution tnr « iho't tim* and 

■njoy A rest on lh« boat whil« you vlavv lh« 

boAutiful »c*n«ry of C*dar Rivar. 


The Waterloo & Cedar Falls Rapid Transit Co., of Waterloo, Ta., 
has on its line two pleasure resorts, Cedar River Park and Sans 
Souci which arc on opposite sides of the Cedar River, and situated' 

two miles from Water- 
loo and four miles from 
Cedar Falls. 

Cedar River Park is 
owned by a stock com- 
pany, and contains 
about 200 acres of land 
on which are built some 
150 summer homes; 
there is also at Cedar 
River Park an auditori- 
um with a seating capa- 
city of 2,500 people. 
This is used every sea- 
son for two weeks by 
the Chautauqua Assem- 
bly, and during the rest 
of the time is in great 
demand for the use of 
large conventions and 
church entertainments. 
The Germans of North- 
eastern Iowa hold an 
annual German camp 
meeting at this park 
which draws about 1,200 
people, and lasts two 
weeks. All the summer 


Will Ic...- Wjtclo.. A\ -2. 3. -4. ^ ; -n,i 7 otlotk P M for 

Sans Souci and 
Cedar River Parks 

Fare, 5 Cents Each Way 

Doal loAvrf from I'ont of I. C pJ%«'.gDf tlAt-on on Ca^t S<d* 
and from r«4lr ot 8*<)i. Nauman & Watlt Co OT\ Wm Sid*. 

Pau«n««ra can (Clurn from i>Brk« by alactric cars tl d««irad. 

or can lah* car* lo park and raiurn by boat. 

th« far* baing all lb« tame. 

tures are given, the bill being changed as often as found profitable. 

Within a short distance from Sans Souci is located the Waterloo 
Country Club grounds and club house, and this organization with a 
membership of 200 or more has found it very convenient to make 
Sans Souci summer hotel its headquarters. Tlie Rapid Transit 
company has a steam boat which plies between Waterloo and these 
parks, which is shown by the accompanying reproduction of an ad- 
vertising bill, and it is found that it pleases the public to be able to 
take either route going to and from the parks. 

The park manager is Mr. C. D. Cass, general passenger agent for 
the Rapid Transit Co. 

The Cincinnati, Georgetown & Portsmouth Railw.ay Co. has se- 
cured land at Highland Park, O., and will develop a summer resort 

Tlic Penobscot Central Railway Co. of Bangor. Me., will this year 
establish a pleasure resort to be known as Pushow Lake Park ; it 
will be located about 7Vs miles from Bangor. 

« « > 

The Blue Grass Traction Co. recently received 20 car lo«ds of 
rails for its new interurban line from Lexington to Paris, Ky. 
.'\bout nine miles of the proposed seventeen of roadbed is graded. 
Work is being pushed as rapidly as the weather will permit. 

Don'l Miss Sedng IIk Nck Summer Hold, Sans Souci. 


Judge A. N. Waterman, in delivering an opinion in the .'\ppcllatc 
Court on January i6th. dismissed an appeal taken by the city of 
Chicago from the judgment of the Circuit Court, in refusing to 
issue a writ of mandamus directing the West Chicago Street Rail- 
way Co. to lower its tunnel at Van Buren St. The reviewing court 
declares that a freehold is involved and that the case should have 
been taken to the Supreme Court. 

Fer 20, I90,vT 







Collins V. Amsterdam Street Railro,-nl Co. (N. Y. Sup.). 78 N. Y. 
Supp. 470. Nov. 12, 1902. 
Where the consent of the local authorities and of the property 
owners was secured to the building of a street railroad over about 
five miles of highw'ay, the third appellate division of the supreme 
court of New York holds that the company could not take part, as 
for example 3,100 feet, and reject the balance, building the balance 
of its line for such entire distance through private lands. 





Kennedy v. Mineola, Hempstead & Freeport Traction Co. (N. Y. 
Sup.), 78 N. Y. Supp. 937. Dec. 2, ig02. 
An owner of land fronting upon a highway, but who docs not ow 11 
any of the fee of the highway, that is, does not have any title to land 
under the highway, the second appellate division of the supreme 
court of New York holds, is not entitled to ati injunction restrain- 
ing the construction therein of a street surface railroad authorized 
by the state, or to recover damages therefor. 



Chattanooga Electric Railway Co. v. Cooper (Tcnn.), 70 S. W. Rep. 
72. Oct. 23, ig02. 
A very old man, in crossing a street, suddenly found himself in 
a position of apparent peril from a rapidly approaching automobile, 
and, in attempting to escape, in a moment of alarm and excitement, 
inadvertently ran upon a street railway track, and was killed by a 
passing electric car. It was contended that it was error to apply 
the rule that a person put in a place of sudden peril by the negligent 
act of another, who, losing self-possession, takes the wrong step, and 
is injured, will not have such step imputed to him as contributory 
negligence. But the supreme court of Tennessee holds that it is a 
mistake to assume that the application of this rule is restricted to 
cases where the peril producing the confusion of judgment, and the 
consequent false effort to escape, is the negligent act of the party 
creating the peril. However, to get the benefit of this extension of 
the rule, the party injured must be without fault in putting himself 
in the place of peril or danger; that is, he must not recklessly or 
improvidcntly have incurred it. 


Palmer v. VVinslon-Salem Railway & Electric Co. (N. C), 42 S. E. 

Rep. 604. Nov. II, 1902. 

Arrived at his destination, a somewhat intoxicated passenger, 
who had used grossly insulting words to the motorman, got out, 
deposited his bundles on the sidewalk, returned to the car, again got 
into an altercation with the motorman, then turned, and left the car, 
whereupon the motorman followed him up, and, two or three steps 
from the car, struck him on the back of the head with the lever 
which controlled the car, knocking him down. 'The fact that the 
party invited the assault by insulting language or provoking 
conduct, the supreme court of North Carolina holds, would not bar 
recovery in a civil action, the provocation being a mitigation, not a 
defense. If he had been a passenger or his passage had not been 
fully terminated, or if, when he left the car at his destinalion, the 
employe had immediately followed him and assaulted him, the com- 
pany, the court says, conceded that there would be no rjucslion as 
to its liability. But to render it liable, the court holds, (l) he must 

have been a passenger al the lime he was stricken, or still within 
the sphere of its protection; or (2) the employe must have been act- 
ing at the time within the scope of his employment on its car. A 
judgment against the company. New trial. 


Norfolk Railway & Light Co. v. Coiletto (,Va.), 41 S. E. Rep. 740. 
June 12, 1902. 

Statutes regulating the speed of railroad trains at certain places 
being regulations clearly intended for the protection of travelers, 
it is well settled, the supmere court of appeals of Virginia says, 
thaL any violation of them is competent evidence of negligence 
in an action brought by a traveler on the highway, even though 
the statute simply imposes a penalty for its violation. Statutes 
and valid municipal ordinances regulating the speed of trains or 
street cars stand upon the same footing. The fact that the ordi- 
nance here in question was passed after the company was given 
the right to operate its cars upon the streets of the city did not 
render it any less binding upon the company. Even direct legis- 
lative authority to a street railway company to use the streets of 
a city does not exempt it from reasonable municipal or police 
control, and it is subject to such ordinances to the same extent as 
natural persons. 

'The court also says that it is clearly of the opinion that expert 
evidence is admissible to show witliin what space a street car 
running under given conditions may be stopped. This is a sub- 
ject not within the range of common experience and observation, 
but involves technical and peculiar knowledge, as to which expert 
evidence is admissible. 


Petition of Philadelphia, Morion & Swarthmorc Street Railway Co. 
(Pa.), S3 Atl. Rep. 191. Oct. 13, 1902. 
The supreme court of Pcmisylvania says that it is in no doubt as to 
just what power the legislature intended to confer by section 14 of 
the act of 1889, with its amendment in the act of 1895. It was a clear 
grant of a right to a younger to enter upon the easement of an older 
company, and take possession of 2,500 feet of its tracks, poles, and 
wires, thereafter to use them for its corporate purposes. It was not 
material that this possession was not to be exclusive. In whatever 
light it was viewed, it was an authority to appropriate to a certain 
extent the franchi"se and properly of the older company. The efTect, 
the only effect, of this fourteenth section and the amendment was 
to transfer the property of one private corporation to a new one 
for the same public use, both being transporters of passengers for 
profit. 'This was unconstitutional. 'That a company owed its cor- 
porate existence to the act of i88g did not prevent it denying I he 
constitutionality of section 14 with its amendment, the section, holli 
in its purpose and eflfect, being a distinct legislative enactment, so 
that if it be completely eliminated, all the other provisions stand in 
full force. 




Vula V. New York & Queens County Railroad Co. (N, Y. 
N. Y, Su|)p. 770. Oct., igo2. 
'Mil' innduclor testified that he took the names of passengers on 
I Ik- I'.ir ;it llie time of the accident for witnesses; but none of llieni 
was called as a witness. Counsel for the |ilaintilT arKiicil to the jury 
that it was the duly of the comjiany lo rail llieru. and that llie |)rc- 
sumjilion of law was that if called their (eslimony would be against 
the company. 'The court cliarned Ihc jury that the company was 
luuler no duly lo rail Ibnn ; llial ihrre was no such presumption. 



[Vol.. XIII, No. 2- 

aiul lint ilic case had lo he ilccidi'il on the cviilence produced, and 
vilhoiil ir^nrd to the fnihire ti( the coni|>niiy lo call such passenger- ; 
and this was excepted to. A motion for a new trial is denied hy 
the snprenie court of New York, trial terni. Queens County. It says 
that it is aware of no rule creating such a presumption against a 
party, or even permitting the testimony he presents to be looked 
upon less favorably, for his failure to call other persons as witnesses, 
except in the case of witnesses in the employ of the party, or in 
some other way so related to or associated with him that the law 
presumes that they woidd be favorably disposed lo him if called; 
aixl in such case it must be made to appear that such persons were 
witnesses of the occurrence in order that the presumption may arise 
at all. Passengers on a car do not come in such category in respect 
of either party in cases like this. Prudence dictates to e.ich parly 
to get their names, if possible, but failure lo call them as svilncsses 
amounts to nothing. 


Galligan v. Old Colony Street Railway Co. (Mass.), 6s N. E. Rep. 
48. Oct. 30, 1902. 
Where tracks were within the bounds of a highway, though not 
in that part used for common travel, but in a cut or depression ex- 
cavated for them through a ledge, the supreme judicial court of 
Massachusetts says that, in one sense, the ledge, being a part of the 
highway not within the tracks, and more than 18 inches distant from 
that part of the highway which they occupied, was not within the 
company's care. Still, its right under its location included that of 
maintaining and operating its road, and carried with it the right 
so to deal with the ledge or bank that the fall of material from it 
should not obstruct or endanger the running of cars upon the track. 
The court sees no reason why the company was not bound, as to 
its passengers, to exercise the same degree of care to prevent injury 
to them in consequence of the rolling of stones from the embank- 
ment upon the track that it would have been bound to use if the 
place had not been part of the highway, and had been part of a 
location upon the company's own land, or of one taken from private 
owners by the exercise of the right of eminent domain under a 
grant of power from the legislature. This degree of care is the 
same as that required with reference to the equipment and manage- 
ment of the cars or the construction of its tracks. It is the highest 
degree of care consistent with the nature of the undertaking, which 
is the management or operation of the road as a common carrier of 
passengers; or, in other words, the requirement is reasonable care 
according to the nature of the contract. 


Sessclniann v. Metropolitan Street Railway Co. (N. Y. Sup.), 7S 
N. Y. Supp. 482. Nov. 14, 1902. 
In this case, where it affirms a judgment for $10,885.62 for dam- 
ages for personal injuries sustained by a mason 45 years of age. 
who had one of his hands practically ruined for the purposes of his 
trade and had suffered much pain, the second appellate division of 
the supreme court of New York says that the accident occurred at 
a street intersection where the rights of the plaintiff and defendant 
were equal ; at a point where he had the right to assume thai it 
would have its car under control, and would, as the operator of a 
powerful engine of destruction, be vigilant m protecting or preserv- 
ing the equality of rights on the part of pedestrians and others law- 
fully using the highway. When the law declares that the rights of 
parties are equal at a given point, it docs not mean that the more 
powerful of the two may disregard the approach of the weaker, and 
gain and pass the point without any regard for the latter. It means 
that each, having regard for the rights of the other, considering the 
dangers to be anticipated from a disregard of the mutual rights of 

the parties, may make use of the highway in a lawful manner ; and 
this necessarily devolves upon the ilefendanl, in the operation of 
its cars at street intersections, the duty of having them under con- 
trol. It is not enough that the speed shall be reduced, if that re- 
duction of speed does not operate to give the motornian that con- 
trol of his car which is necessary to the equal rights of pedestrians 
and others at street intersections, and it is always a question for 
the jury whether the car is in such control. 

injury to person running to take car and 

from stumbling falling upon track— no 

absolutf: duty to stop c.\r on sk;n.\i. 

of intended passenger. 

WinclKll V. St. Paul City Railway Co. (Minn.), 90 N. W. Rep. 
1050. June 20, 1902. 

Plaintiff signaled the motornian in charge of one of defendant's 
street cars of his wish to take passage thereon, then started on a 
moderate run towards the track and the point where the ca,- would 
come to a stop. When within al>out six feet of the same, he 
stumbled by reason of some obstacle in the street, and fell upon 
the track, and was struck by the car and injured. The supreme 
court of Minnesota holds that the evidence was insufficient to sup- 
port a finding of actionable negligence on the part of the company, — 
that the motornian was not bound lo anticipate the possibility that 
the party might fall upon the track, and was not guilty of neg- 
ligence in not having his car under such control that he could stop 
the same in time to avoid such an accident. Conceding that the car 
was being operated at an excessive rate of speed, the court says 
that it is clear to it that the proximate cause of the accident was 
the party's own involuntary act in stumbling and falling upon the 
track; that his injuries were the result of an accident, for which 
neither party was in any way responsible ; and lo sustain a recov- 
ery would be to establish a precedent which could not possibly be 
followed in the future. 

The court is not aware of any rule, it says, making it the absolute 
duty of a street car company to stop its cars upon the signal of a 
person wishing to take passage thereon. It is usual and customary, 
no doubt, to do so, but it cannot be said to be an absolute duty. It 
is a matter of common knowledge that frequently, where cars are 
already overloaded with passengers, the inotorman takes no notice 
of persons signaling an intention or desire to take passage, and 
passes them without any effort to come to a stop. The plaintiff 
had no right, so far as the record disclosed, to rely upon the motor- 
man to bring his car to a stop upon this occasion. The motornian 
knew from the signal that he did not intend to cross the track. 
There was no occasion for him to do so. Nor could it be said that 
the niotonnan was bound to guard the possibility of an 
accident of this kind, if it be conceded that it was his duty to stop 
the car at the party's signal. He was not required, in the operation 
of his car, to anticipate that possibly the party might stumble and 
fall upon the track, and to Itave his car so under conirol as to 
avoid a collision in such event. 


Maxey v. Metropolitan Street Railway Co. (Mo. App.). 68 S. W. 
Rep. 1063. June 9. 1902. 
A street car company, the court of appeals at Kansas City, Mo., 
says, may become liable to a party seeking to become a passenger, 
even though it did not slop to take on passengers. The court con- 
cedes that the car may stop to let off a passenger, and be justified 
in refusing to take on others, for some sufficient reason, — such as 
being already sufficiently filled, or, perhaps, being behind regular 
lime, and another car closely following, and the like. Yet while 
the company has this right, a person desiring to get on, who goes 
out into the street and signals (as by standing by the track) at a 
place where the car stops for passengers, is justified in assuming 
that the slop then and there made is in response to his signal, or 
for the double purpose of letting passengers off and taking him 

Fer 20, igo3.] 



on, and the company's servants, being presumed to have ordinary 
sense, will be charged with a knowledge of such assumption of the 
person desiring to get on; and if, for any reason, it is not desired 
to receive such person as a passenger, it is the duty of the proper 
servant to warn him if he attempts to get on the car. So, there- 
fore, it can make no diflference, up to the time when the person is 
made aware that more passengers are not desired, whether the car, 
in point of fact, stopped for the sole purpose of letting a pas- 
senger off. 

We have already seen, the court says further on, that in certain 
situations — such as a car fully loaded — the conductor has a right 
to refuse to receive more passengers, and therefore to warn those 
seeking passage to keep off. It is therefore clear that, if the con- 
ductor warned plaintiff in a tone of voice loud enough for her to 
hear, he was not guilty of negligence, even though she did not hear, 
unless he saw that she did not heed him, and was in such position 
as that his starting up was reasonably certain to injure her. It 
was error to make the conduct of the conductor, as to care or neg- 
ligence, depend upon whether plaintiff heard him. His act should 
not be characterized by the degree of plaintiff's hearing or attention. 
If he gave the warning in a voice sufficiently loud to arrest the 
attention of an ordinary person, he. in that particular respect, was 
not guilty of negligence. And if he signaled for starting the car 
without discovering that she had disregarded his warning and had 
put herself in a hazardous position, he should not be held to have 
been negligent. 


Central Passenger Railway Co. v. Philadelphia, Wilmington & Bal- 
timore Railroad Co. (Md.), 52 .^tl. Rep. 752. June 19, 1902. 
The adjudged cases, the court of appeals of Maryland says, are 
quite in accord in holding that, when a new road or way is con- 
structed across an old road or way, the owner of the new way 
must not only bear the expense of making and keeping in repair 
the new way, including the cost of such structural changes in the 
old way as are rendered necessary by the construction of the cross- 
ing, but he must, in addition, make compensation to the owner, of 
the old way for the property or casement appropriated for the 
occupancy of the new way. And this doctrine, as below explained, 
the court holds, is applicable where one railway track crosses an- 
other railway track on the bed of a city street, to which street 
neither railway company has any other right than the permission 
given by the municipality to lay tracks thereon. 

It is indisputably true, the court says, that a railway or a railroad 
company which, under authority obtained from the city, lays its 
tracks along or across an opened and subsisting city street, acquires 
(hereby no exclusive right to the use of the street ; but it does not 
thence follow that it secures no rights of any kind which another 
company subsequently seeking to use the same track, or a part of 
the same track, is Iwund to recognize. There may well be no ex- 
clusive right in the company to the use of the street as against the 
public generally, or as against a parallel or competing road, and yet 
there may be, and certainly is, a right in the company to use its own 
tracks upon the street, and to use them to the exclusion of any other 
company, unless the other company procures the right to use those 
tracks upon making due compensation. This is true not only with 
reference to a longitudinal use of the tracks, but also concerning 
the bisecting of a track at right angles, and its use in that way. 

There arc two elements of damage in the ordinary crossing of an 
established way by a new way, and these are: First, the cost of the 
construction and of the maintenance of the new way, including 
structural changes in the old way made necessary by the building 
of the new way; and, secondly, the value of the easement or prop- 
erty Iwlonging to the owner of the old way, and which may be im- 
paired or appropriated by the new way. Both of these must be 
paid by the person who constructs the new way. In cases such a« 
(his one, where a railway crosses a railroad in the bed of a city 
street, the second of these two elements of damage does not exist, 

because when a steam railroad is located on a street tlie company 
takes its rights subject to the rights of the public to use the street 
in a reasonable and lawful manner, and since the street railway is 
not an additional burden to the street, but simply such a use as 
the public are entitled to have made of the street, the steam rail- 
road takes its right in the street subject to the right of the street 
railway company to lay its tracks across the former's tracks, and the 
steam railroad is not entitled to recover any compensation for such 
crossing as for an additional burden. 

The common-law doctrine that whatever structures arc neces- 
sary for the crossing of an old way by a new way must be erected 
and maintained at the expense of the party imder whose authority 
and direction the crossing is made is applicable to railways and rail- 
roads which intersect each other upon the public streets of a city, 
unless that doctrine be modified by statute. Outside of statutory 
provisions there is neither precedent nor authority for requiring 
the owner of the subsisting way to contribute any part of the ex- 
pense rendered necessary to enable the owner of the new way to 
cross the old way. The crossing of the old way is made for the 
benefit of the second comer, and not for the benefit of the owner of 
the old way ; and, even, though both occupants claim under licenses 
from the same municipality, common justice dictates that the one 
for whose exclusive benefit the crossing is made should defray the 
expense of constructing it. And as the continuance of the crossing 
is as much for his benefit as was the construction of it in the first 
instance, it is equally obvious that he should maintain it wholly 
at his own cost. 

Moreover, the court holds that there is included in the proposi- 
tion just stated the following corollary, viz.: That the engineer 
of the railroad company shall have the right to say when and in 
what manner and to what extent repairs or renewals shall be made, 
and, that if they are not made by the street railway company, they 
may be constructed at its expense by the steam railroad company. 
As it is the duty of the street railway company to keep the cross- 
ing in repair, so that it may be used not only by itself, but by the 
steam road, whose tracks the crossing in some measure interrupts, 
and as the steam road requires more durable and substantial con- 
struction than a street railway needs, it is altogether reasonable and 
proper that the decision of the questions as to when, in what man- 
ner, and to what extent the repairs ought to be made should be 
, left to the engineer of the steam railroad company. 

Nothing said in this judgment is to be understood, however, as 
justifying the demand made by the steam railroad company that the 
street railway company must pay one-half of the cost of safety gales 
or other sitnilar appliances required under an exercise of the police 
power for the protection of the public at the crossing. Such appli- 
ances it is the duty of the steam railroad company to supply. 


l.a Fond v. Detroit Citizens' Street Railway Co. (Mich.), 92 N. W. 
Rep. 99. Nov. II, 1902. 
As a passenger alighted (luni a car and passed aruuml it her 
foot caught in a rope that was dragging, and she was seriously in- 
jured. The testimciny abundantly proved that some boy who was in 
the habit of hitching sleds or cans or something of the sort — at 
least, that was the natural and necessary inference from the testi- 
mony — had left that rope there. Bear in mind, too, the supreme 
court of Michigan says, to what part of the car the rope was at- 
tached. It was not attached above, but below, the projection, 
which was practically level with the platform. Moreover, it was 
some time after dark. Of course, the only way a rope of this sort 
could be discovered would be by examination. None of the 
men on the back of the car saw it until some one was struck by it, 
except the one who passed around it when he alighted. From the 
testimony of one witness, who alighted about y'/j minutes before the 
accident occurred, one would be ju.stified in inferring that the rope 
had been on from (hat time. But that it was the custom not to per- 
mit boys III hilili on cars, was the only inference that could be 
drawn from the testimony with regard thereto. The circuit judge 
was of the opinion that no arlifinablo negligence was shown, and 
directed a verdict for the company. And in this opinion the su- 
preme court concurs. That on one occasion a rope had been found 



(Vol. XIII. No. 2 

nttachcd to aii«tlicr rar of llir company's, and was cut off, tlic court 
says was a circumstance so unusual that it could not be licid that 
its occurrence entailed upon tlic company the duty of providing for 
a special and continuous inspection to prevent a repetition of such 
a trespass. The conductor of this car was not shown to have had 
any knowledge of it, nor to have had any reason to expect that such 
a rope had been left dangling in the rear of this car. 


McGarry v. Holyokc Street Railway Co. (Mass.), 65 N. E. Rep. 45. 
Oct. 29, 1902. 

The story of the party suing was that he hailed a car, in the city 
of Holyokc, near the city hall, when it was going in the direction 
of the postoffice, and asked the conductor whether it was a Moun- 
tain Park car. On being told that it was, he got on the car, paid 
the fare demanded, and rode to the terminus of the road ac the 
postoltice, where the car stopped. After it had gone about as far 
as the city hall on the return trip, another fare was demanded. The 
supreme judicial court of Massachusetts is of the opinion that the 
party was wrong in refusing to pay the second fare. It says that the 
conductor might have thought that he took the car on its trip from 
the park to the city to make sure of a seat on its return trip to the 
park, or that he asked the question to identify the route on which 
the car was then proceeding. But it was not for the conductor to 
speculate as to his purpose in taking the car. He asked a plain 
question, and the conductor gave a correct answer. He did not ask 
whether the car was going to Mountain Park. Nor was there any- 
thing in his contention that he was justified in thinking that the car 
was on its way to the park, and refusing to pay his fare, because it 
had on it the sign "Mountain Park, " and he had noticed that on 
other cars run by the company the sign was changed when the cars 
were running in different directions, and always had a sign exposed 
to indicate the terminus they were lx)und for. The company was. 
not bound to adopt the same system on all its cars. 

If the plaintiff made the conductor understand that he would re- 
sist being put olT, that the conductor was justified in using force 
in putting him olT, especially after again telling him, and for the 
third time, that he must pay his fare or get off. If the conductor had 
to use force to put him off, and he resisted, the mere fact that he 
landed on his head was not sufficient to warrant a finding that undue 
force was used. Furthermore, the court says that it would have 
been better if the car had actually stopped before the conductor put 
his hands on him ; but it apparently deems sufficient the man's ad- 
missions that it had then "almost stopped," and "by the time he had 
me off the car, I guess the car was stopped." 


Snouffer v. Cedar Rapids & Marion City Railway Co. (la.), 92 N. 
W. Rep. 79. Oct. 28, ig02. 
If it be assumed for the purposes of argument that a city ordi- 
nance was a reasonable and valid exercise of municipal authority, 
and constituted a contract between the city and the railway com- 
pany, which ordinance provided for two parallel paved roadways of 
25 feet each, separated by a 20- foot strip carrying the railway tracks 
and ballasted with stone to a height which would render crossing 
the same with carriages impracticable except at street intersections. 
the supreme court of Iowa says that it was still competent for the 
city to repeal or modify the privilege granted, whenever, in the ex- 

ercise of a reasonable discretion, it should fmil that the convenience 
and safety of the public or the proper iniprovemeni of the street 
required it. 

With reference to a legislative grant of authority to construct and 
maintain a street railway, the court says that, while authorizing the 
use of the highway for this purpose, it thinks it must be held that 
such use was subject to the reserved power of the stale by itself or 
by its local mimicipality to enact all reasonable measures to protect 
the general public in the use of the street for the primary purposes 
for which streets and highways are established. When, therefore, 
by the extension of the city limits, a portion of the street railway 
was brought within the jurisdiction of municipal authority, it was 
neither more nor less than a street railway occupying a city street, 
and amenable to municipal regulation, like all other instrumentalities 
»f its kind. 

.•\gain. the court says that it needs no argument to demonstrate 
that the side or margin of the highway may be the most natural 
and convenient location of a street railway in a rural neighborhood, 
but it is even a plainer proposition that when, by increase of popu- 
lation, the city expands, and the rural highway becomes a city 
street, lined on either hand with residences or places of business, a 
track so located and used for the frequent passage of swiftly mov- 
ing cars may become an intolerable inconvenience and source of 
peril, especially to those upon the immediate front of whose prop- 
.crty it operates. And the court declares that it has no hesitancy in 
holding that the remedying of such condition by requiring the track 
to be removed to the middle of the street is a reasonable regulation, 
which the city may enforce. 

There is nothing unreasonable, the court further says, in requiring 
the company to put its tracks at grade, and to pave the ground that 
it occupies in the street wherever such paving is duly ordered. The 
statute contemplates it. Code, sections 834, 835. Such construction 
gives the general public unrestricted access to and use of the entire 
street from curb to curb, subject to the right of the company to the 
proper use of its track. With rare exceptions, it is the universal 
plan adopted wherever street railway systems exist. In the absence 
of express qualification, it is the kind of construction which the law 
presumes to be intended. 


City of Chicago v. Chicago Union Traction Co. (III.), 65 N. E. 
Rep. 243. Oct 25. 1902. Rehearing denied Dec. 3, 1902. 
Section 1716 of the Revised Code of Ordinances of the City of 
Chicago provides : "The several street railway companies at any 
time operating railroad tracks on and along the surface of any of the 
streets, avenues or alleys of the city of Chicago are hereby, respect- 
ively, required to remove all dirt, snow and other accumulations 
from so much of the surface of each street, avenue or alley now or 
hereafter containing any of their railway tracks, as lies between 
the two outermost rails of such tracks, and also from such addi- 
tional surface, in width, as may be prescribed in any ordinance relat- 
ing to or affecting any such street, avenue or alley, and shall, 
respectively, clean such portions of said street, avenue or alley and 
remove entirely from and out of such street, avenue or alley all such 
dirt, snow and accumulations at least once in each week, and as 
much oftcner as the commissioner of public works shall, in writing, 
direct ; such dirt, snow and accumulations to be removed and dis- 
posed of in accordance with the ordinances of the city relative to 
the removal of street cleanings, and subject to the rules and regula- 
tions of the department of public works in that behalf." Section 
1717 reads: "Any street railway company operating a street rail- 
way upon or along the surface of any street, avenue or alley in the 
city of Chicago which shall refuse or neglect to clean any part of 
a street, avenue or alley, as required by the last preceding section 
hereof, shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined in a sum not less 
than $50 nor more than $200 for each and every case of such refusal 
or neglect." 

This ordinance, the supreme court of Illinois holds, is a reason- 
.ible and valid exercise of the police power, and that it should be 

FeR 20, 1903.] 



obeyed and enforced accordingly. It says, among other things, that 
the permission or license given the company to use the street did 
not operate to deprive the city of the general power or control over 
the street delegated to the municipality by the general assembly of 
the state. The city, as the representative of the state, is invested 
witji power to enact and enforce all ordinances necessary to pre- 
scribe regulations and restrictions needful for the preservation of 
the health, safety, and comfort of the people. The e.xercise of this 
power aflfects the public, and becomes a duty, the performance 
whereof is obligatory on the city. The city could not, by the terms 
and conditions of the ordinance granting the license to lay the 
tracks and operate the street railway in the street, deprive itself of 
this power or relieve itself of this duty; nor could the company, by 
any contractual terms of an ordinance, exempt itself from the proper 
and reasonable control of the municipal authorities in matters affect- 
ing the health, safety, or comfort of the people. 


In building the Little Falls extension of the Utica & Mohawk 
Valley Ry. exceptional care was taken in the formation of the road- 
bed and particularly in the matter of providing adequate drainage. 
To the end that track surface and alignment would be preserved 


against disturbance in times of excessive water falls, streams were 
frequently diverted from their natural courses to other locations, 
and when necessary to cross a spring or stream, or to build tlirough 
low or marshy land, concrete culverts were put in of ample propor- 
tions to prevent any excessive accumulation of water along tlie line 
of track. 

At several points where the conditions demanded it the tracks were 
carried over streams on small bridges made up of concrete abut- 
ments and short steel spans, each bridge being designed separately 
to suit the conditions. 

VVc arc indebted to Mr. Frederick Phillips, division engineer for 
the Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway Co., for the following data 
and accompanying illustrations selling forth the method employed in 
Iniilding the concrete culverts on this line. 

I he general form of culvert adopted as standard comprised a 
length of vitrified pipe of double strength, 24 in. in diameter, bedded 
on a foundation of concrete throughout its entire length, and having 
its ends set in concrete end-walls. 

The form and approximate dimensions of both single and dou- 
ble barrel culverts will be understood from the sketches. 

In building, the |iipe was laid on concrete foundation, having a 
thickness of 6 to 9 in. Where the soil was boggy with little support- 
ing power, 18 to 24 in. of sand and gravel, rammed in layers, was 
put in under the concrete. The concrete was carried half way up 

the sides of the pipe throughout the entire length, as the engravings 
show, and dirt filling was put in over the whole to grade. In the 
ind-walls, the concrete was carried down appro.ximately 2 ft. below 
the bottom of the pipe, depending on circumstances. In some cases 
a greater depth was required in order to get below the frost line. 

The materials utilized were as follows: .411 masonry concrete; 
gravel Uikcn from vicinity of work ; ami portland cciiiciil. Tlie 


proportions for concrete in the smaller structures in most cases 
were; i part packed cement; 3 parts loose sand; 7 parts clean grav- 
el. In the early part of the work the proportions 1:2:5 and 1:3:5 
were used in some of the culverts, hut with the materials at the 
company's disposal, using the sand and gravel of tlie vicinity, it 
was found that the best proportions, as determined by experiments 
and tests, were as previously stated: 1:3:7. In the foundations, 
however, i -.4 :8 has been found very acceptable. 

In placing the materials in culvert work it was found economical 
to have one form made up and this was used for all of the end 

IKilIlil,!'; MAKKKI, roNlKETK I'lII.VI'.K'l' Siri)WlN(; lONll WAI.I.. 

walls. The one form served for nearly all llic single culverts on 
the line, as it was used over and over again. Of course a different 
form was needed f(ir !lic dnnliir fiiiverls. 

« »» 

rile Islmira (N. Y.) & .Seneca Lake Railway Co. had to suspend 
service for several days alx)Ut the miildlc- nf J.inuary, owinn in its 
inability to secure a snow plow. 

Tlie N'urfolk ( Va. ) Railway & Light Co. has .innounced llial 
hereafter fares will be 5 cents straight. The company had been 
selling six tickets for 25 cents. The increased cost of operating, 
due to the high price of coal, is the cause of the cliange. 



(Vol. XIII, No. 2 


The Manclicstcr & Liverpool Electric Express Ry. with which the 
name of Mr. V. II. Hclir has hceii associated for several years has at 
last ohtaiiied the sanction of Parliament to construct a monorail l>e- 
Iween Manchester and Liverpool and the work of constrnction has 
recently lieen commenced. This project has licen 1>efore the puhlic 
lor a lonn lime and a paper by .Mr. Hehr in regard to this road was 
pnbiishcd in the "Review" in -Augnsl, lyoi, page 504, in which the 
general plans of the road were outlined. A more complete descrip- 
tion of the details of this road was pnbiishcd in the Tramway & 
Railway World for November, iijoj. from which the following state- 
ments are taken. The total length of the new line will be 34'/l- miles 
and it will have a double track throughout. Both the termini in 

will he 3 in. wide and the base s in. wide. The rail is 5'/j in. deep. 
The head is 2 in. thick from the face to the webb. The four guide 
rails will be laid longitudinally, two on each side of the (resile. 
These rails will weigh 30'.i lb. per yard and will be of a two-headed 
pattern, the outer or contact face being l}i in. wide and the inner 
face being i^ in. These rails will be 3',i >"• deep from face to face 
and will be laid so tliat the center line of lower set will l)C l ft. iVi 
in. above the surface of the ties, and the upper ones 2 ft. 9 11-16 in. 
above the ties. They will be held in position by angle steel plates 
boiled across the trestle. The guide rails will not actually bear 
.-igainst the sides of the trestles but will be sup|>orlcd by the bolts by 
which they are held and the angle plates which are riveted across 
the trestles from side to side. 

It is intended to run single cars as trains, Mr. Behr being of the 


Manchester and Liverpool arc located centrally in these cities. The 
greater part of the road is straight and the few curves which it 
conlains are of comparatively long radii. 

There is a great diversity of grades along the route varying from 
I in 25 to I in 1,168. .\ feature of the grades is the steep ascent i in 
30 for nearly 1,200 yards from the station at Manchester, and I in 
25 for a similar distance from the station at Liverpool. These grades 
arc for the purpose of acceleration of speed on starting from either 
end of the railway and of retarding the cars on approaching the ter- 
mini. It is intended to establish a ten-minnte headway of trains be- 
tween the two stations and the trains will perform the journey in 
JO minutes which will require a speed of no miles an hour. 

The main track rail, or monorail, will be supported on a continu- 
ous trestle-like structure which will rest on ordinary wooden tics 9 

opinion that, at the rate of speed at which they propose to run, it 
will be unsafe to couple the cars into trains. The use of couplings, 
he considers, would introduce a source of danger which should not 
lie attempted where such high speed is to be attained. 

Three of cars have been designed and approved for the 
line which will accommodate respectively 72, 50 and 38 passengers. 
For the initial service the smaller cars, which are shown in the ac- 
companying illustrations, will be employed. These will be 41 ft. 
10 in. long over all, II ft. wide, and II ft. 9 in. high from the sur- 
face of the ties. From the floor of ihe car to the top of the roof will 
be 6 ft. 8!4 in. They will be formed with pointed ends to reduce the 
resistance of the wind and when fully equipped each car will weigh 
39 tons. 

The principal feature of the car construction is the main central 




ft. long, ID in. wide and 5 in. thick. These lies will be spaced 3 ft. 
center to center except where joints in Ihe rails occur where they 
will be 2 ft. J^ in. between centers. The triangular frames which 
support the monorail will stand 3 ft. ii'/i in. above the surface of the 
ties and will be 2 ft. 8 in. wide at the base, narrowing to 12 in. wide 
.It the top. The side limbs of the trestle will consist of y/i x 3 x J4- 
in. angle steel. At the top of each trestle the side pieces will be held 
together by a cross angle plate of J^-in. steel 6 in. deep with a 3-in. 
angle piece. Each trestle will have a steel sole plate which will be 
bolted to the tie, and the side piece of the trestle will be formed with 
a flange at the bottom which will be riveted to the sole plate. 

Five rails will be used in connection with the system ; the monorail 
and four guide rails. The main track rail, or monorail, will be in 35- 
ft. lengths anil will weigh 103;^ lb. per yard. The face of the rail 

frame of steel forming the lower part of the car which is placed 
like a saddle upon Ihe trestle. The sides of the frame extend down 
to within 6 in. of the sole plates. Each car will be provided with 
four continuous current motors having a normal capacity of 160 h. 
p. at full speed, of 720 r. p. m., but which w'ill be able to work up to 
320 h. p. each for short periods during acceleration. The motors arc 
arranged in pairs which are placed near each end of the car, one 
motor of each pair being on opposite sides of the trestle and each 
pair forming a distinct driving set. The motors will be placed low 
in the car in order to keep the center of gravity of the car below 
Ihe monorail. Each of the motors weighs about 2% tons. 

There are four guide wheels at each side of the car which bear 
against the faces of the guide rails. These wheels are 2 ft. in diame- 
ter and have a bearing face of 4^ in., and on one edge a flange of 

Feb. 20, igo.vl 



I in. They revolve horizontally witli the flange downward. The 
guide wheels are considered the most important factors in the oper- 
ation of the car as they comprise the special provision for safety. 
The flange for each wheel will be below the edge of one of the guide 
rails which will make it impossible for the driving or trailing whecU 
on the car to leave the track rail. A certain amount of lateral play is 
admitted through the use of springs but this is limited to the point 
where the guide wheel flanges bear against the under side of the 
guide rails. 

There are four vertical wheels for each car which constitute the 
main track wheels. Two of these are drivers and two are trailers. 
The former are 4 ft. 4 in. in diameter and the trailers 3 ft. 5 in. in 
diameter. The wheels are s '"■ wide and have a central groove on 
their faces 2 in. deep and 3 in. wide in which the track rail bears. 
These wheels are located at considerable height above the motors 
and are boxed in the interior of the cars. The distance between the 
center lines of the motor shaft and driving wheels is 4 ft. O'/i in. and 
connections will be made by means of sprocket chains. The velocity 
of the chains will be from 1,800 to ft. per minute. The two 
motors at each end of the car will be connected to tlie same driving 

The current for operating the road will be generated at a station 
to be erected at Warrington which is exactly midway between Man- 
chester and Liverpool. It will be a tri-phase alternating current of 
15,000 volts, and five sub-stations will be located along the line 
where the current will be transformed into continuous current at 
650 volts. The motors are to be wound for 600 volts. The current 
will be collected on the cars from two conducting rails, one being at 
each side of the trestle near the ends of the ties. The conductors will 
be 5 in. wide on the surface and 9 in. high from the surface of the 
ties. Circular brushes i ft. 9 in. in diameter will be placed at the 
sides of the car to collect the current from the side rails. There will 
be four of these brushes on each side of the car. 

It has been calculated that the power reiiuired during acceleration 
will be 1,114 li- P- and throughout the run after speed is attained it 
will require 515 h. p. per car or 129 h. p. per motor. It is intended to 
equip the cars with high speed Westinghouse brakes which will be 
able to retard the car at the rate of 3 ft. per sec. per sec, which will 
bring the car to a stop in about 1,380 yards. In addition to this 
method of braking a resistance will be used through which the mo- 
tors will be short circuited so that the remaining adhesion on the 
driving wheels will be utilized for braking. With the motors short 
circuited and the Westinghouse brakes applied the two combined 
will stop the car within a distance of 768 yards. 

.\ method of electric semaphore signalling is to be employed which 
is largely automatic. When the car starts from a terminal it puts the 
first semaphore to the danger point and an indicator in the signal 
cabin shows the words "line blocked." A similar operation is re- 
peated when the car passes the second semaphore signal. On coming 
to the third semaphore the operation is repeated and in addition the 
circuit is established through the first semaphore causing it to drop 
and the indicator corresponding to it in the cabin to change to the 
words "line clear." It will thus be seen that there is always one 
complete section blocked immediately behind each car. The line 
from Manchester to Liverpool is divided into 5 sections of nearly 
7 miles between each signal post. If the car passes the signal 
when it is at danger a circuit is closed which causes an electric 
gong to ring continuously and the motorman of the car is thus 
warned that the car ahead has, for some cause, been stopped at a 
minimum distance of seven miles in front of his own car. The same 
circuit which rings the gong also operates a circuit breaker, in doing 
which it cuts oflF the current from the car motors and it also automat- 
ically puts on the Westinghouse brakes. If the semaphore is low- 
ered the gong circuit is not complete and the gong does not ring. 
If for any cause the car should run backwards past a signal it would 
immediately put the signal two stations behind it back again to dan- 
ger. Signal cabins will be placed along the line each of which will 
be in charge of one man. The cabin will be furnished with two sets 
of electrical apparatus, one for the up and one for the down line. 
The indicators in the signal cabins show the words "up line clear," 
or "up line blocked, "down line clear," or "down line blocked." 

The cabins will be connected with each other and with the trans- 
former stations and the generating station by telephone. 

It is believed that this line offers almost absolute safety from col- 
lisions as there are no grade crossings or switches, and there will 
never be more than two cars on one track from end to end what- 
ever the number of passengers carried. A high fence will enclose 
(he line from end to end. The terminal stations at Manchester and 
Liverpool are practically similar buildings. The level of the rails 
will be about 60 ft. above the street level which will necessitate the 
use of elevators for the passengers, The cars will be transferred 
from one track to the other by means of turn tables operated by 
hydraulic power. The station buildings will be of brick and steel 
construction and will contain the store rooms and executive offices of 
the company. 


The Commercial Club of Omaha, Neb., has been asked tu give its 
indorsement and moral support to the Des Moines & Omaha Electric 
Railway. This is a proposed line from Des Moines, la., to Omaha, 

Mr. Lyman Waterman of Omaha is the chief promoter of the 
enterprise. Mr. Waterman is manager of the Creston (la.) Electric 
Light, Heat & Power Co. That company has under construction a 
road from Winston, la., to Creston, la., a distance of 40 miles. In 
addition to this section the proposed road would cover the 84 miles 
from Omaha to Spaulding, near Creston, and the section from Win- 
lerset to Des Moines. 

Mr. Waterman is at present working on that part of the road from 
Omaha to Spaulding. The cost of this section is placed at $250,000. 
It is expected that free right of way will be obtained and that, pos- 
sibly, township bonds may be voted by some of the towns along the 

The road would run midway between the Burlington and Rock 
Island, roads and would traverse a fertile farming country not 
closely touched by any railroad. It is proposed to run a branch into 
the coal fields north of Corning, la. 

With the entire road completed Omaha and Des Moines would bo 
within 150 miles of each other by rail, which is at least 10 miles 
less than any present route. 

The road will be of standard gage and will do a regular freight 
and passenger business. 


The directors of the Decatur Traction & Electric Co. met on 
January 12th and declared a dividend of ij'^ per cent. This is the 
first cash dividend in the history of the company. Ten years ago a 
dividend of Ij4 per cent was paid in stock. The capital slock of 
the company is $250,000. 

During the past year the company carried 2.100,000 passengers, an 
increase over the preceding year of 350,000. The largest single day's 
business was $900 or 18,000 cash fares. Two new cars were added 
to the equipment during the year. About a mile of track was 
relaid with new 62-lb. steel rails which, with street improvements, 
cost about $30,000. 

During the present year the company expects to make some ex- 
tensions and to relay more of the old track with new steel rails. 
It is intended to add four new double truck cars to the equipment 
very soon. It was suggested, at the directors meeting, that the con- 
ductors and motormen be given an increase of one cent per hour in 
their wages. The suggestion was approved but no definite action was 
taken. There was no change made in the ilirectorate or man- 


.Announcement has been made of the sale of the Scotldale (Pa.) 
Electric Light, Heat & Power Go's, plant to the Pittsburg, McKees- 
port & Connellsvillc Railway Co. of Pittsburg. The latter company 
now controls light and power plants at Scoftdalc, Uniontown, Con- 
nellsville, Dawson, and Mt. Pleasant. The terms of the Iransactinn 
have not been made public. 

The purchase dales back to Jaiuiary 1st. Charles H. Loucks, 
cashier of the Scottdale First National Rank, has been appointed 
trustee to complete the business of the old company. 



[Vol. XIM, No. 2- 


The electric Irainway fever in Great Itrilaiii shows no signs of 
abating. No week passes but what we hear of new enterprises in 
thi,s field, while of those lines already in operation the financial suc- 
cess varies ({really. Among the chief conditions likely to aflfect the 
prosperity of tramway undertakings, we may mention the c.instruc- 
lion and equipment; the nian.igement ; the supply of power; the 
steady growth of traffic; competition; initial outlay and a due pro- 
vi>ion for depreciation. The construction of electric tramways, as 
of electric railw,iys, still remains an open question. 

In Great Britain the electric tramway is still in its inlancy, the 
great growth is yet In come, and it promises to assume vast pro- 

In 189S the track mileage 'was 365 and the number of cars 2,117: >n 
1900 the unmbers were 576 and 3,033 respectively, while in 1901 they 
had risen to 777 and 3.821, showing an increase of 112 per cent over 
1898 in track mileage and of 73 per cent in cars. The figures for 
capital invested were, in 189S: Companies, £9,800,000; igoo, com- 
panies ^14.5(10,000, and nuuiicipalitics, /2,750,ooo, and in 1901: Com- 
panies, £19,750,000, municipalities, £10,520,000. Thus 1901 shows an 
increase of 210 per cent over 1898, and the capital invested in this 
country in electric tramways compares very favorably with that of 
the I'nitcd States, which can claim a seniority of at least 10 years 
in this kind of electric traction, and where the mileage is more than 
30 times greater than in Great Britain. 

A great number of new schemes have been prepared for the ne.xt 
session of Parliament; by far the greater nundier of projects are 
for linking together small towns in agricultural or industrial dis- 
tricts rather than for purely urban service. One proposal is ti com- 
ncct the County of London from the termini of the London County 
Council boundaries with many outlying towns. The London United 
Tramway Co. (in which Mr. Ycrkes has an interest) has already 
done nuicli in this direction in the west and southwest of the metrop- 
olis, and is seeking power for road widening at certain points. The 
British Electric Traction Co. has annexed south and southeastern 
suburbs and with Croyden as the center, proposes extensions to Car- 
shalton. Mitcliam, Beddington, Wellington, Penje, etc. — thus pene- 
trating the beautiful rural districts of Surrey and eastwards to 
Beckenham, Bromley, Farnboro, Ghelsfield, Halstead and Lewisham, 
about 12 to 14 miles in all. There are new schemes for Kent to 
radiate from the existing lines at Greenwich. Several promoters are 
busy providing rival enterprises for Stroud. Rochester and Chatham 
and thertcc to Rainham, Gravesend and Maidstone. The most nota- 
ble of the new provincial schemes is that of the Nottingham & 
Derby Tramways Co. for a large network between the Coi'nty Bor- 
oughs of Notts and Derby; the lines varying in length from 10 to 
17 miles and radiating in all directions; this, it will be seen, is an 
important enterprise. Birkenhead and Chester (15 miles) are to 
be linked; Gosport, Farcham, Porcheslcr and Cosham are to en- 
circle Portsmouth Harbor. These are some of the principal schemes 
but there arc many others. We may look forward to the time when 
it will be possible to travel from south to north throughout Great 
Britain by the trolley line as in the United States. 

But meanwhile local authorities and nninicipal bodies raise in- 
numerable difficulties and prevent through services, as, for instance, 
in the Potteries district, and more recently at Birmingham and 
Bournemouth. Middleton is now connected with Manchester by the 
electric tramway line inaugurated at the end of December; the road 
is 6 miles in length, and the journey from end to end is covered in 
40 minutes ; the fare is 354d, whereas on the Lancashire S: Yorkshire 
Ry. the third-class return fare for the same journey is 8d. ; the new 
competitor is likely to prove a formidable rival with its continuous 
15-minute service. The average weekly receipts for Manchester 
Tramways total no less than £8,000, the passengers carried being 
well over Ij4 millions. The 11 miles of track laid down at Wol- 
verhampton on the Lorain surface contact system have so far proved 
entirely satisfactory, but the crucial test will come with snow and 
ice ; 23 cars are in daily use. 

In considering the question of urban electric tramway manage- 
ment, experience and reason are in favor of promotion by com- 
panies rather than by municipalities, and for the following reasons : 

The cnlerprise, which is a commercial one, is founded on capital 
borrowed on the security of the rates, and electric tramways cannot 
be considered a suitable investment for public funds. They are 
a purely speculative venture; the prosperity they enjoy is absolutely 
dependent on their having and retaining a heavy traffic— one might 
say in most cases a monopoly — which might at any moment — so en- 
gineers tell us — be destroyed by the long looked for improvement 
in motor omnibuses, or the invention in this field promised us luf-ire 
long by Mr. Edison which is to render all present electric tramway 
systems obsolete. In London and other large cities ihe risk to the 
ratepayers is increased besides by the prospect of numerous com- 
peting tube lines and by the imminent electrification of suburban 
lines by the great railway companies. Furthermore, every sign of 
the times points to imlustrial redistribution in the near future. The 
use of electric power and the facilities for transmission to a great 
distance make it advisable and possible for large factories to be 
established in outlying districts, where land and rates are cheap in- 
stead of in cities where rents and taxes liecome every year more 
prohibitive; the example of the British Westinghouse Co., in estab- 
lishing its works at TrafFord Park well outside Manchester, and of 
having a small township for the employes around the works, cannot 
fail to be followed, more especially in those districts conccted by in- 
tcrurban electric tramway lines with facilities for establishing a 
practical freight traffic obviating re-lading. Thus will a substantial 
portion of the passenger traffic in cities be diverted into rural dis- 
tricts and where will then be the prosperity of the numicipal tram- 
way lines? The burden will fall on the diminished number of rate 

The treatise of Mr. McDonald McColl, the late chief bookkeeper 
to the Glasgow corporation, draws attention to the principle that in 
tramway and railway undertakings revenue should be charged not 
only with the cost of maintenance, but also with the depreciated 
value of buildings, plant and equipment, altogether apart from the 
repayment of loans constituting the capital outlay. The permanent 
way is the most rapid item of depreciation in the equipment of a 
tramway, and in Glasgow we find that the revenue is charged with 
£450 per mile annually to meet the cost of renewals, the a-cragc life 
of the permanent way being reckoned at 10 years. 

Now that there is so much in the air concerning the electrification 
of suburban lines, it is interesting to hear of a new development in 
steam traction which is expected to serve better than electricity for 
heavy local traffic. The Great Eastern Ry. has been seriously en- 
gaged for some time trying to solve the problem of carrying no less 
than 6,410 passengers to town by one branch alone during one cer- 
tain half hour of the morning (7:30 to 8;oo a. m.) without over- 
crowding. During that half hour eight trains from the Wood street 
district disgorge their crowds at Liverpool street station. Taking 
the aggregate number of seats for those eight tiains, there should 
be plenty of room for all, and yet the overcrowding seems inevitable 
because the public does not spread itself evenly over all the trains. 
The length of platforms at the terminus prevents the use of more than 
15 coaches, which carry together 852 passengers. An electric motor 
car or locomotive running at the briefest intervals would, the rail- 
road company points out, fail to cope with such congestion of traf- 
fic. The Great Eastern, which has been using petroleum locomotives 
whenever the price of oil is less than that of coal, is building at the 
Stratford works a locomotive for burning coal, which is to revolu- 
tionize steam traction and put off the day of electrification. 

D. N. D. 


The Washington Railway & Electric Co., of Washington, D. C, 
is running special observation cars for visitors to the capital, known 
as "Seeing Washington Observation Cars." The cars used in win- 
ter are elegantly upholstered and electrically heated while in the 
summer commodious open coaches are used, insuring under all con- 
ditions the comfort of the passengers, .\bout 25 miles of road are 
covered and over one thousand points of interest are passed. An 
expert guide is on each car. The trip is made twice daily including 
Sund.\vs. It occupies about two hours and the round trip fare is 
50 cents. 

Feb. 20, 1903.] 




The report of the railro.nd commissioners of the state of Connec- 
ticut for 1902 has jiist been issued, a large portion of which is 
devoted to the street railways of the state. The street railway com- 
panies were first required to make annual reports to the railroad corn- 

increase of 63 per cent. The capital stock in 1895 was $8,604,240, and 
during the last year was $23,571,248, showing an increase of 174 per 
cent. The earnings have increased from $2,232,051 to $3,937,771, or 
80 per cent. The passengers carried in 1895 numbered 38,037,474, 
and for the last year the number reported was 91,554.028, an increase 
of 140 per cent. The report for this year shows an increase of 5 

TABLE No. 1. 


1 1 Braoford Lightine it Water Co. . Eaat Haven 
2iBristol A Plalnrille Tramw'y Co., Brislol 
8 Conn. Railway £ Lighting Co., . Bridgeport 

4 Danbnry 4 Bethel Street R'y Co.,|Danbury . 

5 Oanieleon A Norwich St. R'y Co., 
6 .-.-_-. 



K. Hfd. & QIas'b'ySt. R'yCo.," East Hartford 
PairUaven A Weetville R.R.Co.. New Haven . 

8 F«rmington Street R'y Co.. 

9 Greenwich Tramway Co., . 
10 HM., Man * RockVe Tram. Co . 
1) Hartford A Spngfi'd St. Ky. Co., 
12 Hartford Street Railway Co., 

I West Hartford 
K. Portcheater 
iBumside . 
East Windsor . 

13 Manofactorers' Railrond Co.;2 . Sew Haven . 

14 Meriden Eleciric Railroad Co.. . iMeriden . 

15 .Mer. , SouthiD2t"n A Com T. Co.. IMeriden . 
lti|Middlelown Street Kailway Co., Middletown . 
n,Momville Street R'y Co., . |Norwich . 

18|Newin*rton Tramway Co.,' . 

19 New London Street Railway Co . .New London . 
20;Norwjch Street Railway Co., . 'Norwich . 
21iPeopIe'B 'Tramway Co.. . jDanielson 

23 So. Man. L't, Power & Tram Co..* So. Manchester 
23]Somers A Enfield Eleciric R'y Co., I 

24 Stamford Street Railroad Co., . Stamford 
25|SuffleId Street Railway Co.. . |Siiffield Center 
StiTor'plon & Winche.'^IerSt. Ry.Co..!Torrineton 
27, The West Shore Railway Co.,' . Savin Rock 
28, Wincheeler Avenoe R. R. Co.,' . New Haven 
29 Worcester A Conn. East'D R'y Co 


Plalnville, Forestville. . 

New Britain, Waterbury, Derby, 
Milford. Sbelton. SaugalticU, 
Norwalk, and South Norwalk, . 


Road under constrnction. 


Westv., M'towe., K. Hav., P. Hav., 
Mt. Carmel, 



Manchester, Rockville, . 

Mass. State Line 

WethersCd, W. Hfd., Rainb., Elm- 
wood, E. Windsor Hill, E. Hfd., 
Newington, . . . . '. 

Portland, . 
New London, 

Baltic. Yantic, T'eville, Laurel Hill, 
North GroBvenordale. 


Road under construction. 

Mass. State Line. . 



West Haven, .... 
Road under construction. 

Length of 
main tracks. 













12 490 



Length of 

sidings and 


Total com- 

|)uted as 

single tracks. 















11 713 








17 664 








by charter. 



189.000 00 
600.000 00 


1,000.000 00 

100,000 00 
200.000 00 
300.000 00 

1,000,01 0.00 



100,000 00 













8 00 

250.000 00 


400,000 00 

10,000 00 










160,000 00 




140,000 CO 


' i.w.oob'.oo 



1 Operated by Hartford Street Railway Co. 2 Buatness of this company consists of moving frei|rht cars of steam railroads iu New Haven to and from manufac- 

toria^ coDcerns. .« Operated by Hartford Street Railway Co. and Conoecticut Railway A Ligbtinip Co. 

4 Operated by Hartford, Manchester & Kockville Tramway Co. 5 Operated bv Fair Haven A Westville Railroad Co. 

6 Operated by Fair Haven & Westville Railroad Co. 

TABLE No. 2. 





and float- 
ing debt 
per mile 
of road 



Cost of 
tion and 
per mile of 

Cost of 
linn per 
mile of 


per mile 

ings per 


per mile 

ing ex- 

per mile 




Branford Ltg. A Wat. Co.. 
Brist. A Plain. Tram. Co., 
Conn. Ry. A Ltg. Co. , . 
Dan. ABelhelSI. Ry. Co.. 
nan'U'n AN"hSt.Rv.Co.. 

"■ Jl'.5()b!o6 
260.000 00 



'154 607.78 



67.416 58 
60.862 46 
46,873 53 




under constru 




333,776 1 1 




28,2.58 00 

1.636,790 96 

' 37«,9;2.9S 

' 275,679,89 

433,160 13 

No rqpmt. 



' 161,0:16,50 



■ 39,7ll5!2I 


















« E. H A Olaat. St. Rt .' . 




161.400 00 
4,375 00 

"367.775! 68 
49,510 37 
872 517 15 


20 602 .30 

7 Fair Hav. A Weslv. R.R., 
8;F«rminglon St. Rv. Co., 
9'0re«nwirh Tram, Co., . 

10 H , M A R Tmra. Co... 

llinan.ASpr'gfd St. Ry., 

12 Hartford St Ry. Co.. . 

]3Man'rclarerB'K.R Co..' 

71,934 16 

69,945 24 
41.007 09 
30.232 50 


080,171 18 
23,'369 76 

130 993.01 

780,558 37 

138,.563 88 
50.286 32 

3,189 18 
8,616 95 
6,416 88 


:!4.997 83 
16.142 29 

30,983 :» 


6.534 20 
r.9.'i4 IH 
2.844 79 
2,611 31 
4,669 36 







Meriden Elec. R. R. Co., 
M.. fl. A Comp. Tram., . 
MIddlclown St. Rt. Co., 
Montvllle St. R7. Co., . 
Newjozion Tram. Co.,'. 



41.951 00 

Sew London St. Ry., . 
Norwich St. Ry. Co., . 
I'eople'fl Tram. Co , 
8. .\f«n. Lt . P. A Tram," 



62,444 00 


' 2.),44i*.9i 

•340.9)4 86 
' 1. 036.000.00 
3'33.724 28 
under constru 



No e4iprnt. 

14.870 06 

31,782 73 
32,615 11 

70.167 99 
109,814 99 
60.0.32 00 

9.823 32 

. 1560 


6,702 18 
2,801 20 



Som AEnf E|.e Ry. Co.. 

143,016! ■78 
•2)414 16 

under ron 
23,490 00 


• '"!!!!!!!!! 

24 Slamforil St. R. R. Co., . 

25 Saflleld Street Ry. C... . 
2« Porr A Winch. St. Rr., 

27 Tlie Wc.t Shore Ry. Co..' 

28 Wlnche«ter Ave. R. R." 
» Wore * f:i. F.»ln Ry Co.. 

36.900 17 

10,511 65 





976 65 



40.210 68 







Tottl, . . . t 


7 ,21S.98 











« InciodlDg n* and electric propertlce, „ ... , ._ ,_ „, ..^ 

"^ BoeincM of tbfa road C00i*llU of moving freight cam of steam railroads In New Haven to and from manufaetnrlDg i-oncem«. 

3 tncladlof; gas and elcetric plants and equipment. 

a OiK-rated by Hartford Street Railway, Compaoy. 

• Ini;lode« equipment. « Operated by HartTord St. Ky. Co. and Conn. Hallway 4 Lighting Co ' Amount paid 10 contractors; rood under connlrncllou. 

• Owrated by Hertford. Manrbwler A Kockville Tram. Co. » Operated liy I'nlr Haven A Weslvllle Railroad Co. "o Opernled by Fair Haven A WeBlvllle Rollrcmd Co. 
■ The Wliicl..-«u r Ave. K. I(. was oi«rnUd during the year under a IralBc agreement with the Fair Haven A Westville R. R. Co. under which the former road received $97,346.57, 

bclog 37.15 per cent, of the groM lucoml!, viz.- $358,547.93. 

missloncrs in 1895 and a comparison with sonic of the items of tlu- 
first report with similar items in the present report shows the 
growth of street railway traffic in the state to have been large. There 
were then 317 miles of street railways and there are now 517, an 

pir cent in iiiikaKe, 9 per cent in earnings, 17 per cent in the nuiii- 
licr of passengers carried, over the same items for the previous 
year. The present miinhcr of street railways reported is 29. There 
were 32 companies last year, 9 of which were merged into the Con- 



(Vol. XIII. No. 2- 

nrcticitt Railways & I.igliliiig Co., and six new companies have since 
K'cn added to the list. The six new companies are The Branford 
Lighling & Water Co., the Danielson & Norwich Street Ry., the 
Greenwich Tramway Co., the Somers & Knfield Electric Railway 
Co., the Sudield Street Railway Co. and llie Worcester & Connec- 
ticut Eastern Railway Co. There are several other street railway 
lines in the process of construction in different parts of this state. 
The Danlniry &■ Harlem Traction Co. has a partially completed line 
cxiendinR from l>inbury to a junction to the llarlem R. R. at Gold- 

All of the railways of the slate have been inspected by the railroad 
commissioners as required liy law. and found to he in a satisfactory 
condition. The mileage of all of the street railways of the state in 
operation on June .30, 1902, was 517.454 miles of main track exclusive 
of sidings and turnouts, and 54.?, 5.5.3 miles of single track including 
sidings and turnouts, showing an increase for the year of 25,227 
miles. The Ixtndcd debt of all the companies is $17,488,000, paying 
$.1.?.796 per mile of road. The Hoating indebtedness of all the com- 
panies is $1,929,914, paying $3,729 a mile of road. The cost of con- 





















BnoTord Linhtlng * Watar Co. . 
Briatol A Plamvillt Tramway Co . 
Conoecllcnt K^ilwav A Lt^litlDK Co , . 
Danljury * Bellicl Si. Hy. Co , , 
UanieUon A Nornich SI Ry. Co., 








429,360 59 

under con 

%\ 711.45 e;W.897.41 

JS9,120..'i6" 1 









1,6.37 00 
88.337 98 


13.0.)0 10 

1 08.860 31 



1 01.026 68 















t-air Haven A We»l»lIlo R. K. Co., . 

103 8S 
1,457 80 
1,469 89 
2.090 07 
2,723 bi 







48,758 19 

40,187 68 
1.584 02 

17.751 6:1 
13.318 91 
2.) ,893. 73 
































9 rtrwiiwlch Tramway Co., 
ID lifil , MancVluT A Kockv'le Tram. Co., 
11 lliririinl .fe .SDrini^tlolil St Rv Co . 

10,258 30 
7,58.'» 00 
29.139 44 
8.757. 2'J 


16.574 59 






Rartronl Su Ky. Co 

11 iiiufaclurcru R. R. Co ,« . 

Mcr.den Blec. R R. 

HCer . Soiiurton It Comp. Tram. Co , . 

miilliiowii St Ry. Co 

Moalville St. Ry. Co., .... 

Newin;;lon Fram. Co..» 

\',>iv Lniidon St Rv. Co 







6,000 00 








965 16 





4.200 00 


20,583. :i8 






JO Nonvicb Si Ry. Co 

21 People's Tram. Co., .... 





3omcra A EoOeld BIco. liy. Co., . 

SUmrord SL R. R. Co 

SaBeld St. Ry. Co 

ToMD(toD A WInchealer SI. Ry. Co., . 
The West Shore Ry. Co..' 
Winchester Ave. R. a Co.,' 
WorcMter A Conn. Kaalern Ry. Co., . 


under con 






1,903 3(1 






7.386 10 

■ 11,91363 









1,934 951 l.'^Q'Uft.l 




under con 










• 45,652.35 

• 45,262.47 

33,798 24 








» IiKludlnE gas and electric properties. » Included in report of Fair Daven & Wealville R R. Co. > Operated by IlwLford. SI. Ry. Co. * Business of tbis company 

consists of movintf freight care of steam railroads in New Ilnven to ami f rotu umnafacturing concerns. ' Operated by Hartford St. Ry. Co. and Conn. Ily. & Lighting Co. 

* Operated by Hartford, Manches:cr ,t Rocltvillc Tramway Co. ' Operated by Fair Haven & Wcslvillc tt. R. Co. ' Compntcd on $43..)71.218 00 capll'al slock issued as 

appears in Table 1. • Computed on S23.1-1,218.00, having tlednrted SlSO.fXXI 00 from amount shown in Table 1. For the reason that, while the Danielson A Norwich St. 

Ry. Co., the Somers A Enfield Electric Ry. Co., and the Worcester & Conn. Eastern Ry. Co. each show an Issue of $50,000 capital slock, ihe roads are under construction and 
report do mileage. 

en's bridge. Owing lo financial complications, work upon this line 
has been temporarily suspended. .^ line from New Haven to Derby is 
in process of erection; also one from Mt. Carmel, through Cheshire 
and Mtlldale to Sonthington where it connects with the Meriden, 
Southington & Compounce tramway. The Willimantic Traction Co. 
has several projected lines under construction and the Stamford 




Capital stock issued. 

Bonds Issued 

Floating indebtedness 

Cost of construction and equipment, . 

Gross earnings 

Operating expenses, .... 

Net earnings 


Interest paid 

Tales paid State 

$8,137.948 00 




3.62'.).78:l 6L' 

2.2<J,S.l)63 Sx 



645,100 74 

188,094 78 







■-'.550 23li 09 









3irr,987 84 

252.172 81 


137,639 59 




Length of road ciclusivc of sidings, . 

..„ including sidings, . 

Miles run 

rasscngers carried, ..'..! 
Numt>er of employees 

492 227 














25 227 
27 6U8 

Number of persoi,a Injored ftUlly, 

•' - " •• notfaully. 



Street Railway Co. has extended its lines to Sound Beach and from 
thence in a northerly direction to connect with an extension of the 
Greenwich Tramway Co. The Meriden Street Railway Co. is also 
completing an extension of its line through the borough of Walling- 
ford, and the Hartford & Springfield Street Railway completed an 
extension connecting with the Hartford Street Railway Co. in South 
Windsor early last year. 

struction and equipment of the roads is reported at $42,778,156, 
which is $82,670 per mile of road. The gross earnings of the com- 
panies for the year ending June 30, 1902, were $3,937,771, the oper- 
ating expenses were $2,550,236, and the net earnings $1,387,534. 
Dividends have been paid by nine companies upon $6,170,000 of 
capital stock amounting to $297,850. No dividends have been re- 
ported paid on $17,401,248 of capital stock. The total car mileage 
for the year has been 19,375.730. The gross earnings per mile run 
were 20.32 cents, the operating expenses per mile run were 13.16 
cents and net earnings per car mile run were 7.16 cents. The num- 
ber of employes in the operation of the street railways is 2,903. Tlic 
number of passengers injured in the operation of the street railways 
was 292 as against 255 for the previous year of whom 15 were killed. 
The number of passengers injured was 174, of w^hom I was killed; 
the number of employes injured was 9 of whom 3 were killed; the 
number of other persons injured 49, of whom 11 were killed. The 
details of operation of the various roads of this state are shown in 
the accompanying tables. 


An international engineering, machinery, hardware and allied 
trades exposition is to be held at the Crystal Palace, London, from 
March 2. to May 31, 1903, in which Australia, New Zealand and 
the South .\frican Colonies of Great Britain will be especially repre- 
sented, and it is believed that the exposition offers a particularly 
good opportunity to American manufacturers who desire to extend 
their trade with Great Britain and her colonies in the Southern 
Hemisphere. Mr. Alfred Chasseaud, St. James Bldg., 1133 Broad- 
way, New York City, has been appointed United States Commis- 
sioner for this exposition and will be glad to furnish information 
concerning floor space, diagrams, and other information that may 
be desired. 

Feb. 20. 1903.] 




The ventilation ot street cars in some localities is one of the 
most troublesome of the smaller annoyances with which the gen 
eral manager has to contend. In some degree the matter of venti- 
lation is of comparatively less importance in warm climates than 
it is in colder sections of the country, and while little, if any, com- 
plaint is heard from street car pas.^eugcrs in southern cities the 
managers of most of the roads in places where extremes of tem- 
perature are wide, are more or less constantly in receipt of com- 
plaints in regard to the ventilation of cars. The views of indi- 
viduals on this subject, however, are so varied that with the best 
of intentions it is almost impossible for the general manager to 
frame rules in regard to regulating the ventilation which will be 
;-.cceptable to all. While fresh air is considered desirable by per- 
haps the majority of street car passengers, there is always a cer- 
tain proportion of them who object very vigorously to the cold air 
and who prefer foul air to taking any chances of catcliing cold by 
sitting in a draft. On the other hand we frequently see passengers 
who go to the other extreme, preferring to stand on the outside of a 
closed car, even in the severest weather. Some attempts at munic- 
ipal regulation in regard to ventilation have been tried in a few 
localities, but the result of this has amounted to but little. Owing 
to the diversity of opinions and habits of the various passengers 
it would seem that the duty of maintaining the proper ventilation 
must largely devolve upon the conductor. There can be no hard 
and fast rules laid down as to the number of ventilators to be left 
open in the car or the temperature at which it inust be maintained 
owing to the fact that the windows and ventilators are liable to 
be manipulated by any of the passengers according to their tastes, 
;'nd the conductor can hardly refuse to open or close a ventilator 
at the request of a passenger, even if the action be contrary to the 
wishes of other passengers. It therefore devolves upon the con- 
ductor to maintain as even a temperature and as good ventilation 
as possible, and if obliged to close the ventilators for the passenger 
who objects to the draft he can watch his opportunity to open it 
again when the passenger leaves the car. It is only by constant 
vigilance that crowded cars can be maintained in proper condi- 
tion as regards ventilation, especially in severe weather. 

Inquiry among the builders of electric cars elicits the fact that 
there is very little call from the railroad companies for any special 
styles of ventilators other than the usual deck sash. 

The J. G. Brill Co. writes that with but one exception it has 
never been called upon to install any special ventilating device. 
This was for a lot of cars furnished the Pennsylvania Railroad 
for operation at Atlantic City, N. J. In these cars special hoods 
of galvanized iron were provided at each end which led into the 
ducts surrounding the electric heaters. Owing to the motion of 
the cars these ducts lead the cold air directly to the heaters and 
the roofs of the cars were equipped with globe ventilators to carry 
off the impure air. It was claimed at the time that this was a 
highly satisfactory method of ventliation, but on subsequent orders 
for cars for the same company this feature was omitted. 

The Barney & Smith Car Co. states that the only means of ven- 
tilating employed in its cars is the pivoted ventilator sash in the 
deck, and the ventilators hinged at one end, which are controlled 
by an operating lever at one end of the car. 

The California Car Works, of San Francisco, reports that the 
subject of ventilation has never received much attention in that 
part of the country, chiefly owing lo the mildness of the climate 
and the fact that no heating apparatus is required in the cars dur- 
ing the winter months. Besides this, the California type of car 
is almost universally used in this section of the country and the 
Heather is rarely so severe as to cause much inconvenience to a 
fiasscnger riding in the open section of the car. 

'I he John Stephenson Co. always provides for the ventilation 
of its cars in the construction of the deck sashes. Its short side- 
scat cars are usually 12 in. lower than the long cross seat cars and 
on the former type all deck sashes are pivoted and arc opened or 
closed by the conductor, as they are within reach of his hand. 
On the cross-seat cars the deck sashes arc operated by bronze 
handles. The most usual method is to connect three deck sashes 
together with bronze strips, which may be opened or closed with a 

, handle connected with the center window. In this case, three 
deck sashes are operated simultaneously. Another method is to 
open and close every alternate deck sash by the movement of a 
lever at the end of the car The latter method is in vogue on the 
elevated roads in New York. 

The Niles Car & Manufacturing Co. also provides for ventila- 
tion only by means of deck sash. 

The variations in atmospheric conditions in different parts of 
the country is sufficient to explain the fact that there is no great 
uniformity as to the rules promulgated by the different street rail- 
way companies in regard to maintaining ventilation upon their 
cars. In general the roads may be divided into two classes, name- 
ly, those which issue positive instructions as to how the ventilators 
are to be manipulated, and those which leave the entire subject 
to the judgment of the conductor. Under the former class is the 
St. Louis & Suburban system whose book of instructions to the 
conductors and motornien contains the following rule: 

"Conductors will regulate the heat and ventilation of their cars 
for the best comfort of patrons, giving preference to those re- 
quiring the most protection. 

"Heaters should not be turned on when tlie temperature is above 
40° F. and should be handled in the same manner as veiitilators 
when the cars are crowded. By this is meant that if the car is 
crowded ventilators should be opened, at least one or two on each 
side, and the healers turned off. As the load thins out close the 
ventilators and turn on the heat again. Keep both your car doors 

Mr. T. M. Jenkins, general manager of this system, states that 
in addition to the foregoing rules bulletins are issued from time lo 
time calling conductors' attention to the subject of ventilation and 
giving other instructions in this line. During the cold weather 
the company uses a signal system at various stations along its lines 
•.vhich indicates the amount of heat, if any, that should be turned 
on. In passing one of these stations the conductor on the car 
looks at the signal displayed and regulates the heat accordingly. 
A notice is framed and posted in a prominent position in all of 
the cars of this system which reads: 

"Conductors will regulate the heat and ventilation of their 
cars to the best comfort of patrons, giving preference to those re- 
quiring the most protection." 

Mr. D. A. Ilegarly, of tlie Railways Company General, writes 
that all conductors employed by this company are given thorough 
instructions in the matter of ventilating the cars under their charge, 
as the company considers it a vital question to keep the cars clean 
and odorless. During the season when closed cars are in service 
the company uses two kinds of heaters, electric heaters and steam 
coils, the latter being for the large interurban cars. The company 
employs a mechanic whose business is to look after the regulation 
of the heal in the cars, and has found such a man necessary, as 
many of the conductors do not use good judgment in relation to 
the atmospheric conditions prevailing. This man also looks after 
the ventilation of the cars when he is on duty, regulating their heat. 
During mild weather, when no heat is used on the cars, the division 
foremen see that the conductors keep the cars ventilated and 
cleaned. At all of the company's car barns, when the cars are 
through with their daily run they are thoroughly cleaned and all 
the windows opened to ventilate them so that on going out in the 
morning they are clean and odorless. Keeping them in this con- 
dition is a somewhat difficult matter in the winter time, as the 
slush and mud carried in the cars during inclement weather keep 
the floors damp during the day, and owing lo the street dirt which 
is tracked in it is almost impossible to keep the cars well venti- 

The Taconia Railway & Tower Co., Tacoma, Wash., is favored 
by climatic conditions which makes the matter of ventilation of 
little consequence. Mr. W. S. Oinnnock, manager of the company, 
writes that no heaters are used in llic cars and that on short lines 
the doors arc opened so frequently that the cars can be kept well 
ventilated. On long interurban lines where the doors arc not so 
frequently opened the conductors arc instructed lo keep the cars 
well ventilated through the transoms in the the upper <leck. When 
Mr. Dimmock was manager of the Omaha & Council Bluffs system 
he had thermometers placed both inside and outside of the car and 
the conductors were loltl to keep the thermometers on the inside of 



(Vol. XIII, No. 2 

llic cars at 55° !•'. (luring the winter season. Tliis was accom- 
plished 1))- means of watching the electric heaters anil the venti- 
lators in the npper deck. This was consiilereil a good check on the 
Hse of power and was a means of saving current that had previously 
l>een wasted, from the fact that inspectors were liable to lioard the 
car at any time, and if the thermometers were found to be more 
than three or four degrees either way from the temperature pre- 
scribed the conductors were laid ofT for to days for the ofTencc. 
This made them watch the conditions of the heaters and ventilators 
very carefully. No trouble was experienced on the cars of the 
short lines, but on the large intcrurban cars unless the transoms 
were watched very carefully a great many complaints were re- 
ceived in regard to the atmosphere. 

The York Street Railway Co. issues orders to its conductors to 
ventilate the cars by opening the top ventilators when necessary, 
but no fixed rules have been established. Hiis company has a 
few cars equipped with what is known as Pullman ventilators, which 
Mr. J. P. Diisman, general manager of the company, states may 
be very good things, but which he has frequently observed are 
seldom used by the passengers. Some of these ventilators arc in- 
serted in the overhead windows, which the conductor generally 
keeps open and the others are used upon the large window sash, 
and are under the control of the passenger. These were almost 
always found closed and for this reason the company believes that 
special ventilators count for but little. 

in regard to the ventilation of the Ci'rs of the Los .\ngeles- 
Pacitic Railroad Co., Mr. E. P. Clark, president of the company, 
writes us as follows : "The question of ventilation of street cars 
is one that can hardly be di.sposed of by any general rules for the 
reason that there are as many different notions in regard to that 
subject as there arc people who ride in the street cars. Their 
notions are generally controlled by their physical comfort and 
their physical comfort is largely the result of personal habits. 
Some people will not sit inside the car even in the coldest weather, 
while others will sit inside and be constantly disturbed by the imag- 
inary closeness of the car when, as a matter of fact, the door is 
being opened and closed at every street crossing. Others will 
shiver and complain if the door is opened and lets in a gust of fresh 
air. Some will insist on having the ventilators all open at the top 
of the car, while others will suffer from fear of taking cold by 
having the cold air blowing down over their heads and backs. Our 
custom in this regard is to instruct our conductors to watch the 
peculiar temperaments of passengers as closely as possible, and if 
there are some particularly nervous and very sensitive passengers 
who, by their actions, indicate that they are being disturbed by the 
windows or ventilators being open or by the same not being open, 
to use as much discretion as possible and try to please them. 
Then when this has been done to find out if it has not displeased 
some other of their fellow passengers. There is practically no 
royal rule for pleasing everybody in the matter of ventilation; 
what is comfort for one person is positive discomfort for another, 
and this is particularly true of the patrons of street cars." 

Tlic Columbus Railway Co., of Columbus, O., disposes of tlie 
subject of the ventilation of its cars by issuing to its motornien 
and conductors from time to time notices concerning heating and 
ventilation. Several of these notices are quoted herewith and a 
number of them are. in the nature of suggestions merely indicating 
to the conductor the best method of securing the desired ventila- 
tion and leaving considerable to his personal judgment. 

"When cars are crowded, heaters should be shut off and one 
or two of the forward ventilators opened, unless the weather is 
stormy or severely cold. When car is marly empty and car has 
cooled down, turn on the heat. 

"During rainy or snowy weather, when clothing and car tloor 
arc damp, it is especially necessary to give attention to ventilation 
of car. 

"You cannot please all in the mailer of heat or ventilation. Use 
your best judgment in keeping your car at a moderate tempera- 
ture and free from foul air. Open or close ventilators or doors 
at the request of passengers. It is not necessary to leave them 
long in either position, and by complying with the request you 
make friends. 

"When car is running, the air can be changed in a few seconds 
by opening forward deck windows. 

"When within 200 ft. of end of line, open both doors and the 

foul air will be swept out. Don't leave them open long enough to 
chill the Moor and seats. 

"Never use the heater when it is warm enough to have door open. 
.Most people prefer a car that is too cool to one that is too hot. 
I hey prefer clean, cool air to warm, foul air. 

".•\Uv,iys remember that no fixed rules can lake the place of in- 
telligent attention on your part." 

The lx)S Angeles Railway Co. informs us that its conductors arc 
instructed always to have some of the transoms open no matter 
what the conditions of the weather may be. The company also 
makes a special effort to keep its cars scrupulously clean and it 
is very rare that any complaints in regard to unpleasant odors on 
the cars arc received. 

The Interurban Street Railway Co., of New York City, instructs 
its conductors that when the temperature is above 40° P. they are 
to keep at least four of the ventilators open and when it is below 
40° there is to be only one ventilator open, and that at the front 
of the car, unless some passenger shall request that this ventilator 
be closed or that more may be opened. In such case, the conductor 
as far as possible pleases the passenger. When the temperature 
IS below 40° F. the heat is turned on and consequeiuly, unless a 
passenger desires otherwise, when the cars are heated, there is 
at least one ventilator open and that one in the front of the car. 

The Ilarrisburg Traction Co., of llarrisburg. Pa., heats its cars 
sufficiently to make riding comfortable in the cold weather and the 
ventilators are generally kept closed, but the conductors arc re- 
quested to throw open the doors at the end of the trip to thor- 
c^ughly ventilate the cars without having the deck sash open while 
the cars are running. 

The Calumet Electric Street Railway Co., of Chicago, insists 
upon its conductors using their best discretion in ventilating cars, 
and even in cold weather requires the rear deck lights on either side 
lo be open. Upon some of its new cars, in which there is a smoking 
compartment, the deck lights are always kept open. 

The Capital Traction Co., of Washington, D. C, issues the fol- 
lowing rule bearing on the subject of ventilation, which explains 
the idea of the company in this respect: "Cars must be kept well 
vcnlilatcd and curtains lowered on sunny side. .\t least two ven- 
tilators will be kept partially open at all times. If any 'cranky' 
passenger gets on and closes these ventilators conductor will not 
say anything to him or interfere, but as soon as such passenger 
leaves the car, will immediately open the ventilators. Beyond the 
above instructions conductors will use their best judgment as to 
how many ventilators and windows should be opened and how 
wide, according to the weather and the number of people on the 
car. Ill cold weather doors should be kept closed as much as 

Mr. T. E. Mitten, general manager of the International Railway 
Co., of Buffalo, N. Y., writes us that the only apparent way to 
"keep peace in the family" is to instruct the conductors to keep 
open one ventilator in the front and one at the rear of the car. 
This insures a circulation of air through the car and the conductor 
is furtlier to be governed by the last request made by any passenger. 

The Fairhaven (Conn.) & Westville Railroad Co. tries to enforce, 
as far as possible, the rule to keep the ventilator windows open, 
but finds that this causes considerable complaint from one class 
of passengers that too much cold air is coming into the car, and 
from others that there is not enough. 

The Birmingham (.Ma.) Railway, Light & Power Co. issues the 
following rule in regard to the ventilation of cars: "Conductors 
will use their best judgment in keeping cars in such condition as to 
please the greatest number of passengers. At all seasons of the 
year two or more transom windows arc to be opened each trip on 
all lines of the company. Immediately after turning the register 
conductor will see that the transoms are opened." 

In the Denver City Tramway Cos. cars all ventilators are kept 
wide open in warm weather and during rush hours, and inspectors 
arc instructed to give this matter special attention and to enforce 
the rules. Mr. John A. Beeler, vice-president and general man- 
ager of the company, writes that he finds that this is one of the 
most important questions with which he has to deal, as many peo- 
ple prefer to walk rather than ride in a crowded, ill-ventilated car. 
The company's standard car is the combination car, one-half licing 
open and half closed. It has been found that a great majority of 
the passengers carried prefer to ride in the open portion of the car 

FEa 20, 1903.] 



all the year around, which shows that the traveling public in this 
locality not only appreciates but demands fresh air. 

The Cincinnati Traction Co. requires its conductors to keep open 
the front ventilator on one side of the car and the rear ventilator 
on the opposite side. 

Mr. T. J. Nicholl, vice-president and general manager of the 
Rochester Railway Co., writes as follows on the subject of ven- 
tilation: "riic question of ventilation is one that probably causes 
us more trouble than any other connected with the operation of our 
system, but so far the municipality has not undertaken to regulate 
it. and I really do not see very well how it could. We have in- 
structed our conductors to keep open a .'sufficient number of ven- 
tilators at the back end of the cars at all times, no matter how cold 
the weather may be, but it must necessarily be left to their judg- 
ment as to how long they shall be open, according to the outside 
temperature. They are not always permitted to carry this order 
into effect, however, as some of our patrons will not submit, and 
often, as soon as the conductor opens the ventilators, a passenger 
will get up and close them ; it is, therefore, a very difficult matter 
to regulate. In the center of the city we require passengers to 
alight from the cars at the front end and board them at the back 
end. This allows both doors to be opened and permits a draft 
through the car which insures a change of air at frequent intervals 
for some moments on each trip. Some of our patrons complain 
of this, but nearly all are satisfied, as they have every evidence of 
the desirability of fresh air from a sanitary point, and of the effect 
of the rule in e.xpediting the movements of the car." 

In a large number of cities, however, from which we have heard, 
no special directions as to ventilation are issued to the conductors, 
leaving them to use their good judgment in keeping the cars as 
well ventilated as possible. General rules of this kind are issued 
in Portland, Ore. ; San Francisco, Cal. : Davenport, la. ; Memphis, 
Tenn. ; Augusta, Ga. ; Council BlulTs, la. ; Seattle, Wash. ; Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. ; Oakland, Cal.; San Antonio, Tex.; Austin, Tex.; Bing- 
hampton, N. Y. ; Anderson, Iiid. ; Jersey City, N. J., and Spokane, 

From the fact that in so many cities no definite rules are laid 
down in regard to ventilation and the matter is left almost entirely 
10 the judgment of the conductor, and. further, as it is found even 
where special and definite rules are laid down that these canncil 
be enforced should a passenger make objection to them, in the 
absence of special automatic ventilating devices the question of 
ventilation rests practically with the judgment of the conductor 
when not modified by the specific demands of the passengers. 


The Boston Elevated Railway Co. issued an order on January lytli 
that will result in an increase of wages or otherwise materially ben- 
efit more than 5,000 employes. It is said to be the most liberal 
scheme of wages ever oflFered by any railway company. The action 
is all the more notable for the reason that it was entirely voluntary 
upon the part of the management. Every man in the car service 
will profit to some extent as a result of the order. In an interview. 
General Wm. A. Bancroft, the president of the company, said : 

"The company has determined to make a large addition to the 
compensation of its car service men. It will amount to nearly a 
quarter of a million dollars annually. We believe in maintaining 
the very best service and feel satisfieil that our employes are unex- 
celled anywhere in a like service. Positive merit will be recognized 
by .special compensation at the end of each year for every man 
whose record is of sufiicicnt excellence. Veterans in the service will 
receive a higher rate of wages than is now paid, the amount de- 
pending uiHjn the length of service. Men who wear themselves out 
in the service and become incapacitated as a result of age will receive 
a substantial contribution to their support." 

The general order increasing wages, which was made effective 
Jan. 24, l'/>3, is as follows : 

I. LEARNERS. learners while breaking in as conductors or 
motormcn, will be allowed one dollar per day for each tlay of not 
less than ten hours. 

This is also applicable to men learning lo be brakcnicn or motor- 
men of the Elevated Division. 

2. MINIMUM PAY. E.xtra conductors and motormen of surface 
lines will be guaranteed a minimum amount of $1.50 per day for each 
lo-liour day during which they have reported and are on hand await- 
ing work for tlic required full day, whether work falls to them or 

Extra brakemen, guards and motormen of Elevated Lines will 
be guaranteed a minimum amount of pay for each full lO-hour day 
during which (hey have reported and are on hand awaiting work for 
the required full day, whether work falls to them or not, as follows: 
Motormen, 15 cents per hour for lo-hour day ; guards, 13.7 cents 
per hour for 10-hour day; brakemen, 12 cents per hour for lo-hour 

3. THREE CLASSES OF STARTERS. Starters will be divided 
into three classes, lo be paid respectively $2.25, $2.35 and $2.50 
per day. 

MEN OF ELEVATED LINES. The regular rate of pay of guards 
is fixed at 21 cents an hour, in place of 20 cents. 

The regular rate of pay of brakemen is fixed at 18}^ cents an 
hour, in place of lyyi cents. 

MEN WEARING SERVICE STRIPES. One service stripe will 
hereafter be awarded to blue-uniformed men only for each five years 
of continuous service in the surface or elevated service of this com- 

Blue-uniformed uku now wearing, or hereafter becoming entitled 
to wear service stripes, will be paid an increase of wages as follows : 
For one stripe, 5 cents per lO-hour day, or '/i cent per hour; for 
two stripes, 10 cents per 10-hour day, or 1 cent per hour; for three 
or more stripes, 15 cents per lo-hour day, or 1}^ cents per hour. 

This will be added to the regular rates of pay governing employ- 
ment in the car service, which includes inspectors, starters, station 
masters, collectors, and all other blue-uniformed men in both sur- 
face and elevated service. 

6. REW.'\RD. .'\t the end of the calendar year a payment of 
$15 will be made to each blue-uniformed employe of either surface 
or elevated lines, including station masters, who has rendered con- 
tinuous and satisfactory service throughout such calendar year. This 
will apply to first year men who have been six months or more in 
such continuous employment prior to the end of the calendar year. 
It is intended as a reward for meritorious service only. 

It is also the intention of the company, in the case of a blue uni- 
formed employe who in the judgment of the management is unfit to 
perform any duty in the service of the company, and who has been 
continuously employed by the company for a period of 25 years, or 
who has reached the age of 60 years and has been continuously em- 
ployed by the company for a period of 15 years, to contribute to the 
support of such employe a sum not exceeding $25 per uioiuh ihiriiig 
the rest of his lifetime. 

It has also been announced that until further notice the Boston 
Elevated Railway Co. will sell to its employes the best Scotch house- 
hold coal for $5.50 a ton at the wharf. This is a reduction of $1 a 
ton from the price heretofore charged, and is made possible by the 
lower cost at which the company has been able to obtain coal abroad. 
Employes who have already paid for coal that has not yet been de- 
livered will be allowed a rebate of $1 a ton. 


The holders of the stock trust certificates of (he Inlerborough 
Rapid Transit Co., of New York, have ratified the arrangement lo 
lease the property anrl franchises of the Manhattan Railway Co. 
Under this arrangement the Inlerborough company guarantees 6 
per cent on the slock of the Manhatlan up lo Jan i, 1906, and i per 
cent additional if earne<l. More than 90 per cent of the stock trust 
certificates of the Inlerborough Rapid Transit Co. voted for the 

A small minority of Ihe stockholders of the Manhatlan is said to 
have objected to certain terms of the lease on the ground that the 
Inlerborough company has practical liberty lo p>it all earnings into 
the property, outside of the 6 per cenl guaranteed. 



|\i.i.. XIII. N'd 


The acconipaiiymg illiisl ration shows a light repair truck for line 
repairing which was recently described in the Zeitschrift fur Klcin- 
bahnen. This is used by the street railway companies of Aix-le- 
Chapelle, Germany, and weighs oidy from 800 to 1,000 lbs. It is 
built by an electrical works of that city and costs about $95. The 
ladder is provided with two sets of wheels as shown. When it is 
<lrawn by hand the large wheels arc in service and the small wheels 
arc raised from the ground. The ladder can also be lowed behind 

hnc from Danville to Champaign, li the right oi way is made avail- 
able by property owners along these routes it is probable that these 
extensions will be built by the coining fall. The extension of the 
Danville Street Ky. to the Western Hrick Co. plant will be com- 
menced as soon as the weather will permit and the line is to \x in 
operation by the first of June or possibly sooner. An extension of 
the systems into Germantown is also contemplated but there arc a 
number of obstacles in the way of railroad crossings, and negotia- 
tions arc now on foot which, if favorable, will permit the construc- 
tion of this Iin<- Ihi- company has imrcliascd a number of new cars 


a car to the point where repairs are rcqtiircd and in this case the 
small wheels come into service, being flanged iron wheels and are 
set at the proper gage to run on the railway tracks. The ladder is 
capable of being mounted at various angles and it may be adjusted 
so as to clear a passing car while the men are at work on the over- 
head system. The accompanying illustrations show two positions 
in which the ladder can be adjusted. 


which will be delivered within the next .^o days and all of its pres- 
ent cquiiinuiU is to be thoroughly overhauled and repainted in the 
near future. During the past year some of the overhead lines were 
rcplaceil .tmiI impioviil ami part of the line was double tracked. With 


The Delaware & Magnetic Springs Railway Co. has now in course 
of construction a single track railway between Delaware, O., and 
Magnetic Springs, a health and pleasure resort 12 miles out of the 
city. The Magnetic Springs and Park Hotel which was originally 
operated by diflfercnt interests has been purchased by the company 
and will be opened to guests March 15th. The new road was pro- 
jected by Mr. T. N. Kerr who is the promoter and manager of the 
company and who is supervising the construction work. 

The culverts along the line have all been built and the grading is 
more than half completed. The ties and poles have been distributed 
along the line for 7 miles out from Delaware. The company intends 
to build a new 400-room hotel at the Springs and to extend the 
present line to Richwood. 6 miles north, to Marysville, 12 miles 
south, and eventually into Columbus, O. Traffic arrangemenls have 
been practically completed whereby the new company will have 
terminal facilities at Delaware and it will make direct connections 
with the cars of the Columbus, Delaware & Marion Electric Ry. to 
Columbus. Mr. John B. Taggart, of Delaware, O., is chief engineer 
of the company. 


The accompanying map shows the inlerurban lines in the vicinity 
of Danville, III., which are either in operation or proposed. The 
line from the Western Brick Co. plant to Danville is to be built by 
the Danville Street Railway & Light Co. which operates the system 
in the city of Danville. The other lines shown arc owned by the 
Danville, Paxton & Northern Railroad Co. An extension of the 
Georgetown line to Ridgefarm is under consideration as well as a 


the completion of the track renewals which arc to be made during 
the year the company will have its entire road and equipment in 
first-class condition. 

The annual banquet and smoker of the Employes' Aid Association 
of the Binghamton (N. Y.) Railway Co., was held in the association 
rooms on January 14th. Card playing, music and refreshments were 
the attractions. 

Feb. 20. 1903.1 




The Allis-Chalmers Co. has now in operation its new works at 
West Allis, near Milwaukee, and, although the equipment of the 
plant is not yet complete, a large volume of work is already being 
(lone. The old Edward P. Allis plant is relieved of the over- 
crowded conditions which have long prevailed, and the engine- 
building capacity of the West Allis works is already such that, al- 
though much new business has been accepted beyond what would 
have been possible without the new facilities, the old plant is in 
shape to more easily care for the extensive milling machinery busi- 
ness, and other branches of the company's work. Pumping engines, 
blowing engines, and engines for electric generator driving and 
other lines of service will constitute the principal prudnct of llie 
West .Mlis plant. 

plant, electric traveling cranes are everywhere in use for carrying 
material, not only within the shops, but also in the intervening yard 
spaces. More than 75 electric cranes of various types arc installed, 
most of them made by Pawhng & Harnischfeger, of Milwaukee, 
while the Shaw Electric Crane Co., of Muskegon, Mich., and the 
Northern Engineering Works, of Detroit, are also represented. 

The essential and distinctive features of the plant as a whole arc- 
its great size when ultimately completed and the provisions for ex- 
tension from time to time up to ultimate completion without alter- 
ation of previous construction, hindrance of production or loss of 
balance between department capacities. In general, it may be said 
Ihat the design of the works is an adaptation of the "unit system" 
upon a large scale. The complete plan contemplates 12 such units 
within the ground space available, and of these 12, three are now 
in operation. It is estimated thai the productive capacity of the 


As stated on page i88 of the "Review" for March, lyoi, the new 
works were designed personally by Mr. Edwin Reynolds, now con- 
sulting engineer of the Allis-Chalmers interests, as an addition lo 
the Milwaukee plant of what was then simply the Edward P. Allis 
Co. The ground plan of the projected works, as published at that 
time, has been followed with but minor changes in the actual con- 
struction. Such l)cing the case it is unnecessary at this time to 
repeat the details of the arrangement of the buildings and grounds. 
It will be remembered that the location is a few miles west of Mil- 
waukee, in direct connection with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul and the Chicago & Northwestern railways, from and to which 
roads cars of materials and finished product may be transferred by 
an clalK>ratc system of trackage throughout the groimds and build- 
ings, served by locomotives belonging to the Allis-Chalmers Co. 
Building capacities, floor areas and yard spaces are proporlioned 
for correct manufacturing balance among all departments, the ex- 
perience of 25 years at the old works having been drawn upon for 
data upon which lo base Ihc adjustment of the new. In addition 
lo Ihc railroad transfer facilities among the various portions of the 

ihrcc-unil plant will be, when fully c(iinppt(l, alioul equivalent to 
that of the Milwaukee works, but with a materially smaller working 
force than the latter, due lo the more advantageous arrangement of 
the new plant. When the growth of the company's business shall 
have required the completion of the whole I2 units, the new works 
will be four times as large as now and, together with the old works, 
will constitute a capacity five times as great as the latter. When 
the vast business of llu' old works for the past few years is con- 
sidered, some realization may be had of the magnitude of the new 
plant when its four-fold capacity is developed. 

The accompanying engraving showing a bird's eye view of the 
West Allis works gives a good idea of the way they will appear 
when the office building and live shop units have been erected. The 
office structure is shown in the extreme foreground, and to the left 
from it extends the pattern department, consisting of a four-story 
storage building with a one-story pattern shop in connection with it. 
The storage building is of strictly fireproof construction ; all steel 
work is encased in concrete, floors are of arched concrete, windows 
are of wired glass in iron frames, etc. The building is divided at 



[Vol.. XIII, No. 2 

inlrrvals by fire walls, and cacli section is served by an elevator. A 
system ol electric trolley hoists on overhead I-bcani tracks is used 
in handling heavy patterns to and from cars by which ihey are 
carried between the storage and foundry buildings. 

The foundry is parallel to the pattern shop and storage building, 
separated by a .stDrage yard QS ft. wide. This yard is served by a 
lo-ton high-speed traveling crane used in carrying charges of iron 
and coke to the pillar cranes which are located at the inclines lead- 
ing up to the cupola charging tloors. .-Xttachcd to the hook of this 
traveling crane is a scale by which loads are weighed directly, avoid- 
ing delay and rehandling of material at platform scales. This crane 
is also used in breaking castings, carrying a drop-weight to any 
point of the yard. 

The foundry building is 220 ft. wide and 565 ft. long, consisting of 
a main bay and two side bays. An 80-ton Shaw crane and two 
cranes of less cap.icily serve the main bay, the side bays being also 
suitably e<iuipped. l'"or lighter work, as in core setting, there arc 
installed at each side of the main bay and in one side bay S-ton 
traveling wall cranes, or cantilevers, running upon specially arranged 
tracks below the main bridge cranes. These are novel an<l very 
convenient machines, relieving the large cranes of much small work. 
Three large cupolas are in use. blast being supplied by motor-driven 

The erecting shop is 76 ft. wide, and in connection with it is the 
shipping room, 39 ft. wide. The former is very high, the tracks for 
the 75-ton traveling crane being 60 ft. above the floor, thus allow- 
ing ample height for the erection of large vertical engines. Ex- 
tensions of this shop will not be continued at this height, as the 
present length ol 565 ft. is expected to be sufficient for that por- 
tion of the product of the complete works rc(|uiring this special 

Between the shop units and extending across the 124-ft. flask 
storage space between the foundry and the shops are runways for 
40-ton traveling cranes for use in handling materials, rough cast- 
ings, etc. 

The |X)wer plant, situated at one end of the third shop unit, is 
thus centrally located with respect to the five or six units to which 
it is designed finally to furnish power, light, etc. Here arc placed 
at present five 300-h. p. Reynolds vertical tubular boilers, with room 
for seven more. Outside the boiler room arc cisterns from which 
the boiler feed water is drawn. These cisterns are fed from artesian 
wells located at various points about the grounds and operated by 
air lifts. The chinnicy is 175 ft. high, with an 8-fl. straight Hue, 
and. is constructed of .MphonS Cuslodis hollow radial tile. 

Steam is generated at 125 lb. pressure an<l the bolicrs are con- 
nected in pairs to the steam header in the engine room. Here arc 

ISIKll'S EYE s II .■. "1 

Green rotary blowers. Core rooms, a chemical laboratory and 
ample storage facilities for foundry sand and otiier supplies are 
properly provided. 

Placed transversely to the foundry, their ends separated from it 
by a space of 124 ft., are the shop units, each 166 ft. wide, 575 ft. 
long. 66 ft. apart and all termin.itiiig at the erecting shop which 
parallels the foundry. Extensions to the pattern building, the 
foundry and the erecting shop are to be made by increase of their 
length; the shop units, however, are individually complete and ex- 
tensions of these departments must be by erection of additional 
units. Of the three now in operation, the first, at the right of the 
bird's eye view-, is machine shop No. i, the second is machine shop 
No. 2, and the third is the blacksmith shop and power plant. The 
interior of the first unit is shown in the engraving herewith, this 
shop being the one designed to handle the heavier work, and 
equipped with the more massive and heavy tools. Here is a floor 
plate 24 X 200 ft., in connection with which a number of portable 
tools of various types are in use. In both machine shops the heavier 
tools arc within the main bays, the tighter machines being placed in 
the side bays and galleries. 

The blacksmith shop is a structure entirely similar to the machine 
shops, but shorter by the amount devoted to the power plant. .\ 
6-ton steam hammer is here installed, in addition to smaller ones 
and a full equipment of other machinery, forges and furnaces for 
handling all but the most exceptional forgings required. 

i ■~ L 11 , I.MERS l'L.\NT. 

located three generating units driven by Reynolds-Corliss non-con- 
densing vertical engines, and space is allotted for three additional 
units of a similar type. The initial installation of three units com- 
prise a 550-kw. General Electric generator and Crocker-Wheeler 
machines of 300 kw. and loo-kw. capacity. The two future units 
will be of 550 kw. each. Direct current at 250 volts is generated 
and distributed about the works for driving tools, elevators, cranes, 
etc., as well as for lighting. A very complete switchboard stands 
at one side of the engine room. 

A two-stage cross-compound air compressor supplies air at lOO 
lb. per sq. in. for pncimiatic tools and hoists, as well as for the air 
lifts in the artesian wells. Presscott fire pumps, triplex electric 
boiler fcc<l pumps, and other essential equipment are included. 

The heating apparatus consists of exhaust and live ste.ani heaters 
for water, which is circulated through the various buildings by 
engine-driven centrifugal pumps. This installation of direct hot- 
water heating was made by Evans, Almiral & Co., New York City. 

The Chicago & Northwestern and the Chicago Great Western 
railroads have found it necessary to post a notice to the cfTect that 
engineers must not race with the electric cars. These roads parallel 
the line of the Aurora. Elgin & Chicago Railway Co. for several 
miles, and it is said that there have been some exciting contests be- 
tween the engineers and the motormen. 

Fsa 20, 1903.] 





BY O. E. DUNL.\P. 

A fire that occurred in the transformer station and on the bridge 
connecting the transformer station with power house No. i of the 
Niagara Falls Power Co. on the night of Thursday, Jamiary 29th. 
crippled 350 miles of electric railways in the Niagara vicinity, shut 
off the municipal and domestic lighting of Buffalo, Niagara Falls, 
Lockport and the Tonawandas, and forced fully 150 industrial es- 
tablishments to shut down until repairs were made. Since elec- 
tricity was first applied for light, heat and power purposes there 
has never been such a disaster in connection with a generating and 
transmission plant as this one at Niagara Falls. 

The accident was due to lightning that entered the transformer 
station and started a fire in the basement. After burning a short 
time undiscovered it caused a short circuit and this opened the cir- 
cuit breakers in power house No. i. It is believed that the short 
circuit set fire to the insulation of the other cables, which, spreading, 
developed a general short circuit. This made necessary the using 
of the emergency switch to open the fields of the generators. The 
fire was first discovered at 10:45 p. m., and it was after midnight 
before it had been put out. In that time the transformer station had 
suffered severely, both from fire and water, and the bridge across 
the inlet canal was badly burned on its interior, while tlie 52 cables 
that had run through it from the power house to the transformer 
station were entirely destroyed. Under these conditions it was im- 
possible to deliver any current over the bridge and through the trans- 
former installation until repairs had been made. The service of 50,- 
000 electrical horse power was cut off by the cable destruction. 
None of the generators was injured, and power house No. I was not 

Before the fire was out the engineers were starting the work of 
temporary repairs. Laborers were hired from the crowed that had 
gathered. Headlights were brought into service to replace the elec- 
tric lights. The fire also left the power house without telephone 
connections which was hard on the company as well as its patrons. 

In the absence of a telephone service the Niagara Falls Power 
Company engaged several carriages for the use of messengers. These 
messengers hurried in all directions informing the employes of the 
company they were wanted immediately at the power house, while 
they also secured things necessary for the work of the night. Within 
one hour after the fire was out over 200 men, including carpenters, 
were at work making repairs. Six hours after this the cables of the 
2,200 volt connections between the power house and transformer 
station had been replaced and were ready for a resumption of the 
long distance service. It was found that the air blast transformers 
had been wet, and some of the 1,875-kw. transformers were suhsli- 
tuted. This required important changes of connections. Wjter had 
also reached the 22,000-volt bus-bars and wiring, and so an entirely 
new installation of these had to be designed and installed. This 
occupied until early afternoon Friday, and then when the current 
was turned on there svcre short circuits in three of the transformers. 
caused by water, and this delayed the renewal of the service until 
shortly after 5 o'clock Friday afternoon. This, however, was in time 
to light up the darkened cities, and to aid the electric railways In 
transport the evening crowds. This work was carried out under 
the direction of Supt. P. P. Barton. 

As a result of the fire the service of the International Railway Co , 
of Buffalo, was embarrassed to some extent. 

In Buffalo Ihc company threw in its storage battery and started its 
steam plant, but was forced to reduce the number of cars in operation 
thoughoul Friday. In Lockport a portion of the electric plant was 
idle. Cars between Buffalo and Lockport and Buffalo anrl Niagara 
Falls were infrequent. In Buffalo it was obsered that throughoiil 
Friday people congested Ihc starting points on all car lines in order 
10 get abroad, having been early to find that with the lessened service 
there was lilllc hope of getting on cars except at principal points. 
Niagara Falls fared better than the adjoining cities. There was but 
a short interruption to the light and trolley service, because the local 
electric line is fed current through Ihc rolaries located in the norlb- 
cast corner of the power house, the cables not passing near Ihc fire 
scene. Current from the same source is also supplied to the station 
of the Buffalo & Niagara Falls Kleclric Light & Power Co. a short 
distance from the power house. 

The third annual meeting and dinner of the New England Street 
Railway Club was held at Hotel Somerset, Boston, Mass., on 
Ihursday evening, January 22d. About 400 members and guests 
were present, and the occasion was one of the most enjoyable ever 
held in the history of the club. The secretary and treasurer's report 
showed the club to be in most satisfactory condition, both as regards 
membership and finances. 

.\fter the reception the company gathered in the new banquet 
room of the Hotel Somerset and enjoyed an unusually fine menu. 

Mr. Frank Ridlon, president of the Frank Ridlon Co., of Boston, 
was made toastmaster. and succeeded in keeping the diners in a 
continual state of merriment. Toasts were responded to by E. P. 
Shaw; F. Clay Chadbourne, railroad commissioner of Maine; Fuller 
C. Smith, railroad coinmissioner of Vermont; H. M. Putney, rail- 
road commissioner of New Hampshire; John Graham, of Bangor, 
Me., and Secretary Neal. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: President, 11. E. 
Farrington, master mechanic Boston & Northern Street Ry., Chelsea, 
Mass. ; first vice-president, E. E. Potter, general manager Union 
Street Railway Co., New Bedford, Mass.; secretary and treasurer, 
J. H. Neal, of Boston, Mass. Vice-presidents for states: Maine, 
W. G. Meloon, of Portsmouth ; New Hampshire, H. A. Albin, of 
Concord ; Vermont, A. J. Crosby, of Springfield ; Rhode Island, H. 
W. Young, of Woonsocket; Connecticut, J. S. Thornton, of Putnam. 


The new power house. No. 2, of Olean (N. Y.) Street Railway 
Co. is one of the chief points of interest of the company's recent 
extension. The power house is located about one mile east of 
Ceres, N. Y., convenient to a 600-acre gas territory owned by the 

The building is a fire-proof brick and steel structure 68x72 ft., 
having a height of 20 ft. at the eaves. The equipment consists of 
two Franklin water-tube boilers and two 300 h. p. Hamilton-Corliss 
engines each connected to a 200-kw. General Electric generator. 

The fuel used is gas piped from wells on the company's own ter- 
ritory, the supply being automatically regulated. 

'Ihc switchboard connections are made witli lead covered cable 
laid in conduits, all steam pipes are lagged with asbestos, and the 
workmanship throughout is of the highest grade. The power 
house is to be surrounded by about an acre of ornamental grounds 
which, when completed, is expected to make the plant very allr.TCt- 
ive in appearance. 


It is announced that the negotiations for the acquisition of the 
property of the Springfield (111.) Consolidated Railway Co., by 
Louisville, Ky., capitalists, have been brought to a successful close. 
The new concern will be known as the Springfield & Central Illi- 
nois Railway Co. The stock and bonds of the old company, aniomit- 
ing to $750,000, will be taken over at 75 per cent of their face value. 
The new company, it is .said, will issue stock and bonds to Ihc 
ainfi\uit of $3,750,000. A large part of the proceeds of this sale will 
be expended on the inlerurban extensions to the neigliboring towns, 
Girard and Riverlon. It is expected that the ultimale result will be 
a complete interurban system with .Springfield as its eenler. 

The finances of Ihc company are being handled by the Columbia 
I'inancc & Trust Co. of Louisville. 

'ihc new corporation is supported by nearly the .same inter- 
ests that control the Springfield & St. Louis Railway Co. The lat- 
ter comiKiny was organized lo construct a road from Springfield to 
East St. Louis, 111. 

It is announced Ihal the Philadelphia & West Clieslcr Traction Co. 
of Philailelphia, Pa., is lo issue a $600,000 4-per ciiit morlgagc to 
retire the present $400,000 of S-per ceni bonrls, fund Ihe (loaling delil 
and provide for improvements. 



(Vol. XIU. No 2 


Tilt rapid increase during recent jcars ni the si/c of central sta- 
tions and of tlic currents and voltages liandleil therein has neces- 
sitated great development in the methods and apparatus for con- 
trolling electric currents. It has been found necessary where high 
tension alternating current is handled to discard the old hand-oper- 
ated knife blade switches for some means of auxiliary control. This 
jierniits the actual switching devices to be located with regard to the 
general design of the station and satisfactory lay-out of the circuits, 
and concentrates the controlling and indicating apparatus within a 
small space. 

One apparatus of this kind is the Westinghousc type C high 
tension power operated oil-break circuit breaker. This circuit 
breiiker, which is operated by electro-magnets, is erected in a ma- 
sonry structure, with each pole and its oil tank in a separate fire- 
proof compartment. There are two stationary contacts to each pole, 
one connected to the incoming lead and one to the outgoing lead, 
liach contact is mounted in a large porcelain insulator fastened to 
a cast iron frame. This frame, which also supports the oil tanks, is 
sup|>orted by a soapstone slab at the top of the masonry structure. 

The movable contact for each pole consists of a U-shaped copper 
bar secured to the lower end of a vertical wooden rod. In the 
closed position one of the U-shaped parts connects the two sta- 
tionary contacts of each pole. The wooden rods extend up through 
the top of the structure and down between the two stationary con- 
tacts and arc connected above the structure by a common cross bar. 
This cross bar is supported by a system of levers giving a vertical 
straight-line motion. It is raised by enclosing magnets, assisted at 
the beginning of motion by a pair of balancing springs. A toggle 
joint automatically locks this system of levers when the circuit- 
breaker is in the closed position. 

The toggle joint is released by a blow from the tripping magnet, 
whereupon the cross bar drops and opens the circuit. The break 
takes place first at the main contacts then at a removable plug at- 
tached to the stationary contacts. This plug, which receives all 
the cflfccts of any sparking that may occur, may be easily replaced. 

The heavy sheet-metal oil tanks are lined with insulating cement 
molded to fit closely about the terminals and moving contacts, leav- 
ing just room enough for the free movement of the parts in oil. 
After the entire breaker is erected and adjusted, the tanks arc put 
in place and filled. The level of the oil is shown by a small sight 
gage. Suitable levers arc provided for handling the tanks which 
m.ty be lowered away from the contacts and removed without dis- 
turbing the rest of the circuit-breaker. 

A small double-pole, double-throw knife switch is mounted on 
each circuit-breaker. This switch is used with the indicating and 
tripping circuits and is operated by the motion of the circuit-breaker 
levers. The controlling and indicating devices, which arc suitably 
mounted at the operating platform, consist of a controlling switch, 
an electro-mechanical tell-tale indicator, and a lamp. The con- 
trolling switch is of the drum type and has three positions, "closed," 
"off" and "open." If the switch be thrown to the "open" position' 
it will remain in that position when the hand is removed, but if it 
be thrown to the "closed" position it will automatically turn to the 
"off" position, when the hand is removed. In the "off" position 
the switch connects the control circuit so that if the circuit breaker 
opens through the operation of any of the automatic devices the 
lamp will be lighted. If the circuit be opened by the operator's 
throwing the switch to the "open" position the lamp will not be 
lighted. The electro-mechanical indicator shows the operator 
whether the circuit breaker is opened or closed. 

The circuit-breaker is automatically opened by a polyphase over- 
load relay, connected to series translormers in the main circuits. 
This relay is mounted on lop of the masonry structure. It operates 
on the principle of the single-phase induction motor. It consists of 
counter-weighted sectors swinging between the poles of an alter- 
nating-current electro-magnet. Part of each pole is surrounded 
by a short circuited strip of copper, which acts to retard the mag- 
netic llux and thus produces a shifting field. This temls to move 
the sectors, which carry a contact closing the tripping circuit of 
the circuit-breakers. 

The current for the closing and tripping magnets may be derived 
from any source of low-voltage direct current supply. 


A concession has been granted to the Vandergrift Construction 
Co., of Philadelphia, to build an electric railway between Ponce ami 
San Juan in the island of Porto Rico. This concession also carries 
with it the exclusive right to the use of a number of water falls on 
the island. The Vandergrift Construction Co. intends to develop 
the power of these water falls and to build an electric railway for 
the transportation of freight and passengers between Ponce and 
San Juan. The power developeil at the water falls will be used for 
operating this road and in addition, will provide lightning and power 
in the various towns through which the road passes and also on 
mnnerous plantations along the route. The company's engineers 
are now going over the territory in order to select the best route 
and are securing data for preparing the plans and specifications. 
The road will be equipped in a first-class manner with large double 
track interurban cars which will operate at high speeds for passen- 
ger service, and with freight locomotives and the necessary cars for 
the transportation of merchandise and car-load freight. The com- 
pany will be known as the Porto Rican Railway & Power Co. 


The annual nueting of the York County Traction Co., York, Pa., 
was held last month, as also the meetings of the various subsidiary 
companies. The directors elected for the York Street Railway Co., 
the York & Dallastown Electric Railway Co.. the York & Dover 
Rlectric Railway Co., the York & Manchester Electric Railway Co., 
the Red Lion & Windsor Street Railway Co., the York Haven Street 
Railway Co., the Wrightsville & York Street Railway Co., the York 
& Hanover Street Railway Co., the Penn Park Street Railway Co., 
the Colonial Street Railway Company and the Wellsvillle Street 
Railway Co. were: \V. H. Lanius, president; W. E. Bay Stewart, 
George S. Billmeyer, Gricr Hersh, John W. Stacey, George P. Smy- 
ser and W. .\. Himes. 

The annual report of President Lanius gave a brief history of 
llic work done in 1902 and the treasurer's report showed a very 
gratifying increase in passenger receipts. During the year the total 
receipts were $90,268; the number of car miles run was 446,480. 


The property of the Roanoke CVa.) Railway & Electric Co. was 
purchased on January 17 by the owners of the Lynchburg (Va.) 
Traction & Light Co. The property comprises iS'/j miles of track 
in and about Roanoke, all the slock, bonds and equipment of the 
Roanoke Conipany. 

The following were elected officers of the company: R. D. .\pper- 
son of Lynchburg, president ; Charles R. Miller of Philadelphia, 
vice president ; F. H. Shelton of Philadelphia, secretary and treas- 
urer. In addition to the named, the board of directors includes: 
John D. Horsley, R. Colston Blackford, and A. T. Powell, all of 
Lynchburg. J. W. Hancock of Roanoke, formerly manager of the 
old company, was elected manager. 

The old company's plans for improvements will all be carried 
out by the present management. 


The Oclwein & Northwestern Iowa Interurban & Street Railway 
Co. has been incorporated for the purpose of constructing and oper- 
ating interurban roads between Oclwein and the surrounding towns. 
The following officers have been chosen: John Jamison, presi- 
dent ; Dr. Geo. Given, vice-president ; Wm. A. Reed, secretary ; John 
Hanson, treasurer. The authorized capitalization is $200,000. It is 
said that the road will be equipped with hydrocarbon motor cars. 

An act recently passed the lower house of the New Hamp- 
shire legislature, authorizing the Concord (N. H.) & Montreal R. R. 
to acquire the Concord Street Ry. and other property, and authoriz- 
ing physical connection of the Manchester (N. 11.) Street Ry. with 
the electric branches of the Concord & Montreal R. R. 

Feb. 20, 1903.] 




MR. J. \V. }I.\NCOCK was rccenlly n-clccted general manager 
of Roanoke iVa.) Railway & Electric Co. 

-MR. H. S. McKEE. of Pittsburg, Pa., was elected a director of 
tile Rochester (X. V.) Railway Co. at its annual meeting. 

MR. W. I. \VY.\TT. of Glens Falls, N. V., lias been appoinled 
master of transportation of the Hudson \'alley Railway Co., of 
Waterford. \. Y. 

MR. F. \. ROOT, president of the Root track Scraper Co., of 
Kalamazoo, Mich., was a caller at the "Review" office in the early 
part of the month. 

MR. P. S. BER TR.-\ND. formerly assistant superintendent of the 
Peoria (III.) Gas & Electric Co's. works, has been made general 
manager of the company's plant at Springfield, Mo. 

MR. E. J. W. DIETZ. was on January 15th. appointed traffic 
manager of the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railway Co., with head- 
(juarters at room 1409 No. 100 Washington St., Chicago. 

MR. H. A. ALBIN, superintendent of the Concord (N. H.) 
Street Ry., was elected one of the vice-presidents of the New Eng- 
land Street Railway Club, at a meeting held in Boston on January 

MR. HIRAM EDWARD MANVILLE, of Milwaukee, Wis., sec- 
retary of the H. W. Johns-Manville Co., was married on January 
28th, to Miss Henrietta Estelle Romaine, daughter of Frank Hall 
Romaine. at the Church of Heavenly Rest, New York. 

MR. FR.ANK S. GIVEN, of Columbia, Pa., recently received a 
solid silver loving cup frotu the men working under him as a token 
of their esteem. Mr. Given is general manager of the Lancaster 
County Railway & Light Co.. which controls several roads operating 
in Lancaster County, Pa. 

MR. F. W. L.^TIMER recently resigned as general manager of 
the People's Traction Co., of Galesburg, III. Mr. Latimer's con- 
nection with the company has been of great value in building and 
operating the road, and his resignation is regretted by the company. 
His successor has not been appointed. 

MR. GEORGE H. GIBSON has resigned his position with the 
Weslinghousc Company's Publishing Department to go with the B. 
F. Sturtevant Co., Boston, Mass. Mr. Gibson was formerly on the 
editorial staff of the Engineering News and is a graduate of the 
Engineering School of the University of Michigan. 

MR. JOHN E. H.^RVELL has been appointed superintendent 
of the Southside Railway & Development Co. of Petersburg, Va., 
ami also of the Richmond & Petersburg Electric Railway Co. Mr. 
Harvcll has been with the Southside Railway & Development Co. 
and the Virginia Passenger & Power Co. for the past eighteen years. 

MR. GEO. W. BRINE, vice-president and treasurer of the Geor- 
gia Railway & Electric Co., of .Atlanta, has been appoinled genera! 
manager of that company. Mr. Brine is one of the best known 
and most capable officers of the company. He was manager of the 
electrical department of the Georgia Electric Light Co. for 10 years 
before it was merged with the Georgia Railway & Electric Co. 

MR. E. W. WINTER has been elected president of the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Co. to succeed Mr. J. L. Great singer. Mr. Win- 
ter is a steam railroad man of long experience, having been presi- 
dent of the Northern Pacific Railroad and having held a nuiuber 
of other important positions. He has been closely identified with 
the management of the Brooklyn Rapirl Transit Co. for several 

. MR. CHARLES O. KKL'GER, of Philadelphia. Pa., has been 
a|i{iointed general manager of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. 
Mr. Kruger lias advanced steadily to his present position. He was 
first identified with the People's 'Traction Co, When the Union 
Traction Co. was formed he was made treasurer. Recently he has 
been a vice-president and assistant general manager of that com- 
pany. Mr. Kruger is a young, able and energetic man, anil his 
scries of promotions has been based on merit. 

MR. GU'V M. WALKER, who is well known to many of our 
readers by reason of his connection with the Evcrctt-Moorc syndi- 
cate as counsel, is the subject of a very complimentary sketch in 
ihc Financier of New York for Jan. 5, 190.V Mr. Walker is a 
native of Indiana, having been born at Ft. Wayne. He is a graduate 
of l)e Pauw University and also a graduate of the Law School. He 
has traveled extensively in China, Japan and Europe and a residence 
of ten years in China has made him an authority on 'lucstions relat- 

ing to that empire. lie may be classed as one of the Indiana 
authors, of whom there are so many in the present generation, 
though Mr. Walker's writings have been on the more serious sub- 
jects of finance and transportation. The pamphlets he has written 
on these subjects have had a large circulation; that on "Municipal 
Bonds," 35,000 copies; "What Shall We Buy?" 50,000; "Interurbau 
Railways." 100,000 copies and "Railroads and Wages," 200,000. 

MR. FRED W. KINMOUTH has been appointed trainmaster 
of the Glens Falls, N. Y., division of the Hudson Valley Railway, 
with headquarters at Glens Falls. Mr. Kiiimouth has been asso- 
ciated with the road for several years. He was formerly superin- 
tendent of the Glens Falls, Sandy Hill & Fort Edward Street Rail- 
road Co. and upon the organization of the Hudson Valley Railway 
Co. became superintendent of the Glens Falls division of the road. 
Subsequently he became associated with Niagara Falls. St. Cath- 
arines & Toronto Railway Co. 

MR. FR.\NK J. BRAMHALL has resigned as chief of the ad- 
vertising department of the Michigan Central Railroad to accept a 
similar position with the Southern Pacific at San Francisco. The 
resignation became effective February 1st. Mr. Branihall has been 
with the Michigan Central for 20 years and organized the depart- 
ment of which he was chief. He is one of the pioneers of the pres- 
ent vigorous and effective methods in railroad advertising. Besides 
his advertising work Mr. Bramhall has devoted considerable tiiue 
lo writing in the fields of history, biography and economics. 

MR. EDWIN C. F.ABER has been appointed general manager of 
the Eligin. .•\urora & Southern 'Traction Co., with headquarters at 
.Aurora, HI. Mr. Falior will be remembered as general superin- 
tendent of the Cleveland Electric 
Railway Co., to which position 
lie was appointed April i, 1901, 
.iftcr .some nine years of service 
with that company in subordinate 
pcisitions. He resigned as gen- 
i ral superintendent of the Cleve- 
land Electric Railway May 15, 
\')02, at the time of the sale of 
I hat property to its present own- 
irs. and entered upon duties un- 
■ kr Mr. 1. .\. McCormack, for- 
mer manager, who had recently 
.iccei)te<l a position with the New 
^"clrk Central & Hudson River 
railroad. .'\ugust I, 1902, Mr. 
Faber went with the General 
IClcctric Co. in the department 
devoted to the operation of the company's light and traction prop- 
erties, it being interested in quite a number located in different 
parts of the country, and filled this position with marked success 
until his resignation to become manager of the Elgin-.\urora line. 
On the occasion of Mr. Fabcr's resignation at Cleveland he was 
the object of the most flattering demonstration on the part of the 
employes of that company and was presented with a silver loving 
cup as a testimonial of the good wishes of the men who served 
under him. 

COL. HENRY (iOSLEK PROUT who has been the editor of 
ihc Railroad Gazette since 1887. has resigned that position to ac- 
cept the office of first vice-president and general manager of the 
Union Switch & Signal Co. In 186.^ Col. Front enlisted in a Massa- 
chusetts regiment and went with the .Xrniy of the Potomac through 
the Wilderness campaign. In 18(15 he was mustered out and two 
years later entered the University of Michigan, where he gradnateil 
with the degree of civil engineer. .After a few years' work on rail- 
road surveys and construction he entered the service of the Khedive 
of Egypt as a Major of Engineers, in which service he remained 
aliout four years. .After the first year he went to Sedan in com- 
mand of an expedition lo Konlofan and Darfour, and was after- 
wards sent to the head of the Nile as Governor-General of the 
Provinces of the Equator, .\fler his return lo America he was for 
more than a year signal engineer lo the coiupany out of which the 
Union Switch & Signal Co. grew. In March, 1887, he became edi- 
lor of the Railroail (ia/.elte, in which position he altaified an envi- 
able rcpnialion founded upon his high professional skill and his 
character as a man. Ill recognition of Col. Protil's splendid work 
as editor and journalist lie was given a degree of Master of Arts 





(Vol. XIII. No. a 

by Vale University List year, lii addition In liis I'ditorial work Col. 
Front is a distinguished speaker and lectnrer. lie lias also dune a 
great deal of consulting and expert work for engineers and officials 
of many important railroads, and he is the editor of the Railroad 
IJivision of the Kncyclopedia Hrittanica and is a member of nnmer- 
oiis societies, clubs and associations, all of which he has served in 
some ofTicial capacity. 

MR. JII-SO.\ J. COLEMAN has severed his connection with the 
Johnson electric railway properties of Eastern Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey to open an office in New York City as financial council 
and expert in all matters pertaining to electric railway finance, con- 
struction, operation and maintenance. Mr. Coleman's thorough 
training in electric railway work peculiarly fits him for this new 
nnderlaking. Me commenced his railway life in 1876 as office boy 
with the Louisville (Ky.) Ry . and during his 26 years of experience 
since then he has filled practically every position from clerk to presi- 
dent and his various connections have placed him at different times 
in charge as inan.iger of every class of electric railway enterprise, 
including city and suburban roails and lines operated by horse, cable, 
trolley and conduit systems. Trom Louisville Mr. Coleman went to 
Cleveland at the request of Mr. Tom Johnson and his brother, the 
late Mr. A. L. Johnson, and for four years he was identified with 
the Johnson enterprises in Cleveland. .Mlentown, Pa., Yonkcrs, N. 
Y., and Brooklyn. Mr. Coleman held the office of general manager 
of the Nassau system in Brooklyn until it was sold to the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Co., when he formed connection with the St. Louis 
Car Co. as eastern representative. Two years afterward he was 
called to St. Louis to make an expert report on the proposed con- 
solidation of the St. Louis properties, and after the merger he re- 
mained in charge of the consolidated company. After some months 
he resigned that position and went to Washington, D. C, as general 
manager of the Washington Traction & Electric Co. He remained 
there until a change occurred in the controlling management when 
he resigned to take charge of the electric railway enterprises pro- 
jected by the late Mr. A. L. Johnson in Eastern Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey which position he has held until his recent resignation 
for the purpose of going into business for himself. In addition to 
his consulting work. Mr. Coleman will act as eastern representative 
for a few Western manufacturers of electric railway apparatus. 


MR. SAMUEL DE COURSEY, president of the American Rail- 
ways Co., Philadelphia, died at his home in that city on January 
27th, from the eflfects of an attack of grip. Mr. DeCoursey was 
born at Queenstown, Md., Dec. 28, 1839; he was educated at St. 
James' College and went to Philadelphia in 1854. Mr. DeCoursey 
was engaged in the dry goods business as a young man but later 
became largely interested in railroads. In 1888 he was elected vice- 
president of the Western New York & Pennsylvania R. R. and in 
1892 was made president, serving until 1900, when this road was 
absorbed by the Pennsylvania. He was also a director of the Fair- 
mount Park Transportation Co. Mr. DeCoursey is survived by his 
widow, a son and two daughters. 

MR. ABRAM STEVENS HEWETT, whose death occurred 
on January l8th, was a nian of commanding intluence in industrial 
affairs, having been connected during his whole business life with 
the iron works which he founded soon after he graduated from 
college and which grew into the present Trenton Iron Co. which 
is now one of the prominent concerns of the country. Mr. Ilewelt 
was born near Haverstraw, N. Y.. July 31, 1822, and attended the 
district school where he was prepared for college. He obtained his 
college course by winning a prize established for the student passing 
the best entrance examination, this prize paying his tuition fees 
through Columbia College. He was graduated in 1842 after which 
he studied law while serving as a tutor in college and as acting pro- 
fessor of mathematics for a time. He was admitted to the bar in 
1845. As an iron manufacturer Mr. Hewett came in close contact 
with many street railway companies especially those in New York 
City for which his concern furnished rails. In a letter to the "Daily 
Street Railway Review" at the time of the American Street Railway 
Association Convention in New York, 1901, Mr. Hewett stated that 
the grants originally made for the Second, Third, Sixth and Eighth 
Ave. lines were offered without cost to Cooper, Hewett & Co. who 
had been making special rails for many years. The late Peter 

Cooper, who was the controlling power in the firm although not the 
head of it had all his life refrained from having any interest in 
grants made by the city of New York for public improvements and 
was iniwilling that any member of his family should in future be 
placed in the false position of being charged with having profited 
by public grants. The original grooved rail used by the railways 
in New York was designed by Mr. Hewett as well as the center 
bearing rail subsequently used, which was designed to prevent 
vehicle traffic on the tracks. Mr. Hewett first entered public service 
in 1867 when he was one of the United States Commissioners to the 
Paris Exposition of that year. His report at this time upon the 
iron and steel industries of the world was published by Congress 
and translated into a number of languages. He was elected to Con- 
gress in 1874 where he served continuously until 1886, in which year 
he was elected mayor of New York over Theodore Roosevelt and 
Henry George, respectively the Republican and People's candidates. 
He was an active promoter of the New York Rapid Transit Ry. and 
in 1901 was presented with a gold medal by the Chamber of Com- 
merce in recognition of his service in securing rapid transit. Mr. 
Hewett was a director of a number of large concerns including the 
United States Steel Corporation, the American Bridge Co., the 
Morton Trust Co. and a number of railroads. In 1885 he married 
Sarah A. Cooper, only daughter of Peter Cooper. His eldest son, 
Peter Cooper Hewett has made a special study of electric lighting 
and has recently produced a ncsv type of electric lamp and a static 
converter for changing alternating to direct current, both of which 
promise great economy. 


The Stanley Electric Manufacturing Co. of Pittsfield, Mass., has 
made the following official announcement concerning the high-poten- 
tial electric railway which it is perfecting: 

"The work wv arc prepared to do is the running of long distance 
heavy, high speed trains with the .stations from 50 to 75 miles apart; 
there are no sub-stations and the high potential current is applied 
direct to the locomotive. The control wires will be carried along the 
track so that steam locomotives can be used on the same tmcks with- 
out interference with the electric system; there will be neither third 
rail nor static transformers along the line, simply a power house 
located at from 50 to 75 miles apart and control wires connecting 
them. The locomotives will be more expensive than any locomo- 
tives built on any of the present schemes but the amount of copper 
used will more than compensate for the increased cost of the loco- 
motive, since the locomotives, control wires, etc.. will cost about $75 
per h. p. against costs from $100 to $200 per h. p. for wires on pres- 
ent low potential systems. The cost for sub-stations and copper 
combined, for a low potential system, is placed at something over 
$250 per h. p. The new system will cost less than $75 per h. p. and 
will do work which the present low potential systems will not do, 
viz. : that of hauling a long train at a considerable distance from the 
station. The best thing that is being done now is at Baltimore 
where the feeder cost runs up to over $200 per h. p. and the distance 
from the station is only three miles. At ten miles from the station 
the system which has been installed in Baltimore would be absolutely 
prohibitive on account of the feeder cost. 

"The system is not that of the Ganz Co. but is the result of the 
work of our engineers on patents under which we have secured 
rights from engineers in this country and abroad, our plan only be- 
ing made possible by the combination and to an entirely new form 
of dynamo with a new form of motor control which permits the use' 
of high voltages directly on the car and absorbs no energy in resist- 
ance or other such wasteful methods as are now used in the scries 
parallel method of motor control." 

.\ fire occurred at Slcubcnvillc, O.. on Janu.nry 13th, which de- 
stroyed the plant and machinery of the Steubenville Traction & 
Light Co., with all the machinery. The city was supplied with light 
by this company. The loss is placed at $20,000. 

On January i.Slh a fire occurred at Nesvark, N. J., which de- 
stroyed one of the North Jersey Street Railway Co's. barns. The 
barn was on the Bergen and South loth St. line. It was a one- 
story frame structure 60 x 500 ft. Twenty-five passenger cars, two 
sweepers and one snow plow were burned. 

Fee. 20, 1903.] 




The J. G. Brill Co., of Philadelphia, rccoiuly completed an order 
of 30 snow plows for the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. The 
order called for 17 shear-board plows for double track work and 
13 of the nose type for the single track lines in the heart of the 
city, both of which are illustrated herewith. The curved form of 
the upper plates of the plows has proved effective in rapid work and 
the snow is rolled over and deposited at a fair distance outside the 


rails. The plows are adjustable ; the nose plow may be raised 9 
in. from track and the lower plate of the shear plow 6 in. Ordi- 
narily, in service, the bottom of the plow is kept about 2 in. from 
the rails. Straight link chains passing over chain wheels resting on 
the end sills, are wound on other chain wheels located in the cab 
and the raising and lowering is easily and quickly accomplished 
by means of a 24-in. horizontal wheel which operates a worm gear. 

The steel plates of both types of plows are J^ in. thick and 4 ft. 
from top to bottom. The shear boards are 12 ft. 4 in. long and 
the plates on either side of the nose plow 6 ft. 9 in. The bottom 
of the plows is horizontal for the full width of the track and then 
sheared on an incline, giving an elevation of 2 in. at the ends, for 
the purpose of avoiding cobble stones and high places in the pave- 
ment near the track. The plates of the shear plows are backed 
up with oak; a vertical blocking for the upper plate 3^ in. thick, 
and a horizontal blocking back of the lower one, 6^ in. deep. The 
plow posts are composed of sections of 60-lb. T-rails, secured to 
the ends of the car body and having top and bottom steel guides 
secured to the plows. The plates of the nose plows are held by 
heavy castings. The guides and T-rail posts are the same as in the 
shear plows, except that the lower ends of the posts arc secured to 
the 3 X 3!^-in. bars which are on either side of the truck, and are 
brought around the ends for that purpose. The pull irons are 
located at the center of the plow plates about 20 in. from the rail- 

The cab of the shear plows is 18 ft. 9 in. long, over sheathing, 
and 6 ft. 10!^^ in. wide, its total length over diagonal end sills 


iH-ing 28 ft. 9 in. Truss rods, which arc anchored at the ends of the 
sills are brought up to the letter board and supported by Y^ x 2J-2 in, 
iron straps extending down to the sill, with a toe at bottom in- 
serted in sill. These straps are securely boiled to the side posts. 
'Hie side sills are 5^ x 12 in., and the diagonal end sills ^Vf, x 12 
in. There are six cross joists, four of which arc s^ x 12 in. and 
two are 5 x 10 in. 

The cab of the nose plows is 18 ft. (>% in. long, and 6 ft. \oVi 
in. widi. The side sills arc S^ x 12 in., two cross joists arc %% x 

I J in. anil two S x IJ in. The cabs of both plows have 36-in. sliding 
doors, and the central sash of the hexagonal ends is .Trranged to 
drop. The roofs are substantially built with JgxiK'-in. rafters and 
six i'4x^8-in. steel rafters. Ice scrapers, or diggers, are a part 
of the equipment of the cars. They are stayed to the body with a 
■H-in. rod, which passes through a spring, allowing sufficient play 
to prevent injury by catching on obstructions other than ice and 
packed snow. The scrapers are operated by a foot pedal in the 
cab, and when lowered retain a position about J4 of an inch from 
the crown and inside of the rail. 

The 3x3!.'j-in. side bars which extend along the sides of the 
trucks from plow-post to plow-post, give enormous resisting power 
to the plows, especially at the lower edge, where the largest resist- 
ance is required. The trucks have toggle-jointed brakes, carried 
between the wheels, and are operated by means of a horizontal 
brake wheel on a vertical shaft, which is connected to a horizontal 
shaft extending across the car. The wheel base is 7 ft. 

* I » 


The Waggoner Watchman's Clock Co., of Grand Rapids, Mich., 
has placed upon the market a reliable and efficient watchman's 
clock, the interior of which is illustrated herewith. It is so con- 
structed that it will give an alarm when registering and will sound 


an alarm when short circuited by accident or otherwise, at the same 
lime registering the exact time the circuit was closed. It is im- 
possible to destroy the dial or record by closing the circuit as is 
possible with some clocks, for the registering armature or hammer 
works with a vibrating motion and with such rapidity that it is 
impossible to tear the dial. This defect has often done injustice 
to the honest watchman as it is impossible to tell whether the clock 
has torn the dial itself or whether it has been manipulated by the 
watchman. In case the watchman fails to register for any reason, 
such as sickness or being accidentally hurl, an alarm rings at the 
central station until the clock is registered. 

It can be made to serve as an automatic fire alarm as it will 
register and ring an alarm, and at the same time, by an annunciator 
alongside the clock, indicate on what floor or station the fire may 
be located. If a fire should break out it rings the alarm in as many 
places as desired, continually. It is thrown in circuit by thermostat 
connections which are operated by the heat of the buihiing when it 
reaches from 160 to 200 degrees. 

The clock is so constructed, that if desired it will register its 
number. Each clock has a number, and if several be placed in a 
series of factories, each will register its number at the central sta- 
tion on a strip of paper if the watchman fails to register the clock 
within 10 minutes over the regular time. This clock is made to 
register either with a magnetic generator or with a battery system. 



[Vol. XlII, Na 2 

It is simple in construction, easily maintained and installed and is 
sold direct to users. The makers arc willing to supply any respon- 
silde firm witli a clock for a 30-(lay trial, liclicving that its merits 
will readily recommend it to any intending purchaser. 



The prohlem of perfect lubrication for electric car motors and 
journals has been made a special study by the writer and after 
years of investigation and experiment he claims to have produced a 
solidified oil that lubricates perfectly and it is now presented to the 
public in a thoroughly tested and reliable form. 

For years compounds or greases of various kinds have been 
manufactured and placed on the market as substitutes for heavy 
liquid oils with indifferent results, as all saponified greases must 
necessarily contain water, alkalies and acids, to harden or saponify 
them into a grease, and which the writer claims renders it unfit 
for lubricating purposes, as it will not stand cold weather, it be- 
coming so hard at a low temperature that the grease will not lubri- 


U. S. Consul llaynes rejKjrls from Rouen, h" ranee, that 1-t Com- 
pagnie de I'Kst I'arisien lias recently had constructed a [lOwer- 
driven tower wagon, capable of carrying six workmen and 1,100 
lb. of material. The wagon is being used in repairing overhead 
trolley wires. The platform can be elevated to a height of 20 ft. 
and priijecled from cither side of the wagon. It will support two 
workmen and will not interfere with passing cars. The tower is 
in two sections, the top section sliding inside of the lower one. 
When the wagon is not in use or is in transit the top section may 
be lowered and the railing folded down. 

I'he vehicle is driven by a two-cylinder horizontal 12-h. p. engine. 
It is said that this method is found to be 50 i)er cent chcnper than 
.Miimal traction. 


Ihe St. Louis Car Co. is furnishing 20 cars to the St. Louis & 
Suburban Railway Co., the general plans of which are shown in 
the accompanying illustrations. These are large cars of the senii- 


catc the bearing; and then in siunmcr weather grease becomes so 
soft that it runs through and the motors require frequent replenish- 
ing to prevent the bearings running hot and causing trouble, loss 
of time and the expenditure of many thousands in the course of 
the year in repairs. 

The importance of perfect lubrication for electric car journals 
and motors has become a very serious question and one that every 
railroad man is interested in. It is claimed the new process is per- 
fect. The solidified oil is made from 23° gravity oil of over 450° 
fire test, and 350 viscosity, and 110 acid, alkali or water is used, 
the absence of these latter ingredients accounting in part for the 
fact that solidified oil is not affected by the heat or cold. 

Solidified oil is fast supplanting saponified greases and liquid 
oils whereever the former have been tested, the unvarying result 
of every test showing in favor of the solidified oil greater efficiency, 
and a great reduction of friction over any grease in use on railroads 
today. Solidified oil is now in use on car journals and has been 
running from three to si.x months without replenishing, and car 
motors have been run 30 and 90 days without replenishing. 

The writer also claims that he is making a solidified oil that 
feeds through felt wicking in winter weather as well as summer, 
which is a very important item and one that should be of very 
great interest to every electric railway man in the world. The 
writer claims to be the only person who has discovered a sure, re- 
liable and economical method of lubricating car journals in all tem- 
peratures, climates and under all conditions of traffic and espe- 
cially for high speeds. Solidified oil is made by the Hrnck Solidi- 
fied Oil Co., of 256 Dover St.. lioston, Mass. 

The first car was run between Charlevoi, Pa., and Monongahela, 
Pa., on the Pittsburg Railway Co's. new line, on January i6th. 

convertible type, llic length over all being 45 ft. The length over 
the corner posts is 34 ft. and the over-all width measures 9 ft. 2 in.; 
ihey have a seating capacity of 52 passengers. The cars, as will be 
seen in one of the illustrations, arc vestibnled at each end and the 

It is said that the Circleville, O., authorities oppose the entry into 
that town of the Scioto Valley Traction Co. The company may go 
around the town on its way to Chillicothc. 


bottoms of the cars are formed of channel steel. The windows are 
of plate glass throughout nad arc provided with Pantasote curtains. 
The inside finish of the car is mahogany, as arc also the ceilings. 

Feb. 20, 1903.1 



and all the trimmings arc of nickel plated hronzc. The cars are 
provided with St. Louis Car Co's. patent walk-over seats, covered 
with canvas lined rattan, there being 26 seats in each car. The 
cars are mounted on St. Ix>nis Car Co's. No. 47 short wheel base 
trucks having solid steel side frames and each car is provided with 
St. Louis Car Co's. arc head lights. The general arrangements of 

are provided with iletachahlc steel friction plates wliirh an- heavy 
file-cut and tempered to secure friction on the rails without llie use 
of sand, and these can be recut until worn out at a small cost. The 
shoes arc 14 in. long on the track bearing surface and have n rise 
of 9 in. 

Tt is intended that these brakes sbnnld lie applied under llic rear 


the car, showing design of framing and general dimensions, are 
shown in the accompanying drawings. 


A new type of emergency brake has recently been invented by 
Mr. Henry Fresh, of Cumberland, Md., which is illustrated in the 
accompanying engraving. The principal feature of this brake 
mechanism is what is known as a "chock-block" which bears equally 
upon the wheel and upon the track. In the accompanying illus- 
tration this block G is shown in position supported by two bars, 
one of which, called the hanger bar H, is pivoted to the side frame 
of the truck by a stud which projects through a slotted hole. The 
other bar F, which supports the block is fastened to a lug E, pro- 
jecting from the shaft C, on which is a second lug B, placed at an 
angle to lug E which serves to regulate the position of the "chock- 
block." The slot on the bar H permits this block to move in a for- 
ward and upward direction for releasing the brake, and this opera- 
tion is controlled by a lever on the car platform connecting with 
the lug B. The brake may also he supplied with a scraper or steel 


bit, P, which rests close to the rail and is used to remove ice or 
sicct from the surface of the rail. It is claimed that this brake 
is especially adapted to street railway service on heavy grades and 
that it combines safety and cfTiciency in a high degree. It is inde- 
pendent of the motive power of the car and is always ready for an 
emergency. The brake is under easy control of the molornian at 
all times by the application of the lever and the weight of the car 
upon the wheels gives the necessary pressure on Ihc rail without 
straining the car iKMly. The brake shoes are provided with a (lange 
near the wheel bearing on the rail which allows it to pass through 
curves without binding, or liability to derailment. The brake shoes 

wheels, or upon the rear truck of a car so as to leave the front 
wheels free in passing over curves. Upon double truck cars there 
is provided a circle draw-bar which leaves the truck free to adjust 
itself to curves. The brake is exceedingly simple in design and is 
easily applied and there are no wheels, latches or springs to get 
out of order. It requires no expensive repairs and is easily attached 
to any type of cars. The lirakc is manufactured by Fresh & 
Speicher, of Cumberland, Md. 


The Mayer & Englund Co., of Philadelphia, has commenced the 
publication of a small monthly periodical that has for its mission 
the avowed purpose "of bettering the business of the Mayer & Eng- 
lund Co. and its customers." The monthly has been appropriately 
named the "Keystone Traveler," and the publishers announce that 
it will cost nothing but the time it takes 10 read it. The January 
number, which is Volume I, No. i, contains 24 pages of reading 
matter cleverly prepared and displayed. Descriptions and illustra- 
tions of Mayer & Englund specialties are interspersed with very 
readable fables and witticism, the whole making a combination that 
ought to go a long way toward accomplishing the end in view. 
When one has perused llie first issue of the Keystone Traveler 
there can be little doubt left in his mind that the particular business 
of the Mayer & Englund Co. is the making and selling of liigh-class 
supplies for electric railways. The periodical will be sent regularly, 
free of cost, to any manager, engineer or purchasing agent interested 
in street railway matters. 


M. F. C Randall, general sales agent fcir llie Christensen I'Ji- 
gineering Co., last month closed, among other orders, contracts for 
350 No. 2 air compressors, governors and oiliir p.irts of an 
brake apparatus for the stibvvay cars of the Interbormigli Rajiid Tran- 
sit Co. of New York City. He also look orders Ironi the Rhnde 
Island Co., of Providence, for 23,3 No, i straight air brake e(|uip- 
ments, and it is of interest to note that when these have been in- 
stalled every double truck electric railway car in the stite oT Khinlc 
Island will have linn equipped with Chrisleii'ir n air braK-rj 

• t » 

Coal and cattle interests in ihc vicinity rif lilmira. 111., arc advo- 
cating the building of an electric road lo connect that town with the 
tnaiii line of the Chicago, lUirlingtim & tjuincy H. R., at Kewanee, 
so constructed that freight ears may be intcrrlianged with Ihc Diir- 



(Vol, XIII. No. 2 


Tlic ai-i-DiniMiiyinn ciiKraviiiK illuslralrs a Irollry riiraclor wliicli 
has lucn patcnti-d recently ami is known as llic HufTinan-l'uwers 
trolley protector, which will be of interest lo our readers. The 
device is contained in a small wooden box placed at the rear of the 
car. within which is a drnni on which the trolley rope is wound. 
Within this drum is a motor spring of sufficient strength lo just 
keep all the slack out of the rope, in order that the retractive effort 
of the protector may be quickly applied in case the trolley leaves 
the wire. On the same spindle, but independent of the drum, is a 
spring barrel, containing a spring of sulTicicnt strength to draw 
down the trolley pole. This barrel carries a pawl which engages a 
ratchet on the drum : under ordinary running conditions the paw I 
is iliscngaged, being held by a hook on a lever, on the opposite end 


of which is the armature of an electromagnet. This hook not only 
prevents the engagement of the pawl with the drum, but it prevents 
the spring barrel from rotating. 

From each side of the trolley head lle.xibly poised wire connectors 
project laterally ; these are insulated from the trolley pole, but arc 
connected to the ground through the electromagnet in the protector 
box and a switch. These projecting wires are located so that they 
can not touch the trolley wire while the wheel is in place, but they 
make contact as soon as the wheel leaves the wire. The electro- 
magnet attracts the armature, which in turn raises the releasing 
hook, allowing the pawl to drop and the spring barrel to come into 
action. The latter now engages with the drum and both springs 
unite in drawing the pole downward, where it is held out of reach 
of the cross wires and overhead work. 

Tests extending over a considerable period show that the trolley 
wheel does not get even a few inches above the wire, and that it is 
drawn down four feet in an instant. A projecting lug on the spring 
barrel opens the switch, so that the operator 
can reset the trolley with no danger of a 
ground, allowing him to strike the projecting 
wires against the trolley in so doing. 

To reset the trolley and the protector, it is 
only necessary 10 exert a slight pull upward 
on the rope, in which the trolley assists, this 
rewinds the barrel spring and the retaining 
hook catches hold of the pawl automatically. 
The switch is then closed, and the apparatus 
is ready to proceed. In order to assure the 

motorman that the device is set, or to warn him when the trolley has 
left the wire, the opening of the switch also closes a circuit through 
a battery and signal bell, which will continue ringing until the 
trolley is re-set. 

It is claimed for this device that it will not be tripped by jarring 
of the car; that it operates whether the motors are taking current 
or not; that it is impossible for a circuit to be made unless th; 
trolley wheel leaves the wire, and that it requires the minimum of 
elTort to reset it. The device has been tested for some time on the 
lines of the LaFayette Street railway and has worked satisfactorily. 

The maker is the Hoffman-Powers Co., LaFayette, Ind. 


January uih a strike of the motormcn and cimductors nn the 
Walerbury division of the Connecticut Railway & Lighting Co. was 
declared. About 100 men were involved and the strike was caused 
on account of the discharge of a motorman who was president of 
the motorman's union. The man was discharged for repeatedly 
leaving his car at the suburlun terminal and entering a saloon. For 
several weeks the service was badly crippled and no attempts were 
made to run cars at night. Later, men were secured to take the 
strikers' places and it was endeavored to resume the regular sched- 
ules. This increased the activity of the strikers and their sympa- 
thizers, and on the night of January Jist serious rioting occurred. 
Cars were stoned and nonunion crews were severely handled; 
about 20 men were injured. February ist 14 companies of militia 
were ordered to Walerbury after which the cars were run for some 
time with military protection. The company is now operating its 
cars on regular schedules by non-union men and the luilitia has 
gradually been withdrawn. Farly in the strike the union started 
omnibus lines in opposition to some of the car lines. 

On January 25th the conductors and molormen of the Indiana 
Railway Co. inaugurated a strike which left the cities of South 
Bend, Mishawaka, Flkhart and Goshen without street car service. 
The strike was brought about by the discharge of 10 men who were 
officers of the local street car men's union. The strikers demanded 
a nine-hour schedule, the adjustment of grievances by arbitration, 
reinstatement of 10 discharged conductors and motormcn, recogni- 
tion of the luiion by the company, and an increase in wages. On 
February 3d a committee of the prominent citizens of the cities 
affected endeavored lo adjust the conditions between the company 
and the men but no settlement of the trouble could be made. 

A strike of the conductors and molormen of the Montreal Street 
Railway Co. was commenced on February ist for the recognition 
of the molormen and conductor's union, an increase of salary and 
the reinstatement of a number of employes. Within two hours 
after the strike was declared a car was wrecked by a mob and the 
motorman roughly handled. .Vnother man was assaulted and prob- 
ably fatally injured. 1 he strike was terminated on the night of the 
same day, the company conceding most of the demands made by the 
employes including 10 per cent advance in wages, recognition of 
the union, and reinstatement of recently discharged men. 


The portable lamp guard and holder shown in the accompanying 
illustration is manufactured and marketed by Porter & Berg, dealers 
in electric railway supplies, Chicago. It is made after their own de- 
sign and is something that can be used to great advantage by electric 
railway companies. It is made in two sizes, suitable to take either 
16 or 32 candle power lamps. The guard is very strong and com- 
pact, yet not too heavy to be bandied conveniently. There are a 
good many places in and around car barns, pits, store rooms, shops. 

PORT.Mil^K L.\.Sli' Hi.l.HtK, 

etc, where a portable light would be very convenient and for tlu:> 
purpose the portable holder is especially adapted. The hook at the 
upper end of the guard is made of a size suitable lo be attached to 
aliTiost any foriu of support and by this means a man using it can 
readily find a temporary place for it. This device is particularly 
recommended for soo^volt work for the reason that the socket is 
thoroughly insulated from the guard, thus obviating any trouble 
from "grounds" on railway circuits; The outfit is furnished com- 
plete with the exception of the incandescent lamp and in addition 
a soft rubber socket protector is supplied, the latter serving as a 
protection to the socket when used in exceptionally moist places. 

Fer 20, 1903.] 





A head-on collision occurred between two cars of the Wilkes 
Barre & Wyoming Traction Co. on the niglit of February ist, which 
is attributed to a dense fog which prevailed. The collision occurred 
near Pittston Junction and 10 persons were more or less seriously 

Two head-on collisions between electric cars occurred within 70 
minutes, on January 28th, on the Clayton division of the St. Louis 
Transit Cos. line. The first wrecked a car near the bridge over 
the River des Peres on the single track line and three men were 
injured, one seriously. The other collision was between a mail 
car and a passenger car which came together with such force that 
the front ends of both cars were demolished. 

A car of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. was wrecked by a 
locomotive on Jan. 31st and six persons wer injured, but none 
seriously. .\ locomotive of the Reading railroad ran out of the 
station at Third and Burke Sts. with no one aboard, but with its 
throttle wide open, and ran at high speed along a single track which 
was but seldom used and where no watchman was stationed. When 
the motorman saw the locomotive he had no time to act, or even 
to jump. The car was struck near one end, turned at right angles 
to its former direction and was thrown over on its side. It is 
thought that the engine was started by some mischievous boy who 
had become frightened and jumped from the cab. 

A collision occurred on January 21st between an Archer Ave. 
car of the Union Traction Co. of Chicago, and a train on the Chi- 
cago & Western Indiana Ry. The accident was due to the break- 
ing in two of a freight train north of Archer Ave. When the en- 
gine and several cars had passed the crew of the electric car be- 
lieved the track to be clear and the car was started forward. When 
it reached the center of the tracks the rear part of the broken train 
came into collision with the car. The motorman was fatally in- 
jured and several of the passengers w'ere hurt, but none seriously. 

On January 19th a collision occurred in Columbus, O., between 
a train on the Toledo & Ohio Central Ry. and a Leonard Ave. trol- 
ley car. Just as the motorman started to make the crossing it is 
claimed the gateman started to lower the gates and to ring the 
danger signal. The gates struck on top of the car near the rear 
vestibule, and as the car approached the tracks an engine backed 
down and struck the car, forcing it off the tracks and breaking 
both of the sills. It was claimed that the watchman did not attempt 
to lower the gates until after the car had passed onto the tracks and 
the marks of the gate on the roof of the car about 3 ft. from the 
rear end substantiate this claim. It is also said that the engine car- 
ried no lights and the conductor of the car was unable to sec it 

A motorman on a car of the F.ddy & Fulton St. line, of San 
Francisco, Cal., lost control of his car while descending a steep 
grade and as the car entered a curve 
it jumped the tracks and threw sev- 
eral passengers to the street, seven of 
whom were painfully but not seri- 
ously hurt The conductor of the 
derailed car claims that the motor- 
man ran his car down the grade at 
an unnecessarily high rate of speed. 
The brakes of the car were found to 
be in perfect order. 

♦ ■ » 

The Congo State Railway author- 
ities, whose headquarters are in Brus- 
sels, are alx)ut to invite estimates for 
supplying 30 electric locomotives and 
a large electrical installation. 

1 ho of wire fences for enclosing private rights of way for 
suburban electric lines and other railways is now very general and 

the accompanying illustrations 

show some new styles of fence 

posts which have been put on the 
market by the Climax Fence Post 
Co. These posts are particularly 
suited for railroad right of way 
fences, farm land fences, railroad 
signal posts, city sign posts, etc., 
and are made in several styles for 
corner, end, line and ornamental 
posts. They are made in any 
height required, of steel angles 
which are cemented in the base. 
The base is made of vitrified shale 
clay. The angles above the base 
are punched for any kind of fence 
wire desired. Fences of this con- 
struction present an extremely 
neat and attractive appearance and 
are rapidly coming into general 
use for interurban and suburban 
electric railways operating upon 
private rights of way. 

In view of the fact that the 
power house of the new Muncie 
(Ind.), Hartford City & Fort 
Wayne Railway Co. is located at 
Eaton, it is now proposed to run 
a branch line from tlie latter town 
to Albany, Selma, Parker City and 
Winchester. A part of the riglit- 
of-way to Albany has already been 
secured. Work on the Muncie- 
Hartford City company's line, con- 
necting Muncie, Hartford City and Montpelier, was well under way 
the latter part of January, and it was expected that the road would 
he put in operation .some time during the present month. 



'I'he Ludlow Supply Co., of Cleveland, O., wliich has for some 
lime been handling the Gore track drill mounted upon a carriage 
of its own manufacture, has now made arrangcmcnis whereby it 
will in future manufacture these drills. The company has made 

The Berkshire Street Railway Co., 
of Pittsficid, Mass., recently started ■-_.. 

a through car schedule from Great 
Barrington and Pittsficid to North 
Adams. It is reported that the road 
is to be extended to Canaan, Conn. 

The company recently received several new combination passenger 
and baggage cars. 


several iniprovenienls in them ncrrilly which will \ir seen by icf- 
ercnce to the accompanying illustralion. The driving wheels have: 



I Vol. XI II, No. 2 

ln.-1'ii raiM.'<l 4'j in., briiiijiiiK llicm to a iiiorv natural puMtiun for 
liirniiif! and llic small crank on tliv raising and lowering shaft lias 
l>crn replaced with a tj-iu. whvt'l, making it ninch easier lo raise 
and lower. .\ ratchet wheel and clamps for holding the rail while 
drilling have also lieen added. In recent tests, nsing a new bit, a 
hole was drilled in Jb seconds and each of the first lO holes in less 
than one niinnle, with two men turning and ime man feeding. By 
inserting a new hit fre(|nently this average can be maintained. The 
carriage rides on the rails, allowing the drill to be moved rapidly. 
The company recently eqnipped one of its drills with a Vt-h. p. 
electric motor connected hy bell to one of the driving wheels. This 
arrangement gave entire .satisfaction, the motor maintaining a speed 
equal to that when operated by two men, and but one man is re- 
quired to operate the drill. 



Ihc accompanyiiin lllll^t^ations show the tire grate nianufactureil 
by the Martin Grate Co.. No. j8 Plymouth Court, Chicago. Fig. i 
is one of the bars in detail and I'ig. 2 shows the appearance of the 
assembled grate. It will be noted that the bar extends lengthwise 
of the firelw.N. an arrangement which, in connection with the design 
of the bar itself, is intended to facilitate the use of slice bar and hoe. 
The bar is I'j in. in width and s'/2 in depth. There are interlocking 

Slime iif the claims made by the manufacturers for this grate are: 
very reasonable first cost, remarkable durability, fuel economy, and 
great ease of installation, o|H-rali(in and repair. And these claims 
are substantiated by testimony from a great many of the largest 
steam plants in the west. 


The Pittsburg Kailways Co. controlling all the street railway 
lines in Pittsburg, .MIegheny and the adjacent towns has placed an 
order with the Duff Mantifacluring Co., of Pittsburg, Pa., to equip 
each of its cars with a No. 2 Barrett jack. Almut a year ago the 
company tried the experiment of equipping every third or fourth 
car with a jack and the result has been so satisfactory that the cars 
are all lo be so equipped. Several prominent street railway com- 
panies in this country are considering the .idoption of this plan as 
there seems to he many advantages in providing each car with a 
jack to be used in case of emergency. They are freepiently of serv- 
ice in removing wagons that are broken down on the tracks, thereby 
avoiding much annoyance and delay. In some places the law re- 
quires that a jack should tie carried on each car. Such a law is in 
force in Cape Town, South .\frica, and the equipment for this road 
was furnished by the DufT Manufacturing Co. about a year and a 
half ago. 


Fit;. I. DET.MI. Ill' (;k.\TK b.\k. 

fingers im the bars, the spaces between llutn arc small and llic bars 
all rock in the same direction at the same time. With these condi- 
tions, the act of shaking does not allow clinker lo drop down and 
clog the grate. 

This grate bar may be classed among the heaviest on Uic market. 
though the heavy part is a considerable distance below the fire line, 
with a free circulation of air between; thus providing against over- 
heating. It will be noticed that the top of the bar is slotted near 
each end to allow for expansion and conlmction. To this slot, is 
said lo be due, the long life of the bar. 

The bars rest with a wedge-shaped bearing on the supporting 
bars, making the operation of the grate extremely easy. It is said 


The Pittsburg. McKeesport & Connellsville Railway Co. an- 
nounces that its main offices, and the offices of all its affiliated light- 
ing companies, will be located in the Title & Trust lildg., Connells- 
ville, Pa. The new plant of the railway company, which cost in 
llic ncighborhod of $1,000,000, will be put into operation within the 
next io days, and power from this plant will be delivered to all 
parts of the system as soon as the high tension lines are com- 
pleted. The remaining links in the railway system arc being rapidly 
closed up and the last of the bridges are Iwing erected so that the 
entire road, with the exception of the extensions which are to be 
built this summer, will be in operation in the near future. The 
company has recently completed a new system of shops at Connells- 
ville and is in the market for the equipment of machinery for these 


♦ • » 


PH.. 2. .\SSEMliLEl) (IKATK. 

ihat very little effort is required lo shake a grate of 60 sq. ft. in area. 

Ordinarily the air space for draft is about fifty per cent of the 
grate area, but it can be changed in a few minutes by changing the 
position of the bars. 

While the grate would seem lo be very satisfactory with any kind 
of fuel, it is especially adapted lo use where screenings or slack is 

I Ik Slanilard Pole & 1 ie Co. has removed its offices to the Vene- 
zuela Building, numbers 133-5-" Front St., New York City, a change 

rendered necessary by the increased 
business of the company and the 
consequent enlargement of its office 
force. The company is doing a large 
pole and tie business, and with its en- 
larged Southern yards, and its in- 
creased facilities in all departments, is 
covering a wide field Ihrougboul the 
Middle West. 

.•\t Brooksville, Fla., the company 
owns extensive tracts of Florida 
heart pine limber land on which it 
has erected and is now operating a 
sawmill and two large crossarm mills. 
The crossarms turned out at this 
point are of the best quality of long 
leaf yellow pine, and it is the com- 
pany's policy lo subject them to se- 
vere tests before shipment, so the 
arms will stand the most rigid ex- 
amination and give entire satisfaction. The aim of the company is 
lo please its customers at all limes, and all orders sent to the New 
York office will receive attention and be satisfactorily filled. 

The Urbana (Ohio) Bellefonlainc & Northern Traclion Co. re- 
cently received the first consignment of rails for the road in Cham- 
paign County, O. 

Fee. 20, 1903,] 





For several weeks the Cleveland City Railway Co. has been mak- 
ing a practical test of the "Eclipse" fender which is the invention of 
Mr. Benjamin Lev, of Cleveland. It is claimed for the "Eclipse" 
that it will pick up a person absohitcly without injury even when the 
car is moving rapidly, and the confidence of the inventor in the per- 
fection of the device has resulted in a number of tests that to the 
onlookers must have been extremely startling. One such object 
lesson is thus described by an eye-witness : "Mr. Lev stepped out 
on the track as the car came down grade at a speed of about 12 
miles per hour, and was struck by the fender which operates per- 


fcclly. The hollow rubber cylinder which extends across the front 
of the fender struck him about the ankles, the force of the impact 
causing him to fall backwards into the fender whicli held him se- 
curely. The car was stopped as quickly as possible and Mr. Lev 
released from the fender and was found to be entirely uninjured 
and none the worse for the experience. He had taken no precautions 
whatever in way of protecting his person by padding or otherwise, 
but was dressed in ordinary street clothes. The street railway 
people present were apparently well pleased with the result of the 

The fender is made by the Eclipse Car Fender Co. of Cleveland. 
The construction is very simple; a platform or fender of band iron 
latticed together stands at an angle of about 45 degrees, and is 
pivoted near the front. At the lower end of the fender is a hollow 
rubber cylinder, which strikes about the ankles of any person stand- 
ing on the track, taking the force of the blow ; the force of the fall 
is taken up by the body striking the inclined fender, which at once 
tips back with the weight and holds the person as if cau^it in a 
basket. A flexible screen at the back prevents any injury from strik- 
ing the front of the car. 


'I he Intcrborough Rapid Transit Co., of New York, has recently 
awarded contracts to the Westinghouse Air Brake Co., of Pitts- 
burg, for the air brake apparatus proper, such as engine valves, 
triple valves, brake cylinders, piping, etc., for all the 500 cars con- 
stituting the first installment of rolling stock for use in the sub- 
way. The Christcnscn Engineering Co., of Milwaukee, will supply 
the compressors, governors, etc.. for the equipments. 


Plans arc under consideration for an inlcruriian electric railway 
nystcm which shall serve the coke region between the Allegheny and 
Monongahcia Rivers, the territory being tributary to Pittsburg. The 
Pitlsburg, .McKccsport & Conncllsvillc and Grccnburg, Jeancttc & 
Pittsburg, together with the line now building from Conncllsvillc to 
fjreeiiburg will form the main part of the system, branches being 
bnilt to other towns as the conditions may require. 

I'hc Fond du Lac & Oshkosh Electric Ry. was formally opened 
on January 28th, the ceremonies being participated in by the officials 
of the railway and of the Columbia Construction Co., and. a num- 
ber of invited guests from the cities along the line. The guests 
were taken to Fond du Lac on the interurban car "Oshkosh" where 
a luncheon was served. Alter the luncheon the guests again em- 
barked on the two interurban cars, "Oshkosh" and "Fond du Lac," 
which reached Oshkosh about six o'clock. After making a tour 
of the city and inspecting the public buildings the party was taken 
to Athern Hotel where a dinner was served. Congratulatory 
speeches were made by the mayors of Fond du Lac and of Osh- 
kosh and other prominent visitors. 

The new road is I9,'4 miles long and runs through a private 
right of way 50 ft. wide. The track is laid with 70-lb. T-rails 
in 60-ft. lengths and is to be ballasted with 18 in. of gravel. The 
overhead work is of span construction and there are two figures-8 
trolley wires. The rolling stock comprises four passenger cars and 
one McGuire rotary snow plow. The cars are double truck, with 
vcslilniles. and contain modern facilities such as lavatories with 
hut ami ciilil water, smoking compartments, etc. The power for 
the road is suiiplicd liy the Fond du Lac Street Railway & Light Co. 


One of Ihc Manchester fN. II.) .Street Railway Go's, waiting 
Mai.'ons wa» destroyed by fire on January Z3d. 

The importance of maintaining clean track and clean streets in 
which street railways operate has now become very generally 
understood by street railway managers, not only on account of the 
saving in current which is accomplished by keeping dirt and sand 
from the rails, but also on account of the additional comfort to 
passengers and the consequent increase in the traffic which fol- 
lows. For cleaning streets and tracks both pneumatic sprinklers 
and snow sweepers have been found very effective, and the Mc- 
Guire Manufacturing Co., of Chicago, states that the inquiries for 
pneumatic sprinklers which have been received during the winter 
months is significant of the preparations which are being made by 
street railway companies to clean the streets. 

The company manufactures pneumatic sprinklers mounted on 
both single and double truck cars, the former being made in three 
sizes, 25,000, 30,000 and 35,000 gallons, and the double truck sprink- 
ler being made in capacities of 40,000 and 50,000 gallons. The 
greatest demand now is for sprinklers which will cover the entire 
width of the street, and these machines are made to spread over a 
maximum width of 50 ft. on each side, or 100 ft. over all. 

These pneumatic sprinklers arc made with a heavy steel tank 
which contains a partition, on one side of which is the water stor- 
age and on the other side the compressed air storage for maintain- 
ing the pressure on the water. The air reservoir is maintained at 
the proper pressure by means of an independent motor-driven air 
compressor, and, if desired, motor driven centrifugal pumps are 
installed on the sprinkler for filling the tanks where there is no city 
water supply. In addition to the regular sprinkling head this com- 
pany provides an auxiliary nozzle called a track flusher, which 
throws a separate stream of water directly upon the track rails .so 
as to thoroughly clean them. The amount of water to be used is 
regulated by a lever controlled by the motorman, and in order to 
avoid wetting passing vehicles and pedestrians a device is provided 
for cutting off the water instantly by means of a spring actuated 
switch operated by the motoman's foot. 

The company has received a number of orders for this machine 
from the Richmond Railway & Electric Co., of Staten Island; the 
Norfolk Railway & Light Co., of Norfolk, Va.; the Cleveland City 
liailway Co., Cleveland, O., and other companies. The sales of 
snow sweepers in localities where there is little or no snow have 
also been numerous recently and point to the increasing use of 
sweepers for cleaning tracks of dirt and sand. 

The litigation between the city of Monlrcal and the Montreal 
Street Railway Co., in regard to whether the ronip.iny shall pay 
lo the cily a percentage of Ihc earnings of that portion of its track 
nol inchiiUd in (he cily limits, has been decided in favor of the 
company by the Court of Appeal, this coiul affiiiiiiiig llic judgment 
of the Superior Court. 



[Vol. XIII. No. 2- 



riic linaiuial Matriiunt >tiliniitted at tlif aiimial im-cliiiK iif llic 
SmilM Siili- I-llivntfil Kailriia<l ^llo^v^■ll a coiuiiuialioii of llic steady 
heavy Rrowlli which the road has enjoyed for several years. The 
siirphis for the year ig02 was $i78.f>.ii aKainst a siirpUis of $IJ5.- 
5(16 ill iqoi. There was an increase of S.i)5 per cent in the niiniher 
of passenuers carried over tliat of tlie previous year and the cost of 
condiictinf; transportation anionnted to nearly 1.J7 cents per passen- 
ger carried, against i.37 cents for the year licfore. The figures for 
last year, vsith comparison with those of 1901. are as follows: 

Kaniing.s— iqo2. 1901. 

Passenger $i. $i,.ii6.009 

Other earnings 4><.4"t>'> 

Miscellaneous I.5.?" .i7'' 

Gross earnings . ?i.4K,v84.^ $ 1 ..?().>.2,? 1 

E.\petises — 

Maintenance of way aiul structure $ 57.44- $ "4.4y'* 

Maintenance of e<|uipinent 107.145 105.279 

Conducting transixirtation .VM.".!'' 3<>l,6tQ 

General expenses MO.O.s'' 141,201 

Loop rental and expenses 1S3.057 162,360 

Total expenses $ 862,.?.i8 $ 844.060 

Net earnings 621,505 5'7.27i 

Deduct interest on bonds 33.750 3.1.750 

Deduct dividends on capital stock 409.'-4 357.955 

Surplus ? 178.631 $ 125,566 


The financial report of the Lake Street Elevated for the year 11)02 
showed a deficit of $26,915 for the year as a surplus of 
$6,204 ill '901. This was dire to the increase in the items of labor, 
costs and taxes, and an increase of $.13,943 in labor alone more than 
equalled the deficit. The comparative statement of the earnings, 
operating expenses and net earnings for the past two years arc as 

1902. 1901. 

Total earnings $815,284 $786,462 

Operating expenses 4.10.291 388.799 

Net earnings $384,992 $397,662 

Oprating ratio 52.78 49.43 

Total passengers carried 15,849,411 I5.394,0.l8 

Daily average 43-423 42>>75 

The following are the profit and loss .iccounts of the last two years 
compared : 

1902. liX>I- 

'To cost of operation . . $430,291 ' $3,S8.7()9 

To taxes reserved 24.235 1 4,856 

To interest on floating debt and trust notes 64,793 56,248 

To interest on first-mortgage Ixinds outstand- 
ing (including interest accruing Jan. i, 1903) 236,726 17.261 

To interest on debenture Ixjnds outstanding 218.355 

To rental of leased roads 84,384 82,970 

To mileage tax, reserved 1.767 1.767 

To surplus for year 6,204 

Totals $842,uw $78<),46j 

By passenger earnings $796,621 $767,795 

By miscellaneous income : 
.Advertising and news privileges, etc. 18.662 18,666 

Deficit 26.91; 

Totals $842,199 $786,462 

At the annual meeting an organization committee was appointed 
consisting of David R. Forgan, II. N. Iliginbolham, H, .\. Ilaugan. 
Cory E. Robinson and Thomas Tcmpleton, which is to devise a plan 
of reorganization and report to the stockholders on March 2d. 




$ 310,135 

/' 26.748 







.■ 3.887 

$ 376.140 

• $ 88,261 



101. (>35 




The report of the Northwestern Elevated Railroad for the year 
1902 showed 3.H per cent earned on the preferred stock after $36,- 
000 in cash had been set aside out of earnings for the maintenance 
reserve, after heavy charges had been made against earnings for 
maintenance of equipment and after the cost of important improve- 
ments for the loop division had been deducted from the year's in- 

come. These extraordinary items amounted to over I per cent on 
the preferred slock. The gross earnings of the Northwestern Ele- 
vateil proper, for the year increased 15 per cent and the earnings of 
the Union Elevated, now owned by the Northwestern, increased 
nearly 12 per cent. The Northwestern now has $51,000 in a cash 
reserve fund for maintenance of way and structures. The figures 
for the year with a cmnparison for those of iqoi arc as follows: 

learnings — 1902 1901. Increase. 

Trom passengers $i.ifi7.52>) $1,016,187 $ 151.342 

Other, including Loop ml 243.46<> 

Total $1,410,1)98 

l''xpenses — 
.Maintenance way a 58,063 

.Mainlenance e(iuipmeiit 51,261 

Conducting Iran'pnrlaliuM . 306,143 

tieiieral 48,934 

Total . 5 4f>4,40i 

Net earning- 946.597 

Charges — 
Loop rent . 1 16.774 

Taxes 86..i09 

Hond interest 554.09' 385,220 • 168,871 

Total $ 757.'74 $ 565.435 $ I9'.739 

Surplus '89.423 159.287 30.'.?6 

II Includes $36,coo set aside in monthly installments in cash for 
mainlenance reserve. 

/'Includes $15,000 set aside in monthly installments in cash for 
mainlenance reserve. 


The comparative statement for the months of December. 1902, and 
1901, for all the underlying companies of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
system was as follows : 

1902. 1901. Increase. 

♦Miles operated (single track). 488.1 489.3 

Gross earnings $1,076,192 $1,038,158 $ 38,034 

Operating expenses 655.896 686,622 •*30,726 

Net earnings from operation... 420,296 35',535 68,760 

While this showing is not equal to that of the previous months, 
il shows substantial gains in both the gross and net earnings. and a 
fair reduction in operating expenses. The figures for the last six 
months of 1902 are as follows: 

Gross earnings $6,832,369 $6,513,239 $ 323,130 

Operating expenses 3.785. '75 4.083.729 **298,SS3 

Net earnings from operation... 3,051,194 2.429.510 621,684 

* Includes leased railroad of New York & Brooklyn Bridge 2.6 
miles and trackage rights over Coney Island & Brooklyn Bridge 
Railroad 2.4 miles. 

*• Decrease. 

The income account for the International Railway Co. for the 
month of December, 1902, with a comparison for December, 1901, 
is as follows: 1901. 1902. Increase. 

Gross earnings $732,376.73 $904.'7i-3' $'71.79458 

Operating (exclud- 
ing taxes) 378,044.40 492.990.62 1 14,946.22 

Net earnings 354.3.P.33 411.180.69 56,848.36 

I'ixed charges 386,489.25 390.134.40 3.64515 

Net income 32.156.92 21.046.2f) 53.203.21 

.\et income, July l«t to date. (19.839.35 149.480 19 70.640.84 

Operating ratio (exclusive 

of taxes) st.6 54.5 

'The figures for the quarter ending Deceml)er 31st, with compari- 
son of previous are as follows: 

1901. 1902. Incrca.-c. 

Gross earnings $270,650.97 $309.8/1.35 $39.229..38 

Operating expenses (exclud- 
ing taxes) 174,823.91 169.957.32 4.8r)6.59 

Net earnings 95,827.06 139.914.03 44.0S6.97 

I'ixed charges 128,241.23 132,822.26 4..S81.01J 

Net income ,v,4'4.'7 7,09'-77 .19..505.5 

Xel incumc, July to dale. 74.729.93 l49.48o.I9 74-7.=' 

Ol>erating ratio (exclusive of 
taxes) . . . 64.6 54.8 

FeR 20. 1903.] 




The financial statement of tlie Twin City Rapid Transit Co. fur 
Decenilwr and for tlie year 1902 sliows a remarkable increase in 

the operating e.xpenses for December which was over 32 per cent, 

as against an increase In the company's traffic of about I2'/S per cent. 
The figures are as follows : 

For December, 1902 — 

iy02. 1901. Increase. 

Gross earnings ... $3.? 1331 $294,341 $36,990 

Operating expenses 151.456> 37,350 

Net earnings 179.^75 180,235 '.^fio 

Interest, dividends and taxes 78,018 64.450 I3.6()8 

Surplus 101.857 115.885 "14.028 

Fur the year 1902 — 

1902. 1901. Increase. 

Gross earnings $3.612,21 1 $3,1/3.976 $438,235 

Operating expenses 1.630,170 1.415.452 214,718 

Net earnings 1.982,041 1.758.524 223,517 

Interest, didivends and taxes.... 921,718 876,638 45,o8o 

Surplus 1,060,323 881,886 178,477 

* Decrease. 


The financial report of the Toronto Railway Co. for the year end- 
ing Dec. 31, 1902, with comparisons with the previous year has been 
issued as follows : 

igo2. 1901. 

Gross earnings $1,834,908.37 $1,661,017.50 

Operating expenses 1.015.361.32 857.612.10 

Net earnings 819.547.05 803.405.40 

Passengers carried 44,437.678 39.848,087 

Operating ratio 55,3 51.6 

That the statement does not show a higher net reveinie is ex- 
plained by the higher prices paid for materials for maintenance and 
repairs, by the abnormally high price of coal, a large increase in 
employes' wages and a large expense in detecting and punishing 
systematic thieving which was depriving the company of a portion 
of its revenue. The directors have set aside $75,000 from the sur- 
plus to the credit of a contingent account to provide against heavy 
or special renewals, etc. 


The earnings for the month of December, 1902, and for the last 
three months of the year 1902 with the increase over the .same 
periods for the previous year are shown in the following tables : 

Dec. 1902. Increase. 

Passenger earnings $173,041.83 $i6.,3.30.78 

Miscellaneous earnings 4,325.47 2,840.78 

Total earnings I77,.l67..^0 19,171.56 

Operating expenses 113.917.48 8.310.63 

Net earnings 63,449.82 10,860.93 

Fixed charges 17,405.56 2.220.43 

Surplus 4,044.26 8,640.50 

Operating ratio 65.83 

For the quarter ending December, 1902 — 

1902. Increase. 

Passenger earnings $523,.3o8..?2 $48,855.06 

Miscellaneous earnings 8,.336.95 3.621.05 

Total earnings _ .531,645.27 52,476.11 

OjK-rating expenses 313.964.85 26.657.74 

Net earnings „ . 217,680.42 25,818.37 

Fixed charges 49.473-77 4.9.37 71 

Surplus 168,206.65 20,880.66 

Opfrating ratio 60.00 


The statement of earnings of the Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo 
Traction Co. for the month of December, 1902, compared with De- 
remljcr, igoi, and for the seven months ending December 31, 1902, 
arc shown in the following tables. The operating expenses inclu<lc 
an accident appropriation equal to 2 per cent of the gross receipts 
aiirl all charges for taxes ami interest : 

For month eiuling Dec. 31. 1902 — 

1902. I 

Total gross earnings $36,452.32 $31, 

Operating expenses 21.376.93 17, 

Net earnings 15.075-39 U. 

Deductions from income 15,952.24 16, 

Deficit 876.85 3. 

For the seven months ending December 31, igo2. 

Total gross earnings $302, 

Operating expenses 155. 

Net earnings 146, 

Deductions from income 113, 

Net income 32, 

1 17.1 1 



The comparative statement of earnings of the Pueblo & Suburban 
Traction & Lighting Co. for the months of December, 1902, and 
1901, is as follows; 

1902. 1901. 

Gross earnings $40,583 $26,780 

Operating expenses 20,249 13.501 

Interest, etc 1 1.249 4,05^* 

Net earnings 9,085 9,229 

The Philadelphia Traction Co. has completed its first calendar 
year since the Consolidated Traction Co. was taken over and the re- 
sults are entirely satisfactory. The gross earnings of the property 
increased $1,605,929, or nearly 14 per cent. There is $28,953,000 
common slock outstanding so that the $2,450,564 earned over the 
previous dividend is equal to nearly &'/2 per cent on its stock. The 
figures for the months ending Dec. 31, 1901, and 1902, are as fol- 
lows: 1902. 1901. 

(iross earnings from operations $i,375.i32 $1,206,282 

Operating expenses and ta.xes 710,967 646,483 

Net earnings from operations 664,165 559,7'^ 

Total earnings and other income 781,743 577,942 

Deductions from income 120,121 36,028 

Total incoine 661,622 541,913 

Fixed charges 327,014 265,721 

Net income 3.^,607 276,192 

Less proportion of same to credit of owners 
of capital stock of affiliated corporations 

other than the Philadelphia Co 427 28,537 

Balance, represents Philadelphia Go's, in- 
terest in the total net income ,^34.180 247,654 

The statement for the 12 months of the calendar years 1901 and 
1902 is as follows: 1902. 1901. 

Gross earnings from operations $13,795,053 $12,189,124 

Operating expenses and taxes 7,759,029 6,655,849 

Net earnings from operations 6,036,024 5,533,275 

Total earnings and other income. 7.643,673 6.005.095 

Deductions from income 6,477,160 5.560,521 

Fixed charges 4,020,632 3,180,094 

Net income ^ . . 2,456,528 2,380,426 

Less proportion of same to credit of own- 
ers of capital stock of affiliated corpo- 
rations other than the Philadelpliia Co.. 5.963 4')5.<'^l'i5 
Balance, represents Philadelphia Go's, iii- 
leresl in the total net income 2.450.5(14 1.884,5(10 

The nnancial statenienl of the Chicago S: Milwaukee I'^lectric Ry. 
for the year ending Dec. 31, 1902, shows gross receipts $190,110, 
operating expenses $79,,346 and a net income of $110,746. 


THE rf.quirt;mknts of machini.: tool opkra'tion 
Willi special rkferenck to Tiib: MOTOR drivt;, by 

Charles Day. This is a reprint of the paper presented before llie 
New York Electrical Society, Dec. 17, 1902. 

EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT of the Boston Unpid Tiaiisil 
Commission, covering the period from Aug. 15, 1901, in June 30, 



(Vol.. XIII, No. 2 

19Q2, lias just IxrcM piibli>lif(I and contains an interesting descrip- 
tion of llic progress of the work on the Kast Uoston tunnel. 

nuilliple train control .system for electric railways; this has particular 
nferincc to nninher 131 controller. 

PROCEEDINGS of the international congress of the Tramway 
& I.iglit Railway I'nion, held in London, July 1-4, 1902, has been 
published in book form by the Union. The volume contains 270 
(lages, 8x13 in., and includes complete reports of the papers and 
discussions read before the congress. 

which was read by Mr. E. H. Sniflfen at the meeting of the American 
Sireet Railway Association held at Detroit in October last has been 
ri-prinled by the VVcslingliousc Company in pamphlet form. This 
p.Tper was printed in the "Daily Street Railway Review" for Oct. 
12, igoj, but the present publication is in very convenient form for 
reference and may be had by addressing the nearest office of West- 
inghousc, Church, Kerr & Co. 

STRUCTION. By Henry C. Meyer, Jr., M. E. 160 pages. Cloth. 
Illu.strated. McGraw Publishing Co., New York City. Price $2.00. 

This book constitutes a number of "The Engineering Record 
Series" and much of the te.xt has originally appeared in that paper. 
The book was written to give information to owners or managers 
of manufacturing plants or buildings requiring power installations 
who make no claims to expert knowledge in power plant engineer- 
ing. The contents are divided into 11 chapters'treating of all the 
various machinery contained in the power plant, and the illustra- 
tions give general and detailed information concerning a large num- 
ber of modern plants. The latter feature alone makes the book a 
valuable treatise upon the subject of steam power plant engineering 
and the information given is both suggestive and valuable. 

ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS. By William L. Hooper and Roy 
T. Wells. 8vo. Cloth. 170 pages with diagrams. Ginn & Co., 
publishers. List price $1.25, mailing price $1.35. This book con- 
tains several sets of electrical problems typical of Ihosc'.met with 
in electrical engineering practice and in laboratory work, and a 
brief treatment of the method of solution is given. The problems 
are all of a numerical character and most of them have already been 
presented by Professor Hooper to the electrical engineering classes 
at Tufts College. The problems include calculation on combination 
of electromotive forces and resistances in different groups, distribu- 
tion and fall of potential in various circuits, inductance of coils, 
capacities of condensers and various problems in electro-chemistry 
and calculations of the output and efficiency of generators, motors, 
batteries, etc. The book also contains solutions of various problems 
in alternating electromotive forces and others on the calculation of 
armatures, field windings, and on the winding of transformers, rotary 
converters and other classes of electrical machinery. The answers 
to all the problems are given in the appendix, some of which are in 
the form of graphical reproductions. The problems included are all 
of a practical character many of which are constantly met with in 
the work of the electrical engineer and will be useful to the student 
in showing the practical application of mathematical formulae. 


has issued an attractive booklet executed in six colors telling in a 
terse way about the "Combination of Two Old Concerns Pulling 

MARIS BROTHERS, Philadelphia, Pa., have published a very 
unique and artistically designed illustrated piece of advertising liter- 
ature in a book entitled, "Cranes of Different Kinds." The book 
describes the Maris hand and electric traveling cranes, and will be 
sent to those interested upon application. 

This is a 20-page pamphlet fully describing and illustrating this 
system of train control. The Westinghouse company has also issued 
a separate publication "Instruction Book W. A. B. 5,000." giving in- 
structions for the operation and inspection of the Westinghouse 

THE FOUR TRACK NEWS published by the New York Central 
& I Unison River R. R. has appeared for January and contains sev- 
eral interesting descriptive sketches by well known writers. It is 
well edited, and illustrated wilh a great many excellent half-tones. 
It is, in fact, a good type of what its title page claims it to be: 
".\n illustrated magazine of travel and education." 

I'lIRDL'E UNIVERSITY has recently issued its twenty-eighth 
annual report, it being for the year ending June 30, ig02. It contains 
reports of the president and other ofticers, a list of oflicers and 
instructors, and a short history and description of the institution. 
The year's work is reviewed and improvements and gifts noted. 
There is a short discussion on the agricultural department and, fin- 
ally, some of the needs of the university arc noted. 

IHE CROCKER-WHEELER CO., of Ampere, N. J., has recently 
issued the following flyers: No. 31, on type "D" machines rated at 
from to to 240 h. p.; No. 32, on motor driven linotype machines; 
No. 33, motors for elevator duty ; No. 34, motor driven rotary 
planer; No. 50, on increased cutting speeds of machine tools; No. 
51, motor driven priming presses; No. 52, motor driven grinders; 
No, S3, motor driven compressors; No. 54. countershaft motors. 

"HIE KEYSTONE TRAVELER" is the title of an artistically 
printed pamphlet of 26 pages which bears date January, 1903, Vol. 
I, No. I. This is issued by the Mayer & Englund Co., 1020 to 1024 
Filbert St., Philadelphia, and it is announced that about once a 
month copies of this paper will break into the offices of street rail- 
way men. The contents include illustrated descriptions of the spe- 
cialties handled by the company together with interesting notes on 
things of interest to the trade. 

THE GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. has issued three pamphlets 
concerning transformers which cannot fail to prove of value to those 
interested in this apparatus. No. 91 14 supersedes No. 9106 and is 
entitled "Some Facts Regarding Type H. Transformers." It com- 
prises a description wilh illustrations clearly showing the different 
parts of the apparatus and includes tables and other data concern- 
ing the apparatus. No. 9115 is entitled "Transformer Economy" 
and presents tables and curves exhibiting core losses, copper losses 
and regulation. No. 91 16 is a short treatise on sheet steel for trans- 
formers illustrated with half lone engravings of microscopic views 
of different metals. 

THE WEIR FROG CO., of Cincinnati, O., has published a new 
catalog, No. 6, illustrating its well-known frogs, switches, crossings 
and other special track work. The catalog is 5 x S'/i in. in size and 
contains 335 pages. It is substantially bound in red cloth covers 
and presents a very handsome typographical appearance. This com- 
pany makes a very complete line of special work for steam and 
electric roads and several lumdred designs are described and illus- 
trated in its new catalog, the number of these being far loo great 
to mention in detail. In addition to these, however, the company 
is prepared to submit plans for any style of special work not listed. 
The catalog contains a very complete table of contents and in addi- 
lion there are 21 tables in the back of the book which relate to the 
design of special work and which will be found very useful for rail- 
road men. Many of these tables arc original with this company 
and all of them will be found thoroughly up-to-date. The company 
carries 40 different sections of T-rail in stock from which track 
work is made and any other sections can be ohlaine<l by giving the 
mill and section nnmlicr of the rail. 


THE OHMER CAR REGISTER CO. has appointed Clyde H. 
I'unk to represent it in the southern territory with iKadquarters at 
Richmond, Va. 

.\T A MEETING of the board of directors of the AUis-Cli.nlmc- 
Co. held Jan. 15. 1903. the regular quarterly dividend on pr< I 
stock was declared. 


Vol. XIII 

MARCH 20, 1903 

No. 3 

Electric Haulage on the Miami & Erie Canal, 

Equipment of the Miami & Erie Canal Transportation Co. — First Three-Phase Traction System in the 

United States 

A system of electric haulage for canal boats is being installed on 
the Miami & Erie Canal which is not only unique in the history of 
transportation but involves the use of a three-phase system of elec- 
tric traction, being the first electrical installation of its kind in this 
country and the most extensive application of mechanical canal 
boat haulage in the world. 

The Miami & Erie Canal runs from the Ohio River at Cincinnati 
in a general northerly direction and connects with Lake Erie at 

railroad systems of the state existed, it constituted one of the busiest 
arteries of trade in the state of Ohio. The territory through which 
it passes and that immediately contiguous to it contains about 5,315,- 
000 people, or nearly one-third of the entire population of the state 
and it passes through 18 cities and towns whose population aggre- 
gates 656,500, and penetrates the richest and most fertile sections of 
the state. For thirty years practically no attention has been paid 
to the canal and its business, which had paid large receipts to the 


Toledo. The route of the canal and the principal cities through 
which it passes arc shown on the accompanying map. The electric 
system which is being installed, and which is now practically com- 
pleted between Cincinnati and Dayton, a distance of 68 miles, com- 
prises a standard gage single track road built along the tow path 
of the canal on which electric locomotives are used to tow fleets of 
from five to seven canal boats. 

The construction of ihc Miami & Erie Canal was commenced 
about 1825 and in its early years, before the competition of the 

slate, has been gradually diverted to the railroads, so that for the 
last 20 years the appropriations for the maintenance of the canal 
not only included all of its receipts but often considerable amounts 
in excess taken direct from the slate treasury. The receipts for the 
20 years previous to 1900 amoiuUed to $i,6(;4,4o8, and the expendi- 
tures for maintenance and operation for the .same period were 
$l,792,.lK4, leaving the canal a debtor to the state treasury for this 
period in the sum of $y7,i;76. Eor many years, however, after the 
canal was built it earned very large receipts, and the gross earn- 



[Vol XIII, No. 3. 

ings of the canal system of tlio state of Ohio from 18^7 to 1900 in- 
clusive, exceeded the total expenditures in that time hy the sum of 

The large husiness done by the canal in former years which the 
present company will undoubtedly reclaim was largely due to the 

plants along the canal will he more than sufticieni to tax the total 
capacity of the new installation, which will be too boats per day 
between Cincinnati and Dayton. 

The profile of the canal is very irregular, the highest point in its 
course being at the I^iramie Summit, which is 100 miles from the 





/fST/fffOHfTOl £0{ 

S/ts/fivooo _.* 




, _ ; f^ 3 TV ft 

fip^^^-" ^^rco^^r 



O^/OC/ry » 

I // 





---- . 


o /}i'/Y/r//ff< 





f^ - >^.^'3SRry '^^°^"' 


OIlio River, its height above the river at this point being 512 ft. 
From the north end of the Laramie Summit to Lake Erie the dis- 
tance is 153 miles and the fall to Lake Eric is 395 ft. There are 
43 locks between Cincinnati and the Summit, and 52 locks between 
the Summit and Lake Erie. 

The canal is fed by the Grand reservoir in Mercer County, con- 
taining about 17,000 acres ; the Lewiston reservoir in Logan County, 
containing about 7,200 acres, and the Laramie reservoir in Shelby 
County, containing about 1,800 acres. The total cost of construc- 
tion of the Miami & Erie Canal, including its reservoirs, was $8,062,- 
680. The minimum breadth of the canal at water line from Cin- 
cinnati to Dayton is 40 ft., at the bottom 26 ft., and the depth is 
4 ft. From Dayton to Junction the breadth at water line is 50 ft., 
at the bottom 36 ft., and the depth is 5 ft. From Junction to To- 
Icilii llic width at water line is 60 ft., the bottom 46 ft., and tine 



establishment of numerous manufacturing concerns which were 
built directly upon the canal banks with a view to utilizing this 
system of freight transportation, and while the business of these 
concerns has necessarily been diverted to the railroads of late years, 
on account of the lack of facilities offered by the canal, there seems 
to be little doubt that the business in sight from the old established 

depth is 6 ft. These figures give the official dimensions which, how- 
ever, have been considerably impaired by time and neglect. 

The inception and promotion of the present scheme of electrical 
haulage on the canal is due to Mr. Thomas N. Fordyce, who was 
engaged for several years in making experiments in this direction 
on both the Erie Canal, New York, and the Miami & Erie Canal in 

MaK. 20, 1903.] 



Ohio. In 4900 Mr. Fordjce entered into an agreement with the 
State Board of Public Works of Ohio to undertake a series of ex- 
periments whose success proved the feasibiUty of this system, and a 
contract was entered into between the state of Ohio and Mr. 
Fordyce in March. 1901, granting him the riglit to construct and 
operate along the Miami & Erie Canal and upon the land adjacent 
belonging to the state all necessary facilities for propelling boats 
by means of an overhead trolley system built upon the tow path. 
The franchise is for a period of 30 years from the time the system 
is put in operation, and it specifies among other provisions 
that the construction of that portion of the route between Cincinnati 
and Dayton shall be completed within 2^2 years from the date of the 
contract and that the entire length of the canal must be completed 
within four years thereafter. Failure to comply with these pro- 
visions forfeits the franchise. 

To the Miami & Erie Canal Transportation Co. was assigned the 

the roadbed shall be filled over the top of the ties so as to give 
a smooth surface for the present method of towing by mules and 
horses ; that the dimensions of the banks built by the company shall 
not be of a smaller cross section than as originally built. The com- 
pany is authorized to build and operate as many swing bridges as 
will he necessary for the operation of the road, subject, however, 
to the use of the state of Ohio for canal purposes, and which shall 
be free of charge to the state for such purposes. 

.According to the terms of the franchise the entire track between 
Cincinnati and Toledo, a distance of 244 miles, is to be finished and 
in operation by the year 1907. The part of the work between Cin- 
cinnati and Dayton and through the latter city, a distance of 68 
miles, which was to be completed in 2V> years from March, 1901, 
is already practically finished. The roadbed which is laid with 70-lb. 
rails on oak ties follows the bank of the canal. It is very 
substantially constructed and where the locks occur trestles are 

VlliW in- CANAL AT KAII.KDAI) I. KdS.SI.Nl., MlllWI.M, CONL K KT !■; ]%■ I'.T A I N 1 Nl , \V.\I,I^. 

contract between the state of Ohio and Mr. Fordyce. According 
to this franchise, the company, if obliged to abandon its project for 
any reason, shall have the right to remove all of its poles, wires, 
tracks and buildings from along the canal; the state of Ohio, out of 
its appropriations, maintains the canal. 

The company is prohibited from interfering with the ordinary use. 
control and management of the canal and the franchise docs nol 
limit the p<jwers of the Board of Public Works as fixed by law. 
The company is compelled to transport all boats along the can:il 
when the owners of them shall so desire, and in case of disagreenuni 
as to the price for propelling boats the company shall be subject in 
such regulations in regard to charges as may be prescribed from 
time to time by the Board. The speed of all boats iransiiorled by 
ibe company is limilcfl to four miles per hour. 

The specifications of the State Board of Public Works under 
which the construction of the electric plant was carried out provide, 
among other things, thai all roadbed construction shall, wherever 
practicable, be 2 ft. above the standard level of the canal in each 
of its levels, and that the company shall build retaining walls or 
pile construction where necessary to receive the inner rail of tht 
track for the purpose of minimizing space, and that the ballast of 

built from the high level down to the low level so that the grades 
have been maintained within a maximum of i'/^ per cent. 

Turnouts are provided at suitable points for passing locomotives, 
the switches and frogs being furnished by the American Switch & 
Frog Co. The rails are bonded with United States Steel & Wire 
Co's. bonds, one to each joint, and there are no cross bonds. In a 
number of places where the road passes under bridges I he roadbed 
ilips down below the surface of the water in the canal and at these 
places concrete retaining walls have been built of the style shown 
in one of the accompanying illustrations. There have been 5.010 
ft. of these concrete walls built up to the present time. In places 
where the banks are narrow and the track approaches close to the 
water it was necessary to build retaining walls to support the weight 
of the locomotives on the banks. These walls were built of piling 
driven close together, along which ,3-in. oak planks were boiled. 
There have been 11,488 ft. of piling built up to the present lime. 

.■\ general view of the pole line and overhead construction will be 
seen in one of the illustrations giving a general view along the line 
of the canal. 'The high tension feeders are run in the form of a 
triangle, two phases being carried upon the lower cross anu and 
one on the upper cross arm centrally above the other two. These 



(Vol. XIII. No. .?. 

»rc carried on Locke pucclaiii insulators of the Victor type without 
gutters. The feeders arc stranded aluminum wire equivalent to No. 
o copper. ' The three-phase circuit for the locomotives is carried on 
two overhead trolley wires and the track. On account of the nu- 
merous bridges under which the trolley wires have to pass the 
height of these wires above the track is very variable, being 22 fl. 
high in some places and as low as 7 ft. under some of the bridges 
m the city of Cincinnati. The minimum height of the trolley wires 
outside of the city is 9 fl. 

The trolley wires consist of two No. 0000 G. E. groove wires 
carried for the principal part of the way on Christy llcxiblc brack- 
ets, with special double insulated fittings made by the Ohio Brass 
Co. At swing bridges and places where it has been necessary to rim 
the high tension feeders on the side of the canal opposite to the 
tracks, to avoid buildings and other obstructions, span wire con- 
struction has been used. The part of the work already completed 
has been by far the most difficult owing 10 the number of buildings 
and other obstructions which have been put up close upon the 
banks of the canal for the past few years when the operation of the 
canal was practically suspended. The remaining portion of the 
roadbed and overhead construction through to Toledo offers com- 
paratively few difficulties and it is expected to push this part of the 
work to completion very rapidly. 

uf these sub-stations will l>c provided with Westinghousc low 
equivalent lightning arresters and static interrupters. The trans- 
former buildings are all of the same design and are 23 x 60 ft., inside 
dimensions, the main story being 18 ft. high with a basement 7 ft. 
high. I'he walls are of brick laid on concrete foundations and the 
floors and roofs are built of concrete and expanded metal, making 
the buildings absolutely lire proof. 

The Spring Grove station consists of a standard sub-station 
building with an addition 30 x 34 ft. in which the motor generator 
•.et i> ciinlained. 

The company has at the present time seven locomotives con- 
tracted for, four of which have been already delivered. These are 
each 20-ton locomotives, the frames of which were built by the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works and the equipment was furnished by 
the Westinghousc Electric & Manufacturing Co. The cabs of six 
of the locomotives are built so as to clear the trolley wires at a 
height of 9 ft., and one locomotive, which is to be used entirely for 
switching purposes in the city of Cincinnati, is built to pass under 
trolley wires 7 ft. high. The frames, which are 14 ft. in length, are 
mounted on Baldwin trucks having 30-in. wheels and a 7-ft. wheel 
base. The weight complete is about 24 tons each and the motors 
are connected to the axles through double reduction gearing. The 
draw-bar pull with three-phase current at .1.000 alternations and 


The company has no generating station of its own, but takes cur- 
rent from the Cincinnati Gas & Electric Co., which has a plant on 
the bank of the canal near the Cincinnati terminus. This company 
furnishes three-phase current of 60 cycles at 4,000 volts pressure to 
the Spring Grove converter station shown in the accompanying 
illustration. This current is stepped down to 400 volts at the Spring 
Grove station and is two-phased by the Scott method of connec- 
tion of transformers. This two-phase current is led to a 450-h. p 
two-phase synchronous motor, which is direct connected to a three- 
phase. 25-cycle. 300-kw. generator, giving a pressure of 390 volts. 
Thence the current is led to 2S0-kw. transformers and stepped up 
to 33,000 volts for the transmission line. 

At points about 12 miles apart there are static transformer sub- 
stations, each of which is to be equipped with three 150-kw. trans- 
formers permanently connnected in delta. These transformers will 
step the three-phase current down from 33,000 to 1,090 volts, which 
is the voltage of the trolley circuit. 

The Rialto sub-station, shown in an accompanying illustration, 
is situated about 12 miles from the Spring Grove station and is the 
first of these sub-stations to be equipped with transformers. All 

1, 100 volts and with an efficiency of 95 per cent for each pair of 
gears is as follows : 

Coefficient of Adhesion. Draw Bar Pull. 

25 per cent 9,6oo lb. starting. 

20 per cent 7,600 lb. starting. 

16 per cent 6.350 lb. starting. 

The equipment of each locomotive includes two induction motors 
connected in concatenation and provided with rheostalic control. 
The variable resistance is in the rotors or in the rotor of either 
motor. The motors are rated at 80 h. p. each and are wound for 
200 volts. This voltage is secured by means of transformers on the 
locomotives which step the trolley current down from 1,090 to 200 
volts. The maximum speed of the locomotives using one motor is 
six miles per hour, and the operating speed with two motors in 
tandem is between three and four miles per hour. The motors arc 
guaranteed to run for 10 hours at full load with a maximum rise of 
temperature of 75° C. 

That part of the trolley circuit inside the city of Cincinnati will 
be operated at a pressure of 390 volts, as a precaution of safety, 

Mar. 20, 1903.] 



instead of 1,090 volts, and the locomotive transformers are pro- 
vided with auxiliary connections to utilize this voltage inside the 
city. Changes in the transformer connections will be made by 
means of switches in crossing the city line. 

The electrical apparatus of the entire equipment is of the West- 
inghouse type and the engineering and construction work has been 
done by the Cleveland Construction Co., of Akron, O. 

In the practical operation of the system a string or fleet of canal 
boats from five to seven in number will be towed by a single loco- 
motive. Owing to the narrowness of the channel and the surging 
or piling up of the water in front of the boats, it has been found 
necessary to use tow lines of about 200 ft. in length between each 
of the boats and between the forward boat and the locomotive. 
This length of tow line behind the locomotive is also required in 
order that the boats may be steered, so as to avoid being dragged 
against the banks. The tow line is fastened to the locomotive by 
means of a swivel draw bar. 

At the points where the road crosses from one side of the canal 
to the other swing bridges have been constructed over which the 
locomotives pass. After the locomotives have passed, the bridge 
will be opened, permitting the boats to pass through. Three of 
these swing bridges have been built on that part of the road already 
constructed, one being at 12th St. in Cincinnati, one at Hartwcll, 
10 miles from Cincinnati, and one at Flockton, five miles south of 
Hamilton. It may be stated also that the question of 
bridges has proved a troublesome one on this part of the 
line, as 135 highway bridges have had to be redesigned 
or reconstructed to provide sufficient clearance for the 
overhead system. 

When two fleets of boats pass on level parts of the ca- 
nal switches are provided so that onelocomotive may take 
the switch and drop its tow line while the other one 
passes over on the straight track. The schedules arc 
arranged, however, so far as possible, that the crossing 
of the boats will take place at the locks. The locks are 
90 ft. in length, providing room for only one boat to 
pass at a time. In running into a lock and floating a 
boat up or down to the ne.xt level about eight minutes 
per boat is allowed, although under favorable conditions 
a boat may be put through the lock in about four min- 
utes. When two lines of boats are passing at the locks 
considerable time is saved, as instead of allowing the 
lock to fill up when emptied after the down-stream boat 
has passed, one of the boats in the opposite direction is 
put into the lock and floated up to the nc.\t level, thus 
requiring no more time for the passage of two boats in 
opposite directions than for a single boat in one direction. 
While the operation of putting the boats through the locks is at 
best a slow one it must be remembered that the question of high 
speed does not enter as a feature of this method of transportation. 
and the company both by the terms of its charter and from the 
nature of its service, is precluded from undertaking passenger or 
other high speed service. It has been found from experiment that 
freight may be hauled in canal boats by this system at a cheaper 
rate than it can be towed by mules, the power required being only 
aliout 10 h. p. per boat when towed at a speed of four miles per 

The boats used in this service are 70 ft. long, 10 ft. wide and have 
a capacity of almut 70 tons each, which is equal to three average 
car-loads. The company is building its own boats at Lockland, O., 
where it is turning out about two boats per month. The company 
expects to be able to operate its boats during the entire season, in 
order to do which provisions have been made for breaking the ice 
during the winter. Within the city limits of Cincinati no ice is 
found in the canal at any .season for the reason that the Cincinnati 
Gas & Electric Co. and a number of other manufacturing plants in 
which steam power is used make use of the canal for condensing 
purposes and the water is comparatively warm at all times of the 
year. Outside of the city, ice breakers arc used which consist of 
flat boats with steel protection, which arc heavily loaded. These 
are pulled up on top of the ice, which is constantly broken through 
by the weight of the boats. In addition to this a protection from 
ice is applied on the front of each boat which consists of strips of 
beading flexibly connected which are wrapped around the prows of 
the boats. 

The operating expenses of the system are extremely small as in 
addition to the small amount of power required per boat only one 
man. called a pilot, is required on each boat for steering, and one 
man on the locomotive. The company is establishing large ware- 
houses and depots at various points along the route. One of these 
is located on the canal at Cincinnati, between Walnut and Main 
Sis., extending the entire length of tlio block. This is shown in an 
accompanying illustration. 

The traffic department of the Miami & Erie Canal Transportation 
Co. is thoroughly organized on a system practically similar to that 
of the railroads, and is in charge of a traffic manager. Local agents 
are stationed at all of the principal shipping points along the canal 
and the company has installed a private telephone, called the busi- 
ness telephone, which connects all of the agencies with the office of 
the traffic manager so as to enable the latter to keep in constant 
touch with the business being carried on at all points along the 
canal. The traffic department also has a set of uniform bills of 
lading, way bills, way bill corrections, "over," "short" and "dam- 
aged" reports and vouchers used in cases of loss or damage. The 
uniform bill of lading contains the agent's receipt for the good^ 
shipped, name of consignee, destination of goods, route over which 
they are to be shipped and description of the articles with the 
weight. Beneath these are two blank spaces, one of which is filled 
in by the agent, giving the rate for each class of freight shipped. 


and the other is a form for the receipt for any prepayment which 
has been made. On the back of the bill are given the conditions of 
shipment, which are the same as usually found on bills of lading. 
The way bill of freight contains blanks to be filled in showing the 
gross and net weight of shipme-t, where weighed, the route, giving 
jimclion with connecting railways if any, boat number, pilot, date 
and time of shipment, with space for the description of the articles, 
the weight, rate, freight, advances, amount prepaid and total charges, 
to be filled in wherever trans-shipments arc made. It also contains 
a space for the receiving agents' receipt. The other forms used are 
same as are used by all transportaticjii companies and need no 
special description. 

During the past winter the company has carried on considerable 
shipping business which came to it entirely unsolicited and for 
which special provision had to be made. As its regular locomo- 
tives and the three-phase distributing plant were not sufficiently 
near completion to be put into operation the company constructed 
a number of flat cars equipped with ordinary street railway motors 
and rented current for this temporary work from the Cincinnati 
Traction Co. By means of this temporary equipment a considerable 
amount of business was done on the canal. 

The largest individual industry among the numerous factories 
located along the canal is the manufacture of paper. In the towns 
of Carrollton, Miamisburg, Franklin, Middletown and Amanda are 
established 17 paper mills, some of which arc among the largest 
in the world, and in addition to the shipment of the finished 
product of these factories the transportation of the incoming raw 
materials of manufacture constitutes a very large item of the canal 
company's business. 



[Vol. XIII, No. 3 

I Ik' mthcc wtiicli was inniiKtiralcd last wiiilcr was opcratc<l on 
a rcKtilar silii'iliilc lu'twccii Cincinnati and Lockland and Cincinnati 
and Hamilton as shown licrcwilh. 


t l.\ 

1 ,\.> \ i 1 >•• L-'t K i..VNl>. 



Cinchiiiail. 12:00 tiiKin 


Cincinnati. 5:00 p. ni. 

Arrivp St. Itrritard. i:l5 p. m. | 


Litckland, H:30 p. m. 


K<lirrniiiiit. J ' 


CrrMCcntvilli*. 1 J:00 p. m 


Elniwo««I Place, - 3:15 p.m. 


Ki.iltn, 1:30 a. m. 


Carthaift*, ) 

Port ITnioii, 2:30a. m. 


MapIrw...Kl, t 3.» 


Mosl<-r. 4:30 a. m. 



HantiliMii, 5:00 a. m. 

U.KkKiiKl, f 


Kradiiiir. ■ 4:(>0 p. ni. 


Wvomiinr. 1 




L<K-k1.uui, J 


Hamilton, 5:00 p. m. 


R>-.i<linif, [-12:00 nooo 


M.whT. 5:3tl p. ni. 


Wv.iniinir. \ 

Port Tnion, 7:3() p. m. 


Maplrwoo.1. . 1.30 p.m. 


Rialin. 8:30 p. m. | 



l."ri"*«:»'iH%"in»', 10:fOp. III. 


Carili.itfi", 1 


Itockland, 1:3<) p. m. 

Klmw.Hxl Placr, - 1:4.1 p.m. 

Cincinnati. 5:00 p. m. 


l-;(l|,'t'ninnt \ 
St. HiTnard, 2:45 p. ni. 
Clifton Sprinirti, 3:30 p. m. 
Cincinnati, 5:00 p, m. 

The various trains of boats arc operated under the direction of a 
dispatcher located at the superintendent's office in Cincinnati, and a 
separate telephone system has been installed which is used exclu- 
sively for dispatching. Both the business telephone and the dis- 
patching telephone instruments were made by the Kellog Switch- 
board & Supply Co., of Chicago. A portable telephone is carried on 
each locomotive and stationary telephones are installed at each 
switch. The locomotives are supplied with a sort of extension fish 
pole by means of which the motorman can attach his telephone sys- 
tem, every train of boats can establish communication with the dis- 
patcher's office at any point whatever along the route. 

The traffic department publishes regular freight rates for all 
classes of freight to all points reached by the Miami & Erie Canal 
Transportation Co. and its rail connections. Being a water route 
the company can quote lower rates on freight than the rail routes. 
and where the shipments are by water and rail routes a lower 
through rate can be quoted than for all rail routes. 

During the work of construction the company found it impos- 
sible to secure boarding places for the large gangs of laborers at 
work along the canal, as during much of the time work was carried 
on at points in the country where but few houses were to be found 
and where there was no means of transportation from the canal 
to the nearest town. To obviate this difficulty eleven boats were 
fitted up for boarding houses and a regular commissary department 
was established, and these boarding boats and commissary boats 
were moved along the canal from point to point to accommodate the 
laborers wherever engaged. 

At the Cincinnati end of the canal there is no navigable outlet 
to the Ohio River but merely a channel through which the water 
of the canal escapes to the river. This condition has been caused 
by the gradual encroachment of the city upon the canal property 
and it prevents the carrying of freight by boats through from the 
canal to the Ohio River. In order to accommodate traffic between 
the river and the canal a company called the Miami & Erie Termi- 
nal Railway Co. has been organized to connect the freight line of 
the Miami & Erie Canal Transportation Co. with the Ohio River 
boats. There is a large coal trade which is now carried on by 
barges from Pittsburg from which the coal is transferred by an 
elevator company to the different railroads at this point. The new 
terminal company will erect freight elevators by means of which 
the coal will be taken from the barges, loaded into dump cars and 
carried to the canal where it will be dumped into the canal boats. 
By this method the coal can be distributed to factories and towns 
along the route of the canal at a considerably lower rate than it 
can be handled by the railroads. 

The officers and operating staff of the Miami & Erie Canal Trans- 
portation Co. are: W. H. Lamprecht, Cleveland, president; Otto 
Miller, Cleveland, secretary and treasurer; E. R. Gilbert, Cincin- 
nati, general man.iger; Stuart A. Allen, Cincinnati, traffic manager; 
L. G. Rice, Cincinnati, auditor; John De Loury, superintendent; 
F. A. Little, chief engineer; A. J. Wells, assistant engineer. 

This company was recently incorporated to build an inlcrurban 
railway coiuucting the cities of Danville, Urbana, Qianipaign, De- 
catur and Springfield, III., its first object, however, being to build 
that part of the line between Danville and Champaign. Mr. W. B. 
McKinley, who is at the head of the syndicate which is promoting 
the road, was a guest of the Decatur Club March 14th, where in the 
course of an address he stated that the syndicate which he repre- 
sented would push the line to completion between Champaign and 
Springfield through Decatur if the later city would grant the fran- 
chise requested by the company. 

The city has already offered the company the right to operate 
over the tracks of the local company, hut Mr. McKinley slated that 
this would affect the financing of the road, as it would be impossible 
to dispose of the bonds if a gap in the road existed and the com- 
pany had not a throug right of way. .Another objection to this plan 
was that the interurban cars would be delayed by the city cars mak- 
ing stops at every street crossing. If the city grants a franchise to 
the company for a separate line through the city the survey of the 
line will be made at once and construction will be started during the 
coming year. 


On March 3<1 the stockholders of the Bingliamton (N. Y.) Rail- 
way Co. received cash dividends of 2 per cent, which is the third 
cash dividend declared by the company. In the notice to the stock- 
holders issued by the company, Mr. G. Tracy Rogers, president, 
stated that it was desired to call in all fractional shares of stock of 
the Binghamton Central and the Binghamton Street Railw.iy Co., 
also all script stock issued by the Binghamton Railroad Co.. these 
companies being subsidiary companies of the Binghamton Railway 
Co. For this purpose the company offered to pay par for the frac- 
tional and script stock or, if preferred, holders of the other could 
make up fractional shares or script to full shares of the Bingham- 
ton Railway Co's. stock. The company is now fairly upon a divi- 
dend-paying basis and its officers are to be congratulated upon the 
excellent service offered by the railway which has been brought to 
its present high standard in the face of many difficulties. In the 
development of its business the company has extended its lines at 
both ends of the city, bringing a number of towns into railway con- 
nection with Binghamton, and it is stated that the company has 
planned for a considerable extension in the future which its pres- 
ent satisfactory financial condition will make a certainty. 


.■\t the regular meeting of the Western Society of Engineers, held 
on March i8th, a paper on "The Third Rail for High-Speed Electric 
Service," was presented by Mr. Ernest Gonzenbach, who it will be 
remembered was electrical engineer for the -Aurora, Elgin & Chicago 
Ry. during the period of construction. 

On March 24th a public meeting of this society will be held in 
Fullerton Hall, -Art Institute, Chicago, in connection with the Chi- 
cago branch of the .American Institute of Electrical Engineers, at 
which Mr. B. J. Arnol