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Full text of "The street railway review"

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THE 



STREET RAILWAY 

REVIEW 



VOLUME XIV 



1904 



CHICAGO 
KKNFIIU.I) PUBLISIIINC; COMPANY _,„ ] 

45-47 PLYMOUTH COURT S \- 



V. W 



INDEX TO VOUUWIE XIV. 



PAGING BY MONTHS. 

Janiinry - ^1- ■- 

February ;;!-13ii 

March «J-a« 

April 3«-2;2 

May -*;3-3*) 

June 341-M(i 

July **i-'>^* 

August 6l6-5li" 

Soptombpr 581-COii 

Dallies •• tfei-TS<: 

Oc tobrr » 797-85H 

November SoS-'Jit 

December 925-9S8 



Accident. Report on Manhattan Ele- 
vated 28S 

AccIdeniH. 

61. S9. ISI. 221. 2S9. 4JI. 484. 528. 584. 857. 937 

Automobile-Railway 491 

How Can the Claim Department Co- 
operate with the Operating Depart- 
ment In the Prevention of (John- 
son) (>16 

Accountant's Question Box. The 619 

Accounting. Ma.erlal and Supplies 292 

on Municipal Tramway. Wages and. eS77 

Accounts. A Cla.ssiflcatlon of I^Ightlng 
Conformlni; to the S. R. A. A. 

Standard. (Tlngley) lOS 

British Municipal Tramways 891 

Car house and shop e290 

Lighting el55 

Municipal 908 

Rallwav and Lighting el8 

Adams. Alton D. (Selection of Trans- 

ml.sslon Circuits) *162 

Advertise e459 

.Advertising 300 

A good Example of Railway eB22 

in the Street Railway Business. 

(Bemis) 595 

Literature. 71. Feb 202. 270. 

339. 4.19. 501. 5(51. 660. S.-,7. Nov. 9SS 
Air Compressors In New York Subway. 914 
Resistance, Experiments to Deter- 
mine e»42 

Sander (Ham Sand Box Co.) *2e» 

Ajax Metal Co. Specialties 726 

Albln. H. A. (Car Dispatching on the 
Electric Branch of the Boston & 

Maine R. R.) •205 

Allis-Chalmers Co. Appointments 903 

Broadens Its Scope 198 

—Bullock 774 

Exhibit '404 

Gets Large Contract 644 

Personnel 856 

American Brake Shoe » Foundry Co. 

408. 692 

Brake Shoe Catalog. New 673 

—Conduit Co "TS? 

Diesel Engine at the Exposition. The 400 

Frog & Switch Co •753 

Exhibit 416 

Ampere. N. J.. Italian Engineers Visit.. .W6 
Amusement Parks and Their Influence 

on Passenger Traffic •971 

.\nderson Manufacturing Co.. Albert & 

J. M 756 

Announcement. Theater e702 

Armature Benrlngs, Boring •SOI 

.\rmour Institute. Summer Courses at.. 302 
Arnold Electro-Pnei'matlc Railway Sys- 
tem f Arnold) el8. '47 

Arrester. The M. B. Lightning 43S 

Association. 

Accountants' 221, 289 

Eighth Annual Meeting 783. 840 

Exhibit From 642 

Officers of the 729. eSie 

President's Address 759 

Program 601 

American Rnilwav Mechanical and 

Electrical 289. 676 

2nd annual meeting of 705 

Membership of the 681 

Officers of the '667 

Program 601 

■ Question Box of the B20 

Registration of the 683. 704 

AtneHean Street Railway 289 

.- — - and the "Dally Street Railway 

Review" 739. e781 

.. -Convention 245 

^ - * ^' 23rd annual 775 

^«i * ^""'proceedings 742 

» ,- •■.••-Registration 686. 710 

'" ^ Executive Committee Meeting... 191 

••""• ■ Fature of the e675 

S'J'J ", I>tame of e468. e702 

• ' -Officers of the 701 

Portraits officers 700 

■ ' 'Program 601 

; ■'■'Proposed Reorganization of the.. 158 

-.-•-* '■■ftJandnrds e876 

^*-t*X -*■ Suggested Reorganization of el,5.'. 

*^*,.»' •Af.rt'ther New e944 

«ouvi AssiftlM/lon. Claim Agents e702. e73S 

V'«^ International R.illway Employes. 15. ♦977 

... tow^ Street & Interurban Ry 308 



— .MuuufuclurcrB' 559. ea02. 082, 701, 

Program 

Miiiitreal Bencdt 

New York State. 22d Annual Meet- 



e702 
GOl 



ing 



Question Box of the 

Northwestern Electrical 

Ohio Interurban Railway. 

292, 330. 386. 648, 

Pr(>pt>8ed Permanent Way 

Railways Protective 

Rhode island Co. Benefit 

^Richmond. Va.. St. Ry. Y. M. C... 

Schenectady Hallway Benellt 

Southwestern Electrical & Qaa. 

Associations. Reorganization of the 

Southwestern to Join 

Atlas Railway Supply Co •407, 

Augusta (Me.) Wlnthrop & Gardiner 

Hv. Kxpress 

Aultman & Taylor Machinery Co... •417, 
Aurora. Elgin & Chicago, Dining Car 

o:i 

Newspaper and Milk Service 

Progress on Joliet. Plalnfleld & 

.\utomoblle-Railway Accident 

Awards. World's Fair 

Axles from Scrap Iron. Making Car.... 
—Steel (Replogle) 



633 
641 



978 
e91 
795 
644 
317 
621 
2S7 
ee02 
156 
727 

•320 
727 

•584 
•912 
282 
491 
915 
•263 
e319 



Babbitt Metal, Metallic Phosphor for 
Tempering 

Badges 

Baldwin I»comotlve Works Exhibit.. "403, 

Baird. S. I'. (Boring Armature Bear- 
ings) 

Ballasting. Improved Method of (Rodger 
Ballast Car Co.) 

Baltimore Fire Through a Camera 

Underground Cables in the 

Band Concerts. The Cost of 

Bangor. Orono & Oldtown Street Ry. 
Storage Battery 

Bankat. J. E. (New Cars for Schncctady 
Railway) 

Battery Installations in Maine. Two In- 
teresting Storage 

Bavarian Railways. Motor Cars for 

Bearings-Boring Armature (Baird) 

Bellamy Vestlette. The 

Bell Cord, to Keep in Place 

Belfast. Ireland. Electric Traction In.... 

Bemis. .\nthony J. (Advertising In the 
Street Rallwav Business) 

Benedict. II. A. (Maintenance of Elec- 
tric Cars and Their Equipment) — 

Benjamin Electric Manufacturing Co.. 
411. •495. 

Berger Multiiplox .System, The 

Berlin Passenger Traffic 

Test Car of the Great Tramway Co. 

of 

Zossen Experiments. Results of the. 

Bethlehem Steel Co 

Bibbins. J. R. (Steam Turbine Power 
Plants) 

Blgn.iml. Enrico (Electric Traction by 
Monophase Current) 

(Pavet-Chamonlx-Martlgni Elec- 

tric Ry 

Birmingham Railway. Light & Power 
Co. fBrabston) 

Bristol. Mill Construction Car House 
and Office at 

Blake Signal. The 

Blanck. W, A. (Single Phase Railroads) 

Blanks for Shop Record and Account.. 

Bliss Co.. E. W 407. 

Block Signaling of Electric Railway 
with Track Circuit Control (Stru- 
ble) 

Signal Sv.= tem. the Young (Pneuma- 
tic Signal Co.) 

Bloomlngton. Striker Convicted of Riot- 
ing 

Blowers. Sturtevant Improved Hand — 

Boiler Explosion at St. Louis 

Tube Cleaner "Weiniand" (I..agon- 

da Mfg. Co.) 

Water Tube (E. Keeler Co) 

Bois. Stanley (Electric Tramways in 
Cevlon) 

Book, A Convenient (Stone & Webster) 

Boston, 

Elevated Rv.. Annual Meeting of .... 

Employes Rewarded for Careful- 

ness 

& Maine R. R. Electric Branches of 

Car Dispatching on (Albln) 

Electric Branches of. Method of 

Collecting Fares on (Brown).. 

Electric Branches of. Standard 

Car tor fMlllar) 

Suburban Transportation In 

Bonus Steam Economy System (Ke- 
wanee Boiler Co.) - 

Box Ball a Pine Park Attraction 

Brabston. T. G. (Birmingham Railway. 
Light & Power Co.) 

Brake and Controller Handle. Anti- 
Friction 

Shoe, a New Insert 

"Peacock" 

Fresh Emergency 



e676 
670 



•188 
188 
195 
456 

•49S 

•421 

•498 
324 
•301 
•662 
122 
804 

595 

636 

719 
•495 
189 

•809 
el9 
409 

•761 

•356 

•571 

•225 

•597 
•494 
•192 
842 

757 



269 
433 

20 

•136 
•200 

354 

829 

20 

13 

•205 

210 

•212 
830 

•136 
•437 

•224 

•««1 
781 
752 
IS 



Rigging, device for •268 

Shoe, The Development of the 4M 

Test "t Fresh Emergency 194 

Tests. Satisfactory Emergency 437 

Brakes, citrlstcnsen Air Abroad 186 

Electric Car and Tram (Kidder) 32B 

In Peru, chrlstenscn Air 334 

Brick, Beveled, for Track Paving '172 

Bridges, Subwav to Connect East River 13 

Brill Cars and Trucks •■J99 

i:o's.. Exhibit J G 788 

-Medal awarded to John A e338 

Semi-C'onverllble System for Inter- 
urban Cars, The •6K1 

British Columbia Electric Railway •lei 

^lohns-Manville Co 131 

Brockton & I'lymouth Street Ry., The 

Attractions of the •S13 

Brodie Tree Insulator, The •SS? 

Bronx N, Y. Traction Co 385 

Brooklyn, 

. Elevated Loop Between Bridges 240 

. Heights Railroad, Tower Cars of the "427 

Rapid Transit Co,, Power Supply 

System of the •332 

Removing Refuse In 15 

Road Terminates Lease 4S4 

Brown-Boverl Alliance, Crocker-Wheel- 
er 497 

Corliss Engine Co •415, 685, 912 

F. E, (Method of Collecting Fares 

on the Concord & Manchester 
Branch of the Boston & Maine 

R. R.) 210 

Buckeye Engine Co., Salem, O •417, 668 

Buda Foundry * Manufacturing Co.. 

Chicago •411. •699 

Buenos Aires, Notes on Street Railway 

Systems (Gulllemo A. Puente). .35.5. •505 
Bullock Electric Manufacturing Co. 

Exhibit ^405. •733 

Burt Manufacturing Co 40O, 756 

Bursting of 4-ft. Fly Wheels 958 

Business Methods. Interurban Line 

Modifies e944 

on New Jersey Electrics, Develop- 
ment of Through •618 

The Cillcge Man in (Norris) 517, e524 

Butte Electric Ry . Ore Cars for ^329 

Buzzards Bav. MIddleboro, Warehnm & 289 



California Plant. Interesting 917 

Calumet Electric Street Ry.. New Cars 

for •722 

Camden. .\rk.. Interurban Transit Co.. 245 

Campaign Against Damage Fakirs ... 655 

Camp Conduits fH. B. Camp Co.).... 400. 720 
Canadian Notes.... 14. 122. 170. 251. 324. 372. 54r. 

Canton-Akrnn Ry. Time-Table 466 

Carborundum Safety Treads "SSS 

Car Building. Sixty Years of •685 

Company Employes. Conces.slons for 583 

Construction as a Factor of Safety. 

Strong 853 

Crane, tor Brooklyn. (MIddletown 

Car Works) •l-^ 

Dining, on Aurora. Elgin *; Chicago 

Rv. "584 

Electric Dump. With Side Discharge 

(Jno. A. Meade Manufacturing Co.) •202 

Fast Express for Coeur d'Alene 

(American Car Co.) •US 

Fender. .Annlver.sary of the Provi- 
dence 736 

tor Advertising Purposes. Handsome '55 

for Cleveiand. A Remarkable Type of •S.iS 

for President Bancroft. Private 30S 

for Twin City Rapid Transit Co., 

Double Deck ^730 

Frame. An All-steel "JTl 

Gasoline Inspection ^981 

Heater. An improved Hot Water.... 'ess 

Meters tor Electric Railways (Pen- 

berton) "JI 

Inspection (T.,akc) 8K 

. — Mileage. .Aids in Computing "SOI 

Novel Tvpe. Montreal Street Rail- 
way Co ■■■■ •WS 

of the Great Tramway Co. of Berlin. 

Test ■•---■ •«« 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Cos. 

Crane "33 

Standard. For Boston * Maine R. R. 

Electric Branch fMillar) •212 

Tests on the Muncle, Hartford & Ft. 

Wavne Ry M 

Instrument and e46» 

Cars and Their Equipment, Mainte- 
nance of Electric (Benedict) 636 

rare of Interurban (H. J. Tjake).... 364 

Closed, for Little Bock. Ark. (St. 

Louis Car Co.) 201 

Convertible, for Hartford. Conn. (J. 

G. Brill Co.) ^.^ 2§5 

Fireproof Protection for •854 

for Calumet Electric Street Ry.. 

New • "722 

for Chicago Metropolitan Elevated 

Vestibule 'USS 

for Petaluma & Santa Rosa Railway 

Interesting •735 

for Rockford ft Frceport Ry. (St. 

Louis Car Co.) ^89 



•Ai-Ucles marked with .in asterisk arc accompanied by illastrations; c, editorial. 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



Ill 



for ScheueclaUy Railway. New 

(Bankat) M21 

for Spokane OVasli.) Traction Co.. 

Semi-Convertible '337 

for the Joliet, Plaintield & Aurora 

R. R. uVmeriean Car Co.) 'ISq 

for the Northwestern Elevated Rail- 
road Co.. New 'Til 

for Topeka Railway Co. (American 

Car Co.) "OS 

for Washington Water Power Co. 

(J. G. Brill Co.) 'ue 

for Washington, D. C, Convertible *Sii 

in Newcastle. England, Single Deck 35<> 

Low Open "120 

Narragansett, for Peru (J. G. Brill 

Co.) •2«7 

New (Middletown Car Works) '66 

Relative Economy in the Operation 

of Long and Short (Davis. Jr.) 639 

Rodger Ballast TU 

Semi-Convertible for Chicago (J. G. 

Brill Co.) •«) 

The Brill Semi-Convertible System 

for Interurban •655 

Catalog, -American Brake Shoe & Foun- 
dry Co 673 

Cedar Poles, Ties and Fence Posts (W, 

C. Sterling & Son) 201 

Central Union Brass Co 406, (»3, 701 

Ceylon, Electric Tramways (Bois) 3S4 

Cliicago, 

& Eastern Illinois Between Chicago 

and St. Louis 645 

& Milwaukee Electric Railroad "926 

City Railway Co 92 

Franchise J.ao, 194 

Elevated Traffic. 60, 89, 166, 224, 360, 457, 516 

Franchises 560 

Loop DitBculty, Amicable Adjust- 
ment of 156 

^ — Metropolitan Elevated to Adopt Mul- 
tiple Unit Control 221 

Vestibule Cars for 'Ses 

New Cars for "486 

Northwestern Elevated, Annual Re- 
port of 911 

Railways, Mayor Harrison on 224 

Traction Question 4S9 

Underground Traction in '250 

Union Traction Co 30, 89, 156, 940 

Subway Co., the 987 

Chili, Transit Notes from 940 

China (Carl) 354 

Chloride Electrical Storage Co '318 

Christensen Air Brakes in Peru 334 

Air Compressors 418, 730 

Circuit Breakers. Westinghouse OIL... *988 
Circle Diagrams tor Keeping Track of 
the Economical Working of Men 

and Apparatus (Grieves) '486 

Swing Flying Machine "982 

Cincinnati Traction Company, Motor- 

mens School of the (Lee) '804 

Claim AEcnt.s to Meet 682 

Department Co-operate with the Op- 
erating Department In the Preven- 
tion of Accidents, How Can the 

(Johnson) 615 

Cleveland, A Remarkable Type of Car 

for "855 

and Eric. Through Service Between 431 

Record Run from Norwalk to 16 

& Southwestern Repair Car 977 

Three-cent Fare in 20 

Touring Car Service in '960 

device for Brake Rigging •263 

Climax Stock Guard Co •755 

Clinton, la.. Improvements at 237 

Clock for Keokuk Railway, Time Re- 
cording 215 

Closets, Doner Car 984 

Club Formation of the Exposition Elec- 
trical *20 

Rooms for Topeka Ry. Employes.. 369, 488 

. Weston Employes' 668 

Coal Tfflilng and TimlH-r Preserving 

Plants at the Worlds Fair 657 

-^ — Tests. Economy of ©878 

The Economical Use of 34 

Oolleg'' -Man In BuMlncHs (Morris) 517, 624 

Columbia Incandescent Uimp Co., The.. 651 

(Ky.) Ry., Lebanon & e282 

. gi Montour Electric Railway Co. 

Improvements 983 

ColumbuH. Fast Trip from Dayton to.... 385 

Oreensburg & Richmond Trac. Co.... 62 

Third-Rail Syntcm of the Scioto Val- 
ley Traction (Jo '3*1 

Compressed Air In Electric Ry. Work.. 

•145, •Ml, 329 

Computing Car Mileage. Aids In tOi 

Concord IN. If.) & Manchester Branch 

of the Boston & Main.- Ry 'Xo 

Concrete <;on»trucllon. Reinforced (Dc- 

Wolf) •»! 

Pole* of Reinforced "i' 

8lee| Arches on the Indianapolis 

Northern Traction Lines •961 

Condensing I'lant. A Novel 461 

Conductor, Jail Henience for Dishonest.. 660 
Congress, The IniirnailonHl Electrical.. 463 

Connecticut Htrc't UallwayB 160 

Conatantlnople. Hlr'-et Riillways of Mi 

(>>n«oll<Ial<d Engine Stop Co's. Exhibit. •788 

Cur Heating ','o 761 

Electric Heaters «1. W 

Engine Hlop Co »j 

Traction Co., Plans of aw 

Railway Co. of .New Haven. Conn — 4tt 

Continuous rtall Joint Co of Amiirlca •TS, •4W 
Controller. Electrical, lm[>rovem>!nt» — IST. 
Handle, Antl-Frlcllon Brake and •aSI 



Convention Business, Rules for the 

Transaction of e371 

Place. West Baden, Ind., as a.... '552, •625 

- Programs ' 601 

Some Comments on the 6780 

Souvenir "Review, " The e45,s 

Conventions, Former 672, 674 

(\>nvertible Cars for Lynchburg, Pa — •91S 

Cory. Meredith & Allen 317 

Costa Rica (Gonzalez) 3I>4 

Cost of Band Concerts, The 45li 

Cists and Profits of Electric Railways 

in Germany '537 

Council Bluffs, Tabor & Southern Elec- 
tric Railway Co 197 

Covered Tops, Double Deck Cars with.. •SSo 
Cox, Charles H.— (Hiring, Training & 
Handling Employes In Electric 

Railway Work) ....171, 249 

Crane Co., Chicago ^414, 698 

Patent Pop Safety Valve 436 

Crawfordsville, Ind., Controversy 89 

Litigation, End of 395 

Creditors Attached the Cars 16 

Criticisms on a Country Road, Operat- 
ing 26 

Crocker-Wheeler Co •754 

and Brown-Boveri Alliance 497 

-Apparatus in the Intramural 

Power Plant *407 

Increases Capital 266 

Crossing, Patent Street Railway •ig 

Self-Contained (Indianapolis Switch 

& Frog Co.) '268 

CTross-Tle Forms and Rail Fastening, 
with Special Reference to Treated 

Timbers •531 

Curacao, Traction in •254 

Current, Electric Traction by Mono- 
phase (Enrico Bignami) '356 

Curtain Supply Co.. The 112, 688 



Dally Street Railway Review, and the 

A. S. R. A e223, e739, e781 

Save the e674 

Damage Fakirs, Campaign Against — 6i>5 
Data of Electric Cars, Blank for Tabu- 
lating *S13 

Davis, Jr., W. J. (Relative Economy in 

the Operation of Long and Short). 639 
Dawson, M. M. (Value and Cost of Serv- 
ice Pensions) • 616 

Dayton Manufacturing Co., The 727 

to Columbus, Fast Trip from 385 

Dearborn Drug and Chemical Works.. 419, •726 

De Laval Steam Turbine Co 39 

■Deltabeston • Magnet Wire (D. & W. 

Fuse Co.) 131. 981 

Density of Population, Tramways and.. c290 
Denver City Tramway, New Rule Books 

for 91S 

l>cpreclatlon Be Entered on the Books, 

How Should c523 

Detector. Three-Phase Static Ground — G6U 
Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line — 201 

Through Traffic from Jackson to.... 453 

United Weekly 36U 

Devices for Electric Railways, Distinc- 
tive '591 

De Wolf, John O. (Reinforced Concrete 

Construction) •891 

Diesel Engine, The American (Meier)... ^792 
Discipline, Some Methods of Enforcing.. 512 
Dispatching on the Electrical Branch of 

the Boston & Maine K. R. (Albln) '206 

Dorner & CTo., H. A •601) 

Double-Deck <Jnr, The e223 

Cars with Covered Tops ....■ •8»;i 

Draft Rigging (Van Dorn Coupler Co.).. 201 

Draw Bars In St. I/ouls. New 'KfJ 

Bridge Built Mostly of Wood In 

Forty Working Days, An Interest- 
ing (Schrelber) '581 

Hrlll. Smith Friction Track (Walworth 

Mfg. <•«.) •JSIl 

Duner Car Closets 984 

Dulton, W. H. (Heating and Ventilating 

Car and Locomotive Paint Shops).. 33 



Early Line Material 944 

Eastman, Albert (The Machinery of the 

Employment Bureau) 836 

East River, N. Y. Tunnel, Incorporate 

for 360 

St. Louis & Suburban Railway '303 

Economizer, Evaporative Test on the 

Green •■ ■136 

Economizers. Slurlcvnnt Standard and 

ponv 'ses 

Edison Medal, for the Award of the.... 318 

Historical Exhibit •413 

Editorials 18, 73, 137, 206, 273, 

341, 141. .'•jOC, 601, C«7, 089, TOO, 759. 797, 860, 026 

Edwards (;<i., O. M 088 

Electric Club Journal, The .■.. ^43 

-Heaters for New York Subway 6)5 

Railway, The Growth of An (Oniild) 

^277, •47", •ri<)9, K07 

-Hlorage Battery Co. Exhlbll 336, 400 

New yunrlcrs for ^70 

— Trncllon from flas power 9X1 

"Eleclrobeslos" Hoi kcl Ring ^924 

Elevaeed Car. N'w Typo of •65G 

Elliot Frog A Switch Co •«!, 688 

Ely, President (Annual Adilrcu) 747 



Emploves Rewarded for Carefulness — 13 

Rules for the Government of c703 

Engineers ^'isit Ampere. N. J.. Italian.. .^96 

Knginc. Tesl of a Reeves Simple •S5I 

Engines, for .\\ilomatically Stopping 

(Consolidated Engine Stop Co.).... 403 

Equipment. Care of 718 

Maintenance and Inspection of Elec- 
trical G9C 

lOric. Through Service Between Cleve- 
land and Erie 431 

Evans & Co.. W. K 923 

Evansvllle & Eastern Electric Co., The.. 986 

Everett Railway & Electric Co '13 

Ry., New Power Plant for 431 

Excursion Business, New Departure In 

Handling 536 

Excursions. Long Distance 986 

Exhibits at the World's Fair. Some — 336 
Exposition Electrical Club. Formation 

of the 420 

Preparations Made by the St. Louis 

& Suburban System (J. C. Cassel- 

man) 353 

The Louisiana Purchase •341 

Express, Augusta. Winthrop & Gardi- 
ner Ry '320 

Business In Massachusetts 60 

Paying M-l 



Fairhaven & Westville Railroad Co 317 

Faro Indicator, A Recent Invention 810 

May Charge 10 Cents for 110 

on Interurban Lines, New Rates of.. ^73 

Registers (Ohmer Fare Register Co.) 27U 

Fares, An Experiment with Low el9 

Method of Collecting on ilic Concord 

& Mancliester Braucli ut the Bos- 
ton it Maine R. R. (Brown) 210 

Farmer, Inspecting Engineer, Thomas 

(port) 617 

Fayet-Chamonix-Martigini Electric Ry., 

The (Bignami) •571 

Feeders, Schedule Diagram as an Aid 

in Determining *906 

Ferrosteel Flanged Fittings 339 

Ferry Systems of Oakland, Cal., The 

Street Railway and '293 

Field Tester, The "New Century" '917 

Filter, The White Star Oil 662 

Financial.... 57, 113, 1S2, 261, 313, 393, 481, 645, 921 
Flreprooflng for Electric Cables (II. W. 

Johns-ManvUle Co.) 267 

Fireproof Protection tor Cars •564 

Fires 62 

Fltcliburg (Mass.) & Leominster Ry's. 

Park 3'26 

Flanges for Piping, Malleable (Crane 

Co.) 126 

Flood, Ice 4t Snow, Damage Caused by.. 'ISO 

l''luo Gas Testing (Whysall) '832 

Fly Wheels, Bursting of 4-ft 9oS 

Foreign Commissioners, Notes from 

(Carl) 354 

Visitors Entertained at I'itlsburg 9i)S 

Forge, The Macdonald *338 

Forms tor Shop Use (Smith) •903 

Names and Addresses on c943 

Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction 

Co 9ua 

Francis, Hon. D. R. (address) 742 

Franklin Railway Supply Co. I0xhlbit.»766, 787 
Freight and Express Business of the 

Interurban Hallway & Terminal Co. •797 

Business on lOlcclric Cars 123 

Cars in City SUccis 0814 

on Electric "Lines e942 

French Work on Electric Traclion 05ii 

Freshets, Storms and FlooU.x in March.. 239 
Filction Plate for Emergency Car 

Brake, Wool Felt '767 

Fuel, Radiant— A New 829 

Fuse Exhibit, Johns-Manvlllo Co's •726 

Fuses, Shawmiil 982 



Gage, A New Draft TiOO 

Galena Oils (Oalcna Signal Oil Co.).. 410, 76(i 

Galveston riiy Hallway Co., The 483 

Oartley, A. (Truing Engine Pins) ^486 

Garton Co., The W. R ^428 

Gas Engine. Nurnberg 68 

Power, Electric 'I'ractlon from — ;... 98;i 

Testing, Flue (Whysalll •883 

Gasoline Car for Interurban Roads — •336 

Inspccllrin Car ^981 

Gate for Hallwav Cars, Anlomallc 43s 

Valves, Best Adjustable Wedge •Oi',! 

Gears, NuKall ,'!<illd •OUi 

General Kh cirlc Co •734 

Annual Heport of the 328 

Exhibit 401 

In SI. Louis 668 

Generators, Western Electric 728 

Geneva Trailloii Co 466 

Germany, t.'iiKls and Profits of Electric 

RallwovH In 'Kl 

Electric Hallways In C623 

(iiHl's G. M.. Klni' Exhlbll 416, 728, 832 

Ooldsborough. I'lof, W, K. (aildrcss). . . . 744 
Gold (.'ar Healing & Lighting Co. ...418, 72'1 

(lonzale/,, Manuel ((^osta Hlca) 364 

Oottschalk (Second Elcclrlc Railroad in 

Peru) SSI 

Gould, L E. (The Growth of nn Elec- 
tric Hallway) •'277, ^470, 'Um. 807 



i 39581 



IV 



STREET kAll.WAV REVIEW. 



BloraKc Bniu-ry Co 416. 75:1 

Oraihnwltz. Ur. Alfro.l iThi' Marlpn- 

f.'lil<-Zo»M,n lliKh Si> I Trtiilm .... <K 

Oraiiil UiiiiUlH. Wliul Mr. Sin-JI Mlyii- 

morla Saw In ,^ 

Orapltloul Miithcmutli'n (Hulmnn) 

Oraiihlti' I'liliil. Diiniblllty of «|g 

(Jn-oliy. Cull. . KrilKlu Homl for 1»7 

<lr<*<'n KnKlni't-rlnx Co 7S8 

TravilInK Link Cralcii ,' TSg 

Qrliulir. I.mlhiw ECill •jgg 

arlii(lir». Motor Hrlvi'ii Tool '.'.'.'.'.'. •801 

QrlndliiK Klal WlU'pla, Maehlno for.... •248 
Growth of an Klectric Hallway T\w 

(Ooolil) 'LTT, MTl.'SflS, 868 

of a Railway Supply House, Rapid 

(Porl<r & Hi-rKi MSS 

Uriinow, William (To Hi-move Slii-I and 

Ice from Third Rail) oOO 

Guarlnl, E. (Kluclrlc Railway of La 

Mure) •907 

(Electric Traction In Italy by 

Moans of Monophase Scries Motors) "ISI 

(Narrow-KaBc Road from Lou- 

sannc to Mondon) •2SJ 

(Recent German Experiments In 

M(»nophase I'ractlon) •247 

(Three- I'ha.se Tramway from 

Sehwyz to Seewen) •3S9 



H 

Hale H Kllljurn Manufacturing Co 'Kw, 671 

New Factory of •924 

Hancock Lubricator for Motor Bearlnes 788 

Mart. 'PIi.. t O,....*.. I* II.... *.„„ 



'488 

■:32 
mi 

135 

'(;6o 



Harp. The l.lhertv Trolle 

Harries Hid It. lliiw General 

llamlllon-llolzwarlli Steam Turbine . 

lleudllKht.-i. Improved (Duplex Head 
IlKhl Co.) 

Heater and Switch. New Electric 

An Improved Hot Water Car 'esS, 673 

Heaters for New York City Ry. Cars. 

Electric 716 

Heating and Ventilating Car and Loco- 
motive I'alnt Shops (Outton) 33 

Hell Rail Joints, Merits of ^723 

Heine Boilers (Heine Safety Boiler Co. 
- Exhibit) 409, 650, 757 

Herzog, S. (St, Gall-Spelcher-Trogen 

Electric Railway) •863 

Hey wood Brothers & Wakefleld Co..,. 402, 719 

HIgh-Tenslon Line Material •436 

Transmission Lines, Some Expe- 

riences with (Reagan) ^297 

Highways, Interurban Railways in the e943 
Hiring, Training and Handling Em- 
ployes In Electric Railway Work 

,. , <Cox) 171, 249 

Hoist, Motor Driven Car '337 

Holophane Glass Co 39 413 

Holman, A. G. (Graphical Mathematics. ' 

'27, •IW, •330, '474, '$10 

Hooven. Owens, Rentschler Co,. New 

Shops of •127 

Vertical Engine ,] •432 

Hospitality, Transit Company Extends.. 682 

Hotel Rates in St. Louis 512 

Hot-Water Heater. An Improved 673 

Houston, Tex., The Strike at ,'!95 

Hubley, G. Wilbur (Signal Device for 

Circuit-Breakers of Switchboards). . 486 

Huddersfield, Tower Wagon for ^484 

Hudson River, Completed Tunnel Under 

the ^787 

Tunnel Plans ]5 

Huntington, W. Va.. The Strike at 323 

Hydraulics in Connection with Elec- 
tric Railway Work (Morrow) 588 



I 

Ideal Shop (Wright), Discussion on the 093 

Igorot Menu. The Truth About the "420 

Illinois Central R. R. Exhibit 796 

Traction System •626 

Tunnel Co's. Power Plant 541 

Indiana, Electric Rali»a.vs of ^44 

Union Traction Co., Physical Feat- 
ures of the Indianapolis Northern 
Division of the ^945 

Indianapolis Northern Division of the 
Indiana Union Traction Co., Physi- 
cal Features of the •945 

Traction Lines, Concrete-Steel 

Arches on the •96i 

& Northwestern, Limited Service oii 

the ggg 

& Northwestern Traction Co., La- 

conia Cars for •664 

Switch & Frog Co •■■.... _^ 

Indicator for Street Names 908 

Inger.soll Construction Co., The 760 

Sergeant Air Compressors.. 399 

Biggest Contract 758 

Inspection and Care of Car Wheels (R. 

B. Steams) •3G1 

of Car Buildings ojg 

Installation of the Twin City Rapid 

Transit Co.. New Power,*., ^441 

Instruction. The School of,... 519 

Instruments and Car Testa " e459 

I>ong Scale Portable 501 

of Precision. New ^72 

Insulator. Thomas High Tensloii.! •6.S 

Insulators, Test of Break Strain.. e338 

Insurance. Electric Railway .. e604 

Liability (Rockwell) 59O 



and Traction .Mulual Dov 

Inlerborough Rapid TriinBll Co.. New 

York. Pow.-r Pl.inl of the si5 

Inlerchangcahli- Eii.elrli- Mileage eIB4 

.Vllle.lge S.\sl<m 197 

'i'lekets for Inlerurbans e21-* 

International Klecirleal CongresM of St, 

I'OUls 15. XI, 356, 453, e440. K4 

Railway Employes' Association 15 

Danct' 63 

Register Co., The 39, "413 

Tracthn Co. Harn Burned 266 

Tramway Union 46K 

Tramway & Liglil Railway Union, 

Vienna, Sept. S, VM^, Report of the 

Thirteenth Convention of the 83U 

Interurban Cars, Care of (II. J. Ijike)... 364 

Line Modules Husiiiess Mi-thods e944 

Hallway, Rodger Car for ^489 

Railway & Terminal Co. t<t Enlarge 

Station 220 

Freight and Express Business of 

the •797 

Hallways, The Why and How of 

(Walker) 366 

in the Highways e943 

Roads in Highways, The Status of.. e37I 

Work, The Telephone in 692 

Inlerurbans are Trunk Lines 43 

Intramural Railway. The '347 

Invention, A Recent (l''are Indicator)., 8I0 

Iowa. Electric Railways In ^247 

Stale College, Railway lx"etures at.. «29 

Italy. Electric Traction in, by Means 

of Monophase Serit s Motors (Guar- 
lnl) ir.l 



Jacks for Electric Hallway Use ^496 

Jackson .\ulomalie Block Signal Sys- 
tem, The W. S. M •eSl 

& Ft Wayne Interurban Railway 

Co 239 

to Detroit, Through Traffic from.... 453 

Jewell, Leon (Transfers, Their Uses and 

Abuses) 794 

Johns-Manvillc Cos. Fuse Exhibit ^726 

Managers in Convention 200 

Johnson, F. W. (Hcjw Can the Claim De- 
partment Co-operate with the Op- 
erating Department in the Preven- 
tion of vXceidents) 615 

Joints for .IlKi-volt Circuits, Insulated. 
(Weber Rail Joint Manufacturing 
Co.) .133 

Juliet, Plainfield & Aurora R. R., Prog- 
ress on e282 

Shelter Houses 16 

Jones' Stokers (Under-Feed Stoker Co.). 400 

Awarded John Scott Medal 963 

Jnngfrau Railway, The »iss 



Kalamazoo, Mich., Prosperity at 767 

Kann, Richard (Some New Ideas in the 

Pleasure Re.sort Business) •585 

Kansas (.'it,\-. Mo., 

Missouri River Power Station of the 

Metropolitan Street Railway Co, 

(Quick I .' .373 

Kansas-Oklahoma Interurban Rv e321 

Kellogg Switchboard & Supply 'co 671 

Telephones 41') 

Keokuk Electric Railway & Power C"o., 

'I'ime Recording Clock for ''15 

Kidder, S. J. (Electric Car & Tram 

Brakes) 326 

Kimball, chas. R. (Relief Association 

for Small Electric Roads) 944 

Kingston (Ont.) Lords Day Alliance.... 915 
Knowlton. Howaid S. (The Determina- 
tion of Sche<iules by Speed Tem- 
plates) ." •go.:; 

Knox Engineering Co. Contracts 195 

KnoxvIIle Traction Co.. New Cars for.. ^924 

Knutson Retriever at the Fair. The 7,16 

Koester. Franz (High Pressure Steam 

Pipe Systems) •82] 

Krupp Specialties in America 6,32 

Steel Tired Wheels 7,50 



Lackawanna & W.voming Valley R. R., 

I'amphlet on 214 

I^aconla Cars for Indianapolis & North- 
western Traction Co ^604 

Lagonda Manufacturing Co. Exhibit... •6.S5 

iJlke, H. J. (Care of Interurban Cars)., 364 

(Car Inspection) si'* 

l^mp. Sterling Special Incandesceiit 
(Sterling Electrical Manufacturing 

, ..f"-) •■', 'ISliH 

La Mure. Electric Railway of (Guarlnl 1 •9117 

I.ansing and Suburban Bond Issue 625 

T.-ausanne, to Mjondon", Njirrow-gage 

road from (Guarlnl) •281 

Law.53. 109, 173, 2.i7, ,'»9, 3S9, 477. 541, 817, 879, 973 

I.cbanon & Columbia (Kv.) Rv 282 

I.,ectures at Iowa State College,' Railway 8*^ 
Lee, R. K. (Motormen's School of the 

Cincinnati Traction Co.) '804 

Legislation for 1903. Street Railway,.., 186 

Legislation, Massachusetts Railway.. 457, e4iis 

Lehigh Valley Traction Co 601 



Lcvinson. U M. (The Small Road and 

the .Manager) 574 

Lewis /i Clark Centennial Exposition.. 980 

License Fees. Suit for Iffi 

Liege. Helgium. Street Cars at 2U 

Lima, (J _ 

Western (Jhio Railway Co •IS? 

I.indall. John, (Maintenance and Inspec- 
tion of Electrical E<|Uipment> OStt 

LIntern Signal System, The 39 

LIveriiool * Southport Ry, Blectrinca- 

tlon •32J 

Locker. Pen-Dar Metal '497 

Sanitary Metal •923 

l*ock for Car D*>ors, Stop •424 

— Nut, The Columbus (Columbia Nut 

& Bolt Co.) •aoo 

Locomotive for New York Central, 

Electric ^434, ^909 

Works Exhibit, Baldwin 670 

l.<mdon Traffic, J. (.'Ilfton Robinson's 
Testimony Before the Royal Com- 
mission on 4IJ9 

Los Angeles Notes 'iz, 118 

Louisiana Purchaae Exposition, The '•841 

Louisville Railway Relief Association.. 116 

IvUbrieation. (Stare) 698 

Lubricator for Motor Bearings, Han- 
cock 78g 

Lynchburg, Va., Convertible Cars for.. •giK 



."Vlacartney, Morton (Some New York, 

Ohio and Indiana lnterurt>ans) — 23S 

.VleCUnchie Advertising Strap •sw 

.Vleculloch. Cajit. Robert (The St. Louis 
(. onventions 01 the American Street 

Hallway .Association), (port) 6S9 

.Macdonald Forge, The •Si» 

jvi Gulre-Cummings Car Works 737 

Manutacturing Co 199, '412. 79n 

.McKlnley Syndicate Properties of Cen- 
tral Illinois '626. •961 

Maine. Two Interesting Storage Battery 

Installations In ^498 

.Maltby Lumber Co 413 

Manager, The Small Road and the (L. 

M. Levinson) 574 

.Manchester. (N. H.) Traction. Light & 

Power Co '273 

Mandalay, Electric tramway In •91J 

Manhattan Elevated Accident, Report 

on 2S8 

Island, An Uptown Resort tor 812 

Manila, 1*. I., Electric Cars In ^29 

Manslield Railway, Light & Power Co. •3d7 

Manufacturers Again Entertain, The 750 

Reception e70« 

Maps— 

Birmingham Railway, Light & Pow- 
er Co 224 

British Columbia Electric Hallway.. 461 

Brockton & Plymouth Street Ry.... 513 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit System 332 

Concord & Manchester Branch of the 

Boston & Maine Railroad 206 

East St. Louis & Suburban Ry 304 

Illinois Central Traction Co., The.. •961 

■ Illinois Electric Railways 550 

Indiana, Electric Railways of 44 

■ Union Traction Co 946 

Iowa Electric Railways 247 

Liverpool & Southport Ry 321 

Manchester, (N. H.) Traction, Light 

& Power Co 277 

Michigan Electric Railway Map 425 

Ohio Electric Riiilways..! 191 

Public Service Corporation of New 

Jersey 577 

Paget Sound Power Co 606 

St. I^uis & Suburban Ry 353 

Sealth- Klectric Co •! 

Siiiiljeiiville Traction & Light Co.... 93 

MarienieMe-Xossen High Speed Trials, 

The (Gradenwltzl •465 

Massachusetts Legislation. Recent.. 457, e458 

Street Railways, Report of 117 

M.alerial, High-Tension Line 'AH 

.Matthews & Bro. W. N 662. 728 

Medal awarded to John A. Brill e338 

Meier, E. D. (The American Diesel En- 
gine) 792 

Meters for Electric Railways, Car 

(Pemberton) ^77 

Methods of Enforcing Discipline, Some.. 512 

.Metric System in Great Britain 874 

Metropolitan Elevated. Car Repairs on 508 

New Car for •486 

Metropolitan Street Hallway Company 
of Kansas City, Mo.. The Missouri 
River Power Station of the (Quick) •373 

Mexico, New Cars for the City of ^914 

Mlcanlte. Anent Amber 716 

Michigan Electric Railway Map •425 

Mica Insulator Co 335, 410 

iMIddleboro. (Mass.) Wareham & Buz- 
zards Bay 2S9 

.Mileage and Service of Steel Tired 

Wheels (Taylor) 490 

MiUaukee Electric Railroad, Chicago & ^925 
Millar. E. T. (Standard Car for Boston 

& Maine Electric Branch) ^212 

J. (Wheel Matters) 570 

Mill Construction Car House and Office 

at Bristol ^597 

Milloy Trolley Base. The •786 

Milne Water Tube Boiler and Super- 
heater, The ^sss 

Mineral Lubricating Oils eXH 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



V 



Miniature Railway at the Fair. The '-UO 

The Popular 730 

Minneapolis— 

Iwin City Rapid Transit Co.. An- 
nual Report of 12fi 

45-ft. Car for •^ 

Plans of 2S 

Axles and Wheels at. Handling •22(1 

Men. Suggestion to Car Service 900 

Modern Machine Tools *^\ 

Mondon. Narrow-gauge road from llau- 

sanne to (Guarini) •2S1 

Monophase Current, Electric Traction 

by (Bignami) ♦SSj 

Traction. Recent German Experi- 
ments in (Guarini) *2J7 

.Monterey (C^al.l Gas S: Electric Co.... 'S11 

Montreal Benetit Association 460 

Novel Type of Car •5K 

Street Railway Co.. Annual Report 

of S9T 

Morris. William L.. (Piping and Power 

Station Systems) •869, *93S 

Morrow. B. E. (Hydraulics in Connec- 
tion with Electric R;iilwav Work) 588 
Mortlser. Automatic Vertical Hollow- 
Chisel (S. A. Woods Machine Co.) •eS 

Motor Cars for Bavarian Railwavs e324 

Connections. On 665 

Driven Car Hoist •337 

- — Tool Grinders •501 

Single Phase Railway eS14 

Smallest Electric 732 

Westinghouse No. 101 Railway •491 

Motorman, The 732 

Motormen's School of the Cincinnati 

Traction Company (Lee) •804 

Mt. Vesuvius. Trolley on 16 

Muncie. Hartford & Ft. Wayne Ry., Car 

Tests on the 13 

Municipal Accounts 908 

Tramway Accounts, British 89-1 

Wages and Accounting on e877 



N 



Names and Addresses on Forms e943 

Na8h%-llle Mule has been ReUred •152 

Notes 476, Ii21 

National Bralte Co 752 

Peacock Brake T8S 

— -Electric Co '403 

Announcement 855 

Changes in Ofllccs of the 68 

Exhibit '733 

Will sell their 688 

Machinery at the Fair '689 

New Department 240 

Nemst Lamp Cos. Exhibit 6S 

Neuchatel. The Electric Tramways of 

(Ramakers) ^452 

Nevada. First Electric Railway in 972 

Transit Notes 875 

New Cars for the City of Mexico ^914 

Newcastle. England, Single Deck Cars. 356 

New Century Field Tester •917 

New England Street JElailway Club 

(ports) 107 

November meeting of 958 

Octol>er meeting of 890 

Trolley Information Bureau 389 

New Hampshire Electric Railways 102 

New Haven. Consolidated Railway Co. 464 

Road Buys More Trolleys 517 

Suburban Service. Proposed 240 

New Jersey, Electric Railways in 328 

Electrics. Development of Through 

Business on •alS 

N*'W Lines and Extensions Opened 17. 

76, 165. 224, 334, 38S, 484, 524, 653, 812, 901, 941 
New Orlc.-ins Carmen Discharged by Ap- 
pellate Court 101 

.Votes 669 

Street R.-illway Guide to 88 

New Pul)llcallonH....6l. 125, 197. 266, 475, 920 

Newspaper and Milk Service ^912 

Delivery, Free 590 

New Williamsburg Bridge, Cars on the.. 464 
New York .ind Trenton, Trolley Service 

between 318 

by Trolley, Philadelphia "to. ..!.... .. 37 

Central. Electric I»romotlve for ^434 

High Speed Electric Locomotive. 

Trial of "Sog 

City Ry. Cars. Electric Healers for.. 716 

Railways, Deflcit In 94 

Judgments against 336 

New Piuit Side Subway In 299 

New Haven & Hartford Railroad 

Co.. Plans of the 666 

Ohio & Indiana Intcrurbans, Some 

(Macartney) 238 

Power Plant of the Jntcrborough 

Rapid Trannit (Jo 515 

ProeeeiiingK of the Twenty-Second 

Annual M«-etlng, Hlreet Railway 

AiMorlallon of th- Stale of fl3.i 

Air *'ompresKOrM In the (Jperatlon of 914 

Kleelrle Heaters for 646 

Plans for New IW 

OfMrnlng 878 

- Rjipl'l Transit Bills Passeil 221 

.Vlcliols A Uro . George P 795 

LInl'Tn Pneumatic Track Bander *9H4 

NiKhl Light for Track Work •868 

.Viies <'ar A Manufacturing Co 66 

Nonunion Carmen Attacked 16 

Norrls. i'rofessor Henry II. (The Col- 

ieg'. .Man In HuNlncHH) 617 

North Dakota. First Kleetric Line In... 494 
Owns a Trolley Lino 120 



Northwestern Elevated Railroad Co.. 

New Cars for the •711 

Norwalk to Cleveland, Record Run 

From Ill 

Nuttall Co.. R. D 337 

Exhibit of the •719 

Solid Gears •650 



Oakland, Cal.. The Street Railway and 

Ferry Systems of •293 

Obituary 63. 125. 197, 265, 648, 917, 986 

Ohio Electric Railway Map •m 

Intert:rban Men. Badges for e702 

Railway Association e222, 262, 330, 64S 

Ohmer Register Contracts 659 

Oil and ^Vaste Saving Machine Co ^755 

Mineral I^ubricating e334 

Saving of Cylinder ^437 

Oiling System. Simple ^34 

Oklahoma Gas & Electric Co 853 

(Jlds, Edwin W eC74, 079 

Operating Criticisms on a Country Road 26 

Organization, A sensible Labor eS16 

Ore Cars for Butte Electric Ry •329 



Paige Iron Works 411 

I*ainting a Modern Passenger Car 905 

(.'ar (Randlett) 219 

Notes on dOo 

Pantasote Co.. The 404. 730 

Park Attractions 181 

Parks, Street Railway in 1904 177, 252 

Passenger Car, The Comfort ^435 

Patron, The Privileges of a 456 

Pawling & Harnischfeger Co 728 

CJrane 411 

Peacock Brake, The ^497 

Peckham Manufacturing Co 69 

Pemberton. L. B. (Car Meters for Elec- 
tric Railways* ^77 

Pen-Dar, Metal Locker •497 

Pennsylvania Meeting Postponed 590 

Pensions. Value and Cost of Service 

(Dawson) eC03. 616 

Peru. Second Electric Railroad in 

(Gottschalk) 831 

Petaluma & Santa Rosa Railway, In- 
teresting Cars for •TSS 

Philadelphia Railways, Fiftieth Anni- 
versary of 214 

Rapid Transit Cos. Crane Car •433 

to New York by Trolley 237 

Philippine Exposition, The 710 

Photoscope Co., The ^267, 408. 727 

Physical Features of the Indianapolis 
Northern Division of the Indiana 

Union Traction Co •945 

Personal 62. 124. 194. 

196. 2i;7. 310. 395. 483, 548, 647, 853, 916, 985 

Allan. John B. (port) .110, 396 

Alien, W. H 317 

Albln. H. A. (port) 210 

Adklns, James (port) 620 

Adams. H. II. (port) 667 

Andrews. R. Ij 02 

Appleyard. A. E 310 

Armstrong. V. C 124 

-Arnold, Bion J 316 

E. D 124 

R. C 264 

Atkinson. Chas. A 124 

J. M 124 

Avant. C. A 124 

Baker, C. F. (port) 667 

Bardlner. Ch.arles A 853 

Karey, J. A 548, 647 

Bartholomew, Ellis ,548 

Bailey Whipple, T. H 124 

Bates. Putnam A 124, 317 

Beach, H. L 647 

Bean. Jr.. W. Worth 647 

Beggs, John 1 316 

Bemls, A. J 985 

Benson, Charles C 647 

D. L 316 

Berry, T. W 198 

Billings. Fred 310 

Blnkley. George H 648 

Blackball. J. R 124 

Bleaker. John S 916 

BloBH. Wm. H 124 

Bolles, Frank 483 

Borton. Fred S 047 

Bowman. William J 985 

Boyd, T. II 648 

Bovle, 8. G. (port) 729 

Brady, Arthur W 863 

Brackenrldge. J;lo. C 62 

Uraden. N. 8 63 

Bradley. L. C 316 

Brett. J, A 647. 910 

Broekway, W. H. (port) 729 

Brown. F. E. (port) 210 

Brush. M. (• 284 

Bryant. 10. P 396 

Bryilon. II Boyd (port) 647 

Bushnell. Jno. I, 124 

Butli:r. W. W. B .116 

Bullerileld. D. W 316 

W, F 316 

J. 8. 0>ort) 661 

Camlln. John H 647. 863 

Cnrleion, Murray (port) 618 

Cnrllon, G H 19B 

Carver, D. V. (port) 607 



Ely, W. Caryl (port) 700 

Chapman. H 316 

Claflin. Geo. E 62 

Clark, Harry J 316 

J. P 124 

Cliitord, E. W 317 

Colvin. A. B. (port) 700 

Conant. Roger 916 

Conwav. Jt>hn T 396 

Cooke. W. J. (port) 737 

Cook, Walter T 317 

Cooper, H. S 483 

C^)rnell. Roscoe 548 

Cory. C. L 317 

Cotsworth, S. J 124 

Crafts, P. P 62 

Croll, H. V 317 

Crosby, Cliarlea W 62 

Cummings. J. J. (port) 737 

Dalrymple. James 910 

Damon. George A 390 

Danforth. R. E 196 

Daniell. F. G 124 

— -Davids. A. G 395 

Davles, H. J. (port) 190, 729 

Denell, R. A 62 

Denman, C. A 264 

nerrah, H. H 916 

Dill, S. J. (port) 916 

Donnell, J. H..... 916 

Dornbla.ser, R. (' 647 

Downs, Kdwin K 853 

Driimmond, A. L. (port) 70 

Dryer. lOrvin 317 

D'Sleese. Harry 62 

Duffy. C. N 483 

Duncan. Louis 916, 985 

Dyer, Daniel Burns 916, 985 

Earle, George H 647 

Edmunds, Frank W .(17 

- Iffvans. D. J 03 

Powell 4S:! 

Faber. Edwin C 853 

Fairchild. jr., C. B 816 

Fansler. Charles 916 

Fell, A. L, C. (port) 25 

Fisher, F. E 125, 196 

Flynn, C. E 316 

^Folsom. E. C 124 

Forstove, Joseph 548 

Foss, Uriah 647 

Foster. E. C (port) 700 

Frax'el. Howard 647 

Fresh. Henry 264 

Fuller, F. L, 204 

Garcke. Emile 916 

Gentry, H. F 62 

Gillette. J. C 190 

Given. Frank S 63 

Glade, John H 124 

Goodrich, cniarles F 647 

Gordon. Alex 264 

Goss, W. F. M 316, 396 

Grant, John (port) 700 

Gray, R. W 548 

Graybill, jr., John S 124 

Green, .\lfred (port) .167 

Griest, W. W 196 

Griffln. Richard 316 

Gunn. Thomas 62 

E. B 648 

Guthrie. Wm 124 

Harvey. W. P 986 

Hake, I-ouis F 196 

Hall. William H 647 

Hambleton. J. T 395 

Hamilton, James 395 

Hanchctt. B. S 264 

Hanna. Dan R 916 

L. C ■ 196 

Harrington. C. J 648 

Hartley. H. C 124 

Hayward, A. H 483 

Henry. F)-ank R. (port) 620, 72S 

G. K 196 

Hirclv. Millard B. (port) 194, 647 

Hirtzog. R. R 647 

^Hlll, Holiert A 917 

- Hinstorff. D. C 647 

Hoadley, O. M 264 

. Holdredge, Chas. B 1110 

Houseman. J. D 548 

. Howard. George B. (port) 653 

Hlalsoi). C. 190 

— -HuiillnKlon. H. E 124 

Ilussev. Owen S 9S5 

HulehlnaoiiH. J. C. (port) 700 

Jackson. 'I'humas ". 910 

W. P 047 

James. Eflward 917 

Jones. James M 317 

Keegan. George 917 

Kelley, K. G 196 

Kellogg. Henry F 986 

KInch. M. J 647 

Knox. George W 793 

Kobusch. J. H. (port) 660 

Kfihler, M 483 

Kri-ck, Alvln W 916 

- Kries. jr.. J. A I 621 

Krulzeh. Herman (port) 652 

Kuhlmaii, (!, C 372 

Uillli). I{. T 62 

Uilnl. (lei, (12 

Ijike. H. J. (port) ..,,,.. 60" 

Lathrop. n. M 48;i 

Ijiveuberg. D. H ;... 483 

Lay, 1'". M 264 

l.aylon. Thomas 316 

Lea.h. Albert T 986 

-^— U'e, F. H ,... 196 

Llltell. H. M. (port) :.... (172 

I.lvermore, 8, B .' 617 



VI 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



I.iiillnni. M. C !M. MS 

I.yman. \V. H «"■• 

Lyons, Jnm<»i* W. (port) 39« 

McAilun. A. R 9S5 

McAfoi'. HcOit 124 

MacAfrri'.'. 1). I, 4M 

Ml'imkuy. M. E 396 

McOlnry, J. B. (port) O. 124. ««! 

McCullouh, Richard :il< 

Roborl (Porl) 196. 61» 

McCoyl, J. W 264 

Mcnohl.'. Robert 393 

M'Klrciy. (-|iarli>H M 647 

M'Farlalld. J. M 395 

M«<-l*'av<Ioi». John 365 

MrlioUKh. 8. 1* 121 

MHiliry. K. M 39*; 

MarKay. II. C 916 

II. \V 395 

MeKhiloy. W. B 917 

McMkhacl. James Outhrie 9S5 

MMIllan, Joseph 483 

M'Qulslon. J. C 316 

McWhorlcr. VV. A 19« 

Magllton. J. J. (port) 729 

Mnhoney, John (port) 621 

Maloney. VV. A. (port) 276 

Maiilfokl. S. M 985 

— —Manning. 1. 316 

ManvUle, T. P 62, 895 

Marhoff. A. L, 985 

Marott, CSeo. J 1>« 

Martin. Charles B 816 

Mattlce, A. M 483 

Mayer. Albert 317 

Meade. Richard W 985 

Melllnger. Jacob (port) 396 

Mellor. John 548 

Meredith. Wynn 317 

Mickey. R, K 985 

Miller. Hugh Th 917 

Mills. C. V 395 

Mitchell. G. R 62 

Mitten. T. E 124, 316 

Montgomery, \V. 8. 62 

Morgan, Godtrey 196 

Morse, J. J. (port) 651 

Morris. H. C 647 

Moore, L. C 647 

Mower, S. W. (port) 667 

Mullen. T. J. (port) 667 

' Mulhern, George G 125, 647 

Mumper, J. W 985 

Mundy, W. O. (port) 667 

Murdock. C. T 264 

Nagle. George Owen 317 

Nellson. John ••• 317 

Nelson. S. L. (port) 700, 916 

Ncster. John A 264 

NIcholl, T. J 196 

Nute. John W. (port) 601 

O'Brien. J. J 254 

Ogden. John W 647 

Ohmer. John F 917 

Olds. E. W. (port) 66^ 

Orr, Alexander E 98o 

Palmer. Clinton 985 

W. K 196, 395 

Pantalconl. Guldo 648 

Parsons, Geo. W 63 

W. B 196, 985 

Paul. G. J. A 196 

Payne. Henry C 853 

Pease. H. M. (port) 729 

Pcndrcd. Loughman 985 

Penlngton. T. C. (port) 700 

Phillips, F. R 316 

Pierce. Richard H 317 

Piper. A, R 2W 

Powers. John 39.i 

Pratt, Mason D 396 

Pundcrford. J. K 985 

Qulmby. M. M 863 

Randall. F. C. (port) 17 

Rankin, W. K 54S 

Rathvon. W. R 647 

Raupp, E. H 316 

Ray. f. S 983 

William D 196 

Redmond, T. B 124 

Reed, Herbert E 316 

Remellus, Charles 548 

Remington. O. L. M7 

Reynolds, Harry E 396 

- I. H 62 

Rice. Arthur H 316 

Jr., Edwin W 264 

Richards. Calvin (port) 672 

Rind. R. C 647 

Roberts & Abbott Co., The (ports)... IM 

E. P 62 

W 196 

Robinson, L 853 

Luke 126 

Rock, William B 316 

^ — Rogers, O. T. (port) 700 

R. B 548 

S. C. (port) 729 

-^—Rosenthal. Geo. D. (port) 663 

Ryder, B. H 62 

Sage. F. S 548 

— Sando. W. J 985 

-. — Sanders. A. B 62 

Saunders. W. 1 264 

Sanderson. Henry 986 

Baylor, George A 986 

Scovill. Frank E 917, 985 

Scranton. C. O 198 

Scrugham. G. R 986 

Shaw, J. P. (port) 700 

-;-8hcrwood. I. H 62. 548 

4 — Simpson, C. O 729, 986 



— -Sims. A. V 847 

-Smith. G. J 124 

!■• K. (port) 729 

Kr.d 8 317 

George 8 82 

II K 916 

H. I SSTi 

II. W 63 

iHJinc A 548 

J. Brodle (port) i 270 

-- N. C 647 

\V. A. (port) 7IW 

— \V. C 647 

Sparks. H. A «2 

Stunhy. A. H 985 

George A 124 

StJirr. c. C 264 

— Slurring. .Mason B. (port) 316 

Storms, Albert Boynton 395 

Slowell. E. B 261 

Sunny. U. E 395 

Swartz. James K 316 

. Swazey. Geo. H 63 

Swenaon. Victor B 98o 

Sykes. K. G 695 

Talmnn, W. W. (i>ort) 651 

Terven. Louis 483 

Timmerman, J. H. (port) 652 

Gerhard H. (port) 6o2 

Tolmie, Charles 62 

Trudeau. L 124 

Tyler. C. C 396 

Valler, Peter 647 

Vogel, H. F 916 

Waldron, H. A 264 

. — Walker. Guy Morrison (port) 621 

Wallace, John F 916 

Walsh, Jr., Julius S. (port) 621 

Wampler, William 648 

Wanklyn, F. W 02 

Waring, Richard S 648 

Warwick, C. E 985 

Warren, A, H 853 

Arthur 261 

B. H 261 

Waterbury. A. L 4«3 

Watkins. S. W 62 

Weed. H. 1 62 

Welles. P. 1 62 

Welz. Franz 62 

West, Arthur 316, 396 

Wheatley, W. W. 196 

Wheeler. Schuyler Skaats 483 

Whllelsey, Thomas F 985 

Whiteside. Walter H. (port) 483 

Wilgus, H. F 62 

Willets, Joseph C 64S 

Wllliam.s. Gardner S 4S3 

H. K. S 647 

Wilson, .\rthur J. (port) 548 

J. B 985 

VVinslow, Everett M 396 

Wise, S. W 124 

Wood, Charles N 917 

Young, John 916 

J. S 853 

Yuille, George A 483 

Zifter, A 483 

Piping and Power Station Systems 

(Morris) '869, "938 

What (Constitutes Good Design and 

What Should Be Avoided, Live 

Steam (Stearns) 773 '- 

Pittsburg. Etna & Butler St. Ry. Co.... 198 

Foreign Visitors Entertained at 90S 

Gage & Supply Co GS4 

New Transfer System at 2S 

Railway Co.. The 396 

Telephone In Street Railway Work at 593 

Plainflclci. 111.. Proposed Chautauqua for 181 

Plant, A Novel Condensing 451 

Policy that Failed, A 599 

Poles of Reinforced Concrete 977 

Population, Tramways and Density of,. e290 
Power Because of Truck Equipments, 

Waste of 55.1 

House Accessories e90 

Installation of the Twin CMty Rapid 

Transit Co.. New *441 

Plant Experiences, Some (Reagan).. 89-S 

for Everett Ry. (Wash.) New.... 431 

Illinois Tunnell Co's 541 

Sation Systems, Piping and (Morris) 

•869. ♦93S 

Supply System of the Brooklyn 

Rapid Transit Co •332 

Porter & Berg— Growth of a Railway 

Supply House •425 

Portland Railway Co., Cars and Shops 

of the •215 

(Me.) Ry. Storage Battery ^498 

Press for making Steel Frames 336 

Price, W. C. (Waste of Power Because 

of Truck Euipments) 553 

Privileges of a Patron. The 4.sr. 

Providence, R. T.— 

Rhode Island Co.. New Power House 

of the '82 

Public Service Corporation of New Jer- 
sey. An Interesting Draw Bridge 
Built Mostly of Wood in Forty 
Working Days (Schrelber) ♦581 

Car House Practice Followed bv 

the 579 

Electric Railway Properties Oper- 

ated by the 576 

Machinery of the Employment 

Bureau'ot, (Eastman) S35 

Organization of Construction De- 

partment 578 

. — of Operating Department 578 

, Power Facilities of the ^78 



Some Operutlng Features of the 

Electric Railway System Con- 

lr>llid by Ihe (Slanley) •575 

Storage Air Hriikes on System of •630 

Puebhi * Benhih Uapid Transit Co 982 

Puenli-. (iulllemo A. (Street Rjillwny 

Systems iif ItuenoH Aires) 355, 506 

Pugei Sound, The Stone and Webster 

I'ropertles on •325, •6(fe 

Pultv. Bulging of 903 



"Question Boxes and Wrinkles" c459 

Box of the New York State Street 

Railway Assoei.-ition 549 

guick. II \V. (The Missouri River Pow- 
er Station of the Metro|K)lllan 
Street Railway Company of Kan- 
sas City, Mo.) "SW 



Radiant. A New Fuel 829 

Rail Fastenings, wlih Special Reference 
To Treated Timbers, Cross-Tic 

Forms and *531 

Grinder, Ludlow •922 

Railway Appliances Co., The 418 

Journal Lubricating Co 789 

Subsidies, Electric c371 

Railways Protective Ass'n 795 

Ramakers. L. (The Electric Tramways 

of Neuchatel) '462 

Randlett. F. S. (Car Painting) 319 

Rates. Steam Roads Cut 16 

Reagan, II. C. (Some Experiences With 

High Tension Transmission Lines). ^297 

(Some Power Plant Experiences) 898 

Reconstruction. The Era of e»l3 

Reeves Simple Engine, Test of a •854 

Reinforced Concrete Construction (De- 

Wolf) •»4 

Record. Rolling Stock *»4 

Records. Keeping Equipment "SS 

Relic, A Hanger •893 

Relief Associations for Small Electric 

trie Roads (Kimball) 914 

Repair Car. Cleveland and Southwestern "977 
Repairs on Metropolitan Elevated, Car. 508 

Replogle, J. L. (Steel Axles) 319 

Report. Maintenance of Way 663 

Resort Business. Some New Ideas In the 

Pleasure (Kann) •585 

for Manhattan Island. .\n Uptown.... 812 

•Review." Daily Street Railway e458, 675 

Save the "Daily" e702, e73S 

The Convention Souvenir c45S 

Rhode Island Co. Benetlt Association.... 544 

Rice, Richard H. (Steam Turbines) ^790 

Roanoke Railway & Electric Co 144. 960 

Road and the Manager. The Small (L. 

M. Levinson) 574 

Robber Kills Motorman and (."onductor. 43 
Robinson's Testimony Before the Royal 

Commission on London Traffic (J. 

Clifton) 469 

Rochester & Eastern Rapid Ry ^37 

Street Railway Y. M. C. A 15 

Rockford-Freeport Electric Railway Co., 

Ojiening of 245 

Rockwell. Dr. H. B. (Electric Railway 

Liability Insurance) 1)90 

Rodger Ballast Car Co 735 

Car for Electric Railways ^724 

Car for Interurlian Railway ^489 

cars 419 

Rolling Steel Shutters and Fire Proof 

Doors iJas. G. Wilson Mfg, Co.).... ^67 

Stock Record ^894 

Board, The •ISO 

Roofs, Treatment and Attention of Pas- 
senger Car S05 

Rule Books for Denver City Tramway, 

New 91S 

Rules for Car Wiring and Equipment 

(if Cars. Underwriter's 454 

for the Government of Employes — 603 

Russian Building at the Fair. Only 758 



s 



Sander. A New Track *ho9 

Xichols-Lintern Pneumatic Track 984 

Sanding Machine. New Patent 987 

San Francisco. Strike Averted at e333 

Santiago. See the Battle of 752 

Speed. Limitations on el9 

St. Gall-Spelcher-Trogen Electric Rail- 
way (lierzog) ♦863 

St. Jo.seph. Mo.. New Power Plant at.... 237 

River Traction Co 972 

St. Louis— 

Boiler Explosion at 20 

— -Car Co KO 

• — - Exhibit of 402, "TZO 

— - Steel Car Frame •671 

Car Wheel Co •405, 651, ^684 

Conventions, Former 672 

of the American Street Railway 

Association. The (McCulloch).,.. •689 

Day Traffic 626 

Exposition e370 

Boilers for 186 

Some of the Exhibits at the ^397 

Hotel Rates in 512 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



VI 



•561 
•2S3 



•218 



•1 
•480 



International Electrical Congress of 

15. 81. 221 

Iron & Machine Works 652 

New Draw Bars in •899 

Prominent in tlie Electric Railway 

Field. Manufacturers and Supply 

Houses of ©0 

Rooms in G4S 

& Springfield Railway Co., the ^964 

Street Railways of OS. e«74 

& Suburban Ry 621 

Exposition Preparations Made by 

the (Casselman) •SSS 

Traffic Arrangements for Handling 

the E^xposition Crowds at 351 

Transit Co.. History of 620 

Notes on the Power Stations of 

the •622 

Shop Xotes. Some 669 

Worlds Fair. Traffic Terminals for.. 156 

Transit Terminals In •251 

Salt I-ake City. Consolidation at 16 

Sample. W. C. (The Tramway System 

of Shefflld. Eng.l ^21 

Saw for Timber Ripping. Band •661 

Scarrit Car Seat Works •416. 795 

Scarritt-Comstock Co.. The 653 

Schedule Diagram as an Aid In Deter- 
mining Feeders. The •goc 

Schedules by Speed Templates. The De- 
termination of (Knowlton) •806 

Schenectady Railway. New Cars for 

(Bankat> ^421 

Benefit Association 621 

School for Artisans. Summer 218 

of Instruction. The 619 

Schrelber. Martin (An Interesting Draw 

Bridge Built Mostly of Wood in 

Forty Working Days) •SSI 

Schwyz to Seewen. The Three Phase 

Tramway from •359 

Scioto Valley Traction Co.. Third-Rail 

System of the 

Scrap Iron. Making Car .\xles from — 
Shanahan Trolley Catcher and Retriev- 
er at TTtIca 

Seat for Motormen, A 

Seattle, ^'nsh.— ' 

Electric Co 

Race Trains at 

Stone * Webster Properties on Pu- 

get Sound 1 

Section. A New High T-Rall ^489 

Seewen. The Three-Phase Tramway 

from Schwyz to (Guarlnl) •3.59 

Shanahan Trolley Catcher and Retriever ^499 
Sheffield. Eng.. The Tramway Sv.stem 

of (Sample) ^21 

Shelter Houses at Cross Roads 16 

Shop. The Ideal (Wright) •689 

Shoot-the-Chutes for Sale 695 

Signal Co.. U. S. Electric 734 

Device for Circuit-Breakers of 

Switchboards (Hubley) 486 

System. The W. S. Jackson Auto- 
matic Block •SSI 

Signal. The Blake •494 

Signals, at ITtlca. Eureka Automatic 580 

Sllvey Storage Batteries 756 

Single Phase Railroads (Blanck) •192 

Sleeping Car. IX)ng Distance Trip of 1.52 

Sleet and lee from Third Rail. To Re- 
move (Onmow) •500 

Cutter, the "O. K." (Porter & Berg) •18S 

Small Electric Roads. Relief Association 

for (Kimball) 944 

Smith Friction Track Drill •496 

G. .1. (Forms for Shop ITse) "903 

Snow Fences for Electric Railways *Vfl 

Plows, Detroit United Railway's 

l*rge ^189 

Novel Rotar>' •122 

Soap Speelflcations. The Reason for 665 

Sofia. Electrie Tramways of *V. 

Song. (71or\' and Reward for the Trolley S29 

.Southern Notes 224. 315 

Southwestern Electrical & Gas Associa- 
tion 287 

Souvenir, A Boer War 787 

Veat and TTseful 882 

Spalding, W. (Notes on the Work of 
the Electric Railway Teat Commis- 
sion) •583 

Speed. IJmltntlonn on el9 

Templates, The Determination of 

Schedules bv (Knowlton) •805 

Spokane (Wash ) Traction Co., Seml- 

Convertlble Cars for ^387 

Spreading, To Prevent Ralls (Geo, M, 

flfowe » Co) •J?!) 

Sprlngfleld Troy A Piqun Railway Co.. 

The "TiiS 

Soring Valley, III . Trolley Accident Bf 687 

Standard Brake Shoe Co 418. 760 

Steel Car rn'^ Exhibit 752 

Wheels (Standard Steel Work*)., 401 

Works 726 

- TTndergrotind Cable Co 131. 1.33, 413, 7W 

Standards, A, S R A e87(I 

Stanley, A. H (Borne Operating Fea- 
tures of the Electric Railway Sys- 
tem Controlled by the Public Serv- 
ice Cf,rporntlon of New .Tersey),,,, 

Stare William H (I.tihrlcatton) 

Station Stops. For Indicating 

Steam Rr.nds Cut Rates 

■—Turbines 

. Tests 

Hieams, <Tiit«. K. fTJve Steam Plplns}.. 

- R. B, (Inspection and Care of Car 

Wheels) •Ddl 

Steel Axles (Replogle) IK 



•675 

<m 

683 
15 
429 
4W 

773 



Frames. Press for making e33G 

Tired Wheels for Electric Railways '266 

Fused "336 

In Interurban Service (Taylor) tijo 

Mileage and Service of (Tay- 

lor) 492 

Stephen.son Exposition Car of 1904 ^409 

Co. The John 6S4 

Sterling. Dixon & Eastern Electric Rail- 
way •859 

Steuben'ville Traction & Light Co.. Rail- 
way System of the •93 

Stone & Webster Properties on Puget 

Sound •!. '325. 005 

Stops. For Indicating Station 683 

Storage Battery Co. Exhibit of Electric ^725 

Stow Flexible Shaft Co 407. 720 

Street Railway and Ferry Systems of 

Oakland. Cal.. The •293 

Streets. As A Source of Revenue. 

Sprinkling e370 

Strike at Huntington. W. Va.. The e333 

Averted at &\n Francisco 333 

Strikes of the Month 71. lOS. 266 

Strnmbaugh Guv .Anchors (W. N. Math- 
ews & Br'o.) ^402 

Struble. J, B. (Block Signaling of Elec- 
tric Railway with Track Circuit 

Control) BW 

Sturtevant Co., B, F.. New Plant for... 132 

Improved Hand Blowers 433 

New Offices s.56 

Standard and Pony Economizers. '.tSS 

Suburban Railway, East St, Louis &.. '303 
Subway In New York. The New East 

Side 299 

to Connect East River Bridges,!!!,! "is 

Suggestions to Car Service Men 900 

Superheater. The Milne Water-Tube 

Boiler and •^s^ 

Supply House, Rapid Growth of a Rail- 
way (Porter & Berg) •425 

Swindling Company. Women Charged 

With ,.. 263 

Switchboards, The Care of ,,,, 902 

Switch. New Electric Heater and 'GOO 

Switzerland. Coasting Th>-ough •046 



Taylor. Knox (Mileage and Service of 

Steel Tired Wheels) 492 

Steel Tired Wheels In Interurban 

Service 655 

Technolexleon, Progress on the 156 

Telephone In Interurban Work. The 692 

In Street Railway Work In Pitts- 
burg. The 593 

New Railway (Maver & Englund 

Co.) 19!) 

Templates, The Determination of Sched- 
ules hv Speed (Knowlton) •80,1 

Tennessee Notes 168 

Terminals at Fair. St, Louis Transit,, •254 
Test Commission. Notes on the Work of 

the Electric Railway (Spalding).,. '583 

Econoni\- of Co.al e87S 

on the Green Economizer. Evapor.a- 

tlve 436 

World's Fair. Electric Railway 288 

Testing Machine, M, C, B, Drop 476 

Theses, Electrical Engineering 289 

Third Ralls, rondnctlvlty of. 656 

Contact Shoe. Now 78 

Location of the e,522 

System of the Scioto Vallev Trac- 
tion Co. Columbus. Ohio 'Sfil 

— ■ To Remove Sleet and Ice from 

(William Grunow) •SOfl 

Three-Cent Fare In Cleveland 20. e91 

Ticket Svstem, Traffic •497 

Tie, The Affleck Cement 131 

Ties. Central Yard for (Maltby Lum- 
ber Co.) 132 

for Electric Lines 434 

In France. Concrete 153 

Timber Preserving Plants at the 

^\'orld's Fair, roal Testing and 557 

Ripping. Band Saw for •661 

TInglev. C I,, S, (A Classification of 
lighting Accounts Conforming to 
the Street Rallwa.v Accountants' 

Association Standard) •lOS 

Tire Heater •53B 

Tools, Modern Machine •584. ^849 

Topekn Rv, Employes. CItih Rooms 

for .369. ^488 

Touring Car Service In Cleveland,. , •960 

Track Apnilanees (Buda Foundry & 

Manufacturing Co.) 201 

— Catch Basin, Grate ft Setting •IflS 

Drill (Ludlow Siinnlv Co) •70. ^198 

-Work, Night Light for •^68 

Traction, French Wrirk on Electric 656 

Trade Notes, .January, February, 203 
271. 340. June, 502, August, Septem- 
tem, 8.58, N^ivemher. Dceembcr, 
Traffic Arrangements for Handling the 

Exposition Crowds at St, I^ouls,. •351 

from .lackson to Detroit. Through,, 4r>3 

- In the Coming Winter e877 

- Ticket System •4»7 

TTrbnn, The Bncouragemefit of 

(Western) jm 

Vacation 0291 

T-Rall Seellon, New High *m 

rrnlns at Seattle, Race '^eO 

Tramway from Schwyz to Seewen. The 

Three-rhsse (V. Guarlnl) •859 

Union, International 488 



Tramways of Neuchatel. The Electric 

(Ramakers) ^452 

Transfer System at Pittsburg, Pa 2S 

Transfers. New York City Railway Co. 

Grants 92 

Their T'.ses and Abu.ses (Jewell) 794 

Transit Company Extends Hospitality. 682 
Tidings 516 

Prize Jingles 868 

Transmission Circuits, Selection of 

(Adams) ♦162 

Lines. Some Experiences with High- 

Tension (Reagan) •297 

Transportation Dav. The Feature of 

(St. Louis Car Co.) '761 

in Boston. Suburban 831 

Trap Door. Edwards Vestibule *13S 

Trinidad (CoM Electric Railroad Co •2S3 

Tree Insulator. The Brortie 337 

Trcntcui. Trolley Service Between New 

York and .J18 

Trogen Electric Railway. The St. Gall- 

Speicher (Herzog) *8(>J 

Trolley Catcher. Amet 'im 

Harp Decision ^491 

The Liberty '488 

Outings. East Side (East St. Louis 

& Suburban Ry, Co,) 732 

Retriever, Knutson (Troilev Supply 

Co.) •269 

Wilson (Wilson Trolley Catcher 

Co.) 'lai 

Talk 646 

to Be Obsolete 774 

Wheel and Harp (Eureka Trolley Co.) 269 

Troy Laundry Machinery C^o 411 

Truck Equipments. Waste of Power Be- 
cause of (W, Mc, Price) 553 

Trucks (Peckham Manufacturing Co.).. •265 

Solid Fnrsed Steel •492 

Truing Engine Pins (Gartley) '486 

Trunk Lines. Electricity on e291 

Tunnel Under the Hudson River. Com- 
pleted 'TS? 

Turbine. Hamllton-Holzwarth Steam... 'Uig 

Power Plants. Steam (Bibblns) •761 

Test. Steam 489 

Westinghouse-Parsons Steam 331 

Turbines. Steam 429 

(Ricel ^790 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Annual 

Report of 126 

Double Deck Car tor Twin Cities *TX 

45-ft, Car for •SO 

New Power Installation of the,, *441 

Plans of 2S 



u 



Union. The "Tuxeda" (Franklin Wil- 
liams) '269 

Under- Feed Stoker Co. of America 736 

U. S, Electric Signal Co 405 

Urban Traffic. To Encourage el54 

Utica. Eureka .-Vutomatlc Signals at 580 

Shanahan Trolley Catcher and Re- 
triever at 060 



Valve, Crane Patent Pop Safety 436 

Van Dorn Couplers at the Fair •"lO 

Heav>' Draw Bars and Couplings — •632 

Varnish on Interior of Passenger Cars. 

Removing Cracked 905 

Vertical Engine. Hooven-Owens-Rent- 

schler ^432 

Vestlettc. The Bellamy •662 

Vlncennes. Ind,. Citizens Street Rail- 
way I'll, New Park for 862 

Vox Pni.nll In Chicago e223 



w 

Wabash K, R, Worlils Fair 'I'lrminal, , 'ISS 
Wages and AecouTiting on Municipal 

Tramways e877 

Walker, Guv Morrison Cl'he Why and 

How of IntcTurb.iu H.illways) 365 

Walworth M.'Lruifaclnring Co., Boston,, ^418 
Warren. Corllandt & Jefferson Trac. Co. 189 
Waahingtiui. D. C Convertible Cars for ^673 
Railway ft Electric Co. Ticket 

Frauds 245 

W'ason Manutacturing ('r> 685 

Waste Press. Simple Design for a ^81 

Water Pipes. Using Current to Thaw 

Out 172 

Weber Railway Joint Manufacturing 

Co.. The 418, 684 

Weinland Tube Cleaners (I,agonda Mfg, 

Co.) 41S 

Weir Frog Co., New Plant of the •657 

Wesco Supply Co ^414. 724 

West Baden. Ind,, for the 1906 Conven- 
tion •662. •626, 'm 

Western IClectrIc Co ^764 

Kxhihit ^406 

Western Wheeled Scraper Co 720 

WestlnghouHc Companies at the Fair ^721 

Autr.inntle Couplings 658 

Exhibit ^397 

MalingiTM', C^onvcntlon of 972 

Moving Picture Display 482 

—No, 101 Railway Motor ^491 



Vlll 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



-PursoDu MIkI) l*iiw<T giiMim Tur- 
bine 64. 331 

Portable InalrumenU "SW 

Russian Building 7%! 

Traction Brnki- Co 7S2 

Western Kleelrk- Generuturs 723 

Weston KleitrlenI Instrument Co 723 

Employus' Club 568 

Instruments '411) 

Western Ohio Kiillway Co.. The •13" 

Western R. W. (The Encouragement of 

Vrbnn Tralllc) 169 

Wheeled Semper Co •«« 

Wharton Kxhlbli UU. 727 

Wheeler Conilensers 415 

Wheel (irindlnR Brake Shoe 4i»< 

Matt'-rs e8l4 

(Miliar! 893. •(S70 

Truing Brake Shoe Co 720 



Wheels for Electric Railways, Steel 

Tlre.1 •2I!« 

Fused Sleel Tired •330 

Inspection and Care of Car (R. B. 

Stearns) •SGI 

Mileage and Service of Steel Tired 

(Taylor) 492 

White City. Ihe •971 

Knob CoppiT Co.. Ltd. The Electric 

Railway .if the •811 

Slur on Kilter. The .' (162 

Whitman Electrle Railway & Power Co. 456 

Why.sall. W. 11. (KlUf Oas Testing).... 832 

Wilson Manufat'turlnK Co.. Jas. G 7B3 

RollltiK lioors and Sluittt-rs •417 

Work Near Motors Healthful 889 

Worcester. Mass.. Ticket Fraud at 856 

World's Fair Awards 915, 987 

Electric Railway Tests at 28S 



Wrenches. Attachment for (Billings & 

Spencer Co.) ^70 

Wright. W. D (The Ideal Shop) 6(9 

Wrinkles 48B 

Wyckoff Pipe & Crcsoting Co. of Stam- 
ford. (Jonn 415 



Vork. Fa.. Electric Railways of. 



•121 



Zancsville Railway, Light & Power Co.. 157 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



Vol. XIV 



JANUARY 20, 1904 



No. 1 



The Stone & Webster Properties on Puget Sound. 



The Seattle Electric Co. — History of the Consolidated Properties — Track and Roadbed — Power 

Plants — Rolling Stock~(>ar Service Apparatus for Sand Drying Waste Washing 

Accounting Department Coal 31ining Park Systems 

Organization— Personnel. 



It is beyond dispuie llial no one living in the East — and in this 
particular connection the East means east of the Missouri Ri\er — 
and who has never visited the Pacific Northwest, has any adequate 
appreciation of the resources and possibilities of that region. Twelve 
• ir fifteen years ago the state of Washington experienced a "boom"; 
capital was to be had for the asking and the result was an artificial 
pfosperity closely akin to speculative inflation based upon the liope 
of an indefinite continuation of the fa>orable eonimercial condi- 
tions. The panic of 1S93 found the state of Washington (among 
others) mortgaged for nearly its full value, and when tne'ioom wave 
subsided practically all the business interests were owned in llie 
East, after passing through foreclosure or receiverships. 

Financial ruin was nearly universal but in most cases was not 
irretrievable. Washington learned its lesson and within the last 



trie railway and gas business of Whatcom and Fairhavcn (recently 
consolidated as the city of Hcllingham ) and the electric ligluing 
business of Fairhaven. 

5. Columbia Improvement Co., which is engaged in developing 
a 40,000-h. p. water power on the Puyallup River. 

Seattle lies between Elliott Bay and Lake Washington, and from 
north to south e.xtend three steep ridges on which the norlli and 
south streets form terraces, while the cross streets are a succession 
of hills many of which are on grades steeper than 20 per cent. 
From south to north there is also a rise in grade, with steep hills 
to be overcome. The parallel ridges dividing the city between the 
bay and Lake Washington are crossed by cable lines and the rough 
tiipography makes it extremely probable that these cables will 
never be superseded by electric traction. In the northern part of 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF SE.\TT1,E. 



decade has more than recovered all the ground lost in the panic — 
now the commercial enterprises are owned by home interests, and 
today the banks are loaning money in the East where interest rates 
arc higher. Dfnibtless the principal factor in the quick recovery of 
the Pacific Xorthwcst has been the results that followed the Spanish 
War. The increase of American trade with the Orient has not 
orly fostered shipping interests on Puget Sound but has provided 
a market for the products of the coast. With a soil suitable for 
any product of temperate climes, with almost inexhanslible forests, 
and with coal mi::es and water-ixjwcrs at hand the future of the 
I'uget Sound country is assured, and in this future the seaports 
of the Sound — Seattle, Tacoma. Everett and ricllingham— all have 
their places. 

The electric railways of three of the four Sound cities mentioned 
arc under the direction of .Stone & Webster, of Hosion. the Wash- 
ington properties of which they arc managers being as follows : 

I. Seattle Electric Co., which docs the electric railway, lighting 
and power business of Seattle. 

2 Puget Sound Electric Railway Co., formerly the Seatllc- 
Tacoma Interurban Ry., which connects Seattle and Tacoma and 
operates a branch line to Renton. 

3. Tacoma Railway & Power Co. 

4. Whalcom Conntv Rnllwav & Lii^bt Co, which ilocs the elcc- 



llic city is a section where the electric lines, the Queen Anne lines, 
encounter grades in excess of 18 per cent and counterweights are 
required. 

The Seattle Electric Co. which besides incliiding all of the 
urban electric railway lines of Seattle, has the municipal and com- 
mercial lighting of the city, an extensive electric power business, 
gives steam heating and hydraulic elevator service in the business 
section, and operates extensive coal mines, is a consolidation of 
several companies effected Jan. I, 1900, with which sonic other prop- 
erties have been merged since. Tlic .Seattle Electric Co. includes: 

I. Union Trunk Lire, an electric rrad of 3 ft. 6 in. gage built 
in 1891-93. This was g.88 miles long, with a total of 1.3.20 miles 
reckoned as single track. This property was ready for a receiver- 
ship when acquired in iroo, 

1. Seattle Traction Co., wliicli bad 7.77 miles of standard gage 
including the Green Lake Electric Ry., which had 4.44 miles of 
standard g.age road built in 1889.90. These were acqnircil Jan. 
I, I';00. 

3. Third .Street & Snlnn-Ijan Electric Ry.. wliieli hail 6,7.s miles 
r>f standaril gage electric road (8..s8 iniles single track) built in 
l8<)l-2. This company was also ready for a receivership when 
taken over. 

4. West Street & North luid Electric Hy., which had 5X5 miles 



stri;i:t kaii.w av ui:\ ii-.w. 



IV.ii XIV. 



oi slaiulard k.-ikc electric ruaci (7.91 miles .^iiiKle track) Iniilt 111 
l8go. This proiierty was in the lianils of a receiver. 

5. Ma<Iisi>ii Street Oible Railway Co.. which had 3.62 miles of 
double track, ,1 fl. 6 in. gage, bnilt in l8Hg-go. 



Jiuie. 1900. was a coal miner's co-operative as-ociaiiim ownnig 

some 1.000 acres of coal land near Kenton which failed because 

of poor business manaKetnenI ccmsecinent upon internal dissension 

All these consolidations >verc effected by purchase of the entire 




M.\I' OK SE.VTTI.K K.MI.W.W LINKS. 

6. Grant Street Electric Railway Co.. which had 5.36 miles of 
single track. 3 ft. 6 in. gage, built in i8gi-2. 

7. First .Avenue Railway Co.. which had 2.65 miles of double 
track cable road, standard gage, built in 1889. This property was 
in the hands of a receiver when acquired. 

8. Seattle City Railway Co.. which had the Yesler Way cable 
line, 2.22 miles of double track. 3 ft. -gage, built in 1887-8, and the 
Jackson St. electric line. 2.09 miles (3.5T miles single track) 
standard gage, built in 1898-90. This property was purchased at 
receiver's sale Oct. 21. 1901. 

9. Seattle Central ky.-. which had 3.20 miles (3.80 miles single 
track) of standard gage electric road built in 1901. This property 
passed into the hands of the Seattle Electric Co. Oct 28. 1902. 
The deed however was not passed until Jan. 13. 1903. 

to. Union Electric Co. 

11. Seattle Steam Meat & Power Co. 

12. Consumers Electric Cn. These three corporations formerly 



issue of securities, both stock and bonds; except in one instance, 
that of the Seattle Traction Co., all but a few shares were secured. 
The Seattle Electric Co. it should be mentioned is the successor 
of the Seattle Electric Light Co.. incorporated Sept. 29, 1885, which 
operated the pioneer central station incandescent electric light plant 
west of the Rocky Mountains. The capital stock of this company 
was $50,000 divided into shares of $50 each. The incorporators and 
first trustees of the company were: J. .\I. Frink, state senator, 
president of the Washington Iron Works Co.. of Seattle; Capt. 




CAST IRON FILt^BR BLOCK FOR 6(>-LB. RAII^SE.\TTI,E ELEC- 
TRIC CO. 

George D. Hill, U. S. .\., retired, then president of the First 
National Bank; S. Z. Mitchell, then of Seattle, who is now manager 
of the Columbia Improvement Co.. Tacoma, engaged in developing 
the PnyaHnp River \viti.r power for the Puget Sound Power Co.; 



_, l//i/rOfS.s Go's p/iy/zve. 



i.//^/ Tcv s £'Co's P/ri/'/M3 ■• 



. /S'/s -J. T^ 

mjrrte^K^]^^. .1 f t,L -l.. . l.Ij. u4J fc.-x,.i.^fe'i...j.uA:xn : 



u 



£ 




CUXCRETE STRINGER CO.NSTRCCTION-SEATTLE ELECTRIC CO. 



had the lighting, power, betting and elevator business. They were 
all taken over Jan. i, 1900. 

13. Renton Co-operative Coal Co. This concern acquired in 



T. H. Cann, now numicipal judge in Seattle. The original plant 
comprised one 125-volt No. 10 Edison machine of 25 kw. capacity, 
one 40-h. p. vertical throttle governing engine, and one 50-h. p. 



Jan. 20. 1904.) 



STREET RAILWAY Rl-A ll-A\' 



horizontal fire tubular boiler. The engine and boiler were both 
built by the Washington Iron Works. The building which was of 
rough boards sided up vertically, covered an area alKuit 20 x ,?o ft. 



'i'hc standartl cancrclo for track work is made in the proportion 
of I, 4 and 7. 

'I he 7_"-lb. ()0-ft. r^ils are standard for new work in paved 




r 



and was located on the south side of Jackson St. at tin- corner of 
the alley between what is now First .\ve. South and Occidental .Vve. 
The plant was started in December. 1885, and the entire output was 
sold at the rate of J.^.oo per 16-c. p. light per month, bringing a 
revenue of $750 per month. 

TRACKS. 

When the railway;, were taken over there were 53.83 miles of 
road. 31.87 miles of single track. 21.95 miles of double track, 2.32 
miles of turnouts, a total of 78.11 miles measured as single track. 
Of this total, 2044 miles were 3 ft. 6 in. gage, 4.44 miles of the 3 ft. 
gage, and 53 22 miles standard gage. This track was laid with 
rails of ic6 different sections. 1.82 miles 6-in. 72-lb. ; .53 mile 6-in. 
60-lb. : 6.78 miles 4!4-in. 60-lb. ; 10.29 miles 56-lb. T; 4.20 miles 
56-lb. girder: 54.49 miles 45-lb. and lighter rails. Of the total 
track II. 1 1 miles were in planked streets, 1.69 miles on brick paved 
streets, 6.37 miles on trestles, and .34.66 miles in unpaved street-. 

The foregoing summary of the conditions four years ago gives 
an excellmt idea of the work which the management had before 
it in the matter of repairing and rebuilding track. 

On Sept. I. 1903. the system comprised 63.51 miles of road; 
35.41 miles single track; 2S.10 miles double track; 2.49 miles sid- 
ings; total 94.10 miles. Rail sections at this date were: ^.^7 miles 
6-in. 72-lb.; 2.53 miles 6-in. fto-lb. ; .^3.80 miles 4V4-in. 60-II). ; T4.31 
miles 56-lb. T; 40.18 milts 45-lb or lighter. The mileage in planked 
streets was 14.27. in brick paved streets, 4.20; on trestles, 10.32 
miles. 

One of the illustrations shows two sections of track as laid in 



JED rrn - 



.\N (IF SWITfH— .SK.\TT[.K F.l.KCTKIC CO. 

Streets. Oiase-Shawmut rail bonds arc usc<l. and fi-holc angle bars 
for track joints. 

Since igco t'hc number of rail sections used' has been reduced 
from 106 to 4; the sections prifcipally used are 6-in., 60-lb. T; 
6-in.. 72-II1, I'; 4'1-in. 60-lb. A. S. C. E. standard T. 

Other of the drawings show track details that will be of gen- 
eral interest. Tlie standard point switch is one of these, and the 
diawings give a plan view' of the switch, elevation of the spring 
bar and details cif the fastenings. 'I he bar for tlirowing the 



////^OfSSV/-^ cffs' 7£ie .*wz 







i-.\ST IHON VWA.VAK. HI.OCK SK.VTTI.K UMOCTItIC CO. 

switch ixjints is of I-in. round inm and is connected to ibc distance 
bar through a spring which permits the switch |Kiint to be thrown 
over by a passing car without injury to the mechanism. Sections 

of pipe slipped over ilu- runnd bar serve for guides and also as 
distance pieces wdiich ]icrniii initial tension to be put upon the 
spring by means of the nuts on the threaded portions of the bar. 

The spring seat is made by driving a section of pipe over a washer. 

POWER PL.A.NTS. 
The .'-"e;\ltle Electric Co. has cigbl power stations designated 



rrti rfTi 




.SWITCH DKTAII.S SKATTI.K i;i.KI "lltlc (^0. 



■erects paved with brick. One of these is the standard roadbed 
laid with 7-fl. cedar ties; the other is concrete beam construction 
with old rails spaced lo ft. on centers used for lie-rods. Wood 
fillers arc usc«l l)ctwcen the rail web and the bricks on Ixrth sidei 
of the rail. The company paves 10 a distance 18 in. bc><ind the 
outer rails. 



respectively, as: New Post .St., Old Post St., Pine .St., James St., 
Yesler Way, Madison St., Fremont and Massachusetts .St. 

The New Post St. stalion is located in the wholesale district 
of the city and is adjacent to the Old Post .Si, ])lant, both being 
alongside the Northern Pacific tracks. The new station was 
designed after Stone & Webster became managers of the property 



stri:f-T k Aii.w an k!-:\iI'AV. 



|\'(i.. .\l\. N. 



and was first opcratt-d in AnRiist, iqoi, thongli extensive additions 
to the converter equipment were made during iqo.1. when a second 
storage battery was also installed. 



.^ 



■i\Ji' 






//=/fic Si.es fs~ 






rile exciter unit is a "S-kw., J50-vult machine driven l>y West- 
inafhousc engine. 

I'lie electrical machinery other than the two units already men- 



jy — 




^Br 



-7. 



l£l/S/? 



^1:-^ 



/SA 



SWITCH MECHAN'1SM-SK.\TTI 10 KI.KCTRIC CO. 



The building is 95 x 108 ft. in ground dimensons and 80 ft. from 
basement to the coal tracks above the bunkers. Tlie basement is 



tioncd, at ibis station comprises four 500-kw., 250-volt. two-phase, 
three-wire rotarics used for the Edison system, and five 500-kw., 




ROTARY CUNVBKTER ROOM— SEATTLE ELECTRIC CO. 



17 ft. high. Above this on the cast side are the rotary room, 22 ft. 
high ; the piping and ash conveyor floor. 9 ft. high ; the boiler 
room 32 ft. high, and the coal conveyor. On the west side the 
engine room occupies space corresponding to the three stories on 
the east side. 

The main units in this station are two double-compound engines 
with high pressure cylinders 23 x 42 in. and low pressure cylinders 
48 X .[2 in. Each pair of engines is direct connected to a 1,600-kw. 
Westinghouse two-phase generator giving 364 amperes per terminal 
at 2.200 volts, 7,200 alternations per minute. 

The generator room occupies one side of the building the cor- 
responding space in the other portion being in three stories, the 
rotary converters and switchboards being on the lower floor and 
the boiler room with six joo-h. p. Cahall water-tube boilers above 
with ash room between. The boilers are equipped with Roncy 
stokers. Above the boilers are coal bunkers of 400 tons capacity. 
ser\'ed by a mechanical conveyor ; the ashes are also handled by 
a conveyor. In the up-takes to the stack arc two 14-ft. fans as 
the induced draft equipment. 

City water is used in the boilers, and for condensing purposes 
water is taken from the Sound. Two 24-in. pipe lines 500 ft. long 
provide for suction and discharge for the condensers which are 
of the Wheeler admiralty type. The circulation is effected by two 
No. 12 Wheeler centrifugal pumps. 



550-volt three-phase rotaries for the railway road. There is also a 
differential field booster for regulating the voltage of a 500-kw. h. 
railway JKittery Installed by the Electric Storage Battery Co. 




WmiXO IN BASEMENT— SEATTI.R EI.ECTRTC CO. 



Jan. 20. igc+l 



STREET RAILWAY K1-\TE\V. 



All the rotary CL>nverlcrs are Westinghousc ma- 
chines and are eiiuipped with Westinghousc Type 
C starting motors. 

The railway hallery mentioneH is located above 
the engine room. Beside? this there is a i.ooo-kw. 
h. battery with voltige from 230 to 306, located in 
the basement, which was pnt in last fall. This is 
also Electric Storage' Battery Go's, installation, and 
comprises i,coo-kw. plates in 1.500-kw. cells to give 
opportunity for increased capacity. 

There are two switchboards, that lor the genera- 
tors and rotaries being at the floor level, and the 
feeder board in a gallery. Both boards have 
glass gangways behind them for the use of attend- 
ants. 

The station was designed to generate 3,200 kw. 
and to transform some 2,400 kw. of power 
(3.250 h. p.) from the Snoqualmie Falls plants, 
which is transmitted at 30.000 volts three-phase 
to this sub-station where it is transformed 
to 2,3CO volts two-phase. Normally the older stations 
of the Seattle Electric Co. are not operated, be- 
ing called into service only when there is a failure 
of Snoqualmie power or some unusual demand for 
current. 

The machine switchboard at the station is arranged 
with three busses so that the converters may be 
switched into the Snoqualmie current or the station 
alternators. 

The output from the station is approximately as 
follows: 

For all of the a. c. incandescent lighting. 1.150 kw. 
at 2,300 volts two-phase. 

For a. c. arc Hghting (municipal). 320 kw. 
For Edison 250-volt lighting and power current 
(power being used for the most part during the day 
when the lighting load is small). 2.CC0 kw. 
For railway feeders 3.CC0 kw. 
For Fremont sub-station, where there are two 
300-kw., 500-volt motor generators, current is trans- 
mitted at 2.3CO voit-. 

For James St. station current is transmiited at 
2.300 volts for operating two .300-kw. 50O-vo!t motor generators 
which supply current for the street cars on lines nearly and also 
to three 150-kw. Edison machines that drive the James .St. cables. 





BK<TION OK BwrrcllHOAHH-HKATTI.K KI.WTIUC CO. 



iJNiKW. W KSII.MllhirSl': .M.TlOK.N.V'n.Ni; r.MT, 

when the engines are not run, which is the normal condition 
There are also connections to the Massachusetts St. sub-station so 
that the i iterurliaii r.iaci may Ik- supplied with current from Post 
.St. in event of the Snoqualmie current failing. I'or 
this purpose t'.-e 2,.!00-volt two-phase is traiisfornu'd 
to 27,000-voll three-phase current in two ()00-k\v. 
water-cooled transformers. 

.Ml of the Edison three-wire calilcs enter llie 
Iniilding through dncls. 

.\ portion of the exhuist steam from the N"cw 
Prist St. station is used fur heating mi the American 
Distrirl system. 

riu- Olil Post St. sl-ilioii diiles li;a-k In iHip, and 
contains at this time nine return tuhillar boilers of 
loo-li. p. each, and two soo-h. p. water tube boilers, 
which last were installed last fall. The engine 
and generator equipment incUnIes one 14 and 20 x 14 
in. Artninglon & Sims engine, two icj x iS in. Ideal 
engines, six fm-kw. and one loo-kw. ICdison genera- 
tors, and an exciter unit used in emergciu-y for the 
large units in the new station. 

There are two miles of heating mains supplied 
from the two Post St. stations. 

Water for operating about ,30 elevators in the 
busine-s district is supplied from this station. There 
are for this jinrpose one 3,000,000-galion and two 
1,500,000-gallon pnn;ps. 

The Pine .Si. station, uhiili was rebuilt in 1899, 
has a inisccllaneons etiuipiiKnl of small machines 
aggregating 1,200 kw , and is now used only in ease 
of emergency. 

The James St. station is a cable pl.inl biiill in 
iKgi. The present equipment consists of two 4.i0-li, 
[1, l.aiii- & Hodley engines, three l.so-kw. Edison 



STREET RAILWAY RRXIEW. 



IV. I.. Xl\', NO. 



500-volt machines, aiul two 300-kw. motor generators. Normally, 
the motor generators ftirnisM cnrrcnt for the Edison machines 
which operate as motors to <lrive the cable inachinery. and the 
engines arc not useil. In emergencies the engines can he thrown 
in to drive the caijtes and the Edison macliines used as generator^. 
The Ycsler Way cable station was built in l88y and remodeled in 
1901. It contains one 150-h. p. .\llis-Corliss and one 125-h. p. Ham- 
ilton-Corliss engines 



necessary to say. comprised a miscellaneons lot of cars and trncks 
of varions degrees of nsefnlness. When the new company took 
charge the rolling stock was overhanled and classified, records be- 
ing made on the form illustrated elsewhere, and for the entire 
eqmpment. 34 classes were required. The bodies are indicated by 
a letter and where bodies of the same class have trucks or motors 
of different make numbers are added. For the .14 classes 14 letters 
arc iiscil, wiih. in snnir cases, six nnmbers 'ti> indicate differences 




I U.MBINATION lil.KCTRIC CAK. 

SL-BL-RBAN CAR. 

TOTEM POLE CAR. 

I he Madison St. cable station was built in i8yi. It has two 
24.x 48 in. simple Hamilton-Corliss engine?, one of which is suffi- 
cient to drive the cables. 

The Fremont sub-sjation. built in iijoj. lias two .?oo-k». motor- 
generators and a battery of .^00 kw. capacity for one hour. 

Tie Massachusetts St. sul)-station. built in 1902. contains two 
600-kw. transformers for changing 27,000 volt three-phase current 
to 2300 volt two-piiaso. 

ROLLING STOCK. 
The rolling stock taken over from the old companies, it is scarcely 



COMBINATIUN IWBI,]-: CAK. 

FREIGHT -VND EXPRESS MOTOR C.VR. 

CINDER CAR. 

in trucks and motors. The number of cars per class varies from 
I to 26; nine classes, from .? to 16 cars each are for cable rolling 
stock. 

The bodies now in use were made by various builders. Hammond. 
Brill. Jackson & Sharpe. St. Louis Car Co.. Pullman Co.. J. M. 
Jones Sons. Stephenson. Northern Car Co.. Stockton Car Co., 
Rohlf & Schroder and Seattle. 

The rolling stock now includes: 

Single truck electric cars — closed, 41 ; combination, ji ; con- 
vertible. I ; open. 10 — total. 83. 

Douli'e truck electric cars— closed, 11: chair car. i; converted. 7; 



Jan. jo. igo+J 



STREET RAILWAY RE\IE\V. 



Brill semi-convertible. 47; open, 5 — total. 71. Total electric cars. 

154- 

Single truck cable cars — combination convertible. 4: open dnnimy. 
7— total. II. 

Double truck cable cars — combination. 31 ; open. 10 — total. 41. 

Cable trailers — open single truck, 4. 

Total electric cars. 154 (82 closed and y2 open). 

Total cable cars, 56 (35 closed and 21 open). 

The miscellaneous equipment includes 2 single truck electric coal 
cars, I double truck cable coal car, i cable trailer coal car, 2 
tower line repair cars, 2 single truck cable snow plows and salt 
cars, 2 double truck electric box freight cars, i single truck elec- 
tric box freight car, I double truck cable box freight car, 2 single 
truck and 3 double truck electric construction cars, i single truck 
cable sprinkling car, l pile driver, i single truck electric mail car, 
2 single truck cable box freight trailers, and 21 double truck flat 
ballast and dump cars. 



tree is, and have some idea of its appearance, but as used in con- 
nection with the motor car illustrated a word of explanation is 
necessary. The construction cars as first built were flat cars with 
a single pole near the center to carry the trolley stand, and were 
promptly named "totem-poles" by the train men. In the mild but 
rainy climate of Seattle a very natural development was to add posts 
at the from and rear ends and place a roof over the car. for the pro- 
tection of material that rain would injure. In its present form 
the "totem-pole" is found to be a very useful and convenient car 
for transporting miscellaneous freight, the open sides greatly facili- 
tating kiading and nnlnading and the ri<nf giving all llie protection 
needed. 

C.A.R SERVICE. 

The number of passenger cars ordinarily operated in regular 
service is 131. of which ,^9 arc on the cable roads. There are live 
operating car houses, the largest one being at 51I1 and I'ine Sts., 




\'\..\\ iiK S.\.ND imYINC I'l .\.NT SK.NTTI.l': KI.KlTHIC ft). 



The trucks are principally of Brill and I'eckham mamifacl\ire. 
21-E ami 27-f.i Brill and 6 Ex. Heckhani. 

The motor equipment on electric cars is for the most part of 
\Ve<ilinKhousc ,^8-B aii<l fyq and <J. E. 58, 57, fxj and 67 motors. 

For keeping a record of the rolling slock the company uses a 
special form of Car Data sheet which is known as Stone & Web- 
ster Form .^ g8. It is 13^^x8 in. and perfr)rated at the top for 
filing. With each data sheet is filed a plK)tograi>h of the car de- 
«cril>cil. 

The illu^ralion<i show several of the principal types of cars now 
u»cd. including the combinati'm electric car, combination cable 
car, large closed car for suburban lines, freight and express car, 
cinder car, and a "totem-pole car." Our readers doiibtlos all know 
what a totem-jiole as used by 'Alaskan Indians for a genealogical 



where the shops and general otlices are locateil. There are 70 
electric cars dispatched from here. The other slations are known 
a( Madison St., with 20 cable cars; Uroadway. with 7 cable and 15 
electric cars; Yesler Way, with 12 cable cars, and Jackson St., with 
7 electric cars. 

'Hie minimum service is 20 minntes hculway. after 8 p. m , on 
some iif llie outlying lines. The maxiinnm service Is a 2-minnle 
headway on the cable lines during busy portions of the ilay. 

Freight is hauli-d lo .ill parts of the cily, the longest haul being 
about 6 miles. I'"ik-1, both cordwood and coal, is regularly deliv- 
ered tr> five fuel yards into which the company has laid spur 
tracks. I-'or all sorts of general merchandise and supplies the 
motor cars, such as illustrated here, arc used, two or three coal 
cars being liaulerl as trailers. On all electric lines two round trips 



STRF.F.T k.MI.W.W KF.VIFAV. 



[Vol. XIV. No. i. 



with freight trains arc iiiailc per day, on the rahic- lines there .spectivc termini, and Ixoiight l)ack the following morning by the 

arc three ronml trips per day. day men. 







'""""•aC 



tH,A'W."V'Vi 



;;*' 



ELEV.VTION OF S.\XD DRYING n.ANT— SIi.\TTI.K ELECTRIC CO. 

SAND DRIER. 
The large niimlicr of long and steep grades on the Seattle sys- 
tem, as also the fact that in the winter and spring there is much 



There are now freight stations at 5th and Pine Sts. and at 
Green Lake, and another is being built at Ballard. At all other 
points gooils arc piu off at the direction of and at the risk of the 
consignor. 

For handling this business there is used a shipping receipt which 
we reproduce herewith. This receipt is made out in quadruplicate. 
carlKin sheets being used. In the lower left hand corner will be 
noted the consignor's instructions as to delivery and the release 
of liability. The idea is that the consignor has immediately under 
his eye at the time of signing a brief and plain statement releasing 
the company, and that it is more effective in the mind of the con- 




FIG. D.— \V.\STIC nUVIXG M.KCl ll.VIC-SE.vr'll.I-: ELECTRIC CO. 

signor and in the courts than a release in the usual form, "contained 
in the fine print on the back hereof." 

The Seattle Electric Co. makes a point of encouraging its em- 
ployes to reside in suburban districts, where the prices of property 
will permit them to have homes of their own. and grants various 
privileges intended to promote the comfort of the men not living 
near the operating barns. From the barns three cars, known as 
the employes' cars, are run regularly to University Heights, South 
Seattle and Green Lake, these cars being taken out by the night 
men when they quit work, locked and left on the track at the re- 




FIG. ,\-LON'GITrDIN.\L SECTION \V.\STl-; WASIMNC, PL.VNl- 
SE.VTTI.E ELECTRIC Co. 

rain, makes the provision of dry sand for use on the cars a very 
important matter. The company owns a pit of good sand and 
gravel, some 50 acres in extent, and at this pit has erected the 
sand-dryiiig apparatus shown in two of the line drawings. 



Jan. 20. 1 004-1 



STREET RAILWAY RE\TE\\ , 



In operation, sand is delivered inio the boot from dump cars, in 
which the sand is drawn from the bank. From the boot an elevator 
takes the sand up and delivers it to a revolving cylindrical screen. 
The sand passing the screen drops into the feed bin below it and 
the stones and pebbles pass out the open end to a dump. The 
gravel is used for ballast and concrete work. From the feed bin 
the sand is fed into the drying cylinder by a screw. 

The drying cylinder is over a furnace, as shown in the sectional 
view. The rotating chamber has on the interior surface projecting 
fins to insure the sand heinec mi.xed as it dries. From the drying 



The first story is for the fillers and oil storage tanks, the second 
story for the oil extracting and washing machinery, and the third 
story for drying the laundered waste. The three stories are sep- 
arated by fire-proof floors, supported on I-beams. Each of the 
three rooms is about 2i ft. long by lO ft. wide inside. 

The longitudinal section. Fig. \. shows the general arrangement 
of the plant; the arched portion at the right indicates the doors 
(which open on the street), one door on each floor. 

Figs. B and C show a plan and a longitudinal elevation of the 
second story, with full details as to the driving trains. The ma- 




FlfS H VVr. <--ARRANGKMKNT OF WASTE WASHING PI.ANT-EQt'IPPED WITH TROY I.AINI.UY * 
FIO.S H A.NO < ARKA.NOf-...-. ^^.^g^,^^ ^^^.^, ^,„p^8j. EXTRACTOR-SEATTI.K i:i-E<-TUI<- . n 



MACIll.VKUV <•(). 



chamber the sand passe> do«n a chnic K, a licit conveyor, which 
f|i«iriliutcs the dried 'iand over the storage bin. 

.•\ single motor (a T-H. F. 30 shnnt wound of 15 h. p.) drives 
all the mcchaniMn by means of belts and pulleys, the several 
connections Iwing appareit from the drawing-. In operation the 
speed of the drying cylinder is 40 r. p. m. ; of the screw feed, .10 
r. p. m. The capacity of ihe drier i-. 7" •f"'* f"'"' ''^>' 
W.ASTE W'ASlllNXi. 
.\nother intcrcMing special installation u the waste washing 
plant, which occupies three floors in a corner of one of the shop 
hinldings at Fifth and Pine Sis. This huiUling was formerly 
used for mannfaclnring purposes, and the lower portion of llie old 
slack l-.as been utilized for a portion of the space devoted to the 
waste laimdry. 



chinery consists of llu- driving nimor. a Troy grease extractor and 
a washing machine, also maile by lUc Iri.y l.nuiulry & Machinery 
Co., Troy, N. Y. 

After passing through the washing machine the clean waste is 

placed in wire baskets, 22 x ,1.1 " ') i>'-. ■n"' '='1^™ '" ''"' ''''"■'' ''*'""-' 
in an elevator. 

In the third slory arc lliree drying racks, cadi nlmiil m 11 Iniig. 
The baskets set on the two 2 x 2-in, T's that join the cast iron 
sui)|!ort» f(T lie steam pipes, i's shown in Fig. H. 

ACCOUNTING. 

I"or the guida-ce of the a •counting officers of the dilTereiit prop- 

eriies, of which Stone & Webster arc general managers, the firm 

has compiled a set of in>triictions on accounting. This includes the 

standards adopted by the -^ir.-l K-mKmv V.-.unnlaiils' Association 



10 



STRKirr RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XI\'. Nc 



.111(1 hy the .N'llinnal I'-lcclric Light .Vssocialion. .ind also the ric- 
oimm-iulalioiis of Stone & Webster's accountaiils in m.ilters that 
have not heen ^laiularchzed hy the associations, and where exten- 
sions of the standard sy-tenis seem to be desirable. 

The monthly report used by the Seattle Fleetric Co. is a form 
of eight pages, each 8' j x 14 in. 

Page I. Reciipitulation of principal footings for current month 
and for year to date, with comparisons showing changes from 




OVERIli. 



IN WOODLAND l',\RK-SEAT'll,l-; i;i. 
TRIC CO. 



previqns year. Cash statement. Charges to constrnctioii ami 
equipment accounts. 

Page 2. Railway department operating expenses, as per stand- 
ard distribution adopted by .•\ccountants' .Association. 

Page 3. Statements of earnings r.f railway department. Reca- 
pitulation of earnings and expenses and Comparisons with former 
periods. 

Page 4. Light and Power Department operating expenses, as per 
schedule adopted by .National Electric Light .'\ssociation. 

Page 5. Light and Power Department earnings. Recapitula- 
tion and comparison. 

Page 6. Balance sheet. 

Page 7. Monthly statement of operation of coal mining de- 
partment. 

Page 8. Recapitulation and comparison, into whicli arc brought 



necosary. These include books of 25 tickets, sold for one dollar; 
books of tickets for school children, sold at the rate of j'i cents. 



stone i Webfter Form A281 — 200 p>(l>— 8-12 OS. DUPLICATE. 

SHIPPING RECEIPT 

the: SEATTLE ELECTRIC CO. 



NO SEATTLE, WASH 190... 

READ THE CONDITIONS OF THIS RECEIPT. 

Received of 

THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES TO BE DELIVERED ALONGSIDE 



CAR TRACK AT OR NEAR 

MARK UPON GOODS OR NAME OF CONSIGNEE 



CONDITIONS 

TtiU ooiupaajr uDilortakcs to forward tbe artlclo lubject to the follofrtnf condltioDt, 
n-hlcb are agreed to by the ablppvr or owner la accepUns tbia rroi-lpt. Tbla company la 
Dot to be beld liable for any loaa, damage or dvlay cauaed by tbe acta ut God^ civil or 
military autborlty, or by fire, Ilooda, moba, rlota or tbe eoemlea of tbe govemmeot. Tbla 
compauy la not to bo beld Uabto or reHponslblo for any loaa or damage to aald property or 
aoy part thereof from any cause whatever, UDlema In erery caao aald loaa or damage ocean 
from tb« fraud or grosa negUgeoce of tbla company or Ita atTTanLa. Tbla compaoy aball 
□ot tM^ beld liable or rcnponslble Id any e?ent( nor aball any demand be made upoo It be- 
yond tbe aum of fifty dollars (|50.00;. unless tbe trae and Just value of aald property la 
stated bereln, nor upon any property or tbing onlvsa properly packed for tranaportatlon. or 
upon any articles cunalstliig of glass. Tbla company abull not be liable fur any loaa, dam- 
age or delay to tbe articles tranaportcd anlesa Mie claim tberefor aball bo presented to It 
lu writing, at Its utilce In Seattle, nitbin ten dnye after tbe luaa, damage or delay becomea 
known to the clatuiaot, and this receipt aball be uiiuvii>d to aucb statement. It U aoder- 
Btood aod agriMfd tbut tbla company haa no atatlona und no agents otber tbao tbose oo tbe 
car. and that the owner fiBSumos all liability of delivery to and from tbe car, and agrees 
tbat If bo Is not present to receive tbe goods at tbe car door at tbeir deatlnatloD. tbat tbo 
delivery of tbem slong&lde the car track aball be a complete delivery to tbe consignee. 



No. of 
Packages. 


ARTICLES. 


Weight suMoct 
to Correction. 




















Charges prepaid. 


amt. . . 


, Collect 


» 


Advacce. 



rbe H.KSenfer Is lostnieted to IT&load 
TUs ConsiRiunent Aloassiie tilo Car 



Ti«o» at 

Eatliely at Zly Risk. 



For tlie Companr 



Ageot. 
BeoelTod AtKive Goods U) Good CoaditloB 



TomicsOT < CoBsigsea 

SIIIPPINi:! HKCEII'T iSIZK OK OHIGIN.VI, V,X'.> IN. I. 

upon application signed by parent and teacher, which are good 
lietween the hours of 8:00 a. in. and 5:00 p. m. on days when 
school is in session; tickets sold at the rate of .? cent<. good for 




\VooDI,.\.\l) PARK .SltOWI.N 



iiRincK. 



the gross earnings and expenses of the railway and light and 
power operations and the net earnings of the mining and jobbing 
business. 

By reason of the number of the railway companies merged into 
the Seattle Electric Co. there is a considerable variety of tickets 



IKissage to the Court House on the James St. cable line; messenger 
tickets and newsboys' tickets, sold to the A. D. T. Co. and news- 
papers at the rate of 2M cents each. 

Under an ordinance consolidating the street railway franchises 
existing in 1900. a grant was received covering all lines, and good 



Jan. 20. IQC+I 



STREET RAILWAY RE\11':\V. 



11 



for 3i years from igoo. U'luier this ordinance the company pays 
the city 2 per cent of its gross receipts from street railway opera- 
tions and paves between rails and for iS in. ontside. rcgrading. also, 
where specified. 

While the monthly reports follow the standard system, in dis- 
tributing the expense accoimts on his book the auditor snh- 



and Renewals of Cable; 1 V. Maintenance Koad Machinery (cable); 
I G. Maintenance Paving. 

Similarly there are "42. Maintenance of FJectric Lines," subdivided 
to show "Overhead Railway Lines." "rdephone Systems," and 
"Track Bonding"; and "43. Maintenance of Buildings and Fix- 
tures." subdivided inti. four accounts each covering diflferent groups 




TIIKATKK AT MADIHDN TAHK. 
.MAOHONA I'AHK. 
l.liSCIII I'AVIl.lllN 

<livi<lr>i thoe to a crHisidcrable cxienl. Iluis. instead of 'No. i 
Mairlcnance of Rr>adway.' the antlilor on his book MibslilnteH 
■No. 41 Maintenance of Irack and Koa.lway." which in siib- 
rhvidcrl into: I .\. Maiiilcnaiicc Track f electric) ; 1 H. Maintenance 
I rack (cable); t C. Maintenance Trrslles and liridges (electric); 
1 I) .Maintenance rre«le> and Brid((en (c:.l.li); I F., Maintenance 



MADISON I'AUK IMtdM THK W .\'1'KH, 

S\VIN<iS IN MAIiRllNA I'AKK 

I.KSCIII l'.\UK 

of bnildings. And so on thniUKb lla- li-l. llicn- luni>; OH accuunls 
on the lMM)ks as c<|Hivalents or subdivisions of Ihe .V) accouuls on 
the .^ccounlanls' dislribnlinn. 

(/O.M. MLNINC. 

Ihe company owns .iboni 1,000 acres of coal land, the opera- 



12 



STRinrr raii.wan ki:\ ii:\\. 



[VcL. XIV, Xo. I. 



lion of its niiiie<. being in charge of a superintcn<lcnl of mines. 
The mines are at Renlon, al ihe south end of Lake Washington, 
and at present the outpnt is about 550 tons per day. Tlie coal is 
in three veins lying im a slope of IJ°, and is reached by horizontal 
ttnmels. A washing and screening plant installed by the Jeffrey 
Manufacturing Co. is operated at the mine, the nut and pea sizes 
being washed. .MK)Ut 60 per cent of the output is sold ; it is hauled 
from the mines by the Puget Sound Electric Ry., and the North- 
ern Pacific Ry. I'hc dislribution of the coal carried to Seattle 
over the electric intcrurban constitutes an important part of the 
freight business of the Seattle Electric Co. 

PARKS. 

The Seattle Electric Co. owns in Seattle four parks, three of 
which are on Lake VVashinglcn, a large body of water ranging 
in width from 2'/j to 5 miles, and about 20 miles in length. Two 
of the three arc very advantageously situated for beautifying — 
being naturally very rugged and broken, with hea\-y growth of fir 
and niadrona trees. .Vbout 12 or 14 years ago when the parks 
were owned by rival corporations, there were large pavilions built, 
one at each. Since coming into the hands of the Seattle Electric 
Co. Ihe company has endeavored from tinu to time to utilize these 



where hot nights are the rule, and intends to encourage boating of 
every description as much as possible. The city has exceptionalty 
good facilities in this line. Lake Washington affords the best 
canoeing and sailing possible, l>eing a beautiful lK>dy of water en- 
tirely surrounded by bluffs and primeval forest scenery, with 
magnificent views of the Olympic and Cascade Mountains. These 
are covered with snow the year lound, making an exceedingly pretty 
background for the expanse of green intervening. 

There have iK-en tried, to a limited extent, various minor at- 
tractions such as I'A Trip to the Moon," "Haunted Swing." etc.. 
but not on a sufficiently large scale to insure success. U j? prob- 
able that a company will be organized to take over and operate the 
parks as a "Coney Island ' resort at which can be found attrac- 
tions of all kinds of sufficiently varied nature to suit all comer.;. 

The fourth park belonging to the company is situated on Croer. 
Lake, about five miles from the business center of the city, and is 
advantageously situated for picnic purposes and children's play 
grounds and is patronized to a very large extent for these purpose?. 
The principal attractions at this place other than its advantages 
for a picnic ground arc a large boat house and dancing pavilion, 
which are tiuite well patronized. 

In addition to the conipany's parks, the city owns and maintain.^ 



ORGANIZATION or SEATTLK ELECTRIC CC-OPERATINIl DEPARTMENTS. 



Stone and Webster, 

tieneral Managers, 

BuKtttll. 



H. K. (iraiil. 

Manat'iT. S«*atlli' 



Treasury and Accouiitiin:, 
FranV( DatJiu-y. 

Assistant TreasuriT 

Claims. 

C. A. Hammond, 

Claim .\i.'«'nl. 



Lijrliting and Power 

J. B. Lul<es. 

Superintendent L. and P. 

Maintenance of Wav, 
Mark Loud, 

Isuijeriutendent M. of W. 

Engineering, 

J. D. Blacltwell, 
Chief Ent'ineer. 

PurcViasin^, 

W. J. Grambs. 

Purcliasint' A^ent. 



(leneral Stores, 
J. R. Stewart. 
Storelteeper. 

Mininjr, 

F. A. Hilt. 

Supeiintendcnt Mines. 
D. H. Jones, 
Coal At,'ent. 

Transportation 

A. L. Kenipster, 

Supt. Transportation. 

Mectianical, 

A. D. Camplxll. 

Master Mechanic 



Assistant to Superintendent, 
R. M. Arms 



Steam Department. 

W. J. Santmeyer 

Ch. Enjr. flower Stations. 
Electrical Department. 

S, C. Lindsay 

Station filectrician. 
Electrical Enjrineer, 

E. t;. Allen 



nntract Airent. 

Dr. E. C. Kilbourne.. 



.Superintendent of Wires, 
L. U. Bean 



Jobl iuL^ At'ent, 

S. K. Broad bent . 

3 Dispatchers. 
Timekeeper. 
Record Clerk-. 
Office Force. 



7 Inspectors 

Freight Agent, R. G. Crocker. 
Janitor Force. 



1 Shop Force's. 

^ Car Hou.se Foremen... 



f Omce Force 
I Me 



vtvr Dep:irlment. 
Arc Lani|) Di'partiiK'tit. 
*"epair Pfparinn'nt. 
iispector*.. 

,' Sieani Fitter*. 
I Station Moi:. 



< An 

Re, 

(. Ins 



Station Men. 



Solicitors 
Clerks. 



Liffht and Power. Overhead. 

Railway. Overhead. 

Undertrround. 

Siabl.s. 

Telephone Trouble Man 

Telephone Operators, 

Fixtures. 
Inside Wiring-. 
Stock Ruoni. 



2ft'J Molomien. 
340 Conductors. 
8t>-Gripnien. 



Equipment Inspectors 

iln char^re ol Repairmen, Pitmen 
and Car Cleaners.] 



buildings for attracting patrons to the parks. The buildings, being 
quite large and open, are not particularly adapted for park purposes, 
in view of the exceedingly short and cool suninier seasons, r,nd 
the buildings are too cool for pleasure in the evening, with the 
exception of eight or ten weeks in the months of July, August 
and September. 

The principal attractions tried have been vaudeville shows, dan- 
cing, band concerts and Iwer gardens. Of these attractions the rela- 
tive drawing power of each was about as follows : Band con- 
certs first, beer gardens second, dancing third ; none, however, have 
been considered altogether satisfactory. 

.At one of the parks for a number of years there was exhibited a 
menagerie, but this was not undertaken on a scale large enough 
to afford attraction to visitors. The company has, however, seals 
which attract a great many people, particularly at feeding time, 
when oftentimes anywhere from 100 to 1,000 persons can be seen 
crowding around the pens to witness this. The expense of main- 
taining the animals was not justified by the additional fares re- 
ceived; it having iKen shown that after the animals were re- 
moved, there was no falling off in the receipts. 

Because of the exceedingly cool evenings the company has decided 
to eliminate the attractions usually found in eastern sections. 



several, many of which afford the most picturesque scenery possible, 
such as mammoth trees, exceedingly deep gorges and beautiful 
ferns. Many hundred varieties of the latter are found many timis 
in a very small space. 

In order to secure permission to extend its lines through one of 
the city parks. Woi>dland Park, the company was required to not 
only build a long trestle to avoid grade crossings, but also to dis- 
guise the structure so that it might be in harmony with its rustic 
surroundings. However "much one may deplore the necessity of 
railway engineers to liccnme landscape gardeners and conceal behind 
inappropriate decorations the lines of the structure that should be 
pleasirg to the eye by reason of its strength and fitness it is inter- 
esting to see how the requirement was carried out. This is shown 
in three of the accompanying half tone views. 

ORGANIZATION. 

The officers of the Seattle Electric Co. are: President, Jacob 
Eurth, Seattle: Secretary, George Donworth, Seattle; Treasurer, 
A. Stuart Pratt. Boston ; General Managers, Stone & Webster. 

The local manager in charge of the property for Stone & Webster 
is H. F. Grant, under whom are the beads of departments as shown 
by the organization diagram. 



Jan. jo. 19C4. | 



STREET RAILWAY RK\'11-AV. 



13 



A project very dear 10 the citizens of Seattle is that for a ship 
canal to connect Salmon Bay on the Soinid with Lake L'nion and 
Lake Vnion with Lake Washington, and the Government has dug 
a canal jo ft. wide at the bottom and 17 ft. deep between Salmon 
Bay and Lake I'nion known as Canal Waterway to determine 
the material that would have to be removed should the ship canal 
be decided upon. Gates are provided at (he Lake Union end of the 
canal for controlling tlie llow. There was a marked rise in the level 




WASHOUT ON CAXAl. W.VY-SKATTLK. 

of Lake L'nion caused by rains in September and early October, 
ig03, and these gates being kept closed, the water finally broke 
through the dam around the gates on October 7th, and carrying 
everjnhing before it widened the channel from 20 ft. to about 100 ft. 
One of the accompanying engravings shows a view of the canal at 
Fremont where the street railway crossed. TrafTic across the canal 
was interrupted for only five hours. 

We wish to express our appreciation to Mr. Grant, manager; 
Mr. Dabney, assistant treasurer and auditor; Mr. Kempster, super- 
intendent of transportation; Mr. Elackwell, chief engineer; and Mr. 
Lukes, superintendent of lighting and power, for assistance in secur- 
ing data for this article and other courtesies extended by them. 



Employes Rewarded for Carefulness. • 

January 1st the Boston Elevated Railway Co. distributed among 
its blue uniformed employes about $60,000 in gold for creditable 
performance of duty during the past year. ."Vppro.Himately 4,000 
men received $.5 each. This is in accordance with a section of a 
general ordt-r issued last January, to apply to first year men who 
have been si.x months' or more in continuous employment in one 
position. It is intended as a reward for meritorious service only. 

St. Louis Transit Co. carmen who did not have an accident in 
igo3 have been awarded a bonus of i cent an hour for the time 
each worked during the year. Each of qg contluctors and Ji mo- 
tormeii received alx)ut $J2. 

The RtK-kford & Interurbaii Railway Co. di-.lriliute(l animal prizes 
to employes standing highest for general excellence. The prizes 
ranged from $10 to .f25 and were received by molormen and con- 
ductors. 



Subway to Connect East River Bridges. 



The plan and scope committee of the Rapid Transit Commission, 
N'ew York City, has submitted a plan for the connection of the three 
Brooklyn bridges in Manhattan by means of a "four-track subway 
to run from Delancey St., to and through Center St., to Elm St. 
Krimi this point the subway will continue under private property to 
llie Brooklyn Bridge. A spur will be built in Canal St. to connect 
with the new Manhattan Bridge. It is planned 10 use two of the 
tracks for trolley cars and two for elevated lines. Engineers regard 
this plan the most feasible and inexpensive that has been proposed. 

Persons who live in the eastern district of Brooklyn may ride 
direct to the City Hall, or those who live in the western district 
may use cither the old bridge or the Maiiliatlan Bridge to proceed 
uptown without change of cars. 

«-»♦ 

Car Tests on the Muncie, Hartford iV Ft. 
Wayne Ry. 



The Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co. carried 18,720,689 
passengers in 1903, as compared with IS.7.M.203 the year before. 



.As aiinuuiiced in the "Review" for December, in the description of 
the Muncie, Hartford & Ft. Wayne Electric Ry., a number of 
interesting car tests were made by Messrs. E P. Roberts & Co. 
upon this line. Tliese tests were made with passenger cars under 
actual operating conditions beside which records were made of a 
passenger car and also of a work car when hauling gravel ballast. 
Table No. I gives a complete analysis obtained from the results 
of a single round trip of a passenger car in regular .service. The 
weather was clear and the track in good condition during all tests. 



• 









i 








ss 


iS 




It: "3 


S^, 


1? 






LOCATIOX 


« 

"5 
e 

1 
6 


a 

u 

si 


a 
a 

E 



b 

s 


— r« 


i. 

is 

^5 


II 


a" 

.So- 
rt u 
> b . 


Sa;^ 

a,.- a 
«: « s 

alt 


^8 


09 « 

A 




«■ an 

u C 

feso 


KKMAKKS 




Office to Harris St. . Katon 


.61 
6.84 


3 
16 


2100 

1S300 


3 44 
2.24 


til 


1S.S.S 
121.8 


-1-32.2 
33.7 


c 
p 


1240 
15690 


2.03 
2.30 


132 
86 


Two cur\es in town. 
Two curves in country. 












So. end Hartford to Hartford siding 


1 


1.06 


4 


2700 


2 5S 


46. S 


150.0 


-1-28.2 


c 


1915 


1.90 


9H 


SliMinlil, with 4 .-11111 5% grailes. 


Hartford Hiding to No. end Hartford 


4 


.93 


S 


ISOO 


1.61 


18.0 


149.6 


.4 


c 


1310 


1.41 


62 






No. end of Hartford to sub-station So. of 






























Montjjclier 


1 
6 


7.23 
1.12 


12 
8 


11400 
2400 


1..S8S7.0 


117.4 
100.0 


-.32.2 
—17.4 


p 
c 


12133 

2535 


1.68 
2.27 


61 

82.5 


Includes two long, easy cur 
Includes turning on Y and 


ves. 


Snt)-»tation to Montpclicr Y and turn 


2.14 


18.0 


two 




























curves. 




Montpelier Y to sub-station 


3 
5 
1 


1.12 

7.23 

.93 


3 

16 

4 


3600 
12(10 


3,22 
2.. 32 
1.29 


16.7 
63.0 
18.0 


117.4 
149.6 
ISO.O 


-fl7.4 
-f32.2 
+ -4 


c 
p 
c 


3015 

1.S615 

1140 


2.70 
2.16 
1.23 


124 
H9 
50 


Incliiiles two curves. 
Includes two easy curves. 
Nearly level and straigiil. 




Sub-station to No. end Hartford 




No. end Hartford to Hartford siding 




Hartff/rd siding to Sf». end H;irtford 


4 


1.06 


6 


1800 


1.70 


18.0 


121.8 


—28.2 


c 


2310 


2.18 


65 


Hilly, 4 and 5% grades. 




So. enil Hartford to overhead crossing at 






























Eaton 


1 


6.S7 


16 


ywK) 


1.46 


:«>.(» 


171.7 


-1-49.9 


p 


8280 


1.26 


5V 


Includes two easy curves. 




Overhead toL. E AW. at Granville siding 


« 


8.68 


24 


16800 


1.94 


42.0 


174.3 


-f 2.6 


C P 


15700 


1.8V 


7.S 






Granville siding to Muncie terminus 


S 


2.22 


9 


33(KI 


1.49 


22.0 


180.0 


-1- 5.7 


c 


3445 


1.31 


57 






Muncie to L. K. & W. si<ling in Muncie.. 


3 


..35 


2 


900 


2.S7 


27.0 


174.3 


- 5.7 


c 


765 


2., 55 


99 


Includes turning on Y. 




L. K. A W. siding to (iranvillc siding... 


4 


1.87 


7 


42(K) 


2.24 


.V).0 


195.8 


-f21.5 


C P 


MM 


1.85 


86 






Granville siding to oflicc. So. of Katon. . . 


.S 


7.80 


19 


10800 


1.39 


34.1 


123.3 


-72.5 


p 


12235 


1..S7 


53.5 






Totals exclusive of lavovers 


30 


.';.'>.62 


1.17 


104400 


1.88 


40.0 








10092.S 


1.80 


72.3 







Car of 26 tons raised 1 ft. high— approx. 20 watt hours. 
H efDciency of 80 — 25 watt hours input. 



C— In city. 
P — In cfiuntry. 



14 



STRKKT R AII.WAV Ki:\ ll-.W. 



|\uL. XIV. N... I. 



Tesis in the passenger cars enKagcil in hauling gravel gave results 
as shown in table two. The weight of the motor car was 2-, tons, 
weight of gravel car light. S'^j tons, weight of gravel car loaded. 
Ill yd.) 2$ Ions. The motor car was equipped with four 50-h. p. 
G. E.-S7 motors. The results were as follows: 

T.VHl.K II. 



TABLE VI 



Total distance hauling 6 loads gravel 

" " " 6 empties 

" " work car only 

'■ ton miles 

•• kw 

Average watt hrs. per ton mi 



93.14 
98.61 

4.S9 

24322.00 

715.80 

29.40 



16765. 

7451. 
147. 



It should Ik> noticed that the runs with six empties do not include 
all the runs made during the time of hauling the gravel shown liy 
the load column, because some of the runs with empties included 
hauling other material and changing about which was not a part 
■of the regular routine. 

The results obtaijied from the wnrk car were as follows; 

T.MU.K III. 



Total run, mile.s 

" average load, tons 

" ton miles 

" kw. at car 

Watt hrs. per ton mile. . 



Light. 



157.60 

25.00 

1868.50 

74.88 

40.00 



With 
6 empties. 



25.85 
77.00 
2067.45 
96.60 
46.70 



With 
3 loads. 



109.02 

100.00 

10902.00 

396.30 

37.80 



The above amounts are only those for which wattmeter readings 
were taken for each individual part of the trip. 
The total for two days' complete work gave results as follows: 



TABLE IV 








With empties. . 


With 

loads. 




10.16 6.32 
100.00 %.00 
1622.00 
67.20 
41.40 


8.67 


'* averawe load, tons 


180.00 
1562.00 




43.80 




28.00 


Average watt hrs. per ton nearly 3S 





This total result is considerably smaller than those obtained 
from the individual trips given in the previous table. Using as- 
sumed values of 26 watts per ton mile for loads. 38 watts per ton 
mile for empties and 40 watts per ton mile for running light gives 
the following: 

Hauling loads 16,765 ton miles at 26 watts per ton mile = 435.9 kw. 
Hauling empties 7.451 ton miles at 35 watts per ton mile == 275.7 kw. 
Running light 147 ton miles at 40 watts per ton mile =: 5.9 kw. 



'I'otal 717-5 kw. 

which checks very closely with the actual results. 

.Assuming 11 yd. of gravel per car the results per yard of gravel 
for tlie work cars are as follows : 

TABLE V. 



Train miles 93-14 

Cubic yards per train 66. 

Equivalent to one yard hauled 6.147.24 mi. 

Total kilowatts expended "15.8 

Total watt hours required to haul one yard one mile in- 
cluding the necessary switching, unloading with plow 

and the hauling back of the empties 1 16. 

For the passenger car hauling gravel on another part of the loail 
on two other days the record is as follows: 



Irain miles of three loads tog. 

^■ards per train load .13- 

l''quivalent to one yard hauled 3..S97- "li. 

Total watt hours" required to haul one yard one mile 
including the necessary switching and hauling back of 
empties .' 195. 



It >liiiul(l lie noticed that in both cases the grade conditions arc not 
favorable to the highest economy. t)n the section where the pas- 
senger car was working are several grades and curves incUiding 
a reverse curve and a 3 per cent grade on a 2}° curve. On the section 
where the regular work car was hauling the curves are all easy but 
the grades through Hartford City reach a maximum of about 5 [K-r 
cent. For the same rensons the work of the cars cannot be compared 
with each other, hut both tables give data obtained from actual 
working conditions and are therefore valuable. 



Cunadian Notes. 



.^t the coming session of the Ontario legislature bills will be 
introduced in behalf o' the following; Toronto & Suburban Ry.. 
to e.xtend through llaniillon; Ontario Traction Co.. charter to build 
between London, Stratford. Scaforth and Wingham; Brantford & 
Erie Railway Co... charter to Iniild between Brantford. Simcoe and 
Port Dover, with a loop from Waterford to Simcoe ; Hamilton. 
Grimsby & Beamsvillc Ry.. to build branch railways and acquire 
land for parks ; London. Aylmer & .Vortb Shore Electric Co.. to re- 
duce its capital stock to $4CO,cco and to is-ne bonds to the extern 
of $25,000 per mile. 

Mr. A. C. Douglass has started under the center of the Horse- 
shoe Falls at Niagara to drive a power tunnel for the Electric 
Development Co., of Ontario. The tunnel will be 2,200 ft. long. 23 
ft. 6 in. wide and 28 ft. high, and will extend from the power house 
at Dnfferin Islands to the foot of the falls. 

The Electric Development Co. will erect a granite power house 
at Niagara Falls. Out.. 425 x 200 ft., to cost $400,000. E. J. Lennox, 
Toronto, is preparing plans and specifications. A visitors' gallery 
at the top of the building will afford a good view of the falls, as 
well as of the immense machinery plant. 

Mr. N. M. Coutin. of St. Joseph's. Ont.. has applied for a fran- 
chise for a city electric line, and a radial line from Stratford to 
St. Joseph's. 

The Stratford city council has granted the Stratford Radial Co. 
a 50-year franchise, with the option of purchasing the property after 
25 years, the railway company to l)e exempt from taxes for 20 years 
and to be given the right to supply light and power. 

Plans have been completed for an electric line from Montreal to 
Ottawa. The directors of the company are Messrs. F. D. Monk. 
J. A. Ethicr, J. E. Leonard and Thomas Gauthier. all Members of 
Parliament, and Mr. Wells, of New York. Colonel McMullen, also 
of New 'V'ork. is president. 

The newly formed Montreal Street Railway Henelit Association 
has over a thousand members. Mr. W. L. W'anklyn is president and 
the directors arc Messrs. Duncan McDonald. W. C. Ross, L. Rob- 
inson, Patrick Dubee, L. Charland and John Donald. Mr. Dubee 
is secretary. 

.\ commission has been appointed to report on whether it will 
pay the municipalities within a radius of 120 miles of Niagara Falls 
to develop their own power from the falls to generate electricity 
or to purchase power from existing companies. 

The South Western Traction Co.. of London. Out., has been 
financed by an English syndicate to build from Hamilton to Paris. 
London, St. Thomas, Aylmer and Glencoe, with two spur lines. 
Mr. A. E. Welch is managing dirc^rtor. 

Mr. G. H. Gray, of Victoria. B. C, is surveying for a monorail 
railway which a Minneapolis syndicate proiK>ses to build in the 
Lardcan-Duncan district. 

Tile Toronto Street Railway Co. has .^4 cars u'ndcr construction. 



The Scranton (Pa.) Railway Co. contemplates the expenditure 
of about $500,000 on improvements this season. Several lines will 
be double tracked and a numlx-r of new cars purchased. 



Jan. jo. igo+l 



STREET RAll.W.W RE\TEW 



15 



Hudson River Tuuuel Flans. 



The plans of the Hudson & Manhiittan Railr»;ul Co.. which pro- 
poses to connect Jersey City and Manhattan hy tunnels under the 
North River, have been accepted hy the Rapid Transit Com- 
missioners and the resoUuions granting the frarchise have t>een 
adopted by the New York board of aldermen. The phm provides 
for two tunnels from some point near the Pennsylvania R. R. sta- 
tion in Jersey City to the corners of Oiurch and Kulton and Church 
and Cortlandt Sts., New York City, these termini to be connected l>y 
a tunnel under the property on the west side of Church St.. between 
Fulton and Cortlandt Sts. Practically all this property from Fulton 
to Dey Sts.. and from Dey to Cortlandt Sts.. has been ac(|uired. On 
these two Church St. blocks two i6-story office buildings will re- 
place the present buildings, and the new bnildiugs will, if per- 
mission can Ije obtained, be connected hy an ornate arched pas- 
sageway over Uey St. 

Passengers from the Pennsylvania R. R. trains at Jersey City 
will enter the cars at an underground station and be carried 
through the tunnel across Cortlandt St. and around the corner to 
Church St.. where the tumx-1 will cominue under the basement of 
the first big building. From there, accordnig to ihe plans, pas- 
sengers may lake elevators to the station of the Sixth .\vc. ele- 
vated road at that point, or they may continue to Dey .St.. where 
a walk of one block through a tunnel will take them to the big 
station of the subway in Broadway. 

If they do not wish to take advantage of either of these points 
of exit they may continue under the second big building at the 
corner of Fulton St.. and thence to the street. Passengers going 
from New York to Jersey City will hoard the cars at the Fulton St. 
station. The tunnel trains will thus practically make a continuous 
swing from Jersey City to New York and back. 

The tunnels will be i6 ft. in diameter and contain but one track 
each. Trains will be run by electricity. The course of the tunnels 
has been laid out by the engineers, and borings indicate that the 
river Ijed will present comparati\ely few ditTicuIties in the con- 
struction. 

The Hudson & Manliattan Railroad Co. is controlled by prac- 
tically the same interests that constitute the New York & New 
Jersey Railroad Co., which is constructing the tunnels liegun years 
ago to connect the Erie and Lackawanna railn^ids' on the New 
Jerse)' side with New York at Christopher St. 

The president of the newer corporation is William G. Mc.Xdoo, 
and among the directors arc John S. Williams, of the Seaboard .Air 
line : Walter G. Oakman, president of the (Juarantee Trust C«. ; 
Judge E. II. Gary, II. R. llollins, Frederick B. Jeimings, A. M. 
P.rady and John G McCullough. governor of Vermont. 



Internatiunal Electrical Congress of St. Louis. 

We arc informed that the Slate Department .it Wasliiugton. in 
response to solicitation from the Director of Congresses at St 
Louis', and the president of the .American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, as well as the committee of organization of the con- 
gress, issued instructions, on Decemlwr 17th, to the .American diplo- 
matic officers abroad that they shall invite the various foreign gov- 
ernments to appoint official delegates to the International Electrical 
Congress at St. Louis in September, 1904. The numlK-r of dele- 
Hates' requested to be appointed by each cotmtry is in conformity 
with the preceflenis established at the Chicago Congress of i8<j.!. 
and at the Paris Congress of igoo. 



Removing Refuse in Brooklyn. 

The Hr<Kiklyii I<api<l Transit Co. has entered iiuo a contract with 
the American Railway- Traffic Co. for the removal of ashes and 
street sweepings throughout MriKiklyn by mean'- of a new system 
which contemplates the eslablishnicnl of 1,1 receiving stations, cen- 
trally Uicaled, at which the ashes and refuse will t>e left by wagons 
to lie taken during Ihe dull hours of the day over the trolley lines, 
in flat cam. to Coney Island and Jamaica. L. I., lo Ik- dtunped. 'The 
refuMT will !« carried in bins which will Iw traiis|)orted from the 
station.* 10 the cars and vice versa by means of aerial tramways. 
« I > 

Under a new rule of the Internrban Street Railway Co. cars sttip 
at the near sides of cross itrcct.s. 



International Railway Employes' Association. 

\\ c have received from Hon. W. Caryl Ely, chairman of the 
board of trustees of the International Raihvay Eiuployes' Associa- 
tion, Buffalo, the third annual report of the association, covering 
a period of 13 months, the beginning of the fiscal year having been 
changed from October ist to Noveml>er 1st. The report is prefaced 
with the statement that for death claims and sick benefits the past 
year has been a record breaker. Within seven months Class R paid 
nine death claims, while during the preceding 28 months there were 
but two, and during the past year Class R paid $6,388 for sick 
benefits, against $4,104.50 for the preceding year. In other words 
the death claims increased 8co per cent, sick benefits 65 per cent, 
and medical attendance 27 per cent over the preceding year. During 
the past year the members paid in initiations and dues $9,154.92 
and received in benefits $10,058.57, or $913.65 more than they paid 
in, and the trustees urge other employes who are eligible to join 
the association as a purely business proposition. 'There was a deficit 
in Class H, which was paid by the railway company, of $198.50. 
There was a total membership Oct. 31, 1903. of I.,i20. a net increase 
of nearly JOO, and it was stated that in No\-eml)ei- 175 new mendiers 
would be enrolled. 

During the past three years the railway company has expended 
about $14,000 in building and equipping the rooms, over $10,000 in 
salaries and other expenses of the association, donated nearly $1,000 
to Class R, met deficits amounting to $678 in Class H, and started 
the reserve fund with a $500 bond. During the same period the 
menvbers have paid $20,356 in initiation fees and dues, and drew 
in sick benefits $15,056, death claims $2,103, and medical attendance 
$4,664, a total of $21,823, or $1,467 more than they paid in. 

'The treasurer's report for the 13 months shows receipts amount- 
ing to $9,873.03 ; disbursements, $9,990.97 ; net deficit, $57.94. 'The 
net surplus Oct. 31, 1903, was $1,664.09. 



Rochester Street Railway Y. M. C. A. 



The first annual report of the Rochester ( N. Y. ) Street Railway 
Y. M. C. A. has been published. It shows that Y. M. C. .\. work 
aiuong the street car men during the past year has met with even 
much greater success than was anticipated, and employe and em- 
ployer have been benefited by it amazingly. 'This was the first street 
railway Y. M. C. A. to be inaugurated in' the world. chitiuR its 
inception .Aug. 4, 1902. 

During the year there has been an average atlendauce at the 
r(H>ms of over 200 daily; six concerts were given with an attendance 
of over 500 in each .instance ; several prize howling matches were 
lilayed : the billiard tables earned $60x3.38 at I'A cents a cue; re- 
ceipts from bowling were $473.68 at 2'/^ cents per man per game; the 
ci;mpany appropriated $500 towards mainl.-iining the iMoms. besides 
healing, lighting and cleaning them. 

A significant and pleasing incident of the year was the closing 
of a pool and billiard saloon directly opjxisite the rooms. 

'ITic report is tyixigraphically allraclive .ind coinliines ,u pages 
of text and illustrations. 

Steam Roads Cut Hates. 

The Delaware & lludson Railroad Co. annnnnceil thai begin- 
ning DecemlKT 19th its rates between Scranton and Wilkesbarre. 
Pa., would Ix; cut in half, this step being taken, it is stated, in order 
to compete with the recmlly openeil Lackawanna & Wyoming Val- 
ley third-rail system. 

'The Lake Erie & Western Uailro.icl Co.. to meet conipelilion In 
the Indianap<rlis &• Northwestern Traction Co. iK'tween La l'"ayetle, 
Franklin. Indianapolis, Mull>erry and Dayton, has reduced its fares 
between those points. The reduction is considerable, but the fare 
is still higher than ilia' charged by the traction company. 

'The Cincinnati. Hamilton & Daylon Ry. issued a circular letter 
to its agents nffering half rales for the holidays between all points 
south from Lima to Cincinnati, ard it is" understood llial the sleani 
riKid will this season charge the same rales as Ihe Western Ohio 
Traction Co. south from Lima as far as I'iqua. 



The disputed franchise of the Mill Creek Valley Street Ry., of 
Cincinnati, has been declared valid. 



16 



STRKMT RAILWAY KE\ 11"A\ . 



I Vol. \IV, No. 



Cunsolidation ut Salt Lake City. 

I he coiisolidalioii i.>f llic Utah Light & I'owcr Co. and tlic Coii- 
>oliclnted Railway & I'owcr Co., of Sah Lake City, which was 
aiUKiiinci'd as pending in the "Review" for September, has been 
consiinini.ited by the incorporation of the L'lah Light & Railway 
Co. llic consohdation went into elTict January 1st. The capitaliza- 
tion of the new company is $10,000,000, of whicli $6,000,000 will 
Ijc issued at once, to be taken up by the stockholders in return for 
their old stock. Tlie other $4,000,000 will be held to lie sold for 
improvements and repairs. Three shares of the old companies' 
stock will lie exchanged for Iwo preferred and one share of com- 
mon stock in the new company. The i>ar value of the shares is 
$J5. Dividends will itot accrue on the common stock until after 
the preferred has earned 8 per cent per annum. The majority of 
the preferred stock is held by Joseph F. Smith, A. \V. McCune 
and W. S. McCorniick, trustee, and these gentlemen control about 
70,000 shares of ihc common stock. The stock is divided into 
J40,ooo shares of common and 160,000 share.< of preferred. The 
plans for improvement have not been outlined, but better light and 
better car service arc promised. 

The officers and directors of thir new coniirany arc as follows: 
President, Joseph F. Smith; first vice-president, John R. Winder; 
second vice-president, Joseph S. Wells; treasurer, L. S. Hills; 
secretary and general manager, R. C. Campbell ; general counsel. 
LeGrand Young; superintendent street railway, W. P. Read; aud- 
itor, G. S. Gannett; assistant secretary, John M. Whittaker. Di- 
rectors : W. S. McCormick, L. S. Hills, Joseph F. Smith. J. R. 
Winder, Anthon H. Lund, .A. W. McCunc, Joseph S. Wells. W. I' 
Read, Thomas G. Wel)l>er, Charles S. Rood. 



Cross Roads Shelter Houses. 



The Jolict. Plaiiilield & .\urora R. R. has erected nalty frame 
waiting rooms, or shelter houses, at all cross roads along its line 
between Joliet and Plainficld. These shelter houses are exceedingly 
attractive and cosy, and are lighted and heated by electricity. 

In front of each shelter house and between it and the track is a 
platform, 24 ft. long and 4 ft. wide, and connecting the platform 
and the station is a passageway, 8 x 4 ft. The platform floor is 15 
in. above the top of the track rail, and the platform sets back 32 in. 
from the outside rail. A two-rail wooden fence has Ijeen erected 
at the rear of the platform and the sides of the passageway. The 
platform is of 2-in. hemlock or oak, and rests on 6 x 8-in. joists. 

The building is 8 ft. wide. 6 ft. deep and 8 ft. to the roof plate. 
The roof, which is shingled, is peaked, the peak being 3 ft. above 
the roof plate. The roof overhangs 2 ft. 6 in. on all sides of the 
building. The floor is of white pine, tongue and groove style. .K 
board seat, 10 in. wide, extends around three sides of the interior 
of the shelter house, and on two sides and in the door sliding win- 
dows have been placed. The e.xterior of the station is painted a 
lemon yellow, with white trimmings. 

Each shelter house is lighted by one series of five lights receiving 
current from the trolley wire, two lights being placed inside of 
the building, and three lights on the eaves. These lights are con- 
trolled by a small switch inside of the building, enclosed in a 
locked box. Trainmen light the lamps in the evening, it being the 
duty of the crew on the last car to turn out the lights. 

The buildings are heated by means of Consolidated electric heat- 
ers, connected in series of three, the current to be turned on by 
the first morning crew and turned off by the last crew' at night. 



Creditors Attached the Cars. 



A dispatch from Sault Ste. Marie. Mich., stated that on Decem- 
ber i8th as fast as the cars of the Trans-St. Mary's Traction Co. 
arrived at the barns late in- the afternoon they were attached at 
the instance of two judgment creditors. The road's attorneys un- 
successfully applied for an injunction, and it \yas finally agreed to 
allow the creditors to retain possession until the claims are satis- 
fied, or the road sold, the cars to continue running. The road was 
not covered bj- the mortgage held by Messrs. Spcyer & Co., who 
receijtiy purchased the assets of the Consolidated Lake Superior 
Co. 



Trolley on Mt. Vesuvius. 

The old wire roiK' railway which has transported tourists up 
Mount Vesuvius, as far as the crater, for the last 25 years has 
been supplanted by a modern railway system which is a combina- 
tion of electric adhesion, cog-wheel traction and overhead trolley. 
In the construction of the new system, which was begun in the 
fall of 1902, many engineering difl^culties were overcome, especially 
on the rack, or cog-wheel section, on which over 1,500,000 cu. ft. of 
earth, rock and lava were removed. The new Vesuvius Ry. is 4.8 
miles long. It starts at the little village of I'ugliano and traverses 
first a fertile tract, following the old slreams of lava which flowed 
during the several eruptions of tlic volcano since 1737. The rack 
wheel section begins about 150 ft. from the great laval deposit 
formed in 1872, and reaches to the station of Ercmo-tjsservatorio, 
where stands the famous observatory built by King Ferdinand II. 
From the observatory grounds the road runs nearly 1,300 ft. over 
the ridge of the Puzzolan Hill, formed by masses of lava. This 
part of the line uses the overhead trolley. 

Powerful locomotives of special design are used on the cog- 
wheel section. The passenger cars arc divided into three com- 
partments and accoiumodatc eight passengers. Each car weighs a 
little over eight tons, while the locomotives weigh loVj tons each. 
Tlie locomotives are equipped with electric brakes. The cars are 
lighted by electricity. A\[ of the power plant machinery and roll- 
ing stock are of Swiss make. The road cost alxiut 1.500,000 francs. 
It was successfully opened for traffic last Septemlx-r. 



Nonunion Carmen Attacked. 



A mob of union sympathizers attacked the nonunion crew of a 
Chicago City Railway Co. at 22d St. and .\rcher Ave., Chicago, 
December 27th, and in the riot that followed two policemen, who 
were riding on the car to protect the carmen, were severely injured. 
One officer was knocked insensible. Reinforcements dispersed the 
mob. Several times since the recent strike nonunion men have been 
attacked while on duty, the absence of the union buttons on their 
coats making them easily distinguishable from other employes. 

During the past month the grand jury at Chicago has voted 14 
indictments against union members and business agents for alleged 
violence during the street railway and Kellogg Switchboard Co. 
strikes. 



Record Run from Norvvalk to Cleveland. 



Car No. 103 of the Cleveland & Southwestern Traction Co. made 
a record-breaking run from Norwalk, O., to Public Square, Cleve- 
land, Sunday, December 6th, covering the 57.6 miles in I h. 29 m. 50 
s., or four minutes faster than the Twentieth Century Limited time 
between those points. The feat was considered a remarkable one 
ill view of the fact that there was no especial preparation be- 
yond seeing that the road was clear, and also because the car 
was loaded with passengers, who were delighted with the speed 
and the comfort and! ease with which it was accomplished. The 
car had been chartered to convey a party of Elks and ladies to 
the Elks memorial celebration, and it was in charge of Motorman 
W. F. Kearins and Conductors Lysle Chevalier and Ed Wilcox, to 
whom the company officials give due credit. 

The attempt to make a record it this time was really the out- 
growth of a rivalry between the Cleveland & Southwestern and 
the Lake Shore Electric Railway Co., and it had been arranged 
that both should race cars on the occasion in question. Tlie Lake 
Shore car made a good start, but was unfortunately delayed by 
the breaking of a trolley wire, so the race was not finished. 

Speaking of the fast trip of No. 103, F. T. Pomcroy, president 
of the Cleveland & Southwestern Traction Co., said: "We made 
a nice trip then, but I feel that with a little better road and power 
we can cut that time down nicely. Without a doubt we have one 
of the fastest roads in this section, and are proud of it." The Iwst 
previous time made between Norwalk and Cleveland by a Cleveland 
& Southwestern car was at the beginning of the base ball season, 
when Motorman Kearins took a special through in 1 h. 57 m. 



The Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. has sold Randolph 
Park at Chagrin Falls, O., and the new owners have dismantled it. 



Jan. jo. 1904.] 



:ki-:t railway ki-a ifav. 



New Lines and Extensions Opened. 

The new belt line of the Pittsburg Railways Co.. which covers all 
the principal towns of the Monongahcla and Turtle Creek valleys, 
has been opened to traffic. The cars start from Pittsburg over the 
United Traction line to Glenwood, to Si.x Mile Ferry, via Calhoun 
Park to McKeesport. then to East McKeesport over the line of 
the old Wilmerding & McKeesport branch, to Wilnierding over the 
new S300.000 steel viaduct across the Pennsylvania R. R. tracks 
and the Weslinghouse .Mr Brake Co. yards at Wilmerding. along 
Grant St. to Turtle Creek, thence along the old route of the 
United Traction Co. to East Pittsburg. Braddock. Rankin and into 
Glenwood and Pittsburg. 

The Philadelphia & Eastern Street Railway Co. has completed 
us line between Easton and Riegelsvillc. after three years' work. 
This affords the most direct route between Philadelphia and Eas- 
ton, and the new branch also links Trenton with the lA-lugli Valley 
trolley system. 

The Indian Territory Traction Co. has establishd a 40-minute 
schedule between 6 a. m. and n p. m. on its recently opened 
system which connects South McMester, Alderson. Krebs, McAles- 
ter. Busby and a number of other mining towns and mines. 

The last gap in the line of the Chambersburg. Grcencastlc & 
Waynesboro Street Railway Co., from Pen Mar to Waynesboro. 
Pa., has been completed and the company operates over the entire 
15 miles of the system. 

The' formal opening of the Pittsburg Railways Co's. OakmoiU. 
EJgewater and Hulton branch, which is a continuation of the 
Verona branch, occurred December igtli. 
' Thrciugh service was inaugurated December i8th on the Urbana. 
Rellefontaine & Northern Ry., and the event was celebrated at 
l>oth Bellcfontaine and Springfield. O. 

Christmas day the first electric passenger car was run bclween 
Coeur d'.Mene, Idaho, and Spokane. Wash., over the recently 
completed system of the Coeur d'Alene & Spokane Railway Co. 
At present the company will use steam to transport freight and 
electricity for passenger service, but intends to use electricity for 
both passengers and freight later. 

The Toledo & Western Railway' Co, has opened its extension to 
Pioneer, which gives the company 80 miles of road. With the 
exception of 10 miles between Pioneer and the Indiana state line 
there is an unbroken chain of electric railways across norlhcrn 
Ohio, paralleling the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry. 

Regular service between Rockwood. Mich., and Toledo was insti- 
tuted by the Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line Co. December 
25th. With the line completed to Sibley's transfer can be made 
to the Wyandotte & Detroit River line, thus giving electrical con- 
nection between Detroit and Toledo. It was expected that this 
would \te done this month. 

ITie Illinois & Iowa Electric Railway Co. has opened it- inter- 
urban line between Davenport and Clinton. la., as far as Bctlendorf. 
and it is expected that the whole line will be completed by next 
summer. The line is the first of consequence in eastern Iowa, Mr, 
T, J. Wilcox, of Des Moines, is general manager. 

The connecting of the tracks of the Pittsburg, McKeesport & 
Grecnsburg Railway Co. and the Pittsburg, McKeesport & Connells- 
ville Railway Co. systems at Hunter, Pa., has been completed and 
arrangements made for through express train service between 
Grcensburg and Unionlown. 

The first cars were run on the Center & Clearfield Street Rail- 
way Cos. system Qiristmas day. The road runs from Philipsburg 
to Winburnc, Pa., 12 miles, winding through a populous mining 
$ country, touching Decalur, .VIorrisdale, Muiison and other towns 
Mr. J. C. Piatt, of Philadelphia, is president of the company. 

The East .St. L<juis, O'Eallon & Lebanon Electric Railway Co's, 
line connecting lilast .St, l^uis and Lclianon, III,, is completed and 
regular service was inaugurated December 20th, 

Ihc .Macomb & Western Illinois Railway Co,, which is building 
a line frrmi Macomb to Littleton by way of Industry, III,, has 
opened the line to traffic as far as Industry, the first passenger 
trip (King made January ist. 

Limited traction service between Indianapolis and Riclimoiicl. Ind., 
wa< inaugurated January 4lh by the cars of the Indianapolis & 
Eastern Railway Co., which run over the tracks of that comiiany 
Ifi Diililin ;,iwl frriiii Dnlilin in Rirbiimnrl r,vcr the Riiliiriotid 



Street & Intcrurban Railway Cos, tracks. The running time for 
the 72 miles is 2^ hours.' The cars cannot enter the city of 
Richmond on account of the Chicago. Cincinnati & Louisville R. R. 
bridge, and passengers are transferred to city cars at West Rich- 
mond. 

January ist the CeiUial Peiinsylvanin I'ractioii Co, began to run 
cars on the Linglestown extension as far as Paxtonia, Pa, 

New Year's day was celebrated at the Oklahoma Military Insti- 
tute. Oklahoma City, by a reception in honor of the arrival of the 
first car of the Metropolitan Railway Co, at the Institute grounds. 
.All the prominent citizens of Oklahoma were present and Ihe 
advent of the car was greeted hv a salute of 12 guns. 



F. C. Randall. 



Mr. F. C. Randall has been elected vice-president and general 
manager of the National Electric Co., successor to the Christensen 
Engineering Co., of Milwaukee, to succeed Mr. R. P. Tell, resigned. 
Mr. Randall graduated from the English High School, of Boston, 
in 1875 and entered the office of his father, who was an importer 
of special grades of English iron and steel, in Boston. After two 
years he entered the employ of the New York & New England Rail- 
road Co.. as "performiiicc-of-engine" clerk in the Norwood Central, 




I'-, C, RA.NDAI.I^, 

Mass,, shops, and hilcr was appiiiiited chief clerk of the motive 
department of llif -mmic road at Hartford, for all divisions west of 
Willimantic, Conn Mr irMj;iU(l lo liccoinc chief clerk of the motive 
power department of the liostoii & Lowell R. K. and its leased lines. 
Upon the consolidation of the latter road with the Boston & Maine 
Railroad Co., he severed his connection with the steam railroad 
business to embark in the manufacturing licld, lie tirsi entered 
the shops of the Tripp Manufacturing Co,, and after several years, 
during which he obtained a practical knowledge of the manufacture 
of electric railway trucks, he was made foreman and later superin- 
tendent of the shops. He resigned this' position to aciipt a position 
as eastern sales agent of the J. G. Brill Co,, and was later made 
western sales agent for the company, with headquarters at Chicago. 
He was employed by the Brill Co, aboui six years and then became 
eastern sales agent of the Christensen Engineering Co.. and was 
later apiioinled geiiernl sales agent of this company, and its succes- 
sor. During Mr, Randall's connection with the sales deparlinent of 
the company the sales of llie' Christensen air brakes increased from 
less than 200 equipnients to a total of over 11,000, which are in use 
at present. In his steam road experience he gained a valuable 
knowledge of organization, which adrled to his insight of electric 
railway affairs gained by persoii.il iohIihi with Ihe leading electric 
railway operating men. enabled him to tciriii a corps of salesmen 
and engineers, covering the railway fiehl of the entire country, and 
ill the success of which organization he lakes great pride. In 
addition lo his duties as vice-presidenl and general manager. Mr, 
Randall will continue to attend to llie duties of general sales agent 
not only of the air brake deparlineiil. but ,ilso of the eleclrical 
tnacliincry department o( ih,- rrHiipany 



18 



STREET RAILWAY UKVICW. 



(Vol. Xl\-. N.I 




^UBLI8H«D ON TH« ^Otm of CAC^ MONTH. 

WINDSOR & KENPItLD PUHLISMINO CO., 

45-47 PLYMOUTH PLACE, CHICAGO, ILL. 

OA«L« AODftaSSi "WINPiaLO." LONG OISTANOI TaLSPHONS. HAnmSON 754- 



BRANCH OFFICES: 
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New South Wales, Sydney —Turner & Henderson, 16 and 18 Hunter Street. 
Queensland (South), Brisbane— Gordon & Cotch. 
Victoria. Melbourne— Gordon & Cotch, Limited. Queen Street. 



The publisher of the Strekt Railway Rrview issues each year im the 
occasion of the meeting of the American Street Railway Association fiiuror more 
numbers of the f>aj7y Strret Railtuay Rtvieiv^ which is published in the convention 
city and contains tfie convi-ntion reports. The Daily Strett Railway Review is 
separate from the Street Railway Review, but is'in its nature supplementary 
thereto. 



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We cordially invite correspimtlence <tii all subjects of interest to those 
engaged in any branch of street railway work, and will gratefully appreciate 
any marked copies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send 
as, periainint^ either to companies or officers. 



DOES THE MANAGER WANT ANYTHING? 

If you contemplate the nurchaseof any supplies or material, we can save 
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This paper is a m,ember of the Chicago Trade Press Association. 
Entered at the Post Office at Chicap'o as Second Class Matter. 



VOL. XIV. 



JANUARY 20, 1904. 



NO. 1 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. 

Sloiu- «^i WfhsttT PrniJtTlies on Puget Sound. Uluslrated 

Car Tests on the Muncle. Harttorci & Ft. Wayne Ry 

Canadi-in Notes 

Hudson River Tunnel Pluns 

Oonsolldatlon at Sill l-ake City 

Cross Road Shelter Houses 

Trolley oit Mt. Vesuvivis 

Record Run from Norwalk to Cleveland 

The Tramway System of Sieffleld. Kng Illustrated. By VV. C. 

Sample 

OperatinK Crilieisms on a Ctuntry Road 

Graphkal Mathematics— 1. Illustrate<l. By A. G. HolmaiT. M. E 

Electric Cars In Manila. P. I. Illustrated 

Forty-live-ft. Car for Twin City Rapid Transit Co. Illustrated 

H»:.atinK and Ventilating Car and I.ocomotivo Paint Shops. By W. 

II. Dill 1,111 

Simjile Oiling System. Illustrated 

The Economical Cse of Coal. (Hollis) 

Roche.ster & Eastern Rapid Ry. Illustrated 

The Electric Club Journal. Illustnited 

Electric Railways of ladiana. Illustrated 

The Arnold Electro-Pneumatic System. Illustrated By B. J. Ar- 

nohl 

Recent Street Railway Decisions 

Einancial 

IVrsonal 



THE ARNOLD ELECTRO-PNEU.yATlC RAILWAY SYSTEM. 

.SiiKc tlic aii'iiiiiccniciil. itkuIc at llic <ircal HarnnKtmi lucctiiig 
of the .Anicricaii Instiltilo of Klcclrical tiiiginccrs in June. 1902, by 
Mr. U. J. .'Vriiold of the principles of his system for utilizing single- 
phase alternating current for railway operation, the publication of 
the results obtained on the Lansing, St. Johns & St. I^uis Rail- 
way, which was to use the .'\rnold electro-pneumatic system, has 
been awaited with keen interest. It was therefore a keen disap- 
pointment to learn of the fire which on Dec. 18, 190.1, destroyed 
the car house and shops of the company, and two new cars c<iuippcd 
for regular operation as well the experimental locomotive built by 
Mr. .Arnold. Mr. .Arnold in June last made two trips of about 
three miles each with the experimental machine, and il is only the 
complete and unexpected destruction of hi.s equipnieiil that prevented 
him from being the pioneer in single-phase raihvny operation on a 
commercial basis. 



RAILWAY AND LIGHTING ACCOUNTS. 

'ITic luimhcr of coriioralions which operate electric railways and 
also conduct a light and power business, electric or gas, and per- 
haps Ixjlh, is large at the pres'ent time, having increased rapidly be- 
cause of the consolidations of public service companies effected in 
recent years. In keeping the accounts of these companies there is 
a wish to follow standard systems in order to facilitate comparisons 
with others in the' same line of business, and consetjucntly for the 
railway department they follow the classification of the Street Rail- 
way .Accountants" Association, and for the lighting and i>ower de- 
partment follow that of the National Electric Light Association. 

The classification of operating expenses for electric railways was 
devised with three grand subdivisions — Maintenance. Transporta- 
tion, General. This arrangoniont is upon the theory that in order 
to operate properly the plant niust be maintained at a certain stand- 
ard and therefore "maintenance" should be the first division. 

The classification for the operation of electric lighting properties 
has three grand divi.sions also — Manufacture. Distribution. Gen- 
eral. 

Analysis of the two classifications shows iliai the diflferencc other 
than variations in the names of accounts by reason of the differ- 
ences in the nature of the two departments lies in treatment of main- 
tenance charges. Those differences are shown in the two tables. 

A. El.KCTRIC R.^ii.w.w 

I. Maintenance 1. Waj- and Structures. 

2. Equipment. 

II. Transportation — I. Operation of Power Plant. 

2. Operation of Cars. 



III. General. 
B, Light .\Nn Powf.h — 

I. Manufacture- 

II. Distribution — 
III. General. 



1. Operating. 

2. Maintenance. 

1. Operating. 

2. Maintenance. 



Classification B could be made to conform to .\ by bringing I-2 
and 1 1-2 together as "Maintenance" divided into, i. "Power House" 
and 2. "Lines" (or 1. "Manufacture" and 2. "Distribution") and 
bringing l-i and ll-i together as "Operation." divided into. i. "Man- 
ufacture" and 2. "Distribution." 

Classification .A could be made to conform to B by an analogous 
rearrangement, for instance, making the first two grand divisions 
1, "Fixed ICquipment" to ir.chide power plants", shops, other buildings 
and lines, and II. "Rolling Stock," each being subdivided into i. 
"Operation" and 2. "Maintenance." 

Both of the schemes of subdivision in 'ihc existing slai:dards are 
logical and both are perhaps equally convenient when used sepa- 
I'ately. but when lioth are found in the accounts of one company 
the variation in principle is striking, and the suggestion is- made 
that the associations that have adopted these standards could with 
advantage take action with a view to adopting a single classifica- 
tion that c-'.ild l)c used in Ixith branches of the business. The fact 
that a division exactly, corresponding to "Cost of Manufacture" as 
used in the Light and Power accounts cannot be made in Railway 
accounts, while on the other hand "Manufacture" and "Distribution" 
arc equally satisfactory for grand divisions nr suhrtivi^^ions in the 



.Ian 2c. ig04.] 



STREET RAILWAY RENTEW . 



19' 



Liglit and Power accounts, is a reason why the latter instead of the 
Railway classification should be changed in an attenipt to secnrc 
uniformitv. 



AN EXPERIMENT WITH LOW FARES. 

.\n inure>iuig experiment is iu:w in progress in Cleveland, Ohio. 
where the Cleveland Electric Railway Co. has agreed to conform, 
for the period of 90 days, to the provisions of an ordinance by 
which the city council undertakes to reduce fares on the railway 
system. This is the first attempt made in America to apply the zone 
system of street railway fares on city lines, although there have been 
several notable attempts made to establish in American cities a rate 
of fare on street railways less than 5 cents. At Detroit franchises 
were granted to a rival company with the expectation that it would 
operate successfully, selling tickets at the rate of eight for 25 
cents; after a year or so of bitter competition, which brought both 
the old and the new companies to the verge of bankruptcy, an 
arrangement was effected whereby the older company leased the 
new lines, and since i8g6 the low-rate tickets have had but limited 
use, and on these no transfer is granted. The attempt to provide 
adequate service for the entire city at the ,3-cent rate was a failure. 
nie city of Indianapolis also attempted to establish .l-cent fares. 
by municipal and state legislation, but the railway company con- 
tested the legality of the city's action and after years of litigation 
a compromise was effected, and after reorganization in iSgg the 
company was given a new franchise with provisions for a 5-ceiit 
fare and the sale of 25 tickets for one dollar. \ third celebrated 
case was the attempt of Milwaukee to establish a 4-cent fare m that 
city, which also failed, because the company proved the proposed 
rate to be unreasonably low. 

Heretofore the disadvantages of the zone system in limiting the 
territorial growth of cities, and promoting overcrowding in tene- 
ment and factory districts, have had sufficient weight to prevent a 
trial of such a straet railway tariff by any American city or com- 
pany. 

For the Cleveland experiment the rates are to be : Within a 
certain district, 3 cents without transfers, or 5 cents with trans- 
fers; to and from the city limits and suburbs 5 cents without trans- 
fers, or 7 cents with transfers. The city limits of Cleveland em- 
brace an area of about 28 square miles, and the j-cent zone com- 
prises about three-fourths of this ; the estimate of Mayor Johnson 
is that 85 per cent of the passengers on the Cleveland Electric 
Railway will ride for 3 cents, and that not above 3 per cent will be 
required to pay 7 cents. This would result in a decrease of re- 
ceipts of about one-third, if the volume of traffic were to remain 
the same. 

Inasmuch as the bare operating expenses of the Cleveland road 
are about 56 per cent of the gross receipts, and the interest charges 
are about 10 per cent more, leaving the net income less than 34 per 
cent of the gross receipts, it would appear to be impossible to suffer 
a reduction of one-third in receipts and maintain the service at the 
present standard. 

The outcome of the go days' trial, beginning January jist. will 
demonstrate whether these rates are practicable, and if not a re- 
vision of the low fare ordinance must follow, as has been ilie 
outcome in the other cilie'^ mentioned. 



RESULTS OF THE BERLIN^ZOSSEN EXPERIMENTS. 

The high ^i)eed cxiK-riincnts which were carrierl out on llic Mill 
tary railroad between Berlin and Zossen with electric cars' and 
which were completed Novcmlwr 21st have contributed some iin 
jKirtant experimental data in connection with high speed electric 
railway work. Consul General Guenlher reports that Inilb electric 
cars which were equipped with apparatus for measuring the re 
^i^tancc of the presstirc of the wind rciicaledly made the trip o( 
• .ver i4'/i miles at speeds from 118.75 ''> 126.25 miles an hour. It 
wa» evident that the roadbed with its rails of only 90.2 lb. per yard 
was heavy enough even for the highest speed attained and was 
found to \k in perfect condition, although it must l>c Iwrnc in mind 
thai the greate^l care was always given it. Or. Zimmerman pre- 
.i,....,| „n ihc strength of his calculations that it would not \k nec- 
to u»e rails of much greater wcigbl 'or high speed pro 

i the track is straight and well Imllasted. The results achieveil 

'how that it is not nccewary to abstain from a greater speed than 
heretofore on account of the expense* of very heavy rails and corre 



sponding roadlK'd, although it is obvious that the cost of maintenance 
of the roadbed would be increased. The apprehensioni also, that the 
gage of the track would have to be increased considerably on ac- 
count of the wind pressure has not been realized. The highest 
speed attained in the electric car experiments was 130.5 miles. A 
new series of experiments is shortly to be inaugurated in order to 
accomplish greater speed by means of steam locomotives, and the 
construction of the required apparatus for measuring speed is about 
completed. 



LIMITATIONS ON SPEED. 

Some years ago the "Review " made a compilation of the munici- 
pal regulations affecting speed and headway of electric cars in the 
principal cities of North .America. This was published in our issue 
for September, 1897, page 567, and showed that a maximum speed 
was specified in three-fourths of the cities from which reports were 
received. .At that time the most common limit .set upon the speed 
of electric cars operating in the business district was 8 miles per 
hour; in a few cities the limit prescril)ed was as low as 6 miles, 
and in a few others as high as 10 miles per hour. In residence and 
ontlying districts the maximnni speed iiennitled was generally fixed 
at from 12 to 15 miles per hour. 

Recently the Massachusetts R;iiIroad Commissioners promulgated 
a rule limiting the maximum speeds of electric cars to 10 miles 
l>er hour in thickly settled parts of cities and towns, to 15 miles 
per hour i.utside of business districts, and to 20 miles per hour 
where the railway is at one side of a traveled road. This pronounce- 
ment, which may be taken as reflccling public opinion in New 
England at the present time, fixes the maximum limits at points 
about one-fourth higher than was considered safe seven years ago. 
Abroadv the British Board of Trade has ordered recently that tram 
cars in London shall not exceed a speed of 10 miles per hour, with 
limitation to 6 miles and 8 miles at certain congested points. 

There may be some doubt as to whether uniform interpretations 
have been placed upon the speed ordinances referred to in the first 
paragraph — that is, whether maximum speed or schedule speed is 
meant, and doubtless in some cases when the former was intended 
the latter has come to be accepted in practice. In the Massachu- 
setts and British regulations cited in the second paragraph, how- 
ever, there is no doubt that the maximum speed is meant, the Board 
of Trade rule also specifying that cars shall carry speed indicators. 

The regulation of speed of vehicles is a proper subject for the 
exercise of the police power of a municipality, in the sense of being 
within the legal right of the city, but the specification of a hard 
and fast limit, as 10 miles per hour, is" of doubtful wisdom. The 
municipality is right in attempting to prevent vehicles being driven 
at reckless speeds that endanger other users of the streets, but the 
speeds that conform to the reiptiremeiil "safe" are a matter of 
experiment and cannot be decided a priori by even a city council. 

The most common accidents in which street cars are concerned 
are due to carelessness of the men in charge of the car or to care- 
lessness on the part of llie public using the streets, and a slow 
speed for the cars encourages rather than prevents carelessness in 
employics, passengers and others. Six years ago the Market Street 
Railw.ay Co., of San Francisco, slated positively that a number of 
the most serious accidents had been occasioned by children and 
others running suddenly in front of a car that was moving at a 
speetl of not more than three or four miles per hour. This is a 
negative argnmeiU lo the efTecl ihal low sjieeds dd ui>f necessarily 
prevent accident ■;. 

By courtesy (jf Mr. John .'\. Heeler, vice-president and general 
manager of the Denver City Iramway Co., we are enabled to pre- 
sent some results of the experience of thai company which coiisli- 
lute a positive argument that increase of speed within reason will 
decrease instead of increase the danger of accidents. The iiimm 
ageineiit of the Denver company desired lo improve the service In 
increasing the speed of its cars, and ilu- ihiiMge w.is made with the 
expectation that while there might be Uinporarily an increase in 
the number of accidents, the higher s|>ecd would cause all persons 
oil or near the cars to exercise a higher degree of care lliat would 
in a short lime reduce the nuiiil>er and cost ofaccidents in ihr Mm 
mal. The results were surpris-ing m Ihal from the first lliere w.-k 
a decrease in llie accideiil aecounl. The higher schedule was pui 
in eff<'Cl last year, and llie follnwiiit; lible ■.hows nine munlliK nf 



20 



STRKKT RAILWAY KK\1K\V 



I Vol. XIV, No. i. 



1903 compared with four preceding years, the basis adopted, pcr- 
cciil,ige of receipts expended on accinnil of accidents Ix-iiig one thai 
taiies acconnt of increased traffic :'i:d nuinial increased minilx'r of 
accidents : 

Per Cent Per Cent Damages. Schednle Speed, 

\ear Damages. and Legal Expenses. Miles per Hour 

il-W 19^ -J.V 8-3 

lyoo 1.78 J.18 8.4 

iQoi 1.79 J.21 S.J 

190a 1 .38 J.07 8.3 

1903 (9 mo.) 1.09 1.74 8.9 

In November, 1903, the .schedule speed was 9.5 miles and in De- 
cember, 1903, it was 9.6 miles per hour. This speed is delermincd 
by dividing the total nunilwr of car-hours by the total mileage; 
thus all time lost in making stops and In'causc of delays being in- 
cludedy and the highest speed recorded q.6 miles per hour corre- 
sponds 10 a maximum siwed considerably in excess of thai figure 
The damages and legal expenses in connection therewith for the 
month of November last amounted to but 1.40 per cent of the gross 
receipts. 

The accidents on the Denver system during the five years men- 
tioned in tlie table increased in numlK-r, being as follows; 1,033 in 
1899; 1,016 in 1900; 1,097 in 1901 ; 1,354 in 1902; 1.685 '" 9 
nionlhs of 1903. Of these so-called accidents, however, which are 
reported by employes, over 85 per cent are never heard from again. 
While the iiuml)er of reported "accidents" is larger in 1903 than 
in the preceding years when the speed of cars was slower, we do 
not consider the conclusion as to the higher speed being safer is 
vitiated, because the cost of accidents is a better measure than the 
mere number. ITie fact that in 1902 there were on this road nearly 
25 per cent more accidents reported than in igoi, and at the same 
time the cost for accidents and legal expenses in connection there- 
with was reduced 2.21 per cent of the gross receipts in 1901 to 2.07 
pcr cent in 1902, shows a most efficient administration of the clain> 
and legal departments. Also it justifies the inference thai the re- 
ported "accidents" in 1902 and 1903 include larger percentages of in- 
cidents that are not accidents, but are reported only for the purpose 
of preparing the company to belter contest hditious and fraudulent 
claims for damages. 

Observation in Denver shows that since the cars have been run 
at increased speed, all persons aflfected show a greater degree of care 
— inotormen keep a better lookout and do not permit their atlention 
to be easily distracted, because they appreciated the greater damage 
that would naturally follow a collision at the higher speed; pas- 
sengers do not so often as formerly attempt to enter or leave the 
cars while they are moving, and others on the street use more care 
in keeping out of the way. The conclusion is that what constitutes 
a safe speed is a matter of experiment,. and that legislation which 
fixes an arbitrary limit is misdirected. The limit fixed does not 
necessarily insure greater safety and if placed too low does- prevent 
improvement in the service. 

♦ ■ » 

Boiler Explosion at St. Louis. 

.•\bout 5 p. 111., Dec. 21, 1903, six boilers exploded at the Geyer 
St. power plant of the St. Louis Transit Co. (the old Union Depot 
road plant), killing seven persons and destroying property to the 
value of $50,000. This plant contained 17 Heine water-tube boilers 
and 6 of two other makes, all connected to a single header, which 
was something over 200 ft. in length and without expansion joints. 

Six of the seven Heine boilers that constituted that part of the 
plant east of the large brick chimney exploded, the seventh boiler 
being thrown out bodily into the street unii;jured, except that a 
few tubes were torn out hv the same force that displaced the boiler. 
Tba rear waterlegs were torn from the six boilers that were rup- 
lured. In the case of only one boiler were the shells parted from 
the front waterleg. The tubes were practically all torn out of the 
waterlegs, and with only one or two exceptions were not burst. 
I'he severed portions of the ruptured boilers wre thrown to dis- 
tances of 100 ft. 

The boilers that failed were installed i-i l8qi and were rated at 
250 h. p. each. 

The evidence presented at the coroner's inquest and before the 
St. Louis Board of Engineers shows that the accident was not due 



to any defect m the construcliori of the boilers, but to negligent 
inspection and operation of the plant. Exaniipalion of the two feed 
pipe nipples of one of the explo<led lK)ilers showed one to be com- 
pletely filled with scale and the other to be so nearly filled that a 
passage '/j-'m. in diameter only was open, and the Board of Kngi- 
neers found that while the prcscrilKjd limit of pressure was 125 
lbs. the safely valves when tested rerpiircd from 142 to 170 lbs. 
per sq. in. to open. , 

It is believed that a single boiler exploded first, and thai following 
this the five other boilers failed simultaneously or in rapid suc- 
cession. 

It is considered probable that the primary cause of the explosion 
was the failure of some jKirtion of the steam header near these 
oldest boiicr.-i. 

— ♦*-• 

Annual Meeting of Boston Elevated Ry. 

.\l the aiuial meeting of the Boston Elevated Railway Co.. Jan- 
nary 4th, the president. Gen. William A. Bancroft, presided. The 
old directors and officers were re-elected. The reports showed: 
That more than 80 per cent of the 133,000 shares of stock is held 
ill .Massachusetts; the total mileage of the road is 437.499 miles; 
the total number of subway passengers for the year ending Sept. 
30, 1903, was 2,018,986, an average per day of 87,723, as against 
79.923 last year; as against a 5 per cent increase in total revenue 
passengers, the receipts at main line elevated stations, exclusive 
of subway, increased 15.9 per cent, and at .-\tlantic avenue elevated 
stations 59.3 per cent ; the receipts at subway stations for elevated 
.service alone increased 8.3 per cent; the surface car mileage in- 
creased 0.8 per cent, while the elevated mileage increased 23.8 per 
cent; the extension of surface tracks amounted to 5.16 miles during 
the year. 

President Bancroft brought out the fact that coal and the han- 
dling of the same cost the company $409,017 for the year, an increase 
of about 71 per cent over the previous year. 

llie earnings from operation were $11,959,515; net earnings, $3,- 
759,511, an increase of $301,053; balance for dividends. $826,955. as 
compared with $621,898 the year before; surplus, $28,955. against 
$21,880 the previous year. The road carried 233,563.578 passengers 
during ihe year, an increase of 11.078.767 over the previous year. 



Three-Cent Fare in Cleveland. 



The Cleveland city council, January nth. passed an ordinance 
making the fare within certain limits on all street railway lines 
three cents, without transfers, or five cents with transfers, while 
the fare to and from the extremities of the city and the suburbs is 
to be five cents without, and seven cents with transfers. .At first 
the directors of the Cleveland Electric Railway Co. voted not to 
conform to the measure, believing that the three-cent zone is too 
large. Later an understanding was entered into between the mayor 
and the railway officials whereby the company agrees to a 90 days' 
test of the new plan, which' becomes effective January 21st. If 
not satisfactory. legal steps may then be t.iken to enjoin its cn- 
forccment- 



Chicago Union Traction Co. 

Ihe lieariug of the validity of the 99-year act, which was set for 
January i6th. was postponed until the last of February, or later. 
The case will be heard at Chicago. Mr. Henry G. Foreman has 
resigned as a director of the company, stating that as president of 
the Cook County board of commissioners he is required to take a 
position in opposition to the company. 



Chicago City Railway Franchise. 

Hie principal development in the Chicago City Railway Co.'s 
application for renewal of franchise is the proposition submitted 
by the company to pay the city 5 per cent on $197,000,000. which 
the company estimates will be the approximate amount of its earn- 
ings in the next 20 years, the capital stock tax to be deducted. If the 
earnings exceed that amount the company is willing to pay 20 per 
cent on the excess. 



The Tramway System of Sheffield, Eng. 



BY W. C. SAMPLE. 



Under the provisions of the Sheffield Tramways Act of 1872 pow- 
ers were granted to the corporation to build tramway hnes and 
lease them to the Sheffield Tramways Co. for a period of 21 years. 
Nine miles of double track were laid and the company operated its 
cars upon these lines, the terms of payment being an annual rental 
of £100 per mile of route and the niainlenance and repair of the 
paving between and 18 in. outside of the outer rails. The rails laid 
weighed 49 lb. per yard and were supported on Kincaid patent 
chairs which were imliedded in concrete. The corporation, how- 
ever, was not entirely satisfied with the manner in which the com- 
pany carried out its part of the contract, and being desirous of 



streets. Of this distance 29 miles is of double track and about 7 
miles is single track. 1 he latter is to be changed to double track 
in the near future. 

The total cost of the work carried out to date including paving, 
power stations, cars and other equipment is about £850,000, and by 
the time the total work is completed over £1,000,000 will have been 
expended. The street improvements along the lines of the tram- 
ways when completed will have entailed a cost of over £500,000. 
The engineering difficulties of laying out the tramway routes were 
numerous owing to the very steep grades (the steepest is i in 9.5), 
ihe lieavy sidcfalls in sonic of the streets along the lines and the 




CAR REPAIR Slllir. SIIKFFIi:i-D TRAMWAY SYSTEM. 



meeting the rec|uiremenls of a rapidly increasing ijupulaliuu ob- 
tained Parliamentary powers on Ihe termination of the lease to 
operate the tramways itself. 

The overhead trolley system was decided upon and a bill was 
passed by Parliament authorizing the corporation to operate its 
system by electrical or other mechanical power and granting an 
extension of .^6 miles, thus making a total length of 45 miles, three- 
fotirlhs of which is double track. It was estimated Ihe total cost 
of the work authorized would be £600,000. Sept. 5. i8gg, the first 
length of I'/j miles was opened and other routes followed in quick 
succession, but it speedily became evident that to meet the require- 
ments of the city further extensions would be necessary. Other 
hills were accordingly promoted granting Ihe corporation power to 
expend further amounts on tramways and also considerable sums 
upon street widening and improvements, most of which were 
required for the improvement of streets on which Ihe 
tramways were to be built. The total length of route authorized 
by the various bills aggregated 80 miles of single track, and up to 
the present lime O5 miles has been laid, traversing 3f> miles of 



sleep grades of iheside streets crossiiiK tlu- liniN, Tlicse dilVicnl- 
lies were successfully overcume by Mr Wikc. city surveyor. 

Paving. 

Owing to llu- bleep grades already mentioned and the heavy na- 
ture of the traffic in the city a number of different kinds of pave- 
ments have been used for the tracks. Granite, wood, gritstone, 
whinstonc and tar macadam have all been tried and in the streets 
where the traffic is heaviest granite has given the best results. Il 
is the most durable, but as it is slippery and noisy it has not been 
laid in Sheffield on grades sleeper than i in 25. Wood has been 
extensively used in .Sheffield for llie past few years, £2,-?,ooo having 
been ex|)endcd on this paving material on one Inunvvay route. 
Gritstone has been used on many of the steepest grades, but it 
wears away nnich more rapidly than granite. 1 1 is customary in 
Sheffield to groove the gritstone sets to provide a foothold for 
horses, but Iho constant traffic giadiially wears the groove away 
and the sct.s become rounded and slippery. On some of the roiiles 
the tracks have been pavetl with granite and ilf sidis (jf ilie 



2Z 



STRF.KT K All WAY Ri:\ ll£\\. 



IV. 



Xl\. N.. 



■>iri-ci Hitli iiiac.idaiii. Tliis system . ut paving cannol hi- pfM 
iiotincvd a siiccfss, A patented system of paving lias been laid on 
trial and is liiing watched with great interest. This paving con- 
sists of allernatc courses of granite and wood, the wood courses 
being nbont half the width of the granite. It is claimed that this 
paving will not become slippery and that it can he used on grades 
loo sleep for an all granite pavement. After noticing its effect 
upon vehicular traffic for some months past the writer has come 
to the conclusion that it will not become slippery and thai it affords 
a splendid foothold for horses. .Mso, that for the length of time it 
has l)een down it has worn fairly well. 

riie following table shows the kind and approximate lengths of 
the paving on the various tram routes: 



Pavcmeni 
Granite 
Wood 



Miles of Route. 

I- 

8 



Gritstone I'A 

Tar Macadam 2V4 

Paved Tracks, Macadam Sides 6}4 

Experimental Paving . . I 



Total 



■ 36 



Track. 



The rails useH in Sheffield are of the girder typv 7 in. deep, 7'/ 
in. wide on tht( flange, weighing 108 Mi. per yard. They are laid 




HK.VCKET CONSTRl'CTION. SHEFFIELD TR.\MW.\V SYSTEM. 

to Standard gage, 4 ft. Syi in., and the width of the tread is 
I ii-i'6 in. and the depth of the groove 15-16 In., leaving a clear- 
ance of 7-16 in. between the wheel flange and the bottom of the 
groove. Tn a paper read by Mr. Wikc before the Association of 
Municipal and County Engineers he stated that "when the rails 
have worn sufficiently to enable the wheel flange to touch the bot- 
tom of the groove the life of the rail is to be considered at an- end. 
Refore this can happen a sectional area of .706 in. of steel must Ik 
worn away." The Sheffield specification for rails is a stringent one 
and provides for both chemical analysis and mechanical test. .•\ 
large proportion of the Sheffield Tramway system was laid with 
30-ft. rails, although 60-ft. rails have also been used; recently rails 
45 ft. in length have been put down. The 30-ft. rails are expensive 
on account of the large number of joints required while the 60-ft. 
rails are unwieldy, although for laying track over the brow of a 
hill there is no doubt that they are extremely useful. The 45-ft. 
rails are, however, the most convenient length and their adop- 
tion in Sheffield is now general. The greater part of the rail? were 
supplied by the Barrow Hematite Steel Co., Ltd., the Leeds Steel 
Co (Walter Scott, Ltd.) having supplied the remaining portions. 



I iu•^e two concerns have supplied upwards of 11,000 tons of rails. 
The method of joining the rails in SheiVicId is by lish plates. These 
are 36 in. long, half of them having eight holes !',/» in. square and 
the other half eight circular hol.-s 1% in. in diameter. The fish 
plates for crossings, etc., are j/ in. long, one-half of the quantity 
having six holes I'/i in. square and the other half six circular holes 
l]/^ in. in diameter. The weight of the eight-hole fish plates is 80 
lb. per pair and that of the six-hole fish plates 60 lb. ICacH bolt 
and nut weighs 2'/4 lb., each being of the self-locking type, supplied 
by IblKilson Bros. & Co. A space of 1-16 in. is left l)ctwccn the 
ends of the rails to allow for expansion and tie bars are placed Ih- 
twcen the rails at intervals of 10 ft. to keep them to gage. Two 
bonds are provided at each joint and the tracks arc cross bonded 
every 40 yards. The bonds used are the "Chicago" type. 

The points, crossings, etc., were supplied by Hadfield's Steel 
Eoundry Co. and Edgar Allan & Co., Ltd., both of Sheffield. Some 
American special work supplied by the Lorain Steel Co. has been 
installed experimentally in which a special metal having great re- 
sistance to wear was introduced. The results, although never made 
public, were, 1 believe, eminently satisfactory. Great care is taken 
in Sheffield in the design and laying out of double junctions. The 
design is considered both from a theoretical and practical stand- 
point and the curves when put in place are theoretically exact and 
are not laid out as I have often seen them, merely by the eye. In 
Sheffield double truck cars are unknown and the laying out of the 
curves is of great importance, as the four-wheeled cars, like Ixjgie 
trucks, arc not adapted for conveniently rounding curves of a ra- 
dius shorter than 40 ft. It is frequently customary in double junc- 
tions to splay one rail to the other at the point of intersection, but 
in Sheffield crossing blocks have always been used for coimecting in- 
tersection rails. These blocks were formerly made from cast steel 
but more recently of manganese steel. The satisfactory and effect- 
ive jointing of rails is a question which 'ramway engineers are 
anxious above all others to solve, and Mr. Wikc, city surveyor, has 
experimented with one or two difTerent patented inethods of joint- 
ing. He has reported, however, that the royalties on most of the 
patents in the market render their economical working impossible. 
In laying rails in Sheffield they are fixed at the necessary levels by 
means of rubble foundations on which they rest, the rubble con- 
sisting of three or four built-up courses placed at the ends and cen- 
ter of the rail. The concrete foundation is then laid for the per- 
manent way and is well packed in and around the rails and is 
filled in to within $'/< or 6 in. of the finished level of the road. In 
streets provided with a concrete foundation the latter, if in good 
condition, is cut out under the rail and for a short distance either 
side of it for a depth of about 2 in., the rails are brought to a 
level and the concrete is then built up around them. It is thus seen 
that the rails are held down, first, by their own weight, second, by 
the depth of concrete above the bottom flange of the rail and. third, 
by the paving abutting againsl it. The following table gives the 
cost per yard of single track laid in Sheffield: 

Rails £8-15-0 per ton = £0-16-10.5 per yard 

Fishplates 8-15- O per ton =0- 1-3 per yard 

Bolts 16- 0-0 per ton = o- o- 5.8 per yard 

Tie bars lO-io-o per ton = o- o- 4.7 per yard 

Copper bonds =: o- i- g.3 per yard 

Plastering and packing rails =0- i- 6 per yard 

Labor : =0- 2- 6 per yard 



4- 9 3 



or say £1-4-10 per yard of single track 



Overhead Equipment. 

The greater part of the overhead work is supported by poles 
carrying single brackets varying in length between 12 and 22 ft. In 
the center of the city and on one of the first routes opened center 
poles were used, but this method of supporting the overhead work 
has not been a success and will not be extended further. Both the 
side and center poles are spaced 120 ft. apart on tangents and at 
varying distances on curves. Span wire construction has been used 
in many of the wider thoroughfares, and there is no doubt that this 
construction gives the most satisfactory results. The greatest length 
of span between poles used in Sheffield measures 65 ft., but a 
length of about no ft. will lie required on one division in the 
course of construction. It has been found by experiment that on a 
span of this length a .sag of 3 ft. 6 in. will occur, and to neutralize 



Ian. 20. 1904.J 



STREET RAILWAY REXTEW. 



23 



this the poles are made 34 fl. 6 in. long instead of the usual 31 ft.. 
so that the trolley wire will come to the same height as that part 
which is carried on bracket arms which are used on the greater 
part of the line under consideration. Rosettes have been used to 
support the span wire on a number of buildings, hut this method is 
considered somewhat dangerous and property owners in many cases 




DOUBLE DECK CAK. SHEFriKl.D TR.\.M.\\ AY .SYSTEM. 

arc much opposed to placing rosettes on their premises. The trol- 
ley wires are No. o B. \V. G. and are in all cases supported by flex- 
ible suspension. The poles and brackets already in place were 
supplied by John Spencer, Ltd., of Wednesbury. and the 
remainder by Walter Macfarlane & Co., Glasgow. The phono- 
electric trolley wire erected on curves and places where the wear 
and tear is greatest was supplied by Maguire & Maucus. while the 
copper wire has been furnished by the British Thomson-Houston 
Co.. Frederick Smith & Co.. Salford, and Thomas Bolton & Sons. 
Oakamoor. Guard wires in accordance with the Board of Trade 
regulations have been erected wherever necessary, but their value 
.IS a protection against accidcnt.s is, in the opinion of the manager 
of the tramway, extremely doubtful. 

Cables. 

The cables are in all cases drawn into ducts, most of which arc 
of the earthenware type which have proved highly satisfactory. Ce- 
ment concrete ducts have also been experimented with and cast iron 
ducts have been used on sections where the traffic is heaviest. To 
carry the constantly increasing number of cables to the power sla 
lion a tunnel has been built under the goit adjoining this building 
and a section through this tunnel shows 72 cables in place. Cable 
U>xes are located 280 ft. apart. Iwing built of common red brick 
lined with Staffordshire blue brick. The bottom of the boxes have 
a cement floor, which slopes to a point where a short length of (t 
in. pipe is inserted to collect the water draining from the sul)-soil 
and the ducts. From this point the water is pumped out whenever 
necessary. Feeder pillars fitted with two main ca1)lc switches and 
ff<ur side lead switches, ligblning arresters on the front of the panel 
and choke coils on the back of the panel, arc placed at distances 
apart of '/, mile in the city and 'A mile in the suburbs. The cables 
were furnished by the Callcndor's Cable it Construction Co., Ltd.. 
L.ndon, the British Insulated & Helsby Cables Co., Ltd., PrescotI, 
l.ancashire, and the St. Helens Cable Co.. I.ld . Warrington, I.anca- 
•hire. The clay duels were supplierl by the Albion Clay Co., Llil.. 
I-«ni|on 

Cars. 

The car* used by the Shclfirld Corporation are of both the single 
;iit«I /Iriitbb' #le,-k ivjK-- ^i-v,.r:il of ;!,,■ rl.,nM,- ,|i-.U' i-m < b.-n-r Im-cu 



fitted with canopy lop covers made by G. C. Mihies, Voss & Co., 
from whom 32 of these equipnienls have been ordered. These top 
covers extend the full length and width of the car, the sides being 
of the Magrini collapsible type, .\ continuous spindle running the 
full length of the c<r aiit; operated bj nieins of a ratchet handle en- 
ables tile sides to be raired or lowered by means of a tooth rack 
and gear wheel fitted to the continuous spindle. The ends and the 
roof are both fixed, the former containing windows and a door and 
the latter being' made of tongued and grooved boards supported 
by angle irons. Where these covers are adopted the, trolley stands 
arc removed from the top of the car and fitted to the top of the roof 
cover. Torpedo ventilators of the Laycock type and bulkhead elec- 
tric light fittings are fixed in the roof. 

.■\t the present time the Shctfield Corporation owns 20S cars, of 
which 139 are of the double deck ijpe and 6g of the single deck 
lype. and six more arc now in cmirse of construction at the car 
Innlding sheds of the corporation. 'There arc also ->5 double deck 
cars on order, which will be received within a few months, which 
will bring the total number of cars up to 239. The double deck cars 
acconnnodale 51 passengers. 21 outside and 22 inside, and measure 
16 ft. over the body and 27 't. 6 in. over all. They arc 7 ft. in 
width and 6 ft. 6 in. from floor -.o ceiling. 'The use of these small 
size cars was determined upon in consideration of the class of traf- 
fic. Sheffield has a large working class, and in the early morning, 
at midday and between the hours of five and seven in the afternoon 
the traffic is very heavy, while during the other parts of the day it 
is comparatively light, so that with cars of a larger size unneces- 
sary expense would lie incurred during a large part of the day. 
Furthermore, larger cars would not be well adapted for operating 
on the many sttep grades which are found on this system. The 
single deck cars weigh about eight tons each, or half a ton less than 
the double deck cars, and seat 28 passengers. These are 20 fl. long 
over the body and 30 ft. long over all. These cars arc used on three 
routes in the city on which the steepest grades are found. On one 
other route single deck cars have been adopted owing to the height 
of several railway bridges which prohibit the use of double deck 
cars, 'Three cars are used for construction, maintenance and emer- 
gency work. One of these is equipped with a set of "Bush" jacks, 
all the apparatus necessary for dealing with accidents and a supply 
of ambulance appliances. This car is also built to be used as a snow 
lilnu. .Another car is fitted with snow plows and in addition has a 
water tank with a capacity of 1,000 gallons. It is also fitted with 
track scrapers. 'The third car is fitted up for carrying supplies from 
<lcpot to depot and it is probable that the corporation in the near 
future will extend this service to include general express business. 
These car bodies have been supplied by G. F. Milnes & Co., Ltd., 
Birkenhead and Hadley; the Electric Railway & 'Tramway Carriage 





^\^ 



CAK .•SIIIOIi. .Slll':i''|.'ll';i,|i -IH.XMWAY SYSTI'iM. 

Works, Ltd., I'reston ; the Brush lilectrical I'jigineering Co., Lough- 
iKirough ; Messrs. Cravens, Ltd., .Sheffield, anil the SlieHield Cor- 
poration, 'The trucks were furnished liy the I'eckham Manufaetur- 
ing Co., the J. G. Brill Co. and the (i. b". Milnes Co., Ltd, The en- 
tire electrical eipiipmenls for the cars were m.ide by the Fkitish 
'Thomson-Houston Co. 'The motors userl are of two types, G. K.-52 
and G. F,-.sK. The controllers are of the B.-13 type. The cars have 

fiverl wheel bise ."ind in nrder In v.'ifelv iiper;ile on lll<- slee(f irf.-ules 



24 



stki:i:t railway kk\ii-:\v. 



l\'.ii.. XIV, No. 



and *liarp citrvc- the wliifl base has been shortened as much as pos- 
sible, the length Ijeing 5 fl. 6 in. This type of truck is better 
adapted 10 the use of slipper brakes than bogie trucks. Ihese slipper 
brakes with which the cars arc equipped arc often called into pUy 
owing to the steep grades in Sheffield and by means of these brakes 
the weight of the car is taken almost entirely off the wheels and is 
supported by wooden brake blocks which slide upon the rails. The 
electric brakes with which the cars arc equipped are extremely pow- 
erful. Internal spring trolleys are now adopted for all double deck 
cars, having taken the place of the external spring trolleys which 
were formerly used. The trolleys have' to run at heights varying 
from II ft. 6 in. to 21 ft. 6 in. and no tiouble has occurred to mar 
their successful operation. Most of the trolley heads were made 




ENGINE ROOM, SHEFFIELX) TRAMWAY SYSTEM. 

by R. \V. Ulackwell & Co., Ltd., London, and are of the spherical 
type with graphite bushed V-groovcd wheels. The question of dry 
seats for the top of double deck cars has been solved by the adop- 
tion of canopy tops, but in cases where canopy tops are not used 
the question has not been satisfactorily answered. 

Car Sheds. 

The car sheds at present erected are two in number. One of 
these, known as the Tinslcy car shed, accommodates 95 cars and 
contains in addition repair shops, paint shed and brass foundry. The 
other car shed is situated at Queen's Road and has a capacity for 
84 cars, but extensive additions will soon be completed which will 
increase its capacity to 129 cars. .Xt the Queen's Road shed all of 
the tracks are laid on supporting cast iron columns, making it pos- 
sible to overhaul every car stored here in a thorough manner .-\t 
the Tinsley shed this method of construction has only been partially 



adopted and several of the tracks have Iwen paved in, making the 
work of overhauling the cars on these tracks a difficult and trying 
one. Large repair shops form part of the extensive additions now 
in the course of construction and these will soon be in full work- 
ing order. The cost of the two car sheds, including additions, will 
amount to about ifio.ooo. The establishment of a car building plant 
is one of the latest examples of the enterprise of the Sheffield Cor- 
poration. The idea originated with Mr. Fell, the tramways man- 
ager, and little time was lost in putting it into execution. The re- 
sult was the establishment of a highly ■.■reditable car building plant 
and already several cars have been turned out, while a numtwr of oth- 
ers are in course of construction. The machine shop contains the lat- 
est and most efficient labor saving machinery and is operated by a 
.25-h. p. electric motor. A number of improve- 
ments in the general design of the cars have been 
introduced in these shops. The building is located 
at Nether Edge and was erected on the site of the 
old horse car sheds. 

Kclham Island Power Station. 
The power station of the Shclfield Tramways is 
situated on an island bounded by the River Don 
and a goit fed from the river. The city water 
supply is drawn for the boiler feed, while the goit 
supplies the circulating water for the surface con- 
densers. 'I'hc boiler bouse is 182 ft. long, 40 ft. 6 
in. wide and contains 12 boilers capable of evaporat- 
ing 120,000 II). of water per hour and operating 
under a pressure of 160 lb. Four of these boilers 
were made by John Brown & Co., Ltd., Sheffield, and 
three by the British Thomson-Houston Co. They 
are of the wet back marine type, each boiler being 
capable of evaporating about 8,000 lb. of water per 
hour. One of these boilers is fitted with a Bemis 
stoker and the remaining six with automatic stokers. 
Hiere are two dry back marine boilers capable of 
evaporating 18.000 lb. of water per hour, made by 
Davy Bros., Ltd.. Sheffield. Both of these are fitted 
with Bemis stokers and superheaters and an induced 
draft system and air heating apparatus made by Ellis 
& liaves ; the latter is also supplied to the seven wet 
back marine boilers previously mentioned. There 
are also two Stirling boilers made by the Stirling 
Boiler Co., Ltd., each capable of evaporating 18,000 
lb. of water per hour, fitted with superheaters. Bemis 
stokers and Howdcn's system of induced draft and 
air heating apparatus. The automatic stokers are all 
driven by motors, the shafting being supplied with 
coil clutches made by the Consolidated Engineer- 
ing Co. and arranged so that it can be divided into 
sections in case of accident or repairs. I'he motors, 
two in- number, were supplied by the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Co., Ltd., and are each 
capable of taking the whole load. The coal and ash 
con\eying plant supplied by the New Conveyor 
Co., of Sniethw'ick, and fitted above the front of the 
boilers, forms an interesting feature of the boiler 
house. The coal is first dumped into a hopper, then 
carried by a bucket elevator into the conveyor, and 
can he tipped either at the rear of the boilers where 
the coal storage is .situated or into bunkers placed in front of the 
boilers. An ingenious arrangement of traveling automatic weighing 
machines alxivc the Vninkers enables the coal passing from the bunk- 
ers to be automatically weighed, and coal can be taken from any 
bunker to any boiler. A tray ash conveyor is fixed under the floor 
plates in front of the boilers and receiving hoppers under grids, 
the ash being conveyed to the ends of the building and taken up 
liy a bucket elevator into a tank fixed on iron columns outside the 
building. From this tank it is discharged into wagons underneath 
The pipe work in connection with nine of the boilers was erected 
by Corporation employes, while that of the remaining boilers was 
installed by the British Thomson-Houston Co., Sempler & Ranol 
and Messrs. Crane. The steam and other pipes were installed by 
Messrs. John Spencer, Ltd., and the boiler fittings by J. Hopkin 
son & Co., Ltd. 
The engine room contains the nio?l up-to-date machinery obtain- 



Jan. jo. 190+ J 



STREET RAILWAY RE\IE\V. 



25 



able. The first engines installed were the Allis-Chalmers horizontal 
type, three in number. Each of these drives a 225-k\v. multipolar 
generator, direct coupled, running at a speed of 136 r. p. m. To 
meet the growing demands of a system four vertical cross com- 
pound condensing engines were afterwards bought from Cole, Mar- 
chent & Morley. Ltd. Two of these engines of 1.450 h. p. each have 
i.ooo kw. British Thomson-Houston generators mounted on the 




BOIUKR RUU.M. SIlEFFIEI-l) TR.\M\VAY SVSTKM. 

shafts between bearings, and run at a speed of go r. p. m. The Hy 
wheels are 20 ft. in diameter and weigh 50 tons each. The remain- 
ing two engines of 800 i. h. p. each are direct connected to British 
Thomson-Houston generators mounted on the shaft and have fly 
wheels 18 ft. in diameter and weigh 23 tons each. These also run 
at a speed of 90 r. p. ni. The engines and generators are built to 
run at 25 per cent overload for half an hour and 50 per cent over- 
lo,-id for a very short time. The total nominal capacity of the plant 
is 3,675 kw. 

The condensers are five in number, four being of llic Wheeler 
Admiralty type made by the Wheeler Condenser & Engineering Co. 
Four boiler feed pumps with a total capacity of 14,800 gallons of 
water per hour are installed in the basement of the engine room, 
two being made by G. & J. Weir, Ltd., and two by F. Pearn & Co. 
The British Thomson-Houston Co. supplied the whole of the switch- 
board, which consists of seven generator panels, feeder panels, a 
return feeder panel and two Board of Trade panels, the whole being 
built of marble. The instruments are of the Weston type, except 
the Board of Trade instruments, which were supplied by F.lliotl 
Bros. The engine room contains an overhead traveling crane built 
by I'ooth Bros, and capable of lifting 20 tons. 

The cost of supplying current in. Sheffield amounts to bjd. per 
k*. hour and comparison with many other leading cities in the 
Kingdom shows this to be a very economical figure. Herewith is a 
list of a few of the principal tramway systems municipally owned, 
giving the cost of current per unit in pence ; 



Aberdeen I.8.| 

Blackburn 1.50 

Bolton I.2S 

Bradford I.oo 

Cardiff 0.50 

Dundee 1.50 

Glaigow 0.46 

Halifax 1.69 

lluddcrsfield 0.38 

Hull 0.90 



Leeds 0.39 

Liverpool 1.20 

I^ndon County Council ....1.40 

Manchester I.SO 

Newcastle 0.3s 

Nottingham 1.25 

Oldham 1.50 

.Salford 2.00 

Sheffield 0.67 

Sunderland 2.<» 



No. of 
Passengers. Earnings 

Sept. 5. 1899, to Mar. 25, 1900 ' 13,722,380 ^54.936- 2-6 

Mar. 25, 1900. to Mar. 25. 1901 34,239,810 132,980-12-8 

Mar, 25, 1901, to Mar. 25, 1902 48,773,942 189,225-19-2 

Mar. 25, 1902, to Mar. 25. 1903 54,946,915 206,729-10-1 

During a portion of last year horses were used on one route only 
and were taken off on Nov. 11, 1902. The figures for the route 
operated by horses are not given in the alxive table and are as 
follows : 

Income, £7,345-16-6; operating expenses, £10,143-9-0; deficit, 
£2.797-12-6. 

The above table shows that the revenue of the corporation from 
the tramways is constantly on the increase and it has not yet, by any 
means, reached its maximum. 
The present average weekly in- 
come amounts to £4,400. 

From the time of the inaugura- 
tion of the system until Oct. 28, 
1902, the maximum fare on any of 
the routes was 2d., but on the lat- 
ter date the city council reduced 
the fares on all routes to id., at 
which figure they have since re- 
mained. It is possible to travel a 
distance of about 3% miles for id. ^^^_^ ^ 

Halfpenny fares for average dis- 
tances of half a mile are in 
vogue throughout the system and 
the returns show that about one- 
seventh of the passengers carried 

pay the halfpenny fare. The A. L. C. FELL, 

tramways committee, owing to the 

financial success of this undertaking, has voted large sums of 
money for the relief of the rates, the sum thus voted for the year 
ending Mar. 25, 1903. being £i3.979-iO-7. bringing the total amount 
voted for this object since the inauguration of the system to £40,979- 
19-7. 

The ivamvvays conniiiltee has also agreed to contribute towards 
the capital expenditure on street widening and work necessitated 
hy reason of the tramway construction, an estimated sum of 
£155.204-1-0. The estimated contribution payable on this sum, in- 
cluding interest and sinking fund, is £6.895-7-5 per annuni. Mr. W. 





Financial. 

I'he following tabic givr« the financial statistics of the Sheffield 
Tramway system from the time of its inauguration : 



SV\ irUlllJOAUL), SllKFl''ll';i,I> lUAMVVAV .SVST10,VI. 

Fisher Tarker, F. C. A., the cily treasurer, has prepared a ciMnplcte 

report upfiu the tramway finances for the year ending Mar. 25, 

1903, and the writer is indebted to liini for many of the figures 

given. 

Personnel. 

Alderman W. E. Clegg from the inception of the tramway scheme 
has been chairman of the tramways connniltec. Mr. C. V. Wike, 



26 



STRF.KT RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol. XIV. No 1. 



M. I. C. H.. city surveyor, li.is propari'd llu' various I'arlianiiMitary 
hills and had charge o( the design, construction and niaiiitcnance ol 
the pcrniaiienl way, as well as the power stations and one of the 
car sheds. Mr. .-\. L. C. Fell, M. I. E. K., is general manager of 
the tramways and was in charge of the installation of the [lower 
station equipment, overhead etiuipnuni, the design and building of 
cars, and the laying of cables. Mr I'ell. who is 34 years of age, is 



considered a leading authority on electric traction in England and 
his recent election to the post of tramways manager to the London 
County Council is a well merited acknowledgment of his ability, 
lie takes with him to London the best wishes for his future success 
of all who have been hi ought into contact with him, Kor much of 
the information relating to the |K>wer station, cars and electrical 
e<|uii)ment the writer is indebted to Mr. Kell. 



Operating ( Criticisms on a Country Road. 



In traveling about the country by trolley the electric railway man 
cannot but notice a remarkable diversity in the standards of service 
adopted by the different systems upon which he rides. City lines, 
interurbnn railways and country roads all have their own peculiar 
problems to solve and diHiculties to face, and it is not surprising 
that the character of equipment, types of track construction, and 
operating methods vary widely when we realize how mnch more 
local conditions influence electric than they do .steam roads. When 
one considers defects in operation, however, it almost always works 
out that all the different systems ought to avoid every specific fault 
that may occur on atiy oiie. A wide latitude in the character of 
service may be permitted, but it is difHcult to condone a dcfcc. in 
operation for the benefit of any particular road, if one is strictly just 

Hie writer chanced to spend two months last .summer in a small 
-\cw England village traversed by a through trolley line, cnnnccl 
ing a seacoast re.sort with a manufacturing city some fourteen niile< 
away. In a spirit of friendly criticism this article has been written 
to emphasize some of the Haws in operation which from lime to 
time manifested themselves to the writer when he was a passenger 
upon the load in question. 

Perhaps the most noticeable fauh in Ihc service was the reckless 
running of the cars on curves and grades. Many of the nintormeii 
handled the controller as though resistance notches and the series 
running point were figments of the imagination, and the way power 
was kept on when going down hill was enough to put the coal 
dealers on "Easy Street" for the entire season. Reduction in speed 
on curves was an afterthought — generally after the car had hirclu-il 
madly at the change in alignment with sufiicient violence to make 
the passengers hold fast to each other or the nearest post. llie 
rocking of the etpiipment which is produced by careless handling 
cannot be readily expressed in dollars at the end of an operating 
year, but that the maintenance bill is considerably larger p.o one 
can doubt if he keeps an eye on the hospital end of the car house 
when reckless running holds sway outside. The danger of severe 
injury to passengers and even loss of life is far greater on a road 
where the cars at times run down grades of si.x or eight per cent 
at full multiple on the controller for half the length of the hill 
than on a line where the cars invariably coast down such grades 
well under control. The former road may make a faster scheduU. 
but some day, when its precipitate speed lands a car in the ditch. 
the resulting injuries and damage suits make the fast schedule 
shrink decidedly in importance. The strain on car equipment which 
is reversed at high speed in attempting to stop on a stiff down 
grade is terribly severe, and every stop of this nature adds money 
to the repair and renewal accounts. On the road which the writer 
has in mind cars were nearly always run too rapidly down a five 
per cent grade, with a sharp curve and bridge at the Imttom, span- 
ning a wide tidal inlet. 

Carelessness in starting the car when DassiuiieTs alighted was 
one of the sins of connnission conmion with the conductors. This 
is, of course, an old offense, and no particular road can claim to be 
always free from it. The cars of our coinitry road were eipiipped, 
in open types, with double running boards on each side, the steps 
being rather too high for the comfort of ladies. Dismounting from 
the car was, for women, a hazardous process at best, and the care- 
less giving of the two bells for starting resulted more than once in 
the unfortunate passenger l)eing thrown down. On a city system 
such heedless operation would not be tolerated by the public, and 
the only explanation of is continuance on the country line under 
the fire of the writer's criticism was the ignorance of the bulk of 
the passengers as to what actually constitutes good service. One 
of the writer's family was severely injured in the hip by reckless 
running around a sharp curve, and fo'ced to lie in pain for weeks 



on account of a careless motormans maltreatment of the car andi its 
passengers. In justice to the road, it is but fair to say that the ex- 
ceptional motormen were skillful operators of their cars, and' use<l 
discrimination in coasting, braking and oower application, but the 
general run of the men handled their cars in a distinctly inferior 
maimer. 

One of the most serious defects in the road's layout was the ex- 
Irenu-ly narrow clearance between feeder posts, trees and fences 
and the car running boards met with at many points on the line. 
The route traversed is one noted for its scenic beauty, and with the 
large summer traffic handled this year it passes comprehension how 
^erious accidents to standing passengers were escaped. Certainly 
no road is safely located which requires the conductor to warn pas- 
sengers of the danger from adjacent posts and trees. On a steam 
road with closed cars one does not expect to put head or arm out 
of the window with safely, but the case is very different on an open 
Irolley car. Sharp projecting ledges and rocks ought not to be al- 
lowed to exist within six inches of the running board, to put the 
case mildly. 

When slight accidents to the car equipmeiu occurred it was frc- 
quently the custom of the employes on the car to treat the rxrcur- 
rcnce as a high-class joke. Now there is no doubt that a cheerful 
temper in the face of difficulties goes a long way toward getting 
those who are unfortunate out of the scrape in which they find 
themselves, but it is difficult to see the use of coarse horse play and 
buffoonery in cutting out a damaged motor, or the assistance that 
three or four husky employes riding free on the front seat can give 
to the afflicted motorinan whose controller is short circuited, if all 
that they do is to loll about and make witless jokes at his expense. 
It is no small offense against the company's welfare ro destroy pub- 
lic confidence in the abilities of the car crew to go about their 
liusiness in times of trouble as though they were equal to the emer- 
gency. Few things hurt a road more than to have the idea spread 
abroad and ,it home that experiments arc l>eing tried on the pubHc, 
and that the cars are sometimes dangerously operated. Women are 
especially timid when anything goes wrong on a car, as a general 
rule, and ill-timed levity sits i>oorly upon any employe who is 
brought into close relations with the travelling public at times of 
utish,ip. It is said of General Grant that he could be silent in 
twenty languages, an accomplishment that every discreet motorman 
an<l conductor may well strive to perfect in his owm make-up. On 
the other hand, there is no advantage in acting as though a burned 
out rheostat or motor was a case for the coroner. What is needed 
most of all at times of breakdown is common sense and strictest 
attention to the business of getting traffic under way. 

The writer seldom rode upon a car that did not lose its trolley 
every three or four miles. When this trouble occurs at the same 
places on the line day after day it is its own criticism of slipshod 
inspection, reports, construction and management. 

Continued conversation of motormen with "lady friends" on the 
front seat is another one of the little things which, on a single 
track road, end in forgotten orders and bring cars together in 
head on collision half w-ay between turnouts. In the old horse car 
days the motive power was sufficiently under control to enable 
many a social chat to be exchanged with the driver as the day 
wore on and the vehicle majestically rolled its weary way toward 
the haven where it would l>c. Now all this is changed, and the 
driver of a modern high speed electric car equipped with a hundred 
or more horse power in motors needs every faculty alert to control 
its movement in safety. How long would a locomotive engineer re- 
tain his seat in the cab of an express flyer if he attempted social 
felicities with his fair friends at fifty miles per hour? 

Conductors -lught to know the name and loc.Ttion of every im- 



Jan. jo. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY RE\TE\V. 



27 



portant settlement, resort and place of interest along the route 
which they traverse day after day. .Allowances must of course he • 
made, especially in the case of new men, but if a man cannot re- 
member the important points after a little trial, he had better be in 
some other business than street railroading. Stupidity in this direc- 
tion is something tha: the public finds hard to forgive. It is not nec- 
essary that the conductor know all the steam railroad schedules of 
half the coiitinent. but it is vital to the welfare of the road that 
prominent points be at his tongue's end. 

In case of accident, however slight, the conductor should never 
fail to obtain the names and addresses of the injured parties and 
witnesses at once, and at the earliest opportunity make a report in 
person and also in writing to his ne.\t in command. Probably noth- 
ing causes a street railway company as nnich vexation as insig- 
nificant .iccidents which form the basis of claims by the unscrupiv 
liins passenger and aminilanoe chasing lawyer. The extent to which 
such grievances will be carried is beyond l)elief. The importance 
of correct, prompt, detailed information for the company's files 
is literally tremendous. However simple a fall may somqtimes 
appear, it frequently hides an internal injury of a serious nature, 
and the company's protection against unfair suits and its knowl- 
edge for the settlenx'nt of just dues demands the most faithful 
record on the part of the conductor of every unusual occurrence 
with which he conies in contact while performing his duties. 

It is difficult to realize the demoralization which the careless ac- 
ceptance of miscellaneous tickets from undesignated classes of 
passengers induces. If a book of tickets is sold at 25 rides per 
dollar for workingmen's use and so marked it is very unbusi- 
nesslike for the transportation department to accept them from 
persons who cannot by any stretch of imagination be called work- 
ingmen. It is morally as bad for a conductor to accept such tick- 
' ^;s in the daily trips of his car from persons for whom they were- 
not designed as it is for him to slur over certain rules in the "In 
struction Book" because he knows they will probably not be en- 
forced. The name of such tickets should be changed to "Twenty- 
five Ride Tickets," or some such class before all types of men 
and women, children, relalives, friends, and acquaintances are al- 
lowed to ride upon their presentation. Each fare or group of five 
or six should be rung in on. the register as soon as taken, and not 
in the continuous fusillade of shots on the register bell which run 
up to an ear-harrowing eighty, which the writer once counted on 
a cross-country trip. 

.\ll the coal for the road whicli the writer has been picking 
flaws in is hauled some two miles to the power station by teams. 
The power station is located on a tidal inlet, and a moderate 
amount of dredging would render it accessible to' a large variety 
of water craft. There are one or two shovellings in addition to 
the present haulage from tide water to tide water again. The coal 
teams follow the car track the entire distance. Why an old coal 
car isn't rigged up and run by electric power from the wharf 
over the company's lines to the power house, instead of employing 
asthmatic horses, is another unsolved mystery to believers in mod- 
ern methods of operation. 'The cost .)f haulage amounts to some- ■ 
thing like $1,300 per year with the present facilities for handling. 
a sum which would pay interest on a considerable outlay in 
dredging. 

One of the best features of the road is found in the numerous 
little covered and platformcd waiting stations sprinkled along its 
lines. These are of neat design, built of wood with pitched roof, 
and liberal seating facilities, and need but two ihings to make 
them Iwyond cavil — soap and water. The condition of some of 
these is so dirty that at times neighlmring residents take a hand in 
cleaning Ihem up. and it is no exaggeration to s&y llial they are 
a disgrace to the road. ,\t no time during the summer did the 
writer sec any employe of the road in one of these stations. 

Perhaps the criticisms included in this article seem unduly harsh. 
but they at least have the merit of being truthful. Nothing is fur • 
ther from their object than peevish and (wssimistic fault-fin<ling. 
Many admirable features in oiK-ratiun could Ik- set forth if space 
I>ermiltcd, especially the maintenance of a reliable schedule and 
freedom from annoying delays. If the writer's comments ;ire un- 
sparing in their severity, lliey at least bear upon those features 
of practical (iiH-ratirm which he would first strive to improve were 
he superintendent of the rriad, and as such are written for the cause 
of good service, which is the goal of every progressive cm|>loye 
in the field of lraiis|M>rtation. OH.SERVKK 



Graphical Mathematics. —I. 

Fuudanicntal Principles of Notation Addition and Sub- 
traction. 



BY A. G. HOLMAN. M. E. 

The graphic meiluHl of solving niathcniatic;il problems is a process 
of arriving .at results by lueans of the relations of lines and points, 
as distinguished from methods making use of numerals and other 
characters. 

It is quite connnon to think of "figuring" as the simple and easy 
method, and to consider charts and diagrams within the realm of 
mystery and higher mathematics. On the contrary, graphic methods 
arc at the foundation of the science of quantity, and a proper un- 
derstanding of the principles involved will often furnish short cuts 
that arc \aluable in this strcruious age and open up paths which 



(3(3(3(3(3(30(300 
000000 

0000000006 
0000 

OOOOO06OO6 
(30000(3000(3 
0000600000 



r 



l''10. 



should be free to all. U is the imriiosc of this scries of articles to 
follow out some of the first steps in graphics, assuming no mathe- 
matical knowledge by the reader beyond the ability to read figures 
and to make use of the most simple rules of arithmetic. It is 
proper to begin upon this elementary basis, even at the risk of 
making it a review exercise to many readers, hecatise it is the clear- 
est way of presenting the -logic of the method. 

When addition or subtraction is spoken of, it is quite natural to 
think only of sonic ;uTangoiiicnt of figures such as 

16 17 

14 or 13 

30 4 

These opei-ations, however, arc not really the addition and subtrac- 
tion of quantities, unles.s possibly the addition of a small Quantity 
of ink to the paper and its subtraction from 'he pen ; they are 



€<•«■£*•««. 



3 



!■*■*-• •>•»»« 



€^tt_ 



III 



^ 



only the stories or descriptions of certain changes in quantities and 
not the processes theiuselves. 

.\ South Sea Islander, witlioul knowing tin- niciniiig of ligures 
or the names indicating <|nantily, could arri\c liy a simple method 
at the .same results as a niathenuitician. 

If one man had ifi apples and anotluT i). Imr. i, and tliey dc 
cided to put them together, this union of the lots would certainly 
be addition, and the result would as certainly be io as if the opera- 
tion were performed by veritable .siientists. It is evident that actual 
subtraction could be performed in the same manner. 

It is only a step from the transfer of a certain class of articles 
to the corresponding manipulation of a collection of more convenient 
objects reiireseiiling them. For instance, instead of going into the 
field and driving a numlxir of anini.ils around to a.scertain the 
result of a certain transfer, it would soon dawn upon the savage 
'ulellect that a numlK'r of pebbles arranged in groups would more 



28 



STREET RAILWAY RKNTEVV. 



(Vol. XIV. No. I. 



conveiiiciitly tell the same story. Fig. 2, and llius, prol)al)ly, were 
performed some of the first calculations. The very word calculate, 
meaning a mathematical operation, is derived from a word signi- 
fying a stone, and originally referred to the use of pebbles in reck- 
oning. Instead of pebbles, a siring of beads conid be used, or 
notches on a slick, or tally marks. Fig. 3. 

The first definite idea of a number is that it is made up of single, 
separate objects. We usually call such a single object, in its rela- 
tion to number, a unit (derived from unus, the Latin name for one), 
but it is obvious that this separate object is the foundation of the 
science of numbers whether we call it one or unity or "barn door." 
It will also be readily seen that names could be devised by the savage 
which would mean any particular number of pebbles or notches. 

Please mark the steps. If a man had 8 chickens he could cut 8 
notches on a stick to indicate them, Fig. 4. The notches would not 
he chickens, but they would numerically represent them. If his 
neighbor had 4 chickens and represented them in the same manner, 
the joining of the two sticks would be addition. Suppose that llie 
notches were cut at regular intervals and that a long stick used for 
reference had a number of similar notches with a name for each 
notch. This would constitute a regular adding machine, for the 
two men, or several men, could place their tally slicks end to end 
on the reference stick and read oflf the sum. 

It should be observed that the name against the sum of 8 and 4 
might not bear any resemblance either to our "twelve" or 12 but it 




Taking, for illuslratiun, the simple problem of adding 16 to 14, 
Fig. 7, the two numbers can be measured in the hod and piled in 
the frame -Jind the result read from the top. or by putting 14 bricks 
in the frame and shoving the pile up until the bottom is at the 16 
mark we have added 14 to 16, and may note the result at the top 
without the actual transfer of more bricks. In a similar manner sub- 
traction may be performed, for if the frame is filled to 30 and a sec- 
tion at the bottom up to the number to \k subtracted is pulled out, 
the remaining column will drop down so that its top will stand at 
the difference. 

It will be noted that all the operations described are graphic in 
their character. The facts stated may seem self-evident, but they are 
sufficiently out of the ordinary, so that several adding machines based 
on the principles here explained did not appear until a comparatively 
recent date. 

The ne.xt article will present a glance at the origin of characters 
to represent numliers, a study of the principles of multiplication and 
division, and illustrations of simple applications of such principles. 



New Transfer System at Pittsburg. 



Bcgiiining with December 15th a change -was made in the street 
car system of Pittsburg, and instead of the destination points being 
North. East, South and West, as on the old transfers, the tickets 




FIG. 



FIG. C. 



would indicate the saine definite number of objects. For example, 
the quantity that we know as ten is represented in Arabic numerals 
by two characters, as 10, and in Roman notation by one symbol, as 
X, but these or a hundred other char,-ictcrs or names would not 
change the fact that a certain combination of notches or units al- 
ways brings the same numerical result. The name or character is 
only a sort of shorthand way of representing a place on the tally 
stick. 

Let us now imagine our early mathematicians to be Egyptians or 
some other race having bricks at their disposal. Bricks are chosen 
because a familiar object of regular shape. Suppose that a frame is 
arranged, Fig. 5, for the reception of bricks, and with graduations 
along the edge to measure the number of bricks received. .\ hod 
carrier bringing 12 bricks at a trip would add 12 to 12 at the 
second trip, 12 more at the next, and so on. If he conceived the 
wish to have the carrier contain the same number of bricks that 
he had fingers and thumbs he could cut ofT the end of the carrier 
to a capacity of 10 and he would then have a regular decimal sys- 
tem; that is, a scheme of numbers advancing by measurements of 
10. The word decimal is from the Latin decent, meaning ten. 

.\t this point we may present in perhaps a different way from the 
usual school method the philosophy of our system of .-Xrabic numer- 
als. The space for each brick in the carrier, Fig. 6, is marked with 
a single character, l, 2, 3, etc., up to 9. The last space is markeit 
10; that is, one times ten plus nothing, so the figure at the riyhi 
may tell the number of bricks in the partly filled holder, while the 
next figure gives the number of full holders. For instance, when 
the holder is full there are 10 bricks, otherwise read as one hod full 
and nothing over; 15 would be one hod and 5 bricks; 30 would be 
3 hods and none over. Now we can perform certain calculations 
within the range of the frame with considerable speed and undoubted 
accuracv. 



bear the names of the different transfer points or lines. To pre- 
vent mistakes each division has two different colors, one for morn- 
ing and one for afternoon and evening. In addition to the day of 
the week, the hours and tens of minutes, the new transfers show 
the points of line of issue as well as the destination points. No 
transfers are issued after 11:30 p. m. 



Twin City Rapid Tiansit Go's. Plans. 

;\ iiKirlgage for $10,000,000 given by the Twin City Rapid Iransit 
Co. to the Central Trust Co.. of New York City, was recorded in 
the register of deeds' office at St. Paul December 14th. The mort- 
gage covers all the city railway property in St. Paul and Minne- 
apolis. The improvements contemplated by the company are a new 
power house at Minneapolis, sub-stations at St. Paul and Minneap- 
olis, the Hamline line on Blair St.. a cross-town line on Snelling 
Ave., or some other street, Lafayette line extended to Phalen Park, 
Stillwater line extended to South Stillwater. Wildwood line ex- 
tended to White Bear village, Minnehaha line extended to Fort 
Snelling and across the river, and new plants, shops and rolling 
stock. 



I'lio La Fayette ( Ind.) Street Railway Co. has completed its 
tracks in the public square, which were begun some time ago, and 
the liulianaiKiIis & Northwestern Traction Co. interurban cars use 
the new loop formed thereby. 



The chief of the detective department of the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Co. has announced that the company has been robbed by 
certain employes of $100,000 worth of copper during the past year. 
Two employes, one a foreman and the other a laborer, have been 
arrested. 



Jan. 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY RE\ lEW. 



29 



Electric Cars in Manila, P. I. 

It is announced that within a year Manila will have a complete 
modern electric street car system with 40 miles of track extending 
throughout the business section and through the suburbs. The sys- 
tem will cost $3,000,000. it is stated, and the new company will 
absorb the old horse car line, which will be abandoned. Track con- 
struction on the new line was begun last September, the work pro- 
ceeding at the rate of a mile a week. The line will run from a 
point one-half mile beyond Malate on the south to Caloocan on the 
north. 

A correspondent of the "Review" has forwarded interesting data 
anent the change, together with views of the old horse cars, which 
we reproduce herewith. He states that the present system is of little 




DEI,.\T TO REPAIR BROKEN HARNKSS. 

convenience to the traveling public, as may be gathered from the 
view> which show the limited size of the cars and the diminutive 
horses, whose speed is necessarily slow. The cars are sadly in need 
of repair; much lime is lost in transit by the breaking of some 
part of the equipment ; the car axles squeak, the bearings being worn 
to such an extent; the footboards are dangerous to step or stand 
upon, being narrow and in some places bent or warped out of shape; 
there are no grip handles at the ends of the seats, and the harnesses 




M.iiSi; Till-; KH<.-l)I,TA 

arc rotted so that delay; arc frequent while the drivers mend the 
breaks with wire and cord. 

Not only arc the cars hauled slowly, but they arc run on such 
long headway that the traveling public prefers when it can to ride 
in native vehicles, the cheapest charge for which is 10 cents in United 
States money for a ride of two miles in what arc called "chicken 
ciyypt" — small vehicles which arc utilized exclusively by natives and 
Chinese. The next best type of vehicle is the quilcz, for which the 
charge is ao cents per hour. Then there are carameltas and two- 



horso vehicles which may be hired for from 50 cents to $t.oo per 
hour. It is always difficult to obtain a \ehicle. the demand is so 
great. In fact, there is so much traffic in the principal streets that 
one has to be wary to avoid being run over. 

The new street railway, which will be the first electric road in 
the Philippine Islands, will be a boon to all classes of citizens, 




STREET CAR ADVERTISING IN MANILA, 

whereas the present road is patronized chielly by Filipinos. It is 
proposed to not only carry passengers, but also light freight, a plan 
tliat will appeal to the natives especially, it being their custom to 
carry large bundles on the cars. Compartment cars will lie pro- 
vided for the purpose. 

In building the roadbed and tracks Chinese labor is used ex- 
tensively, imder .American and Spanish foremen, and native labor 
is plentiful and cheap. The streets of Manila are for the most 
part suitable for an electric line and the bridges are substantial and 




I'-IORHV ACHdS.'^ CANAl,. 

sufficiently wide for the new tracks. Generally the *iuburhs are 
reached by bridges, although there are a few points al which small 
raft-like ferries arc used. The present line runs through the Hsenlta 
and out into the suburbs; it is expected lliat the new road will run 
over the Luneta, which is a wide thoroughfare. 

The present company does a profitable business in advertising, 
carrying signs on the lops of the cars as well as inside, and already 
the new company has been approached by advertising agents who 
wish to control the privilege in the new cars. The old company 
is owned principally by Filipinos, while New York capital is largely 
interested in the new company. 



The new line of the Georgia Railway & Flectric Co., between 
Atlanta and Marietta, will be built tnlirely nn priv.ile right of way 
and will be fenced In, to permit speed. 



Mfttornicn, conductors and inspectors who have been in the em- 
ploy of the Louisville Railway Co. three or more years will here- 
after wear .'rtar or bars on their eoat lajiels in denote their lerni nf 
service. 



4o-Ft. (]ar for Twin City Rapid Transit Co. 



The car sliops o{ ttic r»iii City Rapid Transit Co., wliicti arc now 
under the direction of Mr. W. H. Evans, master mechanic, and 
the standarils then used in car construction, were illustrated and 



lilc for urban as well as internrban service and accordini;ly, as fast 
as practicable, large cars are being substituted fur the older single 
truck equipment. 




F^G. l.-HALF SIDB KI.EV.\TI( IN np CAR. 



described in the "Review" for February. 1899. Since 1898 all llu- 
company's new rolling stock has been built there, and orders have 
been filled for the other roads controlled by the same interests. 
The company is convinced that double truck cars are more dcsiva- 



The present equipment includes 279 double truck closed cars, 42 
of which were built this year. 35 double truck open cars, 365 single 
truck motor cars, and 50 closed trailers. The present requirements 
are for about 2.;o doiibli truck and 250 single truck otrs during 





FIG. 2.-PI,AN AND ELEVATION 



Jan. 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY RE\ U'W. 



31 



the busy hours of the day. Some trail cars are operated during rush 
hours, but they are being discontinued as fast as possible. 

The cars now being built, which are the standard for new work. 



operated under control of the -uiotornian — who does not open them 
till the car has stopped, arid who does not start the car till the gates 
have closed— has continued to be most satisfactory. 




FIG. 3.— END ELEVATION OF CAR BODY, 



arc of the same gencrnl type as those illustrated in the "Review" 
in iSqo. but are larger. l«;ing 45 ft. 2]4 i"- over the bumpers. Other 
changes are that the rear platform has been dropped 5% in. below 
the car tloor to reduce the height of the steps, the steps are wider. 
with double gates (four gates), and the rear half of the body is 
fitted with longitudinal seats. 

The four gates are designed to provide two passages so that the 
entrance and exit of passengers may be sinuillaucous. The experi- 
em-e 01 ibi- Twin Ciiy company in equipping its cars with gates 




FIO. ■!.— END ELBVATUtN ill'' I'.Mt WITH CATE. 

The double gates and the diagram of levers fur upcraiins lliem 
are shown in connection with drawings of the car. 




OF KIXJOR I-RAMINO 



32 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV, No. i. 



The main (ransoms are placed s>'mmclrically «illi respect to the 
extreme dimensions of the car and arc 22 ft. i in. Iwtween centers. 
Between these are cross sills 3'A x 6 in. The side sills are carried 




FIG. 5.— ELEV.ATUIN OF G.\TB AND DI.\GRAM OF tr.VfK 
LEVERS. 



on the main transoms, and at the ends of the body are transoms sim- 
ilar in general design to the main transoms, but inverted and hung 
from the sills. The three types of transoms are shown in elevation. 
The platform sills are four in number, two 4-in. channels about 17 



c 




FIG. 6.— REAR END TR.VNSO.M 




Fir, 7-TRI-rK TRANSOM. 



■ S X t 



:.^^s*-vP 



the two transoms. The 6-in. channels are bent in two planes as 
indicated in the drawings of the car. 

In connection with a description of this car, something concern- 
ing the methods used in the forge shop to shape the bolster mem- 
bers and platform sills will be of interest. 



C3 




FIG. 9.— OUTER FRONT PLATFORM SILL. 

The bolster members, of J4 x 9-in. and ^ x s-in. iron, arc forged 
by hand, the bends being made over suitable forms. The bends in 
the platform sills arc of three kinds, a double offset as at A in 
Fig. 9, bends in a horizontal plane as at B, C, F and G, and t)ends 
in a vertical plane as at D and E, Fig. to. 

These bends are made with a rail bender, suitable dies being 




FIG. lO.-OUTER REiAR PLATFORM SILL. 

provided and forms to fit into the channels. For offsetting, the 
forms and dies are placed as shown in the sketch. Fig. 11, the 
blocks c and b being about 10 in. long and the blocks a and d of 
dimensions corresponding to the width of the transom member to 
be cleared. 

For bends like B and C only the filling pieces for the channel are 




FIG. U.-FORMS FOR OFFSETTING. 

needed, but for bends like D and E there is required a third narrow 
piece, beveled at top and bottom to match the channel when bent, 
which is placed between the filling pieces and serves to preserve the 
sharp corners in the outer flange. The most difficult of these bends 
are made with only two heats. 

Another interesting device is a roll for bending cold ij^xi^x 
S-16 in. angles used for cable racks in tunnels which the company is 




FIG. 12— FORMS FOR VERTICAL BENDS. 



FIG. S.— FRONT K.\D TRANSOM. 



ft. long extending from the first cross sills through the main and 
end bolsters and bent up to bring the tops to the elevation of the 
floor, and two 6-in. channels about II ft. long, extending through 



building to connect the new power house with the sub-stations in 
Minneapolis. The angles arc bent into U shape, the radius of the 
curve being about 18 in. The form is a ll-i-'m. bar bent to the 
proper shape and bolted to a plate trimmed to a concentric curve 
of i^i-'m. greater diameter. At the center of the plate is pivoted a 



Jan. 20, 1904. 1 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



33 



lever 7 ft. long, and this carries a pin 2 ft. from the fulcrum witli 
two rollers mounted on it. One roller has a face of i^ in. to en- 
gage the vertical flange of the angle to be bent, and the other is of 
smaller diameter to correspond with the outwardly projecting hori- 
zontal flange of the angle, the roller having a projecting lip which 
extends under the form plate and serves as a guide for the roller. 



Following the bending lever at an angle of about 30 degrees and con- 
nected to it is a second lever carrying a single roller shaped so as to 
engage both the flanges to the angle, which serves to prevent the 
angle from bulging during the bending process. Four men operate 
the bender, this number being required because of the small ratio 
between the power and resistance arms of the lever. 



Heating and Ventilating Car and^Locomotive Paint Shops.' 



BY W. H. DUTTON, LEHIGH VALLEY RAILROAD. 



Xo doubt by far the larger number of railroad paint shops re- 
cently erected are equipped with the hot air fan blast system of heal- 
ing, and to this system attention is particularly invited. In pro- 
viding for the installation of a heating plant for the car and loco- 
motive paint shop at least three important considerations are in- 
volved. 

First — Capacity for heating the shop at the floor line to any 
desired temperature consistent with requirements. 

Second — Uniform distribution of heat, maintained at a low air 
velocity. 

Third — A recirculating system which works without suflicient 
draft to stir up dust or inconvenience the workmen, and which 
furnishes a means of ventilation and the expulsion of bad air as 
well as giving an ample supply of fresh air. 

Under properly adjusted conditions the heat furnished by the 
so-called hot air blast system is more reliable and generally better 
adapted to paint shop uses than steam or hot water heat. It af- 
fords convenience in handling, the heating system for a building 
being controlled at one point, and there is less danger from fire, 
as the heating apparatus is confined in a steel housing with no 
wood partitions to be looked after. Moreover, by the hot air blast 
system it is possible to obtain better ventilation during the cold 
months when windows and doors are tightly closed than by direct 
steam or direct hot water, and in the summer ventilation is provided 
by forcing outside or cool basement air through the shop. 

This ventilation, if rightly utilized, becomes immediately effective 
in promoting the drying of paint and varnish, and contributing to 
the comfort of the workmen. 

Xaturally, opinions differ concerning the hot air blast system of 
heating best adapted to the paint shop, but all will agree upon the 
necessity of a system that will furnish adequate heat with a low air 
velocity. The modern paint shop requires a greater quantity of heat 
to fit it for the purpose intended than its predecessor, because, as 
a rule, it is better lighted, and, with more artificial light, more beat 
is needed by reason of the greater radiation from glass surfaces. 

The hot air blast system, to best serve in its heating capacity 
the needs of the paint shop, should be furnished with an air circu- 
lating system that insures a return of at least a part of the air 10 
the blast apparatus. There are three ways of establishing this re- 
turn of air, namely, by an underground duct system, by an overhead 
galvanized iron pipe system, and by an overhead pipe system which 
delivers the hot air in a way to drive the cold air to the floor of the 
shop, and thence to the fans by means of a suction connecting 
directly with the steel air chamber of the blast machine. 

In reference to the distribution of the air it is manifest that 10 
get the most benefit from hot air it should he furnished where it is 
most needed. This leads' to the suggestion that the greatest quantity 
of available heat is to be had from establishing the heating ap- 
paratus around the walls of the shop, and for the paint shop it is an 
open question if the most satisfactory result- arc not obtained by 
forcing the air through an underground pipe or duct, using short 
outlet pipes for the discharge of the air along the walls at the floor 
line. By this method the air is furnished directly at a point where 
it will do the most good, and the full strength of its heating power 
secured at a low air velocity. 

By the overhead pipe system of delivering hot air it becomes 
necessary in order to get the heat well down to the floor, where it is 



needed, to employ a higher air velocity than is usually safe to have 
in the paint shop. 

The recirculating system for paint shops, in connection with the 
hot air fan blast system of heating, may easily be made to retard 
liie drying of paint and varnish, and delay all processes of work. 
I'he constant recirculating of air without taking at least 50 per cent 
or more fresh air from the outside, except in extremely cold weather, 
is productive of both moisture and a poisonous air. which are alike 
detrimental to freshly painted or varnished surfaces and to the iK-alth 
of the workmen. 

This danger from moisture and foul air may, of course, be con- 
sidered greater in a low shop, or in a shop with a low ceiling, than 
in a shop with a comparatively high ceiling, the principle being 
based upon the fact that, proportioned to the size of the heating 
system, the greater the volume of air that can be safely taken from 
the shops for heating purposes. 

While the paint shop should be provided with a series of venti- 
lators which open from the highest point in the roof or ceiling of 
the shop, and operate effectively in removing the foul air naturally 
accumulating at that point, it is nevertheless true that a thorough 
circulating system entirely effective in furnishing fresh air and 
from the outside, furnishes in itself a valuable method of ventilation, 
and brings it at once and continuously where both the work and 
the workmen most need it. 

To summarize, in brief compass, what the foreman painter has a 
right to expect in the matter of shop heating and ventilation is 
to urge the inqjortance of furnishing ample heat to the shop at a 
location along the wall, and suflicienlly close to the floor to give- 
thorough and uniform distribution of dry heat throughout the entire 
shop from floor to ceiling at a very low air velocity and with a re- 
circulating system entirely effective in furnishing fresh air and 
plenty of ventilatioti. 

The installation of such a system wiil mark the dis:i|)pearance of 
ninny (lifticulties confronting not a few painters at tile present time. 

Investigate Your Tran.sfcrs. 



"Considerate people upon the busy lines of traffic will appreciate 
how much a conductor has to do in the taking of fares, making of 
change, answering questions and seeing that the car is not in mo- 
tion when passengers are getting on or off. Rapiil work is called for 
and the receiving conductor has too much to do to explain and 
convince a skeptical passenger. A person when getting a transfer 
should examine it to see that it is right, just as he does his change 
en the car or wherever else he may be dealing. It is plain why 
incorrect transfers cannot he accepted, and it is a simple matter to 
see that no mistake has been made so far as you arc concerned. 1 1 
is (o your own interest and a great accominodation to the company," 
—Extract from Detroit United Weekly, Issued by Detroit United Ry 

The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co, has installed a new dynanio and 
engine, with a capacity of 4.500 aniperc, in il^ lliinl .Ave, povvir 
house. 



•A pftp*T rMi#I lH*fore th«* thirty-fourth nnnuni convention of MnMler 
iiir i.t..! i,..,,.n...iK., T'.-ilntrrK' Auoelndon. ChleaRO, 8cpt, 8-II, 1900 



The Westinghoiise l'"lectrie & Manufacturing Co. has purchased a 
controlling interest in the Lackawanna &■ Wyoming Valley Rapid 
Tranist Co., paying therefor alxiut $6,000,000. Of this amount 
$4,000,000 was taken from the company's treasury and the rest was* 
borrowed at 6 per cent on notes purchased by Kiilin, l.oeb & Co. 



.u 



STREET RAILWAY RE\IK\\ 



(Vol. XIV, No. 



Simple Oiling System. 

Mr. VVilliani K, Kiiovvltoii. chief engineer of the I'onliinil (Me. ) 
Railroad Co., has devised and has been using for over fonr years a 
very simple yet eflfeclive system for carrying oil to llie engine U-ar- 
ings at the central power house of the company. The system was 
devised with the end in view of avoiding the use of auxiliary pumps 
for lifting the oil sudi as are required with any gravity or com- 
pressed air automatic lubricating apparatus. 

The salient feature of the method is thus tersely slated by Mr. 
Knowlton : "We took a piece of heavy iron pipe about I'A ft. in 
diameter and alxJut 7 ft. long. We capped it at both ends and stood 
it on end for our oil pressure lank. Then to get the pressure, we 
merely connected the bottom of this oil pressure tank to the city 
water main." 

The general layout of the system is indicated in the diagram 
riic oil in the pressure tank floats on a stratum of water, tlic 
water coming from the main at about .70 lb. pressure. The water 
forces the oil up through the feed pipe leading from the top of 
the tank to the engine room above and to the bearings of the several 
engine units. The oil drips from the engines arc collected in drip 
pans and flow by gravity to the oil filler, from which the filtered oil 
flows by gravity into the open tank for storing the filtered oil. 
From the bottom of this filtered oil tank, a connection leads to the 
top of the pressure lank previously mentioned. When the water in 



The Economical I'se of Coal.* 









T* S^C^^^" ^00/^ ^£. 00^ z f^ri. 



\ 









s= 



O/:. 






^/Z /^/i.T£-/? 









DIA(3RA.M (IF (III.IN'G SYSTEM. 

the pressure tank has risen sufficiently to force nearly all llie oil 
ihetefrom, the connection to the water main is closed, and a valve 
is opened giving connection to the suction of one of the condenser 
pumps, that pump being used which happens to be working at the 
time. This action draws the water from the Ixittom of the pres- 
sure tank and at the same time draws filtered oil into the top of 
the pressure tank from the filtered oil storage tank. 

The only attention required by the apparatus is that the level of 
the water in the pressure tank be watched to prevent the supply of 
oil from becoming exhausted and the water from rising into the 
oil piping system. This is not a serious task. A glass gage shows 
the level of water at all times, but in daily operation it is the cus- 
tom to replenish the supply at regular stated intervals. With the 
apparatus in use it liecomes necessary to do this about every two 
hours. Knowing the supply of oil required, it would be an easy 
matter to so proportion the size of the tanks as to make this inter- 
val any length of titiie desired. If the tanks are made large 
enough, replenishing would not be necessary more often than once 
a day. The time required to draw the water from the bottom of 
the tank is not over two or three minutes. Losses of oil by evapora- 
tion and waste are replenished by pouring new oil into the filtered 
oil tank. The company is now installing a set of tanks of sufficient 
capacity to run all day without refilling. 

The entire apparatus coinplcte did not cost over $20, and for four 
years has successfully performed the work of an automatic gravity 
or compressed air system that would have cost from $1,500 to 
$2,000 to install. Moreover, there are no pumps of any kind re- 
quired other than the condenser pump, which, of course, is a neces- 
sary part of the station equipment, and is not an extra charge 
against the oiling system. Mr. Knowlton states that if the city 
water main fails for any reason, the Iiottom of the pressure tank 
can be connected direct to the boiler feed supply with equally as 
good results. 



When wc consider the .-iclual use of coal in a power station we 
are faced by two propositions; first, how to use coal economically, 
and, second, how to use the power obtained from that coal so that 
less coal may be needed in the furnaces. There are thus really two 
problems connected with the moilern power stations. The first 
is the economical consumption of coal and relates almost entirely 
to the furnaces of the boiler plant. The second, which deals with 
the economical development and use of power, relates entirely to 
the feed water supply and to the mechanism for generating and 
distributing power. 

In order to burn coal completely it is necessary that it should 
have an adequate supply of oxygen — that is, of air. The air must 
be brought into contact with every atom of the combustible; other- 
wise there will be a waste. Energy must therefore be expended in 
bringing the air to the coal. This energy will be a natural ex- 
penditure in case the air is brought through the grate bars and the 
furnace by means of a chimney. A certain amount of the heat of 
the coal will be expended in maintaining a hot column of gases 
in the chimney and thus in producing an inverted siphon elTect. 
The hotter air rushes in to fill what would otherwise be a par- 
tial vacuum in the chimney. 

.'\nother method of producing a draft is by means of a blower, 
which may be called the forced method. In this case steam is 
taken from the boiler to drive an engine connected with the 
blower. It will readily he seen that both cases demand an ex- 
penditure of heat, and it is often a serious question to decide 
between them. I have seen conditions where a low chimney and 
a good blower were vastly superior to a high chimney, hut 1 
have seen the reverse, and I am sure it must be difficult in some 
cases for an engineer to decide without a full knowledge of 
the conditions, just which method to use. With very volatile 
coal, demanding at times a rapid supply of air, a blower is 
lirobably the better. To give an idea of the waste involved in 
volatile coal without a blower, a practical example may be cited. 
Some years ago the government instructed one of our ships to 
take 600 tons of black diamond coal at Seattle in order to test it 
for steaming purposes. It was carried to sea, but found very 
inefficient. There was a beautiful torchlight froin the top of the 
smoke pipe, where the volatile gases had taken fire, and the 
ship was actually making seven knots upon a consumption of 
coal which ought to have given her ten. The blowers were 
started, with the idea of increasing the supply of air in the fur- 
naces. Immediately the flame disappeared from the top of the 
chimney and the ship increased her speed by two knots upon a 
lower consumption of coal. This demonstrated at once the need 
of a larger supply of air to consume the gaseous materials, and 
the consequent increased efficiency. 

The amount of air needed for the complete combustion of one 
pound of carbon is a little short of twelve pounds, and at 60° 
this occupies a space of .ibout 150 cu. ft.: that is. for every pound of 
carbon consumed we must furnish to the furnace 150 cu. ft. of 
cold air. Now it is almost impossible to burn a pound of coal 
with anything like the theoretical volume required by it. If we 
measure the amount of air delivered mto furnaces, we find it 
varies from 200 to .^oo cu. ft. per pound of coal. This is prob 
ably due to the fact that a certain amount of air of dilution 
must be driven in with that which actually consumes the coal. 
The additional air thus passed through the grate is a very large 
loss, as it is heated up to the same temperature as the products 
of combustion and it usually passes out of the boiler at a tempera- 
ture of about 600°. Various inventions have been devised to re- 
gain some ■ of this lost heat, but they involve either the sacri- 
fice of the dn-xft or else the addition of a blower to the plant. 
The method of introducing warm air, for instance, is interest- 
ing and sometimes effective. We find it in use for marine pur- 
poses. But there is one aspect of the introduction of warm air 
which is sometimes lo.st sight of. The hotter the air the greater 
volume occupied by one pound, and therefore the less actual air 
in each cubic foot. Consequently, if 200 cu. ft. of cold air is nec- 
essary for the complete combustion of one pound of coal, an in- 
crease of temperature to. say. 600° F.. would inake this volume 
400 cu. ft. more. Thus, a luuch larger expenditure of energy is 



•Alwtract of a talk by Professor Ira N. Hollis. of Harvard College. 
before ttie New England Street Railway Club. September 34th, 1013. 



Jan. -•o. iQC+l 



STREET RA1L\\A^■ KKNTl'W. 



35 



required to drive it tlirough the furnaces. This has been the 
cause of the faihire of many hot-air systems for boilers. 

In designing boilers engineers have to remember that one of 
the chief causes of e.xpense is the lack of a proper supply of air 
at the right instant. If bituminous coal is used and there is a 
large amount of volatile gases which burn suddenly or escape 
up the chimney, we must have some automatic device for in- 
creasing instantly the supply of air. If the normal rate of air 
supply goes on. then the gases are lost. On the other hand, 
alter the volatile gases have been consumed, and there is nothing 
but pure carbon left, the r.tte at which the air enters the furnace 
should be decreased below normal. Otherwise we have too much 
air instead of too little. What this comes to is that it is diffi- 
cult to adjust the supply of air to the supply of coal with the 
ordinary types of furnaces. This has led to a number of in- 
ventions for handling the coal. The most successful of these are 
l)a>ed simply upon a regular supply of coal and air. They are 
the ordinary types of underfed stokers, traveling grates and mov- 
ing grates, by which the coal is supposed to be fed in at just 
the same rate as the supply of air can be given to it. Often 
these devices are more expensive to maintain than the additional 
cost lost by the average fireman who has only the plain grate. 
.•\s a station has to be run upon a money basis, the money ex- 
pended in the course of the year is the measure of success, and 
consequently the repair bill as well as the coal bill nnist be kept 
down. Where there are a large number of boilers and it pays 
to keep a skilled man busy repairing, there is no doubt of the 
advantages possessed by some of the patent grates. In my 
own belief much would be gained by the better training of fire- 
men and a stricter license law. Of course a better trained man 
would demand more pay, and I think he ought to have it. 

In case coal is burned with the highest economy there' is 
still great room for improvement in a power station. One pound 
of ordinary coal is capable of giving out between 14.000 and 
15,000 heat units, and of this less than une-tenth is realized in 
the power given out. The rest is waste: so that, as a matter of 
fact, when a ton of coal is burned, less than the heat of 200 
l«3unds is actually utilized. It has already been explained that 
part of the waste heat is necessarily employed in producing a 
draft. .Another part of it is radiated off to the atmosphere l)e- 
fore steam is generated. Still another part goes into the ash- 
pan with the ashes and clinker. The steam generated in the 
boiler represents from six to seven-tenths of the heat of the coal 
and an enormous amount of it is lost in the engine. In practice 
wc have not even begun to obtain economy in the expenditure of 
the heat derived from coal. The engine wastes vastly more than 
it utilizes, and here great improvements may be effected. 

Exhaust steam carries away the bulk of the loss, some of 
which can be recaptured by what is now known as an exhaust 
heater, placed in the path of ibe steam on its way from the 
cylinder to the condenser. .A well-appointed power station will 
always have thfs form of heater and also another heater in 
scries with it. The second utilizes the exhaust steam from the 
auxiliary engines, such as the feed pump and the air pump. A 
third heater is sometimes placed in the base of the smoke pipe 
to lift the feed water to a still higher temperature. Tliis is 
known as the economizer, and is of great use in luany power 
stations. It seems to me that an economizer is of questionable 
benefit where it is designed for a high power but used normally 
for low power, as is the case with many lighting stations. One 
example that I have in mind is a station with 4,000 h. p. and an 
economizer ricsigned for the full capacity of the boilers. As the 
engines are ordinarily run at only 600 or 700 h. p., the gain is 
not sufficient to warrant the first cost and care required. Where, 
however, a station is run at something near its normal capacity, 
the cane is different, as slated aliove. 

One of the most important considerations is to get the steam 
from the l>oilcr into the cylinder with a minimum of condensa- 
tion. Wc know that if a pfiund of steam leaves the boiler and 
one-fourlh of it is condensed before it gels to work, we have a 
Mrrioui loss. The steam jacket i\ intended to prevent part of 
lhi« condensation, but there are conditions under which a steam 
jacket is not of great advantage It wonlrj pay better to superheat 
the steam lieforc it leaves the boiler at least 100°, so that it may 
'■ntcr the cylinder wilhoul initial condeniatinn and exliauvl witb- 
•lut moisture. The Cjermans have done more with superheating 



live ^l^.aln liian we, as wu ha\'e onl> recently uiuleruiken lo super- 
heat to any extent. The improved oils have made it possible to 
carry steam at from 75° to 150° above the temperature of satura- 
tion, although I am persuaded that 100° is perhaps the limit under 
ordinary circumstances. As stated above, there are conditions 
under which the steam jacket is ot no use whatever, particularly 
if it supplies too much heat lo the steam during its passage 
through the cylinders. The ideal condition would seem lo me 
to be superheated steam for the high-pressure cylinder, with 
a rehcaler between the various cylinders into which the steam 
flows in doing its work. With a compound engine thai would 
be one rcheatcr. With a iriple-e.xpansion engine it would mean 
two reheaters. The object of the rehealcr should be lo superheat 
the steam before its entrance into the succeeding cylinder, and the 
praclicable maximum economy would be obtained by having the 
steam leaving the last cylinder just saturated. If it is super- 
heated, too much heal is carried into the condenser; if damp, 
too much heal is lost in the cylinder. 

It does not seem to me that enough nilcntion is paid in the 
ordinary power station to the study of the conditions under 
which coal is burned. In case of a large station or number of 
stations, it would pay lo have a careful daily examination of the 
products nf combustion, as a check upon the firemen. A chem- 
ical analysis would show the amount uf carbonic gas and air 
of dilution discharged into the chimney, and a careful study 
of the^c could not fail to inform the engnieer in charge of a sta- 
tion. The amiiiuii of nuiisluru in the steam should also be 
examined d-aily. it the steam is superheated, a theriuomeler is 
sufficient to disclose just what is happening. It would also be of 
advantage lo have a regular examination of the kind of coal used 
as a means of discovering that which is best adapted to the 
furnaces and boilers in use Some varieties are very hard to burn 
at all, especially if lliey have weathered a long lime. With an- 
thracite coal which has been exposed 10 the atmosphere, a large 
amount of moisture is usually absorbed, and the external sur- 
face is so acted upon that it is likely lo require a very high 
teniperalure for complete conilnisliim. The bituminous coals un- 
doubtedly sufl^er by the escape of volatile gases. No doubt it is 
difficult for power stations to obtain the same quality of coal 
throughout the year, and wc have seen during the past win- 
ter whal a coal strike lueans to all of our large cities. 

-■Mlhough we have what seems to be an almost limitless supply 
in our enormous superficial area of coal deposits, yel corpora- 
tions should if possible find the most economical means of burn- 
ing fuel. It is not only to the interest of the country, but it is 
to their interest as a means of paying larger dividends. 



Discussion. 



Mr. Haker, nf [he I'.nsinn I'.levated Railway; I am much 
pleased with llie remarks ni;i(le by Professor Mollis. Some of his 
Malements were interesting to nie from the fact lli.il our pur- 
chasing agent is here tonight. The professor st.ited that it 
would take him two weeks to find out how to burn a certain 
kind of coal. I lak-' it he has reference to such coal as our peo- 
ple luircliased last winter, or what is kndwii .is .Admiralty siuall 
roal. Of course, liiere ;ir<' limes wliiii llie purchasing agent 
C'lniiiii have any choice in tin in;ill.i-, hni iIium' li;iving to do 
with the purchasing of coal ■-hould slnp and eniisider that an 
engineer or an e,\pert fireman cannot gel the best results out 
'■f his fuel where the same is frequently being changed, or if 
it is mixed in all kinds of proportions; consequently the result 
is poor efficiency and possibly at limes low steam. 

In regard to burning coal, the professor slates, as I reniem. 
ber, that iheoretically 150 cu. ft, of air per pound of coal is re- 
(piired, while in actual practice double that .•iinount is some- 
times userl. In hurning the coal llie .ininnul* seems to be gov- 
erned by the demand for steam, .iinl In regulate the .iniouiil 
burned as ikt ihe.demanrl for steam M cieeurs In iiu- ih:il the 
air admitleil. either by force or natuf.-il drafi, shnnl.l lie :i Kn\ 
eriiing factor, although it is true that If the air sii|)ply is shut 
off and fresh coal is on the fire we are li.ible In Inse ;i |i.nl nf 
the combuslible matter, depending ninre nr Irs, nn (I,,, vnlalile 
mailer contained in the coal. So 1 lielie\e the pinper method of 
burning coal in r.iilroad practice, or where the load is llnetii- 
aling, is to keep the fire at a nearly even ihiekiR-ss. this (lc'|)end- 



36 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV, No. i. 



ing somewhat on tlic- kind of coal and air pressure, regulating 
the fire hy the amount of air admitted. This may be done by 
automatic dampers controlled hy the steam pressure. In rail- 
way and electric light power stations the load is more or less 
thictn.iting. especially so in small plants. In large plants or sys- 
tems the load factor in the engine is fairly steady, for the reason 
that one or more engines can be shut down or started up, as 
the case may require, and we expect to run our engines under 
fairly economical conditions. This, however, at certain times 
in the day. leaves us with more or less boilers on the line that 
.ire not needed for light load. In this case we do not take the 
boilers off the line, but bank the fires in some cases, and in others 
we give the furn.ices less air, thus reducing the rate of com- 
bustion per square foot of grate surface. 

In reference to the economizers, I take it the professor docs 
not approve of them in railway work. Here I do not agree with 
him, but believe in a liberal-sized economizer for power-station 
work. I do not, however, recommend putting them in large 
enough for our maximum capacity or the peak of the load, as I 
would under conditions where the load is constant, as in flour 
mills, cotton mills, etc. I have reason to believe that under fair 
conditions economizers will last ten or twelve years with very 
little repairing and cost for maintenance. When some of our 
first economizers were installed primary heaters were not used 
and we had some trouble from sweating of tubes which un- 
doubtedly caused rapid deterioration. Five, seven, and eight 
years ago we installed economizers in connection with primary 
heaters. These heaters gave us a temperature of ioo° or more, 
and then passing the water through the economizers we obtained 
an average temperature of 220°. 

Regarding heating the water with auxiliary heaters, taking the 
steam from the steam pump, condensers, etc., we found by some 
quite extensive tests that by using this steam in our low-pressure 
cvlinder we obtained equally as good if not better results than 
where we put in secondary steam heaters, as 111° of heat gained 
in the economizer saves us 10 per cent of boilers and the main- 
tenance on same as well as the cost of labor to operate them. I 
would therefore maintain that in a great many cases econo- 
mizers are money savers, and if properly handled will pay a good 
dividend on the investment. 

A Member: You mentioned the case of a steamship in which 
they used black diamond coal. I wonder if instead of putting on 
the blower,, they would not have got better results by lengthening 
out the stack, and possibly enlarging the hatches a little. Would 
it not be possible for any given conditions to design a stack that 
would give any result that would be obtainable by a blower? 

Professor Hollis: I think it would be. My last service in the 
navy was to assist in proving that we could put a loo-ft. stack 
upon a steamship without capsizing her. One hundred feet is 
about the limit, and beyond that, of course, you are obliged to 
resort to blowers to get draft and reserve power. I think with 
black diamond coal, where the quantities of volatile matter are 
so large, that you can deal with that problem by limiting the 
amount of coal to be hurried per square foot of grate. That is 
the way I should attack that problem. 

It is astonishing to find how mud; we waste in our power 
stations. The "L" road has a number of stations with first-rate 
methods of firing and handling coal, and yet I think I could gather 
up a pound of coal dirt at my house from the smoke of its chimney. 
showing that a high chimney is not sufficient to deal with the 
subject adequately. The draft in any chimney is' dependent to 
some extent upon the state of the barometer and the weather. If 
you have a bright, clear, cool day, and a temperature around 600° 
in the chimney, you will have a good draft and can burn coal 
economically. On the other hand, if the atmosphere is heavy 
you cannot burn the coal well. 

There is another* question which Mr, Baker raised, whether 
it was better, when the plant shuts partially down, to keep steam 
on a large number of boilers, burned very moderately, or to 
shut down some and keep steam on the others, with some forcing 
of the fires. Without a full solution of th.at. I do not think a 
power station can be run with the highest intelligence. 

Mr. Baker : I would like to say a word about rapid combustion. 
If we had less of it the professor would have less dirt on his 
house from our chimneys. I would like to ask what he thinks is 
the most economical, 5 pounds per sq. ft., or 25. or 60, 



Mr, Conam : I have read somewhere that the amount of car- 
bon dust thrown off from a chimney is a very small per cent of 
the amount of coal burned. Do you know anything about patent 
combustion powders in relation to their use in burning cinders? One 
consists mostly of slacked lime. You mix it with the cinders and 
water. They say it makes a very good fire. 

Professor Mollis: A question was once asked of a student, 
what is polarized light? He answered it by saying: "Polarized 
light, as I understand it, is very little understood." I think I 
am pretty much in the same boat with these combustion powders. 

In reference to the 'dirt that comes out of a chimney, the dirt is 
only an indication of loss. .\s a matter of fact, the loss of smoke 
is probably less than I per cent. The volatile gases must escape 
in the smoke and cause considerable loss. .Another point is 
with regard to smoke prevention. Of course smoke prevention 
is not necessarily economy of coal. It can, however, be made 
to promote the economical use of coal because there is less smoke 
where there is careful firing. Some firemen will make little 
smoke, and that indicates that the gases are being consumed in 
the furnace. Smoke prevention does not seem to have been ac- 
complished at present, 

A Member: I should like to be enlightened upon the question 
of the deterioration of coal due to the weather, I have always 
thought it was due to the distilling out of the volatile matter, 
leaving nothing but carbon, and that anthracite coal, containing so 
little volatile matter, would not deteriorate so much as bitumin- 
ous coal. 

Professor Hollis: One of the reasons is that anthracite absorbs 
.1 great deal more moisture than it is usually credited with, and 
that which wc attribute to the weather may be the slow ab- 
sorption of oxygen, 

Mr, Moultrop, of the Edison Electric Light Company: In using 
patent stokers in large power stations there is no question but 
what the repair bill is pretty big and there are some other dis- 
advantages, but there is a big advantage in the freedom from 
labor troubles. It requires a better grade of men to handle these 
stokers, and that is something the station managers do not take 
sufficiently into account. With the stoker installation you want a 
pretty good class of men. 

Professor Hollis: There is another question of economy, and 
that is superheated steam. Twenty years ago it was impossible to 
use it on account of the poor oil. With the improvement in the 
oil the value of superheated steam has been increased. 

Mr. Baker : One of our engines was put in under a guarantee 
and did not meet it. On the second test the reheater coils were 
cut out and it did better than the guarantee. We do not steam- 
jacket our cylinders any more. I don't believe, for railwa.v work, 
it would pay to jacket them, 

Mr. Moultrop: Most of our engines were cquipjied with re- 
lieaters, but we cut them off. The matter of repairs seems to be 
a big one with us. We have made some tests with regard to the 
efficiency of them, and the results have indicated that we will 
get better economy to dispense with reheaters between the cyl- 
inders, use reheated steam, and if possible have enough super- 
heated steam go into the cylinder so that the exhaust comes out 
dry. 

Professor Hollis: I think that is so. I found at the Cam- 
bridge electric light station that the reheaters gave a gain of 10 
per cent. On the other hand, four years ago I had occasion to test 
a triple-expansion engine which ha.:l reheaters. We had jackets 
on all the cylinders. I tried the engine with steam on all the 
jackets and reheaters, and we got a horse power on 12.09 Ih. of 
steam. Then we cut the steam off of all the jackets and the re- 
heaters and we got a horse power on 12.1 lb. and we were con- 
vinced that the jackets did not work well. Then we tried them 
with no steam on the high-pressure jacket and simply steam 
on the intermediate jacket and the first reheater. and we got a 
horse power on ii..l lb. of steam. I think there is very great 
danger of overdoing the matter of jackets and reheaters. 



• The Indianapolis & Northwestern Traction Co. on December i8th 
inaugurated a freight and express service between Indianapolis and 
La Fayette. Ind.. new special cars being employed for the purpose. 
During the first 15 hours the new line, through the agent. Mr. E. 
B. Cuyler. handled and shipped 7,400 lb. of freight and express 
matfer. 



Rochester & Eastern Rapid Ry. 



Route — Distance Tributary Populatitm — Prospective Earnings — Construction, Equipment and 

Power Plant. 



The Roclusler & Eastern Rapid Ry. is a liigh sixeil electric in- 
teriirlian operating upon its private right of way and serving the 
prosperous communities between the Genesee valley and Canan- 
daigua, Seneca and Cayuga Lakes. This route includes a number 
of prosperous cities, villages and fertile farming lands and is, in 
many respects, the finest country in Western New York. The road 
starts at the Four Corners in the center of Rochester and continues 
eastwardly over the tracks of the Rochester Railway Co. to the 
city limits, and from this point to the hamlet known as Twelve 
Corners the line is located upon the northerly side of Monroe .Ave, 



entirely rebuilt with 73-lb. girder rail and provided with new over- 
bead equipment. The latter company is owned and controlled by 
the Rochester & Eastern which also has its own franchise through 
the village. 
The urban population served is as follows: 

Rochester 1 75,000 

Twelve Corners 200 

Pittsford 1 ,000 

Eairport 2,500 

HusbnclTs Basin 200 




INTKRIOK OF I'flSVKR ItOfSK, SHOWING WIM.IA.MS VKIflU A I, K.NCI.VK AM) WlCSTINOlll It'SlO Id il\ HI KS ANIl K.XCJITKUS. 

.1 macadamized roadway. A short distance cast of the Twelve Victor ,Soo 

Ccrncri the hue passes upon private right of way which varies East Victor jot> 

from 60 to 100 ft. in width. The private right of way is in all cases West Fnrmington 50 

wide enough for double track and is continuous, except for a short Canandaigua 7,30O 

diiiancc near and in the village of Pitlsforfl, the hamlet of Bush- Seneca Castle 230 

ncH's Basin, the village of Canandaigua and the city of Geneva. Dunkel's Corners 40 

I he present terminus of the route is Seneca Lake, A short distance Geneva 1 1,500 

we't of I'itisford the line passes over the Erie Canal on a through 

pin connected steel truss bridge u.? ft, long on concrete abulnu-uts. Tolal urli:ui popul.itinii. ii)g,04a 

.S'ear Ihi't point it also passes under the tracks of the New York To this must be added the pn|Mil:ilioii n\ tin- town-, (lowiiships) 

' enlral Railroad through a concrete under crossing with complete passed through exclusive of villages, etc., mentioned above wliicli 

natural drainage. It also passes under the steel bridge of the Wot gives. a total interurban population of 20,600, which, added to the 

Shore Ry. in I'itisford. The road runs through Canandaigua over urban popuhlion makes ih;' population directly trilmlary In the 

the tracks of the Ontario Light & Traction C.n. which hive been road .?l9,fi.in. In atl lilinn lo this ilief is n pt^]>nhlli'Hl ui H(xx> 



38 



STREET KAII.WAV Ri:\ li:\\ 



IV. 



XIV, Nu 



located in the various villages around Canandaigtin I.akc. This 
Jake i* iraviT'^ed by twn Imits and is a main artery of travel during 



\ 




1 


iM| 


WE^^L „_kJS3H 



the season of navigation. TlKrc arc aliout 450 summer cottages 
on the shores of this lake In addition to tliis there is a large 



|)er capita tacli year. The following amoinils are given as per 
capita annual earnings of the roads named upon the basis here 
indicated 

Uochester & Sodus I! ly Railroad Co $500 

Detroit, Ypsilanti. Ann Arbor & Jackson Railway Co 4.97 

Detroit United Ry. ( Detroit & Pcintiac line) 5.27 

Detroit & I'ort Huron Shore Line Ry. (Detroit & Mt. Qcmcns 

line ) 6.21 

It ^.:eIns conservative therefore to estimate the earnings of the 
Rochester & Eastern at $3.00 per capita for passenger service exclu- 
sive of its freight and express earnings. It is believed, however, 
that after the road has been miming a sufficient time to develop 
its normal patronage its passenger earnings will exceed this figure. 
Taking the population at 1,000 per mile (,?8 less than shown) and 
the passenger earnings at $5 per capita gives: 

Annual passenger earnii>gs per mile $ 5,000 

Total annual passenger earnings 235,000 

Freight earnings. $100 per day for .100 days... .?o,ooo 

Total gross earnings 365,000 

Less operating expenses, 55 per cent. ... 145,000 

Net income 1 jo,ooo 

Fixed-charges 5 per cent on $1,500,000 bonds 75,000 

Left for sinking fund, stock dividend, etc 43,000 

This statement shows at least that the fixed charges are amply 
.secured, and the earnings of the line between Rochester and Canan- 
dalgiia which has In'en opened fi>r infiic since Oct. 15. iqo.?, has 







^" "",iWOC=r-.K«-r = »» '«■'-"=' ■ 


'^^-rmzmr^ m^^to ^ p^ ^ ■ u-w jk v. ■ U 


H wm WHS 


mm WM mm ^ 




^iTTsrono 

VICTOW 


CANAH 

< INTeRUI»eAN > SKMKCA 


OAI«U* 
CABTLE 
KVA 




m k&: 








■ .- ■ 




1 '■^^ 


, i,.-n«^. .-._ . 1 




^ - - 




. .. - . - - - __ ; 



STAND.\RD PASSENGER Ou.\cll 



tributary population by way of Seneca Lake and also by way of the 
Geneva. Waterloo, Seneca Falls & Cayuga Lake Electric Ry. This 
indirectly tributary population to the Rochester and Eastern aggre- 
gates about 100,000. 

The total mileage of the Rochester & Eastern i> 51.55 nnles. in- 
cluding 2!4 miles in the city of Rochester over which the company 
operates its cars. Tlie distance between Rochester and Geneva is 
45.3 miles via the Rochester & Eastern and 52 miles via the New- 
York Central, and the electric line carries its passengers into the 
heart of Rochester while the New York Central depot is 15 minutes 
ride from the Four Corners. The amount of travel through this 
region is indicated by the fact that the New York Central runs 22 
passenger trains per day through Canandaigua six of ihcni starting 
from that village. 

Estimate of Earnings. 

Perhaps the best way to forecast the earning power of an electric 
railway is to take the population directly contributory along the line 
but exclusive of the population c.f the terminal city, divide it 03 
the total mileage and multiply this amount by the sum that experi- 
ence .shows will be expended per capita per annum for railway 
fares and freight and express service. Proceeding by ihi^ method 
we have the following: 

Direct poindation 219,640 

Less population of Rochester 175.000 

Mileage from Rochester to Geneva 43 

Direct population per mile exclusive of Rochester 1.038 

Exi)erience has shown that a population figured in this manner 
will pay for electric railway passenger service from $4.00 to $6.50 



been more than satisf,actory to the owners and fully justifies their 
estimates of the c:irning capacity of the road. 




i;uu.i;i; iichj.m. 



Jan. 20. 1904.1 



STREET RAILWAY RE\ lEW, 



39 



Cliaracter of Construction. 
As stated before the road is built on private right of way averag- 
ing 66 ft. in width which has been bought outright in fee simple at 
an approximate cost of Sioo.oco. The track is of 70-lb. T-rail of 
.\. S. C. E. section joined with six-bolt splice bar. It is laid on 
cedar ties on tangents and yellow and white oak on curves, the 



are pin connected steel trusses. There are also five railroad crossings 
with a separation of grade with steel bridges on concrete abutments. 
.\1I bridges are designed for a rolling load consisting of a train 
with 20,000 lb. per axle on a 6 ft. 3 in. wheel base. 26 ft. center to 
center of trucks; also a dead load of 800 lb. per lineal foot with an 
impact of 80 per cent. AW culverts with over 4 ft. openings in the 




\IKW liF I'OWKK PL.\.NT ,\.\n (WR BARNS. 



ties I>cing spaced 2 ft. between centers and on 14-in. centers on 
bridges. Rails are bonded with No. 000 "Protected" bonds, 8 in. 
long and with J4-'"- terminals expanded in hand drilled holes by a 
hydraulic press, after the standard practice of the Mayer & Eng- 
lund Co. Steel guard rails are placed on all bridges, curves 
and outside of switches. The road is ballasted with gravel with a 
minimum of 6 in. beneath the ties. This gravel is secured from 



clear arc concrete arches and those with loss than 4 ft. are of extra 
heavy cast iron pipe. The drains arc of extra heavy vitrified fire 
clay sewer pipe. 

Overhead Equipnicnt. 

The poles are of cedar, 7 in. at the top and from 30 to 50 ft. in 
length. Extra heavy yellow pine cross arms are used with gal- 




TKANSVKR8K SKCPION TIinOffiH POVVICR TlOfSI';. 



Irallasl pin aggregating 1.5 acres which are owned by the comi)auy. 
'I he pin contain sutficicnl ballast to last the road for all linu-. The 
roadbed is 14 fl. wide on embankments with sIojk's of I'/i to 1 anri is 
20 ft. in cuti, the slopes Iwing the same. 

Bridges and Culvert^ 

The bridges are all l)uilt with steel on concrete almlmenls, there 
licing 16 l)elween K/jchesler and Geneva, exclu.sive of (hose for 
<tcam railroad crosiings. I wo of the bridges are 1.J.1 fi. long and 



vanized iron braces. The Iransnussicm Hue is of stranded aluminum 
carried on Locke glass insulators with extra long |)araflined oak pins 
and special galvanized ridge iron. The feeder is also stranded 
alnminnm e(|uivalenl to 500,000 and 400,000 c. m. copper. The trol- 
ley wire is No. 0000 grooved cop|K-r carried on 8-ft. 6-in. brackets 
with flexible connection, by means of Oliici Hrass Co. hangers and 
clamps. The trolley is lapped lo the feeder every half mile. The 
ilislributing system is disignerl Id dislribule 450 amperes each way 
from each Mib ■-Inliiiii, In villages where rrcpiired, span wire con- 



40 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV, No. i. 



struclion is ii-od wiili j id-iii. fc'lvniX'^eil iron stranded span wire 
A telephone circuit is carried on the poles by means of lirackels 

with ]>orcol.iin insulators. 

Rolling Slock. 

Up to llie present time llic company has received six ii-ii. pas- 
senger coaches from the John Stephenson Co. ivhich are of the 
most modern type. They are double vcstibulcd and finished in 
mahogany with smoking comparlmeiu and toilet rooms. The up- 
holstering is of plush and they arc heated by electricity. There arc 
also under order eight more passenger coaches, six of them being 
45 ft. long which will be used for summer service. These are 
equipped with four G. E. 74 motors and ty|H> M control, and are 
of the same general style and finish as the former. The company 
also has two 50-ft. express cars and one 30-ft. construction and 
repair car. .\ll the cars are equipped with telephones, electric lights 
and other modern appliances. For keeping the tracks clear of snow 
a Ruggles patent double action high speed snow plow has been 
ordered from the Pcckham Manufacturing Co. The cars are mounted 
on extra heavy high speed M. C. B. trucks, Barney & Smith class 
F type, with s!^-in. axles and steel-tired wheels. Westinghousc 
straight air brakes arc used with motor driven air pump on each 
equipment. The long cars are equipped with four G. E.-7.1 motors. 
L-4 controllers. 

Power bfouse. 

The power plant is situated at the foot cfl Main St. in Canan- 
daigua where the company has two buildings. One of the buildings 
is II- ft. 8 in. X 65 ft. 9 in. and 44 ft. extreme height. It contains 




S\\ lTi|lni).\Kli .\T IMW I';K HiJlSK. 

transformer tower and for the entrance of the overhead wires into 
the building. The boiler room has an extension built of concrete 




FLOOR PLAN OF CAR BARN. 

an engine room and boiler room separated by an i8-in. party wall. the full length of the room used as a coal vault. The foundations 

A wing 15 ft. 6 in. x 39 ft. 5 in. off the engine room is used for a of the building are of concrete, the walls of pressed brick, averaging 



. - ^-o' ^-^ - 




ar^iM=ihM--^ 



TR.VNSVERSK SECTION THROl'GH C.\R B.\RN. 



Jan. 20, igo+l 



STREET RAILWAY RE\IE\V. 



41 



l8 in. thick, and the floors are steel ami concrete throughout. The 
roof is of four-ply felt with tar and gravel filling and is supported 
on steel trusses. 

The engine room contains two Williams vertical cross compound 
engines 22 and 43 in. x 32 in. stroke built by the Quincy Engine 
Works, of Quincy, 111. They are rated at 1,050 h. p. running at 150 
r. p. m. with 150 lb. initial steam pressure and exhausting into 




VICTOR Sl"B-ST.\TIOX 

a pressure of zVi lb. absolute. These engines are direct connected 
to two 650-kw. Westinghouse alternators of the revolving field type. 
.Ml of the electrical apparatus of the power hou!»e was furnished 
by the Westinghouse company. The engine room equipment also 
includes two rotary converters of 300-kw. capacity; four 500-kw. 
transformers placed in the basement of the transformer tower, and 
two Westmghouse compound automatic engines 9 
and 15 in. by 9 in. stroke, direct connected to two 
37'X kw., 125 volt d. c. generators used for exciting 
the main generators. 

There will l)e a nine paTiel switchboard containing 
two generator panels, one transformer panel, two 
a. c. rotary converter panels, two d. c. rotary con- 
verter panels, one d. c. two-circuit feeder panel and 
one double exciter panel. The engine room is 
spanned by a traveling crane 36 ft. 3 in. span and 32 
ft. lift which travels on runways in the walls the 
length of the building. 

There arc three Cahall horizontal sectional water 
tube boilers aggregating 1,124 h. p., built by the .Quit- 
man & Taylor Co., of Mansfield. O. These contain 
11,240 sq. ft. of heating surface and 227.43 sq. ft. 
of grate surface. These boilers are tested to carry 
225 lb. steam pressure if desired. Tliere is a Barag- 
wanath horizontal water tube type feed water 
heater 36 in. x 14 ft. 6 in., a Green fuel economizer 
containing 32 sections of to tubes, each tube being 
^ ft. long by 4 9-16 in. diameter, giving a heating 
surface of 3,840 sq. ft., two blower fans 85 in. in 
diameter made by the New York Blower Co. The 
latter arc full housed and use 40,000 cu. ft. of air per 
minute at 250 r. p. m. They arc driven by two cen- 
tral vertical engines of 16 h. p. each. 

The condensing apparatus consists of one 24-in. 
elevated cone condenser of the jet type with a 
capacity of 60,000 lb. of steam per hour, one rotative 
dry v-acuum pump and one horizontal duplex direct 
uCting circulating pump. There are two 8-in. hori- 
zontal receiver separators made by the Harrison Safety lioilcr Works 
of Philadelphia, and two boiler feed pumps, one duplex fire pump of 
the plunger and ring pattern with a capacity of fioo gallons per 
minute at a steam pressure of 125 lb., and one duplex high pressure 
automatic pump and receiver. The steam piping was furnished by 
W. T. HitcDx & Co., of New York, and the slack which is of Vii in. 
iron, 5 ft. 9 in. in diameter and 24 ft. long was furnished by the 
New York Central Iron Works Co., of Geneva, N. Y. 

Car Barn and Shops. 

The other one of the buildings mentioned above contains the car 
houvr and ^hops and t^ 169 ft. 6 in. by 109 ft. 10 in and 27 ft. 4 in. 



extreme height. This building is of pressed brick with concrete 
foundations, steel beams, channels and columns being used through- 
out for support. The roof is a four-ply wool felt with tar and gravel 
filling supported on steel trusses. The building is divided by a 
party wall into a car storage side 48 ft. 4 '"' w''lc and a shop side 
60 ft. wide. The former contains four tracks capable of storing 
12 large cars and the latter is devoted to repair shops, general sup- 
ply department and offices. Two tracks run through this part of 
the building, one leading direct to the repair shops where the machine 
tools are located, and the other over an inspection pit 156 ft. 6. in. 
oy 8 ft. 10 in. and 4 ft. 3'/$ in. deep, built of concrete. Over the 
inspection pit are two hand jxiwer traveling cranes on runways 
with a span of 24 ft. 8 in. and a lift of 16 ft. These arc used for 
raising car bodies from trucks and other heavy repair vvo.k. 

In one corner of the shop side of this building a space 24 x 32 ft. is 
cnclosctl liy a brick wall and is used for a blacksmith shop. The 
second story of this space is used as an armature winding room. 
The armatures are hoisted from the shop Hoor and carried into 
the armature room on traveling hoists. Another space on the shop 
side 63 ft. 8 in. by 32 ft. is also separated from the rest of the 
shop by a party wall and the ground floor is devoted to supply and 
store rooms, employes' waiting rooms and wash room, shop fore- 
man's office and train dispatcher's room. The second story of this 
space is devoted to the general offices of the company. There are 
five commodious offices of which the general auditing room is 
furnished with a fireproof vault and large voucher room. The offices 
are finished in yellow pine, natural finish. The shop tools arc oper- 
ated by a 15-h. p. compound-wound direct current motor of General 
Electric make, and the tools are made by the Niles-Bement-Pond 
Co., and are as follows : One 12-in. 6-ft. Niles engine lathe : one 
22-in. 14-ft. Niles engine lathe; one i6-in. shaper; one 14-in. Wash- 
Inirn drill; one .?6-in. x 4-in. grindstone; one 20-in. Whitney water 



7-0 -~~ i^^°f-7, 




lOOH I'l.AN Ol 



nut •SI'H-.'i'l'.VTIIIN. 



tool grinder; one No. i Niles, 100-ton hydrostatic wheel press; 
one l6-in. by 8-ft. patlcrn maker's lathe; one No. 4 power hack 
sasv and a ronipli-nioni nf drills, chucks, vises and miscellaneous tools. 



Sub-Stalinns 



The sub-stations are located along the line at I'llNlord, Victor 
and .Seneca Castle. Owing to their location in villages they have 
been designed for use as passenger and (rciglu stations as well as 
for electrical disLribuliou. They are hiiill wilh concrete foundations 
with brick walls and slate roofs. Ivicli station is .VJ ft. 8 in. wide 
by 45 ft. long over all. the height of the stalion part proper being 
IS ft. 8 in. and of the transformer tower 29 fl. I'.ai-h inril.iins a 



42 



STRr-:ET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV, No. 



»-aiting mum iS \ ij fi.. a baggage- room i8 x 12 ft., a ticket office 
14 ft. in. X 7 fl. and a rotary converter r<Kmi 20 ft. 6 in. x 2$ ft. 
The transformer tower for the entrance rtf the overhead wires is 
8 X 25 ft. lilach of these stations will contain two 300-kw. rotary 
converters, three 200-kw. static traiisforniers. three fuse switches 
and circuit breakers for 20,000 volts, three lighting arresters with 
choke coils and a switchboard. The latter consists of two a. c. 




SECTION TllROrOII VICTOR Srn-ST.\TION". 

rotary converter panels, one d. c. rotary converter panel and one 
double feeder panel. The Victor station is designed for the equip- 
ment just enumerated but until contemplated extensions are made 
only one rotary converter will be installed. Passenger stations of 
neat design built of either brick or wood arc located at all points 
along the line where needed in addition to the wailing rooms 
connected with each sub-.station. 

Rales of Fare. 

Tlie basis of cash fare rates is 2 cents per mile and of ticket 
rates I'A cents per mile. No tickets of any kind are sold by con- 
ductors except IOC-mile books. These books arc sold for the ac- 
commodation of passengers to jwints at which there are no ticket 
offices. In addition to these tickets arc monllily conimiitation tickets 




S\\ ri' 111:1 .AKI) AT I'lTTSlM iKI> .ST 1 ;-ST.\lh i\ 

of 54 rides, monthly school tickets of 46 rides and mileage lx)oks 
of 1,000 and 500, miles. 'ITie freight and express service has not 
yet been inaugurated but it is expected to be started during 
January. The portion of the road between Rochester and 
Canandaigua now in operation is run according to a regular 
schedule, there being 36 trains daily. 



Personnel. 

The officers and operating staff of the con>pany arc: President, 
W. B. Comstock, .Mpcna, Mich.; vice-president, A. L. Parker, 
Detroit, Mich.; secretary, W. A. Comstock, Canandaigua, N. Y. ; 
treasurer, Henry A. Ilaigh, Detroit, Mich.; chief engineer, V. W. 
Walker, Canandaigua, N. V.; general manager, J. II. Pardee, 
Canandaigua, N. Y. ; su|>erinlendcnt, VV. R. W. Griffin, Canandaigua, 
.v. Y. ; chief dispatcher. W. G. Park. Canandaigua, N. Y. ; auditor, 
li. E. Lentz. Canandaigua. N. Y. 



Los Angeles Notes. 

The street railway companies are making a determined fight 
against the ordinance recently passed by the city council, com- 
pelling the coinpanies to sprinkle their roadbeds and the street for 
two feet outside of the outer rails. After the ordinance went into 
effect the city ceased to sprinkle the tracks, and as a result the 
dust became so thick that many jxirsons preferred to walk rather 
than ride in the dust. Many protests were entered to the city 
council, and in order to bring the matter up in a formal way a 
representative from each of four companies owning tracks in the 
city has l)een arrested. I'urther. the city attorney .sought to secure 
an injunction against the Los .\ngeles" Railway Co. to prevent it 
from operating cars 011 Sevtnili St.. unless it sprinkled the tracks 



^ 



( ( ^SCOT 






/>i/iTro^^ 





.\RR.\NGIOMENT OF LOOT'S AT RACK TRACK. 

or laid the dust by some other means. The injunclion was not 
granted, and in ihc meantime, while other matters are being set- 
lied, ihe cily sprinkling wagons are out again keeping down the 
dust. 

Two sireet railway franchises will he offered for sale February 
isl. as requested by the Los Angeles Railway Co. One is for an 
extension of a franchise on Monte Vista St.. for a distance of 650 
fl. in a southerly direction. The teriu of the franchise is 40 years; 
l)ond, $1,000. 

'Hie second franchise is on Sixth St.. and is an outlet onto a 
private right of way to tlie Bimini Baths. Term. 37 years; bond, 
$5,000. 

Beginning January ist, the Pacific Electric Railway Co. took 
over the oi>eration of its East Ninth St. line, which has hitherto 
luen operated by the Los .Angeles Railway Co. Simultaneous with 
this action, the practice of issuing transfers from this line to all 
connecting lines of the Los Angeles Railway Co. was disconlinueil. 
The Pacific Electric Railway Co. now runs cars over this line and 
over the luain line to Pasadena, as far as Garvanza. 

.\ limit of 10 days is placed on all round-trip tickets' purchased 
from conductors or other agents of the Pacific Electric Railway 
Co. 

The Pacific Electric Railway Co. has completed rebuilding the 
road from Altadena to Rubio Canyon. The road is now standard 
gage the entire distance, and is double track as far as the mouth 



Jan. 20. iqc+l 



STREET RAILWAY RIA li:\\' 



43 



of the canyon. Cars have been fitted witli Westinghousc magnetic 
brakes, and the trip from Los .-\ngeles to Rubio Canyon can be 
made without change of cars. 

On its Long Beach line tlw Pacific Electric Railway Co. has had 
semaphore signals erected where the line crosses the Southern 
Pacific Ry. This is an especially dangerous point, as the Southern 
Pacific tracks cross the electric tracks on a curve, so that only a 
few feet are in view in either direction. The signals are operated 
from one of the Southern Pacific towers, and considerable time 
is saNtd by the electric cars when the signals are clear, as it does 
away with stops at the crossing. 

December 30th an engine and three flat cars on the Salt Lake 
road ran into a Brooklyn Ave. car belonging to the Pacific Elec- 
tric Railway Co.. killing one man and injuring several other pas- 
sengers. The accident took place at a dangerous point on the lii.e 
and the steam cars have the right of way. The motorman and 
conductor were new men, and in the coroner's verdict the electric 
company was severely censured for allowii:g two inexperienced men 
to operate on the same car. 

Tlie new race track at .^scot Park was opened lor a ga-day nicii 
December 24th. In order to handle the immense crowds who attend 
the races both the Los .Angeles and Pacific Electric railway com- 
panies have made special provisions. The Pacific Electric Railway 
Co. has built a double track spur to the grounds from its Long 
Beach line, and the Los Angeles RaiUvay Co. has extended two 
of its city lines. Both companies have loops and sidings at the 
entrance, so that there are no delays such as would be occasioned 
by turning trolleys. On the sidings there is ample room for reserve 
cars, and the crowds are handled with ease. 



The Electric Club Journal. 

The Electric Club, of Pittsburg, Pa., announces- that on February 
I St, 1904, will be issued the first number of an illustrated monthly 
magazine to be published by the club and which will be styled the 
Electric Club Journal. It is further stated in the announceipcivt 
that the immediate purpose of the new publication is to put into 
permanent form the engineering papers and technical discussions 
that form a regular part of the work of the club. Many of the 
papers will be written by members of the engineering staff of the 
Westinghousc company, and much of the material will pertain to 
the latest apparatus and to the newest problems in engineering 
work. This matter will lie published in a form suited to the needs 
of intelligent young men. The Journal will also publish other ma- 
terial of special value and interest to the members of the c-Uib. 




A88i;.Mm,V KAI.,!.. Kl.Kt'riUC l-|,IH. I'lTTSUI-RO. 

The circulation of llie Electric Club Journal will not l)e restricted 
to the mcmlKrs of the club, but the privilege of subscribing is to 
be extended to others. 

Hie Electric Club, which was organized March lolh, 1902, draws 
its mcmljcrship largely from the engineering apprentices and other 
employee of the Westinghousc Electric & Manufacturing Co. The 
Journal is not to Ik-, however, a trade publication of thai company, 



but an engineering i);iikt publish*. tl by young cngire^rs for \iuing 
engineers, enabling college students and others' to share in the 
club's technical work. While much of the material in its pages 
will be of a general nature, some will apply definitely to the par- 
ticular apparatus with which the men are working, and as the rep- 
resentation is by Westinghouse engineers, it follows that Westing- 
house methods will be set forth. Rnl the view point will be that 




RB.KDING ROOM, El.BfTRlC Cl.lTH. ITl'TSBIiRG, 

of the young engineer. The Journal will also reprint papers read 
before societies or convenitions which arc appropriate in character. 

The Journal is conducted by a publication committee consisting 
of an editor, Mr. Frank D. Newbury; a business manager, Mr. 
John II. Smith, and a representative of the club's directors. Mr. 
Charles F. Scott. There is also a class of assistant editors. 

The Electric Club has 492 members. It is governed by a board 
of nine directors, comprising two general representatives, two en- 
gineering dcpartmcm riprescntatives. two apprentices' representa- 
tives and three representatives of the company. The officers of the 
board of directors arc: President, Mr. E. M. Olin; vice-president, 
Mr. H. W. Peck: treasurer. Mr. L. A. Osborne; secretary, Mr. 
C, E, Downton, 

The club quarters, which are conveniently situated, occupy the 
whole of the second floor and part of the third floor of the Il,ini- 
mett Building, 735-7,37 Penn Ave. Wilkinsburg (Pittsburg;, Pa. 
There are an assembly hall and a reading room, which are illus- 
trated herewith, together with tlirce class rooms and five rooms 
which arc used for games ;inc! Miinking rooms. The assembly 
hall has seating capacity for about 300 persons. 



Interurbans are Trunk Lines. 



.At Louisville, Ky,. the Court of .Appeals has rendeied a decision 
10 the effect that inlerurban roads arc trunk liTK•^ and thai, there- 
fore, perpetual franchises may be grained In (lu-m. It had been 
contended, in a case in which Ihe Keiuucky Iraclion Co. w^as de- 
fendant, that the state constitutinn. which forbids granting a fran- 
chise for longer than 25 years', except to trunk lines, debarreil ilic 
proposed road from obtaining a long-term franchise. 



Kobbcr Kill.s Moturman and Conductor, 



.\ uioloinian on a Ciinsulidaled Railway & I'. .wet Co. car .at Sail 
Lake City was shot ami instantly killed and the conduclor on ilu- 
sainc car was fatally shot shortly afirr midnight Janu.iry 7tli by a 
masked highwayman who was allcinpiinK lo rob ihem, '\'\u- nmr- 
derer escaped wilhonl wcuring ,iny bouty. Tlu-re were no pas- 
sengers. 

A conduclor on Ihe Hrighlon Si, line of the same company was 
robed of $i« on the night of J;inuary 2nd by a masked robber 

The Inlerurban Street Railway Co., New York City, will convert 
the remaining horse-car lines in its system to the undergronnd 
trolley in 11304, Forty miles of street railways will be rebuilt. 



44 



STr<i;i:T railway rf.\ii-\\. 



[Vol.. XIV. No. 1. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 



INDIANA 

-In Operation 
»Unocr Construction 
-Proposed 
CiTy SrJTEMS 



ftiruLATtON 

o Covington £ooo 

O MTVERNON 3000 

O ViNCENNtS lOOOO 

O EL^HAf<T 15000 

Q ANDERSON aoOOD 

C ^ South Bcno 35000 



o 



FtWaYNE 45000 

'0 ^0 

SCALt Or MiLt s 




( C'NCi.'.NATI, LArtPtfiCEBUHuSAuWORAtLEC St RyCo 

t ChiC-^QO tlNOiAHAAiRL-m Ry 

S CmCAOO iSooTNSHOBC E-LCCTRlC F?v- Co 

4 CoLUMOo5,G»»LtN5ooROi< Richmond T^actionCo. 

5 Co'>aOL>o*Teo T«actionCo. 
i DAY-ron ^MjNCit TwactiOn Co 
7 tAsTCRN INDIANA TWACTIONCO. 
d CvANAviLLE. ClkctwioRy: 

» CvAN6VH.CC, B00i*tvii.i.C iRoCdPOWT TRACTION Co. 

10 EvANdviLLE. fHcNoCRioN Electric ffv Co. 

11 EvANdVILkE cUtVERNOH TRAi^TiOnCO. 

li CvANSviLLt i Princeton T>»actionCo. 
ijRStJNTAlN-WARRtN TraCTiON CO- 

uFtWayhc i Goshen Ti?action Co, 
iSFtWatnT- UoSANSPoerrfLArAYCTrc Traction Co 
ifeFTWArNC s'Nortmea&term Traction Co, 
iTTrWArNt ^ 5PRiN«Fiei.o Rv Co. 
laTTWAri'Nt Jf Southern TsactionCo 

fSfTWAVNC ,f SoUTHW^CareRNTRACTIONCo. 

aorTWAVNC.VANWeRTiiUMA Traction Co. 

2( Hammond WHiTiNaiECMiCAdO tLecTRicFN-Co. 

2iHooOiER Power ^TracTiONCo. 

23JisOiANA Co^u Belt Traction Co. 

£4Jnoiana Union TractkJn Co. 

25JNO1ANA Raicwat Co 

2blNoiANAPOLis rfC-N^-NNATi' Traction Co 

27tNOlANAPOUIS CoLui-tOUoA "^iOUTM tRN TRACTION CO. 

20INO1ANAPOLIS, DANvitte £ RocKv.^ c T» 
i»lNoiANAPOLis f Eastern Railwav Co. 

30lNDIANAPOl.i»*MARTlN5VjLLt RapiD TRAM&IT CO 
31 fNOlANAPOCIb & .\CffT«we6TERN TRacTion Co 

M INO1ANAPO1.1S J'Pi-AiNFiELD Electric RR Co 

JJ lN0tANAP0LI&.5MeLBrV(LL£ i &OWT^CAoTeRNT»^ACTlLiNC 
3Ai|li>IANAP0t.l£> i 6ooTMrtE9T£Rr4 Tra»-T[ON V 

JSKoKOr-io Marion iJvVe stern Traction Co. 
J*Lo*ANSPoRT, Kammono ^ C«hl>\GOTRACTiC«M 
i7i?bOAN&PORT.f?oi:HE5TER^MowTMCRN Traction Co 
-'^LooANSPORTf >\*aASM Valx*.Y TRACTtON Co J^ i 23 

.>yt-ouis*iL..£ f Sol-tmern IndianaT»?act)0N<1o/m, u l L 1'V~A~i^~^ 
■*0Naoison GRecN^eLiRfi ^iNoiANAPouia Ry. ' 

40Mc.*C'E Hartford f FtWavne RvCo 

♦JMVNCit ^FbRTLAND TT^ACTION Co, 
daWORTMERN INDiANATraCT.OnCo. 

'I^northe.rn Traction Co, 

JSOHiOVALLtY EutCTF^lC R-. Cot 
4feKi<;.iMONDrfNo«TH«c6T«wN EuecTHic RvCo. 
47RiCMi-fONO 5t A'Jnteruroan RvCo, 
46 60WTH Beno^Sowtmern Michigan Ry Co 

49 So^-mcrn Traction Co or Indiana, 

50 5t sJqscPh Vai.(.ct Traction Co 
5' TcRst Haute Electric Co. 
S^ Toi-eoo i'CM.cAoo InteruRdanRv Co 

33ViNC£NNCa.VVC&TSAOCNiL0ui&VIL4-CTRA 

S4 Western InoianaT(?action Co. 
SSWinona-War6av» R>- Co 



>F THK KKECTRIC RAIIAVAVS Oi-' INDIANA. CUHRlvCTEU TO JAN 



Electric Railways of Indiana. 



The "Review" presents lliis niomh a map. corrected to Jan. i. 
19OH, showing the electric railways in Indiana, 'vhich is just now 
the center of electric railway activity in the United States. This 
niap was prepared in the office of the Arnold Electric Power 
Station Co.. Chicago, and it is reproduced by courtesy of the officers 
of that company. As will be noted, the map shows the routes of 55 
interurban lines, including those in operation, under construction 
and proposed, only those projected roads being shown which have 
every likelihood of being pushed to completion in the near future. 
The title of each road is given in i\ie margin of the map, with its 
designating numeral, so it may easily be found on the map. Another 
useful feature of the map is the manner in which the size of the 
cities is shown by circles graduated according to population, those 
cities having city railway systems being designated by a shaded 
circle. 

Naturally the greatest interest attaches to Indianapolis, ulncli 
is practicall}- in the center of the state, iiul to which all roads, built 
and in process, tend to lead. 

During 1903 the number of electric interurban roads entering 
Indianapolis increased from six to eight, and the mileage, not includ- 
ing connections, from 273 to 5^4 miles ; the number of daily passen- 
ger trains entering the city increased from 11,3 to 153. making a 
total of 306 in and out. During the year, also, a freight business 
aggregating $150,000 was established. The notable features of the 
year were the connection of Indiana with Ohio; the introduction 
of sleeping and bufTet cars; the equipment of the roads with heavier 
and longer cars, 60-ft. lengths having been reached, and the more 
general adoption of 4-motor equipments. Indianapolis promoters 
are now planning on long-distance, high-speed lines between large 
centers, and the present through service between Indianapolis and 
Columbus, together with direct connections as far cast as Zancs- 
ville. 250 miles, points the way to through service to Chicago, 
Cincinnati, Louisville, Wheeling, Detroit, Pittsburg, Cleveland, Buf- 
falo and St. Louis. The Chicago and Cincinnati roads arc now 
tmdcr construction. 

Five coal-carrying roads have been incorporated, or are planned. 
and it is proposed to handle coal on standard cars drawn in trains 
by electric locomotives, and to deliver the cars to steam roads. Two 
of the five roads are under construction, one with a capital of 
$.1,000,000; two at least of the other three will be built in 1904. 

It is estimated that the interurban roads have added 1,000.000 
population to Indianapolis for trading purposes, and that these roads 
carried a total of 2.300,000 passengers into and out of the city 
in 1903, as against the 1,000,000 handled by the steam roads. Real 
estate values have appreciated along the lines .of the Indianapolis 
interurbans in every instance and many homes have been built in 
consequence of them. 

Co .servativc estimates for 1903 indicate that the eight interurban 
roads' gross earnings amounted to $1,850,000; operating expenses 
have ranged from 45 to 52 per cent, and the interest payments for 
the year aggregated $783,500. The total outstanding capitalization 
of these companies is $54,005,000, of which $33,335,000 is couvmon 
and $20,670,000 is preferred stock, or bonds. 

A recapitulation of the principal roails entering Inilianapolis 
follows ; 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern — Total mileage 40 miles, 
capiiali/ation $32,125 per mile, of which $285,000 is stock and 
$1,000,000 bonds. 

Indiana|xjlis & Northwestern Traction Co. — Total miicage 
(operating and building), 94 miles; capitalization, $52,.140 a mile, 
of which $3,000,000 is slock and $1,920,000 Ijonds outstanding. 

IndianarKilis & Eastern Railway Co.^Total miicage 63 miles, capi- 
talization, $34,920 a mile, of which $1,200,000 is stock and $1,000,000 
Umds. 

Union Traction Co. of Indiana — Total mileage, 280 miles, including 
the Marlon, Andcrvm. Muncie and Hlwood city lines and the 120 
mile« of the Indianapolipi Northern Ix'ing completed into Peru 
and I>)gans|><irt and headed for Chicago; capitalization, $'10,714 
firr mile, of which $7,500.<x»o is common stock, $1,000,000 5 per cent 
preferred Mock, $K,5W),oori linnd issue. The lines of the Union 



Traction Co. of Indian.i arc opeiati.(l by the Uuliana L'nion Irac- 
ton Co., $5,000,000 capital stock and $1,000,000 bonds outstanding. 
The $i,ooo,oco of bonds, interest on which has to be paid by the 
operation of the property, raises the total capitalization to $(14,280 
a mile. 

Indianapolis & Martinsville Rapid Transit Co. — Operating 30 
miles of road; capitalization, $50,000 a mile, of which $750,000 is 
common stock and $750.(X>o bonds. 

Indianapolis, .Shclbyvillc & Southeastern, just submerged in the 
Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co. — 'Total miicage 27 miles, 
capitalization, $40,740 a mile, of which $l)00.00O is stock .ind $500.- 
000 bonds. 

Indianapolis & Plainficld Electric Railroad Co. — 'Total miicage 
14 miles; capitalization, $7,144 a mile, consisting of $100,000 capital 
stock; no bonds. This company has jusl been ab.sorbed by the In- 
diana Coal Traction Co. with $5,000,000 bond issue and $s,(xx),ooo 
stock, which proposes to build a system of 165 miles, tapping the 
coal fields in several localities and reaching into 'Terrc Haute. 

The first interurban road to enter Indianapolis was the Indianapo- 
lis. Greenwood & Franklin, now the Indianapolis. Cohnubus & 
Southern 'Traction Co. It was opened January, 1900, from In- 
dianapolis to Greenwood, 12 miles, and has since been extended 
to Friinkliu, 40 miles. The latest line to be put in operation from 
Indianapolis is the Indianapolis & Northw'estern 'Traction Co's. 
line to Lebanon, Frankfort and La T'ayette. 64 miles. 'The line 
was opened to La Fayette, Dec. 7, 1903. as mentioned in the 
"Review" for December. 

'The Indianapolis, Danville & Rockville Traction Co. has pro- 
gressed from the prelinnnary formation of its plans to construction, 
and has increased its capital from $100,000 to $700,000. It is in- 
tended to carry coal as well as passengers, and the line will extend 
directly from liidian.i]iolis to tin- r.uke County coal lands. 40 miles 
due west. 

The developmeiU of the electric interurban railways in Indiana 
is admirably illustrated by the folkiwing taken from the railroad 
advertisements which Mnpear regularly in .ill the Indianapolis daily 
papers : 

INTKKt;UH.\N TIMK-CARD. 
INDIANA UNION TR.\CTIC)N COMFANy. 
Timc-Tilble. lOlTcellve Suniiay, Niiv. 1. Hid;!. 

L(K\\I> 'rn.MNS for .\iuirisn"iii. Muncie and iiiti-rnn-dljite points 
liiivi' IriillanaiioM.s ill 1:1.t a. m., and each hour tliereal'ter unlll 9:1.") 
and II::!" p. in. Tho.s.' trains makr direct ccinncetion al Anderson wUh 
trains for Alexandria. l';iwiM»d. Marlon and itUi'i'ini-diate pniTUs. 

I.IMITKl) TKAINS tor ■.Viulerson and Minieie leuM- liiilianaiiollH 
at Jv;i"» and 11:"' a. m.. aiui i::^' and .■):"" p. ni.. arrlvliiK in jVnderaon 
in 1 hour and 2'> niinnles. and in Mnneie in :; hours. 

(*(*7inieneinK neeember :i!. 'n:i. tr.ains for Nolilesville. Tipton, 
k'rdcoino* and inlermedittle points will leave Indianapolis as follows: 

l.iiniled trains will leave liHilanapoIis at 4:l."i a. in,, and every two 
liuurs thereafter nnll] K:l.'i |i. ni. 

l-oeal trains will Iea\'e lndiana]>olls nt 5::!" a. m. jinil every two 
hour« tiKTejiftei- until 7::ilf and 11:0" p. m. Trains leaving Jndlaniii)olls 
at !l::tf) )). m.. run only as I'ar as Tipl«)n. 

ICxpresH Department— Consignments received until 12:(Mt o'eloek 
iinon. for delivery the same day to .all points hi-tween Indianapolis 
and Munele; until K:»» p. m. for delivi-ry lo :ill iiolids Iwlweiai. Iiefore 
• ; o'eloek the next morniiiK. Inelu<llii;j; Muneli". .Xndecsun, .Mexandrla. 
I'llwood, Ttplon and Mar'ion. 

INDlANAI'OiJS & lOASTHli.N itAilAVAY 1 'l 1 

(iHKKNKII-;!,!) i,INiO. 

General (llllee. Kranklln Hnlhiinn. 

Time table. efTeetive .January 1, IIH1.I. 

All riirs depart fi-oin Meridian anti Ci'orKia streets. 

For Uiehmoiiirl. Xew<aslli' urai Intermediate stutions. passenKer 
ears leave on the following hours: i'r.U't a. m., S:rii') a. ni.. in:r)5 a. m.. 
l:;;.'i.'> p. m.. 'S-Mt |>. m.. l:.'iC» p. m. ami ti:.'ir) p. m. 

Mmlted tr.'itns for (friM-nlleld. KtilKlilstown. (^imbrldKe City and 
Uiehmonil leave Indi.'inapoiis at 7:1" a. m.. lU-W) a. m.. and .'1:4" 11. m. 
'I*he above ears rnakr- din-et eonneetiotiH for ICaton. Dayton. I4nni. 
(Jreenvllle. Columbus. .Newark. Hamilton and clnelnnatl. O, 

I-'or (Ireenlleld. K rdKlil**lown and intermediate slations, first ear 
li'.'ives al i'i:r»ri a. m. and eaeh hour tiiereaflei- until 7:ri.'i p. m. The H'Siti 
p. m. runs lo tireenfleld only: the tl:.^.'i p. tn. runs to KnlKtitstown; next 
iinil lasl eiir leiives iit 11:15 p. m. for (ireenlleld only. 

Combinalloii ]>-iHsi.'nKer and i-xpress I'ars leave al '>:%', a, m.. 7:5.'. 
n. m. and ]I:fi5 a. m.. for (Ireenlleifl aiiid KtdKhtslown 

I'JXITtlO.SS CARS 
For (irei'illleld anil Intermedial'' slations only, arriv at 7::iri a. ni. 
and i.-nv al !»:"" a. m. Also arrive at '_';;.'" i>. m. ami h-av at :i:;{i) 
p. m. KxpresH for KlilKhtstown. Dublin and inlermi'illiLti' stations 
leaves al 9::i" a, m. 
Till'; l.NDIAN.M'OI.IH, ('(JMIM HI'S * S( )l 'Tl I I'lItN TltACTION CO 

ThrouKb pasHenKer ears leavi* I'einisylvania and W'aHldnKlon 
streets fur Houlhi'ort. (Ireenwood. \Vhlleland. Kranklln. Andty. I'IdIn 
burtc. Taylorsvllh' ami Columbus: l*'Irst ear al t!:"(l a. m. an<l i'\'i-i\\ 
hour IheD'srier iiritll K:(M) p. m. Last r-ar leaves al 1I:I.'> )>. m. .\l !■ 
and l":"<i |). m. ears leavi' tor l''iaid(lln .unl inli-rin<-dt ile [lolnts only. 



46 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol XIV. No. 1. 



Corfililimtlon imHju-iiKtr and MtprcBH car Icnvwi Georgia ami MfrUllan 
stio'lH for l!ii-<'MwiM>il only lU 9:30 a. m. and S:3ii p. m. 

INDIANAl'OLIS & M AUTINSVI M,K HAI'lt) TltANSlT CO. 

WaltlnK-Room and Sliitl"ns. 1" Ki-nliirk\' Ave ScIh-iIuIu Kffocllve 

.s<pt.mlMT 1, lUo:!. 

KIrsI far havi.s fnun In fnmt of No. 17 KinCuiky Avf.. for Mar- 
tlimvilli' and lutrrmiillali' nlatioiis, at h:'M a. m. and evi-ry hour tliunt- 
afl.r. on tho half-hour mark, unlll ll;:!i' p. m. Thi- "::«i lar runn only 
to Moon-villo. thr Si'Mt wir runs to MartlnKvtllc. and the next and luuit 
lar liavcM at ll:3i> p. m.. runnhiK to Miutliwsvllli'. 

I..ravlnK Martinsvlllo for lndlana|M>ll» and IntL'rmedlatr Htatlons. 
flrst car at r>;ln a. m., an<l i*Vfry hour tht'r<-afti>r on thi* 4li-mlnutf 
murk, until C:40 ji. m. The 7:4(1 inr runs only to Moorcivlllc, the S:1m 
oar to liullanniKdIs. and thf m-xl and last car leaves at 10:40, runnhiK 
lo IndlanapullH. 

Cam leave Moon»svlllc for Inillanapolls and Marllnsvllle at B::t" 
a. m. 

lOxpres.-* car arrives at lndtana|>olU at 10:43 a. m.. and departs at 
12:U> p. m. ; also arrives at 4:48 p. m.. and departs at t::oo |). ni. 

INDIANAl'OMS & NORTUWHSTBRN TR^UTION COMI'ANY. 

Genenrl ManaKer's Offlce. I^ebanon. Ind. 

Indianapolis WaltlnK-rtooms. Ticket and Kxpress Ofllce, lfl9 \V. Marv 

land Street. L'nlon Block. Room 6. 

First car thn>ugh for l^-ifayette leaves Indianapolis at 4:iK> a. m._. 
arrives at l^ebanon 5:10 a. m.. Frankfort .5:4<t a. m.. and Liifayette G:3t 
n. m. S«'cond lhrc)UKh ear leaves Indianapolis at H:(i« lu m.. arrives at 
Irf<hanii>n 7::U a. m.. Fnmkfoi-t S:I4 a. m.. and I-afayette at 11:17 a. m.. 
and every hour thereafter until 9:00 p. m. Last car for Lebanon 
leaves IntllanapoUs at 11:;I0 p. m. 

First IhrouKh car from Lafayette leaves I..arayette at r>:2.i a. m,. 
arrives at Frankfort at 7:32. at Ix-banon S:!.'! a. m.. and Indianapolis 
at 9:45 a. m.. anil everv hour thereafter until 9:25 i». m. Last car from 
I.afayette to Lebanon leaves Lafayette at 11:35 i). m., and arrives at 
I.elNinon 1:15 a. m. 

Kxpress Department— Consignments received until 10 a. m. for de- 
livery the same day to all i>olnts between IndlaruLpolls and Frank- 
fort, and until 6 p. m. for delivery to all i>oints before 9 o'clock m-xt 
mornlnp. 

INDIANAPOLIS & CINCINNATI TRjVCTlON CO. 
Shelbyvllle Division trains are advertised by means of a time-table 
which shows hi>urly service from 5:30 a. m. to 10:30 p. m. 

The Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co., which was form- 
erly the Ft. Wayne, Logansport, La Fayette & Lima Traction Co . 
i.s the company operating the McCulloch-Murdock properties in 
Northern Indiana, w-hich include the local system at Ft. Wayne 
(formerly Ft. Wayne Traction Co.), the interurban line between 
Ft. Wayne and Wabash, the local road at Logansport (formerly 
Logansport Railway Co.), and the local system at La Fayette 
(formerly La Fayette Street Railway Co.) The officers are: Presi- 
dent. George F. McCulloch, Indianapolis; vice-president, James 
Murdock, La Fayette; treasurer, Henry Paul, Ft. Wayne; secretary, 
Stephen Flemming, Ft. Wayne ; general manager, C. D. Emmons. 
Ft. Wayne. Charles Fauchler is superintendent in charge of the 
La Fayette road. 

The Fort Wayne & Southwestern Traction Co. has increased its 
capital from $1,875,000 to $2,000,000 to extend its system. 

The Western Indiana Traction Co., with headquarters at Vin- 
cennes, Ind., is capitalized at $100,000. It plans to build, own and 
operate an electric railroad from Vincenncs lo Terre Haute, passing 




INTKUIiiK <.il- l|iJl.l,.\M' I \1 



•.\K BV LiAV 



through Bruceville, Bicknell, Freclandville, Oaktown, Paxlon, Car- 
lisle, Sullivan. Shelbnrn, Curryville, Farinersburg. Pimento and 
Youngstown. The country covered by the proposed line has dense 
population and is very rich in the production of grain, fruit, melons. 
live stock and coal; in fact, it will pass through the coal fieUU. 

The road will be 50 inilcs long and practically all the franchises 
have been secured, while the company is meeting with good suc- 
cess in acquiring rights of way from property owners. The com- 



pany has not asked for township aid or iiioiiey bonus, but announces 
that the road will be built by the stockholders and owned by them 
after it is completed. The officers of the company are : President, 
S. W. Williams; first vice-president, F. J. S. Robinson; second 
vice-president, C. W. Bcnham ; secretary, E. H. DeWolf; treasurer, 
J. D. Lacroix. 

.'\mong the latest interurban propositions in Indiana, which do 
not appear on the map because the plans have been given out since 
January 1st, are those of the Columbus, Hope & Slielbyville Trac- 
tion Co., and the Indiana .Mr Line Co. The former is to connect 




INTKKInll 



l.L.VNU PALACK 
MADE UP. 



BERTHS 



the cities named and form a connecting link with several other 
lines. The latter will connect Anderson, Noblesville and Lebanon, 
and in connection with the Consolidated Traction Co., the In- 
dianapolis & Northwestern Traction Co., and the Indiana Union 
Traction Co. lines will make a through line from Danville, III., to 
Ohio points. 

.\nothcr proposed road which is destined to connect a number 
of northern Indiana cities will be known as the Winona, Warsaw & 
Goshen Railway Co. The system, when completed, will he in the 
form of a cross, the main line extending from Goshen south to 
Winona, and the cross section from Nappanee eastward to Wawasee 
Lake. Messrs. J. B. Hanna, F. C. McMillen and S. G. Morris are 
principally interested in the line. 

The Indianapolis & Eastern Railway Co., the principal line enter- 
ing Indianapolis on the east, and which forms part of the con- 
necting link with the Appleyard syndicate lines in Ohio, is preparing 
to handle a heavy .through east and west business by sleeping and 
dining car service. The company placed an order January gth for 
additional power house equipment, consisting of a Hamilton-Cor- 
liss compound engine of 2,000 h. p. and a 1,200-kw. generator. 

The Holland Palace Car Co., of Indianapolis, recently received 
from Harlan & Hollingsworth, the builders, of Wilmington. Del., 
the first two trolley sleeping cars ever built. They are intended for 
service between Indianapolis, Ind., and Columbus, O., a distance 
of approximately 200 miles. The tracks of the Indianapolis & 
Eastern Railway Co., the Richmond & Interurban Railway Co.. the 
Dayton & Western Traction Co., and the Appleyard syndicate 
roads will be used. There has been a delay in opening this service 
on account of a low bridge of the Chicago. Cincinnati & Louis- 
ville R. R., at Richmond, which, it was stated, would be raised be- 
fore February 1st. to permit the sleeping cars and the cars ordered 
for through day service to pass under it. The running schedule for 
Ihe sleeping cars provides for leaving the Indianapolis and Coluin- 
bus terminals at 10:30 p. m.. the cars arriving at their destination 
at 6 o'clock the following morning. 

The two new sleeping cars are the "Francis" and the "Theo- 
dore". Interior views of the cars, which are alike, are shown 
herewith. These cars, which were described in the "Review" for 
June and again in ,^ugust. 1903, have more than fulfilled anticipa- 
tions as regards attractiveness. Each cost $21,000. Recently they 
have been exhibited on the various roads running into Indianapolis, 
where they have attracted much favorable comment. 



The Arnold Electro-Pneumatic Railway System. 



Its Application and Experiments Therewith in Connection with the Lansing, St. Johns & 

St. Louis Railway. 



BY B. J. ARNOLD. 



As many of your readers know 1 have persislenly advocated the 
use of the alternating current directly in the motors for electric 
railways for several years (see Transactions American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers" Joint Meeting with the British Institution 
of Electrical Engineers, Paris, Aug. i6, 1900; Niagara Falls Conven- 
tion, Aug. 24, 1901 ; Great Barrington, Mass., June 19, 1902, and 
New York, Sept, 26, 1902). By referring to the discussions which 
took place at these meetings, and to the technical papers, it will be 
found that there were few, if any other advocates, in this country, of 
the alternating current motor for railway work, until recently, and 
that those who supported it 'abroad advocated the use of three- 
phase currents until within the last few months. Since my an- 
nouncement of the principles of my system before the Great Barring- 
ton Convention, the development of tl.e single phase alternating cur- 
rent railway motor has made remarkable strides, both in this country 
and abroad, and while at that time it had few friends, the develop- 
ment has been such since that it now seems destined to take its 
place as the leading railway motor, thereby effecting a revolutior. 
in electric railway work. 

Many of your readers also know that, since announcing the prin- 
ciples of my system before the Great Barrington Convention, I have 
refrained from giving out any further information regarding it. 
giving as iTiy reasons therefor my desire to test the system thor- 
oughly, before making further public statements regarding it, and 
then to present a full and complete description of it, together with 
the results of its operation, in the form of a paper before the .•\mcr- 
ican Institute of Electrical Engineers. Consistently pursuing that 
policy I have conducted my experiments privately and at my own 
expense, and had so perfected my apparatus that I had hoped to be 
able to celebrate the incoming of the year 1904, with a public demon- 
stration, over twenty miles of railroad, which would conclusively 
prove that the single phase electric railway is not only operative 
but efficient and less in first cost and operation than any system 
now in vogue, not meaning to imply thereby that the system which 1 
have developed was necessarily the only system or the best system, 
for only time can prove the correctness or incorrectness of sucli 
statements, but that it was a system which would successfully do 
the work, and the system which was first developed and first to be 
put in actual operation upon the first electric railway in the world 
especially built for single phase alternating current motor operation. 

That I would have made a demonstration on January ist was a 
certainty, to me, until December i8th, when I learned by telegraph, 
while in New York, that the car barns, located at Lansing, Mich . 
of the road upon which I had been experimenting, were completely 
consumed by fire at four o'clock that morning. The fire, apparently, 
originated from a stove in the engine house and was communicated so 
rapidly to the car barns that it destroyed a steam locomotive and 
two new cars built for my system, as well as mv experimental loco- 
motive, thus leaving me unable to make the demonstration as I had 
planned. In view of the fact, however, that the single phase electric 
railway is now receiving so much attention at the hands of engineers 
and inventors in many parts of the world, and that I believe that the 
year 1904 will be a epoch making one, marking the evolution from 
the direct current to the alternating current motor for railway work, 
a<i well as the l>eginning, oti a l7.rge scale, of the displacement of 
the steam loc'»motivc on railways, by the use of a substantial form 
of overhead construction rather than the third rail, and from the 
further fact thai I cannot get another machine ready in the near 
future, I have concluded that I will give to the technical press a 
record of my work up to the present time in order that it, and the 
xyttetn which I have dcvel'>pcd, may he. properly weighed in com- 
parlvm with the work and systems of othert. leaving the more 
irmiplclc description of the system and the results of its Operation 



to be presented at a later date before the .\nierican Institute of 
FJectrical Engineers. 

On Jan. 10, 1900, I rode over the country between Lansing and 
St. Louis, Mich., a distance of about sixty miles, with a party of 
gentlemen who desired to build an electric road between these points, 
niis trip resulted in my advising them that the territory was such 
that I believed the road should be built as economically as possible, 
and inasmuch as they desired me to i'.ssist financially in its construc- 
tion I told them I would do so provided I was allowed to construct 
th« road in accordance with certain ideas that. I then had in mind, 
lor by such construction the first cost of the road could be kept 
sufficiently low to warrant its construction, and that if it were 
built on any one of the systems, standard at that time, the advisa- 
bility of building it was questionable. The result was that on Apr, 
y, 1900, a contract was entered into wherein I undertook to build 
and equip the road. Engineers were at once placed in the field to 
locate it, and after the plans were sufficiently completedv the grad- 
ing, bridging and track work of twenty miles of the road followed, 
and this much of the road was completed, to such an extent that 
stcaiTi trains were put in regular operation over it about Nov, 15, 
1901, 

For financial reasons the completion of the road was delayed and 
in the meantime the development of my system was taking place and 
the parts being perfected in different offices and shops. 

Since it was my intention to experiment with pressure as high 
as 15,000 volts on the working conductor, all of the line material 
had to be specially designed, but the work progressed to such an 
extent that the overhead and line work of twenty niiles of road was 
practically completed and ready for operation alx)ut Dec, 15, 1902, 
and the power installed so that experiments iKgan in March, 1903, 
On June 15, 1903, two trips were niade, each alxjut three miles long, 
with my first experimental machine. On the first trip seven persons 
were carried and on the second trip thirteen persons were aboard. 

The result of the experiments with the first motor proved the 
correctness of the theory and that the machine would work. Inas- 
much as it consisted of but one somewhat crude electro-pneumatic 
motor, it was impracticable to get full and efficient tests of the 
system, and it was thought iK-st to conduct no further experiments 
until a complete new double equipped truck could l)e perfected. Not 
being connected with manufacturing establishments, I have been com- 
pelled to develop this .system under trying circumstances, necessitat- 
ing the construction of parts in different shops and assembling them 
,11 far distant points with crude facilities. This fact, combined with 
the financial difficulties that have arisen, rind llie necessity of my 
having to give the main part of my attenli'Mi lo olher matters, li:i\i' 
been the causes of the delay in completing the road and the .system. 

A new double motor equipment, in iIk- form of a locomotive, was 
finally built and brought to perfect working condition on the evening 
of December 17th, and it was this locomotive with the necessary in- 
struments for testing purposes that was destroyed by fire the follow- 
ing morning. Since it is going to be impracticable for me to get 
a new one constructed for some time, I have thought best to state 
the facts as outlined above, and give to the technical press a descrip- 
tion of the apparatus and the road, reluctantly omitting the reovrds 
of operation and the tests which 1 had hoped to have accompany 
aTiy future statements I m;iilc, b\it which Ihrough "(he irciny of fate" 
must now be left for the future. 

The following hastily prepared description of the road and the sys- 
tem, I trust will be found sufficiently roMiprchensivo to interest your 
readers : 

KOADHKl) AND TUACK. 

The Unnsing, St, Johns & St, Louis Railway was originally pro- 
jected 10 extend from Lansing, the capital of Michigan, norlliw.ird 



48 



STRKF.T K. Ml. WAY RFAIF.W 



(Vol.. XIV. N... 



through St. Johns. .Xhiia and St. Lonis, a distance of alwnt si.\ty 
miles, hut up to the present lime only that portion extending from 
Lansing to St. Johns, a distance of twenty niilcs, has l>cen con- 
structed. 'I'his road was huill in accordance with steam railroad 
practice, with easy grades and curves, so (hat steam locomotives- 
could be operated over il until such lime as electrical ccpiipment 
could be put upon il ; the idea l)cing to complete the road in such a 
manner that it could be utilized for both freight and passenger 
service, and thus secure all the business available from the territory 
through which it pass\"S. 

The road is equipi)ed with 67-lb. 'i' rail, laid on tics spaced 2 ft. be- 
iween centers, and as alternating high tension current was to be 
used but one of these rails was Ixjnded with .?8-in. No. 0000 l)onds 
extending entirely around the splice bars. As it was impos'sible to 
secure rails from the rail manufacturers in time rails and splice bars 
were secured from one of the leading steam railways, and this neces- 
sitated the adoption of a supported joint and a long bond, a.T there 
was not room under llie splice bars for concealed lx>nds. 

The road as at present constructed between Lansing and St. Johns 
has no grades exceeding i per cent and no curves exceeding 7 de- 
grees, except in the cities themselves-, where the terminals of the 





cross arm. rhi<; construction insured a high insulation at a low 
first cost, the entire line having Iwen conslructed for but a slightly 
increased expense over the cost of standard construction, and al the 
same lime so buill Ihat in cas'e of failure of the allernaling motor 
system the slandard direct ciirreni motor system could be put into 
service without changing any parts; even holes for the pins for 
carrying the extra feeders which would lie required were provided, 
.^s shown. 

Il will thus be seen llial the line and track work were constructed 
in such a manner that no expense was incurred for any parts which 
would not 1k' required for standard construction in case it became 
necessary to ultimately adopt the slandard direct current motor 
system ; the entire idea in the construction of the road being to 
save first cost and lo invest all that was invested in such a nianner 
that all material purchased would be utilized in case either system 
were adopted, and s'hould the alternating .system prove successful 
the additional inveslment for a direct current motor system need 
not then be installed. 

The working conductor was placed 22 ft. alxive the lop of the 
rails ill order that trainmen when standing upon the tops of the 



— O'O 




B E 




7? - Moror D-Dr.^erofCor 

S • Sraror ^ . Jforor CyfinOer 

r - rromey sC'Sroror 

P ■ F/n^on on Tioror C 'Cranit of Stofvr 
G = Charon Co'-AKle C %Cron» of Kotor 
A* Ajile of fne. Car 



^'■0 ZofKj. j 




I'ir.. 1— .\KN<1I.I1 SV.STKM SI'Kfl.M. INSLI. ATORS. 



10 z*/ Soara XO Lonj, 



-TYPICAI, STR.MCHT 
C OVERHEAD CON- 
STRl.'CTION. 



FIG. 3— DTAGR.\MMATIC .\R- 

RANGEMENT OF El.feC- 

TRO-PXEUM.\TIC 

MOTOR. 



-DIAGRAM OF OPERA- 
TION. 



ruad run over tlie streets ami make such curves as ordinary, street 
cars make, the mininiuni radius being 50 ft. .\\ each city a terminal 
was planned so that all freight would be diverted to connecting 
steam roads, thus making it unnecessary for the freight service to 
pass over the city streets or curves. 

.^t the Lansing end it was necessary to pass over the steam rail- 
way tracks of the Perc Marquette Railroad, and this necessitated the 
construction of a bridge, with pile approaches; the grade as ap- 
proached from the Lansing end being 4 per cent for a distance of 
about 700 ft., and after passing over the bridge the descending grade 
is 2.3 per cent for about 500 ft. .^t the Si. Johns end there is a 
grade on the principal street of tlic town averaging :il>nut 2 per cent 
for about 1.500 ft. 

OVKKl IE.\D CONSTRUCTION. 

Considerable care was' taken in planning a suitable insulator for 
carrying the trolley wire, and Fig. t shows the construction of the 
annealed glass insulator used. 

Fig. 2 shows a typical arrangement of the straight line overhead 
construction, and it will tie noticed that wood is used for the pole, 
cross arm and brace, and that the insulator is supported liy means 
of a short span wire from iron brackets secured to tlie wfHiden 



freight cars going over the roafl couM not conic in contact with the 
working conductor. 

It was planned to operate the entire road from a single No. 00 
trolley wire and with one rail bonded, as hereinbefore mentioned; 
this amount of copper being sufficient to operate four 40-ton cars 
at an average speed of .30 miles per hour, with power house located 
i!j miles from one end of the line, and operating with from 6,000 
to 10.000 volts on the working conductor. 

The power house is located at one end of the line, owing to the 
electric company, from which power is purchased by the railroad, 
having a water power at this point. Current is transmitted to the 
nearest cud of the line over two No. 3 wires. The pow'cr is fur- 
nished from a .?oo-kw. rotary converter generating at 380 volts, 
at 25 cycles, the energy from which is stepped up to the working 
pressure of the line. It was the intention, after experimenting a 
sufficient length of lime, to determine the liest voltage for the work- 
ing conductor, lo have the generators for the permanent plant con- 
structed so as to generate at this determined voltage, and it was 
for this reason that a temporary rotary converter was first installed 
to conduct the experiments with. 

During the preliminary experimental period upon the apparatus 
hereinafter described all power was transmitted, from the above 



I AX 



1>H"+1 



STRF.KT R All.W A^■ RI'AIF.W'. 



49 



iiu-i!tioiicd i)0\vi-r house, to a iioint about two miles distant, where 
were located the car barns in which the preliminary experiments 
were made. 

The conditions under wliich the tirsi application of the system 
took place having thus been set forth, it may be well, in order to get 
clearly before the reader, the principles on which the system is 
based to quote here the stateivients made before the Great Bar- 
rington Convention on June 19. 1902. as follows: 

The principles underlying the system I advocate and which I 
call an electro-pneumatic system, are as follows: 

I. .A single-phase or multiphase motor, mounted directly upon 




FIG. 



-EXTKIilOH UI-" KI.ECTRIC MOTOK. 



the car, designed for the average power required by the car. and 
running contiiuiously at a constant speed and a constant load. and. 
therefore, at maximum efficiency. 

2. Instead of stopping and irtarting this n.olor and dissipating 
the energy through resistances, as is customary with all nthtr s^s- 
icnis known to me, I control the speed of the car hy retarding or 
accelerating the parts usually known as the rotor and stator of the 
motor, by means of compressed air. in such a manner that I save a 
portion of the energy which is ordinarily dissipated through resist- 
ances, and store it to assist in starling the car. helping over grades. 
for use in switching purposes, and for the operation of the brakes. 

3. By this method of control I secure an infinite number of speeds 
from zero to the maximum speed of the car. which may or may 
not be at the synchronous speed of the motor, for with the air con- 
trolling mechanism working compressing, the speeds below syn- 
chronism are maintained, and by reversing the direction of the air 
through the coiuroller speeds above, synchronism may be attained 
for reasonable distances. This feature gives to the allcrnating cur- 
rent motor the element abs-olutcly essential for practical railway 
work, for it permits a car or train to ascend a grade at any speed 
with tJic motor working at its maximum efficiency and imparting 
its full torque to the car. When descending the grade the motor 
may utilize its full power drawn from the line in compressing air. 
or it may Ik- used to compress air with the stored energy of the 
train, thereby acting as a brake. 

4. By virtue of the ail storage feature, each car becomes an inde- 
pendent unit and capable, in case of loss of current from the line, 
of running a reasonable distance without contact with (he working 
conductor. This feature will enable a car to work on a high tension 
trolley wire or active conductor over private right of way, and 
allow the active conductor to be stopped where the private right of 
way ceases, and the car to proceed through a city or town on any 
tracks, whether electrically equipped or not, until it reaches the 
ounkirts of the city or town where it can take up the working 
conductor again on private right of way. Tliis feature is also valu- 
able in switching work, for each car being independent it can leave 
the main line track and operate over switches or sidings wilhoul 
complicating the yards with aildilional overhead or third rail con- 
ductors, thus nece»silating through line conductors over main line 
track or tracks only. 

5. .Since a single phase motor ran 1k' used the motors can be 
•iippliril with current from a single overhead wire or third rail, and 
with a single rail return circnil, thus permilling the overhead con- 
ftrucfion, or third rail conilrudion, to conform (o the standard of 



to-day, except that a much higher working voltage can be used, 
provided the insulation is taken care of. Furthermore, in steani 
railway work this system, by virtue of its single phase feature, 
will only require the use of one of the track rails for the return cir- 
cuit, thus leaving the other rail for the use of the signal system, 
which, up to the present time, does not seem to have been satisfac- 
torily solved without the use of one of the track rails. 

0. The current will be taken from the working conductor at any 
voltage up to the limit of the insulation, and in case this voltage 
is high (1 am building my line for 15.000 volts), a static transfornier 
will be carried upon each car and the pressure reduced from the 
line voltage to the voltage of the motor, w'hich in the ca.se under 
construction is designed for 200 volts. Where it is unnecessary 
to utilize so high a line pressure the motor may be designed for 
the working voltage, and the current fed directly from the working 
conductor into the motor, thus eliminating the static transforivier. 
When a high voltage wen-king conductor and static transformer is 
used, and it is thought advisable to use a working conductor through 
cities or towns, this working conductor will be supplied with energy 
through a stationary transformer at each city limit, thus making 
the working conductor through the citics_ or towns safe. 

;. By virtue' of the speed of the motor and its const:inl load. 
either when the car is in motion or when it is standini; still, and 
the motor is compressing air. the variable load now customary in 
electric railway power plants is eliminated, and the power station 
works at practically a constant load, thereby eliminating a large 
|iart of the investment at present requisite in power station and 
line construction. Furthermore, by virtue of the air storage feature, 
each car. in the particular apparatus I have designed, is capable at 
any time when current is on the working conductor, of delivering 
to the car wheels a much greater torque in proportion to the capacity 
of the motor than is possible with any electrical systen. known 
to-day. 

I l)elieve that by the ndo|)tion of this system the following results 
will be accomplishe<l : 

1. Tlie entire elimination of the present standard system of rotary 
converter sub-station plant, together with the maintenance thereon, 
and the cost of the necessary attendants. 

2. ThC' absorbing and rendering available for useful work in 
starting, or otherwise, a large percentage of the energy stored in 
the moving mass which under the present tnethods of operation is 
dissipated at the brake slioes. 

3. A large reduction in the first cost of electrically etiuippiirg 
long-distance railroads, thereby making it feasible, from an engi- 
neering and business standpoint, to equip many roads which cannot 
now be shown advis.able, thus opening up the steam railway field to 
the industry in which we are now engaged. 

The followitig description will explain mure in detail the appHca- 




I''IO. C-INTERIOR OF STATOR. 

tion of the |)rinei|iles of the system and the mechanism of its work- 
ing parts : 

Fig. ,] represents diagraiiinialieally tlu' wnrkinK p.irts ot mu- lunn 
of the system: The rotor U of ,1 single ijhase induction motor is 
geared to the jixle of the car and by means of cr;inl< pin C secured 
in pinion 1' also drives the compressor cylinder K (.', while stamr 
S can freely revolve around the rolen- .-uid drive by means nf crank 
pin (' the ei.iiipri---or cylinder S C. I'.iMli rylindi-rs .an- |>iped to air 



50 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV, No. I. 



reservoirs located under the car and arc also provided with a suit- 
able valve manipulated from a single controller on the car platfitnii 
for making them iierfonn their various functiitns, thus the entire 
rigulation of the Sliced and power of the car are controlled by the 
air cjlinders and no other regulating devices arc nccessarj'. The cyl- 
inder valves arc electrically operated, which makes it possible for 
each cylinder when driven by the electric motor to compress air 
into the tanks and when operated by compressed air to furnish me 
chanical energy for moving the car. When, for instance, the cylin- 




PIO. 7— FIRST EXPERIiIt;.\TAL iluTdK. 

WARD. 



WITH MOTOR FOR- 



der is compressing air. the valves work like inlet and outlet poppet 
valves of a common .lir pump, while on the other hand if the cylin- 
ders are supplied with compressed air each valve is operated electric- 
ally by a pilot .solenoid connected with the valve seat in such a man- 
ner that the energy for moving the valve is supplied by the com- 
pressed air, thereby making the valve practically self-actuating. The 
time of operation of the valves is controlled by a series of collector 
rings revolving with the engine shaft, and their regular operation is 
interrupted and varied to suit the requirements by means of the 
niotorman's controller. 

When a rotary or turbine type of air engine is used all of the 
above valves and reciprocating parts are eliminated and the entire 
controlling mechanism consists of two air valves operated from a 
single engineer's valve which may be located upon the platform of 
the car or in the cab of the locomotive, and so arranged that one 
or more units may be operated from the platform or cab of any unit 
without the necessity of connecting wires Iwtwcen the units. 

Since the motor may be of the simplest type of induction motor 
without a commutator, and the system does not require the manipu- 
lation or breaking of the main current, the motor may be designed 
for any working volt.ige and be of any type which will maintain 
a constant speed when provided with a constant load. This elimi- 
nates the necessity of all step-down transformers, resistances or 
other regulating devices and confines the current to the motors 
themselves, and as these are below the car floor the danger from the 
current is reduced to the minimum. 

.\t the same time the air cylinders, in addition to performing all 
the functions of speed control, give to the machine Ihe iixlependent 
unit element, and the ability to store the kinetic energy of the train 
in stopping and utilize it in starting. On account of these and 
other features the electric motors of this system can be much smaller 
ni capacity, when rated as continuous working motors, than those 
of other systems not possessing this equalizing load feature, and 
the capacity of the power house and line can be reduced to about 
one-half of what would be required with systems where the fluctuat- 
ing starting loads of the cars are transmitted back to the power 
house. 

In order to better understand the different operations of the sys- 
tem. Fig. 4. showing a .speed diagram, has been prepared, in which 
on the axis of abscissa; O D L are represented the different car 
speeds in per cent of the synchronous motor speed, while the co- 
ordinate axis A O B represents the rotor and slator speeds corre- 
sponding to the car speeds shown. 

The operation of the car may be divided into the following 
periods: 

I. Standing in the Station: Referring to Fig. ,^ the rotor R is 
standing still, while the stator S runs with full synchronous speed. 



The stator is then transferring the full energy of the electric motor 
through crank C to the compressor cylinder S C, which energy is 
being delivered in form of compressed air into the air reservoir. 

Since the relative velocity between ihe stator and the rotor is, 
nndcr all conditions of o|»eralion, constant, the speed curves of 
stator and rotor may be represented by two parallel lines OCR 
and A D S in Fig. 4. The origin O of the given co-ordinate system 
represents Ihe period of rest of the car, and, therefore, indicates 
zero rotor speed and full stator speed in a negative or downward 
direction, as the stator is now revolving in the opposite direction 
from that which the rotor must revolve to drive the car forward. 

Let it be further assumed that for an instant O .'\ equals the active 
torque of the stator, then it will be easily understood that O B, 
which equals O A, represents the reactive torque of the rotor exerted 
on the car axle, meaning that if the car is free to move the reactive 
torque can be used advantageously for the starting and acceleration 
of the car. 

When the car is standing in a station it is held at rest by moving 
the controller to such a position that the outlet pipe from rotor 
cylinder R C is throttled, thereby increasing the pressure behind the 
piston to such an extent that it overcomes the effort of the rotor R 
to revolve, thus tending to cause Ihe stator S to revolve and at the 
same time holds the car at rest without the use of wheel brakes. 

2. Starting and .Acceleration: To start the car the air cushion 
behind the piston of R C is removed and Ihe air which is being 
compressed by cylinder S C supplemented by the stored air from 
the tanks, is admitted to cylinder R C with the controller at the 
position of maxinumi cut-off. The rotor then begins to revolve and 
as it accelerates the stator slows down by exactly the same amount 
that the rotor has increased its speed, and as the rotor and car 
speed increase the controller is gradually moved to a smaller per- 
centage of cut-off until the car speed corresponds to the full syn- 
chronous speed of the motor, at which time the stator comes to rest. 

During this period of acceleration the air compressed by cylinder 
S C, instead of being delivered to the tanks to lose its heat, is de- 
livered, hot, directly to the rotor cylinders, thus greatly increasing 
the efficiency of the combination, as the heat usually lost in air 
systems is utilized and the advantages of heated air gained without a 




8— FIRST BXI'ERiMENTAI, MOTOR. 
REAR. 



WITH MOTOR IN 



re-heater, and as the pressure used is low many of the ordinary 
difficulties in the use of compressed air disappear. If the rate of 
acceleration is such that cylinder R C. uses all of the air supplied 
by cylinder S C, no exhaust to the atmosphere from cylinder R C 
takes place. 

Referring now to Fig. 4, which graphically represents this process, 
since the electric motor runs always at a constant speed and a 
constant load, it has a constant tOrque, and, therefore, the distance 
between lines OCR and A D may be considered as representing 
the energy delivered by the electric motor. 



Jak. 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY RE\TEW, 



51 



The length of any ordinate extending trom O D to O C repre- 
sents the proportionate nmourt of energy derived from the electric 
motor, which is applied directly lhr<.uigh pinion P and gear G of Fig. 
.? to the propulsion of the car, while the corresponding ordinate 
cxten<iing below O D to A D represents the proportionate amount 
of the energy of the electric motor which is ahsorl>ed in compressing 
iir through cylinder S C. which energy, in the form of air. is inime- 




FIG. a— LATEST DOfBI-E MOTOR EQUIPMENT WITH TKl'CK 



dialely transferred to cylinder R C and is utilized iu accelerating 
the car. 

In practice, however, since there will be a loss in transferring the 
energy from electrical energy into energy in the form of compressed 
air and back again into mechanical energy, this loss, whatever it 
may be, must be drawn from the storage tanks, and the requisite 
amount of air from these tanks supplied to rotor cylinder R C iu 



during acceleration, in which case this total power would lie repre- 
sented for any given instant by ;i point above line B C. 

3. Full Speed: When the rotor has reached full synchronous 
speed by the pre\'ious operation, this speed can be maintained by 
moving the controller to another position which will throttle the 
outlet pipe of cylinder S C until the reaction due to the pressure 
behir.d the piston iquals the full capacitv' of the electric motor. An 
overload or underload may be placed upon the 
incilor by varying this pressure, but under normal 
■.'ouditioiis of operation cylinder S C is provided 
with an automatic valve, which keeps a constant 
pressure behind its piston, thus maintaining an 
absolutely constant load upon the electric motor and 
consequently a uniform demand of electrical energy 
friini the line. This uniform load is represented by 
the parallel lines OCR and A D S of Fig. 4. 

With the controller set at full speed position the 
iiilcl valves of rotor cylinder R C are held open and 
the piston runs free and the electric motor now gives 
its full power to the car axle, and the stator and 
its air mechanism will remain at rest as long as the 
car runs at the speed corresponding to the syn- 
chronous spepd of the motor. 

4. Speed Variations : There are usually certain 
places on any road where high rates of speed can be 
maintained for short distances and as these speeds 
might be higher than the synchronous speed for 
which the motor was designed they are provided 
for as follows : 

.\ssnnnng that the car is running at synchronous 
speed the controller may be moved to such a position 
that the valves of stator cylinder S C operate in such a manner as to 
cause it to act as an engine and revolve stator S in the .same direc- 
tion as rotor R is revolving. This now causes, owing to the con- 
stantly electrically maintained relative difference in speed between the 
siator and the rotor, an increase of speed of the rotor and car axle, 
due to the motor automatically working as a magnetic clnlch. 
without mechanical contact, and if the resistance of the car or train 




FIG. I0-LONOITUDINAI> SECTION OK I.oi (iMl iTI VIO 



Kici, II TKANSVICiRSE 8E(,'TION dl'' l.ol 'oMc )T1 VK 



order to maintain the full power of the electric motor upon the 
car axle during the period of acceleration. Should it be desired 
to accelerate at a greater rate than ilie full power of the electric 
motor is capable of giving to the car, the additional energy may 
lie supplied in the foim of air from iIk: storage tanks through 
cylinder R C. thus increasing the total energy given In the car 



i< less than the capacity of the elcclrie iuci:iir the air necessary for 
revolving the stator can be olrtained, hoi, from the rotor cylinder 
U C witliout drawing from the tanks and a speed almve .synchronism 
indirectly proportioned to the resistance of the train maintained 
inclefniilely. When the resistance of the train is greater than the 
cai)aeity of ilu- ileclrii' motor s])eeds ,'ibo\e synehronisiii c.'in be 



52 



stri:i:t railway ri£vii-av. 



[Vol.. XIV. No. 



olitaiiicti only by Mipiplyiitg rotor cylinder R C" with siorod air from 
the tanks and can only be maintained for slmrt distances, or until 
the .storage capacily of the air reservoir^ is cxiianstcd. This 
coixlition corresponds to llie .spurts that can lie made by a 
steam li>comolivc when working above the steaming capacity of the 
boiler. The distance from the line O D L to that portion of the 
line ADS above O D L in Fig. 4 .represents, at any given speed, 
the proportionate amount of energy which must con)e from ihc 




■!■ ■ "^^ 




■' "'■ " 



S y~ in MH M l / MM <IU V 



I 



via. 12— EXTERIOR OF CO.MlMjETE CAR, 

tanks and be supplied through cylinder S C. and ihe distance from 
D L to C R represents the total energy given to the car by live 
combined action of the electric motor and the stator cylinder when 
operating under these conditions. 

The energy delivered to the car can be still farther increased by 
admitting air into rotor cylinder R C ami allowing it to work as 
an engine. 

5. Retardation: To bring the car or train to rest, instead of 
applying mechanical brakes to the wheels in the ordinary manner 
and thereby dissipating the entire stored energy of the car or 
train in the form of heat. This energy is saved in the form of com- 
pressed air, to assist in starting the car or irain. by setting the 
controller in such a position that rotor cylinder R C compresses 
air and delivers it into the storage tanks. Any desired rate of 
retardation can be secured by throttling the delivery pipes from 
rotor cylinder R C and in practice this pipe is provided with an 
antomatic valve which releases just before the slipping point of the 
wheels, thus allowing the motorinau to brake as rapidly as he 
desires without liability of flattening the wheels. Supplem«.'ntal 
wheel brakes arc provided for emergency, but need not often \k 
used, and the ordinarj- wear and tear on them is saved. When the 
car is again at rest the cycle of performance as above given is 
repeated for the next run. 

6. Reversing: When it is desired to run the car backward for 
short distances the electric motor is not disturbed and the pow'er 
is furnished by the rotor cylinder R C by reversing the action 
of the valves, but if it is desired to run backward for any great 
distance the current is thrown off the motor. Ihc stator engine 
reversed, and the stator brought to speed by the air. when the cur- 
rent is again thrown on to the motor, and the cycle of operation 
is the same as when running forward. 

Fig. 5 represents the exterior of the electric motor, showing 
Ihe cranks of Ihe .stator and rotor, also collector rings for operating 
Ihe valves of the air cylinders when working as engines. 

Fig. 6 shows an interior view of the stator of the motor with the 
tlange removed, the rotor of the motor being of the standard 
squirrel cage induction type. 

Figs. 7 and 8 show, mounted upon a truck, two views of the 
first electro-pneumatic motor constructed, and upon which the first 
experiments were conducted. 

Since the single motor represented in Figs. 7 and 8 was too small 
in capacity to propel so large a car, it was decided to experiment 
with an improved locomotive, consisting of the truck and motor 
shown in Figs, 7 and 8. carrying suitable air tanks and transform- 
ers upon a temporary frame structure. This locomotive was the 
one upon which the trial runs were made and passengers carried 
on June 15, 1902. 

Fig. 9 shows the new eiectro-pneunialic motor constructed after 
the preliminary experiments had been made on the first motor. For 
experimental purposes this truck was filled up in the form of a 
locomotive, as shown in longitudinal and transverse section Ijy Figs. 
10 and II, and il was this locomotive that was recently destroyed by 



fire. In or<ler that the locomotive might o|>er3le as an indcpendci't 
air unit upon tracks not etpiipficd with overhead electrical conductor 
it was provided with a small .storage l>atlery and siiiall motor 
generator for charging the batteries and for operating the head- 
light. These auxiliaries are not necessary for the successful opera- 
tion of the system, prondcd the locomotive can always lie supplied 
with electric current from the working eniiduclor, for then the 
valves can be made lo operate from alternating current and thus 
eliminate the use of motor-generator and 
li:itteries. When, however, it is desired to 
operate independently of Ihc electric conduc- 
tor these auxiliaries are necessary, and one 
set may supply an entire Irain. It will be seen 
that ihe locomotive is also provided with 
transformers, another auxiliary which is 
unnecessary in case the motors are designed 
for the voltage transmitted over the work- 
ing conductor, but in this case transformers 
were used liecause the manufacturer of the 
motors could not be induced at the time 
ihey were purchased to build a high tension 
motor for railway work, consequently \hc 
parts of a standard motor were utilized, 
and a pressure of 200 volts adopted for 
the motors, as this was the most economical voltage that 
could be used with the piirticular parts selected. This locomo- 
tive was provided with all necessary testing instruments 
and had been operated in the barns for sometime and found to 
perform all its functions successfully and wotdd have been placed 
on the road and experiments with it w;oiild now \k in process had 
il not been destroyed. 




The Fire Record. 



rile car houses of Ihe Lewislou. Brunswick & Bath Street Rail- 
way Co. at Lewiston, Me,, were destroyed by fire December iQth, 
together with 23 cars and three snow plows, the loss being esti- 
mated at $50,000. There was $8,500 insurance on Ihe building and 
the rolling stock was fairly well covered. The fire was supposed to 
have been caused by defective iusulatiim. The building was new 
and had a steel roof. 

The Cleveland &■ Southwesiern Traction Co. suffered from two 
fires during the month. Its car barn it Berea, O., was partially 
destroyed December 24th. The loss was placed at $30,000, includ- 
ing $15,000 on cars and $15,000 on the- floating battery sub-statioii 
The company will rebuild at once. December 27lh the company's 
office and waiting room at Seville, O.. was burned to the ground 
Hooks, papers and furnishings were a total loss. The building was 
insured. 

Fire destroyed the car shops of the Lansing, St. Johns & St. 
Louis Railway Co. at Lansing, Mich., December i8th, causing a 
loss on the building of about $10,000. Mr. B. J. .Arnold's electro- 
pneumatic traction system apparatus, valued at $30,000, was also 
destroyed. 

'nie old car barn of the Coney Isl.ind & Bnxiklyn Railroad Co., 
at Brooklyn, N. Y., was burned January 15th, together with 50 cars, 
Ihc loss being estimated at $100,000. 



Columbu.s, Greensbiirg & Richmond Traction Co. 

The Columbus, Grecnsburg & Rich'mond Traction Co., mentioned 
in the "Review" for December, has increased its capital from 
$1,000,000 to $2,500,000, and contracts have been signed with Jeup 
& Moore, engineers, of Indianapolis, to begin the preliminary work 
before the first of February. It is expected that the specifications 
will be ready by .'Xpril 1st. The company intends lo build 96 miles 
of road from Columbus through Grecnsburg and Connersville to 
Richmond, double track and third rail, all wires to be laid in 
vitrified conduits underground, Tlie John Blair MacAfee Co,, of 
Philadelphia, has made an inspection in Ihe interest of bondholders, 
and reported most favorably concerning this project. The company 
is arranging for other intersecting lines in southern Indiana, with 
Louisville and Cleveland as objective points, the system to aggre- 
gate 325 miles. 



Recent Street Railway Decisions. 



EDITED BY J. L. ROSENBERGER, ATTORNEY AT LAW, CHICAGO. 



CARE REQL'IRED IX PREPARATION AND MANAGE- 
MENT OF MEANS OE CONVEYANCE. 



Metropolitan Stroi't Railway Co. vs. llan^o^ (Ivan.). "_' Pac. Rip. 

7/3. June 0. 1903. 

.A. street railway company in the transporlalion of passengers, the 
supreme court of Kansas holds, niusl use the utmost tlegree of care 
and skill, for the protection of passengers, in the preparation anr' 
management of the means of conveyance 



CARE TO HE U.SED IN KEEPING CAR IXDI^K CON I ROl. 



VVestphal vs. St. Joseph & Benton Harhor Street Railway Co 

(Mich.), g6 N. W. Rep. 19. July 14, 19OJ. 

The care to be used in keeping a car imder control, the supreim- 
court of Michigan holds, depends upon the circumstances of eacli 
particular case. Greater care would be required in some cases 
than in others. 



CTMOST CARE REQUIRED TO PREVENT P.REAKlNti 
ANU FALLING OF WIRES. 



Memphis Street Railway Co. vs. Kartright Cl'cnn.), 75 S. \V. Rop 

719. May 23, 1903. 

In view of the danger attendant upon the breaking and falling of 
overhead electric wires in the streets, and the results to be ap- 
prehended to persons in the streets, the supreme court of Tennessee 
is of the opinion that the company should be held to the highest 
or utmost degree of care in the construe. ion, maintenance, and 
operation of its lines. 



DUTY OE CONDUCTOR WHEN CAR STOPS PREMA lUKI. 
LV AFTER CALLING OF STREET— CARE REOUIKED 



United Railways & Electric Co. of Baltimore vs. Wo(jdbridge (Md. ). 
55 Atl. Rep, 444. July I, 1903. 
If after the conductor had called a street and to transfer there 
the car stopped before it was safe to attempt to transfer, the court 
of ap{>eals of Maryland holds that his attention should have been 
attracted thereby, and he should have suspended the collection of 
fares, in which he was engaged on the forward part of the^oot- 
iHiard, and should have warned passengers to keep their seats till 
further direction was given. The duties of a conductor upon rapid 
transit cars, the court says, are numerous and exacting, and it should 
l)c said to their credit that they are generally discharged with com- 
mendable care and skill, but the .safely of the public demands that 
carriers be held to the rule reipiiring them to e.xercise the high- 
est degree of care and diligence practicable under the circumstances. 



HAND OF CONDUCTOR COMING IN CONTACT Willi 
PASSENGER'S FACE— DOCTRINE OF KES IPSA LO- 
QUITUR APPLIED— CONDUCTOR PLACING 
HIMSELF IN SUCH POSITION ON SIDE 
STEP AS TO BE IN DANGER OF 
FALLING OFF. 



Kohner vs. The Capital Traclon Co. (D. C), 31 Wash. Law Rep. 
442. Jimc 3, IQ03. 
The plaintiff while riding in an open summer car was injured by 
the right hanri of the conductor coming in violent contact with his 
face, lacerating and bruising his nose and right eye. . The court of 
apIN-aN of the District of Columbia holds that it was plainly a case 
where the doclrinc of re-! ipsa lo<|uilur (the matter speaks for itself) 
applied, and threw up<jn (he the defendant the burden of proving 
that there was no negligence on its pari, and that the injury was the 
result of unavoidable accident. On lichalf of the defendant, the 



testimony of the conductor, which was nut controverted, was lo the 
effect that while he was moving forward on the side step of the car, 
holding some punched transfers in his hand, he, in some unaccounta- 
I>le way, lost his lialance and was about to fall from the car ; and 
that, in trying to regain his balance, he threw his other hand for- 
ward to grasp the stanchion, or upright post of the car, against 
which the jilaintiff, as he stated, was reclining his head, and in so 
doing struck the plaintiff in the eye. Whether this explanation 
was sufficient in law to rebut the presumption of negligence raised 
by the prima facie case of the plaintiff, since it left untouched the 
question whether' the conductor was not guilty of negligence in plac- 
ing himself in .such position as that he was in danger of falling off, 
the court .says might perhaps be doubted. But, assuming the ex- 
planation, if well founded in fact, was sufficient in law to rebut 
the presumption of negligence, yet the question remained whether it 
was well founded in fact, and that presented a (inestion for the 
jury 

RIGHT OF ABUITER ON COUNTRY ROAD TO INJUNC- 
TION AGAINST STREET RAILWAY— RAILROAD 
CROSSINC; TURNPIKE NOT AN ABU'TTER— 
RIGiri- TO USE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 
BUILT BY RAILROAD. 



North Pennsylvania Railroad Co. vs. Inland Traction Co. (Pa.), 55 
Atl. Rep. 774- May 4, 1903. 

In the case of the' occupation of a township road maintained by 
■■npervisors, the supreme court of Pennsylvania says that the rule 
goes no further than that while an injunction, if applied for in 
time, will issue at the instance of an abutting owner lo protect his 
own land from an additional burden on it, it is none of his con- 
cern that his neighbors on the opixisite side of the niacl omseiii 
lo the use of their lands by a passenger railway company, so long 
as, from such use, no injury results to him. The protection by in- 
junction to which each landowner is entitled is contined to his 
own properly. 

At the point where a railroad crossed a turnpike it ran Ihrough 
a deep cut, over which there was a bridge, erected by the railroad 
company as a part of the turnpike for the accommodation of travel, 
and the court holds lh.at, although llie railroad company was ;i laml- 
owner on each side of Ihe tnniiiike where the railroad crossed it, it 
was not at that point an abiUling landowner having a right to 
complain of a traction company's imposition of .111 adilitioiial scrvi 
Hide upon its land. The crossing of the turnpike b.\ il^ tracks maile 
Ihe bridging of a deep cut necessary, and the bridge became a part 
of the highway; but the railroad company was not, at that cross- 
ing, an abiilling landowner lo the jiassengcr railway. .And the court 
holds lli.Ll, in view of the expressed readiness and willingness of 
ihe traction company to so reconstruct and sirenglhen Ihe bridge 
as thai il should be amply safe for the transporl.ilion and carriage 
of its traffic and cars over and across the same, Ilie only objeclioii 
that the railroad company could make lo the use of Ihe turnpike at 
that point disappeared. 



FRANCHISE AND RIGHT OF WAY ARE REALTY— NO 
WARRANTY BY VENDORS TO BE ASSl'MED— DIS- 
TINCTION IN MEANINGS OF TERM "FRAN- 
CHISE"— RIGHT TO RUN OVER STREET 
MAY BE ABANDONED WITH- 
OUT CONSENT OF S'TATE. 



'I'hompson vs. Sclieneclady Railway Co. 1 U. S. C. C. ), IJ| \'ci\. 

Rep. J74. July 16, i(X)3. 

Certain [jarlies who purchased at foreclosure sale all Ihe prop 

erly, including "all Ihe franchises," of a slreel railway company 

having m liirn sold lo a railw;iy conip,'iny. which llu-y in fad organ- 



54 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV. Nc. i. 



izcd, the United States circuit court, N. D. New York, holds that 
their transfer of the right to run over a portion of a certain avenue 
was one of real property; for a franchise, both at common law and 
by New York statute, is real estate, being classified as an incor- 
poreal hereditament. So, also, the right of way over the properly 
of abutting street owners is an easement, and thus real estate. And 
the court declares that it could not assume that the vendors gave 
a full covenant or warranty deed. Indeed, it says that if there was 
any presumption, it was thai they granted no more than they had 
a right to convey. It would be preposterous for the court, having 
before it the simple fact that a conveyance of really had been made, 
to read into it a covenant of title. 

The point that the right to run over a portion of a certain ave- 
nue could not be abandoned without the consent of the state the 
court holds was not well taken. It says that counsel fell into error 
as to the meaning of the word "franchise." It may be true that a 
corporation cannot abandon its franchise — cannot commit suicide- 
without the consent of its creator, the state. But "franchise," i. e.. 
the right to e.xist and perform certain acts, is a thing distinct from 
the property rights which the corporation when crcalcd may ac- 
quire from individuals. The "franchise," the charter granted by the 
state, is one thing; the property rights, including rights of way 
which the chartered body may acquire from private .individuals, is 
quite another. These latter may be lost by acts of the corporation, 
and the approval of the state is not necessary. 



DUTY TO PASSENGERS IN ATTEMPTING TO RUN CAR 
THROUGH MOB OR IN APPROACHING ANY 
PLACE OF DANGER— CARE RE- 
QUIRED AS TO APPLI- 
ANCES. 



Bosworth vs. Union Railroad Co. (R. I.), 55 .\tl. Rep. 4yo. May i,!. 
1903. 

The plaintiff alleged that it was the duty of the defendant com- 
pany to exercise the utmost vigilance and care in guarding and pro- 
tecting him, as and while a passenger, against violence and risk of 
injury; and that the company was negligent in not exercising proper 
and adequate care and vigilance in guarding and protecting him, 
while he was its passenger, against mob violence, and in attempt- 
ing to run its car through a mob without warning him of the dan- 
gers to which he was being exposed thereby, in consequence of which 
he sustained the injury complained of. The supreme court of 
Rhode Island overrules a demurrer to such statement of the com- 
pany's duty. 

The court says that it recognizes the distinction in the law be- 
tween the degree of care to be used in the company's stationary and 
in its locomotive appliances. The more stringent rule is estab- 
lished for the protection of passengers while in transit. During 
their passage they are to be guarded liot only against accidents result- 
ing from defects in the running appliances, but also from dangers 
arising out of the recklessness or carelessness of the servants of 
the common carrier. With the best appliances it would be possible 
for a careless or reckless servant to propel a car into danger; as, 
for instance, into an open draw on a bridge, into a blazing station, or 
into a drove of infuriated cattle. In approaching any place of dan- 
ger it is the duty of the common carrier of passengers and its serv- 
ants to exercise the utmost care, caution, vigilance, and skill which 
prudent men would use under like circumstances. 

Whether the servants and agents of the company did exercise 
that degree of care and skill at the time and place alleged by the 
plaintiff was a question of fact, which must Ik- determined by a 
jury. 



PRIORITY OF CLAIMS AGAINST FUND DERIVED BY 
FORECLOSURE. 



Mersick vs. Hartford & West Hartford Horse Railroad Co. (Conn.), 
55 Atl. Rep. 664. July 24, 1903. 
August I, 1894, the company mortgaged all its property and 
franchises, as permitted by statute to do, to the state treasurer, 
as trustee, to secure the payment of its bonds. August I, 1897, it 
made default of payment of interest on said bonds, and no interest 
was afterwards paid thereon. February 4, 1899, the trustee, at the 
request of certain bondholders, and in accordance with the terms 
of the mortgage, which expressly empowered him to "operate and 



conduct the business of said railroad company," assumed the pos- 
session and management of the road, placed one of the bondholders 
in control as his agent, and, March 4, 1899, commenced an action 
for the foreclosure of the morlgage and the appointment of a re- 
ceiver. After the sale of the mortgaged property in such action, 
the question was raised as to the priority allowance of certain claims 
from the proceeds in the hands of the receiver. There were no 
earnings of the railroad in his hands, as the operating expenses 
during the receivership had exceeded the receipts; and there had 
l)ecn no diversion of the current income for the benefit of the 
mortgagees. 

The supreme court of errors of Connecticut holds that the trustee 
was entitled to have allowed a claim for wages paid while he was 
in possession, and one for wages due employes for about three 
months before he took possession, which he had paid because it was 
practically impossible to resume the operation of the road with- 
out first paying same, the employes having struck because of non- 
payment of wages. It also holds that a claim for rent paid for an- 
other line operated during the period the trustee was in posses- 
sion was entitled to priority of payment over the mortgage debt 
But it holds that a claim for money advanced by a bondholder, .\pril 
14. i8q8, to the railroad company to pay taxes was not entitled 
to such priority; nor was one for money advanced by him, in April, 
1898, to pay wage; of employes and other pressing claims against the 
company; and a claim for rental of the other road prior to the time 
the trustee took possession was not privileged over the claims of 
bondholders. The court says that it is not prepared to accept as 
law the rule, which seems to have been adopted in some cases, that 
those who have rendered services or furnished supplies » keep 
a railroad in operation, after the mortgage interest is in arrear, 
and the bondholders have the right to take possession under their 
mortgage, are entitled to priority of payment over the mortgagees 
from the body of the mortgaged property, or the proceeds of the 
sale thereof, when there has been no diversion of the earnings of 
the railroad to the benefit of the liondholders. 



BL'RNING OUT OF FUSE— NOT ORDINARILY EVIDENCE 

OF NEGLIGENCE— IMPROPER LOCATION 

OF FUSE BOX. 



Cassady vs. Old Colony Street Railway Co. (Mass.). 68 N. E. Rep. 
10. Sept. 3, 1903. 

When a fuse burns out, it cannot be said, according to the su- 
preme judicial court of Massachusetts, that the connection between 
the occurrence and negligence is such as, in the absence of other 
evidence, to justify the conclusion that the result was due to negli- 
gence. The ordinary burning out of a fuse, therefore, is not prima 
facie evidence of negligence. 

But the court says that the jui'y may properly have found that 
there was something else in this case. The plaintiff testified that 
she was sitting on the car, and all at once a large flame of fire, or a 
blaze, came all over her. and she sprang off her seat, and started 
to go out of the car on the other side of it. when a lady pushed her 
back, which was the last she remembered until about three weeks 
afterwards, when she found herself in bed. It was true that the 
expert testimony for the defense tended to show that there could 
have been no such flame, and hence that there could have been no 
such burning as was further described. Still, the court says that 
the jury, upon the evidence, may have found that the flame in this 
case was not the instantaneous and harmless flame \yhich results 
from the burning out of a fuse when in proper condition; that the 
burning of this fuse was attended with unusual results, which 
would not have occurred if the fuse had been in proper condition ; 
and that the most reasonable conclusion was that, if proper care 
had been exercised, there would have been no such flame. 

Moreover, the court says that there was another feature in this 
case of some importance. This was an open car, and this fuse 
box was placed directly under a seat intended for passengers, so 
that if, for any reason, there should be a harmful flame resulting 
from the burning out of a fuse, it might l)e reasonably apprehended 
that it would reach and injure a passenger. While, therefore, the 
mere burning out of a fuse properly located and in proper condition 
does not of itself import negligence on the part of the defendant, 
still, if the fuse be so located as, by its burning out, to injure a 
passenger, such a location may be inconsistent with the degree of 
care which a common carrier owes to its passengers. It would 



Jan. 



20. 1904. 



STREET RAILW AY REVIEW. 



55 



be something like arranging the safety valve of a locomotive engine 
so that the escaping steam might reach a passenger in his seat. 

The conclusion is that, upon the whole, the plaintiff had a right 
to go to the jur>- on the question of the ncgligenceof the defendant, 
and the court overrules exceptions to a judgment in favor of the 
plaintiff. 



Ll.XBlLITV FOR KILLING COW WHICH iMOTOR.M.W 

MIGHT HAVE SEEN ON TR.\CK 150 FEET .VHEAD 

—POWER TO STOP CAR IN 150 FEET ON DOWN 

GRADE NOT TO BE ASSUMED. 



Kotila vs. Houghton County Street Railway Co. (.Mich.), g6 N. W. 
Rep. 437. Sep. 15, 1903. 
A motorman seeing an animal, like a cow, upon the track, the 
supreme court of Michigan holds, cannot assume that the animal 
will, use diligence for its own protection. Nevertheless, the motor- 
man cannot be held bound to anticipate danger to such an animal 
until it has reached, or at least approached, the path of the car. 
Therefore, in this case, to warrant the jury in finding a verdict 
for the plaintiff for the killing of his cow. notwithstanding his ad- 
mitted contributory negligence in permitting the cow to be at 
large, the evidence should have warranted the inference that the 
motorman, after he discovered, or by the exercise of due care 
should have discovered, the cow in the position of danger, could, 
by the use of the appliances at hand, have either stopped the car, or 
so checked its speed as to prevent the injury which actually oc- 
curred. Moreover, the court says that it cannot agree with the 
statement that it is common knowledge that an electric car can be 
stopped within much less than 150 feet. Counsel asked too much 
when he asked the jury to assume, without any testimony whatever, 
that a car, going down grade at a great speed, could, by the use of 
ordinary appliances, be stopped in 150 feet. Clearly, this could not 
be assumed. Neither could it be assumed that in going that dis- 
tance the speed of the car could be so checked that the cow would 
not have received injuries which, so far as damages were con- 
cerned, would not have been equivalent tn its destruction. 



INSUFFICIENT NOTICE AS TO STOPPING PLACES- 
CLEARNESS REQUIRED IN REGULATIONS IN- 
TENDED FOR THE PUBLIC— DUTY WHEN 
CAR STOPS WITHIN FIFTY FEET OF 
CORNER— ATTEMPTING TO 
ALIGHT AT UNUSUAL 
PLACES. 



United Railways & Electric Co. of Baltimore City vs. Uertel (Md.), 
55 Atl. Rep. 428. June 2g, 1903. 

A notice posted on cars read: "Warning. No one is permitted 
to ride on the platform, or to get off or on when the car is in mo- 
tion. Persons are warned of the danger. Cars stop to take on 
and let off pas.scngcrs at near sides of cross-streets. Those violat- 
ing these orders do so at their own risk. No officer or agent of the 
company has authority to waive these regulations." The court of 
appeals of Maryland holds language of this warning did not justify 
the construction that such regulation notified passengers that cars 
stopped for them to alight at cross-streets only. It says that if 
the company intended to warn passengers that they were not per- 
mitted to get on and off at any other place than the near side of 
cross-streets, it could at least have inserted the word "only," or 
some similar term, in the warning. As the notice read, it might well 
be undcrstCKKJ to mean that the cars wou'd stop at the near side, and 
not at the far side of cross-streets. Those using cars represent 
all degrees of intelligence and experience in traveling, and a rail- 
way company should not be permitted to couch its regulations in- 
tended for the public in language of doubtful meaning, if it proposes 
10 relieve itself of the results of its own negligence by claiming that 
a passenger has been injured through the violation of one of such 
regulations. 

When a car stops so near the corner as even the testimony of 
the company showed the one in question stopped— at a point some- 
where within 50 feet of the corner— the court holds that it is not 
exacting an unreasonable precaution on the part of the company's 
agents to require them to ascertain whether any of the passen- 
gers arc alighting, as they might well l»elieve the car had slopped 



for that purpose. They are frequently required to stop by reason of 
some obstruction on the tracks, and, if passengers undertake to get 
off at unusual places without notice to the conductor of their inten- 
tion to do so, and are injured, they will ordinarily have no right to 
hold the railway company responsible, but when the car stops so 
near the regular slopping places as would probably cause the pas- 
sengers to believe that they had reached the place for them to alight, 
it is asking very little of the company to require the conductor to 
warn the passengers, or see that none of them are in the act of 
alighting, before the car is again put in motion. 



WHEN PRIVATE INDIVIDUAL CANNOT COMPEL BY 
MANDAMUS GIVING OF TRANSFERS. 



People ex rel. Lehmaier vs. Interurban Street Railway Co. (N. V. 
Sup.) 83 N. Y. Supp. 622. July 7, igo3. 
Where a statute requiring the giving of transfers gives to each 
person injured by a violation of its provisions a right to recover 
a penalty of $50 for each refusal of the corporation to give a contin- 
uous passage, and provides for the enforcement of the obligation 
to give transfers by the railroad commissioners and the attorney 
general, the first appellate division of the supreme court of New 
York holds that a private individual has no right to compel a 
company by mandamus to issue transfers. It says that it is the 
people collectively who have granted the franchise or corporate 
existence that have the right to detcrmitie and to enforce the ob- 
ligations imposed upon the corporation ; and where provision is 
made in the statute creating the obligation for a proceeding by 
public officers to enforce it, who are vested with a discretion as to 
the time and method by which it shall be enforced, it would seem 
to follow that the application to enforce the provisions of the stat- 
ute must be made in the manner provided in the statute, and that 
an individual who has no other interest in the enforcement of the 
statute except that of one of the people of the state at large has 
no right to apply in the court for a mandamus compelling the cor- 
poration 10 perform the duties imposed upon it. 



MEASURE OF BENEFIT OF LOCAL IMPROVEMEN IS TO 
REALTY HELD BY COMPANY UNDER LEASE. 



Chicago Union Traction Co. vs. City of Chicago (111.), 68 N. E. 
Rep. 519. Oct. 26, 1903. 
Where a street railway company owning city lots on a part of 
which was a power house leased said lots for 99 years to another 
street railway company "for street railway purposes only," and 
the latter subsequently leased them to other parties for ordinary 
business purposes, the supreme court of Illinois holds that if the 
paving and grading of an alley would increase the market value of 
the lots such increase in value would be the proper measure of the 
benefit of the improvement in the property, for the purposes of a 
special assessment therefor. 



POWER OF STATE TO PROVIDE FOR TAXATION OF 
SPECIAL FRANCIHSK.S-DEFINITION OF GICNERAI. 
AND SPECIAL FRANCl I ISES— lANGIRLE PROPERTY 
INSEPARAMI.l'. PAR r OF SPECIAL FRANCHISE. 



People vs. Slate Hoard of Tax Commissioners (N. Y.), 67 N. E. 
Rep. 6g. Apr. 28, 1903. 

The court of appeals of New York holds that chapter 712 of the 
New York laws of 1899, which authorizes the assessment or valua- 
tion, for the purpose of general taxation, of all special franchises 
by a state board of tax commissioners appointed by the governor, 
docs not violate that pari of the state con.stitution which provides 
for home rule in certain political divisions of the state. 

The general franchise of a corporation, the court says, is its right 
to live and do business by the exercise of the corporate powers 
granted by the stale. The general franchise of a street railroad 
company, for instance, is llie special privilege conferred by the 
state upon a certain number of persons, known as the "corporators," 
to become a street r;iilrn,ifl 1 nrporallon, ami (o conslruci and oper- 
ate a street railroail iipMii ccnain rniidilions. Such a fr.'inrhise, 
however, gives the corporalioii no right to do anylhing in the pub- 
lic highways without special aulhorily from the stale, or some 
municipal officer or hcjdy acting under its aulhorily. When a right 



5b 



STUi-:i':r railway ki;\ ihA\, 



IVwL Xl\'. No. 



ol way over ii i)iil>lic slreel is granted to siicli a corporation, with 
leave to conMriicl and operate a street railroad tliereon, the privilege 
h known as a "special franchise," or the right to do something in 
the public highway, which, except for the grant, wonid he a tres- 
pass. 

The statute, which is an amendment of the gencrnl tax law. de- 
clares, in substance, that the right, authority, or permission to con- 
struct, maintain, or operate some structure, intended for public 
use, "in. under, above, on or through streets, highways or public 
places," such as railroads, gas pipes, water mains, poles and wires 
for electric, telephone, and telegraph lines, and the like, is a spe- 
cial franchise. I''or the purpose of taxation, such a franchise is 
made real estate, and is "deemed to include the value of the tangi- 
ble property of a person, copartnership or corporation situated in. 
uixm. under or above any street, highway, public place or public 
waters in connection with the special franchise and taxed as a 
|)art thereof." This, the court says, includes nothing but what is 
in the street, directly or indirectly, and excludes power houses. 
depots, and all structures without the lines of the street. The 
taxes thus imposed arc for general purposes, and are collected in 
the same way and used for the same objects as other taxes upon 
the general assessment roll. Moreover, the court regards the tangi- 
ble property as an inseparable part of the special franchises men- 
tioned in the statute, constituting with them a new entity, which. 
as a going concern can neither be assessed nor sold to advantage 
except as one thing, single and entire. And it says that the func- 
tion of assessing a special franchise does not. in its nature, belong 
to a county, city, town or village, for it has never been exercised 
by officers of such localities, but to the state, by which it is now- 
exercised for the first time. It is not exclusively local in character. 
and home rule applies only to functions peculiar to localities. 

Nor does the court consider that the taxation of a special fran- 
chise impairs the obligation of a contract, and thus violates llie 
federal constitution. It says that while all attempts of municipali- 
ties to undermine or destroy franchises by changing the terms of 
the grant have been promptly repressed by tlie courts, there is no 
case which holds that a franchise, whether general or special, can- 
not be taxed the same as other private property. The condition 
upon which a franchise is granted is the purchase price of the 
grant, the payment of which in money, or by an agreement to 
bear some burden, brought the property into existence, which 
thereupon became taxable at the will of the legislature, the same 
as land granted or leased by the state. 



COI.I.ISIOX WITH FIRE DEPARTMRKT HOSK WAGON— 
WHAT DRIVER OF FIRE VEHICLE MAY EXPECT— 
ATTEMPTING TO CROSS AHEAD OF CAR— UNCON- 
TROLLED SPEED OF TEAM— JUDGING OF SPEED OF 
APPROACHING CAR— DUTY OF LOOKING AND LIS 1- 
ENIiNG FOR CAR— MAY SHOAV ABILI TY OF CAR TO 
MAKE GREAT SPEED. 



Hanlon vs. Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. (Wis.l. 1)5 
N. W. Rep.. 100, May 29. 190.?. 
The omission to look and listen for an approaching car when the 
opportunity to do so exists, and the needless attempt to m.ake the 
crossing ahead of the car with knowledge of its approach in such 
proximity and at such speed as to make the attempt dangerous, the 
supreme court of Wisconsin says nuisl be held negligence as mat- 
ter of law. But the coi-rt is of the opinion that it was not beyond 
reason for a jury to conclude that the plaintiflf. a member of the city 
fire department driving a hose wagon, after having given warning 
of his approach by such clamor of his gong that it was heard by 
people shut up in houses while he was still a block or more away, 
and when he drove out from a cross street into plain sight of the 
motorman 90 feet away, might have believed reasonably that his 
presence was known, and might reasonably have expected that the 
usual and customary efforts to keep the car back from collision 
would be made. If that had been done, there was no pretense but 
the wagon would have passed in safely ; hence, the court says, a 
decision to make the attempt would not have been unreasonable. In 
other words, the court holds that, although it might have been neg- 
ligence in law for a traveler under ordinary conditions to have 
taken the chance of crossing ahead of a car in the proximity and at 
the speed of this one, still the circumstances surrounding the plain- 



tiff so differed that reasonable minds might consider the same at- 
tempt by him within the bounds of due care; hence that the ques- 
tion was one properly for the jury. 

Uncontrolled speed of the team, the court says, might or might 
not have been contributory negligence. It might or might not have 
contributed to the collision ; for if, when the plaintiff reached the 
>treel on which the car was, and saw the car, it was consistent with 
ordinary care under all the circumstances for him to decide that it 
was safe to cross ahead of it, then the attempt so to do might not be 
negligence, although the event did not justify it; especially if, as 
the evidence tended to prove, the collision was due to conduct on 
the part of the motorman such as an ordinarily prudent person, driv- 
ing a fire vehicle, would not have anticipated. In such case the 
antecedent rapidity of approach woulil have no casual connection 
with the collision. 

An instruction was requested to the efTect that one approaching a 
street railroad track, and "having a reasonable opportunity to judge 
of the .speed of an approaching car, is bound to know such speed, 
and cannot assume that it is running at a speed consistent with or- 
dinary care and proceed upon that assumption." Assuming that 
this instruction correctly stated an abstract rule of law applicable 
to ordinary circumstances, the court says it would be highly mis- 
leading in a ca.se of this sort, where there were additional circum- 
stances naturally affecting the driver's conduct ; most prominent 
among them the custom of operators of cars to change their speed, 
either by slowing up or stopping, in order to give opportunity for 
the fire vehicle to pass. The man who has a right, in the exercise 
of ordinary prudence, to assume that such efforts will be made and 
be effective, is not necessarily negligent because he attempts to pass 
in front of a car, although it would be likely to collide with him if 
it continued at its known speed. The ordinary traveler has no right 
in the exercise of a reasonable prudence, to indulge such expecta- 
tion; but the driver of a fire department vehicle has, if he has 
reason to believe that his presence is known to the motorman. 

Moreover, the court holds this instruction erroneous in requiring 
of every man "having a reasonable opportunity to judge" that he 
judge correctly, and "know" the correct speed. This, it says, goes 
beyond any authority in this or other courts. He is obliged to 
know that which the ordinarily prudent and intelligent man would 
have known under the circumstances. Having reasonable oppor- 
tunity to judge, he must reach the conclusion of the ordinary man. 
and not the infallible one. These suggestions, the court adds, are 
especially applicable to one who gets but a glance of a car or train 
approaching him nearly head on. for he is not at all well situated to 
observe accurately the speed. He must observe what is perceptible, 
but beyond this the law does not charge him with knowledge. 

An instruction to the effect that one approaching a car track 
"must, in the exercise of ordinary care, look and listen for an ap- 
proaching car, and continue so to look and listen up to the last 
moment that such acts would be of any virtue in preventing a col- 
lision with a car," the court says is a correct abstract rule in most 
of its language, but is faulty in lacking the qualification that one 
must look and listen if he have opportunity so to do. There is 
possibility, especially with one inanaging a team and vehicle, that 
his continued observation of the track in either direction may be at 
least morally impossible ; that his attention may be not diverted, but 
absolutely forced away from watchfulness. For example, in this 
case it was just as essential to the plaintiff's due care that he should 
look westward for an approaching car as that he should look cast- 
ward. If this instruction required him, from the moment he was 
in position to see up or down the street, to keep his eyes fastened 
on this particular car, and to govern his conduct without informing 
himself as to the condition of things in the other direction, it of 
course contained its own refutation, (or that would necessarily be 
negligence. 

After several witnesses had described the speed of the car at 
varying rates up to 25 iniles an hour, and the motorman himself 
had testified that he had his power lever thrown open to the eighth, 
or second highest, notch, the court holds that, in this situation, the 
ability of the car to make great speed was certainly a legitimate 
fact to be drawn out in testing the accuracy of the motorman as a 
witness, who had claimed that his speed was only seven or eight 
miles per hour, and that no error was committed in permitting him 
to be cross-examined as to whether the car in question was not a 
specially rapid one ; he finally stating that, while not the most rapid, 
there were only two others which excelled it. 



Jan. 20. igo+l 



STREET RAll.WAN' KE\ ll'.W 



^/ 



Fiuaucial. 

Tile earnirgs from transportation of the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway and Light Co. for the last fiscal year anioniited to $2,546,- 
103- 



The gross earnings of the Dnluth (Minn.) Street Railway Co. 
for the year ending Nov. 30. 1903. amounted to $155,346. In igoi 
the gross amounted to $117,904, and in igo2, $138,162. 



Ihe gross and net earnings of the Northern Ohio Traction & 
Light Co., of Akron, for the past four years are reported as fol- 
lows: 1900 — gross. $425,885: net, $164,508. 1901 — gross. $617,010; 
net. $266,166. 1902 — gross. $745,043: net, S334.251. 1903 — gross, 
$830,000: net, $396,000. 



The Sheboygan Light, Power & Railway Cos. annual statement 
shows the gross earnings in the railw.iy department to have been 
$35-314- Ihe receipts from light and power were $57,545. 



The Milford & Uxbridge (Mass.) Street Railway Co. reported 
for the year ending Sept. 30, 1903, as follows: Operating ex- 
penses, $11,979; 'let earnings, $137,986: interest and other charges, 
$.U-t5" ; surplus. $3,528. 



The annual report of the Fitchburg & Leouiiusler (Mass.) Street 
Railway Co., for the year ending Sept. 30. 1903, shows operating 
expenses of $109,422, as against $121,272 in 1902; net earnings. $88,- 
934, as compared with $64,174; dividends, $21,000 each year; surplus, 
$846, as against $6,289 the pre\ious year. The operating expenses 
decreased 9.7 per cent, while the net earnings increased ,38.5 per 
cent. 



Ihe Haverhill & .\mesbury (Mass.) Street Railway Cos. operat- 
ing expenses for the year ending Sept. 30, 1903. were $73,490, an 
increase of 1.9 per cent; net earnings, $35,900, a decrease of 12.7 
pcr cent ; deficit. $2,326. against a surplus of $220 the year before 
\o dividends were paid either year. 



The Eastern Wisconsin Electric Railway & Light Co's. gross 
earnings for the year ending Dec. i, 1903, amounted to $133,665, 
of which the Fond du Lac city lines earned $44,471; the Fond du 
Lac & Oskosh interurban line, $.?5.767, and the electric lighting 
department, $53,427. 



The first report of the Kenosha Electric Railway Co.. made to 
the city treasurer, shows that during the to months ending Deccm- 
l)er 1st the company carried $375,000 passengers, the earnings from 
operation l)cing $19,191, exclusive of $3,000 received from advertis- 
ing. -The company operates three cars. 



The annual report of the Woronoco Street Railway Co., of West- 
field, Mass., shows gross earnings amounting to $77,2r9; operat- 
ing expenses, $51,558; number of passengers carried, 1,5.34,470. 



The Seattle Electric Co. reported operating expenses for the year 
ending Oct. 31. 1903, as $1,492,522, an increase of 19,7 per cent ; 
net earnings. $588,392, an increase of 4.7 per cent ; net incoiiu'. 
$299.««4. 



For the year ending Oct. 3t, 1003, the operating expenses of Ihe 
Tcrre Haute Electric Co. were $.300,384; net earnings. $156,150; 
and Ihe net earnings 176.6 per cent. 



ITlc Tampa (Fla.) Electric Co. rcporlefl for the year ending 
Oct. 31, 1903, as follows: Operating expenses, $[65,144; "el earn- 
ifg'. $130,680; net income, $io6,.363. Conipareil with Ihe previous 
year the operating expenses increased 23.7 per cent and the net 
earnings increased 40.2 per cent. 



year ending Oct. 31, 190.5, were $j()8.5C)i ; net earnings. $155,134; 
net income. $74,196. The operating expenses increased 35.7 per 
cent and the net earnings 4.5 per cent. 



The Greenwich (Conn.) Tramway Co's. annual report shows 
operating expenses amounting to $28,151; net earnings. $18,267; -''t"'- 
plus, $18077; iKisscngcrs. 928,384. Compared with the year ending 
June 30, 1902, the operating expenses increased 85. o per cent and tlie 
net earnings increased 125 per cent. 



Tlic Middktown (Conn.) Street Railway Co. reported for the 
year ending June 30, 1903, as follows: Operating expenses, $31,683, 
an increa.sc of 14 per cent; net earnings. $10,267. a decrease of 16.7 
per cent; deficit, $156; passengers, 1,000,923. 



The Fair llavrn & Westville Railroad Co., which operates in 
New Haven. Conn., and vicinity, reported for the year ending 
Ju::e 30, 1903, as follows : Operating expenses, $642,962. an in- 
crease of 2.4 per cent; net earnings, $370,580. an increase of 5.1 
per cent; surplus. $4,264; passengers, 25,804.187. 



The l-laiilmry S: Bethel Street Railway Co., of Danlnu'y, Conn., 
reported for the year ending June ,?o, 1903, operating expenses 
amounting to $61,072, an increase of 8 per cent ; net earnings. $19,831' 
a decre:ise of 65 per cent; deficit. $3,383: passengers, 2,001,790. 



Ihe Torrington (Conn.) & Winchester Street Railway Co's. an- 
rual report for the year ending June ,?o, 1903, contains the follow- 
ing: Operating expenses, $.30,,34i, an increase of 20. 9 per cent; net 
earrings, $20,552. a decrease of 7.1 per cent; deficit. $14,099; passen- 
gers, 1,030,460. 



The directors of the Cleveland Electric Railway Co. have voted 
to increase its bonded indebtedness $1,650,000, and' negotiations arc 
under way for the sale of the l)onds to New York and Boston 
financiers. With this issue the bonded debt nf the company will 
anioinit to about $8,000,000, or alK>ut one-third of its stock issue. 
The sale will enable the company to discharge nearly all its floating 
debt. 



The several companies (>|x:rating in York, Pa., .uid \nvk Ccninty 
under the consolidation known as the York County Traction Co.. 
show an excellent record for the last fiscal year. Dividends were 
declared by these companies as follows : York Street Railway Co., 
$43350; York & Dallastowii Electric Railway Co.. $15,000; York & 
Dover F.lectric Railway Co., $11,050. 



The gross earnings of Ihe Janesville Traction Co., of Janesvilli 
Wis., for the yt'ar ending Dec. i. 1903, amounted to $13,554. 



The gross earnings of the Waltham (Mass.) Street Railway Co. 
for the year ending Sept. ,30, 1903, amounted to $3,603 ; operating 
expenses, $7,729; deficit, $8,020. This was the first year of the 
company's operation. 



The (ireenfield (Mass.) & 'Turner's Falls .Street Railway Co. re- 
ported operating expenses for the year ending .Sept. ,30, i')03, of 
$35..W6. against $31,110 in 1902, an increase of 13.6 per cent; lut 
earnings, $27,450, against $20,506, an increase of .13.8 per cent ; 
rliviilends, $6,137. against $4,(120 the previous year; surplus, $13,085, 
agaiuM $7,791. 



'The operatin:^; expenses of the Worcester (Mass.) & Blackstone 
Valley Street Railway Co, for the year ending Sept. .30, 1903, 
amounted to $41,710. against $37,192 the year before, an increase of 
12.1 per cent; net earnin«s. $26,200. against $18,617, an increase of 
40.7 per cent; surplus, $6,975, against $10,056 llu' previous year. 
The company paid no dividends either year. 



For till 



.... :he year ending Se|)t. ,10, 1903. the Old Colony Street Rail- 
way Co., Rrockloii, Mass., reported o|ierating expenses amounting 
to $1,526,513, against $1,454,215 Ihe previous year; net earnings, 
$876,310, against $830,122; dividends, $3.19.983, against $288,885; sur- 
plus. $5,316, against $60,079. 

The Hrnnion fTcx.) Electric Co's. operating cxik-iiscs for the The Boston & Northern Street Railway Co,, noston, rcporleil 



For the year ending Oct. 31. 1903, the operating expenses of the 
Savannah (G-i.) Electric Co. amounted to $.306,276, an increase of 
103 per cent; net earnings, $206,930, an increase of 4.5 per cent ; net 
income, $H9..344. 



58 



stri:kt railway rl:vifav. 



I Vol.. XIV, No. 1. 



as follows for the year ending Sept. 30, 1903; Operating expenses, 
;?-■, 309,69 1. .iR.iiiist $j.i 13,^62; net earnings, $1,337,53". against 
$1,370,288; (lividcncls. $483,000, agjiinsi $367,380; siirphis, $5,334. 
MKainst $134,045. 



I lie West Kiid Strcit Kailway Co., Boston, fur the year ending 
Sept. 30, li;03, reported an increase of $1,171470, against $i,i55,4.sO 
in 1902; surplus, $554, against $763. I lie income comes from rental 
and dividends received from the Hoston Elevated Railway Co. 
January ist the latter company paid the semi-annnal dividend rental 
of $3 per share on the West End company's preferred stock. 



Mr. J. Morgan, president and general manager of the People's 
Rapid Transit Co., of Toledo, states that he has made the financial 
arrangement for the construction of the new road from Toledo to 
Cincinnati. .\ New York construction company will huild the 
road. Mr. Morgan states that a $6,000,000 hond issue has been 
negotiated, and tirat the securities will be placed abroad. Five 
miles of track betwen Defiance and Napoleon have been graded. 



The St. Louis Transit Co. reports gross earnings' for November 
of $592,769, as compared with $553,577 in November. 1902. This is 
a gain of $113,379 over November, 1901. For the eleven months 
ending Nov. 30, i<;03, the receipts were $6,681,731, as against $5,312,- 
794 in 1902 and $5,888,237 in 1901. 



The annual report of the Worcester & Si>iitlibridgo (Mass.) 
Street Railway Co., as prepared by the receivers, showed gross 
earnings of $102,387; operating expenses, $53,102; net earnings. 
$549,285 ; fixed charges, $19,923 : net income, $29,362. Dividends 
paid amounted lo $15,000, leaving a surplus of $14,362. 



The Interstate Consolidated Street Railway Co.. of Pawtucket, 
R. L, which was absorbed by the Rhode Island Co., reported for the 
year ending Sept. 30, 1903, as follows: Operating expenses, $117.- 
791, as against $147,704 the year before, a decrease of 20.2 per cent ; 
net earnings, $34,820. against $38,118. a decrease of 8.6 per cent; 
surplus, $27,574. against $27,143 'lie previous year. No dividends 
have been paid by this company. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1903. the Brockton & Plymouth 
(Mass.) Street Railway Co. reported operating expenses of $62,487, 
against $58,938 the previous year, an increase of is per cent ; net 
earnings, $32,238, against $31,394 the previous year, an increase 
of 2.6 per cent; deficit, $3,156, against a surplus of $6,397. No divi- 
dends were paid in 1902 and 1903. 



The Northampton (Mass.) Street Railway Co. reported for the 
year ending Sept. .10, 1903, as follows: Operating expenses, $100,413, 
against $97,523 in 1902, an increase of 2.9 per cent ; net earnings, 
$50,618. against $47,322. an increase of 6.9 per cent ; dividends, each 
year, $24,000; surplus, $3,346 against a deficit of $3,492 the previous 
year. 



PROVIDENCE & FALL RIVER STREET RY. 



The Providence & Fall River Street Railway Co., Swansea Cen- 
ter, Mass., which operates electric lines in Swansea. Rehoboth and 
Seekonk, Mass.. reported for the year ending Sept. 30. 1903, as 
follows: Operating expenses, $31,487, angainst $29,609 the previous 
year; net earnings, $12,973, against $6,537 the year before; surplus. 
$392, against a deficit of $4,684 the previous year. The company 
paid no dividends either year. The operating expenses increased 
6.3 per cent, while the net earnings increased ii.t per cent. 

BOSTON SUBURBAN ELECTRIC COMP.\NIES. 



The seven subsidiary companies of the Boston Suburban Electric 
Companies, Newton, Mass., reported for the year ending Sept. 
30, 1903, as follows: Newton Street Railway Co. — Operating ex- 
penses. $98,132. against $95,205 in 1902; net earnings, $37,172. 
against $39,095; surplus, $13,683. against $2,311. Wellesley & Bos- 
ton Street Railway Co. — Operating expenses. $43,862. against 
$49,624; net earnings, $9,950, against $13,200; surplus, $1,163. against 
a deficit of $498. Newton & Boston Street Railway Co.— Operating 
expenses, $35,694, against $78,717; net earnings, $31,657, against 



$7,924; deficit, $56,891, against $27,473. Newtonvillc & Watertown 
Street Railway Co. — Operating expenses, (This company's tracks 
are used by the Newton & Boston comixiny and it has no operat- 
ing expenses.); net earnings, $8,845, against $7,919; surplus, $567, 
:igainst $558 Natick & Cochnnale Street Railway Co. — Operating 
ex|)enses, $71,958, against $64,964; net earnings, $16,965, against 
$14,786; surplus, $108, against $437. Lexington & Boston Street 
Railway Co. — Operating expenses, $125,152, against $100,979; net 
earnings, $39,538, against $44,113; surplus, $11,783, against $5,714. 
Conmionwctilth Avenue Street Railway Co. — Operating expenses, 
$68,441, against $63,803; net earnings. $23,488, against $17,511; 
deficit, $1,601, against $8,340. 



WOONSOCKET STREET KAILWAY CO. 



The operating expenses of the Woon.socket ( R. I.) Street Rail- 
way Co. for the year ending Sept. 30, 1903, amounted 10 $86,023, 
as compared with $77,048 the previous year; net earnings, $32,400, 
against $25,914 in 1902; surplus, $12,677, compared with $7,715. 
The company paid no dividends either year. The operating ex- 
penses increased 11.6 per cent and the net earnings increased 25 
per cent. The company operates electric railway lines in Blackstone, 
Mass., and Woonsocket, Cmntwrland and North Smithfield, R. I. 



YOUNGSTOWN-SHARON RY. 



For the nine months ending Sept. 30, 1903, the Youngstown- 
Sharon Railway & Light Co., 'V'oungstown, O., reported earnings 
from operations amounting to $383,220; operating expenses, includ- 
ing taxes. $226,313; net earnings, $156,907. 

For October the gross earnings amounted to $42,254; operating 
expenses, $25,929; net earnings, $16,325. 



HOLYOKE STREET RAILWAY CO. 



For the year ending Sept. 30, 1903, the Holyoke (Mass.) Street 
Railway Co. reported as follows : Operating expenses, $244,088, 
compared with $223,328 in 1902; net earnings, $116,630, against 
$104,949 the previous year; dividends, $56,000, against the same 
amount the year before; surplus, $7,482, against $2,156 the previous 
year. The operating expenses increased 9.2 per cent and the net 
earnings increased 1 1. 1 per cent. 



WORCESTER CONSOLIDATED STREET RY. 



The Worcester Consolidated Street Railway Co., Worcester, 
Mass., reported for the year ending Sept. 30, 1903, as follows : 
Operating expenses, $797,832, against $762,569 the preceding year; 
net earnings, $526,663. against $457,686 the previous year; dividends. 
$213,000, against $177,500 the previous year; surplus. $86, against 
$301 the previous year. The operating expenses increased 4.6 per 
cent and the net earnings increased 15 per cent. 



PENNSYLVANIA STATE REPORT. 



The returns to the Pennsylvania state bureau of railways for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1903, show that only 19 of the 100 
operating street railway companies in the state paid dividends during 
the year, while 65 of the 109 street railways whose lines are oper- 
ated by other companies paid dividends. The two largest corpora- 
tions — the Pittsburg Railways Co. and the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Co., do not pay dividends to their stockholders, but the 
dividends earned by them are paid to the stockholders of the street 
railway lines leased and operated by them, a large majority of whose 
stock is held by these operating companies. Of the 100 operating 
companies 97 reported to the bureau gross earnings from operation. 
$33,009,564; income from other sources. $7.^7,932. or a total income 
of $.^3,747,496, as against $29,001,741 reported the year before. The 
total number of employes reported, 19,955. as against 17,778 in 1902; 
total wages and salaries. $11,560,269, against $10,394,401 in 1902; 
total number of passengers carried during the year. 756,595.262, 
compared with 640,076,370 the previous year. The Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Co. employed 9,240 persons and the Pittsburg 
Railways Co, 4,507. The total cost of road and equipment reported 
by the operating companies is $84,354,406; last year. $73,663,692; 
total assets this year, $126,082,230: last year, $116,204,481; total 



1904 1 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



59 



amount of current liabilities, $16,130,866. as against $15,698,575 
last year. 



Earnings for the third week in December were $76,087, ,t gain of 
$1,046 over the corresponding week last year. 



INTERNATIONAL TRACTION CO. 



Following is the income account statement of the International 
Traction Co. system, Buffalo, N. Y., for November; 

1902 1903 Increase 

Gross earnings $292,878 $314,006 $21,128 

Operating expenses 160,694 183,067 22,272 

Net earnings 132.183 130.938 *l,244 

Fixed charges (Int., taxes, etc.) I27,i53 128,495 1,341 

Net income 5.029 2,443 *2,585 

Operating ratio 557 087 030 

Net income July 1st to date $142,388 $212,516 $70,128 

•Decrease. 



BE-WER VALLEY TRACTION CO. 



The Beaver Valley Iraction Co.. of Beaver Falls, Pa., reported 
earnings for 1903 as follows : 

Earnings from operation $227,409 

Operating expenses 126,206 

Net earnings 101,202 

Fixed charges .• 70,4'4 

Net income 307,88 

Balance forward • ■ 49.8o2 

Total surplus 80.590 

The operating ratio for the year was .5550, as against .5440 in 1902 
and .5982 in 1901. 



GRAND RAPIDS RAILWAY CO. 



The annual report of the Grand Rapids Railway Co. for the year 
ending Sept. 30, 1903. shows the following: 

1902 

Earnings from operation $586,123 

Operating expenses 291,151 

Net earnings 294,972 , _ . .. 

The total assets are given as $6,684,616, including cost of road 
and equipment, $6,560,339. The net earnings for the year are suffi- 
cient to pay interest on the bonds, 5 per cent dividend on the 
preferred stock, and leave $I37.II9. or 6.8 per cent on the common 
stock. 



1903 
$700,341 
350,722 
349,619 



Increase 
$114,218 

59,571 
54,647 



CLEVELAND & SOUTHWESTERN. 

The November earnings of the Qeveland (O.) & Southwestern 

Traction Co. compare with those of the Cleveland, Elyria & West- 
em Railway Co. for the same period last year as follows: 

1902 1903 Increase 

Earnings from operations '. $27,924 $37,86i $9,937 

Operating expenses 16,502 22,908 6,406 

Net earnings 11.421 14,952 3,.53i 

For 1 1 months : 

Earnings from operation $276,135 $4",7SO $i35,6i5 

Operating expenses 153.965 242,522 88,577 

Net earnings 122.169 169.227 47,058 

DETROIT UNITED RV. 



The operating statistics of the Detroit United Ry. for November 
compare with 1902 as follows: 

Increase 

Earnings from operation $.M5.ioo $I7,.370 

Operating expenses 204,827 12,134 

Net earnings 143,213 .3.827 

Fixed charges 84,007 z^qS 

Net income 59,209 929 

From Jan. I, 1903: 

Earning from operation $4.o.13.4'7 $410,206 

Operating expenses 2..l8o,.345 .126,612 

Net earnings 1,682.461 80,204 

Fixed charges 912,890 40,.S«4 

Net incfjme 76'<..57i .1.T,620 



ELGIN, AURORA & SOUTHERN. 



The Elgin, Aurora & Southern Traction Co., of Aurora, 111., 
reports earnings for November and for five months ending Novem- 
ber 30th, as follows : 

igo2 1903 Increase 

Earnings from operation $33,464 $34,6i5 $I,ISI 

Operating expenses 20,421 22,296 1,875 

Net earnings 13,043 12,318 * 725 

Fixed charges 9,049 9>i72 123 

Net income 3.993 3.146 * 847 

For the five months; 

Earnings from operation $.V3.4'H $.M.6i5 $M5' 

Operating expense^ 20,421 J2.29O 1,875 

Net earnings 13.043 12.318 * 725 

Fixed charges 45,247 45,862 615 

Net income .W.810 43.928 4.1 18 

* Decrease. 

'1 he directors voted January 2iul to pass the quarterly dividend nn 
the common stock and buy equipment instead. 



LAKE SHORE ELECTRIC RY. 



Following is the financial statement of tlic l 
Railway Co., Cleveland, O.. for November; 

1902 

Earnings from opcraiion $42,539 

Operating expenses 30.981 

Net earnings li>5S8 

Fixed charges 20,370 

Deficit 8,812 

Oi)«rating ratio 7283 

For the 11 months. 

Earnings from operation $427,088 

Operating expenses 275,693 

Nvt earnings 15' .395 

Fixed charges 220,374 

Deficit 68.979 

Operating ratio 6455 

*Decrease. 



,akc Slinrc 


Electric 


1903 


Increase 


$46,8 1 7 


$4,278 


33,731 


2.750 


13,086 


1,528 


20,370 




7,284 


* 1,528 


■720s 


♦.0078 


$570,068 


$142,980 


360,459 


84,764 


209,611 


58,216 


220,374 




10.763 


*58,2i6 


.6323 


* .0132 



PHILADELPHIA CO. 



The comparative statement of operating statistics of the Philadcl- 

Co., Pittsburg, and affiliated corixirations for November follows: 

1902 1903 Increase 

Earnings from operation $1,164,647 $1,272,610 $107,963 

Operating expenses 673,246 792,428 119,182 

Net earnings 49i,400 480,181 * 11,219 

Fixed charges 311.373 ,3.36,585 25,212 

Net income...; 180,377 I45,',W ' * .35.244 

TotaJ for 11 months : 

Earnings from r)peratic)U $12,419,920 $13,884,508 $1,4(14,588 

Operating expenses 7,098,.3o6 8,129,318 1.031,012 

Net earnings -5.321,614 S.7.55,I90 43.3,ii76 

Fixed charges .3..387,294 3.536.820 149,526 

Net income 2,121,921 2,.335,4i6 213,495 

♦Decrease. 



CINCINNATI, NEWPORT & COVINGTON. 



The comparative statement of the Cincinnati, Newport & Coving- 
Ion Light (v Traction Co. for NovcmlK-r follows: 

1902 1903 Increase 

Gross receipts $99,151 $104,151 $5,000 

Ol)eraling expenses .38,629 42,860 4,231 

Damages, taxes, etc 14.563 16,742 2,179 

Total expenses 53,192 .59,6o2 6,410 

Net earnings 45,9.58 44,548 *i,4io 

Fixed charges 21,223 20,979 * 244 

Net profit 24,735 23,!i68 *i,i67 

Operating ratio .3885 .4115 02,30 



60 



STRI-.I I RAILWAY UI-AIIIW. 



IVdi XIV, NV. I. 



Same inc. (Iamagc>, i-tc. . . 5.!''4 

For the 1 1 iiiontlis : 

Gross receipts ..$1,00.5.407 

Operating expenses 40.',yi7 

Damages, taxes, etc '53,577 

Total expenses .S.';6,494 

Net earnings 446,91 j 

Fixed charges j.5 1 ,987 

Net profit J 1 4,92.; 

Opiratiiig ratio 4015 

Same inc. damages, etc ■S54(> 

• I )ecreasc. 



.57-'-' 



03.58 



C^hiciiKo lllcvatcd Traffic. 



$1,115.93^ 


$1 i-J.S^5 


457,301 


54,3«4 


i«4,"73 


30,5'/> 


'MM74 


84,98a 


474.458 


27,54& 


231,346 


• 641 


-'43.111 


jS.iW. 


.4097 


.oo8j 


•5748 


.0202 



rOl.l-.Dd K.MIAV.WS &■ I. Kill I CO. 



Following is the comiKiralive stateiiuiu of 
& Light Co. for Novemhcr; 

1 90 J 

Earnings from operation $125,9,56 

Operating expenses 55.8i7 

Net earnings 70,1 lej 

Fixed charges 38.739 

Net income 31,380 

Operating ratio 4432 

For the 1 1 months : 

Earnings from operation $1,319,483 

Operating expenses 662,889 

Net earnings 656,593 

Fixed charges 420,280 

Net income 2.56.313 

Operating ratio 5024 

•Decrease. 



llu- I'lilcdi' Knilwav* 



1903 


Increa.se 


$140,718 


$14,782 


75,210 


19.483 


65.507 


•4.612 


40,811 


2,072 


24,696 


•6,684 


■.xW5 


0913 


1.509.299 


$189,816 


781,189 


1 18..500 


728.109 


71.51'' 


448,907 


28,627 


279,201 


4.2,dS.> 


•5176 


.0152 



TWIN CITY RAPID IRAXSIT. 



The Twin Cit.v Rapiil City Transit Co., Minneapolis, reported 
for November as follows: 

ig02 

Earnings from operation $309,468 

Operating expenses 147,167 

Net earnings 162,300 

Fixed charges 77.7.53 

Surplus 84.567 

For the 11 moivths : 

Earnings from operation $2,280,879 

Operating expenses 1,478,713 

Net earnings 1,802,166 

Fixed charges 84,5,699 

Surplus 958,466 

The gross earnings for the second week in December amounted 
to $76,892, against $68,586 for the corresponding week last year. 



190,5 


Iiicrca-i: 


$335,256 


$25,797 


160,056 


12,889 


175,208 


i2,go8 


78,445 


712 


96.762 


12,195 


$3,704,754 


$413,875 


1.720.393 


241,680 


1,984.359 


182,193 


862,520 


18,821 


i,i2i,8,-59 


163.373 



Express Business in Massachusetts. 



'The Boston Suburban Express & Parcel Co.. recently 
will consolidate 23 local express companies operating 
within 10 miles of the Stale House, and later pro- 
poses to absorb the local companies throughout the 
state -ind to transport express matter over such 
electric railways as have franchises permitting 
freight business. Nearly 20 of the electric railway 
companies have availed themselves of the legislative 
bill allowing them to carry freight, and it is believed 
that the revenue from this traffic would be appre- 
ciably increased by co-operation with the new ex- 
press company. 



nruanizcd. 



Tralfic of the Liike Street Elevated Railroad Co. for Deceml)cr 
shows a daily average of 47,385 passengers, an increase of 1,134 
over the corresponding month last year. Exclusive of transfers, 
the daily average traffic was 45.764, an increase of 1,251 over De- 
cember, 1902 For the year the total pnssengers carried, including 
transfers, were 16,085,771, as comjiared with 15,849,411 in 1902, a 
gain of 1.49 per cent. On the main line the total iwsseiigers were 
15,507,056, as compared with 15,005,083, a gain of 3.34 |K-r cent. 

The South Side I'^levated Railnxid Co. carried a daily average of 
89,280 passengers in 1903, as against 78,566 in 1902, a gain of 13.65 
per cent. The large gain was accounted for in part by the gains 
during the street car strike in NovemlK'r. 

The daily average of passengers carried by the Northwestern 
IClevated Railroad Co. in 1903 was 68.315, as compared with 63,98(> 
in 1902, a gain of 6.77 per cent. 

The daily average of passengers carried in 1903 by the Metro- 
politan West Side Elevated Railroad Co. was 112,864, as compared 
with a daily average in 1902 of 105,877, an increase of 6.75 per 
cent. 



Fine Semi-Convertible Cars for Chicago. 



The car shown in the accompanying ilhistration is one of five 
lately delivered by the J. G. Brill Co. to the Chicago Union Trac- 
tion Co. This lot is among the finest that the builders have ever 
turned out. The window sills are extra low so that when the win- 
dows are raised into the roof pockets the cars appear from the 
interior to be nearly as open as standard open cars. The seats at 
the corners are placed longitudinally with the car and are double 
length, giving ample room near the doors to prevent crowding. 
The platforms are extra wide being 6 ft. over end panels from 
vestibules. The interiors are handsomely finished in mahogany 
and beautifully inlaid. There is a single metal runway on the side 
i)f each window post, confirming the claim of the builders regarding 
the simplicity of the window system. 'The interiors of the vestibules 
are wainscoted in mahogany and above the windows the paneling 
is brought up to the head linings, an unusual feature which adds 
considerably to the fine appearance. In every detail no pains have 
been spared to finish the cars in the most complete and handsome 
manner. The seats are 36 in. in length and upholstered in spring 
cane with backs of the walk-over type. The seating capacity per car 
is 40. Not having window pockets in the sides, the ends of the 
scats are brought within the post lines leaving a roomy aisle 24 in. 
wide. The general dimensions are as follows ; 

Length over the cud panels 28 ft. and over the vestibules 40 ft. 
Width over sills and panels 8 ft. i'A in. and over posts at plate 8 ft. 
4 in. Height from bottom of sills over roof 9 ft. From center to 
center of posts 2 ft. 8 in. Sweep of posts 1^4 '"• T'c S'tle sills of 
long leaf, yellow pine, are 4 x 7H in. plated on the inside by 
12 x ■>^ in. steel. 'The end sills of white oak are $14 x 6% in. 
The cars are equipped with Dumpit sand boxes, ratchet brake 
handles, angle iron bumpers, Dedenda gongs and other patented 



Recently a man in Houston, Tex., obtained a set- 
tlement of $100 from the Houston Electric Co. for 
an injury which he claimed to have received, and as 
soon as the claim agent paid him he threw away the 
crutches upon which he had been hobbling around the city for sev 
eral months. In the district court he was sentenced to the peniten 
tiary for two years. 




..<K.Mi-r(iN\i.:n'ni;i,K <.\KS I'.u; chilwuh. ij. g. bkii.i. Co.) 

specialties of the builders make. The cars are mounted on 27-G 
trucks with 4-ft. wheel base, .53-in. w^heels and 4! j-in. axle.s. The 
weight of a car and trucks is 27,400 lb. 



Jax. 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY RE\IR\\ 



61 



Accidents. 



A Steubc-iiville, Miiigo & Ohio \'alley Traction Co. car jumped 
the track at Brilliant, O.. December i6th at a sharp curve on a 
steep grade and plunged into a gully, practically demolishing the 
car. The motorman was hurt, but not fatally. There were no pas- 
sengers. 

December 20th a Lake Shore Electric Railway Co. car collided 
at E>etroit and Kentucky Sts.. Cleveland, .with a city car, resulting 
in injury to nine passengers in the city can, which was damaged. 

A St. Louis Transit Co. car ran into an open switch December 
27th and collided with a construction car. Four persons were in- 
jured, including the motorman and conductor of the passenger car. 

In Kansas City December 22nd a Summit St. car was practically 
wrecked near the Metropolitan Street Railway Co's. power house 
by running onto a misplaced switch. Ten persons were injured, 
one seriously. 

.^n outgoing interurban car of the Indiana Union Traction Co. 
collided with a city car at .Anderson, Ind., December 25th. The ends 
of the cars were crushed and a motorman was injured. 

.\ Reading Ry. engine ran into a Sunbury & Noriluinilicrland 
Electric Railway Co. car at Sunbury, Pa.. December 29th and 
damaged the car beyond repair. The motorman was badly injured. 

A car on the Kno.wille and Mount Oliver line of the Pittsburg 
Railways Co. got beyond control wh'le on Monastery hill January 
2nd and after colliding with two wagons jumped the track and was 
wrecked. The conductor, motorman and four passengers were 
seriously hurt. 

January 2nd a car on the Glen Oak line of the Peona & Prospect 
Heights Railway Co. jumped the track at the entrance to Jackson 
St. hill, Peoria, III., roiled over and landed in tlie gutter on its 
side. Of the 34 passengers 15 were injured, but none fatally. 

One motorman was killed and another motorman and a conductor 
were injured in a head-on collision between two Cleveland & 
Southern Traction Co. cars near Berea, O., December 30tb. 

The motorman of a 47th St. car of the Chicago City Railway Co. 
was killed January 5lh in consequence of the car being struck by 
a train on the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis R. R. 
crossing. The car was demolished. 

Four men were injured January 2nd in a collision between an 
Indiana St. car of the Chicago Union Traction Co. and a Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul freight train. 

Three trainmen were killed January 7th by a collision of two 
trains on the Brooklyn elevated railroad. One passenger was seri- 
ously injured. A crowded passenger train ran into a train of empty 
cars, telescoping the rear empty car in which were the trainmen. 

.•\ La Crosse City Railway Co. car was wrecked January 6th 
by being run into by a section of a Chicago, Burlington & Northern 
Ry. train. The passengers escaped, but the motorman was severely 
injured. 

January 7th a Center Ave. car of the Chicago City Railway Co. 
was struck by a Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis R. R. 
car at the 59th St. crossing, Chicago, and 12 persons were injured. 
The car was wrecked. 

'A .Metropolitan Street Railway Co. car in Kansas City jumped 
the track nc-ar at the approach of a trestle January 8th, and running 
over the ties onto the trestle toppled over and fell to the ground 
10 ft. below, injuring five passengers. 

A car on the Cotton St. line of the United Traction Co., at 
Reading, Pa., jumped the track at a curve January 6th and crashed 
into a house. The brick front of the lower part of the house for 
the whole width was wrecked. The motorman was injured. 

January iith a Graccland Ave. car of the Union Traction Co. 
was struck by a Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul R. R. train at 
the Graccland Ave. crossing in Qiicago, and four passengers were 
injured. 

A Wcnlworth Ave. and a 471I1 St. car of the Chicago City Rail- 
way Co. collided January nth in Chicago and five pcr-sons were 
injured. 

A Metropolitan Elcvatcil Railroad Co. train and a South Side 
Elevated Railroad Co. train collided on the Union Loop, Chicago. 
January nth. a» a result, it was stated, of a defective air brake, 
and five persons were injured. 

A Cleveland & Southwestern Traction Co. car was badly dam- 
aged January loth in a collision wilh a Lake Sht>re & MiiliiK;m 



Southern freight train about a mile e,i--t i>t tlie Puritas Springs 
junction. The passengers saved themselves by jumping into a 
snow bank. ^ ^ 

New Publications. 



DlKlXroRV .WD M.\P OF AUTOMOBILE CHARGING 
SIWTIONS. Published by the Electrical Times, Ltd.. 8 Bream's 
Buildings, Chancery Lane, E. C, London, Eng. 126 pages, flexible 
leather covers, 4'/2 x 7 in. Price, postpaid, 3s. 8d. This is a com- 
pilation of the leading stations in the United Kingdom, giving the 
town, the name and address, and the facilities afforded for re- 
charging electric carri.tges and petrol cars, or for repairs. The 
towns are arranged alphabetically on alternate pages, the opposite 
pages being occupied by advertisements, of which there are a good 
many. A clear road map is attached, 21 x 27 in., reinforced with 
cloth back, showing the main roads suitable for automobiling, 
which are colored brown, and the different railways, which are 
indicated by black lines. Places where an electric supply is available 
are marked in different ways, according to the nature of the facili- 
ties afforded, and the meaning of these marks is shown at the side 
of the map. There is also an enlarged map of the London district. 
The book was compiled by Mr. Stanley J. Harding, of 46 Sidney 
Road. Beckenham, S. E., on behalf of the Electrical Times, it being 
Mr. Harding's idea wholly, and carried out by him without assist- 
ance. He obtained all the. advertisements, compiled the directory 
and arranged the map. It is a book much needed by autoniobilists 
in England, and a large sale is predicted for it. 

REPORT OF THE FIRST ANNUAL CONVENTION OF 
AMERICAN RAILWAY MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL 
ASSOCIATION. Tljis is a carefully compiled report, containing 
142 pages, which has been prepared by the secretary of the .Associa- 
tion, Mr. Walter Mower, of the Detroit United Ry. It includes 
the minutes of the .Association meetings which were held at the 
Grand Union Hotel. Saratoga Springs, N. Y.. Sept. 1-3, 1903, to- 
gether with the papers presented at the meetings and the discus- 
sions which followed their presentation, the papers being illustrated 
wherever practicable. Registration of the attendance at the conven- 
tion is given, also, and there are half-tone likenes.ses of the officers 
of the .Association. The report shows the following membership 
on Oct. I, 1903: .Active, 48; junior, 34; associate, 22; honorary, 5. 
.Since the report went to press the following active members have 
been enrolled : John Bodcn, foreman carpenter department, Mil- 
waukee Railway & Light Co. ; F. F. Bodler, master mechanic United 
Railroads of San Franci.sco; W. C. Canfield, foreman armature 
and winding department Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co.; 
.S. M. Coffm. master mechanic Mobile Light & Railway Co. ; Cor- 
nelius W. DeForest, assistant chief engineer South Covington & 
Cincinnati Street Railway Co.; Henry C. Houston, assistant super- 
intendent rolling stock Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co.; 
II. A. Johnson, chief engineer Camden & .Suburban Railway Co.; 
J. W. Johnstone, master mechanic Sheboygan Light, Power & 
Radway Co.; John W. Kennedy, foreman motor department Mil- 
waukee Electric Railway & Light Co.; Peter C. Kline, general sup- 
erintendent Sheboygan Light, Power & Railway Co.; Frank C. 
Naalz, foreman paint deparlment Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Co.; W. A. Pearson, engineer Interurban .Street Railway Co.; 
Charles W. Peterson, foreman machine ilepartmcnt Milw.iukee 
Electric Railway & Light Co.; A. i\. Scliroeder, foreman repair de- 
partment Milwaukee lilleclric Railway & Light Co.; Fratik G. Sim- 
mons, superinlendent construction and in.iinteiiance of way Milwau- 
kee Electric Railway & Light Co.; William J. Smith, master me- 
chanic DuUilh .Superior Traction Co. The following associate 
members have been added; New Orleans Railways Co., San Juan 
Light & Transit Co. E. I). Sigler, Mobile Light &• Railway Co., is 
a new jiniior member. This brings the luial niemliership up to 12I), 
including 64 active members. 

GENERAL DATA ON TllOMSc.N Ki;( -OKDI .N'C WAIT 
METERS. Published by the General hUectric Co., Schenectady. 
N. Y. This handbook, which is No. 3,197 (Augusl. i<)03) of (k-n- 
eral Electric Publications, contains 217 pages, including three pages 
dcvoleil lo the index. It is 4'/, x $i^ in. in size. lU-sible covers, .ind 
contains upwards of i.jo illuslralions and diMKr.nns, In .uMilion 
lo the data on Thomson recording wallnnlcrs, ilnTe are sriimin 
giving information regarding Thomson single-phase inrkirlinn. high 
ii.t<|iir, indiiclion anil Thomson polyphase meters. 



62 



STRKirr RAILWAY RE\"IF\\ . 



[Vol. XIV, No. i- 



Personal. 

MK. II. I-'. GENTRY has resigned as general passenger agent 
of the Pacific Electric Railway Co.. and the office will l>e discon- 
tinued. 

MR. n. II. RYDER, formerly cDniiecled with the American Steel 
& Wire Co., has become associated with the Chicago Insnlatcd 
Wire Co.. as sales agent. 

MR. GEORGE E. CL.\FI.IN has resigned as superintendent of 
the .Ashevillc (N. C.) Electric Co. and the Asheville Street Railroad 
Co.. and has gone to Providence. R. I., to reside. 

MR. S. W. W.ATKINS. president of the_ National Electric Co.. 
of Milwaukee. January 15th returned from an extended European 
trip, looking after the foreign interests of his company. 

MR. JOHN C. I?R.-\CKENRinGE has resigned as chief engineer 
of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.. in consequence of his having 
been elected Connuissioner of Public Works in Brooklyn. 

Mr. H. .\. SP.aRKS. chief engineer of the Sandusky South- 
western Railway Co.. Wapakoneta. O.. has been appointed to act 
as superintendent during the construction of t!ie company's lines. 

MR. P. P. CR.AFTS. who has rcsigred as general superintendent 
of the Saginaw Valley Traction Co.. to go to Mexico to enter 
the street railway business, was presented a watch fob December 
29th by 30 of his old employes. 

THE NATIONAL ELECTRIC CO.. of ililwaukcc. successor 
to the Qiristenscn Engineering Co.. has elected Mr. R. P. Tell .sec- 
retary and treasurer of the coinpany. and Mr. B. T. Becker has 
been appointed assistant general manager. 

MR. T. F. M.A,NVILLE. president of the H. W. Johns-Manville 
Co.. 100 William St.. New York, went West December 22nd and 
before returning to New York will visit the company's Milwa\ikec. 
Chicago. St. Louis and New Orleans branches. 

MR. IRVING H. REYNOLDS, formerly witli the Allis- 
Chalniers Co.. and for many years identified with the design and 
construction of its engines, has accepted a position with the William 
Tod Co.. of Youngstown. O.. as consulting engineer. 

MR. THOM.VS GUNN, for five years storekeeper at the power 
house of the Lexington (Ky.) Railway Co.. has been appointed 
purchasing agent of the company, the duties of purchasing agent 
and storekeeper having been combined, beginning January ist. 

MR. GEORGE S. SMITH has been promoted to division super- 
intendent, High Park division, of the Old Colony Street Railway 
Co. Mr. Smith was formerly assistant superintendent. Lakevillc 
division, which vacancy was filled by the appointment of Mr. John 
II. H.ayes. 

MR. CHARLES TOLMIE. who has been employed in the office 
of the London (Out.) Street Railway Co. for .several years, has 
been appointed cashier of the company to succeed Mr. James 
Curric. who on January 1st became secretary-treasurer of an Ohio 
traction company. 

MR. P. I. WELLES has been appointed general manager of the 
Columbia ( S. C. ) Electric Street Railway Co.. which has been 
reorganized. He will assume the duties of his new office on or 
before February 1st. He is at present superintendent of the Savan- 
nah division of the Southern Ry. 

COL. H. I. WEED has been elected vice-president of the 
Wimiebag6 Traction Co.. Oshkosh. Wis., vice Mr. Einerson Mc- 
Millan, resigned The president and general manager of the Win- 
nebago Traction Co. is Mr. E. E. Downs; secretary, Mr. Walter B. 
Mahony; treasurer. Mr. S. M. Rothernicl. 

MR. R. L. .'\NDREWS has resigned as manager of the Eastern 
Ohio Traction Co.. of Cleveland, and will remove to Y'onngstovvn, 
O.. where he will superintend the construction work of the Youngs- 
town & Southern Railway Co.. of which he is vice-president and 
general manager, as well as being a director of the company. 

MR. HARRY D'STEESE. of the New York branch of the 
Stuart-Howland Co.. has been transferred to its headquarters in 
Boston. Mass.. where he will assume the title and duties of assist- 
ant manager of the railway department. In addition he will con- 
tinue covering his old territory in New York state and Penn- 
sylvania. 

MR. GEORGE L.MRD has been appointed superintendeiU of the 
Battle Creek division of the Michigan Traction Co.. with head- 
quarters at Battle Creek. Mich. For the past three years Mr. 
Laird has been general foreman of the Eighth .Nve. division of tlie 



.Metropolitan, now the Interurban, Street Railway Co.. of New 
York City. 

MR. A. B. S.\NDERS, who was for several years in the en- 
gineer's department of the .American Telephone & Telegraph Co., 
New York City, and later was with the Electric Storage Battery 
Co.. of Philadelphia, has become associated with John B. Watson, 
Drexel Building. Philadelphia, having charge of the electrical de- 
partment. 

MR. R. T. LAFFIN, who recently resigned as general manager 
of the Worcester Consolidated Street Railway Co.. to accept a 
position with the street railway system at Manila. P. I., was on 
December joth presented a diamond ring in behalf of the working 
staff of the Worcester coinpany Mr Laffin will sail for .Manila 
January 25th. 

MR. II. F. WILGUS, who has been assistant chief engineer of the 
Brooklyn Rapid 'Transit Co. for the past four months, or since he 
became connected with the company, has been appointed engineer 
of w.iy and structure, a substitute position for that of chief en- 
gineer, the latter position having been abolished upon the resignation 
of Mr. John C. Brackenridge. 

MR. G. R. MITCHELL has resigned as general superintendent 
,jf the Jersey City Traction Co.. and the Middlesex & Monmouth 
Electric Light. Heat & Power Co.. and has accepted the position 
of general superintendent of the Olean, Rock City & Bradford 
Railroad Co.. and the Bradford Electric Street Railway Co.. with 
headquarters at No. i Main St.. Bradford, Pa. 

MR. REUBEN A. DENELL, who has ■ been associated with 
Messrs. D. H. Burnham & Co.. architects and constructing engineers, 
Chicago, since 1893, has signed a five-year contract with Messrs. 
J. G. White & Co., of London. Eng.. as supervising architect. Mr. 
Denell left Chicago January 17th for New Y'ork City, where he 
will visit two weeks and then sail for London. 

MR. CHARLES W. CROSBY, of Champaign. 111., has been 
appointed assistant traffic manager of the McKmley syndicate inter- 
urban lines which center at Champaign, which city will be his 
headquarters. Mr. Cro.sby has been connected with the Wabash 
railroad in important capacities a number of years. 'The position 
to which he has been appointed was recently created. 

MESSRS. E. P. ROBERTS AND I. H. SHERW^OOD. who 
have, for seven years, conducted a consulting engineering business, 
under the firm name of E. P. Roberts & Co., Cleveland, O., dis- 
solved their partnership on Dec. 31, 1903. Mr. Roberts will con- 
tinue the business of the firm, while Mr. Sherwood will take a 
needed rest before making a decision as to future work. 

MR. F. W. W.'\NKLYN, vice-president and general manager of 
llie Montreal Street Railway Co., and the Montreal Park & Island 
Ry., has resigned. It is understood that Mr. K. W. Blackwell will 
succeed Mr. Wanklyn as vice-president, and Mr. G. W. Ross, the 
company's secretary, will become mai.aging director. Mr. Duncan 
McDonald will be the manager of the two systems and Mr. P. 
Dubce will be appointed secretary. 

MR. FR.WZ WELZ, who contributed an interesting article in 
the "Review" for December, 1903. on the proposed suspended rail- 
way for Hamburg, Germany, is at present connected with the 
electrical department of the St. Louis Purchase Exposition. Hi 
was for eight years with the Allgemcine Elektrizitats Gesellschaft. 
Berlin, engaged in designing and constructing electrical work in 
(ierniiny. I'rance and Belgium. 

MR W. S. MONTGOMERY, who for the past five years has 
beeli connected with the Conover Condenser Manufacturing Co.. 
of Jersey City, as secretary and sales manager, on January ist 
severed his connection with that company to assume the manage- 
ment of the Payne Engineering Co.. of New York City, selling 
agent for the Payne Co.. of Elmira. N. Y. On the same date the 
Payne Engineering Co removed to new offices in the Ilavemeyer 
Building. No. 26 Cortlandt St., N. Y. 

MR. J. B. M'CL,-\R\', who recently resigned as manager of the 
railway department of the Birmingham Railway, Light & Power 
Co.. as announced in the "Review" for December, was presented 
a valuable token of esteem by the employes of that department 
upon the occasion of his official departure. December 31st. 'The 
gift, which was bestowed in the presence of several hundred em- 
ployes, comprised a gold watch, chain and charm, the watch case 
being studded with diamonds, and the charm with diamonds and 
a large rubv. 



Jan. 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY RE\IE\V. 



63 



MR. HERBERT W. SMITH and MR. GEORGE H. S\V.\ZEY. 
both well known in the street railway field, have formed a partner- 
ship for the purpose of building street railways, power plants and 
electric lighting stations, and for furnishing street railway supplies. 
They will also represent prominent .American and foreign manu- 
facturers. Mr. Smith has been connected with the supply business 
a long time, the last four years as assistant manager of the railway 
department of the Stuart-Howland Co. Mr. Swazey has built 
and operated several street railways. 

MR. N. S. BRADEN. formerly manager of the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Go's, district office at Cleveland, has 
t>een appointed sales manager of the new Canadian Westinghouse 
Co.. Ltd.. and assumed the duties of that office January ist. His 
headquarters are at Hainilton. Ont. Mr. Braden. who succeeds the 
late Mr. Thomas C. Frenyear. was born at Indianapolis and is .14 
years old. In iSoi. after leaving school, he entered the employ of the 
Jenny Electric Motor Co., of Indianapolis, and in iSgg entered the 
Cleveland district sales office of the Westinghouse company as a 
salesman. 

MR. GEORGE W. PARSONS, who for a long term of years 
has so ably managed the business of the frog, switch and signal 
department of the Pennsylvania Steel Co., has retired from active 
service and will retain his connection with the company in an 
advisory capacity. Mr. C. W. Reinoehl, who has lon,g been con 
nected with the Pennsylvania Steel Co., succeeds Mr. Parsons as 
superintendent of the frog, switch and signal depactment, and Mr. 
W. C. Cuntz succeeds Mr. Reinoehl as sales agent in charge of the 
Steelton sales office. These appointments were all effective Jan. 
I. 1904. 

MR. D.-WID J. EVAXS has severed his connection with the 
Chicago office of the Lorain Steel Co. and has also resigned his 
position of secretary-treasurer of the North American Railway Con- 
struction Co. He has taken an office at 1564 Monadnock Building, 
Chicago, where he will handle railway supplies, iron and steel. 
Mr. E\-ans has been connected with the Chicago office of the Lorain 
Steel Co. and its predecessor, the Johnson Co., since early in 
1893, having had charge of the business for the past three years, 
during the sojourn in Colorado of Mr. A. .S. Littlefield. western 
sales agent. 

MR. FRANK S. GIVEN has been appointed manager of the 
Erie Rapid Transit Street Railway Co., and the Lake Erie Traction 
Co., with headquarters at Erie, Pa. The two companies are separate 
organizations operating a continuous line from Erie to WestficUf, 
N. Y. Mr. Given was for eleven years connected with the Lancaster 
County systems, which include the Conestoga Traction Co., the 
Lancaster Gas Light & Fuel Co., the Edison Electric Illuminating 
Co., of Scranton, and the Columbia Electric & Power Co., first as 
superintendent of the Columbia division and for the last seven 
years as general manager of the entire system. During his con- 
nection with these companies he was superintendent of construction 
and built over 53 miles of road. Within the past few years the en- 
tire system was changed from a direct to an alternating current 
system. Mr. Given is still connected with the Lancaster companies 
as a director and stockholder. 



Obituary. 



MR. GEORGE W. BLABON, president of the Jancsvillc (Wis.) 
Street Railway Co., died at his home in Philadelphia January I3tli. 
He was 71 years of age. 

.MR. IJAVHJ R. POWELL, who died at St. Louis Uecember 
Hflh, of heart failure, was one of the organizers of the old Joplin 
(Mo.) Electric Railway & Motor Co., of which he was the first 
secretary and treasurer, and which was afterward absorbed by the 
interests which form the Southwest Missouri Electric Railway Co. 

MR. CHARLES H. MAYER died at York, Pa., January i6lh, 
after several weeks' sickness. For a number of years he was 
treasurer of the York Street Railway Co., and superintended the 
construction of the York & Dover and the York & Dallastown 
electric railway companies. Two years ago he embarked in private 
enterprises, and at the time of his death was treasurer of the York 
County Agricultural .Society; secretary, treasurer and manager of 



the York & Maryland Line, and the York and Liverpool Turnpike 
companies, and a director in the York National Bank and the 
York Gas Co. 

MR. .'\S.-\ S. BUSH NELL, ox-govornor of Ohio, and president 
of the Springfield. Troy & Piqua Railway Co., died at Colum- 
bus January 15th of apoplexy with which he was stricken January 
nth. He was born in Rome, N. Y., Sept. 16, 1834. In 1845 he 
moved with his family to Cincinnati, and in 1857 became a 
clerk in a dry goods store at Springfield, O. In a few years he be- 
came a manufacturer, being a member of the firm of Wardner, Bush- 
ncH & Glessner. of Springfield, makers of reapers and mowers. Mr. 
Bushnell was governor of Ohio for two terms, from 1895 to 1899, and 
was several years chairman of the Republican State Committee, 
lie commanded a company in the civil war. lie was a 33rd degree 
M.ison. 

MR. THOMAS CYPRIAN FRENYEAR. sales manager of the 
new Canadian Westinghouse Co., died at Fort William, Can.. De- 
cember loth, of typhoid fever. He was born Mar. 16, 1865, in Mid- 
dletown Spa. Vt.. and when he was about 15 years old entered 
the employ of the Boston Electric Co., of which his uncle was 
manager. P'or several years he was employed by the Thomson- 
Houston Co. .and the Brush Electric Co., as salesman, with head- 
([uarters at Buffalo, and from 1892 to 1895 he was superintendent of 
the Cayadutta Electric R. R. In the fall of 1895 he became asso- 
ciated with the sales office of the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Co., where he remained until Nov. 1. 1903, when he went 
to Toronto to assume charge of the sales dcparlnicnl of the new 
Canadian company. 

MR. SAMUEL C. GRIER, of Pittsburg, president of the Youngs- 
town Park & Falls Street Railway Co., of Youngstown, O., died 
January 3d at his home in Pittsburg, after an illness of one week. 
Mr. Grier was Ixjrn in Allegheny, Pa., in 1851. He went to work 
as an errand boy at the age of 11 years and when 18 years old 
opened a coal office, which he conducted for 10 years. In 1879 he 
became assessor of warrants in Allegheny and afterward entered 
the county clerk's office. In 1887 he was elected delinquent tax col- 
lector, which position he held until 1901. Besides being president of 
the Youngstown Park & Falls Street Railway Co. he was president 
of the Pittsburg Vein Coal Co., the Colombia Plate Glass Co., and 
the Ohio Valley Water Co. He was also a director in the Second 
National Bank, of Allegheny, the Dollar Savings Fund & Trust 
Co. and the National Fireproofing Co. 

MR. JOHN .^iLLAN MUIR, general manager (if the Los An- 
geles Railway Co.. died at Los .•\ngeles January 8th. He was born 
at Truro, N. S., Sept. 25, 1850. He was educated in the public 
schools of his native town and in March, 1866, entered the employ 
of the Pictou Extension Nova Scotia R. R. as a telegraph operator. 
In November, 1870, he became night operator at Rocklin, Cal,. fur 
the Central Pacific R. K. In September, 1S71. he was made agent of 
ihe road at Rocklin, and in 1875 became trainmaster. In July, 1881, 
he was appointed division trainmaster at Sacramento; May, 1882, 
he was promoted to assistant division superintendent of the Sacra- 
nieiito and Oregon divisions of the California Pacific & Northern 
R. R. ; February, 1884, he was made assistant superintendent of 
the Southern Pacific Railroads of Arizona and New Mexico; April, 
1886, he was transferred to a similar position on the Los Angeles 
division of the .Southern Pacific Co.. and in January, 1893, suc- 
ceeded to the iK>sition of superintendent of that division. February, 
1902. he resigned to accept the ]>osition with the Los Angeles Rail- 
way Co. Besides being general manager Mr. Muir was a director 
in. the company, and also a director in the Gila Valley, Globe & 
Northern K, R., and had interests in a number of mining companies. 

■•—* 

International Railway Employes' Dance. 

The third annual ball of the Internalional Railway lunployes' As- 
sociation, of Buffalo, was held January .stii and was attended by 
about 5.000 persons. Among the prominent guests were Mr. W. 
Caryl Ely, president of the Inlernational Railway Co.; Mr. 1. \-.. 
Mitten, first vice president and general manager; Mr. Frank Cle- 
ment, second vice-president; and Mr. R. F. Rankine, treasurer. 

The committee of arrangements were Messrs. C. A. Coons (chair- 
man), W. J. .Sullivan and Jnseph llubcr. 



High Power Wcstinghousc-Parsons Steam Turbines. 



The applicaliuii of the sti-ain tiirhiiic for general iKiwer service is 
one of the most conspicuous features of American industrial develo])- 
nicnt in the twentieth century. The Weslinghouse-Parsons steam 
turbine was commercially introduced during the latter part of 1900, 
the sizes then built l)eing of 600 h. p. nominal capacity direct 
connected to 400-kw. polyphase generators. The types of turbine 
units (hen built were illustrated in the "Review" for February. 
1901. Snbse<|uenl development has been so rapid that w'ithin a period 
of four years turbines of 5.500 kw., or 7,500 h. p. nominal capacity. 
have been designed and are. under construction. These machines 
will have a continuous overload capacity of 11,000 h. p. in one self- 
contained unit, and thus rank among the world's largc^Ji prime 
movers. 

Recently, marine work has been contemplated by the builders and 
it is considered the near future may l)e productive of turbines of still 
greater power, although of slightly different arrangement, necessary 
to adapt the present type to marine usage. 

The 5,000 kw. turbivgenerating unit illustrated herewith is repre- 
sentative of the general tvpe which will Ix? constructed by the West- 



lion secure the great advantage of reduction in the bulk, weight and 
cost of the unit. 

Construction. 

The accompanying illustration of the 5,000-kw. unit shows the 
general arrangement of the main cylinder body, bearings and aux- 
iliary part.s. 'ITie unit rests upon a single liedplate cast in two sec- 
tions which are secured by shrunk links". To the bedplate, which is 
heavily ribbed to secure rigidity, are bolted the jwdestals, generator 
casing and turbine body, but the bedplate itself is not secured to the 
foundation by other means than the weight of the unit. Steam and 
exhaust connections are made beneath the Hoor level. 

In the smaller machines of this type, the cylinder barrel and lK)th 
journals are cast in a single casting, thus largely minimizing machine 
work. In the large machines, however, the barrel is cast in two sec- 
tions united by links, the outl)oard section carrying the journal and 
worm casing, and the inboard section the journal and exhaust open- 
ing which extends through the bedplate. .Xs in former types linear 
expansion and contraction of the turbine are provided for by a 




WKSTINGHOISE-P.ARSONS STEAM TTRBINE INIT 



inghouse company for large powers. This type embodies the expe- 
rience acquired in the construction and operation of a large numlxjr 
of machines. The principle of operation as well as the general rela- 
tion and arrangement of rotating and stationary elements character- 
istic of former types have been employed. The largest machines 
therefore find their direct prototypes in the original design adopted, 
the horizontal single-cylinder turbine. 

The most distinguishing features of the new type are the extreme 
compactness and low speed secured. These features have been 
practically prescribed by the necessity of minimizing the cost of 
power building construction for larger station capacities. 

The space occupied by the 7,500-h. p. turbine is approximately 
27 ft. 8 in. by 13 ft. 3 in., and the height to the top of the hand- 
railing is 12 ft. Tliis is equivalent to .049 sq. ft. per electric horse- 
power capacity, or 20.2 h. p. per sq. ft. of floor area required. 

I'or the coniplete unit a rectangular area of 47 ft. 4 in. in length 
and 13 ft. in width is required, which is equivalent to .084 sq. ft. 
per e. h. p. capacity, or 12 e. h. p. per sq. ft. of floor space. 

A graphical comparison of floor space required for different types 
of prime movers is shown in the accompanying curves. In all cases 
a complete unit is taken as the basis of comparison. 

In point of speed, the new type fulfills the demand for a unit 
operating at moderate speed. The 5,ooo-kw\ units operate at 750 
r. p. m., the 2,000-kw. unit at 1,200 to 1,560 r. p. m.. and the i,ooo-kw 
unit at 1,500 to 1.800 r. p. m.. depending upon the frequency desired. 

These speeds, although not comparable to engine speeds, do not 
impose much greater stresses upon the rotating parts, and in addi- 



sliding foot. I'lie inlioard journal pedestal is bolted securely to the 
l)edpl.ite, but the outboard pedestal is free to slide between parallel 
machined ways. The main body of the casing is heavily lagged 
with non-condiictmg material, secured in place by sheet steel casings. 

Leakage of air from the atmosphere into the exhaust spaces of 
the casing at the entrances of the shaft is prevented by friction- 
less packing glands. No oil is employed and in consequence the 
condensation from the turbines is pure distilled water. 

In shaft construction great rigidity has been secured with mini- 
mum use of metal. A central steel quill carries the entire rotating 
parts, both blades and balanced pistons. Hollow forged steel ends are 
forced into the two ends of this quill, under hydraulic pressure, and 
are in addition secured by arrowhead links. High pressure steam is 
conveyed to all parts of this quill structure in such a manner as to 
elimir.ate stresses and consequent distortion due to highly super- 
heated steam. 

Power is transmitted to the generator shaft through a flexible 
coupling which is housed partly by the turbine and partly by the 
generator inboard journal. Tlic coupling is split at the junction 
of the two shafts, so that by removing one l)caring cap and the 
coupling bolts either section of the unit may be lifted out without 
disturbing the adjustment of the remaining section. In the smaller 
sizes the engagement surfaces of the coupling consist of the squared 
or hexagonal ends of the shafts, but in tlic larger machines a crow- 
foot sleeve is keyed to each shaft and the power is transmitted by 
an outside quill engaging the crow-feet. Thus great flexibility is 
secured, together with the greatest facdily in dismantling. 



Jak. 20, 190+] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



65 



The journals in the larger machines are of the solid self-aligning 
type, similar to tliat employed in generators and cross-compound ' 
engines. The departure from the familiar oil cushioned journal 
employed in the small machines is occasioned by the speed reduc- 
tion secured. The journal shells arc babbitt lined and are split 
horizontally, the two halves being united by bolts with shim adjust- 
ment. Oil from a central system Is introduced at the center under 
slight pressure, thoroughly flushing all parts. Axial adjustment is 
provided by metal shims arranged in quarter-bo-x fashion. Tlie 
diameter of the shaft at the journal of a 5.ooo-k\v. machine is 15 
in., strikingly small in comparison to the ,^4 in. shafts required for 
a cross-compound reciprocating engine of corresponding capacity. 

Longitudinal adjustment to preserve proper side clearance is se- 
cured by a thrust bearing located next to the oul-board bearing. 
The bearing is not subjected to longitudinal thrusts from the action 
of the steam and is consequently of small size. 

The two half shells are advanced in opposite directions by grad- 
uated set screws, so that the actual running clearances are meas- 
ured in thousandths of an inch. Once set, these adjustments are 
permanent, and do not require frequent "taking up." 

Steam enters the turbine successively through an automatic quick 
closing throttle, hand throttle, strainer and the main admission 




o Mxx) ^oeo sooo 4ooo moo 

Si. cc r/PfC^i. ^ofis^" /^tvs/7 
DIAGRAM OF COMPABATIVK KI.odR Sl'.MK. 

valve, .\ circular' steam port surrounding the entrance to the initial 
stage cftnvcys this steam to all points so as to avoid stresses inci- 
dent to more localized admission of highly superheated Rteani. 

.\v\ impcn-tant feature of the steam distribution system is the pro- 
vision of a by-pass valve. This valve admits high pressure steam 
to the second stage of the turbine on overloads in order to increase 
its capacity up to 50 per cent in excess of full rated load, Hy 
properly proportioning the by-pass steam to the overload on the 
turbine maximum economy may at all limes be secured tog<'ther 
with reserve overload capacity. This results in a slight rise in the 
economy curve on heavy overloads, resembling in some respects the 
engine economy curve on loads exceeding thai of maximum econ- 
omy. The turbine, however, only suffers in economy at heavy over- 
loads while the engine economy decreases progressively from ^^ to 
80 per cent of full load capacity. 

The main admission valve consists of a double l)cat poppet valve 
operated by a small piston, this in turn licing controlled by a small 
pilot valve directly actuated by the governor mechanism. The 
valve admiK sleam to the turbine in pufTs. the duration of which 
are proportioned by the governor to the load upon the turbine. 
Thi* intermittent melhrHl obviate" the throllling of steam to ac- 
commodaie loading and secures the highest economy by using at 
all loads steam at boiler pressure. 

At the extreme outer end of the (iirbine shaft is mounted a worm 



driving a short horizontal cross shaft. This shaft drives at one end 
the oil pump and at the other end the governor through bevel gear- 
ing. An eccentric provides the reciprocating motion necessary for 
the valve mechanism. 

The governor is of the fly-ball type with 90 degree bell crank 
ball levers mounted on knife edges and fitted with roller contacts. 
The governor sleeve and spring is mounted on l)all bearings and 
adjustment of the spring tension may be made while the turbine 
is running, thus affording a most simple and convenient means for 
parallel alternating current generators and dividing the load propor- 
tionately between them. 

At the extreme end of the outboard pedestal is mounted an aux- 
. iliary speed limit governor. It is likewise of the centrifugal type 
and may he set to release, at any predetermined speed, a small 
plunger valve which controls with high pressure steam the opera- 
lion of the quick closing throllle before mentioned, Tliis is nor- 
mally held open by means of an overbalanced differential piston. 
At the moment the speed limit operates, the excess pressure is re- 
moved and the throttle closes. This device is employed purely for 
insuring absolute immunity from accident from excess speeds, due 
to the possible disablement of the governor mechanism. 

Copious lubrication is supplied to all journals by means of a 
plunger pump driven from the worm shaft. The wann oil returning 
from the bearings passes through a copper coil cooler in the bed- 
plate and thence to a reservoir from which the pump draws its sup- 
ply. The cooled lubricant is circulated at slight pressure, sufficient 
to insure positive flow. At no point is oil under high pressure em- 
ployed for preventing erosion of rubbing parts, bearing areas being 
sufticient for supporting the weight of the rotating parts. 

i^ f- Generators, 

In general construction the 5,ooo-k\v, lurbo-gencrators conform to 
those now building for smaller , machines. The field or revolving 
element is built from a solid cylinder of steel slotted for the recep- 
tion of the bar windings, and provi^led with ventilating openings 
corresponding with openings in the laminations of the stationary 
element. The generators may be wound for high voltage if desired, 
in order to avoid the use of step-up transformers in a system of 
power transmission at voltages ranging up to 15.000, 

The 5,000-kw, turbo-units here illustrated will be employed in 
heavy electric railway service, which is the most exacting encoun- 
tered in central station operation. These machines will form the 
initial equipment of the Pennsylvania Railroad terminal property in 
New York City, operating with electric motors the heaviest trains 
through the tunnel approaches to Manhattan, Three units will 
similarly inaugurate the power service on the Phdadv^lvbia Rapid 
Transit subway system now under construction. Eight 5,000-kw. 
units will furnish power to the London subway system and three 
.•5,500-kw. units to the surface system of the same city. These 
units will operate under 175 lb. steam pressure, liigli vacuum and 
100 to 175 degrees of superheat. 



Niles Car & Manufacturinn Co. 

The Niles Car & Manufacturing .Co., of Niles, Ohio, which has 
been in operation about two years, has recently been reorganized, 
'^ and ample ad<liti(>nal capital provided. The company has also in- 
creased the plant capacity during the past year by '.he addition of 
a new machine and blacksmith shop. This company has turned 
out a number of iiuerurban cars of high standard for such roads 
as the Aurora, F.lgin & Chicago Ry. ; Western Ohio Railway; Rock- 
ford. Beloil & Janesville R, R,; Stark Klectric Ry, ; I^uisville, 
Anchorage & Pewee Valley Ry„ and Trenton & New Brunswick 
Ry. It also made a record, recently, by delivering 25 double truck 
city cars to the Cleveland Klectric Ry, within 28 days from receipt 
of order. 

Mr. A. W. Si-liall, who has been superintendent fur the past 
year and a half and under whose supervision almost all of the 
cars mentioned have beei( huill. hns been retained in that capacity. 

Mr, James H, Ludlow, who has been secretary of the t,u<ll"w Sup- 
ply Co,, of Cleveland, has resigned from that company and will 
he the general sales agent of the Niles Car & Manufacturing Co, 

The new company starts with a large and thoroughly equipped 
plant, and as it has no old orders unfilled, is prepared Iti coiUract 
for a targe inimber of cars for reasonably proui|il delivery. 



66 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



IVoi.. XIV. N( 



New Cars of the Middletown Car Works. 

The accompanyiiiR illiistrations show general views and dctail^^ 
of construction of a niimhcr of express, box, ice and gondola cars 
recently Iniill by the Middletown Car Works, Inc.. of Middle- 
town, Pa., for the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. 

The most prominent feature of these cars is the steel mulcr- 
framing, .1 drawing of which is herewith shown. The niethiul of 



bolsters and intermediate between these points. There are three 
series of floor beams consisting of 4-in. channels secured by means 
of deep connection angles to the side and center sills. These 
rioor beams carry ,1 x 4-in. yellow pine nailing .strips, to which arc 
secured between the end sills the flooring in the usual manner. 
The l^-in. floor boards at the platform arc bolted directly to the 
underlying frame. 

.■\bnve tile underfran.es the c:irs are of the usuni coiislniclioii and 



^^^^tri 




H.\LF PLAN .\ND ELEVATIONS OF MIDDLETOWN EXPRESS CAR. 



constructing the platforms and attaching them to the car body 
has been patented by the company. All the frames are substan- 
tially alike and are quite simple as to detail. There are two side 
sills and two center sills, each consisting of 12-in. channels weigh- 
ing 20.5 lb. per ft. These are framed into similar channel end 
sills by means of suitable connection .ingles. Extending beyond 
the end sills proper is a bent plate angle platform sill made of 



measure 38 ft. 6 in. in length over platforms and 30 ft. s in. in 
length over bodies. On the box, ice and expre-.« cars the height 
over all from top of rail is approximately 10 ft. 10 in. ; from the 
floor 7 ft. 7i4 in. The extreme width is 7 ft. 9^ in. Box cars 
have interior sheathing of southern pine extending to a height of 
4 ft. and are provided with one sliding door at the center of 
each side, with a 6-ft. opening. 'Thirteen of these box cars were 



I J-///" ---I 




FLOOR FRAMING OF MIDDLETOWN CARS. 



6x4xi^-in. angles, the 6-in. flanges standing vertically and form- 
ing the outsjde of the platform. These platform angles are stiffened 
by means of angle braces riveted to suitable connection plates. The 
body bolsters are of the built-up type and have top cover plates 
15 x ^ in. in section, and bottom plates 10 x-^ in. in section, riveted 
to flange angles secured to ^^-in. web plates. Between the center 
sills, which are spaced 18 in. apart, are malleable iron fillers at the 



included in the recent order; also eight ice cars of the same 
general dimensions, the latter, however, being lined inside at the 
roof and to the full height at the sides and ends. These ice cars have 
double floors, the bottom course being I'/S-in. yellow pine and the 
top course ?^-in, maple. -Ml flooring, sheathing, lining and roofing, 
is tongned and grooved. 

The express cars were built to approximately the same general 



Jan. 2C, 1904. 1 



STREET RAILWAY RIA lEW 



67 



dimensions as the box and ice cars, and are provided with two 
sliding doors at each side and one at each end. These cars wer^ 
painted bine and snitably lettered for .American E.xpress Co. 



service. 
Three differert 



r^t< of gondola cars were Iniilt ; twelve with iS-iii 




MIDDLETOWN EXPRESS OAR FOR BROOKLYN RAPID TRANSIT CO 



sides, six with 30-in. sides and six with 38-in. sides and peak 
foors. All of these gondolas were arranged with side doors 
hinged at the sills and secured by suitable latches at the top. 

All the gondolas were supplied with 10 x lo-in. southern pine 
trolley masts at the center of the cars. On the i8-in. and 30-in. 
gondolas these trolley irTasts also serve to support the center 
latches for the doors 

Rolling Steel Shutters and Fire Proof Doors. 

The accompanying illustrations corvcy a good idea of the double- 
edged corrugated rolling steel shutters or doors made by the James 
G. Wilson Manufacturing Co.. of 3. 5 and 7 West 29t;i St.. New 
York City. These are particularly suitable for closing car house 
fronts, express and freight houses and sheds, and in all cases where 
protection from fire and thieves is desired. 

The shutters are made of open-hearth, cold-rcilled sheet steel, 



is not actually tire-proof in the strict sense of the word. A sheet 
of steel, under a severe test, will become red-hot and ignite any 
combustible material in contact with the heated surface, although 
separated from the actual flames. Bui it is emphatically claimed 
f-ir tlie Wilson steel shutters that they will prove a perfect barrier 
ag^ainst flames without warping or twisting out of 
shape, and if there is a clear space behind the shutters 
of 2 or 3 ft., and no combustible material in contact 
with them, they can be depended upon to preserve the 
contents of the building against a fierce fire. The com- 
pany makes an iiuer-looping or inter-locking slat style 
of door but that style, even if made of heavier gage 
steel cannot be eonsidered as durable as the other 
because of the peculiar grinding action between slats 
and the impossibility' of the painters reaching the inner 
surface of the slats where they interlock. The company 
has installed a complete plant for galvanizing its shut- 
ters of any style by the commercially new cold electro 
process. 

. 'I'he manipulation of the Wilson shutters is cared for 
in several ways. The "self-coiling" principle is recom- 
mended as the best plan as it enables the shutters to 
be opened and closed like an ordinary spring roller 
shade, from efther side. The "endless chain" arrangement 
with single or compound gear and spring counterbalance, 
is a good plan for large and especially for very high 
openings. Screw gearing is another method that is sometimes used 





APl'l,ll'.\TION Ul'- lt(>l-l,lN(i IJOURS TO CAR H.VRNS. 

and is more particularly useful where a number of shutters, one 

above another, are to \vi operated at one lime and by one set of gear. 

.\ny of the rnlliiig shutters or doors ciu In- filleil with .1 device 




corrugated and riveted together, forming a firm, unbrnken surface 
of great strength, and possessing exceplK.iial heat and fire resisting 
qualities. Being of the same thickness ihniughoul. il is urged that 
the expansion, when the shutter is exposed to heat, is uniform 
and regular throughout, thereby avoiding any twisting or buckling 
tendency and enabling the shutter lo hang IrMisely in the iron 
grfx>vei and remain in place willif.nl twisting or warping when 
cxpodcd to the attack of (lames or lient. Il is iK)inlcd out by the 
maker that a «lccl shullcr, or any single ibicWMe>s of iron or sleel. 



section B- - B 



l>l-;TAn,S OF CONTINI'OIS ■! HOI. I. ICY I.I.Vl': 1 il'A- IC 'I';. 

that will ensure their dosing wluii the temiiii:i(nre in the vicinity 
reaches a pre-determined degree of heat, 

.•\llention is particularly called to the heavy metal sliieiils on the 
edges of these shutters, designed tci proteci llu-in fnim wcaniiK' 
out by friction in the iron grooves. 

One of the drawings explains the jiarticular application of the 
Wilson system of fire-proof slnillers lo car house protection. As 
will be noticed, this invnlves the use oi a special bridge ur cnii- 
nector for preserving Ihe continuity of the trolley wire at the 
entrance to the car house, and providing an unbroken passage fur 
Ihe trolley wheel when Ihe door is in the raised position. 



68 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW, 



[Vol. XIV, No. i. 



The business carried on by this company was established in 187O, 
and the varions styles of shutters, doors, blinds, etc., made by it 
are protected by over 25 U. S. letters paieni. 

*—¥ 

Interesting Cars for Topcka, Kan. 

Tlie car shown in the accompanying engraving is one of 12 re- 
cently completed by the American Car Co. of St. Louis for the 
Topeka Railway Co., Topcka, Kan. The entire properly of the 
company has lately been re-constructed and new equipment added 
and these new cars are a valuable addition to the lines. Several 
unusual and interesting features will be noticed in the engraving. 
The back platfornj is of the "Detroit" type with entrance at one 
side only and closed, except when the car is at a full stop, by hijth 
gates. The other side of the platform is permanently closed with 
a high gate of wire netting. The platform at the forward end of the 
car is flush with the car floor and entrance to the enclosed vestibule 
is only permitted to the motorman, a step iron being provided for 
him of the usual baggage-car type. The seating capacity of each 
car is 28. The seats are of the walk-over type. They are 32 in. in 
length and the aisles arc 25 in. wide. The interiors are finished in 
quartered oak with ceilings of birch. .'K single sliding door at the 



sales office at New York, has been appoiuicd chief of the inspec- 
tion department at the Milwaukee works, in addition to his posi- 
tion as chief engineer of sales de|>arlnienl for Christensen air 
brakes. Mr, Denton in future will be located in the Milwaukee 
office. 



The Thomas High. Tension Insulator. 

We present herewith an illustration of one of the high-tension 
insulators made by the R. Thomas & Sons Co., of East Liverpool, 
O., and especially adapted for high-vollage power transmission. 
These insulators are made by what is known as the "glaze-filling" 
process which has been patented by the maker, who has given the 
subject of insulation of this character very careful study. During 
the past five years the company has conducted such tests as warrant 
it in affirming that insulators constructed under this process are 
sure to Ix! thoroughly vitrified, and being made in separate parts 
of a uniform thickness, each part being thoroughly glazed and 
extra layers of glaze being used in firing the parts together, an 
insulator is produced which is considered practically non-pnnctur- 
:!blc. 

i'hc insiilutov hero shown is made in two sizes, designated as 





XEW CAR FOR TOPEKA. KAN. (AMERICAN CAR CO.) 



R. THOMAS & SONS HIGH TENSION INSULATOR. 



rear end is at the side near the entrance. This arrangement is 
known as the Brownell Patents Co's. semi-accelerator type of door 
and facilitates the movement of passengers in and out. Length of 
cars over end-panels 20 ft. 8 in. and over crown pieces 30 ft. 8 in. 
From panel over crown-piece at the front end 4 ft. and at the rear 
end 6 ft. Width over sills, including sill plates. 7 ft. 10 in. Width 
over posts at belt 8 ft. 2 in. Sweep of posts 2^ in. From 'center to 
center of posts 2 ft. 8 in. The side sills are 4 x 6J4 in. with 8 x ->^ 
in. sill plates extending from the vestibule corner post to the rear 
corner post on cither side. The corner posts arc 3^ in. thick and 
the side posts 2J4 in. Height of platform step 17 in. from rail head 
and from step to platform 14 in. The cars are equipped with 
.\merican Car Co. sand boxes and Brill angle iron bumpers, Dedenda 
gongs, r.atchet brake handles and radial draw bars and are mounted 
upon Brill 21-E trucks having 6 ft. wheel base, 33 in. wheels and 
equipped with 25-h. p. motors. 



Changes in Offices of the National Electric 
Co. 



The general sales office of the Chrislensen air brake department 
of the National Electric Co. has been transferred from No. 135 
Broadway, New York, to the works at Milwaukee, and will here- 
after be under the direct charge of Mr. F. C. Randall, who has 
been elected vice-president and general manager of the company. 
The company will retain a sales office at No. 135 Broadway, New 
York, which will take care of New Y'ork City and all of New 
England and Canada. This office will be in charge of Mr. J. T. 
Cunningham, who has been the New England representative of 
the company for the past two years. Mr. J. D. Maguire has been 
appointed special sales representative of the air brake department, 
and will inakt his headquarters at the New Y'ork office, also. Mr. 
J H. Denton, who formerly made his headquarters at the general 



No. I;; "C- 1"' and No. 14 "C-T". and is either white or chocolate 
i-olor, as preferred. The only difference is in the size, No. 12 
'C-T" being 2^ in. smaller in diameter than No. 14 "C-T". which 
15.145-4 in. across. Tlif smaller. jnsulatoiv.,weighs ,^ lb. and the 
larger, 24 lb. The hoi^ght.-of e^gh i< i3-jl|"in. The test vultage is 
the same in each~l20.ooon volts^Hie iinc-iJoYking voltage recoin- 
mended for tliese insiilatprs is. up to , ^,000 aiid 70,000 volts, 
respectively, which is believed to bfe a vePy^ conservative retom- 
mendation. ThesR. Thomas & Sons' sales offices. -are at 39-41 
Cortlandt St., PTew York ;City. 



Nurnberg Gas Engines. 

The .Mlis-Chalniers Co. announces that it has acquired the ex- 
clusive rights for the United States, Canada and Mexico for the 
manufacture and sale of Nurnberg gas engines for all power pur- 
poses. These engines have been developed and thoroughly tested 
in large units and it is claimed that their performance will meet 
ihe most exacting demands of power generation with absolute re- 
liability. They will operate with either natural, producer, coke oven, 
blast furnace or illuminating gas ; and they are built in sizes of 
from 130 to 6,000 h. p. capacity. They are of the four-cycle, double- 
acting type. TIic .\llis-Chalmers Co. is now prepared to install 
complete gas power plants. 

The I-iiidsley Brothers Co., of Chicago, dealer in Michigan and 
Idaho poles, posts and ties, reports that 1903 was a most prosperous 
year. Several very large orders were received for Michigan and 
western cedar poles and railway ties, one order for western poles 
alone requiring over 200 cars to transport them. The company is 
operating several camps to produce stock to care for 1904 orders, 
and not only reports a heavy inquiry already, but has received 
several large orders for future delivery. 



Jan. 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



69 



Cars for Rockford & Freeport Ry. 

An exterior view of one of the semi-convertible interurban cars 
which the St. Louis Car Co. recently built for the Rockford & 
Freeport (111.) Electric Railway Co. is shown herewith. Each of 
these handsome cars has two compartments, passenger and smoker, 
with toilet room. There is a hot water heater in the passenger 
compartment next to the partition. The interior finish is of ve- 



pression of the same sort of care m designing and constructing 
the machine as is given to the highest grade of machine tools. 

It is essential that convenience to the operator be considered in 
designing a machine of this class, a» the rapidity with which it may 
be operated is governed by the location of the controlling parts 
and if these can be adjusted or handled from one point, much time 
can be saved. On this machine all the operating and controlling 
devices are placed within easy reach and they do not require even 





ROCKFORD & FREEPORT RY CAR (ST. LOUIS CAR c ( 1 

neered mahogany, the roof being of steam cr'ach pattern. The seats 
are the St. Louis Car Co's. reversible type, and the main compart- 
ment is fitted with parcel racks. 

The length of the car body is 34 ft. Each car has double vesti- 
bule doors and outside window guards. The St. Louis Car Co's. 
vertical wheel brake and sand boxes are used, and each car is 
provided with a four-motor equipment and mounted on the St. 
Louis Car Co's. 23 B. trucks for high-speed interurban service. 



New Automatic Vertical HoUow-Chisel 
Mortiser. 



The engravings shown herewith represent a new automatic verti- 
cal hollow chisel mortiser which is the outcome of careful study 




VBRTICAI, HOLLOW-CHISEL MOHTISI.K 

into the requirementii of car builders and wood workers who have 
large quantities of framing to finish. It is built for fast and 
economical work and an inspection of the engravings gives the im- 



DEVinE FOR CHANGING DEPTH OF MORTISE 

a step in their manipulation. This is exceedingly important and 
greatly adds to the capacity of the machine. 

.\mong the characteristic features in construction the following 
are particularly noticeable and worthy of careful attention : 

The layout stops for laying out mortises contribute to quick 
and accurate work. For taking up the end thrust of the spindle 
and supporting it, an improved composition step-bearing, running 
in a bath of oil, is provided. The machine has a new device for 
instantly changing the depth of the mortise, without disturbing the 
table. The tension of the spindle belt is kept uniform by an auto- 
matic tightener. The tool frame has a transverse movement with 
adjustable stops for regulating its travel; when located in position 
it is locked hy a novel clamping device. In this respect the machine 
presents a new feature for a medium-sized mortiser and one which 
is sure to be appreciated. The table has both vertical and longi- 
tudinal movements. The timber clamp is very strong and is ad- 
justable as well as detachable from the table. Improved friction 
feed with two speeds is provided with quick return. To prevent 
air cushioning of the belt, a patent pneumatic spindle pulley is 
employed. The chisel ram has a vertical travel of gl^ in. 

The chisel carriage moves horizontally 18 in. and will drop to 
mortise stock 17 in. high with a 6'/2 in. chisel. 

Timber up to 12 in. may be clamped and chisels up to ij^ in. can 
lie used on hard wood. 

The floor space occupied is 5^ ft. x s'A ft. 

This machine is one of the most recent productions of the S, A. 
Woods Machine Co., of South Boston. Mass., which makes a 
specialty of high grade wood working machinery. 



Pcckham Manufacturing Co. 



At a late meeting of the hoard of directors of the Peckham 
Manufacturing Co., E. Burton Hart, jr.. Bird S. Coler, and Henry 
G. Lewis were elected to the board in place of J. J. Riley, Virgil 
B. Van Wagonen and W. II. Wilkinson, resigned. 

The board now consists of the following: E. Peckham, president; 
lion. Bird S. Coler, ex-comptroller of the City of New York, incni 
licr of the New York Stock Exchange; E. Burton Hart, jr., presi- 
dent of the Portsmouth, Kittery & York Street Railway Co., di- 
rector of the Consolidated National Bank; J. R. Beetem, vice-presi- 
dent and general manager, formerly general manager of the Union 
Tr.iclion Co. of Philadelphia and vice-president of the New York 
& Queens County Kailway Co ; Henry G. Lewis, treasurer, assistant 
cashier of the Consolidated National Bank; Hon. C. H. r>uell, ex- 
commissioner of patents, mcml>er of the firm of Duell, Megrath 
& Warficid ; Geo IT. Bowers, secretary and assistant treasurer 



The total number of passengers handled by the Nashville Railway 
& Light Co. during ifx>3, including transfers and passes, was 19,- 
418,303. 



70 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol XIV, No. i. 



New Quarters for Electric Storage Battery Co. 

The Electric Storage Battery Co., of Philadelphia, manufacturer 
of the "Chloride" and "Exide" accumulator, has recently completed 
arrangements with the trustees of the estate of W. G. Warden, 
by which the company acquires the entire property situated on 
Allegheny Ave., between i8lh and 20th Sts. The main building on 
Allegheny Ave. is a seven-story and basement brick stnicture, hav- 
ing two wings, and containing over 280,000 5iq fl. of floor space. 



Pipe Wrench Attachments for the B. & S. Drop 
Forged Adju.stable Wrenches. 

The pipe wrench attachment shown in the illustration is for the 
B. & S. 6 and 8-in. adjustable wrenches and consists of a serrated 
tool steel jaw, with a tempered spring attachment which serves to 




NEW PLANT OI' THE ELECTRIC STORAGE BATTERY CO. 




PIPE WRENCH ATTACHMENT. 



Aside from this building there are sixteen other structures utilized 
for the different processes of manufacture by the battery company. 
The property covers over three acres of ground, and has a frontage 
on Allegheny Ave. of nearly 600 ft., and is bounded by the Phila- 
delphia & Reading Railway and a branch of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, thus giving unusual facilities for the handling v. freight 
and express. 



A Novel Double-Drilling Machine. 

The Ludlow Supply Co., of Oeveland, maker of the "Cleveland" 
track drilling machines, announces that it is about to place on the 
market a machine that will drill either rail without it being neces- 
sary to turn the machine around, as heretofore. Tlie accompanying 
illustration fully exhibits the details of the new device. In the con- 
struction of this machine malleable iron is used almost entirely. 



hold the jaw in place. This pipe wrench attachment is easily re- 
moved and can be used for either right or left hand threads by 
simply reversing its position on the wrench, or. if preferred, chang- 
ing the working position of the wrench. 

This important addition in the equipment of those popular 
wrenches makes it possible to instantly convert them into pipe 
wrenches, a feature the trade will be quick to perceive. When so 
converted they can be used on pipe up to and including }i in. in 
diameter. 

These wrenches and attachments are manufactured by the Billings 
& Spencer Co., Hartford, Conn. 



Street Railway Detective Agency. 

Our readers will be pleased to know that the well-known detect- 
ive agency of Drummond & Co. has recently established a depart- 



/^3 

/304 FltTTlRN 




making it stronger and lighter. The feeding, lowering and raising 
mechanism has been changed from a screw to a wOrm and gear, 
which facilitates operation. The drill point can be raised or lowered 
n in., making it possible to drill from a 60-lb. T rail to a lO-in. 
girder. Holes for tie rods can be drilled absolutely true without 
measurements, it is stated. 

The new machine combines all of the company's latest improve- 
ments, including automatic feed and roll-off attachments. Ball 
bearings are used in the spindle to lessen the friction and enhance 
the ease of operation. 




A. L. DRUMMOND. 

ment for the purpose of investigating and systematically inspecting 
street railways. 

The agency is prepared to undertake the investigation of all 
classes of crime committed against persons or property, to obtain 



Jan. 20, 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



71 



evidence in both criminal and civil cases, serve legal papers, inves- 
tigate frauds, infringements, coiuiterfeiting, the character and hab- 
its of employes and all general high grade sy;>teniatic detective 
work as pertaining to street railways and their operation. 

This agency is in the personal charge of Mr. A. L. Drummond, 
for twenty years with the secret service department of the United 
States treasury and for three years its chief. His references in- 
clude many of the leading railway officials, government officials, 
bankers and business men of the country and abroad. His per- 
sonal testimonials are of the highest, including the capturing and 
convicting of the famous gang of counterfeiters who for years 
baffled the Southern Pacific Railway with their clever counterfeiting 
of railway tickets, passes, etc. 

The agency is fully prepared to funiish high grade men for 
railway companies, who will thoroughly ferret out the labor situa- 
tion, dissatisfaction, graft, etc., among employes. These funiished 
employes are not roughs, sluggers and mischief makers, but are 
trained men in their line of work, as well as first-class railway 
operators, and will furnish daily a full written report of the situa- 
tion on the rcvad where they are employed. 



Strikes of the Month. 



January 1st the employes of the Bloomington & Normal Railway 
Electric & Heating Co., of Bloomington, 111., struck for increased 
wages. The old men who had been receiving 17 cents an hour 
demanded 19 cents, while the new men, who have been worlcing 
six months, or longer, asked for an advance from 15 cents to 16 
cents an hour. New Year's day no cars were run. but on January 
2nd the company placed four cars in operation, having hired 20 
nonunion men. January 3rd a mob wrecked the cars and assaulted 
the nonunion motormen and conductors and policemen as well. 
They tore up sections of the track and greased the rails, so that, 
although the company tried to run cars on II lines, it did not succeed 
fully. January 4th the police force was augmented and cars were run 
under heavy guard. Two rioters were arrested. January 5th mem- 
bers of the State Board of -Arbitration arrived to seek a settlement. 
Five more arrests were made January 5th. January 6th the Cit- 
izens' Alliance announced that it would tender $10,000 to aid the 
company. The mayor issued a proclamation. January 7th cars 
were run on schedule, although there was disorder. The arbitration 
board reported that the company would not make concessions. 
January 8th the electrical workers and light trimmers struck in 
sympathy, but their places were filled. January 9th and loth 14 
aldermen served as policemen and preserved order. Saloons were 
ordered closed. January nth all the gambling houses were closed. 
January 12th the union appealed to the Business Men's Association 
January 13th the railway officials notified the Business Men's Asso- 
ciation that, as an act of courtesy, the president of the company, 
Mr. A. E. DeMange, would meet the Business Men's .'Association 
and the city council, but their efforts to settle the strike would be 
useless, as the company's position was irrevocable. The company 
is satisfied with its present force, as well as the patronage, and the 
fact that the old employes left voluntarily prevents the company 
from considering their claims for recognition. 

January 8th a strike of the employes of the Auburn & Syracuse 
(N. Y.) Railroad Co. was ordered because the company had dis- 
charged three union men for cause. It was not effective, how- 
ever, as only six employes went out. 

Former employes of the San Antonio Traction Co., or their sym- 
pathizers, have caused the company a great deal of annoyance since 
it was announced that the strike, mentioned in the "Review" for 
November, was over, so far as the company was concerned. Several 
attempts have been made to get the company to take back all the 
strikers, but the president flatly refused to have anything to dn with 
unions. The disgruntled ones then resorted to dynamite and 
dynamited two cars. leaders of the unions were arrested and 
Deccmt)er 27th the grand jury found indictments against three of 
them on 27 counts for dynamiting cars and assaulting, to murder, 
the passengers. The men were required to furnish bonds in $2,000 
each for iheir further appearance. 

♦»» 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Co., Kansas City, collected more 
than 270,000 fares Christmas day, it Ijcing the heaviest traffic with 
two exceptions in the company's history 



Advertising Literature. 

IHE .JiMERICAN STEEL & WIRE CO. has issued in pamphlet 
form, 24 pages, 6^ x 7j4 in., a list of products of the company, 
which include electrical wires and cables and rail bonds. 

THE SAMPSON CORDAGE WORKS, Boston, Mass., issues 
an unique desk calendar. 4x5 in., with a support at the back. 
.■\bove the calendar pad, which is l^ x 3 in., is attached a sample of 
the well-known Sampson "spot" cord. 

THE STUART-HOWLAND CO., of Boston, has issued a fine 
calendar, the chief feature of which, aside from the calendar proper, 
is a half-tone illustration, about 7 in. square, showing the com- 
pany's substantial and altogether attractive office building. 

THE WESTERN WHEELED SCRAPER CO., of Aurora, III., 
has issued a four-page folder, 5 x 9 in., illustrating and describing 
its "ten-yard bottom dump double truck car," adapted for ballasting 
purposes on electric roads, or for filling in, hauling cinders, coal. 
gravel, crushed stone, etc. 

THE WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC & MANUFACTURING 
CO. has issued Circular No. 1,032 (superseding edition of Sep- 
tember, 1902), on "The Westinghouse No. 56 Railway Motor". 
Also Circular No. 1,056 (superseding edition of April, 1903), 
"Electric Motor- Vehicle Equipments." 

THE UNDER-FEED STOKER CO. OF AMERICA, Chicago, 
in the Publicity Magazine for December, emphasizes the fact that 
the Jones under-feed system of mechanical stoking is the only 
method of boiler firing in which the supply of fuel and air is 
automatically proportioned and controlled by the demand for steam. 

THE NATIONAL ELECTRIC CO., of Milwaukee, successor to 
the Christensen Engineering Co., is sending out an exceptionally 
artistic calendar, the upper portion of which frames in oval a hand- 
some picture in colors. The calendar card is black, 13 x 17 in., and 
is lettered in silver bronze. The pad is black, 3^ x 7 in., and is 
lettered in white. 

THE PHILIP CAREY MANUFACTURING CO., of Lockland. 
O., sole manufacturer and patentee of "magnesia" flexible cement 
roofing and 85-per-cent "magnesia" pipe coverings, has issued an 
attractive 1904 calendar printed in silver bronze on black "mag- 
nesia" paper, the whole being 14 x 22 in. in size, and the calendar 
part 5 X 10 in. Surmounting the calendar pad is a picture, in colors, 
showing a beautiful woman in artistic pose. 

JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS CO., of Trenton, N. J., manu- 
facturer of wire rope and wire, has issued a handsome calendar for 
1904, of which the card is 10 x 14 in. in size and the calendar pad 
4 X 8 in. The upper portion is adorned with a half-tone view of 
the "America" cup defender. "Reliance", taken from a copyright 
photograph by James Burton, of New York. The wire rope and 
rigging for the "Reliance" were furnished by the John A. Roebling's 
Sons Co. 

THE INGERSOLL-SERGEAN T DRILL GO'S, pneumatic tool 
department has just issued a calendar of novel and artistic design. 
It pictures a workman operating one of the company's llaeseler 
pneumatic hammers on a .sky-scraper, while the "axial" valve, a 
very important feature of the Haeseler-Ingersoll hammer, appears 
in a novel way. It is an excellent calendar for the office. The 
Ingcrsoll-Scrgcant Drill Go's, general offices are at 26 Cortlandt 
St., New York. 

THE AMERICAN BRAKE SHOE & FOUNDRY CO., of 
.Mahwah, N. J., has just issued Catalog No. 2, setting forth its 
line of tools made by the " Tropcnas" converter process which is 
in successful operation at llu- company's Chicago Heights plant 
'Hie catalog contains eight pages, y/: x 6 in., and is illustrated. 
I he leading features described are engineers' wrenches, "S" car 
wrenches, track wrenches, coal picks, car repairers' hammers and 
machinists' hammers. 

THE REPUBLIC RUBRKR CO., j{ Youngslown, O., has issued 
an ornate ixister enlillcd "A Talk On Packing", and treating of the 
"Searchlight" packing which is so favorably known. The poster, 
when rjpcn, is 18 x 26 in. in size; closed, it is about 7 x 13 in., and 
on the back arc reserved lines for the name and address of the 
person to 'whom it is to be sent, and space to affix a postage stamp, 
riic poster is f)n white paper, printed in red, bhie and black. It is 
adorned with artistic borders, illuminated capital an<I ohl English 
title, being got up in the form of an official proclamation, or "greet- 
ing to (he engineers of .Americ.i" The type is very large and the 



72 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV, No. i. 



CREAOHEAD FLEXIBLE BRACKHS ARE STANDARD 



trJ!^?^^/^ 




CREAGHEAD BRACKET NO. 182 
IDEAL CENTER POLE CONSTRUCTION 



Creagtiead 



^-^rs 




r^-y 



riexible 
Brackets 

Arc 
Standard 

Get the Genuine 

% 

Many Styles. 

Single or Double. 

Plain or Ornamental. 

For Iron or Wooden 
Poles. 

Any Length. 



THE CREAGHEAD ENGINEERING CO. 

fnglneers and Manufacturers 
Complete OOerhead Equipment 

"Pole FiUin^.s. tSroUey Line Malerial-t 
Ji.l Walnut Street. CINCINNATI. OHIO. 




reading matter terse and emphatic. When unfolding; the circular 
a surprise awaits the reader at every turn, due to the variety of 
designs and assembling of trade mark, title and colors. 

THE STEWART HARSTHORN CO., of East Newark, N. J. 
in the Christmas and New Year numbers of Ilartshoni's Roller 
assembled sonic exceptionally attractive illustrations and enjoy- 
able reading matter, of which the advertising features are by no 
means least commendable. The Roller serves as an excellent 
medium to set forth the Martfhorn specialties and is eagerly awaited 
each month by those fortunate enough to be on the mailing list. 
It costs nothing— only to send for it. 

THE MICA INSULATOR CO.. of New York and Qiicago, issues 
a 14-page booklet, jj^ x 6f/<i in., treating of insulating cloths and 
papers made by it and which are claimed -to be the only linseed 
oil cloths on the market. Samples of these cloths, which arc known 
as "Empire" linseed oil cloths, accompany the booklet. The company 
also issues a folder, y/2 x 5^ in., describing a new process of 
"Empire" oiled cloths in the form of a tape under the registered 
name of "Linotape". .\ "Linolape" price list is also given. 

THE JOSEPH DIXON CRUCIBLE CO., of Jersey City, pub- 
lisher of Graphite, which is issued m the interest of Dixon's 
graphite productions, in the January number of this readable paper 
launched into color printing with excellent result. On the last 
page of the paper is a view showing a silica graphite pail, with 
red label, "looking as natural as life," and on an inside page is an 
illustration showing a pyramid of red-labeled cans such as contain 
Dixon's No. 63s graphite, Dixon's graphitoleo and Dixon's graphite 
compound. 

THE MAYER & ENGLUND CO., of Philadelphia, in the Christ- 
mas number of the Keystone Trave'/ler, advertises in attractive 
fashion its "Protected" rail bonds, controller contact fingers, the 
Barrett trip jack, trolley ears, the Knutson trolley retriever. Inter- 
national fare register, the Philadelphia fender, automatic vestibule 
shades, track scrapers, snow brooms, sleet cutters, safety treads, 
the .\utomotoneer and the "Keystone" pit light, the last-named 
being a new portable incandescent lamp for working around motors 
in the pit. This lamp has a special weather-proof socket. 

THE RAILWAY APPLIANCES CO.. Old Colony Building, 
Chicago, and 107 Liberty St.. New York, has issued a novel cal- 
endar to advertise its "R. A.", or "Ajax" vestibule diaphragm for 
railway cars. In the center of the calendar card is a view of this 
diaphragm in the aperture of which is shown in decollete costume 
a pretty young woman in the apparent act of alighting from a car. 
The novel feature is that the waist of the young woman's gown is 
a "color barometer", being made of cloth which has been chem- 
ically treated so that it changes color with the weather. At one 
side of the picture is a diminutive calendar pad, i^ x i% in. in size. 
The card, which is 6;4 x 854 in., is artistically colored. 

THE BULLOCK ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING CO., of 
Cincinnati, issues a very valuable calendar consisting of a set of 
12 cards, 3J4 x 6 in. in size, each card containing a likeness of a 
prominent electrician, the entire set including portraits of Sir 
Oliver J. Lodge. Thomas .\. Edison, William Spottiswoode, Andre 
E. Blondel, Charles Proteus Steinmetz, Sir William Siemens, Alex- 
ander Graham Bell. Dr. Michael Idvorski Pupin, Frank J. Sprague, 
Joseph Henry, Sir William Crookes and Nikola Tesla. The cards 
are very handsomely decorated with different designs in vari-colored 
inks, the whole forming an idea' exposition of the art of color 
printing. On the back of each card is a biographical sketch of the 
subject whose portrait appears on the front. 

THE GENERAL ELEC IRIC CO. has issued the following 
publications: Bulletin No. 4.348, ".Automatic Circuit Breakers, Car- 
bon Break, Type C". Bulletin No. 4.^49. "Belt-Driven Form L 
Continuous Current Generators for Lighlnig and Power". Bulletin 
1^0. 4,350, "Generators for Electroplating, Electrotyping and Other 
Electrolytic Work". Bulletin No. 4,351, "Type T h. Regulators 
for Alternating Current Generators". Series No. 9,118 (supersedes 
No. 9,108), "General Electric Railroad". Series No. 9,126, "Thomson 
Recording Wattmeters". Series No. 9,127. "Fifteen Years' Experi- 
ence in Transformer Manufacture". Supply Catalog No. 7,584 
(supersedes No. 7,533), "Marine Supplies". Flyer No. 2,119, "Flush 
Pocket Wall Receptacle". Flyer No. 2,120, "Edison Socket Rings". 
Flyer No. 2,121, "G. E. Porcelain Receptacles". Flyer No. 2,122 
(supersedes No. 2,086), "Punched Clip Spring Switches with Edison 
Fuse Plugs" Flyer No. 2,123 (supersedes No. 2,102), "G. E. Porce- 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



71 



lain Knobs and Cleats". Flyer No. 2,124 (supersedes No. 2,108), 
"Attaching Plugs". Price List No. 5,113 (supersedes No. 5,093), 
'Edison Miniature Incandescent Lamps" Price List No. 5,114 
(supersedes No. 5,093), "Edison Minature Incandescent Lamps". 
Price List No. 5,117, "Principal Repair Parts for Form 8, D. C 
Multiple Enclosed Arc Lamps ". Price List No. 5.1 iS (supersedes 
No. 5.097), "Thomson Recording Wattmeters". 

J. R. M'C.\RDELL & CO., of Trenton, N. J., patentees and sole 
manufacturers of the improved Trenton trolley wagon, issue a 
J4-page descriptive pamphlet, 5'/4x8 in. in size, illustrating these 
widely-known wagons, which are built in two sizes and of which 
It is stated that more were sold last year than all other kinds com- 
bined. The pamphlet refers to a long list of domestic and foreign 
users of the Trenton wagon, and there are also published many 
testimonials from leading roads to show that the claims made by 
the manufacturers are substantiated in every particular. Some 
of these claims are the following : It is the lightest practical tower 
wagon ever constructed ; it is the quickest in operation, and can 
be changed to any position in one-quarter of the time required 
by any other wagon ; it is the strongest, steadiest and best bal- 
anced and most durable; it is the only tower wagon that can be 
successfully operated by one man ; it is not affected in its opera- 
tion by climate or weather ; all overhead work can be readily ef- 
fected from the extended platform without stopping cars; it is 
built by hand of the best materials and is sold under a positive 
guarantee; it is the cheapest tower wagon on the market. 

SKILLED FIREMEN. 

Remarkable Feat of Engine Firing on The New York Limited. 



The Pennsylvania Lines are frequently referred to as the train- 
ing school for skilled railroad employes, .\ttention to details is 
one of the reasons for the characteristic which has distinguished 
the Pennsylvania as the standard railway system of America. 
Probably on no other system is a greater effort put forth by em- 
ployes and officers alike in an endeavor to keep passenger trains on 
schedule time. The preparation of equipment and motive power ; 
the make-up of trains and their handling is given close attention. 
As a result Pennsylvania employes become experts in the dif- 
ferent lines of work assigned to them. 

The high degree to which men in the Pennsylvania service are 
trained was demonstrated recently in the firing of engines used on 
the New York Limited, running between St. Louis and New York. 
The men on the engines are perhaps directly responsible for trains 
making time and keeping their schedules. The work of supplying 
requisite steam devolves on the fireman and is of considerable im- 
portance. The performance of skillful engine firing on the New 
York Limited consisted of maintaining a uniform pressure of steam 
from Indianapolis to Columbus, a distance of 181 miles, on the two 
engines used, one from Indianapolis to Richmond, and one from 
Richmond to Columbus. 

The New York Limited left Indianapolis at 6:50 p. m., on lime. 
hauled by a Class D-13A engine No. 8305, with Engineer Martin 
and Fireman Oark. The train was a heavy laden one of nine cars, 
making a total weight of 425 tons. The weather conditions were 
very unfavorable, the rails being wet by a drizzling rain ; yet Fire- 
man Clark succeeded in having a uniform pressure of steam main- 
tained all the way from Indianapo'is to Richmond, which place 
was reached on time. At Richmond another engine. Class D-16B, 
No. 6614, with Engineer Gibncy and Fireman Hoag, took the train 
and hauled it to Colimibus on time, running under a uniform 
pressure of steam the entire distance, Fireman Hoag Ijcing so skilled 
in his duties as to keep the pressure at a certain point all the 
way. 

Notwithstanding the heavy grades, the unfavorable weather con- 
ditions, and the fact that the engines were not of the heavy Class 
E2 Atlantic type which the Pennsylvania system is introducing, 
there was only the slightest variation in the steam gages the en- 
tire distance from Indianapolis to Ctlumbus. So well was the 
work of the firemen done that the exact variation in steam pressure 
was less than three prjunds. This performance of expert euKinc 
firing is one of the m.iny similar feats by which the men on the 
engines of the Pennsylvania lines have made that railway system 
famous. 



INSULATING 



m 



THE STANDARD FOR 18 YEARS 



ENDORSED BY EXPERT 
ELECTRICIANS 



it is always flexible 

It is always strongly adhesive 
It is water- and acid-proof 
It does not vulcanize 

It does not dry out 
._ It is easily applied 



Positively the Most Durable On the Market 

SEND FOR P & B BOOKLET 



STANDARD PAINT COMPANY 

NEW YORK CHICAQO 

too William Street 188-90 Madison Street 

HAMBURQ PARIS LONDON 

Dovenhof 93 20 Rue St. Oeorges 09 Olty Road, E.G. 



72 



STREET RAILWAY REVIFW. 



The western 
ELECTRICAL 
SUPPLY CO. 

Engineers and Builders of 

Electric 
Railways 

Lighting 
Plants 

... and ... 

Central 
Stations 

Correspondence Solicited 
Estimates Furnished 

Western Electrical 
Supply Company 

Chemical g^. LoulS, U.S.A. 

Building — Jl 



Trade Notes. 



IHE BROWN CORLISS ENGINE CO., of Corliss, Wis., ad- 
vises us that it has received an order from the Passaic Steel Co., 
of Paterson, N. J., for one 24 and 44 x ,16-in. tandem rolling mill 
engine ; also an order from the Lorain Steel Co. 

OSGOOD BR.ADLEY & SONS, of Worcester, Mass., have just 
placed their order with the S. .\. Woods Machine Co., ol Boston, 
for several new wood working machines. It is expected this equip- 
ment will be shipped and installed during January. 

THE AJ.\X METAL CO., of Philadelphia, announces that it 
has purchased the business, plant, good will and fixtures of the 
former Bates Metal Co., of Birmingham, Ala., and will continue the 
metal business in all its branches under the name of the Ajax Metal 
Co. of the South. Birmingham, Ala. 

IHE RAILWAY JOURN.\L LUBRICATING CO., of Chicago, 
reports that after an extended trial of its lubricator and dust guard 
the Chicago City Railway Co. has placed an order for a full 
equipment of these lubricators for its Wentworth St. and Halsted 
St. lines and the same are being installed. 

THE VILTER MANUFACTURING CO., of Milwaukee, has 
been awarded a contract to build 2SO-ton refrigerating machinery 
to be used for ice making and cold storage purposes on the grounds 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis. This company 
also makes corliss engines for street railway use and is in position 
to make good deliveries. 

THE DETROIT TROLLEY & MANUFACTURING CO., 'of 
Detroit, Mich., advises us that it begins the new year most aus- 
piciously. It is doing an excellent business with the street railway 
companies. .Y number of which have adopted its favorably known 

FULL OF GOOD THINGS. 



The January number of the Four- Track News starts the new year 
with an especially interesting table of contents, including "Among 
Golden Pagodas,'' by the well-known writer, Kirk Munroe; "A 
Famous Autograph," by Marie Josephine Morgan; "Marblehead," 
described by M. Imlay Taylor; ".\ Western Paradise (Catalina)," 
by Frank M. Byron; "Santo Domingo," Frederick A. Ober; "Where 
Extremes Meet," and the race track and the sanctuary are neigh- 
bors, G. M. Clapham ; "Montezuma's Well and Castle." Emma Pad- 
dock Telford ; "The School City," and what it has accomplished, 
Wilson L. Gill ; "Where Soldiers hre Made," a graphic picture of 
West Point, Frank H. Taylor; "Stealing a Railroad Train," the 
story of the Andrews raid, H. M. .•\Ibaugh; "The Trianon." Sophie 
Earl ; "George Groghan. Hero," Lucy Elliot Keeler ; "Kentucky's 
Natural Bridge." Henry Cleveland Wood : ".\ Light-House and a 
Honeymoon," Harriet Quimby, and "Tlie Serpent Mound." by Mary 
L. Kane. In addition there are numerous poems, bits of humor, 
and "Little Histories." while the departments will be found inter- 
esting and varied. Every article is profusely illustrated and, 
taken collectively, the initial number of the volume si.x of this 
popular magazine ranks among the best that have been issued. 

The Four-Track News is 50 cents a year, or 5 cents a copy, and 
can be had of George H. Daniels, publisher. 7 East 42d St.. New 
York. 



THE LIFE OF A MOTOR IS 
raOLONGCD BY IISIN6 



ALBANY GREASE! 

las Never Failed to Redoc* j 
Hot Joarnal Where Uiied. J 

9^ The Albany Blectrlc Motor ( 
Orease Is the only grease 
uaed from Maine to Califor- 



nia tbat g^lTcs universal aat- } 

lefactloD, Why? Because It \ 

does ihe work required, baa I 

proTcn Itself cheaper than ] 

I any of the motor greases on ] 

kthe market today, and Is al- J 

||way« uniform In quality. ' 



Win send a ke? (100 lbs.) 
of our Grease for trial on 
approval at our regular 
barrel price. 



nUa Trade Mark on Ever? Packace 



If It does not proTe satls- 
factor7 after an Impartial | 
test, will make no charge for \ 
keg. We know the result: 
you win want more. 

ADAM COOK'S SONS 

siawntst. ny.citj.c.s.i. 

Branch: 91 8. rin>l8t., Chicifo. 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



Vol. XIV 



FEBRUARY 20, 1904 



No. 2 



Electric Tramway s of Sofia. 



Operated by Means of a High Tension Water Power Station with Low Tension Steam Power 

Station for Reserve. 



With the increase of husiness and coniniercial iransaclions has 
also increased the necessity of transporting oneself economically, 
easily, qnickly. Electric tramways are recognized everywhere as 
furnishing the best facilities for nrban transportation, and through- 
out Europe where installed have proved to be most popular even in 
those cities having well paved streets. 

Sofia, though the capital of Bulgaria and a flourishing town of 
Co,ooo inhabitants, with a modern quarter entirely constructed 
in the lasic of occidental Europe, and with broad boulevards and 



traction to the Trust Franco-Beige, of Brussels. The first named 
engages to furnish to the second the necessary energy at a deter- 
mined price : the second named company engages to organize its 
central station in such a way that in case of need the town may 
likewise he lighted directly from it. 

The electric installation is interesting, because it solves economic- 
ally a problem which may present ilself in many other localities. 
The station was designed and directKl by M. I'olaz, professor at the 
I'niversitv of Lausanne. 




I l.K.MI.XI.S <)K Tilt; Klll^'l.V TU.V.M W.W.S, 



large buildings n;akinij; an agreeable impression on strangers, has 
not yet paved streets. In many places the foof-ways leave much lo 
be desired, and communicalion in rainy weather is most difficull. 
There are, indeed, everywhere stands of hackney coaches drawn 
by small horses which convey the business man quickly from one 
point to another, but these coaches are cosily if one has lo avail 
oneself frequently of their services. 

The town of Sofia has now a network of .^s km. of trolley lines. 
The number of cars operated is .IS, of which 2.S arc motor cars 
and lo arc trail cars. The cars are equipped with motors using 
currents al 500 lo 550 volts. 

The concession for lighling ihc town lias been granted lo ihc 
Societe dcs Grands Travaux, a .Marseille, and llial for electric 



TIk- tramway iielwcirl^ is now Mipplied sdiiK'tinK's from tile cen- 
tr.il station, with low tension generators, situated in Sofia, and 
somelimes from the high tension central water power station on 
I be Isker and located about 2$ km. from the town. 

The high tension central station w.is constructed by the Societe 
Oerlikon, of Oerlikon, Switzerland ; llic- low leiision installation was 
ma<le by the Societe Electricite el I ly(lranli(|ue, of Cbarleroi, Bel- 
gium. VVlien current from the Isker station is employed, the central 
station in Sofia serves as a sub-slaliou. During seasons of dryness 
and frost the low tension central station, by operating its dynamos by 
steam power, furnishes the currenl necessary for the tramways. 
When, however, the network is fed by the high tension central sta- 
tion, the central -tatioii of Sofia may operate its steam engines for 



74 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. X1\', No. 2. 



the prodtictioii of continiimis or allcrnativc currents to lie utilized for 
the lighting or for other apphcations of the town. 

The H-alcr power sLition on the Iskcr is 2.000 h. p . though water 



The conduit under pressure has a length of no in. (.160 ft.), with 
uiside diameter of 1.400 mui. (55 in.). The pipes .ire of steel, 
from 5 to 8 mm. ihii-k. riveted ■ 




SHOWING LOC.\TION OP THE HIGH TENSION STATION. 



for 3,000 h. p. is available. The average delivery is from 5 to 6 
cubic meters per second. The intake canal is 1,100 ni. (3,600 ft.) 
long, 2 m. wide and 2.5 m. deep, built of masonry and vaulted. 




VIEW 01-' T.INE IN SOFIA. 



The station building is 30 m. long and 12.5 m. wide (about 98 x 
40 ft.). It is designed for si.K 425-kw. units, four of which are 
installed. An annex (4.S x 9.9 m. in area) is exclusively occupied 
by the switchboard and the distribution apparatus. 

The turbines are constructed for a fall of from 52 to 55 m. 
with a flow of from 960 to 910 litres of water per second with 
an efficiency of 75 per cent when developing 500 h. p. at 400 r. p. m. 

The turbines were built in the shops of Piccard, Pictet & Co., 
Geneva, and are of the centrifugal type with horizontal staflf. The 
adjusting may be made by hand or by means of a servo-motor 
actuated by the shaft of the turbine. A centrifugal governor serves 
as relay so that the number of revolutions always remains the same. 

The generators, each of 425 kw. capacity, are connected to their 
respective turbines by flexible insulated couplings. At 400 r. p. m. 
the machines deliver current at 8,000 volts, the periodicity being 
53 1-3. The field has 16 poles of laininated iron wound with no 
turns of copper wire 7 mm. in diameter. The armature coils 
have 65 turns each of copper wire 3.4 mm. in diameter, insulated 
by micanite tubes. 

Exciting current at 50 volts is furnished by a bipolar g-kw. ma- 
chine. 

The current is collected at the generators by aluminum bars sup- 
ported by porcelain insulators and thence conveyed to the switch- 
Ixiard in underground conduits. The conductors from the exciter 
are carried in the same conduits. 

The switchboard is in two stories. The upper section is of 
panels of white marble supported on cast iron frames, one panel 
carrying the instruments for one machine. -■Vt the left of the 
switchboard are the feeder panels and at the right the synchroniz- 
ing lamps, voltmeters, etc. 

The lower section of the switchboard carries the machine circuit 
breakers, rheostats, machine switches and transformer switches. 
This portion is separated from the generator room by a perforated 
sheet iron partition. The upper section of the board is reached 
liy two iron stairways. 

The lightning arresters are mounted on the upper feeder panels 
connecting to the wire. 

From this station there are two transmission circuits, each com- 
prising three 8-mm. wires. One circuit serves for lighting and the 
other for the tramways. 

For the lighting service of the suburbs the high tension current 



Feb. 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



75 



is stepped down from 7,200 to 156 volts in 400-k\v. transformers. 
In the center of the city is a 2~0-k\v. transformer station where the 
pressure is reduced from 7.200 to 3,400 volts ; and from this station 
current is distributed to five transformer sub-stations where the 
pressure is further reduced to 156 volts for distribu- 
tion to the lighting system. 

The railway high-tension transmission line termi- 
nates at the power station in Sofia, which is located on 
the Boulevard Marie Louise. At this station the gen- 
erator room has an area of 416 sq. m. (4.450 sq. ft.) 
and the boiler room an area of 232 sq. m. (2,475 
sq. ft.). 

The boiler equipment comprises two Babcock & 
Wilcox water-tube boilers working under 150 lb. pres- 
sure. The stack for this installation is 40 m. (130 ft.) 
high and 1.5 m. (5 ft.) internal diameter. 

High tension current (7,000 volts) drives directly 
two 400-h. p. s>iichronous motors operating at 265 
r. p. m., each motor being direct connected by means of 
a flexible coupling to a continuous current 550-voli 
S-pole generator rated at 270 kw. When high-tensicu 
current is not available for driving these railway gen 
erators, the couplings connecting the motors arc 
thrown out and the generators are driven (through 
similar couplings) by means of two 400-h. p. Sclessin 
steam engines, shown at the left in the interior view of the 'station. 

The two generators are operated in connection with a storage 
battery, which is also used for starting the generators. A 50-h. p. 



tramway, these being largely taken care of by the storage battery. 

All the machines arc supported on porcelain insulators, but are 
connected to ground in case of thunder storms. 

The station switchboard has 9 panels, three of which are for a 







.^.Jl 


f^Mmmmumm 


1 


1 1 






fmumumii^ 




^ 


;:3^ti^^_^uui^imHH 



tr.JlNSfer t.\ble at low tension station. 

third generator not yot installed. 

The working regulations of the tramways limit the speed of cars 
lo S km. (5 miles) per hour in narrow streets and the more densely 




I.VTHUIOIt OF HIGH TIONSI'I.N' .STATKJN. 



motor generator set is also available for this purpf'jsc. 

H desired Ihe motors may be steam driven and supply current 
(or the lighting system. In the operation of the plant no dillicully 
ha» t>ccn experienced by reason of sudden changes of load on the 



populated section, to 12 km. (7.5 miles) in other quarters of the 
town, and to 28 km. (17.5 miles) per hour on the suburban line 
lo Kniojcwo. At crossings and switches the speed liinil is 5 km. 
Cars stop only at designated points. 



76 



STRKia- K.\ll.\\A^ i<i:\ iKW, 



(Vol, XIV, No. 2, 



The fares within Ihc urhaii district arc lo and 15 ctntnnes ( j and 
3 cents'). The headway of cars varies from 7'/^ to 10 minutes. 
The motor cars accommodate first and second class passengers. 



.-.nd from brackets on posts in the wider streets, the same posts 
serving for street hghts. 

The car house which is near the power plant is designed to ac- 




SWITCHBOARD IN I>0\V TEXSIOX STATION. 



and provide for 16 seats inside and 10 standing places on each 
platform. Each car is equipped with two 30-h. p. motors and series- 
parallel control. An automatic circuit breaker and a cut-out switch 
are installed on each car. For lighting five incandescent lamps arc 
used, three inside and one on each platform. 

The tramways system comprises two lines which cross the town 
diagonally, intersecting in the Place des Bains, three branch lines 



commodate 40 cars. .\t the same site are the shops and store-room. 

One of the illustrations shows the transfer tabic. 




KNGINE RDOM AND I.llW TKNSION STATION. 

within the town limits and a line to the village of Kniojewo, 8 km. 
distant. The company gives a 15-minute service to this village and 
the line has been a paying one from the start, as there is consider- 
able excursion business; the attractions at the village are the baths 
and the scenery. 

The road is laid with rails weighing 35 kg. per meter (70 lb. 
per yd.). Within the town the trolley wires are suspended from 
span wires fastened to rosettes on the buildings in narrow streets. 



New Rates of Fare on Interurban Line. 

Beginning February 1st the Indiana Union Traction Co. put into 
effect a revised schedule of rates of fare on its interurban lines 
between Indianapolis and Muncie, Anderson and Marion and Alex- 
andria and Elwood. including intermediate points, as follows ; 
Smgle trip fares on the basis of I'/z cents per mile. Miniinum cash 
fare 10 cents. Round trip fares on the basis of 10 per cent reduc- 
tion from single trip fares. Two-hundred-and-fifty-mile mileage 
liooks good on all lines of the company will be sold for $3.25. Onc- 
tlunisand-mile mileage books good on all lines of the company will 
l)e sold for $12.50. Mileage books will be sold only by company 
cashiers at passenger waiting rooms. An additional seat fare will 
lie charged on limited cars. 

The i.ooo-milc books are 2 13-16 x s'i '". in size, the strip 
Icing 25-16 in. wide with the body piintcd in green ink. The 
250-milc books are 2;X x 4J4 in. in size, the mileage strip being 2% 
in. wide with the body printed in yellow ink. The cross lines and 
Tuniibers on both tickets arc in black. The books are of the stand- 
ard fonn in extensive use on steam roads. 



New Lines and Extensions Opened. 

The new Broadway extension of the City Railway Co., of Day- 
ton, O., was opened to traffic January 23rd. This line reaches a 
.section liitberto without facilities. 

The Scioto Valley Traction Co. has completed its new line be- 
tween Colutubus and Circleville, O., and now has two lines com- 
pleted, the other being between Columbus and Lancaster, O. It 
will open its entire system April ist. The third-rail system is 
used. Right of way has been secured to Chillicothe, O. A large 
power house has just been completed at Reeses, north of Circle- 
ville. 

The Uclla Light it Car Co., of Greenville. Miss., opened its new 
line in Greenville February 3rd. This makes the second street car 
company in operation in Greenville. 



Car Meters for Electric Railways. 



BY L. B. PEMBERTON. E, E. 



The advent of electric power for railway work at once proved 
such a convenience and econoiny over other methods of propul- 
sion that its adoption for city and suburban travel soon became 
general. Under its worst conditions it is gladly welcomed as be- 
ing far in advance of the cable or the noisy steam locomotive. In 
keeping with the improved types and consequent increased effi- 
ciency of electrical machinery there is a noticeable eflfort of late 
towards economy in its use and it is the purpose of this article 
to show the importance of such economy a.'; evidenced by a proper 
check on the efficiency of the motorman. 

Since the days of the mule car it has beiii the custoni to pro- 




.SHi A\ i.\>; 1,1 



pk metkk IN" c.-vits. 



vide the conductor with a fare register or to display it in some 
other conspicuous place to safeguard the company's receipts, while 
the motorman has been allowed unchecked to use what power he 
needed and waste as much more as he pleased. Thus, while the 
conductor was carefully gleaning nickels on the inside of the car 
the motomian on the front end might he counteracting his efforts 
by carelessly increasing the fuel hills at the power station. The 
standard of a good motorman has usually been his ability to get 
over the road and to refrain from maiming the general public or 
from running into the moving obstacles that happen to cross his 



fj^xirt': 






. ^fMiXM 



-^ 



uuaitK'^ 






A'oi Vo z /H>.3. /fo.a. Ma.S. Mo.S. M>.7. M>.6. M>S Ab./0. 
DIA'iUAM NO. 1 

path. His rank and rati fif wages has l)een fixed by his years of 
service instead of being fixed by the intelligent and economical 
u»« of the power and the apparatus at his command. Nevertheless, 
it i< a well-known fact thai gray hairs and long years of service, 
while they may lend dignity to an employe, often leave him in a 
well-worn rut from which it is almost impossible to extricate him. 
In other words, years of routine work are apt to develop into the 
careless feeding of the controller and a lack of that coutinnril study 
required to make a run on scheduled time with the minimum 
amount of power. 

In view of these facts the management of the Lf>s Angeles & 



Redondo Ky. upon electrically ccinippiug lliis road, decided to in- 
stall a permanent meter in each car. These meters are of the well- 
known Thomson recordmg type .nnd designed especially for street 



Los Angeles & Redondo Railway Co. 

INSPECTOR'S DAILY REPORl^F CAR-METERS 

Divisioo. 190 



CAR 
NO. 


TIUE 
LEAVING 


METER 
BEADING 


TIUE 

AR&IV'G 


kSn'o -»— 






















































































































































































































































































































































loipector. 

railway service. A view of the meter showing its location in the 
car is given herewith. 

Meter readings are taken every ioiin<l trip by an inspector sta- 



ggTiJii: 



zsooo 



T" 



or /fo:' oou^A "^.a ^A/o 



Co vo/ r/o/^ 



//VC/M fSS Of / \>ive/f L SSO OA/^ 'CCOI/MT 



80 /<m 



■fiS-^.ttf- 



vrtVjBJTA 9///S3. 



/ri/£-/r/ise 70/rw 






m/>M>./ Tir/pMie. Tfr/fiye-S mp/i^a^ 7»/pM>.S 

DIAI'.HAM Nil : 

lioncil at llie eii.l of llii- line ami ihe^u ri-ailiUKS are reported on 
a blank similar to the one used for fare registers. From the in- 
sjierlor's slips two reports are made monthly to the management. 



78 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV, No. 2. 



one of tlii'sc showing the number of car-miles made by each car 
during the month, the total kilonatt-hours used by each car and 
the average kilowatt-hours per car-mile; the other report showing 
the relative rank of each motorman, the total number of car-miles 
made by him during the month and his average kilowatt-hours 
per car-mile. The latter report is posted in the form of a bulletin 
in a conspicuous place and the attention of trainmen is called to it. 
The rivalry caused through each of the men trying to stand at 





















■ 




























1 '' 




























/ 








,, 








^ 




^ 






TO 


J^ 


:: 


















s/000 




^ 


V>'M'& 




Y 


T 


































i/ 




■ 






M 

no 

/O 




. (/ . . ; . 








soooo 




.U 






^UAr^4a^o 












1 1 
























<0 

k 49000 

K 
1 


/|I/*r«v«»/- Of ^^-wi-t^ 


H- 








1 ^< 


i 


H.ty^j^i. 


^^Af /V 


OUMO w 


ff> 












1^------ 














^7000 






1 






V/r/f/c 


C/S LO^ 


IV/TH 
103 
























































4SOOO 

















4o SO eo 70 so ' $0 /eo //o 

TOT/ii. fi/lz/^Bf/? Of f/tSSe/VG£/?S PC/f ffOt/^D Tff/P 
DIAGRAM NO. :!. 



the head of the list has a very beneficial eflfect, and no effort is 
spared on the part of each man to accomplish this, especially if 
some reward or honorarium is offered as an incentive. Diagram 
No. I shows the monthly averages of 10 motormen. The difference 
in this case between ihe highest and the lowest being .33907 -f- k\v. 
h. per car-mile, which is a difference of 33 1-3 per cent. As each 
of these motormen averaged over 4,50c car-miles per month motor- 
man No. 10 used 1,526 kw. h. more than motorman No. i, which, at 
2^ cents per kw. h. would amount to $38.15, or nearly one-half of 
his month's wages. This difference would undoubtedly have been 
greater had there been no check on the motormen, or in other 
words, actual conditions on cars without meters would show a 
much higher percentage than the one given. 



journals and new and improperly fitted bearings. A number of 
cars in this condition would certainly have a decided effect on 
the station output. 

Another interesting point which individual car meters will help 
to determine is the best and most economical weight for electric 
cars. The tendency of car builders has been to add enormously to 
the weight, especially of interurban cars, until it is not uncommon 
lo find equipments weighing from 30 to 35 tons. This is undoubt- 
edly good practice from the car builders' standpoint, 
but whether it is the best scheme for the operator 
is a question that would seem to deserve some con- 
sideration. Some idea of the relation between live 
weight and dead load may be had from diagram 
No. 3, which is the result of a test covering 30 
days and aggregating over 1,000 trips. The read- 
ings were segregated into twelve classes, the low- 
est division being where 20 or fewer passengers 
were carried per round trip and increasing by tens 
to 130 passengers per round trip. 

The results show that only 17 per cent more 
power was used to haul 130 passengers than was 
required for 20, or fewer passengers, per round trip 
of 40 miles. An average of 45.659 -f- kw. h. per 
round trip of 40 miles was used for the lightest 
load, while the heaviest load required only 53.520 + 
kw. h. — an increase of 7.861 + kw. h. This would 
indicate that over 85 per cent of the actual power 
used during the heaviest traffic was necessary to 
overcome the dead weight of the car and while the 
number of passengers increased over 600 per cent 
per round trip the power consumption increased 
only 17 per cent. This ratio would, of course, not 
hold good in city traffic on account of the increased 
number of stops incident to increased traffic, and 
would be applicable only to interurban work. The 
type of car used in these tests is shown in one of the accompany- 
ing illustrations. The car is of the type built by the Los Angeles 
& Redondo Railway Co. in its shops at Redondo, Cal. These are 
equipped with two No. 38-B Westinghouse motors, K-II control- 
lers, and are mounted on No. 37 McGuirc trucks. Their average 
weight is 34,550 lb. each. 



ao 



New Third Rail Contact Shoe. 





^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^IH^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 




^I^^^^^^^^^Bii ill 



STANDARD CAR BUII-T BY LOS ANGELES & REDONDO RAILWAY CO 



Besides being a check on the motornien the car meters have 
proved invaluable as a means of keeping both the electrical and 
mechanical parts of the car in first-class condition, as the meter 
readings will readily disclose any defect. It is not an uncommon 
thing to see a car running trip after trip with hot squeaking boxes 
and so long as the wheels continue to revolve no particular atten- 
tion is paid to it except, perhaps, to inject a little more black oil 
or stir up the packing. Diagram No. 2 shows the effect of hot 



.A patent has just been issued for a new form of third rail contact 
hoe. which the inventors believe will overcome one of the greatest 
ibslacles in the operation of third-rail systems — that of securing 
.good electrical contact in icy weather when the rail 
is covered with snow and sleet. It is, in effect, a 
combination winter and summer shoe, with inter- 
changeable parts. Acting on the theory that ice 
that collects on the third rail form's on the fiat, 
top surface of the rail, and not on the corners, the 
new shoe, as applied in winter, has been made with 
an inverted U-shaped base designed to fit over the 
rail, the divergent sides of the base making tan- 
gential contact with the rounded corners of the 
rail head. For use on clear rails the shoe is pro- 
vided with a removable contact block which is in- 
serted between fhe divergent sides of the base and 
niakcs contact with the flat surface of the rail just 
like the ordinary shoe. 

An additional advantage claimed for the new- 
shoe lies in the fact that the contact parts are re- 
movable and may be easily slipped out and new 
pieces inserted whenever they become worn. 
The .Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railway Co. has tried the new 
.shoe and the inventors have a letter from the president of the road 
which states that a car equipped with the new device maintained 
schedules during snowy and sleety weather, while cars which were 
not so equipped gave the company much trouble. The letter stated 
that the company would equip all its cars w-ith it. The inventors 
of the new shoe are Messrs. George W. Brady and Lawrence R. 
Jones, of Wheaton, 111. 



Everett-Snohomish Interiirban Line. 



On Dec. i. 1903. the Everett Railway & Electric Co., of Everett, 
Wash., started the operation of a new interurhan electric road be- 
tween Everett and Snohomish. Wash., a distance of nine miles. 

The novel features (which we conmiented upon editorially in onr 
issue for November last) about this road are that the electric cars 
replace steam trains, and the cars are operated over the track former- 
ly used by the Northern Pacific Railway for its local trains, as a 
branch of its trans-continental system. 

The fact that the results of this branch of the Northern Pacific 
were not entirely satisfactory to the officers of that road, and the 
activity of the Electric company in its project for an interurban 
electric road to parallel this track, started negotiations between 



at the shops of the Everett Railway & Electric Co.. the other two 
being bought of the American Car Co. of St. Louis. The dimen- 
sions of these cars are as follows : Combination car, 43 ft. 8 in. over 
all; width 8 ft. 4 in.; passenger cars, 43 ft. over all; width 8 ft. 4 in. 

The passenger compartment of combination car seats 40 people, 
baggage room 9 ft. long. Passenger cars seat 48 people. The cars 
have cross seats, and windows with double sash, the upper sash be- 
ing stationary and the lower sash dropping down. 

The cars are heated with the Consolidated Car Heater Go's, eight- 
hc;itcr equipments and are mounted on Brill No. 27-E-l trucks with 
5-in. axle; 33-in. spoke wheels, made by St. Louis Car Co. are used. 
Westinghouse No. 68 motors, four to a car, inside hung ; West- 




TUKSTI.K DVKK NORTHERN FACIKIC TUAIKS .\.NM .UNCTION o|.- TUK STKAM AND KM'X'THIC I.INICS. 



President McChcsncy of the Everett Railway & Electric Co., ami 
President Mellcn of the Northern Pacific, with the result that the 
Electric company has negotiated a lease of the track from the 
Northern Pacific for a term of years, undertaking to make con- 
nections with all Northern Pacific trains at Snohomish, and handle 
all its passenger, regular baggage and express business between 
Everett and Snohomish, Transcontinental passengers, baggage and 
express over the Ncrthcrn Pacific arc handled by the Electric com- 
pany between Everett and Snohomish, using Electric company 
"pastcfi" on all through tickets. 

An interurban waiting station has been built at the Everett end 
of the line, and large piatfornis have 1>cen put in at difTcrent stop- 
ping places between the two citiei, there being six stops along the 
line, serving principally farming and fishing districts with a pop- 
ulation of aly>ut two hundred people at each stop. 

The cars to Ijc ustd on this line consist of two passenger cars 
and one combination passenger and baggage car ; one car was built 



inglxMisc K-'i coiurollers, and Weslingliouse air brakes are used on 
all three cars. 

The operation will lie under icU-Rrapliic train orders from the 
chief dispatcher of the Northern Pacific at Seattle, the card system 
being used on this block on account of the frequency of the service, 
and the Ncjrthern Pacific still ci|H'raling ils freight trains on this 
line. 

The overhead trolley system is used, consisting of No. 0000 Pig. 
H trolley wire supported every no ft. by flexible brackets on side 
poll- loustruclion. The ()hio"Brass Co's. material is used exclusively 
for the trolley construction. The poles are of cedar, 12 in. at 
the top, ranging from 3H ft. lo 4.S ft long according to cut or fill, 
and arc set 8 ft. in the ground and placed () ft. 4 in. from the rail. 

Ihe trolley wire is .i.", ft. from the top of the rail, on account of 
danger to brakemcn on steam freight trains if lower construction 
was used. On account of the distauie of tin- poles from track, a 
lO-ft. bracket is used. 



so 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol. XIV. No. 2. 



.A 350,000 c. 111. feeder cable is use<l to witliin a mile of Ihc end 
of the line, taps being made every 1,000 ft., while another 350,000 
■c. m. cable is used to a |)oint three miles from the power house, at 
the point of heaviest grade. 

Two draw bridges arc crosscd-by this road, necessitating a pivot 
pole in the center of the draw span carrying the trolley, feeder, and 
retnrn current cables up over this pole high enough to allow the 



Fverett terniiiial. A complete description of this power house was 
given in the "Street Railway Review" of May 20, 1903. 

The fare from Everett to Snohomish one way is 25 cents, round 
trip tickets being sold for 40 cents, including transfer from or to 
any part of the city. Tickets arc .sold at stations at each end of 
the line and on the cars, cash fare receipts being given by the con- 
ductors. Five cents is charged Ix-tween any two statioi.s. 




STli.MGlIT TK.XCK .\NIl I'lll.!-; 
CONSTRUCTION. 



Dliri'.I.K lJi:CK TUK.STl.l':. 7" FT, HIGH. 



TYI'IC.VI, CURVK ANI5 OVERHEAD WORK. 



■passage of vessels up llie river. T.ips are made off of tliese cables 
at the pivot pole to the trolley and track 011 the bridge. 

The entire construction of this roa<l had to be done while the 
Northern Pacific was operating an average of ten steam trains a 
day over it, making the work extremely difficult and hazardous. 

On account of the danger involved and the novel construction, the 
work was done under the personal supervision of the company's 
general superintendent, Mr. R. P. Stevens. 

The track was bonded with Ohio Brass Co's. flexible No. 0000 
bonds, with compressed terminals, which were expanded into J-i-'m. 
J'oles in the rails. This bond is 12 in. long and placed under the 




DRAWBRIDGE WITH I'lVOT fOI.lO li-QR OVERHEAD l/INES. 

angle bars. No. 0000 cross bonds of the same type are used every 
1,000 ft. 

Power for the operation of this road will be furnished from the 
F.verett power house of the Everett Railway & Electric Co., about 
ten miles from the further end of the line, and one mile from the 



The results of the operation of this road will undoubtedly be 
eagerly watched, owing to the use of the track by the Northern 
Pacific freight trains and the resultant effect on the rail bonds; 
also because of the boat and Great Northern rail competition. 

The officers of the Everett company are: President, J. T. Mc- 
Chesney ; secretary, £. C. Mony ; general superintendent, R. P. 
Stevens. 



Patent Street Railway Crossing. 

The accompanying illustration shows a railroad crossing which 
has been invented by Mr. William R. Macklind, vice-president of 
the W. D. Boyce Engineering Co., of St. Louis, and for which the 
inventor has been granted a patent. This crossing was designed for 
the purpose of obviating the jarring of the car, and the noise of 
the ordinary crossing, and also to procure a crossing that can be 




M.VCKl.l.ND 1".\TKNT CROSSING. 

easily repaired by renewing the wearing surfaces whenever they 
give out. 

The sketch shows a plan view^ .of the crosing with one of the 
wearing surface sections removed, and a sectional elevation in 
which the wearing surface section is shown in position. The cross- 
ing is composed of four sections, two forming the complete base 



Fee. jo, 1904.) 



STREET RAILWAY RE\TF\V. 



81 



and two forming the corresponding wearing surface. A A represent 
the base sections and B B the renewable wearing surface sections, 
the members of the respective sections being interchangeable. Each 
base section comprises a main rail section, a a, with longitudinal and 
angular extensions. The upper surfaces of the heads of the base 
are provided with grooves in which the wearing surfaces. B, are 
secured. 

Each wearing surface has sections, b b, corresponding with the 
respective base sections, and the parts arc so assembled that the 
joints between the bast sections are diametrically opposed to the 
wearing surface joints. By ibis arrangement of grooves and joints 
the entire crossing is securely locked together by its own parts 
and held against spreading or twisting. The wearing surfaces arc 
fastened to the base by means of headed bolts, b4, the wearing 
plates being clamped in such manner that the passage of cars does 
not tend to jar the bolts loose, and the bolt heads, being placed in 
the portions of the wearing surface which are not engaged by the 
car wheels, are saved from wear. 

The crossing is grooved its entire length, but between the cross- 
ing rails and for a distance at each side the tread is of less height 
than the wheel flange, whereby at a suitable point (jefore reach- 
ing the interesecting tracks the wheel Ranges arc gradually low- 
ered until they ride upon the bottom of the grooves, and the wheel 
treads move entirely across the crosing above and out of contact 
with the treads of the wearing surfaces. When the wheels reach 
the opposite side of the crossing they gradually ride upon the 
upwardly-inclined treads of the wearing surfaces and thus carry 
the wheel flanges out of contact with the groove bottoms. 

During the passage of the wheel across the crossings it is guided 
by the groove so that jarring or jolting due to sudden vertical in- 
equalities at the track intersections, or to lateral displacements of 
the wheels, are declared to be impossible. 



Internationul Electrical Congress of St. Louis. 



It is announced that according to present indications ihe Inter- 
national Electrical Congress to be in session at St. Louis, Mo., Sept 
12-17, '904. will be one of the most successful ever held, with re- 
spect to the membership and the value of the transactions. About 
3,500 invitations have been issued by circular to per.sons or associa- 
tions in North America, and from these 875 post card acceptances 
of membership have been received. About 350 similar invitations 
have been recently sent to other countries. It is intended to issue 
about 5,000 invitations in America in all and about 6,000 in foreign 
countries. Collection of fees has commenced, and upon receipt of 
a fee the member will be forwarded a certificate of membership, 
which will entitle him to attend all general and sectional meetings, 
and to receive a copy of the Transactions of the Congress, which 
will form one, and perhaps two large octavo volumes. The mem- 
bership certificate is S'A x 11 in. in size and primed nn heavy paper 
of excellent quality. 

Recently 280 special invitations were issued lo prominent electri- 
cians and electrical engineers requesting papers for the Congress. 
Of these 146 were sent to foreign authors and 134 to American 
authors. There has hardly been time to receive replies from all 
those sent abroad, but 21 acceptances have been received to dale, 
and 46 from North .\merica. It is hoped that the Congress will 
convene with a full program, and that at least one-half of the pa- 
pers will be from foreign countries. Although the papers for the 
Congress are specially solicited, all papers voluntarily submitted 
will lie received, and if Ihe plans will permit, will be allotted places 
on the section programs. 

Petitions from the committee on organization and the president 
of the American Institute of Hectrical Engineers were filed with 
the IJci»arlmcnts of State and Commerce ami Labor, and with the 
National Bureau of .Standards, urging that the foreign governments 
be invited to appoint delegates to the Congress in accordance with 
the li*ts allotted at the Paris and the Chicago congresses. Including 
the United .Stalei, these lists comprise 56 official delegates. These 
petitions have Iwen granted and the .Slate Department has in- 
•Iructed the diplomatic officers abroad to extend the invitations. 
Arrangement) arc being made with a view lo perfecting plans of 
cooperation l>ctwecn the Congress and electrical societies in vari- 
ous part* of the world. Invilali'ms have lieen extended to the 



members of the Congress to visit places of electrical interest on 
the journey to and from St. 'Louis. 

The committee of organization of the Congress comprises the fol- 
lowing : President, Elihu Thomson ; general secretary, A. E. Ken- 
nelly : treasurer, W. D. Weaver; vice-president and chairman of 
executive committee, Bion J. Arnold; vice-presidents, C. F. Scott, 
Dr. S. W. Stratton, Prof. H. S. Carhart, Prof. W. E. Goldsbor- 
ough. The list of section officers was published in the "Review" 
for November, 1903. 

All communications should be addressed lo the general secre- 
tarv. Dr. .'\. E. KenncUy, Harvard LTnivcrsity, Cambridge, Mass. 



Simple Design for a Waste Press. 

A simple form of waste press which can be readily r.iaLle from 
material gererally at hand in a machine shop is shown in the ac- 
companying sketches. Only a few dimensions are given as the 
sizes will necessarily be varied tc suit different conditions. A 
piece of wrought iron pipe to .x 12 in. in diameter and about 18 
or 20 in. in length is faced squarely at each end and drilled full of 
small holes of about '4 ""■• in diameter spaced about i in. apart. 
A cast iron plate i'/^ in. thick is faced on top and a ring about 3 
in. wide is cut out as shown at A so that the pipe will fit down over 







DET.AII.S OI'^ \V.\STE PHKSS. 

the projecting part D which holds the pipe central on the plate. 
The front of the plate is chipped out as indicated at C, the bollom 
surface sloping dowmward towards the edge so thai the oil will run 
off the plate. 

A piece of '^ in. or % in. steel plate is used for the top of the 
press and this is cut about the same size as the cast iron plate at 
the bottom. The two plates are held apart by four lyi in. pipes 
used as distance pieces, through which run bolts holding the plates 
firmly in place. The steel plate is drilled lo receive a ca.st iron 
bushing, which is threaded to receive the screw and is held 
in place by bolts 01 cap screws. The piston is made of 
l-in. or i!4-in. cast iron, and secured to this is another cast iron 
piece which is turned out lo receive the head of the screw. The 
latter is upset anil turned down lo fil. The screw should be of 
154 '"■ steel, or larger, and on its upper end it carries a hand wheel 
by which Ihe press is operated. For securing the final pressure 
the leverage may he increased by putting a bar belween ihe spokes 
of the hand wheel. The press may be conveniinll\ mniiiiliil un irtni 
brackets fastened lo the wall. 

Although cheap and simple in construction Ibis press will be 
found lo give good satisfaction and besides saving the waste will 
reclaim a considerable (inantily of oil. The economy which may 
be effected by such a device is loo generally underslood lo need 
further menlion, 

« I » 

The Muncie, Harlford &■ Fort Wayne Ry, has inslalled a pniuli 
mail service on its line, the first in that section. 



New Power House of the Rhode Island Company. 



The Recently Completed Generatint; Station at Providence— Distribution System and Sub-station 

Lquipnient. 



One of the penalties uf prosperity and growth in almost any in- 
dustry is the resultant necessity for increase of plant to meet the 
greater demands of the enlarged Inisincss. Like many another 
traction system, that of the Rhode Island Co., controlling and op- 
erating nearly the whole electric railway mileage within the limits 
of that small state, has been forced to greatly augment and par- 
tially modify its power generating and distributing system. 

The old Kddy St. power house long smce reached the limits of 
growth within the ground space available, and of e(iuipment within 



The main structure is 200 ft. long and 144 ft. wide. A longi- 
tudinal dividing wall separates the boiler from the engine room, 
giving the former an interior breadth of about 60 ft. and the latter 
a width of about 76 ft. ; the inside length is 197^2 ft. in both cases. 
The building is of brick, concrete and steel, tire proof to the small- 
est detail. Wired glass is generally used in the windows, and all 
sash, as also the doors and interior trim, arc sheathed with cop- 
per. This copper sheathing is painted in some parts of the sta- 
tion ; in more conspicuous portions it is planished and gives a 










LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH Hdll.KR IK)rSi:. SHOWING COAI^ .\ND ASH HANDLING EQUIPMENT 



the structure itself. The generating units here are of only mod- 
erate size, the generators driven by horizontal engines, principally 
of the improved Greene type of cross compounds. Finding it prac- 
tically impossible to acquire adjoining property at reasonable cost, 
a large tract was purchased, adjacent to the site of the old sta- 
tion, but separated from it by a street and the vacant space which 
was held too high to he considered within reach. The new site 
extends up from the river front a distance sufficient to allow for 
increase of the new station to more than twice its present capacity. 
At the river end of this property has been erected the new Man- 
chester St. power house, whose present appearance, construction 
and equipment are quite fully illustrated by the several engravings. 



most attractive finish to the building. AH foundations are of con- 
crete resting upon grillages of piling. Roofs and floors are of 
concrete, with expanded metal reinforcement where needed. The 
entire contract for the erection of the house was executed by Hor- 
ton & Hemenway, of Providence. 

So urgent were the demands for additional power in 1902-03 that 
completion of the station according to the accompanying plans 
could not be awaited. The foundations for the horizontal engine 
units were therefore put in and these machines set. Boilers for 
supplying the requisite steam were installed and a temporary frame 
house built to shelter the whole. The erection of the permanent 
structure was then proceeded with and has now Ijeen completed. 



Feb. jo. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



83 



What may possibly be nearly, if not quite, record time far work of 
this character, especially in consideration of the difficulties attend- 
ant upon such conditions as here existed, was made by the con- 
tractors in completing the building. In the early fall months of 
the year just past the work was only fairly started. 

The original plans as approved by the former management of the 
company contemplated the use of horizontal engine units only, and 
three of these were installed. With changes of control came alter- 
ations of plans, the revised decision calling for vertical engines. 
This decision was, however, affected largely also by the desire to 
economize ground space and to use larger units without increase 
of floor area. The adoption of the vertical type for future instal- 
lations involved also the necessity for double decking the boiler 
plant, and dictated the general arrangement of the station equip- 
ment as shown in the drawings. Of the three horizontal engines 
originally placed, two drive alternating current generators, while 
the third drives a direct current machine. The alternator units 
will remain ; these are to constitute the complete alternating current 
generating equipment within the present structure. The third hor- 
izontal unit, a direct current machine, will eventually be removed 
to the other power house and replaced by a vertical unit, as con- 
templated by the plans. One vertical unit is already erected, this 
being the middle one of the three indicated on the plan. The sec- 
ond unit will occupy the space reserved for it at the end of the room 
The third unit will not be placed at once ; it will, however, be sim- 
ilar to the other two. and all three will generate direct current. 

The engine room interior is nicely finished, is well lighted and 
presents an appearance of considerable attractiveness. The brick 
walls are enameled in green for a dado height of about seven feet, 
above which they are finished in light cream enamel. The windows 
are in two separate rows, the upper ones having vertically sliding 
sash mechanically operi'ted in groups by handwheels at convenient 
height above the floor and connected with the windows by bevel 
gears and light shafting. Artificial illumination is by enclosed arc 
lamps suspended from ornamental brackets attached to the crane 
runway columns, which are spaced l/J/i it. on centers at each side 
of the robm. The runway extends full length of the room, and car- 
ries a 25-ton three-motor electric traveling crane. At one corner 
of the room, adjacent to the first horizontal generating unit is a 
winding stairway leading to the second floor level of the boiler 



ameters of 32 and 64 in., and a stroke of 54 in. They were built 
by The Filer & Stowell Co., of Milwaukee, Wis., for whom Mr. T. 
W. Phillips is eastern representative, with headquarters at Provi- 
dence. These engines are of the maker's recently developed type 




EXTERIOR VlliW OF M-XNCHESTER STREET STATION. 

wherein no wrist plates are used for operating the valves. Double 
eccentrics are provided for both cylinders, and the valves are actu- 
ated directly by the eccentric rods; the admission valves by one 
rod, the exhaust valves by the other. The alternating current gen- 
erators are of the General Electric revolving field, fly-wheel type 





DtRW.-r CURRENT SECTION OF 8WITC11BOA 111 i 



AI.,TERNATINa CURRENT .SW ri'i '1 1 1 '.i l.\ lil > ANH ( 1 A l.l.KRIKS. 



room. From this level a wall ladder affords access to and from the 
crane operator's cage. 

Against the boiler room wall is a large clock, and below this a 
gong which is struck every 20 minutes by electrical connection with 
the clock mechanism. 'Ihe sounding of the gong is a signal to the 
oilers to make the rounds of the machinery, attending to the hand 
lubricated parts. This is a novel feature whose value is consider- 
able, not alone as a reminder to prevent excuse for negligence, but 
also as an aid to economy and efficiency by inducing regularity in 
the work of lubrication and the use of the lubricints, 

The horizontal engines are cross compounds, with cylinder di- 



of 1,500 kw. rated cajracity, rotated at 94 r. p. ni. and gcueraliiig at 
11,000 volts, 25 cycles, three phase. The third horizontal engine 
drives at 90 r. p. m. a G. E. direct current machine of 1,600 kw. 
capacity, 6ao volts. A separate fly-wheel is nioiniU-d upon the en- 
gine shaft. 

The vertical engine is a Wcstinghousc Machine Co. cross com- 
pound, 42 and 86 X 60 in. in cylinder dimensions, and running at 
75 r. p. m. The generator is a 2,soo-kw. G. E. machine operating at 
600 volts, direct current. As shown in the illustration, it is planned 
that when the other similar units; are installed their footway 
galleries shall be connected at each level, so that communication 



84 



STREKT RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol. XIV. No. 2. 




y. 

o 



in 
m 
o 
a: 



Feb. 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



85 




86 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol. XIV, No. 2. 



from one engine to the others may be had xvilhoiit necessity for de- 
cending to the floor. 

The electrical auxiliaries include two motor driven exciters, 
which, like the other electrical apparatus, were furnished by the 
General Electric Co. Each has a 75-h. p. induction motor, driving 
at 7SO r. p. m. a multipolar exciter generator giving direct current 
at 125 volts. There is also a marine engine exciter set, consist- 
ing of a G. E. vertical marine type engine, 11 x 8 in. in cylinder 
size, driving a 30-kw. exciter generator at 305 r. p. m. This engine 
driven exciter is placed adjacent to the boiler room wall, for con- 
venience in making steam connections. For the motor driven ex- 
citers there are placed in the basement six 2S-kw. G. E. type "H. 
transformers for reducing the generated voltage of 11,000 down to 
460 for the induction motors. 

The switchboard is in two independent sections for the alternat- 
ing and direct currents, and is placed in a high gallery along the 
outer wall. 

The illustrations show the sections as seen from the upper gal- 
lery of the vertical engine, close to the low-pressure cylinder. .\11 
necessary instruments are mounted upon each section, the arrange- 
ment being entirely simple and quite complete. Placed upon the 
floor in front of each direct current generator is a single switch- 
board panel carrying positive and equalizer switches. The negative 
switches are at the main switchboard in the gallery. Supported 
above the engine room floor below the switchboard galleries, are 
nine G. E. electrically operated oil-break switches for the 11,000- 
volt alternating current. Space is provided for three more if wanted 
in the future. -Ml cables and wires leading to and from the switch- 
board gallery pass through tile ducts extending up from the base- 
ment within the building wall. Thus the electrical connections are 
removed from sight and protected from injury, adding greatly to 
the interior appearance of this portion of the room. A winding 
iroit stairway affords access to the two switchboard galleries from 
the engine room floor. 

Signal communication between the switchboard attendant and 





CORY SHIP TELEGRAPH SYSTEM AS APPLIED TO SWITCH- 
BO.VRD— ENGINE ROOM SIGNALING. 

the engineer in charge upon the floor below is provided for by 
installation of a Cory ship telegraph system, furnished by Chas. 
Cory & Son, 278 Division St., New York. This system includes two 
instruments at each level, one of each pair indicating the several en- 
gine units by number and the other showing the order to be exe- 
cuted. Manipulations desired or made may be transmitted either to 
or from either station at the switchboards or on the engine room 
floor, a gong sounding to attract attention whenever a change in the 



.setting of the apparatus is made. The installation in the present case 
is an adaptation of the regular ship telegraph to the needs of the 
power house by alteration of the dials. Connections between the 
stations arc mechanical, by means of rods and chains. One of the 
accompanying illustrations shows a pair of the signalling instru- 
ments as installed in this station. The diameter of the dial on each 




INTERIOR OF SUB-STATION .\T RIVERVIEW. 

is 15V2 in. and the instruments are finished in brass and composi- 
tion. 

The exhaust steam from each m.Tin engine unit is piped either 
to the atmosphere or to a Blake .\dmiralty tjpe condensing set. 
There are two atmospheric exhaust pipes, one out of doors at one 
end of the boiler house, the other inside at the other end near the 
chimney. Gate valves of the Chapman make are used in the ex- 
haust piping, as also elsewhere throughout the plant. Each con- 
densing set consists of a jet condenser in connection with a twin 
vertical steam air pump. For each horizontal generating unit the 
pumps are 16 x 40 .x 24 in. in size ; for the vertical units they are 
16 .\ 48 X 24 in. The setting of the condensing apparatus is best 
seen from the sectional view, where are shown in section the intake 
and overflow conduits leading from and to the Providence River 
and extending full length beneath the engine room. All oily drip- 
pings from the engines and auxiliaries are caught and drained by 
gravity to an isolated oil room in the basement below the office 
and stock room at the river end of the engine house. Here the oil 
is filtered and then elevated by a Mason steam oil pump to a wall 
tank overhead at the boiler room side of the engine room. From 
the tank leads a piping system by wnieh the oil cups for all main 
bearing surfaces are filled. The whole system of piping for the 
drips and oil feed is of brass. 

The steam generating equipment consists of 515-h. p. Babcock & 
Wilcox water-tube boilers set in batteries of two each. Eight of 
these boilers, or four batteries, are provided for on each floor ; 
the full complement is installed and in use on the first floor, but 
only two boilers, or one battery, are thus far in on the second 
level. Each boiler is of 515 h. p. rated capacity and is designed for 
160 lb. per sq. in. working pressure. It is at this pressure that 
steam is generated and used throughout the station. The boiler 
tubes are 4 in. in diameter and l8 ft. long. There are three drums 
per boiler, these made of open hearth steel of 56,000 lb. per sq. in. 
tensile strength, 7/16 in. thick. The drums are 20 ft. 4 in. in 
length. Superheating coils are fitted to some of the boilers and 
are provided for in all ; it is expected that they will be used on all 
boilers later on. 

Along the boiler room side of the dividing wall and at about the 
level of the boiler drums extends full length of the boiler room a 
steam header main, to which leads the supply pipe from each 
boiler and from which lead the steam pipes to the several engine 
units. This main may be divided into three sections by closing 
two gate valves; thus any one of the three sections may be iso- 
lated when desirable, or operated independently of tlie others. All 
high pressure piping is of steel with steel flanges welded on. All 



Feb. 20, 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



87 



turns, so far as possible, are made at long radius and generally 
with bent piping. All fittings are of open hearth cast steel. 

Behind each battery of boilers on both banks is placed a Green 
economizer. The method of setting the economizers in connection 




PLiAJf OF SUB-ST.VTIliX AT RIVERVIEW. 

with the flues to the chimney is such that the gases from the two 
boilers of a battery may be forced either through or past the 
economizer in order to reach the main flue, the control being by 
means of a system of dampers. For passage through the econo- 
mizer the gases leaving the boilers enter the economizer cham- 
ber, traversing the latter and reaching the by-pass flue beneath by 
deflection downward at the right-hand end. When it is desirable 



mizer setting. For the battery nearest the chimney on each floor 
no downtake to the by-pass flue is required, as the dampers at the 
right-hand open directly into the steel flue leading to the chimney. 
The hexagonal base of the chimney is set with two of its long 
diameters parallel to the building walls, thus presenting a flat face 
for entrance of the flues without necessity for offsets or sharp 
bends. 

The Alphons Custodis Chimney Construction Co., of New York, 
is responsible for the design of the chimney, which is a very hand- 
some shaft, as shown by the exterior view of the station. The 



^z^y/y/y/yM;'/./: 



:n:ix x: :::x:x: ::_ 


1 1 1 1 1 II 




1 III III 1 


1 1 1 1 III 1 




1 LL 1 J_ L 1 1_LJ_ 1 1 


1 II 1 1 1 1 III 1 1 




II 1 III 


II 1 III 




1 1 II II 


1 






height is 312'-^ ft. above the foundation top at the level of the 
basement floor, and the least interior diameter is 16 ft. The 
foundation is of concrete, resting upon piling. The octagonal por- 
tion of the brick shaft extends to a height of 72 ft and the re- 
maining 240'/2 ft. are of circular form, beginning just below the 
roof line, so that none of the octagonal portion is to be seen out- 
side the building. The base is 30 ft. in face to face diameter ; 
the lining extends to a licight of 100 ft. Openings are provided for 
entrance of flues from additional boilers which may at some time 
be placed in an extension of the plant. The present flues require 
openings 8 ft. wide and 17 ft. high to the top of the semicircular 
upper portion, The under side of the flues at the first floor enter 
at a height of 21^ ft. The walls of the chimney start with a 
minimum base thickness of 52 in., and at the start of the circular 
portion the thickness is 30 in. The usual cleaning-out door opens 
into the liasemenl. The top of the shaft is finished with a cap ring 



-^'Sdi/t jrOArt CQJ^. 



. Sn ' r* 6 *VW * 




,jj'-.3~n as^a 



SECTION OK SUB-STATION ON A. B. 

10 cut out the economizers, the gases may be allowed to enter di- 
rectly the downtake lo the flue. By closing the dampers at the 
entrance of the economizer chamlier, anri the deflecting dampers at 
the right, the economizer chamber may be entered from the clcan- 
ing-out door, leading from Ihc p;nsageway behind the econo- 




4'C/fr£'a*f " 



BKCTION OF SUH-STATI(JN ON C. D. 

t)f ornamental design. This i-.qi \mv, is made of cast iron in 
channel section, '/j in. thick. I In- upper slope of the ornamental 
swell below the cap is covered with special terra cotta plates, I in. 
thick and with overlapped joints. .Suitably (ilaced in and below 
the swclli-d i)ortion are cmliedrlcd llirie n-inforcing bands of 5/16 x 



88 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol. XIV, No. 2. 



3'/j in. iron. Ladder ruiiRS arc placed on the outside, their ends 
firmly secured into the brick work. The total weight of the chim- 
ney upon its foundation is estimated at a.gSo tons. 

The boilers are fed by (our 14 x 18' i x 15 in. Worthington du- 
plex pumps, outside center packed plunger type. A double sys- 
tem of steam piping is provided for these pumps, so that they 
may he supplied with .steam from either of the two end .sections into 
which the main header may be divided. All clean drips and con- 
densation water from various parts of the station are returned to 
the boilers by an installation of the Holly system. In the base- 
ment, beneath the feed pumps, are placed two heaters to which 
arc piped all oily drips and condensation, and from them these are 
allowed to run to waste after having passed through the internal 
tul)e system and yielded all their available heat to the cold feed 
water surrounding the tubes. These heaters thus save the heat 
which would otherwise escape, and without the necessity for at- 
tenipling to separate the oil and use the water again in order to 
save the heat in it. The volume of water about tlie tubes is so 
large, and the velocity of the drips through the tubes is so low, 
that the conditions are favorable for reduction of the drips tem- 
perature very closely to that of the entering feed water. 

Coal and ashes are handled with very slight labor cost. A 3.000- 
ton storage bin of concrete and steel occupies the greater portion 
of the space above the second bank of boilers. This bin extends 
the full length of the four batteries of boilers and has spouts 
leading from it to the front of every boiler in both decks. These 
fixed spouts terminate at cut-off valves or g/ites above each boiler 
front, whence coal is dropped through chutes to the hoppers of 
the Roney stokers by means of trolley .spouts, one for the two 
boilers of each battery. A continuous pivoted bucket conveyor 
passes above the coal bin, descends to the basement near the feed 
pumps and returns underneath the first floor boilers to the river 
end of the station, where it rises by the path indicated in tlie en- 
graving. Coal brought in wagons may be checked in weight by the 
platform scales at the office and then be dumped into the hopper 
just outside the boiler house and directly over the conveyor. Thus 
coal delivered by wagon may be elevated and deppsitcd in the stor- 
age bin. The usual method of receiving fuel will be by barge 
towed to the rivyr front and unloaded by trip buckets raised by an 
electric bolster and dumped into a hopper, whence a chute leads 
to a crusher and weighing hopper below. From the weighing hop- 
per to the filling hopper and thence to the conveyor and the stor- 
age bin fmishes the process of receiving the fuel. 

From capacious hoppers into which the stokers deposit the 
ashes, spouts lead directly to the basement and terminate in cut- 
oflf gates directly over the conveyor. Whenever the conveyor is not 
handling coal, ashes may be received from these spouts, either 
continuously or periodically and carried to the large concrete and 
steel ash storage bin in the coal tower at the wharf. Thence they 
may be disposed of as convenient, wagons being set underneatli the 
hopper and filled directly from it. 

The bucket conveyor and entire coal and ash handling machinery 
is actuated by an electrically operated driver above the coal stor- 
age bin at the chimney end. The turn at the basement level is 
made around a take-up curve, arranged to slide horizontally so 
as to keep the whole circuit properly taut in compensation for 
wear and expansion. Where the conveyor descends through both 
floors, sheet steel guard housings 7^ ft. high are placed around the 
floor openings. 

Attention should be called to the locker and lavatory accommo- 
dations supplied for the comfort and convenience of the station 
operatives. The engineers, electricians and oflice attendants have 
free access to the rooms adjoining the oflice and opening oflf the 
engine room. In the basement below are similar rooms for the 
boiler room employes and laborers. The shower bath in the lava- 
tory is noteworthy as an unusual feature. 

Sub-?tations. 
Five sub-stations are required for the distributing. These arc at 
Wcstcott, southwest from Providence, at Riverview to the south, 
at Harrington to the southeast and at Pawtucket and Attleboro at 
different distances off to the northeast. In connection with the 
sub-stations at Pawtucket. Riverview and Westcott, storage bat- 
teries are installed. The Riverview station is typical of all three 
in which storage batteries are used, and it is of this station and 
its equipment that drawings and views are shown. The sub-station 



buildings are all constructed of brick, concrete, and steel, with 
roofs of concrete and expanded metal, supported by steel trusses. 
The machine rooms arc supplied with b>/j-Xon hand traveling cranes, 
fitted with chain hoist trolleys. Extending outward from the main 
door of the machine room is in each case an outrigger of lo-in. 
I-beam for use in hoisting machinery and other heavy loads by 
means of a chain hoist trolley. 

Rotary converters and static transformers used at all sub-stations 
are similar in both size and type. All were furnished by the Wcst- 
iiighouse Fleclric & Manuf.;icluring Co., Pittsburg. Pa. The rotary 
converters are of 400-kw. capacity and the static transformers arc 
rated at 150 kw. For each rotary converter at any station there 
are three of these transformers, .\ttleboro has one converter and 
three transformers, at Pawtucket there arc three converters and 
nine transformers, at Barringlon two and six respectively, at River- 
view also two and six and at Wcstcott three and nine. Provision 
is made at Riverview, as sbown in the plan of that station, for 
future installation of a third converter and a corresponding set 
of three transformers. The current generated at the main power 
station at 11,000 volts, three-phase, is transformed and converted 
to direct current at foo volts for delivery to the feeder lines. 

The storage battery rooms at the three stations, where such 
equipment is used, are quite independent from the machine rooms. 
I'he 288 cells in each station are placed in live double rows of 29 
cells for each row with the exception of two. The battery room 
floor is of wood arranged in skeleton construction with footways 
between the rows extending the full length of the room. The bat- 
teries, which were furnished by the Electric Storage Battery Co., 
of Philadlphia, Pa., are charged through G. E. boosters, one of 
which is placed in the machine room of each storage battery sub- 
station. The sub-station equipments in all cases include also the 
necessary switchboards for both alternating and direct current ap- 
paratus. "Stick" circuit breakers are used in all sub-stations. The 
main foundations extending upward from the basement floors are of 
the box form, leaving the central portions open for free access to 
the terminals of the cable connections. 

In connection with each station there is provided a heater room, 
as shown in the engraving, in which is installed the boiler of a 
steam heating system for warming the whole structure. 



Street Railway Guiije to New Orleans. 



The \ew Orleans Railways Co. issues gratis a condensed folder, 
entitled "Tourists" Guide to New Orleans — What to Sec and How 
to See ft," giving points of interest in and about the city, together 
with railroad stations and places of amusement. The folder is 
printed in red. black and green and contains, besides a map which 
.shows the car lines, parks, transfer points, steam railroads and 
depots, a description of the New Orleans Railways Co's. cars and 
routes, a schedule of "owl cars," half-tone views of public buildings, 
parks and other attractions, as well as a brief sketch of same, the 
location of the principal buildings, monuments and cemeteries, and 
a chapter devoted to "rides which every tourist should take. ' 
When fully opened the folder is 14 x 21 in. in size; folded for the 
pocket, it is 3'/^ x 7 in. It is distributed by the railway company 
and may also be procured at the leading hotels and restaurants. 
It is readably compiled and attractively illustrated. 

The New Orleans Railw'ays Co. and its subsidiary companies 
operate over 187.4 miles of track and have a total of 666 cars 
now. in use, of which 591 arc closed cars, 51 open cars, 17 work 
cars and 7 sprinkling cars. The trackage and cars are divided 
among the various companies as follows : New Orleans City Rail- 
road Co. — Miles of track, 115; closed cars, 369; open cars, 39; 
work cars, 7; sprinkling cars, 4. New Orleans & Carrollton Rail- 
road, Light & Power Co. — Miles of track. 35.5; closed cars, 122; 
open cars. 12; work cars, 7; sprinkling cars, i. St. Charles Street 
Railroad Co. — Miles of track. 17; closed cars, 72; work cars, 3; 
sprinkling cars, I. Orleans Railroad Co. — Miles, of track, 11.2; 
closed cars, 28; sprinkling cars. I. New Orleans' & Pontchartrain 
Railway Co. — Miles of track, 8.7; cars, 5. 

The New Orleans Railways Co. issues a flyer, 354 x 6 in., con- 
taining condensed facts concerning New Orleans' industrial, geo- 
graphical, climatical, municipal and financial features and facilities. 



Feb. jo. 1904.) 



STREET RAILWAY REXIKW. 



SI) 



Accidents. 



Jaimarv jcili a car on the Swissvak' and Rankin lirandi of the 
Pittsburg Railways Co. jumped the track, owing to shppcry rails. 
and went over a 25-ft. enilianknienl. injuring 28 persons, hnt none 
latally. 

January joth a car on the I'nion .\ve. division of the Si. Lonis 
& Suburban Railway Co. jumped the track while going at a high 
rale ot speed and the motorinan was thrown o\er the front gate 
:<nd in front of the wheels. He was killed. 

January 21st a freight car on the Anderson-Marion division of 
the Indiana Union Traction Co. collided with an extra car and the 
trainmaster, who was acting as motornian on the e.xtra car. was 
fatally injured. The motorinan of the freight car and anoiluT 
employe were injured, also. 

January 23rd nine persons were injured, one seriously, in a col 
lision between two Chicago City Railway Co. cars at i6tli and 
Clark Sis., Chicago. 

January 24th a Scranton Railway Co. car jumped the track near 
Carbondale, Pa., and went over a steep embankment, injuring 14 
persons. 

January 26lh a Rockford & liuerurban Railway Co. car was 
struck by a Chicago & Northwestern Ry. engine in Rockford. 111. 
I he car was wrecked, but no one was injured. 

January 27th two St. Lonis Transit Co. cars collided at Broad- 
way and Meraniec St., St. Lonis, and 30 persons were injured, two 
fatally. It was foggy. 

January 28th a L'nion Railway Co. car in the Bronx, New York 
City, ran into a six-horse truck while going down a steep hill 
and two cars which followed crashed into the first car and each 
other. Four persons were seriously luiil :in'l the cars were badly 
damaged. 

January 30th there was a rear-end collision between two Twin 
Cily Rapid Transit Co. cars in St. Paul, Minn., resulting in in 
jury 10 four persons. The cars were partially telescoped. 

January 31st a Lake Shore F-lectric Railway Co. limited car 
-truck a local car of the same line east of Norwalk, O., and six 
persons were injured, none fatally. 

January 31st a theater special car and a Camden & Trenton 
Railway Co. regular car collided at Burlington, N. J., during a 
dense fofe. Five persons were seriously injured. There were 115 
passengers on the special. 

February 3rd a conductor was fatally injured in a collision be- 
tween a passenger car and a construction car on the Philadelphia 
& West Chester Traction Co's. line near Manoa, Pa. 

February 5th a Knoxville Traction Co. car jumped the track on 
the Lonsdale line three miles west of Knoxville. Tenn., and four 
persons were injured. 

February 7th a Public Service Corporation car jumped the track 
ill Plainficid, \. J., and struck a tree. The nicitorman was killed 
and three passengers were injured. 

February 8th there was a rear-end collision between two Fifth 
.Ave. trains on the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co's. elevated sys 
tcm, and six pcr.sons were injured. 

February 7th a Chicago & Northwestern Ry. Ireighl train stnuk 
an East Omaha Street Railway Co. car at Omaha, Neb. and two 
persons were injured, but not fatally. 

January 26lh a Cottage Grove Ave. cable grip car of the Chi- 
cago City Railway Co, "ran away" on Wabash .\ve., Chicago, and 
could not be str>pped until the company shut off the power at the 
power hou-.e. l-'ive persons were injured and two wagons wrecked 
en route. The gripinan remained at his post, although the grip 
car was practically demolished. For some reason the grip mcchan- 
iMn refused lo respond when the gripinan tried to stop the car at 
Randolph Si . just before turning into Wabash .Ave. 

Frliriiary 8th a Detroit I'nilcd Ry. city car and a Norlliwestcrn 
car collided in Detroit. Mich., and six persons were injureil, one 
scriounly. 

February I4lh two persons were killetl and nearly 75 injuretl, 
JS *rriou»ly, in an accident at Frostburg. Md. /\ Cumberland & 
Wr^tern|K)rt Fllrctric Railway Co, car ran away on a grade, jnnipeil 
ilic track and struck a telegraph |Kilr. 

February 14th an Fjislern Ohio Traction Co, car ran away on a 
>leep urade. iuin|M-d the track and .overturned, injuring 16 per 



Chicago Union Traction Co. 

ll has been decided that the argumenls npon ihe vali(lit\ of 
the gg-ycar franchise acl slvill be heard before Judge (iro--cn|i 
at Chicago during the first part of March. 

February 17111 Judge (Irosscnp received the resignations of Messrs. 
(iovin and Kckels as receivers for the North and West Chicago 
-treet R-iilroad companies, and nppointed in their places Messrs. 
John C. Fetzer and Henry .\. Blair. Mr. Fetzer was also ap- 
pointed an additional receiver for the Union Traclion Co.. so that 
the tw-o boards of receivers as they now stand are as follows: l'nion 
Traction Co. — John C. Fetzer. R. R. Covin. James 11. Eckels. 
Marshall K. Sampsell. North and West Chicago Street Railroad 
companies— John C. I'ctzer. Henry .\. Blair, Marshall F.. Sampsell. 
it is understood that Ihe duties of Mr.' Fetzer so far as the Union 
Iraction Co. is' coneniKil will he ihal of ,v "managing receiver." 
He is to give his whole time to th.' work and his special duty will 
be to look after the physical condition of the system. 

Following the change in receiverships, the Chicago Passenger 
Railw-ay Co., an niulerlying company of the Union 'Traction Co., 
which has no claim under the gg-year act, applied to the cily coun- 
cil for a renewal of its franchises upon practically the same terms 
a- it is suggested will be acceptable to the Chicago City Railway 
Co.. except that it proposed that Ihe city may purchase the road 
at the end of 15 years. No compensation is offered, other than the 
old agreement of $50 per car per year license fee. Mayor Harrison 
i- quoted as stating that the application has little chance of being 
considered, as the city would feel that it is simply a plan to help 
the Union Traction Co. by giving it a renewal of that part of its 
system which it does not claim is under the protection of the gg- 
\ear act. 

THiring the past moiilh llir lilu,- Island and l.uuolii .\ve. lines 
have been electrically equipped and new cars put into operation. 
Seventeen new cars were also put on the North Stale St. line. 

'I lie receivers liorrowed $50,000 to pay the February interest on 
the underlying bonds' of the Chicago Consolidated 'Traction Co. 

Klevated Traffic in Chicago. 

Traffic on ihe elev lUd lines in Chicago during January suffered 
from the closing of llie theaters and the lessening of business 
activity, as the following daily averages for the month will show: 
South Side Elevated Railroad Co., 87,(101, an increase of g<)4 over 
igo3, or i.ii per cent; Norlhwesteni Elevated Railroad Co., 70,204. 
an increase of i,g,?8, or 2.84 per cent; Metropolitan West Side Ele- 
vated Railroad Co., 112,413. a decrease of 358, or iJ per cent: 
Lake Street Elevaleil Railrn:ul Co., 42,82g, a decrease of 1,214. or 
2.75 per cent. 



Crawfordsvillc, Ind., Controversy. 

The Crawfordsvillc llnd. ) council has inslriieUcI the eily elerli 
to issue a permit to Ihe Indianapolis & Norlhweslern Traction Co. 
lo use the streets, I lie council also requested Judge Baker, of Ihe 
I'nited Stales Circuit Court, to modify his onlir uhiiii Misl.iined 
the deimirrers of the Crawfordsvillc 'Traction Co. loiil llie eily nl 
Crawfordsvillc to Ihe eomplaiiit of the Indianapolis & Norlhweslern 
Traclion Co.. .•l^ reporled in the "Review" for lleccmber. ir)03. 



A Wholly Necessary Precaution- 



"I he eonihiclor has orders to restrain ladies Irmn aligiilnig from 
moving cars, anil lo use force if necessary ll i- nol ,1 pleasure lo 
give such an order as thai. But it is wbciily necessary. Some appear 
to resent it when in a moineiil of confusion they are preparing lo 
step off a moving car and the condiiclor lays a reslraining hand 
upon lliein. 'That isn't jiisi fair. If people will per-ist in taking 
wholly superlUions chances, we must use all diligence In ri-h;iiii 
llie use of their judgment which is niaiiiie-tly sliockiiiKly bad I lu 
condiiclor doesn'l do that lo be "funny" or in be "fresh." lie is 
irying lo prevent you frniii breaking a limb. The cars may have 
loo iiiucli momenluin to stop exactly at the crossing, bill PLE.A.Sl': 
W.MT."- Ivxtracl from Detroit United Weekly, Issued by Dclrpiil 
United Ry 



90 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol.. XIV. No. 2. 




PUBLISHED ON THE 20tm OF EACH MONTH. 

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CORRESPONDENCE. 

We cordially invite correspondence on all subjects of interest to those 
engaged in any branch of street railway work, and will gratefully appreciate 
any marked copies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send 
us, pertaining either to companies or officers. 



DOES THE MANAGER WANT ANYTHING? 

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Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 



VOL. XIV. 



FEBRUARY 20, 1904. 



NO. 2 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS, 

Electric Tramway of Sofia. Illustrated 73 

New Rates of Fare on Interurban 1-lne 76 

Car Meters for Kleclrlc Railways, llluslrated. By U B. Pem- 

berton. E. E 77 

Everett-Snohomish Interurban IJne. Illustrated 79 

New Power House of the Rhode Island Co. Illustrated 82 

Chleagro Union Traction Co 89 

Editorial 90 

The Railway System of th.- Stoubenville Traction & Light Co. 

Illustrated 93 

Snow Fences for Electric Railways. Illustrated lOfi 

A Classification of Lilghtln^ Accounts Conforming to the Street 

Railway Accountants' Association Standard. Illustrated. By 

C. L. S. Tingley 103 

New England Street Railway Club. Illustrated 107 

Track Catch Basin Grate and Setting. Illustrated lOS 

Recent Street Railway Decisions 109 

Financial 113 

Report of Massachusetts Street Railways 117 

Graphical Mathematics— 2. Illustrated. By A. (J. Holman, M. E. .119 

Electric Railways of York. Pa. Illustrated 121 

Novel Rotary Snow Plow. Illustrated 122 

Freight Business on Electric Railways 123 

Personal 1!M 

Obituary 125 

New Publications 125 

.\nnual Report of Twin City Rapid Transit Co 126 

Damage Caused by Flood, Ice and Snow. Illustrated 130 



POWER HOUSE ACCESSORIES. 

Distinct individiiality in the conslructiun and vquipniciU uf mod- 
ern power plants <if a given class depends mainly upon differences in 
llic ;irrangcmenl and comliination of various types and makes o( 
generally approved apparatus and accessories, and only very slightly 
upon the use of really new or nnusnal devices. The design of a 
generating station of high efficiency and greatest practicable econ- 
omy must of course he dictated largely by conditions of location, 
water facilities, fuel supply, etc., but these requirements are ful- 
tilied by intelligent selection and arrangement of standard details 
■ if equipment. 

I he new Manchester street station of the Rhode Island Co., 
at I'rovidence, as described elsewhere in this number, presents 
lew exceptional features of design, but is nevertheless of interest 
as a thoroughly modern installation of more than average size. 
It is probably the only plant in New England, outside of the city 
of Boston, having a double decked boiler house. This arrange- 
ment was made necessary by the change from all horizontal 
units, as contemplated in the original plans, to vertical units of 
iwo-thirds greater power for the direct current machines, prac- 
tically without loss of floor space. Provision for the additional 
boilers by placing them in a second row at the ground level was 
prevenlcd by th:^ limitations of the site, and the second bank had 
lo go up onto :i higher floor. The arrangements for spouting coal 
from the overhead storage bin past the upper bank of boilers to 
the first floor and for spouting ashes from the upper stokers past 
the lower boilers to tbc basement are well worked out, as indicated 
in the drawings. 

Usually the convenience of operation of a station of this char- 
acter is enhanced by the use of one or more small, yet important, 
devices suggested by the general or special conditions at the in- 
dividual plant. In the Providence station the ringing of a gong 
at regular intervals of twenty minutes as a signal to the oilers to 
make their periodical rounds is a noteworthy feature of this sort. 
It is not claimed as being original at this plant, but its use is 
nevertheless not at all common and is worthy of attention. The 
clock upon the boiler room wall midway of the length of the en- 
gine room is arranged to close an electrical circuit three times an 
hour, ringing the gong hung just below the clock. This regular 
signal, so simply and reliably arranged for, can hardly fail to prove 
of material value as contributing to engine efficiency by promoting 
uniformity of lubrication and coolness of bearings, and to oil 
economy by avoiding wastes due to excessive use of lubricant at 
irregular intervals. 

Another feature of the iManchestcr street power house, quite 
unique in this class of work, yet obviously of decided merit, is 
the installation of the modified form of ship telegraph apparatus 
for signaling between the engine room floor and the elevated 
switchboard galleries. In marine practice, for which this system 
was originally designed, there is used for each propelling engine, 
one set of this apparatus, the set consisting of duplicate dial 
stands, one at the bridge and the other in the engine room. A 
lever handle at each stand mechanically operates the indicating 
pointer at the other dial, a gong sounding as the pointer moves 
from any one position to the ne.xt. Receipt of the order is ac- 
knowledged by placing the engine room lever handle at the same 
position, the pointer at the other dial then showing that the order 
has been understood and is being obeyed. When the order has 
been executed and the engine is working as directed, the engineer 
may advise the captain of the fact by moving his lever away from 
the ordered setting and immediately returning it thereto, this op- 
eration sounding the bridge gong at least twice and calling atten- 
tion to the accomplishment of the desired change. 

In adapting this signal system to power plant work separate sets 
of the apparatus for the several ui;its would be impracticable and 
unnecessary. The sets arc therefore merely in duplex, two stands 
being used at each end. One indicates the unit, the other shows 
the order to be executed. In the Providence plant there are five 
main generating units, two motor driven exciters and one marine 
engine driven exciter set to be provided for on one stand. The 
other stand has its dial arranged to indicate the various details 
of manipulation which may require to be communicated either 
way between the engine room floor and the switchboard gal- 
leries. In gunerating stations of any considerable size, and espe- 
cially where the switchboard attendant is more or less isolated 



Fer 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



91 



from the engineer's natural post of duty, the use of such a posi- 
tive means of communication is certainly an item of value in facil- 
itating rapidity and accuracy in securing desired results, with- 
out requiring more than momentary distraction of attention of 
either operative from his work. 



THREE-CENT FARES IN CLEVELAND. 

In the January "Review" reference was made in these columns 
to a proposed 90 days' trial by the Cleveland Electric Railway Co. 
of a three-cent fare ordinance which had been adopted by the 
Cleveland city council, and which was to go into effect January 
24th. It transpired that after the agreement to give the new ordi- 
nance a trial had become looked upon as a certainty, unforeseen 
difficulties arose which threatened its successful consummation. 
and the Cleveland Electric Railway Co.. which is about to seek a 
renewal of franchises, as a precautionary measure, applied for a 
restraining order, which was granted January 23rd, enjoining the 
city from putting the ordinance into effect, .-^rgunients for a per- 
manent order were to have been made before the federal court 
February 13th, but the case was passed for one week by agree- 
ment. 

The president of the Cleveland Electric Railway Co.. Mr. H. E. 
.\ndrews, and Mayor Johnson have for months been trying to 
agree upon some plan of reducing fares, in consideration of the 
renewal of all existing franchises and the granting of franchises 
for extensions of certain routes. The mayor insisted upon a 
three-cent fare between the outer limit of the proposed zone, which 
is practically coextensive with the city, and the business center 
of the city; and on through lines a three-cent fare from one limit 
of the zone to the other limit on the opposite side of the city. 
The plan discussed contemplated a charge of two cents for trans- 
fers and an additional two cents for rides beyond the zone limits. 
The mayor was of the opinion that the company could afford to 
operate at these reduced rates, hut was willing to try and secure 
the passage of the ordinance with an option in it to the company 
to accept the grant at any time within three or four months, in 
consideration for putting the new fares into immediate effect ; 
and the company was unwilling to agree to accept a franchise at 
such rates of fare without an opportunity to make a trial. 

.\t later conferences the mayor asked that the city have the 
right, within two months after the passage of a franchise ordi- 
nance to repeat it if the arrangement proved unsatisfactory to the 
public, and was willing to give the company two months after the 
expiration of the city's option to repeal, in which to determine 
whether to accept or reject the proposed renewal. There was also 
to be a provision in the proposed ordinance that the company 
should not be required, during the life of the grant, to pay any- 
thing for pavement or renewal of pavement, for car licenses or 
for bridge rentals, nor to make any contribution toward the cost 
of separating grades at steam and street railway crossings. There 
was also a provision that the city might purchase the property 
at the end of the 20-ycar term at a price lo be fixed by arbitra- 
tion, to which price 20 per cent was to be added. 

It is understood that the mayor submitled this plan to several 
memlKrs of the city council and that they were unanimously op- 
posed to it. At the present writing nothing definite has been de- 
cided upon 



PROPOSED PERMANENT WAY ASSOCIATION. 

It has been the general feeling for some time past that need 
cxi.st» for an association devoted to the special branches of streel 
railway work represented by the construction and maintenance ol 
way departments. The inability of the American Street Railway 
.Association to extend its scope beyond the more general limits 
and give adequate attention to the details of various departmental 
practices has already led to the formation of the American Rail- 
way Mcclianical and Electrical Association, and this society has 
found itself so fully occupied with its proper subjects of power 
and rolling stock as to cause oppo-silion to the proposal of .idmil- 
ling permanent way interests and subjects to its membership list 
and in convention time. An association devoted to the construc- 
tion and maintenance of way departments would have little in 
common with that of the master mechanics and might meet at the 
vame time as the latter and quite indepmrlcntly of it, yet in like 
connection with the convention of the A. S. R. A. 



That the track, overhead and underground construction are mat 
ters of importance is evident from the fact that the expenditures 
in installation and maintenance of these branches of a traction sys- 
tem equal or exceed those of power supply and rolling stock. The 
problems of way construction are by no means small, and are 
not to be solved by application of mathematical formulas. The 
questions as to relative merits of different types of construction 
are numerous and are to be decided only by experiment and ex- 
perience. Such being the case, reduction of the whole matter to 
any considerable degree of standardization can be effected only 
by interchange and record of ideas and conclusions based upon 
actual practice. The advisability of forming a "way" association 
iif the same general character as that of the master mechanics 
has been recognized 'by various engineers, and a movement look- 
ing toward the desired end is now well started. Mr. Fred G. 
Simmons, superintendent of construction and maintenance of way 
for the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., has taken the 
initiative, after consultation with several engineers in similar po- 
sitions, and has addressed to a number of such gentlemen a cir- 
cular letter stating briefly the proposition, and accompanied by 
a blank form to be filled out with expressions of opinion in regard 
to various phases of the subject, in a preliminary way. The ob- 
ject of this initial movement is to lay the project before as many 
interested persons as possible, with a view to opening the subject 
and bringing it into shape for further and possibly definite con- 
sideration in connection with the next meeting of the A. S. R. A. 

Mr. Simmons' communication has been sent merely to a few of 
his personal acquaintances, and it is highly desirable that others 
interested in the formation of such a society should address him, 
stating their attitudes in regard to the project and the extent to 
which they will be able and willing to co-operate with him in its' 
consummation. We coinmend the proposition most heartily and 
would urge all heads of permanent way departments and others 
in associated positions lo lend their aid and support to the move- 
ment thus started. The preliminaries to be given attention in- 
clude principally the choice of an organization committee, whose 
duty it shall be to outline a plan of organization, a name for the 
association, the requirements for membership, the grading of mem- 
bers, the membersliip fees and dues, etc. The question as to 
whether membership shall be granted only to companies' or per- 
■sonally to individuals is one which must be decided. The blank 
sent out by Mr. Simmons asks suggestions upon all these points, so 
that an organization committee may be selected and the matter 
fornuilated into such shape as to permit the accomplishment of 
definite results' in connection with the coming convention of the 
A. S. R. A. 

Wc quote as follows from the letter sent out by Mr. Simmons: 

"There is probably more money expended through this division 
of the various electric railways of the country than any other 
single department ; less discussion of matters pertaining to this 
important work has been had, and the practice of no one depart- 
ment is probably less uniform. It is reasonable to assume that an 
intelligent, painstaking and thorough coittparison of rcsiilts ob- 
tained throughout the country could in no other case lead to such 
far-reaching economy for all concerned as in the practice of track 
laying. 'Will your track last ten, twelve, fifteen or twenty years?' 
What more important question can you ask the electric railways 
of the country? 

"In order to broaden somewhat the .scope of tlic proposed organ- 
ization, it has been suggested that under the title 'Way' Ik in- 
cluded the right of way, roadbed, track, poles, overhead line, and 
underground conduits and feeders. A plan of organization simi- 
lar lo that of the .'\inerican Railway Mechanical and Electrical 
.Association might be used ; or such changes made therefrom as 
would be suggested as advisable. The membershi)) of that asso- 
ciation might be briefly outlined as follows ; 

"Active members: Heads of departments; membership fee, $5 
per year. 

"Associate members: Owning or operating companies or iiidi- 
vitlual owners; mem'oership fee, $20 per year. 

"Junior members: Lesser employes engaged in lliis work where 
either their companies or departmental heads arc ineiiibers; mem 
liership fee, $3 per year. 

"In order that a consensus of (ii)lnin)i on Iliis inipurlaiil m.'itlci 
may be arrived at, a form rjf lilaid< circidar is enclosed herewilii. 



[r2 



KAiLWAN ki;\ ii:w. 



I Vol.. XIW No. 2. 



wliicli wc woiiM viry much like joii to till out and riturii to 
the mulcrsiniiiil. after wliicli the work of orgnnixniion woiild 
l)e taken up autl continnecl In- the pcrsous and in the niaiuier in- 
ilicalefl l>y a majority of saiil replies. The rough idea a^ now 
ni the mind of the writer contemplates an associalioii similar 
Ml aims and purposes to the Mechanical and Kleclrical Associa- 
tion already cited; to meet at the time and place chosen by the 
.\merican Street Railway Association for its yearly convention, 
and to act as an ofTshool of the said American Street Railway 
.\ssociation, receiving and furthering suggestions therefrom, and 
endeavoring in every way to improve and perfect, toward some 
reasonable degree of uniformity, the practice of the way de- 
partments of the gigantic electric railway interests represented 
therein. 

■■ The writer h;is reason to believe fii>iii interchange of ideas 
with many of the departmental heads in charge of this class of 
work throughout the country that a large number of them are as 
liriuly convinced as himself that such an organization can not be 
l<irmed too soon, and it is therefore with considerable hope of good 
results that this letter is launched, upon the idea that there must 
be a beginning if there is to be progress. A plan of organization 
may lie advisable by which the heads of departments can become 
active members even though the company they represent does 
not afliliatc with the association. We think the companies should 
join wherever possible, as we are convinced ihat the matter of 
twenty or twenty-five dollars for a membership fee and the ex- 
penses of a representative at the annual meetings would soon be 
repaid an hundred fold by the benefits to be derived therefrom. 

"Your advice and help is earnestly solicited in order that a 
thorough and comprehensive organization may be cflFccted." 

We see no room for question as to the possibilities for good to 
result from an active association along the lines indicated and 
believe that the need is urgent for its formation as quickly as 
practicable. The initiative of Mr. Simmons should be followed 
and the furtherance of his plans assisted by the hearty co-opera- 
tion of all engineers and companies interested in progress toward 
liighest efiiciency and greatest possible uniformity in way con- 
struction. The usual result of energetic work by societies of 
this nature is a gradual, yet comparatively rapid, reduction of 
general practice toward a uniformity which naturally brings 
greater and greater approach toward standardization. Such must 
be the result of the proposed association of permanent way inter- 
ests, with correspondir.gly valuable possibilities for economy in 
many directions. 



Railway (Company Grants Transfers. 

l''ebruary nth the New York City Railway Co.. which was for- 
merly known as the Intcrurban Street Railway Co.. issued an order 
to its conductors to give transfers at Broadway and I4tli St.. 
Hroadway and 2.Kd St.. Sixth Ave. and 2.^rd St.. and Madison 
.•\ve. and i i6th St.. these being regarded as four chief points in 
dispute between the company and the Transit Reform Committee 
of One Hundred which has been endeavoring for more than a year 
to obtain transfers at all intersecting points on the company's 
lines. Some time ago a decision was handed down by the .Ap- 
pellate Term court upholding the law which provided for such 
transfers under a penalty of $50 in each case where a transfer is 
refused. It is stated that suits amounting to about $1,000,000 have 
been brought, or were to be brought, against the street railway 
company since the decision was handed down by the court. Jan- 
uary 25th one justice awarded judgments amounting to $750 
against the company in lots of $50 each for refusing transfers at 
various points during the past six months. Suits aggregating 
$10,000 were said to be already on the city court calendars. One 
man. a lawyer, secured nine judgments of $50 each, and he bad 
entered 250 cases representing damages of $12,500. It seems that 
a great many impecunious persons took advantage of the $50 pen- 
alty provision and rushed to lawyers with their claims, the law 
having been" construed to be capable of enforcement even when 
the complainant had purposely ridden on the cars to make a case 
against the company. 

!n the appellate term of the supreme court at New York City. 
January igth. a decision was rendered in a suit which had been 
brought against the Intenirbaii Si reel Railway Co.. which reversed 



the decision of the municipal court that the company was not lia- 
ble to |H-iialty for nut giving the plainiifT a transfer at Broadway 
and 2,ird St., it having been held by the lower court that the cited 
■.ection of the railroad law di<l not apply to the defendant. The 
higher court, in reversing the ruling, gave the company leave to ap- 
peal the case to the appellate divi>ion. 

January jgth Judge O'Brien of the Court of Appeals al Albany 
handed down an opinion in a case which had been appealed from 
the decision of the lower court refusing the representative of the 
Transit Reform Committee of One Hundred a writ of mandamus 
to compel the company to issue transfers at iJjlh .St. and Kighlh 
.'\ve., the decision being on the technical jKiint that mandamus 
was not the proper procedure. The judge ruled that under the 
railroad law the railroad commissioners have the power to inves- 
tigate cimiplaints of neglect of duty on the part of railroad com- 
panies, and it is provided that any decision or recommendation 
of that hoard may be enforced by mandamus. This was regarde<l 
as a partial victory for the company and the reform committee 
looked forward to a long-drawn-out battle lasting al least a year, 
when the company of its own accord acceded to the important 
points in dispute. 

President Vreeland has stated that the company withhelil trans- 
fers at certain points because there would be particular danger to 
the public if transfers were issued. 



Chicago City Railway Co. 



1 he annual report of the Chicago City Railway Co. for the 
year ending Dec. 31. 190J. shows the gross earnings to have been 
$f).4,?5,565, an increase of $22.38,^ over the previous year; the 
passenger itceipls wee $6.,58i.246. an increase of $13,888; operat- 
ing expenses and taxvs. $4,648,342. an increase of $311,837; depre- 
ciation. $ioo.oco. a decrease of $80,000; net income. $1,687,224. a 
decrease of $209,454; dividends (same as 1902). $1,620,000; sur- 
plus for the year. $67,224. a decrease of $209,454; ratio of operat- 
ing expenses and taxes to gross earnings. .7223, an increase of 
4.61 per cent; ratio of operating expenses and taxes to passenger 
receipts, .7284. an increase of 4.73 per cent ; passenger receipts per 
day. $17,483 

The report shows the total car miles run during the year as 
.!2.535.>23. a decrease of i.;6.8ii. There were carried 128.304,455 
fare passengers, an increase of 206,646, and 66,883.346 transfer pas- 
sengers, an increase of 11.089.784. The percentage of transfer 
passengers to fare passengers was 52.13 per cent. 

The report of the president. Mr. D. G. Hamilton, states that the 
gross earnings do not show the expected and normal increase, 
owing to the 14 days' strike of employes in Novemlwr, and also 
owing to the unfavorable weather conditions during January and 
December. While the passenger receipts increased less than one- 
fifth of one per cent, the transfer passengers carried increased 20 
per cent, due to the enforced inauguration of the present transfer 
system. 0\er 50 per cent of the fare passengers carried were 
carried on transfers. The large increase in expenses was attrib- 
uted to the increases in wages, cost of fuel, material and supplies, 
cleaning street^, removal of snow, insurance, taxes and the strike 
expenses. 

The report points out certain improvements which were made in 
1903. and needed improvements which will be made in 1904. the 
latter to include additional cars and power plant apparatus, as 
well as construction and reconstruction work. 

Regarding the franchise negotiations between the company and 
the city, the report slates that "a tentative ordinance is under con- 
sideration, by which it is hoped a fair and business-like settlement 
of the questions involved may be made." Pending the settlement 
the company will efficiently maintain its plant and equipment and 
make such improvements as will enable it to furnish the best serv- 
ice possible under existing condition^. 

The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad Co.. in con- 
junction with the General Electric Co.. proposes to lay a special 
track near Schenectady. N. Y.. on which to test the new electric 
locomotives which have been ordered, .^n effort will be made to 
exceed the speed attained by the German military electric line he- 
Iwen Berlin and Zossen last year. 



The Railway System of the Steubenville Traction 

& Light Co. 



Describing the Company's Railway System and Power House Which Includes a Gas Producing 
Plant, an Electric Lighting Plant and an Electric Traction Plant. 



A gas producing plant and an electric traction and lighting 
company may seem to have but little in common, and yet the 
Steubenville Traction & Light Co., of Steubenville, Ohio, owes its 
origin directly to the local branch of the American Gas Co., of 
Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation operating artificial gas plants in 
many cities throughout the country. In other words the original 
gas manufacturing business has gradually declined- in importance 
to little more than a side issue when compared with the electrical 



sidered at all, and the electric liglit end unly as it enters into the 
description of the power plant. .As an index to the proportions of 
the latter, however, it may be said that the company is supplying 
at the present time, about 6,000 incandescent lamps for store and 
house illumination and a large number of small motors on its 
alternating current circuits, and on its arc circuits 245 arc lamps 
of 2,000 candle-power each, for city service in street lighting. 
The company's traction system will be the central olijcct of atten- 




8TELl!i;.NVIl,l,E K.Ml.WAY GKNEHATING .SI II I 

enterprises that have so largely replaced it, consetjuenlly the 
coi:poratc name has been changed to correspond. However, it 
should not be inferred that the gas business is neglected, for in its 
appointments and processes it is kept admirably up to date. 'Only 
a short time ago the furnaces and ihcir auxiliary c(|uipments were 
thoroughly overhauled, repaired and modernized by the addition 
of many minor improvements. Still, the fact remain* thai selling 
artificial gas in this part of Ohio is about as profitable ;is "carry- 
ing coals to Newcastle," inasmuch as natural gas is plentiful and 
cheap; and it was apparently with an instinct to self-preservation 
that the departure was made into electrical lines. 

In this discussion the gas end of the business will not be con- 



l,.U;l, i:.\ill.\i;. naiUW. 1 ItlH'KIOJt-WIIIOJOI.lCli GENERATOR. 

lion for in it are emiiodieil features of certain interest to tlic 
readers of the "Review." Among them may he mentioned an ex- 
cellent type of track construct inn and a car cfiuipmcnt that is 
unusual for the territory covered or the population served (about 
.30,000), and one that would dn credit to a more pretentious 
system. From an operating standpoint the inmicrous ticket forms, 
the arrangcineiUs for carrying freight, and the system of regu- 
lating promotions and maintaiinng discipline are of interest, and in 
connection with the power plant the history of its rapid recupera- 
tion after a total desliuction by fire, though familiar to some, is 
sufficiently remarkable to deserve repetition. 
1"hc street railway property includes about eighteen miles oi 



94 



srRi;i:i railway review. 



|\oi.. XIW No. 2. 



Ir.ick, of which alioiil fdiir miles is a single bolt hiiv, arotiiid and 
throiiuh the ho.irl of the city, reaching all depots, city and county 
huilding.s, public library, hospital, etc., and passing through the 
principal residential and manufacturing districts. The longest 
line is the intcrbiirban division, about IJ miles lung, extending 
from the center of Stcubenvillc through .Mikanna, Stanton Park, 
Kingsdale. Costonia, Markle's. Jeddo, Toronto, and Fosterville 
lo its present terminus about a mile north of Toronto, directly op- 
posite New Cumberland, \V. \'a., connection being made between the 
two points by ferry. Part of this line is also traversed by the 
cars of the Toronto local division which passes through the princi- 
pal business and residential streets of that town. Within Slcnben- 
ville the company also operates what is known as the Pleasant 
, Heights line, a division 

V\3& two miles long, which 

erre/ar \ \ fw\f to the hill-top 

suburb of tlie city, and 
a Market and 6th 
Street line three miles 
long, which runs over 
a section of the inler- 
urban track. 

.\s may be seen from 
the map. the interurban 
line for the greatest 
part of its length run> 
along the banks of the 
O li i o river, passing 
through one .of the 
most beautiful sections 
of the Ohio Valley — a 
country noted for its 
picturesque scenery. \\ 
a distance of about 
three miles out on this 
line from the center of 
Steubenville is located 
Stanton Park, a pleas- 
ure resort, owned and 
developed by the street 
railway company. It is 
situated near the river 
on a little plateau 
among tlic hills and 
commands a view in 
both directions, the 
equal of which would 
be hard to find through- 
out the valley. The 
grounds comprise about 
86 acres of forest . and 
glens and are transected 
by a stream which has 
been artificially ex- 
panded into a small 
lake. .■\bout the park 
have been erected a 
number of quaint build- 
ings in Dutch and Eng- 
lish rustic style, which accommod.atc a small theater, a storage 
battery plant and a home for the keeper and his family, and shel- 
ters for a merry-go-round, photo-gallery, shooting gallery, roller 
coaster, refrcslnncnt booth, and various' other stand novelties. The 
placing of the buildings and the layout of the paths and roads with 
their rustic bridges and benches have been executed in a harmoni- 
ous and artistic manner, the construction work of which involved 
considerable engineering in the w-ay of grading, drainage and sup- 
plying water, lighting, and the installation of fire protective appara- 
tus, but this is beyond the intended scope of the present article. 
The storage battery plant, since it is associated with the railway 
work, will be described later in detail. 

Track and Overhead Construction, 
All of the lines are single track, with turn-outs located at inter- 
vals of about two miles on the interburban line, and inorc frequently 
within the city limits where the cars are run on a headway of about 
8 minutes. The maximum grade is about ^''^ per cent and of but 




LINES OP THE STEUBENVILLE 
TRACTION & LIC.HT CO. 



short extent. It occurs on the interurlian line near Stanton Park. 
Within the city limits the maximum grade is but 6',^ per cent 
and it is here that the only curves of .^ho^t radius exist. There are 
two steam railroad crossings, at which points derailing switches, 
made by the Cleveland Frog & Crossing Co., have been provided in 
accordance with the Ohio laws. 

The roadbed as constructed is unusually good and should prove 



J^vo 2 s^iMMsr 







a-ff' 



CROSS siocno.v OK Tn.scK i.v r-i-:.VTr:n nr road. 




3'//e£&'ii^sr 



CROSS SECTION OP TRACK ON SIDE OF ROAD. 

of an enduring character. .-V sketch herewith shows the scheme 
of the track construction. .\ trench is first excavated to a depth 
of i8 in. in which 6 in. of broken stone is laid and thor- 
oughly rolled. On this white oak ties, 6 by 8 in. in cross sec- 
tion and 7 ft. long are placed, 2 ft. between centers and upon these 
arc laid the 6o-lb. rails. In the open country the track is ballasted 
with broken stone well tamped to the top of the tie ; in unpavcd 
streets and pike roads broken stone is filled in to the top of the 
rails and covered with limestone screenings, and on paved streets 
broken stone is rammed between the tics, this covered with lime- 
stone screenings and again rammed, while over all is spread sand 
upon which the paving bricks arc finally laid. 

Within the city limits the roadbed gave little difficulty and the 
tracks have good foundations, but at a number of places on the 
interburban line considerable work was necessary in the way of 
cutting, filling and constructing retaining walls. The material of 
the hills, which the track skirts at pouits is of a shaly nature, and 
has given considerable trouble by sliding. One of the illustrations 
herewith shows the result of one of these slides or "slips," 




RKP.MRING .\ ■SI.II'. ■ 

as they are called. But gradually these difficulties are being over- 
come and the conditions corrected to diminish likelihood of their 
recurrence. 

In all city streets the rails are 6 in. high, 6o ft. long and 
weigh 6o lb. per yard, and in the open country a 4'/2-in. rail of the 
same weiglit is used. All rails, switch pieces, railroad crossings, 
short curves, etc.. were made by the Johnson Co., of Lorain, Ohio, 



Fee. 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



95 



and the Carnegie Steel Co.. of Carnegie. Pa. Tie rods are 
provided every 10 ft. ; guard rails and rail braces on all curves; 
An additional ;aleguard is provided where the track riuis close 
to the edge of high walls and emb.iiikments. or at curve approaches 
to bridges, wliich consist of a 6x8-in. wooden strniger laid out- 
side of. and 8 in. from the rail and bolted to every tie. The joints 



calcd in the diagram of circuit breakers and switches. 'IMie trolley 
feeder cables consist of about three-fourths of a mile of No. oixxi 
copper wire and approximately 9'/, miles of 795,000 cm. aluminum 
cable. The rail feeders are about Va miles in length' and are 500,- 
000 c. m. copper cables. At intervals of every third of a mile 
lightning arresters are installed, and between .Stanton Park and 




TRESTLE OVER CRdXTdNS HVN. 



are bonded with Xo. cooo "Protected" rail bonds, single bonds 
being used in Toronto and on all 4K-in. rails, and double bonds 
on the Steubenville streets. Cross bonds are placed every three 
rail lengths from Steubenville as far as Stanton Park and also 
in Toronto. The bond holes were drilled in the field and the 
bonds compressed wilb screw presses and then carefully coated 
with pitch. 

One of the important features of the road construction was the 
building of the trestle over Croxton's run near Fosterville above 
Toronto, shown in one of the views herewith. It 
is about 325 ft. long and includes the longest bridge 
of the system, one of plate-girder construction 75 
ft. long, supported on wooden bents. The trestle 
proper, leading to the bridge from the south, is of 
wood. The smaller bridges of the system are also 
'of plate-girder construction and are supi)orted by 
heavy lients on stone foundations. The one at Cos- 
tonia, however, is supported directly on stone foun- 
dations. With few exceptions all stone work such 
as that used in retaining walls, etc., is heavy ndible 
masonry laid in cement mortar. 

In the overhead construction which is indicated 
in several of the cuts, there are two general methods 
for supiK.rting the wires. On the streets span con- 
struction is used, the trolley wires being suspended 
from cross wires extending between cedar poles, 
while on the county roads and private right of way, 
flexible brackets, designed by the t)hio Brass Co. 
and mounted on. cedar poles, are used. .Ml poles 
run from 30 to .15 ft. in length, averaging from \2 
to 14 in. in diameter at the butt anil 7 in. in diam- 
eter at the top, and arc emijcdded in the soil tu 
a depth of from 6 to 7 ft., the bases being first well 
coated with pitch. After the poles arc set the 
groun:! around them is tamped down hard and guy 
wires strung wherever necessary. Ihe trolley is No. 0000 grooved 
copper wire and !•> supported by galvanized steel span wire S-16 in. 
in diameter, made up with two globe strain insulators on each span 
Ihe trolley wire is anchored at frequent intervals and is provided 
with line breaks §0 that sections may be cut out in case of I rouble. 
Swilchej connecting with these sections arc located in boxes on 
\xi\ct convenient to lb'- "W"- •■■'' b:irn aiirl battery house, as indi- 



Steubenville, there is a system of electric block signals. There is 
also a telephone system extending the full length of the line with 
five fixed stations in Steubenville, and connecting boxes on poles 
every quarter of a mile outside of the city. Portable telephone 
.sets are carried on all interurban cars which may he readily con- 
nected with these stations. In this way communication may be 
quickly established with the ham or office to report trouble from 
any part of the line and receive instructions. 

The car equipment includes lliree enclosed inlerurliaii cars each 




STANDARD I NTKRr Illl.VN >\\H. 



Kolling Stock. 
41 ft. long, built by the Jackson & Sharp Co.. two having smoking 
comparlnieiits and Ihe third a baggage conq)arlnienl at one end. 
These are each mounted on two Peckham No. 14-"-.^ trucks with 
fitur No. 12-A Wcstinghousc motors, one on each axle, and are 
crinipped with Christensen air brakes in addition to hand brakes, 
air whistles, Newark air sanders and Mosher arc head lights. The 



96 



STREET RAILWAY REN'IEVV. 



(Vol. XIV, No. 2. 



scats are of the "walkover" pattern, of rattan, ami each car will ac- 
commodate 50 persons. The car interiors arc finished in satin 
oak and are brilliantly lighted by 22 i6-candle power incandescent 
lights. The open interurban cars, four in number, arc of the 
same make but ,1 ft. longer, they also have cross scats and a center 
aisle, nnd ,irc cipnblc of sc.iting 56 persons. The trucks, motors, 




VIKW IN UCIILKR ROOM. SHOWING STIRLING BOILERS. 

air brakes and lighting equipment are the same as those used on the 
closed interurban cars. 

For city service the following are the closed cars : Four of 
Stephenson make on McGuire A-i suspension trucks, with two 12-A 
Westinghouse motors, and four Laclede bodies on 21-E Brill 
trucks with two No. 49 Westinghouse motors. These are 28 ft. 
long and capable of seating about 30 persons. 

The open cars for city service are 30 ft. long, four being Laclede 
and eight American Car Co. bodies. Four of the latter arc 
mounted on McGuire A-l suspension trucks, two having 12-A 
Westinghouse motors and two G. E. 800 motors, and four are on 
Lord Baltimore trucks with G. E. 57 motors. The Laclede cars 
have Brill trucks and No. 49 Westinghouse motors. These twelve 
cars have side seats with an aisle through the center and will 
seat about 28 persons. The side steps bolt up, the passengers being 
obliged to enter and leave at the ends. This avoids accidents by 
preventing people from riding on the steps, and is a distinct ad- 
vantage in bad weather. 

The open and closed cars on the Pleasant Heights line are 30 
ft. long, were built by the American Car Co., and are equipped 
with Brill trucks. No. 56 Westinghouse motors and arc headlights. 
They have cane covered seats with a center aisle and a seating 
capacity for 38 persons. 

The total equipment consists of thirty-one cars, all of which are 
equipped with International fare registers, trolley catchers. Hunter 
illuminated signs and those of the closed type with either Gold 
street car heaters, or those built by the Consolidated Car Heating 
Co. In addition there is a McGuire sweeper used for cleaning 
the track of snow or dirt, which is equipped with two No. 49 West- 
inghouse motors on the trucks and a G. E. 50-h. p. motor to drive 
the brooms. For construction work and repairing an open work 
truck, four hand push cars, two of which are equipped with towers, 
a velocipede hand-car and a tower repair wagon are kept in readi- 



ness at the barn. For wrecking purposes an old car body filled 
with tackle and all necessary tools is used as a trailer and can be 
quickly taken to any point where it may be needed. 

The Power Plant. 

The central power station is located on High and South Sts., 
occupying part of a 240 x 180- ft. plot which accommodates in addi- 
tion to the engine-generating and boiler plants, two gas holders, 
with a capacity of 85,000 cu. ft., a retort house, an elevated water 
tank, and a store hou.se containing an oil room, work shop and 
storeroom for miscellaneous supplies. The accompanying plan 
shows the relative positions of the component parts and the general 
layout of the most important piping. 

The boiler house is a one-story brick building. 54 by 90 ft., 
uitli a steel-truss, slate-covered roof and brick-paved floor, ren- 
ilering it thoroughly fire proof. Coa! is stored in an adjoining shed, 
.?S X 6s ft, in area, having a capacity of 500 tons. It is of iron-clad 
frame construction with composition roof and brick pavement, and 
has a trestle leading into it connecting with a spur from the 
Wheeling & Lake Eric R. R., so that the coal may be brought 
directly into the shed and dumped. A narrow gage track runs 
through the boiler room passing in front of the boilers and thence 
through a passage over a Fairbank 6x8-ft. platform scale into the 
storage shed, and the coal is brought on a small push car to the 
front of the furnaces as needed. The ashes are removed in a wheel 
hopper to the ash dump. The fuel used is a bituminous 
slack coal purchased from local mines and the Dillonvale field. 

For the generation of steam there are five Stirling water-tube 
boilers and space has been left for the future installation of one 
more of the same size as the last one erected. The latter 
is of 350 h. p. capacity, contains 264 3V4-in. tubes and has Mc- 
Qave shaking and dumping grates with a combined area of 54 
sq. ft., and a McClavc argand steam blower in the ash pit for 
supplying forced draft. The remainder of the boiler equipment in- 
cludes two double batteries of two 272-h. p. boilers each, all of which 
have McClave grates and blowers with the exception of one 
which is fitted with a Merrill gas burner. The draft is regulated 
by throttling the steam supplies to the blowers by means of Spencer 
damper regulators. The large boiler delivers its products of com- 
bustion through a 54-in. steel stack no ft. high and the others 
discharge into a smoke header which connects to the base of a 
circular brick stack. 8 ft. in diameter and 120 ft. high, built by the 
.\dam Weber Sons, New York. Outside of the boiler house and 




RESULT OF FIRE IN E.VGINE .\ND GENER.\TOR ROO.M. 

running its length, there is a wooden box 2 ft. square which serves 
as a muffler for the blow-oflf of steam from the safety valves. 

The boilers generate steam at a pressure of somewhat less than 
150 lb., the safety valves being set for that pressure, and deliver 
through 9-in. connections to an overhead main carried along 
the passage at the rear of the boilers, to which is connected a 
steam pressure gage and a Bristol recording gage. This header 
gradually increases in size to i6-in. and continues underground 



Feb. 20, 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



97 



through an insulated brick-lined conduit about 150 ft. long, to 
the engine room, where it connects near the center of a u-in. live- 
steam header under the floor. The header is drained by means of 
traps, and from it the branches to the mdividual engines are taken 
up through the floor and down with two right angle bends, through 
Austin separators to the steam chests. All steam piping between 
the boilers and engines is covered with H. W. Johns-Manville 
Co's. sectional magnesia covering. 

The engine room is 120 ft. long by 43 ft. wide, is Ji ft. under the 
eaves and a ft, high to the peak of the gable roof. A lo-ton 
hand-power crane built by the Whiting Foundry Equipment Co., 
having a span of 37 ft., travels the long way of the building so as 
to serve any part of the room. The walls and floor are of brick, 



and put in operation for the street lighting service within fourteen 
days. Power was purchased from another plant for about twenty- 
two days in sufficient amount to operate one-third of the regular 
equipment of cars. By that time the one Crockcr-Whecler genera- 
tor previously in place and the Westinghouse machine were re- 
paired and put into service and two new Crocker-Wheeler machines 
of larger size were also installed. The eight 50-ft. span steel trusses 
which support the present roof were made up and delivered within 
two weeks from the time of ordering. The switchboards were 
of course entirely destroyed and new ones of more modern type 
than before were erected. 

The exhaust pipes from the engines pass directly through the 
floor, and connect by horizontal runs to an exhaust main in the 




RAII.W.W RQfll'MKNT KNU OK (JKNERATINO ROOM. 



the former 13 in. thick and the trusses are of steel, suiiixjrting a 
slalc roof. The door and window frames and sashes arc of wood 
and form the only combustible material in the structure, so that 
it is practically impossible for the plant to be visited by another 
fire such as the one which destroyed it about a year ago. 

The accompanying reproduction of the ruins gives an idea of 
the extent of that disaster, and causes one to better appreciate how 
remarkable was the rapidity with which operations were restored. 
Part of the traction service was resumed the day following I he 
fire, the store and house lighting a week later and Ihc street 
lighting two weeks after. As soon as it was safe to go on the site 
ihc builders were set to work and a temjiorary roof was in place 
over the dynamo and engine room within 36 hours. An alternator 
was ordered by telegraph, delivered by express, and erected in 
time to restore the incandescent lighting supply six days after the 
fire. In much the same manner Brush arc machines were obtained 



liiiinci willi the livc-sleam header. At its largest end it is 18 in. 
in diameter and connects with a feed-water healer located in the 
adjoining room. 

The healer is of an original design and CDUseipiently its con- 
si ruction may he of interest. It is contained in a shell of 3-8 in. 
steel, 23 ft. high and 47 in. in diameter, which was originally used 
as a water tank. The exhaust inlet is at the side of the heater 
just above the water line and is 18 in. in diameter. The riser 
lor the escape of excess steam is also 18 in. and leads from the lop 
of the heater to a piiiiU above the roof, the top being 40 ft. from 
the floor, Water is inlioduced through a i'A-m- coniieclion which 
ends in a ring of 2'/i-'m. perforated copper |ii|ie placed on the 
inside near the upper head of the healer. 1 lie water sup- 
ply is governed by a Foster regulating valve, controlled by a 
float which acts in a vertical pipe 6 in. in diameter and 2 ft. long 
connected to the heater at the bottom with an elbow. This being 



98 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



IViii. Xl\'. Nil. 



or. tlio oiiisicli- of llir liiJitcr lia> ilii- ;i(lvaiit:iKC of licing always ac- 
cessible. A 2-iii. blovv-oflf is taken from the bottom of the heater 
and an overflow i.* provided to the sewer through a 4-in. U)op seal 
of snfiicieni height to cause it to act when the depth of water in 
the heater exceeds 6 ft. The feed-water outlet is 5 in. in diameter 
When the feed water is inlroducd through tlie copper coil it 
falls downward through the rising vapor emitted by the exhaust 
and partially condenses the steam, from wliich it receives its heat. 
It was found when it was first tried that the heater was extremely 
noisy, its operation being attended with continual rumbling and a 




I.VTI-.KIilK OP A STORAOK BATTERY ROf)M 

succession of mild explosions. The only uay that thi> cnuUI ln' 
accounted for was that the steam was condensed so rapidly that it 
tended to produce a vacuum in the heater. Acting on this assnnip 
tion, though it seemed improbable, a 3-in. vent was provided near 
the top of the shell to admit air, when the annoying noises were 
stopped at once, proving the theory to be correct. It also demon- 
strated that the heater would have been an effective condenser, 
before the vent was opened, if it had not been sucli a nuisance to 
the neighborhood that it was complained of. Even in its present 
condition it is clear that the heater is not imposing a burden on 
the engines for the back pressure cpnnot exceed the atmnspberic. 

There are several alternatives for the supplying 
of feed water so that it is practically impossible for 
the plant to be tied up from an inability to receive 
water. Two sources of city water supply connect 
to the header which supplies the heater, and either 
of these may be drawn upon directly by either one 
of the two cross-connected feed pumps. In addition 
a tank of 30.0CO gallons capacity connects to the 
same header, and, being kept full, serves as a reser- 
voir to tide over the improbable contingency of hav- 
ing both sources of city water out of commission. 
and as a last resort a large supply may be drawn 
through a connection from the large gas holder 
water tank. The feed pump deliveries conned 
through two separate lines, one to the front of the 
boilers to the regular feed line, and one connecting 
with the blow-oflf line at the back of the boilers. Hy 
this arrangement, in case of emergency, the boilers 
may be fed for a short time through the blow- 
off. As a further alternative, the boilers may be 
fed by a 2}4-in. Pemberthy injector, or a 7Vi x 
5 X 6-in. pump located in the boiler room. The regular feed 
pumps are single acting with 14-in. steam pistons, i8-in. water 
rams and a stroke of 14 in. They are of the outside center-packed 
type, and together have a capacity for supplying j.ooo boiler horse 
power. 

(jenerating P-cinipnient. 
Electricity for the traction lines is generated by four direct-con- 
nected railway sets, all contained in the south half of the engine 
room. Two .'4 x 30-in. corliss-type engines built by Clark Brothers, 



Belmont, N. V., running at 150 r. p. in. anil rated at 700 b. p., 
are as.sociate<l with Crocker-Wheeler railway-type generators hav- 
ing a normal capacity of 400 kw. each, at 550 volts, .\nothcr 
set of the same style consists of a 22 x 30-in. Clark engine of 500 
h. p., at no r. p. m., direct-connected to a 350-kw., 550-volt 
Crocker-VVhcclcr generator. There is also an 18 and 30 x i6-in. 
Westinghousc vertical compound engine, which runs at 250 r. p. 
m., and is direct connected to a 250-kw., 550-volt dynamo of the 
same make. This set is not used ordinarily, but is kept as a 
reserve in case of emergency. The average maximum load of the 
railway plant is 1,200 amperes, and the maximum possible capacity 
with all the machines running at theii normal load is about 2.500 
amperes. 

One of the large sets is shown by itself in one of the accompany- 
ing cuts. The engine is of a horizontal, simple type with heavy 
bed construction and corliss-type valve gear having separate ec- 
centrics for the admissitm and exhaust valves. It is operated non- 
condensing on a steam pressure of 150 lb. and obtains its speed 
legiilatinii tbriiugh a fly-wheel governor. The gener.itor is of the 
standard railway type, as built by the Cmcker-Whceler Co., 
the essential features of which are cast-iron internally-flanged 
magnet frames in which the mild-steel poles are cast-welded, and 
iron-clad armatures consisting of toothed cores of laminated mild 
^teel, in the slots of which the windings are retained by wooden 
wedges fitting in notches at the tip of the teeth. The field coils 
.ire in three parts, one for series, and the other two for shunt 
excitation, which are individually wrapped, taped and insulated, 
and. to improve the heat radiating qualities, are held apart by small 
wooden wedges. A special feature is the parallel movement type 
I if brush-holder. Each one consists of four sets of copper leaves 
which carry the current and control the movement of the brush 
from or toward the commutator, always maintaining the same 
angle with its surface, so that they wear away evenly. .As they 
liecunie shorter they may be extended and clamped in a new 
positicm without altering the surface of contact. A helical spring 
regulates the brush pressure and since it carries no current, is not 
inclined to beat and vary its tension. The brush-holder arms are 
iiulcpendently adjustable to conpensate for any inequalities among 
the magnetic circuits, and when the various circuits are in equi- 
librium, to secure the position of sparkless commutation, the entire 
nicker ring may be revolved by the hand wheel. 

Current for the incandescent and arc lighting is furnished by 
belt-driven inachines located in the northern half of the plant. 
For incandescent lighting there are two General Electric two-phase 
(lo-cycle 2,300-volt compensated revolving field type of alternators. 




KNU VIIOW OF (WR H.VRN. 

One of 150 kw. capacity is driven with a speed of 600 r. p. m. by 
a 225-h. p. 16^ X 18-in. simple horizontal Buckeye engine, running 
at 225 revolutions per minute. The other has a capacity of too 
kw., running at gco r. n. m., and is driven by a I4''i x i6-in. Buck- 
eye engine rated at 150 h. p. at 240 r. p. m. l-"rom the same engine 
a I20-Iight Brush arc dynamo is driven at 500 r. p. m., a friction 
clutch on the shaft jf the engine being used to disengage either 
machine while allowing the other to run. The remainder of the arc 
lighting equipmtr.t includes two 120-light Hru^ll machines both 



Feb. jo. igo4.) 



STREET RAILWAY REVIF.W. 



99 



driven at 500 r. p. m. by an 18 x 20-in. simple liorizomal Clark 
engine, having a capacity of 300 h. p. at 175 r. p. ni., and a Western 
Electric i J5-liglit arc dynamo driven at 525 r. p. m, by a 14 x i6-in. 
Buckeye engine rated at 125 li. p. at 240 r. p. m. All the lighting 
engines are supplied with steam at a pressure of 100 lb,, whereas it 
will be remembered the railway engines receive full boiler pressure, 
150 lb. On each of the lighting engines there is a Foster reducing 
valve to give the lOO-lb pressure, and in connection with it a 
steam gage to indicate the actual pressure obtained 

Switchboards. 

The separation of the railway work from the lighting has al- 
ready been suggested in the location of the engines and generators. 
The individualizing of the various branches is carried still further 
in the wiring and in the control of the distributing system. Sepa- 
rate switchboards are provided for the railway work, incandcscenl 



cuit-breaker. in addition to tlic overload breaker, .\ large gong, 
which can be heard in all parts of the room, is arranged to give 
warning as soon as a circuit-breaker opens. The board also con- 
tains a Weston station voltmeter, supported on a bracket at the 
left end of the board, a Thomson intergrating wattmeter at the 
bottom of one of the distributing panels and tank lightning arrest- 
ers. The" negative bus bar connects with the rails and the positive 
with the feeders to the trolley wires. .\n accompanying diagram 
shows very clearly the arrangement of lines, cables and switch- 
boards for the street railway work, and for the arc and incandescent 
lighting. 

The incandescent lighting board, built by the General Electric 
Co., is 8 ft. high by ij ft. long and contains two panels for the 
alternators and three for distributing lines. It . is provided with 
integrating w-attntetcrs. a synchronizing outfit to serve the two 
aheniators, and for tach machine a .arnnnd detector, an ammeter 



- /ao'-o' — 




PHOPERTY or TUE STEUHEN VILLI! TRACTION & LIC.HT CO. 



lighting and arc lighting, each being placed as near as possible 
to the machine with which it is associated, as the plan indicates. 

The railway board was built by the Weslinghouse company and 
contains 6 panels of bine Vermont marble. 90 in, high, 24 in, wide 
and 2 in. thick — four for generators and Iwn for the distributing 
system. Each of the generator panels includes a circuit-breaker, 
an ammeter, a voltmeter receptacle, two single-pole dynamo switches 
and a tiehl rheostat. The c(|Ualizer switches instead of being 
placed on the Iwiard are Mip|M>rtcd on pedestals near their respect- 
ive generators. The extreme left-hand panel serves the Wesling- 
house generator, the next three the Crocker- Wheeler machines and 
the two right-hand panels contrfJ four distributing lines, two each. 
One feeder supplier the city lines, an'ither the inlerurban line and 
>toragc battery, the third the Soulli P'onrlh St, line and the fourth 
the Pleasant Heights line. On the boanl there is a circuit-breaker, 
an ammeter and a single-throw switch for each line, and for the 
feeders connecting to the storage battery there is an underload cir- 



in each phase, a voltmeter for the exciter curreiU, a single-pole 
switch to control the exciting field currenl, ami synchronizing 
lamps, a rheostat for each exciter, a three-pole switch for putting 
the exciters together, plug switches for synchronizing, i)lug switches 
for the voltages of each phase, six duiiblc-lhrow distributing-cir- 
cuit switches and a high potential fuse plug in each phase (jf each 
side on each of th» dislribuling lines, ,'\ll high pntmlial switches 
are of the oil' form and are placed on the back <A \\w hn.inl with 
controlling handles on the face. Above the bo;ird there aii- Iwo 
transformers for stepping down the pressuri: for the exciter cm' 
rent. The alternating current is dislriliuleil at the generated 
pressure of 2,300 volts and is stcpi'cd down to abcnit 1 10 volts by 
Iransformers, placed on poles near the buildings to be supplied. 

The arc lighting swilclibo;ird built by the Western lOeclric Com- 
pany, of Chicago, contains two panels of blue Verinonl marble, 
each .1 X K fl,, and is surmtmnled by a clock. It is arranged for 
four dynamos and twelve di-^lribiUing circuits, six on each of the 



100 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



I Vol.. XIV, No. 2. 



panels. Each circuit supplies 20 to 80 series arc lamps and is 
provided willi an ammeter and a current indicator. The connec- 
tions are made by plug connectors. 

Storage Battery Plant. 

The storage battery sub-station located at Stanton Park is used 
principally for supplying current to the further end of the intcrur- 



under and overloads. The lower part of the panel contains a 
double-pole double-throw switch, in the upper position of which the 
battery may be charged, while in the lower position it is floating 
on the line. The battery consists of 252 cells of the Electric Stor- 
age Battery Go's. F 13 "Chloride" accumulator. These are arranged 
in five sets to give a pressure of 550 volts and have a maximum dis- 
charge of 280 amperes in one hour. 




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DI.\GR.\M OP OVERHE.Vn WIRING. 



ban line. The building is of frame about 50 ft. long by 30 wide 
and two stories high, the upper floor being fitted up as an apartment 
for the keeper and his family. On the first floor there is a battery 
room the full width of the house 38 ft. long and in the front a 
switchboard room. The board is of black slate and contains two 
panels, upon the right one of which are the following instruments : 



The lighting of the park grounds and buildings is supplied by 
alternating current from the power station, there being two trans- 
formers for the purpose of stepping down the pressure to no volts. 
The left-hand panel has five alternating current wattmeters to 
measure the power consumed in the lighting and five double-throw 
switches to control the distributing circuits; one for the roller 






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STORAGK B.MTKRV BIII.DINO .\T ST.SNTOX P.\RK. 




— a circuit-breaker, a voltmeter, an ammeter, a multiple-point 
switch for placing the voltmeter on either the battery or the line, 
and two single-pole single-throw switches, and a single-pole double- 
throw switch by the manipulation of which the battery may be cut 
out and the feeder allowed to supply the line clear to the end, or 
the feeder may be cut out and the battery connected to supply the 
line above that point, or the battery may be connected to float on 
the line, giving or taking" current to balance the fluctuations of 



coaster, one for the merry-go-round, one for the casino, one for the 
south park, and woods, and one for the north park and lake. 

Car Barn. 

For convenient access to all the lines the car barn could scarcely 
be better situated than at the intercession of 6th and 7th Sts. It 
is 43 ft. wide by 200 ft. long and of complete fire-proof construc- 
tion, i. e., brick walls, slate roof, steel trusses, beams and columns, 



Feb. 20, 1904.) 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



101 



slag floor and Kinncar steel rolling doors. There are four tracks 
e.xtending the length of the barn which, near the entrance, pass 
over a pit 30 ft. long by 35 ft wide. About 24 cars can be accom- 
modated in the barn at a time and three cars in the repair shop. 
The surplus equipment is stored in the old barn, about 800 ft. 
away from the new one. 

Adjoining the barn there is a frame paint shop and a repair shed 
containing a brick and concrete construction pit arranged for 
making necessary repairs. Both pits arc provided with screw 




ORGAXIZ.VTION DI.\GR.\M. 

motor and armature lifts and overhead chain hoists. There is 
also a triangular frame extension containing an office, waiting room 
for the employes, bins for storing sand, etc., lockers, wagon room 
and stable. The entire group of buildings is wired in strict accord- 
ance with the National code, and otherwise carefully protected 
against fire with fire plugs, hose and chemical extinguishers. 

Operation. 

In the operating of the road there are several commendable 
features which might be mentioned in passing. For instance the 
intcrurban road besides its passenger service carries freight, at the 
risk of the sender, delivering it at the nearest point on the road 
to its destination. Shipments are received by agents in both 
Steubenvillc and Toronto. If the consignee is not on the line of the 
road, the freight is left with one of these agents for delivery. 
When a shipment is made a receipt is given which is good for a 
five cent fare on any car, an excess of that amount being charged 
at the time the cash is paid. By thus making it an object to return 
the receipt coupon the company is able to keep a check on the 
amount of business done. Outside of this there are a number of 
standard ticket forms in use. A green ticket sold at six for a 
quarter or twenty-five for a dollar is good on all roads except the 
Pleasant Heights line. A special form coupon ticket applies on the 
intcrurban line between its extremes, New Cumberland and Steuben- 
villc, one coupon being taken up at the start and one at each of 
the intermediate points, Toronto, Costonia and Alikenna. Within 
the limits of Toronto only, a special ticket sold at thirteen for 50 
cents is valid. There is also a complimentary ticket form and a 
monthly commutation ticket which may be used for not more than 
54 trips. On the Pleasant Heights road there is a special form of 
ticket, good only on that line. 

The apportioning of the various runs to the motormen and the 
conductors is determined by their seniority, the most desirable 
**'nK given to the oldest men and so on down the line. Promotions 
are then made from any certain run to the one considered the next 
belter whenever a vacancy occurs. It is at the option of the indi- 



vidual to retain his own run, but he forfeits his position in the 
scale unless he moves up when he is given the opportunity, as a 
fixed rank applies to a given run. In addition to the regular men 
there are of course a number of e.xtra motormen and conductors 
kept at the car house to supply the places of absentees. These men 
are also graded, the senior being in line for the first vacancy in the 
regular staff but always beginning at the bottom. The men are 
required to report 10 minutes before time for their cars to leave, 
and register on a Day time clock. They then register when taking 
car out, at meal relief time and at the end of run, 
being paid only for actual time on car. If a regular 
man is not on hand to take out his car according 
to schedule, one of the extras takes his place, and 
if he later appears he is obliged to take his chance 
at supplying. Unless he has such an opportunity 
he receives no pay for that day. As a punishment 
for infraction of rules or neglect of duty a man is 
removed from his regular run for a certain length 
of time according to the gravity of the offence, and 
required to serve as a supply until he is reinstated, 
or else remain at home without salary. Another 
penalty for disobedience . is the lowering of the 
man's rank, giving him a run to correspond. The 
company's scale of wages varies according to the 
length of service, regardless of previous experience 
. or ability. 

Organization. 

The general ofiice ami waiting room of the com- 
pany IS on the corner of 4th and Market Sts., in 
the heart of the business section of Steubenville, 
and at a converging point of all cars. In the ac- 
counting department a thorough system prevails of 
books, blanks, general ledgers, trip sheets, register 
report forms, time sheets, pay rolls, requisitions and 
records of stores', classification cards, storekeepers' 
reports, monthly statements, etc. The organization 
is very commendable in the exact way in which the 
duties of the several departments and their con- 
nection with one another are defined. The accompanying chart 
explains this graphically and concisely and is included as prefera- 
ble to a wordy description. The general manager, J. Charles Ross, 
lias his headquarters at the main office. J. F. Flood, superintendent 
of department No. I, has his office at the car barns; Henry Jack- 
son, chief engineer, is located at the power plant; James Kcnney 
is the chief clerk; Lewis Richards, jr., engineer of outside lines, 
and S. E. McCoy, car barns foreman. Hon. W. McD. Miller is 
secretary and general attorney for the company. The officers of 
the .American Gas Co. are Morris W. Stroud, president ; S. P. 
Curtis, general .superintendent, and R. L. liabcock, secretary. 



Carmen Discharged by Appellate Court. 



A decision was handed down by ihe United States Court of y\|i- 
peals at New Orleans February yth by which the decision of the 
lower court was reversed in the case of the 17 carmen indicted for 
conspiracy, after the New Orleans street car strike in 1902, for 
obstructing and retarding the United States mail. 

The decision stated that "the indictment does not use the neces- 
sary statutory words in describing a crime which was the alleged 
purpose of the conspiracy. This defect in the indictment is clearly 
fatal unless it can be aided by other parts of it. It is true that 
it is stated that they 'did knowingly, willingly and feloniously com- 
bine, conspire, etc.,' to commit an offense against the United States. 
These words, 'knowingly, etc.,' form no part of the description of 
the crime, which is the alleged purpose of the conspiracy." The 
court then refers to the part of the indictment naming II men as 
being instrumental in stopping the mails, and says', "The offense 
charged is a conspiracy. This offense docs not consist of both 
the conspiracy and the acts donp to effect the objects of the con- 
spiracy, but to the conspiracy alone. The motion in arrest of 
judgment should have been granted." 



102 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol.. XIV. No. 2. 



Sno« Fences for Electric Kuilways. 

Electric railway operators who have battled with snow .storms 
such as have prevailed throughout the country this winter will be 
interested in the portable snow fences which have been success- 
fully utilized by the Old Colony Street Railway Co. on certain 
of its interiirban lines in Massachusetts, where there arc cuts and 
flats with which the company has trouble every year on account of 
the snow. These fences have saved the company a great many 
dollars by avoiding the necessity for shoveling snow, and by ob- 
\i:iling the lyins up of its lines. 




SXOW I'ENCE IN POSITION. 

One of the accompanying illustrations shows part of one line 
which was eflfectually i)rotecte<i by the snow fence last winter, and 
another view shows the snow on the track at the end of the fence 
in a place where there was not fence enongli to cover. The third 
illustration is a diagram of a .section of the fence. The company 
obtains the right to erect the fences from the owners of the prop- 



New Hampshire Electric Railways. 

'I he annual report of the New Hampshire railroad commissioners 
for the year ending June 30, 1903, shows that of the 18 electric 
railway companies operating in the itate but one, the Manchester 
Street Ry.. paid a dividend. The street railroads in the state have 
Jig miles of track. $3.5S-J.ii9 i" stock. |j.ori<).ooo in bonds and 
$1,109,003 liabilities. The gross income was $834,894; operating ex- 
penses, $796,795; taxes .and interest, $103.^50. and the returns show 
a deficit of $65,161. The Manchester road had a divisible income of 
?'3I,8c7. Other roads reporting a divisible income were the fol- 




I'ORTIO.V OF R().\D WITHOUT S.NOW I'KXCE. 

lowing: Chester & Dcrry Railroad -Association. $2,161; Concord 
Street Ry.. $318; Concord & Manchester Ry.. '$1,116; Portsmouth 
Electric Ry., $950: Haverhill, Plaistow & Newton Ry., $1,347. 
A law passed by the legislature of 1903 requires "traction" com- 
panies that own or operate railways in the state to make returns. 
There are two such companies — the Manchester Traction. Light & 




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erty through which the lines pass, in the majority of cases it being 
over cultivated fields. In the fall, just before the ground freezes. 
the fences are set up. In the spring they are rctnoved and stored. 
The fences are built of ordinary spruce, the standards being 
2x4 in. and the fence boards i x 6 in. and 16 ft. long. The cost 
is about 16 cents per running foot. This year the company erected 
xVi miles additional fence, in consequence of the excellent results 
obtained last year. 

•-•-♦ 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Co.. of Kansas Ci'.y, has installed 
a duplex signal service on the 12th St. incline, where a serious 
collision occurred November 4th. as meulinncd in tlie "Review" for 
November. 



Power Co.. .md the Xcw Hampshire Traction Co. The former re- 
ported gross earnings for the year of $286,816, to which were added 
$31,230 dividends and $888 interest on funds advanced to constitu- 
ent companies. Its operating expenses were $112,568; fixed 
charges. $76,613: divisible income, $129,953. from which 6 per cent 
dividends on $1,650,000 of stock were paid. Its capital stock June 
,30th was $1,934,100; funded debt. $1,457,000; current liabilities, 
most of which have since been capitalized. $278,006; accrued in- 
terest, $18,405. 

jThe six New Hampshire companies controlled by the New 
Hampshire Traction Co. made returns which show their gross 
earnings was $36,821 less than operating expenses, and $91,588 less 
than operating expenses and fi.xed charges combined. 



A Classification of Lighting Accounts Conforming to tlie 
Street Railway Accountants' Association Standard. 



BY C. L. S. TINCI.KY, SKCOXD VK'E-PRKSIDENT. AMERICAN RAILWAYS eel.. PI 1 1 1 .AIJKl .Til I A. 1\\. 



The conditions confronting the accountant of a company which 
operates both electric railway and electric light properties, who at 
the satne time desires to conform to recognized standards and to 
have his own acconiits uniform, as discussed editorially in the 
"Review" for January. 1904, were brought to the attention of the 
writer about three years ago. At this time the subject had never 
been discussed by the Street Railway .Accountantis' Association, and 
the final report of the National Electric Light Association had not 
been presented. The preliminary reports of the latter association 
indicated, however, a scheme of classification different from that 
of the Street Railway .-Xccountants' Association, and one that for 
this reason would tend to confusion in the office of a small prop- 
erty where two or three clerks would be called upon to handle 
both classes of accounts. 

Because of this divergence in the slaiidarils the writer i)rci>arcd 
a classification of accounts for the light and power department of 
the business which is presented here, and which it is hoped will 
be of interest to others similarly situated. 

CONS TRL'CTIOX AND EQUIPMENT ACCOUNTS. 

A. ORG.\NIZ.\TION — Includes all expenses incurred in ef- 
fecting organization, and such capital exploit expenses as may he 
properly connecte<l therewith, including such legal expenses as arc 
directly incurred by reason of the organization of properties or the 
acquirement of properties. 

B. ENGINEERING AND SUPERINTENDENCE— This ac- 
count includes wages and expenses of engineers, draftsmen, in- 
spectors, superintendents, etc., on preliminary and construction work. 

C. ROYALTIES. I'RANCHISE AND LICENSE— Includes 
all royalties or liccn-ies paid to licensors and the amounts repre- 
sented or paid for in connection with city, town and other fran- 
chises. 

U. REAL EST.VIE AND BUILDINGS— Includes all land. 
buildings, sheds, docks, wharves and fences, together with brick 
stacks, traveling cranes, elevators, arid such investment costs as can 
\x considered a part and parcel of the building. 

E. STE.AM PL.ANT — (a) Includes boilers with settings, and 
steel stacks beHnging with boilers, prwidcd such stacks can be 
easily removed without injury to the building. 

(b) Includes engines with settings. 

(c» Pumps, healers, condensers, tanks, piping, etc., shafting, lielt- 
mg, conveyors and economizers. 

F. ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANT— Includes all elec- 
trical equipments located in gener^iting stations, together with sta- 
tion wiring. 

G. SUB-STATION PLANT— Includes conduits, cables, un- 
localcd in sub-station, together with -tation wiring. 

H. OVERHEAD LINES— Includes poles, wires, cross-arms, 
mast-arms, and all installation expense connected with (jverhead 
main lines or services in connection therewith. 

I. UNDERGROUND LINE.S— Includes conduits, cables, im- 
derground condnciors, junction boxes, manholes, and all installa- 
tion connected with underground mains or services. 

J. ,\KC L.NMPS — Tnclndes only the actual cost of arc lamps. 

f!;,hri.. nets, arresters, ho<jds and rods installed (No labor to he 

' -.'id to this account). 

K .METERS AND TRANSFORMERS— Includes actual cost 

■ iirs, meter appliances, transformers installed on outside lines 

• i.ilmr 10 be charged to this accfiunt). 

L. TOOLS AND INS TRUMEN IS— Includes boiler-room tools, 

••nKin<--r'H>m tools, linemen's iixils, meter, arc lamp and other re- 

ind all riortable testing instruments. All tools bought 

worn out tools, implements and testing inslrnmeiils, 

■ '• I liargcd to (lie proper operating or maintenance accomit. 

I OFFICE FURNITURE AND FIX TURES-Includes all 

l.M.r fil,.,^ record eases, typewriting machines, and all such 

I- may be consirlercd a part and parcel of the furniture 

m the grueral offices of the company. 

S. IMERKST AND DISCOUNT -This account includes 

rhargrt or crrdin for all imerest and discount paid or received in 

'lion with funds for constrnclion, and also all taxes r,r other 

barges pird during construction. 



0. MISCELLANEOUS — This account includes miscellaneous 
expenses, office expenses, wages of clerks and all other expenses in 
connection wMth construction that would not be allowed in any of 
ihe accounts enumerated above. 

INCOME ACCOUNTS. 
MUNICIPAL LIGHT (incandescent, arc). 
COMMERCl.VL LIGHT (incandescent, arc ). 
COMMERCIAL POWER SERVICE. 
RAILWAY SERVICE. 

MERCHANDISE SALES (all iob «ork hilled net profits only). 
RENTALS. 
MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

EXPENSES. 

I. Maintenance. 

.■\. Lines and Structures. 

1. Overhead Lines — To this account should be charged all labor 
and material for maintaining and repairing poles, wires, cross-arms, 
mast-arms, arc suspension, brackets, insulators, pins, wires and 
transformers, lightning arresters, fuses and other cut-outs outside 
ihe station. 

2. Underground Lilies — To this account should be charged all 
labor and material for maintaining and repairing man-holes, con- 
duits, undergnnmcl and suh-marine cables, together with services in 
connection with same. 

.V Arc Lamps — This account includes the cost of all repairs, re- 
placements and repair parts in connection with the same. 

4. Meters anil Transformers — 'I"o this account should be charged 
the cost of all repairs, renewals and all incidental expenses for the 
maintenance of meters and transformers. 

5. Buildings and Fixtures — To this account should he charged 
all labor and material for the proper maintenance and repair of 
buildings and fixtures used in the operation of the plant (For full 
definition see page .p. Street Railway .Accountants' Standard Classi- 
fication ). 

B. Etiuipment. 
(). Steam Plant — To this account should be charged all expendi- 
tures for labor, materials, tools, etc., incident to repairs and re- 
newals of steam plant, as per page 32. Street Railway Classifica- 
tion. 

7. Electric Generalins; Plant — To this account slnmld he cliargc<l 
all expenditures for labor, materials, etc.. incident to repairs and re- 
newals of electric generating plant, as per page 33, Street Railway 
Classification. 

8. Sub-Station Plant — To this account should be charged all la- 
bor, material, freight, etc., incident to renewal and repairs of all 
c'leclric etiuipment located in sub-station, together with the sub-sta- 
tion wiring. 

y. Tools and Instruments — To this account should be charged all 
labor and material for renewal and repair to plant and instruments, 
as covered in Account L, 

II. Ol'KH.MrNC. 

.\. (ienerating Plant. 

10. Power Plant Wages — To this account should be charged all 
expenditures for labor in the generating station, except labor em- 
ployed in making repairs and renewals. 

11. I'"uel for Power — To this accouni sIi'hiIiI lie charged all ex- 
penditures for coal, oil or gas used as fuel, or niher fuel used in 
power plant, inchirling fieight ;iiid hauling. 

IJ. Waler for Power — 'I'o this account should he charged all ex- 
penditures for water used to produce sleam. 

i.V Lubricants and Waste for Power Plant— lo this account 
shoulil be charged all expenditures fur luliric.ilii.n of power plant, 
including oil, waste, grease, rags, elc. 

14. Miscellaneous l^xpense of Power I'lanI— To this account 
should be charged all expenditures for operation of power plant, 
not otherwise i)r(i\'ided for. 

1.?. Hired Power- To this accoinil should be charged all ex- 
penditures for power purchased from other ccniipauies or power 
plant''. 

II. Dl-lnlinlioii. 

1(1. Operating Arc L;mi|)s and Meiers-- lo this .iccoiinl shciuld 
be charged all W'ages and expenses of (rimmers, palrohueu .iiid in- 
spectors; also inner and outer globes and carbons, and the cleaning 
of same; and the cost of all labor and sundries account of install- 
ing, removing or exchanging of arc lamps; the expense of reading 



106 



STREET RAILWAY REVIF.W. 



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STREET R.\IL\VAY REVIEW. 



107 



meters and the cost of all labor and snndries in connection with 
installing, removing, replacing, or e.xchanging of meters, together 
with the wages and expenses incident 10 inspection of same. 

17. Operating snb-Siations — To this account should be charged 
the cost of all !abor and material lor the operation of storage bat- 
ten, static or rotary transformer, or motor generator sub-stations. 

18. Miscellaneous Distribution Expenses — To this account should 
be charged all distribution expenses not otherwise provided for. 

19. Stable Expense — To this account should be charged all new 
horses, wagons, harness to replace others wont out ; feed for horses 
and shoeing of the s;me; wages of stablemeii. repairs to wagons, 
harness, bicycles, etc. 

•20. Customers' Repairs and Renewals — To this account should 
be charged all repairs or small renewals (except incandescent 
lamps) or petty services or connection made on the premises of light 
or power customers, lor which the lighting company should bear 
the expense, either labor or material ; such, charges as are not prop- 
rly chargeable to the customers, including free wiring of all de- 
scription for the benefit of the customer, nnd all expenses for trans- 
former or end of main line service, to be charged to this account. 
and not to investment. 

21. Renewals of Incandescent Lamps — To this account should be 
■harged all lamps furnished free to customers. 

III. Gener.^l. 
2i. Salaries of (lencral Officers — See page 44 Street Railway 
Classification. 

23. Salaries of Clerks — See page 44 Street Railway Classifica- 
tion. 

24. Printing and Stctionery — Charge to this account all expend- 
itures for printing, stationery and stationery supplies, except is 
'itherwisc provided. Ihc cost of printing signs, posters and other 
lidvertising matler should be charged to advertising and soliciting 
Ihe cost of printing briefs and otlier legal papers should be charged 
to legal expense. 

25. Miscellaneous Office Expense — S-c page 46 Street Railway 
Classification. 

26. Store Room Expense — See page 46 Street Railway Classi- 
fication. 

27. .Advertising, Canvassing and Soliciting — This account should 
include salary of contract agent, soliciting agents, together with all 
compensation for the procurement of central station business, in- 
cluding the cost of advertising ot every description, including print- 
ing, hand-bills, poster-;, folders, etc. and the expense of distributing 
and displaying the same. 

28. Miscellaneous General Expenses — See page 48 Street Rail- 
way Classification. 

29. Loss and Damage — See page 48 Street Railway Classifica- 
tion. 

30. Legal Expenses — Includes salaries and expenses of attorney's 
fees, court costs, together with the printing of briefs and other legal 
papers. 

31. Rent of Lands and Buildings — See page 49 Street Railway 
Qassification. 

i2. Insurance— See page 49 Street Railway Classification. 

a. Merchandise Sales — To this account should he charged the 
expense for all wiringdone for customers or parties other than the 
company for which th; company is to be reimbursed. 

34. Treasurer's Office — This account includes postage and other 
expenses of the rreasurers office as apportioned pro rata. 



It will be observed that the general scheme is that of the Street 
Railway .Accountants' standard, and where possible to do so the 
classification is made identical by incorporating the definitions of 
that standard. 

There arc usually variations in conditions which ren<lcr it neces- 
sary for a company to open on its books accounts not specified in 
any standard system that may be adopted, and this is done in prac- 
tice by subdividing accounts on the books and bringing them to- 
gether in the monthly stalenieuts, thus giving the greater detail 
without interfering with the ease of making comparisons. In like 
manner should any efforts that may be made to secure an agree- 
ment l)ctwcen the present standards of the two national associa- 
tions representing the railway ami lighting industries fail to ac- 
compli.sh that result, substantial identity could be had by keeping 
the names of the accounts as shown in the Lighting standard and 
merely rearranging them to conform to Ihe Railway standard 
scheme of subdivision. 

The identity of an account in cither system could be easily shown 
by keeping its old number, showing it in [Kircnthesis, and prefixing 
a new number. Thus the account "Water for Power'' which is No. 3 
in the National Electric Light standard, is in subdivision "Operat- 
ing" under general head "Cost ot Manufacture," would be No. 
12 (3) in the Lighting accounts of a company operating street 
railways also, and would appear in the subdivision "Generating 
Plant" under the general head "Operating," 

It will W noted that this classification divides on the line of 
Vfaintenancc and Opei.-Jion raijirr than Generation and Dislribu- 



tion, and for the reason already stated, that on small properties 
with a few clerks handling both railway and lighting accounts, it 
tends to prevent confusion; but in order that the cost of manufac- 
ture may not be lost sight of a place is provided in the form of 
Monthly Report subniitled where the manufacturmg cost per kilo- 
watt hour is shown in detail, which cost covers both operation 
and maintenance charges. 

The first noticeable divergence trom the National Electric Light 
Association's, classification other than the question of grouping is 
in the treatment of transformers which it places under the cap- 
tion of "Maintenance Overhead System," and which the writer's 
classification has grouped with meters under the title, "Meters and 
Transformers." This was done at the especial request of the Op- 
erating Department in order Lliat transformer maintenance might 
stand out more promimntly than it would in the other grouping. 

The next point is that the N-itional Electric Light Association 
groups under "Maintenance Miscellaneous Station Equipment" all 
that that caption would imply, together w-ith tools and instru- 
ments; whereas the writer's classification has grouped all steam 
plant under one head, all electric generating plant under another, 
and proviiled a separate account for tools and instruments. 

The Light Association charges its stable expenses, renewals of 
horses, wagons, automobiles, bicycles, harness, etc.," to "Miscel- 
laneous Distribution Operating Expenses"; whereas the writer has 
thought this of sufficient importance to be made a separate account. 

The National Light .Association has grouped the office expense 
and Miscellaneous General Expense imder one heading; whereas 
the above classification has divided it. This is also true'of legal 
expense and loss and damage. 

There are two accounts in the above classification which have 
no corresponding ones in the National Electric Light Association, 
viz: "Merchandise Sales", which is inserted so that there may be 
no doubt where the expense incurred for this class of work is to 
be charged, although theoretically at least it should always show 
a credit balance; and "Treasurer's Office", which is the medium 
through which the sub-company is charged with its proportion of 
Ihe owning company's general office expense. 



New England Street Railway Club. 

The election of officers of the New England Street Railway Club 
took place at the fourth annual banquet of the club, which was 
held at the Hotel Brunswick, Boston, Mass., January 28th. The 
occasion brought together about .400 members and guests, including 
many prominent street railway and public officials, and it was 





J. u. Nli.M.. 



.1. J. I,.\NK. 



designated Ihe most successful nallicring in the association's history. 
Addres.scs were delivered by the retiring president, Mr. II. E. Ear- ' 
rington, and the newly elected president of the club, Mr. J. H. Neal. 
Otlier speakers included Mr. Henry M, Whitney, president of the 
Boston Chamber of Commerce ; Gen, William A. Bancroft, presi- 
dent of the Bo.ston Elevated Railway Co. ; Hon. Russell A. Sears, 
of the legal department of the Boston Elevated Railway Co., and 
the railroad commissinners of Ihc New England slates, with the 
exception of Rhode Island, 

'The election of officers was held at a business meeting which 
preceded the puvt-prandial exercises, and resulled as follows; 



108 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV. No. 2. 



President, J. II. Ncal, chief of department of accounts, Bo&ton 
Elevated Ry., Boston, Mass. 

Vice-presidents for states: Maine — 1. L. Mcloon, superintendent 
Sanford & Cape Porpoise Ry., Sanford. New Hamp.shire — H. A. 
Albin, superintendent Concord Street Ry., and Concord & Man- 
chester Ry., Concord. Vermont — C. K. Jones, manager Brattlc- 
boro Street Ry., Brattleboro. Massachusetts — John T. Conway, 
superintendent Division I, Old Colony Street Ry., Quincy. Rhode 
Island — D F .SliiTiii.in ina^iiriT rr.ividcncc & Danielson Ry., 



Track Catch Basin Grate and Setting. 

Considerable trouble is frequently experienced in finding a sat- 
isfactory cover or grating for track drains between rails in city 
streets. With the customary form of grating having the open- 
ings parallel with the rails accidents not infrequently occur by 
reason of horses catching the caulks of their shoes in the slots 
which results in either tearing off the shoe or throwing the horse. 

Willi \hr object of securing good track drainage without this 





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DETAILS OF COVER. 



Providence. Connecticut — J. K. Punderfonl, general manager Fair- 
haven & Westville R. R., New Haven. 

Secretary, John J. Lane, editor Street Railway Bulletin, Boston, 
Mass. , 

Treasurer, Nathan L. Wood, with the Frank Ridlon Co., Boston. 
Mass. 

Executive Committee: H. E. Farrington, master mechanic Bos- 
ton & Northern Strcot Ry., Chelsea, Mass. : C. F. Baker, superin- 
tendent motive power and machinery Boston Elevated Ry., Boston. 
Mass. ; W. D. Wright, superintendent of equipment Rhode Island 
Co., Providence, R. I.; E. A. Sturgis, superintendent motive power 
and machinery Worcester Consolidated Street Ry., Worcester, 
Mass. ; Louis Pfingst, street railway supplies, Boston, Mass. ; R. 
W. Conant, street railway supplies, Cimbridge, Mass. ; D. E. Man- 
son, assistant manager Westinghousc Electric & Manufacturing 
Co., Boston, Mass. 

Finance Committee : J. H. Neal, president ; James F. Wattles. 
secretary Rand Avery Supply Co.. Boston, Mass. ; Fred F. Stock- 
well, Barbour-Stockwell Co., Cambridgeport. Mass. 

Mr. J. H. Neal, president of the New England Street Railway 
Club, although a young man, has for more than 15 years been iden- 
tified with the street railways in Boston, and at present fills the 
responsible position of chief of department of accounts for the Bos- 
ton Elevated Railway Co. Mr. Neal has always taken great inter- 
est in his work and has reached a most enviable position as an ex- 
pert accountant. He started in the business as a clerk. Mr. Neal 
has invented several railway appliances which have attained promi- 
nence. He is a very active member of the New England Street 
Railway Club and has been its secretary and treasurer during the 
past two years. 

Mr. John J. Lane, the newly elected secretary of the club, has been 
engaged in the newspaper business, as proprietor, publisher, editor 
or special correspondent, for 28 years, and during the past two 
years has bcc. editor of the club's official publication, the Street 
Railway Bulletin. He was for many years special correspondent 
for the Boston Globe and Boston Herald, with headquarters at 
Laconia, N. H., and during the time established and managed 
several daily and weekly newspapers. About nine years ago, he 
went to Boston to accept an editorial position with the Associated 
Press and remained with that organization until he resigned to be- 
come editor of the official publications of the New England Street 
Railway Club. 



objectionable feature the form of cover illustrated herewith has 
been devised. It will be noticed that the openings arc at an angle 
of 45° to the rails and this arrangement has been found to pre- 
vent the possibility of catching the caulks of the horses' shoes 
and also gives better drainage, as the oblique openings do not clog 
so readily as either horizontal openings or round holes. 

These drains have been found to work satisfactorily on sub- 
urban lines where tracks are filled in to the head of the rails, 
although they were primarily designed for city work in macadam 
or other pavement. 

The grates are made in two sections, as show'n, to facilitate 
handling, and one man can set or remove the grate without aid. 

The weight of grate and setting complete is 244 lb. and should 
cost about 2;/2 cents per lb., or $6.10 complete. This does not 




TR.VCK DRAIN ^V1TH oELIylK OPENINGS. 

include the cost of brick basins, which necessarily vary with the 
location. An average cost for city work where sewer connec- 
tions are handy will be about $4.00 for the brick basin, or §10.00 
including basin and grate complete. 



Strikes of the Month. 



The Hannibal (Mo.) Railway & Electric Co. carried 660,074 pas- 
sengers during 1903, an increase of 237,328 over 1902. 



January 25th the Bloomington & Normal Electric & Heating 
Co., of Bloomington, 111., whose employes went out on strike Jan- 
uary 1st. as reported in the "Review" for January, announced that 
it had broken off negotiations with the union, as all its cars were 
running on schedule time and the strike was considered a thing of 
the past. Fifty-six strikers still held out. The strikers imported 
an automobile bus to run in opposition to the street cars, but the 
bus driver got intoxicated, created a disturbance and was arrested 
and the bus taken out of service. .\n explosion, presumably from 
a dynamite cartridge, partly wrecked an East Front St. car and in- 
jured one of the passengers. The grand jury on February 9th re- 
turned 14 indictments against the strikers and sympathizers. 



Recent Street Railway' Decisions. 



EDITED BY J. I.. ROSENBERGER. ATTORNEY AT LAW. CHICAGO. 



NO FREEHOLD, FRAiXCHISES OR CONSTITUTIONAL 
QUESTION INVOLVED IN SUIT TO COMPEL LOW- 
ERING OF TUNNEL. 



People vs. West Chicago Street Railroad Co. (111.), 68 N. E. Rep. 
78. June 16. 1903. Rehearing denied Oct. 8, 1903. 
A writ of mandamus having been asked for to compel the street 
railroad company to lower or remove a tunne! under a river so that 
it should cease to be an obstruction to the free navigation thereof, 
the supreme court of Illinois holds that no freehold was involved 
in the litigation ; no franchises w ere involved ; and the issues in 
the case did not involve any constitutional question. 



RIGHT TO RUN CARS ON DOUBLE TRACKS IN EITHER 
DIRECTION. 



Belton D. Stewart vs. The Washington & Great Falls Electric 
Railway Co. (D. C), 31 Wash. Law Rep. 748. Nov. 4, 1903. 
In operating a double track railroad, the court of appeals of the 
District of Columbia holds, the owner is bound by no rule that 
requires that he shall use the right-hand track for the running of 
cars in one direction, and the left-hand track for the running of 
cars in the reverse direction. He may run his cars on both tracks 
in either direction, as the needs of the business may require. 



NO IMMEDIATE INJUNCTION WHERE NO PRIOR DE- 
MAND HAS BEEN MADE FOR GUARD WIRES RE- 
QUIRED BY ORDINANCE. 



Conshohocken Borough vs. Conshohocken Railway Co. (Pa.), .i5 
Atl. Rep. 855. May 11, 1903. 
Where a road was in operation for some years which had not 
put up guard wires as required by a borough ordinance, and no 
formal demand that the guard wires be put up was made prior to 
the filing of a bill, the supreme court of Pennsylvania holds that a 
reasonable time for the erection of the guard wires must be given. 
and the bill must be dismissed if they were put in place within 
such time, which for this case was fixed at forty-five days; other 
wise an injunction restraining operations would be awarded. 



DUTY TO KEEP STREETS "IN GOOD REPAIR" DOES 
NOT REQUIRE REPAVING WITH NEW AND DIFFER- 
ENT KIND OF PAVEMENT ADOPTED BY CITY, 



City of Williamsport vs. Williamsport Passenger Railway Co. 
(Pa.), 55 Atl. Rep. 836. May 4, 1903. 
A street railway company incorporated by act of the legislature 
and given an absolute right to use the streets of a city without 
municipal consent, upon condition that it keep "in good repair" 
those portions of the streets occupied by its railway, the supreme 
court of Pennsylvania holds, cannot be required to repave them 
with a new and difTcrcnt kind of pavement adopted by the city. 
But, its duty to repair being a continuing one, it will, after the city 
has so repaved them, thereafter be the company's duty to keep in 
repair the new pavement laid by the city. 



LVJURY FROM SUDDEN STOPPING OF CAR TO PAS 
SENGER STEPPING DOWN ONTO RUNNING BOARD 
FOR PURPOSE OF ALIGHTING 



Bainhridge vs. Union Traction Co. (Pa.), 55 Atl. Rep, 836. May 
4, 1903 
When the plaintiff left his scat, where he was safe, and stepped 
down on the running board of the car, and remained there while 
it was in motion, the supreme court of Pennsylvania says that ho 
voluntarily put himself in a place of danger, and took upon him- 



self the risk of his position from any cause. That he stepped 
down on the running board of the moving car because he intended 
to get ofl at the cross street for which it had begun to slow down 
in response to his signal in no manner e.xciised bis negligence. 
With one hand grasping the rail, and the other holding onto a bag 
of tools, the risk which he took of being tlirown from the car, 
while so standing on the running board, by its sudden stopping, was 
most imminent, and for his negligence in the assumption of such 
a risk he alone must bear the consequences. 



ADMISSIBILITY IN EVIDENCE IN COLLISION CASE OF 
MUNICIPAL RULES OF ROAD. 



II. E. Taylor & Co. vs. Metropolitan Street Railway Co. (N. V. 
Sup.), 84 N. Y. Supp. 282. June 22, 1903. 
The plaintiff's vehicle, going easterly along one street, was dam- 
aged by colliding with a street car going southerly upon another 
street. The appellate term of the supreme court of New York 
holds that it was reversible error to exclude a municipal ordinance 
offered in evidence, entitled ''Rules of the Road— Right of Way," 
and ordaining that in all public streets and highways of this city 
all vehicles going in a northerly or southerly direction shall have 
the right of way over any vehicle going in an easterly or westerly 
direction. It says that disregard of the duly established rule of the 
road would not necessarily constitute contributory negligence in 
ihc driver, but, if found, it would be a circumstance within the con- 
sideration of the jurors, as every man proceeding lawfully may 
rightfully assume that others will conform their conduct to the 
requirements of statute and regulations having the force of statute. 



PURCHASER OF EQUIPMENT ONLY OF ROAD NOT LIA- 
BLE FOR WAGES OF FLAGMAN AS ASSIGNEE OR 
SUCCESSOR OF FORMER OWNER. 



Chicago & Northwestern Railway Co. vs. Fox River Electric Rail- 
way & Power Co. (Wis.), 96 N. W. Rep. 541 Sept. 29, 1903. 

Where a company purchased the personal property constituting 
Ihe equipment of a street railway, but "not including the franchises, 
leases, contracts, or power house machinery," the supreme court of 
Wisconsin holds that it was not liable as assignee or succesor of 
a former owner for the wages of a flagman at a railroad crossing, 
which such former owner had bound himself, his successors and 
assigns, by contract, to pay. It purchased the property from a com- 
pany which had acquired the rights of such owner, and the court 
says that its purchase of the personal property of the former com- 
pany in place on the street, using and occupying the same place, 
while operating its street railway system, under its franchise, was 
no legal basis for holding it assunied the former owner's right of 
occupancy in the street at the place of crossing, and theret)y bad 
cast upon it the burden of paying the expense of maintaining this 
crossing. Nor does the court consider that the agreement to pay 
the wages of the flagman attached to the fee of the land over 
which the street railway was constructed and operalcd. 



DUTY TO LOOK FOR CAR UNTIL TRACK IS REACHED 
APPLIES TO MOI'ORMEN AS WELL AS TO OTHERS. 



P.obb vs. Union Tr.nition Co. (Pa.), 55 All. Rep. 972- May 18, 
1903. 
Where a mol)rinan did not look for a car on a cross-street after 
he had started to cross the same when he had seen one approach- 
nig, and, if he had looked again before attempting lo cross Ihe 
track would have seen the car within 20 feet of him, and would 
have observed the ineffectual allcinpis of its molorman to stop il, 
the supreme court of Pennsylvania holds that, in an action brought 
by such fir>l molorman lo recover for personal injuries sustained. 



110 



STRKiyr RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol XIV, No. 2. 



it was clearly rlKlit to enter a nonsuit on the ground that he was 
nc){liKrnt in alli-nipting to cross the ^Irfcl without linikiuK again 
for a car. It Aays that it was his duty to lnuk agani, nutwitli- 
standing that the rules of the compiny gave him the right of way. 
The court .says that it has repeatedly held that the duty ol persons 
walking or driving at a street crossing to look for an approaching 
car is imperative, and that it is not performed by looking when 
first entering the street, but continues until the track is reached. 
This rule is equally imperative in the case of motonnen, and the 
one first reaching a street crossing with his car may not go on, and, 
by casting the whole burden of care on the other, imperil the prop- 
erty of the company and the lives of the passengers in his car. 



ihe court says that such severance would be wholly foreign to the 
general scope and (Kilicy of the laws of the state for the ta.\:iliun 
of real estate, and would render unworkiible those providing for 
enforced collection. 



ABUTTERS I5ARRKI) BY DKLAY IN TAKING ACTION TO 
I'REVKNT l..\VlN(i OF SECONO TRACK— RIGHT lO 
CONDEMN irUNPIKES HOES NOT REACH AIU r 
TERS. 



Ilinnershitz vs. Uniteil Traction Co. (Pa.), 55 .\tl. Rep K41 .May 
II, 1903. 

Where property holders along the south side of a turnpike were 
confronted ir 1897 with unmistakable evidence that an electric rail- 
way which was projected, and of which the whole northerly track 
was laid, was in truth a double-tiack road, the intent to make it 
such being indicated by the original location and survey, as well as 
by the presence of a double-track line to the city limits, and by the 
building of a second track from a point that obviously suggested 
both the propriety and the design of connecting these two ex- 
tremities by a second track south of and parallel with that first 
constructed, the supreme court of Pennsylvania holds that, in 1899, 
after two years, during which the road was temporarily operated in 
the condition in which it was, and when more than one-third of 
the second track was constructed, the property holders were barred 
by laches, or inexcusable delay in asserting their rights, from rcliil 
in aquity. 

It is too broad a construction of the grant in the act of May 14, 
1889, giving the right of eminent domain to passenger railways as 
to turnpikes, the court holds, to say that it includes the right as to 
the soil under the turnpike, and therefore as against the abutting 
landholders. It is a qualified and limited right of eminent domain 
as against the turnpike company, the latter being the "owner or 
owners" meant in the condition that the railway company nnist 
make compensation "to the owner or owners thereof." 



PROPERTY LEASED INCLUDED IN EXEMPTION FROM 
GENERAL TAXATION AS OWNED. 



.Merrill Railway & Lighting Co. vs. City of Merrill (Wis.), 96 
N. W. Rep. 686. Sept. 29, 1903. 
The company's power plant having been destroyed, the principal 
stockholders purchased a tract of land with water power appurte- 
nant, and constructed thereon a power plant building, with con- 
nection with said water power and with a steam engine, and leased 
to the company for a period of five years all except four acres of 
said tract, together with the dam and water power and all flowage 
privilege: reserving, however, as appurtenant to the four acres not 
leased, the right to use all water power in excess of the needs of 
the company. The supreme court of Wisconsin holds that the 
power plant and water powxr, except so much of the latter as was 
reserved in appurtenance to the other lands of the fee owners, was 
"owned and actually and necessarily used" by the company "in 
the operation of its business," within the meaning of those words 
in subdivision 14 of section 1038 of the revised statutes of 1898, 
and was, therefore, not subject to general taxation, the statutes 
subjecting those engaged in operating street railways, with or with- 
out electric lightmg and power plants, to a charge graduated upon 
their gross revenues, in lieu of other taxation, and as a part of 
that schelne said subdivision 14 containing the provision to the ef- 
fect that upon payment of such license fee "all personal property, 
franchises, and real estate owned and actually and necessarily used 
by such person, company or corporation in the operation of its 
business, shall be exempt from taxation and other license fees." The 
suggestion was made that this exemption statute might he satis- 
fied by a severance of titles in the specific real estate, and by treat- 
ing as exempt merely the leasehold interest of the street railway 
company, and subjecting the other interests to general taxation, but 



NO LIABILITY l-OR INJURY TO POLICEMAN PLACING 
BEAM TO HAVE CAR PISH TRUCK UP GRADEr- 
POWER OF OFFICER UNDER STATUTE— AUTHOR- 
ITY OF MOTORMAN. 



Connelly vs. Metropuhlan Street Railway Co. ( N. Y. Sup), 84 
N. V. Supp. 305. June 22, 1903. 

The plaintiflf testified that he was a police constable, and, finding 
the tracks on a street blocked by a big coal truck which the horses 
could not move, the street being slippery and the grade upward, 
he placed a beam al)out five feet long against the rear of the coal 
truck and told the moturman to come up slowly, but the car came 
at full speed, smashed the beam, and injured him. As the appel- 
late term of the supreme court of New York puts it, the plaintiff 
assumed direction of the defendant's servant and control of its 
machinery, which latter, not being adapted to his wants, he supple- 
mented with an improvised appliance. He was hurt, as he claimed, 
through the negligent disobedience by the servant of the orders 
given him. For this the defendant was not liable, nor could he [it] 
be made so cither by statute or by judicial legislation. 

The plaintiff, the court says, claimed to act as in duty bound 
under the provision in the city charter that, "It is hereby made the 
duty of the police department and force, at all times of day and 
night, and the members of such force are hereby thereunto empow- 
ered to * * ' regulate the movement of teams and vehicles in 
street." Under that statute, he might direct the movements of de- 
fendant's vehicle to and fro, for the purpose of clearing the street, 
or keep it still altogther; but he could not utilize the motive 
power for the movement of other vehicles, nor could he direct the 
defendant's servant to put the vehicle to a use for which he was 
not employed, and to which the defendant had, so far as appeared, 
never assented, expressly or impliedly. Whatever was necessary 
or proper for the service of the defendant was within the motor- 
man's authority, but that was limited to its appropriate use. He 
was not authorized to depart from his defined function in order 
to operate the car in a manner foreign to the purpose of his em- 
ployer. Pushing the coal truck up the grade was work which the 
motorman did primarily for the policeman, and in so doing he 
used the power and vehicle of the defendant for what was not con- 
templated either in its construction or operation or in his own 
employment. The motorman, it was true, denied that he was neg- 
ligent, or that he in any wise disobeyed the instructions given by 
his incidental employer, the policeman. That mattered not here, 
however, as his negligence, if any, was not the negligence of the de- 
fendant. 



SELECTMEN MAY PRESCRIBE CHEAPER CONSTRUC- 
TION ON CONDITION THAT IT BE CHANGED IF 
NOT SATISF.VCTORY— FINANCIAL EMBARRASSMKN T 
OF COMPANY IMMATERIAL— ORAL EVIDENCE IN- 
ADMISSIBLE TO VARY WRITTEN GRANT OF LOCA- 
TION—PAYMENT OF EXCISE TAX DOES NOT RE- 
LIEVE FROM CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS. 



Selectment of Gardner vs. Templeton Street Railway (Mass.), 68 
N. E. Rep. 340. Oct. 21, 1903. 
It is provided by section 7 of chapter 112 of the Revised Laws 
cf Massachusetts that, in case the selectmen of a town are of opin- 
ion that public necessity and convenience require the granting of 
a location, they may "prescribe how the tracks shall be laid and 
the kind of rails," and other appliances which shall be used, and 
that they may "impose such other terms, conditions and obligations 
in addition to the general provisions of law governing such com- 
panies as the public interest may in their judgment require." The 
supreme judicial court of Massachusetts is of opinion that in pre- 
scribing the original construction the selectmen could prescribe 
that the company, at its election, could use a cheaper rail without 
granite paving within the rails and for eighteen inches outside, on 
condition that, if that construction did not prove satisfactory to 
them, it should be changed within a specified time, and the more 
expensive construction carried into effect by the railway. The court 



Feb. 20, 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REX^IEW. 



Ill 



further holds that it was immaterial that what it denominated the 
present owner of the street railway was financially embarrassed. 
and was not able to carry the order of the selectmen into effect. 
The fact, if it was a fact, was also immaterial, that the selectmen 
ought to have been satisfied with the T rail. It is competent for se- 
lectmen, acting under said section 7, to prescribe the construction 
shall be done to their satisfaction. If they do so prescribe, their de- 
termination, at least in the absence of fraud, is final, and cannot be 
transferred to or controlled by the court. It was not competent to 
\ar}- and control the written grant of location by evidence of what 
was orally agreed upon between the selectmen and the defendant 
The payment by the defendant of the excise tax under what are 
now sections 43-47 of chapter 14 of the Revised Laws excnipteil 
it from making repairs on the public ways (c. 112, sec. 44), but il 
had nothing to do with its duty to construct the road in com- 
pliance with the grant of location. 



BLRDEN OF PROOF ON PER.SOX l.XJL'KFl) GKTITNG ON 

OR OFF MO\TNG C-\R— .\ ITEMPTIXG TO BO.ARU 

C.\R SLOWING UP IN ANSWER TO SIGN.AL. 



Hunterson vs. Union Traction Co. (Pa.), 55 .\tl. Rep. 543. May 4. 

1903. 
W'here one is injured in stepping on or getting off a moving car. 
the supreme court of Pennsylvania holds, the burden is upon him 
10 clearly demonstrate to the court why his case should go to 
the juo'. as a rare exception to the rule. Whatever "rare excep- 
tions'' there may be to the rule that it is negligence per sc (by itself) 
to step on or off a moving car, no recovery can be permitted where 
an injured plaintiilf at a crossing signals an approaching car to 
stop, whose signal is heeded, and he so understands by the slack- 
ened speed of the car as it approaches the usual stopping place. 
but who, before it stops, and while running at a speed of three 
or four miles an hour, attempts to get on. It is the negligence of 
the injured person in such a case that is a contributing cause to 
his injuries, and he cannot escape the rule that his carelessness is 
in the way of his right to recover. 



FILING OF EXEMPLIFICATION OF RECORD OF ADOP- 
TION OF EXTENSION REQUIRED— SIATUTE CON- 
STRUED TO GIVE TWO YEARS TO PROCURE MU- 
NICIPAL CONSENT AND Rl'ILD ROAD 



Coalesville & Downington Street Railway Co. vs. West Qiester 
Street Railway Co. (Pa.), 55 .\tl. Rep. 844. May n, 1903. 

The supreme court of Pennsylvania holds that as section 4 of 
the act of May 14, 1889. originally and as amended by the act of 
June 7, 1901. requires that the exemplification of the record of the 
adoption of an extension by the board of directors shall he filed 
in the office of the secretary of the commonwealth, and expressly 
provides that "no right to actually construct the same shall vest 
until after thirty days from the filmg of said exemplification, ' the 
filing is a condition precedent, and that the right to build an ex- 
tension was not shown by showing the offering for filing of an ex- 
emplification which was refused filing. 

By the amendment under the act of 1901 to section I of the act 
of 1889 companies were authorized to lay tracks on any street 
"upon which no track is laid under any existing charter, and in 
constant daily use for the transportation of passengers at the time 
of the application by another company for a charter to use such 
street, but whenever a charter, after the approval of this act, shall 
ix granted to any corporation to build a road as provided by this 
act, no other charter to build a road on the same streets, high- 
ways, bridges or properly shall be granted to any other company 
within the time during which, by the provisions of this act. the 
company first securing the charter has the right to commence and 
complete this work ; provi<led, that the consent of the local author- 
ities shall be promptly applied for, and shall have been obtained 
within two years from the date c/f the charter." This, the conn 
say», excepted future companies, under charters granted after the 
dale of the act, from the danger of h.iving Ihtir privileges taken 
away before they could gel their tracks actually laid, and restored, 
during the [wriod of two years allowed for building, the exclusive 
privileges on the streets named that tracks "aulliori/ed to be laid" 
had under the original act. Il was a fair and proper provision, with- 
out which the ncceijary (leriod required for building would have 



been a vain and deceptive privilege, liable to be destroyed at any 
time without fault of the company by the superior activity or 
wealth or influence of a junior rival. And for the same reason— 
the substantial protection of the franchise granted, and to prevent 
^ucll interferences as were shown to be probable — the time for 
obtaining municipal consent was enlarged to the time allowed for 
Iniilding. and made an absolute right. Under this section, if mu- 
nicipal consent has been promptly applied for, the want of it can- 
not be taken advantage of in any way to the prejudice of the com- 
pany until the two-year limit has expired. Whether the two-year 
period in which to procure consent, allowed by the act of 1901, will 
he shortened or terinin;.tcd by a positive act of refusal on the part 
of the municipality, m' whether the full period may still be avail- 
able for an opiKirtvuiity to overcome objections, is not decided. 



■RAILWAY" AND "RAILROAD" CONSIDERED SYNONY- 
MOUS TERMS IN STATUTES— TRACTION MOTOR 
COMPANY TAXABLE AS R.\ILW.\Y COR- 
PORATION. 



City of Philadelphia vs. Philadelphia Traction Co. (Pa.), 55 .'\tl. 
Rep. 762. May 11, 1903. 
The rule established by the decisions of the supreme court of 
Pennsylvania, the latter says, is that the words "railway companies" 
and "railroad companies" used in the statutes will be considered as 
synonymous, and either will be held to apply to both kinds of roads, 
unless there appears from the title of the act, its purpose or its 
context, something to indicate that a particular kind of road is in- 
tended. -And the court holds that the act of 1858, which subjects 
to taxation for city purposes "the real property of railway corpora- 
tions situate in the city, the superstructure and water stations alone 
excepted," applies to both steam railroads and passenger railway 
companies, and includes a traction motor company, which leases 
and operates street railways. It says that a traction company whose 
business is confined to the construction of appliances for street 
railway companies, or to the operation of motors, cables, electrical 
or other appliances for the traction of the cars of such companies, 
has but little resemblance to a street railway company, and "more to 
a construction or power company. But when, as in this case, it 
oix?rates a railway, and leases the property and franchises of va- 
rious railway companies, and operates them on its own account, it 
is exercising the franchises of a street railway company, as it is 
authorized to do, and it enjoys the privileges granted to, and be- 
comes subject to the liabilities imposed by law upon, such com- 
panies. 



LIABILITY ON BOND FOR FAILURE TO BUILD ROAD 
BECAUSE OF NARROWNESS OF STREET— DUTY TO 
SECURE ADDITIONAL SPACE OR USE SINGLE LINE 
OF POLES OR UNDERGROUND CONDUIT WHEN 
NEEDED TO PERFORM CONTRAC'l'. 



I'.orotigh of Moutooth vs. Brownsville .Xveiuie .Street Railway Co. 
(Pa.), 55 Atl. Rep. 1036. May 25, 1903. 

This was an action to recover upon a bond given by the company 
to the borough to secure the construction of a street railway upon 
a certain street. It appeared from the testiinony that for a dis- 
tance of about 750 feet the width of the street was not more than 
ii'/2 feet, and the trial court held, as a matter of mathematical cer- 
tainty, and therefore of law, that this was not suflicieut to admit 
of the safe constructioi; and operation upon it of a line of street 
railway. Being thus of the opinion that it was impossible for Ihi' 
company to perform Its contract, he directed a verdict for it. Bill 
the supreme court of Pennsylvania holds that this was error. It 
says that it is the duly of the party making a promise to ascertain 
at the time whether or not performance is possible. If he ueglecl 
to inform himself, il is at his peril. 

Moreover, the supreme court says that, as it read the evidence, 
il could not avoid the conclusion that there was sufficient in it to 
justify a finding that it was possible for the railway company to 
have complied with its agreement to build its line in accordance 
with the terms of the ordinance. It says that it did not seem to it 
(hat the problem which was presented was one to baffle the re- 
sources of the builders of modern street railways, even if for a dis- 
tance of 750 feel Ihey were confined to the use of about II feet 
in width of the highway. As lli^ borough authorities had granted 



112 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol X1\'. No. 2. 



llic use of the street to the company, to build its street railway 
upon, it was to be presumed that other provisions, by means of 
widening the street or otherwise, would be made for a sidewalk, if 
it were needed. If the public needs reijuired it, the street could be 
widened, either by the borough in the usual way, or the railway 
company could secure additional space by the purchase of ground 
from the abutting owners. The mere m.itter of additional ex- 
pense to the company was no sufficient excuse for failure to comply 
with its contract. The argument for the company proceeded en- 
tirely upon the' assumption that it was not bound to make any 
effort to secure additional space which might he made avtiilablc, if 
needful to enable it to build the road upon ihe right of way granted 
by the borough. The court does not regard this position as ten 
able. 

'ITie supreme court furtluT says that, if a double line of poles 
were thought necessary upon the 7SO-foot portion, permission 
might have been obtained to set them outside the line of the street, 
and upon cither side. But even if confined to the limit of space 
which was clearly available, it seemed that methods were open to 
adoption, which would have- made compliance possible. It did not 
appear from the evidence that double lines of poles were abso- 
lutely necessary, as instances were cited in which single lines of 
poles to support overhead wires were in practical use It seemed 
also, that, by means of an underground conduit, the power could 
he conveyed anJ the system successfully operated without the use 
of any poles at all. 



LI.\BILITV FOR INJURIES SUSTAINED BY PASSENGER 
IX JUMPING FROM CAR TO ESCAPE FROM AN IM- 
PENDING COLLISION— PRESUMPTION FROM COL- 
LISION AND INJURY TO PASSENGER— BREAKING 
OF BRAKE CHAIN ON OTHER CAR— BURDEN OF 
PROOF— MEASURE OF CARE AS TO CARS AND AP- 
PLIANCES—COMING AND GOING OF CARS ON SA.ME 
TRACK NOT EVIDENCE OF NEGLIGENCE— WHEN 
JUMPING FROM CAR NOT CONTRIBUTORY NEGLI- 
GENCE. 



Palmer vs. Warren Street Railway Co. (Pa.), 56 All. Rep. 49. July 
9, 1903. 

As an electric car on which Mrs. Palmer was a passenger ap- 
proached an up grade, a car with a trailer attached was seen de- 
scending and coming towards it on the same track. The brake 
chain on the descending car had broken, and the motorman was 
unable to control it. The motorman of the car on which Mrs. 
Palmer was riding, seeing that a collision was inevitable, stopped 
his car, and, having reversed the current, started it backwards. The 
other cars were gaining on it, until it seemed that the collision 
could not be avoided, and a number of the passengers on the car 
with Mrs. Palmer, including hcrse'f, jumped from it just before the 
cars collided. For the injuries sustained in jumping from the 'car 
this suit was brought. 

Tlie supreme court of Pennsylvania says that if Mrs. Palmer had 
remained on the car and been injured by the collision, no one 
would think of questioning the presumption of the defendant's 
negligence. The collision itself, without more, would have been 
evidence that some one in the employ of the company had blun- 
dered, or neglected his duty. As a matter of fact, the collision 
was due to the breaking of a brake chain ; but the case was within 
the unbending rule, applicable to railroad and street passenger 
railway companies alike, that, where a passenger on a car is in- 
jured without fault of his own. there is a legal presumption of neg- 
ligence, casting upon the carrier the onus (burden) of rebutting it. 
And it was immaterial that the collision was not due to any defect 
ill the car on which the plaintiff was riding, or the machinery 
connected with it, but to a broken appliance on the car that ran 
into it; for the presumption of the defendant's negligence arises 
not only when the injury is caused by a defect in the road, cars, 
or machinery, or by want of diligence or care in those employed, 
but by any other thing which the company can and ought to control 
as a part of its duty to carry the passenger safely. The other thing 
here which was under the control of the company was the chain 
that broke on another car which ran into the one on which the 
plaintiff had been a passenger. 

But, the court continues, the plaintiff was not bound to wait for 
the collision. It was rather for her, under the instinct of self-pres- 



ervation, to try to escape from its danger, and, in seeking to avoid 
it, she was not necessarily chargeable with neglect of her own 
safety in exposing herself to another risk by jumping from the car. 
The company had confronted her with the peril from which she 
would have escaped, and it was and ought to be responsible to her 
for whatever naturally followed. In trying to save herself, she was, 
at the same time, unconsciously trying to save the company from 
the consequences of its negligence, and of her effort 10 do so it 
ought to be the last to complain, unless it was manifest that she 
acted rashly and imprudently. A well-grounded fear that a col- 
lision is about to take place, which will result in fatal or even se- 
rious injury to the passenger, is a justification to him to leap from 
the car. The presumption of the common carrier's negligence is 
not confined to the cause of injuries resulting from actual collision, 
but extends to those caused by an effort to escape it, when made on 
,1 well-grounded belief that it will occur ihe collision itself would 
admittedly be due to the presumed negligence of the company, and 
to no other cause could lie attributed the manifest danger of it, 
from which the plaintiff in this case attempted to escape. The 
court's instrnctions, therefore, should have been that there was a 
presumption of the company's negligence, and that there was no 
burden upon the plaintiff to prove it until the defendant had first 
rebutted the presumption of it. The court's instructions should 
also have made it clear that, if the jury should find the plaintiff 
acted from a well-grounded fear of imminent danger, she was not 
guilty of contributory negligence in jumping from the car. 

More is required of a common carrier, the court holds, than mere 
reasonable precaution against injuries to passengers, and care that 
its cars and appliances arc to be measured by those "in known 
general use." While the law does not require the utmost degree of 
care which the human mind is capable of imagining, it does re- 
quire that the highest degree of practical care and diligence shall 
be observed that is consistent with the mode of transportation 
;idopted;and cars and appliances arc to be measured by those which 
have proved by experience to be the most efficacious in known use 
in the same business. 

No error, the court further holds, was committed in saying that 
the fact that there was a car coming and going on the same track 
was not in itself evidence of negligence by the defendant company. 



BAR BREAKING LETTING MOTOR DROP— DOCTRINE OF 
RES IPSA LOQUITUR APPLICABLE TO BREAK- 
ING OF APPARATUS, 



Murray vs. Pawtuxet Valley Street Railway Co. (R. I.), 55 .\tl. 
Rep. 491- May 28, 1903. 
A wrought-iron suspension bar placed edgewise in front of a 
motor from side to side of the truck was about four feet long, five- 
eighths of an inch thick, and five inches wide, except in the middle 
about a hole, which it had in the center and through which a bolt 
or pin on the front end of the motor passed, where the width had 
been increased to preserve its strength. By the breaking of this 
bar in the center, from the hole downward, the pin was allowed to 
drop out and the forward end of the motor to fall upon the ground, 
which caused the car to stop suddenly and injure a passenger. The 
supreme court of Rhode Island holds that the burden of proving 
that the accident was due to the negligence of the defendant was 
sustained by the presumption of negligence arising out of a consid- 
eration of the cause of the accident itself. It says thai the mere 
fact that the bar broke and let the motor fall was inferentially evi- 
dence of negligence on the part of the defendant. "Res ipsa loquitur" 
(the matter speaks for itself) is the maxim applicable to cases where 
the cause of injuries to passengers arises from the breaking down 
of .apparatus wholly under the control of the common carrier. 
However, the defendant having satisfied the jury by evidence, not 
only that it purchased the broken appliance from a reputable maker 
and dealer in such commodities, but had made daily inspections of 
the same by an expert employed for that purpose, without any 
attempt upon the part of the plaintiff to meet it with evidence tend- 
ing to show that the bar was unlike or inferior to other bars in use 
for like purposes, or that it was too thin, too narrow, or too weak, 
and without offering evidence tending to throw discredit upon the 
kind of inspection that was made, or upon the competency of the in- 
spector, the court holds that the jury was justified in arriving at a 
verdict for the defendant. 



Fer 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



113 



Fast Express Cars for Coeiir d'Alcne. 



Thirty miles to the east of Spokane, Wash., is Coeur d'Aleiie in 
the heart of tlie Coeur d'Alene silver mining district of Idaho, said 
to be the richest in the "white metal" production of the world. .'\n 
electric line has lately been opened between Spokane and Coeur 
d'.-\lene, which is the second in that moiuitainons stale, the other 



-m^:-^ 


i^DT^'v 


r.,« u; ■ ■ ■ fl 


*l3i 


^■ii^^*^ 


^ - ■ 



COEUR DALEXE EXPRESS C.\R. AMERICAN CAR CO. 

being at the capital, Boise City. The American Car Co., of St. Louis, 
has lately shipped two baggage and express cars to the new road. 
one of which is shown in the engraving. Other cars built by the 
same company for this line are three combination passenger and 
baggage semi-convertible cars of the Brill patented type, and three 
straight passenger semi-convertibles of the saine system. Although 
connected by a branch with the main line of the Northern Pacific 
Railway, transportation facilities will be greatly increased by the 
frequent train service of the electric line, and as the speed will 
rival that of the steam railroad, much of the express and baggage 
traflic of the district will undoubtedly be diverted to the new road. 




INTERIOR OF COEJUR D'ALENE EXPRESS CAR. 

Ihc cars arc built for carrying heavy loads, and with wide sliding 
doors at the sides, ani swinging doors at diagonally opposite cor- 
ners, arc capable of receiving large pieces of baggage. They are 
40 ft. long over the crown pieces, and 8 ft. 4 in. wide over the 
sills. The cars arc mounted on Brill 27-K-i trucks, with 6 ft. 6 in. 
wheel base, and 33-in. wheels, have solid forged siile frames, and are 
'lapable of making 60 miles an hour. 



The South Side Elevated Railroad Co., Chicago, recently pur 
chased 15 strips of land adjacent to its road to provide for the third 
track for its proposed express service. 



The offices of the Columlnis Railway & l,iK'i''"K Co. will be re- 
modeled at a cost of nearly $10,000. The front wall of the building 
will be replaced liy one of gray pressed brick, with stone trimmings 
The company will occupy the entire block. 



Financial. 

The earnings of the Winnipeg (Manitoba) Electric Railway Co. 
f(ir 1903 amounted to $287,279, The earnings for December amounted 
to $27,734. 



The annua! report of tlie Lake Street Elevated Railroad Co., of 
Chicago, not being ready the annual meeting has been adjourned 
until March 3rd. 



riie gross earnings of the Toledo & Western Railway Co. for the 
year ending Dec. 31, 1903, were $185,163, the operating expenses 
lieing 57 per cent. 



I he City Electric Railway Co., of Port Huron. Mich., reports 
that the earnings of the road for the six montlis ending Dec. 31, 
1003, amounted to $56,014. 



The gross earnings of the Chicago & Milwaukee Kleclrie liail- 
uay Co. for 1903 amounted to $292,247 and the net was $193,620, the 
net showing an increase of $72,874. ihe net for January, 1904, was 
$S.i75, an increase of $2,711, or 49.O1 per cent. 



rhe net earnings of the Columbus Railway & Light Co. for 1903 
were $126,000 in excess of the previous year. The gross earnings 
for the six months ending December 31st amounted to $898,000. 



The Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Traction Co. has, issued second 
mortgage bonds amounling to $500,000 to secure needed capital. 



The East St. Louis & Suburban Railway Go. reported gros.' 
earnings for 1903 of $1,049,381, as compared with $754,761 in 1902 
an increase of $294,619. 



The gross earnings of the St. Louis Transit Co. in December, 
1903, amounted to $600,703, as compared with $550,551 the previous 
year. For the year 1903 the gross earnings were $7,284,4,'?9, as 
against $6,444,653 the preceding year. 



The Columbus, Delaware & Marion Electric Railroad Co. re- 
ported for the six months ending Oct. 31, 1903, gross earnings of 
$8.1.398; operating e-xpenses, $43,580; net earnings, $40,818. 



ihe Indianapolis & Northwestern Traction Co, recently Hied a 
supplemented mortgage to the Knickerbocker Trust Co., of New 
York, for $3,000,000, covering all the company's holdingi;, real and 
personal, in the counties of Hoone, liamilton. Marion, Clinton 
Montgomery and Tippecanoe. 

The New York railroad commissioners have granted to the Long 
Island Electric Railway Co., of Brooklyn, permission to issue a 
mortgage of $500,000, the proceeds' to be used in new constructinn. 

The Northampton (Mass.) Street Railway Co. reported a cleli- 
cit for the year ending Sept. 30, 1003, of $3,346, as again.^l a defi- 
cit of $3,492 the previous year. 



The annual statement of the Northern Texas Traction Co., of 
Ft. Worth, for the year ending Dec. 31, 1903, is as follows: Earn- 
ings from operation, $465,394; operating expenses, $261,357; net 
earnings, $204,037; fixed charges, $100,000; taxes, $11,370; net in- 
come, $92,666; operating ratio, .56. 



The Fox River Electric Railway & Power Co., of (ire^n Hay, 
Wis., reports gross earnings for 1903 of $74,480; operating expenses, 
$71,291; construction and new cars, $69,791. A total of 1,5.18,805 
passengers was carried. 



The Tampa (h'la.) Electric Co. reported for Novi'nilier, 1903, as 
follows; Operating expenses $17,256, against $12,677 the year be- 
fore, or an increase of .36.1 per cent; net earnings, $9,617, as com 
pared with $0,311 in November, I(X>2, an increase of 3.2 per eenl ; 
surplus, $7„565, compared with $7,426 ihe year before. 



The Savannah (Ga.) Electric Co. rq)orlcd operating expenses 
for November, 1903, of $22,759, against $21,571 last year; net earn- 



114 



STR E F.T- R A 1 1 .W A \ R FA' I F. W 



[Vol XIV, No. 2. 



iiiKS $J3.oi>5. ngainsl $ig,6o6 la>t yt-ar; stirplii'i, $llAt^. against 
$lo,Q25 last year. Tlit- opcraliiiK l•x|K•Il^l•^ iiicrcascd 55 ikt cent 
and the net earnings iiiereascd 12.6 per cent. 



Ilic operating cxiK-nses of tlic 1 erre llante (Ind. I Klectric Oi 
lor Novcnilier, igoj. were $27^00, as ciaiiparcd with {jj^ti!" '''i' 
previous year, an increase of 22.2 per cent; net earnings, $14,0141. 
as compared with $11,500, an increase nf 22,5 per cent; surpUis. 
fS,54J, as compared with $5,029. 



The Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Co., Hamilton, O., re- 
ported for the year ending Dec. 31, 1903, as follows: Earnings from 
operation, $514,778; operating e.tptnses, $28g.245; net earnings. 
$225,5x1: charges, $I92.J|2.1; net income, $33.2oq. 



It is announced that the Blue Grass Consolidated I paction Co., 
of Lexington, Ky., has been bonded for $700,000. The Southern 
Mutual Investment Co., of Lexington, is to take $100,000 of the 
bonds and the rest will be divided between the Cleveland Trust Co. 
and the Cincinnati Trust Co. The sale of these bonds contemplates 
the consolidation of the Georgetown & Lexington Traction Co. and 
the new inlfrurbiin line to Paris. 



'The net earnings of Ihc Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co.. 
for the three months ending Jan. 31, ig04, increased $2,319, the 
largest increase being in January, $<)73. Mr. .\. .\. .\nderson is 
general superintendent of the company. 



'The directors of the United Traction Co.. of .Mbany, N. Y., voteil 
to issue mortgage bonds amounting to $6,500,000, to be applied for 
the redemption of outstanding bonds to the amount of $3,496,000; 
the redemption of debenture bonds valued at $765,300, and for ex- 
tensions and betterment? to cost $1,339,000. There is a rumor that 
the company will absorb the .-Mbany & Hudson Railway Co., as 
well as other lines in that section. The Central Trust Co., of New 
York, will be trustee of the redemption fund. 



TORONTO RAILWAY CO. 

The annual report ol the Toronto Railway Co., presented at the 
annual meeting January 20th, shows the gross earnings for 1903 
to have been $2,172,037, an increase of $337,179 over 1902; operat- 
ing expenses, $1,200,823, an increase of $185,462; net earnings. $971.- 
263, an increase of $151,714; net income, $628,349. Dividends paid 
during the year amounted to $326,548. The operating r-itio was 
553. the same as for 1902. 

Mr. J. C. Grace was elected a director, vice Mr James Ross, re- 
signed. 



WEST CHESTER TRAC TlOX CO. 

.At tlic ainuial meeting of the West Chester (Pa.) Traction Co. 
the folluwing statement was submitted for the six months ending 
Dec. 31, 1903: Net earnings, $27,163; expenses, all charges, $15,457: 
earnings froin all other sources. $268; net income, $11,074: less 
taxes, accrued interest, $8,917; net surplus over all, $3,057. 

'The election of directors resulted as follows: Marshall H. Mai 
lack, R. 'T. Cornwell. Jonas Rice, Mayer Scliombcrg, John V\' 
Woodside. John .\ Krlll. Samuel A. Boyle, jr. 



KNOXVILLE TRACTION CO. 

The conipai alive statement of the Knoxville (Tenn.) Traction 
Co. for the year ending December 31st is as follows: 

1902. 1903. Increase. 

Earnings from operation $212,378 $262,770 $50,393 

Operating expenses 117.969 U/of"" '9.599 

.\et earnings 94.4IO 125,203 30.792 

Fixed charges' 67,910 66,657 *i,252 

Net income 26,500 S8.545 32.045 



•Decrease. 



CLEVEL.ANl) & SOUTHWESTERN TR.VCTION CO. 

Following is the statement of the Cleveland & Southwestern 
Traction Co for December : 



1902. 1903 Increase 

Gross receipts $24,710 $.134'" $8,707 

Operaling expenses '7.''49 21,708 4.059 

Net earnings y.otxt ii,70<) 4.''49 

For the 12 months: 

Ciross receipts $300X45 $445,167 $144,322 

Operating expensc<i . . 171,614 264,231 92.617 

Net earnings 129,230 180,9.16 51,706 



SOUTH SIDE ELEVATED R. R. 
The yearly statement of operating statistics of the South Side 
Elevated Railroad Co., of Chicago, issued January 28th, is as fol 
lows ; 

Gross earnmgs $1,679,310 

Operating expenses 994.375 

Net earnings 684.934 

Interest and dividends 442,883 

Surplus 242,051 

The gross earnings in 1902 amounted to $1^483,843. The net earn- 
ings for 1903 show an increase of about $63,000. 

TWIN CITY RAPID TRANSIT CO. 

Following is the comparative statement of the 'Twin City Rapid 
Transit Co. for the year ending December 31st: 

1902. I'X)3 Increase. 

Earnings from operation $3,612,211 $4,o<j3.9,i8 $451,727 

Operating expenses 1,630,170 1,878,050 247,880 

Net earnings ._ 1,982,041 2,185,888 203,847 

Fixed charges 711,718 731.041 '9.323 

Net income 1.270,323 1,454,847 184,524 

Preferred dividend 210,000 210.000 

Common dividend 769.263 825.550 56.287 

Surplus 291.060 *4I9.297 200.237 

*Used for betterments and new construction. 

Statement for December, 1903: 

Increase. 

Earnings from operation $359.'83 $27,852 

.\et earnings 201,528 21,653 

Surplus 123.008 21. 1.50 

NORTHWESTERN ELEVATED R. R. 
Following is the income account of the Northwestern Elevated 
Railroad Co.. of Chicago, for the year ending Dec. 31, 1903, com- 
pared with the previous vcar : 

1902. 1903. Increase 

Gross earnings $1,410,998 $1,542,039 $131,041 

Operating expenses 464.401 545.245 80.844 

Net earnings 946,597 996.792 .50,195 

Fixed charges 757.174 794.257 37.083 

Net income 189,423 202,534 13-1" 

Previous surplus 282.297 471.729 189,432 

Surplus forward 471.720 674.263 202..543 

Operating ratio .' .6076 

Operating ratio, inc. mtncc. reserve -4259 

The statement of charges includes "loop account, '/i cent per 
passenger carried." of $124,666. as against $116,774 in 1902. Main- 
Ifiiance of equipment, including operating expenses, amounts to 
$()<).4I5. which includes $36,000 charged into operating expenses 
and set aside for future needs. The daily average of passengers 
carried in 1903 was 68.310, as against 63.986 m 1902. 



SYRACUSE RAPID TR.XNSIT CO. 
Following is the comparative stattnient of the Syracuse ( N. V. ) 
Rapid 'Transit Co. for the six months ending December 31st: 

1902. 1903. Increase. 

Karnings from operation $3*59.173 $422,443 $53,269 

Operating expenses 203.067 239.156 36,088 

Net earnings 166,105 183.286 I7.'8i 

Miscellaneous earnings 2,,56o 2,201 *358 

Total net earnings 168,665 185488 16^22 

Fixed charges 114.150 121.705 7,555 

Surplus 54.5'5 63,782 9,266 

Operating ratio 55 566 .016 



•Decrease. 



Fsa 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY RE\TEW 



115 



The report for December, 1903. is as follows: Earnings from op- 
eration, $-3,217; operating expenses. $43,067: net earnings. $30.- 
130; miscellaneons earnings. $433; total net earnings, $30,582; 
fixed charges, $->o.245 : snrplns, $10,336. 



ROCKFORD & INTERURB.AX RV. 

Following is the statement of the Rockford & Inlenirli.m Rail- 
way Co. for 1903 : 

Earnings from passengers $183,181 

Earnings from mail and express 6,229 

Earnings from rent of tracks and terminals 9,180 

Miscellaneous earnings 2.041 

Total gross earnings 200.63.? 

Operating expense, inc. taxes 115.642 

Net earnings 84.991 

Fixed charges (less taxes inc. in operation) 33.564 

Surplus applicable to dividends 51,426 

Dividends paid, 4 per cent 30,000 

Surplus ■...•. 21.426 

Operating ratio, inc. taxes 5763 

Same, exc. taxes 5600 

The surplus applicable to dividends equals nearly 7 per cent on 
the capital stock. The average earnings per mile of main track 
were $5,900; aver.ige number of cars per day. 16.62. 



LAKE SHORE ELECTRIC RV. 

Following is the comparative statement of the Lake Shore Elec- 
tric Railway Co., Cleveland. O., for December: 

1902. 1903. Increase. 

Earnings from operation $,^8,962 $46,415 $7,453 

Operating expenses 30,184 35.313 5.129 

Net earnings 8,777 11,102 2.325 

Fixed charges 20,370 20,370 

Deficit 11,607 9.269 *2.338 

For the 12 months : 

Earnings from operation $466,051 $616,484 $150,433 

Operating expenses 305,878 395,7/1 89,893 

Net earnings 160,173 220,712 (X),53g 

Fixed charges 240,745 240,745 

Deficit 80,572 20,033 ^60,539 



•Decrease. 



TOLEDO, BOWLING GREEN & SOUTHERN. 

Following is the statement of the Toledo, Bowling Green &■ 
Southern Traction Co. for the year ending Dec. 31, 1903 : 

Earnings from operation $288,301 

Operating expenses 172,198 

Net earnings 116,103 

Fixed charges 73.996 

Net income .... 42,106 

Reconstruction work 3.624 

Surplus 38,482 

Hal. Jan. i, 1903 12,983 

Surplus Dec. 31, 1903 5',465 

.At the annual meeting the number of directors was increased 
from five to seven. 



NORTHERN OHIO TRACTION & LKillT CO. 

The comparative statement of railway earnings of the Norilum 
Ohio Traction & Light Co. for December follows : 

1902. 1903. Increase. 

Earnings from r.>peration $5'.S33 $55,435 $3.90? 

Operating expenses 31,863 .16,289 4,42^) 

Net earnings 19.670 [9.146 '524 

For the year : 

Earnings from operation $653,567 $773,035 $119,468 

Operating expenses 374,569 440,643 66,074 

Net earnings ... 278.998 332..W2 53..394 



•Decrease. 

Including the earnings of the lighting ricpartmeni, Ihe company's 
^tatrmenl ff)r December, 1903, shows a surplus of $7,097. a decrease 
of $.1424; the net income for the year is $131,569, an increase of 

$2jai. 



PHIL.\DELPHIA CO. 

Following is tlie comparative statemenl of the Tliilad 
and affiliated corporations for December : 

igo2. 1903. 

Earnings from operation $I,353,II4 $1,429,282 

Expenses and taxes 693.878 748,379 

Net earnings 659,236 680,902 

Miscellaneous income 11.834 21,202 

Total earnings and income 671,070 702,105 

Fixed charges 312,526 336,096 

Total income 358,543 366,009 

Dividend, Pbila. Co. Pref 23,936 23,936 

Surplus 334.607 34^.072 

For the 12 months: 

Earnings from operation $I3.773,034 $15,313,790 

Expenses and taxes 7.792,184 8.877,697 

Net earnings 5,980,850 6.436,093 

Miscellaneous income 463,605 401,543 

Total earnings and income 6,444,456 6,837,636 

Fixed charges 3,699,821 3,872,917 

Total income 2,744,634 2,964,719 

Dividend. Pbila. Co. Pref 288,105 287,230 

Surplus 2,456.528 2,677,489 



dpbia Co. 

Increa.se. 

$76,168 

54,501 

21,666 

9,368 

31,035 

23,570 

7,466 



7,465 

$1,540,756 
1.085.513 
455,243 
♦62,062 
393.180 
i73,ogf) 
220,085 

*87S 
220,961 



•Decrease. 

INTERNATIONAL TRACTION CO. 

The comparative statement of the International Traction Co. 
systein, of Buffalo, for December is as f(illo\vs : 

1902. 1903. Increase. 

Gross earnings $.109,871 $325,464 $15,593 

Operating expenses (ex. taxes).... 169,957 190.072 20,115 

Net earnings 1.W.914 135,391 *4.522 

Fi.xed charges (int.. taxes, etc.).... 132.822 1.M.365 1,542 

Net income 7,091 1.026 *6,o65 

Net income. July 1st to date 149.480 213.543 64,063 

Operating ratio (ex. of taxes) .558 .591 .033 

For the quarter ending December 31st: 

Gross earnings $904,171 $976,449 $72,279 

Operating expenses 492,990 571,851 78,860 

Net earnings 411,180 404,597 *6,583 

Fixed charges .390.134 397.473 7.339 

Net income 21,046 7,124 *13,922 

Operating ratio .554 ,593 .439 

For six months ending December 31st: 

dross earnings $1,923,689 $2,174,765 $251,075 

Operating expenses 999.654 1.164,777 165,122 

Net earnings 924.035 i ,009.987 85,952 

Fixed charges 774.554 79<>.444 21.889 

Net income 149,480 213,543 64,063 

Operating ratio .529 .544 .015 

•Decrease. 



TOLEDO RAILWAYS & LIGH'T CO 
T'ollowing is the statement of the 'Toledo Railw.iys & I 
for December: 

1902. I'>o.^ 

luirnings from operation $1.^9.608 $154,494 

Operating expenses 63,889 75.336 

Net earnings 75,719 79,158 

Fixed charges 38,756 39,292 

Net income 36,963 39.8<)o 

For the 12 months : 

Earnings from operation $1,459,091 $1,663,794 

Operating expen.ses 726,779 856,526 

Net earnings 732,312 807,2()8 

Fixed charges 459.037 488,200 

Net income 273.275 3i9.of)8 



-igbt Cn. 

Increase. 

$i4,88f) 

11,447 

3,4.W 

5.?6 

2,897 

$204,703 

129.747 
74.9.^6 
29,163 
45.793 



MONTREAL STREET RY. 
'The opcraling statistics of lln- Monlrc;il Sirc-cl K.iihv.iy Co, for 
December are as follows: 

1902. iiK)3. Increase. 

Earnings from ofieration $177..V>7 $189,2(1') $11,899 

Operating expenses 113.91" 12.8,032 14. "5 



IKi 



STRIiliT RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol, XIV. No 2. 



Ncl earnings '>3-Ay 

Fixed clla^Kc•^ >7A<*> 

Net income 4t>.o-W 

For last quarlcr. 1903 . 

learnings from upcralion $531,(145 

Operating cxpi-ii'ie< 313.9^5 

Net carninK" 217,680 

Fixeil cliargi- 49474 

Net inconic i68,20<) 



6l,2J4 


•2,216 


■ 7,273 


•133 


4.!.<X" 


•i.083 


.585^428 


$53,783 


355,350 


41,385 


-■30,078 


12,398 


S-2.3('7 


2,893 


177,711 


9.505 



•Decrease. 

ELGIN. AURORA & SOUTHERN 
rill- siaicment of the Elgin, .\urora & Southern liniii.ni Cn 
lor IJcccmbcr compares as follows: 

igoi lyiM Increase. 

Earnings from uperalinii $34,980 $35.58J $<*- 

Operating expenses 21,870 23,142 i,27.> 

Net earnings 13,109 12,439 '670 

Fixed charges 9,049 9,255 206 

Net income 4,050 3.184 *875 

For the six months; 

Earnings from operation $223,877 $242,260 $18,383 

Operating expenses 125,710 140.OJO 14,320 

Net earnings 98.167 102,230 4,063 

Fixed charges 54.297 55.' 18 821 

Net income 43,869 47.112 3,243 



•Decrease. 



DETROIT UNITED RY. 
The comparative statement of the Detroit United Ry 
the Rapid Railway System and the Sandwich, Windsor 
herstburg Ry., for 12 months, is as follows; 

1902. 1903. 

Gross earnings $3,961403 $4,386,975 

Expenses and taxes 2,260,786 2,613,977 

Net earnings 1,700,617 1,772,998 

Other income 31,247 38,863 

Total income 1,731,864 1,811,861 

Fixed charges 948,902 1,000.000 

Net income 782,952 811,861 

Dividends 500,000 500,000 

Surplus 282.952 311.861 



including 
& Ani- 

Iiicrease. 

$425,572 

353.191 

72.381 

7,616 

79,997 

51,098 

28.909 



28.900 



Brill Convertible Cars for Spokane. Wash. 

I wclve convcrlibic cars lately completed by the J. G. Hrill Com- 
pany for the Washington Water Power Co., of Spokane, Wash., are 
the first of the type to have the sections between the double corner 
posts and the first corner posts solidly panelled. The purpose of 
this arrangement is to enable 4-ft. seats with capacity for three pas- 
sengers to be placed longitudinally at the car corners alid thus in- 
crease the space at the car doors so that passengers may move in 
and out freely. Formerly a seat for one passenger was placed at 



objection when the car was open and the side entrances could be 
used. Ill the new arrangement there is a clear space from the door 
to cross-seats of 5 ft. 3 in., and 4 ft. between tiie longitudinal cor- 
ner seats. Passengers occupying the corner seats may leave or enter 
at the side entrances next to the seats or by the platforms. It is 
expected that in the future all double-truck convertible cars, and 
the longer single-truck cars, will include this feature. The extra 
space at the door will be appreciated by managers of city systems, 
as crowding at the car doors is in a large measure obviated, and 
much time is saved by thus facilitating the movement of passengers. 

Another interesting feature of these cars is the Narraganselt Z- 
har sill, enabling the use of double steps without exceeding re- 
stricted limits. 'I he Washington Water Power Co. was the first to 
have convertible cars with the buiider's patented Narraganselt sills. 
1 his combination was first made in a lot of 16 cars built for Spo- 
kane last fall. The double step aids passengers to enter and leave 
the cars more rapidly and safely, and this of course is a benefit to^ 
the railway company because of shortening the stops. It is inter- 
esting to note that this railway company purchased the second 
Rrill convertible car that was built, and after determining its wear- 
ing qualities and capacity to retain heat, purchased another car of 
large dimensions, and later the 16 convertibles just referred to. 

The large double sash windows of the solidly panelled sections 
are raised into the roof pockets on the same system as the rest of 
the windows. The runways which guide the metal trunnions at the 
.sash corners are entirely of metal, so there is no possibility of 
sticking. From center to center of side posts is 2 ft. 6;-j in. The 
side posts are 3Ji in. thick, and the corner posts 3^ in. Length 
of cars over end panels, 30 ft. 5 in. ; over vestibules, 40 ft. g'/i in. ; 
from panels over crown pieces, 5 ft. 2 in. Width over Z-bar sills, 
7 ft. 2 in., and over posts at belt, 7 ft. iiVi in. Sweep of posts, 
4!4 in. ; thickness of corner posts, 3^ in. ; side posts, 3}^ in. 

The movable panels are composed of two sheets of thin flexible 
steel held apart by horizontal slats which are tapered at the ends 
to allow slight compression at the edges of the outer metal sheet, 
thus making it water tight. When the panels are raised into the 
roof pockets, their position is directly behind the headlining. The 
cars are handsomely finished in ash and have ceilings of decorated 
birch, giving a light ,ind pleasant effect. Guard rails on either 
side are of a single piece and held under the water board by pat- 
ented gravity catches when not in use. 

The cars are mounted on Brill "Eureka" maximum traction 
trucks having solid forged side frames, and a wheel base of 4 ft. 
The driving wheels arc 33 in. in diameter and the pony wheels 22 
in. The axles are 4 in., and the trucks are equipped with 38-h. p. 
motors. Sandboxes of the maker's patented type have extra large 
Iioppers occupying all the available space under the corner seats. 
Other patented specialties are; Heavy channel iron radial draw 
bars, "Dedenda" alarm gongs, angle iron bumpers, and folding 
gates. 



Louisville Railway Relief Association. 




■ -% \ l-.l; 1 li:i,l'. i'.\K KiiU fl'i iK.x.M-. ) 



each corner, but there was not sufficient room between the end 
of the aisle and the door for ingress and egress. This was not an 



The report of the Louisville Railway Relief Association for the 
year ending Dec. 31, 1903, .shows the receipts to have been $3,089.36 
and the disbursements $2,385.95. There was a bal- 
ance on hand Jan. i, 1903. of $4,395.04, and the bal- 
ance on Jan. i, 1904, was $5,098.45. During the year 
there was paid out in sick benefits $1,705.50; death 
benefits, $300. The report is published in pamphlet 
form, pocket size, and contains the reports of the 
president and financial secretary, a list of the bene- 
ficiaries during the j-ear, and a copy of a resolution 
which was adopted as a mark of appreciation of the 
Louisville Railway Go's, kindness in assisting at the 
Christmas Tree entertainment. Tlie president 
urged all eligible employes of the company, who are 
not members of the association, to join. 

The officers of the association for 1904 are ; 
President, J. T. Funk ; vice-president, Jacob Fish- 
back; financial secretary, J. W. Mitchell, 12th and 
Jefferson Sts. ; recording secretary, H. C. DeVoe, i8th and Wal- 
nut Sts. ; medical director, J. Buschmeyer, M. D. 



Fee. 20, 1904] 



STREET RAILW.W REVIEW. 



117 



Report of Massachusetts Street Railways. 

The Massachusetts Railroad Commissioners' advance report for 
the year ending Sept. y>, 1903, has just been received and contains 
returns from 109 street railway companies. Eight new companies 
were organized in the year under the general law and five com- 
panies were dropped from the list, three having been consolidated 
during the previous year and two having been succeeded by new 
corporations following the sale of railways by receivers. 

During the year the Gloucester & Rockport was consolidated 
with the Boston & N'orthcrn, the Haverhill & .Andover with the 
Middlclon & Danvers, the Middleton & Danvers with the Boston 
& Xortheni. the Greenfield & Deerfield with the Greenfield, Deer- 
field & Northampton, the Reading. Wakefield & Lynnfield with the 
Lawrence & Reading, the Lawrence & Reading with the Boston & 
Northern, the Milton with the Blue Hill, the Phillipston with the 
Templcion and the Eastern with the Bristol & Norfolk. 

Owing to consolidations there were but 100 companies existing 
at the end of the year. Of these, 74 were operating their railways;^ 
2C railways were operated by other companies under lease, or con- 
tract, on-.- had organized and was constructing its railway and five 
had organized but had not commenced construction of their roads. 

During the yeir there was added 78.722 miles of new track to the 
Massachusetts companies' mileage. There has also been added .555 
mile of side track, making a total addition of 79.277 miles reck- 
oned as single track. The Massachusetts companies now own 
2,158,973 miles of str,;et railway lines, 363.937 miles of second main 
track and 147.822 miles of side track, making the total length of 
track owned. 2.(170.732 miles exclusive of the track in the subway. 
Of this mileage 52.131 miles of main track were operated outside 
of the state. 



Street Raitiraij ^fi!eage 


Owned, 190 


2 and 1903. 




UILE.IGE OW.VEU 


UM. 


IBOI. 


Incretie. 


Length of niilway line, . 
Length of second track, . 


Mllts. 

2,111.293 
332.895 


Milct. 

2,158.973 
863.937 


Miles. 
47..680 

31.042 


Tot.-\l Icngili of ni;iin tr.-ick. 
Length of side tr.ick, 


3,444.188 
147.267 


2,522.910 
147.822 


78.722 
.555 


Total, reckoned as single track. 


2..>9 1.455 


2,670.732 


79.277 



The gross assets of the companies Sept. 30, 1903, were $158,- 
864.214. The gross liabilities at the same date including capital 
stock were $123,121,411. The total amount of dividends declared 
last year was $3,586,248, an increase of $447,537 over the preceding 
year. Forty-four out of the 109 companies paid dividends ranging 
from I to 10 per cent and 65 companies paid no dividends. The 
highest dividend paid was 10 per cent and the lowest : per cent. 

The accompanying table gives the total capital stock, net divisible 



income, dividends declared and Uie percentage of dividends on total 
capital stock for the last ten years: 

The average cost of the street railways of the state per mile of 
main track was $26,014 for construction, $9,994 for equipment, and 
$12,546 for lands, buildings and other permanent property, making 
a total average cost of $48,555 per mile of main track. The cost 
and capital investment per mile of main track for the last 10 years 
is given in the fullowing table : 

Cost and Capital Investment per Mile 0/ Mam Track, 1S94-1903. 



YEAK8. 


Coiulcucttou. 


Equipment. 


Other 
Permanent 
Property •• 


Total Cost 
per Mll«. 


Capital 
Investment 
per MIte.t 


1894, . 


126,748 


1 11,528 


tl5,356 


153,632 


»52,963 


1895, . 


23,984 


10,479 


14,266 


48,729 


49,120 


1896, . 


23,396 


9,805 


12,840 


46,041 


46,373 


1897, . 


22,755 


9,374 


12,329 


44,458 


44,683 


1898, . 


22,537 


8,957 


11,735 


43,229 


44,958 


1899, . 


22,863 


8,518 


11,698 


42,979 


45,040 


1900. . 


23,443 


8,510 


11,684 


43,637 


44,273 


1901, . 


23,953 


8,678 


11,666 


14,297 


45,757 


1902, . 


24,495 


9,026 


11,889 


45,410 


46,261 


1903, . 


26,015 


9,994 


12,546 


48,555 


48,621 



* Cfaleflr lands, butldlnga and power planta. t Otitatandlng capital stock and Det d«bt. 

The total income of the companies tioni all sources for the last 
fiscal year was $27,027,651, ,and the total expenditures including 
dividends were $27,010,982, leaving a net balance of $16,668 to be 
added to the surplus of previous years. 

The total number of passengers carried during the last year on 
ibe 109 railways reporting was 504,662,243, an increase of 39,187,- 
861 passengers over the previous year. The total number of miles 
tun by street cars was 107,506,812 an increase of 7,226,125 miles 
over the previous year. The following table shows the volume of 
traffic for 10 years : 

Volume of Traffic for Ten Years, 1894-1903. 



yEAHS. 


Carried. 


A vera ({0 Number 
per Mile ol'Malii 
Track Operated. 


Toul Car 
Ulles Run. 


1894 

1895 

1896 

1897, 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 


220,464,099 
259,794,308 
292,358,943 
308,684,224 
330,889,629 
356,724,213 
395,027,198 
433,526,935 
465,474,382 
504,662,243 


238,963 
226,462 
212,403 
207,982 
205,098 
200,262 
195,683 
188,787 
192,.548 


36,722,978 
43,655,560 
.63,613,685 
61,677,917 
68,206,418 
73,367,235 
81,750,768 
93,005,225 
100,280,687 
107,606,812 



Capital Stock; Net Income and Dividends, 1894-1903. 



1894, 
1895, 
189«, 
1897. 
1898, 
1899, 
1900, 
1901, 
1902. 



Caplul SIMk. 



Xel OMslbIa 
iDcomt. 



»26,971?7« 
27,906,68fi 
80,727318 
32,670,273 
38,933.917 
41,380,143 
48,971,168 
54,')C9,9:)3 
60.036.328 
<8«404/(80 



11,812,668 
2,257.346 
2,280.776 
2,593.147 
2.5S4.002 



DIrldcndi 
Utclared. 



fl.610386 
1.606.196 
1,802347 
1,965,243 
2,076,283 



3,037/>02 
3.398.183 
3388351 
8,603J>17 



2.409374 
3,417.117 
3.138,711 
8386.248 



Psrcrntace 

on Total 

CaplUl Sftck. 



2.402.942 2318.398 



6.07 

r>.7ii 

5.S7 
6.02 

.'•.1)0 
l.M 
fl.:|2 
5.23 
&.iSt 



The following tabic gives the percentage of operating expenses 
to gross earnings for the last 10 years : 

Percentage of Operating Expense to Gross Earnings, 1894-1903. 



YEAKB. 


Gross Earnings 
from Oparattou. 


Opcntllrifr 
KtponicB. 


IVrcciitiigo 

of Kipi'iueito 

Kanitiigi. 


Nat EarnlDis. 


1894 


fll, 119346 


17.729.059 


60.61 


»3390.787 


189.5 


13,184342 


9.088.086 


0H.08 


4,096,266 


1896 


14,844,262 


li).56:),371 


71.1(1 


4,280,891 


1897 


15315,267 


10,904,040 


iis.tir. 


4.911,227 


1898 


16,915,406 


11,672,731 


(ll).Ol 


6,'.'l 2,674 


1899 


18,151.650 


12,378,488 


(W.-.'O 


5,773,062 


1900 


11..999340 


13,l.')9,947 


(ir..Hn 


6,8^9,693 


1901 


21.766340 


14,606,141 


UO.tPJ 


7,201.199 


1902 


23,486.474 


15,912,862 


67.76 


7,67.3,622 


1908 


24.440311 


17319.387 


118.60 


8,021,44t 



118 



STRRET RAILWAY REVIFAV. 



[Vol XI\'. No 2. 



The average ktd^s cariiiiii!<i, opcrutiiig expenses and net earnings 
per car mile, aNo per passenger arc given herewith. The niimher 

Orou and Ntt Eamingt /mm 0/i<-rii<ioii per Car Mile Run and per 
Passtnger Carried, 1S'.)4-1903. 



" 


ArttAOl r» lUl MitL 


Atika 


i% rik I'AiA 


•Halt 


TKAIC4. 


orow 
EAnlno. 


•r 

Or«>iki«. 


Ha 

Eunlagi. 


braloii. 


EapcnMt 

of 
Oy*nUott. 


KinUitfi. 


18S4, . 


CUU. 

30.28 


Onn. 
21.05 


OnU. 
9.23 


CMU. 

6.01 


cntt. 
3.50 


CMtU. 

1.64 


1895, . 


30.20 


20.82 


9.38 


6.07 


3.60 


1.67 


1«9«, . 


27.69 


19.70 


7.99 


6.08 


S.6I 


1.47 


1897, . 


25.68 


17.71 


7.97 


6.12 


3.63 


1.59 


1898, . 


21. WP 


17.11 


7.69 


5.11 


3.52 


1.59 


1899, . 


21.74 


16.87 


7.87 


6.09 


3.47 


1.61 


1900, 


21.46 


16.10 


8.S6 


5.06 


3.33 


1.73 


1901, . 


23.40 


15.66 


7.74 


6.02 


3.36 


1.66 


1902, . 


23.42 


15.87 


7.66 


6.05 


3.42 


1.63 


1903. . . . 


23.7t 


16.30 


7.46 


6.06 


3.47 


1.69 



of persons employed I>y the street railway companies and also tin- 
number of cars, vehicles and electric motors owned are given in 
the following table for each of the last ten years: 

Employees and E'lnipment, lf^U4-1903. 



VEAII!>. 


Employtca. 


Cm. 


Otbw 
VrUlclct. 


EltcltJC 
UOCOTI. 


1894 


7,461 


4,058 


1,790 


3,906 


1895 


8,048 


4,426 


1,755 


4,704 


1896, . . 


9,130 


4,913 


1,876 


5,958 


1897 


9,716 


5,314 


1,963 


6,908 


1898 ; 


10,416 


5.734 


1,997 


7,643 


1899 


11,944 


6,042 


2,076 


8,530 


1900 


12,766 


6,531 


2,371 


9,545 


1901 


14,749 


6,997 


2,488 


11,284 


1902 


15,292 


7,144 


2,.'i77 


12,504 


1903 


1532S 


7,403 




2,644 


13,611 



The whole number oi persons injured in connection with street 
railway operation during the year was 3.974. of whom 84 received 
fatal injuries. The number of passengers injured was 2,568, of 
v.hom 16 were injured fatally. 

The following table gives a summary of accidents reported dur- 
ing the last two years: 

Snmmary of Accidents Reported in 1902 and 1903. 





KILLKD. 


IXJUIBD. 


Total*. 


Kn.I.EU AND IXJURF.n. 


I*M. 


■toa. 


IMt. 


IMS. 


IM*. 


l*U. 


Pttsscngcrs, 
Employees, 
Other persons,. 


18 
10 
67 


16 

9 

59 


2,861 

237 

1,070 


2,662 

152 

1,186 


2379 

247 
1,127 


2,568 

161 

1,245 


Totals, 


85 


8. 


4,168 


3,890 


4,253 


3,974 



The New London (Conn.) Street Railway Co. has granted a per- 
manent increase of pay to its employes without solicitation. For the 
first si.K months" service the rate is 18 cents an hour; for the next 
18 months, 19 cents, and 20 cents an hour after two years' service. 
The raise takes the place of the bonus which has been given 10 the 
men each year. 



I.u.", .\ii}>clcs Notes. 

The refusal of tlu- Pacific Electric and Los .\ngeles Railway 
>'nni|Kinics lo exchange transfers at gth and Main Sts., has aroused 
the indignation of residents of i^ih street and others, who are in 
favor of universal Iranstcrs. January isl the Pacific Electric Rail- 
way Co. began lo operate the E. 9th St. line, which had been oper- 
ated by the Los .\ngeles Railway Co., which issued transfers lo 
all of its connecting lines. A committee of E. ylh St. residents 
recpiesled the two companies lo exchange transfers. The request 
being refused, it was decided to test the slate law which requires 
two street railway companies to exchange transfers when the ma- 
jority of the stock of both is owned by the same parties. Several 
persons boarded cars of the Los .\ngcles Railway Co., paid their 
lares and asked for transfers to the gth St. cars. On being re- 
fused, they iKiarded the glh St. car and, on refusing to pay a 
second fare, were ejected from the car. Some of ihcm have 
brought suit against the company and llie mailer is still in the 
conns. 

The railway companies claim that they are not controlled by the 
.simc interests and are therefore not bound to exchange transfers. 
The people, on the other hand, declare that if the companies are 
not so controlled they are violating another law which prohibits 
two such companies from operating on the same track for more 
Ihan five consecutive blocks. There arc several places in the city 
where this is done, and the people also point to the fact that 
these same companies do exchange transfers at other points in the 
city. It is feared by the citizens that the Pacific Electric Railway Co. 
is seeking to gain control of gth St. in order to use it for an out- 
let for its numerous inlerurbau lines, and that eventually the com- 
pany will abandon its local line there. 

The Los Angeles Intcrnrban R.-.ilway Co, has acquired the 
properties of the California Pacific Railway Co.. the Los .\ngeles 
I raction Co. and the Los Angeles & Glcndale Electric Railway 
Co., which is under construction. Mr. Epcs Randolph, vico-prpsi- 
<ient and general manager of the Pacific Electric Railway Co., is 
president, and Mr. S. B. McLciicgan has been appointed superin- 
tendent in charge of operation. The systems embraced by this 
'iganization arc a part of the holdings of the Hunington-Hclln: 
syndicate. 

It is reported that Mr, .Mibut Kinney has sold his Santa 
Monica line to the Los Angeles Pacific Railway Co, for $280,000, 
this being the actual cost of the road as far as it is built. The 
road was begun some time ago and Mr, \V, S, Hook, of the Los 
.\ngeles Traction Co., was interesled with Mr. Kinney. Since the 
Traction interests were purchased by Mr. Huntington Mr. Kin- 
ney has had no means of getting his cars into the city. 

Mr, Richard Nelson, mechanical foreman of the mechanical and 
labor departments of the Pacific Electric and Los .\ngelcs Railway 
companies, has resigned and Mr, G, H, Snyder has been appointed 
lo succeed him. 

For some time the Pacific Electric Railway Co, has been troubled 
with wire thieves who have made several raids on its storage yard, 
,\t the last raid the thieves came with a horse and wagon and 
were making off with several coils of wire when they were de- 
lected by the company's watchman and one of them was shot. 
Other members of the gang have been run down by the police. 

May (Jiaigc Ten Cent.s for Fare. 

The right to charge more Ihan five cents for a fare from Cincin- 
nati to Carthage, O,. has been sustained by the Circuit Court at 
Cincinnati, Citizens of Carthage brought suit against the Mill 
Creek Valley Street Railw.ay Co, and the Cincinnati Street Rail- 
way Co. to secure a reduced rate, the contention being that the 
route between Fountain Square, Cincinnati, and Gas Hall, Carthage. 
is an extension of the old Main Si. line that runs from Fountain 
Square to the Zoo, and hence the companies could charge but five 
cents. The companies asserted that the route from the Zoo to 
Carthage is an independent line under grant of the county com- 
missioners of March, 1889, and the court upholds this contention. 



The West Chester, Kennett & Wilming.on Electric Railway Co, 
has inaugurated a through freight service between Wilmington, Del., 
and Toughkenamon. Pa., which includes Hockessin, "Vorklyn and 
Kennett Square, 



Vas. 20. 1004] 



STREET RAILWAY RE\1E\V, 



119 



Graphical Mathematics. II. 



BY A. G. HOLMAN. .\1. E. 



In the "Review" for January. iyo_(. page 27. attention was called 
to the substitution, for convenience, of small articles to represent 
larger objects. In this way pebbles could be moved about, arranged 
in groups, a small number of the same taken from or subtracted 
from a larger number or two numbers added. 

.\ convenient [Xirtable arrangement for recording numbers in a 
crude way, in fact, a system by which counting could be done 
even without a knowledge of the names of mmibers. would be a 
flat stone or a strip of bark, upon which marks could be made. To 
make a record of the number of sheep in a flock (Fig. 8) it would 
only be necessary, as the animals passed by the observer, to make 
a tally mark for each animal. But it is evident that with increasing 
i:uml)ers this process would soon become decidedly tedious and un- 
satisfactory. Laziness, the step-mother of invention, would prompt 
some abbreviation of the tally marks. 

For the record of a single object the primitive tally mark or the 
picture of one finger extended (Fig. 9) could not be improved 
upon, and the figure i has come down to us from antiquity practi- 
cally unchanged. For the sign of two, two marks could be made 
more quickly if they were joined and probably the first figure two 
was two tally marks joined or a representation of two fingers held 




353 



FIG. S. 



f IG. 9. 
PIG. II'. 
FIG. 11. 



up to represent that number (Fig. 10;. I'or case of writing, and 
perhaps to make it more distinct from the sign for three, the two 
marks were afterward drawn in opposite directions. In the same 
manner three would combine three marks (Fig. 11), and the 
middle one would gradually develop into a loop. Figure four un- 
doubtedly began as a representation of a four-sided figure or square 
(Fig. 12), which is still quite closely followed in the written char- 
acter. Eight was dimply two fours combined ( F"ig. I.l), and after- 
ward modified for convenience in writing. 

The origin of the other characters in our ordinary system of 
figures, known as the Arabic numerals, can be readily conjectured 
along the same lines. Possibly the character for nought or zero 
was an attempt cither to indicate a dish with "O" in it (Fig. 14) 
or a figure with no sides. 

Thus it will be seen that even "figuring" was made possible bv 
the graphical idea which supplied it with figures. 

Turning again to more direct dealings with lines to represent 
numbers, let us draw upon another trade for an illustration. To 
secure a frame regularly graduated and a method of comparing the 
relations of numlicrs thereon, we arc not dependent upon bricks, as 
Heicribed in the last paper. The carpenter can produce a sort of 
picket fence (Fig. 15) which will serve the same purpose. Let 
lhi« lie taken as a crude illustration of an evenly graduated scale. 
.Mlhough fences arc more often the basis for a discussion of 
crops or a law-suit, it can \k shown that they have mathematical 
qualities. If the spaces iKtwecn pickets were munl>ered the addi- 
tion of 12 and 19 could \x done by taking the measurement with 
a stick of the distance occupied by 12 s-paccs and laying off this 
distance to the left of the 19th space, when the end of the stick 
would fall upon the 31 as the sum. Subtraction could be done by 
reversing the process. If in place of a fence and a long stick, a 
gradiulcd line and a pair of dividers were used. Ihe same opera- 
tion could be performed in a more convenient way. 



Next in order would be a problem in nniltiplication. For a simple 
illustration, say that the product of 8 nuiltiplied by 5 was required. 
Multiplication is, in principle, only the repeated additions of the 
r.unibcr. Thus, to multiply 8 by 5, take the space of 8 pickets and 
lay it off five tiir.cs along the fence and the result of 40 will be 
obtained. Division is the reverse process. To divide 40 by 8 see 




8 gr B 00 m.. 



-illiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



FIG. 12. 
FIG. 16. 



FIG. 13. 



KIG. 13, 



how many times the 8 picket space can be laid off upon the 40 
pickets. 

It is evident that these operations can also be performed by step- 
ping off the measurements with dividers upon a line or rule marked 
with equidistant spaces (Fig. 16). 

.\nothcr possible problem in division would be to divide a certain 
quantity into any required number of equal parts. If one-fourth 
of 40 was required it could by trial be found upon the fence. But 
suppose one-third of 40 were asked for. Such a question in rela 
tion to a division of animals, where only units can be dealt vvilli. 
would show the result of 3 groups of 13 each and a remainder 
of one. But in the division of a strip of land, for instance, there 
can always be an exact division graphically into equal parts, hut 
not directly by the methods thus far examined. 

When a slick is broken over the knee into two equal lengths the 
problem of division by two is solved. The same treatment of the 
two pieces amounts to a division of the total length by four. The 
land could be spaced into parts representing divis'ion by any multiple 
of two by the doubling up of a cord which was the same length 
as the strip. The division into any number of equal parts not a 
multiple of two must be done by trial or by some method differing 
from those considered. 

A new use for the picket fence now presents itself (Fig. 17). 
Suppose that the line AB, which is some length between 6 and 7 
spaces. on the fence, is to be divided into ten equal parts. If the 




B C 




KIG. l.S. 



pickets are nailed on with mie ti.nl in each rail the fence can be 
swung up on an angle and sliul iqi. so to speak, until the width oc- 
cupied by ten spaces is the exact length of the line AH. Hut as the 
nails have not moved on Ihe rails the pickets arc still equidistant 
from each other, and therefore by the swing of the fence the prob- 
lem is solved. It is upon this principle that a line m;iy I)c divided 
into equal parts without the trial process of spacing with dividers, 
for if from one end of the .line CD (l'"ig. 18) another line CF, is 
drawn at any angle with it, and the required number of divisions 
are stepped off of any convenient length on this line, then by join- 
ing the last division with the other end of the given line, as FD, 
and drawing other lines parallel with it, the line CD will Iw c(|ually 
divided as required, 'llie value of the process arises from the fact 
that multiplication, or the running off of spaces on CK, can be per- 
formed without any experiment ing. 

The expedient of division by a swinging Lattice f)r divided fliag- 
onal is utilized in a simple instrument designed for spacing an in- 
dicator diagram into equal jiarls so as lo compute the average 
wi<llli. As diagrams vary in length this' instrument, arranged prac- 



12U 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV, No. 2. 



lically like the swinging fence above illustrated, can be shut up to 
accommodate the exact length. 

It may be noted here that while graphical operations are usual- 
ly considered as approximations, certain results arc shown with ex- 
actness which cannot always be expressed in figures. 

One-third of a line IJ inches long cannot be exactly expressed 
in decimals, but the division chn lie definitely shown on a draw- 
ing. The exact relation between the diameter and circumference of 
a circle cannot be exactly expressed numerically, even with 300 
places of decimals, but the actual lines unquestionably bearing the 
true relations can be graphically produced. 

A mechanical proMein imce presented In the writer was solved 



the thumb screw, (he wings pressed into the groove and the shutter 
pushed along the groove, when the divided portions will drop suc- 
cessively from the end of the groove. 

The next paper will explain the arrangement of simple forms 
of calculating machines lused on the principles already considered 
and present other methods of graphical work. 




North Dakota Owns a Trolley Line. 

.\n electric railway ba^ just Ihl-ii cumpU'lcd ni hisniarck, N. 13., 
which was built under the direction of an electrical engineeer em- 
ployed by the slate, with .labor pjid by the state, under authorisa- 
tion of the North Dakota legislature of u/ij. The line is 8.500 ft. 
long, and its route is from the railroad station to the state capitol. 
The Toad will be operated by the state under a franchise granted 
by the common council, which gives it the right to operate an 
electric street railroad for JO years, with a maximum fare charge of 
live cents. The road was built chietly to accommodate the legislators, 
who meet in January and February. It will serve both as a freight 
and passenger line and will haul coal, mail and express niatler for 
the slate house, liismarck has a population of 4.000 only. 



by the method last considered. .-Vs an illustration of the possible use- 
fulness of the present line of study it may be of interest. An 
apparatus was to be designed for druggists' use which would sep- 
arate the total quantity of a prescription for powders into any dc- 
nred number of equal parts. One of the plans submitted is out- 
lined in the annexed figure (Fig. 19), in which a is a table sliding 
horizontally under the end of the glass tube b, in which the 
powder to be divided can be placed ; c is a short cylinder of the 
same diameter as the tube, and attached to the slide, with a piston 
working therein; d is a graduated scale connected with the piston 
at e and pivoted at f. Each space on the scale is equal in length 
to e f ; f is exactly at the height of the bottom of the tube, and e 
is at the same height as the top of the piston. Then, by the 
principle of diagonal division, when the division on the scale 
corresponding to the re- 
quired number, 12 for 
instance, is brought op- 
posite the top of the 
powder in the tube, the 
piston is one-twelfth of 
that distance from the 
top of the cylinder. Set- 
ting the stroke of the 
piston at that point the 
slide is moved back and 
forth under the tube. At 
each forward stroke the 
cylinder measures off 
one powder from tube 
and at backward stroke 
the piston connection 
strikes tlic incline g, 
brings the piston to a 
level with surface of 
slide, where the charge 
can be conveniently re- 
moved. 

For certain materials the cleaning of the piston and cylinder 
and tube becomes a troublesome detail. A simpler device on the 
same principle is shown in the sketch annexed (Fig. 20). A metal 
block has a V-shaped groove and movable blocks. A shutter has 
a scries of slats with V-shaped wings. The material to be di- 
vided is placed in the groove between the blocks. The shutter is 
closed up until the required number of wings exactly matches the 
space between blocks. Tlie slats are then clamped in position by 



Low Open Cars. 

The accompanying illustrations show the partial side and end 
elevations of a new car patented by Mr. Myron Rounds. This car is 
designed to furnish a low car without sacrificing seating capacity 
or making an unusual arrangement of seats necessary. This object 
is accomplished by raising a part of the floor above the trucks 
suthcicntly to clear the wheels and having the remainder of the 
floor on a lower level or about 29 in. above the track. Fifteen 
of the passengers on this car would be on the higher floor level 
or at the same height as in the ordinary car and the remainder 
would be on the lower level of the floor. The two seats over the 
raised portion of the floor are provided with a mechanism for 
raising them to a height similar to the difTerencc Ijetwccn the floor 
levels. Fig. I is a portion of a cross section showing the scat 
raised and its operating mechanism. Also the short step .\ which 
can be made any convenient height. Fig. 2 is a side elevation show- 
ing the raised floor over the truck and motor, also a section of the 
raised seat and its operating mechanism. The turning or reversing 
of the seat back raises or lowers the seat as desired so that the 
height from the floor to the seat always remains the same which- 
ever way the passenger is facing. As the step from the running 
board to the car floor is the" most diflicult one, owing to the 




FIG. 1. 



absence of the post grab handle, the running board might ad- 
vantageously be placed at B which would make the last step easy 
and safe and also more convenient for the conductor to collect 
his fares and see his passengers. In this case the step A could 
be dispensed with if desired. With the style of truck sliown there 
would be but five passengers on the elevated part at each end of 
the car although trucks with wheels all of the same size could 
be used if desired. 



Feb. 20, 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



121 



Electric RaihMiys of York, Pa. 

The niodeni industrial and commercial advancement of York, 
which is the third manufactnring city in Pennsylvania, dates from 
the inauguration of its street railway system, the later rapid transit 
facilities especially being a predominant factor in the development 
of real estate and industries, and the means of attracting outside 
investors. In 1886, Captain W. H. Lanius, one of York's best- 
known capitalists, who was the pioneer in street railway enterprises 
of the city and county, organized the York Street Railway Co., 
of which he was inadc president. Horse cars were originally 
operated upon about two miles of track. From time to lime the 
modest system was extended, until in 1892, when the hor,se car3 
were abandoned for electricity, the company's lires reached every 
quarter of the city. 

nie York Street Railway Co's. system and the several suburban 
and rural lines radiating from York are owned and operated by 
the York County Traction Co., which was incorporated under the 
laws of Xew Jersey June 30, 1900, as a consolidation of the York 
Street Railway Co., York & Dover Electric Railway Co., York & 
Dallastown Electric Railway Co., York & Manchester Electric Rail- 
way Co., Red Lion & Windsorville Street Railway Co., York & 
Wrightsville Street Railway Co., Colonial Street Railway Co., York 
Steam Heating Co., York Light, Heat & Power Co., Edison Elec- 
tric Light Co. and the W'e.stinghouse Electric Light & Power Co. 
The York County Traction Co. operates under this consolidation 
over 45 miles of street railways; more than 12 miles of new lines 
are under construction, while preliminary surveys have been made 
for more than 30 additional miles of rural trolley roads to be 
built shortly. 

The rolling stock of the consolidated lines comprises 65 cars. 
Thirty-five Brill cars and three trailers are operated on the city 
and suburban system and 19 Brill combination cars are used on the 
rural lines. 'Hie company employs about 175 men, of whom 65 
are carmen. 

The York Street Railway Co. operates 12 miles of tracks, extend- 
ing from Center square, in the heart of the city, to West York. 
North York, East York, Windsor Park, Norway Park, Highland 
Park, Violet Hill and the grounds of the York Country Club. 

The York & Dallastown Electric Railway Co. system was put in 
operation July 27, 1901, with six miles of track; the Red Lion & 
Windsorville line was opened July 15, 1902, with four miles of 
track; the York & Dover electric railway was opened November 
27, 1901, with seven iniles of track; the York & Manchester road 
was opened in July, 1903. with six miles of track, and will l)c com- 




INTKItlOK OF 8TATII1N AT yoUK, I'A, 

plelcd to York Haven, nine miles from York, within a few nionlbs; 
(he York & Wrightsville line lias \xxit constrnclcd as far as llellani, 
a village nine miles east of York, and when completed will have 
over 12 miles of track. 

.Since the opening of the several rural lines, with the promise 
of addili'nial lines to tic o|)ened, York has entered upon a new era 
of industrial cxpansifm and suburban development. .Many tracts 
of land environing the city have been acquired for building -imr- 
p<ne*, new niburba have sprung up and all sorts of industrial plants 



have been established. The populous towns reached have benefited 
by being placed in more rapid communication with the county cap- 
ital, and many towns not. so favored are urging the extension of 
the traction company's systeiu. The freight traffic upon the rural 
lines has become so heavy that special freight cars have been 
placed in service and' a central freight station has been established 
at York, in a handsome three-story building on West Market St., 
a few doors from Center square. The passenger slalion is also in 




NEW PAVlIvION AT F.\RQUH.\R PARK. 

the same building. Tlie company's car barns arc located in the 
extreme west end of the city. 

The company reaps the benefit of a fine park system, the principal 
points of interest on its lines being Highland Park, near York; 
Brookside Park, near Dover; Cool Spring Park, near Manchester; 
Lake View Park, near Red Lion; grounds of the York Country 
Club; park and plant of the York water company, south of York; 
Farquhar and Penn Parks; the Penn Park Athletic Association 
grounds; the York Athletic Association grounds; the York Agri- 
cultural Society's grounds, and tlie grounds of I lie Out Door Club, 
all within the city limits. 

Highland Park is a delightful elevation on the banks of Codorus 
Creek. It is shaded by giant forest trees and contains many ro- 
mantic promenades and sylvan nooks. A spacious theatre, a broad 
(lancing pavilion, observatories and restaurant are among the park 
liuildings. Brookside Park was established by the company last 
>unnner and was liberally patronized by picknickers and pleasure 
seekers. The park possesses great natural beauty, and is, an ideal 
outing resort. Buildings were reared and the grounds otherwise 
improved last season, and this spring additional improvements, 
which will include an athletic field, will be made. Cool Spring 
Park is a recent acquisition which will be exploited next summer. 
I he other, parks named arc either public, or are controlled by indi- 
vidual;?. The company has secured several sites for iiarks which 
will be opened as the development of the system demands. 

In the early part of 1904 the immense plant of the York Haven 
Water & Power Co., at York Haven, will supply power for the 
York Traction Co's. lines. Provision for this innovation has 
already been made. A sub-stalion has been built a quarter of a 
mile outside the city from which the power will be transmitted 
lo the traction company's power house, situated in the north end 
of the city. This power house is a commodious structure and its 
equipment, consisting of !x>ilcrs of a combined capacity of 1,500 
h. p., engines anrl generators of a total capacity of 2,000 li. p., and 
all the modern electrical machinery, is being reconstructed'. It is 
ex|)ccted that the almost inexhaustible source of power (the Sus- 
quehanna River), will so augment the possibilities of electric trac- 
tion in York County that before the en<l of 1904 the .system of the 
York Coniily Traction Co. may embrace 100 or more miles of 
track, placing all the towns of conscqueiKC within a raduis of ^o 
iniles in trolley comnuniicalion with York, while evenlually all 
the large inland towns of southeaslern Pennsylvania and central 
Maryland will Income accessible. 

In accordance with Ibis prediction the York Traction Co., on Dc- 
ccnibir .jotb, consuinni.iled negotiations which li.id been under 



122 



STRKKT RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol XIV. No. 2. 



way (or some lime for the purchase of the llanovrr & McSherr>'- 
town Street Railway Co., together with the llaiuiver Light & Power 
Co's. i)ro|)crty. The merging of the two line* will form oik- system 
covering almost every important jioint in York Comity. I'he pur- 
chase price was $100,000. llanovi-r has a populaliun of 10,000, and 
there arc nnmcrous smaller towns along tlie line which will be 
hronght ill proximity lo York. It is" Iwlievcd that the next move 
will bo 10 connect Gellysburg and Lilllcslown, thus forming a 
complete link between York, Ualtimore and Washington, t). C. 

Ihc officers of the York County Traction Co. arc: rrcsidcnt. 
William H.Lanius; vice-president. Gricr llcrsh: secretary, George 
.S. Schmidt; treasurer, Ellis S. Lewis: general manager, S. M. 
.Manifold. 



To Keep the Bell Cord in I'lacc. 



Ur.c ul tl'c most cuiniiioii sources of annoj:iMco to llie conductor. 
and one which causes him to be reprimanded often, is the liell 
rope. Krcc|ucntly, in essaying to give the two-bell signal from the 
rear platform of a long car, the second bell docs not ring, owing to 
the fact ili.i: Ibe cord, having been pulled once, remains taut inside 
Ihc car, while it is slack over the platform. Occasionally, too, the 
conductor is unable lo signal the motorman to stop, for the same 
reason, and if it is necessary lo send in three or more bells quickly 
it is sometimes impossible lo do so. In order lo obviate this dil- 
ticulty. Mr. William I. Kelly, of Jersey City, N. J., offers a simple 
suggestion x\hicb looks feasible. His idea is to allow the cord to 
run over a four-inch, grooved iron roller placed in front of and a 
little higher than the bole through which the bell rope runs. It is 
reasoned that the rope would slide over the roller when pulled, 
and being higher than the hole, much of the slack would slip back 
through the hole into ibc car. thus insurini; proper action each time 
■.he cord is pulled. 

(Canadian Notes. 



Last year for the tirst lime in its history the gross earnings of 
the Toronto Railway Co. exceeded $2,000,000. Under an agree- 
ment, the city receives 8 per cent of the gross up to $I,000,OCX); 
10 per cent on from $1,000,000 to $1,500,000; 12 per cent on from 
Si,S00,000 to $2,000,000, and 15 per cent on all over $2,000,000 

During the past year the Hamilton Street Railway Co. netted 
for the civic treasury $23,083. an increase of $3,536 over 1902. The 
Hamilton Radial Electric Railway Co. paid the city $592. 

Mr. W. T. Jennings, right-of-way engineer for the Electrical 
Development Co., Niagara Falls, reported that 85 per cent of the 
right of way has been secured from Niagara Falls to Scarlett's 
Road. Lambton. 751/1 miles. The minimum width is 80 ft. About 
(10 acres of land has been acquired at Lambton for terminal fa- 
cilities. The company has also acquired about 530 acres adjacent 
lo the Chippewa River to be transferred to manufacturers who use 
its power. 

On behalf of street railway employes representatives of the 
Trades and Labor Congress recently waited upon the premier of 
the Ontario government and asked for a measure for the establish- 
ment of a passageway through open cars to enable conductors to 
collect fares without being in danger of falling from the side 
steps. It was advanced that the Hamilton and Ottawa companies 
are now building cars of that character. 

Because the Kingston city council refused a request to extend a 
switch 800 ft. on the main street, the street railway company 
served notice that it would suspend operation for the time being. 
The company claims that by its agreement it need only to run a 
car once in six months to retain its franchise. 

The Ottawa & New York Ry., which operates between Ottawa 
and Tupper Lake, N. Y., is to be converted to electricity this year. 
Estimates are being prepared. The present cars and equipment 
will be retained. Power will be generated at Ottawa and Corn- 
wall, Out., and at Massena Springs, N. Y. 

Messrs. Oilman Brothers & Burden, of Pokirk, and Mr. H. W. 
Shaw, of the Shaw-Cassells Co.. of Hawska, arc projecting an 
electric railway from Fredericton to Woodstock, N. B. Power 
will be obtained at Pokirk Falls. 

The city of Chatham, Otit., has granted a loan of $50,000 to 



the Chatham. Wallaceburg & I-ake Eric Railway Co., which will 
build an electric railway from Chatham to Wallaceburg, and from 
diatham to Rondeau. 

The Ottawa River Railway Co., which was incorporated to build 
from Grenville lo Montreal, is seeking entrance into Montreal. 
Ihc company agrees lo sell 10 tickets for 25 cents good over the 
line in Montreal and Ville St. I^uis for all persons on all days 
between 5 :.1o a. in. and 11:30 p. m. Between 11:30 p. m. and 5:30 
a. m. two tickets will lie required lor one fare. The company will 
pave the streets lictween the tracks and 18 in. outside, will water 
them in summer and remove the snow in winter. 

Ihe new St. James and St. Oiarles electric railway system has 
been opened between Winnipeg anil Deer I-odge, with a 50-minulc 
service. 

The diflferenccs which have existed between Ihe Toronto Railway 
Co. and the city for four years seem likely to be adjusted by a 
recent offer of the company regarding new routes and extensions 
aii<l minor operating details. 

Nttvci Rotary Snow Plow. 

The .accompanying illustrations show a novel type of snow plow 
designed by Mr. M. J. O'Donnell, roadmaster of the Seattle Electric 
Co. The superstructure is a cab nnunted upon a turn-table which 





ROTARY SNOW PLOW. 

is carried on a platform car mounted on double trucks. The king 
pin is hollow and through it the wiring for the truck motors is 
carried, this wiring being sufficiently flexible to permit the cab to 
swing through 180°. In the cab are the controller for the car mo- 
tors, and a motor for driving the snow culling apparatus, with its 
controller. The snow is removed from the track by a screw 36 in. 
in diameter and 7 ft. long, which is mounted at the front end of 



Feb. 20. 1004.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



1: 



the plow in a scoop lliat is suspcndcil from the front of the supcr- 
<;nicturc, and normally rests upon shoes sliding upon the rails. The 
screw has a pitch of 48 in. and is driven at a speed of about 300 
r. p. m. by sprockets and chain gearing from a driving shaft in the 
nose of the plow; this driving shaft is driven by the motor through 
a cable. 

The scoop is free to swing about the forward driving shaft, from 
which it is supported, and can swing back and up 8 in. in order to 
dear obstructions on the track. Springs hold the scoop down against 
the rail under normal conditions. 

The action of the rotcling screw is to throw out at one end the 



Electric roads carry an imnionse number of passengers, only a small 
proportion of which ;ire taken from the steam road, as the great 
hulk of this travel originates by reason of the frequency of trains 
and cheap service on the electric road. While passenger travel can 




SPECr.XI. ROT.XRY SNOW TI-OW. 



snow «hith is gathered into the scoop by rensoii of the forward 
motion of the plow, the snow when taken from the track being 
thrown entirely to one side. The need for the tuni-lable and rever- 
sible cab is readily apparent. 

Letters patent were granted to .\I. J, OUouiiell and Otis Cutting 
on Oct. 5, 1903, the claims allowed being for a rotary snow plow in 
combination with a reversible or rotating car body, and for the 
hollow king pin. 



Freight Busines.s on Electric Railways. 

We reprint herewith e.xccrpts from an article entitled, "Freight 
Business on Electric Railways," which was prepared by Mr. James 
D. Hawks, president of the Detroit, Ypsilanti, .^nn Arbor & Jack- 
son Ry., and which originally appeared in The Gateway : 

For the purpose of this discussion it is advisable to dismiss from 
consideration electrified steam roads as having no bearing and also 
to eliminate electric roads running through a country not already 
supplied with steam road facilities. This narrows the problem down 
to the consideration of the class which includes the majority of 
electric railroads which have been built, practically in competition 
to steam roads between populous .-itics and villages, and through 
thickly settled country. It is true that many of these roads carry 
what is called freight, but this is a inisnomer, as they carry what 
•.bo'iid more properly be classified as express matter or package 
freight. The usual practice is to adopt the same classification as 
the steam railroad, down to and including fifth-class, with some 
special commodity rates, and to charge about the same rate as the 
steam road. 

The commanding advantage which suburban electric roads have 
conilitutcs the fact that their main business is done on city roads, 
with no expense to them for terminals. A new condition confronts 
them as soon as they depart from their original purpose, for the 
moment electric roads undertake to haul cheap freight they will 
have to provide terminals. This would be practically an impossi- 
bility in the larger cities. If there were only a few freight cars a 
day to move there is still the initial expense of providing a freight 
locomotive to move them and a power house to furnish current, 
that would lie out of all proportion to the revenue, and, on the 
other hand, if many cars are to be moved the electric road must 
become a competitor and take freight away from the steam road. 

The situation in the passenger department is entirely different. 



he increased ininienscly. frciglu nmvcnicnl pracucauy cannot be 
increased at all. It would be impossible to go into the market 
to-day and get money to build steam roads paralleling existing 
lines; they why should it be any easier to get money to build 
electric lines paralleling steam roads if it is known that the electric 
roads are expected to get the freight away from the steam roads? 
There is also a grave question as to whether electricity is a cheaper 
motive power for hauling freight than a steam locomotive, and it 
certainly has not been proved so far. 

Instances are not wanting to prove that passengers on electric 
roads are willing lo pay the same fore that steam roads charge, the 
best evidence being that steam roads have reduced their fares in an 
unsuccessful eflfort to compete with the electric roads. The fact is, 
other things being equal, passengers prefer electric roads, and this 
preference is shown many times where other things are not equal. 
No one ever heard of a person asking visitors to take a ride on a 
steam road for fun, but thousands of dollars are spent every year 
by people riding on electric roads for pleasure. But these advan- 
tages of an electric road in passenger transportation do not extend 
to haiiliug low-class freight, and besides there are specific argu- 
nu-nts against the latter business. The very life of an electric road 
depends on the cars going through the busy parts of the cities and 
villages on its line, and it is almost the universal custom for the 
councils in cities and villages to insist on a girder tram rail or a 
girder groove rail where streets are paved. This makes the adop- 
tion of a special whe-1 necessary, and suburban roads are driven to 
use a small flange and a narrow tread. Most of the suburban roads, 
,arc hid with T-rail outside of the cities, but there would be very 
little freight to be hauled between the outskirts of one city and 
the outskirts of the next one. 

While it is believed that the package freight has gone to the 
electric road to stay, it can be readily seen that if there was enough 
of it to produce congestion the great advantage of quick handling 
might be lost. It will be many years before the well-located sub- 
urban roads can work up the legitimate passenger business that is 
in sight. Most of them have so far been contented with such busi- 
ness as comes to them, but by proper efTort this business can be 
increased many fold, especially in the summer time. It will re- 
quire, however, undivided attention to the needs of the people and 
attractions in the way of parks and resorts. The (|uicker the sub- 
urban roads quit talking about hauling low-class freight the better 
for them. 



134 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV. No. z. 



Personal. 

MES.Sk> \ (. AK.MSTRONG AND J .\l .M KINSON were 
recently .ippoiiitod representatives of the Omtimioiis R.iil Joint Co. 
of America. 

MR. JOHN L. BUSIINELI. has hccn elected president of the 
.Springfield, I'roy & Piqiia Kailw.-iy Co., to succeed his father, the 
late Asa S. Bushnell. 

MR. S. J. COTSWORTH has heen appointed secretary and 
treasurer of the North .\nierican Railway Construction Co., to suc- 
ceed Mr. I). J. Kvans, resigned. 

.MR. JOHN S. liRAVBILL. JR.. has heen appointed secretary 
ami treasurer of the Lancaster County Railway & Light Co., vice 
Mr. Oscar M. lloflnian. resigned. 

MR, F. G. 1).\NIKLL has resigned as superintendent of the 
Cleveland. Painesville & .Xshtahula Railroad Co., of Cleveland, O., 
the resignation taking eflfect I'ehrnary 1st. 

MR. Ci. J. SMITH has resigned the position of assistant super- 
intendent of the St. Louis Car Co, to heconic master mechanic of 
the Metropolitan Street Railway Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

MR. JOHN H. (iL,\l)F. has resigned as secretary and treasurer 
of the South Side Klevatcd Railroad Co,, of Chicago, on account of 
ill health. He had heen connected with the company 15 years, 

MR, rilOMAS 15, RliU.MOND has heen appointed general 
manager of the Mississippi Valley Traction Co., of Moline, 111, 
He was until January ist assistant superintendent of the Saginaw 
Valley Traction Co, 

MR, C. P, TOLM.AN has heen appointed chief engineer of the 
sales department of the National Electric Co,, Milwaukee, to suc- 
ceed Mr, James l\. Denton, who has heen appointed general super- 
intendent of the works, 

MR, S, P. M'GOUGH, heretofore western agent of the Contin- 
uous Rail Joint Co, of .\merica, has heen appointed assistant to Mr, 
,'\, S, Littlelicld, western sales agent of the Lorain Steel Co,, vice 
Mr, D, J. Evans, resigned. 

MR. \VILLL\M GUTHRIE has been appointed superintendent 
of the power house of the Cumberland Valley Traction Co., Har- 
risburg, Pa, He was formerly superintendent of the electric light 
plant at Chambersburg, Pa, 

MR, J. P. CL.ARK. who has been superintending the construc- 
tion of a branch line for the Indiana Union Traction Co., between 
Marion and Huntington, Ind,, has resigned to accept a street rail- 
way position in New York City, 

MR, CHARLES A. ATKINSON, formerly master mechanic of 
the Richmond (Ind,) Street & Internrban Railway Co,, has been 
appointed superintendent of the Medway power house of the Day- 
ton, Springfield & Urbana Electric Railway Co., of Springfield, O. 

MR, J, R. BL.'\CKH.'\LL. who has been acting as superintendent 
of construction for the Oiicago & Joliet Electric Railway Co., will 
succeed Mr. F. E. Fisher as general manager of the company, and 
will assume his new duties .'\pril ist, when Mr. Fisher's resignation 
becomes effective, 

AT A MEETING OF THE DIRECTORS of the Toledo, Bowl- 
ing Green & Southern Traction Co,, January 19th, Mr, Henry Burk- 
hold resigned as vice-president and treasurer, Mr, John Kilgour 
was elected vice-president, and Mr, A. J. Becht was elected treas- 
urer of the company, 

MR. H, C, HARTLEY has resigned as superintendent and pur- 
chasing agent of the Lincoln (Neb,) Traction Co,, to enter busi- 
ness in Lincoln. He entered the employ of the company in Feb- 
ruary, i8g4, as consulting engineer, and in June, 1894, was ap- 
pointed superintendent, 

MR, L, TRUDE.VU has been appointed superintendent of the 
Montreal Street Railway Co,, to succeed Mr, Luke Robinson, re- 
signed. Recently Mr, Trudeau, who is an ex-official of the com- 
pany, returned from .Alexandria, Egypt, where he was connected 
with the tramway service. 

MR, E. C. FOLSOM has been appointed superintendent of the 
Logansport & Wabash Valley Traction Co,, and the city lines of 
Logansport, Wabash and Peru, Ind,, to succeed Mr, Joseph T, 
McNary, resigned. Mr, Folsom was formerly manager of the 
Logansport City Railway Co. 

MR, GEORGE A, STANLEY has been elected president of the 
New Y'ork & Long Island Traction Co,, vice Mr. John E. En- 
sign, resigned, Mr. Stanley was formerly vice-president of the 



company. His home is ni (.ieviland, (>, wiuri he i'. also pur 
chasing agent of the Cleveland Electric RaiUvay Co. 

MR ROBERT MAFEE has heen chosen president of the 
^■llungslnwn (O ) Park & Falls Street Railviay Co., to succeed the 
late Samuel C. Grier, Mr, McAfee, who was formerly director of 
the bureau of public works, of Pittsburg. Pa,, is at present state 
banking commissioner, with headquarters at Harrisburg, Pa, 

MR. J, B, M'CL.'\RV, who a few weeks ago resigned the posi- 
tion of manager of the railway department of the Birmingham 
(Ala,) Railway, Ligl.l & Power Co., has organized the firm of 
J, B, McClary & Co., with headquarters in the First National Bank 
Building, Birmingham, to act as manufacturers' agents for electric 
railway, railroad, mill, mine and furnace supplies 

MR. E. D. ARNOLD, consulting engineer for the Council 
Bluffs, Tabor & Southern Electric Ry., who has lieen in California 
this winter inspecting railroad construction as carried on in the 
West, and .securing data for his road, will return to Creston, la., 
about March Ist, Upon his return he will take up the matter of 
the electrical and mechanical equipment of the new road. 

MR. HOW.XRD E, HUN I INGTON has been .ippointed general 
manager of the Los Angeles Railway Co,, to succeed the late John 
A. Muir. Mr, Huntington is the son of Mr. Henry E. Huntington, 
president of the Los Angeles Railway Co, and the Pacific Electric 
'Railway Co. He is 27 years old. Until his recent appointment he 
has been assistant to the general manager of the Pacific Electric 
Railway Co, 

MR, S, W, WISE has resigned the position of manager of the 
Mississippi Valley Traction Co,, which recently leased the Moline, 
East Moline & Watertown Railway Co,, and has gone to Boston, 
Mass,, to enter upon work at his profession of electrical engineer. 
Before leaving Molino, III., his former headquarters, the employes 
of the company presented him a gold watch fob embellished with 
a Masonic design, 

MR, C. A, .\V.\NT has been appointed claim attorney for the 
Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co., the claim department 
having been recently detache<l from the railway department, Mr. 
.■\vant was forrnerly claim agent for the Southern Ry, at Birming- 
hain, and previous to that was claim agent of the East Tennessee, 
Virginia & Georgia Ry, He has been connected with the claim de- 
partment of the Binnmghani company two years, 

MR, PUTN.AM A. B,\ I'ES, assistant secretary and sales man- 
ager of the Crocker-Wheeler Co,, announces that he has resigned 
that position and will retire from the company March 1st, He has 
formed a partnership with Mr, John Neilson, who was until re- 
cently assistant secretary and assistant treasurer of the New York 
& Stamford Railw.iy Co., and under the firm name of Bates & 
Neilson will conduct a general practice of consultirg electrical en- 
gineering, with offices in New York City. 

MR. T, H, BAILEY WHIPPLE, who last summer resigned a 
position with the Sawyer-Man Electric Co,, in order to participate 
in the reorganization of the sales department of the Nernst Lamp 
Co,, has returned to his former position with the Sawyer-Man 
company. Previous to 1903, when he became connected with the 
Sawyer-Man interests, Mr. Whipple had Iwen general sales agent 
of the Buckeye Electric Co., of Cleveland, and the Jandus Electric 
Co., and established most of the agencies of these two companies 
in the United States, 

MR. WILLI.VM II, BLOSS, who has been chief engineer of the 
Indiana Union Traction Co, since July, 1899. and chief engi- 
neer and roadmaster since igoi, resigned Feb, 15. 1904. to become 
traveling engineer for the Paige Iron Works, of Chicago, Mr, 
Bloss has been with the Indiana Union Traction Co, and its prede- 
cessor, the Union Tr.iclion Co, of Indiana, during the time which 
has witnessed the growth of the system from a comparatively small 
one to one with over 200 miles of track in operation and at the 
present over 100 miles under construction. 

MR. T, E. MITTEN, general manager of the International Trac- 
tion To,, Buffalo. N, Y., sailed on the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grossc 
February 9th for .Amsterdam, Holland. He accompanied Mr, Henry 
J, Pierce, also of Buffalo, who is president of the Netherlands 
Tramway Co., in which Mr. Mitten, Mr, W, Caryl Ely and other 
Buffalo men are interested, and the object of the trip is to make a 
tour of inspection of the properties of the tramway company. The 
company has just completed building about 17 miles of electric 
railway from .Amsterdam to Haarlem, Mr, Mitten also purposes 
to visit France. He will return home about the middle of March, 



Fer 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILA\"AY REVIEW. 



125 



MR. LCKE ROBIXSOX has resigned as superintendent ot the 
Montreal Street Railway Co., on account of ill health, and will 
rest three or four months. He was appointed assistant superin- 
tendent in Februarj', 1903, and in March was appointed to the 
senior office. Prior to going to Montreal he was in Paris, France, 
and before that was assistant superintendent of the London (Ont.') 
Street Railway Co.. and later general superintendent of the Mont- 
real Park & Island Ry., of Montreal. Mr. Robinson, was particu- 
larly active during the recent street railway strikes in Montreal 
and made many friends because of his uniform courtesy and exec- 
utive ability. 

THE PUBLIC SERVICE CORPOR.\TIOX OF NEW JER- 
SEY on January 28th announced the following changes : Mr. Wal- 
ter W. W'heatly resigned as general manager of the railway de- 
partment, the resignation becoming effective February ist. Col. 
Edwin W. Hine, formerly executive agent of the company, ap- 
pointed assistant to the president and designated to represent the 
president in all matters pertaining to the railway department. His 
headquarters will be for the present in Jersey City. Mr. .Albert H. 
Stanley appointed genera! superintendent in charge of the practical 
operation of the street railway service. Previous to going with the 
Public Service Corporation a few months ago, Mr. Stanley was 
general superintendent of the Detroit United Ry. 

MR. F. E. FISHER, who has for si.\ years been general man- 
ager of the Chicago & Joliet Electric Railway Co., has resigned 
that position and will devote his time to the completion and the 
business interests of the Joliet, Plainfield & .\urora Ry., of which 
he is the president. The resignation will become effective Apri! 
1st. When Mr. Fisher, who is also general manager of the Fisher 
Construction Co., went to Joliet, the Oiicago & Joliet system com- 
prised but 22 miles of track, while now it has more than 100 miles, 
several new lines having been built under his supervision. Mr. 
Fisher's brother, Mr. H. .\. Fisher, is manager of the Joliet, Plain- 
field & .Vurora Ry., and president of the Fisher Construction Co., 
and a nephew. Mr. L. D. Fisher, is chief engineer. 

MR. GEORGE G. MULHERN recently resigned as general su- 
perintendent of the Cleveland Electric Railway Co. He spent 41 
years in the street railway business in Cleveland, during which 
time he rose from the position of driver of a mule car to that of 
general superintendent of the Cleveland City Railway Co., of which 
Senator M. .A. Hanna was president. Since the consolidation Mr. 
Mulhern has been general superintendent of the present company. 
On the day of his retirement 150 of the former employes of the 
Cleveland City Ry. surprised him at his Iionie and presented him 
a gold watch chain and a diamond-studded charm. The "boys" 
went to the house in four special cars, accompanied by the "Little 
Consolidated" Band, which was organized by Mr. Mulhern four 
years ago. 



New Publications. 



Obituary. 



MR. GEORGE STEW.ART JOHNSON, vice-president and 
general manager of the Grand Rapids Railway Co., died at his 
home in (Irand Rapids. Mich., Sunday morning. January 31st. His 
death, which was entirely unexpected, followed an operation for a 
growth in the throat which was performed the preceding Wednes- 
day. Mr. Johnson was born at Pontiac, Mich., Dec. 8, 1K50, and 
removed to Grand Rapids with his parents when a child. His early 
education was received at Grand Rapids and was supplemented by 
engineering courses at Philadelphia and .Ann Arbor. He was grad- 
uated from the University of .Michigan in 1873. .After preliminary 
work at Ludington, Mich., and in Canada, he entered the engineer- 
ing department of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad Co., as 
assistant. Rising to the position of chief, he remained there until 
he resigned to go with the Grand Rapids Railway Co. He was 
general manager of the company nine years. 

SEX. MARCUS A. HANNA died February 15th at Washing- 
ton, \i. C, of typhoid fever. He was born at New Lisbon, O., 
Sept. 27, 1837, and removed to Cleveland with the family in 
. 1852. .Mr. Hanna was first engaged in the wholesale grocery busi- 
ness, and next iron and coal, and his firm became a factor in lake 
carrying. By 1877 he had become .the leading financial man of 
Cleveland. He wa« owner and president of the Cleveland Citj 
Railway Co., and was a director in the Union Pacific Ry. He be' 
came United Slates Senator in |8()7. 



STANDARD FORM OF REPORT FOR ELECTRIC RAIL- 
W.AYS. Prepared by a committee of the Street Railway .Account- 
ants' .Association of .America, and approved by that .Association at 
Detroit, Mich., Oct. 10. 1902. Adopted as standard by the Na- 
tional .Association of Railroad Commissioners at Portland, Me., 
July 16, 1903 ; subject to such modifications as the requirements of 
individual states may make advisable. Bristol board covers, 16 
pages, 9 X 14 in. Printed and distributed in accordance with a 
resolution of the Street Railway .Accountants' Association of 
.America, Sept. 4, 1903. 

The report first sets forth the general divisions for accounting 
practice, followed by the subdivisions under each head, the whole 
being shown so clearly that there need be no hesitation concerning 
the proper entry of an item. Full-size schedule blanks are given 
to cover the following accounts: Income .Account, Gross Earnings' 
from Operation, Operating Expenses, Detailed Statement of Rent- 
als of Leased Lines, Comparative General Balance Sheet, Construc- 
tion and Equipment, Construction and Equipment for Leased 
Lines, Capital Stock and Funded Debt, Description of Road and 
Equipment, Mileage, Traffic and Miscellaneous Statistics, General 
Information. On the last page is a blank deposition. 

This report lias beea mailed to each of the commissioners of the 
various state boards, there being about 140 in all ; to the Interstate 
Commerce Commissioners, and to the Census Bureau, and to each 
member of the Street Railway .Accountants' Association. Copies 
may be secured of the secretary-treasurer, Mr. W. B. Brockway, 
No. 40 Morris St., Yonkers, N. Y., or of Mr. Elmer M. White, 
representing the committee, cashier of the Hartford Street Railway 
Co., Hartford, Conn. 

THE BOSTON TRANSIT COMMISSION'S NINTH AN- 
NU.AL REPORT for the year ending June 30, 1903. Cloth, 93 
pages, with maps and illustrations. Published by the Commission- 
ers, L. Leighton Beal, secretary, his report deals largely with the 
East Boston tunnel, and 'also the proposed new tunnel and subway 
in Boston for the Boston Elevated Railway Co., giving all the cor- 
respondence that has passed between the commission and the rail- 
way company in regard to the latter. The report of the chief engi- 
neer describes in detail the work on the East Bo.ston tunnel and 
is illustrated by full-page half-tone engravings showing the main 
features of the work to date. It shows that the longitudinal divi- 
sion of the tunnel, which is the East Boston end, known as Sec- 
tion A, was substantially completed in November, 1900. Section 
B has been advanced from the East Boston side ntarly to .Atlantic 
.Ave., on the Boston side. Section D, which extends under State 
St., in Boston, is practically completed, while Sections E and F, 
which comprise the station under the east end of the old State 
House, and the most westerly division of the tunnel, respectively, 
are progressing, although it will lake some months to complete 
them. The report contains also a plate showing the studies for the 
additional subway and tunnel provided for in the legislative statutes 
of 1902, and it also shows the old subway and part of the East 
Boston tunnel and elevated road. The financial part of the report 
shows that since the beginning the total cost of the snliway has 
been $4,158,73,';, exclusive of alterations and interest, which amount 
to $243,438. The total expenditure on account nf the l'".;ist Unston 
tunnel, including interest, has been $2,i23,to7, of which amount 
$1,232,796 was spent during the year ending June 30, 1903. An 
expenditure of $25,241 is charged to "Boston tunnel and subway" 
for 1903. For bridge work since the beginning there has been ex- 
pended $1,570,191, making the grand total for nil work in which the 
commission is interested $8,121,214 lo dnte. 



The motormen and conductors emplnyeil liy the Stark lUectric 
Railway Co.. of Alliance, O., were surprised January 20th by the 
announcement that their wages would be increased two cents' an 
hour, to lake effect immediately. 



January 19th 28 financiers and engineers, guests of Mr. August 
f?clmont, president of the Interborough Rapid Transit Co., in- 
spected the New York subway as far as I20lh St., the trip being 
made in hand cars. Mr. John H. McDonald, the contractor, and 
Mr. Belmont were congratulated upon llic ,ip))earance of the ni'.uly 
completed way. 



126 



stri:f:t railway review. 



I Vol. XIV, No 2. 



Annual Report of Twin City Kupid Tran.sit Co. 

The anmi.il reiKjrl of the Twin City Kapirl iraiisit Co. Iia« jiist 
liccii recfivrd. Il is cxcrptiuiially intercstiiiK, IxJtIi on account of 
llif »iil)jrct niuttrr, which sho\v.s iqoj |o have l>ecn the most suc- 
cessful year in the company's history, and because of its typograph- 
ical excellence. The report cimpriscs the report of the pre^ident. 
.VIr. Thomas Ixiwry, followed by detailed statements by the auditor, 
.Mr. IC S. Fatlee; these arc supplemented by half-tone views of the 
I'onipany's steam and water power plants, the new Minneapolis 
ami St. Paul suh-.slatiuns, interior and exterior views of cars, and 
a map of the system showing present lines and pro[Kised extensions, 
etc. The operating st:itistics for IQ03 will be found in the Financial 
Deparlnient of this issue of the "Reviett." 

In his report President Lowry states that the work on the new 
"team power plant is rapidly nearing completion. It is 150 ft. x 
J55 ft., and 86 ft. Iii(jb. with heavy limestone foundations and 
htick superstructure. I he floors, roof and coal bunkers are a 
i-omliination of steel and concrete and the building is entirely lire 
proof. It will contain three engine and generator units of 27,000 
h. p. maximum capacity; lioilcrs and stokers of 30,000 h. p. maxi- 
mum capacity : coal conveyors and crushers of 75 tons per hour 
i-:ipacity ; coal bunkers of .l.coo tons capacity, with complete equip- 
:uent of condensers, heaters, pumps and auxiliaries. The plans 
allow an increase to live engine and generator units of 45,cco h. p. 
capacity and 24 boiler units of 40,000 h. p. niaximuui total capacity. 

Work on the two sub-stations and ollice buildings in Minneap- 
olis and Si. Paul has almost reached completion The Minneapoli- 
building is three stories, 80 x 150 ft., and the St. Paul building two 
stories, 80 x 150 ft. Both are of pressed brick, terra cotla trim 
Miings, roofs and floors of steel and concrete, and fire proof. Each 
«ub-station will contain three rotary converters of 9,600 h. p. capac- 
ity, and the buildings will allow for an increase of too per cent. 
I he present equipment of rotaries will be rc-arranged, four of the 
units being installed in the present water power station, two in a 
sub-station in the Midway district and two in a sub-station on the 
Stillwater interurban line. The stoam power house will be connected 
with these sub-stations by a system of underground conduits, cables 
and overhead line:;. 

The company builds its own cars and the report deals in part with 
the excellent results obtained since the adoption of a 45-ft. semi- 
convertible car, the earnings between winter and sunnner months 
being more nearly eq.ial since the larger cars were adopted in the 
spring of 1897. 

Many new extensions and impio\cmcnts arc outlined in the re- 
port, among them being the completion of third and fourth inter- 
urban lines between St. Paul and Minneapolis; an extension to 
South St. Paul, one to White Bear Village; one to South Still- 
water and another to Lake Phalen in St. Paul. 

The report shows that the gross and net earnings more than 
(ionbied between 1897 and 1903, the gross for 1897 being $2,009,121 
and the net $1,007,041. while the gross for 1903 was $4,063,938 and 
the net $2,185,888. The report also states that former reports have 
^liown a large surplus, such as that of 1901, which was $2,700,284, 
and that of 1902, which was $2,991,346. This is in a sense mislead- 
ing, it is explained, as it does not represent actual cash surplus on 
hand, but shows surplus over operating expenses, charges and divi- 
<lcnds, but expended in betterments and improvements. The com- 
pany has, therefore, transferred former "surplus" to "roadway," 
"equipment", etc., and surplus appearing in future reports will mean 
cash in hand or its equivalent. 



The Columbus, Delaware & Marion Electric Railway Co. recently 
purchased the rights of way of the Columbus, Delaware & Northern 
Ry. for $5,064.50. The latter company was a rival that gave way to 
the former. 

The Arnold Electric Power Station Co., of Chicago, has been re- 
tained by the Detroit, Flint & Saginaw Ry. to design its power house 
and equipment and also the electric distribution system for the pro- 
posed trolley line between Saginaw and Flint. 



The Wichita (Kan.) Railroad & Light Co. distributed among 58 
employes last month $<)65.37 as a reward for faithful service. The 
amount was determined by the earnings of the road for the last 
six months, which amounted to $12,968. This is the fourth divi- 
dend thus distributed. 



.Malleable FlanKUs fi>i- Piping:. 

I he Crane Co., Giicago. has mailed us a circular letter discuss- 
ing this subject, which we reproduce here, believing that the mat- 
ter will interest power plant managers and engineers; 

"For all practical pur|)oses, malleable flanges arc equal to steel ; 
they cost less and can be (urnish-d more promptly. The following 
claims arc made for tkcm : 

"I. Extra heavy malleable flanges are stronger tlian card weight 
pipe to which they may be attached. This has been demonstrated 
by screwing malleable flanges on pipe and then bursting the pipe 
under hydraulic pressure. The I'anges were not afTected by a 
pressure which ruptured the pipe. 

"2. F'xtra heavy malleable flanges are stronger than the bolt' 
This has been demonstrLted by hydraulic tests and also by bolting 
two flanges together with an iron ring 4^ in. thick between them, 
inside the bolt holes. We find in every instance we can break the 
bolts without injuring the flanges. 

"3. .Malleable flanges ire stronger thin the cast inm flanged lit- 
l;ngs. cast iron valves, or separators used in connection with them 
on every power plant. 

"4. Hy improved methods in ca«-ting and annealing we are en- 
abled to produce flanges very uniform in solidity and strength. Much 
more uniform than any steel flange castings we have yet seen. 

"5. Malleable flanges will stand a great deal of hammering or 
abuse and can not be injured by carelessness in erecting. 

"I here can be nothing gained by using a stronger material for 
flanges than malleable iron, for the reason that when a plant is 
fitted i^p with malleable flanges, they are the strongest part of the 
••ystein. Stronger than the pipe, fittings, valves, lioilers or engines. 
If they had ten times the strength it would be of no benefit. The 
fact that steel has a greater ultimate strength does not make it 
more desirable because that ultimate strength is not, nor never car 
be, utilized in practice. The limit of a joint is reached the moment 
the bolts commence to stretch, and the limit, using the recognized 
high pressure bolting, is arrived at loi.g before an extra heavy 
:nalleable or steel flange will give out. 

"When we consider the thousands of cast iron flanges which are 
turned out of our shops every week, to say nothing of those made 
elsewhere, and the small number of breakages, we must necessarily 
conclude that cast iron for this purpose is a fairly reliable metal. 

"When a line with cast iron flanges has been erected and wanned 
up without trouble, the chances are that the flanges will never 
crack, as serious accidents arising from the failure of cast iron 
flanges in a going pl.int arc exceedingly rare. Now and then we 
hear of a cast iron flange giving away while being bolted up, or 
as the line is being warmed up for the first time. This may result 
from any of the following causes : 

"i. Careless bolting such as drawing all the bolts tight on one 
side and then following with the bolts on the opposite side, or if 
the flanges have raised faces with a gasket between so th;>t the 
outer edges stand about Vi in. apart then, unless the bolting is very 
carefully done, the flanges will be broken through the great lever 
age exerted by the bolts. We have found that if a 6-in. cast iron 
flange is deflected at the outer edge 1-16 in. the flange will break. 
The large sizes will probably stand a little more but not much. 

"2. Internal stress set up in the flange by forcing it on a piece 
of pipe on which the diameter and length of thread does not cor- 
respond accurately with the flange. 

"3. Improper provision for expansion in the piping system. 

"Malleable flanges are proof against destruction by the bolting 
or internal thread stress referred to in paragraphs I and 2 and 
practically proof against expansion strains, because should such 
strains be set up, other parts of the .system would probably be de- 
stroyed before the flanges. 

"It is evident that malleable flanges may with advantage be used 
on any piping system, cither high pressure or standard, but they 
are especially valuable on pipe bends where such bends are used to 
lake up expansion and on high pressure piping which must be ob- 
erated continuously, such as electric light or street railway stations. 

"Standard and extra heavy mallenblc flanges are exactly similar 
to our cast iron flanges in diameter and thickness of metal." 



I he Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. recently closed a contract with 
the Bush Terminal Co. for the distribution by trolley of packages 
and miscellaneous freight to be furnished by the latter company. 



New Shops of Hooven, Owens, Rentschler Co. 



The Hooven, Owens Rentschler Co.. of Hamilton, O., which 
is the largest concern engaged in building engines of the Corliss 
type exchisivelj'. was incorporated in looi as a reorganization of 



buildings having four times tlic tlicu capacity. This work was 
counncnced in February, 1902, and llic new building completed in 
July last, since which time the new uiachino equipment has been 




IIIRD'SKYE VIKW m l;l ILI 



iiouv i..\. iiu i,Ns .V Ki;N'i'scin.i;i-; works. 



the Hooven, Owens & Rentschler Co., incorporated in 1881, when installed and with the exception of one or two large tools is now 

the company took over the business of the Owens, Lane & Dyer in full operation. 

Co., established about 18.^0. The plant of the company, always lo- The halftone illusnatious show a general view ul the works. 



lvOl/3riffM4. .** 







^ JO roMCtrMtcs 

63 -3 '-ap^v i 




* C„^ COifff^o >M //TOM YAMO 



/U'-ij" > 







^^SfufriL - .^"^f-' 



I't.AN OK HOOVEN, OWENS A RENTSCHLKR WOKKS, SHOWINO LOCATION UK IIIJILIIINGS ANr> TRACKS 



catcd at Hamilton, has been extended from time to time to meet 
the demands of incrcasitig business, but about three years ago it 
was decided to replace the old machine and erecting shops by new 



anil views of the erecting lltiur, of tile central aisle parallel to the 
erecting bay in which arc located the cylinder borers and other 
heavy tools, of the section containing the small tools, and of the en- 



IL'S 



STRIil'T RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol XIV, Xo 2. 




Rinc and generator rwnn in the iiowcr plant. These illustrations 
Rive an excellent idea of the ecjuipment and also of the amount 
I if work thai is now: l>eing done at the plar.l. 

I he general arrangement of the new shops, which is well shown 
iiy the line drawing, whereon are located the principal tools, is 
iliat of Col, J, C llooven, pre-ideni of tlu- company, and was 
worked out in detail by the architect, Mr. (iiorge Harkman, of 
Hamilton. The new hiiildings have steel frames with hrick walls 
.Old are excellently lighted 

Ihe plant covers two blocks hounded on the east liy 5lh St. an<l 
the hydraulic headrace indicated on llic diagram, and on the west 
liy 4th St. .An intermediate thoroughfare, Lowell St , was vacated 
liy the city and this space is occupied hy a portion of the machine 
shop. The foundry, pattern storehouse and power plant lie at the 
north end Iwtween Vine and Ilcalon Sts., and the machine and 
forge shops at the south end of the works between Heaton and 
Huckeyc Sts. 

The plant is surrounded on three sides hy the I'. C. C. & St. L. 
and the C. II. & D. railroads, the latter having a loading switch 
into the southern end of the machine shop as indicated on the plan 
drawing. Within the buildings are other standard gage tracks 
as indicated, but for the transportation of material within the walls 
traveling cranes are most used. 

The foundry is a building 406 ft. long; the main portion of 
this building is 7jji ft. wide and 30 ft- 8 in. to the chords of the 
roof trusses. At the west side is a lean-to for the cupolas and core 
ovens; this portion is 233 ft. long and 38'4 ft. wide. The three 
cupolas arc 67, 81 and 90 in. in diameter, respectively. In the 
foundry are three wheel casting pits. The room is served by two 
30-ton electric traveling cranes of 69 ft. 9 in. span. The foundry 
yard is served by a lattice girder crane of the same capacity and 
length of span. 

Opposite the foundry is the pattern storage house, a four-story 
building, 34 ft. x 47 ft. to in. The pattern shop adjoins the power 
house. 

The machine shop extends for 370 ft. along 4th St. ayd 316 ft. 
along Heaton St. A portion of the building fronting on Heaton 
St. was rebuilt from what was formerly the foundry ; this con- 
tains two machine bays, parallel, and 49 ft. and 26 ft, in width, re- 
spectively. In these bays, which are under a gable roof, it is 33V2 
fl. from lloor to roof trusses. 

Parallel to 4th St. are the erecting and heavy machinery bays, 
57 ft. high from floor to roof trusses. In the rectangular space 
lying east of the north and south bays and south of the east and 
west hays arc two bays with low roofs. These are on the site of 
part of the old machine shop and are used as a fitting department 
lor smaller engine parts. 

At the southeast corner of the plant arc the forge shop, a one- 
story building 49 x 61 ft., and a tive-story building used for the 
lighter machinery. The screw cutting department occupies the 
ground floor. 

In the erecting bay are two parallel sections 27 x 102 ft. each 
with flooring of 6-in. cast iron T slot rails embedded in concrete, 
for the assembling floors. The crane in this bay is of 30 tons' ca- 
pacity. There is only one non-portable tool in this section of the 
plant, it being a 40 x 12-ft. pit lathe located at the extreme south 
end. 

In the second bay are located the heaviest machine tools, promi- 
nent among which are a 12 .\ 12 x 30-ft. planer with four heads, a 
20-ft. boring and turning mill, a cylinder borer with capacity for 
cylinders up to 72 in. diameter and which has independently driven 
port boring bars so that a cylinder can be bored and faced and the 
ports bored sinniltaueously, and a bed facing machine with two 
boring bars at right angles for simultaneously boring the guides 
and facing the bearings. In this bay arc two 50-ton cranes. 

The shop is electrically driven throughout, current being fur- 
nished by a 5tX)-kw. Ft. Wayne generator direct connected to a 
20 and 36 X 42-iu. Hamilton-Corliss engine. The speed is too r. p. 
m. an<l the voltage 220 to 250 volts. The large machines all have 
independent motors, while the small machines are driven from 
shafting. The Bullock Electric Co's. four-wire multiple voltage 
system is used for the vari.ible speed motors. The balancing set, 
consisting of three l7!^-kw. machines is located centrally in the 
shop. Near this is the constant speed motor of 45-h. p. capacity 
which drives the line shaft for small tools. 



Feb. 20. 19Q4.I 



STREET R.\1!.\V.\Y RFMEW. 



129 



Besides ihe unit menlioned the power plant contains a 150-kw. 
220-250-volt Ft. Wayne generator belt driven froni a simple Ham- 
ilton-Corliss engine, and used for lighting. 

The boiler installation consists of two Franklin water-tube boil- 
ers. .A Baragwanath condenser is used in coimection with the en- 



poiuid d. c. i.ooo-U\v. "Bullock" generators. Museum of Natural 
History, Xew York; two 15 and 26 x 36 tandem compovmd d. c. 
200-k\v. generators. Louisiana Purchase iixposition, St. Louis ; 
one .^4 and 68 x 54 vertical cross compound d. c. l,500-k\v. Citi- 
zens Light, Heat & Power Co., Montgomery, .Ma.; one 18 and j(i 




M.\CinNl-; SHOP ERECTING B.VT. 330 FT. LONG. 



gines when the exhaust is not required lor heating purposes. The 
shops are heated by steam distributed on the Webster system, the 
engine exhaust being supplemented by live steam in cold weather. 




liNGINlJ ROOM. 

The company's olTiccs arc in the northwest corner of the shop 
building, at the north end of the erecting bay. This section is 
three stories high, the fir.st floor being occupied by the general 
officers and the clerical force, and the second and third stories by 
the drafting department. 

Among the engines now In the shop arc the following : Scioto 
Valley Traction Co., Columbus, O. ; two 26 and 52 x 48 cross coin- 



X 42 cross compound d. c. 375-kw. generator. Delaware & Hud- 
sou Co!, Scrantou, Pa. ; two 16 and 26 x 42 cross compound d. c. 
3cx)-kw. generators. Townscud, Reed & Co., Indianapolis, Ind., 
for Indianapolis & NorllnVestern Ry. ; one 24 and 48 x 48 cross 
compound d. c. 800-kw. generator. Texarkaua Gas & Electric 
Co., Texarkaua, Tex.; one 15 x 36 heavy duty engine. Jolmstown 
Passenger Ry. Co., Johnstown, Pa. ; one 22 and 38 x 48 cross com- 
pound d. c. 550-kw. generator. .Shrevcport Traction Co., Shreve- 
port. La. ; twin 22 x 42 engines, d. c. 500-kw. generator. Indian- 
apolis & Eastern Ry. Co., Indianapolis, Ind. ; one 26 and 52 x 48 
cross compound d. c. 1,000-kw. generator. Uecatur, Springfield 
& St. Louis Ry. Co., Decatur, 111.; one 28 and 56 x 48 cross com- 
pound d. c. i,ooo-kw. generator. Saginaw Valley Traction Co., 
Saginaw, Mich.; one 28 and 56 x .v8 cross compound d. c. i,ooo-kw. 
generator. Westchester & Pottstown Ry., Philadeli)liia ; two 22 
and 44 X 48 heavy duty cross compound engines. Macon Railway 
& Light Co., Macon, Ga. ; one 20 and 40 x 42 cross compound. 

The officers of the company arc: President, J. C. Hooven ; vice- 
president. G. .\. Reutschlcr; secretary, C. O. Richfer; treasurer, 
II. Sohn. These, together with G, II. llelvey, J. G. Sclnnidlapp 
and Charles H. Kellogg, constilnie the directors. The capital stock 
is $1,000,000, preferred (of which $750,000 is issued), and $1,000,- 
000 common. 

*—¥ 

The Pittsburg, McKcesport & Connellsville Railway Co. has 
adopted animal examinations of employes for sight and hearing, 
including color blindness. 



Jamiary 25th the McLean-place car barns of the Indianapolis 
Traction & Terminal Co. were partially destroyed by fire and 26 
large winter cars were destroyed and several others badly scorched, 
the total loss being estimated at $ioc,aoo, which was practically 
covered by insurance. 



130 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW, 



IVou XIV. No. 2. 



DaiiKiKU Caused by Flood, Kc and Snow. 

The present wiiilcr li.is been notably rigorons throughout the 
country and h.is workeil unusual liard>hips for the street railway 
■ .perators. The moist disastrous reports conic from Whcciing, 
\V. \'a , where the "January thaw." which set in January 24tb. 
rnuscd an exceptionally heavy flood, and was followed by a severe 
cold spell that caused ice to fomt on the tracks as the water re- 
ceded, and did a great deal M damage. The Wheeling Traction 
Co. was the wor.st sufTercr, it lH>ing necessary to abandon every 
one of its lines for from one to three days. When the water re- 
ceded it left ice from 2 in. to 4 ft. thick on portions of all linc- 
I he .-iccompanying views will give an excellent idea of the situa 
lion. At Mingo. O.. on the Steubenville line, the water was at one 
time 20 in. above the tr.ick at one point, and on the Kellaire divi- 
-ii.n, for a distance of two miles, the ice covering the tracks wa- 
from 2 ft. to 4 ft. thick. 

The Milwaukee Kloctric Kailway & 1-ight Co. reported clifR- 
culty on its Kenosha and Racine line January iglh, when a car and 
passengers were snow-bound 13 hours, and again on February 3rd 
travel on the same line was completely blocked by snow. 

The Auburn & Syracuse Electric Railroad Co. had to abandon 
•raflic on the greater part of its line from January igtii until Jan 
nary 22nd, on account of snow, although it ran cars between .Au- 
burn and Skaneateles more or less often. .Again on February 3rd 
:be line was tied up. 

For two days the Canton-.\kron Railway Co. suffered from a 
llooded power house and its system was tied up. There were also 



unable to operate cars for several days lictween Norwalk and 
Ceylon, which section of the road depends upon the power house 
It Fremont for power. There was nearly 3 ft. of water in the boiler 
liiiusc of the power plant during the weeks of February 1-12. The 
Sandusky division of the road was operated wifli power from 




WIIKKI.IN-C. \V V.V . < .\K H.XHN HI.OCKl^D BY IfK. 




l*-3 



\VHBEI,IN<;. \V V.\.. STRKKT .M-THH KI-DOP 



washouts along its line between Massillon and \ew Philadelphia. 
and. in addition, the ice and snow on the city streets made it al 
most impossible to run the cars. The melting snow short-circuited 
(he current and caused the motors to be burned out. 

Through traffic between Dayton ard Cincinnati, O.. was aban- 
doned on account of damages to the trestle work and the tracks 
of the Cincinnati. IJayton & Toledo Traction Co. It was believed 
that it would be two or three days before traffic could he resumed. 

High water on January 22nd cjuised the abandonment of the 
Cleveland. Painesville & Eastern R. R. shore-line branch, but the 
main line had little trouble. February 2nd drifting snows caused 
uuich delay on all the lines. 

Traffic on the Ixjgansport & Wabash Valley Traction Co's. line 
between Peru and Wabash. Ind., was suspended January 21st oti 
.account of high water near Uoyd Park, and on January 23rd the 
water had entered the power station and had reached the large 
engine, threatening to cripple the plant. January 25th traffic was 
resumed. 

The Detroit United Ry. suffered considerable damage on account 
of water and slush, followed by a blizzard, and it was with diffi- 
culty that cars were run at all. At one time there were 154 
damaged motors in the repair shops. 

Because of a flood at Fremont, O., the Lake Shore Electric 
Railway Co.. which operates between Cleveland and Toledo, was 



Sandusky, which only permitted the company to run small cars. 
The company was similarly inconvenienced January 23rd, but 
iratfic was resumed the next day. 

On account of drifting snow the Detroit. Vpsilanti, Ann Arbor 
& Jackson Railway Co. was unable to keep the cars running on 
part of its system for the greater part of two days. 

January 23th a blizzard disabled the Indianapolis Traction & 
Terminal Co^s. lines. Haughville. West and North Indianapolis 
were without car service because the snow sweepers could not 
cross the bridges, which had been weakened by a flood a few days 
previous. Other lines were more or less.criplcd. also, and this state 
(.ontinued until January j8tb, when cars began running across the 
bridges regularly. 

The Indianapolis & Xortbweslern traction Co. had to suspend 
riperations for a few days over the Northwestern Ave. bridge 
which cro.sses Fall creek. Passengers were transferred at the bridge. 
Tile Tcrrc Haute Electric Co's. lines were abandoned January 
.'6th, owing to a blizzard, and it was reported that an interurban car 
which left Terre Haute January 25th was lost in the snow for 




CLE.VRIXO TIIV: TIt.M-KS I.N W 1 lIClil.ING, \V. VA. 

three days, the passengers deserting it near Brazil. In order to 
carry out its mail contract, the company sent the mail pouches to 
Seelyvillc and Brazil in a sleigh. February 2nd another storm 
caused serious damage on the interurban line. 

January 21 si the Indiana I'ninn Traction Co"s. bridge over the 



Feii. jo. 1904.1 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



131 



Mississinewa River between Joncsboro and Gas City, Iiid., was 
swept away when the ice went out of the river. The company 
was also obliged to abandon service on its intcrnrban line into 
Kokonio for one week, by the wasliing away of the bridge in Union 
St. during high water. 

From January 23rd to January 26th bo cars of the SpringticUl 
( Mass. ) Street Railway Co. were disabled on account of heavy 
snow storms. The line to Holyoke was closed three days. 

On account of the power being shut oflF at the plant of the 
Voungstown Consolidated Gas & Electric Co., because of the cold. 
January 23rd, no cars were run on the Youngstown Park & Falls 
."^treet Railway Co's. lines, or the lines of the Voungstown-Sharon 
Street Railway Co., for 24 hours. To furnish light the electric 
company had to tap a sewer to get water for its boilers. 

February 2nd the Chicago & South Shore Street Railway Co., of 
La Pone Ind., suspended operations, largely on account of the 
weather. It was announced, however, that the company would 
probably not resume until certain financial difficulties had been 
adjusted and the company reorganized. One of the company's cars 
was stalled rear Wateriord January 23rd and the passengers re- 
mained in the car all night, until the snow drifts could be shoveled 
out. 

The Chippewa Valley Electric Railway Co's. system, which in- 
cludes the lines in Eau Claire and Chippewa Falls, Wis., and an 




iii.VKSTorjA .\XD YORK I'lftN'.M'R TROl.t.KY HKIDGE. 

interurban line, shut down January 27th on account of the stoppage 
of the water wheels at Chippewa Falls, due to extreme cold. 

The business of the Erie, Cambridge. Union & Corry Railway 
Co.. of Erie. Pa., was at a standstill for a week ilnring the latter 
part of January, owing to bad weather. 

Nearly 4 ft. of snow covered part of the tracks of the Illinois 
Valley Traction Co. February 2nd, making it impossible to riui cars 
iH-lwcen La Salle and I.add, III. 

January 26th and 27th the Salem division of the Hoston & North- 
ern Street Railway Co, was tied up on account of snow, rain and 
cold. Six inches of ice formed on some of the tracks and the 
municipal authorities would not allow the company to use an ice 
culler to remove it. 

For 36 hours beginning February 1st snow drifts prevented cars 
from being run on the Lebanon Valley Street Railway Co's. line 
lielwcen Annvillc and Palmyra. In some places the snow was 7 ft. 
deep. 

On the morning of January 23rd the bridge over the big Cones- 
toga Creek, Lancaster County, Pa., used by the Concsloga & York 
Furnace electric interuiban was carried away by an ice jam. This 
bridge, which was 207 ft. long, was <jpened for traffic in December, 
'"• -.-^ _ 

Conference of Hranch Office iVlanaKers. 

The annual conference of the branch office managers of the 
Standard Underground Cable Co., together with the general sales, 
mannfacluring, construction and executive departments of the com- 
pany, wa< held recently in the general office* of the company 
in the Wcstinghousc Ruilding, Pittsburg, Pa., the session lasting 



three days. The report of each niLuiager for igoj. and the pros- 
l)ects for 1904. was issued, together with a ways and means for 
rendering more efficient service to the upwards of 1,000 customers 
on the company's books. A pleasant social feature of the gathering 
was a theater party given in honor of the visiting managers by Mr. 
j. W. Marsh, the vice-president and general manager. 

The branch office managers in attendance were: Mr. Charles J. 
Marsh and Mr. George L. Wiley. New York; Mr. Frank Clark 
Cosby. Koston; Mr. T. E. Vlughes. Philadelphia; Mr. J. R. Wiley 
and Mr. F.. J. Piclzckcr, Chicago. 



British Johns-Manville Co., Ltd. 

The Hritish Johns-Manville Co., Ltd., has been incorporated in 
England, with offices and warerooms at 81 Fenchurch St., London, 
E. C, and will handle a complete line of ovcarhead line material, 
"Vulcabcston." moulded mica and "Monarch" insulations, spe- 
cially adapted for insulating railway motors, generators, control- 
lers, arc lamps, switchboards, switch handles, switch boxes and 
various other parts of apparatus requiring a high-grade 'insulating 
material; a full and complete Mine of electric heaters, rail bonds 
and Sachs "Noark" enclosed fuse protective devices. The new 
company will carry a full and complete stock of supplies at the 
London office, which will enable it to make' prompt deliveries and 
give good service at all times. 

Mr. Henry J. Joseph is the managing dircclnr of ihc new com- 
pany, as well as manager of the London branch of the II. W. 
johns-Manville Co.. which has offices at the same address. 



" Deltabeston" Magnet Wire. 

The I). & W. l''u.-'C Co.. of Providence, K. 1.. makes what is 
known as "Ucltabeslon." an insulated wire which is said to be 
liraclically indestructible and is especially adapted for insulating 
:irmature, field and magnet coils. "DeUabeston" wire has been 
insulated with practically pure asbestos which has been treated in 
such a manner that its insulating properties are e.^cceptionally good. 
It is claimed for it tint its resistance to heat renders it .absolutely 
indestructible so far a-, any temperature rise to which it may be 
^nlljcct^.■(l in commercial service is concerned. "Deltabeston" wire 
Iki> been run at a dull red heat representing a temperature in the 
lu-ighhorhood of 600° C. without its insulation being destroyed. The 
company has given "Deltabeston" wire exhaustive tests, having had 
a large number of motors equipped in railway service, with such 
satisfactory results to the managements that entire equipments of 
motors are being gradually rewound with it. The company is pre- 
pared to furnish this wire in any size from No. 4 to No. 18 B. & S. 
gage and will submit samples. 

The Central Electric Co.. 264-70 Fifth ,'\vc,, ChicaKo, III, is sales 
agent for "Deltabeston" magnet wire and connnunications addressed 
lo il will receive promi)t and careful attention. The company will 
alsn gladly fm-nl^li Inillctiiis and samples upon recpicst. 



The Affleciv Cement Cros.s-Tie. 

riie .\t't]eck cement railway tic. which was piilented last fall. 
has been attracting the attention of steam railroad men for several 
months, and now the inventor, Mr. David S. .MTleck, of Chesterton, 
Ind., desires to interest electric radway operators in il. The inven- 
tion is very simple. It consists chiefly of a longitudinal angle bar 
of iron or steel which has been imbedded in a cement tie near the 
center, the ends of the bar being bent in a short curve lo hold it 
securely in place and prevent Ihc rails spreading. The rails arc 
fastened lo the lie by means of plates, bolts and nuts, the bottom 
nuls being couiUersimk in the lie '.n prevent turning. If pre- 
ferred, a side fastening may be used lo boll the rail lo the tie. A 
thin wooden shim is placed between llic rail and lie to relieve the 
concussion. 

One of the Affleck cement cross-lies has been in use on the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad Co's. side track at Dune 
Park since early in 1903, and it is staled that neither wear nor 
weather has afTected it in the least. Two of the ties were placed 
on one of the Illinois Central Railroad Co's. tracks at Grand Cross- 
ing, Chicago, January 15th, also. These lies are 6x8 in. x 8 ft. 
and weigh 400 lb. 



132 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol. XIV, No. 2. 



Brooklyn llcinhts K. K. Co. Cninc Car. 

The acconipanyiiig illustrations show a new work car which has 
hcen hiiill fur the Brocklyn Heights Railroad Co. hy the Middle- 
town Car Works, Inc.. of Middletown, Pa., and also the details of 
cnn.struction of the crane which siirnuiunls the car. The car itself 
is of the iK-in., hinge-side gondola pntlern and its capacity is 40,000 
Ih. The length of the car over all is .j8 ft. 6 in. and the width. 7 
ft. 10 in. The capacity of the crane is six tons. 

Thi» work car is ei|iiipped with four WestinghonNC (H motors of 



Central Yards f«»r Tics. 




BROOKL,YN HEIGHTS R. R. WORK CAR.-MIDDI>KTO\VN CAR CO, 



60 h. p. each and wiih a K-6 controller. It i- tiirilKr ciniipped with 
Ncal electric headlights, the S.ic'is "Noark" fuse and Christcnsci! 
straight air brakes with lO-in. cylinder. For operating the crane 
the car is provided with a G. E. 800 motor. 

The truck.s are the Peckham standard M. C. B. Xo. 40. with ,!i- 
in. wheels. This truck is equipped with Peckhani's (patent) coni- 
hination side frames, double roller side bearings, flexible motor 
suspension, Taylor's (patent) non-chattering brake hanger, "tripk 
elliptic" all steel swing bolster, and standard M. C. H. journals. 



With cedar companies in Michigan, it is the custom to ship the 
|M>les which arc brought from small producers and also those cut 
<in the company's own lands, into iliffcrent convenient storage 
yards. There the poles are assorted into their different sizes, re- 
ceiving usually a second careful inspection, the first being made in 
the woods. Some companies still endeavor to ship the greater 
portion of their stock direct from the woods, but this is so apt to 
cause delay in getting cars and confusion in filling "straight" car- 
loads of some one si/e from a small stuck, that the 
more experienced ci'mpanies have abandoned it al- 
most entirely. 'I'he small margin in poles, and the 
keen competition among the buyers of the different 
companies in the woods has led to the adoption of 
every economy possible, but this yard expense is 
something that must Ik borne, if orders are to be 
filled promptly and accurately, especially the larger 
orders. 

However far tiiis reform, if it may he so called, 
has progressed in the pole business, it has not as yet 
been very extensively introduced in the cedar tie 
business. The Maltby Lumber Co.. of Bay City, 
Mich., is one of the few firms that have applied the 
reasoning and experience of the pole business to 
ties. Nevertheless it has proven a very attractive 
feature in securing orders and will doubtless be fol- 
lowed by other tic companies as time goes on. 

.\ railway company is very apt to find itself short 

a few thousand ties, or possibly but a carload or 

two. Then the advantage of calling on a section of 

the country where tics can he, and arc shipped every 

month in the year, is readily appreciated. High 

water, poor roads, lack of water, have no effect on 

•he shipment of ties that arc concentrated in lots of 

ten to liflecn thou.sand, especially when piled in yards located in 

the same favorable position as regards competing railroads, as arc 

the best prAc yards. 

Progress of New Sturtevant Plant. 

The boiler plant of the B. F. Sturtevant Co's. new works at 
Hyde Park, Mass., is in full operation. The plant comprises llirce 
250-h. p. Stirling boilers equipped with Jones under-feed stokers, 




DKTAII, OF CRANK OX WORK CAR. 



journal boxes and brasses. The new work car was built in ac- 
cordance with a design furnished by Messrs. R. C. Taylor and .\. J. 
Wilson, of the Brooklyn Heights road. 



The Cleveland Electric Railway Co. will equip all its city cars 
with power brakes during this year. 



air for which is furnished by a Sturtevant steam fan, a Sturtevant 
induced draft steam fan and a Sturtevant economizer to be in- 
stalled later. The company has in process of construction a 400- 
h. p. vertical compound engine with direct-connected asokw. 
generating sets, which will be the first of several units to be in- 
stalled in the engine room. 



Fer 20, 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REMF.W. 



133 



Insulated Joints for SOO-Volt Circuits. 



Uiic ot the serious objections wliidi the steam railroad men have 
urged against the adoption o£ electric traction on existing steam 
lines is that such a change would require that the signal systems 
already installed and operated by low voltage track circuits be 
abandoned. The in.stallation of block signals on a portion of the 
subway tracks operated by the Interborough Rapid Transit Co. 
shows that this objection is not a valid one at the present time, 
whatever may have been the fact when it was first advanced. 

The Interborough company, on that portion 01 the line where 




l.N-S|-I,.\Ti:i) TU.M.K JOINT. 

block signals are used, uses one track rail only for the return cir- 
cuit while the other track rail is used for the signal circuit. The 
track has \\'el>er rail joints and on the >Tgiial track the insulated 
joints made by the Weber Railway Joint Manufacturing Co. and 
illustrated in the accompanying sectional drawing, are used. This 
joint is, wc understand, successfully insulating the 500-volt current 
which is used for railway operation. The rail is insulated from the 
shoe angle by a fiber angle plate and the bolt is insulated from 
the .siioe angle on the one side, and the splice bar on the other, Ir. 
fiber bolt bushings, the outer surfaces of these bushings being cov- 
ered by metal washers. 

An insulated joint of similar type is used by a number of steam 
railroads in connection with signal track circuits, but we believe 
this is the first application to electric railway work. 



Standard I'ndcrground Cable Co. 

I'he annual meeting of the stockholders of the Standard L'nder- 
ground Cable Co. was held January 26th at the company's general 
offices in the Westinghouse Building, Pittsburg, Pa. The state- 
ment of the company's operations for igo,^ showed a gross busi- 
ness of nearly $9,000,000; dividends aggregating 12 per cent were 
paid. The assets amount to $3.fi04,45"; liabilities, exclusive of 
capital, $.375,344. The company has no outstanding notes, mort- 
gages, lionds or preferred stock. Directors were elected as fol- 
lows: Messrs, Mark \V. Watson, John H. Jackson, James 11. Wil- 
locki RolK-rt Pitcairn, J. N. Davidson, John Moorhead. IV I''. 
Jones, jr., Joseph W. Marsh. W. A. Conner. Mr. Conner, a new 
director, has Iwcn at the head of the mannfacluring department 
since 18S4. 

The directors organized January 29th and re-elected officer^ a- 
follows: President, Mr. Mark W. Watson; vice-president and 
general manager, Mr. Joseph W. Marsh; treasurer. Mr Frank .\. 
Rincharl; auditor, Mr. C. M. Hagen. 

The Standard I'nderground Cable Co. was organized in January, 
1W2. although prior to that lime its founder, Mr, Richard .S, War- 
ing, hail done much experimental work. It has factories at Perth 
.\mlxiy, N'. J., Pittsburg, Pa., and Oakland, Cal. Its reputation for 
high class manuf:icture, its strong fmancial condition and the favor 
able hjcation of its factories place it in a favorable position to com- 
mand a large business in all deparlmrnts. 



The Worcester (Ma<s.) Polytechnic [ii'iilnte lias isMlcd ils .I4tli 
annual catalog, which shows that the Iota! registration for 1903-04 
is 272 sliidcnis, of whom 50 are in llie electrical engineering courses 
and 4.) in the mechanical engineering deprirtincnt. 



Fresh's Emergency Car Brake. 

The Emergency Car lirake Co.. of Ciuuberlaud. Md., has been 
organized to build and sell the well-known Fresh's emergency car 
brake, which has hitherto been made and sold by Messrs. Fresh & 
Speicher. The change went into effect January 14th last. During 
the past few months the Fresh brake has been materially improved 
by the adoption of compressed wool felt to prevent slipping on wet 
rails. For a long time the makers had experimented with diflfereul 
kinds of iron and steel, and had also tried rubber, emery and wood, 
in conibiuation and separately, but the desired results were not ob- 
tained until the coilipres.scd wool felt was tried. That being an 
absorbent, it was found to be most efficient on wet or icy rails, 
and it has been severely tested with entinently satisfactory results. 

The felt is made in sheets .% in. thick, very solid, and then com- 
pressed into a malleable iron plate under a heavy pressure, which 
make- it hard and durable. These malleable iron plates are at- 
1 iclied to tile main brake shoe by means of a truimiou hall, instead 
ni using heavy screws, which gives the plate freedom of adjustment 
on the rails. Iherehy permitting al! the surface of the rail to be 
utilized lo olit:iiii fvielion, Thi^ felt device is quickly and easily 
allaehed. 

The new company will build these brakes on a large scale as 
soon as the weather will permit, and it is willing to give tests to 
any railway company interested. The oflicers of the Fmergency Car 
Brake Co. are: President. Henry Fresh; vice-president. Frank A. 
Piuckholtz; secretary. Henry .A. llensey; treasurer, Conrad G. 
Smiili 



The "O. K." Sleet Cutter, 



The accompanying illustrations present two views of the "(). K." 
sicet cutter which is ni:i(le by Porter & Berg. Incorporated, of Chi- 
cago, tile patentee. One \iew shows the cutter iu position and the 
other as it ajipe.ir^ when it is detached fi om the trolley harp. Thi-- 
sleet cutter, which has met with very llattering success during the 
three years il has been on the ma'rket. consists of a practically in 
destructible malleable iron casting, the shank of which bolts se- 
curely into the harp and is fitted with ^ lock washer to prevent its 
working loose, and of a brass contact device, which, being soft, 
assumes the most of the wear, thus saving the trolley wire. When 
this brass contact is worn out it may be easily replaced at small 
cost. 

The "O. K," sleet cutler fits snugly into the h.irp and is <le- 
signeil to offer no projection which can possibly catch on the span 




SlyKKT CI'rrKIJ 
ON TUOI.I.KV. 



SLKl'lT CirTTlCU 
DKTACIIRD. 



wire or any p.arl of ilie overhead construction in event of the trol- 
ley leaving the wire. 1: is so easily attached to the harp that it is 
suggested that if each car is provided with one the motorman can 
i|uickly attach it whenever the necessity arises, withonl loss of time. 
The fact that the device may be attached directly to the harp 
without dislnrbing the wlieel is also a feature llir value of which is 
self-evident. Many of llie electric railways in llir iiiid<lle West 
use "O. K." sleel cnllerv, and they are ;iKo in use in miIht p,irls of 
ihe country, 

♦-•-• 

The Chicago cily council proposes to license street railway com 
paiiicf lo do 'an advertising business in the cars, 



i:y 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV, No. 2. 



The Young Block SIkduI System. 

VVc illti>lriiU' hcrrwilh llic Young aiitmnalic block signal sv^tcin. 
wliicli was designed hy Mr. S. Marsh Yoinig, and which has been 
placed on Ihc market by the Pnenmalic Signal Co., 25 Rroad Si , 
New York City, with work.s at Rochester, N. Y. It is the designer'^ 
claim that in order to reduce lo the minimum the liability of accident 
on electric intcrurbaii roads steam road practice mnst be strictly 
adhered tip, and that any signal system to receive consideration 
must show the presence of a pair of wheels on the traffic rails at 
all times and at any point on the block. In precisely the same man- 



volts) for the alternating current. The a. c. line furnishes current 
lo the primaries of 100 to i transformers in each block, shown as 
I' and 'I". The secondaries of these transformers are connected 
ilireclly across the rail at the ends of each block, and this fur- 
nishes the track circuit 10 operate the relays R and R'. Direct 
current does not in any way afTecl the relay. When there is no 
car in the block the track circuit holds the relay points closed, 
and closes the local signal circuit, which holds the signal to clear. 
The entrance of a car into the block short circuits the transformer, 
thereby dc-encrgizing Ihc relay and opening the .signal circuit, 
causing the signal to go to danger. Any interruption to the track 




rONTINfOrs TRACK CIRCflT. 

ner as the track circuit controls the signals on steam railruads. 
Ihc working out of a method by which a track circuit could be 
furnished to govern signals on an electric line forms the basis of 
the Young system. 

On a direct current road an alternating current is impressed on 
the d. c. line for signaling. The track is divided into blocks as 
on steam roads, although but one of the traffic rails is broken for 
signaling purposes, the other rail being used for the return of 
lK)th the direct and the alternating currents. Cross bonding be- 
tween two rails or between the bloi'k rail and the feeder return 
is accomplished in the same manner and by the same apparatus as 
is used between the ends of the blocks. .Although the two traffic 
rails arc of the same d. c. potential, they arc of different potential 
for the a. c. It will thus be seen that the signal system in no 
way interferes with the arrangement or the operation of the motor 
circuits. To one end of each block is fed the alternating cur- 
rent transformc.l from 100 volts (o about i vnll. .\t tlic other end 




I.VTKRKiR VIKW OI-- r.\SK or XIii|, ,K .-;i. l.NAI,. 

of the block a relay is connected across the two track rails. Be- 
tween the relay and the track is interposed a piece of special ap- 
paratus to prevent the relay from being affected by the direct 
current. 

One of the accompanying illustrations shows the arrangeiuent ol 
apparatus employed 'o provide a continuous track circuit to gov- 
ern the signals. In the station, or suI>stations, there is placed a 
small a. c. generator of a special characteristic. A No. 10 copper 
wire is carried along the entire length of the road (at, say. 300 





TWO-ARM HO.MK AND DIST,\.VT SIGNAL. 

Circuit from any cause will rob the relay of its current and will 
result in a danger signal. 

I J and I J arc insulated joints dividing the rail X into blocks 
corresponding to the signal locations. The rail Y is continuous. 
The rail X is made electrically continuous for the direct current 
return by means of devices shown as B i and B 2 placed across 
the ends of the blocks. Their arrangement and constriiction are 
such that they perform the reverse functions in the presence of 
alternating current and maintain the requisite difference of poten- 
tial between the two traffic rails of the blocks to operate the signal 
relays. 

.\side from one a. c. generator for the entire road and the sig- 
nal mechanism, which may l« of any desired form, the complete 
apparatus for each block consists of one 50-watt energy trans- 
former and a relay, which is the only apparatus containing any 
moving parts or contacts. It is claimed that there is no possible 
combination or failure of parts that can produce a clear signal 



Fer 20. 1904.) 



STREET RAILWAY RE\'IF.W 



135 



when a danger signal should be shown, and no amount of cur- 
rent from a foreign source can aflfect the operation of the system. 
Where electric motor semaphore signals are used six small 
cells of storage battery are connected through a resistance to oper- 
ate the signal motor. The battery is charged with about '4 ampere 
continuously. Incandescent lamps are used as a resistance to cut 
down the 500-volt trolley circuit to charge the battery, and these 
lamps may also be used in the signal lantern and to outline the 
semaphore arm. 



Christensen Air Brakes Abroad. 



Edwards Vestibule Ti-ap Door. 

The O. M. Edwards Co.. of Syracuse. X V . has designed and 
I'laced on the market a vestibule trap door for use on electric rail- 
way cars. The details of the new device are shown in the accom- 
panying illustration. .-Ks will be noted, the hinge of the door is 




'^^>imimHW»Wim.^Vt\iM\ 





PLAN AND ELEVATION OF TRAP DOOR. 

pivoted at its ends by brackets or journal bearings, one being at- 
tached to the step timber and the other to the end of the car. When 
closed the door is supported at the edge opposite the hinge by a 
liar held in brackets,, openings being left back of the bar to allow 
snow or other material to fall tbrnugb, lluis giving freedom to 
close. 

The hinge is designed to contain either two or three flat spring 
bars, as the weight of the door may demand, these bars extending 
the entire length of the hinge, being firmly held at one end in the 
hinge and at the other in a ratchet wheel located in the bearing 
which is attached to the end of the car. 

The ratchet wheel is normally held by a wedge piece inserted 
through an opening in the bracket case to engage the teeth of the 
wheel, and also has a nut extending through the bracket case by 
means of which the torsion of the spring bars can be adjusted as 
desired, it lieing intended that the springs shall be adjusted to open 
the door automatically when released. 

A lock in the front edge of the door has a pivoted holt designed 
lo engage with a keeper plate in the platform end sill to lock 
the door in a closed position. The operating mechanism to rc- 
ieax the door consists of a gravity handle rod held at its upper end 
by a bracket attached to the vestibule side wall, and having its 
lower end received in a recess in the platform end sill, the arrange- 
ment being such that by an upward movement of the handle the 
lock bolt is first forced back by the inclined surface of (he handle 
rod, and then if the door should slick the knocker end of the 
handle r<Kl is brought into contact with the bottom of the door lo 
loosen it and start it sufficiently to insure its opening automatically. 

The new device avoids the necessity for a hand lift in the top 
surface of the door. 



The National Electric Co., of Milwaukee, successor to the Chris- 
tensen Engineering Co., received a number of foreign orders for 
Christensen air-brake equipments during January, among which 
was one from the Underground Electric Ry., London, for 200 auto- 
matic equipments for motor cars, the contract calling for air com- 
pressors with a capacity of 50 cu. ft. of free air per minute. This 
is a much larger capacity than that of the compressors furnished by 
ihe same company for the New York subway, which have a capacity 
of 20 cu. ft. of free air per minute. 

.\n order was received from the Metropolitan Underground Ry., 
of Paris, for 90 automatic equipments, the air compressors to have 
a capacity of 35 cu. ft. of free .nir per luinute, and an order for 
64 equipments for the Vesuvius Electric Railway Co., of Naples, 
calls for compressors with a similar capacity to those of the New- 
York subway. Orders were also received for 34 straight air-brake 
equipments for electric tramways in Amsterdam, Holland ; for 37 
^traight air-brake equipments for the government tramways of 
Sydney, Australia, and for 19 air-brake equipments for the Han- 
shin Ry., of Japan. These last call for the company's standard No. 
I compressors, having a capacity of 11 en. ft. of free air per 
minute. 

An Improved Headliglit. 

I lie Duplex ileadliglU Co.. of Cleveland, O., has placed on llie 
market an improved headlight for electric cars, a view of which 
is shown herewith. This headlight will be known as the "Du- 
plex,'' and it combines both arc and incandescent lamps. The 
change from arc to incandescent, or vice versa, is accomplished by 
throwing a two point switch in the car vestibule, or by inserting an 
arc or incandescent plug in the receptacle provided for the purpose. 
The lamp mechanism is very simple, and it is declared that han- 
dling or jarring will not derange it. There are but two incan- 
descent lamps used, and they may be removed and replaced without 
removing the casing or front reflector. This' reflector is of pecul- 
iar design and is intended to produce more rcnected light than is 
obtained from three ordinary incandescent headlights. 

The case of the "Duplex" is made in two parts, having a sub- 
stantial cast iron back on which the lamp is built, and a steel cas- 
ing which is neatly finished and can be removed in a few sec- 
onds, thereby exposing the entire mechanism. There are no solder 
or rivets. For the arc light -^s-in. carbons are used, which limits 




"DUPLEX" iii';.\iiLii;ii'r 

the travel <jf the arc lo llu- nnniniiuii. .iiid by llu' .11 r;iiigi-nn-nl i»i 
llie reflectors no shadow is thrown. The lamp is adjnsleil to oper- 
ate under from I'/i to 3 amperes. Ihe lamps are easily cleaned 
and trimmed. The headlight is i<j in. IiIkIi and i.| in. in diamr 
ler. It weighs 25 lb. 

♦<-♦ 

I'Vliniary 151I1 an IndJanapnlis. Columbia & Sonllicin haclmii 
Co. car ran 45 miles in 1 h. 35 iiiin., inrlmling _'H stops. 



VM 



STRIIKT R.\IL\\.\^ KK\ ILW. 



[Vol. XIV, No. 2. 



VVcinlaiid" Koiler Tube Cleaner. 



W'c iirociU herewith views ilUistratiiif; the "Weiiilaml" direct 
iiiolor l>uiler tube cleaner which is made liy the l^iKond.-i Maiui- 
facliiriiig Co., <if Springfield, O., one view showing the cleaner 
head, with its different lengths of shafting, and the other showing 
the cleaner at work m the boiler room of the power plant of the 




\\ r. 1 .\ l,.\ .N I • 



iii-.u.\ riii.s. 



Oayton, Springfield & Urbana Electric Railway Co., at Mcdway. 
O. Aside from showing the operating and discharge hose, it will 
be noticed that for supporting the motor a weight is used at- 
tached to a rope which is carried over a sheave pulley suspended to 
a point directly overhead and midway of the bank of tubes to bo 
cleaned. The operator has little to do but to change the machine 
from tube to tube as the cleaning is done, there being but little 
lifting required. 

The "VVeinland" cleaner is a l2-in. water wheel of latest design 
attached directly to a shaft which carries the company's well- 
known cleaner head, and is provided with three lengths of shaft- 
ing to suit the different lengths of boiler lubes. It is driven by 
water tbrough I'/j-in. hose under at least 150-lb. pressure, and 
develops not less tha:i 5 h. p. It is made for any size straight tube 
from ^ in. up, and is guaranteed to remove any condition of scale. 
.\ll exhaust water can be saved. It is handled easily and takes no 



•■WEINI>AND" CI.,EANER HEAD. 

more water than the ordinary turbine cleaner, and is sold with 
the company's guarantee to outlast any 10 turbine cleaners. 



Wilson Trolley Retriever. 

The Wilson Trolley Catcher Co., of Boston, Mass., aimoiinccs 
that it has combined a retrieving device with the well-known Wil- 
son trolley catcher and that the new device will instantly reel up the 
cord and pull the pole down Iwlow the wire as soon as the wheel 
leaves it ; also, that this retriever, after it has operated and pulled 
the pole down, pernnts the instant replacement of the wheel upon 
the wire by simply taking hold of the trolley rope and releasing the 
tension, as is the case with the Wilson trolley catcher. This fea- 
ture enables the conductor to get his car muler way without delay, 
whereas if, as in the case of some device? the retriever had to be 




UI1J50N TR()I.I-1;Y rktriever. 

pulled back to a certain point before it could be released and the 
wliecl placed on the wire, delay would ensue which might lead to 
-erious conse(|uences, especially if it happened at a railroad cross- 
ing. 

This new retrieving device, which is illustrated herewith, can- 
not be added to the ordinary Wilson catcher now in such general 
use; but the retriever is similar in form, although slightly thicker, 
and contains an e.xtra spring which, properly wound, causes it to 
act in the manner stated. The new retriever has been in service 
for .several months, and the companies using it report that it is 
giving the greatest satisfaction, it having been shown during the 
present severe winter that the device will run successfully through 
sleet and snow storms, as well as in pleasant weather. The com- 
pany offers to make an allowance to purchasers of the new re- 
triever for returned Wilson catchers now in use, and it is also 
willing to furnish retrievers for trial. .\ll the Wilson devices are 
made of malleable iron and finished with care. They are compact 
and neat and do not take up an excessive amount of room on the 
car dasher. The Wilson Trolley Catcher Co. is the successor to 
Wilson & Co.. jhe pioneers in trolley-catcher making. 




Boilers for St. Louis Exposition. 

The AiiUnian & Taylor Machinery Co.. of Mansfield. O., has se- 
cured through the Cahall Sales Department, W. W. Darley, gen- 
eral western sales agent, the largest installation of boil 
ers for the I-ouisiana Purchase Exposition. The in 
stallation consists of 16 Cahall horizontal water-tube 
boilers, eight of 508 h. p. each and eight of 400 h. p. 
e.-icli. the .aggregate being 7.264 b. j). Four of the 508- 
b. p. boilers are built to cary .?J5 lb. pressure, and the 
nlber ]2 will carry 175 lb. working pressure each. The 
boilers will be equipped with the Mansfield chain-grate 
stokers, and with the Buffalo Forge Co 's induced draft. 
These 16 boilers will constitute practically two-thirds 
of the entire exhibit in the steam, gas and fuel building, 
and all the boilers are to be in operation by April 15th. 
The total value of the installation, including the founda- 
tions and brick work, which will be done by the Ault- 
nian & laylor company, exceeds $165,000. The weight is approxi- 
mately ,s..soo tons ard it will require 125 freight cars to transport ii 



.\ Xorlhwesiern Elevated Railroad Co. car caught fire at Fifty- 
second .\ve.. Chicago. January 27th and was damaged to the extent 
iif $4,000. 



I'brec masked men robbed the ticket seller at the Fullerton .>\vc 
station of the Northwestern Elevated Railroad Co., Chicago, Feb- 
ruary 2nd. They secured $8 and a watch and chain. 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



Vol. XIV 



MARCH 20, 190* 



No. 3 



The Western Ohio Railway Co. 

Describing the Company's Lines, Power House, Sub-Stations, Etc., with a Review of Some 

Operating Details. 



The Western Ohio Railway Co. in December, 1903, completed 
the southern division of its road from Wapakonela to Piqua, 
which has since been operating on a regular schedule. .\s at 
present completed the road consists of three main divisions. The 
first division extends from Lima to Piqua, which is an almost di- 
rectly north and south route, measuring 47.3 miles in length. The 
second division extends from Wapakoneta to Celina. the latter city 



A brief description of the portion of this road which was first 
completed was given in the "Street Railway Review" for Decem- 
ber, 1902, in an article by Mr. D. W. Pell, then electrician of the 
company. At that time, however, only about half of the present 
mileage was in operation, and but a small part of the power 
house machinery had been installed. As the system stands today it 
presents a gratifying example not only of excellent and siib- 




ENOI.NE AND OKN'KH.Ml iH lidnM, 

being 20.2 miles due west of Wapakoneta. From St. Marys which 
is about half way between Wapakoneta and Celina the third di- 
vision begins and runs to Minster, a distance of ii.i miles. This 
division runs directly north and south and parallels the first 
division at a distance of 10 miles. This gives a total for three 
routes of ;8.6 miles of single track along which are 59 sidings. 
The principal cities and towns through which the system runs arc 
Lima, Cridersvillc, Wapakoneta, Botkins, Anna, Sidney, Locking- 
Ion, Piqua, St. Marys, New Bremen, Minster and Celina. In 
addition to the routes already mentioned the company plans to 
complete a branch running from Lima in a northeasterly direction 
lo Findlay, O., passing through BlufTton, which will be .32.4 miles 
long. With this extension completed the total length of route to 
be operated by the company will amount to in miles. 



\VKS'ri;i{.\ (IHIO RAILWAY <JU. 
stautial conslruclion work but of efficient organization and tlmr- 
oughly competent management in its operating details. 

Track and Ovcrlu-.id Work. 
Beginning with the roadbed the construction has been main- 
tained throughout at a high standard of excellence. The track 
is laid with 6o-lh. and 70-lh. T-rail made by the Carnegie Steel 
Co. upon standard size oak tics spaced 2 ft. between centers. 
There is 8 in. of broken stone ballast laid under llie lies, the bal- 
last being crowned up in the center of the track and carried out 
well beyond the ends of the tics. The entire length of the road is 
ballasted with broken stone except a short distance at the end of 
the first division, which is ballasted with gravel taken from a pit 
upon the right of way owned by the company. Tlie entire length 



138 



STRF.FiT RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vou XIV. No. 3- 



of the riMd, witli the exception o( the right of w.-iy thruiigh cities 
is laid upon priv.ilc right of way .ivcr.-iging ahoiit 40 fl. in width 
and having a niaxiniuni width in various places of 60 ft. One of 
the illustrations shown herewith gives a general view of the track 
on a tangent Iwtween Lima and Wapakoneta. This shows the 
right of way fenced in on both sides and the general character of 
the rondhed construction. Outside of the cities the road has hccn 
huill with a view to high speeds, as the regular schedule under 
which the company operates requires maximum speeds nf from 50 



gram and which are made in the company's shops. These derailers 
consist of 15-ft. switch points which arc normally held open by 
.spring boxes. 'I"he switch stands through which these derailers 
are operated arc located in each case on the further side of the track 
to be crossed, the conncclitw between the switch point and stand 
In-ing made by suitable lengths of l-in. gas pipes connected through 
a l>ell crank as shown. Another commendalile feature' in the track 
destruction is the adoption of a standard turnout which is ad- 
hered to in every case. .\ plan of this turnout is shown in one of 




VIICW OF TRACK UK T W KK.N I,1.M.\ .\NI) \VAI'.\K( )NKT.\. 

to 60 miles an hour at times. For this reason the grades have 
been kept down to maximum of 1.8 per cent on the right of way 
and the shortest curve outside of the cities is of 12°. 

In the construction of the roadl)ed large amounts of earth were 
moved in making the various cuts and fills. The maximum cut 
was 22 ft. deep, while the inaximum fill was 42 ft. high. A view 
of this fill is shown herewith above the concrete culvert at Woli 
Creek. This is typical of all the culverts along the line, being 
solidly constructed of concrete. Several long trestles are also to 
be found along the line, one of which is shown herewith crossing 
the tracks of the Lake Erie & Western Railroad. Another trestle, 
which is the longest on the line, is huilt at Lockington at the cross- 
ing of the Loromie River. This trestle is 2.270 ft. long and is 




CONCRETK CMI.VKRT A.\I> 12-FT. FII.I. AT WOT.F TRKEK. 

the accompanying illustrations from which it will be seen the 
switch has a lead of 81 ft. II in. The ties under this special work 
arc spaced 20 in. between centers and split switches and frogs, 
each 15 ft. long, are used. The guard rails are 10 ft. in length and 
the switch stands arc provided with spring connecting rods. All 
of the rail bonds were supplied by the .Vmerican Steel. & Wire Co. 
There are seven bridges along the route, all of which arc built of 
steel and rest upon concrete piers. These bridges were designed 
to be loaded with a 40-ton car and a 40-ton trailer and were 
calculated with a factor of safety of four. 

~ The overhead construction has Iwen built in the same sub- 
stantial style which characterizes the track work. The overhead 
material was furnished ,by the Ohio Brass Co., the trolley wires 




CROSSING OVER Tlt-M K.S nK l.AKK KKIK & WESTER.V R. K. 



57 ft. above the high water line. The work of filling in this trestle 
has been commenced and this fill when completed will contain 160,- 
000 cu. yd. of earth. 

There are 13 railroad crossings along the route of the Western 
Ohio Railway, 10 of which are at grade, 2 are overhead and l un- 
dergrade. All of the grade crossings arc provided with derailers, 
most of which are of the style illustrated in the accompanying dia- 



and copper feeders by the John A. Roebling's Sons Co., and the 
aluminum high tension transmission lines by the Pittsburg Reduc- 
tion Co. The poles for the overhead work are all of Michigan 
cedar, 7 in. in diameter at the top and 35 and 45 ft. long. On 
curves the poles have been set unusually close together and are 
thoroughly braced and guyed where necessary with a view to 
making the overhead lines very substantial so as to meet all the 



Mar. 20, 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW". 



139 



requirements of high speed service of heavy cars. The trolley 
wire is No. 00 round wire and is double throughout the entire 
length of the road. The trolley wire hangers are rigidly fastened 
to the brackets, the flexibility of the line being obtained through 
the brackets, which are of the Christy flexible type in which the 



In addition to the alternating current machinery this station also 
includes a sub-stalion equipment, consisting of two 400-kw. 
rotaries and a direct current switchboard by means of which the 
section of the road adjacent to the power house receives its 
direct current supply. The suh-slation switchboard contains two 



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7S-0- 



'O-O" c TO c 



^^sr£-^Af ot/'O — "^^<r-^. — ■ /fyr/i-iv^y 's/w//xacx- 



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ST.\Nn.\RD DER.MI.ER M.\ni': BY WESTERN OHIO RY. 



arm is pivoted at the pole which permits a small amount of 
motion in a vertical direction. The cross arms are set in deep 
gains and fastened by means of bolts and nuts instead of lag 
screw's. The low tension feed wires are carried on a short cross 
arm placed a little above the trolley wire brackets and the tele- 
phone wires are carried on the same cross arm. The telephone 
booths at which the crews may report to the dispatcher's office 



rotary transformer panels, two direct ciirrcnl panels and two line 
panels. The low tension alternating current switchboard which 
is illustrated herewith, contains four generator panels, one 
totalizing panel, three 400-volt panels for the low tension side of 
the transformers, two exciter panels and one lighting panel for the 
lighting of the building. The high tension alternating current 
switchboard, which is shown in the further end of the building 



^rij*i f^aanrv ' • 




sT.vNn.Mii) rrttNcii 

are located at every siding. The telephone line is equipped with 
Kellogg Switchljoard & Supply Co. instruments, of which there are 
about 50 in use. Where the high tension lines run parallel with the 
track they are carried on cross arms near the top of the 45-ft. poles. 
Cross country lines have been built in some places to avoid carrying 
the high tension circuit through cities. The lines are protected by 
lightning arresters of both the Wurtz and the fiarton-Daiiicls types 
placed approximately half a mile apart. 

Power House. 

The power house is located at St. Marys about a mile distant 
from the company's tracks and is a long brick building 24.S ft. 
by 97/4 ft. in area. The building is neat and substantial in 
general exterior appearance, but no attempts at architectural 
ornamentation were made. A general view of the exterior is 
shown herewith. The interior is divided into two rooms extend- 
ing the full length of the building by means of a brick parti 
tion wall, in front of which is the engine room, 50 ft. wide, and 
10 the rear the Iwiler room. 

The engine room, which is illustrated herewith, contains two 
SOO-h. p. Cooper-Corliss engines with cylinder dimensions of 
24 X 42 in. and two cross compound Cooper-Corliss engines, each 
of ifioo h. p. capacity, with cylinder dimensions of 24 and 44 x 48 
in. There are also two W'estinghous* vertical compound engines 
with cylinder dimensions of 13 and 22 x 13 in., each of which drives 
a loo-kw. exciter generator. The two large engines arc direct 
connected to two 750-kw. Wcslinghouse generators and the two 
itmallcr engines to two 400-kw. VVcstinghousc generators. These 
generators are of the multipolar a. c. type and generate at 400 
voln pressure. In the basement are located seven 400-kw. trans- 
formers of the Westinghouse make, by means of which the 
400-voU current is stepped up to 3.1,000 volts, at which pres- 
•ure it is transmitted to the difTercnt sub-stations along the line. 



WKSTKRX OTIIO RY, 

in the general view of the engine room contains seven paueU 
equipped with static interrupters and low e(|iiipmcnt lightning 
arresters. There is suffiicienl space remaining in the engine room 
for the installation of another of the i,ooo-li. p. generating units 
whenever it may he required, but at the present time the capacity of 




(■'■\\'i;i! iiiiiisi': AT .ST, M,\itv s, inini 

the station is more than diuilile what is neeilid fur the requirements 
of the road. The engine room is served lluciughout its entire 
length by an overhead traveling crane, built by Chislidlni & Moore. 
As will be seen in the general view of the engine room the vacant 
portion of this room is temporarily devoleil lr> Ihe storage of two 
snl)-statir)M e(|uipnients wliieh li;i\e .'ilready been piireh.isefl for 



140 



STRF.F.T RAILWAY RRVIEW. 



(Vol, XIV. No. 3 



that portion of the road between Lima nnd i-'indlay which still 
remains to be built. 

The boiler room, part of which is shown in one of the accom- 
panying illustrations, is equipped with eight Stirling boilers each 
of 37S ''• I'- ypacity set in Ixitteriis of two, each battery being 
surmounted by a steel stack 48 in. in diameter and 80 fl. high 




i:''|i.i:k ki k im at ST. .\i\i;-i.< I'Wi 1: ii.iisi-: 

These boilers arc operated at a pressure of 150 lb. and arc baud 
fired. A small industrial railway is provided along the front of 
the boilers and from the small cars shown in the illustration 
coal is shoveled into the furnace doors. The pumps for this 
plant are all located in the center of the boiler room. They 
consist of two feed pumps, two heater pumps and two 14x22x15 
irjection pumps for the condensers. The condenser is of the 
elevated injector type. 

Sub-Stations. 

There arc six sub-stations at present constructed along the 
route, including the one at the power house, and there will be 
two others on the northern branch of the road which is to be 
built. The present sub-station buildings are located in Lima, 
Wapakoneta, Anna, Sidney and Lockington, and the equipment 
of all of these buildings is identical, although the buildings them- 
selves vary somewhat in design. A general exterior view of the 
sub-station at Wapakoneta is given herewith, and in this case 
the building is provided with a passenger waiting room, this 
being the general transfer point between the first and second 
divisions of the road. All of the buildings are of brick and 
are of a neat design, and they are all provided with living rooms 
for the attendant and his family. An important detail in con- 
nection with the economical management of these sub-stations 
is the use of but a single attendant at each station. When 
this was first proposed by the management the idea was criticised 
as being impracticable, but since this road has been in operation 
the management has proved its practicability, at least in this case. 
There is in reality but little work to be done in connection with 
the sub-stations. After the machinery shuts down each night 
about midnight the machines have to be inspected and cleaned 
ready for operation next morning, and this is practically all 
of the real labor which devolves upon the sub-station attendant. 
During the day. while his presence at the sub-station all the 
time is necessary, yet in general he has practically nothing to 
do except perhaps to close a circuit breaker occasionally when 
it comes out, so that in spite of the long hours of attendance the 
sul>-station attendant has but little work to perform and there 
has been no difficulty found in filling this position with an 
entirely satisfactory class of employes. 



Car Shops. 
The company has recently completed a new car shop which is 
located at its car storage yard in Wapakoneta about a mile south 
of the sub-station and the transfer point in that city. A diagram 
shown herewith gives the general layout of the car storage yard 
which lies between the tracks of the Western Ohio Ry. and those 
of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry. A spur 
track connects the two roads at this point by means 
of which interchange of freight and cars is made. 
As will be seen by the illu siration there are seven 
tracks within the storage yard, two of which pass 
through the repair shops and the remainder being un- 
covered. It is the policy of the company to store 
most of its rolling stock on the open tracks and the 
^^ car house seldom contains more than three or four 

^H cars which may be undergoing repairs. It may be 

^H mentioned in passing that the overhead and specia' 

track work in the storage yards has been built in the 
same substantial style which characterizes the con- 
struction of the company's lines throughout. 

The repair shops, an exterior view of which is 
shown herewith, are neatly p.nd substantially built of 
brick, and contain in addition to the shops proper the 
dispatcher's office, motormen and conductors' room, 
and a locker room and toilet room for the trainmen. 
The general arrangement of the repair shops and 
the location of the various rooms and machine tools 
is shown in the accompanying diagram. The build- 
ing is 229 ft. long by 125 ft. 3 in. wide and the dis- 
patcher's office and trainmen's room arc located in 
one corner of the front of the building facing the 
company's track. In the basement under the train- 
men's room is located a boiler which provides heat 
for the building and the remajnder of the front 
portion of the building is used as a large 
storeroom. Along one side of the shop, beginning at the south 
end, is a blacksmith shop, with one forge; next to this come 
locker and wash rooms for the shop employes and beyond this 
the office of the master mechanic. A passage between the main 
shop and the storeroom separate? the master mechanic's office 
from the armature room and toilet rooms. The remainder o> the 
building i< divided by brick partition walls into two main 




SWITCHBOARD .\T ST. MARYS POWER lluUSE. 

rooms, one of which is the machine shop proper and the other 
the carpenter shop, general interior views of each of which are 
shown herewith. The machine shop is equipped with one 26- 
in. and 48-in. double spindle McCabe lathe; one i8-in. Bradford 
lathe; one iso-ton Shafer wheel press; one Fosdick & Holloway 
radial drill ; one Woodward and Rogers 13-in, speed drill ; one 
No. 4 power hack saw ; one diverter winding machine made 
in the company's shops; one emery wheel; one grindstone, and 



Mar. X). 11)04.] 



STREET R.\IL\\ AY REVIEW. 



Ul 



one transfer table for removing trucks from under cars. The 
armature room is equipped with a i.ooo-lb. swinging crane, and 




Sl'B-a ..... .. ... . l.XG-ROOM .\T \V.\P.VKON'ET.\. 

a 3,000-lb. swinging crane is provided for mounting wheels and 
a.tles in the lathe and on the wheel press. The company makes 



smoking cars. These are mounted on 14-A Peckham trucks. One 
combination passenger and smoking car 54 ft. long was built by 
the Jewett Car Co., and is mounted on 14-A-XX Peckham trucks. 
.\11 of the cars are uniformly equipped with four Westinghouse 
No. 56 motors, K-14 controllers mounted on both platforms, 
Christensen air brakes and Knutson trolley retrievers. Almost 
all of the cars are equipped with pilots, although a few Providence 
fenders are used. It will be noticed that all of the car equipments 
are entirely uniform and this was decided upon in order to reduce 
the number of repair parts to a minimum and to facilitate the inspec- 
tion and work in the repair shops. The cars are in use every 
alternate day only, and are thoroughly inspected during the day 
following each day's run, and it may be stated here that the 
thoroughness with which the inspection is made and the time 
which is devoted to it has proved to be time and money well 
spent, as during more than a year that the company has been 
operating there has never been an armature burned out on the 
road, although much heavy work has been done by the cars, 
especially during the last season in removing the snow. There 
are no snow plows, sweepers or track scrapers used on this road, 
yet in spite of the severity of the winter and the fact that almost 
all of the interurban lines in Ohio and Indiana were more or 
less crippled during the past winter and had their schedules badly 
deranged at times, the Western Ohio Railway Co, lost but a single 
trip throughout the whole winter and the cars were but very 
rarely off the schedule time. This was accomplished by following 




RBPIAIK SIKH'S .\T \V.M'.\KONET.\. 



considerable use of compressed air in cleaning cars and motors 
and for hoisting, and there is now being installed in the shop 
a Christensen type L continuous running stationary compressor 
and a 75-ft. air tank to provide compressed air for 
these purposes. There is also being built in the shop 
at present a 5-ton traveling crane with a span of 
30 ft. and a travel of 64 ft. A drop section of the 
pit tracks is aho being installed to facilitate the re- 
moval of wheels and axles from under the cars. 

The carpenter shop is equipped with a 30-in. Oliver 
hand planer and jointer, an Oliver saw bench and 
(inc wood lathe. The shop is driven by a ro-h. p 
Westinghouse shunt wound motor and is lighted by 
means of arc lamps. The company has been boring 
wheels on a lathe and getting good results, and sav- 
ing the investment, of a boring mill. 

Rolling Stock. 

The company's rolling stock consists of 19 passen 
gcr cars, three express cars, one line car and one 
work car. Ten of the passenger cars are combina- 
tion passenger and smoking cars, 45 ft. long, built by 
the Niles Car & Manufacturing Co., mounted on 
Peckham r4-A-XX trucks. F.ight cars were built 
by the Kuhlinan Car Co., and arc 44 ft, long, Ihrec 
of Iheni Iwing combination passenger and bag- 
gage cars and five combination passenger and 



the advice which is frequently quoted to "keep the cars moving." 
The schedule is arranged so that two cars pass every point on 
the road every hour and while snow storms were in progress the 




CARI'ENTISH 8H01' AT \V Al'AKONlSTA. 



142 



STkKKT RAILWAY REVIHW. 



IVml XIV, No. 3. 



cars have breii kept riiniiiiig all night, so as to pr.:vciit any accu- 
niiilation of snnw on the tracks. The pilots of the car* during 
a snow storm arc covered with a sheathing of metal which lakes 
the place of a plow. When the usual frequency of service over 
the tracks was not suUicient to keep them clear, as was sometimes 
the case in the long cuts, extra cars were sent out which operated 
continuously hack and forth over these troublesome places. 

Operating Details. 

riiere is an hourly service on the first and second divisions 
of the road in both directions between Lima and I'iiiua and be- 



bc oflf its schedule at any time its crew must either have an excellent 
excuse for it or suffer the penalty therefor. 

All cars are run under dispatcher's orders, although no special 
orders arc given as long as the trains adhere to the schedule 
lime or, in other words, the schedule is the crew's authority for 
running as long as the schedule is maintained. Each car or 
train has its' train number, and its lime at every station and siding 




CAK STORAG1-: VARI) AND RliPAIR SHOP AT WAPAKONETA. 



tween Wapakoneta and Celina. On the third division between St. 

Marys and Minster there is a I'/i hourly service in both directions. 

The company publishes a very complete time-table for the use 

of trainmen which is supplemented by live pages, of rules. It is 



is given on the schedule. The time is generally printed in light 
face type on the time-table except at such siding where two trains 
arc to meet. The time at these points is printe<l in heavy black 
face type and just above the time is a small figure indicating 




FI>OOR PIJ^N OF RKPAIR SHOPS AT WAPAKON'KTA. 



the theory of the management that the schedule and rules are 
made to he adhered to and consequently the trainmen are held 
to remarkably strict observance of them. If a car is found to 



the number of the train which is to he met at this siding. This 
.irrangement of the lime-table is an excellent one as it shows each 
motorman at a glance just what sidings arc meeting points, by 



Mar. 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



143 



means of the prominent type, and also the number of the train 
which he is to meet. Telephone booths are provided at each 
siding, but crews do not report to the dispatclier when they are 
on time except at meeting points. In this case the first crew 
to stop at the meeting point calls up the dispatcher and reports 
"Train Xo. at <iding Xo , Train Xo, in sight." or 




.\nrni.\i; SHOP .\-r \\ ai'AKonkt.v. 

"Train Xo. not in sight" as the case may be. It the cars 

arc about on time the dispatcher answers back "."Ml right, make 
your schedule," or if one of the cars is late the first crew report- 
ing will be told to call up the dispatcher again in two or three 
minutes. If one of the cars is more than five minutes late it 
loses its schedule right and operates thereafter under special 
orders from the dispatcher. Each of the trainmen is provided 
with train order blanks which are used in case special orders are 
given out by the train dispatcher. The order given by the dis- 
patcher is received by the motorman and written by the conductor 
on the form provided and when the writing is finished the motor- 
man repeats the order back to the dispatcher who, if he finds it 
correct, will answer "Complete." The order must be 
signed by both the motorman and conductor before 
the train leaves the siding and in case the telephone 
connection should fail before "complete" is received 
the order is not effective. In case a train is unable 
to make schedule time its crew is obliged to report 
to the train dispatcher at the first telephone booth 
after becoming five minutes late. When a large num- 
ber of people are to be handled for any special occa- 
sion the trains are run in sections, as many extra 
cars as may be needed being put into service, but 
these trains follow the regular schedule from which 
no deviations are made. When special trains are 
run they have no rights other than those conferred 
upon them by the train dispatcher and they are 
usually run under orders to clear all regular trains 
by five minutes. It is worthy of notice that so 
closely is the schedule adhered to on this road that 
very few train orders arc found necessary and instances have occurred 
where not a single train order has been issued for two days. 
This means that for two days' operation no car has been as much 
as five minutes oflf its schedule. 

The train sheets that arc filled out by the dispatcher are two 
in numlier, one for the first division and the other for the second 
and third divisions. Each train sheet contains coni|)lclc records 
of all the runs each day, including the weather report given at 
midnight, noon and six o'clock p. m., the lime at which every 
crew reported at the different sidings and a memorandum of the 
special orders isiucd. At the bottom of the train sheet Is space 
lo be filled out by the dispatchers containing a summary of the 



day's mileage, divided into regular passenger mileage, special pas- 
senger mileage, special mileage, express mileage, foreign mileage 
and work train mileage. Spaces arc also left for reporting 
the time in case the power is off. reporting the movements of 
work trains and for reporting detentions and their causes. 
The time sheet for the crews operating each day are made out 
to show the motorman and conductor operating on 
each run, the time they arc on and off and the total 
time for the day. .Another useful form is the daily 
car mileage report, showing the number of each car 
in service, tlie mileage, both regular and special, for 
passenger and express service and also the construc- 
tion service mileage. The construction mileage is 
entered under the heads of "Ballast," "Overhead." 
"Dirt," r.nd "Special." 

Parks. 

The company operates one park called McBcth 
Park, which is located a short distance outside of the 
city of Lima, and covers an. area of 40 acres. This 
park contains an artificial lake which is well stocked 
with fish and the company has a number of row 
boats which are rented at 25 cents per hour. Tlie 
lake is lighted around its border by incandescent 
lamps and is three acres in area. A general view 
of the lake is shown in one of the accompanying 
illustrations. The park also contains a group of 
liiiildings and other amusement features, some of 
which are shown in the accompanying engraving. 
On the right-hand side of the illustration is shown 
the theater which has a seating capacity for 700 
people and which was built at a cost of $8,000. In 
the center is the building containing a roller coaster, which cost 
$4,000, and to the left is a dancing pavilion and restaurant. The 
park buildings together were erected at a cost of $15,000. The 
theater entertainments are given by a stock company and the. price 
of admission is 15 and 20 cents, and 25 cents for box seats'.' The 
dancing pavilion has an excellent polished hardwood floor, 60x100 
ft., and dancing at the rate of five cents each per dance has proved 
an attractive feature of the park entertainment. Connected with the 
dancing pavilion is a restaurant lliat seats 60 people and that is in 
charge of a competent caterer. The park also contains a scenic 
railway which is considerable of a novelty, the scenes consisting 
of all kinds of mines, such as gold, silver, copper, salt mines, etc. 



^ 






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M'HI'.TIl I'.MiK lillLIllNllH. 

I lu- roller ciasler ami scenic railway were made anil arc (ppcraled 
by the Pittsburg Coaster & Construction Co., of Pittsburg, Pa. In 
addition to the attractions mentioned are also lo be found the usual 
variety of iniiinr allraclions. 

Fares and Tickets. 

In arranging its rales of fare and tickets the company has fol- 
lowed as closely as possible the usual practice of the steam 
railroads. The road, fur the purpose of fare collcclion, is divided 
into several divisions rind card tickets liolh one way and re- 
turn arc issued bearing a coupon for each division. The general 
fare is based on a rale of two cents per mile with a dediulion 
of 10 per cent on round ui|i tiikels. One-way cash fares are 



144 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vou XIV, No. i. 



the same price as card tickets but as no tickets are sold on the 
car passengers intending to return the same way almost always 
purchase tickets in order to avail themselves of the lo per cent 
discount. The company also issues regular strip tickets such as 
are ii^cd by steam railroads in which the destination is filled in 
in ink by the agent. Mileage books of 500 miles are sold, good 
for three people for $7.50. School tickets are also sold at the rate 
of one fare for the round trip, one of these tickets being a 46- 
ride commutation ticket and the other a S4-ride commutation 
ticket. Party tickets for 20 or more people are sold at any time 
desired for a rate of one and one-third fares and .special rate 
tickets for all points on the road to Dayton via the Dayton 
Covington & Piqua Traction Co. arc sold good going on Saturday. 
Sunday or Mond.iy and returning Monday night for one and 
one-third fares. No transfers are issued except to the local street 
railways in Wapakoneta and St. Marys to points inside of the town. 
These transfers were required by terms in the company's fran- 
chise. 

The company formerly supplied duplex tickets which were 
issued by the conductors as receipts for cash fares but this sys- 
tem has been abandoned and all of the company's cars are 
being equipped with the Ohmer fare register system and hereafter 
no cash fare receipts will be used. As there are not enough 
dial points on the registers of these machines to include all of the 




M'BETII PARK L.\KE. 

cash fares if collected for the full length of the road at one time, 
the road has been divided into several sections, as previously 
mentioned, and the conductor must collect a fare every time the 
car enters a new section. He is also prohibited from collecting 
a through cash fare, but can only collect the amount of fare 
which would carry the passenger to the end of the section on which 
the fare is collected. In case the passenger buys a ticket between 
through points he is provided with a hat check and not dis- 
turbed until he reaches his destination. Employes or others 
entitled to ride free are provided with tickets or passes so that 
the conductor is required to ring up some fare for every pas- 
senger on the car. 

.Arrangements have been completed with a connecting road by 
means of which a fast service will be maintained between Lima 
and Dayton, a distance of 79 miles. Two trains will be run in 
each direction daily which will cover the distance in two hours 
and thirty minutes. This schedule will take effect early this 
spring. 

Power is to be supplied from the power house of the Western 
Ohio Railway Co. for operating the cars of the Ft. Wayne, Van 
Wert & Lima Traction Co's. system which is now under construc- 
tion. 

Personnel. 

The officers and board of directors of the Western Ohio Rail- 
way Co, are: A. E. Akins, president; L. J. Wolf, first vice- 
president; H. C. I^nng. secretary and assistant treasurer; F. G. 
Pomeroy; M. J. Mandelbauni, treasurer; F. D. Carpenter, second 
vice-president and general manager ; L. M. Coe ; F. L. Fuller 
and A. E. FeihI. The executive offices of the company are at 



Cleveland and the general office is at 119 W. Market St., Lima O. 
The officers and staff directly connected with the operation of 
the road at Lima are V. D. Carpenter, second vice-president and 
general manager; J. II. Merrill, auditor; C. N. Wilcoxon, super- 
intendent; R. II. Carpenter, general passenger agent; G. II. Kcl- 
scy, master mechanic; Frank Rynn, electrician, and Fred Mason, 
chief engineer 

Kuanokc Railway & Electric Co. 

In a recently published compilation which is entitled "Roanoke, 
the Magic City of Virginia," there appears among numerous com- 
prehensive sketches of representative business interests of that city, 
and also of Salem, Va., an interesting sketch of the Roanoke Rail- 
way & Electric Co., which was organized as a horse car line in 
1888 and was converted into an electric line in 1893. It was first 
known as the Roanoke Street Railway Co. In 1889 it was reor- 
ganized and consolidated with the Roanoke Light & Power Co. 
tmdcr the present designation. Its interests were held by local 
parties until January, 1903, when the present proprietorship ob- 
tained control. The company operates 19% miles of road extend- 
ing in all directions from the center of Roanoke, and a lo-mile line 
from Salem on the west to Vinton on the east. The equipment is 
modern and includes 30 cars, seven being double-truck convertible 
cars. It also has a new modern freight car which is used between 
Salem and Vinton, and a sprinkler car. 

Last year the company purchased and laid out Mountain Park, 
v>hich comprises 36 acres on the west side of Mill Mountain, about 
a quarter of a mile west of Virginia College. It is laid out in 
walks, flower beds and groves, and has seats, swings, etc. In sea- 
son there are attractive entertainments, including vaudeville, opera 
and comedy. This year a dancing pavilion and other features will 
be added. The park was very successful last summer, it being es- 
pecially desirable for Sunday school picnics and lodge and society 
gatherings. There is no charge, except a small fee for the enter- 
tainments. The company maintains frequent car service to the 
park during the summer and fall. 

The company recently made extensive improvements to its power 
house and the plant will compare favorably with any electric power 
plant of like capacity. The car barns have also been improved 
and are commodiously equipped. In regard to the light and power 
departments, it is stated that the company has in operation in 
Roanoke 6,000 incandescent lamps and 350 arc lamps for city light- 
ing and in the business houses. It also supplies power for several 
of the leading industries. The company employs about 85 men in 
all departments. 

The president of the company is R. D. Apperson, of Lynchburg; 
F. H. Shelton, of Philadelphia, is secretary and treasurer, and 
J. W. Hancock, of Roanoke, is general manager. 



Paying Express Business in Massachusetts. 

The Middleboro, Wareham & Buzzard's Bay Street Ry., which 
has been carrying express on its passenger cars for some time, put 
a regular express car into service early in February and has found 
the business profitable from the start. One car only is used and 
up to this time it has made but one round trip daily between 
Taunton and Monument Beach, a distance of about 37 miles. On 
its first trip out of Taunton the car wai loaded to its capacity. In 
warm weather it is purposed to make two or three trips daily, 
as it is anticipated that large quantities of provisions will be car- 
ried to the summer resorts on lower Cape Cod. Besides the tran- 
sient business, which has been excellent, the company has received 
assurances of patronage from the wholesale dealers along the 
line, and others. By utilizing this service shippers save two days 
in transit and get the same rates as charged by the steam roads. 
The transportation of cotton from Taunfon to two big mills in 
East Taunton will augment the business, also. An office has been 
established on Main St., Taunton, in charge of Charles Parris. 



The supreme court of New York recently handed down a decision 
which granted to the city of New York judgment against the Third 
.'\ve. Railroad Co. for $25,720, with interest and costs, for car 
license fees for the years 1804 to 1899. inclusive, at $20 a year for 
each car used. 



Compressed Air in Electric Railway Shop, Power House 

and Track Work — I. 



applied to hand power cranes already in use, in which the hoist 

In its application to various phases of electric railway work, com- 
pressed air is rapidly coming to be recognized as a most convenient, 
economical and desirable agency, and it would seem the possibilities 
in this direction had only been touched upon. 

The widespread use of compressed air, and the practical applica- 
tion of air under compression for doing useful work, are of so 
comparatively recent date that the known data on the subject still 
remain difficult of access to the lay seeker after specific information. 
The literature treating on the commercial uses for compressed air 
has been confined largely to occasional papers presented to engineer- 
ing societies; to special articles appearing at intervals in the various 
technical journals of America and Europe; and to a few general 
treatises upon the subject, all of which are largely technical, and 
most all of which are theoretical, as distinguished from the practi- 
cal. 

Inasmuch as most of the published information is of interest 
only to compressed air engineers, the following article has been 
prepared with the idea of supplying some practical working data 
and information for those who do not care to study the technical 
theories of compressed air and its properties, but who are anxious 
for information that will enable them to make specific applications 
of air in the shop, power house and other departments of electric 
railway work. 

It is not the intention to discuss the use of compressed air as a 
propelling force for electric railway cars, as elaborate experiments 
very definitely evidenced the fact that in the present stage of the 
science, compressed air is not a mechanical success' and certainly is 
not a commercial success as a propelling motive power for trans- 
portation service. 

.As outlining the scope of this article, it may be in place here to 
give a list of some of the manifold uses to which air under com- 
pression can be applied in connection with electric railway work. 

In the Car Shop: 

Pneumatic tools for doing various kinds of work. 

Pneumatic hoists, cranes, jacks, etc., for lifting and conveying 
car bodies, trucks and truck parts, armatures and other motor 
parts, etc. 

The air blast for general dusting and cleaning work, including 
cleaning interior and exterior of cars, dusting seats, blowing dust 
from controllers, motors, etc., and removing dust and dirt from 
all inaccessible places. 

Compressed air sand blast for cleaning dirt and old paint from 
trucks, dashers and other metal surfaces prior to repainting, or for 
securing bright contact surfaces for brazing or welding. The 
sand blast is also used for grinding and frosting glass in decorative 
designs for car signs, deck-lights, etc. 

Combined compressed air and gas blow torch for burning off 
car bodies preparatory to repainting; also used for brazing and 
soldering purposes. 

Compressed air for blowing furnaces, forges, tire-heaters, etc. 

Compressed air sand screens for screening sand. 

Maintaining pressure by compressed air on automatic fire sprink- 
ling systems in car houses, shops, and other buildings. 

At the Power House: 

The air blast for general cleaning purposes, as blowing dust and 
dirt from generators, rotary converters, switchboards, etc. 

Compressed air oiling .systems for piping oil to various parts of 
the power house for automatically oiling engine bearings, etc. 

Compressed air driven coal and ash handling machinery. 

Compressed air lift or pump for lifting water from wells for 
Ijoiler feed water and other purposes. 

On the Cars: 

Compressed air brakes. 

Air whistles. 

Compressed air for maintaining pressure on running water where 
cars arc furnished with wash basin and toilet room. 



Compressed air track sander. 

Operating trolley retriever by compressed air. 

Compressed air device for opening and closing doors and platform 
gates on interurban and elevated railway cars. 

In Track Work : 

Compressed air tools for punching, drilling, etc., preparatory to 
attaching bonds to rails. 

Compressed air sand blast for securing bright surfaces on rails 
prior to bonding, welding, etc 

Track tamping by compressed air. 

Miscellaneous Uses for Compressed Air : 

Painting and whitewashing by means of compressed air spray. 

Compressed air on special service cars and vehicles', i. e., for 
raising tower on tower repair wagon or cars ; for operating cranes 
or derricks on service cars ; for throwing water over street from 
sprinkling cars; for feeding sand to track from sanding cars; for 
operating the plow nose and shears on snow plows, etc. 

Pneumatic signal systems for operating signals on electric rail- 
ways. 

Cleaning horses by compressed air. 

Cleaning carpets, upholstery, etc., by compressed air. 

In connection with the foregoing list of uses to which air under 
compression can be put it will be in order to speak of some of the 
methods and devices used for applying the air. After which will 
be discussed the subject of air compressors and the cost of com- 
pressing air. 

Pneumatic Tools and Hoists. 

Although the economy of portable pneumatic tools and appliances 
is of course more readily evident in large machine shops where the 
size of output warrants an elaborate installation of compressing 
plant and tools, it is nevertheless true that the advances made 
within the past few years in the art of pneumatic tool manufacture 
have rendered these ingenious labor-saving devices applicable even 
to the smallest machine shop. Moreover, if other uses for the 
compressed air can be found in the same buildine so as to warrant 
a piping system and compressing plant of reasonable size, the 
application of the air to driving various tools becomes a matter 
tlie economy of which cannot be questioned. 

The many and varied uses to which air can be p\it in and around 
electric railway repair shops renders the electric railw.iy machine 
shop a most promising field for the use of pneumatic tools and 
appliances. A line of air pipe along the ceiling over the vise benches, 
with the air hose attached to a pneumatic hammer and pneumatic 
drill standing upon the bench ready for instant use, forms a com- 
bination without which no modern machine shop, however small, 
can hardly be said to be complete. When the air pipe system is 
extended to all parts of the shops with branch-off s at convenient 
intervals, and the list of appliances is made to include pneumatic 
drills and hammers, riveters, chipping hammers, forge hammers, 
tire-'hcaters, air hoists, jacks, gas blow torches, sand blast, sand 
screen, etc., the arrangement can almost be called the modern ex- 
emplification of convenience and economy in machine shop work. 
Practically all of the larger electric railway shops in the United 
States as well as many of medium .'^ize, and even some of the smaller 
shops are now fitted with air appliances in this way, among those 
having notably complete installations being the shops of the St. 
Louis Transit Co. ; the Boston Elevated Railway Co. ; the Rhode 
Island Co., of Providence; the Milwaukee (Wis.) Electric Rail- 
way, Light & Power Co., and others too numerous to mention in 
detail. The apparatus used by the Uoston Elevated Ry. was supplied 
by the Ingersoll-.Sergeant Co. 

The application of air hoists lo cranes and to overhead travelers 
is now made in an almost endless variety of ways to meet the 
requirements of machine shop and foundry practice. The most 
common type is the simple cylinder hoist, cither vertical or hori- 
zontal, or in combination with an intermediate inelastic fluid, as 
water or oil. In many instances ilircct acting Ii'mMs may be readily 



14() 



STRElvT RAILWAY REVIEW. 



[Vol. XIV. No. 3. 



may l>c hooked to tlic gear t.ickle for ailjii^liiig the height, when 
the air hoist may lie used for quick work. The air hoists are 
usually provided with a safely stop or hrake allachiiieni for arrest- 
ing the lift aiiti'iiialically at any desired point. 

In combination with an overhead track and traveler the single 
cylinder air hoist makes a very desirable way of handling arma- 
tures, small parts and materials of all kind>. The overhead track 
system usually consists of 8 or lo-ui. I-beains suspended from 
the ceiling and upon the lower flange of which the travelers run. 
Ry extentling this overhead track system lo all part.^ of the building 
with branchoflFs to the car tracks and machine tools most frequently 
used, the usefulness of the hoists will be greatly increased. 

Car bodies may readily be lifted from the tracks by means of 
four direct acting simple cylinder hoists supported from the roof 
girders near the four corners of the car. 

Various styles of pneumatic jacks have been devised for service 
in car pits for removing armatures, axles and wheels, etc. It seems 
to be the case, however, that although the air hoist is very satis- 
factory the air jack is not looked upon with so much favor and 
several master mechanics reports that the air jack cannot be de- 
pended upon to hold any considerable weight for any length of 
time. 

Space will not permit description of the various styles of pneu- 
matic tools and hoists upon the market. There are now some 



J- 
4>0 




"- Ai? /2 //^/?a S^jV33 




2 






t f f 



FIG. 1-NOZZLK Full CLE.VMNlJ C.\K SliATS. 

dozen or more reliable manufacturers vviio make appliances operated 
by compressed air, and who are willing to furnish full infornialion 
concerning the construction and working of their various devices. 
The products of any of the leading firms will doubtless be found 
reliable and satisfactory. For most of the pneumatic tools and 
hoists a pressure of air ranging from 70 to 80 lb. will be found the 
most satisfactory. Compressors adapted for pneumatic tools and 
ippliances are a specialty of N. .\. Christensen, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Qeaning and Dusting by Compressed Air. 

The use of the compressed air blast for cleaning the interior of 
cars, for cleaning and renovating cane and phisli car seats, and 
for cleaning and dusting purposes generally, is one of the simplest 
appliances of compressed air and it is one of the most eflfcctive. 
With a compressed air nozzle and a few feet of flexible hose, for 
instance, one man can remove the dust from the interior of a car 
in considerably less than one-half the time required by any other 
method. Moreover the air blast instantly reaches every crack and 
corner, and more effectually removes the dirt and dust than any 
other means that can be employed. 

For cleaning car seats the Boston & Maine R. R. uses the form 
of nozzle shown in Fig. i. Mr. E. F. Millar, car department 
superintendent of the Boston & Maine R. R., described -this work 
in an article published in the "Review" for Aug. 20, 1903. as fol- 
lows; 

"The cushions and backs arc removed from the cars and placed 
on wooden hor.scs where all loose dirt and dust are blown out of them 
with compressed air. The nozzle is made of brass, formed at one 
end so as to give an opening which can be connected to a pipe 



having a valve in il. This pipe in turn is attached lo a rubber 
hose, which is connected to the reservoir containing the air supply. 
The opposite end of the no/zic is so constructed as to give an 
opening about .1 in. long and 3-100 in. wide; however, the length 
of the oiicning can be any dimension desired according to the vol- 




FIG. 2-NOZZI,E FOR DRYING. 

umc of air at hand, as the air pressure should not be lower than 
60 lb. to 80 lb. per sq. in. The latter pressure will do much better 
work. With a pressure of 80 lb. and a nozzle 3 in. wide, a man 
can clean a cushion in two minutes. By opening the doors and 
windows in a car, quite a good job of cleaning backs and cushions 
can be done without moving either of them. The result^ from a 
sweeper's standpoint are very good, as the compressed air will 
carry ahead of it all the dust and dirt which are in the lattice work 
of the floor, or in the heaters, or around the seats where they 
are fastened to the floor, much better than a broom, also much 
fKSter." 

The same railroad has a system of washing and drying car 
cusl'.ions and in connection with this work uses a nozzle with a 
shield as shown in Fig. 2, for drying out the fabric after washing. 
The shield is designed to prevent the water from flying in all 
directions. 

In Fig. 3 is shown a common form of air-spray nozzle for dusting 
with compressed air. This is a broad, thin nozzle with slightly 
curved edge. The open slit at the end should vary in width from 
1-32 to i-i6 of an inch and in length from i to 6 in. depending 
upon the kind of work to be done. A good form for general car 
cleaning is 1-16 of an inch wide by s to 6 in. long. The straight- 
edge nozzle shown in Fig 4 is the most suitable for flat work such 
as car-seat cushions and backs that are dusted out of doors. For 
general dusting purposes a low pressure from 15 to 25 lb. is best. 
For cleaning seats, a pressure from 50 to 80 lb. will give good 
^esults, but with a pressure exceeding 80 lb. there is danger of in- 




juring the nap of plush seats. Where air is supplied to the piping 
system at 80 lb., reducing valves can be used for supplying lower 
pressures when necessary. 

Fig. 5 shows a form of suction nozzle applicable for car cleaning 
work. The compressed air is ejected against the point of the 
inverted cone, which induces a strong current of air upward and 
from under the bottom of the inverted funnel, drawing the dust 
from the fabric of the seats and projecting it through a hose out of 
the car windows. 



Mak. 20, 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



147 



The Sand Blast, 

The air sand blast is used to advantage for frosting or "grinding" 
the surface of glass, in either plain or decorative designs, for use 
as car-route designating signs, car-transom lights, etc.; for cleaning 
brass, iron, and steel castings and trimmings ; for removing old 
paint and dirt from car trucks, car dashers, etc., preparatory to 




FIG. -1. 

repainting; for cleaning metal surfaces and structures in general, 
such as bridges, viaducts, sides and roofs of buildings, etc., pre- 
paratory to painting or repainting; for sanding paint or car roofs 
and buildings wherever sanded paint is needed for special protection ; 
in bonding work to obtain a clean, bright spot on the rail to which 
to attach the bond ; in rail-welding work for obtaining clean, 
bright contact surfaces between the metal pieces preparatory to 
making the weld ; for cleaning metal surfaces in general prior to 
welding, brazing or soldering; and as mentioned elsewhere for 
applying sand to rails to prevent car wheels from slipping. 

To meet all the requirements arising in electric railway work, the 
simplest form of sand blast will suffice and any one of a half dozen 
forms of apparatus, such as can be built at slight cost in the shops 
will meet all ordinary demands. The object is simply to drive a 
stream of rapidly moving sand against the surface to be operated 
upon. 

In Fig. 6 is shown a form of sand blast tank very commonly 
used for frosting glass and for cleaning all sorts of metal surfaces. 
The compressed air enters the lower compartment and issuing 
through the cross pipe receives its charge of sand graduated by the 
slide valve which is regulated by the lever as indicated. Just 
above the air chamber is the feed chamber for sand, the sand being 
fed in from the top through an inlet valve held in place by a spring. 
The upper section is the hopper into which the sand is dumped. 




when by pushing down the spring with the lower slide valve 
closed, the sand drops into the feed chambers. 

Fig. 7 shows a form of sand blast apparatus used at the shop 
of the International Ry., of BufTalo, for cleaning dirt and old paint 
from truck*, car-tjashcrs, metal signs, etc. This work was formerly 
accomplished with gasoline blow torches which were inconvenient 



and dangerous. The entire apparatus consists of a sand tank, a 
few feet of }i-m. iron pipe and a nozzle made by flattening out a 
piece of J^-in. iron pipe. Compressed air is taken through the 
iron pipe from an air compressor in the main shops. The sand, 
which must be of fine quality, is fed from the tank into the air pipe 
in the maimer indicated in the diagram, the force of air combined 
with gravity being sufTicicnt to draw the sand down the pipe in a 
good steady stream. By means of the flexible connection and 
nozzle one man directs the sand against the surface to be cleaned, 
exactly in the same way as he would handle a blow torch of any 
kind. The superintendent in charge states that with an air pres- 
sure of appro.siniately 90 lb. and a good quality of sand every 
particle of old paint is removed and a cleaner surface is secured 
than could be obtained with a blow-pipe flame, and in just one- 
half the time, inasmuch as one man now does the work formerly 
requiring the services of two men. 

Various styles of nozzles are used in connection with the sand 
blast. A piece of yi or J^-in. iron pipe at the end of a flexible 
hose will serve for most purposes. The end of the iron pipe may 
be flattened out, leaving a narrow slit if desired. A more elaborate 
form of nozzle is illustrated in Fig. 8. With this form the mingling 
of the air with the sand is postponed until both have issued from 
the nozzle. The inner straight pipe is the pipe through which 




FIG. 6. 

the sand arrives by gravity or otherwise; this is surrounded by 
the enlarged hollow head of the air pipe, the one adjustable length- 
wise within the other to determine the extent of the annular 
space between their open tapering ends; the air rushing up the 
air pipe issues through this space, and converging, catches up and 
carries the sand forward, the two only mingling at the point shown 
by the vertical (lotted line, well beyond the end of the nozzle. 

The ornamenting of glass for signs, transoms and windows has 
not been used extensively in electric railway work ; but presents 
attractive possibilities. A momentary application of a sand blast 
using very fine sand under moderate pressure depolishes glass over 
any space that can be covered by one stroke of the sand shower, 
instantly changing the previously bright surface to that known as 
ground glass. A little longer exposure cuts more deeply, and 
with further time, apertures arc readily pierced through sheet and 
plate glass. If the surface is partly covered with a template made 
from heavy manila paper or metal, the action of the sand blast is 
confined to the unprotected portions of the glass, and designs, let- 
ters, ornamenlatioiis and even perforations can thus be easily and 
c-liea|)ly obtained. The idea especially lends itself for making 
illntninati-d deck and hrmd signs for designating car routes. The 
same method is applirablr to ornamenting metal signs. Carrying llie 
idea to an extreme, a beautiful Iranslucent variety of glass can lie 
secured, known as chip or crystalline gla/iiig glass, covered with 
gray filaments and fern and feathery markings on an ice-like 



148 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol. XIV, No. 3 



ground. The surface, first uniformly frosted with the sand blast, 
is then covered with a coat of strong glue, and when this has set, 
the sheets arc placed in horizontal racks in an oven heated to 
160 degree?. In the course of ten or twelve hours, the hardening 
glue audibly cracks and springs off in patches, bringing away linn 
flakes of the glass with it. The fcrn-likc markings are irregular 
portions of the original sand-blasted surface which remain on these 
flat conchoidal fractures. By using templates or overlays prior 
to frosting and gluing, the crystalline eflfect is sharply localized 
and confined to any portion of a design. This scheme of glass 
ornamentation and lettering is worthy of consideration and a small 
amount of experimenting will lead to pleasing results. 

The best pressures and the best grades of sand to employ in the 
various uses to which the sand blast can be put are questions best 
decided by experiment. Where an air-compressor is in operation 
in the shops giving air compressed to from 75 to 90 lb. per square 
inch the air for the blast can be taken through a regulating valve 
and the pressure at the nozzle regulated at will. For cleaning 
castings, trucks, etc., the full pressure of 80 to 90 lb. can be safely 
used, providing the blast is not kept on the work long enough to 
cut into the metal. For frosting glass a pressure of from 15 to 
25 lb. is sufficient. 

The sand used may be clean silicious sand as builders' sand, sea- 
beach sand, emery from fine to coarse, chilled iron gratings or steel 
shot. The heavier materials, as emery and chilled iron, arc only 
used with very high pressure for rutting metal and stone. For 



\ 



^ 



306/ri.. 



E 







cleaning metal surfaces, a medium coarse sand is good. For glass 
frosting purposes a very fine, clean, sharp sand is best. 
• Small castings and forgings can be readily cleaned by directing 
the sand blast against them as they lie in piles on the ground. 
This will effectually remove all hard scale, rust, dirt, etc., leaving 
them clean and bright. Metal surfaces to be welded, brazed or 
soldered can be rendered perfectly clean to give good contact by a 
few seconds' application of the sand blast. 

The thorough work of the sand blast has been demonstrated in 
the cleaning of old paint and dirt from structural steel work for 
preparing it for repainting. The viaduct at 155th street, New- 
York, and elevated structures in various cities have been so cleaned, 
after rusting had taken place under the many coatings of paint. 
and blistering and peeling had given the work an unsightly appear- 
ance with indication of damage to the structure. For this work 
compressed air was conveyed from 150 to 400 ft. from a compressor 
to a receiver, and to the portable sand-mi.\ing apparatus near the 
work. A hose connects the sand mi-ser and nozzle, which is held 
close to the surface to be cleaned. A section can be made perfectly 
clean and immediately painted by the air-blast spray process, thus 
giving the paint a perfect contact with the metal and by this 
means obviating the formation of rust or loose scale. 

The air blast is useful for sanding paint on car-house roofs and 
buildings wherever sanded paint is needed for special protection. 
The sand thus thrown with great force imbeds itself in the paint, 
and the air blast without the sand is used to blow off the excess. 

Brick and stone walls that have been blackened or charred by 



fire and smoke can be restored to their original appearance by 
means of the sand blast in practically the same way as described 
for cleaning structural work. A convenient method for securing 
compressed air for this purpose is by means of a gas driven air 
compressor mounted on a car or wagon with a suflicicnt length of 



^^^^ 




air hose to enable the operator to reach the highest point to be 
treated. 

For cleaning rails preparatory to attaching bonds, or for welding 
work, a portable air-compressing outfit is necessary, mounted on 
a small truck or car. In this work, the sand blast gives as clean and 
as bright a surface as can be secured with a file or emery wheel, 
and in considerably shorter time. 

The Compressed Air Gas Blow Torch. 

The gas blow torch in conjunction with the compressed air blast 
is a very excellent substitute for the gasoline and other forms of 
oil blow torch. The use of the air gas blow torch is not urged so 
much on the question of economy but on the score of cleanliness. 
It has been used with particularly satisfactory results for burning 
off cars, preparatory to repainting; also for soldering joints when 
rewinding motor fields ; for brazing band-saws ; for heating solder- 
ing irons and, in general, for any work that can be done with the 
ordinary gasoline torch. 

The nozzle used is made of brass, and consists of a Vi-m. tube, 
inside of a V^-m. tube ; the smaller pipe being for the gas, and the 
larger one for the air. The air pressure and the supply of gas 
are regulated by stop cocks, giving any intensity of flame desired. 
The one possible objection to the air gas blow torch is the lack 
of flexibility ; the air and gas pipes are necessarily limited in 
length, and the car to be burned off, or the other work to be done, 
has to be brought to a point accessible to the nozzle. This is an 
easily remedied difficultj-, how'ever, as in the case of car painting 
work, one track in the paint room can be reserved for the burning 
off process, and the flexible hose attached to the nozzle is made 
a suflicicnt length to reach any point on this track. For smaller 




KIG. ». 

work, it is usual to reserve one cornor of the shop near the main 
air supply pipe for doing the brazing and other work. 

The .\ir Blast for Painting, Disinfecting, etc. 

The compressed air blast is used for :ipplying paint to structural 
work, bridges, sides and roofs of buildings, roofs, trucks, and metal 
parts of electric railway cars, and to the sides and roofs of freight 
cars. It is also an efficient method of whitewashing and kalsomining 
walls and fences. 

Painting and k.alsomining by means of the air spray are rapid, 
economical and efficient processes. The paint is .evenly distributed 



Mar. 20. 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVTEW. 



149 



over the surface, and the spray carries the paint into corners and 
crevices that could not be reached with a brush. The metliod is 
particularly recommended for painting car trucks. 

In painting or kalsomining with the air spray, the essential thing 
is a suitable nozzle in which the paint is thoroughly atomized as it 
is blown outward by the air. Such a nozzle is illustrated in Fig. 
9. The inner or air nozzle, having a Ji-in. opening, is made on the 
best lines for high air velocity, and is fixed central to the larger 
opening in the inverted conical nosepiece, which is flattened to a 
thin opening, about 1-32 in. wide, to project the paint spray in a 
thin sheet. The paint is drawn in at the side inlet of the tec 
piece, and both air pressure and paint supply are regulated by 
valves, both pipes being under the same pressure from the paint 
tank of from 50 to So lb. per sq. in. By varying the opening of 
the valve of the spray nozzle, any density of the spray may be had 
from a thin cloud to a solid paint stream. The nozzle should be 
moved slowly broadside over the work; a jerky motion scatters the 
paint. The nozzle can be used in connection with a main central 
compressing plant and the air piped to the work, or it can be used 




with a portable motor-driven compress- 
sing outfit. The paint or whitewash can 
be drawn from a centrally located tank, 
or it can be carried in a small hand air- 
paint pot to which the nozzle is directly 
attached, or it can be carried in a small 
tank or reservoir which may be strapped 
to the back of the operator. 

.Ml of this apparatus can he constrnct- 
cd in ihc shops and will meet ordinary 
requirements, hut if more elaborate ap- 
paratus is desired, there are .several 
patented spraying machines on the mar- 
ket, some of which are very elaborate. 

It is probably true that the spraying 
machine will not apply the paint as care- 
fully as a man can put it on with a 
brush, and with a brush it is possible to 
rub the paint in and get a better film 
than can be obtained with the spray. 
However, on large flat surfaces, where a 
fine finish is not necessary, the economy 
and convenience of the spraying ma- 
FIG. I), chine are unquestioned. Where there 

arc rods or similar surfaces, the spray 
will miss more than it hits and there will be considerable waste. On 
the other hand the spraying machine reaches corners and places 
that the average paintor does not take the trouble to reach. 

Several forms of air sprays arc used for spraying the inside 
of cars, seats, floors, etc., with disinfecting and antiseptic fluids. 
The form of the nozzle described for painting will answer this 
purpose although it is better to have smaller openings so as to 
deliver a very fine spray. 

Lifting Water By Compressed Air. 

The air lift is a system of pumping water from artesian wells by 
means of compressed air without the use of any moving parts other 
than the air compressor. For simplicity, durability, high cflficiency, 
and economy, the air lift system peculiarly commends itself for 
furnishing water for boiler feed purposes at power houses and 
for fire protection and other uses at car houses. The system, as 
indicated in Fig. 10, comprises two properly proportioned pipes, 
which arc placed in the well and go down nearly to Ihc bottom. 
The larger of the two pipes is for the water and the smaller pipe, 
which is for the air, leads from the air compressor and is connected 
into the large pipe at the bottom through what is known as the 
foot or end piece. The compressed air is forced through the air 



pipe into the foot of the water pipe, through which it rises, carry- 
ing the water with it to the surface or to a tank. There is no 
moving mechanism below the surface to require attention or get 
out of order. In addition, sand or grit does not afl^ect the action, 
the water is purified, and one air compressor will pump from 
several wells. 

Fire Sprinkling System. 

The use of compressed air for maintaining the pressure of the 
automatic fire sprinkling system in car houses and other buildings , 
is particularly desirable, especially where buildings are not heated. 

In many cases, if the sprinkler system was kept full of water, 
the water would be liable to freeze. By connecting the sprinkling 
system with the water supply, and keeping the pipes in the build- 
ing filled with air under pressure instead of water, the same re- 
sults will be secured, for just as soon as an opening in the 
sprinkling system occurs the air will flow out, and the water im- 
mediately rises throughout the entire system. 

The air pressure can be maintained from a place of supply, 
such as a main reservoir tank, or, if desired, a separate motor 
driven air pump can be placed in the building and the air pressure 
renewed every nvo or three days or when necessary. 

Other Uses. 

The other uses for compressed air as enumerated in the intro- 
duction of this article need not be described in detail, as numerous 
patented devices are made for all the various uses, and methods 
of application will suggest themselves for each particular case. 

In concluding this chapter we give herewith statements sent us 
by several prominent master mechanics in response to requests for 
data on the uses of compressed air in electric railway work. 

Mr. C. F. Baker, superintendent of motive power and machin- 
ery, Boston Elevated Railway Co., Boston, Mass., writes as fol- 
lows : 

"I would say that we arc putting compressed air to various 
uses in our power stations and shops as well as on the elevated 
structure. 

"We have recently installed a motor driven direct connected 
compressor having a capacity of 5^7 cu. in. of free air per minute at 
125 revolutions. The horse power of the compressor at this rate is 
100. The cost per horse power for a compressor of this type 
and size is approximately $50, exclusive of cost of foundation. 

"Ki to the various uses to which compressed air might be put 
in electric railway work I would mention the following: Operating 
pneumatic drills and hammers; sand screens; air hoists; jacks; 
riveters; chipping hammers; forge hammers; pneumatic hoists 
(both geared and straight); tire heaters; drills for tie rods, rail 
bonds, etc.; sand blast for cleaning rails, etc.; also for grinding 
glass ; glass blow torch ; signal system, etc. It is also used for 
cleaning motors, armatures, generators, coal handling maohiniTy, 
etc. 

"We are using compressed air for cleaning controllers and 
motors with excellent results. We have no apparatus at present 
for cleaning car seats but have recently made tests on apparatus 
for this work which gave good results and indicated that air can 
be used to a very good advantage for this purpose. 

"In the power station we use compressed air for blowing out 
motors, generators, etc., using a pressure from 20 to Ho lb. We 
find it a large saving over the old way of cleaning. 

"We have in use several pneumatic drills for boring holes for 
tie rods and bonds on track work, etc. We have pneumatic drills 
and hammers in our shops and we have also used air in the sand 
blast for cleaning the ends of rails prior to welding. We have also 
used it in connection with gas as a blow-torch for replacing the 
ordinary gasoline torch. 

"Our experience with air hoists, cranes, jacks, etc., has been 
very satisfactory, particularly for the first two. 
' "Compressed air also supplies the motive force for the operation 
of the signals and switches on our elevated system. 

"As to its use in painting, we have used it to some cxteiil in 
whitewashing, but with hanlly economical results unless a large 
surface was to Ik: covered. The small machines operated by liaiul 
hardly give satisfactory results." 

Mr. F.dwin II. Olds, superintendent rolling stock, Milwaukee 
Electric Railway & Light Co., Milwaukee, Wis., says: 



150 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vou XIV, No. 3 



"Our company ii»c5 compressed .lir for opcr.iting lioi.sis (or 
liaiidliiiK motors; for air drills; riveters, rliippiiiR hammers, etc 
VVc aKo operate a t)00-lb. steam hammer with it. We have also 
found !iir more than satisfactory for cleaning controllers and 
motors and in fact for cleaning everything from which dirt or 
dust can be blown. 

"W'c have used it hnl very little for painting or whitewashing. 
What little experience wc have had with it, however, has been 
very satisfactory. 

"The way department also uses it in connection with sand blast 
for cleaning rails before cast welding," 

Mr. II. J. I-ake, master mechanic, the Muncie, Hartford & Fort 
Wayne Railway Co., Muncie, Ind., states : 

"Compressed air can be used for nearly every kind of work 
around the car barn and repair shop. I use it for cleaning the 
inside of cars under the seats, behind the heater pipes, cleaning 
cushions, armatures, controllers, motors, or anything else that needs 
a pressure to drive the dust out. I have used it for hoisting and 
for lifting jacks; for hoisting it is very satisfactory, but for jacks 
it is not to be depended upon to hold, any length of time. For 
drilling or chipping it is just the thing for any kind pf portable 
work. I have never used it for sand blast, blow torch work, paint- 
ing or whitewashing, but know it will do the work all right." 

Mr. \V. D. Wright, superintendent of equipment, the Rhode 
Island Co.. Providence, R. 1., writes: 

"We use compressed air for cleaning cars both inside and out- 
side before they go to the paint shop. Also, we use it for hoists, 
and a portable drill, and find compressed air something that we 
would hardly know how to get along without." 

Mr. F. C. Randall, manager. National Electric Co., Milwaukee, 
Wis., writes : 

"In addition to the list of uses for compressed air by electric 
railways, I would call your attention to the private parlor car re- 
cently built for Henry Everett, the head of the Everett-Moore 
syndicate of railways in Ohio. This car was built by the J. G. Brill 
Co. and is a fine example of the car builders' art. The car has 
sleeping, office, dining and toilet compartments. It is equipped 
with Christensen air brake and the air from the brake compressor 
is used to keep a pressure for the running water on the car, in the 
toilet room. The pressure required for the air brakes is about 
So lb., which, of course, is too high for use in toilet room, but this 
is overcome by the use of a reducing valve which reduces the 
pressure for the water tanks to about lo or 15 lb. By this method, 
it is not necessary to carry a big water tank on the roof of car." 

In subsequent chapters will be given data on the cost of produc- 
ing compressed air and a separate chapter will be devoted to the 
air brake. 



Connecticut Street Railways. 

The 51st annual report of the Connecticut Railroad Commis- 
sioners shows that, exclusive of mileage located outside of the 
state, the miles of street railways in operation on June 30, 1903, 
liieasured as single track, was 556.577 miles, an increase for the 
year of 49.123 miles. Including track outside the state, the mileage 
was 642.383 miles. The Connecticut Railway & Lighting Co. oper- 
ates 169,894 miles, the Fair Haven & Westvillc Railway Co. 104.- 
139 miles, and the Hartford Street Railway Co. 85.678 miles. 

The authorized capital stock of all the street railway companies 
is $33,482,000, and the amount actually issued $26,653,548, showing 
an issue of $45,122.96 per mile of main line. The total bonded 
debt of the companies is $20,633,503, being $34,931.36 per mile of 
road owned. The floating indebtedness of the companies is $2,714,- 
030.82, or $4440.05 per mile, and the total stock, bonds and float- 
ing indebtedness per mile of road owned, including sidings, is 
$71,728.50. The cost of construction and equipment is reported as 
$4 1," 11,830.14, which is $80,773.45 per mile. 

The gross earnings for the year ending June 30, 1903, wcjre 
$4,503,571-29, or $6,798.45 per mile of road operated and $0,214 
per mile run. The largest earnings per mile operated were $9,917.99. 
by the New London Street Ry. The ISrgost earnings per mile run 
were $0,402, by the Montville Street Ry. The three companies hav- 
ing the largest earnings were the Fairhaven & Westville Railroad 
Co., with gross earnings of $1,290,667.21, the Connecticut Railway & 
Lighting Co., earning $1,110,599.55, and the Hartford Street Rail- 
way Co., earning $807,856.53, 



The operating expenses for the year were $3,164,599.07, or 
$4,777''* P" "'''e of road operated and $0,151 per nule run. The 
net earnings for the year were $1,3^8,972.22, being $2,021.27 per 
mile operated and $0,063 per mile run. Dividends amounting to 
$3'«j.8i6.24 were paid by 10 companies upon $6,702,300 of capital 
stock, while no dividends arc re|)orted paid upon $19,951,248 of 
capital stock. 'I'wcnty-two companies jiaid $860,903.94 for interest 
upon a total lionded and floating debt of $23,347,530.82, The amount 
of taxes paid lo the state by various companies was $267,708,03, 

The total number of miles run was 21,029,889, an increase of 
1,654,159 .over 1902; the gross earnings were about one cent per 
mile greater, the operating expenses about two cents per mile more, 
and the net earnings about one cent per mile run less than the year 
before. The total number of passengers carried was 963S7.7*<2, 
as compared with 91,554,021 the previous year, and contrasted with 
64,918,472 carried by the steam roads. The number of paying pas- 
sengers per mile run was 4,606, and the number of paying passen- 
gers per mile operated was 146,213, The total number of employes 
was 3403, averaging about five for each mile of road operated. 

The number of persons injured was 370, compared with 292 in 
1902; of this number four were fatally injured, four more than the 
year before. The number of passengers injured was 206, of whom 
2 were killed; the number of employes injured was 20, of whom 3 
were killed. 

Street railway and steam railroad maps, corrected to Jan, I. 1904, 
accompany the commissioners' report. 



A Rolling Stock Record Board. 

The Los .Vngeles and Pacific Electric Railway companies have 
adopted an exceedingly simple and lucid, although unique, method of 
keeping track of its rolling stock by means of photographs, which 
are mounted on what are known as record boards. Each car 
owned by the companies is photographed and on each photograph 
is clearly marked the length of the car, its seating capacity, weight 



LENGTH 46 
SCATS S6 




MfT. 6.4.700 LBS. 



.♦-75 H» MOTORS 



KOI.,L.lNG STOCK KKCORU CABI). 

and equipment. These photographs arc afterwards reduced to a 
uniform size of 1% x 3 in. and mounted on a Spanish cedar block 
Vi in. thick. These blocks are then inserted into frames which 
compose the record hoard, and the status of the rolling .stock can 
be seen at a glance. One of the reduced photographs is shown in 
the accompanying illustration. Not only are the passenger cars thus 
photographed, but freight, wrecking, material, oil and mantenance- 
of-way cars are similarly kept track of. 



The Lake Shore Electric Railway Co's. new power plant at Beach 
Park is ncaring completion. Its equipment will include a 1,500-h. p. 
engine and generator. 'ITiis will give the company a high tension 
a. c. service over its line from Lorain to Toledo. Later a sub-sta- 
tion will be installed at Sandusky, superseding the d. c. plant at that 
place. 



The Elgin, Aurora & Southern Traction Co, has established an 
express service between Elgin and Aurora, with free delivery at 
each point where the company has an office, express being received 
at these offices for shipment. At other points the company receives 
and delivers express at the cars. Offices have been opened in 
.^urora, Ratavia, Geneva, St. Charles and Elgin. 



Mar. 20, 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REMRW, 



ISl 



Electric Traction in Italy hy Means of Mono- 
phase Series Motors. 



BY E. Gl'ARlNI. 



It it is incontestible that the prolilom of urban electric traction 
has been definitely solved, and that the electric tramways possess 
indisputable advantages over horse-drawn omnibuses, the same is 
not true as regards the problem of electric traction on the railroads 
as a substitute for steam traction. In this latter case, the distance 
of the generating station has to be reckoned with ; consequently it 
is necessary, in order to avoid the expense of installations too cosily 
to be remunerative, to have recourse to very high tensions. While 
we anticipate on the part of the Societe de I'lnduslrie Electrique et 
Mecanique, of Geneva, a development of its program of electric 
traction by continuous current at very high tension, conveyed directly 
to the car; at the present moment the advantage rests with the alter- 
nating current at high tension. These latter can be conveyed directly 
to the car or tlse transformed in sub-stations to currents at low ten- 
sion, either continuous or alternating. The first solution is generally 
preferred, as the second solution necessitates a double conductor, one 
for the low tension and one for the high tension. On the Valtelina 
railway are to be seen no less than five conductors, three of which 
are for triphase current at 20,000 volts, and two for the service line 
at ;?.ooo volts, the return current being carried by the rails. 

Among the experiments which m.irk an epoch in the history of 
electric traction, must certainly be ranked those of Zossen-Marien- 
feld. where the motors have been directly supplied with current at 
12.000 volts without the intervention of any process of transforma- 
tion. Only the triphase current, even when conducted directly to the 
motors, has the disadvantage of requiring three conductors, or at 
least two, when the return current is carried by the rails. The mono- 
phase current would present, from this point of view, an enormous 
advantage, since it only requires a single conductor; it is therefore 
in the same category as the continuous current employed for urban 
tramways. Professor Finzi now asserts that the solution of this 
problem, which will never lose its interest until it is solved, is to 
be found in the system adopted by him. 

The main requirements for electric traction is a motor of variable 
speed, having a high efficiency at all speeds. It is also for many 
reasons desirable that the normal speed shall be capable of being 
exceeded on occasion (to regain lost time, etc.), and a further 
requisite is simplicity of mechanism and control — conditions which 
are difficult to satisfy. 

The induction motor does not offer this advantage and among 
the continuous current motors, the shunt wound motor only partly 
satisfies this condition. It is only the scries wound motor which, in 
this respect, appro.ximates in elasticity of function to steam and 
animal traction. It must, however, be admitted that the continuous 
current series motor is defective, since, strictly speaking, it would 
require, in order to be perfect, to be supplied at a variable voltage. 
and the line supplies it with a constant voltage, hence there is 
loss in the resistances. This economic defect can only be remedied 
— and that partially — by the system of multiple units, coupled some- 
times in series, sometimes in shunt. 

The ideal solution is, therefore, according to M, Finzi, a series 
motor supplied at variable voltage. But a series motor is also 
possible a priori with alternating currents, and the supply at a 
variable voltage is obtained by quite simple means with alternating 
monophase currents. 

Even the most recent works on clectrotcchnics only devote a 
small space to the monophase scries motor, and if they mention it, 
it is only in order to disparage it by saying that its efficiency is low, 
and the sparking at the collector disastrous. On the whole, they 
do nothing but repeat the conclusions of Stcinmctz (i8g6), derived 
from theoretical studies. The result?' obtained with a badly-con- 
structed motor of 4 h. p. have, nevertheless, not prevented numer- 
ous investigators from turning their attention to this construction. 

The following are char,acteri5tic features of Finzi's monophase 
motor, whose inventor ignores all its disadvantages: I^aminated 
fields and pole pieces ; resistances Ijctwecn the armature colls and 
the commutator bars; a large number of poles; a small angular 
velocity. The longitudinal division of the poles is the most sim 
pie means of carrying ofT the reaction current of the field coil. 

There remains to avoid the sparking due to the short circuit of 



the armature coils which form the secondaries of transformers 
under the primary effect of the poles. It is accomplished by tlic 
use of resistances of silver wire which unite the armature coils 
with the collector, all of which pass in turn beneath tlie brushes 
in the short circuit of which we have spoken, and limit the current 
which can circulate in it. We thus obtain a series motor for trac- 
tion which works well with frequencies of 19 to 20 periods, and at 
100 to 300 volts. The monophase series motor, as we have just 
described it, has been applied to one of the Edison Company's cars 
for urban service. The central station included a triphase motor of 
60 h. p.. 3.600 volts, driving by means of a belt an old alternator 
with eight poles, at the rate of 270 revolutions a minute ; the fre- 
quency was 18 periods per second, and a pressure of 00 volts was 
attained by an auto-transfoimer. The tension of the hue was 520 
volts during the operation of the motor. 

Most of the experiments were made during the night on a line 5 
km. long with Vignole rails; the average grade was 2 per cent, but 
111 certain places was as much as 25 per cent. The distance cov- 
ered in 10 nights was 200 km. No accident happened to the motor ; 
the only difficulties which occasionally arose were due to the 
sharp fall of potential from 160 to 95 volts. The car weighed 
5.848 ton.s, the motor .8 tons, the controlling transformer .5 tons; 
total. 7.10 tons. The transformer had a capacity nf 40 ku- . Init a 




Kl.\/.l .\. C. .'^KUIKS TR.XI'TIdN Md'l-nu. 

capacity of 14 kw. would have been sulTicient. In tli.tt case tiie 
total weight of the carri.ige would only have been 6.89 tons.. 

The motor carried on its shaft a pinion with 14 teetli, gearing 
with a wheel of 67 teeth placed on 'the axles .of the wheels ; the 
proportion was therefore 4.78. The diamylfir of the wheels of the 
car was 77 cm. The speed was measured in various ways. 

The line, coming from the trolley, passed through a circuit 
breaker placed on the first platform, then, reaching the other plat- 
form, passed through an ammeter, and a second circuit breaker, 
and entered the auto-transformer ; the other extremity of the latter 
was grounded, as was also one of the brushes of the motor. The 
other brusli cdimiiunicaled, through the excitation of the motor, with 
the handle of a rheostat which served to produce a How of ciirrent to 
various points of the winding nf llie aiito-transformer. Tlu- Illu- 
sion was thus varied by 20 volts at a time. The passage frdin one 
contact to the other took place without a spark. The stoppage of 
the car was effected by means of one of the circuit breakers. A 
definite controlling apparatus would naturally include a de.id iioiiit 
for stoppages. 

From the time of the first experinu-iil tlu' smodlliness of working 
and absence of sparks on the brushes were obvious. During the 
experiments the motor behaved better than those with continuous 
current. A few sparks appeared from time to time, when the mo- 
tor was receiving the maximnin voltage; they seemed from their 
color to be due to carbon from the brushes. After a journey of 
200 km., the commutator was still perfeclly smooth. The wear of 
the brushes was inappreciable. 

In addition to generally delennining llie aclion of llie iiii>lor. 
the experiments also aimed at comparing the energy consnine I 
with that of a series motor with colli innous current. In some of 
the journeys direct rea<liiigs on the walliiirU-r were lakiii in ordi i 



152 



STRF.F.T RAILWAY RF.VIEW. 



(Vol. XIV. No. 3- 



lo asctruin the power necessary lo inaintaiii the car at variou- 
speeds. In others, atleiiipts were made lo investigate the subject 
by repeated and fairly accurate comparisons with readings rnlat- 
ing to a typical journey, etc. The comparison of results showed 
that the power absorbed is lowest for the monophase motor, al- 
though the absolute efficiency is slightly inferior to that of the con- 
tinuous-current motor. At a speed of 22 km., the energy absorbed 
was 940 watt-hours per ton for the monophase motor and I2..5.i 
for the continuous-current motor. At 23.5 km. the figures become 
10.60 walt-hour.s, and 14.85 watt-hours. On the other hand, an 
economy of 25 per cent in favor of the monophase motor has been 
proved for the process of starting, an economy which is by no means 
insignificant when it is remarked that, in urban service, starting 
absorbs 50 and sometimes even 65 per cent of the total energy. 



mule yet. and this photograph was taken at a very recent "sitting." 
"Kate" has not a vimi or blemish on her and has never licen sick 
a day. 



« ■ > 



Faithful Mule Has Hccn Retired. 



On Washington's Birthday the Nashville Railway & Light Co. 
retired "Old Kate," a large white mule which has done faithful 
street-car service for more than 30 years. "Kate" was five ycar.^; 
old when the street-car company acquired her, so she is now 35 
years of age, but it is said that she was not retired because of in- 
firmity, but as a reward for faithful service. She began street 
car service on the J^flFerscn St. line in North Nashville, and Mr. 
George D. Mills, the present superintendent of transportation, who 
has driven her a good many miles, says that "Kate" is as good a 
mule as he ever held the lines over. She helped to haul, in her 
younger days, children who now have children of their own. Many 
changes have taken place during her 30 years of seivicc; compa- 
nies have been organized and reorganized, the heads of depart- 
ments have changed many times, new lines have been built and the 
electric current has taken the place of the patient mule. 

When the other mules were driven out of service in 1888 "Kate" 
was retained, as a good mule was needed for the repair and trouble 




I,.\ST .Mll.K .\T N.VSIIVII.I.E. TE.N.V. 

wagon. She performed her new duties with the fidelity lh:it 
marked her performance before the car, and Superintendent Mills 
eloquently praises the good sense she always displayed in getting 
a car back on the track when it had been derailed. She has been 
in two fires and came out without a scratch, breaking her halter 
each time and running out of the stable, while the other animals 
remained and were burned to death. "Kate" has also been entan- 
gled in live wires, but always escaped unharmed. She was never 
"laid off" a day. and even now the men in charge of the trouble 
wagon say they would rather have "Kate" than the new animal that 
has taken her place. 

"Kate" will make her home at Glendale Park, which belongs to 
the company, where she will be one of the attractions with the buf- 
faloes, bears, deer and other animalsr. When turned loose in the 
park she hardly knew what to do with herself, it being her first 
day off in nearly a third of a century; she kicked up her heels 
vigorously a number of times, and carefully investigated the barbed 
wire fence, as though to ascertain how many volts it carried. 

A photograph of "Old Kate" in harness is shown herewith, from 
which it will appear that she has not the appearance of an old 



LonK-Distance Trip of Sleepinn Car. 

On February 26th was made the initial trip of the Holland pal 
ace sleeping car "Francis" from Indianapolis to Richmond. Ind.. 
and return. On board were a numlier of electric railway officials. 
Iiankers and others, who not only thoroughly enjoyed the trip, 
but were wariii in their praise of the magnificence of the car and its 
appointments. This car, which is one of the two which were de- 
scribed in the "Review" for June, and again in August. 1903, and 
interior views of which were shown in the "Review" for Janu- 
ary. 1904. was named in honor of the son of the general manager 
of the Holland Palace Car Co., Mr. Joseph W. Selvage. Its in- 
terior, finished in green, with cliairs and carpets to match, con- 
trasted with unique and brilliant brass trimmings and grille work, 
and mahogany inlaid panels, produces a very rich effect, especially 
when the electric lights are turned on. It weighs alwut 50 tons 
and runs quite as smoothly as a Pullman. 

Notwithstanding that this was the first trip, and the car was not 
"limbered up," at times a speed of 50 miles an hour was main- 
tained, and although a higher speed was possible, it was not 
thought best to attempt it. The car was run over the tracks of 
the Indianapolis & Eastern Railway Co., through the courtesy of 
the officials of that company, who furnished a special crew for the 
purpose, and over the tracks of the Richmond Street & Inlerurban 
Railway Co.. whose officials gave personal attention to the com- 
fort of the guests. 

On the trip out dinner was served at Cambridge City, after 
which the car was run into Richmond, where it was opened to the 
public for inspection. Leaving Richmond at 4 p. m., supper was 
enjoyed at Knightstown and the party arrived at Indianapolis at 9 
o'clock. 

The Indianapolis party which participated in the enjoyable oc- 
casion was composed as follows: M. B. Wilson, president of the 
Columbia National Bank, and treasurer of the Indianapolis & 
Eastern Railway Co. ; H. F. Holland, president of the Holland 
Palace Car Co. ; A. K. Hollowell, vice-president ; J. W. Selvage, 
general manager, and Judge McCullough. general counsel, of the 
same company; Charles N. Wilson, general manager of the Co- 
lumbus, Grcensburg &■ Richmond Traction Co.; August M. Kuhn. 
director of the same company, together with newspaper represen- 
tatives. These were met at Cambridge City by the following del- 
egation from Richmond : S. S Stratton. president, and J. F. 
Reeves, secretary, of the Commercial Club; Samuel Dickinson, 
president of the Dickinson Trust Co.; Edward H. Gates, cashier 
of the Union National Bank; Samuel Gaar. cashier of the Second 
National Bank ; Cash Beall, president of the South Side Improve- 
ment Association; Charles Du Hadway. cashier of the First Na- 
tional Bank; Walter McConaha, director of the Columbus. Greens- 
burg & Richmond Traction Co.; B. F. Wissler. editor of the Sun- 
Telegram ; George H. Love, proprietor of the Westcott Hotel ; 
C. A. Deiinnn, general superintendent of the Richmond Traction 
Co. ; H. C. Starr, attorney of the Chicago, Cincinnati & Louisville 
R. R. ; John L. Rupc, attorney for the Pennsylvania R. R. ; Thomas 
E. Davidson, general counsel of the Columbus. Greensburg & Rich- 
mond Traction Co.; W. W. Zimmerman, mayor of Richmond; 
Wilfred Jessup. attorney for the Columbus. Greensburg & Rich- 
mond Traction Co. ; Rev. J. F. Matlingly, and representatives of 
the local newspapers. 

< ■ » 

The Interstate Consolidated Street Railway Co. was recently fined 
$25 by the district court judge of Attleboro, Mass.. for neglecting to 
furnish school children with half-rate tickets. The charges were 
preferred by the school committee and endorsed by the selectmen. 
The defendant appealed. 



The limited cars which have been running between Indianapolis 
and Richmond. Ind., have been discontinued, because the service was 
unsatisfactory. Richmond cars now connect with Indianapolis cars 
at Dublin, llie limited service will not be tried again until the 
cars can run into the city of Richmond, the Main St. bridge form- 
ing an obstruction at present. 



Mak. jo, 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REMEW. 



153 



Proposed Reorganization of the A. S. R. A. 



Milwaukee. Wis.. Mar. 5. 1904. 
Editor "Review :"' 

With reference to the niovemciu now oil loot looking to the 
organization of an association of electric railroad "Way" 
engineers and superintendents, the numerous communications re- 
ceived to date indicate a general appreciation of the necessity 
for some such society and tender a generous support for the 
association when formed. 

It has been urged, however, that the isolation of this branch 
of the electric railroad business in another distinct organization 
is probably not the most effective method of handling the matter 
and two other schemes liave been proposed. The intention of this 
letter is to lay these propositions before the street railroad presi- 
dents, managers and other officials throughout the United States 
and Canada for their consideration and advice, and with the hope 
that definite opinions may be arrived at and sufficient interest 
aroused to guarantee the formation of some plan of action before 
the ne.xt meeting of the .American Street Railway Association and 
the due futherance of such plan at that meeting. 

The least radical and least comprehensive of the plans men- 
tioned suggests a reorganization of the .American Railway Mechan- 
ical and Electrical Association under the name "American Society 
of Electric Railway Engineers ;" that society to include all the 
mechanical divisions of street railway work. Sub-divisions could 
then be effected probably as follows : "Rolling Stock and Shops," 
"Way and Structures," and "Power Houses," sub-committees be- 
ing appointed to conduct each phase of the work. This plan 
would save the expense necessary for the formation of another 
distinct organization and would serve to give the present organi- 
zation much better support. 

However, it has been justly urged that the formation of these 
various distinct societies is gradually tending to strip the parent 
body (The .American Street Railway -Association) of all the 
functions for which it was organized. This is, of course, due in 
great measure to the fact that there has not been room, time or 
method in the meetings of that body permitting a satisfactory 
or thorough discussion of enough subjects in any one branch of llie 
work. It may not be possible or advisable to extend the length 
of time of these meetings (that is a moot question), but it cer- 
tainly does seem both possible and advisable to so change the 
method of these meetings as to make them thoroughly effective 
along all the lines embraced in electric railroading. It is there- 
fore respectfully suggested that a reorganization of the Ameri- 
can Street Railway Association by the presidents and general 
managers representing companies therein or who may wish to 
affiliate with such reorganized association is possibly advisable. 
The plan indicated and outlined in numerous letters received to 
date is appro.ximately thus : 

The .Association's active memlxfrs to consist of owning or operat- 
ing companies as represented by their presidents, general mana- 
gers, or other duly accredited representatives. 

These active members to have full control of all executive 
matters and a general direction of the sub-divisions covering 
all the phases of the work. 

The sub-divisions could be determined only after more thorough 
discussion, but would be approximately Accounting, Legal and 
Claims, Transportation, Way and Structures, Rolling Stock and 
Shops, Power Houses. 

Each of the sub-divisions to constitute a sub-society represented 
in the main lK>dy by a vice-president elected by the members of each 
sub-society. 'Ihe active members to pay a small fee and con- 
sist. a» may be afterwards determined, of the persons having 
charge of that particular class of work on the electric railways 
afHIialcd with the main association. 

This vice-president to appoint his committees and the sub- 
association to carry on its work exactly as though it were a 
distinct organization, except that it will be under Ihe general 
direction of Ihe presidents and general managers constituting the 
parent l>o<ly, at whose will all of the present organizations exist. 
The present Accoimtants' Association need luil lose its individu- 
ality in any manner inconsistent with causes permitting its exist- 
ence at this time. Sub-association meetings could be made to 
lap one another so that no one representing different departnienis 



need suffer. Thus the .\ccountants and tlie Way incn might 
meet at the same time, as also the Transpovtation and the Power 
House men. The publication of the discussions would be informa- 
tion enough for those not directly interested and methods could 
he devised within each sub-society that would tend to the maxi- 
mum benefit deri\cd within the minimum time. Papers should 
be published and distributed sixty days in advance of the meet- 
ings, discussions prepared, boiled down and methodically handled, 
sub-committee meetings held when necessary during the year, 
business handled by the various vice-presidents and sub-secre- 
taries, so that each meeting of the reorganized association would 
be of such value to street railway work that no company could 
afford to remain unattached thereto. 

An expression of opinion as to the above is earnestly solicited 
in order that a plan of some kind may ' be decided upon, the 
necessity for some action which will give the "Way" men, the 
"Transportation" men and others whose work up to the present 
time has been neglected a chance to progress along lines similar to 
the two independent societies now' in existence, being widely rec- 
ognized. 

The scheme to reorganize the .American Street Railway .Asso- 
ciation as outlined above has been suggested through letters re- 
ceived and opinions expressed by the following gentlemen, who 
are absolutely favorable thereto: John I. Beggs, president and 
general manager, Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. ; S. L. 
Tone, vice-president, Pittsburg Railways Co. ; C. D. Wyman, 
representing Stone & Webster; R. B. Baer, president and general 
manager, Galveston City Railway Co.; J. F. Vail, general manager, 
Pueblo & Suburban Traction Co.; C. S. Kimball, chief engineer, 
Boston Elevated Ry. ; C. D. Emmons, general superintendent, Ft. 
Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co. 

Yours truly, 

Fred G. Simmons. 
Supt. Construclion and M-iinlerance of Way, Milwaukee Electric 

Rv. & Lt. Gi. 



Concrete Railway Ties in France. 

The State Railway of France is testing concrete ties on a short 
length of railroad near Bordeaux. The ties are not made entirely 
of concrete, but are iron and cement combined. The framework, 
or skeleton, consists of five metal plates placed vertically and held 
in position by stout iron wire or thin bars, the interstices being 
filled with cement. A layer of compressed felt one-fifth in. thick 
is placed between the tie and the boltheads. These ties were made 
by a cement manufacturer in the south of France, who sent ifour 
samples which were laid in October, 1900. L'pon the track over- 
seers reporting that no fault could be found with them, but that 
it was impossible to correctly judge from such a small number, g6 
more sample ties were laid between .April 20th and July 1st, IQ02, 
the maker having altered the construction so that the bolts could be 
replaced without damaging the tie. The greatest weight concen- 
trated upon a single pair of driving wheels on the road in question 
is about 14 tons. The rails ari- u im-ters (12 yds.) long and 
weigh from 77 to 81 lb. per yard, and 14 ties are used for each 
rail of 12 yds. The ties have rounded corners and are slightly 
thicker where the shoes are placed, llic average thickness being 
about 4 in. The weight of each tie is about .108 lb. and the cost 
14 to IS francs ($2.70 to $2.90). Mr. John K. Gowdy, the United 
States consul-general, reports that the experiment is too recent 
to enable any definite opinion to be formed, as the usual life of a 
timber tie in France is about 15 years. He is of opinion, however, 
that the price now charged is a serious obslncle to the einplnyiiH-iit 
of the concrete ties. 

Mail service has been established nii llie I'^Igin, Aurora & Srmlli- 
ern Tmclion Co's. lines between (ieiieva and St. Charles and St. 
Charles and Elgin. Two round trijis are made on week days and 
one on Sundays ami holidays. Other rlnlle^ will lie es-tablished. 



The Wheeling Traction Co. inaugiiralerl an express service bo- 
Iween Wht-eling and Moundsville l)eceiiilier jist, using a car which 
was built in (he company's shops especially for the purpose. Mr. 
Louis Lipphardt, formerly siiperiutendent ff llie SteiilKMiville di- 
vision, and now claim agent, has- charge o( ihe express (li-|iarliiunl 



154 



STRKKT KAILWAV KKVIEW. 



t\'uu XIV. No. 3- 




ruSLlSHIO ON THI aorx OP BACH MONTH. 

WINDSOR & KENFIELD PUBLISHING CO.. 

45-47 PLYMOUTH PLACE, CHICAGO, ILL. 



OABLS ADDNISfti WINPIILD.' 



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Queensland [South]. Brisbane— Gordon & Cotch. 
Victoria, Melbourne- Gordon & Cotch. Limited, Queen Street. 

The publisher of the Strbrt Railway Rbvibw Issues each year on the 
occasion of the meetiiitr of the American Street Railway Association fuur or more 
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Address all Communtcationt and Remittances to Windsor Jc Keniield Publishing Co. 
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CORRESPONDENCE. 

We cordially invite correspondence on all subjects of interest to those 
enpaped in any branch of street railway work, and will frratefullv appreciate 
any marked copies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send 
us, pertainiuif either to companies or officers. 

DOES THE MANAGER WANT ANYTHING? 

If you contemplate the purchase of any supolies or material, we can save 
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This paper is a member of the Chicago Trade Press Association. 
Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 



VOL. XIV. 



MARCH 20, 1904. 



NO. 3 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. 

Til.- W.st.rn ohi.. Kaihviiv Co. Illustrated 137 

Kcmnokf Railway It ICIoctrlc Co H4 

I'ayiiiK Kxprfss Husiness In Massachusetts 144 

Coiii|)r»-ss*'d Air in Klfctric Railway Shop, Power House and Traclc 

\Vnrl<— 1 14i) 

Conmclicut Strtct Railways .' 150 

A Rolling Stock Record Board. Illustrated 150 

Electric Traction in Italy by Means of Monophase Series Motors. 

Illustralea. By E. Guarini 151 

UinK-Ulslance Trip of Sleeping Car 152 

Kdltorlal 154 

Chicago l"nion Traction Co 156 

Zanesvllle Railway. Light & Power Co. Illustrated 157 

Selection of Transmission Circuits. Illustrated. By -Alton D. 

A<lafns 162 

Klectrlcal Controller Improvements 165 

New Lines anil Extensions Opened 165 

The Jungfrau Railway. Illustrated 166 

Tennessee Notes 16S 

The Encouragement of I'rban Traffic. By R. \V. Western, C. E.. 168 

Canadian Notes 170 

Hiring. Training and Handling Employes In Electric Railway 

Work. By Charles H. Cox 171 

Beveled Brick for Track Paving. Illustrated 172 

Recent Stn-et Railwav Decisions 173 

Street Railway Parks in 19H 177 

Financial 183 

Detroit rnlted Ry's. Large Snow Plows. Illustrated 1S9 

The Latest Ohio Electric Railway Map 191 

Single Phase Railroads. Illustrated. By W. A. Blanck 192 

Persona I lyt; 



TO ENCOURAGE URBAN TRAFFIC. 

The cicineius upon whicli depend urban railw.iy traffic, the rela- 
tive importance of these elements, and the means by which rail- 
way companies can best promote traffic arc discussed in a paper 
by Mr. R W. Western, which we reprint in this number. Mr. 
Western's mathematical analysis to determine the relative weight 
of the considerations affecting the passenger and the value of im- 
proving the service is unique in inclhod as well as interesting in 
results. 

riic author assigns as the reasons for using tram cars, the 
pleasure derived, the trouble saved, the time saved. On analysis 
of these three motives, it is concluded that the third reason, the 
saving of lime effected, is the controlling-one in the temperate zones. 
With assumed average length of ride and average lime of stop the 
condition that the time consumed for a journey should be a mini- 
mum, leads to a fixed number of stopping places per mile. Thus 
lO-second stops and an average length of ride of g miles would fix 
the stopping points at .41 mile apart, a condition closely approx- 
imated on some of the intcrurban lines that have adopted the fixed 
stopping place principle. .-\n average ride of 2!-4 miles would re- 
quire stops at interval.s of .2 mile to give best results. City service in 
.America, where cars stop at each street crossing if desired, and the 
streets vary from eight to twelve to the mile, according to the West- 
ern formula would best serve passengers riding only .8 mile to .36 
mile. Such examples as given here are illustrative only, but 
the application of the formula made after careful investigation on 
city lines, and noting length and frequency of stops, would doubt- 
less lead to changes in existing ideas, and attempts made to edu- 
cate the public so it would recognize less frequent stops as being 
to its own interest as well as to the company's. 

.VI r. Western's conclusions are that to encourage urban traffic 
it is wiser to save the passenger's time than to increase his com- 
fort, and to save time t'le speed of cars should be increased, the 
regnlarily of service increased and the number of stopping places 
rc<liK-c<l. 

INTERCHANGEABLE ELECTRIC MILEAGE. 

Pr(il):ilily :i majority of the electric interurban railways now op- 
erating over distances of twenty miles or more hive already 
.idopted or are considering the adoption of mileage books. Two 
objects are apparent, the encwiragement of traffic and the elim- 
ination of commutation books, and the results in every case where 
mileage books have been used are reported as eminently satisfac- 
tory. From the pissenger's standpoint, however, existing coi^di- 
tions are not ideal because electric railway mileage has not j'ct been 
made interchangeable, and for this reason travelers who cover a 
ccinsiderable territory arc at present debarred from enjoying to 
the fullest extent the benefits of the low fares on electric lines. 
Reference to the map of Indiana published in the January "Re 
view" shows no less than eight electric interurbans entering Indi- 
anapolis, and assuming that alt of these companies issued a.^o- 
milc books, as do the Indiana Union Traction and the Indianapolis 
& Northwestern companies, a man having occasion to patronize all 
of these roads would be required to invest $^6 in transportation 
available in a comparatively small area. To get the lower rate 
given by the 1,000-milc hooks would require an investment of $100, 
a very large sum when the length of route on which the books 
can be used is compared with corresponding mileage on steam 
roads. 

The two roads mentioned sell 250-milc books at the rate of 1.3 
cents per mile, and LOOO-mile books at the rate of 1.25 cents per 
mile, the single trip fares being based on 1.5 cents per mile. 

It is hard to conceive of any valid objections to interchange- 
able mileage books, excepting those practical difticultics T>f admin- 
istration due to the fact that the lines now operating do not have 
uniform rates. Some roads base their fares on 2 cents per mile, with 
a 25 per cent reduction on connnntation books. The Union Traction 
until recently based its rate on I ■imt per mile, but in February 
this was increased to 1.5 cents; this company also charges an ex- 
cess fare on its limited trains. 

Two schemes suggest themselves as feasible lor interchangeable 
hooks. One is to issue a book of 250 coupons of the value of 5 
cents each, which shall be accepted by all lines in the payment of 
f.ire at their face value. The other is to issue mileage books, en- 



Mar. jo, 1904.] 



STREET RA1L\\"AY KE\'IEW 



155 



dorsing on the cover tliat conductors "will detach one line for 
each mile except on the A. & B. road, where 20 per cent more 
mileage will be lifted." etc., to meet varying conditions. This rule 
is not more awkward than the one now in force on some roads 
having contracts with local companies in terminal cities, where one 
line in the mileage book is detached for each mile outside the 
corporate limits of the terminal city and four lines (1.25 cents per 
mile) for the ride within the city limits. 

The joint bureau for auditing interchangeable tickets would 
have no trouble in accounting with either of these system*. 



LIGHTING ACCOUNTS. 

Since the publication in the "Review" lor February of Mr. C. L. 
S. Tingley's "Classification of Lighting Accounts Conforming to 
the Street Railway .\ccounlants' Association Standard", we have 
received a number of inquiries as to the accepted standards which 
indicate a wide interest in the subject. The report of the commit- 
tee of the National Electric Light .Vssociation appointed to draft 
a standard scheme for lighting accounts was adopted in May, 
1901, and by courtesy of that association was submitted to the 
Street Railway .\ccountants' Association at its New York meet- 
ing and published in the proceedings for igoi. We understand that 
the Accountants' Association has taken no action as to recom- 
mending the use of the Lighting Standard, but merely printed the 
report for the information of its members. 

The disadvantage of having two systems of accounts differing 
in scheme of classification, especially for small traction and light- 
ing companies, where the same clerks have to handle both ac- 
counts, is one of the points made by Mr. Tingley ; and his classi- 
fication shows how easily the two can be brought into harmony 
without sacrificing the ability to make comparisons easily. By the 
device of giving an account two numbers (placing one of them 
in parenthesis) the identity of each is preserved, and reference 
facilitated. 



SUGGESTED REORGANIZATION OF A. S. R. A. 

In the "Review " lor February we discussed at some length the 
proposed association of electric railway construction and main- 
tenance of way engineers, and published the tentative scheme of 
organization that had been compiled by Mr. Fred G. Simmons, of 
the Milwaukee Railway & Light Co., after an extended cor- 
respondence with the heads of the civil engineering departments 
of other companies. Since our last issue it has been suggested 
that the most desirable action in the matter of electric railway as- 
sociations would be to eflfect a reorganization of the American 
Street Railway Association on lines that would include the other 
two existing associations and permit of the development, within 
the main society, of other subsidiary bodies as the need for them 
appeared. 

This plan is set out in the letter from Mr. Simmons published 
on another page of this issue, and briefly is as follows : 

1. A general association in which the active members arc rail- 
way companies or individual owners of electric railways. 

2. Sub-societies to cover the different fields of work that in a 
railway organization arc represented by the different departments 
— .Accounting, Legal and Claims, Transportation, Way and Struc- 
tures, Rolling Stock and Shops, Power House — with active mem- 
bership comprising persons having charge of the corresponding 
departments. 

3. The sub-societies each to have as its executive officer a vice- 
president of the general association, who would appoint the com- 
mittee?. Each sub-society to conduct its affairs as if it were a sep- 
arate organization, having its own sub-secretary, and doing its 
committee work. 

As the construction and maintenance of way men are firmly 
convinced of the need for an association to discuss their problems. 
and will effect an organization al the next A. S. R. A. convention, 
the discussion of plans is very desirable at this lime and sugges- 
tions and criticisms from all interested arc invited. 

At the present lime we arc convinced that ihe radical scheme of 
reorganization and consolidation of existing associations that has 
l>«en proposed is not a good one. In the first place, a general 
association with perhaps six subdivisions within it would be ex- 
tremely unwieldy, and if the general association look any interest 



in the affairs of the others it would have but little lime for the 
transaction of its own business. The presidents and managers 
who arc the representatives of their companies in the A. S. R. A. 
as it is organized today arc not men who have either time or in- 
clination to familiarize themselves with the details of the various 
departments under their general direction; consequently they, 
with a few exceptions that serve to emphasize the rule, are not the 
ones who can discuss to advantage the technical questions that 
interest their subordinate officers. We believe this statement is 
fully confirmed by the proceedings of recent conventions, and fur- 
thermore we believe that this condition is just as it should be to 
best serve the interests of the companies these men represent. The 
function of chief executives when tliey meet in convention is to 
discuss questions of general policx-, not details. If there is any 
tendency for the new associations to strip the A. S. R. A. of the 
functions for which the latter was organized, we believe the rea- 
son is that the new associations are better fitted for the work they 
are doing than was the parent body, and that the latter body 
should now devote itself, as before mentioned, to the broader 
questions in keeping with the larger railway systems that exist 
today. 

It has been considered lliat llic electric railways might object to 
contributing to the support of too many separate associations, and 
perhaps economy of administration is one of the strongest rea- 
sons for urging consolidation. This point is of doubtful impor- 
tance. If the suggested scheme is carried out sticcessfully it will 
require a competent sub-secretary for each division and each di- 
vision would have its own papers and reports to print, and its 
own correspondence to conduct. These constitute the principal 
items of expense and could not be very materially reduced. For 
satisfactory results each of the proposed sub-societies would have 
to be practically independent and with seven associations in fact, 
there might as well be seven in name. 

In the steam railroad field we find separate and independent as- 
sociations. First, there is the American Railway Association which 
passes upon recommendations of the other railroad associations. 
These include the following: Accounting Officers, Master Car 
Builders, Master Mechanics, Master Painters, Master Blacksmiths, 
.\ir Brake Men, Maintenance of Way Men — each of these seven 
associations is national in scope and holds at least one convention 
each year. 

In addition to these associations, which are most familiar to us 
on account of their mechanical and engineering afiilialions. there are 
about fifty other railroad associations, mnst of wlilch linld national 
conventions. 

To make any organization suiiccssful requires hard work on 
the part of the management, which in associations of the char- 
acter wc are discussing means first, the secretary, who is the per- 
manent official, and second, the president, and the other members 
of the executive committee. By common consent, in most cases, 
the other members of the committee feel that the work should go 
w-ith honor, and content themselves with letting all initiative lie 
with the president and secretary. With the scheme for consolida- 
tion under discussion the effect on the associations that would be 
reduced to the rank of committees must be considered. With both 
of the existing associations that would be affected, their success 
has been attained by hard work of the officers and members; and 
while we are sure that those to whom this success is most due 
would not urge personal feelings against the best interests of the 
industry, we fear Ihe effect of consolidation would be a diminu- 
tion of interest on the part of the most active members that 
would in the end severely affect the work of the association. 

The "Review" would greatly regret to see any action taken that 
would in the slightest degree impair the well-earned prestige of 
the Street Railway Accountants' Association. The record of tin- 
.•\ccounlants' for the seven years of its existence entitles it to 
aulonomy. 

The Anuriean U.iilw:iy .Mvcliaiiic.il and ICIeclrical .'\ssocialion is 
only a year olil, but its first convention demonstrated that it has 
a reason for being and can take care of itself, and has accom- 
plished belter work than was ever done in this field before. The 
fact that this association is more distinctively an engineering as- 
sociation suggests that it might enlarge its scope to include civil 
engineering as well as mechanical and electrical engineering de 
pirlnienis, and try the experiment of administering Ihe associalio:! 



ISH 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol. X1\'. No. 3- 



at two or three liranches — calling itself the Electric Railway En- 
gineering Association, or by an equally descriptive title. This 
plan is not radical and if a failnrc litit liitlc harm could result. 

.Another alternative would be for the A. S. R. A. to create de- 
partments ur sub-societies in accordance with the scheme as out- 
lined in Mr. Simmons' letter, but limit these sub-societies to those 
departments not already cared for by the Accountants' and Me- 
chanical and Electrical associations. 

The question for the railway companies to decide is one of ex- 
pediency. Existing associations could be amalgamated readily, but 
if this step were taken against the wishes of the existing inde- 
pendent bodies, the usefulness of the latter woidd be practicall\ 
ended. 



(!iir liarns Kuiiicd at (!hicaKo. 



Tcrniinals for World's Fair Traffic. 



The St. Louis Transit Co. and the St. Louis & Suburban Rail- 
way Co. have leased sites' for their VV'orld's Fair terminals near 
the Administration and De Balivierc gales of the Exposition 
grounds. Instead of running cast and west on the south side of 
the Colorado R. R., between the Skinker road and De Balivierc 
.\vc., the Transit company will build tracks parallel to the old route 
and midway between Waterman and De Givcrville Avcs. The 
western tcrmiims will be the Skinker road, near the .Administration 
gate, the cars not being allowed to run through the fair grounds. 
A loop will be built here, and the Suburban company's loop will be 
built on the opposite side of Skinker road. The Transit company 
will have another loop near the De Balivierc gate, while the Sub- 
urban has secured a site near and back of the Wabash Ry's. new 
terminal station for its De Balivierc gate terminus. By an agree- 
ment between the two companies persons living east and west of 
Clayton on the Transit line will be transferred to and from the 
Suburban cars tree. 

« »» 

Chicago Union Traction Co. 

The long anticipated hearing at Chicago on the validity of the 99- 
year act, under which the Chicago Union Traction Co. bases its 
claims for extension of franchises, took place before Judge Gross- 
cup, of the United States Circuit Court, and Judge Jenkins, of the 
United States Court of .Appeals, March i, 2 and 3. The interests of 
the Traction company were represented by Attorneys J. S. .\uer- 
bach and Brainerd Towles, of New York, and W. W. Gurley, Henry 
C. Crawford and John S. Miller, of Chicago. The city was repre- 
sented by David 1". Watson, of Pittsburg, special counsel ; John C. 
Mathis and Edward Burritt Smith, attorneys for the local trans- 
portation committee of the city council, and Corporation Counsel 
Tolman. The court took the matter under advisement. 

The city having petitions for an inquiry into the good faith under- 
lying the application of the Guaranty Trust Co.. under a creditor's 
bill, for the appointment of receivers for the Union Traction Co.. 
Judge Grosscup, of his own volition, instructed a master in chan- 
cery to conduct such an inquiry, although the court denied the city's 
right as an outside parlv to intervene. The inquiry was begun March 
14th. 



Amicable Adjustment of Loop Difficulty. 

* .As a result of a recent conference between representatives of 
the Chicago elevated railroad companies and the city a plan was 
agreed upon whereby the companies are expected to receive per- 
mission to extend the Union loop platforms, provided the exten- 
sions be made narrower than the present platforms and that they 
be not covered. The city will agree to dismiss the cross bill in 
the platform extension suit brought by property owners, and also 
waive the demand for track deadening until engineers have solved 
that problem ; the city will further concede that the demand for 
half fare for children is a legal question to be adjusted by court, 
if necessary. To pay for these concessions the companies will 
post their car licenses in all cars, light the street intersections un- 
der the elevated structure of the loop, and p.ay the loop and North- 
western road compensation, which was provided for under an old 
agreement, without protest. The differences thus amicably settled 
primarily grew out of a controversy between the Union Loop Co. 
and the Northwestern Elevated Railroad Co. 



During the night of March 13th the Chicago Union Traction 
Co's. car Inrns at Lcavitt St. and Blue Island Ave., Chicago, and 
250 cars were destroyed by fire, cause<l by an overheated stove. 
The night su|>erintendenl and three employes who were sleeping 
at the barns were more or Ic^s burned and injured. By closing a 
large fire door boo siinimer cars were saved. Service on the 18th 
St., Blue Island Ave., 26th St. and Canal St. lines was seriously 
affected by the fire for a lime. The structure was 400 ft. long and 
300 ft. wide. The loss was estimated at $275,000. This is the 
second car-l>arn fire which the company has suffered this winter, the 
other being at Wrightwood and Lincoln .Aves. 
♦ « > 

Southwestern Associations to Join. 

It is anticipated that at a meeting to be held at Dallas, Tex., 
.April 25-27, 1904, the Southwestern Electrical Association and the 
Southwestern Gas, Electric & Street Railway Association will lie 
consolidated. The membership of both associations is al)OUt 200. 
The territory of the first-named comprises Indian Territory, Okla- 
homa. Kansas, Arkansas ai;d Texas ; of the latter, Indian Terri- 
tory, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico and 
Mo.\ico. .All the membership and all the territory of both or- 
ganizations will be included in the new association. 

.At a recent conference in Dallas the following subjects were 
selected for discussion at the joint meeting in April : "Advan- 
tages of the Combination of Gas and Electric Interests," "The 
Operation of Single Phase Motors from the Central Station Stand- 
point," "Framing of City Franchises for Public Service Cor- 
porations," "Combination of Public Utilities in Small Cities," 
"Water Purification Processes and Values," "Economics of the 
Meter," "Benefits and Evils of Telephone Competition." ".Acci- 
dents on Street Railways and Damage Suits," "Central Station 
Accounting," "Electric Wiring from the Central Station Stand- 
point and the Requirements of the National Board of Underwrit- 
ers," "Developments of Interurban Railways in the Southwest," 
"The Development of the Modern Gas Plant." 
•-•-♦ 

Progress on the Technolexicon. 

Up to the present time 363 technical societies and 2.573 firms and 
individuals have responded to the appeals for contributions to the 
Technolexicon. or universal technical dictionary for translation 
purposes, in English, German and French, the compilation of which 
was Iwgun in 1901 under the auspices of the Society of German 
Engineers. .All outstanding contributions arc to be called in by 
Easter of this year, in order that the printing of the Technolexicon, 
which is to begin in the middle of 1906, may not be delayed. All 
contributions sliould Iw forwarded at once to the editor-in-chief, 
Dr. Hubert Jai:sen, Berlin ( N. W. 7) Dorotheenstrasse 49, who 
will lie glad to furnish additional information. 



Chicago Elevated Traffic. 

The daily average of trafficc of the South Side Elevated Rail- 
road Co., Chicago, for February was 90.330, an increase of 1,814, 
or 2 per cent, over February, 1903. The daily average of the 
Northwestern Elevated Railway Co. for February was 73.193. an 
increase of 3.308, or 4.73 per cent. The daily average of the Met- 
ropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad Co. was 119.073. an increase 
of 2.983, or 2.50 per cent. The daily average of the Lake Street 
Elevated Railroad Co. for February was 42,715. as agairst 42,917 
last year, a decrease of .005 per cent. 



The Illinois Telegraph & Telephone Co., of Chicago, has offered 
to carry the Chicago mail in electric cars in its tunnels for $172,000 
a year. The company agrees to put 100 cars into service and build 
elevator connections costing $300,000. 



It is prol)able that the Hrooklyn Bridge and the new Williamsburg 
Bridge, in New York City, will be connected by an elevated road to 
Ik; built in Baxter St.. which is to he widened to ICO ft., and thence 
down Dclancj' St.. li^c widening of which is already pro\ided for. 



Zanesville Railway, Light and Power Co. 

Description of the Company's New Plant which Comprises a Steam Turbine Equipment and a 
Water Power Plant, Combined with Storage Battery for Reserve. 



The Zanesville Railway. Light & Power Co. has just completed a 
new power plant which involves a combination of engineering 
features which, we believe, is unique in the history of electric 
power plant design and which has no parallel in this country. As 
is implied in its official title, the company's business includes the 
operation of a local electric street railw.iy system, furnishing current 
to the cars of the interurban line within the city limits, the general 
electric lighting sy.stem of the city and the renting of power for 
manufacturing purposes. The power for these various purposes was 
formerly supplied from an old steam power station, an interior view 
of which is shown herewith, hut since the reorganization of the com- 
pany, which was recently effected, a complete reorganization of the 
generating plant has also been made. 

The new power house, a general exterior view of which is shown 



One of the half-tone illustrations shows the west side of the 
building at the time of its completion and beneath the water wheel 
pits are shown a number of arches leading into the river, which 
form part of the tail race. One of the illustrations shows a trans- 
verse section through the building, which will give a clear idea of 
the hydraulic arrangements. The water passes from the canal 
under one side of the building, the wheel pits being located at the 
farther side nearest the river. After passing through the water 
wheels the water escapes through the arches on the west side of 
the building previously mentioned. 

The building presents an attractive exterior, being made of yel- 
low pressed brick ornamented with .stone trimmings. It is di- 
vided into two main parts by means of a brick partition wall 
which extends transversely through it. One part of the building 




/. \.\ i,.^\ 1 I.I.I': 11. \i i,\\ .\ V. 



herewith, together with its surroundings, i* located on the Mus- 
kingum River just adjacent to the dam. by means of which water 
is supplied to the Ohio River Canal. A diagram of the building 
and its surroimdings is also shown, which gives a very clear idea 
of the location of the building and its advantageous position with 
reference to the water jKiwcr. As will be seen from this diagram, 
the building is lioundeil on the north by the lialtiniore & Ohio 
railroad bridge, on the south by what is known as the concrete 
V-bridge, by the Ohio River Canal on the east and by the .Mus- 
kingum River on the west side. As shown in the diagram, the 
dam across- the Muskingum River is just above the power house. 
at which point is the entrance to the canal. The Muskingum River 
in a stream of considerable size, which drains about i.-po se|. miles. 
The company, by continuous lease, has the use of 1,1.500 cu. ft. of 
water per minute and all the surplus above 6-in. of water on 
the dam. Thin give.* a maximum available head of water of .ihout 
14 ft., which, of course, varies considerably at difTercnt times. 



is again subdivided into two rooms, one of which contains the 
boilers and the other the shaft operated by the water wheel and 
governors. The other part of the building is devoted to the elec- 
trical machinery, steam turbines and the storage battery plant. 
An idea of the location of Ibe various machines will be obtaiue<l 
by referring to the longitudinal elevation of the building shown 
herewith. In one end of this elevation are shown the water wheel 
pits with the wheels in iilace, the vertical shafts of the wheels 
carrying large bevel gears which mesh with the bevel pinions upon 
the shaft in a long ror)m extending through half of the building 
and having an extension on the front of the building in which is 
locateil one of the two alternating current getienitors operated by 
the water wheels. The other end of this shaft extends through 
the partition wall into the rear end of the builiHng, where it is 
coupled to the other water-wheel driven alternator. 

That part of the building silualeil over Ibe lie.id race lu the 
wheels is supporleil on iron piers wliiili in lorn rest on concrete 



158 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



(Vol.. XIV, No. 3 



foiiiulalions carried well down Iwlow the lied of the water. As it 
would be obviously impossible to have these iron pillars in contact 
with the water on account of their inevitable destruction by corro- 



tudinal elevation, is divided into four levels. The basement con- 
tains the condensers and foundations for the steam turbines, the 
latter extending through openings in the floor a short distance 




Sll(l\VIN<! I.()C.\TIC(N- <l|- .NKW IMIWKR IIOI'SK (>!•" TIIK KA.NKSVII.I.K R.\Tt.\V.\Y. I.IC.HT * POWER CO. 



bion, Iho plan of protection wa.'i adopted which is shown in one of 
the illustrations, .\fter the coKinins were put in place a form was 
built around them which was filled with concrete, thus providing 
complete protection against contact with the water of the head 
race. The illustration shows this work in process of construction, 
one of the columns being only partly covered with concrete. 

.\t the edge of the canal where the water leaves to pass under 
the building is an iron grating to prevent the passage of debris 
and other foreign material through the head race and water wheels 



above the ground floor level. On the ground floor are located the 
rotary converters, transformers, low tension switchboard, etc., and 
in the gallery, extending along one side of this room, is a 
high tension switchboard. From this gallery stairs lead up 
to an overhead room in which is the storage battery plant. 
From the foregoing description it will be seen that the gen- 
eral location of the building is a most advantageous one, not 
only on account of the water power which can be utilized, 
but for the anipk supply of water both for boiler feed and 
condensing purposes. 




LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH POWER HOUSE. SHOWING lA)OATlo.\ OF W ATKH W 1 1 K K I .i 

CHINERY. 



.\.N1> KI.ECTRICAL MA- 



Thc bars of this grating, which are of iron, are set about an inch 
apart. 

The rear portion of the building, as will be seen from the longi- 



The Equipment. 
The boiler room contains two Heine water-tube boilers of 380 
h. p. each, based on a rating of 10 sq. ft. of heating surface per 



Mar. 20. 1904.) 



STREET RAILWAY REX'IFAV. 



159 



horse power. These are built in one battery and are surmounted 

by a sheet steel stack. The boilers arc designed to carry 

175 lb. pressure normally. This boiler plant occupies but half of 

the available space in the room to allow for duplicating the present 

equipment with the increase in the company's business. 

These boilers are fed by Stilwell-Bierce feed pumps 

located in what will eventually be the space between the 

two batteries. Coal is delivered on a spur from the rail- 

roid track which runs along one side of the building 

and can be unloaded directly onto the boiler room , 

floor. 

Parallel with the boiler room and running along 
the rear of the boilers is the water wheel shaft and 
governor room, a general view of which is shown here- 
with. The wheel pit lies directly underneath this room. 
The water wheel plant consists of five 5t-in. Stilwell- 
Bierce "Victor'' turbines, each capable of developing 278 
h. p. and running at a speed of 200 r. p. m. These 
wheels are connected by bevel gearing to a long coun- 
tershaft as shown, by means of jaw clutches, and the 
shaft is divided by couplings into three parts. Both the 
outer ends of the shaft project through partitions into 
rooms at each end, in which are located two alternat- 
ing current machines of 373 kw. each, 36 poles, 7,200 
alteniations, 60 cycles. This division of the shaft into 
three sections permits running either of the alternators 
by any of the water wheels. Along the side of this 
room, as shown in the illustration, are located the two 
Ix>mbard governors by means of which the speed of the 
water wheel is regulated. 

The main engine and generator room contains two 
500-kw. General Electric turbines of the Curtis type, 
the general principles of which were fully described 
in the ".Street Railway Review" for April,- :go3. Upon ^ 
the vertical shaft of each turbine is mounted a three- ^ 
phase, 60-cycle, alternating current generator. The ^_, 
foundations for these machines are laid in the basement. 
which IS 14 ft. above the high water level, and the upper 
ends of these machines, which extend through an open 
space in the generator room floor, reach about 4 ft. above the floor 
level. The most noticeable feature perhaps in connection with these 



The oil is supplied to the bearings by means of an oil pump driven by 
a direct connected lio-volt d. c. motor. This oil pump supplies oil to 
the bearings under a pressure of 300 lb., which is necessary to 
counteract the end thrust on the shaft and to provide the neces- 





yiiis\j.\\\')S i'ip.i..\i( 



>leam turbines is the very small space which they occupy, the entire 
machine apparently requiring considerably less floor space than one 
of the rotary converters. The turbines operate al a «pecd of 1,800 
r. p m and the oiling system for these machines is worthy of notice. 



TR.\NSVBRSK SKCTIUN THROUGH POWER HOIISR. 

sary clearance. From these generators the current is carried to 
three General Electric air blast transformers of 330 kw. capacity, 
the primary voltage being 2,300 and the .secondary 430 
uid 180 volts. These transformers are located on one 
side of the room over an air chamber built in the base- 
ment. The air pressure is supplied by two blowers built 
liy the Buffalo Forge Co., direct connected to two 7-h. p. 
induction motors, operating at 220 volts. All of the 
high tension wiring is contained within this air cham- 
ber. 

On the opposite side of the room from the transform- 
is are the rotary converters and the low tension 
switchboard. A view of this side of the room is 
shown herewith and in the rear of this view will be seen 
one of the alternators connected to the end of the 
water wheel shaft. There arc three rotary converters 
• it present installed. One of these is a 3Cio-kw., 5.S0- 
viilt machine which furnishes current for the railway 
■ircuit. On one end of this machine is mounted a 
direct connected 20-h. p. induction motor used for 
siaiting. The other two rotaries are 300-kw., 240-volt 
iiiiu-hines which supply current for the three-wire lighting 
-,slcru. This room also contains a 150-kw. differential 
!"ioster for charging and discharging the batteries, 
Aliich is capable of rai'sing the pressure llnough a range 
if 150 volts. 

The basement under this floor contains in addition 
to the steam turbine foundations, the condensers and the 
feed water heater. Each condenser is a Stilwell-Bierce 
surface condenser with 1,200 sf|. ft. of cooling surface, 
'llie arrangement of the piping for the turbines and con- 
densers is shown both in plan and elevation in accompanying illus- 
trations. Practically all of the steam piping in the power house is 
beneath the floor of the engine room. 

The direct current switchboard, opposite the rotary converlirs, 



160 



STRRRT RAILWAY REVIIiW. 



(Vol. XIV. No. 3. 



contains one 6oo-voll rotary pjnci, two storage liallcry panels, 
three cmerKcni-y panels for splitlinK np the lialtcry wlirn il i> re- 




II II 



^ ii il fl fi n II n K il 




BXTERIOR 1)1'' roWKIt IIOI'SE SHOWING ARIIIKS IN TAIL 

quired to be used for the three-wire lighting system, one totalizing 
panel, two feeder panels, two 240-volt rotary panels and one 3- 



Storagc Battery. 
The storage hattery comprises a very important feature in the 
I'ccinoniical operation of this plant. This hattery consists of 2<M 
orlK i.{ "(liloridi- VcciumilaliT-" made l>y thi- l'"li-.irl.- SluraRi- Hal 



i 

1 I ' 




W^ i 


'm^i^ 




>2Cp 




1 



INTKUIDH 



II, 1) 1-1 lU |;K 111 11 .-SI-. 



tery Co.. of Philadelphia. The nominal capacity of the battery is 
640 amperes at 5S0 volts for one hour, or 352,000 ampere hours. A 



V 




/ 


-j:^ 


■£ 


d 




\ 




njiS OF STE.VM I'lriXG 



wire main panel. The alternating current switchboard, located in 
the gallery, contains four generator panels, four feeder panels and 
three rotary panels. A recording wattmeter is used in connection 
with the generator panels, each of which contains one ammeter for 
each phase, one direct current ammeter for the exciting current, 
one volt meter, synchronizing plugs, one double-throw oil switch 
and one double-throw exciting switch. It may be mentioned here 
that no separate exciters arc used in this plant, the alternators be- 
ing excited either from the battery or from the three-wire lighting 
circuit. On the two panels for the alternators driven by the water 
wheels are switches consisting of two push buttons. These are 
used for synchronizing and are connected with the Lombard gov- 
ernors, so that by pushing one button the speed of the water wheels 
is reduced and by pushing the other button the speed is increased. 
Each of the three rotary panels contains a power factor indicator, 
one anuneter. one dnuble-throw oil switch and synchronizing plugs. 



^.s^-,'t,s^■.■J.^-.^.l■w■'.-.-,^'.^'.M^■^,|,v- 



/SU^.L» t-»€jm 




END ELEVATION OF STEAM IMPING. 



Mar. X, 1904.] 



STREET RAILW AY KE\ lEW, 



161 



view of the interior of ihe storage battery room is shown herewith. 
The tanks are mounted on porcelain insulators and the floor of the 
room is of concrete. The terminals Irom the batteries arc brought 
up to within about J ft. of the ceilings where the bus bars from 
the battery are suspended from the ceilings by iron brackets, the 
bars being isolated by porcelain fittings. The room has been ar- 
ranged with special reference to procuring good ventilation and all 
of the metallic fi.xtures supporting the overhead conductors and 
other wirini; are cn.ntcrl with Icnrl <(^ ,i< tn a\-oi(l the corrosion from 



Uiuler the reorganization all the former operating officials were 
retained, the officers being as follows: President, Hon. F. A. Dur- 
ban, of Zanesville; vice-president and engineer, H. M. Byllesby; 
general manager and assistant treasurer, W. A. Gibbs; secretary 
and treasurer, W. D. Breed, of Messrs. Kleyholte & Co. 

Mr. Gibbs had been in charge of the property under the former 
management for several years and under the reorganization his 
powers and duties were largely increased. He took a prominent 
part in the reorganizatii>n i>f llu- upLTittini; Cfuiditinns and in the 




PARTIAL VIEW OK GENERATOR ROOM AND SWITCHBOAKIJ. 

the fumes of the battery. The present battery occupies only about 
half of the available space in this room, and in case conditions re- 
quire it, could be duplicated without incurring any cIiauRO,-. in the 
building. 

From the foregoing description it will be seen 
that the entire design of the station is novel, and 
while the steam plant may be considered the princi- 
pal factor for the production of power the addition of 
the water power plant is a valuable au.xiliary which. 
under the present conditions of load, will supply 
on an average 50 per cent of the power required. 
Owing to the fluctuations of the railway load and the 
peaks of the lighting load the maximum fluctuations 
of the station output is at times between 600 and 700 
kw. Previously to the installation of the steam tur- 
bines and when the head of water was sufticient to 
supply only one water wheel and about six-tenths i4' 
another, an average load of 200 kw. was carried with 
fluctuations up to 660 kw. by less than two wheels 
in addition to the battery. The station has also been 
designed to operate very economically. The old sta- 
tion which has been abandoned required about 12 lb. 
of coal per kw. Ii. output. It is estimated by the 
company's engineers that the present steam plant can 
be operated with about 2^ lb. of coal per kw. h., and 
as the water power plant will generally carry half 
of Ihe load the average coal consumption per kw. 
h. will be reduced to about t'A lb. In addition to this 
the old statirm required 17 attendants for each day's 
run, while the new plant has been designed to be 
operated with but six attendants. 

Organization. 
Messrs. Rudolph Kleybolte & Co., bankers, of Cincinnati, New 
York and Chicago, undertook the reorganization of the properties 
now merged in the Zanesville Railway, I-ighl & Power Co., in 
September, ig02. Their contract provided not only for the re- 
organization of the securities of these properties, but also for their 
complete phyiical and opcnling reconstruction. Messrs, Kleybolte 
& Co. in turn contracted with Messrs, II, M. Byllesby & Co., of Chi- 
cago, for all of Ihe engineering work connected with the rebuilding 
of Ihe projicrty, the designing of the new power house anil its equip- 
ment. Messrs, Kyllesby & Co., in connection with Messrs. Klcy- 
IkiIic & Co. also had charge of the reorganization of the operation 
of the properties. 




WHKKl, SHAI'^T AND GOVERNOR ROOM, 

reconstruction of the properties. Mr. Gibbs, together with Mr. 
E. C. Braun, one of the engineers of H. M. Byllesby & Co., were 
personally in charge of the reconstruction work, which is now 
'apidly nearing completion. The water power part of iho plant 





r- 


ft 

... 



VllvW IN STORAGE HATTER V ItdOM. 



has been in operation for some time and the first of llie steam tur- 
bines was successfully put in o|K'ration early this month. 



At the instance 01 the Imard of health Ihe New York City Kail- 
w;iy Co. has issued an order to its condiuturs not to wet their fingers 
with their mouths when issuing li'.'uisfcrs. the pr.acliee being re- 
gardeil unsanitary. 



Hie Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. has replaced the old single 
tiuck cars on its I'iftli Ave. line with modern double truck cars 
which afford an increased acconmiodation of 400 |)assengcrs an 
hour. The headway has been reducedj also. 



162 



STREET RAILWAY REVIHW. 



(Vou XIV, No. 3 



Selection of Tnln^>lni^i^9iun Circuits. 



liy AL,TON D. ADAMS 



(Copyright, 1904, by Alton U. AiIiiiiik 



Mtiximtim power, voltage, loss and weight of conductors liaviiig 
been fixed for a transniissinn line, the ntinilier of circuits thai .shall 
make up the line, and the relations of these circuits to each other, 
remain to be determined. 

Ill practice wide dilTcrcnces exist as lo the number and relations 
of circuits on a single transmission line between two points. Cases 
ilUislrating Ihis fact are the 154-mile transmission from Eleclra 
power house lo San Francisco, and the 65-milc transmission between 
Canon Ferry, on the Missouri River, and Butte, Montana. At the 
Electra plant the generator capacity is 10,000 kw., and the transmis- 
sion to San Francisco is carried out over a single pole line that 
carries one circuit composed of three aluminum conductors, each 
with an area in cross section of 471,000 circular mils. From the 
generators at Canon Ferry, which have an aggregate capacity nf 
7,500 kw., a part of the energy goes to Helena over a separate hue. 
and the transmission lo Bullc goes over two pole lines that arc 40 
ft. apart. Each of these two pole lines carries a single circuit com- 
posed of three copper conductors, and e.ich conductor has a cross 
section of 105,600 circular mils. The differences in practice ilUislraled 
by these I wo plants is further brought out by the fact that their 
voltages are not far apart, as the Canon Ferry and Bultc line oper- 
ates at 50,000, and the Electra and San Francisco line was designed 
for 60,000 volts. 

Economy in the construction of a transmission line points strongly 
to the use of a single circuit, because this means only one line of 
poles, usually but one cross arm for the power wires per pole, the 
least possible number of pins and insulators, and the smallest 
amount of labor for the erection of the conductors. In favor of a 
single circuit there is also the argument of greatest mechanica! 
strength in each conductor, since the single circuit is to have the 
same weight as that of all the circuits that may be adopted in ils 
place. Where each conductor of the single circuit would have a 
cross section of less than 83,690 circular mils, if of copper, cor- 
responding to a No. I B. & S. gage wire, the argument as to me- 
chanical strength is of especial force, since two equal circuits in- 
stead of one, in the case where one circuit of No. i wires would 
have the required weight, reduce the size of each conductor to No. 
4 wire, of 41,740 circular mils cross section, and this is the smallest 
wire that it is desirable to use on long lines. Opposed to these ar- 
guments for a single circuit are those based on the supposed 
greater reliability of two or more circuits, their grc.itcr case of re- 
pair, their more cflFective means of regulation, and the inlUancc on 
inductance of a reduction in the size of conductors. 

In spile of the consequent reduction in the size of each conductor, 
the use of two or more separate circuits for the same transmission 
is soniciimes thought to increase its reliability, because in case of a 
break or short circuit on one of the circuits the other will still be 
available. Breaks in transmission conductors are due either to me 
chanical strains alone, as wind pressure, the falling of trees, or the 
accumulation of ice, or else to an arc between the conductors tha*. 
lends to melt them at some point. As a smaller conductor breaks 
or inelts more readily than a larger one, the use of two or more 
circuits instead of a single circuit lends to increase troubles of this 
sort. It thus seems that while two or more circuits give a greater 
chance of continued operation after a break in a conductor actually 
occurs, the use of a single circuit of larger conductors makes any 
break less probable. 

When repairs must be made on a transmission line, as in replac- 
ing a broken insulator or setting a pole in the place of one that 
has burned, it is certainly convenient to have two or more circuits 
so that one may be out of use while the repairs on it are made. 
It is practicable, however, to make such repairs on any high voltage 
circuit, even when it is in use, provided the conductors are spaced 
so far apart that there is no chance of making a contact or start- 
ing an arc between them. To get such distance between conductors 
there should be only one circuit per pole, and even then more room 
should be provided for that circuit than is common in this type of 
construction. On each of the two pole lines between Canon Ferry 
and Butte there is a single circuit of three conductors arranged in 



triangular form, two at the opposite ends of a cross arm and one 
at the lop of the pole, and the distance from cither conductor of a 
circuit to cither of the other two is 6.5 ft. This distance between 
conductors is perhaps as great as that on any transmission circuit 
now in use, but it seems loo small lo make repairs on the circuit 
reasonably safe when it is in operation at a pressure of 50,000 
volts. There seems to be no good reason why the distance be 
Iween the conductors of a single circuit to which a pole line is 
devoted might not be increased lo as much as 10 ft. at the slightly 
greater expense of longer cross arms. With as much as 10 ft. Ih:- 
tween conductors, and special tools with long wooden handles lo 
grasp these conductors, there should be no serious danger almut the 
repair of even 60,000 volt lines when in operation. As the 60,000 
volt line between Electra and San Francisco consists of only one 
circuit, it seems that repairs on it must be contemplated during op- 
eration. 

Another example of a high voltage transmission carried out 
with a single circuit is that between Shawinigan I'alls and Mon- 
treal, a distance of 85 miles. In this case the circuit is made up of 
three aluminum conductors, each of which has an area in cross sec- 
tion of 183.750 circular mils, and these conductors are located 5 ft. 
apart, one at the top of each pole, and two at the ends of a cross 
arm below. This single circuit is ji regular operation at 50,000 
volts for the supply of light and power in Montreal, and it is hard 
lo see how repairs while there is current on the line are to l>c 
avoided. 

Inductance varies with the ratio Ix-tween the diameter of the 
wires in any circuit and the distance between these wires, but as 
inductance simply raises the voltage that must be delivered by gen- 
erators or transformers, and docs not represent a loss of energy, 
it may generally be disregarded in selecting the number of circuits, 
the distance between conductors, and the size of each conductor. 
If two or more circuits with smaller conductors have a combined 
resistance in multiple equal to that of a single circuit with larger 
conductors, the loss of voltage due to inductance may be greater on 
the single circuit than the corresponding loss on the multiple cir- 
cuits, but the advantages due to the single circuit may more than 
compensate for the higher pressure at generators or transformers. 
That such advantages have been thought to exist in actual construc- 
tion may be seen from the fact that the 154-mile line from Electra 
power house to San Francisco, and the 83-mile line from Shawini- 
gan Falls lo Montreal, two of the longest transmissions in the 
world, are composed of one circuit each. As inductance increases 
directly with the length of circuits, these very long lines are espe- 
cially subject to its influence, yet it was thought that the advantages 
of a single circuit more than offset ils disadvantages in each case. 

Where several sub-slalions, widely separated, are to be supplied 
with energy by the same transmission line, another argument exists 
for the division of the line conductors into more than one circuit, 
so that there may be an independent circuit to each sub-station. 
As the pressure for local distribution lines must be regulated at 
each sub-station, it is quite an advantage to have a separate trans- 
mission circuit between each sub-station and the power plant, so 
that the voltage on each circuit at the power house may be ad- 
justed as nearly as possible to the requirements of its sub-station. 
An interesting illustration of this practice may be noted in the de- 
sign of transmission circuits for the line between Spier Falls on 
the Hudson River and the cities of Schenectady, Troy and Albany, 
located between 30 and 40 miles to the south, which passes through 
Saratoga and Ballston on the way. When this transmission line is 
completed, four three-phase circuits, one of No. o and three of No. 
000 copper wire, will run to the Saratoga switch house from the 
generating plant at the Falls, a distance of some eight miles. 

From this switch house two circuits of No. o conductors go to the 
Saratoga sub-station, a little more than one mile away, two cir- 
cuits of No. 000 wires run to the Watervliet sub-station, across 
the river from Troy and 35 miles from the generating station, and 
one circuit of No. o and one circuit of No. 000 wires are carried lo 
Schenectady, 30 miles from Spier Falls, passing through and sup- 
plying the Ballston sub-station on the way. Other circuits con- 
nect the sub-station at Watervliet wilh that at Schenectady and 
with the water-power station at Mechanicville. From the Water- 
vliet sub-station secondary lines run to sub-stations that control the 
local distribution of light and power in Albany and Troy. This net- 
work of transmission circuits was made desirable by the conditions 



Mar. 20, 1904.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW. 



163 



of this case, which include the general supply of light and power 
in three large and several smaller cities, the operation of three 
large electric railway systems, and the delivery of thousands of 
horse power for the motors in a great niannfactiiriiig plant. 

In not every transmission system with different and widely scat- 
tered loads is it thought desirable to provide more than one main 
circuit. Thus the single circuit, 83 miles long, that transmits en- 
ergy from Shawinigan Falls to Montreal is designed to supply 
power also in some smaller places on the way. 

So again, the 154-mile circuit from Electra power house to San 
Francisco passes through a dozen or more smaller places, includ- 
ing Stockton, and is topped with side lines that run to Oakland and 
San Jose. ■ In cases like this, where very long lines run through 
large numbers of cities and towns that sooner or later require 
service, it is obviously impracticable to provide a separate circuit 
for each center of local distribution. It may well be in such a case 
that a single main transmission circuit connected to a long line of 
sub-stations will represent the best possible solution of the problem. 
.\t the power house end of such a circuit the voltage will naturally 
be regulated to suit that sub-station where the load is the most im- 
portant or exacting, and each of the other sub-stations will be 
left to do all of the regulating for its own load. 

The greater the total loss of voltage on a transmission line sup 
plying sub-stations that are scattered along much of its length, the 



ffeC'^^nrica ^/ti.s 



\ \ \ \ 



^ ? "% 



h 



C- 



bl 



1 , "1 ^ \ 

ill ijl m [|l Ifl 

hir-t 
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11 II 







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^T ^ t ^ i. 



UIAGRAM UF MAI.V CONNKCriOXS 1 .V W .\Ti;t< Vl.l KT SIB- 
STATION. 

larger will be the fluctuations of voltage that nnisl be conipin 
sated for at all of the sub-stations save one, under changing lo:i;ls. 
if only one circuit is employed between the power plant and thcM- 
sub-stations. Suppose, for example, that a transmission line ico 
miles long is composed of a single circuit, and supplies two sub-sta- 
tions, one located 50 miles, and the other 100 miles from the power 
plant. .Assume at first that there is no toad whatever at the inter- 
mediate sub-station. If the single transmission circuit operates with 
50,000 volts at the power plant, and 45,000 volts at the sub-station 
too miles away when there is a full load there, corresponding to a 
loss of 10 per cent, then the pressure at the intermediate sub-sta- 
tion will be 47,500 volts. If, now, the load at the sub-station 100 
miles from the power house drops to a point where the entire line 
loss is only 1,000 volts, and the pressure at the generating plant i^ 
lowered to 46,000 volts so as to maintain 45,000 volts at the more 
distant sub-station, then the pressure at the intermediate sub-sta- 
tion will be 45.500 volts, or 2,000 volts less than it was before. If 
ihe loss on the entire line at full load were only 5 per cent, making 
the voltage at the sul>station 100 miles away 47,500 when that at 
the generating station is 50,000, then the pressure at the intermc 
diate sub-station will be 48,750 volts. Upon a reduction of the loss 
on the entire length of line to one-fifth of its maximum amount, 
or to .soo volts, the pressure at the generating station must be re- 
duced to 48,000 volts, if that at the more distant sub-station is to 
be held conslaiil at 47..500. At the intermediate substation Ihe prcs- 
»ure will then \k i,T,7ya volts, or 1,000 volts less than it was at full 
load. From these two examples it may be seen that the extent of 
pressure variation at the intermediate sub-station will depend di- 



rectly on the nia.xiniuni line loss, if the regulation at the generating 
station is such as to maintain a constant voltage at tlie sub-station 
100 miles away. 

All the foregoing has assumed no load to be connected at the 
intermediate sub-station, and with a load there the fluctuations of 
pressure will of course depend on its amount as well as on the load 
at the more distant sub-station. 

One of the strongest reasons for the use of two or more circuits 
in the same transmission line arises from the rapid fluctuations of 
load where large stationary motors, or an electric railway system is 
operated. When a transmission line must carry a load of stationary 
or railway motors it is a common practice to divide the line into 
at least two circuits, and to devote one circuit exclusively to rail- 
way or motor work, and another to lighting, at any one time. In 
some cases this division of the transmission .system into two parts, 
one devoted to the lighting and the other to the motor load, is car- 
ried out not only as to the sub-station apparatus and the line, but 
also as to the transformers, generators, water wheels and even the 
penstocks at the power plant. It is possible even to carry this di- 
vision of the transmission system still further, and to separate 
either the motor or the lighting load, or both, into sections, and 
then to devote a distinct transmission circuit, group of transform- 
ers, generator, and water wheel to the operation of each section. 
.\\\ example of the complete division of generating and transmit- 
ting apparatus into independent units may be noted in the case of 
Ihc system that supplies liglit and power in Portland, Maine, from 
a generating plant on the Presinnpscot River, 13 miles away. At 
this .station four steel penstocks, each provided with a separate 
gate at the forebay wall, bring water to as many pairs of wheels, 
and each pair of wheels drives a direct-connected generator. Four 
ihree-phase circuits connect the generating plant with the sub-sta- 
tion at Portland, and each circuit between the generating plant and 
a transformer house outside Ihe business section of the city is made 
up of No. 2 solid soft-drawn copper wires. 

Each of these four sets of apparatus from liead gale lo sub sta- 
tion is usually operated independently of the others, and supplies 
cither the motor load or a part of the electric lighting. In this 
way changes in the amount of one section of the load cause no fluc- 
lualion of the voltage on the other sections. .\t Mandicster, New 
llanipsliire, the sub-station receives energy from four water-power 
plants, and is provided with two sets of low tension, 2,300-volt, 
iliree-phase bus bars, one set of these bus bars being devoted to the 
(iperation of the local electric railway system, and the other set to 
the supply of lamps and stationary motor'. Each set of these bus 
bars is divided into a niunber of sections, and by means of these 
sections diflfcrent transmission circuits are devoted to different por- 
tions of the lighting and motor loads. As three of the four water- 
power plants arc connected to the sub-station by two circuits each, 
ihe division of loads in this case is often carried clear hack to the 
generators, one generator in a power house being operated, fur in- 
stance, on railway work and another on a lighting load at the same 
time. This plan has the obvious advantage that much of the regu- 
lation for the several parts of the entire load may be done at the 
generators, thus reducing the amount of regulation necessary at the 
sub-station. In this case the conductors of the several transmis- 
sion circuits are all of moderate size, and the division of the lines 
was evidently adopted for purposes of regulation, rather than to 
reduce the amount of inductance. Thus the line between Gregg's 
Falls and the sub-station, a distance of six miles, is made up of one 
three-phase circuit of No. 4 and one circuit of No. 6 bare copper 
wires. The 14-mile line between the plant at Garvin's Falls and 
the sub-station, the longest of the four transmissions, is made up of 
two three-phase circuits, each composed of No. o bare copper 
wires. In the case of the Gregg's Falls plant the sub-division of 
the line has gone further than that of the generating equipment, for 
the station there contains only a single generator, the rating being 
1,200 kw., while two circuits run thence to the sub-station. An- 
other instance showing extensive sub-division of a line into sep- 
arate circuits may be noted in the 7-mile transmission from Mont- 
morency Falls to Quebec, Canada, where iC) conductors, each No, o 
copper wire, make up four two-phase circuits that conned ,1 plaiil 
of 2,400 kw. capacity with ils subslalion. 

Such mulliplication of transmission circuits has some advanlages 
from the standpoint of regulation, but there arc good reasons for 
liniiling it \if rather short lines, where it is, in fact, almost ex- 



1»J4 



STKKHT RAILWAY KEVIKVV. 



I Vol. XIV, No. 3. 



clusivcly found. On very long lines the ns€ of nimicroui circuits 
composed of r.ithcr small condnctiTs woulil ulivlouvly increase ihc 
constant expense of inspection and repairs, and add materially to 
uncertainly of the service. Very few, if any. transmission lines of 
as niiicli as j$ miles in length are dividetl into more than two cir- 
cuits, and in several instances lines of superlative lengths have only 
a single circuit each. The greatest single i>ower transmission in the 
world, that U'tween Niagara I'alls and lluffalo, is carried out with 
two |Kile lines, one of which is»;ilK)Ut X and the other alioul JJ 
miles long. The longer pole line, which is also the older, carries 
two three-phase circuits, each of which is made up of three 350,000 
circular mil, copper conductors. The shorter pole line carrier a 
single three-phase circuit compo.sed of aluminum conductors, each 
of which has an area in cross section of 500.000 circular mils. In 
electrical conductivity the aluminum circuit is Intended to he e«|ual 
to each of the two that are compoed of copper. .-Xccording to the 
description of the Ni<igara Kails and BufTalo transmission system 
in Vol. XVIll, .\. I. E. E., p.igcs 518 to 527, each of these three cir- 
cuits was designed to transmit about 7,500 kw., and the ma.xiniHin 
power transmitted up to .\ugust, 1901, was 15,600 kw.. or ahout the 
calculated capacity of two of the circuits. .According to the de- 
scription just mentioned, the transmission circuits used to supply 
energy for use at BufTalo are regularly operated in p.irallel, and 
this is also true of the generators and the step-down transformers, 
though the uses to which this energy is applied include lighting, 
large stationary motors, and the electric railway system. Ap- 
parat'.is in the generating station at Niagara Falls, and in the tcr 
minal house near the city limits of Iiuffalo is so arranged, however 
that two of the 3,750 kw. generators and eight step-up transformers 
at the power house, together with one transmission circuit, and 
three step-down transformers in the Icrminal house at Uuffaln may 
be operated independently of all the other apparatus. 

.As already pointed out, the use of separate circuits for each sub- 
station, and for lighting and power loads at each sub-station in 
very long transmission systems is oftci, impracticable. Even in 
comparatively short transmissions the multiplication of circuits, 
and the use of rather small and mechanically weak conductors in- 
creased the first cost of installation and the subsequent expense of 
inspection and repairs. Much the most Serious objection to opera- 
tion with a single circuit in a transmission line that supplies widely 
separated sub-stations, or lighting, power and railway loads at the 
same or nearby sub-stations, is the consequent difficulty of pressure 
regulation on the distribution lines at each sub-station. Such a 
transmission line necessarily delivers energy at different and fluctu- 
ating voltages at the several sub-stations, and these fluctuations ar-; 
of course reproduced on the secondary side of the step-down trans- 
formers. Even where a single sub-station with only a load of 
lamps is sxipplied with energy by a long transmission line in which 
there is a percentage of loss of 10 to 20. at the time of maximum 
demand, the problem of pressure regulation on the secondary cir- 
cuits of static transformers is by no means easy. Fortunately, how- 
ever, the use of synchronous motor generators, either in place of or 
in connection with static transformer.s, goes far to solve the prob- 
lem of pressure legulation for distribution circuits supplied with 
energy from transmission lines. This is due to the well-known fact 
that with constant frequency the speed of rotation for a synchronous 
motor is constant without regard to fluctuations in the applied volt- 
age or changes in its load. With a constant speed at the motor ant! 
its connected generator it is of course easy to deliver current at 
constant voltage to the distribution lines. This constancy of speed 
makes the synchronous motor generator a favorite in large trans- 
mission systems with both power and lighting loads. The satis- 
factory lighting service in Buffalo, operated with energy transmit- 
ted from Niagara Falls, seems to be due in large measure to the 
use of synchronous motor generators at the sub-station in Buffalo 
whence the lighting circuits arc supplied. As above stated, the 
three circuits that make up the transmission line between Niagara 
Falls and BufTalo are operated in multiple, and in the latter place 
there is a large load of both railway and stationary motors. .As the 
three circuits are operated in multiple, they of course amount to only 
a single circuit so far as fluctuations of voltage due to changes in 
these several sorts of loads are concerned. .According to Vol. 
XVIII, A. I. E. E., pages 125 and following, the load on the trans- 
mission system at BufTalo in igoi was made up of about 7,000 h. p. 
in railway motors, 4,000 h. p. in induction motors, and 4,000 h. p 



divided up lictwccii series arc lamps, constant pressure incandescent 
lamps, and continuous current .motors. The railway load is oper- 
ated llirough step-down transformers and rotary ccmvcrters. The 
iniliictiun motors are connected either to the 2,200-volt secondary 
circuits of the step-down transformers, or to service transformers 
supplied by these circuits. On these railway and stationary motor 
loa<l« there is of course no necessity foi close pressure regulation. 
Series arc lamps are operated through step-down transformers am) 
synchronous motors direct connected to constant continuous current 
dynamos. Continuous current stationary motors <lraw power from 
the tran.smission lines through step-down transformers and rotary 
converters, like the railw.iy load. For the 2,200 circuits that sup- 
ply service transformers for commercial arc and incandescent light- 
ing the transmitted energy passes through step-down transformers 
and synchrono